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Web Analytics: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Web Analytics: High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.

Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research.

This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away, covering: Web analytics, Anametrix, AT Internet, Attitudinal analytics, AWStats, Bounce rate, Click analytics, Clickstream, ClickTale, Conversion funnel, CrawlTrack, Emetrics Summit, Google Analytics, Hitbox, HitDynamics, HubSpot, JICWEBS, Kampyle (Software), Kaspid, Avinash Kaushik, Klout, List of web analytics software, LivePerson, Lyris HQ, Microsoft adCenter Analytics, Mint (software), Mobile web analytics, Omniture, Path analysis (computing), Piwik, PostRank, RSS tracking, Sawmill (software), Rand Schulman, Search engine optimization, Session replay, Site Meter, StatCounter, TraceMyIP.org, Unica NetInsight, Unica NetTracker, Unique user, Unique visitor, Urchin (software), Urchin Software Corporation, Usage analysis, Usage data, Visit filter, VisitLab, Web audience measurement, Web banner, Web log analysis software, Web traffic, WebSideStory, Google Website Optimizer, Webtrends, Win–loss analytics, Woopra, Ad rotation, Ad text optimization, AdSense, Affiliate marketing, Article marketing, Article video marketing, Attorney-client matching, Blitz Campaign, Content farm, Contextual advertising, Cost per time, Criteo, Data pimping, Digital agency, Digital creative agency, Digital marketing engineer, Direct digital marketing, Display advertising, Dominate Your Market With Twitter, Dreaming in Mono, Email marketing, Get Into Bed With Google, Adam Ginsberg, Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing), GroupSpaces, Guided selling, Image search optimization, Impression (online media), In-text advertising, Interactive advertising, Internet marketing, Internet presence management, JESS3, Keyword optimization, Keyword Services Platform, Landing page, Landing page optimization, Link bidding, Long Tail, Micro content, Microsoft adCenter, Microsoft pubCenter, Multivariate landing page optimization, MyThings, One-time offer, Online lead generation, Online presence management, Paid inclusion, Pay for placement, Pay per click, Pay per play, Personalized retargeting, Post-click marketing, Private label rights, Quality Score, Referral marketing, Resource Interactive, Revenue sharing, Sales letter, Search engine marketing, Search engine optimization copywriting, Search retargeting, Search-Driven Media, Semantic advertising, Semantic targeting, Skyword, Social media optimization, Double loop marketing, Inbound marketing, Permission marketing, Transactional Link, Unboxing, Unicast advertisement, Viewable Impression (CPMV), Web button, Yandex.Direct

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals.
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.

Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research.

This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, analysis, background and everything you need to know.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away, covering: Web analytics, Anametrix, AT Internet, Attitudinal analytics, AWStats, Bounce rate, Click analytics, Clickstream, ClickTale, Conversion funnel, CrawlTrack, Emetrics Summit, Google Analytics, Hitbox, HitDynamics, HubSpot, JICWEBS, Kampyle (Software), Kaspid, Avinash Kaushik, Klout, List of web analytics software, LivePerson, Lyris HQ, Microsoft adCenter Analytics, Mint (software), Mobile web analytics, Omniture, Path analysis (computing), Piwik, PostRank, RSS tracking, Sawmill (software), Rand Schulman, Search engine optimization, Session replay, Site Meter, StatCounter, TraceMyIP.org, Unica NetInsight, Unica NetTracker, Unique user, Unique visitor, Urchin (software), Urchin Software Corporation, Usage analysis, Usage data, Visit filter, VisitLab, Web audience measurement, Web banner, Web log analysis software, Web traffic, WebSideStory, Google Website Optimizer, Webtrends, Win–loss analytics, Woopra, Ad rotation, Ad text optimization, AdSense, Affiliate marketing, Article marketing, Article video marketing, Attorney-client matching, Blitz Campaign, Content farm, Contextual advertising, Cost per time, Criteo, Data pimping, Digital agency, Digital creative agency, Digital marketing engineer, Direct digital marketing, Display advertising, Dominate Your Market With Twitter, Dreaming in Mono, Email marketing, Get Into Bed With Google, Adam Ginsberg, Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing), GroupSpaces, Guided selling, Image search optimization, Impression (online media), In-text advertising, Interactive advertising, Internet marketing, Internet presence management, JESS3, Keyword optimization, Keyword Services Platform, Landing page, Landing page optimization, Link bidding, Long Tail, Micro content, Microsoft adCenter, Microsoft pubCenter, Multivariate landing page optimization, MyThings, One-time offer, Online lead generation, Online presence management, Paid inclusion, Pay for placement, Pay per click, Pay per play, Personalized retargeting, Post-click marketing, Private label rights, Quality Score, Referral marketing, Resource Interactive, Revenue sharing, Sales letter, Search engine marketing, Search engine optimization copywriting, Search retargeting, Search-Driven Media, Semantic advertising, Semantic targeting, Skyword, Social media optimization, Double loop marketing, Inbound marketing, Permission marketing, Transactional Link, Unboxing, Unicast advertisement, Viewable Impression (CPMV), Web button, Yandex.Direct

This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. It reduces the risk of your technology, time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals.

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Web Analytics

IN-DEPTH: THE REAL DRIVERS AND
WORKINGS

Kevin Roebuck

REDUCES THE RISK OF YOUR TECHNOLOGY, TIME AND RESOURCES
INVESTMENT DECISIONS

ENABLING YOU TO COMPARE YOUR
UNDERSTANDING WITH THE OBJECTIVITY OF EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS

High-impact Strategies - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Contents
Articles
Web analytics Anametrix AT Internet Attitudinal analytics AWStats Bounce rate Click analytics Clickstream ClickTale Conversion funnel CrawlTrack Emetrics Summit Google Analytics Hitbox HitDynamics HubSpot JICWEBS Kampyle (Software) Kaspid Avinash Kaushik Klout List of web analytics software LivePerson Lyris HQ Microsoft adCenter Analytics Mint (software) Mobile web analytics Omniture Path analysis (computing) Piwik postRank RSS tracking Sawmill (software) Rand Schulman 1 10 12 13 14 16 17 18 20 22 23 24 25 29 30 31 36 37 38 40 42 43 46 48 49 49 50 53 55 57 58 60 62 63

org Unica NetInsight Unica NetTracker Unique user Unique visitor Urchin (software) Urchin Software Corporation Usage analysis Usage data Visit filter VisitLab Web audience measurement Web banner Web log analysis software Web traffic WebSideStory Google Website Optimizer Webtrends Win–loss analytics Woopra Ad rotation Ad text optimization AdSense Affiliate marketing Article marketing Article video marketing Attorney-client matching Blitz Campaign Content farm Contextual advertising Cost per time Criteo Data pimping Digital agency 64 72 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 80 81 83 83 83 84 85 85 88 89 92 93 94 96 97 98 99 100 105 116 117 118 120 121 123 125 126 128 129 .Search engine optimization Session replay Site Meter StatCounter TraceMyIP.

Digital creative agency Digital marketing engineer Direct digital marketing Display advertising Dominate Your Market With Twitter Dreaming in Mono Email marketing Get Into Bed With Google Adam Ginsberg Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) GroupSpaces Guided selling Image search optimization Impression (online media) In-text advertising Interactive advertising Internet marketing Internet presence management JESS3 Keyword optimization Keyword Services Platform Landing page Landing page optimization Link bidding Long Tail Micro content Microsoft adCenter Microsoft pubCenter Multivariate landing page optimization MyThings One-time offer Online lead generation Online presence management Paid inclusion Pay for placement Pay per click Pay per play Personalized retargeting 129 129 131 132 134 136 140 143 144 145 147 149 151 152 152 153 155 159 160 164 172 179 180 182 183 191 192 194 195 197 199 199 201 203 204 205 208 208 .

Direct 210 211 212 214 215 216 217 219 223 224 224 225 226 227 228 230 231 236 237 238 238 239 244 245 References Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources.Post-click marketing Private label rights Quality Score Referral marketing Resource Interactive Revenue sharing Sales letter Search engine marketing Search engine optimization copywriting Search retargeting Search-Driven Media Semantic advertising Semantic targeting Skyword Social media optimization Double loop marketing Inbound marketing Permission marketing Transactional Link Unboxing Unicast advertisement Viewable Impression (CPMV) Web button Yandex. Licenses and Contributors 246 254 Article Licenses License 256 .

share of voice (visibility). It was soon realized that these logfiles could be read by a program to provide data on the popularity of the website. page tagging. This was a reasonable method initially. sales and lead information. since each web site often consisted of a single HTML file. The first true commercial Log Analyzer was released by IPRO in 1994 [2] .[1] Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. but are now considered rather rudimentary. which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase. There are two main technological approaches to collecting the data. reads the logfiles in which the web server records all its transactions. There are two categories of web analytics. For example. off-site and on-site web analytics. and buzz (comments) that is happening on the Internet as a whole. Web server logfile analysis Web servers record some of their transactions in a logfile. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. The page views and visits are still commonly displayed metrics. usually 30 minutes. and web sites that spanned multiple HTML files. Both collect data that can be processed to produce web traffic reports. analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. In the early 1990s. These were page views and visits (or sessions).Web analytics 1 Web analytics Web analytics is the measurement. It includes the measurement of a website's potential audience (opportunity). mainly because vendors are producing tools that span both categories. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance. for example. Historically. with the introduction of images in HTML. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research. However in recent years this has blurred. The remainder of this article concerns on-site web analytics. direct mail campaign data. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. and used to improve a web site or marketing campaign's audience response. . However. The first method. or other custom metrics as needed. On-site web analytics measures the performance of your website in a commercial context. Thus arose web log analysis software. user performance data such as click heat mapping. e-mail response rates. logfile analysis. uses JavaScript on each page to notify a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. The second method. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. as opposed to a graphic. A page view was defined as a request made to the web server for a page. On-site web analytics technologies Many different vendors provide on-site web analytics software and services. In addition other data sources may also be added to augment the data. collection. while a visit was defined as a sequence of requests from a uniquely identified client that expired after a certain amount of inactivity. On-site web analytics measure a visitor's journey once on your website. Off-site web analytics refers to web measurement and analysis regardless of whether you own or maintain a website. web analytics has referred to on-site visitor measurement. Two units of measure were introduced in the mid 1990s to gauge more accurately the amount of human activity on web servers. web site statistics consisted primarily of counting the number of client requests (or hits) made to the web server. This includes its drivers and conversions. this count became less useful.

and is in a standard. No changes to the website are required. is to implement a call back to the server from the rendered page. In the mid 1990s. use several different programs. This makes it easy for a company to switch programs later. and so no request will be received by the web server. page tagging or 'Web bugs'. and by ignoring requests from known spiders. In some cases. Cookie acceptance rates vary significantly between web sites and may affect the quality of data collected and reported. to pass along with the image request certain information about the page and the visitor. • The data is on the company's own servers. delays in completing a successful or failed DNS look-ups may result in data not being collected. and does not rely on the visitors' browsers co-operating . format. including e. This information can then be processed remotely by a web analytics company. led to the second data collection method. In this case. 2 Page tagging Concerns about the accuracy of logfile analysis in the presence of caching. and the desire to be able to perform web analytics as an outsourced service. by using JavaScript. and analyze historical data with a new program. In the late 1990s this concept evolved to include a small invisible image instead of a visible one. • The web server reliably records every transaction it makes. so the raw data is already available. which can uniquely identify them during their visit and in subsequent visits. The web analytics service also manages the process of assigning a cookie to the user. and. There are advantages and disadvantages to each approach[3] . This is in some ways flawed by browser restrictions on the servers which can be contacted with XmlHttpRequest objects. which was an estimate of the number of visits to that page. along with web proxies and dynamically assigned IP addresses for large companies and ISPs. Web counters were commonly seen — these were images included in a web page that showed the number of times the image had been requested. • Logfiles require no additional DNS Lookups. the same web analytics company will offer both approaches. it is useful information for search engine optimization. • Logfiles contain information on visits from search engine spiders. With the increasing popularity of Ajax-based solutions. The question then arises of which method a company should choose. a piece of Ajax code would call back to the server and pass information about the client that can then be aggregated by a web analytics company.Web analytics The emergence of search engine spiders and robots in the late 1990s. Log analyzers responded by tracking visits by cookies. If a person revisits a page.g. when the page is rendered on the web browser. The extensive use of web caches also presented a problem for logfile analysis. but this can result in degraded performance for the visitor to the website. This means that the person's path through the site is lost. or result in uncounted page views. an alternative to the use of an invisible image. Caching can be defeated by configuring the web server. made it more difficult to identify unique human visitors to a website. Thus there are no external server calls which can slow page load speeds. On occasion. serving PDF documents and content generated by scripts. Collecting web site data using a third-party data collection server (or even an in-house data collection server) requires an additional DNS look-up by the user's computer to determine the IP address of the collection server. and extensive statistics generated. Although these should not be reported as part of the human activity. rather than a proprietary. Logfile analysis vs page tagging Both logfile analysis programs and page tagging solutions are readily available to companies that wish to perform web analytics. the second request will often be retrieved from the browser's cache. Advantages of logfile analysis The main advantages of logfile analysis over page tagging are as follows: • The web server normally already produces logfiles.

and the number of distinct web sites needing statistics.e. with logfile analysis. it will not be counted by the server. which often grows very large quickly. • For Logfile analysis you have to store and archive your own data. the vendor chosen. • Page tagging can report on events which do not involve a request to the web server. The economic difference between these two models can also be a consideration for a company deciding which to purchase. not requesting it from the server. not sent in the query. onMouseOver. If a page is cached. what revenue increase or cost savings can be gained by analysing the web visitor data? 3 . such as interactions within Flash movies. onFocus. Not counting cached pages seriously skews many site metrics. • Counting is activated by opening the page (given that the web client runs the tag scripts). onBlur etc. • Lately page tagging has become a standard in web analytics [4] . Which solution is cheaper to implement depends on the amount of technical expertise within the company. partial form completion. Although the cost of hardware to do this is minimal. For example. several open-source logfile analysis tools are available free of charge. • For Logfile analysis you need to maintain the software. but it is more often provided as a third-party service. • The script may have access to additional information on the web client or on the user. the amount of activity seen on the web sites. Page tagging can be performed in-house. This can be from the use of third party consultants. It is for this reason server-based log analysis is not considered suitable for analysis of human activity on websites. In addition to commercial offerings. Economic factors Logfile analysis is almost always performed in-house. such as visitors' screen sizes and the price of the goods they purchased. the depth and type of information sought. though Java can be used. • Data is gathered via a component ("tag") in the page. basically enabling complete control over how the data is represented.Web analytics Advantages of page tagging The main advantages of page tagging over logfile analysis are as follows. the cost of turning raw data into actionable information. some vendors are introducing maximum annual page views with additional costs to process additional information. usually written in JavaScript. • Complex page tagging vendors charge a monthly fee based on volume i. Cached pages can account for up to one-third of all pageviews. the hiring of an experienced web analyst. the cost of web visitor analysis and interpretation should also be included. number of pageviews per month collected. the server has to be configured to do this. JQuery and AJAX can also be used in conjunction with a server-side scripting language (such as PHP) to manipulate and (usually) store it in a database. • The page tagging service manages the process of assigning cookies to visitors. mouse events such as onClick. the overhead for an IT department can be considerable. and increasingly Flash is used. Regardless of the vendor solution or data collection method employed. That is. or the training of a suitable in-house person. however. A cost-benefit analysis can then be performed. • Page tagging is available to companies who do not have access to their own web servers. including updates and security patches. • Logfile analysis typically involves a one-off software purchase.

proxy information. localized search. and therefore log a simulated click that lead to that page view. Click analytics Click analytics is a special type of web analytics that gives special attention to clicks (Point-and-click). and this method requires some functionality that picks up relevant information when the event occurs. IP Intelligence. This information is used by businesses for online audience segmentation in applications such online advertising. or Internet Protocol (IP) Intelligence. is a technology that maps the Internet and catalogues IP addresses by parameters such as geographic location (country. it is possible to track visitors location. Editors. click analytics focuses on on-site analytics. behavioral targeting. design elements or advertisements etc. Typically. Also. By using a hybrid method. online fraud detection. geographic rights management. with regards to where the users of the site are clicking. enhanced analytics. The first Hybrid solution was produced in 1998 by Rufus Evison. Data about clicks may be gathered in at least two ways.Web analytics 4 Hybrid methods Some companies are now producing programs that collect data through both logfiles and page tagging. and more. front-page Clickpath Analysis with referring pages on the left and arrows and rectangles editors on high-traffic news media sites will differing in thickness and expanse to symbolize movement quantity. Ideally. connection type. Visitors Geolocation With IP geolocation. designers or other types of stakeholders may analyze clicks on a wider time frame to aid them assess performance of writers. region. they aim to produce more accurate statistics than either method on its own. An editor of a web site uses click analytics to determine the performance of his or her particular site. visitors can be geolocated to city. one may institute the assumption that a page view is a result of a click. Internet Service Provider (ISP). to optimize the content. city and postcode). state. digital rights management. Commonly. want to monitor their pages in real-time. and content distribution. personalization. global traffic management. click analytics may happen real-time or "unreal"-time. depending on the type of information sought. . who then spun the product out to create a company based upon the increased accuracy of hybrid methods [2] [5] . Alternatively. a click is "logged" when it occurs. content localization (or website localization). Using IP geolocation database or API. region or country level[6] . The first generation of IP Intelligence was referred to as geotargeting or geolocation technology.

If someone leaves a site. • Page view . A visit ends only after a 30 minute time delay. The main bodies who have had input in this area have been JICWEBS (The Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards in the UK and Ireland) [8].A visit from a visitor who has not made any previous visits. Identification is made to the visitor's computer.A request for a file from the web server.A request for a file whose type is defined as a page in log analysis. Thus the same person visiting from two different computers or with two different browsers will count as two Unique Visitors. The WAA (Web Analytics Association. etc. Other methods Other methods of data collection are sometimes used. • First Visit / First Session .A visit is defined as a series of page requests from the same uniquely identified client with a time of no more than 30 minutes between each page request. US) and to a lesser extent the IAB (Interactive Advertising Bureau). • Visitor / Unique Visitor / Unique User . usually via cookie and/or IP+User Agent. suffering only slightly from ambiguity. A Unique Visitor counts once within the timescale. This does not prevent the following list from being a useful guide. UK and Europe) [9]. a single page view does not constitute a visit or a session (it is a "bounce").The uniquely identified client generating requests on the web server (log analysis) or viewing pages (page tagging) within a defined time period (i. which are less susceptible to privacy enforcement. Increasingly visitors are uniquely identified by Flash LSO's (Local Shared Object). not the person. In other words. whichever comes first. Integrating web analytics into the web server software itself is also possible. clicks and other events (such as API calls. day. but this number is extremely misleading and dramatically over-estimates popularity. A visitor can make multiple visits. access to third-party services. this will count as one visit but two sessions.Web analytics 5 Customer lifecycle analytics Customer lifecycle analytics is a visitor-centric approach to measuring that falls under the umbrella of lifecycle marketing. In log analysis. The total number of visitors or page views provides a more realistic and accurate assessment of popularity. then returns within 30 minutes. A session is defined as a series of page requests from the same uniquely identified client with a time of no more than 30 minutes and no requests for pages from other domains intervening between page requests. Packet sniffing involves no changes to the web pages or web servers. or 30 minutes elapse between pageviews. Packet sniffing collects data by sniffing the network traffic passing between the web server and the outside world. Page views. a session ends when someone goes to another site. • Hit . In practice. each of which is counted as a hit as the page is downloaded. week or month). Available only in log analysis.e.) are all tied to an individual visitor instead of being stored as separate data points. . The number of hits received by a website is frequently cited to assert its popularity. most systems ignore sessions and many analysts use both terms for visits. ABCe (Audit Bureau of Circulations electronic. Both the WAA and the ABCe provide more definitive lists for those who are declaring their statistics using the metrics defined by either.[7] Both these methods claim to provide better real-time data than other methods. Because time between pageviews is critical to the definition of visits and sessions. . • Visit / Session . A single web-page typically consists of multiple (often dozens) of discrete files. a single page view may generate multiple hits as all the resources required to view the page (images. An occurrence of the script being run in page tagging.js and . Customer lifecycle analytics attempts to connect all the data points into a marketing funnel that can offer insights into visitor behavior and website optimization. Key definitions There are no globally agreed definitions within web analytics as the industry bodies have been trying to agree definitions that are useful and definitive for some time.css files) are also requested from the web server. so the number of hits is really an arbitrary number more reflective of the complexity of individual pages on the website than the website's actual popularity.

The term was first coined by Rufus Evison explaining the problem at one of the Emetrics Summits and has now gained popularity as a simple expression of the problem and its resolution. • Page View Duration / Time on Page .Frequency measures how often visitors come to a website. . Some use click analytics to analyze their web sites. It is calculated by dividing the total number of sessions (or visits) by the total number of unique visitors. • Active Time / Engagement Time . This metric can be complicated by the fact that analytics programs can not measure the length of the final page view[10] .The percentage of users who exit from a page. Sometimes it is used to measure the loyalty of your audience.Page Depth is the average number of page views a visitor consumes before ending their session. The period between the last and current visit is called visitor recency and is measured in days. The problem is that the unique visitors for each day in a month do not add up to the same total as the unique visitors for that month.Average amount of time that visitors spend on each page of the site. • % Exit .An impression is each time an advertisement loads on a user's screen.A visitor that has made at least one previous visit.The number of visits where only a single page is viewed. The way to picture the situation is by imagining a hotel. • Click path . such as onUnload(). this metric can accurately measure the length of engagement in the final page view.The time a single page (or a blog. • Impression . • Session Duration . • Site Overlay is a technique in which graphical statistics are shown besides each link on the web page. and is sometimes substituted with analysis of first visits. that is an impression. • Singletons . These statistics represent the percentage of clicks on each link. • New Visitor . 6 Common sources of confusion in web analytics The hotel problem The hotel problem is generally the first problem encountered by a user of web analytics. Ad Banner. It is calculated by dividing total number of page views by total number of sessions and is also called Page Views per Session or PV/Session. While not a useful metric in and of itself the number of singletons is indicative of various forms of Click fraud as well as being used to calculate bounce rate and in some cases to identify automatons bots. • Bounce Rate . • Frequency / Session per Unique .the sequence of hyperlinks one or more website visitors follows on a given site.) is viewed.. This appears to an inexperienced user to be a problem in whatever analytics software they are using.Average amount of time that visitors spend actually interacting with content on a web page. The hotel has two rooms (Room A and Room B). In fact it is a simple property of the metric definitions.The percentage of visits where the visitor enters and exits at the same page without visiting any other pages on the site in between. Anytime you see a banner. this metric is complicated by the fact that analytics programs can not measure the length of the final page view unless they record a page close event. clicks. This definition creates a certain amount of confusion (see common confusions below). • Visibility time ."refers to a single instance of a user following a hyperlink from one page in a site to another"[11] .A visitor that has not made any previous visits. hovers and scrolls.Web analytics • Repeat Visitor . • Click . • Page Depth / Page Views per Session .Average amount of time that visitors spend on the site each time they visit. As with Session Duration.. Unlike Session Duration and Page View Duration / Time on Page. based on mouse moves.

A new visitor is not an individual. Here the culprit is the metric of a new visitor. The sum of the totals with respect to the rooms is therefore four. For this reason it is easiest to conceptualize the same facet as a first visit (or first session). Third-party cookies can handle visitors who cross multiple unrelated domains within the company's site. The sum of the totals with respect to the days is therefore six. However. allowing the analytics vendor to collate the user's activity on sites where he provided personal information with his activity on other sites where he thought he was anonymous. Actually only three visitors have been in the hotel over this period. So if we look at them as an individual which are they? The answer has to be both. Web analytics methods Problems with cookies Historically. During the period each room has had two unique users.[12] . vendors of page-tagging analytics solutions have used third-party cookies sent from the vendor's domain instead of the domain of the website being browsed. Again this becomes clear if the visitors are viewed as individuals on a small scale. some reports showed that about 28% of Internet users blocked third-party cookies and 22% deleted them at least once a month. it is a fact of the web measurement. but it is clearer that it will not add in this fashion. other companies such as companies supplying banner ads have done so. Any software for web analytics will sum these correctly for whatever time period. This resolves the conflict and so removes the confusion.Web analytics 7 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Total Room A John Room B Mark Total 2 John Jane 2 Jane Mark 2 2 Unique Users 2 Unique Users ? As the table shows. The number of first visits and the number of repeat visits will add up to the total number of visits for that day. The metric will have the same number as the new visitors. In 2005. On the day in question there was a first visit made by our chosen individual. Nobody expects the number of first visits to add to the number of repeat visitors to give the total number of visitors. There is really no such thing as a new visitor when you are considering a web site from an ongoing perspective. so the definition of the metric is at fault. Privacy concerns about cookies have therefore led a noticeable minority of users to block or delete third-party cookies. The problem is that a person who stays in a room for two nights will get counted twice if you count them once on each day. thus leading to the problem when a user tries to compare the totals. If a visitor makes their first visit on a given day and then returns to the web site on the same day they are both a new visitor and a repeat visitor for that day. since the cookie is always handled by the vendor's servers. but still causes a large number of complaints that analytics software cannot be working because of a failure to understand the metrics. third-party cookies in principle allow tracking an individual user across the sites of different companies. New visitors + Repeat visitors unequal to total visitors Another common misconception in web analytics is that the sum of the new visitors and the repeat visitors ought to be the total number of visitors. but is only counted once if you are looking at the total for the period. the hotel has two unique users each day over three days. Although web analytics companies deny doing this. There was also a repeat visit made by the same individual.

blog article [6] IPInfoDB (2009-07-10). J. advanced-web-metrics. International Journal of Information and Computer Security 1: 39. but to-date the solutions suggested in these papers remain theoretic. "IP geolocation database" (http:/ / ipinfodb. M.012244. R. 151. Pinkas. Without a persistent and unique visitor id. K. consult the aforementioned papers. Secure and efficient metering. [16] Johnson. [15] Franklin. . This means these methods are imprecise and insecure (in any reasonable model of security). advanced-web-metrics. possibly due to lack of interest from the engineering community. (1997).1504/IJICS. References [1] The Official WAA Definition of Web Analytics (http:/ / www. abc. or because of financial gain the current situation provides to the owners of big websites. doi:10. they usually delete both first. com/ support/ googleanalytics/ bin/ answer. google. pp.and third-party cookies. 8 Secure analytics (metering) methods All the methods described above (and some other methods not mentioned here. . com/ ip_database.2007. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems 30: 541. 576. org/ citation. [14] Naor.a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [4] Revisiting log file analysis versus page tagging (http:/ / web. cannot be accurate. org/ [9] http:/ / www. com/ blog/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ hosted-v-software-v-hybrid-tools/ ) . com/ docs/ web-data-sources. analyticsblog. Part 1 (http:/ / blog. html?page=3489636) [13] Naor. M. 1318. Another problem is cookie deletion. doi:10. the statistics are dependent on a persistent cookie to hold a unique visitor ID. php).. py?hl=en& answer=32981) [12] clickz report (http:/ / www. pdf) by Brian Clifton and Omega Digital Media Ltd [3] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www.Analytics Help (http:/ / www. Malkhi. M. doi:10. "Secure accounting and auditing on the Web". clickz. When users delete cookies. B. the user will appear as a first-time visitor at their next interaction point. jicwebs.Web analytics Most vendors of page tagging solutions have now moved to provide at least the option of using first-party cookies (cookies assigned from the client subdomain). click-stream analysis.1016/S0169-7552(98)00116-0. conversions. and other metrics dependent on the activities of a unique visitor over time. (1998). uk/ [10] ClickTale Blog » Blog Archive » What Google Analytics Can't Tell You. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) . [7] Web analytics integrated into web software itself (http:/ / portal. clicktale. ca/ 2010/ 02/ revisiting-log-file-analysis-versus-page-tagging/ ) McGill University Web Analytics blog article (CMIS 530) [5] Hosted v software v hybrid web analytics tools (http:/ / www. "Deflation-secure web metering". Pinkas. Other methods of uniquely identifying a user are technically challenging and would limit the trackable audience or would be considered suspicious. (1998). Retrieved 2009-07-19. com/ showPage. Auditable metering with lightweight security. like sampling) have the central problem of being vulnerable to manipulation (both inflation and deflation). com/ 2009/ 10/ 14/ what-google-analytics-cant-tell-you-part-1/ ) [11] Clicks . If this is done between interactions with the site. This issue has been addressed in a number of papers [13] [14] [15] [16] . webanalyticsassociation. org/ ?page=aboutus) [2] Web Traffic Data Sources and Vendor Comparison (http:/ / www.. (2007).1007/BFb0054155. Cookies are the selected option because they reach the lowest common denominator without using technologies regarded as spyware. IPInfoDB. Staddon. When web analytics depend on cookies to identify unique visitors. org. doi:10. 1403. 1064679& coll=GUIDE& dl=GUIDE& CFID=66492168& CFTOKEN=93187844) [8] http:/ / www. B. For more details. pp. Cookies are used because IP addresses are not always unique to users and may be shared by large groups or proxies.. advanced-web-metrics.. D. acm.1007/3-540-63594-7_75. cfm?id=1064677.

