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Web Analytics: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Web Analytics: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.

Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research.

This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away, covering: Web analytics, Anametrix, AT Internet, Attitudinal analytics, AWStats, Bounce rate, Click analytics, Clickstream, ClickTale, Conversion funnel, CrawlTrack, Emetrics Summit, Google Analytics, Hitbox, HitDynamics, HubSpot, JICWEBS, Kampyle (Software), Kaspid, Avinash Kaushik, Klout, List of web analytics software, LivePerson, Lyris HQ, Microsoft adCenter Analytics, Mint (software), Mobile web analytics, Omniture, Path analysis (computing), Piwik, PostRank, RSS tracking, Sawmill (software), Rand Schulman, Search engine optimization, Session replay, Site Meter, StatCounter, TraceMyIP.org, Unica NetInsight, Unica NetTracker, Unique user, Unique visitor, Urchin (software), Urchin Software Corporation, Usage analysis, Usage data, Visit filter, VisitLab, Web audience measurement, Web banner, Web log analysis software, Web traffic, WebSideStory, Google Website Optimizer, Webtrends, Win–loss analytics, Woopra, Ad rotation, Ad text optimization, AdSense, Affiliate marketing, Article marketing, Article video marketing, Attorney-client matching, Blitz Campaign, Content farm, Contextual advertising, Cost per time, Criteo, Data pimping, Digital agency, Digital creative agency, Digital marketing engineer, Direct digital marketing, Display advertising, Dominate Your Market With Twitter, Dreaming in Mono, Email marketing, Get Into Bed With Google, Adam Ginsberg, Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing), GroupSpaces, Guided selling, Image search optimization, Impression (online media), In-text advertising, Interactive advertising, Internet marketing, Internet presence management, JESS3, Keyword optimization, Keyword Services Platform, Landing page, Landing page optimization, Link bidding, Long Tail, Micro content, Microsoft adCenter, Microsoft pubCenter, Multivariate landing page optimization, MyThings, One-time offer, Online lead generation, Online presence management, Paid inclusion, Pay for placement, Pay per click, Pay per play, Personalized retargeting, Post-click marketing, Private label rights, Quality Score, Referral marketing, Resource Interactive, Revenue sharing, Sales letter, Search engine marketing, Search engine optimization copywriting, Search retargeting, Search-Driven Media, Semantic advertising, Semantic targeting, Skyword, Social media optimization, Double loop marketing, Inbound marketing, Permission marketing, Transactional Link, Unboxing, Unicast advertisement, Viewable Impression (CPMV), Web button, Yandex.Direct

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.

Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research.

This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away, covering: Web analytics, Anametrix, AT Internet, Attitudinal analytics, AWStats, Bounce rate, Click analytics, Clickstream, ClickTale, Conversion funnel, CrawlTrack, Emetrics Summit, Google Analytics, Hitbox, HitDynamics, HubSpot, JICWEBS, Kampyle (Software), Kaspid, Avinash Kaushik, Klout, List of web analytics software, LivePerson, Lyris HQ, Microsoft adCenter Analytics, Mint (software), Mobile web analytics, Omniture, Path analysis (computing), Piwik, PostRank, RSS tracking, Sawmill (software), Rand Schulman, Search engine optimization, Session replay, Site Meter, StatCounter, TraceMyIP.org, Unica NetInsight, Unica NetTracker, Unique user, Unique visitor, Urchin (software), Urchin Software Corporation, Usage analysis, Usage data, Visit filter, VisitLab, Web audience measurement, Web banner, Web log analysis software, Web traffic, WebSideStory, Google Website Optimizer, Webtrends, Win–loss analytics, Woopra, Ad rotation, Ad text optimization, AdSense, Affiliate marketing, Article marketing, Article video marketing, Attorney-client matching, Blitz Campaign, Content farm, Contextual advertising, Cost per time, Criteo, Data pimping, Digital agency, Digital creative agency, Digital marketing engineer, Direct digital marketing, Display advertising, Dominate Your Market With Twitter, Dreaming in Mono, Email marketing, Get Into Bed With Google, Adam Ginsberg, Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing), GroupSpaces, Guided selling, Image search optimization, Impression (online media), In-text advertising, Interactive advertising, Internet marketing, Internet presence management, JESS3, Keyword optimization, Keyword Services Platform, Landing page, Landing page optimization, Link bidding, Long Tail, Micro content, Microsoft adCenter, Microsoft pubCenter, Multivariate landing page optimization, MyThings, One-time offer, Online lead generation, Online presence management, Paid inclusion, Pay for placement, Pay per click, Pay per play, Personalized retargeting, Post-click marketing, Private label rights, Quality Score, Referral marketing, Resource Interactive, Revenue sharing, Sales letter, Search engine marketing, Search engine optimization copywriting, Search retargeting, Search-Driven Media, Semantic advertising, Semantic targeting, Skyword, Social media optimization, Double loop marketing, Inbound marketing, Permission marketing, Transactional Link, Unboxing, Unicast advertisement, Viewable Impression (CPMV), Web button, Yandex.Direct

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Aug 01, 2011
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  • Web analytics
  • Anametrix
  • AT Internet
  • Attitudinal analytics
  • AWStats
  • Bounce rate
  • Click analytics
  • Clickstream
  • ClickTale
  • Conversion funnel
  • CrawlTrack
  • Emetrics Summit
  • Google Analytics
  • Hitbox
  • HitDynamics
  • HubSpot
  • Kampyle (Software)
  • Kaspid
  • Avinash Kaushik
  • Klout
  • List of web analytics software
  • LivePerson
  • Lyris HQ
  • Microsoft adCenter Analytics
  • Mint (software)
  • Mobile web analytics
  • Omniture
  • Path analysis (computing)
  • Piwik
  • postRank
  • RSS tracking
  • Sawmill (software)
  • Rand Schulman
  • Search engine optimization
  • Session replay
  • Site Meter
  • StatCounter
  • TraceMyIP.org
  • Unica NetInsight
  • Unica NetTracker
  • Unique user
  • Unique visitor
  • Urchin (software)
  • Urchin Software
  • Urchin Software Corporation
  • Usage analysis
  • Usage data
  • Visit filter
  • VisitLab
  • Web audience measurement
  • Web banner
  • Web log analysis software
  • Web traffic
  • WebSideStory
  • Google Website Optimizer
  • Webtrends
  • Win–loss analytics
  • Woopra
  • Ad rotation
  • Ad text optimization
  • AdSense
  • Affiliate marketing
  • Article marketing
  • Article video marketing
  • Article Video marketing
  • Attorney-client matching
  • Blitz Campaign
  • Content farm
  • Contextual advertising
  • Cost per time
  • Criteo
  • Data pimping
  • Digital agency
  • Digital creative agency
  • Digital marketing engineer
  • The Digital Marketing Engineer:
  • Direct digital marketing
  • Display advertising
  • Dominate Your Market With Twitter
  • Dreaming in Mono
  • Email marketing
  • Get Into Bed With Google
  • Get into bed with Google
  • Adam Ginsberg
  • Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing)
  • GroupSpaces
  • Guided selling
  • Image search optimization
  • Impression (online media)
  • In-text advertising
  • Interactive advertising
  • Internet marketing
  • Internet presence management
  • JESS3
  • Keyword optimization
  • Keyword Services Platform
  • Landing page
  • Landing page optimization
  • Link bidding
  • Long Tail
  • Long Tail
  • Micro content
  • Microsoft adCenter
  • Microsoft pubCenter
  • Multivariate landing page optimization
  • MyThings
  • myThings
  • One-time offer
  • Online lead generation
  • Online presence management
  • Paid inclusion
  • Pay for placement
  • Pay per click
  • Pay per play
  • Personalized retargeting
  • Post-click marketing
  • Private label rights
  • Quality Score
  • Referral marketing
  • Resource Interactive
  • Revenue sharing
  • Sales letter
  • Search engine marketing
  • Search engine optimization copywriting
  • Search retargeting
  • Search-Driven Media
  • Semantic advertising
  • Semantic targeting
  • Skyword
  • Social media optimization
  • Double loop marketing
  • Double Loop Marketing[1]
  • Inbound marketing
  • Permission marketing
  • Transactional Link
  • Unboxing
  • Unicast advertisement
  • Viewable Impression (CPMV)
  • Web button
  • Yandex.Direct
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Web Analytics


Kevin Roebuck



High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Web analytics Anametrix AT Internet Attitudinal analytics AWStats Bounce rate Click analytics Clickstream ClickTale Conversion funnel CrawlTrack Emetrics Summit Google Analytics Hitbox HitDynamics HubSpot JICWEBS Kampyle (Software) Kaspid Avinash Kaushik Klout List of web analytics software LivePerson Lyris HQ Microsoft adCenter Analytics Mint (software) Mobile web analytics Omniture Path analysis (computing) Piwik postRank RSS tracking Sawmill (software) Rand Schulman 1 10 12 13 14 16 17 18 20 22 23 24 25 29 30 31 36 37 38 40 42 43 46 48 49 49 50 53 55 57 58 60 62 63

Search engine optimization Session replay Site Meter StatCounter TraceMyIP.org Unica NetInsight Unica NetTracker Unique user Unique visitor Urchin (software) Urchin Software Corporation Usage analysis Usage data Visit filter VisitLab Web audience measurement Web banner Web log analysis software Web traffic WebSideStory Google Website Optimizer Webtrends Win–loss analytics Woopra Ad rotation Ad text optimization AdSense Affiliate marketing Article marketing Article video marketing Attorney-client matching Blitz Campaign Content farm Contextual advertising Cost per time Criteo Data pimping Digital agency 64 72 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 80 81 83 83 83 84 85 85 88 89 92 93 94 96 97 98 99 100 105 116 117 118 120 121 123 125 126 128 129 .

Digital creative agency Digital marketing engineer Direct digital marketing Display advertising Dominate Your Market With Twitter Dreaming in Mono Email marketing Get Into Bed With Google Adam Ginsberg Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) GroupSpaces Guided selling Image search optimization Impression (online media) In-text advertising Interactive advertising Internet marketing Internet presence management JESS3 Keyword optimization Keyword Services Platform Landing page Landing page optimization Link bidding Long Tail Micro content Microsoft adCenter Microsoft pubCenter Multivariate landing page optimization MyThings One-time offer Online lead generation Online presence management Paid inclusion Pay for placement Pay per click Pay per play Personalized retargeting 129 129 131 132 134 136 140 143 144 145 147 149 151 152 152 153 155 159 160 164 172 179 180 182 183 191 192 194 195 197 199 199 201 203 204 205 208 208 .

Direct 210 211 212 214 215 216 217 219 223 224 224 225 226 227 228 230 231 236 237 238 238 239 244 245 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources. Licenses and Contributors 246 254 Article Licenses License 256 .Post-click marketing Private label rights Quality Score Referral marketing Resource Interactive Revenue sharing Sales letter Search engine marketing Search engine optimization copywriting Search retargeting Search-Driven Media Semantic advertising Semantic targeting Skyword Social media optimization Double loop marketing Inbound marketing Permission marketing Transactional Link Unboxing Unicast advertisement Viewable Impression (CPMV) Web button Yandex.

In the early 1990s.[1] Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. For example. On-site web analytics technologies Many different vendors provide on-site web analytics software and services. but are now considered rather rudimentary. Both collect data that can be processed to produce web traffic reports. since each web site often consisted of a single HTML file. uses JavaScript on each page to notify a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. and buzz (comments) that is happening on the Internet as a whole. direct mail campaign data. There are two categories of web analytics. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. usually 30 minutes. e-mail response rates. The first true commercial Log Analyzer was released by IPRO in 1994 [2] . The first method. and used to improve a web site or marketing campaign's audience response. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research. This was a reasonable method initially. In addition other data sources may also be added to augment the data. It includes the measurement of a website's potential audience (opportunity). web site statistics consisted primarily of counting the number of client requests (or hits) made to the web server. Two units of measure were introduced in the mid 1990s to gauge more accurately the amount of human activity on web servers. off-site and on-site web analytics. However. as opposed to a graphic. share of voice (visibility). However in recent years this has blurred. or other custom metrics as needed. for example. this count became less useful. page tagging. On-site web analytics measures the performance of your website in a commercial context. analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. logfile analysis. This includes its drivers and conversions. Historically. The remainder of this article concerns on-site web analytics. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance. with the introduction of images in HTML. web analytics has referred to on-site visitor measurement. . Web server logfile analysis Web servers record some of their transactions in a logfile. It was soon realized that these logfiles could be read by a program to provide data on the popularity of the website. and web sites that spanned multiple HTML files.Web analytics 1 Web analytics Web analytics is the measurement. A page view was defined as a request made to the web server for a page. collection. There are two main technological approaches to collecting the data. On-site web analytics measure a visitor's journey once on your website. mainly because vendors are producing tools that span both categories. Thus arose web log analysis software. The second method. These were page views and visits (or sessions). reads the logfiles in which the web server records all its transactions. user performance data such as click heat mapping. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. sales and lead information. Off-site web analytics refers to web measurement and analysis regardless of whether you own or maintain a website. The page views and visits are still commonly displayed metrics. while a visit was defined as a sequence of requests from a uniquely identified client that expired after a certain amount of inactivity. which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase.

Advantages of logfile analysis The main advantages of logfile analysis over page tagging are as follows: • The web server normally already produces logfiles. In the mid 1990s. Cookie acceptance rates vary significantly between web sites and may affect the quality of data collected and reported. led to the second data collection method. 2 Page tagging Concerns about the accuracy of logfile analysis in the presence of caching. and extensive statistics generated. Collecting web site data using a third-party data collection server (or even an in-house data collection server) requires an additional DNS look-up by the user's computer to determine the IP address of the collection server. This makes it easy for a company to switch programs later. when the page is rendered on the web browser. the same web analytics company will offer both approaches. by using JavaScript. a piece of Ajax code would call back to the server and pass information about the client that can then be aggregated by a web analytics company. but this can result in degraded performance for the visitor to the website. Thus there are no external server calls which can slow page load speeds. The web analytics service also manages the process of assigning a cookie to the user. • The web server reliably records every transaction it makes.g. This means that the person's path through the site is lost. format. and analyze historical data with a new program. Logfile analysis vs page tagging Both logfile analysis programs and page tagging solutions are readily available to companies that wish to perform web analytics. In the late 1990s this concept evolved to include a small invisible image instead of a visible one. which was an estimate of the number of visits to that page. page tagging or 'Web bugs'. made it more difficult to identify unique human visitors to a website. The extensive use of web caches also presented a problem for logfile analysis. • Logfiles contain information on visits from search engine spiders. which can uniquely identify them during their visit and in subsequent visits. This information can then be processed remotely by a web analytics company. • Logfiles require no additional DNS Lookups. If a person revisits a page. In some cases. • The data is on the company's own servers.Web analytics The emergence of search engine spiders and robots in the late 1990s. including e. is to implement a call back to the server from the rendered page. delays in completing a successful or failed DNS look-ups may result in data not being collected. and. There are advantages and disadvantages to each approach[3] . the second request will often be retrieved from the browser's cache. and by ignoring requests from known spiders. and the desire to be able to perform web analytics as an outsourced service. serving PDF documents and content generated by scripts. This is in some ways flawed by browser restrictions on the servers which can be contacted with XmlHttpRequest objects. to pass along with the image request certain information about the page and the visitor. along with web proxies and dynamically assigned IP addresses for large companies and ISPs. it is useful information for search engine optimization. rather than a proprietary. Web counters were commonly seen — these were images included in a web page that showed the number of times the image had been requested. or result in uncounted page views. With the increasing popularity of Ajax-based solutions. and so no request will be received by the web server. use several different programs. and is in a standard. On occasion. Caching can be defeated by configuring the web server. so the raw data is already available. In this case. an alternative to the use of an invisible image. Although these should not be reported as part of the human activity. The question then arises of which method a company should choose. No changes to the website are required. Log analyzers responded by tracking visits by cookies. and does not rely on the visitors' browsers co-operating .

Although the cost of hardware to do this is minimal. the cost of web visitor analysis and interpretation should also be included. however. onBlur etc. • Data is gathered via a component ("tag") in the page. the amount of activity seen on the web sites. Cached pages can account for up to one-third of all pageviews. Which solution is cheaper to implement depends on the amount of technical expertise within the company. and increasingly Flash is used. which often grows very large quickly. including updates and security patches. some vendors are introducing maximum annual page views with additional costs to process additional information. • Page tagging is available to companies who do not have access to their own web servers. • Logfile analysis typically involves a one-off software purchase. though Java can be used. it will not be counted by the server. Not counting cached pages seriously skews many site metrics. • Complex page tagging vendors charge a monthly fee based on volume i. such as interactions within Flash movies. It is for this reason server-based log analysis is not considered suitable for analysis of human activity on websites. Page tagging can be performed in-house. the server has to be configured to do this. If a page is cached. onMouseOver. such as visitors' screen sizes and the price of the goods they purchased. number of pageviews per month collected. For example. • For Logfile analysis you need to maintain the software. • Counting is activated by opening the page (given that the web client runs the tag scripts). • The script may have access to additional information on the web client or on the user. mouse events such as onClick. That is. the overhead for an IT department can be considerable. • The page tagging service manages the process of assigning cookies to visitors. This can be from the use of third party consultants. the vendor chosen. what revenue increase or cost savings can be gained by analysing the web visitor data? 3 . the cost of turning raw data into actionable information. and the number of distinct web sites needing statistics.Web analytics Advantages of page tagging The main advantages of page tagging over logfile analysis are as follows. A cost-benefit analysis can then be performed. The economic difference between these two models can also be a consideration for a company deciding which to purchase. or the training of a suitable in-house person. not sent in the query.e. Regardless of the vendor solution or data collection method employed. usually written in JavaScript. the depth and type of information sought. basically enabling complete control over how the data is represented. Economic factors Logfile analysis is almost always performed in-house. • Lately page tagging has become a standard in web analytics [4] . • Page tagging can report on events which do not involve a request to the web server. partial form completion. In addition to commercial offerings. with logfile analysis. the hiring of an experienced web analyst. • For Logfile analysis you have to store and archive your own data. not requesting it from the server. but it is more often provided as a third-party service. onFocus. several open-source logfile analysis tools are available free of charge. JQuery and AJAX can also be used in conjunction with a server-side scripting language (such as PHP) to manipulate and (usually) store it in a database.

digital rights management. state. with regards to where the users of the site are clicking. Data about clicks may be gathered in at least two ways. connection type. Using IP geolocation database or API. Editors. Also. proxy information. and therefore log a simulated click that lead to that page view. The first Hybrid solution was produced in 1998 by Rufus Evison. they aim to produce more accurate statistics than either method on its own. global traffic management. a click is "logged" when it occurs. behavioral targeting. Commonly.Web analytics 4 Hybrid methods Some companies are now producing programs that collect data through both logfiles and page tagging. Internet Service Provider (ISP). who then spun the product out to create a company based upon the increased accuracy of hybrid methods [2] [5] . click analytics focuses on on-site analytics. enhanced analytics. designers or other types of stakeholders may analyze clicks on a wider time frame to aid them assess performance of writers. Typically. . it is possible to track visitors location. The first generation of IP Intelligence was referred to as geotargeting or geolocation technology. or Internet Protocol (IP) Intelligence. visitors can be geolocated to city. to optimize the content. click analytics may happen real-time or "unreal"-time. Visitors Geolocation With IP geolocation. region. city and postcode). and content distribution. An editor of a web site uses click analytics to determine the performance of his or her particular site. online fraud detection. design elements or advertisements etc. This information is used by businesses for online audience segmentation in applications such online advertising. is a technology that maps the Internet and catalogues IP addresses by parameters such as geographic location (country. Click analytics Click analytics is a special type of web analytics that gives special attention to clicks (Point-and-click). geographic rights management. Alternatively. By using a hybrid method. localized search. want to monitor their pages in real-time. one may institute the assumption that a page view is a result of a click. and this method requires some functionality that picks up relevant information when the event occurs. depending on the type of information sought. Ideally. IP Intelligence. front-page Clickpath Analysis with referring pages on the left and arrows and rectangles editors on high-traffic news media sites will differing in thickness and expanse to symbolize movement quantity. content localization (or website localization). region or country level[6] . personalization. and more.

US) and to a lesser extent the IAB (Interactive Advertising Bureau). . The WAA (Web Analytics Association.css files) are also requested from the web server. whichever comes first. • Hit . ABCe (Audit Bureau of Circulations electronic. The total number of visitors or page views provides a more realistic and accurate assessment of popularity.A request for a file from the web server.e. Key definitions There are no globally agreed definitions within web analytics as the industry bodies have been trying to agree definitions that are useful and definitive for some time. Thus the same person visiting from two different computers or with two different browsers will count as two Unique Visitors. a single page view may generate multiple hits as all the resources required to view the page (images. A visit ends only after a 30 minute time delay. not the person. usually via cookie and/or IP+User Agent. Both the WAA and the ABCe provide more definitive lists for those who are declaring their statistics using the metrics defined by either. If someone leaves a site. a session ends when someone goes to another site. Other methods Other methods of data collection are sometimes used.[7] Both these methods claim to provide better real-time data than other methods. clicks and other events (such as API calls. etc. A session is defined as a series of page requests from the same uniquely identified client with a time of no more than 30 minutes and no requests for pages from other domains intervening between page requests. Packet sniffing collects data by sniffing the network traffic passing between the web server and the outside world. Customer lifecycle analytics attempts to connect all the data points into a marketing funnel that can offer insights into visitor behavior and website optimization. A Unique Visitor counts once within the timescale. each of which is counted as a hit as the page is downloaded. but this number is extremely misleading and dramatically over-estimates popularity. which are less susceptible to privacy enforcement.A request for a file whose type is defined as a page in log analysis. Integrating web analytics into the web server software itself is also possible. • Visitor / Unique Visitor / Unique User . .Web analytics 5 Customer lifecycle analytics Customer lifecycle analytics is a visitor-centric approach to measuring that falls under the umbrella of lifecycle marketing. Packet sniffing involves no changes to the web pages or web servers. day. a single page view does not constitute a visit or a session (it is a "bounce").js and . This does not prevent the following list from being a useful guide. then returns within 30 minutes. suffering only slightly from ambiguity.The uniquely identified client generating requests on the web server (log analysis) or viewing pages (page tagging) within a defined time period (i. Because time between pageviews is critical to the definition of visits and sessions. • Visit / Session . or 30 minutes elapse between pageviews. Increasingly visitors are uniquely identified by Flash LSO's (Local Shared Object). this will count as one visit but two sessions. most systems ignore sessions and many analysts use both terms for visits. access to third-party services. • First Visit / First Session . An occurrence of the script being run in page tagging. A visitor can make multiple visits. The number of hits received by a website is frequently cited to assert its popularity. In other words.) are all tied to an individual visitor instead of being stored as separate data points. so the number of hits is really an arbitrary number more reflective of the complexity of individual pages on the website than the website's actual popularity. UK and Europe) [9]. A single web-page typically consists of multiple (often dozens) of discrete files.A visit from a visitor who has not made any previous visits. The main bodies who have had input in this area have been JICWEBS (The Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards in the UK and Ireland) [8].A visit is defined as a series of page requests from the same uniquely identified client with a time of no more than 30 minutes between each page request. In practice. Identification is made to the visitor's computer. week or month). Available only in log analysis. Page views. • Page view . In log analysis.

The period between the last and current visit is called visitor recency and is measured in days. While not a useful metric in and of itself the number of singletons is indicative of various forms of Click fraud as well as being used to calculate bounce rate and in some cases to identify automatons bots. • Active Time / Engagement Time .) is viewed. It is calculated by dividing total number of page views by total number of sessions and is also called Page Views per Session or PV/Session. The way to picture the situation is by imagining a hotel. hovers and scrolls. • Site Overlay is a technique in which graphical statistics are shown besides each link on the web page.The number of visits where only a single page is viewed.Average amount of time that visitors spend on the site each time they visit.. based on mouse moves.Average amount of time that visitors spend on each page of the site.Frequency measures how often visitors come to a website.A visitor that has made at least one previous visit. 6 Common sources of confusion in web analytics The hotel problem The hotel problem is generally the first problem encountered by a user of web analytics. Unlike Session Duration and Page View Duration / Time on Page. It is calculated by dividing the total number of sessions (or visits) by the total number of unique visitors.A visitor that has not made any previous visits. • Impression .The percentage of users who exit from a page.The time a single page (or a blog."refers to a single instance of a user following a hyperlink from one page in a site to another"[11] . and is sometimes substituted with analysis of first visits.the sequence of hyperlinks one or more website visitors follows on a given site. As with Session Duration. The term was first coined by Rufus Evison explaining the problem at one of the Emetrics Summits and has now gained popularity as a simple expression of the problem and its resolution. This metric can be complicated by the fact that analytics programs can not measure the length of the final page view[10] . • Frequency / Session per Unique . Sometimes it is used to measure the loyalty of your audience. • Singletons . that is an impression.. Some use click analytics to analyze their web sites. • Page View Duration / Time on Page . • Click path . • New Visitor . The problem is that the unique visitors for each day in a month do not add up to the same total as the unique visitors for that month. • Bounce Rate . such as onUnload(). In fact it is a simple property of the metric definitions. Anytime you see a banner. • Visibility time . clicks. This appears to an inexperienced user to be a problem in whatever analytics software they are using.An impression is each time an advertisement loads on a user's screen.Page Depth is the average number of page views a visitor consumes before ending their session. These statistics represent the percentage of clicks on each link. Ad Banner. • Click . • % Exit .Web analytics • Repeat Visitor .Average amount of time that visitors spend actually interacting with content on a web page. . • Session Duration . This definition creates a certain amount of confusion (see common confusions below). The hotel has two rooms (Room A and Room B).The percentage of visits where the visitor enters and exits at the same page without visiting any other pages on the site in between. • Page Depth / Page Views per Session . this metric is complicated by the fact that analytics programs can not measure the length of the final page view unless they record a page close event. this metric can accurately measure the length of engagement in the final page view.

vendors of page-tagging analytics solutions have used third-party cookies sent from the vendor's domain instead of the domain of the website being browsed. On the day in question there was a first visit made by our chosen individual. Any software for web analytics will sum these correctly for whatever time period. During the period each room has had two unique users.Web analytics 7 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Total Room A John Room B Mark Total 2 John Jane 2 Jane Mark 2 2 Unique Users 2 Unique Users ? As the table shows. allowing the analytics vendor to collate the user's activity on sites where he provided personal information with his activity on other sites where he thought he was anonymous. The sum of the totals with respect to the days is therefore six. but is only counted once if you are looking at the total for the period. since the cookie is always handled by the vendor's servers. However. it is a fact of the web measurement. There is really no such thing as a new visitor when you are considering a web site from an ongoing perspective. If a visitor makes their first visit on a given day and then returns to the web site on the same day they are both a new visitor and a repeat visitor for that day. Here the culprit is the metric of a new visitor. In 2005. Privacy concerns about cookies have therefore led a noticeable minority of users to block or delete third-party cookies. This resolves the conflict and so removes the confusion. The number of first visits and the number of repeat visits will add up to the total number of visits for that day. For this reason it is easiest to conceptualize the same facet as a first visit (or first session). New visitors + Repeat visitors unequal to total visitors Another common misconception in web analytics is that the sum of the new visitors and the repeat visitors ought to be the total number of visitors. some reports showed that about 28% of Internet users blocked third-party cookies and 22% deleted them at least once a month.[12] . Nobody expects the number of first visits to add to the number of repeat visitors to give the total number of visitors. Although web analytics companies deny doing this. thus leading to the problem when a user tries to compare the totals. but still causes a large number of complaints that analytics software cannot be working because of a failure to understand the metrics. There was also a repeat visit made by the same individual. Web analytics methods Problems with cookies Historically. A new visitor is not an individual. the hotel has two unique users each day over three days. The sum of the totals with respect to the rooms is therefore four. other companies such as companies supplying banner ads have done so. The metric will have the same number as the new visitors. so the definition of the metric is at fault. Third-party cookies can handle visitors who cross multiple unrelated domains within the company's site. third-party cookies in principle allow tracking an individual user across the sites of different companies. but it is clearer that it will not add in this fashion. Again this becomes clear if the visitors are viewed as individuals on a small scale. So if we look at them as an individual which are they? The answer has to be both. The problem is that a person who stays in a room for two nights will get counted twice if you count them once on each day. Actually only three visitors have been in the hotel over this period.

google.. doi:10. analyticsblog. "Deflation-secure web metering". D. com/ 2009/ 10/ 14/ what-google-analytics-cant-tell-you-part-1/ ) [11] Clicks . doi:10. Cookies are used because IP addresses are not always unique to users and may be shared by large groups or proxies. 1403. cannot be accurate. [14] Naor. (2007). IPInfoDB. When web analytics depend on cookies to identify unique visitors. Without a persistent and unique visitor id. When users delete cookies. advanced-web-metrics. B. pp. cfm?id=1064677. advanced-web-metrics. org/ ?page=aboutus) [2] Web Traffic Data Sources and Vendor Comparison (http:/ / www.1007/BFb0054155. (1997). ca/ 2010/ 02/ revisiting-log-file-analysis-versus-page-tagging/ ) McGill University Web Analytics blog article (CMIS 530) [5] Hosted v software v hybrid web analytics tools (http:/ / www. Secure and efficient metering.Web analytics Most vendors of page tagging solutions have now moved to provide at least the option of using first-party cookies (cookies assigned from the client subdomain). M. Pinkas. py?hl=en& answer=32981) [12] clickz report (http:/ / www. [15] Franklin. Auditable metering with lightweight security. com/ blog/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ hosted-v-software-v-hybrid-tools/ ) . . clicktale. If this is done between interactions with the site. possibly due to lack of interest from the engineering community. abc. jicwebs. they usually delete both first. org/ citation. International Journal of Information and Computer Security 1: 39.1016/S0169-7552(98)00116-0. html?page=3489636) [13] Naor. and other metrics dependent on the activities of a unique visitor over time. R. This issue has been addressed in a number of papers [13] [14] [15] [16] . 151. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) .1007/3-540-63594-7_75. clickz. php). [7] Web analytics integrated into web software itself (http:/ / portal.012244. B.2007. conversions. For more details. but to-date the solutions suggested in these papers remain theoretic. M. doi:10. Pinkas. K. (1998). Another problem is cookie deletion. the statistics are dependent on a persistent cookie to hold a unique visitor ID. 576. 1064679& coll=GUIDE& dl=GUIDE& CFID=66492168& CFTOKEN=93187844) [8] http:/ / www. "Secure accounting and auditing on the Web". org/ [9] http:/ / www.and third-party cookies. com/ support/ googleanalytics/ bin/ answer. Part 1 (http:/ / blog. webanalyticsassociation. .. "IP geolocation database" (http:/ / ipinfodb. pp. Retrieved 2009-07-19. com/ ip_database. 1318. doi:10. References [1] The Official WAA Definition of Web Analytics (http:/ / www. This means these methods are imprecise and insecure (in any reasonable model of security).blog article [6] IPInfoDB (2009-07-10).. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems 30: 541. pdf) by Brian Clifton and Omega Digital Media Ltd [3] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www. consult the aforementioned papers. 8 Secure analytics (metering) methods All the methods described above (and some other methods not mentioned here. acm. click-stream analysis. or because of financial gain the current situation provides to the owners of big websites. com/ showPage. the user will appear as a first-time visitor at their next interaction point. like sampling) have the central problem of being vulnerable to manipulation (both inflation and deflation).a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [4] Revisiting log file analysis versus page tagging (http:/ / web.. Staddon. Other methods of uniquely identifying a user are technically challenging and would limit the trackable audience or would be considered suspicious. (1998). Malkhi. uk/ [10] ClickTale Blog » Blog Archive » What Google Analytics Can't Tell You. J. advanced-web-metrics. Cookies are the selected option because they reach the lowest common denominator without using technologies regarded as spyware. org.Analytics Help (http:/ / www.1504/IJICS. [16] Johnson. com/ docs/ web-data-sources. M.

J. Brian (2010) Advanced Web Metrics with Google Analytics. (2003) ‘Marketing ROI: how to plan. • Srinivasan . • Bradley N (2007) Marketing Research. Wiley. Tom & Albert. P. London: John Wiley & Sons. Oxford. J. (2009) Key Marketing Metrics The 50+ Metrics Every Manager needs to know. (2002) Web metrics.The Art of Online Accountability and Science of Customer Centricity. (2009) Yahoo! Web Analytics. Wiley. Avinash (2009) Web Analytics 2. Aslib Proceedings. N. D. • Peterson Eric T (2004) Web Analytics Demystified: A Marketer’s Guide to Understanding How Your Web Site Affects Your Business.T. Models and Examples. Measure and Optimise strategies for Profit’ London: McGraw Hill Contemporary • Sterne. Pfeifer. Analyzing and Presenting Usability Metrics. Collecting. Burlington MA. 2nd edition. Bendle.Web analytics 9 Bibliography • Clifton. Metrics and Methods for On and Offline Success.0 . Sybex. B (2009) Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series.org. • Tullis. P. • Arikan.org/) . Reibstein. Sybex (Paperback. (http://www. J. Dennis R. Celilo Group Media • Lenskold. Tools and Techniques. External links • Technology enablers and business goals for web analytics initiatives (http://www. • Plaza. • Kaushik. J. • Burby. O'Reilly ebook. Sybex.uk/) • JICWEBS (The Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards in the UK and Ireland) (http://www. Prentice Hall. London: Prentice Hall. • Peterson Eric T (2005) Web Site Measurement Hacks.com/2011/ 02/02/web-analytics- -overview-options-and-technology-enablers/) • ABCe (Audit Bureau of Circulations electronic. Oxford University Press. J . Sybex. Bill (2008) Measuring the User Experience.) • Kaushik.(2001) E commerce Metrics.abc. Akin (2008) Multichannel Marketing. Morgan Kaufmann. Sybex. Elsevier. (2006) ‘Marketing Metrics: How to create Accountable Marketing plans that really work’ John Wiley & Sons (Asia). Proven Methods for Measuring Web Site Success.. 61(5): 474–482.joelichtenberg. • Farris. London. Avinash (2007) Web Analytics: An Hour a Day. UK and Europe).jicwebs.E. Jason and Atchison. • Davis. • Mortensen.. Shane (2007) Actionable Web Analytics: Using Data to Make Smart Business Decisions.

and Helm Analytics. it is currently . Nordic Research provided a proprietary engine and platform for cloud-based streaming data aggregation and visualization. The company also partnered with a number of North American technology firms. multi-dimensional data queries in less than a second. CEO Jon Shoff. Dataskill. ReelSnap. Joe Media. Spain. Israel. France. Inc. California with offices worldwide. which spent several years developing new technologies for integrating and visualizing massive amounts of streaming data. to offer new insights into marketing campaigns and results. Anametrix grew in 2010. VP of Sales Anders Olsson. TechnoNet. Cadient Group. primarily targeting marketing teams and agencies. and the United Kingdom.Anametrix 10 Anametrix Anametrix. The details of the acquisition were not disclosed to the public. along with a number of existing business and web analytics clients. In March 2010. Type Industry Private Web Analytics Business Analytics Social Media 2009 Founded Headquarters San Diego. opening offices in Europe[1] and partnering with web and technology solutions providers in China. software-as-a-service business and web analytics. anametrix.[5] While the InstaVista platform is designed so that it can perform analytics using any data sources as inputs. CTO John Burke. it completed the acquisition of Nordic Research Corporation. History The company was founded in 2009 by web analytics industry experts Blaise Barrelet and Anders Olsson (of WebSideStory fame). including 118id. iPost.[2] Products Anametrix provides cloud-based. Using proprietary technologies. California Key people Blaise Barrelet. a company founded by Anders Olsson. CFO InstaVista for E-Mail Campaigns InstaVista for Advertising InstaVista for Web Analytics InstaVista for Google Analytics InstaVista for Social Media InstaVista for Salesforce.[3] Its proprietary InstaVista platform allows business users to perform real-time visualization and aggregation of various data sources using a normal web browser. com Products Website Anametrix is a privately held web analytics and business analytics company headquartered in San Diego.[4] The platform is designed to integrate different data sources into a drag-and-drop data reporting and interaction interface. InstaVista is designed to perform multiple-channel.com InstaVista for SugarCRM http:/ / www.

social media tracking.com (http://www.official site . and CRM optimization uses.anametrix. org/ ?p=189 http:/ / chiefmarketer.com) . com/ email/ 1220-beyond-email-metrics/ index. html External links • anametrix. com/ drno/ news11892. online campaigns including e-mail and online advertising.[6] 11 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. org/ ?p=189 http:/ / chiefmarketer. com/ qa-john-janetos-ipost-vp-of-business-development-and-sales/ article/ 190867/ http:/ / leadguru. com/ email/ 1220-beyond-email-metrics/ index. dmnews.Anametrix marketed primarily toward web analytics. html http:/ / leadguru. mrweb. htm http:/ / www.

[4] AT Internet Ltd.[5] The company is commonly known (especially in France) by the name of its flagship product XiTi. [2] AT Internet Ltd. The focus shifted to web analytics in 1997. It has provided these services since 1995. as well as Asia and Canada. [3] AT Internet Ltd. CTO Cyril Mazeau. Limited Type Industry Private . Website AT Internet is a privately held company that provides integral analysis of websites.AT Internet 12 AT Internet AT (Applied Technologies) Internet. It also established offices in the United Kingdom and Germany. History The company was founded in 1995 by owner Alain Llorens as a web agency. COO Sébastien Carriot. [2] AT Internet Ltd. intranet and mobile sites. France Alain Llorens.[6] International Expansion As part of a strategic move to extend its reach to an international audience. CEO Nicolas Babin. (Chairman/Founder) Mathieu Llorens. the company hired Nicolas Babin as COO and Executive Vice President of Marketing.owned by Alain Llorens Web Analytics Market Research Online Optimization Web Marketing 1995 Bordeaux.[7] . CFO Founded Headquarters Key people Products XITI Analyzer II Sales Tracker Data Explorer Observer [1] AT Internet Ltd.

The project spanned 2 years and covered 70 governmental websites. was created. com/ Actionable-Web-Analytics-Business-Decisions/ dp/ 0470124741 Actionable Web Analytics [2] http:/ / www. Xiti. atinternet. This quantitative user experience collects data from thousands of user sessions rather than hundreds. "AT Internet History" (http:/ / www. atinternet. December 16. omniture. . atinternet.atinternet. "XiTi gives way to AT Internet" (http:/ / www. [2] References [1] http:/ / www. Offline measurement can also be incorporated to extend the customer experience understanding to illuminate what elements of the online experience impacted offline behavior such as purchasing in a store or visiting a branch office. 2000 the research arm of the organization.com/category/case-studies/ .[1] Several vendors provide attitudinal analytics solutions as stand-alone offerings.com) Attitudinal analytics Attitudinal analytics is a marketing technology application that involves the integration of online surveys that capture visitor intent and critical demographic attributes with the tracking of explicit behavior through click stream monitoring on websites.AT Internet 13 Market Research and The AT Internet Institute In July. com http:/ / www. Information Architechs". 2004 [7] AT Internet (2008-09-08). "AT Internet .XiTi names Nicolas Babin COO and Executive Vice President Marketing" (http:/ / www. customer satisfaction and overall customer experience success or failure. com/ en http:/ / www. In 2004. org/ en/ rel/ ?391). XiTi would go on to publish several studies and benchmarking reports pertaining to Internet user behaviors. . amazon. aspx). com/ es http:/ / www. External links • Official website (http://www. atinternet.[8] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. webanalyticsassociation. The objective was to better define the expectations of the French public towards ministerial and interministerial website performance. Xiti was chosen to carry out audience research for the French Government. com/ de AT Internet (2008-09-01). webanalyticsassociation. . attitudinal and behavioral data. com/ press/ 373 Omniture Case Study http://www.usabilitysciences. atinternet. Reports of finding and recommendations are used to improve a website or customer experience program that is heavily dependent upon the use of an online campaigns driving traffic to a website or collection of sites. [8] AT Internet (2009-09-20). This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance. org/ en/ rel/ ?394). com/ en/ Company/ History. Leading web analytics players are also providing partner integration frameworks to better integrate silos of intent. trends and preferences. French Xiti To Measure French Govt Websites Audience 2004-2006 French Business Digest "Data Processing.

suitable for analyzing data from Internet services such as web. It is a very popular server administration tool. Licensing AWStats is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL).net [3] AWStats is an open source Web analytics reporting tool. with packages available for most Linux distributions. 2010 Perl Cross-platform Web analytics GNU General Public License awstats.net. producing HTML reports. AWStats can be installed on a workstation. mail and FTP servers. WebStar. Static reports can be created through a command line interface. streaming media. and user community forums [5] . Cross-platform availability Written in Perl. such as MS Windows. AWStats parses and analyzes server log files. AWStats can be deployed on almost any operating system. AWStats supports most major web server log file formats including Apache (NCSA combined/XLF/ELF log format or common/CLF log format).0 [2] / December 5. Developers can contribute to the AWStats project through SourceForge. Support Proper web log analysis tool configuration and report interpretation requires a bit of technical and business knowledge. IIS (W3C log format) and many other common web server log formats. for local use in situations where log files can be downloaded from a remote server.sourceforge. and on-demand reporting is supported through a web browser CGI program.AWStats 14 AWStats AWStats Original author(s) Laurent Destailleur [1] Stable release Written in Operating system Type License Website 7. AWStats support resources include documentation [4]. Data is visually presented within reports by tables and bar graphs.

php?group_id=13764 http:/ / awstats.AWStats 15 Security considerations The on-demand CGI program has been the object of security exploits. sourceforge. Precautions should be taken against referrer spam (Referrer spam filtering functionality [6] was added in version 6. html#exref http:/ / awstats. as is the case of many CGI programs. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. sourceforge. news. fr/ http:/ / sourceforge. 2008 a new version was released. antezeta. Development and support appeared to have stopped in 2002. • Visitors (program) • Piwik • Obsessive Website Statistics The AWStats project provides a detailed comparison chart [7]. software download and community support forums. net/ project/ showfiles. not always with same functionality. html http:/ / awstats. The on-demand facility can still be used by restricting its use to internal users. destailleur. Alternatives There are three primary open source alternatives to AWStats. • Webalizer is offered by many ISPs as it is fast and simple. php?forum_id=43428 http:/ / www. It does not support the concept of a visitor. • Analog offers a wealth of reporting options for a technical audience. net/ . Development and support appears to have stopped in 2004 (with last version 6. net/ docs/ http:/ / sourceforge. Organizations wishing to provide public access to their Web analytics reports should consider generating static HTML reports. sourceforge. References • AWStats documentation set [4] External links • AWStats official web site [8] includes documentation. net/ docs/ awstats_compare.5). • W3Perl. It has a smaller functionality set compared to AWStats. There are also a number of other open source alternatives to AWStats. net/ forum/ forum. but on July 12. usually desired for business analysis. com/ awstats.0). net http:/ / awstats. sourceforge. a powerful alternative which has features similar to AWStats.

as having a high bounce rate is not always a sign of poor performance. If the visitor continues to navigate after this delay. and leaves his browser idle for longer than 30 minutes. In contrast. if a visitor views a page.Bounce rate 16 Bounce rate Bounce rate (sometimes confused with exit rate)[1] is an Internet marketing term used in web traffic analysis. this is determined by the session timeout of the analytics tracking software. where • Rb = Bounce rate • Tv = Total number of visitors viewing one page only • T = Total entries to page e A visitor may bounce by: • • • • • Clicking on a link to a page on a different web site Closing an open window or tab Typing a new URL Clicking the "Back" button to leave the site Session timeout A commonly used session timeout value is 30 minutes[2] . the bounce rate for a web site is the number of web site visitors who visit only a single page of a web site per session divided by the total number of web site visits. The bounce rate for a single page is the number of visitors who enter the site at a page and leave within the specified timeout period without viewing another page. Rather. the bounce rate of an e-commerce site could be interpreted in correlation with the purchase conversion rate. Usage Bounce rates can be used to help determine the effectiveness or performance of an entry page. the visitor leaves a site without visiting any other pages before a specified session-timeout occurs. On sites where an objective can be met without viewing more than one page.[3] Google Analytics specialist Avinash Kaushik has stated: "My own personal observation is that it is really hard to get a bounce rate under 20%. . 50% (above) is worrying. doesn't look at another page. In this case. An entry page with a low bounce rate means that the page effectively causes visitors to view more pages and continue on deeper into the web site. divided by the total number of visitors who entered the site at that page. that is. It represents the percentage of visitors who enter the site and "bounce" (leave the site) rather than continue viewing other pages within the same site. There is no industry standard minimum or maximum time by which a visitor must leave in order for a bounce to occur. In contrast. I stress that this is my personal analysis. the bounce rate would not be as meaningful for determining conversion success. Definition A bounce occurs when a web site visitor only views a single page on a website. a new session will occur. providing the bounces are considered representative of visits where no purchase was made. anything over 35% is cause for concern. they will register as a bounce."[4] Interpretation of the bounce rate measure should be relevant to a website's business objectives and definitions of conversion.

Typically. and therefore log a simulated click that lead to that page view. com/ blog/ 2007/ 08/ bounce-rate-and-exit-rate-what-is. Journal of Knowledge and Information System 1 (1): 5–32. with regards to where the users of the site are clicking. a visitor who wants to read about a specific news story may enter a news site on an article written for that story. References [1] HMTWeb. and they might still be considered successful due to having served their purpose. [3] Google AdWords Learning Center . html. click analytics may happen real-time or "unreal"-time. click analytics focuses on on-site analytics. google. co. kaushik. and this method requires some functionality that picks up relevant information when the event occurs. depending on the type of information sought. a visitor looking for the definition of a particular word may enter an online dictionary site on that word's definition page.Bounce rate 17 Caveats While site-wide bounce rate can be a useful metric for sites with well-defined conversion steps requiring multiple page views. google. For example. com/ adwords/ learningcenter/ text/ 38069. Ideally. cs. Data about clicks may be gathered in at least two ways.com "Bounce Rate vs. a click is "logged" when it occurs.Improving Your Content and Site (http:/ / www. Commonly. An editor of a web site uses click analytics to determine the performance of his or her particular site. to optimize the content. one may institute the assumption that a page view is a result of a click. Srivastava (1999). html) Click analytics Click analytics is a special type of web analytics that gives special attention to clicks (Point-and-click) which constitute the first stage in the conversion funnel. B. Mobasher. design elements or advertisements etc. • List of web analytics software References . umn. frontpage editors on high-traffic news media sites will want to monitor their pages in real-time. ps) (– Scholar search (http:/ / scholar. . "Data Preparation for Mining World Wide Web Browsing Patterns" (http:/ / www. Alternatively. ) [4] Excellent Analytics Tip #11: Measure Effectiveness Of Your Web Pages | Occam's Razor by Avinash Kaushik (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-08-25. This type of behavior is common on web portals and referential content sites. These example entry pages could have a bounce rate above 80% (thereby increasing the site-wide average). Similarly. Also.. hmtweb. net/ avinash/ 2007/ 05/ excellent-analytics-tip-11-measure-effectiveness-of-your-web-pages. edu/ research/ websift/ papers/ kais99. R. designers or other types of stakeholders may analyze clicks on a wider time frame to aid them assess performance of writers. Editors. J. Exit Rate" (http:/ / www. uk/ scholar?hl=en& lr=& q=author:Cooley+ intitle:Data+ Preparation+ for+ Mining+ World+ Wide+ Web+ Browsing+ Patterns& as_publication=Journal+ of+ Knowledge+ and+ Information+ System& as_ylo=& as_yhi=& btnG=Search)). html) [2] Cooley. it may be of questionable value for sites where visitors are likely to find what they are looking for on the entry page.

analyzing the data of clients that visit a company website is becoming a necessity in order to remain competitive. This use of the analysis creates a user profile that aids in understanding the types of people that visit a company’s website. A clickstream is a series of page requests. software testing. few ISPs publicly admit to this practice. Subsequently javascript technologies were developed which use a tracking cookie to generate a series of signals from browsers. the study of human clicks took a substantial effort. any webmaster. Clickstream analysis can also be used to improve customer satisfaction with the website and with the company itself.[4] With the growing corporate knowledge of the importance of clickstreams. authorized clickstream data collection comes from organizations that use opt-in panels to generate market research using panelists who agree to share their clickstream data with other companies by downloading and installing specialized clickstream collection agents. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of advertising on a web page or site. column-oriented DBMS. proxy servers. clickstream analysis can be used to predict whether a customer is likely to purchase from an e-commerce website. the action is logged on a client or inside the Web server. Both of these uses generate a huge business advantage. and its potential for compromising their privacy. As discussed in Van den Poel & Buckinx (2005). the first being an analysis of a user’s clickstream while using a website to reveal usage patterns. blogger or person with a website can learn about how to improve their site.40/month per user. The main point of clickstream tracking is to give webmasters insight into what visitors on their site are doing. Unauthorized clickstream data collection is considered to be spyware. A small observation on the evolution of clickstream tracking: Initial clickstream or click path data had to be gleaned from server log files. Use of clickstream data can raise privacy concerns. researcher. one of which is marketing. In addition. every page requested generates a signal. Data mining systems are being used in conjunction with clickstreams to better record and analyze this data. and for analyzing employee productivity. Clickstream analysis is useful for Web activity analysis[1] . This datas itself is "neutral" in the sense that any dataset is neutral. it is often possible to indirectly identify specific users. which in turn gives a heightened understanding of customer behaviour. Additionally. and ad servers. Clickstreams can also be used to allow the user to see where they have been and allow them to easily return to a page they have already visited. information was only collected from "real humans" clicking on sites through browsers. typically for about $0. market research. There are 10-12 companies that purchase this data. . as well as possibly the Web browser. The data can be used in various scenarios. Most consumers are unaware of this practice. and integrated OLAP used to build Business Intelligence is evolving. Because human and machine traffic were not differentiated.[3] Since the business world is quickly evolving into a state of e-commerce.Clickstream 18 Clickstream A Clickstream is the recording of what a computer user clicks on while Web browsing or using another software application.[2] While this practice may not directly identify individual users. the way that they are being monitored and [5] . These signals can be graphically represented for clickstream reporting. an example being the AOL search data scandal. a function that is already incorporated in most browsers. As the user clicks anywhere in the webpage or application. routers. This analysis can be used to generate two findings for the company. especially since some Internet service providers have resorted to selling users' clickstream data as a way to enhance revenue. However. In other words.

Hoffman and Thomas P. html [4] Patrali Chatterjee.. wired. Wouter Buckinx (2005). org/ pss/ 4129736)”. Carlos Rojas. PS Fader (2004). Donna L. psu.“ Mining Evolving User Profiles in NoisyWeb Clickstream Data with a Scalable Immune System Clustering Algorithm (http:/ / citeseerx. 1. ist. Cesar Cardona.. edu/ viewdoc/ download?doi=10. (2003) • Van den Poel Dirk. pdf)” Journal of Interactive Marketing (2004) [2] http:/ / seekingalpha. edu/ ideas/ pdf/ Fader/ Moe Fader JIM paper 0503. (Autumn.internetofficer. Fabio Gonzalez (2003). SAP NetWeaver portal analytics solutions (http://www.“ Modeling the Clickstream: Implications for Web-Based Advertising Efforts (http:/ / www. upenn. 557-575. 520-541 [5] Olfa Nasraoui.. 166 (2). of KDD Workshop on Web mining as a Premise to. • Clickstream Technologies Plc. com/ 27bstroke6/ 2007/ 04/ some_isps_still. European Journal of Operational Research.clickstream.adds clickstream analysis to AWStats .sweetlets.com/awstats/plugin-follow-me/) . jstor.Clickstream 19 References [1] WW Moe. 58. wharton. com) • Click Stream by Sweetlets .htm)”. “ Predicting Online-Purchasing Behavior (http://econpapers. Novak (2003). Marketing Science22(4). org/paper/rugrugwps/03_2F195. com/ article/ 29449-compete-ceo-isps-sell-clickstreams-for-5-a-month [3] http:/ / blog.com/w/ solutions/click-stream) External links • Follow Me Plugin for AWStats (http://www. 1.“ Capturing Evolving Visit Behavior in Clickstream Data (http:/ / mktg-sun. 2005.repec. 9558& rep=rep1& type=pdf)” Proc. 2003). Automating analytics and online marketing solutions (http://www.

showing where the visitors click on the page. Mouse Move Heatmaps . CTO and Co-Founder www.000 users. it uses meta statistics to create visual heatmaps and behavioural reports. Wordpress. CEO and Co-Founder Arik Yavilevich. Conversion Funnels . Link Analytics[6] . 2.com [1] Website ClickTale is an Internet company founded in 2006. 4. including: 1. as well as conversion analytics and traditional web statistics. Conversion Analytics. which are most frequently left blank and cause which website visitors to leave.showing where on the page the visitor shows the most attention. Heatmaps. and also offers product integration with companies like Omniture and Silverpop [7]. Tal Schwartz. 2. 2. PHP.showing where visitors drop out of online forms. ClickTale had over 20. In addition. [4] 3. .ClickTale 20 ClickTale ClickTale Type User Experience Optimizaion. Web Analytics Technology Industry Headquarters Ramat Gan. 3. 3.showing how far down the page visitors scroll (useful for finding and optimizing the fold of a page). Video playback of individual visitor sessions. Although today ClickTale claims to have more than 50. Drupal and Ruby on Rails as well as many others. Attention Heatmaps . Click Heatmaps . Technology Unlike traditional web analytics. As of February 2009. Products ClickTale's analytics suite consists of three main parts: 1. Scroll Heatmaps . which form fields take too long to fill. results in the most "traditional" web heatmap.showing where customers convert and where they leave the conversion process. Form Analytics . Israel Key people Dr. In addition. ClickTale's analytics service is qualitative and provides a full video playback option for each individual visitor's session[3] . it is unknown what its revenue may be as the company has not publicly announced any financial data.000 users and its revenue was estimated at over $1. including HTTPS. including: 1.2M per annum[2] .showing how visitors respond to and interact with hyperlinks.used for conducting accurate eye tracking on a massive scale[5] .ClickTale. that provides Customer Experience Analytics and Web Analytics services. ClickTale offers full integration with a wide variety of web standards.

[4] "ClickTale Launches Mouse Click Heat Maps" (http:/ / jeffparks. Says Revenue Growth Is Strong" (http:/ / www. com/ External links • Official WebSite (http://www.for enterprise customers.ClickTale 21 Pricing Clicktale offers two levels of pricing: • ClickTale Online . .clicktale. com/ 2006/ 07/ 11/ watch-internet-users -behaviour-with-clicktale/ ). [5] "Eye Tracking for Everyone" (http:/ / blog. 2009-02-05. References [1] http:/ / www. techcrunch. clicktale.com) . 2009-02-06. [7] http:/ / www. although it is not publicly known how much these plans cost.clicktale.com/) • Company Blog (http://blog. ClickTale runs both an affiliate and partnership program. ca/ index. offering a limited free plan and three tiers of paid plans starting from $99 a month. clicktale. • ClickTale Enterprise . com/ 2009/ 02/ 05/ clicktale-launches-email-tracking-says-revenue-growth-is-strong/ ). silverpop. [3] "Watch internet users’ behaviour with ClickTale" (http:/ / www.clicktale.000 pageviews per month.for Small and medium businesses. ClickTale uses a freemium pricing model. allowing resellers and digital agencies to sell the product themselves for a share of the revenue. php/ findability/ clicktale-launches-mouse-click-heat-maps/ / ). 2006-07-11. 2009-08-12. . . ClickTale offers custom-made solutions to companies with more than 1. com/ [2] "ClickTale Launches Email Tracking. com/ 2009/ 11/ 23/ eye-tracking-for-everyone/ ). techcrunch. com/ 2009/ 02/ 06/ using-clicktales-analytics-pays-off-really/ ). . 2009-11-23. [6] "Using ClickTale’s analytics pays off — really" (http:/ / venturebeat.com) • ClickTale Wiki (http://wiki.000. .

the fewer visitors get through to becoming paying customers.Conversion funnel 22 Conversion funnel Conversion funnel is a technical term used in e-commerce operations to describe the track a consumer takes through an Internet advertising or search system. registering or filling in contact details and payment all further reduce the numbers step-by-step cumulatively along the funnel. Typically a large number of visitors register as page view on a referring page which is linked to the e-commerce site by a banner ad. navigating an e-commerce web site and finally converting to a sale. The metric used to describe this ratio is the click-through rate or CTR and represents the top level of the funnel. The more steps. Once the link is clicked and the visitor to the referring page enters the e-commerce site itself. creating further constriction of the metaphorical funnel. The process of understanding which creative material brings the highest click-through rate is known as ad optimization. only a small proportion of visitors typically proceeds to the product pages. sites with similar pricing and products can have hugely different conversion rates of visitors to customers and therefore greatly differing profits. link position and many others and these effects interact cumulatively.typically by 30%–80% per page. For this reason. The metaphor of a funnel is used to describe the decrease in numbers that occurs at each step of the process. Typical banner and advertising click-through rates are 0. References .02% in late 2010 and have decreased over the past three years. link size. Only a small proportion of those seeing the advert or link actually click the link. Each step the visitor takes further reduces the number of visitors . Adding the product to the shopping cart. Click-though rates are highly sensitive to small changes such as link text. ad network or conventional link.

• Recording and blocking of certain types of hacking attempts (code injection or SQL injection). • Download counter. country of origin. • Crawler visits statistics (indexing by crawlers such as GoogleBot). hits number and pages viewed by crawlers. net/ [2] http:/ / www. • Record of number and origin of 404 errors. Spanish. so that s/he keeps control of the data.0 / April 2. Dutch and Turkish. • Indexation in the main search engines follow-up (backlinks and indexed pages). giving absolutely no output in the source code (and hence neither on the site's pages). 2009 Operating system Cross-platform Available in Type License Website PHP Web analytics GPL crawltrack.net [1] CrawlTrack is an open source web analytics program for webmasters. That script has to be installed on the webmaster's own server.CrawlTrack 23 CrawlTrack CrawlTrack Developer(s) Stable release Jean-Denis Brun 3. giving number and origin of visitors (referrer. External links • CrawlTrack [2] References [1] http:/ / crawltrack. Several sites can be audited by the same CrawlTrack installation. etc). Functionality • Web site statistics. keyword used.0. German. French. The tag used is a PHP one. net/ . pages viewed and bounce rate. crawltrack. The script is available in English.

It started in 2002 in Santa Barbara by Jim Sterne as a web analytics conference. Keynote speakers in the past have included representatives of Coke. It has also expanded to San Francisco.Emetrics Summit 24 Emetrics Summit The Emetrics Summit is a conference on measuring the success of a website. Yahoo!.com.C. Washington D. emetrics. Amazon. Ford. CBS. External links • Official website [1] References [1] http:/ / www. org/ . but has expanded in subject matter to online marketing optimization. Xerox.. and Disney. London and Germany. The subject matter has ranged from the simply technical (is log file analysis better that page tagging) to the organization (how do you get business people to understand that incredible value in web data?) to the holistic (how do you combine web performance monitoring and customer satisfaction with web analytics in order to get the Big Picture?). The Emetrics Summit has continued to grow in size and was the spawning ground of the Web Analytics Association. Dell. Microsoft.

A new version of the user interface was released on May 17. viewing a specific page.000 websites (as currently ranked by Alexa). users can review online campaigns by tracking landing page quality and conversions (goals). Urchin on Demand (Google acquired Urchin Software Corp. Urchin 6 was released. new sign-ups were suspended only a week later.95% of the top 1. lead generation. unless the site is linked to an AdWords campaign. marketers can determine which ads are performing. Existing urchin. The system also brings ideas from Adaptive Path. including search engines.js page tag which they recommend to use for all new accounts and new profiles for new domains. However due to extremely high demand for the service.[6] In December 2007. 2007. whose product. Users can officially add up to 50 site profiles. was acquired and used in the redesign of Google Analytics in 2006. or downloading a particular file. com/ analytics Google Analytics (GA) is a free service offered by Google that generates detailed statistics about the visitors to a website.[4] History Google's service was developed from Urchin Software Corporation's analytics system. pay-per-click networks. poor performing pages can be identified using techniques such as funnel visualization. including custom visitor segmentation. GA's approach is to show high level dashboard-type data for the casual user.[5] Google still sells the standalone installable Urchin software through a network of value-added resellers.[2] Another market share analysis claims that Google Analytics is used at around 49. Through the use of GA analysis. Measure Map. It is the most widely used website statistics service. Analysis http:/ / google. since mid-August 2006 the service has been fully available to all users – whether they use Google for advertising or not. Google rolled out the new ga. nevertheless the new tag will allow site owners to take advantage of the most up-to-date tracking functionality. It is limited to sites which have a traffic of fewer than 5 million pageviews per month (roughly 2 pageviews per second). ability to graph multiple data points at . and more in-depth data further into the report set. in April 2005). Integrated with AdWords. By using GA.000. how long they stayed and their geographical position.[3] GA can track visitors from all referrers. Google began using a lottery-type invitation-code model. The product is aimed at marketers as opposed to webmasters and technologists from which the industry of web analytics originally grew. providing the information to optimise or cull campaigns. e-mail marketing and digital collateral such as links within PDF documents. Prior to August 2006 Google was sending out batches of invitation codes as server availability permitted. Goals might include sales. and which are not.Google Analytics 25 Google Analytics Google Analytics Developer(s) Google Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Statistics.000 most popular websites. In April 2008.js page tags will continue to work. These can also be monetized. Each profile generally corresponds to one website.[1] currently in use at around 57% of the 10. The Google-branded version was rolled out in November 2005 to anyone who wished to sign up. As capacity was added to the system. It also provides more advanced features. display advertising. where visitors came from (referrers).

margins of error are not provided for any other metrics in the GA reports. This code collects visitor data and sends it to a Google data collection server as part of a request for a web beacon. GA limits reports to 500. Some users do not have Javascript-enabled/capable browsers or turn this feature off. This is due to the fact that only the latest phones are currently able to run JavaScript or set cookies (Smart phones and PDAs). privacy networks like Tor will mask the user's actual location and present inaccurate geographical data. and leads to holes in the collected data.[9] The largest potential impact on data accuracy comes from users deleting or blocking Google Analytics cookies. As all websites that implement GA with the ga. While margins of error are indicated for the visits metric.Google Analytics once and to track ecommerce transactions in a more readable way. according to a comment by a Google employee on a web analytics blog [8]. This is used to store anonymous information such as whether the visitor has been to the site before (new or returning visitor). the GATC loads a larger Javascript file from the Google webserver and then sets variables with the user's account number. In addition to transmitting information to a Google server.[10] Without cookies being set.000 randomly sampled visits at the profile level for its calculations. banner or email. For small segments of data. GA cannot collect data. Limitations Many ad filtering programs and extensions (such as Firefox's Adblock and NoScript) can block the GATC.[7] While the product platform has never been a beta. the small piece of code (usually JavaScript) that acts as a beacon to collect visitor data. That is. It can take 12 hours for Google to process this data. the GATC sets first party cookies on each visitor's computer. To function.js code are using the same master file from Google. This is referred to as the Google Analytics Tracking Code (GATC) and is a snippet of JavaScript code that the user adds onto every page of his or her website. will also have the file cached on their machine. Also. To reduce the load on their servers and to provide users with a relatively quick response for their query. search engine. This prevents some traffic and users from being tracked. new beta features are added from time to time. These limitations affect all on-site web analytics tools that collect on-site visitor data using page tags. . [11] the margin of error can be very large. what is the timestamp of the current visit and what was the referrer site or campaign the visitor came from e. keywords. Because GA uses a page tagging technique to collect visitor information via a combination of JavaScript and cookies. these limitations are considered small – affecting only a small percentage of visits. However. Any individual web user can block or delete cookies resulting in the data loss of those visits for GA users.g. The result is that the page overhead of including the GATC on web pages is kept to a minimum. The larger file (currently known as ga. it has limitations with websites browsed from mobile phones. 26 Technology Google Analytics is implemented by including what is known as a "page tag".js) is typically 18 KB in size and is only downloaded once at the start of the visit as it will be cached throughout the session. Another limitation of GA for large websites is the use of sampling in the generation of many of its reports. for example by making visitors more comfortable using the site through posting a privacy policy. a visitor that has previously visited any other website with this code implemented. Website owners can encourage users not to disable cookies.

[2] "Google Analytics Usage Statistics" (http:/ / trends. Google introduced asynchronous JavaScript code in December 2009 to reduce the risk of slowing the loading of pages tagged with the ga. the realisation of Google scripts tracking user behaviours has spawned the production of multiple. B (2009) Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series. These plug-ins offer the user a choice. whether to allow for example Google Analytics to track his/her activities. Google tracks that visit via the user's IP address.[12] [13] [14] However. it has met much discussion and criticism.com [20] • • • • twitter. W3Techs. browser plug-ins. One was built to run on iOS (Apple) devices and is featured in Apple's app store see: Analytics by Net Conversion [21] References • Plaza. Retrieved 2010-08-21. . Many such tools exist through a number of mediums. com/ 2006/ 02/ here-comes-measure-map. B (2009) Using Google Analytics for measuring inlinks effectiveness.com dailymotion. High profile sites using Google Analytics Google Analytics is used by 57% of the 10.Google Analytics 27 Slowing down the website There have been several online discussions about the impact on Google Analytics on site performance. com/ support/ analytics/ bin/ answer.com answers. py?hl=en& answer=55476) [5] Official Google Blog: Here comes Measure Map (http:/ / googleblog. google.[15] [16] Privacy Issues Due to its ubiquity. Aslib Proceedings. often open-source. [3] "Google Analytics Market Share" (http:/ / metricmail. Article URL: http://mpra. . It has been anecdotally reported that behind proxy servers and multiple firewalls that errors can occur changing time stamps and registering invalid searches. Google Analytics raises many privacy concerns. Retrieved 2009-12-10. com/ post/ 904126172/ google-analytics-market-share). . tumblr.ub. 19676.[17] Since this plug-in is produced and distributed by Google itself. blogspot.com API Proliferation The Google Analytics API has been utilized by third parties to build custom reporting tools. Retrieved 2010-02-17.de/19676/ [1] "Usage of traffic analysis tools for websites" (http:/ / w3techs. Furthermore. MetricMail. html) . Article URL: [22] • Plaza. Whenever someone visits a website that uses Google Analytics. com/ analytics/ Google-Analytics).com myspace. as reported by BackendBattles. builtwith. 61(5): 474–482. [4] Google Analytics Help: Does Google Analytics have a pageview limit? (http:/ / www. with Piwik being a popular option. Google has also released a browser plugin that turns off data about a page visit being sent to Google.[18] [19] Webmasters who seek to mitigate Google Analytics' inherent privacy issues can employ a number of alternatives having their backends hosted on their own machines.000 most popular websites (as ranked by Alexa Internet) ordered by popularity.js script.uni-muenchen. com/ technologies/ overview/ traffic_analysis/ all). MPRA Paper No. BuiltWith.

html) [17] "Opt Out of Google Analytics Data Gathering With New Beta Tool" by Chloe Albanesius May 25. com/ 2010/ 04/ making-web-faster. html) [10] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www. blogspot. The Virus Filters.00.. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 12/ 11/ virus-filter-avira-tech-security-cx_ag_1211virus. com/ 2007/ 05/ you-now-have-access-to-new-google. 1108/ 00012530910989625) 28 External links • Google Analytics web site (http://www. vkistudios. backendbattles. advanced-web-metrics. com/ article2/ 0. com/ index. com/ blog/ 2009/ 02/ 04/ is-google-analytics-slow-or-not/ ) [15] Google Analytics Launches Asynchronous Tracking (http:/ / googlecode. Dec 11. com/ us/ app/ analytics-by-net-conversion/ id421164239?mt=8 [22] Emerald | Aslib Proceedings | Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series (http:/ / www.2364174. Flock. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) – a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [11] Segmentation Options in Google Analytics (http:/ / www. pcmag. cfm/ 2008/ 7/ 14/ google-analytics-lag-time-woes--get-immediate-gratification-with-wasp [9] EU and US JavaScript Disabled Index numbers + Web Analytics data collection impact (http:/ / visualrevenue. com/ backend/ Google_Analytics [21] http:/ / itunes. emeraldinsight.Google Analytics [6] You now have access to the new Google Analytics! (http:/ / analytics. 2008.2817. analyticsmarket. asp) [18] http:/ / noscript. html) [16] Making the Web Faster (http:/ / analytics. com/ 10. UK (http://www. com/ group/ analytics-help-basics/ browse_thread/ thread/ 62997a00d5a50406?pli=1) [13] Google Analytics Code is Slowing Down My Site (http:/ / www.com/ get-email-alerts-from-google-analytics/) • Google Analytics for Wordpress plugin (http://wordpress. html) [8] http:/ / blog.js tracking (http:/ / analytics. epikone. Andy Greenberg (http:/ / www. google.com/ London-Web-Analytics-Google-Analytics-OmnitureMVT/) . forbes. blogspot. blogspot. woopra.com/ installing-analytics-on-a-large-website/) • Google Analytics Meetup Group in London. com/ blog/ tracking-code-slows-my-site) [14] Is Google Analytics Slow or Not? (http:/ / www. Seamonkey and other mozilla-based browsers [. apple.]" [19] Forbes. com/ 2009/ 12/ google-analytics-launches-asynchronous. html) at the Google Analytics blog [7] Announcing new graphing tools and ga. com/ 2007/ 12/ announcing-new-graphing-tools-gajs.org/extend/plugins/google-analytics-for-wordpress/ ) • How to install Google Analytics on a large static HTML website (http://fieldsmarshall.latentmotion. com/ blog/ 2009/ 04/ 21/ segmentation-options-in-google-analytics/ ) [12] Does Google Analytics Slow down page loading? (http:/ / groups. html) [20] http:/ / www. com/ blog/ 2007/ 08/ eu-and-us-javascript-disabled-index. net/ "The NoScript Firefox extension provides extra protection for Firefox. 2010 (http:/ / www.google.com/analytics) • Google Analytics Email Alerts via the API (http://www..meetup.

References [1] http:/ / blogs. Adobe plan to completely phase it out by moving all their clients to their flagship product [1]. A cookie is placed on the users computer which contains a unique id. originally for adult entertainment websites. This unique id is passed with the request to the data collection servers. Other. Some Web Analytics services have been declared spyware by several anti-spyware organizations. custom information can be passed in the request as well as information from the HTTP header of the browser. It was now widely used by commercial & other organizations across a variety of industrial sectors as a complete and integrated metrics solution for monitoring web traffic and driving marketing. SiteCatalyst. such as referrer and browser details.Hitbox 29 Hitbox Hitbox was a popular web counter and web analytics product created by WebSideStory. omniture. Companies place javascript files on their web servers which are linked to from a html script in the page code. until taken over by Omniture subsequently taken over by [Adobe). The combination of the two makes a request from the data collection servers for each page viewed by a user. com/ 2008/ 09/ 19/ migrating-from-hbx-to-sitecatalyst/ . During the processing of the data Hitbox ties together the page views to get a perspective of how the user moved through the site.

