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Web Analytics: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Web Analytics: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.

Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research.

This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away, covering: Web analytics, Anametrix, AT Internet, Attitudinal analytics, AWStats, Bounce rate, Click analytics, Clickstream, ClickTale, Conversion funnel, CrawlTrack, Emetrics Summit, Google Analytics, Hitbox, HitDynamics, HubSpot, JICWEBS, Kampyle (Software), Kaspid, Avinash Kaushik, Klout, List of web analytics software, LivePerson, Lyris HQ, Microsoft adCenter Analytics, Mint (software), Mobile web analytics, Omniture, Path analysis (computing), Piwik, PostRank, RSS tracking, Sawmill (software), Rand Schulman, Search engine optimization, Session replay, Site Meter, StatCounter, TraceMyIP.org, Unica NetInsight, Unica NetTracker, Unique user, Unique visitor, Urchin (software), Urchin Software Corporation, Usage analysis, Usage data, Visit filter, VisitLab, Web audience measurement, Web banner, Web log analysis software, Web traffic, WebSideStory, Google Website Optimizer, Webtrends, Win–loss analytics, Woopra, Ad rotation, Ad text optimization, AdSense, Affiliate marketing, Article marketing, Article video marketing, Attorney-client matching, Blitz Campaign, Content farm, Contextual advertising, Cost per time, Criteo, Data pimping, Digital agency, Digital creative agency, Digital marketing engineer, Direct digital marketing, Display advertising, Dominate Your Market With Twitter, Dreaming in Mono, Email marketing, Get Into Bed With Google, Adam Ginsberg, Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing), GroupSpaces, Guided selling, Image search optimization, Impression (online media), In-text advertising, Interactive advertising, Internet marketing, Internet presence management, JESS3, Keyword optimization, Keyword Services Platform, Landing page, Landing page optimization, Link bidding, Long Tail, Micro content, Microsoft adCenter, Microsoft pubCenter, Multivariate landing page optimization, MyThings, One-time offer, Online lead generation, Online presence management, Paid inclusion, Pay for placement, Pay per click, Pay per play, Personalized retargeting, Post-click marketing, Private label rights, Quality Score, Referral marketing, Resource Interactive, Revenue sharing, Sales letter, Search engine marketing, Search engine optimization copywriting, Search retargeting, Search-Driven Media, Semantic advertising, Semantic targeting, Skyword, Social media optimization, Double loop marketing, Inbound marketing, Permission marketing, Transactional Link, Unboxing, Unicast advertisement, Viewable Impression (CPMV), Web button, Yandex.Direct

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.

Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research.

This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away, covering: Web analytics, Anametrix, AT Internet, Attitudinal analytics, AWStats, Bounce rate, Click analytics, Clickstream, ClickTale, Conversion funnel, CrawlTrack, Emetrics Summit, Google Analytics, Hitbox, HitDynamics, HubSpot, JICWEBS, Kampyle (Software), Kaspid, Avinash Kaushik, Klout, List of web analytics software, LivePerson, Lyris HQ, Microsoft adCenter Analytics, Mint (software), Mobile web analytics, Omniture, Path analysis (computing), Piwik, PostRank, RSS tracking, Sawmill (software), Rand Schulman, Search engine optimization, Session replay, Site Meter, StatCounter, TraceMyIP.org, Unica NetInsight, Unica NetTracker, Unique user, Unique visitor, Urchin (software), Urchin Software Corporation, Usage analysis, Usage data, Visit filter, VisitLab, Web audience measurement, Web banner, Web log analysis software, Web traffic, WebSideStory, Google Website Optimizer, Webtrends, Win–loss analytics, Woopra, Ad rotation, Ad text optimization, AdSense, Affiliate marketing, Article marketing, Article video marketing, Attorney-client matching, Blitz Campaign, Content farm, Contextual advertising, Cost per time, Criteo, Data pimping, Digital agency, Digital creative agency, Digital marketing engineer, Direct digital marketing, Display advertising, Dominate Your Market With Twitter, Dreaming in Mono, Email marketing, Get Into Bed With Google, Adam Ginsberg, Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing), GroupSpaces, Guided selling, Image search optimization, Impression (online media), In-text advertising, Interactive advertising, Internet marketing, Internet presence management, JESS3, Keyword optimization, Keyword Services Platform, Landing page, Landing page optimization, Link bidding, Long Tail, Micro content, Microsoft adCenter, Microsoft pubCenter, Multivariate landing page optimization, MyThings, One-time offer, Online lead generation, Online presence management, Paid inclusion, Pay for placement, Pay per click, Pay per play, Personalized retargeting, Post-click marketing, Private label rights, Quality Score, Referral marketing, Resource Interactive, Revenue sharing, Sales letter, Search engine marketing, Search engine optimization copywriting, Search retargeting, Search-Driven Media, Semantic advertising, Semantic targeting, Skyword, Social media optimization, Double loop marketing, Inbound marketing, Permission marketing, Transactional Link, Unboxing, Unicast advertisement, Viewable Impression (CPMV), Web button, Yandex.Direct

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Web Analytics

IN-DEPTH: THE REAL DRIVERS AND
WORKINGS

Kevin Roebuck

REDUCES THE RISK OF YOUR TECHNOLOGY, TIME AND RESOURCES
INVESTMENT DECISIONS

ENABLING YOU TO COMPARE YOUR
UNDERSTANDING WITH THE OBJECTIVITY OF EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS

High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Contents
Articles
Web analytics Anametrix AT Internet Attitudinal analytics AWStats Bounce rate Click analytics Clickstream ClickTale Conversion funnel CrawlTrack Emetrics Summit Google Analytics Hitbox HitDynamics HubSpot JICWEBS Kampyle (Software) Kaspid Avinash Kaushik Klout List of web analytics software LivePerson Lyris HQ Microsoft adCenter Analytics Mint (software) Mobile web analytics Omniture Path analysis (computing) Piwik postRank RSS tracking Sawmill (software) Rand Schulman 1 10 12 13 14 16 17 18 20 22 23 24 25 29 30 31 36 37 38 40 42 43 46 48 49 49 50 53 55 57 58 60 62 63

org Unica NetInsight Unica NetTracker Unique user Unique visitor Urchin (software) Urchin Software Corporation Usage analysis Usage data Visit filter VisitLab Web audience measurement Web banner Web log analysis software Web traffic WebSideStory Google Website Optimizer Webtrends Win–loss analytics Woopra Ad rotation Ad text optimization AdSense Affiliate marketing Article marketing Article video marketing Attorney-client matching Blitz Campaign Content farm Contextual advertising Cost per time Criteo Data pimping Digital agency 64 72 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 80 81 83 83 83 84 85 85 88 89 92 93 94 96 97 98 99 100 105 116 117 118 120 121 123 125 126 128 129 .Search engine optimization Session replay Site Meter StatCounter TraceMyIP.

Digital creative agency Digital marketing engineer Direct digital marketing Display advertising Dominate Your Market With Twitter Dreaming in Mono Email marketing Get Into Bed With Google Adam Ginsberg Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) GroupSpaces Guided selling Image search optimization Impression (online media) In-text advertising Interactive advertising Internet marketing Internet presence management JESS3 Keyword optimization Keyword Services Platform Landing page Landing page optimization Link bidding Long Tail Micro content Microsoft adCenter Microsoft pubCenter Multivariate landing page optimization MyThings One-time offer Online lead generation Online presence management Paid inclusion Pay for placement Pay per click Pay per play Personalized retargeting 129 129 131 132 134 136 140 143 144 145 147 149 151 152 152 153 155 159 160 164 172 179 180 182 183 191 192 194 195 197 199 199 201 203 204 205 208 208 .

Direct 210 211 212 214 215 216 217 219 223 224 224 225 226 227 228 230 231 236 237 238 238 239 244 245 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources.Post-click marketing Private label rights Quality Score Referral marketing Resource Interactive Revenue sharing Sales letter Search engine marketing Search engine optimization copywriting Search retargeting Search-Driven Media Semantic advertising Semantic targeting Skyword Social media optimization Double loop marketing Inbound marketing Permission marketing Transactional Link Unboxing Unicast advertisement Viewable Impression (CPMV) Web button Yandex. Licenses and Contributors 246 254 Article Licenses License 256 .

as opposed to a graphic. share of voice (visibility). The remainder of this article concerns on-site web analytics.Web analytics 1 Web analytics Web analytics is the measurement. reads the logfiles in which the web server records all its transactions. On-site web analytics technologies Many different vendors provide on-site web analytics software and services. The first true commercial Log Analyzer was released by IPRO in 1994 [2] . Two units of measure were introduced in the mid 1990s to gauge more accurately the amount of human activity on web servers. This was a reasonable method initially. The page views and visits are still commonly displayed metrics. . page tagging. web analytics has referred to on-site visitor measurement. On-site web analytics measures the performance of your website in a commercial context. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. Web server logfile analysis Web servers record some of their transactions in a logfile. collection. However. e-mail response rates. Thus arose web log analysis software. It includes the measurement of a website's potential audience (opportunity). This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance.[1] Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Both collect data that can be processed to produce web traffic reports. For example. These were page views and visits (or sessions). Off-site web analytics refers to web measurement and analysis regardless of whether you own or maintain a website. mainly because vendors are producing tools that span both categories. since each web site often consisted of a single HTML file. or other custom metrics as needed. This includes its drivers and conversions. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research. Historically. this count became less useful. The first method. while a visit was defined as a sequence of requests from a uniquely identified client that expired after a certain amount of inactivity. user performance data such as click heat mapping. with the introduction of images in HTML. However in recent years this has blurred. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. for example. web site statistics consisted primarily of counting the number of client requests (or hits) made to the web server. logfile analysis. On-site web analytics measure a visitor's journey once on your website. In the early 1990s. sales and lead information. It was soon realized that these logfiles could be read by a program to provide data on the popularity of the website. which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase. off-site and on-site web analytics. uses JavaScript on each page to notify a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. In addition other data sources may also be added to augment the data. There are two categories of web analytics. and web sites that spanned multiple HTML files. but are now considered rather rudimentary. and buzz (comments) that is happening on the Internet as a whole. A page view was defined as a request made to the web server for a page. and used to improve a web site or marketing campaign's audience response. analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. There are two main technological approaches to collecting the data. The second method. direct mail campaign data. usually 30 minutes.

rather than a proprietary.Web analytics The emergence of search engine spiders and robots in the late 1990s. which was an estimate of the number of visits to that page. The question then arises of which method a company should choose. Logfile analysis vs page tagging Both logfile analysis programs and page tagging solutions are readily available to companies that wish to perform web analytics. In the mid 1990s. so the raw data is already available. and is in a standard. Thus there are no external server calls which can slow page load speeds.g. If a person revisits a page. is to implement a call back to the server from the rendered page. made it more difficult to identify unique human visitors to a website. use several different programs. This means that the person's path through the site is lost. Web counters were commonly seen — these were images included in a web page that showed the number of times the image had been requested. delays in completing a successful or failed DNS look-ups may result in data not being collected. the second request will often be retrieved from the browser's cache. by using JavaScript. and does not rely on the visitors' browsers co-operating . This makes it easy for a company to switch programs later. On occasion. along with web proxies and dynamically assigned IP addresses for large companies and ISPs. • The data is on the company's own servers. and extensive statistics generated. In the late 1990s this concept evolved to include a small invisible image instead of a visible one. With the increasing popularity of Ajax-based solutions. This is in some ways flawed by browser restrictions on the servers which can be contacted with XmlHttpRequest objects. The extensive use of web caches also presented a problem for logfile analysis. Cookie acceptance rates vary significantly between web sites and may affect the quality of data collected and reported. • Logfiles require no additional DNS Lookups. In this case. an alternative to the use of an invisible image. a piece of Ajax code would call back to the server and pass information about the client that can then be aggregated by a web analytics company. format. Although these should not be reported as part of the human activity. and analyze historical data with a new program. 2 Page tagging Concerns about the accuracy of logfile analysis in the presence of caching. and by ignoring requests from known spiders. Log analyzers responded by tracking visits by cookies. Collecting web site data using a third-party data collection server (or even an in-house data collection server) requires an additional DNS look-up by the user's computer to determine the IP address of the collection server. In some cases. and. led to the second data collection method. or result in uncounted page views. which can uniquely identify them during their visit and in subsequent visits. Caching can be defeated by configuring the web server. serving PDF documents and content generated by scripts. to pass along with the image request certain information about the page and the visitor. it is useful information for search engine optimization. and so no request will be received by the web server. the same web analytics company will offer both approaches. • The web server reliably records every transaction it makes. page tagging or 'Web bugs'. There are advantages and disadvantages to each approach[3] . when the page is rendered on the web browser. This information can then be processed remotely by a web analytics company. and the desire to be able to perform web analytics as an outsourced service. The web analytics service also manages the process of assigning a cookie to the user. Advantages of logfile analysis The main advantages of logfile analysis over page tagging are as follows: • The web server normally already produces logfiles. No changes to the website are required. but this can result in degraded performance for the visitor to the website. including e. • Logfiles contain information on visits from search engine spiders.

which often grows very large quickly. several open-source logfile analysis tools are available free of charge.Web analytics Advantages of page tagging The main advantages of page tagging over logfile analysis are as follows. the overhead for an IT department can be considerable. For example. • Lately page tagging has become a standard in web analytics [4] . In addition to commercial offerings. the depth and type of information sought.e. Page tagging can be performed in-house. not sent in the query. number of pageviews per month collected. not requesting it from the server. what revenue increase or cost savings can be gained by analysing the web visitor data? 3 . Although the cost of hardware to do this is minimal. usually written in JavaScript. such as visitors' screen sizes and the price of the goods they purchased. • For Logfile analysis you need to maintain the software. basically enabling complete control over how the data is represented. with logfile analysis. the server has to be configured to do this. It is for this reason server-based log analysis is not considered suitable for analysis of human activity on websites. onBlur etc. and increasingly Flash is used. This can be from the use of third party consultants. or the training of a suitable in-house person. though Java can be used. partial form completion. some vendors are introducing maximum annual page views with additional costs to process additional information. it will not be counted by the server. Cached pages can account for up to one-third of all pageviews. the vendor chosen. the hiring of an experienced web analyst. Economic factors Logfile analysis is almost always performed in-house. That is. The economic difference between these two models can also be a consideration for a company deciding which to purchase. • The script may have access to additional information on the web client or on the user. onFocus. A cost-benefit analysis can then be performed. • For Logfile analysis you have to store and archive your own data. • Data is gathered via a component ("tag") in the page. the cost of web visitor analysis and interpretation should also be included. and the number of distinct web sites needing statistics. • Logfile analysis typically involves a one-off software purchase. Which solution is cheaper to implement depends on the amount of technical expertise within the company. including updates and security patches. • Page tagging is available to companies who do not have access to their own web servers. Regardless of the vendor solution or data collection method employed. JQuery and AJAX can also be used in conjunction with a server-side scripting language (such as PHP) to manipulate and (usually) store it in a database. such as interactions within Flash movies. If a page is cached. the amount of activity seen on the web sites. Not counting cached pages seriously skews many site metrics. • The page tagging service manages the process of assigning cookies to visitors. however. but it is more often provided as a third-party service. • Complex page tagging vendors charge a monthly fee based on volume i. onMouseOver. • Page tagging can report on events which do not involve a request to the web server. • Counting is activated by opening the page (given that the web client runs the tag scripts). mouse events such as onClick. the cost of turning raw data into actionable information.

This information is used by businesses for online audience segmentation in applications such online advertising. region or country level[6] . digital rights management. By using a hybrid method. enhanced analytics. or Internet Protocol (IP) Intelligence. Click analytics Click analytics is a special type of web analytics that gives special attention to clicks (Point-and-click). geographic rights management. Data about clicks may be gathered in at least two ways. one may institute the assumption that a page view is a result of a click.Web analytics 4 Hybrid methods Some companies are now producing programs that collect data through both logfiles and page tagging. and more. Commonly. connection type. designers or other types of stakeholders may analyze clicks on a wider time frame to aid them assess performance of writers. and this method requires some functionality that picks up relevant information when the event occurs. state. and therefore log a simulated click that lead to that page view. Ideally. design elements or advertisements etc. click analytics focuses on on-site analytics. is a technology that maps the Internet and catalogues IP addresses by parameters such as geographic location (country. with regards to where the users of the site are clicking. Editors. Using IP geolocation database or API. The first generation of IP Intelligence was referred to as geotargeting or geolocation technology. Also. who then spun the product out to create a company based upon the increased accuracy of hybrid methods [2] [5] . Alternatively. region. The first Hybrid solution was produced in 1998 by Rufus Evison. want to monitor their pages in real-time. Internet Service Provider (ISP). IP Intelligence. front-page Clickpath Analysis with referring pages on the left and arrows and rectangles editors on high-traffic news media sites will differing in thickness and expanse to symbolize movement quantity. to optimize the content. it is possible to track visitors location. global traffic management. a click is "logged" when it occurs. Typically. city and postcode). visitors can be geolocated to city. depending on the type of information sought. behavioral targeting. localized search. online fraud detection. and content distribution. proxy information. Visitors Geolocation With IP geolocation. An editor of a web site uses click analytics to determine the performance of his or her particular site. . they aim to produce more accurate statistics than either method on its own. click analytics may happen real-time or "unreal"-time. personalization. content localization (or website localization).

A request for a file from the web server. each of which is counted as a hit as the page is downloaded. day. then returns within 30 minutes. not the person. The main bodies who have had input in this area have been JICWEBS (The Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards in the UK and Ireland) [8]. Identification is made to the visitor's computer. this will count as one visit but two sessions. most systems ignore sessions and many analysts use both terms for visits. US) and to a lesser extent the IAB (Interactive Advertising Bureau). Customer lifecycle analytics attempts to connect all the data points into a marketing funnel that can offer insights into visitor behavior and website optimization. Packet sniffing involves no changes to the web pages or web servers. access to third-party services.A request for a file whose type is defined as a page in log analysis. An occurrence of the script being run in page tagging. A session is defined as a series of page requests from the same uniquely identified client with a time of no more than 30 minutes and no requests for pages from other domains intervening between page requests. week or month). but this number is extremely misleading and dramatically over-estimates popularity.Web analytics 5 Customer lifecycle analytics Customer lifecycle analytics is a visitor-centric approach to measuring that falls under the umbrella of lifecycle marketing. Increasingly visitors are uniquely identified by Flash LSO's (Local Shared Object). Other methods Other methods of data collection are sometimes used. A Unique Visitor counts once within the timescale. If someone leaves a site. In practice. Key definitions There are no globally agreed definitions within web analytics as the industry bodies have been trying to agree definitions that are useful and definitive for some time.) are all tied to an individual visitor instead of being stored as separate data points. ABCe (Audit Bureau of Circulations electronic.A visit is defined as a series of page requests from the same uniquely identified client with a time of no more than 30 minutes between each page request.[7] Both these methods claim to provide better real-time data than other methods. Page views. • Visit / Session .The uniquely identified client generating requests on the web server (log analysis) or viewing pages (page tagging) within a defined time period (i. usually via cookie and/or IP+User Agent. suffering only slightly from ambiguity. . Integrating web analytics into the web server software itself is also possible. • Visitor / Unique Visitor / Unique User .js and . or 30 minutes elapse between pageviews. Both the WAA and the ABCe provide more definitive lists for those who are declaring their statistics using the metrics defined by either. etc. The WAA (Web Analytics Association. Available only in log analysis. clicks and other events (such as API calls. so the number of hits is really an arbitrary number more reflective of the complexity of individual pages on the website than the website's actual popularity. In other words.A visit from a visitor who has not made any previous visits. A single web-page typically consists of multiple (often dozens) of discrete files. The number of hits received by a website is frequently cited to assert its popularity. • Hit .e. . Packet sniffing collects data by sniffing the network traffic passing between the web server and the outside world. UK and Europe) [9]. A visit ends only after a 30 minute time delay. a single page view does not constitute a visit or a session (it is a "bounce"). In log analysis. Because time between pageviews is critical to the definition of visits and sessions.css files) are also requested from the web server. which are less susceptible to privacy enforcement. • First Visit / First Session . • Page view . whichever comes first. The total number of visitors or page views provides a more realistic and accurate assessment of popularity. This does not prevent the following list from being a useful guide. a session ends when someone goes to another site. Thus the same person visiting from two different computers or with two different browsers will count as two Unique Visitors. A visitor can make multiple visits. a single page view may generate multiple hits as all the resources required to view the page (images.

• Active Time / Engagement Time . clicks.. • Page Depth / Page Views per Session . that is an impression. It is calculated by dividing the total number of sessions (or visits) by the total number of unique visitors. The hotel has two rooms (Room A and Room B). • Frequency / Session per Unique ."refers to a single instance of a user following a hyperlink from one page in a site to another"[11] .Average amount of time that visitors spend on each page of the site.Average amount of time that visitors spend on the site each time they visit. • Page View Duration / Time on Page . This appears to an inexperienced user to be a problem in whatever analytics software they are using. It is calculated by dividing total number of page views by total number of sessions and is also called Page Views per Session or PV/Session. Ad Banner. Some use click analytics to analyze their web sites.. and is sometimes substituted with analysis of first visits. 6 Common sources of confusion in web analytics The hotel problem The hotel problem is generally the first problem encountered by a user of web analytics.An impression is each time an advertisement loads on a user's screen. The way to picture the situation is by imagining a hotel. • Click . • Visibility time . As with Session Duration. Unlike Session Duration and Page View Duration / Time on Page.The time a single page (or a blog.Average amount of time that visitors spend actually interacting with content on a web page. • Bounce Rate . • Impression . this metric can accurately measure the length of engagement in the final page view.) is viewed. While not a useful metric in and of itself the number of singletons is indicative of various forms of Click fraud as well as being used to calculate bounce rate and in some cases to identify automatons bots. The problem is that the unique visitors for each day in a month do not add up to the same total as the unique visitors for that month. • Session Duration . this metric is complicated by the fact that analytics programs can not measure the length of the final page view unless they record a page close event.The percentage of users who exit from a page. • New Visitor . This definition creates a certain amount of confusion (see common confusions below). such as onUnload().the sequence of hyperlinks one or more website visitors follows on a given site. • Singletons . Anytime you see a banner. • % Exit . • Site Overlay is a technique in which graphical statistics are shown besides each link on the web page. The term was first coined by Rufus Evison explaining the problem at one of the Emetrics Summits and has now gained popularity as a simple expression of the problem and its resolution. • Click path . The period between the last and current visit is called visitor recency and is measured in days. These statistics represent the percentage of clicks on each link.Web analytics • Repeat Visitor . hovers and scrolls. Sometimes it is used to measure the loyalty of your audience. This metric can be complicated by the fact that analytics programs can not measure the length of the final page view[10] . In fact it is a simple property of the metric definitions.Page Depth is the average number of page views a visitor consumes before ending their session.Frequency measures how often visitors come to a website.The percentage of visits where the visitor enters and exits at the same page without visiting any other pages on the site in between.A visitor that has made at least one previous visit. .The number of visits where only a single page is viewed. based on mouse moves.A visitor that has not made any previous visits.

There is really no such thing as a new visitor when you are considering a web site from an ongoing perspective. Nobody expects the number of first visits to add to the number of repeat visitors to give the total number of visitors. Third-party cookies can handle visitors who cross multiple unrelated domains within the company's site. New visitors + Repeat visitors unequal to total visitors Another common misconception in web analytics is that the sum of the new visitors and the repeat visitors ought to be the total number of visitors. Privacy concerns about cookies have therefore led a noticeable minority of users to block or delete third-party cookies. Although web analytics companies deny doing this. Here the culprit is the metric of a new visitor. vendors of page-tagging analytics solutions have used third-party cookies sent from the vendor's domain instead of the domain of the website being browsed. since the cookie is always handled by the vendor's servers. During the period each room has had two unique users. In 2005. allowing the analytics vendor to collate the user's activity on sites where he provided personal information with his activity on other sites where he thought he was anonymous. On the day in question there was a first visit made by our chosen individual. but it is clearer that it will not add in this fashion. Web analytics methods Problems with cookies Historically. the hotel has two unique users each day over three days. There was also a repeat visit made by the same individual. However. third-party cookies in principle allow tracking an individual user across the sites of different companies.Web analytics 7 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Total Room A John Room B Mark Total 2 John Jane 2 Jane Mark 2 2 Unique Users 2 Unique Users ? As the table shows. Again this becomes clear if the visitors are viewed as individuals on a small scale. If a visitor makes their first visit on a given day and then returns to the web site on the same day they are both a new visitor and a repeat visitor for that day. some reports showed that about 28% of Internet users blocked third-party cookies and 22% deleted them at least once a month. The problem is that a person who stays in a room for two nights will get counted twice if you count them once on each day. but is only counted once if you are looking at the total for the period. The number of first visits and the number of repeat visits will add up to the total number of visits for that day. The metric will have the same number as the new visitors. Actually only three visitors have been in the hotel over this period. so the definition of the metric is at fault. Any software for web analytics will sum these correctly for whatever time period.[12] . but still causes a large number of complaints that analytics software cannot be working because of a failure to understand the metrics. it is a fact of the web measurement. thus leading to the problem when a user tries to compare the totals. For this reason it is easiest to conceptualize the same facet as a first visit (or first session). other companies such as companies supplying banner ads have done so. This resolves the conflict and so removes the confusion. The sum of the totals with respect to the rooms is therefore four. So if we look at them as an individual which are they? The answer has to be both. A new visitor is not an individual. The sum of the totals with respect to the days is therefore six.

doi:10. like sampling) have the central problem of being vulnerable to manipulation (both inflation and deflation).Web analytics Most vendors of page tagging solutions have now moved to provide at least the option of using first-party cookies (cookies assigned from the client subdomain).. Secure and efficient metering. 1064679& coll=GUIDE& dl=GUIDE& CFID=66492168& CFTOKEN=93187844) [8] http:/ / www. Malkhi. cfm?id=1064677. analyticsblog. doi:10. Cookies are the selected option because they reach the lowest common denominator without using technologies regarded as spyware. This means these methods are imprecise and insecure (in any reasonable model of security). (1998). Auditable metering with lightweight security. click-stream analysis. jicwebs. but to-date the solutions suggested in these papers remain theoretic. B. advanced-web-metrics. (1998). cannot be accurate. google. This issue has been addressed in a number of papers [13] [14] [15] [16] .2007. M.1504/IJICS. ca/ 2010/ 02/ revisiting-log-file-analysis-versus-page-tagging/ ) McGill University Web Analytics blog article (CMIS 530) [5] Hosted v software v hybrid web analytics tools (http:/ / www. py?hl=en& answer=32981) [12] clickz report (http:/ / www. Without a persistent and unique visitor id. [7] Web analytics integrated into web software itself (http:/ / portal. 8 Secure analytics (metering) methods All the methods described above (and some other methods not mentioned here. "Deflation-secure web metering". K. References [1] The Official WAA Definition of Web Analytics (http:/ / www. When users delete cookies. advanced-web-metrics.1007/BFb0054155. For more details. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) . M. clickz.1016/S0169-7552(98)00116-0.1007/3-540-63594-7_75. Cookies are used because IP addresses are not always unique to users and may be shared by large groups or proxies. acm. Retrieved 2009-07-19. html?page=3489636) [13] Naor. Part 1 (http:/ / blog. webanalyticsassociation. php). or because of financial gain the current situation provides to the owners of big websites. consult the aforementioned papers. Staddon. the statistics are dependent on a persistent cookie to hold a unique visitor ID. com/ ip_database. they usually delete both first. uk/ [10] ClickTale Blog » Blog Archive » What Google Analytics Can't Tell You. D. . com/ docs/ web-data-sources. R. com/ blog/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ hosted-v-software-v-hybrid-tools/ ) . pp. 1318. Pinkas. (2007). org/ ?page=aboutus) [2] Web Traffic Data Sources and Vendor Comparison (http:/ / www. Other methods of uniquely identifying a user are technically challenging and would limit the trackable audience or would be considered suspicious. com/ support/ googleanalytics/ bin/ answer. 1403. com/ 2009/ 10/ 14/ what-google-analytics-cant-tell-you-part-1/ ) [11] Clicks . [16] Johnson.and third-party cookies.blog article [6] IPInfoDB (2009-07-10). advanced-web-metrics. and other metrics dependent on the activities of a unique visitor over time. Pinkas.a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [4] Revisiting log file analysis versus page tagging (http:/ / web. . possibly due to lack of interest from the engineering community. IPInfoDB. conversions. com/ showPage. International Journal of Information and Computer Security 1: 39. If this is done between interactions with the site.. J. [14] Naor.. doi:10. (1997). [15] Franklin. org/ citation. M.. org. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems 30: 541.Analytics Help (http:/ / www. org/ [9] http:/ / www. Another problem is cookie deletion. "IP geolocation database" (http:/ / ipinfodb. pdf) by Brian Clifton and Omega Digital Media Ltd [3] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www. doi:10. abc. 576. "Secure accounting and auditing on the Web". 151.012244. clicktale. pp. When web analytics depend on cookies to identify unique visitors. B. the user will appear as a first-time visitor at their next interaction point.

Collecting. B (2009) Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series. Pfeifer. Sybex. Morgan Kaufmann. Metrics and Methods for On and Offline Success.abc. • Srinivasan .Web analytics 9 Bibliography • Clifton. Aslib Proceedings. Analyzing and Presenting Usability Metrics. Tom & Albert. Shane (2007) Actionable Web Analytics: Using Data to Make Smart Business Decisions. • Burby. • Plaza. Oxford.0 . Tools and Techniques. Celilo Group Media • Lenskold. Akin (2008) Multichannel Marketing. J.The Art of Online Accountability and Science of Customer Centricity. Sybex (Paperback. Sybex. • Peterson Eric T (2004) Web Analytics Demystified: A Marketer’s Guide to Understanding How Your Web Site Affects Your Business.E. Prentice Hall. • Bradley N (2007) Marketing Research. • Farris.(2001) E commerce Metrics. P. • Kaushik.org. • Davis. Sybex. (http://www.. Brian (2010) Advanced Web Metrics with Google Analytics. London. Elsevier.uk/) • JICWEBS (The Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards in the UK and Ireland) (http://www.jicwebs. 61(5): 474–482.T. Avinash (2009) Web Analytics 2.joelichtenberg. Jason and Atchison. • Arikan. • Mortensen. Reibstein. J. Oxford University Press. External links • Technology enablers and business goals for web analytics initiatives (http://www. Measure and Optimise strategies for Profit’ London: McGraw Hill Contemporary • Sterne. Bendle. Sybex. 2nd edition. (2009) Key Marketing Metrics The 50+ Metrics Every Manager needs to know. London: John Wiley & Sons. Proven Methods for Measuring Web Site Success. Burlington MA.com/2011/ 02/02/web-analytics- -overview-options-and-technology-enablers/) • ABCe (Audit Bureau of Circulations electronic.org/) .. Wiley. D. O'Reilly ebook. • Tullis. N. • Peterson Eric T (2005) Web Site Measurement Hacks. (2002) Web metrics. J . Dennis R. Avinash (2007) Web Analytics: An Hour a Day. Models and Examples. P.) • Kaushik. Wiley. J. London: Prentice Hall. (2009) Yahoo! Web Analytics. Bill (2008) Measuring the User Experience. UK and Europe).J. (2006) ‘Marketing Metrics: How to create Accountable Marketing plans that really work’ John Wiley & Sons (Asia). (2003) ‘Marketing ROI: how to plan.

The details of the acquisition were not disclosed to the public. CTO John Burke. to offer new insights into marketing campaigns and results. com Products Website Anametrix is a privately held web analytics and business analytics company headquartered in San Diego. In March 2010. CFO InstaVista for E-Mail Campaigns InstaVista for Advertising InstaVista for Web Analytics InstaVista for Google Analytics InstaVista for Social Media InstaVista for Salesforce. Israel. Joe Media. CEO Jon Shoff. a company founded by Anders Olsson. opening offices in Europe[1] and partnering with web and technology solutions providers in China.[3] Its proprietary InstaVista platform allows business users to perform real-time visualization and aggregation of various data sources using a normal web browser.Anametrix 10 Anametrix Anametrix. anametrix. The company also partnered with a number of North American technology firms. Nordic Research provided a proprietary engine and platform for cloud-based streaming data aggregation and visualization. Dataskill.[2] Products Anametrix provides cloud-based.com InstaVista for SugarCRM http:/ / www. California Key people Blaise Barrelet. Using proprietary technologies. France. History The company was founded in 2009 by web analytics industry experts Blaise Barrelet and Anders Olsson (of WebSideStory fame). it completed the acquisition of Nordic Research Corporation. ReelSnap. InstaVista is designed to perform multiple-channel. Inc. primarily targeting marketing teams and agencies. and the United Kingdom.[4] The platform is designed to integrate different data sources into a drag-and-drop data reporting and interaction interface. software-as-a-service business and web analytics. TechnoNet.[5] While the InstaVista platform is designed so that it can perform analytics using any data sources as inputs. VP of Sales Anders Olsson. Cadient Group. along with a number of existing business and web analytics clients. and Helm Analytics. iPost. Spain. Anametrix grew in 2010. including 118id. multi-dimensional data queries in less than a second. Type Industry Private Web Analytics Business Analytics Social Media 2009 Founded Headquarters San Diego. it is currently . which spent several years developing new technologies for integrating and visualizing massive amounts of streaming data. California with offices worldwide.

com) . com/ drno/ news11892. social media tracking. com/ qa-john-janetos-ipost-vp-of-business-development-and-sales/ article/ 190867/ http:/ / leadguru. and CRM optimization uses. dmnews. org/ ?p=189 http:/ / chiefmarketer.[6] 11 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. html External links • anametrix. online campaigns including e-mail and online advertising.com (http://www. htm http:/ / www.official site . html http:/ / leadguru.Anametrix marketed primarily toward web analytics. com/ email/ 1220-beyond-email-metrics/ index. org/ ?p=189 http:/ / chiefmarketer. com/ email/ 1220-beyond-email-metrics/ index.anametrix. mrweb.

It has provided these services since 1995. (Chairman/Founder) Mathieu Llorens. as well as Asia and Canada.[6] International Expansion As part of a strategic move to extend its reach to an international audience. [4] AT Internet Ltd. France Alain Llorens. Limited Type Industry Private . [2] AT Internet Ltd. CTO Cyril Mazeau. The focus shifted to web analytics in 1997. It also established offices in the United Kingdom and Germany.owned by Alain Llorens Web Analytics Market Research Online Optimization Web Marketing 1995 Bordeaux.AT Internet 12 AT Internet AT (Applied Technologies) Internet. Website AT Internet is a privately held company that provides integral analysis of websites. the company hired Nicolas Babin as COO and Executive Vice President of Marketing. [2] AT Internet Ltd.[5] The company is commonly known (especially in France) by the name of its flagship product XiTi.[7] . CFO Founded Headquarters Key people Products XITI Analyzer II Sales Tracker Data Explorer Observer [1] AT Internet Ltd. History The company was founded in 1995 by owner Alain Llorens as a web agency. CEO Nicolas Babin. COO Sébastien Carriot. intranet and mobile sites. [3] AT Internet Ltd.

org/ en/ rel/ ?394). This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance.atinternet. Offline measurement can also be incorporated to extend the customer experience understanding to illuminate what elements of the online experience impacted offline behavior such as purchasing in a store or visiting a branch office. "XiTi gives way to AT Internet" (http:/ / www. org/ en/ rel/ ?391).[8] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. Information Architechs".com/category/case-studies/ . atinternet. atinternet. atinternet. customer satisfaction and overall customer experience success or failure. atinternet. . Xiti. com/ es http:/ / www. External links • Official website (http://www. This quantitative user experience collects data from thousands of user sessions rather than hundreds.usabilitysciences. The objective was to better define the expectations of the French public towards ministerial and interministerial website performance. com/ en/ Company/ History. . com http:/ / www. 2004 [7] AT Internet (2008-09-08). In 2004.AT Internet 13 Market Research and The AT Internet Institute In July. Leading web analytics players are also providing partner integration frameworks to better integrate silos of intent. Reports of finding and recommendations are used to improve a website or customer experience program that is heavily dependent upon the use of an online campaigns driving traffic to a website or collection of sites. attitudinal and behavioral data. atinternet. was created. webanalyticsassociation. trends and preferences. The project spanned 2 years and covered 70 governmental websites. omniture. com/ de AT Internet (2008-09-01). "AT Internet . amazon. . Xiti was chosen to carry out audience research for the French Government.com) Attitudinal analytics Attitudinal analytics is a marketing technology application that involves the integration of online surveys that capture visitor intent and critical demographic attributes with the tracking of explicit behavior through click stream monitoring on websites.XiTi names Nicolas Babin COO and Executive Vice President Marketing" (http:/ / www. webanalyticsassociation. [8] AT Internet (2009-09-20). com/ en http:/ / www. com/ Actionable-Web-Analytics-Business-Decisions/ dp/ 0470124741 Actionable Web Analytics [2] http:/ / www. aspx). com/ press/ 373 Omniture Case Study http://www.[1] Several vendors provide attitudinal analytics solutions as stand-alone offerings. 2000 the research arm of the organization. "AT Internet History" (http:/ / www. December 16. [2] References [1] http:/ / www. French Xiti To Measure French Govt Websites Audience 2004-2006 French Business Digest "Data Processing. XiTi would go on to publish several studies and benchmarking reports pertaining to Internet user behaviors.

It is a very popular server administration tool. AWStats support resources include documentation [4]. IIS (W3C log format) and many other common web server log formats. mail and FTP servers.net [3] AWStats is an open source Web analytics reporting tool. Licensing AWStats is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). 2010 Perl Cross-platform Web analytics GNU General Public License awstats.0 [2] / December 5. AWStats can be deployed on almost any operating system. Support Proper web log analysis tool configuration and report interpretation requires a bit of technical and business knowledge. and user community forums [5] . AWStats supports most major web server log file formats including Apache (NCSA combined/XLF/ELF log format or common/CLF log format). with packages available for most Linux distributions. Cross-platform availability Written in Perl.net.sourceforge. Developers can contribute to the AWStats project through SourceForge. AWStats parses and analyzes server log files. for local use in situations where log files can be downloaded from a remote server. WebStar. producing HTML reports. streaming media. suitable for analyzing data from Internet services such as web. such as MS Windows.AWStats 14 AWStats AWStats Original author(s) Laurent Destailleur [1] Stable release Written in Operating system Type License Website 7. and on-demand reporting is supported through a web browser CGI program. Static reports can be created through a command line interface. AWStats can be installed on a workstation. Data is visually presented within reports by tables and bar graphs.

Development and support appeared to have stopped in 2002.5). • W3Perl. php?forum_id=43428 http:/ / www. php?group_id=13764 http:/ / awstats. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. html#exref http:/ / awstats. There are also a number of other open source alternatives to AWStats. antezeta. It does not support the concept of a visitor. 2008 a new version was released. Organizations wishing to provide public access to their Web analytics reports should consider generating static HTML reports. but on July 12. Precautions should be taken against referrer spam (Referrer spam filtering functionality [6] was added in version 6. • Analog offers a wealth of reporting options for a technical audience. • Visitors (program) • Piwik • Obsessive Website Statistics The AWStats project provides a detailed comparison chart [7]. software download and community support forums. sourceforge. destailleur. net/ docs/ http:/ / sourceforge. net/ . not always with same functionality. fr/ http:/ / sourceforge. The on-demand facility can still be used by restricting its use to internal users. sourceforge. Alternatives There are three primary open source alternatives to AWStats. a powerful alternative which has features similar to AWStats. news. sourceforge. Development and support appears to have stopped in 2004 (with last version 6. It has a smaller functionality set compared to AWStats. net/ project/ showfiles. net/ docs/ awstats_compare. usually desired for business analysis. References • AWStats documentation set [4] External links • AWStats official web site [8] includes documentation. as is the case of many CGI programs.0). net/ forum/ forum. sourceforge. html http:/ / awstats.AWStats 15 Security considerations The on-demand CGI program has been the object of security exploits. net http:/ / awstats. • Webalizer is offered by many ISPs as it is fast and simple. com/ awstats.

The bounce rate for a single page is the number of visitors who enter the site at a page and leave within the specified timeout period without viewing another page. If the visitor continues to navigate after this delay. In contrast. On sites where an objective can be met without viewing more than one page. There is no industry standard minimum or maximum time by which a visitor must leave in order for a bounce to occur. as having a high bounce rate is not always a sign of poor performance. Usage Bounce rates can be used to help determine the effectiveness or performance of an entry page. Rather. if a visitor views a page. where • Rb = Bounce rate • Tv = Total number of visitors viewing one page only • T = Total entries to page e A visitor may bounce by: • • • • • Clicking on a link to a page on a different web site Closing an open window or tab Typing a new URL Clicking the "Back" button to leave the site Session timeout A commonly used session timeout value is 30 minutes[2] . a new session will occur. divided by the total number of visitors who entered the site at that page. 50% (above) is worrying. the bounce rate for a web site is the number of web site visitors who visit only a single page of a web site per session divided by the total number of web site visits. that is. An entry page with a low bounce rate means that the page effectively causes visitors to view more pages and continue on deeper into the web site. Definition A bounce occurs when a web site visitor only views a single page on a website. they will register as a bounce.[3] Google Analytics specialist Avinash Kaushik has stated: "My own personal observation is that it is really hard to get a bounce rate under 20%."[4] Interpretation of the bounce rate measure should be relevant to a website's business objectives and definitions of conversion. the bounce rate would not be as meaningful for determining conversion success. anything over 35% is cause for concern.Bounce rate 16 Bounce rate Bounce rate (sometimes confused with exit rate)[1] is an Internet marketing term used in web traffic analysis. this is determined by the session timeout of the analytics tracking software. doesn't look at another page. the bounce rate of an e-commerce site could be interpreted in correlation with the purchase conversion rate. In contrast. the visitor leaves a site without visiting any other pages before a specified session-timeout occurs. providing the bounces are considered representative of visits where no purchase was made. I stress that this is my personal analysis. In this case. It represents the percentage of visitors who enter the site and "bounce" (leave the site) rather than continue viewing other pages within the same site. and leaves his browser idle for longer than 30 minutes. .

Editors. Ideally. Journal of Knowledge and Information System 1 (1): 5–32.. and therefore log a simulated click that lead to that page view. [3] Google AdWords Learning Center . co. and this method requires some functionality that picks up relevant information when the event occurs. html) [2] Cooley. net/ avinash/ 2007/ 05/ excellent-analytics-tip-11-measure-effectiveness-of-your-web-pages. to optimize the content. ps) (– Scholar search (http:/ / scholar. a visitor looking for the definition of a particular word may enter an online dictionary site on that word's definition page. Commonly. Exit Rate" (http:/ / www. Typically. google. Mobasher. J. click analytics focuses on on-site analytics. designers or other types of stakeholders may analyze clicks on a wider time frame to aid them assess performance of writers. Data about clicks may be gathered in at least two ways. depending on the type of information sought. a visitor who wants to read about a specific news story may enter a news site on an article written for that story. For example. com/ blog/ 2007/ 08/ bounce-rate-and-exit-rate-what-is. com/ adwords/ learningcenter/ text/ 38069. click analytics may happen real-time or "unreal"-time. • List of web analytics software References . it may be of questionable value for sites where visitors are likely to find what they are looking for on the entry page. frontpage editors on high-traffic news media sites will want to monitor their pages in real-time. html) Click analytics Click analytics is a special type of web analytics that gives special attention to clicks (Point-and-click) which constitute the first stage in the conversion funnel. An editor of a web site uses click analytics to determine the performance of his or her particular site. a click is "logged" when it occurs.Bounce rate 17 Caveats While site-wide bounce rate can be a useful metric for sites with well-defined conversion steps requiring multiple page views. kaushik. ) [4] Excellent Analytics Tip #11: Measure Effectiveness Of Your Web Pages | Occam's Razor by Avinash Kaushik (http:/ / www. References [1] HMTWeb. and they might still be considered successful due to having served their purpose. B. design elements or advertisements etc. one may institute the assumption that a page view is a result of a click. Similarly. cs.Improving Your Content and Site (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-08-25. . uk/ scholar?hl=en& lr=& q=author:Cooley+ intitle:Data+ Preparation+ for+ Mining+ World+ Wide+ Web+ Browsing+ Patterns& as_publication=Journal+ of+ Knowledge+ and+ Information+ System& as_ylo=& as_yhi=& btnG=Search)). Alternatively. edu/ research/ websift/ papers/ kais99. Srivastava (1999). umn. with regards to where the users of the site are clicking. This type of behavior is common on web portals and referential content sites.com "Bounce Rate vs. google. These example entry pages could have a bounce rate above 80% (thereby increasing the site-wide average). "Data Preparation for Mining World Wide Web Browsing Patterns" (http:/ / www. html. hmtweb. Also. R.

every page requested generates a signal. Clickstreams can also be used to allow the user to see where they have been and allow them to easily return to a page they have already visited.Clickstream 18 Clickstream A Clickstream is the recording of what a computer user clicks on while Web browsing or using another software application.[4] With the growing corporate knowledge of the importance of clickstreams. However. These signals can be graphically represented for clickstream reporting.[2] While this practice may not directly identify individual users. Most consumers are unaware of this practice. information was only collected from "real humans" clicking on sites through browsers. Because human and machine traffic were not differentiated. The data can be used in various scenarios. one of which is marketing. the study of human clicks took a substantial effort.[3] Since the business world is quickly evolving into a state of e-commerce. proxy servers. few ISPs publicly admit to this practice. and integrated OLAP used to build Business Intelligence is evolving. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of advertising on a web page or site. Additionally. A clickstream is a series of page requests. A small observation on the evolution of clickstream tracking: Initial clickstream or click path data had to be gleaned from server log files. an example being the AOL search data scandal. As the user clicks anywhere in the webpage or application. Clickstream analysis can also be used to improve customer satisfaction with the website and with the company itself. the action is logged on a client or inside the Web server. the way that they are being monitored and [5] .40/month per user. Use of clickstream data can raise privacy concerns. and ad servers. the first being an analysis of a user’s clickstream while using a website to reveal usage patterns. blogger or person with a website can learn about how to improve their site. Both of these uses generate a huge business advantage. and for analyzing employee productivity. The main point of clickstream tracking is to give webmasters insight into what visitors on their site are doing. There are 10-12 companies that purchase this data. market research. This use of the analysis creates a user profile that aids in understanding the types of people that visit a company’s website. Unauthorized clickstream data collection is considered to be spyware. as well as possibly the Web browser. Clickstream analysis is useful for Web activity analysis[1] . researcher. especially since some Internet service providers have resorted to selling users' clickstream data as a way to enhance revenue. software testing. column-oriented DBMS. typically for about $0. clickstream analysis can be used to predict whether a customer is likely to purchase from an e-commerce website. Data mining systems are being used in conjunction with clickstreams to better record and analyze this data. Subsequently javascript technologies were developed which use a tracking cookie to generate a series of signals from browsers. In other words. . In addition. As discussed in Van den Poel & Buckinx (2005). authorized clickstream data collection comes from organizations that use opt-in panels to generate market research using panelists who agree to share their clickstream data with other companies by downloading and installing specialized clickstream collection agents. and its potential for compromising their privacy. any webmaster. This analysis can be used to generate two findings for the company. a function that is already incorporated in most browsers. which in turn gives a heightened understanding of customer behaviour. This datas itself is "neutral" in the sense that any dataset is neutral. it is often possible to indirectly identify specific users. routers. analyzing the data of clients that visit a company website is becoming a necessity in order to remain competitive.

adds clickstream analysis to AWStats . 166 (2).clickstream. of KDD Workshop on Web mining as a Premise to. Cesar Cardona.sweetlets.com/w/ solutions/click-stream) External links • Follow Me Plugin for AWStats (http://www. html [4] Patrali Chatterjee. 9558& rep=rep1& type=pdf)” Proc. (Autumn. com/ article/ 29449-compete-ceo-isps-sell-clickstreams-for-5-a-month [3] http:/ / blog.. com/ 27bstroke6/ 2007/ 04/ some_isps_still. wired.“ Modeling the Clickstream: Implications for Web-Based Advertising Efforts (http:/ / www.internetofficer. edu/ viewdoc/ download?doi=10. wharton. Carlos Rojas. “ Predicting Online-Purchasing Behavior (http://econpapers. pdf)” Journal of Interactive Marketing (2004) [2] http:/ / seekingalpha. ist.“ Mining Evolving User Profiles in NoisyWeb Clickstream Data with a Scalable Immune System Clustering Algorithm (http:/ / citeseerx. 1. SAP NetWeaver portal analytics solutions (http://www. upenn.com/awstats/plugin-follow-me/) . 557-575. Automating analytics and online marketing solutions (http://www. 520-541 [5] Olfa Nasraoui. org/paper/rugrugwps/03_2F195. 1. (2003) • Van den Poel Dirk..repec. edu/ ideas/ pdf/ Fader/ Moe Fader JIM paper 0503. • Clickstream Technologies Plc. PS Fader (2004). com) • Click Stream by Sweetlets . 58. jstor.Clickstream 19 References [1] WW Moe. Marketing Science22(4). Fabio Gonzalez (2003).htm)”. Novak (2003).. psu. Wouter Buckinx (2005). 2003).“ Capturing Evolving Visit Behavior in Clickstream Data (http:/ / mktg-sun. Donna L. European Journal of Operational Research. org/ pss/ 4129736)”. Hoffman and Thomas P. 2005.

CEO and Co-Founder Arik Yavilevich. ClickTale offers full integration with a wide variety of web standards. that provides Customer Experience Analytics and Web Analytics services. which are most frequently left blank and cause which website visitors to leave. ClickTale's analytics service is qualitative and provides a full video playback option for each individual visitor's session[3] . it is unknown what its revenue may be as the company has not publicly announced any financial data. 2. 4. Web Analytics Technology Industry Headquarters Ramat Gan.ClickTale 20 ClickTale ClickTale Type User Experience Optimizaion.000 users. including: 1.showing how visitors respond to and interact with hyperlinks. it uses meta statistics to create visual heatmaps and behavioural reports.000 users and its revenue was estimated at over $1. and also offers product integration with companies like Omniture and Silverpop [7]. Tal Schwartz. Click Heatmaps . ClickTale had over 20.showing where visitors drop out of online forms. 2. Israel Key people Dr. 3. [4] 3.com [1] Website ClickTale is an Internet company founded in 2006. Form Analytics . Heatmaps. Products ClickTale's analytics suite consists of three main parts: 1. Scroll Heatmaps .showing where on the page the visitor shows the most attention. Conversion Analytics. including: 1. 3. which form fields take too long to fill. . Link Analytics[6] .2M per annum[2] .ClickTale. including HTTPS. 2. Drupal and Ruby on Rails as well as many others. Technology Unlike traditional web analytics. In addition. Attention Heatmaps .showing where the visitors click on the page. results in the most "traditional" web heatmap.showing where customers convert and where they leave the conversion process. As of February 2009.used for conducting accurate eye tracking on a massive scale[5] .showing how far down the page visitors scroll (useful for finding and optimizing the fold of a page). Mouse Move Heatmaps . In addition. as well as conversion analytics and traditional web statistics. Video playback of individual visitor sessions. Although today ClickTale claims to have more than 50. Wordpress. CTO and Co-Founder www. Conversion Funnels . PHP.

ClickTale offers custom-made solutions to companies with more than 1. 2006-07-11. [3] "Watch internet users’ behaviour with ClickTale" (http:/ / www. .000 pageviews per month. [7] http:/ / www. References [1] http:/ / www. com/ 2009/ 02/ 06/ using-clicktales-analytics-pays-off-really/ ). techcrunch. php/ findability/ clicktale-launches-mouse-click-heat-maps/ / ). ClickTale runs both an affiliate and partnership program. [6] "Using ClickTale’s analytics pays off — really" (http:/ / venturebeat. [5] "Eye Tracking for Everyone" (http:/ / blog. ClickTale uses a freemium pricing model.clicktale. 2009-08-12. [4] "ClickTale Launches Mouse Click Heat Maps" (http:/ / jeffparks.com/) • Company Blog (http://blog. Says Revenue Growth Is Strong" (http:/ / www. clicktale.000. 2009-02-05.for Small and medium businesses. although it is not publicly known how much these plans cost. • ClickTale Enterprise .for enterprise customers. com/ External links • Official WebSite (http://www.ClickTale 21 Pricing Clicktale offers two levels of pricing: • ClickTale Online .clicktale. offering a limited free plan and three tiers of paid plans starting from $99 a month. 2009-11-23. . clicktale. com/ 2009/ 11/ 23/ eye-tracking-for-everyone/ ).com) . ca/ index.clicktale. allowing resellers and digital agencies to sell the product themselves for a share of the revenue. com/ 2006/ 07/ 11/ watch-internet-users -behaviour-with-clicktale/ ). com/ 2009/ 02/ 05/ clicktale-launches-email-tracking-says-revenue-growth-is-strong/ ). silverpop. . com/ [2] "ClickTale Launches Email Tracking. techcrunch. 2009-02-06. .com) • ClickTale Wiki (http://wiki. .

The metaphor of a funnel is used to describe the decrease in numbers that occurs at each step of the process.02% in late 2010 and have decreased over the past three years. Only a small proportion of those seeing the advert or link actually click the link. creating further constriction of the metaphorical funnel. The metric used to describe this ratio is the click-through rate or CTR and represents the top level of the funnel. link position and many others and these effects interact cumulatively. sites with similar pricing and products can have hugely different conversion rates of visitors to customers and therefore greatly differing profits. only a small proportion of visitors typically proceeds to the product pages. Typically a large number of visitors register as page view on a referring page which is linked to the e-commerce site by a banner ad.Conversion funnel 22 Conversion funnel Conversion funnel is a technical term used in e-commerce operations to describe the track a consumer takes through an Internet advertising or search system. ad network or conventional link.typically by 30%–80% per page. For this reason. Once the link is clicked and the visitor to the referring page enters the e-commerce site itself. The process of understanding which creative material brings the highest click-through rate is known as ad optimization. Each step the visitor takes further reduces the number of visitors . Typical banner and advertising click-through rates are 0. Click-though rates are highly sensitive to small changes such as link text. link size. The more steps. the fewer visitors get through to becoming paying customers. Adding the product to the shopping cart. References . registering or filling in contact details and payment all further reduce the numbers step-by-step cumulatively along the funnel. navigating an e-commerce web site and finally converting to a sale.

• Indexation in the main search engines follow-up (backlinks and indexed pages). pages viewed and bounce rate.0.0 / April 2. French. keyword used.CrawlTrack 23 CrawlTrack CrawlTrack Developer(s) Stable release Jean-Denis Brun 3. • Record of number and origin of 404 errors. net/ [2] http:/ / www. etc). • Recording and blocking of certain types of hacking attempts (code injection or SQL injection). That script has to be installed on the webmaster's own server. Spanish. Several sites can be audited by the same CrawlTrack installation. so that s/he keeps control of the data.net [1] CrawlTrack is an open source web analytics program for webmasters. • Crawler visits statistics (indexing by crawlers such as GoogleBot). Dutch and Turkish. • Download counter. German. giving number and origin of visitors (referrer. country of origin. External links • CrawlTrack [2] References [1] http:/ / crawltrack. net/ . crawltrack. giving absolutely no output in the source code (and hence neither on the site's pages). The script is available in English. 2009 Operating system Cross-platform Available in Type License Website PHP Web analytics GPL crawltrack. Functionality • Web site statistics. hits number and pages viewed by crawlers. The tag used is a PHP one.

Xerox. Dell. Keynote speakers in the past have included representatives of Coke.Emetrics Summit 24 Emetrics Summit The Emetrics Summit is a conference on measuring the success of a website. External links • Official website [1] References [1] http:/ / www. The subject matter has ranged from the simply technical (is log file analysis better that page tagging) to the organization (how do you get business people to understand that incredible value in web data?) to the holistic (how do you combine web performance monitoring and customer satisfaction with web analytics in order to get the Big Picture?). CBS. org/ . Washington D. London and Germany. Amazon. Yahoo!.com. emetrics. but has expanded in subject matter to online marketing optimization. It started in 2002 in Santa Barbara by Jim Sterne as a web analytics conference. Ford. and Disney. It has also expanded to San Francisco. Microsoft.C.. The Emetrics Summit has continued to grow in size and was the spawning ground of the Web Analytics Association.

As capacity was added to the system.000. However due to extremely high demand for the service.95% of the top 1. Through the use of GA analysis. By using GA. Urchin 6 was released. marketers can determine which ads are performing.js page tag which they recommend to use for all new accounts and new profiles for new domains. The system also brings ideas from Adaptive Path.js page tags will continue to work. poor performing pages can be identified using techniques such as funnel visualization.[1] currently in use at around 57% of the 10. nevertheless the new tag will allow site owners to take advantage of the most up-to-date tracking functionality. lead generation. e-mail marketing and digital collateral such as links within PDF documents. Analysis http:/ / google. com/ analytics Google Analytics (GA) is a free service offered by Google that generates detailed statistics about the visitors to a website. in April 2005). viewing a specific page. since mid-August 2006 the service has been fully available to all users – whether they use Google for advertising or not. Urchin on Demand (Google acquired Urchin Software Corp. ability to graph multiple data points at . providing the information to optimise or cull campaigns. including search engines. Prior to August 2006 Google was sending out batches of invitation codes as server availability permitted. including custom visitor segmentation.000 most popular websites. Existing urchin. users can review online campaigns by tracking landing page quality and conversions (goals). Google rolled out the new ga. 2007. Google began using a lottery-type invitation-code model. These can also be monetized. In April 2008.[6] In December 2007. display advertising. or downloading a particular file. It is limited to sites which have a traffic of fewer than 5 million pageviews per month (roughly 2 pageviews per second). and which are not. how long they stayed and their geographical position. Each profile generally corresponds to one website. whose product. pay-per-click networks. The Google-branded version was rolled out in November 2005 to anyone who wished to sign up. GA's approach is to show high level dashboard-type data for the casual user.[4] History Google's service was developed from Urchin Software Corporation's analytics system. Users can officially add up to 50 site profiles. The product is aimed at marketers as opposed to webmasters and technologists from which the industry of web analytics originally grew. was acquired and used in the redesign of Google Analytics in 2006. unless the site is linked to an AdWords campaign.[2] Another market share analysis claims that Google Analytics is used at around 49. It is the most widely used website statistics service. It also provides more advanced features. Integrated with AdWords. and more in-depth data further into the report set. where visitors came from (referrers). A new version of the user interface was released on May 17. Measure Map.Google Analytics 25 Google Analytics Google Analytics Developer(s) Google Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Statistics.000 websites (as currently ranked by Alexa). Goals might include sales.[3] GA can track visitors from all referrers. new sign-ups were suspended only a week later.[5] Google still sells the standalone installable Urchin software through a network of value-added resellers.

For small segments of data.[10] Without cookies being set.[7] While the product platform has never been a beta. according to a comment by a Google employee on a web analytics blog [8]. GA cannot collect data. will also have the file cached on their machine. a visitor that has previously visited any other website with this code implemented. The result is that the page overhead of including the GATC on web pages is kept to a minimum. While margins of error are indicated for the visits metric. what is the timestamp of the current visit and what was the referrer site or campaign the visitor came from e. It can take 12 hours for Google to process this data. . The larger file (currently known as ga. new beta features are added from time to time. To function. This code collects visitor data and sends it to a Google data collection server as part of a request for a web beacon. the GATC loads a larger Javascript file from the Google webserver and then sets variables with the user's account number. Any individual web user can block or delete cookies resulting in the data loss of those visits for GA users. In addition to transmitting information to a Google server. Website owners can encourage users not to disable cookies. This is used to store anonymous information such as whether the visitor has been to the site before (new or returning visitor).[9] The largest potential impact on data accuracy comes from users deleting or blocking Google Analytics cookies. for example by making visitors more comfortable using the site through posting a privacy policy. Another limitation of GA for large websites is the use of sampling in the generation of many of its reports. That is. it has limitations with websites browsed from mobile phones. This prevents some traffic and users from being tracked. and leads to holes in the collected data. Because GA uses a page tagging technique to collect visitor information via a combination of JavaScript and cookies. privacy networks like Tor will mask the user's actual location and present inaccurate geographical data. the small piece of code (usually JavaScript) that acts as a beacon to collect visitor data. This is due to the fact that only the latest phones are currently able to run JavaScript or set cookies (Smart phones and PDAs).000 randomly sampled visits at the profile level for its calculations. Limitations Many ad filtering programs and extensions (such as Firefox's Adblock and NoScript) can block the GATC. However. margins of error are not provided for any other metrics in the GA reports.g. To reduce the load on their servers and to provide users with a relatively quick response for their query. these limitations are considered small – affecting only a small percentage of visits. This is referred to as the Google Analytics Tracking Code (GATC) and is a snippet of JavaScript code that the user adds onto every page of his or her website. GA limits reports to 500. [11] the margin of error can be very large. search engine.js) is typically 18 KB in size and is only downloaded once at the start of the visit as it will be cached throughout the session. As all websites that implement GA with the ga.js code are using the same master file from Google. banner or email. 26 Technology Google Analytics is implemented by including what is known as a "page tag". Some users do not have Javascript-enabled/capable browsers or turn this feature off. the GATC sets first party cookies on each visitor's computer. Also.Google Analytics once and to track ecommerce transactions in a more readable way. These limitations affect all on-site web analytics tools that collect on-site visitor data using page tags. keywords.

js script. builtwith. Many such tools exist through a number of mediums. often open-source. py?hl=en& answer=55476) [5] Official Google Blog: Here comes Measure Map (http:/ / googleblog. Article URL: [22] • Plaza.[12] [13] [14] However.com [20] • • • • twitter. BuiltWith.000 most popular websites (as ranked by Alexa Internet) ordered by popularity. Retrieved 2010-08-21.uni-muenchen. com/ support/ analytics/ bin/ answer. W3Techs.[18] [19] Webmasters who seek to mitigate Google Analytics' inherent privacy issues can employ a number of alternatives having their backends hosted on their own machines.[15] [16] Privacy Issues Due to its ubiquity. Google has also released a browser plugin that turns off data about a page visit being sent to Google. [2] "Google Analytics Usage Statistics" (http:/ / trends. Aslib Proceedings. whether to allow for example Google Analytics to track his/her activities.[17] Since this plug-in is produced and distributed by Google itself. .ub. One was built to run on iOS (Apple) devices and is featured in Apple's app store see: Analytics by Net Conversion [21] References • Plaza. . google.com API Proliferation The Google Analytics API has been utilized by third parties to build custom reporting tools. com/ technologies/ overview/ traffic_analysis/ all). with Piwik being a popular option. html) . Retrieved 2010-02-17. it has met much discussion and criticism.Google Analytics 27 Slowing down the website There have been several online discussions about the impact on Google Analytics on site performance.com myspace. These plug-ins offer the user a choice. Google tracks that visit via the user's IP address. Google Analytics raises many privacy concerns. com/ analytics/ Google-Analytics). Furthermore. browser plug-ins. [3] "Google Analytics Market Share" (http:/ / metricmail. B (2009) Using Google Analytics for measuring inlinks effectiveness. 19676. B (2009) Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series. blogspot.com dailymotion. as reported by BackendBattles. com/ 2006/ 02/ here-comes-measure-map. Google introduced asynchronous JavaScript code in December 2009 to reduce the risk of slowing the loading of pages tagged with the ga. 61(5): 474–482. the realisation of Google scripts tracking user behaviours has spawned the production of multiple. . [4] Google Analytics Help: Does Google Analytics have a pageview limit? (http:/ / www. It has been anecdotally reported that behind proxy servers and multiple firewalls that errors can occur changing time stamps and registering invalid searches. Whenever someone visits a website that uses Google Analytics. Article URL: http://mpra. com/ post/ 904126172/ google-analytics-market-share).com answers. High profile sites using Google Analytics Google Analytics is used by 57% of the 10. tumblr. MetricMail.de/19676/ [1] "Usage of traffic analysis tools for websites" (http:/ / w3techs. MPRA Paper No. Retrieved 2009-12-10.

analyticsmarket. Andy Greenberg (http:/ / www. html) [8] http:/ / blog. epikone. asp) [18] http:/ / noscript. com/ 2007/ 05/ you-now-have-access-to-new-google.00.. com/ 10.com/ installing-analytics-on-a-large-website/) • Google Analytics Meetup Group in London. com/ 2008/ 12/ 11/ virus-filter-avira-tech-security-cx_ag_1211virus. The Virus Filters.]" [19] Forbes. html) [10] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www. blogspot. com/ backend/ Google_Analytics [21] http:/ / itunes. woopra. pcmag. com/ blog/ 2007/ 08/ eu-and-us-javascript-disabled-index.com/ London-Web-Analytics-Google-Analytics-OmnitureMVT/) .org/extend/plugins/google-analytics-for-wordpress/ ) • How to install Google Analytics on a large static HTML website (http://fieldsmarshall. apple. backendbattles. vkistudios. com/ us/ app/ analytics-by-net-conversion/ id421164239?mt=8 [22] Emerald | Aslib Proceedings | Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series (http:/ / www. 2008. com/ blog/ 2009/ 02/ 04/ is-google-analytics-slow-or-not/ ) [15] Google Analytics Launches Asynchronous Tracking (http:/ / googlecode. html) [20] http:/ / www. 2010 (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 12/ announcing-new-graphing-tools-gajs. html) at the Google Analytics blog [7] Announcing new graphing tools and ga. Dec 11. advanced-web-metrics. blogspot. html) [17] "Opt Out of Google Analytics Data Gathering With New Beta Tool" by Chloe Albanesius May 25. google. com/ index. Flock. com/ 2009/ 12/ google-analytics-launches-asynchronous. net/ "The NoScript Firefox extension provides extra protection for Firefox.com/analytics) • Google Analytics Email Alerts via the API (http://www. com/ blog/ tracking-code-slows-my-site) [14] Is Google Analytics Slow or Not? (http:/ / www. cfm/ 2008/ 7/ 14/ google-analytics-lag-time-woes--get-immediate-gratification-with-wasp [9] EU and US JavaScript Disabled Index numbers + Web Analytics data collection impact (http:/ / visualrevenue. com/ 2010/ 04/ making-web-faster. forbes. blogspot.meetup.Google Analytics [6] You now have access to the new Google Analytics! (http:/ / analytics.com/ get-email-alerts-from-google-analytics/) • Google Analytics for Wordpress plugin (http://wordpress.js tracking (http:/ / analytics. com/ group/ analytics-help-basics/ browse_thread/ thread/ 62997a00d5a50406?pli=1) [13] Google Analytics Code is Slowing Down My Site (http:/ / www. 1108/ 00012530910989625) 28 External links • Google Analytics web site (http://www. com/ blog/ 2009/ 04/ 21/ segmentation-options-in-google-analytics/ ) [12] Does Google Analytics Slow down page loading? (http:/ / groups..google.2364174. emeraldinsight.2817. Seamonkey and other mozilla-based browsers [. UK (http://www. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) – a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [11] Segmentation Options in Google Analytics (http:/ / www. com/ article2/ 0. blogspot.latentmotion. html) [16] Making the Web Faster (http:/ / analytics.

omniture. References [1] http:/ / blogs. Other. Some Web Analytics services have been declared spyware by several anti-spyware organizations. The combination of the two makes a request from the data collection servers for each page viewed by a user. It was now widely used by commercial & other organizations across a variety of industrial sectors as a complete and integrated metrics solution for monitoring web traffic and driving marketing. com/ 2008/ 09/ 19/ migrating-from-hbx-to-sitecatalyst/ . A cookie is placed on the users computer which contains a unique id. This unique id is passed with the request to the data collection servers. SiteCatalyst. until taken over by Omniture subsequently taken over by [Adobe). Companies place javascript files on their web servers which are linked to from a html script in the page code. custom information can be passed in the request as well as information from the HTTP header of the browser. During the processing of the data Hitbox ties together the page views to get a perspective of how the user moved through the site. Adobe plan to completely phase it out by moving all their clients to their flagship product [1]. originally for adult entertainment websites.Hitbox 29 Hitbox Hitbox was a popular web counter and web analytics product created by WebSideStory. such as referrer and browser details.

Founder & CEO Owner(s) Website Hitwise http:/ / www. "HitWise Acquires HitDynamics" (http:/ / www. The company was founded by internet entrepreneur Max Polyakov in January 2005 and was acquired in on 6 March 2006 by Hitwise[1] and the company's technology now exists as the web analytics arm of the HitWise suite. Type Industry Private Online Marketing Key people Max Polyakov.HitDynamics 30 HitDynamics HitDynamics Ltd. . htm). hitdynamics. com/ press-release. References [1] HitWise (May 1 2007). com/ HitDynamics is a provider of web analytics software allowing website owners to track traffic to their sites and ascertain which traffic sources deliver conversions to sales. hitdynamics. .

HubSpot 31 HubSpot HubSpot.400 in July 2009[4] to over 3. content management system. Brian Halligan and Dharmesh Shah. Inc. CTO & Founder Jim O'Neill.[5] [6] [7] mainly in the USA. com/ HubSpot is a venture-funded[3] marketing software company based in Cambridge.600 in November 2010. Its customer base grew from over 1.[9] [10] [11] In summer 2010. Massachusetts Key people Brian Halligan. met at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2004 and incorporated HubSpot in June 2006. CIO Mike Volpe. VP Sales Yoav Shapira. CFO Jonah Lopin. VP Engineering David Stack. • HubSpot Medium[13] [15] (formerly HubSpot Marketer) add features such as Salesforce. hubspot. Type Industry Private Internet Marketing Web Analytics Online Marketing June 2006 Founded Headquarters Cambridge. in the Lechmere neighborhood of Cambridge. Google Ventures and Salesforce. and landing pages.com integration for closed-loop marketing metrics. CEO & Founder Dharmesh Shah.[8] It was backed by venture capitalists including General Catalyst Partners. marketing analytics.[12] Products and services • HubSpot Small[13] [14] (formerly HubSpot Owner) offers SEO. Matrix Partners. Massachusetts. Sequoia Capital. A related product (HubSpot Large) adds features such as premium support. VP Marketing Mark Roberge. • Consulting services[16] . History The founders.com. VP Customer Services [1] HubSpot Small HubSpot Medium HubSpot Large Consulting service 170 (07/26/2010) [2] Products Employees Website http:/ / www. HubSpot moved its offices into the Davenport. Scale Venture Partners. business blogging.