P. Burlington MA.uk/) • JICWEBS (The Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards in the UK and Ireland) (http://www. • Arikan.com/2011/ 02/02/web-analytics- -overview-options-and-technology-enablers/) • ABCe (Audit Bureau of Circulations electronic. O'Reilly ebook.org. • Srinivasan .org/) . Wiley.(2001) E commerce Metrics.. • Burby. (2002) Web metrics. Aslib Proceedings. Sybex. (2003) ‘Marketing ROI: how to plan.J.Web analytics 9 Bibliography • Clifton.) • Kaushik. Proven Methods for Measuring Web Site Success. N.T. Celilo Group Media • Lenskold. Sybex (Paperback. J . Prentice Hall. Oxford University Press. Models and Examples. Sybex. Akin (2008) Multichannel Marketing..0 . Jason and Atchison. • Kaushik. Morgan Kaufmann. London. Reibstein. Measure and Optimise strategies for Profit’ London: McGraw Hill Contemporary • Sterne. D. 2nd edition. 61(5): 474–482. • Peterson Eric T (2004) Web Analytics Demystified: A Marketer’s Guide to Understanding How Your Web Site Affects Your Business. Avinash (2009) Web Analytics 2. Bendle. Shane (2007) Actionable Web Analytics: Using Data to Make Smart Business Decisions. • Bradley N (2007) Marketing Research. (2009) Yahoo! Web Analytics. Tools and Techniques. • Farris. Sybex. Analyzing and Presenting Usability Metrics. Metrics and Methods for On and Offline Success. (2006) ‘Marketing Metrics: How to create Accountable Marketing plans that really work’ John Wiley & Sons (Asia).The Art of Online Accountability and Science of Customer Centricity. Elsevier.E. Dennis R. Sybex. • Tullis. Oxford. J. (2009) Key Marketing Metrics The 50+ Metrics Every Manager needs to know. External links • Technology enablers and business goals for web analytics initiatives (http://www. London: Prentice Hall. UK and Europe).abc. Pfeifer. Bill (2008) Measuring the User Experience. London: John Wiley & Sons. B (2009) Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series. P. J. • Davis. J. • Mortensen. Wiley. (http://www. Collecting. Brian (2010) Advanced Web Metrics with Google Analytics. • Peterson Eric T (2005) Web Site Measurement Hacks. Tom & Albert.jicwebs.joelichtenberg. Avinash (2007) Web Analytics: An Hour a Day. • Plaza.

primarily targeting marketing teams and agencies. it is currently . along with a number of existing business and web analytics clients. History The company was founded in 2009 by web analytics industry experts Blaise Barrelet and Anders Olsson (of WebSideStory fame). InstaVista is designed to perform multiple-channel. Using proprietary technologies. anametrix. it completed the acquisition of Nordic Research Corporation.com InstaVista for SugarCRM http:/ / www. a company founded by Anders Olsson. CEO Jon Shoff.Anametrix 10 Anametrix Anametrix. multi-dimensional data queries in less than a second. CFO InstaVista for E-Mail Campaigns InstaVista for Advertising InstaVista for Web Analytics InstaVista for Google Analytics InstaVista for Social Media InstaVista for Salesforce. which spent several years developing new technologies for integrating and visualizing massive amounts of streaming data. com Products Website Anametrix is a privately held web analytics and business analytics company headquartered in San Diego.[3] Its proprietary InstaVista platform allows business users to perform real-time visualization and aggregation of various data sources using a normal web browser. California Key people Blaise Barrelet. and Helm Analytics. CTO John Burke.[5] While the InstaVista platform is designed so that it can perform analytics using any data sources as inputs. France. Spain. VP of Sales Anders Olsson. In March 2010.[2] Products Anametrix provides cloud-based. opening offices in Europe[1] and partnering with web and technology solutions providers in China. The details of the acquisition were not disclosed to the public. The company also partnered with a number of North American technology firms. TechnoNet. iPost. Type Industry Private Web Analytics Business Analytics Social Media 2009 Founded Headquarters San Diego. Joe Media. Nordic Research provided a proprietary engine and platform for cloud-based streaming data aggregation and visualization. Cadient Group. Israel. California with offices worldwide. Inc. and the United Kingdom.[4] The platform is designed to integrate different data sources into a drag-and-drop data reporting and interaction interface. including 118id. Anametrix grew in 2010. ReelSnap. Dataskill. software-as-a-service business and web analytics. to offer new insights into marketing campaigns and results.

Anametrix marketed primarily toward web analytics. social media tracking. and CRM optimization uses.[6] 11 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www.com (http://www. com/ email/ 1220-beyond-email-metrics/ index. com/ email/ 1220-beyond-email-metrics/ index. mrweb. dmnews. html http:/ / leadguru. org/ ?p=189 http:/ / chiefmarketer. com/ qa-john-janetos-ipost-vp-of-business-development-and-sales/ article/ 190867/ http:/ / leadguru. html External links • anametrix.anametrix. online campaigns including e-mail and online advertising. org/ ?p=189 http:/ / chiefmarketer.com) . htm http:/ / www.official site . com/ drno/ news11892.

owned by Alain Llorens Web Analytics Market Research Online Optimization Web Marketing 1995 Bordeaux.[5] The company is commonly known (especially in France) by the name of its flagship product XiTi. Website AT Internet is a privately held company that provides integral analysis of websites.[6] International Expansion As part of a strategic move to extend its reach to an international audience. [2] AT Internet Ltd. [3] AT Internet Ltd. [4] AT Internet Ltd. France Alain Llorens. Limited Type Industry Private . It also established offices in the United Kingdom and Germany. intranet and mobile sites. as well as Asia and Canada.[7] . It has provided these services since 1995. CTO Cyril Mazeau. [2] AT Internet Ltd. the company hired Nicolas Babin as COO and Executive Vice President of Marketing. (Chairman/Founder) Mathieu Llorens. CFO Founded Headquarters Key people Products XITI Analyzer II Sales Tracker Data Explorer Observer [1] AT Internet Ltd. CEO Nicolas Babin. History The company was founded in 1995 by owner Alain Llorens as a web agency. The focus shifted to web analytics in 1997.AT Internet 12 AT Internet AT (Applied Technologies) Internet. COO Sébastien Carriot.

com/category/case-studies/ . webanalyticsassociation. omniture. com/ en/ Company/ History. December 16. In 2004. "AT Internet History" (http:/ / www.XiTi names Nicolas Babin COO and Executive Vice President Marketing" (http:/ / www. [8] AT Internet (2009-09-20). webanalyticsassociation. com/ press/ 373 Omniture Case Study http://www. amazon. Leading web analytics players are also providing partner integration frameworks to better integrate silos of intent. . "XiTi gives way to AT Internet" (http:/ / www. Xiti.[8] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. Xiti was chosen to carry out audience research for the French Government. 2000 the research arm of the organization. . Offline measurement can also be incorporated to extend the customer experience understanding to illuminate what elements of the online experience impacted offline behavior such as purchasing in a store or visiting a branch office. atinternet. 2004 [7] AT Internet (2008-09-08). org/ en/ rel/ ?394).usabilitysciences. The objective was to better define the expectations of the French public towards ministerial and interministerial website performance. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance.AT Internet 13 Market Research and The AT Internet Institute In July. trends and preferences. com/ es http:/ / www. [2] References [1] http:/ / www. Reports of finding and recommendations are used to improve a website or customer experience program that is heavily dependent upon the use of an online campaigns driving traffic to a website or collection of sites. com/ de AT Internet (2008-09-01). atinternet. was created.atinternet. aspx). com/ Actionable-Web-Analytics-Business-Decisions/ dp/ 0470124741 Actionable Web Analytics [2] http:/ / www. com http:/ / www.com) Attitudinal analytics Attitudinal analytics is a marketing technology application that involves the integration of online surveys that capture visitor intent and critical demographic attributes with the tracking of explicit behavior through click stream monitoring on websites. atinternet. . org/ en/ rel/ ?391). customer satisfaction and overall customer experience success or failure. atinternet. External links • Official website (http://www. XiTi would go on to publish several studies and benchmarking reports pertaining to Internet user behaviors.[1] Several vendors provide attitudinal analytics solutions as stand-alone offerings. This quantitative user experience collects data from thousands of user sessions rather than hundreds. Information Architechs". com/ en http:/ / www. "AT Internet . The project spanned 2 years and covered 70 governmental websites. atinternet. French Xiti To Measure French Govt Websites Audience 2004-2006 French Business Digest "Data Processing. attitudinal and behavioral data.

suitable for analyzing data from Internet services such as web. Cross-platform availability Written in Perl.sourceforge. 2010 Perl Cross-platform Web analytics GNU General Public License awstats. for local use in situations where log files can be downloaded from a remote server. AWStats can be deployed on almost any operating system. AWStats supports most major web server log file formats including Apache (NCSA combined/XLF/ELF log format or common/CLF log format). producing HTML reports. Licensing AWStats is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). and on-demand reporting is supported through a web browser CGI program. Support Proper web log analysis tool configuration and report interpretation requires a bit of technical and business knowledge. Data is visually presented within reports by tables and bar graphs.net. Static reports can be created through a command line interface. Developers can contribute to the AWStats project through SourceForge.0 [2] / December 5. AWStats can be installed on a workstation. AWStats parses and analyzes server log files.AWStats 14 AWStats AWStats Original author(s) Laurent Destailleur [1] Stable release Written in Operating system Type License Website 7. such as MS Windows. It is a very popular server administration tool. AWStats support resources include documentation [4]. and user community forums [5] . with packages available for most Linux distributions. mail and FTP servers. streaming media. IIS (W3C log format) and many other common web server log formats. WebStar.net [3] AWStats is an open source Web analytics reporting tool.

Alternatives There are three primary open source alternatives to AWStats.AWStats 15 Security considerations The on-demand CGI program has been the object of security exploits. as is the case of many CGI programs. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. Development and support appears to have stopped in 2004 (with last version 6. usually desired for business analysis. • W3Perl. Development and support appeared to have stopped in 2002. sourceforge. antezeta. • Analog offers a wealth of reporting options for a technical audience. net http:/ / awstats. It has a smaller functionality set compared to AWStats. sourceforge. html http:/ / awstats.5). software download and community support forums. a powerful alternative which has features similar to AWStats. but on July 12. • Visitors (program) • Piwik • Obsessive Website Statistics The AWStats project provides a detailed comparison chart [7]. It does not support the concept of a visitor. net/ docs/ http:/ / sourceforge. The on-demand facility can still be used by restricting its use to internal users. Organizations wishing to provide public access to their Web analytics reports should consider generating static HTML reports. news. html#exref http:/ / awstats. net/ docs/ awstats_compare. fr/ http:/ / sourceforge. 2008 a new version was released. Precautions should be taken against referrer spam (Referrer spam filtering functionality [6] was added in version 6. • Webalizer is offered by many ISPs as it is fast and simple. php?forum_id=43428 http:/ / www. net/ project/ showfiles. sourceforge. not always with same functionality. There are also a number of other open source alternatives to AWStats. php?group_id=13764 http:/ / awstats. destailleur. sourceforge. net/ .0). net/ forum/ forum. References • AWStats documentation set [4] External links • AWStats official web site [8] includes documentation. com/ awstats.

An entry page with a low bounce rate means that the page effectively causes visitors to view more pages and continue on deeper into the web site. In contrast. In this case. as having a high bounce rate is not always a sign of poor performance. they will register as a bounce. Definition A bounce occurs when a web site visitor only views a single page on a website. anything over 35% is cause for concern. Usage Bounce rates can be used to help determine the effectiveness or performance of an entry page. The bounce rate for a single page is the number of visitors who enter the site at a page and leave within the specified timeout period without viewing another page. If the visitor continues to navigate after this delay. the bounce rate of an e-commerce site could be interpreted in correlation with the purchase conversion rate. where • Rb = Bounce rate • Tv = Total number of visitors viewing one page only • T = Total entries to page e A visitor may bounce by: • • • • • Clicking on a link to a page on a different web site Closing an open window or tab Typing a new URL Clicking the "Back" button to leave the site Session timeout A commonly used session timeout value is 30 minutes[2] . There is no industry standard minimum or maximum time by which a visitor must leave in order for a bounce to occur.Bounce rate 16 Bounce rate Bounce rate (sometimes confused with exit rate)[1] is an Internet marketing term used in web traffic analysis. the bounce rate would not be as meaningful for determining conversion success. It represents the percentage of visitors who enter the site and "bounce" (leave the site) rather than continue viewing other pages within the same site. and leaves his browser idle for longer than 30 minutes. divided by the total number of visitors who entered the site at that page. Rather. this is determined by the session timeout of the analytics tracking software. 50% (above) is worrying. providing the bounces are considered representative of visits where no purchase was made. if a visitor views a page."[4] Interpretation of the bounce rate measure should be relevant to a website's business objectives and definitions of conversion. doesn't look at another page. . the visitor leaves a site without visiting any other pages before a specified session-timeout occurs. On sites where an objective can be met without viewing more than one page.[3] Google Analytics specialist Avinash Kaushik has stated: "My own personal observation is that it is really hard to get a bounce rate under 20%. a new session will occur. In contrast. I stress that this is my personal analysis. that is. the bounce rate for a web site is the number of web site visitors who visit only a single page of a web site per session divided by the total number of web site visits.

co. uk/ scholar?hl=en& lr=& q=author:Cooley+ intitle:Data+ Preparation+ for+ Mining+ World+ Wide+ Web+ Browsing+ Patterns& as_publication=Journal+ of+ Knowledge+ and+ Information+ System& as_ylo=& as_yhi=& btnG=Search)). com/ blog/ 2007/ 08/ bounce-rate-and-exit-rate-what-is. google. Also. Alternatively. For example. Editors. a visitor looking for the definition of a particular word may enter an online dictionary site on that word's definition page. Mobasher. Srivastava (1999).Improving Your Content and Site (http:/ / www. B. ps) (– Scholar search (http:/ / scholar. design elements or advertisements etc. and therefore log a simulated click that lead to that page view. Ideally. hmtweb. frontpage editors on high-traffic news media sites will want to monitor their pages in real-time.Bounce rate 17 Caveats While site-wide bounce rate can be a useful metric for sites with well-defined conversion steps requiring multiple page views. . Journal of Knowledge and Information System 1 (1): 5–32.. kaushik. These example entry pages could have a bounce rate above 80% (thereby increasing the site-wide average). and this method requires some functionality that picks up relevant information when the event occurs. Commonly. Typically. umn. designers or other types of stakeholders may analyze clicks on a wider time frame to aid them assess performance of writers. html) [2] Cooley. one may institute the assumption that a page view is a result of a click. net/ avinash/ 2007/ 05/ excellent-analytics-tip-11-measure-effectiveness-of-your-web-pages. and they might still be considered successful due to having served their purpose. J. com/ adwords/ learningcenter/ text/ 38069. References [1] HMTWeb. R. • List of web analytics software References . Retrieved 2008-08-25. html. it may be of questionable value for sites where visitors are likely to find what they are looking for on the entry page. click analytics focuses on on-site analytics. Exit Rate" (http:/ / www. "Data Preparation for Mining World Wide Web Browsing Patterns" (http:/ / www. depending on the type of information sought. Similarly. [3] Google AdWords Learning Center . edu/ research/ websift/ papers/ kais99. to optimize the content. This type of behavior is common on web portals and referential content sites. html) Click analytics Click analytics is a special type of web analytics that gives special attention to clicks (Point-and-click) which constitute the first stage in the conversion funnel. with regards to where the users of the site are clicking. cs. a visitor who wants to read about a specific news story may enter a news site on an article written for that story. An editor of a web site uses click analytics to determine the performance of his or her particular site. Data about clicks may be gathered in at least two ways. ) [4] Excellent Analytics Tip #11: Measure Effectiveness Of Your Web Pages | Occam's Razor by Avinash Kaushik (http:/ / www. google. a click is "logged" when it occurs. click analytics may happen real-time or "unreal"-time.com "Bounce Rate vs.

few ISPs publicly admit to this practice. software testing. and ad servers.[4] With the growing corporate knowledge of the importance of clickstreams. In addition.Clickstream 18 Clickstream A Clickstream is the recording of what a computer user clicks on while Web browsing or using another software application. a function that is already incorporated in most browsers. market research. and integrated OLAP used to build Business Intelligence is evolving. information was only collected from "real humans" clicking on sites through browsers. . These signals can be graphically represented for clickstream reporting. A small observation on the evolution of clickstream tracking: Initial clickstream or click path data had to be gleaned from server log files.[3] Since the business world is quickly evolving into a state of e-commerce. blogger or person with a website can learn about how to improve their site. the first being an analysis of a user’s clickstream while using a website to reveal usage patterns. analyzing the data of clients that visit a company website is becoming a necessity in order to remain competitive. As discussed in Van den Poel & Buckinx (2005). the action is logged on a client or inside the Web server. As the user clicks anywhere in the webpage or application. one of which is marketing. and for analyzing employee productivity. This datas itself is "neutral" in the sense that any dataset is neutral. Unauthorized clickstream data collection is considered to be spyware. This analysis can be used to generate two findings for the company. Subsequently javascript technologies were developed which use a tracking cookie to generate a series of signals from browsers. Most consumers are unaware of this practice. it is often possible to indirectly identify specific users. The data can be used in various scenarios. proxy servers. There are 10-12 companies that purchase this data. researcher. A clickstream is a series of page requests. typically for about $0. authorized clickstream data collection comes from organizations that use opt-in panels to generate market research using panelists who agree to share their clickstream data with other companies by downloading and installing specialized clickstream collection agents. Use of clickstream data can raise privacy concerns. In other words.40/month per user. The main point of clickstream tracking is to give webmasters insight into what visitors on their site are doing. However. an example being the AOL search data scandal. the study of human clicks took a substantial effort. and its potential for compromising their privacy. Clickstreams can also be used to allow the user to see where they have been and allow them to easily return to a page they have already visited. Clickstream analysis can also be used to improve customer satisfaction with the website and with the company itself. any webmaster. as well as possibly the Web browser. Additionally. Both of these uses generate a huge business advantage. the way that they are being monitored and [5] . Data mining systems are being used in conjunction with clickstreams to better record and analyze this data. clickstream analysis can be used to predict whether a customer is likely to purchase from an e-commerce website. Clickstream analysis is useful for Web activity analysis[1] . This use of the analysis creates a user profile that aids in understanding the types of people that visit a company’s website. Because human and machine traffic were not differentiated. column-oriented DBMS.[2] While this practice may not directly identify individual users. every page requested generates a signal. especially since some Internet service providers have resorted to selling users' clickstream data as a way to enhance revenue. routers. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of advertising on a web page or site. which in turn gives a heightened understanding of customer behaviour.

9558& rep=rep1& type=pdf)” Proc.“ Mining Evolving User Profiles in NoisyWeb Clickstream Data with a Scalable Immune System Clustering Algorithm (http:/ / citeseerx.“ Modeling the Clickstream: Implications for Web-Based Advertising Efforts (http:/ / www. edu/ ideas/ pdf/ Fader/ Moe Fader JIM paper 0503. (2003) • Van den Poel Dirk. European Journal of Operational Research.clickstream. of KDD Workshop on Web mining as a Premise to.. 1. ist. Donna L. wharton. Carlos Rojas. pdf)” Journal of Interactive Marketing (2004) [2] http:/ / seekingalpha. Hoffman and Thomas P.htm)”. html [4] Patrali Chatterjee. Wouter Buckinx (2005). psu. 557-575. com/ 27bstroke6/ 2007/ 04/ some_isps_still.com/awstats/plugin-follow-me/) . com) • Click Stream by Sweetlets . 2003). “ Predicting Online-Purchasing Behavior (http://econpapers. 520-541 [5] Olfa Nasraoui. org/ pss/ 4129736)”.repec..Clickstream 19 References [1] WW Moe. Automating analytics and online marketing solutions (http://www. upenn.com/w/ solutions/click-stream) External links • Follow Me Plugin for AWStats (http://www.sweetlets. Novak (2003).internetofficer.“ Capturing Evolving Visit Behavior in Clickstream Data (http:/ / mktg-sun. jstor. wired. Marketing Science22(4). Fabio Gonzalez (2003). SAP NetWeaver portal analytics solutions (http://www. edu/ viewdoc/ download?doi=10. (Autumn.adds clickstream analysis to AWStats . Cesar Cardona. 1. 166 (2). org/paper/rugrugwps/03_2F195.. 2005. 58. PS Fader (2004). com/ article/ 29449-compete-ceo-isps-sell-clickstreams-for-5-a-month [3] http:/ / blog. • Clickstream Technologies Plc.

3. Scroll Heatmaps . Products ClickTale's analytics suite consists of three main parts: 1. 2. ClickTale offers full integration with a wide variety of web standards. In addition. Web Analytics Technology Industry Headquarters Ramat Gan. Israel Key people Dr.com [1] Website ClickTale is an Internet company founded in 2006. CTO and Co-Founder www. ClickTale had over 20.ClickTale. Click Heatmaps .showing where visitors drop out of online forms. including: 1. Drupal and Ruby on Rails as well as many others.showing where the visitors click on the page. it is unknown what its revenue may be as the company has not publicly announced any financial data.showing how far down the page visitors scroll (useful for finding and optimizing the fold of a page). As of February 2009. which form fields take too long to fill. results in the most "traditional" web heatmap. Conversion Analytics.showing where on the page the visitor shows the most attention. that provides Customer Experience Analytics and Web Analytics services. Video playback of individual visitor sessions. and also offers product integration with companies like Omniture and Silverpop [7]. 2. . including HTTPS. PHP. Technology Unlike traditional web analytics.000 users and its revenue was estimated at over $1.used for conducting accurate eye tracking on a massive scale[5] .ClickTale 20 ClickTale ClickTale Type User Experience Optimizaion. In addition. Conversion Funnels . Form Analytics . CEO and Co-Founder Arik Yavilevich. Mouse Move Heatmaps .showing how visitors respond to and interact with hyperlinks. Tal Schwartz. Although today ClickTale claims to have more than 50. ClickTale's analytics service is qualitative and provides a full video playback option for each individual visitor's session[3] . including: 1. Heatmaps.2M per annum[2] . Wordpress. Attention Heatmaps .000 users. it uses meta statistics to create visual heatmaps and behavioural reports. which are most frequently left blank and cause which website visitors to leave. 3. Link Analytics[6] . 4. [4] 3. 2.showing where customers convert and where they leave the conversion process. as well as conversion analytics and traditional web statistics.

com) • ClickTale Wiki (http://wiki. [7] http:/ / www. [6] "Using ClickTale’s analytics pays off — really" (http:/ / venturebeat. silverpop. 2006-07-11. . although it is not publicly known how much these plans cost.com) . techcrunch. php/ findability/ clicktale-launches-mouse-click-heat-maps/ / ). 2009-02-05.com/) • Company Blog (http://blog. ca/ index. . [5] "Eye Tracking for Everyone" (http:/ / blog. clicktale. [4] "ClickTale Launches Mouse Click Heat Maps" (http:/ / jeffparks.ClickTale 21 Pricing Clicktale offers two levels of pricing: • ClickTale Online . • ClickTale Enterprise . com/ 2009/ 02/ 06/ using-clicktales-analytics-pays-off-really/ ). allowing resellers and digital agencies to sell the product themselves for a share of the revenue. ClickTale runs both an affiliate and partnership program. 2009-02-06. ClickTale uses a freemium pricing model.000. . com/ 2009/ 11/ 23/ eye-tracking-for-everyone/ ).clicktale.for Small and medium businesses. Says Revenue Growth Is Strong" (http:/ / www. com/ [2] "ClickTale Launches Email Tracking. 2009-08-12. ClickTale offers custom-made solutions to companies with more than 1.for enterprise customers.clicktale. 2009-11-23.000 pageviews per month.clicktale. . [3] "Watch internet users’ behaviour with ClickTale" (http:/ / www. References [1] http:/ / www. offering a limited free plan and three tiers of paid plans starting from $99 a month. techcrunch. com/ 2009/ 02/ 05/ clicktale-launches-email-tracking-says-revenue-growth-is-strong/ ). . com/ 2006/ 07/ 11/ watch-internet-users -behaviour-with-clicktale/ ). com/ External links • Official WebSite (http://www. clicktale.

The process of understanding which creative material brings the highest click-through rate is known as ad optimization. The more steps. The metric used to describe this ratio is the click-through rate or CTR and represents the top level of the funnel. References . Each step the visitor takes further reduces the number of visitors . link size. Only a small proportion of those seeing the advert or link actually click the link. Click-though rates are highly sensitive to small changes such as link text. Typically a large number of visitors register as page view on a referring page which is linked to the e-commerce site by a banner ad. Once the link is clicked and the visitor to the referring page enters the e-commerce site itself. link position and many others and these effects interact cumulatively.02% in late 2010 and have decreased over the past three years. only a small proportion of visitors typically proceeds to the product pages. creating further constriction of the metaphorical funnel. sites with similar pricing and products can have hugely different conversion rates of visitors to customers and therefore greatly differing profits. Adding the product to the shopping cart. the fewer visitors get through to becoming paying customers. Typical banner and advertising click-through rates are 0. registering or filling in contact details and payment all further reduce the numbers step-by-step cumulatively along the funnel. For this reason.typically by 30%–80% per page. ad network or conventional link.Conversion funnel 22 Conversion funnel Conversion funnel is a technical term used in e-commerce operations to describe the track a consumer takes through an Internet advertising or search system. The metaphor of a funnel is used to describe the decrease in numbers that occurs at each step of the process. navigating an e-commerce web site and finally converting to a sale.

