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Web Analytics: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Web Analytics: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.

Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research.

This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away, covering: Web analytics, Anametrix, AT Internet, Attitudinal analytics, AWStats, Bounce rate, Click analytics, Clickstream, ClickTale, Conversion funnel, CrawlTrack, Emetrics Summit, Google Analytics, Hitbox, HitDynamics, HubSpot, JICWEBS, Kampyle (Software), Kaspid, Avinash Kaushik, Klout, List of web analytics software, LivePerson, Lyris HQ, Microsoft adCenter Analytics, Mint (software), Mobile web analytics, Omniture, Path analysis (computing), Piwik, PostRank, RSS tracking, Sawmill (software), Rand Schulman, Search engine optimization, Session replay, Site Meter, StatCounter, TraceMyIP.org, Unica NetInsight, Unica NetTracker, Unique user, Unique visitor, Urchin (software), Urchin Software Corporation, Usage analysis, Usage data, Visit filter, VisitLab, Web audience measurement, Web banner, Web log analysis software, Web traffic, WebSideStory, Google Website Optimizer, Webtrends, Win–loss analytics, Woopra, Ad rotation, Ad text optimization, AdSense, Affiliate marketing, Article marketing, Article video marketing, Attorney-client matching, Blitz Campaign, Content farm, Contextual advertising, Cost per time, Criteo, Data pimping, Digital agency, Digital creative agency, Digital marketing engineer, Direct digital marketing, Display advertising, Dominate Your Market With Twitter, Dreaming in Mono, Email marketing, Get Into Bed With Google, Adam Ginsberg, Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing), GroupSpaces, Guided selling, Image search optimization, Impression (online media), In-text advertising, Interactive advertising, Internet marketing, Internet presence management, JESS3, Keyword optimization, Keyword Services Platform, Landing page, Landing page optimization, Link bidding, Long Tail, Micro content, Microsoft adCenter, Microsoft pubCenter, Multivariate landing page optimization, MyThings, One-time offer, Online lead generation, Online presence management, Paid inclusion, Pay for placement, Pay per click, Pay per play, Personalized retargeting, Post-click marketing, Private label rights, Quality Score, Referral marketing, Resource Interactive, Revenue sharing, Sales letter, Search engine marketing, Search engine optimization copywriting, Search retargeting, Search-Driven Media, Semantic advertising, Semantic targeting, Skyword, Social media optimization, Double loop marketing, Inbound marketing, Permission marketing, Transactional Link, Unboxing, Unicast advertisement, Viewable Impression (CPMV), Web button, Yandex.Direct

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.

Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research.

This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away, covering: Web analytics, Anametrix, AT Internet, Attitudinal analytics, AWStats, Bounce rate, Click analytics, Clickstream, ClickTale, Conversion funnel, CrawlTrack, Emetrics Summit, Google Analytics, Hitbox, HitDynamics, HubSpot, JICWEBS, Kampyle (Software), Kaspid, Avinash Kaushik, Klout, List of web analytics software, LivePerson, Lyris HQ, Microsoft adCenter Analytics, Mint (software), Mobile web analytics, Omniture, Path analysis (computing), Piwik, PostRank, RSS tracking, Sawmill (software), Rand Schulman, Search engine optimization, Session replay, Site Meter, StatCounter, TraceMyIP.org, Unica NetInsight, Unica NetTracker, Unique user, Unique visitor, Urchin (software), Urchin Software Corporation, Usage analysis, Usage data, Visit filter, VisitLab, Web audience measurement, Web banner, Web log analysis software, Web traffic, WebSideStory, Google Website Optimizer, Webtrends, Win–loss analytics, Woopra, Ad rotation, Ad text optimization, AdSense, Affiliate marketing, Article marketing, Article video marketing, Attorney-client matching, Blitz Campaign, Content farm, Contextual advertising, Cost per time, Criteo, Data pimping, Digital agency, Digital creative agency, Digital marketing engineer, Direct digital marketing, Display advertising, Dominate Your Market With Twitter, Dreaming in Mono, Email marketing, Get Into Bed With Google, Adam Ginsberg, Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing), GroupSpaces, Guided selling, Image search optimization, Impression (online media), In-text advertising, Interactive advertising, Internet marketing, Internet presence management, JESS3, Keyword optimization, Keyword Services Platform, Landing page, Landing page optimization, Link bidding, Long Tail, Micro content, Microsoft adCenter, Microsoft pubCenter, Multivariate landing page optimization, MyThings, One-time offer, Online lead generation, Online presence management, Paid inclusion, Pay for placement, Pay per click, Pay per play, Personalized retargeting, Post-click marketing, Private label rights, Quality Score, Referral marketing, Resource Interactive, Revenue sharing, Sales letter, Search engine marketing, Search engine optimization copywriting, Search retargeting, Search-Driven Media, Semantic advertising, Semantic targeting, Skyword, Social media optimization, Double loop marketing, Inbound marketing, Permission marketing, Transactional Link, Unboxing, Unicast advertisement, Viewable Impression (CPMV), Web button, Yandex.Direct

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Aug 01, 2011
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  • Web analytics
  • Anametrix
  • AT Internet
  • Attitudinal analytics
  • AWStats
  • Bounce rate
  • Click analytics
  • Clickstream
  • ClickTale
  • Conversion funnel
  • CrawlTrack
  • Emetrics Summit
  • Google Analytics
  • Hitbox
  • HitDynamics
  • HubSpot
  • Kampyle (Software)
  • Kaspid
  • Avinash Kaushik
  • Klout
  • List of web analytics software
  • LivePerson
  • Lyris HQ
  • Microsoft adCenter Analytics
  • Mint (software)
  • Mobile web analytics
  • Omniture
  • Path analysis (computing)
  • Piwik
  • postRank
  • RSS tracking
  • Sawmill (software)
  • Rand Schulman
  • Search engine optimization
  • Session replay
  • Site Meter
  • StatCounter
  • TraceMyIP.org
  • Unica NetInsight
  • Unica NetTracker
  • Unique user
  • Unique visitor
  • Urchin (software)
  • Urchin Software
  • Urchin Software Corporation
  • Usage analysis
  • Usage data
  • Visit filter
  • VisitLab
  • Web audience measurement
  • Web banner
  • Web log analysis software
  • Web traffic
  • WebSideStory
  • Google Website Optimizer
  • Webtrends
  • Win–loss analytics
  • Woopra
  • Ad rotation
  • Ad text optimization
  • AdSense
  • Affiliate marketing
  • Article marketing
  • Article video marketing
  • Article Video marketing
  • Attorney-client matching
  • Blitz Campaign
  • Content farm
  • Contextual advertising
  • Cost per time
  • Criteo
  • Data pimping
  • Digital agency
  • Digital creative agency
  • Digital marketing engineer
  • The Digital Marketing Engineer:
  • Direct digital marketing
  • Display advertising
  • Dominate Your Market With Twitter
  • Dreaming in Mono
  • Email marketing
  • Get Into Bed With Google
  • Get into bed with Google
  • Adam Ginsberg
  • Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing)
  • GroupSpaces
  • Guided selling
  • Image search optimization
  • Impression (online media)
  • In-text advertising
  • Interactive advertising
  • Internet marketing
  • Internet presence management
  • JESS3
  • Keyword optimization
  • Keyword Services Platform
  • Landing page
  • Landing page optimization
  • Link bidding
  • Long Tail
  • Long Tail
  • Micro content
  • Microsoft adCenter
  • Microsoft pubCenter
  • Multivariate landing page optimization
  • MyThings
  • myThings
  • One-time offer
  • Online lead generation
  • Online presence management
  • Paid inclusion
  • Pay for placement
  • Pay per click
  • Pay per play
  • Personalized retargeting
  • Post-click marketing
  • Private label rights
  • Quality Score
  • Referral marketing
  • Resource Interactive
  • Revenue sharing
  • Sales letter
  • Search engine marketing
  • Search engine optimization copywriting
  • Search retargeting
  • Search-Driven Media
  • Semantic advertising
  • Semantic targeting
  • Skyword
  • Social media optimization
  • Double loop marketing
  • Double Loop Marketing[1]
  • Inbound marketing
  • Permission marketing
  • Transactional Link
  • Unboxing
  • Unicast advertisement
  • Viewable Impression (CPMV)
  • Web button
  • Yandex.Direct
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Web Analytics


Kevin Roebuck



High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Web analytics Anametrix AT Internet Attitudinal analytics AWStats Bounce rate Click analytics Clickstream ClickTale Conversion funnel CrawlTrack Emetrics Summit Google Analytics Hitbox HitDynamics HubSpot JICWEBS Kampyle (Software) Kaspid Avinash Kaushik Klout List of web analytics software LivePerson Lyris HQ Microsoft adCenter Analytics Mint (software) Mobile web analytics Omniture Path analysis (computing) Piwik postRank RSS tracking Sawmill (software) Rand Schulman 1 10 12 13 14 16 17 18 20 22 23 24 25 29 30 31 36 37 38 40 42 43 46 48 49 49 50 53 55 57 58 60 62 63

org Unica NetInsight Unica NetTracker Unique user Unique visitor Urchin (software) Urchin Software Corporation Usage analysis Usage data Visit filter VisitLab Web audience measurement Web banner Web log analysis software Web traffic WebSideStory Google Website Optimizer Webtrends Win–loss analytics Woopra Ad rotation Ad text optimization AdSense Affiliate marketing Article marketing Article video marketing Attorney-client matching Blitz Campaign Content farm Contextual advertising Cost per time Criteo Data pimping Digital agency 64 72 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 80 81 83 83 83 84 85 85 88 89 92 93 94 96 97 98 99 100 105 116 117 118 120 121 123 125 126 128 129 .Search engine optimization Session replay Site Meter StatCounter TraceMyIP.

Digital creative agency Digital marketing engineer Direct digital marketing Display advertising Dominate Your Market With Twitter Dreaming in Mono Email marketing Get Into Bed With Google Adam Ginsberg Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) GroupSpaces Guided selling Image search optimization Impression (online media) In-text advertising Interactive advertising Internet marketing Internet presence management JESS3 Keyword optimization Keyword Services Platform Landing page Landing page optimization Link bidding Long Tail Micro content Microsoft adCenter Microsoft pubCenter Multivariate landing page optimization MyThings One-time offer Online lead generation Online presence management Paid inclusion Pay for placement Pay per click Pay per play Personalized retargeting 129 129 131 132 134 136 140 143 144 145 147 149 151 152 152 153 155 159 160 164 172 179 180 182 183 191 192 194 195 197 199 199 201 203 204 205 208 208 .

Post-click marketing Private label rights Quality Score Referral marketing Resource Interactive Revenue sharing Sales letter Search engine marketing Search engine optimization copywriting Search retargeting Search-Driven Media Semantic advertising Semantic targeting Skyword Social media optimization Double loop marketing Inbound marketing Permission marketing Transactional Link Unboxing Unicast advertisement Viewable Impression (CPMV) Web button Yandex.Direct 210 211 212 214 215 216 217 219 223 224 224 225 226 227 228 230 231 236 237 238 238 239 244 245 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources. Licenses and Contributors 246 254 Article Licenses License 256 .

direct mail campaign data. web analytics has referred to on-site visitor measurement. The first method. this count became less useful. These were page views and visits (or sessions). It was soon realized that these logfiles could be read by a program to provide data on the popularity of the website. A page view was defined as a request made to the web server for a page. off-site and on-site web analytics. Off-site web analytics refers to web measurement and analysis regardless of whether you own or maintain a website. For example. In addition other data sources may also be added to augment the data. or other custom metrics as needed. Both collect data that can be processed to produce web traffic reports.[1] Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views.Web analytics 1 Web analytics Web analytics is the measurement. e-mail response rates. The remainder of this article concerns on-site web analytics. web site statistics consisted primarily of counting the number of client requests (or hits) made to the web server. user performance data such as click heat mapping. It includes the measurement of a website's potential audience (opportunity). On-site web analytics technologies Many different vendors provide on-site web analytics software and services. In the early 1990s. Two units of measure were introduced in the mid 1990s to gauge more accurately the amount of human activity on web servers. with the introduction of images in HTML. collection. usually 30 minutes. uses JavaScript on each page to notify a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. . and buzz (comments) that is happening on the Internet as a whole. On-site web analytics measures the performance of your website in a commercial context. There are two categories of web analytics. However. sales and lead information. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance. logfile analysis. Web server logfile analysis Web servers record some of their transactions in a logfile. while a visit was defined as a sequence of requests from a uniquely identified client that expired after a certain amount of inactivity. analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. page tagging. The page views and visits are still commonly displayed metrics. share of voice (visibility). mainly because vendors are producing tools that span both categories. The second method. and web sites that spanned multiple HTML files. for example. There are two main technological approaches to collecting the data. as opposed to a graphic. Thus arose web log analysis software. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. since each web site often consisted of a single HTML file. This was a reasonable method initially. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. On-site web analytics measure a visitor's journey once on your website. which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase. reads the logfiles in which the web server records all its transactions. Historically. but are now considered rather rudimentary. and used to improve a web site or marketing campaign's audience response. However in recent years this has blurred. This includes its drivers and conversions. The first true commercial Log Analyzer was released by IPRO in 1994 [2] .

Caching can be defeated by configuring the web server. rather than a proprietary. which was an estimate of the number of visits to that page. so the raw data is already available. In the late 1990s this concept evolved to include a small invisible image instead of a visible one. Advantages of logfile analysis The main advantages of logfile analysis over page tagging are as follows: • The web server normally already produces logfiles. and analyze historical data with a new program. delays in completing a successful or failed DNS look-ups may result in data not being collected. and the desire to be able to perform web analytics as an outsourced service. made it more difficult to identify unique human visitors to a website. Thus there are no external server calls which can slow page load speeds. by using JavaScript. format. the second request will often be retrieved from the browser's cache. In the mid 1990s. and is in a standard. If a person revisits a page. This makes it easy for a company to switch programs later. • The web server reliably records every transaction it makes. and does not rely on the visitors' browsers co-operating . 2 Page tagging Concerns about the accuracy of logfile analysis in the presence of caching.Web analytics The emergence of search engine spiders and robots in the late 1990s. along with web proxies and dynamically assigned IP addresses for large companies and ISPs.g. and so no request will be received by the web server. Although these should not be reported as part of the human activity. In this case. The extensive use of web caches also presented a problem for logfile analysis. No changes to the website are required. and extensive statistics generated. Collecting web site data using a third-party data collection server (or even an in-house data collection server) requires an additional DNS look-up by the user's computer to determine the IP address of the collection server. is to implement a call back to the server from the rendered page. • Logfiles require no additional DNS Lookups. serving PDF documents and content generated by scripts. an alternative to the use of an invisible image. Log analyzers responded by tracking visits by cookies. the same web analytics company will offer both approaches. and. With the increasing popularity of Ajax-based solutions. including e. The web analytics service also manages the process of assigning a cookie to the user. • Logfiles contain information on visits from search engine spiders. This information can then be processed remotely by a web analytics company. There are advantages and disadvantages to each approach[3] . but this can result in degraded performance for the visitor to the website. which can uniquely identify them during their visit and in subsequent visits. led to the second data collection method. use several different programs. • The data is on the company's own servers. In some cases. and by ignoring requests from known spiders. The question then arises of which method a company should choose. Logfile analysis vs page tagging Both logfile analysis programs and page tagging solutions are readily available to companies that wish to perform web analytics. page tagging or 'Web bugs'. it is useful information for search engine optimization. Web counters were commonly seen — these were images included in a web page that showed the number of times the image had been requested. or result in uncounted page views. when the page is rendered on the web browser. This means that the person's path through the site is lost. Cookie acceptance rates vary significantly between web sites and may affect the quality of data collected and reported. a piece of Ajax code would call back to the server and pass information about the client that can then be aggregated by a web analytics company. On occasion. to pass along with the image request certain information about the page and the visitor. This is in some ways flawed by browser restrictions on the servers which can be contacted with XmlHttpRequest objects.

• Counting is activated by opening the page (given that the web client runs the tag scripts). For example. several open-source logfile analysis tools are available free of charge. the cost of turning raw data into actionable information. partial form completion. and increasingly Flash is used. This can be from the use of third party consultants. It is for this reason server-based log analysis is not considered suitable for analysis of human activity on websites. onBlur etc. Which solution is cheaper to implement depends on the amount of technical expertise within the company. the server has to be configured to do this. • Data is gathered via a component ("tag") in the page. including updates and security patches. Although the cost of hardware to do this is minimal. but it is more often provided as a third-party service. Not counting cached pages seriously skews many site metrics. the cost of web visitor analysis and interpretation should also be included. Economic factors Logfile analysis is almost always performed in-house. not requesting it from the server. • The page tagging service manages the process of assigning cookies to visitors. which often grows very large quickly. however. • The script may have access to additional information on the web client or on the user. onMouseOver. The economic difference between these two models can also be a consideration for a company deciding which to purchase. such as interactions within Flash movies. such as visitors' screen sizes and the price of the goods they purchased. • For Logfile analysis you need to maintain the software.e. though Java can be used. • Page tagging is available to companies who do not have access to their own web servers. mouse events such as onClick.Web analytics Advantages of page tagging The main advantages of page tagging over logfile analysis are as follows. onFocus. the overhead for an IT department can be considerable. A cost-benefit analysis can then be performed. • Lately page tagging has become a standard in web analytics [4] . usually written in JavaScript. it will not be counted by the server. with logfile analysis. basically enabling complete control over how the data is represented. number of pageviews per month collected. the hiring of an experienced web analyst. what revenue increase or cost savings can be gained by analysing the web visitor data? 3 . or the training of a suitable in-house person. JQuery and AJAX can also be used in conjunction with a server-side scripting language (such as PHP) to manipulate and (usually) store it in a database. In addition to commercial offerings. the amount of activity seen on the web sites. • Page tagging can report on events which do not involve a request to the web server. That is. the vendor chosen. Cached pages can account for up to one-third of all pageviews. the depth and type of information sought. • For Logfile analysis you have to store and archive your own data. Regardless of the vendor solution or data collection method employed. If a page is cached. • Logfile analysis typically involves a one-off software purchase. • Complex page tagging vendors charge a monthly fee based on volume i. Page tagging can be performed in-house. and the number of distinct web sites needing statistics. not sent in the query. some vendors are introducing maximum annual page views with additional costs to process additional information.

design elements or advertisements etc. behavioral targeting. a click is "logged" when it occurs. with regards to where the users of the site are clicking. localized search.Web analytics 4 Hybrid methods Some companies are now producing programs that collect data through both logfiles and page tagging. Data about clicks may be gathered in at least two ways. Visitors Geolocation With IP geolocation. Typically. personalization. Internet Service Provider (ISP). and content distribution. Also. The first Hybrid solution was produced in 1998 by Rufus Evison. to optimize the content. An editor of a web site uses click analytics to determine the performance of his or her particular site. click analytics focuses on on-site analytics. is a technology that maps the Internet and catalogues IP addresses by parameters such as geographic location (country. one may institute the assumption that a page view is a result of a click. online fraud detection. proxy information. Using IP geolocation database or API. Click analytics Click analytics is a special type of web analytics that gives special attention to clicks (Point-and-click). Commonly. connection type. and more. Ideally. designers or other types of stakeholders may analyze clicks on a wider time frame to aid them assess performance of writers. state. content localization (or website localization). . it is possible to track visitors location. depending on the type of information sought. front-page Clickpath Analysis with referring pages on the left and arrows and rectangles editors on high-traffic news media sites will differing in thickness and expanse to symbolize movement quantity. want to monitor their pages in real-time. The first generation of IP Intelligence was referred to as geotargeting or geolocation technology. region or country level[6] . geographic rights management. or Internet Protocol (IP) Intelligence. digital rights management. who then spun the product out to create a company based upon the increased accuracy of hybrid methods [2] [5] . Alternatively. enhanced analytics. By using a hybrid method. and this method requires some functionality that picks up relevant information when the event occurs. visitors can be geolocated to city. IP Intelligence. Editors. they aim to produce more accurate statistics than either method on its own. and therefore log a simulated click that lead to that page view. This information is used by businesses for online audience segmentation in applications such online advertising. click analytics may happen real-time or "unreal"-time. global traffic management. region. city and postcode).

• Visitor / Unique Visitor / Unique User .A request for a file from the web server. clicks and other events (such as API calls. UK and Europe) [9]. Page views. week or month). a session ends when someone goes to another site. most systems ignore sessions and many analysts use both terms for visits. Other methods Other methods of data collection are sometimes used.[7] Both these methods claim to provide better real-time data than other methods. Increasingly visitors are uniquely identified by Flash LSO's (Local Shared Object). usually via cookie and/or IP+User Agent. then returns within 30 minutes. This does not prevent the following list from being a useful guide. The number of hits received by a website is frequently cited to assert its popularity. but this number is extremely misleading and dramatically over-estimates popularity. not the person. The total number of visitors or page views provides a more realistic and accurate assessment of popularity. Thus the same person visiting from two different computers or with two different browsers will count as two Unique Visitors. Both the WAA and the ABCe provide more definitive lists for those who are declaring their statistics using the metrics defined by either. A visitor can make multiple visits. The WAA (Web Analytics Association. day. each of which is counted as a hit as the page is downloaded. If someone leaves a site. A single web-page typically consists of multiple (often dozens) of discrete files. Customer lifecycle analytics attempts to connect all the data points into a marketing funnel that can offer insights into visitor behavior and website optimization.) are all tied to an individual visitor instead of being stored as separate data points.e. A visit ends only after a 30 minute time delay. .A request for a file whose type is defined as a page in log analysis. Available only in log analysis. In log analysis. this will count as one visit but two sessions. An occurrence of the script being run in page tagging. . Packet sniffing involves no changes to the web pages or web servers. • Visit / Session .A visit is defined as a series of page requests from the same uniquely identified client with a time of no more than 30 minutes between each page request.css files) are also requested from the web server. • Hit . access to third-party services. US) and to a lesser extent the IAB (Interactive Advertising Bureau). a single page view does not constitute a visit or a session (it is a "bounce"). The main bodies who have had input in this area have been JICWEBS (The Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards in the UK and Ireland) [8]. a single page view may generate multiple hits as all the resources required to view the page (images. etc. • Page view .The uniquely identified client generating requests on the web server (log analysis) or viewing pages (page tagging) within a defined time period (i. whichever comes first.A visit from a visitor who has not made any previous visits. or 30 minutes elapse between pageviews. suffering only slightly from ambiguity.Web analytics 5 Customer lifecycle analytics Customer lifecycle analytics is a visitor-centric approach to measuring that falls under the umbrella of lifecycle marketing. In other words. Identification is made to the visitor's computer.js and . Integrating web analytics into the web server software itself is also possible. A Unique Visitor counts once within the timescale. Key definitions There are no globally agreed definitions within web analytics as the industry bodies have been trying to agree definitions that are useful and definitive for some time. which are less susceptible to privacy enforcement. A session is defined as a series of page requests from the same uniquely identified client with a time of no more than 30 minutes and no requests for pages from other domains intervening between page requests. In practice. Packet sniffing collects data by sniffing the network traffic passing between the web server and the outside world. ABCe (Audit Bureau of Circulations electronic. • First Visit / First Session . so the number of hits is really an arbitrary number more reflective of the complexity of individual pages on the website than the website's actual popularity. Because time between pageviews is critical to the definition of visits and sessions.

While not a useful metric in and of itself the number of singletons is indicative of various forms of Click fraud as well as being used to calculate bounce rate and in some cases to identify automatons bots. Anytime you see a banner. • Session Duration . The problem is that the unique visitors for each day in a month do not add up to the same total as the unique visitors for that month. This definition creates a certain amount of confusion (see common confusions below). • Site Overlay is a technique in which graphical statistics are shown besides each link on the web page. • Bounce Rate .An impression is each time an advertisement loads on a user's screen.Page Depth is the average number of page views a visitor consumes before ending their session."refers to a single instance of a user following a hyperlink from one page in a site to another"[11] . • Page View Duration / Time on Page .A visitor that has not made any previous visits.The percentage of users who exit from a page.. • Active Time / Engagement Time . • Singletons . • Click . this metric can accurately measure the length of engagement in the final page view.Web analytics • Repeat Visitor . • Page Depth / Page Views per Session . • % Exit .) is viewed.A visitor that has made at least one previous visit. . This metric can be complicated by the fact that analytics programs can not measure the length of the final page view[10] . • Visibility time . hovers and scrolls. The term was first coined by Rufus Evison explaining the problem at one of the Emetrics Summits and has now gained popularity as a simple expression of the problem and its resolution.Average amount of time that visitors spend on each page of the site. 6 Common sources of confusion in web analytics The hotel problem The hotel problem is generally the first problem encountered by a user of web analytics.the sequence of hyperlinks one or more website visitors follows on a given site.Average amount of time that visitors spend actually interacting with content on a web page. This appears to an inexperienced user to be a problem in whatever analytics software they are using. this metric is complicated by the fact that analytics programs can not measure the length of the final page view unless they record a page close event. Some use click analytics to analyze their web sites. It is calculated by dividing the total number of sessions (or visits) by the total number of unique visitors.The time a single page (or a blog. It is calculated by dividing total number of page views by total number of sessions and is also called Page Views per Session or PV/Session. These statistics represent the percentage of clicks on each link.The number of visits where only a single page is viewed. In fact it is a simple property of the metric definitions. • New Visitor . Sometimes it is used to measure the loyalty of your audience. clicks. and is sometimes substituted with analysis of first visits.. The hotel has two rooms (Room A and Room B). based on mouse moves. Unlike Session Duration and Page View Duration / Time on Page.Average amount of time that visitors spend on the site each time they visit. such as onUnload().Frequency measures how often visitors come to a website. The way to picture the situation is by imagining a hotel. • Click path . that is an impression. Ad Banner. • Frequency / Session per Unique .The percentage of visits where the visitor enters and exits at the same page without visiting any other pages on the site in between. As with Session Duration. • Impression . The period between the last and current visit is called visitor recency and is measured in days.

Although web analytics companies deny doing this. but still causes a large number of complaints that analytics software cannot be working because of a failure to understand the metrics. On the day in question there was a first visit made by our chosen individual. allowing the analytics vendor to collate the user's activity on sites where he provided personal information with his activity on other sites where he thought he was anonymous. Actually only three visitors have been in the hotel over this period. A new visitor is not an individual. If a visitor makes their first visit on a given day and then returns to the web site on the same day they are both a new visitor and a repeat visitor for that day. so the definition of the metric is at fault. In 2005. Here the culprit is the metric of a new visitor. New visitors + Repeat visitors unequal to total visitors Another common misconception in web analytics is that the sum of the new visitors and the repeat visitors ought to be the total number of visitors. For this reason it is easiest to conceptualize the same facet as a first visit (or first session). Privacy concerns about cookies have therefore led a noticeable minority of users to block or delete third-party cookies. Third-party cookies can handle visitors who cross multiple unrelated domains within the company's site. but is only counted once if you are looking at the total for the period. but it is clearer that it will not add in this fashion. some reports showed that about 28% of Internet users blocked third-party cookies and 22% deleted them at least once a month. thus leading to the problem when a user tries to compare the totals. vendors of page-tagging analytics solutions have used third-party cookies sent from the vendor's domain instead of the domain of the website being browsed. Nobody expects the number of first visits to add to the number of repeat visitors to give the total number of visitors. There is really no such thing as a new visitor when you are considering a web site from an ongoing perspective. Any software for web analytics will sum these correctly for whatever time period. So if we look at them as an individual which are they? The answer has to be both. The metric will have the same number as the new visitors. since the cookie is always handled by the vendor's servers. third-party cookies in principle allow tracking an individual user across the sites of different companies.[12] . Web analytics methods Problems with cookies Historically. it is a fact of the web measurement. The sum of the totals with respect to the days is therefore six. This resolves the conflict and so removes the confusion. Again this becomes clear if the visitors are viewed as individuals on a small scale. The number of first visits and the number of repeat visits will add up to the total number of visits for that day. There was also a repeat visit made by the same individual. other companies such as companies supplying banner ads have done so. The problem is that a person who stays in a room for two nights will get counted twice if you count them once on each day. However. the hotel has two unique users each day over three days.Web analytics 7 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Total Room A John Room B Mark Total 2 John Jane 2 Jane Mark 2 2 Unique Users 2 Unique Users ? As the table shows. During the period each room has had two unique users. The sum of the totals with respect to the rooms is therefore four.

1016/S0169-7552(98)00116-0. This means these methods are imprecise and insecure (in any reasonable model of security). [14] Naor. IPInfoDB.. pp. When web analytics depend on cookies to identify unique visitors. . M. 1064679& coll=GUIDE& dl=GUIDE& CFID=66492168& CFTOKEN=93187844) [8] http:/ / www.1007/3-540-63594-7_75. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) . org/ ?page=aboutus) [2] Web Traffic Data Sources and Vendor Comparison (http:/ / www. com/ docs/ web-data-sources. M. References [1] The Official WAA Definition of Web Analytics (http:/ / www.1504/IJICS. For more details. This issue has been addressed in a number of papers [13] [14] [15] [16] .. com/ blog/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ hosted-v-software-v-hybrid-tools/ ) . Malkhi. html?page=3489636) [13] Naor. 1318.blog article [6] IPInfoDB (2009-07-10). org/ citation. Part 1 (http:/ / blog. "Deflation-secure web metering". M. acm.Web analytics Most vendors of page tagging solutions have now moved to provide at least the option of using first-party cookies (cookies assigned from the client subdomain). 8 Secure analytics (metering) methods All the methods described above (and some other methods not mentioned here.Analytics Help (http:/ / www. Cookies are used because IP addresses are not always unique to users and may be shared by large groups or proxies.and third-party cookies.a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [4] Revisiting log file analysis versus page tagging (http:/ / web. google. clickz. they usually delete both first. click-stream analysis. cfm?id=1064677. com/ 2009/ 10/ 14/ what-google-analytics-cant-tell-you-part-1/ ) [11] Clicks . D. uk/ [10] ClickTale Blog » Blog Archive » What Google Analytics Can't Tell You. R. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems 30: 541. [15] Franklin. Cookies are the selected option because they reach the lowest common denominator without using technologies regarded as spyware. doi:10. Without a persistent and unique visitor id. webanalyticsassociation.012244. Pinkas. 151. Auditable metering with lightweight security. If this is done between interactions with the site. B.1007/BFb0054155. org/ [9] http:/ / www. (2007). com/ support/ googleanalytics/ bin/ answer. B.. (1997). (1998). consult the aforementioned papers. but to-date the solutions suggested in these papers remain theoretic. (1998). Retrieved 2009-07-19. International Journal of Information and Computer Security 1: 39. conversions. When users delete cookies.2007. clicktale. py?hl=en& answer=32981) [12] clickz report (http:/ / www. and other metrics dependent on the activities of a unique visitor over time. Secure and efficient metering. com/ ip_database. analyticsblog. Another problem is cookie deletion. advanced-web-metrics. 1403. possibly due to lack of interest from the engineering community. "IP geolocation database" (http:/ / ipinfodb.. abc. advanced-web-metrics. php). [16] Johnson. K. com/ showPage. ca/ 2010/ 02/ revisiting-log-file-analysis-versus-page-tagging/ ) McGill University Web Analytics blog article (CMIS 530) [5] Hosted v software v hybrid web analytics tools (http:/ / www. cannot be accurate. Other methods of uniquely identifying a user are technically challenging and would limit the trackable audience or would be considered suspicious. doi:10. like sampling) have the central problem of being vulnerable to manipulation (both inflation and deflation). advanced-web-metrics. . doi:10. pp. the statistics are dependent on a persistent cookie to hold a unique visitor ID. doi:10. org. [7] Web analytics integrated into web software itself (http:/ / portal. or because of financial gain the current situation provides to the owners of big websites. Staddon. J. 576. Pinkas. "Secure accounting and auditing on the Web". pdf) by Brian Clifton and Omega Digital Media Ltd [3] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www. the user will appear as a first-time visitor at their next interaction point. jicwebs.

(http://www. London: Prentice Hall.joelichtenberg. Prentice Hall. Elsevier. Celilo Group Media • Lenskold. Tools and Techniques.The Art of Online Accountability and Science of Customer Centricity. (2006) ‘Marketing Metrics: How to create Accountable Marketing plans that really work’ John Wiley & Sons (Asia). • Plaza. J .jicwebs.(2001) E commerce Metrics. P. Pfeifer. Shane (2007) Actionable Web Analytics: Using Data to Make Smart Business Decisions. UK and Europe). Proven Methods for Measuring Web Site Success. • Peterson Eric T (2004) Web Analytics Demystified: A Marketer’s Guide to Understanding How Your Web Site Affects Your Business. (2009) Yahoo! Web Analytics.uk/) • JICWEBS (The Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards in the UK and Ireland) (http://www. Sybex.T.J. Morgan Kaufmann.abc. D. Sybex.org/) . • Farris. Tom & Albert.) • Kaushik. Collecting. Bendle. Oxford University Press. Dennis R. J. Burlington MA. • Arikan. • Tullis. N. London: John Wiley & Sons.E. • Mortensen. Oxford. Wiley. (2003) ‘Marketing ROI: how to plan. • Srinivasan .0 .Web analytics 9 Bibliography • Clifton. Wiley. P. Sybex. Metrics and Methods for On and Offline Success. 61(5): 474–482. Avinash (2007) Web Analytics: An Hour a Day. External links • Technology enablers and business goals for web analytics initiatives (http://www.. (2009) Key Marketing Metrics The 50+ Metrics Every Manager needs to know. 2nd edition. B (2009) Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series. Reibstein. Akin (2008) Multichannel Marketing. • Davis. Brian (2010) Advanced Web Metrics with Google Analytics. Avinash (2009) Web Analytics 2. • Bradley N (2007) Marketing Research. • Kaushik. Aslib Proceedings.org. Jason and Atchison. J. Analyzing and Presenting Usability Metrics. (2002) Web metrics. • Peterson Eric T (2005) Web Site Measurement Hacks. Bill (2008) Measuring the User Experience. J. Models and Examples.com/2011/ 02/02/web-analytics- -overview-options-and-technology-enablers/) • ABCe (Audit Bureau of Circulations electronic. Sybex. O'Reilly ebook. Sybex (Paperback.. Measure and Optimise strategies for Profit’ London: McGraw Hill Contemporary • Sterne. London. • Burby.

[5] While the InstaVista platform is designed so that it can perform analytics using any data sources as inputs. multi-dimensional data queries in less than a second.com InstaVista for SugarCRM http:/ / www. primarily targeting marketing teams and agencies. ReelSnap. History The company was founded in 2009 by web analytics industry experts Blaise Barrelet and Anders Olsson (of WebSideStory fame). which spent several years developing new technologies for integrating and visualizing massive amounts of streaming data. including 118id. and the United Kingdom. Inc. California with offices worldwide.Anametrix 10 Anametrix Anametrix. Joe Media. along with a number of existing business and web analytics clients. The details of the acquisition were not disclosed to the public. California Key people Blaise Barrelet. VP of Sales Anders Olsson. it is currently . CEO Jon Shoff. anametrix.[4] The platform is designed to integrate different data sources into a drag-and-drop data reporting and interaction interface. and Helm Analytics. The company also partnered with a number of North American technology firms. CTO John Burke.[2] Products Anametrix provides cloud-based. In March 2010. Dataskill. to offer new insights into marketing campaigns and results. Anametrix grew in 2010. it completed the acquisition of Nordic Research Corporation. Type Industry Private Web Analytics Business Analytics Social Media 2009 Founded Headquarters San Diego. Nordic Research provided a proprietary engine and platform for cloud-based streaming data aggregation and visualization. iPost. France. CFO InstaVista for E-Mail Campaigns InstaVista for Advertising InstaVista for Web Analytics InstaVista for Google Analytics InstaVista for Social Media InstaVista for Salesforce. TechnoNet. Spain. Israel. com Products Website Anametrix is a privately held web analytics and business analytics company headquartered in San Diego. Using proprietary technologies.[3] Its proprietary InstaVista platform allows business users to perform real-time visualization and aggregation of various data sources using a normal web browser. a company founded by Anders Olsson. software-as-a-service business and web analytics. InstaVista is designed to perform multiple-channel. Cadient Group. opening offices in Europe[1] and partnering with web and technology solutions providers in China.

online campaigns including e-mail and online advertising. html External links • anametrix. com/ email/ 1220-beyond-email-metrics/ index. org/ ?p=189 http:/ / chiefmarketer. and CRM optimization uses. com/ qa-john-janetos-ipost-vp-of-business-development-and-sales/ article/ 190867/ http:/ / leadguru.official site .com) .com (http://www. html http:/ / leadguru. social media tracking.anametrix. com/ email/ 1220-beyond-email-metrics/ index. dmnews. org/ ?p=189 http:/ / chiefmarketer.Anametrix marketed primarily toward web analytics. com/ drno/ news11892. htm http:/ / www.[6] 11 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. mrweb.

[2] AT Internet Ltd.AT Internet 12 AT Internet AT (Applied Technologies) Internet. History The company was founded in 1995 by owner Alain Llorens as a web agency. Limited Type Industry Private . The focus shifted to web analytics in 1997. Website AT Internet is a privately held company that provides integral analysis of websites.[5] The company is commonly known (especially in France) by the name of its flagship product XiTi. [3] AT Internet Ltd. as well as Asia and Canada. CTO Cyril Mazeau.[6] International Expansion As part of a strategic move to extend its reach to an international audience.owned by Alain Llorens Web Analytics Market Research Online Optimization Web Marketing 1995 Bordeaux. It has provided these services since 1995. It also established offices in the United Kingdom and Germany. [2] AT Internet Ltd. COO Sébastien Carriot. intranet and mobile sites.[7] . CFO Founded Headquarters Key people Products XITI Analyzer II Sales Tracker Data Explorer Observer [1] AT Internet Ltd. France Alain Llorens. the company hired Nicolas Babin as COO and Executive Vice President of Marketing. [4] AT Internet Ltd. (Chairman/Founder) Mathieu Llorens. CEO Nicolas Babin.

[8] AT Internet (2009-09-20).atinternet. trends and preferences. was created. com/ de AT Internet (2008-09-01).XiTi names Nicolas Babin COO and Executive Vice President Marketing" (http:/ / www. aspx). atinternet. customer satisfaction and overall customer experience success or failure.[1] Several vendors provide attitudinal analytics solutions as stand-alone offerings. The objective was to better define the expectations of the French public towards ministerial and interministerial website performance. 2004 [7] AT Internet (2008-09-08). 2000 the research arm of the organization.com) Attitudinal analytics Attitudinal analytics is a marketing technology application that involves the integration of online surveys that capture visitor intent and critical demographic attributes with the tracking of explicit behavior through click stream monitoring on websites. Leading web analytics players are also providing partner integration frameworks to better integrate silos of intent. com/ es http:/ / www. atinternet. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance. amazon. atinternet. This quantitative user experience collects data from thousands of user sessions rather than hundreds. December 16. atinternet. . "AT Internet . org/ en/ rel/ ?394). webanalyticsassociation. Offline measurement can also be incorporated to extend the customer experience understanding to illuminate what elements of the online experience impacted offline behavior such as purchasing in a store or visiting a branch office. Xiti. org/ en/ rel/ ?391). Xiti was chosen to carry out audience research for the French Government. . com/ en http:/ / www. omniture. Information Architechs". attitudinal and behavioral data. External links • Official website (http://www. com/ Actionable-Web-Analytics-Business-Decisions/ dp/ 0470124741 Actionable Web Analytics [2] http:/ / www. French Xiti To Measure French Govt Websites Audience 2004-2006 French Business Digest "Data Processing.com/category/case-studies/ .[8] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. XiTi would go on to publish several studies and benchmarking reports pertaining to Internet user behaviors. webanalyticsassociation. "XiTi gives way to AT Internet" (http:/ / www. . com http:/ / www. "AT Internet History" (http:/ / www. Reports of finding and recommendations are used to improve a website or customer experience program that is heavily dependent upon the use of an online campaigns driving traffic to a website or collection of sites. [2] References [1] http:/ / www. com/ en/ Company/ History. In 2004. atinternet. The project spanned 2 years and covered 70 governmental websites. com/ press/ 373 Omniture Case Study http://www.usabilitysciences.AT Internet 13 Market Research and The AT Internet Institute In July.

and on-demand reporting is supported through a web browser CGI program. with packages available for most Linux distributions. Licensing AWStats is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). Static reports can be created through a command line interface.net [3] AWStats is an open source Web analytics reporting tool. WebStar. 2010 Perl Cross-platform Web analytics GNU General Public License awstats. AWStats can be deployed on almost any operating system.sourceforge. producing HTML reports. Support Proper web log analysis tool configuration and report interpretation requires a bit of technical and business knowledge. suitable for analyzing data from Internet services such as web.0 [2] / December 5.net. such as MS Windows. streaming media. AWStats parses and analyzes server log files. for local use in situations where log files can be downloaded from a remote server. Developers can contribute to the AWStats project through SourceForge. AWStats can be installed on a workstation. mail and FTP servers. Data is visually presented within reports by tables and bar graphs. AWStats support resources include documentation [4]. IIS (W3C log format) and many other common web server log formats. AWStats supports most major web server log file formats including Apache (NCSA combined/XLF/ELF log format or common/CLF log format). Cross-platform availability Written in Perl. It is a very popular server administration tool. and user community forums [5] .AWStats 14 AWStats AWStats Original author(s) Laurent Destailleur [1] Stable release Written in Operating system Type License Website 7.

destailleur. 2008 a new version was released. It has a smaller functionality set compared to AWStats. a powerful alternative which has features similar to AWStats. fr/ http:/ / sourceforge. It does not support the concept of a visitor. html http:/ / awstats. Alternatives There are three primary open source alternatives to AWStats. • Analog offers a wealth of reporting options for a technical audience. antezeta. php?forum_id=43428 http:/ / www. php?group_id=13764 http:/ / awstats.5). • Visitors (program) • Piwik • Obsessive Website Statistics The AWStats project provides a detailed comparison chart [7]. news. Organizations wishing to provide public access to their Web analytics reports should consider generating static HTML reports. Development and support appears to have stopped in 2004 (with last version 6. sourceforge. References • AWStats documentation set [4] External links • AWStats official web site [8] includes documentation. • W3Perl.AWStats 15 Security considerations The on-demand CGI program has been the object of security exploits. Development and support appeared to have stopped in 2002. com/ awstats. net/ . as is the case of many CGI programs. sourceforge. The on-demand facility can still be used by restricting its use to internal users.0). sourceforge. net/ docs/ awstats_compare. net/ forum/ forum. There are also a number of other open source alternatives to AWStats. • Webalizer is offered by many ISPs as it is fast and simple. net http:/ / awstats. Precautions should be taken against referrer spam (Referrer spam filtering functionality [6] was added in version 6. but on July 12. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. sourceforge. usually desired for business analysis. net/ docs/ http:/ / sourceforge. html#exref http:/ / awstats. not always with same functionality. software download and community support forums. net/ project/ showfiles.

they will register as a bounce. and leaves his browser idle for longer than 30 minutes. Definition A bounce occurs when a web site visitor only views a single page on a website."[4] Interpretation of the bounce rate measure should be relevant to a website's business objectives and definitions of conversion. divided by the total number of visitors who entered the site at that page. as having a high bounce rate is not always a sign of poor performance. . the bounce rate would not be as meaningful for determining conversion success. the bounce rate of an e-commerce site could be interpreted in correlation with the purchase conversion rate. providing the bounces are considered representative of visits where no purchase was made. In this case. In contrast. this is determined by the session timeout of the analytics tracking software. An entry page with a low bounce rate means that the page effectively causes visitors to view more pages and continue on deeper into the web site. a new session will occur. On sites where an objective can be met without viewing more than one page. It represents the percentage of visitors who enter the site and "bounce" (leave the site) rather than continue viewing other pages within the same site. if a visitor views a page. I stress that this is my personal analysis. Usage Bounce rates can be used to help determine the effectiveness or performance of an entry page. The bounce rate for a single page is the number of visitors who enter the site at a page and leave within the specified timeout period without viewing another page. 50% (above) is worrying. the bounce rate for a web site is the number of web site visitors who visit only a single page of a web site per session divided by the total number of web site visits.Bounce rate 16 Bounce rate Bounce rate (sometimes confused with exit rate)[1] is an Internet marketing term used in web traffic analysis. doesn't look at another page.[3] Google Analytics specialist Avinash Kaushik has stated: "My own personal observation is that it is really hard to get a bounce rate under 20%. where • Rb = Bounce rate • Tv = Total number of visitors viewing one page only • T = Total entries to page e A visitor may bounce by: • • • • • Clicking on a link to a page on a different web site Closing an open window or tab Typing a new URL Clicking the "Back" button to leave the site Session timeout A commonly used session timeout value is 30 minutes[2] . If the visitor continues to navigate after this delay. the visitor leaves a site without visiting any other pages before a specified session-timeout occurs. that is. In contrast. There is no industry standard minimum or maximum time by which a visitor must leave in order for a bounce to occur. Rather. anything over 35% is cause for concern.

) [4] Excellent Analytics Tip #11: Measure Effectiveness Of Your Web Pages | Occam's Razor by Avinash Kaushik (http:/ / www. co. a visitor looking for the definition of a particular word may enter an online dictionary site on that word's definition page.Bounce rate 17 Caveats While site-wide bounce rate can be a useful metric for sites with well-defined conversion steps requiring multiple page views. Commonly. Alternatively. a click is "logged" when it occurs. a visitor who wants to read about a specific news story may enter a news site on an article written for that story. Typically. Similarly. Retrieved 2008-08-25. hmtweb. Also. Mobasher. This type of behavior is common on web portals and referential content sites. one may institute the assumption that a page view is a result of a click. and this method requires some functionality that picks up relevant information when the event occurs. frontpage editors on high-traffic news media sites will want to monitor their pages in real-time.. html. and therefore log a simulated click that lead to that page view. to optimize the content. kaushik. com/ adwords/ learningcenter/ text/ 38069. [3] Google AdWords Learning Center . designers or other types of stakeholders may analyze clicks on a wider time frame to aid them assess performance of writers. it may be of questionable value for sites where visitors are likely to find what they are looking for on the entry page. google. uk/ scholar?hl=en& lr=& q=author:Cooley+ intitle:Data+ Preparation+ for+ Mining+ World+ Wide+ Web+ Browsing+ Patterns& as_publication=Journal+ of+ Knowledge+ and+ Information+ System& as_ylo=& as_yhi=& btnG=Search)). net/ avinash/ 2007/ 05/ excellent-analytics-tip-11-measure-effectiveness-of-your-web-pages. Editors. "Data Preparation for Mining World Wide Web Browsing Patterns" (http:/ / www. google. Ideally. ps) (– Scholar search (http:/ / scholar. R. html) [2] Cooley. and they might still be considered successful due to having served their purpose. click analytics may happen real-time or "unreal"-time. Srivastava (1999). cs. References [1] HMTWeb. Exit Rate" (http:/ / www. J.com "Bounce Rate vs. with regards to where the users of the site are clicking. html) Click analytics Click analytics is a special type of web analytics that gives special attention to clicks (Point-and-click) which constitute the first stage in the conversion funnel. Journal of Knowledge and Information System 1 (1): 5–32. umn. edu/ research/ websift/ papers/ kais99. com/ blog/ 2007/ 08/ bounce-rate-and-exit-rate-what-is. depending on the type of information sought. These example entry pages could have a bounce rate above 80% (thereby increasing the site-wide average). An editor of a web site uses click analytics to determine the performance of his or her particular site. . design elements or advertisements etc. Data about clicks may be gathered in at least two ways.Improving Your Content and Site (http:/ / www. B. • List of web analytics software References . For example. click analytics focuses on on-site analytics.

the study of human clicks took a substantial effort. Use of clickstream data can raise privacy concerns. an example being the AOL search data scandal. Data mining systems are being used in conjunction with clickstreams to better record and analyze this data. researcher. information was only collected from "real humans" clicking on sites through browsers. software testing. blogger or person with a website can learn about how to improve their site. Both of these uses generate a huge business advantage. This analysis can be used to generate two findings for the company. A small observation on the evolution of clickstream tracking: Initial clickstream or click path data had to be gleaned from server log files. Unauthorized clickstream data collection is considered to be spyware. However.[2] While this practice may not directly identify individual users. analyzing the data of clients that visit a company website is becoming a necessity in order to remain competitive.Clickstream 18 Clickstream A Clickstream is the recording of what a computer user clicks on while Web browsing or using another software application. every page requested generates a signal. In other words. . Clickstreams can also be used to allow the user to see where they have been and allow them to easily return to a page they have already visited. clickstream analysis can be used to predict whether a customer is likely to purchase from an e-commerce website. it is often possible to indirectly identify specific users. This use of the analysis creates a user profile that aids in understanding the types of people that visit a company’s website. proxy servers. The main point of clickstream tracking is to give webmasters insight into what visitors on their site are doing. Most consumers are unaware of this practice.[3] Since the business world is quickly evolving into a state of e-commerce. routers. and ad servers. and for analyzing employee productivity. In addition. the way that they are being monitored and [5] . Subsequently javascript technologies were developed which use a tracking cookie to generate a series of signals from browsers. Additionally.40/month per user. a function that is already incorporated in most browsers. and its potential for compromising their privacy. the action is logged on a client or inside the Web server. few ISPs publicly admit to this practice. market research. authorized clickstream data collection comes from organizations that use opt-in panels to generate market research using panelists who agree to share their clickstream data with other companies by downloading and installing specialized clickstream collection agents. This datas itself is "neutral" in the sense that any dataset is neutral. one of which is marketing. As the user clicks anywhere in the webpage or application. Clickstream analysis can also be used to improve customer satisfaction with the website and with the company itself. A clickstream is a series of page requests. the first being an analysis of a user’s clickstream while using a website to reveal usage patterns. The data can be used in various scenarios. Clickstream analysis is useful for Web activity analysis[1] . These signals can be graphically represented for clickstream reporting. which in turn gives a heightened understanding of customer behaviour. column-oriented DBMS. as well as possibly the Web browser. There are 10-12 companies that purchase this data. especially since some Internet service providers have resorted to selling users' clickstream data as a way to enhance revenue. Because human and machine traffic were not differentiated. any webmaster.[4] With the growing corporate knowledge of the importance of clickstreams. and integrated OLAP used to build Business Intelligence is evolving. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of advertising on a web page or site. As discussed in Van den Poel & Buckinx (2005). typically for about $0.

of KDD Workshop on Web mining as a Premise to. ist. 166 (2). Marketing Science22(4). Automating analytics and online marketing solutions (http://www. org/paper/rugrugwps/03_2F195. upenn. “ Predicting Online-Purchasing Behavior (http://econpapers. PS Fader (2004). 1. SAP NetWeaver portal analytics solutions (http://www. edu/ viewdoc/ download?doi=10. Fabio Gonzalez (2003). wharton. html [4] Patrali Chatterjee. Novak (2003). 1.. 2003)..clickstream.com/awstats/plugin-follow-me/) . 2005. com/ 27bstroke6/ 2007/ 04/ some_isps_still. com) • Click Stream by Sweetlets .com/w/ solutions/click-stream) External links • Follow Me Plugin for AWStats (http://www. (Autumn. (2003) • Van den Poel Dirk.. wired. pdf)” Journal of Interactive Marketing (2004) [2] http:/ / seekingalpha. org/ pss/ 4129736)”.adds clickstream analysis to AWStats . European Journal of Operational Research. com/ article/ 29449-compete-ceo-isps-sell-clickstreams-for-5-a-month [3] http:/ / blog.Clickstream 19 References [1] WW Moe.“ Modeling the Clickstream: Implications for Web-Based Advertising Efforts (http:/ / www. 520-541 [5] Olfa Nasraoui. Wouter Buckinx (2005). 557-575. 58. 9558& rep=rep1& type=pdf)” Proc. • Clickstream Technologies Plc.“ Mining Evolving User Profiles in NoisyWeb Clickstream Data with a Scalable Immune System Clustering Algorithm (http:/ / citeseerx.“ Capturing Evolving Visit Behavior in Clickstream Data (http:/ / mktg-sun.sweetlets. Cesar Cardona. Donna L. psu. Hoffman and Thomas P. Carlos Rojas.repec.internetofficer. edu/ ideas/ pdf/ Fader/ Moe Fader JIM paper 0503. jstor.htm)”.

results in the most "traditional" web heatmap. Wordpress. As of February 2009. [4] 3. including: 1. as well as conversion analytics and traditional web statistics. it uses meta statistics to create visual heatmaps and behavioural reports.showing how far down the page visitors scroll (useful for finding and optimizing the fold of a page). Mouse Move Heatmaps .showing how visitors respond to and interact with hyperlinks. including: 1. which are most frequently left blank and cause which website visitors to leave. Tal Schwartz. Although today ClickTale claims to have more than 50. In addition.000 users. PHP. Technology Unlike traditional web analytics. Israel Key people Dr. Web Analytics Technology Industry Headquarters Ramat Gan. 3.2M per annum[2] . 2. 2.showing where customers convert and where they leave the conversion process. ClickTale offers full integration with a wide variety of web standards.ClickTale 20 ClickTale ClickTale Type User Experience Optimizaion. 4. CTO and Co-Founder www. including HTTPS. Click Heatmaps . Attention Heatmaps . ClickTale had over 20. Conversion Funnels . . Scroll Heatmaps . Products ClickTale's analytics suite consists of three main parts: 1. 3.showing where the visitors click on the page.ClickTale. Conversion Analytics.showing where on the page the visitor shows the most attention. 2.000 users and its revenue was estimated at over $1. Link Analytics[6] .com [1] Website ClickTale is an Internet company founded in 2006. ClickTale's analytics service is qualitative and provides a full video playback option for each individual visitor's session[3] . which form fields take too long to fill. Form Analytics .used for conducting accurate eye tracking on a massive scale[5] . that provides Customer Experience Analytics and Web Analytics services.showing where visitors drop out of online forms. Drupal and Ruby on Rails as well as many others. Video playback of individual visitor sessions. CEO and Co-Founder Arik Yavilevich. In addition. it is unknown what its revenue may be as the company has not publicly announced any financial data. and also offers product integration with companies like Omniture and Silverpop [7]. Heatmaps.

com/ 2009/ 02/ 05/ clicktale-launches-email-tracking-says-revenue-growth-is-strong/ ). silverpop.for Small and medium businesses.for enterprise customers. com/ 2009/ 02/ 06/ using-clicktales-analytics-pays-off-really/ ). [4] "ClickTale Launches Mouse Click Heat Maps" (http:/ / jeffparks.000 pageviews per month. .000. offering a limited free plan and three tiers of paid plans starting from $99 a month. [6] "Using ClickTale’s analytics pays off — really" (http:/ / venturebeat. Says Revenue Growth Is Strong" (http:/ / www. 2009-11-23. . . com/ 2009/ 11/ 23/ eye-tracking-for-everyone/ ). . com/ [2] "ClickTale Launches Email Tracking. 2009-02-05. com/ External links • Official WebSite (http://www. allowing resellers and digital agencies to sell the product themselves for a share of the revenue. clicktale. • ClickTale Enterprise .com) .clicktale. [3] "Watch internet users’ behaviour with ClickTale" (http:/ / www. ClickTale offers custom-made solutions to companies with more than 1. ClickTale uses a freemium pricing model. techcrunch. 2009-08-12. . techcrunch. php/ findability/ clicktale-launches-mouse-click-heat-maps/ / ).clicktale. clicktale.ClickTale 21 Pricing Clicktale offers two levels of pricing: • ClickTale Online . [7] http:/ / www.com) • ClickTale Wiki (http://wiki. although it is not publicly known how much these plans cost. References [1] http:/ / www. ca/ index. 2006-07-11. com/ 2006/ 07/ 11/ watch-internet-users -behaviour-with-clicktale/ ). ClickTale runs both an affiliate and partnership program. [5] "Eye Tracking for Everyone" (http:/ / blog.clicktale. 2009-02-06.com/) • Company Blog (http://blog.

Click-though rates are highly sensitive to small changes such as link text. The metric used to describe this ratio is the click-through rate or CTR and represents the top level of the funnel. ad network or conventional link.Conversion funnel 22 Conversion funnel Conversion funnel is a technical term used in e-commerce operations to describe the track a consumer takes through an Internet advertising or search system. the fewer visitors get through to becoming paying customers. Each step the visitor takes further reduces the number of visitors . For this reason. Typical banner and advertising click-through rates are 0. navigating an e-commerce web site and finally converting to a sale.02% in late 2010 and have decreased over the past three years. The metaphor of a funnel is used to describe the decrease in numbers that occurs at each step of the process. only a small proportion of visitors typically proceeds to the product pages. Typically a large number of visitors register as page view on a referring page which is linked to the e-commerce site by a banner ad.typically by 30%–80% per page. Once the link is clicked and the visitor to the referring page enters the e-commerce site itself. References . Adding the product to the shopping cart. The process of understanding which creative material brings the highest click-through rate is known as ad optimization. Only a small proportion of those seeing the advert or link actually click the link. registering or filling in contact details and payment all further reduce the numbers step-by-step cumulatively along the funnel. link size. creating further constriction of the metaphorical funnel. link position and many others and these effects interact cumulatively. The more steps. sites with similar pricing and products can have hugely different conversion rates of visitors to customers and therefore greatly differing profits.

keyword used. The script is available in English. crawltrack.0 / April 2. giving number and origin of visitors (referrer. • Indexation in the main search engines follow-up (backlinks and indexed pages). giving absolutely no output in the source code (and hence neither on the site's pages). country of origin.0. Spanish. so that s/he keeps control of the data. That script has to be installed on the webmaster's own server. External links • CrawlTrack [2] References [1] http:/ / crawltrack. • Recording and blocking of certain types of hacking attempts (code injection or SQL injection). Functionality • Web site statistics. etc). 2009 Operating system Cross-platform Available in Type License Website PHP Web analytics GPL crawltrack. pages viewed and bounce rate.net [1] CrawlTrack is an open source web analytics program for webmasters. French. The tag used is a PHP one. net/ . Dutch and Turkish. net/ [2] http:/ / www. Several sites can be audited by the same CrawlTrack installation. German. • Crawler visits statistics (indexing by crawlers such as GoogleBot). hits number and pages viewed by crawlers. • Record of number and origin of 404 errors. • Download counter.CrawlTrack 23 CrawlTrack CrawlTrack Developer(s) Stable release Jean-Denis Brun 3.

C. Ford. Yahoo!. and Disney.com. The subject matter has ranged from the simply technical (is log file analysis better that page tagging) to the organization (how do you get business people to understand that incredible value in web data?) to the holistic (how do you combine web performance monitoring and customer satisfaction with web analytics in order to get the Big Picture?). External links • Official website [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Xerox. Microsoft. CBS. It has also expanded to San Francisco. London and Germany. Amazon..Emetrics Summit 24 Emetrics Summit The Emetrics Summit is a conference on measuring the success of a website. The Emetrics Summit has continued to grow in size and was the spawning ground of the Web Analytics Association. but has expanded in subject matter to online marketing optimization. Washington D. Keynote speakers in the past have included representatives of Coke. org/ . Dell. It started in 2002 in Santa Barbara by Jim Sterne as a web analytics conference. emetrics.

[3] GA can track visitors from all referrers. By using GA. in April 2005). was acquired and used in the redesign of Google Analytics in 2006. com/ analytics Google Analytics (GA) is a free service offered by Google that generates detailed statistics about the visitors to a website. display advertising. Through the use of GA analysis.js page tag which they recommend to use for all new accounts and new profiles for new domains. how long they stayed and their geographical position. Google rolled out the new ga. Urchin on Demand (Google acquired Urchin Software Corp. Integrated with AdWords. Goals might include sales. It is the most widely used website statistics service.js page tags will continue to work. including search engines.[5] Google still sells the standalone installable Urchin software through a network of value-added resellers. 2007. new sign-ups were suspended only a week later. marketers can determine which ads are performing. users can review online campaigns by tracking landing page quality and conversions (goals). providing the information to optimise or cull campaigns. Analysis http:/ / google.[2] Another market share analysis claims that Google Analytics is used at around 49.000 most popular websites. and which are not.[1] currently in use at around 57% of the 10. Measure Map. However due to extremely high demand for the service. It is limited to sites which have a traffic of fewer than 5 million pageviews per month (roughly 2 pageviews per second).95% of the top 1.[6] In December 2007. A new version of the user interface was released on May 17. since mid-August 2006 the service has been fully available to all users – whether they use Google for advertising or not. As capacity was added to the system. lead generation. These can also be monetized.[4] History Google's service was developed from Urchin Software Corporation's analytics system. Each profile generally corresponds to one website. The system also brings ideas from Adaptive Path. Urchin 6 was released. pay-per-click networks. Prior to August 2006 Google was sending out batches of invitation codes as server availability permitted. including custom visitor segmentation. In April 2008. poor performing pages can be identified using techniques such as funnel visualization. and more in-depth data further into the report set. The Google-branded version was rolled out in November 2005 to anyone who wished to sign up. Existing urchin. where visitors came from (referrers). viewing a specific page. GA's approach is to show high level dashboard-type data for the casual user.000 websites (as currently ranked by Alexa). ability to graph multiple data points at . The product is aimed at marketers as opposed to webmasters and technologists from which the industry of web analytics originally grew. or downloading a particular file. whose product. e-mail marketing and digital collateral such as links within PDF documents. Users can officially add up to 50 site profiles. Google began using a lottery-type invitation-code model. unless the site is linked to an AdWords campaign.000. It also provides more advanced features. nevertheless the new tag will allow site owners to take advantage of the most up-to-date tracking functionality.Google Analytics 25 Google Analytics Google Analytics Developer(s) Google Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Statistics.

these limitations are considered small – affecting only a small percentage of visits. In addition to transmitting information to a Google server. keywords. new beta features are added from time to time. what is the timestamp of the current visit and what was the referrer site or campaign the visitor came from e.js) is typically 18 KB in size and is only downloaded once at the start of the visit as it will be cached throughout the session.[7] While the product platform has never been a beta. banner or email. The larger file (currently known as ga. Website owners can encourage users not to disable cookies. It can take 12 hours for Google to process this data.g. Also. the GATC sets first party cookies on each visitor's computer. GA cannot collect data. Limitations Many ad filtering programs and extensions (such as Firefox's Adblock and NoScript) can block the GATC. For small segments of data. These limitations affect all on-site web analytics tools that collect on-site visitor data using page tags. 26 Technology Google Analytics is implemented by including what is known as a "page tag". search engine. This is due to the fact that only the latest phones are currently able to run JavaScript or set cookies (Smart phones and PDAs). To reduce the load on their servers and to provide users with a relatively quick response for their query. it has limitations with websites browsed from mobile phones.js code are using the same master file from Google. This is referred to as the Google Analytics Tracking Code (GATC) and is a snippet of JavaScript code that the user adds onto every page of his or her website. and leads to holes in the collected data. Because GA uses a page tagging technique to collect visitor information via a combination of JavaScript and cookies.[9] The largest potential impact on data accuracy comes from users deleting or blocking Google Analytics cookies. will also have the file cached on their machine.[10] Without cookies being set. However. This is used to store anonymous information such as whether the visitor has been to the site before (new or returning visitor). This prevents some traffic and users from being tracked. To function. the GATC loads a larger Javascript file from the Google webserver and then sets variables with the user's account number. That is. Another limitation of GA for large websites is the use of sampling in the generation of many of its reports.000 randomly sampled visits at the profile level for its calculations. according to a comment by a Google employee on a web analytics blog [8]. Any individual web user can block or delete cookies resulting in the data loss of those visits for GA users. This code collects visitor data and sends it to a Google data collection server as part of a request for a web beacon.Google Analytics once and to track ecommerce transactions in a more readable way. margins of error are not provided for any other metrics in the GA reports. The result is that the page overhead of including the GATC on web pages is kept to a minimum. [11] the margin of error can be very large. the small piece of code (usually JavaScript) that acts as a beacon to collect visitor data. a visitor that has previously visited any other website with this code implemented. . GA limits reports to 500. privacy networks like Tor will mask the user's actual location and present inaccurate geographical data. for example by making visitors more comfortable using the site through posting a privacy policy. Some users do not have Javascript-enabled/capable browsers or turn this feature off. While margins of error are indicated for the visits metric. As all websites that implement GA with the ga.

000 most popular websites (as ranked by Alexa Internet) ordered by popularity.[15] [16] Privacy Issues Due to its ubiquity. Retrieved 2009-12-10.Google Analytics 27 Slowing down the website There have been several online discussions about the impact on Google Analytics on site performance.ub.com API Proliferation The Google Analytics API has been utilized by third parties to build custom reporting tools. Aslib Proceedings. google. .com dailymotion. B (2009) Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series. com/ post/ 904126172/ google-analytics-market-share). Article URL: http://mpra. it has met much discussion and criticism. Article URL: [22] • Plaza.uni-muenchen. [2] "Google Analytics Usage Statistics" (http:/ / trends. tumblr. MetricMail.js script.com myspace. MPRA Paper No.com [20] • • • • twitter.[17] Since this plug-in is produced and distributed by Google itself. html) . whether to allow for example Google Analytics to track his/her activities. BuiltWith. [3] "Google Analytics Market Share" (http:/ / metricmail. [4] Google Analytics Help: Does Google Analytics have a pageview limit? (http:/ / www.de/19676/ [1] "Usage of traffic analysis tools for websites" (http:/ / w3techs. . These plug-ins offer the user a choice. Retrieved 2010-02-17. often open-source. py?hl=en& answer=55476) [5] Official Google Blog: Here comes Measure Map (http:/ / googleblog. com/ 2006/ 02/ here-comes-measure-map. com/ technologies/ overview/ traffic_analysis/ all). Google tracks that visit via the user's IP address. Whenever someone visits a website that uses Google Analytics. browser plug-ins. High profile sites using Google Analytics Google Analytics is used by 57% of the 10. Many such tools exist through a number of mediums. Google has also released a browser plugin that turns off data about a page visit being sent to Google. Google introduced asynchronous JavaScript code in December 2009 to reduce the risk of slowing the loading of pages tagged with the ga. com/ support/ analytics/ bin/ answer. blogspot. One was built to run on iOS (Apple) devices and is featured in Apple's app store see: Analytics by Net Conversion [21] References • Plaza. 19676. . Google Analytics raises many privacy concerns. Retrieved 2010-08-21.com answers. B (2009) Using Google Analytics for measuring inlinks effectiveness. with Piwik being a popular option.[18] [19] Webmasters who seek to mitigate Google Analytics' inherent privacy issues can employ a number of alternatives having their backends hosted on their own machines.[12] [13] [14] However. Furthermore. the realisation of Google scripts tracking user behaviours has spawned the production of multiple. It has been anecdotally reported that behind proxy servers and multiple firewalls that errors can occur changing time stamps and registering invalid searches. W3Techs. builtwith. com/ analytics/ Google-Analytics). 61(5): 474–482. as reported by BackendBattles.

com/ 2009/ 12/ google-analytics-launches-asynchronous. pcmag.com/ get-email-alerts-from-google-analytics/) • Google Analytics for Wordpress plugin (http://wordpress. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) – a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [11] Segmentation Options in Google Analytics (http:/ / www. Andy Greenberg (http:/ / www. html) [17] "Opt Out of Google Analytics Data Gathering With New Beta Tool" by Chloe Albanesius May 25. com/ blog/ 2007/ 08/ eu-and-us-javascript-disabled-index. com/ blog/ tracking-code-slows-my-site) [14] Is Google Analytics Slow or Not? (http:/ / www. html) [20] http:/ / www.meetup. com/ backend/ Google_Analytics [21] http:/ / itunes. blogspot. html) [10] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www. 2008. com/ 10. woopra. google. advanced-web-metrics. com/ blog/ 2009/ 04/ 21/ segmentation-options-in-google-analytics/ ) [12] Does Google Analytics Slow down page loading? (http:/ / groups. Flock. 1108/ 00012530910989625) 28 External links • Google Analytics web site (http://www. blogspot.com/ London-Web-Analytics-Google-Analytics-OmnitureMVT/) .2817. net/ "The NoScript Firefox extension provides extra protection for Firefox.latentmotion. com/ index. 2010 (http:/ / www. com/ article2/ 0. com/ blog/ 2009/ 02/ 04/ is-google-analytics-slow-or-not/ ) [15] Google Analytics Launches Asynchronous Tracking (http:/ / googlecode.com/ installing-analytics-on-a-large-website/) • Google Analytics Meetup Group in London. blogspot. Dec 11. com/ 2007/ 05/ you-now-have-access-to-new-google.com/analytics) • Google Analytics Email Alerts via the API (http://www. backendbattles.js tracking (http:/ / analytics.Google Analytics [6] You now have access to the new Google Analytics! (http:/ / analytics. com/ 2008/ 12/ 11/ virus-filter-avira-tech-security-cx_ag_1211virus. emeraldinsight. html) [8] http:/ / blog. com/ group/ analytics-help-basics/ browse_thread/ thread/ 62997a00d5a50406?pli=1) [13] Google Analytics Code is Slowing Down My Site (http:/ / www. forbes. html) at the Google Analytics blog [7] Announcing new graphing tools and ga. com/ 2010/ 04/ making-web-faster.2364174. html) [16] Making the Web Faster (http:/ / analytics.]" [19] Forbes. com/ 2007/ 12/ announcing-new-graphing-tools-gajs.org/extend/plugins/google-analytics-for-wordpress/ ) • How to install Google Analytics on a large static HTML website (http://fieldsmarshall.00. analyticsmarket.. apple. epikone. vkistudios. com/ us/ app/ analytics-by-net-conversion/ id421164239?mt=8 [22] Emerald | Aslib Proceedings | Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series (http:/ / www. The Virus Filters. cfm/ 2008/ 7/ 14/ google-analytics-lag-time-woes--get-immediate-gratification-with-wasp [9] EU and US JavaScript Disabled Index numbers + Web Analytics data collection impact (http:/ / visualrevenue. Seamonkey and other mozilla-based browsers [.. asp) [18] http:/ / noscript.google. UK (http://www. blogspot.

Companies place javascript files on their web servers which are linked to from a html script in the page code. During the processing of the data Hitbox ties together the page views to get a perspective of how the user moved through the site. omniture. Other. Some Web Analytics services have been declared spyware by several anti-spyware organizations. such as referrer and browser details. A cookie is placed on the users computer which contains a unique id. It was now widely used by commercial & other organizations across a variety of industrial sectors as a complete and integrated metrics solution for monitoring web traffic and driving marketing. com/ 2008/ 09/ 19/ migrating-from-hbx-to-sitecatalyst/ . This unique id is passed with the request to the data collection servers. custom information can be passed in the request as well as information from the HTTP header of the browser.Hitbox 29 Hitbox Hitbox was a popular web counter and web analytics product created by WebSideStory. The combination of the two makes a request from the data collection servers for each page viewed by a user. References [1] http:/ / blogs. originally for adult entertainment websites. SiteCatalyst. Adobe plan to completely phase it out by moving all their clients to their flagship product [1]. until taken over by Omniture subsequently taken over by [Adobe).

hitdynamics. . The company was founded by internet entrepreneur Max Polyakov in January 2005 and was acquired in on 6 March 2006 by Hitwise[1] and the company's technology now exists as the web analytics arm of the HitWise suite. References [1] HitWise (May 1 2007). com/ HitDynamics is a provider of web analytics software allowing website owners to track traffic to their sites and ascertain which traffic sources deliver conversions to sales. Founder & CEO Owner(s) Website Hitwise http:/ / www. com/ press-release. htm).HitDynamics 30 HitDynamics HitDynamics Ltd. hitdynamics. "HitWise Acquires HitDynamics" (http:/ / www. Type Industry Private Online Marketing Key people Max Polyakov. .