. .HitDynamics 30 HitDynamics HitDynamics Ltd. hitdynamics. Founder & CEO Owner(s) Website Hitwise http:/ / www. hitdynamics. Type Industry Private Online Marketing Key people Max Polyakov. The company was founded by internet entrepreneur Max Polyakov in January 2005 and was acquired in on 6 March 2006 by Hitwise[1] and the company's technology now exists as the web analytics arm of the HitWise suite. com/ HitDynamics is a provider of web analytics software allowing website owners to track traffic to their sites and ascertain which traffic sources deliver conversions to sales. References [1] HitWise (May 1 2007). htm). "HitWise Acquires HitDynamics" (http:/ / www. com/ press-release.

in the Lechmere neighborhood of Cambridge.[9] [10] [11] In summer 2010. Google Ventures and Salesforce. VP Sales Yoav Shapira.com. CTO & Founder Jim O'Neill.400 in July 2009[4] to over 3.600 in November 2010. hubspot. • HubSpot Medium[13] [15] (formerly HubSpot Marketer) add features such as Salesforce.HubSpot 31 HubSpot HubSpot. Sequoia Capital. VP Customer Services [1] HubSpot Small HubSpot Medium HubSpot Large Consulting service 170 (07/26/2010) [2] Products Employees Website http:/ / www. met at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2004 and incorporated HubSpot in June 2006. Its customer base grew from over 1. A related product (HubSpot Large) adds features such as premium support. HubSpot moved its offices into the Davenport. History The founders. CFO Jonah Lopin. com/ HubSpot is a venture-funded[3] marketing software company based in Cambridge. Brian Halligan and Dharmesh Shah. CEO & Founder Dharmesh Shah. content management system. business blogging. and landing pages. Inc. Massachusetts. • Consulting services[16] .[5] [6] [7] mainly in the USA. VP Marketing Mark Roberge.com integration for closed-loop marketing metrics. CIO Mike Volpe. Type Industry Private Internet Marketing Web Analytics Online Marketing June 2006 Founded Headquarters Cambridge. Matrix Partners. marketing analytics. Massachusetts Key people Brian Halligan. Scale Venture Partners. VP Engineering David Stack.[8] It was backed by venture capitalists including General Catalyst Partners.[12] Products and services • HubSpot Small[13] [14] (formerly HubSpot Owner) offers SEO.

which [26] on iTunes Store as podcasts and as a YouTube channel[27] are archived • Viral videos including musical parodies[28] and satires[23] .[23] HubSpot models the behavior it teaches its own customers by promoting itself through conversations. and offers suggestions for improvement. Scott's E-book Goobledygook Manifesto[21] inspired Gobbledygook Grader (an automated tool to detect gobbledygook) and some metrics in Pressrelease Grader. This strategy is in alignment with Google's advice to webmasters[24] that to rank high in the SERPs you must create great content that readers will want to link to. 2009 Photo: Kyle James (CC-BY-SA) hubspot. appearance in a search engine results page (SERP) at the moment a prospective customer is searching on a term related to your product) is more powerful than interruption or outbound marketing." .tv episode [30] series .HubSpot 32 Strategy HubSpot is based on the idea that permission or inbound marketing (e. alt tags on images etc. The tactic initially caused concern among some members of the Twitter community. and then creating a viral campaign[32] on Twitter itself using a #bizinboston hashtag and mentions of Stone's Twitter username. and are relatively neglected by one's competition • Link Grader to assess and compare the number and authority of the inbound links that most modern search engines use to generate their SERPs • Page Grader to offer suggestions for on-page SEO such as length of the title and description in the head of HTML pages. interactive tools such as the grader. Scott featured Website Grader is his book World Wide Rave[18] and HubSpot is a sponsor of the Inbound Marketing Summit[19] that Scott co-organizes. [29] • Free. Their products help customers use and measure internet marketing techniques such as social media. Using a similar technique the hosts secured a guest appearance[34] by MC Hammer whose refreshing insight about Internet marketing and social media was "Forget the numbers! Just stay interesting.com For one hubspot. The paid version adds trending and other features versus the gratis version. not one-way broadcast. Scott wrote the foreword and is series editor of a book that Halligan and Shah co-authored[20] .tv using Twitter conversations. • Free E-books on internet marketing topics Twitter co-founder Biz Stone is celebrity guest of Karen Rubin and Mike • Interactive webcasts and live video shows on Volpe on hubspot. The company is influenced by the ideas of David Meerman Scott who serves on its board as special advisor[17] . blogging. and by the 'publish your way in' (or 'think like a publisher' or 'always be publishing (ABP)') mindset. • Website Grader which compares web sites for SEO qualities.tv April 17. They include a set of tools such as: • Business blogging and analytics • Keyword Grader which helps you find search engine keywords that are popular. hosting a #BizInBoston Tweetup event[31] . the hosts secured a celebrity guest appearance from Biz Stone not by hiring a booking agent but by hearing he was in the area. Content includes: • Frequent posting on its top ranked [25] blog. A copy of Scott's book The New Rules of Marketing and PR[22] appears prominently on Rebecca Corliss's desk in her music video that satirizes "link love". and search engine optimization (SEO). relevant. but these were quickly resolved[33] .g.

The same year.evaluates your written content (press release. Also called Social Grader [50]. Intermittant functionality." The grader. SEO expert Rand Fishkin speculated that it was a case of Google's anti-spamdexing algorithm "..g.com. The discussion forum of the community is hosted by the StackExchange software service.. Not to be confused with the upper case word Buzz on the branded social media services Google Buzz or Yahoo! Buzz.[45] Easter Eggs Besides the ten subdomains linked there[46] .com domain acquired over 250. Community HubSpot is a sponsor of InboundMarketing. lower case sense of ones brand being mentioned on blogs.HubSpot 33 Return on Investment Two studies by a student at MIT Sloan School of Management indicates a substantial return on investment of the HubSpot methodology[35] [36] . HubSpot itself also has published several success stories[37] . cliches and over-used. a community website for marketers[39] . hype-filled words. Similar pro and con themes emerged in a discussion[54] on the Web Pro World Forum. etc.. @dmscott.. HubSpot was awarded "Best Places to Work in Greater Boston"[41] in its category. In his analysis[58] of Google's sandboxing of Website Grader in May 2009. Michael Gray claims[53] that automated analysis of the on-page and off-page SEO can give misleading results compared to human expert analysis. Video blogger Steve Garfield visited the hubspot. [40] Awards In June 2010." On the other hand.[43] The company also received the 2010 TiE50 Award[44] and the 2010 BtoB Social Media Marketing Award. • LinkedIn Grader [49] .g.throwing out the baby with the bathwater. jargon.com [29] site has unadvertized Easter egg subdomains: • Speaker Grader [47] that collates Twitter tweets containing 1) either the hashtags #upvote OR #downvote and 2) the speaker's Twitter handle e. brochure copy. the grader. Cartoonist Mark Hill and HubSpot's Shah satirized their industry in a cartoon[56] which speculates that such marketing is only being used incestuously to market marketing to marketeers.tv studio for the Biz Stone episode[30] and published a largely favorable review[55] . . • Gobbledygook Grader [51] ". The comments section of this posting includes a rebuttal from Shah.) and checks for use of gobbledygook. this issue resolved itself and HubSpot's position on Google SERPs for the queries Fishkin used was at or near the number one position. #sxsw • Buzz Grader [48] grades buzz in the generic." Criticism and Controversy Guy Kawasaki praises Website Grader[52] for its effectiveness and its congruence with his webmaster's SEO practices and own informal SEO strategy of "Create as good content as you can and assume that Google finds it.000 inbound links from inception to the time the article was written[59] and it's possible this unusually rapid growth tripped a "circuit breaker" in Google's algorithm. Nick Ellery's commentary[57] on this expresses concern that it's hard to find "gems" for marketing. in the news. HubSpot was named in the Lead411's Hottest Boston Companies list.intermittant functionality. One web site offers a free spreadsheet to estimate ROI on such methods[38] . Sometime around September 2009. and on Twitter. and 3) the hashtag of the event e.[42] HubSpot was also recognized as an AlwaysOn East Top 100 company in the "SaaS and Enterprise" category.

[20] Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google.[64] 34 Technology HubSpot Content Management System is written in C#. html). com/ products/ small-business/ ). 2009. com/ services/ ). Press release. . Wed. David Meerman (August 8. podcasts. [14] "HubSpot Small Business Helps Drive Leads" (http:/ / www. Secures $12. [10] "Brian Halligan's To-Do List: Run Company. runs on IIS web servers. hubspot. . com/ products/ medium/ ). Kyle (March 30. [13] "HubSpot Inbound Marketing System" (http:/ / www. com/ sf/ sponsors.: J.000. boston. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ social_media_lead_generation_july2009. hubspot. pdf) (PDF). hubspot. [12] Psaty. pdf#page=3). use the ASP. 2007). 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-23. HubSpot. [3] "HubSpot Secures 5 Million in Venture Capital Funding Led by General Catalyst" (http:/ / www. Sep 12. Salesforce & Sequoia Are Investing In" (http:/ / mashable. aspx). . [18] Scott. so HubSpot had to backtrack and apologize.. [16] "About HubSpot Services" (http:/ / www. . com/ 2010/ 03/ 30/ exclusive-a-tour-of-hubspots-new-office-in-lechmere/ . ISBN 978-0470395004. . 2007. [11] "HubSpot.. viral marketing and online media to reach your buyers directly. Raise $16 Million" (http:/ / www." [6] "SXSW 2010: Inbound Marketing Presentation. and Blogs. com/ 2011/ 03/ 08/ hubspot-funding/ ). ISBN 0470499311. com/ boston/ 2008/ 05/ 16/ hubspot-inc-secures-12000000-series-b-financing/ ). . . hubspot. Slide 4. San Francisco" (http:/ / city. The new rules of marketing and PR how to use news releases. . aspx). Java. Other tools are written in a mixture of Python. "The Gobbledygook Manifesto" (http:/ / changethis. hubspot.. Retrieved 2009-10-26. 208.[65] Notes [1] "HubSpot Management" (http:/ / www. Inbound Marketing Summit 2009. The game involved a spoof home page for an educational site that they sponsor (Inbound Marketing University [63]).The apps run in the Rackspace Cloud. http:/ / bostinnovation. Wiley. David Meerman (2009). inboundmarketingsummit. html). 2010 HubSpot launched a social media experiment that involved an alternate reality game[62] . com/ ). com/ company/ board-of-directors/ ). The spoof inconvenienced the site's students. HubSpot. [22] Scott. Entrepreneur. ISBN 0470113456. Retrieved 2011-03-09. Retrieved 2011-01-22. $16M third round led by Scale Partners . [5] "How to Promote Your Business Blog Using HubSpot" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-01-22. [9] "Here’s What Google.. . 2009. com/ products-1/ ). . Inc. com/ pdf/ 37. com/ blog/ bid/ 2251/ HubSpot-Secures-5-Million-in-Venture-Capital-Funding-Led-by-General-Catalyst). hubspot. hubspot. .000 Series B Financing" (http:/ / www. Hoboken.April 19. John Wiley & Sons Inc. com/ business/ technology/ innoeco/ 2009/ 10/ brian_halligans_todo_list_run. Retrieved 2009-10-26. xconomy. 03. ". 2009.[60] On February 11. . Retrieved 2009. Retrieved May 18. [7] Brian Halligan. Gobbledygook. [4] "How to Use Social Media for Lead Generation Webinar" (http:/ / www. com/ company/ management/ ). . com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ promote_business_blog_with_hubspot_october_2009_final. 2009. World Wide Rave: Creating Triggers that Get Millions of People to Spread Your Ideas and Share Your Stories (http:/ / www. Retrieved April 19. .HubSpot Some attendees of HubSpot webcasts question HubSpot's judgement on the delicate matter of when one has won permission to talk about ones products rather than the audience's critical business issue. . HubSpot Customer Growth" (http:/ / www. pp." [8] "From the Blackboard to the Boardroom" (http:/ / www. "Ben & Jerry's Complete Rejection Of Conventional Wisdom" (http:/ / blog. Retrieved April 19. HubSpot. worldwiderave.. "Scheduled for publication in October 2009" [21] Scott. and PHP and run on MySQL and Apache at Amazon EC2.it is working out pretty well so far (3600 customers today -up from about 1600 customers a year ago). 2010). N. Retrieved 2009-10-26.. html). David Meerman (2007). [2] "Startup Culture Lessons From Mad Men" (http:/ / onstartups. Retrieved April 20. HubSpot. slideshare. com/ tabid/ 3339/ bid/ 13420/ Startup-Culture-Lessons-From-Mad-Men. [15] "HubSpot Medium" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-01-22..[61] On June 2. 2009. [19] "Sponsor list. . . Xconomy. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 7209/ Ben-Jerry-s-Complete-Rejection-Of-Conventional-Wisdom. hubspot. Retrieved 2009-04-22. . pdf#page=3). Inc. com/ magazine/ entrepreneur/ 2010/ april/ 205496.J. hubspot. Wiley & Sons. Write Book.creating a storm on Twitter. Social Media. hubspot. .. entrepreneur. Inc.Net framework and SQL Server database. The Boston Globe. . Retrieved 2009-10-26. Mashable. Retrieved May 20. [17] "HubSpot Board of Directors" (http:/ / www. net/ HubSpot/ sxsw-2010-inbound-marketing-presentation). blogs. 2010 Twitter Grader was hacked and a message sent out to all Twitter Users who had active OAuth promoting a video of BizStone by an account started just a day earlier . "Over 120 employees .

btobonline. "Website Grader" (http:/ / blog. com). youtube. com/ apps/ pbcs. grader. 2009. hubspot.com" (http:/ / www. com [30] Corliss. "At the end of the day you need a [sic] an experienced analyst. . books. youtube. bizjournals. founder of Twitter is in Boston for a few days! Let's give him a warm welcome. Wade (April 20. . webproworld. html) [43] Announcing the AlwaysOn East Top 100 Companies (http:/ / www. com/ [48] http:/ / buzz. com/ support/ webmasters/ bin/ answer. "#73: HubSpot Internet Marketing (as of access date: rankings are updated daily)" [26] HubSpot TV podcast archive at iTunes Store (http:/ / itunes. net/ Winners/ ) [45] BtoB Social Media Awards 2010 (http:/ / www. com) (2009. com/ about). 2009.April 18). aspx). . "Twitter Co-Founder Biz Stone Visits HubSpot and Answers Five Business Questions" (http:/ / blog. hubspot." [56] Shah. [36] DiBella.. press releases. 2009. Retrieved on 2009. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www. com/ search?lang=all& q=#bizinboston). py?hl=en& answer=35769)." [24] "Webmaster Guidelines at Google" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2009.). . Rebecca (February 9. grader. hubspot. Steve (2009. . .April 14). The April Fool's joke subdomain that graded 'personality' http:/ / personality. aspx). [34] "HubSpot TV . . grader. html). 2009. Retrieved April 30.April 28. Hybernaut bury the hatchet for now" (http:/ / www. blogspot. . . Retrieved May 4. 00:00-00:13. com/ linkedin [50] http:/ / socialgrader. . Rebecca (April 20. youtube. "Have you heard? The famous Biz Stone. Retrieved 2009. com/ node/ 65221) [44] TiECON 2010 Winners (http:/ / www. Charlie Moran. pdf) (PDF). com) which ironically is an example of how not to blog. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4494/ Social-Media-Marketing-Madness-cartoon. Retrieved May 13. html). A Geek Valentine's Day Ballad" (http:/ / www. Guy (2007.April 19. "Link Love. given that there are only two postings (one within 11 minutes of the other) dating back to November 2009. . who refuses to link to her website in an emotional love story that comes full circle. Craig (2009. com/ Inbound-marketing-blog-for-small-business/ bid/ 19238/ Practical-Solutions-For-Measuring-Marketing-and-ROI). [40] http:/ / inbound. "Over two hundred #bizinboston tweets in the one week period leading up Stone's visit" [33] Roush. There's also blog about Grader itself (http:/ / graderblog. Retrieved April 22. grader. [38] "Practical Solutions For Measuring Marketing and ROI" (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2009. dll/ article?AID=/ 20100412/ FREE/ 304129956) [46] "Grader.October 5). com/ has been removed. com/ Default. [25] Todd Andrlik.April 22. grader.January 14). Google alerts.April 28. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4585/ HubSpot-TV-Forget-the-Numbers-with-Surprise-Guest-MC-Hammer. Twitter. com/ watch?v=4-lGe5MnBlY). "The key to developing a community is listening. Facebook. paying attention and engaging. . hubspot. com/ power150/ ). . hubspot. That works. Inc. blogs. 2009. "HubSpot's Rebecca Corliss longs for the inbound links of colleague Rick Burnes. Retrieved April 28. [39] "About InboundMarketing. wolf-howl. grader. google. but we also have an opportunity to push the technology to add interaction and conversation. "Social Media Marketing Madness Cartoon" (http:/ / blog. guykawasaki. twitter. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs/ ROI_from_HubSpot. Advertising Age Magazine (Crain Communications). com/ user/ HubSpot) on YouTube. com/ ). "Hubspot TV" (http:/ / offonatangent.April 20 [28] "You Oughta Know Inbound Marketing" (http:/ / www. tie50." [53] Gray. "AdAge Power 150: A Daily Ranking of Marketing Blogs" (http:/ / adage. . staciechalmersinboundmarketing. Michael (2007. com/ 2009/ 04/ hubspot-tv. xconomy. [37] "ROI from Inbound Marketing with HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www. HubSpot. "There's a tendency to copy what TV does. . hubspot. 2009. A/B web site actions." [32] "Twitter search for #bizinboston hashtag" (http:/ / search. com/ watch?v=XbfXUrtnynE). org [41] Boston Business Journal Best Places to Work (http:/ / boston.com grades websites. com/ roi/ ). com/ search-engine-optimization-forum/ 82808-what-value-hubspot-website-grader. com/ boston/ 2009/ 04/ 20/ hubspot-hybernaut-bury-the-twitter-hatchet-for-now/ ). "What is the value of the HubSpot Website Grader?" (http:/ / www." [54] Allen. aspx). [35] DiBella. aonetwork..com: Measure all that matters in inbound marketing" (http:/ / grader. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www. There is a link to a private beta of Social Inbox. "I've now run all my clients' sites through it and found that the average of all my websites ends up a measly 32. A parody of the Alanis Morissette and Glen Ballard song You Oughta Know [29] http:/ / grader.Forget the Numbers with Surprise Guest MC Hammer" (http:/ / blog. Retrieved 2009. com/ 2007/ 10/ website-grader." [47] http:/ / speaker. Dharmesh. . . Retrieved April 19. com/ seo/ why-website-grader-is-a-bad-idea/ ). html). com/ [52] Kawasaki. eventbrite. 2009).. "grader. "HubSpot. 2009). "I have a Facebook 35 . . 2009. Mark Hill (http:/ / www. . Melissa (January 2010). "Why Website Grader is a Bad Idea" (http:/ / www. April 17." [31] "#BizInBoston Tweetup" (http:/ / bizinboston. tv) (link attempts to launch iTunes) [27] HubSpot channel (http:/ / www. 2009.6!!!" [55] Garfield.HubSpot [23] Corliss. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ roi_from_hubspot_report_2010. Retrieved May 19.. and that's exciting. Retrieved 2009. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4687/ Twitter-Co-Founder-Biz-Stone-Visits-HubSpot-and-Answers-Five-Business-Questions. com/ boston-companies. p.October 3). 2010.April 28. lead411. Melissa (February 2009). "The fact that my blog did so well is entirely because of Neil Patel. com [49] http:/ / person. and Foursquare profiles. HillCartoons. hubspot. com [51] http:/ / gobbledygook. inboundmarketing. com/ boston/ event/ 13771) [42] Lead411 launches "Hottest Boston Companies" awards (http:/ / www.

. Not in Top 200 at Google.com" (http:/ / grader. .March 8). 36 External links • hubspot. com/ adamyarbrough/ status/ 1063377092). com). "Google's Sandbox Still Exists Exemplified by grader. "#hubspot It's a tradeoff." [58] Fishkin..official site • grader. seomoz. . org/ blog/ googles-sandbox-still-exists-exemplified-by-gradercom).com) ..seemingly endless volume of noise out there around marketing. com/ site/ grader. ". 'Websitegrader Website Marketing SEO Tool' . co.January 15).April 28.. [60] Yarbrough. [65] "The Tech Behind HubSpot" (http:/ / bostinnovation. Adam (2008. uk/ technology/ blog/ 2010/ feb/ 11/ twitter-grader-hacked-tweets).com" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009. The Guardian (London).December 17). . We get free good information and a bit of a sales pitch.com (http://grader. com/ 2011/ 05/ 26/ the-tech-behind-hubspot/ ).. inboundmarketing." (http:/ / twitter. .com link report for grader. com/ 2009/ 01/ 15/ hubspots-social-media-marketing-madness/ ). with JICWEBS deciding whether metrics are desirable and ABCe deciding whether they are practical. hubspot.free samples of the type of tools HubSpot uses for measuring online presence JICWEBS JICWEBS (the Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards) was created by the UK and Ireland media industry to insure independence and comparability of measurement on the web.. social media etc.April 22. These can include measurements of audience reach. The ? is how hard is the pitch?" [61] Arthur. com/ blog/ bid/ 6056/ Reactions-and-Lessons-From-the-IMU-ARG-So-Far). 2010). 2009.. Charles (February 11. com/ 2010/ 06/ 10/ hubspot-gambles-with-trust-to-explore-new-marketing-strategy/ ). Retrieved May 7. com/ [64] "Reactions and Lessons From the #IMU ARG So Far" (http:/ / www. "Let's check out some searches . [63] http:/ / www. "Twitter Grader hacked: are you a victim?" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009. frequency and activity levels including the use and effectiveness of advertising on the web and other electronic media. In effect JICWEBS works in partnership with the ABCe.com (http://www.hubspot.HubSpot group for Twitter users that tweet about podcasters that talk about marketing bloggers" [57] Ellery. #1 at Yahoo!. "Hubspot’s Social Media Marketing Madness" (http:/ / marketingisadirtyword. Web Metrics are intended to measure activity on web sites in a site centric fashion. . It IS still marketing. Retrieved May 4. . Retrieved 2009. 2010. #1 at MSN/Live" [59] "grader. [62] "HubSpot Gambles with Trust to Explore New Marketing Strategy" (http:/ / bostinnovation. guardian. Rand (2009.com) . "It's a tradeoff. . It’s getting harder and harder to find those gems that deliver real value. Nick (2009.. ..April 25.

Web analytics Technology Industry Headquarters Ramat Gan.com) • Company Blog (http://blog. Feedback is seen as an empirical tool to get insight into user behavior. and to optimize marketing and website strategies. com/ External links • Official WebSite (http://www. Kampyle's Feedback analytics enhances the capabilities of a company to understand website users. Since than Kampyle claims to have gained more than 45. Israel Key people Ariel Finkelstein. Kampyle started selling its Feedback solution in 2008.kampyle. Kampyle is said to have processed more than 12 million feedback forms in over 60 languages in 191 countries to date.Kampyle (Software) 37 Kampyle (Software) Kampyle Type Lead Generation. CEO and Co-Founder www.com) . and several account as too the number of feedback items allowed per month. kampyle. With a go-to-market as Freemium. In additon Enterprise solution is offered.com [1] Website Kampyle is an Internet company founded in 2007. Web Optimization. References [1] http:/ / www. very limited product.000 companies using Kampyle's feedback forms and analytics. that provides Feedback Analytics and Lead Generation solutions.Kampyle. Kampyle offers its solutions as SaaS (software-as-a-service). Kampyle Plug-Ins are available for Wordpress. Technology While web analytics cannot give insight into the motivation and actual user experience.Kampyle. Products Kampyle offers a free. Drupal and Joomla.

a service that was then only in its nascent stages in Iran. then called Kaspid Information Technology Limited. England). leading it to its subsequent popularity as an integrated search (SEO & PPC) company. The company shifted its focus between 1999 and 2008. .[6] Kaspid was also the first company to market SEO & Pay Per Click services for Persian web sites. turning its attentions towards business opportunities in web marketing. at which time it solely offered web design services.[5] History The company was established in 1999.000 as of June 2011.uk [2] Kaspid. eventually turning it into one of Iran's largest providers of web design and Internet marketing services. The company employs 26-50 people.Kaspid 38 Kaspid Kaspid Information Technology LTd Type Founded Headquarters Private 1999 Bournemouth Tehran Mashhad Iran . Majority shareholder Hamid Sepidnam took over as CEO of the company in 2008. England Hamid Sepidnam (CEO) Farhad kazemi Motlagh (General Manager) Web Design Services SEO Business Consulting Services Pay Per Click [1] Kaspid. He later decided to establish a branch of Kaspid in Bournemouth in England. The company. in addition to generating revenue of between £250.[3] In addition to web design services. Kaspid provides search engine optimization.000 and £999. maintained representative offices in Tehran and Mashhad.com Area served Key people Services Website Kaspid Information Technology (Persian: ‫ )ش ش ش ش ش ش شش ش ش ش ش ش ش شش ش ش شش ش‬is a web design and Internet ‫شش ش ش ش شش ششش‬ ‫ش‬ marketing company headquartered in (Bournemouth. as well as in Bournemouth in the UK.[4] .co. whilst a monthly survey conducted by Topseo named it the 18th Best Integrated Search (SEO & PPC) Company United Kingdom as of June 2011. Pay Per Click and business consulting services.

topseos. htm). co.topseos. External links • • • • Official site in English (http://www. "Kaspid to Attend 2011 Search Engine Strategies Seminar in London" (http:/ / www. topseos.com) Company Profile (http://www. uk http:/ / www. co. . . com/ releases/ 2011/ 02/ prweb5067154. co. Retrieved April 6. topseos. . uk). Retrieved Jan 25. . "Best Integrated Search (SEO & PPC) Company (ies) in United Kingdom" (http:/ / kaspid-ltd. Retrieved June 2011. com "Kaspid in TopSeo" (http:/ / www. Retrieved June 2011. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www.Kaspid.Kaspid 39 Kaspid Name abbreviation The Kaspid name is an abbreviation of Hamid Sepidnam and the last name of Farhad kazemi Motlagh.2011. namely KA from Kazemi and SPID from Sepidnam. kaspid. prweb. co.Kaspid. 2011.kaspid-ltd.Facebook/kaspid/) .uk) Official site in Persian (http://www.uk/) Official Facebook Fanpage (http://www. uk).co. uk/ rankings-of-best-integrated-search-seo-and-ppc-companies). kaspid. "Company Profile Kaspid LTD" (http:/ / kaspid-ltd.co.

[6] Kaushik has delivered keynotes at conferences such as The Art of Marketing.[2] [3] Kaushik is on the Advisory Board of University of Toronto Rotman School of Management's program on CRM Excellence[4] as well as on the Advisory Board of University of California at Irvine's program on Web Intelligence. 3.net/avinash [1] Avinash Kaushik is an entrepreneur. Paid Search Advertising.[7] eMetrics Marketing Optimization Summit. which provides online education and certification in six Internet disciplines such as Search Engine Optimization. ISBN 978-0470529393. Sybex (an imprint of Wiley).[9] and JMP Innovators Summit.0 as: "1. Kaushik co-founded Market Motive Inc. 2.[12] Business ventures Market Motive Inc In 2008. In his writing and speaking Kaushik has championed the principle of aggregation of marginal gains. and encouraged the pursuit of simplifying perceived complexity in the field of data analytics.Avinash Kaushik 40 Avinash Kaushik Avinash Kaushik Occupation Author. Russian. Social Media. Analytics Expert Website kaushik. Polish. Conversion & Public Relations.[13] Books • Web Analytics: An Hour A Day.[8] CMA Next.[10] Kaushik received the 2009 Harry V Roberts Statistical Advocate of the Year award from the American Statistical Association [11] and the 2011 Most Influential Industry Contributor award from the Web Analytics Association. The analysis of qualitative and quantitative data from your website and the competition. Web Analytics.0.. To drive a continual improvement of the online experience of your customers and prospects. ISBN 978-8126513284. 2009.[5] He is also an Associate Instructor at the University of British Columbia for the Web Analytics program. Which translates into your desired outcomes (online and offline). (translated into Italian. author and public speaker. (translated into Korean."[16] . Portuguese. 2007. Portuguese and Spanish)[15] The book defines Web Analytics 2. Sybex (an imprint of Wiley). and Japanese)[14] • Web Analytics 2. Chinese.

Retrieved Aug 15. Retrieved Nov 27. 2010. . Retrieved Aug 15. Retrieved Nov 24. [4] "Rotman Centre for CRM Excellence Advisory Board" (http:/ / www. com/ power150/ ). 2010. inc.0" (http:/ / www. "AdAge Power 150: A Daily Ranking of Marketing Blogs" (http:/ / adage. . com/ about). . [9] "CMA Next:2010 Keynote Speakers" (http:/ / www. 2010. 2010. 2010.marketmotive.youtube. . 2010. edu/ certificates/ it/ web_intel). com).webanalyticshour. [8] "Keynotes . Retrieved Dec 14. org/ ?page=awards2011). 2010. com/ about/ events/ summit2008/ speakers.Web Analytics Association" (http:/ / www. rotmancrm. 2010. marketmotive.net/avinash/): His personal blog • Authors@Google: Avinash Kaushik (http://www. html). "Web Analytics: An Hour A Day" (http:/ / webanalyticshour. [17] "Occam's Razor By Avinash Kaushik" (http:/ / www. ca/ speakers/ view/ 6/ avinash-kaushik).[18] References [1] http:/ / www. UCIrvine Extension. Retrieved Nov 24. uci. 2010-09-30. . ca/ webanalytics/ instructors. "11 Best Web Analytics Tools" (http:/ / www. Charlie Moran. chicagoasa. com/ news/ technology/ article125092. org/ convention/ ?WCE=C=47).120 tracked. Retrieved Dec 14. 2009. Retrieved 21 Dec 2010. com/ Most+ websites+ suck/ 3956144/ story. Retrieved Mar 20. htm). org/ Workshops/ e051509. [5] "Web Intelligence Certificate" (http:/ / unex. American Statistical Association Chicago Chapter. 2010. .Instructors" (http:/ / www. [6] "UBC Award of Achievement in Web Analytics . 2009. . com/ about/ AdvisoryBoard.kaushik. php). www.com. 2010. www. .0 video .Avinash Kaushik 41 Blog Kaushik's blog[17] is ranked in the AdAge Power 150 as #40 marketing blog out of 1. org/ sanjose/ 2010/ tracks/ keynotes. The University of British Columbia. Retrieved Aug 15. Retrieved Nov 27. 2007. Plenary Session 1" (http:/ / www. 2011. kaushik. "#1: Exact number tracked and their rankings are updated daily)" External links • Occam's Razor by Avinash Kaushik (http://www. html). 2010. tech. [3] "Data give miners the shaft" (http:/ / www. . ece). the-cma. Avinash Kaushik" (http:/ / www. Retrieved Nov 24. [15] "Web Analytics 2.webanalytics20. www. 2011. [14] Avinash Kaushik (2007). [12] "Awards for Excellence 2011: Recipients . aspx). financialpost. ubc. 2011. 2010. . 2008. com/ guides/ 12/ 2010/ 11-best-web-analytics-tools. emetrics. theartofmarketing. webanalyticsassociation. [13] Michael Stebbins (2008). 2006. . Magazine. kaushik. "About Market Motive" (http:/ / www. .com. . [18] Todd Andrlik. [7] "2010 Keynote Speakers. Web Analytics Association.com. Retrieved Nov 24. html). Retrieved Jan 10. jmp. Advertising Age Magazine (Crain Communications). 2010-05-26. Retrieved Nov 27. webanalytics20. [10] "JMP Innovators Summit. Financial Post. Retrieved Nov 27. Inc.San Jose California 2010" (http:/ / www. 2010. 2010. . 2010-05-04. [16] Lou Dubois (2010). 2010. Rotman Executive Programs Center For CRM Excellence. The Globe And Mail.com/watch?v=sMwQN43fwoQ): Web Analytics 2. 2008-09-24.eMetrics Marketing Optimization Summit . net/ avinash [2] "Most Websites Suck" (http:/ / www. . net/ avinash/ ). . shtml#plenary1). . [11] "American Statistical Association 2009 Statistical Advocate of the Year Award Ceremony" (http:/ / www. com). theglobeandmail.

and how other people interact with that content. [2] http:/ / klout. "Klout Now Measures Your Influence on Facebook" (http:/ / mashable. . 2010). com/ company/ klout). how influential the people that retweet you are. United States Worldwide 10 [1] Headquarters Area served Employees Slogan Website Type of site Advertising Registration Available in Launched the Standard for Influence klout. com/ 2010/ 10/ 14/ facebook-klout/ ). . California. how many spam/dead accounts are following you.[3] Methodology Klout measures influence by using data points from Twitter. Mashable. "How can you measure influence?" (http:/ / mashable. the content created. . The analysis is done on data collected from sites such as Twitter and Facebook and measures the size of a person's network. likes. Retrieved 22 October 2010. California. Retrieved 22 October 2010. Simply Zesty. TechCrunch. 2010). [4] Ben Parr (October 16.[4] References [1] "Klout" (http:/ / www. 2009 Current status Active Klout is a San Francisco based company that provides social media analytics that measures a users influence across their social network. . crunchbase. com/ 2010/ 10/ 14/ facebook-klout/ ). Retrieved 22 October 2010. such as: following count. This information is blended with Facebook data such as comment. list memberships.Klout 42 Klout Klout Type Founded Founder Private San Francisco. and the number of friends in your network to come up with a "Klout Score" that measures a user's online influence. USA Joe Fernandez Binh Tran San Francisco.com [2] Social Networking No Required English September. retweets. com/ [3] Lauren Fisher (July 20th. follower count. and unique mentions.

com/) List of web analytics software This is a list of web analytics software used to collect and display data about visiting website users.Klout 43 External links • Official website (http://http://klout.9. Name sNOWsh Company sNOWsh Technologies Mint Flowerfire Inc Platform PHP/MySQL/linux Supported databases MySQL Tracking Method Cookies.20-01 GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL Proprietary This is a comparison table of web analytics proprietary software.1 (discontinued) See web-site Tealeaf cx* Tealeaf Linux Appliance N/A See web-site .0 0. PostgreSQL MySQL Cookies & Logs Web log files & Cookies Network traffic monitor Urchin SurfReport Google Bien Logic Windows/Linux/BSD Perl/C++ 7.4 0.0 3.4.2 2.12 2.1.17 8.0.1 1. Open source This is a comparison table of web analytics software released under an open source license. Server Side.4. JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Latest stable release See web-site Price in USD mixed. Name Analog AWStats CrawlTrack GoAccess LogReport Open Web Analytics Piwik Visitors W3Perl Webalizer Platform Supported databases C Perl PHP C Perl PHP PHP C Perl C Logfile-based Logfile-based MySQL Logfile-based Logfile-based MySQL MySQL Logfile-based Logfile-based Logfile-based javascript/php pagetag javascript or php pagetag php pagetag Tracking Method Latest stable release License 6.0 3.7 3.0 7.1 1. See web-site $30/Site mixed.1 MS SQL/MySQL/Oracle Cookies via Database/PostgreSQL/Proprietary JavaScript & Logs MySQL. from $99/profile $9995 $695/Site Mint Sawmill PHP Windows/Linux/BSD/POSIX MySQL 2.

LLC. using a single file for licensing.$9. Omniture (Adobe Systems) Omniture (Adobe Systems) Webtrekk Webtrends Tracking Method Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Cookies via Javascript Mobile ID and cookies Cookies via Javascript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript/Server Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Latest stable release N/A N/A 1. LogZilla is 99% open source.1 2 4.95/month Negotiable Negotiable From $202/month N/A W3Counter KISSmetrics MouseTrace Visitor Recording InstaVista for Web Analytics Analyzer II Bango Mobile Web Analytics ClickTale Google Analytics Lucky Orange Mouseflow [4] [5] TraceMyIP.org SiteCatalyst Insight Webtrekk Q3 Webtrends .95 Negotiable Negotiable From $49/month Free .$99.0 2.1 N/A N/A N/A N/A Price in USD Free .$990/month Free Free Trial . Name Company LogZilla.95/month Various pricing options $9.122 Price in USD mixed.2 (as of 2011-02-07) Mixed This is a comparison table of web analytics. Name [2] [3] Company W3Counter KISSmetrics MouseTrace Anametrix AT Internet Bango_plc ClickTale Google Lucky Orange LLC Mouseflow ApS TraceMyIP. including a free version LogZilla [1] Hosted This is a comparison table of hosted web analytics Software as a Service.List of web analytics software Compuware Vantage Unica NetInsight Compuware Linux Appliance N/A Network traffic monitor Web log files & Cookies (with or without JavaScript) See web-site See web-site Various pricing options 44 Unica Windows/Linux/Solaris MS SQL/MySQL/Oracle Database 8.1.$280/month Free-$29.$7/month Free .95 . LLC Platform Linux Supported databases MySQL Tracking Method syslog-ng Latest stable release 3.0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 7.

2 N/A N/A Free . com http:/ / www. com http:/ / mouseflow.List of web analytics software Woopra Yahoo! Web Analytics Logcrawl iFusion Labs LLC Yahoo! Logcrawl Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Log file upload 1. pro http:/ / www. logzilla. dmoz. kissmetrics. org/ Computers/ Software/ Internet/ Site_Management/ Log_Analysis/ .95 / mo Free Free 45 External links • List of web analytics software [6] at the Open Directory Project References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. com http:/ / www. luckyorange. com http:/ / www. w3counter.$179.

History LivePerson was founded in 1992.86 million (2010) $ 14. Tel Aviv Worldwide Rob Locascio. San Francisco and Atlanta. 2010. an Israeli-based company whose web analytics and optimization platform is intended to help companies better assess and understand website and social marketing performance. Inc. In October 2000.34 million (2010) $ 9. an Israeli-based provider of real-time online customer service applications.LivePerson 46 LivePerson LivePerson. the Company acquired Kasamba Inc. web analytics.liveperson. the company completed an initial public offering on the NASDAQ[4] and in March 2011 its shares have started trading also on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange[5] . 2007.[7] On October 3. United States London. an Atlanta based provider of hosted proactive chat solutions that help companies generate revenue on their web sites. the Company acquired HumanClick. the Company acquired all of the outstanding shares of NuConomy. CEO Internet Computer software Online Communication Expert Advice LivePerson Pro US$ 109. the Company acquired Proficient Systems. of locations Area served Key people Industry Public (NASDAQ: LPSN 1995 New York City. 2006.[8] On April 13.com [3] [1] ) (TASE: LPSN [2] ) Products Revenue Operating income Net income Employees Subsidiaries Website LivePerson is a publicly held online marketing. and expert advice company based in New York City with offices in London.[9] . Tel Aviv. Its most well known product is a chat platform that allows companies to talk with visitors in real time on their websites. an online provider of live expert advice delivered to consumers via real-time chat.. In April 2000.259 million (2010) 481 (As of March 2011) HumanClick Kasamba www. Type Founded Headquarters No. incorporated in the State of Delaware in November 1995 and the LivePerson service was first introduced in November 1998.[6] On July 18.

il/ TASEEng/ Management/ GeneralPages/ SimpleSearchResult. 2006. (http://www. [8] "Kasamba to be Acquired by LivePerson" (http:/ / www. The Business segment. TechCrunch. July 19. nasdaq. marketwatch. com/ 2006/ 07/ 19/ liveperson-buys-live-chat-provider-proficient-systems-in-all-sto). com/ israeli_web/ kasamba_to_be_acquired_by_liveperson). which facilitates online transactions between independent experts and individual consumers. tase. htm?objectId=& objectType=& securityType=& searchTerm=LPSN [3] http:/ / www. 2011. asp?symbol=LPSN& selected=LPSN [2] http:/ / www. And the Consumer segment. startupisrael. liveperson. April 7. [7] "LivePerson buys live chat provider Proficient Systems in all-stock deal" (http:/ / www. subsidiary of Oracle. 2010. com/ doc/ 1G1-66024185. LivePerson provides solutions on a hosted basis. StartupIsrael. 2007. Internet Retailer. [6] "LivePerson Acquires HumanClick. Creating a Global Market Leader in Real-Time eCRM Solutions for Small and Mid-Sized Businesses" (http:/ / www. Mar 13.LivePerson 47 Products and services As a “cloud computing” or software-as-a-service (SaaS) provider. voice.10 years later" (http:/ / www. [9] "LivePerson To Acquire Web Analytics Startup NuConomy For $3 Million" (http:/ / techcrunch. • LiveChat . com/ 2010/ 01/ 25/ liveperson-to-acquire-web-analytics-startup-nuconomy-for-3-million/ ). reuters. which facilitates real-time online interactions. internetretailer. html). com/ asp/ SummaryQuote. October 13.live support software developed by LIVECHAT Software. External links LivePerson Inc. highbeam. References [1] http:/ / quotes. com/ article/ 2011/ 03/ 13/ liveperson-tase-listing-idUSLDE72C02420110313). The company is organized into two operating segments. com [4] "LivePerson returns to IPO price -. email and self-service knowledgebase for global corporations. co. Reuters. Jan 25.liveperson. Marketwatch.com. June 26.com) .product offered by ATG. 2000. 2010. click-to-call. Competitors • ATG Commerce . [5] "LivePerson dual lists on Tel Aviv Stock Exchange" (http:/ / www. Business Wire. utilizing: chat. com/ story/ liveperson-regains-ipo-price-after-10-years-2010-04-07).

webanalyticsworld. net/ 2008/ 06/ 19/ email-marketing/ lyris-hq-review-email-service-provider/ http:/ / www.lyris.lyrishq. html External links • Lyris HQ (http://www. com/ 3627609 http:/ / searchenginewatch.php/Blog-Archive) • Lyris (http://www. com/ http:/ / www. com/ Trends/ 1083-Lyris-HQ-links-ClickTracks. lyrishq.-and-E-mail-marketing http:/ / website-traffic-statistic-service-review.Lyris HQ 48 Lyris HQ Lyris HQ Developer(s) Lyris. clickz.lyrishq.-CMS. html http:/ / www. SearchEngineWatch[5] .com/) . freshclicks. Website Lyris HQ [1] Lyris HQ is an online marketing platform. com/ sew-awards http:/ / www. toptenreviews. net/ 2008/ 06/ lyris-introduces-hq-fully-integrated. freshClicks[6] and WebAnalyticsworld[7] Features • • • • • • • Email marketing Deliverability tools Content creation Web analytics Search marketing Social marketing Mobile marketing References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. cmswatch. com/ clicktracks-review.com/index. It is featured at CMS Watch[2] .com) • Lyris Blog (http://www. TopTenReviews[3] . ClickZ[4] . Inc.

aspx) Mint (software) Mint is a server-based web analytics tool.com/) • Personal site of Shaun Inman. This had led to some complaints by webmasters. com/ financialblogtalk/ news/ ifn-6-20070823MintKeepYourAnalyticsWebsiteTraffic.com.. It tracks traffic trends. 98 to 99. In 2006. internetfinancialnews. . html)." (http:/ / www. [2] Existing accounts would be operational till the end of 2009. Jennifer LeClaire (2007). and search trends. Hoboken. NJ: Wiley Pub. HTTP referrers. Retrieved 2010-01-30.. pp. References [1] Microsoft "Gatineau" Review (http:/ / dcoates.com/) .haveamint. External links • Official website (http://http://www. "Mint: Keep Your Analytics / Website Traffic. Pedro. It competed with Google Analytics and was tied to Microsoft adCenter in the same way Google has tied Google Analytics to Google Adwords. [1] Features included: • • • • Click and visitor tracking Marketing campaign reporting Conversion tracking Demographic and geographic segmentation In March 2009. designer/developer of Mint (http://www. com/ content/ 2008/ 01/ 27/ microsoft-gatineau-review). com/ blogs/ analytics/ archive/ 2009/ 03/ 12/ adcenter-analytics-beta-to-close.shauninman. Internetfinancialnews. Microsoft announced that adCenter Analytics would be discontinued. OCLC 77540819. Microsoft acquired DeepMetrix Corporation and used the analytics technology to deliver adCenter Analytics..[1] [2] References [1] Aaron Wall (2007-08-23). [2] Sostre. [2] adCenter Analytics Beta To Close (http:/ / www.Microsoft adCenter Analytics 49 Microsoft adCenter Analytics Microsoft adCenter Analytics (codenamed Gatineau) was the Microsoft's web analytics solution. ISBN 9780470098240. compared to the lack of cost to use Google Analytics. Web Analytics for Dummies. adcentercommunity. due to a five dollar fee for sign up.

Traditional analytics software on a mobile website may only provide data for HTTP requests coming from the most advanced mobile browsers. visitors. Data collected as part of mobile analytics typically includes page views. Traditional web analytics software that uses server log parsing and associates different IPs with "unique visitors" may fail to identify unique visitors. mobile search marketing. The majority of modern smartphones are able to browse websites. screen resolution. some with browsing experiences similar to those of desktop computers. It helps to determine which aspects of the website work best for mobile traffic and which mobile marketing campaigns work best for the business. Many companies use these guidelines and mobile-specific code like Wireless Markup Language or HTML5 to optimize websites for viewing on mobile devices. as well as information specific to mobile devices.js/Connect TypePad Pro Different tracking processes or mechanisms are available for each of the above platforms. mobile web analytics refers to the use of data collected as visitors access a website from a mobile phone. In a commercial context.NET Java Python ColdFusion Ruby on Rails node. Drawbacks of applying traditional web analytics Collecting mobile web analytics data is not as straightforward as traditional web analytics because many of the common methods for data collection are unreliable or do not work. service provider. Platforms • • • • • • • • • • HTML/JavaScript WordPress Mobile Pack PHP . with no data on other mobile devices browsing the site. Several dynamic server-side platforms are used to develop mobile sites. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance and return on investment. and countries. and is used to improve a website or mobile marketing campaign's audience response.Mobile web analytics 50 Mobile web analytics Mobile web analytics studies the behavior of mobile website visitors in a similar way to traditional web analytics. such as device model. Server-side tracking code is recommended for more accurate analytics reporting. such as those found in the iPhone and other smart phones and PDAs. visits. and preferred user language. manufacturer. device capabilities. the JavaScript pixel tracking mechanism is most commonly used. because the IPs from which cellular wireless network HTTP requests originate are the gateway IPs of the network access providers. and desktop promotion of mobile sites and services. The W3C Mobile Web Initiative [1] identifies best practices to help websites support mobile phone browsing. including mobile advertising. . text campaigns. Traditional tools such as Google Analytics may provide misleading data that represents only a fraction of actual mobile traffic. For unsupported/HTML sites.

allowing accurate measurement of repeat visits and long-term customer loyalty. Wi-Fi. such as user-agents. The device user may also choose to disable cookies. some mobile web analytics solutions only detect or count user visits per day. In addition. or because the mobile network operator's internet gateway removes or alters the original HTTP header due to the gateway software or use of mobile web transcoding software. This results in visitors not being properly identified and visit-related metrics not being calculated properly. such as model. This method assumes that the end user browser has JavaScript capabilities and that JavaScript is enabled. Although this is a standard capability for all desktop web browsers.Mobile web analytics Because mobile websites are typically open to access from any kind of network . As a result. and screen resolution. even if the cookie expiration time is set to a future date. persistent. mobile web analytics involve metrics and KPIs associated with mobile device information. At this time. HTTP referrer HTTP referrer information showing where a visitor navigated from is generally not provided for mobile web browsing.fixed.a traditional web analytics solution could range from fairly accurate to mostly inaccurate. This is either because the device manufacturer has disabled sending such information in the HTTP request to save bandwidth during network usage. satellite wireless. The best solutions provide reliable. These data can usually be assembled by combining device identification information taken from special HTTP headers. This method is not provided by traditional web analytics solutions because it is mobile web-specific. depending on where the HTTP requests are coming from. . HTTP cookies HTTP cookies are commonly used to mark and identify visitors. . image caching on handsets is performed regardless of any anti-caching headers output by the remote server. In some cases. such as WURFL or DeviceAtlas [2]. and unique user identities. with device capabilities stored in a device information registry. HTTP cookies are only supported by a small subset of mobile phones. manufacturer. Image tags Handset caching mechanisms impact the use of images for page tagging. most mobile web browsers do not support JavaScript sufficiently for this to work. JavaScript page tagging Page tagging notifies a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. etc. primarily because JavaScript and HTTP cookies are so unreliable on mobile browsers. though it is possible that neither may be true. the device may automatically clear cookies between browsing sessions to save on handset memory or because the browser does not have access to persistent storage. cellular wireless. 51 Problems with tracking Visitor identification Visitor identification is the most important aspect of usable mobile web analytics and one of the hardest technical aspects to accomplish. Even when cookies are supported by a device.

HTTP header analysis This tells you a number of basic facts about the mobile phone and the browser. Collecting mobile web analytics data Collection of mobile web analytics data requires a different approach from collecting traditional web analytics data. search. Boost Wireless. IP address analysis An operator database is used to identify operators and their countries based on the IP addresses of their internet gateway devices. Carriers may also share their mobile internet gateways. org/ Mobile [2] http:/ / www. this technique uses a tap between the mobile users and the web server to capture the full content of the client-server exchange.Mobile web analytics 52 IP address For desktop web browsing. IP addresses alone do not identify all operators and countries. It is the only reliable way to record clicks from advertising. sometimes across multiple countries. provided that the transmitted image is always unique. cookies. server logs. For mobile web browsing. This method helps address the lack of HTTP referrer information on mobile. work with all devices and do not require JavaScript. The level of information recorded from these transmissions depends on the architecture provided by the supplier. uses the Sprint network. com . the IP address refers to a operator-owned internet gateway machine in Canada or Norway. A number of solutions are available and the best results are obtained through the use of more than one technology. It also records visitors clicking on links to leave a site. Packet sniffing Also known as tagless data capture or passive network capture. clear differentiation between operators is critical for good mobile marketing campaigns. deviceatlas. or plugins. the client IP address refers to the internet gateway machine owned by the network operator. w3. and other marketing activities. Because these two operators have very different customer demographics. Link redirection Link redirection is an important method of tracking mobile visitor activities. References [1] http:/ / www. For devices such as the BlackBerry or for phones using Opera Mini browser software. the network address of the client machine usually gives some form of user identification and location. and many change or add gateways on a regular basis. Tagless data capture techniques are increasing in popularity for mobile web analytics because they capture all users. as some operators share their mobile networks with virtual network operators (MVNO). Image tags or beacons Images can be forced to work for mobile web analytics. for example. It can be used in conjunction with a device database such as WURFL. and not all image beacon solutions are the same.

Omniture bought behavioral targeting company Touch Clarity for $51. 2008 it agreed to acquire the Israeli e-commerce search solution provider Mercado for $6. Discover onPremise) Omniture Data Warehouse Omniture SearchCenter Omniture Recommendations Omniture Genesis Omniture Survey Omniture SiteSearch Omniture Merchandising > 1.8 billion[7] . Omniture. Inc.[5] In October. Magazine's 500 fastest-growing private companies. (formerly WebSideStory) for $394 million.[6] On September 15. 2009[8] . Utah. Inc.000 (2008) [1] Products Employees Parent Website Adobe Systems http:/ / www. CEO John Pestana. (Chairman) Michael (Mike) Herring. History The company was founded in 1996 and was backed by venture capitalists including Hummer Winblad Venture Partners. and Adobe Systems announced that Adobe would be acquiring Omniture for roughly $1. and Scale Venture Partners.5 million. and is now run as the Omniture Business Unit within Adobe. Utah Key people Josh James. Inc. CFO Omniture SiteCatalyst Omniture Test&Target Omniture Discover onDemand Omniture Insight (f.[9] . During a period of rapid growth.a. The deal was completed on October 23.[4] and also purchased Offermatica for $65 million. com Omniture is an online marketing and web analytics business unit owned by Adobe Systems. Omniture was listed on the NASDAQ in 2006[2] . It serves customers in 75 countries worldwide. omniture.[3] In late 2007 the company acquired web analytics company Visual Sciences. the company was one of Inc. University Venture Fund. 2009. with offices worldwide.Omniture 53 Omniture Omniture. Type Industry Subsidiary Web Analytics Market Research Online Optimization 1996 Founded Headquarters Orem.5 million. The Omniture Business Unit is based in Orem.k.

Computer Business Review. html). • SiteSearch. com/ news. • Insight. "Omniture Deal Delights" (http:/ / www. Ars Technica. . http:/ / www. The Guardian. a multichannel segmentation tool (both client-side and server-side analytics). Retrieved 2008-06-21.[11] It is possible to opt-out of the Omniture data-collection system. dmnews. • Genesis. • VISTA. Omniture in hot water for snooping on CS3 users" (http:/ / arstechnica. • Insight for Retail. it was derived from Omniture's Visual Sciences acquisition in 2007.net domain name. to gather visitor sentiment. 2008). [5] Madan Sheina (2007-09-10). [6] Omniture (2008-10-14). Charles (January 3. apple). thestreet. com/ story/ 10386826/ 1/ omniture-deal-delights. Omniture's main behavioural targeting solution. marketwire. TheStreet. a third-party data integration tool (the majority of integrations work with SiteCatalyst). Omniture's software as a service application. thestreet. asp?guid=6FEE3873-90C4-43A0-8758-39014F6291BD). html. • DataWarehouse. com/ press-release/ Omniture-NASDAQ-OMTR-909349. com/ press/ 455 [2] William Gabrielski (2006-06-26). data warehousing of SiteCatalyst data. • Recommendations offers automated product and content recommendations. html?cm_ven=GOOGLEN& cm_cat=FREE& cm_ite=NA). adobe. "Omniture Agrees to Acquire Mercado's Site Search and Merchandising Business" (http:/ / www. "Adobe.Omniture 54 Products • SiteCatalyst. • Publish. • Test&Target. . html. • Merchandising.[12] Omniture collects data from Apple[10] and Adobe. ars/ post/ 20071231-adobe-omniture-in-hot-water-for-snooping-on-cs3-users.com. [8] Adobe (2009-10-23). . cbronline. omniture. . http:/ / www. . html). and Facebook Ads. guardian. for web content management. Criticism Critics have accused Omniture of attempting to hide the fact they are collecting data. DMNews. co. http:/ / www. . derived in part from Touch Clarity.[11] Omniture's SiteCatalyst and SearchCenter products use the 2o7. thestreet. "Omniture buys website testing firm for $65m" (http:/ / www. adobe. com/ article_news. and to block the tracking. Microsoft Ad Center. [7] Omniture (2009-9-15). com/ _googlen/ comment/ investing/ 10294082. Formerly called Discover on Premise. offers Web analytics (client-side analytics).com. server-side analytics. Yahoo! Search Marketing. • DigitalPulse.[12] References [1] http:/ / www. drills down to the individual level of testing. an advanced segmentation tool.[10] Critics claim they do this by sending the information to a domain name that looks and sounds similar to an IP address used to connect to devices on the local network and not the Internet. a Web analytics code configuration monitoring tool. A/B and MVT (multi-variate testing). derived from Offermatica[5] • Test&Target 1:1. an Insight offering geared toward multiple online and offline retail channels. [10] Arthur. com/ aboutadobe/ invrelations/ faq_omniture. marketwire. "Omniture Offering Is Worth Data-Mining" (http:/ / www. an on-demand enterprise search product. Omniture's latest offerings as of 2010 include some social media tracking capabilities.com. Retrieved 2008-06-21. David (December 31. [11] Chartier. • Discover. [9] Adobe (2009-10-26). . com/ Omniture-acquires-Touch-Clarity/ article/ 94508/ ). uk/ technology/ 2008/ jan/ 03/ adobe. "What is Omniture. omniture. and why is it watching me?" (http:/ / www. html). • SearchCenter+ assists with paid search and content network optimization in systems such as Google's AdWords. 2007). "Omniture acquires Touch Clarity" (http:/ / www. a search and navigation offering for online stores. who use Omniture to collect usage statistics across their products. • Survey. . [4] Vishesh Kumar (2007-10-26). This has led to speculation that the domain name is used to trick users or firewall rules. com/ aboutadobe/ invrelations/ adobeandomniture. com/ press/ 777. [3] Melissa Campanelli (2007-02-14).

As a result there is no point in analyzing each path. In practice. Path analysis answers typical questions like: Where do most visitors go after they enter my home page? Is there a strong visitor relation between product A and product B on my web site?.omniture." a subset of path analysis. chips. com/ en/ privacy/ 2o7). The idea is to determine what features of the website encourage the desired result. Simply because people drink wine and eat nuts with it. Omniture. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 55 External links • omniture. or paths that lead to a dead end most frequently. . etc. A predetermined path of web site pages is specified and every visitor walking the path is a goal. Visitors who have questions about a product will go to the product information or support section of a web site. If there is a sign-up form with multiple pages. looks at "black holes" on the site. web site owners want to guide visitors to the final sign-up page. but to look for the strongest paths. The precise order of pages visited may or may not be important and may or may not be specified. Next the shop owner will reorder his shells and products to optimize his sales by putting everything in the most logical order for his visitors. nuts. this analysis is done in aggregate. such as the visitor purchasing an item or requesting a newsletter. From there they make a logical step to the frequently asked questions page if they have a specific question.Omniture [12] "What is 2o7. Using maps The paths visitors walk in a web site can lead to an endless number of unique paths.com) . A web site owner also wants to analyze visitor behavior. by descending frequency of use. ranking the paths (sequences of pages) visited prior to the desired event. omniture. especially when they are selecting or buying products. is a process of determining a sequence of pages visited in a visitor session prior to some desired event. called an end point analysis.official site Path analysis (computing) Path analysis. . "Fallout analysis. Understanding visitors In the real world when you visit a shop the shelves and products are not placed in a random order. In a supermarket this will typically result in the wine shell next to a variety of cookies. These strongest paths are typically shown in a graphical map or in text like: Page A --> Page B --> Page D --> Exit. This approach is very helpful when analyzing how many visitors reach a certain destination page. In most web sites there is a same logic that can be applied. the owner wants to convert as many visitors to a completed purchase. paths or features that confuse or lose potential customers. Funnels and Goals Google Analytics provides a path function with funnels and goals. Questions that can't be answered by page hits and unique visitors statistics.com (http://www. The shop owner carefully analyzes his visitors and path they walk through his shop.net?" (http:/ / www. For example if a web site offers products for sale. in Internet website analytics.

com/ 2008/ 12/ getting-the-most-from-path-analysis/ [3] http:/ / www.Path analysis (computing) 56 External links • MoveMetrics Path Analysis software [1] • Getting the Most from Path Analysis [2] • Is User Path Analysis The Right Path? [3] References [1] http:/ / www. showArticleHomePage& art_aid=94308 . com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. bridgelinesw. mediapost. com [2] http:/ / blog. movemetrics.

net announced the availability of Piwik as a hosted application for developers. Retrieved 2008-09-23.net Hosted Apps" (http:/ / sourceforge. org/ "New Documentation: Differences between Piwik and phpMyVisites?" (http:/ / dev. "piwik Open Source web analytics added to SourceForge. more visually appealing graphs (using Flash). net/ blog/ potm-200907/ ) [6] "Best of open source enterprise software" (http:/ / www. com/ d/ open-source/ best-open-source-enterprise-software-740& current=10& last=3#slideshowTop). Piwik was named among the best of open source enterprise in InfoWorld's 2009 Bossie Awards. .org [1] Piwik is an open source web analytics system written in PHP. Retrieved 2010-12-20.[6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / piwik. July 2009 (http:/ / sourceforge. a module architecture allowing for plugins. "Hosted Apps" (http:/ / sourceforge. org/ trac/ ticket/ 275). The major differences being that Piwik would offer REST APIs. Retrieved 2008-11-26.[5] In August 2009.cc/offer/open-source-projects/google2piwik/) .[2] On November 21. . piwik. . [5] Project of the Month. . 2009-01-10. net/ community/ forum/ topic. infoworld.org/) • Google2Piwik (http://clearcode. 2008-11-21.[3] [4] Piwik was selected SourceForge.Piwik 57 Piwik Piwik Stable release Operating system Available in Type License Website 1.3. and better performance. External links • Official website (http://piwik.4 / April 30. php?id=4148& page& replies=1). Retrieved 2010-12-20. SourceForge. Following the stable release of phpMyVisites v2. net/ apps/ trac/ sourceforge/ wiki/ Hosted Apps?version=1).net's Project of the Month for July 2009. 2011 Cross-platform PHP Web analytics GPL (version 3) piwik. the development team announced future efforts would be directed to Piwik. 2009-08-31. 2008.

In July 2009. the company officially changed its name to PostRank Inc. PostRank filtering is built into a Facebook app. AideRSS re-launched their website as postrank. [2] .com to focus the company's work more on the core PostRank technology. In October 2008. clicks. In addition to filtering on the website. Social media engagement metrics Operating system Cross-platform Type Website Web analytics postrank. The company was formerly called AideRSS. Google Reader and WordPress plug-in. which includes blog comments and links.com [1] PostRank is a social media analytics service owned by Google that uses a proprietary ranking algorithm to measure "social engagement". is a collection of APIs and reports to provide real-time and data mining Social Web data to companies to use in applications. measure marketing. launched in August.postRank 58 postRank PostRank Inc. launched in September. Internet bookmarks. launched in July 2009. is a service for brands and public relations and marketing agencies to work with bloggers to run product campaigns and receive consulting services. The engagement metrics provide the data for several services. PostRank filtering has also been added to the Ad Age Power 150 list of marketing blogs. In June 2011. the Atlantic 50 list of bloggers and columnists. PostRank Data Services. 2009. and activities from social network services such as Twitter. is a service for bloggers and online publishers to track where and how their audiences are sharing and organizing their content on the Social Web and perform competitive analysis. PostRank Connect. and Facebook. Digg. postRank has been acquired by Google. and for strategic planning. PostRank Analytics. and the Read It Later bookmarking service. page views. 2010. Inc. and the Top Posts Web widget.

com/ power150/ [12] http:/ / www. com [5] http:/ / analytics. com [7] http:/ / wordpress. com [11] http:/ / adage. postrank.in/2010/09/17/post-rank-a-must-for-the-bloggers/Digital Analog . com http:/ / data. com/ people/ index/ [13] http:/ / readitlaterlist. postrank. com [6] http:/ / connect. postrank. com/ • http://digitalanalog. com/ gr [10] http:/ / apidocs. theatlanticwire. org/ extend/ plugins/ wp-postrank/ [8] http:/ / labs. com/ top_posts [9] http:/ / labs. zdnet. com/ http:/ / www. co. postrank. postrank. postrank. postrank.postRank 59 External links • • • • • • • • • • • PostRank home page [3] PostRank Data Services home page [4] PostRank Analytics home page [5] PostRank Connect home page [6] PostRank WordPress plugin [7] PostRank Top Posts Widget [8] PostRank Google Reader extension [9] PostRank API Documentation [10] AdAge Power150 [11] The Atlantic 50 [12] Read It Later [13] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / postrank. uk/ news/ mergers-and-acquisitions/ 2011/ 06/ 06/ google-buys-postrank-analytics-firm-40092996/ http:/ / www.

History RSS feeds have been around since 1999 as a form of internet marketing. The problem with this method is that if the feed is syndicated by a search engine for instance then this will defeat the purpose of the unique URLs as many people could potentially view the RSS feed via a single URL. This will give a rough estimate as to how many times the RSS feed has been viewed. The number of requests made can be measured by using the web server log files. all with their own problems in terms of accuracy. or the same computer may have a different IP address at different times.This method requires heavy web server programming to auto generate a different RSS feed URL for each visitor to the website.There are services available on the Internet that will syndicate your RSS feed and then track all requests made to their syndication of your RSS feed. Some aggregators (for example. Method 4 Estimating number of subscribers from the log files. although it is probably higher than the real number because people may sign up for accounts with multiple aggregators and never delete their subscriptions and because they may read the same feeds at different computers.such as web browsers -. Other readers -. These services come free and paid forms. The problem with this method is that all analytical data about the feeds are controlled by the service provider and so not easily accessible or transferable. The problem with this method is that not all RSS feed aggregators will display images and parse HTML. Feed tracking methods have been growing in popularity Technology There are currently many methods of tracking RSS feeds.can be counted by noting the number of unique IP addresses that retrieve the file in a given period. it is difficult to track the usage of RSS feeds.RSS tracking 60 RSS tracking RSS Tracking is a methodology for tracking RSS feeds. Method 1 Transparent 1×1 pixel images . Method 2 Third-arty services . however unlike other forms of publishing information on the internet. The visitor's RSS feed activity can then be tracked accurately using standard web analytics applications. Method 3 Unique URL per feed . .These images can be embedded within the content of the RSS feed by linking to the image which should be held on the web server. Bloglines and Google Reader) include a number of unique users on whose behalf the feed is being downloaded in the HTTP request. This provides an estimate of actual readership.

rss-specifications. com/ 2007/ 05/ counting_rss_subscribers. html . com/ 2007/ 05/ 01/ how-to-accurately-track-rss-subscribers/ http:/ / www. com http:/ / www. sclanalytics.RSS tracking 61 External links • • • • • Feed Burner [1] Tracking RSS subscribers [2] Tracking RSS [3] Tracking RSS Using a Web Analytics Tool [4] Counting RSS Subscribers [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. com/ info/ effectively-tracking-rss-feeds http:/ / www. rss4lib. htm http:/ / www. feedburner. webanalyticmatt. com/ measuring-tracking-rss.

as a turnkey on-premise system appliance. php) reviews Sawmill.5 / June 2. syslog servers. mail servers. Log analysis sawmill. Sawmill analyzes any device or software package producing a log file and that includes web servers. [5] Streaming Media European Readers' Choice Awards (http:/ / www.net [1] Sawmill is a software package for the statistical analysis and reporting of log files. with dynamic contextual filtering. a rebranded version of Sawmill. with new formats added on request. [4] SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting (http:/ / www. com/ products/ reporting/ index.1.[5] Sawmill is listed in the Ideal Observer's Web Analytics Tool Overview [6] . net/ [2] Cisco IronPort Web Security Appliance Management (http:/ / www. com/ web-analytics-tools/ index. network devices (switches & routers etc. [6] Ideal Observer's Web Analytics Tool Overview (http:/ / www. 'live' data zooming.[3] A branded version of it is also sold by SonicWALL as "SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting". databases etc. at this time Sawmill provides support for approximately 850 server log file formats. sonicwall. and as a SaaS service. A branded version of it is also sold by Cisco Systems as Sawmill for IronPort. idealobserver. . user interface customization. ironport. streamingmediaglobal. com/ in/ 488_8564. References [1] http:/ / sawmill. com/ Readerschoiceeurope/ ). com/ pdf/ web_sec_mgmt_ds. a rebranded version of Sawmill. Sawmill is the OEM reporting engine sold by Blue Coat Systems as a bundled part of their proxy server product. vicomsoft. 1998 8. Available since 1997. Sawmill also includes a page tagging server and JavaScript page tag for the analysis of client side clicks (client requests) providing a total view of visitor traffic and on-site behavioural activity.). downloaded 2009-11-23. html) contains a description of InterGate Intelligence. Sawmill also incorporates real-time reporting and real-time alerting. pdf) contains description of Sawmill for IronPort.[2] A branded version of it is also sold by Vicomsoft Ltd as InterGate Intelligence. [3] Intergate Intelligence (http:/ / www.[4] Sawmill was a second runner-up in the 2009 Streaming Media European Readers' Choice Awards. Sawmill Analytics is offered in three forms. 2010 C Operating system Cross-platform Type Website Web analytics. as a software package for user deployment.Sawmill (software) 62 Sawmill (software) Sawmill Developer(s) Initial release Stable release Written in Flowerfire Inc. firewalls. proxy servers. html) contains a description of SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting. and custom calculated reports.

• http://www.sourceforge.19817. Schulman began popularizing the term "content engineer"[2] to describe marketing’s new role in creating. he was named one of the Top CMOs on Twitter by Social Media Marketing Magazine[8] . After that.html) from AWStats documentation • PC Magazine review (http://www. . training. Keylime Software (acquired by Yahoo). In 2005. Schulman is currently the chief marketing officer for Eightfold Logic[4] . Schulman holds a degree in English and Journalism from the University of the Pacific.sawmill. His past speaking experience includes South by Southwest (SXSW). a social media analytics firm. Schulman was named as one of the top 100 B-to-B marketing executives by BtoB Magazine in 2004[7] . and ViralHeat.uk/). a New York-based web analytic consulting company.co.net (http://www.pcmag. a business strategy consulting practice advising new media companies.sawmill. author and speaker on the topic of new media and marketing. COMDEX and the Direct Marketing Association. a mobile analytics company acquired by Nokia. retrieved 2009-11-27 • Tiscali review (http://www.co. Schulman has also evangelized[3] creating a "virtuous" marketing cycle through inbound marketing. Schulman served as chief marketing officer for InsideView and WebSideStory[5] (now part of Adobe Systems).information-management.Sawmill (software) 63 External links • http://www. Distribution. Schulman sits on the board at Technology Leaders.asp) of Sawmill 6 from 2001. Currently.com/issues/2007_51/10001853-1.2817. Prior to Eightfold Logic.uk (http://www. He has been a board advisor[9] to Motally.html) of Sawmill 7 from Information Management Magazine. Pelin Thorogood. September 1. Along with his partner. Schulman was a founding board member of the Web Analytics Association[6] and was also the founder and CEO of one of the first software as a service (SaaS) companies.sawmill.com/article2/0. and one of the first practitioners of on-demand web analytics. 2008. in 1997. In 2011.net/docs/awstats_compare. he served as the general manager of Internet Products at Unica Corporation (acquired by IBM). helping lead the latter through its initial public offering. • comparison of analytics software (http://awstats. distributing and optimizing the different types of content required to engage customers on the interactive web.[1] Schulman is a founder and principal of Schulman+Thorogood Group.net/).sawmill. an inbound marketing company. Rand Schulman Rand Schulman is an American marketing executive.00. for universal web log analysis and reporting. sales and support for the EMEA region. Retrieved 2009-12-03.

The acronym "SEOs" can refer to "search engine optimizers. or inbound links. com). content management systems. com/ ). btobonline. btobonline. Social Media Marketing Magazine (http:/ / www. btobonline. (5/17/10) "Enquisite Rebrands as Eightfold Logic. video search. dll/ article?AID=/ 20040716/ FREE/ 407160707) [8] Huffman. The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe website designs. btobonline. images. com). cfm?action=web_extra& web_extra_id) [4] Hosford.schulmanthorogood. BtoB (http:/ / www. BtoB (http:/ / www. com/ mobile-analytics-firm-motally-adds-executives-from-admob-jupiter-research-and-mmetrics-to-board-of-directors-and-advisory-board/ ) External links • • • • Eightfold Logic (http://www. Stone Temple Consulting (http:/ / www. known as black hat SEO or spamdexing. including image search. stonetemple. (1998-2011) “About Us . cfm). the earlier (or higher on the page). smmmagazine. Phil. com). com/ exclusives/ top-cmos-on-twitter/ ) [9] Crenk.The WAA Story” (http:/ / www. Kent. com/ ). menus. and other elements that have been optimized for the purpose of search engine exposure. keyword stuffing and article spinning that degrade both the relevance of search results and the quality of user-experience with . academic search[1] . edu/ alumni/ enterprise/ fall2010/ index. Pelin. and by employees who perform SEO services in-house. com/ articles/ interview-rand-schulman. btobonline. stonetemple. edu/ alumni/ enterprise/ fall2010/ index. As an Internet marketing strategy. what people search for. org/ ?page=aboutus) [7] BtoB. SEO considers how search engines work. Eric. local search. com/ blog/ saas/ era-of-the-content-engineer/ 71) [3] Thorogood. WAA (http:/ / www. ZDNet (http:/ / www. Richard. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. shopping carts. zdnet.0?" (http:/ / www.insideview. In general. Jupiter Research and M:Metrics to Board of Directors and Advisory Board" (http:/ / crenk. johnson. dll/ article?AID=/ 20100517/ FREE/ 100519930/ 1001) [5] Karpinski.0” (http:/ / www2. Other forms of search engine marketing (SEM) target paid listings. smmmagazine. This gives a website web presence.eightfoldlogic. cornell.webanalyticsassociation. Another class of techniques. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks. com). (7/16/07) "Rand Schulman and Eric Enge Talk About Web Analytics" (http:/ / www. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content. Hires CMO" (http:/ / www. and more frequently a site appears in the search results list. (3/29/11) "Top CMOs on Twitter" (http:/ / www. btobonline.com) Web Analytics Association (http://www. com/ apps/ pbcs. cornell. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. johnson. videos. com/ apps/ pbcs. shtml) [2] Wainewright. zdnet. SEO may target different kinds of search. dll/ article?AID=/ 20061113/ FREE/ 711130724) [6] Web Analytics Association. the actual search terms typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. news search and industry-specific vertical search engines. (11/13/06) "What exactly is Web 2. SEO tactics may be incorporated into website development and design. crenk. (4/22/10) "Mobile Analytics Firm Motally Adds Executives from AdMob. Crenk (http:/ / www. (7/16/04) "Who's Who 2004" (http:/ / www. is another SEO tactic.com) InsideView (http://www. com/ ).Rand Schulman 64 References [1] Enge. com/ apps/ pbcs. (12/06/05) “Era of the Content Engineer” (http:/ / www. Cornell Enterprise Online (http:/ / www2. webanalyticsassociation. the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. webanalyticsassociation. (Fall 2010) “Birth of Customer 2. uses methods such as link farms." a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients.com) Schulman+Thorogood Group (http://www.org/) Search engine optimization Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. Christopher. BtoB (http:/ / www. org/ ).