0. • Indexation in the main search engines follow-up (backlinks and indexed pages). net/ [2] http:/ / www. The tag used is a PHP one. • Record of number and origin of 404 errors. so that s/he keeps control of the data. giving number and origin of visitors (referrer.CrawlTrack 23 CrawlTrack CrawlTrack Developer(s) Stable release Jean-Denis Brun 3. pages viewed and bounce rate. That script has to be installed on the webmaster's own server. crawltrack. Spanish. hits number and pages viewed by crawlers. • Download counter. 2009 Operating system Cross-platform Available in Type License Website PHP Web analytics GPL crawltrack. Dutch and Turkish. giving absolutely no output in the source code (and hence neither on the site's pages). country of origin.0 / April 2. etc). keyword used. Several sites can be audited by the same CrawlTrack installation. • Recording and blocking of certain types of hacking attempts (code injection or SQL injection).net [1] CrawlTrack is an open source web analytics program for webmasters. • Crawler visits statistics (indexing by crawlers such as GoogleBot). French. The script is available in English. net/ . Functionality • Web site statistics. German. External links • CrawlTrack [2] References [1] http:/ / crawltrack.

. org/ . Microsoft.com. The subject matter has ranged from the simply technical (is log file analysis better that page tagging) to the organization (how do you get business people to understand that incredible value in web data?) to the holistic (how do you combine web performance monitoring and customer satisfaction with web analytics in order to get the Big Picture?). It has also expanded to San Francisco. Washington D. It started in 2002 in Santa Barbara by Jim Sterne as a web analytics conference. Dell. CBS. Keynote speakers in the past have included representatives of Coke.Emetrics Summit 24 Emetrics Summit The Emetrics Summit is a conference on measuring the success of a website. Amazon.C. London and Germany. and Disney. The Emetrics Summit has continued to grow in size and was the spawning ground of the Web Analytics Association. emetrics. Ford. Xerox. External links • Official website [1] References [1] http:/ / www. Yahoo!. but has expanded in subject matter to online marketing optimization.

in April 2005). Prior to August 2006 Google was sending out batches of invitation codes as server availability permitted. However due to extremely high demand for the service.[4] History Google's service was developed from Urchin Software Corporation's analytics system. since mid-August 2006 the service has been fully available to all users – whether they use Google for advertising or not. 2007.js page tags will continue to work. Integrated with AdWords. providing the information to optimise or cull campaigns.[3] GA can track visitors from all referrers. where visitors came from (referrers).[2] Another market share analysis claims that Google Analytics is used at around 49. The system also brings ideas from Adaptive Path. Google rolled out the new ga. e-mail marketing and digital collateral such as links within PDF documents.95% of the top 1. These can also be monetized. unless the site is linked to an AdWords campaign.[5] Google still sells the standalone installable Urchin software through a network of value-added resellers. pay-per-click networks. GA's approach is to show high level dashboard-type data for the casual user.[6] In December 2007. new sign-ups were suspended only a week later. Each profile generally corresponds to one website. and which are not. viewing a specific page. nevertheless the new tag will allow site owners to take advantage of the most up-to-date tracking functionality. Goals might include sales. Users can officially add up to 50 site profiles. lead generation. and more in-depth data further into the report set. Existing urchin.000 most popular websites. Urchin 6 was released. ability to graph multiple data points at .Google Analytics 25 Google Analytics Google Analytics Developer(s) Google Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Statistics. Google began using a lottery-type invitation-code model. users can review online campaigns by tracking landing page quality and conversions (goals).000 websites (as currently ranked by Alexa). including custom visitor segmentation. display advertising. A new version of the user interface was released on May 17. As capacity was added to the system. including search engines. In April 2008. Analysis http:/ / google. or downloading a particular file. It also provides more advanced features.[1] currently in use at around 57% of the 10. The product is aimed at marketers as opposed to webmasters and technologists from which the industry of web analytics originally grew. poor performing pages can be identified using techniques such as funnel visualization. It is limited to sites which have a traffic of fewer than 5 million pageviews per month (roughly 2 pageviews per second). By using GA. marketers can determine which ads are performing. Through the use of GA analysis. was acquired and used in the redesign of Google Analytics in 2006. whose product. com/ analytics Google Analytics (GA) is a free service offered by Google that generates detailed statistics about the visitors to a website. Urchin on Demand (Google acquired Urchin Software Corp. how long they stayed and their geographical position. The Google-branded version was rolled out in November 2005 to anyone who wished to sign up. Measure Map.000.js page tag which they recommend to use for all new accounts and new profiles for new domains. It is the most widely used website statistics service.

This is referred to as the Google Analytics Tracking Code (GATC) and is a snippet of JavaScript code that the user adds onto every page of his or her website. That is. it has limitations with websites browsed from mobile phones. This code collects visitor data and sends it to a Google data collection server as part of a request for a web beacon. It can take 12 hours for Google to process this data. 26 Technology Google Analytics is implemented by including what is known as a "page tag". margins of error are not provided for any other metrics in the GA reports. While margins of error are indicated for the visits metric. Website owners can encourage users not to disable cookies. will also have the file cached on their machine. the small piece of code (usually JavaScript) that acts as a beacon to collect visitor data. For small segments of data.Google Analytics once and to track ecommerce transactions in a more readable way. This is used to store anonymous information such as whether the visitor has been to the site before (new or returning visitor).g. new beta features are added from time to time. GA limits reports to 500. . These limitations affect all on-site web analytics tools that collect on-site visitor data using page tags.[7] While the product platform has never been a beta.000 randomly sampled visits at the profile level for its calculations. what is the timestamp of the current visit and what was the referrer site or campaign the visitor came from e. these limitations are considered small – affecting only a small percentage of visits. privacy networks like Tor will mask the user's actual location and present inaccurate geographical data.js code are using the same master file from Google. The larger file (currently known as ga. the GATC sets first party cookies on each visitor's computer. search engine. Also. the GATC loads a larger Javascript file from the Google webserver and then sets variables with the user's account number.[9] The largest potential impact on data accuracy comes from users deleting or blocking Google Analytics cookies.js) is typically 18 KB in size and is only downloaded once at the start of the visit as it will be cached throughout the session. and leads to holes in the collected data. Limitations Many ad filtering programs and extensions (such as Firefox's Adblock and NoScript) can block the GATC.[10] Without cookies being set. Any individual web user can block or delete cookies resulting in the data loss of those visits for GA users. Some users do not have Javascript-enabled/capable browsers or turn this feature off. The result is that the page overhead of including the GATC on web pages is kept to a minimum. As all websites that implement GA with the ga. To function. banner or email. GA cannot collect data. keywords. This prevents some traffic and users from being tracked. Because GA uses a page tagging technique to collect visitor information via a combination of JavaScript and cookies. This is due to the fact that only the latest phones are currently able to run JavaScript or set cookies (Smart phones and PDAs). To reduce the load on their servers and to provide users with a relatively quick response for their query. according to a comment by a Google employee on a web analytics blog [8]. Another limitation of GA for large websites is the use of sampling in the generation of many of its reports. a visitor that has previously visited any other website with this code implemented. In addition to transmitting information to a Google server. for example by making visitors more comfortable using the site through posting a privacy policy. [11] the margin of error can be very large. However.

[2] "Google Analytics Usage Statistics" (http:/ / trends. tumblr. blogspot. [4] Google Analytics Help: Does Google Analytics have a pageview limit? (http:/ / www. Google introduced asynchronous JavaScript code in December 2009 to reduce the risk of slowing the loading of pages tagged with the ga. MPRA Paper No. Many such tools exist through a number of mediums. html) .com dailymotion.ub. com/ technologies/ overview/ traffic_analysis/ all). Aslib Proceedings. B (2009) Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series.com API Proliferation The Google Analytics API has been utilized by third parties to build custom reporting tools. . Retrieved 2009-12-10. as reported by BackendBattles. com/ 2006/ 02/ here-comes-measure-map.[17] Since this plug-in is produced and distributed by Google itself. Google tracks that visit via the user's IP address. One was built to run on iOS (Apple) devices and is featured in Apple's app store see: Analytics by Net Conversion [21] References • Plaza. browser plug-ins. Whenever someone visits a website that uses Google Analytics. py?hl=en& answer=55476) [5] Official Google Blog: Here comes Measure Map (http:/ / googleblog. Retrieved 2010-08-21. Google has also released a browser plugin that turns off data about a page visit being sent to Google. Furthermore. it has met much discussion and criticism.com myspace. B (2009) Using Google Analytics for measuring inlinks effectiveness. Google Analytics raises many privacy concerns. .uni-muenchen. It has been anecdotally reported that behind proxy servers and multiple firewalls that errors can occur changing time stamps and registering invalid searches. . W3Techs.js script.de/19676/ [1] "Usage of traffic analysis tools for websites" (http:/ / w3techs. Article URL: [22] • Plaza. These plug-ins offer the user a choice. High profile sites using Google Analytics Google Analytics is used by 57% of the 10. BuiltWith. 61(5): 474–482.000 most popular websites (as ranked by Alexa Internet) ordered by popularity. builtwith. often open-source. com/ support/ analytics/ bin/ answer.com answers.[15] [16] Privacy Issues Due to its ubiquity.com [20] • • • • twitter. google. [3] "Google Analytics Market Share" (http:/ / metricmail.[18] [19] Webmasters who seek to mitigate Google Analytics' inherent privacy issues can employ a number of alternatives having their backends hosted on their own machines. Retrieved 2010-02-17. Article URL: http://mpra. 19676. com/ post/ 904126172/ google-analytics-market-share).[12] [13] [14] However. whether to allow for example Google Analytics to track his/her activities. MetricMail. with Piwik being a popular option. com/ analytics/ Google-Analytics).Google Analytics 27 Slowing down the website There have been several online discussions about the impact on Google Analytics on site performance. the realisation of Google scripts tracking user behaviours has spawned the production of multiple.

cfm/ 2008/ 7/ 14/ google-analytics-lag-time-woes--get-immediate-gratification-with-wasp [9] EU and US JavaScript Disabled Index numbers + Web Analytics data collection impact (http:/ / visualrevenue. blogspot. google. emeraldinsight. html) [16] Making the Web Faster (http:/ / analytics. 1108/ 00012530910989625) 28 External links • Google Analytics web site (http://www. pcmag. com/ 2007/ 12/ announcing-new-graphing-tools-gajs.2364174. com/ article2/ 0. com/ blog/ 2009/ 02/ 04/ is-google-analytics-slow-or-not/ ) [15] Google Analytics Launches Asynchronous Tracking (http:/ / googlecode. com/ backend/ Google_Analytics [21] http:/ / itunes. com/ blog/ 2007/ 08/ eu-and-us-javascript-disabled-index.00. backendbattles. blogspot. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) – a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [11] Segmentation Options in Google Analytics (http:/ / www. vkistudios. com/ 2008/ 12/ 11/ virus-filter-avira-tech-security-cx_ag_1211virus.com/analytics) • Google Analytics Email Alerts via the API (http://www.com/ get-email-alerts-from-google-analytics/) • Google Analytics for Wordpress plugin (http://wordpress.com/ London-Web-Analytics-Google-Analytics-OmnitureMVT/) . com/ 10. com/ blog/ tracking-code-slows-my-site) [14] Is Google Analytics Slow or Not? (http:/ / www. analyticsmarket. asp) [18] http:/ / noscript.Google Analytics [6] You now have access to the new Google Analytics! (http:/ / analytics. html) [20] http:/ / www. Andy Greenberg (http:/ / www. woopra.. html) [17] "Opt Out of Google Analytics Data Gathering With New Beta Tool" by Chloe Albanesius May 25. com/ index. Flock. 2010 (http:/ / www. blogspot. apple. Dec 11.com/ installing-analytics-on-a-large-website/) • Google Analytics Meetup Group in London.. advanced-web-metrics. com/ 2009/ 12/ google-analytics-launches-asynchronous. com/ 2010/ 04/ making-web-faster.]" [19] Forbes. forbes.google. blogspot. 2008. html) at the Google Analytics blog [7] Announcing new graphing tools and ga. html) [8] http:/ / blog. com/ group/ analytics-help-basics/ browse_thread/ thread/ 62997a00d5a50406?pli=1) [13] Google Analytics Code is Slowing Down My Site (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 05/ you-now-have-access-to-new-google.meetup.js tracking (http:/ / analytics. Seamonkey and other mozilla-based browsers [. The Virus Filters. epikone. com/ blog/ 2009/ 04/ 21/ segmentation-options-in-google-analytics/ ) [12] Does Google Analytics Slow down page loading? (http:/ / groups. UK (http://www.org/extend/plugins/google-analytics-for-wordpress/ ) • How to install Google Analytics on a large static HTML website (http://fieldsmarshall. com/ us/ app/ analytics-by-net-conversion/ id421164239?mt=8 [22] Emerald | Aslib Proceedings | Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An experiment with time series (http:/ / www. net/ "The NoScript Firefox extension provides extra protection for Firefox. html) [10] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www.2817.latentmotion.

such as referrer and browser details. com/ 2008/ 09/ 19/ migrating-from-hbx-to-sitecatalyst/ . This unique id is passed with the request to the data collection servers. During the processing of the data Hitbox ties together the page views to get a perspective of how the user moved through the site. The combination of the two makes a request from the data collection servers for each page viewed by a user. Some Web Analytics services have been declared spyware by several anti-spyware organizations. SiteCatalyst. omniture. Adobe plan to completely phase it out by moving all their clients to their flagship product [1]. custom information can be passed in the request as well as information from the HTTP header of the browser. Other. It was now widely used by commercial & other organizations across a variety of industrial sectors as a complete and integrated metrics solution for monitoring web traffic and driving marketing. References [1] http:/ / blogs.Hitbox 29 Hitbox Hitbox was a popular web counter and web analytics product created by WebSideStory. A cookie is placed on the users computer which contains a unique id. originally for adult entertainment websites. Companies place javascript files on their web servers which are linked to from a html script in the page code. until taken over by Omniture subsequently taken over by [Adobe).

HitDynamics 30 HitDynamics HitDynamics Ltd. hitdynamics. htm). References [1] HitWise (May 1 2007). Type Industry Private Online Marketing Key people Max Polyakov. hitdynamics. Founder & CEO Owner(s) Website Hitwise http:/ / www. com/ press-release. . "HitWise Acquires HitDynamics" (http:/ / www. com/ HitDynamics is a provider of web analytics software allowing website owners to track traffic to their sites and ascertain which traffic sources deliver conversions to sales. . The company was founded by internet entrepreneur Max Polyakov in January 2005 and was acquired in on 6 March 2006 by Hitwise[1] and the company's technology now exists as the web analytics arm of the HitWise suite.

content management system. com/ HubSpot is a venture-funded[3] marketing software company based in Cambridge. met at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2004 and incorporated HubSpot in June 2006. marketing analytics.[8] It was backed by venture capitalists including General Catalyst Partners. CIO Mike Volpe. Its customer base grew from over 1. CEO & Founder Dharmesh Shah.[12] Products and services • HubSpot Small[13] [14] (formerly HubSpot Owner) offers SEO. Sequoia Capital. Brian Halligan and Dharmesh Shah. VP Customer Services [1] HubSpot Small HubSpot Medium HubSpot Large Consulting service 170 (07/26/2010) [2] Products Employees Website http:/ / www. business blogging.com.[5] [6] [7] mainly in the USA.HubSpot 31 HubSpot HubSpot. hubspot. VP Sales Yoav Shapira. and landing pages. A related product (HubSpot Large) adds features such as premium support. CTO & Founder Jim O'Neill. Google Ventures and Salesforce. CFO Jonah Lopin.[9] [10] [11] In summer 2010. Inc. Massachusetts. Type Industry Private Internet Marketing Web Analytics Online Marketing June 2006 Founded Headquarters Cambridge. History The founders. VP Engineering David Stack. HubSpot moved its offices into the Davenport. • HubSpot Medium[13] [15] (formerly HubSpot Marketer) add features such as Salesforce.400 in July 2009[4] to over 3. VP Marketing Mark Roberge. • Consulting services[16] . in the Lechmere neighborhood of Cambridge. Massachusetts Key people Brian Halligan.com integration for closed-loop marketing metrics. Matrix Partners. Scale Venture Partners.600 in November 2010.

Using a similar technique the hosts secured a guest appearance[34] by MC Hammer whose refreshing insight about Internet marketing and social media was "Forget the numbers! Just stay interesting.tv using Twitter conversations.HubSpot 32 Strategy HubSpot is based on the idea that permission or inbound marketing (e. which [26] on iTunes Store as podcasts and as a YouTube channel[27] are archived • Viral videos including musical parodies[28] and satires[23] . 2009 Photo: Kyle James (CC-BY-SA) hubspot. relevant. appearance in a search engine results page (SERP) at the moment a prospective customer is searching on a term related to your product) is more powerful than interruption or outbound marketing. The paid version adds trending and other features versus the gratis version. and then creating a viral campaign[32] on Twitter itself using a #bizinboston hashtag and mentions of Stone's Twitter username. but these were quickly resolved[33] . hosting a #BizInBoston Tweetup event[31] .[23] HubSpot models the behavior it teaches its own customers by promoting itself through conversations. A copy of Scott's book The New Rules of Marketing and PR[22] appears prominently on Rebecca Corliss's desk in her music video that satirizes "link love".tv episode [30] series . and offers suggestions for improvement. and by the 'publish your way in' (or 'think like a publisher' or 'always be publishing (ABP)') mindset. They include a set of tools such as: • Business blogging and analytics • Keyword Grader which helps you find search engine keywords that are popular. • Free E-books on internet marketing topics Twitter co-founder Biz Stone is celebrity guest of Karen Rubin and Mike • Interactive webcasts and live video shows on Volpe on hubspot.g. not one-way broadcast. Content includes: • Frequent posting on its top ranked [25] blog. The company is influenced by the ideas of David Meerman Scott who serves on its board as special advisor[17] . [29] • Free. This strategy is in alignment with Google's advice to webmasters[24] that to rank high in the SERPs you must create great content that readers will want to link to. • Website Grader which compares web sites for SEO qualities. Their products help customers use and measure internet marketing techniques such as social media. The tactic initially caused concern among some members of the Twitter community. interactive tools such as the grader." . and search engine optimization (SEO). Scott's E-book Goobledygook Manifesto[21] inspired Gobbledygook Grader (an automated tool to detect gobbledygook) and some metrics in Pressrelease Grader. blogging. Scott wrote the foreword and is series editor of a book that Halligan and Shah co-authored[20] . and are relatively neglected by one's competition • Link Grader to assess and compare the number and authority of the inbound links that most modern search engines use to generate their SERPs • Page Grader to offer suggestions for on-page SEO such as length of the title and description in the head of HTML pages.com For one hubspot. Scott featured Website Grader is his book World Wide Rave[18] and HubSpot is a sponsor of the Inbound Marketing Summit[19] that Scott co-organizes.tv April 17. the hosts secured a celebrity guest appearance from Biz Stone not by hiring a booking agent but by hearing he was in the area. alt tags on images etc.

[40] Awards In June 2010. SEO expert Rand Fishkin speculated that it was a case of Google's anti-spamdexing algorithm ". Similar pro and con themes emerged in a discussion[54] on the Web Pro World Forum. and 3) the hashtag of the event e.g. #sxsw • Buzz Grader [48] grades buzz in the generic.. In his analysis[58] of Google's sandboxing of Website Grader in May 2009. Not to be confused with the upper case word Buzz on the branded social media services Google Buzz or Yahoo! Buzz. lower case sense of ones brand being mentioned on blogs. Nick Ellery's commentary[57] on this expresses concern that it's hard to find "gems" for marketing. in the news. • LinkedIn Grader [49] . Sometime around September 2009.tv studio for the Biz Stone episode[30] and published a largely favorable review[55] .[43] The company also received the 2010 TiE50 Award[44] and the 2010 BtoB Social Media Marketing Award.HubSpot 33 Return on Investment Two studies by a student at MIT Sloan School of Management indicates a substantial return on investment of the HubSpot methodology[35] [36] . The discussion forum of the community is hosted by the StackExchange software service. this issue resolved itself and HubSpot's position on Google SERPs for the queries Fishkin used was at or near the number one position. Community HubSpot is a sponsor of InboundMarketing. The comments section of this posting includes a rebuttal from Shah.. HubSpot was awarded "Best Places to Work in Greater Boston"[41] in its category. Video blogger Steve Garfield visited the hubspot.evaluates your written content (press release. • Gobbledygook Grader [51] ". etc. The same year." On the other hand..g.[45] Easter Eggs Besides the ten subdomains linked there[46] . @dmscott. . hype-filled words." Criticism and Controversy Guy Kawasaki praises Website Grader[52] for its effectiveness and its congruence with his webmaster's SEO practices and own informal SEO strategy of "Create as good content as you can and assume that Google finds it.com [29] site has unadvertized Easter egg subdomains: • Speaker Grader [47] that collates Twitter tweets containing 1) either the hashtags #upvote OR #downvote and 2) the speaker's Twitter handle e." The grader.000 inbound links from inception to the time the article was written[59] and it's possible this unusually rapid growth tripped a "circuit breaker" in Google's algorithm.throwing out the baby with the bathwater. cliches and over-used. One web site offers a free spreadsheet to estimate ROI on such methods[38] . brochure copy. HubSpot itself also has published several success stories[37] . HubSpot was named in the Lead411's Hottest Boston Companies list. Cartoonist Mark Hill and HubSpot's Shah satirized their industry in a cartoon[56] which speculates that such marketing is only being used incestuously to market marketing to marketeers. Intermittant functionality. jargon.[42] HubSpot was also recognized as an AlwaysOn East Top 100 company in the "SaaS and Enterprise" category.) and checks for use of gobbledygook. Michael Gray claims[53] that automated analysis of the on-page and off-page SEO can give misleading results compared to human expert analysis..com. Also called Social Grader [50].intermittant functionality. and on Twitter. a community website for marketers[39] . the grader.com domain acquired over 250.

David Meerman (2009). inboundmarketingsummit. Retrieved 2009. Other tools are written in a mixture of Python. Retrieved 2009-10-26.it is working out pretty well so far (3600 customers today -up from about 1600 customers a year ago). com/ 2011/ 03/ 08/ hubspot-funding/ ). 2009. . aspx). . Salesforce & Sequoia Are Investing In" (http:/ / mashable. The spoof inconvenienced the site's students. com/ ). hubspot. aspx). 2009. worldwiderave. .[64] 34 Technology HubSpot Content Management System is written in C#. Wiley & Sons. viral marketing and online media to reach your buyers directly. Retrieved May 20. [16] "About HubSpot Services" (http:/ / www.Net framework and SQL Server database. Wed. pdf) (PDF). com/ products/ small-business/ ). use the ASP. HubSpot. Entrepreneur. html). Retrieved 2011-01-22. com/ boston/ 2008/ 05/ 16/ hubspot-inc-secures-12000000-series-b-financing/ ). com/ company/ board-of-directors/ ). boston. and Blogs. com/ services/ ). Retrieved 2009-04-22. Retrieved 2011-01-22. Secures $12. ISBN 0470499311. [22] Scott. . Retrieved April 19. 2007). . 2010 Twitter Grader was hacked and a message sent out to all Twitter Users who had active OAuth promoting a video of BizStone by an account started just a day earlier . com/ blog/ bid/ 2251/ HubSpot-Secures-5-Million-in-Venture-Capital-Funding-Led-by-General-Catalyst). Press release. [2] "Startup Culture Lessons From Mad Men" (http:/ / onstartups. [3] "HubSpot Secures 5 Million in Venture Capital Funding Led by General Catalyst" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-10-26. Retrieved 2011-01-22. hubspot. 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-23.April 19. xconomy. [14] "HubSpot Small Business Helps Drive Leads" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2009-10-26. runs on IIS web servers. . com/ products/ medium/ ).000. $16M third round led by Scale Partners . . Gobbledygook. html). Slide 4. blogs. Write Book.. hubspot. [5] "How to Promote Your Business Blog Using HubSpot" (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0470395004. . Retrieved April 20. entrepreneur. hubspot. [17] "HubSpot Board of Directors" (http:/ / www. [19] "Sponsor list. . Kyle (March 30. HubSpot. hubspot. "Over 120 employees . com/ products-1/ ). Inbound Marketing Summit 2009. Java. [20] Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google. . Retrieved 2009-10-26.creating a storm on Twitter. slideshare. . . Xconomy. hubspot. "Scheduled for publication in October 2009" [21] Scott. . . ." [6] "SXSW 2010: Inbound Marketing Presentation. 03. [10] "Brian Halligan's To-Do List: Run Company.. 2010). The game involved a spoof home page for an educational site that they sponsor (Inbound Marketing University [63]). Retrieved 2011-03-09. pdf#page=3). 2009. World Wide Rave: Creating Triggers that Get Millions of People to Spread Your Ideas and Share Your Stories (http:/ / www. 2009. . Inc. Retrieved May 18. [11] "HubSpot. com/ company/ management/ ). San Francisco" (http:/ / city. [15] "HubSpot Medium" (http:/ / www..[61] On June 2. John Wiley & Sons Inc. hubspot. David Meerman (August 8. com/ sf/ sponsors. The new rules of marketing and PR how to use news releases. ISBN 0470113456. hubspot.. podcasts. pdf#page=3). HubSpot. .: J.. com/ business/ technology/ innoeco/ 2009/ 10/ brian_halligans_todo_list_run. com/ 2010/ 03/ 30/ exclusive-a-tour-of-hubspots-new-office-in-lechmere/ . Social Media. com/ magazine/ entrepreneur/ 2010/ april/ 205496. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ social_media_lead_generation_july2009. HubSpot. N. [13] "HubSpot Inbound Marketing System" (http:/ / www. ". David Meerman (2007). Retrieved April 19. . Raise $16 Million" (http:/ / www. Mashable. [7] Brian Halligan. Inc. HubSpot Customer Growth" (http:/ / www. [18] Scott. . 2009. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ promote_business_blog_with_hubspot_october_2009_final.. Sep 12.[65] Notes [1] "HubSpot Management" (http:/ / www.The apps run in the Rackspace Cloud. "The Gobbledygook Manifesto" (http:/ / changethis.HubSpot Some attendees of HubSpot webcasts question HubSpot's judgement on the delicate matter of when one has won permission to talk about ones products rather than the audience's critical business issue.. [12] Psaty. hubspot. Wiley. http:/ / bostinnovation. [9] "Here’s What Google. com/ pdf/ 37." [8] "From the Blackboard to the Boardroom" (http:/ / www. 2010 HubSpot launched a social media experiment that involved an alternate reality game[62] . pp. net/ HubSpot/ sxsw-2010-inbound-marketing-presentation). 208. The Boston Globe. 2007.000 Series B Financing" (http:/ / www.J. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 7209/ Ben-Jerry-s-Complete-Rejection-Of-Conventional-Wisdom. Inc. Hoboken. html).[60] On February 11. and PHP and run on MySQL and Apache at Amazon EC2. so HubSpot had to backtrack and apologize. [4] "How to Use Social Media for Lead Generation Webinar" (http:/ / www.. "Ben & Jerry's Complete Rejection Of Conventional Wisdom" (http:/ / blog. com/ tabid/ 3339/ bid/ 13420/ Startup-Culture-Lessons-From-Mad-Men. hubspot.