• Free E-books on internet marketing topics Twitter co-founder Biz Stone is celebrity guest of Karen Rubin and Mike • Interactive webcasts and live video shows on Volpe on hubspot. Scott featured Website Grader is his book World Wide Rave[18] and HubSpot is a sponsor of the Inbound Marketing Summit[19] that Scott co-organizes. the hosts secured a celebrity guest appearance from Biz Stone not by hiring a booking agent but by hearing he was in the area. appearance in a search engine results page (SERP) at the moment a prospective customer is searching on a term related to your product) is more powerful than interruption or outbound marketing.g.tv using Twitter conversations. The company is influenced by the ideas of David Meerman Scott who serves on its board as special advisor[17] .tv episode [30] series . and by the 'publish your way in' (or 'think like a publisher' or 'always be publishing (ABP)') mindset. Scott's E-book Goobledygook Manifesto[21] inspired Gobbledygook Grader (an automated tool to detect gobbledygook) and some metrics in Pressrelease Grader. not one-way broadcast.com For one hubspot. Their products help customers use and measure internet marketing techniques such as social media. Content includes: • Frequent posting on its top ranked [25] blog." . The paid version adds trending and other features versus the gratis version. Scott wrote the foreword and is series editor of a book that Halligan and Shah co-authored[20] .HubSpot 32 Strategy HubSpot is based on the idea that permission or inbound marketing (e. hosting a #BizInBoston Tweetup event[31] . The tactic initially caused concern among some members of the Twitter community. 2009 Photo: Kyle James (CC-BY-SA) hubspot. which [26] on iTunes Store as podcasts and as a YouTube channel[27] are archived • Viral videos including musical parodies[28] and satires[23] . [29] • Free. This strategy is in alignment with Google's advice to webmasters[24] that to rank high in the SERPs you must create great content that readers will want to link to. • Website Grader which compares web sites for SEO qualities. and search engine optimization (SEO). alt tags on images etc. interactive tools such as the grader. A copy of Scott's book The New Rules of Marketing and PR[22] appears prominently on Rebecca Corliss's desk in her music video that satirizes "link love". blogging. but these were quickly resolved[33] .tv April 17. Using a similar technique the hosts secured a guest appearance[34] by MC Hammer whose refreshing insight about Internet marketing and social media was "Forget the numbers! Just stay interesting.[23] HubSpot models the behavior it teaches its own customers by promoting itself through conversations. and offers suggestions for improvement. They include a set of tools such as: • Business blogging and analytics • Keyword Grader which helps you find search engine keywords that are popular. relevant. and are relatively neglected by one's competition • Link Grader to assess and compare the number and authority of the inbound links that most modern search engines use to generate their SERPs • Page Grader to offer suggestions for on-page SEO such as length of the title and description in the head of HTML pages. and then creating a viral campaign[32] on Twitter itself using a #bizinboston hashtag and mentions of Stone's Twitter username.

throwing out the baby with the bathwater. a community website for marketers[39] . Similar pro and con themes emerged in a discussion[54] on the Web Pro World Forum. brochure copy." The grader. SEO expert Rand Fishkin speculated that it was a case of Google's anti-spamdexing algorithm ". cliches and over-used. and on Twitter.000 inbound links from inception to the time the article was written[59] and it's possible this unusually rapid growth tripped a "circuit breaker" in Google's algorithm.." On the other hand. Video blogger Steve Garfield visited the hubspot.[45] Easter Eggs Besides the ten subdomains linked there[46] . the grader." Criticism and Controversy Guy Kawasaki praises Website Grader[52] for its effectiveness and its congruence with his webmaster's SEO practices and own informal SEO strategy of "Create as good content as you can and assume that Google finds it. . The same year.[42] HubSpot was also recognized as an AlwaysOn East Top 100 company in the "SaaS and Enterprise" category. Michael Gray claims[53] that automated analysis of the on-page and off-page SEO can give misleading results compared to human expert analysis. Also called Social Grader [50]..intermittant functionality.. One web site offers a free spreadsheet to estimate ROI on such methods[38] . etc. Not to be confused with the upper case word Buzz on the branded social media services Google Buzz or Yahoo! Buzz. hype-filled words. Intermittant functionality.evaluates your written content (press release. • Gobbledygook Grader [51] ". Community HubSpot is a sponsor of InboundMarketing. Cartoonist Mark Hill and HubSpot's Shah satirized their industry in a cartoon[56] which speculates that such marketing is only being used incestuously to market marketing to marketeers.) and checks for use of gobbledygook. #sxsw • Buzz Grader [48] grades buzz in the generic.com [29] site has unadvertized Easter egg subdomains: • Speaker Grader [47] that collates Twitter tweets containing 1) either the hashtags #upvote OR #downvote and 2) the speaker's Twitter handle e. • LinkedIn Grader [49] . The comments section of this posting includes a rebuttal from Shah.com domain acquired over 250.g.com. [40] Awards In June 2010. jargon. this issue resolved itself and HubSpot's position on Google SERPs for the queries Fishkin used was at or near the number one position. and 3) the hashtag of the event e. Nick Ellery's commentary[57] on this expresses concern that it's hard to find "gems" for marketing. The discussion forum of the community is hosted by the StackExchange software service.g.HubSpot 33 Return on Investment Two studies by a student at MIT Sloan School of Management indicates a substantial return on investment of the HubSpot methodology[35] [36] . lower case sense of ones brand being mentioned on blogs. @dmscott. in the news.. Sometime around September 2009. HubSpot was awarded "Best Places to Work in Greater Boston"[41] in its category. HubSpot itself also has published several success stories[37] . HubSpot was named in the Lead411's Hottest Boston Companies list. In his analysis[58] of Google's sandboxing of Website Grader in May 2009.tv studio for the Biz Stone episode[30] and published a largely favorable review[55] .[43] The company also received the 2010 TiE50 Award[44] and the 2010 BtoB Social Media Marketing Award.

inboundmarketingsummit. Wed. slideshare. [9] "Here’s What Google. [11] "HubSpot. Retrieved 2009. 2010 HubSpot launched a social media experiment that involved an alternate reality game[62] . . net/ HubSpot/ sxsw-2010-inbound-marketing-presentation). Java. pdf) (PDF). ISBN 0470113456. [15] "HubSpot Medium" (http:/ / www. Wiley.April 19. Retrieved April 20. . Retrieved 2009-10-26. Slide 4. . com/ 2011/ 03/ 08/ hubspot-funding/ ). boston. ISBN 978-0470395004. hubspot. Salesforce & Sequoia Are Investing In" (http:/ / mashable. com/ magazine/ entrepreneur/ 2010/ april/ 205496. .The apps run in the Rackspace Cloud. . Gobbledygook. hubspot. 2007). "Ben & Jerry's Complete Rejection Of Conventional Wisdom" (http:/ / blog. podcasts. John Wiley & Sons Inc. . Retrieved 2009-10-26. com/ blog/ bid/ 2251/ HubSpot-Secures-5-Million-in-Venture-Capital-Funding-Led-by-General-Catalyst). [10] "Brian Halligan's To-Do List: Run Company. N. ISBN 0470499311. . hubspot. . [2] "Startup Culture Lessons From Mad Men" (http:/ / onstartups.[64] 34 Technology HubSpot Content Management System is written in C#. ". Retrieved 2011-01-22. [14] "HubSpot Small Business Helps Drive Leads" (http:/ / www. 03. HubSpot. Raise $16 Million" (http:/ / www. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ promote_business_blog_with_hubspot_october_2009_final. [17] "HubSpot Board of Directors" (http:/ / www. com/ ). xconomy. HubSpot.HubSpot Some attendees of HubSpot webcasts question HubSpot's judgement on the delicate matter of when one has won permission to talk about ones products rather than the audience's critical business issue. pp. hubspot.. 2009. 2009. hubspot. and PHP and run on MySQL and Apache at Amazon EC2.. . Retrieved 2009-10-26.. HubSpot. . [5] "How to Promote Your Business Blog Using HubSpot" (http:/ / www.. 208. com/ boston/ 2008/ 05/ 16/ hubspot-inc-secures-12000000-series-b-financing/ ). aspx). "The Gobbledygook Manifesto" (http:/ / changethis. David Meerman (2009). [3] "HubSpot Secures 5 Million in Venture Capital Funding Led by General Catalyst" (http:/ / www. "Over 120 employees .. Write Book. HubSpot Customer Growth" (http:/ / www. Entrepreneur.. Inbound Marketing Summit 2009.it is working out pretty well so far (3600 customers today -up from about 1600 customers a year ago). $16M third round led by Scale Partners . com/ 2010/ 03/ 30/ exclusive-a-tour-of-hubspots-new-office-in-lechmere/ .creating a storm on Twitter. com/ business/ technology/ innoeco/ 2009/ 10/ brian_halligans_todo_list_run. Kyle (March 30. 2010 Twitter Grader was hacked and a message sent out to all Twitter Users who had active OAuth promoting a video of BizStone by an account started just a day earlier . Sep 12. HubSpot.[61] On June 2. The spoof inconvenienced the site's students. Retrieved April 19. . pdf#page=3). Retrieved May 20. hubspot. [12] Psaty. [20] Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google. Press release.000. pdf#page=3). hubspot. [16] "About HubSpot Services" (http:/ / www. [22] Scott. Social Media. 2009. com/ company/ management/ ). . 2007. com/ products/ medium/ ). com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 7209/ Ben-Jerry-s-Complete-Rejection-Of-Conventional-Wisdom. . David Meerman (August 8. World Wide Rave: Creating Triggers that Get Millions of People to Spread Your Ideas and Share Your Stories (http:/ / www. [18] Scott. [7] Brian Halligan. Xconomy. . com/ products/ small-business/ ). hubspot. Retrieved April 19. . . Retrieved 2011-01-22. hubspot. . com/ services/ ). 2010). hubspot.[65] Notes [1] "HubSpot Management" (http:/ / www. html).. 2009. 2009. Inc. http:/ / bostinnovation. com/ company/ board-of-directors/ ). Retrieved 2009-04-22. use the ASP. Mashable. "Scheduled for publication in October 2009" [21] Scott. The new rules of marketing and PR how to use news releases. runs on IIS web servers. viral marketing and online media to reach your buyers directly. 2009. . Inc." [6] "SXSW 2010: Inbound Marketing Presentation. Other tools are written in a mixture of Python. [13] "HubSpot Inbound Marketing System" (http:/ / www." [8] "From the Blackboard to the Boardroom" (http:/ / www. com/ products-1/ ). aspx). Wiley & Sons. Retrieved May 18. com/ sf/ sponsors. Retrieved 2011-03-09.000 Series B Financing" (http:/ / www. David Meerman (2007). com/ pdf/ 37. blogs. and Blogs. Retrieved 2009-10-26. html). so HubSpot had to backtrack and apologize. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ social_media_lead_generation_july2009. Retrieved 2009-10-23.: J.. worldwiderave. San Francisco" (http:/ / city. The game involved a spoof home page for an educational site that they sponsor (Inbound Marketing University [63]). [19] "Sponsor list. Retrieved 2011-01-22. Hoboken. . Inc.[60] On February 11. [4] "How to Use Social Media for Lead Generation Webinar" (http:/ / www. html). entrepreneur. com/ tabid/ 3339/ bid/ 13420/ Startup-Culture-Lessons-From-Mad-Men. . Secures $12. The Boston Globe.J.Net framework and SQL Server database.

com [49] http:/ / person. grader. "Have you heard? The famous Biz Stone. [36] DiBella. com). com/ 2007/ 10/ website-grader. Rebecca (February 9. com/ has been removed. . com/ linkedin [50] http:/ / socialgrader. p. tv) (link attempts to launch iTunes) [27] HubSpot channel (http:/ / www. com/ roi/ ). [38] "Practical Solutions For Measuring Marketing and ROI" (http:/ / www. "I've now run all my clients' sites through it and found that the average of all my websites ends up a measly 32. [25] Todd Andrlik. aspx). hubspot. lead411.. hubspot. grader. com) (2009. "HubSpot's Rebecca Corliss longs for the inbound links of colleague Rick Burnes." [54] Allen. .October 5). April 17. com [51] http:/ / gobbledygook. . Retrieved April 19. com) which ironically is an example of how not to blog. 2009. Melissa (January 2010).October 3). Steve (2009.. aspx).April 28. A/B web site actions.." [53] Gray. net/ Winners/ ) [45] BtoB Social Media Awards 2010 (http:/ / www." [31] "#BizInBoston Tweetup" (http:/ / bizinboston. Dharmesh. "I have a Facebook 35 . . Retrieved May 19. hubspot. There's also blog about Grader itself (http:/ / graderblog. There is a link to a private beta of Social Inbox. [34] "HubSpot TV .6!!!" [55] Garfield. 2009. That works. Retrieved April 30. youtube. 2009. Retrieved 2009. . hubspot. aspx).April 28. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www. "#73: HubSpot Internet Marketing (as of access date: rankings are updated daily)" [26] HubSpot TV podcast archive at iTunes Store (http:/ / itunes.. com/ seo/ why-website-grader-is-a-bad-idea/ ). HubSpot.April 14). but we also have an opportunity to push the technology to add interaction and conversation. org [41] Boston Business Journal Best Places to Work (http:/ / boston.April 28. com/ support/ webmasters/ bin/ answer. com/ power150/ ).Forget the Numbers with Surprise Guest MC Hammer" (http:/ / blog. . grader. HillCartoons. Melissa (February 2009). 2009. . . com/ watch?v=4-lGe5MnBlY). 2009. Mark Hill (http:/ / www. 2009. "There's a tendency to copy what TV does. "Twitter Co-Founder Biz Stone Visits HubSpot and Answers Five Business Questions" (http:/ / blog. A Geek Valentine's Day Ballad" (http:/ / www. [35] DiBella. com/ 2009/ 04/ hubspot-tv. com/ [48] http:/ / buzz.). Retrieved on 2009. com/ Default. and Foursquare profiles. . Retrieved May 4. com/ search-engine-optimization-forum/ 82808-what-value-hubspot-website-grader. "At the end of the day you need a [sic] an experienced analyst. "HubSpot.com: Measure all that matters in inbound marketing" (http:/ / grader. Advertising Age Magazine (Crain Communications). 2009. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ roi_from_hubspot_report_2010. com [30] Corliss. com/ about). Retrieved 2009. pdf) (PDF). "Link Love. Retrieved 2009. html). . 2009). ." [32] "Twitter search for #bizinboston hashtag" (http:/ / search. py?hl=en& answer=35769). com/ search?lang=all& q=#bizinboston).com" (http:/ / www." [56] Shah. "grader. [39] "About InboundMarketing. pdf) (PDF). com/ node/ 65221) [44] TiECON 2010 Winners (http:/ / www. . . Retrieved April 22. com/ Inbound-marketing-blog-for-small-business/ bid/ 19238/ Practical-Solutions-For-Measuring-Marketing-and-ROI). webproworld. blogs. bizjournals. paying attention and engaging. Facebook. The April Fool's joke subdomain that graded 'personality' http:/ / personality. [37] "ROI from Inbound Marketing with HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www. Guy (2007. "Social Media Marketing Madness Cartoon" (http:/ / blog. btobonline. Retrieved 2009. 2010. grader. Inc.April 22. given that there are only two postings (one within 11 minutes of the other) dating back to November 2009. com/ boston-companies. . com/ [52] Kawasaki. com/ boston/ 2009/ 04/ 20/ hubspot-hybernaut-bury-the-twitter-hatchet-for-now/ ). dll/ article?AID=/ 20100412/ FREE/ 304129956) [46] "Grader. "The key to developing a community is listening. com/ ). books. 00:00-00:13. Rebecca (April 20. who refuses to link to her website in an emotional love story that comes full circle.April 19.April 20 [28] "You Oughta Know Inbound Marketing" (http:/ / www. wolf-howl. Google alerts. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4494/ Social-Media-Marketing-Madness-cartoon. "Website Grader" (http:/ / blog. html). "What is the value of the HubSpot Website Grader?" (http:/ / www. Wade (April 20. Charlie Moran. grader. "Hubspot TV" (http:/ / offonatangent. xconomy. Michael (2007. guykawasaki. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs/ ROI_from_HubSpot.HubSpot [23] Corliss. "Over two hundred #bizinboston tweets in the one week period leading up Stone's visit" [33] Roush. . A parody of the Alanis Morissette and Glen Ballard song You Oughta Know [29] http:/ / grader. com/ user/ HubSpot) on YouTube. . founder of Twitter is in Boston for a few days! Let's give him a warm welcome. com/ boston/ event/ 13771) [42] Lead411 launches "Hottest Boston Companies" awards (http:/ / www. html) [43] Announcing the AlwaysOn East Top 100 Companies (http:/ / www. hubspot. hubspot. . press releases. aonetwork. tie50. "The fact that my blog did so well is entirely because of Neil Patel. Retrieved April 28. Twitter. . hubspot. and that's exciting. . grader. Hybernaut bury the hatchet for now" (http:/ / www. com/ watch?v=XbfXUrtnynE). youtube. . "Why Website Grader is a Bad Idea" (http:/ / www. "AdAge Power 150: A Daily Ranking of Marketing Blogs" (http:/ / adage. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4687/ Twitter-Co-Founder-Biz-Stone-Visits-HubSpot-and-Answers-Five-Business-Questions. Retrieved May 13. google. blogspot. 2009. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www. youtube. staciechalmersinboundmarketing." [24] "Webmaster Guidelines at Google" (http:/ / www. 2009). eventbrite. twitter. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4585/ HubSpot-TV-Forget-the-Numbers-with-Surprise-Guest-MC-Hammer. [40] http:/ / inbound." [47] http:/ / speaker. com/ apps/ pbcs.January 14). inboundmarketing.April 18). Retrieved 2009.com grades websites. html). Craig (2009.

.January 15). "Let's check out some searches . 2010.April 28.com) .com (http://grader. frequency and activity levels including the use and effectiveness of advertising on the web and other electronic media. These can include measurements of audience reach. 36 External links • hubspot.official site • grader.. .December 17). "#hubspot It's a tradeoff.com" (http:/ / grader.. inboundmarketing. com/ [64] "Reactions and Lessons From the #IMU ARG So Far" (http:/ / www. . The ? is how hard is the pitch?" [61] Arthur.free samples of the type of tools HubSpot uses for measuring online presence JICWEBS JICWEBS (the Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards) was created by the UK and Ireland media industry to insure independence and comparability of measurement on the web. with JICWEBS deciding whether metrics are desirable and ABCe deciding whether they are practical. 'Websitegrader Website Marketing SEO Tool' . seomoz. Web Metrics are intended to measure activity on web sites in a site centric fashion.. "It's a tradeoff. com/ site/ grader. . Retrieved May 7. 2010). [63] http:/ / www. com/ adamyarbrough/ status/ 1063377092). . [62] "HubSpot Gambles with Trust to Explore New Marketing Strategy" (http:/ / bostinnovation. social media etc. "Google's Sandbox Still Exists Exemplified by grader. It’s getting harder and harder to find those gems that deliver real value. co. uk/ technology/ blog/ 2010/ feb/ 11/ twitter-grader-hacked-tweets). In effect JICWEBS works in partnership with the ABCe." (http:/ / twitter. Retrieved May 4. It IS still marketing.April 25. We get free good information and a bit of a sales pitch. com/ blog/ bid/ 6056/ Reactions-and-Lessons-From-the-IMU-ARG-So-Far). . Nick (2009.March 8). Retrieved 2009. guardian.com) .com (http://www. "Twitter Grader hacked: are you a victim?" (http:/ / www.. #1 at MSN/Live" [59] "grader.seemingly endless volume of noise out there around marketing.HubSpot group for Twitter users that tweet about podcasters that talk about marketing bloggers" [57] Ellery. com/ 2009/ 01/ 15/ hubspots-social-media-marketing-madness/ ). [65] "The Tech Behind HubSpot" (http:/ / bostinnovation. 2009. Retrieved 2009. ".com" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009. hubspot.com link report for grader. . org/ blog/ googles-sandbox-still-exists-exemplified-by-gradercom). "Hubspot’s Social Media Marketing Madness" (http:/ / marketingisadirtyword.. . com/ 2010/ 06/ 10/ hubspot-gambles-with-trust-to-explore-new-marketing-strategy/ ). #1 at Yahoo!." [58] Fishkin. [60] Yarbrough.. The Guardian (London). .hubspot. Not in Top 200 at Google. Rand (2009. com/ 2011/ 05/ 26/ the-tech-behind-hubspot/ ). com). ..April 22. Adam (2008. Charles (February 11.

Kampyle is said to have processed more than 12 million feedback forms in over 60 languages in 191 countries to date. Kampyle started selling its Feedback solution in 2008.kampyle. Since than Kampyle claims to have gained more than 45. In additon Enterprise solution is offered. Feedback is seen as an empirical tool to get insight into user behavior.Kampyle. Kampyle Plug-Ins are available for Wordpress. With a go-to-market as Freemium.Kampyle (Software) 37 Kampyle (Software) Kampyle Type Lead Generation.com) • Company Blog (http://blog. and several account as too the number of feedback items allowed per month. Kampyle offers its solutions as SaaS (software-as-a-service). References [1] http:/ / www. com/ External links • Official WebSite (http://www. CEO and Co-Founder www. Web Optimization. Products Kampyle offers a free. kampyle.Kampyle. Drupal and Joomla. Kampyle's Feedback analytics enhances the capabilities of a company to understand website users. and to optimize marketing and website strategies. Technology While web analytics cannot give insight into the motivation and actual user experience. Web analytics Technology Industry Headquarters Ramat Gan. very limited product.com) .com [1] Website Kampyle is an Internet company founded in 2007. that provides Feedback Analytics and Lead Generation solutions. Israel Key people Ariel Finkelstein.000 companies using Kampyle's feedback forms and analytics.

He later decided to establish a branch of Kaspid in Bournemouth in England.com Area served Key people Services Website Kaspid Information Technology (Persian: ‫ )ش ش ش ش ش ش شش ش ش ش ش ش ش شش ش ش شش ش‬is a web design and Internet ‫شش ش ش ش شش ششش‬ ‫ش‬ marketing company headquartered in (Bournemouth. a service that was then only in its nascent stages in Iran. The company. Majority shareholder Hamid Sepidnam took over as CEO of the company in 2008. Kaspid provides search engine optimization. turning its attentions towards business opportunities in web marketing.Kaspid 38 Kaspid Kaspid Information Technology LTd Type Founded Headquarters Private 1999 Bournemouth Tehran Mashhad Iran . .[4] . The company employs 26-50 people.[3] In addition to web design services.co.000 as of June 2011. at which time it solely offered web design services. England). in addition to generating revenue of between £250. The company shifted its focus between 1999 and 2008.[6] Kaspid was also the first company to market SEO & Pay Per Click services for Persian web sites. Pay Per Click and business consulting services. as well as in Bournemouth in the UK. then called Kaspid Information Technology Limited. whilst a monthly survey conducted by Topseo named it the 18th Best Integrated Search (SEO & PPC) Company United Kingdom as of June 2011.uk [2] Kaspid. eventually turning it into one of Iran's largest providers of web design and Internet marketing services.000 and £999. leading it to its subsequent popularity as an integrated search (SEO & PPC) company.[5] History The company was established in 1999. England Hamid Sepidnam (CEO) Farhad kazemi Motlagh (General Manager) Web Design Services SEO Business Consulting Services Pay Per Click [1] Kaspid. maintained representative offices in Tehran and Mashhad.

namely KA from Kazemi and SPID from Sepidnam. topseos. co. kaspid. .uk/) Official Facebook Fanpage (http://www.2011. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www.co. co. . kaspid.Facebook/kaspid/) . "Best Integrated Search (SEO & PPC) Company (ies) in United Kingdom" (http:/ / kaspid-ltd. co. uk/ rankings-of-best-integrated-search-seo-and-ppc-companies). co.com) Company Profile (http://www. uk).topseos. htm). com/ releases/ 2011/ 02/ prweb5067154. topseos. uk). "Company Profile Kaspid LTD" (http:/ / kaspid-ltd.Kaspid 39 Kaspid Name abbreviation The Kaspid name is an abbreviation of Hamid Sepidnam and the last name of Farhad kazemi Motlagh. Retrieved April 6. External links • • • • Official site in English (http://www. uk http:/ / www. com "Kaspid in TopSeo" (http:/ / www. Retrieved Jan 25.Kaspid. "Kaspid to Attend 2011 Search Engine Strategies Seminar in London" (http:/ / www.Kaspid. Retrieved June 2011. . topseos.kaspid-ltd.uk) Official site in Persian (http://www. . Retrieved June 2011. 2011. prweb.co.

In his writing and speaking Kaushik has championed the principle of aggregation of marginal gains.[8] CMA Next. 2. Kaushik co-founded Market Motive Inc. Sybex (an imprint of Wiley). and Japanese)[14] • Web Analytics 2.[2] [3] Kaushik is on the Advisory Board of University of Toronto Rotman School of Management's program on CRM Excellence[4] as well as on the Advisory Board of University of California at Irvine's program on Web Intelligence.Avinash Kaushik 40 Avinash Kaushik Avinash Kaushik Occupation Author."[16] . The analysis of qualitative and quantitative data from your website and the competition.[6] Kaushik has delivered keynotes at conferences such as The Art of Marketing. ISBN 978-8126513284. 2007. 3.net/avinash [1] Avinash Kaushik is an entrepreneur.0. (translated into Korean. Which translates into your desired outcomes (online and offline). Chinese. Portuguese. author and public speaker. 2009. (translated into Italian. Portuguese and Spanish)[15] The book defines Web Analytics 2.[9] and JMP Innovators Summit.[7] eMetrics Marketing Optimization Summit. Paid Search Advertising. and encouraged the pursuit of simplifying perceived complexity in the field of data analytics. To drive a continual improvement of the online experience of your customers and prospects.0 as: "1. ISBN 978-0470529393. Web Analytics.[12] Business ventures Market Motive Inc In 2008. Analytics Expert Website kaushik. Sybex (an imprint of Wiley).[10] Kaushik received the 2009 Harry V Roberts Statistical Advocate of the Year award from the American Statistical Association [11] and the 2011 Most Influential Industry Contributor award from the Web Analytics Association. Social Media. Russian. Polish.[13] Books • Web Analytics: An Hour A Day.. Conversion & Public Relations. which provides online education and certification in six Internet disciplines such as Search Engine Optimization.[5] He is also an Associate Instructor at the University of British Columbia for the Web Analytics program.

Retrieved Dec 14. com/ power150/ ). . 2008-09-24. 2010. com/ about/ AdvisoryBoard. "About Market Motive" (http:/ / www. financialpost. .0 video . Retrieved 21 Dec 2010. theartofmarketing.webanalyticshour. htm). kaushik. html).120 tracked. . Retrieved Jan 10. [8] "Keynotes . 2010. 2010.kaushik. com/ guides/ 12/ 2010/ 11-best-web-analytics-tools. [10] "JMP Innovators Summit. 2011. marketmotive. tech. 2010-05-26.eMetrics Marketing Optimization Summit . org/ Workshops/ e051509. org/ convention/ ?WCE=C=47). php). Retrieved Nov 27. The University of British Columbia. 2010. 2010. 2009.com. [11] "American Statistical Association 2009 Statistical Advocate of the Year Award Ceremony" (http:/ / www. net/ avinash [2] "Most Websites Suck" (http:/ / www. Retrieved Nov 27. [14] Avinash Kaushik (2007). 2010. com/ about/ events/ summit2008/ speakers. com/ Most+ websites+ suck/ 3956144/ story. Retrieved Aug 15.Avinash Kaushik 41 Blog Kaushik's blog[17] is ranked in the AdAge Power 150 as #40 marketing blog out of 1. American Statistical Association Chicago Chapter. . www. Web Analytics Association. . . ece). [13] Michael Stebbins (2008). Charlie Moran.youtube. 2009. . 2010.com. org/ sanjose/ 2010/ tracks/ keynotes. [15] "Web Analytics 2.San Jose California 2010" (http:/ / www. Inc. com/ about). Retrieved Nov 24. com).com. [16] Lou Dubois (2010). Plenary Session 1" (http:/ / www. webanalytics20.[18] References [1] http:/ / www. com). ca/ speakers/ view/ 6/ avinash-kaushik). org/ ?page=awards2011). webanalyticsassociation. kaushik. theglobeandmail. Retrieved Nov 24. . The Globe And Mail. . Magazine. aspx). Retrieved Nov 27. [3] "Data give miners the shaft" (http:/ / www. .net/avinash/): His personal blog • Authors@Google: Avinash Kaushik (http://www. [9] "CMA Next:2010 Keynote Speakers" (http:/ / www. "Web Analytics: An Hour A Day" (http:/ / webanalyticshour. com/ news/ technology/ article125092. 2006. UCIrvine Extension. Retrieved Aug 15. the-cma. Retrieved Nov 24. Retrieved Aug 15. [6] "UBC Award of Achievement in Web Analytics .marketmotive. www.webanalytics20. 2010. Avinash Kaushik" (http:/ / www. 2008. Retrieved Dec 14.0" (http:/ / www. html). Advertising Age Magazine (Crain Communications). net/ avinash/ ). "AdAge Power 150: A Daily Ranking of Marketing Blogs" (http:/ / adage. 2010-09-30. 2011. Retrieved Nov 27. 2010. Retrieved Nov 24. [5] "Web Intelligence Certificate" (http:/ / unex. www. rotmancrm. 2010. 2010-05-04. Retrieved Mar 20. 2010. . uci. shtml#plenary1). emetrics. chicagoasa. [7] "2010 Keynote Speakers. [17] "Occam's Razor By Avinash Kaushik" (http:/ / www. . . [4] "Rotman Centre for CRM Excellence Advisory Board" (http:/ / www. 2010.Instructors" (http:/ / www. . [12] "Awards for Excellence 2011: Recipients . 2010. . 2010. [18] Todd Andrlik. "#1: Exact number tracked and their rankings are updated daily)" External links • Occam's Razor by Avinash Kaushik (http://www. Rotman Executive Programs Center For CRM Excellence. 2011. edu/ certificates/ it/ web_intel). ca/ webanalytics/ instructors.Web Analytics Association" (http:/ / www. ubc.com/watch?v=sMwQN43fwoQ): Web Analytics 2. . "11 Best Web Analytics Tools" (http:/ / www. inc. 2010. 2007. Financial Post. . html). jmp.

com [2] Social Networking No Required English September. TechCrunch. 2009 Current status Active Klout is a San Francisco based company that provides social media analytics that measures a users influence across their social network. Simply Zesty. such as: following count. 2010). list memberships. how influential the people that retweet you are. "Klout Now Measures Your Influence on Facebook" (http:/ / mashable. Retrieved 22 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.Klout 42 Klout Klout Type Founded Founder Private San Francisco. 2010). "How can you measure influence?" (http:/ / mashable. Mashable. United States Worldwide 10 [1] Headquarters Area served Employees Slogan Website Type of site Advertising Registration Available in Launched the Standard for Influence klout. . and unique mentions. likes. follower count.[3] Methodology Klout measures influence by using data points from Twitter. and the number of friends in your network to come up with a "Klout Score" that measures a user's online influence. and how other people interact with that content. com/ 2010/ 10/ 14/ facebook-klout/ ). California. com/ [3] Lauren Fisher (July 20th.[4] References [1] "Klout" (http:/ / www. how many spam/dead accounts are following you. com/ 2010/ 10/ 14/ facebook-klout/ ). com/ company/ klout). the content created. retweets. . Retrieved 22 October 2010. California. This information is blended with Facebook data such as comment. USA Joe Fernandez Binh Tran San Francisco. [4] Ben Parr (October 16. [2] http:/ / klout. The analysis is done on data collected from sites such as Twitter and Facebook and measures the size of a person's network. crunchbase. . .

0 7. Name Analog AWStats CrawlTrack GoAccess LogReport Open Web Analytics Piwik Visitors W3Perl Webalizer Platform Supported databases C Perl PHP C Perl PHP PHP C Perl C Logfile-based Logfile-based MySQL Logfile-based Logfile-based MySQL MySQL Logfile-based Logfile-based Logfile-based javascript/php pagetag javascript or php pagetag php pagetag Tracking Method Latest stable release License 6.4. Name sNOWsh Company sNOWsh Technologies Mint Flowerfire Inc Platform PHP/MySQL/linux Supported databases MySQL Tracking Method Cookies. JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Latest stable release See web-site Price in USD mixed.12 2. PostgreSQL MySQL Cookies & Logs Web log files & Cookies Network traffic monitor Urchin SurfReport Google Bien Logic Windows/Linux/BSD Perl/C++ 7.20-01 GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL Proprietary This is a comparison table of web analytics proprietary software.com/) List of web analytics software This is a list of web analytics software used to collect and display data about visiting website users.0 3.0.0 3.1 1.1 (discontinued) See web-site Tealeaf cx* Tealeaf Linux Appliance N/A See web-site .Klout 43 External links • Official website (http://http://klout.4 0.2 2. Server Side. from $99/profile $9995 $695/Site Mint Sawmill PHP Windows/Linux/BSD/POSIX MySQL 2.0 0.7 3.1 1.9.4.17 8.1.1 MS SQL/MySQL/Oracle Cookies via Database/PostgreSQL/Proprietary JavaScript & Logs MySQL. See web-site $30/Site mixed. Open source This is a comparison table of web analytics software released under an open source license.

Name [2] [3] Company W3Counter KISSmetrics MouseTrace Anametrix AT Internet Bango_plc ClickTale Google Lucky Orange LLC Mouseflow ApS TraceMyIP.1 2 4.2 (as of 2011-02-07) Mixed This is a comparison table of web analytics.$7/month Free .$9.95/month Negotiable Negotiable From $202/month N/A W3Counter KISSmetrics MouseTrace Visitor Recording InstaVista for Web Analytics Analyzer II Bango Mobile Web Analytics ClickTale Google Analytics Lucky Orange Mouseflow [4] [5] TraceMyIP.122 Price in USD mixed.$990/month Free Free Trial . Name Company LogZilla.org SiteCatalyst Insight Webtrekk Q3 Webtrends .$280/month Free-$29. LogZilla is 99% open source. including a free version LogZilla [1] Hosted This is a comparison table of hosted web analytics Software as a Service.95 .1 N/A N/A N/A N/A Price in USD Free .95 Negotiable Negotiable From $49/month Free . LLC.0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 7.$99.0 2. using a single file for licensing.1.95/month Various pricing options $9. LLC Platform Linux Supported databases MySQL Tracking Method syslog-ng Latest stable release 3.List of web analytics software Compuware Vantage Unica NetInsight Compuware Linux Appliance N/A Network traffic monitor Web log files & Cookies (with or without JavaScript) See web-site See web-site Various pricing options 44 Unica Windows/Linux/Solaris MS SQL/MySQL/Oracle Database 8. Omniture (Adobe Systems) Omniture (Adobe Systems) Webtrekk Webtrends Tracking Method Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Cookies via Javascript Mobile ID and cookies Cookies via Javascript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript/Server Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Latest stable release N/A N/A 1.

$179. pro http:/ / www. dmoz. luckyorange. kissmetrics. com http:/ / www.List of web analytics software Woopra Yahoo! Web Analytics Logcrawl iFusion Labs LLC Yahoo! Logcrawl Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Log file upload 1.95 / mo Free Free 45 External links • List of web analytics software [6] at the Open Directory Project References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. com http:/ / www. com http:/ / www. com http:/ / mouseflow. org/ Computers/ Software/ Internet/ Site_Management/ Log_Analysis/ .2 N/A N/A Free . logzilla. w3counter.

an Atlanta based provider of hosted proactive chat solutions that help companies generate revenue on their web sites.LivePerson 46 LivePerson LivePerson. and expert advice company based in New York City with offices in London. the Company acquired all of the outstanding shares of NuConomy. In October 2000. the Company acquired Proficient Systems. an Israeli-based provider of real-time online customer service applications. 2010.[6] On July 18.259 million (2010) 481 (As of March 2011) HumanClick Kasamba www. CEO Internet Computer software Online Communication Expert Advice LivePerson Pro US$ 109.liveperson. Its most well known product is a chat platform that allows companies to talk with visitors in real time on their websites. the Company acquired HumanClick. Inc.34 million (2010) $ 9.[8] On April 13.com [3] [1] ) (TASE: LPSN [2] ) Products Revenue Operating income Net income Employees Subsidiaries Website LivePerson is a publicly held online marketing. 2006.. an online provider of live expert advice delivered to consumers via real-time chat. the company completed an initial public offering on the NASDAQ[4] and in March 2011 its shares have started trading also on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange[5] . San Francisco and Atlanta. Type Founded Headquarters No. an Israeli-based company whose web analytics and optimization platform is intended to help companies better assess and understand website and social marketing performance. web analytics.86 million (2010) $ 14. History LivePerson was founded in 1992. In April 2000. Tel Aviv Worldwide Rob Locascio. 2007.[7] On October 3. United States London. the Company acquired Kasamba Inc. of locations Area served Key people Industry Public (NASDAQ: LPSN 1995 New York City. Tel Aviv.[9] . incorporated in the State of Delaware in November 1995 and the LivePerson service was first introduced in November 1998.

The company is organized into two operating segments. marketwatch. [7] "LivePerson buys live chat provider Proficient Systems in all-stock deal" (http:/ / www. And the Consumer segment.com) . highbeam. • LiveChat . October 13. July 19. email and self-service knowledgebase for global corporations. [5] "LivePerson dual lists on Tel Aviv Stock Exchange" (http:/ / www.LivePerson 47 Products and services As a “cloud computing” or software-as-a-service (SaaS) provider. subsidiary of Oracle. liveperson. Reuters. LivePerson provides solutions on a hosted basis.liveperson. 2010. [9] "LivePerson To Acquire Web Analytics Startup NuConomy For $3 Million" (http:/ / techcrunch. tase. The Business segment. voice. StartupIsrael. co. April 7. [8] "Kasamba to be Acquired by LivePerson" (http:/ / www. click-to-call. com/ story/ liveperson-regains-ipo-price-after-10-years-2010-04-07). External links LivePerson Inc. com [4] "LivePerson returns to IPO price -. htm?objectId=& objectType=& securityType=& searchTerm=LPSN [3] http:/ / www. 2010.product offered by ATG. com/ asp/ SummaryQuote. 2007. utilizing: chat. which facilitates real-time online interactions. Mar 13.live support software developed by LIVECHAT Software.com. html). reuters. June 26.10 years later" (http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 01/ 25/ liveperson-to-acquire-web-analytics-startup-nuconomy-for-3-million/ ). com/ 2006/ 07/ 19/ liveperson-buys-live-chat-provider-proficient-systems-in-all-sto). TechCrunch. Creating a Global Market Leader in Real-Time eCRM Solutions for Small and Mid-Sized Businesses" (http:/ / www. il/ TASEEng/ Management/ GeneralPages/ SimpleSearchResult. com/ article/ 2011/ 03/ 13/ liveperson-tase-listing-idUSLDE72C02420110313). Marketwatch. asp?symbol=LPSN& selected=LPSN [2] http:/ / www. 2000. 2011. com/ israeli_web/ kasamba_to_be_acquired_by_liveperson). (http://www. References [1] http:/ / quotes. Internet Retailer. nasdaq. Business Wire. Jan 25. internetretailer. [6] "LivePerson Acquires HumanClick. Competitors • ATG Commerce . 2006. com/ doc/ 1G1-66024185. startupisrael. which facilitates online transactions between independent experts and individual consumers.

TopTenReviews[3] . cmswatch. It is featured at CMS Watch[2] . Inc. freshclicks.lyrishq. com/ Trends/ 1083-Lyris-HQ-links-ClickTracks. com/ http:/ / www.com/index. lyrishq. net/ 2008/ 06/ lyris-introduces-hq-fully-integrated.lyrishq. freshClicks[6] and WebAnalyticsworld[7] Features • • • • • • • Email marketing Deliverability tools Content creation Web analytics Search marketing Social marketing Mobile marketing References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www.lyris.com/) . com/ 3627609 http:/ / searchenginewatch. SearchEngineWatch[5] . toptenreviews.-CMS.php/Blog-Archive) • Lyris (http://www.Lyris HQ 48 Lyris HQ Lyris HQ Developer(s) Lyris.-and-E-mail-marketing http:/ / website-traffic-statistic-service-review.com) • Lyris Blog (http://www. com/ sew-awards http:/ / www. html http:/ / www. Website Lyris HQ [1] Lyris HQ is an online marketing platform. com/ clicktracks-review. net/ 2008/ 06/ 19/ email-marketing/ lyris-hq-review-email-service-provider/ http:/ / www. webanalyticsworld. html External links • Lyris HQ (http://www. ClickZ[4] . clickz.

Microsoft announced that adCenter Analytics would be discontinued.shauninman. "Mint: Keep Your Analytics / Website Traffic. designer/developer of Mint (http://www. due to a five dollar fee for sign up. OCLC 77540819. [2] Existing accounts would be operational till the end of 2009.[1] [2] References [1] Aaron Wall (2007-08-23). Microsoft acquired DeepMetrix Corporation and used the analytics technology to deliver adCenter Analytics. html).. Retrieved 2010-01-30. Pedro. External links • Official website (http://http://www.Microsoft adCenter Analytics 49 Microsoft adCenter Analytics Microsoft adCenter Analytics (codenamed Gatineau) was the Microsoft's web analytics solution.haveamint. HTTP referrers.com/) .com/) • Personal site of Shaun Inman. com/ blogs/ analytics/ archive/ 2009/ 03/ 12/ adcenter-analytics-beta-to-close. In 2006. [2] Sostre.com. aspx) Mint (software) Mint is a server-based web analytics tool. compared to the lack of cost to use Google Analytics. Internetfinancialnews. Web Analytics for Dummies. adcentercommunity. Hoboken. com/ content/ 2008/ 01/ 27/ microsoft-gatineau-review). ISBN 9780470098240. Jennifer LeClaire (2007). It competed with Google Analytics and was tied to Microsoft adCenter in the same way Google has tied Google Analytics to Google Adwords. It tracks traffic trends. [1] Features included: • • • • Click and visitor tracking Marketing campaign reporting Conversion tracking Demographic and geographic segmentation In March 2009. and search trends. NJ: Wiley Pub. References [1] Microsoft "Gatineau" Review (http:/ / dcoates. This had led to some complaints by webmasters. 98 to 99. pp. com/ financialblogtalk/ news/ ifn-6-20070823MintKeepYourAnalyticsWebsiteTraffic.." (http:/ / www. [2] adCenter Analytics Beta To Close (http:/ / www.. . internetfinancialnews.

Traditional web analytics software that uses server log parsing and associates different IPs with "unique visitors" may fail to identify unique visitors.js/Connect TypePad Pro Different tracking processes or mechanisms are available for each of the above platforms. The W3C Mobile Web Initiative [1] identifies best practices to help websites support mobile phone browsing. The majority of modern smartphones are able to browse websites. some with browsing experiences similar to those of desktop computers. with no data on other mobile devices browsing the site. Many companies use these guidelines and mobile-specific code like Wireless Markup Language or HTML5 to optimize websites for viewing on mobile devices. such as those found in the iPhone and other smart phones and PDAs. and preferred user language. and is used to improve a website or mobile marketing campaign's audience response. Traditional tools such as Google Analytics may provide misleading data that represents only a fraction of actual mobile traffic. visitors. and countries. because the IPs from which cellular wireless network HTTP requests originate are the gateway IPs of the network access providers. visits. including mobile advertising. mobile search marketing. the JavaScript pixel tracking mechanism is most commonly used. Traditional analytics software on a mobile website may only provide data for HTTP requests coming from the most advanced mobile browsers.Mobile web analytics 50 Mobile web analytics Mobile web analytics studies the behavior of mobile website visitors in a similar way to traditional web analytics. In a commercial context. screen resolution. Drawbacks of applying traditional web analytics Collecting mobile web analytics data is not as straightforward as traditional web analytics because many of the common methods for data collection are unreliable or do not work. Platforms • • • • • • • • • • HTML/JavaScript WordPress Mobile Pack PHP . mobile web analytics refers to the use of data collected as visitors access a website from a mobile phone. device capabilities. as well as information specific to mobile devices. . It helps to determine which aspects of the website work best for mobile traffic and which mobile marketing campaigns work best for the business. service provider. manufacturer. Server-side tracking code is recommended for more accurate analytics reporting. Data collected as part of mobile analytics typically includes page views. text campaigns. and desktop promotion of mobile sites and services. Several dynamic server-side platforms are used to develop mobile sites. For unsupported/HTML sites. such as device model. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance and return on investment.NET Java Python ColdFusion Ruby on Rails node.

. As a result. Even when cookies are supported by a device. depending on where the HTTP requests are coming from. though it is possible that neither may be true. most mobile web browsers do not support JavaScript sufficiently for this to work. This method assumes that the end user browser has JavaScript capabilities and that JavaScript is enabled. persistent.Mobile web analytics Because mobile websites are typically open to access from any kind of network .fixed. This is either because the device manufacturer has disabled sending such information in the HTTP request to save bandwidth during network usage. Wi-Fi. even if the cookie expiration time is set to a future date. Image tags Handset caching mechanisms impact the use of images for page tagging. HTTP cookies are only supported by a small subset of mobile phones. The device user may also choose to disable cookies. HTTP referrer HTTP referrer information showing where a visitor navigated from is generally not provided for mobile web browsing. 51 Problems with tracking Visitor identification Visitor identification is the most important aspect of usable mobile web analytics and one of the hardest technical aspects to accomplish. allowing accurate measurement of repeat visits and long-term customer loyalty. manufacturer. primarily because JavaScript and HTTP cookies are so unreliable on mobile browsers. . etc. The best solutions provide reliable. In some cases. and screen resolution. some mobile web analytics solutions only detect or count user visits per day.a traditional web analytics solution could range from fairly accurate to mostly inaccurate. or because the mobile network operator's internet gateway removes or alters the original HTTP header due to the gateway software or use of mobile web transcoding software. This results in visitors not being properly identified and visit-related metrics not being calculated properly. such as WURFL or DeviceAtlas [2]. satellite wireless. mobile web analytics involve metrics and KPIs associated with mobile device information. These data can usually be assembled by combining device identification information taken from special HTTP headers. with device capabilities stored in a device information registry. Although this is a standard capability for all desktop web browsers. and unique user identities. cellular wireless. HTTP cookies HTTP cookies are commonly used to mark and identify visitors. image caching on handsets is performed regardless of any anti-caching headers output by the remote server. This method is not provided by traditional web analytics solutions because it is mobile web-specific. the device may automatically clear cookies between browsing sessions to save on handset memory or because the browser does not have access to persistent storage. such as user-agents. In addition. such as model. JavaScript page tagging Page tagging notifies a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. At this time.

Boost Wireless. cookies. It can be used in conjunction with a device database such as WURFL. IP addresses alone do not identify all operators and countries. IP address analysis An operator database is used to identify operators and their countries based on the IP addresses of their internet gateway devices. and other marketing activities. or plugins. It also records visitors clicking on links to leave a site. server logs. The level of information recorded from these transmissions depends on the architecture provided by the supplier.Mobile web analytics 52 IP address For desktop web browsing. and many change or add gateways on a regular basis. Because these two operators have very different customer demographics. provided that the transmitted image is always unique. work with all devices and do not require JavaScript. org/ Mobile [2] http:/ / www. this technique uses a tap between the mobile users and the web server to capture the full content of the client-server exchange. Collecting mobile web analytics data Collection of mobile web analytics data requires a different approach from collecting traditional web analytics data. Link redirection Link redirection is an important method of tracking mobile visitor activities. This method helps address the lack of HTTP referrer information on mobile. Tagless data capture techniques are increasing in popularity for mobile web analytics because they capture all users. Packet sniffing Also known as tagless data capture or passive network capture. Carriers may also share their mobile internet gateways. Image tags or beacons Images can be forced to work for mobile web analytics. search. as some operators share their mobile networks with virtual network operators (MVNO). the IP address refers to a operator-owned internet gateway machine in Canada or Norway. A number of solutions are available and the best results are obtained through the use of more than one technology. for example. uses the Sprint network. sometimes across multiple countries. deviceatlas. For mobile web browsing. com . the client IP address refers to the internet gateway machine owned by the network operator. and not all image beacon solutions are the same. For devices such as the BlackBerry or for phones using Opera Mini browser software. the network address of the client machine usually gives some form of user identification and location. It is the only reliable way to record clicks from advertising. HTTP header analysis This tells you a number of basic facts about the mobile phone and the browser. References [1] http:/ / www. clear differentiation between operators is critical for good mobile marketing campaigns. w3.

[9] . with offices worldwide. CFO Omniture SiteCatalyst Omniture Test&Target Omniture Discover onDemand Omniture Insight (f. (formerly WebSideStory) for $394 million. Omniture bought behavioral targeting company Touch Clarity for $51. Inc. During a period of rapid growth. 2009. CEO John Pestana.[4] and also purchased Offermatica for $65 million. Type Industry Subsidiary Web Analytics Market Research Online Optimization 1996 Founded Headquarters Orem. Inc.000 (2008) [1] Products Employees Parent Website Adobe Systems http:/ / www.[6] On September 15. History The company was founded in 1996 and was backed by venture capitalists including Hummer Winblad Venture Partners.5 million.Omniture 53 Omniture Omniture. Utah Key people Josh James. (Chairman) Michael (Mike) Herring.5 million. University Venture Fund. It serves customers in 75 countries worldwide. Discover onPremise) Omniture Data Warehouse Omniture SearchCenter Omniture Recommendations Omniture Genesis Omniture Survey Omniture SiteSearch Omniture Merchandising > 1.k. Omniture. Inc. 2008 it agreed to acquire the Israeli e-commerce search solution provider Mercado for $6. com Omniture is an online marketing and web analytics business unit owned by Adobe Systems. 2009[8] . and is now run as the Omniture Business Unit within Adobe. The Omniture Business Unit is based in Orem. and Adobe Systems announced that Adobe would be acquiring Omniture for roughly $1.[3] In late 2007 the company acquired web analytics company Visual Sciences. the company was one of Inc.8 billion[7] .[5] In October. omniture. Omniture was listed on the NASDAQ in 2006[2] .a. Utah. and Scale Venture Partners. Magazine's 500 fastest-growing private companies. The deal was completed on October 23.

• DataWarehouse. [8] Adobe (2009-10-23). [4] Vishesh Kumar (2007-10-26). it was derived from Omniture's Visual Sciences acquisition in 2007. html). Criticism Critics have accused Omniture of attempting to hide the fact they are collecting data. 2008). "What is Omniture. . • Recommendations offers automated product and content recommendations. Retrieved 2008-06-21. a third-party data integration tool (the majority of integrations work with SiteCatalyst). Yahoo! Search Marketing. • DigitalPulse. html. Microsoft Ad Center. com/ story/ 10386826/ 1/ omniture-deal-delights. • Test&Target. David (December 31. "Adobe. an advanced segmentation tool. [3] Melissa Campanelli (2007-02-14). thestreet. [5] Madan Sheina (2007-09-10). ars/ post/ 20071231-adobe-omniture-in-hot-water-for-snooping-on-cs3-users. Ars Technica. to gather visitor sentiment. who use Omniture to collect usage statistics across their products. a Web analytics code configuration monitoring tool. marketwire. an on-demand enterprise search product. • Discover. . asp?guid=6FEE3873-90C4-43A0-8758-39014F6291BD).net domain name. Omniture in hot water for snooping on CS3 users" (http:/ / arstechnica. Omniture's main behavioural targeting solution. "Omniture Deal Delights" (http:/ / www. html?cm_ven=GOOGLEN& cm_cat=FREE& cm_ite=NA).[11] Omniture's SiteCatalyst and SearchCenter products use the 2o7. guardian. [10] Arthur. • SiteSearch. DMNews. com/ aboutadobe/ invrelations/ faq_omniture. com/ news. . • Merchandising.[12] References [1] http:/ / www. html).com. offers Web analytics (client-side analytics). . [7] Omniture (2009-9-15). marketwire. html). . "Omniture buys website testing firm for $65m" (http:/ / www. cbronline. adobe. omniture.[11] It is possible to opt-out of the Omniture data-collection system.[12] Omniture collects data from Apple[10] and Adobe. http:/ / www.[10] Critics claim they do this by sending the information to a domain name that looks and sounds similar to an IP address used to connect to devices on the local network and not the Internet. an Insight offering geared toward multiple online and offline retail channels. server-side analytics. Charles (January 3. "Omniture acquires Touch Clarity" (http:/ / www. thestreet. A/B and MVT (multi-variate testing). derived from Offermatica[5] • Test&Target 1:1. http:/ / www. • SearchCenter+ assists with paid search and content network optimization in systems such as Google's AdWords. Omniture's latest offerings as of 2010 include some social media tracking capabilities. derived in part from Touch Clarity. drills down to the individual level of testing. "Omniture Agrees to Acquire Mercado's Site Search and Merchandising Business" (http:/ / www. dmnews. omniture. com/ article_news.Omniture 54 Products • SiteCatalyst. • VISTA. com/ Omniture-acquires-Touch-Clarity/ article/ 94508/ ). Retrieved 2008-06-21. a multichannel segmentation tool (both client-side and server-side analytics). and Facebook Ads. co. apple). com/ press/ 777. • Survey. . for web content management. Omniture's software as a service application. . com/ aboutadobe/ invrelations/ adobeandomniture. com/ press-release/ Omniture-NASDAQ-OMTR-909349.com. a search and navigation offering for online stores. com/ press/ 455 [2] William Gabrielski (2006-06-26). • Genesis. This has led to speculation that the domain name is used to trick users or firewall rules. adobe. 2007). . • Publish. [9] Adobe (2009-10-26). and to block the tracking. and why is it watching me?" (http:/ / www. • Insight. "Omniture Offering Is Worth Data-Mining" (http:/ / www. thestreet. TheStreet. The Guardian. html. [11] Chartier. • Insight for Retail. data warehousing of SiteCatalyst data. Formerly called Discover on Premise.com. [6] Omniture (2008-10-14). uk/ technology/ 2008/ jan/ 03/ adobe. Computer Business Review. com/ _googlen/ comment/ investing/ 10294082. http:/ / www.

A web site owner also wants to analyze visitor behavior." a subset of path analysis. such as the visitor purchasing an item or requesting a newsletter. especially when they are selecting or buying products. called an end point analysis. The shop owner carefully analyzes his visitors and path they walk through his shop. nuts. This approach is very helpful when analyzing how many visitors reach a certain destination page. but to look for the strongest paths. Simply because people drink wine and eat nuts with it. In a supermarket this will typically result in the wine shell next to a variety of cookies. The precise order of pages visited may or may not be important and may or may not be specified.net?" (http:/ / www.official site Path analysis (computing) Path analysis. From there they make a logical step to the frequently asked questions page if they have a specific question. 55 External links • omniture. "Fallout analysis. or paths that lead to a dead end most frequently. . Questions that can't be answered by page hits and unique visitors statistics. In practice. The idea is to determine what features of the website encourage the desired result.com (http://www. the owner wants to convert as many visitors to a completed purchase. is a process of determining a sequence of pages visited in a visitor session prior to some desired event. this analysis is done in aggregate. etc. Understanding visitors In the real world when you visit a shop the shelves and products are not placed in a random order. com/ en/ privacy/ 2o7). ranking the paths (sequences of pages) visited prior to the desired event.com) . Retrieved 2008-06-21.Omniture [12] "What is 2o7. Path analysis answers typical questions like: Where do most visitors go after they enter my home page? Is there a strong visitor relation between product A and product B on my web site?. As a result there is no point in analyzing each path. Next the shop owner will reorder his shells and products to optimize his sales by putting everything in the most logical order for his visitors. . by descending frequency of use. A predetermined path of web site pages is specified and every visitor walking the path is a goal. Using maps The paths visitors walk in a web site can lead to an endless number of unique paths. In most web sites there is a same logic that can be applied. web site owners want to guide visitors to the final sign-up page. If there is a sign-up form with multiple pages. For example if a web site offers products for sale. chips.omniture. Visitors who have questions about a product will go to the product information or support section of a web site. omniture. looks at "black holes" on the site. in Internet website analytics. Omniture. Funnels and Goals Google Analytics provides a path function with funnels and goals. paths or features that confuse or lose potential customers. These strongest paths are typically shown in a graphical map or in text like: Page A --> Page B --> Page D --> Exit.

mediapost. movemetrics. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. com [2] http:/ / blog.Path analysis (computing) 56 External links • MoveMetrics Path Analysis software [1] • Getting the Most from Path Analysis [2] • Is User Path Analysis The Right Path? [3] References [1] http:/ / www. showArticleHomePage& art_aid=94308 . bridgelinesw. com/ 2008/ 12/ getting-the-most-from-path-analysis/ [3] http:/ / www.

External links • Official website (http://piwik. "piwik Open Source web analytics added to SourceForge. Retrieved 2008-09-23. 2011 Cross-platform PHP Web analytics GPL (version 3) piwik. and better performance. infoworld.net Hosted Apps" (http:/ / sourceforge. The major differences being that Piwik would offer REST APIs. a module architecture allowing for plugins.org [1] Piwik is an open source web analytics system written in PHP. php?id=4148& page& replies=1).net's Project of the Month for July 2009. Retrieved 2010-12-20.[6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / piwik.4 / April 30.[5] In August 2009. . "Hosted Apps" (http:/ / sourceforge. 2009-08-31. com/ d/ open-source/ best-open-source-enterprise-software-740& current=10& last=3#slideshowTop).org/) • Google2Piwik (http://clearcode. the development team announced future efforts would be directed to Piwik.3.cc/offer/open-source-projects/google2piwik/) . net/ apps/ trac/ sourceforge/ wiki/ Hosted Apps?version=1). . net/ blog/ potm-200907/ ) [6] "Best of open source enterprise software" (http:/ / www.net announced the availability of Piwik as a hosted application for developers. 2008-11-21. [5] Project of the Month. . SourceForge. 2008. Piwik was named among the best of open source enterprise in InfoWorld's 2009 Bossie Awards.[3] [4] Piwik was selected SourceForge. more visually appealing graphs (using Flash). .[2] On November 21. July 2009 (http:/ / sourceforge. org/ "New Documentation: Differences between Piwik and phpMyVisites?" (http:/ / dev. Following the stable release of phpMyVisites v2.Piwik 57 Piwik Piwik Stable release Operating system Available in Type License Website 1. piwik. Retrieved 2008-11-26. net/ community/ forum/ topic. 2009-01-10. org/ trac/ ticket/ 275). Retrieved 2010-12-20.

Internet bookmarks. which includes blog comments and links. and the Top Posts Web widget.postRank 58 postRank PostRank Inc. Social media engagement metrics Operating system Cross-platform Type Website Web analytics postrank. PostRank Data Services. Google Reader and WordPress plug-in. 2010. In June 2011. the company officially changed its name to PostRank Inc. is a service for brands and public relations and marketing agencies to work with bloggers to run product campaigns and receive consulting services.com to focus the company's work more on the core PostRank technology. and activities from social network services such as Twitter.com [1] PostRank is a social media analytics service owned by Google that uses a proprietary ranking algorithm to measure "social engagement". [2] . PostRank Connect. launched in September. launched in August. PostRank filtering is built into a Facebook app. 2009. measure marketing. clicks. In October 2008. The company was formerly called AideRSS. page views. postRank has been acquired by Google. Inc. and for strategic planning. The engagement metrics provide the data for several services. In July 2009. PostRank Analytics. and the Read It Later bookmarking service. is a collection of APIs and reports to provide real-time and data mining Social Web data to companies to use in applications. PostRank filtering has also been added to the Ad Age Power 150 list of marketing blogs. is a service for bloggers and online publishers to track where and how their audiences are sharing and organizing their content on the Social Web and perform competitive analysis. AideRSS re-launched their website as postrank. Digg. and Facebook. the Atlantic 50 list of bloggers and columnists. In addition to filtering on the website. launched in July 2009.

uk/ news/ mergers-and-acquisitions/ 2011/ 06/ 06/ google-buys-postrank-analytics-firm-40092996/ http:/ / www. postrank. postrank. com [6] http:/ / connect. com [7] http:/ / wordpress. com [5] http:/ / analytics. postrank. zdnet. postrank.postRank 59 External links • • • • • • • • • • • PostRank home page [3] PostRank Data Services home page [4] PostRank Analytics home page [5] PostRank Connect home page [6] PostRank WordPress plugin [7] PostRank Top Posts Widget [8] PostRank Google Reader extension [9] PostRank API Documentation [10] AdAge Power150 [11] The Atlantic 50 [12] Read It Later [13] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / postrank. postrank.in/2010/09/17/post-rank-a-must-for-the-bloggers/Digital Analog . org/ extend/ plugins/ wp-postrank/ [8] http:/ / labs. com/ gr [10] http:/ / apidocs. com/ top_posts [9] http:/ / labs. com/ power150/ [12] http:/ / www. com http:/ / data. postrank. theatlanticwire. postrank. com [11] http:/ / adage. com/ http:/ / www. com/ • http://digitalanalog. co. com/ people/ index/ [13] http:/ / readitlaterlist.

can be counted by noting the number of unique IP addresses that retrieve the file in a given period. Method 3 Unique URL per feed . Some aggregators (for example. all with their own problems in terms of accuracy. although it is probably higher than the real number because people may sign up for accounts with multiple aggregators and never delete their subscriptions and because they may read the same feeds at different computers.RSS tracking 60 RSS tracking RSS Tracking is a methodology for tracking RSS feeds. .This method requires heavy web server programming to auto generate a different RSS feed URL for each visitor to the website. This provides an estimate of actual readership. Method 2 Third-arty services . The problem with this method is that all analytical data about the feeds are controlled by the service provider and so not easily accessible or transferable. Method 4 Estimating number of subscribers from the log files. The problem with this method is that if the feed is syndicated by a search engine for instance then this will defeat the purpose of the unique URLs as many people could potentially view the RSS feed via a single URL. The visitor's RSS feed activity can then be tracked accurately using standard web analytics applications. Other readers -.These images can be embedded within the content of the RSS feed by linking to the image which should be held on the web server. however unlike other forms of publishing information on the internet. The problem with this method is that not all RSS feed aggregators will display images and parse HTML. Method 1 Transparent 1×1 pixel images .There are services available on the Internet that will syndicate your RSS feed and then track all requests made to their syndication of your RSS feed. History RSS feeds have been around since 1999 as a form of internet marketing.such as web browsers -. These services come free and paid forms. it is difficult to track the usage of RSS feeds. Bloglines and Google Reader) include a number of unique users on whose behalf the feed is being downloaded in the HTTP request. This will give a rough estimate as to how many times the RSS feed has been viewed. or the same computer may have a different IP address at different times. The number of requests made can be measured by using the web server log files. Feed tracking methods have been growing in popularity Technology There are currently many methods of tracking RSS feeds.

RSS tracking 61 External links • • • • • Feed Burner [1] Tracking RSS subscribers [2] Tracking RSS [3] Tracking RSS Using a Web Analytics Tool [4] Counting RSS Subscribers [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. htm http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 05/ 01/ how-to-accurately-track-rss-subscribers/ http:/ / www. com/ info/ effectively-tracking-rss-feeds http:/ / www. feedburner. com/ measuring-tracking-rss. com/ 2007/ 05/ counting_rss_subscribers. sclanalytics. webanalyticmatt. html . rss4lib. rss-specifications. com http:/ / www.

html) contains a description of InterGate Intelligence.[2] A branded version of it is also sold by Vicomsoft Ltd as InterGate Intelligence. Sawmill Analytics is offered in three forms. A branded version of it is also sold by Cisco Systems as Sawmill for IronPort. ironport. com/ products/ reporting/ index. php) reviews Sawmill. a rebranded version of Sawmill.5 / June 2. [6] Ideal Observer's Web Analytics Tool Overview (http:/ / www. net/ [2] Cisco IronPort Web Security Appliance Management (http:/ / www. Log analysis sawmill. References [1] http:/ / sawmill. Sawmill analyzes any device or software package producing a log file and that includes web servers. proxy servers. pdf) contains description of Sawmill for IronPort.Sawmill (software) 62 Sawmill (software) Sawmill Developer(s) Initial release Stable release Written in Flowerfire Inc. . com/ web-analytics-tools/ index. Sawmill is the OEM reporting engine sold by Blue Coat Systems as a bundled part of their proxy server product. com/ pdf/ web_sec_mgmt_ds.[4] Sawmill was a second runner-up in the 2009 Streaming Media European Readers' Choice Awards. Sawmill also incorporates real-time reporting and real-time alerting. with dynamic contextual filtering. databases etc. mail servers. Available since 1997. and custom calculated reports. [5] Streaming Media European Readers' Choice Awards (http:/ / www.1. user interface customization. 'live' data zooming. 1998 8. [3] Intergate Intelligence (http:/ / www. idealobserver. streamingmediaglobal. as a software package for user deployment. with new formats added on request.[5] Sawmill is listed in the Ideal Observer's Web Analytics Tool Overview [6] . firewalls. at this time Sawmill provides support for approximately 850 server log file formats. syslog servers. downloaded 2009-11-23.net [1] Sawmill is a software package for the statistical analysis and reporting of log files. 2010 C Operating system Cross-platform Type Website Web analytics. network devices (switches & routers etc. html) contains a description of SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting. sonicwall. vicomsoft.[3] A branded version of it is also sold by SonicWALL as "SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting". as a turnkey on-premise system appliance. and as a SaaS service. [4] SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting (http:/ / www. com/ in/ 488_8564. Sawmill also includes a page tagging server and JavaScript page tag for the analysis of client side clicks (client requests) providing a total view of visitor traffic and on-site behavioural activity. a rebranded version of Sawmill.). com/ Readerschoiceeurope/ ).

Schulman holds a degree in English and Journalism from the University of the Pacific.Sawmill (software) 63 External links • http://www.2817. Retrieved 2009-12-03. distributing and optimizing the different types of content required to engage customers on the interactive web. retrieved 2009-11-27 • Tiscali review (http://www. After that.com/article2/0. Along with his partner. Schulman sits on the board at Technology Leaders.[1] Schulman is a founder and principal of Schulman+Thorogood Group.asp) of Sawmill 6 from 2001.19817.pcmag. sales and support for the EMEA region. training.sawmill. and one of the first practitioners of on-demand web analytics. • http://www.information-management.net (http://www. helping lead the latter through its initial public offering. Schulman is currently the chief marketing officer for Eightfold Logic[4] .com/issues/2007_51/10001853-1. Distribution. • comparison of analytics software (http://awstats.co.html) of Sawmill 7 from Information Management Magazine. 2008. for universal web log analysis and reporting. In 2011.sourceforge. author and speaker on the topic of new media and marketing. he was named one of the Top CMOs on Twitter by Social Media Marketing Magazine[8] . Schulman was named as one of the top 100 B-to-B marketing executives by BtoB Magazine in 2004[7] .sawmill.uk/). Keylime Software (acquired by Yahoo). and ViralHeat. Currently. His past speaking experience includes South by Southwest (SXSW).co. Schulman has also evangelized[3] creating a "virtuous" marketing cycle through inbound marketing.html) from AWStats documentation • PC Magazine review (http://www. in 1997.net/). In 2005. a social media analytics firm. a New York-based web analytic consulting company. Pelin Thorogood.sawmill. an inbound marketing company. COMDEX and the Direct Marketing Association. September 1. Prior to Eightfold Logic. a mobile analytics company acquired by Nokia. Schulman began popularizing the term "content engineer"[2] to describe marketing’s new role in creating. . Rand Schulman Rand Schulman is an American marketing executive. He has been a board advisor[9] to Motally. a business strategy consulting practice advising new media companies.00.net/docs/awstats_compare.uk (http://www. Schulman was a founding board member of the Web Analytics Association[6] and was also the founder and CEO of one of the first software as a service (SaaS) companies.sawmill. he served as the general manager of Internet Products at Unica Corporation (acquired by IBM). Schulman served as chief marketing officer for InsideView and WebSideStory[5] (now part of Adobe Systems).