[5] [6] [7] mainly in the USA. Scale Venture Partners. • Consulting services[16] . met at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2004 and incorporated HubSpot in June 2006. CIO Mike Volpe. VP Customer Services [1] HubSpot Small HubSpot Medium HubSpot Large Consulting service 170 (07/26/2010) [2] Products Employees Website http:/ / www. Massachusetts. and landing pages. HubSpot moved its offices into the Davenport. • HubSpot Medium[13] [15] (formerly HubSpot Marketer) add features such as Salesforce. in the Lechmere neighborhood of Cambridge. VP Marketing Mark Roberge. History The founders. Google Ventures and Salesforce.HubSpot 31 HubSpot HubSpot.600 in November 2010. Matrix Partners. Massachusetts Key people Brian Halligan.[9] [10] [11] In summer 2010. Type Industry Private Internet Marketing Web Analytics Online Marketing June 2006 Founded Headquarters Cambridge. Sequoia Capital. com/ HubSpot is a venture-funded[3] marketing software company based in Cambridge. Inc. CTO & Founder Jim O'Neill. marketing analytics. Its customer base grew from over 1. business blogging. Brian Halligan and Dharmesh Shah. VP Sales Yoav Shapira.[12] Products and services • HubSpot Small[13] [14] (formerly HubSpot Owner) offers SEO. hubspot. CFO Jonah Lopin. A related product (HubSpot Large) adds features such as premium support. VP Engineering David Stack.com integration for closed-loop marketing metrics. content management system.[8] It was backed by venture capitalists including General Catalyst Partners. CEO & Founder Dharmesh Shah.com.400 in July 2009[4] to over 3.

Scott's E-book Goobledygook Manifesto[21] inspired Gobbledygook Grader (an automated tool to detect gobbledygook) and some metrics in Pressrelease Grader. which [26] on iTunes Store as podcasts and as a YouTube channel[27] are archived • Viral videos including musical parodies[28] and satires[23] . A copy of Scott's book The New Rules of Marketing and PR[22] appears prominently on Rebecca Corliss's desk in her music video that satirizes "link love". [29] • Free. but these were quickly resolved[33] . Using a similar technique the hosts secured a guest appearance[34] by MC Hammer whose refreshing insight about Internet marketing and social media was "Forget the numbers! Just stay interesting.[23] HubSpot models the behavior it teaches its own customers by promoting itself through conversations. The tactic initially caused concern among some members of the Twitter community.tv using Twitter conversations. and offers suggestions for improvement. and search engine optimization (SEO).tv episode [30] series . not one-way broadcast. relevant. They include a set of tools such as: • Business blogging and analytics • Keyword Grader which helps you find search engine keywords that are popular. and are relatively neglected by one's competition • Link Grader to assess and compare the number and authority of the inbound links that most modern search engines use to generate their SERPs • Page Grader to offer suggestions for on-page SEO such as length of the title and description in the head of HTML pages. Their products help customers use and measure internet marketing techniques such as social media. hosting a #BizInBoston Tweetup event[31] . and by the 'publish your way in' (or 'think like a publisher' or 'always be publishing (ABP)') mindset. • Free E-books on internet marketing topics Twitter co-founder Biz Stone is celebrity guest of Karen Rubin and Mike • Interactive webcasts and live video shows on Volpe on hubspot. Scott featured Website Grader is his book World Wide Rave[18] and HubSpot is a sponsor of the Inbound Marketing Summit[19] that Scott co-organizes." . the hosts secured a celebrity guest appearance from Biz Stone not by hiring a booking agent but by hearing he was in the area.tv April 17. alt tags on images etc. The paid version adds trending and other features versus the gratis version. and then creating a viral campaign[32] on Twitter itself using a #bizinboston hashtag and mentions of Stone's Twitter username. This strategy is in alignment with Google's advice to webmasters[24] that to rank high in the SERPs you must create great content that readers will want to link to.com For one hubspot. • Website Grader which compares web sites for SEO qualities. blogging. Content includes: • Frequent posting on its top ranked [25] blog. The company is influenced by the ideas of David Meerman Scott who serves on its board as special advisor[17] .g. interactive tools such as the grader. Scott wrote the foreword and is series editor of a book that Halligan and Shah co-authored[20] . 2009 Photo: Kyle James (CC-BY-SA) hubspot. appearance in a search engine results page (SERP) at the moment a prospective customer is searching on a term related to your product) is more powerful than interruption or outbound marketing.HubSpot 32 Strategy HubSpot is based on the idea that permission or inbound marketing (e.

Similar pro and con themes emerged in a discussion[54] on the Web Pro World Forum. One web site offers a free spreadsheet to estimate ROI on such methods[38] .000 inbound links from inception to the time the article was written[59] and it's possible this unusually rapid growth tripped a "circuit breaker" in Google's algorithm.evaluates your written content (press release.. the grader. Michael Gray claims[53] that automated analysis of the on-page and off-page SEO can give misleading results compared to human expert analysis." On the other hand. hype-filled words. a community website for marketers[39] . Nick Ellery's commentary[57] on this expresses concern that it's hard to find "gems" for marketing.[42] HubSpot was also recognized as an AlwaysOn East Top 100 company in the "SaaS and Enterprise" category. • Gobbledygook Grader [51] ". • LinkedIn Grader [49] . The comments section of this posting includes a rebuttal from Shah. and 3) the hashtag of the event e. this issue resolved itself and HubSpot's position on Google SERPs for the queries Fishkin used was at or near the number one position. brochure copy.g. Community HubSpot is a sponsor of InboundMarketing.[43] The company also received the 2010 TiE50 Award[44] and the 2010 BtoB Social Media Marketing Award. #sxsw • Buzz Grader [48] grades buzz in the generic.com [29] site has unadvertized Easter egg subdomains: • Speaker Grader [47] that collates Twitter tweets containing 1) either the hashtags #upvote OR #downvote and 2) the speaker's Twitter handle e.HubSpot 33 Return on Investment Two studies by a student at MIT Sloan School of Management indicates a substantial return on investment of the HubSpot methodology[35] [36] ." The grader. jargon.g. The same year. cliches and over-used..intermittant functionality. . Sometime around September 2009. Cartoonist Mark Hill and HubSpot's Shah satirized their industry in a cartoon[56] which speculates that such marketing is only being used incestuously to market marketing to marketeers. HubSpot was awarded "Best Places to Work in Greater Boston"[41] in its category. Not to be confused with the upper case word Buzz on the branded social media services Google Buzz or Yahoo! Buzz. @dmscott. [40] Awards In June 2010. Intermittant functionality. etc. and on Twitter.) and checks for use of gobbledygook. In his analysis[58] of Google's sandboxing of Website Grader in May 2009. lower case sense of ones brand being mentioned on blogs.com domain acquired over 250.. Video blogger Steve Garfield visited the hubspot.throwing out the baby with the bathwater. SEO expert Rand Fishkin speculated that it was a case of Google's anti-spamdexing algorithm ". Also called Social Grader [50].tv studio for the Biz Stone episode[30] and published a largely favorable review[55] . in the news. HubSpot itself also has published several success stories[37] . HubSpot was named in the Lead411's Hottest Boston Companies list..[45] Easter Eggs Besides the ten subdomains linked there[46] . The discussion forum of the community is hosted by the StackExchange software service.com." Criticism and Controversy Guy Kawasaki praises Website Grader[52] for its effectiveness and its congruence with his webmaster's SEO practices and own informal SEO strategy of "Create as good content as you can and assume that Google finds it.

[16] "About HubSpot Services" (http:/ / www. HubSpot. David Meerman (2009). com/ products-1/ ). viral marketing and online media to reach your buyers directly. Retrieved 2009-10-23.. 2009.. . [20] Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google. 2010 HubSpot launched a social media experiment that involved an alternate reality game[62] . . . [10] "Brian Halligan's To-Do List: Run Company. ISBN 0470113456.[65] Notes [1] "HubSpot Management" (http:/ / www. Social Media. [2] "Startup Culture Lessons From Mad Men" (http:/ / onstartups. html).April 19. . [22] Scott.J. Retrieved April 19. Retrieved 2011-01-22. The game involved a spoof home page for an educational site that they sponsor (Inbound Marketing University [63]). Gobbledygook. boston. Raise $16 Million" (http:/ / www. com/ 2011/ 03/ 08/ hubspot-funding/ ). . . so HubSpot had to backtrack and apologize. 2009. com/ products/ small-business/ ).. com/ 2010/ 03/ 30/ exclusive-a-tour-of-hubspots-new-office-in-lechmere/ . com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ promote_business_blog_with_hubspot_october_2009_final." [6] "SXSW 2010: Inbound Marketing Presentation. "... Retrieved 2011-01-22. Sep 12. and Blogs. hubspot. worldwiderave. 208. [15] "HubSpot Medium" (http:/ / www. .. . HubSpot. [11] "HubSpot. com/ company/ board-of-directors/ ). Wiley & Sons. 2009. pp. David Meerman (2007). . "Ben & Jerry's Complete Rejection Of Conventional Wisdom" (http:/ / blog. Retrieved April 20. World Wide Rave: Creating Triggers that Get Millions of People to Spread Your Ideas and Share Your Stories (http:/ / www. [18] Scott. "The Gobbledygook Manifesto" (http:/ / changethis. Retrieved 2009-10-26. pdf) (PDF). Inc. . com/ services/ ).[61] On June 2. [14] "HubSpot Small Business Helps Drive Leads" (http:/ / www. [5] "How to Promote Your Business Blog Using HubSpot" (http:/ / www. hubspot. hubspot. $16M third round led by Scale Partners . html). 2007. Hoboken. hubspot. San Francisco" (http:/ / city. net/ HubSpot/ sxsw-2010-inbound-marketing-presentation). [13] "HubSpot Inbound Marketing System" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-01-22.creating a storm on Twitter. 2007). Retrieved 2009-04-22.[64] 34 Technology HubSpot Content Management System is written in C#. entrepreneur. [19] "Sponsor list. Mashable.. Other tools are written in a mixture of Python. Entrepreneur. Retrieved April 19. . Wed. HubSpot Customer Growth" (http:/ / www. runs on IIS web servers.HubSpot Some attendees of HubSpot webcasts question HubSpot's judgement on the delicate matter of when one has won permission to talk about ones products rather than the audience's critical business issue. com/ sf/ sponsors. Retrieved 2009-10-26. com/ boston/ 2008/ 05/ 16/ hubspot-inc-secures-12000000-series-b-financing/ ). com/ tabid/ 3339/ bid/ 13420/ Startup-Culture-Lessons-From-Mad-Men. . com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 7209/ Ben-Jerry-s-Complete-Rejection-Of-Conventional-Wisdom. pdf#page=3). Java. hubspot. Retrieved 2011-03-09. The new rules of marketing and PR how to use news releases.[60] On February 11. aspx). inboundmarketingsummit. aspx). com/ company/ management/ ). Slide 4. 2010). podcasts. David Meerman (August 8. John Wiley & Sons Inc. HubSpot. [9] "Here’s What Google. . xconomy. "Scheduled for publication in October 2009" [21] Scott. Retrieved 2009.: J. Salesforce & Sequoia Are Investing In" (http:/ / mashable. [7] Brian Halligan. The Boston Globe. .000 Series B Financing" (http:/ / www.. [17] "HubSpot Board of Directors" (http:/ / www.Net framework and SQL Server database. ISBN 978-0470395004. hubspot. Xconomy. . HubSpot. .000. com/ magazine/ entrepreneur/ 2010/ april/ 205496. Retrieved 2009-10-26. http:/ / bostinnovation. com/ business/ technology/ innoeco/ 2009/ 10/ brian_halligans_todo_list_run. .it is working out pretty well so far (3600 customers today -up from about 1600 customers a year ago). Retrieved May 20. [12] Psaty. Kyle (March 30. 2009. Inc. hubspot. slideshare. com/ pdf/ 37. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ social_media_lead_generation_july2009. com/ products/ medium/ ). [3] "HubSpot Secures 5 Million in Venture Capital Funding Led by General Catalyst" (http:/ / www.The apps run in the Rackspace Cloud. Secures $12. 2010 Twitter Grader was hacked and a message sent out to all Twitter Users who had active OAuth promoting a video of BizStone by an account started just a day earlier . . ISBN 0470499311. The spoof inconvenienced the site's students. hubspot. ." [8] "From the Blackboard to the Boardroom" (http:/ / www. hubspot. Retrieved 2009-10-26. use the ASP. Retrieved May 18. Wiley. blogs. [4] "How to Use Social Media for Lead Generation Webinar" (http:/ / www. 2009. Press release. html). com/ blog/ bid/ 2251/ HubSpot-Secures-5-Million-in-Venture-Capital-Funding-Led-by-General-Catalyst). Inc. pdf#page=3). Inbound Marketing Summit 2009. Write Book. N. . 2009. 03. com/ ). and PHP and run on MySQL and Apache at Amazon EC2. hubspot. "Over 120 employees .

Steve (2009. Dharmesh. Twitter. April 17. "Twitter Co-Founder Biz Stone Visits HubSpot and Answers Five Business Questions" (http:/ / blog. py?hl=en& answer=35769).Forget the Numbers with Surprise Guest MC Hammer" (http:/ / blog. xconomy. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www.October 3). staciechalmersinboundmarketing. "HubSpot's Rebecca Corliss longs for the inbound links of colleague Rick Burnes. There's also blog about Grader itself (http:/ / graderblog.October 5). html) [43] Announcing the AlwaysOn East Top 100 Companies (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4494/ Social-Media-Marketing-Madness-cartoon. 2009. Retrieved May 4." [31] "#BizInBoston Tweetup" (http:/ / bizinboston. Retrieved 2009. com/ has been removed. Hybernaut bury the hatchet for now" (http:/ / www. Retrieved May 13. . "Why Website Grader is a Bad Idea" (http:/ / www. grader. com [51] http:/ / gobbledygook.. A Geek Valentine's Day Ballad" (http:/ / www. lead411. 2009). com) (2009.com: Measure all that matters in inbound marketing" (http:/ / grader. guykawasaki. Rebecca (February 9. tv) (link attempts to launch iTunes) [27] HubSpot channel (http:/ / www. aspx).April 19. 2009.April 28. [38] "Practical Solutions For Measuring Marketing and ROI" (http:/ / www. Facebook. hubspot. com/ linkedin [50] http:/ / socialgrader. grader. given that there are only two postings (one within 11 minutes of the other) dating back to November 2009. p." [24] "Webmaster Guidelines at Google" (http:/ / www.).. com/ Inbound-marketing-blog-for-small-business/ bid/ 19238/ Practical-Solutions-For-Measuring-Marketing-and-ROI). Retrieved 2009. "There's a tendency to copy what TV does. aspx). [34] "HubSpot TV . com/ seo/ why-website-grader-is-a-bad-idea/ ). Melissa (January 2010). com/ roi/ ).. Wade (April 20. hubspot. html). 2009. com/ about). "grader. "What is the value of the HubSpot Website Grader?" (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4687/ Twitter-Co-Founder-Biz-Stone-Visits-HubSpot-and-Answers-Five-Business-Questions. com/ search-engine-optimization-forum/ 82808-what-value-hubspot-website-grader. "#73: HubSpot Internet Marketing (as of access date: rankings are updated daily)" [26] HubSpot TV podcast archive at iTunes Store (http:/ / itunes. org [41] Boston Business Journal Best Places to Work (http:/ / boston. Craig (2009. webproworld. Retrieved April 28. btobonline. com/ ). com/ Default. com/ [52] Kawasaki. com/ power150/ ). com/ node/ 65221) [44] TiECON 2010 Winners (http:/ / www. 2009. Rebecca (April 20. wolf-howl. . Charlie Moran. com/ watch?v=XbfXUrtnynE). Retrieved 2009. "Hubspot TV" (http:/ / offonatangent. dll/ article?AID=/ 20100412/ FREE/ 304129956) [46] "Grader. [36] DiBella. HubSpot. . "Website Grader" (http:/ / blog. aonetwork. .April 28. blogspot. com/ [48] http:/ / buzz. Melissa (February 2009). youtube. youtube. "Social Media Marketing Madness Cartoon" (http:/ / blog. . hubspot. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ roi_from_hubspot_report_2010. Mark Hill (http:/ / www. . HillCartoons. 2009. ." [56] Shah. com [30] Corliss. grader. . google. . com/ search?lang=all& q=#bizinboston). grader. Guy (2007. com/ user/ HubSpot) on YouTube. pdf) (PDF). 00:00-00:13. "I have a Facebook 35 . 2009).com" (http:/ / www. hubspot. .April 20 [28] "You Oughta Know Inbound Marketing" (http:/ / www. twitter. 2009. "The key to developing a community is listening.. "AdAge Power 150: A Daily Ranking of Marketing Blogs" (http:/ / adage. Retrieved April 19. "Over two hundred #bizinboston tweets in the one week period leading up Stone's visit" [33] Roush. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www. Google alerts. com/ 2009/ 04/ hubspot-tv. ." [32] "Twitter search for #bizinboston hashtag" (http:/ / search." [54] Allen. html). . . .April 18). grader. aspx).January 14). com [49] http:/ / person. tie50. Retrieved April 22." [47] http:/ / speaker.6!!!" [55] Garfield. press releases.April 22. blogs. Retrieved April 30. who refuses to link to her website in an emotional love story that comes full circle. paying attention and engaging. "Link Love. net/ Winners/ ) [45] BtoB Social Media Awards 2010 (http:/ / www. com/ boston/ 2009/ 04/ 20/ hubspot-hybernaut-bury-the-twitter-hatchet-for-now/ ). That works. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4585/ HubSpot-TV-Forget-the-Numbers-with-Surprise-Guest-MC-Hammer. . . [25] Todd Andrlik. "Have you heard? The famous Biz Stone. . Retrieved on 2009. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs/ ROI_from_HubSpot. 2009. "I've now run all my clients' sites through it and found that the average of all my websites ends up a measly 32. com/ support/ webmasters/ bin/ answer. Retrieved May 19.HubSpot [23] Corliss. 2009. grader. Inc. html). Advertising Age Magazine (Crain Communications). "The fact that my blog did so well is entirely because of Neil Patel. [39] "About InboundMarketing.April 14). The April Fool's joke subdomain that graded 'personality' http:/ / personality. com/ boston-companies. [40] http:/ / inbound. com/ watch?v=4-lGe5MnBlY). bizjournals. . . A/B web site actions. inboundmarketing. eventbrite. hubspot. "HubSpot. Retrieved 2009. Michael (2007. [37] "ROI from Inbound Marketing with HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www. founder of Twitter is in Boston for a few days! Let's give him a warm welcome." [53] Gray. 2010. and Foursquare profiles. com) which ironically is an example of how not to blog. [35] DiBella. pdf) (PDF). com/ 2007/ 10/ website-grader. books. but we also have an opportunity to push the technology to add interaction and conversation. There is a link to a private beta of Social Inbox. com/ boston/ event/ 13771) [42] Lead411 launches "Hottest Boston Companies" awards (http:/ / www. and that's exciting. . com/ apps/ pbcs. youtube. com). "At the end of the day you need a [sic] an experienced analyst.April 28. Retrieved 2009. hubspot. A parody of the Alanis Morissette and Glen Ballard song You Oughta Know [29] http:/ / grader. hubspot.com grades websites.

Retrieved 2009. Retrieved 2009. com/ 2009/ 01/ 15/ hubspots-social-media-marketing-madness/ ). ". Web Metrics are intended to measure activity on web sites in a site centric fashion.HubSpot group for Twitter users that tweet about podcasters that talk about marketing bloggers" [57] Ellery. .. com). 'Websitegrader Website Marketing SEO Tool' . "Google's Sandbox Still Exists Exemplified by grader. [62] "HubSpot Gambles with Trust to Explore New Marketing Strategy" (http:/ / bostinnovation. #1 at MSN/Live" [59] "grader. Charles (February 11. The ? is how hard is the pitch?" [61] Arthur. com/ adamyarbrough/ status/ 1063377092). Retrieved May 4. [60] Yarbrough. "It's a tradeoff. guardian.free samples of the type of tools HubSpot uses for measuring online presence JICWEBS JICWEBS (the Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards) was created by the UK and Ireland media industry to insure independence and comparability of measurement on the web. Not in Top 200 at Google.. "Hubspot’s Social Media Marketing Madness" (http:/ / marketingisadirtyword. com/ 2011/ 05/ 26/ the-tech-behind-hubspot/ ).com (http://www. "#hubspot It's a tradeoff.com) . . org/ blog/ googles-sandbox-still-exists-exemplified-by-gradercom). . . "Let's check out some searches .. with JICWEBS deciding whether metrics are desirable and ABCe deciding whether they are practical. It IS still marketing. These can include measurements of audience reach. "Twitter Grader hacked: are you a victim?" (http:/ / www. 36 External links • hubspot.seemingly endless volume of noise out there around marketing. . com/ site/ grader. Rand (2009. frequency and activity levels including the use and effectiveness of advertising on the web and other electronic media.com (http://grader. com/ 2010/ 06/ 10/ hubspot-gambles-with-trust-to-explore-new-marketing-strategy/ ).com" (http:/ / www.. It’s getting harder and harder to find those gems that deliver real value. #1 at Yahoo!.April 28. We get free good information and a bit of a sales pitch. [63] http:/ / www. com/ [64] "Reactions and Lessons From the #IMU ARG So Far" (http:/ / www.December 17).com) . . Retrieved May 7. inboundmarketing. . Nick (2009. 2009.hubspot. Retrieved 2009." (http:/ / twitter. In effect JICWEBS works in partnership with the ABCe. co. . social media etc.com" (http:/ / grader..January 15).. uk/ technology/ blog/ 2010/ feb/ 11/ twitter-grader-hacked-tweets)..April 25. The Guardian (London). com/ blog/ bid/ 6056/ Reactions-and-Lessons-From-the-IMU-ARG-So-Far). . [65] "The Tech Behind HubSpot" (http:/ / bostinnovation.official site • grader. Adam (2008.com link report for grader. 2010)." [58] Fishkin.April 22. seomoz. 2010.March 8). hubspot..

Since than Kampyle claims to have gained more than 45. Web analytics Technology Industry Headquarters Ramat Gan. Technology While web analytics cannot give insight into the motivation and actual user experience. Kampyle Plug-Ins are available for Wordpress.kampyle. Kampyle's Feedback analytics enhances the capabilities of a company to understand website users.com [1] Website Kampyle is an Internet company founded in 2007. Web Optimization. and to optimize marketing and website strategies.000 companies using Kampyle's feedback forms and analytics. that provides Feedback Analytics and Lead Generation solutions. With a go-to-market as Freemium. com/ External links • Official WebSite (http://www. CEO and Co-Founder www.com) . In additon Enterprise solution is offered. Feedback is seen as an empirical tool to get insight into user behavior. kampyle. Drupal and Joomla.Kampyle. very limited product. Kampyle offers its solutions as SaaS (software-as-a-service).Kampyle. Kampyle started selling its Feedback solution in 2008. Kampyle is said to have processed more than 12 million feedback forms in over 60 languages in 191 countries to date. References [1] http:/ / www.Kampyle (Software) 37 Kampyle (Software) Kampyle Type Lead Generation. and several account as too the number of feedback items allowed per month. Products Kampyle offers a free. Israel Key people Ariel Finkelstein.com) • Company Blog (http://blog.

000 and £999.com Area served Key people Services Website Kaspid Information Technology (Persian: ‫ )ش ش ش ش ش ش شش ش ش ش ش ش ش شش ش ش شش ش‬is a web design and Internet ‫شش ش ش ش شش ششش‬ ‫ش‬ marketing company headquartered in (Bournemouth. as well as in Bournemouth in the UK. eventually turning it into one of Iran's largest providers of web design and Internet marketing services. leading it to its subsequent popularity as an integrated search (SEO & PPC) company.Kaspid 38 Kaspid Kaspid Information Technology LTd Type Founded Headquarters Private 1999 Bournemouth Tehran Mashhad Iran . in addition to generating revenue of between £250.000 as of June 2011. at which time it solely offered web design services. Pay Per Click and business consulting services. . England). maintained representative offices in Tehran and Mashhad. The company employs 26-50 people. then called Kaspid Information Technology Limited.[5] History The company was established in 1999. a service that was then only in its nascent stages in Iran. whilst a monthly survey conducted by Topseo named it the 18th Best Integrated Search (SEO & PPC) Company United Kingdom as of June 2011.[4] .[3] In addition to web design services.uk [2] Kaspid.[6] Kaspid was also the first company to market SEO & Pay Per Click services for Persian web sites. Kaspid provides search engine optimization. turning its attentions towards business opportunities in web marketing.co. England Hamid Sepidnam (CEO) Farhad kazemi Motlagh (General Manager) Web Design Services SEO Business Consulting Services Pay Per Click [1] Kaspid. The company. The company shifted its focus between 1999 and 2008. He later decided to establish a branch of Kaspid in Bournemouth in England. Majority shareholder Hamid Sepidnam took over as CEO of the company in 2008.

2011. External links • • • • Official site in English (http://www. com "Kaspid in TopSeo" (http:/ / www. "Kaspid to Attend 2011 Search Engine Strategies Seminar in London" (http:/ / www. topseos. prweb. . "Company Profile Kaspid LTD" (http:/ / kaspid-ltd. uk). topseos.co.uk) Official site in Persian (http://www.uk/) Official Facebook Fanpage (http://www. Retrieved Jan 25. uk).Facebook/kaspid/) . .com) Company Profile (http://www.topseos. kaspid.Kaspid. co.2011. co. com/ releases/ 2011/ 02/ prweb5067154. htm).Kaspid 39 Kaspid Name abbreviation The Kaspid name is an abbreviation of Hamid Sepidnam and the last name of Farhad kazemi Motlagh.kaspid-ltd. uk http:/ / www. . topseos. kaspid. co. . Retrieved April 6. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. co. Retrieved June 2011.co.Kaspid. Retrieved June 2011. uk/ rankings-of-best-integrated-search-seo-and-ppc-companies). namely KA from Kazemi and SPID from Sepidnam. "Best Integrated Search (SEO & PPC) Company (ies) in United Kingdom" (http:/ / kaspid-ltd.

(translated into Korean.[5] He is also an Associate Instructor at the University of British Columbia for the Web Analytics program.[8] CMA Next.[9] and JMP Innovators Summit. Russian. Analytics Expert Website kaushik. Portuguese and Spanish)[15] The book defines Web Analytics 2. Which translates into your desired outcomes (online and offline). Polish. To drive a continual improvement of the online experience of your customers and prospects.[10] Kaushik received the 2009 Harry V Roberts Statistical Advocate of the Year award from the American Statistical Association [11] and the 2011 Most Influential Industry Contributor award from the Web Analytics Association. ISBN 978-8126513284. The analysis of qualitative and quantitative data from your website and the competition. 2. ISBN 978-0470529393. In his writing and speaking Kaushik has championed the principle of aggregation of marginal gains.net/avinash [1] Avinash Kaushik is an entrepreneur. 2007.[2] [3] Kaushik is on the Advisory Board of University of Toronto Rotman School of Management's program on CRM Excellence[4] as well as on the Advisory Board of University of California at Irvine's program on Web Intelligence.[7] eMetrics Marketing Optimization Summit. 3. Portuguese. 2009. which provides online education and certification in six Internet disciplines such as Search Engine Optimization. and encouraged the pursuit of simplifying perceived complexity in the field of data analytics."[16] .Avinash Kaushik 40 Avinash Kaushik Avinash Kaushik Occupation Author. Conversion & Public Relations.0 as: "1. Web Analytics.[13] Books • Web Analytics: An Hour A Day. Chinese. Kaushik co-founded Market Motive Inc. Sybex (an imprint of Wiley). author and public speaker. (translated into Italian. and Japanese)[14] • Web Analytics 2.0. Sybex (an imprint of Wiley). Social Media.[6] Kaushik has delivered keynotes at conferences such as The Art of Marketing.[12] Business ventures Market Motive Inc In 2008.. Paid Search Advertising.

[9] "CMA Next:2010 Keynote Speakers" (http:/ / www. . "Web Analytics: An Hour A Day" (http:/ / webanalyticshour. . rotmancrm. edu/ certificates/ it/ web_intel). [18] Todd Andrlik. Retrieved Nov 24. 2011.com.eMetrics Marketing Optimization Summit . [4] "Rotman Centre for CRM Excellence Advisory Board" (http:/ / www. com). com/ Most+ websites+ suck/ 3956144/ story.0 video . 2010-05-26. 2010. htm). 2010-09-30. Financial Post. 2010. [3] "Data give miners the shaft" (http:/ / www.San Jose California 2010" (http:/ / www. Web Analytics Association. html). 2010.Instructors" (http:/ / www.com/watch?v=sMwQN43fwoQ): Web Analytics 2. Retrieved Nov 27. 2010. ubc. 2010-05-04. [14] Avinash Kaushik (2007). theartofmarketing. aspx). [6] "UBC Award of Achievement in Web Analytics . chicagoasa. com/ about/ AdvisoryBoard. Retrieved Nov 24. Retrieved Aug 15. 2008-09-24. 2011. . Rotman Executive Programs Center For CRM Excellence. Retrieved Nov 27.webanalyticshour. Avinash Kaushik" (http:/ / www. . . ca/ webanalytics/ instructors. www. tech. "#1: Exact number tracked and their rankings are updated daily)" External links • Occam's Razor by Avinash Kaushik (http://www. Retrieved Mar 20. Retrieved 21 Dec 2010. . Plenary Session 1" (http:/ / www. marketmotive. com). . [10] "JMP Innovators Summit. org/ Workshops/ e051509. [17] "Occam's Razor By Avinash Kaushik" (http:/ / www. . webanalytics20. 2009. 2010. 2010. [16] Lou Dubois (2010). uci. The Globe And Mail. 2010. . www. . 2008. org/ sanjose/ 2010/ tracks/ keynotes. 2010. html). Magazine. [5] "Web Intelligence Certificate" (http:/ / unex. Advertising Age Magazine (Crain Communications). Retrieved Aug 15. webanalyticsassociation. [7] "2010 Keynote Speakers. 2007.youtube. kaushik. com/ about/ events/ summit2008/ speakers. 2006. 2010. 2010. com/ news/ technology/ article125092. 2010. financialpost. . com/ power150/ ).Web Analytics Association" (http:/ / www. 2011.marketmotive. "11 Best Web Analytics Tools" (http:/ / www. Inc. 2010. Retrieved Nov 27. American Statistical Association Chicago Chapter. net/ avinash [2] "Most Websites Suck" (http:/ / www. 2010. Retrieved Dec 14. inc. Retrieved Aug 15. . org/ ?page=awards2011).Avinash Kaushik 41 Blog Kaushik's blog[17] is ranked in the AdAge Power 150 as #40 marketing blog out of 1. Retrieved Jan 10.kaushik. com/ about). ece). UCIrvine Extension.net/avinash/): His personal blog • Authors@Google: Avinash Kaushik (http://www. [15] "Web Analytics 2. "AdAge Power 150: A Daily Ranking of Marketing Blogs" (http:/ / adage. [13] Michael Stebbins (2008). www. 2009.com. jmp. Charlie Moran. shtml#plenary1). theglobeandmail. . org/ convention/ ?WCE=C=47). . Retrieved Nov 27. emetrics. 2010. Retrieved Nov 24. ca/ speakers/ view/ 6/ avinash-kaushik).0" (http:/ / www. . com/ guides/ 12/ 2010/ 11-best-web-analytics-tools. kaushik. net/ avinash/ ). 2010. . [11] "American Statistical Association 2009 Statistical Advocate of the Year Award Ceremony" (http:/ / www. html).[18] References [1] http:/ / www. . the-cma. "About Market Motive" (http:/ / www. Retrieved Nov 24. The University of British Columbia. [8] "Keynotes .com. php).120 tracked. [12] "Awards for Excellence 2011: Recipients . Retrieved Dec 14.webanalytics20.

com/ 2010/ 10/ 14/ facebook-klout/ ). The analysis is done on data collected from sites such as Twitter and Facebook and measures the size of a person's network. "How can you measure influence?" (http:/ / mashable.[4] References [1] "Klout" (http:/ / www. com/ company/ klout).Klout 42 Klout Klout Type Founded Founder Private San Francisco. Simply Zesty.[3] Methodology Klout measures influence by using data points from Twitter. United States Worldwide 10 [1] Headquarters Area served Employees Slogan Website Type of site Advertising Registration Available in Launched the Standard for Influence klout. TechCrunch. USA Joe Fernandez Binh Tran San Francisco. 2010). likes. com/ 2010/ 10/ 14/ facebook-klout/ ). crunchbase. . [2] http:/ / klout. 2010). California. and how other people interact with that content. . . the content created. This information is blended with Facebook data such as comment. [4] Ben Parr (October 16. Mashable. California. Retrieved 22 October 2010. "Klout Now Measures Your Influence on Facebook" (http:/ / mashable. 2009 Current status Active Klout is a San Francisco based company that provides social media analytics that measures a users influence across their social network. and the number of friends in your network to come up with a "Klout Score" that measures a user's online influence.com [2] Social Networking No Required English September. Retrieved 22 October 2010. such as: following count. Retrieved 22 October 2010. retweets. list memberships. how influential the people that retweet you are. com/ [3] Lauren Fisher (July 20th. . how many spam/dead accounts are following you. follower count. and unique mentions.

0 3. See web-site $30/Site mixed.4.4.20-01 GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL Proprietary This is a comparison table of web analytics proprietary software.9.4 0.17 8. Name sNOWsh Company sNOWsh Technologies Mint Flowerfire Inc Platform PHP/MySQL/linux Supported databases MySQL Tracking Method Cookies.0 0. Server Side. PostgreSQL MySQL Cookies & Logs Web log files & Cookies Network traffic monitor Urchin SurfReport Google Bien Logic Windows/Linux/BSD Perl/C++ 7.com/) List of web analytics software This is a list of web analytics software used to collect and display data about visiting website users.0 7.1 1.7 3. from $99/profile $9995 $695/Site Mint Sawmill PHP Windows/Linux/BSD/POSIX MySQL 2. JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Latest stable release See web-site Price in USD mixed.1 1.12 2.1.0 3. Name Analog AWStats CrawlTrack GoAccess LogReport Open Web Analytics Piwik Visitors W3Perl Webalizer Platform Supported databases C Perl PHP C Perl PHP PHP C Perl C Logfile-based Logfile-based MySQL Logfile-based Logfile-based MySQL MySQL Logfile-based Logfile-based Logfile-based javascript/php pagetag javascript or php pagetag php pagetag Tracking Method Latest stable release License 6. Open source This is a comparison table of web analytics software released under an open source license.0.1 (discontinued) See web-site Tealeaf cx* Tealeaf Linux Appliance N/A See web-site .2 2.1 MS SQL/MySQL/Oracle Cookies via Database/PostgreSQL/Proprietary JavaScript & Logs MySQL.Klout 43 External links • Official website (http://http://klout.

95 . Omniture (Adobe Systems) Omniture (Adobe Systems) Webtrekk Webtrends Tracking Method Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Cookies via Javascript Mobile ID and cookies Cookies via Javascript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript/Server Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Latest stable release N/A N/A 1. Name Company LogZilla.$990/month Free Free Trial . LLC Platform Linux Supported databases MySQL Tracking Method syslog-ng Latest stable release 3.95/month Various pricing options $9.1.org SiteCatalyst Insight Webtrekk Q3 Webtrends .$7/month Free .$9. using a single file for licensing.$99. LogZilla is 99% open source.0 2. including a free version LogZilla [1] Hosted This is a comparison table of hosted web analytics Software as a Service.122 Price in USD mixed.0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 7. Name [2] [3] Company W3Counter KISSmetrics MouseTrace Anametrix AT Internet Bango_plc ClickTale Google Lucky Orange LLC Mouseflow ApS TraceMyIP. LLC.$280/month Free-$29.2 (as of 2011-02-07) Mixed This is a comparison table of web analytics.95/month Negotiable Negotiable From $202/month N/A W3Counter KISSmetrics MouseTrace Visitor Recording InstaVista for Web Analytics Analyzer II Bango Mobile Web Analytics ClickTale Google Analytics Lucky Orange Mouseflow [4] [5] TraceMyIP.1 N/A N/A N/A N/A Price in USD Free .List of web analytics software Compuware Vantage Unica NetInsight Compuware Linux Appliance N/A Network traffic monitor Web log files & Cookies (with or without JavaScript) See web-site See web-site Various pricing options 44 Unica Windows/Linux/Solaris MS SQL/MySQL/Oracle Database 8.1 2 4.95 Negotiable Negotiable From $49/month Free .

dmoz. kissmetrics.$179. pro http:/ / www. logzilla. luckyorange.List of web analytics software Woopra Yahoo! Web Analytics Logcrawl iFusion Labs LLC Yahoo! Logcrawl Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Log file upload 1. com http:/ / www.95 / mo Free Free 45 External links • List of web analytics software [6] at the Open Directory Project References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. com http:/ / www.2 N/A N/A Free . w3counter. com http:/ / mouseflow. com http:/ / www. org/ Computers/ Software/ Internet/ Site_Management/ Log_Analysis/ .

In April 2000.86 million (2010) $ 14.259 million (2010) 481 (As of March 2011) HumanClick Kasamba www. 2006.. an Atlanta based provider of hosted proactive chat solutions that help companies generate revenue on their web sites.34 million (2010) $ 9. 2007. an Israeli-based provider of real-time online customer service applications. Tel Aviv. United States London. San Francisco and Atlanta. In October 2000. the Company acquired Proficient Systems.com [3] [1] ) (TASE: LPSN [2] ) Products Revenue Operating income Net income Employees Subsidiaries Website LivePerson is a publicly held online marketing.LivePerson 46 LivePerson LivePerson.[9] . an online provider of live expert advice delivered to consumers via real-time chat. the Company acquired Kasamba Inc.[8] On April 13. Inc. Type Founded Headquarters No. the Company acquired all of the outstanding shares of NuConomy.liveperson.[7] On October 3. of locations Area served Key people Industry Public (NASDAQ: LPSN 1995 New York City. and expert advice company based in New York City with offices in London. Its most well known product is a chat platform that allows companies to talk with visitors in real time on their websites.[6] On July 18. incorporated in the State of Delaware in November 1995 and the LivePerson service was first introduced in November 1998. History LivePerson was founded in 1992. 2010. Tel Aviv Worldwide Rob Locascio. CEO Internet Computer software Online Communication Expert Advice LivePerson Pro US$ 109. the company completed an initial public offering on the NASDAQ[4] and in March 2011 its shares have started trading also on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange[5] . web analytics. an Israeli-based company whose web analytics and optimization platform is intended to help companies better assess and understand website and social marketing performance. the Company acquired HumanClick.

June 26. com/ 2006/ 07/ 19/ liveperson-buys-live-chat-provider-proficient-systems-in-all-sto). TechCrunch. Internet Retailer.LivePerson 47 Products and services As a “cloud computing” or software-as-a-service (SaaS) provider. htm?objectId=& objectType=& securityType=& searchTerm=LPSN [3] http:/ / www. nasdaq. click-to-call. [7] "LivePerson buys live chat provider Proficient Systems in all-stock deal" (http:/ / www.product offered by ATG. (http://www. com/ article/ 2011/ 03/ 13/ liveperson-tase-listing-idUSLDE72C02420110313). 2000. LivePerson provides solutions on a hosted basis. Marketwatch. October 13. utilizing: chat. com/ asp/ SummaryQuote. subsidiary of Oracle. StartupIsrael. 2006. [6] "LivePerson Acquires HumanClick. Competitors • ATG Commerce . email and self-service knowledgebase for global corporations. highbeam. Business Wire. internetretailer. asp?symbol=LPSN& selected=LPSN [2] http:/ / www. External links LivePerson Inc. marketwatch. liveperson. co. com/ story/ liveperson-regains-ipo-price-after-10-years-2010-04-07).live support software developed by LIVECHAT Software. com/ 2010/ 01/ 25/ liveperson-to-acquire-web-analytics-startup-nuconomy-for-3-million/ ).liveperson. The company is organized into two operating segments. April 7.com. il/ TASEEng/ Management/ GeneralPages/ SimpleSearchResult. which facilitates online transactions between independent experts and individual consumers. 2010. 2007. html). voice. Reuters. And the Consumer segment. References [1] http:/ / quotes.com) . startupisrael. 2010. [9] "LivePerson To Acquire Web Analytics Startup NuConomy For $3 Million" (http:/ / techcrunch. Mar 13. [8] "Kasamba to be Acquired by LivePerson" (http:/ / www. [5] "LivePerson dual lists on Tel Aviv Stock Exchange" (http:/ / www. reuters.10 years later" (http:/ / www. com/ israeli_web/ kasamba_to_be_acquired_by_liveperson). • LiveChat . com [4] "LivePerson returns to IPO price -. which facilitates real-time online interactions. tase. Jan 25. 2011. com/ doc/ 1G1-66024185. Creating a Global Market Leader in Real-Time eCRM Solutions for Small and Mid-Sized Businesses" (http:/ / www. The Business segment. July 19.

freshClicks[6] and WebAnalyticsworld[7] Features • • • • • • • Email marketing Deliverability tools Content creation Web analytics Search marketing Social marketing Mobile marketing References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www.-CMS.php/Blog-Archive) • Lyris (http://www.lyrishq.lyris. freshclicks. Website Lyris HQ [1] Lyris HQ is an online marketing platform. It is featured at CMS Watch[2] . TopTenReviews[3] . net/ 2008/ 06/ lyris-introduces-hq-fully-integrated. com/ sew-awards http:/ / www. clickz. html http:/ / www.lyrishq. net/ 2008/ 06/ 19/ email-marketing/ lyris-hq-review-email-service-provider/ http:/ / www. webanalyticsworld. SearchEngineWatch[5] .com/index. com/ clicktracks-review. lyrishq. com/ 3627609 http:/ / searchenginewatch. html External links • Lyris HQ (http://www. com/ http:/ / www.com) • Lyris Blog (http://www.com/) .-and-E-mail-marketing http:/ / website-traffic-statistic-service-review. toptenreviews. cmswatch.Lyris HQ 48 Lyris HQ Lyris HQ Developer(s) Lyris. com/ Trends/ 1083-Lyris-HQ-links-ClickTracks. Inc. ClickZ[4] .

pp. It competed with Google Analytics and was tied to Microsoft adCenter in the same way Google has tied Google Analytics to Google Adwords. com/ blogs/ analytics/ archive/ 2009/ 03/ 12/ adcenter-analytics-beta-to-close.. This had led to some complaints by webmasters. "Mint: Keep Your Analytics / Website Traffic. Hoboken.[1] [2] References [1] Aaron Wall (2007-08-23).. Internetfinancialnews. Microsoft announced that adCenter Analytics would be discontinued. Retrieved 2010-01-30. com/ content/ 2008/ 01/ 27/ microsoft-gatineau-review). OCLC 77540819. Jennifer LeClaire (2007). References [1] Microsoft "Gatineau" Review (http:/ / dcoates. Pedro. aspx) Mint (software) Mint is a server-based web analytics tool. ISBN 9780470098240. [2] Sostre. .haveamint. External links • Official website (http://http://www. [1] Features included: • • • • Click and visitor tracking Marketing campaign reporting Conversion tracking Demographic and geographic segmentation In March 2009. adcentercommunity.com. internetfinancialnews. In 2006. Web Analytics for Dummies. HTTP referrers. It tracks traffic trends. Microsoft acquired DeepMetrix Corporation and used the analytics technology to deliver adCenter Analytics. compared to the lack of cost to use Google Analytics. [2] adCenter Analytics Beta To Close (http:/ / www.com/) • Personal site of Shaun Inman.Microsoft adCenter Analytics 49 Microsoft adCenter Analytics Microsoft adCenter Analytics (codenamed Gatineau) was the Microsoft's web analytics solution. due to a five dollar fee for sign up.com/) .. html). NJ: Wiley Pub. [2] Existing accounts would be operational till the end of 2009. designer/developer of Mint (http://www." (http:/ / www. com/ financialblogtalk/ news/ ifn-6-20070823MintKeepYourAnalyticsWebsiteTraffic. 98 to 99.shauninman. and search trends.

visits. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance and return on investment. In a commercial context. and is used to improve a website or mobile marketing campaign's audience response. Traditional analytics software on a mobile website may only provide data for HTTP requests coming from the most advanced mobile browsers. because the IPs from which cellular wireless network HTTP requests originate are the gateway IPs of the network access providers. device capabilities. visitors. . It helps to determine which aspects of the website work best for mobile traffic and which mobile marketing campaigns work best for the business. with no data on other mobile devices browsing the site.js/Connect TypePad Pro Different tracking processes or mechanisms are available for each of the above platforms. Data collected as part of mobile analytics typically includes page views. manufacturer. and desktop promotion of mobile sites and services.Mobile web analytics 50 Mobile web analytics Mobile web analytics studies the behavior of mobile website visitors in a similar way to traditional web analytics. including mobile advertising. Several dynamic server-side platforms are used to develop mobile sites. the JavaScript pixel tracking mechanism is most commonly used. Platforms • • • • • • • • • • HTML/JavaScript WordPress Mobile Pack PHP . For unsupported/HTML sites. The majority of modern smartphones are able to browse websites. and countries. mobile search marketing. The W3C Mobile Web Initiative [1] identifies best practices to help websites support mobile phone browsing. mobile web analytics refers to the use of data collected as visitors access a website from a mobile phone. Server-side tracking code is recommended for more accurate analytics reporting. Many companies use these guidelines and mobile-specific code like Wireless Markup Language or HTML5 to optimize websites for viewing on mobile devices. service provider. some with browsing experiences similar to those of desktop computers. such as device model. screen resolution. Traditional tools such as Google Analytics may provide misleading data that represents only a fraction of actual mobile traffic. such as those found in the iPhone and other smart phones and PDAs. Traditional web analytics software that uses server log parsing and associates different IPs with "unique visitors" may fail to identify unique visitors. text campaigns. Drawbacks of applying traditional web analytics Collecting mobile web analytics data is not as straightforward as traditional web analytics because many of the common methods for data collection are unreliable or do not work.NET Java Python ColdFusion Ruby on Rails node. and preferred user language. as well as information specific to mobile devices.

even if the cookie expiration time is set to a future date. allowing accurate measurement of repeat visits and long-term customer loyalty. . Wi-Fi. and unique user identities. In some cases. In addition. manufacturer.a traditional web analytics solution could range from fairly accurate to mostly inaccurate. HTTP referrer HTTP referrer information showing where a visitor navigated from is generally not provided for mobile web browsing. JavaScript page tagging Page tagging notifies a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. . Image tags Handset caching mechanisms impact the use of images for page tagging. such as WURFL or DeviceAtlas [2]. This results in visitors not being properly identified and visit-related metrics not being calculated properly. These data can usually be assembled by combining device identification information taken from special HTTP headers. satellite wireless. HTTP cookies HTTP cookies are commonly used to mark and identify visitors. As a result. At this time. This method assumes that the end user browser has JavaScript capabilities and that JavaScript is enabled. primarily because JavaScript and HTTP cookies are so unreliable on mobile browsers. Even when cookies are supported by a device. the device may automatically clear cookies between browsing sessions to save on handset memory or because the browser does not have access to persistent storage. cellular wireless. mobile web analytics involve metrics and KPIs associated with mobile device information. image caching on handsets is performed regardless of any anti-caching headers output by the remote server. etc. depending on where the HTTP requests are coming from. Although this is a standard capability for all desktop web browsers. 51 Problems with tracking Visitor identification Visitor identification is the most important aspect of usable mobile web analytics and one of the hardest technical aspects to accomplish. such as model.Mobile web analytics Because mobile websites are typically open to access from any kind of network . The device user may also choose to disable cookies. though it is possible that neither may be true. such as user-agents. some mobile web analytics solutions only detect or count user visits per day. HTTP cookies are only supported by a small subset of mobile phones. This is either because the device manufacturer has disabled sending such information in the HTTP request to save bandwidth during network usage.fixed. most mobile web browsers do not support JavaScript sufficiently for this to work. with device capabilities stored in a device information registry. persistent. This method is not provided by traditional web analytics solutions because it is mobile web-specific. and screen resolution. or because the mobile network operator's internet gateway removes or alters the original HTTP header due to the gateway software or use of mobile web transcoding software. The best solutions provide reliable.

Image tags or beacons Images can be forced to work for mobile web analytics. Packet sniffing Also known as tagless data capture or passive network capture. provided that the transmitted image is always unique. work with all devices and do not require JavaScript. and many change or add gateways on a regular basis. Link redirection Link redirection is an important method of tracking mobile visitor activities. It can be used in conjunction with a device database such as WURFL. Tagless data capture techniques are increasing in popularity for mobile web analytics because they capture all users. IP addresses alone do not identify all operators and countries. or plugins. cookies. the network address of the client machine usually gives some form of user identification and location. search. for example.Mobile web analytics 52 IP address For desktop web browsing. Boost Wireless. w3. server logs. clear differentiation between operators is critical for good mobile marketing campaigns. Carriers may also share their mobile internet gateways. Because these two operators have very different customer demographics. It also records visitors clicking on links to leave a site. It is the only reliable way to record clicks from advertising. the IP address refers to a operator-owned internet gateway machine in Canada or Norway. this technique uses a tap between the mobile users and the web server to capture the full content of the client-server exchange. IP address analysis An operator database is used to identify operators and their countries based on the IP addresses of their internet gateway devices. and other marketing activities. The level of information recorded from these transmissions depends on the architecture provided by the supplier. and not all image beacon solutions are the same. For devices such as the BlackBerry or for phones using Opera Mini browser software. Collecting mobile web analytics data Collection of mobile web analytics data requires a different approach from collecting traditional web analytics data. sometimes across multiple countries. For mobile web browsing. org/ Mobile [2] http:/ / www. uses the Sprint network. A number of solutions are available and the best results are obtained through the use of more than one technology. as some operators share their mobile networks with virtual network operators (MVNO). This method helps address the lack of HTTP referrer information on mobile. deviceatlas. HTTP header analysis This tells you a number of basic facts about the mobile phone and the browser. com . the client IP address refers to the internet gateway machine owned by the network operator. References [1] http:/ / www.

During a period of rapid growth. 2009. CFO Omniture SiteCatalyst Omniture Test&Target Omniture Discover onDemand Omniture Insight (f. Omniture was listed on the NASDAQ in 2006[2] .5 million. Magazine's 500 fastest-growing private companies.[9] . The Omniture Business Unit is based in Orem. with offices worldwide. (Chairman) Michael (Mike) Herring.000 (2008) [1] Products Employees Parent Website Adobe Systems http:/ / www. Omniture bought behavioral targeting company Touch Clarity for $51. The deal was completed on October 23. History The company was founded in 1996 and was backed by venture capitalists including Hummer Winblad Venture Partners. Utah.[3] In late 2007 the company acquired web analytics company Visual Sciences.8 billion[7] . CEO John Pestana.Omniture 53 Omniture Omniture. Discover onPremise) Omniture Data Warehouse Omniture SearchCenter Omniture Recommendations Omniture Genesis Omniture Survey Omniture SiteSearch Omniture Merchandising > 1. the company was one of Inc. and Scale Venture Partners.[6] On September 15.a. and is now run as the Omniture Business Unit within Adobe. It serves customers in 75 countries worldwide. com Omniture is an online marketing and web analytics business unit owned by Adobe Systems.[4] and also purchased Offermatica for $65 million. 2008 it agreed to acquire the Israeli e-commerce search solution provider Mercado for $6. Inc. Inc. 2009[8] . University Venture Fund.k. Type Industry Subsidiary Web Analytics Market Research Online Optimization 1996 Founded Headquarters Orem.[5] In October. Utah Key people Josh James.5 million. (formerly WebSideStory) for $394 million. Inc. Omniture. omniture. and Adobe Systems announced that Adobe would be acquiring Omniture for roughly $1.

a search and navigation offering for online stores. Formerly called Discover on Premise. David (December 31. [8] Adobe (2009-10-23). com/ _googlen/ comment/ investing/ 10294082. omniture. dmnews. http:/ / www. for web content management.Omniture 54 Products • SiteCatalyst. com/ Omniture-acquires-Touch-Clarity/ article/ 94508/ ). [5] Madan Sheina (2007-09-10). to gather visitor sentiment. omniture. Retrieved 2008-06-21.[11] It is possible to opt-out of the Omniture data-collection system. data warehousing of SiteCatalyst data. co.[11] Omniture's SiteCatalyst and SearchCenter products use the 2o7. . http:/ / www. adobe. "Omniture Offering Is Worth Data-Mining" (http:/ / www. com/ story/ 10386826/ 1/ omniture-deal-delights. "What is Omniture. "Omniture Agrees to Acquire Mercado's Site Search and Merchandising Business" (http:/ / www. "Adobe. Omniture's software as a service application. . Computer Business Review. a Web analytics code configuration monitoring tool. thestreet. TheStreet. • DataWarehouse.com. uk/ technology/ 2008/ jan/ 03/ adobe. [6] Omniture (2008-10-14). The Guardian. marketwire. Microsoft Ad Center. Omniture's main behavioural targeting solution.com. . • SiteSearch.[12] Omniture collects data from Apple[10] and Adobe.[12] References [1] http:/ / www. a multichannel segmentation tool (both client-side and server-side analytics). Omniture in hot water for snooping on CS3 users" (http:/ / arstechnica. an Insight offering geared toward multiple online and offline retail channels. • Genesis. thestreet. • Discover. html). adobe. [10] Arthur. an on-demand enterprise search product. Ars Technica. asp?guid=6FEE3873-90C4-43A0-8758-39014F6291BD). • SearchCenter+ assists with paid search and content network optimization in systems such as Google's AdWords. • Insight for Retail. • Merchandising. . DMNews. derived from Offermatica[5] • Test&Target 1:1.[10] Critics claim they do this by sending the information to a domain name that looks and sounds similar to an IP address used to connect to devices on the local network and not the Internet. [11] Chartier. 2007). • Test&Target. an advanced segmentation tool. Yahoo! Search Marketing. • VISTA. thestreet. guardian. and Facebook Ads. "Omniture Deal Delights" (http:/ / www. "Omniture buys website testing firm for $65m" (http:/ / www. com/ news. "Omniture acquires Touch Clarity" (http:/ / www. • DigitalPulse. html.net domain name. a third-party data integration tool (the majority of integrations work with SiteCatalyst). [3] Melissa Campanelli (2007-02-14). http:/ / www. ars/ post/ 20071231-adobe-omniture-in-hot-water-for-snooping-on-cs3-users. • Insight.com. [7] Omniture (2009-9-15). • Survey. • Recommendations offers automated product and content recommendations. apple). html?cm_ven=GOOGLEN& cm_cat=FREE& cm_ite=NA). drills down to the individual level of testing. html. Omniture's latest offerings as of 2010 include some social media tracking capabilities. . cbronline. • Publish. . 2008). and to block the tracking. offers Web analytics (client-side analytics). html). . com/ aboutadobe/ invrelations/ adobeandomniture. Criticism Critics have accused Omniture of attempting to hide the fact they are collecting data. derived in part from Touch Clarity. com/ aboutadobe/ invrelations/ faq_omniture. it was derived from Omniture's Visual Sciences acquisition in 2007. and why is it watching me?" (http:/ / www. Charles (January 3. marketwire. com/ press-release/ Omniture-NASDAQ-OMTR-909349. [9] Adobe (2009-10-26). who use Omniture to collect usage statistics across their products. html). com/ article_news. . server-side analytics. com/ press/ 777. This has led to speculation that the domain name is used to trick users or firewall rules. [4] Vishesh Kumar (2007-10-26). Retrieved 2008-06-21. com/ press/ 455 [2] William Gabrielski (2006-06-26). A/B and MVT (multi-variate testing).

.official site Path analysis (computing) Path analysis.com) . ranking the paths (sequences of pages) visited prior to the desired event. but to look for the strongest paths. chips. Retrieved 2008-06-21. From there they make a logical step to the frequently asked questions page if they have a specific question. etc. If there is a sign-up form with multiple pages.Omniture [12] "What is 2o7. In most web sites there is a same logic that can be applied. Funnels and Goals Google Analytics provides a path function with funnels and goals. The precise order of pages visited may or may not be important and may or may not be specified. is a process of determining a sequence of pages visited in a visitor session prior to some desired event. Omniture. 55 External links • omniture. web site owners want to guide visitors to the final sign-up page. Path analysis answers typical questions like: Where do most visitors go after they enter my home page? Is there a strong visitor relation between product A and product B on my web site?. looks at "black holes" on the site. Using maps The paths visitors walk in a web site can lead to an endless number of unique paths. such as the visitor purchasing an item or requesting a newsletter. These strongest paths are typically shown in a graphical map or in text like: Page A --> Page B --> Page D --> Exit. especially when they are selecting or buying products. or paths that lead to a dead end most frequently.com (http://www.omniture. . Understanding visitors In the real world when you visit a shop the shelves and products are not placed in a random order. omniture. A web site owner also wants to analyze visitor behavior." a subset of path analysis. The shop owner carefully analyzes his visitors and path they walk through his shop. nuts. This approach is very helpful when analyzing how many visitors reach a certain destination page. A predetermined path of web site pages is specified and every visitor walking the path is a goal. this analysis is done in aggregate. In a supermarket this will typically result in the wine shell next to a variety of cookies. in Internet website analytics. For example if a web site offers products for sale.net?" (http:/ / www. called an end point analysis. The idea is to determine what features of the website encourage the desired result. paths or features that confuse or lose potential customers. the owner wants to convert as many visitors to a completed purchase. As a result there is no point in analyzing each path. In practice. Simply because people drink wine and eat nuts with it. "Fallout analysis. Next the shop owner will reorder his shells and products to optimize his sales by putting everything in the most logical order for his visitors. Visitors who have questions about a product will go to the product information or support section of a web site. by descending frequency of use. com/ en/ privacy/ 2o7). Questions that can't be answered by page hits and unique visitors statistics.

Path analysis (computing) 56 External links • MoveMetrics Path Analysis software [1] • Getting the Most from Path Analysis [2] • Is User Path Analysis The Right Path? [3] References [1] http:/ / www. com/ 2008/ 12/ getting-the-most-from-path-analysis/ [3] http:/ / www. mediapost. movemetrics. com [2] http:/ / blog. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. bridgelinesw. showArticleHomePage& art_aid=94308 .

php?id=4148& page& replies=1). External links • Official website (http://piwik.[3] [4] Piwik was selected SourceForge. [5] Project of the Month. . Retrieved 2008-11-26.org [1] Piwik is an open source web analytics system written in PHP. net/ blog/ potm-200907/ ) [6] "Best of open source enterprise software" (http:/ / www. July 2009 (http:/ / sourceforge. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 2009-08-31. SourceForge. net/ apps/ trac/ sourceforge/ wiki/ Hosted Apps?version=1). .net announced the availability of Piwik as a hosted application for developers.[6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / piwik. The major differences being that Piwik would offer REST APIs.net Hosted Apps" (http:/ / sourceforge.4 / April 30.cc/offer/open-source-projects/google2piwik/) . piwik.net's Project of the Month for July 2009. the development team announced future efforts would be directed to Piwik. . org/ "New Documentation: Differences between Piwik and phpMyVisites?" (http:/ / dev. "Hosted Apps" (http:/ / sourceforge.3. infoworld.[5] In August 2009. Retrieved 2010-12-20.Piwik 57 Piwik Piwik Stable release Operating system Available in Type License Website 1. com/ d/ open-source/ best-open-source-enterprise-software-740& current=10& last=3#slideshowTop). 2008. Piwik was named among the best of open source enterprise in InfoWorld's 2009 Bossie Awards. more visually appealing graphs (using Flash).org/) • Google2Piwik (http://clearcode. a module architecture allowing for plugins. 2011 Cross-platform PHP Web analytics GPL (version 3) piwik. "piwik Open Source web analytics added to SourceForge.[2] On November 21. net/ community/ forum/ topic. Following the stable release of phpMyVisites v2. . 2009-01-10. and better performance. org/ trac/ ticket/ 275). Retrieved 2008-09-23. 2008-11-21.

com to focus the company's work more on the core PostRank technology.com [1] PostRank is a social media analytics service owned by Google that uses a proprietary ranking algorithm to measure "social engagement". the company officially changed its name to PostRank Inc. PostRank filtering is built into a Facebook app. Social media engagement metrics Operating system Cross-platform Type Website Web analytics postrank. and for strategic planning. In October 2008. launched in July 2009. page views. postRank has been acquired by Google. launched in August. is a service for brands and public relations and marketing agencies to work with bloggers to run product campaigns and receive consulting services. AideRSS re-launched their website as postrank. 2009. The engagement metrics provide the data for several services. In July 2009. Internet bookmarks. measure marketing. Google Reader and WordPress plug-in. PostRank Analytics. the Atlantic 50 list of bloggers and columnists. and Facebook. Digg. and activities from social network services such as Twitter. and the Top Posts Web widget. PostRank filtering has also been added to the Ad Age Power 150 list of marketing blogs. [2] . PostRank Connect. The company was formerly called AideRSS. clicks. is a collection of APIs and reports to provide real-time and data mining Social Web data to companies to use in applications. PostRank Data Services. is a service for bloggers and online publishers to track where and how their audiences are sharing and organizing their content on the Social Web and perform competitive analysis. In June 2011.postRank 58 postRank PostRank Inc. In addition to filtering on the website. launched in September. and the Read It Later bookmarking service. Inc. which includes blog comments and links. 2010.

in/2010/09/17/post-rank-a-must-for-the-bloggers/Digital Analog . com/ top_posts [9] http:/ / labs. uk/ news/ mergers-and-acquisitions/ 2011/ 06/ 06/ google-buys-postrank-analytics-firm-40092996/ http:/ / www. org/ extend/ plugins/ wp-postrank/ [8] http:/ / labs. postrank. com [7] http:/ / wordpress. com/ • http://digitalanalog. com http:/ / data. com/ people/ index/ [13] http:/ / readitlaterlist. com [6] http:/ / connect. com/ http:/ / www. com/ power150/ [12] http:/ / www.postRank 59 External links • • • • • • • • • • • PostRank home page [3] PostRank Data Services home page [4] PostRank Analytics home page [5] PostRank Connect home page [6] PostRank WordPress plugin [7] PostRank Top Posts Widget [8] PostRank Google Reader extension [9] PostRank API Documentation [10] AdAge Power150 [11] The Atlantic 50 [12] Read It Later [13] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / postrank. postrank. com/ gr [10] http:/ / apidocs. postrank. zdnet. postrank. com [5] http:/ / analytics. com [11] http:/ / adage. co. theatlanticwire. postrank. postrank. postrank.

or the same computer may have a different IP address at different times.RSS tracking 60 RSS tracking RSS Tracking is a methodology for tracking RSS feeds. This provides an estimate of actual readership.These images can be embedded within the content of the RSS feed by linking to the image which should be held on the web server.can be counted by noting the number of unique IP addresses that retrieve the file in a given period. The number of requests made can be measured by using the web server log files. Feed tracking methods have been growing in popularity Technology There are currently many methods of tracking RSS feeds.This method requires heavy web server programming to auto generate a different RSS feed URL for each visitor to the website. The visitor's RSS feed activity can then be tracked accurately using standard web analytics applications. History RSS feeds have been around since 1999 as a form of internet marketing. all with their own problems in terms of accuracy. Method 4 Estimating number of subscribers from the log files. Method 3 Unique URL per feed . however unlike other forms of publishing information on the internet. . The problem with this method is that not all RSS feed aggregators will display images and parse HTML. Method 2 Third-arty services . The problem with this method is that all analytical data about the feeds are controlled by the service provider and so not easily accessible or transferable.There are services available on the Internet that will syndicate your RSS feed and then track all requests made to their syndication of your RSS feed. The problem with this method is that if the feed is syndicated by a search engine for instance then this will defeat the purpose of the unique URLs as many people could potentially view the RSS feed via a single URL. These services come free and paid forms. although it is probably higher than the real number because people may sign up for accounts with multiple aggregators and never delete their subscriptions and because they may read the same feeds at different computers. it is difficult to track the usage of RSS feeds. Method 1 Transparent 1×1 pixel images . This will give a rough estimate as to how many times the RSS feed has been viewed. Bloglines and Google Reader) include a number of unique users on whose behalf the feed is being downloaded in the HTTP request.such as web browsers -. Some aggregators (for example. Other readers -.

feedburner. com http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 05/ 01/ how-to-accurately-track-rss-subscribers/ http:/ / www. rss-specifications. com/ 2007/ 05/ counting_rss_subscribers. html . com/ measuring-tracking-rss. htm http:/ / www.RSS tracking 61 External links • • • • • Feed Burner [1] Tracking RSS subscribers [2] Tracking RSS [3] Tracking RSS Using a Web Analytics Tool [4] Counting RSS Subscribers [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. rss4lib. com/ info/ effectively-tracking-rss-feeds http:/ / www. webanalyticmatt. sclanalytics.

net [1] Sawmill is a software package for the statistical analysis and reporting of log files. com/ pdf/ web_sec_mgmt_ds. A branded version of it is also sold by Cisco Systems as Sawmill for IronPort. com/ in/ 488_8564. user interface customization. downloaded 2009-11-23. References [1] http:/ / sawmill. idealobserver. syslog servers. databases etc. [3] Intergate Intelligence (http:/ / www. [6] Ideal Observer's Web Analytics Tool Overview (http:/ / www. html) contains a description of SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting. com/ Readerschoiceeurope/ ). ironport.5 / June 2. as a turnkey on-premise system appliance. Sawmill is the OEM reporting engine sold by Blue Coat Systems as a bundled part of their proxy server product. Sawmill also incorporates real-time reporting and real-time alerting. at this time Sawmill provides support for approximately 850 server log file formats. and custom calculated reports.1. com/ products/ reporting/ index. mail servers. Sawmill Analytics is offered in three forms. as a software package for user deployment. vicomsoft. Log analysis sawmill. net/ [2] Cisco IronPort Web Security Appliance Management (http:/ / www. .[2] A branded version of it is also sold by Vicomsoft Ltd as InterGate Intelligence. com/ web-analytics-tools/ index. 1998 8. [4] SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting (http:/ / www. and as a SaaS service.[4] Sawmill was a second runner-up in the 2009 Streaming Media European Readers' Choice Awards. 'live' data zooming. with new formats added on request. [5] Streaming Media European Readers' Choice Awards (http:/ / www. Sawmill also includes a page tagging server and JavaScript page tag for the analysis of client side clicks (client requests) providing a total view of visitor traffic and on-site behavioural activity. Available since 1997. Sawmill analyzes any device or software package producing a log file and that includes web servers. a rebranded version of Sawmill.Sawmill (software) 62 Sawmill (software) Sawmill Developer(s) Initial release Stable release Written in Flowerfire Inc. proxy servers. 2010 C Operating system Cross-platform Type Website Web analytics.[5] Sawmill is listed in the Ideal Observer's Web Analytics Tool Overview [6] .[3] A branded version of it is also sold by SonicWALL as "SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting". streamingmediaglobal. php) reviews Sawmill. network devices (switches & routers etc. with dynamic contextual filtering. a rebranded version of Sawmill. pdf) contains description of Sawmill for IronPort. sonicwall.). firewalls. html) contains a description of InterGate Intelligence.

Schulman began popularizing the term "content engineer"[2] to describe marketing’s new role in creating. for universal web log analysis and reporting.net (http://www. Prior to Eightfold Logic.com/issues/2007_51/10001853-1. Rand Schulman Rand Schulman is an American marketing executive.co.00.com/article2/0.pcmag. Along with his partner. training. In 2005.html) of Sawmill 7 from Information Management Magazine. • http://www. in 1997. Schulman was named as one of the top 100 B-to-B marketing executives by BtoB Magazine in 2004[7] .2817.uk (http://www. His past speaking experience includes South by Southwest (SXSW). he was named one of the Top CMOs on Twitter by Social Media Marketing Magazine[8] .sawmill.[1] Schulman is a founder and principal of Schulman+Thorogood Group. Distribution.net/docs/awstats_compare. .sawmill. Pelin Thorogood. Schulman was a founding board member of the Web Analytics Association[6] and was also the founder and CEO of one of the first software as a service (SaaS) companies. Schulman served as chief marketing officer for InsideView and WebSideStory[5] (now part of Adobe Systems). retrieved 2009-11-27 • Tiscali review (http://www. Schulman sits on the board at Technology Leaders.Sawmill (software) 63 External links • http://www. September 1. Currently. Schulman is currently the chief marketing officer for Eightfold Logic[4] . 2008. he served as the general manager of Internet Products at Unica Corporation (acquired by IBM). and ViralHeat.uk/).net/).sawmill.html) from AWStats documentation • PC Magazine review (http://www. In 2011. • comparison of analytics software (http://awstats. and one of the first practitioners of on-demand web analytics. an inbound marketing company.19817. Schulman holds a degree in English and Journalism from the University of the Pacific. He has been a board advisor[9] to Motally. author and speaker on the topic of new media and marketing. sales and support for the EMEA region.information-management. COMDEX and the Direct Marketing Association.asp) of Sawmill 6 from 2001. a business strategy consulting practice advising new media companies. Schulman has also evangelized[3] creating a "virtuous" marketing cycle through inbound marketing. After that. Retrieved 2009-12-03. Keylime Software (acquired by Yahoo). a social media analytics firm.co. helping lead the latter through its initial public offering. a New York-based web analytic consulting company.sawmill. a mobile analytics company acquired by Nokia.sourceforge. distributing and optimizing the different types of content required to engage customers on the interactive web.