"Over two hundred #bizinboston tweets in the one week period leading up Stone's visit" [33] Roush. There's also blog about Grader itself (http:/ / graderblog. but we also have an opportunity to push the technology to add interaction and conversation.April 28. . . That works. com/ watch?v=4-lGe5MnBlY). com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 20100412/ FREE/ 304129956) [46] "Grader. The April Fool's joke subdomain that graded 'personality' http:/ / personality. . Michael (2007. com/ Inbound-marketing-blog-for-small-business/ bid/ 19238/ Practical-Solutions-For-Measuring-Marketing-and-ROI).January 14). Retrieved 2009. youtube.April 18). 2009. 2009. staciechalmersinboundmarketing. [36] DiBella. "Link Love. com/ support/ webmasters/ bin/ answer. founder of Twitter is in Boston for a few days! Let's give him a warm welcome. youtube. com/ 2009/ 04/ hubspot-tv. hubspot. eventbrite. [25] Todd Andrlik. "AdAge Power 150: A Daily Ranking of Marketing Blogs" (http:/ / adage. .. html).). hubspot. . grader. "The key to developing a community is listening. . com/ boston-companies. aonetwork. com [30] Corliss. hubspot. "Have you heard? The famous Biz Stone. pdf) (PDF).. 00:00-00:13. given that there are only two postings (one within 11 minutes of the other) dating back to November 2009. "Social Media Marketing Madness Cartoon" (http:/ / blog. paying attention and engaging. aspx). . "Hubspot TV" (http:/ / offonatangent." [53] Gray. [39] "About InboundMarketing. guykawasaki.April 20 [28] "You Oughta Know Inbound Marketing" (http:/ / www. com/ roi/ ). com/ linkedin [50] http:/ / socialgrader. com/ power150/ ). Charlie Moran. com [51] http:/ / gobbledygook. com/ search?lang=all& q=#bizinboston). Retrieved April 28.October 5). com) which ironically is an example of how not to blog." [31] "#BizInBoston Tweetup" (http:/ / bizinboston. Retrieved April 19. . . press releases. html) [43] Announcing the AlwaysOn East Top 100 Companies (http:/ / www. xconomy. A Geek Valentine's Day Ballad" (http:/ / www. HillCartoons. hubspot. . wolf-howl. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www. "HubSpot's Rebecca Corliss longs for the inbound links of colleague Rick Burnes. . com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4494/ Social-Media-Marketing-Madness-cartoon. and Foursquare profiles. "#73: HubSpot Internet Marketing (as of access date: rankings are updated daily)" [26] HubSpot TV podcast archive at iTunes Store (http:/ / itunes. 2009. btobonline. webproworld. [37] "ROI from Inbound Marketing with HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www. blogspot. com). Retrieved May 19.Forget the Numbers with Surprise Guest MC Hammer" (http:/ / blog.October 3). com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4585/ HubSpot-TV-Forget-the-Numbers-with-Surprise-Guest-MC-Hammer. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software" (http:/ / www. "There's a tendency to copy what TV does. "What is the value of the HubSpot Website Grader?" (http:/ / www. . Rebecca (April 20. com/ about).. com/ Default.April 19. "HubSpot. com [49] http:/ / person. books. 2010. hubspot. com/ 2007/ 10/ website-grader. 2009). Rebecca (February 9. p. . Craig (2009. HubSpot. "At the end of the day you need a [sic] an experienced analyst. "Twitter Co-Founder Biz Stone Visits HubSpot and Answers Five Business Questions" (http:/ / blog. com/ search-engine-optimization-forum/ 82808-what-value-hubspot-website-grader. 2009. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4687/ Twitter-Co-Founder-Biz-Stone-Visits-HubSpot-and-Answers-Five-Business-Questions. com/ boston/ event/ 13771) [42] Lead411 launches "Hottest Boston Companies" awards (http:/ / www. html). com/ [48] http:/ / buzz. .April 14). pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2009. . . Inc. A/B web site actions. Retrieved 2009. grader.6!!!" [55] Garfield. org [41] Boston Business Journal Best Places to Work (http:/ / boston." [24] "Webmaster Guidelines at Google" (http:/ / www. [40] http:/ / inbound. tie50. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ roi_from_hubspot_report_2010. A parody of the Alanis Morissette and Glen Ballard song You Oughta Know [29] http:/ / grader. aspx). Melissa (February 2009). Retrieved April 22. "Website Grader" (http:/ / blog. Advertising Age Magazine (Crain Communications). html). Twitter. net/ Winners/ ) [45] BtoB Social Media Awards 2010 (http:/ / www. "Why Website Grader is a Bad Idea" (http:/ / www. twitter. com/ ). grader. hubspot. Steve (2009. hubspot." [47] http:/ / speaker. com/ boston/ 2009/ 04/ 20/ hubspot-hybernaut-bury-the-twitter-hatchet-for-now/ ).com" (http:/ / www." [56] Shah. Retrieved May 4.com: Measure all that matters in inbound marketing" (http:/ / grader. tv) (link attempts to launch iTunes) [27] HubSpot channel (http:/ / www. grader.April 28. There is a link to a private beta of Social Inbox. inboundmarketing. com/ [52] Kawasaki." [54] Allen. . com/ has been removed. and that's exciting. Mark Hill (http:/ / www. [38] "Practical Solutions For Measuring Marketing and ROI" (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2009.com grades websites. Retrieved 2009. 2009. who refuses to link to her website in an emotional love story that comes full circle. .April 28. April 17. com) (2009. blogs. "The fact that my blog did so well is entirely because of Neil Patel.HubSpot [23] Corliss. google. Guy (2007.April 22.. aspx). "I have a Facebook 35 . youtube. "grader." [32] "Twitter search for #bizinboston hashtag" (http:/ / search. grader. com/ seo/ why-website-grader-is-a-bad-idea/ ). lead411. "I've now run all my clients' sites through it and found that the average of all my websites ends up a measly 32. Melissa (January 2010). Dharmesh. 2009. com/ node/ 65221) [44] TiECON 2010 Winners (http:/ / www. bizjournals. com/ user/ HubSpot) on YouTube. . Retrieved May 13. py?hl=en& answer=35769). 2009). 2009. Facebook. Wade (April 20. Google alerts. Retrieved 2009. [34] "HubSpot TV . Retrieved April 30. [35] DiBella. grader. com/ watch?v=XbfXUrtnynE). 2009. Hybernaut bury the hatchet for now" (http:/ / www. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs/ ROI_from_HubSpot.

[62] "HubSpot Gambles with Trust to Explore New Marketing Strategy" (http:/ / bostinnovation.com link report for grader.January 15).com) . It IS still marketing. 2010. seomoz.official site • grader. "#hubspot It's a tradeoff. The Guardian (London). Nick (2009. "It's a tradeoff. 'Websitegrader Website Marketing SEO Tool' . with JICWEBS deciding whether metrics are desirable and ABCe deciding whether they are practical.. Charles (February 11. #1 at MSN/Live" [59] "grader.. . inboundmarketing. co. "Let's check out some searches . These can include measurements of audience reach. "Google's Sandbox Still Exists Exemplified by grader.. Rand (2009. .HubSpot group for Twitter users that tweet about podcasters that talk about marketing bloggers" [57] Ellery.hubspot. .com) .seemingly endless volume of noise out there around marketing.. Retrieved 2009.April 25. uk/ technology/ blog/ 2010/ feb/ 11/ twitter-grader-hacked-tweets). #1 at Yahoo!. com/ 2010/ 06/ 10/ hubspot-gambles-with-trust-to-explore-new-marketing-strategy/ ). Retrieved May 4. com/ 2011/ 05/ 26/ the-tech-behind-hubspot/ ). com/ site/ grader. We get free good information and a bit of a sales pitch. 36 External links • hubspot. . In effect JICWEBS works in partnership with the ABCe.com" (http:/ / www. . . org/ blog/ googles-sandbox-still-exists-exemplified-by-gradercom). Adam (2008. The ? is how hard is the pitch?" [61] Arthur. .free samples of the type of tools HubSpot uses for measuring online presence JICWEBS JICWEBS (the Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards) was created by the UK and Ireland media industry to insure independence and comparability of measurement on the web.com (http://grader. "Twitter Grader hacked: are you a victim?" (http:/ / www.com (http://www.. com/ 2009/ 01/ 15/ hubspots-social-media-marketing-madness/ ).April 22. [60] Yarbrough. com). Retrieved 2009. hubspot.April 28. [63] http:/ / www. Web Metrics are intended to measure activity on web sites in a site centric fashion. ". Retrieved 2009. frequency and activity levels including the use and effectiveness of advertising on the web and other electronic media. com/ [64] "Reactions and Lessons From the #IMU ARG So Far" (http:/ / www.. It’s getting harder and harder to find those gems that deliver real value.com" (http:/ / grader.. [65] "The Tech Behind HubSpot" (http:/ / bostinnovation. 2010). com/ blog/ bid/ 6056/ Reactions-and-Lessons-From-the-IMU-ARG-So-Far).December 17)." (http:/ / twitter. . 2009.. Not in Top 200 at Google. social media etc. guardian. com/ adamyarbrough/ status/ 1063377092).March 8). Retrieved May 7. . "Hubspot’s Social Media Marketing Madness" (http:/ / marketingisadirtyword." [58] Fishkin.

Kampyle offers its solutions as SaaS (software-as-a-service). Technology While web analytics cannot give insight into the motivation and actual user experience.Kampyle.Kampyle. References [1] http:/ / www. Feedback is seen as an empirical tool to get insight into user behavior. that provides Feedback Analytics and Lead Generation solutions. and to optimize marketing and website strategies. kampyle. Kampyle started selling its Feedback solution in 2008.kampyle. Israel Key people Ariel Finkelstein.com) . Web analytics Technology Industry Headquarters Ramat Gan. Products Kampyle offers a free. very limited product. Since than Kampyle claims to have gained more than 45.Kampyle (Software) 37 Kampyle (Software) Kampyle Type Lead Generation. In additon Enterprise solution is offered. com/ External links • Official WebSite (http://www. CEO and Co-Founder www.000 companies using Kampyle's feedback forms and analytics. and several account as too the number of feedback items allowed per month. Kampyle Plug-Ins are available for Wordpress.com) • Company Blog (http://blog. Web Optimization. With a go-to-market as Freemium.com [1] Website Kampyle is an Internet company founded in 2007. Drupal and Joomla. Kampyle is said to have processed more than 12 million feedback forms in over 60 languages in 191 countries to date. Kampyle's Feedback analytics enhances the capabilities of a company to understand website users.

Pay Per Click and business consulting services. Kaspid provides search engine optimization. at which time it solely offered web design services. He later decided to establish a branch of Kaspid in Bournemouth in England. Majority shareholder Hamid Sepidnam took over as CEO of the company in 2008. The company employs 26-50 people. as well as in Bournemouth in the UK. The company.uk [2] Kaspid. then called Kaspid Information Technology Limited.co.000 as of June 2011.000 and £999.[6] Kaspid was also the first company to market SEO & Pay Per Click services for Persian web sites. a service that was then only in its nascent stages in Iran.Kaspid 38 Kaspid Kaspid Information Technology LTd Type Founded Headquarters Private 1999 Bournemouth Tehran Mashhad Iran . whilst a monthly survey conducted by Topseo named it the 18th Best Integrated Search (SEO & PPC) Company United Kingdom as of June 2011.[3] In addition to web design services. leading it to its subsequent popularity as an integrated search (SEO & PPC) company. in addition to generating revenue of between £250. .[5] History The company was established in 1999.com Area served Key people Services Website Kaspid Information Technology (Persian: ‫ )ش ش ش ش ش ش شش ش ش ش ش ش ش شش ش ش شش ش‬is a web design and Internet ‫شش ش ش ش شش ششش‬ ‫ش‬ marketing company headquartered in (Bournemouth. turning its attentions towards business opportunities in web marketing. eventually turning it into one of Iran's largest providers of web design and Internet marketing services. maintained representative offices in Tehran and Mashhad.[4] . The company shifted its focus between 1999 and 2008. England Hamid Sepidnam (CEO) Farhad kazemi Motlagh (General Manager) Web Design Services SEO Business Consulting Services Pay Per Click [1] Kaspid. England).

Facebook/kaspid/) .uk/) Official Facebook Fanpage (http://www. Retrieved April 6.Kaspid. "Kaspid to Attend 2011 Search Engine Strategies Seminar in London" (http:/ / www. "Best Integrated Search (SEO & PPC) Company (ies) in United Kingdom" (http:/ / kaspid-ltd. 2011. htm). prweb. com/ releases/ 2011/ 02/ prweb5067154. kaspid. . uk).com) Company Profile (http://www. "Company Profile Kaspid LTD" (http:/ / kaspid-ltd. co. uk/ rankings-of-best-integrated-search-seo-and-ppc-companies). co. Retrieved June 2011.Kaspid 39 Kaspid Name abbreviation The Kaspid name is an abbreviation of Hamid Sepidnam and the last name of Farhad kazemi Motlagh. co.kaspid-ltd. topseos.topseos. . Retrieved June 2011. .co.uk) Official site in Persian (http://www. topseos. topseos. co. Retrieved Jan 25. . kaspid.Kaspid. External links • • • • Official site in English (http://www. com "Kaspid in TopSeo" (http:/ / www. namely KA from Kazemi and SPID from Sepidnam. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. uk http:/ / www. uk).2011.co.

Which translates into your desired outcomes (online and offline). (translated into Korean. 2007. Sybex (an imprint of Wiley).[10] Kaushik received the 2009 Harry V Roberts Statistical Advocate of the Year award from the American Statistical Association [11] and the 2011 Most Influential Industry Contributor award from the Web Analytics Association. Kaushik co-founded Market Motive Inc. author and public speaker. Chinese. Web Analytics.0 as: "1. Portuguese and Spanish)[15] The book defines Web Analytics 2. Conversion & Public Relations.[12] Business ventures Market Motive Inc In 2008. (translated into Italian. and encouraged the pursuit of simplifying perceived complexity in the field of data analytics..Avinash Kaushik 40 Avinash Kaushik Avinash Kaushik Occupation Author.[5] He is also an Associate Instructor at the University of British Columbia for the Web Analytics program. and Japanese)[14] • Web Analytics 2. Russian. Sybex (an imprint of Wiley). 2.net/avinash [1] Avinash Kaushik is an entrepreneur. Paid Search Advertising. In his writing and speaking Kaushik has championed the principle of aggregation of marginal gains. 2009. The analysis of qualitative and quantitative data from your website and the competition.[2] [3] Kaushik is on the Advisory Board of University of Toronto Rotman School of Management's program on CRM Excellence[4] as well as on the Advisory Board of University of California at Irvine's program on Web Intelligence."[16] . Social Media. which provides online education and certification in six Internet disciplines such as Search Engine Optimization. ISBN 978-8126513284.[9] and JMP Innovators Summit. To drive a continual improvement of the online experience of your customers and prospects.[8] CMA Next. ISBN 978-0470529393.[6] Kaushik has delivered keynotes at conferences such as The Art of Marketing. Portuguese.[7] eMetrics Marketing Optimization Summit. Analytics Expert Website kaushik.0. 3. Polish.[13] Books • Web Analytics: An Hour A Day.

Instructors" (http:/ / www. 2010. Retrieved Nov 27. marketmotive. 2006. . 2011. 2011.youtube. . [17] "Occam's Razor By Avinash Kaushik" (http:/ / www. webanalytics20. [15] "Web Analytics 2. UCIrvine Extension. 2010-05-26.com. Plenary Session 1" (http:/ / www. 2010. emetrics.120 tracked. 2010. . ubc. . "#1: Exact number tracked and their rankings are updated daily)" External links • Occam's Razor by Avinash Kaushik (http://www. [3] "Data give miners the shaft" (http:/ / www. .marketmotive. www. Retrieved Dec 14. 2010. 2010. [9] "CMA Next:2010 Keynote Speakers" (http:/ / www. html).com/watch?v=sMwQN43fwoQ): Web Analytics 2. kaushik. theartofmarketing. [5] "Web Intelligence Certificate" (http:/ / unex. [13] Michael Stebbins (2008). Retrieved Dec 14. inc. [7] "2010 Keynote Speakers. . Retrieved Jan 10. Avinash Kaushik" (http:/ / www.eMetrics Marketing Optimization Summit . . 2007. American Statistical Association Chicago Chapter.Web Analytics Association" (http:/ / www. ca/ speakers/ view/ 6/ avinash-kaushik). www. 2010. 2010-05-04. Magazine. [11] "American Statistical Association 2009 Statistical Advocate of the Year Award Ceremony" (http:/ / www.San Jose California 2010" (http:/ / www. 2010. Retrieved Nov 24. [10] "JMP Innovators Summit. net/ avinash [2] "Most Websites Suck" (http:/ / www. 2010. 2010. . ece). Retrieved Aug 15. 2008-09-24. Retrieved Nov 27. Inc. [8] "Keynotes . 2010.net/avinash/): His personal blog • Authors@Google: Avinash Kaushik (http://www. "11 Best Web Analytics Tools" (http:/ / www. [12] "Awards for Excellence 2011: Recipients . Charlie Moran. [18] Todd Andrlik. tech. The Globe And Mail. 2010-09-30. "About Market Motive" (http:/ / www. The University of British Columbia. com/ about/ events/ summit2008/ speakers. 2010. Retrieved Nov 24. Retrieved Aug 15. 2010. html). [4] "Rotman Centre for CRM Excellence Advisory Board" (http:/ / www. uci. . "Web Analytics: An Hour A Day" (http:/ / webanalyticshour. org/ sanjose/ 2010/ tracks/ keynotes. 2010. org/ ?page=awards2011). org/ convention/ ?WCE=C=47). kaushik.0" (http:/ / www. com/ Most+ websites+ suck/ 3956144/ story.webanalyticshour. Retrieved Nov 27. jmp. com/ about). php).kaushik. . Retrieved Nov 24. the-cma. 2009. . html). . Retrieved Nov 24. "AdAge Power 150: A Daily Ranking of Marketing Blogs" (http:/ / adage. .[18] References [1] http:/ / www. 2011. com/ news/ technology/ article125092. . www. webanalyticsassociation. Retrieved Mar 20. htm). theglobeandmail. . Rotman Executive Programs Center For CRM Excellence.Avinash Kaushik 41 Blog Kaushik's blog[17] is ranked in the AdAge Power 150 as #40 marketing blog out of 1. com/ about/ AdvisoryBoard.com. edu/ certificates/ it/ web_intel). . com/ guides/ 12/ 2010/ 11-best-web-analytics-tools. 2010. shtml#plenary1).0 video . [6] "UBC Award of Achievement in Web Analytics . rotmancrm. financialpost. Advertising Age Magazine (Crain Communications). aspx). com). [14] Avinash Kaushik (2007). net/ avinash/ ). ca/ webanalytics/ instructors. 2008. org/ Workshops/ e051509.webanalytics20. 2009. [16] Lou Dubois (2010). Retrieved Nov 27. .com. 2010. chicagoasa. Retrieved Aug 15. com). com/ power150/ ). Financial Post. Web Analytics Association. Retrieved 21 Dec 2010.

and unique mentions. 2010). how many spam/dead accounts are following you. . "How can you measure influence?" (http:/ / mashable. California. the content created. com/ 2010/ 10/ 14/ facebook-klout/ ). .Klout 42 Klout Klout Type Founded Founder Private San Francisco. "Klout Now Measures Your Influence on Facebook" (http:/ / mashable. retweets. list memberships.[3] Methodology Klout measures influence by using data points from Twitter. [2] http:/ / klout. . and the number of friends in your network to come up with a "Klout Score" that measures a user's online influence. com/ company/ klout). com/ 2010/ 10/ 14/ facebook-klout/ ). 2009 Current status Active Klout is a San Francisco based company that provides social media analytics that measures a users influence across their social network. follower count. 2010). California. This information is blended with Facebook data such as comment. such as: following count. The analysis is done on data collected from sites such as Twitter and Facebook and measures the size of a person's network.com [2] Social Networking No Required English September. Retrieved 22 October 2010. likes. United States Worldwide 10 [1] Headquarters Area served Employees Slogan Website Type of site Advertising Registration Available in Launched the Standard for Influence klout. [4] Ben Parr (October 16.[4] References [1] "Klout" (http:/ / www. Simply Zesty. Retrieved 22 October 2010. . Retrieved 22 October 2010. com/ [3] Lauren Fisher (July 20th. TechCrunch. how influential the people that retweet you are. crunchbase. Mashable. USA Joe Fernandez Binh Tran San Francisco. and how other people interact with that content.

Name sNOWsh Company sNOWsh Technologies Mint Flowerfire Inc Platform PHP/MySQL/linux Supported databases MySQL Tracking Method Cookies.1 MS SQL/MySQL/Oracle Cookies via Database/PostgreSQL/Proprietary JavaScript & Logs MySQL. from $99/profile $9995 $695/Site Mint Sawmill PHP Windows/Linux/BSD/POSIX MySQL 2.0 3.20-01 GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL GPL Proprietary This is a comparison table of web analytics proprietary software. Name Analog AWStats CrawlTrack GoAccess LogReport Open Web Analytics Piwik Visitors W3Perl Webalizer Platform Supported databases C Perl PHP C Perl PHP PHP C Perl C Logfile-based Logfile-based MySQL Logfile-based Logfile-based MySQL MySQL Logfile-based Logfile-based Logfile-based javascript/php pagetag javascript or php pagetag php pagetag Tracking Method Latest stable release License 6.4.0.4.0 3.17 8.com/) List of web analytics software This is a list of web analytics software used to collect and display data about visiting website users.1 (discontinued) See web-site Tealeaf cx* Tealeaf Linux Appliance N/A See web-site . JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Latest stable release See web-site Price in USD mixed.2 2.12 2.Klout 43 External links • Official website (http://http://klout. See web-site $30/Site mixed.4 0.9.7 3.1.1 1.0 7.0 0.1 1. Server Side. PostgreSQL MySQL Cookies & Logs Web log files & Cookies Network traffic monitor Urchin SurfReport Google Bien Logic Windows/Linux/BSD Perl/C++ 7. Open source This is a comparison table of web analytics software released under an open source license.

using a single file for licensing. LogZilla is 99% open source.$990/month Free Free Trial .1 N/A N/A N/A N/A Price in USD Free .$280/month Free-$29.95 Negotiable Negotiable From $49/month Free .$9.List of web analytics software Compuware Vantage Unica NetInsight Compuware Linux Appliance N/A Network traffic monitor Web log files & Cookies (with or without JavaScript) See web-site See web-site Various pricing options 44 Unica Windows/Linux/Solaris MS SQL/MySQL/Oracle Database 8. LLC.95/month Negotiable Negotiable From $202/month N/A W3Counter KISSmetrics MouseTrace Visitor Recording InstaVista for Web Analytics Analyzer II Bango Mobile Web Analytics ClickTale Google Analytics Lucky Orange Mouseflow [4] [5] TraceMyIP.1. Omniture (Adobe Systems) Omniture (Adobe Systems) Webtrekk Webtrends Tracking Method Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Cookies via Javascript Mobile ID and cookies Cookies via Javascript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript/Server Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Latest stable release N/A N/A 1.$7/month Free .$99.0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 7. Name Company LogZilla.95 .org SiteCatalyst Insight Webtrekk Q3 Webtrends .0 2. Name [2] [3] Company W3Counter KISSmetrics MouseTrace Anametrix AT Internet Bango_plc ClickTale Google Lucky Orange LLC Mouseflow ApS TraceMyIP.2 (as of 2011-02-07) Mixed This is a comparison table of web analytics.122 Price in USD mixed.95/month Various pricing options $9. LLC Platform Linux Supported databases MySQL Tracking Method syslog-ng Latest stable release 3.1 2 4. including a free version LogZilla [1] Hosted This is a comparison table of hosted web analytics Software as a Service.

w3counter.List of web analytics software Woopra Yahoo! Web Analytics Logcrawl iFusion Labs LLC Yahoo! Logcrawl Cookies via JavaScript Cookies via JavaScript Log file upload 1. pro http:/ / www. org/ Computers/ Software/ Internet/ Site_Management/ Log_Analysis/ .95 / mo Free Free 45 External links • List of web analytics software [6] at the Open Directory Project References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. logzilla. com http:/ / mouseflow.$179. com http:/ / www. kissmetrics. luckyorange. com http:/ / www. dmoz.2 N/A N/A Free . com http:/ / www.

the Company acquired HumanClick. United States London. an Atlanta based provider of hosted proactive chat solutions that help companies generate revenue on their web sites. Type Founded Headquarters No.[8] On April 13. the company completed an initial public offering on the NASDAQ[4] and in March 2011 its shares have started trading also on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange[5] . the Company acquired Proficient Systems. the Company acquired Kasamba Inc.com [3] [1] ) (TASE: LPSN [2] ) Products Revenue Operating income Net income Employees Subsidiaries Website LivePerson is a publicly held online marketing. 2007. web analytics.[6] On July 18. Inc.[9] . San Francisco and Atlanta.34 million (2010) $ 9. Its most well known product is a chat platform that allows companies to talk with visitors in real time on their websites.liveperson.[7] On October 3. of locations Area served Key people Industry Public (NASDAQ: LPSN 1995 New York City. an Israeli-based provider of real-time online customer service applications. CEO Internet Computer software Online Communication Expert Advice LivePerson Pro US$ 109. and expert advice company based in New York City with offices in London. Tel Aviv Worldwide Rob Locascio. incorporated in the State of Delaware in November 1995 and the LivePerson service was first introduced in November 1998. an online provider of live expert advice delivered to consumers via real-time chat.. 2006. In October 2000. In April 2000. Tel Aviv.LivePerson 46 LivePerson LivePerson. the Company acquired all of the outstanding shares of NuConomy.86 million (2010) $ 14. an Israeli-based company whose web analytics and optimization platform is intended to help companies better assess and understand website and social marketing performance.259 million (2010) 481 (As of March 2011) HumanClick Kasamba www. 2010. History LivePerson was founded in 1992.

com/ 2010/ 01/ 25/ liveperson-to-acquire-web-analytics-startup-nuconomy-for-3-million/ ). October 13. which facilitates online transactions between independent experts and individual consumers. 2010. [6] "LivePerson Acquires HumanClick. (http://www. reuters. Creating a Global Market Leader in Real-Time eCRM Solutions for Small and Mid-Sized Businesses" (http:/ / www. asp?symbol=LPSN& selected=LPSN [2] http:/ / www. com/ story/ liveperson-regains-ipo-price-after-10-years-2010-04-07). External links LivePerson Inc. com/ doc/ 1G1-66024185. internetretailer. And the Consumer segment. Competitors • ATG Commerce . Reuters. com/ israeli_web/ kasamba_to_be_acquired_by_liveperson). Marketwatch. Mar 13. com/ 2006/ 07/ 19/ liveperson-buys-live-chat-provider-proficient-systems-in-all-sto). com [4] "LivePerson returns to IPO price -. References [1] http:/ / quotes.liveperson. html). 2007. [9] "LivePerson To Acquire Web Analytics Startup NuConomy For $3 Million" (http:/ / techcrunch. Jan 25. The Business segment. htm?objectId=& objectType=& securityType=& searchTerm=LPSN [3] http:/ / www. • LiveChat . liveperson.LivePerson 47 Products and services As a “cloud computing” or software-as-a-service (SaaS) provider. [5] "LivePerson dual lists on Tel Aviv Stock Exchange" (http:/ / www. startupisrael. April 7. voice. subsidiary of Oracle.product offered by ATG. click-to-call. The company is organized into two operating segments.com. StartupIsrael. email and self-service knowledgebase for global corporations. July 19. il/ TASEEng/ Management/ GeneralPages/ SimpleSearchResult. tase. Business Wire. June 26. 2006. 2000. LivePerson provides solutions on a hosted basis. 2010. [8] "Kasamba to be Acquired by LivePerson" (http:/ / www. which facilitates real-time online interactions. highbeam. com/ article/ 2011/ 03/ 13/ liveperson-tase-listing-idUSLDE72C02420110313). marketwatch. nasdaq. TechCrunch.10 years later" (http:/ / www. utilizing: chat.com) . [7] "LivePerson buys live chat provider Proficient Systems in all-stock deal" (http:/ / www.live support software developed by LIVECHAT Software. 2011. com/ asp/ SummaryQuote. co. Internet Retailer.