[5] The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing that phrase is by Bruce Clay effective March. 1997. taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate.Search engine optimization search engines." a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. or index files in engines like ALIWEB. or URL. To provide better results to their users. known as an indexer. which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date.[6] Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag.[11] By 2004. and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches.[8] By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster's control. such as the words it contains and where these are located. Graduate students at Stanford University. links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. meta tags. where a second program. however. Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms. the phrase "search engine optimization" probably came into use in 1997. is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links. webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine. rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters. and return information found on the page to be indexed. Page and Brin founded Google in 1998. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable. Initially. 1997. Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet [10] Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered users. In effect. PageRank. Larry Page and Sergey Brin. who liked its simple design.[12] The leading . involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming. Inaccurate. developed "backrub. allowing those results to be false would turn users to find other search sources. buying. all webmasters needed to do was submit the address of a page.[9] PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web. search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results. Although PageRank was more difficult to game. The number calculated by the algorithm.[3] The first documented use of the term Search Engine Optimization was John Audette [4] and his company Multimedia Marketing Group as documented by a web page from the MMG site from August. Some of these schemes. 65 History Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s. as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. Google says it ranks sites using more than 200 different signals. and all links the page contains. as well as any weight for specific words. headings. creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners. Many sites focused on exchanging. search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation. often on a massive scale. Meta tags provide a guide to each page's content. this means that some links are stronger than others. to the various engines which would send a "spider" to "crawl" that page. as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency. or link farms. and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. Search engines look for sites that employ these techniques in order to remove them from their indices. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search. extracts various information about the page. as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan. because the webmaster's choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site's actual content. and selling links. and follows links from one page to another.[7] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines. incomplete. extract links to other pages from it.[2] The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine's own server.

and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences. a well-known software engineer at Google.[15] In 2005 Google began personalizing search results for each user. adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings. In 2005. which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients. Depending on their history of previous searches.[16] In 2008. do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages.[27] Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry.[22] 66 Relationship with search engines By 1997 search engines recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines. such as Rand Fishkin.[13] [14] SEO practitioners may also study patents held by various search engines to gain insight into the algorithms. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results. there is potential for an adversarial relationship between search engines and SEO service providers. Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results. have studied different approaches to search engine optimization. In order to avoid the above. [20] In December 2009 Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results.[24] was created to discuss and minimize the damaging effects of aggressive web content providers. Google crafted results for logged in users. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes.[17] In 2007 Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank. Matt Cutts. Google. In fact. Bruce Clay said that "ranking is dead" because of personalized search.[26] Google's Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients. Flash and Javascript. Aaron Wall and Jill Whalen.[21] Real-time-search was introduced in late 2009 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web. Early search engines. SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting. some search engines now have a vested interest in the health of the optimization community.[18] On June 15. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization. Notable SEO service providers. Traffic Power. in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting. Google . and have published their opinions in online forums and blogs. announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way. and seminars. Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links.[25] Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban.Search engine optimization search engines.[19] As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank. because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search.[23] Yahoo and Google offices Due to the high marketing value of targeted search results. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings.[28] [29] [30] Google has a Sitemaps program[31] to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website. and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords. Bing. an annual conference. and Yahoo. AIRWeb. Barry Schwartz. In 2005. the Wall Street Journal reported on a company. chats. with the advent of paid inclusion. such as Infoseek. It would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked. 2009.

flash files.[34] Two major directories. and dynamic content. and how many pages have been indexed by their search engine. notably Yahoo!. Bing and Yahoo!. especially pages that aren't discoverable by automatically following links. the robots. use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found.Search engine optimization guidelines are a list of suggested practices Google has provided as guidance to webmasters. Adding relevant keywords to a web page's meta data. Yahoo! Site Explorer provides a way for webmasters to submit URLs. search engines sometimes have problems with crawling sites with certain kinds of graphic content. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled. .txt file is then parsed. such as Google. so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic. it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. Additionally. In March 2007. Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam. including the title tag and meta description. content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase. allowing users to determine the crawl rate.txt file in the root directory of the domain. When a search engine visits a site. [38] Preventing crawling To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file. but do not guarantee specific ranking within the search results. will tend to improve the relevancy of a site's search listings. portable document format files. Some search engines. 67 Methods Getting indexed The leading search engines. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls.[32] Bing Toolbox provides a way from webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds.[37] Additionally. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically.[39] Increasing prominence A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results. the Yahoo Directory and the Open Directory Project both require manual submission and human editorial review. webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots.[33] Such programs usually guarantee inclusion in the database. a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine's database by using a meta tag specific to robots.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. using the "canonical" meta tag[41] or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page's link popularity score. operate a paid submission service that guarantee crawling for either a set fee or cost per click. thus increasing traffic. The robots. and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled. Not every page is indexed by the search engines.[40] Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site.[36] Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site.[35] Google offers Google Webmaster Tools. determine how many pages are in the Yahoo! index and view link information. Cross linking between [40] Writing pages of the same website to provide more links to most important pages may improve its visibility.

White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility. their algorithms change. in a twist of irony.[51] A top-ranked SEO blog Seomoz. however.[46] Both companies. or by a manual site review. building high quality web pages to engage and persuade. achieved through optimization techniques and not paid advertising. making efforts to deliver quality content to an audience that has requested the quality content. and were restored to Google's list. or positioned off screen. and there are no guarantees of continued referrals. Some industry commentators classify these methods. and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders. it will announce how and when the ranking algorithm will change a few months before changing the algorithm). a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors.[47] As a marketing strategy SEO is not necessarily an appropriate strategy for every website. and the practitioners who employ them. in an invisible div. or black hat SEO. fixed the offending pages. White Hat SEO is merely effective marketing. either as text colored similar to the background. A successful Internet marketing campaign may drive organic traffic. generate a return on investment. such as Google's PageRank. as either white hat SEO. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty. but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines. quickly apologized. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users. receive a very small share of their traffic from search engines. whereas black hats anticipate that their sites will eventually be banned once the search engines discover what they are doing. rather than attempting to game the algorithm. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden.Search engine optimization 68 White hat versus black hat SEO techniques are classified by some into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design.[43] An SEO tactic.[50] It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic.org[52] has suggested.[53] . or involve deception.[42] White hats tend to produce results that last a long time." Instead. and those techniques that search engines do not approve of and attempt to minimize the effect of. a technique known as cloaking. A search engine's algorithm takes this into account. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine. their main sources of traffic are links from other websites. addressing technical issues that may keep search engines from crawling and indexing those sites. to web pages. and improving a site's conversion rate. Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods. "Search marketers. Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines. referred to as spamdexing. (Some trading sites such as eBay can be a special case for this. depending on the site operator's goals. Traditional marketing means have allowed this through transparency and exposure. One infamous example was the February 2006 Google removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices.[45] although the two are not identical. search engines are not paid for organic search traffic. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines' algorithms. this is an important distinction to note. setting up analytics [49] SEO may programs to enable site owners to measure their successes. not for search engines.[48] This includes paid search advertising which has its own version of SEO called ATO (Ad Text Optimization). technique or method is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines' guidelines and involves no deception. but it also may involve the use of paid advertising on search engines and other pages. However. As the search engine guidelines[28] [29] [30] [44] are not written as a series of rules or commandments. either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. and other Internet marketing strategies can be much more effective.

[7] Cory Doctorow (August 26. 2001). "Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co. Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu.[60] [61] Notes [1] Beel. Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches. .[54] In markets outside the United States. searchenginewatch. php?p=2119& postcount=10). US Library of Congress Copyright Office) "The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / cocatalog. Otherwise. when Google is not leading in a given market. In most cases. thehistoryofseo. com/ articles/ metacrap. Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages. and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007. (Document Number 19970801004204)." (http:/ / www. Archived from (Document Number 19970801004204) the original (http:/ / www. com/ group/ alt. The most notable markets where this is the case are China. SearchKing filed suit in the United States District Court.Search engine optimization 69 International markets Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. regardless of language. and partially granted Google's motion for Rule 11 sanctions against KinderStart's attorney. Retrieved 2007-05-07.[56] Legal precedents On October 17. cgi?Search_Arg=TX0005001745& Search_Code=REGS& PID=_BQjecgZXtqzP_qe3Szqb-aeqs& SEQ=20110101030626& CNT=25& HIST=1). spam/ browse_thread/ thread/ 6fee2777dc17b8ab/ 3858bff94e56aff3?lnk=st& q="search+ engine+ optimization"& rnum=1#3858bff94e56aff3). On March 16. KinderStart filed a lawsuit against Google over search engine rankings. 2004). net-abuse. Jöran and Gipp. [3] Danny Sullivan (June 14. "Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw-men of the meta-utopia" (http:/ / web.[56] While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time. [4] http:/ / www. Search Engine Watch.[56] As of June 2008. . (Document Registration Number TX0005001745. it is lagging behind a local player. mmgco. e-learningguru. The Second International WWW Conference Chicago. [6] (Document Registration Number TX0005001745. e-learningguru. 2007 the United States District Court for the Northern District of California (San Jose Division) dismissed KinderStart's complaint without leave to amend. See Google groups thread (http:/ / groups. As of 2009. Retrieved 2007-05-08. October 17–20. mmgco. "Who Invented the Term "Search Engine Optimization"?" (http:/ / forums. the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise. . htm) on 2007-04-09. pdf) (PDF). org/ web/ 19970801004204/ www. Erik (2010). The search engines' market shares vary from market to market. com/ showpost. USA.[57] That market share is achieved in a number of countries. . Yahoo! Japan. sciplore. archive. 2002. Japan. com/ seo-interviews/ john-audette/ [5] (Document Number 19970801004204) "Documentation of Who Invented SEO at the Internet Way Back Machine" (http:/ / web. registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market. gov/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. Retrieved 2010-04-18. org/ web/ 20070409062313/ http:/ / www. Yandex and Seznam are market leaders. htm). com/ campaign. org/ resources/ phd/ pinkerton_2000. html). SearchKing's claim was that Google's tactics to prevent spamdexing constituted a tortious interference with contractual relations. South Korea. 176–190. In 2003. requiring him to pay part of Google's legal expenses. pdf). the court granted Google's motion to dismiss the complaint because SearchKing "failed to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. Google had an 85-90% market share in Germany. . 2003. US Library of Congress Copyright Office). against the search engine Google. org/ publications/ 2010-ASEO--preprint."[58] [59] In March 2006. and web hosting that provides a local IP address. "Finding What People Want: Experiences with the WebCrawler" (http:/ / www. there were only about five in Germany. e-LearningGuru. Journal of Scholarly Publishing. loc. Western District of Oklahoma. Google's share is often larger.[55] As of 2006. google. html) on 1997-08-01. as does competition. com/ campaign. there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. On May 27. the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. current-events. Retrieved 2007-05-14. com/ articles/ metacrap. Naver. Kinderstart's website was removed from Google's index prior to the lawsuit and the amount of traffic to the site dropped by 70%. [2] Brian Pinkerton. Bela and Wilde. 1994. archive. pp. webir.

com/ 2007/ 06/ 03/ business/ yourmoney/ 03google. Retrieved 2007-06-06. html?res=940DE0DF123BF932A25752C1A960958260).com. . searchengineland. . Retrieved 2007-05-15. Retrieved 2007-04-18. . com/ 070508-165231.clickz. edu/ ~backrub/ google. searchenginewatch.com.webpronews. com/ webmasters/ sitemaps/ login). nytimes. edu/ ). wired. . Retrieved 2007-05-09. Retrieved 2009-08-17. SEOmoz. [33] "Submitting To Search Crawlers: Google. nytimes. html). D. com/ topnews/ 2008/ 11/ 17/ seo-about-to-get-turned-on-its-ear). "Understanding Search Engine Patents" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. Retrieved 2007-05-15. H. "Link Spam Alliances" (http:/ / infolab. [21] "Personalized Search for everyone" (http:/ / googleblog. com/ blog/ confirming-a-penalty/ ). Proc. Matt Cutts. html?page=2167871). Search Engine Watch. google. L.1284. aspx?t=SEARCH_WEBMASTER_REF_GuidelinesforOptimizingSite. blogspot. Retrieved 2007-05-09.searchenginejournal. html?page=2167881). [13] Danny Sullivan (September 29. . 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[18] "8 Things We Learned About Google PageRank" (http:/ / www. Penenberg (September 8.Search Engine Watch (SEW)" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. php). [27] Matt Cutts (February 2. . Proceedings of the seventh international conference on World Wide Web. "The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine" (http:/ / www-db. Google Blog. .

Retrieved 2008-06-23.com. May 27. [54] Graham. searchenginejournal. .com v. [47] Matt Cutts (February 7 2006). [59] Stefanie Olsen (May 30.com. Retrieved 2007-05-09. mattcutts. seomoz. com/ showPage. html). Retrieved 2007-05-09. Retrieved 2007-05-09. Inc. com/ docs/ 618281/ Order-(Granting-Googles-Motion-to-Dismiss-Search-Kings-Complaint)) (PDF). "Recent reinclusions" (http:/ / www. June 24. html?page=3483941). com/ showPage. Google Technology.aspx?mkt=en-us&project=wl_webmasters& querytype=&query=&tmt=&domain=help.live. mattcutts. mattcutts. .hastingsresearch. 2007).org. html).ask. . . com/ articles/ accessibilityseo).shtml) • " The Dirty Little Secrets of Search (http://www. blog.com Webmaster Guidelines (http://about. Retrieved 2007-05-10. Search Engine Watch. 2004). "The search engine that could" (http:/ / www.com/blog. [46] Matt Cutts (February 4 2006). "Search Engine Optimizing for Europe" (http:/ / www. com/ 2100-1032_3-1011740. [60] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: KinderStart v. . Retrieved 2007-05-16.com/l/us/yahoo/search/basics/basics-18.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer. "Black Hat/White Hat Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / www. Jefferson (2003-08-26).com/2011/02/13/business/13search.bing. A List Apart. useit. "Search Engines as Leeches on the Web" (http:/ / www. "Condemned To Google Hell" (http:/ / www. [48] "What SEO Isn't" (http:/ / blog. Forbes. blog. "Search Engine Showdown: Black hats vs. com/ community/ blogs/ webmaster/ archive/ 2009/ 02/ 12/ partnering-to-help-solve-duplicate-content-issues. ericgoldman.v7n.com/net/ 09-SEO-ELIS-encyclopedia-article.html) • Bing Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. com/ 2006/ 06/ 24/ what-seo-isnt/ ). 2006).com&format=b1) • Ask. mattcutts. html). www. an article from the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences.com/help. SearchEngineWatch. forbes. Retrieved 2007-05-14. Retrieved 2007-05-15. Google Dismissed—With Sanctions Against KinderStart's Counsel" (http:/ / blog.Webmaster Blog . . [45] Andy Hagans (November 08 2005). Retrieved 2007-05-31.com/en/docs/about/webmasters. [61] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: Google Sued Over Rankings—KinderStart. seomoz. [56] Mike Grehan (April 3. org/ archives/ 2007/ 03/ kinderstart_v_g_2.org. searchenginejournal. "High Accessibility Is Effective Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / alistapart. com/ blog/ ramping-up-on-international-webspam/ ). blog. [53] "A survey of 25 blogs in the search space comparing external metrics to visitor tracking data" (http:/ / www. . grokdotcom. Third Edition . . Retrieved 2007-05-09. 2006). co. bing.ericgoldman. White hats at SES" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. . CNET. com/ webmasters/ seo. . . . USA Today. useit. docstoc. v7n. com/ 2007/ 03/ 13/ the-battle-between-search-engine-optimization-and-conversion-who-wins/ ). guardian. com/ showPage. com/ alertbox/ search_engines. Retrieved 2007-05-09. .html). [44] "What's an SEO? Does Google recommend working with companies that offer to make my site Google-friendly?" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-05-23. html?page=3595926).com.com/blog. 2006. 71 External links • Google Webmaster Guidelines (http://www. usatoday. .Partnering to help solve duplicate content issues . [52] "SEOmoz: Best SEO Blog of 2006" (http:/ / www. [55] Greg Jarboe (2007-02-22). Google" (http:/ / blog.. Retrieved 2007-05-31. html). com. . . "Google UK closes in on 90% market share" (http:/ / www. "Ramping up on international webspam" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-10-30. Click.html). htm).com. [57] Jack Schofield (2008-06-10).com. org/ archives/ 2006/ 03/ google_sued_ove. google." article in The New York Times (February 12. Retrieved 2007-05-15. html?page=3625072). Retrieved 2008-06-23. com/ whalen/ 2004/ 1116_jw1. clickz. London: Guardian.com. . searchengineguide. Inc. . com/ tech/ news/ 2003-08-25-google_x.com.org.live. [51] Jakob Nielsen (January 9. org/ article/ search-blog-stats#4). google. Retrieved 2007-04-18.ericgoldman. [50] Andy Greenberg (April 30.Search engine optimization [41] "Bing .google. [42] Andrew Goodman.py?hl=en& answer=35769) • Yahoo! Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. Grok. 2003. aspx). uk/ technology/ blog/ 2008/ jun/ 10/ googleukclosesinon90mark). Retrieved 2008-06-10. 2011) • Search Engine Optimization and User Behavior (http://www. . com/ blog/ recent-reinclusions/ ). CIV-02-1457-M" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-05-09. [58] "Search King. .yahoo.nytimes. Retrieved 2007-05-14. html?partner=rss). com/ technology/ 2007/ 04/ 29/ sanar-google-skyfacet-tech-cx_ag_0430googhell.Bing Community" (http:/ / www. "Judge dismisses suit against Google" (http:/ / news. [43] Jill Whalen (November 16. docstoc. ericgoldman. 2007. January 3. "The Battle Between Search Engine Optimization and Conversion: Who Wins?" (http:/ / www. 2003). . htm). htm). [49] Melissa Burdon (March 13. com/ seomoz-best-seo-blog-of-2006/ 4195/ ). 2007). Retrieved 2007-05-09. searchengineguide. "Stats Show Google Dominates the International Search Landscape" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. v.com.

com/2007/05/ site-meter-gets-brand-new-face-and-more. customer behavior. The underlying data for the videos is recorded by web analytics tools.html) • August 1. This type of data can be useful in studying web site usability.[1] Soon. "StatCounter Says No!" [2] http:/ / michaelsync. the date and time of their visit.[1] References [1] "CS SessionReplay" (http:/ / www. com/ CSSessionReplay. it was revealed by Site Meter's rival tracking service StatCounter that they had been offered large sums of money to include advertising tracking cookies through their service. and Site meter decided to roll back its migration on September 14. "Things you should know before using Sitemeter" [3] http:/ / conservablogs. Complaints began immediately. Site Meter provides Web site owners with information about their visitors. and more. including mouse movements. including how they reached the site. Site meter attempted to migrate. com/ EricOdom/ 2007/ 03/ 26/ did-sitemeter-sell-out-to-spyware/ Eric Odom. and form entry. html).0. though reasons for the rollback are pending.net service. Firefox and Safari users were not affected. On August 1. 26/3/2007.aaroncook. foreseeresults. com/ 2007/ 03/ statcounter-says-no/ StatCounter Blog. bloggers noted[2] [3] that Site Meter had introduced tracking cookies for the SpecificClick.And More (http://www. 2008. statcounter. 2008 Internet Explorer Failure News (http://www. clicks. On September 14.sitemeter. References [1] http:/ / blog. This problem persisted for over 16 hours. Controversy In March 2007.com/general/ sitemeter-crashing-internet-explorer-sites-august-1-2008/) . 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2011.oneprojectcloser. 25/3/2009.Session replay 72 Session replay Session replay is a video replay of visitors' behaviors on a web site. net/ 2007/ 04/ 11/ things-you-should-know-before-using-sitemeter Michael Sync.0 and v7. Site meter experienced a system-wide bug that caused all sites displaying its tracking code to fail to load when browsed with Internet Explorer v6.com/) • Site Meter Gets A Brand New Face . etc. ForeSee Results. Site Meter Site Meter is a service which provides counter and tracking information for Web sites. By logging IP addresses and using JavaScript or HTML to track visitor information. . 11/4/2007. "Did Sitemeter sell out to Spyware?" External links • Site Meter Web page (http://www. 2008.

statcounter. com/ books?id=2FI_suXXGJkC& dq=Statcounter& source=gbs_navlinks_s). "Twitter Marketing for Dummies" (http:/ / books. Retrieved 21 May 2011. com/ siteinfo/ statcounter.statcounter. com). Retrieved 21 May 2011. Alexa Internet. p.com] yes Web traffic analysis Not required for basic access 157 (May 2011) [1] Current status Active StatCounter is a web traffic analysis tool. John Wiley and Sons.traffic statistics" (http:/ / www. Inc.StatCounter 73 StatCounter StatCounter URL Commercial? Type of site Registration Alexa rank [www.[2] References [1] "Statcounter. google.. . . Access to basic services is free and advanced services can cost between $9 and $119 a month. [2] Kyle Lacy (2011). . alexa. 93.com . May 2011.com www.

References [1] http:/ / www. LLC. LLC.org is a website analytics and visitor statistics service offered by TraceMyIP. org .org 74 TraceMyIP. Website statistics Proprietary TraceMyIP.org Developer(s) TraceMyIP.TraceMyIP. TraceMyIP. Type License Website Website analytics.org TraceMyIP.org [1] TraceMyIP.

com [1] Unica NetInsight is a web analytics application that utilises an Extract. com/ Products/ Open. "Open Data Warehouse" (http:/ / netinsight. cfm).0. NetInsight stores its processed log files in a database such as Oracle database. . including logs from web servers. "Unica Web Analytics" (http:/ / www. Affinium NetInsight was first released in June 2006.0 Affinium NetInsight has been renamed to Unica NetInsight. . load process can read log files in virtually any format. "Unica Ships Affinium NetInsight" (http:/ / www.0 [5] Technology The NetInsight Extract. cfm?id=239).[4] at version 7. com/ Products/ Open. cfm). "Unica Completes Acquisition of Sane Solutions" (http:/ / www. MySQL. IBM DB2 or the Netezza appliance [7] . NetInsight is from the same family of tools as Unica NetTracker.Unica NetInsight 75 Unica NetInsight Unica NetInsight Developer(s) Stable release Unica Corporation 8.unica. unica. com/ products/ enterprise-web-analytics. . htm). unica. "Page Tags and Log Files" (http:/ / netinsight. streaming media servers and FTP servers. As well as processing normal server log files NetInsight can use log files derived from page tags to replace or augment log file data[6] . com/ news/ pr. . unica. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. com/ news/ pr. The current version as of September 2009 is 8. com/ "Affinium NetInsight . . With the release of version 8. unica. cfm?id=206). com/ Products/ Tags_and_Logs. . dropping (along with the rest of the Unica products) the Affinium brand. proxy servers. transform. cfm). load methodology[2] to populate a database that can then be queried using a browser-based interface. unica. History Unica Corporation acquires Sane Solutions [3] and the NetTracker software that becomes Affinium NetInsight. unica. . Microsoft SQL Server.0 / September 2009 Operating system Cross-platform Type License Website Web analytics proprietary www. transform. unica.Open and Integrated" (http:/ / netinsight.

com/info/web-analytics-roi-calculator) • Understanding Funnel Reports in NetTracker (http://www. unica.1. htm http:/ / www.webanalyticmatt. NetTracker stores its processed log files in an internal database which is based upon SQLite. com/ 2007/ 03/ 26/ understanding-funnel-reports/ .Unica NetInsight 76 External links • Unica Web Analytics (http://netinsight.com/2007/03/26/ understanding-funnel-reports/) • Unica NetInsight User Group (http://netinsight.com/) Unica NetTracker Unica NetTracker is a web analytics application that processes web log files. sclanalytics. History Unica NetTracker was first released in 1996 by Sane Solutions which was sold to Unica Corporation. The current version as of December 2006 is 7.com/resources/howto/onlinemarketing) • Affinium NetInsight ROI Calculator (http://www. webanalyticmatt.0 Unica announce end-of-life and end-of-support on December 31st.cfm) • How To Use Affinium NetInsight Web Analytics to Improve Online Marketing Campaigns (http://www.unica.sclanalytics. Logs can be processed from web servers. com/ products/ enterprise-web-analytics. External links • • • • Unica Web Analytics Example Reports of Unica NetTracker's Proxy & Firewall Logfile Analysis [2] NetTracker ROI Calculator [3] Understanding Funnel Reports in NetTracker [4] [1] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.ning. It looks like it's going to be replaced by NetInsight. Technology NetTracker processes log files in virtually any format using a custom log definition. sclanalytics. com/ info/ web-analytics-roi-calculator http:/ / www. As well as processing log files NetTracker can use page tag data to augment log file data. 2011. proxy servers. streaming media servers and FTP servers.com/products/Editions. com/ resources/ howto/ proxy http:/ / www. sclanalytics.

This means that for a typical news site. one cannot extrapolate the number of weekly Unique Users (only that the Unique User count for the week is between 100 and 700). and yet another large fraction use more than one browser on each of their machines. If the cookie is not present. the website will create a cookie. When cookies are used to track Unique Users. And usually.[2] Understanding Unique users numbers Similar to the TURF (Total Unduplicated Reach and Frequency) metric often used in television. Unique Users is a measure of the distribution of content to a number of distinct consumers.g. one may have to divide the reported total of unique users in half. Remember. Since an increasing percentage of people in the United States (at least) now have access to a computer at home and at work or school. Then another increasing fraction of people regularly delete cookies from their machines—presumably both at home and at work. not a person. With only this data. often quoted to potential advertisers or investors.Unique user 77 Unique user According to IFABC Global Web Standards. However. time. it's just an identifier of a computer. for example. which people might typically visit more than once a day to keep up with breaking news. the computer is identified by a "cookie" which is most often specific to an individual browser on that computer. Limitations of Unique User Numbers Unique User counts for websites are typically counted by using cookies.[1] Unique users is a common measurement of the popularity of a website. When a browser visits a website. The term "unique visitor" may be used instead of "unique user" but both terms have essentially the same meaning (see below). radio and newspaper analyses. this definition may overstate or understate the real number of individual users concerned. Sites may use User Agent. Cookie and/or Registration ID. typically a month. the cookie value is captured. so that smaller group of people visits much more often and looks at more pages than the raw numbers would suggest. a unique user (UU) is "An IP address plus a further identifier. for those wishing to impress advertisers or investors. Greg Harmon of Belden Research says "may overstate" is a gross understatement. If the cookie is present. . then 1) Cookie Flushing will cause Unique User numbers to be inflated. the website checks for the existence of a particular cookie. When calculating movement of unique users through conversion funnel the same time period must be used at every step. and measured over a standard period of time. Unique Visitor A unique visitor has the same general meaning as unique user and is simply an alternative title for the statistic. On the plus side. the reported number of sessions or visits and pageviews are probably more accurate. 2) Browsers set to not accept cookies will be ignored. For example a website may have 100 unique users on each day (day being the dimension) of a particular week. IP address and/or User Agent String may be used as a proxy for a unique identifier placed in a cookie. browsers. the reported unique users might overstate the number of different people by a factor of four. A common mistake in using Unique User numbers is not adding Unique User numbers across the same different dimensions." Note that where users are not allocated IP addresses dynamically (for example by dial-up Internet service providers). A Unique User metric is only valid for its given set of dimensions e.

Some log file analysis software products calculate a proxy for Unique Visitors by counting the number of visitors from unique IP addresses.Graduate Recruitment Bureau (http:/ / www. Calculation The number of Total Visits to a site divided by Unique Visitors results in the derived statistic "Average Sessions Per Unique Visitor" which tells a publisher how many times each Unique Visitor came to their site on average in the time frame of the report. The Unique Visitors statistic is most accurately measured in two ways with current technology: 1. However. and checking for the cookie on each Visitor's computer each time they visit. This statistic results in a higher number than counting unique IP addresses. Tracking the visitor's UserAgent (browser identification information) in addition to the IP address can help mitigate this. by requiring all Visitors to log-in to the site. Many consumers access the internet from networks that allow them to share a single IP address. There are also Internet Service Providers (ISP). html) [2] Belden Associates (http:/ / beldenassociates. They typically compare those data with a Web site's own figures. such as AOL and cable modem providers.Unique user 78 Notes [1] Jargon buster . but many of the users that share a single IP address may also use the same browser. that use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) which can provide their customers with a different IP addresses for each request they make from a site. grb. the results are estimates. com/ 263. investing in . most only do this after a timeout period when they run out of available IP addresses. thereby capturing the identity of each Visitor on each visit. This statistic is a poor measure as it is distorted by two main factors: 1. thereby causing the IP address proxy to overcount Unique Users. htm) Unique visitor A unique visitor is a statistic describing a unit of traffic to a website. Nielsen Online. but is not equivalent to Unique Visitors as there is no guarantee that a visitor from the same IP Address outside the 30-minute window is a different visitor than a previous Visitor within the window. Accuracy The science of tracking Internet usage is still far from perfect. And both companies lack the capacity to measure total international audiences.including a Web site's total visitors or page views and time spent on the site—to try to determine which sites are popular among particular demographic groups or in certain topic areas. equivalent to the term "Reach" used in other media. Advertisers study their data . thereby making one visitor look like many. 0. such as news or sports. uk. counting each visitor only once in the time frame of the report. Because they use panels of Web users to gather data and then extrapolate. Average Sessions Per Unique Visitor is equivalent to "Frequency" used in other media. This statistic is relevant to site publishers and advertisers as a measure of a site's true audience size. Marketers rely heavily on comScore and the other major Web-measurement company. or 2. by placing a cookie on each Visitor's computer. The companies are trying to address those shortcomings by looking for ways to increase the size and depth of their panels. which results in the IP address proxy undercounting Unique Visitors. writing the cookie ID to a database. when trying to decide how to spend their online ad dollars. com/ index. Many log file analysis products also use a proxy for Unique Visitors in which they count multiple visitors from the same IP Address if they don't visit the site within the same 30-minute window. Both Web-measurement companies have gaps in their research. 2.

webanalyticsassociation.org/resource/resmgr/ PDF_standards/WebAnalyticsDefinitionsVol1. wsj.html) • Web Analytics Association Definitions (http://www.[1] 79 References [1] http:/ / online. Nielsen Online.pdf) .ca/visitors. html External links • Visitor Estimation from Site Access Logs (http://www.johnsankey. disparities between comScore and Nielsen data are common. com/ article/ SB120874282224730191. also is trying to combine its Web research with usage data from other media. To complicate matters. as the two companies use different methodologies to measure their audience panels. such as mobile-phone and television measures. which is owned by the audience-measurement firm Nielsen.Unique visitor technology and expanding overseas.

[5] Urchin 7 was released in September 2010 and includes 64-bit support.5. Custom file formats can also be defined. com/ urchin/ features. com/ 2008/ 04/ graduation-day-for-website-optimizer. com/ 2010/ 09/ urchin-7-64-bit-released.com/urchin/index.com/urchin/usac.000 / September 13.com/blog/2007/10/16/what-is-urchin/) . The result is more accurate web visitor data.com/blog/2007/10/17/ backup-your-ga-data-locally/) .html) Official Urchin Software website (http://www. google. html) [6] Urchin 7 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics. Google released the next version called Urchin 6.advanced-web-metrics. As a log file analyser.Urchin (software) 80 Urchin (software) Urchin Software Developer(s) Google Inc. was acquired by Google in April 2005. Urchin processes web server log files in a variety of log file formats. blogspot. In April 2008. While Urchin Software Corp. google.google.com/products/urchin-6-software/demo/) Resources for Urchin Customers (http://www.[4] In February 2009. html) External links • • • • • • Urchin 6 Webinar (http://www.urchintools.com/) Official List of Urchin Software Resellers (http://www. Urchin has become one of the more popular solutions for website traffic analysis.a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [4] Urchin 6 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics. new UI and event tracking among other features.actualmetrics.html) What is Urchin? (http://www. Stable release 7. 2010 Type Website Web analytics Google Urchin [1] Urchin is a web statistics analysis program developed by Urchin Software Corporation.blog article • Differences between Urchin Software and Google Analytics (http://www. integrating AdWords. html) [7] Urchin 7 Key features (http:/ / www.google.urchintools. log file analyser or hybrid. Urchin software can be run in two different data collection modes. com/ blog/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ hosted-v-software-v-hybrid-tools/ ) blog article [3] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www. html) [5] Urchin 6. This is largely due to its scalability in performance and pricing model. Google released Urchin 6. advanced-web-metrics. advanced-web-metrics. com/ urchin/ index.[6] [7] References [1] http:/ / www. Urchin is used to analyze web server log file content and display the traffic information on that website based upon the log data. html [2] Hosted v software v hybrid web analytics tools (http:/ / www. As a hybrid.com/urchin6/ about-urchin6/urchin-vs-google-analytics) .5 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics. blogspot. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) . com/ 2009/ 02/ urchin-65-is-now-available. particularly with ISPs and web hosting providers. blogspot.advanced-web-metrics.blog article Back up your Google Analytics data locally (http://www. the Urchin 5 and prior analysis programs are still widely used and available today. Urchin combines page tags with log file data to eradicate the limitations of each data collection method in [2] [3] isolation.

In 2004. the principals decided to revamp all business models and develop an in-house customer relationship management (CRM) system to keep track of things much more tightly. but stability was achieved. which entailed a flat monthly rate of $5000 per Rocchio and Jason Senn at a trade show circa physical data center. After extensive re-engineering. including the two largest private employers in the area Sharp Healthcare and Solar Turbines. Cable & Wireless. where it was offered for free. At that time. the company prepared to take on its A-series venture capital round. Honda had standardized on it. However.Urchin Software Corporation 81 Urchin Software Corporation Urchin Software Corporation was a web analytics company based in Southern California. Rackspace. Quantified grew rapidly on the strength of both the software and large contracts secured by Giacomino (Jack) Ancone and Brett Crosby. the September 11 attacks and other factors caused the funding to collapse. and take out a loan from the original investors. At the same time. the Urchin On Demand (hosted) version of the product was renamed Google Analytics and re-launched on Google infrastructure. and became essentially debt-free. the sales force was streamlined. In 2002. In August 2004 at the Search Engine Strategies trade show in San Jose. and EarthLink had just become a customer. when the company was acquired by Google. a small venture capital firm called Green Thumb Ventures. An office was opened in Tokyo and employment reached approximately 40 total. Quantified then took a round of angel funding from various family members. about a possible partnership. . the company was called Web Depot. and the ill-fated Winstar. California. In 1998. Urchin was profitable for its remaining time as an independent entity. In 2003. The funding round came to approximately $1 million. the company changed its name to Urchin Software Corporation ("Urchin"). In the late 1990s and early 2000s. Joahna (SLM) was launched. and a strong incentive plan enacted. after the "Quantified" name failed to catch on meaningfully. which had become fairly popular for its speed and efficiency at processing large web server log files. Due to strong demand. and many large hosting companies were enlisted 2000. Urchin was acquired in April 2005. In its original incarnation. which was to be led by InnoCal Ventures and JMI Ventures. the four principals of the company decided to jettison the hosting and design elements of the business and focus solely on the Urchin software. the company was purchased by Google. Sales steadily rose through spring 2005. base salaries cut. the company repaid its angel investors the money borrowed in 2001. The Site License Model Urchin founders Brett (right) and Scott Crosby (middle) with employees Paul Botto. close the Tokyo office. and built/hosted websites for various mostly San Diego companies. the service was again opened to the public and is currently the most widely used hosted web analytics system. the service experienced overloading and new accounts were restricted for a number of months. Money was left on the table. over the next year. Approximately 6 months after the acquisition. and friends. Corporate history Urchin was founded by Paul Muret and Scott Crosby in December 1995 in San Diego. In 2001. Urchin was approached by representatives of Google Inc. In April 2005. Quantified was forced to lay off approximately 15 employees. Verio. Among their major customers were Earthlink.

• Jack Ancone. He is now a Software Engineer at Google. He is now a Software Engineer at Google. Urchin co-founders Scott Crosby. He is now a Senior Product Marketing Manager at Google. Vice President of Business Development and later Vice President of Marketing. He is now a Staff Software Engineer at Google. • Brett Crosby. Software Engineer. He is now Enterprise Channel Development Manager. Rolf Schreiber. He is now an Enterprise Business Development Manager at Google. Jason Senn. com . Chief Integration Engineer. He left Google in August 2005 to start Actual Metrics [1]. Chief Financial Officer then later Vice President of Corporate Development. • Doug Silver. • Bartholomew Fromm. He is now a Systems Administrator at Google.Urchin Software Corporation 82 Principals and key personnel Co-founders: • Scott Crosby. New Business Development at Google. Analytics. head of internal systems. He is now Principal. Partner Manager and Head of Channel Sales. who wrote the first version of the Urchin software in 1997 and was Chief Executive Officer of the company. He is now a Manager in Site Reliability Engineering at Google. Systems Administrator. co-Engineering Lead. at Google. He is now the VP of Sales at Brickfish. actualmetrics. Other employees included: • • • • Paul Botto. Paul Muret in 2001. Jack Ancone. He is now a Director of Engineering for Google. • Mike Chipman. • Jonathon Vance. Engineering Lead. • Bill Rhodes. Hui-Sok "Nathan" Moon. Brett Crosby. References [1] http:/ / www. President and later Vice President of Sales. • Paul Muret. He left Google in April 2008 to become Director of Development for Actual Metrics [1]. Senior Account Executive. most notably customer relationship management. Sales Team/Bus Dev Lead.

if users arrive on a web site and go back immediately (high bounce rate). Search engines want their results to be highly relevant to web users to make sure that web users keep returning to the search engine for future searches. When it comes to search engines. Usage data Usage data is the most effective way of evaluating the true relevancy and value of a website. And the best way to establish relevance to users is to know how they use web sites. there is a high likelihood that it is extremely relevant. The specifying ranges or types of data let you limit the web log data that is analyzed. letting you focus on relevant activity. pp 86 Visit filter Visit filters which are used by Web log analysis software include or exclude all the data in a visit session.Usage analysis 83 Usage analysis Usage analysis is any technique for understanding the usage statistics of something. For example. Cookies are used by search engines to maintain a history of a user’s search activity. R. Second Edition. However. if a user repeatedly visits a web site and spends a long time on the site. chances are that it wasn’t relevant to their query in the first place. for example the web statistics of a website. Quirk eMarketing (Pty) Ltd.(2009) eMarketing: The Essential Guide to Online Marketing. . References • Stokes. relevant valuable sites get promoted while irrelevant sites get demoted.

it is developed using open-source resources. MySQL. The user management utility enables the website administrator to set access permissions for other users from the same organisation to different responsibilities of the account. The system is designed to track occurrences of such threats. By setting preferences the advertiser can choose to receive email alerts about possible 'click-fraud'. showing each page visited and duration of stay. Apache. VisitLab believes in the idea of 'infinite scalability' and the project developers have designed the system with hardware scalability and API stability as the two guiding philosophies. • Keyphrase Manager: Most visitors to a website end up following a link from a SERP for a specific keyphrase. They want to know if it meets some acceptable level and want to be alerted in case it falls below the set threshold. visitlab. html . It tracks a visitor from the time he/she enters a domain until he/she leaves. wired. External links • VisitLab [1] homepage [2] • | Interview with CEO Vikas Kedia References [1] http:/ / www. Features • Click Fraud Analysis and Alert System: Online pay-per-click advertisers struggle with the threat of so-called Click fraud. Technology Platform • LAMP (Linux. • Visitor Experience Analysis: A complete analysis of each visitor who has visited a website. com/ wired/ archive/ 14. it is also possible to add an external user with read-only access to each component of the account. Presently in a Free Beta stage. VisitLab's keyphrase manager program enables the website marketing team to effortlessly analyse the performance of each keyphrase. • Account Management: Visitlab also includes an account management framework. 01/ fraud. Conversely. The system does a complete clickpath analysis. PHP) • PEAR classes support Visitlab is inactive now Visitlab is no more active. com [2] http:/ / www.VisitLab 84 VisitLab VisitLab is a Web analytics system with a rich user management framework. • Remote Monitor Alerts: Webmasters are keen to know about the speed of the website page loading.

The web banner is displayed when a web page that references the banner is loaded into a web browser. although web banners differ in that the results for advertisement campaigns may be monitored real-time and may be targeted to the viewer's interests. Shockwave or Flash.Web audience measurement 85 Web audience measurement Web Audience Measurement (WAM) is an audience measurement and website analytics tool that measures Internet usage in India. JPEG. The web analytics market in India is currently fragmented. htm [2] http:/ / www. Web banners function the same way as traditional advertisements are intended to function: notifying consumers of the product or service and presenting reasons why the consumer should choose the product in question. reach and frequency of Internet usage. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser. viewer clicks on the banner. SEC and location.e. The system. Affiliates earn money usually on a CPC (cost per click) basis. design for an Indian context that tracks computers. medianama. Behavior is often tracked through the use of a click tag. or video to maximize presence. resulting in a revshare system and higher quality ad placement. the viewer is directed to the website advertised in the banner.[2] This panel-based approach uses metering technology. thehindubusinessline. exposure. sound. with Comscore and Vizisense being IMRB's key competitors. . For every unique user click on the ad. This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. When the Typical web banner. com/ 2010/ 11/ 223-part-1-how-imrbs-web-audience-measurement-tracks-information/ Web banner A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web. often employing animation. Web Rating Points factor multiple measures of Internet usage to provide a more comprehensive picture to web advertisers and attempts to standardize web analytics in India. such as a newspaper article or an opinion piece. JavaScript program or multimedia object employing technologies such as Java. This event is known as an "impression". In many cases. in/ 2010/ 11/ 02/ stories/ 2010110251500900. either wide and short. References [1] http:/ / www.[1] WAM uses audience measurement and is a continuous tracking panel study that provides cross sectional data on Internet usage segmented by gender. PNG). When the advertiser scans their logfiles and detects that a web user has visited the advertiser's site from the content site by clicking on the banner ad. Usually though. the advertiser sends the content provider some small amount of money (usually around five to ten US cents). This event is known as a "click through". These images are usually placed on web pages that have interesting content. banners are delivered by a central ad server. sized 468×60 pixels. Images are usually in a high-aspect ratio shape (i. advertisers use ad networks to serve their advertisements. the affiliate earns money. This payback system is often how the content provider is able to pay for the Internet access to supply the content in the first place. a joint effort of IMRB International and Internet and Mobile Association of India surveys over 6000 individuals across 8 metropolitan centers in India and tracks a variety of metrics such as time-on-site. The advertisement is constructed from an image (GIF. or tall and narrow) hence the reference to banners.

Andrew Anker was HotWired's first CEO. Ken McCarthy mentored Boyce in his transition from traditional to online advertising. White and McAuliffe. such as Privoxy. including AOL. a company owned by IBM and Sears at the time. then Yahoo and mass marketed by Google's AdWords program). . a now defunct law firm with a Silicon Valley office. or AdThwart for Google Chrome and ie7pro for Internet Explorer. Prodigy was unable to capitalize on any of its first mover advantage in online advertising. and was put online on October 27. for example Adblock Plus for Mozilla Firefox. In spite of this prediction. introduced by GoTo. and first introduced the concept of a clickable/trackable ad. 86 History The pioneer of online advertising was Prodigy. He stated that he believed that only a direct response model—in which the return on investment of individual ads was measured—would prove sustainable over the long run for online advertising. 1994. (Of course. Another way of avoiding banners is to use a proxy server that blocks them. the purpose of the banner ad is to attract attention and many advertisers try to get attention to the advert by making them annoying. relies heavily on tracking ad response rather than impressions. The new online advertising model that emerged in the early years of the 21st century. Prodigy used online advertising first to promote Sears products in the 1980s. The first clickable web ad (which later came to be known by the term "banner ad") was sold by Global Network Navigator (GNN) in 1993 to Heller.) Newer web browsers often include options to disable pop-ups or block images from selected websites.Web banner Many web surfers regard these advertisements as highly annoying because they distract from a web page's actual content or waste bandwidth. Rick Boyce. banner ads were valued and sold based on the number of impressions they generated.[2] HotWired coined the term "banner ad" and was the first company to provide click through rate reports to its customers. Without attracting attention it would provide no revenue for the advertiser or for the content provider.[4] In May 1994. [1] GNN was the first commercially supported web publication and one of the very first web sites ever. spearheaded the sales effort for the company. Ehrman.com (later Overture. a former media buyer with San Francisco advertising agency Hal Riney & Partners. Web browsers may also have extensions available which block banners. and then other advertisers. but has Coors' "Zima" campaign as the first web banner. This approach to banner ad sales proved successful and provided the economic foundation for the web industry from the period of 1994 to 2000 until the market for banner ads "crashed" and there was a radical revaluation of their value. one of Prodigy's direct competitors.[3] Another source also credits Hotwired and October 1994. HotWired was the first web site to sell banner ads in large quantities to a wide range of major corporate advertisers. The first web banner sold by HotWired was paid for by AT&T.

they are:[5] IAB standard ad sizes. Sizes in bold are part of the IAB's Universal Ad Package.Web banner 87 Standard sizes Ad sizes have been standardized to some extent by the IAB.4 Banners and Buttons Full banner Half banner Micro bar Button 1 Button 2 Vertical banner Square button Leaderboard 468 234 88 120 120 120 125 728 60 60 31 90 60 240 125 90 7.9 2. Name Width / px Height / px Aspect ratio Rectangles and Pop-Ups Medium Rectangle 300 Square Pop-Up Vertical Rectangle Large Rectangle Rectangle 3:1 Rectangle Pop-Under 250 240 336 180 300 720 250 250 400 280 150 100 300 1.33 2 2 1 8.67 1. See actual sizes [6] .84 1. Note: This illustration is reduced in size.2 1.2 3 2.8 3.09 .2 1 1.

000 Days that Built the Future of Business. net/ standards/ adunits. Merrill R. when. Digital Advertising! [4] Chapman. Architects of the Web: 1..75 5 2 88 References [1] http:/ / articles. . Usually reports are generated from the log files immediately. svg Web log analysis software Web log analysis software (also called a web log analyzer) is a simple kind of Web analytics software that parses a log file from a web server. In search of stupidity: over 20 years of high-tech marketing disasters (2nd Edition) . (1997). Chapter Seven: 'Hotwired Publishing on the Web' (pp 300-308) ISBN 0471171875 [3] http:/ / adage. iab. [6] http:/ / upload. and how a web server is visited. and based on the values contained in the log file. Apress. and last authenticated visits Days of week and rush hours Domains/countries of host's visitors Hosts list Number total pageviews Most viewed. . but the log files can alternatively be parsed to a database and reports generated on demand. Interactive Advertising Bureau. Features supported by log analysis packages may include "hit filters".Web banner Skyscrapers Wide skyscraper Skyscraper Half page ad 160 120 300 600 600 600 3. wikimedia. com/ 2008-09-26/ business/ 17158078_1_san-francisco-s-heller-ehrman-legal-industry-same-sex-marriages http:/ / en. asp). sfgate. visit time and page navigation. key phrases and keywords used to find the analyzed web site HTTP errors Some of the log analyzers also report on who's on the site. conversion tracking. org/ wiki/ Heller_Ehrman [2] Reid. Common Indicators • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Number of visits and number of unique visitors Visits duration and last visits Authenticated users. org/ wikipedia/ commons/ 4/ 43/ Standard_web_banner_ad_sizes. wikipedia. entry and exit pages Files type OS used Browsers used Robots HTTP referrer Search engines. com/ digitalnext/ post?article_id=139964 Happy Birthday. derives indicators about who. Robert H. which use pattern matching to examine selected log data. ISBN 1-59059-721-4 [5] "Ad Unit Guidelines" (http:/ / www. John Wiley & Sons.

Tracking applications external to the web site can record traffic by inserting a small piece of HTML code in every page of the web site. This is determined by the number of visitors and the number of pages they visit.Web log analysis software 89 External links • Log Analysis category [6] at Open Directory Project • Log Analysis Tools category [1] at Yahoo Directory [2] References [1] http:/ / dir. it especially refers to the measurement of which aspects of the website work towards the business objectives of Internet marketing initiatives. thus a page with 5 images December 2004 could generate 6 hits (the 5 images and the page itself). com/ Business_and_Economy/ Business_to_Business/ Communications_and_Networking/ Internet_and_World_Wide_Web/ Network_Management/ Traffic_Management/ Log_Analysis_Tools/ Titles/ [2] http:/ / dir. There are many ways to monitor this traffic and the gathered data is used to help structure sites. The following types of information are often collated when monitoring web traffic: • The number of visitors. Sites also often aim to increase their web traffic through inclusion on search engines and through Search engine optimization. but images are also files. Analyzing Web Traffics Web analytics is the measurement of the behavior of visitors to a website. yahoo. pay for screen space on the site. Measuring Web Traffic Web traffic is measured to see the popularity of web sites and individual pages or sections within a site. Web traffic is also sometimes measured by packet sniffing and thus gaining random samples of traffic data from which to extrapolate information about web traffic as a whole across total Internet usage. In a commercial context. highlight security problems or indicate a potential lack of bandwidth — not all web traffic is welcome. A page view is generated when a visitor requests any page within the web site – a visitor will always generate at least one page view (the main page) but could generate many more. and Google Analytics. Web traffic can be analyzed by viewing the traffic statistics found in the web server log file. which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase. an automatically generated list of all the pages served. It is a large portion of Internet traffic. yahoo. Omniture. A hit is generated when any file is served. com Web traffic Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a web site. The page itself is Example graph of web traffic at Wikipedia in considered a file. Sites monitor the incoming and outgoing traffic to see which parts or pages of their site are popular and if there are any apparent trends. Some companies offer advertising schemes that. for example. Coremetrics. . such as one specific page being viewed mostly by people in a particular country. in return for increased web traffic (visitors). Notable vendors of web analytics software and services include: Webtrends.

with the top paths identifying the way most customers go through the site • Referrers. allowing only authorized people to visit particular sections or pages. • Average visit duration – the total length of a user's visit. The host can track the (apparent) source of the links and determine which sites are generating the most traffic for a particular page. on 25 October 2004 after a reported attack on the site. The difficulty with this is that it's not looking at the complete traffic picture for a site. It is also possible to increase (or. By analysing the statistics of visitors it is possible to see shortcomings of the site and look to improve those areas. the better it is for your company. • Domain classes – all levels of the IP Addressing information required to deliver Webpages and content. Limiting access It is sometimes important to protect some parts of a site by password. • Average page duration – how long a page is viewed for. Some site administrators have chosen to block their page to specific traffic. 90 Controlling web traffic The amount of traffic seen by a web site is a measure of its popularity. broken links or the exit pages may have a popular external link • Top paths – a path is the sequence of pages viewed by visitors from entry to exit. .[2] It is also possible to limit access to a web server both based on the number of connections and by the bandwidth expended by each connection. possibly because they like it or find it useful. in some cases decrease) the popularity of a site and the number of people that visit it. but their reports are available only by subscription. The re-election campaign site for U. President George W. On Apache HTTP servers.S. such as by geographic location. Web sites like Alexa Internet produce traffic rankings and statistics based on those people who access the sites while using the Alexa toolbar. Bush (GeorgeWBush. As a rule the more time they spend the more they're interested in your company and are more prone to contact. this is accomplished by the limitipconn module and others. • Busy times – the most popular viewing time of the site would show when would be the best time to do promotional campaigns and when would be the most ideal to perform maintenance • Most requested pages – the most popular pages • Most requested entry pages – the entry page is the first page viewed by a visitor and shows which are the pages most attracting visitors • Most requested exit pages – the most requested exit pages could help find bad pages.Web traffic • The average number of page views per visitor – a high number would indicate that the average visitors go deep inside the site. The more pages viewed. Large sites usually hire the services of companies like Nielsen NetRatings.S.com [1]) was blocked to all internet users outside of the U.

it is becoming common for webmasters to get approached by "boiler-room" companies with no real knowledge of how to get results. the top organic result gets most of the clicks from web users. when a search engine user looks for a particular word or phrase. Each subsequent result gets between 30% and 60% of the clicks of the previous one. as search engines work by "crawling" registered web sites. Then. Large scale web sites with numerous servers can often cope with the traffic required and it is more likely that smaller services are affected by traffic overload. In most cases the best way to increase web traffic is to register it with the major search engines. According to some studies . Usually. crawlers might take days. usually sorted by relevance according to the search engine algorithms. Organic traffic can be generated or increased by including the web site in directories. .Web traffic 91 Increase web site traffic Web traffic can be increased by placement of a site in search engines and purchase of advertising. weeks or months to complete review and index all the pages they find. and usually follow the hyperlinks it finds. the odds of someone finding it diminishes greatly (especially if there is other competition on the first page). and most search engine companies cannot promise specific results for what is paid to them. search engine marketing is usually paid monthly or annually. If a web page is not listed in the first pages of any search. for example. Even having hundreds or thousands of servers working on the spidering of pages. Web traffic can also be increased by purchasing non-internet based advertising. Viruses have also been used to co-ordinate large scale distributed denial-of-service attacks. This indicates that it is important to appear in the top results. As opposed to pay-per-click. Crawlers start gathering information about those pages and storing it and indexing it in the search engine database. There are some companies which specialize in search engine marketing. and the percentage that go to subsequent pages is substantially lower. Because of the huge amount of information available on the web. In every case. Traffic overload Too much web traffic can dramatically slow down or even prevent all access to a web site. and in-page advertisements. to get to pages inside the web site (internal links). Just registering does not guarantee traffic. However. Crawlers start at the registered home page. the search engine looks into the database and produces the results. pop-up ads. guides (such as yellow pages and restaurant guides). getting proper placement on search engines is as important as the web site itself. These crawling programs (crawlers) are also known as "spiders" or "robots". Very few people go past the first page. they index the page URL and the page title. That is why some pages recently updated in certain web sites are not immediately found when doing searches on search engines. Consequently. including bulk e-mail. search engines. a complete reindexing takes its time. Organic traffic Web traffic which comes from unpaid listing at search engines or directories is commonly known as "organic" traffic. as of the end of 2004 had indexed over eight billion pages. This is caused by more file requests going to the server than it can handle and may be an intentional attack on the site or simply caused by over-popularity. the top result gets between 5% and 10% of the clicks. In most cases they also index the web page header (meta tag) and a certain amount of the text of the page. and award sites. flooding the site with more requests than it could cope with. Google. Denial of service attacks Denial-of-service attacks (DoS attacks) have forced web sites to close after a malicious attack.

com [2] Miller. com/ developerworks/ web/ library/ wa-mwt1/ [4] http:/ / www. Dominick. These sites were the only ones showing huge amount of traffic that could be converted into advertising revenue. The company went public and . com/ archive/ 2003/ 05/ 08/ 20030508e-b09. Unlike all other Internet startups from the late 90s. In January 2008 Visual Sciences. 2007. they quickly started to advertise banners on their other site lists. Websidestory never received traditional angel and VC investments but made real money and became instantly profitable by displaying banners on their top adult web site list.. Once WebSideStory was financially sound. In the late 1999. Rich (2004-10-26). Business Model History WebSideStory was hoping to sell the service for a small monthly amount of money but most web site owners refused to pay anything back then. they offered to pay in exchange of more in depth statistics and refused to display the traditional Hitbox banner. was acquired by Omniture (NASDAQ: OMTR) for $394 million. 2004 (NASDAQ: WSSI). html [6] http:/ / news. Tom (1 March 2001). . netcraft. Mark (5 May 2003). On May 9. A news item in the media. Scott & Hartrick. stm WebSideStory WebSideStory.com – retrieved 1 January 2005 • Ward. it stopped providing its free version of the Hitbox and its associated advertising revenues. thisdayonline. founded by Blaise Barrelet on September 10. or a link from a popular site may cause such a boost in visitors (sometimes called Slashdot effect) References • Malacinski.71989. [3] http:/ / www-106.00. WebSideStory decided then to offer a limited version for FREE in exchange for a small banner on each site they monitored traffic for. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 2995343. a quickly propagating email. Surfers who clicked on the banner would be directed to a top list of web sites owned by WebSideStory. California. Inc. Sharon (17 June 2002). the company rebranded itself as Visual Sciences. 1996 as a website traffic analysis tool and links directory to market the web analytics product Hitbox and HBX. Andrei. "Measuring Web Site Traffic" [4] at ComputerWorld. georgewbush. this is the start of the HBX product line. This time. com/ archives/ 2004/ 10/ 26/ bush_campaign_web_site_rejects_nonus_visitors. html). "The Dangers of Having a Good Idea" [5] – A BBC News [6] look at the case of freelance journalist Glenn Fleishman after his site was linked to from MacCentral – retrieved 7 July 2005 LINK NO LONGER WORKS Footnotes [1] http:/ / www. large brick and mortar businesses decided to use WebSideStory's Hitbox on their growing Internet entities. The company went public on September 28. co.10801. ibm.[1] WebSideStory was headquartered in San Diego. As the rest of the web developed. html [5] http:/ / www. computerworld. "Measuring Web traffic" [3] at IBM – retrieved 1 January 2005 • Machlis. bbc.Web traffic 92 Sudden popularity A sudden burst of publicity may accidentally cause a web traffic overload. Inc. "Bush Campaign Web Site Rejects Non-US Visitors" (http:/ / news. com/ managementtopics/ ebusiness/ story/ 0. Inc.

WebSideStory eventually purchased Visual Sciences and took their name. and forms.omniture. 93 References [1] Omniture Press Detail: Omniture to Acquire Visual Sciences (http:/ / www. google. though accessed through a different user interface. References [1] "Website Optimizer" (http:/ / www. it uses the Google analytics scripts.[1] Google Website Optimizer can test any element that exists as HTML code on a page including calls to action. This tool is part of Google Analytics.com/ google-website-optimizer-joomla) . Visual Sciences was acquired by Omniture in 2007 and as of October 2009 Omniture was acquired by Adobe Systems Incorporated. com/ press/ 417) External links • WebSideStory goes public (http://www.com/) Google Website Optimizer Google Website Optimizer is a free website optimization tool that helps online marketers and webmasters increase visitor conversion rates and overall visitor satisfaction by continually testing different combinations of website content. Google. known as Multivariate testing such as Headings. fonts. images or body copy. External links • Google website optimizer (http://services. headlines. omniture. .highbeam.pearl-group. It can be used at multiple stage in the conversion funnel. As it is part of Google Analytics.google.com/websiteoptimizer/) • Open Source Google Website Optimizer Extension for Joomla (http://www. Retrieved 2010-12-14.html) • Omniture (http://www. com/ websiteoptimizer/ ).com/doc/1G1-123331863. point of action assurances. known as A/B testing or page elements. product images. product copy. Google Website Optimizer allows webmasters to test entire pages. product reviews.

Webtrends Apps Marketing Channel Data Webtrends Ads In addition. It provides web analytics and other software solutions related to marketing intelligence. • Log File Analysis . DW Webtrends Webtrends Optimize Webtrends Social Measurement. user performance data such as click heat mapping. CEO Ads. On Demand & On Premises Visitors Data Mart. gives enterprise organizations the ability to . and requires the administrator to understand HTML. Analytics. such as CRM or demographics to build insight into a person over time. United States. The report presentation interface is highly configurable. Working Technology There are two main technological approaches to collecting the data. or other custom metrics as needed.webtrends. the products can be classified into: Data Captured Client/Server Side Data Data Warehouse Usability Testing Data User behavioural Data Webtrends Solution Offerings Webtrends Analytics. and can present a large variety of data and analyses on many different kinds of web sites. which collects and presents information about user behavior on web sites as well as mobile devices running various operating systems. For example. • Page Tagging . JavaScript and other Web technologies in detail. Oregon.[2] Products Webtrends is a Web analytics suite available in both software and software as a service models. Optimize www. Webtrends Visitor Data Mart at the core of this tool is comprehensive "Interest Profile" that combines a person's online behavior with offline customer data. U. It has a large number of configuration parameters.Reads the log files in which the web server records all its transactions.S. Apps. Oregon.000 large and small firms.Webtrends 94 Webtrends Webtrends Type Industry Founded Private Web Analytics 1993 Headquarters Portland. The company was founded in 1993 and now serves more than 10.uses JavaScript on each page to notify a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. combined with analysis and multi-dimensional reporting. allowing the administrator to select specific information to present. sales and lead information. This insight. other data sources may also be added to augment the data. Key people Products Website Alex Yoder. e-mail response rates. Based on data captured. The software presents these results through a web based graphic user interface. direct mail campaign data.com [1] Webtrends is a private company headquartered in Portland. Visitor Data Mart.

html). 2006-12-04.5 million.bizjournals. com/ showArticle. Glen Boyd and Eli Shapira founded the company in 1993. com [2] Kemelor. [6] "Webtrends Buys Optimization Firm ClickShift" (http:/ / www.com/portland. the product was relaunched as Webtrends Ad Director. marketwire. . [9] "Webtrends Acquires Social Marketing Company Transpond. [10] "New full-train MAX ad asks: Should cyclists pay road tax?" (http:/ / blog. bizjournals. Retrieved 2009-07-03. www. [8] Webtrends acquired San Francisco based Transpond. . "Webtrends CEO gone" (http:/ / www.[3] In 1999 they took it public. . 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2008-03-06. with strident opinion on both sides of the debate. . com/ blog/ 2009/ 07/ 30/ we-acquired-widemile-a-leader-in-multivariate-testing-optimization-and-targeting/ ). Intelligent Enterprise. www. MarketingVOX." (http:/ / blogs. The ad asked. a maker of social microsites and applications that can be distributed over the web or Facebook. and targeting. webtrends. . "Should Cyclists Pay A Road Tax?".[11] The aim of the campaign was to demonstrate the ability of the company's Web analytics to track the resulting online commentary around the issue. [4] Earnshaw. com/ portland/ stories/ 2007/ 10/ 29/ daily29. a leader in multivariate testing. [3] Earnshaw. Retrieved 2010-11-25.[3] The CEO plus three top vice presidents were asked to leave on October 31. Aliza (2007-10-31). btobonline. 2007. then sold it to Francisco Partners four years later for $94 million.Webtrends answer questions that are critical to improving marketing ROI. The product was rebranded as Webtrends Apps at the time of the announcement. which includes its analytics and marketing warehouse products. Phil (2007-05-21). Retrieved 2008-01-31.[4] Although there was initial speculation the company was to be quickly sold to its largest competitor. com/ apps/ pbcs. htm). html). 2008-08-19. html). Webtrends launched a transit ad campaign revolving around whether or not cyclists should pay a road tax. later reports indicated the change signaled a long-term move. Retrieved 2007-11-03. webtrends. raising $45. .1 billion in stock.bizjournals. [8] "Official Webtrends Company Blog . .com/portland. 2009. . 2006-12-05. an automated optimization solution in online advertising. "Webtrends sale not imminent" (http:/ / www.[3] In 2001 California company NetIQ bought Webtrends for $1. [6] In August 2008. [9] Controversy In 2009. marketingvox. [5] "Webtrends Acquires ClickShift" (http:/ / www. com/ archives/ 2006/ 12/ 05/ webtrends-buys-optimization-firm-clickshift/ ). . a provider of multivariate testing and targeting on July 30th. Aliza (2007-11-01). BtoB Online.[10] Both drivers and the cycling community reacted strongly to the ad. 95 Corporate history W. Retrieved 2007-11-03. jhtml?articleID=199700517).bizjournals. The product was rebranded and relaunched as Webtrends Optimize the day the acquisition was made public. com/ portland/ stories/ 2006/ 12/ 04/ daily2.We acquired Widemile. html). optimization. "Put to the Test: Webtrends Analytics 8" (http:/ / www. com/ portland/ stories/ 2007/ 10/ 29/ daily39. bizjournals. [7] Webtrends acquired Seattle based Widemile. [7] "Webtrends appoints new president-CEO" (http:/ / www.com/portland. Retrieved 2008-02-07. intelligententerprise. . com/ press-release/ Webtrends-Acquires-Social-Marketing-Company-Transpond-1302371.[5] ClickShift's technology was integrated into Webtrends' Marketing Lab suite. Retrieved 2008-08-21. Retrieved 2010-11-25. in December 2006. www. dll/ article?AID=/ 20080819/ FREE/ 991465)." (http:/ / www. bizjournals. The offering was re-branded as Webtrends Dynamic Search.[11] References [1] http:/ / www. oregonlive. com/ commuting/ 2009/ 07/ new_max_ad_should_cyclists_pay.[3] :) Acquisitions Webtrends acquired ClickShift.

it is much easier for marketers to collect data for analysis and evaluation in order to understand and demonstrate the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of their efforts and to make changes to improve them. These tools provide a bird's eye view of a website's traffic. how well they were persuaded. com/ business/ index. The information that is gathered allows webmasters to make informed decisions about making changes in order to improve a website. ssf/ 2009/ 07/ ads_on_bike_road_tax_have_bike. .com. html). and why they did or didn't convert. 2009). Win-loss analytics tools track the individual perspectives of each visitor. With the internet. OregonLive. web analytics Web analytics tools have existed since the early days of the internet and are now ubiquitous. to improve marketing efforts History Determining why one person engaged in a desired action and another did not has long been a topic of interest in sales. Mike (Thursday July 02. Win-loss analytics vs. . and the results of marketing have traditionally been more difficult to accurately measure.Webtrends [11] Rogoway. identify individuals that are more likely to convert. what products they were qualified for. where measurement of conversion has always been possible through sales data. "Ads on bike tax have cyclists fuming" (http:/ / www. uncovering who the visitor was. oregonlive. This information allows web teams to improve the website's navigation and content. 96 Win–loss analytics Win-loss analytics involves identifying and analyzing the reasons why a visitor to a website was or wasn't persuaded to engage in a desired action (conversion). marketing has been mostly concerned with targeting with the masses. In contrast.

[2] [3] [4] Reception Washington Post calls Woopra an "impressive live tracking and analytics service".[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.Woopra 97 Woopra Woopra iFusion Labs LLC Type Industry Founded Web Services Technology Dallas. USA Key people Elie Khoury. Google Analytics. com/ 2008/ 03/ 30/ stats-junkies-get-another-fix-woopra/ ) Mashable on Woopra (http:/ / mashable. html) . As part of the launch a video of a live demonstration and an interview with CEO John Pozadzides conducted by Cali Lewis was published online. unlike the leading competitor. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 10/ 12/ AR2009101203088. tv/ introducing-woopra-youre-gonna-want-it) TechCrunch on Woopra (http:/ / www. Launch Woopra was unveiled as a closed beta at WordPress's WordCamp Dallas on March 29. geekbrief. where 200 invitations were distributed to attendees. 2008.com [1] Products Website Woopra (pronounced /ˈwuːprə/) is a web analytics service offered by iFusion Labs LLC that generates live detailed statistics about the visitors to a website. CEO Lorelle VanFossen. Blog Editor and Community Manager Woopra Web Analytics woopra. woopra. com/ 2008/ 03/ 30/ woopra/ ) Woopra Opens Its Doors For Live Web Analytics (http:/ / www. techcrunch. The service is provided in real-time using a desktop application. Texas (2008) Headquarters . Chief Information Officer and Co-Founder Jad Younan. Chief Technology Officer and Co-Founder John Pozadzides. Chief Executive Officer. washingtonpost. com/ GeekBrief on Woopra (http:/ / www. going on to say "what makes Woopra so special? Real Time".

commonly provide features such as the following: • • • • image management display weighting to control the frequency and duration of individual ads reporting. increase exposure to advertising by showing multiple ads per page load instead of just one. Because the ads are placed in the same location. The three most common approaches are server-side. or both. the ad is selected on the server and the corresponding HTML markup is generated and then served. Service-based ad rotation is similar to client-side ad rotation in that it typically involves placing a small amount of JavaScript in the web page. within a single page load. With server-side ad rotation. known as ad rotators. Ads may be rotated with each new page load. allowing advertisers to see how often ads were displayed and clicked for service-based ad rotation. client-side and service-based. The goals of ad rotation include: • Allow publishing sites to serve ads for multiple advertisers. If the ad never changes. channel selection (content. management features such as color selection. ad rotation can be accomplished in multiple ways.com/LPMArticle. Ad rotation software. etc.logicaltips.) and payment management Technical implementation Technically. video. • Keep advertising "fresh". Client-side ad rotation typically involves JavaScript of some sort (either straight client-side JavaScript or else AJAX calls to the server. search. Google's AdSense service is an example of service-based ad rotation. users are more likely to ignore it.asp?ID=89 .Ad rotation 98 Ad rotation Ad rotation is the practice of showing multiple advertisements in a single location on a web page. filtering competitor ads. but the JavaScript calls against a third-party service that provides its own management interface for specifying ad delivery options. • For content-rich sites. they are typically the same format. References • Rotating Advertisements on Your Site: http://www.

saying that “Ad text plays a crucial role in determining the success of your AdWords advertising [2] . According to the UK’s Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB). For advertisers ATO is delivers more clicks. Higher Quality Scores also result in PPC Ads appearing on earlier search pages. that is “more buyers. At the heart of Ad Text Optimization (ATO) lies a specialist type of direct response copywriting which can be augmented by an Ad Text Optimization (ATO) algorithm that measures the response effectiveness of Ad Text copy. This has been commentated on by many in the marketing and advertising fraternity as evidence that PPC Ads now constitute an established part of the marketing mix. References [1] Search Engine Journal . PPC Ads make up the lion’s share of this market and some argue that its future growth will in part be fuelled by ATO becoming an ever more integral part of the writing of PPC Ads. search is now a significant advertising medium in its own right with the paid search market worth almost £2.” PPC Ads are triggered to appear on search engine pages when Users search with keywords which match those selected by the PPC Advertiser. The higher the Quality Score of a PPC Ad the lower the bid price the advertiser has to pay each time a User clicks on the relevant Keywords that triggers the PPC Ad appearing. ATO and Quality Score Many search engines. and search engines benefit by offering their user customers more efficient search experiences. PPC Ads have come under the scrutiny of the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA). which are measured by higher CTRs. According to Search Engine Journal.Ad Text Optimization – What to Test (and When)? Dec 2010 [2] Google eLearning Centre 2011 [3] Internet Advertising Bureau . ATO can play a key role in increasing a PPC AD’s Quality Score.Internet marketing news 2009 .” ATO and SEO ATO in PPC advertising is viewed by many in marketing as the equivalent of SEO (Search Engine Optimization) for natural search in that they both improve the visibility of websites. ATO and Advertising Recently in the UK. and Google publishes its Overview of Optimizing Ad Text on its elearning centre. less browsers”. For Users the benefit of ATO is to make PPC Ads more relevant to their searches.Ad text optimization 99 Ad text optimization Ad Text Optimization (ATO) Ad Text Optimization (ATO) is the process of improving the performance of a text Pay Per Click (PPC) Advertisement on search engines by improving its Click Through Rate (CTR) performance both in terms of volume and quality of response. When PPC Ads are clicked on they take the User through to a designated page on the advertiser’s website and a fee is paid to the search engine for the click.15 billion in 2009 representing 60. reward more efficient PPC Ads with higher Quality Scores.7% of online advertising spend in the UK[3] . but it’s sometimes less intuitive that ad text tests can and often do have an equally big impact on results [1] . “AdWords text ads are small and in some ways unassuming – when you think about testing landing pages it’s obvious that there are elements that could make a big impact. leading to more sales and increased Return On Investment (ROI). Google being the most notable example.