Eric. Another class of techniques. dll/ article?AID=/ 20061113/ FREE/ 711130724) [6] Web Analytics Association.com) Schulman+Thorogood Group (http://www. BtoB (http:/ / www.The WAA Story” (http:/ / www. dll/ article?AID=/ 20100517/ FREE/ 100519930/ 1001) [5] Karpinski. and other elements that have been optimized for the purpose of search engine exposure. com/ ). cornell. dll/ article?AID=/ 20040716/ FREE/ 407160707) [8] Huffman. btobonline. (4/22/10) "Mobile Analytics Firm Motally Adds Executives from AdMob. Christopher. btobonline. and more frequently a site appears in the search results list. cfm). Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks. Stone Temple Consulting (http:/ / www.schulmanthorogood. cornell. com). images. com). is another SEO tactic. edu/ alumni/ enterprise/ fall2010/ index. btobonline.org/) Search engine optimization Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. btobonline. As an Internet marketing strategy. what people search for. known as black hat SEO or spamdexing. local search. Pelin. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content. Hires CMO" (http:/ / www. com). stonetemple. Social Media Marketing Magazine (http:/ / www. (Fall 2010) “Birth of Customer 2. BtoB (http:/ / www. shtml) [2] Wainewright. com/ apps/ pbcs. smmmagazine. smmmagazine. Richard.eightfoldlogic.0?" (http:/ / www. com/ exclusives/ top-cmos-on-twitter/ ) [9] Crenk. org/ ). SEO may target different kinds of search. com/ apps/ pbcs. The acronym "SEOs" can refer to "search engine optimizers. video search. academic search[1] . menus. (7/16/04) "Who's Who 2004" (http:/ / www. videos. (1998-2011) “About Us . zdnet. zdnet. com/ ). the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. SEO considers how search engines work. (12/06/05) “Era of the Content Engineer” (http:/ / www. com/ mobile-analytics-firm-motally-adds-executives-from-admob-jupiter-research-and-mmetrics-to-board-of-directors-and-advisory-board/ ) External links • • • • Eightfold Logic (http://www. Cornell Enterprise Online (http:/ / www2. In general.com) Web Analytics Association (http://www. (5/17/10) "Enquisite Rebrands as Eightfold Logic. WAA (http:/ / www. com/ articles/ interview-rand-schulman. crenk. (3/29/11) "Top CMOs on Twitter" (http:/ / www. (7/16/07) "Rand Schulman and Eric Enge Talk About Web Analytics" (http:/ / www. news search and industry-specific vertical search engines. btobonline. edu/ alumni/ enterprise/ fall2010/ index. webanalyticsassociation. the earlier (or higher on the page). SEO tactics may be incorporated into website development and design. com/ apps/ pbcs. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Kent. Crenk (http:/ / www. including image search. This gives a website web presence. ZDNet (http:/ / www. The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe website designs. com). btobonline. shopping carts. webanalyticsassociation. Phil. BtoB (http:/ / www. johnson. (11/13/06) "What exactly is Web 2. Jupiter Research and M:Metrics to Board of Directors and Advisory Board" (http:/ / crenk.Rand Schulman 64 References [1] Enge. content management systems. and by employees who perform SEO services in-house.com) InsideView (http://www.webanalyticsassociation. stonetemple. org/ ?page=aboutus) [7] BtoB. the actual search terms typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. com/ blog/ saas/ era-of-the-content-engineer/ 71) [3] Thorogood. keyword stuffing and article spinning that degrade both the relevance of search results and the quality of user-experience with ." a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign.insideview. Other forms of search engine marketing (SEM) target paid listings. or inbound links. com/ ). cfm?action=web_extra& web_extra_id) [4] Hosford.0” (http:/ / www2. johnson. uses methods such as link farms.

Initially. Page and Brin founded Google in 1998. Search engines look for sites that employ these techniques in order to remove them from their indices." a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. however. 1997.[8] By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster's control. and follows links from one page to another. who liked its simple design. and return information found on the page to be indexed.[12] The leading . because the webmaster's choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site's actual content. rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters. 1997. Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet [10] Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered users.[11] By 2004. the phrase "search engine optimization" probably came into use in 1997. such as the words it contains and where these are located. this means that some links are stronger than others. is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links. [5] The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing that phrase is by Bruce Clay effective March. In effect. extracts various information about the page.Search engine optimization search engines. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan. PageRank. taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. or URL. meta tags. and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. as well as any weight for specific words.[3] The first documented use of the term Search Engine Optimization was John Audette [4] and his company Multimedia Marketing Group as documented by a web page from the MMG site from August. creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners. links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. The number calculated by the algorithm. Larry Page and Sergey Brin. or link farms. Although PageRank was more difficult to game. headings. To provide better results to their users. search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results. buying. Google says it ranks sites using more than 200 different signals. where a second program.[9] PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web. webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine. incomplete.[7] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines. Inaccurate. or index files in engines like ALIWEB. Many sites focused on exchanging. Meta tags provide a guide to each page's content. and selling links. developed "backrub. search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation.[2] The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine's own server. Some of these schemes. extract links to other pages from it. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable. all webmasters needed to do was submit the address of a page. to the various engines which would send a "spider" to "crawl" that page. as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date. Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results. often on a massive scale.[6] Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag. as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency. as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer. and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search. known as an indexer. 65 History Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s. allowing those results to be false would turn users to find other search sources. and all links the page contains. involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming. Graduate students at Stanford University. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms.

Bing.[22] 66 Relationship with search engines By 1997 search engines recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines.[27] Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry.[13] [14] SEO practitioners may also study patents held by various search engines to gain insight into the algorithms. Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web. [20] In December 2009 Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results. which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients. It would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization. the Wall Street Journal reported on a company. AIRWeb. Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results. Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links. In order to avoid the above.[16] In 2008.[28] [29] [30] Google has a Sitemaps program[31] to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes.[26] Google's Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients. and Yahoo. Traffic Power. an annual conference. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results. Barry Schwartz. Matt Cutts. and have published their opinions in online forums and blogs. there is potential for an adversarial relationship between search engines and SEO service providers. because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search. In 2005.[21] Real-time-search was introduced in late 2009 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. some search engines now have a vested interest in the health of the optimization community. such as Infoseek. such as Rand Fishkin. Aaron Wall and Jill Whalen. Google . Bruce Clay said that "ranking is dead" because of personalized search. with the advent of paid inclusion. chats. and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords.[17] In 2007 Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank. Early search engines. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings. 2009. adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings.[23] Yahoo and Google offices Due to the high marketing value of targeted search results.[15] In 2005 Google began personalizing search results for each user. In fact. do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages. Flash and Javascript. SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting. Notable SEO service providers. announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way. Depending on their history of previous searches. in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting. and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences.Search engine optimization search engines.[18] On June 15. and seminars.[19] As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank.[24] was created to discuss and minimize the damaging effects of aggressive web content providers. have studied different approaches to search engine optimization. a well-known software engineer at Google. Google crafted results for logged in users. In 2005.[25] Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban. Google.

[32] Bing Toolbox provides a way from webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls. Yahoo! Site Explorer provides a way for webmasters to submit URLs. notably Yahoo!. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file.[39] Increasing prominence A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results. operate a paid submission service that guarantee crawling for either a set fee or cost per click.txt file in the root directory of the domain.[33] Such programs usually guarantee inclusion in the database. allowing users to determine the crawl rate. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. The robots. for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found. such as Google.txt file is then parsed. so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic. and dynamic content.[34] Two major directories.[36] Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site. a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine's database by using a meta tag specific to robots. content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase. the Yahoo Directory and the Open Directory Project both require manual submission and human editorial review. will tend to improve the relevancy of a site's search listings.Search engine optimization guidelines are a list of suggested practices Google has provided as guidance to webmasters. flash files. Cross linking between [40] Writing pages of the same website to provide more links to most important pages may improve its visibility. the robots. [38] Preventing crawling To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes. 67 Methods Getting indexed The leading search engines. but do not guarantee specific ranking within the search results. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically. including the title tag and meta description. search engines sometimes have problems with crawling sites with certain kinds of graphic content. using the "canonical" meta tag[41] or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page's link popularity score. Some search engines. When a search engine visits a site. Additionally. use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. Bing and Yahoo!. and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled.[40] Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site. it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. Adding relevant keywords to a web page's meta data. webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots. determine how many pages are in the Yahoo! index and view link information. .txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. especially pages that aren't discoverable by automatically following links. thus increasing traffic.[35] Google offers Google Webmaster Tools. and how many pages have been indexed by their search engine. Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam. In March 2007. portable document format files.[37] Additionally. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled. Not every page is indexed by the search engines.

[51] A top-ranked SEO blog Seomoz. their algorithms change. White Hat SEO is merely effective marketing. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines' algorithms. it will announce how and when the ranking algorithm will change a few months before changing the algorithm). One black hat technique uses text that is hidden. or involve deception. One infamous example was the February 2006 Google removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices. and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines. addressing technical issues that may keep search engines from crawling and indexing those sites. and other Internet marketing strategies can be much more effective. fixed the offending pages. whereas black hats anticipate that their sites will eventually be banned once the search engines discover what they are doing. quickly apologized. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility. (Some trading sites such as eBay can be a special case for this. search engines are not paid for organic search traffic. in a twist of irony. generate a return on investment.[53] .[42] White hats tend to produce results that last a long time. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine. and the practitioners who employ them.[50] It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic. However. Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods. As the search engine guidelines[28] [29] [30] [44] are not written as a series of rules or commandments.org[52] has suggested. building high quality web pages to engage and persuade. and improving a site's conversion rate. A successful Internet marketing campaign may drive organic traffic. Some industry commentators classify these methods. achieved through optimization techniques and not paid advertising.[45] although the two are not identical. this is an important distinction to note. but it also may involve the use of paid advertising on search engines and other pages. and those techniques that search engines do not approve of and attempt to minimize the effect of. and there are no guarantees of continued referrals. such as Google's PageRank. however. depending on the site operator's goals.[46] Both companies." Instead. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty. either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. in an invisible div.[43] An SEO tactic. Traditional marketing means have allowed this through transparency and exposure. either as text colored similar to the background. not for search engines. but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. and were restored to Google's list.[48] This includes paid search advertising which has its own version of SEO called ATO (Ad Text Optimization).[47] As a marketing strategy SEO is not necessarily an appropriate strategy for every website. technique or method is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines' guidelines and involves no deception. Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines. rather than attempting to game the algorithm. a technique known as cloaking.Search engine optimization 68 White hat versus black hat SEO techniques are classified by some into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design. a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors. to web pages. "Search marketers. receive a very small share of their traffic from search engines. making efforts to deliver quality content to an audience that has requested the quality content. A search engine's algorithm takes this into account. referred to as spamdexing. or positioned off screen. their main sources of traffic are links from other websites. setting up analytics [49] SEO may programs to enable site owners to measure their successes. or black hat SEO. or by a manual site review. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users. as either white hat SEO.

pp. mmgco. [3] Danny Sullivan (June 14."[58] [59] In March 2006. Bela and Wilde. Archived from (Document Number 19970801004204) the original (http:/ / www. cgi?Search_Arg=TX0005001745& Search_Code=REGS& PID=_BQjecgZXtqzP_qe3Szqb-aeqs& SEQ=20110101030626& CNT=25& HIST=1). org/ resources/ phd/ pinkerton_2000. Retrieved 2010-04-18. See Google groups thread (http:/ / groups. 2007 the United States District Court for the Northern District of California (San Jose Division) dismissed KinderStart's complaint without leave to amend. SearchKing's claim was that Google's tactics to prevent spamdexing constituted a tortious interference with contractual relations. the court granted Google's motion to dismiss the complaint because SearchKing "failed to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. org/ web/ 19970801004204/ www. The search engines' market shares vary from market to market. com/ group/ alt. and partially granted Google's motion for Rule 11 sanctions against KinderStart's attorney. pdf) (PDF). Japan. Yandex and Seznam are market leaders. Google's share is often larger. (Document Registration Number TX0005001745. The Second International WWW Conference Chicago. 2001). against the search engine Google. htm). com/ campaign. archive. [2] Brian Pinkerton. e-learningguru. US Library of Congress Copyright Office). 1994. org/ web/ 20070409062313/ http:/ / www. spam/ browse_thread/ thread/ 6fee2777dc17b8ab/ 3858bff94e56aff3?lnk=st& q="search+ engine+ optimization"& rnum=1#3858bff94e56aff3). requiring him to pay part of Google's legal expenses. Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches. Search Engine Watch.[55] As of 2006.Search engine optimization 69 International markets Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. as does competition.[56] While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time. org/ publications/ 2010-ASEO--preprint.[54] In markets outside the United States. archive." (http:/ / www. e-learningguru. "Who Invented the Term "Search Engine Optimization"?" (http:/ / forums. . Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu. Jöran and Gipp. (Document Number 19970801004204). there were only about five in Germany. webir. 2002. net-abuse. com/ articles/ metacrap. On May 27. htm) on 2007-04-09. As of 2009. "Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw-men of the meta-utopia" (http:/ / web. "Finding What People Want: Experiences with the WebCrawler" (http:/ / www. [6] (Document Registration Number TX0005001745. mmgco. In most cases. Western District of Oklahoma. Erik (2010). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. when Google is not leading in a given market. Kinderstart's website was removed from Google's index prior to the lawsuit and the amount of traffic to the site dropped by 70%. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. current-events. 2004). . . Journal of Scholarly Publishing. and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007. In 2003. it is lagging behind a local player. 2003. [4] http:/ / www. the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise. searchenginewatch. USA. loc. Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages. SearchKing filed suit in the United States District Court. com/ campaign. Retrieved 2007-05-07.[57] That market share is achieved in a number of countries. html). Otherwise. 176–190. registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market. sciplore. KinderStart filed a lawsuit against Google over search engine rankings. Yahoo! Japan. Google had an 85-90% market share in Germany. US Library of Congress Copyright Office) "The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / cocatalog. com/ showpost. com/ seo-interviews/ john-audette/ [5] (Document Number 19970801004204) "Documentation of Who Invented SEO at the Internet Way Back Machine" (http:/ / web.[56] Legal precedents On October 17. e-LearningGuru. google.[60] [61] Notes [1] Beel. October 17–20. On March 16. com/ articles/ metacrap. there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. South Korea. html) on 1997-08-01. regardless of language. "Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co. Naver. pdf). thehistoryofseo.[56] As of June 2008. . Retrieved 2007-05-14. [7] Cory Doctorow (August 26. The most notable markets where this is the case are China. and web hosting that provides a local IP address. the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same. gov/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. php?p=2119& postcount=10).

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nytimes. "Search Engine Showdown: Black hats vs. blog. Retrieved 2007-05-09. [45] Andy Hagans (November 08 2005). [53] "A survey of 25 blogs in the search space comparing external metrics to visitor tracking data" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-06-10. "Black Hat/White Hat Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / www. ericgoldman. CNET. searchenginejournal. Inc. Retrieved 2007-05-09.html). 2006). google.yahoo. com/ 2100-1032_3-1011740. . Retrieved 2007-05-15. "The Battle Between Search Engine Optimization and Conversion: Who Wins?" (http:/ / www.org.com. Retrieved 2007-05-10. v7n. html?partner=rss).com. com/ articles/ accessibilityseo). "Condemned To Google Hell" (http:/ / www. html). v. Retrieved 2007-05-16. html). SearchEngineWatch. htm). . May 27. [56] Mike Grehan (April 3. London: Guardian. Third Edition . guardian. useit.com. [42] Andrew Goodman.Search engine optimization [41] "Bing . Retrieved 2007-05-14.Bing Community" (http:/ / www. com/ webmasters/ seo. Retrieved 2007-05-09. Retrieved 2009-10-30. White hats at SES" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. an article from the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences. . [47] Matt Cutts (February 7 2006). 2003. June 24. "Search Engines as Leeches on the Web" (http:/ / www. "The search engine that could" (http:/ / www.com/2011/02/13/business/13search.ericgoldman. seomoz. usatoday. mattcutts. [46] Matt Cutts (February 4 2006). com/ 2007/ 03/ 13/ the-battle-between-search-engine-optimization-and-conversion-who-wins/ ). html?page=3625072). Google Dismissed—With Sanctions Against KinderStart's Counsel" (http:/ / blog.ericgoldman.html). useit.org. . January 3.org. uk/ technology/ blog/ 2008/ jun/ 10/ googleukclosesinon90mark). mattcutts. www. . .html) • Bing Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. org/ article/ search-blog-stats#4). forbes. [60] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: KinderStart v. 2007. com/ 2006/ 06/ 24/ what-seo-isnt/ ). .com/net/ 09-SEO-ELIS-encyclopedia-article. Retrieved 2007-05-14.com. .py?hl=en& answer=35769) • Yahoo! Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. . 2007). co. Inc.com Webmaster Guidelines (http://about. Retrieved 2007-05-31. com/ showPage.live.com.v7n. bing.ask. Forbes.com/blog. .google. com/ showPage. 2004).com/blog. USA Today. aspx). 2011) • Search Engine Optimization and User Behavior (http://www. 71 External links • Google Webmaster Guidelines (http://www. ericgoldman. "Recent reinclusions" (http:/ / www. "Judge dismisses suit against Google" (http:/ / news. [54] Graham. Retrieved 2008-06-23. [61] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: Google Sued Over Rankings—KinderStart. [43] Jill Whalen (November 16. [50] Andy Greenberg (April 30. grokdotcom.hastingsresearch.com v. [51] Jakob Nielsen (January 9. [57] Jack Schofield (2008-06-10). com/ whalen/ 2004/ 1116_jw1. html?page=3595926). . Retrieved 2007-05-09.Webmaster Blog . Search Engine Watch. Retrieved 2008-06-23. com/ alertbox/ search_engines. org/ archives/ 2006/ 03/ google_sued_ove. com/ showPage. mattcutts. 2003).com&format=b1) • Ask. .com.com. CIV-02-1457-M" (http:/ / www. org/ archives/ 2007/ 03/ kinderstart_v_g_2." article in The New York Times (February 12. html).com/en/docs/about/webmasters.com/l/us/yahoo/search/basics/basics-18. . blog. 2007). com/ blog/ recent-reinclusions/ ). mattcutts. clickz. Retrieved 2007-04-18. Google" (http:/ / blog. google. "Google UK closes in on 90% market share" (http:/ / www. [58] "Search King. Jefferson (2003-08-26). searchengineguide.Partnering to help solve duplicate content issues . searchengineguide. A List Apart.com. html?page=3483941). Grok.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer. Google Technology. "Stats Show Google Dominates the International Search Landscape" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. [44] "What's an SEO? Does Google recommend working with companies that offer to make my site Google-friendly?" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-05-23.live. . Retrieved 2007-05-09. docstoc. Retrieved 2007-05-15. html). [55] Greg Jarboe (2007-02-22). . com/ tech/ news/ 2003-08-25-google_x. Retrieved 2007-05-09. 2006). . seomoz. Retrieved 2007-05-09.shtml) • " The Dirty Little Secrets of Search (http://www. . blog. Retrieved 2007-05-31. searchenginejournal. "High Accessibility Is Effective Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / alistapart. [52] "SEOmoz: Best SEO Blog of 2006" (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ ramping-up-on-international-webspam/ ). [48] "What SEO Isn't" (http:/ / blog. Click. . "Ramping up on international webspam" (http:/ / www. com/ community/ blogs/ webmaster/ archive/ 2009/ 02/ 12/ partnering-to-help-solve-duplicate-content-issues.com/help. htm). . [49] Melissa Burdon (March 13. .bing. com/ technology/ 2007/ 04/ 29/ sanar-google-skyfacet-tech-cx_ag_0430googhell. com. htm).. com/ seomoz-best-seo-blog-of-2006/ 4195/ ). . 2006. docstoc.aspx?mkt=en-us&project=wl_webmasters& querytype=&query=&tmt=&domain=help. "Search Engine Optimizing for Europe" (http:/ / www. [59] Stefanie Olsen (May 30. com/ docs/ 618281/ Order-(Granting-Googles-Motion-to-Dismiss-Search-Kings-Complaint)) (PDF).

aaroncook. 2008. This problem persisted for over 16 hours. com/ CSSessionReplay. Site meter experienced a system-wide bug that caused all sites displaying its tracking code to fail to load when browsed with Internet Explorer v6. statcounter. References [1] http:/ / blog. including mouse movements. On September 14. 2008. net/ 2007/ 04/ 11/ things-you-should-know-before-using-sitemeter Michael Sync. com/ 2007/ 03/ statcounter-says-no/ StatCounter Blog. 2008 Internet Explorer Failure News (http://www.com/) • Site Meter Gets A Brand New Face .And More (http://www. "Did Sitemeter sell out to Spyware?" External links • Site Meter Web page (http://www. 26/3/2007. foreseeresults. "Things you should know before using Sitemeter" [3] http:/ / conservablogs.0 and v7.sitemeter. Site meter attempted to migrate.[1] Soon. html).oneprojectcloser. This type of data can be useful in studying web site usability. and form entry. though reasons for the rollback are pending. com/ EricOdom/ 2007/ 03/ 26/ did-sitemeter-sell-out-to-spyware/ Eric Odom. Site Meter Site Meter is a service which provides counter and tracking information for Web sites. and Site meter decided to roll back its migration on September 14.html) • August 1. ForeSee Results. and more. customer behavior. clicks. Site Meter provides Web site owners with information about their visitors. Controversy In March 2007. including how they reached the site. it was revealed by Site Meter's rival tracking service StatCounter that they had been offered large sums of money to include advertising tracking cookies through their service. 11/4/2007.[1] References [1] "CS SessionReplay" (http:/ / www. Firefox and Safari users were not affected. etc. Retrieved 9 February 2011. On August 1. 2008. "StatCounter Says No!" [2] http:/ / michaelsync. .Session replay 72 Session replay Session replay is a video replay of visitors' behaviors on a web site. Complaints began immediately. bloggers noted[2] [3] that Site Meter had introduced tracking cookies for the SpecificClick.net service. the date and time of their visit.0. By logging IP addresses and using JavaScript or HTML to track visitor information. The underlying data for the videos is recorded by web analytics tools.com/general/ sitemeter-crashing-internet-explorer-sites-august-1-2008/) . 25/3/2009.com/2007/05/ site-meter-gets-brand-new-face-and-more.

. .traffic statistics" (http:/ / www. "Twitter Marketing for Dummies" (http:/ / books.statcounter.com www.com] yes Web traffic analysis Not required for basic access 157 (May 2011) [1] Current status Active StatCounter is a web traffic analysis tool. 93. Alexa Internet.com . [2] Kyle Lacy (2011). . .[2] References [1] "Statcounter. google. Retrieved 21 May 2011. May 2011. alexa. Access to basic services is free and advanced services can cost between $9 and $119 a month. com/ books?id=2FI_suXXGJkC& dq=Statcounter& source=gbs_navlinks_s).statcounter. Inc. Retrieved 21 May 2011.StatCounter 73 StatCounter StatCounter URL Commercial? Type of site Registration Alexa rank [www. com/ siteinfo/ statcounter. p. com). John Wiley and Sons.

org 74 TraceMyIP.org TraceMyIP.TraceMyIP.org Developer(s) TraceMyIP.org [1] TraceMyIP. References [1] http:/ / www. Type License Website Website analytics. Website statistics Proprietary TraceMyIP.org is a website analytics and visitor statistics service offered by TraceMyIP. TraceMyIP. LLC. LLC. org .

including logs from web servers. . unica.0 [5] Technology The NetInsight Extract. Affinium NetInsight was first released in June 2006. "Page Tags and Log Files" (http:/ / netinsight. With the release of version 8. streaming media servers and FTP servers. dropping (along with the rest of the Unica products) the Affinium brand. IBM DB2 or the Netezza appliance [7] . load process can read log files in virtually any format.0 Affinium NetInsight has been renamed to Unica NetInsight.[4] at version 7. MySQL. "Unica Ships Affinium NetInsight" (http:/ / www. unica. com/ news/ pr. . transform. com/ "Affinium NetInsight . load methodology[2] to populate a database that can then be queried using a browser-based interface. cfm?id=239).Unica NetInsight 75 Unica NetInsight Unica NetInsight Developer(s) Stable release Unica Corporation 8. com/ Products/ Tags_and_Logs.0. com/ products/ enterprise-web-analytics. unica. cfm). unica. NetInsight stores its processed log files in a database such as Oracle database.com [1] Unica NetInsight is a web analytics application that utilises an Extract. cfm?id=206). unica. History Unica Corporation acquires Sane Solutions [3] and the NetTracker software that becomes Affinium NetInsight. unica. "Unica Completes Acquisition of Sane Solutions" (http:/ / www. unica. NetInsight is from the same family of tools as Unica NetTracker. The current version as of September 2009 is 8.0 / September 2009 Operating system Cross-platform Type License Website Web analytics proprietary www. "Unica Web Analytics" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ pr. cfm). . com/ Products/ Open. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. com/ Products/ Open. . "Open Data Warehouse" (http:/ / netinsight. htm). . .unica. cfm). . As well as processing normal server log files NetInsight can use log files derived from page tags to replace or augment log file data[6] . transform. proxy servers. Microsoft SQL Server.Open and Integrated" (http:/ / netinsight.

com/2007/03/26/ understanding-funnel-reports/) • Unica NetInsight User Group (http://netinsight. htm http:/ / www. streaming media servers and FTP servers. Technology NetTracker processes log files in virtually any format using a custom log definition. proxy servers.ning. Logs can be processed from web servers.sclanalytics. sclanalytics.Unica NetInsight 76 External links • Unica Web Analytics (http://netinsight. sclanalytics. History Unica NetTracker was first released in 1996 by Sane Solutions which was sold to Unica Corporation.com/resources/howto/onlinemarketing) • Affinium NetInsight ROI Calculator (http://www. NetTracker stores its processed log files in an internal database which is based upon SQLite.cfm) • How To Use Affinium NetInsight Web Analytics to Improve Online Marketing Campaigns (http://www. com/ resources/ howto/ proxy http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 03/ 26/ understanding-funnel-reports/ . unica.com/info/web-analytics-roi-calculator) • Understanding Funnel Reports in NetTracker (http://www. The current version as of December 2006 is 7. It looks like it's going to be replaced by NetInsight. As well as processing log files NetTracker can use page tag data to augment log file data.webanalyticmatt. com/ products/ enterprise-web-analytics. com/ info/ web-analytics-roi-calculator http:/ / www.0 Unica announce end-of-life and end-of-support on December 31st. sclanalytics. External links • • • • Unica Web Analytics Example Reports of Unica NetTracker's Proxy & Firewall Logfile Analysis [2] NetTracker ROI Calculator [3] Understanding Funnel Reports in NetTracker [4] [1] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. 2011.com/products/Editions. webanalyticmatt.com/) Unica NetTracker Unica NetTracker is a web analytics application that processes web log files.unica.1.

a unique user (UU) is "An IP address plus a further identifier. With only this data. for those wishing to impress advertisers or investors. A Unique User metric is only valid for its given set of dimensions e. On the plus side. not a person. A common mistake in using Unique User numbers is not adding Unique User numbers across the same different dimensions. for example. radio and newspaper analyses. Remember. Greg Harmon of Belden Research says "may overstate" is a gross understatement. Unique Visitor A unique visitor has the same general meaning as unique user and is simply an alternative title for the statistic." Note that where users are not allocated IP addresses dynamically (for example by dial-up Internet service providers). so that smaller group of people visits much more often and looks at more pages than the raw numbers would suggest. the website will create a cookie.[2] Understanding Unique users numbers Similar to the TURF (Total Unduplicated Reach and Frequency) metric often used in television. Limitations of Unique User Numbers Unique User counts for websites are typically counted by using cookies. When cookies are used to track Unique Users. it's just an identifier of a computer. one cannot extrapolate the number of weekly Unique Users (only that the Unique User count for the week is between 100 and 700). When calculating movement of unique users through conversion funnel the same time period must be used at every step. the computer is identified by a "cookie" which is most often specific to an individual browser on that computer. IP address and/or User Agent String may be used as a proxy for a unique identifier placed in a cookie. However. If the cookie is not present. When a browser visits a website. Unique Users is a measure of the distribution of content to a number of distinct consumers. and yet another large fraction use more than one browser on each of their machines. time.[1] Unique users is a common measurement of the popularity of a website. the cookie value is captured. the reported number of sessions or visits and pageviews are probably more accurate. If the cookie is present. often quoted to potential advertisers or investors. typically a month. and measured over a standard period of time. Sites may use User Agent. the website checks for the existence of a particular cookie. This means that for a typical news site. which people might typically visit more than once a day to keep up with breaking news. Since an increasing percentage of people in the United States (at least) now have access to a computer at home and at work or school. The term "unique visitor" may be used instead of "unique user" but both terms have essentially the same meaning (see below). For example a website may have 100 unique users on each day (day being the dimension) of a particular week. browsers. the reported unique users might overstate the number of different people by a factor of four. 2) Browsers set to not accept cookies will be ignored. this definition may overstate or understate the real number of individual users concerned. then 1) Cookie Flushing will cause Unique User numbers to be inflated.g.Unique user 77 Unique user According to IFABC Global Web Standards. . one may have to divide the reported total of unique users in half. Then another increasing fraction of people regularly delete cookies from their machines—presumably both at home and at work. Cookie and/or Registration ID. And usually.

by placing a cookie on each Visitor's computer. Many consumers access the internet from networks that allow them to share a single IP address. but many of the users that share a single IP address may also use the same browser. Because they use panels of Web users to gather data and then extrapolate.Graduate Recruitment Bureau (http:/ / www. 0. Average Sessions Per Unique Visitor is equivalent to "Frequency" used in other media. thereby making one visitor look like many. There are also Internet Service Providers (ISP). thereby capturing the identity of each Visitor on each visit. This statistic is relevant to site publishers and advertisers as a measure of a site's true audience size. and checking for the cookie on each Visitor's computer each time they visit. when trying to decide how to spend their online ad dollars. The companies are trying to address those shortcomings by looking for ways to increase the size and depth of their panels. The Unique Visitors statistic is most accurately measured in two ways with current technology: 1. most only do this after a timeout period when they run out of available IP addresses. or 2. uk. 2. investing in . Marketers rely heavily on comScore and the other major Web-measurement company. This statistic is a poor measure as it is distorted by two main factors: 1. html) [2] Belden Associates (http:/ / beldenassociates. com/ index. Nielsen Online. equivalent to the term "Reach" used in other media.including a Web site's total visitors or page views and time spent on the site—to try to determine which sites are popular among particular demographic groups or in certain topic areas. counting each visitor only once in the time frame of the report.Unique user 78 Notes [1] Jargon buster . by requiring all Visitors to log-in to the site. However. that use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) which can provide their customers with a different IP addresses for each request they make from a site. writing the cookie ID to a database. which results in the IP address proxy undercounting Unique Visitors. but is not equivalent to Unique Visitors as there is no guarantee that a visitor from the same IP Address outside the 30-minute window is a different visitor than a previous Visitor within the window. Tracking the visitor's UserAgent (browser identification information) in addition to the IP address can help mitigate this. such as AOL and cable modem providers. Some log file analysis software products calculate a proxy for Unique Visitors by counting the number of visitors from unique IP addresses. Many log file analysis products also use a proxy for Unique Visitors in which they count multiple visitors from the same IP Address if they don't visit the site within the same 30-minute window. Calculation The number of Total Visits to a site divided by Unique Visitors results in the derived statistic "Average Sessions Per Unique Visitor" which tells a publisher how many times each Unique Visitor came to their site on average in the time frame of the report. Accuracy The science of tracking Internet usage is still far from perfect. grb. And both companies lack the capacity to measure total international audiences. They typically compare those data with a Web site's own figures. Advertisers study their data . htm) Unique visitor A unique visitor is a statistic describing a unit of traffic to a website. the results are estimates. such as news or sports. This statistic results in a higher number than counting unique IP addresses. com/ 263. Both Web-measurement companies have gaps in their research. thereby causing the IP address proxy to overcount Unique Users.

html External links • Visitor Estimation from Site Access Logs (http://www.webanalyticsassociation.org/resource/resmgr/ PDF_standards/WebAnalyticsDefinitionsVol1.Unique visitor technology and expanding overseas. To complicate matters. Nielsen Online.johnsankey. as the two companies use different methodologies to measure their audience panels.html) • Web Analytics Association Definitions (http://www.[1] 79 References [1] http:/ / online. such as mobile-phone and television measures. com/ article/ SB120874282224730191. which is owned by the audience-measurement firm Nielsen. also is trying to combine its Web research with usage data from other media.pdf) .ca/visitors. disparities between comScore and Nielsen data are common. wsj.

com/urchin/usac.a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [4] Urchin 6 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics. the Urchin 5 and prior analysis programs are still widely used and available today. Google released the next version called Urchin 6. Urchin software can be run in two different data collection modes. was acquired by Google in April 2005. advanced-web-metrics.blog article • Differences between Urchin Software and Google Analytics (http://www. Urchin is used to analyze web server log file content and display the traffic information on that website based upon the log data. particularly with ISPs and web hosting providers.html) Official Urchin Software website (http://www.urchintools.html) What is Urchin? (http://www. This is largely due to its scalability in performance and pricing model.google. html) External links • • • • • • Urchin 6 Webinar (http://www.Urchin (software) 80 Urchin (software) Urchin Software Developer(s) Google Inc. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) . 2010 Type Website Web analytics Google Urchin [1] Urchin is a web statistics analysis program developed by Urchin Software Corporation. com/ 2009/ 02/ urchin-65-is-now-available. In April 2008. log file analyser or hybrid.com/urchin6/ about-urchin6/urchin-vs-google-analytics) . com/ urchin/ index. com/ urchin/ features. html) [7] Urchin 7 Key features (http:/ / www.[4] In February 2009. blogspot.com/) Official List of Urchin Software Resellers (http://www. google. com/ 2010/ 09/ urchin-7-64-bit-released. com/ 2008/ 04/ graduation-day-for-website-optimizer.advanced-web-metrics.000 / September 13. blogspot. advanced-web-metrics.5. Google released Urchin 6. Urchin has become one of the more popular solutions for website traffic analysis. com/ blog/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ hosted-v-software-v-hybrid-tools/ ) blog article [3] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www. As a hybrid.[6] [7] References [1] http:/ / www. new UI and event tracking among other features.blog article Back up your Google Analytics data locally (http://www.com/urchin/index.com/blog/2007/10/17/ backup-your-ga-data-locally/) . blogspot.5 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics. The result is more accurate web visitor data. Custom file formats can also be defined. html [2] Hosted v software v hybrid web analytics tools (http:/ / www.google. Urchin processes web server log files in a variety of log file formats.com/blog/2007/10/16/what-is-urchin/) .com/products/urchin-6-software/demo/) Resources for Urchin Customers (http://www. html) [6] Urchin 7 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics. integrating AdWords. google.actualmetrics.[5] Urchin 7 was released in September 2010 and includes 64-bit support.advanced-web-metrics.urchintools. Urchin combines page tags with log file data to eradicate the limitations of each data collection method in [2] [3] isolation. While Urchin Software Corp. Stable release 7. html) [5] Urchin 6. As a log file analyser.

where it was offered for free. the principals decided to revamp all business models and develop an in-house customer relationship management (CRM) system to keep track of things much more tightly. after the "Quantified" name failed to catch on meaningfully. An office was opened in Tokyo and employment reached approximately 40 total. In 2003. the company was purchased by Google. which had become fairly popular for its speed and efficiency at processing large web server log files. Among their major customers were Earthlink. In 2001. After extensive re-engineering. the company changed its name to Urchin Software Corporation ("Urchin"). and take out a loan from the original investors. The funding round came to approximately $1 million. California. which was to be led by InnoCal Ventures and JMI Ventures. Quantified grew rapidly on the strength of both the software and large contracts secured by Giacomino (Jack) Ancone and Brett Crosby. Urchin was approached by representatives of Google Inc. the service experienced overloading and new accounts were restricted for a number of months. Quantified then took a round of angel funding from various family members. base salaries cut. Rackspace. and built/hosted websites for various mostly San Diego companies. Urchin was profitable for its remaining time as an independent entity. over the next year. the company was called Web Depot. Urchin was acquired in April 2005. a small venture capital firm called Green Thumb Ventures. Money was left on the table. the sales force was streamlined. the service was again opened to the public and is currently the most widely used hosted web analytics system. the September 11 attacks and other factors caused the funding to collapse. Joahna (SLM) was launched. the company repaid its angel investors the money borrowed in 2001. Due to strong demand. At that time. including the two largest private employers in the area Sharp Healthcare and Solar Turbines. However. In 2004. At the same time. Sales steadily rose through spring 2005. and many large hosting companies were enlisted 2000. In its original incarnation. Corporate history Urchin was founded by Paul Muret and Scott Crosby in December 1995 in San Diego. In 1998. and the ill-fated Winstar.Urchin Software Corporation 81 Urchin Software Corporation Urchin Software Corporation was a web analytics company based in Southern California. and a strong incentive plan enacted. which entailed a flat monthly rate of $5000 per Rocchio and Jason Senn at a trade show circa physical data center. Cable & Wireless. the four principals of the company decided to jettison the hosting and design elements of the business and focus solely on the Urchin software. In the late 1990s and early 2000s. In April 2005. In 2002. the company prepared to take on its A-series venture capital round. about a possible partnership. Quantified was forced to lay off approximately 15 employees. close the Tokyo office. In August 2004 at the Search Engine Strategies trade show in San Jose. The Site License Model Urchin founders Brett (right) and Scott Crosby (middle) with employees Paul Botto. and became essentially debt-free. Approximately 6 months after the acquisition. when the company was acquired by Google. Honda had standardized on it. but stability was achieved. the Urchin On Demand (hosted) version of the product was renamed Google Analytics and re-launched on Google infrastructure. Verio. and EarthLink had just become a customer. . and friends.

He left Google in August 2005 to start Actual Metrics [1]. • Mike Chipman.Urchin Software Corporation 82 Principals and key personnel Co-founders: • Scott Crosby. • Bill Rhodes. Rolf Schreiber. He is now a Director of Engineering for Google. Other employees included: • • • • Paul Botto. • Bartholomew Fromm. Chief Integration Engineer. He is now an Enterprise Business Development Manager at Google. He is now a Software Engineer at Google. He is now Principal. Analytics. He left Google in April 2008 to become Director of Development for Actual Metrics [1]. • Doug Silver. Partner Manager and Head of Channel Sales. Sales Team/Bus Dev Lead. Systems Administrator. Urchin co-founders Scott Crosby. head of internal systems. He is now a Staff Software Engineer at Google. Jack Ancone. He is now a Senior Product Marketing Manager at Google. Paul Muret in 2001. Jason Senn. • Brett Crosby. • Jack Ancone. He is now the VP of Sales at Brickfish. Vice President of Business Development and later Vice President of Marketing. He is now a Software Engineer at Google. actualmetrics. Software Engineer. • Jonathon Vance. Engineering Lead. who wrote the first version of the Urchin software in 1997 and was Chief Executive Officer of the company. He is now a Manager in Site Reliability Engineering at Google. President and later Vice President of Sales. He is now Enterprise Channel Development Manager. most notably customer relationship management. Chief Financial Officer then later Vice President of Corporate Development. He is now a Systems Administrator at Google. Hui-Sok "Nathan" Moon. co-Engineering Lead. • Paul Muret. New Business Development at Google. Senior Account Executive. at Google. com . References [1] http:/ / www. Brett Crosby.

Cookies are used by search engines to maintain a history of a user’s search activity. . Search engines want their results to be highly relevant to web users to make sure that web users keep returning to the search engine for future searches. However. Usage data Usage data is the most effective way of evaluating the true relevancy and value of a website. For example. pp 86 Visit filter Visit filters which are used by Web log analysis software include or exclude all the data in a visit session. there is a high likelihood that it is extremely relevant. R.(2009) eMarketing: The Essential Guide to Online Marketing.Usage analysis 83 Usage analysis Usage analysis is any technique for understanding the usage statistics of something. for example the web statistics of a website. letting you focus on relevant activity. Second Edition. References • Stokes. if users arrive on a web site and go back immediately (high bounce rate). relevant valuable sites get promoted while irrelevant sites get demoted. When it comes to search engines. The specifying ranges or types of data let you limit the web log data that is analyzed. Quirk eMarketing (Pty) Ltd. if a user repeatedly visits a web site and spends a long time on the site. And the best way to establish relevance to users is to know how they use web sites. chances are that it wasn’t relevant to their query in the first place.

Technology Platform • LAMP (Linux. PHP) • PEAR classes support Visitlab is inactive now Visitlab is no more active. The system is designed to track occurrences of such threats. wired. The system does a complete clickpath analysis. • Account Management: Visitlab also includes an account management framework. External links • VisitLab [1] homepage [2] • | Interview with CEO Vikas Kedia References [1] http:/ / www. Apache. The user management utility enables the website administrator to set access permissions for other users from the same organisation to different responsibilities of the account. • Visitor Experience Analysis: A complete analysis of each visitor who has visited a website. com [2] http:/ / www. By setting preferences the advertiser can choose to receive email alerts about possible 'click-fraud'. They want to know if it meets some acceptable level and want to be alerted in case it falls below the set threshold. VisitLab's keyphrase manager program enables the website marketing team to effortlessly analyse the performance of each keyphrase.VisitLab 84 VisitLab VisitLab is a Web analytics system with a rich user management framework. It tracks a visitor from the time he/she enters a domain until he/she leaves. com/ wired/ archive/ 14. html . Presently in a Free Beta stage. 01/ fraud. Conversely. it is developed using open-source resources. VisitLab believes in the idea of 'infinite scalability' and the project developers have designed the system with hardware scalability and API stability as the two guiding philosophies. visitlab. Features • Click Fraud Analysis and Alert System: Online pay-per-click advertisers struggle with the threat of so-called Click fraud. MySQL. • Keyphrase Manager: Most visitors to a website end up following a link from a SERP for a specific keyphrase. it is also possible to add an external user with read-only access to each component of the account. • Remote Monitor Alerts: Webmasters are keen to know about the speed of the website page loading. showing each page visited and duration of stay.

htm [2] http:/ / www. This event is known as a "click through". sized 468×60 pixels. SEC and location. When the Typical web banner. thehindubusinessline. either wide and short. exposure. or tall and narrow) hence the reference to banners. the affiliate earns money. In many cases. PNG). with Comscore and Vizisense being IMRB's key competitors. JavaScript program or multimedia object employing technologies such as Java.Web audience measurement 85 Web audience measurement Web Audience Measurement (WAM) is an audience measurement and website analytics tool that measures Internet usage in India. Behavior is often tracked through the use of a click tag. JPEG. These images are usually placed on web pages that have interesting content. Usually though. Shockwave or Flash. Affiliates earn money usually on a CPC (cost per click) basis. Web banners function the same way as traditional advertisements are intended to function: notifying consumers of the product or service and presenting reasons why the consumer should choose the product in question.e. When the advertiser scans their logfiles and detects that a web user has visited the advertiser's site from the content site by clicking on the banner ad. resulting in a revshare system and higher quality ad placement. The web banner is displayed when a web page that references the banner is loaded into a web browser. The web analytics market in India is currently fragmented. Images are usually in a high-aspect ratio shape (i. or video to maximize presence. References [1] http:/ / www. The system. sound.[2] This panel-based approach uses metering technology. com/ 2010/ 11/ 223-part-1-how-imrbs-web-audience-measurement-tracks-information/ Web banner A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web. For every unique user click on the ad. viewer clicks on the banner. the viewer is directed to the website advertised in the banner. This event is known as an "impression". banners are delivered by a central ad server. the advertiser sends the content provider some small amount of money (usually around five to ten US cents). . advertisers use ad networks to serve their advertisements. This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser. medianama. in/ 2010/ 11/ 02/ stories/ 2010110251500900.[1] WAM uses audience measurement and is a continuous tracking panel study that provides cross sectional data on Internet usage segmented by gender. reach and frequency of Internet usage. a joint effort of IMRB International and Internet and Mobile Association of India surveys over 6000 individuals across 8 metropolitan centers in India and tracks a variety of metrics such as time-on-site. Web Rating Points factor multiple measures of Internet usage to provide a more comprehensive picture to web advertisers and attempts to standardize web analytics in India. although web banners differ in that the results for advertisement campaigns may be monitored real-time and may be targeted to the viewer's interests. design for an Indian context that tracks computers. such as a newspaper article or an opinion piece. The advertisement is constructed from an image (GIF. often employing animation. This payback system is often how the content provider is able to pay for the Internet access to supply the content in the first place.

Andrew Anker was HotWired's first CEO. This approach to banner ad sales proved successful and provided the economic foundation for the web industry from the period of 1994 to 2000 until the market for banner ads "crashed" and there was a radical revaluation of their value. Web browsers may also have extensions available which block banners.) Newer web browsers often include options to disable pop-ups or block images from selected websites. the purpose of the banner ad is to attract attention and many advertisers try to get attention to the advert by making them annoying. introduced by GoTo. or AdThwart for Google Chrome and ie7pro for Internet Explorer.Web banner Many web surfers regard these advertisements as highly annoying because they distract from a web page's actual content or waste bandwidth. and then other advertisers. a company owned by IBM and Sears at the time. banner ads were valued and sold based on the number of impressions they generated. Ehrman. 86 History The pioneer of online advertising was Prodigy. He stated that he believed that only a direct response model—in which the return on investment of individual ads was measured—would prove sustainable over the long run for online advertising. In spite of this prediction. for example Adblock Plus for Mozilla Firefox. The first web banner sold by HotWired was paid for by AT&T. spearheaded the sales effort for the company. such as Privoxy. The new online advertising model that emerged in the early years of the 21st century. relies heavily on tracking ad response rather than impressions. and was put online on October 27. HotWired was the first web site to sell banner ads in large quantities to a wide range of major corporate advertisers. Another way of avoiding banners is to use a proxy server that blocks them. The first clickable web ad (which later came to be known by the term "banner ad") was sold by Global Network Navigator (GNN) in 1993 to Heller.com (later Overture. a now defunct law firm with a Silicon Valley office. Prodigy used online advertising first to promote Sears products in the 1980s. and first introduced the concept of a clickable/trackable ad. Rick Boyce. Ken McCarthy mentored Boyce in his transition from traditional to online advertising. then Yahoo and mass marketed by Google's AdWords program). but has Coors' "Zima" campaign as the first web banner. Without attracting attention it would provide no revenue for the advertiser or for the content provider. 1994. .[3] Another source also credits Hotwired and October 1994.[4] In May 1994. Prodigy was unable to capitalize on any of its first mover advantage in online advertising.[2] HotWired coined the term "banner ad" and was the first company to provide click through rate reports to its customers. one of Prodigy's direct competitors. White and McAuliffe. [1] GNN was the first commercially supported web publication and one of the very first web sites ever. a former media buyer with San Francisco advertising agency Hal Riney & Partners. including AOL. (Of course.

67 1.2 1 1.2 1. Sizes in bold are part of the IAB's Universal Ad Package. Name Width / px Height / px Aspect ratio Rectangles and Pop-Ups Medium Rectangle 300 Square Pop-Up Vertical Rectangle Large Rectangle Rectangle 3:1 Rectangle Pop-Under 250 240 336 180 300 720 250 250 400 280 150 100 300 1. Note: This illustration is reduced in size.9 2. they are:[5] IAB standard ad sizes. See actual sizes [6] .09 .Web banner 87 Standard sizes Ad sizes have been standardized to some extent by the IAB.8 3.4 Banners and Buttons Full banner Half banner Micro bar Button 1 Button 2 Vertical banner Square button Leaderboard 468 234 88 120 120 120 125 728 60 60 31 90 60 240 125 90 7.33 2 2 1 8.84 1.2 3 2.

sfgate. Features supported by log analysis packages may include "hit filters". com/ digitalnext/ post?article_id=139964 Happy Birthday. Chapter Seven: 'Hotwired Publishing on the Web' (pp 300-308) ISBN 0471171875 [3] http:/ / adage. org/ wiki/ Heller_Ehrman [2] Reid. Robert H. when. asp).000 Days that Built the Future of Business.75 5 2 88 References [1] http:/ / articles. iab. entry and exit pages Files type OS used Browsers used Robots HTTP referrer Search engines. Merrill R. key phrases and keywords used to find the analyzed web site HTTP errors Some of the log analyzers also report on who's on the site.. and based on the values contained in the log file. Apress. wikipedia. In search of stupidity: over 20 years of high-tech marketing disasters (2nd Edition) . . Common Indicators • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Number of visits and number of unique visitors Visits duration and last visits Authenticated users. [6] http:/ / upload. visit time and page navigation. conversion tracking. org/ wikipedia/ commons/ 4/ 43/ Standard_web_banner_ad_sizes. net/ standards/ adunits. . (1997). ISBN 1-59059-721-4 [5] "Ad Unit Guidelines" (http:/ / www. John Wiley & Sons. Interactive Advertising Bureau. but the log files can alternatively be parsed to a database and reports generated on demand. derives indicators about who.Web banner Skyscrapers Wide skyscraper Skyscraper Half page ad 160 120 300 600 600 600 3. wikimedia. Usually reports are generated from the log files immediately. which use pattern matching to examine selected log data. Digital Advertising! [4] Chapman. and last authenticated visits Days of week and rush hours Domains/countries of host's visitors Hosts list Number total pageviews Most viewed. com/ 2008-09-26/ business/ 17158078_1_san-francisco-s-heller-ehrman-legal-industry-same-sex-marriages http:/ / en. svg Web log analysis software Web log analysis software (also called a web log analyzer) is a simple kind of Web analytics software that parses a log file from a web server. Architects of the Web: 1. and how a web server is visited.

Analyzing Web Traffics Web analytics is the measurement of the behavior of visitors to a website. There are many ways to monitor this traffic and the gathered data is used to help structure sites. The page itself is Example graph of web traffic at Wikipedia in considered a file. but images are also files. . Some companies offer advertising schemes that. pay for screen space on the site. This is determined by the number of visitors and the number of pages they visit. yahoo. Notable vendors of web analytics software and services include: Webtrends. Omniture. Tracking applications external to the web site can record traffic by inserting a small piece of HTML code in every page of the web site. Web traffic can be analyzed by viewing the traffic statistics found in the web server log file. com/ Business_and_Economy/ Business_to_Business/ Communications_and_Networking/ Internet_and_World_Wide_Web/ Network_Management/ Traffic_Management/ Log_Analysis_Tools/ Titles/ [2] http:/ / dir. com Web traffic Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a web site. It is a large portion of Internet traffic. in return for increased web traffic (visitors). highlight security problems or indicate a potential lack of bandwidth — not all web traffic is welcome. yahoo. an automatically generated list of all the pages served. thus a page with 5 images December 2004 could generate 6 hits (the 5 images and the page itself). Measuring Web Traffic Web traffic is measured to see the popularity of web sites and individual pages or sections within a site. Coremetrics. for example. and Google Analytics. which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase. A hit is generated when any file is served. Web traffic is also sometimes measured by packet sniffing and thus gaining random samples of traffic data from which to extrapolate information about web traffic as a whole across total Internet usage. A page view is generated when a visitor requests any page within the web site – a visitor will always generate at least one page view (the main page) but could generate many more.Web log analysis software 89 External links • Log Analysis category [6] at Open Directory Project • Log Analysis Tools category [1] at Yahoo Directory [2] References [1] http:/ / dir. Sites also often aim to increase their web traffic through inclusion on search engines and through Search engine optimization. In a commercial context. it especially refers to the measurement of which aspects of the website work towards the business objectives of Internet marketing initiatives. such as one specific page being viewed mostly by people in a particular country. Sites monitor the incoming and outgoing traffic to see which parts or pages of their site are popular and if there are any apparent trends. The following types of information are often collated when monitoring web traffic: • The number of visitors.

• Average visit duration – the total length of a user's visit. possibly because they like it or find it useful.S. Web sites like Alexa Internet produce traffic rankings and statistics based on those people who access the sites while using the Alexa toolbar. By analysing the statistics of visitors it is possible to see shortcomings of the site and look to improve those areas. in some cases decrease) the popularity of a site and the number of people that visit it. • Domain classes – all levels of the IP Addressing information required to deliver Webpages and content. allowing only authorized people to visit particular sections or pages. 90 Controlling web traffic The amount of traffic seen by a web site is a measure of its popularity. President George W. broken links or the exit pages may have a popular external link • Top paths – a path is the sequence of pages viewed by visitors from entry to exit. The more pages viewed. but their reports are available only by subscription. such as by geographic location.com [1]) was blocked to all internet users outside of the U. Bush (GeorgeWBush. Limiting access It is sometimes important to protect some parts of a site by password. The difficulty with this is that it's not looking at the complete traffic picture for a site. • Busy times – the most popular viewing time of the site would show when would be the best time to do promotional campaigns and when would be the most ideal to perform maintenance • Most requested pages – the most popular pages • Most requested entry pages – the entry page is the first page viewed by a visitor and shows which are the pages most attracting visitors • Most requested exit pages – the most requested exit pages could help find bad pages.Web traffic • The average number of page views per visitor – a high number would indicate that the average visitors go deep inside the site. with the top paths identifying the way most customers go through the site • Referrers. . On Apache HTTP servers.[2] It is also possible to limit access to a web server both based on the number of connections and by the bandwidth expended by each connection. this is accomplished by the limitipconn module and others. Some site administrators have chosen to block their page to specific traffic. The re-election campaign site for U. It is also possible to increase (or. The host can track the (apparent) source of the links and determine which sites are generating the most traffic for a particular page.S. Large sites usually hire the services of companies like Nielsen NetRatings. the better it is for your company. • Average page duration – how long a page is viewed for. As a rule the more time they spend the more they're interested in your company and are more prone to contact. on 25 October 2004 after a reported attack on the site.

the top result gets between 5% and 10% of the clicks. search engines.Web traffic 91 Increase web site traffic Web traffic can be increased by placement of a site in search engines and purchase of advertising. Usually. Viruses have also been used to co-ordinate large scale distributed denial-of-service attacks. guides (such as yellow pages and restaurant guides). According to some studies . That is why some pages recently updated in certain web sites are not immediately found when doing searches on search engines. This indicates that it is important to appear in the top results. a complete reindexing takes its time. This is caused by more file requests going to the server than it can handle and may be an intentional attack on the site or simply caused by over-popularity. it is becoming common for webmasters to get approached by "boiler-room" companies with no real knowledge of how to get results. Large scale web sites with numerous servers can often cope with the traffic required and it is more likely that smaller services are affected by traffic overload. the odds of someone finding it diminishes greatly (especially if there is other competition on the first page). In every case. In most cases they also index the web page header (meta tag) and a certain amount of the text of the page. the top organic result gets most of the clicks from web users. getting proper placement on search engines is as important as the web site itself. Consequently. These crawling programs (crawlers) are also known as "spiders" or "robots". and the percentage that go to subsequent pages is substantially lower. Very few people go past the first page. the search engine looks into the database and produces the results. when a search engine user looks for a particular word or phrase. If a web page is not listed in the first pages of any search. In most cases the best way to increase web traffic is to register it with the major search engines. Crawlers start at the registered home page. There are some companies which specialize in search engine marketing. Organic traffic Web traffic which comes from unpaid listing at search engines or directories is commonly known as "organic" traffic. Organic traffic can be generated or increased by including the web site in directories. weeks or months to complete review and index all the pages they find. crawlers might take days. Even having hundreds or thousands of servers working on the spidering of pages. they index the page URL and the page title. as of the end of 2004 had indexed over eight billion pages. to get to pages inside the web site (internal links). . flooding the site with more requests than it could cope with. and usually follow the hyperlinks it finds. search engine marketing is usually paid monthly or annually. and in-page advertisements. Web traffic can also be increased by purchasing non-internet based advertising. pop-up ads. usually sorted by relevance according to the search engine algorithms. However. for example. Each subsequent result gets between 30% and 60% of the clicks of the previous one. as search engines work by "crawling" registered web sites. and award sites. Google. including bulk e-mail. Just registering does not guarantee traffic. Because of the huge amount of information available on the web. and most search engine companies cannot promise specific results for what is paid to them. Denial of service attacks Denial-of-service attacks (DoS attacks) have forced web sites to close after a malicious attack. Traffic overload Too much web traffic can dramatically slow down or even prevent all access to a web site. As opposed to pay-per-click. Crawlers start gathering information about those pages and storing it and indexing it in the search engine database. Then.

Unlike all other Internet startups from the late 90s. com/ developerworks/ web/ library/ wa-mwt1/ [4] http:/ / www. The company went public and . Mark (5 May 2003). founded by Blaise Barrelet on September 10. html [5] http:/ / www. The company went public on September 28. A news item in the media. it stopped providing its free version of the Hitbox and its associated advertising revenues. this is the start of the HBX product line. stm WebSideStory WebSideStory. Scott & Hartrick. Tom (1 March 2001).10801. As the rest of the web developed. 2007. com/ archive/ 2003/ 05/ 08/ 20030508e-b09. California.00. "The Dangers of Having a Good Idea" [5] – A BBC News [6] look at the case of freelance journalist Glenn Fleishman after his site was linked to from MacCentral – retrieved 7 July 2005 LINK NO LONGER WORKS Footnotes [1] http:/ / www. html). georgewbush.Web traffic 92 Sudden popularity A sudden burst of publicity may accidentally cause a web traffic overload. Andrei. ibm. Rich (2004-10-26).. These sites were the only ones showing huge amount of traffic that could be converted into advertising revenue. thisdayonline. a quickly propagating email. com/ archives/ 2004/ 10/ 26/ bush_campaign_web_site_rejects_nonus_visitors. . html [6] http:/ / news. [3] http:/ / www-106. WebSideStory decided then to offer a limited version for FREE in exchange for a small banner on each site they monitored traffic for. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 2995343. com/ managementtopics/ ebusiness/ story/ 0. Websidestory never received traditional angel and VC investments but made real money and became instantly profitable by displaying banners on their top adult web site list. bbc. This time. Once WebSideStory was financially sound. Inc. they quickly started to advertise banners on their other site lists. Inc. large brick and mortar businesses decided to use WebSideStory's Hitbox on their growing Internet entities. or a link from a popular site may cause such a boost in visitors (sometimes called Slashdot effect) References • Malacinski. Business Model History WebSideStory was hoping to sell the service for a small monthly amount of money but most web site owners refused to pay anything back then. "Measuring Web traffic" [3] at IBM – retrieved 1 January 2005 • Machlis. the company rebranded itself as Visual Sciences. was acquired by Omniture (NASDAQ: OMTR) for $394 million. 1996 as a website traffic analysis tool and links directory to market the web analytics product Hitbox and HBX. they offered to pay in exchange of more in depth statistics and refused to display the traditional Hitbox banner.71989. Dominick.com – retrieved 1 January 2005 • Ward.[1] WebSideStory was headquartered in San Diego. com [2] Miller. "Bush Campaign Web Site Rejects Non-US Visitors" (http:/ / news. computerworld. Sharon (17 June 2002). On May 9. In the late 1999. netcraft. "Measuring Web Site Traffic" [4] at ComputerWorld. 2004 (NASDAQ: WSSI). Surfers who clicked on the banner would be directed to a top list of web sites owned by WebSideStory. In January 2008 Visual Sciences. co. Inc.

it uses the Google analytics scripts. . Google. com/ press/ 417) External links • WebSideStory goes public (http://www. References [1] "Website Optimizer" (http:/ / www. Google Website Optimizer allows webmasters to test entire pages.com/doc/1G1-123331863. point of action assurances. though accessed through a different user interface.com/ google-website-optimizer-joomla) . google. Retrieved 2010-12-14. known as Multivariate testing such as Headings. External links • Google website optimizer (http://services. headlines. 93 References [1] Omniture Press Detail: Omniture to Acquire Visual Sciences (http:/ / www. This tool is part of Google Analytics.[1] Google Website Optimizer can test any element that exists as HTML code on a page including calls to action. com/ websiteoptimizer/ ). product images. product copy. product reviews.pearl-group. fonts. images or body copy. Visual Sciences was acquired by Omniture in 2007 and as of October 2009 Omniture was acquired by Adobe Systems Incorporated.com/websiteoptimizer/) • Open Source Google Website Optimizer Extension for Joomla (http://www. omniture.WebSideStory eventually purchased Visual Sciences and took their name.omniture. It can be used at multiple stage in the conversion funnel. and forms. known as A/B testing or page elements.google.html) • Omniture (http://www.highbeam. As it is part of Google Analytics.com/) Google Website Optimizer Google Website Optimizer is a free website optimization tool that helps online marketers and webmasters increase visitor conversion rates and overall visitor satisfaction by continually testing different combinations of website content.

e-mail response rates. The software presents these results through a web based graphic user interface. The company was founded in 1993 and now serves more than 10.Webtrends 94 Webtrends Webtrends Type Industry Founded Private Web Analytics 1993 Headquarters Portland.com [1] Webtrends is a private company headquartered in Portland. such as CRM or demographics to build insight into a person over time. Based on data captured. Webtrends Visitor Data Mart at the core of this tool is comprehensive "Interest Profile" that combines a person's online behavior with offline customer data.000 large and small firms.S. • Page Tagging . allowing the administrator to select specific information to present. or other custom metrics as needed. sales and lead information. Optimize www. gives enterprise organizations the ability to . Working Technology There are two main technological approaches to collecting the data.[2] Products Webtrends is a Web analytics suite available in both software and software as a service models.Reads the log files in which the web server records all its transactions. It has a large number of configuration parameters. It provides web analytics and other software solutions related to marketing intelligence. The report presentation interface is highly configurable. and can present a large variety of data and analyses on many different kinds of web sites. This insight. For example. DW Webtrends Webtrends Optimize Webtrends Social Measurement. combined with analysis and multi-dimensional reporting. Visitor Data Mart. Analytics. On Demand & On Premises Visitors Data Mart. user performance data such as click heat mapping. which collects and presents information about user behavior on web sites as well as mobile devices running various operating systems. Oregon. Key people Products Website Alex Yoder. U.uses JavaScript on each page to notify a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. JavaScript and other Web technologies in detail. direct mail campaign data. United States. Apps. CEO Ads. • Log File Analysis . Webtrends Apps Marketing Channel Data Webtrends Ads In addition. the products can be classified into: Data Captured Client/Server Side Data Data Warehouse Usability Testing Data User behavioural Data Webtrends Solution Offerings Webtrends Analytics. and requires the administrator to understand HTML. other data sources may also be added to augment the data. Oregon.webtrends.

com/ portland/ stories/ 2007/ 10/ 29/ daily29.1 billion in stock. dll/ article?AID=/ 20080819/ FREE/ 991465). [9] "Webtrends Acquires Social Marketing Company Transpond. The product was rebranded and relaunched as Webtrends Optimize the day the acquisition was made public. 2006-12-04. com/ portland/ stories/ 2007/ 10/ 29/ daily39. bizjournals. Aliza (2007-11-01). [5] "Webtrends Acquires ClickShift" (http:/ / www. 2008-08-19. htm).bizjournals. . The product was rebranded as Webtrends Apps at the time of the announcement. "Should Cyclists Pay A Road Tax?". . www.[11] The aim of the campaign was to demonstrate the ability of the company's Web analytics to track the resulting online commentary around the issue.bizjournals.[3] :) Acquisitions Webtrends acquired ClickShift. "Webtrends sale not imminent" (http:/ / www. which includes its analytics and marketing warehouse products. com/ apps/ pbcs. Retrieved 2009-07-03.[3] In 1999 they took it public." (http:/ / blogs. Retrieved 2008-02-07. html). a provider of multivariate testing and targeting on July 30th.[5] ClickShift's technology was integrated into Webtrends' Marketing Lab suite. "Put to the Test: Webtrends Analytics 8" (http:/ / www. com/ portland/ stories/ 2006/ 12/ 04/ daily2. 95 Corporate history W.bizjournals. .com/portland. . btobonline. the product was relaunched as Webtrends Ad Director.com/portland. raising $45." (http:/ / www. [10] "New full-train MAX ad asks: Should cyclists pay road tax?" (http:/ / blog. Retrieved 2010-11-25. Webtrends launched a transit ad campaign revolving around whether or not cyclists should pay a road tax. later reports indicated the change signaled a long-term move. and targeting. . [9] Controversy In 2009. BtoB Online. html). [6] In August 2008. www.[4] Although there was initial speculation the company was to be quickly sold to its largest competitor. [7] "Webtrends appoints new president-CEO" (http:/ / www. Intelligent Enterprise.Webtrends answer questions that are critical to improving marketing ROI. webtrends. html). [8] "Official Webtrends Company Blog . an automated optimization solution in online advertising.[11] References [1] http:/ / www. Glen Boyd and Eli Shapira founded the company in 1993. Retrieved 2008-03-06. marketwire. Retrieved 2008-08-21. com/ press-release/ Webtrends-Acquires-Social-Marketing-Company-Transpond-1302371. optimization. Retrieved 2008-01-31. www. webtrends. [8] Webtrends acquired San Francisco based Transpond. [3] Earnshaw. com [2] Kemelor. . with strident opinion on both sides of the debate. oregonlive. 2009-07-02. com/ commuting/ 2009/ 07/ new_max_ad_should_cyclists_pay. marketingvox. bizjournals. 2006-12-05. . The ad asked. Retrieved 2007-11-03. MarketingVOX. Phil (2007-05-21). then sold it to Francisco Partners four years later for $94 million. The offering was re-branded as Webtrends Dynamic Search. html). Retrieved 2007-11-03. bizjournals. com/ blog/ 2009/ 07/ 30/ we-acquired-widemile-a-leader-in-multivariate-testing-optimization-and-targeting/ ).[3] In 2001 California company NetIQ bought Webtrends for $1. [6] "Webtrends Buys Optimization Firm ClickShift" (http:/ / www.com/portland. [7] Webtrends acquired Seattle based Widemile.5 million. in December 2006. "Webtrends CEO gone" (http:/ / www. . [4] Earnshaw. .[3] The CEO plus three top vice presidents were asked to leave on October 31. a leader in multivariate testing. jhtml?articleID=199700517). a maker of social microsites and applications that can be distributed over the web or Facebook.We acquired Widemile. . intelligententerprise. Retrieved 2010-11-25. com/ archives/ 2006/ 12/ 05/ webtrends-buys-optimization-firm-clickshift/ ). 2007. Aliza (2007-10-31). com/ showArticle. 2009.[10] Both drivers and the cycling community reacted strongly to the ad.

With the internet. . and why they did or didn't convert. oregonlive. what products they were qualified for. com/ business/ index. Win-loss analytics tools track the individual perspectives of each visitor. Win-loss analytics vs. This information allows web teams to improve the website's navigation and content. 96 Win–loss analytics Win-loss analytics involves identifying and analyzing the reasons why a visitor to a website was or wasn't persuaded to engage in a desired action (conversion).com. marketing has been mostly concerned with targeting with the masses. In contrast. html). 2009). These tools provide a bird's eye view of a website's traffic. The information that is gathered allows webmasters to make informed decisions about making changes in order to improve a website. it is much easier for marketers to collect data for analysis and evaluation in order to understand and demonstrate the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of their efforts and to make changes to improve them. where measurement of conversion has always been possible through sales data. web analytics Web analytics tools have existed since the early days of the internet and are now ubiquitous.Webtrends [11] Rogoway. OregonLive. ssf/ 2009/ 07/ ads_on_bike_road_tax_have_bike. how well they were persuaded. and the results of marketing have traditionally been more difficult to accurately measure. "Ads on bike tax have cyclists fuming" (http:/ / www. identify individuals that are more likely to convert. . uncovering who the visitor was. Mike (Thursday July 02. to improve marketing efforts History Determining why one person engaged in a desired action and another did not has long been a topic of interest in sales.

[2] [3] [4] Reception Washington Post calls Woopra an "impressive live tracking and analytics service". tv/ introducing-woopra-youre-gonna-want-it) TechCrunch on Woopra (http:/ / www. com/ 2008/ 03/ 30/ stats-junkies-get-another-fix-woopra/ ) Mashable on Woopra (http:/ / mashable. As part of the launch a video of a live demonstration and an interview with CEO John Pozadzides conducted by Cali Lewis was published online. Launch Woopra was unveiled as a closed beta at WordPress's WordCamp Dallas on March 29.[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. Chief Information Officer and Co-Founder Jad Younan. Blog Editor and Community Manager Woopra Web Analytics woopra. Texas (2008) Headquarters .com [1] Products Website Woopra (pronounced /ˈwuːprə/) is a web analytics service offered by iFusion Labs LLC that generates live detailed statistics about the visitors to a website. going on to say "what makes Woopra so special? Real Time". Chief Executive Officer. com/ GeekBrief on Woopra (http:/ / www.Woopra 97 Woopra Woopra iFusion Labs LLC Type Industry Founded Web Services Technology Dallas. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 10/ 12/ AR2009101203088. 2008. com/ 2008/ 03/ 30/ woopra/ ) Woopra Opens Its Doors For Live Web Analytics (http:/ / www. where 200 invitations were distributed to attendees. The service is provided in real-time using a desktop application. geekbrief. Google Analytics. html) . washingtonpost. USA Key people Elie Khoury. Chief Technology Officer and Co-Founder John Pozadzides. CEO Lorelle VanFossen. unlike the leading competitor. woopra. techcrunch.

video. Ads may be rotated with each new page load. within a single page load. the ad is selected on the server and the corresponding HTML markup is generated and then served. With server-side ad rotation. client-side and service-based.Ad rotation 98 Ad rotation Ad rotation is the practice of showing multiple advertisements in a single location on a web page. channel selection (content. management features such as color selection. References • Rotating Advertisements on Your Site: http://www. or both.logicaltips.com/LPMArticle. Client-side ad rotation typically involves JavaScript of some sort (either straight client-side JavaScript or else AJAX calls to the server. etc. • Keep advertising "fresh". ad rotation can be accomplished in multiple ways. Service-based ad rotation is similar to client-side ad rotation in that it typically involves placing a small amount of JavaScript in the web page. they are typically the same format. Ad rotation software. known as ad rotators. but the JavaScript calls against a third-party service that provides its own management interface for specifying ad delivery options. Google's AdSense service is an example of service-based ad rotation. If the ad never changes. allowing advertisers to see how often ads were displayed and clicked for service-based ad rotation. commonly provide features such as the following: • • • • image management display weighting to control the frequency and duration of individual ads reporting. • For content-rich sites. Because the ads are placed in the same location. The goals of ad rotation include: • Allow publishing sites to serve ads for multiple advertisers. search.) and payment management Technical implementation Technically.asp?ID=89 . increase exposure to advertising by showing multiple ads per page load instead of just one. The three most common approaches are server-side. users are more likely to ignore it. filtering competitor ads.