It is featured at CMS Watch[2] . freshClicks[6] and WebAnalyticsworld[7] Features • • • • • • • Email marketing Deliverability tools Content creation Web analytics Search marketing Social marketing Mobile marketing References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www.php/Blog-Archive) • Lyris (http://www.com/index. cmswatch.com) • Lyris Blog (http://www. net/ 2008/ 06/ 19/ email-marketing/ lyris-hq-review-email-service-provider/ http:/ / www. lyrishq. Inc. com/ clicktracks-review. clickz.Lyris HQ 48 Lyris HQ Lyris HQ Developer(s) Lyris.lyris. SearchEngineWatch[5] . webanalyticsworld. com/ http:/ / www. Website Lyris HQ [1] Lyris HQ is an online marketing platform. com/ 3627609 http:/ / searchenginewatch. freshclicks. toptenreviews.com/) .-CMS.-and-E-mail-marketing http:/ / website-traffic-statistic-service-review. com/ sew-awards http:/ / www.lyrishq. TopTenReviews[3] . ClickZ[4] . com/ Trends/ 1083-Lyris-HQ-links-ClickTracks. net/ 2008/ 06/ lyris-introduces-hq-fully-integrated. html External links • Lyris HQ (http://www. html http:/ / www.lyrishq.

. 98 to 99. Microsoft announced that adCenter Analytics would be discontinued. Retrieved 2010-01-30. Pedro.shauninman. Internetfinancialnews.haveamint. This had led to some complaints by webmasters. com/ financialblogtalk/ news/ ifn-6-20070823MintKeepYourAnalyticsWebsiteTraffic. "Mint: Keep Your Analytics / Website Traffic. designer/developer of Mint (http://www. References [1] Microsoft "Gatineau" Review (http:/ / dcoates. It competed with Google Analytics and was tied to Microsoft adCenter in the same way Google has tied Google Analytics to Google Adwords. . Hoboken. internetfinancialnews.. [2] Existing accounts would be operational till the end of 2009. com/ blogs/ analytics/ archive/ 2009/ 03/ 12/ adcenter-analytics-beta-to-close. html). In 2006. Microsoft acquired DeepMetrix Corporation and used the analytics technology to deliver adCenter Analytics. NJ: Wiley Pub. due to a five dollar fee for sign up.Microsoft adCenter Analytics 49 Microsoft adCenter Analytics Microsoft adCenter Analytics (codenamed Gatineau) was the Microsoft's web analytics solution. [2] adCenter Analytics Beta To Close (http:/ / www." (http:/ / www. Web Analytics for Dummies. OCLC 77540819. aspx) Mint (software) Mint is a server-based web analytics tool. and search trends. adcentercommunity.com/) .. pp. [1] Features included: • • • • Click and visitor tracking Marketing campaign reporting Conversion tracking Demographic and geographic segmentation In March 2009.[1] [2] References [1] Aaron Wall (2007-08-23). External links • Official website (http://http://www.com/) • Personal site of Shaun Inman.com. compared to the lack of cost to use Google Analytics. com/ content/ 2008/ 01/ 27/ microsoft-gatineau-review). ISBN 9780470098240. Jennifer LeClaire (2007). It tracks traffic trends. [2] Sostre. HTTP referrers.

such as those found in the iPhone and other smart phones and PDAs. with no data on other mobile devices browsing the site. some with browsing experiences similar to those of desktop computers. Data collected as part of mobile analytics typically includes page views. Drawbacks of applying traditional web analytics Collecting mobile web analytics data is not as straightforward as traditional web analytics because many of the common methods for data collection are unreliable or do not work. and countries. It helps to determine which aspects of the website work best for mobile traffic and which mobile marketing campaigns work best for the business. mobile web analytics refers to the use of data collected as visitors access a website from a mobile phone. such as device model. mobile search marketing. visits.NET Java Python ColdFusion Ruby on Rails node. Several dynamic server-side platforms are used to develop mobile sites. text campaigns. Server-side tracking code is recommended for more accurate analytics reporting. and is used to improve a website or mobile marketing campaign's audience response. the JavaScript pixel tracking mechanism is most commonly used. device capabilities. The W3C Mobile Web Initiative [1] identifies best practices to help websites support mobile phone browsing. Traditional analytics software on a mobile website may only provide data for HTTP requests coming from the most advanced mobile browsers. Traditional tools such as Google Analytics may provide misleading data that represents only a fraction of actual mobile traffic. Traditional web analytics software that uses server log parsing and associates different IPs with "unique visitors" may fail to identify unique visitors.Mobile web analytics 50 Mobile web analytics Mobile web analytics studies the behavior of mobile website visitors in a similar way to traditional web analytics. including mobile advertising. and preferred user language. The majority of modern smartphones are able to browse websites. For unsupported/HTML sites. Many companies use these guidelines and mobile-specific code like Wireless Markup Language or HTML5 to optimize websites for viewing on mobile devices. and desktop promotion of mobile sites and services. visitors. . as well as information specific to mobile devices. In a commercial context.js/Connect TypePad Pro Different tracking processes or mechanisms are available for each of the above platforms. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance and return on investment. because the IPs from which cellular wireless network HTTP requests originate are the gateway IPs of the network access providers. screen resolution. Platforms • • • • • • • • • • HTML/JavaScript WordPress Mobile Pack PHP . manufacturer. service provider.

In addition. JavaScript page tagging Page tagging notifies a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. As a result. Image tags Handset caching mechanisms impact the use of images for page tagging. This is either because the device manufacturer has disabled sending such information in the HTTP request to save bandwidth during network usage. HTTP referrer HTTP referrer information showing where a visitor navigated from is generally not provided for mobile web browsing. and screen resolution. mobile web analytics involve metrics and KPIs associated with mobile device information. In some cases. Wi-Fi. 51 Problems with tracking Visitor identification Visitor identification is the most important aspect of usable mobile web analytics and one of the hardest technical aspects to accomplish.fixed. This method is not provided by traditional web analytics solutions because it is mobile web-specific. some mobile web analytics solutions only detect or count user visits per day. manufacturer. even if the cookie expiration time is set to a future date. primarily because JavaScript and HTTP cookies are so unreliable on mobile browsers. persistent. HTTP cookies HTTP cookies are commonly used to mark and identify visitors. such as user-agents. depending on where the HTTP requests are coming from. allowing accurate measurement of repeat visits and long-term customer loyalty. . though it is possible that neither may be true. Even when cookies are supported by a device. This method assumes that the end user browser has JavaScript capabilities and that JavaScript is enabled. and unique user identities. The best solutions provide reliable. image caching on handsets is performed regardless of any anti-caching headers output by the remote server.Mobile web analytics Because mobile websites are typically open to access from any kind of network . or because the mobile network operator's internet gateway removes or alters the original HTTP header due to the gateway software or use of mobile web transcoding software. These data can usually be assembled by combining device identification information taken from special HTTP headers. such as WURFL or DeviceAtlas [2]. etc. such as model. HTTP cookies are only supported by a small subset of mobile phones. Although this is a standard capability for all desktop web browsers. The device user may also choose to disable cookies. . At this time. the device may automatically clear cookies between browsing sessions to save on handset memory or because the browser does not have access to persistent storage. most mobile web browsers do not support JavaScript sufficiently for this to work. satellite wireless. with device capabilities stored in a device information registry.a traditional web analytics solution could range from fairly accurate to mostly inaccurate. cellular wireless. This results in visitors not being properly identified and visit-related metrics not being calculated properly.

IP address analysis An operator database is used to identify operators and their countries based on the IP addresses of their internet gateway devices. the network address of the client machine usually gives some form of user identification and location. The level of information recorded from these transmissions depends on the architecture provided by the supplier. the IP address refers to a operator-owned internet gateway machine in Canada or Norway. Packet sniffing Also known as tagless data capture or passive network capture. This method helps address the lack of HTTP referrer information on mobile. uses the Sprint network. References [1] http:/ / www. and not all image beacon solutions are the same. Boost Wireless. Tagless data capture techniques are increasing in popularity for mobile web analytics because they capture all users. server logs. clear differentiation between operators is critical for good mobile marketing campaigns. w3. Link redirection Link redirection is an important method of tracking mobile visitor activities. sometimes across multiple countries. and other marketing activities. or plugins. as some operators share their mobile networks with virtual network operators (MVNO). IP addresses alone do not identify all operators and countries. org/ Mobile [2] http:/ / www. search. this technique uses a tap between the mobile users and the web server to capture the full content of the client-server exchange. It also records visitors clicking on links to leave a site. deviceatlas. For devices such as the BlackBerry or for phones using Opera Mini browser software. Because these two operators have very different customer demographics. A number of solutions are available and the best results are obtained through the use of more than one technology. work with all devices and do not require JavaScript. cookies. It can be used in conjunction with a device database such as WURFL. For mobile web browsing. Collecting mobile web analytics data Collection of mobile web analytics data requires a different approach from collecting traditional web analytics data. Carriers may also share their mobile internet gateways. for example. provided that the transmitted image is always unique. It is the only reliable way to record clicks from advertising. and many change or add gateways on a regular basis. the client IP address refers to the internet gateway machine owned by the network operator. Image tags or beacons Images can be forced to work for mobile web analytics. com .Mobile web analytics 52 IP address For desktop web browsing. HTTP header analysis This tells you a number of basic facts about the mobile phone and the browser.

5 million. The deal was completed on October 23. History The company was founded in 1996 and was backed by venture capitalists including Hummer Winblad Venture Partners.8 billion[7] . and Scale Venture Partners. Magazine's 500 fastest-growing private companies. Type Industry Subsidiary Web Analytics Market Research Online Optimization 1996 Founded Headquarters Orem.[4] and also purchased Offermatica for $65 million.[9] .k. with offices worldwide.[3] In late 2007 the company acquired web analytics company Visual Sciences. and is now run as the Omniture Business Unit within Adobe. (Chairman) Michael (Mike) Herring.5 million. omniture. Utah Key people Josh James. Inc. 2009[8] . Discover onPremise) Omniture Data Warehouse Omniture SearchCenter Omniture Recommendations Omniture Genesis Omniture Survey Omniture SiteSearch Omniture Merchandising > 1. Utah. Omniture bought behavioral targeting company Touch Clarity for $51. 2008 it agreed to acquire the Israeli e-commerce search solution provider Mercado for $6. Inc.a. (formerly WebSideStory) for $394 million. During a period of rapid growth. com Omniture is an online marketing and web analytics business unit owned by Adobe Systems.Omniture 53 Omniture Omniture. Omniture was listed on the NASDAQ in 2006[2] . CEO John Pestana. CFO Omniture SiteCatalyst Omniture Test&Target Omniture Discover onDemand Omniture Insight (f. and Adobe Systems announced that Adobe would be acquiring Omniture for roughly $1. Inc. The Omniture Business Unit is based in Orem.000 (2008) [1] Products Employees Parent Website Adobe Systems http:/ / www.[5] In October. University Venture Fund. 2009. It serves customers in 75 countries worldwide. Omniture. the company was one of Inc.[6] On September 15.

[12] References [1] http:/ / www. "Omniture Offering Is Worth Data-Mining" (http:/ / www. . Criticism Critics have accused Omniture of attempting to hide the fact they are collecting data. and why is it watching me?" (http:/ / www. com/ aboutadobe/ invrelations/ faq_omniture. • Merchandising. • Insight for Retail. com/ aboutadobe/ invrelations/ adobeandomniture. [6] Omniture (2008-10-14). thestreet. Retrieved 2008-06-21. • Publish. . The Guardian. a Web analytics code configuration monitoring tool. asp?guid=6FEE3873-90C4-43A0-8758-39014F6291BD). ars/ post/ 20071231-adobe-omniture-in-hot-water-for-snooping-on-cs3-users. • Genesis. • Test&Target. . DMNews. . . • DataWarehouse. • VISTA. com/ _googlen/ comment/ investing/ 10294082. for web content management. "Omniture acquires Touch Clarity" (http:/ / www. TheStreet. html). Charles (January 3. [3] Melissa Campanelli (2007-02-14). [9] Adobe (2009-10-26).com. [10] Arthur.Omniture 54 Products • SiteCatalyst. This has led to speculation that the domain name is used to trick users or firewall rules. com/ Omniture-acquires-Touch-Clarity/ article/ 94508/ ). "Omniture Deal Delights" (http:/ / www.[11] It is possible to opt-out of the Omniture data-collection system. A/B and MVT (multi-variate testing). co. • SearchCenter+ assists with paid search and content network optimization in systems such as Google's AdWords. cbronline.com. "Omniture Agrees to Acquire Mercado's Site Search and Merchandising Business" (http:/ / www. a third-party data integration tool (the majority of integrations work with SiteCatalyst). Microsoft Ad Center. com/ article_news. • Insight. "Adobe. html. marketwire. an advanced segmentation tool. apple). • SiteSearch. . com/ press-release/ Omniture-NASDAQ-OMTR-909349. guardian. html?cm_ven=GOOGLEN& cm_cat=FREE& cm_ite=NA). server-side analytics. dmnews. [4] Vishesh Kumar (2007-10-26). Omniture's software as a service application. 2008). Retrieved 2008-06-21. it was derived from Omniture's Visual Sciences acquisition in 2007. [8] Adobe (2009-10-23). • Discover. adobe. 2007). • DigitalPulse. uk/ technology/ 2008/ jan/ 03/ adobe. • Recommendations offers automated product and content recommendations. html). and Facebook Ads. to gather visitor sentiment.[10] Critics claim they do this by sending the information to a domain name that looks and sounds similar to an IP address used to connect to devices on the local network and not the Internet. Ars Technica. data warehousing of SiteCatalyst data. .[12] Omniture collects data from Apple[10] and Adobe. "Omniture buys website testing firm for $65m" (http:/ / www. a search and navigation offering for online stores. "What is Omniture. http:/ / www. com/ press/ 455 [2] William Gabrielski (2006-06-26). who use Omniture to collect usage statistics across their products. thestreet. omniture. omniture. drills down to the individual level of testing. adobe. derived from Offermatica[5] • Test&Target 1:1. http:/ / www. Omniture's latest offerings as of 2010 include some social media tracking capabilities. com/ news. an on-demand enterprise search product. Omniture in hot water for snooping on CS3 users" (http:/ / arstechnica. David (December 31. • Survey. html. and to block the tracking.com. [11] Chartier. com/ press/ 777. an Insight offering geared toward multiple online and offline retail channels. [5] Madan Sheina (2007-09-10). html). Omniture's main behavioural targeting solution. thestreet. . Yahoo! Search Marketing.[11] Omniture's SiteCatalyst and SearchCenter products use the 2o7. com/ story/ 10386826/ 1/ omniture-deal-delights. http:/ / www. offers Web analytics (client-side analytics). Computer Business Review. [7] Omniture (2009-9-15). Formerly called Discover on Premise. derived in part from Touch Clarity.net domain name. marketwire. a multichannel segmentation tool (both client-side and server-side analytics).

Retrieved 2008-06-21. such as the visitor purchasing an item or requesting a newsletter. A predetermined path of web site pages is specified and every visitor walking the path is a goal. In most web sites there is a same logic that can be applied. com/ en/ privacy/ 2o7). ranking the paths (sequences of pages) visited prior to the desired event. A web site owner also wants to analyze visitor behavior. Funnels and Goals Google Analytics provides a path function with funnels and goals. . Simply because people drink wine and eat nuts with it.net?" (http:/ / www. . but to look for the strongest paths. These strongest paths are typically shown in a graphical map or in text like: Page A --> Page B --> Page D --> Exit. Using maps The paths visitors walk in a web site can lead to an endless number of unique paths. looks at "black holes" on the site. The shop owner carefully analyzes his visitors and path they walk through his shop. web site owners want to guide visitors to the final sign-up page. "Fallout analysis. chips.official site Path analysis (computing) Path analysis. Next the shop owner will reorder his shells and products to optimize his sales by putting everything in the most logical order for his visitors. especially when they are selecting or buying products. For example if a web site offers products for sale. Omniture. in Internet website analytics.Omniture [12] "What is 2o7.com (http://www. In a supermarket this will typically result in the wine shell next to a variety of cookies. As a result there is no point in analyzing each path. Visitors who have questions about a product will go to the product information or support section of a web site. by descending frequency of use. 55 External links • omniture.com) . called an end point analysis. The precise order of pages visited may or may not be important and may or may not be specified. Path analysis answers typical questions like: Where do most visitors go after they enter my home page? Is there a strong visitor relation between product A and product B on my web site?." a subset of path analysis. etc. the owner wants to convert as many visitors to a completed purchase. paths or features that confuse or lose potential customers. this analysis is done in aggregate. nuts. From there they make a logical step to the frequently asked questions page if they have a specific question. If there is a sign-up form with multiple pages. or paths that lead to a dead end most frequently.omniture. In practice. Understanding visitors In the real world when you visit a shop the shelves and products are not placed in a random order. This approach is very helpful when analyzing how many visitors reach a certain destination page. omniture. The idea is to determine what features of the website encourage the desired result. is a process of determining a sequence of pages visited in a visitor session prior to some desired event. Questions that can't be answered by page hits and unique visitors statistics.

com/ 2008/ 12/ getting-the-most-from-path-analysis/ [3] http:/ / www. com [2] http:/ / blog. showArticleHomePage& art_aid=94308 . com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. bridgelinesw. movemetrics. mediapost.Path analysis (computing) 56 External links • MoveMetrics Path Analysis software [1] • Getting the Most from Path Analysis [2] • Is User Path Analysis The Right Path? [3] References [1] http:/ / www.

2008. "piwik Open Source web analytics added to SourceForge. infoworld. "Hosted Apps" (http:/ / sourceforge. more visually appealing graphs (using Flash).cc/offer/open-source-projects/google2piwik/) . net/ blog/ potm-200907/ ) [6] "Best of open source enterprise software" (http:/ / www.[5] In August 2009.3. Piwik was named among the best of open source enterprise in InfoWorld's 2009 Bossie Awards.net Hosted Apps" (http:/ / sourceforge.[6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / piwik.Piwik 57 Piwik Piwik Stable release Operating system Available in Type License Website 1. . and better performance. . [5] Project of the Month.4 / April 30. 2008-11-21. Following the stable release of phpMyVisites v2. piwik.org/) • Google2Piwik (http://clearcode. Retrieved 2010-12-20.[3] [4] Piwik was selected SourceForge. 2009-08-31. a module architecture allowing for plugins. External links • Official website (http://piwik. . The major differences being that Piwik would offer REST APIs. 2011 Cross-platform PHP Web analytics GPL (version 3) piwik. July 2009 (http:/ / sourceforge. . php?id=4148& page& replies=1). net/ apps/ trac/ sourceforge/ wiki/ Hosted Apps?version=1). 2009-01-10.org [1] Piwik is an open source web analytics system written in PHP.net's Project of the Month for July 2009. net/ community/ forum/ topic. the development team announced future efforts would be directed to Piwik. org/ "New Documentation: Differences between Piwik and phpMyVisites?" (http:/ / dev. Retrieved 2008-11-26. SourceForge. Retrieved 2010-12-20. org/ trac/ ticket/ 275). com/ d/ open-source/ best-open-source-enterprise-software-740& current=10& last=3#slideshowTop).net announced the availability of Piwik as a hosted application for developers.[2] On November 21. Retrieved 2008-09-23.

Internet bookmarks. In June 2011. Inc. the Atlantic 50 list of bloggers and columnists.com to focus the company's work more on the core PostRank technology. PostRank filtering has also been added to the Ad Age Power 150 list of marketing blogs. and activities from social network services such as Twitter. [2] .postRank 58 postRank PostRank Inc. which includes blog comments and links. is a collection of APIs and reports to provide real-time and data mining Social Web data to companies to use in applications. 2009. launched in September. and Facebook.com [1] PostRank is a social media analytics service owned by Google that uses a proprietary ranking algorithm to measure "social engagement". is a service for bloggers and online publishers to track where and how their audiences are sharing and organizing their content on the Social Web and perform competitive analysis. measure marketing. AideRSS re-launched their website as postrank. and the Read It Later bookmarking service. PostRank filtering is built into a Facebook app. Digg. and for strategic planning. page views. is a service for brands and public relations and marketing agencies to work with bloggers to run product campaigns and receive consulting services. Social media engagement metrics Operating system Cross-platform Type Website Web analytics postrank. Google Reader and WordPress plug-in. PostRank Connect. In addition to filtering on the website. 2010. launched in July 2009. In July 2009. The company was formerly called AideRSS. clicks. and the Top Posts Web widget. launched in August. In October 2008. The engagement metrics provide the data for several services. PostRank Data Services. postRank has been acquired by Google. the company officially changed its name to PostRank Inc. PostRank Analytics.

postrank. postrank. co. com [7] http:/ / wordpress. com http:/ / data. com/ people/ index/ [13] http:/ / readitlaterlist. zdnet. com [6] http:/ / connect. com [5] http:/ / analytics. com/ • http://digitalanalog. com [11] http:/ / adage. uk/ news/ mergers-and-acquisitions/ 2011/ 06/ 06/ google-buys-postrank-analytics-firm-40092996/ http:/ / www. com/ http:/ / www.postRank 59 External links • • • • • • • • • • • PostRank home page [3] PostRank Data Services home page [4] PostRank Analytics home page [5] PostRank Connect home page [6] PostRank WordPress plugin [7] PostRank Top Posts Widget [8] PostRank Google Reader extension [9] PostRank API Documentation [10] AdAge Power150 [11] The Atlantic 50 [12] Read It Later [13] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / postrank. postrank. com/ gr [10] http:/ / apidocs. org/ extend/ plugins/ wp-postrank/ [8] http:/ / labs. theatlanticwire. postrank. postrank. com/ power150/ [12] http:/ / www. com/ top_posts [9] http:/ / labs.in/2010/09/17/post-rank-a-must-for-the-bloggers/Digital Analog . postrank. postrank.

There are services available on the Internet that will syndicate your RSS feed and then track all requests made to their syndication of your RSS feed. The visitor's RSS feed activity can then be tracked accurately using standard web analytics applications. The problem with this method is that if the feed is syndicated by a search engine for instance then this will defeat the purpose of the unique URLs as many people could potentially view the RSS feed via a single URL. The problem with this method is that not all RSS feed aggregators will display images and parse HTML.This method requires heavy web server programming to auto generate a different RSS feed URL for each visitor to the website. These services come free and paid forms. Method 4 Estimating number of subscribers from the log files. Method 2 Third-arty services . This will give a rough estimate as to how many times the RSS feed has been viewed. it is difficult to track the usage of RSS feeds. Method 1 Transparent 1×1 pixel images . The problem with this method is that all analytical data about the feeds are controlled by the service provider and so not easily accessible or transferable.such as web browsers -. all with their own problems in terms of accuracy. History RSS feeds have been around since 1999 as a form of internet marketing.These images can be embedded within the content of the RSS feed by linking to the image which should be held on the web server. . This provides an estimate of actual readership. however unlike other forms of publishing information on the internet. The number of requests made can be measured by using the web server log files. Other readers -. Bloglines and Google Reader) include a number of unique users on whose behalf the feed is being downloaded in the HTTP request. Method 3 Unique URL per feed . although it is probably higher than the real number because people may sign up for accounts with multiple aggregators and never delete their subscriptions and because they may read the same feeds at different computers. Some aggregators (for example. Feed tracking methods have been growing in popularity Technology There are currently many methods of tracking RSS feeds.can be counted by noting the number of unique IP addresses that retrieve the file in a given period.RSS tracking 60 RSS tracking RSS Tracking is a methodology for tracking RSS feeds. or the same computer may have a different IP address at different times.

html . com/ measuring-tracking-rss. com/ 2007/ 05/ counting_rss_subscribers. rss4lib. sclanalytics. webanalyticmatt. com http:/ / www. com/ info/ effectively-tracking-rss-feeds http:/ / www. rss-specifications. feedburner. htm http:/ / www.RSS tracking 61 External links • • • • • Feed Burner [1] Tracking RSS subscribers [2] Tracking RSS [3] Tracking RSS Using a Web Analytics Tool [4] Counting RSS Subscribers [5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 05/ 01/ how-to-accurately-track-rss-subscribers/ http:/ / www.

ironport. net/ [2] Cisco IronPort Web Security Appliance Management (http:/ / www. com/ Readerschoiceeurope/ ). com/ products/ reporting/ index.[4] Sawmill was a second runner-up in the 2009 Streaming Media European Readers' Choice Awards. 1998 8. [4] SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting (http:/ / www. with dynamic contextual filtering. 2010 C Operating system Cross-platform Type Website Web analytics. as a turnkey on-premise system appliance. vicomsoft. network devices (switches & routers etc. php) reviews Sawmill. 'live' data zooming. com/ pdf/ web_sec_mgmt_ds.[5] Sawmill is listed in the Ideal Observer's Web Analytics Tool Overview [6] . downloaded 2009-11-23. html) contains a description of InterGate Intelligence. Sawmill analyzes any device or software package producing a log file and that includes web servers. Log analysis sawmill. A branded version of it is also sold by Cisco Systems as Sawmill for IronPort. a rebranded version of Sawmill.net [1] Sawmill is a software package for the statistical analysis and reporting of log files. syslog servers. mail servers. and custom calculated reports. References [1] http:/ / sawmill. Sawmill also includes a page tagging server and JavaScript page tag for the analysis of client side clicks (client requests) providing a total view of visitor traffic and on-site behavioural activity.[3] A branded version of it is also sold by SonicWALL as "SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting". com/ in/ 488_8564. and as a SaaS service.[2] A branded version of it is also sold by Vicomsoft Ltd as InterGate Intelligence. databases etc. [6] Ideal Observer's Web Analytics Tool Overview (http:/ / www. [3] Intergate Intelligence (http:/ / www. idealobserver. user interface customization.5 / June 2. with new formats added on request. streamingmediaglobal. firewalls. pdf) contains description of Sawmill for IronPort.Sawmill (software) 62 Sawmill (software) Sawmill Developer(s) Initial release Stable release Written in Flowerfire Inc. Sawmill also incorporates real-time reporting and real-time alerting. Available since 1997. a rebranded version of Sawmill. proxy servers. as a software package for user deployment. com/ web-analytics-tools/ index. .). Sawmill Analytics is offered in three forms. [5] Streaming Media European Readers' Choice Awards (http:/ / www. at this time Sawmill provides support for approximately 850 server log file formats. Sawmill is the OEM reporting engine sold by Blue Coat Systems as a bundled part of their proxy server product. sonicwall. html) contains a description of SonicWALL Aventail Advanced Reporting.1.