The WAA Story” (http:/ / www. (4/22/10) "Mobile Analytics Firm Motally Adds Executives from AdMob. johnson. stonetemple.eightfoldlogic. zdnet. Crenk (http:/ / www. videos. (12/06/05) “Era of the Content Engineer” (http:/ / www. (7/16/07) "Rand Schulman and Eric Enge Talk About Web Analytics" (http:/ / www. webanalyticsassociation. zdnet. Hires CMO" (http:/ / www.insideview. Another class of techniques. btobonline.webanalyticsassociation. org/ ?page=aboutus) [7] BtoB. cfm?action=web_extra& web_extra_id) [4] Hosford.com) Schulman+Thorogood Group (http://www. com/ apps/ pbcs. SEO tactics may be incorporated into website development and design. and by employees who perform SEO services in-house. what people search for. is another SEO tactic. BtoB (http:/ / www. cfm). content management systems. the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. and more frequently a site appears in the search results list. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks. org/ ). This gives a website web presence. (11/13/06) "What exactly is Web 2. smmmagazine. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content. Christopher. images. com). btobonline. cornell. academic search[1] . (1998-2011) “About Us . com/ blog/ saas/ era-of-the-content-engineer/ 71) [3] Thorogood. com/ apps/ pbcs. btobonline. com/ articles/ interview-rand-schulman.schulmanthorogood. shtml) [2] Wainewright. WAA (http:/ / www. com/ apps/ pbcs. including image search. (5/17/10) "Enquisite Rebrands as Eightfold Logic. dll/ article?AID=/ 20061113/ FREE/ 711130724) [6] Web Analytics Association. ZDNet (http:/ / www. and other elements that have been optimized for the purpose of search engine exposure. local search. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. news search and industry-specific vertical search engines.0” (http:/ / www2. video search. stonetemple. crenk." a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients. known as black hat SEO or spamdexing.0?" (http:/ / www. (7/16/04) "Who's Who 2004" (http:/ / www. BtoB (http:/ / www. Kent. com). uses methods such as link farms. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. menus. webanalyticsassociation. Pelin. com/ ).org/) Search engine optimization Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. edu/ alumni/ enterprise/ fall2010/ index. Jupiter Research and M:Metrics to Board of Directors and Advisory Board" (http:/ / crenk. com/ mobile-analytics-firm-motally-adds-executives-from-admob-jupiter-research-and-mmetrics-to-board-of-directors-and-advisory-board/ ) External links • • • • Eightfold Logic (http://www. com/ exclusives/ top-cmos-on-twitter/ ) [9] Crenk. or inbound links. the actual search terms typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Cornell Enterprise Online (http:/ / www2. In general. com). SEO considers how search engines work. SEO may target different kinds of search. com). smmmagazine. johnson. btobonline. Richard. edu/ alumni/ enterprise/ fall2010/ index. btobonline. Eric. Social Media Marketing Magazine (http:/ / www. shopping carts. dll/ article?AID=/ 20100517/ FREE/ 100519930/ 1001) [5] Karpinski. BtoB (http:/ / www. dll/ article?AID=/ 20040716/ FREE/ 407160707) [8] Huffman. Stone Temple Consulting (http:/ / www. Other forms of search engine marketing (SEM) target paid listings. btobonline. the earlier (or higher on the page).com) Web Analytics Association (http://www. As an Internet marketing strategy. keyword stuffing and article spinning that degrade both the relevance of search results and the quality of user-experience with . com/ ). cornell. The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe website designs. com/ ). The acronym "SEOs" can refer to "search engine optimizers. (Fall 2010) “Birth of Customer 2. (3/29/11) "Top CMOs on Twitter" (http:/ / www.Rand Schulman 64 References [1] Enge.com) InsideView (http://www. Phil.

[11] By 2004. Google says it ranks sites using more than 200 different signals. to the various engines which would send a "spider" to "crawl" that page. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan. who liked its simple design. involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming. this means that some links are stronger than others. and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. or URL. or index files in engines like ALIWEB. The number calculated by the algorithm. as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency. as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable. search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation. all webmasters needed to do was submit the address of a page. early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. meta tags. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search. Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results. Inaccurate. incomplete. Meta tags provide a guide to each page's content. [5] The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing that phrase is by Bruce Clay effective March. webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine. rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters. the phrase "search engine optimization" probably came into use in 1997. PageRank. search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results.[3] The first documented use of the term Search Engine Optimization was John Audette [4] and his company Multimedia Marketing Group as documented by a web page from the MMG site from August. creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners.Search engine optimization search engines. 65 History Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s. Graduate students at Stanford University.[12] The leading . To provide better results to their users. is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links. and selling links. Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet [10] Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered users. taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. headings. extracts various information about the page. Many sites focused on exchanging. allowing those results to be false would turn users to find other search sources. 1997. links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. extract links to other pages from it. and follows links from one page to another. Although PageRank was more difficult to game.[8] By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster's control. Initially. where a second program. and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches. as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. however.[6] Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag." a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. Page and Brin founded Google in 1998. In effect. which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date. and return information found on the page to be indexed. and all links the page contains. as well as any weight for specific words.[9] PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web. Some of these schemes. Larry Page and Sergey Brin.[7] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines. because the webmaster's choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site's actual content. developed "backrub. known as an indexer. often on a massive scale. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms. or link farms. such as the words it contains and where these are located.[2] The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine's own server. Search engines look for sites that employ these techniques in order to remove them from their indices. buying. 1997.

[19] As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank. In 2005. announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way. and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords.[24] was created to discuss and minimize the damaging effects of aggressive web content providers. Flash and Javascript. a well-known software engineer at Google.[26] Google's Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients. there is potential for an adversarial relationship between search engines and SEO service providers.[13] [14] SEO practitioners may also study patents held by various search engines to gain insight into the algorithms. Early search engines. SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting. which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients. Google. the Wall Street Journal reported on a company. Bruce Clay said that "ranking is dead" because of personalized search.Search engine optimization search engines. Matt Cutts. Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web. and Yahoo. adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings. Google crafted results for logged in users. Depending on their history of previous searches. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results.[28] [29] [30] Google has a Sitemaps program[31] to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website. and have published their opinions in online forums and blogs. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization. some search engines now have a vested interest in the health of the optimization community. chats. Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results. Google .[22] 66 Relationship with search engines By 1997 search engines recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines. because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search. Notable SEO service providers. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings. such as Rand Fishkin. Aaron Wall and Jill Whalen. Bing. In order to avoid the above.[21] Real-time-search was introduced in late 2009 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. 2009. have studied different approaches to search engine optimization. AIRWeb. with the advent of paid inclusion. and seminars. Barry Schwartz.[15] In 2005 Google began personalizing search results for each user. such as Infoseek. [20] In December 2009 Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results. Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links.[17] In 2007 Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank. In 2005.[27] Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes.[25] Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban. Traffic Power.[18] On June 15.[16] In 2008.[23] Yahoo and Google offices Due to the high marketing value of targeted search results. and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences. do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages. an annual conference. In fact. in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting. It would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked.

Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled. search engines sometimes have problems with crawling sites with certain kinds of graphic content. the robots. especially pages that aren't discoverable by automatically following links. such as Google. flash files.[36] Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site. thus increasing traffic. will tend to improve the relevancy of a site's search listings. When a search engine visits a site. using the "canonical" meta tag[41] or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page's link popularity score. The robots.txt file is then parsed. 67 Methods Getting indexed The leading search engines. Adding relevant keywords to a web page's meta data. for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found. [38] Preventing crawling To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes. but do not guarantee specific ranking within the search results. . Additionally.[40] Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site. use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls. a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine's database by using a meta tag specific to robots. Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically. webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots. it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. Bing and Yahoo!. portable document format files.[39] Increasing prominence A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results. Some search engines. and how many pages have been indexed by their search engine.Search engine optimization guidelines are a list of suggested practices Google has provided as guidance to webmasters. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. operate a paid submission service that guarantee crawling for either a set fee or cost per click.[34] Two major directories. content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase. including the title tag and meta description. allowing users to determine the crawl rate. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. the Yahoo Directory and the Open Directory Project both require manual submission and human editorial review. so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic. and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled.[32] Bing Toolbox provides a way from webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds.txt file in the root directory of the domain. and dynamic content. determine how many pages are in the Yahoo! index and view link information.[37] Additionally. Not every page is indexed by the search engines. In March 2007.[33] Such programs usually guarantee inclusion in the database.[35] Google offers Google Webmaster Tools. Cross linking between [40] Writing pages of the same website to provide more links to most important pages may improve its visibility. notably Yahoo!. Yahoo! Site Explorer provides a way for webmasters to submit URLs.

However. quickly apologized. As the search engine guidelines[28] [29] [30] [44] are not written as a series of rules or commandments. whereas black hats anticipate that their sites will eventually be banned once the search engines discover what they are doing. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users. Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines. depending on the site operator's goals. A search engine's algorithm takes this into account. their algorithms change. (Some trading sites such as eBay can be a special case for this.[42] White hats tend to produce results that last a long time. as either white hat SEO. Traditional marketing means have allowed this through transparency and exposure." Instead. setting up analytics [49] SEO may programs to enable site owners to measure their successes. a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors. and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders.[53] . and improving a site's conversion rate.[50] It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine.[46] Both companies. this is an important distinction to note.[48] This includes paid search advertising which has its own version of SEO called ATO (Ad Text Optimization). but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty. to web pages. receive a very small share of their traffic from search engines. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines' algorithms. building high quality web pages to engage and persuade. and the practitioners who employ them. and other Internet marketing strategies can be much more effective. not for search engines. A successful Internet marketing campaign may drive organic traffic. in a twist of irony. referred to as spamdexing. Some industry commentators classify these methods. or by a manual site review. however. search engines are not paid for organic search traffic. and those techniques that search engines do not approve of and attempt to minimize the effect of. "Search marketers. White Hat SEO is merely effective marketing. either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether.Search engine optimization 68 White hat versus black hat SEO techniques are classified by some into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design.org[52] has suggested.[47] As a marketing strategy SEO is not necessarily an appropriate strategy for every website. rather than attempting to game the algorithm. it will announce how and when the ranking algorithm will change a few months before changing the algorithm). Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines. such as Google's PageRank. One infamous example was the February 2006 Google removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices. but it also may involve the use of paid advertising on search engines and other pages. or positioned off screen. addressing technical issues that may keep search engines from crawling and indexing those sites. in an invisible div. and there are no guarantees of continued referrals.[45] although the two are not identical. either as text colored similar to the background. technique or method is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines' guidelines and involves no deception. a technique known as cloaking. and were restored to Google's list. generate a return on investment. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden.[51] A top-ranked SEO blog Seomoz. or black hat SEO. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility. their main sources of traffic are links from other websites. making efforts to deliver quality content to an audience that has requested the quality content. fixed the offending pages. achieved through optimization techniques and not paid advertising.[43] An SEO tactic. or involve deception.

. gov/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages. Search Engine Watch. Journal of Scholarly Publishing. Otherwise. html) on 1997-08-01. Kinderstart's website was removed from Google's index prior to the lawsuit and the amount of traffic to the site dropped by 70%. (Document Number 19970801004204). e-learningguru. sciplore. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Yandex and Seznam are market leaders. when Google is not leading in a given market. spam/ browse_thread/ thread/ 6fee2777dc17b8ab/ 3858bff94e56aff3?lnk=st& q="search+ engine+ optimization"& rnum=1#3858bff94e56aff3). php?p=2119& postcount=10). html). pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2007-05-08. . [7] Cory Doctorow (August 26. e-learningguru. com/ articles/ metacrap. . Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches. org/ publications/ 2010-ASEO--preprint. archive. 1994. the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise. Retrieved 2010-04-18.Search engine optimization 69 International markets Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. On March 16. org/ web/ 20070409062313/ http:/ / www. 2003. USA. 176–190. Google had an 85-90% market share in Germany. KinderStart filed a lawsuit against Google over search engine rankings. com/ articles/ metacrap. The most notable markets where this is the case are China. mmgco. . [3] Danny Sullivan (June 14. Japan. On May 27. Erik (2010). org/ web/ 19970801004204/ www. 2002."[58] [59] In March 2006. as does competition. requiring him to pay part of Google's legal expenses.[60] [61] Notes [1] Beel. htm) on 2007-04-09. Retrieved 2007-05-14. As of 2009. pdf). See Google groups thread (http:/ / groups. net-abuse. Retrieved 2007-05-07.[56] Legal precedents On October 17. regardless of language. . The search engines' market shares vary from market to market. In 2003. searchenginewatch. South Korea. Jöran and Gipp. Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu. thehistoryofseo. it is lagging behind a local player. and web hosting that provides a local IP address. "Who Invented the Term "Search Engine Optimization"?" (http:/ / forums. com/ seo-interviews/ john-audette/ [5] (Document Number 19970801004204) "Documentation of Who Invented SEO at the Internet Way Back Machine" (http:/ / web. "Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co. pp. SearchKing filed suit in the United States District Court. the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same. Naver. com/ campaign. October 17–20. there were only about five in Germany. In most cases. webir. US Library of Congress Copyright Office). 2004). The Second International WWW Conference Chicago. current-events. archive. Google's share is often larger. Western District of Oklahoma. and partially granted Google's motion for Rule 11 sanctions against KinderStart's attorney. Archived from (Document Number 19970801004204) the original (http:/ / www. "Finding What People Want: Experiences with the WebCrawler" (http:/ / www. [2] Brian Pinkerton." (http:/ / www.[55] As of 2006.[56] As of June 2008. "Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw-men of the meta-utopia" (http:/ / web.[57] That market share is achieved in a number of countries. com/ group/ alt. cgi?Search_Arg=TX0005001745& Search_Code=REGS& PID=_BQjecgZXtqzP_qe3Szqb-aeqs& SEQ=20110101030626& CNT=25& HIST=1). registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market. 2007 the United States District Court for the Northern District of California (San Jose Division) dismissed KinderStart's complaint without leave to amend. mmgco. [4] http:/ / www. loc. google. Yahoo! Japan. Bela and Wilde. against the search engine Google. (Document Registration Number TX0005001745.[54] In markets outside the United States. SearchKing's claim was that Google's tactics to prevent spamdexing constituted a tortious interference with contractual relations. org/ resources/ phd/ pinkerton_2000. and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007.[56] While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time. e-LearningGuru. there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. com/ showpost. the court granted Google's motion to dismiss the complaint because SearchKing "failed to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. htm). 2001). [6] (Document Registration Number TX0005001745. US Library of Congress Copyright Office) "The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / cocatalog. com/ campaign.

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com/support/webmasters/bin/answer. . Inc.org. com/ 2006/ 06/ 24/ what-seo-isnt/ ). "Stats Show Google Dominates the International Search Landscape" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. [52] "SEOmoz: Best SEO Blog of 2006" (http:/ / www. searchenginejournal.com/l/us/yahoo/search/basics/basics-18. 2007). [45] Andy Hagans (November 08 2005). Retrieved 2007-04-18.hastingsresearch. aspx). uk/ technology/ blog/ 2008/ jun/ 10/ googleukclosesinon90mark). "Recent reinclusions" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-05-31. com/ 2007/ 03/ 13/ the-battle-between-search-engine-optimization-and-conversion-who-wins/ ). mattcutts. com/ docs/ 618281/ Order-(Granting-Googles-Motion-to-Dismiss-Search-Kings-Complaint)) (PDF). Retrieved 2007-05-14. [56] Mike Grehan (April 3.com Webmaster Guidelines (http://about. Retrieved 2008-05-23. CIV-02-1457-M" (http:/ / www. searchengineguide. org/ article/ search-blog-stats#4). Retrieved 2007-05-10. grokdotcom. mattcutts.yahoo. "Ramping up on international webspam" (http:/ / www.live. google. .com. com. . com/ articles/ accessibilityseo). clickz. ericgoldman. 2006. January 3. html?page=3483941). Google" (http:/ / blog. Retrieved 2007-05-09. seomoz. . May 27. "Search Engines as Leeches on the Web" (http:/ / www. com/ showPage. com/ community/ blogs/ webmaster/ archive/ 2009/ 02/ 12/ partnering-to-help-solve-duplicate-content-issues. .Partnering to help solve duplicate content issues . google. [49] Melissa Burdon (March 13. co. [48] "What SEO Isn't" (http:/ / blog. SearchEngineWatch. 2011) • Search Engine Optimization and User Behavior (http://www. html?page=3625072). com/ seomoz-best-seo-blog-of-2006/ 4195/ ). Third Edition . 2003.com/blog. . Google Dismissed—With Sanctions Against KinderStart's Counsel" (http:/ / blog. [53] "A survey of 25 blogs in the search space comparing external metrics to visitor tracking data" (http:/ / www.com/2011/02/13/business/13search. [58] "Search King. "Search Engine Optimizing for Europe" (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ ramping-up-on-international-webspam/ ).. blog. 2007. 2007). . [50] Andy Greenberg (April 30. 2003). . html).com v.live. ericgoldman. Retrieved 2007-05-15. searchengineguide. A List Apart. docstoc. htm).com. com/ tech/ news/ 2003-08-25-google_x.html). v. Jefferson (2003-08-26). Retrieved 2008-06-23. html). v7n.Search engine optimization [41] "Bing . Retrieved 2007-05-09.com. com/ 2100-1032_3-1011740. com/ whalen/ 2004/ 1116_jw1. [47] Matt Cutts (February 7 2006). html). "Google UK closes in on 90% market share" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-05-15.com. [60] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: KinderStart v. com/ webmasters/ seo. html?page=3595926).nytimes.aspx?mkt=en-us&project=wl_webmasters& querytype=&query=&tmt=&domain=help. [51] Jakob Nielsen (January 9. html?partner=rss). www. "Judge dismisses suit against Google" (http:/ / news.v7n. . com/ showPage. Retrieved 2007-05-31. "High Accessibility Is Effective Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / alistapart. [43] Jill Whalen (November 16. [42] Andrew Goodman. . 71 External links • Google Webmaster Guidelines (http://www. 2004). usatoday. Retrieved 2008-06-23. com/ blog/ recent-reinclusions/ ).html). . org/ archives/ 2006/ 03/ google_sued_ove.ericgoldman. Retrieved 2007-05-09.com/en/docs/about/webmasters. mattcutts.google.Bing Community" (http:/ / www. [44] "What's an SEO? Does Google recommend working with companies that offer to make my site Google-friendly?" (http:/ / www.Webmaster Blog . 2006). 2006). [57] Jack Schofield (2008-06-10). blog. "The search engine that could" (http:/ / www. org/ archives/ 2007/ 03/ kinderstart_v_g_2.ericgoldman. mattcutts.com/blog. Retrieved 2007-05-09. Google Technology. com/ showPage. forbes.com.com. [55] Greg Jarboe (2007-02-22). searchenginejournal. Retrieved 2007-05-16. . .com. [54] Graham. htm).py?hl=en& answer=35769) • Yahoo! Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. . Retrieved 2009-10-30.com/help. useit. Search Engine Watch. . Forbes. .com. Inc.com/net/ 09-SEO-ELIS-encyclopedia-article. Retrieved 2007-05-09. htm). useit. . Retrieved 2008-06-10.com&format=b1) • Ask. Click. . [59] Stefanie Olsen (May 30.html) • Bing Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. . Retrieved 2007-05-09. [61] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: Google Sued Over Rankings—KinderStart. June 24. "Condemned To Google Hell" (http:/ / www. "Black Hat/White Hat Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / www.bing. Grok. CNET. com/ alertbox/ search_engines.org.org. "Search Engine Showdown: Black hats vs. bing. Retrieved 2007-05-09. html). docstoc. . USA Today. "The Battle Between Search Engine Optimization and Conversion: Who Wins?" (http:/ / www. London: Guardian. guardian. . White hats at SES" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. seomoz. [46] Matt Cutts (February 4 2006).ask.shtml) • " The Dirty Little Secrets of Search (http://www. Retrieved 2007-05-14. com/ technology/ 2007/ 04/ 29/ sanar-google-skyfacet-tech-cx_ag_0430googhell. blog. an article from the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences." article in The New York Times (February 12.

net/ 2007/ 04/ 11/ things-you-should-know-before-using-sitemeter Michael Sync.Session replay 72 Session replay Session replay is a video replay of visitors' behaviors on a web site. 2008. 2008. and Site meter decided to roll back its migration on September 14.oneprojectcloser. 2008 Internet Explorer Failure News (http://www. customer behavior. the date and time of their visit. 25/3/2009. . 11/4/2007. "StatCounter Says No!" [2] http:/ / michaelsync. Site Meter Site Meter is a service which provides counter and tracking information for Web sites. This problem persisted for over 16 hours.[1] References [1] "CS SessionReplay" (http:/ / www. On August 1. The underlying data for the videos is recorded by web analytics tools.0. 26/3/2007. Controversy In March 2007.com/general/ sitemeter-crashing-internet-explorer-sites-august-1-2008/) . 2008. foreseeresults. Retrieved 9 February 2011. including mouse movements. and more. com/ EricOdom/ 2007/ 03/ 26/ did-sitemeter-sell-out-to-spyware/ Eric Odom.com/) • Site Meter Gets A Brand New Face . it was revealed by Site Meter's rival tracking service StatCounter that they had been offered large sums of money to include advertising tracking cookies through their service.[1] Soon.sitemeter. Site Meter provides Web site owners with information about their visitors. On September 14.0 and v7. Complaints began immediately. ForeSee Results. including how they reached the site.net service. com/ 2007/ 03/ statcounter-says-no/ StatCounter Blog. Site meter experienced a system-wide bug that caused all sites displaying its tracking code to fail to load when browsed with Internet Explorer v6.html) • August 1.And More (http://www. Site meter attempted to migrate. though reasons for the rollback are pending. com/ CSSessionReplay. "Things you should know before using Sitemeter" [3] http:/ / conservablogs.com/2007/05/ site-meter-gets-brand-new-face-and-more. clicks. Firefox and Safari users were not affected. statcounter. bloggers noted[2] [3] that Site Meter had introduced tracking cookies for the SpecificClick. and form entry. etc. References [1] http:/ / blog. This type of data can be useful in studying web site usability. html).aaroncook. "Did Sitemeter sell out to Spyware?" External links • Site Meter Web page (http://www. By logging IP addresses and using JavaScript or HTML to track visitor information.

. 93. com/ siteinfo/ statcounter. Retrieved 21 May 2011.statcounter. .com www. alexa. May 2011. p. John Wiley and Sons.traffic statistics" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=2FI_suXXGJkC& dq=Statcounter& source=gbs_navlinks_s).. google. Retrieved 21 May 2011. Alexa Internet. .[2] References [1] "Statcounter. com). Access to basic services is free and advanced services can cost between $9 and $119 a month.StatCounter 73 StatCounter StatCounter URL Commercial? Type of site Registration Alexa rank [www.statcounter. [2] Kyle Lacy (2011).com . Inc. "Twitter Marketing for Dummies" (http:/ / books.com] yes Web traffic analysis Not required for basic access 157 (May 2011) [1] Current status Active StatCounter is a web traffic analysis tool.

LLC. References [1] http:/ / www.TraceMyIP.org is a website analytics and visitor statistics service offered by TraceMyIP.org Developer(s) TraceMyIP. TraceMyIP.org [1] TraceMyIP. Type License Website Website analytics. org . LLC.org 74 TraceMyIP.org TraceMyIP. Website statistics Proprietary TraceMyIP.

dropping (along with the rest of the Unica products) the Affinium brand. . com/ Products/ Open. NetInsight is from the same family of tools as Unica NetTracker.Unica NetInsight 75 Unica NetInsight Unica NetInsight Developer(s) Stable release Unica Corporation 8. unica. transform. "Unica Ships Affinium NetInsight" (http:/ / www. "Unica Web Analytics" (http:/ / www. History Unica Corporation acquires Sane Solutions [3] and the NetTracker software that becomes Affinium NetInsight. "Page Tags and Log Files" (http:/ / netinsight. unica. . com/ news/ pr. . transform. com/ Products/ Open. htm).com [1] Unica NetInsight is a web analytics application that utilises an Extract. load process can read log files in virtually any format. . com/ products/ enterprise-web-analytics. cfm). . cfm). unica. load methodology[2] to populate a database that can then be queried using a browser-based interface. unica. "Open Data Warehouse" (http:/ / netinsight. MySQL. streaming media servers and FTP servers. unica.[4] at version 7. proxy servers. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. cfm?id=239).0.unica. cfm).0 [5] Technology The NetInsight Extract. Affinium NetInsight was first released in June 2006.Open and Integrated" (http:/ / netinsight. com/ Products/ Tags_and_Logs. including logs from web servers. cfm?id=206). As well as processing normal server log files NetInsight can use log files derived from page tags to replace or augment log file data[6] . unica. NetInsight stores its processed log files in a database such as Oracle database.0 / September 2009 Operating system Cross-platform Type License Website Web analytics proprietary www. Microsoft SQL Server. The current version as of September 2009 is 8. com/ "Affinium NetInsight . . unica. With the release of version 8. "Unica Completes Acquisition of Sane Solutions" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ pr. .0 Affinium NetInsight has been renamed to Unica NetInsight. IBM DB2 or the Netezza appliance [7] .

com/ products/ enterprise-web-analytics.0 Unica announce end-of-life and end-of-support on December 31st. 2011. Technology NetTracker processes log files in virtually any format using a custom log definition.com/products/Editions. As well as processing log files NetTracker can use page tag data to augment log file data. sclanalytics.sclanalytics. htm http:/ / www.1. streaming media servers and FTP servers. The current version as of December 2006 is 7.com/2007/03/26/ understanding-funnel-reports/) • Unica NetInsight User Group (http://netinsight. proxy servers.ning. External links • • • • Unica Web Analytics Example Reports of Unica NetTracker's Proxy & Firewall Logfile Analysis [2] NetTracker ROI Calculator [3] Understanding Funnel Reports in NetTracker [4] [1] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. History Unica NetTracker was first released in 1996 by Sane Solutions which was sold to Unica Corporation. com/ resources/ howto/ proxy http:/ / www. unica.com/) Unica NetTracker Unica NetTracker is a web analytics application that processes web log files.com/info/web-analytics-roi-calculator) • Understanding Funnel Reports in NetTracker (http://www. com/ 2007/ 03/ 26/ understanding-funnel-reports/ . sclanalytics.cfm) • How To Use Affinium NetInsight Web Analytics to Improve Online Marketing Campaigns (http://www.com/resources/howto/onlinemarketing) • Affinium NetInsight ROI Calculator (http://www. NetTracker stores its processed log files in an internal database which is based upon SQLite. It looks like it's going to be replaced by NetInsight. webanalyticmatt. sclanalytics.Unica NetInsight 76 External links • Unica Web Analytics (http://netinsight.webanalyticmatt. com/ info/ web-analytics-roi-calculator http:/ / www.unica. Logs can be processed from web servers.

Since an increasing percentage of people in the United States (at least) now have access to a computer at home and at work or school.[1] Unique users is a common measurement of the popularity of a website. the website checks for the existence of a particular cookie. However. and measured over a standard period of time. The term "unique visitor" may be used instead of "unique user" but both terms have essentially the same meaning (see below). Sites may use User Agent. then 1) Cookie Flushing will cause Unique User numbers to be inflated. IP address and/or User Agent String may be used as a proxy for a unique identifier placed in a cookie. the website will create a cookie. for example. When cookies are used to track Unique Users. a unique user (UU) is "An IP address plus a further identifier. for those wishing to impress advertisers or investors.g. time. Then another increasing fraction of people regularly delete cookies from their machines—presumably both at home and at work. When a browser visits a website. often quoted to potential advertisers or investors. one may have to divide the reported total of unique users in half. Greg Harmon of Belden Research says "may overstate" is a gross understatement. . Cookie and/or Registration ID.[2] Understanding Unique users numbers Similar to the TURF (Total Unduplicated Reach and Frequency) metric often used in television. If the cookie is present. so that smaller group of people visits much more often and looks at more pages than the raw numbers would suggest. When calculating movement of unique users through conversion funnel the same time period must be used at every step. one cannot extrapolate the number of weekly Unique Users (only that the Unique User count for the week is between 100 and 700). A Unique User metric is only valid for its given set of dimensions e. 2) Browsers set to not accept cookies will be ignored. Remember. which people might typically visit more than once a day to keep up with breaking news. Unique Users is a measure of the distribution of content to a number of distinct consumers. the reported number of sessions or visits and pageviews are probably more accurate. A common mistake in using Unique User numbers is not adding Unique User numbers across the same different dimensions. If the cookie is not present. the cookie value is captured. not a person. this definition may overstate or understate the real number of individual users concerned. On the plus side. For example a website may have 100 unique users on each day (day being the dimension) of a particular week. Limitations of Unique User Numbers Unique User counts for websites are typically counted by using cookies." Note that where users are not allocated IP addresses dynamically (for example by dial-up Internet service providers). the computer is identified by a "cookie" which is most often specific to an individual browser on that computer. it's just an identifier of a computer. This means that for a typical news site. typically a month. And usually. browsers. Unique Visitor A unique visitor has the same general meaning as unique user and is simply an alternative title for the statistic. and yet another large fraction use more than one browser on each of their machines. the reported unique users might overstate the number of different people by a factor of four. With only this data.Unique user 77 Unique user According to IFABC Global Web Standards. radio and newspaper analyses.

that use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) which can provide their customers with a different IP addresses for each request they make from a site. com/ index. And both companies lack the capacity to measure total international audiences. This statistic is relevant to site publishers and advertisers as a measure of a site's true audience size. There are also Internet Service Providers (ISP). Many log file analysis products also use a proxy for Unique Visitors in which they count multiple visitors from the same IP Address if they don't visit the site within the same 30-minute window. thereby causing the IP address proxy to overcount Unique Users. counting each visitor only once in the time frame of the report. uk. and checking for the cookie on each Visitor's computer each time they visit. Advertisers study their data .Unique user 78 Notes [1] Jargon buster . but many of the users that share a single IP address may also use the same browser. Nielsen Online. html) [2] Belden Associates (http:/ / beldenassociates. Average Sessions Per Unique Visitor is equivalent to "Frequency" used in other media. thereby making one visitor look like many. This statistic is a poor measure as it is distorted by two main factors: 1.including a Web site's total visitors or page views and time spent on the site—to try to determine which sites are popular among particular demographic groups or in certain topic areas. They typically compare those data with a Web site's own figures. when trying to decide how to spend their online ad dollars. grb. such as AOL and cable modem providers. Calculation The number of Total Visits to a site divided by Unique Visitors results in the derived statistic "Average Sessions Per Unique Visitor" which tells a publisher how many times each Unique Visitor came to their site on average in the time frame of the report. investing in . Because they use panels of Web users to gather data and then extrapolate. equivalent to the term "Reach" used in other media. 0. the results are estimates. Both Web-measurement companies have gaps in their research. The Unique Visitors statistic is most accurately measured in two ways with current technology: 1. by requiring all Visitors to log-in to the site. htm) Unique visitor A unique visitor is a statistic describing a unit of traffic to a website. which results in the IP address proxy undercounting Unique Visitors. Tracking the visitor's UserAgent (browser identification information) in addition to the IP address can help mitigate this. most only do this after a timeout period when they run out of available IP addresses. Accuracy The science of tracking Internet usage is still far from perfect. or 2. thereby capturing the identity of each Visitor on each visit.Graduate Recruitment Bureau (http:/ / www. such as news or sports. 2. This statistic results in a higher number than counting unique IP addresses. Marketers rely heavily on comScore and the other major Web-measurement company. com/ 263. The companies are trying to address those shortcomings by looking for ways to increase the size and depth of their panels. writing the cookie ID to a database. Some log file analysis software products calculate a proxy for Unique Visitors by counting the number of visitors from unique IP addresses. by placing a cookie on each Visitor's computer. but is not equivalent to Unique Visitors as there is no guarantee that a visitor from the same IP Address outside the 30-minute window is a different visitor than a previous Visitor within the window. Many consumers access the internet from networks that allow them to share a single IP address. However.

org/resource/resmgr/ PDF_standards/WebAnalyticsDefinitionsVol1. To complicate matters. wsj.[1] 79 References [1] http:/ / online.ca/visitors.johnsankey. which is owned by the audience-measurement firm Nielsen. disparities between comScore and Nielsen data are common. Nielsen Online.html) • Web Analytics Association Definitions (http://www. also is trying to combine its Web research with usage data from other media. html External links • Visitor Estimation from Site Access Logs (http://www.webanalyticsassociation.Unique visitor technology and expanding overseas.pdf) . com/ article/ SB120874282224730191. as the two companies use different methodologies to measure their audience panels. such as mobile-phone and television measures.

5 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics. blogspot.html) Official Urchin Software website (http://www. google.com/products/urchin-6-software/demo/) Resources for Urchin Customers (http://www.a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [4] Urchin 6 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics.urchintools. com/ urchin/ features.advanced-web-metrics. Urchin software can be run in two different data collection modes.com/urchin/index.000 / September 13. log file analyser or hybrid.com/) Official List of Urchin Software Resellers (http://www. advanced-web-metrics. In April 2008.com/blog/2007/10/16/what-is-urchin/) . As a log file analyser. Urchin processes web server log files in a variety of log file formats. Urchin has become one of the more popular solutions for website traffic analysis. html) [5] Urchin 6. blogspot. particularly with ISPs and web hosting providers. Urchin is used to analyze web server log file content and display the traffic information on that website based upon the log data. html) [7] Urchin 7 Key features (http:/ / www. The result is more accurate web visitor data. new UI and event tracking among other features. google. blogspot.5. html [2] Hosted v software v hybrid web analytics tools (http:/ / www.blog article Back up your Google Analytics data locally (http://www. com/ 2010/ 09/ urchin-7-64-bit-released. com/ urchin/ index.com/blog/2007/10/17/ backup-your-ga-data-locally/) . com/ blog/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ hosted-v-software-v-hybrid-tools/ ) blog article [3] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www. While Urchin Software Corp. html) [6] Urchin 7 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics.[6] [7] References [1] http:/ / www. the Urchin 5 and prior analysis programs are still widely used and available today.google. Google released Urchin 6. Stable release 7. Google released the next version called Urchin 6. 2010 Type Website Web analytics Google Urchin [1] Urchin is a web statistics analysis program developed by Urchin Software Corporation.blog article • Differences between Urchin Software and Google Analytics (http://www. was acquired by Google in April 2005. com/ 2008/ 04/ graduation-day-for-website-optimizer. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) . Urchin combines page tags with log file data to eradicate the limitations of each data collection method in [2] [3] isolation.html) What is Urchin? (http://www.[5] Urchin 7 was released in September 2010 and includes 64-bit support.advanced-web-metrics.[4] In February 2009. As a hybrid. advanced-web-metrics.com/urchin6/ about-urchin6/urchin-vs-google-analytics) . This is largely due to its scalability in performance and pricing model.urchintools. integrating AdWords. com/ 2009/ 02/ urchin-65-is-now-available.google.com/urchin/usac.Urchin (software) 80 Urchin (software) Urchin Software Developer(s) Google Inc. html) External links • • • • • • Urchin 6 Webinar (http://www.actualmetrics. Custom file formats can also be defined.

base salaries cut. the Urchin On Demand (hosted) version of the product was renamed Google Analytics and re-launched on Google infrastructure. However. In the late 1990s and early 2000s. Sales steadily rose through spring 2005. and many large hosting companies were enlisted 2000. . Rackspace. but stability was achieved. the sales force was streamlined. when the company was acquired by Google. Urchin was acquired in April 2005. In its original incarnation. the company repaid its angel investors the money borrowed in 2001. and a strong incentive plan enacted. over the next year. In 2003. In April 2005. Cable & Wireless. California. In August 2004 at the Search Engine Strategies trade show in San Jose. An office was opened in Tokyo and employment reached approximately 40 total. the four principals of the company decided to jettison the hosting and design elements of the business and focus solely on the Urchin software. Among their major customers were Earthlink. about a possible partnership. In 2001. At the same time. In 1998. the principals decided to revamp all business models and develop an in-house customer relationship management (CRM) system to keep track of things much more tightly. After extensive re-engineering. Money was left on the table. the company prepared to take on its A-series venture capital round. The Site License Model Urchin founders Brett (right) and Scott Crosby (middle) with employees Paul Botto. Joahna (SLM) was launched. At that time. Verio. Corporate history Urchin was founded by Paul Muret and Scott Crosby in December 1995 in San Diego. In 2002. and friends. Urchin was profitable for its remaining time as an independent entity. In 2004. Quantified grew rapidly on the strength of both the software and large contracts secured by Giacomino (Jack) Ancone and Brett Crosby. which entailed a flat monthly rate of $5000 per Rocchio and Jason Senn at a trade show circa physical data center.Urchin Software Corporation 81 Urchin Software Corporation Urchin Software Corporation was a web analytics company based in Southern California. Quantified was forced to lay off approximately 15 employees. close the Tokyo office. the company changed its name to Urchin Software Corporation ("Urchin"). the company was called Web Depot. the service was again opened to the public and is currently the most widely used hosted web analytics system. where it was offered for free. after the "Quantified" name failed to catch on meaningfully. the company was purchased by Google. Quantified then took a round of angel funding from various family members. Due to strong demand. Urchin was approached by representatives of Google Inc. Honda had standardized on it. and take out a loan from the original investors. a small venture capital firm called Green Thumb Ventures. and became essentially debt-free. which had become fairly popular for its speed and efficiency at processing large web server log files. the service experienced overloading and new accounts were restricted for a number of months. including the two largest private employers in the area Sharp Healthcare and Solar Turbines. which was to be led by InnoCal Ventures and JMI Ventures. and EarthLink had just become a customer. Approximately 6 months after the acquisition. the September 11 attacks and other factors caused the funding to collapse. and built/hosted websites for various mostly San Diego companies. The funding round came to approximately $1 million. and the ill-fated Winstar.

New Business Development at Google. He is now a Staff Software Engineer at Google. Partner Manager and Head of Channel Sales. He is now a Senior Product Marketing Manager at Google. • Jonathon Vance. Sales Team/Bus Dev Lead. • Bill Rhodes. Vice President of Business Development and later Vice President of Marketing. at Google. Paul Muret in 2001. actualmetrics. Analytics. He left Google in August 2005 to start Actual Metrics [1]. • Doug Silver. He is now a Software Engineer at Google. Brett Crosby. co-Engineering Lead. Other employees included: • • • • Paul Botto. Jason Senn. Senior Account Executive. He is now an Enterprise Business Development Manager at Google. • Brett Crosby. head of internal systems. He is now a Manager in Site Reliability Engineering at Google. President and later Vice President of Sales. most notably customer relationship management. Systems Administrator. • Jack Ancone. Chief Financial Officer then later Vice President of Corporate Development. He is now a Systems Administrator at Google. • Bartholomew Fromm. • Mike Chipman. com .Urchin Software Corporation 82 Principals and key personnel Co-founders: • Scott Crosby. He is now a Software Engineer at Google. who wrote the first version of the Urchin software in 1997 and was Chief Executive Officer of the company. Jack Ancone. He is now a Director of Engineering for Google. • Paul Muret. Software Engineer. Chief Integration Engineer. Hui-Sok "Nathan" Moon. He is now the VP of Sales at Brickfish. He is now Enterprise Channel Development Manager. References [1] http:/ / www. Engineering Lead. Rolf Schreiber. He left Google in April 2008 to become Director of Development for Actual Metrics [1]. He is now Principal. Urchin co-founders Scott Crosby.

Cookies are used by search engines to maintain a history of a user’s search activity. Usage data Usage data is the most effective way of evaluating the true relevancy and value of a website. R. relevant valuable sites get promoted while irrelevant sites get demoted. And the best way to establish relevance to users is to know how they use web sites. chances are that it wasn’t relevant to their query in the first place. Search engines want their results to be highly relevant to web users to make sure that web users keep returning to the search engine for future searches.(2009) eMarketing: The Essential Guide to Online Marketing. if a user repeatedly visits a web site and spends a long time on the site. Quirk eMarketing (Pty) Ltd. When it comes to search engines. The specifying ranges or types of data let you limit the web log data that is analyzed. if users arrive on a web site and go back immediately (high bounce rate). References • Stokes. pp 86 Visit filter Visit filters which are used by Web log analysis software include or exclude all the data in a visit session. letting you focus on relevant activity. there is a high likelihood that it is extremely relevant. For example. Second Edition.Usage analysis 83 Usage analysis Usage analysis is any technique for understanding the usage statistics of something. . However. for example the web statistics of a website.

PHP) • PEAR classes support Visitlab is inactive now Visitlab is no more active. • Remote Monitor Alerts: Webmasters are keen to know about the speed of the website page loading. The system is designed to track occurrences of such threats. It tracks a visitor from the time he/she enters a domain until he/she leaves. Presently in a Free Beta stage. it is developed using open-source resources. com [2] http:/ / www. The user management utility enables the website administrator to set access permissions for other users from the same organisation to different responsibilities of the account. html . VisitLab believes in the idea of 'infinite scalability' and the project developers have designed the system with hardware scalability and API stability as the two guiding philosophies. VisitLab's keyphrase manager program enables the website marketing team to effortlessly analyse the performance of each keyphrase. MySQL. Features • Click Fraud Analysis and Alert System: Online pay-per-click advertisers struggle with the threat of so-called Click fraud. showing each page visited and duration of stay. The system does a complete clickpath analysis. • Account Management: Visitlab also includes an account management framework. wired. • Keyphrase Manager: Most visitors to a website end up following a link from a SERP for a specific keyphrase. Conversely. Technology Platform • LAMP (Linux. it is also possible to add an external user with read-only access to each component of the account. 01/ fraud. They want to know if it meets some acceptable level and want to be alerted in case it falls below the set threshold. Apache. com/ wired/ archive/ 14. By setting preferences the advertiser can choose to receive email alerts about possible 'click-fraud'. External links • VisitLab [1] homepage [2] • | Interview with CEO Vikas Kedia References [1] http:/ / www. visitlab.VisitLab 84 VisitLab VisitLab is a Web analytics system with a rich user management framework. • Visitor Experience Analysis: A complete analysis of each visitor who has visited a website.

or tall and narrow) hence the reference to banners. thehindubusinessline. SEC and location. in/ 2010/ 11/ 02/ stories/ 2010110251500900. JPEG. Affiliates earn money usually on a CPC (cost per click) basis. JavaScript program or multimedia object employing technologies such as Java. Behavior is often tracked through the use of a click tag. the affiliate earns money. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser. the viewer is directed to the website advertised in the banner. design for an Indian context that tracks computers.[2] This panel-based approach uses metering technology. For every unique user click on the ad. such as a newspaper article or an opinion piece. banners are delivered by a central ad server. or video to maximize presence. This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page.[1] WAM uses audience measurement and is a continuous tracking panel study that provides cross sectional data on Internet usage segmented by gender. resulting in a revshare system and higher quality ad placement. . These images are usually placed on web pages that have interesting content. the advertiser sends the content provider some small amount of money (usually around five to ten US cents). When the Typical web banner.e. Web banners function the same way as traditional advertisements are intended to function: notifying consumers of the product or service and presenting reasons why the consumer should choose the product in question. The system. sized 468×60 pixels. often employing animation. This event is known as an "impression". htm [2] http:/ / www. with Comscore and Vizisense being IMRB's key competitors.Web audience measurement 85 Web audience measurement Web Audience Measurement (WAM) is an audience measurement and website analytics tool that measures Internet usage in India. This payback system is often how the content provider is able to pay for the Internet access to supply the content in the first place. sound. either wide and short. PNG). reach and frequency of Internet usage. Web Rating Points factor multiple measures of Internet usage to provide a more comprehensive picture to web advertisers and attempts to standardize web analytics in India. References [1] http:/ / www. When the advertiser scans their logfiles and detects that a web user has visited the advertiser's site from the content site by clicking on the banner ad. This event is known as a "click through". viewer clicks on the banner. The web banner is displayed when a web page that references the banner is loaded into a web browser. a joint effort of IMRB International and Internet and Mobile Association of India surveys over 6000 individuals across 8 metropolitan centers in India and tracks a variety of metrics such as time-on-site. The web analytics market in India is currently fragmented. The advertisement is constructed from an image (GIF. exposure. In many cases. Usually though. advertisers use ad networks to serve their advertisements. Shockwave or Flash. although web banners differ in that the results for advertisement campaigns may be monitored real-time and may be targeted to the viewer's interests. medianama. Images are usually in a high-aspect ratio shape (i. com/ 2010/ 11/ 223-part-1-how-imrbs-web-audience-measurement-tracks-information/ Web banner A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web.

a former media buyer with San Francisco advertising agency Hal Riney & Partners. a now defunct law firm with a Silicon Valley office. . HotWired was the first web site to sell banner ads in large quantities to a wide range of major corporate advertisers.[4] In May 1994. and first introduced the concept of a clickable/trackable ad. The first clickable web ad (which later came to be known by the term "banner ad") was sold by Global Network Navigator (GNN) in 1993 to Heller.[3] Another source also credits Hotwired and October 1994. introduced by GoTo. relies heavily on tracking ad response rather than impressions. Prodigy used online advertising first to promote Sears products in the 1980s. or AdThwart for Google Chrome and ie7pro for Internet Explorer. spearheaded the sales effort for the company.com (later Overture. (Of course. Prodigy was unable to capitalize on any of its first mover advantage in online advertising. Without attracting attention it would provide no revenue for the advertiser or for the content provider.Web banner Many web surfers regard these advertisements as highly annoying because they distract from a web page's actual content or waste bandwidth. the purpose of the banner ad is to attract attention and many advertisers try to get attention to the advert by making them annoying. for example Adblock Plus for Mozilla Firefox. such as Privoxy. Another way of avoiding banners is to use a proxy server that blocks them. but has Coors' "Zima" campaign as the first web banner. The new online advertising model that emerged in the early years of the 21st century. Web browsers may also have extensions available which block banners. The first web banner sold by HotWired was paid for by AT&T. and then other advertisers. 86 History The pioneer of online advertising was Prodigy. 1994. banner ads were valued and sold based on the number of impressions they generated. Rick Boyce. In spite of this prediction. a company owned by IBM and Sears at the time. Ken McCarthy mentored Boyce in his transition from traditional to online advertising. and was put online on October 27. [1] GNN was the first commercially supported web publication and one of the very first web sites ever. Andrew Anker was HotWired's first CEO. He stated that he believed that only a direct response model—in which the return on investment of individual ads was measured—would prove sustainable over the long run for online advertising. then Yahoo and mass marketed by Google's AdWords program). one of Prodigy's direct competitors. Ehrman.[2] HotWired coined the term "banner ad" and was the first company to provide click through rate reports to its customers. including AOL. This approach to banner ad sales proved successful and provided the economic foundation for the web industry from the period of 1994 to 2000 until the market for banner ads "crashed" and there was a radical revaluation of their value. White and McAuliffe.) Newer web browsers often include options to disable pop-ups or block images from selected websites.

Note: This illustration is reduced in size. Name Width / px Height / px Aspect ratio Rectangles and Pop-Ups Medium Rectangle 300 Square Pop-Up Vertical Rectangle Large Rectangle Rectangle 3:1 Rectangle Pop-Under 250 240 336 180 300 720 250 250 400 280 150 100 300 1. See actual sizes [6] .2 3 2.09 .4 Banners and Buttons Full banner Half banner Micro bar Button 1 Button 2 Vertical banner Square button Leaderboard 468 234 88 120 120 120 125 728 60 60 31 90 60 240 125 90 7. Sizes in bold are part of the IAB's Universal Ad Package.2 1 1.8 3.33 2 2 1 8. they are:[5] IAB standard ad sizes.67 1.84 1.9 2.Web banner 87 Standard sizes Ad sizes have been standardized to some extent by the IAB.2 1.

com/ digitalnext/ post?article_id=139964 Happy Birthday. but the log files can alternatively be parsed to a database and reports generated on demand. svg Web log analysis software Web log analysis software (also called a web log analyzer) is a simple kind of Web analytics software that parses a log file from a web server. asp). net/ standards/ adunits.Web banner Skyscrapers Wide skyscraper Skyscraper Half page ad 160 120 300 600 600 600 3. Merrill R. and based on the values contained in the log file. and last authenticated visits Days of week and rush hours Domains/countries of host's visitors Hosts list Number total pageviews Most viewed. John Wiley & Sons. . Usually reports are generated from the log files immediately. wikimedia. Interactive Advertising Bureau. (1997). ISBN 1-59059-721-4 [5] "Ad Unit Guidelines" (http:/ / www. Robert H. . org/ wikipedia/ commons/ 4/ 43/ Standard_web_banner_ad_sizes. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Heller_Ehrman [2] Reid.. Chapter Seven: 'Hotwired Publishing on the Web' (pp 300-308) ISBN 0471171875 [3] http:/ / adage. Common Indicators • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Number of visits and number of unique visitors Visits duration and last visits Authenticated users. sfgate. and how a web server is visited. [6] http:/ / upload. key phrases and keywords used to find the analyzed web site HTTP errors Some of the log analyzers also report on who's on the site. iab. derives indicators about who. Features supported by log analysis packages may include "hit filters". visit time and page navigation. Architects of the Web: 1. Apress.000 Days that Built the Future of Business. when.75 5 2 88 References [1] http:/ / articles. Digital Advertising! [4] Chapman. In search of stupidity: over 20 years of high-tech marketing disasters (2nd Edition) . com/ 2008-09-26/ business/ 17158078_1_san-francisco-s-heller-ehrman-legal-industry-same-sex-marriages http:/ / en. entry and exit pages Files type OS used Browsers used Robots HTTP referrer Search engines. which use pattern matching to examine selected log data. conversion tracking.

It is a large portion of Internet traffic. yahoo. A page view is generated when a visitor requests any page within the web site – a visitor will always generate at least one page view (the main page) but could generate many more. Sites also often aim to increase their web traffic through inclusion on search engines and through Search engine optimization. but images are also files. Measuring Web Traffic Web traffic is measured to see the popularity of web sites and individual pages or sections within a site. The page itself is Example graph of web traffic at Wikipedia in considered a file. it especially refers to the measurement of which aspects of the website work towards the business objectives of Internet marketing initiatives. pay for screen space on the site. Some companies offer advertising schemes that. Web traffic is also sometimes measured by packet sniffing and thus gaining random samples of traffic data from which to extrapolate information about web traffic as a whole across total Internet usage. such as one specific page being viewed mostly by people in a particular country. There are many ways to monitor this traffic and the gathered data is used to help structure sites. Coremetrics. for example. in return for increased web traffic (visitors).Web log analysis software 89 External links • Log Analysis category [6] at Open Directory Project • Log Analysis Tools category [1] at Yahoo Directory [2] References [1] http:/ / dir. A hit is generated when any file is served. Sites monitor the incoming and outgoing traffic to see which parts or pages of their site are popular and if there are any apparent trends. com/ Business_and_Economy/ Business_to_Business/ Communications_and_Networking/ Internet_and_World_Wide_Web/ Network_Management/ Traffic_Management/ Log_Analysis_Tools/ Titles/ [2] http:/ / dir. which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase. This is determined by the number of visitors and the number of pages they visit. thus a page with 5 images December 2004 could generate 6 hits (the 5 images and the page itself). The following types of information are often collated when monitoring web traffic: • The number of visitors. com Web traffic Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a web site. . Notable vendors of web analytics software and services include: Webtrends. highlight security problems or indicate a potential lack of bandwidth — not all web traffic is welcome. Omniture. Analyzing Web Traffics Web analytics is the measurement of the behavior of visitors to a website. yahoo. an automatically generated list of all the pages served. and Google Analytics. In a commercial context. Tracking applications external to the web site can record traffic by inserting a small piece of HTML code in every page of the web site. Web traffic can be analyzed by viewing the traffic statistics found in the web server log file.

. • Average page duration – how long a page is viewed for. Web sites like Alexa Internet produce traffic rankings and statistics based on those people who access the sites while using the Alexa toolbar. President George W. The re-election campaign site for U. • Domain classes – all levels of the IP Addressing information required to deliver Webpages and content. The host can track the (apparent) source of the links and determine which sites are generating the most traffic for a particular page. the better it is for your company. 90 Controlling web traffic The amount of traffic seen by a web site is a measure of its popularity. Some site administrators have chosen to block their page to specific traffic.S. It is also possible to increase (or. in some cases decrease) the popularity of a site and the number of people that visit it. broken links or the exit pages may have a popular external link • Top paths – a path is the sequence of pages viewed by visitors from entry to exit.S. On Apache HTTP servers. Limiting access It is sometimes important to protect some parts of a site by password. The difficulty with this is that it's not looking at the complete traffic picture for a site. such as by geographic location. allowing only authorized people to visit particular sections or pages. this is accomplished by the limitipconn module and others. As a rule the more time they spend the more they're interested in your company and are more prone to contact. possibly because they like it or find it useful. The more pages viewed. By analysing the statistics of visitors it is possible to see shortcomings of the site and look to improve those areas. on 25 October 2004 after a reported attack on the site. but their reports are available only by subscription. • Average visit duration – the total length of a user's visit.com [1]) was blocked to all internet users outside of the U.Web traffic • The average number of page views per visitor – a high number would indicate that the average visitors go deep inside the site. Bush (GeorgeWBush. with the top paths identifying the way most customers go through the site • Referrers. • Busy times – the most popular viewing time of the site would show when would be the best time to do promotional campaigns and when would be the most ideal to perform maintenance • Most requested pages – the most popular pages • Most requested entry pages – the entry page is the first page viewed by a visitor and shows which are the pages most attracting visitors • Most requested exit pages – the most requested exit pages could help find bad pages. Large sites usually hire the services of companies like Nielsen NetRatings.[2] It is also possible to limit access to a web server both based on the number of connections and by the bandwidth expended by each connection.

Web traffic 91 Increase web site traffic Web traffic can be increased by placement of a site in search engines and purchase of advertising. Large scale web sites with numerous servers can often cope with the traffic required and it is more likely that smaller services are affected by traffic overload. for example. Then. As opposed to pay-per-click. Even having hundreds or thousands of servers working on the spidering of pages. getting proper placement on search engines is as important as the web site itself. In most cases they also index the web page header (meta tag) and a certain amount of the text of the page. If a web page is not listed in the first pages of any search. flooding the site with more requests than it could cope with. This is caused by more file requests going to the server than it can handle and may be an intentional attack on the site or simply caused by over-popularity. This indicates that it is important to appear in the top results. including bulk e-mail. Google. In most cases the best way to increase web traffic is to register it with the major search engines. Very few people go past the first page. as search engines work by "crawling" registered web sites. they index the page URL and the page title. Because of the huge amount of information available on the web. Crawlers start at the registered home page. the odds of someone finding it diminishes greatly (especially if there is other competition on the first page). search engines. it is becoming common for webmasters to get approached by "boiler-room" companies with no real knowledge of how to get results. In every case. Organic traffic Web traffic which comes from unpaid listing at search engines or directories is commonly known as "organic" traffic. and usually follow the hyperlinks it finds. Crawlers start gathering information about those pages and storing it and indexing it in the search engine database. search engine marketing is usually paid monthly or annually. the search engine looks into the database and produces the results. However. According to some studies . as of the end of 2004 had indexed over eight billion pages. These crawling programs (crawlers) are also known as "spiders" or "robots". a complete reindexing takes its time. and award sites. to get to pages inside the web site (internal links). and the percentage that go to subsequent pages is substantially lower. Web traffic can also be increased by purchasing non-internet based advertising. That is why some pages recently updated in certain web sites are not immediately found when doing searches on search engines. and in-page advertisements. Usually. crawlers might take days. and most search engine companies cannot promise specific results for what is paid to them. . Denial of service attacks Denial-of-service attacks (DoS attacks) have forced web sites to close after a malicious attack. Viruses have also been used to co-ordinate large scale distributed denial-of-service attacks. when a search engine user looks for a particular word or phrase. Traffic overload Too much web traffic can dramatically slow down or even prevent all access to a web site. guides (such as yellow pages and restaurant guides). Consequently. usually sorted by relevance according to the search engine algorithms. weeks or months to complete review and index all the pages they find. pop-up ads. the top organic result gets most of the clicks from web users. Organic traffic can be generated or increased by including the web site in directories. Each subsequent result gets between 30% and 60% of the clicks of the previous one. There are some companies which specialize in search engine marketing. Just registering does not guarantee traffic. the top result gets between 5% and 10% of the clicks.

Andrei. 2007. co.00. Sharon (17 June 2002).[1] WebSideStory was headquartered in San Diego. . These sites were the only ones showing huge amount of traffic that could be converted into advertising revenue.com – retrieved 1 January 2005 • Ward. The company went public on September 28. netcraft. com/ archives/ 2004/ 10/ 26/ bush_campaign_web_site_rejects_nonus_visitors. was acquired by Omniture (NASDAQ: OMTR) for $394 million. [3] http:/ / www-106. Inc. California. "The Dangers of Having a Good Idea" [5] – A BBC News [6] look at the case of freelance journalist Glenn Fleishman after his site was linked to from MacCentral – retrieved 7 July 2005 LINK NO LONGER WORKS Footnotes [1] http:/ / www. bbc. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 2995343.10801. computerworld. A news item in the media. large brick and mortar businesses decided to use WebSideStory's Hitbox on their growing Internet entities. Mark (5 May 2003). Once WebSideStory was financially sound. "Bush Campaign Web Site Rejects Non-US Visitors" (http:/ / news. html). com [2] Miller. "Measuring Web traffic" [3] at IBM – retrieved 1 January 2005 • Machlis. com/ developerworks/ web/ library/ wa-mwt1/ [4] http:/ / www. Inc. This time. As the rest of the web developed. Scott & Hartrick. com/ archive/ 2003/ 05/ 08/ 20030508e-b09. stm WebSideStory WebSideStory.. a quickly propagating email. Tom (1 March 2001).71989. WebSideStory decided then to offer a limited version for FREE in exchange for a small banner on each site they monitored traffic for. In the late 1999. they quickly started to advertise banners on their other site lists. ibm. it stopped providing its free version of the Hitbox and its associated advertising revenues. the company rebranded itself as Visual Sciences. html [6] http:/ / news. The company went public and . On May 9. Websidestory never received traditional angel and VC investments but made real money and became instantly profitable by displaying banners on their top adult web site list. Rich (2004-10-26). georgewbush. Surfers who clicked on the banner would be directed to a top list of web sites owned by WebSideStory. Inc. or a link from a popular site may cause such a boost in visitors (sometimes called Slashdot effect) References • Malacinski. 2004 (NASDAQ: WSSI). 1996 as a website traffic analysis tool and links directory to market the web analytics product Hitbox and HBX. "Measuring Web Site Traffic" [4] at ComputerWorld. Business Model History WebSideStory was hoping to sell the service for a small monthly amount of money but most web site owners refused to pay anything back then.Web traffic 92 Sudden popularity A sudden burst of publicity may accidentally cause a web traffic overload. Dominick. this is the start of the HBX product line. thisdayonline. they offered to pay in exchange of more in depth statistics and refused to display the traditional Hitbox banner. com/ managementtopics/ ebusiness/ story/ 0. founded by Blaise Barrelet on September 10. In January 2008 Visual Sciences. Unlike all other Internet startups from the late 90s. html [5] http:/ / www.

google. known as Multivariate testing such as Headings. com/ websiteoptimizer/ ).[1] Google Website Optimizer can test any element that exists as HTML code on a page including calls to action. it uses the Google analytics scripts.WebSideStory eventually purchased Visual Sciences and took their name. Google Website Optimizer allows webmasters to test entire pages. . product reviews.omniture. This tool is part of Google Analytics.com/websiteoptimizer/) • Open Source Google Website Optimizer Extension for Joomla (http://www. com/ press/ 417) External links • WebSideStory goes public (http://www.html) • Omniture (http://www.com/doc/1G1-123331863. It can be used at multiple stage in the conversion funnel. images or body copy. product images.com/ google-website-optimizer-joomla) . As it is part of Google Analytics. known as A/B testing or page elements. point of action assurances.pearl-group. fonts. product copy. Retrieved 2010-12-14.google. External links • Google website optimizer (http://services. though accessed through a different user interface. Google. headlines. Visual Sciences was acquired by Omniture in 2007 and as of October 2009 Omniture was acquired by Adobe Systems Incorporated. 93 References [1] Omniture Press Detail: Omniture to Acquire Visual Sciences (http:/ / www. and forms. References [1] "Website Optimizer" (http:/ / www. omniture.highbeam.com/) Google Website Optimizer Google Website Optimizer is a free website optimization tool that helps online marketers and webmasters increase visitor conversion rates and overall visitor satisfaction by continually testing different combinations of website content.

the products can be classified into: Data Captured Client/Server Side Data Data Warehouse Usability Testing Data User behavioural Data Webtrends Solution Offerings Webtrends Analytics. It has a large number of configuration parameters.000 large and small firms. U. On Demand & On Premises Visitors Data Mart. direct mail campaign data. CEO Ads. Visitor Data Mart. It provides web analytics and other software solutions related to marketing intelligence. Based on data captured. DW Webtrends Webtrends Optimize Webtrends Social Measurement. or other custom metrics as needed. Apps. Working Technology There are two main technological approaches to collecting the data. The software presents these results through a web based graphic user interface. This insight.[2] Products Webtrends is a Web analytics suite available in both software and software as a service models. The report presentation interface is highly configurable. sales and lead information. which collects and presents information about user behavior on web sites as well as mobile devices running various operating systems. United States. Analytics. combined with analysis and multi-dimensional reporting. e-mail response rates. gives enterprise organizations the ability to . and can present a large variety of data and analyses on many different kinds of web sites. and requires the administrator to understand HTML. user performance data such as click heat mapping. • Page Tagging . Optimize www.Reads the log files in which the web server records all its transactions.Webtrends 94 Webtrends Webtrends Type Industry Founded Private Web Analytics 1993 Headquarters Portland.uses JavaScript on each page to notify a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. The company was founded in 1993 and now serves more than 10. For example. • Log File Analysis .com [1] Webtrends is a private company headquartered in Portland.webtrends.S. Oregon. other data sources may also be added to augment the data. Oregon. Key people Products Website Alex Yoder. JavaScript and other Web technologies in detail. such as CRM or demographics to build insight into a person over time. allowing the administrator to select specific information to present. Webtrends Apps Marketing Channel Data Webtrends Ads In addition. Webtrends Visitor Data Mart at the core of this tool is comprehensive "Interest Profile" that combines a person's online behavior with offline customer data.

2006-12-05. Retrieved 2007-11-03. .[3] In 1999 they took it public. marketingvox. 2007. . jhtml?articleID=199700517). Retrieved 2009-07-03. later reports indicated the change signaled a long-term move. 2009.bizjournals. an automated optimization solution in online advertising. which includes its analytics and marketing warehouse products.[3] :) Acquisitions Webtrends acquired ClickShift. 2008-08-19. and targeting. webtrends. "Webtrends CEO gone" (http:/ / www. bizjournals.Webtrends answer questions that are critical to improving marketing ROI. . 2006-12-04. then sold it to Francisco Partners four years later for $94 million. [6] In August 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-21. in December 2006. 2009-07-02. [4] Earnshaw. [8] "Official Webtrends Company Blog . [9] "Webtrends Acquires Social Marketing Company Transpond. a maker of social microsites and applications that can be distributed over the web or Facebook.com/portland.bizjournals. webtrends.We acquired Widemile.[10] Both drivers and the cycling community reacted strongly to the ad. intelligententerprise.[11] The aim of the campaign was to demonstrate the ability of the company's Web analytics to track the resulting online commentary around the issue. Retrieved 2008-01-31. com/ portland/ stories/ 2007/ 10/ 29/ daily29. . MarketingVOX. Retrieved 2008-03-06. a provider of multivariate testing and targeting on July 30th. BtoB Online. com/ showArticle. dll/ article?AID=/ 20080819/ FREE/ 991465). [7] Webtrends acquired Seattle based Widemile. html). Retrieved 2008-02-07.[5] ClickShift's technology was integrated into Webtrends' Marketing Lab suite. Retrieved 2007-11-03.[4] Although there was initial speculation the company was to be quickly sold to its largest competitor. with strident opinion on both sides of the debate.bizjournals. Aliza (2007-11-01).1 billion in stock. .com/portland. The product was rebranded as Webtrends Apps at the time of the announcement.5 million. www. .com/portland. www. Aliza (2007-10-31). Phil (2007-05-21). [3] Earnshaw. a leader in multivariate testing. com/ commuting/ 2009/ 07/ new_max_ad_should_cyclists_pay. . btobonline.[3] In 2001 California company NetIQ bought Webtrends for $1. [10] "New full-train MAX ad asks: Should cyclists pay road tax?" (http:/ / blog. marketwire. bizjournals. Retrieved 2010-11-25. The ad asked. Glen Boyd and Eli Shapira founded the company in 1993. the product was relaunched as Webtrends Ad Director. [8] Webtrends acquired San Francisco based Transpond." (http:/ / blogs. The product was rebranded and relaunched as Webtrends Optimize the day the acquisition was made public. 95 Corporate history W. com/ archives/ 2006/ 12/ 05/ webtrends-buys-optimization-firm-clickshift/ ).[11] References [1] http:/ / www. com/ blog/ 2009/ 07/ 30/ we-acquired-widemile-a-leader-in-multivariate-testing-optimization-and-targeting/ )." (http:/ / www. . [5] "Webtrends Acquires ClickShift" (http:/ / www. Webtrends launched a transit ad campaign revolving around whether or not cyclists should pay a road tax. . com [2] Kemelor. "Put to the Test: Webtrends Analytics 8" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-11-25. [9] Controversy In 2009. [6] "Webtrends Buys Optimization Firm ClickShift" (http:/ / www. www. com/ press-release/ Webtrends-Acquires-Social-Marketing-Company-Transpond-1302371. The offering was re-branded as Webtrends Dynamic Search. Intelligent Enterprise. optimization. [7] "Webtrends appoints new president-CEO" (http:/ / www. raising $45.[3] The CEO plus three top vice presidents were asked to leave on October 31. com/ portland/ stories/ 2007/ 10/ 29/ daily39. . htm). "Webtrends sale not imminent" (http:/ / www. oregonlive. html). html). com/ apps/ pbcs. "Should Cyclists Pay A Road Tax?". com/ portland/ stories/ 2006/ 12/ 04/ daily2. bizjournals. html).

This information allows web teams to improve the website's navigation and content. 96 Win–loss analytics Win-loss analytics involves identifying and analyzing the reasons why a visitor to a website was or wasn't persuaded to engage in a desired action (conversion). ssf/ 2009/ 07/ ads_on_bike_road_tax_have_bike. it is much easier for marketers to collect data for analysis and evaluation in order to understand and demonstrate the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of their efforts and to make changes to improve them. and why they did or didn't convert. These tools provide a bird's eye view of a website's traffic. web analytics Web analytics tools have existed since the early days of the internet and are now ubiquitous. 2009). what products they were qualified for. marketing has been mostly concerned with targeting with the masses. The information that is gathered allows webmasters to make informed decisions about making changes in order to improve a website. where measurement of conversion has always been possible through sales data. identify individuals that are more likely to convert. In contrast. Mike (Thursday July 02. . html). Win-loss analytics tools track the individual perspectives of each visitor.Webtrends [11] Rogoway. With the internet. to improve marketing efforts History Determining why one person engaged in a desired action and another did not has long been a topic of interest in sales. and the results of marketing have traditionally been more difficult to accurately measure. oregonlive. Win-loss analytics vs. . com/ business/ index.com. uncovering who the visitor was. OregonLive. "Ads on bike tax have cyclists fuming" (http:/ / www. how well they were persuaded.

com/ GeekBrief on Woopra (http:/ / www. CEO Lorelle VanFossen. going on to say "what makes Woopra so special? Real Time". Chief Executive Officer. unlike the leading competitor. USA Key people Elie Khoury. Launch Woopra was unveiled as a closed beta at WordPress's WordCamp Dallas on March 29. washingtonpost. techcrunch.[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.com [1] Products Website Woopra (pronounced /ˈwuːprə/) is a web analytics service offered by iFusion Labs LLC that generates live detailed statistics about the visitors to a website. com/ 2008/ 03/ 30/ stats-junkies-get-another-fix-woopra/ ) Mashable on Woopra (http:/ / mashable. geekbrief. Chief Technology Officer and Co-Founder John Pozadzides. Chief Information Officer and Co-Founder Jad Younan. html) . com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 10/ 12/ AR2009101203088. 2008. tv/ introducing-woopra-youre-gonna-want-it) TechCrunch on Woopra (http:/ / www. Blog Editor and Community Manager Woopra Web Analytics woopra. Texas (2008) Headquarters . Google Analytics. com/ 2008/ 03/ 30/ woopra/ ) Woopra Opens Its Doors For Live Web Analytics (http:/ / www. As part of the launch a video of a live demonstration and an interview with CEO John Pozadzides conducted by Cali Lewis was published online. woopra. where 200 invitations were distributed to attendees.[2] [3] [4] Reception Washington Post calls Woopra an "impressive live tracking and analytics service". The service is provided in real-time using a desktop application.Woopra 97 Woopra Woopra iFusion Labs LLC Type Industry Founded Web Services Technology Dallas.

allowing advertisers to see how often ads were displayed and clicked for service-based ad rotation. The goals of ad rotation include: • Allow publishing sites to serve ads for multiple advertisers. the ad is selected on the server and the corresponding HTML markup is generated and then served. search. commonly provide features such as the following: • • • • image management display weighting to control the frequency and duration of individual ads reporting. known as ad rotators. The three most common approaches are server-side. Client-side ad rotation typically involves JavaScript of some sort (either straight client-side JavaScript or else AJAX calls to the server.logicaltips. they are typically the same format. Ad rotation software. video. management features such as color selection. Because the ads are placed in the same location. ad rotation can be accomplished in multiple ways. • Keep advertising "fresh".Ad rotation 98 Ad rotation Ad rotation is the practice of showing multiple advertisements in a single location on a web page. Service-based ad rotation is similar to client-side ad rotation in that it typically involves placing a small amount of JavaScript in the web page. channel selection (content. within a single page load. • For content-rich sites. References • Rotating Advertisements on Your Site: http://www. increase exposure to advertising by showing multiple ads per page load instead of just one. users are more likely to ignore it. If the ad never changes. Google's AdSense service is an example of service-based ad rotation.) and payment management Technical implementation Technically. or both. With server-side ad rotation. but the JavaScript calls against a third-party service that provides its own management interface for specifying ad delivery options. Ads may be rotated with each new page load. filtering competitor ads.com/LPMArticle. client-side and service-based.asp?ID=89 . etc.