Internet marketing news 2009 . which are measured by higher CTRs.7% of online advertising spend in the UK[3] . According to Search Engine Journal. ATO and Advertising Recently in the UK. and search engines benefit by offering their user customers more efficient search experiences. PPC Ads make up the lion’s share of this market and some argue that its future growth will in part be fuelled by ATO becoming an ever more integral part of the writing of PPC Ads. For Users the benefit of ATO is to make PPC Ads more relevant to their searches. This has been commentated on by many in the marketing and advertising fraternity as evidence that PPC Ads now constitute an established part of the marketing mix. reward more efficient PPC Ads with higher Quality Scores. At the heart of Ad Text Optimization (ATO) lies a specialist type of direct response copywriting which can be augmented by an Ad Text Optimization (ATO) algorithm that measures the response effectiveness of Ad Text copy. Higher Quality Scores also result in PPC Ads appearing on earlier search pages. PPC Ads have come under the scrutiny of the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA). For advertisers ATO is delivers more clicks. “AdWords text ads are small and in some ways unassuming – when you think about testing landing pages it’s obvious that there are elements that could make a big impact. ATO and Quality Score Many search engines.15 billion in 2009 representing 60. less browsers”. The higher the Quality Score of a PPC Ad the lower the bid price the advertiser has to pay each time a User clicks on the relevant Keywords that triggers the PPC Ad appearing. and Google publishes its Overview of Optimizing Ad Text on its elearning centre. References [1] Search Engine Journal . ATO can play a key role in increasing a PPC AD’s Quality Score.” PPC Ads are triggered to appear on search engine pages when Users search with keywords which match those selected by the PPC Advertiser. leading to more sales and increased Return On Investment (ROI). but it’s sometimes less intuitive that ad text tests can and often do have an equally big impact on results [1] . search is now a significant advertising medium in its own right with the paid search market worth almost £2.Ad text optimization 99 Ad text optimization Ad Text Optimization (ATO) Ad Text Optimization (ATO) is the process of improving the performance of a text Pay Per Click (PPC) Advertisement on search engines by improving its Click Through Rate (CTR) performance both in terms of volume and quality of response. According to the UK’s Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB). saying that “Ad text plays a crucial role in determining the success of your AdWords advertising [2] .” ATO and SEO ATO in PPC advertising is viewed by many in marketing as the equivalent of SEO (Search Engine Optimization) for natural search in that they both improve the visibility of websites. When PPC Ads are clicked on they take the User through to a designated page on the advertiser’s website and a fee is paid to the search engine for the click. that is “more buyers. Google being the most notable example.Ad Text Optimization – What to Test (and When)? Dec 2010 [2] Google eLearning Centre 2011 [3] Internet Advertising Bureau .

and other factors. Many websites use AdSense to monetize their content. Those wanting to advertise with Google's targeted advertisement system may enroll through AdWords. including but not limited to online advertising. image. com/ adsense [2] Google AdSense is an ad serving application run by Google Inc. These advertisements are administered by Google and generate revenue on either a per-click or per-impression basis. They use a wide range of traffic-generating techniques. 2003 [1] Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Online advertising http:/ / www. through AdSense. The phrases accepted are "Sponsored Links" and "Advertisements". To fill a website with advertisements that are relevant to the topics discussed. which pay out the most when they are clicked.AdSense 100 AdSense Google AdSense Developer(s) Initial release Google Inc. AdSense has been particularly important for delivering advertising revenue to small websites that do not have the resources for developing advertising sales programs and sales people. as noted in a number of publisher case studies on the AdSense website. for any given click received. Websites that are content-rich have been very successful with this advertising program. . Website owners can enroll in this program to enable text. it is the most popular advertising network. which in turn has a complex pricing model based on a Vickrey second price auction. Overview Google uses its Internet search technology to serve advertisements based on website content. 3. and video advertisements on their websites.. Google [4] earned US$2.[3] In Q1 2011.e. AdSense has become a popular method of placing advertising on a website because the advertisements are less intrusive than most banners. They build valuable content on their websites that attracts AdSense advertisements. Some webmasters invest significant effort into maximizing their own AdSense income. Google beta tested a cost-per-action service. but discontinued it in October 2008 in favor of a DoubleClick offering (also owned by Google). The source of all AdSense income is the AdWords program. 2. They use text content on their websites that encourages visitors to click on advertisements. June 18.34 billion ($9. or 28% of total revenue. Google currently shares 68% of revenues generated by AdSense with content network [5] partners. Additionally. advertisers only pay one bid increment above the second-highest bid. google. the user's geographical location. and the content of the advertisements is often relevant to the website. a bid not observable by competitors). AdSense commands an advertiser to submit a sealed bid (i.36 billion annualized). webmasters implement a brief script on the websites' pages. They do this in three ways: 1. Note that Google prohibits webmasters from using phrases like "Click on my AdSense ads" to increase click rates.

when it became available to all AdSense users.[10] AdSense for video AdSense for video allows publishers with video content to generate revenue using ad placements from Google's extensive Advertising network including popular Youtube videos. which was developed over the previous 15 years by researchers at Princeton University. was started in 1998 by Gilad Elbaz and Adam Weissman. readers see relevant advertising—and in the long run. On December 12. According to the Official Google Blog. Google AdSense announced that it would now be offering new features. technologies such as PHP. When a user searches the Internet or the website with the search box. AdSense does not pay publishers for mere searches. Oingo developed a proprietary search algorithm that was based on word meanings and built upon an underlying lexicon called WordNet. Instead of traditional JavaScript code.[11] .[8] In 2009.. 2008. TechCrunch reported that AdSense for Domains is available for all US publishers.AdSense 101 History Oingo. led by George Miller. AdSense for mobile content AdSense for mobile content allows publishers to generate earnings from their mobile websites using targeted Google advertisements. Types AdSense for Feeds In May 2005. including the ability to "enable multiple networks to display ads". Just like AdSense for content. "advertisers have their ads placed in the most appropriate feed articles. a version of AdSense that runs on RSS and Atom feeds that have more than 100 active subscribers.[6] Oingo changed its name to Applied Semantics in 2001. This offers domain name owners a way to monetize domain names that are otherwise dormant. Google shares 51% of the advertising revenue it makes from those searches with the website owner. AdSense for search A companion to the regular AdSense program. he or she is redirected to the advertiser's website in the same way as regular AdSense advertisements. Adsense for domains is currently being offered to some users. Google announced a limited-participation beta version of AdSense for Feeds. Google writes the advertising content into the image that it returns. When the image is displayed by a RSS reader or Web browser. a privately held company located in Los Angeles. Inc. publishers are paid for their original content. The advertisement content is chosen based on the content of the feed surrounding the image. Google matches advertisements to the content of a website — in this case. AdSense for search. ASP and others are used. When the user clicks the image. a mobile website.[5] However the publisher is paid only if the advertisements on the page are clicked. with plans to make it available to all in stages. allows website owners to place Google search boxes on their websites."[9] AdSense for Feeds works by inserting images into a feed. AdSense for domains Adsense for domains allows advertisements to be placed on domain names that have not been developed.[7] which was later acquired by Google in April 2003 for US$102 million. more quality feeds to choose from. 2008. AdSense for Feeds remained in its beta state until August 15.

a directory with content from the Open Directory Project. the AdSense advertisement units use the JavaScript method document. presentational attributes other than id.AdSense 102 XHTML compatibility As of September 2007. which does not work correctly when rendered with the application/xhtml+xml MIME type. and does not follow modern principles of website design because of its use of • • • • • non-standard end tags. which is not validated correctly with the XHTML 1. validation — there is currently no algorithmic method of determining whether a table is used "correctly" (for displaying tabular data or for displaying elements. or the price advertisers choose to pay for every thousand advertisements displayed.[18] The referral program was retired in August 2008.e. advertisements are served for those keywords based on the AdWords bidding system. (More details are described in the AdSense patent [15]. Possibly the most popular form of such "AdSense farms" are splogs (spam blogs).0 Transitional DOCTYPEs. thus preventing these participants from having valid XHTML websites. Google adds money to the advertiser's account when visitors either download the referred software or subscribe to the referred service. If keywords have been cached already.2 [12] but nevertheless does not cause a document to fail 1: using a table structure for unintended purposes is strongly discouraged by the W3C.g. the JavaScript code uses inlined JSON to display content fetched from Google's servers. non-tabular) purposes. which are centered around known high-paying keywords. Additionally. Many of these websites use content from .. it is possible for other website owners to copy the JavaScript code into their own webpages.[16] [17] • For referrals. To protect against this type of fraud. a workaround has been found by creating a separate HTML webpage containing only the AdSense advertisement units. The units also use the iframe HTML tag.0 Strict or XHTML 1.[14] How AdSense works • The webmaster inserts the AdSense JavaScript code into a webpage. These "zombie" websites often contain nothing but a large amount of interconnected.[13] This workaround appears to be accepted by Google. or style — for example.1 and the font tag. the HTML code for the AdSense search box does not validate as XHTML. class. • Because the JavaScript is sent to the Web browser when the page is requested.. Google's servers use a cache of the page to determine a set of high-value keywords. AdSense then ignores clicks from pages other than those specified. bgcolor and align. the attribute checked rather than checked="checked".[19] • Search advertisements are added to the list of results after the visitor performs a search. AdSense customers can specify the pages on which advertisements should be shown. 2: the font tag is deprecated but does not fail validation in any XHTML standard. The terms of the AdSense program forbid its affiliates from modifying the code. • For contextual advertisements. a table structure for purely presentational (i. automated content (e.) • For site-targeted advertisements.write(). such as </img> and </input>. the advertiser chooses the page(s) on which to display advertisements. and then importing this page into an XHTML webpage with an object tag. • Each time this page is visited. or scraper websites relying on RSS feeds for content). However. that get proportionally wider or narrower when browser window resizes in width without active client side scripting). Abuse Some webmasters create websites tailored to lure searchers from Google and other engines onto their AdSense website to make money from clicks. and pays based on cost per mille (CPM).

Google AdSense has been criticized by some search engine optimization firms as a large source of what Google calls "invalid clicks". Many website owners complain that their AdSense accounts have been disabled just before they were supposed to receive their first paycheck from Google.is taken. Your outstanding balance and Google's share of the revenue will both be fully refunded back to the affected advertisers. An automated email is sent to the publisher's owner which offers no reasoning. The payment terms for webmasters have also been criticized. These and related approaches are considered to be search engine spam and can be reported to Google.[28] AdSense sets tracking cookies that are viewed by some[29] as a threat to privacy. Google claims accounts have been disabled due to click fraud or forbidden content. It has been reported that using both AdSense and AdWords may cause a website to pay Google a commission when the website advertises itself." The revenue generated . or options but a link to file an appeal. Webmasters that use AdSense must place the appropriate warning in the privacy policy page. AdSense publishers can choose from a number of click-tracking programs. but due to complaints. in which one company clicks on a rival's search engine advertisements to drive up the other company's costs.[22] Google withholds payment until an account reaches US$100. For example. we've found it necessary to disable your AdSense account.com. Google states that "Because we have a responsibility to protect our AdWords advertisers from inflated costs due to invalid activity. However.88 per click. such as Wikipedia. Such pages were tolerated in the past. and all complaints are deferred. There have also been reports of Trojan horses engineered to produce counterfeit Google advertisements that are formatted looking like legitimate ones.AdSense other websites. to attract visitors.[21] To help prevent click fraud. The Trojan uploads itself onto an unsuspecting user's computer through a webpage and then replaces the original advertisements with its own set of malicious advertisements. Publishers can use this to determine whether or not they have been a victim of click fraud. Google now disables such accounts. A Made for AdSense (MFA) website or webpage has little or no content. 103 Criticism Due to alleged concerns about click fraud. These programs display detailed information about the visitors who click on the AdSense advertisements. but is filled with advertisements so that users have no choice but to click on advertisements.[24] Google came under fire when the official Google AdSense Blog showcased the French video website Imineo.[30] . Google will pay all earned revenue greater than US$10 when an AdSense account is closed and not disabled.whether legitimate or not . AdSense displays inappropriate or offensive ads.64 to $0. in a news story about a terrorist attack in India. This website violated Google's AdSense Program Policies by displaying AdSense alongside sexually explicit material.[23] but many micro content providers require a long time—years in some cases—to build up this much AdSense revenue. In the email. but have offered no proof of this.[27] In some cases. websites displaying AdSense have been banned from showing such content. Typically. an advert was generated for a (presumably non-existent) educational qualification in terrorism. There are a number of commercial tracking scripts available for purchase.[25] Some sites have been banned for distributing copyrighted material even when they hold the copyright themselves or are authorized by [26] the copyright holder to distribute the material.[20] Users have reported that they also pay a range from $0.

py?answer=54411& topic=13175). and comments" (http:/ / www. Google [2] http:/ / www. 2007-12-29. net/ 2008/ 07/ 01/ google-yanks-adsense-referral-program-offers-shoddy-surrogate/ ). 2009-08-20. businessweek. infotoday.anta. py?answer=25890& topic=11724). Q2 2010" (http:/ / investor. "Adding AdSense to application/xhtml+xml pages" (http:/ / www. 2008. . . co. Bloomberg Businessweek. "Google’s YouTube Boosts Display Advertisers 10-Fold (Update1)" (http:/ / www. com/ documents/ 20100630_google_10Q. [29] Criticism of AdSense cookies (http:/ / www. [7] "Google Buys Applied Semantics" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. google. html) [30] Google AdSense terms (https:/ / www. py?answer=57153). com/ adsense/ localized-terms) . com/ showPage. uspto. . 2003-04-24. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. . blog. google. html). . 456bereastreet. [28] "Google's Worst Ads Ever (GOOG)" (http:/ / www. py?answer=48182& sourceid=aso& subid=ww-ww-et-asui& medium=link). Press Release. html). Retrieved 2010-05-03. [27] "BE CAREFUL when using both AdSense + AdWords by Google" (http:/ / blog. [18] "Google AdSense Help Center: What is the referrals feature?" (https:/ / www. wired. 2003.net. Info Today. . . html). google. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool. Retrieved 2009-10-06. com/ news/ 2010-05-03/ google-s-youtube-boosts-display-advertisers-10-fold-update1-. . Google AdSense Help Center. com/ 2008/ 12/ 12/ adsense-for-domains-now-available-for-all-us-publishers/ ). google. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. htm). "Content negotiation. [23] "When do I get paid?" (https:/ / www. 2003-04-23. google. com/ press/ pressrel/ adsense. html). html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PG01& s1=20040059708& OS=20040059708& RS=20040059708 [16] "Google AdSense Help Center: What are CPM ads?" (http:/ / adwords. com/ internet/ 2005/ 27/ a-trojan-horse-program-that-targets-google-ads-has-been-detected-by-an-indian-web-publisher/ ). Incisive Interactive Marketing LLC. 01/ fraud. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. 2009-02-19. Wired. . Retrieved 2007-12-29. anta. html). 2007-12-29. google. w3. [25] "Adult content" (https:/ / www. com/ press/ pressrel/ applied. Retrieved May 10. Retrieved 2010-09-08. com/ archive/ 200409/ content_negotiation_adsense_and_comments/ ). [19] "Google yanks AdSense referral program. . colnect. Google AdSense Help Center. html). com/ support/ bin/ answer. google. ISSN 1797-1993. [15] http:/ / appft1. [22] Lem Bingley (2007-02-01). 2011. "Official Google Blog: Feed me" (http:/ / googleblog. techcrunch. . [8] "Google Acquires Applied Semantics" (http:/ / www. [5] "Google Form 10-Q. uk/ menu/ adsense. TechShout. html). com/ ads/ sitetargeted. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer.AdSense 104 References [1] Google Expands Advertising Monetization Program for Websites (http:/ / www. html). businessinsider. html?page=2196001). com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. 2010-07-15. [9] Shuman Ghosemajumder (2005-05-17). com/ 2005/ 05/ feed-me. Robin Wauters. html). offers shoddy surrogate" (http:/ / blog. com/ newsbreaks/ nb1220-2. org/ TR/ CSS2/ tables. computing. AdSense. [6] Paula J. py?answer=97264) [4] "Google Announces First Quarter 2011 Financial Results" (http:/ / investor. "How click fraud could swallow the internet" (http:/ / www. [24] "Disabled Account FAQ . [14] Roger Johansson (2004-09-01). co. . com/ earnings/ 2011/ Q1_google_earnings. google. 2007-12-29. Retrieved 2008-07-01. html). IT Week. . . 2010-11-08. com/ adsense [3] What happened to the pay-per-action beta? (http:/ / adwords. uk/ 2007/ 02/ google-keeps-co.AdSense Help" (http:/ / www. scroogle. [20] Benaifer Jah (2005-12-27). June 18. com/ support/ bin/ answer. "Beyond Keyword Searching" (http:/ / www. google. [26] "Google AdSense Program Policies" (https:/ / www. Google. google. Mann (January 2006). blogspot. py?answer=9905). cssplay. com/ wired/ archive/ 14. py?hl=en& answer=105957). Retrieved 2008-02-02. . html). . google. . Hane (1999-12-20). com/ 2009/ 02/ be-careful-when-using-both-adsense. [10] AdSense For Domains Now Available For All US Publishers (http:/ / www. [21] Charles C. "Google keeps on coining it in" (http:/ / lembingley. google. techshout. "Tables" (http:/ / www. 2007-12-29. Dec 12. org/ adsense. [13] Stu Nicholls. "Trojan Horse program that targets Google AdSense ads" (http:/ / www. . google. [12] W3C. [17] "Google AdWords: All About Site-Targeted Ads" (http:/ / www. . . . 2008-07-01. Press release. google. . com/ googles-worst-ads-ever-2009-8). html). Retrieved 2008-02-02. TechCrunch [11] Brian Womack (2010-05-03).

Geffen realized that CDNOW could link directly from the artist on its website to Geffen's website. where users are rewarded with cash or gifts. Affiliate marketing—using one website to drive traffic to another—is a form of online marketing.com (Amazon) launched its associate program in July 1996: Amazon associates could place banner or text links on their site for individual books.[4] During November 1994. because affiliates often use regular advertising methods. e-mail. The market has grown in complexity to warrant a secondary tier of players. paid search engine marketing. These websites could also offer a link that would take the visitor directly to CDNOW to purchase the albums. The industry has four core players: the merchant (also known as 'retailer' or 'brand'). and in some sense display advertising. e-mail marketing.com/) — Google's official weblog on AdSense Affiliate marketing Affiliate marketing is a marketing practice in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought about by the affiliate's own marketing efforts. the network. Amazon was not the first merchant to offer an affiliate program. but did not want to implement this capability itself. Affiliate marketing overlaps with other Internet marketing methods to some degree.blogspot. and website syndication capture much of the attention of online retailers.AdSense 105 External links • Google AdSense (http://www. Those methods include organic search engine optimization. which is frequently overlooked by advertisers. affiliates continue to play a significant role in e-retailers' marketing strategies. On the other hand. and the referral of others to the site.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool. Still. affiliate marketing carries a much lower profile. The management at Geffen wanted to sell its artists' CDs directly from its website.adsense. the publisher (also known as 'the affiliate'). super-affiliates and specialized third party vendors.com/) • Google AdSense patent application (http://appft1. [5] bypassing the CDNOW home page and going directly to an artist's music page.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PG01& s1=20040059708&OS=20040059708&RS=20040059708) • Inside AdSense (http://adsense.[2] History Origin The concept of revenue sharing—paying commission for referred business—predates affiliate marketing and the Internet. The translation of the revenue share principles to mainstream e-commerce happened in November 1994[3] . the associate received a commission.uspto. for the completion of an offer. Geffen asked CDNOW if it could design a program where CDNOW would handle the order fulfillment. almost four years after the origination of the World Wide Web. but its program was the first to become widely known and serve as a model for subsequent programs. Cybererotica was among the early innovators in affiliate marketing with a cost per click program. such as publishing reviews of products or services offered by a partner. and the customer.[7] [8] .[6] When visitors clicked from the associate's website through to Amazon and purchased a book. Amazon. affiliates sometimes use less orthodox techniques. or link directly to the Amazon home page. including affiliate management agencies. CDNOW had the idea that music-oriented websites could review or list albums on their pages that their visitors may be interested in purchasing. Examples include rewards sites.[1] While search engines. CDNOW launched its BuyWeb program. The idea for remote purchasing originally arose because of conversations with music label Geffen Records in the fall of 1994.

the total sales amount generated through affiliate networks in 2006 was £2.com (October 1994).[10] MarketingSherpa's research team estimated that. While these models have diminished in mature e-commerce and online advertising markets they are still prevalent in some more nascent industries. EPage (April 1996). However. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement. travel. and several others. Kbkids.35 billion in sales in 2005. Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his website and display it to his visitors in order to receive a commission. AutoWeb. education. publishing.com/BrainPlay. and forms of lead generation other than contextual advertising programs. Contextual advertising programs are not considered in the statistic pertaining to diminished use of cost per click. but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website.5 billion in bounty and commissions from a variety of sources in retail.[11] Currently the most active sectors for affiliate marketing are the adult. personal finance. these compensation methods are used heavily in display advertising and paid search.[12] Soon after these sectors came the entertainment (particularly gaming) and Internet-related services (particularly broadband) sectors. The patent application was submitted in June 1997. as it is uncertain if contextual advertising can be considered affiliate marketing.[12] The three sectors expected to experience the greatest growth are the mobile phone. The new media allowed merchants to become closer to their affiliates and improved the communication between them. became an integrated part of the overall business plan and in some cases grew to a bigger business than the existing offline business. affiliates worldwide earned US$6.com (October 1995). The estimates were £1. but not PC Flowers & Gifts. Amazon announced that it had been granted a patent[9] on components of an affiliate program. The e-commerce website.[4] 106 Historic development Affiliate marketing has grown quickly since its inception. According to one report. viewed as a marketing toy in the early days of the Internet. gaming and gambling.0 Websites and services based on Web 2. less than one percent of traditional affiliate marketing programs today use cost per click and cost per mille.[12] Web 2. which predates most affiliate programs.[15] Diminished compensation methods Within more mature markets. but has diminished in use over time due to click fraud issues very similar to the click fraud issues modern search engines are facing today. retail industries and file-sharing services. Also several of the affiliate solution providers expect to see increased interest from business-to-business marketers and advertisers in using affiliate marketing as part of their mix. finance. telecom.com (January 1996). gambling. in 2006. and the remaining programs use other methods such as cost per click (CPC) or cost per mille (CPM). China is one example where Affiliate Marketing does not overtly resemble the same . Cost per click was more common in the early days of affiliate marketing.[13] [14] Compensation methods Predominant compensation methods Eighty percent of affiliate programs today use revenue sharing or cost per sale (CPS) as a compensation method.16 billion in the United Kingdom alone. nineteen percent use cost per action (CPA). and travel sectors.Affiliate marketing In February 2000.0 concepts—blogging and interactive online communities. for example—have impacted the affiliate marketing world as well.

however. Such employees are typically paid a commission for each sale they close. . all future activities performed by publishers "B" and "C" will result in additional commission (at a lower rate) for publisher "A". in reference to how sales employees are typically being compensated. Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives commission. is not completely accurate. Affiliate marketing is also called "performance marketing". most are simply one-tier. but the compensation models applied to affiliate marketing are very similar to the ones used for people in the advertisers' internal sales department. and sometimes are paid performance incentives for exceeding targeted baselines. Multi-tier programs Some advertisers offer multi-tier programs that distribute commission into a hierarchical referral network of sign-ups and sub-partners. 107 Performance marketing In the case of cost per mille/click. If publisher "A" attracts publishers "B" and "C" to sign up for the same program using his sign-up code. The primary difference between the two is that affiliate marketers provide little if any influence on a possible prospect in the conversion process once that prospect is directed to the advertiser's website. The risk and loss is shared between the affiliate and the advertiser. It is in the best interest for the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. In practical terms. the publisher is not concerned about a visitor being a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert. Two-tier programs exist in the minority of affiliate programs. With many affiliates being paid a flat "Cost Per Day" with some networks offering Cost Per Click or CPM. publisher "A" signs up to the program with an advertiser and gets rewarded for the agreed activity conducted by a referred visitor. in case of cost per mille. "Affiliates are an extended sales force for your business". which is often used to explain affiliate marketing. Referral programs beyond two-tier resemble multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing but are different: Multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing associations tend to have more complex commission requirements/qualifications than standard affiliate programs. The sales team of the advertiser. This leaves the greater.Affiliate marketing model in the West. The advertiser must convert that visitor first. does have the control and influence up to the point where the prospect signs the contract or completes the purchase. the full risk and loss (if the visitor can not be converted) to the advertiser.[16] Affiliates are not employed by the advertiser whose products or services they promote. and. The phrase. because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission.

In some areas online media has been rising to the sophistication of offline media. affiliate marketing is not easily scalable.[17] Some businesses owe much of their success to this marketing technique.Affiliate marketing 108 From the advertiser perspective Pros and cons Merchants favor affiliate marketing because in most cases it uses a "pay for performance" model. and those requirements are becoming too burdensome for the merchant to manage successfully in-house. "auto-drive"). it is rare for an affiliate program to generate considerable revenue with poor management or no management (i.[19] trademark infringement. who use spamming. Affiliate management and program management outsourcing Successful affiliate programs require significant work and maintenance. being noticed can yield greater rewards. which are [21] OPM companies perform affiliate often founded by veteran affiliate managers and network program managers. false advertising. Recently. There are significantly more requirements that merchants must meet to be successful.e.[20] and other unethical methods that have given affiliate marketing a negative reputation.com. Unlike display advertising. however. typically called affiliate networks. Having a successful affiliate program is more difficult than when such programs were just emerging. Merchants can choose from two different types of affiliate management solutions: standalone software or hosted services. by the network. typosquatting. program management for the merchants as a service. The increased number of Internet businesses and the increased number of people that trust the current technology enough to shop and do business online allows further maturation of affiliate marketing. however...e. Uncontrolled affiliate programs did—and continue to do so today—aid rogue affiliates. the Internet marketing industry has become more advanced. . meaning that the merchant does not incur a marketing expense unless results are accrued (excluding any initial setup cost). Payouts to affiliates or publishers are either made by the networks on behalf of the merchant. in-house) affiliate programs using popular software while others use third-party services provided by intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates (see outsourced program management). With the exception of some vertical markets. a notable example being Amazon. "cookie cutting". The opportunity to generate a considerable amount of profit combined with a crowded marketplace filled with competitors of equal quality and size makes it more difficult for merchants to be noticed.[18] Implementation options Some merchants run their own (i. similar to advertising agencies promoting a brand or product as done in offline marketing. consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself. In this environment. in which advertising has been largely professional and competitive. An increasing number of merchants are seeking alternative options found in relatively new outsourced (affiliate) program management (OPM) companies.

e. typically characterized by providing a reward system for purchases via points back. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Search affiliates that utilize pay per click search engines to promote the advertisers' offers (i. Relevant websites that attract the same target audiences as the advertiser but without competing with it are potential affiliate partners as well. or other features based on information that changes frequently. Adsense) to display context-sensitive. cash back CRM sites that offer charitable donations Coupon and rebate websites that focus on sales promotions Content and niche market websites. price comparisons. movies.. There are currently no industry-wide accepted standards for the categorization.. Publisher recruitment Affiliate networks that already have several advertisers typically also have a large pool of publishers.. Video Blog: Video content that allows viewers to click on and purchase products related to the video's subject. owners of large opt-in -mail lists that typically employ e-mail drip marketing) and newsletter list affiliates. although high-traffic websites are more likely interested in (for their own sake) low-risk cost per mille or medium-risk cost per click deals rather than higher-risk [22] cost per action or revenue share deals. Uploaders are paid by the file-hosting sites based on the number of times their files are downloaded. and there is also an increased chance that publishers in the network apply to the program on their own. which are typically more content-heavy Registration path or co-registration affiliates who include offers from other merchants during the registration process on their own website Shopping directories that list merchants by categories without providing coupons. .g. yet are commonly understood and used by affiliate marketers.e. The web sites that host the directory services sell advertising and do not host the files themselves.Affiliate marketing 109 Types of affiliate websites Affiliate websites are often categorized by merchants (i.. The file-hosting sites sell premium download access to the files to the general public.e. search arbitrage) Comparison shopping websites and directories Loyalty websites. top-tier affiliates) that expose offers from the advertiser with which they are affiliated to their own network of affiliates Websites using adbars (e. These publishers could be potentially recruited. thus requiring continual updates Cost per action networks (i. Almost any website could be recruited as an affiliate publisher. highly relevant ads for products on the site Virtual Currency: a new type of publisher that utilizes the social media space to couple an advertiser's offer with a handout of "virtual currency" in a game or virtual platform. without the need for recruitment efforts by the advertiser. Users upload content (usually in violation of copyright) to file-hosting sites. File-Sharing: Web sites that host directories of music. games and other software. and then post descriptions of the material and their download links on directory sites. The following types of websites are generic. Vendors or existing customers can also become recruits if doing so makes sense and does not violate any laws or regulations.e. advertisers) and affiliate networks. including product review sites Personal websites Weblogs and website syndication feeds E-mail list affiliates (i.

which only contain links leading to merchant sites.[23] As affiliate marketing matured. Spam is the biggest threat to organic search engines. To avoid this categorization. 2. or "webmasters"—usually in the footer or "About" section of the website.e. an affiliate link leading to a sporting goods website may work well within the context of the articles and information about sports. adware. and 3. some affiliate marketers have shifted from sending e-mail spam to creating automatically generated webpages that often contain product data feeds provided by merchants.) If the above locations do not yield information pertaining to affiliates. it may be the case that there exists a non-public affiliate program. (Websites that offer an affiliate program often have a link titled "affiliate program". The goal in this case is to publish quality information within the website and provide context-oriented links to related merchant's websites. many Internet users held negative opinions due to the tendency of affiliates to use spam to promote the programs in which they were enrolled.[24] Websites consisting mostly of affiliate links have previously held a negative reputation for underdelivering quality content. Unscrupulous affiliates have used spam. Utilizing one of the common website correlation methods may provide clues about the affiliate network. The most definitive method for finding this information is to contact the website owner directly. The goal of such webpages is to manipulate the relevancy or prominence of resources indexed by a search engine. affiliate marketer webmasters must create quality content on their websites that distinguishes their work from the work of spammers or banner farms. whose goal is to provide quality search results for keywords or phrases entered by their users. Although many affiliate programs have terms of service that contain rules against spam. For instance. and other methods to drive traffic to their sponsors. also known as spamdexing. "referral program". there has been little control over affiliate activity.[25] Such websites were either removed from Google's index or were relocated within the results page (i. an affiliate link leading to a merchant's Internet service provider (ISP) within that website's content would be appropriate. false advertising. where certain websites were labeled as "thin affiliates". Search engine spam As search engines have become more prominent. forced clicks (to get tracking cookies set on users' computers). "affiliates". This update thus enabled Google to remove a large amount of mostly computer-generated duplicate content from its index. . many affiliate merchants have refined their terms and conditions to prohibit affiliates from spamming. moved from the top-most results to a lower position). if a website contains information pertaining to publishing a website. Affiliate program directories.. Google's PageRank algorithm update ("BigDaddy") in February 2006—the final stage of Google's major update ("Jagger") that began in mid-summer 2005—specifically targeted spamdexing with great success. Past and current issues Since the emergence of affiliate marketing. with the result being a skewed form of search engine optimization. Each page can be targeted to a different niche market through the use of specific keywords. Large affiliate networks that provide the platform for dozens or even hundreds of advertisers. In 2005 there were active changes made by Google.Affiliate marketing 110 Locating affiliate programs There are three primary ways to locate affiliate programs for a target website: 1. E-mail spam In the infancy of affiliate marketing. this marketing method has historically proven to attract abuse from spammers. If a website contains information pertaining to sports. Some commentators originally suggested that Affiliate links work best in the context of the information contained within the website itself. if a contact method can be located. The target website itself.

as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission [26] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum. especially because they noticed that adware often overwrites tracking cookies. These thin content service Affiliate fall into three categories: • Price comparison • Cause related marketing • Time saving 111 Virus and Trojan distribution through advertising networks Server farms hosting advertising content are periodically infected by hackers who alter the behavior of these servers such that the content they serve to end-users includes hidden I-frames and other exploits that leverage vulnerabilities in various web-browsers and operating systems for the purpose of infecting those systems with malware. adware continues to be an issue. Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. Most of this activity adds time and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter. and how it could damage their brands. and not the advertising network that was linked to. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser. more recent examples exist of "thin" affiliate sites that are using the Affiliate Marketing model to create value for Consumers by offering them a service. Adware Although it differs from spyware.[29] . SpyBot. pop-up blockers. Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program.) and particularly. 2007. complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers. and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking. Adware often has no valuable purpose and rarely provides any useful content to the user. thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts.[27] and ShareASale's Junction/beFree and Performics. etc. Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user.[28] Regardless of the progress made. Merchants initially were uninformed about adware. by the website (commonly users themselves do not understand or appreciate there is a distinction).Affiliate marketing However. Consumer Countermeasures The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and web-sites. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Affiliate marketers became aware of the issue much more quickly. the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. Eventually. Affiliates not employing adware felt that it was stealing commission from them. affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. who is typically unaware that such software is installed on his/her computer. End users frequently confuse the source of their computer infection with a particular website they were viewing at the time. Third party programs (Ad Aware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates. thus resulting in a decline of commissions. adware often uses the same methods and technologies. what impact it had.

which is responsible for the widespread use and acceptance of pay per click as an advertising channel. affiliate networks. This "frontier" life combined with the attitude found in such communities is likely the main reason why the affiliate marketing industry is unable to self-regulate beyond individual contracts between advertisers and affiliates. which can quickly become out of date. Larger affiliates may even be sponsored by an advertiser they promote.[33] . Affiliates are often the first to take advantage of emerging trends and technologies. and trademarks. capable of generating US$10. and service providers such as outsourced program managers—to congregate at one location.Affiliate marketing 112 Trademark bidding Affiliates were among the earliest adopters of pay per click advertising when the first pay-per-click search engines emerged during the end of the 1990s. did and still do embrace this behavior. when a single network tried to impose the use of a Javascript tracking code as a replacement for common HTML links on its affiliates. An increasing number of merchants engaged in pay per click advertising. Several advertisers began to adjust their affiliate program terms to prohibit their affiliates from bidding on those type of keywords. however. affiliates to bid on any term.[32] or suggest strategies no longer endorsed or permitted by advertisers. and provide anonymity. the quantitative majority of industry members are unable to create any form of legally binding rule or regulation that must be followed throughout the industry. Later in 2000 Google launched its pay per click service. and only a few college instructors work with Internet marketers to introduce the subject to students majoring in marketing. enable small affiliates to have a larger say.[31] Lack of industry standards Certification and training Affiliate marketing currently lacks industry standards for training and certification. the largest issue concerned affiliates bidding on advertisers names. some so-called "how-to" or "silver bullet" books instruct readers to manipulate holes in the Google algorithm. Because of the anonymity of online forums. Google AdWords. Although there are several books on the topic. either directly or via a search marketing agency. There are some training courses and seminars that result in certifications. Affiliate marketing is not commonly taught in universities.[30] Some examples of failed regulation efforts are the Affiliate Union and iAfma. The "trial and error" approach is probably the best way to describe the operation methods for affiliate marketers. standards. Some advertisers. third-party vendors. This risky approach is one of the reasons why most affiliates fail or give up before they become successful "super affiliates". the acceptance of such certifications is mostly due to the reputation of the individual or company issuing the certification. going so far as to allow.[32] Education occurs most often in "real life" by becoming involved and learning the details as time progresses. Trade shows are cost-prohibitive to small affiliates because of the high price for event passes. Although this situation alone created advertising channel conflicts and debates between advertisers and affiliates. however. merchants/advertisers. brands. Online forums are free.000 or more per month in commission. Online forums and industry trade shows are the only means for the different members from the industry—affiliates/publishers. Lack of self-regulation and collaboration Affiliate marketing is driven by entrepreneurs who are working at the edge of Internet marketing. and guidelines for the industry. including the advertiser's trademarks. Affiliate marketing has experienced numerous failed attempts to create an industry organization or association of some kind that could be the initiator of regulations. or even encourage. and realized that this space was already well-occupied by their affiliates. Online forums have had very few successes as representing the majority of the affiliate marketing industry. The most recent example of such a success was the halt of the "Commission Junction Link Management Initiative" (CJ LMI) in June/July 2006.

com sales to residents of New York.[35] Affiliate marketing is often confused with either network marketing or multi-level marketing. Click to reveal Many voucher code web sites use a click-to-reveal format. which requires the web site user to click to reveal the voucher code. and is sufficient to allow New York to tax all Amazon sales to state residents. Performance marketing is a common alternative. 2009.Affiliate marketing Outsourced Program Management companies typically combine formal and informal training. Affiliate Summit is the largest conference in the industry. which will then generate revenue for the person doing the cookie stuffing. but other recommendations have been made as well.[34] Other training resources used include online forums. The case is currently making its way through the New York appeals courts. essentially stealing their legitimately earned commissions. This not only generates fraudulent affiliate sales. Cookie stuffing Cookie stuffing involves placing an affiliate tracking cookie on a website visitor's computer without their knowledge. 113 Marketing term Members of the marketing industry are recommending that "affiliate marketing" be substituted with an alternative name. and many other affiliate networks host their own annual events.[36] The state asserts that even one such affiliate constitutes Amazon having a business presence in the state. Sales tax vulnerability In April 2008 the State of New York inserted an item in the state budget asserting sales tax jurisdiction over Amazon. based on the existence of affiliate links from New York–based websites to Amazon." . podcasts. The IAB [37] have stated that "Affiliates must not use a mechanism whereby users are encouraged to click to interact with content where it is unclear or confusing what the outcome will be. but also has the potential to overwrite other affiliates' cookies. and specialty websites. weblogs. Code of conduct A code of conduct was released by affiliate networks Commission Junction/beFree and Performics in December 2002 to guide practices and adherence to ethical standards for online advertising. Amazon challenged the amendment and lost at the trial level in January. The action of clicking places the cookie on the website visitor's computer. Such companies also try to send each marketing employee to the industry conference of their choice. providing much of their training through group collaboration and brainstorming. video seminars.

2007 [12] February 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2007. allthingssem. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US6029141) [10] October 2006. retrieved on December 16th. Evgenii (2007). socialcomputingjournal. socialcomputingjournal.SOA Web Services Journal. com/ : amazon associates. 2007 [17] Tom Taulli (9 November 2005). "The Complete Guide to Associate and Affiliate Programs on the Net". com/ web_20s_real_secret_sauce_network_effects. Pages 149–150. com/ barrier. retrieved June 25. com/ cpm-cpc-cpa/ ). 2007-08 Edition by Internet Retailer [3] Shashank SHEKHAR (2009-06-29). History of Affiliate Marketing. retrieved November 11. WebmasterRadio. January 1999. Jason. Issue 12. Google's Content Referral Network: A Grab for Advertisers (http:/ / www. from pages 12. retrieved on 14. [18] Jeff Molander (June 22. clickz. shtml). html). ReveNews. retrieved May 17. e-Consultancy. McGraw-Hill Trade." [7] Frank Fiore and Shawn Collins. 2007 [23] Ryan Singel (October 2.Commissions to Reach $6. CDNOW released its BuyWeb program. e-consultancy. ClickZ Network. [16] CellarStone Inc. Daniel (1999-11-30). Thought Shapers. asp). Page 36 [22] Marios Alexandrou (February 4th. "A Practical Guide to Affiliate Marketing" (pp. 2007 [13] Dion Hinchcliff (15. webmasterradio. "Successful Affiliate Marketing for Merchants".16-17). affstat. amazon. Page 6. retrieved June 25.0's Real Secret Sauce: Network Effects (http:/ / web2. Revenue Magazine. 2007 [20] Wayne Porter (September 6. 2007 .Affiliate marketing 114 Affiliate services • • • • • Affiliate tracking software Affiliate programs directories Affiliate networks (see also Category:Internet advertising services and affiliate networks) Affiliate manager and Outsourced Program Management (OPM or APM) (manages affiliates) Category:Internet marketing trade shows References [1] Prussakov. WebProNews. CPC vs. retrieved May 17.May. 2006 (http:/ / www. html?page=832131.com. With this program CDNOW was the first non-adult website to launch the concept of an affiliate or associate program with its idea of click-through purchasing. Shawn (2000-11-10). Being a Bigdaddy Jagger Meister (http:/ / www. amazon. CPA (http:/ / www. 2006). Affiliate Summit 2006 Wrap-Up Report -. 2007 [15] AffStat Report 2007 (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-04-20. publisher (January 11. and Kent. "Online Marketing System: Affiliate marketing" (http:/ / feedmoney. "During November 1994. 2006). com/ gp/ associates/ join/ getstarted). com/ survey. . com/ story/ Going+ Out+ Is+ In). retrieved June 25. forbes. retrieved on May 17. com/ publications/ internet-stats-compendium/ ). retrieved on May 17. qcommission. cfm?contentID=3157). 2007 [14] Dion Hinchcliff (29. Sales Commission (http:/ / www.com Business. e-Consultancy. Peter (1999-01). com/ archives/ 2009/ 06/ 29/ online-marketing-system-affiliate-marketing). e-consultancy. Retrieved 2011-04-20. retrieved on 14. SOA Web Services Journal. 10 November 2000. Web 2. ISBN 0-9791927-0-6. fm/ episodes/ index. QCommission. 2006). com/ publications/ affiliate-marketing-networks-buyers-guide/ ). com/ E-Commerce/ vendor_list. wired. http:/ / feedmoney.January. 2007). com/ wayneporter/ archives/ 002263. All Things SEM.May.com. Meacham (July/August 2006). [5] Olim. Creating A Virtual Sales Force (http:/ / www. html). Wired. revenuetoday. php/ weblog/ google-cpa-content-referral-network-goog-vclk-valueclick-david-jackson/ ). 30 November 1999. com/ social_media_goes_mainstream.13 and 14. MarketingSherpa. php?showId=30).Lands' End Versus The Affiliate on Typosquatting (http:/ / www." [4] Collins. thoughtshapers. Retrieved on 2007-10-15 from http:/ / www. Going Out Is In (http:/ / www. espacenet. NEW FIRST: LinkShare. 2006). com/ salescommission_details. [2] Guide to E-Commerce Technology (http:/ / www. CPM vs. htm). Top Floor Publishing. 2007 [21] Jennifer D. 2007 [24] Jim Hedger (September 6.com. ISBN 0-9661032-6-2. com/ showPage. revenews. htm). 2007. Shady Web of Affiliate Marketing (http:/ / www. com/ expertarticles/ 2006/ 06/ 09/ being-a-bigdaddy-jagger-meister). Internet Statistics Compendium 2007 (http:/ / www. Social Media Goes Mainstream (http:/ / web2. 2006). Forbes. https:/ / affiliate-program.com. com/ index. webpronews. The Daily SearchCast News from June 27. htm). Affiliate Marketing Networks Buyer's Guide (2006) (http:/ / www. 2005). internetretailer. marketingsherpa.com. published by Montgomery Research Inc. "Amazon Associates is one of the first online affiliate marketing programs and was launched in 1996. com/ business/ 2005/ 11/ 08/ marketing-ecommerce-internet-cx_tt_1109straightup. retrieved on December 16. ISBN 0-07-135310-0. QUE Publishing. 2007 [19] Danny Sullivan (June 27. Based on survey responses from almost 200 affiliate managers from a cross-section of the industry.5 Billion in 2006 (http:/ / www. .July. April 2001 ISBN 0-7897-2525-8 [8] Gray. 2007). com/ : Feed Money. Matthew. "The Cdnow Story: Rags to Riches on the Internet". [6] "What is the Amazon Associates program?" (https:/ / affiliate-program.fm. [9] US 6029141 (http:/ / v3. 2006). Olim.. com/ politics/ security/ news/ 2005/ 02/ 66556). 2007 [11] Anne Holland. (2006).

com/ ). cfm). ShareASale. 2007 [35] Vinny Lingham (11. iabuk. 2007 [27] December 12. AdWare Class Action Lawsuit against . retrieved June 26.15. com/ 2006/ 10/ special-report-profit-sharing-the-performance-marketing-model-of-the-future.We are back to Step 0 (http:/ / www. retrieved June 26. html). html). Page 58. net/ en/ 1/ iabaffiliatemarketingcouncilstrengthensonlinevouchercodebestpracticeguidelines270309. com/ showthread.ValueClick. 2007 [36] Linda Rosencrance. 2007 [33] Shawn Collins (June 9. CJ. 2007 [32] Alexandra Wharton (March/April 2007). retrieved June 26. affiliatetip.2 .com. 2007 [29] April 20. 2007 [34] March/April 2007. com/ spamguide.org/Business/Opportunities/Online_Opportunities/Affiliate_Programs/ ) at the Open Directory Project • Website Affiliate Programs (http://dir. The authenticity of the document was neither acknowledged nor challenged by Google.com. com/ carstencumbrowski/ 2006/ 11/ affiliate_marketing_organizati_1.Y. Reve News. 2006). com/ agreement. How Do Companies Train Affiliate Managers? (http:/ / www.April. retrieved June 26. mxs) 115 External links • Affiliate marketing (http://www.yahoo. retrieved on 14. to tax goods bought on Amazon (http:/ / www. retrieved from CJClassAction. com/ story/ webextra-issue16-2) (Web Extra).Vinny Lingham's Blog. 2007 [28] ShareASale Affiliate Service Agreement (http:/ / www. com/ story/ Learning+ Outside+ the+ Box& readpage=1). 2005). 2002. Computerworld. New Javascript Links? (http:/ / forum.April. RevenueToday. link to online version retrieved June 26.October. php?t=73747) main discussion thread to CJ's LMI. searchbistro. Law Firms of Nassiri & Jung LLP and Hagens Berman. com/ press/ addendum. Issue: March/April 2007. 2007). com/ archives/ affiliate-millions-book-report/ ). doc) (Word document) supposedly leaked out from Google (http:/ / www. com/ action/ article. abestweb. shareasale.May.The Performance Marketing Model of the Future (http:/ / www. Affiliate Millions .dmoz. org/ node/ 2709) in 2005. 2002. cj. Online Marketing Service Providers Announce Web Publisher Code of Conduct (http:/ / www. html) (contains original CoC text). revenuetoday.com. Friday.org/top/Computers/Internet/Web_Design_and_Development/Authoring/ Webmaster_Resources/Affiliate_Programs/) at the BOTW Directory . AffiliateTip Blog. 2007.com/Business_and_Economy/Business_to_Business/ Business_Opportunities/Directories/Web_Site_Affiliate_Programs/) at the Yahoo! Directory • Affiliate Programs (http://botw. revenews. html).Affiliate marketing [25] Spam Recognition Guide for Raters (http:/ / www. 27 March 2009 IAB affiliate council strengthens voucher code guidelines (http:/ / www. retrieved on May 17. cjclassaction. 2008 [37] IAB. revenuetoday. LinkShare. N. LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum (http:/ / www. Affiliate Marketing Organization Initiative Vol. computerworld. Learning Outside the Box (http:/ / www. 2007 [30] Carsten Cumbrowski (November 4.com on June 26. Revenue Magazine. Profit Sharing . [26] December 10.Book Report (http:/ / blog. ABestWeb. vinnylingham. retrieved May 17. threadwatch. 2008). 2007 [31] May 2006. Commission Junction and beFree (http:/ / www. com/ news/ press_releases0102/ press_021210. retrieved June 26. do?command=viewArticleBasic& taxonomyName=government& articleId=9077963& taxonomyId=13& intsrc=kc_top). retrieved on 16. linkshare.com.

This can be very useful to new internet entrepreneurs because it does not require a big budget. known as article spinning. In paper-print form (as opposed to online forms). . Traditional Article Marketing Article marketing has been used by professionals for nearly as long as mass print has been available. Well-written content articles released for free distribution have the potential to increase the business credibility within its market. Similarly. Internet marketers will typically attempt to maximize the results of an article advertising campaign by submitting their articles to a number of article directories. Article directories having good web page rank receives excessive quantity of site visitors and are thought-about authority sites by search engines. Internet Article Marketing Internet article marketing. These directories then go on PageRank to the author's website and in addition sends traffic from readers. However. Having your content featured on niche blogs and focused content sites run and managed by others is a popular form of article marketing. Because newspapers and other traditional media are expected to present content on limited budgets. Some marketers attempt to circumvent this filter by creating a number of variations of an article. is an Internet marketing approach to subtly promote products and services online via article directories. A local business provides useful content to the newspaper that too free of cost and in return the newspaper prints the business contact information with the required article. a roofing company may offer radio stations a concise article titled "How to Avoid Ice Damage to Your Roof this Winter" shortly before the winter season. internet hosting plan. By doing this. These articles are often syndicated by other websites. However. Also it helps in attracting new clients. and published on multiple websites. which often leads to receiving good quantity of traffic. most of the major search engines want to filter duplicate content to stop the identical content material from appearing multiple times in searches. this arrangement is generally advantageous for all parties involved. article marketing is utilized commonly by business owners as a means of obtaining free press space. Becoming a Guest Blogger on these sites introduces the author to interested parties that are otherwise unreachable. Most forms of search engine optimization and Internet marketing require a domain. an accounting firm may market itself by writing an article titled "The Top 10 Ways to Avoid Being Audited" and offering it to the local newspapers several weeks prior to tax season. For example. article advertising makes use of article directories as a free host and receives traffic by way of organic searches due to the listing's search engine authority. Each article has a bio box and byline (collectively known as the resource box) that include references and contact information for the author's business. These articles are made available for distribution and publication in the marketplace.Article marketing 116 Article marketing Article marketing is a type of advertising in which businesses write short articles related to their respective industry. and promoting budget. one article can theoretically acquire site visitors from a number of article directories.

Finally. Related Software • Microsoft Powerpoint • Windows Movie Maker • Article Video Robot References . the presentation is recorded using a screen capture software like Camtasia and the slideshow is now turned into a video that can be uploaded to a video sharing site like YouTube for sharing. Converting articles into videos There are several ways to for turning articles into videos. Advantages of Article Video marketing Article Video marketing is an extension of Article marketing but serves as an alternate medium for businesses to convey their message to a wider audience. authors generally incorporate relevant keywords or keyphrases in their articles. and get more exposure. Most article directories currently do not accept HTML tags in either title or in the body of the article. Being an audio-visual medium.Article marketing 117 Commonly Accepted Article Structure and Format When publishing on the internet the most commonly accepted practice is to write articles having catchy title using relevant keywords and 250-500 words in the body of the article. The most traditional way is by creating a powerpoint presentation of the original article. Since the primary goal behind article marketing is to get search engine traffic. The videos are then uploaded to various video sharing websites like youtube for distribution and exposure. References Article video marketing Article Video marketing Article video marketing is a new type of internet marketing and advertising in which business create 2-5 minute short videos about specific topics using content from articles and other text sources. The generally accepted keyword density for most article directories is about 2 to 3% and anything above that can be considered as keyword stuffing. articles turned into videos also reduce the time required to read the articles. which is basically transforming the article text into an animated slideshow. Relevant pictures are then added to the slideshow and voice is recorded over each slide to create a voice-over narration for the video.

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) responded to the Supreme Court of Alabama's June 26. Due to the progression of the legal profession and the desire to update the Canons of Professional Ethics. which has sometimes been referred to as online legal matching.Attorney-client matching 118 Attorney-client matching Attorney-Client Matching (ACM). Law firms or lawyers that opt to use these services are then matched with clients by need and location. Online Legal Directories Online legal directory services pool attorney information in one place for consumers to search for attorneys on their own. known as the Canons of Professional Ethics. ACM websites allow users to submit their legal needs online by practice area and location. 2002 invitation to comment on the Alabama Rules of Professional Conduct entitled Information about Legal Services. The legal practitioners then review the requests."[1] In 1977." and noted that "lack of legal advertising could be viewed as the profession's failure to 'reach out and serve the community.com and Martindale-Hubbell's Lawyers. the ABA created the Model Code of Professional Responsibility ("Model Code") in 1969. the FTC "encourages competition in the licensed professions. which condemned all advertisement and solicitation by lawyers."[8] Additionally. in many instances consumers would rely upon the Yellow Pages and referral services to find an attorney. ruled that lawyer advertising is partially protected by the First Amendment. lawyers and law firms also changed their habits of presenting their services to consumers online. Sharktank[6] and LegalOpinion[7] (Sharktank and LegalOpinion are now defunct) were the first to provide the attorney-client matching as a service. and may then submit bids to work with the clients who can then choose which practitioners they wish to hire. or hire none at all. Two key categories currently define online legal advertising: online legal directories and attorney-client matching services.[2] The Supreme Court rejected the argument by the Arizona Bar that attorney advertising was "inherently misleading" and "tarnish the dignified public image of the profession. The system allows clients to submit requests for legal work to a community of legal practitioners. to the maximum extent compatible with other state and federal goals.[5] Given that consumer habits changed and working within the regulations of the Bates v. including the legal profession. State Bar of Arizona. State bar associations and websites like Avvo. and submit feedback about the work of the legal practitioners. Online directories can be seen as internet versions of the Yellow Pages. the American Bar Association ("ABA") established its first ethics code.com provide lawyer directories and rank attorneys according to their credentials and experience." The Court found "the postulated connection between advertising and the erosion of true professionalism to be severely strained. CA-based LegalMatch. Arizona State Bar outcome. Attorney-Client Matching Services Attorney-client matching provides lawyers with the opportunity to increase exposure and reach their audience online. is a subset of legal advertising that allows participating attorneys to be matched with potential clients seeking legal representation. to his professional brethren and to the public. 2006. on May 26. Companies like San Francisco. History In 1908. in Bates v. many consumers turned to the web to search for goods and services.[4] Before the boom. the United States Supreme Court. the FTC commented on the State Bar of Texas Professional Ethics Committee's consideration on whether or not it is ethical for a Texas attorney to .'"[3] With the internet boom in the 1990s. The Model Code was an effort by the ABA to create practical rules that went "beyond the pretty details of form and manners" and addressed "the chained relationship of the lawyer to his clients. In this response.

such as Thomson Reuters' LegalConnection.. org/ public/ lawyer_referral_service_main. pdf [9] Federal Trade Commission. Henry. edu/ supct/ html/ historics/ USSC_CR_0433_0350_ZS.. "Ethics of Attorney Advertising: The Effects of Different State Regulatory Regimes. LegalFish. it's a prostitution of the legal profession . org/ cle/ clenow/ nosearch/ public/ probonotechethics/ part1. Will and Staud. cfm#lawyerreferral [6] Green. But you lose your confidentiality if you share the information .Attorney-client matching participate in an online legal matching service. utahbar. it leads to lawyers fighting to undercut each other. JDFinder. Attorney-client matching services provide both clients and attorneys with information about each other before they actually speak. com/ Law_Firm_Marketing_Solutions-newsletter-002. "Response to Alabama Rules of Professional Conduct" (September 2002) http:/ / www. law-firm-marketing-coach. "Technological Innovations and Their Ethical Implications" American Bar Association http:/ / www. The (2005) http:/ / findarticles. over 9 million consumers will search online for legal services each month. ftc. law. html# [5] American Bar Association.com. 433 U. com/ smallbiz/ content/ jan2001/ sb20010116_790..internet. The" Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics.http:/ / www. The FTC determined that "online legal matching services are a valuable option for Texans: they are likely to reduce the consumers' cost for finding legal representation and have the potential to increase completion among attorneys. Emily. abanet..[10] In 2003.com Team. "Comments on a Request for Ethics Opinion Regarding Online Attorney Matching Programs" (May 2006) http:/ / www. and the attorneys receive their information. html [11] Utah State Bar and LegalMatch http:/ / www. htm [7] The seattle. html [3] Haywood. Ann Therese. "The World Wide Web of E-Law" BusinessWeek (January 2001) http:/ / www. businessweek. form-based submissions for free. gov/ os/ 2006/ 05/ V060017CommentsonaRequestforAnEthicsOpinionImage [10] Harlow.. internetnews. the lawyer is bound by rules of ethics and the courts to keep that information absolutely confidential. 350. html [4] Hornsby. abanet.com Refocuses Company Direction" Internet News (February 2001) http:/ / www."[13] "One concern about such services relates to client confidentiality.col1 [2] Bates v. Normally. Attorney-client matching websites charge attorneys membership fees to participate in the service. "Legalopinion. Some services allow the attorneys to choose the cases while others allow the client to select the best attorney for their issue. the Utah State Bar partnered with LegalMatch as an additional resource available for Utah attorneys to receive screened cases of potential new clients and to help consumers find a pre-screened Utah lawyer. Law "Attorney-Client Matching" Law Firm Marketing Solutions (July 2006) http:/ / www. Ron. which intends to save time for both parties and them to make better decisions.[11] 119 How Attorney-Client Matching Works An increasing number of people are turning to the internet to search for legal services and are relying on phone books and offline media less and less. allow users to search their directories for lawyers as well as obtain legal representation through form based attorney-client matching. cornell. ftc.S. Amy. Rick and Palmer.. php/ 594871 [8] Federal Trade Commission. "Navigating a sea of uncertainty: How existing ethical guidelines pertain to the marketing of legal services over the Internet" The Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics (July 2001) http:/ / www. 363-64 (1977)."[9] Larger corporations. According to Reuters. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3975/ is_200507/ ai_n14684376/ ?tag=content. com/ legal/ 1029492-1. Subsequent companies to enter this field have been CasePost. Users of ACM websites complete confidential. and Total Attorneys.com powered by FindLaw and LexisNexis Martindale-Hubbell's Lawyers.[12] Controversy ".. com/ bus-news/ article. html . allbusiness. State Bar of Ariz. when you hire a lawyer and tell him/her your story. gov/ be/ v020023."[14] References [1] Olson. "Consumers' Guide to Legal Help Hiring a Lawyer" (April 2008) http:/ / www. org/ legalservices/ findlegalhelp/ faq_hiringlawyer.

For example.org/) Blitz Campaign A blitz is defined as an intensive campaign or attack [1] . very direct results. and focused marketing campaign for a small business. Advantages Blitz campaigns help local businesses and local products become better known to a specific audience through the use of persistent media exposure. specifically the internet. Typically. It originates from the German noun Blitz which means lightning. How it works Blitz campaigns use various mass media outlets. co.co. a local business or local product would quickly show up in search engines. htm [13] utterant. The time interval of a blitz campaign is also advantageous. once a campaign is set up. .org (http:/ / www. including search engine optimization and mobile marketing. You must know your local audience to successfully complete a blitz campaign. E-mail is another method of delivering local product or local business information during a blitz campaign.” a “ time-based marketing campaign.uk (http:/ / www. Ted. without careful audience targeting you may not achieve the results you desire. intensive. grows a local company’s visibility and attracts more customers. blitz campaigns are geared toward local businesses and not a more widespread audience.” and “intensive marketing. "Online Lawyers: Starting to Click" BusinessWeek http:/ / www. abanet. Ideally. if you have a holiday event you want to advertise you should promote it during the appropriate season and it will yield better results. to deliver information about a local product or local business quickly to a local audience. magazine. A concentrated campaign means very fast. blitz campaign defines the proprietary methodology developed by German speaking Marlene Dewitte [2] .abanet. utterant.” The idea behind a blitz campaign is to have as many people see a small business or small business product as possible in a very short period of time. A Blitz Campaign lowers customer acquisition costs. However. newspaper ads. In the world of marketing. org/ legalservices/ findlegalhelp/ usa_findlawyer. One of the most common and most advantageous ways to complete a blitz campaign is to use search engines. builds business reputation. uk/ current-affairs/ bid4fees-making-solicitors-bid-for-legal-work/ ) Retrieved 29 October 2010 [14] abnet. instead of something to look past. com/ smallbiz/ content/ sep2003/ sb20030930_0886_sb016. A blitz campaign is a marketing strategy designed to promote a product or a business quickly through the use of mass media. cfm) Retrieved 29 October 2010 120 External links • American Bar Association (http://www. Push a product when there is buzz about it. A blitz campaign includes strategies from search engine marketing. This type of campaign can help a completely new product become something of note.Attorney-client matching [12] Popper. sometimes it is also referred to as “marketing blitz. businessweek. and coupons. A blitz campaign can be the perfect marketing tool for seasonal content. Blitz campaigns usually don't make use of print mediums such as brochures. It is a very fast.

Blitz Campaign


A blitz campaign has several advantages but there are also some limitations to what such a marketing campaign can do. One of the advantages of the blitz campaign methodology which is focused and local impact to an area can also hinder its performance if spread out further from the campaign’s heart. Because location is so important, not understanding your audience will most likely lead to a weaker campaign.

Successful Marketing Blitzes
In recent years, there have been several successful marketing blitzes, primarily from computercompanies and video game companies. One such blitz came from Microsoft in 2009 for its Halo 3 game. Microsoft planned on using online, print, and television media to bring attention to the game. [3] Another successful blitz comes from McDonaldsfor their McCafecoffee drinks. McDonalds used several media outlets and coupon booklets to promote their coffee beverages. [4] Googlealso embarked on a marketing blitz for the Nexus One phone. This product had its own YouTubechannel and was also present in Google web pages. [5]

[1] Definition of "Blitz" from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ blitz) [2] Glossary: Blitz (http:/ / www. blitzcampaign. com/ glossary. php) [3] Microsoft plans Halo 3: ODST marketing blitz (http:/ / www. mcvuk. com/ news/ 35402/ Halo-marketing-blitz-detailed) [4] Get Ready for the McCafe Marketing Blitz (http:/ / www. nacsonline. com/ NACS/ News/ Daily/ Pages Archive/ ND0507096. aspx) [5] Let The Nexus One Marketing Blitz Begin (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 01/ 05/ nexus-one-ads/ )

Content farm
In the context of the World Wide Web, the term content farm is used to describe a company that employs large numbers of often freelance writers to generate large amounts of textual content which is specifically designed to satisfy algorithms for maximal retrieval by automated search engines. Their main goal is to generate advertising revenue through attracting reader page views[1] as first exposed in the context of social spam.[2] Articles in content farms have been found to contain identical passages across several media sources, leading to [3] questions about the sites placing search engine optimization goals over factual relevance. Proponents of the content farms claim that from a business perspective, traditional journalism is inefficient.[1] Content farms often commission their writers' work based on analysis of search engine queries[1] that proponents represent as "true market demand", a feature that traditional journalism lacks.[1]

Some sites labeled as content farms may contain a large number of articles and have been valued in the millions of dollars. Demand Media is projected to be publishing 1 million items a month, the equivalent of four English-language Wikipedias a year.[4] Another site, Associated Content, was purchased in May 2010 by Yahoo! for $90 million.[5] Pay scales for content are low compared to traditional salaries received by copy editors. One company compensated writers at a rate of $3.50 per article. Such rates are substantially lower than what a typical copy editor might receive, however some content farm contributors produce many articles per day and may earn enough for living. It has been reported that content writers are often educated women with children seeking supplemental income while working at home.[6]

Content farm


Critics allege that content farms provide relatively low quality content,[7] and that they maximize profit by producing "just good enough" material rather than high-quality articles.[8] Articles are usually composed by human writers rather than automated processes, but they may not be written by a specialist in the subjects reported. Some authors working for sites identified as content farms have admitted knowing little about the fields on which they report.[9] Search engines see content farms as a problem, as they tend to bring the user to less relevant and lower quality results of the search.[10] The reduced quality and rapid creation of articles on such sites has drawn comparisons to the fast food industry[11] and to pollution[2] :

Information consumers end up with less relevant or valuable resources. Producers of relevant resources receive less cash as a reward (lower clickthrough rate) while producers of junk receive more cash. One way to describe this is pollution. Virtual junk pollutes the Web environment by adding noise. Everybody but the polluters pays a price for Web pollution: search engines work less well, users waste precious time and attention on junk sites, and honest publishers lose income. The polluter spoils the Web environment for everybody else.

Google reaction
In one of Google's promotional videos for search published in the summer of 2010, the majority of the links available were reported to be produced at content farms.[12] In late February, 2011, Google announced it was adjusting search algorithms significantly to "provide better rankings for high-quality sites—sites with original content and information such as research, in-depth reports, thoughtful analysis and so on."[13] This was reported to be a reaction to content farms and an attempt to reduce their effectiveness in manipulating search result rankings.[14]

Because of their recent appearance on the Web, content farms have not yet received a lot of explicit attention from the research community. The model of hiring cheap freelancers to produce content was first discussed as an alternative strategy to generating fake content automatically, together with an example of the infrastructure necessary to make it profitable through online ads, and techniques to detect social spam that promotes such content.[2] While not explicitly motivated by content farms, there has been recent interest in the automatic categorisation of web sites according to the quality of their content. [15] [16] A detailed study on the application of these methods to the identification of content farm pages is yet to be done.

[1] Dorian Benkoil (July 26, 2010). "Don't Blame the Content Farms" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ mediashift/ 2010/ 07/ dont-blame-the-content-farms207. html). PBS. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [2] Markines, Benjamin; Cattuto, Ciro; Menczer, Filippo (2009), "Social Spam Detection" (http:/ / airweb. cse. lehigh. edu/ 2009/ papers/ p41-markines. pdf), Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web (AIRWeb '09) (http:/ / airweb. cse. lehigh. edu/ 2009/ proceedings. html), ACM, pp. 41–48, doi:10.1145/1531914.1531924, ISBN 978-1-60558-438-6, [3] http:/ / www. mediapost. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. showArticle& art_aid=144020 [4] Roth, Daniel (November 2009). "The Answer Factory: Demand Media and the Fast, Disposable, and Profitable as Hell Media Model" (http:/ / www. wired. com/ magazine/ 2009/ 10/ ff_demandmedia/ ). Wired. . Retrieved 27 February 2011. [5] http:/ / www. beet. tv/ 2010/ 05/ yahoo-harvests-content-farm-associated-content-for-90-million-report-. html Yahoo Harvests "Content Farm" Associated Content for $90 Million, Report [6] What It's Like To Write For Demand Media: Low Pay But Lots of Freedom - Page 2 (http:/ / www. readwriteweb. com/ archives/ what_its_like_to_write_for_demand_mediap2. php) [7] Patricio Robles (9 April 2010). "USA Today turns to the content farm as the ship sinks" (http:/ / econsultancy. com/ blog/ 5725-usa-today-turns-to-the-content-farm-as-the-ship-sinks). econsultancy.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [8] John Reinan (July 19, 2010). "I'm still waiting to make a bushel from my content farm work" (http:/ / www. minnpost. com/ johnreinan/ 2010/ 07/ 19/ 19783/ im_still_waiting_to_make_a_bushel_from_my_content_farm_work). minnpost.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [9] Writers Explain What It's Like Toiling on the Content Farm (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ mediashift/ 2010/ 07/ writers-explain-what-its-like-toiling-on-the-content-farm202. html)

Content farm
[10] How Google Can Combat Content Farms http:/ / www. readwriteweb. com/ archives/ how_google_can_combat_content_farms. php [11] Michael Arrington: The End Of Hand Crafted Content (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2009/ 12/ 13/ the-end-of-hand-crafted-content/ ). In: TechCrunch vom 13. Dezember 2009. [12] Article on Techcrunch (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 07/ 23/ content-farms/ ) [13] "Finding more high-quality sites in search" (http:/ / googleblog. blogspot. com/ 2011/ 02/ finding-more-high-quality-sites-in. html). Google, Inc.. . Retrieved 26 February 2011. [14] Guynn, Jessica (February 26, 2011). "Google makes major change in search ranking algorithms" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ business/ la-fi-google-search-20110226,0,3543493. story). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 26 February 2011. [15] "Discovery Challenge 2010 - ECML PKDD 2010" (http:/ / www. ecmlpkdd2010. org/ articles-mostra-2041-eng-discovery_challenge_2010. htm). 2010. . [16] "Joint WICOW/AIRWeb Workshop on Web Quality" (http:/ / www. dl. kuis. kyoto-u. ac. jp/ webquality2011/ ). 2011. .


Contextual advertising
Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites or other media, such as content displayed in mobile browsers. The advertisements themselves are selected and served by automated systems based on the content displayed to the user.

How contextual advertising works
A contextual advertising system scans the text of a website for keywords and returns advertisements to the webpage based on what the user is viewing.[1] The advertisements may be displayed on the webpage or as pop-up ads. For example, if the user is viewing a website pertaining to sports and that website uses contextual advertising, the user may see advertisements for sports-related companies, such as memorabilia dealers or ticket sellers. Contextual advertising is also used by search engines to display advertisements on their search results pages based on the keywords in the user's query. Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising in which the content of an ad is in direct correlation to the content of the web page the user is viewing. For example, if you are visiting a website concerning travelling in Europe and see an ad pops up offering a special price on a flight to Italy, that’s contextual advertising. Contextual advertising is also called “In-Text” advertising or “In-Context” technology.[2] .

Service providers
Google AdSense was the first major contextual advertising network. It works by providing webmasters with JavaScript code that, when inserted into webpages, displays relevant advertisements from the Google inventory of advertisers. The relevance is calculated by a separate Google bot, Mediabot, that indexes the content of a webpage. Recent technology/service providers have emerged with more sophisticated systems that use language-independent [3] proximity pattern matching algorithm to increase matching accuracy. Since the advent of AdSense, Yahoo! Publisher Network, Microsoft adCenter, Advertising.com Sponsored Listings (formerly Quigo) and others have been gearing up to make similar offerings.

eweek. that function is replaced with computers facilitating the placement across thousands of websites.shtm). (November-December 2000). creation — what the advertisement looks like 2. [4] "Customers Now". "A Battle Is Brewing Over Online Behavioral Advertising" (http://www. pcmag.shmula.[4] Keywords on a webpage are displayed as hyperlinks that lead to advertisers. Retrieved 2008-01-15. thus generating revenue for the owner of the website (and the server of the advertisement). 2009 Further references • Ferguson. com/ 2008/ 01/ 15/ proximic-signs-deals-with-yahoo-and-ebay-to-turn-product-listings-into-contextual-ads-taking-on-adsense/ ). com/ encyclopedia_term/ 0. asp).hbs.com.Mashable" (http://mashable.com/194/ steve-irwins-death-contextual-advertising-gone-bad).shmula. adgorithms. . David Szetela.t=contextual+ marketing& i=56351.gov/opa/2007/12/ principles.com. Taking on AdSense" (http:/ / www.2542.html). and Marshall.gov. Contextual advertising has attracted some controversy through the use of techniques such as third-party hyperlinking. A large part of Google's earnings is from its share of the contextual advertisements served on the millions of webpages running the AdSense program. . mashable.eweek. [2] What is Contextual Advertising (http:/ / www.ftc. www. . Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2008-07-22. "When Contextual Advertising Goes Horribly Wrong . Notes [1] "Contextual Marketing Definition" (http:/ / www. Agency roles There are several advertising agencies that help brands understand how contextual advertising options affect their advertising plans. Retrieved 2008-10-20. • "Steve Irwin’s Death : Contextual Advertising Gone Bad" (http://www. techcrunch. php/ advertisers/ adgorithms-ad-network) [3] "Proximic Signs Deals With Yahoo and eBay To Turn Product Listings Into Contextual Ads. There are three main components to online advertising:[4] 1. D. www.Contextual advertising 124 Impact Contextual advertising has made a major impact on earnings of many websites. www. com/ index. Retrieved 2008-07-21.edu/archive/2124. • Kenny. Retrieved 2008-10-20. Adam. Renee Boucher.com/ c/a/Enterprise-Applications/A-Battle-Is-Brewing-Over-Online-Behavioral-Advertising-Market/). Retrieved 2008-10-20. Instead of humans choosing placement options. J. • "FTC Staff Proposes Online Behavioral Advertising Privacy Principles" (http://www.00. media planning — where the advertisements are to be run 3. • Ostrow.com/2008/ 06/19/contextual-advertising/). where a third-party installs software onto a user's computer that interacts with the web browser. media buying — how the advertisements are paid for Contextual advertising replaces the media planning component. they are more likely to be clicked.ftc. "Contextual Marketing: The Real Business of the Internet" (http://hbswk.com. Because the advertisements are more targeted.

The time can be as little as an hour or as long as a year. where the buyer pays for an advertisement to be placed on a website for a set amount of time.Cost per time 125 Cost per time Cost Per Time refers to a form of Internet advertising. . Some contracts may allow for a guaranteed minimum number of impressions. It differs from cost per impression. Cost for time permits the ad to displayed unlimited times over the term of the contract. in which a buyer pays for the ad to be displayed a set number of times.