2008.sawmill.co. for universal web log analysis and reporting. he was named one of the Top CMOs on Twitter by Social Media Marketing Magazine[8] . Schulman has also evangelized[3] creating a "virtuous" marketing cycle through inbound marketing. a social media analytics firm. Prior to Eightfold Logic. Currently. retrieved 2009-11-27 • Tiscali review (http://www. Schulman sits on the board at Technology Leaders. Schulman is currently the chief marketing officer for Eightfold Logic[4] . Schulman was a founding board member of the Web Analytics Association[6] and was also the founder and CEO of one of the first software as a service (SaaS) companies. a New York-based web analytic consulting company. Schulman began popularizing the term "content engineer"[2] to describe marketing’s new role in creating. Keylime Software (acquired by Yahoo).html) from AWStats documentation • PC Magazine review (http://www.asp) of Sawmill 6 from 2001.co. he served as the general manager of Internet Products at Unica Corporation (acquired by IBM). In 2011.sawmill.19817. and one of the first practitioners of on-demand web analytics. • http://www. In 2005. Retrieved 2009-12-03.sawmill.com/article2/0. a business strategy consulting practice advising new media companies.uk/). After that.net/docs/awstats_compare.com/issues/2007_51/10001853-1. COMDEX and the Direct Marketing Association. and ViralHeat. author and speaker on the topic of new media and marketing. an inbound marketing company.html) of Sawmill 7 from Information Management Magazine. Distribution. He has been a board advisor[9] to Motally. • comparison of analytics software (http://awstats.sawmill.uk (http://www.information-management.2817.[1] Schulman is a founder and principal of Schulman+Thorogood Group. Schulman was named as one of the top 100 B-to-B marketing executives by BtoB Magazine in 2004[7] . Schulman served as chief marketing officer for InsideView and WebSideStory[5] (now part of Adobe Systems). a mobile analytics company acquired by Nokia. sales and support for the EMEA region. His past speaking experience includes South by Southwest (SXSW).sourceforge.00. distributing and optimizing the different types of content required to engage customers on the interactive web. Rand Schulman Rand Schulman is an American marketing executive. training. . Schulman holds a degree in English and Journalism from the University of the Pacific.net/). Along with his partner. Pelin Thorogood.net (http://www. helping lead the latter through its initial public offering. in 1997.Sawmill (software) 63 External links • http://www.pcmag. September 1.

zdnet. com/ ). edu/ alumni/ enterprise/ fall2010/ index. This gives a website web presence. and by employees who perform SEO services in-house. Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. Another class of techniques. BtoB (http:/ / www. or inbound links. com/ exclusives/ top-cmos-on-twitter/ ) [9] Crenk. org/ ). keyword stuffing and article spinning that degrade both the relevance of search results and the quality of user-experience with . Cornell Enterprise Online (http:/ / www2. (7/16/04) "Who's Who 2004" (http:/ / www. dll/ article?AID=/ 20061113/ FREE/ 711130724) [6] Web Analytics Association. including image search. images. (7/16/07) "Rand Schulman and Eric Enge Talk About Web Analytics" (http:/ / www. com/ ). com). (4/22/10) "Mobile Analytics Firm Motally Adds Executives from AdMob. (12/06/05) “Era of the Content Engineer” (http:/ / www. webanalyticsassociation. com/ blog/ saas/ era-of-the-content-engineer/ 71) [3] Thorogood. Eric. (11/13/06) "What exactly is Web 2. (5/17/10) "Enquisite Rebrands as Eightfold Logic. zdnet. shopping carts. com/ apps/ pbcs. videos. smmmagazine. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content. com/ apps/ pbcs. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks. btobonline. and more frequently a site appears in the search results list. cornell. The acronym "SEOs" can refer to "search engine optimizers. the actual search terms typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience.0?" (http:/ / www.org/) Search engine optimization Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. stonetemple. org/ ?page=aboutus) [7] BtoB. BtoB (http:/ / www. BtoB (http:/ / www. smmmagazine. johnson. crenk. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. com). com/ ). The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe website designs. (Fall 2010) “Birth of Customer 2. Richard. content management systems. dll/ article?AID=/ 20100517/ FREE/ 100519930/ 1001) [5] Karpinski. WAA (http:/ / www. menus. stonetemple. Crenk (http:/ / www.eightfoldlogic. edu/ alumni/ enterprise/ fall2010/ index. and other elements that have been optimized for the purpose of search engine exposure. dll/ article?AID=/ 20040716/ FREE/ 407160707) [8] Huffman. (1998-2011) “About Us . com).com) InsideView (http://www. is another SEO tactic. In general.schulmanthorogood. btobonline. Stone Temple Consulting (http:/ / www. Social Media Marketing Magazine (http:/ / www. btobonline. video search. cornell. the earlier (or higher on the page). what people search for. cfm?action=web_extra& web_extra_id) [4] Hosford. btobonline. webanalyticsassociation. Hires CMO" (http:/ / www. SEO considers how search engines work. news search and industry-specific vertical search engines. academic search[1] . Phil.com) Web Analytics Association (http://www.com) Schulman+Thorogood Group (http://www. Pelin. As an Internet marketing strategy. (3/29/11) "Top CMOs on Twitter" (http:/ / www. Kent.The WAA Story” (http:/ / www. Jupiter Research and M:Metrics to Board of Directors and Advisory Board" (http:/ / crenk. btobonline. Other forms of search engine marketing (SEM) target paid listings. com/ apps/ pbcs. uses methods such as link farms. cfm).0” (http:/ / www2." a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients. com/ mobile-analytics-firm-motally-adds-executives-from-admob-jupiter-research-and-mmetrics-to-board-of-directors-and-advisory-board/ ) External links • • • • Eightfold Logic (http://www. Christopher. johnson. com).webanalyticsassociation.insideview. SEO may target different kinds of search. local search.Rand Schulman 64 References [1] Enge. SEO tactics may be incorporated into website development and design. the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. known as black hat SEO or spamdexing. com/ articles/ interview-rand-schulman. ZDNet (http:/ / www. shtml) [2] Wainewright. btobonline.

Google says it ranks sites using more than 200 different signals. Graduate students at Stanford University. Page and Brin founded Google in 1998. known as an indexer. PageRank. as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency. developed "backrub. the phrase "search engine optimization" probably came into use in 1997. to the various engines which would send a "spider" to "crawl" that page. Search engines look for sites that employ these techniques in order to remove them from their indices. The number calculated by the algorithm. because the webmaster's choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site's actual content. buying. search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results. allowing those results to be false would turn users to find other search sources." a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. this means that some links are stronger than others. webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine. and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches. Initially.[3] The first documented use of the term Search Engine Optimization was John Audette [4] and his company Multimedia Marketing Group as documented by a web page from the MMG site from August. often on a massive scale. involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms. 1997. and return information found on the page to be indexed. or index files in engines like ALIWEB. as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer.Search engine optimization search engines. however. creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners.[6] Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag.[9] PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web. where a second program. incomplete. extract links to other pages from it. links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet [10] Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered users. extracts various information about the page. or link farms. who liked its simple design. which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date. search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation. Larry Page and Sergey Brin. 65 History Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s. In effect. and follows links from one page to another. Many sites focused on exchanging. To provide better results to their users. Although PageRank was more difficult to game.[11] By 2004. Meta tags provide a guide to each page's content. or URL. [5] The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing that phrase is by Bruce Clay effective March.[2] The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine's own server.[8] By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster's control. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable.[7] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines. 1997. and selling links. Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results. early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. as well as any weight for specific words. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search. and all links the page contains. headings. and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan. as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. meta tags. Some of these schemes. Inaccurate. such as the words it contains and where these are located. all webmasters needed to do was submit the address of a page.[12] The leading . rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters.

[28] [29] [30] Google has a Sitemaps program[31] to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website. Bing. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes. AIRWeb. and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences.[18] On June 15.[15] In 2005 Google began personalizing search results for each user. 2009. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results. Traffic Power.[24] was created to discuss and minimize the damaging effects of aggressive web content providers. the Wall Street Journal reported on a company.[16] In 2008. such as Infoseek. with the advent of paid inclusion. there is potential for an adversarial relationship between search engines and SEO service providers. In order to avoid the above. Aaron Wall and Jill Whalen. such as Rand Fishkin.[23] Yahoo and Google offices Due to the high marketing value of targeted search results. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization. Depending on their history of previous searches.[21] Real-time-search was introduced in late 2009 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. and seminars. chats. In 2005. Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links. and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords. some search engines now have a vested interest in the health of the optimization community. Matt Cutts. SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting. Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings. which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients. Bruce Clay said that "ranking is dead" because of personalized search. [20] In December 2009 Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results. Early search engines. In fact. announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way. Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results.[13] [14] SEO practitioners may also study patents held by various search engines to gain insight into the algorithms. Barry Schwartz.[27] Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry. In 2005. because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search.Search engine optimization search engines.[25] Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban. have studied different approaches to search engine optimization. and have published their opinions in online forums and blogs. Notable SEO service providers.[19] As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank. Google. a well-known software engineer at Google. adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings. an annual conference.[17] In 2007 Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank. Google . in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting. Flash and Javascript.[26] Google's Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients. do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages. It would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked.[22] 66 Relationship with search engines By 1997 search engines recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines. Google crafted results for logged in users. and Yahoo.

As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file. the Yahoo Directory and the Open Directory Project both require manual submission and human editorial review. When a search engine visits a site. Additionally. operate a paid submission service that guarantee crawling for either a set fee or cost per click. and how many pages have been indexed by their search engine.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. such as Google. and dynamic content. Adding relevant keywords to a web page's meta data. content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase. search engines sometimes have problems with crawling sites with certain kinds of graphic content. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically. In March 2007.[39] Increasing prominence A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. determine how many pages are in the Yahoo! index and view link information. webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots. but do not guarantee specific ranking within the search results. . Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled. flash files. Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam. and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled.txt file is then parsed.[32] Bing Toolbox provides a way from webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds. use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. The robots. a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine's database by using a meta tag specific to robots. Cross linking between [40] Writing pages of the same website to provide more links to most important pages may improve its visibility.[34] Two major directories.[40] Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site. Bing and Yahoo!. using the "canonical" meta tag[41] or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page's link popularity score. [38] Preventing crawling To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes.[35] Google offers Google Webmaster Tools. Some search engines. the robots. thus increasing traffic.txt file in the root directory of the domain. allowing users to determine the crawl rate.Search engine optimization guidelines are a list of suggested practices Google has provided as guidance to webmasters. will tend to improve the relevancy of a site's search listings. Not every page is indexed by the search engines. especially pages that aren't discoverable by automatically following links. Yahoo! Site Explorer provides a way for webmasters to submit URLs. notably Yahoo!. it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled.[36] Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls. 67 Methods Getting indexed The leading search engines.[37] Additionally. for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found.[33] Such programs usually guarantee inclusion in the database. so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic. including the title tag and meta description. portable document format files.

fixed the offending pages. Some industry commentators classify these methods. making efforts to deliver quality content to an audience that has requested the quality content. One infamous example was the February 2006 Google removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices. A search engine's algorithm takes this into account. and were restored to Google's list. (Some trading sites such as eBay can be a special case for this. Traditional marketing means have allowed this through transparency and exposure. referred to as spamdexing. and those techniques that search engines do not approve of and attempt to minimize the effect of. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine. and other Internet marketing strategies can be much more effective. building high quality web pages to engage and persuade. it will announce how and when the ranking algorithm will change a few months before changing the algorithm). White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility. however. generate a return on investment. depending on the site operator's goals. or positioned off screen. and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders. receive a very small share of their traffic from search engines. quickly apologized. in an invisible div.[50] It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic. White Hat SEO is merely effective marketing. but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. whereas black hats anticipate that their sites will eventually be banned once the search engines discover what they are doing.org[52] has suggested.[53] . or black hat SEO. in a twist of irony. search engines are not paid for organic search traffic. A successful Internet marketing campaign may drive organic traffic. or involve deception." Instead. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users. either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. and there are no guarantees of continued referrals. achieved through optimization techniques and not paid advertising.Search engine optimization 68 White hat versus black hat SEO techniques are classified by some into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design.[51] A top-ranked SEO blog Seomoz.[46] Both companies. However. not for search engines.[42] White hats tend to produce results that last a long time. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines.[45] although the two are not identical. to web pages.[43] An SEO tactic. rather than attempting to game the algorithm. technique or method is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines' guidelines and involves no deception. this is an important distinction to note. but it also may involve the use of paid advertising on search engines and other pages. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty.[47] As a marketing strategy SEO is not necessarily an appropriate strategy for every website. As the search engine guidelines[28] [29] [30] [44] are not written as a series of rules or commandments. and improving a site's conversion rate. setting up analytics [49] SEO may programs to enable site owners to measure their successes.[48] This includes paid search advertising which has its own version of SEO called ATO (Ad Text Optimization). such as Google's PageRank. Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines. their main sources of traffic are links from other websites. as either white hat SEO. or by a manual site review. Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods. and the practitioners who employ them. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden. a technique known as cloaking. "Search marketers. a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines' algorithms. addressing technical issues that may keep search engines from crawling and indexing those sites. either as text colored similar to the background. their algorithms change.

Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches." (http:/ / www. com/ articles/ metacrap. "Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co. 2001). requiring him to pay part of Google's legal expenses. Retrieved 2007-05-14. current-events. In most cases. and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007. com/ articles/ metacrap. against the search engine Google. [7] Cory Doctorow (August 26. October 17–20. KinderStart filed a lawsuit against Google over search engine rankings. mmgco. Google's share is often larger. webir. Google had an 85-90% market share in Germany. Japan. The Second International WWW Conference Chicago. Erik (2010). .[60] [61] Notes [1] Beel. "Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw-men of the meta-utopia" (http:/ / web. Journal of Scholarly Publishing. google. (Document Registration Number TX0005001745. Bela and Wilde. 2007 the United States District Court for the Northern District of California (San Jose Division) dismissed KinderStart's complaint without leave to amend. Western District of Oklahoma. 2004). searchenginewatch. regardless of language. US Library of Congress Copyright Office). "Who Invented the Term "Search Engine Optimization"?" (http:/ / forums.[57] That market share is achieved in a number of countries. [3] Danny Sullivan (June 14."[58] [59] In March 2006. SearchKing filed suit in the United States District Court. SearchKing's claim was that Google's tactics to prevent spamdexing constituted a tortious interference with contractual relations. Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages. The search engines' market shares vary from market to market. mmgco. Yandex and Seznam are market leaders. USA. org/ web/ 19970801004204/ www. archive. US Library of Congress Copyright Office) "The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / cocatalog. .Search engine optimization 69 International markets Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. On March 16. Otherwise. Kinderstart's website was removed from Google's index prior to the lawsuit and the amount of traffic to the site dropped by 70%. gov/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. when Google is not leading in a given market. Jöran and Gipp. (Document Number 19970801004204). org/ publications/ 2010-ASEO--preprint. and web hosting that provides a local IP address. the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same. 2002. thehistoryofseo. pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-18. html). loc. sciplore. South Korea. as does competition. See Google groups thread (http:/ / groups.[56] Legal precedents On October 17. . Naver. [6] (Document Registration Number TX0005001745. html) on 1997-08-01. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 1994. com/ campaign. Retrieved 2007-05-08. "Finding What People Want: Experiences with the WebCrawler" (http:/ / www. there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. Retrieved 2007-05-07. As of 2009. 2003. htm).[54] In markets outside the United States. and partially granted Google's motion for Rule 11 sanctions against KinderStart's attorney. the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise.[55] As of 2006. com/ campaign. com/ showpost. e-LearningGuru. htm) on 2007-04-09. e-learningguru. e-learningguru. com/ seo-interviews/ john-audette/ [5] (Document Number 19970801004204) "Documentation of Who Invented SEO at the Internet Way Back Machine" (http:/ / web. spam/ browse_thread/ thread/ 6fee2777dc17b8ab/ 3858bff94e56aff3?lnk=st& q="search+ engine+ optimization"& rnum=1#3858bff94e56aff3). cgi?Search_Arg=TX0005001745& Search_Code=REGS& PID=_BQjecgZXtqzP_qe3Szqb-aeqs& SEQ=20110101030626& CNT=25& HIST=1).[56] As of June 2008. Archived from (Document Number 19970801004204) the original (http:/ / www. com/ group/ alt. In 2003. net-abuse. Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu. [2] Brian Pinkerton. . org/ resources/ phd/ pinkerton_2000.[56] While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time. The most notable markets where this is the case are China. Yahoo! Japan. it is lagging behind a local player. there were only about five in Germany. the court granted Google's motion to dismiss the complaint because SearchKing "failed to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. archive. registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market. Search Engine Watch. [4] http:/ / www. On May 27. pp. org/ web/ 20070409062313/ http:/ / www. 176–190. php?p=2119& postcount=10). pdf). .

google. 2005). [25] David Kesmodel (September 22. Retrieved 2009-08-17. . . google. . bbc. Retrieved 2007-05-09. [23] Laurie J. . yahoo. py?answer=40318& topic=8514). htm).com. html). [36] "What is a Sitemap file and why should I have one?" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-05-09. H. . google. [32] "Yahoo! Site Explorer" (http:/ / siteexplorer. Retrieved 2007-05-08. . monash. stanford. [28] "Google's Guidelines on Site Design" (http:/ / www. co.com. Retrieved 2010-04-18. seomoz. . pdf [39] "Newspapers Amok! New York Times Spamming Google? LA Times Hijacking Cars. 2007. com/ 2009/ 12/ relevance-meets-real-time-web. Retrieved 2007-05-09. J. [9] Brin. "Efficient crawling through URL ordering" (http:/ / dbpubs. html?page=2167881). searchenginewatch. [12] Hansell. Brisbane. com/ support/ webmasters/ bin/ answer. . yahoo. (April 1998). stanford. com/ webmasters/ sitemaps/ login). Norway. . Retrieved 2007-04-18. 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. [43] Jill Whalen (November 16. org/ archives/ 2006/ 03/ google_sued_ove. mattcutts.com&format=b1) • Ask.com/en/docs/about/webmasters. com/ showPage. com/ 2100-1032_3-1011740. html?page=3595926). [46] Matt Cutts (February 4 2006)." article in The New York Times (February 12.html). [55] Greg Jarboe (2007-02-22). blog. grokdotcom.aspx?mkt=en-us&project=wl_webmasters& querytype=&query=&tmt=&domain=help. html). .hastingsresearch. [61] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: Google Sued Over Rankings—KinderStart.live. com/ community/ blogs/ webmaster/ archive/ 2009/ 02/ 12/ partnering-to-help-solve-duplicate-content-issues.com/2011/02/13/business/13search. org/ archives/ 2007/ 03/ kinderstart_v_g_2. Retrieved 2007-05-14. com/ whalen/ 2004/ 1116_jw1. . 2003). CNET. docstoc.html) • Bing Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. "The Battle Between Search Engine Optimization and Conversion: Who Wins?" (http:/ / www. .ask. "High Accessibility Is Effective Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / alistapart. . com/ webmasters/ seo. Retrieved 2007-05-10.nytimes. 2003. org/ article/ search-blog-stats#4). [60] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: KinderStart v. searchengineguide. [49] Melissa Burdon (March 13. . blog.Bing Community" (http:/ / www. Jefferson (2003-08-26). [44] "What's an SEO? Does Google recommend working with companies that offer to make my site Google-friendly?" (http:/ / www.. Retrieved 2007-05-15. "Ramping up on international webspam" (http:/ / www. "Black Hat/White Hat Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / www. . com/ docs/ 618281/ Order-(Granting-Googles-Motion-to-Dismiss-Search-Kings-Complaint)) (PDF). Retrieved 2007-04-18. Retrieved 2007-05-09. 2007). [42] Andrew Goodman.com.live. Retrieved 2007-05-09. . usatoday. co. .com/blog. 2007.com Webmaster Guidelines (http://about.com/l/us/yahoo/search/basics/basics-18. searchengineguide. Google Dismissed—With Sanctions Against KinderStart's Counsel" (http:/ / blog.com. com/ tech/ news/ 2003-08-25-google_x. com/ showPage. v. Forbes. .com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.com/blog. com/ blog/ ramping-up-on-international-webspam/ ). google. 2006.shtml) • " The Dirty Little Secrets of Search (http://www.Search engine optimization [41] "Bing . Google" (http:/ / blog. seomoz. html?page=3483941). Retrieved 2008-05-23. .yahoo. [59] Stefanie Olsen (May 30. seomoz. www. [53] "A survey of 25 blogs in the search space comparing external metrics to visitor tracking data" (http:/ / www. June 24. com/ alertbox/ search_engines. Third Edition . . Retrieved 2008-06-23. html?page=3625072). White hats at SES" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. mattcutts. useit. html). com.v7n. html?partner=rss). v7n. "Judge dismisses suit against Google" (http:/ / news. mattcutts. Inc. 2004). [54] Graham.com/help. searchenginejournal. blog.py?hl=en& answer=35769) • Yahoo! Webmaster Guidelines (http://help.com. "The search engine that could" (http:/ / www. bing. Retrieved 2007-05-09. Retrieved 2007-05-16. com/ technology/ 2007/ 04/ 29/ sanar-google-skyfacet-tech-cx_ag_0430googhell. searchenginejournal. 2007). "Recent reinclusions" (http:/ / www.com.org. an article from the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences. Retrieved 2008-06-10. useit. May 27. Retrieved 2008-06-23. . [58] "Search King. "Condemned To Google Hell" (http:/ / www. 71 External links • Google Webmaster Guidelines (http://www.bing. Click. "Stats Show Google Dominates the International Search Landscape" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. "Search Engine Showdown: Black hats vs. "Search Engine Optimizing for Europe" (http:/ / www. [52] "SEOmoz: Best SEO Blog of 2006" (http:/ / www. html). html).com v.com. [48] "What SEO Isn't" (http:/ / blog. com/ seomoz-best-seo-blog-of-2006/ 4195/ ). CIV-02-1457-M" (http:/ / www. .ericgoldman.com.org.Partnering to help solve duplicate content issues .html). forbes. A List Apart. London: Guardian. ericgoldman. docstoc.com. 2011) • Search Engine Optimization and User Behavior (http://www. Retrieved 2009-10-30. Retrieved 2007-05-09.Webmaster Blog .ericgoldman. [56] Mike Grehan (April 3.google. [51] Jakob Nielsen (January 9.com. . . htm). Search Engine Watch. Retrieved 2007-05-09. Google Technology. 2006). Retrieved 2007-05-09. Retrieved 2007-05-09. . . htm). . guardian. com/ 2007/ 03/ 13/ the-battle-between-search-engine-optimization-and-conversion-who-wins/ ). USA Today. Retrieved 2007-05-14. google. . Retrieved 2007-05-31. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 2006). ericgoldman. [57] Jack Schofield (2008-06-10). htm). mattcutts. [50] Andy Greenberg (April 30. SearchEngineWatch. [45] Andy Hagans (November 08 2005). January 3.org. aspx). "Search Engines as Leeches on the Web" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-05-15. . com/ showPage. "Google UK closes in on 90% market share" (http:/ / www. 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and Site meter decided to roll back its migration on September 14. and more.And More (http://www. On August 1. . com/ CSSessionReplay.aaroncook. This problem persisted for over 16 hours. The underlying data for the videos is recorded by web analytics tools. "Things you should know before using Sitemeter" [3] http:/ / conservablogs. bloggers noted[2] [3] that Site Meter had introduced tracking cookies for the SpecificClick. 2008. Site Meter Site Meter is a service which provides counter and tracking information for Web sites. This type of data can be useful in studying web site usability. 26/3/2007.[1] References [1] "CS SessionReplay" (http:/ / www.html) • August 1. net/ 2007/ 04/ 11/ things-you-should-know-before-using-sitemeter Michael Sync. etc. "StatCounter Says No!" [2] http:/ / michaelsync.com/2007/05/ site-meter-gets-brand-new-face-and-more. 2008 Internet Explorer Failure News (http://www.0 and v7. References [1] http:/ / blog. the date and time of their visit. it was revealed by Site Meter's rival tracking service StatCounter that they had been offered large sums of money to include advertising tracking cookies through their service. Site Meter provides Web site owners with information about their visitors. ForeSee Results. Complaints began immediately.com/general/ sitemeter-crashing-internet-explorer-sites-august-1-2008/) .com/) • Site Meter Gets A Brand New Face . Controversy In March 2007. On September 14. 25/3/2009. com/ 2007/ 03/ statcounter-says-no/ StatCounter Blog.net service. 11/4/2007.oneprojectcloser. and form entry. including mouse movements. html). customer behavior. including how they reached the site. "Did Sitemeter sell out to Spyware?" External links • Site Meter Web page (http://www. By logging IP addresses and using JavaScript or HTML to track visitor information. foreseeresults. Firefox and Safari users were not affected. 2008.0.Session replay 72 Session replay Session replay is a video replay of visitors' behaviors on a web site. statcounter. com/ EricOdom/ 2007/ 03/ 26/ did-sitemeter-sell-out-to-spyware/ Eric Odom. though reasons for the rollback are pending. Site meter attempted to migrate. clicks.[1] Soon. 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2011. Site meter experienced a system-wide bug that caused all sites displaying its tracking code to fail to load when browsed with Internet Explorer v6.sitemeter.

. Alexa Internet. "Twitter Marketing for Dummies" (http:/ / books.statcounter.[2] References [1] "Statcounter.com . 93. John Wiley and Sons.StatCounter 73 StatCounter StatCounter URL Commercial? Type of site Registration Alexa rank [www. Retrieved 21 May 2011. alexa. google. .com] yes Web traffic analysis Not required for basic access 157 (May 2011) [1] Current status Active StatCounter is a web traffic analysis tool. . [2] Kyle Lacy (2011).traffic statistics" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=2FI_suXXGJkC& dq=Statcounter& source=gbs_navlinks_s). com).. Inc. Access to basic services is free and advanced services can cost between $9 and $119 a month.com www. p.statcounter. Retrieved 21 May 2011. com/ siteinfo/ statcounter. May 2011.