Higher Quality Scores also result in PPC Ads appearing on earlier search pages.7% of online advertising spend in the UK[3] .” PPC Ads are triggered to appear on search engine pages when Users search with keywords which match those selected by the PPC Advertiser. less browsers”. and Google publishes its Overview of Optimizing Ad Text on its elearning centre. This has been commentated on by many in the marketing and advertising fraternity as evidence that PPC Ads now constitute an established part of the marketing mix. saying that “Ad text plays a crucial role in determining the success of your AdWords advertising [2] . PPC Ads make up the lion’s share of this market and some argue that its future growth will in part be fuelled by ATO becoming an ever more integral part of the writing of PPC Ads.Ad Text Optimization – What to Test (and When)? Dec 2010 [2] Google eLearning Centre 2011 [3] Internet Advertising Bureau . For Users the benefit of ATO is to make PPC Ads more relevant to their searches. which are measured by higher CTRs. leading to more sales and increased Return On Investment (ROI). reward more efficient PPC Ads with higher Quality Scores. According to Search Engine Journal.15 billion in 2009 representing 60. “AdWords text ads are small and in some ways unassuming – when you think about testing landing pages it’s obvious that there are elements that could make a big impact. When PPC Ads are clicked on they take the User through to a designated page on the advertiser’s website and a fee is paid to the search engine for the click. PPC Ads have come under the scrutiny of the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA). ATO can play a key role in increasing a PPC AD’s Quality Score. and search engines benefit by offering their user customers more efficient search experiences. search is now a significant advertising medium in its own right with the paid search market worth almost £2. that is “more buyers. At the heart of Ad Text Optimization (ATO) lies a specialist type of direct response copywriting which can be augmented by an Ad Text Optimization (ATO) algorithm that measures the response effectiveness of Ad Text copy.” ATO and SEO ATO in PPC advertising is viewed by many in marketing as the equivalent of SEO (Search Engine Optimization) for natural search in that they both improve the visibility of websites. For advertisers ATO is delivers more clicks. According to the UK’s Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB). but it’s sometimes less intuitive that ad text tests can and often do have an equally big impact on results [1] .Ad text optimization 99 Ad text optimization Ad Text Optimization (ATO) Ad Text Optimization (ATO) is the process of improving the performance of a text Pay Per Click (PPC) Advertisement on search engines by improving its Click Through Rate (CTR) performance both in terms of volume and quality of response. The higher the Quality Score of a PPC Ad the lower the bid price the advertiser has to pay each time a User clicks on the relevant Keywords that triggers the PPC Ad appearing. References [1] Search Engine Journal . ATO and Advertising Recently in the UK. ATO and Quality Score Many search engines.Internet marketing news 2009 . Google being the most notable example.

[3] In Q1 2011. Websites that are content-rich have been very successful with this advertising program. or 28% of total revenue. Google currently shares 68% of revenues generated by AdSense with content network [5] partners. The phrases accepted are "Sponsored Links" and "Advertisements". through AdSense. AdSense has become a popular method of placing advertising on a website because the advertisements are less intrusive than most banners. advertisers only pay one bid increment above the second-highest bid. AdSense commands an advertiser to submit a sealed bid (i.34 billion ($9. They do this in three ways: 1. Many websites use AdSense to monetize their content. and other factors. webmasters implement a brief script on the websites' pages.. but discontinued it in October 2008 in favor of a DoubleClick offering (also owned by Google). a bid not observable by competitors). which in turn has a complex pricing model based on a Vickrey second price auction. for any given click received. They use a wide range of traffic-generating techniques. Those wanting to advertise with Google's targeted advertisement system may enroll through AdWords. Additionally. They use text content on their websites that encourages visitors to click on advertisements.AdSense 100 AdSense Google AdSense Developer(s) Initial release Google Inc. Google beta tested a cost-per-action service. Website owners can enroll in this program to enable text. 2003 [1] Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Online advertising http:/ / www. They build valuable content on their websites that attracts AdSense advertisements. 2. com/ adsense [2] Google AdSense is an ad serving application run by Google Inc. and the content of the advertisements is often relevant to the website. the user's geographical location. To fill a website with advertisements that are relevant to the topics discussed. June 18. 3.e. AdSense has been particularly important for delivering advertising revenue to small websites that do not have the resources for developing advertising sales programs and sales people.36 billion annualized). Google [4] earned US$2. Overview Google uses its Internet search technology to serve advertisements based on website content. Note that Google prohibits webmasters from using phrases like "Click on my AdSense ads" to increase click rates. These advertisements are administered by Google and generate revenue on either a per-click or per-impression basis. it is the most popular advertising network. which pay out the most when they are clicked. including but not limited to online advertising. . Some webmasters invest significant effort into maximizing their own AdSense income. as noted in a number of publisher case studies on the AdSense website. google. The source of all AdSense income is the AdWords program. image. and video advertisements on their websites.

was started in 1998 by Gilad Elbaz and Adam Weissman. Types AdSense for Feeds In May 2005. a mobile website.[8] In 2009. AdSense for mobile content AdSense for mobile content allows publishers to generate earnings from their mobile websites using targeted Google advertisements. This offers domain name owners a way to monetize domain names that are otherwise dormant. Oingo developed a proprietary search algorithm that was based on word meanings and built upon an underlying lexicon called WordNet. more quality feeds to choose from. readers see relevant advertising—and in the long run.[11] . Google announced a limited-participation beta version of AdSense for Feeds. Adsense for domains is currently being offered to some users. technologies such as PHP.[6] Oingo changed its name to Applied Semantics in 2001. TechCrunch reported that AdSense for Domains is available for all US publishers. he or she is redirected to the advertiser's website in the same way as regular AdSense advertisements. AdSense does not pay publishers for mere searches. When a user searches the Internet or the website with the search box. According to the Official Google Blog. ASP and others are used. AdSense for Feeds remained in its beta state until August 15.[10] AdSense for video AdSense for video allows publishers with video content to generate revenue using ad placements from Google's extensive Advertising network including popular Youtube videos. Instead of traditional JavaScript code.. publishers are paid for their original content. Inc. 2008. When the user clicks the image. Google writes the advertising content into the image that it returns.[5] However the publisher is paid only if the advertisements on the page are clicked. led by George Miller. On December 12. including the ability to "enable multiple networks to display ads". a privately held company located in Los Angeles. Google shares 51% of the advertising revenue it makes from those searches with the website owner. The advertisement content is chosen based on the content of the feed surrounding the image. which was developed over the previous 15 years by researchers at Princeton University. AdSense for search. Google matches advertisements to the content of a website — in this case.AdSense 101 History Oingo. with plans to make it available to all in stages. when it became available to all AdSense users. 2008."[9] AdSense for Feeds works by inserting images into a feed. When the image is displayed by a RSS reader or Web browser.[7] which was later acquired by Google in April 2003 for US$102 million. Just like AdSense for content. "advertisers have their ads placed in the most appropriate feed articles. Google AdSense announced that it would now be offering new features. a version of AdSense that runs on RSS and Atom feeds that have more than 100 active subscribers. AdSense for search A companion to the regular AdSense program. allows website owners to place Google search boxes on their websites. AdSense for domains Adsense for domains allows advertisements to be placed on domain names that have not been developed.

which does not work correctly when rendered with the application/xhtml+xml MIME type. and does not follow modern principles of website design because of its use of • • • • • non-standard end tags. Possibly the most popular form of such "AdSense farms" are splogs (spam blogs). the AdSense advertisement units use the JavaScript method document.2 [12] but nevertheless does not cause a document to fail 1: using a table structure for unintended purposes is strongly discouraged by the W3C.1 and the font tag.. the attribute checked rather than checked="checked". non-tabular) purposes. • Because the JavaScript is sent to the Web browser when the page is requested. AdSense then ignores clicks from pages other than those specified. AdSense customers can specify the pages on which advertisements should be shown. and then importing this page into an XHTML webpage with an object tag. class. Abuse Some webmasters create websites tailored to lure searchers from Google and other engines onto their AdSense website to make money from clicks.. automated content (e.[16] [17] • For referrals.[14] How AdSense works • The webmaster inserts the AdSense JavaScript code into a webpage. the JavaScript code uses inlined JSON to display content fetched from Google's servers.0 Strict or XHTML 1. If keywords have been cached already. To protect against this type of fraud. that get proportionally wider or narrower when browser window resizes in width without active client side scripting). a directory with content from the Open Directory Project. it is possible for other website owners to copy the JavaScript code into their own webpages.AdSense 102 XHTML compatibility As of September 2007. Google's servers use a cache of the page to determine a set of high-value keywords.g. The terms of the AdSense program forbid its affiliates from modifying the code.0 Transitional DOCTYPEs. or the price advertisers choose to pay for every thousand advertisements displayed. Many of these websites use content from . and pays based on cost per mille (CPM). which are centered around known high-paying keywords. • Each time this page is visited. thus preventing these participants from having valid XHTML websites. such as </img> and </input>. the HTML code for the AdSense search box does not validate as XHTML. Google adds money to the advertiser's account when visitors either download the referred software or subscribe to the referred service.write(). Additionally. the advertiser chooses the page(s) on which to display advertisements. • For contextual advertisements. presentational attributes other than id. or scraper websites relying on RSS feeds for content).[13] This workaround appears to be accepted by Google.[18] The referral program was retired in August 2008. validation — there is currently no algorithmic method of determining whether a table is used "correctly" (for displaying tabular data or for displaying elements. (More details are described in the AdSense patent [15]. However.[19] • Search advertisements are added to the list of results after the visitor performs a search. 2: the font tag is deprecated but does not fail validation in any XHTML standard. The units also use the iframe HTML tag. bgcolor and align. or style — for example. which is not validated correctly with the XHTML 1. These "zombie" websites often contain nothing but a large amount of interconnected.e. advertisements are served for those keywords based on the AdWords bidding system. a table structure for purely presentational (i. a workaround has been found by creating a separate HTML webpage containing only the AdSense advertisement units.) • For site-targeted advertisements.

[28] AdSense sets tracking cookies that are viewed by some[29] as a threat to privacy. This website violated Google's AdSense Program Policies by displaying AdSense alongside sexually explicit material. It has been reported that using both AdSense and AdWords may cause a website to pay Google a commission when the website advertises itself. There have also been reports of Trojan horses engineered to produce counterfeit Google advertisements that are formatted looking like legitimate ones. These programs display detailed information about the visitors who click on the AdSense advertisements. in which one company clicks on a rival's search engine advertisements to drive up the other company's costs. These and related approaches are considered to be search engine spam and can be reported to Google. Google now disables such accounts. The payment terms for webmasters have also been criticized. AdSense publishers can choose from a number of click-tracking programs.[24] Google came under fire when the official Google AdSense Blog showcased the French video website Imineo. For example.[23] but many micro content providers require a long time—years in some cases—to build up this much AdSense revenue. but have offered no proof of this. In the email.[20] Users have reported that they also pay a range from $0.[30] . or options but a link to file an appeal. Your outstanding balance and Google's share of the revenue will both be fully refunded back to the affected advertisers. 103 Criticism Due to alleged concerns about click fraud. websites displaying AdSense have been banned from showing such content. and all complaints are deferred. There are a number of commercial tracking scripts available for purchase. Google will pay all earned revenue greater than US$10 when an AdSense account is closed and not disabled. Publishers can use this to determine whether or not they have been a victim of click fraud. in a news story about a terrorist attack in India. Many website owners complain that their AdSense accounts have been disabled just before they were supposed to receive their first paycheck from Google.com.88 per click.[27] In some cases.is taken. such as Wikipedia.AdSense other websites. An automated email is sent to the publisher's owner which offers no reasoning. but due to complaints. Such pages were tolerated in the past." The revenue generated . The Trojan uploads itself onto an unsuspecting user's computer through a webpage and then replaces the original advertisements with its own set of malicious advertisements. but is filled with advertisements so that users have no choice but to click on advertisements. Google claims accounts have been disabled due to click fraud or forbidden content. an advert was generated for a (presumably non-existent) educational qualification in terrorism.[25] Some sites have been banned for distributing copyrighted material even when they hold the copyright themselves or are authorized by [26] the copyright holder to distribute the material.[22] Google withholds payment until an account reaches US$100.whether legitimate or not . A Made for AdSense (MFA) website or webpage has little or no content. we've found it necessary to disable your AdSense account. to attract visitors. Google AdSense has been criticized by some search engine optimization firms as a large source of what Google calls "invalid clicks".[21] To help prevent click fraud. Webmasters that use AdSense must place the appropriate warning in the privacy policy page.64 to $0. Typically. Google states that "Because we have a responsibility to protect our AdWords advertisers from inflated costs due to invalid activity. AdSense displays inappropriate or offensive ads. However.

[19] "Google yanks AdSense referral program. [21] Charles C. [23] "When do I get paid?" (https:/ / www. Google AdSense Help Center. . 2010-07-15. html).AdSense Help" (http:/ / www. . html?page=2196001). infotoday. 2009-08-20. Dec 12. 2003-04-23. 2007-12-29. . . . com/ adsense/ localized-terms) . Press Release. uspto. net/ 2008/ 07/ 01/ google-yanks-adsense-referral-program-offers-shoddy-surrogate/ ). com/ earnings/ 2011/ Q1_google_earnings. . co. "Official Google Blog: Feed me" (http:/ / googleblog. org/ TR/ CSS2/ tables. [5] "Google Form 10-Q. com/ showPage. html). Retrieved May 10. com/ 2008/ 12/ 12/ adsense-for-domains-now-available-for-all-us-publishers/ ). "Google’s YouTube Boosts Display Advertisers 10-Fold (Update1)" (http:/ / www. Q2 2010" (http:/ / investor. . wired. google. com/ press/ pressrel/ applied. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. google. com/ archive/ 200409/ content_negotiation_adsense_and_comments/ ). google. Incisive Interactive Marketing LLC.net. Hane (1999-12-20). "Beyond Keyword Searching" (http:/ / www. Press release. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. scroogle. 2003. techshout. py?answer=9905). google. html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PG01& s1=20040059708& OS=20040059708& RS=20040059708 [16] "Google AdSense Help Center: What are CPM ads?" (http:/ / adwords. google. [26] "Google AdSense Program Policies" (https:/ / www. [9] Shuman Ghosemajumder (2005-05-17). [8] "Google Acquires Applied Semantics" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2009-10-06. . org/ adsense. py?answer=25890& topic=11724). google. businessinsider. colnect. html). 2011. [29] Criticism of AdSense cookies (http:/ / www. Bloomberg Businessweek. businessweek. Retrieved 2008-02-02. google. com/ press/ pressrel/ adsense. com/ 2009/ 02/ be-careful-when-using-both-adsense. 2003-04-24. [20] Benaifer Jah (2005-12-27). 2007-12-29. google. . [13] Stu Nicholls. com/ support/ bin/ answer. AdSense. google. "Google keeps on coining it in" (http:/ / lembingley. com/ 2005/ 05/ feed-me. techcrunch. com/ ads/ sitetargeted. com/ newsbreaks/ nb1220-2. google. py?hl=en& answer=105957). .anta. 2007-12-29. . TechCrunch [11] Brian Womack (2010-05-03). com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. [15] http:/ / appft1. com/ news/ 2010-05-03/ google-s-youtube-boosts-display-advertisers-10-fold-update1-. cssplay. . gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool. . [22] Lem Bingley (2007-02-01). Robin Wauters. Google. 2010-11-08. [12] W3C. anta. . [28] "Google's Worst Ads Ever (GOOG)" (http:/ / www. html). com/ wired/ archive/ 14. html). html). com/ internet/ 2005/ 27/ a-trojan-horse-program-that-targets-google-ads-has-been-detected-by-an-indian-web-publisher/ ). 2008-07-01. py?answer=57153). 2008. June 18. html). Info Today. computing. [18] "Google AdSense Help Center: What is the referrals feature?" (https:/ / www. "How click fraud could swallow the internet" (http:/ / www. w3. com/ googles-worst-ads-ever-2009-8). "Tables" (http:/ / www. blog. com/ support/ bin/ answer. google. [24] "Disabled Account FAQ . . [14] Roger Johansson (2004-09-01). ISSN 1797-1993. . IT Week. [7] "Google Buys Applied Semantics" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. [17] "Google AdWords: All About Site-Targeted Ads" (http:/ / www. . uk/ menu/ adsense. [27] "BE CAREFUL when using both AdSense + AdWords by Google" (http:/ / blog. offers shoddy surrogate" (http:/ / blog. 01/ fraud. 2009-02-19. html). html). TechShout. "Trojan Horse program that targets Google AdSense ads" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-09-08. py?answer=97264) [4] "Google Announces First Quarter 2011 Financial Results" (http:/ / investor. html). . Google AdSense Help Center. google. py?answer=48182& sourceid=aso& subid=ww-ww-et-asui& medium=link).AdSense 104 References [1] Google Expands Advertising Monetization Program for Websites (http:/ / www. Wired. "Adding AdSense to application/xhtml+xml pages" (http:/ / www. html) [30] Google AdSense terms (https:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-02-02. htm). py?answer=54411& topic=13175). [6] Paula J. [10] AdSense For Domains Now Available For All US Publishers (http:/ / www. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. . blogspot. . 456bereastreet. uk/ 2007/ 02/ google-keeps-co. Google [2] http:/ / www. [25] "Adult content" (https:/ / www. com/ adsense [3] What happened to the pay-per-action beta? (http:/ / adwords. 2007-12-29. and comments" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-12-29. html). co. html). com/ documents/ 20100630_google_10Q. . . Retrieved 2010-05-03. google. google. "Content negotiation. Mann (January 2006).

paid search engine marketing. The idea for remote purchasing originally arose because of conversations with music label Geffen Records in the fall of 1994.AdSense 105 External links • Google AdSense (http://www. The management at Geffen wanted to sell its artists' CDs directly from its website. for the completion of an offer.blogspot. [5] bypassing the CDNOW home page and going directly to an artist's music page.adsense. but did not want to implement this capability itself. Amazon. and the referral of others to the site.[7] [8] . Those methods include organic search engine optimization.com (Amazon) launched its associate program in July 1996: Amazon associates could place banner or text links on their site for individual books.[4] During November 1994. the associate received a commission. Affiliate marketing overlaps with other Internet marketing methods to some degree. and website syndication capture much of the attention of online retailers. affiliates sometimes use less orthodox techniques.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PG01& s1=20040059708&OS=20040059708&RS=20040059708) • Inside AdSense (http://adsense. where users are rewarded with cash or gifts. CDNOW launched its BuyWeb program. and the customer. The translation of the revenue share principles to mainstream e-commerce happened in November 1994[3] . or link directly to the Amazon home page. affiliates continue to play a significant role in e-retailers' marketing strategies. the network. the publisher (also known as 'the affiliate').[6] When visitors clicked from the associate's website through to Amazon and purchased a book.com/) — Google's official weblog on AdSense Affiliate marketing Affiliate marketing is a marketing practice in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought about by the affiliate's own marketing efforts. Cybererotica was among the early innovators in affiliate marketing with a cost per click program. Geffen asked CDNOW if it could design a program where CDNOW would handle the order fulfillment. super-affiliates and specialized third party vendors. e-mail.[2] History Origin The concept of revenue sharing—paying commission for referred business—predates affiliate marketing and the Internet. Geffen realized that CDNOW could link directly from the artist on its website to Geffen's website. and in some sense display advertising.com/) • Google AdSense patent application (http://appft1. almost four years after the origination of the World Wide Web.uspto. e-mail marketing. Amazon was not the first merchant to offer an affiliate program. These websites could also offer a link that would take the visitor directly to CDNOW to purchase the albums. Still. Affiliate marketing—using one website to drive traffic to another—is a form of online marketing. but its program was the first to become widely known and serve as a model for subsequent programs.[1] While search engines. such as publishing reviews of products or services offered by a partner. which is frequently overlooked by advertisers. affiliate marketing carries a much lower profile. including affiliate management agencies. Examples include rewards sites. The industry has four core players: the merchant (also known as 'retailer' or 'brand'). On the other hand. The market has grown in complexity to warrant a secondary tier of players. CDNOW had the idea that music-oriented websites could review or list albums on their pages that their visitors may be interested in purchasing. because affiliates often use regular advertising methods.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.

Amazon announced that it had been granted a patent[9] on components of an affiliate program. in 2006. and forms of lead generation other than contextual advertising programs. and travel sectors. which predates most affiliate programs. Contextual advertising programs are not considered in the statistic pertaining to diminished use of cost per click.com (October 1994). China is one example where Affiliate Marketing does not overtly resemble the same . became an integrated part of the overall business plan and in some cases grew to a bigger business than the existing offline business. and the remaining programs use other methods such as cost per click (CPC) or cost per mille (CPM). but not PC Flowers & Gifts. finance.16 billion in the United Kingdom alone.5 billion in bounty and commissions from a variety of sources in retail. viewed as a marketing toy in the early days of the Internet. but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website.[15] Diminished compensation methods Within more mature markets.0 concepts—blogging and interactive online communities. for example—have impacted the affiliate marketing world as well. The new media allowed merchants to become closer to their affiliates and improved the communication between them. The patent application was submitted in June 1997. gaming and gambling. the total sales amount generated through affiliate networks in 2006 was £2. AutoWeb. telecom. Also several of the affiliate solution providers expect to see increased interest from business-to-business marketers and advertisers in using affiliate marketing as part of their mix. gambling. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement. The e-commerce website. as it is uncertain if contextual advertising can be considered affiliate marketing.com (January 1996). publishing. and several others.[10] MarketingSherpa's research team estimated that. However. retail industries and file-sharing services. Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his website and display it to his visitors in order to receive a commission.[4] 106 Historic development Affiliate marketing has grown quickly since its inception. According to one report. education.[12] Soon after these sectors came the entertainment (particularly gaming) and Internet-related services (particularly broadband) sectors. these compensation methods are used heavily in display advertising and paid search. nineteen percent use cost per action (CPA). While these models have diminished in mature e-commerce and online advertising markets they are still prevalent in some more nascent industries.Affiliate marketing In February 2000.[13] [14] Compensation methods Predominant compensation methods Eighty percent of affiliate programs today use revenue sharing or cost per sale (CPS) as a compensation method. less than one percent of traditional affiliate marketing programs today use cost per click and cost per mille. travel. EPage (April 1996).[12] The three sectors expected to experience the greatest growth are the mobile phone. Cost per click was more common in the early days of affiliate marketing.[12] Web 2. The estimates were £1.35 billion in sales in 2005.[11] Currently the most active sectors for affiliate marketing are the adult.0 Websites and services based on Web 2. personal finance. affiliates worldwide earned US$6. Kbkids.com (October 1995).com/BrainPlay. but has diminished in use over time due to click fraud issues very similar to the click fraud issues modern search engines are facing today.

The risk and loss is shared between the affiliate and the advertiser. all future activities performed by publishers "B" and "C" will result in additional commission (at a lower rate) for publisher "A".Affiliate marketing model in the West. . The sales team of the advertiser. It is in the best interest for the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. The phrase. 107 Performance marketing In the case of cost per mille/click. the publisher is not concerned about a visitor being a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert. which is often used to explain affiliate marketing. the full risk and loss (if the visitor can not be converted) to the advertiser. If publisher "A" attracts publishers "B" and "C" to sign up for the same program using his sign-up code. because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission. is not completely accurate. and sometimes are paid performance incentives for exceeding targeted baselines. and. publisher "A" signs up to the program with an advertiser and gets rewarded for the agreed activity conducted by a referred visitor. in case of cost per mille. in reference to how sales employees are typically being compensated. "Affiliates are an extended sales force for your business". Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives commission. The primary difference between the two is that affiliate marketers provide little if any influence on a possible prospect in the conversion process once that prospect is directed to the advertiser's website. This leaves the greater. Affiliate marketing is also called "performance marketing". The advertiser must convert that visitor first.[16] Affiliates are not employed by the advertiser whose products or services they promote. In practical terms. Two-tier programs exist in the minority of affiliate programs. but the compensation models applied to affiliate marketing are very similar to the ones used for people in the advertisers' internal sales department. most are simply one-tier. Such employees are typically paid a commission for each sale they close. Multi-tier programs Some advertisers offer multi-tier programs that distribute commission into a hierarchical referral network of sign-ups and sub-partners. With many affiliates being paid a flat "Cost Per Day" with some networks offering Cost Per Click or CPM. Referral programs beyond two-tier resemble multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing but are different: Multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing associations tend to have more complex commission requirements/qualifications than standard affiliate programs. does have the control and influence up to the point where the prospect signs the contract or completes the purchase. however.

An increasing number of merchants are seeking alternative options found in relatively new outsourced (affiliate) program management (OPM) companies. however. who use spamming.[17] Some businesses owe much of their success to this marketing technique. and those requirements are becoming too burdensome for the merchant to manage successfully in-house. . program management for the merchants as a service. a notable example being Amazon.[18] Implementation options Some merchants run their own (i. consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself. typosquatting.[20] and other unethical methods that have given affiliate marketing a negative reputation. Merchants can choose from two different types of affiliate management solutions: standalone software or hosted services. by the network. affiliate marketing is not easily scalable. it is rare for an affiliate program to generate considerable revenue with poor management or no management (i. similar to advertising agencies promoting a brand or product as done in offline marketing.[19] trademark infringement. The increased number of Internet businesses and the increased number of people that trust the current technology enough to shop and do business online allows further maturation of affiliate marketing. Uncontrolled affiliate programs did—and continue to do so today—aid rogue affiliates. In this environment. in which advertising has been largely professional and competitive. There are significantly more requirements that merchants must meet to be successful. false advertising.. "cookie cutting".com. "auto-drive").e.. The opportunity to generate a considerable amount of profit combined with a crowded marketplace filled with competitors of equal quality and size makes it more difficult for merchants to be noticed. Having a successful affiliate program is more difficult than when such programs were just emerging. typically called affiliate networks. Recently. being noticed can yield greater rewards. which are [21] OPM companies perform affiliate often founded by veteran affiliate managers and network program managers.e. however. the Internet marketing industry has become more advanced. in-house) affiliate programs using popular software while others use third-party services provided by intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates (see outsourced program management). Affiliate management and program management outsourcing Successful affiliate programs require significant work and maintenance. meaning that the merchant does not incur a marketing expense unless results are accrued (excluding any initial setup cost). Unlike display advertising. With the exception of some vertical markets.Affiliate marketing 108 From the advertiser perspective Pros and cons Merchants favor affiliate marketing because in most cases it uses a "pay for performance" model. Payouts to affiliates or publishers are either made by the networks on behalf of the merchant. In some areas online media has been rising to the sophistication of offline media.

Users upload content (usually in violation of copyright) to file-hosting sites. and there is also an increased chance that publishers in the network apply to the program on their own. Vendors or existing customers can also become recruits if doing so makes sense and does not violate any laws or regulations.e. typically characterized by providing a reward system for purchases via points back. top-tier affiliates) that expose offers from the advertiser with which they are affiliated to their own network of affiliates Websites using adbars (e.. which are typically more content-heavy Registration path or co-registration affiliates who include offers from other merchants during the registration process on their own website Shopping directories that list merchants by categories without providing coupons.. Relevant websites that attract the same target audiences as the advertiser but without competing with it are potential affiliate partners as well. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Search affiliates that utilize pay per click search engines to promote the advertisers' offers (i. search arbitrage) Comparison shopping websites and directories Loyalty websites.g. Adsense) to display context-sensitive.. games and other software. or other features based on information that changes frequently. although high-traffic websites are more likely interested in (for their own sake) low-risk cost per mille or medium-risk cost per click deals rather than higher-risk [22] cost per action or revenue share deals..e. cash back CRM sites that offer charitable donations Coupon and rebate websites that focus on sales promotions Content and niche market websites. There are currently no industry-wide accepted standards for the categorization.e. owners of large opt-in -mail lists that typically employ e-mail drip marketing) and newsletter list affiliates. yet are commonly understood and used by affiliate marketers. The file-hosting sites sell premium download access to the files to the general public. including product review sites Personal websites Weblogs and website syndication feeds E-mail list affiliates (i. advertisers) and affiliate networks. The following types of websites are generic. . price comparisons. Video Blog: Video content that allows viewers to click on and purchase products related to the video's subject. thus requiring continual updates Cost per action networks (i. These publishers could be potentially recruited. highly relevant ads for products on the site Virtual Currency: a new type of publisher that utilizes the social media space to couple an advertiser's offer with a handout of "virtual currency" in a game or virtual platform. Almost any website could be recruited as an affiliate publisher. The web sites that host the directory services sell advertising and do not host the files themselves. File-Sharing: Web sites that host directories of music. without the need for recruitment efforts by the advertiser.e. Uploaders are paid by the file-hosting sites based on the number of times their files are downloaded. and then post descriptions of the material and their download links on directory sites.Affiliate marketing 109 Types of affiliate websites Affiliate websites are often categorized by merchants (i. movies. Publisher recruitment Affiliate networks that already have several advertisers typically also have a large pool of publishers.

This update thus enabled Google to remove a large amount of mostly computer-generated duplicate content from its index. this marketing method has historically proven to attract abuse from spammers. with the result being a skewed form of search engine optimization. . The goal of such webpages is to manipulate the relevancy or prominence of resources indexed by a search engine. whose goal is to provide quality search results for keywords or phrases entered by their users. moved from the top-most results to a lower position).Affiliate marketing 110 Locating affiliate programs There are three primary ways to locate affiliate programs for a target website: 1. also known as spamdexing. some affiliate marketers have shifted from sending e-mail spam to creating automatically generated webpages that often contain product data feeds provided by merchants. adware. an affiliate link leading to a merchant's Internet service provider (ISP) within that website's content would be appropriate. Unscrupulous affiliates have used spam. and 3. many affiliate merchants have refined their terms and conditions to prohibit affiliates from spamming. Past and current issues Since the emergence of affiliate marketing. Some commentators originally suggested that Affiliate links work best in the context of the information contained within the website itself. if a website contains information pertaining to publishing a website. an affiliate link leading to a sporting goods website may work well within the context of the articles and information about sports. it may be the case that there exists a non-public affiliate program. Large affiliate networks that provide the platform for dozens or even hundreds of advertisers.[24] Websites consisting mostly of affiliate links have previously held a negative reputation for underdelivering quality content. forced clicks (to get tracking cookies set on users' computers). Each page can be targeted to a different niche market through the use of specific keywords. Utilizing one of the common website correlation methods may provide clues about the affiliate network. which only contain links leading to merchant sites. or "webmasters"—usually in the footer or "About" section of the website. 2.) If the above locations do not yield information pertaining to affiliates. many Internet users held negative opinions due to the tendency of affiliates to use spam to promote the programs in which they were enrolled. "referral program". If a website contains information pertaining to sports. where certain websites were labeled as "thin affiliates". The target website itself.. affiliate marketer webmasters must create quality content on their websites that distinguishes their work from the work of spammers or banner farms. false advertising.e. In 2005 there were active changes made by Google. The most definitive method for finding this information is to contact the website owner directly. "affiliates". E-mail spam In the infancy of affiliate marketing. Affiliate program directories.[23] As affiliate marketing matured. there has been little control over affiliate activity. Although many affiliate programs have terms of service that contain rules against spam. Search engine spam As search engines have become more prominent. For instance. (Websites that offer an affiliate program often have a link titled "affiliate program". To avoid this categorization. if a contact method can be located. Spam is the biggest threat to organic search engines.[25] Such websites were either removed from Google's index or were relocated within the results page (i. Google's PageRank algorithm update ("BigDaddy") in February 2006—the final stage of Google's major update ("Jagger") that began in mid-summer 2005—specifically targeted spamdexing with great success. The goal in this case is to publish quality information within the website and provide context-oriented links to related merchant's websites. and other methods to drive traffic to their sponsors.

adware continues to be an issue. what impact it had. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Third party programs (Ad Aware. adware often uses the same methods and technologies. and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking. Affiliates not employing adware felt that it was stealing commission from them.Affiliate marketing However. especially because they noticed that adware often overwrites tracking cookies. Merchants initially were uninformed about adware. Consumer Countermeasures The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and web-sites. more recent examples exist of "thin" affiliate sites that are using the Affiliate Marketing model to create value for Consumers by offering them a service. and not the advertising network that was linked to. Adware Although it differs from spyware. Adware often has no valuable purpose and rarely provides any useful content to the user. 2007. and how it could damage their brands. Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. Most of this activity adds time and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter.[29] . Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. Affiliate marketers became aware of the issue much more quickly. as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20. pop-up blockers. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission [26] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum. SpyBot. thus resulting in a decline of commissions. These thin content service Affiliate fall into three categories: • Price comparison • Cause related marketing • Time saving 111 Virus and Trojan distribution through advertising networks Server farms hosting advertising content are periodically infected by hackers who alter the behavior of these servers such that the content they serve to end-users includes hidden I-frames and other exploits that leverage vulnerabilities in various web-browsers and operating systems for the purpose of infecting those systems with malware. who is typically unaware that such software is installed on his/her computer. Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[27] and ShareASale's Junction/beFree and Performics. by the website (commonly users themselves do not understand or appreciate there is a distinction). End users frequently confuse the source of their computer infection with a particular website they were viewing at the time. affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. Eventually. etc.) and particularly. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program.[28] Regardless of the progress made. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates.

Because of the anonymity of online forums. when a single network tried to impose the use of a Javascript tracking code as a replacement for common HTML links on its affiliates. and provide anonymity. Although there are several books on the topic. brands. however.[32] Education occurs most often in "real life" by becoming involved and learning the details as time progresses. The most recent example of such a success was the halt of the "Commission Junction Link Management Initiative" (CJ LMI) in June/July 2006. Lack of self-regulation and collaboration Affiliate marketing is driven by entrepreneurs who are working at the edge of Internet marketing. however. Later in 2000 Google launched its pay per click service. merchants/advertisers. standards. the largest issue concerned affiliates bidding on advertisers names. Some advertisers. affiliates to bid on any term. and trademarks. capable of generating US$10. including the advertiser's trademarks. Online forums have had very few successes as representing the majority of the affiliate marketing industry. did and still do embrace this behavior. and service providers such as outsourced program managers—to congregate at one location. Trade shows are cost-prohibitive to small affiliates because of the high price for event passes. An increasing number of merchants engaged in pay per click advertising. This "frontier" life combined with the attitude found in such communities is likely the main reason why the affiliate marketing industry is unable to self-regulate beyond individual contracts between advertisers and affiliates. Online forums are free. or even encourage. some so-called "how-to" or "silver bullet" books instruct readers to manipulate holes in the Google algorithm. Although this situation alone created advertising channel conflicts and debates between advertisers and affiliates.[32] or suggest strategies no longer endorsed or permitted by advertisers. either directly or via a search marketing agency. The "trial and error" approach is probably the best way to describe the operation methods for affiliate marketers. Several advertisers began to adjust their affiliate program terms to prohibit their affiliates from bidding on those type of keywords. the quantitative majority of industry members are unable to create any form of legally binding rule or regulation that must be followed throughout the industry.[30] Some examples of failed regulation efforts are the Affiliate Union and iAfma. affiliate networks. Google AdWords. and guidelines for the industry. Affiliates are often the first to take advantage of emerging trends and technologies.[33] . This risky approach is one of the reasons why most affiliates fail or give up before they become successful "super affiliates". the acceptance of such certifications is mostly due to the reputation of the individual or company issuing the certification. going so far as to allow. which can quickly become out of date.000 or more per month in commission. Affiliate marketing is not commonly taught in universities. There are some training courses and seminars that result in certifications.[31] Lack of industry standards Certification and training Affiliate marketing currently lacks industry standards for training and certification. which is responsible for the widespread use and acceptance of pay per click as an advertising channel. Online forums and industry trade shows are the only means for the different members from the industry—affiliates/publishers. Larger affiliates may even be sponsored by an advertiser they promote.Affiliate marketing 112 Trademark bidding Affiliates were among the earliest adopters of pay per click advertising when the first pay-per-click search engines emerged during the end of the 1990s. third-party vendors. and realized that this space was already well-occupied by their affiliates. Affiliate marketing has experienced numerous failed attempts to create an industry organization or association of some kind that could be the initiator of regulations. enable small affiliates to have a larger say. and only a few college instructors work with Internet marketers to introduce the subject to students majoring in marketing.

essentially stealing their legitimately earned commissions." . and many other affiliate networks host their own annual events.[35] Affiliate marketing is often confused with either network marketing or multi-level marketing. Code of conduct A code of conduct was released by affiliate networks Commission Junction/beFree and Performics in December 2002 to guide practices and adherence to ethical standards for online advertising. The action of clicking places the cookie on the website visitor's computer.[34] Other training resources used include online forums. which requires the web site user to click to reveal the voucher code.[36] The state asserts that even one such affiliate constitutes Amazon having a business presence in the state. Affiliate Summit is the largest conference in the industry. providing much of their training through group collaboration and brainstorming. Such companies also try to send each marketing employee to the industry conference of their choice. Performance marketing is a common alternative. 2009.Affiliate marketing Outsourced Program Management companies typically combine formal and informal training.com sales to residents of New York. The case is currently making its way through the New York appeals courts. and is sufficient to allow New York to tax all Amazon sales to state residents. 113 Marketing term Members of the marketing industry are recommending that "affiliate marketing" be substituted with an alternative name. Amazon challenged the amendment and lost at the trial level in January. This not only generates fraudulent affiliate sales. and specialty websites. but also has the potential to overwrite other affiliates' cookies. which will then generate revenue for the person doing the cookie stuffing. Click to reveal Many voucher code web sites use a click-to-reveal format. video seminars. based on the existence of affiliate links from New York–based websites to Amazon. podcasts. Sales tax vulnerability In April 2008 the State of New York inserted an item in the state budget asserting sales tax jurisdiction over Amazon. but other recommendations have been made as well. The IAB [37] have stated that "Affiliates must not use a mechanism whereby users are encouraged to click to interact with content where it is unclear or confusing what the outcome will be. weblogs. Cookie stuffing Cookie stuffing involves placing an affiliate tracking cookie on a website visitor's computer without their knowledge.

. Pages 149–150. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US6029141) [10] October 2006. (2006).com.com Business.May. Peter (1999-01)." [7] Frank Fiore and Shawn Collins. retrieved on May 17. "A Practical Guide to Affiliate Marketing" (pp. retrieved June 25. Retrieved 2011-04-20. com/ index. com/ wayneporter/ archives/ 002263. 2007 [19] Danny Sullivan (June 27. NEW FIRST: LinkShare. Affiliate Summit 2006 Wrap-Up Report -. htm). WebProNews. 2007 [13] Dion Hinchcliff (15. webmasterradio. from pages 12. Shady Web of Affiliate Marketing (http:/ / www. Jason. and Kent. html). Daniel (1999-11-30). com/ cpm-cpc-cpa/ ).com. htm). "During November 1994. "Online Marketing System: Affiliate marketing" (http:/ / feedmoney. Thought Shapers. 2007 [14] Dion Hinchcliff (29. qcommission. com/ E-Commerce/ vendor_list.com." [4] Collins. All Things SEM. Google's Content Referral Network: A Grab for Advertisers (http:/ / www.May. thoughtshapers. Creating A Virtual Sales Force (http:/ / www. e-Consultancy. 2006 (http:/ / www. espacenet. clickz. retrieved on December 16. Internet Statistics Compendium 2007 (http:/ / www. htm).0's Real Secret Sauce: Network Effects (http:/ / web2.Lands' End Versus The Affiliate on Typosquatting (http:/ / www. Revenue Magazine. Retrieved 14 May 2007. amazon. QCommission. com/ : amazon associates. 2007 [20] Wayne Porter (September 6. com/ gp/ associates/ join/ getstarted). "Successful Affiliate Marketing for Merchants". Shawn (2000-11-10). retrieved May 17. 2007 . cfm?contentID=3157). [5] Olim. com/ social_media_goes_mainstream.SOA Web Services Journal. Sales Commission (http:/ / www. ClickZ Network. Social Media Goes Mainstream (http:/ / web2.July. internetretailer. SOA Web Services Journal. CDNOW released its BuyWeb program.Commissions to Reach $6. e-consultancy. MarketingSherpa. com/ publications/ internet-stats-compendium/ ). "The Cdnow Story: Rags to Riches on the Internet". 2007 [17] Tom Taulli (9 November 2005).fm. 10 November 2000. fm/ episodes/ index.5 Billion in 2006 (http:/ / www. 2005). retrieved November 11. . 2006). marketingsherpa. ReveNews. php/ weblog/ google-cpa-content-referral-network-goog-vclk-valueclick-david-jackson/ ). QUE Publishing. com/ publications/ affiliate-marketing-networks-buyers-guide/ ). "Amazon Associates is one of the first online affiliate marketing programs and was launched in 1996. 2007). html?page=832131. e-consultancy. com/ expertarticles/ 2006/ 06/ 09/ being-a-bigdaddy-jagger-meister). "The Complete Guide to Associate and Affiliate Programs on the Net". [9] US 6029141 (http:/ / v3. com/ barrier. shtml). Being a Bigdaddy Jagger Meister (http:/ / www. Wired. 2006). Affiliate Marketing Networks Buyer's Guide (2006) (http:/ / www. With this program CDNOW was the first non-adult website to launch the concept of an affiliate or associate program with its idea of click-through purchasing. webpronews. e-Consultancy. retrieved May 17. com/ business/ 2005/ 11/ 08/ marketing-ecommerce-internet-cx_tt_1109straightup. Meacham (July/August 2006). asp). CPA (http:/ / www. Page 6. ISBN 0-9791927-0-6. retrieved June 25. retrieved on December 16th.16-17). affstat.13 and 14. 2007). 2007. CPC vs. Page 36 [22] Marios Alexandrou (February 4th. 2007 [24] Jim Hedger (September 6. revenuetoday. CPM vs. 2007 [11] Anne Holland. php?showId=30). Evgenii (2007). com/ showPage.January. January 1999. McGraw-Hill Trade. Matthew. publisher (January 11. socialcomputingjournal. WebmasterRadio. http:/ / feedmoney. https:/ / affiliate-program. [16] CellarStone Inc. [18] Jeff Molander (June 22. Retrieved on 2007-10-15 from http:/ / www. 2007 [21] Jennifer D. 2007-08 Edition by Internet Retailer [3] Shashank SHEKHAR (2009-06-29). forbes. 2006). [6] "What is the Amazon Associates program?" (https:/ / affiliate-program.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20. 2007 [23] Ryan Singel (October 2. published by Montgomery Research Inc. 2006). allthingssem. socialcomputingjournal. amazon. com/ survey. com/ archives/ 2009/ 06/ 29/ online-marketing-system-affiliate-marketing). 2007 [12] February 2007. 2006). retrieved on May 17. 2006). com/ : Feed Money. wired. April 2001 ISBN 0-7897-2525-8 [8] Gray. com/ web_20s_real_secret_sauce_network_effects. com/ salescommission_details. The Daily SearchCast News from June 27. ISBN 0-9661032-6-2. Web 2. 2007 [15] AffStat Report 2007 (http:/ / www. Going Out Is In (http:/ / www. com/ politics/ security/ news/ 2005/ 02/ 66556). ISBN 0-07-135310-0.Affiliate marketing 114 Affiliate services • • • • • Affiliate tracking software Affiliate programs directories Affiliate networks (see also Category:Internet advertising services and affiliate networks) Affiliate manager and Outsourced Program Management (OPM or APM) (manages affiliates) Category:Internet marketing trade shows References [1] Prussakov. Olim. retrieved June 25. . [2] Guide to E-Commerce Technology (http:/ / www. Top Floor Publishing. 30 November 1999. Based on survey responses from almost 200 affiliate managers from a cross-section of the industry. History of Affiliate Marketing. retrieved on 14. revenews. retrieved on 14. com/ story/ Going+ Out+ Is+ In).com. Issue 12. html). Forbes.

Profit Sharing . 2007 [36] Linda Rosencrance. 2007 [32] Alexandra Wharton (March/April 2007). 2007 [28] ShareASale Affiliate Service Agreement (http:/ / www. Law Firms of Nassiri & Jung LLP and Hagens Berman.com. affiliatetip. cj. retrieved May 17. 2006). html) (contains original CoC text). com/ archives/ affiliate-millions-book-report/ ). ABestWeb. shareasale.2 . LinkShare. retrieved on 14.May. 27 March 2009 IAB affiliate council strengthens voucher code guidelines (http:/ / www. 2007 [30] Carsten Cumbrowski (November 4. AffiliateTip Blog. 2007 [33] Shawn Collins (June 9. 2005). 2008). com/ agreement.com on June 26. N. iabuk.15.ValueClick. com/ showthread. The authenticity of the document was neither acknowledged nor challenged by Google. computerworld. retrieved June 26. Reve News. com/ action/ article. linkshare.October. Page 58. cfm). Affiliate Marketing Organization Initiative Vol.com/Business_and_Economy/Business_to_Business/ Business_Opportunities/Directories/Web_Site_Affiliate_Programs/) at the Yahoo! Directory • Affiliate Programs (http://botw. revenews. 2002. 2007 [27] December 12. to tax goods bought on Amazon (http:/ / www. Learning Outside the Box (http:/ / www. do?command=viewArticleBasic& taxonomyName=government& articleId=9077963& taxonomyId=13& intsrc=kc_top). Computerworld. RevenueToday. php?t=73747) main discussion thread to CJ's LMI. 2007). org/ node/ 2709) in 2005. retrieved on May 17. ShareASale. com/ 2006/ 10/ special-report-profit-sharing-the-performance-marketing-model-of-the-future. New Javascript Links? (http:/ / forum. abestweb. com/ story/ Learning+ Outside+ the+ Box& readpage=1). com/ news/ press_releases0102/ press_021210.Y. html). 2002.Book Report (http:/ / blog. 2007 [34] March/April 2007. 2008 [37] IAB.com. Commission Junction and beFree (http:/ / www. 2007 [31] May 2006. vinnylingham. html). CJ. retrieved on 16. doc) (Word document) supposedly leaked out from Google (http:/ / www. 2007.dmoz. com/ spamguide. retrieved June 26. retrieved from CJClassAction. net/ en/ 1/ iabaffiliatemarketingcouncilstrengthensonlinevouchercodebestpracticeguidelines270309. Online Marketing Service Providers Announce Web Publisher Code of Conduct (http:/ / www.April.Vinny Lingham's Blog. link to online version retrieved June 26. html). searchbistro. retrieved June 26. 2007 [35] Vinny Lingham (11. 2007 [29] April 20.com. threadwatch. AdWare Class Action Lawsuit against .Affiliate marketing [25] Spam Recognition Guide for Raters (http:/ / www. com/ story/ webextra-issue16-2) (Web Extra). Issue: March/April 2007. retrieved June 26. Affiliate Millions .April. LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum (http:/ / www. revenuetoday.yahoo. com/ ). Friday.org/top/Computers/Internet/Web_Design_and_Development/Authoring/ Webmaster_Resources/Affiliate_Programs/) at the BOTW Directory .The Performance Marketing Model of the Future (http:/ / www. [26] December 10. revenuetoday.We are back to Step 0 (http:/ / www.com. retrieved June 26. How Do Companies Train Affiliate Managers? (http:/ / www. mxs) 115 External links • Affiliate marketing (http://www.org/Business/Opportunities/Online_Opportunities/Affiliate_Programs/ ) at the Open Directory Project • Website Affiliate Programs (http://dir. cjclassaction. Revenue Magazine. com/ carstencumbrowski/ 2006/ 11/ affiliate_marketing_organizati_1. com/ press/ addendum.

These articles are made available for distribution and publication in the marketplace. Some marketers attempt to circumvent this filter by creating a number of variations of an article. an accounting firm may market itself by writing an article titled "The Top 10 Ways to Avoid Being Audited" and offering it to the local newspapers several weeks prior to tax season. which often leads to receiving good quantity of traffic. However. is an Internet marketing approach to subtly promote products and services online via article directories. For example. Because newspapers and other traditional media are expected to present content on limited budgets. known as article spinning. most of the major search engines want to filter duplicate content to stop the identical content material from appearing multiple times in searches. a roofing company may offer radio stations a concise article titled "How to Avoid Ice Damage to Your Roof this Winter" shortly before the winter season. this arrangement is generally advantageous for all parties involved. This can be very useful to new internet entrepreneurs because it does not require a big budget. Traditional Article Marketing Article marketing has been used by professionals for nearly as long as mass print has been available. Well-written content articles released for free distribution have the potential to increase the business credibility within its market. article advertising makes use of article directories as a free host and receives traffic by way of organic searches due to the listing's search engine authority. and published on multiple websites. These directories then go on PageRank to the author's website and in addition sends traffic from readers. In paper-print form (as opposed to online forms). Also it helps in attracting new clients. These articles are often syndicated by other websites.Article marketing 116 Article marketing Article marketing is a type of advertising in which businesses write short articles related to their respective industry. However. one article can theoretically acquire site visitors from a number of article directories. . Each article has a bio box and byline (collectively known as the resource box) that include references and contact information for the author's business. Internet Article Marketing Internet article marketing. article marketing is utilized commonly by business owners as a means of obtaining free press space. Most forms of search engine optimization and Internet marketing require a domain. internet hosting plan. Similarly. A local business provides useful content to the newspaper that too free of cost and in return the newspaper prints the business contact information with the required article. Internet marketers will typically attempt to maximize the results of an article advertising campaign by submitting their articles to a number of article directories. Having your content featured on niche blogs and focused content sites run and managed by others is a popular form of article marketing. Becoming a Guest Blogger on these sites introduces the author to interested parties that are otherwise unreachable. Article directories having good web page rank receives excessive quantity of site visitors and are thought-about authority sites by search engines. By doing this. and promoting budget.

Since the primary goal behind article marketing is to get search engine traffic. The most traditional way is by creating a powerpoint presentation of the original article. Advantages of Article Video marketing Article Video marketing is an extension of Article marketing but serves as an alternate medium for businesses to convey their message to a wider audience. the presentation is recorded using a screen capture software like Camtasia and the slideshow is now turned into a video that can be uploaded to a video sharing site like YouTube for sharing. References Article video marketing Article Video marketing Article video marketing is a new type of internet marketing and advertising in which business create 2-5 minute short videos about specific topics using content from articles and other text sources. Being an audio-visual medium. Relevant pictures are then added to the slideshow and voice is recorded over each slide to create a voice-over narration for the video. authors generally incorporate relevant keywords or keyphrases in their articles.Article marketing 117 Commonly Accepted Article Structure and Format When publishing on the internet the most commonly accepted practice is to write articles having catchy title using relevant keywords and 250-500 words in the body of the article. Finally. and get more exposure. The generally accepted keyword density for most article directories is about 2 to 3% and anything above that can be considered as keyword stuffing. Related Software • Microsoft Powerpoint • Windows Movie Maker • Article Video Robot References . articles turned into videos also reduce the time required to read the articles. The videos are then uploaded to various video sharing websites like youtube for distribution and exposure. which is basically transforming the article text into an animated slideshow. Most article directories currently do not accept HTML tags in either title or in the body of the article. Converting articles into videos There are several ways to for turning articles into videos.

In this response. the United States Supreme Court. ruled that lawyer advertising is partially protected by the First Amendment. the ABA created the Model Code of Professional Responsibility ("Model Code") in 1969. 2002 invitation to comment on the Alabama Rules of Professional Conduct entitled Information about Legal Services. on May 26. and may then submit bids to work with the clients who can then choose which practitioners they wish to hire. known as the Canons of Professional Ethics. or hire none at all. is a subset of legal advertising that allows participating attorneys to be matched with potential clients seeking legal representation. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) responded to the Supreme Court of Alabama's June 26. History In 1908. Two key categories currently define online legal advertising: online legal directories and attorney-client matching services. Due to the progression of the legal profession and the desire to update the Canons of Professional Ethics. Sharktank[6] and LegalOpinion[7] (Sharktank and LegalOpinion are now defunct) were the first to provide the attorney-client matching as a service. The system allows clients to submit requests for legal work to a community of legal practitioners.'"[3] With the internet boom in the 1990s. 2006. State bar associations and websites like Avvo. ACM websites allow users to submit their legal needs online by practice area and location. State Bar of Arizona. many consumers turned to the web to search for goods and services. The Model Code was an effort by the ABA to create practical rules that went "beyond the pretty details of form and manners" and addressed "the chained relationship of the lawyer to his clients. lawyers and law firms also changed their habits of presenting their services to consumers online. to his professional brethren and to the public.Attorney-client matching 118 Attorney-client matching Attorney-Client Matching (ACM). Online Legal Directories Online legal directory services pool attorney information in one place for consumers to search for attorneys on their own.com and Martindale-Hubbell's Lawyers. CA-based LegalMatch. which condemned all advertisement and solicitation by lawyers. the FTC commented on the State Bar of Texas Professional Ethics Committee's consideration on whether or not it is ethical for a Texas attorney to . the FTC "encourages competition in the licensed professions." and noted that "lack of legal advertising could be viewed as the profession's failure to 'reach out and serve the community. the American Bar Association ("ABA") established its first ethics code."[1] In 1977. Law firms or lawyers that opt to use these services are then matched with clients by need and location. The legal practitioners then review the requests. Companies like San Francisco. to the maximum extent compatible with other state and federal goals. Arizona State Bar outcome. including the legal profession. which has sometimes been referred to as online legal matching. in Bates v.[4] Before the boom. Attorney-Client Matching Services Attorney-client matching provides lawyers with the opportunity to increase exposure and reach their audience online."[8] Additionally. Online directories can be seen as internet versions of the Yellow Pages.[2] The Supreme Court rejected the argument by the Arizona Bar that attorney advertising was "inherently misleading" and "tarnish the dignified public image of the profession.com provide lawyer directories and rank attorneys according to their credentials and experience. and submit feedback about the work of the legal practitioners. in many instances consumers would rely upon the Yellow Pages and referral services to find an attorney." The Court found "the postulated connection between advertising and the erosion of true professionalism to be severely strained.[5] Given that consumer habits changed and working within the regulations of the Bates v.

The FTC determined that "online legal matching services are a valuable option for Texans: they are likely to reduce the consumers' cost for finding legal representation and have the potential to increase completion among attorneys.com.com Refocuses Company Direction" Internet News (February 2001) http:/ / www. JDFinder. cfm#lawyerreferral [6] Green. over 9 million consumers will search online for legal services each month. According to Reuters. Ann Therese. pdf [9] Federal Trade Commission. businessweek. com/ smallbiz/ content/ jan2001/ sb20010116_790.http:/ / www. "Legalopinion.. which intends to save time for both parties and them to make better decisions. and the attorneys receive their information. "The World Wide Web of E-Law" BusinessWeek (January 2001) http:/ / www. when you hire a lawyer and tell him/her your story. 350. html [3] Haywood. and Total Attorneys. abanet. gov/ be/ v020023. "Ethics of Attorney Advertising: The Effects of Different State Regulatory Regimes. utahbar.[12] Controversy ". law. html .Attorney-client matching participate in an online legal matching service.com powered by FindLaw and LexisNexis Martindale-Hubbell's Lawyers. html [11] Utah State Bar and LegalMatch http:/ / www. cornell. law-firm-marketing-coach.. gov/ os/ 2006/ 05/ V060017CommentsonaRequestforAnEthicsOpinionImage [10] Harlow. allow users to search their directories for lawyers as well as obtain legal representation through form based attorney-client matching. Emily. "Response to Alabama Rules of Professional Conduct" (September 2002) http:/ / www. htm [7] The seattle. The (2005) http:/ / findarticles.internet. The" Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics.."[13] "One concern about such services relates to client confidentiality. "Technological Innovations and Their Ethical Implications" American Bar Association http:/ / www. such as Thomson Reuters' LegalConnection. Subsequent companies to enter this field have been CasePost. com/ bus-news/ article. Ron. Will and Staud. edu/ supct/ html/ historics/ USSC_CR_0433_0350_ZS. "Consumers' Guide to Legal Help Hiring a Lawyer" (April 2008) http:/ / www."[9] Larger corporations... html [4] Hornsby. 363-64 (1977). com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3975/ is_200507/ ai_n14684376/ ?tag=content. it's a prostitution of the legal profession . Rick and Palmer.com Team. But you lose your confidentiality if you share the information ."[14] References [1] Olson. Some services allow the attorneys to choose the cases while others allow the client to select the best attorney for their issue.[10] In 2003. com/ Law_Firm_Marketing_Solutions-newsletter-002. "Navigating a sea of uncertainty: How existing ethical guidelines pertain to the marketing of legal services over the Internet" The Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics (July 2001) http:/ / www. Attorney-client matching websites charge attorneys membership fees to participate in the service. abanet. it leads to lawyers fighting to undercut each other.. Amy. "Comments on a Request for Ethics Opinion Regarding Online Attorney Matching Programs" (May 2006) http:/ / www.[11] 119 How Attorney-Client Matching Works An increasing number of people are turning to the internet to search for legal services and are relying on phone books and offline media less and less. State Bar of Ariz. com/ legal/ 1029492-1. ftc. the lawyer is bound by rules of ethics and the courts to keep that information absolutely confidential. Normally. Law "Attorney-Client Matching" Law Firm Marketing Solutions (July 2006) http:/ / www. 433 U. Attorney-client matching services provide both clients and attorneys with information about each other before they actually speak.col1 [2] Bates v. org/ cle/ clenow/ nosearch/ public/ probonotechethics/ part1.. Users of ACM websites complete confidential. Henry.S. org/ public/ lawyer_referral_service_main. php/ 594871 [8] Federal Trade Commission. form-based submissions for free. internetnews. org/ legalservices/ findlegalhelp/ faq_hiringlawyer. html# [5] American Bar Association. the Utah State Bar partnered with LegalMatch as an additional resource available for Utah attorneys to receive screened cases of potential new clients and to help consumers find a pre-screened Utah lawyer. ftc. LegalFish. allbusiness.

co. newspaper ads. Typically. Ted.uk (http:/ / www. Blitz campaigns usually don't make use of print mediums such as brochures. Ideally. once a campaign is set up. uk/ current-affairs/ bid4fees-making-solicitors-bid-for-legal-work/ ) Retrieved 29 October 2010 [14] abnet. A Blitz Campaign lowers customer acquisition costs.org/) Blitz Campaign A blitz is defined as an intensive campaign or attack [1] . including search engine optimization and mobile marketing. A concentrated campaign means very fast.abanet. grows a local company’s visibility and attracts more customers. Push a product when there is buzz about it.co. It originates from the German noun Blitz which means lightning. utterant. It is a very fast. E-mail is another method of delivering local product or local business information during a blitz campaign.” and “intensive marketing. One of the most common and most advantageous ways to complete a blitz campaign is to use search engines.org (http:/ / www. The time interval of a blitz campaign is also advantageous.” a “ time-based marketing campaign. A blitz campaign includes strategies from search engine marketing. htm [13] utterant. builds business reputation. blitz campaigns are geared toward local businesses and not a more widespread audience. . A blitz campaign is a marketing strategy designed to promote a product or a business quickly through the use of mass media. and coupons. sometimes it is also referred to as “marketing blitz. "Online Lawyers: Starting to Click" BusinessWeek http:/ / www. and focused marketing campaign for a small business. For example. a local business or local product would quickly show up in search engines. In the world of marketing. org/ legalservices/ findlegalhelp/ usa_findlawyer. intensive. Advantages Blitz campaigns help local businesses and local products become better known to a specific audience through the use of persistent media exposure.Attorney-client matching [12] Popper. com/ smallbiz/ content/ sep2003/ sb20030930_0886_sb016. How it works Blitz campaigns use various mass media outlets. This type of campaign can help a completely new product become something of note. magazine. abanet. You must know your local audience to successfully complete a blitz campaign.” The idea behind a blitz campaign is to have as many people see a small business or small business product as possible in a very short period of time. A blitz campaign can be the perfect marketing tool for seasonal content. very direct results. to deliver information about a local product or local business quickly to a local audience. cfm) Retrieved 29 October 2010 120 External links • American Bar Association (http://www. blitz campaign defines the proprietary methodology developed by German speaking Marlene Dewitte [2] . without careful audience targeting you may not achieve the results you desire. specifically the internet. However. if you have a holiday event you want to advertise you should promote it during the appropriate season and it will yield better results. instead of something to look past. businessweek.

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Disadvantages
A blitz campaign has several advantages but there are also some limitations to what such a marketing campaign can do. One of the advantages of the blitz campaign methodology which is focused and local impact to an area can also hinder its performance if spread out further from the campaign’s heart. Because location is so important, not understanding your audience will most likely lead to a weaker campaign.

Successful Marketing Blitzes
In recent years, there have been several successful marketing blitzes, primarily from computercompanies and video game companies. One such blitz came from Microsoft in 2009 for its Halo 3 game. Microsoft planned on using online, print, and television media to bring attention to the game. [3] Another successful blitz comes from McDonaldsfor their McCafecoffee drinks. McDonalds used several media outlets and coupon booklets to promote their coffee beverages. [4] Googlealso embarked on a marketing blitz for the Nexus One phone. This product had its own YouTubechannel and was also present in Google web pages. [5]

References
[1] Definition of "Blitz" from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ blitz) [2] Glossary: Blitz (http:/ / www. blitzcampaign. com/ glossary. php) [3] Microsoft plans Halo 3: ODST marketing blitz (http:/ / www. mcvuk. com/ news/ 35402/ Halo-marketing-blitz-detailed) [4] Get Ready for the McCafe Marketing Blitz (http:/ / www. nacsonline. com/ NACS/ News/ Daily/ Pages Archive/ ND0507096. aspx) [5] Let The Nexus One Marketing Blitz Begin (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 01/ 05/ nexus-one-ads/ )

Content farm
In the context of the World Wide Web, the term content farm is used to describe a company that employs large numbers of often freelance writers to generate large amounts of textual content which is specifically designed to satisfy algorithms for maximal retrieval by automated search engines. Their main goal is to generate advertising revenue through attracting reader page views[1] as first exposed in the context of social spam.[2] Articles in content farms have been found to contain identical passages across several media sources, leading to [3] questions about the sites placing search engine optimization goals over factual relevance. Proponents of the content farms claim that from a business perspective, traditional journalism is inefficient.[1] Content farms often commission their writers' work based on analysis of search engine queries[1] that proponents represent as "true market demand", a feature that traditional journalism lacks.[1]

Characteristics
Some sites labeled as content farms may contain a large number of articles and have been valued in the millions of dollars. Demand Media is projected to be publishing 1 million items a month, the equivalent of four English-language Wikipedias a year.[4] Another site, Associated Content, was purchased in May 2010 by Yahoo! for $90 million.[5] Pay scales for content are low compared to traditional salaries received by copy editors. One company compensated writers at a rate of $3.50 per article. Such rates are substantially lower than what a typical copy editor might receive, however some content farm contributors produce many articles per day and may earn enough for living. It has been reported that content writers are often educated women with children seeking supplemental income while working at home.[6]

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Criticisms
Critics allege that content farms provide relatively low quality content,[7] and that they maximize profit by producing "just good enough" material rather than high-quality articles.[8] Articles are usually composed by human writers rather than automated processes, but they may not be written by a specialist in the subjects reported. Some authors working for sites identified as content farms have admitted knowing little about the fields on which they report.[9] Search engines see content farms as a problem, as they tend to bring the user to less relevant and lower quality results of the search.[10] The reduced quality and rapid creation of articles on such sites has drawn comparisons to the fast food industry[11] and to pollution[2] :

Information consumers end up with less relevant or valuable resources. Producers of relevant resources receive less cash as a reward (lower clickthrough rate) while producers of junk receive more cash. One way to describe this is pollution. Virtual junk pollutes the Web environment by adding noise. Everybody but the polluters pays a price for Web pollution: search engines work less well, users waste precious time and attention on junk sites, and honest publishers lose income. The polluter spoils the Web environment for everybody else.

Google reaction
In one of Google's promotional videos for search published in the summer of 2010, the majority of the links available were reported to be produced at content farms.[12] In late February, 2011, Google announced it was adjusting search algorithms significantly to "provide better rankings for high-quality sites—sites with original content and information such as research, in-depth reports, thoughtful analysis and so on."[13] This was reported to be a reaction to content farms and an attempt to reduce their effectiveness in manipulating search result rankings.[14]

Research
Because of their recent appearance on the Web, content farms have not yet received a lot of explicit attention from the research community. The model of hiring cheap freelancers to produce content was first discussed as an alternative strategy to generating fake content automatically, together with an example of the infrastructure necessary to make it profitable through online ads, and techniques to detect social spam that promotes such content.[2] While not explicitly motivated by content farms, there has been recent interest in the automatic categorisation of web sites according to the quality of their content. [15] [16] A detailed study on the application of these methods to the identification of content farm pages is yet to be done.

References
[1] Dorian Benkoil (July 26, 2010). "Don't Blame the Content Farms" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ mediashift/ 2010/ 07/ dont-blame-the-content-farms207. html). PBS. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [2] Markines, Benjamin; Cattuto, Ciro; Menczer, Filippo (2009), "Social Spam Detection" (http:/ / airweb. cse. lehigh. edu/ 2009/ papers/ p41-markines. pdf), Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web (AIRWeb '09) (http:/ / airweb. cse. lehigh. edu/ 2009/ proceedings. html), ACM, pp. 41–48, doi:10.1145/1531914.1531924, ISBN 978-1-60558-438-6, [3] http:/ / www. mediapost. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. showArticle& art_aid=144020 [4] Roth, Daniel (November 2009). "The Answer Factory: Demand Media and the Fast, Disposable, and Profitable as Hell Media Model" (http:/ / www. wired. com/ magazine/ 2009/ 10/ ff_demandmedia/ ). Wired. . Retrieved 27 February 2011. [5] http:/ / www. beet. tv/ 2010/ 05/ yahoo-harvests-content-farm-associated-content-for-90-million-report-. html Yahoo Harvests "Content Farm" Associated Content for $90 Million, Report [6] What It's Like To Write For Demand Media: Low Pay But Lots of Freedom - Page 2 (http:/ / www. readwriteweb. com/ archives/ what_its_like_to_write_for_demand_mediap2. php) [7] Patricio Robles (9 April 2010). "USA Today turns to the content farm as the ship sinks" (http:/ / econsultancy. com/ blog/ 5725-usa-today-turns-to-the-content-farm-as-the-ship-sinks). econsultancy.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [8] John Reinan (July 19, 2010). "I'm still waiting to make a bushel from my content farm work" (http:/ / www. minnpost. com/ johnreinan/ 2010/ 07/ 19/ 19783/ im_still_waiting_to_make_a_bushel_from_my_content_farm_work). minnpost.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [9] Writers Explain What It's Like Toiling on the Content Farm (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ mediashift/ 2010/ 07/ writers-explain-what-its-like-toiling-on-the-content-farm202. html)

Content farm
[10] How Google Can Combat Content Farms http:/ / www. readwriteweb. com/ archives/ how_google_can_combat_content_farms. php [11] Michael Arrington: The End Of Hand Crafted Content (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2009/ 12/ 13/ the-end-of-hand-crafted-content/ ). In: TechCrunch vom 13. Dezember 2009. [12] Article on Techcrunch (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 07/ 23/ content-farms/ ) [13] "Finding more high-quality sites in search" (http:/ / googleblog. blogspot. com/ 2011/ 02/ finding-more-high-quality-sites-in. html). Google, Inc.. . Retrieved 26 February 2011. [14] Guynn, Jessica (February 26, 2011). "Google makes major change in search ranking algorithms" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ business/ la-fi-google-search-20110226,0,3543493. story). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 26 February 2011. [15] "Discovery Challenge 2010 - ECML PKDD 2010" (http:/ / www. ecmlpkdd2010. org/ articles-mostra-2041-eng-discovery_challenge_2010. htm). 2010. . [16] "Joint WICOW/AIRWeb Workshop on Web Quality" (http:/ / www. dl. kuis. kyoto-u. ac. jp/ webquality2011/ ). 2011. .

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Contextual advertising
Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites or other media, such as content displayed in mobile browsers. The advertisements themselves are selected and served by automated systems based on the content displayed to the user.

How contextual advertising works
A contextual advertising system scans the text of a website for keywords and returns advertisements to the webpage based on what the user is viewing.[1] The advertisements may be displayed on the webpage or as pop-up ads. For example, if the user is viewing a website pertaining to sports and that website uses contextual advertising, the user may see advertisements for sports-related companies, such as memorabilia dealers or ticket sellers. Contextual advertising is also used by search engines to display advertisements on their search results pages based on the keywords in the user's query. Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising in which the content of an ad is in direct correlation to the content of the web page the user is viewing. For example, if you are visiting a website concerning travelling in Europe and see an ad pops up offering a special price on a flight to Italy, that’s contextual advertising. Contextual advertising is also called “In-Text” advertising or “In-Context” technology.[2] .

Service providers
Google AdSense was the first major contextual advertising network. It works by providing webmasters with JavaScript code that, when inserted into webpages, displays relevant advertisements from the Google inventory of advertisers. The relevance is calculated by a separate Google bot, Mediabot, that indexes the content of a webpage. Recent technology/service providers have emerged with more sophisticated systems that use language-independent [3] proximity pattern matching algorithm to increase matching accuracy. Since the advent of AdSense, Yahoo! Publisher Network, Microsoft adCenter, Advertising.com Sponsored Listings (formerly Quigo) and others have been gearing up to make similar offerings.

Agency roles There are several advertising agencies that help brands understand how contextual advertising options affect their advertising plans. com/ 2008/ 01/ 15/ proximic-signs-deals-with-yahoo-and-ebay-to-turn-product-listings-into-contextual-ads-taking-on-adsense/ ). "When Contextual Advertising Goes Horribly Wrong . . Harvard Business Review. There are three main components to online advertising:[4] 1.[4] Keywords on a webpage are displayed as hyperlinks that lead to advertisers. Because the advertisements are more targeted. Retrieved 2008-10-20. . www. Contextual advertising has attracted some controversy through the use of techniques such as third-party hyperlinking.com.hbs. J. where a third-party installs software onto a user's computer that interacts with the web browser. . David Szetela.gov. Instead of humans choosing placement options. Renee Boucher. (November-December 2000). Retrieved 2008-07-22.com/2008/ 06/19/contextual-advertising/). www. Retrieved 2008-01-15. [2] What is Contextual Advertising (http:/ / www.com. and Marshall.eweek. Retrieved 2008-07-21. Notes [1] "Contextual Marketing Definition" (http:/ / www.t=contextual+ marketing& i=56351.Contextual advertising 124 Impact Contextual advertising has made a major impact on earnings of many websites. com/ encyclopedia_term/ 0.edu/archive/2124. [4] "Customers Now". Retrieved 2008-10-20.shmula. they are more likely to be clicked.ftc. media planning — where the advertisements are to be run 3. Retrieved 2008-10-20.gov/opa/2007/12/ principles. thus generating revenue for the owner of the website (and the server of the advertisement).eweek. Adam. pcmag.00.com. 2009 Further references • Ferguson. • Kenny. D. "Contextual Marketing: The Real Business of the Internet" (http://hbswk.com/ c/a/Enterprise-Applications/A-Battle-Is-Brewing-Over-Online-Behavioral-Advertising-Market/). • "FTC Staff Proposes Online Behavioral Advertising Privacy Principles" (http://www. adgorithms. creation — what the advertisement looks like 2.Mashable" (http://mashable.shmula.shtm).com/194/ steve-irwins-death-contextual-advertising-gone-bad). "A Battle Is Brewing Over Online Behavioral Advertising" (http://www. com/ index.html).ftc. • "Steve Irwin’s Death : Contextual Advertising Gone Bad" (http://www. A large part of Google's earnings is from its share of the contextual advertisements served on the millions of webpages running the AdSense program. mashable. asp). Retrieved 2008-10-20. www. media buying — how the advertisements are paid for Contextual advertising replaces the media planning component. techcrunch. Taking on AdSense" (http:/ / www. • Ostrow. php/ advertisers/ adgorithms-ad-network) [3] "Proximic Signs Deals With Yahoo and eBay To Turn Product Listings Into Contextual Ads. that function is replaced with computers facilitating the placement across thousands of websites.2542.