The move took place four months after launching [9] the 'PPC Retargeting Solution'. meaning that advertisers pay only for The solution operates on a pay per click (PPC those consumers that click on the banner and return to their website. and allow advertisers to bid a different CPC per product category. Criteo debuted its self-service cost-per-click [15] (CPC) [16] bidding platform that lets advertisers place bids on display retargeting campaigns and see changes and optimize campaigns in real-time. Previously. [4] 2011.Criteo 126 Criteo Criteo Type Industry Founded Private Online Advertising Paris. Europe and Asia. USA Website www.[6] History Criteo was founded in Paris. Coleman served as president and chief revenue officer of The Huffington Post and executive vice president of global sales for Yahoo!. CA. [12] ) / cost per click (CPC) basis. [17] The Criteo Performance Optimization Platform allowed display advertisers and agencies to set retargeting campaigns based on category. and the U. 2005 Headquarters Palo Alto.K. France. Their personalized retargeting [11] solution displays interactive banner advertisements. In 2010. This is similar to Google . where a single static banner is shown to all viewers who have left a particular website. with offices in Italy. Almost one year later. Criteo has 300 employees with offices in 20 countries including US. the company had 120 employees. Additional retargeting solutions operate on a cost per thousand (CPM) or cost per engagement (CPE).com [1] Criteo describes itself as a 'personalized retargeting company' that works with Internet retailers to serve personalized online display advertisements to consumers that have previously visited the advertiser's website. Retargeting specialists then introduced a slightly more complex form of segmented retargeting [14] This second generation of retargeting enables to display one of a few pre-created messages to lost visitors based on a particular browsing category they fall into. The most common. The Netherlands. and launched its first product in April 2008. and simple form of retargeting is basic static retargeting [13] .[10] At the time of its move. In September 2010. California.criteo.[2] [3] On April 7. Criteo announced that it hired Greg Coleman as president.[5] Criteo enables online businesses to follow up visitors who have left their website without making a purchase using personalized banners which aim to drive potential customers back to the business website. France in 2005 and spent the first four years focused on [7] R&D. Criteo relocated its headquarters [8] to Silicon Valley in an effort to enhance its profile in the USA. Product Criteo’s product is a form of display advertising. generated based on the online retail browsing preferences and products for each customer. The company currently operates in several countries around the world and is headquartered in Palo Alto.

marketingterms. 127 Funding Criteo has secured a total of $17 million in funding. criteo. digidaydaily. The company denies it relies on personally identifiable information (PII) and doesn’t track identifiable information. Criteo raised a further $7 million of funding from Bessemer Venture Partners. which is priced on a CPA basis. References [1] http:/ / www.[20] bringing the total to $24 million. some of Criteo's competitors include MediaFORGE. Retargeting only uses anonymous information [24] from the merchant’s site. com/ retargeting [12] http:/ / www. allthingsd. itvent. com [2] http:/ / www. with 3M euros in a first institutional round in March 2006 coming from French private equity firm AGF and Elaia Partners. if a retargeted ad displays three products the consumer had browsed on the site. com/ clickz/ news/ 1708656/ french-retargeting-company-descends-silicon-valley [9] http:/ / venturebeat. com/ dictionary/ cost_per_click/ . and 9M euros in a second round in January 2008 led by Index Ventures. com/ 20110407/ former-yahoo-aol-huffpo-sales-dude-greg-coleman-lands-again/ [5] http:/ / www. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. criteo. a different cost can be assigned to each product displayed within the single ad. clickz. which has a more flexible pricing model. For example. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ [10] http:/ / venturebeat. Criteo’s platform allowed for cost-per-click bids to be set down to the individual product level [18] . com/ content/ 25806. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ [11] http:/ / www. but for display retargeting ads. The campaign aimed to reassure consumers about personalized retargeting and data-driven marketing tactics. Achievements Criteo wins 2010 Web Award for Outstanding Achievement in Web Development – September 2010 [25] Criteo’s client Boden won the ClickZ Connected Marketing Award [26] for ‘Best Use of Display Advertising’ for its personalized retargeting campaign implemented by Criteo. mediapost. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. asp [14] http:/ / www. showArticle& art_aid=136034& nid=118810 [16] http:/ / www. clickz. com/ data/ stories/ why-greg-coleman-bet-on-retargeting/ [6] http:/ / www. criteo. and Retargeter. adexchanger. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program [8] http:/ / www. com/ platforms/ criteo/ [7] http:/ / venturebeat. com/ retargeting/ ppc-what-does-it-cost [13] http:/ / www. com/ aggregator/ sources/ 1?page=8 [15] http:/ / www. imediaconnection.[21] Competitors According to the VentureBeat article.[19] The company displays over 4 billion banners per month but does not disclose the geographical breakdown for those banners. In May 2010.Criteo AdWords. mediapost. Criteo began a campaign [23] regarding the use of the popular retargeting and its impact on consumer privacy. com/ 3640039 [3] http:/ / www. Fetchback. showArticle& art_aid=125695 [4] http:/ / kara. no data is shared with advertisers or publishers and no third-party data used for targeting purposes. which charges a flat monthly fee [22] Privacy In September 2010.

co. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 10/ american_isps_embrace_behavioral_ad_targeting/ ) . a former spyware company.com//) Data pimping Data pimping is a pejorative term used to describe the act of an Internet service provider (ISP) profiting from the sale of its users' personal clickstream data. adexchanger.[5] Also Known As intra-ISP spyware References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Net think thank: Phorm is illegal (http:/ / www. com/ 2008/ 01/ 15/ criteo-raises-10-million-from-index-ventures/ http:/ / venturebeat.Criteo [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] http:/ / www. webaward. co. uk/ 2008/ 02/ 25/ phorm_isp_advertising/ ) American ISPs already sharing data with outside ad firms (http:/ / www. allegedly illegal trials of the controversial Webwise system developed by Phorm.[2] [3] [4] The phenomenon of data pimping is being researched and utilized by several ISPs. internetretailer. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 14/ bt_phorm_2007/ ) BT and Phorm secretly tracked 18. theregister. org/ winner. showArticle& art_aid=136034& nid=118810 http:/ / www.[1] The practice of data pimping first appeared through British Telecom's secret.criteo. asp?eid=15931 http:/ / econsultancy. both in the United Kingdom and the United States. theregister. co. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ http:/ / www. theregister. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. com/ online-advertising/ criteo-ceo-rudelle/ http:/ / www. mediapost. co. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ http:/ / techcrunch. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 01/ bt_phorm_2006_trial/ ) ISP data deal with former 'spyware' boss triggers privacy fears (http:/ / www. co. theregister. com/ online-advertising/ criteo-ceo-rudelle/ http:/ / www.000 customers in 2006 (http:/ / www. uk/ 2008/ 03/ 17/ phorm_fipr_illegal/ ) BT's 'illegal' 2007 Phorm trial profiled tens of thousands (http:/ / www. adexchanger. com/ 2010/ 05/ 06/ criteo-bessemer-7-million/ http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 09/ 23/ criteo-makes-placing-display-ads-do-it-yourself http:/ / venturebeat. theregister. com/ us/ press-releases/ 5150-criteo-client-boden-wins-clickz-connected-marketing-award 128 External links • Criteo Official Website (http://www.

to the more specialist such as viral campaigns. and executive teams to accomplish business goals Collaborates with web designers. These agencies tend to differ from their more traditional advertising agency and marketing agency counterparts in that they rarely deliver offline work. which continues to become more sophisticated. These services include web design. apps and mobile) for the purpose of achieving business goals. microsites. The Digital Marketing Engineer is either part of the senior marketing management team or operates as a consultant. marketing managers. References Digital marketing engineer The term Digital Marketing Engineer is used to describe someone that applies web 2. Digital creative agencies differ from traditional advertising agencies in that they normally do not deliver offline work unless it is a suitable extension to a digital project (ex. The need for Digital Marketing Engineers arose as a result of marketing becoming reliant on Internet technology[1] . content producers and subject matter experts on the digital marketing presence • Maintains the relationship for a number of digital vendors . viral campaigns. podcasting. Digital creative agency A Digital Creative Agency is a business that delivers services for the creative and technical development of internet based and mobile products. widget development and mobile or social applications. banner advertising. implementing and overseeing the systems used for digital marketing purposes Advises the organization on how digital technology can be used to improve marketing and business results Enables a viable digital marketing presence Monitors and works to improve KPIs Collaborates with marketing. sales managers. search engine optimization. deliver digital work. the digital strategy established through cooperation with the Chief Marketing Officer or business owner. a print campaign promoting the business' online presence). e-mail marketing and microsites etc. Advertising and Marketing agencies do however. email. often using outside sources. Responsibilities The Digital Marketing Engineer: • • • • • • Is responsible for architecting. business owners.Digital agency 129 Digital agency A digital or new media agency is a business that delivers services for the creative and technical development of internet based products.0 technology and digital marketing platforms (such as websites. or advises on the execution of. It is a hybrid role that involves marketing and technology knowledge. web developers. sales. product marketing. These services range from the more generalist such as web design. branding and application development. Role The Digital Marketing Engineer executes.

10. contentmarketinginstitute. ( eBook article (http:/ / www. social media profiles or ad campaigns Audience development and social/community development Banner/display advertising Content management systems Content marketing Conversions and conversion optimization Copywriting Email marketing KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) Landing pages Marketing automation Mobile marketing platforms Paid search and Search engine optimization (SEO) Podcasting / video Social media profiles and integrations User experience Website design and development References [1] Chris Koch. Chief Content Officer (http:/ / www. April 2011. Julie Schwartz. com/ chief-content-officer/ ) magazine. Communicating technical significance to a non-technical audience is one type of challenge. p. Another is staying up-to-date with the latest technology and marketing methods. nxtbook.Digital marketing engineer 130 Challenges The nature of this role requires aptitude in both marketing and technology. php#/ 10/ OnePage)) . com/ nxtbooks/ junta42/ 201104na_cco/ index. Areas of Focus • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Analytics for a website. "Why You're No Longer Qualified to be a B2B Marketer".

com/ wiki/ mobile-marketing) Mobile Marketing Association definition of mobile marketing [6] (http:/ / www. aspx?dLetter=D) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of direct digital marketing. aspx)"Direct Marketing Goes Digital: Addressability Matters More Than Ever" American Marketing Association. and is not easily tracked and measured. com/ _layouts/ Dictionary. com/ _layouts/ Dictionary. marketingpower. a Web browser cookie. aspx?dLetter=O) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of online marketing [5] (http:/ / mmaglobal. Traditional direct marketing is achieved using a customer’s postal address. 09/ direct_marketing_goes_digital.com Marketing Glossary: Direct marketing [4] (http:/ / www. com/ od/ marketingglossary/ g/ dirmktgdef. about. marketingpower. Direct marketing campaigns feature calls-to-action that allow marketers to track and measure responses from consumers.[1] The modernization and mobility of the consumer has forced marketers to innovate.[4] Mobile marketing is a marketing method that allows marketers to send marketing messages to consumers through the technologies found on a consumer’s mobile device. Mass marketing is a marketing method that broadcasts a message to a large audience. aspx?dLetter=E) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of email marketing . The marketing message is not addressable. and a mobile phone number.[6] References [1] (http:/ / www. September 2009. marketingpower.Direct digital marketing 131 Direct digital marketing Direct digital marketing is an addressable digital marketing method.[2] Channels • Email • Web • Mobile Additional Types of Marketing Traditional marketing communications are divided into two primary types: direct marketing[3] and mass marketing. Direct marketing is a marketing method that uses such things as a consumer’s postal address to send addressable communications to a target audience. [3] (http:/ / marketing. The personalization and targeting capabilities of direct marketing have proven effective. spawning the direct digital marketing concept.[5] Email marketing is a marketing method that uses email to send a marketing message to a targeted audience. [2] (http:/ / www. com/ _layouts/ Dictionary. search engine optimization and banner ads to send marketing messages to consumers. Online marketing is a marketing method that uses Internet tools such as email. marketingpower. htm) About. Consumers opt in to receive messages. 28. com/ ResourceLibrary/ Pages/ Marketing Matters/ mmnews9. With direct digital marketing addressability comes in one of three forms: an email address.

and was available in a limited selection of typefaces. com/ open-dictionary/entries/direct-digital-marketing. in part to provide advertisers with more impact for their investment. Display advertisements are not required to contain images. tents. display advertising can appear on the same page as. . One common form of display advertising involves billboards. macmillandictionary. fliers. location maps. including web banners. An example of textual advertisements is commercial messages sent to mobile device users. Behavioral retargeting. or video: Textual advertisements are also used where text may be more appropriate or more effective. Banner ad standards have changed over the years to larger sizes. com/ glossary/search. Yahoo currently has the largest share of the U. market in online display advertising. In periodicals. This is why metrics like interaction time are becoming more relevant. In contrast. was traditionally text-only.[1] As of February 28th. Internet Marketing Definitions: definition of direct internetmarketingdefinitions. Display advertising appears on web pages in many forms. or on the page adjacent to.html) Entrepedia: definition of direct digital marketing (http://www. as a form of internet marketing.htm) Quirk's Marketing Research Glossary definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / www. quirks. classified advertising generally appears in a distinct section.html) digital marketing (http:/ / webopedia.aspx?searchID=52967112) Tech Target's Whatis. com/ TERM/ D/ digital marketing (http:/ / www. The standards continue to evolve. etc. an industry trade group. These banners can consist of static or animated images. Adobe Systems Flash or . transit cards. techtarget.S. emails. Posters.. geographic targeting. Display advertisers use cookie and browser history to determine demographics and interests of users and target appropriate ads to those browsers. However. as well as interactive media that may include audio and video elements. 2011 display advertising is a $17 billion business globally.com: definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / whatis. in part due to increased resolution of standard monitors and browsers. sets some standards for online shapes and sizes.gif are the preferred presentation formats for such interactive advertisements.org/wiki/Glossary_-_D) Display advertising Display advertising is a type of advertising that typically contains text (i. audio. and similar items. general editorial content.definition-of.com/direct digital marketing) MacMillan Dictionary: definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / www. photographs or other images. scale models are examples of display advertising. The Interactive Advertising Bureau.entrepedia.Direct digital marketing 132 External links Webopedia: definition of direct direct_digital_marketing. [2] Display advertising on the Internet is widely used for branding. copy). com/ definition/ direct-digital-marketing. and site based targeting are all common ways in which advertisers choose to target their banner ads.e. logos. On the Internet Display advertising also appears on the Internet. much like how search engine ads can be extremely relevant users based on what they are searching for. Banner ads can be targeted to internet browsers in many different ways in order to reach the advertiser's most relevant audience. demographic targeting. this may change in the future as display advertising is becoming much more targeted to users.com/DirectDigitalMarketing) Definition of: definition of direct digital marketing (http://www.

com/ 2011/ 02/ 28/ schmidt-mobile-growth/ ). sized 468×60 pixels. com/ 20100111/ yahoos-pitch-to-advertisers-we-sell-ginormous-ads/ ?mod=ATD_sphere) [2] "Google CEO: Mobile Growing Faster Than “All Our Predictions”" (http:/ / mashable. February 28. 2011.Display advertising 133 Typical web banner. allthingsd. References [1] Yahoo Pitch to Advertisers: We Sell Ginormous Ads (http:/ / mediamemo. Mashable. . .

Business. by the authors. the Microblogging service. to improve communications both internally between staff and as a tool to engage with existing and potential customers. to Bloggers[1] and online news[2] and PR agencies utilizing the concept of pass-it-on marketing and Social Media to promote the title. The book is published by Infinite Ideas is an independent publishing house based in Oxford. Infinite Ideas July 2009 152 pp 978-1906821166 Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet your way to business success is a 2009 book by Jon Smith and José Llinares..Smith is an Internet marketing expert.uk Best Seller Get Into Bed With Google.[3] . entrepreneur and author of the Amazon. The book aims to inform business owners how to use Twitter. .Dominate Your Market With Twitter 134 Dominate Your Market With Twitter Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet your way to business success Dominate Your Market With Twitter Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Pages ISBN Jon Smith José Llinares United Kingdom English Internet Marketing. The release of the book was promoted via online channels.co.book of the year so far finds its way to City Spy: Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet Your Way to Business Success. Twitter Non-fiction..

and increase sales. thisislondon. digital marketing experts Jon Smith and José Llinares. uk/ standard-business/ article-23714052-city-spy-in-the-business-of-making-excuses. skillsoft. In it. and Ford are using social media tools to reach consumers directly. Updates are displayed on the user's profile page and delivered to other users who have signed up to receive them. which are text-based posts of up to 140 characters in length. com/ learning-re-imagined/ 2011/ 03/ books24x7-digital-books-reading-list-social-media. Highlighting how companies like Apple Inc. com/ 2009/ 12/ 31/ dominate-your-market-with-twitter/ [3] http:/ / www. html [2] http:/ / ninfield. build their brand. Dominate your market with Twitter was the first UK book to be published on this growing spectacle. References [1] http:/ / blogs.Dominate Your Market With Twitter 135 Synopsis The book introduces Twitter as a social networking and microblogging service that allows its users to send and read other users' updates (known as tweets). The book explores how and why twittering is growing at a phenomenal rate. wordpress. creating strategies to build a loyal following among Twitter members and expand awareness for their product or service. do . outline how marketers can use Twitter to their best advantage. co.

The story combines three principle themes: the Nordic passion for winter sports.Dreaming in Mono 136 Dreaming in Mono Dreaming in Mono Client Agency McDonald's Shaun Russell. Danish.[2] . Founding Partner. in the four Nordic countries of Denmark. Norwegian. the role of McDonald's as the largest host of diverse people and fun experiences in the region. Managing Director Tony Högkvist. rivalries and stereotypes of the Nordic nations. Senior Marketing Director Nordic Perfect Fools Fredrik Heghammar. produced by Happy Fiction. Finland. the prejudices. Global Creative Jens Jonson Happy Fiction Lukas Wojarski Bernard Cauchard Jari Hinshelwood Ole Vevle Marie Bergman Andreas Holm-Hansen Linnea Lundmark Marica Rosengarden Alexandra Alegren Felipe Morales McOwan Martin Landqvist Directed by Production company Produced by Starring Music by Release date(s) January 2010 Running time Language 7 episodes x 8 minutes English. Swedish Official website [1] Dreaming in Mono is a transmedia storytelling branded content initiative from McDonald's and Perfect Fools. Norway and Sweden.

character Twitter feeds. Hansi quickly reported Alain to the relevant ski governing body and Alain was disqualified and never raced again. website. Characters • • • • • • • • • • Alain Duchamp: Former alpine ski professional. iPhone 'random menu generator' application. juice. character MySpace and Facebook pages. The 7 episodes were released weekly both online on Vimeo. Founder of 'Team Monoski' Hansi Von Spitzmark: 1970s alpine ski legend. Transmedia activation Dreaming in Mono launched in mid-January 2010 with movie-style trailers and ran until the end of February across TV and cinema media. social media sites. coffee and soda are visible in the restaurant scenes. In one particular race Alain attempted to race against Hansi by using his revolutionary new monoski. He devises a plan to exact his revenge on Hansi and enlists a disparate group of Nordic characters to help him. Much of the story then takes place in and around a McDonald's restaurant in the far north. Familiar products such as McNuggets. online 'McDate' tool. character songs and videos. Fast-forward to the present day and Alain is based somewhere remote in the northern borderlands of Sweden. The two rivals regularly competed against each other in the 1970s with fundamentally different styles and philosophies concerning their approach to life and to their sport.Dreaming in Mono 137 Story Dreaming in Mono is a fictional drama revolving around McDonald's customer and former professional alpine skier Alain Duchamp and his archrival Hansi Von Spitzmark. video sites. YouTube and MSN Video and broadcast with exclusive TV station partners either as part of the station's program schedule (Sub Finland) or as full 8 minute . Finland and Norway still unable to come to terms with what happened so long ago. Facebook Fan pages and the opportunity to comment or start discussions on both the site and social media pages. print media and in McDonald's own restaurants within the Nordic region. polls. Hansi. recording artist and media celebrity Terje Olsen: Obsessive but shy Norwegian monoski engineer Lene Olsen: Terje’s long-suffering wife 'Mad Mads' Steen: Self-styled Danish daredevil and extreme sports enthusiast Lovisa Svensson: Talented Swedish snowboarder Tiina Nieminen: Tough. 'Mad Mads' milkshake flashmob live events. Big Mac.[3] A number of elements were also designed to enable the audience to interact with the content both live and online including: Hansi 'Two Sides of Me' song remix. meanwhile.[4] Branding elements The McDonald's name only appears in the introduction title to each episode: "McDonald's Nordic Presents". competitions. history of monoskiing backstories. The aim of the initiative was to connect via non-traditional and social media with an audience difficult to reach through conventional marketing tactics and messages. Poet. won gold after gold medal and became an international celebrity. independent Finnish entrepreneur and former love interest of Alain Duchamp Yasmine Carlsson: Ambitious young Swedish documentary film-maker Carlos: Reluctant documentary cameraman from Spain Tony Giuseppe Giacosa: Hansi’s loyal sidekick and bodyguard Content Dreaming in Mono combines a 56 minute-long drama (divided into 7x8 minute episodes) with character interviews by the fictional documentary film-maker Yasmine.

and closing weekend of. Oh Laura and Christian Waltz. each accentuating the central idea. The episodes and character interviews were written and directed by Jens Jonsson. Both the character interviews and character webpages were released online in advance of and during the episodal broadcast. The track is mixed by Ollie Olson. agency. Meja and Titiyo. webbyawards. com/ webbys/ current_honorees. previously writer/director of the movie King of Ping-Pong which won the Grand Jury Prize at the 2008 Sundance Film Festival.html Dreaming in Mono is a Webby Award Honoree in "Integrated Campaigns" and "Websites . php?season=14 Sets and locations • • • • Mc´Donalds Häggvik (Sweden) Högfjällshotellet Sälen (Sweden) Gammelgården Sälen (Sweden) Sälen & surroundings (Sweden) Credits Digital agency Perfect Fools] and production company Happy Fiction [6] originated and developed the concept in partnership with McDonald's Nordic. A-ha. The soundtrack "If we´re a part of it" is written by Martin Landqvist in corporation with Amanda King. The Cardigans. ‘Snowracer’ is another of Martin Landquists projects.com/winners2010. Real Vikings Monoski [7] provided monoski content for the website and action scenes for the episodes. singer/songwriter from Sydney Australia. director and media outlets worked together to extend that story across a variety of platforms. What makes it stand out from other branded content initiatives is the way in which brand. This super group consists of Amir Chamden from ‘Infinite Mass’.Dreaming in Mono commercial 'powerbreaks' (TV3 Puls Denmark.Fashion". See full list of winners here: http://www. Martin is also a member of the band ‘Peking Laundry’ together with Martin Sköld from Kent. TV6 Sweden). Viasat 4 Norway. known for his work with Robyn. The timing of the activation was designed to coincide with the build-up to. Awards Dreaming in Mono was awarded with a Gold medal in Web at the Golden Award of Montreux. Swedish music producer. remixer and songwriter working under the name Nåid. Pictures . the Vancouver Winter Olympics in which McDonald's was a global sponsor. Dregen from ‘Backyard Babies’ and Brady Blade. Jordin Sparks.goldenawardmontreux. See full list of Webby Honorees for 2010 here: http:/ / www. recording artist.[5] 138 Music Music written by Martin Landqvist. He has produced and remixed music for big artists such as Kent.

canneslions.All a part of It (http://vimeo. 2010 (http:/ / www. com/ online-marketing/ dreaming-in-mono-by-mcdonalds) [5] The Winter's Tale. 57th Cannes International Advertising Festival. McDonald's Premieres "Dreaming In Mono" (http:/ / www.The Man with the Dream (http://vimeo. 2010 (http:/ / www.imdb.com/9381504) on Vimeo Episode 5 .perfectfools. com [7] http:/ / www. renegademedia.Bringing in the Mountain (http://vimeo.com/title/tt1592541/) What is Transmedia? (http://www.goldenawardmontreux. net/ Latest/ sophie48097. html) [6] http:/ / www.Dreaming in Mono 139 References [1] http:/ / www.Up North Where We Belong (http://vimeo.cfm?event_id=42) . com [2] Renegademedia.com/8864917) Dreaming in Mono on IMDB (http://www.com/9550364) on Vimeo Episode 6 . happyfiction. viralblog. 2010 (http:/ / www. Boards Magazine. dreaminginmono.Grand Finale (http://vimeo. boardsmag. com/ ?p=3764) [4] Viralblog.starlightrunner. burgerbusiness. realvikingsmonoski External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Official website (http://www.com) Perfect Fools (http://www.com January 30.dreaminginmono.com/8862274) on Vimeo Episode 2 .com/9203671) on Vimeo Episode 4 . Burger Business. March 1.com/festival/event_detail_page. February 2.com/9729251) on Vimeo Episode 7 .com/9045956) on Vimeo Episode 3 .com) Episode 1 . com/ articles/ magazine/ 20100301/ mcdonalds.com/9755630) on Vimeo Interview with McDonald's Nordic Marketing Director. html) [3] McDonald's Next Step: Create the Content.The Gathering (http://vimeo.com/transmedia) Dreaming in Mono wins gold at Golden Award of Montreux 2010 Festival (http://www. Shaun Russell (http://vimeo.html#) • The Transmedia Dream. seminar program (http://www.Rebels outside the Box (http://vimeo. com/winners2010. Control the Media.

. and • sending email messages over the Internet. network email and FIDO).[2] • Advertisers can reach substantial numbers of email subscribers who have opted in (i. Email marketing is often reported as second only to search marketing as the most effective online marketing tactic.[4] Disadvantages A report issued by the email services company Return Path. to encourage customer loyalty and repeat business. • Over half of Internet users check or send email on a typical day..[3] • Email is popular with digital marketers.[5] Companies considering the use of an email marketing program must make sure that their program does not violate spam laws such as the United States' Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act (CAN-SPAM). every email sent to a potential or current customer could be considered email marketing. According to the report.e. In its broadest sense. as email did and does exist outside the Internet (e. . rising an estimated 15% in 2009 to £292m in the UK. Researchers estimate that United States firms alone spent US $400 million on email marketing in 2006. • adding advertisements to email messages sent by other companies to their customers.Email marketing 140 Email marketing Email marketing is a form of direct marketing which uses electronic mail as a means of communicating commercial or fund-raising messages to an audience. However.[6] the European Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations 2003. as of mid-2008 email deliverability is still an issue for legitimate marketers. the term is usually used to refer to: • sending email messages with the purpose of enhancing the relationship of a merchant with its current or previous customers. and eight percent were filtered. consented) to receive email communications on subjects of interest to them.[1] Comparison to traditional mail There are both advantages and disadvantages to using email marketing in comparison to traditional advertising mail. twenty percent of the messages were rejected. • sending email messages with the purpose of acquiring new customers or convincing current customers to purchase something immediately. or their Internet service provider's acceptable use policy. Advantages Email marketing (on the Internet) is popular with companies for several reasons: • An exact return on investment can be tracked ("track to basket") and has proven to be high when done properly.g. legitimate email servers averaged a delivery rate of 56%.

Email marketing


Opt-in email advertising
Opt-in email advertising, or permission marketing, is a method of advertising via email whereby the recipient of the advertisement has consented to receive it. This method is one of several developed by marketers to eliminate the disadvantages of email marketing.[7] Opt-in email marketing may evolve into a technology that uses a handshake protocol between the sender and receiver.[7] This system is intended to eventually result in a high degree of satisfaction between consumers and marketers. If opt-in email advertising is used, the material that is emailed to consumers will be "anticipated". It is assumed that the consumer wants to receive it, which makes it unlike unsolicited advertisements sent to the consumer. Ideally, opt-in email advertisements will be more personal and relevant to the consumer than untargeted advertisements. A common example of permission marketing is a newsletter sent to an advertising firm's customers. Such newsletters inform customers of upcoming events or promotions, or new products.[8] In this type of advertising, a company that wants to send a newsletter to their customers may ask them at the point of purchase if they would like to receive the newsletter. With a foundation of opted-in contact information stored in their database, marketers can send out promotional materials automatically—known as Drip Marketing. They can also segment their promotions to specific market segments.[9]

Legal requirements
In 2002 the European Union introduced the Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications. Article 13 of the Directive prohibits the use of email addresses for marketing purposes. The Directive establishes the opt-in regime, where unsolicited emails may be sent only with prior agreement of the recipient. The directive has since been incorporated into the laws of member states. In the UK it is covered under the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003[10] and applies to all organisations that send out marketing by some form of electronic communication. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 authorizes a US $16,000 penalty per violation for spamming each individual recipient. Therefore, many commercial email marketers within the United States utilize a service or special software to ensure compliance with the Act. A variety of older systems exist that do not ensure compliance with the Act. To comply with the Act's regulation of commercial email, services typically require users to authenticate their return address and include a valid physical address, provide a one-click unsubscribe feature, and prohibit importing lists of purchased addresses that may not have given valid permission. In addition to satisfying legal requirements, email service providers (ESPs) began to help customers establish and manage their own email marketing campaigns. The service providers supply email templates and general best practices, as well as methods for handling subscriptions and cancellations automatically. Some ESPs will provide insight/assistance with deliverability issues for major email providers. They also provide statistics pertaining to the number of messages received and opened, and whether the recipients clicked on any links within the messages. The CAN-SPAM Act was updated with some new regulations including a no fee provision for opting out, further definition of "sender", post office or private mail boxes count as a "valid physical postal address" and definition of "person". These new provisions went into effect on July 7, 2008.[11]

Email marketing


[1] DMA: "The Power of Direct Marketing: ROI, Sales, Expenditures and Employment in the U.S., 2006-2007 Edition", Direct Marketing Association, October 2006 [2] "New Survey Data: Email's ROI Makes Tactic Key for Marketers in 2009 " (http:/ / www. marketingsherpa. com/ article. php?ident=31009#), MarketingSherpa, January 21, 2009 [3] Pew Internet & American Life Project, "Tracking surveys" (http:/ / www. pewinternet. org/ trends. asp), March 2000 – March 2007 [4] MediaWeek: UK e-mail marketing predicted to rise 15% MediaWeek.co.uk (http:/ / www. mediaweek. co. uk/ news/ comment/ vital+ stats/ 945161/ UK-e-mail-marketing-predicted-rise-15/ ) [5] Return Path's Reputation Benchmark Report: "5 ways to increase deliverability" (http:/ / www. btobonline. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 20080731/ FREE/ 180513096/ 1116/ FREE), BtoB Magazine, July 2008 [6] The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ bcp/ conline/ pubs/ buspubs/ canspam. htm) online at ftc.gov or PDF Version (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ bcp/ conline/ pubs/ buspubs/ canspam. pdf) [7] Fairhead, N. (2003) “All hail the brave new world of permission marketing via email” (Media 16, August 2003) [8] Dilworth, Dianna. (2007) Ruth's Chris Steak House sends sizzling e-mails for special occasions (http:/ / www. dmnews. com/ Ruths-Chris-Steak-House-sends-sizzling-e-mails-for-special-occasions/ article/ 94733/ ), DMNews retrieved on February 19, 2008 [9] O'Brian J. & Montazemia, A. (2004) Management Information Systems (Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.) [10] Full text of Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations (http:/ / www. opsi. gov. uk/ si/ si2003/ 20032426. htm) [11] FTC Approves New Rule Provision Under The CAN-SPAM Act (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ opa/ 2008/ 05/ canspam. shtm)

Get Into Bed With Google


Get Into Bed With Google
Get Into Bed With Google: Top ranking search optimisation techniques

Get into bed with Google Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Pages ISBN Jon Smith United Kingdom English Internet Marketing, Business, SEO Non-fiction, Infinite Ideas January 2008 180 pp 978-1905940493

Get Into Bed With Google: Top ranking search optimisation techniques is a 2008 book by Jon Smith, an Internet marketing expert, entrepreneur and author of the Amazon.co.uk Best Seller The Bloke's Guide To Pregnancy. The book aims to teach business owners how to use ethical Search Engine Optimization techniques to improve the visibility of their webpages on the world's major Search Engines and on Google in particular. By September 2008, Get Into Bed With Google was the most popular book about Search Engine Optimization and had spent 10 weeks in Bookscan's Top 100. The book has been translated into Danish[1] , Thai[2] and German[3] . The book is published in the USA[4] with the title Be #1 on Google by McGraw-Hill An updated UK second edition [5] was released in paperback September 2010.

The Boston Globe: E2. "Smart Ebay traders cash in" (http:/ / www. Hansen. in 2001 he placed a pool table for sale on the service and met success. "A Skeptic's Transformation to an eBay Fanatic". lexisnexis. p. McKowen. [8] Roseman. 2005). uk/ exec/ obidos/ search-handle-url?_encoding=UTF8& search-type=ss& index=books-uk& field-author=Adam Ginsberg).[4] [5] By the end of 2002 Ginsberg had been named as eBay's "number-one new seller". 106.[3] References [1] "How to Buy. uk/ Get-Into-Bed-Google-optimisation/ dp/ 190682164X/ Adam Ginsberg Adam Ginsberg is a guru of internet marketing. 2005). ch/ catalog/ product_info. (May 1. sell and profit on eBay. . mhprofessional. Daily Telegraph: Pg. do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& . Amazon website. aspx http:/ / www. 25. Ginsberg ran a business in San Diego selling pool tables. php?products_id=303 http:/ / www. com/ product.) 57 (7): 75. php?isbn=0071629602 http:/ / www. The book outlines techniques which can be employed at the back-end or within the site’s code as well as front-end or editorial techniques to help improve visibility within the search engines. com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview. Inc. aspx?No=9789742127459 http:/ / www. Sell & Profit on eBay" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 22 November 2009. The book includes references to many paid and free tools available on the web to assist readers as well as short case studies. expanding his online business and eventually closing his physical store. co. com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview. dk/ Products/ 9788702073904. do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=244786& docNo=2). [3] Mello. and he is said to have sold over $20 million worth of products through the online service. [6] Canfield. Ellen (February 29. Daily Telegraph: Pg. John P. Retrieved 22 November 2009. Dahlynn (2006). Patrick (July 26. co. se-ed. lexisnexis. Kiplinger's Personal Finance (Kiplinger Washington Editors. Joanna (August 2.Get Into Bed With Google 144 Synopsis The book provides 52 practical solutions to Search Engine Optimisation problems faced by many small to medium sized websites. com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview. gyldendalbusiness. amazon. He has promoted software for marketing on Myspace and training on selling on ebay.[1] along with other titles. midas. amazon. . 32. Catherine (July 2003).'. "Selling to the masses on eBay" (http:/ / www. "One man's trash is another's treasure" (http:/ / www. From creating basic Metatags to help categorise pages through to more advanced keyword density ratios. com/ eshop/ Products/ Detail. ISBN 0-7573-0261-0. The updated second edition contains new material relating to social networks and Google Analytics to assist readers with utilising and benefiting from these tools in relation to Search Engine Optimisation. 2005). [2] "Authour Adam Ginsberg" (http:/ / www. [4] Siskos.[6] [7] [8] In 2005 Ginsberg released How to buy.[3] As a result he continued to engage in eBay sales. Jack. [7] Lion. uk/ How-Buy-Sell-Profit-eBay/ dp/ 006076287X). sell and profit on eBay. which were published by Nightingale Conant. co. amazon. Mark Victor. lexisnexis. do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=244786& docNo=7). References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. Chicken soup for the enterepreneur's soul: advice and inspiration on fulfilling Dreams. He has written the book 'How to buy. 2004). [5] Tovia.[2] Prior to venturing into sales on eBay. HCI. "The Secrets of Power Sellers". Amazon website. ISSN 15289729. Although he claims to have been initially skeptical about selling through eBay.

145 Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) The Golden Triangle in internet marketing depicts the triangular viewing pattern on a webpage which is created based on the eye-tracking activity of users.[6] This implies that a website may not be getting any traffic due to its positioning on the search results. which gives rise to an “F” form. The results of the study show that any search engine optimisation (SEO) marketing performed is most effective a website ranks in the top three for your primary keyword. showing that it was only the first three results on a search engine that had high click-through rates whilst the remaining results had very low click-through rates. The Golden Triangle forces internet marketers to focus on tailoring a website’s title and description to give relevant and concise information. For marketing purposes. SEO marketers should also use long-tail keywords to increase their chances of being displayed within the Golden Triangle for less popular keywords. getting a website into the Golden Triangle of any search result page is the key to increasing traffic to a site. Google carried out a study to better understand the average search patterns and to try to find out whether there was anything which differentiated a result ranked first from a result ranked sixth on a search engine page. .[4] An eye tracking study done by an eye tracking company and search marketing firms has shown that. not even that.[1] It is an eye-tracking heat-mapping that shows that people look and click on a specific area on a page of search results. As users scroll down the page. company’s try to place their websites in the top results for searches. they tend to read only titles and then. the vast majority of eye tracking activities happens in a triangle at the top of the search results page indicating that the areas of maximum interest create a "golden triangle".Adam Ginsberg resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=8286& docNo=25). then the title and only part of the description of the next few results. during a search. It was previously considered that a website should be seen on the first page of the search engine and it was even better if the website was ranked higher on the first page. The Toronto Star: BUSINESS. This was until a trend was identified. C01.[2] Origins This term relates to search engine marketing strategies and was coined back in 2005 during studies which were carried out by Google to show which area on search result pages drew the attention of viewers the most.[3] In search engine marketing. towards the end of the page. Using the Golden Triangle The Golden Triangle is the area of the page where users read the title and the description of each search result which eventually results in higher click-through rates. Pg.[5] Implications of the Golden Triangle The reason for the increase in click through rates on the first three search results is due to the way users view the result page. Google’s study showed that users usually read the entire title and description of the first three listings.

com/ internet-marketing-glossary/ g/ golden-triangle). . References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] "Definition of Golden Triangle" (http:/ / www. hubspot. For instance Google sells the first two top ranked spots on their results page to bidders. Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. Hubspot. Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. Use of quality SEO is the key to being able to get within the Golden Triangle on a search result page. html) Eyetools. com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap. Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. who pay to be placed in those strategic spots. html) [6] Eyetools.Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) 146 Forming part of the Golden Triangle It can be difficult to be placed within the Golden Triangle. html) . com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap. com/ marketing/ the-importance-of-the-golden-triangle-in-internet-marketing-aRtI3OZk. saelstrom. Strategic and consistent keyword placement can be used to try to be within the Golden Triangle without paying out excessive advertising fees. Retrieved 2010-12-08. The Importance of The Golden Triangle in Internet Marketing (http:/ / articlesadv. com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap. com/ Internet-Marketing-eBook) Eyetools. 5 Tips to Turn Your Website into a Marketing Machine (http:/ / www. html) Vincent Murphy.

of Avonmore Developments. Slaughter & May.[5] Revenue and funding GroupSpaces generates revenue via a combination of premium accounts.GroupSpaces 147 GroupSpaces GroupSpaces Type Industry Founded Group Management Internet October.[6] The company also generates revenue by allowing graduate recruiters to advertise their campus activities and promote their opportunities to a highly employable community of students throughout the whole academic year. GroupSpaces has also partnered with many leading nationwide networks of groups such as SIFE. RBS.[9] In June 2010 it secured a $1. Princeton.[4] As of November 2010. Simon Levene. TMP Worldwide. BCG. and promote themselves [2] online. Andy Young: Cofounder and CTO groupspaces. Bank of England. GroupSpaces also works with many of the leading recruitment agencies in the UK including Euro RSCG Riley. Barclays Capital. Morgan Stanley.[8] The company raised a small amount of angel finance from Avonmore Developments in January 2008. Accenture.000) investment round from Index Ventures and a leading angel investor consortium including Dave McClure. Mediacom and City & Law. also participated in the round. JP Morgan. the company was launched in the United Kingdom in 2007[3] and has since expanded into the United States and over 30 other countries. societies. UBS. Work Communications. MIT and Stanford signed on with GroupSpaces. Stafford Long. In the first few months of operation in the United States. Citi. Founded by Oxford University students David Langer and Andy Young. SAS Design. Ariel Poler and Quincy Smith of CODE Advisors. Credit Suisse. KPMG. Clifford Chance.[7] Since 2007. McKinsey & Company. Campaigns can be targeted to specific universities and audiences such as fraternities. its software is used to host over 1 million memberships. Lloyd's of London and the NHS. Yale.3 million (£860. PwC. 2007 Headquarters New York City. Thirty Three.[11] The funding has been used to expand both the technical and marketing teams in both the United Kingdom and United States. Freshfields. Meagan Marks. top schools such as Harvard.[12] . Chris Sacca.[10] The previous backers. hobbyists and entrepreneurial clubs. London Key people David Langer: Cofounder and CEO. Deutsche Bank. targeted advertising and transaction commission from payments made through the site. GroupSpaces has worked with over 70 graduate recruiters including Allen & Overy. associations and other groups manage their membership and activities. Deloitte. Stephen Bullock and Simon and Michael Blakey.com [1] Website GroupSpaces (styled groupspaces) is a London-based online company that provides technology to help real-world clubs. Engineers Without Borders and the British Judo Association.

com/ news/ groupspaces_raises_1_3m_from_index_ventu). McKinsey & Company and Lehman Brothers. CrunchBase. Retrieved 2011-04-15. http:/ / www. uk/ finance/ yourbusiness/ 7866758/ GroupSpaces-secures-Index-Ventures-investment-to-help-clubs-flourish. Retrieved 2011-02-25. [7] . Retrieved 2011-02-27. bbc. html). [12] "GroupSpaces raises $1. co. html). References [1] http:/ / groupspaces. with over 500. com/ 2010/ 06/ 30/ groupspaces-secures-1-3-million-and-brings-valley-players-on-board/ ). After studying how their college’s clubs and societies worked–and running a few themselves–the two came up with GroupSpaces. 25. [14] "Andrew Young CrunchBase profile" (http:/ / www. TechCrunch. [8] .com/) . com [2] "GroupSpace attracts high-profile investors" (http:/ / dealbook. . Science Business. [4] Tyler. article. onrec. . sciencebusiness. com/ 2010/ 06/ 30/ groupspaces-secures-1-3-million-and-brings-valley-players-on-board/ ). [11] "Oxford’s GroupSpaces raises $1. techcrunch. Retrieved 2011-03-01. net/ NewsArticle. "UK dotcoms: Two success stories" (http:/ / www. Andy Young serves as cofounder and CTO of GroupSpaces. webmaster and a member of groups with activities ranging from triathlon to table tennis. 2010-09-15. . . http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-03-01. 2010-09-15. Retrieved 2011-02-26. article. Retrieved 2011-02-26. Retrieved 2011-02-21. uk/ groupspaces-makes-a-bid-to-join-the-us-club/ 1006877. TechCrunch. co. Retrieved 2011-02-27. treasurer. "GroupSpaces secures $1. http:/ / www.[13] Langer previously worked at JP Morgan. com/ person/ david-langer). 2010-07-01. 2010-09-01. 26. He is the creator of Selective Tweets. BBC News. . GroupSpaces was named the winner of the Social Networking and Collaboration category of the Startup 100 awards[15] . [9] Butcher.5m status updates per month. 2010-07-02. com/ company/ groupspaces.3M from Index Ventures and launches in U.3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / eu. Retrieved 2011-02-27. aspx?ArticleId=67982). co. university market" (http:/ / www. 2010-07-08.GroupSpaces 148 Founders GroupSpaces was cofounded in October 2007 by David Langer. Retrieved 2011-02-21.3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / www. Mike (2010-06-30). techcrunch.[14] Awards On April 13. [15] "2011 Startup 100 Awards Announcement" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-02-27. html). crunchbase.000 users and 1. recruiter. New York Times. Langer was president. [5] . He cofounded GroupSpaces while studying for a mathematics degree at Oxford University and was subsequently awarded second place in the 2007 UK Graduate of the Year competition. com/ company/ groupspaces. http:/ / www. [3] Butcher. telegraph. . com/ 2010/ 07/ 02/ groupspaces-attracts-high-profile-investors/ ). 2010-07-01. Rory (2010-07-05). Recruiter Magazine. crunchbase. 2011. uk/ technology/ technology-startup100/ 8446409/ Spotify-crowned-winner-of-Start-Up-100-Awards. Retrieved 2011-02-27. crunchbase. [10] Cellan-Jones. External links • Official website (http://www. the most popular third-party app to link Twitter and Facebook. Crunchbase. Mike (2010-06-30).GroupSpaces. .3M for online club administration system" (http:/ / bulletin. . [6] . . com/ person/ andy-young).3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / eu. Telegraph. crunchbase. Retrieved 2011-02-26. "GroupSpaces secures $1. Recruiter Magazine. Crunchbase. "GroupSpaces secures $1. . co. As a student. captain. Telegraph Media Group Limited. while the two were students at Oxford University. uk/ blogs/ thereporters/ rorycellanjones/ 2010/ 07/ uk_dot_coms_two_success_storie. recruiter.S. and Andy Young. CrunchBase. uk/ groupspaces-makes-a-bid-to-join-the-us-club/ 1006877. . telegraph. nytimes. . [13] "David Langer CrunchBase profile" (http:/ / www. co. Richard (2010-07-01). Online Recruitment.

illustrations. and generate a proposal to fulfill those needs. dealers and sales representatives. such as prices.Guided selling 149 Guided selling Guided selling is a process that helps potential buyers of products or services to choose the product best fulfilling their needs and hopefully guides the buyer to buy. define the solution. commercial and technical aspects of the customer needs and the possible solutions. Goal is to help the potential buyer and / or the sales representative or service agent to efficiently guide through the product selection and purchasing process. these models are interacted with by means of questionnaires and explanations to / feedback options to product recommendations. complete with commercial aspects of the proposal. brands. and lay-outs. In addition. offline. Guided selling simplifies and automates the maintenance and deployment of all knowledge that is required to analyze customer needs. technical calculations. Process and Practice Guided selling is put in practice with an information system that supports the central management and maintenance of knowledge. retailer) to actively guide their customers to a buying decision and thus increases their conversion rate. It also helps vendors of products (e. call-center solutions and instore-devices in specialised trade stores. Guided Selling-Systems increase the shopping experience and the usability of the website since they typically offer a better access to the product assortment than done by filtering systems or free text search. Goal and Approach The goal of Guided Selling-solutions is to bring together potential buyer's needs and products or services that fulfill his needs in order to facilitate buying decisions. product manufacturer websites and service providers. or behind-the-scenes decision issues that buyers must address before they are ready to make a solution choice. Guided selling does not address the internal. private. . product configuration. furthermore. A functional definition of the solution is provided to the customer. The knowledge stored is related to functional. the technical specification of the solution (such as bills of materials and routings) is generated for manufacturing and distribution. commercial calculations and document generation. texts. The proposal-specific functions of guided selling are recommender systems. The Guided Selling-system asks questions and offers answer options that help the online-shopper to learn about and define his needs. At the same time. Such knowledge is stored in semantic knowledge models. margins. the system supports the use of this knowledge by web services such as online product advisors. customers. the vendor understands step by step the refined customer needs. product advisors. Guided selling-solutions are used to analyse user requirements and generate buying recommendations to make sure online-shoppers find the product best fitting to their needs • Kiosk-applications. even for complex and technical solutions.g. Guided selling-solutions are applied in the following use cases: • Websites of online-shops.

A matching technology then maps the needs on technical product details and matches the buyer's profile with the available products. Boundaries Guided Selling-Systems are different from Recommender systems in the way that statistical recommenders calculate recommendations based on usage data instead of the actual user input to a questionnaire. but not which exact technical requirements are needed. each product recommendation needs to be explained using a reasoning engine and the advantages / disadvantages of each recommendation need to be shown. longer battery lifetime) need to be treated accordingly. . A Guided Selling-System must thus be able to translate buying desires expressed in consumer language (e. • recommend products: The technical product specifications inferred from the customer's needs need to be matched on the fact sheets of the available products. Guided Selling-systems rather analyse the individual user's input to calculate recommendations that best fulfil his personal needs.g. The product characteristics that are relevant to a buying decision are explained. Since the Guided Selling-System explains product attributes and use cases. In order to calculate valuable product recommendations. hard disk size. create trust in the product recommendations and the products offered and thus turn prospects into buyers.g. all relevant product attributes need to be evaluated and matched against the user requirements. RAM-size). buyers are enabled to express their needs. a website. "I need a business notebook") or concrete. Technology Required Guided Selling-solutions are software systems. • analyse customer's needs: Consumers typically can express buying desires. The Guided Selling-software allows to simulate a dialog to find out the buyer's needs.g. refine existing needs and discover new needs. Product attributes that are always beneficial (e. Goal of this approach is to calculate objective recommendations that are based on the individual user's needs. but non-technical product attributes ("a fast processor") in technical product specifications (e. Guided Selling-systems thus require product information (fact sheets).a consumer knows how he wants to use the product. The advantage of Guided Selling to recommender systems is an objectively calculated product proposal and a needs-based product advice that usually has a higher quality than products suggested by recommender systems. Other than Collaborative filtering that calculates recommendations based on historical data (e. • provide buying arguments and convince the customer: The goal of the Guided Selling-System is to objectively advise the potential buyer. the Guided Selling-System needs to calculate alternatives that come close to the actual requirements. it is not enough to filter out products that just fulfill the requirements expressed by the user. If no product fulfills all requirements.Guided selling 150 Guided Selling-Process Guided Selling-Systems put in practice the following Guided Selling-Process to advice.g. a certain processor type. Helping the customer to understand his needs and then really understand the attributes important to him is key to calculate product recommendations that fit the customer's requirements. Thus. convince and sell (based on the need/solution-placement dynamic): • understand the customer's needs: The potential customer is asked for his buying needs. website usage data such as "users who watched this product also watched these other products"). The drawback is that Guided Selling-Systems need domain-specific knowledge about the product category whereas recommender systems (at least Collaborative filtering can work across all product categories of e. but not technical specs . Guided Selling-systems are a kind of Recommender systems.g. operating system. However.

Guided selling


• Whitepaper Guided Selling published by a Guided Selling specialist [1] • J. Lester, K. Branting, B. Mott: Conversational agents [2], Practical handbook of Internet computing, 2004, S. 3ff • Guided Selling: On demand information for buyers [3], Executive technology report, IBM, August 2005. The paper shows the challenges of retail as buying decisions are taken only more and more and shows how to face the challenges with Guided Selling-solutions. • Axel Schultze: Channel Excellence [4], published by Lulu.com, 2007, S. 215ff, ISBN 061517759X • Sridhar Seshadri, Dana Popescu: Inventory and Ecommerce [5], Department of Information, Operations and Management Science, Leonard Stern School of Business, New York University, New York, NY 10012

[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. excentos. com/ en/ whitepaper-guided-selling http:/ / ftp. ida. liu. se/ ~729A15/ mtrl/ Lester_et_al. pdf http:/ / www-935. ibm. com/ services/ us/ imc/ pdf/ gt510-6205-guided-selling. pdf http:/ / books. google. de/ books?hl=de& lr=& id=rT1UAyyYiswC& oi=fnd& pg=PA7& dq=%22Guided+ Selling%22& ots=Q4PVt6RMnr& sig=QwSUXqICgpi8KGPOGK2yOeZQms0 [5] http:/ / pages. stern. nyu. edu/ ~dpopescu/ IME. pdf

Image search optimization
Image search optimization (or image search engine optimization) is the process of organizing the content of a webpage to increase relevance to a specific keyword on image search engines. Like search engine optimization, the aim is to achieve a higher organic search listing and thus increasing the volume of traffic from search engines. Image search optimization techniques can be viewed as a subset of search engine optimization techniques that focuses on gaining high ranks on image search engine results. Unlike normal SEO process, there isn't much to do for ISO. Making high quality images accessible to search engines and providing some description about images is almost all that can be done for ISO.

Checklist For ISO
• Image Naming: • Use a meaningful name rather than 'DC00001.jpg' • Separate words with a hyphen or underscore, but try not to use too many. i.e. green-tree.jpg and green_tree.jpg are better than greentree.jpg or DC00001.jpg.[1] • alt Attribute • Provide a small description of image in alt attribute of img tag. • As a good practice do not leave alt attribute empty, provide at least one word. • Do not fill the alt attribute with lots of keywords, even if they are relevant. • Text Around The Image • Place some text around the image that describes it. • Image Quality • Try to use high resolution images. • If available, provide different resolutions of images • Image Accessibility • Make sure that the directory that contains your images is fully accessible by crawlers.

Image search optimization


[1] http:/ / searchengineland. com/ its-not-just-google-that-treats-underscores-like-dashes-11854

Impression (online media)
An Impression (online media) according to the "Basic Advertising Measures," from FAST, an ad industry group, is "The count of a delivered basic advertising unit from an ad distribution point." Impressions are how most Web advertising is sold and the cost is quoted in terms of the cost per thousand impressions ( [CPM] ).[1] Another definition of online advertisement impression is the single appearance of an advertisement on a web page. Each time an advertisement loads onto a user's screen, the ad server may count that loading as one impression.

[1] "http:/ / whatis. techtarget. com/ definition/ 0,,sid9_gci211535,00. html#"

External links
• CPM (http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci211535,00.html#cpm/) • FAST (http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci211535,00.html#fast/)

In-text advertising
In-text advertising is a form of contextual advertising where specific keywords within the text of a web-page are matched with advertising and/or related information units.

Although contextual advertising in general refers to the inclusion of advertisements adjacent to relevant online context (e.g., Google AdSense), in-text advertising places hyperlinks directly into the text of the webpage.

Advertising Model

Expanded advertisement window associated with the in-text term "PC" (double-underlined).

In text advertising works on a cost per click (CPC) model, which means that each time a website visitor clicks on an In-text ad, the websites owner gets paid by the advertiser.

In-text advertising


The use of this type of advertising in news and journalism websites has been criticized by journalism ethics counselors as "ethically problematic at the least and potentially quite corrosive of journalistic quality and credibility."[1] However, publishers such as the Indianapolis Star who use in-text advertising have reported that despite early objections by some readers, such complaints have "tapered off".[2]

[1] Is It News...or Is It an Ad? (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ public/ article/ SB116412309878729621-1mr_uV3L7Bc8GGLks5qCcsusmyw_20071127. html) By David Kesmodal and Julia Angwin, Wall Street Journal November 27, 2006; Page R8 [2] Pitching Between the Lines (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ magazine/ content/ 07_49/ b4061070. htm?chan=technology_technology+ index+ page_top+ stories) by Catherine Holahan, BusinessWeek December 3, 2007

Interactive advertising
Interactive advertising uses online or offline interactive media to communicate with consumers and to promote products, brands, services, and public service announcements, corporate or political groups. In the inaugural issue of the Journal of Interactive Advertising [1], editors Li and Leckenby (2000) defined Interactive Advertising as the "paid and unpaid presentation and promotion of products, services and ideas by an identified sponsor through mediated means involving mutual action between consumers and producers." This is most commonly performed through the Internet; often using video content as a delivery medium.

Interactive advertising objectives
The goals of interactive advertising are usually akin to the traditional objectives of advertising, i.e. to sell a product. This in turn means that many of the traditional elements of advertising impact and effectiveness remain relevant, even within the scope of interactive media. However, according to the Journal of Interactive Advertising 2001, interactive advertising also has some properties that expand the range of potential objectives and that improve advertising effectiveness. Interactive advertising also has the potential to decrease the losses associated with poorly coordinated advertising, to reduce the difficulties commonly encountered in clearly communicating an advertising message and to help overcome new product hurdles, such as a consumer rejection.

Elements of interactive advertising
There are many different facets to Interactive Advertising, including varying methods and types. Using many different types of cognitive tools and advert presentations, organizations can enhance the impact of their campaigns with this type of advertising. According to Thorson (1996), all advertisements can be classified into one of five basic categories, including: product/service, public service announcement, issue, corporate and political. Advert types also interact with the user's motives to influence outcomes, or consumer responses, reinforcing the need for Interactive Advertising as a means of persuading potential consumers and target audiences. Using the Internet as the main medium for Interactive Advertising to study the methods, types and outcomes, we can then sound out the different user or advertiser controlled aspects.

Leckenby. 27-39). In fact. a number of researchers and practitioners argue that consumers have more control on the Internet than do advertisers (Roehm & Haugtvedt.org/article5 (accessed 03/09/2008) It is important to remember interactive advertising begins with online advertising.). E. 2004. Mahwah. (1999). 55-78). Forrest. hyperlinks and non-carrier websites are examples of Advertiser controlled Interactive Advertising. Thorson (Eds. • Roehm. 1999). • Cross. Understanding interactivity of cyberspace advertising. 1997). Hairong.). org/ issue1 [2] http:/ / champtec. pop-up ads. Internet Advertising Formats and Effectiveness. Some have gone so far as to argue that interactive marketing and advertising techniques will not work unless practitioners "step into the shoes" of and approach the Internet from the consumer's vantage point (Cross & Smith. • Thorson (Eds. & Smith. T. such as ad types. References [1] http:/ / jiad. A. googlepages. & R. This does not mean that consumers never control the structure of the interactive ads. formats and features. (1997). Most of these variables include structural elements. • Rodgers. 99-117). P. S.. Center for Interactive Advertising. 2008. http:// jiad. See Also Digital marketing References • Li. Cybermarketing: Your Interactive Marketing Consultant (pp. Using search to find the businesses that excel in this medium reveals that the organic search leads are dominating the pay per click companies in this area.. & Haugtvedt. Mahwah. [2] (accessed 02/25/2010) • Flew. 3rd edition. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. C. New Media: an introduction Melbourne: Oxford. The Interactive Advertising Model: How Users Perceive and Process Online Ads. Customer-focused strategies and tactics. Advertising and the World Wide Web (pp. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. H. Schumann & E. IL: NTC Business Books.Interactive advertising 154 User generated/controlled aspects Functions. 2001. pdf . Advertising and the World Wide Web (pp. J. In R. In D. Brady. Advertiser controlled aspects Internet aspects that are under the control of the advertiser.). Internet motives and mode are the main factors of user [controlled aspects. Mizerski (Eds. sponsorship. JIAD. R. Banner Ads. John D. com/ ad_format_print. Lincolnwood. W.

search marketing or e-marketing. Counting four types of interactions with company websites in addition to the hits from advertisements served from advertising networks. including design. and sales.[5] .Internet marketing 155 Internet marketing Marketing Key concepts Product • Pricing Distribution • Service • Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Marketing ethics Marketing effectiveness Market research Market segmentation Marketing strategy Marketing management Market dominance Promotional content Advertising • Branding • Underwriting Direct marketing • Personal Sales Product placement • Publicity Sales promotion • Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing • Premiums • Prizes Promotional media Printing • Publication Broadcasting • Out-of-home Internet marketing • Point of sale Promotional merchandise Digital marketing • In-game In-store demonstration Word-of-mouth marketing Brand Ambassador • Drip Marketing Internet marketing.[3] Internet marketing ties together the creative and technical aspects of the Internet. banner ads on specific websites. search engine optimization (SEO). [4] advertising. development. email marketing. also known as digital marketing.[2] Digital customer data and electronic customer relationship management (ECRM) systems are also often grouped together under internet marketing.0 strategies. the authors found that the potential for collecting data was up to 2.500 times per user per month. is the marketing (generally promotion) of products or services over the Internet. web marketing. online marketing. and Web 2. Internet marketing also refers to the placement of media along many different stages of the customer engagement cycle through search engine marketing (SEM). The New York Times. but also includes marketing done via e-mail and wireless media. Internet marketing is considered to be broad in scope[1] because it not only refers to marketing on the Internet. working with comScore. In 2008. published an initial estimate to quantify the user data collected by large Internet-based companies.

for which the advertisements are based on search engine keywords entered by the users. etc. country. • Affiliate Marketing: a process wherein a product or service developed by one entity is sold by other active sellers for a share of profits. Niche marketers differ from traditional Internet marketers as they have a more specialized topic knowledge. gender. Advantages and Limitations of Internet marketing Advantages Internet marketing is inexpensive when examining the ratio of cost to the reach of the target audience.g. geography. Companies can reach a wide audience for a small fraction of traditional advertising budgets. and other general factors. Therefore. The entity that owns the product may provide some marketing material (e. sales letters. Appeal to specific interests When appealing to specific interests. rather than reaching out to a broadly defined demographic. tracking facilities. marketers target a user browsing the Internet alone and so that the marketers' messages reach the user personally. the vast majority of affiliate marketing relationships come from e-commerce businesses that offer affiliate programs. region or state.[7] This approach is used in search marketing. • Lead-based websites: a strategy whereby an organization generates value by acquiring sales leads from its website.. Similar to walk-in customers in retail world. local directory listing. The strategy and overall effectiveness of . affiliate links.). Internet Protocol (IP) address. The nature of the medium allows consumers to research and to purchase products and services conveniently. such as latitude and longitude. Geo-targeting In Internet marketing.[6] and targeted online sales promotions. geo targeting and geo marketing are the methods of determining the geolocation of a website visitor with geolocation software. and allows the creators to establish themselves as authorities on the topic or product. whereas in traditional Internet marketing a website would be created and promoted on a high-level topic such as kitchen appliances. ISP. • Local Internet marketing: a strategy through which a small company utilizes the Internet to find and to nurture relationships that can be used for real-world advantages. Local Internet marketing uses tools such as social media marketing. These prospects are often referred to as organic leads. or from consumer to consumer (C2C). metro code or zip code. This approach usually works under the pay per click (PPC) method.Internet marketing 156 Business models Internet marketing is associated with several business models: • E-commerce: a model whereby goods are sold directly to consumers (B2C). businesses have the advantage of appealing to consumers in a medium that can bring results quickly. and delivering different content to that visitor based on his or her location. These marketers typically segment their markets according to age group. Niche Marketing Niche and hyper-niche internet marketing put further emphasis on creating destinations for web users and consumers on specific topics and products. marketers place an emphasis on appealing to a specific behavior or interest. Niche marketing provides end users of such sites very targeted information. businesses (B2B). city. For example. organization. niche marketing would focus on more specific topics such as 4-slice toasters. and other criteria. however. One-to-one approach In a one-to-one approach.

eBay. Buyers and sellers often look at prices on the website before going to flea markets. movie props. However. As a result.g. Usage trends Technological advancements in the telecommunications industry have dramatically affected online advertising techniques. also known as opting out. Online merchants have attempted to address this concern by investing in and building strong consumer brands (e. etc. advertisers can more effectively engage and connect their audience with their campaigns that seek to shape consumer attitudes and feelings towards specific products and services. to smell. pay per click. Some companies that purchase customer information offer the option for individuals to have their information removed from the database. and pay per action. and Overstock. Many consumers are hesitant to purchase items over the Internet because they do not believe that their personal information will remain private. Online banking appeals to customers because it is often faster and considered more convenient than visiting bank branches. 157 Limitations However. PayPal. Therefore. Additionally.Internet marketing marketing campaigns depend on business goals and cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis.[8] Internet auctions Internet auctions have become a multi-billion dollar business. Many firms are embracing a paradigm that is shifting the focus of advertising methodology from traditional text and image advertisements to those containing more recent technologies like JavaScript and Adobe Flash. marketers can determine which messages or offerings are more appealing to the audience. and to perform a targeted action.) have provided back-end buyer protection systems to address problems if they occur. clothing. eBay is often used as a price-basis for specialized items. and tested. from the buyer's perspective. and "to try on" tangible goods before making an online purchase can be limiting. However. Security concerns Information security is important both to companies and consumers that participate in online business. Amazon.[9] [10] As the premier online reselling platform. there is an industry standard for e-commerce vendors to reassure customers by having liberal return policies as well as providing in-store pick-up services. and by leveraging merchant and feedback rating systems and e-commerce bonding solutions. and so on. Specialized e-stores sell a vast amount of items like antiques. to visit a website. several major online payment mechanisms (credit cards. almost all aspects of an Internet marketing campaign can be traced. The advertisers can use a variety of methods. pay per play. The results of campaigns can be measured and tracked immediately because online marketing initiatives usually require users to click on an advertisement.. All these solutions attempt to assure consumers that their transactions will be free of problems because the merchants can be trusted to provide reliable products and services.com. Internet marketers also have the advantage of measuring statistics easily and inexpensively. measured. Unique items that could only previously be found at flea markets are now being sold on Internet auction websites such as eBay. and are unable to stop the transfer of their information between companies if such activity occurs. gadgets. the inability of shoppers to touch. such as pay per impression. Google Checkout. Effects on industries The number of banks offering the ability to perform banking tasks over the internet has increased. Another major security concern that consumers have with e-commerce merchants is whether or not they will receive exactly what they purchase. many customers are unaware if and when their information is being shared.com). to taste. the price shown on eBay often becomes the item's .

When. prweb. pp.9 billion (http:/ / www. the effect on the advertising industry itself has been profound. [5] Story. The New York Times. The New York Times (The New York Times Company). pReed Business Information. 2006). uk/ 2006/ 09/ 29/ internet_advertising_booms/ ) (2006-09-29) [13] Internet Advertising Bureau . online advertising has grown to be worth tens of billions of dollars annually. Butterworth-Heinemann.[11] [12] [13] PricewaterhouseCoopers reported that US$16. "Bid on Dreamgirls Costumes for Charity"" (http:/ / offtherack. and internet service hosting. 158 Advertising industry In addition to the major effect internet marketing has had on the technology industry. In 2008. lk/ business/ 127-local/ 38977.Online Ad Spending to Total $19. .Political Performance Index (http:/ / spartaninternet. asp?id=9) (SIPP)" (Accessed 28-June-2008) [16] "Center For Responsive Politics (http:/ / www. Louise (March 10. Retrieved 24 March 2011. emarketer. automotive or gambling. htm).S. Retrieved 2008-03-09. php?id=N00009638) Fundraising Profile Barack Obama" (Accessed 28-June-2008) com/ releases/ eSynergize/ Online-Marketing/ prweb5163484. "Mobile customer relationship management: underlying issues and challenges" (in (English))..1108/14637150710834541. [11] eMarketer . [4] Charlesworth. com/ 2007/ 02/ dress_like_a_dr. . org/ 10638959-put-the-mphasis-on-local-internet-marketing-and-reach-first-page-on-google. Web Is Keeping Closer Eye on You" (http:/ / www. "Put the E-mphasis on Local Internet Marketing and reach first page on Google" (http:/ / www. aspx?1004635) (2007-2-28) [12] The Register . "To Aim Ads. managingchange. candidates for President heavily utilized Internet marketing strategies to reach constituents. com/ 2008/ 03/ 10/ technology/ 10privacy. Time. com/ article/ VR1117938954. 2010. consumeraffairs. dailymirror. [3] Jaakko Sinisalo et al.S. Retrieved 24 March 2011. variety. org/ pres08/ summary. 2007).5 Billion in 2007 (http:/ / www. Internet marketing: a practical approach. prlog. html#comment-66215834). [7] http:/ / www. Retrieved August 15. (2007). .Internet advertising shoots past estimates (http:/ / www. Where?" (http:/ / print. 49.[15] President Barack Obama raised over US$1 million in one day during his extensive Democratic candidacy campaign. Daily Mirror. Some of them were originally brick and mortar businesses such as publishing. on average. html?categoryid=1238& cs=1).[16] Several industries have heavily invested in and benefited from internet marketing and online advertising. html). "Movie props on the block: Mouse to auction Miramax leftovers" (http:/ / www. [6] Rayner. largely due to online donors. References [1] "Internet Marketing . com/ imagepages/ 2008/ 03/ 10/ technology/ 20080310_PRIVACY_GRAPHIC. people. in Story. html) in 2006" (Accessed 18-June-2007) [15] "Spartan Internet Consulting . In just a few years. Alan (2009). nytimes. . html) (JPEG). . Andrew (April 21. David (February 24. co.How. [10] James. opensecrets. blogging. . while others have sprung up as purely online businesses. net/ en/ 1/ iabknowledgebankadspend. Inc. . com/ onetoone/ overview. "They Know More Than You Think" (http:/ / www. html). in 2006.[14] This has caused a growing impact on the United States' electoral process. During the 2007 primaries candidates added. 2008). com/ 2008/ news. 2008).9 billion was spent on Online marketing in the U. [2] "Former Wachovia Direct Marketing Executives Launch Full Service Online Marketing and Web Design Company" (http:/ / www. html) (2007-06-18) [14] PricewaterhouseCoopers reported U. com/ news04/ online_banking_survey. htm [8] http:/ / www. html). doi:10. theregister. html [9] Mohr. directtraffic. Ian (February 27.Internet marketing selling price. Internet marketing spend totaled $16. org/ OnlineNews/ Internet_marketing_20075115473.Online Adspend (http:/ / www. over 500 social network supporters per day to help spread their message. Business Process Management Journal 13 (6): 772. com/ Article. nytimes. 2010). music. iabuk. such as digital design and media. . Louise and comScore (March 10.

Internet presence management 159 Internet presence management Internet Presence Management (IPM) is the process of controlling the Web presence. Advantages Internet presence management is useful for organizations or companies that are attempting to embrace the online medium as means of connecting with their target audiences. Internet presence The Internet presence.g. for an organization or company encompasses. enterprise resource planning. Other management methods include sales force management systems. but is not limited to: • • • • • • • • • E-mail Internet forums Blogs Minisites Search engine listings Social networks (e.. as well as reduce customer acquisition and customer service costs. Methods Internet presence management typically encompasses advanced Internet marketing. . where an advertiser communicates the entity's brand in a synergistic fashion via all areas of online marketing. Facebook. MySpace. or Web presence. with the goal of increasing that entity's online presence and overall internet efficiency. and business analytics to streamline a business operationally to do more with less. YouTube and Twitter) Web directories Websites Word of mouth marketing (WOMM). or Internet-based channels of an organization or company. Web analytics.

[1] The firm is noted for its work with clients including NASA. JESS3 coordinated a joint project between NASA and Gowalla.[13] The application allows users to share stories about how Facebook has impacted their lives. with more than 100 freelance partners.[12] The website provides access to the digitized C-SPAN video archives of over 160. "Search for the Moon Rocks". area.[12] In July 2010. 2010.[14] [15] The same month. In October 2010. creating NASA-related items for the service's users to acquire. Nike. com Website JESS3 is a creative interactive agency based in the Washington.[2] Clients of JESS3 have included Nike.[10] In addition to the election websites. The first 100 users to earn the pin also received a JESS3-designed special edition map.[2] JESS3 is led by Thomas along with president and co-founder Leslie Bradshaw. JESS3 became Mashable's design partner on projects including their iPhone application. JESS3 also developed the C-SPAN Video Library.C..[16] [5] On October 22.[13] JESS3 has served as social media adviser to NASA on multiple geosocial networking projects.[4] Background Founded by web designer Jesse Thomas in 2007. 2010. president http:/ / jess3. branding. MySpace. JESS3 collaborated with Facebook on a project called Stories to help celebrate the social networking site's 500 millionth profile. sortable by geographical location or by topic. United States Key people Jesse Thomas. Intel and Microsoft. as well as a special NASA pin. infographics and data visualization. Facebook[2] and Wikipedia[3] as well as independent projects such as The Conversation Prism and The Ex-Blocker. social media marketing. and offices in the United Kingdom.JESS3 160 JESS3 JESS3 Type Genre Founder(s) Private Creative agency Jesse Thomas Headquarters Washington. JESS3 organized a partnership between NASA and Foursquare to engineer the first geosocial check-in from space. JESS3 designed a series of websites related to the 2008 presidential election for the Washington-based C-SPAN public affairs network. specializing in web design. D. chairman Leslie Bradshaw.[5] [6] In 2009.[7] As of 2010.[11] which launched in March 2010.[9] for which they received a Webby Award nomination in 2009.[8] Notable projects In August 2008. the firm claims 15 full time employees.C. D. International Space .000 hours of programming and won an ACC Golden Beacon award on September 16.

which enables users to prevent their web browser from showing their ex-lovers' activities and posts on various websites.[20] [21] 161 JESS3 Labs In June 2010. black splotch within a user's browser. MA Austin. a customized NASA Foursquare homepage was launched which provides information about locations of interest to the U.[17] In addition. D.[35] which included a series of infographics outlining the rise of the internet and other information regarding popular social networking and media sites such as YouTube and Twitter. Transocean. As of May 2010. CA Brooklyn. plus related images and videos.[31] The design appeared in an article about information graphics in the July/August 2009 issue of Communication Arts. NY ? ? Paris ? Boston.C.[4] The application was profiled in The Globe and Mail. the company released a video titled "The State of the Internet" on Vimeo. including an articles in Glamour Magazine UK.[29] [30] Data visualization JESS3 has created and co-sponsored numerous visual design projects.[36] . San Fransisco.000 people have installed the Ex-Blocker plug-in.[33] [34] In February 2010. ten countries and four continents. the agency designed a diagram called "The Twitterverse" with Brian Solis that outlines the expanding network of applications that function with the popular web tool.[25] mentioned during a segment on Late Night With Jimmy Fallon[26] and received media coverage internationally. A project titled The Conversation Prism elaborately maps methods of communication across numerous online forums.[32] In the spring of 2009.[18] Other projects JESS3 has developed for NASA include their "Buzzroom" website. the company also introduced The Ex-Blocker. the video had been viewed online over 1 million times. JESS3 debuted the "Black Oil Plug-In" for Firefox that renders any mention of BP.[27] As of October 2010 over 8. 3 countries and one continent are unknown.[19] which tracks NASA-related tweets.S. City (11) Washington.[28] Global hubs JESS3 has teams in over a dozen cities.[22] [23] [24] That same month. the Gulf Oil Spill and other names and phrases into a dripping. space program. TX ? ? Country (7)  United States  United States  United States  United Kingdom  Greece  France  Argentina  United States  United States  Sweden  Germany Continent (3) North America North America North America Europe Europe Europe South America North America North America Europe Europe At least one global hub city. Wheelock checked in to Foursquare from the ISS and unlocked a new "NASA Explorer" badge.JESS3 Station (ISS) commander Douglas H.

Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ 2009/ 04/ 01/ mashable-iphone-app/ ). "Oil spill Firefox plugin blacks out BP across the Web" (http:/ / articles. cnn. html). c-span. Retrieved 29 October 2010. com/ 2010/ TECH/ mobile/ 10/ 14/ hbo.2817. JESS3 designed the website AnOrangeAmerica. Advantage Business Media.JESS3 162 Other projects For the 2008 US Presidential Election. capitolcommunicator. pdf). media/ 10/ 22/ astronaut. [18] Chloe Albanesius (22 October 2010). blacks. spill. NY Daily News. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010. multichannel. Retrieved 26 October 2010. com/ 2010/ 08/ 24/ the-state-of-the-geosocial-universe-infographic/ )"]. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Mashable. worldtech24.[37] The site visualized election-related tweets about Barack Obama and John McCain as they happened.[38] [39] References [1] "Interview With the Entrepreneur" (http:/ / technosailor. 18 October 2010. Zdnet "C-SPAN Launches Gadget-Fueled 'Debate Hub' as Social. com/ news-releases/ official-foursquare-i-voted-badge-released-for-polling-place-check-ins-105887113. 2010" (http:/ / www. "Q&A: NASA's Stephanie Schierholz on navigating the frontiers of social media" (http:/ / econsultancy. "Astronaut Posts First Foursquare Check-In from Space" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 25 October 2010. asp). Wireless Week. com/ article2/ 0. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 17 March 2010.com. Press release. bp. com/ news/ viewpr. Retrieved 27 October 2010. [19] "Houston. 5 May 2009. . Multichannel News. . . JESS3 developed a microsite for "My Discovery". Retrieved 27 October 2010. . . Retrieved 31 October 2010. "Official Foursquare 'I Voted' Badge Released for Polling Place Check-Ins" (http:/ / www. php). NBC. . 22 October 2010. [17] Matt Fitzpatrick (23 October 2010). . com/ lifestyle/ 2010/ 07/ 18/ 2010-07-18_ex_out_your_exs_existence_online. We’ve Had A Check-In: NASA Astronaut Just Used Foursquare From Space" (http:/ / www. E-consultancy. . In June 2010. [22] Christina Warren (2 June 2010). . ZDNet. com/ 2008/ 05/ 30/ interview-with-the-entrepreneur-jesse-thomas-of-jess3). out. The Webby Awards. [2] Jolie O'Dell (26 July 2010).2371303. com/ webbys/ current. Political Destination" (http:/ / blogs. "NASA. Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ business/ houston-we-ve-had-check-nasa-astronaut-just-used-foursquare-space). Retrieved 29 October 2010. . space/ ). 15 October 2010. php?season=13#webby_entry_politics). "Foursquare Now Allowing Check-ins From Space" (http:/ / www. "Mashable iPhone App Launches!" (http:/ / mashable. . The Hill. com/ 2010-06-02/ tech/ oil. . WorldTech24. html). com/ gadgetreviews/ ?p=381). [14] "FirstNews Briefs for October 15. . through agency partner New Media Strategies.com and launched it on Election Day. "NASA astronaut 'checks in' on Foursquare from space" (http:/ / thehill. [20] Meghan Keane (23 July 2010). foursquare. Mashable. Retrieved 27 October 2010. prnewswire. the Discovery Channel's 25th anniversary program. . Retrieved 25 October 2010. nydailynews. facebook. com/ article/ 457243-ACC_Awards_Golden_Beacon_To_C_SPAN_s_Video_Library. spaceref. BP Adds VP Cheney's PR Pro" (http:/ / www. . cnn. getglue/ ). . CNN. C-SPAN. 30 May 2008.. com/ us/ blog/ 6302-q-a-nasa-s-stephanie-schierholz). with data directly from Twitter's API. . org/ pdf/ Video Library Now Open. 2 June 2010. [7] Pete Cashmore (1 April 2009). [16] Eric Kuhn (22 October 2010). [6] PR Newswire (27 October 2010). [12] Mike Reynolds (16 September 2010). LLC. . . com/ the-state-of-wikipedia/ [4] Matthew Lysiak and Erica Pearson (18 July 2010). NewBay Media. com/ 2010/ 07/ 26/ jess3-design-interview/ )"]. com/ news/ weird/ Foursquare-Now-Allowing-Check-ins-from-Space-105577508. Facebook. Hillicon-Valley. "500 Million Stories" (http:/ / blog. com/ News/ 2010/ 10/ FirstNews-Briefs-15/ ). "The State of the GeoSocial Universe [INFOGRAPHIC (http:/ / mashable. [23] "JESS3 Creates Firefox Plugin for BP Oil Spill. wirelessweek. [21] "NASA Invites Reporters To Next Space Shuttle Launch And Tweetup" (http:/ / www. nbcwashington.00. "ACC Awards Golden Beacon To C-SPAN's Video Library" (http:/ / www. html?pid=31873). Retrieved 27 October 2010. Mashable. . firefox. HBO join mobile check-in game" (http:/ / edition. Retrieved 25 October 2010. html). [11] "C-SPAN’s Online Video Library Now Open to the Public" (http:/ / www. php?post=409753352130). Retrieved 27 October 2010. [9] Andrew Nusca (25 September 2008). aspx). [8] Jesse Thomas (24 August 2010). com/ 2010/ TECH/ social. [5] Sara Jerome (22 October 2010). Capitol Communicator. NBC Washington. pcmag. Retrieved 26 October 2010. CNN. [15] Doug Gross (14 October 2010). [13] Mark Zuckerberg (21 July 2010). "First Foursquare badge unlocked in space" (http:/ / www. . [10] "The 13th Annual Webby Awards Nominees & Winners: Politics" (http:/ / webbyawards. CNN. Retrieved 27 October 2010. "Inside the Mind of One of the Web’s Hottest Designers [INTERVIEW (http:/ / mashable. Zdnet. [3] http:/ / jess3. Retrieved 25 October 2010. Spaceref Interactive. "'Ex-Blocker' deletes all mentions of ex from your Facebook and other social networking sites" (http:/ / www. com/ blog. . Retrieved 20 November 2010.com. zdnet. com/ News/ tabid/ 116/ EntryID/ 1058/ Default. Technosailor. com/ blogs/ hillicon-valley/ technology/ 125417-nasa-astronaut-checks-in-on-foursquare-from-space). cnn. PC Magazine. mashable_1_bp-british-petroleum-blacked?_s=PM:TECH).

[28] Ian McCourt (11 October 2010). irishtimes. theglobeandmail. JESS3. Vimeo. "Small Discoveries" (http:/ / media. [39] Robin Sloan (13 July 2010). Retrieved 27 October 2010. "The State of the Internet" (http:/ / vimeo. 1 June 2010. com/ 2009/ 06/ powers-of-ten-for-the-twitterverse. Retrieved 27 October 2010. The Washington Post. com/ 2010/ 06/ 01/ bp-black-oil-firefox-plug_n_596791. . timesdispatch. Retrieved 29 October 2010. com/ ten-things-ceos-need-to-know-about-design/ Slide 4 [31] Bill Lohmann (31 May 2009). com/ my-discovery/ ). "Block Your Ex" (http:/ / www. SlideShare. com/ 9641036). Retrieved 27 October 2010. [33] MG Siegler (1 June 2009). co. com/ News/ 860737/ Companies-create-efforts-capitalize-election/ ). slideshare. huffingtonpost. Twitter. Retrieved 27 October 2010.com) . Capitol Communicator. glamourmagazine. "Powers of Ten for the Twitterverse" (http:/ / www. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 27 October 2010. psfk. 27 May 2010. [29] http:/ / jess3. . . . [25] Dakshana Bascaramurty (15 July 2010). Richmond Times-Dispatch. com/ rtd/ lifestyles/ leisure/ article/ S-FACE31_20090527-204924/ 270241). brandrepublic. . "Companies create efforts to capitalize on election" (http:/ / www. . jess3. washingtonpost. . "The Future Of Twitter Visualized" (http:/ / www.JESS3 [24] "Oil Spill Firefox Plugin Dirties Your Browser With 'Black Oil'" (http:/ / www. html). com/ News/ tabid/ 116/ EntryID/ 1052/ Default. [34] Simon Mainwaring (2 June 2009). html). JESS3. [35] JESS3 (22 February 2010). "The Conversation Prism in Communication Arts Magazine" (http:/ / blog. . com/ about/ [30] http:/ / jess3. Retrieved 27 October 2010. . "Add-on that can erase your ex" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. html). [32] JESS3 (30 June 2009). aspx). Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ 836/ my-discovery). Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. [38] "Discovery Communications My Discovery" (http:/ / jess3. capitolcommunicator. Brand Republic. com/ newspaper/ features/ 2010/ 1011/ 1224280782476. Retrieved 27 October 2010. html). twitter. The Huffington Post. The Irish Times. Twitter Media. . Haymarket Business Media. Glamour Magazine UK. . [37] Nicole Zerillo (10 November 2008). PSFK. com/ life/ family-and-relationships/ how-to-erase-your-ex-from-the-internet/ article1641586/ ). net/ jess3/ the-exblocker-on-late-night-with-jimmy-fallon-4854951). uk/ love-sex-relationships/ g-spot-blog/ 2010/ 07/ block-your-ex-application). . [26] "The Ex-Blocker on Late Night With Jimmy Fallon" (http:/ / www. 163 External links • JESS3 Official website (http://jess3. "How to Erase Your Ex From the Internet" (http:/ / www. html). [27] Jean Hannah Edelstein (22 July 2010). com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 06/ 01/ AR2009060103065. . "The new networking" (http:/ / www. com/ 2009/ 06/ conversation-prism-in-communication. Retrieved 29 October 2010. . [36] "JESS3 Video Viewed Over 1 Million Times" (http:/ / www.

[5] Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag. or inbound links. SEO may target different kinds of search. shopping carts. known as an indexer.Keyword optimization 164 Keyword optimization Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results.[7] . Another class of techniques. 1997. As an Internet marketing strategy. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. video search. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines." a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients. incomplete. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content. extract links to other pages from it. news search and industry-specific vertical search engines. and more frequently a site appears in the search results list. Meta tags provide a guide to each page's content. The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe website designs. SEO considers how search engines work. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan. and other elements that have been optimized for the purpose of search engine exposure. where a second program. keyword stuffing and article spinning that degrade both the relevance of search results and the quality of user-experience with search engines. menus. because the webmaster's choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site's actual content. or URL. History Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s. videos. extracts various information about the page. to the various engines which would send a "spider" to "crawl" that page.[3] The first documented use of the term Search Engine Optimization was John Audette [4] and his company Multimedia Marketing Group as documented by a web page from the MMG site from August. such as the words it contains and where these are located. known as black hat SEO or spamdexing. [4] The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing that phrase is by Bruce Clay effective March. local search. Inaccurate. uses methods such as link farms. the actual search terms typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners. Initially. Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results. as well as any weight for specific words.[6] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines. what people search for. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks. and by employees who perform SEO services in-house. the earlier (or higher on the page). the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date. This gives a website web presence. the phrase "search engine optimization" probably came into use in 1997. including image search.[2] The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine's own server. content management systems. 1997. and all links the page contains. images. is another SEO tactic. In general. The acronym "SEOs" can refer to "search engine optimizers. however. Other forms of search engine marketing (SEM) target paid listings. as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. academic search[1] . Search engines look for sites that employ these techniques in order to remove them from their indices. SEO tactics may be incorporated into website development and design. and return information found on the page to be indexed. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable. or index files in engines like ALIWEB. and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches. all webmasters needed to do was submit the address of a page.

[11] The leading search engines. Flash and Javascript. this means that some links are stronger than others. meta tags. Depending on their history of previous searches. allowing those results to be false would turn users to find other search sources. is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links.[10] By 2004. search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results. because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search. early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. developed "backrub.[21] 165 . Google. Google says it ranks sites using more than 200 different signals. Although PageRank was more difficult to game.[18] As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank.[9] Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency.Keyword optimization By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster's control. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results. involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming. Many sites focused on exchanging. Bruce Clay said that "ranking is dead" because of personalized search. Page and Brin founded Google in 1998. and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. PageRank. 2009. and selling links. or link farms. taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. Graduate students at Stanford University. rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search. To provide better results to their users. often on a massive scale. Notable SEO service providers. Larry Page and Sergey Brin. have studied different approaches to search engine optimization. announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way. webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine. [19] In December 2009 Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results. as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer. and follows links from one page to another. do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages. Barry Schwartz. who liked its simple design.[14] In 2005 Google began personalizing search results for each user. It would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked. Aaron Wall and Jill Whalen. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes. headings. and have published their opinions in online forums and blogs.[15] In 2008. Bing. and Yahoo. Google crafted results for logged in users. In effect. search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation. Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet users. SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting.[20] Real-time-search was introduced in late 2009 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. In order to avoid the above. Some of these schemes.[17] On June 15. buying. The number calculated by the algorithm. a well-known software engineer at Google." a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. such as Rand Fishkin. links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms.[16] In 2007 Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank. Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links. in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting.[8] PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings.[12] [13] SEO practitioners may also study patents held by various search engines to gain insight into the algorithms. Matt Cutts.

[23] was created to discuss and minimize the damaging effects of aggressive web content providers. portable document format files. operate a paid submission service that guarantee [32] Such programs usually guarantee inclusion in the database. Google guidelines are a list of suggested practices Google has provided as guidance to webmasters. which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients. such as Google. and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords. In 2005. chats. allowing users to determine the crawl rate. but do crawling for either a set fee or cost per click. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled. use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results.[27] [28] [29] Google has a Sitemaps program[30] to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization. AIRWeb.[26] Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry. the Wall Street Journal reported on a company. Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web.[36] Additionally.[33] Two major directories.[24] Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban. notably Yahoo!.[35] Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site. the Yahoo Directory and the Open Directory Project both require manual submission and human editorial review. Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results. an annual conference. and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences. and dynamic content. Bing and Yahoo!. In fact. In 2005.[34] Google offers Google Webmaster Tools. Not every page is indexed by the search engines.[22] Yahoo and Google offices Due to the high marketing value of targeted search results.[31] Bing Toolbox provides a way from webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds. especially pages that aren't discoverable by automatically following links. adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings. Yahoo! Site Explorer provides a way for webmasters to submit URLs. some search engines now have a vested interest in the health of the optimization community. Methods Getting indexed The leading search engines. not guarantee specific ranking within the search results. there is potential for an adversarial relationship between search engines and SEO service providers. for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found.[25] Google's Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients. such as Infoseek. determine how many pages are in the Yahoo! index and view link information. Some search engines. [37] . search engines sometimes have problems with crawling sites with certain kinds of graphic content. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically. and how many pages have been indexed by their search engine. flash files. with the advent of paid inclusion.Keyword optimization 166 Relationship with search engines By 1997 search engines recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines. Early search engines. Traffic Power. and seminars.

it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users. using the "canonical" meta tag[40] or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page's link popularity score.txt file in the root directory of the domain. and the practitioners who employ them. White hat versus black hat SEO techniques are classified by some into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design. webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden. a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine's database by using a meta tag specific to robots. this is an important distinction to note. A search engine's algorithm takes this into account. but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. the robots. and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled. rather than attempting to game the algorithm. Cross linking between pages of the same website to provide more links to most important pages may improve its visibility.[39] Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site. making efforts to deliver quality content to an audience that has requested the quality content. The robots. As the search engine guidelines[27] [28] [29] [43] are not written as a series of rules or commandments. One infamous example was the February 2006 Google . in an invisible div. When a search engine visits a site.Keyword optimization 167 Preventing crawling To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes. Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. Additionally. as either white hat SEO. Some industry commentators classify these methods.txt file is then parsed.[38] Increasing prominence A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results. so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic. either as text colored similar to the background. not for search engines. referred to as spamdexing. thus increasing traffic. technique or method is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines' guidelines and involves no deception. Traditional marketing means have allowed this through transparency and exposure. a technique known as cloaking. whereas black hats anticipate that their sites will eventually be banned once the search engines discover what they are doing. such as Google's PageRank. or by a manual site review. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines. Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines. In March 2007. and those techniques that search engines do not approve of and attempt to minimize the effect of.[41] White hats tend to produce results that last a long time. Adding relevant keywords to a web page's meta data. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility.[42] An SEO tactic. including the title tag and meta description. either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. or involve deception. will tend to improve the relevancy of a site's search listings. or black hat SEO.[44] although the two are not identical. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls. and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines' algorithms.[39] Writing content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase. or positioned off screen. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. White Hat SEO is merely effective marketing. Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods.

The search engines' market shares vary from market to market.[56] That market share is achieved in a number of countries.[53] In markets outside the United States. and there are no guarantees of continued referrals. their main sources of traffic are links from other websites.[55] As of June 2008. As of 2009. and improving a site's conversion rate. In most cases.[55] . registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market. Yahoo! Japan. to web pages. as does competition. achieved through optimization techniques and not paid advertising. however. regardless of language. it is lagging behind a local player. Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu. the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise. addressing technical issues that may keep search engines from crawling and indexing those sites. Naver. the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same. it will announce how and when the ranking algorithm will change a few months before changing the algorithm). receive a very small share of their traffic from search engines. a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors. their algorithms change. but it also may involve the use of paid advertising on search engines and other pages. "Search marketers. when Google is not leading in a given market.[47] This includes paid search advertising which has its own version of SEO called ATO (Ad Text Optimization). depending on the site operator's goals.org[51] has suggested. Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages. Google's share is often larger. South Korea. The most notable markets where this is the case are China. quickly apologized. and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007. and were restored to Google's list. fixed the offending pages. In 2003. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty. Yandex and Seznam are market leaders. and other Internet marketing strategies can be much more effective.[52] International markets Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. and web hosting that provides a local IP address.[45] Both companies. (Some trading sites such as eBay can be a special case for this.[55] While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time. A successful Internet marketing campaign may drive organic traffic.[49] It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic. in a twist of irony. Otherwise. setting up analytics programs to enable site owners to measure their successes.[54] As of 2006. Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches. Japan.[48] SEO may generate a return on investment.[46] 168 As a marketing strategy SEO is not necessarily an appropriate strategy for every website. there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. search engines are not paid for organic search traffic. building high quality web pages to engage and persuade. Google had an 85-90% market share in Germany.Keyword optimization removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices.[50] A top-ranked SEO blog Seomoz. However." Instead. there were only about five in Germany.

e-learningguru. 2004).. mmgco. Retrieved 2009-08-17. searchenginewatch. edu/ ~zoltan/ publications/ gyongyi2005link. pp. Retrieved 2007-05-08. . . . htm). Retrieved 2009-09-05. G. "Finding What People Want: Experiences with the WebCrawler" (http:/ / www. html). [8] Brin. Retrieved 2007-05-08. Bela and Wilde. cgi?Search_Arg=TX0005001745& Search_Code=REGS& PID=_BQjecgZXtqzP_qe3Szqb-aeqs& SEQ=20110101030626& CNT=25& HIST=1). edu/ ~backrub/ google. co. [18] "PageRank sculpting" (http:/ / www. [3] Danny Sullivan (June 14. . com/ campaign. SearchKing's claim was that Google's tactics to prevent spamdexing constituted a tortious interference with contractual relations. 2003. org/ article/ search-ranking-factors). L. html). Retrieved 2007-05-16. com/ showpost. Saul (June 3. stanford. Matt Cutts. org/ resources/ phd/ pinkerton_2000. Erik (2010). The Second International WWW Conference Chicago. Proc. [16] "Will Personal Search Turn SEO On Its Ear?" (http:/ / www. net-abuse.org. sciplore." (http:/ / www. csse. "Link Spam Alliances" (http:/ / infolab. [5] (Document Registration Number TX0005001745. . Retrieved 2009-09-05. Retrieved 2010-01-12."[57] [58] In March 2006. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. com/ campaign. 7th Int. html?page=3564261). stm). [9] Thompson. Journal of Scholarly Publishing. Larry (1998). Norway. 2005). [11] Hansell. "Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co. seomoz. US Library of Congress Copyright Office). SearchKing filed suit in the United States District Court. . edu. archive. 107–117. World Wide Web Conference. searchenginewatch. html). . Retrieved 2007-05-14. pdf) (PDF). searchenginejournal. Search Engine Watch. 2007 the United States District Court for the Northern District of California (San Jose Division) dismissed KinderStart's complaint without leave to amend. [2] Brian Pinkerton. html). . (April 1998). April 2. com/ 8-things-we-learned-about-google-pagerank/ 5897/ ). 2002. Retrieved 2007-06-06. google. nytimes. . loc. htm) on 2007-04-09. US Library of Congress Copyright Office) "The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / cocatalog. Allison. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 3334531.Keyword optimization 169 Legal precedents On October 17.Search Engine Watch (SEW)" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. Trondheim. .com. (Document Number 19970801004204). 1994. stanford. pdf). 2007. On May 27. against the search engine Google.webpronews. pp. bbc. and Dowe.com. com/ showPage. 2007). SEOmoz. . org/ publications/ 2010-ASEO--preprint. [7] Pringle.searchenginejournal. [14] Christine Churchill (November 23. [12] Danny Sullivan (September 29. (Document Registration Number TX0005001745. Proceedings of the seventh international conference on World Wide Web. www. php?p=2119& postcount=10). KinderStart filed a lawsuit against Google over search engine rankings. [6] Cory Doctorow (August 26. mmgco. Bill (December 19. Retrieved 2010-04-18. com/ topnews/ 2008/ 11/ 17/ seo-about-to-get-turned-on-its-ear). com/ group/ alt. . com/ 2007/ 06/ 03/ business/ yourmoney/ 03google.[59] [60] Notes [1] Beel. [4] (Document Number 19970801004204) "Documentation of Who Invented SEO at the Internet Way Back Machine" (http:/ / web. Sergey and Page. com/ blog/ pagerank-sculpting/ ). New York Times. [15] "Google Personalized Search Leaves Google Labs . org/ web/ 19970801004204/ www. Proceedings of the 31st VLDB Conference. Retrieved 2007-05-08. html) on 1997-08-01. . [10] Zoltan Gyongyi and Hector Garcia-Molina (2005). On March 16. pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2007-05-07. "Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw-men of the meta-utopia" (http:/ / web. gov/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. 2005). searchenginewatch. archive. See Google groups thread (http:/ / groups. spam/ browse_thread/ thread/ 6fee2777dc17b8ab/ 3858bff94e56aff3?lnk=st& q="search+ engine+ optimization"& rnum=1#3858bff94e56aff3). au/ ~lloyd/ tilde/ InterNet/ Search/ 1998_WWW7. Retrieved 2007-05-09. [13] "Search Engine Ranking Factors V2" (http:/ / www.com. "Who Invented the Term "Search Engine Optimization"?" (http:/ / forums. Western District of Oklahoma. org/ web/ 20070409062313/ http:/ / www. current-events. e-LearningGuru. mattcutts. USA. "The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine" (http:/ / www-db. Search Engine Watch. D. e-learningguru. Search Engine Watch. "What is a tall poppy among web pages?" (http:/ / www. "Understanding Search Engine Patents" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. 2003). Retrieved 2007-05-08. com/ 3563036). and partially granted Google's motion for Rule 11 sanctions against KinderStart's attorney. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. "Is Google good for you?" (http:/ / news. BBC News. webir. the court granted Google's motion to dismiss the complaint because SearchKing "failed to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. com/ articles/ metacrap.. [17] "8 Things We Learned About Google PageRank" (http:/ / www. monash. Jöran and Gipp. 2001). com/ blog/ 050929-072711). Kinderstart's website was removed from Google's index prior to the lawsuit and the amount of traffic to the site dropped by 70%. Archived from (Document Number 19970801004204) the original (http:/ / www. October 17–20. www. Retrieved 2007-05-14. . . webpronews. requiring him to pay part of Google's legal expenses. . "Rundown On Search Ranking Factors" (http:/ / blog. 176–190. com/ articles/ metacrap. "Google Keeps Tweaking Its Search Engine" (http:/ / www.

com.com. Retrieved 2007-05-09. anvilmediainc.1284. Retrieved 2007-05-09. Retrieved 2007-05-09. forbes. . google. "Search Engine Showdown: Black hats vs. [21] "Relevance Meets Real Time Web" (http:/ / googleblog. google. [26] Matt Cutts (February 2. blogspot. [33] "Search Submit" (http:/ / searchmarketing. Retrieved 2007-03-19. com/ blog/ confirming-a-penalty/ ). 2006).com/blog. google. . html). html). org/ web/ 20071102153746/ http:/ / www. [29] "Yahoo! Search Content Quality Guidelines" (http:/ / help. com/ 070508-165231. "Condemned To Google Hell" (http:/ / www. com/ webmasters/ guidelines. Search Engine Land. [45] Matt Cutts (February 4 2006). com/ articles/ accessibilityseo). .com. wsj. Retrieved 2007-05-09. nytimes. "Efficient crawling through URL ordering" (http:/ / dbpubs. html?page=2167881). .clickz. searchengineguide.com. mattcutts. SearchEngineWatch.yahoo. com/ alertbox/ search_engines. [46] Matt Cutts (February 7 2006).Bing Community" (http:/ / www. 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htm). [58] Stefanie Olsen (May 30. ericgoldman.html). . ericgoldman. guardian. com/ showPage. January 3. [60] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: Google Sued Over Rankings—KinderStart. .com/en/docs/about/webmasters. [59] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: KinderStart v. Google Technology. "Google UK closes in on 90% market share" (http:/ / www. clickz. May 27.hastingsresearch. . an article from the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences. CNET. docstoc. . uk/ technology/ blog/ 2008/ jun/ 10/ googleukclosesinon90mark). . com/ 2100-1032_3-1011740. 2003. co. [52] "A survey of 25 blogs in the search space comparing external metrics to visitor tracking data" (http:/ / www.live. Third Edition .html) • Bing Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. USA Today. Retrieved 2007-05-31. com/ docs/ 618281/ Order-(Granting-Googles-Motion-to-Dismiss-Search-Kings-Complaint)) (PDF).nytimes. [55] Mike Grehan (April 3. "Stats Show Google Dominates the International Search Landscape" (http:/ / searchenginewatch.com/net/ 09-SEO-ELIS-encyclopedia-article.org. searchenginejournal. com/ showPage.live. CIV-02-1457-M" (http:/ / www. Jefferson (2003-08-26). [56] Jack Schofield (2008-06-10)." article in The New York Times (February 12. . Retrieved 2008-06-23. "Judge dismisses suit against Google" (http:/ / news. docstoc.shtml) • " The Dirty Little Secrets of Search (http://www. Retrieved 2008-06-23.com/l/us/yahoo/search/basics/basics-18.Keyword optimization [51] "SEOmoz: Best SEO Blog of 2006" (http:/ / www.google. org/ archives/ 2007/ 03/ kinderstart_v_g_2. . org/ archives/ 2006/ 03/ google_sued_ove. Retrieved 2008-05-23.yahoo. html). blog. org/ article/ search-blog-stats#4).com/help. com/ seomoz-best-seo-blog-of-2006/ 4195/ ). Retrieved 2007-05-31..com. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved 2007-05-15. html?page=3595926). Retrieved 2007-05-15.ask. seomoz. searchenginejournal. Google" (http:/ / blog. "The search engine that could" (http:/ / www.com&format=b1) • Ask.com/2011/02/13/business/13search. 2006). London: Guardian. usatoday. Retrieved 2007-05-14. htm). Retrieved 2008-06-10. "Search Engine Optimizing for Europe" (http:/ / www. v. 2003). com. [54] Greg Jarboe (2007-02-22). .ericgoldman. Google Dismissed—With Sanctions Against KinderStart's Counsel" (http:/ / blog.aspx?mkt=en-us&project=wl_webmasters& querytype=&query=&tmt=&domain=help.com. com/ tech/ news/ 2003-08-25-google_x. blog. Inc.html).com Webmaster Guidelines (http://about.ericgoldman. [57] "Search King. Click.org. seomoz.com v. Retrieved 2007-05-10. [53] Graham. 171 External links • Google Webmaster Guidelines (http://www.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py?hl=en& answer=35769) • Yahoo! Webmaster Guidelines (http://help.org. 2007. htm). Inc. . html?page=3625072). 2011) • Search Engine Optimization and User Behavior (http://www. .

Architecture The following components comprise the Keyword Service Platform architecture: • Keyword API. • Server Object Model. consisting of a crawler. and by default. Developers may use . and Wayne Guan at Microsoft adCenter Labs in May 2006. The KSP uniquely delivers a standardized set of keyword technologies through a Web services model. sorted by confidence: . • Shared Services. These interfaces for Web services include keyword extraction (ITermExtraction). System that allows researchers to incorporate new algorithms or data mining models within the Service Container. etc.5). and several others. The KSP was originally conceived by ZhaoHui Tang. Dylan Huang. keyword association. To find the five most closely related keywords to "BMW".. Keyword API The Keyword Service Platform has defined a set of APIs for each class of keyword services.Keyword Services Platform 172 Keyword Services Platform The Keyword Services Platform (KSP) is a keyword research tool available through Microsoft adCenter. • Service Container. Data model that allows developers to leverage different services. keyword suggestion (ITermSuggestion). The query result is shown in the following table. • Provider Plug-in Framework. which allows parallel execution. The APIs define the signatures of each Web service. The platform aims to provide a core set of data and technology to empower search engine marketing and keyword research efforts. or keyword classification. keyword forecast (ITermForecast). Component that handles permissions that pertain to provider procedures (methods) and Stored Procedure implementation. KSP API beta access is available for researchers and developers upon request from the Keyword Services Platform [1] feedback link. keyword extraction. Set of standard Web services for various keyword tasks.NET programming languages to create procedures that combine the use of different providers. • Stored Procedures.g. which contains a set of algorithms for providing information about keywords used in search engine queries. Keyword suggestion Keyword suggestions are handled via the ITermSuggestion interface. Core components. These services are based on the Windows Communications Foundation and can be consumed by client applications (e. keyword monetization (ITermMonetization). in-memory data structures. the following method call may be used: GetTermSuggestion("BMW". These services are used by different providers and executed by stored procedures. Selected sets of these procedures are made available to users. or implement additional business logic processing based on the output from a provider. Set of providers that support various keyword technologies. Each provider brings a specific keyword technology to the KSP architecture—for instance. • Security. Procedures for consolidating and centralizing the logic behind applications. Microsoft Excel add-in) or mashups. accessible via an application programming interface (API) and a Microsoft Excel add-in. keyword categorization (ITermCategorization). Host to all service providers and Stored Procedures. word stemming algorithms.

Keyword Services Platform 173 OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus BMW cars BMW Z4 To view the five suggested five terms with the corresponding confidence score.true.89 Support 10000 9000 11000 12000 12800 BMW cars 0. a filter can be used on the Score column with the following method call: GetTermSuggestion("BMW". suppose that the keywords are stored in myInputTermTable. batch query syntax can be used.83 When the table of terms possibly includes thousands of keywords.96 0. Score represents the confidence or probability.78 To return only those terms with a high confidence score. and only the two most relevant terms for each keyword should be returned: GetTermSuggestion(myInputTermTable.89 0. support represents the number of cases supporting the rule in the training dataset. In this case.true). The results are similar to those available through the Data Mining Extensions (DMX) in SQL. OriginalTerm BMW BMW Honda Honda Ford Ford Term Auto Car Lexus Sedan Pickup Truck .89 0. a third parameter can be used to indicate that statistics should be returned: GetTermSuggestion("BMW".96 0. For example.83 BMW Z4 0. The query result is shown in the following table.89 Support 10000 9000 11000 12000 BMW cars 0.2). only four rows are returned.5. OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus Score 0. OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus Score 0. as these are the only terms that meet the criterion of the filter.5."Score>0.8"). The query result is shown in the following table along with columns for score and support. The query result is shown in the following table.

msn.msn. and average cost per click (CPC). The following method call extracts the eight most relevant keywords from the webpage "autos. Term Male Female 0.1 25-35 0.msn. The following method call returns the KPIs for the keyword "Online bank" based on the previous week's paid search data.38 autos.com".LastWeek.TimeInterval. overall impressions for the keyword.34 autos. The result of the query is shown below.54 0.com compare car 0.com cars autos.msn.com MSN autos autos.48 0.2 35-50 0. To obtain the demographic distribution for the keyword "Minivan".com".2 65+ 0. the number of clicks in the sponsored link for "Online bank".msn.msn.60 0-13 0 13-18 0 18-25 0.32 0.com auto reviews 0. The query result is shown in the following table.com new cars autos.325 Online bank 42 Keyword extraction Keyword extraction is handled via the ITermExtraction interface.com sport cars autos.msn. containing the input keyword. position.true).3).39 0. Term Clicks Impressions 2915 Position 3 CTR 0.014 CPC 1. where the Score column represents the relevance of the extracted keyword to the page content. and provides the corresponding statistics: GetTermExtraction("autos.62 autos.1 Minivan 0.4 50-65 0. the following method call could be used: GetTermDemographics("minivan"). while the Support column represents the number of occurrences of a keyword on the page.com luxury cars 0.msn. in the third position of sponsored listings: GetTermKPIs("online bank".40 Keyword monetization Keyword monetization values specific to paid search are handled via the ITermMonetization interface.msn.Keyword Services Platform 174 Keyword demographics Keyword demographics are handled via the ITermDemographics interface. average click-through rate (CTR).com used cars 0.30 .msn. The result of the query is shown below. URL Term Score Support 3 2 5 2 1 1 1 1 autos.8.

-5. } } catch (FaultException) { // Handle fault returned from calling the proxy method } catch (CommunicationException) { // Handle lost network connection error } catch (TimeoutException) { // Handle time-out error } finally { if (provider != null) server. DisplayResults(result). 3). try { server.Open().microsoft. } } .adCenterLabs. using (KeywordServer server = new KeywordServer("https://ksp. provider = server. It will remain during the following calls. server.UserName = "username". // Context can be set if needed. if (provider != null) { // Single mode API DataTable result = provider. // Batch mode API result = provider. -5.ReleaseService(provider).KeywordForecastProvider"). DisplayResults(result).Providers.Keyword Services Platform 175 Sample code The following code fragment connects to the Keyword Services Platform server and uses the keyword term forecast Web service. ITermForecast provider = null.GetTermForecast(term.GetTermForecast(terms.GetProviderByImplementation<ITermForecast>("Microsoft.Password = "********".com")) { server. 3).

the providers must meet several conditions: • • • • custom configuration settings stored in configuration files.g.NET. A MASP consists of a compiled . Visual Basic . and correspondingly seamless integration with third-party tools and applications. Managed Extensions for C++. ITermForecast.NET assembly containing a public interface exposed through the KSP as well as any dependent files. a KSP sproc is designed to enable developers to implement several types of business logic on the server side after retrieving result data from providers. all of the functionalities of the stored procedure are accessible through its public interface. implementation interface. The object model consists of the following three collections: 1. it is compiled on-demand by KSP and becomes callable by KSP client programs. The functionalities of the CLRSPs are exposed through a public interface defined in the source file. Server Object Model and Shared Services Keyword Services Platform Server Object Models and Shared Services enable KSP Service Providers and stored procedure developers to access server-side objects and functionalities easily and consistently. and/or class name. Service providers: This collection enables callers to access server-side Service Provider objects by name. Once callers obtain the Service Provider object. To enable seamless integration of a provider into the KSP. 2. ITermSuggestion. which enables developers to build secure. This provider exposes its functionality through service contracts in the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF). thus allowing business partners to produce best-of-breed. and/or class name. Once the MASP is uploaded to the KSP through its management interface. The API defines the signature of each Web service and the format of the returned data. which hosts the Common Language Runtime (CLR). it becomes callable by KSP client programs.Keyword Services Platform 176 Providers Each Keyword Services Platform provider supplies a specific type of keyword technology by implementing one class of a specific keyword interface (e. and document service contracts included using a service description language for better understanding and testing of the Keyword Service Provider. or even identically named functions with different signatures. Stored procedures: This collection enables callers to access server-side Stored Procedure objects by name. Compared to database sprocs. reliable. A sproc may contain a set of related functions.NET tracing and message logging to enable service monitoring and diagnostics. ITermExtraction). Stored procedures Developers can write stored procedures (sprocs) using any . Once the CLRSP is deployed to KSP through its management interface. rather than the source code. Similar to a database sprocs. These procedures are executed on the Keyword Services Platform server. These conditions help to simplify the task of developing well-integrated management applications. implementation interface. Two types of stored procedures are supported: Managed Assembly Stored Procedure (MASP) and Common Language Runtime Stored Procedure (CLRSP). A CLRSP consists of a source file written in one of the supported CLR programming languages (C#. . standard Windows Management Interface performance counters for performance monitoring. The KSP provider is a server-side object encapsulating a particular implementation of a keyword technology.NET programming language. standard .. Once callers obtain the Stored Procedure object. enterprise-scalable management solutions. and others). KSP sprocs do not require configuration management or setup requirements. transacted solutions that integrate across platforms and interoperate with existing investments. all of the functionalities of the service provider are accessible through its public interface. KSP sprocs are object-oriented. The WCF is Microsoft's unified programming model for building service-oriented applications.

usually oriented to a specific purpose or major data subject. and data mining model contents. The scope is limited. are discovered and registered automatically with the server. service provider. all of the functionalities of the shared service provider are accessible through its public interface. a cloud server. and thus very easy to use for live testing. For example. Services: This collection enables callers to access server-side shared services by name. This data is updated on a regular basis based on the provider's requirements. as well as all its running service providers and stored procedures. that may be distributed to support business needs. is the hub of the KSP server farm.Keyword Services Platform 3. The database may contain a list of reference keywords. all available keyword service providers and stored procedures are dynamically discovered and registered with the server. If a server. When a client application calls a service provider or stored procedure through the server. the server will automatically deploy the Keyword Forecast provider to machine "A" and route requests to that machine to balance the load for the Keyword Forecast provider. A dynamic service load balance server. Data mart A data mart is a subset of an organizational data store. and/or class name. The default implementation of the load balancer provider uses a round-robin scheduling approach. the server accumulates usage patterns and statistics of various service providers and stored procedures running on each KSP server in the farm. Many Keyword Services Platform providers require real-time database access. The cloud server distributes accesses to services running on a KSP server farm through its load balancer provider. by implementation interface. if the Keyword Forecast provider is being used heavily in the server farm and the providers running on machine "A" are used lightly. their corresponding traffic. . KSP can switch to the default provider without any changes on the application side. This information is used by the server to determine how to automatically deploy additional service providers and stored procedures. Over time. and the request is routed to the appropriate KSP server. Any changes in the availability of the KSP server. or stored procedure in the KSP server farm is unavailable. Once the provider is live-tested and proven. Once callers obtain the shared service object. This infrastructure enables researchers at Microsoft and other academic settings to speed up innovation in keyword technology and deploy the latest research results to KSP consumers. When a KSP server is added to the server farm via the cloud server. Researchers simply need to implement providers and deploy the providers into the selected set of KSP cloud server machines. The API defines the standard contract between the research models and developers. most recent click-through data. 177 Cloud server model The Microsoft adCenter Keyword Services Platform server farm provides a scalable platform for keyword technologies. Technology transfer Keyword Services Platform's architecture permits agile development and rapid technology transfer by providing a platform for researchers to ship their research results to a live system quickly. it will be taken out of rotation by the load balancer automatically. a KSP server with a matching service provider or stored procedure is selected by the load balancer provider. Each server in the farm can have different configuration to suit a variety of service providers and stored procedures.

suggestion. helping to identify what advertisements should be served for that page.com/~joshuago/). Carvalho (http://www. SIGIR 2005: 424-431 • ZhaoHui Tang. Ji-Rong Wen.azakers. Essentially it is an example of the type of mashup and creative use of data that can be associated with the KSP. Ying Li: Detecting dominant locations from search queries. Ying Li: Detecting online commercial intention (OCI). Zaiqing Nie. ICDM 2006: 975-979 • Honghua (Kathy) Dai. thus facilitating landing page analysis. Chuang Wang.edu/~vitor/papers/www06. and so on. presale business intelligence apps.com/2007/12/ sis-session-microsoft-new-keyword-services-platform/) • adCenter Add-in Released (http://www. leading to more efficient planning and improved return on investment. and eventually help to manage an integrated campaign budget that makes seasonal allowances. Benyu Zhang. Yansheng Lu.toprankblog. monetization. • The Keyword Forecasting provider can help advertisers to understand traffic history and trends.cmu.com/microsoft-adcenter-add-in-beta-released. • Keyword Association providers can help to expand existing customer segments to include other customers with similar interests based on language patterns. Ying Li: Similarity of Temporal Query Logs Based on ARIMA Model. leading to more effectively targeted advertising and a decreased overall spend. Applications of the KSP The Keyword Services Platform incorporates keyword technologies from Microsoft adCenter Labs and other Microsoft Research groups.edu/~vitor/): Finding advertising keywords on web pages (http://www. Lee Wang.org/). The add-in delivers features such as keyword extraction. The add-in makes much of the keyword technology available directly through Excel. Joshua Goodman (http://research. behavioral targeting. References [1] https:/ / ksp. cmu. Lingzhi Zhao. com/ Explorer/ Login. etc. • The Keyword Extraction provider can extract the important keywords on a publisher's webpage. content advertisements. The KSP can also be used in behavioral targeting and display advertising: • The Keyword Demographic and Geographic Distribution providers can help advertisers understand various customer segments and their keyword usage patterns. WWW 2006: 213-222 • Ning Liu. Xing Xie.pdf). Jamie Maclennan. Vitor R.php) Review of keyword technologies from the KSP Further reading • Wen-tau Yih (http://scottyih. WWW 2006: 829-837 • Lee Wang.microsoft.cs. The KSP can be used in advertising campaign creation and management: • The Keyword Association provider can help advertisers generate a set of the most relevant keywords for a campaign. SIGMOD Record 34(2): 80-85 (2005) . microsoft. Wei-Ying Ma. Josh Forman. Keyword APIs can be consumed by third-party business applications from paid search.Keyword Services Platform 178 KSP data access with Microsoft Excel 2007 Microsoft adCenter released an add-in for Microsoft Excel 2007 that allows users to consume the Keyword Services Platform data directly via Excel rather than through the API. forecasting.cs. aspx • Microsoft Announces New Keyword Platform at SIS (http://www. Jun Yan. Shuzhen Nong. Pyungchul (Peter) Kim: Building data mining solutions with OLE DB for DM and XML for analysis. Zheng Chen.

• The webvert has a clear call to action.microsoft. marketers can use click-through rates and Conversion rate to determine the success of an advertisement. images. By analyzing activity generated by the linked URL. The visitor traffic is immediate as the Adword relies on Google advertising to drive visitors to the webvert. These can display text.com/Explorer/Login. Wiley. effectiveness can be measured by the revenue value of the advertising that is displayed on them. A special type of 'reference landing page' is the 'webvert'.0 (http://advertising. typically an email address and perhaps a name and telephone number as well – enough to "capture the lead" and add the prospect to a mailing list. The traffic is driven from Google Adwords and is designed for two specific marketing tactics: • To attain high Google Adwords landing page quality scores. or other elements.Keyword Services Platform • ZhaoHui Tang.aspx) adCenter Add-in for Excel Version 1.com/) Landing page In online marketing a landing page. 2008. A webvert is not 'transactional' in nature. the page will usually withhold information until some minimal amount of visitor information is provided. dynamic compilations of relevant links.com/AdCenter/ShowForum. An eye-tracking Heatmap (simulation shown) revealing where a subject's eyes alight on a landing page under test. A transactional landing page seeks to persuade a visitor to complete a transaction such as filling out a form or interacting with advertisements or other objects on the landing page. . which may be associations. ethical landing page.microsoft.microsoft. A webvert is a reference based. If information is to be captured. Types of landing pages There are two types of landing pages: reference and transactional. the benefit being any Adwords campaign costs are minimized.microsoft. A reference landing page presents information that is relevant to the visitor.aspx?ForumID=2017& SiteID=44) • Microsoft adCenter Labs (http://adlab.com/) • Microsoft adCenter (https://adcenter. the marketing goal focuses on lead generation and interaction with the visitor. organizations or public service entities. Landing pages are often linked to from social media. For many reference landing pages. is a single web page that appears in response to clicking on an advertisement. email campaigns or search engine marketing campaigns in order to enhance the effectiveness of the advertisements. Jamie Maclennan: Data Mining with SQL Server 2008. Reference landing pages are effective if they meet the objectives of their publishers. The general goal of a landing page is to convert site visitors into sales leads. designed on the AIDA principle.microsoft.microsoft. 179 External links • • • • Keyword Services Platform (http://ksp. The landing page will usually display directed sales copy that is a logical extension of the advertisement or link. sometimes known as a lead capture page.com) Keyword Services Platform (https://ksp.com/advertising/adcenter_addin/) adCenter Add-in Forum (http://forums. The webverts consists of an advert. with the goal being the immediate or eventual sale of a product or service. always with a reply form or clear way to engage.

2. the percentage of visitors who complete the desired action. an optimal page is selected based on the outcome of the experiment. except that the experimentation is ongoing. There are two major types of LPO based on experimentation: 1. geographic information of source traffic. The page content is created using the relevance of publicly available information through a mechanism based on reviews. referrals. Since the economics of many online marketing programs are determined by the conversion rate. LPO aims to provide page content and appearance that makes the webpage more appealing to target audiences. The efficiency or quality of the landing page can be measured by its conversion rate. 3. or Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO). with the goal of improving the percentage of visitors to the website that become sales leads and customers. Predictive content targeting (also called active targeting). Bases for landing page optimization There are three major types of LPO based on targeting[1] : 1. Associative content targeting (also called rule-based optimization or passive targeting). .. Open-ended experimentation. etc. personal demographic information. browsing patterns. The page content is adjusted by correlating any known information about the visitor (e. marketers constantly test alternatives and improvements to their landing pages. Consumer directed targeting (also called social targeting). or other known generic parameters that can be used for explicit non-research-based consumer segmentation.) to anticipate (desired) future actions based on predictive analytics. etc. 2. Some of the testing methods used are A/B testing and multivariate testing. prior purchase behavior.g.Landing page A visitor taking the desired action on a transactional landing page is referred to as a conversion. ratings. tagging. meaning that the landing page is adjusted dynamically as the experiment results change. Closed-ended experimentation. 180 References Landing page optimization Landing page optimization (LPO) is one part of a broader Internet marketing process called conversion optimization. A landing page is a webpage that is displayed when a potential customer clicks an advertisement or a search engine result link. The page content is modified based on information obtained about the visitor's search criteria. At the conclusion of the experiment. This approach is similar to closed-ended experimentation. Consumers are exposed to several variations of landing pages while their behavior is observed. This webpage typically displays content that is a relevant extension of the advertisement or link.

. scientifically-based approach for understanding customers' preferences and optimizing their experience. form layouts. not all elements produce the same improvements in conversions. product page. graphics.Landing page optimization 181 Experimentation-based landing page optimization Experimentation-based LPO can be achieved using A/B testing. as the results can dramatically be skewed by differing time periods and traffic patterns in which the different tests are run. and n choices for the company logo.. and total-experience testing. The first application of an experimental design for MVLPO was performed by Moskowitz Jacobs Inc. • Focuses on optimizing one page at a time. collect data. text) on a page. A/B testing A/B testing. • Simple because no complex statistical analysis is required. in 1998 as a simulation/demonstration project for LEGO.g. the various versions of the webpages are made available online for a specified time period. and by looking at the results from different tests. • Provides a foundation for open-ended experimentation.g. For an e-commerce website. search traffic. the n denoting more than 2 tests being measured and compared. • Has evolved to be an easy-to-use approach in which not much IT involvement is required. multivariate LPO. a few lines of JavaScript allow remote vendor servers to control changes. often the easiest to implement. This testing method may also be known as A/B/n split testing.[2] Testing can be conducted sequentially or in parallel. A/B testing has the following advantages: • Inexpensive because existing resources and tools are used. FAQ) to determine which version is most appealing/effective. campaigns. and the traffic is divided between the two. both versions are made available. m choices for the featured image or graphic. In many cases. The data for A/B testing is usually measured via click-through or conversion.and open-ended experimentation. garbage out). Ideas that are sourced from known customer touchpoints or strategic business objectives are needed to obtain optimal results. The goal is to test multiple versions of webpages (e. which are typically complex. MVLPO has the following advantages: • Provides a reliable. there is a danger of GIGO (garbage in. it is possible to identify the elements that consistently tend to produce the greatest increase in conversions. It is not recommended that sequential split testing be performed. home page. This example yields k×m×n landing page configurations. A/B testing has the following disadvantages: • Difficult to control all external factors (e.. a given page may have k choices for the title. MVLPO did not become a mainstream approach until 2003 or 2004. and analyze the results. seasonality) when using sequential testing.g. For example. In parallel (split) testing. In sequential testing. These methodologies are applicable to both closed. press releases. Multivariate landing page optimization Multivariate landing page optimization (MVLPO) accounts for multiple variations of visual elements (e. or A/B split testing. MVLPO has the following disadvantages: • As with any quantitative consumer research. Significant improvements can be seen through testing different copy text. However. is a method for testing two versions of a webpage: version "A" and version "B". landing page images and background colours. it is typical for a successful purchase to involve between twelve . Website experiences for most sites involve multiple pages. • Very limited in that reliable conclusions cannot be drawn for pages that contain multiple elements that vary in each version.

Accessed 23 June 2008. entertainment. total-experience testing uses the website platform to create several persistent experiences. An advantage of total-experience testing is that it reflects the customer's total website experience. Howard Moskowitz. is a new and evolving type of experiment-based testing in which the entire website experience of the visitor is examined using technical capabilities of the website platform (e. 2009. . [3] Avinash Kaushik (2006-05-22). Link bidding Link bidding is a form of Internet marketing where a website owner bids on other websites to post a backlink to his/her website. Blue Martini Software.). [2] Matthew Roche (2005-12-19). LinkAnchor.[3] Rather than creating multiple websites. Two disadvantages are that total-experience testing requires a website platform that supports experience testing. and monitors which one is preferred by the customers. .. where the highest-ranking websites have the highest number of bids. siteisdead. html).com (http:/ / www. Websites being bid on are often grouped into categories (e. for a support site. Retrieved 2007-07-02. Site is Dead.. 182 Total-experience testing Total-experience testing. html). html). DOI: 10. "Experimentation and Testing: A Primer" (http:/ / www. com/ 2005/ 12/ landing_page_te_1.g. linkanchor.1108/07363760910965882. References [1] Alex Gofman. and it takes longer to obtain results than A/B testing and MVLPO. "Landing Page Testing Best Practices" (http:/ / www. Integrating Science into Web Design: Consumer Driven Website Optimization. . etc. even more pages are often required. Occam’s Razor.g. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 26(4): 286-298. finance). The Journal of Consumer Marketing. References [1] "Frequently Asked Questions". and Tonis Mets. net/ avinash/ 2006/ 05/ experimentation-and-testing-a-primer. kaushik. ATG.Landing page optimization and eighteen pages.[1] The position/rank for such websites is determined by their frequency of bids. not just the experience with a single page. or experience testing. A link bidding directory offers webmasters a way to gain exposure for their sites. com/ faq.

and negligible stocking and distribution costs. skewing the distribution to the right (or left).[4] The distribution and inventory costs of businesses successfully applying this strategy allow them to realize significant profit out of selling small volumes of hard-to-find items to many customers instead of only selling large volumes of a reduced number of popular items. Given enough choice. for example). a large population of customers.[8] . research. micro-finance (Grameen Bank. and experimentation. The Long Tail concept has found some ground for application. user-driven innovation (Eric von Hippel). and social network mechanisms (e.Long Tail 183 Long Tail The Long Tail or long tail refers to the statistical property that a larger share of population rests within the tail of a probability distribution than observed under a 'normal' or Gaussian distribution. A long tail distortion will arise with the inclusion of some unusually high (or low) values which increase (decrease) the mean. mass media.com and Netflix as examples of businesses applying this strategy. Notice that the relatively small quantities – usually in addition to selling fewer popular areas of both regions match. heavy tail or right-tail[7] ). items in large quantities. The work of Benoît Mandelbrot in the 1950s and later has led to him being referred to as "the father of long tails". crowdsourcing. It is a term used in online business.[1] An example of a power law graph showing The term Long Tail has gained popularity in recent times as describing popularity ranking. peer-to-peer).[2] [3] Anderson elaborated the concept in his book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More (ISBN 1-4013-0237-8). economic models. in which he mentioned Amazon. The term has also been used in the finance[6] and insurance business[2] for many years (also referred to as fat tail. to the retailing strategy of selling a large number of unique items in the left are the few that dominate. [5] A frequency distribution with a long tail has been studied by statisticians since at least 1946. the selection and buying pattern of the population results in the demand across products having a power law distribution or Pareto distribution. and marketing (viral marketing).g. crowdcasting. The total sales of this large number of "non-hit items" is called the Long Tail. To the right is the long tail. The Long Tail was popularized by Chris Anderson in an October 2004 Wired magazine article.

Beginning in a series of speeches in early 2004 and culminating with the publication of a Wired magazine article in October 2004. power laws.[9] The concept drew in part from a February 2003 essay by Clay Shirky. . or Pareto tails. Weblogs and Inequality". the income distribution of a business or the intensity of earthquakes (see: Gutenberg-Richter law). Examples of behaviors that exhibit long-tailed distribution are the occurrence of certain words in a given language. nature: Anderson and Shirky refer to frequency-rank relations. "Power Laws. In those cases the infrequent. The observation of such a distribution often points to specific kinds of mechanisms. seemingly unrelated systems. and the relationships that create them. who dominate the distributions. the long tails characterizing distributions such as the Gutenberg-Richter law or the words-occurrence Zipf's law. area to the left of the chart. online bookstores 80%) are accounted for by the first 20% of items in the distribution. whereas the Gutenberg-Richter law and the Zipf's law are probability distributions.Long Tail 184 Statistical meaning The long tail is the name for a long-known feature of some statistical distributions (such as Zipf. derive more sales from the area to the right. The shift has a crucial effect in probability and in the customer demographics of businesses like mass media and online sellers. power-law tails. and therefore illustrate an opposite phenomenon compared to the Gutenberg-Richter and the Zipf's laws. However. the least-frequently-occurring 80% of items are more important as a proportion of the total population. for such population distributions the majority of markets (depicted in red). represented here by the portion of the curve to the right of the 20th percentile — can become the largest area under the line. By contrast. and where the Pareto principle applies. This suggests that a variation of one mechanism (internet access) or relationship (the cost of storage) can significantly shift the frequency of occurrence of certain events in the distribution. Chris Anderson's and Clay Shirky's articles highlight special cases in which we are able to modify the underlying relationships and evaluate the impact on the frequency of events. whereas traditional retailers have focused on the occurrences (more than half. Power law distributions or functions characterize an important number of behaviors from nature and human endeavor. fat tails. and can often indicate a deep connection with other. the long tails in the frequency-rank plots highlighted by Anderson and Shirky would rather correspond to short tails in the associated probability distributions. low-amplitude (or low-revenue) events — the long tail. In "long-tailed" distributions a high-frequency or high-amplitude population is followed by a low-frequency or low-amplitude population which gradually "tails off" asymptotically. The tail becomes bigger and longer in new Chris Anderson and Clay Shirky The phrase the Long Tail was first coined by Chris Anderson. and those highlighted by Anderson and Shirky are of very different. Therefore. As a rule of thumb. The events at the far end of the tail have a very low probability of occurrence. Anderson described the effects of the Long Tail on current and future business models. or in other words. Anderson later extended it into the book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More (2006). This fact has given rise to a keen scientific and social interest in such distributions. What is unusual about a long-tailed distribution is that the most frequently-occurring 20% of items represent less than 50% of occurrences. The feature is also known as heavy tails. In other words. Pareto distributions and general Lévy distributions). if not opposite.[10] which noted that a relative handful of weblogs have many links going into them but "the long tail" of millions of weblogs may have only a handful of links going into them. in these latter cases "tails" correspond to large-intensity events such as large earthquakes and most popular words.

They found that a large proportion of Amazon. becoming progressively steeper for more obscure books. by greatly lowering search costs. The difference in the sales distribution is highly significant.Long Tail Anderson argues that products in low demand or that have a low sales volume can collectively make up a market share that rivals or exceeds the relatively few current bestsellers and blockbusters. these authors showed that. In an article published in 2003. They then quantified the potential value of the Long Tail to consumers. who first used a log-linear curve on an XY graph to describe the relationship between Amazon. An Amazon employee described the Long Tail as follows: "We sold more books today that didn't sell at all yesterday than we sold today of all the books that did sell yesterday. the slope may not be constant for all book ranks. this rule needs to be modified to a 72/28 rule in order to fit the distribution of product sales in that channel.com sales and sales ranking. with niche books accounting for a larger share of total sales. Smith. Chris Anderson cites earlier research. In addition. that showed that a significant portion of Amazon. while the widely-used power laws are a good first approximation for the rank-sales relationship. they showed empirical evidence that the Internet channel exhibits a significantly less concentrated sales distribution.a. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. while most of the discussion about the value of the Internet to consumers has revolved around lower prices. The Longer Tail over time A recent studied by Erik Brynjolfsson. . thereby creating a longer tail in the distribution of sales. Goodbye Pareto principle. and Michael D. In the graph shown above. when compared with traditional channels."[11] Anderson has explained the term as a reference to the tail of a demand curve. Amazon's book sales or Netflix's movie rentals would be represented along the vertical axis. welcome the new distribution In a 2006 working paper titled "Goodbye Pareto Principle. Anderson cites earlier research by Erik Brynjolfsson. By analyzing data collected from a multi-channel retailing company. Smith[14] finds that the Long Tail has grown longer over time. Hello Long Tail".com's book sales come from obscure books that were not available in brick-and-mortar stores. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. and Duncan Simester found that.k. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. consumer surplus) from access to increased product variety in online book stores is ten times larger than their benefit from access to lower prices online.com's sales come from obscure books that are not available in brick-and-mortar stores. Thus. 185 Academic research Effects of online access In his Wired article. even after controlling for consumer differences. The Long Tail is a potential market and. They used a theoretical model to show how a reduction in search costs will affect the concentration in product sales. niche books account for 36. while the book or movie ranks are along the horizontal axis. but in the Internet channel. information technology in general and Internet markets in particular could substantially increase the collective share of hard-to-find products. the distribution and sales channel opportunities created by the Internet often enable businesses to tap that market successfully. Smith. The total volume of low popularity items exceeds the volume of high popularity items. the primary value of the internet to consumers comes from releasing new sources of value by providing access to products in the Long Tail.[12] The term has since been rederived from an XY graph that is created when charting popularity to inventory.7% of Amazon’s sales and the consumer surplus generated by niche books has increased at least fivefold from 2000 to 2008. if the store or distribution channel is large enough. as the examples illustrate. consumer benefit (a. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu.[15] Erik Brynjolfsson. and Michael D. An 80/20 rule fits the distribution of product sales in the catalog channel quite well.[13] by Erik Brynjolfsson. their new methodology finds that. Their analyses suggest that by 2008. and Michael D.

On the supply side. non-market networks.Long Tail 186 Demand-side and supply-side drivers The key supply-side factor that determines whether a sales distribution has a Long Tail is the cost of inventory storage and distribution. • The model of crowdcasting. For example. The authors also look toward the future to discuss second-order. An MIT Sloan Management Review article titled "From Niches to Riches: Anatomy of the Long Tail"[16] examined the Long Tail from both the supply side and the demand side and identifies several key drivers. when storage and distribution costs are high. recommendation software. Netflix is therefore able to build a viable business stocking a far wider range of movies than a traditional movie rental store. users and small companies that inhabit the Long Tail distribution can perform collaborative and assignment work.[23] takes into account turnover in the relative sales of a given set of items. centralized warehousing allows for more offerings. thus making it possible for them to cater to more varied tastes. the authors point out how e-tailers' expanded. An MIS Quarterly article by Gal Oestreicher-Singer and Arun Sundararajan shows that categories of books on Amazon.com which are more central and thus influenced more by their recommendation network have significantly more pronounced Long Tail distributions. which it pays for in the form of building overhead. in which a company outsources work to a large group of market players using a collaborative online platform. the positions of the individual items within it will vary.[19] [20] Turnover within the Long Tail The Long Tail distribution applies at a given point in time. • The crowdsourcing model. tools such as search engines. Because Netflix stocks movies in centralized warehouses. Those economics of storage and distribution then enable the advantageous use of the Long Tail: Netflix finds that in aggregate. Networks. in the sense that entirely new items become offered for sale. as well as innovation. which is capable of generating power law distributions of sales similar to those observed in practice. new items constantly enter most fashion markets. crowds and the Long Tail The "crowds" of customers.[21] Although the distribution of sales may appear to be similar over time. amplified effects of Long Tail. There may be an optimal inventory size. even for digital retailers.[17] On the demand side. is the process of building a network of users and then delivering challenges or tasks to be solved with the purpose of gaining insights or innovative ideas. only the most popular products can be sold. An analysis based on this pure fashion model[24] indicates that. the optimal . however. and sampling tools are allowing customers to find products outside their geographic area. it becomes economically viable to sell relatively unpopular products. Their data across 200 subject areas shows that a doubling of this influence leads to a 50% increase in revenues from the least popular one-fifth of books. "unpopular" movies are rented more than popular movies.[18] The demand-side factors that lead to the long tail can be amplified by the "networks of products" which are created by hyperlinked recommendations across products. to maximize its profits. • Work performed by individuals in commons-like. described in the work of Yochai Benkler. including the growth of markets serving smaller niches. For example. Where inventory storage and distribution costs are insignificant. a traditional movie rental store has limited shelf space. its storage costs are far lower and its distribution costs are the same for a popular or unpopular movie. but over time the relative popularity of the sales of the individual products will change. A recent fashion-based model [22] of consumer choice. given the balance between sales and the cost of keeping up with the turnover. it must stock only the most popular movies to ensure that no shelf space is wasted. Some relevant forms of these new production models are: • The peer-to-peer collaboration groups that produce open-source software or create wikis such as Wikipedia.

may be threatened by the rise of smaller Web sites that focus on niches of content. The competitive threat from these niche sites is reduced by the cost of establishing and maintaining them and the bother required for readers to track multiple small Web sites. commercial flight. long ignored by consumer banks. Amazon (retail) and iTunes Store (music and podcasts) amongst the major companies.Long Tail inventory may in many cases be less than the millions of items that they can potentially offer. given its current sales rank and the total number of different titles stocked. This can. such as Yahoo! or CNET. But the most important shift in business model due to the Long Tail has come from the various forms of microfinance developed. As opposed to e-tailers. This has led some to envision a time in which game-based training devices or simulations will be available for thousands of different job descriptions. When the cost of inventory storage and distribution fall. even at a digital scale. such as the basis for a model for optimizing the number of each individual item ordered. The banks that have followed this strategy of selling services to the low-frequency long tail of the sector have found out that it can be an important niche. in turn. This model can provide further predictions into markets with long-tail distribution. Similarly. have the effect of reducing demand for the most popular products. It costs significantly less to modify a game than it has been to create unique training applications. and certainly before infinite titles. which supply the titles that Blockbuster doesn't offer because they are not already very popular. mass-market distributors like Blockbuster may be threatened by distributors like Netflix. despite their non-existent credit history. micro-finance is a distinctly low technology business. In other words. and cover that content better than the larger sites. only the most popular products are generally offered. For example. might be optimised well before a million titles. Yahoo! and Google (web search). It also is a business model that fills an important developmental role in an economy. and military missions. Its aim is to offer very small credits to lower-middle to lower class and poor people. Video and multiplayer online games The adoption of video games and massively multiplayer online games such as Second Life as tools for education and training is starting to show a long-tailed pattern. Examples include eBay (auctions). sales may become so small that the marginal cost of tracking them in rank order. a wide range of products become available. such as those for training in business. These factors have been transformed by easy and cheap Web site software and the spread of RSS. that would otherwise be ignored by the traditional banking business. by proceeding further and further into the Long Tail.[26] . Microfinance and microcredit The banking business has used internet technology to reach an ever increasing number of customers.[25] The recipients of small credits tend to be very good payers of loans. along with smaller Internet companies like Audible (audio books) and Netflix (video rental). They are also willing to pay higher interest rates than the standard bank or credit card customer. 187 Business models Competitive impact Before a Long Tail works. Internet companies Some of the most successful Internet businesses have leveraged the Long Tail as part of their businesses. Web content businesses with broad coverage.

most of them based on extensive use of internet technologies. As a result. Eric von Hippel of MIT's Sloan School of Management defined the user-led innovation model in his book Democratizing Innovation. Social innovation communities formed by groups of users can perform rapidly the trial and error process of innovation. non-intentional and low cost. Companies can make use of a series of tools. In following a long-tailed innovation strategy. auction-oriented buying/selling mechanisms are also viable to help monetize the long tail of ad impressions available across niche publishers in the display advertising realm. low-intensity consumer in a cost effective way. companies can rely on users of their products and services to do a significant part of the innovation work. with an emphasis on the casual. It is their collaboration and aggregated work that results in an innovation effort. viral emails and standalone microsites. in a more democratic way. • Viral Marketing: The intentional spreading of marketing messages using preexisting social networks. • Demand Side Platforms/DSPs: Similar to how Search Engine Marketing monetizes the long tail of keywords. share information.Long Tail Grameen Bank in Bangladesh has successfully followed this business model. Given the diminishing cost of communication and information sharing (by analogy to the low cost of storage and distribution. using a distinct direct business model. to give their users a voice and to enable them to do innovation work that is useful to the company.[27] Among his conclusions is the insight that as innovation becomes more user-centered the information needs to flow freely. Among the most representative are: • New Media Marketing: The building and managing of social networks and online or virtual communities to extend the reach of marketing to the low-frequency. by January 2011 between 20-25% of all US ad spending was derived from long tail advertisers. to efficiently sell display inventory that might otherwise go unsold through direct sales force operations. such as interactive and internet based technologies. Publishers utilize these ad exchange environments. Marketing The drive to build a market and obtain revenue from the consumer demographic of the Long Tail has led businesses to implement a series of long-tail marketing techniques. in the case of e-tailers). RSS feeds and podcasts. 188 User-driven innovation According to the user-driven innovation model. commonly through YouTube videos. They are willing to tell the manufacturer what they really want and how it should work. often through blogs. with an emphasis on consumer credit. Yahoo and Bing by focusing on long-tail keywords which have less competition. Users want products that are customized to their needs. Kiva.org is an organization that provides micro credits to people worldwide. test and diffuse the results. the company is using the model to tap into a large group of users that are in the low-intensity area of the distribution. • Buzz Marketing: The strategic use of word of mouth and transmission of commercial information from person to person in an online or real-world environment. In Mexico the banks Compartamos and Banco Azteca also service this customer demographic.[28] . such as Right Media or AdECN. • Pay Per Click and Search Engine Optimization: The marketing of websites on search engines such as Google. long-tailed user driven innovation will gain importance for businesses. creating a "rich intellectual commons" and "attacking a major structure of the social division of labor".