LLC. org .org is a website analytics and visitor statistics service offered by TraceMyIP. TraceMyIP.org Developer(s) TraceMyIP. LLC.org TraceMyIP.TraceMyIP. Type License Website Website analytics.org 74 TraceMyIP.org [1] TraceMyIP. References [1] http:/ / www. Website statistics Proprietary TraceMyIP.

. unica. . unica. NetInsight is from the same family of tools as Unica NetTracker. unica.unica. unica. unica. "Unica Web Analytics" (http:/ / www. com/ "Affinium NetInsight . htm). History Unica Corporation acquires Sane Solutions [3] and the NetTracker software that becomes Affinium NetInsight. Microsoft SQL Server. "Page Tags and Log Files" (http:/ / netinsight.0 / September 2009 Operating system Cross-platform Type License Website Web analytics proprietary www. Affinium NetInsight was first released in June 2006. IBM DB2 or the Netezza appliance [7] . cfm).0. cfm). . The current version as of September 2009 is 8. "Unica Ships Affinium NetInsight" (http:/ / www. com/ news/ pr. . load process can read log files in virtually any format. NetInsight stores its processed log files in a database such as Oracle database. load methodology[2] to populate a database that can then be queried using a browser-based interface.com [1] Unica NetInsight is a web analytics application that utilises an Extract.0 Affinium NetInsight has been renamed to Unica NetInsight. "Open Data Warehouse" (http:/ / netinsight.Unica NetInsight 75 Unica NetInsight Unica NetInsight Developer(s) Stable release Unica Corporation 8. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] http:/ / www. com/ products/ enterprise-web-analytics. com/ Products/ Open. unica. proxy servers. MySQL. . "Unica Completes Acquisition of Sane Solutions" (http:/ / www. . dropping (along with the rest of the Unica products) the Affinium brand. cfm). With the release of version 8. unica.0 [5] Technology The NetInsight Extract.[4] at version 7.Open and Integrated" (http:/ / netinsight. com/ Products/ Open. com/ news/ pr. As well as processing normal server log files NetInsight can use log files derived from page tags to replace or augment log file data[6] . cfm?id=206). cfm?id=239). com/ Products/ Tags_and_Logs. transform. transform. including logs from web servers. streaming media servers and FTP servers. .

The current version as of December 2006 is 7.Unica NetInsight 76 External links • Unica Web Analytics (http://netinsight.webanalyticmatt.com/) Unica NetTracker Unica NetTracker is a web analytics application that processes web log files.sclanalytics. com/ 2007/ 03/ 26/ understanding-funnel-reports/ .1. Logs can be processed from web servers.com/products/Editions.com/info/web-analytics-roi-calculator) • Understanding Funnel Reports in NetTracker (http://www. History Unica NetTracker was first released in 1996 by Sane Solutions which was sold to Unica Corporation.unica.com/2007/03/26/ understanding-funnel-reports/) • Unica NetInsight User Group (http://netinsight. sclanalytics. streaming media servers and FTP servers.0 Unica announce end-of-life and end-of-support on December 31st. As well as processing log files NetTracker can use page tag data to augment log file data. Technology NetTracker processes log files in virtually any format using a custom log definition. 2011. It looks like it's going to be replaced by NetInsight. proxy servers. webanalyticmatt. htm http:/ / www. unica. sclanalytics.ning.cfm) • How To Use Affinium NetInsight Web Analytics to Improve Online Marketing Campaigns (http://www. com/ products/ enterprise-web-analytics. com/ resources/ howto/ proxy http:/ / www.com/resources/howto/onlinemarketing) • Affinium NetInsight ROI Calculator (http://www. NetTracker stores its processed log files in an internal database which is based upon SQLite. sclanalytics. com/ info/ web-analytics-roi-calculator http:/ / www. External links • • • • Unica Web Analytics Example Reports of Unica NetTracker's Proxy & Firewall Logfile Analysis [2] NetTracker ROI Calculator [3] Understanding Funnel Reports in NetTracker [4] [1] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.

IP address and/or User Agent String may be used as a proxy for a unique identifier placed in a cookie. For example a website may have 100 unique users on each day (day being the dimension) of a particular week. Then another increasing fraction of people regularly delete cookies from their machines—presumably both at home and at work. Since an increasing percentage of people in the United States (at least) now have access to a computer at home and at work or school. one cannot extrapolate the number of weekly Unique Users (only that the Unique User count for the week is between 100 and 700). time. . the website will create a cookie. If the cookie is present. However. and yet another large fraction use more than one browser on each of their machines.[2] Understanding Unique users numbers Similar to the TURF (Total Unduplicated Reach and Frequency) metric often used in television. Remember. the reported number of sessions or visits and pageviews are probably more accurate. Unique Users is a measure of the distribution of content to a number of distinct consumers. When cookies are used to track Unique Users. This means that for a typical news site. Cookie and/or Registration ID. the cookie value is captured. typically a month. With only this data. Limitations of Unique User Numbers Unique User counts for websites are typically counted by using cookies. for example. the reported unique users might overstate the number of different people by a factor of four. 2) Browsers set to not accept cookies will be ignored. When calculating movement of unique users through conversion funnel the same time period must be used at every step. And usually.[1] Unique users is a common measurement of the popularity of a website. radio and newspaper analyses. one may have to divide the reported total of unique users in half. the computer is identified by a "cookie" which is most often specific to an individual browser on that computer. often quoted to potential advertisers or investors. then 1) Cookie Flushing will cause Unique User numbers to be inflated. Greg Harmon of Belden Research says "may overstate" is a gross understatement. for those wishing to impress advertisers or investors. and measured over a standard period of time. The term "unique visitor" may be used instead of "unique user" but both terms have essentially the same meaning (see below). browsers.g. the website checks for the existence of a particular cookie. so that smaller group of people visits much more often and looks at more pages than the raw numbers would suggest. When a browser visits a website. A common mistake in using Unique User numbers is not adding Unique User numbers across the same different dimensions. On the plus side. If the cookie is not present. A Unique User metric is only valid for its given set of dimensions e. which people might typically visit more than once a day to keep up with breaking news." Note that where users are not allocated IP addresses dynamically (for example by dial-up Internet service providers). not a person. Unique Visitor A unique visitor has the same general meaning as unique user and is simply an alternative title for the statistic. it's just an identifier of a computer. a unique user (UU) is "An IP address plus a further identifier. this definition may overstate or understate the real number of individual users concerned. Sites may use User Agent.Unique user 77 Unique user According to IFABC Global Web Standards.

html) [2] Belden Associates (http:/ / beldenassociates. They typically compare those data with a Web site's own figures. Marketers rely heavily on comScore and the other major Web-measurement company. most only do this after a timeout period when they run out of available IP addresses. Both Web-measurement companies have gaps in their research. Calculation The number of Total Visits to a site divided by Unique Visitors results in the derived statistic "Average Sessions Per Unique Visitor" which tells a publisher how many times each Unique Visitor came to their site on average in the time frame of the report. counting each visitor only once in the time frame of the report. by requiring all Visitors to log-in to the site. 2. equivalent to the term "Reach" used in other media. Many log file analysis products also use a proxy for Unique Visitors in which they count multiple visitors from the same IP Address if they don't visit the site within the same 30-minute window. by placing a cookie on each Visitor's computer. This statistic is relevant to site publishers and advertisers as a measure of a site's true audience size. Because they use panels of Web users to gather data and then extrapolate. There are also Internet Service Providers (ISP). Some log file analysis software products calculate a proxy for Unique Visitors by counting the number of visitors from unique IP addresses. This statistic is a poor measure as it is distorted by two main factors: 1. This statistic results in a higher number than counting unique IP addresses. com/ 263. 0. writing the cookie ID to a database. thereby making one visitor look like many. htm) Unique visitor A unique visitor is a statistic describing a unit of traffic to a website. the results are estimates. Nielsen Online. that use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) which can provide their customers with a different IP addresses for each request they make from a site. thereby capturing the identity of each Visitor on each visit. com/ index. which results in the IP address proxy undercounting Unique Visitors. And both companies lack the capacity to measure total international audiences. such as AOL and cable modem providers. However. thereby causing the IP address proxy to overcount Unique Users. investing in . grb. and checking for the cookie on each Visitor's computer each time they visit. Advertisers study their data . uk. when trying to decide how to spend their online ad dollars. Average Sessions Per Unique Visitor is equivalent to "Frequency" used in other media.including a Web site's total visitors or page views and time spent on the site—to try to determine which sites are popular among particular demographic groups or in certain topic areas. The Unique Visitors statistic is most accurately measured in two ways with current technology: 1. but many of the users that share a single IP address may also use the same browser. Tracking the visitor's UserAgent (browser identification information) in addition to the IP address can help mitigate this. The companies are trying to address those shortcomings by looking for ways to increase the size and depth of their panels. but is not equivalent to Unique Visitors as there is no guarantee that a visitor from the same IP Address outside the 30-minute window is a different visitor than a previous Visitor within the window.Unique user 78 Notes [1] Jargon buster . Accuracy The science of tracking Internet usage is still far from perfect. Many consumers access the internet from networks that allow them to share a single IP address. such as news or sports. or 2.Graduate Recruitment Bureau (http:/ / www.

such as mobile-phone and television measures.johnsankey. as the two companies use different methodologies to measure their audience panels.ca/visitors.html) • Web Analytics Association Definitions (http://www.Unique visitor technology and expanding overseas. com/ article/ SB120874282224730191.pdf) . html External links • Visitor Estimation from Site Access Logs (http://www. disparities between comScore and Nielsen data are common. which is owned by the audience-measurement firm Nielsen.webanalyticsassociation. wsj.org/resource/resmgr/ PDF_standards/WebAnalyticsDefinitionsVol1. also is trying to combine its Web research with usage data from other media.[1] 79 References [1] http:/ / online. Nielsen Online. To complicate matters.

a web analytics accuracy whitepaper [4] Urchin 6 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics. Custom file formats can also be defined. blogspot.urchintools. Google released the next version called Urchin 6. html) [5] Urchin 6.com/urchin/usac. html [2] Hosted v software v hybrid web analytics tools (http:/ / www. While Urchin Software Corp.html) What is Urchin? (http://www.com/) Official List of Urchin Software Resellers (http://www. advanced-web-metrics. The result is more accurate web visitor data. In April 2008.[4] In February 2009. com/ 2008/ 04/ graduation-day-for-website-optimizer. blogspot.com/blog/2007/10/16/what-is-urchin/) . the Urchin 5 and prior analysis programs are still widely used and available today.advanced-web-metrics.com/blog/2007/10/17/ backup-your-ga-data-locally/) . 2010 Type Website Web analytics Google Urchin [1] Urchin is a web statistics analysis program developed by Urchin Software Corporation.blog article Back up your Google Analytics data locally (http://www. new UI and event tracking among other features. google. com/ urchin/ features. html) [7] Urchin 7 Key features (http:/ / www.com/urchin6/ about-urchin6/urchin-vs-google-analytics) .[5] Urchin 7 was released in September 2010 and includes 64-bit support. Urchin has become one of the more popular solutions for website traffic analysis. This is largely due to its scalability in performance and pricing model. As a hybrid.google. integrating AdWords. advanced-web-metrics. Urchin combines page tags with log file data to eradicate the limitations of each data collection method in [2] [3] isolation. html) External links • • • • • • Urchin 6 Webinar (http://www.google. com/ blog/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ hosted-v-software-v-hybrid-tools/ ) blog article [3] Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth (http:/ / www.blog article • Differences between Urchin Software and Google Analytics (http://www. google.000 / September 13.Urchin (software) 80 Urchin (software) Urchin Software Developer(s) Google Inc. Urchin is used to analyze web server log file content and display the traffic information on that website based upon the log data. html) [6] Urchin 7 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics. Google released Urchin 6.urchintools. particularly with ISPs and web hosting providers.[6] [7] References [1] http:/ / www. As a log file analyser.com/products/urchin-6-software/demo/) Resources for Urchin Customers (http://www.html) Official Urchin Software website (http://www. log file analyser or hybrid. was acquired by Google in April 2005. blogspot. Stable release 7. com/ 2010/ 09/ urchin-7-64-bit-released. com/ 2009/ 02/ urchin-65-is-now-available. Urchin software can be run in two different data collection modes.actualmetrics.5 announcement from Google (http:/ / analytics.com/urchin/index. Urchin processes web server log files in a variety of log file formats. com/ urchin/ index.advanced-web-metrics. com/ blog/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ accuracy-whitepaper/ ) .5.

Cable & Wireless. In its original incarnation. and EarthLink had just become a customer. the September 11 attacks and other factors caused the funding to collapse. the Urchin On Demand (hosted) version of the product was renamed Google Analytics and re-launched on Google infrastructure. which entailed a flat monthly rate of $5000 per Rocchio and Jason Senn at a trade show circa physical data center. Quantified was forced to lay off approximately 15 employees. the company was called Web Depot. the company was purchased by Google. Approximately 6 months after the acquisition. where it was offered for free. which was to be led by InnoCal Ventures and JMI Ventures. Money was left on the table. Urchin was approached by representatives of Google Inc. Corporate history Urchin was founded by Paul Muret and Scott Crosby in December 1995 in San Diego. the principals decided to revamp all business models and develop an in-house customer relationship management (CRM) system to keep track of things much more tightly. Sales steadily rose through spring 2005. An office was opened in Tokyo and employment reached approximately 40 total. In 2001. which had become fairly popular for its speed and efficiency at processing large web server log files. the company repaid its angel investors the money borrowed in 2001.Urchin Software Corporation 81 Urchin Software Corporation Urchin Software Corporation was a web analytics company based in Southern California. California. Verio. In 1998. a small venture capital firm called Green Thumb Ventures. including the two largest private employers in the area Sharp Healthcare and Solar Turbines. the four principals of the company decided to jettison the hosting and design elements of the business and focus solely on the Urchin software. and friends. Honda had standardized on it. Joahna (SLM) was launched. and built/hosted websites for various mostly San Diego companies. the company prepared to take on its A-series venture capital round. . The Site License Model Urchin founders Brett (right) and Scott Crosby (middle) with employees Paul Botto. In 2004. In 2002. Rackspace. and take out a loan from the original investors. after the "Quantified" name failed to catch on meaningfully. the service experienced overloading and new accounts were restricted for a number of months. The funding round came to approximately $1 million. and the ill-fated Winstar. In 2003. the service was again opened to the public and is currently the most widely used hosted web analytics system. However. over the next year. when the company was acquired by Google. At the same time. about a possible partnership. In August 2004 at the Search Engine Strategies trade show in San Jose. but stability was achieved. In April 2005. the sales force was streamlined. In the late 1990s and early 2000s. base salaries cut. Quantified grew rapidly on the strength of both the software and large contracts secured by Giacomino (Jack) Ancone and Brett Crosby. and many large hosting companies were enlisted 2000. At that time. close the Tokyo office. and a strong incentive plan enacted. Due to strong demand. Urchin was acquired in April 2005. After extensive re-engineering. the company changed its name to Urchin Software Corporation ("Urchin"). Quantified then took a round of angel funding from various family members. Among their major customers were Earthlink. Urchin was profitable for its remaining time as an independent entity. and became essentially debt-free.

He left Google in August 2005 to start Actual Metrics [1]. He is now a Software Engineer at Google. He is now a Senior Product Marketing Manager at Google. Paul Muret in 2001. most notably customer relationship management. Senior Account Executive. He is now Principal. He is now the VP of Sales at Brickfish. He is now a Staff Software Engineer at Google. • Bartholomew Fromm. • Mike Chipman. Brett Crosby. Chief Financial Officer then later Vice President of Corporate Development. President and later Vice President of Sales. Engineering Lead. He is now Enterprise Channel Development Manager. co-Engineering Lead. Partner Manager and Head of Channel Sales. • Doug Silver. Urchin co-founders Scott Crosby. com . • Jack Ancone. He is now a Systems Administrator at Google. at Google. head of internal systems. He is now a Manager in Site Reliability Engineering at Google.Urchin Software Corporation 82 Principals and key personnel Co-founders: • Scott Crosby. References [1] http:/ / www. • Brett Crosby. Jack Ancone. Chief Integration Engineer. New Business Development at Google. He is now an Enterprise Business Development Manager at Google. Rolf Schreiber. He is now a Director of Engineering for Google. Other employees included: • • • • Paul Botto. He left Google in April 2008 to become Director of Development for Actual Metrics [1]. • Jonathon Vance. Vice President of Business Development and later Vice President of Marketing. Hui-Sok "Nathan" Moon. He is now a Software Engineer at Google. • Paul Muret. Analytics. • Bill Rhodes. who wrote the first version of the Urchin software in 1997 and was Chief Executive Officer of the company. Sales Team/Bus Dev Lead. Software Engineer. Jason Senn. Systems Administrator. actualmetrics.

The specifying ranges or types of data let you limit the web log data that is analyzed. if users arrive on a web site and go back immediately (high bounce rate).Usage analysis 83 Usage analysis Usage analysis is any technique for understanding the usage statistics of something. R. When it comes to search engines. Search engines want their results to be highly relevant to web users to make sure that web users keep returning to the search engine for future searches. Cookies are used by search engines to maintain a history of a user’s search activity. chances are that it wasn’t relevant to their query in the first place. . However. Second Edition. References • Stokes. if a user repeatedly visits a web site and spends a long time on the site. relevant valuable sites get promoted while irrelevant sites get demoted. for example the web statistics of a website. And the best way to establish relevance to users is to know how they use web sites.(2009) eMarketing: The Essential Guide to Online Marketing. there is a high likelihood that it is extremely relevant. For example. Usage data Usage data is the most effective way of evaluating the true relevancy and value of a website. pp 86 Visit filter Visit filters which are used by Web log analysis software include or exclude all the data in a visit session. Quirk eMarketing (Pty) Ltd. letting you focus on relevant activity.

Technology Platform • LAMP (Linux. Apache. The system is designed to track occurrences of such threats. It tracks a visitor from the time he/she enters a domain until he/she leaves. it is also possible to add an external user with read-only access to each component of the account. • Visitor Experience Analysis: A complete analysis of each visitor who has visited a website. visitlab. • Remote Monitor Alerts: Webmasters are keen to know about the speed of the website page loading. Conversely. com/ wired/ archive/ 14. • Keyphrase Manager: Most visitors to a website end up following a link from a SERP for a specific keyphrase. Features • Click Fraud Analysis and Alert System: Online pay-per-click advertisers struggle with the threat of so-called Click fraud.VisitLab 84 VisitLab VisitLab is a Web analytics system with a rich user management framework. The system does a complete clickpath analysis. External links • VisitLab [1] homepage [2] • | Interview with CEO Vikas Kedia References [1] http:/ / www. VisitLab's keyphrase manager program enables the website marketing team to effortlessly analyse the performance of each keyphrase. VisitLab believes in the idea of 'infinite scalability' and the project developers have designed the system with hardware scalability and API stability as the two guiding philosophies. showing each page visited and duration of stay. 01/ fraud. They want to know if it meets some acceptable level and want to be alerted in case it falls below the set threshold. By setting preferences the advertiser can choose to receive email alerts about possible 'click-fraud'. The user management utility enables the website administrator to set access permissions for other users from the same organisation to different responsibilities of the account. MySQL. PHP) • PEAR classes support Visitlab is inactive now Visitlab is no more active. html . it is developed using open-source resources. • Account Management: Visitlab also includes an account management framework. wired. com [2] http:/ / www. Presently in a Free Beta stage.

JPEG. with Comscore and Vizisense being IMRB's key competitors. This event is known as a "click through". or video to maximize presence. PNG). the viewer is directed to the website advertised in the banner. References [1] http:/ / www. The system. Usually though. a joint effort of IMRB International and Internet and Mobile Association of India surveys over 6000 individuals across 8 metropolitan centers in India and tracks a variety of metrics such as time-on-site. in/ 2010/ 11/ 02/ stories/ 2010110251500900. exposure. SEC and location. When the advertiser scans their logfiles and detects that a web user has visited the advertiser's site from the content site by clicking on the banner ad.Web audience measurement 85 Web audience measurement Web Audience Measurement (WAM) is an audience measurement and website analytics tool that measures Internet usage in India. such as a newspaper article or an opinion piece. JavaScript program or multimedia object employing technologies such as Java. These images are usually placed on web pages that have interesting content. htm [2] http:/ / www. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser. In many cases. Web Rating Points factor multiple measures of Internet usage to provide a more comprehensive picture to web advertisers and attempts to standardize web analytics in India.[1] WAM uses audience measurement and is a continuous tracking panel study that provides cross sectional data on Internet usage segmented by gender. the advertiser sends the content provider some small amount of money (usually around five to ten US cents). thehindubusinessline. viewer clicks on the banner. com/ 2010/ 11/ 223-part-1-how-imrbs-web-audience-measurement-tracks-information/ Web banner A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web. sized 468×60 pixels. This payback system is often how the content provider is able to pay for the Internet access to supply the content in the first place. The advertisement is constructed from an image (GIF. Behavior is often tracked through the use of a click tag. This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. sound. medianama. reach and frequency of Internet usage. The web banner is displayed when a web page that references the banner is loaded into a web browser. Affiliates earn money usually on a CPC (cost per click) basis. This event is known as an "impression". design for an Indian context that tracks computers. When the Typical web banner. For every unique user click on the ad. often employing animation. banners are delivered by a central ad server. the affiliate earns money. The web analytics market in India is currently fragmented.e. although web banners differ in that the results for advertisement campaigns may be monitored real-time and may be targeted to the viewer's interests. Web banners function the same way as traditional advertisements are intended to function: notifying consumers of the product or service and presenting reasons why the consumer should choose the product in question. resulting in a revshare system and higher quality ad placement. advertisers use ad networks to serve their advertisements. either wide and short. Images are usually in a high-aspect ratio shape (i. .[2] This panel-based approach uses metering technology. Shockwave or Flash. or tall and narrow) hence the reference to banners.

such as Privoxy. The first web banner sold by HotWired was paid for by AT&T. Prodigy was unable to capitalize on any of its first mover advantage in online advertising. Prodigy used online advertising first to promote Sears products in the 1980s. banner ads were valued and sold based on the number of impressions they generated. a former media buyer with San Francisco advertising agency Hal Riney & Partners. (Of course.) Newer web browsers often include options to disable pop-ups or block images from selected websites. and then other advertisers. Rick Boyce. and was put online on October 27. Another way of avoiding banners is to use a proxy server that blocks them. a now defunct law firm with a Silicon Valley office. including AOL. or AdThwart for Google Chrome and ie7pro for Internet Explorer. introduced by GoTo. The first clickable web ad (which later came to be known by the term "banner ad") was sold by Global Network Navigator (GNN) in 1993 to Heller. Andrew Anker was HotWired's first CEO. This approach to banner ad sales proved successful and provided the economic foundation for the web industry from the period of 1994 to 2000 until the market for banner ads "crashed" and there was a radical revaluation of their value.[3] Another source also credits Hotwired and October 1994. Web browsers may also have extensions available which block banners.Web banner Many web surfers regard these advertisements as highly annoying because they distract from a web page's actual content or waste bandwidth. Without attracting attention it would provide no revenue for the advertiser or for the content provider. He stated that he believed that only a direct response model—in which the return on investment of individual ads was measured—would prove sustainable over the long run for online advertising. [1] GNN was the first commercially supported web publication and one of the very first web sites ever. and first introduced the concept of a clickable/trackable ad. Ken McCarthy mentored Boyce in his transition from traditional to online advertising. White and McAuliffe. 1994. the purpose of the banner ad is to attract attention and many advertisers try to get attention to the advert by making them annoying.[4] In May 1994. 86 History The pioneer of online advertising was Prodigy. HotWired was the first web site to sell banner ads in large quantities to a wide range of major corporate advertisers. but has Coors' "Zima" campaign as the first web banner. one of Prodigy's direct competitors.com (later Overture. Ehrman. spearheaded the sales effort for the company.[2] HotWired coined the term "banner ad" and was the first company to provide click through rate reports to its customers. The new online advertising model that emerged in the early years of the 21st century. . then Yahoo and mass marketed by Google's AdWords program). relies heavily on tracking ad response rather than impressions. a company owned by IBM and Sears at the time. for example Adblock Plus for Mozilla Firefox. In spite of this prediction.

Name Width / px Height / px Aspect ratio Rectangles and Pop-Ups Medium Rectangle 300 Square Pop-Up Vertical Rectangle Large Rectangle Rectangle 3:1 Rectangle Pop-Under 250 240 336 180 300 720 250 250 400 280 150 100 300 1.67 1.09 . Note: This illustration is reduced in size.2 1.4 Banners and Buttons Full banner Half banner Micro bar Button 1 Button 2 Vertical banner Square button Leaderboard 468 234 88 120 120 120 125 728 60 60 31 90 60 240 125 90 7. they are:[5] IAB standard ad sizes.2 3 2.Web banner 87 Standard sizes Ad sizes have been standardized to some extent by the IAB. Sizes in bold are part of the IAB's Universal Ad Package.8 3. See actual sizes [6] .84 1.9 2.33 2 2 1 8.2 1 1.

derives indicators about who. wikipedia. org/ wikipedia/ commons/ 4/ 43/ Standard_web_banner_ad_sizes. and based on the values contained in the log file.. Chapter Seven: 'Hotwired Publishing on the Web' (pp 300-308) ISBN 0471171875 [3] http:/ / adage. Apress. Digital Advertising! [4] Chapman. In search of stupidity: over 20 years of high-tech marketing disasters (2nd Edition) . Interactive Advertising Bureau. and how a web server is visited. wikimedia. [6] http:/ / upload. iab. Common Indicators • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Number of visits and number of unique visitors Visits duration and last visits Authenticated users. but the log files can alternatively be parsed to a database and reports generated on demand. Usually reports are generated from the log files immediately. org/ wiki/ Heller_Ehrman [2] Reid.000 Days that Built the Future of Business. com/ 2008-09-26/ business/ 17158078_1_san-francisco-s-heller-ehrman-legal-industry-same-sex-marriages http:/ / en.Web banner Skyscrapers Wide skyscraper Skyscraper Half page ad 160 120 300 600 600 600 3. which use pattern matching to examine selected log data. ISBN 1-59059-721-4 [5] "Ad Unit Guidelines" (http:/ / www.75 5 2 88 References [1] http:/ / articles. com/ digitalnext/ post?article_id=139964 Happy Birthday. visit time and page navigation. Robert H. Architects of the Web: 1. sfgate. asp). conversion tracking. Features supported by log analysis packages may include "hit filters". John Wiley & Sons. Merrill R. svg Web log analysis software Web log analysis software (also called a web log analyzer) is a simple kind of Web analytics software that parses a log file from a web server. entry and exit pages Files type OS used Browsers used Robots HTTP referrer Search engines. (1997). . when. key phrases and keywords used to find the analyzed web site HTTP errors Some of the log analyzers also report on who's on the site. . and last authenticated visits Days of week and rush hours Domains/countries of host's visitors Hosts list Number total pageviews Most viewed. net/ standards/ adunits.