36 billion annualized).[3] In Q1 2011. AdSense has become a popular method of placing advertising on a website because the advertisements are less intrusive than most banners. They do this in three ways: 1. The source of all AdSense income is the AdWords program.AdSense 100 AdSense Google AdSense Developer(s) Initial release Google Inc. a bid not observable by competitors). Additionally. Some webmasters invest significant effort into maximizing their own AdSense income. and the content of the advertisements is often relevant to the website. The phrases accepted are "Sponsored Links" and "Advertisements". To fill a website with advertisements that are relevant to the topics discussed.e. google. . it is the most popular advertising network. com/ adsense [2] Google AdSense is an ad serving application run by Google Inc. June 18. as noted in a number of publisher case studies on the AdSense website. Overview Google uses its Internet search technology to serve advertisements based on website content. and video advertisements on their websites. AdSense commands an advertiser to submit a sealed bid (i. through AdSense. the user's geographical location. AdSense has been particularly important for delivering advertising revenue to small websites that do not have the resources for developing advertising sales programs and sales people. or 28% of total revenue. including but not limited to online advertising. Note that Google prohibits webmasters from using phrases like "Click on my AdSense ads" to increase click rates. Website owners can enroll in this program to enable text..34 billion ($9. and other factors. These advertisements are administered by Google and generate revenue on either a per-click or per-impression basis. They use text content on their websites that encourages visitors to click on advertisements. Google currently shares 68% of revenues generated by AdSense with content network [5] partners. but discontinued it in October 2008 in favor of a DoubleClick offering (also owned by Google). 2003 [1] Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Online advertising http:/ / www. Many websites use AdSense to monetize their content. which in turn has a complex pricing model based on a Vickrey second price auction. which pay out the most when they are clicked. image. Those wanting to advertise with Google's targeted advertisement system may enroll through AdWords. webmasters implement a brief script on the websites' pages. 3. Websites that are content-rich have been very successful with this advertising program. Google [4] earned US$2. for any given click received. They build valuable content on their websites that attracts AdSense advertisements. They use a wide range of traffic-generating techniques. Google beta tested a cost-per-action service. 2. advertisers only pay one bid increment above the second-highest bid.

more quality feeds to choose from. AdSense for search. Google announced a limited-participation beta version of AdSense for Feeds. Google AdSense announced that it would now be offering new features. 2008. with plans to make it available to all in stages. This offers domain name owners a way to monetize domain names that are otherwise dormant. Types AdSense for Feeds In May 2005. 2008. ASP and others are used. a version of AdSense that runs on RSS and Atom feeds that have more than 100 active subscribers. readers see relevant advertising—and in the long run. When the user clicks the image. a privately held company located in Los Angeles.[11] . AdSense for search A companion to the regular AdSense program. The advertisement content is chosen based on the content of the feed surrounding the image. was started in 1998 by Gilad Elbaz and Adam Weissman.[8] In 2009. publishers are paid for their original content. On December 12. AdSense does not pay publishers for mere searches. "advertisers have their ads placed in the most appropriate feed articles.[7] which was later acquired by Google in April 2003 for US$102 million. AdSense for mobile content AdSense for mobile content allows publishers to generate earnings from their mobile websites using targeted Google advertisements..[6] Oingo changed its name to Applied Semantics in 2001. Google writes the advertising content into the image that it returns. technologies such as PHP. According to the Official Google Blog. including the ability to "enable multiple networks to display ads". Instead of traditional JavaScript code. When the image is displayed by a RSS reader or Web browser. a mobile website."[9] AdSense for Feeds works by inserting images into a feed. Adsense for domains is currently being offered to some users. AdSense for domains Adsense for domains allows advertisements to be placed on domain names that have not been developed. Google matches advertisements to the content of a website — in this case.[10] AdSense for video AdSense for video allows publishers with video content to generate revenue using ad placements from Google's extensive Advertising network including popular Youtube videos. TechCrunch reported that AdSense for Domains is available for all US publishers.[5] However the publisher is paid only if the advertisements on the page are clicked. led by George Miller. AdSense for Feeds remained in its beta state until August 15. when it became available to all AdSense users. Inc. Google shares 51% of the advertising revenue it makes from those searches with the website owner. When a user searches the Internet or the website with the search box. Oingo developed a proprietary search algorithm that was based on word meanings and built upon an underlying lexicon called WordNet.AdSense 101 History Oingo. which was developed over the previous 15 years by researchers at Princeton University. he or she is redirected to the advertiser's website in the same way as regular AdSense advertisements. Just like AdSense for content. allows website owners to place Google search boxes on their websites.

If keywords have been cached already. such as </img> and </input>. a workaround has been found by creating a separate HTML webpage containing only the AdSense advertisement units.[14] How AdSense works • The webmaster inserts the AdSense JavaScript code into a webpage. the JavaScript code uses inlined JSON to display content fetched from Google's servers. advertisements are served for those keywords based on the AdWords bidding system. However. the HTML code for the AdSense search box does not validate as XHTML.g. the attribute checked rather than checked="checked".[19] • Search advertisements are added to the list of results after the visitor performs a search. • Because the JavaScript is sent to the Web browser when the page is requested.) • For site-targeted advertisements. the advertiser chooses the page(s) on which to display advertisements. 2: the font tag is deprecated but does not fail validation in any XHTML standard. and does not follow modern principles of website design because of its use of • • • • • non-standard end tags. • For contextual advertisements. bgcolor and align. or scraper websites relying on RSS feeds for content).e. and then importing this page into an XHTML webpage with an object tag. and pays based on cost per mille (CPM).write(). it is possible for other website owners to copy the JavaScript code into their own webpages. automated content (e. that get proportionally wider or narrower when browser window resizes in width without active client side scripting). or style — for example. (More details are described in the AdSense patent [15]. the AdSense advertisement units use the JavaScript method document. These "zombie" websites often contain nothing but a large amount of interconnected. or the price advertisers choose to pay for every thousand advertisements displayed. thus preventing these participants from having valid XHTML websites. Many of these websites use content from . Google's servers use a cache of the page to determine a set of high-value keywords. which does not work correctly when rendered with the application/xhtml+xml MIME type. Additionally. a directory with content from the Open Directory Project. presentational attributes other than id. Google adds money to the advertiser's account when visitors either download the referred software or subscribe to the referred service. validation — there is currently no algorithmic method of determining whether a table is used "correctly" (for displaying tabular data or for displaying elements. Possibly the most popular form of such "AdSense farms" are splogs (spam blogs). • Each time this page is visited.. Abuse Some webmasters create websites tailored to lure searchers from Google and other engines onto their AdSense website to make money from clicks. To protect against this type of fraud. non-tabular) purposes.0 Transitional DOCTYPEs.0 Strict or XHTML 1.[18] The referral program was retired in August 2008. which are centered around known high-paying keywords. The terms of the AdSense program forbid its affiliates from modifying the code.2 [12] but nevertheless does not cause a document to fail 1: using a table structure for unintended purposes is strongly discouraged by the W3C.[13] This workaround appears to be accepted by Google.1 and the font tag.[16] [17] • For referrals. AdSense then ignores clicks from pages other than those specified. The units also use the iframe HTML tag. a table structure for purely presentational (i.AdSense 102 XHTML compatibility As of September 2007.. class. which is not validated correctly with the XHTML 1. AdSense customers can specify the pages on which advertisements should be shown.

[23] but many micro content providers require a long time—years in some cases—to build up this much AdSense revenue. There have also been reports of Trojan horses engineered to produce counterfeit Google advertisements that are formatted looking like legitimate ones. Webmasters that use AdSense must place the appropriate warning in the privacy policy page.[25] Some sites have been banned for distributing copyrighted material even when they hold the copyright themselves or are authorized by [26] the copyright holder to distribute the material. A Made for AdSense (MFA) website or webpage has little or no content. The payment terms for webmasters have also been criticized.[21] To help prevent click fraud. such as Wikipedia.[30] . in which one company clicks on a rival's search engine advertisements to drive up the other company's costs. and all complaints are deferred.whether legitimate or not . or options but a link to file an appeal.64 to $0. Typically.[28] AdSense sets tracking cookies that are viewed by some[29] as a threat to privacy. These programs display detailed information about the visitors who click on the AdSense advertisements. 103 Criticism Due to alleged concerns about click fraud. These and related approaches are considered to be search engine spam and can be reported to Google. For example. Google claims accounts have been disabled due to click fraud or forbidden content.[22] Google withholds payment until an account reaches US$100. Many website owners complain that their AdSense accounts have been disabled just before they were supposed to receive their first paycheck from Google. Google now disables such accounts. Google AdSense has been criticized by some search engine optimization firms as a large source of what Google calls "invalid clicks". Google states that "Because we have a responsibility to protect our AdWords advertisers from inflated costs due to invalid activity. we've found it necessary to disable your AdSense account.AdSense other websites. AdSense displays inappropriate or offensive ads. Google will pay all earned revenue greater than US$10 when an AdSense account is closed and not disabled.[24] Google came under fire when the official Google AdSense Blog showcased the French video website Imineo. but is filled with advertisements so that users have no choice but to click on advertisements. but due to complaints." The revenue generated .com.88 per click. The Trojan uploads itself onto an unsuspecting user's computer through a webpage and then replaces the original advertisements with its own set of malicious advertisements. AdSense publishers can choose from a number of click-tracking programs. An automated email is sent to the publisher's owner which offers no reasoning. an advert was generated for a (presumably non-existent) educational qualification in terrorism. This website violated Google's AdSense Program Policies by displaying AdSense alongside sexually explicit material. However. in a news story about a terrorist attack in India. In the email. to attract visitors.is taken. There are a number of commercial tracking scripts available for purchase. but have offered no proof of this. Such pages were tolerated in the past.[20] Users have reported that they also pay a range from $0.[27] In some cases. It has been reported that using both AdSense and AdWords may cause a website to pay Google a commission when the website advertises itself. Publishers can use this to determine whether or not they have been a victim of click fraud. Your outstanding balance and Google's share of the revenue will both be fully refunded back to the affected advertisers. websites displaying AdSense have been banned from showing such content.

infotoday. py?answer=57153). Mann (January 2006). Robin Wauters. offers shoddy surrogate" (http:/ / blog. html). . uk/ 2007/ 02/ google-keeps-co. Retrieved 2007-12-29. google. uspto. . Retrieved 2008-02-02. Bloomberg Businessweek. [21] Charles C. computing. . py?answer=97264) [4] "Google Announces First Quarter 2011 Financial Results" (http:/ / investor. AdSense. 2003-04-24. net/ 2008/ 07/ 01/ google-yanks-adsense-referral-program-offers-shoddy-surrogate/ ). google. "Adding AdSense to application/xhtml+xml pages" (http:/ / www. techcrunch. 2007-12-29. com/ support/ bin/ answer. google. scroogle. google. . com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. and comments" (http:/ / www. anta. . html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PG01& s1=20040059708& OS=20040059708& RS=20040059708 [16] "Google AdSense Help Center: What are CPM ads?" (http:/ / adwords. Retrieved 2010-05-03. . . . Wired. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 2008-07-01. com/ earnings/ 2011/ Q1_google_earnings. [19] "Google yanks AdSense referral program. html). Q2 2010" (http:/ / investor. html). 2003. html). com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. html) [30] Google AdSense terms (https:/ / www. py?answer=25890& topic=11724). google. google. co. gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool. py?hl=en& answer=105957). com/ 2008/ 12/ 12/ adsense-for-domains-now-available-for-all-us-publishers/ ). cssplay. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. [13] Stu Nicholls. IT Week. com/ documents/ 20100630_google_10Q. June 18. colnect. [20] Benaifer Jah (2005-12-27). html). [22] Lem Bingley (2007-02-01). businessweek. . com/ adsense/ localized-terms) . html). html). google. com/ 2009/ 02/ be-careful-when-using-both-adsense. google. TechCrunch [11] Brian Womack (2010-05-03). google. Hane (1999-12-20). 2010-07-15. 2007-12-29. . com/ adsense [3] What happened to the pay-per-action beta? (http:/ / adwords. org/ adsense. techshout. [15] http:/ / appft1. 01/ fraud. . [27] "BE CAREFUL when using both AdSense + AdWords by Google" (http:/ / blog. [26] "Google AdSense Program Policies" (https:/ / www. 2009-02-19. [24] "Disabled Account FAQ . blog. Dec 12. html?page=2196001).AdSense 104 References [1] Google Expands Advertising Monetization Program for Websites (http:/ / www. html). [5] "Google Form 10-Q. [8] "Google Acquires Applied Semantics" (http:/ / www. businessinsider. uk/ menu/ adsense. Incisive Interactive Marketing LLC. com/ support/ bin/ answer. co. [17] "Google AdWords: All About Site-Targeted Ads" (http:/ / www. com/ press/ pressrel/ applied. 2008. Press release. com/ ads/ sitetargeted. "Beyond Keyword Searching" (http:/ / www. htm). . [25] "Adult content" (https:/ / www. [29] Criticism of AdSense cookies (http:/ / www. TechShout. . "Google’s YouTube Boosts Display Advertisers 10-Fold (Update1)" (http:/ / www. Info Today. 2010-11-08. html). . [23] "When do I get paid?" (https:/ / www. "Google keeps on coining it in" (http:/ / lembingley. blogspot. w3. . . 2011. . google. [7] "Google Buys Applied Semantics" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. . Retrieved May 10. ISSN 1797-1993. google. py?answer=54411& topic=13175). com/ archive/ 200409/ content_negotiation_adsense_and_comments/ ). google. [14] Roger Johansson (2004-09-01). com/ news/ 2010-05-03/ google-s-youtube-boosts-display-advertisers-10-fold-update1-. py?answer=48182& sourceid=aso& subid=ww-ww-et-asui& medium=link). "Official Google Blog: Feed me" (http:/ / googleblog. py?answer=9905). html). com/ wired/ archive/ 14. html). [28] "Google's Worst Ads Ever (GOOG)" (http:/ / www. Google [2] http:/ / www. [12] W3C.anta. [6] Paula J. . Retrieved 2008-07-01. google. com/ googles-worst-ads-ever-2009-8). 2007-12-29. "How click fraud could swallow the internet" (http:/ / www.AdSense Help" (http:/ / www. 2003-04-23. com/ newsbreaks/ nb1220-2. google. . "Trojan Horse program that targets Google AdSense ads" (http:/ / www. Google. "Tables" (http:/ / www. [10] AdSense For Domains Now Available For All US Publishers (http:/ / www. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. Retrieved 2010-09-08. 2009-08-20. com/ showPage. com/ press/ pressrel/ adsense. 456bereastreet.net. Google AdSense Help Center. . . Press Release. com/ internet/ 2005/ 27/ a-trojan-horse-program-that-targets-google-ads-has-been-detected-by-an-indian-web-publisher/ ). com/ 2005/ 05/ feed-me. org/ TR/ CSS2/ tables. Retrieved 2009-10-06. [18] "Google AdSense Help Center: What is the referrals feature?" (https:/ / www. wired. Google AdSense Help Center. html). "Content negotiation. 2007-12-29. [9] Shuman Ghosemajumder (2005-05-17).

[6] When visitors clicked from the associate's website through to Amazon and purchased a book. and in some sense display advertising. but its program was the first to become widely known and serve as a model for subsequent programs. On the other hand. the network. and the customer. CDNOW had the idea that music-oriented websites could review or list albums on their pages that their visitors may be interested in purchasing. Geffen realized that CDNOW could link directly from the artist on its website to Geffen's website.com/) — Google's official weblog on AdSense Affiliate marketing Affiliate marketing is a marketing practice in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought about by the affiliate's own marketing efforts. These websites could also offer a link that would take the visitor directly to CDNOW to purchase the albums. but did not want to implement this capability itself.[4] During November 1994. the publisher (also known as 'the affiliate'). paid search engine marketing. affiliate marketing carries a much lower profile.com (Amazon) launched its associate program in July 1996: Amazon associates could place banner or text links on their site for individual books. CDNOW launched its BuyWeb program.[2] History Origin The concept of revenue sharing—paying commission for referred business—predates affiliate marketing and the Internet. for the completion of an offer. and website syndication capture much of the attention of online retailers.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool. The management at Geffen wanted to sell its artists' CDs directly from its website. The industry has four core players: the merchant (also known as 'retailer' or 'brand'). The translation of the revenue share principles to mainstream e-commerce happened in November 1994[3] . which is frequently overlooked by advertisers. because affiliates often use regular advertising methods. affiliates continue to play a significant role in e-retailers' marketing strategies.AdSense 105 External links • Google AdSense (http://www. Amazon was not the first merchant to offer an affiliate program. [5] bypassing the CDNOW home page and going directly to an artist's music page. The idea for remote purchasing originally arose because of conversations with music label Geffen Records in the fall of 1994. including affiliate management agencies. Still.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PG01& s1=20040059708&OS=20040059708&RS=20040059708) • Inside AdSense (http://adsense. Those methods include organic search engine optimization. and the referral of others to the site.[1] While search engines. e-mail marketing. such as publishing reviews of products or services offered by a partner.blogspot. Cybererotica was among the early innovators in affiliate marketing with a cost per click program. Affiliate marketing overlaps with other Internet marketing methods to some degree. or link directly to the Amazon home page.[7] [8] .uspto. e-mail. The market has grown in complexity to warrant a secondary tier of players. Affiliate marketing—using one website to drive traffic to another—is a form of online marketing.adsense. super-affiliates and specialized third party vendors. almost four years after the origination of the World Wide Web. Examples include rewards sites. Amazon. the associate received a commission. where users are rewarded with cash or gifts. Geffen asked CDNOW if it could design a program where CDNOW would handle the order fulfillment.com/) • Google AdSense patent application (http://appft1. affiliates sometimes use less orthodox techniques.

16 billion in the United Kingdom alone. the total sales amount generated through affiliate networks in 2006 was £2. Cost per click was more common in the early days of affiliate marketing. The patent application was submitted in June 1997. Contextual advertising programs are not considered in the statistic pertaining to diminished use of cost per click. While these models have diminished in mature e-commerce and online advertising markets they are still prevalent in some more nascent industries. According to one report. and forms of lead generation other than contextual advertising programs.35 billion in sales in 2005. Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his website and display it to his visitors in order to receive a commission. but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website. but not PC Flowers & Gifts. travel. The new media allowed merchants to become closer to their affiliates and improved the communication between them. which predates most affiliate programs.0 Websites and services based on Web 2. EPage (April 1996). for example—have impacted the affiliate marketing world as well. gambling. publishing. viewed as a marketing toy in the early days of the Internet. personal finance. Kbkids.[12] The three sectors expected to experience the greatest growth are the mobile phone.[12] Soon after these sectors came the entertainment (particularly gaming) and Internet-related services (particularly broadband) sectors. education. Amazon announced that it had been granted a patent[9] on components of an affiliate program. and travel sectors.com (October 1995).[4] 106 Historic development Affiliate marketing has grown quickly since its inception.[13] [14] Compensation methods Predominant compensation methods Eighty percent of affiliate programs today use revenue sharing or cost per sale (CPS) as a compensation method. However. less than one percent of traditional affiliate marketing programs today use cost per click and cost per mille.5 billion in bounty and commissions from a variety of sources in retail. and the remaining programs use other methods such as cost per click (CPC) or cost per mille (CPM).[12] Web 2.Affiliate marketing In February 2000. finance. and several others. nineteen percent use cost per action (CPA). affiliates worldwide earned US$6. these compensation methods are used heavily in display advertising and paid search.com/BrainPlay. as it is uncertain if contextual advertising can be considered affiliate marketing. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement. gaming and gambling.0 concepts—blogging and interactive online communities. Also several of the affiliate solution providers expect to see increased interest from business-to-business marketers and advertisers in using affiliate marketing as part of their mix. became an integrated part of the overall business plan and in some cases grew to a bigger business than the existing offline business.[15] Diminished compensation methods Within more mature markets. The e-commerce website.com (January 1996). AutoWeb. The estimates were £1.[11] Currently the most active sectors for affiliate marketing are the adult.[10] MarketingSherpa's research team estimated that. in 2006. retail industries and file-sharing services. telecom. but has diminished in use over time due to click fraud issues very similar to the click fraud issues modern search engines are facing today.com (October 1994). China is one example where Affiliate Marketing does not overtly resemble the same .

the full risk and loss (if the visitor can not be converted) to the advertiser. It is in the best interest for the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. The risk and loss is shared between the affiliate and the advertiser. Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives commission. The advertiser must convert that visitor first.[16] Affiliates are not employed by the advertiser whose products or services they promote. because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission. 107 Performance marketing In the case of cost per mille/click. The primary difference between the two is that affiliate marketers provide little if any influence on a possible prospect in the conversion process once that prospect is directed to the advertiser's website. all future activities performed by publishers "B" and "C" will result in additional commission (at a lower rate) for publisher "A". however. With many affiliates being paid a flat "Cost Per Day" with some networks offering Cost Per Click or CPM. and sometimes are paid performance incentives for exceeding targeted baselines.Affiliate marketing model in the West. is not completely accurate. and. most are simply one-tier. This leaves the greater. The phrase. . Two-tier programs exist in the minority of affiliate programs. If publisher "A" attracts publishers "B" and "C" to sign up for the same program using his sign-up code. publisher "A" signs up to the program with an advertiser and gets rewarded for the agreed activity conducted by a referred visitor. The sales team of the advertiser. which is often used to explain affiliate marketing. in reference to how sales employees are typically being compensated. Such employees are typically paid a commission for each sale they close. Multi-tier programs Some advertisers offer multi-tier programs that distribute commission into a hierarchical referral network of sign-ups and sub-partners. "Affiliates are an extended sales force for your business". in case of cost per mille. In practical terms. Referral programs beyond two-tier resemble multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing but are different: Multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing associations tend to have more complex commission requirements/qualifications than standard affiliate programs. Affiliate marketing is also called "performance marketing". does have the control and influence up to the point where the prospect signs the contract or completes the purchase. the publisher is not concerned about a visitor being a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert. but the compensation models applied to affiliate marketing are very similar to the ones used for people in the advertisers' internal sales department.

There are significantly more requirements that merchants must meet to be successful. the Internet marketing industry has become more advanced. similar to advertising agencies promoting a brand or product as done in offline marketing. Merchants can choose from two different types of affiliate management solutions: standalone software or hosted services. affiliate marketing is not easily scalable. In some areas online media has been rising to the sophistication of offline media. In this environment.e. "auto-drive"). which are [21] OPM companies perform affiliate often founded by veteran affiliate managers and network program managers. and those requirements are becoming too burdensome for the merchant to manage successfully in-house. With the exception of some vertical markets. however. who use spamming. being noticed can yield greater rewards. Affiliate management and program management outsourcing Successful affiliate programs require significant work and maintenance. typically called affiliate networks.e.. The opportunity to generate a considerable amount of profit combined with a crowded marketplace filled with competitors of equal quality and size makes it more difficult for merchants to be noticed. Unlike display advertising. in which advertising has been largely professional and competitive. however.[17] Some businesses owe much of their success to this marketing technique. . Payouts to affiliates or publishers are either made by the networks on behalf of the merchant. program management for the merchants as a service. The increased number of Internet businesses and the increased number of people that trust the current technology enough to shop and do business online allows further maturation of affiliate marketing.[20] and other unethical methods that have given affiliate marketing a negative reputation. consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself. false advertising. Recently. a notable example being Amazon.[18] Implementation options Some merchants run their own (i.. typosquatting. by the network.com. in-house) affiliate programs using popular software while others use third-party services provided by intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates (see outsourced program management). "cookie cutting". it is rare for an affiliate program to generate considerable revenue with poor management or no management (i. Uncontrolled affiliate programs did—and continue to do so today—aid rogue affiliates. Having a successful affiliate program is more difficult than when such programs were just emerging.[19] trademark infringement. meaning that the merchant does not incur a marketing expense unless results are accrued (excluding any initial setup cost).Affiliate marketing 108 From the advertiser perspective Pros and cons Merchants favor affiliate marketing because in most cases it uses a "pay for performance" model. An increasing number of merchants are seeking alternative options found in relatively new outsourced (affiliate) program management (OPM) companies.

e. without the need for recruitment efforts by the advertiser. There are currently no industry-wide accepted standards for the categorization. typically characterized by providing a reward system for purchases via points back. movies. Publisher recruitment Affiliate networks that already have several advertisers typically also have a large pool of publishers. cash back CRM sites that offer charitable donations Coupon and rebate websites that focus on sales promotions Content and niche market websites. games and other software. owners of large opt-in -mail lists that typically employ e-mail drip marketing) and newsletter list affiliates. Video Blog: Video content that allows viewers to click on and purchase products related to the video's subject...e.Affiliate marketing 109 Types of affiliate websites Affiliate websites are often categorized by merchants (i. The web sites that host the directory services sell advertising and do not host the files themselves. and then post descriptions of the material and their download links on directory sites. including product review sites Personal websites Weblogs and website syndication feeds E-mail list affiliates (i. Vendors or existing customers can also become recruits if doing so makes sense and does not violate any laws or regulations. Relevant websites that attract the same target audiences as the advertiser but without competing with it are potential affiliate partners as well. price comparisons. and there is also an increased chance that publishers in the network apply to the program on their own. or other features based on information that changes frequently. yet are commonly understood and used by affiliate marketers. These publishers could be potentially recruited. . The file-hosting sites sell premium download access to the files to the general public. File-Sharing: Web sites that host directories of music. which are typically more content-heavy Registration path or co-registration affiliates who include offers from other merchants during the registration process on their own website Shopping directories that list merchants by categories without providing coupons. thus requiring continual updates Cost per action networks (i.e. Uploaders are paid by the file-hosting sites based on the number of times their files are downloaded. highly relevant ads for products on the site Virtual Currency: a new type of publisher that utilizes the social media space to couple an advertiser's offer with a handout of "virtual currency" in a game or virtual platform.. although high-traffic websites are more likely interested in (for their own sake) low-risk cost per mille or medium-risk cost per click deals rather than higher-risk [22] cost per action or revenue share deals. Users upload content (usually in violation of copyright) to file-hosting sites. top-tier affiliates) that expose offers from the advertiser with which they are affiliated to their own network of affiliates Websites using adbars (e. The following types of websites are generic. Adsense) to display context-sensitive. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Search affiliates that utilize pay per click search engines to promote the advertisers' offers (i. search arbitrage) Comparison shopping websites and directories Loyalty websites.. Almost any website could be recruited as an affiliate publisher.g. advertisers) and affiliate networks.e.

Utilizing one of the common website correlation methods may provide clues about the affiliate network. Spam is the biggest threat to organic search engines. E-mail spam In the infancy of affiliate marketing. where certain websites were labeled as "thin affiliates".[24] Websites consisting mostly of affiliate links have previously held a negative reputation for underdelivering quality content. Past and current issues Since the emergence of affiliate marketing. "affiliates". In 2005 there were active changes made by Google. moved from the top-most results to a lower position). an affiliate link leading to a sporting goods website may work well within the context of the articles and information about sports. also known as spamdexing. This update thus enabled Google to remove a large amount of mostly computer-generated duplicate content from its index. 2. The goal in this case is to publish quality information within the website and provide context-oriented links to related merchant's websites. The most definitive method for finding this information is to contact the website owner directly. Search engine spam As search engines have become more prominent. The goal of such webpages is to manipulate the relevancy or prominence of resources indexed by a search engine. false advertising. if a contact method can be located. with the result being a skewed form of search engine optimization. "referral program".Affiliate marketing 110 Locating affiliate programs There are three primary ways to locate affiliate programs for a target website: 1. adware. The target website itself. forced clicks (to get tracking cookies set on users' computers). many affiliate merchants have refined their terms and conditions to prohibit affiliates from spamming. (Websites that offer an affiliate program often have a link titled "affiliate program". it may be the case that there exists a non-public affiliate program. If a website contains information pertaining to sports. there has been little control over affiliate activity. or "webmasters"—usually in the footer or "About" section of the website. if a website contains information pertaining to publishing a website. Large affiliate networks that provide the platform for dozens or even hundreds of advertisers. Google's PageRank algorithm update ("BigDaddy") in February 2006—the final stage of Google's major update ("Jagger") that began in mid-summer 2005—specifically targeted spamdexing with great success. Affiliate program directories. an affiliate link leading to a merchant's Internet service provider (ISP) within that website's content would be appropriate. which only contain links leading to merchant sites. this marketing method has historically proven to attract abuse from spammers. many Internet users held negative opinions due to the tendency of affiliates to use spam to promote the programs in which they were enrolled.) If the above locations do not yield information pertaining to affiliates.. affiliate marketer webmasters must create quality content on their websites that distinguishes their work from the work of spammers or banner farms. Some commentators originally suggested that Affiliate links work best in the context of the information contained within the website itself. Unscrupulous affiliates have used spam. whose goal is to provide quality search results for keywords or phrases entered by their users.[23] As affiliate marketing matured. and other methods to drive traffic to their sponsors.e. For instance. To avoid this categorization. Each page can be targeted to a different niche market through the use of specific keywords. . Although many affiliate programs have terms of service that contain rules against spam.[25] Such websites were either removed from Google's index or were relocated within the results page (i. and 3. some affiliate marketers have shifted from sending e-mail spam to creating automatically generated webpages that often contain product data feeds provided by merchants.

Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking. Most of this activity adds time and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter. adware continues to be an issue. End users frequently confuse the source of their computer infection with a particular website they were viewing at the time. thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts.Affiliate marketing However. Affiliate marketers became aware of the issue much more quickly. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. 2007. Adware Although it differs from spyware. thus resulting in a decline of commissions. who is typically unaware that such software is installed on his/her computer.) and particularly. Adware often has no valuable purpose and rarely provides any useful content to the user. what impact it had. Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. SpyBot.[29] . adware often uses the same methods and technologies. affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser. the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages.[28] Regardless of the progress made. and not the advertising network that was linked to. and how it could damage their brands. by the website (commonly users themselves do not understand or appreciate there is a distinction). more recent examples exist of "thin" affiliate sites that are using the Affiliate Marketing model to create value for Consumers by offering them a service. Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. pop-up blockers. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates. Consumer Countermeasures The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and web-sites. Affiliates not employing adware felt that it was stealing commission from them. Third party programs (Ad Aware.[27] and ShareASale's Junction/beFree and Performics. These thin content service Affiliate fall into three categories: • Price comparison • Cause related marketing • Time saving 111 Virus and Trojan distribution through advertising networks Server farms hosting advertising content are periodically infected by hackers who alter the behavior of these servers such that the content they serve to end-users includes hidden I-frames and other exploits that leverage vulnerabilities in various web-browsers and operating systems for the purpose of infecting those systems with malware. etc. especially because they noticed that adware often overwrites tracking cookies. Merchants initially were uninformed about adware. Eventually. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission [26] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum. complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.

merchants/advertisers. and only a few college instructors work with Internet marketers to introduce the subject to students majoring in marketing. Although there are several books on the topic. This "frontier" life combined with the attitude found in such communities is likely the main reason why the affiliate marketing industry is unable to self-regulate beyond individual contracts between advertisers and affiliates. third-party vendors. including the advertiser's trademarks. Later in 2000 Google launched its pay per click service. and guidelines for the industry. going so far as to allow. which can quickly become out of date. Google AdWords. Several advertisers began to adjust their affiliate program terms to prohibit their affiliates from bidding on those type of keywords. and provide anonymity. The "trial and error" approach is probably the best way to describe the operation methods for affiliate marketers. however. enable small affiliates to have a larger say. and service providers such as outsourced program managers—to congregate at one location.000 or more per month in commission. Because of the anonymity of online forums. did and still do embrace this behavior. affiliate networks. Affiliates are often the first to take advantage of emerging trends and technologies. and trademarks. Larger affiliates may even be sponsored by an advertiser they promote.Affiliate marketing 112 Trademark bidding Affiliates were among the earliest adopters of pay per click advertising when the first pay-per-click search engines emerged during the end of the 1990s. Affiliate marketing has experienced numerous failed attempts to create an industry organization or association of some kind that could be the initiator of regulations. either directly or via a search marketing agency. Online forums are free. Lack of self-regulation and collaboration Affiliate marketing is driven by entrepreneurs who are working at the edge of Internet marketing. There are some training courses and seminars that result in certifications. standards. the largest issue concerned affiliates bidding on advertisers names. The most recent example of such a success was the halt of the "Commission Junction Link Management Initiative" (CJ LMI) in June/July 2006. affiliates to bid on any term. when a single network tried to impose the use of a Javascript tracking code as a replacement for common HTML links on its affiliates.[31] Lack of industry standards Certification and training Affiliate marketing currently lacks industry standards for training and certification.[33] .[30] Some examples of failed regulation efforts are the Affiliate Union and iAfma. however. Affiliate marketing is not commonly taught in universities. Trade shows are cost-prohibitive to small affiliates because of the high price for event passes. This risky approach is one of the reasons why most affiliates fail or give up before they become successful "super affiliates".[32] Education occurs most often in "real life" by becoming involved and learning the details as time progresses. which is responsible for the widespread use and acceptance of pay per click as an advertising channel. An increasing number of merchants engaged in pay per click advertising. the acceptance of such certifications is mostly due to the reputation of the individual or company issuing the certification. Although this situation alone created advertising channel conflicts and debates between advertisers and affiliates. brands. some so-called "how-to" or "silver bullet" books instruct readers to manipulate holes in the Google algorithm. capable of generating US$10. Some advertisers. or even encourage. Online forums have had very few successes as representing the majority of the affiliate marketing industry. Online forums and industry trade shows are the only means for the different members from the industry—affiliates/publishers. and realized that this space was already well-occupied by their affiliates.[32] or suggest strategies no longer endorsed or permitted by advertisers. the quantitative majority of industry members are unable to create any form of legally binding rule or regulation that must be followed throughout the industry.

and is sufficient to allow New York to tax all Amazon sales to state residents. providing much of their training through group collaboration and brainstorming. podcasts. weblogs. Sales tax vulnerability In April 2008 the State of New York inserted an item in the state budget asserting sales tax jurisdiction over Amazon. 2009. 113 Marketing term Members of the marketing industry are recommending that "affiliate marketing" be substituted with an alternative name. Such companies also try to send each marketing employee to the industry conference of their choice. which requires the web site user to click to reveal the voucher code. Code of conduct A code of conduct was released by affiliate networks Commission Junction/beFree and Performics in December 2002 to guide practices and adherence to ethical standards for online advertising. and many other affiliate networks host their own annual events. video seminars. but also has the potential to overwrite other affiliates' cookies. The action of clicking places the cookie on the website visitor's computer.[36] The state asserts that even one such affiliate constitutes Amazon having a business presence in the state. The case is currently making its way through the New York appeals courts.Affiliate marketing Outsourced Program Management companies typically combine formal and informal training. This not only generates fraudulent affiliate sales. Amazon challenged the amendment and lost at the trial level in January. based on the existence of affiliate links from New York–based websites to Amazon. which will then generate revenue for the person doing the cookie stuffing.[35] Affiliate marketing is often confused with either network marketing or multi-level marketing.com sales to residents of New York. and specialty websites. Performance marketing is a common alternative. but other recommendations have been made as well. Cookie stuffing Cookie stuffing involves placing an affiliate tracking cookie on a website visitor's computer without their knowledge. essentially stealing their legitimately earned commissions. Affiliate Summit is the largest conference in the industry. The IAB [37] have stated that "Affiliates must not use a mechanism whereby users are encouraged to click to interact with content where it is unclear or confusing what the outcome will be. Click to reveal Many voucher code web sites use a click-to-reveal format.[34] Other training resources used include online forums." .

[5] Olim.Affiliate marketing 114 Affiliate services • • • • • Affiliate tracking software Affiliate programs directories Affiliate networks (see also Category:Internet advertising services and affiliate networks) Affiliate manager and Outsourced Program Management (OPM or APM) (manages affiliates) Category:Internet marketing trade shows References [1] Prussakov. .com. Shawn (2000-11-10). (2006). WebProNews.com. Web 2. CPC vs. 2007 . Page 36 [22] Marios Alexandrou (February 4th. com/ barrier." [7] Frank Fiore and Shawn Collins. 2007 [12] February 2007.16-17).13 and 14. publisher (January 11. CPA (http:/ / www. CDNOW released its BuyWeb program. Wired. com/ index. com/ story/ Going+ Out+ Is+ In). Pages 149–150. retrieved on 14. MarketingSherpa. Google's Content Referral Network: A Grab for Advertisers (http:/ / www. Being a Bigdaddy Jagger Meister (http:/ / www. allthingssem." [4] Collins. Retrieved on 2007-10-15 from http:/ / www. Affiliate Summit 2006 Wrap-Up Report -. com/ archives/ 2009/ 06/ 29/ online-marketing-system-affiliate-marketing). retrieved November 11. html). retrieved May 17. retrieved on December 16th. internetretailer. http:/ / feedmoney. 2007).January. "Online Marketing System: Affiliate marketing" (http:/ / feedmoney. ISBN 0-9791927-0-6. 2007). April 2001 ISBN 0-7897-2525-8 [8] Gray. Page 6. html). com/ showPage. Going Out Is In (http:/ / www.July. retrieved on 14. Peter (1999-01). asp).SOA Web Services Journal. qcommission.fm. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US6029141) [10] October 2006. [18] Jeff Molander (June 22.Commissions to Reach $6. retrieved on May 17. 2007. Evgenii (2007). thoughtshapers. All Things SEM. e-Consultancy. amazon. htm). 2007 [14] Dion Hinchcliff (29. . php/ weblog/ google-cpa-content-referral-network-goog-vclk-valueclick-david-jackson/ ).com. 2007 [15] AffStat Report 2007 (http:/ / www. wired.5 Billion in 2006 (http:/ / www. html?page=832131. Revenue Magazine. com/ publications/ affiliate-marketing-networks-buyers-guide/ ). e-consultancy. retrieved June 25. Thought Shapers. 30 November 1999. from pages 12. com/ salescommission_details. "Amazon Associates is one of the first online affiliate marketing programs and was launched in 1996. 2007 [17] Tom Taulli (9 November 2005). "During November 1994. [2] Guide to E-Commerce Technology (http:/ / www. com/ survey. Issue 12. Retrieved 2011-04-20. espacenet. ReveNews.Lands' End Versus The Affiliate on Typosquatting (http:/ / www. January 1999. webmasterradio. e-consultancy. 2007 [11] Anne Holland. Internet Statistics Compendium 2007 (http:/ / www. Matthew. retrieved on December 16. CPM vs. affstat. com/ expertarticles/ 2006/ 06/ 09/ being-a-bigdaddy-jagger-meister). 2007 [21] Jennifer D.com. marketingsherpa. com/ : Feed Money. QUE Publishing. retrieved June 25. retrieved on May 17. Based on survey responses from almost 200 affiliate managers from a cross-section of the industry. Jason. com/ E-Commerce/ vendor_list. Top Floor Publishing. cfm?contentID=3157). published by Montgomery Research Inc. Shady Web of Affiliate Marketing (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ publications/ internet-stats-compendium/ ). 2006).0's Real Secret Sauce: Network Effects (http:/ / web2. ISBN 0-07-135310-0. Daniel (1999-11-30). Olim. fm/ episodes/ index. QCommission. Forbes. e-Consultancy. com/ social_media_goes_mainstream. 2007 [19] Danny Sullivan (June 27. [9] US 6029141 (http:/ / v3. "Successful Affiliate Marketing for Merchants". revenews.May. com/ gp/ associates/ join/ getstarted). and Kent. Meacham (July/August 2006). 2006). 2007 [24] Jim Hedger (September 6.. The Daily SearchCast News from June 27. clickz. com/ : amazon associates. com/ business/ 2005/ 11/ 08/ marketing-ecommerce-internet-cx_tt_1109straightup. 2006).com. [6] "What is the Amazon Associates program?" (https:/ / affiliate-program. https:/ / affiliate-program. amazon. 10 November 2000. retrieved June 25.com Business. 2006). 2005). "The Cdnow Story: Rags to Riches on the Internet". Retrieved 14 May 2007. htm). 2007 [20] Wayne Porter (September 6. "The Complete Guide to Associate and Affiliate Programs on the Net". Creating A Virtual Sales Force (http:/ / www. socialcomputingjournal. ClickZ Network. History of Affiliate Marketing. WebmasterRadio. 2006). 2007 [13] Dion Hinchcliff (15. "A Practical Guide to Affiliate Marketing" (pp. com/ cpm-cpc-cpa/ ). com/ wayneporter/ archives/ 002263. Retrieved 2011-04-20. htm). 2006). With this program CDNOW was the first non-adult website to launch the concept of an affiliate or associate program with its idea of click-through purchasing.May. McGraw-Hill Trade. retrieved May 17. webpronews. ISBN 0-9661032-6-2. com/ politics/ security/ news/ 2005/ 02/ 66556). Affiliate Marketing Networks Buyer's Guide (2006) (http:/ / www. shtml). com/ web_20s_real_secret_sauce_network_effects. socialcomputingjournal. Sales Commission (http:/ / www. 2007-08 Edition by Internet Retailer [3] Shashank SHEKHAR (2009-06-29). 2006 (http:/ / www. php?showId=30). SOA Web Services Journal. [16] CellarStone Inc. revenuetoday. NEW FIRST: LinkShare. Social Media Goes Mainstream (http:/ / web2. 2007 [23] Ryan Singel (October 2.

computerworld. 2005).org/Business/Opportunities/Online_Opportunities/Affiliate_Programs/ ) at the Open Directory Project • Website Affiliate Programs (http://dir. 2002.15. 2006). 2007. retrieved on 14. 2007 [32] Alexandra Wharton (March/April 2007).org/top/Computers/Internet/Web_Design_and_Development/Authoring/ Webmaster_Resources/Affiliate_Programs/) at the BOTW Directory . ShareASale.com. html). N.The Performance Marketing Model of the Future (http:/ / www. 2002. How Do Companies Train Affiliate Managers? (http:/ / www.com on June 26. CJ. retrieved June 26. Commission Junction and beFree (http:/ / www. iabuk. 2007 [28] ShareASale Affiliate Service Agreement (http:/ / www. linkshare. [26] December 10. Profit Sharing . cjclassaction. cfm). The authenticity of the document was neither acknowledged nor challenged by Google.2 .dmoz. Page 58. Issue: March/April 2007.October.com. Learning Outside the Box (http:/ / www. link to online version retrieved June 26. LinkShare. Computerworld. revenuetoday. retrieved May 17. 2007 [30] Carsten Cumbrowski (November 4. com/ news/ press_releases0102/ press_021210. AdWare Class Action Lawsuit against . abestweb. retrieved June 26. 2007 [31] May 2006. org/ node/ 2709) in 2005.Y. Affiliate Millions . 2008). Law Firms of Nassiri & Jung LLP and Hagens Berman. retrieved on 16. com/ spamguide. Reve News. net/ en/ 1/ iabaffiliatemarketingcouncilstrengthensonlinevouchercodebestpracticeguidelines270309. html).com. revenews. doc) (Word document) supposedly leaked out from Google (http:/ / www.yahoo. com/ carstencumbrowski/ 2006/ 11/ affiliate_marketing_organizati_1. com/ press/ addendum. 2007 [27] December 12. AffiliateTip Blog. 2007 [35] Vinny Lingham (11. php?t=73747) main discussion thread to CJ's LMI. retrieved from CJClassAction. com/ agreement. mxs) 115 External links • Affiliate marketing (http://www.We are back to Step 0 (http:/ / www. 2007 [34] March/April 2007.Book Report (http:/ / blog. 2008 [37] IAB. com/ story/ Learning+ Outside+ the+ Box& readpage=1). to tax goods bought on Amazon (http:/ / www. Revenue Magazine. affiliatetip. LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum (http:/ / www. New Javascript Links? (http:/ / forum. Friday. retrieved June 26. cj. revenuetoday.May.com/Business_and_Economy/Business_to_Business/ Business_Opportunities/Directories/Web_Site_Affiliate_Programs/) at the Yahoo! Directory • Affiliate Programs (http://botw. html) (contains original CoC text).Affiliate marketing [25] Spam Recognition Guide for Raters (http:/ / www. vinnylingham. retrieved June 26. com/ ). threadwatch. html). com/ action/ article.Vinny Lingham's Blog. 2007 [33] Shawn Collins (June 9. retrieved on May 17. Affiliate Marketing Organization Initiative Vol. com/ showthread.April.com. 2007 [36] Linda Rosencrance. searchbistro.April. 2007). 27 March 2009 IAB affiliate council strengthens voucher code guidelines (http:/ / www. RevenueToday.ValueClick. com/ story/ webextra-issue16-2) (Web Extra). ABestWeb. Online Marketing Service Providers Announce Web Publisher Code of Conduct (http:/ / www. 2007 [29] April 20. com/ archives/ affiliate-millions-book-report/ ). do?command=viewArticleBasic& taxonomyName=government& articleId=9077963& taxonomyId=13& intsrc=kc_top). shareasale. com/ 2006/ 10/ special-report-profit-sharing-the-performance-marketing-model-of-the-future. retrieved June 26.

this arrangement is generally advantageous for all parties involved. Article directories having good web page rank receives excessive quantity of site visitors and are thought-about authority sites by search engines. a roofing company may offer radio stations a concise article titled "How to Avoid Ice Damage to Your Roof this Winter" shortly before the winter season. and published on multiple websites. Internet Article Marketing Internet article marketing. Traditional Article Marketing Article marketing has been used by professionals for nearly as long as mass print has been available. However. is an Internet marketing approach to subtly promote products and services online via article directories. These articles are often syndicated by other websites. These articles are made available for distribution and publication in the marketplace. However. These directories then go on PageRank to the author's website and in addition sends traffic from readers. Some marketers attempt to circumvent this filter by creating a number of variations of an article. Well-written content articles released for free distribution have the potential to increase the business credibility within its market. . By doing this. internet hosting plan. known as article spinning. Each article has a bio box and byline (collectively known as the resource box) that include references and contact information for the author's business. Because newspapers and other traditional media are expected to present content on limited budgets. A local business provides useful content to the newspaper that too free of cost and in return the newspaper prints the business contact information with the required article. Also it helps in attracting new clients. most of the major search engines want to filter duplicate content to stop the identical content material from appearing multiple times in searches. In paper-print form (as opposed to online forms).Article marketing 116 Article marketing Article marketing is a type of advertising in which businesses write short articles related to their respective industry. Internet marketers will typically attempt to maximize the results of an article advertising campaign by submitting their articles to a number of article directories. and promoting budget. an accounting firm may market itself by writing an article titled "The Top 10 Ways to Avoid Being Audited" and offering it to the local newspapers several weeks prior to tax season. Becoming a Guest Blogger on these sites introduces the author to interested parties that are otherwise unreachable. article advertising makes use of article directories as a free host and receives traffic by way of organic searches due to the listing's search engine authority. which often leads to receiving good quantity of traffic. Having your content featured on niche blogs and focused content sites run and managed by others is a popular form of article marketing. Similarly. For example. Most forms of search engine optimization and Internet marketing require a domain. This can be very useful to new internet entrepreneurs because it does not require a big budget. article marketing is utilized commonly by business owners as a means of obtaining free press space. one article can theoretically acquire site visitors from a number of article directories.

The videos are then uploaded to various video sharing websites like youtube for distribution and exposure. Being an audio-visual medium.Article marketing 117 Commonly Accepted Article Structure and Format When publishing on the internet the most commonly accepted practice is to write articles having catchy title using relevant keywords and 250-500 words in the body of the article. References Article video marketing Article Video marketing Article video marketing is a new type of internet marketing and advertising in which business create 2-5 minute short videos about specific topics using content from articles and other text sources. The most traditional way is by creating a powerpoint presentation of the original article. The generally accepted keyword density for most article directories is about 2 to 3% and anything above that can be considered as keyword stuffing. Related Software • Microsoft Powerpoint • Windows Movie Maker • Article Video Robot References . the presentation is recorded using a screen capture software like Camtasia and the slideshow is now turned into a video that can be uploaded to a video sharing site like YouTube for sharing. Most article directories currently do not accept HTML tags in either title or in the body of the article. Finally. Relevant pictures are then added to the slideshow and voice is recorded over each slide to create a voice-over narration for the video. and get more exposure. Advantages of Article Video marketing Article Video marketing is an extension of Article marketing but serves as an alternate medium for businesses to convey their message to a wider audience. Since the primary goal behind article marketing is to get search engine traffic. which is basically transforming the article text into an animated slideshow. authors generally incorporate relevant keywords or keyphrases in their articles. Converting articles into videos There are several ways to for turning articles into videos. articles turned into videos also reduce the time required to read the articles.

is a subset of legal advertising that allows participating attorneys to be matched with potential clients seeking legal representation." The Court found "the postulated connection between advertising and the erosion of true professionalism to be severely strained. ACM websites allow users to submit their legal needs online by practice area and location."[1] In 1977. In this response. lawyers and law firms also changed their habits of presenting their services to consumers online.[2] The Supreme Court rejected the argument by the Arizona Bar that attorney advertising was "inherently misleading" and "tarnish the dignified public image of the profession. State bar associations and websites like Avvo. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) responded to the Supreme Court of Alabama's June 26. and may then submit bids to work with the clients who can then choose which practitioners they wish to hire. the American Bar Association ("ABA") established its first ethics code. Two key categories currently define online legal advertising: online legal directories and attorney-client matching services. the ABA created the Model Code of Professional Responsibility ("Model Code") in 1969. in many instances consumers would rely upon the Yellow Pages and referral services to find an attorney. known as the Canons of Professional Ethics.[5] Given that consumer habits changed and working within the regulations of the Bates v. 2006. Law firms or lawyers that opt to use these services are then matched with clients by need and location. in Bates v. Sharktank[6] and LegalOpinion[7] (Sharktank and LegalOpinion are now defunct) were the first to provide the attorney-client matching as a service. to the maximum extent compatible with other state and federal goals.Attorney-client matching 118 Attorney-client matching Attorney-Client Matching (ACM). Attorney-Client Matching Services Attorney-client matching provides lawyers with the opportunity to increase exposure and reach their audience online. the FTC "encourages competition in the licensed professions. Companies like San Francisco. including the legal profession." and noted that "lack of legal advertising could be viewed as the profession's failure to 'reach out and serve the community. The legal practitioners then review the requests. History In 1908. ruled that lawyer advertising is partially protected by the First Amendment. Online directories can be seen as internet versions of the Yellow Pages. the United States Supreme Court. to his professional brethren and to the public. which has sometimes been referred to as online legal matching."[8] Additionally. which condemned all advertisement and solicitation by lawyers.com and Martindale-Hubbell's Lawyers. Online Legal Directories Online legal directory services pool attorney information in one place for consumers to search for attorneys on their own. 2002 invitation to comment on the Alabama Rules of Professional Conduct entitled Information about Legal Services. many consumers turned to the web to search for goods and services. on May 26. The system allows clients to submit requests for legal work to a community of legal practitioners. CA-based LegalMatch.[4] Before the boom.'"[3] With the internet boom in the 1990s.com provide lawyer directories and rank attorneys according to their credentials and experience. the FTC commented on the State Bar of Texas Professional Ethics Committee's consideration on whether or not it is ethical for a Texas attorney to . or hire none at all. Due to the progression of the legal profession and the desire to update the Canons of Professional Ethics. The Model Code was an effort by the ABA to create practical rules that went "beyond the pretty details of form and manners" and addressed "the chained relationship of the lawyer to his clients. and submit feedback about the work of the legal practitioners. State Bar of Arizona. Arizona State Bar outcome.

The (2005) http:/ / findarticles. "Response to Alabama Rules of Professional Conduct" (September 2002) http:/ / www. law. Some services allow the attorneys to choose the cases while others allow the client to select the best attorney for their issue. Attorney-client matching websites charge attorneys membership fees to participate in the service. form-based submissions for free.. com/ Law_Firm_Marketing_Solutions-newsletter-002. which intends to save time for both parties and them to make better decisions. com/ smallbiz/ content/ jan2001/ sb20010116_790.com. "Comments on a Request for Ethics Opinion Regarding Online Attorney Matching Programs" (May 2006) http:/ / www.. such as Thomson Reuters' LegalConnection. the Utah State Bar partnered with LegalMatch as an additional resource available for Utah attorneys to receive screened cases of potential new clients and to help consumers find a pre-screened Utah lawyer. utahbar. and the attorneys receive their information.http:/ / www.com powered by FindLaw and LexisNexis Martindale-Hubbell's Lawyers. abanet. "Technological Innovations and Their Ethical Implications" American Bar Association http:/ / www. internetnews.com Refocuses Company Direction" Internet News (February 2001) http:/ / www."[14] References [1] Olson. Law "Attorney-Client Matching" Law Firm Marketing Solutions (July 2006) http:/ / www. org/ public/ lawyer_referral_service_main. com/ legal/ 1029492-1.com Team. Users of ACM websites complete confidential.[12] Controversy ". ftc.internet.col1 [2] Bates v. Rick and Palmer. JDFinder. The FTC determined that "online legal matching services are a valuable option for Texans: they are likely to reduce the consumers' cost for finding legal representation and have the potential to increase completion among attorneys."[13] "One concern about such services relates to client confidentiality. html [4] Hornsby. State Bar of Ariz. it's a prostitution of the legal profession . html [3] Haywood. 433 U.[11] 119 How Attorney-Client Matching Works An increasing number of people are turning to the internet to search for legal services and are relying on phone books and offline media less and less. it leads to lawyers fighting to undercut each other. abanet. Ann Therese. cornell... org/ legalservices/ findlegalhelp/ faq_hiringlawyer. LegalFish. html# [5] American Bar Association. org/ cle/ clenow/ nosearch/ public/ probonotechethics/ part1. "Navigating a sea of uncertainty: How existing ethical guidelines pertain to the marketing of legal services over the Internet" The Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics (July 2001) http:/ / www. allbusiness. gov/ be/ v020023. "Consumers' Guide to Legal Help Hiring a Lawyer" (April 2008) http:/ / www. when you hire a lawyer and tell him/her your story. gov/ os/ 2006/ 05/ V060017CommentsonaRequestforAnEthicsOpinionImage [10] Harlow."[9] Larger corporations. Amy. and Total Attorneys. allow users to search their directories for lawyers as well as obtain legal representation through form based attorney-client matching. Will and Staud. edu/ supct/ html/ historics/ USSC_CR_0433_0350_ZS. Normally. Subsequent companies to enter this field have been CasePost. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3975/ is_200507/ ai_n14684376/ ?tag=content. 350. Henry.. Emily. The" Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics. businessweek.Attorney-client matching participate in an online legal matching service. "Legalopinion. pdf [9] Federal Trade Commission. law-firm-marketing-coach. Ron. htm [7] The seattle. cfm#lawyerreferral [6] Green. com/ bus-news/ article. Attorney-client matching services provide both clients and attorneys with information about each other before they actually speak.. "Ethics of Attorney Advertising: The Effects of Different State Regulatory Regimes. But you lose your confidentiality if you share the information . the lawyer is bound by rules of ethics and the courts to keep that information absolutely confidential. php/ 594871 [8] Federal Trade Commission. html .S. html [11] Utah State Bar and LegalMatch http:/ / www. According to Reuters. ftc. 363-64 (1977). over 9 million consumers will search online for legal services each month. "The World Wide Web of E-Law" BusinessWeek (January 2001) http:/ / www.[10] In 2003..

A concentrated campaign means very fast. cfm) Retrieved 29 October 2010 120 External links • American Bar Association (http://www. com/ smallbiz/ content/ sep2003/ sb20030930_0886_sb016. The time interval of a blitz campaign is also advantageous.org (http:/ / www.org/) Blitz Campaign A blitz is defined as an intensive campaign or attack [1] . abanet. How it works Blitz campaigns use various mass media outlets. blitz campaign defines the proprietary methodology developed by German speaking Marlene Dewitte [2] . builds business reputation. In the world of marketing. A blitz campaign is a marketing strategy designed to promote a product or a business quickly through the use of mass media. businessweek. specifically the internet. grows a local company’s visibility and attracts more customers. newspaper ads. For example.abanet. sometimes it is also referred to as “marketing blitz. without careful audience targeting you may not achieve the results you desire. very direct results. "Online Lawyers: Starting to Click" BusinessWeek http:/ / www. and focused marketing campaign for a small business.” The idea behind a blitz campaign is to have as many people see a small business or small business product as possible in a very short period of time. It originates from the German noun Blitz which means lightning. A Blitz Campaign lowers customer acquisition costs. . It is a very fast. htm [13] utterant. A blitz campaign can be the perfect marketing tool for seasonal content. once a campaign is set up. A blitz campaign includes strategies from search engine marketing. including search engine optimization and mobile marketing. Typically. intensive.” a “ time-based marketing campaign. Ideally. utterant. to deliver information about a local product or local business quickly to a local audience. Push a product when there is buzz about it. if you have a holiday event you want to advertise you should promote it during the appropriate season and it will yield better results. org/ legalservices/ findlegalhelp/ usa_findlawyer. Advantages Blitz campaigns help local businesses and local products become better known to a specific audience through the use of persistent media exposure. One of the most common and most advantageous ways to complete a blitz campaign is to use search engines. uk/ current-affairs/ bid4fees-making-solicitors-bid-for-legal-work/ ) Retrieved 29 October 2010 [14] abnet. instead of something to look past. This type of campaign can help a completely new product become something of note. a local business or local product would quickly show up in search engines.uk (http:/ / www. magazine. E-mail is another method of delivering local product or local business information during a blitz campaign. co. blitz campaigns are geared toward local businesses and not a more widespread audience. However. You must know your local audience to successfully complete a blitz campaign. Ted. and coupons.” and “intensive marketing.co. Blitz campaigns usually don't make use of print mediums such as brochures.Attorney-client matching [12] Popper.

Blitz Campaign


A blitz campaign has several advantages but there are also some limitations to what such a marketing campaign can do. One of the advantages of the blitz campaign methodology which is focused and local impact to an area can also hinder its performance if spread out further from the campaign’s heart. Because location is so important, not understanding your audience will most likely lead to a weaker campaign.

Successful Marketing Blitzes
In recent years, there have been several successful marketing blitzes, primarily from computercompanies and video game companies. One such blitz came from Microsoft in 2009 for its Halo 3 game. Microsoft planned on using online, print, and television media to bring attention to the game. [3] Another successful blitz comes from McDonaldsfor their McCafecoffee drinks. McDonalds used several media outlets and coupon booklets to promote their coffee beverages. [4] Googlealso embarked on a marketing blitz for the Nexus One phone. This product had its own YouTubechannel and was also present in Google web pages. [5]

[1] Definition of "Blitz" from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ blitz) [2] Glossary: Blitz (http:/ / www. blitzcampaign. com/ glossary. php) [3] Microsoft plans Halo 3: ODST marketing blitz (http:/ / www. mcvuk. com/ news/ 35402/ Halo-marketing-blitz-detailed) [4] Get Ready for the McCafe Marketing Blitz (http:/ / www. nacsonline. com/ NACS/ News/ Daily/ Pages Archive/ ND0507096. aspx) [5] Let The Nexus One Marketing Blitz Begin (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 01/ 05/ nexus-one-ads/ )

Content farm
In the context of the World Wide Web, the term content farm is used to describe a company that employs large numbers of often freelance writers to generate large amounts of textual content which is specifically designed to satisfy algorithms for maximal retrieval by automated search engines. Their main goal is to generate advertising revenue through attracting reader page views[1] as first exposed in the context of social spam.[2] Articles in content farms have been found to contain identical passages across several media sources, leading to [3] questions about the sites placing search engine optimization goals over factual relevance. Proponents of the content farms claim that from a business perspective, traditional journalism is inefficient.[1] Content farms often commission their writers' work based on analysis of search engine queries[1] that proponents represent as "true market demand", a feature that traditional journalism lacks.[1]

Some sites labeled as content farms may contain a large number of articles and have been valued in the millions of dollars. Demand Media is projected to be publishing 1 million items a month, the equivalent of four English-language Wikipedias a year.[4] Another site, Associated Content, was purchased in May 2010 by Yahoo! for $90 million.[5] Pay scales for content are low compared to traditional salaries received by copy editors. One company compensated writers at a rate of $3.50 per article. Such rates are substantially lower than what a typical copy editor might receive, however some content farm contributors produce many articles per day and may earn enough for living. It has been reported that content writers are often educated women with children seeking supplemental income while working at home.[6]

Content farm


Critics allege that content farms provide relatively low quality content,[7] and that they maximize profit by producing "just good enough" material rather than high-quality articles.[8] Articles are usually composed by human writers rather than automated processes, but they may not be written by a specialist in the subjects reported. Some authors working for sites identified as content farms have admitted knowing little about the fields on which they report.[9] Search engines see content farms as a problem, as they tend to bring the user to less relevant and lower quality results of the search.[10] The reduced quality and rapid creation of articles on such sites has drawn comparisons to the fast food industry[11] and to pollution[2] :

Information consumers end up with less relevant or valuable resources. Producers of relevant resources receive less cash as a reward (lower clickthrough rate) while producers of junk receive more cash. One way to describe this is pollution. Virtual junk pollutes the Web environment by adding noise. Everybody but the polluters pays a price for Web pollution: search engines work less well, users waste precious time and attention on junk sites, and honest publishers lose income. The polluter spoils the Web environment for everybody else.

Google reaction
In one of Google's promotional videos for search published in the summer of 2010, the majority of the links available were reported to be produced at content farms.[12] In late February, 2011, Google announced it was adjusting search algorithms significantly to "provide better rankings for high-quality sites—sites with original content and information such as research, in-depth reports, thoughtful analysis and so on."[13] This was reported to be a reaction to content farms and an attempt to reduce their effectiveness in manipulating search result rankings.[14]

Because of their recent appearance on the Web, content farms have not yet received a lot of explicit attention from the research community. The model of hiring cheap freelancers to produce content was first discussed as an alternative strategy to generating fake content automatically, together with an example of the infrastructure necessary to make it profitable through online ads, and techniques to detect social spam that promotes such content.[2] While not explicitly motivated by content farms, there has been recent interest in the automatic categorisation of web sites according to the quality of their content. [15] [16] A detailed study on the application of these methods to the identification of content farm pages is yet to be done.

[1] Dorian Benkoil (July 26, 2010). "Don't Blame the Content Farms" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ mediashift/ 2010/ 07/ dont-blame-the-content-farms207. html). PBS. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [2] Markines, Benjamin; Cattuto, Ciro; Menczer, Filippo (2009), "Social Spam Detection" (http:/ / airweb. cse. lehigh. edu/ 2009/ papers/ p41-markines. pdf), Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web (AIRWeb '09) (http:/ / airweb. cse. lehigh. edu/ 2009/ proceedings. html), ACM, pp. 41–48, doi:10.1145/1531914.1531924, ISBN 978-1-60558-438-6, [3] http:/ / www. mediapost. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. showArticle& art_aid=144020 [4] Roth, Daniel (November 2009). "The Answer Factory: Demand Media and the Fast, Disposable, and Profitable as Hell Media Model" (http:/ / www. wired. com/ magazine/ 2009/ 10/ ff_demandmedia/ ). Wired. . Retrieved 27 February 2011. [5] http:/ / www. beet. tv/ 2010/ 05/ yahoo-harvests-content-farm-associated-content-for-90-million-report-. html Yahoo Harvests "Content Farm" Associated Content for $90 Million, Report [6] What It's Like To Write For Demand Media: Low Pay But Lots of Freedom - Page 2 (http:/ / www. readwriteweb. com/ archives/ what_its_like_to_write_for_demand_mediap2. php) [7] Patricio Robles (9 April 2010). "USA Today turns to the content farm as the ship sinks" (http:/ / econsultancy. com/ blog/ 5725-usa-today-turns-to-the-content-farm-as-the-ship-sinks). econsultancy.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [8] John Reinan (July 19, 2010). "I'm still waiting to make a bushel from my content farm work" (http:/ / www. minnpost. com/ johnreinan/ 2010/ 07/ 19/ 19783/ im_still_waiting_to_make_a_bushel_from_my_content_farm_work). minnpost.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [9] Writers Explain What It's Like Toiling on the Content Farm (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ mediashift/ 2010/ 07/ writers-explain-what-its-like-toiling-on-the-content-farm202. html)

Content farm
[10] How Google Can Combat Content Farms http:/ / www. readwriteweb. com/ archives/ how_google_can_combat_content_farms. php [11] Michael Arrington: The End Of Hand Crafted Content (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2009/ 12/ 13/ the-end-of-hand-crafted-content/ ). In: TechCrunch vom 13. Dezember 2009. [12] Article on Techcrunch (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 07/ 23/ content-farms/ ) [13] "Finding more high-quality sites in search" (http:/ / googleblog. blogspot. com/ 2011/ 02/ finding-more-high-quality-sites-in. html). Google, Inc.. . Retrieved 26 February 2011. [14] Guynn, Jessica (February 26, 2011). "Google makes major change in search ranking algorithms" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ business/ la-fi-google-search-20110226,0,3543493. story). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 26 February 2011. [15] "Discovery Challenge 2010 - ECML PKDD 2010" (http:/ / www. ecmlpkdd2010. org/ articles-mostra-2041-eng-discovery_challenge_2010. htm). 2010. . [16] "Joint WICOW/AIRWeb Workshop on Web Quality" (http:/ / www. dl. kuis. kyoto-u. ac. jp/ webquality2011/ ). 2011. .


Contextual advertising
Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites or other media, such as content displayed in mobile browsers. The advertisements themselves are selected and served by automated systems based on the content displayed to the user.

How contextual advertising works
A contextual advertising system scans the text of a website for keywords and returns advertisements to the webpage based on what the user is viewing.[1] The advertisements may be displayed on the webpage or as pop-up ads. For example, if the user is viewing a website pertaining to sports and that website uses contextual advertising, the user may see advertisements for sports-related companies, such as memorabilia dealers or ticket sellers. Contextual advertising is also used by search engines to display advertisements on their search results pages based on the keywords in the user's query. Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising in which the content of an ad is in direct correlation to the content of the web page the user is viewing. For example, if you are visiting a website concerning travelling in Europe and see an ad pops up offering a special price on a flight to Italy, that’s contextual advertising. Contextual advertising is also called “In-Text” advertising or “In-Context” technology.[2] .

Service providers
Google AdSense was the first major contextual advertising network. It works by providing webmasters with JavaScript code that, when inserted into webpages, displays relevant advertisements from the Google inventory of advertisers. The relevance is calculated by a separate Google bot, Mediabot, that indexes the content of a webpage. Recent technology/service providers have emerged with more sophisticated systems that use language-independent [3] proximity pattern matching algorithm to increase matching accuracy. Since the advent of AdSense, Yahoo! Publisher Network, Microsoft adCenter, Advertising.com Sponsored Listings (formerly Quigo) and others have been gearing up to make similar offerings.

html). asp). creation — what the advertisement looks like 2. "A Battle Is Brewing Over Online Behavioral Advertising" (http://www. • Ostrow. D. "Contextual Marketing: The Real Business of the Internet" (http://hbswk. J.shtm). .2542.eweek. adgorithms. com/ 2008/ 01/ 15/ proximic-signs-deals-with-yahoo-and-ebay-to-turn-product-listings-into-contextual-ads-taking-on-adsense/ ).gov/opa/2007/12/ principles.t=contextual+ marketing& i=56351. "When Contextual Advertising Goes Horribly Wrong . Adam.[4] Keywords on a webpage are displayed as hyperlinks that lead to advertisers. www. David Szetela. www.shmula. Harvard Business Review. pcmag. mashable. they are more likely to be clicked. Instead of humans choosing placement options.shmula.ftc.com.Contextual advertising 124 Impact Contextual advertising has made a major impact on earnings of many websites.com. (November-December 2000).com/2008/ 06/19/contextual-advertising/).gov. Retrieved 2008-01-15. Taking on AdSense" (http:/ / www. thus generating revenue for the owner of the website (and the server of the advertisement). • Kenny. media planning — where the advertisements are to be run 3. media buying — how the advertisements are paid for Contextual advertising replaces the media planning component. www. 2009 Further references • Ferguson.com. Retrieved 2008-07-21. com/ encyclopedia_term/ 0. and Marshall. Retrieved 2008-10-20. A large part of Google's earnings is from its share of the contextual advertisements served on the millions of webpages running the AdSense program. . php/ advertisers/ adgorithms-ad-network) [3] "Proximic Signs Deals With Yahoo and eBay To Turn Product Listings Into Contextual Ads.com/ c/a/Enterprise-Applications/A-Battle-Is-Brewing-Over-Online-Behavioral-Advertising-Market/). com/ index. Agency roles There are several advertising agencies that help brands understand how contextual advertising options affect their advertising plans. where a third-party installs software onto a user's computer that interacts with the web browser. Retrieved 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2008-10-20. that function is replaced with computers facilitating the placement across thousands of websites. Contextual advertising has attracted some controversy through the use of techniques such as third-party hyperlinking. Because the advertisements are more targeted. techcrunch.ftc.edu/archive/2124. Renee Boucher.hbs. Notes [1] "Contextual Marketing Definition" (http:/ / www.eweek. • "FTC Staff Proposes Online Behavioral Advertising Privacy Principles" (http://www.com/194/ steve-irwins-death-contextual-advertising-gone-bad). . There are three main components to online advertising:[4] 1.00.Mashable" (http://mashable. [2] What is Contextual Advertising (http:/ / www. • "Steve Irwin’s Death : Contextual Advertising Gone Bad" (http://www. Retrieved 2008-10-20. [4] "Customers Now". Retrieved 2008-10-20.

It differs from cost per impression. where the buyer pays for an advertisement to be placed on a website for a set amount of time. The time can be as little as an hour or as long as a year.Cost per time 125 Cost per time Cost Per Time refers to a form of Internet advertising. in which a buyer pays for the ad to be displayed a set number of times. . Some contracts may allow for a guaranteed minimum number of impressions. Cost for time permits the ad to displayed unlimited times over the term of the contract.