But where the Long Tail works. only the most popular products are sold. The opportunities that arise because of the Long Tail greatly affect society's cultures because suppliers have unlimited capabilities due to infinite storage and demands that were unable to be met prior to the Long Tail become realized. in an otherwise mass medium. These niche products open opportunities for suppliers while concomitantly satisfying the demands of many individuals — therefore lengthening the tail portion of the Long Tail. especially those whose products could not — for economic reasons — find a place in pre-Internet information distribution channels controlled by book publishers. online communities and new technologies that operate within the Long Tail of consumers and business is described in the novel by William Gibson. production value or lack of popularity make them inappropriate for traditional television — are easily accessible to a wide range of viewers. people tend to come up with products for varied reasons like expression rather than monetary benefit. In situations where popularity is currently determined by the lowest common denominator. instead. showing how technology and networking allows the Long Tail of disgruntled groups and criminals to take on the nation state and have a chance to win. The Long Tail presents opportunities for various suppliers to introduce products in the niche category. the Long Tail has made possible a flowering of creativity across all fields of human endeavour. the Long Tail also has implications for the producers of content. . the advent of services such as Television on demand. Cultural diversity Television is a good example of this: Chris Anderson defines Long Tail TV in the context of "content that is not available through traditional distribution channels but could nevertheless find an audience. In this way.Long Tail 189 Cultural and political impact The Long Tail has possible implications for culture and politics. the conventional profit-making business model ceases to exist. John Robb applies the Long Tail to the developments in insurgency and terrorist movements. but their business distribution models make that of less importance. movie studios. These encourage the diversification of products. the Long Tail opens up a large space for authentic works of creativity. minority tastes become available and individuals are presented a wider array of choices. Where the opportunity cost of inventory storage and distribution is high."[29] Thus. a Long Tail model may lead to improvement in a society's level of culture. As the opportunity cost goes down. the choice of TV programs grows and greater cultural diversity rises. Distribution of independent content Often presented as a phenomenon of interest primarily to mass market retailers and web-based businesses. At the end of the Long Tail. Looked at from the producers' side. One example of this is YouTube. Pay-per-view and even premium cable subscription services such as HBO and Showtime open up the opportunity for niche content to reach the right audiences. where thousands of diverse videos — whose content. These may not always attract the highest level of viewership. and television networks. Military applications and security In military thinking. Pattern Recognition. record companies. Contemporary literature The intersection of viral marketing.

html).[33] [34] Notes [1] Levine. P. February 8. Gal and Arun Sundararajan. comment #3 by Josh Petersen. edge. MIT Press (http:/ / web. org/ english/ microfinance/ ) [27] Democratizing Innovation.2 No. org/ archives/ 2006/ 08/ chris_anderson. Jöel "Risk Management in Banking". and Duncan Simester.A. org/ templates/ story/ story. Ormerod and M. evolhumbehav. worldwidewords. doi. H. Roger Highfield.Edge. 10. 1016/ j. html). .Stephan. co. Hahn & S. [14] Bynjolfsson. a sales analysis of an unnamed UK digital music service by economist Will Page and high-tech entrepreneur Andrew Bud found that sales exhibited a log-normal distribution rather than a power law. (http:/ / www. Tan. html#comment-3415583). org/ icm/ ) [26] United Nations Capital Development Fund (http:/ / www. pages 1–12). Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. 1655) by R.Long Tail 190 Criticism A 2008 study by Anita Elberse. by Clay Shirky. Bentley. North American Actuarial Journal Vol. Forthcoming Articles (http:/ / www. November 2003. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. com/ abstract=1324064). "Goodbye Pareto Principle. uncdf. Lipo. [12] NPR: The Long Tail (http:/ / www. who suggest that head and tail should be defined by percentages rather than absolute numbers. 2004. edu/ evhippel/ www/ democ1. Krehbiel. org/ turnsofphrase/ tp-lon1. Herzog & M. Erik. David M. org/ content/ 1n1x17lp0c0q65uj) by R. citing sales data which shows that the Web magnifies the importance of blockbuster hits. "Statistics for Managers using Microsoft Excel: 3rd Edition". Prentice Hall. org/ forthcoming/ ) [21] "Regular rates of popular culture change reflect random copying" (http:/ / dx. Timothy C. the earliest being a 1946 paper by Brown and Tukey in the Annals of Mathematical Statistics (volume 17. econtalk. while Anderson uses absolute numbers. Mark L. Smith. com/ writings/ powerlaw_weblog.[32] Also in 2008. html) [10] "Power Laws.[31] Similar results were published by Serguei Netessine and Tom F. Smith. com/ wired/ archive/ 12. Elberse defined head and tail using percentages. uk/ connected/ main. Hello Long Tail: The Effect of Search Costs on the Concentration of Product Sales" (http:/ / ssrn. www. org/ abs/ 0808. [22] "Why are they so popular?". shirky. An interview with Benoît Mandelbrot" (http:/ / www. org/ ) [19] Oestreicher-Singer. php?storyId=4156078) [13] Brynjolfsson. [6] Bessis. html) with Russ Roberts [5] A search for the phrase "long tail" in the database MathSciNet yielded 81 hits. soa. 1995 [7] Wang. telegraph. Madsen. npr. and Michael D. "The Longer Tail: The Changing Shape of Amazon’s Sales Distribution Curve" (http:/ / ssrn. 124.. Management Science. wired.2. they reported that 80 percent of the music tracks available sold no copies at all over a one-year period. David.A. com/ abstract=918142 From Niches to Riches: Anatomy of the Long Tail [17] http:/ / www. Bentley. 1998 [8] Obrist. jhtml?xml=/ connected/ 2004/ 06/ 16/ ecfpop16. Weblogs and Inequality" (http:/ / www. typepad. 2006. com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 05/ the_origins_of_. 2003. [4] Interview (http:/ / www. com/ abstract=1679991) [15] Brynjolfsson.A. com/ wired/ archive/ 14. Shaun "An Actuarial Index of Right-Tail Risk" (http:/ / www. C.org. October 2004. in The Daily Telegraph. gdrc. Anderson responded to the study. "The Long Tail" (http:/ / www. June 16. 2008 [9] See The origins of "The Long Tail" (http:/ / longtail.E.A. p. [20] MIS Quarterly.P.W. Bentley. xml& sSheet=/ connected/ 2004/ 06/ 14/ ixconn. pdf). 49 (11). wired. 2006. org/ 10. misq. professor of business administration at Harvard Business School. The Wealth of Networks (http:/ / www.W.Berenson. 2002. Chris. mit. M. typepad. Wiley. com/ abstract=400940). org/ documents/ mandelbrot2010/ mandelbrot2010_index. htm) . html) [23] "Random drift and culture change" (http:/ / journals.. 2010. calls the Long Tail theory into question. praising Elberse and the academic rigor with which she explores the issue but drawing a distinction between their respective interpretations of where the "head" and "tail" begin. com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 01/ definitions_fin. arXive [25] The Global Development Research Center. "Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety at Online Booksellers" (http:/ / ssrn. 10/ tail. Erik. html) Wired. Erik. MIS Quarterly forthcoming. and Michael D. Anderson responded by stating that the study's findings are difficult to assess without access to its data. com/ abstract=953587) [16] http:/ / ssrn. "Recommendation Networks and the Long Tail of Electronic Commerce" (http:/ / ssrn. benkler. Hahn (2007) in Evolution and Human Behavior 28(3): 151-158. htm) [3] Anderson. Microcredit and Microfinance (http:/ / www.J. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. org/ library/ journals/ north-american-actuarial-journal/ 1998/ april/ naaj9804_5.[30] On his blog. [2] World Wide Words article on "long tail" (http:/ / www. [11] The Long Tail: Definitions: Final Round! (http:/ / longtail. royalsociety. 07/ longtail_pr. Hans Ulrich "The Father of Long Tales. html The Rise and Fall of the Hit [18] Benkler. 002) by R. Shennan (2007) in Proceedings of the Royal Society B 271: 1443-50 [24] "Shelf space strategy in long tail markets" (http:/ / arXiv.

Patrick. wharton. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ music/ article5380304. The Wolfram Demonstrations Project Micro content Micro content is the content built for each major segment of potential customers used in internet marketing. upenn. pdf [2] http:/ / getinternetmarketingstrategies. Chris (2006). With internet marketing content is built for each segment.1/17/2005"" [30] Elberse. 191 References • Anderson. Micro content is a way to provide each customer segment the content required. ClickTorch. co. showArticle& art_aid=142294& passFuseAction=PublicationsSearch. edu/ article. timesonline. com/ the_long_tail/ 2008/ 06/ excellent-hbr-p. 2009 External links • Building An Affiliate Marketing Website – Step-by-Step [2] References [1] http:/ / www. 1/04/2011. " (http:/ / www. U. 22 Dec 2008.Long Tail [28] Joe Mandese. . org/ 2008/ 07/ should-you-invest-in-the-long-tail/ ar/ 1) Harvard Business Review. ISBN 1-4013-0237-8. not provided with any content. Anita. "Should You Invest in the Long Tail?" (http:/ / hbr. "" [29] Chris Anderson. In marketing the potential customer base is divided into smaller segments. com/ pdf/ Why%20behavioural%20targeting%20works%20online%20white%20paper. html)". . longtail. showSearchReslts& art_searched="long tail"& page_number=0/ )". " Long Tail Advertisers Are Back. Ad Expansion Reaches '03 Levels (http:/ / www. Chris. [33] Orlowski. • The Long Tail (http://demonstrations. harvardbusiness. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles.S.com/TheLongTail/) a computer model by Fiona Maclachlan. com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 01/ long_tail_tv_pa_2. (Full online article for purchase only. html).com. mediapost. "Excellent HBR piece challenging the Long Tail" (http:/ / www. References • Paul Edmunds "Why Behavioural Targeting Works Online" [1]. clicktorch. "Long Tail theory contradicted as study reveals 10m digital music tracks unsold" (http:/ / entertainment. theregister. cfm?articleid=2338). google.wolfram. uk/ 2008/ 11/ 07/ long_tail_debunked/ ) The Register. Andrew. New York: Hyperion. co. In traditional marketing each segment is just identified. The Long Tail Blog. [34] Foster. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More (http://books. micro content. "Chopping the Long Tail down to size" (http:/ / www. July–August 2008. [32] "Rethinking the Long Tail Theory: How to Define 'Hits' and 'Niches'" (http:/ / knowledge. 7 Nov 2008. com/ 2008/ 06/ step-by-step-guide-to-building-an-affiliate-marketing-website . longtail. ece) TimesOnline.com/books?id=O2k0K1w_bJIC&printsec=frontcover).) [31] Anderson.

all of the ads displayed on the Bing (formerly MSN Search) search engine were supplied by Overture (and later Yahoo!). Similarly. is the division of the Microsoft Network (MSN) responsible for MSN's advertising services. A complete transition of all Yahoo! sponsored ad clients to Microsoft adCenter occurred in October of 2010. that created web-analytics software. aQuantive. Microsoft adCenter provides pay per click advertisements. As of November 2006. MSN search showed Yahoo! and Microsoft adCenter advertising in its search results.0 framework. no other PPC advertising system has a similar feature.Microsoft adCenter 192 Microsoft adCenter Microsoft adCenter (formerly MSN adCenter).Net 2. or to make bulk changes easily. Microsoft has built new product AdCenter Analytics based on the acquired technology. Until the beginning of 2006.[5] AdECN on July 26. Microsoft adCenter provides both UI and Web service API front end to advertisers. Publisher Leadership Council was created under the umbrella of Microsoft Advertising. 2008 and merged their technologies into adCenter. A Windows-only desktop application allows users to manage Microsoft adCenter campaigns offline. the contract between Yahoo! and Microsoft had expired and Microsoft was displaying only ads from adCenter until 2010. formerly MSN Search. MSN collected a portion of the ad revenue in return for displaying Yahoo!'s ads on its search engine. adCenter allows advertisers to run their ads on specific days of the week or certain times of day.[6] and YaData on February 27. Microsoft adCenter uses both the maximum amount an advertiser is willing to pay per click (PPC) on their ad and the advertisement's click-through rate (CTR) to determine how frequently an advertisement is shown. This system encourages advertisers to write effective ads and to advertise only on searches which are relevant to their advertisement. Google and Yahoo!) to develop its own system for delivering pay per click (PPC) ads. As the system was phased in. Microsoft adCenter. . for roughly $6 billion. 2007 the Beta version of Microsoft Project Gatineau was released to a limited number of participants.[4] Microsoft acquired ScreenTonic on May 3. In November 2006 Microsoft Acquired DeepMetrix. The council was responsible to deliver the next-generation advertising platform for the publishers of digital media resulting in the formation of Microsoft pubCenter. Microsoft began developing its own system. In January of 2010 Microsoft announced a take over of Yahoo! and the combination of Bing. 2007. Microsoft adCenter allows advertisers to target their ads by restricting their ads to a given set of demographics and by increasing their bids whenever the ad is seen by a user of a certain demographic. In October. as well as offering performance alerts and keyword research features.[1] As search marketing grew. a company situated in Gatineau. In June 2006. 2009. for selling PPC advertisements directly to advertisers. Canada. Microsoft agreed to purchase the digital marketing solutions parent company. 2007. both are built on Microsoft . History Microsoft was the last of the "Big Three" search engines (Microsoft.[8] A Microsoft adCenter promotional graphic Technology Similar to Google AdWords.[2] [3] In May 2007.[7] On February 23. to form the Microsoft Search Alliance.

. Microsoft External links • Microsoft adCenter (http://adcenter. searchengineland. html?page=3625762) [6] Microsoft acquires 'ad exchange' company AdECN | Tech news blog .com) • Official adCenter Advertiser Blog (http://adcentercommunity. Retrieved 2008-01-12. Retrieved 2008-01-12.nwsource.com/blogs/api) • Official adCenter Support Forums (http://adcentercommunity. mspx?rss_fdn=Press Releases). [2] "Microsoft Project Gatineau . [5] Microsoft Acquires European Mobile Ad Firm . www. com/ presspass/ press/ 2009/ feb09/ 02-23PublisherAdCouncilPR. [4] "Microsoft Pays $6 billion for aQuantive: Massive Ad Network Consolidation Is Occuring [[[sic (http:/ / www. html).com.com. techcrunch. 2009. com/ kcorbin/ 2008/ 02/ microsoft-acquires-yadata.Microsoft adCenter 193 References [1] Peterson. internetnews. news. com/ showPage. . . com/ 071030-103823.CNET News.microsoft. html) [8] Microsoft Advertising Announces Formation of Publisher Leadership Council (http:/ / www.adcentercommunity.0) . advertising. com/ gatineau).microsoft. nwsource. com/ 2007/ 05/ 18/ microsoft-pays-6-billion-for-aquantive/ )]]"]. clickz.com/blogs/analytics) • Official adCenter API Developer Blog (http://adcentercommunity.ClickZ (http:/ / www. seattletimes. Retrieved 2008-01-12. . com/ html/ businesstechnology/ 2002970721_microsoft04. formerly Add-in for Excel Version 1.com (http:/ / www. February 23.com. News Press Release.microsoft. Kim (2006-05-04). "The Seattle Times: Business & Technology: Microsoft's adCenter is Google.com/forums/) • Microsoft Advertising Intelligence (http://advertising. microsoft.com. php). html) [7] Microsoft Acquires YaData . Yahoo! rival" (http:/ / seattletimes. [3] "Microsoft's Web Analytics Product Project Gatineau Now In Private Beta" (http:/ / searchengineland.com/learning-center/downloads/ microsoft-advertising-intelligence) (a keyword research and optimization tool. com/ 8301-10784_3-9750765-7. Retrieved 2008-01-12.InternetNews:The Blog .Microsoft Digital Advertising Solutions" (http:/ / advertising.techcrunch. microsoft.com) • adCenter Community (http://www.Kenneth Corbin (http:/ / blog.com/blogs/advertiser) • Official adCenter Analytics Blog (http://adcentercommunity.

in its beta version. microsoftadvertising.[3] Publishers or owners can register in this program using Windows Live ID to earn revenue while enabling their application's audience with valuable ads experience on their websites and WP7 applications. which allows advertisers to place ads on search engines as well as select MSN web sites or applications. 2009. microsoft. Publisher Leadership Council was created under the umbrealla of Microsoft Advertising. Microsoft Advertising [4] About pubCenter (https:/ / adcenterhelp.com/for-publishers) . microsoft. com/ presspass/ press/ 2009/ feb09/ 02-23PublisherAdCouncilPR.Solutions for publishers (http://advertising. com/ [3] pubCenter Homepage (https:/ / pubcenter. 2009.microsoft. aspx). microsoft. These advertisements are administered by Microsoft and produce revenue on a per-click basis. The council was responsible to deliver the next-generation advertising platform for the publishers of digital media. Microsoft pubCenter is only available for the Windows Phone 7 and web applications developers in the United States. microsoft. which is expected to revive in the near future.microsoftadvertising.Microsoft pubCenter 194 Microsoft pubCenter pubCenter Developer(s) Preview release Microsoft [1] Beta / November 09. pubCenter Blog. pubCenter is closed to new web publishers. com& format=b1). microsoft. com/ help. Microsoft Advertising [5] Microsoft Advertising Announces Formation of Publisher Leadership Council (http:/ / www. Incidentally.microsoft. February 23. aspx?project=adCenter_Pub_RTW_ss& market=en-US& querytype=keyword& query=yek006& tmt=& domain=pubcenter.com/blogs/pubcenter/default. com/ blogs/ pubcenter/ archive/ 2009/ 11/ 09/ updates-to-the-pubcenter-beta-in-the-new-release. Currently. Microsoft External links • Microsoft pubCenter (http://pubcenter. Web service. News Press Release.com) • Microsoft pubCenter Blogs (http://community.[4] On February 23.aspx) • Microsoft Advertising .[5] References [1] Microsoft Updates to the pubCenter BETA in the new release (http:/ / community. mspx?rss_fdn=Press Releases). 2009 Operating system Cross-platform. com/ ). 2009. November 09. Microsoft Advertising [2] http:/ / pubcenter. Windows Phone 7 Type Website Online advertising [2] [2] Microsoft pubCenter is a publisher's ad serving application developed by Microsoft in addition to Microsoft adCenter.

Overview Multivariate landing page optimization is based on experimental design (e. and allows for databasing across tests and over time.[1] RDE creates individual models for each respondent.g. Live environment execution has the following advantages: • Capable of testing the effect of variations as a real-life experience • Generally transparent to visitors • Relatively simple and inexpensive to execute Live environment execution has the following disadvantages: • High cost • Increased complexity involved in modifying a production-level website • Long period of time required to achieve statistically-reliable data. etc. Once sufficient data has accumulated. and n choices for the company logo. and the inability of most fractional designs to address this issue. conjoint analysis. Some critics of the approach question the possible interactions between the elements of the webpages. and have a higher margin of error.g.). conversion rate). a given page may have k choices for the title. discrete choice.[3] Live environment execution In live environment MVLPO execution. Memetrics. an advanced simulation method based on the Rule Developing Experimentation (RDE) paradigm was introduced. m choices for the featured image or graphic. text) on a webpage are evaluated. uncovers attitudinal segmentation. For example. which tests a structured combination of webpage elements. IDDEA.g. graphics.. This quality is one reason that choice modeling won the Nobel Prize in 2000. • Likely inappropriate for low-traffic.. The first application of an experimental design for MVLPO was performed by Moskowitz Jacobs Inc.g.Multivariate landing page optimization 195 Multivariate landing page optimization Multivariate landing page optimization (MVLPO) is a specific form of landing page optimization where multiple variations of visual elements (e. MVLPO did not become a mainstream approach until 2003 or 2004. To resolve the limitations of fractional designs. the system estimates the impact of individual components on the target measurement (e. This approach requires a smaller sample size—typically. Taguchi methods. This example yields k×m×n landing page configurations. The system keeps track of the visitors and their behavior—including their conversion rate. discovers any and all synergies and suppressions among the elements[2] . a special tool makes dynamic changes to a page so that visitors are directed to different executions of landing pages created according to an experimental design. many thousands—than traditional fractional Taguchi designs to achieve statistical significance.com) use a "full factorial" approach. time spent on the page. in 1998 as a simulation/demonstration project for LEGO. Multivariate landing page optimization can be executed in a live (production) environment. Some vendors (e. Fractional designs typically used in simulation environments require the testing of small subsets of possible combinations. which tests all possible combinations of elements.. etc. This situation is due to variations in the amount of traffic that generates the data necessary for a decision. high-importance websites when the site administrators do not want to lose any potential customers .. or through simulations and market research surveys.

Moskowitz. com/ articles/ article. Selling Blue Elephants: How to make great products that people want BEFORE they even know they want them. DOI: 10.g. Integrating Science into Web Design: Consumer Driven Website Optimization. The outcome relates the presence or absence of page elements on the different landing page executions to the respondents’ ratings. .Multivariate landing page optimization 196 Simulation (survey) execution In simulation (survey) MVLPO execution. The Journal of Consumer Marketing. aspx?p=1015178). pp. 21(4): 373-414. the respondents are directed to a survey that presents them with a set of experimentally-designed combinations of a landing page.00072. 26(4): 286-298. Financial Times Press. Howard Moskowitz. These results can be used to synthesize new landing pages as combinations of the top-scoring elements optimized for subgroups or market segments. Wharton School Publishing.1108/07363760910965882. DOI: 10. At the end of the research phase. ftpress. The respondents rate each version based on some factor (e.. . Synergies. InformIT Network.2006. and Tonis Mets. 2009. "Improving the ‘Stickiness’ of Your Website" (http:/ / www. 2006. Emergent Scenarios. as compared to live environment execution • Applicable to low-traffic websites • Capable of producing more robust and rich data because of increased control over the page design Simulation execution has the following disadvantages: • Possible bias because of a simulated environment rather than a live environment. 272. with or without interactions[4] . Retrieved 2007-09-22. regression analysis models are created either for individual pages or for the entire panel of pages.1745-459X. Alex Gofman (2007-04-11). • Necessity to recruit and optionally incentivize the respondents References [1] Howard R. [4] Alex Gofman. the foundation consists of advanced market research techniques. In the research phase. purchase intent). [2] Alex Gofman. Journal of Sensory Studies. And Suppressions Uncovered within Conjoint Analysis. ISBN 0-13-613668-0.1111/j. Simulation execution has the following advantages: • Faster and easier to prepare and execute in many cases.x [3] Alex Gofman (2007-09-21).

demonstrating the retargeting can generate over 1000% increase in brand related searches. History Founded in 2005. .MyThings 197 MyThings myThings myThings Logo Type Industry Founded Website Private Online Advertising 2005 www. Personalized retargeting is a form of online targeted advertising by which online advertising is delivered to consumers based on previous Internet actions that did not in the past result in a conversion. The company maintains that by reintroducing relevant product or service offers. Its solutions are used by customers in 12 countries including Asia (China. in real time. The solution won the Econsultancy Award[3] in Affiliate Marketing in March 2011.myThings. Japan) and Eastern Europe. Benelux and Japan. myThings is a dynamic player in the online display advertising. e-commerce and affiliate marketing industry throughout Europe. Spain. Germany. France.com [1] myThings is a personalized retargeting provider whose solution enables online advertisers to create relevant. Additional research from comScore follows this school of thought. Italy. myThings was the first company in Europe to offer online retailers with a CPA based business model in which advertisers only pay for conversions. personalized online display ads (banners). In 2010. myThings also supports traditional CPM and CPC models. users will greatly increase online purchases (conversions) and click through rates. myThings partnered with Affiliate Window[2] to present the first CPA based affiliate retargeting solution on the market that integrates into advertisers' existing affiliate tags. as they continue to surf the web. for visitors who have left their website without completing a purchase. myThings has offices in UK.

Dot Corp and GP Bullhound. analytics platforms and advertising agencies. 69& id=89) [6] Former Yahoo. the largest independent affiliate marketing company in the UK. PriceMinister. Best 3rd party application. Product myThings offers adaptive retargeting ads generated in real-time. Funding In January 2011. carmelventures. techcrunch. and are able to Opt-Out of myThings’s services at any time.MyThings Inc (http:/ / www. References [1] http:/ / www. Customers include Orange Mobile. myThings technology utilizes cookies in the delivery of advertisements. Achievements In March 2011. Microsoft Store. asp?Pid=0. In partnership with Commission Junction. Privacy myThings is an active member of the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) and is in full compliance with international regulations and the EU standards of privacy. 4. AOL. myThings won the Econsultancy Innovation Award for affiliate marketing in partnership with Affiliate Window. affiliatewindow. com/ Portfolio/ Company. affiliates4u. Accel Partners. The company is a signatory of the IAB EU framework presented to the UK Government as self-regulatory measures on behalf of the behavioral targeting industry[7] . uk/ publications/ 8048. mxs) [8] HMG response to its consultation on proposals and overall approach including its consultation on specific issues (http:/ / www. Carmel Ventures.a4u (http:/ / www. gov. mythings. com/ uk/ blog/ 7054-announcing-the-winners-of-the-econsultancy-innovation-awards-2010) [4] myThings scores $6 million in funding for personalised retargeting technology (http:/ / eu. HuffPo Sales Dude Greg Coleman Lands Again – AllThingsD (http:/ / kara. net/ en/ 1/ europecommitstoselfregulation140411. The cookies do not collect any Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Prospects are informed on how the Retargeting service works. allthingsd. iabuk.MyThings 198 Partnerships myThings has over 200 partnerships with online retailers and brands. com/ news/ 2011/ 03/ a4uawards-2011-shortlist-announced/ ) . com/ 2010/ 11/ 23/ mythings-scores-6-million-in-funding-for-personalised-retargeting-technology/ ) [5] Carmel Ventures . aspx) [9] a4uAwards 2011 Shortlist Announced . Deutsche Telekom’s venture capital firm T-Venture invested $6 million in myThings[4] alongside previous backers. dcms. for each user based on previous interactions with the advertiser’s website. 47. leading European affiliate networks. Best new entrant and Best retail advertiser with Hotel Chocolat. The company was recently nominated by Media Momentum [10] as one of the top 50 fastest growing digital media companies in Europe. Telecom Italia and Booking. MisterGooddeal. com/ ) [3] Announcing the winners of the Econsultancy Innovation Awards 2010 (http:/ / econsultancy.com. other companies considered competition in the CPC retargeting field include Criteo. The UK government has recently expressed its support of the framework[8] . com/ 20110407/ former-yahoo-aol-huffpo-sales-dude-greg-coleman-lands-again/ ) [7] IABUK : Europe commits to self-regulation (http:/ / www. [5] According to "All Things Digital"[6] . Each ad is optimized to maximum relevancy for the user. com [2] Affiliate Marketing – Affiliate Window – Affiliate Network (http:/ / www. myThings was also shortlisted for the A4U awards in 4 categories:[9] Affiliate Marketing innovation.

Display advertising is commonly sold on a CPM pricing model. The problem with CPM advertising is that advertisers are charged even if the target audience does not click on (or even view) the advertisement. Online pricing models There are three pricing models in the online advertising market that marketers can use to buy advertising and generate leads. marketing leads are sold only once.list building. mediamomentum. A lead is a sign-up for an advertiser offer that includes contact information and in some cases. If the visitor leaves the page may not come again. These leads are resold to multiple advertisers. There are two types of leads in the lead generation market: sales leads and marketing leads. the trader takes him to the OTO page. due to increased competition. After the visitor clicks on the confirmation e-mail. building out reward programs. However. marketing lead campaigns can be optimized by mapping leads to their sources. CPC (Cost-per-Click) advertising overcomes this problem by charging advertisers only when the consumer clicks on the advertisement. age. A 2007 Doubleclick Performics Search trends report shows that there were nearly six times as many keywords with a cost per click (CPC) of more than $1 in January 2007 than the prior year.mythings. In direct contrast to sales leads. CPM (Cost-per-Thousand) pricing models charge advertisers for impressions — i. loyalty programs or for other member acquisition programs. income.MyThings [10] http:/ / www. Leads can be generated for a variety of purposes . e-newsletter list acquisition. search keywords have become very expensive.com) One-time offer The one-time-offer pages (or OTO) is a technique widely used in Internet marketing. It is widely used by traders to obtain cash flow quickly. Because transparency is a necessary requisite for generating marketing leads. Sales leads are generated on the basis of demographic criteria such as FICO score. the number of times people view an advertisement. co. The cost per keyword increased by 33% and the . Implementing an OTO Page Internet traders use this technique after the double-optin. The OTO is an effective technique to encourage undecided visitors to buy. demographic information. HHI. The trader takes the audience to a page where they can receive the offer only once. Online lead generation Online Lead Generation is a marketing term that refers to the creation or generation of prospective consumer interest or inquiry into a business' products or services online.com Website (http://www. Marketing leads are brand-specific leads generated for a unique advertiser offer. Sales leads are typically followed up through phone calls by the sales force. uk/ 199 External Links Official myThings.e. etc. Sales leads are commonly found in the mortgage. insurance and finance leads.

If a visitor to the website doesn't buy anything. reward program or member acquisition program.e. The rapid growth is primarily driven by the advertiser demand for ROI focused marketing. CPA is all about 'now' — it focuses on driving consumers to buy at that exact moment. • Co-registration advertising (aka Co-Reg): The advertiser receives some or all of the standard fields collected by a site during the site's registration process. CPL (Cost-per-Lead) advertising solves risk of CPM and CPC by charging only by the lead.Online lead generation cost per click rose by as much as 55%. This information is used as a sales lead for advertisers. In a cost-per-lead pricing model. a trend that is expected to accelerate during a recession. These banners eliminate the need for users to click-through a landing page. there are two options: CPL advertising (or online lead generation) and CPA advertising (also referred to as affiliate marketing) In CPL campaigns. It also helps explain why 2007 saw a paradigm shift for the industry. • Full Page lead generation: The advertiser's offer appears as a full page ad in an HTML format with relevant text and graphics. there has been a rapid increase in online lead generation—banner and direct response advertising that works off a CPL pricing model. there are ways that providers can commit fraud by manufacturing leads or blending one source of lead with another (example: search-driven leads with co-registration leads)to generate higher profits. 200 CPL advertising and CPA advertising For marketers that are looking to pay only for specific actions. CPL advertising is also commonly referred to as online lead generation. advertisers pay only for qualified leads. • On-Line survey: Consumers are asked to complete a survey. A GP Bullhound Research report states that the online lead generation is growing at 71% YTY — more than twice as fast as the online advertising market. [1] with spending on performance-based pricing models exceeding that on display (IAB PWC 2007 Internet Spending Report) for the first time. Contact details are transmitted automatically from the publisher to the advertiser via the back end. in favor of action-based models within three years. A 2009 IBM research study found that two-thirds of senior marketers expect 20 percent of ad revenue to move away from impression-based sales. Common types of opt-in ad units are: • AdUnitX Banners: AdUnit X banners allow advertisers to run display advertising on a CPL pricing model. there's no easy way to remarket to them. In CPA campaigns. the price per lead can be bid up by demand. The user enters her or his information within the banner. The advertiser receives the standard fields and answers to as many as twenty custom questions that s/he defines. In recent times. Like CPC. advertisers pay for an interested lead — i. including their demographic information and product and lifestyle interests. community site. Also like CPC. CPL pricing models are the most advertiser-friendly. who purchase the consumer's information. . The consumer has 'opted-in' to receive correspondence from the advertiser and is therefore considered a qualified lead. CPL campaigns are suitable for brand marketers and direct response marketers looking to engage consumers at multiple touchpoints — by building a newsletter list. the contact information of a person interested in the advertiser's product or service. irrespective of the clicks or impressions that went into generating the lead. the advertiser typically pays for a completed sale involving a credit card transaction.

When they perform a query in hope of finding information on an organization or a brand. or audio. It is one of the most effective techniques to make sure that a business website or link is listed in the top few links of the millions of results that are displayed in various search engines such as Google. or “entries”. whether it is a small business or a major corporation. the organization needs to know what is being said and discussed about their brand. an ongoing and constant process of evaluating and fine-tuning begins that drives online presence towards the business goals. David Green & Michael C. Online presence management Online presence management is a process that engineers and stimulates a certain brand online. social media. com/ services/ us/ gbs/ bus/ pdf/ ibv-g510-7869-01-advertising.pontiflex. and links. “posts”. Services provided under online presence management Web Designing and Development This primarily includes web design. or adding an article to an existing blog is called “blogging”. client-side/server-side scripting. . A blog is like an online journal that is updated daily. videos. ibm. client liaison. IBM Global Business Services. A person who posts these entries is called a “blogger”. images. 06 Mar 2009. and other avenues to create a long-term positive presence for an organization in various search engines. A blog may be composed of text. These goals help to define the online presence management strategy. search engine optimization. Online presence management strategy works for any size business. web content development. hypertext. Once this strategy is put in place. the organization/brand would want to make sure that their website and online properties are listed high in the search results. and web server and network security configuration.[1] Creating a long-term positive presence online is imperative for an organization. Individual articles on a blog are called “blog posts”. Most of these consumers would not bother going beyond the first page. another key component is to analyze online presence within the search engine results. while constantly pushing to reduce the cost of achieving those goals by relying more on the organic activity of the Internet rather than the paid placement approaches. although some focus on art. photographs. Yahoo!. It combines the elements of web design and development. maintaining a blog. The search engines update their indexes on a regular basis. The online presence management process starts by keeping in mind the business goals for the activity. etc.Online lead generation 201 References • • • • • The B2B Refinery by J. . Bing. The term blog is a shortened form of weblog or web log. Blogs often use a conversational style of documentation. pdf). reputation management. pay per click marketing. directory listings. link sharing.[2] Most blogs are primarily textual. Blogging A blog is a website in which items are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. Carroll (ISBN 0-07-145897-2) Marketing Management by Philip Kotler (ISBN 0-13-033629-7) Marketing for Dummies (ISBN 0-7645-5600-2) The Online Lead Generation Glossary (http://www. Saylor (ISBN 0976864703) Lead Generation for the Complex Sale by Brian J. These goals will define the online presence management strategy. Authoring a blog. As part of a total online presence management strategy. Consumers simply search on various search engines to find information about a certain product or service. In order to manage online brand presence.com/download/leadgenerationglossary. in addition to the monitoring of a brand. blogging.pdf) [1] "The End of Advertising as We Know It" (http:/ / www-935.

The whole blogging process tremendously helps in promoting the online presence of any service or product. Cost per click 3. 2. 6. and radio. Search engines use a spider or a crawler to gather the listings by automatically "crawling" the web. creating a feedback loop. Internet advertising has now overtaken other traditional advertising media such as newspapers. Cost per mille 2. the search engines then index the pages and rank the websites accordingly.[6] Social media marketing programs usually center on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages readers to share content with their social networks.[3] Some of the methods to optimize a web page in search engines are: 1. 4. Thus reputation management services work on highlighting the positive pages and burying offending sites deep in search results. Based on this data. Yahoo. Aol. whereas last year it was about $220 billion. The spider follows links to web pages.[4] The three most common techniques of internet advertising are: 1. and lycos. magazines. ideas. bad reviews or complaints that turn up in a search can mean lost business. Social media is all about networking in a way that advocates trust among the parties and . [5] Social Media Marketing Social media marketing is a medium that provides social media tools and platforms to create and foster communities and relationships. The most important task of a reputation manager is to defend clients against damaging information on the web. A corporate message spreads from user to user and presumably resonates because it is coming from a trusted. 5. Bing. it's online presence too gets established. looking for positive and negative opinions about any particular service or product. The main process of reputation management is reporting on those actions and opinions and reacting to that report. Major search engines that index pages using spiders are Google.Online presence management Microblogging is another type of blogging. According to the same survey. Once a positive opinion about any entity is established online. or services using the Internet to attract customers. featuring very short posts. A recent advertising industry survey reveals that Internet advertising will generate about $428 billion in revenues this year. 3. 202 Search Engine Optimization Search Engine Optimization is modifying a website to increase its ranking and thus visibility in the organic or natural ("unpaid"). With potential customers increasingly heading online to research products and services. as opposed to the brand or company itself. Cost per action Reputation Management Reputation management is the process of tracking people's actions and opinions. Domain name strategies Linking strategies Keywords used Title tags Meta description tags Alt tags Internet Advertising Internet advertising is a form of broadcasting and promotion of products. crawler-based listings of search engines. makes copies of the pages. and removing negative opinions (if any) and converting them into positive ones. and stores them in the search engine's index. 21 percent of Internet users consider online advertising to be the most relevant advertising system. third-party source.

[6] Moran. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 3.Online presence management communities involved. Each search engine is different. [4] "Internet advertising" (http:/ / www. Mike. Flickr. [3] Callen. "ProBlogger" (http:/ / www. Twitter. Brad. Retrieved 17 April 2011. pp. problogger. In the general case.[1] A per-click fee may also apply. . com/ ). Ask. the most notable being Google. "Social media marketing" (http:/ / www. Also known as sponsored listings.. com/ smallbiz/ content/ apr2008/ sb20080430_356835. bradcallen. Online Presence Management. . More frequently. . Inc. or even whether it is shown to any users. . etc. although these have had little success. htm). Darren. Social media monitoring Social aggregation Social bookmarking and tagging Social analytics and reporting Automation Social media Blog marketing Validation 203 References [1] "Samefaretaxi Studios" (http:/ / www. 6. Retrieved 17 April 2011. MySpace. its ranking. many search engines. 8. Understanding what tools are available and how to use them effectively is key to success in social media marketing. The fee structure is both a filter against superfluous submissions and a revenue generator. Some popular social media sites are: Facebook. [5] Tozzi. samefaretaxi. 7. Search Engine Marketing. .[2] mix paid inclusion (per-page and per-click fee) with results from web crawling. which will automatically be catalogued on a regular basis. 5. Any website that allows users to share their content. asp). Some have lobbied for any paid listings to be labeled as an advertisement. Businessweek. Retrieved 17 April 2011. Some sites allow only paid inclusion. "Do Reputation Management Services Work?" (http:/ / www. mikemoran. John. net/ archives/ 2005/ 01/ 06/ about-darren/ ). one has no control as to when their page will be crawled or added to a search engine index. com/ e4m/ bottombarfiles/ Internet-Advertising. wikipedia. Some of these tools are:[7] 1. . the fee covers an annual subscription for one webpage. [2] Rowse. Typically. Others. Paid inclusion Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing product where the search engine company charges fees related to inclusion of websites in their search index. some companies are experimenting with non-subscription based fee structures where purchased listings are displayed permanently. exchange4media. com/ ). exchange4media. and less on the relevancy of that site to end-users. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 4. YouTube. Often the line between pay per click advertising and paid inclusion is debatable. Paid inclusion proves to be particularly useful for cases where pages are dynamically generated and frequently modified. and views and encourages interaction and community building can be classified as social media. like Google (and as of 2006. [7] "Social Media Marketing" (http:/ / en.com[3] [4] ). paid inclusion products are provided by most search engine companies. Digg. Another advantage of paid inclusion is that it allows site owners to specify particular schedules for crawling pages. 2. 90. Social Media Marketing. Some detractors of paid inclusion allege that it causes searches to return results based more on the economic standing of the interests of a web site. org/ wiki/ Social_media_marketing). com/ ). . like Yahoo!. . do not let webmasters pay to be in their search engine listing (advertisements are shown separately and labeled as such). businessweek. Retrieved 16 April 2011. However. while defenders insist they are not actually ads since the webmasters do not control the content of the listing. opinions. SEO Made Easy (http:/ / www. Scribd.

. London: The Guardian.e. or P4P. Retrieved 2008-04-11. cnn. the results of the auction on that keyword are presented. lawsuit. "BBC angers rivals by launching online search engine" (http:/ / www. [2] Zawodny. . Under this model. "Paid Inclusion Losing Charm?" (http:/ / www. [3] Ulbrich.64092. Owen (2002-05-03). References [1] "Search engines shift gears to increase profits" (http:/ / web. shtml#18).00. com/ 2000/ TECH/ computing/ 12/ 11/ search. . keywords) in an open auction. com/ news/ business/ 0. cnn. however. uk/ media/ 2002/ may/ 03/ bbc. . CNN.Paid inclusion Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing method in itself. co. Archived from the original (http:/ / archives. .com. "Defending Paid Inclusions" (http:/ / jeremy. [2] Gibson.1367.. the auction model has proven to be effective at producing relevant results for searches where the user wants to purchase something. . wired. engine.com. archive.[3] Many users felt that the search results would be irrelevant. with higher ranking bids appearing more prominently on the page. is an Internet advertising model in which advertisements appear along with relevant search results from a Web search engine. Wired News. html). html) on 2008-02-21. idg/ index. . ap/ index.[1] When one of these keywords is entered into the search engine. Knowledge gained this way can be used to optimize other web pages. Pay for placement Pay for placement. html). explored. html?tw=wn_tophead_1). Ask. org/ web/ 20080221002146/ http:/ / archives. com/ page. cnn. [3] "Search engines sued over 'pay-for-placement'" (http:/ / edition. php?2#1).[2] which in some cases led to legal action. When P4P was first introduced. PermAds. permads. instead of waiting weeks or months. com/ en/ docs/ about/ webmasters. ask. guardian. . html). controversy arose because seventy percent of Internet users were unaware that search results could be skewed as a result of such agreements. since experts and firms can test out different approaches to improving ranking. explored. and see the results often within a couple of days. com/ blog/ archives/ 001671. com/ 2000/ TECH/ computing/ 12/ 11/ search. com/ 2002/ TECH/ internet/ 02/ 04/ search. 204 References [1] "FAQ #1: What are PermAds?" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-09-12. Jeremy (2004-03-01). P4P is now seen as the most efficient and effective way to monetize search engines. but also a tool of search engine optimization. Retrieved 2008-04-11. zawodny. without paying the search engine company. [4] "FAQ #18: How do I register my site/URL with Ask so that it will be indexed?" (http:/ / about. ap/ index. Chris (2004-07-06). Retrieved 2008-04-11. advertisers bid for the right to present an advertisement with specific search terms (i. newmedia). engines. engines. CNN. Retrieved 2008-12-19.

to purchase or not). Cost per click (CPC) varies depending on the search engine and the level of competition for a particular keyword. which directs one visitor to the advertiser's website. which seeks to drive a high volume of traffic to one site. In both cases the advertiser must consider the potential value of a click from a given source. both in the short term as well as in the long term. The affiliates provide purchase-point click-through to the merchant. Google AdWords. In many cases. that provides purchase opportunities wherever people may be surfing.[1] The PPC advertising model is open to abuse through click fraud. the entire core content of these sites is paid ads. or when a content site displays relevant content. in many cases advertisers can negotiate lower rates. Variations include banner exchange. These various amounts are often related to the content on pages. pay-per-click.[3] Determining cost per click There are two primary models for determining cost per click: flat-rate and bid-based..Pay per click 205 Pay per click Pay per click (PPC) is an Internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites. In many cases the publisher has a rate card that lists the CPC within different areas of their website or network. and appear adjacent to or above organic results on search engine results pages. This value is based on the type of individual the advertiser is expecting to receive as a visitor to his or her website. Such advertisements are called sponsored links or sponsored ads. or the content of a page that they are browsing). which typically publish rate cards. and revenue sharing programs. it represents no cost to the merchant.g. Websites that utilize PPC ads will display an advertisement when a keyword query matches an advertiser's keyword list. although Google and others have implemented automated systems[2] to guard against abusive clicks by competitors or corrupt web developers. Content sites commonly charge a fixed price per click rather than use a bidding system. . As with other forms of advertising targeting is key. and Microsoft adCenter are the three largest network operators. Cost per click (CPC) is the sum paid by an advertiser to search engines and other Internet publishers for a single click on their advertisement. With search engines. It does this by offering financial incentives (in the form of a percentage of revenue) to affiliated partner sites. and the day and time that they are browsing. allowing a high degree of targeting by advertisers. with content that generally attracts more valuable visitors having a higher CPC than content that attracts less valuable visitors. and factors that often play into PPC campaigns include the target's interest (often defined by a search term they have entered into a search engine. these rates are sometimes minimal. intent (e. the advertiser and publisher agree upon a fixed amount that will be paid for each click. and what the advertiser can gain from that visit. where advertisers pay the hosting service when the ad is clicked. especially when committing to a long-term or high-value contract. advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market. location (for geo targeting). In contrast to the generalized portal. It is a pay-for-performance model: If an affiliate does not generate sales.[1] Among PPC providers.[4] However. and advertisers can pay more for greater visibility. usually revenue. PPC implements the so-called affiliate model. or anywhere a web developer chooses on a content site. Flat-rate PPC In the flat-rate model. However. The flat-rate model is particularly common to comparison shopping engines. and all three operate under a bid-based model. Yahoo! Search Marketing. These sites are usually neatly compartmentalized into product or service categories.

In return. These systems can be used directly by the advertiser. It was not until October 2000 that the AdWords system was introduced.com.[7] This presentation and the events that followed created the PPC advertising system. ads on content networks have a much lower click-through rate (CTR) and conversion rate (CR) than ads found on SERPs and consequently are less highly valued. Yahoo's primary source of SERPS advertising included contextual IAB . All bids for the keyword that target the searcher's geo-location. or inefficient at best.[9] Prior to this.g. presented a pay per click search engine proof-of-concept to the TED conference in California. Bill Gross. PPC was only introduced in 2002. In general. maximize traffic at breakeven. The ad with the highest bid generally shows up first. Google started search engine advertising in December 1999. However. usually using online tools to do so. are then compared and the winner determined. These properties are often referred to as a content network and the ads on them as contextual ads because the ad spots are associated with keywords based on the context of the page on which they are found.com started PPC in 1998. When the ad spot is part of a search engine results page (SERP). Credit for the concept of the PPC model is generally given to Idealab and Goto. and so forth. the advertiser signs a contract that allows them to compete against other advertisers in a private auction hosted by a publisher or.[6] This avoids situations where bidders are constantly adjusting their bids by very small amounts to see if they can still win the auction while paying just a little bit less per click. though additional factors such as ad quality and relevance can sometimes come into play (see Quality Score). newsletters.[5] Advertisers pay for each click they receive. one penny) than the next highest bidder or the actual amount bid. The auction plays out in an automated fashion every time a visitor triggers the ad spot. until then. the day and time of the search. saying the rival search service overstepped its bounds with its ad-placement tools. automated bid management systems can be deployed. The system is usually tied into the advertiser's website and fed the results of each click. It is common practice amongst auction hosts to charge a winning bidder just slightly more (e. they receive a portion of the ad revenue that the network generates.Pay per click 206 Bid-based PPC In the bid-based model. History In February 1998 Jeffrey Brewer of Goto. and e-mails. allowing advertisers to create text ads for placement on the Google search engine. Content network properties can include websites. though they are more commonly used by advertising agencies that offer PPC bid management as a service. the automated auction takes place whenever a search for the keyword that is being bid upon occurs. with the actual amount paid based on the amount bid. To maximize success and achieve scale. whichever is lower. such as maximize profit. which can be anywhere from 50% to over 80% of the gross revenue paid by advertisers. These tools generally allow for bid management at scale. Each advertiser informs the host of the maximum amount that he or she is willing to pay for a given ad spot (often based on a keyword). These publishers sign up to host ads on behalf of the network. a common occurrence on SERPs.com (later Overture) advertisers until November 2001. Overture has filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Google. The effectiveness of these systems is directly related to the quality and quantity of the performance data that they have to work with low-traffic ads can lead to a scarcity of data problem that renders many bid management tools useless at worst.com founder. an advertising network. In situations where there are multiple ad spots. more commonly. a 25-employee startup company (later Overture. In addition to ad spots on SERPs. etc. there can be multiple winners whose positions on the page are influenced by the amount each has bid. [8] Although GoTo. the major advertising networks allow for contextual ads to be placed on the properties of 3rd-parties with whom they have partnered. which then allows it to set bids. The system generally sets each bid based on the goal that has been set for it. with thousands or even millions of PPC bids controlled by a highly automated system. Yahoo! did not start syndicating GoTo. advertisements were charged at cost-per-thousand impressions. now part of Yahoo!).

Yahoo! announced intent to acquire Overture for $1. html).com Merchant Enrollment (https:/ / merchant. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. . [2] Shuman Ghosemajumder (March 18. "Using data to help prevent fraud" (http:/ / googleblog. Website Traffic Yahoo! Search Marketing (formerly Overture). com/ 2008/ 03/ using-data-to-help-prevent-fraud. David Szetela.Pay per click advertising units (mainly 468x60 display ads).[10] 207 References [1] "Customers Now". com/ docs/ pr/ release975. ." (http://www. 32(2). com/ support/ bin/ answer. yahoo.html). 2007 [8] Stefanie Olsen and Gwendolyn Mariano (April 5. html). CNET. Fain and J. "Sponsored Search" (http:/ / advertising. com/ 2100-1030_3-1025394. [3] How do you prevent invalid clicks and impressions? (https:/ / www. Accessed June 12. 2011.63 billion. shopping. C. PC World • D. Retrieved May 18. Accessed January 9. 2010. 2010). com/ smallbusiness/ whatsincluded). blogspot. (2002).asis. 2010. cnet. Accessed June 12. Retrieved May 18. [9] Yahoo! Inc. google.63 billion" (http:/ / news. [10] Stefanie Olsen (July 14. Accessed February 23. When the syndication contract with Yahoo! was up for renewal in July 2003. O. London Business School.pcworld. 2007 [5] Yahoo! Search Marketing (May 18. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. "Overture sues Google over search patent" (http:/ / news.html). london. pdf).com. 2010. com/ enroll/ app?service=page/ RateCard) Shopping. "Yahoo! and Overture Extend Pay-for-Performance Search Agreement" (http:/ / docs. 12-13. Google Blog. html). . Yahoo! Press Release. Retrieved Jan 28.com/article/112132/ study_paid_listings_still_confuse_web_searchers. . 2008). py?answer=9718& ctx=en:search& query=invalid+ click& topic=& type=f) Google AdSense Help Center. . Retrieved May 18. com/ 2100-1023-876861. "Sponsored Search: A Brief History. 2010.org/Bulletin/ Dec-05/pedersen. Retrieved May 18. External links • Paid listings confuse web searchers (http://www. 2010. 2008 [4] Shopping. Retrieved May 18. edu/ mottaviani/ PPCA. yahoo. google. cnet. "Yahoo to buy Overture for $1. Pedersen (2006). 2003). 2009 [7] Overture and Google: Internet Pay Per Click (PPC) Advertising Auctions (http:/ / faculty. py?hl=en& answer=6302) Google AdWords Help. 2002). 2009. [6] AdWords Discounter (http:/ / adwords. CNET. . html).

History The mechanics of basic retargeting go back about 10 years. to serve display advertisements. and a website visitor will usually hear only one advertisement per visit to any specific web page. audio ads normally cannot be stopped once they start.[2] References [1] Wall Street Journal Online (http:/ / online. Most commonly initiated via JavaScript. com/ support/ bin/ answer. is an online advertising method that plays an audio advertisement on websites. and personalized retargeting providers aim to increase conversion rates by displaying highly relevant. html) [2] Pay-per-play for Audio Ads (http:/ / adwords. with personalized retargeting emerging recently as a more sophisticated technique to present consumers with targeted. Personalized retargeting functions as a complement to search. 50 percent more per purchase. py?hl=en& answer=63154) Personalized retargeting Personalized retargeting is a display advertising technique used by online advertisers to recapture consumers who visit a retailer’s site and leave without making a purchase. The term "pay per play" comes from advertisers paying for each audio ad played. Also. wsj. targeted display ads that are unique to each consumer. the web page playing the audio ad is normally paid for each ad they serve. like other forms of retargeting. The products that appear in each user’s display ad are unique to each user and reflect products that the user previously viewed on a retailer’s website. retargeted consumers are nearly 70 percent more likely[2] to complete a sale than non-retargeted consumers and they spend. pulled from cookies that are placed on a user’s web browser. . on average. uses basic information. according to a study by personalized retargeting provider Criteo. also known as Cash per play (CPP). SEO and other marketing campaign tactics. the term "pay per play" can also refer to a relationship between advertisers and audio ad producers. relevant ads based on their previous onsite browsing history.[3] Personalized retargeted ads differ from earlier forms of retargeting in that instead of static. branded creative ads. Ads are typically automatically played when a visitor loads a web page. Personalized retargeting. Industry studies have found that nearly 95 percent[1] of website visits don’t translate to purchases. Audio ads vary in length. com/ article/ SB120036638439890355. google. personalized ads are produced in real-time. reflect the browsing history of each individual user and can feature multiple ads in a single banner.[1] In radio advertising.Pay per play 208 Pay per play Pay per play (PPP).

Yahoo! Search Marketing and Criteo are examples of providers that use a PPC model. have expressed privacy[4] concerns[5] around the practice of retargeting. An impression is defined as any time a banner ad loads on an individual’s web browser. other advertisers or third parties and cannot be linked to a specific user. sex and other personal information. Cost per action (CPA) is a pricing model in which advertisers are charged based on pre-arranged action (a purchase. such as the IAB. however. Unlike the CPM model.[6] The United States hasn’t legislated many laws around the practice. In October 2010. including the Federal Trade Commissiomn. Congress and the media. which partner sites will place near banner advertisements that collect non-PII user data. although a completed sale is the most common action used under the CPA model. Google AdWords. and instead relies upon the industry and its overarching organizations. etc). Pay per click (PPC) charges advertisers for every verifiable click that leads consumers back to a retailer’s website. which charges advertisers a flat rate. Concerns In the United States. providers rely upon data gathered from cookies that are placed on a consumer’s browser by the websites they visit. Instead. responsible personalized retargeting providers don’t collect personally identifiable information (PII) on consumers. several organizations.[9] Partial list of providers • • • • • • • • • • • 4-Tell[10] BuySight (formerly Permuto)[11] ChoiceStream[12] Criteo[13] Dotomi[14] FetchBack[15] (acquired by GSI Commerce in June 2010)[16] Magnetic[17] mediaFORGE[18] MyBuys[19] myThings[20] TellApart[21] .[7] NAI[8] and TRUSTe to self-regulate. advertisers working under the PPC model are only charged when a person clicks on an ad. a view through. This information is not shared among publishers.Personalized retargeting 209 Pricing models Personalized retargeting providers employ a variety of pricing models to charge advertisers for the ads viewed by consumers. the IAB announced its Advertising Option Icon. Providers are blind to a user’s age. Three prominent models include: • CPM (cost per thousand) • PPC (pay per click) • CPA (cost per action) Cost per impression (CPM) is a common metric used in the online advertising industry to charge advertisers for inventory based on a set price per thousand page impressions.

Marketers might wish to use the information to detect if they are attracting their desired target audience to their landing pages. these services are likely to grow in usage. com/ [4] http:/ / www. criteo. they distinguish themselves in their ability to supplement IP addresses with data from third-party sources. info/ [9] http:/ / www. net/ privacymatters/ [8] http:/ / www. writing emails to email contacts they can find for the visiting organization. html [6] http:/ / www. com [14] http:/ / www. com/ [19] http:/ / www. With pressure to generate more leads with small budgets. • Inside Sales can view the keywords used by specific visitors to help qualify a person who has filled in a form on a landing page. com/ [12] http:/ / www. or to personalize the content based on the visitor’s language or location. com/ us/ blog/ 6101-increase-search-conversion-with-retargeting [2] http:/ / www. com/ article/ SB10001424052748703940904575395073512989404. HTML e-mails. com/ [13] http:/ / www. com/ Post-click marketing Post-click marketing is emerging as a recognized practice that aims at improving sales and marketing results by focusing on website visitors when they respond to online marketing activities such as pay per click advertising. There are many ways in which this information gathered about website visitors can be used. choicestream. showArticle& art_aid=137111 [10] http:/ / www. com/ [20] http:/ / www. aboutads. com/ [21] http:/ / tellapart. asp [3] http:/ / www. 4-Tell. • Sales managers also find them attractive in their ability to generate email alerts to them when important customers visit their website. imediaconnection. html?_r=3& src=busln [5] http:/ / online. com/ [15] http:/ / www. permuto. and can be helpful in engaging visitors who normally go totally unidentified by sales . com/ [11] http:/ / www. For example. mediapost. adotas. fetchback. wsj. mybuys. enabling marketing managers to view the name of the company visiting their website. their location. These tools are not so much lead generation software but more data extraction tools that can assist the early stages of a lead generation process. they provide a powerful insight to marketing executives who want to measure online campaigns based on the type of audiences they are attracting. Post-click marketing relies on specific software and services that go beyond the information collected by popular web analytic tools such as Google Analytics. Inside Sales tend to use it for lead generation purposes. com/ content/ 27804. dotomi. search engine optimization and other online activities use these tools to discover more about the estimated 98% (quoted by a case paper from the Marketing Sherpa) of visitors who don’t immediately convert into a lead. myThings. com/ [16] http:/ / techcrunch. and the industry they are in. and paid searches with the objective on increasing conversion rates. If used properly. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. com/ 2010/ 09/ what-so-creepy-about-retargeting/ [7] http:/ / www. is/ [18] http:/ / mediaforge.Personalized retargeting 210 References [1] http:/ / econsultancy. criteo. iab. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 08/ 30/ technology/ 30adstalk. Post-click marketing solutions appeal on many fronts: • Businesses paying for the traffic to their website through pay per click. com/ 2010/ 06/ 01/ fetchback-40-million-gsi-commerce/ [17] http:/ / magnetic.

you can also purchase private label content that is limited in distribution. 211 References • Principles and Practice of Marketing . content syndication. including by using private label as an outline or guide when hiring outsources to create information products. and without being exclusive or unique content. templates and even videos. In some cases authorship on the original product is allowed and with unrestricted private label. the basic premise is that the license permits buyers to re-brand the content under their own name and brand (excluding copyright). Private Label Content is best used as a "resource" rather than a 'source". Criticism Due to private label being distributed to multiple customers.Case Studies 2007 • The Leaky Funnel . graphic templates etc. Private Label Content comes with different rights depending on the developer so it's important to throughly check each license prior to use. graphics. It's a license where author sell most or all of the intellectual property rights to their work. both as bonus items.David Jobber: 4th edition 2004 • Marketing Sherpa . However. There are many different ways to successfully use private label content to minimize workload and production time. the price of a single unit is generally lower than if one would create a similar product from scratch (either by himself or by outsourcing). software. The license is defined by the author of the work and has no legal definition. and through time limited offers. Because there are many buyers of the same product. While licenses differ with each author and seller.Hugh MacFarlane: 2003 Private label rights Private label rights is a concept used in Internet Marketing and derived from private labeling. Private label is also useful in adding perceived value to existing products. to ensure that you are familiar with any restrictions that may be in place. Similar licenses include resell rights. ebooks. Private Label Content comes in many different formats. . Use The license is used for various digital products such as articles. ebooks. minimizing the number of competing marketers using the same content. resold or repurposed in many different formats. articles. also used in Internet Marketing. ebook directories. sold. marketers are often hesitant on incorporating private label content into their marketing campaigns. slide-sharing websites and similar. Marketers use private label products for reselling under their own brands or in the case of written products for online marketing through channels like article directories.Post-click marketing and marketing. In general practice this means that the product can be modified. buyers are often able to resell the same rights they've acquired although not all private label releases offer or permit license distribution or transfer. meaning that you should consider revising and improving existing private label content before distributing it under your own brand. including PLR reports.

In fact. Factors in Determining Quality Score There are a number of factors that determine the Quality Score of a given ad. in some cases advertisers found their minimum bids for some ads were raised to as high as $5. . Google could test each advertiser's ability to pay these increases. Click-Through Rate All three search engines have revealed that a major factor . thus increasing advertising revenues for the search engine. However.00.[4] Purpose Behind Quality Score The major search engines have each independently implemented efforts to maintain and improve the quality of ads listed on their sites.in their respective Quality Score formulas is the historical click-through rate (CTR) of the keyword and matched ad. Furthermore. In addition. by raising minimums bids. and MSN [3] that can influence both the rank and cost per click (CPC) of ads. While each search engine has released directional information on the factors most important to them.00 or $10. Yahoo![2] (called Quality Index). Below is a summary of what has been released.the most important factor to Google[5] . and potentially increase the average minimum bid without the advertising community as a whole being made aware. It is reasonable to assume that users who have a great experience when clicking on ads will click on them more frequently. In addition to the CTR of the keyword and matched ad itself. and that a high quality score could actually cause ads to jump over ads with lower quality scores that would otherwise not merit that prominent placement. each ad has the following formula run against it: bid * Quality Score. thus increasing competitiveness within the auctions and extracting maximum revenue from each advertiser. prior to its introduction of Quality Score in July 2005[6] . In late 2008. The exact weight of Quality Score versus bid has not been revealed by any of the major search engines. none has revealed their formulas in detail. Google revealed that Quality Score was used to determine which ads it would show above organic results. Google determined ad rank by running the following formula against each ad and sorting them in descending order: bid * CTR. Google chose to introduce variable minimum bids at the same time as it introduced Quality-Based Bidding. Google takes into account the overall historic CTR of the entire AdWords account as well as the historic CTR of the display URLs in the ad group. By implementing variable minimum bids Google created a mechanism whereby the company could set different minimums for different advertisers for the same keyword. Ads are then listed in descending order based on the result of that equation.Quality Score 212 Quality Score Quality Score is a variable used by Google[1] . The primary reason for this is to improve the experience of users who click on sponsored links. presumably in an effort to guide their advertisers towards making better ads. On the surface.01 to have their ad shown. this new feature allowed advertisers to bid as little as $0. and each company has stated that they reserve the right to continually adjust their ranking methodologies. To determine the order in which ads are listed.

Landing Page Quality All three search engines have revealed that landing page quality is a factor in determining Quality Score. com/ support/ bin/ answer. com/ 2008/ 10/ improvements-to-ads-quality. html) Official AdWords Blog. Accessed February 22 2009 [3] adCenter Quality-Based Ranking? (http:/ / adcenterblog. html) Official AdWords Blog. blogspot. blogspot. com/ support/ bin/ answer. Accessed February 23 2009 [7] How do I create a high quality landing page? (http:/ / adwords. com/ 2008/ 10/ improvements-to-ads-quality. com/ Blog/ cns!85E824269AB8C30D!352. Accessed February 22 2009 [4] Inside AdWords: Improvements to Ads Quality (http:/ / adwords. html) Official AdWords Blog. com/ 2008/ 08/ quality-score-improvements.[8] Geographical Considerations Google has revealed that the accounts performance in the geographical region where the ad will be shown impacts Quality Score. Accessed February 23 2009 [5] Inside AdWords: Improvements to Ads Quality (http:/ / adwords. they have revealed that ads with landing pages that don't contain the keyword may be declined altogether. html) Official AdWords Blog. google. blogspot. blogspot. py?hl=en& answer=47884) AdWords Help. Accessed February 23 2009 . Therefore. Accessed February 23 2009 [8] Inside AdWords: Landing page load time now affects keywords' Quality Scores (http:/ / adwords. entry) adCenter Blog. html) Yahoo! Search Marketing Help. In particular. Landing Page Load Time In June 2008 Google revealed that landing page load time impacts Quality Score. Accessed February 22 2009 [2] What is the quality index? (http:/ / help. py?hl=en& answer=10215) Google AdWords Help. Other Factors All three search engines have revealed that other factors are taken into consideration when calculating Quality Score. live. References [1] What is 'Quality Score' and how is it calculated? (http:/ / adwords. changes in terms of use in Google Analytics have fed speculation in the search engine marketing (SEM) community that Google is using on-site conversion data in its Quality Score formula.Quality Score 213 Ad Copy Relevance All three search engines have revealed that the relevance of the ad copy to the keyword is a factor in determining Quality Score. yahoo. com/ l/ us/ yahoo/ ysm/ sps/ faqs/ quality/ quality_index. Landing page quality generally refers to whether or not the page contains relevant and original content and the navigability of the site. com/ 2008/ 06/ landing-page-load-time-now-affects. spaces. google.[7] In the case of MSN. it can be assumed that ads with ad copy that contains the keyword will have a higher Quality Score than ads with ad copy that does not contain the keyword. Accessed February 23 2009 [6] Inside AdWords: Quality Score improvements (http:/ / adwords.

Their referral program had a two-sided incentive for sharing: the person who signs up for Dropbox through your referral link gets more space than through a normal sign up. was released in July 2010 [3] .com/quality_score) Referral marketing Referral marketing is a method of promoting products or services to new customers through referrals.com/watch?v=b8f1zr2UEXo) • Quality Score on Twitter (http://twitter. Referral marketing takes word of mouth from the spontaneous situation to one where maximum referrals are generated. is the internet based approach to traditional referral marketing. we document a positive value differential. Hence. at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference [7] on 23 April 2010.youtube. The study found that referred customers were both more profitable and loyal than normal customers." Examples of Successful Referral Marketing Programs Dropbox referral program . Referral marketing does this by encouraging. on referral programs and customer value [2] which followed the customer referral program of a German bank that paid customers 25 euro for bringing in a new customer. Online referral marketing. product and service and the value and benefit the supplier brings to them and people they know."Our findings are important news for practitioners considering deploying customer referral programs in their own firm. the Co-founder and CEO of Dropbox. the study mentioned . online referral marketing provides a high degree of tracking and accountability. this value differential is larger than the referral fee. their company.Quality Score 214 External links • Google Ads Quality Basics Video (http://www. informing.youtube. According to Professor Van den Bulte. usually word of mouth. referral programs can indeed pay off[5] .8 million[11] direct referral invites to their friends. the referral program was inspired by the Paypal Sign up Bonus [8] program. between customers acquired through a referral program and other customers. Such referrals often happen spontaneously but businesses can influence this through appropriate strategies. Given the advances in tracking customer behavior online through the use of web browser cookies. Dropbox estimated that their users had sent 2. using digital marketing as a platform. In the 30 days before the conference presentation. and you get more space yourself too. The referral program was wildly successful and it permanently increased their signups by 60%[9] . Referred customers had a higher contribution margin. Dropbox implemented a referral program[6] to encourage their users to tell their friends about Dropbox.com/watch?v=SsEGWI1w1L8) • Google Ads Quality Updates Video (http://www.In 2009. both in the short term and long term. Importantly. According to Drew Houston. a higher retention rate and were more valuable in both the short and long run. Referrals account for roughly 35%[10] of their daily signups (as of April 2010). On whether customer referral programs are worth the cost. Assuaging prior skepticism. . Benefits of Referral Programs A study conducted by the Goethe University Frankfurt and the University of Pennslyvannia [1]. Overview Referral marketing is a structured and systematic process to maximize word of mouth potential. this is the first ever study published on the financial evaluation of customer referral programs[4] . promoting and rewarding customers and contacts to think and talk as much as possible about their supplier.

upenn.D student at Goethe University Frankfurt). pdf [2] http:/ / marketing. Coca-Cola (co). Resource Interactive is recognized for its aptitude in consumer insights and strategy [3][4] . wharton. edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. University of Pennsylvania) [4] http:/ / www. interactive design [5] and technological innovation [6][7] . Ohio[2] .Bean. com/ [8] https:/ / www. wharton. sllconf. slideshare. Nancy Kramer [8] founded the company in 1981 with its first marketing relationship with Apple [9]. President and CXO of Resource Interactive [13] Website for The Open Brand. pdf [3] conducted by Phillipp Schmitt (Ph. edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. slideshare. website creative and interactive technology solutions. Female-founded. net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 [10] Slide 32 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www. Sherwin-Williams and L. we'll give you both 250 MB of bonus space (up to a limit of 8 GB)! (https:/ / www. Victoria's Secret. com/ us/ cgi-bin/ webscr?cmd=_web-referrals-mrb-outside [9] Slide 30 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www. edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. paypal. Goethe University Frankfurt) and Christophe Van den Bulte (Associate Professor of Marketing. net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 Resource Interactive Resource Interactive is a Privately held digital marketing agency [1] in Columbus. owned and operated. Wharton School. 4 on Advertising Age's Agency A List for 2010. com/ referrals) [7] http:/ / www. dropbox. forbes. slideshare. upenn. wharton. Hewlett Packard.L. com/ 2010/ 07/ 21/ viral-marketing-referral-program-entrepreneurs-sales-marketing-wharton_print.Referral marketing 215 References [1] http:/ / marketing.For every friend who joins Dropbox. net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 [11] Slide 31 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www. Resource Interactive has since expanded its partnerships with clients to include Procter & Gamble. html [5] Page 25 of http:/ / marketing. pdf [6] Referral program . Resource Interactive is No. among others. Bernd Skiera (Professor of Marketing. Wal * Mart. upenn. [10] External links • • • • Official Website [11] weThink: Official Company Blog [12] Kelly Mooney's blog. a book by Kelley Mooney and Laura Bergheim [15] • iCitizen Website [16] . a book by Resource Interactive associates [14] • Website for The Ten Demandments. working with Fortune 500 companies to develop digital strategy.

apple-history. Under this policy. revenue sharing is also known as cost per sale. com/ [1] [2] [3] [4] Revenue sharing Revenue sharing has multiple. revenue sharing was replaced with block grants in smaller amounts to reduce the federal deficit. php?article_id=126721 AdvertisingAge Top 50 Digital Agencies http:/ / adage. Retrieved on June 2008. In 1987. resource. One form shares between the general partner(s) and limited partners in a limited partnership. commarts. businessweek. resource. com/ release-id-856. resource. com/ mediacenter/ podcasts/ innovation/ innovation_03_26_08. htm?campaign_id=rss_daily) . com/ datacenter/ datapopup. [8] http:/ / adage. "Resource Interactive Is No. shipping and other 3rd party cost that the customer pays) generated by customers whom the affiliate refer via various advertising methods. htm?campaign_id=rss_daily Innovation of the Week (http:/ / www. and accounts for about 80% of affiliate compensation programs. Another form shares with a company's employees. and sharing the proceeds. com [12] http:/ / blog. In business. Congress gave an annual amount of federal tax revenue to the states and their cities. A third form of revenue sharing on the internet consists of enticing internet users to sign up and create content by offering a share of advertising revenue. Another form of online revenue sharing consists in people working together and registering online in a way similar to that of a corporation. htm) Retrieved on June 2008. htm [7] Flashforward Film Festival Awards 16 Big Orange Rubber Arrows (http:/ / prmac. com/ agencya-list/ article?article_id=148348). com/ [10] Patel. thetendemandments. com/ web-sites/ shaw-floors-try-floor. com/ [14] http:/ / theopenbrand. United States government revenue sharing was in place from 1972-1987. On the Internet. Kunur (2011-01-24). Revenue sharing was extremely popular with state officials. com/ [16] http:/ / icitizen. [5] http:/ / www. businessweek. 4 on the Ad Age Agency A-List" (http:/ / adage. com/ smallagency/ index?sid=Nancy%20Kramer [9] http:/ / www. [11] http:/ / www.Resource Interactive 216 Notes http:/ / adage. but it lost federal support during the Reagan Administration. com/ [15] http:/ / www. com/ release-id-856. com/ [13] http:/ / www. html [6] http:/ / prmac. counties and townships. resource. php?article_id=126721 digital marketing agencies http:/ / www. com/ datacenter/ datapopup. and another between companies in a business alliance.[1] E-commerce web site operators using revenue sharing pay affiliates a certain percentage of sales revenues (usually excluding tax. Advertising Age. . related meanings depending on context. mooneythinks. .BusinessWeek. revenue sharing refers to the sharing of profits and losses among different groups. com/ mediacenter/ podcasts/ innovation/ innovation_03_26_08.

such as sub-headlines. This section will typically contain testimonials from the firm's customers as well as pictures and information about the product. Unsolicited sales emails are known as spam. and is designed to ensure that the prospect is committed to becoming a customer. Components The sales letter is split into several key sections.Unlike PPS.html) Suppliers pay commission for sale. the sale is not generated by an advertisement.astal.Internet revenue sharing sites share via a variety of income sources.reviewerofsites. Body copy This section is typically quite long. . Sales letter A sales letter is a piece of direct mail which is designed to persuade the reader to purchase a particular product or service in the absence of a salesman. but by a real life selling effort. and typically takes the form of an email or webpage. the last stage of the sales process before the customer places an order. On the internet. and is designed to be among the first item the reader attends to. com/ survey.Agents are people who know they can make a one-time sale. the body copy may include embedded video or audio. and further tends to be mainly textual as opposed to graphics-based. including Google Adsense and Amazon Associates programs. • A categorized list of internet revenue sharing sites (http://www. such as the distribution of leaflets and catalogues. shtml) — a study based on survey responses from almost 200 affiliate managers in the marketing industry External links • A match between suppliers and agents in real life (http://www. Since the advent of the internet. other sections may be used.Revenue sharing 217 References [1] AffStat Report 2007 (http:/ / www. It is typically used for products or services which. as the sales letter typically sells a single product or product line. It has been defined as "A form of direct mail in which an advertiser sends a letter to a potential customer. due to their price. but not exclusively. Offline. unsolicited sales letters are known as junk mail. 8 and 16 page letters being common formats."[1] It is distinct from other direct mail techniques. although spam typically consists of emails which are much shorter than a normal sales letter. Headline The headline is the most prominent text on the sales letter. In addition.com/ the-internets-largest-list-of-adsense-revenue-sharing-sites/) . the sales letter has become an integral part of internet marketing. affstat.com/marketing/revenue_sharing. A sales letter is often. are a considered purchase at medium or high value (typically tens to thousands of dollars). with 4.