Some contracts may allow for a guaranteed minimum number of impressions. The time can be as little as an hour or as long as a year. in which a buyer pays for the ad to be displayed a set number of times. It differs from cost per impression. .Cost per time 125 Cost per time Cost Per Time refers to a form of Internet advertising. where the buyer pays for an advertisement to be placed on a website for a set amount of time. Cost for time permits the ad to displayed unlimited times over the term of the contract.

In September 2010. Criteo relocated its headquarters [8] to Silicon Valley in an effort to enhance its profile in the USA. California. The move took place four months after launching [9] the 'PPC Retargeting Solution'.K. where a single static banner is shown to all viewers who have left a particular website. with offices in Italy. the company had 120 employees. The company currently operates in several countries around the world and is headquartered in Palo Alto. and launched its first product in April 2008. 2005 Headquarters Palo Alto. France. and the U.[10] At the time of its move. meaning that advertisers pay only for The solution operates on a pay per click (PPC those consumers that click on the banner and return to their website. Criteo announced that it hired Greg Coleman as president. and simple form of retargeting is basic static retargeting [13] . This is similar to Google . In 2010. Their personalized retargeting [11] solution displays interactive banner advertisements. [12] ) / cost per click (CPC) basis. Product Criteo’s product is a form of display advertising.[5] Criteo enables online businesses to follow up visitors who have left their website without making a purchase using personalized banners which aim to drive potential customers back to the business website.criteo. generated based on the online retail browsing preferences and products for each customer. USA Website www. [17] The Criteo Performance Optimization Platform allowed display advertisers and agencies to set retargeting campaigns based on category. The Netherlands.[2] [3] On April 7. CA. France in 2005 and spent the first four years focused on [7] R&D. Previously. The most common. Coleman served as president and chief revenue officer of The Huffington Post and executive vice president of global sales for Yahoo!.[6] History Criteo was founded in Paris. and allow advertisers to bid a different CPC per product category. Additional retargeting solutions operate on a cost per thousand (CPM) or cost per engagement (CPE). Criteo has 300 employees with offices in 20 countries including US. [4] 2011. Europe and Asia. Almost one year later.Criteo 126 Criteo Criteo Type Industry Founded Private Online Advertising Paris.com [1] Criteo describes itself as a 'personalized retargeting company' that works with Internet retailers to serve personalized online display advertisements to consumers that have previously visited the advertiser's website. Retargeting specialists then introduced a slightly more complex form of segmented retargeting [14] This second generation of retargeting enables to display one of a few pre-created messages to lost visitors based on a particular browsing category they fall into. Criteo debuted its self-service cost-per-click [15] (CPC) [16] bidding platform that lets advertisers place bids on display retargeting campaigns and see changes and optimize campaigns in real-time.

allthingsd. The campaign aimed to reassure consumers about personalized retargeting and data-driven marketing tactics. and 9M euros in a second round in January 2008 led by Index Ventures. asp [14] http:/ / www. References [1] http:/ / www. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. with 3M euros in a first institutional round in March 2006 coming from French private equity firm AGF and Elaia Partners. but for display retargeting ads. imediaconnection. com/ aggregator/ sources/ 1?page=8 [15] http:/ / www. which charges a flat monthly fee [22] Privacy In September 2010. com/ content/ 25806. com/ data/ stories/ why-greg-coleman-bet-on-retargeting/ [6] http:/ / www. com/ platforms/ criteo/ [7] http:/ / venturebeat.[19] The company displays over 4 billion banners per month but does not disclose the geographical breakdown for those banners. criteo. 127 Funding Criteo has secured a total of $17 million in funding. a different cost can be assigned to each product displayed within the single ad. Criteo’s platform allowed for cost-per-click bids to be set down to the individual product level [18] . Retargeting only uses anonymous information [24] from the merchant’s site. criteo. The company denies it relies on personally identifiable information (PII) and doesn’t track identifiable information. com/ retargeting [12] http:/ / www. Achievements Criteo wins 2010 Web Award for Outstanding Achievement in Web Development – September 2010 [25] Criteo’s client Boden won the ClickZ Connected Marketing Award [26] for ‘Best Use of Display Advertising’ for its personalized retargeting campaign implemented by Criteo. showArticle& art_aid=136034& nid=118810 [16] http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ [11] http:/ / www. some of Criteo's competitors include MediaFORGE. Fetchback.Criteo AdWords. clickz. com [2] http:/ / www. Criteo began a campaign [23] regarding the use of the popular retargeting and its impact on consumer privacy. com/ retargeting/ ppc-what-does-it-cost [13] http:/ / www. and Retargeter. com/ 3640039 [3] http:/ / www.[21] Competitors According to the VentureBeat article. which is priced on a CPA basis. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ [10] http:/ / venturebeat. mediapost. com/ 20110407/ former-yahoo-aol-huffpo-sales-dude-greg-coleman-lands-again/ [5] http:/ / www. marketingterms.[20] bringing the total to $24 million. com/ dictionary/ cost_per_click/ . no data is shared with advertisers or publishers and no third-party data used for targeting purposes. digidaydaily. criteo. In May 2010. adexchanger. itvent. clickz. com/ clickz/ news/ 1708656/ french-retargeting-company-descends-silicon-valley [9] http:/ / venturebeat. if a retargeted ad displays three products the consumer had browsed on the site. which has a more flexible pricing model. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program [8] http:/ / www. Criteo raised a further $7 million of funding from Bessemer Venture Partners. showArticle& art_aid=125695 [4] http:/ / kara. mediapost. For example.

[5] Also Known As intra-ISP spyware References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Net think thank: Phorm is illegal (http:/ / www. adexchanger. co. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ http:/ / www. internetretailer.Criteo [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] http:/ / www. asp?eid=15931 http:/ / econsultancy. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 01/ bt_phorm_2006_trial/ ) ISP data deal with former 'spyware' boss triggers privacy fears (http:/ / www. a former spyware company. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 10/ american_isps_embrace_behavioral_ad_targeting/ ) . com/ us/ press-releases/ 5150-criteo-client-boden-wins-clickz-connected-marketing-award 128 External links • Criteo Official Website (http://www. co. com/ online-advertising/ criteo-ceo-rudelle/ http:/ / www. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. co. com/ online-advertising/ criteo-ceo-rudelle/ http:/ / www. theregister. theregister. com/ 2010/ 05/ 06/ criteo-bessemer-7-million/ http:/ / techcrunch.criteo.[2] [3] [4] The phenomenon of data pimping is being researched and utilized by several ISPs. mediapost. adexchanger. allegedly illegal trials of the controversial Webwise system developed by Phorm. com/ 2010/ 09/ 23/ criteo-makes-placing-display-ads-do-it-yourself http:/ / venturebeat. org/ winner. theregister.000 customers in 2006 (http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ http:/ / techcrunch.[1] The practice of data pimping first appeared through British Telecom's secret. co. webaward. com/ 2008/ 01/ 15/ criteo-raises-10-million-from-index-ventures/ http:/ / venturebeat. uk/ 2008/ 02/ 25/ phorm_isp_advertising/ ) American ISPs already sharing data with outside ad firms (http:/ / www.com//) Data pimping Data pimping is a pejorative term used to describe the act of an Internet service provider (ISP) profiting from the sale of its users' personal clickstream data. uk/ 2008/ 03/ 17/ phorm_fipr_illegal/ ) BT's 'illegal' 2007 Phorm trial profiled tens of thousands (http:/ / www. co. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 14/ bt_phorm_2007/ ) BT and Phorm secretly tracked 18. theregister. both in the United Kingdom and the United States. showArticle& art_aid=136034& nid=118810 http:/ / www. theregister.

podcasting. branding and application development. marketing managers. implementing and overseeing the systems used for digital marketing purposes Advises the organization on how digital technology can be used to improve marketing and business results Enables a viable digital marketing presence Monitors and works to improve KPIs Collaborates with marketing. product marketing. Role The Digital Marketing Engineer executes. content producers and subject matter experts on the digital marketing presence • Maintains the relationship for a number of digital vendors . References Digital marketing engineer The term Digital Marketing Engineer is used to describe someone that applies web 2. These services range from the more generalist such as web design. These services include web design. These agencies tend to differ from their more traditional advertising agency and marketing agency counterparts in that they rarely deliver offline work. to the more specialist such as viral campaigns. widget development and mobile or social applications. e-mail marketing and microsites etc. Digital creative agency A Digital Creative Agency is a business that delivers services for the creative and technical development of internet based and mobile products. Responsibilities The Digital Marketing Engineer: • • • • • • Is responsible for architecting. Advertising and Marketing agencies do however. It is a hybrid role that involves marketing and technology knowledge. deliver digital work. the digital strategy established through cooperation with the Chief Marketing Officer or business owner. which continues to become more sophisticated.0 technology and digital marketing platforms (such as websites. web developers. banner advertising. sales.Digital agency 129 Digital agency A digital or new media agency is a business that delivers services for the creative and technical development of internet based products. The Digital Marketing Engineer is either part of the senior marketing management team or operates as a consultant. sales managers. business owners. microsites. often using outside sources. apps and mobile) for the purpose of achieving business goals. or advises on the execution of. viral campaigns. The need for Digital Marketing Engineers arose as a result of marketing becoming reliant on Internet technology[1] . a print campaign promoting the business' online presence). and executive teams to accomplish business goals Collaborates with web designers. email. search engine optimization. Digital creative agencies differ from traditional advertising agencies in that they normally do not deliver offline work unless it is a suitable extension to a digital project (ex.

php#/ 10/ OnePage)) . com/ chief-content-officer/ ) magazine. p. April 2011. Julie Schwartz. "Why You're No Longer Qualified to be a B2B Marketer". Another is staying up-to-date with the latest technology and marketing methods. 10. social media profiles or ad campaigns Audience development and social/community development Banner/display advertising Content management systems Content marketing Conversions and conversion optimization Copywriting Email marketing KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) Landing pages Marketing automation Mobile marketing platforms Paid search and Search engine optimization (SEO) Podcasting / video Social media profiles and integrations User experience Website design and development References [1] Chris Koch. ( eBook article (http:/ / www. nxtbook. Areas of Focus • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Analytics for a website. Communicating technical significance to a non-technical audience is one type of challenge. com/ nxtbooks/ junta42/ 201104na_cco/ index. contentmarketinginstitute.Digital marketing engineer 130 Challenges The nature of this role requires aptitude in both marketing and technology. Chief Content Officer (http:/ / www.

spawning the direct digital marketing concept. marketingpower. Direct marketing campaigns feature calls-to-action that allow marketers to track and measure responses from consumers. marketingpower. aspx?dLetter=O) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of online marketing [5] (http:/ / mmaglobal. Mass marketing is a marketing method that broadcasts a message to a large audience. com/ ResourceLibrary/ Pages/ Marketing Matters/ mmnews9. September 2009.[6] References [1] (http:/ / www. 09/ direct_marketing_goes_digital. search engine optimization and banner ads to send marketing messages to consumers. aspx?dLetter=D) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of direct digital marketing. com/ _layouts/ Dictionary. com/ wiki/ mobile-marketing) Mobile Marketing Association definition of mobile marketing [6] (http:/ / www. a Web browser cookie. The marketing message is not addressable. The personalization and targeting capabilities of direct marketing have proven effective.[1] The modernization and mobility of the consumer has forced marketers to innovate. With direct digital marketing addressability comes in one of three forms: an email address. aspx?dLetter=E) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of email marketing . com/ _layouts/ Dictionary. com/ od/ marketingglossary/ g/ dirmktgdef. aspx)"Direct Marketing Goes Digital: Addressability Matters More Than Ever" American Marketing Association. Traditional direct marketing is achieved using a customer’s postal address.com Marketing Glossary: Direct marketing [4] (http:/ / www. Consumers opt in to receive messages. about. marketingpower. [3] (http:/ / marketing. [2] (http:/ / www.Direct digital marketing 131 Direct digital marketing Direct digital marketing is an addressable digital marketing method. marketingpower. htm) About.[2] Channels • Email • Web • Mobile Additional Types of Marketing Traditional marketing communications are divided into two primary types: direct marketing[3] and mass marketing. and is not easily tracked and measured. and a mobile phone number. Direct marketing is a marketing method that uses such things as a consumer’s postal address to send addressable communications to a target audience. Online marketing is a marketing method that uses Internet tools such as email. com/ _layouts/ Dictionary.[4] Mobile marketing is a marketing method that allows marketers to send marketing messages to consumers through the technologies found on a consumer’s mobile device.[5] Email marketing is a marketing method that uses email to send a marketing message to a targeted audience. 28.

in part to provide advertisers with more impact for their investment. Banner ad standards have changed over the years to larger sizes. and similar items.htm) Quirk's Marketing Research Glossary definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / www.com/direct digital marketing) MacMillan Dictionary: definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / www. fliers.com/DirectDigitalMarketing) Definition of: definition of direct digital marketing (http://www. including web banners. Display advertisers use cookie and browser history to determine demographics and interests of users and target appropriate ads to those browsers. etc. [2] Display advertising on the Internet is widely used for branding. . market in online display advertising. Behavioral retargeting. One common form of display advertising involves billboards. scale models are examples of display advertising. general editorial content. com/ definition/ direct-digital-marketing. tents. com/ open-dictionary/entries/direct-digital-marketing. much like how search engine ads can be extremely relevant users based on what they are searching for. transit cards. This is why metrics like interaction time are becoming more relevant. or on the page adjacent to. display advertising can appear on the same page as. com/ glossary/search. Internet Marketing Definitions: definition of direct internetmarketingdefinitions. 2011 display advertising is a $17 billion business globally. An example of textual advertisements is commercial messages sent to mobile device users.definition-of. Yahoo currently has the largest share of the U. In contrast. copy). These banners can consist of static or animated images.org/wiki/Glossary_-_D) Display advertising Display advertising is a type of advertising that typically contains text (i. classified advertising generally appears in a distinct section.e. as well as interactive media that may include audio and video elements.Direct digital marketing 132 External links Webopedia: definition of direct direct_digital_marketing. macmillandictionary.. Display advertising appears on web pages in many forms. com/ TERM/ D/ digital marketing (http:/ / www.aspx?searchID=52967112) Tech Target's Whatis. audio.html) Entrepedia: definition of direct digital marketing (http://www. this may change in the future as display advertising is becoming much more targeted to users. Adobe Systems Flash or . in part due to increased resolution of standard monitors and browsers. emails.entrepedia.com: definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / whatis. However.S.html) digital marketing (http:/ / webopedia. as a form of internet marketing. location maps. quirks. demographic targeting. photographs or other images. was traditionally text-only. an industry trade group. logos. On the Internet Display advertising also appears on the Internet.[1] As of February 28th. Display advertisements are not required to contain images. sets some standards for online shapes and sizes. techtarget.gif are the preferred presentation formats for such interactive advertisements. In periodicals. The standards continue to evolve. The Interactive Advertising Bureau. or video: Textual advertisements are also used where text may be more appropriate or more effective. and site based targeting are all common ways in which advertisers choose to target their banner ads. geographic targeting. Banner ads can be targeted to internet browsers in many different ways in order to reach the advertiser's most relevant audience. and was available in a limited selection of typefaces. Posters.

2011. allthingsd. Mashable. February 28. . com/ 20100111/ yahoos-pitch-to-advertisers-we-sell-ginormous-ads/ ?mod=ATD_sphere) [2] "Google CEO: Mobile Growing Faster Than “All Our Predictions”" (http:/ / mashable. References [1] Yahoo Pitch to Advertisers: We Sell Ginormous Ads (http:/ / mediamemo. .Display advertising 133 Typical web banner. com/ 2011/ 02/ 28/ schmidt-mobile-growth/ ). sized 468×60 pixels.

. Business.Smith is an Internet marketing expert.. .Dominate Your Market With Twitter 134 Dominate Your Market With Twitter Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet your way to business success Dominate Your Market With Twitter Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Pages ISBN Jon Smith José Llinares United Kingdom English Internet Marketing. entrepreneur and author of the Amazon. The release of the book was promoted via online channels.uk Best Seller Get Into Bed With Google.book of the year so far finds its way to City Spy: Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet Your Way to Business Success. Twitter Non-fiction. Infinite Ideas July 2009 152 pp 978-1906821166 Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet your way to business success is a 2009 book by Jon Smith and José Llinares. the Microblogging service. to improve communications both internally between staff and as a tool to engage with existing and potential customers. The book is published by Infinite Ideas is an independent publishing house based in Oxford. by the authors. The book aims to inform business owners how to use Twitter.[3] .co. to Bloggers[1] and online news[2] and PR agencies utilizing the concept of pass-it-on marketing and Social Media to promote the title.

com/ 2009/ 12/ 31/ dominate-your-market-with-twitter/ [3] http:/ / www. which are text-based posts of up to 140 characters in length. and Ford are using social media tools to reach consumers directly. wordpress. uk/ standard-business/ article-23714052-city-spy-in-the-business-of-making-excuses. and increase sales. The book explores how and why twittering is growing at a phenomenal rate. digital marketing experts Jon Smith and José Llinares. do . In it. build their brand.Dominate Your Market With Twitter 135 Synopsis The book introduces Twitter as a social networking and microblogging service that allows its users to send and read other users' updates (known as tweets). skillsoft. thisislondon. outline how marketers can use Twitter to their best advantage. Updates are displayed on the user's profile page and delivered to other users who have signed up to receive them. com/ learning-re-imagined/ 2011/ 03/ books24x7-digital-books-reading-list-social-media. References [1] http:/ / blogs. Dominate your market with Twitter was the first UK book to be published on this growing spectacle. html [2] http:/ / ninfield. Highlighting how companies like Apple Inc. creating strategies to build a loyal following among Twitter members and expand awareness for their product or service. co.

Managing Director Tony Högkvist. rivalries and stereotypes of the Nordic nations. Danish. Founding Partner. in the four Nordic countries of Denmark. Swedish Official website [1] Dreaming in Mono is a transmedia storytelling branded content initiative from McDonald's and Perfect Fools. the prejudices.Dreaming in Mono 136 Dreaming in Mono Dreaming in Mono Client Agency McDonald's Shaun Russell. Norwegian. the role of McDonald's as the largest host of diverse people and fun experiences in the region. The story combines three principle themes: the Nordic passion for winter sports. Global Creative Jens Jonson Happy Fiction Lukas Wojarski Bernard Cauchard Jari Hinshelwood Ole Vevle Marie Bergman Andreas Holm-Hansen Linnea Lundmark Marica Rosengarden Alexandra Alegren Felipe Morales McOwan Martin Landqvist Directed by Production company Produced by Starring Music by Release date(s) January 2010 Running time Language 7 episodes x 8 minutes English.[2] . Senior Marketing Director Nordic Perfect Fools Fredrik Heghammar. Norway and Sweden. produced by Happy Fiction. Finland.

juice. website. Familiar products such as McNuggets. Finland and Norway still unable to come to terms with what happened so long ago. meanwhile. 'Mad Mads' milkshake flashmob live events. recording artist and media celebrity Terje Olsen: Obsessive but shy Norwegian monoski engineer Lene Olsen: Terje’s long-suffering wife 'Mad Mads' Steen: Self-styled Danish daredevil and extreme sports enthusiast Lovisa Svensson: Talented Swedish snowboarder Tiina Nieminen: Tough.[4] Branding elements The McDonald's name only appears in the introduction title to each episode: "McDonald's Nordic Presents". Facebook Fan pages and the opportunity to comment or start discussions on both the site and social media pages. character Twitter feeds. He devises a plan to exact his revenge on Hansi and enlists a disparate group of Nordic characters to help him. In one particular race Alain attempted to race against Hansi by using his revolutionary new monoski. independent Finnish entrepreneur and former love interest of Alain Duchamp Yasmine Carlsson: Ambitious young Swedish documentary film-maker Carlos: Reluctant documentary cameraman from Spain Tony Giuseppe Giacosa: Hansi’s loyal sidekick and bodyguard Content Dreaming in Mono combines a 56 minute-long drama (divided into 7x8 minute episodes) with character interviews by the fictional documentary film-maker Yasmine. won gold after gold medal and became an international celebrity. Hansi. video sites. Characters • • • • • • • • • • Alain Duchamp: Former alpine ski professional. coffee and soda are visible in the restaurant scenes. iPhone 'random menu generator' application. Big Mac. Founder of 'Team Monoski' Hansi Von Spitzmark: 1970s alpine ski legend. history of monoskiing backstories. The 7 episodes were released weekly both online on Vimeo. Transmedia activation Dreaming in Mono launched in mid-January 2010 with movie-style trailers and ran until the end of February across TV and cinema media.[3] A number of elements were also designed to enable the audience to interact with the content both live and online including: Hansi 'Two Sides of Me' song remix. character MySpace and Facebook pages. The aim of the initiative was to connect via non-traditional and social media with an audience difficult to reach through conventional marketing tactics and messages. Poet. The two rivals regularly competed against each other in the 1970s with fundamentally different styles and philosophies concerning their approach to life and to their sport. online 'McDate' tool. character songs and videos. YouTube and MSN Video and broadcast with exclusive TV station partners either as part of the station's program schedule (Sub Finland) or as full 8 minute . Hansi quickly reported Alain to the relevant ski governing body and Alain was disqualified and never raced again. social media sites. Much of the story then takes place in and around a McDonald's restaurant in the far north. polls. print media and in McDonald's own restaurants within the Nordic region.Dreaming in Mono 137 Story Dreaming in Mono is a fictional drama revolving around McDonald's customer and former professional alpine skier Alain Duchamp and his archrival Hansi Von Spitzmark. Fast-forward to the present day and Alain is based somewhere remote in the northern borderlands of Sweden. competitions.

The episodes and character interviews were written and directed by Jens Jonsson.Dreaming in Mono commercial 'powerbreaks' (TV3 Puls Denmark. TV6 Sweden). recording artist. known for his work with Robyn. singer/songwriter from Sydney Australia. agency.goldenawardmontreux.[5] 138 Music Music written by Martin Landqvist. each accentuating the central idea.Fashion". A-ha. Meja and Titiyo. ‘Snowracer’ is another of Martin Landquists projects. Awards Dreaming in Mono was awarded with a Gold medal in Web at the Golden Award of Montreux.com/winners2010. Oh Laura and Christian Waltz. director and media outlets worked together to extend that story across a variety of platforms. The timing of the activation was designed to coincide with the build-up to. What makes it stand out from other branded content initiatives is the way in which brand. Real Vikings Monoski [7] provided monoski content for the website and action scenes for the episodes. previously writer/director of the movie King of Ping-Pong which won the Grand Jury Prize at the 2008 Sundance Film Festival. Martin is also a member of the band ‘Peking Laundry’ together with Martin Sköld from Kent. Swedish music producer. See full list of Webby Honorees for 2010 here: http:/ / www. Viasat 4 Norway. webbyawards. The track is mixed by Ollie Olson. Pictures . See full list of winners here: http://www. Dregen from ‘Backyard Babies’ and Brady Blade.html Dreaming in Mono is a Webby Award Honoree in "Integrated Campaigns" and "Websites . and closing weekend of. php?season=14 Sets and locations • • • • Mc´Donalds Häggvik (Sweden) Högfjällshotellet Sälen (Sweden) Gammelgården Sälen (Sweden) Sälen & surroundings (Sweden) Credits Digital agency Perfect Fools] and production company Happy Fiction [6] originated and developed the concept in partnership with McDonald's Nordic. This super group consists of Amir Chamden from ‘Infinite Mass’. The soundtrack "If we´re a part of it" is written by Martin Landqvist in corporation with Amanda King. Jordin Sparks. The Cardigans. com/ webbys/ current_honorees. remixer and songwriter working under the name Nåid. the Vancouver Winter Olympics in which McDonald's was a global sponsor. Both the character interviews and character webpages were released online in advance of and during the episodal broadcast. He has produced and remixed music for big artists such as Kent.

com/8862274) on Vimeo Episode 2 .com January 30. net/ Latest/ sophie48097.com/8864917) Dreaming in Mono on IMDB (http://www. html) [6] http:/ / www. 2010 (http:/ / www.Dreaming in Mono 139 References [1] http:/ / www. March 1. com/ online-marketing/ dreaming-in-mono-by-mcdonalds) [5] The Winter's Tale.perfectfools.All a part of It (http://vimeo.com/9729251) on Vimeo Episode 7 . com [2] Renegademedia.starlightrunner. 2010 (http:/ / www. com/ ?p=3764) [4] Viralblog.html#) • The Transmedia Dream. com [7] http:/ / www.com) Perfect Fools (http://www. canneslions. dreaminginmono. boardsmag. 2010 (http:/ / www.com/9045956) on Vimeo Episode 3 .com/title/tt1592541/) What is Transmedia? (http://www.Bringing in the Mountain (http://vimeo.The Gathering (http://vimeo. happyfiction. McDonald's Premieres "Dreaming In Mono" (http:/ / www.Rebels outside the Box (http://vimeo.com/transmedia) Dreaming in Mono wins gold at Golden Award of Montreux 2010 Festival (http://www. seminar program (http://www. Control the Media.Grand Finale (http://vimeo. com/ articles/ magazine/ 20100301/ mcdonalds.com/festival/event_detail_page.The Man with the Dream (http://vimeo. February 2. Boards Magazine.com/9550364) on Vimeo Episode 6 . burgerbusiness. com/winners2010.com/9755630) on Vimeo Interview with McDonald's Nordic Marketing Director.com/9203671) on Vimeo Episode 4 . 57th Cannes International Advertising Festival.com) Episode 1 . Burger Business. renegademedia.com/9381504) on Vimeo Episode 5 . Shaun Russell (http://vimeo. realvikingsmonoski External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Official website (http://www.imdb.Up North Where We Belong (http://vimeo. viralblog.cfm?event_id=42) .dreaminginmono.goldenawardmontreux. html) [3] McDonald's Next Step: Create the Content.

However.[1] Comparison to traditional mail There are both advantages and disadvantages to using email marketing in comparison to traditional advertising mail. Researchers estimate that United States firms alone spent US $400 million on email marketing in 2006. and • sending email messages over the Internet. consented) to receive email communications on subjects of interest to them. • Over half of Internet users check or send email on a typical day. Advantages Email marketing (on the Internet) is popular with companies for several reasons: • An exact return on investment can be tracked ("track to basket") and has proven to be high when done properly.[6] the European Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations 2003. legitimate email servers averaged a delivery rate of 56%. twenty percent of the messages were rejected. rising an estimated 15% in 2009 to £292m in the UK. According to the report. or their Internet service provider's acceptable use policy. every email sent to a potential or current customer could be considered email marketing. to encourage customer loyalty and repeat business. . and eight percent were filtered. network email and FIDO). as of mid-2008 email deliverability is still an issue for legitimate marketers.g.[4] Disadvantages A report issued by the email services company Return Path.. the term is usually used to refer to: • sending email messages with the purpose of enhancing the relationship of a merchant with its current or previous customers. Email marketing is often reported as second only to search marketing as the most effective online marketing tactic. • adding advertisements to email messages sent by other companies to their customers.Email marketing 140 Email marketing Email marketing is a form of direct marketing which uses electronic mail as a means of communicating commercial or fund-raising messages to an audience.e. • sending email messages with the purpose of acquiring new customers or convincing current customers to purchase something immediately.. In its broadest sense.[2] • Advertisers can reach substantial numbers of email subscribers who have opted in (i.[5] Companies considering the use of an email marketing program must make sure that their program does not violate spam laws such as the United States' Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act (CAN-SPAM).[3] • Email is popular with digital marketers. as email did and does exist outside the Internet (e.

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Opt-in email advertising
Opt-in email advertising, or permission marketing, is a method of advertising via email whereby the recipient of the advertisement has consented to receive it. This method is one of several developed by marketers to eliminate the disadvantages of email marketing.[7] Opt-in email marketing may evolve into a technology that uses a handshake protocol between the sender and receiver.[7] This system is intended to eventually result in a high degree of satisfaction between consumers and marketers. If opt-in email advertising is used, the material that is emailed to consumers will be "anticipated". It is assumed that the consumer wants to receive it, which makes it unlike unsolicited advertisements sent to the consumer. Ideally, opt-in email advertisements will be more personal and relevant to the consumer than untargeted advertisements. A common example of permission marketing is a newsletter sent to an advertising firm's customers. Such newsletters inform customers of upcoming events or promotions, or new products.[8] In this type of advertising, a company that wants to send a newsletter to their customers may ask them at the point of purchase if they would like to receive the newsletter. With a foundation of opted-in contact information stored in their database, marketers can send out promotional materials automatically—known as Drip Marketing. They can also segment their promotions to specific market segments.[9]

Legal requirements
In 2002 the European Union introduced the Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications. Article 13 of the Directive prohibits the use of email addresses for marketing purposes. The Directive establishes the opt-in regime, where unsolicited emails may be sent only with prior agreement of the recipient. The directive has since been incorporated into the laws of member states. In the UK it is covered under the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003[10] and applies to all organisations that send out marketing by some form of electronic communication. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 authorizes a US $16,000 penalty per violation for spamming each individual recipient. Therefore, many commercial email marketers within the United States utilize a service or special software to ensure compliance with the Act. A variety of older systems exist that do not ensure compliance with the Act. To comply with the Act's regulation of commercial email, services typically require users to authenticate their return address and include a valid physical address, provide a one-click unsubscribe feature, and prohibit importing lists of purchased addresses that may not have given valid permission. In addition to satisfying legal requirements, email service providers (ESPs) began to help customers establish and manage their own email marketing campaigns. The service providers supply email templates and general best practices, as well as methods for handling subscriptions and cancellations automatically. Some ESPs will provide insight/assistance with deliverability issues for major email providers. They also provide statistics pertaining to the number of messages received and opened, and whether the recipients clicked on any links within the messages. The CAN-SPAM Act was updated with some new regulations including a no fee provision for opting out, further definition of "sender", post office or private mail boxes count as a "valid physical postal address" and definition of "person". These new provisions went into effect on July 7, 2008.[11]

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References
[1] DMA: "The Power of Direct Marketing: ROI, Sales, Expenditures and Employment in the U.S., 2006-2007 Edition", Direct Marketing Association, October 2006 [2] "New Survey Data: Email's ROI Makes Tactic Key for Marketers in 2009 " (http:/ / www. marketingsherpa. com/ article. php?ident=31009#), MarketingSherpa, January 21, 2009 [3] Pew Internet & American Life Project, "Tracking surveys" (http:/ / www. pewinternet. org/ trends. asp), March 2000 – March 2007 [4] MediaWeek: UK e-mail marketing predicted to rise 15% MediaWeek.co.uk (http:/ / www. mediaweek. co. uk/ news/ comment/ vital+ stats/ 945161/ UK-e-mail-marketing-predicted-rise-15/ ) [5] Return Path's Reputation Benchmark Report: "5 ways to increase deliverability" (http:/ / www. btobonline. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 20080731/ FREE/ 180513096/ 1116/ FREE), BtoB Magazine, July 2008 [6] The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ bcp/ conline/ pubs/ buspubs/ canspam. htm) online at ftc.gov or PDF Version (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ bcp/ conline/ pubs/ buspubs/ canspam. pdf) [7] Fairhead, N. (2003) “All hail the brave new world of permission marketing via email” (Media 16, August 2003) [8] Dilworth, Dianna. (2007) Ruth's Chris Steak House sends sizzling e-mails for special occasions (http:/ / www. dmnews. com/ Ruths-Chris-Steak-House-sends-sizzling-e-mails-for-special-occasions/ article/ 94733/ ), DMNews retrieved on February 19, 2008 [9] O'Brian J. & Montazemia, A. (2004) Management Information Systems (Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.) [10] Full text of Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations (http:/ / www. opsi. gov. uk/ si/ si2003/ 20032426. htm) [11] FTC Approves New Rule Provision Under The CAN-SPAM Act (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ opa/ 2008/ 05/ canspam. shtm)

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Get Into Bed With Google
Get Into Bed With Google: Top ranking search optimisation techniques

Get into bed with Google Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Pages ISBN Jon Smith United Kingdom English Internet Marketing, Business, SEO Non-fiction, Infinite Ideas January 2008 180 pp 978-1905940493

Get Into Bed With Google: Top ranking search optimisation techniques is a 2008 book by Jon Smith, an Internet marketing expert, entrepreneur and author of the Amazon.co.uk Best Seller The Bloke's Guide To Pregnancy. The book aims to teach business owners how to use ethical Search Engine Optimization techniques to improve the visibility of their webpages on the world's major Search Engines and on Google in particular. By September 2008, Get Into Bed With Google was the most popular book about Search Engine Optimization and had spent 10 weeks in Bookscan's Top 100. The book has been translated into Danish[1] , Thai[2] and German[3] . The book is published in the USA[4] with the title Be #1 on Google by McGraw-Hill An updated UK second edition [5] was released in paperback September 2010.

) 57 (7): 75. Daily Telegraph: Pg. Chicken soup for the enterepreneur's soul: advice and inspiration on fulfilling Dreams. com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview. p. (May 1. [2] "Authour Adam Ginsberg" (http:/ / www. [7] Lion. The Boston Globe: E2. [3] Mello.[4] [5] By the end of 2002 Ginsberg had been named as eBay's "number-one new seller".Get Into Bed With Google 144 Synopsis The book provides 52 practical solutions to Search Engine Optimisation problems faced by many small to medium sized websites. com/ product. Mark Victor.[3] As a result he continued to engage in eBay sales. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. . ch/ catalog/ product_info. "A Skeptic's Transformation to an eBay Fanatic".'. lexisnexis. 25. co. lexisnexis. uk/ exec/ obidos/ search-handle-url?_encoding=UTF8& search-type=ss& index=books-uk& field-author=Adam Ginsberg). Catherine (July 2003). "One man's trash is another's treasure" (http:/ / www. se-ed. HCI. in 2001 he placed a pool table for sale on the service and met success. He has written the book 'How to buy. Patrick (July 26. aspx?No=9789742127459 http:/ / www.[6] [7] [8] In 2005 Ginsberg released How to buy. Jack. 2005). com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview. Hansen. aspx http:/ / www. 32. The updated second edition contains new material relating to social networks and Google Analytics to assist readers with utilising and benefiting from these tools in relation to Search Engine Optimisation. gyldendalbusiness. ISSN 15289729. mhprofessional. . expanding his online business and eventually closing his physical store. [6] Canfield. co. which were published by Nightingale Conant.[3] References [1] "How to Buy. midas. ISBN 0-7573-0261-0. lexisnexis. 2004). Retrieved 22 November 2009. php?isbn=0071629602 http:/ / www. do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=244786& docNo=7). amazon. McKowen. Ellen (February 29. Daily Telegraph: Pg. Kiplinger's Personal Finance (Kiplinger Washington Editors. uk/ Get-Into-Bed-Google-optimisation/ dp/ 190682164X/ Adam Ginsberg Adam Ginsberg is a guru of internet marketing. The book includes references to many paid and free tools available on the web to assist readers as well as short case studies. uk/ How-Buy-Sell-Profit-eBay/ dp/ 006076287X). John P. Dahlynn (2006). Amazon website. sell and profit on eBay. amazon. Ginsberg ran a business in San Diego selling pool tables. do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& . Amazon website. com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview. 106. com/ eshop/ Products/ Detail. and he is said to have sold over $20 million worth of products through the online service. 2005). Sell & Profit on eBay" (http:/ / www. php?products_id=303 http:/ / www. sell and profit on eBay. [4] Siskos. Joanna (August 2. co. [8] Roseman.[2] Prior to venturing into sales on eBay.[1] along with other titles. "Smart Ebay traders cash in" (http:/ / www. From creating basic Metatags to help categorise pages through to more advanced keyword density ratios. Although he claims to have been initially skeptical about selling through eBay. dk/ Products/ 9788702073904. Inc. [5] Tovia. "Selling to the masses on eBay" (http:/ / www. He has promoted software for marketing on Myspace and training on selling on ebay. amazon. Retrieved 22 November 2009. do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=244786& docNo=2). 2005). The book outlines techniques which can be employed at the back-end or within the site’s code as well as front-end or editorial techniques to help improve visibility within the search engines. "The Secrets of Power Sellers".

The Toronto Star: BUSINESS. which gives rise to an “F” form. This was until a trend was identified. The results of the study show that any search engine optimisation (SEO) marketing performed is most effective a website ranks in the top three for your primary keyword. C01. they tend to read only titles and then. during a search. getting a website into the Golden Triangle of any search result page is the key to increasing traffic to a site. As users scroll down the page. Google carried out a study to better understand the average search patterns and to try to find out whether there was anything which differentiated a result ranked first from a result ranked sixth on a search engine page. company’s try to place their websites in the top results for searches. SEO marketers should also use long-tail keywords to increase their chances of being displayed within the Golden Triangle for less popular keywords. The Golden Triangle forces internet marketers to focus on tailoring a website’s title and description to give relevant and concise information. . Google’s study showed that users usually read the entire title and description of the first three listings. towards the end of the page. Pg. Using the Golden Triangle The Golden Triangle is the area of the page where users read the title and the description of each search result which eventually results in higher click-through rates.[5] Implications of the Golden Triangle The reason for the increase in click through rates on the first three search results is due to the way users view the result page. not even that. showing that it was only the first three results on a search engine that had high click-through rates whilst the remaining results had very low click-through rates. the vast majority of eye tracking activities happens in a triangle at the top of the search results page indicating that the areas of maximum interest create a "golden triangle".[6] This implies that a website may not be getting any traffic due to its positioning on the search results.[1] It is an eye-tracking heat-mapping that shows that people look and click on a specific area on a page of search results.Adam Ginsberg resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=8286& docNo=25).[3] In search engine marketing. It was previously considered that a website should be seen on the first page of the search engine and it was even better if the website was ranked higher on the first page. 145 Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) The Golden Triangle in internet marketing depicts the triangular viewing pattern on a webpage which is created based on the eye-tracking activity of users.[4] An eye tracking study done by an eye tracking company and search marketing firms has shown that. For marketing purposes. then the title and only part of the description of the next few results.[2] Origins This term relates to search engine marketing strategies and was coined back in 2005 during studies which were carried out by Google to show which area on search result pages drew the attention of viewers the most.

Retrieved 2010-12-08. com/ marketing/ the-importance-of-the-golden-triangle-in-internet-marketing-aRtI3OZk. com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap. Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. Use of quality SEO is the key to being able to get within the Golden Triangle on a search result page. html) Vincent Murphy. com/ internet-marketing-glossary/ g/ golden-triangle). who pay to be placed in those strategic spots. The Importance of The Golden Triangle in Internet Marketing (http:/ / articlesadv. com/ Internet-Marketing-eBook) Eyetools. html) Eyetools. com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap. . html) [6] Eyetools. com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap.Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) 146 Forming part of the Golden Triangle It can be difficult to be placed within the Golden Triangle. Hubspot. Strategic and consistent keyword placement can be used to try to be within the Golden Triangle without paying out excessive advertising fees. Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. saelstrom. For instance Google sells the first two top ranked spots on their results page to bidders. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] "Definition of Golden Triangle" (http:/ / www. hubspot. Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. html) . 5 Tips to Turn Your Website into a Marketing Machine (http:/ / www.

London Key people David Langer: Cofounder and CEO.[12] .[5] Revenue and funding GroupSpaces generates revenue via a combination of premium accounts.[10] The previous backers. targeted advertising and transaction commission from payments made through the site. also participated in the round. Barclays Capital. TMP Worldwide. McKinsey & Company. 2007 Headquarters New York City. Campaigns can be targeted to specific universities and audiences such as fraternities. PwC. Founded by Oxford University students David Langer and Andy Young.000) investment round from Index Ventures and a leading angel investor consortium including Dave McClure. GroupSpaces has worked with over 70 graduate recruiters including Allen & Overy. associations and other groups manage their membership and activities. the company was launched in the United Kingdom in 2007[3] and has since expanded into the United States and over 30 other countries. Work Communications. GroupSpaces also works with many of the leading recruitment agencies in the UK including Euro RSCG Riley. and promote themselves [2] online. Stephen Bullock and Simon and Michael Blakey. Princeton. of Avonmore Developments. UBS. KPMG.[7] Since 2007. Stafford Long. BCG. Bank of England. Morgan Stanley. Meagan Marks. Chris Sacca. JP Morgan.[8] The company raised a small amount of angel finance from Avonmore Developments in January 2008. top schools such as Harvard. Slaughter & May. Engineers Without Borders and the British Judo Association.[9] In June 2010 it secured a $1. Clifford Chance. Thirty Three.[6] The company also generates revenue by allowing graduate recruiters to advertise their campus activities and promote their opportunities to a highly employable community of students throughout the whole academic year.3 million (£860. Freshfields.[4] As of November 2010. MIT and Stanford signed on with GroupSpaces.com [1] Website GroupSpaces (styled groupspaces) is a London-based online company that provides technology to help real-world clubs. societies. Mediacom and City & Law. Deloitte. Deutsche Bank. Citi. Simon Levene. Accenture. hobbyists and entrepreneurial clubs. Ariel Poler and Quincy Smith of CODE Advisors. Yale. SAS Design.[11] The funding has been used to expand both the technical and marketing teams in both the United Kingdom and United States.GroupSpaces 147 GroupSpaces GroupSpaces Type Industry Founded Group Management Internet October. Credit Suisse. RBS. In the first few months of operation in the United States. GroupSpaces has also partnered with many leading nationwide networks of groups such as SIFE. its software is used to host over 1 million memberships. Lloyd's of London and the NHS. Andy Young: Cofounder and CTO groupspaces.

[5] . [15] "2011 Startup 100 Awards Announcement" (http:/ / www. "GroupSpaces secures $1. TechCrunch. techcrunch. 2010-07-01. techcrunch. net/ NewsArticle. Mike (2010-06-30). References [1] http:/ / groupspaces. 2010-07-01. onrec. com/ 2010/ 06/ 30/ groupspaces-secures-1-3-million-and-brings-valley-players-on-board/ ). [10] Cellan-Jones. [9] Butcher. Crunchbase. . Retrieved 2011-03-01. Retrieved 2011-02-21. com/ 2010/ 07/ 02/ groupspaces-attracts-high-profile-investors/ ). GroupSpaces was named the winner of the Social Networking and Collaboration category of the Startup 100 awards[15] . http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-02-27. After studying how their college’s clubs and societies worked–and running a few themselves–the two came up with GroupSpaces. Retrieved 2011-02-26. the most popular third-party app to link Twitter and Facebook. co. uk/ groupspaces-makes-a-bid-to-join-the-us-club/ 1006877. uk/ finance/ yourbusiness/ 7866758/ GroupSpaces-secures-Index-Ventures-investment-to-help-clubs-flourish. recruiter.3M from Index Ventures and launches in U.GroupSpaces 148 Founders GroupSpaces was cofounded in October 2007 by David Langer. crunchbase. "GroupSpaces secures $1. Recruiter Magazine. uk/ technology/ technology-startup100/ 8446409/ Spotify-crowned-winner-of-Start-Up-100-Awards. . New York Times. http:/ / www. [12] "GroupSpaces raises $1. bbc. TechCrunch. Langer was president. Rory (2010-07-05). 2010-07-02. 2010-09-15. 26. Retrieved 2011-02-26. Andy Young serves as cofounder and CTO of GroupSpaces. com/ person/ andy-young). 2010-09-15. co. CrunchBase.[13] Langer previously worked at JP Morgan.3M for online club administration system" (http:/ / bulletin. Retrieved 2011-02-21. telegraph. com/ person/ david-langer). [7] . . [8] .3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / eu. . co. Telegraph Media Group Limited. "GroupSpaces secures $1. . recruiter. McKinsey & Company and Lehman Brothers. CrunchBase. .3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / eu. 2011. Recruiter Magazine. Mike (2010-06-30). aspx?ArticleId=67982). Retrieved 2011-02-27. co. He cofounded GroupSpaces while studying for a mathematics degree at Oxford University and was subsequently awarded second place in the 2007 UK Graduate of the Year competition. Richard (2010-07-01). 25. co.S. Retrieved 2011-02-27. Retrieved 2011-02-26. com [2] "GroupSpace attracts high-profile investors" (http:/ / dealbook. crunchbase. com/ company/ groupspaces. . As a student. http:/ / www. webmaster and a member of groups with activities ranging from triathlon to table tennis. Retrieved 2011-02-27. http:/ / www. BBC News. html). article. Science Business. [3] Butcher. sciencebusiness.com/) . com/ company/ groupspaces. Retrieved 2011-04-15. Telegraph. treasurer.GroupSpaces.[14] Awards On April 13. Retrieved 2011-03-01. [14] "Andrew Young CrunchBase profile" (http:/ / www. while the two were students at Oxford University. Online Recruitment. Retrieved 2011-02-27. html). and Andy Young. captain. . uk/ groupspaces-makes-a-bid-to-join-the-us-club/ 1006877. university market" (http:/ / www. He is the creator of Selective Tweets. crunchbase. "UK dotcoms: Two success stories" (http:/ / www. External links • Official website (http://www. crunchbase. [11] "Oxford’s GroupSpaces raises $1.5m status updates per month. .000 users and 1. com/ 2010/ 06/ 30/ groupspaces-secures-1-3-million-and-brings-valley-players-on-board/ ). . [4] Tyler. . html). [13] "David Langer CrunchBase profile" (http:/ / www. Crunchbase.3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / www. 2010-07-08. . Retrieved 2011-02-25. article. uk/ blogs/ thereporters/ rorycellanjones/ 2010/ 07/ uk_dot_coms_two_success_storie. com/ news/ groupspaces_raises_1_3m_from_index_ventu). telegraph. with over 500. [6] . 2010-09-01. nytimes.

and generate a proposal to fulfill those needs.Guided selling 149 Guided selling Guided selling is a process that helps potential buyers of products or services to choose the product best fulfilling their needs and hopefully guides the buyer to buy. At the same time. Goal is to help the potential buyer and / or the sales representative or service agent to efficiently guide through the product selection and purchasing process. texts. define the solution. commercial calculations and document generation. product advisors. the system supports the use of this knowledge by web services such as online product advisors. The proposal-specific functions of guided selling are recommender systems. technical calculations. the technical specification of the solution (such as bills of materials and routings) is generated for manufacturing and distribution. offline. private. product configuration. customers. The knowledge stored is related to functional. complete with commercial aspects of the proposal. Guided selling-solutions are used to analyse user requirements and generate buying recommendations to make sure online-shoppers find the product best fitting to their needs • Kiosk-applications. Guided selling does not address the internal. In addition.g. Such knowledge is stored in semantic knowledge models. brands. Guided selling-solutions are applied in the following use cases: • Websites of online-shops. dealers and sales representatives. furthermore. margins. The Guided Selling-system asks questions and offers answer options that help the online-shopper to learn about and define his needs. the vendor understands step by step the refined customer needs. . such as prices. Process and Practice Guided selling is put in practice with an information system that supports the central management and maintenance of knowledge. product manufacturer websites and service providers. call-center solutions and instore-devices in specialised trade stores. It also helps vendors of products (e. or behind-the-scenes decision issues that buyers must address before they are ready to make a solution choice. A functional definition of the solution is provided to the customer. illustrations. Goal and Approach The goal of Guided Selling-solutions is to bring together potential buyer's needs and products or services that fulfill his needs in order to facilitate buying decisions. Guided selling simplifies and automates the maintenance and deployment of all knowledge that is required to analyze customer needs. and lay-outs. Guided Selling-Systems increase the shopping experience and the usability of the website since they typically offer a better access to the product assortment than done by filtering systems or free text search. commercial and technical aspects of the customer needs and the possible solutions. even for complex and technical solutions. these models are interacted with by means of questionnaires and explanations to / feedback options to product recommendations. retailer) to actively guide their customers to a buying decision and thus increases their conversion rate.

Product attributes that are always beneficial (e. refine existing needs and discover new needs. RAM-size). The Guided Selling-software allows to simulate a dialog to find out the buyer's needs. Guided Selling-systems are a kind of Recommender systems.Guided selling 150 Guided Selling-Process Guided Selling-Systems put in practice the following Guided Selling-Process to advice. However. buyers are enabled to express their needs. • analyse customer's needs: Consumers typically can express buying desires. The product characteristics that are relevant to a buying decision are explained. longer battery lifetime) need to be treated accordingly. The advantage of Guided Selling to recommender systems is an objectively calculated product proposal and a needs-based product advice that usually has a higher quality than products suggested by recommender systems. but not which exact technical requirements are needed. operating system. Boundaries Guided Selling-Systems are different from Recommender systems in the way that statistical recommenders calculate recommendations based on usage data instead of the actual user input to a questionnaire.g. A matching technology then maps the needs on technical product details and matches the buyer's profile with the available products. a website. The drawback is that Guided Selling-Systems need domain-specific knowledge about the product category whereas recommender systems (at least Collaborative filtering can work across all product categories of e. "I need a business notebook") or concrete.g. hard disk size. • recommend products: The technical product specifications inferred from the customer's needs need to be matched on the fact sheets of the available products. create trust in the product recommendations and the products offered and thus turn prospects into buyers. a certain processor type. Helping the customer to understand his needs and then really understand the attributes important to him is key to calculate product recommendations that fit the customer's requirements. If no product fulfills all requirements. Technology Required Guided Selling-solutions are software systems. Other than Collaborative filtering that calculates recommendations based on historical data (e. Since the Guided Selling-System explains product attributes and use cases. but non-technical product attributes ("a fast processor") in technical product specifications (e. the Guided Selling-System needs to calculate alternatives that come close to the actual requirements. each product recommendation needs to be explained using a reasoning engine and the advantages / disadvantages of each recommendation need to be shown.a consumer knows how he wants to use the product. but not technical specs .g. all relevant product attributes need to be evaluated and matched against the user requirements. Thus. In order to calculate valuable product recommendations. Goal of this approach is to calculate objective recommendations that are based on the individual user's needs. Guided Selling-systems rather analyse the individual user's input to calculate recommendations that best fulfil his personal needs. website usage data such as "users who watched this product also watched these other products"). Guided Selling-systems thus require product information (fact sheets). • provide buying arguments and convince the customer: The goal of the Guided Selling-System is to objectively advise the potential buyer.g. . A Guided Selling-System must thus be able to translate buying desires expressed in consumer language (e.g. convince and sell (based on the need/solution-placement dynamic): • understand the customer's needs: The potential customer is asked for his buying needs. it is not enough to filter out products that just fulfill the requirements expressed by the user.

Guided selling

151

Sources
• Whitepaper Guided Selling published by a Guided Selling specialist [1] • J. Lester, K. Branting, B. Mott: Conversational agents [2], Practical handbook of Internet computing, 2004, S. 3ff • Guided Selling: On demand information for buyers [3], Executive technology report, IBM, August 2005. The paper shows the challenges of retail as buying decisions are taken only more and more and shows how to face the challenges with Guided Selling-solutions. • Axel Schultze: Channel Excellence [4], published by Lulu.com, 2007, S. 215ff, ISBN 061517759X • Sridhar Seshadri, Dana Popescu: Inventory and Ecommerce [5], Department of Information, Operations and Management Science, Leonard Stern School of Business, New York University, New York, NY 10012

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. excentos. com/ en/ whitepaper-guided-selling http:/ / ftp. ida. liu. se/ ~729A15/ mtrl/ Lester_et_al. pdf http:/ / www-935. ibm. com/ services/ us/ imc/ pdf/ gt510-6205-guided-selling. pdf http:/ / books. google. de/ books?hl=de& lr=& id=rT1UAyyYiswC& oi=fnd& pg=PA7& dq=%22Guided+ Selling%22& ots=Q4PVt6RMnr& sig=QwSUXqICgpi8KGPOGK2yOeZQms0 [5] http:/ / pages. stern. nyu. edu/ ~dpopescu/ IME. pdf

Image search optimization
Image search optimization (or image search engine optimization) is the process of organizing the content of a webpage to increase relevance to a specific keyword on image search engines. Like search engine optimization, the aim is to achieve a higher organic search listing and thus increasing the volume of traffic from search engines. Image search optimization techniques can be viewed as a subset of search engine optimization techniques that focuses on gaining high ranks on image search engine results. Unlike normal SEO process, there isn't much to do for ISO. Making high quality images accessible to search engines and providing some description about images is almost all that can be done for ISO.

Checklist For ISO
• Image Naming: • Use a meaningful name rather than 'DC00001.jpg' • Separate words with a hyphen or underscore, but try not to use too many. i.e. green-tree.jpg and green_tree.jpg are better than greentree.jpg or DC00001.jpg.[1] • alt Attribute • Provide a small description of image in alt attribute of img tag. • As a good practice do not leave alt attribute empty, provide at least one word. • Do not fill the alt attribute with lots of keywords, even if they are relevant. • Text Around The Image • Place some text around the image that describes it. • Image Quality • Try to use high resolution images. • If available, provide different resolutions of images • Image Accessibility • Make sure that the directory that contains your images is fully accessible by crawlers.

Image search optimization

152

References
[1] http:/ / searchengineland. com/ its-not-just-google-that-treats-underscores-like-dashes-11854

Impression (online media)
An Impression (online media) according to the "Basic Advertising Measures," from FAST, an ad industry group, is "The count of a delivered basic advertising unit from an ad distribution point." Impressions are how most Web advertising is sold and the cost is quoted in terms of the cost per thousand impressions ( [CPM] ).[1] Another definition of online advertisement impression is the single appearance of an advertisement on a web page. Each time an advertisement loads onto a user's screen, the ad server may count that loading as one impression.

References
[1] "http:/ / whatis. techtarget. com/ definition/ 0,,sid9_gci211535,00. html#"

External links
• CPM (http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci211535,00.html#cpm/) • FAST (http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci211535,00.html#fast/)

In-text advertising
In-text advertising is a form of contextual advertising where specific keywords within the text of a web-page are matched with advertising and/or related information units.

Description
Although contextual advertising in general refers to the inclusion of advertisements adjacent to relevant online context (e.g., Google AdSense), in-text advertising places hyperlinks directly into the text of the webpage.

Advertising Model

Expanded advertisement window associated with the in-text term "PC" (double-underlined).

In text advertising works on a cost per click (CPC) model, which means that each time a website visitor clicks on an In-text ad, the websites owner gets paid by the advertiser.

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153

Criticism
The use of this type of advertising in news and journalism websites has been criticized by journalism ethics counselors as "ethically problematic at the least and potentially quite corrosive of journalistic quality and credibility."[1] However, publishers such as the Indianapolis Star who use in-text advertising have reported that despite early objections by some readers, such complaints have "tapered off".[2]

References
[1] Is It News...or Is It an Ad? (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ public/ article/ SB116412309878729621-1mr_uV3L7Bc8GGLks5qCcsusmyw_20071127. html) By David Kesmodal and Julia Angwin, Wall Street Journal November 27, 2006; Page R8 [2] Pitching Between the Lines (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ magazine/ content/ 07_49/ b4061070. htm?chan=technology_technology+ index+ page_top+ stories) by Catherine Holahan, BusinessWeek December 3, 2007

Interactive advertising
Interactive advertising uses online or offline interactive media to communicate with consumers and to promote products, brands, services, and public service announcements, corporate or political groups. In the inaugural issue of the Journal of Interactive Advertising [1], editors Li and Leckenby (2000) defined Interactive Advertising as the "paid and unpaid presentation and promotion of products, services and ideas by an identified sponsor through mediated means involving mutual action between consumers and producers." This is most commonly performed through the Internet; often using video content as a delivery medium.

Interactive advertising objectives
The goals of interactive advertising are usually akin to the traditional objectives of advertising, i.e. to sell a product. This in turn means that many of the traditional elements of advertising impact and effectiveness remain relevant, even within the scope of interactive media. However, according to the Journal of Interactive Advertising 2001, interactive advertising also has some properties that expand the range of potential objectives and that improve advertising effectiveness. Interactive advertising also has the potential to decrease the losses associated with poorly coordinated advertising, to reduce the difficulties commonly encountered in clearly communicating an advertising message and to help overcome new product hurdles, such as a consumer rejection.

Elements of interactive advertising
There are many different facets to Interactive Advertising, including varying methods and types. Using many different types of cognitive tools and advert presentations, organizations can enhance the impact of their campaigns with this type of advertising. According to Thorson (1996), all advertisements can be classified into one of five basic categories, including: product/service, public service announcement, issue, corporate and political. Advert types also interact with the user's motives to influence outcomes, or consumer responses, reinforcing the need for Interactive Advertising as a means of persuading potential consumers and target audiences. Using the Internet as the main medium for Interactive Advertising to study the methods, types and outcomes, we can then sound out the different user or advertiser controlled aspects.

& Smith. Mahwah. The Interactive Advertising Model: How Users Perceive and Process Online Ads. • Cross. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http:// jiad. [2] (accessed 02/25/2010) • Flew.). (1999).). 2001. In D. Leckenby. Mizerski (Eds. formats and features. Using search to find the businesses that excel in this medium reveals that the organic search leads are dominating the pay per click companies in this area. Schumann & E. E. C. Advertiser controlled aspects Internet aspects that are under the control of the advertiser. S. Brady. 55-78). Banner Ads. References [1] http:/ / jiad. New Media: an introduction Melbourne: Oxford. W. Most of these variables include structural elements. & Haugtvedt. IL: NTC Business Books. pop-up ads. Internet motives and mode are the main factors of user [controlled aspects. T. P. John D. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. such as ad types. pdf . A. Hairong. 2008. R. JIAD. • Rodgers. a number of researchers and practitioners argue that consumers have more control on the Internet than do advertisers (Roehm & Haugtvedt. H. 2004. googlepages. This does not mean that consumers never control the structure of the interactive ads. Advertising and the World Wide Web (pp. Some have gone so far as to argue that interactive marketing and advertising techniques will not work unless practitioners "step into the shoes" of and approach the Internet from the consumer's vantage point (Cross & Smith. J. In fact. & R. 99-117). Cybermarketing: Your Interactive Marketing Consultant (pp. org/ issue1 [2] http:/ / champtec. Lincolnwood.. Center for Interactive Advertising.org/article5 (accessed 03/09/2008) It is important to remember interactive advertising begins with online advertising. hyperlinks and non-carrier websites are examples of Advertiser controlled Interactive Advertising. • Roehm.. Forrest. Internet Advertising Formats and Effectiveness. 27-39). sponsorship. (1997). Customer-focused strategies and tactics. 1997). 1999). Advertising and the World Wide Web (pp. 3rd edition. In R. com/ ad_format_print. Thorson (Eds.Interactive advertising 154 User generated/controlled aspects Functions. Mahwah. • Thorson (Eds. Understanding interactivity of cyberspace advertising.). See Also Digital marketing References • Li.

but also includes marketing done via e-mail and wireless media.[3] Internet marketing ties together the creative and technical aspects of the Internet. is the marketing (generally promotion) of products or services over the Internet. banner ads on specific websites. In 2008. online marketing. also known as digital marketing. the authors found that the potential for collecting data was up to 2. including design. and Web 2. Counting four types of interactions with company websites in addition to the hits from advertisements served from advertising networks. and sales. The New York Times.Internet marketing 155 Internet marketing Marketing Key concepts Product • Pricing Distribution • Service • Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Marketing ethics Marketing effectiveness Market research Market segmentation Marketing strategy Marketing management Market dominance Promotional content Advertising • Branding • Underwriting Direct marketing • Personal Sales Product placement • Publicity Sales promotion • Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing • Premiums • Prizes Promotional media Printing • Publication Broadcasting • Out-of-home Internet marketing • Point of sale Promotional merchandise Digital marketing • In-game In-store demonstration Word-of-mouth marketing Brand Ambassador • Drip Marketing Internet marketing. working with comScore.500 times per user per month. published an initial estimate to quantify the user data collected by large Internet-based companies. search engine optimization (SEO). development. web marketing. Internet marketing is considered to be broad in scope[1] because it not only refers to marketing on the Internet. [4] advertising.[2] Digital customer data and electronic customer relationship management (ECRM) systems are also often grouped together under internet marketing.0 strategies. Internet marketing also refers to the placement of media along many different stages of the customer engagement cycle through search engine marketing (SEM). email marketing.[5] . search marketing or e-marketing.

geography. metro code or zip code.[7] This approach is used in search marketing. Appeal to specific interests When appealing to specific interests. geo targeting and geo marketing are the methods of determining the geolocation of a website visitor with geolocation software. marketers place an emphasis on appealing to a specific behavior or interest. local directory listing. sales letters. affiliate links. Similar to walk-in customers in retail world. the vast majority of affiliate marketing relationships come from e-commerce businesses that offer affiliate programs. For example. Internet Protocol (IP) address.Internet marketing 156 Business models Internet marketing is associated with several business models: • E-commerce: a model whereby goods are sold directly to consumers (B2C). One-to-one approach In a one-to-one approach. Therefore. The entity that owns the product may provide some marketing material (e. The strategy and overall effectiveness of . and allows the creators to establish themselves as authorities on the topic or product.g. Advantages and Limitations of Internet marketing Advantages Internet marketing is inexpensive when examining the ratio of cost to the reach of the target audience. organization. tracking facilities. Companies can reach a wide audience for a small fraction of traditional advertising budgets. businesses have the advantage of appealing to consumers in a medium that can bring results quickly. businesses (B2B). and other general factors. and delivering different content to that visitor based on his or her location. region or state. Geo-targeting In Internet marketing. Local Internet marketing uses tools such as social media marketing. marketers target a user browsing the Internet alone and so that the marketers' messages reach the user personally. The nature of the medium allows consumers to research and to purchase products and services conveniently. Niche marketers differ from traditional Internet marketers as they have a more specialized topic knowledge. Niche Marketing Niche and hyper-niche internet marketing put further emphasis on creating destinations for web users and consumers on specific topics and products. • Local Internet marketing: a strategy through which a small company utilizes the Internet to find and to nurture relationships that can be used for real-world advantages. etc. Niche marketing provides end users of such sites very targeted information. niche marketing would focus on more specific topics such as 4-slice toasters. ISP. • Affiliate Marketing: a process wherein a product or service developed by one entity is sold by other active sellers for a share of profits. such as latitude and longitude.). city. rather than reaching out to a broadly defined demographic. for which the advertisements are based on search engine keywords entered by the users. country. and other criteria. These marketers typically segment their markets according to age group.[6] and targeted online sales promotions. gender. or from consumer to consumer (C2C). These prospects are often referred to as organic leads.. whereas in traditional Internet marketing a website would be created and promoted on a high-level topic such as kitchen appliances. however. • Lead-based websites: a strategy whereby an organization generates value by acquiring sales leads from its website. This approach usually works under the pay per click (PPC) method.

and are unable to stop the transfer of their information between companies if such activity occurs. and so on. and by leveraging merchant and feedback rating systems and e-commerce bonding solutions. All these solutions attempt to assure consumers that their transactions will be free of problems because the merchants can be trusted to provide reliable products and services. from the buyer's perspective. pay per play. the price shown on eBay often becomes the item's . to visit a website. and Overstock. Specialized e-stores sell a vast amount of items like antiques. The advertisers can use a variety of methods. advertisers can more effectively engage and connect their audience with their campaigns that seek to shape consumer attitudes and feelings towards specific products and services. to smell. several major online payment mechanisms (credit cards. and pay per action. Many firms are embracing a paradigm that is shifting the focus of advertising methodology from traditional text and image advertisements to those containing more recent technologies like JavaScript and Adobe Flash.com). pay per click. to taste. However. the inability of shoppers to touch. Buyers and sellers often look at prices on the website before going to flea markets. Usage trends Technological advancements in the telecommunications industry have dramatically affected online advertising techniques. Online merchants have attempted to address this concern by investing in and building strong consumer brands (e. marketers can determine which messages or offerings are more appealing to the audience. 157 Limitations However. Amazon. and "to try on" tangible goods before making an online purchase can be limiting. Online banking appeals to customers because it is often faster and considered more convenient than visiting bank branches.Internet marketing marketing campaigns depend on business goals and cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis. gadgets.) have provided back-end buyer protection systems to address problems if they occur. and tested.[8] Internet auctions Internet auctions have become a multi-billion dollar business. and to perform a targeted action.com. eBay.g. PayPal. eBay is often used as a price-basis for specialized items. Many consumers are hesitant to purchase items over the Internet because they do not believe that their personal information will remain private. Another major security concern that consumers have with e-commerce merchants is whether or not they will receive exactly what they purchase. clothing. Some companies that purchase customer information offer the option for individuals to have their information removed from the database. However. The results of campaigns can be measured and tracked immediately because online marketing initiatives usually require users to click on an advertisement. Google Checkout. Unique items that could only previously be found at flea markets are now being sold on Internet auction websites such as eBay. etc. measured. Effects on industries The number of banks offering the ability to perform banking tasks over the internet has increased. almost all aspects of an Internet marketing campaign can be traced. Security concerns Information security is important both to companies and consumers that participate in online business.[9] [10] As the premier online reselling platform. many customers are unaware if and when their information is being shared. As a result. Internet marketers also have the advantage of measuring statistics easily and inexpensively. also known as opting out. movie props. such as pay per impression.. Therefore. Additionally. there is an industry standard for e-commerce vendors to reassure customers by having liberal return policies as well as providing in-store pick-up services.

Retrieved August 15. nytimes. blogging. Where?" (http:/ / print. David (February 24. net/ en/ 1/ iabknowledgebankadspend.[11] [12] [13] PricewaterhouseCoopers reported that US$16. Daily Mirror. [4] Charlesworth. Web Is Keeping Closer Eye on You" (http:/ / www. lk/ business/ 127-local/ 38977. directtraffic. automotive or gambling. Retrieved 24 March 2011. html). "Movie props on the block: Mouse to auction Miramax leftovers" (http:/ / www. html) (2007-06-18) [14] PricewaterhouseCoopers reported U. [11] eMarketer . com/ onetoone/ overview. References [1] "Internet Marketing . "Mobile customer relationship management: underlying issues and challenges" (in (English)). in Story. prweb. htm). . com/ imagepages/ 2008/ 03/ 10/ technology/ 20080310_PRIVACY_GRAPHIC. candidates for President heavily utilized Internet marketing strategies to reach constituents. [2] "Former Wachovia Direct Marketing Executives Launch Full Service Online Marketing and Web Design Company" (http:/ / www.Internet advertising shoots past estimates (http:/ / www. "To Aim Ads.9 billion (http:/ / www. com/ Article. org/ OnlineNews/ Internet_marketing_20075115473. Retrieved 24 March 2011. emarketer. Business Process Management Journal 13 (6): 772. org/ 10638959-put-the-mphasis-on-local-internet-marketing-and-reach-first-page-on-google. In just a few years. pReed Business Information. Time. Internet marketing: a practical approach. people. iabuk. org/ pres08/ summary. .[15] President Barack Obama raised over US$1 million in one day during his extensive Democratic candidacy campaign. Butterworth-Heinemann. "Put the E-mphasis on Local Internet Marketing and reach first page on Google" (http:/ / www. (2007). "Bid on Dreamgirls Costumes for Charity"" (http:/ / offtherack. html). Ian (February 27. theregister. on average. 49. [7] http:/ / www. opensecrets.Internet marketing selling price. [6] Rayner.Online Adspend (http:/ / www. htm [8] http:/ / www. .S. . music. asp?id=9) (SIPP)" (Accessed 28-June-2008) [16] "Center For Responsive Politics (http:/ / www. html [9] Mohr. online advertising has grown to be worth tens of billions of dollars annually. 2007). 2008). largely due to online donors. pp. html). 2010). . uk/ 2006/ 09/ 29/ internet_advertising_booms/ ) (2006-09-29) [13] Internet Advertising Bureau . 2006). html?categoryid=1238& cs=1). Some of them were originally brick and mortar businesses such as publishing. php?id=N00009638) Fundraising Profile Barack Obama" (Accessed 28-June-2008) com/ releases/ eSynergize/ Online-Marketing/ prweb5163484. .Political Performance Index (http:/ / spartaninternet. Internet marketing spend totaled $16.How. . 158 Advertising industry In addition to the major effect internet marketing has had on the technology industry. nytimes. consumeraffairs. "They Know More Than You Think" (http:/ / www. co. 2010. and internet service hosting. while others have sprung up as purely online businesses. [5] Story. The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Andrew (April 21. com/ news04/ online_banking_survey. com/ article/ VR1117938954. com/ 2008/ news. In 2008. . the effect on the advertising industry itself has been profound.1108/14637150710834541. During the 2007 primaries candidates added. [3] Jaakko Sinisalo et al. html) in 2006" (Accessed 18-June-2007) [15] "Spartan Internet Consulting .[16] Several industries have heavily invested in and benefited from internet marketing and online advertising. When. html) (JPEG). managingchange. The New York Times. dailymirror. prlog. [10] James. Louise (March 10. 2008). Inc. doi:10.5 Billion in 2007 (http:/ / www. Louise and comScore (March 10. in 2006. variety. such as digital design and media. aspx?1004635) (2007-2-28) [12] The Register . Retrieved 2008-03-09. Alan (2009). com/ 2007/ 02/ dress_like_a_dr.S.[14] This has caused a growing impact on the United States' electoral process.Online Ad Spending to Total $19. html#comment-66215834).9 billion was spent on Online marketing in the U.. over 500 social network supporters per day to help spread their message. com/ 2008/ 03/ 10/ technology/ 10privacy.