Criteo announced that it hired Greg Coleman as president. [17] The Criteo Performance Optimization Platform allowed display advertisers and agencies to set retargeting campaigns based on category. Product Criteo’s product is a form of display advertising. [4] 2011. Europe and Asia. [12] ) / cost per click (CPC) basis.[10] At the time of its move. This is similar to Google . CA. The company currently operates in several countries around the world and is headquartered in Palo Alto. and launched its first product in April 2008. France in 2005 and spent the first four years focused on [7] R&D. Retargeting specialists then introduced a slightly more complex form of segmented retargeting [14] This second generation of retargeting enables to display one of a few pre-created messages to lost visitors based on a particular browsing category they fall into. Previously.K. with offices in Italy. generated based on the online retail browsing preferences and products for each customer. Their personalized retargeting [11] solution displays interactive banner advertisements. 2005 Headquarters Palo Alto.[6] History Criteo was founded in Paris. The most common. California. and allow advertisers to bid a different CPC per product category. Criteo debuted its self-service cost-per-click [15] (CPC) [16] bidding platform that lets advertisers place bids on display retargeting campaigns and see changes and optimize campaigns in real-time.[5] Criteo enables online businesses to follow up visitors who have left their website without making a purchase using personalized banners which aim to drive potential customers back to the business website. In 2010.criteo. where a single static banner is shown to all viewers who have left a particular website. In September 2010. Almost one year later. and the U. The Netherlands. Criteo relocated its headquarters [8] to Silicon Valley in an effort to enhance its profile in the USA. meaning that advertisers pay only for The solution operates on a pay per click (PPC those consumers that click on the banner and return to their website.Criteo 126 Criteo Criteo Type Industry Founded Private Online Advertising Paris.[2] [3] On April 7. Criteo has 300 employees with offices in 20 countries including US. the company had 120 employees. Coleman served as president and chief revenue officer of The Huffington Post and executive vice president of global sales for Yahoo!.com [1] Criteo describes itself as a 'personalized retargeting company' that works with Internet retailers to serve personalized online display advertisements to consumers that have previously visited the advertiser's website. USA Website www. The move took place four months after launching [9] the 'PPC Retargeting Solution'. Additional retargeting solutions operate on a cost per thousand (CPM) or cost per engagement (CPE). France. and simple form of retargeting is basic static retargeting [13] .

clickz. which charges a flat monthly fee [22] Privacy In September 2010.[19] The company displays over 4 billion banners per month but does not disclose the geographical breakdown for those banners. but for display retargeting ads. com [2] http:/ / www. 127 Funding Criteo has secured a total of $17 million in funding. References [1] http:/ / www. Criteo began a campaign [23] regarding the use of the popular retargeting and its impact on consumer privacy. The company denies it relies on personally identifiable information (PII) and doesn’t track identifiable information. adexchanger. com/ retargeting/ ppc-what-does-it-cost [13] http:/ / www. com/ data/ stories/ why-greg-coleman-bet-on-retargeting/ [6] http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ [11] http:/ / www. Fetchback. asp [14] http:/ / www. criteo. Achievements Criteo wins 2010 Web Award for Outstanding Achievement in Web Development – September 2010 [25] Criteo’s client Boden won the ClickZ Connected Marketing Award [26] for ‘Best Use of Display Advertising’ for its personalized retargeting campaign implemented by Criteo. For example. criteo. Criteo raised a further $7 million of funding from Bessemer Venture Partners. no data is shared with advertisers or publishers and no third-party data used for targeting purposes. a different cost can be assigned to each product displayed within the single ad. com/ retargeting [12] http:/ / www. imediaconnection. marketingterms. Retargeting only uses anonymous information [24] from the merchant’s site. mediapost. criteo. digidaydaily. itvent. and 9M euros in a second round in January 2008 led by Index Ventures. Criteo’s platform allowed for cost-per-click bids to be set down to the individual product level [18] . if a retargeted ad displays three products the consumer had browsed on the site.Criteo AdWords. showArticle& art_aid=136034& nid=118810 [16] http:/ / www. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. com/ dictionary/ cost_per_click/ . mediapost. with 3M euros in a first institutional round in March 2006 coming from French private equity firm AGF and Elaia Partners.[20] bringing the total to $24 million. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program [8] http:/ / www. some of Criteo's competitors include MediaFORGE. com/ clickz/ news/ 1708656/ french-retargeting-company-descends-silicon-valley [9] http:/ / venturebeat. com/ 3640039 [3] http:/ / www. clickz. com/ platforms/ criteo/ [7] http:/ / venturebeat.[21] Competitors According to the VentureBeat article. and Retargeter. The campaign aimed to reassure consumers about personalized retargeting and data-driven marketing tactics. com/ content/ 25806. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. showArticle& art_aid=125695 [4] http:/ / kara. com/ aggregator/ sources/ 1?page=8 [15] http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ [10] http:/ / venturebeat. which has a more flexible pricing model. com/ 20110407/ former-yahoo-aol-huffpo-sales-dude-greg-coleman-lands-again/ [5] http:/ / www. In May 2010. allthingsd. which is priced on a CPA basis.

internetretailer. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 10/ american_isps_embrace_behavioral_ad_targeting/ ) . showArticle& art_aid=136034& nid=118810 http:/ / www. com/ online-advertising/ criteo-ceo-rudelle/ http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 05/ 06/ criteo-bessemer-7-million/ http:/ / techcrunch.[1] The practice of data pimping first appeared through British Telecom's secret. com/ 2010/ 09/ 23/ criteo-makes-placing-display-ads-do-it-yourself http:/ / venturebeat. asp?eid=15931 http:/ / econsultancy. com/ online-advertising/ criteo-ceo-rudelle/ http:/ / www. adexchanger. mediapost. com/ 2008/ 01/ 15/ criteo-raises-10-million-from-index-ventures/ http:/ / venturebeat. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 01/ bt_phorm_2006_trial/ ) ISP data deal with former 'spyware' boss triggers privacy fears (http:/ / www. theregister.criteo. allegedly illegal trials of the controversial Webwise system developed by Phorm. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ http:/ / techcrunch. co. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 14/ bt_phorm_2007/ ) BT and Phorm secretly tracked 18. co. both in the United Kingdom and the United States. uk/ 2008/ 03/ 17/ phorm_fipr_illegal/ ) BT's 'illegal' 2007 Phorm trial profiled tens of thousands (http:/ / www.[2] [3] [4] The phenomenon of data pimping is being researched and utilized by several ISPs. theregister. co.000 customers in 2006 (http:/ / www. co. co.Criteo [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] http:/ / www. theregister. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ http:/ / www. theregister. uk/ 2008/ 02/ 25/ phorm_isp_advertising/ ) American ISPs already sharing data with outside ad firms (http:/ / www. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. com/ us/ press-releases/ 5150-criteo-client-boden-wins-clickz-connected-marketing-award 128 External links • Criteo Official Website (http://www. adexchanger. org/ winner.com//) Data pimping Data pimping is a pejorative term used to describe the act of an Internet service provider (ISP) profiting from the sale of its users' personal clickstream data.[5] Also Known As intra-ISP spyware References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Net think thank: Phorm is illegal (http:/ / www. a former spyware company. theregister. webaward.

It is a hybrid role that involves marketing and technology knowledge. These agencies tend to differ from their more traditional advertising agency and marketing agency counterparts in that they rarely deliver offline work. microsites. which continues to become more sophisticated. banner advertising. The Digital Marketing Engineer is either part of the senior marketing management team or operates as a consultant. branding and application development. to the more specialist such as viral campaigns. email. Role The Digital Marketing Engineer executes. podcasting. often using outside sources. marketing managers. implementing and overseeing the systems used for digital marketing purposes Advises the organization on how digital technology can be used to improve marketing and business results Enables a viable digital marketing presence Monitors and works to improve KPIs Collaborates with marketing. and executive teams to accomplish business goals Collaborates with web designers.0 technology and digital marketing platforms (such as websites.Digital agency 129 Digital agency A digital or new media agency is a business that delivers services for the creative and technical development of internet based products. deliver digital work. viral campaigns. content producers and subject matter experts on the digital marketing presence • Maintains the relationship for a number of digital vendors . product marketing. e-mail marketing and microsites etc. References Digital marketing engineer The term Digital Marketing Engineer is used to describe someone that applies web 2. sales managers. Advertising and Marketing agencies do however. widget development and mobile or social applications. sales. These services include web design. Responsibilities The Digital Marketing Engineer: • • • • • • Is responsible for architecting. or advises on the execution of. search engine optimization. web developers. the digital strategy established through cooperation with the Chief Marketing Officer or business owner. These services range from the more generalist such as web design. Digital creative agency A Digital Creative Agency is a business that delivers services for the creative and technical development of internet based and mobile products. a print campaign promoting the business' online presence). Digital creative agencies differ from traditional advertising agencies in that they normally do not deliver offline work unless it is a suitable extension to a digital project (ex. apps and mobile) for the purpose of achieving business goals. business owners. The need for Digital Marketing Engineers arose as a result of marketing becoming reliant on Internet technology[1] .

php#/ 10/ OnePage)) . April 2011. nxtbook. Chief Content Officer (http:/ / www. 10. p. Communicating technical significance to a non-technical audience is one type of challenge. com/ chief-content-officer/ ) magazine. Areas of Focus • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Analytics for a website. Another is staying up-to-date with the latest technology and marketing methods. ( eBook article (http:/ / www. Julie Schwartz. contentmarketinginstitute.Digital marketing engineer 130 Challenges The nature of this role requires aptitude in both marketing and technology. "Why You're No Longer Qualified to be a B2B Marketer". social media profiles or ad campaigns Audience development and social/community development Banner/display advertising Content management systems Content marketing Conversions and conversion optimization Copywriting Email marketing KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) Landing pages Marketing automation Mobile marketing platforms Paid search and Search engine optimization (SEO) Podcasting / video Social media profiles and integrations User experience Website design and development References [1] Chris Koch. com/ nxtbooks/ junta42/ 201104na_cco/ index.

Traditional direct marketing is achieved using a customer’s postal address.[6] References [1] (http:/ / www. [3] (http:/ / marketing. aspx?dLetter=D) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of direct digital marketing. a Web browser cookie.[5] Email marketing is a marketing method that uses email to send a marketing message to a targeted audience. aspx)"Direct Marketing Goes Digital: Addressability Matters More Than Ever" American Marketing Association. and a mobile phone number.com Marketing Glossary: Direct marketing [4] (http:/ / www. marketingpower. com/ _layouts/ Dictionary. marketingpower.Direct digital marketing 131 Direct digital marketing Direct digital marketing is an addressable digital marketing method. With direct digital marketing addressability comes in one of three forms: an email address.[4] Mobile marketing is a marketing method that allows marketers to send marketing messages to consumers through the technologies found on a consumer’s mobile device. com/ _layouts/ Dictionary. marketingpower. [2] (http:/ / www. The marketing message is not addressable. September 2009. aspx?dLetter=O) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of online marketing [5] (http:/ / mmaglobal. 28. spawning the direct digital marketing concept. Online marketing is a marketing method that uses Internet tools such as email. Direct marketing is a marketing method that uses such things as a consumer’s postal address to send addressable communications to a target audience. Mass marketing is a marketing method that broadcasts a message to a large audience.[1] The modernization and mobility of the consumer has forced marketers to innovate. The personalization and targeting capabilities of direct marketing have proven effective.[2] Channels • Email • Web • Mobile Additional Types of Marketing Traditional marketing communications are divided into two primary types: direct marketing[3] and mass marketing. marketingpower. and is not easily tracked and measured. com/ wiki/ mobile-marketing) Mobile Marketing Association definition of mobile marketing [6] (http:/ / www. htm) About. Consumers opt in to receive messages. com/ od/ marketingglossary/ g/ dirmktgdef. aspx?dLetter=E) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of email marketing . com/ _layouts/ Dictionary. Direct marketing campaigns feature calls-to-action that allow marketers to track and measure responses from consumers. search engine optimization and banner ads to send marketing messages to consumers. com/ ResourceLibrary/ Pages/ Marketing Matters/ mmnews9. about. 09/ direct_marketing_goes_digital.

e. emails. quirks.html) digital marketing (http:/ / webopedia. including web banners. as a form of internet marketing. The standards continue to evolve. techtarget. com/ definition/ direct-digital-marketing.. an industry trade group.com/direct digital marketing) MacMillan Dictionary: definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / www. macmillandictionary. copy). transit cards. etc.entrepedia. com/ glossary/search. [2] Display advertising on the Internet is widely used for branding. or on the page adjacent to. In periodicals. scale models are examples of display advertising. However. On the Internet Display advertising also appears on the Internet. or video: Textual advertisements are also used where text may be more appropriate or more effective. These banners can consist of static or animated images. geographic targeting.html) Entrepedia: definition of direct digital marketing (http://www. Display advertising appears on web pages in many forms. and site based targeting are all common ways in which advertisers choose to target their banner ads.aspx?searchID=52967112) Tech Target's Whatis. Yahoo currently has the largest share of the U.com/DirectDigitalMarketing) Definition of: definition of direct digital marketing (http://www. audio. The Interactive Advertising Bureau. and was available in a limited selection of typefaces. photographs or other images.[1] As of February 28th. in part due to increased resolution of standard monitors and browsers. One common form of display advertising involves billboards. market in online display advertising. fliers.S.definition-of. An example of textual advertisements is commercial messages sent to mobile device users. logos. Display advertisers use cookie and browser history to determine demographics and interests of users and target appropriate ads to those browsers. 2011 display advertising is a $17 billion business globally. com/ TERM/ D/ digital marketing (http:/ / www. In contrast. Display advertisements are not required to contain images. this may change in the future as display advertising is becoming much more targeted to users. Banner ads can be targeted to internet browsers in many different ways in order to reach the advertiser's most relevant audience. display advertising can appear on the same page as. location maps. demographic targeting. general editorial content.gif are the preferred presentation formats for such interactive advertisements. Banner ad standards have changed over the years to larger sizes. was traditionally text-only. Internet Marketing Definitions: definition of direct internetmarketingdefinitions. sets some standards for online shapes and sizes. .htm) Quirk's Marketing Research Glossary definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / www. This is why metrics like interaction time are becoming more relevant. in part to provide advertisers with more impact for their investment. as well as interactive media that may include audio and video elements. classified advertising generally appears in a distinct section. com/ open-dictionary/entries/direct-digital-marketing.com: definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / whatis. Adobe Systems Flash or . tents.Direct digital marketing 132 External links Webopedia: definition of direct direct_digital_marketing. Posters. Behavioral retargeting.org/wiki/Glossary_-_D) Display advertising Display advertising is a type of advertising that typically contains text (i. and similar items. much like how search engine ads can be extremely relevant users based on what they are searching for.

allthingsd. . com/ 20100111/ yahoos-pitch-to-advertisers-we-sell-ginormous-ads/ ?mod=ATD_sphere) [2] "Google CEO: Mobile Growing Faster Than “All Our Predictions”" (http:/ / mashable. sized 468×60 pixels. . Mashable. com/ 2011/ 02/ 28/ schmidt-mobile-growth/ ).Display advertising 133 Typical web banner. 2011. February 28. References [1] Yahoo Pitch to Advertisers: We Sell Ginormous Ads (http:/ / mediamemo.

Business. The release of the book was promoted via online channels. to improve communications both internally between staff and as a tool to engage with existing and potential customers..Smith is an Internet marketing expert. by the authors. Infinite Ideas July 2009 152 pp 978-1906821166 Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet your way to business success is a 2009 book by Jon Smith and José Llinares.. entrepreneur and author of the Amazon. The book is published by Infinite Ideas is an independent publishing house based in Oxford.Dominate Your Market With Twitter 134 Dominate Your Market With Twitter Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet your way to business success Dominate Your Market With Twitter Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Pages ISBN Jon Smith José Llinares United Kingdom English Internet Marketing.co. . the Microblogging service.[3] . The book aims to inform business owners how to use Twitter. to Bloggers[1] and online news[2] and PR agencies utilizing the concept of pass-it-on marketing and Social Media to promote the title.uk Best Seller Get Into Bed With Google.book of the year so far finds its way to City Spy: Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet Your Way to Business Success. Twitter Non-fiction.

creating strategies to build a loyal following among Twitter members and expand awareness for their product or service. uk/ standard-business/ article-23714052-city-spy-in-the-business-of-making-excuses. build their brand. html [2] http:/ / ninfield. wordpress. In it. Updates are displayed on the user's profile page and delivered to other users who have signed up to receive them. skillsoft. The book explores how and why twittering is growing at a phenomenal rate. outline how marketers can use Twitter to their best advantage. Highlighting how companies like Apple Inc. com/ 2009/ 12/ 31/ dominate-your-market-with-twitter/ [3] http:/ / www.Dominate Your Market With Twitter 135 Synopsis The book introduces Twitter as a social networking and microblogging service that allows its users to send and read other users' updates (known as tweets). which are text-based posts of up to 140 characters in length. Dominate your market with Twitter was the first UK book to be published on this growing spectacle. digital marketing experts Jon Smith and José Llinares. com/ learning-re-imagined/ 2011/ 03/ books24x7-digital-books-reading-list-social-media. and increase sales. and Ford are using social media tools to reach consumers directly. thisislondon. co. References [1] http:/ / blogs. do .

Norway and Sweden. produced by Happy Fiction. in the four Nordic countries of Denmark. Managing Director Tony Högkvist.Dreaming in Mono 136 Dreaming in Mono Dreaming in Mono Client Agency McDonald's Shaun Russell. Senior Marketing Director Nordic Perfect Fools Fredrik Heghammar. the role of McDonald's as the largest host of diverse people and fun experiences in the region. Finland. the prejudices. Norwegian. Global Creative Jens Jonson Happy Fiction Lukas Wojarski Bernard Cauchard Jari Hinshelwood Ole Vevle Marie Bergman Andreas Holm-Hansen Linnea Lundmark Marica Rosengarden Alexandra Alegren Felipe Morales McOwan Martin Landqvist Directed by Production company Produced by Starring Music by Release date(s) January 2010 Running time Language 7 episodes x 8 minutes English. Danish. Swedish Official website [1] Dreaming in Mono is a transmedia storytelling branded content initiative from McDonald's and Perfect Fools. rivalries and stereotypes of the Nordic nations.[2] . Founding Partner. The story combines three principle themes: the Nordic passion for winter sports.

Big Mac. Finland and Norway still unable to come to terms with what happened so long ago. independent Finnish entrepreneur and former love interest of Alain Duchamp Yasmine Carlsson: Ambitious young Swedish documentary film-maker Carlos: Reluctant documentary cameraman from Spain Tony Giuseppe Giacosa: Hansi’s loyal sidekick and bodyguard Content Dreaming in Mono combines a 56 minute-long drama (divided into 7x8 minute episodes) with character interviews by the fictional documentary film-maker Yasmine. 'Mad Mads' milkshake flashmob live events. coffee and soda are visible in the restaurant scenes. print media and in McDonald's own restaurants within the Nordic region. Hansi quickly reported Alain to the relevant ski governing body and Alain was disqualified and never raced again. polls.Dreaming in Mono 137 Story Dreaming in Mono is a fictional drama revolving around McDonald's customer and former professional alpine skier Alain Duchamp and his archrival Hansi Von Spitzmark. online 'McDate' tool. Transmedia activation Dreaming in Mono launched in mid-January 2010 with movie-style trailers and ran until the end of February across TV and cinema media. video sites. He devises a plan to exact his revenge on Hansi and enlists a disparate group of Nordic characters to help him. history of monoskiing backstories. juice. social media sites. website. Hansi. recording artist and media celebrity Terje Olsen: Obsessive but shy Norwegian monoski engineer Lene Olsen: Terje’s long-suffering wife 'Mad Mads' Steen: Self-styled Danish daredevil and extreme sports enthusiast Lovisa Svensson: Talented Swedish snowboarder Tiina Nieminen: Tough.[4] Branding elements The McDonald's name only appears in the introduction title to each episode: "McDonald's Nordic Presents". meanwhile. In one particular race Alain attempted to race against Hansi by using his revolutionary new monoski.[3] A number of elements were also designed to enable the audience to interact with the content both live and online including: Hansi 'Two Sides of Me' song remix. Fast-forward to the present day and Alain is based somewhere remote in the northern borderlands of Sweden. Familiar products such as McNuggets. Poet. The two rivals regularly competed against each other in the 1970s with fundamentally different styles and philosophies concerning their approach to life and to their sport. character Twitter feeds. iPhone 'random menu generator' application. YouTube and MSN Video and broadcast with exclusive TV station partners either as part of the station's program schedule (Sub Finland) or as full 8 minute . Founder of 'Team Monoski' Hansi Von Spitzmark: 1970s alpine ski legend. competitions. The 7 episodes were released weekly both online on Vimeo. won gold after gold medal and became an international celebrity. Facebook Fan pages and the opportunity to comment or start discussions on both the site and social media pages. Characters • • • • • • • • • • Alain Duchamp: Former alpine ski professional. The aim of the initiative was to connect via non-traditional and social media with an audience difficult to reach through conventional marketing tactics and messages. character MySpace and Facebook pages. Much of the story then takes place in and around a McDonald's restaurant in the far north. character songs and videos.

Meja and Titiyo. Pictures . webbyawards.goldenawardmontreux. Awards Dreaming in Mono was awarded with a Gold medal in Web at the Golden Award of Montreux. singer/songwriter from Sydney Australia. Swedish music producer.Fashion". The timing of the activation was designed to coincide with the build-up to. com/ webbys/ current_honorees. Real Vikings Monoski [7] provided monoski content for the website and action scenes for the episodes. known for his work with Robyn. Viasat 4 Norway. Jordin Sparks. the Vancouver Winter Olympics in which McDonald's was a global sponsor.[5] 138 Music Music written by Martin Landqvist.com/winners2010. The Cardigans. agency. The track is mixed by Ollie Olson. What makes it stand out from other branded content initiatives is the way in which brand. remixer and songwriter working under the name Nåid. each accentuating the central idea. A-ha. php?season=14 Sets and locations • • • • Mc´Donalds Häggvik (Sweden) Högfjällshotellet Sälen (Sweden) Gammelgården Sälen (Sweden) Sälen & surroundings (Sweden) Credits Digital agency Perfect Fools] and production company Happy Fiction [6] originated and developed the concept in partnership with McDonald's Nordic. ‘Snowracer’ is another of Martin Landquists projects. Dregen from ‘Backyard Babies’ and Brady Blade. This super group consists of Amir Chamden from ‘Infinite Mass’.html Dreaming in Mono is a Webby Award Honoree in "Integrated Campaigns" and "Websites . He has produced and remixed music for big artists such as Kent. previously writer/director of the movie King of Ping-Pong which won the Grand Jury Prize at the 2008 Sundance Film Festival. Both the character interviews and character webpages were released online in advance of and during the episodal broadcast. TV6 Sweden). The soundtrack "If we´re a part of it" is written by Martin Landqvist in corporation with Amanda King. Martin is also a member of the band ‘Peking Laundry’ together with Martin Sköld from Kent. and closing weekend of. The episodes and character interviews were written and directed by Jens Jonsson.Dreaming in Mono commercial 'powerbreaks' (TV3 Puls Denmark. recording artist. director and media outlets worked together to extend that story across a variety of platforms. See full list of Webby Honorees for 2010 here: http:/ / www. Oh Laura and Christian Waltz. See full list of winners here: http://www.

com) Episode 1 . com [2] Renegademedia. boardsmag. com/ ?p=3764) [4] Viralblog. 2010 (http:/ / www. Boards Magazine.com/8862274) on Vimeo Episode 2 .goldenawardmontreux. realvikingsmonoski External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Official website (http://www. canneslions.perfectfools.The Gathering (http://vimeo.Grand Finale (http://vimeo. html) [3] McDonald's Next Step: Create the Content. renegademedia. 2010 (http:/ / www. html) [6] http:/ / www.html#) • The Transmedia Dream. 57th Cannes International Advertising Festival. March 1.com/festival/event_detail_page.com/transmedia) Dreaming in Mono wins gold at Golden Award of Montreux 2010 Festival (http://www.com/9550364) on Vimeo Episode 6 .Bringing in the Mountain (http://vimeo.com) Perfect Fools (http://www.com/9045956) on Vimeo Episode 3 . burgerbusiness. com [7] http:/ / www. February 2. com/ articles/ magazine/ 20100301/ mcdonalds. Shaun Russell (http://vimeo. dreaminginmono. Control the Media.The Man with the Dream (http://vimeo. McDonald's Premieres "Dreaming In Mono" (http:/ / www.com/9729251) on Vimeo Episode 7 .starlightrunner.dreaminginmono. com/winners2010.com/9381504) on Vimeo Episode 5 .Dreaming in Mono 139 References [1] http:/ / www. happyfiction.com January 30.com/9755630) on Vimeo Interview with McDonald's Nordic Marketing Director. Burger Business.imdb.Up North Where We Belong (http://vimeo. viralblog. com/ online-marketing/ dreaming-in-mono-by-mcdonalds) [5] The Winter's Tale. net/ Latest/ sophie48097.com/9203671) on Vimeo Episode 4 .com/8864917) Dreaming in Mono on IMDB (http://www.com/title/tt1592541/) What is Transmedia? (http://www.All a part of It (http://vimeo.Rebels outside the Box (http://vimeo.cfm?event_id=42) . seminar program (http://www. 2010 (http:/ / www.

[1] Comparison to traditional mail There are both advantages and disadvantages to using email marketing in comparison to traditional advertising mail. as email did and does exist outside the Internet (e. network email and FIDO). Advantages Email marketing (on the Internet) is popular with companies for several reasons: • An exact return on investment can be tracked ("track to basket") and has proven to be high when done properly. legitimate email servers averaged a delivery rate of 56%.[5] Companies considering the use of an email marketing program must make sure that their program does not violate spam laws such as the United States' Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act (CAN-SPAM). to encourage customer loyalty and repeat business. as of mid-2008 email deliverability is still an issue for legitimate marketers.g. • Over half of Internet users check or send email on a typical day. the term is usually used to refer to: • sending email messages with the purpose of enhancing the relationship of a merchant with its current or previous customers. and eight percent were filtered.[4] Disadvantages A report issued by the email services company Return Path. According to the report. or their Internet service provider's acceptable use policy.[3] • Email is popular with digital marketers.Email marketing 140 Email marketing Email marketing is a form of direct marketing which uses electronic mail as a means of communicating commercial or fund-raising messages to an audience. Researchers estimate that United States firms alone spent US $400 million on email marketing in 2006. • adding advertisements to email messages sent by other companies to their customers. In its broadest sense.e. rising an estimated 15% in 2009 to £292m in the UK. . twenty percent of the messages were rejected.[2] • Advertisers can reach substantial numbers of email subscribers who have opted in (i.. every email sent to a potential or current customer could be considered email marketing.. • sending email messages with the purpose of acquiring new customers or convincing current customers to purchase something immediately. consented) to receive email communications on subjects of interest to them. Email marketing is often reported as second only to search marketing as the most effective online marketing tactic. and • sending email messages over the Internet. However.[6] the European Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations 2003.

Email marketing


Opt-in email advertising
Opt-in email advertising, or permission marketing, is a method of advertising via email whereby the recipient of the advertisement has consented to receive it. This method is one of several developed by marketers to eliminate the disadvantages of email marketing.[7] Opt-in email marketing may evolve into a technology that uses a handshake protocol between the sender and receiver.[7] This system is intended to eventually result in a high degree of satisfaction between consumers and marketers. If opt-in email advertising is used, the material that is emailed to consumers will be "anticipated". It is assumed that the consumer wants to receive it, which makes it unlike unsolicited advertisements sent to the consumer. Ideally, opt-in email advertisements will be more personal and relevant to the consumer than untargeted advertisements. A common example of permission marketing is a newsletter sent to an advertising firm's customers. Such newsletters inform customers of upcoming events or promotions, or new products.[8] In this type of advertising, a company that wants to send a newsletter to their customers may ask them at the point of purchase if they would like to receive the newsletter. With a foundation of opted-in contact information stored in their database, marketers can send out promotional materials automatically—known as Drip Marketing. They can also segment their promotions to specific market segments.[9]

Legal requirements
In 2002 the European Union introduced the Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications. Article 13 of the Directive prohibits the use of email addresses for marketing purposes. The Directive establishes the opt-in regime, where unsolicited emails may be sent only with prior agreement of the recipient. The directive has since been incorporated into the laws of member states. In the UK it is covered under the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003[10] and applies to all organisations that send out marketing by some form of electronic communication. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 authorizes a US $16,000 penalty per violation for spamming each individual recipient. Therefore, many commercial email marketers within the United States utilize a service or special software to ensure compliance with the Act. A variety of older systems exist that do not ensure compliance with the Act. To comply with the Act's regulation of commercial email, services typically require users to authenticate their return address and include a valid physical address, provide a one-click unsubscribe feature, and prohibit importing lists of purchased addresses that may not have given valid permission. In addition to satisfying legal requirements, email service providers (ESPs) began to help customers establish and manage their own email marketing campaigns. The service providers supply email templates and general best practices, as well as methods for handling subscriptions and cancellations automatically. Some ESPs will provide insight/assistance with deliverability issues for major email providers. They also provide statistics pertaining to the number of messages received and opened, and whether the recipients clicked on any links within the messages. The CAN-SPAM Act was updated with some new regulations including a no fee provision for opting out, further definition of "sender", post office or private mail boxes count as a "valid physical postal address" and definition of "person". These new provisions went into effect on July 7, 2008.[11]

Email marketing


[1] DMA: "The Power of Direct Marketing: ROI, Sales, Expenditures and Employment in the U.S., 2006-2007 Edition", Direct Marketing Association, October 2006 [2] "New Survey Data: Email's ROI Makes Tactic Key for Marketers in 2009 " (http:/ / www. marketingsherpa. com/ article. php?ident=31009#), MarketingSherpa, January 21, 2009 [3] Pew Internet & American Life Project, "Tracking surveys" (http:/ / www. pewinternet. org/ trends. asp), March 2000 – March 2007 [4] MediaWeek: UK e-mail marketing predicted to rise 15% MediaWeek.co.uk (http:/ / www. mediaweek. co. uk/ news/ comment/ vital+ stats/ 945161/ UK-e-mail-marketing-predicted-rise-15/ ) [5] Return Path's Reputation Benchmark Report: "5 ways to increase deliverability" (http:/ / www. btobonline. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 20080731/ FREE/ 180513096/ 1116/ FREE), BtoB Magazine, July 2008 [6] The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ bcp/ conline/ pubs/ buspubs/ canspam. htm) online at ftc.gov or PDF Version (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ bcp/ conline/ pubs/ buspubs/ canspam. pdf) [7] Fairhead, N. (2003) “All hail the brave new world of permission marketing via email” (Media 16, August 2003) [8] Dilworth, Dianna. (2007) Ruth's Chris Steak House sends sizzling e-mails for special occasions (http:/ / www. dmnews. com/ Ruths-Chris-Steak-House-sends-sizzling-e-mails-for-special-occasions/ article/ 94733/ ), DMNews retrieved on February 19, 2008 [9] O'Brian J. & Montazemia, A. (2004) Management Information Systems (Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.) [10] Full text of Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations (http:/ / www. opsi. gov. uk/ si/ si2003/ 20032426. htm) [11] FTC Approves New Rule Provision Under The CAN-SPAM Act (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ opa/ 2008/ 05/ canspam. shtm)

Get Into Bed With Google


Get Into Bed With Google
Get Into Bed With Google: Top ranking search optimisation techniques

Get into bed with Google Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Pages ISBN Jon Smith United Kingdom English Internet Marketing, Business, SEO Non-fiction, Infinite Ideas January 2008 180 pp 978-1905940493

Get Into Bed With Google: Top ranking search optimisation techniques is a 2008 book by Jon Smith, an Internet marketing expert, entrepreneur and author of the Amazon.co.uk Best Seller The Bloke's Guide To Pregnancy. The book aims to teach business owners how to use ethical Search Engine Optimization techniques to improve the visibility of their webpages on the world's major Search Engines and on Google in particular. By September 2008, Get Into Bed With Google was the most popular book about Search Engine Optimization and had spent 10 weeks in Bookscan's Top 100. The book has been translated into Danish[1] , Thai[2] and German[3] . The book is published in the USA[4] with the title Be #1 on Google by McGraw-Hill An updated UK second edition [5] was released in paperback September 2010.

[7] Lion. Chicken soup for the enterepreneur's soul: advice and inspiration on fulfilling Dreams. p. [8] Roseman. Retrieved 22 November 2009. php?isbn=0071629602 http:/ / www. php?products_id=303 http:/ / www.[4] [5] By the end of 2002 Ginsberg had been named as eBay's "number-one new seller". "The Secrets of Power Sellers". 2004). amazon. Catherine (July 2003). do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=244786& docNo=7). lexisnexis. The Boston Globe: E2. Kiplinger's Personal Finance (Kiplinger Washington Editors. 32. He has promoted software for marketing on Myspace and training on selling on ebay. Hansen. Dahlynn (2006). Although he claims to have been initially skeptical about selling through eBay. The book outlines techniques which can be employed at the back-end or within the site’s code as well as front-end or editorial techniques to help improve visibility within the search engines. ch/ catalog/ product_info. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=244786& docNo=2).[3] As a result he continued to engage in eBay sales. amazon. ISSN 15289729. Inc. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 25.[6] [7] [8] In 2005 Ginsberg released How to buy. Amazon website. uk/ exec/ obidos/ search-handle-url?_encoding=UTF8& search-type=ss& index=books-uk& field-author=Adam Ginsberg). in 2001 he placed a pool table for sale on the service and met success. sell and profit on eBay. Patrick (July 26. The updated second edition contains new material relating to social networks and Google Analytics to assist readers with utilising and benefiting from these tools in relation to Search Engine Optimisation. (May 1. com/ product. Ellen (February 29. se-ed. "Smart Ebay traders cash in" (http:/ / www. Daily Telegraph: Pg. Mark Victor.) 57 (7): 75. Sell & Profit on eBay" (http:/ / www. com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview.[2] Prior to venturing into sales on eBay. do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& . expanding his online business and eventually closing his physical store. amazon. 2005). . uk/ Get-Into-Bed-Google-optimisation/ dp/ 190682164X/ Adam Ginsberg Adam Ginsberg is a guru of internet marketing. . John P. aspx?No=9789742127459 http:/ / www. uk/ How-Buy-Sell-Profit-eBay/ dp/ 006076287X). 2005). mhprofessional.[3] References [1] "How to Buy. 2005). HCI. "One man's trash is another's treasure" (http:/ / www. lexisnexis. [2] "Authour Adam Ginsberg" (http:/ / www. Jack.Get Into Bed With Google 144 Synopsis The book provides 52 practical solutions to Search Engine Optimisation problems faced by many small to medium sized websites. [5] Tovia. gyldendalbusiness. [3] Mello.[1] along with other titles. co. lexisnexis. and he is said to have sold over $20 million worth of products through the online service. McKowen. co. From creating basic Metatags to help categorise pages through to more advanced keyword density ratios. "A Skeptic's Transformation to an eBay Fanatic". Daily Telegraph: Pg. com/ eshop/ Products/ Detail. com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview. sell and profit on eBay. [6] Canfield.'. ISBN 0-7573-0261-0. [4] Siskos. Amazon website. "Selling to the masses on eBay" (http:/ / www. Ginsberg ran a business in San Diego selling pool tables. Joanna (August 2. co. com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview. midas. dk/ Products/ 9788702073904. The book includes references to many paid and free tools available on the web to assist readers as well as short case studies. He has written the book 'How to buy. 106. which were published by Nightingale Conant. aspx http:/ / www.

As users scroll down the page. they tend to read only titles and then. Google’s study showed that users usually read the entire title and description of the first three listings. SEO marketers should also use long-tail keywords to increase their chances of being displayed within the Golden Triangle for less popular keywords. For marketing purposes.Adam Ginsberg resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=8286& docNo=25).[4] An eye tracking study done by an eye tracking company and search marketing firms has shown that. The Toronto Star: BUSINESS. towards the end of the page. not even that. Pg.[2] Origins This term relates to search engine marketing strategies and was coined back in 2005 during studies which were carried out by Google to show which area on search result pages drew the attention of viewers the most.[6] This implies that a website may not be getting any traffic due to its positioning on the search results. which gives rise to an “F” form. then the title and only part of the description of the next few results. company’s try to place their websites in the top results for searches. 145 Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) The Golden Triangle in internet marketing depicts the triangular viewing pattern on a webpage which is created based on the eye-tracking activity of users. C01. getting a website into the Golden Triangle of any search result page is the key to increasing traffic to a site. It was previously considered that a website should be seen on the first page of the search engine and it was even better if the website was ranked higher on the first page. This was until a trend was identified.[5] Implications of the Golden Triangle The reason for the increase in click through rates on the first three search results is due to the way users view the result page. Google carried out a study to better understand the average search patterns and to try to find out whether there was anything which differentiated a result ranked first from a result ranked sixth on a search engine page.[3] In search engine marketing. during a search. The results of the study show that any search engine optimisation (SEO) marketing performed is most effective a website ranks in the top three for your primary keyword. Using the Golden Triangle The Golden Triangle is the area of the page where users read the title and the description of each search result which eventually results in higher click-through rates. the vast majority of eye tracking activities happens in a triangle at the top of the search results page indicating that the areas of maximum interest create a "golden triangle".[1] It is an eye-tracking heat-mapping that shows that people look and click on a specific area on a page of search results. The Golden Triangle forces internet marketers to focus on tailoring a website’s title and description to give relevant and concise information. showing that it was only the first three results on a search engine that had high click-through rates whilst the remaining results had very low click-through rates. .

For instance Google sells the first two top ranked spots on their results page to bidders. com/ Internet-Marketing-eBook) Eyetools. who pay to be placed in those strategic spots. Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. 5 Tips to Turn Your Website into a Marketing Machine (http:/ / www. Hubspot. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] "Definition of Golden Triangle" (http:/ / www. Use of quality SEO is the key to being able to get within the Golden Triangle on a search result page. . Strategic and consistent keyword placement can be used to try to be within the Golden Triangle without paying out excessive advertising fees. Retrieved 2010-12-08. Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap. html) . com/ internet-marketing-glossary/ g/ golden-triangle). Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. The Importance of The Golden Triangle in Internet Marketing (http:/ / articlesadv. html) Vincent Murphy. saelstrom. com/ marketing/ the-importance-of-the-golden-triangle-in-internet-marketing-aRtI3OZk. hubspot.Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) 146 Forming part of the Golden Triangle It can be difficult to be placed within the Golden Triangle. com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap. com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap. html) Eyetools. html) [6] Eyetools.

the company was launched in the United Kingdom in 2007[3] and has since expanded into the United States and over 30 other countries. London Key people David Langer: Cofounder and CEO. JP Morgan. associations and other groups manage their membership and activities.[10] The previous backers. Barclays Capital. BCG.000) investment round from Index Ventures and a leading angel investor consortium including Dave McClure. 2007 Headquarters New York City. Chris Sacca.GroupSpaces 147 GroupSpaces GroupSpaces Type Industry Founded Group Management Internet October. Ariel Poler and Quincy Smith of CODE Advisors. Founded by Oxford University students David Langer and Andy Young. Lloyd's of London and the NHS. Clifford Chance. Engineers Without Borders and the British Judo Association. Deutsche Bank.[12] .[7] Since 2007. Stephen Bullock and Simon and Michael Blakey.[8] The company raised a small amount of angel finance from Avonmore Developments in January 2008.com [1] Website GroupSpaces (styled groupspaces) is a London-based online company that provides technology to help real-world clubs. of Avonmore Developments. Simon Levene. Work Communications. targeted advertising and transaction commission from payments made through the site. Credit Suisse. GroupSpaces has worked with over 70 graduate recruiters including Allen & Overy. UBS.[11] The funding has been used to expand both the technical and marketing teams in both the United Kingdom and United States. Morgan Stanley. Campaigns can be targeted to specific universities and audiences such as fraternities. PwC.[4] As of November 2010. societies.[6] The company also generates revenue by allowing graduate recruiters to advertise their campus activities and promote their opportunities to a highly employable community of students throughout the whole academic year. its software is used to host over 1 million memberships. Mediacom and City & Law. Stafford Long. and promote themselves [2] online. SAS Design. Deloitte. Citi. Thirty Three. MIT and Stanford signed on with GroupSpaces. TMP Worldwide. Freshfields. Bank of England. KPMG. Slaughter & May. McKinsey & Company. RBS.[9] In June 2010 it secured a $1.[5] Revenue and funding GroupSpaces generates revenue via a combination of premium accounts. top schools such as Harvard. Andy Young: Cofounder and CTO groupspaces. Accenture. Yale. Princeton. GroupSpaces also works with many of the leading recruitment agencies in the UK including Euro RSCG Riley. GroupSpaces has also partnered with many leading nationwide networks of groups such as SIFE. hobbyists and entrepreneurial clubs. In the first few months of operation in the United States.3 million (£860. Meagan Marks. also participated in the round.

html). [8] . Online Recruitment.S. Telegraph. crunchbase. [4] Tyler. Retrieved 2011-02-21. html). http:/ / www. crunchbase. TechCrunch. co.GroupSpaces 148 Founders GroupSpaces was cofounded in October 2007 by David Langer. . Science Business. Retrieved 2011-02-25. nytimes. Langer was president. He cofounded GroupSpaces while studying for a mathematics degree at Oxford University and was subsequently awarded second place in the 2007 UK Graduate of the Year competition. Mike (2010-06-30). uk/ technology/ technology-startup100/ 8446409/ Spotify-crowned-winner-of-Start-Up-100-Awards. recruiter. [6] . CrunchBase. 2010-09-01. . 2010-07-08. TechCrunch. university market" (http:/ / www. [11] "Oxford’s GroupSpaces raises $1.3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / eu. [5] . Richard (2010-07-01). com [2] "GroupSpace attracts high-profile investors" (http:/ / dealbook. Crunchbase. http:/ / www.000 users and 1. webmaster and a member of groups with activities ranging from triathlon to table tennis. Retrieved 2011-03-01. [12] "GroupSpaces raises $1. bbc. com/ person/ andy-young). http:/ / www. co. co. treasurer. . . co. . Mike (2010-06-30). External links • Official website (http://www. uk/ finance/ yourbusiness/ 7866758/ GroupSpaces-secures-Index-Ventures-investment-to-help-clubs-flourish. co. 2010-09-15. "GroupSpaces secures $1. techcrunch. com/ news/ groupspaces_raises_1_3m_from_index_ventu). recruiter. As a student. http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-02-26. com/ 2010/ 06/ 30/ groupspaces-secures-1-3-million-and-brings-valley-players-on-board/ ). . Retrieved 2011-02-26. 25. Retrieved 2011-02-27. Crunchbase. "GroupSpaces secures $1. .[14] Awards On April 13.[13] Langer previously worked at JP Morgan. crunchbase. with over 500. "UK dotcoms: Two success stories" (http:/ / www. BBC News. article. telegraph. Retrieved 2011-02-27.3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / www. CrunchBase.GroupSpaces. 2010-07-02. Andy Young serves as cofounder and CTO of GroupSpaces. 26. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 2011-02-27.com/) .3M for online club administration system" (http:/ / bulletin. He is the creator of Selective Tweets. 2011. [9] Butcher. and Andy Young. Retrieved 2011-02-26. 2010-07-01. [3] Butcher. . 2010-07-01. . . [14] "Andrew Young CrunchBase profile" (http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 06/ 30/ groupspaces-secures-1-3-million-and-brings-valley-players-on-board/ ). Recruiter Magazine. sciencebusiness. com/ person/ david-langer). . telegraph. Rory (2010-07-05). uk/ groupspaces-makes-a-bid-to-join-the-us-club/ 1006877. McKinsey & Company and Lehman Brothers.3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / eu. After studying how their college’s clubs and societies worked–and running a few themselves–the two came up with GroupSpaces. com/ company/ groupspaces. [13] "David Langer CrunchBase profile" (http:/ / www. uk/ blogs/ thereporters/ rorycellanjones/ 2010/ 07/ uk_dot_coms_two_success_storie.5m status updates per month. . onrec. 2010-09-15. Recruiter Magazine. Retrieved 2011-02-27.3M from Index Ventures and launches in U. com/ company/ groupspaces. GroupSpaces was named the winner of the Social Networking and Collaboration category of the Startup 100 awards[15] . net/ NewsArticle. uk/ groupspaces-makes-a-bid-to-join-the-us-club/ 1006877. References [1] http:/ / groupspaces. html). article. Retrieved 2011-03-01. Retrieved 2011-02-21. [15] "2011 Startup 100 Awards Announcement" (http:/ / www. [7] . techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 07/ 02/ groupspaces-attracts-high-profile-investors/ ). [10] Cellan-Jones. aspx?ArticleId=67982). the most popular third-party app to link Twitter and Facebook. captain. Retrieved 2011-04-15. New York Times. "GroupSpaces secures $1. Retrieved 2011-02-27. while the two were students at Oxford University. crunchbase.

Guided selling does not address the internal. and generate a proposal to fulfill those needs. texts.Guided selling 149 Guided selling Guided selling is a process that helps potential buyers of products or services to choose the product best fulfilling their needs and hopefully guides the buyer to buy. The Guided Selling-system asks questions and offers answer options that help the online-shopper to learn about and define his needs. illustrations. define the solution. At the same time. and lay-outs. In addition. margins. Guided selling-solutions are used to analyse user requirements and generate buying recommendations to make sure online-shoppers find the product best fitting to their needs • Kiosk-applications. private. Goal and Approach The goal of Guided Selling-solutions is to bring together potential buyer's needs and products or services that fulfill his needs in order to facilitate buying decisions. commercial calculations and document generation. the technical specification of the solution (such as bills of materials and routings) is generated for manufacturing and distribution. product manufacturer websites and service providers. Process and Practice Guided selling is put in practice with an information system that supports the central management and maintenance of knowledge. furthermore. Such knowledge is stored in semantic knowledge models. the system supports the use of this knowledge by web services such as online product advisors. product advisors. the vendor understands step by step the refined customer needs. . these models are interacted with by means of questionnaires and explanations to / feedback options to product recommendations. even for complex and technical solutions. Guided Selling-Systems increase the shopping experience and the usability of the website since they typically offer a better access to the product assortment than done by filtering systems or free text search. complete with commercial aspects of the proposal. technical calculations. Goal is to help the potential buyer and / or the sales representative or service agent to efficiently guide through the product selection and purchasing process. call-center solutions and instore-devices in specialised trade stores. or behind-the-scenes decision issues that buyers must address before they are ready to make a solution choice. A functional definition of the solution is provided to the customer.g. retailer) to actively guide their customers to a buying decision and thus increases their conversion rate. The knowledge stored is related to functional. customers. The proposal-specific functions of guided selling are recommender systems. dealers and sales representatives. offline. such as prices. commercial and technical aspects of the customer needs and the possible solutions. product configuration. Guided selling simplifies and automates the maintenance and deployment of all knowledge that is required to analyze customer needs. Guided selling-solutions are applied in the following use cases: • Websites of online-shops. brands. It also helps vendors of products (e.

Helping the customer to understand his needs and then really understand the attributes important to him is key to calculate product recommendations that fit the customer's requirements. • recommend products: The technical product specifications inferred from the customer's needs need to be matched on the fact sheets of the available products. "I need a business notebook") or concrete. Since the Guided Selling-System explains product attributes and use cases. Guided Selling-systems rather analyse the individual user's input to calculate recommendations that best fulfil his personal needs. Guided Selling-systems thus require product information (fact sheets). The advantage of Guided Selling to recommender systems is an objectively calculated product proposal and a needs-based product advice that usually has a higher quality than products suggested by recommender systems. each product recommendation needs to be explained using a reasoning engine and the advantages / disadvantages of each recommendation need to be shown. all relevant product attributes need to be evaluated and matched against the user requirements. Other than Collaborative filtering that calculates recommendations based on historical data (e. but not which exact technical requirements are needed. convince and sell (based on the need/solution-placement dynamic): • understand the customer's needs: The potential customer is asked for his buying needs. A Guided Selling-System must thus be able to translate buying desires expressed in consumer language (e. Product attributes that are always beneficial (e.g. . a website.Guided selling 150 Guided Selling-Process Guided Selling-Systems put in practice the following Guided Selling-Process to advice. RAM-size). the Guided Selling-System needs to calculate alternatives that come close to the actual requirements. Thus. but non-technical product attributes ("a fast processor") in technical product specifications (e. refine existing needs and discover new needs. • analyse customer's needs: Consumers typically can express buying desires. a certain processor type.g. create trust in the product recommendations and the products offered and thus turn prospects into buyers. but not technical specs . longer battery lifetime) need to be treated accordingly. hard disk size. Technology Required Guided Selling-solutions are software systems. A matching technology then maps the needs on technical product details and matches the buyer's profile with the available products. buyers are enabled to express their needs.g. operating system. Boundaries Guided Selling-Systems are different from Recommender systems in the way that statistical recommenders calculate recommendations based on usage data instead of the actual user input to a questionnaire. Goal of this approach is to calculate objective recommendations that are based on the individual user's needs.g. However. • provide buying arguments and convince the customer: The goal of the Guided Selling-System is to objectively advise the potential buyer. If no product fulfills all requirements. The product characteristics that are relevant to a buying decision are explained. website usage data such as "users who watched this product also watched these other products"). Guided Selling-systems are a kind of Recommender systems. The Guided Selling-software allows to simulate a dialog to find out the buyer's needs. it is not enough to filter out products that just fulfill the requirements expressed by the user. The drawback is that Guided Selling-Systems need domain-specific knowledge about the product category whereas recommender systems (at least Collaborative filtering can work across all product categories of e.g. In order to calculate valuable product recommendations.a consumer knows how he wants to use the product.

Guided selling


• Whitepaper Guided Selling published by a Guided Selling specialist [1] • J. Lester, K. Branting, B. Mott: Conversational agents [2], Practical handbook of Internet computing, 2004, S. 3ff • Guided Selling: On demand information for buyers [3], Executive technology report, IBM, August 2005. The paper shows the challenges of retail as buying decisions are taken only more and more and shows how to face the challenges with Guided Selling-solutions. • Axel Schultze: Channel Excellence [4], published by Lulu.com, 2007, S. 215ff, ISBN 061517759X • Sridhar Seshadri, Dana Popescu: Inventory and Ecommerce [5], Department of Information, Operations and Management Science, Leonard Stern School of Business, New York University, New York, NY 10012

[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. excentos. com/ en/ whitepaper-guided-selling http:/ / ftp. ida. liu. se/ ~729A15/ mtrl/ Lester_et_al. pdf http:/ / www-935. ibm. com/ services/ us/ imc/ pdf/ gt510-6205-guided-selling. pdf http:/ / books. google. de/ books?hl=de& lr=& id=rT1UAyyYiswC& oi=fnd& pg=PA7& dq=%22Guided+ Selling%22& ots=Q4PVt6RMnr& sig=QwSUXqICgpi8KGPOGK2yOeZQms0 [5] http:/ / pages. stern. nyu. edu/ ~dpopescu/ IME. pdf

Image search optimization
Image search optimization (or image search engine optimization) is the process of organizing the content of a webpage to increase relevance to a specific keyword on image search engines. Like search engine optimization, the aim is to achieve a higher organic search listing and thus increasing the volume of traffic from search engines. Image search optimization techniques can be viewed as a subset of search engine optimization techniques that focuses on gaining high ranks on image search engine results. Unlike normal SEO process, there isn't much to do for ISO. Making high quality images accessible to search engines and providing some description about images is almost all that can be done for ISO.

Checklist For ISO
• Image Naming: • Use a meaningful name rather than 'DC00001.jpg' • Separate words with a hyphen or underscore, but try not to use too many. i.e. green-tree.jpg and green_tree.jpg are better than greentree.jpg or DC00001.jpg.[1] • alt Attribute • Provide a small description of image in alt attribute of img tag. • As a good practice do not leave alt attribute empty, provide at least one word. • Do not fill the alt attribute with lots of keywords, even if they are relevant. • Text Around The Image • Place some text around the image that describes it. • Image Quality • Try to use high resolution images. • If available, provide different resolutions of images • Image Accessibility • Make sure that the directory that contains your images is fully accessible by crawlers.

Image search optimization


[1] http:/ / searchengineland. com/ its-not-just-google-that-treats-underscores-like-dashes-11854

Impression (online media)
An Impression (online media) according to the "Basic Advertising Measures," from FAST, an ad industry group, is "The count of a delivered basic advertising unit from an ad distribution point." Impressions are how most Web advertising is sold and the cost is quoted in terms of the cost per thousand impressions ( [CPM] ).[1] Another definition of online advertisement impression is the single appearance of an advertisement on a web page. Each time an advertisement loads onto a user's screen, the ad server may count that loading as one impression.

[1] "http:/ / whatis. techtarget. com/ definition/ 0,,sid9_gci211535,00. html#"

External links
• CPM (http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci211535,00.html#cpm/) • FAST (http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci211535,00.html#fast/)

In-text advertising
In-text advertising is a form of contextual advertising where specific keywords within the text of a web-page are matched with advertising and/or related information units.

Although contextual advertising in general refers to the inclusion of advertisements adjacent to relevant online context (e.g., Google AdSense), in-text advertising places hyperlinks directly into the text of the webpage.

Advertising Model

Expanded advertisement window associated with the in-text term "PC" (double-underlined).

In text advertising works on a cost per click (CPC) model, which means that each time a website visitor clicks on an In-text ad, the websites owner gets paid by the advertiser.

In-text advertising


The use of this type of advertising in news and journalism websites has been criticized by journalism ethics counselors as "ethically problematic at the least and potentially quite corrosive of journalistic quality and credibility."[1] However, publishers such as the Indianapolis Star who use in-text advertising have reported that despite early objections by some readers, such complaints have "tapered off".[2]

[1] Is It News...or Is It an Ad? (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ public/ article/ SB116412309878729621-1mr_uV3L7Bc8GGLks5qCcsusmyw_20071127. html) By David Kesmodal and Julia Angwin, Wall Street Journal November 27, 2006; Page R8 [2] Pitching Between the Lines (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ magazine/ content/ 07_49/ b4061070. htm?chan=technology_technology+ index+ page_top+ stories) by Catherine Holahan, BusinessWeek December 3, 2007

Interactive advertising
Interactive advertising uses online or offline interactive media to communicate with consumers and to promote products, brands, services, and public service announcements, corporate or political groups. In the inaugural issue of the Journal of Interactive Advertising [1], editors Li and Leckenby (2000) defined Interactive Advertising as the "paid and unpaid presentation and promotion of products, services and ideas by an identified sponsor through mediated means involving mutual action between consumers and producers." This is most commonly performed through the Internet; often using video content as a delivery medium.

Interactive advertising objectives
The goals of interactive advertising are usually akin to the traditional objectives of advertising, i.e. to sell a product. This in turn means that many of the traditional elements of advertising impact and effectiveness remain relevant, even within the scope of interactive media. However, according to the Journal of Interactive Advertising 2001, interactive advertising also has some properties that expand the range of potential objectives and that improve advertising effectiveness. Interactive advertising also has the potential to decrease the losses associated with poorly coordinated advertising, to reduce the difficulties commonly encountered in clearly communicating an advertising message and to help overcome new product hurdles, such as a consumer rejection.

Elements of interactive advertising
There are many different facets to Interactive Advertising, including varying methods and types. Using many different types of cognitive tools and advert presentations, organizations can enhance the impact of their campaigns with this type of advertising. According to Thorson (1996), all advertisements can be classified into one of five basic categories, including: product/service, public service announcement, issue, corporate and political. Advert types also interact with the user's motives to influence outcomes, or consumer responses, reinforcing the need for Interactive Advertising as a means of persuading potential consumers and target audiences. Using the Internet as the main medium for Interactive Advertising to study the methods, types and outcomes, we can then sound out the different user or advertiser controlled aspects.

Lincolnwood. Leckenby. R. This does not mean that consumers never control the structure of the interactive ads. P. Mahwah. pdf .Interactive advertising 154 User generated/controlled aspects Functions. New Media: an introduction Melbourne: Oxford. Using search to find the businesses that excel in this medium reveals that the organic search leads are dominating the pay per click companies in this area. 55-78).. John D. Banner Ads. 99-117). googlepages. (1999). Internet motives and mode are the main factors of user [controlled aspects. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Cybermarketing: Your Interactive Marketing Consultant (pp. Advertising and the World Wide Web (pp. Customer-focused strategies and tactics. W. C. See Also Digital marketing References • Li.. (1997). Forrest. pop-up ads. & Haugtvedt. [2] (accessed 02/25/2010) • Flew. Mizerski (Eds. 1999). org/ issue1 [2] http:/ / champtec. Advertising and the World Wide Web (pp. 2004. E. Understanding interactivity of cyberspace advertising. In fact. Thorson (Eds. & Smith. • Rodgers.org/article5 (accessed 03/09/2008) It is important to remember interactive advertising begins with online advertising. • Thorson (Eds. In D. Hairong. In R. 2008. References [1] http:/ / jiad. Brady. such as ad types. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. a number of researchers and practitioners argue that consumers have more control on the Internet than do advertisers (Roehm & Haugtvedt. Internet Advertising Formats and Effectiveness. http:// jiad. hyperlinks and non-carrier websites are examples of Advertiser controlled Interactive Advertising. & R. Advertiser controlled aspects Internet aspects that are under the control of the advertiser. 1997). The Interactive Advertising Model: How Users Perceive and Process Online Ads. 2001.). Most of these variables include structural elements. Mahwah. • Cross. JIAD. sponsorship. Some have gone so far as to argue that interactive marketing and advertising techniques will not work unless practitioners "step into the shoes" of and approach the Internet from the consumer's vantage point (Cross & Smith. formats and features. J. S. Center for Interactive Advertising. IL: NTC Business Books. com/ ad_format_print. A.). Schumann & E.). 27-39). • Roehm. 3rd edition. T. H.

0 strategies. [4] advertising.Internet marketing 155 Internet marketing Marketing Key concepts Product • Pricing Distribution • Service • Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Marketing ethics Marketing effectiveness Market research Market segmentation Marketing strategy Marketing management Market dominance Promotional content Advertising • Branding • Underwriting Direct marketing • Personal Sales Product placement • Publicity Sales promotion • Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing • Premiums • Prizes Promotional media Printing • Publication Broadcasting • Out-of-home Internet marketing • Point of sale Promotional merchandise Digital marketing • In-game In-store demonstration Word-of-mouth marketing Brand Ambassador • Drip Marketing Internet marketing. search marketing or e-marketing.500 times per user per month. is the marketing (generally promotion) of products or services over the Internet. working with comScore. development. Internet marketing is considered to be broad in scope[1] because it not only refers to marketing on the Internet. also known as digital marketing. The New York Times. Internet marketing also refers to the placement of media along many different stages of the customer engagement cycle through search engine marketing (SEM). web marketing. email marketing. online marketing.[3] Internet marketing ties together the creative and technical aspects of the Internet.[5] . including design. search engine optimization (SEO). Counting four types of interactions with company websites in addition to the hits from advertisements served from advertising networks. the authors found that the potential for collecting data was up to 2. and Web 2. published an initial estimate to quantify the user data collected by large Internet-based companies. banner ads on specific websites.[2] Digital customer data and electronic customer relationship management (ECRM) systems are also often grouped together under internet marketing. In 2008. but also includes marketing done via e-mail and wireless media. and sales.

Companies can reach a wide audience for a small fraction of traditional advertising budgets. Niche marketing provides end users of such sites very targeted information. and other general factors. ISP. Niche Marketing Niche and hyper-niche internet marketing put further emphasis on creating destinations for web users and consumers on specific topics and products. Therefore. geography. organization.[7] This approach is used in search marketing. the vast majority of affiliate marketing relationships come from e-commerce businesses that offer affiliate programs. and delivering different content to that visitor based on his or her location. and other criteria. region or state. Similar to walk-in customers in retail world. rather than reaching out to a broadly defined demographic. and allows the creators to establish themselves as authorities on the topic or product. businesses have the advantage of appealing to consumers in a medium that can bring results quickly. Local Internet marketing uses tools such as social media marketing. gender. For example.). This approach usually works under the pay per click (PPC) method. country. Niche marketers differ from traditional Internet marketers as they have a more specialized topic knowledge. whereas in traditional Internet marketing a website would be created and promoted on a high-level topic such as kitchen appliances. city. affiliate links. These prospects are often referred to as organic leads. • Lead-based websites: a strategy whereby an organization generates value by acquiring sales leads from its website. etc. sales letters. Geo-targeting In Internet marketing.g. such as latitude and longitude. The strategy and overall effectiveness of . Internet Protocol (IP) address. metro code or zip code. One-to-one approach In a one-to-one approach.Internet marketing 156 Business models Internet marketing is associated with several business models: • E-commerce: a model whereby goods are sold directly to consumers (B2C). for which the advertisements are based on search engine keywords entered by the users. local directory listing. Appeal to specific interests When appealing to specific interests. however.[6] and targeted online sales promotions. marketers place an emphasis on appealing to a specific behavior or interest. Advantages and Limitations of Internet marketing Advantages Internet marketing is inexpensive when examining the ratio of cost to the reach of the target audience. • Local Internet marketing: a strategy through which a small company utilizes the Internet to find and to nurture relationships that can be used for real-world advantages. geo targeting and geo marketing are the methods of determining the geolocation of a website visitor with geolocation software. These marketers typically segment their markets according to age group. • Affiliate Marketing: a process wherein a product or service developed by one entity is sold by other active sellers for a share of profits. niche marketing would focus on more specific topics such as 4-slice toasters. businesses (B2B). The nature of the medium allows consumers to research and to purchase products and services conveniently.. or from consumer to consumer (C2C). marketers target a user browsing the Internet alone and so that the marketers' messages reach the user personally. The entity that owns the product may provide some marketing material (e. tracking facilities.

and "to try on" tangible goods before making an online purchase can be limiting.g. eBay is often used as a price-basis for specialized items. and to perform a targeted action. Internet marketers also have the advantage of measuring statistics easily and inexpensively. and are unable to stop the transfer of their information between companies if such activity occurs. Some companies that purchase customer information offer the option for individuals to have their information removed from the database.Internet marketing marketing campaigns depend on business goals and cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis. and Overstock.[9] [10] As the premier online reselling platform. gadgets. However. to visit a website. Specialized e-stores sell a vast amount of items like antiques. clothing. Online banking appeals to customers because it is often faster and considered more convenient than visiting bank branches. Therefore. Another major security concern that consumers have with e-commerce merchants is whether or not they will receive exactly what they purchase. the inability of shoppers to touch. to smell. Many firms are embracing a paradigm that is shifting the focus of advertising methodology from traditional text and image advertisements to those containing more recent technologies like JavaScript and Adobe Flash. Additionally. advertisers can more effectively engage and connect their audience with their campaigns that seek to shape consumer attitudes and feelings towards specific products and services. However. eBay.com. and pay per action.. Many consumers are hesitant to purchase items over the Internet because they do not believe that their personal information will remain private. As a result. also known as opting out. the price shown on eBay often becomes the item's . to taste. there is an industry standard for e-commerce vendors to reassure customers by having liberal return policies as well as providing in-store pick-up services. from the buyer's perspective.com). several major online payment mechanisms (credit cards. almost all aspects of an Internet marketing campaign can be traced. etc. Amazon. Online merchants have attempted to address this concern by investing in and building strong consumer brands (e. All these solutions attempt to assure consumers that their transactions will be free of problems because the merchants can be trusted to provide reliable products and services. movie props. Unique items that could only previously be found at flea markets are now being sold on Internet auction websites such as eBay. marketers can determine which messages or offerings are more appealing to the audience. and tested. such as pay per impression. 157 Limitations However. Usage trends Technological advancements in the telecommunications industry have dramatically affected online advertising techniques. Effects on industries The number of banks offering the ability to perform banking tasks over the internet has increased.) have provided back-end buyer protection systems to address problems if they occur. many customers are unaware if and when their information is being shared.[8] Internet auctions Internet auctions have become a multi-billion dollar business. Buyers and sellers often look at prices on the website before going to flea markets. pay per click. Security concerns Information security is important both to companies and consumers that participate in online business. PayPal. measured. The results of campaigns can be measured and tracked immediately because online marketing initiatives usually require users to click on an advertisement. and by leveraging merchant and feedback rating systems and e-commerce bonding solutions. and so on. pay per play. Google Checkout. The advertisers can use a variety of methods.

Alan (2009). com/ 2008/ news. prlog. while others have sprung up as purely online businesses. over 500 social network supporters per day to help spread their message. html). Retrieved 2008-03-09. asp?id=9) (SIPP)" (Accessed 28-June-2008) [16] "Center For Responsive Politics (http:/ / www. pp. html#comment-66215834). 2007).9 billion (http:/ / www. nytimes. In just a few years. nytimes. php?id=N00009638) Fundraising Profile Barack Obama" (Accessed 28-June-2008) com/ releases/ eSynergize/ Online-Marketing/ prweb5163484. html) (2007-06-18) [14] PricewaterhouseCoopers reported U. "They Know More Than You Think" (http:/ / www. Internet marketing spend totaled $16. . 2006). . lk/ business/ 127-local/ 38977. managingchange. . such as digital design and media.S. 2008).Political Performance Index (http:/ / spartaninternet. The New York Times (The New York Times Company). "Bid on Dreamgirls Costumes for Charity"" (http:/ / offtherack. com/ 2007/ 02/ dress_like_a_dr.S. htm [8] http:/ / www. html?categoryid=1238& cs=1). in Story. [2] "Former Wachovia Direct Marketing Executives Launch Full Service Online Marketing and Web Design Company" (http:/ / www. html) in 2006" (Accessed 18-June-2007) [15] "Spartan Internet Consulting . net/ en/ 1/ iabknowledgebankadspend. theregister. [3] Jaakko Sinisalo et al. Retrieved 24 March 2011. . html) (JPEG). [10] James. The New York Times. com/ onetoone/ overview.[16] Several industries have heavily invested in and benefited from internet marketing and online advertising. "Put the E-mphasis on Local Internet Marketing and reach first page on Google" (http:/ / www. blogging.Online Ad Spending to Total $19.Online Adspend (http:/ / www. Andrew (April 21. aspx?1004635) (2007-2-28) [12] The Register . Where?" (http:/ / print. com/ article/ VR1117938954. Retrieved 24 March 2011.How. in 2006. the effect on the advertising industry itself has been profound. Retrieved August 15. candidates for President heavily utilized Internet marketing strategies to reach constituents. emarketer. [4] Charlesworth.[14] This has caused a growing impact on the United States' electoral process. "To Aim Ads. "Movie props on the block: Mouse to auction Miramax leftovers" (http:/ / www. html). com/ imagepages/ 2008/ 03/ 10/ technology/ 20080310_PRIVACY_GRAPHIC. . David (February 24. htm).Internet marketing selling price. dailymirror. "Mobile customer relationship management: underlying issues and challenges" (in (English)). co. iabuk. opensecrets. online advertising has grown to be worth tens of billions of dollars annually. Internet marketing: a practical approach. (2007). and internet service hosting.. Butterworth-Heinemann. . com/ Article. consumeraffairs. variety. pReed Business Information. References [1] "Internet Marketing .9 billion was spent on Online marketing in the U. largely due to online donors. music. com/ 2008/ 03/ 10/ technology/ 10privacy.[11] [12] [13] PricewaterhouseCoopers reported that US$16. Ian (February 27. [6] Rayner.5 Billion in 2007 (http:/ / www. Louise and comScore (March 10.[15] President Barack Obama raised over US$1 million in one day during his extensive Democratic candidacy campaign. com/ news04/ online_banking_survey. During the 2007 primaries candidates added. org/ pres08/ summary. Some of them were originally brick and mortar businesses such as publishing. prweb. Inc. In 2008. 49. [5] Story. on average. automotive or gambling. html). 2010). org/ OnlineNews/ Internet_marketing_20075115473. people. [11] eMarketer . . 2008). html [9] Mohr. 2010. Daily Mirror. . Web Is Keeping Closer Eye on You" (http:/ / www. org/ 10638959-put-the-mphasis-on-local-internet-marketing-and-reach-first-page-on-google. uk/ 2006/ 09/ 29/ internet_advertising_booms/ ) (2006-09-29) [13] Internet Advertising Bureau . When. Time. doi:10.Internet advertising shoots past estimates (http:/ / www.1108/14637150710834541. 158 Advertising industry In addition to the major effect internet marketing has had on the technology industry. directtraffic. Business Process Management Journal 13 (6): 772. Louise (March 10. [7] http:/ / www.

Advantages Internet presence management is useful for organizations or companies that are attempting to embrace the online medium as means of connecting with their target audiences. for an organization or company encompasses. enterprise resource planning. Internet presence The Internet presence. but is not limited to: • • • • • • • • • E-mail Internet forums Blogs Minisites Search engine listings Social networks (e. as well as reduce customer acquisition and customer service costs. or Internet-based channels of an organization or company. Other management methods include sales force management systems. with the goal of increasing that entity's online presence and overall internet efficiency. where an advertiser communicates the entity's brand in a synergistic fashion via all areas of online marketing.Internet presence management 159 Internet presence management Internet Presence Management (IPM) is the process of controlling the Web presence. . Methods Internet presence management typically encompasses advanced Internet marketing. MySpace. and business analytics to streamline a business operationally to do more with less.g. YouTube and Twitter) Web directories Websites Word of mouth marketing (WOMM). Web analytics.. or Web presence. Facebook.

000 hours of programming and won an ACC Golden Beacon award on September 16. com Website JESS3 is a creative interactive agency based in the Washington. In October 2010. specializing in web design.C. JESS3 coordinated a joint project between NASA and Gowalla. The first 100 users to earn the pin also received a JESS3-designed special edition map. JESS3 designed a series of websites related to the 2008 presidential election for the Washington-based C-SPAN public affairs network. Intel and Microsoft.[8] Notable projects In August 2008.[14] [15] The same month. the firm claims 15 full time employees.[13] The application allows users to share stories about how Facebook has impacted their lives. D.[10] In addition to the election websites. Facebook[2] and Wikipedia[3] as well as independent projects such as The Conversation Prism and The Ex-Blocker. International Space .[4] Background Founded by web designer Jesse Thomas in 2007.[7] As of 2010. with more than 100 freelance partners. infographics and data visualization.[9] for which they received a Webby Award nomination in 2009.[11] which launched in March 2010.[1] The firm is noted for its work with clients including NASA.[5] [6] In 2009. chairman Leslie Bradshaw.[12] The website provides access to the digitized C-SPAN video archives of over 160. JESS3 became Mashable's design partner on projects including their iPhone application. area. JESS3 also developed the C-SPAN Video Library.JESS3 160 JESS3 JESS3 Type Genre Founder(s) Private Creative agency Jesse Thomas Headquarters Washington.[2] Clients of JESS3 have included Nike.[13] JESS3 has served as social media adviser to NASA on multiple geosocial networking projects. branding. as well as a special NASA pin.. "Search for the Moon Rocks".C. president http:/ / jess3. MySpace. 2010. D. JESS3 collaborated with Facebook on a project called Stories to help celebrate the social networking site's 500 millionth profile. JESS3 organized a partnership between NASA and Foursquare to engineer the first geosocial check-in from space. sortable by geographical location or by topic. social media marketing.[2] JESS3 is led by Thomas along with president and co-founder Leslie Bradshaw.[12] In July 2010.[16] [5] On October 22. Nike. 2010. and offices in the United Kingdom. creating NASA-related items for the service's users to acquire. United States Key people Jesse Thomas.

[17] In addition.[32] In the spring of 2009. 3 countries and one continent are unknown.[4] The application was profiled in The Globe and Mail. As of May 2010. plus related images and videos. City (11) Washington. black splotch within a user's browser. space program. the company also introduced The Ex-Blocker. the agency designed a diagram called "The Twitterverse" with Brian Solis that outlines the expanding network of applications that function with the popular web tool. D. JESS3 debuted the "Black Oil Plug-In" for Firefox that renders any mention of BP. San Fransisco. A project titled The Conversation Prism elaborately maps methods of communication across numerous online forums. a customized NASA Foursquare homepage was launched which provides information about locations of interest to the U. ten countries and four continents. MA Austin. TX ? ? Country (7)  United States  United States  United States  United Kingdom  Greece  France  Argentina  United States  United States  Sweden  Germany Continent (3) North America North America North America Europe Europe Europe South America North America North America Europe Europe At least one global hub city.[25] mentioned during a segment on Late Night With Jimmy Fallon[26] and received media coverage internationally.[20] [21] 161 JESS3 Labs In June 2010. Wheelock checked in to Foursquare from the ISS and unlocked a new "NASA Explorer" badge.[36] .[19] which tracks NASA-related tweets.[28] Global hubs JESS3 has teams in over a dozen cities. the company released a video titled "The State of the Internet" on Vimeo.S. CA Brooklyn.[22] [23] [24] That same month.[18] Other projects JESS3 has developed for NASA include their "Buzzroom" website.[35] which included a series of infographics outlining the rise of the internet and other information regarding popular social networking and media sites such as YouTube and Twitter.[33] [34] In February 2010. the Gulf Oil Spill and other names and phrases into a dripping.[29] [30] Data visualization JESS3 has created and co-sponsored numerous visual design projects.C. which enables users to prevent their web browser from showing their ex-lovers' activities and posts on various websites. including an articles in Glamour Magazine UK. the video had been viewed online over 1 million times. Transocean.[27] As of October 2010 over 8.[31] The design appeared in an article about information graphics in the July/August 2009 issue of Communication Arts.000 people have installed the Ex-Blocker plug-in. NY ? ? Paris ? Boston.JESS3 Station (ISS) commander Douglas H.