. it is possible to track additional variables. Retrieved 2009-11-15. body text or graphic design converts best. notably the letter by John Caples which sold a home study (also known as distance learning or correspondence course) in piano playing. com/ SalesLetter). The font. powerwriting. with split testing of various elements. etc. such as the open rate of emails. all have an effect on the efficacy of the letter. Graphic design The graphic design of a sales letter is an important part of the branding. This letter had the headline "They Laughed When I Sat Down At the Piano But When I Started to Play! --"[2] References [1] "Sales Letter (definition)" (http:/ / www. John Caples. . html)." (http:/ / www. clickthrough to the checkout. This allows the marketeer or copywriter to confirm which headline. wrote this ad that was considered the very best of its time and is still a classic. internetmarketingdefinitions. etc. they can be carefully tested on an ongoing basis to determine which version performs best in terms of converting readers to customers. layout. . com/ caples. Classic letters Some sales letters have become design classics in their own right. Retrieved 2009-11-15. Development of sales letters Because of the direct response nature of sales letters. Sales letters are typically developed incrementally. line spacing. paragraph formatting. [2] "Famous copywriter.Sales letter 218 Call to action All sales letters include a call to action which is intended to get the customer to commit to purchasing the product or service. the bounce rate. images. typically without any further intervention. On the internet.

Also. organizations. For example some of the attention is placed on the web page layout design and how content and information is displayed to the website visitor. Goto. . but not necessarily at the same time. Market structure In 2008. Some marketers have difficulty understanding the intricacies of search engine marketing and choose to rely on third party agencies to manage their search marketing.com[8] in 1998. The largest SEM vendors are Google AdWords. and paid inclusion. and was purchased by Yahoo! in 2003. SEMM also integrates organic SEO. key word analysis needs to be done for both SEO and SEM. Another part of SEM is Social Media Marketing (SMM). trying to achieve top ranking without using paid means of achieving top in search engines. submitting sites to directories. Yahoo! Search Marketing and Microsoft adCenter. SEM constitutes Ad words.com later changed its name[9] to Overture in 2001. managing paid listings at the search engines. search engines started appearing to help people find information quickly. and developing online marketing strategies for businesses.[2] As of 2006. Google also began to offer advertisements on search results pages in 2000 through the Google AdWords program. (SEM). It frequently needs to be updated and monitored continually. The term "Search Engine Marketing" was proposed by Danny Sullivan in 2001[12] to cover the spectrum of activities involved in performing SEO.[1] [2] Search engine optimization (SEO) is "optimizing" website pages to achieve higher ranking in search results via the process of selecting specific keyword expressions associated to the website [3] SEM is utilizing various means of "marketing" a website in order for it to become more relevant in regard to search engine searches and their rankings. is a form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs) through the use of.Search engine marketing 219 Search engine marketing Search engine marketing. The Yahoo! & Microsoft Search Alliance eventually received approval from regulators in the US and Europe in February 2010. SMM is a type of marketing that involves exploiting social media to influence consumers that one company’s products and/or services are valuable. contextual advertising. such as pay per click programs offered by Open Text[7] in 1996 and then Goto. and now offers paid search opportunities for advertisers through Yahoo! Search Marketing. Search engines developed business models to finance their services. and new agencies focusing primarily upon marketing and advertising through search engines emerged. In a market dominated by Google. By 2007. in 2009 Yahoo! and Microsoft announced the intention to forge an alliance.5 billion on search engine marketing. SEM is a constant and tedious task. North American advertisers spent US$13. and PayPerClick SEO.[11] Search engine optimization consultants expanded their offerings to help businesses learn about and use the advertising opportunities offered by search engines. Some of the latest theoretical advances include Search Engine Marketing Management (SEMM). paid placement. SEM was growing much faster than traditional advertising and even other channels of online marketing. pay-per-click programs proved to be primary money-makers[10] for search engines.[5] You can do SEM without doing SMM but you can't do SMM without doing SEM because SMM is a higher level of SEM. and individuals.[6] Because of the complex technology. a secondary "search marketing agency" market has evolved. History As the number of sites on the Web increased in the mid-to-late 90s. [3] article submissions.[4] which comprises pay per call (particularly beneficial for local providers as it enables potential consumers to get in touch directly to a company with one click). It should be asserted that SEM is NOT SEO and vice versa. SEMM relates to activities including SEO but focuses on return on investment (ROI) management instead of relevant traffic building (as is the case of mainstream SEO). advertising and making sure SEO has been done.

(b) find the most relevant and popular key terms and phrases for the site and its products. Validators check the invisible parts of Web sites. the easier it is for people to find your site. can provide valuable information relating to copyright and trademark issues. which formerly prohibited these tactics. and Marketleap's Link Popularity and Search Engine Saturation. Use the source code and Who Is tools to research legal issues. highlighting potential problems and many usability issues ensure your website meets W3C code standards. a consumer advocacy group with ties to Ralph Nader. These tools can deliver conversion-related information. 1. It requires your pages containing those keywords people are looking for and ensure that they rank high enough in search engine rankings. The followings are major tools measuring various aspects of saturation and link popularity: Link Popularity. and (c) use those key phrases on the site in a way that will generate and convert traffic. ARIN. in response to a complaint from Commercial Alert. There are three major tools used by EBSCO: (a) log file analyzing tool: WebTrends by NetiQ.Search engine marketing 220 Ethical questions Paid search advertising has not been without controversy. and reports on slightly different aspects of your Web site.[19] 2. Web site saturation and popularity: show how much presence a Web site has on search engines through the number of pages of the site that are indexed on each search engine (saturation) and how many times the site is linked to by other sites (popularity). Use Web analytics tools to find out more about your customers. Top 10 Google Analysis. Most search engines include some form of link popularity in their ranking algorithms. (c) transaction-based tool: TeaLeaf RealiTea. Who Is tools: show you who owns and operates various Web sites. Another ethical controversy associated with search marketing has been the issue of trademark infringement. Generally. Try to use more than one HTML validator or spider simulator because each tests. SEM has however nothing to do with link buying and focuses on organic SEO and PPC management. The debate as to whether third parties should have the right to bid on their competitors' brand names has been underway for years. the more Web presence you have. 1. allowing 3rd parties to bid on branded terms as long as their landing page in fact provides information on the trademarked term. At the end of February 2011 many started to see that Google has started to penalize companies that are buying links for the purpose of passing off the rank.[17] Though the policy has been changed this continues to be a source of heated debate. (b) tag-based analytic programs WebSideStory's Hitbox. Back end tools (including Web analytic tools and HTML validators): Web analytic tools can help you to understand what is happening to your website and measure your Web site's success. . highlights. Such usage excludes the wider search marketing community that is engaged in other forms of SEM such as Search Engine Optimization and Search Retargeting. Major SEM Tools There are four categories of tools to help you optimize Web sites. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) also issued a letter[16] in 2002 about the importance of disclosure of paid advertising on search engines. They range from simple traffic counters to tools that work with log files [18] and to more sophisticated tools that are based on page tagging (putting JavaScript or an image on a page to track actions). In 2009 Google changed their policy. Keyword research and analysis: (a) Make sure the site can be indexed in the search engines. Read a competitor's source code to look for hidden clues. Vested interests appear to use the expression SEM to mean exclusively Pay per click advertising to the extent that the wider advertising and marketing community have accepted this narrow definition.[18] [19] [20] 1.[20] Useful tools include Who Is Source. and the issue of how search engines present advertising on their search result pages has been the target of a series of studies and reports[13] [14] [15] by Consumer Reports WebWatch.

4.[23] These challenges could be the competition that companies face amongst their industry and other sources of information that could draw the attention of online consumers. This promotion has helped their business elaborate. and video and picture sites(e. Check your current ranking.[23] To assist the combat of challenges.Search engine marketing 221 SEM plan Through trial and error you will be able to see how SEM drives highly targeted visitors to your online exhibitions. Google Keyword Selector. 7. Install good tracking software. and to supply the most relevant information to searchers. AdWords is recognised as a web-based advertising utensil [4] since it adopts keywords which can deliver adverts explicitly to web users looking for information in respect to a certain product or service. The following are the steps to a successful SEM plan:[21] 1. Validate your keywords by testing and refining them with your keyword selector tools such as Yahoo Keyword Selector. businesses. 9. track and analyse your performance for better results.[4] AdWords project has enabled SEM companies to train their clients on the utensil and delivers better performance to the canvass. This project is highly practical for advertisers as the project hinges on cost-per-click (CPC) pricing. 3. offering added value to consumers who endeavor to employ AdWords for promoting their products and services. SEM companies have described AdWords as a fine practical tool for increasing a consumer’s investment earnings on Internet advertising. Get in the news such as Google News with RSS feeds. Build an initial list of important keywords that represent your current and most relevant content and potential content.[22] 10. 6. The use of free utensils “Conversion tracking” and “Google Analytics” was deemed to be practical for presenting to clients the performance of their canvass from click to conversion. the use of search engines for accessing information has become vital to increase business opportunities. The assistance of AdWord canvass could contribute to the huge success in the growth of web traffic for a number of its consumer’s website. Flickr and Youtube). Moreover. Research on your target audience. the main objective for businesses applying SEM is to improve and maintain their ranking as high as possible on SERPs so that they can gain visibility. Optimise the website by improving your web design and architecture and web page content. 8. 2.g. blogs. Google Trends and Keyword Discovery. . businesses. Search engines were not important to some industries in the past but over the past years.[23] The use of SEM strategic tools for businesses such as tourism can attract potential consumers to view their products but it could also pose various challenges. Therefore search engines are adjusting and developing algorithms and the shifting criteria by which web pages are ranked sequentially to combat against search engine misuse and spamming. and search engines by understanding the strategies of marketing to attract business. thus the payment of the service only applies if their advert has been clicked on. by as much as 250% in only nine months. Pursue link building and partnerships. 5. Examples of Best Practice A successful SEM project was undertaken by one of London’s top SEM companies involving AdWords. SEM companies have embarked on AdWords projects as a way to publicize their SEM and SEO services. and search engines. Colonise the Web by publishing and circulating it in wiki.[23] This could enhance the relationship amongst information searchers. Set your online goals and key performance indicators.[4] One of the most successful approaches to the strategy of this project was to focus on making sure that PPC advertising funds were prudently invested.[4] Another example of a successful SEM plan is the approach to capture the relationships amongst information searchers.

Andrew (February 21. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. 44). February 18. . Retrieved 2007-06-09. . com. [12] "Congratulations! You're A Search Engine Marketer!" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. html).com. 2001.com. nytimes. Terry Brainerd (November 2005). consumerwebwatch. ad text trademark policy" (http:/ / adwords. "How search engine marketing tools can work for you.col1).com. "Assessing the Visibility of Destination Marketing Organizations in Google: A Case Study of Convention and Visitor Bureau Websites in the United States" (http:/ / www. hwwilsonweb. J. news. com/ 3641916). [15] "Still in Search of Disclosure: Re-evaluating How Search Engines Explain the Presence of Advertising in Search Results" (http:/ / www. . com/ does-sem-seo-cpc-still-add-up-37297). Retrieved 2007-06-09. html). marketingterms. cfm). AccuraCast. 2003. [9] "GoTo gambles with new name" (http:/ / news. June 21. . blogspot. [3] "Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / www. 2004. org/ dynamic/ search-report-false-oracles-abstract. Retrieved 2007-06-09. 2006). searching is really all about finding. . consumerwebwatch. "How search engine marketing tools can work for you: or searching is really all about finding. accuracast. May 14. Retrieved 2007-06-09.com. marketingterms.com.gov. searching is really all about finding. Retrieved 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2010-07-15. "Your website: greater visibility and return of investment through search engine marketing" (http:/ / vnweb. 2002. November 8. February 8. [10] Jansen. adwords. Retrieved 2010-07-15. com/ showPage. cfm). [7] "Engine sells results.blogspot. . (May 2007). About. php). ftc. com/ GoTo+ gambles+ with+ new+ name/ 2100-1023_3-272795. org/ dynamic/ search-report-disclosure-update-abstract. shtm)])"]. Information Outlook. news. [2] "The State of Search Engine Marketing 2006" (http:/ / searchengineland. .com.com. com/ 070208-095009. jhtml. html?ex=1299992400& en=6fcd30b948dd1312& ei=5088). com/ news/ windows/ microsoft_news/ showArticle. com/ od/ socialmedia/ g/ socmedmarketing. . Terry Brainerd (October 2005). . [23] Zheng Xiang. June 30. pdf).org.col).S. [13] "False Oracles: Consumer Reaction to Learning the Truth About How Search Engines Work (Abstract)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-04-22. html?page=2164351). [16] "Re: Complaint Requesting Investigation of Various Internet Search Engine Companies for Paid Placement or ([[Pay per click (http:/ / www. com/ images/ case-google. Retrieved 2011-03-21. Retrieved 2010-03-05. gov/ os/ closings/ staff/ commercialalertletter. Stuart (March 14. [11] "Microsoft-Yahoo Deal Gets Green Light" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2007-06-09. . "Social Media Marketing" (http:/ / sbinfocanada.Search engine marketing 222 References [1] "Does SEM = SEO + CPC Still Add Up?" (http:/ / searchengineland. New York Times. June 9.org. Retrieved 2007-06-09. [22] Girdwood. htm). com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_11_9/ ai_n15966835/ ?tag=content. consumerwebwatch. Rob Law. first of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. . 2011). Retrieved 2011-03-21. html).com. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_7_9/ ai_n14889940/ ). Retrieved 2011-03-21. com/ hww/ results/ external_link_maincontentframe. "How search engine marketing tools can work for you: or. [21] Feeny. Retrieved 2007-06-09. searchengineland. Retrieved 2011-04-22. Daniel (2008). 1996. Retrieved 2011-03-30. . . . . Retrieved 2011-04-22. . ftc. Search Engine Land. "14 Tips for Making the Most of Feeds" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. Information Outlook. Information Outlook. com/ 2100-1023-215491. psu. third of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. cfm). 2010. March 3. 1998. Fesenmaier (June 7. consumerwebwatch. org/ dynamic/ search-report-disclosure-abstract. informationweek. Retrieved 2007-06-09. html?page=2165971). com/ showPage. Second of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. B. com/ index/ 929886653. jhtml?articleID=223000099). 2007. or. ACM Transactions on the Web. com/ 2009/ 05/ update-to-us-ad-text-trademark-policy. Retrieved 2011-03-21. . Search Engine Watch. Terry Brainerd (July 2005). informationweek. jhtml?_DARGS=/ hww/ results/ results_common.. Bing Pan. about. [19] Chadwick.com. . Retrieved 2007-06-07. com/ 2006/ 03/ 14/ business/ media/ 14adco. [18] Chadwick. Retrieved 2007-06-07. edu/ faculty_pages/ jjansen/ academic/ pubs/ jansen_tweb_sponsored_links. pdf) (PDF). September 10. 2005.com. com. Retrieved 2011-03-21. pdf). searchenginewatch. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_10_9/ ai_n15890934/ ?tag=content. . [5] Susan Ward (2011). [20] Chadwick. draws fire" (http:/ / news. consumerwebwatch. informaworld. 2001. . [4] "Google Adwords Case Study" (http:/ / www. . 2009. [14] "Searching for Disclosure: How Search Engines Alert Consumers to the Presence of Advertising in Search Results" (http:/ / www. consumerwebwatch. June 22.com. November 5. "More Agencies Investing in Marketing With a Click" (http:/ / www. and Daniel R. . [17] "Update to U. 2007. [8] "GoTo Sells Positions" (http:/ / searchenginewatch.org. com/ dictionary/ search_engine_optimization/ ). . [6] Elliott. searchenginewatch. "The Comparative Effectiveness of Sponsored and Nonsponsored Links for Web E-commerce Queries" (http:/ / ist. 2010).

most experts in the field would argue that it is of secondary priority. effectively persuasive text for a well-written web page. However. The text appearing at specific locations. agencies and firms that specialize in SEO (including SEO copywriting). the placement of the keywords. The foremost goal of SEO copywriting is to produce succinct. and copywriting agencies that offer SEO copywriting as part of comprehensive writing and editing services. however. Writing that "optimizes" a search but offers little useful information or only weak persuasion is frowned upon in the profession as ineffective. Together they will not only rewrite text but also alter the code to design a page that is most favored by search engines. SEO copywriting is most often one of the various jobs of a copywriter. and the number of links to and from the page from other pages. It is not a clear. References . search engine designers today do not disclose the complex algorithmic processes of their search engines. Attempting to keep themselves competitive and defending against the composition strategies of so-called black hat SEOs. such as in the title tag and the Meta Tag of the page's code. While an obvious goal of SEO copywriting is to cause the business's or product's web page to rank highly in a search. it becomes a costly resource inducing potential buyers to turn away from the site rather than generating sales. while still producing readable and persuasive content. SEO copywriters also strive for unique written content on the page. SEO copywriters often work with "optimizers" who are more expert in the technical aspects of SEO. there are freelance copywriters who hire out their services solely for SEO. At its worst. However. Other factors that determine relevance during a search are the page's Keyword Density. gets special attention during SEO. SEO copywriting requires finesse and repeated experimentation to assess how the team's page revisions will fare in a potential customer's search. scientific process. because search engines compare information found there with other pages to determine relevance.Search engine optimization copywriting 223 Search engine optimization copywriting Search engine optimization (SEO) copywriting is textual composition for web page marketing that emphasizes skillful manipulation of the page's wording to place it among the first results of a user's search list. In spite of the insights of optimizing technicians. distinguishing it from similar pages competing for placement in the search results.

html). . Search retargeting is similar to search engine marketing (SEM) ) except that the ads displayed are banner ads which do not appear on search engine results pages. "It’s Hiring Time" (http:/ / www. and presents a new approach to SEM[1] . boston. com/ content/ 27071. com/ business-news/ 2011/ 03/ 08/ nfib-report-shows-small-business-more-inclined-to-hire-and-skyword-reflects-that-and-other-trends#ixzz1GK2yyE9j). Boston. Magnetic and Simpli. Portfolio. Jr (March 8. Chango Inc. com/ business/ ticker/ 2010/ 12/ skyword_launche. 2010-06-30. Search-Driven Media Search-Driven Media or SDM. in various forms. Retrieved 2011-03-11.com.skyword. References [1] "Hot companies for search retargeting" (http:/ / www. "Skyword launches search platform" (http:/ / www. imediaconnection. External links • Skyword Inc (http://www.com. .Search retargeting 224 Search retargeting Search retargeting is a form of behavioral retargeting employed by online marketers that target an audience based on the previous searches they conduct on other websites. portfolio.fi offer search retargeting capabilities.” [2] References [1] Globe Staff (December 20. was created by Skyword. Skyword’s SDM platform “enables writers to create content for partners from consumer to media brands …that is optimized for search and social media to drive more readers to that content.com) . asp). search retargeting is designed to find new customers which have likely never been to a marketers website before. Retrieved 2011-03-11.[1] Unlike site retargeting or site remarketing. 2010). [2] Kent Bernhard. 2011). iMedia Connection. .

the United States and European governments have taken action towards restricting their use.e. eu/ scadplus/ leg/ en/ lvb/ l24120. keywords can have various meanings. specifically adjusted to the interests of the individual viewer.w3.org/2001/sw/) • The Semantic Web: An Introduction (http://infomesh. to select which advertisements to display to that individual. mainstream techniques for identifying these interests—contextual advertising and behavioral targeting—are problematic[1] [2] . By comparison.net/2001/swintro/) • IAB Seminar on Semantic and Behavioral Targeting (http://iab. many platforms identify visitors by assigning a unique HTTP cookie that tracks the web pages they visit. An automated function loads advertisements onto the web page based on the text. com/ blogs/ ssg/ ?p=366 http:/ / europa. For example..Semantic advertising 225 Semantic advertising Semantic advertising applies semantic technologies to online advertising solutions. ojr.[3] [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.applied semantics (http://smartcontentconference. contextual advertising technology bases web page advertising on a keyword scan of the text of a website or Internet search. The function of semantic advertising technology is to semantically analyze every web page in order to properly understand and classify the meaning of a web page and accordingly ensure that the web page contains the most appropriate advertising. searchenginejournal. However. However. should be displayed. com/ critical-flaws-in-googles-behavioral-targeting-puts-advertisers-at-risk/ 5898/ http:/ / www. Cookies are the subject of controversy due to privacy issues. org/ ojr/ stories/ 050706glaser/ http:/ / www. Semantic advertising increases the chance that the viewer will click-thru because only advertising relevant to what they are viewing. Behavioral targeting uses information collected on an individual's web-browsing behavior. such as the pages they have visited or the searches they have made. htm External links • W3C Semantic Web Activity (http://www. itbusinessedge.scribemedia. In fact. and therefore their interests. However.com/agendafull. a web page containing the word “jaguar” may generate ads about zoos and cars.org/2010/08/ targeting-reaching-the-right-audience-online-2/) • Smart content conference . Semantic analysis of a web page provides an understating of its overall meaning in the semantic approach. The Evolution of Online Advertising Advertising on the Internet has the potential to be finely narrowcast. i. The very different nature of these contextual results means that someone’s advertising budget is not being spent wisely.html/) .

Semantic targeting is also capable of identifying the sentiment of a webpage. The two methods of targeting of recent times have been behavioral targeting and contextual targeting. without having an understanding of the true context in which words occur. If the page was being detrimental about a particular subject. enabling marketers to deliver highly targeted and specific ad campaigns to webpages. the semantic targeting system could deter the placement of a related ad alongside the story. Advertisers can locate their ads in given categories using an ontology (computer science) or taxonomy.[1] [2] Contextual advertising scans the content of webpages. a fruit. such as golf equipment. the word "orange" can be a color. Behavioral targeting aggregates data based upon a user's viewing of pages from a website. The cookie then reports the user's viewing behavior allowing for the identification of patterns of viewing behavior. golf holidays etc. the user may see advertisements for golf related topics. a telecommunications company.[8] For example. against which advertisers have bid to have their ad linked. For example. it is possible to incorrectly assign an advertisement where there is no contextual link. and countless other variants. Generally this is facilitated by the placing of a cookie upon the user's PC.e. Sentiment analysis can determine whether content is talking about a subject in a positive or negative light. a semantic system examines all the words and identifies the senses of those words. where that website uses semantic targeting. A key difference of semantic targeting to a contextual advertising system is that. . The concept of semantic targeting utilises this capability to identify these concepts and the contexts in which they occur. where software can programmatically understand and reason how different elements of data are related.[7] Because most words are polysemous. ensuring that their ads will only appear in the context that they request. i. How semantic targeting works Semantic targeting aims to match the specific context of content on page within a website to an available advertising campaign. such systems are unable to identify the context of the entire page and therefore. The Semantic Web enables the representation of concepts expressed in human language to data in such a way that facilitates automatic processing. through an automated process. The selection of advertisements are served by automated systems based on the content displayed to the user. It is now generally accepted that these forms have pitfalls for both advertiser and consumer.Semantic targeting 226 Semantic targeting Semantic targeting is a technique enabling the delivery of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites and is used by online publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns. leading to a misplacement of ads. great concern is expressed about the treatment of the user's right to privacy amongst consumer groups and legislators. However.[3] [4] [5] [6] They are also unable to identify the sense or meaning of words. if the user is viewing a website relating to golf. a placement could be made against content that is inappropriate. However. If a match is made the ad is placed alongside the content. instead of scanning a page for bided keywords. seeking to identify keywords. through effective analysis of the language used on page. a mountain bike. A semantic targeting system has to examine all the words before it can accurately identify the subject matter of the entire text and deliver an in context advertisement. have more than one meaning. derogatory or insensitive to the subject. Origins Semantic Targeting has originated from the developments arising from Semantic Web. The evolution of online advertising The targeting of advertising to specific micro segments is a fundamental requirement for an effective ad campaign.

com/ 2008/ 09/ semantic-advertising-of-4-different-kinds. fis. David Crystal & Sacha Carton on semantic targeting" (http:/ / www. for example. 2008-07-01. Shmula. e-consultancy. . [3] Galen Moore (December 20. [2] Dow Jones Staff (December 22. "A Battle Is Brewing Over Online Behavioral Advertising" (http:/ / www. . [3] "Steve Irwin’s Death : Contextual Advertising Gone Bad" (http:/ / www.[2] Skyword’s customers include Procter & Gamble’s Pampers brand and impreMedia.org).com) . . creates new brand" (http:/ / www. com/ 2008/ 06/ 19/ contextual-advertising/ ).archive. html). and airline advertising alongside a story about an air disaster. . cnn. "Job Openings Fall in Tough Market" (http:/ / online.com. Retrieved 2011-03-28. com/ blog/ 2007/ 11/ contextual_advertising_gone_bad/ ). archive. CNN. [5] "When Contextual Advertising Goes Horribly Wrong" (http:/ / mashable. Retrieved 2010-10-20. org/ web/ 20080213195315/ http:/ / www. [4] "Contextual advertising gone bad" (http:/ / www. . ftc. Retrieved 2008-10-10. Alcohol. com/ 194/ steve-irwins-death-contextual-advertising-gone-bad). References [1] Sara Murray (January 11. 2010). com/ article.06. shmula. [8] "Semantic Targeting" (http:/ / web. "Gather Inc. . External links • Skyword Inc (http://www. Federal Trade Commission. 2008. This can enable the blocking of an ad placed alongside content of a controversial nature. e-consultancy.19. Retrieved 2008-10-10.11. Retrieved 2011-03-04. Launches Search-Driven Media Platform" (https:/ / www. 2008-12-20.[9] 227 References [1] Renee Boucher Ferguson (2008-03-27). Retrieved 2008-10-10. com/ business/ ticker/ 2010/ 12/ skyword_launche. isense. [6] "McCain campaign pulls ads from some anti-Obama Web sites" (http:/ / www. . 2010). net/ index. . html). [7] Graham Charlton (2008-05-16). iChief marketing technologist. . Retrieved 2008-10-10. E-week. Wall Street Journal. com/ news-blog/ 365601/ q-a-prof-david-crystal-and-sacha-carton-on-semantic-targeting. [2] "FTC Staff Proposes Online Behavioral Advertising Privacy Principles" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-12-20. Such systems can deter placement against such subjects as Adult/Erotica. 2010[4] and was founded by Tom Gerace. dowjones. "Q & A Prof. isense. Boston Business Journal. boston. php?id=68).com. html). html). Dow Jones Financial Services. Mashable. etre.02. gov/ opa/ 2007/ 12/ principles. com/ c/ a/ Enterprise-Applications/ A-Battle-Is-Brewing-Over-Online-Behavioral-Advertising-Market/ ).com. Nudity. isense. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 2006-09-05.com. Retrieved 2008-10-10. Retrieved 2008-10-10. chiefmartec.skyword. php?id=68) on 2008-02-13. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Offensive language. (2008-09-13). Boston Globe. 2007. . Retrieved 2008-10-10. "Semantic advertising: 4 different kinds" (http:/ / www. Bad News and other such topics. [9] Scott Brinker.com. shtm). html#articleTabs=article). com/ boston/ news/ 2010/ 12/ 20/ gather-inc-rebrands-as-skyword. . 2010). com/ article/ SB10001424052748703791904576075702148687890. etre. . bizjournals. net/ index. aspx?ProductIDFromApplication=32& aid=DJFVW00020101221e6cm000um& r=Rss& s=DJFVW). [4] Globe Staff (December 20. . wsj.net (copy on web. eweek. com/ 2008/ POLITICS/ 07/ 01/ mccain. This would then avoid the potentially brand damaging occurrence of. ads/ ). Skyword Skyword Inc provides a Search-Driven Media (SDM) platform[1] that is designed to enable brands to reach their customers via natural search and the social web through content written by experts. 2011). "Gather Rebrands As Skyword.Semantic targeting Other capabilities of a semantic targeting system include the availability of brand protection filtering.[3] The company officially launched on December 20. "Skyword launches search platform" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-10-10.

There are two categories of SMO/Social SEO methods: (a) Social media features added to the content itself. participating in discussion groups. Social Media Optimization is in many ways connected as a technique to viral marketing where word of mouth is created not through friends or family but through the use of networking in social bookmarking. SMO is one of many online methods of website optimization. Dutch. Four years after the initial post. customer satisfaction and relations. Increase your linkability Make tagging and bookmarking easy Reward inbound links Help your content travel Encourage the mashup Get communities connected Several authors added new rules to the original post. product/service development. commenting on other blogs. Hebrew and recently also in Thai. allowing for a healthy business to consumer relationship . Japanese. 4. video and photo sharing websites. including: blogging. though improved search ranking is also a benefit of successful SMO. Increasingly smart businesses are integrating social media participation as part of their knowledge management strategy (ie. Bhargava's original five rules for conducting social media optimization are:[3] 1. 5. Additionally. In a similar way the engagement with blogs achieves the same by sharing content through the use of RSS in the blogosphere and special blog search engines. Create shareable content Make sharing easy Reward engagement Proactively share content Encourage the mashup . Social Media Optimization is considered an integral part of an online reputation management (ORM) or Search Engine Reputation Management (SERM) strategy for organizations or individuals who care about their online presence. 3.Social media optimization 228 Social media optimization Social Media Optimization (or SMO or Social SEO) is the methodization of social media activity with the intent of attracting unique visitors to website content. recruiting. 6. and incorporating third-party community functionalities like images and videos (b) Promotional activities in social media aside from the content being promoted. Today there are 16 rules. and posting status updates on social networking profiles Social Media Optimization is related to search engine marketing. Origins According to search engine expert Danny Sullivan[2] . primarily the focus on driving traffic from sources other than search engines. Portuguese. including: RSS feeds. business development and more). which were translated into French.[4] 1. but differs in several ways. social news and sharing buttons. brand building. Social Media Optimization is often at times implemented to foster a [1] community of the associated site. 4. German. user rating and polling tools. 2. Social Media Optimization (SMO). 3. Rohit Bhargava posted an updated set of five new rules. employee engagement and turnover. the term "social media optimization" was first used and described by Rohit Bhargava. One of the many other methods is search engine optimization or SEO. is not limited to marketing and brand building. 5. Greek. Spanish. Russian. Italian. 2.

searchenginewatch. . In these games a player's social network is exploited to recruit additional players and allies. Retrieved 22 March 2011. For Social Sites" (http:/ / blog. FrontierVille. [8] "How Big Is Social Media Gaming? How About 56 Million Strong" (http:/ / www. net/ 2010/ 10/ seo-is-dead-and-the-new-king-is- smo / ). [4] Rohit Bhargava (August 10. This game design promotes social media interaction as a means to attaining higher value in Empire Avenue market rankings. [12] "What Americans Do Online: Social Media And Games Dominate Activity" (http:/ / blog. dreamgrow. . In Empire Avenue a player's worth is linked to their social media influence and activity as well as that of the other players they have invested virtual currency in. [7] "Social Media Gaming Infographic" (http:/ / www. com/ facebook-seo/ ). "5 Rules of Social Media Optimization (SMO)" (http:/ / rohitbhargava. [9] "Empire Avenue. Retrieved 2010-11-27.[12] References [1] "Face Book SEO" (http:/ / www. rohitbhargava. com/ 2010/ 08/ 24/ how-big-is-social-media-gaming-how-about-56-million-strong/ ).[6] [7] [8] An example of the latter is Empire Avenue. as of June 2010. com/ company/ empire-avenue). entrepreneur and blogger Ben Elowitz proposed as SMO as a broader set of online marketing strategies for all published websites in an era where social platforms are ubiquitous. a virtual stock exchange where players buy and sell shares of each other's social network worth. com/ why-social-media-gaming-is-big-business-for-your-business/ ).[5] 229 Social media gaming Social media gaming is online gaming activity performed through social media sites with followers/friends and online gaming activity that promotes social media interaction. Retrieved 2010-11-24. Retrieved 22 March 2011. "SEO Is Dead. blog. typepad. 2006).Social media optimization Around the same time. And The New King Is SMO" (http:/ / digitalquarters. "The 5 NEW Rules of Social Media Optimization (SMO)" (http:/ / www. . com/ weblog/ 2006/ 08/ 5_rules_of_soci. 2006). [5] Ben Elowitz (October 27. Retrieved 2007-09-06. . com/ blog/ 060829-150053). . rohitbhargava. nielsen. [11] "Empire Avenue creates a stock market to measure your social influence" (http:/ / games. com/ social-media-gaming-infographic/ ). 2010). 2010). rohitbhargava.com. [2] Danny Sullivan (August 29. . crunchbase. . com/ nielsenwire/ online_mobile/ what-americans-do-online-social-media-and-games-dominate-activity/ ).typepad. Retrieved 22 March 2011. "Social Media Optimization: It's Like SEO. venturebeat. Retrieved 22 March 2011. Examples of the former include FarmVille.com. html).net. Retrieved 2007-09-06.[9] [10] [11] Nielsen Media Research estimates that. . socialnetworkingseo. . Retrieved 22 March 2011. blogherald. com/ 2010/ 02/ 24/ empire-avenue-creates-a-stock-market-to-measure-your-social-influence/ ). [6] "Why Social Media Gaming Is Big Business for Your Business" (http:/ / www. com/ apps/ 2010/ 07/ 26/ empire-avenue-the-stockmarket-where-youre-for-sale-invites/ ). the stockmarket where YOU’RE for sale" (http:/ / thenextweb. com/ 2010/ 08/ the-5-new-rules-of-social-media-optimization-smo. .searchenginewatch.com. . social networks and online games account for about 1/3 of all online activity by Americans. . Retrieved 22 March 2011. [3] Rohit Bhargava (August 10. digitalquarters. and Mafia Wars. Retrieved 22 March 2011. [10] "Empire Avenue" (http:/ / www.typepad. socialmediaexaminer. Retrieved 13 December 2011. html). .

Double Loop Marketing is an idea of online-marketing consultant. . Retrieved 25 April 2009. Only after such a site achieves credibility among its community of readers can the company. first community." In other words. try to convert that "mind share" into "wallet share. smeal. Christian Sarkar. . adworld.Double loop marketing 230 Double loop marketing Double Loop Marketing[1] [2] is based upon the notion that in today's information-rich world. psu. This is the first loop of the firm's interaction with customers. Retrieved 25 April 2009. [2] "Penn State Smeal College of Business" (http:/ / isbm. . A company must first develop "mind share” by building a site that offers genuinely-useful information and advice to consumers. in the second loop of customer interaction. It is related to relationship marketing and Seth Godin's idea of permission marketing. edu/ library/ webinars/ double-loop-marketing/ ). marketing must of necessity be people and knowledge-driven rather than product driven. then commerce. References [1] "ADWORLD Knowledge Center" (http:/ / www. ie/ knowledgecentre/ read?id=cd2b127b-12a5-4238-86dc-e3f91c2549e5).

• One pair of definitions[1] [2] are: • Inbound marketing is a marketing strategy that focuses on getting found by customers. information about finished product capability flows out to prospective customers who have a need for it. This sense is related to the term product management (product ownership in Scrum). flow into the company. This sense is related to . and product or service capability. [4] Brian Halligan." a pejorative term for this type of marketing is "interruption marketing. or paying commissioned sales people. pieces of information about customer needs and interests. David Meerman Scott recommends[3] that marketers "earn their way in" (via publishing helpful information on a blog etc. not customers themselves. • Antonym for this usage: Outbound marketing is marketing communications.Inbound marketing 231 Inbound marketing Marketing Key concepts Product • Pricing Distribution • Service • Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Marketing ethics Marketing effectiveness Market research Market segmentation Marketing strategy Marketing management Market dominance Promotional content Advertising • Branding • Underwriting Direct marketing • Personal Sales Product placement • Publicity Sales promotion • Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing • Premiums • Prizes Promotional media Printing • Publication Broadcasting • Out-of-home Internet marketing • Point of sale Promotional merchandise Digital marketing • In-game In-store demonstration Word-of-mouth marketing Brand Ambassador • Drip Marketing Inbound Marketing and its opposite Outbound Marketing have various meanings depending on the context. In contrast to the above. Knowledge of customer needs drives future company offerings. cofounder and CEO of HubSpot. beg. • Antonym for this usage: Traditional marketing (outbound marketing) is a marketing strategy that focuses on finding customers by building brand awareness through advertising and promotion." • An older pair of definitions[5] are: • Inbound marketing is market research. claims he coined the usage of the term in this sense.) in contrast to outbound marketing where they used to have to "buy. or bug their way in" (via paid advertisements. In this sense. Peter Drucker believed[6] this to be the quintessence of marketing. issuing press releases in the hope they get picked up by the trade press. This sense is related to relationship marketing and Seth Godin's idea of permission marketing. respectively). In contrast to "permission marketing.

Content (Blogs. etc. videos. white papers. inbound marketing content is created and published using the medium of choice (blog. etc. telemarketing/cold calls. Xanga [21] • Videos: YouTube [22]. the cost of coordination around learning about something new or shopping for something new using the internet (search engines. Linked In [12]. Metacafe [24] • White Papers: WhitePaperSource [25]. Facebook.) Content is the substance of an inbound marketing campaign.) The most successful inbound marketing campaigns contain all three key components[9] First. or “new marketing” and modern marketing. targets a broad audience using print ads. television ads. spam filtering. CEO & Founder of HubSpot. LinkedIn. LiveJournal [17]. blogs. eBooks. also referred to as “old marketing” or traditional marketing. TiVo. HubSpot [10] Types of inbound marketing Inbound marketing mediums are broken down into three categories: • Content (Blogs. etc. The Direct Marketing Association [26] (DMA) • EBooks: eBooks. cold calls. etc. (outbound marketing). In outbound marketing. in the newer of the two senses. outbound marketing Brian Halligan. social media media(Twitter [11]. commercials. etc. Dailymotion [23]. Rather than interrupting people to get their attention with emails. 232 Inbound vs. Third.Inbound marketing the term product marketing. the company is in control.[7] . white papers. white paper. and social media sites) is now much lower than going to a seminar at the Marriott or flying to a trade show in Las Vegas. videos. Vox [20] .Brian Halligan. Facebook [13]. WordPress [15].) continue to spread the content. The shift from outbound to inbound marketing has led to new mediums of outreach to the public. the customer is in control. Using inbound marketing. Halligan describes why outbound marketing techniques are becoming less effective: “Your average human today is inundated with over 2000 outbound marketing interruptions per day and is figuring out more and more creative ways to block them out. People are more in control of what information they receive and how.”[9] . Inbound marketing involves getting found by potential customers through search (opposite of Outbound Marketing). video. TypePad [19]. Second. Second. coined the term inbound marketing. is a response to the recent change in consumer behavior. etc. NetLibrary • Blogs: Blogger [14].). This form of inbound marketing refers to information or tools that attract potential customers to the business or site[9] Some examples of content-publishing sites for inbound marketing purposes include: . etc. OpenDiary [18]. and Sirius satellite radio. Search Engine Optimization increases the rank of the content and makes it more accessible.) • SEO (Search Engine Optimization and keyword analysis) • Social media (Twitter [11].[8] Inbound marketing. inbound marketing relies on the principle that visitors find and come to you. including caller ID. direct mail/e-mail. eBooks. Outbound marketing. eBook. ExpressionEngine [16].

Social media (Twitter. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2. . In inbound marketing.[32] This study analyzed data from businesses about what types of marketing programs deliver the best return on investment. divides the benefits of inbound marketing into two main categories: cost effectiveness and better targeting. conducted independent research into the return on investment of companies using HubSpot software for inbound marketing purposes. Outbound marketing becomes expensive since companies use money to buy advertisements or e-mail lists. Most content of inbound marketing is created and generated on web sites that are free of charge.I. Benefits of inbound marketing In an economic recession. Melissa DiBella. In response.). rent booths at trade shows. conducted a 2010 study titled “The State of Inbound Marketing” [31].[27] SEO considers how search engines work and what people are searching for.T.) The term “social media” does not have one universal definition. Yahoo!. Ask. in response to an economic recession. etc. Sloan School of Management graduate student. Bing. Cost effectiveness In 2001. businesses again began shifting money out of expensive paid search advertising into inbound marketing. The cost effectiveness of the shift from outbound to inbound marketing can be measured using a Return on Investment (ROI). such as Twitter [30] or [13] Facebook. an inbound marketing agency. the Dow Jones Industrial Average depicts businesses shifting marketing dollars into search engine advertising.”[28] In inbound marketing. Search engine optimization is the practice of building up a web site to maximize its ranking in search engines results. AOL Search. inbound marketing is a more efficient way of allocating money than outbound marketing[29] Brian Halligan. social media channels increase the impact of the content. SEO allows companies to be found more. Facebook. In January 2010. or pay-per-click advertising. another analysis of inbound marketing was conducted by an M. HubSpot’s major finding was that inbound marketing focused businesses have a 60% lower cost per lead[33] – less money is utilized to produce more results. CEO of HubSpot and initiator of “inbound marketing”.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content. class of 2010. The complete report of “Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software” [34][35] can be viewed online. etc. Most consumers begin their buying process by using a search engine (Google. Inbound marketing costs less than outbound marketing. HubSpot. etc. LinkedIn.Inbound marketing 233 SEO (Search Engine Optimization & keyword analysis) Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a web site in search engines.[29] In 2008. another economic recession began.

Jennifer (January 9.000. Responsibilities. 2007). "There will always. hubspot. htm). getting 3." (http:/ / blog.000 Facebook followers. (http:/ / www. "Marketing Is Fun Again. and Blogs. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 2989/ Inbound-Marketing-vs-Outbound-Marketing. 2008. John Wiley & Sons Inc. org/ mrktng/ mrktng. Blogs.com [37] and Facebook. Retrieved 2009.Chris Hughes. Shah. Verne (2010). htm) (2 ed. text messages. Brian Halligan. N. The Growth Guy. Retrieved May 7. . com/ Research/ Document/ Excerpt/ 0. 2009.40760. Inbound Marketing. html).[38] Obama used his Facebook account to create a “register to vote” function. Barack Obama used inbound marketing to beat Hillary Clinton in the democratic primary[36] Up until the 2008 election. New York. pp. [9] Halligan. com/ growthguy/ 2010/ 03/ marketing-is-fun-again-brian-halligan-inbound-marketing-chapter-2-best-video. typepad. "Outbound vs. com/ Outbound-vs-Inbound-Marketing/ ) HubSpot. Obama was a first-term senator from Illinois running against the well-known and funded New York State senator.7211. . [4] "Brian Halligan. [10] http:/ / hubspot.[36] Notes [1] Vittal. telemarketing. marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy.A Commonly Misunderstood Term" (http:/ / managementhelp." [7] Harnish. Brian. co-founder of Facebook. Management: Tasks. 864. . Senator Barack Obama became the democratic nominee for president of the United States. Peter F. Elana.). [2] Halligan.. twitter. (2010).”[36] . com/ books. (1974). [8] HubSpot. Dharmesh (2009). was hired as Obama’s Internet Strategist. @BarackObama Twitter. All that should be needed then is to make the product or service available. Hoboken.00. [6] Drucker. online networks—and then equip them with the tools to spread the campaign’s message using network technology such as My. Brian (2010). Inbound Marketing Chapter 2. Carter. [3] David Meerman Scott. Online Video. "How Technology Enables Inbound Marketing: Evaluate Interaction Management To Optimize Real-Time Recommendations" (http:/ / www. com . Initially. Obama had less funding and could not compete with Clinton’s e-mails.BarackObama. davidmeermanscott. Barack Obama Facebook. BarackObamadotcom YouTube On June 4. direct mail campaigns." (http:/ / www. Instead of identifying a target audience. InboundMarketing. "Marketing . ISBN 0-06-011092-9. hubspot. [5] McNamara. Suresh. (2010). Best Video” (http:/ / verneharnish. Anderson. Social Media. Joseph. one can assume. . be need for some selling. Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google.: John Wiley & Sons Inc.April 19. com/ brian). aspx) HubSpot. and Viral Marketing to Reach Buyers Directly.J. "Inbound Marketing vs. We tried to open as many direct channels of communication as possible—using e-mail. Barack Obama LinkedIn. But the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. Ideally. During the 2008 presidential race. ISBN 0470547812. companies using outbound marketing reach out to all consumers. Successes in inbound marketing In the 2008 presidential campaign. forrester. com [12] http:/ / linkedin. html). NY: Harper & Row. com [11] http:/ / www. statistics show only 1-3% of all targeted consumers respond[8] – 97% of all marketing efforts go to waste. and television and radio advertisements[36] Chris Hughes.Inbound marketing 234 Better targeting Outbound marketing techniques target a broad audience.[36] Hughes explains how the Obama campaign employed inbound marketing: “The aim of our online campaign was to help individuals understand the values of Barack Obama and of our campaign and then to make it as easy as possible for them to actively engage with the campaign’s work. Barack Obama connected with voters using the following inbound marketing techniques:[36] Organizing for America blog. ISBN 0470499311. Practices. Inc. News Releases. The New Rules of Marketing and PR: How to Use Social Media. Clinton. Outbound Marketing. Inbound marketing only targets individuals who self-qualify themselves[29] by demonstrating an interest in your content. As a result.. HubSpot CEO & Co-Founder" (http:/ / inboundmarketing.org.

hubspot. Inc. [30] http:/ / twitter. html) (2010).CNN. com [16] http:/ / expressionengine. youtube." (http:/ / blog. Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google. org/ wiki/ Search_engine_optimization [28] http:/ / en. hubspot. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ resellers/ reports/ state_of_inbound_marketing." (http:/ / www. com [15] http:/ / wordpress.Inbound marketing [13] http:/ / www. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs%2f2010+ ROI+ Report. hubspot. hubspot. hubspot. "Inbound Marketing & the Next Phase of Marketing on the Web. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ resellers/ reports/ state_of_inbound_marketing. com [38] "Obama: I Will Be the Democratic Nominee . democrats/ index. com [20] http:/ / vox. [37] http:/ / My. 2010. Inc. Cable News Network. com/ Default. blogger." (http:/ / www. Print. com [14] http:/ / www. pdf) HubSpot. facebook. (2010). Melissa (2010). [33] HubSpot. metacafe. [36] Halligan. com/ Default. com [22] http:/ / www. BarackObama. dailymotion. and Blogs.com.com" (http:/ / www." HubSpot. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4416/ Inbound-Marketing-the-Next-Phase-of-Marketing-on-the-Web. cnn. and Dharmesh Shah (2010). com [19] http:/ / typepad. com [31] http:/ / www. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. [34] http:/ / www. wikipedia. aspx) HubSpot Blog. Brian. pdf [32] HubSpot. com [25] http:/ / whitepapersource. "The State of Inbound Marketing 2010. com [26] http:/ / the-dma. com [18] http:/ / opendiary. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software. "The State of Inbound Marketing 2010. com [23] http:/ / www. pdf) HubSpot.CNN. com [17] http:/ / livejournal. pdf [35] DiBella. Social Media. com/ 2008/ POLITICS/ 06/ 03/ election. com [24] http:/ / www. 235 . (2010). Rick (2008). com [21] http:/ / xanga. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Social_media [29] Burnes. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs/ 2010+ ROI+ Report. org [27] http:/ / en.

g. Even though permission marketing can be implemented in any direct medium. under The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003.Permission marketing 236 Permission marketing Permission marketing is a term popularized by Seth Godin[1] (but found earlier [2] ) used in marketing in general and e-marketing specifically. querying a search engine). This is one technique used by marketers that have a personal marketing orientation. See Anderson School of Management project Promotions Channel: Permission Marketing [4] Permission marketing and the internet Permission marketing offers the promise of improving targeting by helping consumers interface with marketers most likely to provide relevant promotional messages. notably email marketers and search marketers. This type of marketing allows advertisers to reach a more specific audience that may be more receptive to their product or service. In addition. They feel that marketing should be done on a one-to-one basis rather than using broad aggregated concepts like market segment or target market. as well as certain direct marketers who send a catalog in response to a request.g. This type of marketing involves the showing of an advertisement prior to and/or during an on-line video stream. which implies a request for information which can include that of a commercial nature. marketers incur similar costs if they send out 1 million or 10 million e-mails.g. Due to these problems. this violates their privacy rights. yes mail. Since the ads arrive in the mailbox of the individual. survey ads.now part of the business incubator. Spammers can easily obtain new e-mail addresses from websites and Usenet groups using software programs that “troll” the Internet. and even sponsored blocks of time. The undesirable opposite of permission marketing is interruption marketing. The two reasons for this are: (1) on the Internet. Another form of permission marketing is in-stream advertising. Spam cannot be a legitimate form of marketing communication. they are not affected by the measurement problems of banner advertising. Among the different types of in-stream advertising are. permission marketing is seen as a .g. This form of marketing requires that the prospective customer has either given explicit permission for the marketer to send their promotional message (e. weakening of brand reputation and a slowing of the entire network. (2) the Internet has enabled rapid feedback mechanisms due to instantaneous two-way communication. forged e-mail headers). Many permission-marketing firms (e. an email or catalog request) or implicit permission (e. consider someone who searches for "buy shoes. This type of advertising allows originators of the video content to show their video in the highest quality versus other videos posted without consent. Another motivation for permission marketing on the Web has been the failure of the direct mail approach of sending unsolicited promotional messages. To illustrate. they ask permission to send email newsletters to prospective customers. The prime example of this is unsolicited commercial e-mail or “Spam”. Marketers obtain permission before advancing to the next step in the purchasing process. branded slates. This can be either via an online email opt-in form or by using search engines. Moreover.the cost of obtaining a new e-mail address is minimal. Individuals provide their addresses at these places for other purposes and hence. This came into force on the 11 December 2003. Using it would lead to an excessive message volume for consumers.com.[3] It is mostly used by online marketers. For example. standard fifteen to sixty second video advertisements. it has emerged as a serious idea only with the advent of the Internet." Online shoe stores have the searchers' permission to make an offer that solves their shoe problem. CMGI) claim customer response rates in the region of 5-20% and since most use e-mail. In the United Kingdom. branded player skins. there are now programs that enable the large-scale use of deceptive practices (e. it is likely that more attention would be paid to them in comparison to banners. Senders of spam realize three things. the marginal cost of contacting an additional customer is nearly zero and it is easy to deceive the consumer. an opt-in is required for email marketing. Hence. the cost of marketer-to-consumer communication is low. Marketers feel that this is a more efficient use of their resources because the offers are only sent to people that are actually interested in the product.

" OED Online. [2] "permission marketing. In affiliate marketing the transactional link would be an affiliate link from an Affiliate network. Kotler’s millennium edition. When a user clicks on the link they are directed to an online merchant.. Seth (1999). The affiliate link tells the network which affiliate sent the traffic and if a purchase is made.g. – official site • A Comprehensive Analysis of Permission Marketing (http://jcmc. p. ISBN 0-684-85636-0. Hoboken. Oxford University Press. The most common use of this method is a Buy Now button as used on marketplace sites such as eBay. 162.com/sg/).edu/vol6/issue2/krishnamurthy. com References • "Seth Godin: Agent of Change" (http://www. Permission Marketing: turning strangers into friends.. 2009.Permission marketing feasible alternative for Internet marketing communication. “permission marketing was once a niche business. and friends into customers.: J. The new rules of marketing and PR how to use news releases. Third Edition. Hyperlink While a hyperlink can be used to send a user anywhere on the internet a transactional link is specifically designed to direct the user to completing a sale. N. December 2005. Inc. the affiliate receives a commission. html) Transactional Link A transactional link is a type of hyperlink link used in ecommerce to initiate a purchase. Wiley & Sons.indiana.. blogs.. Permission marketing is now a large-scale activity on the Internet.. On a website with product this is typically an add to shopping cart or checkout link." [4] http:/ / www. everybody is doing it”. New York: Simon & Schuster.. 237 Notes [1] Godin.J. David Meerman (2007). you must provide something equally valuable in return. mgmt487. Now. com/ view/ Entry/ 141214#eid30892945) [3] Scott. podcasts. In addition. Accessed 29 March 2011 OED. permission marketing has been incorporated in leading texts on marketing management. wordpress. . e. E-mail Online payment systems such as PayPal allows users to send money to one another using an E-mail address.sethgodin.com (http:/ / oed. A leading Internet business periodical recently noted that. viral marketing and online media to reach your buyers directly. ISBN 978-0-470-11345-5.if you're asking for someone's e-mail address . ". Retrieved May 5.

unpacking (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ results?search_type=videos& search_query=unpacking& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse& suggested_categories=28.20& uni=3). co. or get more information. Unicast advertisement A Unicast advertisement is an Internet advertisement that consists of a video played like a TV commercial.unboxing (http:/ / www. youtube. html). especially hi-tech consumer products. theregister. searches for the term "unboxing" began to surface in the final quarter of 2006. howstuffworks. [3] YouTube . usually in a pop-up or pop-under advertisement. uk/ 2006/ 12/ 08/ unboxing/ ). The term has been labeled a new form of "geek porn. co. The Register. 8th December 2006.opening (Science & Technology category) (http:/ / www.Unboxing 238 Unboxing Unboxing is the unpacking of new products. 2010. com/ results?search_type=videos& search_query=unboxing& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse& suggested_categories=28. com/ results?search_category=28& search_query=opening& search_type=videos& suggested_categories=28. 2010. [2] Unboxing: the new geek porn (http:/ / www. [5] YouTube .20& uni=3& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse). 2006. uk/ life-style/ gadgets-and-tech/ features/ unboxing-the-new-geek-porn-1333955. older videos on the site that show the same activity but using other names such as "opening"[4] or "unpacking". 2010.[3] There are.[1] References [1] "How Web Advertising Works" HowStuffWorks http:/ / computer. [4] YouTube . accessed on May 5. [6] Google Trends: unboxing (http:/ / www. The whole process is captured on video and later uploaded to the Internet. google. independent. 2010. com/ trends?q=unboxing& ctab=0& geo=all& date=all& sort=0). however. accessed on May 6. uploaded on June 12. com/ web-advertising7. except they allow the viewer to click on the ad in order to go to the company's website. 14 January 2009.20& uni=3). The Independent.[6] References [1] Unboxing: The new geek porn (http:/ / www. accessed on May 6. youtube. Unicast ads have the same influence and power as a regular TV commercial. htm . accessed on May 5."[1] [2] The oldest video on YouTube using the name "unboxing" is the opening of a boxed Nokia E61 smartphone.[5] According to Google Trends.

This type of advertising metric was meant to resemble Television and print advertising methods for speculating the cost of an advertisement. and a new CPM equation was created for the internet: 3. Click-through is enabled at the moment of the "viewable impression". LLC. which count by the analysis of http requests records in a server log and cannot provide information on events fired by a viewer’s browser thus being unable to confirm whether ad content was actually visible to a viewer. 7. called RealVu . With the advent of the Internet. through log file server collecting data it was believed that ad views could be tracked with unprecedented accuracy and “number of different prospects reached” was removed from the equation. Viewable impression technology was developed by Rich Media Worldwide. CPM for the Internet: CPM = Cost per ad requested × 1000 However the assumption that an ad requested from an ad server is always visible when the viewer is on the requested page was wrong because of a few technical reasons and the fact that the web page is usually longer than the height of a computer screen. The first ad server to deliver the metric. with the promise of even more accuracy due to the interactive nature of the Internet eliminating the need for industry accepted approximates such as Nielsen ratings for television and print is based on the circulation a publication has.Viewable Impression (CPMV) 239 Viewable Impression (CPMV) The Viewable Impression is metric used to buy web advertising based on CPMV Cost Per Thousand Views. The company was founded by Brad Krassner. 9 2010 and developed by Rich Media Worldwide. was accredited by Media Rating Council [1] on March. 2.590 for this technique was issued to Rich Media Club. A viewable Impression is measured when the Ad Content is loaded. LLC and introduced on Jun 23. LLC by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in December 2007. A viewable Impression is a new generation metric that was emerged as an alternative to the online impression metric delivered by first ad servers developed in the mid-1990s. The core of viewable impression methodology reports client (viewer) side activity by using a direct and closed-loop authentication channel between an ad unit file and a server database. This allowed for the utilization of the server log file for collection of metadata to deliver a metric called the Online Impression that in traditional media meant an impression on a viewer. CPM for print media (when audience data is available): \frac{CPM = Cost of 1 ad × 1000}{Number of prospects reached} . Eventually it became apparent that a large number of ad impressions measured for CPM pricing .313. This method is based on FSDC technology developed in 2001 and used commercially for the first time on the Terra Lycos portal. The value of an ad traditionally was based upon an estimate of how many different people saw or heard the ad. Nikolai Mentchoukov and Alan Edwards. 2008 as the beta network CityAds and later in 2009 as the RealVu advertising and media technology platform. US patent No. Overview With the development of the first ad servers in 1995–1996 the assumption was that a requested ad was always available to the viewer of a requested web page. rendered and at least 60% of the ad surface area is within the visible area of a viewer's browser window on an in focus web page for at least one second. The following are current accepted means of calculating CPM for different mediums: 1. CPM for broadcast media: CPM = Cost of 1 unit of time (commercial) × 1000 Number of prospects reached by a given program or time period.

web publishers lose control of their yield. scrolling position and web page focus. Since the publisher has no control or input on the demand and ad creative quality of the advertised product. 240 CMPV (Cost per Thousand Views) Until 2010 it was very common for large publishers to charge for most of their advertising inventory on a CPM or CPT basis. The Correlator code continues to monitor the web page focus. Once any portion of the ad unit (definable).[3] Once the ad content is loaded and rendered the ad unit sends a message directly to the server’s database and an "Ad Rendered" is reported. considering if the viewer has scrolled the ad space in or out of the visible area of the browser window. minimized. These JavaScript tags are placed on a web page and when rendered.Cost per sale dCPM . browser type and version and a list of other ads that were previously rendered on the page to prevent duplication of ads on the content page. The Correlator continues to monitor the ad space for each individual ad on the web page and its relation to the browser window dimensions. Viewable Impression Architecture including the viewer’s operating system. browser and ad unit (ad space) embedded in the webpage content.Cost per click Through CPL . giving away significant inventory to ads that are not clicked. When 60%. This model may eventually become the standard CPM as it measured at the same point (of the view) as television or print. ultimately. is used to measure the effectiveness of advertising inventory sold (by the publisher) via a CPC. quoted in terms of CPMV. sales. ." an "ad request” (server log impression) is recorded. employing a "Correlator" (a linear correlation control. or opened another browser or application window bringing the web page monitored out of focus or portion of the browser window with the ad space outside of the monitor screen. web publishers are vulnerable to payment methods that are based on performance-based advertising such as cost per click and cost per transaction. Viewable Impression Architecture The Viewable Impression methodology relies on a basic JavaScript tags for placement on the web pages or in the third-party ad servers that distribute ads on the website(s) content. tabbed away. on a viewer's in focus web page. and the Correlator begins communicating with the web page.Viewable Impression (CPMV) actually never rendered in the visible area of a viewer’s browser screen. CPA. Partially to avoid the limitations of server side impression methodology many models emerged that were based on direct response: • • • • • CPC . or CPT basis. a message is sent via Correlator to the server database and a "Viewable Impression" is reported.Cost per lead (lead usually meaning a free registration) CPS . With the arrival of the Viewable Impression model – Cost per Thousand Views has emerged.[2] Having no reliable way of measuring actual viewership. A related term. The Correlator can collect additional non-private information from the viewer’s browser. effective cost per mille (eCPM).) The ad space is then "marked up. hits the visible area of the browser window a request is sent to an ad content server to deliver an advertisement. branding ability and level of engagement – the three key elements that drive purchase consideration and.Dynamic CPM CPA – Cost per Action The Viewable Impression enables online advertising effectiveness to be analyzed based on stopping power. (or other pre-defined area) of the ad content on a web page is within the visible area of the viewer's browser window for one second.

web filtering tools. The viewer switches focus to another browser or application. 4. the viewer's browser window dimensions. 241 Viewable Impression Implementation • The complete viewer's environment is gathered by a client side technology for every viewable impression reported and transmitted back to a server side database. some do not. Current assessments suggests improvement with viewable impression methodology). opening or switching to another browser window or application. More study should be done in this area). The ad loads. the dimensions of the web page the ad appeared on. Web page focus can be affected by: minimizing the browser.Viewable Impression (CPMV) location of ad unit(s) and the visible area of the browser window. download managers. opening or switching to another [4] browser window tab. The viewer opens another browser window or another application. 11. 2. 10. • Data for each view includes the viewers display resolution. or placing the curser on the browser address bar or other browser button) . 7. . harvesters. The viewer moves the browser window so the ad is outside the display screen area. • This data results in a visual representation of the viewer's environment of each viewable impression reported." (“In-focus” is defined as when a Web page is the primary window open on a user's screen. The viewer opens a page in a mobile device that is not configured to show the ad content. link checkers. spambots or . 30 limitations of impression methodology which the Viewable Impression overcomes Reasons why an impression may not appear to a viewer overcome: 1. 5. web-directories. The viewer minimizes the browser. unobstructed by any other application window. the location of the ad on the page. The viewer clicks to another web page before the ad loads and renders. 8. Viewable Impression Implementation • Then the position of the ad is calculated as is the area of the ad that shown on the screen. 6. 9. and the scroll position at the time the viewable impression was recorded. • Also. proxy servers. The viewer does not have the proper plug-in to render interactive media installed. The viewer has a particular type of ad blocker installed that could disrupt ad serving but still be initiate the count of an impression. (Some ad blockers block the ad call. The viewer opens another browser tab. (This isbad botssue may be addressed in part already by a standard ad server following IAB guidelines but more study needs to done to assess whether all non human technology is identified by the current approaches and whether viewable impression technology can improve on those measures. but in an area of the web page that is not within the viewer's browser window dimensions and scrolling position. The requests made by spiders. the view time of the ad is collected by the client (viewer) side engine considering whether the web page the ad resides on is "In focus. crawlers. 3. and communicates to the server side database logging the “Time in View” for the ads being delivered on the webpage.

24. making click rate misleading. Because server log files must be batched. 3rd is in view. The viewer then sees one ad. 29. adding complete branding messages and contact information in a display ad is prohibitive because then a click through to a website is not necessary. 18. filtered. Redundant ad delivery. 13. Rotation 2. An ad that is not visible did not reach anyone. All parties involved see different impressions reports that are impossible to reconcile. 2nd is not. 19. but ad 2 was never visible.Viewable Impression (CPMV) 12. 1st in view. frequency and all other measurements. 3rd is not. 25. tabs away from. (The delivery of the same ads on the same web page. but impressions are reported for all layered ads. and an ad resides on the tab that is not in focus. Display of complete branding messages and contact information is prohibitive. and browser window area and scrolling position. 30. 3 Ads are in rotation). The request was made by an (invisible to the viewer) web page re-direct. The web publisher places multiple ad displays in layers over each other. Reporting latency. No reported log or visual representation of each unique viewer's environment. 26. two pages open in two tabs. No data reported for the view time of each individual viewable impression. If a click-through is necessary to measure advertising. Reach and Frequency measured for ads that are not visible. 17. Mutilated (http poisoning) packets Impression fraud [5] Limitations related to data analysis and distribution flow with impression methodology overcome: 20. 28. reach. Not knowing which ads in rotation were in view for each ad selection means certain ads may never be visible making all the statistic data meaningless. For rotation 1 the 1st is in view. or opens another application over the video while the advertisement is playing or moves the browser window so the video is outside the display screen area. 23. 27. making reach and frequency measurements meaningless. The viewer has multiple home pages set so when the browser is opened. 21. Impressions that are not visible are included in click through rate. (e. and transferred to a database for reporting. 2nd not.) 242 . CPM value dilution because of an unlimited supply of inventory. 16. significant delays exist before reporting data is available. Reasons why an impression may not appear to a viewer associated with fraud overcome: 15. including viewer's display resolution. 22. and in 3rd rotation the 2nd ad is again not in view. if the viewer minimizes the browser.g. All ads are reported as impressions. No reported log or visual representation of each web page URL an ad is delivered to in addition to the web page dimensions and placement location of the ad on the web page. Ad rotation visibility lottery. In the case of pre-roll video and video advertising. The web publisher places an image or shape on a layer overlapping an ad. An ad or beacon delivered in an invisible width="0" height="0" Iframe.

MarketingVox "Tuesday's tuesdays-toolset-watch-5-047089/) Toolset Watch" View" (http:/ / www. Media Rating Council "Accredited Services" (http:/ / www. MediaPost "How Ad Industry Might Base Impressions On Truth Vs. com/publications/?fa=Articles. eMedia Vitals "Death of the Page death-page-view-how-about-rise-sponsorship) (http:/ / emediavitals. UM Blog.Viewable Impression (CPMV) 243 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Media Rating Council (http:/ / www. com/ 2009/ 11/ 02/ this-could-change-everything/) 5. net/ dom/ RealVu_DOM. com/ press-release/ RealVu-Revolutionizes-Internet-Advertising-Measurement-With-the-Viewable-Impression-1271884.htm) 3. Fiction" (http:/ / www. com/ mediaworks/ article?article_id=145281) RealVu Description of Methodology (http:/ / www. com/ press-release/ Online-Advertising-Purchasing-Problem-Solved-CityAdsnet-Enables-Advertisers-Accurately-871637. htm) . mediaratingcouncil. Marketwire RealVu Revolutionizes Internet Advertising Measurement With The Viewable Impression (http:/ / www. owasp. marketwire. marketingvox. com/ blog/ 17/ 7. pdf) RealVu Description of Methodology (http:/ / www. Marketwire CityAds.net Challenges Standard Online Ad Revenue Model (http:/ / www. com/ press-release/CityAdsnet-Challenges-Standard-Online-Ad-Revenue-Model-871636. org/ ) Adage: Why Print Advertising Isn't Working (http:/ / adage. by David Cohen “This Could Change Everything” (http:/ / umwwblog. org/ index. mediapost.showArticle&art_aid=132819) 8. net/ dom/ RealVu_DOM. marketwire.htm) 2. com/ 6. marketwire. mediaratingcouncil. realvu. php/ Man-in-the-middle_attack) External links 1. Marketwire Online Advertising Purchasing Problem Solved: CityAds. pdf) Impression fraud (http:/ / www. org/ Accredited Services.htm) 4.net Enables Advertisers to Accurately Track and Quantify Online Ad Results (http:/ / www. realvu.

com/ . makebutton. These were first popularized by Netscape and Microsoft during the browser wars. lifehacker.com [5]. php http:/ / gtmcknight. smaller 80×15 pixels buttons have become very popular in the blogosphere. jpac. php?page=sitereport_list& size=100& ind=5 http:/ / www. mil/ index. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. com/ buttons/ http:/ / www.Web button 244 Web button Web buttons. Web button with push-button functionality: example on the website of JPAC which links originally to [1]. 80x15. MediaWiki sites often have a "Powered by Mediawiki" button on the bottom right corner of the page). web badges or stickers are pictures in some World Wide Web pages which are typically used to advertise programs that were used to create or host the site (for example. 80x15 pixels buttons online generator. Make your own free web buttons and banners with online tool.com: Create your own web buttons . com/ software/ site-tools/ create-your-own-web-buttons-259650. External links • • • • Makebutton. com http:/ / www. Button graphics are typically 88×31 pixels in size. but recently. a collection of over 3700 buttons since 2003 80x15. 11 May 2007 Steal These Buttons [4]. button graphics. or that the site passes World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) HTML validation. [3] lifehacker.com [2]. programs that are recommended to view the site. The buttons are linked to the advertised sites. pacom.

com/ ). The significant majority of said ads are placed through Yandex. Direct processes millions of auctions every day. Yandex. characteristics and locations.Direct display ads on Yandex search engine results pages and at participant sites of Yandex ad network.реклама без посредников (http:/ / company.Direct was launched in 2001. . Yandex. Retrieved May 24. The service is the largest of its kind in Russia. . yandex. Belarus and Kazakhstan.Direct Yandex. The latter is oriented for novice advertisers. Direct provides two kinds of interface to work with: so called Professional and Easy.Direct platform. 2011. ads can be targeted on the basis of users’ demographics as well as behavioral patterns.Yandex. xml) [2] http:/ / direct.yandex.Директ . yandex. yandex. compared with 92. Yandex.000 advertisers in the first quarter of 2011. In addition to targeting ads on the basis of user queries and website content. 180. Yandex. Advertisers may access Yandex.Direct served ads for more than 127. Begun and Google AdWords.Direct is an automated. htm). . ru/ news/ press_releases/ 2001/ 07-31_00. auction-based system for placement of text-based advertising in Russia. Most of Yandex revenues are generated from text-based ads. gov/ Archives/ edgar/ data/ 1513845/ 000104746911004187/ a2203514zf-1.000 in the first quarter of 2010.Direct provides advertisers with a Metrica tool to appraise site audience quality and measure conversion ratio for keyword advertising.[4] The service operates in four countries: Russia. Retrieved May 24. 2011. Its rivals. Yandex.Direct through interfaces in Russian. Since 2007.Direct 245 Yandex.Direct Developer(s) Initial release Yandex July 31. References [1] Яндекс. began their operations in Russia in 2002.V" (http:/ / sec.[3] According to Yandex. com/ [3] "Form F1 REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 YANDEX N. Ukraine.Direct" (http:/ / direct.000 in the full year 2010 and 131.000 in the full year 2009. [4] "Yandex.com [2] Yandex. 2001 [1] Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Online advertising direct. SEC. Ukrainian and English.

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Semantic advertising. Article video marketing. Win–loss analytics. Conversion funnel. Web button. Internet presence management. Resource Interactive. Path analysis (computing). PostRank. Image search optimization. RSS tracking. Criteo. analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. Urchin Software Corporation. time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals. Google Website Optimizer. Get Into Bed With Google. Microsoft pubCenter. Skyword. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. collection. Kaspid. Search retargeting. Search engine optimization. Visit filter. Search engine optimization copywriting. Article marketing. Semantic targeting. It reduces the risk of your technology. Landing page. Online lead generation. Pay for placement. Unicast advertisement. background and everything you need to know. Micro content. Yandex. Sales letter. Unique visitor. Contextual advertising. Here you will find the most up-to-date information. Web banner. Digital creative agency. Quality Score. Blitz Campaign. Adam Ginsberg. Transactional Link. MyThings. Online presence management. ClickTale. Private label rights. Double loop marketing. CrawlTrack. Display advertising. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research. Rand Schulman. Dreaming in Mono. Woopra. Keyword optimization. Cost per time. Referral marketing. VisitLab. . Unique user. Keyword Services Platform. Ad rotation. Unboxing. Urchin (software). Interactive advertising. Clickstream. In easy to read chapters. StatCounter. Internet marketing. Impression (online media). WebSideStory. Mobile web analytics. Anametrix. Email marketing. Direct digital marketing. Attitudinal analytics. Webtrends. Bounce rate. Mint (software). Click analytics. Web audience measurement. Direct This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. JESS3. Usage analysis. LivePerson. GroupSpaces. Attorney-client matching. Unica NetTracker. Sawmill (software). Revenue sharing. AT Internet. Usage data. TraceMyIP. Search-Driven Media. Web log analysis software. HitDynamics. Permission marketing. Ad text optimization. Long Tail. Web traffic. Digital agency. Lyris HQ. analysis. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. covering: Web analytics. Omniture. Post-click marketing. Search engine marketing. Emetrics Summit. JICWEBS. Pay per click. Klout. with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away. Pay per play. Multivariate landing page optimization. Affiliate marketing. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. Dominate Your Market With Twitter. Inbound marketing. Avinash Kaushik. Digital marketing engineer. One-time offer. Data pimping. This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. Viewable Impression (CPMV).Web analytics is the measurement. Google Analytics. Microsoft adCenter. Piwik. Link bidding. Content farm. Guided selling. Personalized retargeting. Kampyle (Software). Social media optimization. Unica NetInsight. Paid inclusion. Site Meter. In-text advertising. AdSense. org. HubSpot. List of web analytics software. Landing page optimization. Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing). Session replay. Hitbox. Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Microsoft adCenter Analytics. AWStats.

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