Web analytics. MySpace. Other management methods include sales force management systems.Internet presence management 159 Internet presence management Internet Presence Management (IPM) is the process of controlling the Web presence. Internet presence The Internet presence. or Web presence. but is not limited to: • • • • • • • • • E-mail Internet forums Blogs Minisites Search engine listings Social networks (e. where an advertiser communicates the entity's brand in a synergistic fashion via all areas of online marketing. enterprise resource planning. or Internet-based channels of an organization or company. Advantages Internet presence management is useful for organizations or companies that are attempting to embrace the online medium as means of connecting with their target audiences. . YouTube and Twitter) Web directories Websites Word of mouth marketing (WOMM). as well as reduce customer acquisition and customer service costs.. Methods Internet presence management typically encompasses advanced Internet marketing. and business analytics to streamline a business operationally to do more with less. Facebook. for an organization or company encompasses.g. with the goal of increasing that entity's online presence and overall internet efficiency.

"Search for the Moon Rocks".[2] JESS3 is led by Thomas along with president and co-founder Leslie Bradshaw. JESS3 also developed the C-SPAN Video Library.000 hours of programming and won an ACC Golden Beacon award on September 16.[9] for which they received a Webby Award nomination in 2009. president http:/ / jess3.[14] [15] The same month. MySpace. D.[13] The application allows users to share stories about how Facebook has impacted their lives. specializing in web design. chairman Leslie Bradshaw. 2010. United States Key people Jesse Thomas. Nike. D.C. with more than 100 freelance partners.[1] The firm is noted for its work with clients including NASA.[8] Notable projects In August 2008. In October 2010.JESS3 160 JESS3 JESS3 Type Genre Founder(s) Private Creative agency Jesse Thomas Headquarters Washington. The first 100 users to earn the pin also received a JESS3-designed special edition map. JESS3 designed a series of websites related to the 2008 presidential election for the Washington-based C-SPAN public affairs network..[2] Clients of JESS3 have included Nike.[16] [5] On October 22.[12] In July 2010.[7] As of 2010.[11] which launched in March 2010. creating NASA-related items for the service's users to acquire.[13] JESS3 has served as social media adviser to NASA on multiple geosocial networking projects.C. area. JESS3 organized a partnership between NASA and Foursquare to engineer the first geosocial check-in from space. the firm claims 15 full time employees. com Website JESS3 is a creative interactive agency based in the Washington. and offices in the United Kingdom. Facebook[2] and Wikipedia[3] as well as independent projects such as The Conversation Prism and The Ex-Blocker.[10] In addition to the election websites. social media marketing. infographics and data visualization. branding.[5] [6] In 2009. Intel and Microsoft. 2010.[4] Background Founded by web designer Jesse Thomas in 2007. JESS3 coordinated a joint project between NASA and Gowalla. JESS3 collaborated with Facebook on a project called Stories to help celebrate the social networking site's 500 millionth profile. sortable by geographical location or by topic. JESS3 became Mashable's design partner on projects including their iPhone application.[12] The website provides access to the digitized C-SPAN video archives of over 160. as well as a special NASA pin. International Space .

the agency designed a diagram called "The Twitterverse" with Brian Solis that outlines the expanding network of applications that function with the popular web tool. including an articles in Glamour Magazine UK. San Fransisco. Transocean.[33] [34] In February 2010. D. the video had been viewed online over 1 million times.[25] mentioned during a segment on Late Night With Jimmy Fallon[26] and received media coverage internationally.000 people have installed the Ex-Blocker plug-in. the company also introduced The Ex-Blocker.[20] [21] 161 JESS3 Labs In June 2010. black splotch within a user's browser. ten countries and four continents.JESS3 Station (ISS) commander Douglas H. the Gulf Oil Spill and other names and phrases into a dripping. 3 countries and one continent are unknown.[4] The application was profiled in The Globe and Mail.[18] Other projects JESS3 has developed for NASA include their "Buzzroom" website. CA Brooklyn. which enables users to prevent their web browser from showing their ex-lovers' activities and posts on various websites.S.[35] which included a series of infographics outlining the rise of the internet and other information regarding popular social networking and media sites such as YouTube and Twitter.[19] which tracks NASA-related tweets.[29] [30] Data visualization JESS3 has created and co-sponsored numerous visual design projects.[31] The design appeared in an article about information graphics in the July/August 2009 issue of Communication Arts.[28] Global hubs JESS3 has teams in over a dozen cities. JESS3 debuted the "Black Oil Plug-In" for Firefox that renders any mention of BP.C. City (11) Washington.[22] [23] [24] That same month. plus related images and videos. a customized NASA Foursquare homepage was launched which provides information about locations of interest to the U.[17] In addition.[32] In the spring of 2009. NY ? ? Paris ? Boston. TX ? ? Country (7)  United States  United States  United States  United Kingdom  Greece  France  Argentina  United States  United States  Sweden  Germany Continent (3) North America North America North America Europe Europe Europe South America North America North America Europe Europe At least one global hub city. Wheelock checked in to Foursquare from the ISS and unlocked a new "NASA Explorer" badge. space program.[27] As of October 2010 over 8. A project titled The Conversation Prism elaborately maps methods of communication across numerous online forums. MA Austin. the company released a video titled "The State of the Internet" on Vimeo. As of May 2010.[36] .

php?season=13#webby_entry_politics). c-span. JESS3 designed the website AnOrangeAmerica. . "NASA astronaut 'checks in' on Foursquare from space" (http:/ / thehill. .com. bp. [22] Christina Warren (2 June 2010). C-SPAN. [6] PR Newswire (27 October 2010). com/ lifestyle/ 2010/ 07/ 18/ 2010-07-18_ex_out_your_exs_existence_online. Retrieved 31 October 2010. multichannel. 22 October 2010. Press release. Retrieved 27 October 2010. getglue/ ). "Oil spill Firefox plugin blacks out BP across the Web" (http:/ / articles. In June 2010. com/ article2/ 0. com/ us/ blog/ 6302-q-a-nasa-s-stephanie-schierholz). com/ blogs/ hillicon-valley/ technology/ 125417-nasa-astronaut-checks-in-on-foursquare-from-space). mashable_1_bp-british-petroleum-blacked?_s=PM:TECH). . media/ 10/ 22/ astronaut. "Mashable iPhone App Launches!" (http:/ / mashable. . 5 May 2009. [10] "The 13th Annual Webby Awards Nominees & Winners: Politics" (http:/ / webbyawards. JESS3 developed a microsite for "My Discovery". Retrieved 26 October 2010. "Q&A: NASA's Stephanie Schierholz on navigating the frontiers of social media" (http:/ / econsultancy. . [7] Pete Cashmore (1 April 2009). Retrieved 25 October 2010. PC Magazine. "Official Foursquare 'I Voted' Badge Released for Polling Place Check-Ins" (http:/ / www. foursquare. [19] "Houston. com/ webbys/ current. Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ news/ viewpr.com and launched it on Election Day. com/ 2010-06-02/ tech/ oil. html).com. . asp). prnewswire. com/ gadgetreviews/ ?p=381). The Webby Awards.2371303. spaceref. com/ the-state-of-wikipedia/ [4] Matthew Lysiak and Erica Pearson (18 July 2010). space/ ). Zdnet. [23] "JESS3 Creates Firefox Plugin for BP Oil Spill. Mashable. . CNN. Retrieved 29 October 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010. the Discovery Channel's 25th anniversary program. Spaceref Interactive. com/ 2010/ 07/ 26/ jess3-design-interview/ )"]. ZDNet. com/ news-releases/ official-foursquare-i-voted-badge-released-for-polling-place-check-ins-105887113. org/ pdf/ Video Library Now Open. Wireless Week. com/ article/ 457243-ACC_Awards_Golden_Beacon_To_C_SPAN_s_Video_Library. Political Destination" (http:/ / blogs. . . Mashable.[37] The site visualized election-related tweets about Barack Obama and John McCain as they happened. [3] http:/ / jess3. php?post=409753352130).[38] [39] References [1] "Interview With the Entrepreneur" (http:/ / technosailor. com/ 2008/ 05/ 30/ interview-with-the-entrepreneur-jesse-thomas-of-jess3). [17] Matt Fitzpatrick (23 October 2010). pcmag. Retrieved 27 October 2010. cnn. We’ve Had A Check-In: NASA Astronaut Just Used Foursquare From Space" (http:/ / www. 30 May 2008. HBO join mobile check-in game" (http:/ / edition. capitolcommunicator. . Technosailor. . pdf). "'Ex-Blocker' deletes all mentions of ex from your Facebook and other social networking sites" (http:/ / www. aspx). com/ News/ tabid/ 116/ EntryID/ 1058/ Default. "500 Million Stories" (http:/ / blog. CNN. [13] Mark Zuckerberg (21 July 2010). php). .JESS3 162 Other projects For the 2008 US Presidential Election. Retrieved 25 October 2010. com/ 2010/ TECH/ social. [20] Meghan Keane (23 July 2010). NY Daily News. [12] Mike Reynolds (16 September 2010). worldtech24. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. with data directly from Twitter's API. [5] Sara Jerome (22 October 2010). 15 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ 2009/ 04/ 01/ mashable-iphone-app/ ). zdnet. Retrieved 25 October 2010. [2] Jolie O'Dell (26 July 2010). [21] "NASA Invites Reporters To Next Space Shuttle Launch And Tweetup" (http:/ / www. Zdnet "C-SPAN Launches Gadget-Fueled 'Debate Hub' as Social. "ACC Awards Golden Beacon To C-SPAN's Video Library" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ weird/ Foursquare-Now-Allowing-Check-ins-from-Space-105577508. . html). 2 June 2010. out. nbcwashington. . Retrieved 20 November 2010. "Foursquare Now Allowing Check-ins From Space" (http:/ / www. com/ business/ houston-we-ve-had-check-nasa-astronaut-just-used-foursquare-space). Hillicon-Valley. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Capitol Communicator. "NASA. firefox. The Hill. [11] "C-SPAN’s Online Video Library Now Open to the Public" (http:/ / www. NewBay Media. E-consultancy. Retrieved 27 October 2010.2817. com/ blog.00. through agency partner New Media Strategies. "First Foursquare badge unlocked in space" (http:/ / www. Advantage Business Media. com/ 2010/ TECH/ mobile/ 10/ 14/ hbo. [16] Eric Kuhn (22 October 2010). Retrieved 25 October 2010. Facebook. LLC. wirelessweek. [15] Doug Gross (14 October 2010). CNN. 18 October 2010. spill. . html). blacks. com/ 2010/ 08/ 24/ the-state-of-the-geosocial-universe-infographic/ )"]. Mashable. . 17 March 2010. . . NBC. [9] Andrew Nusca (25 September 2008). 2010" (http:/ / www. BP Adds VP Cheney's PR Pro" (http:/ / www. cnn. "Inside the Mind of One of the Web’s Hottest Designers [INTERVIEW (http:/ / mashable. WorldTech24. Retrieved 29 October 2010. "Astronaut Posts First Foursquare Check-In from Space" (http:/ / www. [8] Jesse Thomas (24 August 2010). com/ News/ 2010/ 10/ FirstNews-Briefs-15/ ). [14] "FirstNews Briefs for October 15. "The State of the GeoSocial Universe [INFOGRAPHIC (http:/ / mashable. [18] Chloe Albanesius (22 October 2010). Retrieved 29 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. . . html?pid=31873). . .. Retrieved 26 October 2010. Multichannel News. facebook. nydailynews. cnn. NBC Washington.

. com/ about/ [30] http:/ / jess3. html). . 1 June 2010. jess3. The Globe and Mail. . twitter. [25] Dakshana Bascaramurty (15 July 2010). . huffingtonpost. "Powers of Ten for the Twitterverse" (http:/ / www. Glamour Magazine UK. The Irish Times. html). Retrieved 29 October 2010. [28] Ian McCourt (11 October 2010). [39] Robin Sloan (13 July 2010). The Washington Post. Brand Republic. co. Retrieved 27 October 2010. glamourmagazine. com/ ten-things-ceos-need-to-know-about-design/ Slide 4 [31] Bill Lohmann (31 May 2009). Retrieved 27 October 2010. . . "How to Erase Your Ex From the Internet" (http:/ / www. capitolcommunicator. JESS3. Twitter Media. "Companies create efforts to capitalize on election" (http:/ / www. com/ 2009/ 06/ conversation-prism-in-communication. com/ News/ 860737/ Companies-create-efforts-capitalize-election/ ). com/ life/ family-and-relationships/ how-to-erase-your-ex-from-the-internet/ article1641586/ ). [36] "JESS3 Video Viewed Over 1 Million Times" (http:/ / www. PSFK. com/ 2010/ 06/ 01/ bp-black-oil-firefox-plug_n_596791. html). html). [32] JESS3 (30 June 2009). . [37] Nicole Zerillo (10 November 2008). [38] "Discovery Communications My Discovery" (http:/ / jess3. Retrieved 27 October 2010. JESS3. "Block Your Ex" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 29 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. . . aspx). [33] MG Siegler (1 June 2009). Retrieved 27 October 2010. "The new networking" (http:/ / www. net/ jess3/ the-exblocker-on-late-night-with-jimmy-fallon-4854951). timesdispatch. Twitter. com/ newspaper/ features/ 2010/ 1011/ 1224280782476. . com/ 836/ my-discovery). com/ my-discovery/ ). "Add-on that can erase your ex" (http:/ / www.com) . "Small Discoveries" (http:/ / media. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. uk/ love-sex-relationships/ g-spot-blog/ 2010/ 07/ block-your-ex-application). Retrieved 27 October 2010. 163 External links • JESS3 Official website (http://jess3. [27] Jean Hannah Edelstein (22 July 2010). Capitol Communicator. psfk. [26] "The Ex-Blocker on Late Night With Jimmy Fallon" (http:/ / www. The Huffington Post. . . theglobeandmail. [29] http:/ / jess3. Retrieved 27 October 2010. . "The Conversation Prism in Communication Arts Magazine" (http:/ / blog. com/ News/ tabid/ 116/ EntryID/ 1052/ Default. [35] JESS3 (22 February 2010). com/ rtd/ lifestyles/ leisure/ article/ S-FACE31_20090527-204924/ 270241). Retrieved 27 October 2010. Vimeo. Haymarket Business Media. html). com/ 2009/ 06/ powers-of-ten-for-the-twitterverse. Richmond Times-Dispatch. com/ 9641036). Retrieved 27 October 2010. . SlideShare. "The Future Of Twitter Visualized" (http:/ / www.JESS3 [24] "Oil Spill Firefox Plugin Dirties Your Browser With 'Black Oil'" (http:/ / www. slideshare. brandrepublic. washingtonpost. "The State of the Internet" (http:/ / vimeo. Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 06/ 01/ AR2009060103065. irishtimes. [34] Simon Mainwaring (2 June 2009).

local search. incomplete. Inaccurate. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content. videos. uses methods such as link farms. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan. to the various engines which would send a "spider" to "crawl" that page. SEO considers how search engines work. however. Another class of techniques. extract links to other pages from it. what people search for. History Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s. content management systems. the actual search terms typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. [4] The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing that phrase is by Bruce Clay effective March. Search engines look for sites that employ these techniques in order to remove them from their indices. academic search[1] . The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe website designs.[7] . news search and industry-specific vertical search engines. images. Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results. creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners. known as black hat SEO or spamdexing. The acronym "SEOs" can refer to "search engine optimizers. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks.[3] The first documented use of the term Search Engine Optimization was John Audette [4] and his company Multimedia Marketing Group as documented by a web page from the MMG site from August. as well as any weight for specific words. which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date. known as an indexer.[2] The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine's own server. This gives a website web presence. where a second program. the phrase "search engine optimization" probably came into use in 1997." a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients. shopping carts. Initially. Meta tags provide a guide to each page's content. because the webmaster's choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site's actual content. In general. 1997. extracts various information about the page. video search. Other forms of search engine marketing (SEM) target paid listings.[6] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines. all webmasters needed to do was submit the address of a page.Keyword optimization 164 Keyword optimization Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. and return information found on the page to be indexed. is another SEO tactic. such as the words it contains and where these are located. SEO tactics may be incorporated into website development and design. the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. 1997. including image search. keyword stuffing and article spinning that degrade both the relevance of search results and the quality of user-experience with search engines.[5] Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag. and all links the page contains. or inbound links. SEO may target different kinds of search. As an Internet marketing strategy. menus. as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. and other elements that have been optimized for the purpose of search engine exposure. or index files in engines like ALIWEB. and more frequently a site appears in the search results list. and by employees who perform SEO services in-house. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable. the earlier (or higher on the page). or URL.

and selling links. Google crafted results for logged in users. Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet users. meta tags. Although PageRank was more difficult to game. Google. and have published their opinions in online forums and blogs. do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages. involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming. allowing those results to be false would turn users to find other search sources. taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way. In effect. Aaron Wall and Jill Whalen. have studied different approaches to search engine optimization.Keyword optimization By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster's control. Flash and Javascript. as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer. To provide better results to their users. Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links." a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. or link farms.[16] In 2007 Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank.[15] In 2008. search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation. who liked its simple design. and Yahoo.[17] On June 15. The number calculated by the algorithm.[21] 165 . and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. 2009. because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search. In order to avoid the above. often on a massive scale. Depending on their history of previous searches.[9] Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency. SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting. Some of these schemes. links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. this means that some links are stronger than others. headings. It would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked. Bing.[11] The leading search engines. webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine. PageRank. Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Bruce Clay said that "ranking is dead" because of personalized search. is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links. in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting.[8] PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web. rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters.[12] [13] SEO practitioners may also study patents held by various search engines to gain insight into the algorithms. such as Rand Fishkin. buying. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms. search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results. Graduate students at Stanford University. Notable SEO service providers. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings. and follows links from one page to another. developed "backrub. a well-known software engineer at Google.[14] In 2005 Google began personalizing search results for each user. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search.[20] Real-time-search was introduced in late 2009 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. Matt Cutts. Barry Schwartz. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes. Page and Brin founded Google in 1998.[18] As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank. Many sites focused on exchanging.[10] By 2004. Google says it ranks sites using more than 200 different signals. [19] In December 2009 Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results.

[24] Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban.[26] Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry.[35] Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site.[27] [28] [29] Google has a Sitemaps program[30] to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website.[31] Bing Toolbox provides a way from webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds.[22] Yahoo and Google offices Due to the high marketing value of targeted search results. with the advent of paid inclusion. Bing and Yahoo!. Google guidelines are a list of suggested practices Google has provided as guidance to webmasters. Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results. search engines sometimes have problems with crawling sites with certain kinds of graphic content. In 2005. and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords. there is potential for an adversarial relationship between search engines and SEO service providers. but do crawling for either a set fee or cost per click. especially pages that aren't discoverable by automatically following links. flash files. some search engines now have a vested interest in the health of the optimization community.[34] Google offers Google Webmaster Tools. Not every page is indexed by the search engines. Traffic Power. Methods Getting indexed The leading search engines. Early search engines.[23] was created to discuss and minimize the damaging effects of aggressive web content providers. which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients. Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web. such as Infoseek. allowing users to determine the crawl rate. not guarantee specific ranking within the search results.[33] Two major directories. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically. adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings.Keyword optimization 166 Relationship with search engines By 1997 search engines recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines. chats. AIRWeb. notably Yahoo!.[25] Google's Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients. for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found. In 2005. and how many pages have been indexed by their search engine. the Wall Street Journal reported on a company. operate a paid submission service that guarantee [32] Such programs usually guarantee inclusion in the database. determine how many pages are in the Yahoo! index and view link information. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled.[36] Additionally. Some search engines. use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. Yahoo! Site Explorer provides a way for webmasters to submit URLs. an annual conference. and seminars. the Yahoo Directory and the Open Directory Project both require manual submission and human editorial review. and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization. [37] . and dynamic content. In fact. such as Google. portable document format files.

txt file in the root directory of the domain. and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden. will tend to improve the relevancy of a site's search listings. and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled. using the "canonical" meta tag[40] or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page's link popularity score.[44] although the two are not identical. A search engine's algorithm takes this into account. and the practitioners who employ them. a technique known as cloaking.Keyword optimization 167 Preventing crawling To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes.txt file is then parsed. a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine's database by using a meta tag specific to robots. In March 2007. not for search engines. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users. White hat versus black hat SEO techniques are classified by some into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design. Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam. including the title tag and meta description. Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. Cross linking between pages of the same website to provide more links to most important pages may improve its visibility. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility. webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots. Additionally.[39] Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site. The robots. technique or method is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines' guidelines and involves no deception.[42] An SEO tactic. When a search engine visits a site. either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. such as Google's PageRank. in an invisible div. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines' algorithms. or black hat SEO. this is an important distinction to note. Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods. Adding relevant keywords to a web page's meta data. as either white hat SEO. either as text colored similar to the background. and those techniques that search engines do not approve of and attempt to minimize the effect of. Some industry commentators classify these methods. Traditional marketing means have allowed this through transparency and exposure.[39] Writing content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase. so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic. referred to as spamdexing. but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. whereas black hats anticipate that their sites will eventually be banned once the search engines discover what they are doing.[41] White hats tend to produce results that last a long time. the robots. it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls. or positioned off screen. As the search engine guidelines[27] [28] [29] [43] are not written as a series of rules or commandments. or involve deception. thus increasing traffic. making efforts to deliver quality content to an audience that has requested the quality content. rather than attempting to game the algorithm. One infamous example was the February 2006 Google . Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine. or by a manual site review. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines.[38] Increasing prominence A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results. White Hat SEO is merely effective marketing.

the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same. Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches. However. setting up analytics programs to enable site owners to measure their successes. (Some trading sites such as eBay can be a special case for this. in a twist of irony. fixed the offending pages. Japan. there were only about five in Germany. the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise. addressing technical issues that may keep search engines from crawling and indexing those sites. receive a very small share of their traffic from search engines. "Search marketers. Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu.[55] While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time.[52] International markets Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. Yandex and Seznam are market leaders. Otherwise.[45] Both companies. but it also may involve the use of paid advertising on search engines and other pages.[53] In markets outside the United States. as does competition.org[51] has suggested.[55] . and improving a site's conversion rate. their algorithms change. a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors. A successful Internet marketing campaign may drive organic traffic. The search engines' market shares vary from market to market. when Google is not leading in a given market. Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages. Google had an 85-90% market share in Germany. and were restored to Google's list. registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market. and web hosting that provides a local IP address. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty. achieved through optimization techniques and not paid advertising. As of 2009. Yahoo! Japan. building high quality web pages to engage and persuade. it will announce how and when the ranking algorithm will change a few months before changing the algorithm).Keyword optimization removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices. to web pages.[48] SEO may generate a return on investment. In 2003. there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. and there are no guarantees of continued referrals. depending on the site operator's goals. and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007. their main sources of traffic are links from other websites.[49] It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic.[56] That market share is achieved in a number of countries.[47] This includes paid search advertising which has its own version of SEO called ATO (Ad Text Optimization).[50] A top-ranked SEO blog Seomoz. however. it is lagging behind a local player. quickly apologized. Google's share is often larger." Instead. search engines are not paid for organic search traffic. and other Internet marketing strategies can be much more effective. regardless of language.[55] As of June 2008. Naver.[46] 168 As a marketing strategy SEO is not necessarily an appropriate strategy for every website. In most cases. The most notable markets where this is the case are China.[54] As of 2006. South Korea.

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[56] Jack Schofield (2008-06-10).html). html?page=3625072). Retrieved 2007-05-10. [59] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: KinderStart v. htm). ericgoldman.com. .com Webmaster Guidelines (http://about. .com&format=b1) • Ask. org/ archives/ 2006/ 03/ google_sued_ove. . uk/ technology/ blog/ 2008/ jun/ 10/ googleukclosesinon90mark). com/ showPage.py?hl=en& answer=35769) • Yahoo! Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. Google" (http:/ / blog. org/ article/ search-blog-stats#4).com/en/docs/about/webmasters.ask. Inc. . docstoc. com/ docs/ 618281/ Order-(Granting-Googles-Motion-to-Dismiss-Search-Kings-Complaint)) (PDF). USA Today. Jefferson (2003-08-26). CIV-02-1457-M" (http:/ / www. html). com.Keyword optimization [51] "SEOmoz: Best SEO Blog of 2006" (http:/ / www. London: Guardian. May 27. com/ 2100-1032_3-1011740.hastingsresearch.com/net/ 09-SEO-ELIS-encyclopedia-article. [57] "Search King. 2003).nytimes. htm).yahoo.com/help. January 3. "The search engine that could" (http:/ / www.google. Retrieved 2008-06-10. Retrieved 2008-06-23. co. Retrieved 2007-05-14. Third Edition ." article in The New York Times (February 12.com/l/us/yahoo/search/basics/basics-18. . .org. Google Technology. blog. "Judge dismisses suit against Google" (http:/ / news. . Click. 2011) • Search Engine Optimization and User Behavior (http://www. [53] Graham. Retrieved 2008-06-23. seomoz. [55] Mike Grehan (April 3.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer. Search Engine Watch.live. Retrieved 2007-05-15.shtml) • " The Dirty Little Secrets of Search (http://www. CNET. Retrieved 2007-05-15. 2007.ericgoldman. 2006).org. com/ showPage. Inc. htm). "Stats Show Google Dominates the International Search Landscape" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. searchenginejournal. "Google UK closes in on 90% market share" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-05-23.org. com/ tech/ news/ 2003-08-25-google_x. . com/ seomoz-best-seo-blog-of-2006/ 4195/ ).ericgoldman. usatoday.aspx?mkt=en-us&project=wl_webmasters& querytype=&query=&tmt=&domain=help.com. seomoz. [52] "A survey of 25 blogs in the search space comparing external metrics to visitor tracking data" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-05-31. [58] Stefanie Olsen (May 30. .html).html) • Bing Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. docstoc. 2003. Retrieved 2007-05-31. an article from the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences. Google Dismissed—With Sanctions Against KinderStart's Counsel" (http:/ / blog. html?page=3595926).. [60] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: Google Sued Over Rankings—KinderStart.live. ericgoldman. 171 External links • Google Webmaster Guidelines (http://www. clickz. blog. guardian. searchenginejournal. [54] Greg Jarboe (2007-02-22). "Search Engine Optimizing for Europe" (http:/ / www.com v. v. .com/2011/02/13/business/13search. org/ archives/ 2007/ 03/ kinderstart_v_g_2.

• Stored Procedures. consisting of a crawler. System that allows researchers to incorporate new algorithms or data mining models within the Service Container. keyword suggestion (ITermSuggestion). These services are based on the Windows Communications Foundation and can be consumed by client applications (e. Keyword API The Keyword Service Platform has defined a set of APIs for each class of keyword services. To find the five most closely related keywords to "BMW". Set of providers that support various keyword technologies.5). keyword forecast (ITermForecast). Architecture The following components comprise the Keyword Service Platform architecture: • Keyword API. These services are used by different providers and executed by stored procedures. which contains a set of algorithms for providing information about keywords used in search engine queries. • Server Object Model. Data model that allows developers to leverage different services. The KSP uniquely delivers a standardized set of keyword technologies through a Web services model. The query result is shown in the following table. Core components. and Wayne Guan at Microsoft adCenter Labs in May 2006. Keyword suggestion Keyword suggestions are handled via the ITermSuggestion interface. keyword monetization (ITermMonetization). Host to all service providers and Stored Procedures. • Provider Plug-in Framework. and by default. accessible via an application programming interface (API) and a Microsoft Excel add-in. The KSP was originally conceived by ZhaoHui Tang. keyword association. in-memory data structures. Microsoft Excel add-in) or mashups. • Security. sorted by confidence: . or keyword classification. which allows parallel execution. Component that handles permissions that pertain to provider procedures (methods) and Stored Procedure implementation. Procedures for consolidating and centralizing the logic behind applications. etc. • Service Container. The platform aims to provide a core set of data and technology to empower search engine marketing and keyword research efforts. keyword extraction.NET programming languages to create procedures that combine the use of different providers. KSP API beta access is available for researchers and developers upon request from the Keyword Services Platform [1] feedback link. Selected sets of these procedures are made available to users. Developers may use .g. Set of standard Web services for various keyword tasks. keyword categorization (ITermCategorization). and several others. Each provider brings a specific keyword technology to the KSP architecture—for instance.Keyword Services Platform 172 Keyword Services Platform The Keyword Services Platform (KSP) is a keyword research tool available through Microsoft adCenter. Dylan Huang. These interfaces for Web services include keyword extraction (ITermExtraction). • Shared Services. The APIs define the signatures of each Web service.. or implement additional business logic processing based on the output from a provider. word stemming algorithms. the following method call may be used: GetTermSuggestion("BMW".

2).Keyword Services Platform 173 OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus BMW cars BMW Z4 To view the five suggested five terms with the corresponding confidence score."Score>0. The results are similar to those available through the Data Mining Extensions (DMX) in SQL.96 0.89 Support 10000 9000 11000 12000 BMW cars 0. OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus Score 0.true). batch query syntax can be used. The query result is shown in the following table. as these are the only terms that meet the criterion of the filter.5. OriginalTerm BMW BMW Honda Honda Ford Ford Term Auto Car Lexus Sedan Pickup Truck . The query result is shown in the following table along with columns for score and support. a filter can be used on the Score column with the following method call: GetTermSuggestion("BMW". Score represents the confidence or probability.96 0. only four rows are returned. The query result is shown in the following table. suppose that the keywords are stored in myInputTermTable.89 0. a third parameter can be used to indicate that statistics should be returned: GetTermSuggestion("BMW". For example. OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus Score 0.8").89 0.83 When the table of terms possibly includes thousands of keywords.true. support represents the number of cases supporting the rule in the training dataset.5. and only the two most relevant terms for each keyword should be returned: GetTermSuggestion(myInputTermTable.89 Support 10000 9000 11000 12000 12800 BMW cars 0.78 To return only those terms with a high confidence score.83 BMW Z4 0. In this case.

2 35-50 0.1 Minivan 0. where the Score column represents the relevance of the extracted keyword to the page content.325 Online bank 42 Keyword extraction Keyword extraction is handled via the ITermExtraction interface. The following method call returns the KPIs for the keyword "Online bank" based on the previous week's paid search data.true).2 65+ 0.com". and average cost per click (CPC).TimeInterval. URL Term Score Support 3 2 5 2 1 1 1 1 autos.com cars autos.com new cars autos.014 CPC 1. the following method call could be used: GetTermDemographics("minivan").Keyword Services Platform 174 Keyword demographics Keyword demographics are handled via the ITermDemographics interface.com".msn.com auto reviews 0.com compare car 0. overall impressions for the keyword.8.3). Term Clicks Impressions 2915 Position 3 CTR 0.39 0. Term Male Female 0.msn.msn.54 0. The following method call extracts the eight most relevant keywords from the webpage "autos. average click-through rate (CTR).34 autos. The result of the query is shown below. and provides the corresponding statistics: GetTermExtraction("autos.1 25-35 0.msn. position.msn. The query result is shown in the following table.4 50-65 0. The result of the query is shown below.38 autos.msn. containing the input keyword.com MSN autos autos.msn. To obtain the demographic distribution for the keyword "Minivan". in the third position of sponsored listings: GetTermKPIs("online bank".com luxury cars 0.msn.62 autos.msn.60 0-13 0 13-18 0 18-25 0. the number of clicks in the sponsored link for "Online bank".msn. while the Support column represents the number of occurrences of a keyword on the page.40 Keyword monetization Keyword monetization values specific to paid search are handled via the ITermMonetization interface.LastWeek.com used cars 0.com sport cars autos.32 0.48 0.30 .

3). provider = server. using (KeywordServer server = new KeywordServer("https://ksp. -5. server.UserName = "username". if (provider != null) { // Single mode API DataTable result = provider.GetTermForecast(term. ITermForecast provider = null.microsoft.KeywordForecastProvider").Providers.ReleaseService(provider).com")) { server. // Context can be set if needed. It will remain during the following calls.Password = "********". DisplayResults(result).Open().adCenterLabs. -5. 3).Keyword Services Platform 175 Sample code The following code fragment connects to the Keyword Services Platform server and uses the keyword term forecast Web service. DisplayResults(result).GetProviderByImplementation<ITermForecast>("Microsoft. } } . } } catch (FaultException) { // Handle fault returned from calling the proxy method } catch (CommunicationException) { // Handle lost network connection error } catch (TimeoutException) { // Handle time-out error } finally { if (provider != null) server. try { server. // Batch mode API result = provider.GetTermForecast(terms.

.NET assembly containing a public interface exposed through the KSP as well as any dependent files. Two types of stored procedures are supported: Managed Assembly Stored Procedure (MASP) and Common Language Runtime Stored Procedure (CLRSP). standard . To enable seamless integration of a provider into the KSP. The object model consists of the following three collections: 1. standard Windows Management Interface performance counters for performance monitoring. Once callers obtain the Service Provider object.. and document service contracts included using a service description language for better understanding and testing of the Keyword Service Provider. it is compiled on-demand by KSP and becomes callable by KSP client programs.NET. transacted solutions that integrate across platforms and interoperate with existing investments. and others). The WCF is Microsoft's unified programming model for building service-oriented applications. and/or class name. it becomes callable by KSP client programs. Similar to a database sprocs. KSP sprocs do not require configuration management or setup requirements. The KSP provider is a server-side object encapsulating a particular implementation of a keyword technology. or even identically named functions with different signatures. A MASP consists of a compiled . reliable. which hosts the Common Language Runtime (CLR). Stored procedures: This collection enables callers to access server-side Stored Procedure objects by name. the providers must meet several conditions: • • • • custom configuration settings stored in configuration files. A sproc may contain a set of related functions. implementation interface. all of the functionalities of the service provider are accessible through its public interface. which enables developers to build secure. rather than the source code.g. a KSP sproc is designed to enable developers to implement several types of business logic on the server side after retrieving result data from providers. and/or class name.NET programming language. and correspondingly seamless integration with third-party tools and applications. Once the MASP is uploaded to the KSP through its management interface. Server Object Model and Shared Services Keyword Services Platform Server Object Models and Shared Services enable KSP Service Providers and stored procedure developers to access server-side objects and functionalities easily and consistently. ITermExtraction). enterprise-scalable management solutions. Stored procedures Developers can write stored procedures (sprocs) using any .Keyword Services Platform 176 Providers Each Keyword Services Platform provider supplies a specific type of keyword technology by implementing one class of a specific keyword interface (e.NET tracing and message logging to enable service monitoring and diagnostics. These procedures are executed on the Keyword Services Platform server. This provider exposes its functionality through service contracts in the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF). The functionalities of the CLRSPs are exposed through a public interface defined in the source file. Service providers: This collection enables callers to access server-side Service Provider objects by name. Compared to database sprocs. ITermSuggestion. Once the CLRSP is deployed to KSP through its management interface. KSP sprocs are object-oriented. 2. all of the functionalities of the stored procedure are accessible through its public interface. The API defines the signature of each Web service and the format of the returned data. Visual Basic . Managed Extensions for C++. ITermForecast. These conditions help to simplify the task of developing well-integrated management applications. thus allowing business partners to produce best-of-breed. A CLRSP consists of a source file written in one of the supported CLR programming languages (C#. implementation interface. Once callers obtain the Stored Procedure object.

by implementation interface. This information is used by the server to determine how to automatically deploy additional service providers and stored procedures. is the hub of the KSP server farm. all of the functionalities of the shared service provider are accessible through its public interface. Data mart A data mart is a subset of an organizational data store. are discovered and registered automatically with the server. and data mining model contents. as well as all its running service providers and stored procedures. most recent click-through data. . and the request is routed to the appropriate KSP server. 177 Cloud server model The Microsoft adCenter Keyword Services Platform server farm provides a scalable platform for keyword technologies. and/or class name. if the Keyword Forecast provider is being used heavily in the server farm and the providers running on machine "A" are used lightly. The API defines the standard contract between the research models and developers. A dynamic service load balance server. a KSP server with a matching service provider or stored procedure is selected by the load balancer provider. their corresponding traffic. Many Keyword Services Platform providers require real-time database access. This data is updated on a regular basis based on the provider's requirements. This infrastructure enables researchers at Microsoft and other academic settings to speed up innovation in keyword technology and deploy the latest research results to KSP consumers. Technology transfer Keyword Services Platform's architecture permits agile development and rapid technology transfer by providing a platform for researchers to ship their research results to a live system quickly. and thus very easy to use for live testing. Researchers simply need to implement providers and deploy the providers into the selected set of KSP cloud server machines. KSP can switch to the default provider without any changes on the application side. usually oriented to a specific purpose or major data subject. or stored procedure in the KSP server farm is unavailable. that may be distributed to support business needs. If a server. Services: This collection enables callers to access server-side shared services by name. Any changes in the availability of the KSP server. The default implementation of the load balancer provider uses a round-robin scheduling approach.Keyword Services Platform 3. For example. service provider. the server accumulates usage patterns and statistics of various service providers and stored procedures running on each KSP server in the farm. Once callers obtain the shared service object. Over time. The cloud server distributes accesses to services running on a KSP server farm through its load balancer provider. Each server in the farm can have different configuration to suit a variety of service providers and stored procedures. Once the provider is live-tested and proven. it will be taken out of rotation by the load balancer automatically. all available keyword service providers and stored procedures are dynamically discovered and registered with the server. When a KSP server is added to the server farm via the cloud server. the server will automatically deploy the Keyword Forecast provider to machine "A" and route requests to that machine to balance the load for the Keyword Forecast provider. The database may contain a list of reference keywords. When a client application calls a service provider or stored procedure through the server. The scope is limited. a cloud server.

com/~joshuago/). • Keyword Association providers can help to expand existing customer segments to include other customers with similar interests based on language patterns. • The Keyword Forecasting provider can help advertisers to understand traffic history and trends. presale business intelligence apps.cmu. Shuzhen Nong.toprankblog. Lingzhi Zhao. WWW 2006: 829-837 • Lee Wang. cmu. Ying Li: Detecting dominant locations from search queries.Keyword Services Platform 178 KSP data access with Microsoft Excel 2007 Microsoft adCenter released an add-in for Microsoft Excel 2007 that allows users to consume the Keyword Services Platform data directly via Excel rather than through the API. Chuang Wang. References [1] https:/ / ksp. ICDM 2006: 975-979 • Honghua (Kathy) Dai. The KSP can be used in advertising campaign creation and management: • The Keyword Association provider can help advertisers generate a set of the most relevant keywords for a campaign. Jun Yan. Josh Forman. leading to more effectively targeted advertising and a decreased overall spend. Essentially it is an example of the type of mashup and creative use of data that can be associated with the KSP. com/ Explorer/ Login.php) Review of keyword technologies from the KSP Further reading • Wen-tau Yih (http://scottyih.azakers.microsoft. Carvalho (http://www. microsoft. Yansheng Lu. Pyungchul (Peter) Kim: Building data mining solutions with OLE DB for DM and XML for analysis.edu/~vitor/papers/www06. SIGIR 2005: 424-431 • ZhaoHui Tang.edu/~vitor/): Finding advertising keywords on web pages (http://www. Ying Li: Detecting online commercial intention (OCI). and so on. Applications of the KSP The Keyword Services Platform incorporates keyword technologies from Microsoft adCenter Labs and other Microsoft Research groups. SIGMOD Record 34(2): 80-85 (2005) . Vitor R. thus facilitating landing page analysis. content advertisements. Jamie Maclennan. monetization. suggestion. aspx • Microsoft Announces New Keyword Platform at SIS (http://www. Keyword APIs can be consumed by third-party business applications from paid search.com/2007/12/ sis-session-microsoft-new-keyword-services-platform/) • adCenter Add-in Released (http://www.pdf). Xing Xie. • The Keyword Extraction provider can extract the important keywords on a publisher's webpage.cs. Joshua Goodman (http://research.cs. The add-in makes much of the keyword technology available directly through Excel.com/microsoft-adcenter-add-in-beta-released. The add-in delivers features such as keyword extraction. and eventually help to manage an integrated campaign budget that makes seasonal allowances. leading to more efficient planning and improved return on investment. helping to identify what advertisements should be served for that page. etc. forecasting. Zaiqing Nie. Benyu Zhang. The KSP can also be used in behavioral targeting and display advertising: • The Keyword Demographic and Geographic Distribution providers can help advertisers understand various customer segments and their keyword usage patterns.org/). Zheng Chen. Ji-Rong Wen. Ying Li: Similarity of Temporal Query Logs Based on ARIMA Model. WWW 2006: 213-222 • Ning Liu. behavioral targeting. Wei-Ying Ma. Lee Wang.

Keyword Services Platform • ZhaoHui Tang. with the goal being the immediate or eventual sale of a product or service. By analyzing activity generated by the linked URL. A special type of 'reference landing page' is the 'webvert'. marketers can use click-through rates and Conversion rate to determine the success of an advertisement.com) Keyword Services Platform (https://ksp. Wiley. Types of landing pages There are two types of landing pages: reference and transactional.microsoft. • The webvert has a clear call to action. The traffic is driven from Google Adwords and is designed for two specific marketing tactics: • To attain high Google Adwords landing page quality scores. A webvert is not 'transactional' in nature. ethical landing page.microsoft. Landing pages are often linked to from social media. sometimes known as a lead capture page. A transactional landing page seeks to persuade a visitor to complete a transaction such as filling out a form or interacting with advertisements or other objects on the landing page.microsoft. images.com/) Landing page In online marketing a landing page. typically an email address and perhaps a name and telephone number as well – enough to "capture the lead" and add the prospect to a mailing list. . Reference landing pages are effective if they meet the objectives of their publishers. designed on the AIDA principle.aspx) adCenter Add-in for Excel Version 1. the marketing goal focuses on lead generation and interaction with the visitor.microsoft. Jamie Maclennan: Data Mining with SQL Server 2008. The visitor traffic is immediate as the Adword relies on Google advertising to drive visitors to the webvert.microsoft. 2008. is a single web page that appears in response to clicking on an advertisement. organizations or public service entities. A webvert is a reference based.com/Explorer/Login. These can display text. the page will usually withhold information until some minimal amount of visitor information is provided. dynamic compilations of relevant links. The landing page will usually display directed sales copy that is a logical extension of the advertisement or link. effectiveness can be measured by the revenue value of the advertising that is displayed on them.aspx?ForumID=2017& SiteID=44) • Microsoft adCenter Labs (http://adlab. or other elements.microsoft. email campaigns or search engine marketing campaigns in order to enhance the effectiveness of the advertisements. 179 External links • • • • Keyword Services Platform (http://ksp.com/AdCenter/ShowForum.0 (http://advertising. The webverts consists of an advert.com/) • Microsoft adCenter (https://adcenter. the benefit being any Adwords campaign costs are minimized. For many reference landing pages. An eye-tracking Heatmap (simulation shown) revealing where a subject's eyes alight on a landing page under test. always with a reply form or clear way to engage. The general goal of a landing page is to convert site visitors into sales leads. If information is to be captured. which may be associations.com/advertising/adcenter_addin/) adCenter Add-in Forum (http://forums. A reference landing page presents information that is relevant to the visitor.

Consumer directed targeting (also called social targeting). A landing page is a webpage that is displayed when a potential customer clicks an advertisement or a search engine result link.Landing page A visitor taking the desired action on a transactional landing page is referred to as a conversion. Bases for landing page optimization There are three major types of LPO based on targeting[1] : 1. At the conclusion of the experiment. prior purchase behavior. with the goal of improving the percentage of visitors to the website that become sales leads and customers. the percentage of visitors who complete the desired action. ratings.g. LPO aims to provide page content and appearance that makes the webpage more appealing to target audiences. The page content is modified based on information obtained about the visitor's search criteria. 3. browsing patterns. This webpage typically displays content that is a relevant extension of the advertisement or link. etc. Consumers are exposed to several variations of landing pages while their behavior is observed. 2.. an optimal page is selected based on the outcome of the experiment. This approach is similar to closed-ended experimentation. geographic information of source traffic.) to anticipate (desired) future actions based on predictive analytics. tagging. Some of the testing methods used are A/B testing and multivariate testing. meaning that the landing page is adjusted dynamically as the experiment results change. . or other known generic parameters that can be used for explicit non-research-based consumer segmentation. referrals. except that the experimentation is ongoing. marketers constantly test alternatives and improvements to their landing pages. 2. or Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO). 180 References Landing page optimization Landing page optimization (LPO) is one part of a broader Internet marketing process called conversion optimization. The page content is created using the relevance of publicly available information through a mechanism based on reviews. Open-ended experimentation. Predictive content targeting (also called active targeting). personal demographic information. etc. Since the economics of many online marketing programs are determined by the conversion rate. There are two major types of LPO based on experimentation: 1. The efficiency or quality of the landing page can be measured by its conversion rate. Associative content targeting (also called rule-based optimization or passive targeting). Closed-ended experimentation. The page content is adjusted by correlating any known information about the visitor (e.

MVLPO has the following advantages: • Provides a reliable. and the traffic is divided between the two.g. Website experiences for most sites involve multiple pages. The first application of an experimental design for MVLPO was performed by Moskowitz Jacobs Inc. product page. in 1998 as a simulation/demonstration project for LEGO. form layouts. For an e-commerce website. The goal is to test multiple versions of webpages (e.Landing page optimization 181 Experimentation-based landing page optimization Experimentation-based LPO can be achieved using A/B testing.[2] Testing can be conducted sequentially or in parallel. In sequential testing. • Focuses on optimizing one page at a time. press releases. This example yields k×m×n landing page configurations. and total-experience testing. often the easiest to implement. not all elements produce the same improvements in conversions. The data for A/B testing is usually measured via click-through or conversion. or A/B split testing. MVLPO did not become a mainstream approach until 2003 or 2004. MVLPO has the following disadvantages: • As with any quantitative consumer research. Multivariate landing page optimization Multivariate landing page optimization (MVLPO) accounts for multiple variations of visual elements (e. graphics. home page.g. In parallel (split) testing. A/B testing has the following disadvantages: • Difficult to control all external factors (e.and open-ended experimentation. and analyze the results.. For example. which are typically complex. campaigns. FAQ) to determine which version is most appealing/effective. and n choices for the company logo. These methodologies are applicable to both closed. A/B testing A/B testing. • Provides a foundation for open-ended experimentation. a few lines of JavaScript allow remote vendor servers to control changes. landing page images and background colours. However. • Has evolved to be an easy-to-use approach in which not much IT involvement is required. the various versions of the webpages are made available online for a specified time period. • Simple because no complex statistical analysis is required. seasonality) when using sequential testing. A/B testing has the following advantages: • Inexpensive because existing resources and tools are used. This testing method may also be known as A/B/n split testing. search traffic. In many cases. the n denoting more than 2 tests being measured and compared. is a method for testing two versions of a webpage: version "A" and version "B". It is not recommended that sequential split testing be performed. Ideas that are sourced from known customer touchpoints or strategic business objectives are needed to obtain optimal results. Significant improvements can be seen through testing different copy text. as the results can dramatically be skewed by differing time periods and traffic patterns in which the different tests are run. garbage out). it is possible to identify the elements that consistently tend to produce the greatest increase in conversions.g.. scientifically-based approach for understanding customers' preferences and optimizing their experience. a given page may have k choices for the title. collect data. both versions are made available. multivariate LPO.. it is typical for a successful purchase to involve between twelve . text) on a page. and by looking at the results from different tests. there is a danger of GIGO (garbage in. • Very limited in that reliable conclusions cannot be drawn for pages that contain multiple elements that vary in each version. m choices for the featured image or graphic.

linkanchor. Link bidding Link bidding is a form of Internet marketing where a website owner bids on other websites to post a backlink to his/her website. 182 Total-experience testing Total-experience testing. "Landing Page Testing Best Practices" (http:/ / www.. Accessed 23 June 2008. etc. 26(4): 286-298.com (http:/ / www. com/ faq. "Experimentation and Testing: A Primer" (http:/ / www. Websites being bid on are often grouped into categories (e. Site is Dead. Two disadvantages are that total-experience testing requires a website platform that supports experience testing.Landing page optimization and eighteen pages. An advantage of total-experience testing is that it reflects the customer's total website experience. html). . LinkAnchor. The Journal of Consumer Marketing. siteisdead. A link bidding directory offers webmasters a way to gain exposure for their sites. [3] Avinash Kaushik (2006-05-22).[3] Rather than creating multiple websites. . ATG. and Tonis Mets.[1] The position/rank for such websites is determined by their frequency of bids. [2] Matthew Roche (2005-12-19). where the highest-ranking websites have the highest number of bids. entertainment. and monitors which one is preferred by the customers. Occam’s Razor. html). References [1] Alex Gofman. References [1] "Frequently Asked Questions". .g. html). com/ 2005/ 12/ landing_page_te_1. even more pages are often required. 2009.g.1108/07363760910965882. Howard Moskowitz. not just the experience with a single page. DOI: 10. and it takes longer to obtain results than A/B testing and MVLPO. total-experience testing uses the website platform to create several persistent experiences. finance). kaushik. is a new and evolving type of experiment-based testing in which the entire website experience of the visitor is examined using technical capabilities of the website platform (e. Retrieved 2007-07-02. Integrating Science into Web Design: Consumer Driven Website Optimization. or experience testing. net/ avinash/ 2006/ 05/ experimentation-and-testing-a-primer. for a support site.).. Blue Martini Software. Retrieved 2007-07-02.

for example). [5] A frequency distribution with a long tail has been studied by statisticians since at least 1946. economic models. to the retailing strategy of selling a large number of unique items in the left are the few that dominate. the selection and buying pattern of the population results in the demand across products having a power law distribution or Pareto distribution. The Long Tail concept has found some ground for application. and social network mechanisms (e. heavy tail or right-tail[7] ). A long tail distortion will arise with the inclusion of some unusually high (or low) values which increase (decrease) the mean. Notice that the relatively small quantities – usually in addition to selling fewer popular areas of both regions match. The term has also been used in the finance[6] and insurance business[2] for many years (also referred to as fat tail.Long Tail 183 Long Tail The Long Tail or long tail refers to the statistical property that a larger share of population rests within the tail of a probability distribution than observed under a 'normal' or Gaussian distribution. mass media. and marketing (viral marketing). micro-finance (Grameen Bank. peer-to-peer).com and Netflix as examples of businesses applying this strategy.[4] The distribution and inventory costs of businesses successfully applying this strategy allow them to realize significant profit out of selling small volumes of hard-to-find items to many customers instead of only selling large volumes of a reduced number of popular items. and negligible stocking and distribution costs. The work of Benoît Mandelbrot in the 1950s and later has led to him being referred to as "the father of long tails". items in large quantities. skewing the distribution to the right (or left).[8] . user-driven innovation (Eric von Hippel). It is a term used in online business. in which he mentioned Amazon. research. To the right is the long tail. The total sales of this large number of "non-hit items" is called the Long Tail. and experimentation. The Long Tail was popularized by Chris Anderson in an October 2004 Wired magazine article.[2] [3] Anderson elaborated the concept in his book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More (ISBN 1-4013-0237-8).[1] An example of a power law graph showing The term Long Tail has gained popularity in recent times as describing popularity ranking. crowdsourcing. Given enough choice.g. crowdcasting. a large population of customers.

Pareto distributions and general Lévy distributions). Examples of behaviors that exhibit long-tailed distribution are the occurrence of certain words in a given language. Anderson described the effects of the Long Tail on current and future business models.[10] which noted that a relative handful of weblogs have many links going into them but "the long tail" of millions of weblogs may have only a handful of links going into them. Weblogs and Inequality". in these latter cases "tails" correspond to large-intensity events such as large earthquakes and most popular words. The observation of such a distribution often points to specific kinds of mechanisms. What is unusual about a long-tailed distribution is that the most frequently-occurring 20% of items represent less than 50% of occurrences. who dominate the distributions. and the relationships that create them. for such population distributions the majority of markets (depicted in red). and therefore illustrate an opposite phenomenon compared to the Gutenberg-Richter and the Zipf's laws. Beginning in a series of speeches in early 2004 and culminating with the publication of a Wired magazine article in October 2004. The tail becomes bigger and longer in new Chris Anderson and Clay Shirky The phrase the Long Tail was first coined by Chris Anderson. area to the left of the chart. derive more sales from the area to the right. In "long-tailed" distributions a high-frequency or high-amplitude population is followed by a low-frequency or low-amplitude population which gradually "tails off" asymptotically. nature: Anderson and Shirky refer to frequency-rank relations. the income distribution of a business or the intensity of earthquakes (see: Gutenberg-Richter law). if not opposite. Anderson later extended it into the book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More (2006). Therefore.[9] The concept drew in part from a February 2003 essay by Clay Shirky. power laws. However. The feature is also known as heavy tails. The events at the far end of the tail have a very low probability of occurrence. or Pareto tails. By contrast. In those cases the infrequent. Power law distributions or functions characterize an important number of behaviors from nature and human endeavor. low-amplitude (or low-revenue) events — the long tail. or in other words. Chris Anderson's and Clay Shirky's articles highlight special cases in which we are able to modify the underlying relationships and evaluate the impact on the frequency of events. This suggests that a variation of one mechanism (internet access) or relationship (the cost of storage) can significantly shift the frequency of occurrence of certain events in the distribution. and where the Pareto principle applies. represented here by the portion of the curve to the right of the 20th percentile — can become the largest area under the line. and those highlighted by Anderson and Shirky are of very different. "Power Laws. In other words. online bookstores 80%) are accounted for by the first 20% of items in the distribution. fat tails. seemingly unrelated systems. whereas traditional retailers have focused on the occurrences (more than half. whereas the Gutenberg-Richter law and the Zipf's law are probability distributions. As a rule of thumb. and can often indicate a deep connection with other. the long tails characterizing distributions such as the Gutenberg-Richter law or the words-occurrence Zipf's law. The shift has a crucial effect in probability and in the customer demographics of businesses like mass media and online sellers. . power-law tails. This fact has given rise to a keen scientific and social interest in such distributions. the least-frequently-occurring 80% of items are more important as a proportion of the total population. the long tails in the frequency-rank plots highlighted by Anderson and Shirky would rather correspond to short tails in the associated probability distributions.Long Tail 184 Statistical meaning The long tail is the name for a long-known feature of some statistical distributions (such as Zipf.

by greatly lowering search costs. Their analyses suggest that by 2008. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu.com sales and sales ranking. In the graph shown above. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. becoming progressively steeper for more obscure books. An 80/20 rule fits the distribution of product sales in the catalog channel quite well. thereby creating a longer tail in the distribution of sales. Anderson cites earlier research by Erik Brynjolfsson. while the widely-used power laws are a good first approximation for the rank-sales relationship.com's sales come from obscure books that are not available in brick-and-mortar stores. that showed that a significant portion of Amazon. and Michael D. even after controlling for consumer differences. information technology in general and Internet markets in particular could substantially increase the collective share of hard-to-find products. consumer benefit (a. while most of the discussion about the value of the Internet to consumers has revolved around lower prices. They found that a large proportion of Amazon. . An Amazon employee described the Long Tail as follows: "We sold more books today that didn't sell at all yesterday than we sold today of all the books that did sell yesterday. if the store or distribution channel is large enough.k. the distribution and sales channel opportunities created by the Internet often enable businesses to tap that market successfully.[13] by Erik Brynjolfsson. Smith[14] finds that the Long Tail has grown longer over time. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu.Long Tail Anderson argues that products in low demand or that have a low sales volume can collectively make up a market share that rivals or exceeds the relatively few current bestsellers and blockbusters. The total volume of low popularity items exceeds the volume of high popularity items. Hello Long Tail". these authors showed that. as the examples illustrate. the slope may not be constant for all book ranks. Thus. By analyzing data collected from a multi-channel retailing company. Chris Anderson cites earlier research.[15] Erik Brynjolfsson. Smith. niche books account for 36. In addition. 185 Academic research Effects of online access In his Wired article.com's book sales come from obscure books that were not available in brick-and-mortar stores. and Duncan Simester found that. Goodbye Pareto principle. with niche books accounting for a larger share of total sales. The difference in the sales distribution is highly significant. but in the Internet channel. Smith.a. They used a theoretical model to show how a reduction in search costs will affect the concentration in product sales.[12] The term has since been rederived from an XY graph that is created when charting popularity to inventory. welcome the new distribution In a 2006 working paper titled "Goodbye Pareto Principle.7% of Amazon’s sales and the consumer surplus generated by niche books has increased at least fivefold from 2000 to 2008. this rule needs to be modified to a 72/28 rule in order to fit the distribution of product sales in that channel. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. and Michael D. when compared with traditional channels. They then quantified the potential value of the Long Tail to consumers. The Long Tail is a potential market and. while the book or movie ranks are along the horizontal axis. they showed empirical evidence that the Internet channel exhibits a significantly less concentrated sales distribution. the primary value of the internet to consumers comes from releasing new sources of value by providing access to products in the Long Tail. In an article published in 2003. and Michael D. who first used a log-linear curve on an XY graph to describe the relationship between Amazon."[11] Anderson has explained the term as a reference to the tail of a demand curve. Amazon's book sales or Netflix's movie rentals would be represented along the vertical axis. The Longer Tail over time A recent studied by Erik Brynjolfsson. consumer surplus) from access to increased product variety in online book stores is ten times larger than their benefit from access to lower prices online. their new methodology finds that.

is the process of building a network of users and then delivering challenges or tasks to be solved with the purpose of gaining insights or innovative ideas. Because Netflix stocks movies in centralized warehouses.Long Tail 186 Demand-side and supply-side drivers The key supply-side factor that determines whether a sales distribution has a Long Tail is the cost of inventory storage and distribution. described in the work of Yochai Benkler. • The crowdsourcing model. An MIT Sloan Management Review article titled "From Niches to Riches: Anatomy of the Long Tail"[16] examined the Long Tail from both the supply side and the demand side and identifies several key drivers. recommendation software.[21] Although the distribution of sales may appear to be similar over time. non-market networks. Those economics of storage and distribution then enable the advantageous use of the Long Tail: Netflix finds that in aggregate. There may be an optimal inventory size.com which are more central and thus influenced more by their recommendation network have significantly more pronounced Long Tail distributions. An MIS Quarterly article by Gal Oestreicher-Singer and Arun Sundararajan shows that categories of books on Amazon. • Work performed by individuals in commons-like. which it pays for in the form of building overhead. as well as innovation.[19] [20] Turnover within the Long Tail The Long Tail distribution applies at a given point in time. but over time the relative popularity of the sales of the individual products will change. only the most popular products can be sold. For example. it must stock only the most popular movies to ensure that no shelf space is wasted. when storage and distribution costs are high. • The model of crowdcasting. thus making it possible for them to cater to more varied tastes. Netflix is therefore able to build a viable business stocking a far wider range of movies than a traditional movie rental store. given the balance between sales and the cost of keeping up with the turnover. the positions of the individual items within it will vary. however. new items constantly enter most fashion markets. a traditional movie rental store has limited shelf space.[18] The demand-side factors that lead to the long tail can be amplified by the "networks of products" which are created by hyperlinked recommendations across products. tools such as search engines. and sampling tools are allowing customers to find products outside their geographic area. crowds and the Long Tail The "crowds" of customers. Their data across 200 subject areas shows that a doubling of this influence leads to a 50% increase in revenues from the least popular one-fifth of books. the optimal . in the sense that entirely new items become offered for sale. An analysis based on this pure fashion model[24] indicates that. even for digital retailers. "unpopular" movies are rented more than popular movies. to maximize its profits.[17] On the demand side. including the growth of markets serving smaller niches. amplified effects of Long Tail. On the supply side. the authors point out how e-tailers' expanded. Some relevant forms of these new production models are: • The peer-to-peer collaboration groups that produce open-source software or create wikis such as Wikipedia.[23] takes into account turnover in the relative sales of a given set of items. which is capable of generating power law distributions of sales similar to those observed in practice. Networks. For example. The authors also look toward the future to discuss second-order. users and small companies that inhabit the Long Tail distribution can perform collaborative and assignment work. centralized warehousing allows for more offerings. Where inventory storage and distribution costs are insignificant. its storage costs are far lower and its distribution costs are the same for a popular or unpopular movie. A recent fashion-based model [22] of consumer choice. in which a company outsources work to a large group of market players using a collaborative online platform. it becomes economically viable to sell relatively unpopular products.

The competitive threat from these niche sites is reduced by the cost of establishing and maintaining them and the bother required for readers to track multiple small Web sites. such as Yahoo! or CNET. and military missions. Microfinance and microcredit The banking business has used internet technology to reach an ever increasing number of customers. 187 Business models Competitive impact Before a Long Tail works. This has led some to envision a time in which game-based training devices or simulations will be available for thousands of different job descriptions. given its current sales rank and the total number of different titles stocked. mass-market distributors like Blockbuster may be threatened by distributors like Netflix. Similarly. These factors have been transformed by easy and cheap Web site software and the spread of RSS. which supply the titles that Blockbuster doesn't offer because they are not already very popular.[26] . Examples include eBay (auctions). even at a digital scale. long ignored by consumer banks. They are also willing to pay higher interest rates than the standard bank or credit card customer.Long Tail inventory may in many cases be less than the millions of items that they can potentially offer. This model can provide further predictions into markets with long-tail distribution. As opposed to e-tailers. In other words. despite their non-existent credit history. by proceeding further and further into the Long Tail. Video and multiplayer online games The adoption of video games and massively multiplayer online games such as Second Life as tools for education and training is starting to show a long-tailed pattern. It also is a business model that fills an important developmental role in an economy. may be threatened by the rise of smaller Web sites that focus on niches of content. For example. such as the basis for a model for optimizing the number of each individual item ordered. a wide range of products become available. only the most popular products are generally offered. Amazon (retail) and iTunes Store (music and podcasts) amongst the major companies. When the cost of inventory storage and distribution fall. have the effect of reducing demand for the most popular products. sales may become so small that the marginal cost of tracking them in rank order. But the most important shift in business model due to the Long Tail has come from the various forms of microfinance developed. It costs significantly less to modify a game than it has been to create unique training applications. Its aim is to offer very small credits to lower-middle to lower class and poor people. Internet companies Some of the most successful Internet businesses have leveraged the Long Tail as part of their businesses. commercial flight. in turn. such as those for training in business. micro-finance is a distinctly low technology business. This can. and cover that content better than the larger sites. and certainly before infinite titles. along with smaller Internet companies like Audible (audio books) and Netflix (video rental). Yahoo! and Google (web search). might be optimised well before a million titles. The banks that have followed this strategy of selling services to the low-frequency long tail of the sector have found out that it can be an important niche. that would otherwise be ignored by the traditional banking business. Web content businesses with broad coverage.[25] The recipients of small credits tend to be very good payers of loans.

It is their collaboration and aggregated work that results in an innovation effort. the company is using the model to tap into a large group of users that are in the low-intensity area of the distribution. with an emphasis on the casual. As a result. In Mexico the banks Compartamos and Banco Azteca also service this customer demographic. long-tailed user driven innovation will gain importance for businesses. Yahoo and Bing by focusing on long-tail keywords which have less competition. with an emphasis on consumer credit. non-intentional and low cost.[27] Among his conclusions is the insight that as innovation becomes more user-centered the information needs to flow freely. such as Right Media or AdECN.[28] . to give their users a voice and to enable them to do innovation work that is useful to the company. most of them based on extensive use of internet technologies. RSS feeds and podcasts. Given the diminishing cost of communication and information sharing (by analogy to the low cost of storage and distribution. auction-oriented buying/selling mechanisms are also viable to help monetize the long tail of ad impressions available across niche publishers in the display advertising realm. Eric von Hippel of MIT's Sloan School of Management defined the user-led innovation model in his book Democratizing Innovation. such as interactive and internet based technologies. They are willing to tell the manufacturer what they really want and how it should work. in the case of e-tailers). Kiva. low-intensity consumer in a cost effective way.Long Tail Grameen Bank in Bangladesh has successfully followed this business model. creating a "rich intellectual commons" and "attacking a major structure of the social division of labor". Publishers utilize these ad exchange environments. viral emails and standalone microsites. • Demand Side Platforms/DSPs: Similar to how Search Engine Marketing monetizes the long tail of keywords. test and diffuse the results. by January 2011 between 20-25% of all US ad spending was derived from long tail advertisers. share information. Social innovation communities formed by groups of users can perform rapidly the trial and error process of innovation. to efficiently sell display inventory that might otherwise go unsold through direct sales force operations.org is an organization that provides micro credits to people worldwide. Users want products that are customized to their needs. commonly through YouTube videos. 188 User-driven innovation According to the user-driven innovation model. using a distinct direct business model. In following a long-tailed innovation strategy. in a more democratic way. • Viral Marketing: The intentional spreading of marketing messages using preexisting social networks. • Pay Per Click and Search Engine Optimization: The marketing of websites on search engines such as Google. Marketing The drive to build a market and obtain revenue from the consumer demographic of the Long Tail has led businesses to implement a series of long-tail marketing techniques. often through blogs. Among the most representative are: • New Media Marketing: The building and managing of social networks and online or virtual communities to extend the reach of marketing to the low-frequency. • Buzz Marketing: The strategic use of word of mouth and transmission of commercial information from person to person in an online or real-world environment. companies can rely on users of their products and services to do a significant part of the innovation work. Companies can make use of a series of tools.

movie studios. the Long Tail also has implications for the producers of content. especially those whose products could not — for economic reasons — find a place in pre-Internet information distribution channels controlled by book publishers. Looked at from the producers' side. Cultural diversity Television is a good example of this: Chris Anderson defines Long Tail TV in the context of "content that is not available through traditional distribution channels but could nevertheless find an audience. online communities and new technologies that operate within the Long Tail of consumers and business is described in the novel by William Gibson. The Long Tail presents opportunities for various suppliers to introduce products in the niche category. people tend to come up with products for varied reasons like expression rather than monetary benefit. Pattern Recognition. Pay-per-view and even premium cable subscription services such as HBO and Showtime open up the opportunity for niche content to reach the right audiences."[29] Thus. These encourage the diversification of products. Contemporary literature The intersection of viral marketing. Distribution of independent content Often presented as a phenomenon of interest primarily to mass market retailers and web-based businesses.Long Tail 189 Cultural and political impact The Long Tail has possible implications for culture and politics. the Long Tail has made possible a flowering of creativity across all fields of human endeavour. One example of this is YouTube. These niche products open opportunities for suppliers while concomitantly satisfying the demands of many individuals — therefore lengthening the tail portion of the Long Tail. The opportunities that arise because of the Long Tail greatly affect society's cultures because suppliers have unlimited capabilities due to infinite storage and demands that were unable to be met prior to the Long Tail become realized. Where the opportunity cost of inventory storage and distribution is high. These may not always attract the highest level of viewership. . but their business distribution models make that of less importance. But where the Long Tail works. the Long Tail opens up a large space for authentic works of creativity. In this way. Military applications and security In military thinking. the choice of TV programs grows and greater cultural diversity rises. where thousands of diverse videos — whose content. production value or lack of popularity make them inappropriate for traditional television — are easily accessible to a wide range of viewers. showing how technology and networking allows the Long Tail of disgruntled groups and criminals to take on the nation state and have a chance to win. As the opportunity cost goes down. minority tastes become available and individuals are presented a wider array of choices. At the end of the Long Tail. John Robb applies the Long Tail to the developments in insurgency and terrorist movements. in an otherwise mass medium. the advent of services such as Television on demand. record companies. In situations where popularity is currently determined by the lowest common denominator. and television networks. the conventional profit-making business model ceases to exist. instead. only the most popular products are sold. a Long Tail model may lead to improvement in a society's level of culture.

Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. a sales analysis of an unnamed UK digital music service by economist Will Page and high-tech entrepreneur Andrew Bud found that sales exhibited a log-normal distribution rather than a power law. and Michael D. typepad. November 2003. htm) . 2008 [9] See The origins of "The Long Tail" (http:/ / longtail. org/ abs/ 0808.Long Tail 190 Criticism A 2008 study by Anita Elberse. misq. html). Management Science. Weblogs and Inequality" (http:/ / www.. 10. uncdf.A. 2006.org. doi. [6] Bessis. Erik. 124. H. M.A. and Michael D. benkler. 2002. Erik. Hello Long Tail: The Effect of Search Costs on the Concentration of Product Sales" (http:/ / ssrn. Smith. 2003. Elberse defined head and tail using percentages. Mark L. pages 1–12).J. 1998 [8] Obrist. com/ abstract=400940). while Anderson uses absolute numbers. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. they reported that 80 percent of the music tracks available sold no copies at all over a one-year period. Chris. [12] NPR: The Long Tail (http:/ / www. Bentley. com/ abstract=1679991) [15] Brynjolfsson.. evolhumbehav. com/ wired/ archive/ 14. Hahn (2007) in Evolution and Human Behavior 28(3): 151-158. com/ abstract=1324064). the earliest being a 1946 paper by Brown and Tukey in the Annals of Mathematical Statistics (volume 17. www. jhtml?xml=/ connected/ 2004/ 06/ 16/ ecfpop16. com/ writings/ powerlaw_weblog. co. . com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 01/ definitions_fin. p. shirky. xml& sSheet=/ connected/ 2004/ 06/ 14/ ixconn. wired. Microcredit and Microfinance (http:/ / www. 2006.P. Forthcoming Articles (http:/ / www. 2010. David M. Madsen. royalsociety. 002) by R. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. [20] MIS Quarterly. mit. 1995 [7] Wang. Herzog & M. php?storyId=4156078) [13] Brynjolfsson.2 No. praising Elberse and the academic rigor with which she explores the issue but drawing a distinction between their respective interpretations of where the "head" and "tail" begin. pdf). 1655) by R.W.A. html) [10] "Power Laws. uk/ connected/ main. (http:/ / www. org/ templates/ story/ story. P. Hans Ulrich "The Father of Long Tales. org/ content/ 1n1x17lp0c0q65uj) by R. npr. Smith. Prentice Hall. edu/ evhippel/ www/ democ1. html). who suggest that head and tail should be defined by percentages rather than absolute numbers. [4] Interview (http:/ / www. html) with Russ Roberts [5] A search for the phrase "long tail" in the database MathSciNet yielded 81 hits. com/ abstract=953587) [16] http:/ / ssrn. html#comment-3415583). Shennan (2007) in Proceedings of the Royal Society B 271: 1443-50 [24] "Shelf space strategy in long tail markets" (http:/ / arXiv. org/ 10. typepad. June 16. Timothy C. soa. html) Wired. 49 (11). Bentley.Berenson.[30] On his blog. telegraph. The Wealth of Networks (http:/ / www. org/ documents/ mandelbrot2010/ mandelbrot2010_index. MIS Quarterly forthcoming. org/ library/ journals/ north-american-actuarial-journal/ 1998/ april/ naaj9804_5. 1016/ j. "Recommendation Networks and the Long Tail of Electronic Commerce" (http:/ / ssrn. "Goodbye Pareto Principle. Gal and Arun Sundararajan. [22] "Why are they so popular?". October 2004. edge. "Statistics for Managers using Microsoft Excel: 3rd Edition". Roger Highfield.E. North American Actuarial Journal Vol. org/ english/ microfinance/ ) [27] Democratizing Innovation. [2] World Wide Words article on "long tail" (http:/ / www. "The Longer Tail: The Changing Shape of Amazon’s Sales Distribution Curve" (http:/ / ssrn.W. [14] Bynjolfsson. calls the Long Tail theory into question.2. citing sales data which shows that the Web magnifies the importance of blockbuster hits.A. wired. David. org/ archives/ 2006/ 08/ chris_anderson. MIT Press (http:/ / web. C. Tan.[33] [34] Notes [1] Levine. htm) [3] Anderson. Jöel "Risk Management in Banking". 10/ tail. "The Long Tail" (http:/ / www. and Duncan Simester. arXive [25] The Global Development Research Center. professor of business administration at Harvard Business School. Krehbiel. Ormerod and M. 07/ longtail_pr.[32] Also in 2008. in The Daily Telegraph. org/ ) [19] Oestreicher-Singer. Hahn & S.Edge. Shaun "An Actuarial Index of Right-Tail Risk" (http:/ / www. Lipo. Erik. org/ turnsofphrase/ tp-lon1. An interview with Benoît Mandelbrot" (http:/ / www. by Clay Shirky. econtalk.[31] Similar results were published by Serguei Netessine and Tom F. org/ forthcoming/ ) [21] "Regular rates of popular culture change reflect random copying" (http:/ / dx. com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 05/ the_origins_of_. Anderson responded to the study. February 8. gdrc. html The Rise and Fall of the Hit [18] Benkler. "Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety at Online Booksellers" (http:/ / ssrn. Anderson responded by stating that the study's findings are difficult to assess without access to its data. html) [23] "Random drift and culture change" (http:/ / journals. com/ abstract=918142 From Niches to Riches: Anatomy of the Long Tail [17] http:/ / www. comment #3 by Josh Petersen.Stephan. org/ icm/ ) [26] United Nations Capital Development Fund (http:/ / www. Bentley. Wiley. com/ wired/ archive/ 12. [11] The Long Tail: Definitions: Final Round! (http:/ / longtail. 2004. worldwidewords.

191 References • Anderson. Ad Expansion Reaches '03 Levels (http:/ / www. showArticle& art_aid=142294& passFuseAction=PublicationsSearch. com/ the_long_tail/ 2008/ 06/ excellent-hbr-p. clicktorch. com/ 2008/ 06/ step-by-step-guide-to-building-an-affiliate-marketing-website . org/ 2008/ 07/ should-you-invest-in-the-long-tail/ ar/ 1) Harvard Business Review. July–August 2008. " Long Tail Advertisers Are Back. co.1/17/2005"" [30] Elberse. The Long Tail Blog. "Excellent HBR piece challenging the Long Tail" (http:/ / www. timesonline.com. Chris (2006). ece) TimesOnline. pdf [2] http:/ / getinternetmarketingstrategies. harvardbusiness. " (http:/ / www. 22 Dec 2008.Long Tail [28] Joe Mandese. 2009 External links • Building An Affiliate Marketing Website – Step-by-Step [2] References [1] http:/ / www. com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 01/ long_tail_tv_pa_2. "Chopping the Long Tail down to size" (http:/ / www. ISBN 1-4013-0237-8. .S. Andrew. (Full online article for purchase only. uk/ 2008/ 11/ 07/ long_tail_debunked/ ) The Register. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ music/ article5380304. com/ pdf/ Why%20behavioural%20targeting%20works%20online%20white%20paper. Chris. [32] "Rethinking the Long Tail Theory: How to Define 'Hits' and 'Niches'" (http:/ / knowledge. not provided with any content. With internet marketing content is built for each segment. "Should You Invest in the Long Tail?" (http:/ / hbr. In traditional marketing each segment is just identified. In marketing the potential customer base is divided into smaller segments. html)". "" [29] Chris Anderson. edu/ article. U. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More (http://books. wharton. cfm?articleid=2338). showSearchReslts& art_searched="long tail"& page_number=0/ )". . co. [34] Foster. micro content.com/books?id=O2k0K1w_bJIC&printsec=frontcover).) [31] Anderson. 1/04/2011. "Long Tail theory contradicted as study reveals 10m digital music tracks unsold" (http:/ / entertainment. [33] Orlowski. longtail.wolfram. 7 Nov 2008.com/TheLongTail/) a computer model by Fiona Maclachlan. Anita. mediapost. The Wolfram Demonstrations Project Micro content Micro content is the content built for each major segment of potential customers used in internet marketing. theregister. ClickTorch. Micro content is a way to provide each customer segment the content required. New York: Hyperion. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. google. upenn. html). longtail. References • Paul Edmunds "Why Behavioural Targeting Works Online" [1]. Patrick. • The Long Tail (http://demonstrations.

. Microsoft adCenter allows advertisers to target their ads by restricting their ads to a given set of demographics and by increasing their bids whenever the ad is seen by a user of a certain demographic.[2] [3] In May 2007. Canada. Microsoft adCenter provides pay per click advertisements. Microsoft began developing its own system. As of November 2006. Microsoft has built new product AdCenter Analytics based on the acquired technology. In October. a company situated in Gatineau.[5] AdECN on July 26. 2007. is the division of the Microsoft Network (MSN) responsible for MSN's advertising services. History Microsoft was the last of the "Big Three" search engines (Microsoft. MSN search showed Yahoo! and Microsoft adCenter advertising in its search results.[8] A Microsoft adCenter promotional graphic Technology Similar to Google AdWords. that created web-analytics software. 2008 and merged their technologies into adCenter. the contract between Yahoo! and Microsoft had expired and Microsoft was displaying only ads from adCenter until 2010.[6] and YaData on February 27. A Windows-only desktop application allows users to manage Microsoft adCenter campaigns offline. The council was responsible to deliver the next-generation advertising platform for the publishers of digital media resulting in the formation of Microsoft pubCenter.Microsoft adCenter 192 Microsoft adCenter Microsoft adCenter (formerly MSN adCenter). Publisher Leadership Council was created under the umbrella of Microsoft Advertising. In January of 2010 Microsoft announced a take over of Yahoo! and the combination of Bing. both are built on Microsoft . 2007 the Beta version of Microsoft Project Gatineau was released to a limited number of participants. As the system was phased in.[1] As search marketing grew. or to make bulk changes easily.0 framework. for selling PPC advertisements directly to advertisers. 2009. to form the Microsoft Search Alliance. aQuantive. This system encourages advertisers to write effective ads and to advertise only on searches which are relevant to their advertisement.Net 2. Microsoft adCenter uses both the maximum amount an advertiser is willing to pay per click (PPC) on their ad and the advertisement's click-through rate (CTR) to determine how frequently an advertisement is shown. no other PPC advertising system has a similar feature. Similarly. for roughly $6 billion.[4] Microsoft acquired ScreenTonic on May 3. Until the beginning of 2006. all of the ads displayed on the Bing (formerly MSN Search) search engine were supplied by Overture (and later Yahoo!). as well as offering performance alerts and keyword research features. 2007. Microsoft adCenter provides both UI and Web service API front end to advertisers. Microsoft adCenter. In November 2006 Microsoft Acquired DeepMetrix. Microsoft agreed to purchase the digital marketing solutions parent company. formerly MSN Search. In June 2006. A complete transition of all Yahoo! sponsored ad clients to Microsoft adCenter occurred in October of 2010. MSN collected a portion of the ad revenue in return for displaying Yahoo!'s ads on its search engine. adCenter allows advertisers to run their ads on specific days of the week or certain times of day. Google and Yahoo!) to develop its own system for delivering pay per click (PPC) ads.[7] On February 23.

. com/ gatineau). com/ kcorbin/ 2008/ 02/ microsoft-acquires-yadata.com) • adCenter Community (http://www. html).microsoft. www. clickz.com) • Official adCenter Advertiser Blog (http://adcentercommunity. php). com/ showPage.com.Microsoft Digital Advertising Solutions" (http:/ / advertising. February 23. Retrieved 2008-01-12.com.CNET News. advertising. Retrieved 2008-01-12. com/ 071030-103823. Yahoo! rival" (http:/ / seattletimes. microsoft. com/ presspass/ press/ 2009/ feb09/ 02-23PublisherAdCouncilPR. [4] "Microsoft Pays $6 billion for aQuantive: Massive Ad Network Consolidation Is Occuring [[[sic (http:/ / www. . Microsoft External links • Microsoft adCenter (http://adcenter. com/ 2007/ 05/ 18/ microsoft-pays-6-billion-for-aquantive/ )]]"].nwsource. 2009. [2] "Microsoft Project Gatineau . searchengineland. News Press Release.com/blogs/api) • Official adCenter Support Forums (http://adcentercommunity. html) [8] Microsoft Advertising Announces Formation of Publisher Leadership Council (http:/ / www. techcrunch. "The Seattle Times: Business & Technology: Microsoft's adCenter is Google. [5] Microsoft Acquires European Mobile Ad Firm .microsoft.ClickZ (http:/ / www.com. .InternetNews:The Blog .techcrunch.0) .com/blogs/analytics) • Official adCenter API Developer Blog (http://adcentercommunity.com/learning-center/downloads/ microsoft-advertising-intelligence) (a keyword research and optimization tool. [3] "Microsoft's Web Analytics Product Project Gatineau Now In Private Beta" (http:/ / searchengineland.com/blogs/advertiser) • Official adCenter Analytics Blog (http://adcentercommunity. com/ html/ businesstechnology/ 2002970721_microsoft04. html?page=3625762) [6] Microsoft acquires 'ad exchange' company AdECN | Tech news blog . com/ 8301-10784_3-9750765-7.com. nwsource. seattletimes. news. Retrieved 2008-01-12. html) [7] Microsoft Acquires YaData . Kim (2006-05-04). Retrieved 2008-01-12. .com/forums/) • Microsoft Advertising Intelligence (http://advertising.Kenneth Corbin (http:/ / blog.com (http:/ / www.adcentercommunity. microsoft.Microsoft adCenter 193 References [1] Peterson. internetnews.microsoft. formerly Add-in for Excel Version 1. mspx?rss_fdn=Press Releases).

microsoft. pubCenter is closed to new web publishers. mspx?rss_fdn=Press Releases). microsoft. microsoft. com/ [3] pubCenter Homepage (https:/ / pubcenter.[4] On February 23. Microsoft External links • Microsoft pubCenter (http://pubcenter.com/for-publishers) . 2009. November 09.Microsoft pubCenter 194 Microsoft pubCenter pubCenter Developer(s) Preview release Microsoft [1] Beta / November 09.microsoft. which allows advertisers to place ads on search engines as well as select MSN web sites or applications. Windows Phone 7 Type Website Online advertising [2] [2] Microsoft pubCenter is a publisher's ad serving application developed by Microsoft in addition to Microsoft adCenter. These advertisements are administered by Microsoft and produce revenue on a per-click basis. February 23. pubCenter Blog. com/ help. 2009. Web service.Solutions for publishers (http://advertising.[3] Publishers or owners can register in this program using Windows Live ID to earn revenue while enabling their application's audience with valuable ads experience on their websites and WP7 applications. The council was responsible to deliver the next-generation advertising platform for the publishers of digital media. Microsoft pubCenter is only available for the Windows Phone 7 and web applications developers in the United States.[5] References [1] Microsoft Updates to the pubCenter BETA in the new release (http:/ / community. Publisher Leadership Council was created under the umbrealla of Microsoft Advertising.com/blogs/pubcenter/default.microsoftadvertising. Microsoft Advertising [4] About pubCenter (https:/ / adcenterhelp.aspx) • Microsoft Advertising . microsoftadvertising.microsoft. com& format=b1). microsoft. Microsoft Advertising [2] http:/ / pubcenter. which is expected to revive in the near future.com) • Microsoft pubCenter Blogs (http://community. Currently. in its beta version. aspx). aspx?project=adCenter_Pub_RTW_ss& market=en-US& querytype=keyword& query=yek006& tmt=& domain=pubcenter. com/ blogs/ pubcenter/ archive/ 2009/ 11/ 09/ updates-to-the-pubcenter-beta-in-the-new-release. 2009. News Press Release. Microsoft Advertising [5] Microsoft Advertising Announces Formation of Publisher Leadership Council (http:/ / www. Incidentally. com/ ). 2009 Operating system Cross-platform. com/ presspass/ press/ 2009/ feb09/ 02-23PublisherAdCouncilPR. microsoft.

discovers any and all synergies and suppressions among the elements[2] . discrete choice. etc. The first application of an experimental design for MVLPO was performed by Moskowitz Jacobs Inc. high-importance websites when the site administrators do not want to lose any potential customers . This situation is due to variations in the amount of traffic that generates the data necessary for a decision. Some critics of the approach question the possible interactions between the elements of the webpages. or through simulations and market research surveys. text) on a webpage are evaluated. IDDEA. and allows for databasing across tests and over time. m choices for the featured image or graphic. a given page may have k choices for the title. the system estimates the impact of individual components on the target measurement (e..g.. which tests a structured combination of webpage elements. and the inability of most fractional designs to address this issue. many thousands—than traditional fractional Taguchi designs to achieve statistical significance. an advanced simulation method based on the Rule Developing Experimentation (RDE) paradigm was introduced. Multivariate landing page optimization can be executed in a live (production) environment. Once sufficient data has accumulated.[3] Live environment execution In live environment MVLPO execution.. Some vendors (e.. This example yields k×m×n landing page configurations. Overview Multivariate landing page optimization is based on experimental design (e. conversion rate). For example.g. • Likely inappropriate for low-traffic. Memetrics. The system keeps track of the visitors and their behavior—including their conversion rate. time spent on the page.Multivariate landing page optimization 195 Multivariate landing page optimization Multivariate landing page optimization (MVLPO) is a specific form of landing page optimization where multiple variations of visual elements (e. which tests all possible combinations of elements. Live environment execution has the following advantages: • Capable of testing the effect of variations as a real-life experience • Generally transparent to visitors • Relatively simple and inexpensive to execute Live environment execution has the following disadvantages: • High cost • Increased complexity involved in modifying a production-level website • Long period of time required to achieve statistically-reliable data.com) use a "full factorial" approach. etc. and n choices for the company logo. This approach requires a smaller sample size—typically. in 1998 as a simulation/demonstration project for LEGO. and have a higher margin of error.g.[1] RDE creates individual models for each respondent. Taguchi methods. MVLPO did not become a mainstream approach until 2003 or 2004. This quality is one reason that choice modeling won the Nobel Prize in 2000. To resolve the limitations of fractional designs.g.). graphics. Fractional designs typically used in simulation environments require the testing of small subsets of possible combinations. conjoint analysis. a special tool makes dynamic changes to a page so that visitors are directed to different executions of landing pages created according to an experimental design. uncovers attitudinal segmentation.

aspx?p=1015178). and Tonis Mets. 21(4): 373-414. • Necessity to recruit and optionally incentivize the respondents References [1] Howard R. ftpress. . com/ articles/ article. 2006. 2009. pp. InformIT Network. . Howard Moskowitz. regression analysis models are created either for individual pages or for the entire panel of pages.1108/07363760910965882. At the end of the research phase. ISBN 0-13-613668-0. [2] Alex Gofman. the respondents are directed to a survey that presents them with a set of experimentally-designed combinations of a landing page. In the research phase. Simulation execution has the following advantages: • Faster and easier to prepare and execute in many cases. The outcome relates the presence or absence of page elements on the different landing page executions to the respondents’ ratings. purchase intent).2006. DOI: 10.x [3] Alex Gofman (2007-09-21). And Suppressions Uncovered within Conjoint Analysis. Financial Times Press.g. Moskowitz. Integrating Science into Web Design: Consumer Driven Website Optimization. Wharton School Publishing.Multivariate landing page optimization 196 Simulation (survey) execution In simulation (survey) MVLPO execution. with or without interactions[4] . Selling Blue Elephants: How to make great products that people want BEFORE they even know they want them.1745-459X. [4] Alex Gofman. Synergies. The Journal of Consumer Marketing.1111/j. Emergent Scenarios.00072. "Improving the ‘Stickiness’ of Your Website" (http:/ / www. 272. Alex Gofman (2007-04-11). These results can be used to synthesize new landing pages as combinations of the top-scoring elements optimized for subgroups or market segments. Journal of Sensory Studies.. The respondents rate each version based on some factor (e. as compared to live environment execution • Applicable to low-traffic websites • Capable of producing more robust and rich data because of increased control over the page design Simulation execution has the following disadvantages: • Possible bias because of a simulated environment rather than a live environment. the foundation consists of advanced market research techniques. DOI: 10. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 26(4): 286-298.

History Founded in 2005. e-commerce and affiliate marketing industry throughout Europe. myThings also supports traditional CPM and CPC models. personalized online display ads (banners). myThings was the first company in Europe to offer online retailers with a CPA based business model in which advertisers only pay for conversions. Japan) and Eastern Europe. In 2010. Personalized retargeting is a form of online targeted advertising by which online advertising is delivered to consumers based on previous Internet actions that did not in the past result in a conversion. for visitors who have left their website without completing a purchase. . The company maintains that by reintroducing relevant product or service offers. as they continue to surf the web.com [1] myThings is a personalized retargeting provider whose solution enables online advertisers to create relevant. Additional research from comScore follows this school of thought. Spain.myThings. Benelux and Japan. Germany. Italy.MyThings 197 MyThings myThings myThings Logo Type Industry Founded Website Private Online Advertising 2005 www. The solution won the Econsultancy Award[3] in Affiliate Marketing in March 2011. in real time. myThings has offices in UK. demonstrating the retargeting can generate over 1000% increase in brand related searches. myThings partnered with Affiliate Window[2] to present the first CPA based affiliate retargeting solution on the market that integrates into advertisers' existing affiliate tags. myThings is a dynamic player in the online display advertising. Its solutions are used by customers in 12 countries including Asia (China. users will greatly increase online purchases (conversions) and click through rates. France.

com [2] Affiliate Marketing – Affiliate Window – Affiliate Network (http:/ / www. other companies considered competition in the CPC retargeting field include Criteo. iabuk. Product myThings offers adaptive retargeting ads generated in real-time. myThings technology utilizes cookies in the delivery of advertisements.MyThings 198 Partnerships myThings has over 200 partnerships with online retailers and brands. Accel Partners. com/ Portfolio/ Company. Prospects are informed on how the Retargeting service works. Each ad is optimized to maximum relevancy for the user. The cookies do not collect any Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Deutsche Telekom’s venture capital firm T-Venture invested $6 million in myThings[4] alongside previous backers. affiliatewindow. gov. Best 3rd party application. com/ news/ 2011/ 03/ a4uawards-2011-shortlist-announced/ ) . affiliates4u. Carmel Ventures. analytics platforms and advertising agencies. mxs) [8] HMG response to its consultation on proposals and overall approach including its consultation on specific issues (http:/ / www. Microsoft Store. and are able to Opt-Out of myThings’s services at any time. net/ en/ 1/ europecommitstoselfregulation140411. mythings. myThings won the Econsultancy Innovation Award for affiliate marketing in partnership with Affiliate Window. 47. 4. carmelventures. aspx) [9] a4uAwards 2011 Shortlist Announced . References [1] http:/ / www. AOL. for each user based on previous interactions with the advertiser’s website. The company is a signatory of the IAB EU framework presented to the UK Government as self-regulatory measures on behalf of the behavioral targeting industry[7] . dcms. com/ ) [3] Announcing the winners of the Econsultancy Innovation Awards 2010 (http:/ / econsultancy. [5] According to "All Things Digital"[6] . com/ 2010/ 11/ 23/ mythings-scores-6-million-in-funding-for-personalised-retargeting-technology/ ) [5] Carmel Ventures .MyThings Inc (http:/ / www. MisterGooddeal. PriceMinister. techcrunch. Telecom Italia and Booking. Privacy myThings is an active member of the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) and is in full compliance with international regulations and the EU standards of privacy. the largest independent affiliate marketing company in the UK. Best new entrant and Best retail advertiser with Hotel Chocolat.com. In partnership with Commission Junction. asp?Pid=0. myThings was also shortlisted for the A4U awards in 4 categories:[9] Affiliate Marketing innovation. Customers include Orange Mobile. 69& id=89) [6] Former Yahoo. uk/ publications/ 8048. Funding In January 2011. Achievements In March 2011. HuffPo Sales Dude Greg Coleman Lands Again – AllThingsD (http:/ / kara.a4u (http:/ / www. com/ 20110407/ former-yahoo-aol-huffpo-sales-dude-greg-coleman-lands-again/ ) [7] IABUK : Europe commits to self-regulation (http:/ / www. com/ uk/ blog/ 7054-announcing-the-winners-of-the-econsultancy-innovation-awards-2010) [4] myThings scores $6 million in funding for personalised retargeting technology (http:/ / eu. The company was recently nominated by Media Momentum [10] as one of the top 50 fastest growing digital media companies in Europe. The UK government has recently expressed its support of the framework[8] . allthingsd. leading European affiliate networks. Dot Corp and GP Bullhound.

insurance and finance leads. Implementing an OTO Page Internet traders use this technique after the double-optin. In direct contrast to sales leads. If the visitor leaves the page may not come again. income. These leads are resold to multiple advertisers.MyThings [10] http:/ / www. due to increased competition. Display advertising is commonly sold on a CPM pricing model. It is widely used by traders to obtain cash flow quickly. demographic information.list building.com) One-time offer The one-time-offer pages (or OTO) is a technique widely used in Internet marketing. After the visitor clicks on the confirmation e-mail. Marketing leads are brand-specific leads generated for a unique advertiser offer. mediamomentum. the number of times people view an advertisement. A 2007 Doubleclick Performics Search trends report shows that there were nearly six times as many keywords with a cost per click (CPC) of more than $1 in January 2007 than the prior year. The OTO is an effective technique to encourage undecided visitors to buy.e. The trader takes the audience to a page where they can receive the offer only once. building out reward programs. Sales leads are typically followed up through phone calls by the sales force. CPC (Cost-per-Click) advertising overcomes this problem by charging advertisers only when the consumer clicks on the advertisement. The cost per keyword increased by 33% and the . The problem with CPM advertising is that advertisers are charged even if the target audience does not click on (or even view) the advertisement. marketing lead campaigns can be optimized by mapping leads to their sources. A lead is a sign-up for an advertiser offer that includes contact information and in some cases. search keywords have become very expensive. Sales leads are generated on the basis of demographic criteria such as FICO score.com Website (http://www. co. age. etc. However. loyalty programs or for other member acquisition programs. Leads can be generated for a variety of purposes . the trader takes him to the OTO page. uk/ 199 External Links Official myThings.mythings. There are two types of leads in the lead generation market: sales leads and marketing leads. HHI. marketing leads are sold only once. Because transparency is a necessary requisite for generating marketing leads. Online lead generation Online Lead Generation is a marketing term that refers to the creation or generation of prospective consumer interest or inquiry into a business' products or services online. Online pricing models There are three pricing models in the online advertising market that marketers can use to buy advertising and generate leads. e-newsletter list acquisition. Sales leads are commonly found in the mortgage. CPM (Cost-per-Thousand) pricing models charge advertisers for impressions — i.

advertisers pay for an interested lead — i. irrespective of the clicks or impressions that went into generating the lead. Also like CPC. CPA is all about 'now' — it focuses on driving consumers to buy at that exact moment. the advertiser typically pays for a completed sale involving a credit card transaction. If a visitor to the website doesn't buy anything. who purchase the consumer's information. 200 CPL advertising and CPA advertising For marketers that are looking to pay only for specific actions. there are two options: CPL advertising (or online lead generation) and CPA advertising (also referred to as affiliate marketing) In CPL campaigns. in favor of action-based models within three years. A GP Bullhound Research report states that the online lead generation is growing at 71% YTY — more than twice as fast as the online advertising market. there's no easy way to remarket to them. In recent times. . Common types of opt-in ad units are: • AdUnitX Banners: AdUnit X banners allow advertisers to run display advertising on a CPL pricing model. advertisers pay only for qualified leads. These banners eliminate the need for users to click-through a landing page. there has been a rapid increase in online lead generation—banner and direct response advertising that works off a CPL pricing model. In a cost-per-lead pricing model. The consumer has 'opted-in' to receive correspondence from the advertiser and is therefore considered a qualified lead. The rapid growth is primarily driven by the advertiser demand for ROI focused marketing. The advertiser receives the standard fields and answers to as many as twenty custom questions that s/he defines. CPL pricing models are the most advertiser-friendly. Like CPC. including their demographic information and product and lifestyle interests. CPL (Cost-per-Lead) advertising solves risk of CPM and CPC by charging only by the lead. the price per lead can be bid up by demand.e. The user enters her or his information within the banner. • On-Line survey: Consumers are asked to complete a survey. a trend that is expected to accelerate during a recession. the contact information of a person interested in the advertiser's product or service. • Co-registration advertising (aka Co-Reg): The advertiser receives some or all of the standard fields collected by a site during the site's registration process. [1] with spending on performance-based pricing models exceeding that on display (IAB PWC 2007 Internet Spending Report) for the first time. A 2009 IBM research study found that two-thirds of senior marketers expect 20 percent of ad revenue to move away from impression-based sales. CPL campaigns are suitable for brand marketers and direct response marketers looking to engage consumers at multiple touchpoints — by building a newsletter list. community site. reward program or member acquisition program. This information is used as a sales lead for advertisers. Contact details are transmitted automatically from the publisher to the advertiser via the back end.Online lead generation cost per click rose by as much as 55%. In CPA campaigns. It also helps explain why 2007 saw a paradigm shift for the industry. • Full Page lead generation: The advertiser's offer appears as a full page ad in an HTML format with relevant text and graphics. CPL advertising is also commonly referred to as online lead generation. there are ways that providers can commit fraud by manufacturing leads or blending one source of lead with another (example: search-driven leads with co-registration leads)to generate higher profits.

Carroll (ISBN 0-07-145897-2) Marketing Management by Philip Kotler (ISBN 0-13-033629-7) Marketing for Dummies (ISBN 0-7645-5600-2) The Online Lead Generation Glossary (http://www. directory listings. “posts”. These goals will define the online presence management strategy. hypertext.[1] Creating a long-term positive presence online is imperative for an organization. images. another key component is to analyze online presence within the search engine results. Online presence management strategy works for any size business. and web server and network security configuration. Individual articles on a blog are called “blog posts”. photographs. Blogging A blog is a website in which items are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. Blogs often use a conversational style of documentation. In order to manage online brand presence. pay per click marketing. A blog may be composed of text. web content development. When they perform a query in hope of finding information on an organization or a brand. social media. A blog is like an online journal that is updated daily. These goals help to define the online presence management strategy. It is one of the most effective techniques to make sure that a business website or link is listed in the top few links of the millions of results that are displayed in various search engines such as Google. videos. . Saylor (ISBN 0976864703) Lead Generation for the Complex Sale by Brian J. client liaison. It combines the elements of web design and development. Consumers simply search on various search engines to find information about a certain product or service. . maintaining a blog. and other avenues to create a long-term positive presence for an organization in various search engines.Online lead generation 201 References • • • • • The B2B Refinery by J. or audio. pdf). Yahoo!. Bing. the organization/brand would want to make sure that their website and online properties are listed high in the search results. Most of these consumers would not bother going beyond the first page. although some focus on art.[2] Most blogs are primarily textual. etc. 06 Mar 2009. an ongoing and constant process of evaluating and fine-tuning begins that drives online presence towards the business goals. The search engines update their indexes on a regular basis. or “entries”.pontiflex. the organization needs to know what is being said and discussed about their brand. and links. while constantly pushing to reduce the cost of achieving those goals by relying more on the organic activity of the Internet rather than the paid placement approaches. link sharing.com/download/leadgenerationglossary. Authoring a blog. reputation management. IBM Global Business Services. David Green & Michael C. The online presence management process starts by keeping in mind the business goals for the activity. ibm. The term blog is a shortened form of weblog or web log.pdf) [1] "The End of Advertising as We Know It" (http:/ / www-935. or adding an article to an existing blog is called “blogging”. com/ services/ us/ gbs/ bus/ pdf/ ibv-g510-7869-01-advertising. A person who posts these entries is called a “blogger”. client-side/server-side scripting. As part of a total online presence management strategy. blogging. whether it is a small business or a major corporation. Services provided under online presence management Web Designing and Development This primarily includes web design. search engine optimization. Online presence management Online presence management is a process that engineers and stimulates a certain brand online. Once this strategy is put in place. in addition to the monitoring of a brand.

looking for positive and negative opinions about any particular service or product. A recent advertising industry survey reveals that Internet advertising will generate about $428 billion in revenues this year. and stores them in the search engine's index. Internet advertising has now overtaken other traditional advertising media such as newspapers. whereas last year it was about $220 billion. Aol. With potential customers increasingly heading online to research products and services. The whole blogging process tremendously helps in promoting the online presence of any service or product. According to the same survey. 202 Search Engine Optimization Search Engine Optimization is modifying a website to increase its ranking and thus visibility in the organic or natural ("unpaid"). makes copies of the pages. Cost per mille 2.[6] Social media marketing programs usually center on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages readers to share content with their social networks. Domain name strategies Linking strategies Keywords used Title tags Meta description tags Alt tags Internet Advertising Internet advertising is a form of broadcasting and promotion of products.Online presence management Microblogging is another type of blogging. Cost per action Reputation Management Reputation management is the process of tracking people's actions and opinions. Major search engines that index pages using spiders are Google. Search engines use a spider or a crawler to gather the listings by automatically "crawling" the web. crawler-based listings of search engines. Based on this data. as opposed to the brand or company itself. The spider follows links to web pages. third-party source. magazines. ideas.[4] The three most common techniques of internet advertising are: 1. and radio. Social media is all about networking in a way that advocates trust among the parties and . Bing. [5] Social Media Marketing Social media marketing is a medium that provides social media tools and platforms to create and foster communities and relationships. The main process of reputation management is reporting on those actions and opinions and reacting to that report. the search engines then index the pages and rank the websites accordingly.[3] Some of the methods to optimize a web page in search engines are: 1. Yahoo. and removing negative opinions (if any) and converting them into positive ones. bad reviews or complaints that turn up in a search can mean lost business. creating a feedback loop. The most important task of a reputation manager is to defend clients against damaging information on the web. 21 percent of Internet users consider online advertising to be the most relevant advertising system. 5. 2. 3. Once a positive opinion about any entity is established online. 6. featuring very short posts. and lycos. 4. A corporate message spreads from user to user and presumably resonates because it is coming from a trusted. Thus reputation management services work on highlighting the positive pages and burying offending sites deep in search results. Cost per click 3. it's online presence too gets established. or services using the Internet to attract customers.

[2] Rowse. SEO Made Easy (http:/ / www. Ask. com/ smallbiz/ content/ apr2008/ sb20080430_356835. com/ ). do not let webmasters pay to be in their search engine listing (advertisements are shown separately and labeled as such). 4. 6. [7] "Social Media Marketing" (http:/ / en. Any website that allows users to share their content. .[1] A per-click fee may also apply. MySpace. . Also known as sponsored listings. Some popular social media sites are: Facebook. Often the line between pay per click advertising and paid inclusion is debatable. Brad. the fee covers an annual subscription for one webpage. 7. YouTube. "Social media marketing" (http:/ / www. Mike. Retrieved 17 April 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011. . Another advantage of paid inclusion is that it allows site owners to specify particular schedules for crawling pages. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 2. or even whether it is shown to any users. 5. like Yahoo!. Typically. . pp. Understanding what tools are available and how to use them effectively is key to success in social media marketing. Paid inclusion Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing product where the search engine company charges fees related to inclusion of websites in their search index. bradcallen. Some detractors of paid inclusion allege that it causes searches to return results based more on the economic standing of the interests of a web site. . Scribd. paid inclusion products are provided by most search engine companies. one has no control as to when their page will be crawled or added to a search engine index. samefaretaxi. Digg. . the most notable being Google. In the general case. while defenders insist they are not actually ads since the webmasters do not control the content of the listing. "ProBlogger" (http:/ / www. Each search engine is different.[2] mix paid inclusion (per-page and per-click fee) with results from web crawling. John. More frequently. com/ ). com/ e4m/ bottombarfiles/ Internet-Advertising. 90. Search Engine Marketing. com/ ). Paid inclusion proves to be particularly useful for cases where pages are dynamically generated and frequently modified. its ranking. Retrieved 17 April 2011. Twitter. mikemoran. However.com[3] [4] ). and views and encourages interaction and community building can be classified as social media. Others. etc. 3. org/ wiki/ Social_media_marketing). "Do Reputation Management Services Work?" (http:/ / www. . htm). Retrieved 16 April 2011. problogger. which will automatically be catalogued on a regular basis.. [3] Callen. Some have lobbied for any paid listings to be labeled as an advertisement. . exchange4media. like Google (and as of 2006. exchange4media. some companies are experimenting with non-subscription based fee structures where purchased listings are displayed permanently. Some of these tools are:[7] 1. Businessweek. wikipedia. Social Media Marketing. 8. opinions. asp). [5] Tozzi. The fee structure is both a filter against superfluous submissions and a revenue generator. Social media monitoring Social aggregation Social bookmarking and tagging Social analytics and reporting Automation Social media Blog marketing Validation 203 References [1] "Samefaretaxi Studios" (http:/ / www. Darren. [6] Moran. Flickr. businessweek. Retrieved 17 April 2011. Some sites allow only paid inclusion.Online presence management communities involved. many search engines. [4] "Internet advertising" (http:/ / www. and less on the relevancy of that site to end-users. Online Presence Management. net/ archives/ 2005/ 01/ 06/ about-darren/ ). Inc. although these have had little success.

since experts and firms can test out different approaches to improving ranking.[1] When one of these keywords is entered into the search engine. P4P is now seen as the most efficient and effective way to monetize search engines. instead of waiting weeks or months. html). . CNN. cnn. cnn. Archived from the original (http:/ / archives. 204 References [1] "FAQ #1: What are PermAds?" (http:/ / www. archive. Ask. References [1] "Search engines shift gears to increase profits" (http:/ / web. without paying the search engine company. engines. org/ web/ 20080221002146/ http:/ / archives. Knowledge gained this way can be used to optimize other web pages. [3] Ulbrich. Retrieved 2008-04-11. . ap/ index. html?tw=wn_tophead_1). .Paid inclusion Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing method in itself. Under this model. com/ blog/ archives/ 001671. explored. permads. explored.[2] which in some cases led to legal action. engine. the auction model has proven to be effective at producing relevant results for searches where the user wants to purchase something. Retrieved 2008-04-11. [3] "Search engines sued over 'pay-for-placement'" (http:/ / edition.1367. and see the results often within a couple of days. Chris (2004-07-06). shtml#18). php?2#1). CNN. When P4P was first introduced. [2] Gibson. controversy arose because seventy percent of Internet users were unaware that search results could be skewed as a result of such agreements.com. . advertisers bid for the right to present an advertisement with specific search terms (i. engines. com/ 2000/ TECH/ computing/ 12/ 11/ search. "BBC angers rivals by launching online search engine" (http:/ / www. Wired News. keywords) in an open auction. . newmedia). however. "Defending Paid Inclusions" (http:/ / jeremy. [4] "FAQ #18: How do I register my site/URL with Ask so that it will be indexed?" (http:/ / about. ask. London: The Guardian. co. com/ 2000/ TECH/ computing/ 12/ 11/ search.64092. . PermAds. is an Internet advertising model in which advertisements appear along with relevant search results from a Web search engine.. but also a tool of search engine optimization. Pay for placement Pay for placement. idg/ index. or P4P. com/ page.e. Retrieved 2010-09-12. zawodny. uk/ media/ 2002/ may/ 03/ bbc. Jeremy (2004-03-01).00. . with higher ranking bids appearing more prominently on the page. wired. "Paid Inclusion Losing Charm?" (http:/ / www. . html). com/ news/ business/ 0. com/ en/ docs/ about/ webmasters. com/ 2002/ TECH/ internet/ 02/ 04/ search.[3] Many users felt that the search results would be irrelevant. cnn.com. html) on 2008-02-21. html). lawsuit. ap/ index. the results of the auction on that keyword are presented. [2] Zawodny. Owen (2002-05-03). guardian. Retrieved 2008-04-11. Retrieved 2008-12-19.

Google AdWords. where advertisers pay the hosting service when the ad is clicked. which typically publish rate cards. As with other forms of advertising targeting is key. This value is based on the type of individual the advertiser is expecting to receive as a visitor to his or her website. the advertiser and publisher agree upon a fixed amount that will be paid for each click. that provides purchase opportunities wherever people may be surfing. in many cases advertisers can negotiate lower rates. In many cases.Pay per click 205 Pay per click Pay per click (PPC) is an Internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites. especially when committing to a long-term or high-value contract. and appear adjacent to or above organic results on search engine results pages. and revenue sharing programs. The flat-rate model is particularly common to comparison shopping engines. In contrast to the generalized portal. usually revenue. In both cases the advertiser must consider the potential value of a click from a given source. location (for geo targeting).. and advertisers can pay more for greater visibility. advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market. or the content of a page that they are browsing). and Microsoft adCenter are the three largest network operators. with content that generally attracts more valuable visitors having a higher CPC than content that attracts less valuable visitors.[1] Among PPC providers. The affiliates provide purchase-point click-through to the merchant. and the day and time that they are browsing. Cost per click (CPC) is the sum paid by an advertiser to search engines and other Internet publishers for a single click on their advertisement. These various amounts are often related to the content on pages. Content sites commonly charge a fixed price per click rather than use a bidding system. Variations include banner exchange. to purchase or not). . PPC implements the so-called affiliate model. It does this by offering financial incentives (in the form of a percentage of revenue) to affiliated partner sites. These sites are usually neatly compartmentalized into product or service categories. which directs one visitor to the advertiser's website. both in the short term as well as in the long term.[4] However. Such advertisements are called sponsored links or sponsored ads. allowing a high degree of targeting by advertisers. Flat-rate PPC In the flat-rate model. and what the advertiser can gain from that visit. or anywhere a web developer chooses on a content site. or when a content site displays relevant content. In many cases the publisher has a rate card that lists the CPC within different areas of their website or network. which seeks to drive a high volume of traffic to one site.[3] Determining cost per click There are two primary models for determining cost per click: flat-rate and bid-based. intent (e. Websites that utilize PPC ads will display an advertisement when a keyword query matches an advertiser's keyword list.[1] The PPC advertising model is open to abuse through click fraud. these rates are sometimes minimal. It is a pay-for-performance model: If an affiliate does not generate sales. Cost per click (CPC) varies depending on the search engine and the level of competition for a particular keyword. With search engines. and all three operate under a bid-based model. it represents no cost to the merchant. although Google and others have implemented automated systems[2] to guard against abusive clicks by competitors or corrupt web developers. However. and factors that often play into PPC campaigns include the target's interest (often defined by a search term they have entered into a search engine. Yahoo! Search Marketing.g. the entire core content of these sites is paid ads. pay-per-click.

com (later Overture) advertisers until November 2001. Overture has filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Google. maximize traffic at breakeven. more commonly. now part of Yahoo!). though additional factors such as ad quality and relevance can sometimes come into play (see Quality Score). which can be anywhere from 50% to over 80% of the gross revenue paid by advertisers. The ad with the highest bid generally shows up first. one penny) than the next highest bidder or the actual amount bid. Bill Gross. All bids for the keyword that target the searcher's geo-location. there can be multiple winners whose positions on the page are influenced by the amount each has bid. they receive a portion of the ad revenue that the network generates. saying the rival search service overstepped its bounds with its ad-placement tools. In situations where there are multiple ad spots. Content network properties can include websites. The auction plays out in an automated fashion every time a visitor triggers the ad spot. These systems can be used directly by the advertiser. History In February 1998 Jeffrey Brewer of Goto.[6] This avoids situations where bidders are constantly adjusting their bids by very small amounts to see if they can still win the auction while paying just a little bit less per click. It was not until October 2000 that the AdWords system was introduced. Yahoo! did not start syndicating GoTo. Google started search engine advertising in December 1999. In general.Pay per click 206 Bid-based PPC In the bid-based model. are then compared and the winner determined. usually using online tools to do so. with thousands or even millions of PPC bids controlled by a highly automated system. In addition to ad spots on SERPs. newsletters. which then allows it to set bids. until then. These tools generally allow for bid management at scale. whichever is lower. The effectiveness of these systems is directly related to the quality and quantity of the performance data that they have to work with low-traffic ads can lead to a scarcity of data problem that renders many bid management tools useless at worst. the advertiser signs a contract that allows them to compete against other advertisers in a private auction hosted by a publisher or. though they are more commonly used by advertising agencies that offer PPC bid management as a service. allowing advertisers to create text ads for placement on the Google search engine.[7] This presentation and the events that followed created the PPC advertising system.com founder. Each advertiser informs the host of the maximum amount that he or she is willing to pay for a given ad spot (often based on a keyword). These properties are often referred to as a content network and the ads on them as contextual ads because the ad spots are associated with keywords based on the context of the page on which they are found. with the actual amount paid based on the amount bid. a 25-employee startup company (later Overture. Credit for the concept of the PPC model is generally given to Idealab and Goto.com. [8] Although GoTo. To maximize success and achieve scale. an advertising network.[9] Prior to this. the automated auction takes place whenever a search for the keyword that is being bid upon occurs. the major advertising networks allow for contextual ads to be placed on the properties of 3rd-parties with whom they have partnered. or inefficient at best. ads on content networks have a much lower click-through rate (CTR) and conversion rate (CR) than ads found on SERPs and consequently are less highly valued. and e-mails. Yahoo's primary source of SERPS advertising included contextual IAB . the day and time of the search. The system is usually tied into the advertiser's website and fed the results of each click.com started PPC in 1998. It is common practice amongst auction hosts to charge a winning bidder just slightly more (e. The system generally sets each bid based on the goal that has been set for it. such as maximize profit. advertisements were charged at cost-per-thousand impressions. When the ad spot is part of a search engine results page (SERP).[5] Advertisers pay for each click they receive. PPC was only introduced in 2002.g. presented a pay per click search engine proof-of-concept to the TED conference in California. and so forth. automated bid management systems can be deployed. etc. In return. These publishers sign up to host ads on behalf of the network. a common occurrence on SERPs. However.

63 billion" (http:/ / news. CNET. 32(2).com/article/112132/ study_paid_listings_still_confuse_web_searchers. C. edu/ mottaviani/ PPCA. com/ enroll/ app?service=page/ RateCard) Shopping. yahoo. 2010. "Sponsored Search" (http:/ / advertising. 2009. cnet. [3] How do you prevent invalid clicks and impressions? (https:/ / www. Accessed February 23. 2010. cnet. Yahoo! Press Release. [6] AdWords Discounter (http:/ / adwords. 2010).63 billion.org/Bulletin/ Dec-05/pedersen. 2007 [8] Stefanie Olsen and Gwendolyn Mariano (April 5. py?answer=9718& ctx=en:search& query=invalid+ click& topic=& type=f) Google AdSense Help Center.com. O. Retrieved May 18.[10] 207 References [1] "Customers Now". "Sponsored Search: A Brief History. . 2011. com/ support/ bin/ answer. london. [9] Yahoo! Inc. .pcworld. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. 12-13. [10] Stefanie Olsen (July 14. Yahoo! announced intent to acquire Overture for $1. 2010. Pedersen (2006). External links • Paid listings confuse web searchers (http://www. "Overture sues Google over search patent" (http:/ / news. google. com/ 2100-1030_3-1025394. 2010. 2009 [7] Overture and Google: Internet Pay Per Click (PPC) Advertising Auctions (http:/ / faculty. Retrieved May 18. html). Accessed June 12. Fain and J. Retrieved May 18. "Using data to help prevent fraud" (http:/ / googleblog. London Business School. "Yahoo to buy Overture for $1. com/ 2100-1023-876861. com/ docs/ pr/ release975.Pay per click advertising units (mainly 468x60 display ads). com/ smallbusiness/ whatsincluded).html). .asis. html). 2008 [4] Shopping. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology." (http://www. yahoo. Retrieved May 18. Retrieved May 18. [2] Shuman Ghosemajumder (March 18. google. 2007 [5] Yahoo! Search Marketing (May 18. PC World • D. html). . Google Blog. shopping. blogspot. When the syndication contract with Yahoo! was up for renewal in July 2003. com/ 2008/ 03/ using-data-to-help-prevent-fraud.com Merchant Enrollment (https:/ / merchant. 2010. "Yahoo! and Overture Extend Pay-for-Performance Search Agreement" (http:/ / docs. Accessed June 12. 2002). . py?hl=en& answer=6302) Google AdWords Help. Website Traffic Yahoo! Search Marketing (formerly Overture). Accessed January 9. . (2002). 2003). 2008). pdf). html). Retrieved Jan 28.html). CNET. David Szetela.

com/ article/ SB120036638439890355. pulled from cookies that are placed on a user’s web browser. History The mechanics of basic retargeting go back about 10 years. the web page playing the audio ad is normally paid for each ad they serve. Personalized retargeting functions as a complement to search. is an online advertising method that plays an audio advertisement on websites. also known as Cash per play (CPP). Most commonly initiated via JavaScript. targeted display ads that are unique to each consumer. the term "pay per play" can also refer to a relationship between advertisers and audio ad producers. with personalized retargeting emerging recently as a more sophisticated technique to present consumers with targeted. . and personalized retargeting providers aim to increase conversion rates by displaying highly relevant. on average. 50 percent more per purchase. branded creative ads. SEO and other marketing campaign tactics. The term "pay per play" comes from advertisers paying for each audio ad played. relevant ads based on their previous onsite browsing history. personalized ads are produced in real-time. Also. like other forms of retargeting. google.[3] Personalized retargeted ads differ from earlier forms of retargeting in that instead of static. com/ support/ bin/ answer.[1] In radio advertising. uses basic information. Ads are typically automatically played when a visitor loads a web page. wsj. Personalized retargeting. reflect the browsing history of each individual user and can feature multiple ads in a single banner. and a website visitor will usually hear only one advertisement per visit to any specific web page. retargeted consumers are nearly 70 percent more likely[2] to complete a sale than non-retargeted consumers and they spend. py?hl=en& answer=63154) Personalized retargeting Personalized retargeting is a display advertising technique used by online advertisers to recapture consumers who visit a retailer’s site and leave without making a purchase. to serve display advertisements. audio ads normally cannot be stopped once they start.Pay per play 208 Pay per play Pay per play (PPP). Industry studies have found that nearly 95 percent[1] of website visits don’t translate to purchases. Audio ads vary in length. The products that appear in each user’s display ad are unique to each user and reflect products that the user previously viewed on a retailer’s website. according to a study by personalized retargeting provider Criteo.[2] References [1] Wall Street Journal Online (http:/ / online. html) [2] Pay-per-play for Audio Ads (http:/ / adwords.

Google AdWords. a view through. which partner sites will place near banner advertisements that collect non-PII user data. however. and instead relies upon the industry and its overarching organizations. Pay per click (PPC) charges advertisers for every verifiable click that leads consumers back to a retailer’s website. Cost per action (CPA) is a pricing model in which advertisers are charged based on pre-arranged action (a purchase. Unlike the CPM model. although a completed sale is the most common action used under the CPA model. Providers are blind to a user’s age. responsible personalized retargeting providers don’t collect personally identifiable information (PII) on consumers. Concerns In the United States. have expressed privacy[4] concerns[5] around the practice of retargeting.[9] Partial list of providers • • • • • • • • • • • 4-Tell[10] BuySight (formerly Permuto)[11] ChoiceStream[12] Criteo[13] Dotomi[14] FetchBack[15] (acquired by GSI Commerce in June 2010)[16] Magnetic[17] mediaFORGE[18] MyBuys[19] myThings[20] TellApart[21] . This information is not shared among publishers.[6] The United States hasn’t legislated many laws around the practice. the IAB announced its Advertising Option Icon. Instead. In October 2010. several organizations. Congress and the media. An impression is defined as any time a banner ad loads on an individual’s web browser. including the Federal Trade Commissiomn. advertisers working under the PPC model are only charged when a person clicks on an ad.[7] NAI[8] and TRUSTe to self-regulate. sex and other personal information. such as the IAB. etc). providers rely upon data gathered from cookies that are placed on a consumer’s browser by the websites they visit. other advertisers or third parties and cannot be linked to a specific user. which charges advertisers a flat rate.Personalized retargeting 209 Pricing models Personalized retargeting providers employ a variety of pricing models to charge advertisers for the ads viewed by consumers. Three prominent models include: • CPM (cost per thousand) • PPC (pay per click) • CPA (cost per action) Cost per impression (CPM) is a common metric used in the online advertising industry to charge advertisers for inventory based on a set price per thousand page impressions. Yahoo! Search Marketing and Criteo are examples of providers that use a PPC model.

com [14] http:/ / www. Marketers might wish to use the information to detect if they are attracting their desired target audience to their landing pages. com/ content/ 27804. and paid searches with the objective on increasing conversion rates. criteo. and can be helpful in engaging visitors who normally go totally unidentified by sales . aboutads. iab. they distinguish themselves in their ability to supplement IP addresses with data from third-party sources. com/ us/ blog/ 6101-increase-search-conversion-with-retargeting [2] http:/ / www. showArticle& art_aid=137111 [10] http:/ / www. com/ [12] http:/ / www. If used properly. These tools are not so much lead generation software but more data extraction tools that can assist the early stages of a lead generation process. com/ [4] http:/ / www. and the industry they are in. they provide a powerful insight to marketing executives who want to measure online campaigns based on the type of audiences they are attracting. com/ 2010/ 08/ 30/ technology/ 30adstalk. com/ Post-click marketing Post-click marketing is emerging as a recognized practice that aims at improving sales and marketing results by focusing on website visitors when they respond to online marketing activities such as pay per click advertising. mediapost. com/ 2010/ 06/ 01/ fetchback-40-million-gsi-commerce/ [17] http:/ / magnetic. com/ [21] http:/ / tellapart. asp [3] http:/ / www. With pressure to generate more leads with small budgets. adotas. com/ article/ SB10001424052748703940904575395073512989404. Inside Sales tend to use it for lead generation purposes. com/ [15] http:/ / www. net/ privacymatters/ [8] http:/ / www.Personalized retargeting 210 References [1] http:/ / econsultancy. 4-Tell. • Sales managers also find them attractive in their ability to generate email alerts to them when important customers visit their website. myThings. com/ [19] http:/ / www. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. Post-click marketing relies on specific software and services that go beyond the information collected by popular web analytic tools such as Google Analytics. com/ [13] http:/ / www. search engine optimization and other online activities use these tools to discover more about the estimated 98% (quoted by a case paper from the Marketing Sherpa) of visitors who don’t immediately convert into a lead. criteo. Post-click marketing solutions appeal on many fronts: • Businesses paying for the traffic to their website through pay per click. dotomi. or to personalize the content based on the visitor’s language or location. info/ [9] http:/ / www. com/ [16] http:/ / techcrunch. these services are likely to grow in usage. imediaconnection. html?_r=3& src=busln [5] http:/ / online. mybuys. is/ [18] http:/ / mediaforge. choicestream. html [6] http:/ / www. com/ [20] http:/ / www. writing emails to email contacts they can find for the visiting organization. For example. HTML e-mails. • Inside Sales can view the keywords used by specific visitors to help qualify a person who has filled in a form on a landing page. com/ 2010/ 09/ what-so-creepy-about-retargeting/ [7] http:/ / www. com/ [11] http:/ / www. There are many ways in which this information gathered about website visitors can be used. nytimes. fetchback. wsj. their location. permuto. enabling marketing managers to view the name of the company visiting their website.

sold. It's a license where author sell most or all of the intellectual property rights to their work. and without being exclusive or unique content.David Jobber: 4th edition 2004 • Marketing Sherpa . resold or repurposed in many different formats. both as bonus items. The license is defined by the author of the work and has no legal definition. Because there are many buyers of the same product. slide-sharing websites and similar. buyers are often able to resell the same rights they've acquired although not all private label releases offer or permit license distribution or transfer. Private Label Content is best used as a "resource" rather than a 'source". Private Label Content comes with different rights depending on the developer so it's important to throughly check each license prior to use. articles.Hugh MacFarlane: 2003 Private label rights Private label rights is a concept used in Internet Marketing and derived from private labeling. including PLR reports. meaning that you should consider revising and improving existing private label content before distributing it under your own brand. However. In general practice this means that the product can be modified. templates and even videos. Private label is also useful in adding perceived value to existing products. including by using private label as an outline or guide when hiring outsources to create information products. There are many different ways to successfully use private label content to minimize workload and production time. graphics. content syndication. graphic templates etc. Use The license is used for various digital products such as articles. the basic premise is that the license permits buyers to re-brand the content under their own name and brand (excluding copyright). Marketers use private label products for reselling under their own brands or in the case of written products for online marketing through channels like article directories. and through time limited offers. ebook directories. 211 References • Principles and Practice of Marketing .Post-click marketing and marketing. While licenses differ with each author and seller. software. Criticism Due to private label being distributed to multiple customers. marketers are often hesitant on incorporating private label content into their marketing campaigns. Private Label Content comes in many different formats. minimizing the number of competing marketers using the same content. In some cases authorship on the original product is allowed and with unrestricted private label. the price of a single unit is generally lower than if one would create a similar product from scratch (either by himself or by outsourcing). ebooks. .Case Studies 2007 • The Leaky Funnel . ebooks. Similar licenses include resell rights. you can also purchase private label content that is limited in distribution. also used in Internet Marketing. to ensure that you are familiar with any restrictions that may be in place.

this new feature allowed advertisers to bid as little as $0. Click-Through Rate All three search engines have revealed that a major factor . Ads are then listed in descending order based on the result of that equation. Google could test each advertiser's ability to pay these increases. In addition to the CTR of the keyword and matched ad itself. . In addition. To determine the order in which ads are listed. none has revealed their formulas in detail. and that a high quality score could actually cause ads to jump over ads with lower quality scores that would otherwise not merit that prominent placement. On the surface. In late 2008. and potentially increase the average minimum bid without the advertising community as a whole being made aware. However. and each company has stated that they reserve the right to continually adjust their ranking methodologies. While each search engine has released directional information on the factors most important to them. Google takes into account the overall historic CTR of the entire AdWords account as well as the historic CTR of the display URLs in the ad group. thus increasing competitiveness within the auctions and extracting maximum revenue from each advertiser. It is reasonable to assume that users who have a great experience when clicking on ads will click on them more frequently. Furthermore. The exact weight of Quality Score versus bid has not been revealed by any of the major search engines. Google revealed that Quality Score was used to determine which ads it would show above organic results. by raising minimums bids. each ad has the following formula run against it: bid * Quality Score. prior to its introduction of Quality Score in July 2005[6] .01 to have their ad shown.in their respective Quality Score formulas is the historical click-through rate (CTR) of the keyword and matched ad. in some cases advertisers found their minimum bids for some ads were raised to as high as $5. and MSN [3] that can influence both the rank and cost per click (CPC) of ads. Factors in Determining Quality Score There are a number of factors that determine the Quality Score of a given ad. presumably in an effort to guide their advertisers towards making better ads. thus increasing advertising revenues for the search engine. Google chose to introduce variable minimum bids at the same time as it introduced Quality-Based Bidding. Below is a summary of what has been released.the most important factor to Google[5] .00. Google determined ad rank by running the following formula against each ad and sorting them in descending order: bid * CTR. By implementing variable minimum bids Google created a mechanism whereby the company could set different minimums for different advertisers for the same keyword.Quality Score 212 Quality Score Quality Score is a variable used by Google[1] .00 or $10. The primary reason for this is to improve the experience of users who click on sponsored links. Yahoo![2] (called Quality Index).[4] Purpose Behind Quality Score The major search engines have each independently implemented efforts to maintain and improve the quality of ads listed on their sites. In fact.

Accessed February 22 2009 [3] adCenter Quality-Based Ranking? (http:/ / adcenterblog. Accessed February 23 2009 [6] Inside AdWords: Quality Score improvements (http:/ / adwords. changes in terms of use in Google Analytics have fed speculation in the search engine marketing (SEM) community that Google is using on-site conversion data in its Quality Score formula.[8] Geographical Considerations Google has revealed that the accounts performance in the geographical region where the ad will be shown impacts Quality Score. Landing Page Quality All three search engines have revealed that landing page quality is a factor in determining Quality Score. yahoo. blogspot. com/ support/ bin/ answer. html) Yahoo! Search Marketing Help. py?hl=en& answer=47884) AdWords Help. In particular. Accessed February 23 2009 [8] Inside AdWords: Landing page load time now affects keywords' Quality Scores (http:/ / adwords. google. Accessed February 23 2009 [7] How do I create a high quality landing page? (http:/ / adwords. google. com/ l/ us/ yahoo/ ysm/ sps/ faqs/ quality/ quality_index. html) Official AdWords Blog.[7] In the case of MSN. com/ 2008/ 06/ landing-page-load-time-now-affects. com/ support/ bin/ answer. py?hl=en& answer=10215) Google AdWords Help. com/ 2008/ 08/ quality-score-improvements. Accessed February 23 2009 [5] Inside AdWords: Improvements to Ads Quality (http:/ / adwords. they have revealed that ads with landing pages that don't contain the keyword may be declined altogether.Quality Score 213 Ad Copy Relevance All three search engines have revealed that the relevance of the ad copy to the keyword is a factor in determining Quality Score. com/ Blog/ cns!85E824269AB8C30D!352. entry) adCenter Blog. it can be assumed that ads with ad copy that contains the keyword will have a higher Quality Score than ads with ad copy that does not contain the keyword. Accessed February 22 2009 [2] What is the quality index? (http:/ / help. live. spaces. Landing page quality generally refers to whether or not the page contains relevant and original content and the navigability of the site. References [1] What is 'Quality Score' and how is it calculated? (http:/ / adwords. html) Official AdWords Blog. blogspot. blogspot. Therefore. com/ 2008/ 10/ improvements-to-ads-quality. blogspot. Accessed February 22 2009 [4] Inside AdWords: Improvements to Ads Quality (http:/ / adwords. html) Official AdWords Blog. html) Official AdWords Blog. Landing Page Load Time In June 2008 Google revealed that landing page load time impacts Quality Score. Accessed February 23 2009 . Other Factors All three search engines have revealed that other factors are taken into consideration when calculating Quality Score. com/ 2008/ 10/ improvements-to-ads-quality.

Referrals account for roughly 35%[10] of their daily signups (as of April 2010). On whether customer referral programs are worth the cost. Importantly. Such referrals often happen spontaneously but businesses can influence this through appropriate strategies. Referred customers had a higher contribution margin. Dropbox estimated that their users had sent 2.Quality Score 214 External links • Google Ads Quality Basics Video (http://www. promoting and rewarding customers and contacts to think and talk as much as possible about their supplier.In 2009.com/watch?v=SsEGWI1w1L8) • Google Ads Quality Updates Video (http://www. online referral marketing provides a high degree of tracking and accountability. In the 30 days before the conference presentation. . Online referral marketing. using digital marketing as a platform. The study found that referred customers were both more profitable and loyal than normal customers. product and service and the value and benefit the supplier brings to them and people they know.8 million[11] direct referral invites to their friends. the study mentioned . According to Professor Van den Bulte. informing. at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference [7] on 23 April 2010. Referral marketing does this by encouraging.youtube. the referral program was inspired by the Paypal Sign up Bonus [8] program. usually word of mouth.youtube. According to Drew Houston. Overview Referral marketing is a structured and systematic process to maximize word of mouth potential. Their referral program had a two-sided incentive for sharing: the person who signs up for Dropbox through your referral link gets more space than through a normal sign up."Our findings are important news for practitioners considering deploying customer referral programs in their own firm. on referral programs and customer value [2] which followed the customer referral program of a German bank that paid customers 25 euro for bringing in a new customer. their company. the Co-founder and CEO of Dropbox. The referral program was wildly successful and it permanently increased their signups by 60%[9] . we document a positive value differential. Assuaging prior skepticism. and you get more space yourself too. Benefits of Referral Programs A study conducted by the Goethe University Frankfurt and the University of Pennslyvannia [1]. this is the first ever study published on the financial evaluation of customer referral programs[4] . both in the short term and long term. Referral marketing takes word of mouth from the spontaneous situation to one where maximum referrals are generated. was released in July 2010 [3] . referral programs can indeed pay off[5] . Dropbox implemented a referral program[6] to encourage their users to tell their friends about Dropbox. a higher retention rate and were more valuable in both the short and long run.com/quality_score) Referral marketing Referral marketing is a method of promoting products or services to new customers through referrals.com/watch?v=b8f1zr2UEXo) • Quality Score on Twitter (http://twitter. between customers acquired through a referral program and other customers. Given the advances in tracking customer behavior online through the use of web browser cookies. Hence. is the internet based approach to traditional referral marketing. this value differential is larger than the referral fee." Examples of Successful Referral Marketing Programs Dropbox referral program .

html [5] Page 25 of http:/ / marketing. edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. Resource Interactive has since expanded its partnerships with clients to include Procter & Gamble.L.D student at Goethe University Frankfurt). wharton. University of Pennsylvania) [4] http:/ / www. among others. 4 on Advertising Age's Agency A List for 2010. interactive design [5] and technological innovation [6][7] . a book by Resource Interactive associates [14] • Website for The Ten Demandments. com/ us/ cgi-bin/ webscr?cmd=_web-referrals-mrb-outside [9] Slide 30 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www. Female-founded. com/ 2010/ 07/ 21/ viral-marketing-referral-program-entrepreneurs-sales-marketing-wharton_print. slideshare. forbes. Wal * Mart. pdf [2] http:/ / marketing. Ohio[2] . wharton. wharton. Wharton School. Resource Interactive is recognized for its aptitude in consumer insights and strategy [3][4] . Resource Interactive is No. Coca-Cola (co). sllconf. paypal. net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 [11] Slide 31 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www. working with Fortune 500 companies to develop digital strategy. Goethe University Frankfurt) and Christophe Van den Bulte (Associate Professor of Marketing. com/ referrals) [7] http:/ / www. net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 [10] Slide 32 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www. President and CXO of Resource Interactive [13] Website for The Open Brand. Hewlett Packard.Bean. pdf [6] Referral program . slideshare. pdf [3] conducted by Phillipp Schmitt (Ph. Sherwin-Williams and L. slideshare. Nancy Kramer [8] founded the company in 1981 with its first marketing relationship with Apple [9]. net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 Resource Interactive Resource Interactive is a Privately held digital marketing agency [1] in Columbus. Victoria's Secret.Referral marketing 215 References [1] http:/ / marketing. Bernd Skiera (Professor of Marketing. upenn. dropbox. upenn. owned and operated. com/ [8] https:/ / www.For every friend who joins Dropbox. edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. we'll give you both 250 MB of bonus space (up to a limit of 8 GB)! (https:/ / www. website creative and interactive technology solutions. a book by Kelley Mooney and Laura Bergheim [15] • iCitizen Website [16] . edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. [10] External links • • • • Official Website [11] weThink: Official Company Blog [12] Kelly Mooney's blog. upenn.

related meanings depending on context. com/ [16] http:/ / icitizen. htm [7] Flashforward Film Festival Awards 16 Big Orange Rubber Arrows (http:/ / prmac. com/ [1] [2] [3] [4] Revenue sharing Revenue sharing has multiple. resource. thetendemandments. counties and townships. On the Internet. com/ datacenter/ datapopup. php?article_id=126721 AdvertisingAge Top 50 Digital Agencies http:/ / adage. com/ [14] http:/ / theopenbrand. revenue sharing is also known as cost per sale. Revenue sharing was extremely popular with state officials. [8] http:/ / adage. com/ [10] Patel. htm?campaign_id=rss_daily) . resource. html [6] http:/ / prmac.BusinessWeek. "Resource Interactive Is No. com/ smallagency/ index?sid=Nancy%20Kramer [9] http:/ / www. . com/ datacenter/ datapopup. In 1987. One form shares between the general partner(s) and limited partners in a limited partnership. [11] http:/ / www. Advertising Age. and sharing the proceeds. 4 on the Ad Age Agency A-List" (http:/ / adage. Kunur (2011-01-24). apple-history. A third form of revenue sharing on the internet consists of enticing internet users to sign up and create content by offering a share of advertising revenue. and another between companies in a business alliance. resource. com/ [15] http:/ / www. but it lost federal support during the Reagan Administration. businessweek. com/ mediacenter/ podcasts/ innovation/ innovation_03_26_08. com/ release-id-856. mooneythinks. commarts. businessweek. com/ release-id-856. htm?campaign_id=rss_daily Innovation of the Week (http:/ / www.Resource Interactive 216 Notes http:/ / adage. com [12] http:/ / blog. Retrieved on June 2008. Another form shares with a company's employees. and accounts for about 80% of affiliate compensation programs. com/ agencya-list/ article?article_id=148348). Under this policy. resource. Another form of online revenue sharing consists in people working together and registering online in a way similar to that of a corporation. United States government revenue sharing was in place from 1972-1987. revenue sharing was replaced with block grants in smaller amounts to reduce the federal deficit.[1] E-commerce web site operators using revenue sharing pay affiliates a certain percentage of sales revenues (usually excluding tax. . htm) Retrieved on June 2008. php?article_id=126721 digital marketing agencies http:/ / www. [5] http:/ / www. com/ mediacenter/ podcasts/ innovation/ innovation_03_26_08. shipping and other 3rd party cost that the customer pays) generated by customers whom the affiliate refer via various advertising methods. Congress gave an annual amount of federal tax revenue to the states and their cities. revenue sharing refers to the sharing of profits and losses among different groups. In business. com/ web-sites/ shaw-floors-try-floor. com/ [13] http:/ / www.

as the sales letter typically sells a single product or product line.html) Suppliers pay commission for sale. and further tends to be mainly textual as opposed to graphics-based. and is designed to be among the first item the reader attends to. the sale is not generated by an advertisement.com/marketing/revenue_sharing. other sections may be used.Internet revenue sharing sites share via a variety of income sources."[1] It is distinct from other direct mail techniques. Unsolicited sales emails are known as spam. 8 and 16 page letters being common formats. with 4. affstat. the sales letter has become an integral part of internet marketing. Body copy This section is typically quite long. and typically takes the form of an email or webpage. Headline The headline is the most prominent text on the sales letter.reviewerofsites. A sales letter is often. but by a real life selling effort. It has been defined as "A form of direct mail in which an advertiser sends a letter to a potential customer. but not exclusively. It is typically used for products or services which. Sales letter A sales letter is a piece of direct mail which is designed to persuade the reader to purchase a particular product or service in the absence of a salesman.Revenue sharing 217 References [1] AffStat Report 2007 (http:/ / www. Components The sales letter is split into several key sections. In addition. shtml) — a study based on survey responses from almost 200 affiliate managers in the marketing industry External links • A match between suppliers and agents in real life (http://www. On the internet.Agents are people who know they can make a one-time sale. although spam typically consists of emails which are much shorter than a normal sales letter. the last stage of the sales process before the customer places an order. • A categorized list of internet revenue sharing sites (http://www. including Google Adsense and Amazon Associates programs. Since the advent of the internet. due to their price. are a considered purchase at medium or high value (typically tens to thousands of dollars). com/ survey.com/ the-internets-largest-list-of-adsense-revenue-sharing-sites/) . and is designed to ensure that the prospect is committed to becoming a customer. . This section will typically contain testimonials from the firm's customers as well as pictures and information about the product.Unlike PPS. such as the distribution of leaflets and catalogues. Offline. unsolicited sales letters are known as junk mail.astal. the body copy may include embedded video or audio. such as sub-headlines.