The Webby Awards. 18 October 2010. "Inside the Mind of One of the Web’s Hottest Designers [INTERVIEW (http:/ / mashable. . Mashable. asp). In June 2010. com/ lifestyle/ 2010/ 07/ 18/ 2010-07-18_ex_out_your_exs_existence_online. com/ 2010/ 08/ 24/ the-state-of-the-geosocial-universe-infographic/ )"]. "500 Million Stories" (http:/ / blog. c-span.JESS3 162 Other projects For the 2008 US Presidential Election.com. the Discovery Channel's 25th anniversary program. [18] Chloe Albanesius (22 October 2010). Retrieved 27 October 2010. Advantage Business Media. "The State of the GeoSocial Universe [INFOGRAPHIC (http:/ / mashable. Retrieved 25 October 2010. cnn. The Hill. "Official Foursquare 'I Voted' Badge Released for Polling Place Check-Ins" (http:/ / www. CNN. [8] Jesse Thomas (24 August 2010). WorldTech24. getglue/ ). [20] Meghan Keane (23 July 2010). com/ webbys/ current. [21] "NASA Invites Reporters To Next Space Shuttle Launch And Tweetup" (http:/ / www. out. "Mashable iPhone App Launches!" (http:/ / mashable. [10] "The 13th Annual Webby Awards Nominees & Winners: Politics" (http:/ / webbyawards. . cnn. Retrieved 25 October 2010. foursquare. "ACC Awards Golden Beacon To C-SPAN's Video Library" (http:/ / www. Mashable. [2] Jolie O'Dell (26 July 2010). Wireless Week. . [19] "Houston. . JESS3 designed the website AnOrangeAmerica. [3] http:/ / jess3. zdnet. ZDNet. com/ 2010-06-02/ tech/ oil. worldtech24. php). pdf). BP Adds VP Cheney's PR Pro" (http:/ / www. pcmag. LLC. [5] Sara Jerome (22 October 2010). html). 2 June 2010. com/ 2010/ TECH/ social. Retrieved 29 October 2010. com/ news-releases/ official-foursquare-i-voted-badge-released-for-polling-place-check-ins-105887113. through agency partner New Media Strategies. "NASA astronaut 'checks in' on Foursquare from space" (http:/ / thehill. . Political Destination" (http:/ / blogs. com/ News/ 2010/ 10/ FirstNews-Briefs-15/ ). "NASA. [13] Mark Zuckerberg (21 July 2010). NBC. prnewswire. Retrieved 27 October 2010. . . Retrieved 27 October 2010. [17] Matt Fitzpatrick (23 October 2010). com/ business/ houston-we-ve-had-check-nasa-astronaut-just-used-foursquare-space). mashable_1_bp-british-petroleum-blacked?_s=PM:TECH). [9] Andrew Nusca (25 September 2008). NY Daily News. 5 May 2009. space/ ). Retrieved 25 October 2010. [15] Doug Gross (14 October 2010). Capitol Communicator. E-consultancy. We’ve Had A Check-In: NASA Astronaut Just Used Foursquare From Space" (http:/ / www. [16] Eric Kuhn (22 October 2010). [14] "FirstNews Briefs for October 15. firefox. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010. html). Zdnet. html). "Oil spill Firefox plugin blacks out BP across the Web" (http:/ / articles. NewBay Media. html?pid=31873). com/ News/ tabid/ 116/ EntryID/ 1058/ Default. com/ 2010/ TECH/ mobile/ 10/ 14/ hbo. . . aspx). .. [11] "C-SPAN’s Online Video Library Now Open to the Public" (http:/ / www. . multichannel. "First Foursquare badge unlocked in space" (http:/ / www. NBC Washington. C-SPAN. spill. org/ pdf/ Video Library Now Open. . . [6] PR Newswire (27 October 2010). [22] Christina Warren (2 June 2010). Retrieved 29 October 2010. php?season=13#webby_entry_politics). . 22 October 2010. . . "'Ex-Blocker' deletes all mentions of ex from your Facebook and other social networking sites" (http:/ / www. Technosailor. Retrieved 27 October 2010. capitolcommunicator. com/ blogs/ hillicon-valley/ technology/ 125417-nasa-astronaut-checks-in-on-foursquare-from-space). [7] Pete Cashmore (1 April 2009). Multichannel News. . "Foursquare Now Allowing Check-ins From Space" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 26 October 2010. nydailynews. com/ us/ blog/ 6302-q-a-nasa-s-stephanie-schierholz). Zdnet "C-SPAN Launches Gadget-Fueled 'Debate Hub' as Social. Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ blog. 17 March 2010. Facebook. Retrieved 20 November 2010. 15 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2010. com/ news/ viewpr. com/ the-state-of-wikipedia/ [4] Matthew Lysiak and Erica Pearson (18 July 2010). . [23] "JESS3 Creates Firefox Plugin for BP Oil Spill. . Retrieved 27 October 2010. wirelessweek. spaceref.[37] The site visualized election-related tweets about Barack Obama and John McCain as they happened.2371303. nbcwashington. Press release. . com/ 2010/ 07/ 26/ jess3-design-interview/ )"]. com/ article2/ 0. Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ article/ 457243-ACC_Awards_Golden_Beacon_To_C_SPAN_s_Video_Library. PC Magazine. com/ 2008/ 05/ 30/ interview-with-the-entrepreneur-jesse-thomas-of-jess3).com and launched it on Election Day. com/ 2009/ 04/ 01/ mashable-iphone-app/ ). 2010" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 27 October 2010.[38] [39] References [1] "Interview With the Entrepreneur" (http:/ / technosailor. JESS3 developed a microsite for "My Discovery". bp. Retrieved 31 October 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010.com.2817. 30 May 2008. cnn. Spaceref Interactive. Mashable. HBO join mobile check-in game" (http:/ / edition. com/ gadgetreviews/ ?p=381). . with data directly from Twitter's API. php?post=409753352130). Retrieved 29 October 2010. CNN.00. [12] Mike Reynolds (16 September 2010). facebook. . "Q&A: NASA's Stephanie Schierholz on navigating the frontiers of social media" (http:/ / econsultancy. Hillicon-Valley. media/ 10/ 22/ astronaut. "Astronaut Posts First Foursquare Check-In from Space" (http:/ / www. blacks. CNN. com/ news/ weird/ Foursquare-Now-Allowing-Check-ins-from-Space-105577508.

JESS3 [24] "Oil Spill Firefox Plugin Dirties Your Browser With 'Black Oil'" (http:/ / www. aspx). Retrieved 29 October 2010. "Powers of Ten for the Twitterverse" (http:/ / www. . The Globe and Mail. . The Irish Times. . [32] JESS3 (30 June 2009). "How to Erase Your Ex From the Internet" (http:/ / www. glamourmagazine. net/ jess3/ the-exblocker-on-late-night-with-jimmy-fallon-4854951). [35] JESS3 (22 February 2010). Retrieved 27 October 2010. jess3. theglobeandmail. "The State of the Internet" (http:/ / vimeo. Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ my-discovery/ ). com/ News/ 860737/ Companies-create-efforts-capitalize-election/ ). Vimeo. . Retrieved 29 October 2010. uk/ love-sex-relationships/ g-spot-blog/ 2010/ 07/ block-your-ex-application). [27] Jean Hannah Edelstein (22 July 2010). Retrieved 27 October 2010. Brand Republic.com) . . co. psfk. com/ 836/ my-discovery). com/ newspaper/ features/ 2010/ 1011/ 1224280782476. com/ about/ [30] http:/ / jess3. . [29] http:/ / jess3. "The new networking" (http:/ / www. brandrepublic. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 27 October 2010. [28] Ian McCourt (11 October 2010). . twitter. html). . "Block Your Ex" (http:/ / www. html). Retrieved 27 October 2010. SlideShare. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 06/ 01/ AR2009060103065. [38] "Discovery Communications My Discovery" (http:/ / jess3. Retrieved 27 October 2010. slideshare. [36] "JESS3 Video Viewed Over 1 Million Times" (http:/ / www. [39] Robin Sloan (13 July 2010). [33] MG Siegler (1 June 2009). irishtimes. JESS3. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. huffingtonpost. html). 1 June 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ life/ family-and-relationships/ how-to-erase-your-ex-from-the-internet/ article1641586/ ). . timesdispatch. Twitter. 27 May 2010. "Add-on that can erase your ex" (http:/ / www. Richmond Times-Dispatch. Twitter Media. Glamour Magazine UK. . com/ 9641036). com/ News/ tabid/ 116/ EntryID/ 1052/ Default. "The Conversation Prism in Communication Arts Magazine" (http:/ / blog. PSFK. com/ 2009/ 06/ conversation-prism-in-communication. com/ 2010/ 06/ 01/ bp-black-oil-firefox-plug_n_596791. [25] Dakshana Bascaramurty (15 July 2010). . Retrieved 27 October 2010. The Washington Post. . [26] "The Ex-Blocker on Late Night With Jimmy Fallon" (http:/ / www. . washingtonpost. com/ rtd/ lifestyles/ leisure/ article/ S-FACE31_20090527-204924/ 270241). Haymarket Business Media. [34] Simon Mainwaring (2 June 2009). com/ 2009/ 06/ powers-of-ten-for-the-twitterverse. JESS3. "Small Discoveries" (http:/ / media. 163 External links • JESS3 Official website (http://jess3. capitolcommunicator. [37] Nicole Zerillo (10 November 2008). Capitol Communicator. com/ ten-things-ceos-need-to-know-about-design/ Slide 4 [31] Bill Lohmann (31 May 2009). "Companies create efforts to capitalize on election" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 27 October 2010. "The Future Of Twitter Visualized" (http:/ / www. html). html). .

creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners. incomplete. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan. videos. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable. including image search. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. where a second program. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content. as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. [4] The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing that phrase is by Bruce Clay effective March. which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date. Another class of techniques. all webmasters needed to do was submit the address of a page. or URL.[3] The first documented use of the term Search Engine Optimization was John Audette [4] and his company Multimedia Marketing Group as documented by a web page from the MMG site from August. 1997. and return information found on the page to be indexed. Other forms of search engine marketing (SEM) target paid listings. images. the actual search terms typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. academic search[1] . the phrase "search engine optimization" probably came into use in 1997. or inbound links. to the various engines which would send a "spider" to "crawl" that page. menus. news search and industry-specific vertical search engines. The acronym "SEOs" can refer to "search engine optimizers. SEO may target different kinds of search. and by employees who perform SEO services in-house.[7] . SEO considers how search engines work. Meta tags provide a guide to each page's content. and all links the page contains. SEO tactics may be incorporated into website development and design. because the webmaster's choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site's actual content. History Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s. keyword stuffing and article spinning that degrade both the relevance of search results and the quality of user-experience with search engines. extracts various information about the page. is another SEO tactic. such as the words it contains and where these are located. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks. uses methods such as link farms. extract links to other pages from it.[6] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines. and other elements that have been optimized for the purpose of search engine exposure. As an Internet marketing strategy. the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. Initially." a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients. and more frequently a site appears in the search results list. or index files in engines like ALIWEB. known as black hat SEO or spamdexing. and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches. Inaccurate. what people search for. Search engines look for sites that employ these techniques in order to remove them from their indices. 1997.[5] Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag.Keyword optimization 164 Keyword optimization Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. local search. however. as well as any weight for specific words.[2] The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine's own server. video search. This gives a website web presence. the earlier (or higher on the page). known as an indexer. In general. shopping carts. content management systems. The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe website designs. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results.

[12] [13] SEO practitioners may also study patents held by various search engines to gain insight into the algorithms. in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting. Bruce Clay said that "ranking is dead" because of personalized search. Larry Page and Sergey Brin.[21] 165 . SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting.[16] In 2007 Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank. links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. often on a massive scale. and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. and have published their opinions in online forums and blogs. developed "backrub. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings. Page and Brin founded Google in 1998. [19] In December 2009 Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results. Aaron Wall and Jill Whalen. who liked its simple design.[9] Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency. allowing those results to be false would turn users to find other search sources. To provide better results to their users. search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results.[18] As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank. have studied different approaches to search engine optimization. Some of these schemes. headings. Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet users. Google says it ranks sites using more than 200 different signals. Flash and Javascript. Depending on their history of previous searches. Bing. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes. is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links.[17] On June 15. Google. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results. meta tags.Keyword optimization By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster's control. The number calculated by the algorithm." a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine. this means that some links are stronger than others. buying. In order to avoid the above. Notable SEO service providers. and follows links from one page to another.[8] PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web. or link farms. Although PageRank was more difficult to game. search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation. such as Rand Fishkin. Many sites focused on exchanging.[11] The leading search engines. In effect. rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters. a well-known software engineer at Google. Graduate students at Stanford University.[15] In 2008. It would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked.[10] By 2004. and Yahoo. Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links. taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search. early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. Google crafted results for logged in users. involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming.[14] In 2005 Google began personalizing search results for each user.[20] Real-time-search was introduced in late 2009 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. 2009. do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages. Barry Schwartz. announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms. Matt Cutts. PageRank. and selling links. as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer.

[33] Two major directories. notably Yahoo!. determine how many pages are in the Yahoo! index and view link information. Early search engines. use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. In fact. especially pages that aren't discoverable by automatically following links. [37] . Not every page is indexed by the search engines. and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords. some search engines now have a vested interest in the health of the optimization community. which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients. operate a paid submission service that guarantee [32] Such programs usually guarantee inclusion in the database. not guarantee specific ranking within the search results.[35] Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site. with the advent of paid inclusion. for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found.[22] Yahoo and Google offices Due to the high marketing value of targeted search results. portable document format files. and how many pages have been indexed by their search engine. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization. Some search engines. Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web. chats. an annual conference. such as Infoseek. Yahoo! Site Explorer provides a way for webmasters to submit URLs.[26] Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry. the Wall Street Journal reported on a company. there is potential for an adversarial relationship between search engines and SEO service providers.Keyword optimization 166 Relationship with search engines By 1997 search engines recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines.[25] Google's Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients. the Yahoo Directory and the Open Directory Project both require manual submission and human editorial review.[23] was created to discuss and minimize the damaging effects of aggressive web content providers.[27] [28] [29] Google has a Sitemaps program[30] to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website. In 2005. Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results. but do crawling for either a set fee or cost per click.[31] Bing Toolbox provides a way from webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds. search engines sometimes have problems with crawling sites with certain kinds of graphic content. and seminars.[36] Additionally. Traffic Power. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled. allowing users to determine the crawl rate. such as Google. and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences. AIRWeb. adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings.[34] Google offers Google Webmaster Tools. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically. and dynamic content. Google guidelines are a list of suggested practices Google has provided as guidance to webmasters. flash files. In 2005. Bing and Yahoo!.[24] Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban. Methods Getting indexed The leading search engines.

either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. this is an important distinction to note. Traditional marketing means have allowed this through transparency and exposure. and those techniques that search engines do not approve of and attempt to minimize the effect of. The robots. thus increasing traffic. a technique known as cloaking. the robots.[42] An SEO tactic. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine. and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled. so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic. Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods. it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. White hat versus black hat SEO techniques are classified by some into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design. a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine's database by using a meta tag specific to robots. Some industry commentators classify these methods.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. Cross linking between pages of the same website to provide more links to most important pages may improve its visibility. or involve deception. in an invisible div. or positioned off screen. and the practitioners who employ them. using the "canonical" meta tag[40] or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page's link popularity score.[39] Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site. White Hat SEO is merely effective marketing. In March 2007.txt file in the root directory of the domain. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines' algorithms. not for search engines. technique or method is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines' guidelines and involves no deception.[41] White hats tend to produce results that last a long time. but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders. or black hat SEO. will tend to improve the relevancy of a site's search listings. such as Google's PageRank.txt file is then parsed. When a search engine visits a site. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines. As the search engine guidelines[27] [28] [29] [43] are not written as a series of rules or commandments.[44] although the two are not identical. whereas black hats anticipate that their sites will eventually be banned once the search engines discover what they are doing. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file.[39] Writing content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase. Adding relevant keywords to a web page's meta data. Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines. rather than attempting to game the algorithm. making efforts to deliver quality content to an audience that has requested the quality content. webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots.Keyword optimization 167 Preventing crawling To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes. either as text colored similar to the background. One infamous example was the February 2006 Google . as either white hat SEO. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users.[38] Increasing prominence A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results. or by a manual site review. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. Additionally. referred to as spamdexing. including the title tag and meta description. Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam. A search engine's algorithm takes this into account.

[56] That market share is achieved in a number of countries. Google had an 85-90% market share in Germany. Yahoo! Japan. their main sources of traffic are links from other websites. there were only about five in Germany. and other Internet marketing strategies can be much more effective. search engines are not paid for organic search traffic. Otherwise. Naver. As of 2009. setting up analytics programs to enable site owners to measure their successes. However. it will announce how and when the ranking algorithm will change a few months before changing the algorithm). Yandex and Seznam are market leaders. and improving a site's conversion rate. The most notable markets where this is the case are China.[55] .[52] International markets Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. when Google is not leading in a given market. as does competition. Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches. Google's share is often larger. and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007. and web hosting that provides a local IP address. but it also may involve the use of paid advertising on search engines and other pages.[49] It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic. depending on the site operator's goals." Instead. addressing technical issues that may keep search engines from crawling and indexing those sites. receive a very small share of their traffic from search engines.[45] Both companies. fixed the offending pages. (Some trading sites such as eBay can be a special case for this. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty. building high quality web pages to engage and persuade. In most cases. there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. regardless of language. quickly apologized. registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market. Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages. A successful Internet marketing campaign may drive organic traffic.[53] In markets outside the United States. and were restored to Google's list. Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu. and there are no guarantees of continued referrals. "Search marketers. achieved through optimization techniques and not paid advertising.[48] SEO may generate a return on investment.[47] This includes paid search advertising which has its own version of SEO called ATO (Ad Text Optimization). it is lagging behind a local player. The search engines' market shares vary from market to market. the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise. South Korea. Japan.Keyword optimization removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices. their algorithms change.[50] A top-ranked SEO blog Seomoz.[46] 168 As a marketing strategy SEO is not necessarily an appropriate strategy for every website.[55] While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time. however. In 2003. the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same. in a twist of irony.org[51] has suggested. a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors.[55] As of June 2008.[54] As of 2006. to web pages.

Archived from the original (http:/ / www. com/ 3563036). nytimes. pdf). edu/ ~zoltan/ publications/ gyongyi2005link. . Retrieved 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2009-09-05. .org. 2005). Erik (2010). edu. On March 16. e-LearningGuru. 2003). Retrieved 2007-05-07.searchenginejournal. Retrieved 2007-05-08. [17] "8 Things We Learned About Google PageRank" (http:/ / www. 2007). [10] Zoltan Gyongyi and Hector Garcia-Molina (2005). (Document Number 19970801004204). [15] "Google Personalized Search Leaves Google Labs . 7th Int. mattcutts. requiring him to pay part of Google's legal expenses. On May 27. Allison. Proceedings of the seventh international conference on World Wide Web. "The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine" (http:/ / www-db. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved 2007-05-14. .Search Engine Watch (SEW)" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. and partially granted Google's motion for Rule 11 sanctions against KinderStart's attorney. cgi?Search_Arg=TX0005001745& Search_Code=REGS& PID=_BQjecgZXtqzP_qe3Szqb-aeqs& SEQ=20110101030626& CNT=25& HIST=1).com. 2001). gov/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. edu/ ~backrub/ google. October 17–20. "What is a tall poppy among web pages?" (http:/ / www. html?page=3564261). . sciplore. . . com/ 2007/ 06/ 03/ business/ yourmoney/ 03google. [11] Hansell. SearchKing filed suit in the United States District Court. . au/ ~lloyd/ tilde/ InterNet/ Search/ 1998_WWW7. . Retrieved 2010-04-18. Search Engine Watch. Trondheim. pp. . Bill (December 19. "Is Google good for you?" (http:/ / news.. html). [9] Thompson. pdf) (PDF). "Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw-men of the meta-utopia" (http:/ / web. seomoz. Norway. [5] (Document Registration Number TX0005001745. org/ publications/ 2010-ASEO--preprint. Larry (1998)."[57] [58] In March 2006. Retrieved 2009-08-17. the court granted Google's motion to dismiss the complaint because SearchKing "failed to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. stanford. html). mmgco. [8] Brin. monash. New York Times. loc. "Google Keeps Tweaking Its Search Engine" (http:/ / www. Search Engine Watch. KinderStart filed a lawsuit against Google over search engine rankings. Retrieved 2007-05-08. (Document Registration Number TX0005001745. [16] "Will Personal Search Turn SEO On Its Ear?" (http:/ / www. [18] "PageRank sculpting" (http:/ / www. searchenginewatch. "Rundown On Search Ranking Factors" (http:/ / blog. com/ campaign. com/ articles/ metacrap. D. USA. US Library of Congress Copyright Office). webir.webpronews. Journal of Scholarly Publishing. 2004). org/ web/ 19970801004204/ www. spam/ browse_thread/ thread/ 6fee2777dc17b8ab/ 3858bff94e56aff3?lnk=st& q="search+ engine+ optimization"& rnum=1#3858bff94e56aff3). "Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co." (http:/ / www. searchenginewatch. Retrieved 2007-05-08. [14] Christine Churchill (November 23. [12] Danny Sullivan (September 29. pp. html). . com/ showpost. www. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. BBC News. . e-learningguru. [7] Pringle. Proceedings of the 31st VLDB Conference. google. "Who Invented the Term "Search Engine Optimization"?" (http:/ / forums. com/ 8-things-we-learned-about-google-pagerank/ 5897/ ). [4] (Document Number 19970801004204) "Documentation of Who Invented SEO at the Internet Way Back Machine" (http:/ / web. Retrieved 2007-05-14. Retrieved 2007-05-08. against the search engine Google. Matt Cutts. com/ showPage. org/ web/ 20070409062313/ http:/ / www. archive. pdf) (PDF). e-learningguru. SEOmoz. html). "Finding What People Want: Experiences with the WebCrawler" (http:/ / www. L.Keyword optimization 169 Legal precedents On October 17. 176–190. csse. html) on 1997-08-01. archive. org/ resources/ phd/ pinkerton_2000. net-abuse. US Library of Congress Copyright Office) "The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / cocatalog. searchenginejournal. Archived from (Document Number 19970801004204) the original (http:/ / www. org/ article/ search-ranking-factors). Saul (June 3. G. World Wide Web Conference. Western District of Oklahoma. [6] Cory Doctorow (August 26. Proc.com. Sergey and Page. htm). webpronews. . co. 2005). com/ blog/ pagerank-sculpting/ ). stanford. htm) on 2007-04-09.. com/ group/ alt. "Link Spam Alliances" (http:/ / infolab. Retrieved 2007-05-16. . and Dowe.com. com/ articles/ metacrap. bbc. 2007. The Second International WWW Conference Chicago. stm). Retrieved 2009-09-05. 2003. Bela and Wilde. . [13] "Search Engine Ranking Factors V2" (http:/ / www. com/ campaign. [2] Brian Pinkerton. 2002. Retrieved 2007-05-09. [3] Danny Sullivan (June 14. Jöran and Gipp. com/ topnews/ 2008/ 11/ 17/ seo-about-to-get-turned-on-its-ear). Kinderstart's website was removed from Google's index prior to the lawsuit and the amount of traffic to the site dropped by 70%. 1994. www. 107–117.[59] [60] Notes [1] Beel. (April 1998). php?p=2119& postcount=10). SearchKing's claim was that Google's tactics to prevent spamdexing constituted a tortious interference with contractual relations. "Understanding Search Engine Patents" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. Retrieved 2007-05-08. . com/ blog/ 050929-072711). current-events. See Google groups thread (http:/ / groups. searchenginewatch. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 3334531. mmgco. 2007 the United States District Court for the Northern District of California (San Jose Division) dismissed KinderStart's complaint without leave to amend. April 2. .

html). com/ gst/ fullpage. [30] "Google Webmaster Tools" (http:/ / web. 1996). Garcia-Molina. Retrieved 2009-12-14. com). . "The Battle Between Search Engine Optimization and Conversion: Who Wins?" (http:/ / www. H. Retrieved 2007-05-09. edu/ ). Grok. [23] "AIRWeb" (http:/ / airweb. . searchengineguide. J. . .Webmaster Blog . html). Search Engine Land. aspx). Retrieved 2007-05-14. 2006. [35] "What is a Sitemap file and why should I have one?" (http:/ / www. com/ 2009/ 12/ personalized-search-for-everyone. anvilmediainc.com. Retrieved 2007-05-09. [45] Matt Cutts (February 4 2006).com. Search Engine Watch. 2007-03-12. . . Retrieved 2007-05-09. A List Apart. [24] David Kesmodel (September 22. Retrieved 2007-05-15. Retrieved 2007-05-09. Retrieved 2007-05-09.. clickz. . php). . com/ article/ SB112714166978744925. "Condemned To Google Hell" (http:/ / www. [21] "Relevance Meets Real Time Web" (http:/ / googleblog.yahoo. [50] Jakob Nielsen (January 9.com/blog. "Desperately Seeking Surfers" (http:/ / query. SearchEngineWatch. "Ramping up on international webspam" (http:/ / www. 2007). 170 . html). html?page=3483941). annual conference.com. com/ webmasters/ sitemaps/ login) on November 2. com/ google-loses-backwards-compatibility-on-paid-link-blocking-pagerank-sculpting-20408). . com/ wp-content/ uploads/ ami_seo_whitepaper_1104. com/ webmasters/ guidelines. google. . Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved 2007-04-18. Retrieved 2007-05-16. msn. "High Accessibility Is Effective Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / alistapart. php).com. White hats at SES" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. html).1284.com. useit. mattcutts. html?partner=rss). "Search Engine Showdown: Black hats vs. searchengineland. . [33] "Search Submit" (http:/ / searchmarketing. [20] "Personalized Search for everyone" (http:/ / googleblog. com/ 2009/ 12/ relevance-meets-real-time-web. py?answer=40318& topic=8514). .com. mattcutts. com/ blog/ recent-reinclusions/ ). [39] "The Most Important SEO Strategy . "Legal Showdown in Search Fracas" (http:/ / www. com/ showPage. com/ 3623372). [28] "Site Owner Help: MSN Search Web Crawler and Site Indexing" (http:/ / search. Wired Magazine. [42] Jill Whalen (November 16. forbes. mattcutts. google. [41] Andrew Goodman. com/ showPage. . Search Engine Watch. Retrieved 2007-05-15.Keyword optimization [19] "Google Loses “Backwards Compatibility” On Paid Link Blocking & PageRank Sculpting" (http:/ / searchengineland. blogspot. [32] "Submitting To Search Crawlers: Google. [48] Melissa Burdon (March 13. . yahoo. Ask & Microsoft's Live Search" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. . Brisbane. Proceedings of the seventh conference on World Wide Web. pdf [38] "Newspapers Amok! New York Times Spamming Google? LA Times Hijacking Cars. mattcutts.bing. . . www.Bing Community" (http:/ / www. yahoo.com. [26] Matt Cutts (February 2.Partnering to help solve duplicate content issues .com. 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Third Edition .ericgoldman. [59] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: KinderStart v. Jefferson (2003-08-26). . Retrieved 2008-05-23. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 2011) • Search Engine Optimization and User Behavior (http://www. May 27. searchenginejournal.html).com v. Search Engine Watch. seomoz. "Search Engine Optimizing for Europe" (http:/ / www. .ericgoldman. [55] Mike Grehan (April 3. uk/ technology/ blog/ 2008/ jun/ 10/ googleukclosesinon90mark).html). January 3.yahoo. [54] Greg Jarboe (2007-02-22). html?page=3595926). [58] Stefanie Olsen (May 30.com&format=b1) • Ask. Retrieved 2008-06-23. guardian. [57] "Search King. . Retrieved 2007-05-15. [52] "A survey of 25 blogs in the search space comparing external metrics to visitor tracking data" (http:/ / www. Inc. ericgoldman. com/ 2100-1032_3-1011740. [56] Jack Schofield (2008-06-10).ask.com/en/docs/about/webmasters. USA Today. . docstoc. Retrieved 2008-06-23. [60] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: Google Sued Over Rankings—KinderStart. usatoday. Inc. org/ archives/ 2007/ 03/ kinderstart_v_g_2. html). .Keyword optimization [51] "SEOmoz: Best SEO Blog of 2006" (http:/ / www. com/ showPage. an article from the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences.html) • Bing Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. . org/ article/ search-blog-stats#4).live. London: Guardian.org. .com/l/us/yahoo/search/basics/basics-18.com.aspx?mkt=en-us&project=wl_webmasters& querytype=&query=&tmt=&domain=help.org.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer. 171 External links • Google Webmaster Guidelines (http://www. Retrieved 2007-05-10.com/2011/02/13/business/13search. blog. Retrieved 2007-05-14. htm). Google Technology.hastingsresearch. .org. Retrieved 2007-05-15. com/ tech/ news/ 2003-08-25-google_x. "Stats Show Google Dominates the International Search Landscape" (http:/ / searchenginewatch." article in The New York Times (February 12. Google Dismissed—With Sanctions Against KinderStart's Counsel" (http:/ / blog. v. com/ showPage. htm). CNET. Retrieved 2008-06-10. searchenginejournal. 2006). . 2003.com/net/ 09-SEO-ELIS-encyclopedia-article. org/ archives/ 2006/ 03/ google_sued_ove. clickz.com Webmaster Guidelines (http://about..google. com. com/ docs/ 618281/ Order-(Granting-Googles-Motion-to-Dismiss-Search-Kings-Complaint)) (PDF). Google" (http:/ / blog. ericgoldman. [53] Graham. Retrieved 2007-05-31.nytimes. html?page=3625072). . htm). "The search engine that could" (http:/ / www. "Google UK closes in on 90% market share" (http:/ / www. CIV-02-1457-M" (http:/ / www.shtml) • " The Dirty Little Secrets of Search (http://www. seomoz. 2007. 2003).com.com/help.py?hl=en& answer=35769) • Yahoo! Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. com/ seomoz-best-seo-blog-of-2006/ 4195/ ). Click. co. docstoc. "Judge dismisses suit against Google" (http:/ / news. blog.live.

Set of standard Web services for various keyword tasks. Keyword API The Keyword Service Platform has defined a set of APIs for each class of keyword services. keyword forecast (ITermForecast). • Security. keyword extraction. The KSP was originally conceived by ZhaoHui Tang. Microsoft Excel add-in) or mashups. which contains a set of algorithms for providing information about keywords used in search engine queries. System that allows researchers to incorporate new algorithms or data mining models within the Service Container. These services are based on the Windows Communications Foundation and can be consumed by client applications (e. and Wayne Guan at Microsoft adCenter Labs in May 2006.g. These services are used by different providers and executed by stored procedures.NET programming languages to create procedures that combine the use of different providers. keyword association. These interfaces for Web services include keyword extraction (ITermExtraction). or implement additional business logic processing based on the output from a provider. The platform aims to provide a core set of data and technology to empower search engine marketing and keyword research efforts. the following method call may be used: GetTermSuggestion("BMW". keyword suggestion (ITermSuggestion). KSP API beta access is available for researchers and developers upon request from the Keyword Services Platform [1] feedback link. in-memory data structures.Keyword Services Platform 172 Keyword Services Platform The Keyword Services Platform (KSP) is a keyword research tool available through Microsoft adCenter. word stemming algorithms. or keyword classification. sorted by confidence: . and by default. Set of providers that support various keyword technologies. To find the five most closely related keywords to "BMW".5). The APIs define the signatures of each Web service. Host to all service providers and Stored Procedures. and several others. Component that handles permissions that pertain to provider procedures (methods) and Stored Procedure implementation. Each provider brings a specific keyword technology to the KSP architecture—for instance. Dylan Huang. • Server Object Model.. Developers may use . • Shared Services. keyword categorization (ITermCategorization). • Stored Procedures. accessible via an application programming interface (API) and a Microsoft Excel add-in. consisting of a crawler. which allows parallel execution. Procedures for consolidating and centralizing the logic behind applications. The query result is shown in the following table. • Provider Plug-in Framework. Keyword suggestion Keyword suggestions are handled via the ITermSuggestion interface. keyword monetization (ITermMonetization). The KSP uniquely delivers a standardized set of keyword technologies through a Web services model. Architecture The following components comprise the Keyword Service Platform architecture: • Keyword API. • Service Container. Selected sets of these procedures are made available to users. Data model that allows developers to leverage different services. Core components. etc.

8").96 0.true. OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus Score 0. suppose that the keywords are stored in myInputTermTable. as these are the only terms that meet the criterion of the filter.true).Keyword Services Platform 173 OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus BMW cars BMW Z4 To view the five suggested five terms with the corresponding confidence score. a third parameter can be used to indicate that statistics should be returned: GetTermSuggestion("BMW".78 To return only those terms with a high confidence score. only four rows are returned. The query result is shown in the following table. and only the two most relevant terms for each keyword should be returned: GetTermSuggestion(myInputTermTable.83 When the table of terms possibly includes thousands of keywords.89 0. For example.5."Score>0. OriginalTerm BMW BMW Honda Honda Ford Ford Term Auto Car Lexus Sedan Pickup Truck . The results are similar to those available through the Data Mining Extensions (DMX) in SQL. a filter can be used on the Score column with the following method call: GetTermSuggestion("BMW". The query result is shown in the following table along with columns for score and support. The query result is shown in the following table. In this case. support represents the number of cases supporting the rule in the training dataset. batch query syntax can be used.89 0. OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus Score 0.89 Support 10000 9000 11000 12000 12800 BMW cars 0.2). Score represents the confidence or probability.89 Support 10000 9000 11000 12000 BMW cars 0.96 0.83 BMW Z4 0.5.

1 Minivan 0. the following method call could be used: GetTermDemographics("minivan").com cars autos.38 autos.39 0.msn. containing the input keyword. The result of the query is shown below. average click-through rate (CTR).msn.com compare car 0. and average cost per click (CPC). The query result is shown in the following table.34 autos.325 Online bank 42 Keyword extraction Keyword extraction is handled via the ITermExtraction interface. position.54 0. Term Clicks Impressions 2915 Position 3 CTR 0.com new cars autos. The following method call returns the KPIs for the keyword "Online bank" based on the previous week's paid search data.40 Keyword monetization Keyword monetization values specific to paid search are handled via the ITermMonetization interface.msn. overall impressions for the keyword.32 0. in the third position of sponsored listings: GetTermKPIs("online bank". while the Support column represents the number of occurrences of a keyword on the page.2 65+ 0.4 50-65 0.msn. Term Male Female 0.60 0-13 0 13-18 0 18-25 0.msn.48 0. To obtain the demographic distribution for the keyword "Minivan". the number of clicks in the sponsored link for "Online bank".msn.msn. URL Term Score Support 3 2 5 2 1 1 1 1 autos.3).2 35-50 0.com".com luxury cars 0.30 .62 autos.8.Keyword Services Platform 174 Keyword demographics Keyword demographics are handled via the ITermDemographics interface.true).com auto reviews 0.TimeInterval. where the Score column represents the relevance of the extracted keyword to the page content.1 25-35 0.LastWeek. and provides the corresponding statistics: GetTermExtraction("autos.com MSN autos autos.014 CPC 1.msn. The following method call extracts the eight most relevant keywords from the webpage "autos. The result of the query is shown below.com".com sport cars autos.com used cars 0.msn.msn.

} } catch (FaultException) { // Handle fault returned from calling the proxy method } catch (CommunicationException) { // Handle lost network connection error } catch (TimeoutException) { // Handle time-out error } finally { if (provider != null) server.GetTermForecast(term. ITermForecast provider = null. 3).com")) { server. // Batch mode API result = provider.Password = "********". DisplayResults(result). DisplayResults(result). if (provider != null) { // Single mode API DataTable result = provider.GetTermForecast(terms. try { server. server. } } .ReleaseService(provider).GetProviderByImplementation<ITermForecast>("Microsoft. using (KeywordServer server = new KeywordServer("https://ksp. -5. provider = server.Providers. -5.Keyword Services Platform 175 Sample code The following code fragment connects to the Keyword Services Platform server and uses the keyword term forecast Web service.adCenterLabs.Open().microsoft.KeywordForecastProvider"). 3).UserName = "username". It will remain during the following calls. // Context can be set if needed.

and/or class name. implementation interface. Once the MASP is uploaded to the KSP through its management interface. the providers must meet several conditions: • • • • custom configuration settings stored in configuration files. all of the functionalities of the service provider are accessible through its public interface. it becomes callable by KSP client programs. KSP sprocs are object-oriented. Once callers obtain the Stored Procedure object. Compared to database sprocs. Visual Basic . These conditions help to simplify the task of developing well-integrated management applications. . and correspondingly seamless integration with third-party tools and applications. implementation interface. A CLRSP consists of a source file written in one of the supported CLR programming languages (C#. which hosts the Common Language Runtime (CLR). The object model consists of the following three collections: 1. enterprise-scalable management solutions. Server Object Model and Shared Services Keyword Services Platform Server Object Models and Shared Services enable KSP Service Providers and stored procedure developers to access server-side objects and functionalities easily and consistently. KSP sprocs do not require configuration management or setup requirements.NET programming language. The functionalities of the CLRSPs are exposed through a public interface defined in the source file. standard . Once the CLRSP is deployed to KSP through its management interface. A sproc may contain a set of related functions. Two types of stored procedures are supported: Managed Assembly Stored Procedure (MASP) and Common Language Runtime Stored Procedure (CLRSP). ITermExtraction). and/or class name.Keyword Services Platform 176 Providers Each Keyword Services Platform provider supplies a specific type of keyword technology by implementing one class of a specific keyword interface (e. The KSP provider is a server-side object encapsulating a particular implementation of a keyword technology. and others). This provider exposes its functionality through service contracts in the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF). ITermForecast.g. To enable seamless integration of a provider into the KSP. thus allowing business partners to produce best-of-breed. reliable. and document service contracts included using a service description language for better understanding and testing of the Keyword Service Provider. The WCF is Microsoft's unified programming model for building service-oriented applications. a KSP sproc is designed to enable developers to implement several types of business logic on the server side after retrieving result data from providers. Managed Extensions for C++. A MASP consists of a compiled . or even identically named functions with different signatures. Service providers: This collection enables callers to access server-side Service Provider objects by name.NET.NET assembly containing a public interface exposed through the KSP as well as any dependent files.. Once callers obtain the Service Provider object.NET tracing and message logging to enable service monitoring and diagnostics. which enables developers to build secure. all of the functionalities of the stored procedure are accessible through its public interface. standard Windows Management Interface performance counters for performance monitoring. it is compiled on-demand by KSP and becomes callable by KSP client programs. rather than the source code. ITermSuggestion. The API defines the signature of each Web service and the format of the returned data. Stored procedures Developers can write stored procedures (sprocs) using any . 2. Stored procedures: This collection enables callers to access server-side Stored Procedure objects by name. transacted solutions that integrate across platforms and interoperate with existing investments. Similar to a database sprocs. These procedures are executed on the Keyword Services Platform server.

it will be taken out of rotation by the load balancer automatically. Once the provider is live-tested and proven. or stored procedure in the KSP server farm is unavailable. The cloud server distributes accesses to services running on a KSP server farm through its load balancer provider. Over time. all available keyword service providers and stored procedures are dynamically discovered and registered with the server. is the hub of the KSP server farm. that may be distributed to support business needs. KSP can switch to the default provider without any changes on the application side. Data mart A data mart is a subset of an organizational data store. When a KSP server is added to the server farm via the cloud server. For example. a KSP server with a matching service provider or stored procedure is selected by the load balancer provider. usually oriented to a specific purpose or major data subject. by implementation interface. The default implementation of the load balancer provider uses a round-robin scheduling approach. Technology transfer Keyword Services Platform's architecture permits agile development and rapid technology transfer by providing a platform for researchers to ship their research results to a live system quickly. The scope is limited. a cloud server. and data mining model contents. and thus very easy to use for live testing. A dynamic service load balance server. and/or class name. the server accumulates usage patterns and statistics of various service providers and stored procedures running on each KSP server in the farm. This data is updated on a regular basis based on the provider's requirements. This infrastructure enables researchers at Microsoft and other academic settings to speed up innovation in keyword technology and deploy the latest research results to KSP consumers. Researchers simply need to implement providers and deploy the providers into the selected set of KSP cloud server machines. Many Keyword Services Platform providers require real-time database access. and the request is routed to the appropriate KSP server. Once callers obtain the shared service object. 177 Cloud server model The Microsoft adCenter Keyword Services Platform server farm provides a scalable platform for keyword technologies. . most recent click-through data. Any changes in the availability of the KSP server. Services: This collection enables callers to access server-side shared services by name. the server will automatically deploy the Keyword Forecast provider to machine "A" and route requests to that machine to balance the load for the Keyword Forecast provider. When a client application calls a service provider or stored procedure through the server. are discovered and registered automatically with the server. This information is used by the server to determine how to automatically deploy additional service providers and stored procedures. The database may contain a list of reference keywords. all of the functionalities of the shared service provider are accessible through its public interface. if the Keyword Forecast provider is being used heavily in the server farm and the providers running on machine "A" are used lightly. as well as all its running service providers and stored procedures. Each server in the farm can have different configuration to suit a variety of service providers and stored procedures. The API defines the standard contract between the research models and developers. service provider. If a server.Keyword Services Platform 3. their corresponding traffic.

The add-in delivers features such as keyword extraction. • Keyword Association providers can help to expand existing customer segments to include other customers with similar interests based on language patterns. Jamie Maclennan. Carvalho (http://www.com/microsoft-adcenter-add-in-beta-released. ICDM 2006: 975-979 • Honghua (Kathy) Dai. content advertisements. Benyu Zhang.org/). Joshua Goodman (http://research. SIGIR 2005: 424-431 • ZhaoHui Tang. References [1] https:/ / ksp.microsoft. Jun Yan. suggestion. Ying Li: Similarity of Temporal Query Logs Based on ARIMA Model. leading to more efficient planning and improved return on investment.Keyword Services Platform 178 KSP data access with Microsoft Excel 2007 Microsoft adCenter released an add-in for Microsoft Excel 2007 that allows users to consume the Keyword Services Platform data directly via Excel rather than through the API.edu/~vitor/): Finding advertising keywords on web pages (http://www. Chuang Wang.pdf). Vitor R. Lee Wang. • The Keyword Forecasting provider can help advertisers to understand traffic history and trends. monetization. etc.cs. Wei-Ying Ma.edu/~vitor/papers/www06. microsoft. and so on.com/2007/12/ sis-session-microsoft-new-keyword-services-platform/) • adCenter Add-in Released (http://www. Shuzhen Nong. The add-in makes much of the keyword technology available directly through Excel.com/~joshuago/). Xing Xie. behavioral targeting. helping to identify what advertisements should be served for that page. • The Keyword Extraction provider can extract the important keywords on a publisher's webpage. aspx • Microsoft Announces New Keyword Platform at SIS (http://www. Pyungchul (Peter) Kim: Building data mining solutions with OLE DB for DM and XML for analysis.toprankblog.php) Review of keyword technologies from the KSP Further reading • Wen-tau Yih (http://scottyih. cmu. Yansheng Lu. leading to more effectively targeted advertising and a decreased overall spend. com/ Explorer/ Login. The KSP can also be used in behavioral targeting and display advertising: • The Keyword Demographic and Geographic Distribution providers can help advertisers understand various customer segments and their keyword usage patterns. Lingzhi Zhao. Ying Li: Detecting online commercial intention (OCI). WWW 2006: 829-837 • Lee Wang. Applications of the KSP The Keyword Services Platform incorporates keyword technologies from Microsoft adCenter Labs and other Microsoft Research groups. WWW 2006: 213-222 • Ning Liu.azakers.cmu. Ying Li: Detecting dominant locations from search queries. Zheng Chen.cs. thus facilitating landing page analysis. Essentially it is an example of the type of mashup and creative use of data that can be associated with the KSP. SIGMOD Record 34(2): 80-85 (2005) . presale business intelligence apps. Josh Forman. and eventually help to manage an integrated campaign budget that makes seasonal allowances. The KSP can be used in advertising campaign creation and management: • The Keyword Association provider can help advertisers generate a set of the most relevant keywords for a campaign. Keyword APIs can be consumed by third-party business applications from paid search. forecasting. Ji-Rong Wen. Zaiqing Nie.

com/AdCenter/ShowForum. A webvert is a reference based. email campaigns or search engine marketing campaigns in order to enhance the effectiveness of the advertisements. Types of landing pages There are two types of landing pages: reference and transactional. organizations or public service entities.aspx) adCenter Add-in for Excel Version 1. A transactional landing page seeks to persuade a visitor to complete a transaction such as filling out a form or interacting with advertisements or other objects on the landing page.Keyword Services Platform • ZhaoHui Tang. These can display text. 2008. The visitor traffic is immediate as the Adword relies on Google advertising to drive visitors to the webvert. Reference landing pages are effective if they meet the objectives of their publishers. For many reference landing pages.microsoft.com/) • Microsoft adCenter (https://adcenter. effectiveness can be measured by the revenue value of the advertising that is displayed on them. is a single web page that appears in response to clicking on an advertisement. A webvert is not 'transactional' in nature.microsoft.aspx?ForumID=2017& SiteID=44) • Microsoft adCenter Labs (http://adlab.com/advertising/adcenter_addin/) adCenter Add-in Forum (http://forums.com/) Landing page In online marketing a landing page. dynamic compilations of relevant links. which may be associations. Wiley.com/Explorer/Login. 179 External links • • • • Keyword Services Platform (http://ksp. with the goal being the immediate or eventual sale of a product or service. The traffic is driven from Google Adwords and is designed for two specific marketing tactics: • To attain high Google Adwords landing page quality scores. Landing pages are often linked to from social media. An eye-tracking Heatmap (simulation shown) revealing where a subject's eyes alight on a landing page under test. the marketing goal focuses on lead generation and interaction with the visitor. Jamie Maclennan: Data Mining with SQL Server 2008.0 (http://advertising. • The webvert has a clear call to action. The general goal of a landing page is to convert site visitors into sales leads. sometimes known as a lead capture page. ethical landing page. designed on the AIDA principle.microsoft. always with a reply form or clear way to engage. the page will usually withhold information until some minimal amount of visitor information is provided.microsoft. typically an email address and perhaps a name and telephone number as well – enough to "capture the lead" and add the prospect to a mailing list. The landing page will usually display directed sales copy that is a logical extension of the advertisement or link.com) Keyword Services Platform (https://ksp. The webverts consists of an advert.microsoft. A special type of 'reference landing page' is the 'webvert'. the benefit being any Adwords campaign costs are minimized.microsoft. If information is to be captured. By analyzing activity generated by the linked URL. . or other elements. marketers can use click-through rates and Conversion rate to determine the success of an advertisement. images. A reference landing page presents information that is relevant to the visitor.

Closed-ended experimentation. The page content is adjusted by correlating any known information about the visitor (e. ratings. At the conclusion of the experiment. . Bases for landing page optimization There are three major types of LPO based on targeting[1] : 1. geographic information of source traffic. A landing page is a webpage that is displayed when a potential customer clicks an advertisement or a search engine result link. 3. meaning that the landing page is adjusted dynamically as the experiment results change. Consumers are exposed to several variations of landing pages while their behavior is observed. prior purchase behavior. 2. Since the economics of many online marketing programs are determined by the conversion rate. Associative content targeting (also called rule-based optimization or passive targeting). etc. or other known generic parameters that can be used for explicit non-research-based consumer segmentation.g. personal demographic information. Some of the testing methods used are A/B testing and multivariate testing. 180 References Landing page optimization Landing page optimization (LPO) is one part of a broader Internet marketing process called conversion optimization. with the goal of improving the percentage of visitors to the website that become sales leads and customers. This webpage typically displays content that is a relevant extension of the advertisement or link. referrals. There are two major types of LPO based on experimentation: 1. Open-ended experimentation. 2. Predictive content targeting (also called active targeting)..) to anticipate (desired) future actions based on predictive analytics. The page content is modified based on information obtained about the visitor's search criteria. LPO aims to provide page content and appearance that makes the webpage more appealing to target audiences. This approach is similar to closed-ended experimentation. tagging. except that the experimentation is ongoing. The page content is created using the relevance of publicly available information through a mechanism based on reviews. an optimal page is selected based on the outcome of the experiment. browsing patterns. Consumer directed targeting (also called social targeting).Landing page A visitor taking the desired action on a transactional landing page is referred to as a conversion. or Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO). marketers constantly test alternatives and improvements to their landing pages. etc. the percentage of visitors who complete the desired action. The efficiency or quality of the landing page can be measured by its conversion rate.

is a method for testing two versions of a webpage: version "A" and version "B". This testing method may also be known as A/B/n split testing. and total-experience testing. not all elements produce the same improvements in conversions. and the traffic is divided between the two. Website experiences for most sites involve multiple pages. campaigns.g. It is not recommended that sequential split testing be performed. search traffic. MVLPO did not become a mainstream approach until 2003 or 2004. • Focuses on optimizing one page at a time. graphics. in 1998 as a simulation/demonstration project for LEGO. • Simple because no complex statistical analysis is required.g. A/B testing has the following disadvantages: • Difficult to control all external factors (e. • Has evolved to be an easy-to-use approach in which not much IT involvement is required. In sequential testing. it is possible to identify the elements that consistently tend to produce the greatest increase in conversions. MVLPO has the following disadvantages: • As with any quantitative consumer research. scientifically-based approach for understanding customers' preferences and optimizing their experience. Multivariate landing page optimization Multivariate landing page optimization (MVLPO) accounts for multiple variations of visual elements (e. multivariate LPO.and open-ended experimentation. product page. press releases. • Very limited in that reliable conclusions cannot be drawn for pages that contain multiple elements that vary in each version. or A/B split testing. For an e-commerce website. This example yields k×m×n landing page configurations... For example. home page. In parallel (split) testing. it is typical for a successful purchase to involve between twelve . often the easiest to implement. The first application of an experimental design for MVLPO was performed by Moskowitz Jacobs Inc. the various versions of the webpages are made available online for a specified time period. landing page images and background colours.[2] Testing can be conducted sequentially or in parallel. These methodologies are applicable to both closed. A/B testing A/B testing. the n denoting more than 2 tests being measured and compared.g. a few lines of JavaScript allow remote vendor servers to control changes. collect data.Landing page optimization 181 Experimentation-based landing page optimization Experimentation-based LPO can be achieved using A/B testing. However. as the results can dramatically be skewed by differing time periods and traffic patterns in which the different tests are run. which are typically complex. The goal is to test multiple versions of webpages (e. In many cases. text) on a page. Ideas that are sourced from known customer touchpoints or strategic business objectives are needed to obtain optimal results. • Provides a foundation for open-ended experimentation. and analyze the results. garbage out). FAQ) to determine which version is most appealing/effective.. Significant improvements can be seen through testing different copy text. and n choices for the company logo. MVLPO has the following advantages: • Provides a reliable. The data for A/B testing is usually measured via click-through or conversion. there is a danger of GIGO (garbage in. form layouts. seasonality) when using sequential testing. A/B testing has the following advantages: • Inexpensive because existing resources and tools are used. and by looking at the results from different tests. m choices for the featured image or graphic. both versions are made available. a given page may have k choices for the title.

Occam’s Razor. is a new and evolving type of experiment-based testing in which the entire website experience of the visitor is examined using technical capabilities of the website platform (e. and monitors which one is preferred by the customers. for a support site. Retrieved 2007-07-02. [3] Avinash Kaushik (2006-05-22). com/ faq. and Tonis Mets. com/ 2005/ 12/ landing_page_te_1. ATG. LinkAnchor. Accessed 23 June 2008.. total-experience testing uses the website platform to create several persistent experiences. net/ avinash/ 2006/ 05/ experimentation-and-testing-a-primer.com (http:/ / www. finance).g. where the highest-ranking websites have the highest number of bids. html). References [1] Alex Gofman. "Experimentation and Testing: A Primer" (http:/ / www. 182 Total-experience testing Total-experience testing. A link bidding directory offers webmasters a way to gain exposure for their sites.1108/07363760910965882. and it takes longer to obtain results than A/B testing and MVLPO. not just the experience with a single page. Retrieved 2007-07-02.[3] Rather than creating multiple websites. The Journal of Consumer Marketing. Blue Martini Software. [2] Matthew Roche (2005-12-19). kaushik. "Landing Page Testing Best Practices" (http:/ / www. Websites being bid on are often grouped into categories (e. An advantage of total-experience testing is that it reflects the customer's total website experience. Link bidding Link bidding is a form of Internet marketing where a website owner bids on other websites to post a backlink to his/her website. . 2009. Two disadvantages are that total-experience testing requires a website platform that supports experience testing. Integrating Science into Web Design: Consumer Driven Website Optimization. Howard Moskowitz. siteisdead. References [1] "Frequently Asked Questions". entertainment.[1] The position/rank for such websites is determined by their frequency of bids. 26(4): 286-298. etc. Site is Dead.). . html).g. or experience testing. even more pages are often required..Landing page optimization and eighteen pages. DOI: 10. . html). linkanchor.

economic models. A long tail distortion will arise with the inclusion of some unusually high (or low) values which increase (decrease) the mean. and experimentation. Notice that the relatively small quantities – usually in addition to selling fewer popular areas of both regions match. research. The work of Benoît Mandelbrot in the 1950s and later has led to him being referred to as "the father of long tails". peer-to-peer). the selection and buying pattern of the population results in the demand across products having a power law distribution or Pareto distribution.[1] An example of a power law graph showing The term Long Tail has gained popularity in recent times as describing popularity ranking. It is a term used in online business. user-driven innovation (Eric von Hippel). crowdsourcing. The Long Tail concept has found some ground for application. and social network mechanisms (e. to the retailing strategy of selling a large number of unique items in the left are the few that dominate. in which he mentioned Amazon. skewing the distribution to the right (or left). The Long Tail was popularized by Chris Anderson in an October 2004 Wired magazine article.com and Netflix as examples of businesses applying this strategy.Long Tail 183 Long Tail The Long Tail or long tail refers to the statistical property that a larger share of population rests within the tail of a probability distribution than observed under a 'normal' or Gaussian distribution. a large population of customers. for example). Given enough choice. items in large quantities. mass media. and marketing (viral marketing).[2] [3] Anderson elaborated the concept in his book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More (ISBN 1-4013-0237-8). and negligible stocking and distribution costs.g. [5] A frequency distribution with a long tail has been studied by statisticians since at least 1946. micro-finance (Grameen Bank. To the right is the long tail. The term has also been used in the finance[6] and insurance business[2] for many years (also referred to as fat tail.[4] The distribution and inventory costs of businesses successfully applying this strategy allow them to realize significant profit out of selling small volumes of hard-to-find items to many customers instead of only selling large volumes of a reduced number of popular items.[8] . heavy tail or right-tail[7] ). The total sales of this large number of "non-hit items" is called the Long Tail. crowdcasting.

As a rule of thumb. Anderson described the effects of the Long Tail on current and future business models. area to the left of the chart. Anderson later extended it into the book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More (2006).[10] which noted that a relative handful of weblogs have many links going into them but "the long tail" of millions of weblogs may have only a handful of links going into them. in these latter cases "tails" correspond to large-intensity events such as large earthquakes and most popular words. The events at the far end of the tail have a very low probability of occurrence. power-law tails. the long tails characterizing distributions such as the Gutenberg-Richter law or the words-occurrence Zipf's law. nature: Anderson and Shirky refer to frequency-rank relations. The shift has a crucial effect in probability and in the customer demographics of businesses like mass media and online sellers. and therefore illustrate an opposite phenomenon compared to the Gutenberg-Richter and the Zipf's laws. online bookstores 80%) are accounted for by the first 20% of items in the distribution. Beginning in a series of speeches in early 2004 and culminating with the publication of a Wired magazine article in October 2004.[9] The concept drew in part from a February 2003 essay by Clay Shirky. and where the Pareto principle applies. if not opposite. who dominate the distributions. "Power Laws. What is unusual about a long-tailed distribution is that the most frequently-occurring 20% of items represent less than 50% of occurrences. In other words. the income distribution of a business or the intensity of earthquakes (see: Gutenberg-Richter law).Long Tail 184 Statistical meaning The long tail is the name for a long-known feature of some statistical distributions (such as Zipf. Pareto distributions and general Lévy distributions). Chris Anderson's and Clay Shirky's articles highlight special cases in which we are able to modify the underlying relationships and evaluate the impact on the frequency of events. whereas the Gutenberg-Richter law and the Zipf's law are probability distributions. By contrast. In "long-tailed" distributions a high-frequency or high-amplitude population is followed by a low-frequency or low-amplitude population which gradually "tails off" asymptotically. Weblogs and Inequality". represented here by the portion of the curve to the right of the 20th percentile — can become the largest area under the line. The observation of such a distribution often points to specific kinds of mechanisms. This suggests that a variation of one mechanism (internet access) or relationship (the cost of storage) can significantly shift the frequency of occurrence of certain events in the distribution. fat tails. In those cases the infrequent. This fact has given rise to a keen scientific and social interest in such distributions. . the long tails in the frequency-rank plots highlighted by Anderson and Shirky would rather correspond to short tails in the associated probability distributions. Power law distributions or functions characterize an important number of behaviors from nature and human endeavor. or Pareto tails. whereas traditional retailers have focused on the occurrences (more than half. seemingly unrelated systems. Therefore. the least-frequently-occurring 80% of items are more important as a proportion of the total population. or in other words. power laws. The tail becomes bigger and longer in new Chris Anderson and Clay Shirky The phrase the Long Tail was first coined by Chris Anderson. derive more sales from the area to the right. and the relationships that create them. However. low-amplitude (or low-revenue) events — the long tail. Examples of behaviors that exhibit long-tailed distribution are the occurrence of certain words in a given language. and those highlighted by Anderson and Shirky are of very different. The feature is also known as heavy tails. for such population distributions the majority of markets (depicted in red). and can often indicate a deep connection with other.

a. and Michael D. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. . They used a theoretical model to show how a reduction in search costs will affect the concentration in product sales. even after controlling for consumer differences. when compared with traditional channels. while the book or movie ranks are along the horizontal axis. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. Their analyses suggest that by 2008. while the widely-used power laws are a good first approximation for the rank-sales relationship.[13] by Erik Brynjolfsson. Smith. while most of the discussion about the value of the Internet to consumers has revolved around lower prices. consumer benefit (a. An Amazon employee described the Long Tail as follows: "We sold more books today that didn't sell at all yesterday than we sold today of all the books that did sell yesterday. 185 Academic research Effects of online access In his Wired article. and Duncan Simester found that. Hello Long Tail". The Longer Tail over time A recent studied by Erik Brynjolfsson. By analyzing data collected from a multi-channel retailing company. if the store or distribution channel is large enough. An 80/20 rule fits the distribution of product sales in the catalog channel quite well. the distribution and sales channel opportunities created by the Internet often enable businesses to tap that market successfully."[11] Anderson has explained the term as a reference to the tail of a demand curve. The Long Tail is a potential market and. as the examples illustrate.7% of Amazon’s sales and the consumer surplus generated by niche books has increased at least fivefold from 2000 to 2008. niche books account for 36. Smith[14] finds that the Long Tail has grown longer over time. becoming progressively steeper for more obscure books. Anderson cites earlier research by Erik Brynjolfsson. and Michael D.k. with niche books accounting for a larger share of total sales.com sales and sales ranking. their new methodology finds that. these authors showed that. The total volume of low popularity items exceeds the volume of high popularity items.com's book sales come from obscure books that were not available in brick-and-mortar stores. by greatly lowering search costs. they showed empirical evidence that the Internet channel exhibits a significantly less concentrated sales distribution. In the graph shown above. Thus. that showed that a significant portion of Amazon. welcome the new distribution In a 2006 working paper titled "Goodbye Pareto Principle. information technology in general and Internet markets in particular could substantially increase the collective share of hard-to-find products.[12] The term has since been rederived from an XY graph that is created when charting popularity to inventory. Smith. who first used a log-linear curve on an XY graph to describe the relationship between Amazon. the primary value of the internet to consumers comes from releasing new sources of value by providing access to products in the Long Tail.Long Tail Anderson argues that products in low demand or that have a low sales volume can collectively make up a market share that rivals or exceeds the relatively few current bestsellers and blockbusters. consumer surplus) from access to increased product variety in online book stores is ten times larger than their benefit from access to lower prices online. and Michael D. The difference in the sales distribution is highly significant. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. this rule needs to be modified to a 72/28 rule in order to fit the distribution of product sales in that channel. the slope may not be constant for all book ranks. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. thereby creating a longer tail in the distribution of sales. Amazon's book sales or Netflix's movie rentals would be represented along the vertical axis.[15] Erik Brynjolfsson.com's sales come from obscure books that are not available in brick-and-mortar stores. In an article published in 2003. In addition. They then quantified the potential value of the Long Tail to consumers. Goodbye Pareto principle. They found that a large proportion of Amazon. but in the Internet channel. Chris Anderson cites earlier research.

non-market networks. given the balance between sales and the cost of keeping up with the turnover. described in the work of Yochai Benkler. recommendation software. Because Netflix stocks movies in centralized warehouses. the authors point out how e-tailers' expanded. it becomes economically viable to sell relatively unpopular products. the positions of the individual items within it will vary. For example. An analysis based on this pure fashion model[24] indicates that. On the supply side.[18] The demand-side factors that lead to the long tail can be amplified by the "networks of products" which are created by hyperlinked recommendations across products. The authors also look toward the future to discuss second-order.Long Tail 186 Demand-side and supply-side drivers The key supply-side factor that determines whether a sales distribution has a Long Tail is the cost of inventory storage and distribution. tools such as search engines.[21] Although the distribution of sales may appear to be similar over time. new items constantly enter most fashion markets. Those economics of storage and distribution then enable the advantageous use of the Long Tail: Netflix finds that in aggregate. "unpopular" movies are rented more than popular movies. An MIS Quarterly article by Gal Oestreicher-Singer and Arun Sundararajan shows that categories of books on Amazon. only the most popular products can be sold.[19] [20] Turnover within the Long Tail The Long Tail distribution applies at a given point in time. There may be an optimal inventory size. even for digital retailers. users and small companies that inhabit the Long Tail distribution can perform collaborative and assignment work. crowds and the Long Tail The "crowds" of customers. Netflix is therefore able to build a viable business stocking a far wider range of movies than a traditional movie rental store. is the process of building a network of users and then delivering challenges or tasks to be solved with the purpose of gaining insights or innovative ideas. however.[23] takes into account turnover in the relative sales of a given set of items. • The model of crowdcasting. a traditional movie rental store has limited shelf space. amplified effects of Long Tail. thus making it possible for them to cater to more varied tastes. For example. • Work performed by individuals in commons-like. Their data across 200 subject areas shows that a doubling of this influence leads to a 50% increase in revenues from the least popular one-fifth of books. A recent fashion-based model [22] of consumer choice.[17] On the demand side. Where inventory storage and distribution costs are insignificant. when storage and distribution costs are high. and sampling tools are allowing customers to find products outside their geographic area. the optimal . its storage costs are far lower and its distribution costs are the same for a popular or unpopular movie. centralized warehousing allows for more offerings.com which are more central and thus influenced more by their recommendation network have significantly more pronounced Long Tail distributions. which it pays for in the form of building overhead. including the growth of markets serving smaller niches. which is capable of generating power law distributions of sales similar to those observed in practice. An MIT Sloan Management Review article titled "From Niches to Riches: Anatomy of the Long Tail"[16] examined the Long Tail from both the supply side and the demand side and identifies several key drivers. Networks. Some relevant forms of these new production models are: • The peer-to-peer collaboration groups that produce open-source software or create wikis such as Wikipedia. it must stock only the most popular movies to ensure that no shelf space is wasted. but over time the relative popularity of the sales of the individual products will change. • The crowdsourcing model. in the sense that entirely new items become offered for sale. as well as innovation. in which a company outsources work to a large group of market players using a collaborative online platform. to maximize its profits.

might be optimised well before a million titles. and military missions. Microfinance and microcredit The banking business has used internet technology to reach an ever increasing number of customers.[25] The recipients of small credits tend to be very good payers of loans. such as those for training in business. that would otherwise be ignored by the traditional banking business. Similarly. Amazon (retail) and iTunes Store (music and podcasts) amongst the major companies.Long Tail inventory may in many cases be less than the millions of items that they can potentially offer. only the most popular products are generally offered. This can. Examples include eBay (auctions). long ignored by consumer banks. Internet companies Some of the most successful Internet businesses have leveraged the Long Tail as part of their businesses. 187 Business models Competitive impact Before a Long Tail works. In other words. They are also willing to pay higher interest rates than the standard bank or credit card customer. mass-market distributors like Blockbuster may be threatened by distributors like Netflix. The competitive threat from these niche sites is reduced by the cost of establishing and maintaining them and the bother required for readers to track multiple small Web sites. Web content businesses with broad coverage. Yahoo! and Google (web search). These factors have been transformed by easy and cheap Web site software and the spread of RSS. As opposed to e-tailers.[26] . by proceeding further and further into the Long Tail. This model can provide further predictions into markets with long-tail distribution. This has led some to envision a time in which game-based training devices or simulations will be available for thousands of different job descriptions. But the most important shift in business model due to the Long Tail has come from the various forms of microfinance developed. even at a digital scale. and cover that content better than the larger sites. Its aim is to offer very small credits to lower-middle to lower class and poor people. such as Yahoo! or CNET. such as the basis for a model for optimizing the number of each individual item ordered. in turn. commercial flight. and certainly before infinite titles. may be threatened by the rise of smaller Web sites that focus on niches of content. given its current sales rank and the total number of different titles stocked. Video and multiplayer online games The adoption of video games and massively multiplayer online games such as Second Life as tools for education and training is starting to show a long-tailed pattern. despite their non-existent credit history. which supply the titles that Blockbuster doesn't offer because they are not already very popular. For example. sales may become so small that the marginal cost of tracking them in rank order. a wide range of products become available. It also is a business model that fills an important developmental role in an economy. have the effect of reducing demand for the most popular products. When the cost of inventory storage and distribution fall. The banks that have followed this strategy of selling services to the low-frequency long tail of the sector have found out that it can be an important niche. along with smaller Internet companies like Audible (audio books) and Netflix (video rental). It costs significantly less to modify a game than it has been to create unique training applications. micro-finance is a distinctly low technology business.

long-tailed user driven innovation will gain importance for businesses. Among the most representative are: • New Media Marketing: The building and managing of social networks and online or virtual communities to extend the reach of marketing to the low-frequency. with an emphasis on the casual. In following a long-tailed innovation strategy. They are willing to tell the manufacturer what they really want and how it should work. using a distinct direct business model. in a more democratic way. with an emphasis on consumer credit. to give their users a voice and to enable them to do innovation work that is useful to the company. 188 User-driven innovation According to the user-driven innovation model. • Pay Per Click and Search Engine Optimization: The marketing of websites on search engines such as Google. • Buzz Marketing: The strategic use of word of mouth and transmission of commercial information from person to person in an online or real-world environment. Marketing The drive to build a market and obtain revenue from the consumer demographic of the Long Tail has led businesses to implement a series of long-tail marketing techniques. such as Right Media or AdECN.Long Tail Grameen Bank in Bangladesh has successfully followed this business model. viral emails and standalone microsites. most of them based on extensive use of internet technologies. • Viral Marketing: The intentional spreading of marketing messages using preexisting social networks. It is their collaboration and aggregated work that results in an innovation effort. low-intensity consumer in a cost effective way. to efficiently sell display inventory that might otherwise go unsold through direct sales force operations. RSS feeds and podcasts. test and diffuse the results. in the case of e-tailers). companies can rely on users of their products and services to do a significant part of the innovation work. Given the diminishing cost of communication and information sharing (by analogy to the low cost of storage and distribution. Kiva.org is an organization that provides micro credits to people worldwide. creating a "rich intellectual commons" and "attacking a major structure of the social division of labor". such as interactive and internet based technologies. often through blogs. Companies can make use of a series of tools. auction-oriented buying/selling mechanisms are also viable to help monetize the long tail of ad impressions available across niche publishers in the display advertising realm. the company is using the model to tap into a large group of users that are in the low-intensity area of the distribution. As a result. share information. Publishers utilize these ad exchange environments. Social innovation communities formed by groups of users can perform rapidly the trial and error process of innovation. non-intentional and low cost. • Demand Side Platforms/DSPs: Similar to how Search Engine Marketing monetizes the long tail of keywords. Yahoo and Bing by focusing on long-tail keywords which have less competition. In Mexico the banks Compartamos and Banco Azteca also service this customer demographic. Eric von Hippel of MIT's Sloan School of Management defined the user-led innovation model in his book Democratizing Innovation. commonly through YouTube videos. Users want products that are customized to their needs.[27] Among his conclusions is the insight that as innovation becomes more user-centered the information needs to flow freely.[28] . by January 2011 between 20-25% of all US ad spending was derived from long tail advertisers.

production value or lack of popularity make them inappropriate for traditional television — are easily accessible to a wide range of viewers. But where the Long Tail works. At the end of the Long Tail. the Long Tail opens up a large space for authentic works of creativity. Looked at from the producers' side. Pay-per-view and even premium cable subscription services such as HBO and Showtime open up the opportunity for niche content to reach the right audiences. movie studios. As the opportunity cost goes down. Distribution of independent content Often presented as a phenomenon of interest primarily to mass market retailers and web-based businesses. These may not always attract the highest level of viewership. online communities and new technologies that operate within the Long Tail of consumers and business is described in the novel by William Gibson."[29] Thus. The Long Tail presents opportunities for various suppliers to introduce products in the niche category. Contemporary literature The intersection of viral marketing. people tend to come up with products for varied reasons like expression rather than monetary benefit. the Long Tail also has implications for the producers of content. . John Robb applies the Long Tail to the developments in insurgency and terrorist movements. These encourage the diversification of products. record companies. and television networks.Long Tail 189 Cultural and political impact The Long Tail has possible implications for culture and politics. One example of this is YouTube. the choice of TV programs grows and greater cultural diversity rises. especially those whose products could not — for economic reasons — find a place in pre-Internet information distribution channels controlled by book publishers. In this way. the Long Tail has made possible a flowering of creativity across all fields of human endeavour. Military applications and security In military thinking. the advent of services such as Television on demand. only the most popular products are sold. Where the opportunity cost of inventory storage and distribution is high. The opportunities that arise because of the Long Tail greatly affect society's cultures because suppliers have unlimited capabilities due to infinite storage and demands that were unable to be met prior to the Long Tail become realized. the conventional profit-making business model ceases to exist. showing how technology and networking allows the Long Tail of disgruntled groups and criminals to take on the nation state and have a chance to win. where thousands of diverse videos — whose content. instead. In situations where popularity is currently determined by the lowest common denominator. in an otherwise mass medium. Cultural diversity Television is a good example of this: Chris Anderson defines Long Tail TV in the context of "content that is not available through traditional distribution channels but could nevertheless find an audience. but their business distribution models make that of less importance. a Long Tail model may lead to improvement in a society's level of culture. Pattern Recognition. minority tastes become available and individuals are presented a wider array of choices. These niche products open opportunities for suppliers while concomitantly satisfying the demands of many individuals — therefore lengthening the tail portion of the Long Tail.

telegraph. Erik. David. wired. npr. Tan. [14] Bynjolfsson. C. com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 05/ the_origins_of_.Long Tail 190 Criticism A 2008 study by Anita Elberse. Timothy C. org/ templates/ story/ story. typepad. [22] "Why are they so popular?". comment #3 by Josh Petersen.[31] Similar results were published by Serguei Netessine and Tom F.A.A. Hello Long Tail: The Effect of Search Costs on the Concentration of Product Sales" (http:/ / ssrn. who suggest that head and tail should be defined by percentages rather than absolute numbers. "The Longer Tail: The Changing Shape of Amazon’s Sales Distribution Curve" (http:/ / ssrn. 2010. org/ icm/ ) [26] United Nations Capital Development Fund (http:/ / www. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. (http:/ / www. com/ wired/ archive/ 14. html) Wired.2 No.E. Bentley. by Clay Shirky. MIS Quarterly forthcoming. Bentley. Gal and Arun Sundararajan. and Michael D. worldwidewords. html). Chris. pdf). 10/ tail. benkler. Madsen. October 2004. David M. com/ abstract=1324064).org. North American Actuarial Journal Vol. com/ wired/ archive/ 12. p. Management Science. Elberse defined head and tail using percentages.A. Herzog & M. February 8. Wiley.W. org/ english/ microfinance/ ) [27] Democratizing Innovation. Erik. 1655) by R. org/ content/ 1n1x17lp0c0q65uj) by R. H. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. Shennan (2007) in Proceedings of the Royal Society B 271: 1443-50 [24] "Shelf space strategy in long tail markets" (http:/ / arXiv. in The Daily Telegraph. edu/ evhippel/ www/ democ1. Mark L. Anderson responded to the study. org/ forthcoming/ ) [21] "Regular rates of popular culture change reflect random copying" (http:/ / dx. Hahn (2007) in Evolution and Human Behavior 28(3): 151-158. Ormerod and M. Forthcoming Articles (http:/ / www. uncdf. 124. "Goodbye Pareto Principle.2. 1016/ j. [2] World Wide Words article on "long tail" (http:/ / www. "Recommendation Networks and the Long Tail of Electronic Commerce" (http:/ / ssrn. com/ writings/ powerlaw_weblog. Bentley. co. com/ abstract=1679991) [15] Brynjolfsson. 49 (11).P. shirky. Jöel "Risk Management in Banking". MIT Press (http:/ / web. Lipo. "The Long Tail" (http:/ / www. pages 1–12). Roger Highfield. . Anderson responded by stating that the study's findings are difficult to assess without access to its data. November 2003.Stephan. misq. org/ library/ journals/ north-american-actuarial-journal/ 1998/ april/ naaj9804_5. html). 002) by R. htm) [3] Anderson.Edge. org/ archives/ 2006/ 08/ chris_anderson. praising Elberse and the academic rigor with which she explores the issue but drawing a distinction between their respective interpretations of where the "head" and "tail" begin. 10. wired. soa. professor of business administration at Harvard Business School. Hans Ulrich "The Father of Long Tales. 2004. 2003. org/ abs/ 0808. 07/ longtail_pr. Shaun "An Actuarial Index of Right-Tail Risk" (http:/ / www. typepad. doi. 2006. and Michael D. uk/ connected/ main. html) [10] "Power Laws. html The Rise and Fall of the Hit [18] Benkler. Hahn & S. mit. 2006. [4] Interview (http:/ / www. edge. the earliest being a 1946 paper by Brown and Tukey in the Annals of Mathematical Statistics (volume 17. org/ ) [19] Oestreicher-Singer. 1995 [7] Wang. [11] The Long Tail: Definitions: Final Round! (http:/ / longtail. while Anderson uses absolute numbers. Weblogs and Inequality" (http:/ / www. citing sales data which shows that the Web magnifies the importance of blockbuster hits. org/ 10. An interview with Benoît Mandelbrot" (http:/ / www. org/ turnsofphrase/ tp-lon1. php?storyId=4156078) [13] Brynjolfsson. calls the Long Tail theory into question. Erik. 2008 [9] See The origins of "The Long Tail" (http:/ / longtail.A. com/ abstract=400940). Microcredit and Microfinance (http:/ / www. econtalk. html) with Russ Roberts [5] A search for the phrase "long tail" in the database MathSciNet yielded 81 hits. arXive [25] The Global Development Research Center. "Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety at Online Booksellers" (http:/ / ssrn. and Duncan Simester. 1998 [8] Obrist. com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 01/ definitions_fin. www. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. evolhumbehav. com/ abstract=953587) [16] http:/ / ssrn. Smith. [6] Bessis. June 16.W. jhtml?xml=/ connected/ 2004/ 06/ 16/ ecfpop16. [12] NPR: The Long Tail (http:/ / www.. 2002. gdrc. html) [23] "Random drift and culture change" (http:/ / journals. [20] MIS Quarterly. xml& sSheet=/ connected/ 2004/ 06/ 14/ ixconn.[32] Also in 2008.. they reported that 80 percent of the music tracks available sold no copies at all over a one-year period. royalsociety. a sales analysis of an unnamed UK digital music service by economist Will Page and high-tech entrepreneur Andrew Bud found that sales exhibited a log-normal distribution rather than a power law. htm) .Berenson. Prentice Hall. P. Krehbiel. M. "Statistics for Managers using Microsoft Excel: 3rd Edition". com/ abstract=918142 From Niches to Riches: Anatomy of the Long Tail [17] http:/ / www.[30] On his blog.[33] [34] Notes [1] Levine. The Wealth of Networks (http:/ / www. org/ documents/ mandelbrot2010/ mandelbrot2010_index.J. html#comment-3415583). Smith.