Classic letters Some sales letters have become design classics in their own right. John Caples. . layout. the bounce rate. powerwriting. Retrieved 2009-11-15. wrote this ad that was considered the very best of its time and is still a classic. On the internet. paragraph formatting. such as the open rate of emails. with split testing of various elements. notably the letter by John Caples which sold a home study (also known as distance learning or correspondence course) in piano playing. com/ caples. typically without any further intervention. images. etc. [2] "Famous copywriter. line spacing.Sales letter 218 Call to action All sales letters include a call to action which is intended to get the customer to commit to purchasing the product or service. body text or graphic design converts best. This allows the marketeer or copywriter to confirm which headline. it is possible to track additional variables." (http:/ / www. Graphic design The graphic design of a sales letter is an important part of the branding. . html). . etc. com/ SalesLetter). internetmarketingdefinitions. Retrieved 2009-11-15. clickthrough to the checkout. they can be carefully tested on an ongoing basis to determine which version performs best in terms of converting readers to customers. Development of sales letters Because of the direct response nature of sales letters. The font. Sales letters are typically developed incrementally. all have an effect on the efficacy of the letter. This letter had the headline "They Laughed When I Sat Down At the Piano But When I Started to Play! --"[2] References [1] "Sales Letter (definition)" (http:/ / www.

organizations. Another part of SEM is Social Media Marketing (SMM). Goto. SEM is a constant and tedious task. SEM was growing much faster than traditional advertising and even other channels of online marketing.[5] You can do SEM without doing SMM but you can't do SMM without doing SEM because SMM is a higher level of SEM. managing paid listings at the search engines.Search engine marketing 219 Search engine marketing Search engine marketing.[6] Because of the complex technology. is a form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs) through the use of. Some marketers have difficulty understanding the intricacies of search engine marketing and choose to rely on third party agencies to manage their search marketing. Yahoo! Search Marketing and Microsoft adCenter. such as pay per click programs offered by Open Text[7] in 1996 and then Goto.5 billion on search engine marketing. Search engines developed business models to finance their services. and PayPerClick SEO. and paid inclusion. paid placement. SEMM also integrates organic SEO. North American advertisers spent US$13.com later changed its name[9] to Overture in 2001. a secondary "search marketing agency" market has evolved.com[8] in 1998. trying to achieve top ranking without using paid means of achieving top in search engines. The Yahoo! & Microsoft Search Alliance eventually received approval from regulators in the US and Europe in February 2010. SEM constitutes Ad words. . and now offers paid search opportunities for advertisers through Yahoo! Search Marketing. pay-per-click programs proved to be primary money-makers[10] for search engines. Also. but not necessarily at the same time. key word analysis needs to be done for both SEO and SEM. By 2007. submitting sites to directories. History As the number of sites on the Web increased in the mid-to-late 90s. Google also began to offer advertisements on search results pages in 2000 through the Google AdWords program. search engines started appearing to help people find information quickly. Market structure In 2008. It should be asserted that SEM is NOT SEO and vice versa. (SEM).[1] [2] Search engine optimization (SEO) is "optimizing" website pages to achieve higher ranking in search results via the process of selecting specific keyword expressions associated to the website [3] SEM is utilizing various means of "marketing" a website in order for it to become more relevant in regard to search engine searches and their rankings. and developing online marketing strategies for businesses.[11] Search engine optimization consultants expanded their offerings to help businesses learn about and use the advertising opportunities offered by search engines. For example some of the attention is placed on the web page layout design and how content and information is displayed to the website visitor. It frequently needs to be updated and monitored continually. contextual advertising. in 2009 Yahoo! and Microsoft announced the intention to forge an alliance. The term "Search Engine Marketing" was proposed by Danny Sullivan in 2001[12] to cover the spectrum of activities involved in performing SEO. SEMM relates to activities including SEO but focuses on return on investment (ROI) management instead of relevant traffic building (as is the case of mainstream SEO). and new agencies focusing primarily upon marketing and advertising through search engines emerged.[4] which comprises pay per call (particularly beneficial for local providers as it enables potential consumers to get in touch directly to a company with one click). SMM is a type of marketing that involves exploiting social media to influence consumers that one company’s products and/or services are valuable. The largest SEM vendors are Google AdWords.[2] As of 2006. and was purchased by Yahoo! in 2003. In a market dominated by Google. and individuals. Some of the latest theoretical advances include Search Engine Marketing Management (SEMM). advertising and making sure SEO has been done. [3] article submissions.

and the issue of how search engines present advertising on their search result pages has been the target of a series of studies and reports[13] [14] [15] by Consumer Reports WebWatch.[18] [19] [20] 1. . (b) find the most relevant and popular key terms and phrases for the site and its products. Generally.[17] Though the policy has been changed this continues to be a source of heated debate. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) also issued a letter[16] in 2002 about the importance of disclosure of paid advertising on search engines. Web site saturation and popularity: show how much presence a Web site has on search engines through the number of pages of the site that are indexed on each search engine (saturation) and how many times the site is linked to by other sites (popularity).[20] Useful tools include Who Is Source.Search engine marketing 220 Ethical questions Paid search advertising has not been without controversy. and (c) use those key phrases on the site in a way that will generate and convert traffic. Such usage excludes the wider search marketing community that is engaged in other forms of SEM such as Search Engine Optimization and Search Retargeting. 1. The followings are major tools measuring various aspects of saturation and link popularity: Link Popularity. the more Web presence you have. which formerly prohibited these tactics. Validators check the invisible parts of Web sites.[19] 2. Try to use more than one HTML validator or spider simulator because each tests. Back end tools (including Web analytic tools and HTML validators): Web analytic tools can help you to understand what is happening to your website and measure your Web site's success. Major SEM Tools There are four categories of tools to help you optimize Web sites. Read a competitor's source code to look for hidden clues. Vested interests appear to use the expression SEM to mean exclusively Pay per click advertising to the extent that the wider advertising and marketing community have accepted this narrow definition. Keyword research and analysis: (a) Make sure the site can be indexed in the search engines. Most search engines include some form of link popularity in their ranking algorithms. 1. allowing 3rd parties to bid on branded terms as long as their landing page in fact provides information on the trademarked term. a consumer advocacy group with ties to Ralph Nader. in response to a complaint from Commercial Alert. The debate as to whether third parties should have the right to bid on their competitors' brand names has been underway for years. SEM has however nothing to do with link buying and focuses on organic SEO and PPC management. highlighting potential problems and many usability issues ensure your website meets W3C code standards. the easier it is for people to find your site. In 2009 Google changed their policy. can provide valuable information relating to copyright and trademark issues. Another ethical controversy associated with search marketing has been the issue of trademark infringement. Who Is tools: show you who owns and operates various Web sites. ARIN. and Marketleap's Link Popularity and Search Engine Saturation. (b) tag-based analytic programs WebSideStory's Hitbox. highlights. Use the source code and Who Is tools to research legal issues. Use Web analytics tools to find out more about your customers. There are three major tools used by EBSCO: (a) log file analyzing tool: WebTrends by NetiQ. At the end of February 2011 many started to see that Google has started to penalize companies that are buying links for the purpose of passing off the rank. (c) transaction-based tool: TeaLeaf RealiTea. These tools can deliver conversion-related information. Top 10 Google Analysis. It requires your pages containing those keywords people are looking for and ensure that they rank high enough in search engine rankings. and reports on slightly different aspects of your Web site. They range from simple traffic counters to tools that work with log files [18] and to more sophisticated tools that are based on page tagging (putting JavaScript or an image on a page to track actions).

Colonise the Web by publishing and circulating it in wiki. Therefore search engines are adjusting and developing algorithms and the shifting criteria by which web pages are ranked sequentially to combat against search engine misuse and spamming.[4] AdWords project has enabled SEM companies to train their clients on the utensil and delivers better performance to the canvass. Moreover. and search engines by understanding the strategies of marketing to attract business.[4] Another example of a successful SEM plan is the approach to capture the relationships amongst information searchers. thus the payment of the service only applies if their advert has been clicked on. SEM companies have embarked on AdWords projects as a way to publicize their SEM and SEO services.[23] This could enhance the relationship amongst information searchers. the use of search engines for accessing information has become vital to increase business opportunities. Build an initial list of important keywords that represent your current and most relevant content and potential content. Install good tracking software. offering added value to consumers who endeavor to employ AdWords for promoting their products and services. blogs. the main objective for businesses applying SEM is to improve and maintain their ranking as high as possible on SERPs so that they can gain visibility. businesses. 9. AdWords is recognised as a web-based advertising utensil [4] since it adopts keywords which can deliver adverts explicitly to web users looking for information in respect to a certain product or service. 6. by as much as 250% in only nine months. Google Trends and Keyword Discovery. Validate your keywords by testing and refining them with your keyword selector tools such as Yahoo Keyword Selector. Flickr and Youtube). track and analyse your performance for better results. and to supply the most relevant information to searchers. 8. SEM companies have described AdWords as a fine practical tool for increasing a consumer’s investment earnings on Internet advertising. and video and picture sites(e. The assistance of AdWord canvass could contribute to the huge success in the growth of web traffic for a number of its consumer’s website. . This promotion has helped their business elaborate. Google Keyword Selector. The use of free utensils “Conversion tracking” and “Google Analytics” was deemed to be practical for presenting to clients the performance of their canvass from click to conversion.[23] These challenges could be the competition that companies face amongst their industry and other sources of information that could draw the attention of online consumers.Search engine marketing 221 SEM plan Through trial and error you will be able to see how SEM drives highly targeted visitors to your online exhibitions. Research on your target audience. Examples of Best Practice A successful SEM project was undertaken by one of London’s top SEM companies involving AdWords.[23] To assist the combat of challenges. The following are the steps to a successful SEM plan:[21] 1.g. 3. Check your current ranking. This project is highly practical for advertisers as the project hinges on cost-per-click (CPC) pricing. Get in the news such as Google News with RSS feeds. Search engines were not important to some industries in the past but over the past years. 7. Pursue link building and partnerships. 2. and search engines.[22] 10. Optimise the website by improving your web design and architecture and web page content. 4. 5. businesses.[4] One of the most successful approaches to the strategy of this project was to focus on making sure that PPC advertising funds were prudently invested. Set your online goals and key performance indicators.[23] The use of SEM strategic tools for businesses such as tourism can attract potential consumers to view their products but it could also pose various challenges.

March 3.com. Retrieved 2011-03-21. AccuraCast. [23] Zheng Xiang.com.Search engine marketing 222 References [1] "Does SEM = SEO + CPC Still Add Up?" (http:/ / searchengineland. Retrieved 2010-04-22. com. . Retrieved 2011-03-21. 2007. php). 2006). 1998. February 18. Retrieved 2010-03-05. com/ 070208-095009. html). [7] "Engine sells results. "14 Tips for Making the Most of Feeds" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. com/ does-sem-seo-cpc-still-add-up-37297). [13] "False Oracles: Consumer Reaction to Learning the Truth About How Search Engines Work (Abstract)" (http:/ / www. jhtml. [11] "Microsoft-Yahoo Deal Gets Green Light" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-07-15. [2] "The State of Search Engine Marketing 2006" (http:/ / searchengineland. Bing Pan. .gov. searchengineland. [8] "GoTo Sells Positions" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. Retrieved 2007-06-07.. nytimes. (May 2007). com/ 2009/ 05/ update-to-us-ad-text-trademark-policy. searchenginewatch. "How search engine marketing tools can work for you: or searching is really all about finding. Information Outlook. . news. jhtml?_DARGS=/ hww/ results/ results_common. "The Comparative Effectiveness of Sponsored and Nonsponsored Links for Web E-commerce Queries" (http:/ / ist. Terry Brainerd (November 2005). adwords. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. org/ dynamic/ search-report-false-oracles-abstract. . 2002. November 5.com. Daniel (2008). marketingterms. com/ news/ windows/ microsoft_news/ showArticle. Retrieved 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2011-04-22. . [5] Susan Ward (2011).org. or. cfm).com. New York Times. 2003.blogspot. . Search Engine Watch. Stuart (March 14. ftc. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_10_9/ ai_n15890934/ ?tag=content. "How search engine marketing tools can work for you. . June 22. first of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. 2005. .col1). . com/ showPage. 2001. blogspot. html?page=2164351). June 21. com/ 2100-1023-215491. Retrieved 2007-06-09. htm). 2011). Retrieved 2007-06-09. . cfm). [19] Chadwick.com. May 14. com/ od/ socialmedia/ g/ socmedmarketing. [9] "GoTo gambles with new name" (http:/ / news. consumerwebwatch. Retrieved 2011-04-22. html). news. [21] Feeny. pdf). org/ dynamic/ search-report-disclosure-update-abstract. 2010. html?ex=1299992400& en=6fcd30b948dd1312& ei=5088). Retrieved 2011-03-21. searching is really all about finding. "Social Media Marketing" (http:/ / sbinfocanada. com/ showPage. 2004. 1996. [10] Jansen. Fesenmaier (June 7.com. com/ hww/ results/ external_link_maincontentframe. psu. informaworld. and Daniel R. draws fire" (http:/ / news. pdf) (PDF).org. jhtml?articleID=223000099). . searching is really all about finding. ad text trademark policy" (http:/ / adwords. com/ 2006/ 03/ 14/ business/ media/ 14adco. Retrieved 2011-03-30. [12] "Congratulations! You're A Search Engine Marketer!" (http:/ / searchenginewatch.S. [20] Chadwick. Retrieved 2007-06-09. Second of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. Retrieved 2010-07-15. com. [14] "Searching for Disclosure: How Search Engines Alert Consumers to the Presence of Advertising in Search Results" (http:/ / www. Information Outlook. "More Agencies Investing in Marketing With a Click" (http:/ / www. June 30. [4] "Google Adwords Case Study" (http:/ / www. B. . "How search engine marketing tools can work for you: or. November 8. informationweek. 2007. marketingterms.com. accuracast. . Retrieved 2007-06-07. com/ 3641916). com/ GoTo+ gambles+ with+ new+ name/ 2100-1023_3-272795. pdf). [22] Girdwood. Andrew (February 21. . . 44). [17] "Update to U.org. Terry Brainerd (October 2005). ACM Transactions on the Web. Search Engine Land. About. June 9. shtm)])"]. September 10. . February 8. com/ index/ 929886653. ftc. . [3] "Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / www. . org/ dynamic/ search-report-disclosure-abstract. Retrieved 2007-06-09. cfm). [6] Elliott. 2010). consumerwebwatch. gov/ os/ closings/ staff/ commercialalertletter. searchenginewatch. Terry Brainerd (July 2005). "Assessing the Visibility of Destination Marketing Organizations in Google: A Case Study of Convention and Visitor Bureau Websites in the United States" (http:/ / www. consumerwebwatch. Retrieved 2011-03-21. about. Retrieved 2011-03-21. hwwilsonweb. html?page=2165971). . Information Outlook. [18] Chadwick. "Your website: greater visibility and return of investment through search engine marketing" (http:/ / vnweb.com. html). . Retrieved 2007-06-09.col). [15] "Still in Search of Disclosure: Re-evaluating How Search Engines Explain the Presence of Advertising in Search Results" (http:/ / www. 2001. 2009. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_7_9/ ai_n14889940/ ). . . Retrieved 2007-06-09. consumerwebwatch. com/ images/ case-google. Retrieved 2007-06-09. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_11_9/ ai_n15966835/ ?tag=content.com.com. Retrieved 2007-06-09. consumerwebwatch. informationweek. com/ dictionary/ search_engine_optimization/ ). third of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. consumerwebwatch. edu/ faculty_pages/ jjansen/ academic/ pubs/ jansen_tweb_sponsored_links. Rob Law.com. . [16] "Re: Complaint Requesting Investigation of Various Internet Search Engine Companies for Paid Placement or ([[Pay per click (http:/ / www. J. .

the placement of the keywords.Search engine optimization copywriting 223 Search engine optimization copywriting Search engine optimization (SEO) copywriting is textual composition for web page marketing that emphasizes skillful manipulation of the page's wording to place it among the first results of a user's search list. search engine designers today do not disclose the complex algorithmic processes of their search engines. gets special attention during SEO. Attempting to keep themselves competitive and defending against the composition strategies of so-called black hat SEOs. such as in the title tag and the Meta Tag of the page's code. distinguishing it from similar pages competing for placement in the search results. SEO copywriters often work with "optimizers" who are more expert in the technical aspects of SEO. it becomes a costly resource inducing potential buyers to turn away from the site rather than generating sales. agencies and firms that specialize in SEO (including SEO copywriting). most experts in the field would argue that it is of secondary priority. Together they will not only rewrite text but also alter the code to design a page that is most favored by search engines. While an obvious goal of SEO copywriting is to cause the business's or product's web page to rank highly in a search. there are freelance copywriters who hire out their services solely for SEO. SEO copywriting requires finesse and repeated experimentation to assess how the team's page revisions will fare in a potential customer's search. however. However. At its worst. It is not a clear. Other factors that determine relevance during a search are the page's Keyword Density. scientific process. because search engines compare information found there with other pages to determine relevance. The text appearing at specific locations. while still producing readable and persuasive content. effectively persuasive text for a well-written web page. The foremost goal of SEO copywriting is to produce succinct. SEO copywriting is most often one of the various jobs of a copywriter. In spite of the insights of optimizing technicians. and copywriting agencies that offer SEO copywriting as part of comprehensive writing and editing services. and the number of links to and from the page from other pages. However. SEO copywriters also strive for unique written content on the page. References . Writing that "optimizes" a search but offers little useful information or only weak persuasion is frowned upon in the profession as ineffective.

"Skyword launches search platform" (http:/ / www. html). in various forms. com/ business-news/ 2011/ 03/ 08/ nfib-report-shows-small-business-more-inclined-to-hire-and-skyword-reflects-that-and-other-trends#ixzz1GK2yyE9j). asp). Search retargeting is similar to search engine marketing (SEM) ) except that the ads displayed are banner ads which do not appear on search engine results pages.com) . Magnetic and Simpli. Search-Driven Media Search-Driven Media or SDM.” [2] References [1] Globe Staff (December 20. portfolio. External links • Skyword Inc (http://www. search retargeting is designed to find new customers which have likely never been to a marketers website before. Portfolio. com/ content/ 27071. 2010-06-30.fi offer search retargeting capabilities. "It’s Hiring Time" (http:/ / www. [2] Kent Bernhard. References [1] "Hot companies for search retargeting" (http:/ / www.com. imediaconnection. Retrieved 2011-03-11.Search retargeting 224 Search retargeting Search retargeting is a form of behavioral retargeting employed by online marketers that target an audience based on the previous searches they conduct on other websites. was created by Skyword. . . Jr (March 8. . Retrieved 2011-03-11. Skyword’s SDM platform “enables writers to create content for partners from consumer to media brands …that is optimized for search and social media to drive more readers to that content. Boston. 2010). and presents a new approach to SEM[1] . 2011).com. Chango Inc.[1] Unlike site retargeting or site remarketing. com/ business/ ticker/ 2010/ 12/ skyword_launche. boston. iMedia Connection.skyword.

Semantic advertising 225 Semantic advertising Semantic advertising applies semantic technologies to online advertising solutions. However. org/ ojr/ stories/ 050706glaser/ http:/ / www.html/) .scribemedia.w3. For example.e. Semantic advertising increases the chance that the viewer will click-thru because only advertising relevant to what they are viewing. However. keywords can have various meanings. The Evolution of Online Advertising Advertising on the Internet has the potential to be finely narrowcast. the United States and European governments have taken action towards restricting their use.net/2001/swintro/) • IAB Seminar on Semantic and Behavioral Targeting (http://iab. The function of semantic advertising technology is to semantically analyze every web page in order to properly understand and classify the meaning of a web page and accordingly ensure that the web page contains the most appropriate advertising. com/ blogs/ ssg/ ?p=366 http:/ / europa.com/agendafull. Behavioral targeting uses information collected on an individual's web-browsing behavior. htm External links • W3C Semantic Web Activity (http://www. By comparison..[3] [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. i.org/2001/sw/) • The Semantic Web: An Introduction (http://infomesh. and therefore their interests.applied semantics (http://smartcontentconference. many platforms identify visitors by assigning a unique HTTP cookie that tracks the web pages they visit.org/2010/08/ targeting-reaching-the-right-audience-online-2/) • Smart content conference . In fact. specifically adjusted to the interests of the individual viewer. The very different nature of these contextual results means that someone’s advertising budget is not being spent wisely. ojr. contextual advertising technology bases web page advertising on a keyword scan of the text of a website or Internet search. should be displayed. itbusinessedge. An automated function loads advertisements onto the web page based on the text. a web page containing the word “jaguar” may generate ads about zoos and cars. However. Cookies are the subject of controversy due to privacy issues. eu/ scadplus/ leg/ en/ lvb/ l24120. such as the pages they have visited or the searches they have made. mainstream techniques for identifying these interests—contextual advertising and behavioral targeting—are problematic[1] [2] . searchenginejournal. Semantic analysis of a web page provides an understating of its overall meaning in the semantic approach. to select which advertisements to display to that individual. com/ critical-flaws-in-googles-behavioral-targeting-puts-advertisers-at-risk/ 5898/ http:/ / www.

The evolution of online advertising The targeting of advertising to specific micro segments is a fundamental requirement for an effective ad campaign. Behavioral targeting aggregates data based upon a user's viewing of pages from a website.[8] For example. If a match is made the ad is placed alongside the content. For example. . The concept of semantic targeting utilises this capability to identify these concepts and the contexts in which they occur. a placement could be made against content that is inappropriate. the word "orange" can be a color. leading to a misplacement of ads. However. through effective analysis of the language used on page. and countless other variants.[3] [4] [5] [6] They are also unable to identify the sense or meaning of words. However. enabling marketers to deliver highly targeted and specific ad campaigns to webpages. seeking to identify keywords. Generally this is facilitated by the placing of a cookie upon the user's PC. If the page was being detrimental about a particular subject. i. Advertisers can locate their ads in given categories using an ontology (computer science) or taxonomy. without having an understanding of the true context in which words occur. Sentiment analysis can determine whether content is talking about a subject in a positive or negative light. How semantic targeting works Semantic targeting aims to match the specific context of content on page within a website to an available advertising campaign. through an automated process. great concern is expressed about the treatment of the user's right to privacy amongst consumer groups and legislators. The cookie then reports the user's viewing behavior allowing for the identification of patterns of viewing behavior. instead of scanning a page for bided keywords. if the user is viewing a website relating to golf. such systems are unable to identify the context of the entire page and therefore. have more than one meaning. derogatory or insensitive to the subject. ensuring that their ads will only appear in the context that they request. The selection of advertisements are served by automated systems based on the content displayed to the user. against which advertisers have bid to have their ad linked. Origins Semantic Targeting has originated from the developments arising from Semantic Web. Semantic targeting is also capable of identifying the sentiment of a webpage. The two methods of targeting of recent times have been behavioral targeting and contextual targeting. where software can programmatically understand and reason how different elements of data are related. where that website uses semantic targeting. a telecommunications company. A semantic targeting system has to examine all the words before it can accurately identify the subject matter of the entire text and deliver an in context advertisement.Semantic targeting 226 Semantic targeting Semantic targeting is a technique enabling the delivery of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites and is used by online publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns. a semantic system examines all the words and identifies the senses of those words.[7] Because most words are polysemous. such as golf equipment. it is possible to incorrectly assign an advertisement where there is no contextual link. The Semantic Web enables the representation of concepts expressed in human language to data in such a way that facilitates automatic processing. a mountain bike. A key difference of semantic targeting to a contextual advertising system is that.[1] [2] Contextual advertising scans the content of webpages. the semantic targeting system could deter the placement of a related ad alongside the story. the user may see advertisements for golf related topics. It is now generally accepted that these forms have pitfalls for both advertiser and consumer. golf holidays etc.e. a fruit.

iChief marketing technologist. eweek.com. (2008-09-13). org/ web/ 20080213195315/ http:/ / www.02. [3] Galen Moore (December 20. bizjournals. Retrieved 2008-10-10. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved 2010-10-20.com. html). ads/ ). Offensive language. Mashable. archive. Launches Search-Driven Media Platform" (https:/ / www. 2010). . Retrieved 2008-10-10. . [7] Graham Charlton (2008-05-16). 2010). This can enable the blocking of an ad placed alongside content of a controversial nature. Retrieved 2008-10-10.net (copy on web. com/ blog/ 2007/ 11/ contextual_advertising_gone_bad/ ). [4] Globe Staff (December 20. Boston Globe. . [6] "McCain campaign pulls ads from some anti-Obama Web sites" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-12-20.Semantic targeting Other capabilities of a semantic targeting system include the availability of brand protection filtering. Retrieved 2008-10-10. References [1] Sara Murray (January 11. [4] "Contextual advertising gone bad" (http:/ / www. Skyword Skyword Inc provides a Search-Driven Media (SDM) platform[1] that is designed to enable brands to reach their customers via natural search and the social web through content written by experts.skyword. [8] "Semantic Targeting" (http:/ / web. "Gather Rebrands As Skyword. Alcohol. Such systems can deter placement against such subjects as Adult/Erotica.com) . php?id=68) on 2008-02-13.archive. e-consultancy. com/ article/ SB10001424052748703791904576075702148687890.com. Shmula. Retrieved 2008-10-10. . "Skyword launches search platform" (http:/ / www.11. [5] "When Contextual Advertising Goes Horribly Wrong" (http:/ / mashable. . html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. isense. aspx?ProductIDFromApplication=32& aid=DJFVW00020101221e6cm000um& r=Rss& s=DJFVW). Retrieved 2008-10-10.[2] Skyword’s customers include Procter & Gamble’s Pampers brand and impreMedia. html). [3] "Steve Irwin’s Death : Contextual Advertising Gone Bad" (http:/ / www. [9] Scott Brinker. [2] Dow Jones Staff (December 22. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 2010). php?id=68). Bad News and other such topics. . 2008-07-01. com/ business/ ticker/ 2010/ 12/ skyword_launche.org). . etre.com. net/ index. and airline advertising alongside a story about an air disaster. html).[3] The company officially launched on December 20. boston. . Retrieved 2011-03-04. External links • Skyword Inc (http://www. . etre.06. . com/ boston/ news/ 2010/ 12/ 20/ gather-inc-rebrands-as-skyword. Boston Business Journal. 2008. com/ 2008/ 09/ semantic-advertising-of-4-different-kinds. Wall Street Journal. [2] "FTC Staff Proposes Online Behavioral Advertising Privacy Principles" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 2011). shmula. dowjones. com/ 2008/ 06/ 19/ contextual-advertising/ ). wsj. com/ 194/ steve-irwins-death-contextual-advertising-gone-bad). Retrieved 2011-03-28. . 2010[4] and was founded by Tom Gerace. creates new brand" (http:/ / www. shtm). "A Battle Is Brewing Over Online Behavioral Advertising" (http:/ / www. . Dow Jones Financial Services. "Gather Inc. ftc. CNN. 2008-12-20. gov/ opa/ 2007/ 12/ principles. for example. isense. "Job Openings Fall in Tough Market" (http:/ / online. This would then avoid the potentially brand damaging occurrence of. cnn. isense. html#articleTabs=article). Retrieved 2008-10-10. com/ c/ a/ Enterprise-Applications/ A-Battle-Is-Brewing-Over-Online-Behavioral-Advertising-Market/ ). e-consultancy. Nudity. com/ news-blog/ 365601/ q-a-prof-david-crystal-and-sacha-carton-on-semantic-targeting. chiefmartec. "Q & A Prof.19. 2006-09-05. fis. E-week. net/ index.com. 2007. "Semantic advertising: 4 different kinds" (http:/ / www. com/ article.[9] 227 References [1] Renee Boucher Ferguson (2008-03-27). David Crystal & Sacha Carton on semantic targeting" (http:/ / www. com/ 2008/ POLITICS/ 07/ 01/ mccain. .

Social Media Optimization is often at times implemented to foster a [1] community of the associated site. Additionally. business development and more). 5. Origins According to search engine expert Danny Sullivan[2] . Social Media Optimization (SMO). Social Media Optimization is considered an integral part of an online reputation management (ORM) or Search Engine Reputation Management (SERM) strategy for organizations or individuals who care about their online presence. allowing for a healthy business to consumer relationship . Social Media Optimization is in many ways connected as a technique to viral marketing where word of mouth is created not through friends or family but through the use of networking in social bookmarking. participating in discussion groups. 3. user rating and polling tools. In a similar way the engagement with blogs achieves the same by sharing content through the use of RSS in the blogosphere and special blog search engines. employee engagement and turnover. There are two categories of SMO/Social SEO methods: (a) Social media features added to the content itself. Portuguese. the term "social media optimization" was first used and described by Rohit Bhargava. Increasingly smart businesses are integrating social media participation as part of their knowledge management strategy (ie. Spanish. 4. SMO is one of many online methods of website optimization. Dutch. Russian. commenting on other blogs. Hebrew and recently also in Thai. 2. 6. including: RSS feeds. 3. but differs in several ways. and posting status updates on social networking profiles Social Media Optimization is related to search engine marketing. product/service development.[4] 1. Rohit Bhargava posted an updated set of five new rules. and incorporating third-party community functionalities like images and videos (b) Promotional activities in social media aside from the content being promoted. including: blogging. which were translated into French. Greek. customer satisfaction and relations. German. Four years after the initial post.Social media optimization 228 Social media optimization Social Media Optimization (or SMO or Social SEO) is the methodization of social media activity with the intent of attracting unique visitors to website content. video and photo sharing websites. Increase your linkability Make tagging and bookmarking easy Reward inbound links Help your content travel Encourage the mashup Get communities connected Several authors added new rules to the original post. though improved search ranking is also a benefit of successful SMO. is not limited to marketing and brand building. Bhargava's original five rules for conducting social media optimization are:[3] 1. Create shareable content Make sharing easy Reward engagement Proactively share content Encourage the mashup . primarily the focus on driving traffic from sources other than search engines. Italian. Japanese. brand building. 4. Today there are 16 rules. social news and sharing buttons. recruiting. One of the many other methods is search engine optimization or SEO. 2. 5.

typepad. . 2010). Retrieved 22 March 2011. dreamgrow. This game design promotes social media interaction as a means to attaining higher value in Empire Avenue market rankings. Examples of the former include FarmVille. the stockmarket where YOU’RE for sale" (http:/ / thenextweb. [9] "Empire Avenue.[12] References [1] "Face Book SEO" (http:/ / www. . typepad. And The New King Is SMO" (http:/ / digitalquarters. Retrieved 22 March 2011. rohitbhargava. Retrieved 2007-09-06. "5 Rules of Social Media Optimization (SMO)" (http:/ / rohitbhargava. . crunchbase. digitalquarters.net. nielsen. and Mafia Wars. [3] Rohit Bhargava (August 10. searchenginewatch.[5] 229 Social media gaming Social media gaming is online gaming activity performed through social media sites with followers/friends and online gaming activity that promotes social media interaction. In these games a player's social network is exploited to recruit additional players and allies. "The 5 NEW Rules of Social Media Optimization (SMO)" (http:/ / www.com. com/ social-media-gaming-infographic/ ). Retrieved 22 March 2011. socialmediaexaminer. "Social Media Optimization: It's Like SEO. For Social Sites" (http:/ / blog. venturebeat. . com/ nielsenwire/ online_mobile/ what-americans-do-online-social-media-and-games-dominate-activity/ ). . .Social media optimization Around the same time. rohitbhargava. com/ apps/ 2010/ 07/ 26/ empire-avenue-the-stockmarket-where-youre-for-sale-invites/ ). . . Retrieved 22 March 2011. [5] Ben Elowitz (October 27. 2006). Retrieved 13 December 2011. blog.[9] [10] [11] Nielsen Media Research estimates that. [6] "Why Social Media Gaming Is Big Business for Your Business" (http:/ / www. entrepreneur and blogger Ben Elowitz proposed as SMO as a broader set of online marketing strategies for all published websites in an era where social platforms are ubiquitous. [12] "What Americans Do Online: Social Media And Games Dominate Activity" (http:/ / blog. 2006). Retrieved 2010-11-27. 2010). [11] "Empire Avenue creates a stock market to measure your social influence" (http:/ / games. . . Retrieved 2010-11-24. [7] "Social Media Gaming Infographic" (http:/ / www. . rohitbhargava. a virtual stock exchange where players buy and sell shares of each other's social network worth. com/ facebook-seo/ ). social networks and online games account for about 1/3 of all online activity by Americans. . as of June 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2011.[6] [7] [8] An example of the latter is Empire Avenue. net/ 2010/ 10/ seo-is-dead-and-the-new-king-is- smo / ). com/ 2010/ 08/ the-5-new-rules-of-social-media-optimization-smo. com/ 2010/ 02/ 24/ empire-avenue-creates-a-stock-market-to-measure-your-social-influence/ ). blogherald. FrontierVille. com/ 2010/ 08/ 24/ how-big-is-social-media-gaming-how-about-56-million-strong/ ). Retrieved 2007-09-06. . Retrieved 22 March 2011. [8] "How Big Is Social Media Gaming? How About 56 Million Strong" (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ 060829-150053). html). [2] Danny Sullivan (August 29. com/ company/ empire-avenue). socialnetworkingseo. Retrieved 22 March 2011.typepad. html).com.searchenginewatch. In Empire Avenue a player's worth is linked to their social media influence and activity as well as that of the other players they have invested virtual currency in. [4] Rohit Bhargava (August 10. com/ why-social-media-gaming-is-big-business-for-your-business/ ).com. "SEO Is Dead. com/ weblog/ 2006/ 08/ 5_rules_of_soci. [10] "Empire Avenue" (http:/ / www.

" In other words. edu/ library/ webinars/ double-loop-marketing/ ). Only after such a site achieves credibility among its community of readers can the company. in the second loop of customer interaction. smeal. Christian Sarkar. . A company must first develop "mind share” by building a site that offers genuinely-useful information and advice to consumers. Double Loop Marketing is an idea of online-marketing consultant. first community. This is the first loop of the firm's interaction with customers. psu. . then commerce. .Double loop marketing 230 Double loop marketing Double Loop Marketing[1] [2] is based upon the notion that in today's information-rich world. References [1] "ADWORLD Knowledge Center" (http:/ / www. adworld. Retrieved 25 April 2009. marketing must of necessity be people and knowledge-driven rather than product driven. ie/ knowledgecentre/ read?id=cd2b127b-12a5-4238-86dc-e3f91c2549e5). It is related to relationship marketing and Seth Godin's idea of permission marketing. try to convert that "mind share" into "wallet share. Retrieved 25 April 2009. [2] "Penn State Smeal College of Business" (http:/ / isbm.

flow into the company. respectively).) in contrast to outbound marketing where they used to have to "buy. This sense is related to the term product management (product ownership in Scrum). issuing press releases in the hope they get picked up by the trade press. information about finished product capability flows out to prospective customers who have a need for it." • An older pair of definitions[5] are: • Inbound marketing is market research. • One pair of definitions[1] [2] are: • Inbound marketing is a marketing strategy that focuses on getting found by customers. beg. or bug their way in" (via paid advertisements. • Antonym for this usage: Outbound marketing is marketing communications. not customers themselves. claims he coined the usage of the term in this sense. In this sense. pieces of information about customer needs and interests. This sense is related to . and product or service capability. [4] Brian Halligan. or paying commissioned sales people." a pejorative term for this type of marketing is "interruption marketing. cofounder and CEO of HubSpot. This sense is related to relationship marketing and Seth Godin's idea of permission marketing. • Antonym for this usage: Traditional marketing (outbound marketing) is a marketing strategy that focuses on finding customers by building brand awareness through advertising and promotion. In contrast to the above. In contrast to "permission marketing. Knowledge of customer needs drives future company offerings. Peter Drucker believed[6] this to be the quintessence of marketing. David Meerman Scott recommends[3] that marketers "earn their way in" (via publishing helpful information on a blog etc.Inbound marketing 231 Inbound marketing Marketing Key concepts Product • Pricing Distribution • Service • Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Marketing ethics Marketing effectiveness Market research Market segmentation Marketing strategy Marketing management Market dominance Promotional content Advertising • Branding • Underwriting Direct marketing • Personal Sales Product placement • Publicity Sales promotion • Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing • Premiums • Prizes Promotional media Printing • Publication Broadcasting • Out-of-home Internet marketing • Point of sale Promotional merchandise Digital marketing • In-game In-store demonstration Word-of-mouth marketing Brand Ambassador • Drip Marketing Inbound Marketing and its opposite Outbound Marketing have various meanings depending on the context.

Dailymotion [23]. etc. cold calls. outbound marketing Brian Halligan. This form of inbound marketing refers to information or tools that attract potential customers to the business or site[9] Some examples of content-publishing sites for inbound marketing purposes include: . direct mail/e-mail. white papers. NetLibrary • Blogs: Blogger [14]. the customer is in control. Second. telemarketing/cold calls. CEO & Founder of HubSpot. Using inbound marketing.”[9] .Inbound marketing the term product marketing. ExpressionEngine [16]. People are more in control of what information they receive and how. inbound marketing content is created and published using the medium of choice (blog.Brian Halligan. 232 Inbound vs. Rather than interrupting people to get their attention with emails. video. etc. in the newer of the two senses. The shift from outbound to inbound marketing has led to new mediums of outreach to the public.) Content is the substance of an inbound marketing campaign. is a response to the recent change in consumer behavior. and social media sites) is now much lower than going to a seminar at the Marriott or flying to a trade show in Las Vegas. etc. OpenDiary [18]. Xanga [21] • Videos: YouTube [22]. etc. videos. and Sirius satellite radio. In outbound marketing. eBooks. HubSpot [10] Types of inbound marketing Inbound marketing mediums are broken down into three categories: • Content (Blogs. Facebook. blogs.). Outbound marketing. targets a broad audience using print ads. Vox [20] . TiVo. the cost of coordination around learning about something new or shopping for something new using the internet (search engines. Second. Linked In [12]. Halligan describes why outbound marketing techniques are becoming less effective: “Your average human today is inundated with over 2000 outbound marketing interruptions per day and is figuring out more and more creative ways to block them out. commercials. white paper. (outbound marketing). inbound marketing relies on the principle that visitors find and come to you. The Direct Marketing Association [26] (DMA) • EBooks: eBooks. social media media(Twitter [11]. coined the term inbound marketing. eBooks. Facebook [13]. white papers. eBook. LinkedIn. LiveJournal [17]. Search Engine Optimization increases the rank of the content and makes it more accessible. TypePad [19]. Third. etc. the company is in control. also referred to as “old marketing” or traditional marketing. Inbound marketing involves getting found by potential customers through search (opposite of Outbound Marketing).) The most successful inbound marketing campaigns contain all three key components[9] First. etc.) • SEO (Search Engine Optimization and keyword analysis) • Social media (Twitter [11]. Content (Blogs. television ads. videos.) continue to spread the content.[7] . Metacafe [24] • White Papers: WhitePaperSource [25].[8] Inbound marketing. or “new marketing” and modern marketing. WordPress [15]. etc. including caller ID. spam filtering.

In inbound marketing. an inbound marketing agency. Inbound marketing costs less than outbound marketing. conducted a 2010 study titled “The State of Inbound Marketing” [31].I. etc.”[28] In inbound marketing. Benefits of inbound marketing In an economic recession. another economic recession began. inbound marketing is a more efficient way of allocating money than outbound marketing[29] Brian Halligan. divides the benefits of inbound marketing into two main categories: cost effectiveness and better targeting. Yahoo!. AOL Search. Ask. conducted independent research into the return on investment of companies using HubSpot software for inbound marketing purposes.[27] SEO considers how search engines work and what people are searching for. etc. Social media (Twitter. rent booths at trade shows. Melissa DiBella. . SEO allows companies to be found more. Most content of inbound marketing is created and generated on web sites that are free of charge. such as Twitter [30] or [13] Facebook. In January 2010.) The term “social media” does not have one universal definition.). Cost effectiveness In 2001.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content. another analysis of inbound marketing was conducted by an M. social media channels increase the impact of the content. Sloan School of Management graduate student. Search engine optimization is the practice of building up a web site to maximize its ranking in search engines results.[29] In 2008. LinkedIn. CEO of HubSpot and initiator of “inbound marketing”. Most consumers begin their buying process by using a search engine (Google. The complete report of “Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software” [34][35] can be viewed online. Outbound marketing becomes expensive since companies use money to buy advertisements or e-mail lists. class of 2010.[32] This study analyzed data from businesses about what types of marketing programs deliver the best return on investment. the Dow Jones Industrial Average depicts businesses shifting marketing dollars into search engine advertising. in response to an economic recession. Facebook.T. HubSpot’s major finding was that inbound marketing focused businesses have a 60% lower cost per lead[33] – less money is utilized to produce more results. In response. etc.Inbound marketing 233 SEO (Search Engine Optimization & keyword analysis) Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a web site in search engines. or pay-per-click advertising. businesses again began shifting money out of expensive paid search advertising into inbound marketing. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2. Bing. The cost effectiveness of the shift from outbound to inbound marketing can be measured using a Return on Investment (ROI). HubSpot.

typepad. @BarackObama Twitter." [7] Harnish. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Verne (2010). The Growth Guy. New York. John Wiley & Sons Inc.”[36] . Brian Halligan. InboundMarketing. [5] McNamara. Responsibilities.[36] Notes [1] Vittal. companies using outbound marketing reach out to all consumers. . be need for some selling. [6] Drucker." (http:/ / blog. "Marketing .7211.J.. "Outbound vs. Shah. and Viral Marketing to Reach Buyers Directly. N. hubspot. Initially. Carter. NY: Harper & Row. [9] Halligan. Brian. .. org/ mrktng/ mrktng. Online Video. Obama had less funding and could not compete with Clinton’s e-mails.Chris Hughes. Peter F.A Commonly Misunderstood Term" (http:/ / managementhelp. getting 3.000. online networks—and then equip them with the tools to spread the campaign’s message using network technology such as My. "There will always. Successes in inbound marketing In the 2008 presidential campaign. forrester. one can assume. Inbound Marketing. Suresh. Elana. . Practices. (2010). Hoboken. Barack Obama LinkedIn. ISBN 0470547812. com/ books. Jennifer (January 9. htm) (2 ed. marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy. Senator Barack Obama became the democratic nominee for president of the United States. com [11] http:/ / www. HubSpot CEO & Co-Founder" (http:/ / inboundmarketing. com . News Releases. During the 2008 presidential race. Inc. 864.00.com [37] and Facebook. (1974). html).).April 19. [3] David Meerman Scott. pp. com/ Outbound-vs-Inbound-Marketing/ ) HubSpot. [10] http:/ / hubspot. Best Video” (http:/ / verneharnish. com/ growthguy/ 2010/ 03/ marketing-is-fun-again-brian-halligan-inbound-marketing-chapter-2-best-video. Instead of identifying a target audience. 2007). Management: Tasks. Ideally. text messages.40760. Anderson. aspx) HubSpot. Barack Obama used inbound marketing to beat Hillary Clinton in the democratic primary[36] Up until the 2008 election. "Marketing Is Fun Again. com/ brian). Clinton.[38] Obama used his Facebook account to create a “register to vote” function. "Inbound Marketing vs. 2009. But the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. ISBN 0-06-011092-9. and Blogs. Inbound Marketing Chapter 2. [4] "Brian Halligan.000 Facebook followers.BarackObama. We tried to open as many direct channels of communication as possible—using e-mail. Outbound Marketing. Dharmesh (2009). Inbound marketing only targets individuals who self-qualify themselves[29] by demonstrating an interest in your content. Barack Obama connected with voters using the following inbound marketing techniques:[36] Organizing for America blog. Brian (2010). All that should be needed then is to make the product or service available.Inbound marketing 234 Better targeting Outbound marketing techniques target a broad audience. was hired as Obama’s Internet Strategist. html). [2] Halligan. Retrieved 2009. (http:/ / www. (2010). 2008. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 2989/ Inbound-Marketing-vs-Outbound-Marketing. Blogs. Obama was a first-term senator from Illinois running against the well-known and funded New York State senator. Social Media. twitter." (http:/ / www. hubspot.: John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 0470499311. statistics show only 1-3% of all targeted consumers respond[8] – 97% of all marketing efforts go to waste. The New Rules of Marketing and PR: How to Use Social Media. "How Technology Enables Inbound Marketing: Evaluate Interaction Management To Optimize Real-Time Recommendations" (http:/ / www. . telemarketing. co-founder of Facebook. htm). Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google. Barack Obama Facebook.[36] Hughes explains how the Obama campaign employed inbound marketing: “The aim of our online campaign was to help individuals understand the values of Barack Obama and of our campaign and then to make it as easy as possible for them to actively engage with the campaign’s work. Retrieved May 7. Joseph. davidmeermanscott.org. and television and radio advertisements[36] Chris Hughes. com/ Research/ Document/ Excerpt/ 0. com [12] http:/ / linkedin. direct mail campaigns. [8] HubSpot. BarackObamadotcom YouTube On June 4. As a result.

dailymotion. org [27] http:/ / en. [33] HubSpot. blogger. com [25] http:/ / whitepapersource. wikipedia.CNN. hubspot." (http:/ / www. com [38] "Obama: I Will Be the Democratic Nominee . Inc. com/ Default. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ resellers/ reports/ state_of_inbound_marketing. com [26] http:/ / the-dma. "The State of Inbound Marketing 2010. com [14] http:/ / www. Print. com [31] http:/ / www. "The State of Inbound Marketing 2010. BarackObama. democrats/ index. com [22] http:/ / www. 235 . org/ wiki/ Search_engine_optimization [28] http:/ / en. com [16] http:/ / expressionengine. Brian. [36] Halligan. pdf [32] HubSpot. Rick (2008). (2010). "Inbound Marketing & the Next Phase of Marketing on the Web. com/ Default. com [23] http:/ / www." (http:/ / blog. and Dharmesh Shah (2010). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. and Blogs. pdf [35] DiBella. com [20] http:/ / vox. com [21] http:/ / xanga. Cable News Network. [37] http:/ / My. cnn. Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google. pdf) HubSpot. org/ wiki/ Social_media [29] Burnes. com [15] http:/ / wordpress. Inc.Inbound marketing [13] http:/ / www. pdf) HubSpot. wikipedia.com. hubspot. com [19] http:/ / typepad. com/ 2008/ POLITICS/ 06/ 03/ election." (http:/ / www." HubSpot. hubspot. 2010. html) (2010). [34] http:/ / www. aspx) HubSpot Blog. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software. Social Media. metacafe. [30] http:/ / twitter. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ resellers/ reports/ state_of_inbound_marketing. Melissa (2010). com [24] http:/ / www. com [18] http:/ / opendiary. facebook. hubspot. (2010).CNN.com" (http:/ / www. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs/ 2010+ ROI+ Report. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs%2f2010+ ROI+ Report. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4416/ Inbound-Marketing-the-Next-Phase-of-Marketing-on-the-Web. youtube. com [17] http:/ / livejournal. hubspot.

For example.now part of the business incubator. weakening of brand reputation and a slowing of the entire network. This is one technique used by marketers that have a personal marketing orientation. standard fifteen to sixty second video advertisements. The prime example of this is unsolicited commercial e-mail or “Spam”. Marketers obtain permission before advancing to the next step in the purchasing process. This form of marketing requires that the prospective customer has either given explicit permission for the marketer to send their promotional message (e. forged e-mail headers). permission marketing is seen as a . Marketers feel that this is a more efficient use of their resources because the offers are only sent to people that are actually interested in the product.g. Hence. querying a search engine). See Anderson School of Management project Promotions Channel: Permission Marketing [4] Permission marketing and the internet Permission marketing offers the promise of improving targeting by helping consumers interface with marketers most likely to provide relevant promotional messages. Senders of spam realize three things.[3] It is mostly used by online marketers. the cost of marketer-to-consumer communication is low. The two reasons for this are: (1) on the Internet. To illustrate. In addition. Individuals provide their addresses at these places for other purposes and hence. an email or catalog request) or implicit permission (e. Due to these problems. marketers incur similar costs if they send out 1 million or 10 million e-mails. Spam cannot be a legitimate form of marketing communication. Another motivation for permission marketing on the Web has been the failure of the direct mail approach of sending unsolicited promotional messages. they are not affected by the measurement problems of banner advertising. it has emerged as a serious idea only with the advent of the Internet. survey ads. (2) the Internet has enabled rapid feedback mechanisms due to instantaneous two-way communication. the marginal cost of contacting an additional customer is nearly zero and it is easy to deceive the consumer. which implies a request for information which can include that of a commercial nature.g. This type of marketing allows advertisers to reach a more specific audience that may be more receptive to their product or service. as well as certain direct marketers who send a catalog in response to a request. it is likely that more attention would be paid to them in comparison to banners. branded slates. consider someone who searches for "buy shoes. branded player skins.Permission marketing 236 Permission marketing Permission marketing is a term popularized by Seth Godin[1] (but found earlier [2] ) used in marketing in general and e-marketing specifically. under The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003. This came into force on the 11 December 2003. Since the ads arrive in the mailbox of the individual. Even though permission marketing can be implemented in any direct medium. This type of marketing involves the showing of an advertisement prior to and/or during an on-line video stream. yes mail. They feel that marketing should be done on a one-to-one basis rather than using broad aggregated concepts like market segment or target market. CMGI) claim customer response rates in the region of 5-20% and since most use e-mail.g. This can be either via an online email opt-in form or by using search engines. notably email marketers and search marketers. this violates their privacy rights. In the United Kingdom. and even sponsored blocks of time. there are now programs that enable the large-scale use of deceptive practices (e.the cost of obtaining a new e-mail address is minimal. Moreover. Among the different types of in-stream advertising are. Many permission-marketing firms (e. Spammers can easily obtain new e-mail addresses from websites and Usenet groups using software programs that “troll” the Internet. an opt-in is required for email marketing. This type of advertising allows originators of the video content to show their video in the highest quality versus other videos posted without consent. Using it would lead to an excessive message volume for consumers." Online shoe stores have the searchers' permission to make an offer that solves their shoe problem.g.com. The undesirable opposite of permission marketing is interruption marketing. they ask permission to send email newsletters to prospective customers. Another form of permission marketing is in-stream advertising.

: J. A leading Internet business periodical recently noted that. blogs. 2009.edu/vol6/issue2/krishnamurthy. Inc. The new rules of marketing and PR how to use news releases. In addition. ISBN 978-0-470-11345-5. ISBN 0-684-85636-0. Permission Marketing: turning strangers into friends. Wiley & Sons.. New York: Simon & Schuster.g. permission marketing has been incorporated in leading texts on marketing management.com (http:/ / oed. Hoboken. E-mail Online payment systems such as PayPal allows users to send money to one another using an E-mail address. Third Edition. Hyperlink While a hyperlink can be used to send a user anywhere on the internet a transactional link is specifically designed to direct the user to completing a sale. In affiliate marketing the transactional link would be an affiliate link from an Affiliate network. – official site • A Comprehensive Analysis of Permission Marketing (http://jcmc. . Oxford University Press. ".indiana.Permission marketing feasible alternative for Internet marketing communication. podcasts. the affiliate receives a commission. Seth (1999). [2] "permission marketing. e. p. 162. everybody is doing it”. Kotler’s millennium edition. and friends into customers. Now. html) Transactional Link A transactional link is a type of hyperlink link used in ecommerce to initiate a purchase.com/sg/).if you're asking for someone's e-mail address . 237 Notes [1] Godin.J. Accessed 29 March 2011 OED.. The affiliate link tells the network which affiliate sent the traffic and if a purchase is made..sethgodin.. December 2005. “permission marketing was once a niche business. Retrieved May 5. mgmt487. David Meerman (2007). com References • "Seth Godin: Agent of Change" (http://www. com/ view/ Entry/ 141214#eid30892945) [3] Scott." OED Online. The most common use of this method is a Buy Now button as used on marketplace sites such as eBay. N. you must provide something equally valuable in return. When a user clicks on the link they are directed to an online merchant. viral marketing and online media to reach your buyers directly.. Permission marketing is now a large-scale activity on the Internet. wordpress. On a website with product this is typically an add to shopping cart or checkout link." [4] http:/ / www..

[5] YouTube . usually in a pop-up or pop-under advertisement. The whole process is captured on video and later uploaded to the Internet.unboxing (http:/ / www. The Register. co. youtube. except they allow the viewer to click on the ad in order to go to the company's website. theregister.Unboxing 238 Unboxing Unboxing is the unpacking of new products. Unicast ads have the same influence and power as a regular TV commercial. 2010. however."[1] [2] The oldest video on YouTube using the name "unboxing" is the opening of a boxed Nokia E61 smartphone.opening (Science & Technology category) (http:/ / www. especially hi-tech consumer products. [3] YouTube .20& uni=3). older videos on the site that show the same activity but using other names such as "opening"[4] or "unpacking". 2010. searches for the term "unboxing" began to surface in the final quarter of 2006. [4] YouTube . accessed on May 5. com/ results?search_type=videos& search_query=unboxing& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse& suggested_categories=28. [6] Google Trends: unboxing (http:/ / www. howstuffworks. Unicast advertisement A Unicast advertisement is an Internet advertisement that consists of a video played like a TV commercial. The term has been labeled a new form of "geek porn. independent. accessed on May 5. 8th December 2006. or get more information. co. uk/ life-style/ gadgets-and-tech/ features/ unboxing-the-new-geek-porn-1333955. htm . accessed on May 6. youtube. uploaded on June 12.[6] References [1] Unboxing: The new geek porn (http:/ / www. accessed on May 6. 2010. com/ trends?q=unboxing& ctab=0& geo=all& date=all& sort=0). com/ web-advertising7.[3] There are.20& uni=3& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse). uk/ 2006/ 12/ 08/ unboxing/ ).unpacking (http:/ / www. html). youtube.[5] According to Google Trends. google. 2010. 2006.[1] References [1] "How Web Advertising Works" HowStuffWorks http:/ / computer. com/ results?search_category=28& search_query=opening& search_type=videos& suggested_categories=28. [2] Unboxing: the new geek porn (http:/ / www. The Independent. com/ results?search_type=videos& search_query=unpacking& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse& suggested_categories=28.20& uni=3). 14 January 2009.

9 2010 and developed by Rich Media Worldwide. The following are current accepted means of calculating CPM for different mediums: 1. A viewable Impression is measured when the Ad Content is loaded. 2008 as the beta network CityAds and later in 2009 as the RealVu advertising and media technology platform. Click-through is enabled at the moment of the "viewable impression". LLC. called RealVu . The company was founded by Brad Krassner. which count by the analysis of http requests records in a server log and cannot provide information on events fired by a viewer’s browser thus being unable to confirm whether ad content was actually visible to a viewer.313. A viewable Impression is a new generation metric that was emerged as an alternative to the online impression metric delivered by first ad servers developed in the mid-1990s. With the advent of the Internet. and a new CPM equation was created for the internet: 3. Overview With the development of the first ad servers in 1995–1996 the assumption was that a requested ad was always available to the viewer of a requested web page. 2.Viewable Impression (CPMV) 239 Viewable Impression (CPMV) The Viewable Impression is metric used to buy web advertising based on CPMV Cost Per Thousand Views. Eventually it became apparent that a large number of ad impressions measured for CPM pricing . CPM for broadcast media: CPM = Cost of 1 unit of time (commercial) × 1000 Number of prospects reached by a given program or time period.590 for this technique was issued to Rich Media Club. Viewable impression technology was developed by Rich Media Worldwide. CPM for the Internet: CPM = Cost per ad requested × 1000 However the assumption that an ad requested from an ad server is always visible when the viewer is on the requested page was wrong because of a few technical reasons and the fact that the web page is usually longer than the height of a computer screen. The first ad server to deliver the metric. was accredited by Media Rating Council [1] on March. CPM for print media (when audience data is available): \frac{CPM = Cost of 1 ad × 1000}{Number of prospects reached} . 7. US patent No. through log file server collecting data it was believed that ad views could be tracked with unprecedented accuracy and “number of different prospects reached” was removed from the equation. LLC by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in December 2007. The value of an ad traditionally was based upon an estimate of how many different people saw or heard the ad. rendered and at least 60% of the ad surface area is within the visible area of a viewer's browser window on an in focus web page for at least one second. Nikolai Mentchoukov and Alan Edwards. This allowed for the utilization of the server log file for collection of metadata to deliver a metric called the Online Impression that in traditional media meant an impression on a viewer. This method is based on FSDC technology developed in 2001 and used commercially for the first time on the Terra Lycos portal. The core of viewable impression methodology reports client (viewer) side activity by using a direct and closed-loop authentication channel between an ad unit file and a server database. This type of advertising metric was meant to resemble Television and print advertising methods for speculating the cost of an advertisement. LLC and introduced on Jun 23. with the promise of even more accuracy due to the interactive nature of the Internet eliminating the need for industry accepted approximates such as Nielsen ratings for television and print is based on the circulation a publication has.

minimized. and the Correlator begins communicating with the web page. quoted in terms of CPMV. effective cost per mille (eCPM). ultimately. Once any portion of the ad unit (definable). tabbed away. web publishers lose control of their yield. hits the visible area of the browser window a request is sent to an ad content server to deliver an advertisement. Viewable Impression Architecture The Viewable Impression methodology relies on a basic JavaScript tags for placement on the web pages or in the third-party ad servers that distribute ads on the website(s) content.[2] Having no reliable way of measuring actual viewership. Partially to avoid the limitations of server side impression methodology many models emerged that were based on direct response: • • • • • CPC . a message is sent via Correlator to the server database and a "Viewable Impression" is reported.Cost per click Through CPL . The Correlator can collect additional non-private information from the viewer’s browser. Viewable Impression Architecture including the viewer’s operating system.Cost per lead (lead usually meaning a free registration) CPS . . The Correlator continues to monitor the ad space for each individual ad on the web page and its relation to the browser window dimensions.Dynamic CPM CPA – Cost per Action The Viewable Impression enables online advertising effectiveness to be analyzed based on stopping power. browser type and version and a list of other ads that were previously rendered on the page to prevent duplication of ads on the content page. browser and ad unit (ad space) embedded in the webpage content. This model may eventually become the standard CPM as it measured at the same point (of the view) as television or print. is used to measure the effectiveness of advertising inventory sold (by the publisher) via a CPC. web publishers are vulnerable to payment methods that are based on performance-based advertising such as cost per click and cost per transaction. giving away significant inventory to ads that are not clicked. considering if the viewer has scrolled the ad space in or out of the visible area of the browser window. The Correlator code continues to monitor the web page focus.Cost per sale dCPM . branding ability and level of engagement – the three key elements that drive purchase consideration and. 240 CMPV (Cost per Thousand Views) Until 2010 it was very common for large publishers to charge for most of their advertising inventory on a CPM or CPT basis. Since the publisher has no control or input on the demand and ad creative quality of the advertised product. With the arrival of the Viewable Impression model – Cost per Thousand Views has emerged.) The ad space is then "marked up. sales. CPA. When 60%. A related term. or CPT basis. on a viewer's in focus web page. or opened another browser or application window bringing the web page monitored out of focus or portion of the browser window with the ad space outside of the monitor screen.Viewable Impression (CPMV) actually never rendered in the visible area of a viewer’s browser screen. These JavaScript tags are placed on a web page and when rendered. scrolling position and web page focus.[3] Once the ad content is loaded and rendered the ad unit sends a message directly to the server’s database and an "Ad Rendered" is reported. (or other pre-defined area) of the ad content on a web page is within the visible area of the viewer's browser window for one second." an "ad request” (server log impression) is recorded. employing a "Correlator" (a linear correlation control.

opening or switching to another browser window or application. Web page focus can be affected by: minimizing the browser. The viewer opens another browser window or another application. The viewer opens a page in a mobile device that is not configured to show the ad content. Current assessments suggests improvement with viewable impression methodology). 30 limitations of impression methodology which the Viewable Impression overcomes Reasons why an impression may not appear to a viewer overcome: 1. 8. crawlers. 4. The ad loads. 2. 11. and communicates to the server side database logging the “Time in View” for the ads being delivered on the webpage. (Some ad blockers block the ad call. opening or switching to another [4] browser window tab. 10. More study should be done in this area). The requests made by spiders. 9. The viewer does not have the proper plug-in to render interactive media installed. The viewer opens another browser tab. download managers. web filtering tools. The viewer minimizes the browser.Viewable Impression (CPMV) location of ad unit(s) and the visible area of the browser window. proxy servers. Viewable Impression Implementation • Then the position of the ad is calculated as is the area of the ad that shown on the screen. harvesters. spambots or ." (“In-focus” is defined as when a Web page is the primary window open on a user's screen. or placing the curser on the browser address bar or other browser button) . 6. and the scroll position at the time the viewable impression was recorded. web-directories. the viewer's browser window dimensions. (This isbad botssue may be addressed in part already by a standard ad server following IAB guidelines but more study needs to done to assess whether all non human technology is identified by the current approaches and whether viewable impression technology can improve on those measures. • This data results in a visual representation of the viewer's environment of each viewable impression reported. The viewer switches focus to another browser or application. link checkers. some do not. 5. 7. 3. . The viewer has a particular type of ad blocker installed that could disrupt ad serving but still be initiate the count of an impression. but in an area of the web page that is not within the viewer's browser window dimensions and scrolling position. The viewer clicks to another web page before the ad loads and renders. The viewer moves the browser window so the ad is outside the display screen area. unobstructed by any other application window. the dimensions of the web page the ad appeared on. 241 Viewable Impression Implementation • The complete viewer's environment is gathered by a client side technology for every viewable impression reported and transmitted back to a server side database. the view time of the ad is collected by the client (viewer) side engine considering whether the web page the ad resides on is "In focus. • Also. the location of the ad on the page. • Data for each view includes the viewers display resolution.

27. Because server log files must be batched. 24. 13. If a click-through is necessary to measure advertising. Redundant ad delivery. Reach and Frequency measured for ads that are not visible. 30. and browser window area and scrolling position. 3rd is not. Display of complete branding messages and contact information is prohibitive.) 242 . 28. All ads are reported as impressions. and transferred to a database for reporting. but impressions are reported for all layered ads. filtered. The web publisher places multiple ad displays in layers over each other. 21. two pages open in two tabs. The viewer has multiple home pages set so when the browser is opened. No reported log or visual representation of each web page URL an ad is delivered to in addition to the web page dimensions and placement location of the ad on the web page. 25. For rotation 1 the 1st is in view. 23. 2nd not. 17. Reporting latency.g. or opens another application over the video while the advertisement is playing or moves the browser window so the video is outside the display screen area. 3 Ads are in rotation). 1st in view. making click rate misleading. In the case of pre-roll video and video advertising. Impressions that are not visible are included in click through rate. tabs away from. and an ad resides on the tab that is not in focus. making reach and frequency measurements meaningless. An ad or beacon delivered in an invisible width="0" height="0" Iframe. (The delivery of the same ads on the same web page. Mutilated (http poisoning) packets Impression fraud [5] Limitations related to data analysis and distribution flow with impression methodology overcome: 20. adding complete branding messages and contact information in a display ad is prohibitive because then a click through to a website is not necessary. including viewer's display resolution. 16. 22. The request was made by an (invisible to the viewer) web page re-direct. 26. An ad that is not visible did not reach anyone. significant delays exist before reporting data is available. CPM value dilution because of an unlimited supply of inventory. reach. and in 3rd rotation the 2nd ad is again not in view. 18. No data reported for the view time of each individual viewable impression. 29. Not knowing which ads in rotation were in view for each ad selection means certain ads may never be visible making all the statistic data meaningless. frequency and all other measurements. 19. (e. but ad 2 was never visible. No reported log or visual representation of each unique viewer's environment.Viewable Impression (CPMV) 12. 3rd is in view. 2nd is not. The viewer then sees one ad. Rotation 2. All parties involved see different impressions reports that are impossible to reconcile. Reasons why an impression may not appear to a viewer associated with fraud overcome: 15. The web publisher places an image or shape on a layer overlapping an ad. if the viewer minimizes the browser. Ad rotation visibility lottery.

com/ blog/ 17/ 7. com/ 2009/ 11/ 02/ this-could-change-everything/) 5. marketwire. org/ ) Adage: Why Print Advertising Isn't Working (http:/ / adage. marketwire. php/ Man-in-the-middle_attack) External links 1. mediapost.net Challenges Standard Online Ad Revenue Model (http:/ / www. by David Cohen “This Could Change Everything” (http:/ / umwwblog. realvu. net/ dom/ RealVu_DOM. com/ press-release/ RealVu-Revolutionizes-Internet-Advertising-Measurement-With-the-Viewable-Impression-1271884.net Enables Advertisers to Accurately Track and Quantify Online Ad Results (http:/ / www. Marketwire RealVu Revolutionizes Internet Advertising Measurement With The Viewable Impression (http:/ / www. org/ Accredited Services. Marketwire Online Advertising Purchasing Problem Solved: CityAds. pdf) Impression fraud (http:/ / www. org/ index. MarketingVox "Tuesday's tuesdays-toolset-watch-5-047089/) Toolset Watch" View" (http:/ / www.showArticle&art_aid=132819) 8. net/ dom/ RealVu_DOM.Viewable Impression (CPMV) 243 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Media Rating Council (http:/ / www.htm) 3. com/ 6. pdf) RealVu Description of Methodology (http:/ / www. marketingvox. marketwire. MediaPost "How Ad Industry Might Base Impressions On Truth Vs. owasp. realvu. UM Blog. eMedia Vitals "Death of the Page death-page-view-how-about-rise-sponsorship) (http:/ / emediavitals. Marketwire CityAds. Fiction" (http:/ / www. htm) . com/ press-release/CityAdsnet-Challenges-Standard-Online-Ad-Revenue-Model-871636.htm) 2. mediaratingcouncil. com/publications/?fa=Articles. com/ press-release/ Online-Advertising-Purchasing-Problem-Solved-CityAdsnet-Enables-Advertisers-Accurately-871637. Media Rating Council "Accredited Services" (http:/ / www. com/ mediaworks/ article?article_id=145281) RealVu Description of Methodology (http:/ / www. mediaratingcouncil.htm) 4.

These were first popularized by Netscape and Microsoft during the browser wars. 80x15 pixels buttons online generator. com http:/ / www.Web button 244 Web button Web buttons. Web button with push-button functionality: example on the website of JPAC which links originally to [1]. 11 May 2007 Steal These Buttons [4]. 80x15. jpac. External links • • • • Makebutton. or that the site passes World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) HTML validation. php?page=sitereport_list& size=100& ind=5 http:/ / www.com [5]. smaller 80×15 pixels buttons have become very popular in the blogosphere. php http:/ / gtmcknight.com: Create your own web buttons . Button graphics are typically 88×31 pixels in size. but recently. programs that are recommended to view the site. com/ buttons/ http:/ / www. button graphics. [3] lifehacker. com/ . Make your own free web buttons and banners with online tool. lifehacker. The buttons are linked to the advertised sites. pacom. MediaWiki sites often have a "Powered by Mediawiki" button on the bottom right corner of the page). mil/ index. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.com [2]. web badges or stickers are pictures in some World Wide Web pages which are typically used to advertise programs that were used to create or host the site (for example. a collection of over 3700 buttons since 2003 80x15. makebutton. com/ software/ site-tools/ create-your-own-web-buttons-259650.

[4] "Yandex.Yandex. yandex. Retrieved May 24. gov/ Archives/ edgar/ data/ 1513845/ 000104746911004187/ a2203514zf-1.[4] The service operates in four countries: Russia.com [2] Yandex.000 advertisers in the first quarter of 2011. . 2011. The service is the largest of its kind in Russia.Direct is an automated.Direct 245 Yandex.000 in the first quarter of 2010. Its rivals. SEC. 2001 [1] Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Online advertising direct. Ukraine.[3] According to Yandex. Ukrainian and English. htm).Direct was launched in 2001.000 in the full year 2010 and 131. com/ ).Direct display ads on Yandex search engine results pages and at participant sites of Yandex ad network. Belarus and Kazakhstan. Retrieved May 24.Direct through interfaces in Russian. yandex. . The latter is oriented for novice advertisers.Директ . ru/ news/ press_releases/ 2001/ 07-31_00. References [1] Яндекс.yandex. characteristics and locations.Direct served ads for more than 127. 180. Yandex. Direct processes millions of auctions every day. Most of Yandex revenues are generated from text-based ads.Direct Developer(s) Initial release Yandex July 31.Direct Yandex. compared with 92. In addition to targeting ads on the basis of user queries and website content.Direct platform. Since 2007. Yandex. Yandex. auction-based system for placement of text-based advertising in Russia. Begun and Google AdWords.Direct" (http:/ / direct. ads can be targeted on the basis of users’ demographics as well as behavioral patterns.000 in the full year 2009. The significant majority of said ads are placed through Yandex. Direct provides two kinds of interface to work with: so called Professional and Easy. .реклама без посредников (http:/ / company. xml) [2] http:/ / direct. Advertisers may access Yandex. com/ [3] "Form F1 REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 YANDEX N. 2011. Yandex.Direct provides advertisers with a Metrica tool to appraise site audience quality and measure conversion ratio for keyword advertising.V" (http:/ / sec. Yandex. yandex. began their operations in Russia in 2002.

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. VisitLab. Adam Ginsberg. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Affiliate marketing. ClickTale. Landing page optimization. Keyword Services Platform. Unica NetTracker. Display advertising. Sawmill (software). Dreaming in Mono. Woopra. Transactional Link. Session replay. Usage data. Online presence management. Attitudinal analytics. Search engine optimization. Klout. Quality Score. PostRank. Online lead generation. In easy to read chapters. Digital creative agency. Visit filter. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. Criteo. JESS3. Internet marketing. Pay for placement. Site Meter. Micro content. Digital marketing engineer. Direct digital marketing. Hitbox. Avinash Kaushik. Omniture. It reduces the risk of your technology. Permission marketing. Click analytics. AWStats. In-text advertising. Article marketing. Unique visitor. Rand Schulman. Link bidding. Unique user. org. Dominate Your Market With Twitter. Interactive advertising. Image search optimization. time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals. Personalized retargeting. Web banner. Conversion funnel. Pay per play. GroupSpaces. LivePerson. Yandex. Urchin Software Corporation.Web analytics is the measurement. Article video marketing. List of web analytics software. Impression (online media). This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. RSS tracking. Microsoft adCenter. Anametrix. Web audience measurement. Semantic targeting. Mobile web analytics. Usage analysis. covering: Web analytics. Win–loss analytics. Google Analytics. Post-click marketing. Digital agency. Unboxing. Cost per time. Landing page. Google Website Optimizer. Search retargeting. background and everything you need to know. Lyris HQ. Web button. Microsoft adCenter Analytics. Resource Interactive. Web traffic. StatCounter. One-time offer. Sales letter. Search-Driven Media. AdSense. Skyword. analysis. Emetrics Summit. Web log analysis software. Keyword optimization. Mint (software). Piwik. Unica NetInsight. Double loop marketing. Attorney-client matching. Paid inclusion. Get Into Bed With Google. Guided selling. Search engine optimization copywriting. Social media optimization. Microsoft pubCenter. Long Tail. JICWEBS. Contextual advertising. Unicast advertisement. Here you will find the most up-to-date information. Data pimping. Content farm. Revenue sharing. WebSideStory. Email marketing. Inbound marketing. Pay per click. Referral marketing. HubSpot. AT Internet. collection. Blitz Campaign. Direct This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. MyThings. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research. Private label rights. Clickstream. Kampyle (Software). Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Webtrends. Urchin (software). Internet presence management. Path analysis (computing). Bounce rate. Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing). Multivariate landing page optimization. Kaspid. Viewable Impression (CPMV). analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. HitDynamics. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away. Semantic advertising. CrawlTrack. Ad text optimization. Ad rotation. TraceMyIP. Search engine marketing.

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