Andrew. ClickTorch. com/ pdf/ Why%20behavioural%20targeting%20works%20online%20white%20paper. com/ 2008/ 06/ step-by-step-guide-to-building-an-affiliate-marketing-website . html). With internet marketing content is built for each segment.S. [33] Orlowski. ece) TimesOnline. U. New York: Hyperion. July–August 2008.com. cfm?articleid=2338).Long Tail [28] Joe Mandese. edu/ article. Chris. not provided with any content. In marketing the potential customer base is divided into smaller segments.wolfram. org/ 2008/ 07/ should-you-invest-in-the-long-tail/ ar/ 1) Harvard Business Review. References • Paul Edmunds "Why Behavioural Targeting Works Online" [1]. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. . showArticle& art_aid=142294& passFuseAction=PublicationsSearch. [34] Foster. • The Long Tail (http://demonstrations. (Full online article for purchase only.) [31] Anderson. ISBN 1-4013-0237-8. com/ the_long_tail/ 2008/ 06/ excellent-hbr-p. 191 References • Anderson. co. 22 Dec 2008. 2009 External links • Building An Affiliate Marketing Website – Step-by-Step [2] References [1] http:/ / www.com/books?id=O2k0K1w_bJIC&printsec=frontcover). Ad Expansion Reaches '03 Levels (http:/ / www. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ music/ article5380304. co. [32] "Rethinking the Long Tail Theory: How to Define 'Hits' and 'Niches'" (http:/ / knowledge. The Long Tail Blog. "Excellent HBR piece challenging the Long Tail" (http:/ / www. Anita. " (http:/ / www. timesonline. "Should You Invest in the Long Tail?" (http:/ / hbr. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More (http://books. com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 01/ long_tail_tv_pa_2. 7 Nov 2008. longtail. Micro content is a way to provide each customer segment the content required. The Wolfram Demonstrations Project Micro content Micro content is the content built for each major segment of potential customers used in internet marketing. theregister. google. Patrick. pdf [2] http:/ / getinternetmarketingstrategies. showSearchReslts& art_searched="long tail"& page_number=0/ )". uk/ 2008/ 11/ 07/ long_tail_debunked/ ) The Register. html)". In traditional marketing each segment is just identified. wharton. "Chopping the Long Tail down to size" (http:/ / www.1/17/2005"" [30] Elberse. . "" [29] Chris Anderson. longtail. micro content.com/TheLongTail/) a computer model by Fiona Maclachlan. harvardbusiness. " Long Tail Advertisers Are Back. Chris (2006). mediapost. clicktorch. 1/04/2011. "Long Tail theory contradicted as study reveals 10m digital music tracks unsold" (http:/ / entertainment. upenn.

adCenter allows advertisers to run their ads on specific days of the week or certain times of day. Microsoft adCenter uses both the maximum amount an advertiser is willing to pay per click (PPC) on their ad and the advertisement's click-through rate (CTR) to determine how frequently an advertisement is shown. 2007. Microsoft adCenter provides pay per click advertisements. aQuantive. 2008 and merged their technologies into adCenter.[5] AdECN on July 26. for roughly $6 billion. no other PPC advertising system has a similar feature.[8] A Microsoft adCenter promotional graphic Technology Similar to Google AdWords.Microsoft adCenter 192 Microsoft adCenter Microsoft adCenter (formerly MSN adCenter). Microsoft began developing its own system. Publisher Leadership Council was created under the umbrella of Microsoft Advertising.[2] [3] In May 2007. Microsoft agreed to purchase the digital marketing solutions parent company. In January of 2010 Microsoft announced a take over of Yahoo! and the combination of Bing. The council was responsible to deliver the next-generation advertising platform for the publishers of digital media resulting in the formation of Microsoft pubCenter. Microsoft adCenter provides both UI and Web service API front end to advertisers.Net 2. In November 2006 Microsoft Acquired DeepMetrix. . Until the beginning of 2006. the contract between Yahoo! and Microsoft had expired and Microsoft was displaying only ads from adCenter until 2010. 2007 the Beta version of Microsoft Project Gatineau was released to a limited number of participants. In June 2006.[4] Microsoft acquired ScreenTonic on May 3. A complete transition of all Yahoo! sponsored ad clients to Microsoft adCenter occurred in October of 2010.[6] and YaData on February 27. 2009.0 framework. as well as offering performance alerts and keyword research features. both are built on Microsoft . Microsoft adCenter allows advertisers to target their ads by restricting their ads to a given set of demographics and by increasing their bids whenever the ad is seen by a user of a certain demographic.[1] As search marketing grew. History Microsoft was the last of the "Big Three" search engines (Microsoft. Similarly. Microsoft has built new product AdCenter Analytics based on the acquired technology. a company situated in Gatineau. 2007. In October. MSN search showed Yahoo! and Microsoft adCenter advertising in its search results. As the system was phased in. formerly MSN Search. MSN collected a portion of the ad revenue in return for displaying Yahoo!'s ads on its search engine. that created web-analytics software. is the division of the Microsoft Network (MSN) responsible for MSN's advertising services. to form the Microsoft Search Alliance. Microsoft adCenter.[7] On February 23. or to make bulk changes easily. all of the ads displayed on the Bing (formerly MSN Search) search engine were supplied by Overture (and later Yahoo!). A Windows-only desktop application allows users to manage Microsoft adCenter campaigns offline. for selling PPC advertisements directly to advertisers. This system encourages advertisers to write effective ads and to advertise only on searches which are relevant to their advertisement. Google and Yahoo!) to develop its own system for delivering pay per click (PPC) ads. As of November 2006. Canada.

microsoft. php). com/ gatineau). com/ 2007/ 05/ 18/ microsoft-pays-6-billion-for-aquantive/ )]]"]. formerly Add-in for Excel Version 1. Retrieved 2008-01-12. .com/blogs/api) • Official adCenter Support Forums (http://adcentercommunity.microsoft. .0) . [5] Microsoft Acquires European Mobile Ad Firm .com/blogs/advertiser) • Official adCenter Analytics Blog (http://adcentercommunity. [3] "Microsoft's Web Analytics Product Project Gatineau Now In Private Beta" (http:/ / searchengineland. html) [7] Microsoft Acquires YaData . news.com/blogs/analytics) • Official adCenter API Developer Blog (http://adcentercommunity. advertising. html) [8] Microsoft Advertising Announces Formation of Publisher Leadership Council (http:/ / www.Microsoft Digital Advertising Solutions" (http:/ / advertising. . com/ kcorbin/ 2008/ 02/ microsoft-acquires-yadata. internetnews. microsoft. html?page=3625762) [6] Microsoft acquires 'ad exchange' company AdECN | Tech news blog .com (http:/ / www. techcrunch. [4] "Microsoft Pays $6 billion for aQuantive: Massive Ad Network Consolidation Is Occuring [[[sic (http:/ / www. com/ 071030-103823. com/ presspass/ press/ 2009/ feb09/ 02-23PublisherAdCouncilPR.com.adcentercommunity.CNET News. Retrieved 2008-01-12.nwsource. searchengineland. nwsource.ClickZ (http:/ / www. Kim (2006-05-04).com/forums/) • Microsoft Advertising Intelligence (http://advertising. February 23. 2009. .com. clickz. microsoft. com/ 8301-10784_3-9750765-7.microsoft.com. com/ showPage. html). Yahoo! rival" (http:/ / seattletimes. mspx?rss_fdn=Press Releases). Retrieved 2008-01-12. seattletimes.com. [2] "Microsoft Project Gatineau .com) • adCenter Community (http://www. Retrieved 2008-01-12. www. com/ html/ businesstechnology/ 2002970721_microsoft04.techcrunch.InternetNews:The Blog .com/learning-center/downloads/ microsoft-advertising-intelligence) (a keyword research and optimization tool.Kenneth Corbin (http:/ / blog.Microsoft adCenter 193 References [1] Peterson. Microsoft External links • Microsoft adCenter (http://adcenter.com) • Official adCenter Advertiser Blog (http://adcentercommunity. "The Seattle Times: Business & Technology: Microsoft's adCenter is Google. News Press Release.

mspx?rss_fdn=Press Releases). microsoftadvertising. com/ blogs/ pubcenter/ archive/ 2009/ 11/ 09/ updates-to-the-pubcenter-beta-in-the-new-release.aspx) • Microsoft Advertising . Microsoft Advertising [4] About pubCenter (https:/ / adcenterhelp. com& format=b1). microsoft.[4] On February 23. pubCenter is closed to new web publishers.[5] References [1] Microsoft Updates to the pubCenter BETA in the new release (http:/ / community. microsoft. 2009. February 23. November 09.Solutions for publishers (http://advertising. Currently. News Press Release. com/ ). which is expected to revive in the near future.com/for-publishers) . Publisher Leadership Council was created under the umbrealla of Microsoft Advertising. Windows Phone 7 Type Website Online advertising [2] [2] Microsoft pubCenter is a publisher's ad serving application developed by Microsoft in addition to Microsoft adCenter. in its beta version. com/ help. Microsoft pubCenter is only available for the Windows Phone 7 and web applications developers in the United States. 2009. which allows advertisers to place ads on search engines as well as select MSN web sites or applications. Microsoft Advertising [5] Microsoft Advertising Announces Formation of Publisher Leadership Council (http:/ / www. 2009.microsoft. Microsoft Advertising [2] http:/ / pubcenter. The council was responsible to deliver the next-generation advertising platform for the publishers of digital media. Incidentally. pubCenter Blog. aspx). aspx?project=adCenter_Pub_RTW_ss& market=en-US& querytype=keyword& query=yek006& tmt=& domain=pubcenter. microsoft.com/blogs/pubcenter/default.microsoft.Microsoft pubCenter 194 Microsoft pubCenter pubCenter Developer(s) Preview release Microsoft [1] Beta / November 09. com/ presspass/ press/ 2009/ feb09/ 02-23PublisherAdCouncilPR. 2009 Operating system Cross-platform.com) • Microsoft pubCenter Blogs (http://community. com/ [3] pubCenter Homepage (https:/ / pubcenter. Microsoft External links • Microsoft pubCenter (http://pubcenter.microsoftadvertising.[3] Publishers or owners can register in this program using Windows Live ID to earn revenue while enabling their application's audience with valuable ads experience on their websites and WP7 applications. Web service. microsoft. microsoft. These advertisements are administered by Microsoft and produce revenue on a per-click basis.

and allows for databasing across tests and over time. Memetrics. graphics. a special tool makes dynamic changes to a page so that visitors are directed to different executions of landing pages created according to an experimental design.. m choices for the featured image or graphic. in 1998 as a simulation/demonstration project for LEGO.g. Some critics of the approach question the possible interactions between the elements of the webpages. For example. Multivariate landing page optimization can be executed in a live (production) environment. The system keeps track of the visitors and their behavior—including their conversion rate. which tests all possible combinations of elements.com) use a "full factorial" approach. and the inability of most fractional designs to address this issue. IDDEA.. time spent on the page. etc. Live environment execution has the following advantages: • Capable of testing the effect of variations as a real-life experience • Generally transparent to visitors • Relatively simple and inexpensive to execute Live environment execution has the following disadvantages: • High cost • Increased complexity involved in modifying a production-level website • Long period of time required to achieve statistically-reliable data. This situation is due to variations in the amount of traffic that generates the data necessary for a decision. Taguchi methods. and have a higher margin of error. discrete choice. Fractional designs typically used in simulation environments require the testing of small subsets of possible combinations. MVLPO did not become a mainstream approach until 2003 or 2004.. This quality is one reason that choice modeling won the Nobel Prize in 2000. which tests a structured combination of webpage elements. conjoint analysis.g. The first application of an experimental design for MVLPO was performed by Moskowitz Jacobs Inc.[1] RDE creates individual models for each respondent.. a given page may have k choices for the title. Overview Multivariate landing page optimization is based on experimental design (e. Some vendors (e. text) on a webpage are evaluated.g. high-importance websites when the site administrators do not want to lose any potential customers . This example yields k×m×n landing page configurations. uncovers attitudinal segmentation. or through simulations and market research surveys. This approach requires a smaller sample size—typically. an advanced simulation method based on the Rule Developing Experimentation (RDE) paradigm was introduced.g. and n choices for the company logo. Once sufficient data has accumulated. the system estimates the impact of individual components on the target measurement (e.).[3] Live environment execution In live environment MVLPO execution. conversion rate). To resolve the limitations of fractional designs. • Likely inappropriate for low-traffic.Multivariate landing page optimization 195 Multivariate landing page optimization Multivariate landing page optimization (MVLPO) is a specific form of landing page optimization where multiple variations of visual elements (e. etc. discovers any and all synergies and suppressions among the elements[2] . many thousands—than traditional fractional Taguchi designs to achieve statistical significance.

Howard Moskowitz. [2] Alex Gofman. 272.g. regression analysis models are created either for individual pages or for the entire panel of pages.. . Moskowitz. 2006. with or without interactions[4] . Integrating Science into Web Design: Consumer Driven Website Optimization. • Necessity to recruit and optionally incentivize the respondents References [1] Howard R. ISBN 0-13-613668-0. The outcome relates the presence or absence of page elements on the different landing page executions to the respondents’ ratings. . as compared to live environment execution • Applicable to low-traffic websites • Capable of producing more robust and rich data because of increased control over the page design Simulation execution has the following disadvantages: • Possible bias because of a simulated environment rather than a live environment. The respondents rate each version based on some factor (e. Wharton School Publishing.2006. DOI: 10. com/ articles/ article. pp. And Suppressions Uncovered within Conjoint Analysis. Financial Times Press. Alex Gofman (2007-04-11). Retrieved 2007-09-22. 21(4): 373-414.00072. Synergies. [4] Alex Gofman.1745-459X. At the end of the research phase. Emergent Scenarios. DOI: 10. aspx?p=1015178).Multivariate landing page optimization 196 Simulation (survey) execution In simulation (survey) MVLPO execution. In the research phase. "Improving the ‘Stickiness’ of Your Website" (http:/ / www. Journal of Sensory Studies.1108/07363760910965882. ftpress. Simulation execution has the following advantages: • Faster and easier to prepare and execute in many cases. The Journal of Consumer Marketing. 2009. the respondents are directed to a survey that presents them with a set of experimentally-designed combinations of a landing page. These results can be used to synthesize new landing pages as combinations of the top-scoring elements optimized for subgroups or market segments. and Tonis Mets.x [3] Alex Gofman (2007-09-21). Selling Blue Elephants: How to make great products that people want BEFORE they even know they want them. purchase intent).1111/j. the foundation consists of advanced market research techniques. 26(4): 286-298. InformIT Network.

Germany. users will greatly increase online purchases (conversions) and click through rates.com [1] myThings is a personalized retargeting provider whose solution enables online advertisers to create relevant. e-commerce and affiliate marketing industry throughout Europe.MyThings 197 MyThings myThings myThings Logo Type Industry Founded Website Private Online Advertising 2005 www. Its solutions are used by customers in 12 countries including Asia (China. myThings has offices in UK. The solution won the Econsultancy Award[3] in Affiliate Marketing in March 2011. personalized online display ads (banners). Benelux and Japan. . myThings was the first company in Europe to offer online retailers with a CPA based business model in which advertisers only pay for conversions. myThings partnered with Affiliate Window[2] to present the first CPA based affiliate retargeting solution on the market that integrates into advertisers' existing affiliate tags. Italy. France. demonstrating the retargeting can generate over 1000% increase in brand related searches. in real time. myThings is a dynamic player in the online display advertising. In 2010. myThings also supports traditional CPM and CPC models. The company maintains that by reintroducing relevant product or service offers. Japan) and Eastern Europe. History Founded in 2005. as they continue to surf the web. Additional research from comScore follows this school of thought. Spain. for visitors who have left their website without completing a purchase. Personalized retargeting is a form of online targeted advertising by which online advertising is delivered to consumers based on previous Internet actions that did not in the past result in a conversion.myThings.

carmelventures. The company was recently nominated by Media Momentum [10] as one of the top 50 fastest growing digital media companies in Europe. techcrunch. myThings won the Econsultancy Innovation Award for affiliate marketing in partnership with Affiliate Window. the largest independent affiliate marketing company in the UK. allthingsd. mxs) [8] HMG response to its consultation on proposals and overall approach including its consultation on specific issues (http:/ / www. iabuk. Accel Partners. Carmel Ventures. References [1] http:/ / www. gov. Each ad is optimized to maximum relevancy for the user. myThings technology utilizes cookies in the delivery of advertisements. affiliatewindow. Product myThings offers adaptive retargeting ads generated in real-time. The UK government has recently expressed its support of the framework[8] . aspx) [9] a4uAwards 2011 Shortlist Announced . The company is a signatory of the IAB EU framework presented to the UK Government as self-regulatory measures on behalf of the behavioral targeting industry[7] . Achievements In March 2011. Funding In January 2011. and are able to Opt-Out of myThings’s services at any time. com/ ) [3] Announcing the winners of the Econsultancy Innovation Awards 2010 (http:/ / econsultancy. HuffPo Sales Dude Greg Coleman Lands Again – AllThingsD (http:/ / kara. 47. AOL. com [2] Affiliate Marketing – Affiliate Window – Affiliate Network (http:/ / www. analytics platforms and advertising agencies. 69& id=89) [6] Former Yahoo. Customers include Orange Mobile.MyThings Inc (http:/ / www. leading European affiliate networks. In partnership with Commission Junction. com/ news/ 2011/ 03/ a4uawards-2011-shortlist-announced/ ) . asp?Pid=0. The cookies do not collect any Personally Identifiable Information (PII). uk/ publications/ 8048. MisterGooddeal. com/ uk/ blog/ 7054-announcing-the-winners-of-the-econsultancy-innovation-awards-2010) [4] myThings scores $6 million in funding for personalised retargeting technology (http:/ / eu. affiliates4u. myThings was also shortlisted for the A4U awards in 4 categories:[9] Affiliate Marketing innovation. com/ 2010/ 11/ 23/ mythings-scores-6-million-in-funding-for-personalised-retargeting-technology/ ) [5] Carmel Ventures . 4. Microsoft Store. Best 3rd party application. PriceMinister. Deutsche Telekom’s venture capital firm T-Venture invested $6 million in myThings[4] alongside previous backers.com. mythings. for each user based on previous interactions with the advertiser’s website. dcms. com/ 20110407/ former-yahoo-aol-huffpo-sales-dude-greg-coleman-lands-again/ ) [7] IABUK : Europe commits to self-regulation (http:/ / www. Best new entrant and Best retail advertiser with Hotel Chocolat. net/ en/ 1/ europecommitstoselfregulation140411. other companies considered competition in the CPC retargeting field include Criteo. com/ Portfolio/ Company. Prospects are informed on how the Retargeting service works. Telecom Italia and Booking. Privacy myThings is an active member of the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) and is in full compliance with international regulations and the EU standards of privacy. [5] According to "All Things Digital"[6] .a4u (http:/ / www. Dot Corp and GP Bullhound.MyThings 198 Partnerships myThings has over 200 partnerships with online retailers and brands.

Marketing leads are brand-specific leads generated for a unique advertiser offer.com) One-time offer The one-time-offer pages (or OTO) is a technique widely used in Internet marketing. co. The cost per keyword increased by 33% and the . A 2007 Doubleclick Performics Search trends report shows that there were nearly six times as many keywords with a cost per click (CPC) of more than $1 in January 2007 than the prior year. Display advertising is commonly sold on a CPM pricing model. Online pricing models There are three pricing models in the online advertising market that marketers can use to buy advertising and generate leads. uk/ 199 External Links Official myThings. Sales leads are commonly found in the mortgage. demographic information. In direct contrast to sales leads. e-newsletter list acquisition. The trader takes the audience to a page where they can receive the offer only once. The problem with CPM advertising is that advertisers are charged even if the target audience does not click on (or even view) the advertisement. etc. marketing lead campaigns can be optimized by mapping leads to their sources. income. A lead is a sign-up for an advertiser offer that includes contact information and in some cases. HHI. It is widely used by traders to obtain cash flow quickly. Online lead generation Online Lead Generation is a marketing term that refers to the creation or generation of prospective consumer interest or inquiry into a business' products or services online. age. insurance and finance leads. If the visitor leaves the page may not come again. Implementing an OTO Page Internet traders use this technique after the double-optin.com Website (http://www. building out reward programs. the number of times people view an advertisement. marketing leads are sold only once. mediamomentum.list building. CPM (Cost-per-Thousand) pricing models charge advertisers for impressions — i. These leads are resold to multiple advertisers.mythings. After the visitor clicks on the confirmation e-mail. The OTO is an effective technique to encourage undecided visitors to buy. loyalty programs or for other member acquisition programs. Leads can be generated for a variety of purposes . Sales leads are typically followed up through phone calls by the sales force. search keywords have become very expensive. Because transparency is a necessary requisite for generating marketing leads.MyThings [10] http:/ / www. However. Sales leads are generated on the basis of demographic criteria such as FICO score. the trader takes him to the OTO page.e. CPC (Cost-per-Click) advertising overcomes this problem by charging advertisers only when the consumer clicks on the advertisement. due to increased competition. There are two types of leads in the lead generation market: sales leads and marketing leads.

The advertiser receives the standard fields and answers to as many as twenty custom questions that s/he defines. This information is used as a sales lead for advertisers. who purchase the consumer's information. in favor of action-based models within three years. 200 CPL advertising and CPA advertising For marketers that are looking to pay only for specific actions. The rapid growth is primarily driven by the advertiser demand for ROI focused marketing. [1] with spending on performance-based pricing models exceeding that on display (IAB PWC 2007 Internet Spending Report) for the first time. A GP Bullhound Research report states that the online lead generation is growing at 71% YTY — more than twice as fast as the online advertising market. CPL advertising is also commonly referred to as online lead generation. A 2009 IBM research study found that two-thirds of senior marketers expect 20 percent of ad revenue to move away from impression-based sales. The user enters her or his information within the banner. • Full Page lead generation: The advertiser's offer appears as a full page ad in an HTML format with relevant text and graphics. a trend that is expected to accelerate during a recession. the contact information of a person interested in the advertiser's product or service. the advertiser typically pays for a completed sale involving a credit card transaction. Common types of opt-in ad units are: • AdUnitX Banners: AdUnit X banners allow advertisers to run display advertising on a CPL pricing model.e. community site. advertisers pay for an interested lead — i. If a visitor to the website doesn't buy anything. irrespective of the clicks or impressions that went into generating the lead. CPL campaigns are suitable for brand marketers and direct response marketers looking to engage consumers at multiple touchpoints — by building a newsletter list. . • On-Line survey: Consumers are asked to complete a survey. In a cost-per-lead pricing model. CPL pricing models are the most advertiser-friendly. including their demographic information and product and lifestyle interests. there has been a rapid increase in online lead generation—banner and direct response advertising that works off a CPL pricing model. there are ways that providers can commit fraud by manufacturing leads or blending one source of lead with another (example: search-driven leads with co-registration leads)to generate higher profits. Also like CPC. CPA is all about 'now' — it focuses on driving consumers to buy at that exact moment. the price per lead can be bid up by demand. In CPA campaigns. It also helps explain why 2007 saw a paradigm shift for the industry. Contact details are transmitted automatically from the publisher to the advertiser via the back end. • Co-registration advertising (aka Co-Reg): The advertiser receives some or all of the standard fields collected by a site during the site's registration process. there's no easy way to remarket to them. The consumer has 'opted-in' to receive correspondence from the advertiser and is therefore considered a qualified lead.Online lead generation cost per click rose by as much as 55%. Like CPC. reward program or member acquisition program. In recent times. CPL (Cost-per-Lead) advertising solves risk of CPM and CPC by charging only by the lead. there are two options: CPL advertising (or online lead generation) and CPA advertising (also referred to as affiliate marketing) In CPL campaigns. These banners eliminate the need for users to click-through a landing page. advertisers pay only for qualified leads.

pay per click marketing. the organization needs to know what is being said and discussed about their brand. Online presence management strategy works for any size business. and links.Online lead generation 201 References • • • • • The B2B Refinery by J. . directory listings. the organization/brand would want to make sure that their website and online properties are listed high in the search results. etc.com/download/leadgenerationglossary. It combines the elements of web design and development. although some focus on art. blogging. A person who posts these entries is called a “blogger”. link sharing. A blog may be composed of text. and web server and network security configuration. photographs. A blog is like an online journal that is updated daily. Blogs often use a conversational style of documentation. videos. . Blogging A blog is a website in which items are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. client-side/server-side scripting. search engine optimization. It is one of the most effective techniques to make sure that a business website or link is listed in the top few links of the millions of results that are displayed in various search engines such as Google. an ongoing and constant process of evaluating and fine-tuning begins that drives online presence towards the business goals. In order to manage online brand presence. ibm. or “entries”. Bing. images. or adding an article to an existing blog is called “blogging”. Consumers simply search on various search engines to find information about a certain product or service. Most of these consumers would not bother going beyond the first page. com/ services/ us/ gbs/ bus/ pdf/ ibv-g510-7869-01-advertising. web content development. David Green & Michael C.pdf) [1] "The End of Advertising as We Know It" (http:/ / www-935.pontiflex. “posts”. 06 Mar 2009. Services provided under online presence management Web Designing and Development This primarily includes web design. and other avenues to create a long-term positive presence for an organization in various search engines. Saylor (ISBN 0976864703) Lead Generation for the Complex Sale by Brian J. social media. These goals will define the online presence management strategy. maintaining a blog. in addition to the monitoring of a brand. whether it is a small business or a major corporation. Carroll (ISBN 0-07-145897-2) Marketing Management by Philip Kotler (ISBN 0-13-033629-7) Marketing for Dummies (ISBN 0-7645-5600-2) The Online Lead Generation Glossary (http://www.[2] Most blogs are primarily textual. while constantly pushing to reduce the cost of achieving those goals by relying more on the organic activity of the Internet rather than the paid placement approaches. Online presence management Online presence management is a process that engineers and stimulates a certain brand online. another key component is to analyze online presence within the search engine results. or audio. These goals help to define the online presence management strategy. pdf). Individual articles on a blog are called “blog posts”. The term blog is a shortened form of weblog or web log. Yahoo!. The search engines update their indexes on a regular basis. Authoring a blog. As part of a total online presence management strategy. client liaison. When they perform a query in hope of finding information on an organization or a brand. Once this strategy is put in place.[1] Creating a long-term positive presence online is imperative for an organization. reputation management. The online presence management process starts by keeping in mind the business goals for the activity. hypertext. IBM Global Business Services.

Based on this data. 202 Search Engine Optimization Search Engine Optimization is modifying a website to increase its ranking and thus visibility in the organic or natural ("unpaid"). Cost per mille 2. and lycos. 21 percent of Internet users consider online advertising to be the most relevant advertising system. creating a feedback loop. Yahoo. Cost per click 3. A recent advertising industry survey reveals that Internet advertising will generate about $428 billion in revenues this year. and removing negative opinions (if any) and converting them into positive ones. or services using the Internet to attract customers. Bing. looking for positive and negative opinions about any particular service or product. bad reviews or complaints that turn up in a search can mean lost business. Cost per action Reputation Management Reputation management is the process of tracking people's actions and opinions. Thus reputation management services work on highlighting the positive pages and burying offending sites deep in search results. With potential customers increasingly heading online to research products and services. featuring very short posts. whereas last year it was about $220 billion. third-party source. and stores them in the search engine's index. The whole blogging process tremendously helps in promoting the online presence of any service or product. 3. The most important task of a reputation manager is to defend clients against damaging information on the web. 2.[4] The three most common techniques of internet advertising are: 1. The spider follows links to web pages. as opposed to the brand or company itself.Online presence management Microblogging is another type of blogging. ideas. Internet advertising has now overtaken other traditional advertising media such as newspapers. makes copies of the pages. According to the same survey. 4. [5] Social Media Marketing Social media marketing is a medium that provides social media tools and platforms to create and foster communities and relationships.[3] Some of the methods to optimize a web page in search engines are: 1. it's online presence too gets established. Once a positive opinion about any entity is established online. magazines. Social media is all about networking in a way that advocates trust among the parties and . Search engines use a spider or a crawler to gather the listings by automatically "crawling" the web. and radio. the search engines then index the pages and rank the websites accordingly. Domain name strategies Linking strategies Keywords used Title tags Meta description tags Alt tags Internet Advertising Internet advertising is a form of broadcasting and promotion of products.[6] Social media marketing programs usually center on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages readers to share content with their social networks. 5. Major search engines that index pages using spiders are Google. Aol. 6. crawler-based listings of search engines. The main process of reputation management is reporting on those actions and opinions and reacting to that report. A corporate message spreads from user to user and presumably resonates because it is coming from a trusted.

like Google (and as of 2006. exchange4media. Some have lobbied for any paid listings to be labeled as an advertisement. Social media monitoring Social aggregation Social bookmarking and tagging Social analytics and reporting Automation Social media Blog marketing Validation 203 References [1] "Samefaretaxi Studios" (http:/ / www. Another advantage of paid inclusion is that it allows site owners to specify particular schedules for crawling pages. Businessweek. org/ wiki/ Social_media_marketing). opinions. bradcallen. SEO Made Easy (http:/ / www. Retrieved 16 April 2011. [4] "Internet advertising" (http:/ / www. Scribd. wikipedia. "Social media marketing" (http:/ / www. although these have had little success.[2] mix paid inclusion (per-page and per-click fee) with results from web crawling. Paid inclusion Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing product where the search engine company charges fees related to inclusion of websites in their search index. or even whether it is shown to any users. . Typically. . Mike. asp). net/ archives/ 2005/ 01/ 06/ about-darren/ ). mikemoran. 3. samefaretaxi. businessweek.[1] A per-click fee may also apply. 90. Darren. which will automatically be catalogued on a regular basis. . etc. Any website that allows users to share their content. [7] "Social Media Marketing" (http:/ / en. com/ ). Retrieved 16 April 2011. Inc. Also known as sponsored listings. Retrieved 17 April 2011. [2] Rowse. 6. However. do not let webmasters pay to be in their search engine listing (advertisements are shown separately and labeled as such). its ranking. the most notable being Google. Retrieved 17 April 2011. Twitter. Search Engine Marketing. 5. Some sites allow only paid inclusion. pp. 8. The fee structure is both a filter against superfluous submissions and a revenue generator. Some popular social media sites are: Facebook. "Do Reputation Management Services Work?" (http:/ / www. and views and encourages interaction and community building can be classified as social media. Retrieved 16 April 2011. . Flickr. . com/ ). the fee covers an annual subscription for one webpage. problogger.. Some of these tools are:[7] 1. Social Media Marketing. Each search engine is different. some companies are experimenting with non-subscription based fee structures where purchased listings are displayed permanently. . 2. Brad. Some detractors of paid inclusion allege that it causes searches to return results based more on the economic standing of the interests of a web site. paid inclusion products are provided by most search engine companies. and less on the relevancy of that site to end-users. [6] Moran. YouTube. Often the line between pay per click advertising and paid inclusion is debatable. [3] Callen. Digg. com/ ). Understanding what tools are available and how to use them effectively is key to success in social media marketing. Others. 4. one has no control as to when their page will be crawled or added to a search engine index. "ProBlogger" (http:/ / www. [5] Tozzi. like Yahoo!. exchange4media. . htm). while defenders insist they are not actually ads since the webmasters do not control the content of the listing. MySpace. More frequently. Ask. John. many search engines.com[3] [4] ). In the general case. . Online Presence Management. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 7. Paid inclusion proves to be particularly useful for cases where pages are dynamically generated and frequently modified. com/ smallbiz/ content/ apr2008/ sb20080430_356835. com/ e4m/ bottombarfiles/ Internet-Advertising.Online presence management communities involved.

[2] Gibson. zawodny. . . shtml#18). Ask. . wired. engine. "Defending Paid Inclusions" (http:/ / jeremy. Wired News. html). Retrieved 2008-04-11. engines. com/ blog/ archives/ 001671. the results of the auction on that keyword are presented. org/ web/ 20080221002146/ http:/ / archives. php?2#1). and see the results often within a couple of days. . lawsuit. "Paid Inclusion Losing Charm?" (http:/ / www. com/ 2002/ TECH/ internet/ 02/ 04/ search. ask. ap/ index. .Paid inclusion Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing method in itself. Under this model.e. idg/ index. permads. References [1] "Search engines shift gears to increase profits" (http:/ / web. instead of waiting weeks or months. com/ page. advertisers bid for the right to present an advertisement with specific search terms (i. cnn. engines. . or P4P.com. com/ 2000/ TECH/ computing/ 12/ 11/ search. however. [3] "Search engines sued over 'pay-for-placement'" (http:/ / edition.00. keywords) in an open auction. 204 References [1] "FAQ #1: What are PermAds?" (http:/ / www. Owen (2002-05-03). [2] Zawodny. is an Internet advertising model in which advertisements appear along with relevant search results from a Web search engine.64092. ap/ index.[3] Many users felt that the search results would be irrelevant. Retrieved 2008-04-11. [4] "FAQ #18: How do I register my site/URL with Ask so that it will be indexed?" (http:/ / about. . controversy arose because seventy percent of Internet users were unaware that search results could be skewed as a result of such agreements. html). cnn. html). archive. "BBC angers rivals by launching online search engine" (http:/ / www.com. com/ 2000/ TECH/ computing/ 12/ 11/ search.1367. CNN. but also a tool of search engine optimization. com/ news/ business/ 0. explored. co. Chris (2004-07-06). Pay for placement Pay for placement. Archived from the original (http:/ / archives. Retrieved 2010-09-12. Jeremy (2004-03-01). Retrieved 2008-04-11. PermAds. without paying the search engine company. Knowledge gained this way can be used to optimize other web pages. the auction model has proven to be effective at producing relevant results for searches where the user wants to purchase something. London: The Guardian. CNN.. . [3] Ulbrich. html?tw=wn_tophead_1). Retrieved 2008-12-19. explored. uk/ media/ 2002/ may/ 03/ bbc. com/ en/ docs/ about/ webmasters. When P4P was first introduced. since experts and firms can test out different approaches to improving ranking.[2] which in some cases led to legal action. newmedia). with higher ranking bids appearing more prominently on the page.[1] When one of these keywords is entered into the search engine. html) on 2008-02-21. guardian. cnn. P4P is now seen as the most efficient and effective way to monetize search engines.

In many cases the publisher has a rate card that lists the CPC within different areas of their website or network. although Google and others have implemented automated systems[2] to guard against abusive clicks by competitors or corrupt web developers. in many cases advertisers can negotiate lower rates. which directs one visitor to the advertiser's website. With search engines. usually revenue. It is a pay-for-performance model: If an affiliate does not generate sales. Flat-rate PPC In the flat-rate model.Pay per click 205 Pay per click Pay per click (PPC) is an Internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites. that provides purchase opportunities wherever people may be surfing. Cost per click (CPC) is the sum paid by an advertiser to search engines and other Internet publishers for a single click on their advertisement. These sites are usually neatly compartmentalized into product or service categories. and what the advertiser can gain from that visit. especially when committing to a long-term or high-value contract.g. and revenue sharing programs. or anywhere a web developer chooses on a content site. It does this by offering financial incentives (in the form of a percentage of revenue) to affiliated partner sites. or when a content site displays relevant content. which typically publish rate cards. These various amounts are often related to the content on pages. where advertisers pay the hosting service when the ad is clicked. Google AdWords. Yahoo! Search Marketing. and all three operate under a bid-based model. Cost per click (CPC) varies depending on the search engine and the level of competition for a particular keyword. In contrast to the generalized portal. As with other forms of advertising targeting is key. to purchase or not). it represents no cost to the merchant. these rates are sometimes minimal.[3] Determining cost per click There are two primary models for determining cost per click: flat-rate and bid-based. intent (e. allowing a high degree of targeting by advertisers.. or the content of a page that they are browsing). and Microsoft adCenter are the three largest network operators. which seeks to drive a high volume of traffic to one site. Variations include banner exchange. the entire core content of these sites is paid ads. both in the short term as well as in the long term. In many cases. the advertiser and publisher agree upon a fixed amount that will be paid for each click. Such advertisements are called sponsored links or sponsored ads. and advertisers can pay more for greater visibility. and appear adjacent to or above organic results on search engine results pages. In both cases the advertiser must consider the potential value of a click from a given source.[1] Among PPC providers.[4] However. and the day and time that they are browsing. The affiliates provide purchase-point click-through to the merchant. with content that generally attracts more valuable visitors having a higher CPC than content that attracts less valuable visitors. The flat-rate model is particularly common to comparison shopping engines. PPC implements the so-called affiliate model. pay-per-click. advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market. location (for geo targeting). This value is based on the type of individual the advertiser is expecting to receive as a visitor to his or her website. Websites that utilize PPC ads will display an advertisement when a keyword query matches an advertiser's keyword list. However. and factors that often play into PPC campaigns include the target's interest (often defined by a search term they have entered into a search engine. Content sites commonly charge a fixed price per click rather than use a bidding system.[1] The PPC advertising model is open to abuse through click fraud. .

Pay per click 206 Bid-based PPC In the bid-based model. until then.g. In general. more commonly. now part of Yahoo!). automated bid management systems can be deployed. In return. maximize traffic at breakeven. However. Content network properties can include websites. the advertiser signs a contract that allows them to compete against other advertisers in a private auction hosted by a publisher or. which then allows it to set bids.[9] Prior to this. though additional factors such as ad quality and relevance can sometimes come into play (see Quality Score). When the ad spot is part of a search engine results page (SERP). [8] Although GoTo. ads on content networks have a much lower click-through rate (CTR) and conversion rate (CR) than ads found on SERPs and consequently are less highly valued. These systems can be used directly by the advertiser. In situations where there are multiple ad spots. though they are more commonly used by advertising agencies that offer PPC bid management as a service. History In February 1998 Jeffrey Brewer of Goto. with the actual amount paid based on the amount bid. newsletters. a 25-employee startup company (later Overture. advertisements were charged at cost-per-thousand impressions. Google started search engine advertising in December 1999. there can be multiple winners whose positions on the page are influenced by the amount each has bid. Yahoo's primary source of SERPS advertising included contextual IAB . one penny) than the next highest bidder or the actual amount bid. The auction plays out in an automated fashion every time a visitor triggers the ad spot. presented a pay per click search engine proof-of-concept to the TED conference in California. These publishers sign up to host ads on behalf of the network. which can be anywhere from 50% to over 80% of the gross revenue paid by advertisers.com founder. The ad with the highest bid generally shows up first. the major advertising networks allow for contextual ads to be placed on the properties of 3rd-parties with whom they have partnered. are then compared and the winner determined.[5] Advertisers pay for each click they receive. PPC was only introduced in 2002. with thousands or even millions of PPC bids controlled by a highly automated system. The system is usually tied into the advertiser's website and fed the results of each click.com started PPC in 1998. These tools generally allow for bid management at scale. It was not until October 2000 that the AdWords system was introduced.[6] This avoids situations where bidders are constantly adjusting their bids by very small amounts to see if they can still win the auction while paying just a little bit less per click. All bids for the keyword that target the searcher's geo-location. Yahoo! did not start syndicating GoTo. allowing advertisers to create text ads for placement on the Google search engine. Credit for the concept of the PPC model is generally given to Idealab and Goto. an advertising network.[7] This presentation and the events that followed created the PPC advertising system. the day and time of the search.com (later Overture) advertisers until November 2001. etc. In addition to ad spots on SERPs. These properties are often referred to as a content network and the ads on them as contextual ads because the ad spots are associated with keywords based on the context of the page on which they are found.com. and e-mails. To maximize success and achieve scale. Each advertiser informs the host of the maximum amount that he or she is willing to pay for a given ad spot (often based on a keyword). a common occurrence on SERPs. and so forth. saying the rival search service overstepped its bounds with its ad-placement tools. such as maximize profit. the automated auction takes place whenever a search for the keyword that is being bid upon occurs. Bill Gross. whichever is lower. The system generally sets each bid based on the goal that has been set for it. Overture has filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Google. or inefficient at best. It is common practice amongst auction hosts to charge a winning bidder just slightly more (e. usually using online tools to do so. The effectiveness of these systems is directly related to the quality and quantity of the performance data that they have to work with low-traffic ads can lead to a scarcity of data problem that renders many bid management tools useless at worst. they receive a portion of the ad revenue that the network generates.

CNET. html). . Fain and J. com/ docs/ pr/ release975. com/ support/ bin/ answer.com Merchant Enrollment (https:/ / merchant. Website Traffic Yahoo! Search Marketing (formerly Overture). 2007 [8] Stefanie Olsen and Gwendolyn Mariano (April 5. .org/Bulletin/ Dec-05/pedersen. 2010. html). . london. . google. 2008). 2007 [5] Yahoo! Search Marketing (May 18. "Sponsored Search" (http:/ / advertising. "Yahoo to buy Overture for $1. py?answer=9718& ctx=en:search& query=invalid+ click& topic=& type=f) Google AdSense Help Center.html). cnet. Accessed June 12. "Yahoo! and Overture Extend Pay-for-Performance Search Agreement" (http:/ / docs. com/ 2008/ 03/ using-data-to-help-prevent-fraud. blogspot. Retrieved May 18. Accessed February 23.asis.html). com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. 2010). 2002). 12-13. pdf). edu/ mottaviani/ PPCA. [3] How do you prevent invalid clicks and impressions? (https:/ / www. 2010. "Overture sues Google over search patent" (http:/ / news. yahoo. [9] Yahoo! Inc. [10] Stefanie Olsen (July 14. 2010. com/ smallbusiness/ whatsincluded). External links • Paid listings confuse web searchers (http://www.com. Retrieved May 18. 2009.pcworld. 2008 [4] Shopping. Yahoo! Press Release. 2011.[10] 207 References [1] "Customers Now". Google Blog. CNET. com/ enroll/ app?service=page/ RateCard) Shopping. 2003). [6] AdWords Discounter (http:/ / adwords. London Business School. Yahoo! announced intent to acquire Overture for $1. Pedersen (2006). Retrieved Jan 28. 2009 [7] Overture and Google: Internet Pay Per Click (PPC) Advertising Auctions (http:/ / faculty. C.Pay per click advertising units (mainly 468x60 display ads). com/ 2100-1023-876861. yahoo. "Using data to help prevent fraud" (http:/ / googleblog. . . 32(2). David Szetela." (http://www. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. "Sponsored Search: A Brief History. Retrieved May 18.63 billion. [2] Shuman Ghosemajumder (March 18. 2010. When the syndication contract with Yahoo! was up for renewal in July 2003. 2010. html). Accessed June 12. com/ 2100-1030_3-1025394. html). Retrieved May 18. py?hl=en& answer=6302) Google AdWords Help.com/article/112132/ study_paid_listings_still_confuse_web_searchers. PC World • D. (2002). cnet. O. google. Accessed January 9. Retrieved May 18. shopping.63 billion" (http:/ / news.

50 percent more per purchase. The products that appear in each user’s display ad are unique to each user and reflect products that the user previously viewed on a retailer’s website.Pay per play 208 Pay per play Pay per play (PPP). and a website visitor will usually hear only one advertisement per visit to any specific web page. and personalized retargeting providers aim to increase conversion rates by displaying highly relevant. according to a study by personalized retargeting provider Criteo. Most commonly initiated via JavaScript. the web page playing the audio ad is normally paid for each ad they serve. History The mechanics of basic retargeting go back about 10 years. uses basic information. branded creative ads.[1] In radio advertising. Personalized retargeting functions as a complement to search. py?hl=en& answer=63154) Personalized retargeting Personalized retargeting is a display advertising technique used by online advertisers to recapture consumers who visit a retailer’s site and leave without making a purchase. reflect the browsing history of each individual user and can feature multiple ads in a single banner.[3] Personalized retargeted ads differ from earlier forms of retargeting in that instead of static. the term "pay per play" can also refer to a relationship between advertisers and audio ad producers. com/ support/ bin/ answer. on average. google. retargeted consumers are nearly 70 percent more likely[2] to complete a sale than non-retargeted consumers and they spend. also known as Cash per play (CPP). like other forms of retargeting. pulled from cookies that are placed on a user’s web browser. relevant ads based on their previous onsite browsing history. wsj. is an online advertising method that plays an audio advertisement on websites. SEO and other marketing campaign tactics. The term "pay per play" comes from advertisers paying for each audio ad played. Personalized retargeting. . Audio ads vary in length. html) [2] Pay-per-play for Audio Ads (http:/ / adwords. targeted display ads that are unique to each consumer. Ads are typically automatically played when a visitor loads a web page. to serve display advertisements. with personalized retargeting emerging recently as a more sophisticated technique to present consumers with targeted.[2] References [1] Wall Street Journal Online (http:/ / online. personalized ads are produced in real-time. Also. audio ads normally cannot be stopped once they start. Industry studies have found that nearly 95 percent[1] of website visits don’t translate to purchases. com/ article/ SB120036638439890355.

[6] The United States hasn’t legislated many laws around the practice. responsible personalized retargeting providers don’t collect personally identifiable information (PII) on consumers. Congress and the media. other advertisers or third parties and cannot be linked to a specific user. Cost per action (CPA) is a pricing model in which advertisers are charged based on pre-arranged action (a purchase. the IAB announced its Advertising Option Icon. although a completed sale is the most common action used under the CPA model. Yahoo! Search Marketing and Criteo are examples of providers that use a PPC model. and instead relies upon the industry and its overarching organizations. have expressed privacy[4] concerns[5] around the practice of retargeting. Instead. such as the IAB. providers rely upon data gathered from cookies that are placed on a consumer’s browser by the websites they visit.[9] Partial list of providers • • • • • • • • • • • 4-Tell[10] BuySight (formerly Permuto)[11] ChoiceStream[12] Criteo[13] Dotomi[14] FetchBack[15] (acquired by GSI Commerce in June 2010)[16] Magnetic[17] mediaFORGE[18] MyBuys[19] myThings[20] TellApart[21] . several organizations. advertisers working under the PPC model are only charged when a person clicks on an ad. Three prominent models include: • CPM (cost per thousand) • PPC (pay per click) • CPA (cost per action) Cost per impression (CPM) is a common metric used in the online advertising industry to charge advertisers for inventory based on a set price per thousand page impressions. Concerns In the United States. which partner sites will place near banner advertisements that collect non-PII user data. a view through. This information is not shared among publishers. Unlike the CPM model.Personalized retargeting 209 Pricing models Personalized retargeting providers employ a variety of pricing models to charge advertisers for the ads viewed by consumers. Providers are blind to a user’s age. which charges advertisers a flat rate. Pay per click (PPC) charges advertisers for every verifiable click that leads consumers back to a retailer’s website. An impression is defined as any time a banner ad loads on an individual’s web browser. In October 2010. etc). sex and other personal information. including the Federal Trade Commissiomn. however. Google AdWords.[7] NAI[8] and TRUSTe to self-regulate.

aboutads. they distinguish themselves in their ability to supplement IP addresses with data from third-party sources. com/ article/ SB10001424052748703940904575395073512989404. Marketers might wish to use the information to detect if they are attracting their desired target audience to their landing pages. nytimes. they provide a powerful insight to marketing executives who want to measure online campaigns based on the type of audiences they are attracting. these services are likely to grow in usage. is/ [18] http:/ / mediaforge. and paid searches with the objective on increasing conversion rates. showArticle& art_aid=137111 [10] http:/ / www. and the industry they are in. com/ [12] http:/ / www. com/ [19] http:/ / www. info/ [9] http:/ / www. myThings. com/ content/ 27804. mybuys. permuto. iab. adotas. com/ Post-click marketing Post-click marketing is emerging as a recognized practice that aims at improving sales and marketing results by focusing on website visitors when they respond to online marketing activities such as pay per click advertising. enabling marketing managers to view the name of the company visiting their website. writing emails to email contacts they can find for the visiting organization. com/ 2010/ 09/ what-so-creepy-about-retargeting/ [7] http:/ / www. • Inside Sales can view the keywords used by specific visitors to help qualify a person who has filled in a form on a landing page. com/ 2010/ 08/ 30/ technology/ 30adstalk. asp [3] http:/ / www. 4-Tell. com [14] http:/ / www. With pressure to generate more leads with small budgets. com/ [16] http:/ / techcrunch. Inside Sales tend to use it for lead generation purposes. com/ [11] http:/ / www. net/ privacymatters/ [8] http:/ / www. com/ [15] http:/ / www. • Sales managers also find them attractive in their ability to generate email alerts to them when important customers visit their website. com/ [13] http:/ / www.Personalized retargeting 210 References [1] http:/ / econsultancy. and can be helpful in engaging visitors who normally go totally unidentified by sales . fetchback. com/ [4] http:/ / www. choicestream. or to personalize the content based on the visitor’s language or location. com/ [21] http:/ / tellapart. HTML e-mails. Post-click marketing relies on specific software and services that go beyond the information collected by popular web analytic tools such as Google Analytics. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. There are many ways in which this information gathered about website visitors can be used. If used properly. Post-click marketing solutions appeal on many fronts: • Businesses paying for the traffic to their website through pay per click. com/ us/ blog/ 6101-increase-search-conversion-with-retargeting [2] http:/ / www. criteo. wsj. imediaconnection. com/ [20] http:/ / www. html [6] http:/ / www. their location. dotomi. search engine optimization and other online activities use these tools to discover more about the estimated 98% (quoted by a case paper from the Marketing Sherpa) of visitors who don’t immediately convert into a lead. html?_r=3& src=busln [5] http:/ / online. For example. These tools are not so much lead generation software but more data extraction tools that can assist the early stages of a lead generation process. mediapost. com/ 2010/ 06/ 01/ fetchback-40-million-gsi-commerce/ [17] http:/ / magnetic. criteo.

211 References • Principles and Practice of Marketing . minimizing the number of competing marketers using the same content. It's a license where author sell most or all of the intellectual property rights to their work. . meaning that you should consider revising and improving existing private label content before distributing it under your own brand.David Jobber: 4th edition 2004 • Marketing Sherpa . templates and even videos. and without being exclusive or unique content. you can also purchase private label content that is limited in distribution. Private Label Content comes in many different formats. In some cases authorship on the original product is allowed and with unrestricted private label. There are many different ways to successfully use private label content to minimize workload and production time.Post-click marketing and marketing. In general practice this means that the product can be modified. ebooks. marketers are often hesitant on incorporating private label content into their marketing campaigns. graphics. buyers are often able to resell the same rights they've acquired although not all private label releases offer or permit license distribution or transfer. and through time limited offers. ebook directories. the price of a single unit is generally lower than if one would create a similar product from scratch (either by himself or by outsourcing). Because there are many buyers of the same product. The license is defined by the author of the work and has no legal definition. including by using private label as an outline or guide when hiring outsources to create information products. also used in Internet Marketing. to ensure that you are familiar with any restrictions that may be in place.Hugh MacFarlane: 2003 Private label rights Private label rights is a concept used in Internet Marketing and derived from private labeling. Similar licenses include resell rights. graphic templates etc. resold or repurposed in many different formats. slide-sharing websites and similar. While licenses differ with each author and seller. including PLR reports. However. Private label is also useful in adding perceived value to existing products. Criticism Due to private label being distributed to multiple customers. ebooks. Use The license is used for various digital products such as articles. Private Label Content comes with different rights depending on the developer so it's important to throughly check each license prior to use. sold. Marketers use private label products for reselling under their own brands or in the case of written products for online marketing through channels like article directories. Private Label Content is best used as a "resource" rather than a 'source". both as bonus items. software. articles.Case Studies 2007 • The Leaky Funnel . the basic premise is that the license permits buyers to re-brand the content under their own name and brand (excluding copyright). content syndication.

Google chose to introduce variable minimum bids at the same time as it introduced Quality-Based Bidding. and that a high quality score could actually cause ads to jump over ads with lower quality scores that would otherwise not merit that prominent placement. By implementing variable minimum bids Google created a mechanism whereby the company could set different minimums for different advertisers for the same keyword. In addition to the CTR of the keyword and matched ad itself. The exact weight of Quality Score versus bid has not been revealed by any of the major search engines. each ad has the following formula run against it: bid * Quality Score. In late 2008. To determine the order in which ads are listed.00 or $10. prior to its introduction of Quality Score in July 2005[6] . in some cases advertisers found their minimum bids for some ads were raised to as high as $5. Yahoo![2] (called Quality Index). The primary reason for this is to improve the experience of users who click on sponsored links. It is reasonable to assume that users who have a great experience when clicking on ads will click on them more frequently. thus increasing advertising revenues for the search engine. this new feature allowed advertisers to bid as little as $0. presumably in an effort to guide their advertisers towards making better ads.[4] Purpose Behind Quality Score The major search engines have each independently implemented efforts to maintain and improve the quality of ads listed on their sites. In fact. and potentially increase the average minimum bid without the advertising community as a whole being made aware. Google determined ad rank by running the following formula against each ad and sorting them in descending order: bid * CTR. by raising minimums bids. Google takes into account the overall historic CTR of the entire AdWords account as well as the historic CTR of the display URLs in the ad group.in their respective Quality Score formulas is the historical click-through rate (CTR) of the keyword and matched ad. Click-Through Rate All three search engines have revealed that a major factor .01 to have their ad shown. none has revealed their formulas in detail.00. and MSN [3] that can influence both the rank and cost per click (CPC) of ads.Quality Score 212 Quality Score Quality Score is a variable used by Google[1] . Furthermore. On the surface. However. Factors in Determining Quality Score There are a number of factors that determine the Quality Score of a given ad. Ads are then listed in descending order based on the result of that equation. Google revealed that Quality Score was used to determine which ads it would show above organic results. In addition. Google could test each advertiser's ability to pay these increases. thus increasing competitiveness within the auctions and extracting maximum revenue from each advertiser. . While each search engine has released directional information on the factors most important to them.the most important factor to Google[5] . and each company has stated that they reserve the right to continually adjust their ranking methodologies. Below is a summary of what has been released.

Accessed February 23 2009 [7] How do I create a high quality landing page? (http:/ / adwords. yahoo. blogspot. Accessed February 23 2009 [6] Inside AdWords: Quality Score improvements (http:/ / adwords. spaces. py?hl=en& answer=10215) Google AdWords Help. blogspot. py?hl=en& answer=47884) AdWords Help. they have revealed that ads with landing pages that don't contain the keyword may be declined altogether. entry) adCenter Blog.[7] In the case of MSN. com/ 2008/ 06/ landing-page-load-time-now-affects. html) Official AdWords Blog.[8] Geographical Considerations Google has revealed that the accounts performance in the geographical region where the ad will be shown impacts Quality Score. Other Factors All three search engines have revealed that other factors are taken into consideration when calculating Quality Score. html) Official AdWords Blog. google. it can be assumed that ads with ad copy that contains the keyword will have a higher Quality Score than ads with ad copy that does not contain the keyword. com/ 2008/ 10/ improvements-to-ads-quality. Accessed February 22 2009 [2] What is the quality index? (http:/ / help. com/ l/ us/ yahoo/ ysm/ sps/ faqs/ quality/ quality_index. com/ support/ bin/ answer. Accessed February 23 2009 . html) Yahoo! Search Marketing Help. live. html) Official AdWords Blog. Landing Page Quality All three search engines have revealed that landing page quality is a factor in determining Quality Score. com/ support/ bin/ answer. com/ 2008/ 10/ improvements-to-ads-quality.Quality Score 213 Ad Copy Relevance All three search engines have revealed that the relevance of the ad copy to the keyword is a factor in determining Quality Score. Accessed February 23 2009 [5] Inside AdWords: Improvements to Ads Quality (http:/ / adwords. References [1] What is 'Quality Score' and how is it calculated? (http:/ / adwords. blogspot. In particular. com/ Blog/ cns!85E824269AB8C30D!352. html) Official AdWords Blog. Landing page quality generally refers to whether or not the page contains relevant and original content and the navigability of the site. Landing Page Load Time In June 2008 Google revealed that landing page load time impacts Quality Score. Accessed February 23 2009 [8] Inside AdWords: Landing page load time now affects keywords' Quality Scores (http:/ / adwords. Accessed February 22 2009 [4] Inside AdWords: Improvements to Ads Quality (http:/ / adwords. google. com/ 2008/ 08/ quality-score-improvements. blogspot. changes in terms of use in Google Analytics have fed speculation in the search engine marketing (SEM) community that Google is using on-site conversion data in its Quality Score formula. Accessed February 22 2009 [3] adCenter Quality-Based Ranking? (http:/ / adcenterblog. Therefore.

8 million[11] direct referral invites to their friends.youtube. a higher retention rate and were more valuable in both the short and long run. referral programs can indeed pay off[5] . According to Drew Houston. Referred customers had a higher contribution margin. Referral marketing does this by encouraging. Assuaging prior skepticism." Examples of Successful Referral Marketing Programs Dropbox referral program . both in the short term and long term. informing. and you get more space yourself too. we document a positive value differential. on referral programs and customer value [2] which followed the customer referral program of a German bank that paid customers 25 euro for bringing in a new customer.com/watch?v=SsEGWI1w1L8) • Google Ads Quality Updates Video (http://www.Quality Score 214 External links • Google Ads Quality Basics Video (http://www. promoting and rewarding customers and contacts to think and talk as much as possible about their supplier.com/quality_score) Referral marketing Referral marketing is a method of promoting products or services to new customers through referrals. Dropbox implemented a referral program[6] to encourage their users to tell their friends about Dropbox. the referral program was inspired by the Paypal Sign up Bonus [8] program. usually word of mouth. According to Professor Van den Bulte. Dropbox estimated that their users had sent 2. was released in July 2010 [3] . Referral marketing takes word of mouth from the spontaneous situation to one where maximum referrals are generated. The study found that referred customers were both more profitable and loyal than normal customers. this is the first ever study published on the financial evaluation of customer referral programs[4] . their company.In 2009. Referrals account for roughly 35%[10] of their daily signups (as of April 2010). Such referrals often happen spontaneously but businesses can influence this through appropriate strategies. Their referral program had a two-sided incentive for sharing: the person who signs up for Dropbox through your referral link gets more space than through a normal sign up. Hence. On whether customer referral programs are worth the cost. Benefits of Referral Programs A study conducted by the Goethe University Frankfurt and the University of Pennslyvannia [1]. is the internet based approach to traditional referral marketing. Online referral marketing. the Co-founder and CEO of Dropbox."Our findings are important news for practitioners considering deploying customer referral programs in their own firm. Given the advances in tracking customer behavior online through the use of web browser cookies. at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference [7] on 23 April 2010. using digital marketing as a platform.com/watch?v=b8f1zr2UEXo) • Quality Score on Twitter (http://twitter. this value differential is larger than the referral fee. product and service and the value and benefit the supplier brings to them and people they know. between customers acquired through a referral program and other customers. the study mentioned .youtube. Overview Referral marketing is a structured and systematic process to maximize word of mouth potential. Importantly. . The referral program was wildly successful and it permanently increased their signups by 60%[9] . online referral marketing provides a high degree of tracking and accountability. In the 30 days before the conference presentation.

net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 [11] Slide 31 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www. html [5] Page 25 of http:/ / marketing.Bean. Wharton School.D student at Goethe University Frankfurt). working with Fortune 500 companies to develop digital strategy. we'll give you both 250 MB of bonus space (up to a limit of 8 GB)! (https:/ / www. Nancy Kramer [8] founded the company in 1981 with its first marketing relationship with Apple [9]. [10] External links • • • • Official Website [11] weThink: Official Company Blog [12] Kelly Mooney's blog. com/ 2010/ 07/ 21/ viral-marketing-referral-program-entrepreneurs-sales-marketing-wharton_print. Resource Interactive is recognized for its aptitude in consumer insights and strategy [3][4] . dropbox.L. slideshare. President and CXO of Resource Interactive [13] Website for The Open Brand. wharton. pdf [2] http:/ / marketing. a book by Resource Interactive associates [14] • Website for The Ten Demandments. website creative and interactive technology solutions. wharton. Coca-Cola (co). Hewlett Packard. Bernd Skiera (Professor of Marketing. edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. interactive design [5] and technological innovation [6][7] . Goethe University Frankfurt) and Christophe Van den Bulte (Associate Professor of Marketing. com/ referrals) [7] http:/ / www. slideshare.For every friend who joins Dropbox. University of Pennsylvania) [4] http:/ / www. 4 on Advertising Age's Agency A List for 2010. paypal. slideshare. upenn. com/ [8] https:/ / www. edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 [10] Slide 32 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www. Victoria's Secret. owned and operated. wharton. forbes. net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 Resource Interactive Resource Interactive is a Privately held digital marketing agency [1] in Columbus. Resource Interactive has since expanded its partnerships with clients to include Procter & Gamble. Wal * Mart. com/ us/ cgi-bin/ webscr?cmd=_web-referrals-mrb-outside [9] Slide 30 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www. Female-founded. Ohio[2] . upenn. pdf [3] conducted by Phillipp Schmitt (Ph. a book by Kelley Mooney and Laura Bergheim [15] • iCitizen Website [16] . among others. Resource Interactive is No. Sherwin-Williams and L. upenn. edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. sllconf.Referral marketing 215 References [1] http:/ / marketing. pdf [6] Referral program .

com/ datacenter/ datapopup. shipping and other 3rd party cost that the customer pays) generated by customers whom the affiliate refer via various advertising methods. html [6] http:/ / prmac. United States government revenue sharing was in place from 1972-1987. counties and townships. One form shares between the general partner(s) and limited partners in a limited partnership. . [5] http:/ / www. Another form shares with a company's employees. htm?campaign_id=rss_daily Innovation of the Week (http:/ / www. com/ release-id-856. com/ web-sites/ shaw-floors-try-floor. com/ smallagency/ index?sid=Nancy%20Kramer [9] http:/ / www. 4 on the Ad Age Agency A-List" (http:/ / adage. revenue sharing refers to the sharing of profits and losses among different groups. Advertising Age. and sharing the proceeds. Revenue sharing was extremely popular with state officials. Another form of online revenue sharing consists in people working together and registering online in a way similar to that of a corporation. htm?campaign_id=rss_daily) . htm [7] Flashforward Film Festival Awards 16 Big Orange Rubber Arrows (http:/ / prmac. but it lost federal support during the Reagan Administration. commarts.Resource Interactive 216 Notes http:/ / adage. php?article_id=126721 AdvertisingAge Top 50 Digital Agencies http:/ / adage. com/ mediacenter/ podcasts/ innovation/ innovation_03_26_08. apple-history. businessweek. mooneythinks. "Resource Interactive Is No. com/ [16] http:/ / icitizen.[1] E-commerce web site operators using revenue sharing pay affiliates a certain percentage of sales revenues (usually excluding tax. htm) Retrieved on June 2008. resource. com [12] http:/ / blog. businessweek. com/ [13] http:/ / www. Congress gave an annual amount of federal tax revenue to the states and their cities. resource. com/ [15] http:/ / www. com/ release-id-856. Retrieved on June 2008. [11] http:/ / www. thetendemandments. Kunur (2011-01-24). php?article_id=126721 digital marketing agencies http:/ / www. In business. revenue sharing is also known as cost per sale. and accounts for about 80% of affiliate compensation programs. com/ mediacenter/ podcasts/ innovation/ innovation_03_26_08. [8] http:/ / adage. com/ agencya-list/ article?article_id=148348). A third form of revenue sharing on the internet consists of enticing internet users to sign up and create content by offering a share of advertising revenue. In 1987. com/ [10] Patel.BusinessWeek. resource. resource. related meanings depending on context. Under this policy. On the Internet. com/ datacenter/ datapopup. . and another between companies in a business alliance. revenue sharing was replaced with block grants in smaller amounts to reduce the federal deficit. com/ [1] [2] [3] [4] Revenue sharing Revenue sharing has multiple. com/ [14] http:/ / theopenbrand.

such as sub-headlines.Agents are people who know they can make a one-time sale.astal. com/ survey. and is designed to ensure that the prospect is committed to becoming a customer. the sales letter has become an integral part of internet marketing. Since the advent of the internet. unsolicited sales letters are known as junk mail.com/marketing/revenue_sharing.Unlike PPS. but by a real life selling effort. but not exclusively. In addition. are a considered purchase at medium or high value (typically tens to thousands of dollars).Revenue sharing 217 References [1] AffStat Report 2007 (http:/ / www. Body copy This section is typically quite long. affstat. A sales letter is often. It is typically used for products or services which. the body copy may include embedded video or audio. Offline. . the sale is not generated by an advertisement. Sales letter A sales letter is a piece of direct mail which is designed to persuade the reader to purchase a particular product or service in the absence of a salesman.com/ the-internets-largest-list-of-adsense-revenue-sharing-sites/) . and is designed to be among the first item the reader attends to. such as the distribution of leaflets and catalogues.Internet revenue sharing sites share via a variety of income sources. This section will typically contain testimonials from the firm's customers as well as pictures and information about the product. as the sales letter typically sells a single product or product line.reviewerofsites. and further tends to be mainly textual as opposed to graphics-based. It has been defined as "A form of direct mail in which an advertiser sends a letter to a potential customer. On the internet."[1] It is distinct from other direct mail techniques. other sections may be used. although spam typically consists of emails which are much shorter than a normal sales letter. Headline The headline is the most prominent text on the sales letter. with 4. • A categorized list of internet revenue sharing sites (http://www. due to their price. 8 and 16 page letters being common formats.html) Suppliers pay commission for sale. the last stage of the sales process before the customer places an order. shtml) — a study based on survey responses from almost 200 affiliate managers in the marketing industry External links • A match between suppliers and agents in real life (http://www. Components The sales letter is split into several key sections. and typically takes the form of an email or webpage. including Google Adsense and Amazon Associates programs. Unsolicited sales emails are known as spam.

This allows the marketeer or copywriter to confirm which headline. layout. internetmarketingdefinitions. etc. line spacing. Retrieved 2009-11-15. wrote this ad that was considered the very best of its time and is still a classic. etc. the bounce rate. Retrieved 2009-11-15.Sales letter 218 Call to action All sales letters include a call to action which is intended to get the customer to commit to purchasing the product or service. with split testing of various elements. On the internet. clickthrough to the checkout. Sales letters are typically developed incrementally. notably the letter by John Caples which sold a home study (also known as distance learning or correspondence course) in piano playing. powerwriting. Development of sales letters Because of the direct response nature of sales letters." (http:/ / www. . . com/ SalesLetter). typically without any further intervention. such as the open rate of emails. Graphic design The graphic design of a sales letter is an important part of the branding. html). they can be carefully tested on an ongoing basis to determine which version performs best in terms of converting readers to customers. com/ caples. it is possible to track additional variables. body text or graphic design converts best. all have an effect on the efficacy of the letter. This letter had the headline "They Laughed When I Sat Down At the Piano But When I Started to Play! --"[2] References [1] "Sales Letter (definition)" (http:/ / www. John Caples. [2] "Famous copywriter. The font. paragraph formatting. Classic letters Some sales letters have become design classics in their own right. images. .

[6] Because of the complex technology. is a form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs) through the use of. Yahoo! Search Marketing and Microsoft adCenter. Search engines developed business models to finance their services. Some marketers have difficulty understanding the intricacies of search engine marketing and choose to rely on third party agencies to manage their search marketing. search engines started appearing to help people find information quickly. key word analysis needs to be done for both SEO and SEM. a secondary "search marketing agency" market has evolved.5 billion on search engine marketing. Google also began to offer advertisements on search results pages in 2000 through the Google AdWords program.com later changed its name[9] to Overture in 2001. (SEM). and developing online marketing strategies for businesses. and was purchased by Yahoo! in 2003. such as pay per click programs offered by Open Text[7] in 1996 and then Goto. The Yahoo! & Microsoft Search Alliance eventually received approval from regulators in the US and Europe in February 2010. and paid inclusion. Another part of SEM is Social Media Marketing (SMM). Also. By 2007. and individuals. North American advertisers spent US$13. and PayPerClick SEO. Goto. submitting sites to directories. SEM is a constant and tedious task. paid placement. SMM is a type of marketing that involves exploiting social media to influence consumers that one company’s products and/or services are valuable. managing paid listings at the search engines. Some of the latest theoretical advances include Search Engine Marketing Management (SEMM). For example some of the attention is placed on the web page layout design and how content and information is displayed to the website visitor.[5] You can do SEM without doing SMM but you can't do SMM without doing SEM because SMM is a higher level of SEM. contextual advertising. History As the number of sites on the Web increased in the mid-to-late 90s. SEMM relates to activities including SEO but focuses on return on investment (ROI) management instead of relevant traffic building (as is the case of mainstream SEO). organizations. It frequently needs to be updated and monitored continually. but not necessarily at the same time. SEMM also integrates organic SEO. In a market dominated by Google. . The term "Search Engine Marketing" was proposed by Danny Sullivan in 2001[12] to cover the spectrum of activities involved in performing SEO. [3] article submissions. advertising and making sure SEO has been done. SEM constitutes Ad words.Search engine marketing 219 Search engine marketing Search engine marketing. and now offers paid search opportunities for advertisers through Yahoo! Search Marketing.[4] which comprises pay per call (particularly beneficial for local providers as it enables potential consumers to get in touch directly to a company with one click). trying to achieve top ranking without using paid means of achieving top in search engines.[2] As of 2006. in 2009 Yahoo! and Microsoft announced the intention to forge an alliance. and new agencies focusing primarily upon marketing and advertising through search engines emerged. pay-per-click programs proved to be primary money-makers[10] for search engines.[11] Search engine optimization consultants expanded their offerings to help businesses learn about and use the advertising opportunities offered by search engines. Market structure In 2008.com[8] in 1998. SEM was growing much faster than traditional advertising and even other channels of online marketing.[1] [2] Search engine optimization (SEO) is "optimizing" website pages to achieve higher ranking in search results via the process of selecting specific keyword expressions associated to the website [3] SEM is utilizing various means of "marketing" a website in order for it to become more relevant in regard to search engine searches and their rankings. It should be asserted that SEM is NOT SEO and vice versa. The largest SEM vendors are Google AdWords.

SEM has however nothing to do with link buying and focuses on organic SEO and PPC management. (b) find the most relevant and popular key terms and phrases for the site and its products. 1. . Read a competitor's source code to look for hidden clues. can provide valuable information relating to copyright and trademark issues. ARIN. Try to use more than one HTML validator or spider simulator because each tests. highlights. The followings are major tools measuring various aspects of saturation and link popularity: Link Popularity.[17] Though the policy has been changed this continues to be a source of heated debate. Back end tools (including Web analytic tools and HTML validators): Web analytic tools can help you to understand what is happening to your website and measure your Web site's success. Another ethical controversy associated with search marketing has been the issue of trademark infringement. and the issue of how search engines present advertising on their search result pages has been the target of a series of studies and reports[13] [14] [15] by Consumer Reports WebWatch. Vested interests appear to use the expression SEM to mean exclusively Pay per click advertising to the extent that the wider advertising and marketing community have accepted this narrow definition. At the end of February 2011 many started to see that Google has started to penalize companies that are buying links for the purpose of passing off the rank. Keyword research and analysis: (a) Make sure the site can be indexed in the search engines. a consumer advocacy group with ties to Ralph Nader. 1. They range from simple traffic counters to tools that work with log files [18] and to more sophisticated tools that are based on page tagging (putting JavaScript or an image on a page to track actions). It requires your pages containing those keywords people are looking for and ensure that they rank high enough in search engine rankings. Generally. the easier it is for people to find your site. Top 10 Google Analysis. the more Web presence you have. Most search engines include some form of link popularity in their ranking algorithms. Use Web analytics tools to find out more about your customers. These tools can deliver conversion-related information.Search engine marketing 220 Ethical questions Paid search advertising has not been without controversy. and reports on slightly different aspects of your Web site. Such usage excludes the wider search marketing community that is engaged in other forms of SEM such as Search Engine Optimization and Search Retargeting. (b) tag-based analytic programs WebSideStory's Hitbox. in response to a complaint from Commercial Alert.[18] [19] [20] 1.[19] 2. Validators check the invisible parts of Web sites. (c) transaction-based tool: TeaLeaf RealiTea.[20] Useful tools include Who Is Source. which formerly prohibited these tactics. Web site saturation and popularity: show how much presence a Web site has on search engines through the number of pages of the site that are indexed on each search engine (saturation) and how many times the site is linked to by other sites (popularity). In 2009 Google changed their policy. Use the source code and Who Is tools to research legal issues. The debate as to whether third parties should have the right to bid on their competitors' brand names has been underway for years. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) also issued a letter[16] in 2002 about the importance of disclosure of paid advertising on search engines. Who Is tools: show you who owns and operates various Web sites. and Marketleap's Link Popularity and Search Engine Saturation. There are three major tools used by EBSCO: (a) log file analyzing tool: WebTrends by NetiQ. allowing 3rd parties to bid on branded terms as long as their landing page in fact provides information on the trademarked term. and (c) use those key phrases on the site in a way that will generate and convert traffic. highlighting potential problems and many usability issues ensure your website meets W3C code standards. Major SEM Tools There are four categories of tools to help you optimize Web sites.

2. The assistance of AdWord canvass could contribute to the huge success in the growth of web traffic for a number of its consumer’s website. Install good tracking software. businesses.[23] The use of SEM strategic tools for businesses such as tourism can attract potential consumers to view their products but it could also pose various challenges. Pursue link building and partnerships. businesses.[23] To assist the combat of challenges.g. Validate your keywords by testing and refining them with your keyword selector tools such as Yahoo Keyword Selector. Research on your target audience. Examples of Best Practice A successful SEM project was undertaken by one of London’s top SEM companies involving AdWords. Check your current ranking. thus the payment of the service only applies if their advert has been clicked on. 3. blogs. The following are the steps to a successful SEM plan:[21] 1. Optimise the website by improving your web design and architecture and web page content. 4. Moreover. SEM companies have embarked on AdWords projects as a way to publicize their SEM and SEO services.[22] 10.Search engine marketing 221 SEM plan Through trial and error you will be able to see how SEM drives highly targeted visitors to your online exhibitions. track and analyse your performance for better results. and search engines. by as much as 250% in only nine months. Therefore search engines are adjusting and developing algorithms and the shifting criteria by which web pages are ranked sequentially to combat against search engine misuse and spamming. Google Keyword Selector. Google Trends and Keyword Discovery.[4] AdWords project has enabled SEM companies to train their clients on the utensil and delivers better performance to the canvass. Build an initial list of important keywords that represent your current and most relevant content and potential content. This project is highly practical for advertisers as the project hinges on cost-per-click (CPC) pricing. offering added value to consumers who endeavor to employ AdWords for promoting their products and services.[4] One of the most successful approaches to the strategy of this project was to focus on making sure that PPC advertising funds were prudently invested. Colonise the Web by publishing and circulating it in wiki.[4] Another example of a successful SEM plan is the approach to capture the relationships amongst information searchers. AdWords is recognised as a web-based advertising utensil [4] since it adopts keywords which can deliver adverts explicitly to web users looking for information in respect to a certain product or service. The use of free utensils “Conversion tracking” and “Google Analytics” was deemed to be practical for presenting to clients the performance of their canvass from click to conversion. Set your online goals and key performance indicators. 7. 8. SEM companies have described AdWords as a fine practical tool for increasing a consumer’s investment earnings on Internet advertising. 9. . the use of search engines for accessing information has become vital to increase business opportunities.[23] This could enhance the relationship amongst information searchers. Get in the news such as Google News with RSS feeds. 6. and search engines by understanding the strategies of marketing to attract business. and video and picture sites(e. Flickr and Youtube).[23] These challenges could be the competition that companies face amongst their industry and other sources of information that could draw the attention of online consumers. This promotion has helped their business elaborate. Search engines were not important to some industries in the past but over the past years. and to supply the most relevant information to searchers. the main objective for businesses applying SEM is to improve and maintain their ranking as high as possible on SERPs so that they can gain visibility. 5.

February 8. Retrieved 2007-06-09. searchenginewatch. [22] Girdwood. Daniel (2008). third of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. psu. AccuraCast. news. "How search engine marketing tools can work for you: or searching is really all about finding. Retrieved 2011-03-21.org. nytimes. com/ hww/ results/ external_link_maincontentframe. . . Bing Pan.com. ACM Transactions on the Web. Information Outlook. . [13] "False Oracles: Consumer Reaction to Learning the Truth About How Search Engines Work (Abstract)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-06-09. . Terry Brainerd (July 2005). html?page=2164351). . June 30. consumerwebwatch. Terry Brainerd (October 2005). com. pdf) (PDF). ad text trademark policy" (http:/ / adwords. consumerwebwatch. Terry Brainerd (November 2005). [16] "Re: Complaint Requesting Investigation of Various Internet Search Engine Companies for Paid Placement or ([[Pay per click (http:/ / www.org.org.S. Rob Law. 2007.com. "More Agencies Investing in Marketing With a Click" (http:/ / www. . "Assessing the Visibility of Destination Marketing Organizations in Google: A Case Study of Convention and Visitor Bureau Websites in the United States" (http:/ / www. com/ 070208-095009. [19] Chadwick. about. [8] "GoTo Sells Positions" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. [7] "Engine sells results. Retrieved 2010-07-15. news.com. Retrieved 2007-06-09. "Your website: greater visibility and return of investment through search engine marketing" (http:/ / vnweb. [18] Chadwick. . com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_11_9/ ai_n15966835/ ?tag=content. Retrieved 2007-06-09. cfm). Retrieved 2011-03-21. [23] Zheng Xiang. consumerwebwatch. 44). Andrew (February 21. [4] "Google Adwords Case Study" (http:/ / www. March 3. . com/ 2100-1023-215491. . first of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. [5] Susan Ward (2011). pdf). Fesenmaier (June 7. pdf). com/ 3641916).com. [2] "The State of Search Engine Marketing 2006" (http:/ / searchengineland. B.Search engine marketing 222 References [1] "Does SEM = SEO + CPC Still Add Up?" (http:/ / searchengineland. About. 2002. accuracast. 2004. "14 Tips for Making the Most of Feeds" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. html?ex=1299992400& en=6fcd30b948dd1312& ei=5088). com/ images/ case-google. com/ 2009/ 05/ update-to-us-ad-text-trademark-policy. . [12] "Congratulations! You're A Search Engine Marketer!" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. org/ dynamic/ search-report-false-oracles-abstract. New York Times. Retrieved 2007-06-09. com/ showPage. Retrieved 2011-03-21. Retrieved 2010-07-15. blogspot. Retrieved 2007-06-09. June 21. com/ GoTo+ gambles+ with+ new+ name/ 2100-1023_3-272795. adwords. draws fire" (http:/ / news. . com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_10_9/ ai_n15890934/ ?tag=content. "Social Media Marketing" (http:/ / sbinfocanada. [6] Elliott.com. . informaworld. Search Engine Watch. com/ index/ 929886653. cfm). . [10] Jansen. com/ od/ socialmedia/ g/ socmedmarketing. Retrieved 2011-04-22. jhtml?_DARGS=/ hww/ results/ results_common. "How search engine marketing tools can work for you. 1998. . 2001. and Daniel R. Retrieved 2007-06-09.col). consumerwebwatch. . 2010). Retrieved 2011-03-21.com.col1). Search Engine Land. marketingterms. shtm)])"]. searching is really all about finding. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_7_9/ ai_n14889940/ ). "The Comparative Effectiveness of Sponsored and Nonsponsored Links for Web E-commerce Queries" (http:/ / ist. Stuart (March 14. marketingterms. [3] "Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / www. Second of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. jhtml?articleID=223000099). html?page=2165971). (May 2007). searching is really all about finding. jhtml. Retrieved 2007-06-09. edu/ faculty_pages/ jjansen/ academic/ pubs/ jansen_tweb_sponsored_links.. com/ news/ windows/ microsoft_news/ showArticle. com. Retrieved 2010-04-22. html). or. html). php). searchengineland. J. 1996. . Retrieved 2011-04-22. 2005. November 8. com/ 2006/ 03/ 14/ business/ media/ 14adco. informationweek. informationweek. com/ does-sem-seo-cpc-still-add-up-37297).com. 2007. 2009.com. html). [15] "Still in Search of Disclosure: Re-evaluating How Search Engines Explain the Presence of Advertising in Search Results" (http:/ / www. 2001. [11] "Microsoft-Yahoo Deal Gets Green Light" (http:/ / www. 2003. June 9. June 22. consumerwebwatch. . com/ showPage. 2010. Retrieved 2007-06-07. February 18. [17] "Update to U. Information Outlook. .com. Retrieved 2011-03-30. [14] "Searching for Disclosure: How Search Engines Alert Consumers to the Presence of Advertising in Search Results" (http:/ / www. ftc. htm). hwwilsonweb. Information Outlook. gov/ os/ closings/ staff/ commercialalertletter. [20] Chadwick. Retrieved 2007-06-09.gov. searchenginewatch. [9] "GoTo gambles with new name" (http:/ / news. org/ dynamic/ search-report-disclosure-update-abstract. "How search engine marketing tools can work for you: or. November 5. cfm). Retrieved 2011-03-21. com/ dictionary/ search_engine_optimization/ ). . .com. consumerwebwatch. .blogspot. org/ dynamic/ search-report-disclosure-abstract. September 10. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. 2011). Retrieved 2010-03-05. ftc.com. . 2006). Retrieved 2007-06-07. . [21] Feeny. . May 14.

such as in the title tag and the Meta Tag of the page's code. Together they will not only rewrite text but also alter the code to design a page that is most favored by search engines. search engine designers today do not disclose the complex algorithmic processes of their search engines. Attempting to keep themselves competitive and defending against the composition strategies of so-called black hat SEOs. However. however. While an obvious goal of SEO copywriting is to cause the business's or product's web page to rank highly in a search. SEO copywriting requires finesse and repeated experimentation to assess how the team's page revisions will fare in a potential customer's search. SEO copywriters often work with "optimizers" who are more expert in the technical aspects of SEO. the placement of the keywords. there are freelance copywriters who hire out their services solely for SEO. It is not a clear. effectively persuasive text for a well-written web page.Search engine optimization copywriting 223 Search engine optimization copywriting Search engine optimization (SEO) copywriting is textual composition for web page marketing that emphasizes skillful manipulation of the page's wording to place it among the first results of a user's search list. scientific process. while still producing readable and persuasive content. it becomes a costly resource inducing potential buyers to turn away from the site rather than generating sales. The text appearing at specific locations. SEO copywriting is most often one of the various jobs of a copywriter. Writing that "optimizes" a search but offers little useful information or only weak persuasion is frowned upon in the profession as ineffective. and copywriting agencies that offer SEO copywriting as part of comprehensive writing and editing services. In spite of the insights of optimizing technicians. because search engines compare information found there with other pages to determine relevance. References . SEO copywriters also strive for unique written content on the page. Other factors that determine relevance during a search are the page's Keyword Density. distinguishing it from similar pages competing for placement in the search results. The foremost goal of SEO copywriting is to produce succinct. gets special attention during SEO. At its worst. agencies and firms that specialize in SEO (including SEO copywriting). and the number of links to and from the page from other pages. However. most experts in the field would argue that it is of secondary priority.

and presents a new approach to SEM[1] . boston.Search retargeting 224 Search retargeting Search retargeting is a form of behavioral retargeting employed by online marketers that target an audience based on the previous searches they conduct on other websites. html).[1] Unlike site retargeting or site remarketing. . com/ content/ 27071. "It’s Hiring Time" (http:/ / www. Search retargeting is similar to search engine marketing (SEM) ) except that the ads displayed are banner ads which do not appear on search engine results pages.com. 2011). [2] Kent Bernhard. Chango Inc. "Skyword launches search platform" (http:/ / www. Jr (March 8.com) .skyword.com. iMedia Connection. search retargeting is designed to find new customers which have likely never been to a marketers website before.fi offer search retargeting capabilities. Search-Driven Media Search-Driven Media or SDM. 2010-06-30. com/ business/ ticker/ 2010/ 12/ skyword_launche. . Skyword’s SDM platform “enables writers to create content for partners from consumer to media brands …that is optimized for search and social media to drive more readers to that content. portfolio. Portfolio. External links • Skyword Inc (http://www. Retrieved 2011-03-11. Retrieved 2011-03-11. Boston. References [1] "Hot companies for search retargeting" (http:/ / www. . asp). Magnetic and Simpli. imediaconnection. was created by Skyword.” [2] References [1] Globe Staff (December 20. com/ business-news/ 2011/ 03/ 08/ nfib-report-shows-small-business-more-inclined-to-hire-and-skyword-reflects-that-and-other-trends#ixzz1GK2yyE9j). in various forms. 2010).

org/2001/sw/) • The Semantic Web: An Introduction (http://infomesh. Cookies are the subject of controversy due to privacy issues. Semantic advertising increases the chance that the viewer will click-thru because only advertising relevant to what they are viewing. and therefore their interests. such as the pages they have visited or the searches they have made. In fact. For example.Semantic advertising 225 Semantic advertising Semantic advertising applies semantic technologies to online advertising solutions. i. com/ blogs/ ssg/ ?p=366 http:/ / europa. An automated function loads advertisements onto the web page based on the text. a web page containing the word “jaguar” may generate ads about zoos and cars. org/ ojr/ stories/ 050706glaser/ http:/ / www. Behavioral targeting uses information collected on an individual's web-browsing behavior. contextual advertising technology bases web page advertising on a keyword scan of the text of a website or Internet search. should be displayed.[3] [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.scribemedia. many platforms identify visitors by assigning a unique HTTP cookie that tracks the web pages they visit. searchenginejournal. keywords can have various meanings. The function of semantic advertising technology is to semantically analyze every web page in order to properly understand and classify the meaning of a web page and accordingly ensure that the web page contains the most appropriate advertising. mainstream techniques for identifying these interests—contextual advertising and behavioral targeting—are problematic[1] [2] .applied semantics (http://smartcontentconference. htm External links • W3C Semantic Web Activity (http://www.org/2010/08/ targeting-reaching-the-right-audience-online-2/) • Smart content conference .w3. However. com/ critical-flaws-in-googles-behavioral-targeting-puts-advertisers-at-risk/ 5898/ http:/ / www..html/) . ojr. to select which advertisements to display to that individual. the United States and European governments have taken action towards restricting their use.com/agendafull. However. Semantic analysis of a web page provides an understating of its overall meaning in the semantic approach. However. By comparison.e. eu/ scadplus/ leg/ en/ lvb/ l24120. The Evolution of Online Advertising Advertising on the Internet has the potential to be finely narrowcast. specifically adjusted to the interests of the individual viewer. The very different nature of these contextual results means that someone’s advertising budget is not being spent wisely.net/2001/swintro/) • IAB Seminar on Semantic and Behavioral Targeting (http://iab. itbusinessedge.

. The evolution of online advertising The targeting of advertising to specific micro segments is a fundamental requirement for an effective ad campaign. However. a mountain bike. The Semantic Web enables the representation of concepts expressed in human language to data in such a way that facilitates automatic processing. If a match is made the ad is placed alongside the content. golf holidays etc.[8] For example. It is now generally accepted that these forms have pitfalls for both advertiser and consumer. Origins Semantic Targeting has originated from the developments arising from Semantic Web. great concern is expressed about the treatment of the user's right to privacy amongst consumer groups and legislators.[1] [2] Contextual advertising scans the content of webpages. The cookie then reports the user's viewing behavior allowing for the identification of patterns of viewing behavior. A semantic targeting system has to examine all the words before it can accurately identify the subject matter of the entire text and deliver an in context advertisement.e. If the page was being detrimental about a particular subject.Semantic targeting 226 Semantic targeting Semantic targeting is a technique enabling the delivery of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites and is used by online publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns. How semantic targeting works Semantic targeting aims to match the specific context of content on page within a website to an available advertising campaign. the semantic targeting system could deter the placement of a related ad alongside the story. derogatory or insensitive to the subject. such as golf equipment. have more than one meaning. the user may see advertisements for golf related topics. Generally this is facilitated by the placing of a cookie upon the user's PC. ensuring that their ads will only appear in the context that they request. through an automated process. without having an understanding of the true context in which words occur. where that website uses semantic targeting. seeking to identify keywords. a semantic system examines all the words and identifies the senses of those words. a telecommunications company. the word "orange" can be a color. where software can programmatically understand and reason how different elements of data are related. i. against which advertisers have bid to have their ad linked. Behavioral targeting aggregates data based upon a user's viewing of pages from a website. However.[7] Because most words are polysemous. Semantic targeting is also capable of identifying the sentiment of a webpage. enabling marketers to deliver highly targeted and specific ad campaigns to webpages. it is possible to incorrectly assign an advertisement where there is no contextual link. through effective analysis of the language used on page. such systems are unable to identify the context of the entire page and therefore. The two methods of targeting of recent times have been behavioral targeting and contextual targeting. A key difference of semantic targeting to a contextual advertising system is that. For example. leading to a misplacement of ads. The selection of advertisements are served by automated systems based on the content displayed to the user. Advertisers can locate their ads in given categories using an ontology (computer science) or taxonomy. instead of scanning a page for bided keywords. a fruit. and countless other variants. The concept of semantic targeting utilises this capability to identify these concepts and the contexts in which they occur.[3] [4] [5] [6] They are also unable to identify the sense or meaning of words. if the user is viewing a website relating to golf. a placement could be made against content that is inappropriate. Sentiment analysis can determine whether content is talking about a subject in a positive or negative light.

. com/ 194/ steve-irwins-death-contextual-advertising-gone-bad).06.02. External links • Skyword Inc (http://www.com.com. etre. fis. [5] "When Contextual Advertising Goes Horribly Wrong" (http:/ / mashable. iChief marketing technologist. Skyword Skyword Inc provides a Search-Driven Media (SDM) platform[1] that is designed to enable brands to reach their customers via natural search and the social web through content written by experts.skyword. 2006-09-05.11. . . etre. Retrieved 2008-10-10. php?id=68). 2008-12-20. php?id=68) on 2008-02-13. [3] Galen Moore (December 20. 2010[4] and was founded by Tom Gerace. isense. for example. Retrieved 2011-03-04. Retrieved 2010-12-20. Shmula.[3] The company officially launched on December 20. ftc. Retrieved 2008-10-10. isense. Retrieved 2008-10-10. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.archive. 2010). dowjones. "Gather Rebrands As Skyword. 2008-07-01. . . "Q & A Prof. com/ 2008/ 06/ 19/ contextual-advertising/ ). html). This can enable the blocking of an ad placed alongside content of a controversial nature.net (copy on web. html#articleTabs=article). Retrieved 2008-10-10. com/ boston/ news/ 2010/ 12/ 20/ gather-inc-rebrands-as-skyword. . Dow Jones Financial Services. References [1] Sara Murray (January 11. Nudity. . 2011). Mashable. bizjournals. net/ index. CNN. This would then avoid the potentially brand damaging occurrence of. Boston Globe.[2] Skyword’s customers include Procter & Gamble’s Pampers brand and impreMedia. com/ 2008/ 09/ semantic-advertising-of-4-different-kinds.org). 2010). com/ business/ ticker/ 2010/ 12/ skyword_launche. ads/ ). (2008-09-13). cnn.19. 2010). [4] Globe Staff (December 20. Retrieved 2010-10-20. e-consultancy. html). com/ 2008/ POLITICS/ 07/ 01/ mccain. [2] Dow Jones Staff (December 22. . html). Retrieved 2011-03-28. "Gather Inc. Offensive language. com/ article/ SB10001424052748703791904576075702148687890.com. "Semantic advertising: 4 different kinds" (http:/ / www. 2008. [6] "McCain campaign pulls ads from some anti-Obama Web sites" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20080213195315/ http:/ / www. Wall Street Journal. net/ index. Federal Trade Commission. Boston Business Journal. boston. shtm). com/ blog/ 2007/ 11/ contextual_advertising_gone_bad/ ). [3] "Steve Irwin’s Death : Contextual Advertising Gone Bad" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-12-20. isense. and airline advertising alongside a story about an air disaster.Semantic targeting Other capabilities of a semantic targeting system include the availability of brand protection filtering. shmula.[9] 227 References [1] Renee Boucher Ferguson (2008-03-27). eweek. [4] "Contextual advertising gone bad" (http:/ / www. "Job Openings Fall in Tough Market" (http:/ / online. Retrieved 2008-10-10. E-week.com) . . Launches Search-Driven Media Platform" (https:/ / www. Such systems can deter placement against such subjects as Adult/Erotica. 2007. [7] Graham Charlton (2008-05-16). html). [8] "Semantic Targeting" (http:/ / web. Retrieved 2008-10-10. . "A Battle Is Brewing Over Online Behavioral Advertising" (http:/ / www. Alcohol. Retrieved 2008-10-10. . "Skyword launches search platform" (http:/ / www. e-consultancy. aspx?ProductIDFromApplication=32& aid=DJFVW00020101221e6cm000um& r=Rss& s=DJFVW).com. [2] "FTC Staff Proposes Online Behavioral Advertising Privacy Principles" (http:/ / www.com. com/ c/ a/ Enterprise-Applications/ A-Battle-Is-Brewing-Over-Online-Behavioral-Advertising-Market/ ). com/ news-blog/ 365601/ q-a-prof-david-crystal-and-sacha-carton-on-semantic-targeting. David Crystal & Sacha Carton on semantic targeting" (http:/ / www. creates new brand" (http:/ / www. archive. wsj. com/ article. chiefmartec. gov/ opa/ 2007/ 12/ principles. Retrieved 2008-10-10. Bad News and other such topics. . . [9] Scott Brinker.

4. 3. business development and more).Social media optimization 228 Social media optimization Social Media Optimization (or SMO or Social SEO) is the methodization of social media activity with the intent of attracting unique visitors to website content. Russian. social news and sharing buttons. SMO is one of many online methods of website optimization. Hebrew and recently also in Thai. video and photo sharing websites. user rating and polling tools. including: RSS feeds. participating in discussion groups. Four years after the initial post. primarily the focus on driving traffic from sources other than search engines. the term "social media optimization" was first used and described by Rohit Bhargava. Origins According to search engine expert Danny Sullivan[2] . Additionally. 5. is not limited to marketing and brand building. Social Media Optimization is in many ways connected as a technique to viral marketing where word of mouth is created not through friends or family but through the use of networking in social bookmarking. recruiting. commenting on other blogs. employee engagement and turnover. product/service development. One of the many other methods is search engine optimization or SEO. and incorporating third-party community functionalities like images and videos (b) Promotional activities in social media aside from the content being promoted. 3. Increase your linkability Make tagging and bookmarking easy Reward inbound links Help your content travel Encourage the mashup Get communities connected Several authors added new rules to the original post. 2. which were translated into French. Italian. Social Media Optimization (SMO). Greek. 2. brand building. Portuguese. Spanish. 5. Bhargava's original five rules for conducting social media optimization are:[3] 1. though improved search ranking is also a benefit of successful SMO. but differs in several ways. German. Increasingly smart businesses are integrating social media participation as part of their knowledge management strategy (ie. 4. allowing for a healthy business to consumer relationship . Dutch. Social Media Optimization is often at times implemented to foster a [1] community of the associated site. Social Media Optimization is considered an integral part of an online reputation management (ORM) or Search Engine Reputation Management (SERM) strategy for organizations or individuals who care about their online presence. In a similar way the engagement with blogs achieves the same by sharing content through the use of RSS in the blogosphere and special blog search engines. customer satisfaction and relations. 6. There are two categories of SMO/Social SEO methods: (a) Social media features added to the content itself. Rohit Bhargava posted an updated set of five new rules. Create shareable content Make sharing easy Reward engagement Proactively share content Encourage the mashup . and posting status updates on social networking profiles Social Media Optimization is related to search engine marketing.[4] 1. including: blogging. Japanese. Today there are 16 rules.

Retrieved 22 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.com. dreamgrow. 2006). a virtual stock exchange where players buy and sell shares of each other's social network worth.[5] 229 Social media gaming Social media gaming is online gaming activity performed through social media sites with followers/friends and online gaming activity that promotes social media interaction. In Empire Avenue a player's worth is linked to their social media influence and activity as well as that of the other players they have invested virtual currency in. com/ 2010/ 02/ 24/ empire-avenue-creates-a-stock-market-to-measure-your-social-influence/ ). com/ blog/ 060829-150053).[9] [10] [11] Nielsen Media Research estimates that.typepad. In these games a player's social network is exploited to recruit additional players and allies. [8] "How Big Is Social Media Gaming? How About 56 Million Strong" (http:/ / www. com/ apps/ 2010/ 07/ 26/ empire-avenue-the-stockmarket-where-youre-for-sale-invites/ ). Retrieved 22 March 2011. nielsen. Retrieved 2007-09-06.net. . [6] "Why Social Media Gaming Is Big Business for Your Business" (http:/ / www. the stockmarket where YOU’RE for sale" (http:/ / thenextweb. com/ weblog/ 2006/ 08/ 5_rules_of_soci. And The New King Is SMO" (http:/ / digitalquarters. "5 Rules of Social Media Optimization (SMO)" (http:/ / rohitbhargava. crunchbase. Retrieved 2010-11-27. . "Social Media Optimization: It's Like SEO. social networks and online games account for about 1/3 of all online activity by Americans. rohitbhargava. 2006). typepad. . blog. . blogherald.com. [2] Danny Sullivan (August 29. Retrieved 22 March 2011. entrepreneur and blogger Ben Elowitz proposed as SMO as a broader set of online marketing strategies for all published websites in an era where social platforms are ubiquitous. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 2010). html).com. venturebeat. . Retrieved 13 December 2011.[12] References [1] "Face Book SEO" (http:/ / www. com/ facebook-seo/ ). . Retrieved 22 March 2011. com/ company/ empire-avenue). com/ social-media-gaming-infographic/ ). socialnetworkingseo.searchenginewatch. [3] Rohit Bhargava (August 10. . net/ 2010/ 10/ seo-is-dead-and-the-new-king-is- smo / ). .[6] [7] [8] An example of the latter is Empire Avenue. FrontierVille.Social media optimization Around the same time. . . [10] "Empire Avenue" (http:/ / www. . com/ 2010/ 08/ the-5-new-rules-of-social-media-optimization-smo. Retrieved 2007-09-06. [7] "Social Media Gaming Infographic" (http:/ / www. For Social Sites" (http:/ / blog. com/ nielsenwire/ online_mobile/ what-americans-do-online-social-media-and-games-dominate-activity/ ).typepad. digitalquarters. rohitbhargava. searchenginewatch. com/ 2010/ 08/ 24/ how-big-is-social-media-gaming-how-about-56-million-strong/ ). [12] "What Americans Do Online: Social Media And Games Dominate Activity" (http:/ / blog. socialmediaexaminer. com/ why-social-media-gaming-is-big-business-for-your-business/ ). Retrieved 2010-11-24. . 2010). [4] Rohit Bhargava (August 10. as of June 2010. rohitbhargava. Retrieved 22 March 2011. [11] "Empire Avenue creates a stock market to measure your social influence" (http:/ / games. "SEO Is Dead. [9] "Empire Avenue. html). This game design promotes social media interaction as a means to attaining higher value in Empire Avenue market rankings. Examples of the former include FarmVille. . "The 5 NEW Rules of Social Media Optimization (SMO)" (http:/ / www. [5] Ben Elowitz (October 27. and Mafia Wars.

adworld." In other words. in the second loop of customer interaction.Double loop marketing 230 Double loop marketing Double Loop Marketing[1] [2] is based upon the notion that in today's information-rich world. Retrieved 25 April 2009. edu/ library/ webinars/ double-loop-marketing/ ). smeal. References [1] "ADWORLD Knowledge Center" (http:/ / www. Only after such a site achieves credibility among its community of readers can the company. A company must first develop "mind share” by building a site that offers genuinely-useful information and advice to consumers. . Retrieved 25 April 2009. marketing must of necessity be people and knowledge-driven rather than product driven. . try to convert that "mind share" into "wallet share. It is related to relationship marketing and Seth Godin's idea of permission marketing. first community. . Christian Sarkar. [2] "Penn State Smeal College of Business" (http:/ / isbm. This is the first loop of the firm's interaction with customers. Double Loop Marketing is an idea of online-marketing consultant. ie/ knowledgecentre/ read?id=cd2b127b-12a5-4238-86dc-e3f91c2549e5). then commerce. psu.

• Antonym for this usage: Traditional marketing (outbound marketing) is a marketing strategy that focuses on finding customers by building brand awareness through advertising and promotion. Peter Drucker believed[6] this to be the quintessence of marketing. In contrast to "permission marketing. and product or service capability. pieces of information about customer needs and interests. This sense is related to the term product management (product ownership in Scrum). respectively). • Antonym for this usage: Outbound marketing is marketing communications. This sense is related to . not customers themselves. • One pair of definitions[1] [2] are: • Inbound marketing is a marketing strategy that focuses on getting found by customers. claims he coined the usage of the term in this sense. Knowledge of customer needs drives future company offerings. David Meerman Scott recommends[3] that marketers "earn their way in" (via publishing helpful information on a blog etc. or paying commissioned sales people. issuing press releases in the hope they get picked up by the trade press." • An older pair of definitions[5] are: • Inbound marketing is market research. cofounder and CEO of HubSpot. In this sense.) in contrast to outbound marketing where they used to have to "buy. information about finished product capability flows out to prospective customers who have a need for it. or bug their way in" (via paid advertisements." a pejorative term for this type of marketing is "interruption marketing. This sense is related to relationship marketing and Seth Godin's idea of permission marketing. [4] Brian Halligan. beg. flow into the company.Inbound marketing 231 Inbound marketing Marketing Key concepts Product • Pricing Distribution • Service • Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Marketing ethics Marketing effectiveness Market research Market segmentation Marketing strategy Marketing management Market dominance Promotional content Advertising • Branding • Underwriting Direct marketing • Personal Sales Product placement • Publicity Sales promotion • Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing • Premiums • Prizes Promotional media Printing • Publication Broadcasting • Out-of-home Internet marketing • Point of sale Promotional merchandise Digital marketing • In-game In-store demonstration Word-of-mouth marketing Brand Ambassador • Drip Marketing Inbound Marketing and its opposite Outbound Marketing have various meanings depending on the context. In contrast to the above.

and Sirius satellite radio. LinkedIn. etc. outbound marketing Brian Halligan. the cost of coordination around learning about something new or shopping for something new using the internet (search engines. The Direct Marketing Association [26] (DMA) • EBooks: eBooks. telemarketing/cold calls. inbound marketing relies on the principle that visitors find and come to you. Facebook [13]. etc. Using inbound marketing. Halligan describes why outbound marketing techniques are becoming less effective: “Your average human today is inundated with over 2000 outbound marketing interruptions per day and is figuring out more and more creative ways to block them out. eBooks. Xanga [21] • Videos: YouTube [22]. etc. Search Engine Optimization increases the rank of the content and makes it more accessible. Second. Third. and social media sites) is now much lower than going to a seminar at the Marriott or flying to a trade show in Las Vegas. coined the term inbound marketing. white papers. OpenDiary [18]. commercials. This form of inbound marketing refers to information or tools that attract potential customers to the business or site[9] Some examples of content-publishing sites for inbound marketing purposes include: . etc. social media media(Twitter [11]. spam filtering. Facebook. Content (Blogs.[7] . white papers.”[9] . WordPress [15]. including caller ID. In outbound marketing. white paper.) continue to spread the content.). Linked In [12]. etc. the customer is in control. ExpressionEngine [16]. eBook.) The most successful inbound marketing campaigns contain all three key components[9] First. Outbound marketing. People are more in control of what information they receive and how. TypePad [19]. blogs. in the newer of the two senses. NetLibrary • Blogs: Blogger [14]. inbound marketing content is created and published using the medium of choice (blog.) Content is the substance of an inbound marketing campaign. is a response to the recent change in consumer behavior. targets a broad audience using print ads. etc. Dailymotion [23]. direct mail/e-mail. eBooks.Inbound marketing the term product marketing. CEO & Founder of HubSpot. Inbound marketing involves getting found by potential customers through search (opposite of Outbound Marketing). Rather than interrupting people to get their attention with emails. 232 Inbound vs. videos.) • SEO (Search Engine Optimization and keyword analysis) • Social media (Twitter [11]. LiveJournal [17].Brian Halligan. The shift from outbound to inbound marketing has led to new mediums of outreach to the public.[8] Inbound marketing. HubSpot [10] Types of inbound marketing Inbound marketing mediums are broken down into three categories: • Content (Blogs. video. (outbound marketing). the company is in control. TiVo. Second. television ads. also referred to as “old marketing” or traditional marketing. cold calls. Vox [20] . videos. etc. Metacafe [24] • White Papers: WhitePaperSource [25]. or “new marketing” and modern marketing.

conducted a 2010 study titled “The State of Inbound Marketing” [31]. divides the benefits of inbound marketing into two main categories: cost effectiveness and better targeting. in response to an economic recession.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content.[29] In 2008. conducted independent research into the return on investment of companies using HubSpot software for inbound marketing purposes.”[28] In inbound marketing. Most content of inbound marketing is created and generated on web sites that are free of charge. rent booths at trade shows. Bing. Cost effectiveness In 2001. Sloan School of Management graduate student. HubSpot’s major finding was that inbound marketing focused businesses have a 60% lower cost per lead[33] – less money is utilized to produce more results.Inbound marketing 233 SEO (Search Engine Optimization & keyword analysis) Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a web site in search engines. LinkedIn. or pay-per-click advertising. the Dow Jones Industrial Average depicts businesses shifting marketing dollars into search engine advertising. businesses again began shifting money out of expensive paid search advertising into inbound marketing. CEO of HubSpot and initiator of “inbound marketing”.[32] This study analyzed data from businesses about what types of marketing programs deliver the best return on investment. In inbound marketing. inbound marketing is a more efficient way of allocating money than outbound marketing[29] Brian Halligan. Social media (Twitter. another economic recession began. Facebook.T. Benefits of inbound marketing In an economic recession. In January 2010. Melissa DiBella. social media channels increase the impact of the content. .) The term “social media” does not have one universal definition. Yahoo!. Inbound marketing costs less than outbound marketing. such as Twitter [30] or [13] Facebook. etc. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.I. Most consumers begin their buying process by using a search engine (Google. another analysis of inbound marketing was conducted by an M. Outbound marketing becomes expensive since companies use money to buy advertisements or e-mail lists. The cost effectiveness of the shift from outbound to inbound marketing can be measured using a Return on Investment (ROI). an inbound marketing agency. etc. class of 2010.[27] SEO considers how search engines work and what people are searching for.). etc. Search engine optimization is the practice of building up a web site to maximize its ranking in search engines results. SEO allows companies to be found more. AOL Search. Ask. The complete report of “Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software” [34][35] can be viewed online. HubSpot. In response.

hubspot. HubSpot CEO & Co-Founder" (http:/ / inboundmarketing. (http:/ / www. and Blogs.000 Facebook followers.[36] Notes [1] Vittal. 2007). Jennifer (January 9. (2010).”[36] . Social Media. Carter. But the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. Management: Tasks. Inbound Marketing. [3] David Meerman Scott. Instead of identifying a target audience. typepad.). . "Marketing .: John Wiley & Sons Inc.BarackObama. Brian Halligan. pp. Inbound marketing only targets individuals who self-qualify themselves[29] by demonstrating an interest in your content.Chris Hughes. was hired as Obama’s Internet Strategist. hubspot. Hoboken. Responsibilities. Obama had less funding and could not compete with Clinton’s e-mails. ISBN 0470547812. Outbound Marketing. NY: Harper & Row. News Releases. "Outbound vs. Elana. com [12] http:/ / linkedin. com/ growthguy/ 2010/ 03/ marketing-is-fun-again-brian-halligan-inbound-marketing-chapter-2-best-video. Retrieved 2009. Successes in inbound marketing In the 2008 presidential campaign. Brian (2010). statistics show only 1-3% of all targeted consumers respond[8] – 97% of all marketing efforts go to waste. The Growth Guy. 864. ISBN 0470499311. . getting 3. forrester. twitter. N.00. All that should be needed then is to make the product or service available. New York.7211. . be need for some selling. BarackObamadotcom YouTube On June 4. [6] Drucker. Obama was a first-term senator from Illinois running against the well-known and funded New York State senator. (1974). [9] Halligan. online networks—and then equip them with the tools to spread the campaign’s message using network technology such as My. [5] McNamara. org/ mrktng/ mrktng. Ideally.Inbound marketing 234 Better targeting Outbound marketing techniques target a broad audience. @BarackObama Twitter. Online Video.. and Viral Marketing to Reach Buyers Directly.[38] Obama used his Facebook account to create a “register to vote” function. [8] HubSpot." [7] Harnish. [4] "Brian Halligan. html). Initially. com/ Research/ Document/ Excerpt/ 0. Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google. We tried to open as many direct channels of communication as possible—using e-mail. ISBN 0-06-011092-9. Peter F. "Marketing Is Fun Again. direct mail campaigns. 2009.000. John Wiley & Sons Inc. [2] Halligan. Inbound Marketing Chapter 2. com [11] http:/ / www. aspx) HubSpot. Brian.40760." (http:/ / www. Barack Obama connected with voters using the following inbound marketing techniques:[36] Organizing for America blog.A Commonly Misunderstood Term" (http:/ / managementhelp. htm) (2 ed. telemarketing. "How Technology Enables Inbound Marketing: Evaluate Interaction Management To Optimize Real-Time Recommendations" (http:/ / www. Best Video” (http:/ / verneharnish. Barack Obama used inbound marketing to beat Hillary Clinton in the democratic primary[36] Up until the 2008 election. . com . 2008.[36] Hughes explains how the Obama campaign employed inbound marketing: “The aim of our online campaign was to help individuals understand the values of Barack Obama and of our campaign and then to make it as easy as possible for them to actively engage with the campaign’s work. co-founder of Facebook.. [10] http:/ / hubspot. companies using outbound marketing reach out to all consumers. Joseph. InboundMarketing. one can assume. marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy. htm). Barack Obama Facebook. Retrieved May 7. "Inbound Marketing vs.org. (2010). Practices.April 19. Senator Barack Obama became the democratic nominee for president of the United States. Dharmesh (2009). Anderson. and television and radio advertisements[36] Chris Hughes. davidmeermanscott. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Shah. Blogs.com [37] and Facebook. The New Rules of Marketing and PR: How to Use Social Media. com/ brian). Suresh. Clinton. text messages. Barack Obama LinkedIn. As a result. "There will always. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 2989/ Inbound-Marketing-vs-Outbound-Marketing.J. Verne (2010). During the 2008 presidential race. Inc. html). com/ books." (http:/ / blog. com/ Outbound-vs-Inbound-Marketing/ ) HubSpot.

wikipedia. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. Print. com [14] http:/ / www. cnn. "The State of Inbound Marketing 2010. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs/ 2010+ ROI+ Report. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ resellers/ reports/ state_of_inbound_marketing. com/ Default. BarackObama. com [22] http:/ / www. com/ 2008/ POLITICS/ 06/ 03/ election. aspx) HubSpot Blog. pdf) HubSpot. Rick (2008). and Blogs. org/ wiki/ Social_media [29] Burnes. com [24] http:/ / www. 2010. [34] http:/ / www. com [16] http:/ / expressionengine. hubspot. dailymotion. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ resellers/ reports/ state_of_inbound_marketing. pdf [32] HubSpot. com [21] http:/ / xanga. com [17] http:/ / livejournal." (http:/ / www. com [15] http:/ / wordpress. hubspot. "Inbound Marketing & the Next Phase of Marketing on the Web. hubspot. Social Media.com" (http:/ / www. com [38] "Obama: I Will Be the Democratic Nominee . com [20] http:/ / vox.com. com [31] http:/ / www." HubSpot." (http:/ / www. (2010). com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4416/ Inbound-Marketing-the-Next-Phase-of-Marketing-on-the-Web. Cable News Network. "The State of Inbound Marketing 2010. Melissa (2010). com [19] http:/ / typepad. com [26] http:/ / the-dma. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs%2f2010+ ROI+ Report. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software. blogger. [36] Halligan. pdf) HubSpot. com/ Default." (http:/ / blog. Inc. wikipedia. democrats/ index. org [27] http:/ / en.CNN. pdf [35] DiBella. and Dharmesh Shah (2010). [33] HubSpot. org/ wiki/ Search_engine_optimization [28] http:/ / en.CNN. hubspot. [30] http:/ / twitter. html) (2010). 235 . youtube. Inc. facebook. [37] http:/ / My.Inbound marketing [13] http:/ / www. (2010). com [25] http:/ / whitepapersource. metacafe. com [18] http:/ / opendiary. Brian. hubspot. com [23] http:/ / www. Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google.

They feel that marketing should be done on a one-to-one basis rather than using broad aggregated concepts like market segment or target market. In the United Kingdom. the cost of marketer-to-consumer communication is low. marketers incur similar costs if they send out 1 million or 10 million e-mails. standard fifteen to sixty second video advertisements. consider someone who searches for "buy shoes. Marketers feel that this is a more efficient use of their resources because the offers are only sent to people that are actually interested in the product. This can be either via an online email opt-in form or by using search engines.g. The prime example of this is unsolicited commercial e-mail or “Spam”. it has emerged as a serious idea only with the advent of the Internet. CMGI) claim customer response rates in the region of 5-20% and since most use e-mail. an opt-in is required for email marketing. this violates their privacy rights. (2) the Internet has enabled rapid feedback mechanisms due to instantaneous two-way communication. This is one technique used by marketers that have a personal marketing orientation. Due to these problems. In addition. branded player skins. Among the different types of in-stream advertising are. Individuals provide their addresses at these places for other purposes and hence. they ask permission to send email newsletters to prospective customers. an email or catalog request) or implicit permission (e.g. forged e-mail headers). Even though permission marketing can be implemented in any direct medium. notably email marketers and search marketers. the marginal cost of contacting an additional customer is nearly zero and it is easy to deceive the consumer. Since the ads arrive in the mailbox of the individual. To illustrate. under The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003. Moreover. Senders of spam realize three things. See Anderson School of Management project Promotions Channel: Permission Marketing [4] Permission marketing and the internet Permission marketing offers the promise of improving targeting by helping consumers interface with marketers most likely to provide relevant promotional messages. This form of marketing requires that the prospective customer has either given explicit permission for the marketer to send their promotional message (e.now part of the business incubator." Online shoe stores have the searchers' permission to make an offer that solves their shoe problem.[3] It is mostly used by online marketers. The undesirable opposite of permission marketing is interruption marketing. This type of marketing involves the showing of an advertisement prior to and/or during an on-line video stream. Spam cannot be a legitimate form of marketing communication.g. permission marketing is seen as a . For example. querying a search engine). Hence. Spammers can easily obtain new e-mail addresses from websites and Usenet groups using software programs that “troll” the Internet. survey ads. it is likely that more attention would be paid to them in comparison to banners. Marketers obtain permission before advancing to the next step in the purchasing process. This type of marketing allows advertisers to reach a more specific audience that may be more receptive to their product or service. they are not affected by the measurement problems of banner advertising. as well as certain direct marketers who send a catalog in response to a request.the cost of obtaining a new e-mail address is minimal. branded slates. which implies a request for information which can include that of a commercial nature. The two reasons for this are: (1) on the Internet. This came into force on the 11 December 2003. Using it would lead to an excessive message volume for consumers.g.com. Another motivation for permission marketing on the Web has been the failure of the direct mail approach of sending unsolicited promotional messages. Many permission-marketing firms (e. Another form of permission marketing is in-stream advertising. weakening of brand reputation and a slowing of the entire network.Permission marketing 236 Permission marketing Permission marketing is a term popularized by Seth Godin[1] (but found earlier [2] ) used in marketing in general and e-marketing specifically. yes mail. and even sponsored blocks of time. there are now programs that enable the large-scale use of deceptive practices (e. This type of advertising allows originators of the video content to show their video in the highest quality versus other videos posted without consent.

Third Edition. p. On a website with product this is typically an add to shopping cart or checkout link. ". When a user clicks on the link they are directed to an online merchant. com/ view/ Entry/ 141214#eid30892945) [3] Scott. “permission marketing was once a niche business. Hyperlink While a hyperlink can be used to send a user anywhere on the internet a transactional link is specifically designed to direct the user to completing a sale.com/sg/).indiana.. mgmt487. permission marketing has been incorporated in leading texts on marketing management. blogs. Hoboken. com References • "Seth Godin: Agent of Change" (http://www. E-mail Online payment systems such as PayPal allows users to send money to one another using an E-mail address..J. Now. wordpress. and friends into customers. The affiliate link tells the network which affiliate sent the traffic and if a purchase is made. e. 162. Wiley & Sons." OED Online. In addition. N. the affiliate receives a commission.. The new rules of marketing and PR how to use news releases. Kotler’s millennium edition. 237 Notes [1] Godin. David Meerman (2007). ISBN 978-0-470-11345-5. Oxford University Press. you must provide something equally valuable in return. A leading Internet business periodical recently noted that. podcasts. ISBN 0-684-85636-0." [4] http:/ / www. viral marketing and online media to reach your buyers directly. . Retrieved May 5.Permission marketing feasible alternative for Internet marketing communication. Permission marketing is now a large-scale activity on the Internet. [2] "permission marketing. everybody is doing it”. New York: Simon & Schuster. Seth (1999). Permission Marketing: turning strangers into friends. 2009... December 2005.sethgodin.g. – official site • A Comprehensive Analysis of Permission Marketing (http://jcmc. The most common use of this method is a Buy Now button as used on marketplace sites such as eBay.: J.com (http:/ / oed. html) Transactional Link A transactional link is a type of hyperlink link used in ecommerce to initiate a purchase.. Inc. Accessed 29 March 2011 OED.edu/vol6/issue2/krishnamurthy.if you're asking for someone's e-mail address . In affiliate marketing the transactional link would be an affiliate link from an Affiliate network.

com/ results?search_category=28& search_query=opening& search_type=videos& suggested_categories=28. uk/ 2006/ 12/ 08/ unboxing/ ). usually in a pop-up or pop-under advertisement. The Register. google. Unicast advertisement A Unicast advertisement is an Internet advertisement that consists of a video played like a TV commercial. com/ trends?q=unboxing& ctab=0& geo=all& date=all& sort=0). [4] YouTube . youtube. or get more information.20& uni=3). The Independent. howstuffworks. 2010."[1] [2] The oldest video on YouTube using the name "unboxing" is the opening of a boxed Nokia E61 smartphone. uploaded on June 12. especially hi-tech consumer products. com/ web-advertising7.Unboxing 238 Unboxing Unboxing is the unpacking of new products. youtube. uk/ life-style/ gadgets-and-tech/ features/ unboxing-the-new-geek-porn-1333955. Unicast ads have the same influence and power as a regular TV commercial. accessed on May 6. [3] YouTube . accessed on May 6. theregister. [6] Google Trends: unboxing (http:/ / www. 2010. 2010. The term has been labeled a new form of "geek porn.[1] References [1] "How Web Advertising Works" HowStuffWorks http:/ / computer. 14 January 2009.[6] References [1] Unboxing: The new geek porn (http:/ / www. com/ results?search_type=videos& search_query=unboxing& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse& suggested_categories=28. [2] Unboxing: the new geek porn (http:/ / www. htm .opening (Science & Technology category) (http:/ / www.20& uni=3).[3] There are. co.[5] According to Google Trends.unpacking (http:/ / www. 2006. youtube. searches for the term "unboxing" began to surface in the final quarter of 2006. com/ results?search_type=videos& search_query=unpacking& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse& suggested_categories=28. except they allow the viewer to click on the ad in order to go to the company's website.20& uni=3& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse). 8th December 2006.unboxing (http:/ / www. co. [5] YouTube . accessed on May 5. accessed on May 5. older videos on the site that show the same activity but using other names such as "opening"[4] or "unpacking". 2010. The whole process is captured on video and later uploaded to the Internet. however. independent. html).

through log file server collecting data it was believed that ad views could be tracked with unprecedented accuracy and “number of different prospects reached” was removed from the equation. US patent No. The first ad server to deliver the metric.Viewable Impression (CPMV) 239 Viewable Impression (CPMV) The Viewable Impression is metric used to buy web advertising based on CPMV Cost Per Thousand Views.590 for this technique was issued to Rich Media Club. LLC. CPM for the Internet: CPM = Cost per ad requested × 1000 However the assumption that an ad requested from an ad server is always visible when the viewer is on the requested page was wrong because of a few technical reasons and the fact that the web page is usually longer than the height of a computer screen. 2008 as the beta network CityAds and later in 2009 as the RealVu advertising and media technology platform. This method is based on FSDC technology developed in 2001 and used commercially for the first time on the Terra Lycos portal. CPM for broadcast media: CPM = Cost of 1 unit of time (commercial) × 1000 Number of prospects reached by a given program or time period. The value of an ad traditionally was based upon an estimate of how many different people saw or heard the ad. This allowed for the utilization of the server log file for collection of metadata to deliver a metric called the Online Impression that in traditional media meant an impression on a viewer. Overview With the development of the first ad servers in 1995–1996 the assumption was that a requested ad was always available to the viewer of a requested web page. The company was founded by Brad Krassner. A viewable Impression is a new generation metric that was emerged as an alternative to the online impression metric delivered by first ad servers developed in the mid-1990s. rendered and at least 60% of the ad surface area is within the visible area of a viewer's browser window on an in focus web page for at least one second. This type of advertising metric was meant to resemble Television and print advertising methods for speculating the cost of an advertisement. Eventually it became apparent that a large number of ad impressions measured for CPM pricing .313. 7. The core of viewable impression methodology reports client (viewer) side activity by using a direct and closed-loop authentication channel between an ad unit file and a server database. CPM for print media (when audience data is available): \frac{CPM = Cost of 1 ad × 1000}{Number of prospects reached} . Viewable impression technology was developed by Rich Media Worldwide. The following are current accepted means of calculating CPM for different mediums: 1. with the promise of even more accuracy due to the interactive nature of the Internet eliminating the need for industry accepted approximates such as Nielsen ratings for television and print is based on the circulation a publication has. With the advent of the Internet. and a new CPM equation was created for the internet: 3. Click-through is enabled at the moment of the "viewable impression". 9 2010 and developed by Rich Media Worldwide. which count by the analysis of http requests records in a server log and cannot provide information on events fired by a viewer’s browser thus being unable to confirm whether ad content was actually visible to a viewer. LLC by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in December 2007. was accredited by Media Rating Council [1] on March. LLC and introduced on Jun 23. A viewable Impression is measured when the Ad Content is loaded. 2. called RealVu . Nikolai Mentchoukov and Alan Edwards.

This model may eventually become the standard CPM as it measured at the same point (of the view) as television or print. sales. web publishers are vulnerable to payment methods that are based on performance-based advertising such as cost per click and cost per transaction. . Since the publisher has no control or input on the demand and ad creative quality of the advertised product. The Correlator code continues to monitor the web page focus. browser type and version and a list of other ads that were previously rendered on the page to prevent duplication of ads on the content page. ultimately. 240 CMPV (Cost per Thousand Views) Until 2010 it was very common for large publishers to charge for most of their advertising inventory on a CPM or CPT basis. CPA. tabbed away. or CPT basis. or opened another browser or application window bringing the web page monitored out of focus or portion of the browser window with the ad space outside of the monitor screen.[3] Once the ad content is loaded and rendered the ad unit sends a message directly to the server’s database and an "Ad Rendered" is reported.Viewable Impression (CPMV) actually never rendered in the visible area of a viewer’s browser screen. browser and ad unit (ad space) embedded in the webpage content. branding ability and level of engagement – the three key elements that drive purchase consideration and. With the arrival of the Viewable Impression model – Cost per Thousand Views has emerged. on a viewer's in focus web page. Viewable Impression Architecture including the viewer’s operating system.Cost per sale dCPM . The Correlator continues to monitor the ad space for each individual ad on the web page and its relation to the browser window dimensions. employing a "Correlator" (a linear correlation control. Viewable Impression Architecture The Viewable Impression methodology relies on a basic JavaScript tags for placement on the web pages or in the third-party ad servers that distribute ads on the website(s) content. giving away significant inventory to ads that are not clicked. Once any portion of the ad unit (definable). scrolling position and web page focus. When 60%.[2] Having no reliable way of measuring actual viewership. minimized.Cost per lead (lead usually meaning a free registration) CPS . web publishers lose control of their yield. effective cost per mille (eCPM).) The ad space is then "marked up. a message is sent via Correlator to the server database and a "Viewable Impression" is reported. and the Correlator begins communicating with the web page. (or other pre-defined area) of the ad content on a web page is within the visible area of the viewer's browser window for one second. considering if the viewer has scrolled the ad space in or out of the visible area of the browser window. quoted in terms of CPMV." an "ad request” (server log impression) is recorded. A related term. is used to measure the effectiveness of advertising inventory sold (by the publisher) via a CPC.Dynamic CPM CPA – Cost per Action The Viewable Impression enables online advertising effectiveness to be analyzed based on stopping power.Cost per click Through CPL . These JavaScript tags are placed on a web page and when rendered. The Correlator can collect additional non-private information from the viewer’s browser. hits the visible area of the browser window a request is sent to an ad content server to deliver an advertisement. Partially to avoid the limitations of server side impression methodology many models emerged that were based on direct response: • • • • • CPC .

Current assessments suggests improvement with viewable impression methodology). Web page focus can be affected by: minimizing the browser. crawlers. The ad loads. harvesters. some do not. Viewable Impression Implementation • Then the position of the ad is calculated as is the area of the ad that shown on the screen. and communicates to the server side database logging the “Time in View” for the ads being delivered on the webpage. 3.Viewable Impression (CPMV) location of ad unit(s) and the visible area of the browser window. The viewer opens another browser tab. 2. The viewer opens a page in a mobile device that is not configured to show the ad content. 10. the location of the ad on the page. 30 limitations of impression methodology which the Viewable Impression overcomes Reasons why an impression may not appear to a viewer overcome: 1. opening or switching to another browser window or application. (Some ad blockers block the ad call. The viewer does not have the proper plug-in to render interactive media installed. The viewer opens another browser window or another application. The viewer moves the browser window so the ad is outside the display screen area. 8. 9. download managers. the view time of the ad is collected by the client (viewer) side engine considering whether the web page the ad resides on is "In focus. 5. 6. web-directories. • This data results in a visual representation of the viewer's environment of each viewable impression reported. unobstructed by any other application window. The requests made by spiders. 7. The viewer has a particular type of ad blocker installed that could disrupt ad serving but still be initiate the count of an impression. (This isbad botssue may be addressed in part already by a standard ad server following IAB guidelines but more study needs to done to assess whether all non human technology is identified by the current approaches and whether viewable impression technology can improve on those measures. and the scroll position at the time the viewable impression was recorded. More study should be done in this area). web filtering tools. opening or switching to another [4] browser window tab. the dimensions of the web page the ad appeared on. or placing the curser on the browser address bar or other browser button) . the viewer's browser window dimensions. . 241 Viewable Impression Implementation • The complete viewer's environment is gathered by a client side technology for every viewable impression reported and transmitted back to a server side database." (“In-focus” is defined as when a Web page is the primary window open on a user's screen. The viewer minimizes the browser. The viewer clicks to another web page before the ad loads and renders. 11. link checkers. 4. spambots or . • Data for each view includes the viewers display resolution. The viewer switches focus to another browser or application. • Also. but in an area of the web page that is not within the viewer's browser window dimensions and scrolling position. proxy servers.

27. and browser window area and scrolling position. The web publisher places multiple ad displays in layers over each other. Mutilated (http poisoning) packets Impression fraud [5] Limitations related to data analysis and distribution flow with impression methodology overcome: 20. or opens another application over the video while the advertisement is playing or moves the browser window so the video is outside the display screen area. 17. 26. All ads are reported as impressions. (The delivery of the same ads on the same web page. Ad rotation visibility lottery. 19. significant delays exist before reporting data is available. making reach and frequency measurements meaningless. 24. Redundant ad delivery. Not knowing which ads in rotation were in view for each ad selection means certain ads may never be visible making all the statistic data meaningless. 18. 30. tabs away from. 2nd is not. Reach and Frequency measured for ads that are not visible. All parties involved see different impressions reports that are impossible to reconcile. 13. The web publisher places an image or shape on a layer overlapping an ad. but impressions are reported for all layered ads. No data reported for the view time of each individual viewable impression. 25. if the viewer minimizes the browser. The viewer has multiple home pages set so when the browser is opened. two pages open in two tabs. Rotation 2. frequency and all other measurements. adding complete branding messages and contact information in a display ad is prohibitive because then a click through to a website is not necessary. No reported log or visual representation of each unique viewer's environment. 16. Impressions that are not visible are included in click through rate. Reasons why an impression may not appear to a viewer associated with fraud overcome: 15. An ad that is not visible did not reach anyone. Display of complete branding messages and contact information is prohibitive. The request was made by an (invisible to the viewer) web page re-direct. 21. 1st in view. reach. If a click-through is necessary to measure advertising. 2nd not. 3rd is not. (e. An ad or beacon delivered in an invisible width="0" height="0" Iframe. 3 Ads are in rotation). For rotation 1 the 1st is in view.) 242 . and in 3rd rotation the 2nd ad is again not in view. 22. and transferred to a database for reporting. Because server log files must be batched. 29. 3rd is in view. CPM value dilution because of an unlimited supply of inventory. The viewer then sees one ad. and an ad resides on the tab that is not in focus. filtered. but ad 2 was never visible. making click rate misleading.Viewable Impression (CPMV) 12. including viewer's display resolution.g. 23. In the case of pre-roll video and video advertising. 28. Reporting latency. No reported log or visual representation of each web page URL an ad is delivered to in addition to the web page dimensions and placement location of the ad on the web page.

Viewable Impression (CPMV) 243 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Media Rating Council (http:/ / www. realvu. marketwire. marketwire. mediaratingcouncil. Media Rating Council "Accredited Services" (http:/ / www. org/ ) Adage: Why Print Advertising Isn't Working (http:/ / adage.htm) 3. net/ dom/ RealVu_DOM. eMedia Vitals "Death of the Page death-page-view-how-about-rise-sponsorship) (http:/ / emediavitals. mediaratingcouncil. Marketwire Online Advertising Purchasing Problem Solved: CityAds. marketingvox. htm) . com/ mediaworks/ article?article_id=145281) RealVu Description of Methodology (http:/ / www. com/ press-release/ Online-Advertising-Purchasing-Problem-Solved-CityAdsnet-Enables-Advertisers-Accurately-871637. com/publications/?fa=Articles. com/ blog/ 17/ 7.htm) 2. org/ index. marketwire. mediapost. MarketingVox "Tuesday's tuesdays-toolset-watch-5-047089/) Toolset Watch" View" (http:/ / www. org/ Accredited Services.net Enables Advertisers to Accurately Track and Quantify Online Ad Results (http:/ / www. realvu.showArticle&art_aid=132819) 8. Fiction" (http:/ / www. com/ 2009/ 11/ 02/ this-could-change-everything/) 5. php/ Man-in-the-middle_attack) External links 1. MediaPost "How Ad Industry Might Base Impressions On Truth Vs. net/ dom/ RealVu_DOM. com/ 6. Marketwire RealVu Revolutionizes Internet Advertising Measurement With The Viewable Impression (http:/ / www. com/ press-release/CityAdsnet-Challenges-Standard-Online-Ad-Revenue-Model-871636. com/ press-release/ RealVu-Revolutionizes-Internet-Advertising-Measurement-With-the-Viewable-Impression-1271884. pdf) Impression fraud (http:/ / www.net Challenges Standard Online Ad Revenue Model (http:/ / www. owasp. Marketwire CityAds. pdf) RealVu Description of Methodology (http:/ / www. by David Cohen “This Could Change Everything” (http:/ / umwwblog.htm) 4. UM Blog.

Button graphics are typically 88×31 pixels in size. or that the site passes World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) HTML validation. php?page=sitereport_list& size=100& ind=5 http:/ / www. jpac. button graphics. makebutton. programs that are recommended to view the site. 80x15 pixels buttons online generator. com http:/ / www.com [5]. but recently. mil/ index. These were first popularized by Netscape and Microsoft during the browser wars. web badges or stickers are pictures in some World Wide Web pages which are typically used to advertise programs that were used to create or host the site (for example. com/ buttons/ http:/ / www. 80x15. External links • • • • Makebutton.com: Create your own web buttons . pacom. com/ . References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. a collection of over 3700 buttons since 2003 80x15. [3] lifehacker. MediaWiki sites often have a "Powered by Mediawiki" button on the bottom right corner of the page).Web button 244 Web button Web buttons. The buttons are linked to the advertised sites. Web button with push-button functionality: example on the website of JPAC which links originally to [1]. smaller 80×15 pixels buttons have become very popular in the blogosphere. php http:/ / gtmcknight. 11 May 2007 Steal These Buttons [4].com [2]. Make your own free web buttons and banners with online tool. com/ software/ site-tools/ create-your-own-web-buttons-259650. lifehacker.

Begun and Google AdWords. Belarus and Kazakhstan.Yandex.Direct platform. Yandex.000 advertisers in the first quarter of 2011. com/ [3] "Form F1 REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 YANDEX N. com/ ). . The service is the largest of its kind in Russia.Direct Developer(s) Initial release Yandex July 31. . The latter is oriented for novice advertisers. Yandex.000 in the first quarter of 2010.[4] The service operates in four countries: Russia. ru/ news/ press_releases/ 2001/ 07-31_00. yandex.yandex. Ukrainian and English. ads can be targeted on the basis of users’ demographics as well as behavioral patterns. Since 2007. yandex. Yandex.000 in the full year 2009. Retrieved May 24. Yandex.Direct provides advertisers with a Metrica tool to appraise site audience quality and measure conversion ratio for keyword advertising. 2011. References [1] Яндекс.реклама без посредников (http:/ / company.Direct Yandex. gov/ Archives/ edgar/ data/ 1513845/ 000104746911004187/ a2203514zf-1. Retrieved May 24.Direct 245 Yandex. Most of Yandex revenues are generated from text-based ads.Direct was launched in 2001. Ukraine. Yandex.Direct served ads for more than 127.Direct is an automated.com [2] Yandex. compared with 92. The significant majority of said ads are placed through Yandex. . yandex.[3] According to Yandex.Direct through interfaces in Russian.000 in the full year 2010 and 131. 2001 [1] Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Online advertising direct. htm). characteristics and locations. In addition to targeting ads on the basis of user queries and website content.Direct" (http:/ / direct. SEC. Direct provides two kinds of interface to work with: so called Professional and Easy. Its rivals. xml) [2] http:/ / direct.V" (http:/ / sec. 2011.Директ . began their operations in Russia in 2002. Advertisers may access Yandex. auction-based system for placement of text-based advertising in Russia. Direct processes millions of auctions every day. 180. [4] "Yandex.Direct display ads on Yandex search engine results pages and at participant sites of Yandex ad network.

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Lyris HQ. Yandex. Urchin (software). Unboxing. AdSense. Mobile web analytics. Online presence management. Click analytics. Ad text optimization. Interactive advertising. Digital creative agency. List of web analytics software. GroupSpaces. Impression (online media). Attitudinal analytics. Image search optimization. Adam Ginsberg. analysis. . Personalized retargeting. JICWEBS. Web log analysis software. Direct digital marketing. CrawlTrack. Skyword. org. Here you will find the most up-to-date information. Resource Interactive. Usage data. Piwik. Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research.Web analytics is the measurement. Search retargeting. Clickstream. Emetrics Summit. Long Tail. Online lead generation. Keyword Services Platform. Direct This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. covering: Web analytics. HitDynamics. Site Meter. JESS3. Pay per play. Web button. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. Paid inclusion. Microsoft adCenter. Visit filter. It reduces the risk of your technology. with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away. Affiliate marketing. Article marketing. Search engine marketing. Permission marketing. Internet marketing. Woopra. Viewable Impression (CPMV). Semantic targeting. Sales letter. Klout. analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research. Guided selling. Kampyle (Software). Unique user. AT Internet. Search engine optimization copywriting. In-text advertising. Microsoft pubCenter. Keyword optimization. Dominate Your Market With Twitter. PostRank. Criteo. time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals. Multivariate landing page optimization. Email marketing. Inbound marketing. Cost per time. Social media optimization. AWStats. Path analysis (computing). Digital marketing engineer. Revenue sharing. RSS tracking. MyThings. Sawmill (software). Microsoft adCenter Analytics. Link bidding. Private label rights. Google Website Optimizer. Search-Driven Media. StatCounter. Web audience measurement. Session replay. Conversion funnel. Double loop marketing. Mint (software). Micro content. Unicast advertisement. One-time offer. Contextual advertising. Google Analytics. Anametrix. Win–loss analytics. HubSpot. Blitz Campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. background and everything you need to know. Post-click marketing. Webtrends. Omniture. Pay for placement. Get Into Bed With Google. This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. Avinash Kaushik. Unica NetInsight. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing). Rand Schulman. Semantic advertising. Landing page optimization. Data pimping. Article video marketing. Content farm. Hitbox. LivePerson. Display advertising. Urchin Software Corporation. TraceMyIP. Landing page. collection. Attorney-client matching. Quality Score. Web banner. Internet presence management. Ad rotation. Bounce rate. Kaspid. Unica NetTracker. Pay per click. Unique visitor. Usage analysis. Digital agency. Search engine optimization. VisitLab. Transactional Link. WebSideStory. ClickTale. Web traffic. In easy to read chapters. Referral marketing. Dreaming in Mono.

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