Coremetrics. com/ Business_and_Economy/ Business_to_Business/ Communications_and_Networking/ Internet_and_World_Wide_Web/ Network_Management/ Traffic_Management/ Log_Analysis_Tools/ Titles/ [2] http:/ / dir. such as one specific page being viewed mostly by people in a particular country. Some companies offer advertising schemes that. but images are also files. for example. . Omniture. yahoo. This is determined by the number of visitors and the number of pages they visit. an automatically generated list of all the pages served. Web traffic is also sometimes measured by packet sniffing and thus gaining random samples of traffic data from which to extrapolate information about web traffic as a whole across total Internet usage. The page itself is Example graph of web traffic at Wikipedia in considered a file. which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase. highlight security problems or indicate a potential lack of bandwidth — not all web traffic is welcome. In a commercial context. It is a large portion of Internet traffic. The following types of information are often collated when monitoring web traffic: • The number of visitors. and Google Analytics. Sites also often aim to increase their web traffic through inclusion on search engines and through Search engine optimization. A hit is generated when any file is served.Web log analysis software 89 External links • Log Analysis category [6] at Open Directory Project • Log Analysis Tools category [1] at Yahoo Directory [2] References [1] http:/ / dir. Measuring Web Traffic Web traffic is measured to see the popularity of web sites and individual pages or sections within a site. Notable vendors of web analytics software and services include: Webtrends. com Web traffic Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a web site. it especially refers to the measurement of which aspects of the website work towards the business objectives of Internet marketing initiatives. pay for screen space on the site. Analyzing Web Traffics Web analytics is the measurement of the behavior of visitors to a website. thus a page with 5 images December 2004 could generate 6 hits (the 5 images and the page itself). Web traffic can be analyzed by viewing the traffic statistics found in the web server log file. A page view is generated when a visitor requests any page within the web site – a visitor will always generate at least one page view (the main page) but could generate many more. in return for increased web traffic (visitors). Sites monitor the incoming and outgoing traffic to see which parts or pages of their site are popular and if there are any apparent trends. yahoo. There are many ways to monitor this traffic and the gathered data is used to help structure sites. Tracking applications external to the web site can record traffic by inserting a small piece of HTML code in every page of the web site.

It is also possible to increase (or.[2] It is also possible to limit access to a web server both based on the number of connections and by the bandwidth expended by each connection. • Average visit duration – the total length of a user's visit. 90 Controlling web traffic The amount of traffic seen by a web site is a measure of its popularity. The re-election campaign site for U. President George W. On Apache HTTP servers. . Bush (GeorgeWBush. Web sites like Alexa Internet produce traffic rankings and statistics based on those people who access the sites while using the Alexa toolbar. possibly because they like it or find it useful. on 25 October 2004 after a reported attack on the site. broken links or the exit pages may have a popular external link • Top paths – a path is the sequence of pages viewed by visitors from entry to exit.S.Web traffic • The average number of page views per visitor – a high number would indicate that the average visitors go deep inside the site. such as by geographic location. The host can track the (apparent) source of the links and determine which sites are generating the most traffic for a particular page. Some site administrators have chosen to block their page to specific traffic. Limiting access It is sometimes important to protect some parts of a site by password. but their reports are available only by subscription. in some cases decrease) the popularity of a site and the number of people that visit it. The difficulty with this is that it's not looking at the complete traffic picture for a site. By analysing the statistics of visitors it is possible to see shortcomings of the site and look to improve those areas. As a rule the more time they spend the more they're interested in your company and are more prone to contact. allowing only authorized people to visit particular sections or pages. The more pages viewed.S. the better it is for your company.com [1]) was blocked to all internet users outside of the U. Large sites usually hire the services of companies like Nielsen NetRatings. • Average page duration – how long a page is viewed for. this is accomplished by the limitipconn module and others. • Domain classes – all levels of the IP Addressing information required to deliver Webpages and content. • Busy times – the most popular viewing time of the site would show when would be the best time to do promotional campaigns and when would be the most ideal to perform maintenance • Most requested pages – the most popular pages • Most requested entry pages – the entry page is the first page viewed by a visitor and shows which are the pages most attracting visitors • Most requested exit pages – the most requested exit pages could help find bad pages. with the top paths identifying the way most customers go through the site • Referrers.

These crawling programs (crawlers) are also known as "spiders" or "robots". Google.Web traffic 91 Increase web site traffic Web traffic can be increased by placement of a site in search engines and purchase of advertising. crawlers might take days. Each subsequent result gets between 30% and 60% of the clicks of the previous one. as of the end of 2004 had indexed over eight billion pages. Web traffic can also be increased by purchasing non-internet based advertising. Organic traffic can be generated or increased by including the web site in directories. and award sites. Because of the huge amount of information available on the web. As opposed to pay-per-click. Even having hundreds or thousands of servers working on the spidering of pages. Consequently. Then. the top result gets between 5% and 10% of the clicks. According to some studies . This is caused by more file requests going to the server than it can handle and may be an intentional attack on the site or simply caused by over-popularity. Denial of service attacks Denial-of-service attacks (DoS attacks) have forced web sites to close after a malicious attack. Viruses have also been used to co-ordinate large scale distributed denial-of-service attacks. Very few people go past the first page. Usually. they index the page URL and the page title. Large scale web sites with numerous servers can often cope with the traffic required and it is more likely that smaller services are affected by traffic overload. There are some companies which specialize in search engine marketing. weeks or months to complete review and index all the pages they find. it is becoming common for webmasters to get approached by "boiler-room" companies with no real knowledge of how to get results. the odds of someone finding it diminishes greatly (especially if there is other competition on the first page). a complete reindexing takes its time. pop-up ads. In most cases the best way to increase web traffic is to register it with the major search engines. for example. Traffic overload Too much web traffic can dramatically slow down or even prevent all access to a web site. . usually sorted by relevance according to the search engine algorithms. Crawlers start at the registered home page. as search engines work by "crawling" registered web sites. to get to pages inside the web site (internal links). search engine marketing is usually paid monthly or annually. the top organic result gets most of the clicks from web users. This indicates that it is important to appear in the top results. Organic traffic Web traffic which comes from unpaid listing at search engines or directories is commonly known as "organic" traffic. when a search engine user looks for a particular word or phrase. If a web page is not listed in the first pages of any search. In most cases they also index the web page header (meta tag) and a certain amount of the text of the page. search engines. and in-page advertisements. and the percentage that go to subsequent pages is substantially lower. including bulk e-mail. and usually follow the hyperlinks it finds. That is why some pages recently updated in certain web sites are not immediately found when doing searches on search engines. getting proper placement on search engines is as important as the web site itself. flooding the site with more requests than it could cope with. and most search engine companies cannot promise specific results for what is paid to them. In every case. the search engine looks into the database and produces the results. However. guides (such as yellow pages and restaurant guides). Crawlers start gathering information about those pages and storing it and indexing it in the search engine database. Just registering does not guarantee traffic.

2004 (NASDAQ: WSSI). ibm. Rich (2004-10-26). a quickly propagating email. com/ archive/ 2003/ 05/ 08/ 20030508e-b09. netcraft. georgewbush. A news item in the media. Tom (1 March 2001). This time. 1996 as a website traffic analysis tool and links directory to market the web analytics product Hitbox and HBX.Web traffic 92 Sudden popularity A sudden burst of publicity may accidentally cause a web traffic overload. founded by Blaise Barrelet on September 10. . Business Model History WebSideStory was hoping to sell the service for a small monthly amount of money but most web site owners refused to pay anything back then. California. com/ archives/ 2004/ 10/ 26/ bush_campaign_web_site_rejects_nonus_visitors. "The Dangers of Having a Good Idea" [5] – A BBC News [6] look at the case of freelance journalist Glenn Fleishman after his site was linked to from MacCentral – retrieved 7 July 2005 LINK NO LONGER WORKS Footnotes [1] http:/ / www. Websidestory never received traditional angel and VC investments but made real money and became instantly profitable by displaying banners on their top adult web site list. Unlike all other Internet startups from the late 90s. "Bush Campaign Web Site Rejects Non-US Visitors" (http:/ / news. bbc. or a link from a popular site may cause such a boost in visitors (sometimes called Slashdot effect) References • Malacinski. WebSideStory decided then to offer a limited version for FREE in exchange for a small banner on each site they monitored traffic for. stm WebSideStory WebSideStory. com [2] Miller. The company went public on September 28. As the rest of the web developed. this is the start of the HBX product line. In the late 1999. These sites were the only ones showing huge amount of traffic that could be converted into advertising revenue.00. "Measuring Web Site Traffic" [4] at ComputerWorld. com/ managementtopics/ ebusiness/ story/ 0. it stopped providing its free version of the Hitbox and its associated advertising revenues. co. html). they quickly started to advertise banners on their other site lists.[1] WebSideStory was headquartered in San Diego. On May 9. they offered to pay in exchange of more in depth statistics and refused to display the traditional Hitbox banner. was acquired by Omniture (NASDAQ: OMTR) for $394 million. Inc. large brick and mortar businesses decided to use WebSideStory's Hitbox on their growing Internet entities. html [6] http:/ / news. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 2995343. Scott & Hartrick. Andrei. html [5] http:/ / www. Surfers who clicked on the banner would be directed to a top list of web sites owned by WebSideStory.com – retrieved 1 January 2005 • Ward. Inc. the company rebranded itself as Visual Sciences. Inc. The company went public and . thisdayonline. computerworld. "Measuring Web traffic" [3] at IBM – retrieved 1 January 2005 • Machlis.71989.. In January 2008 Visual Sciences. 2007. Sharon (17 June 2002). Mark (5 May 2003).10801. com/ developerworks/ web/ library/ wa-mwt1/ [4] http:/ / www. Once WebSideStory was financially sound. [3] http:/ / www-106. Dominick.

Google Website Optimizer allows webmasters to test entire pages.com/) Google Website Optimizer Google Website Optimizer is a free website optimization tool that helps online marketers and webmasters increase visitor conversion rates and overall visitor satisfaction by continually testing different combinations of website content. product reviews.com/ google-website-optimizer-joomla) . This tool is part of Google Analytics. Visual Sciences was acquired by Omniture in 2007 and as of October 2009 Omniture was acquired by Adobe Systems Incorporated. it uses the Google analytics scripts. It can be used at multiple stage in the conversion funnel. 93 References [1] Omniture Press Detail: Omniture to Acquire Visual Sciences (http:/ / www. References [1] "Website Optimizer" (http:/ / www. fonts. point of action assurances.com/doc/1G1-123331863. google.WebSideStory eventually purchased Visual Sciences and took their name.com/websiteoptimizer/) • Open Source Google Website Optimizer Extension for Joomla (http://www. known as A/B testing or page elements. headlines. images or body copy. Google.pearl-group. product copy. and forms.google. known as Multivariate testing such as Headings. though accessed through a different user interface. com/ press/ 417) External links • WebSideStory goes public (http://www. com/ websiteoptimizer/ ). As it is part of Google Analytics. External links • Google website optimizer (http://services. .[1] Google Website Optimizer can test any element that exists as HTML code on a page including calls to action. omniture. product images.omniture.highbeam. Retrieved 2010-12-14.html) • Omniture (http://www.

Analytics.S.[2] Products Webtrends is a Web analytics suite available in both software and software as a service models. On Demand & On Premises Visitors Data Mart. Visitor Data Mart. direct mail campaign data. allowing the administrator to select specific information to present. Webtrends Visitor Data Mart at the core of this tool is comprehensive "Interest Profile" that combines a person's online behavior with offline customer data. Webtrends Apps Marketing Channel Data Webtrends Ads In addition. For example. and requires the administrator to understand HTML. JavaScript and other Web technologies in detail. United States. e-mail response rates. Oregon. The report presentation interface is highly configurable. Key people Products Website Alex Yoder. or other custom metrics as needed. It provides web analytics and other software solutions related to marketing intelligence. Based on data captured. which collects and presents information about user behavior on web sites as well as mobile devices running various operating systems. • Log File Analysis . This insight. Working Technology There are two main technological approaches to collecting the data.webtrends. gives enterprise organizations the ability to . U. combined with analysis and multi-dimensional reporting.com [1] Webtrends is a private company headquartered in Portland. user performance data such as click heat mapping. It has a large number of configuration parameters. DW Webtrends Webtrends Optimize Webtrends Social Measurement. the products can be classified into: Data Captured Client/Server Side Data Data Warehouse Usability Testing Data User behavioural Data Webtrends Solution Offerings Webtrends Analytics. The company was founded in 1993 and now serves more than 10. Apps.Webtrends 94 Webtrends Webtrends Type Industry Founded Private Web Analytics 1993 Headquarters Portland.Reads the log files in which the web server records all its transactions. Optimize www. CEO Ads. and can present a large variety of data and analyses on many different kinds of web sites. sales and lead information. Oregon. such as CRM or demographics to build insight into a person over time. • Page Tagging .uses JavaScript on each page to notify a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser.000 large and small firms. The software presents these results through a web based graphic user interface. other data sources may also be added to augment the data.

Retrieved 2009-07-03.5 million. com/ apps/ pbcs. com/ press-release/ Webtrends-Acquires-Social-Marketing-Company-Transpond-1302371. com/ commuting/ 2009/ 07/ new_max_ad_should_cyclists_pay.com/portland." (http:/ / blogs. webtrends. com/ portland/ stories/ 2007/ 10/ 29/ daily29. raising $45. com/ blog/ 2009/ 07/ 30/ we-acquired-widemile-a-leader-in-multivariate-testing-optimization-and-targeting/ ). [7] "Webtrends appoints new president-CEO" (http:/ / www. The product was rebranded as Webtrends Apps at the time of the announcement. 2009. [4] Earnshaw. Retrieved 2008-08-21. Aliza (2007-10-31). btobonline. in December 2006.[11] References [1] http:/ / www. 95 Corporate history W. 2007. The offering was re-branded as Webtrends Dynamic Search. with strident opinion on both sides of the debate.com/portland. an automated optimization solution in online advertising. The ad asked.[3] In 1999 they took it public. 2008-08-19. intelligententerprise. [8] Webtrends acquired San Francisco based Transpond. a leader in multivariate testing. . Glen Boyd and Eli Shapira founded the company in 1993. 2006-12-05. oregonlive. a provider of multivariate testing and targeting on July 30th.bizjournals. .bizjournals. 2009-07-02. "Should Cyclists Pay A Road Tax?". bizjournals.We acquired Widemile. Retrieved 2010-11-25. com [2] Kemelor. Webtrends launched a transit ad campaign revolving around whether or not cyclists should pay a road tax.[3] :) Acquisitions Webtrends acquired ClickShift. [5] "Webtrends Acquires ClickShift" (http:/ / www.Webtrends answer questions that are critical to improving marketing ROI. "Webtrends CEO gone" (http:/ / www. com/ portland/ stories/ 2007/ 10/ 29/ daily39. com/ portland/ stories/ 2006/ 12/ 04/ daily2. Retrieved 2008-02-07. which includes its analytics and marketing warehouse products. html). The product was rebranded and relaunched as Webtrends Optimize the day the acquisition was made public. Retrieved 2010-11-25. 2006-12-04. optimization.[3] The CEO plus three top vice presidents were asked to leave on October 31. then sold it to Francisco Partners four years later for $94 million. html).[5] ClickShift's technology was integrated into Webtrends' Marketing Lab suite. BtoB Online. dll/ article?AID=/ 20080819/ FREE/ 991465). marketwire. www. . a maker of social microsites and applications that can be distributed over the web or Facebook. Retrieved 2007-11-03.[3] In 2001 California company NetIQ bought Webtrends for $1. [6] "Webtrends Buys Optimization Firm ClickShift" (http:/ / www. html). the product was relaunched as Webtrends Ad Director.[10] Both drivers and the cycling community reacted strongly to the ad. Intelligent Enterprise. [7] Webtrends acquired Seattle based Widemile.[11] The aim of the campaign was to demonstrate the ability of the company's Web analytics to track the resulting online commentary around the issue." (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-01-31. www. later reports indicated the change signaled a long-term move. . . . . www. "Webtrends sale not imminent" (http:/ / www. [9] "Webtrends Acquires Social Marketing Company Transpond. jhtml?articleID=199700517). "Put to the Test: Webtrends Analytics 8" (http:/ / www. . [8] "Official Webtrends Company Blog . html).1 billion in stock. bizjournals. [9] Controversy In 2009.[4] Although there was initial speculation the company was to be quickly sold to its largest competitor. . [3] Earnshaw.bizjournals. Aliza (2007-11-01). marketingvox. [10] "New full-train MAX ad asks: Should cyclists pay road tax?" (http:/ / blog. Phil (2007-05-21). htm). com/ archives/ 2006/ 12/ 05/ webtrends-buys-optimization-firm-clickshift/ ).com/portland. com/ showArticle. Retrieved 2008-03-06. [6] In August 2008. bizjournals. and targeting. . Retrieved 2007-11-03. MarketingVOX. webtrends.

Webtrends [11] Rogoway. Mike (Thursday July 02. "Ads on bike tax have cyclists fuming" (http:/ / www. how well they were persuaded. The information that is gathered allows webmasters to make informed decisions about making changes in order to improve a website. Win-loss analytics vs. .com. marketing has been mostly concerned with targeting with the masses. 2009). and the results of marketing have traditionally been more difficult to accurately measure. These tools provide a bird's eye view of a website's traffic. it is much easier for marketers to collect data for analysis and evaluation in order to understand and demonstrate the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of their efforts and to make changes to improve them. This information allows web teams to improve the website's navigation and content. identify individuals that are more likely to convert. oregonlive. . ssf/ 2009/ 07/ ads_on_bike_road_tax_have_bike. OregonLive. html). uncovering who the visitor was. where measurement of conversion has always been possible through sales data. web analytics Web analytics tools have existed since the early days of the internet and are now ubiquitous. and why they did or didn't convert. com/ business/ index. With the internet. what products they were qualified for. In contrast. to improve marketing efforts History Determining why one person engaged in a desired action and another did not has long been a topic of interest in sales. Win-loss analytics tools track the individual perspectives of each visitor. 96 Win–loss analytics Win-loss analytics involves identifying and analyzing the reasons why a visitor to a website was or wasn't persuaded to engage in a desired action (conversion).

com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 10/ 12/ AR2009101203088.Woopra 97 Woopra Woopra iFusion Labs LLC Type Industry Founded Web Services Technology Dallas. html) . Texas (2008) Headquarters . where 200 invitations were distributed to attendees. com/ GeekBrief on Woopra (http:/ / www. woopra. washingtonpost. Google Analytics. geekbrief. techcrunch. The service is provided in real-time using a desktop application. com/ 2008/ 03/ 30/ woopra/ ) Woopra Opens Its Doors For Live Web Analytics (http:/ / www. tv/ introducing-woopra-youre-gonna-want-it) TechCrunch on Woopra (http:/ / www. As part of the launch a video of a live demonstration and an interview with CEO John Pozadzides conducted by Cali Lewis was published online. CEO Lorelle VanFossen. Launch Woopra was unveiled as a closed beta at WordPress's WordCamp Dallas on March 29. Chief Technology Officer and Co-Founder John Pozadzides.com [1] Products Website Woopra (pronounced /ˈwuːprə/) is a web analytics service offered by iFusion Labs LLC that generates live detailed statistics about the visitors to a website. USA Key people Elie Khoury.[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.[2] [3] [4] Reception Washington Post calls Woopra an "impressive live tracking and analytics service". Chief Executive Officer. 2008. com/ 2008/ 03/ 30/ stats-junkies-get-another-fix-woopra/ ) Mashable on Woopra (http:/ / mashable. going on to say "what makes Woopra so special? Real Time". unlike the leading competitor. Blog Editor and Community Manager Woopra Web Analytics woopra. Chief Information Officer and Co-Founder Jad Younan.

asp?ID=89 . known as ad rotators.Ad rotation 98 Ad rotation Ad rotation is the practice of showing multiple advertisements in a single location on a web page. Client-side ad rotation typically involves JavaScript of some sort (either straight client-side JavaScript or else AJAX calls to the server. Because the ads are placed in the same location. The three most common approaches are server-side. client-side and service-based.logicaltips. or both. etc. allowing advertisers to see how often ads were displayed and clicked for service-based ad rotation. Service-based ad rotation is similar to client-side ad rotation in that it typically involves placing a small amount of JavaScript in the web page.) and payment management Technical implementation Technically. increase exposure to advertising by showing multiple ads per page load instead of just one. If the ad never changes. the ad is selected on the server and the corresponding HTML markup is generated and then served. video. • For content-rich sites. channel selection (content. References • Rotating Advertisements on Your Site: http://www. management features such as color selection. users are more likely to ignore it. The goals of ad rotation include: • Allow publishing sites to serve ads for multiple advertisers. Ads may be rotated with each new page load. within a single page load. but the JavaScript calls against a third-party service that provides its own management interface for specifying ad delivery options. With server-side ad rotation. Ad rotation software. • Keep advertising "fresh". they are typically the same format. ad rotation can be accomplished in multiple ways. commonly provide features such as the following: • • • • image management display weighting to control the frequency and duration of individual ads reporting.com/LPMArticle. search. filtering competitor ads. Google's AdSense service is an example of service-based ad rotation.

7% of online advertising spend in the UK[3] . and Google publishes its Overview of Optimizing Ad Text on its elearning centre. less browsers”. “AdWords text ads are small and in some ways unassuming – when you think about testing landing pages it’s obvious that there are elements that could make a big impact.Internet marketing news 2009 . ATO can play a key role in increasing a PPC AD’s Quality Score.Ad text optimization 99 Ad text optimization Ad Text Optimization (ATO) Ad Text Optimization (ATO) is the process of improving the performance of a text Pay Per Click (PPC) Advertisement on search engines by improving its Click Through Rate (CTR) performance both in terms of volume and quality of response. leading to more sales and increased Return On Investment (ROI). which are measured by higher CTRs. For advertisers ATO is delivers more clicks. reward more efficient PPC Ads with higher Quality Scores.” ATO and SEO ATO in PPC advertising is viewed by many in marketing as the equivalent of SEO (Search Engine Optimization) for natural search in that they both improve the visibility of websites. ATO and Quality Score Many search engines. Google being the most notable example. Higher Quality Scores also result in PPC Ads appearing on earlier search pages. saying that “Ad text plays a crucial role in determining the success of your AdWords advertising [2] . PPC Ads have come under the scrutiny of the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA). search is now a significant advertising medium in its own right with the paid search market worth almost £2. According to the UK’s Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB). but it’s sometimes less intuitive that ad text tests can and often do have an equally big impact on results [1] . For Users the benefit of ATO is to make PPC Ads more relevant to their searches. that is “more buyers. This has been commentated on by many in the marketing and advertising fraternity as evidence that PPC Ads now constitute an established part of the marketing mix. When PPC Ads are clicked on they take the User through to a designated page on the advertiser’s website and a fee is paid to the search engine for the click. At the heart of Ad Text Optimization (ATO) lies a specialist type of direct response copywriting which can be augmented by an Ad Text Optimization (ATO) algorithm that measures the response effectiveness of Ad Text copy.” PPC Ads are triggered to appear on search engine pages when Users search with keywords which match those selected by the PPC Advertiser. The higher the Quality Score of a PPC Ad the lower the bid price the advertiser has to pay each time a User clicks on the relevant Keywords that triggers the PPC Ad appearing. and search engines benefit by offering their user customers more efficient search experiences. ATO and Advertising Recently in the UK. According to Search Engine Journal. PPC Ads make up the lion’s share of this market and some argue that its future growth will in part be fuelled by ATO becoming an ever more integral part of the writing of PPC Ads.15 billion in 2009 representing 60. References [1] Search Engine Journal .Ad Text Optimization – What to Test (and When)? Dec 2010 [2] Google eLearning Centre 2011 [3] Internet Advertising Bureau .

The phrases accepted are "Sponsored Links" and "Advertisements". google. Additionally. through AdSense.e.36 billion annualized). To fill a website with advertisements that are relevant to the topics discussed. the user's geographical location. They do this in three ways: 1.. advertisers only pay one bid increment above the second-highest bid. and the content of the advertisements is often relevant to the website. Google beta tested a cost-per-action service. com/ adsense [2] Google AdSense is an ad serving application run by Google Inc. AdSense commands an advertiser to submit a sealed bid (i. image. a bid not observable by competitors). and video advertisements on their websites. AdSense has been particularly important for delivering advertising revenue to small websites that do not have the resources for developing advertising sales programs and sales people. which in turn has a complex pricing model based on a Vickrey second price auction. Google [4] earned US$2.AdSense 100 AdSense Google AdSense Developer(s) Initial release Google Inc. it is the most popular advertising network. as noted in a number of publisher case studies on the AdSense website. but discontinued it in October 2008 in favor of a DoubleClick offering (also owned by Google). and other factors. 2. They use a wide range of traffic-generating techniques. These advertisements are administered by Google and generate revenue on either a per-click or per-impression basis. 2003 [1] Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Online advertising http:/ / www. Websites that are content-rich have been very successful with this advertising program. Many websites use AdSense to monetize their content. They use text content on their websites that encourages visitors to click on advertisements. which pay out the most when they are clicked. for any given click received. They build valuable content on their websites that attracts AdSense advertisements. The source of all AdSense income is the AdWords program. including but not limited to online advertising. June 18. Overview Google uses its Internet search technology to serve advertisements based on website content. or 28% of total revenue. AdSense has become a popular method of placing advertising on a website because the advertisements are less intrusive than most banners.[3] In Q1 2011. Note that Google prohibits webmasters from using phrases like "Click on my AdSense ads" to increase click rates. Website owners can enroll in this program to enable text. webmasters implement a brief script on the websites' pages. Google currently shares 68% of revenues generated by AdSense with content network [5] partners. Some webmasters invest significant effort into maximizing their own AdSense income. Those wanting to advertise with Google's targeted advertisement system may enroll through AdWords. .34 billion ($9. 3.

with plans to make it available to all in stages.[11] . Types AdSense for Feeds In May 2005. Google shares 51% of the advertising revenue it makes from those searches with the website owner. a mobile website. Google announced a limited-participation beta version of AdSense for Feeds. including the ability to "enable multiple networks to display ads". TechCrunch reported that AdSense for Domains is available for all US publishers. On December 12. he or she is redirected to the advertiser's website in the same way as regular AdSense advertisements. Oingo developed a proprietary search algorithm that was based on word meanings and built upon an underlying lexicon called WordNet. ASP and others are used. According to the Official Google Blog.[10] AdSense for video AdSense for video allows publishers with video content to generate revenue using ad placements from Google's extensive Advertising network including popular Youtube videos. This offers domain name owners a way to monetize domain names that are otherwise dormant. AdSense for search. allows website owners to place Google search boxes on their websites.[7] which was later acquired by Google in April 2003 for US$102 million.[5] However the publisher is paid only if the advertisements on the page are clicked. Google AdSense announced that it would now be offering new features.[6] Oingo changed its name to Applied Semantics in 2001. more quality feeds to choose from. Adsense for domains is currently being offered to some users. AdSense for search A companion to the regular AdSense program. Google matches advertisements to the content of a website — in this case. AdSense for mobile content AdSense for mobile content allows publishers to generate earnings from their mobile websites using targeted Google advertisements. AdSense for domains Adsense for domains allows advertisements to be placed on domain names that have not been developed.. When a user searches the Internet or the website with the search box. AdSense does not pay publishers for mere searches. led by George Miller. a version of AdSense that runs on RSS and Atom feeds that have more than 100 active subscribers. which was developed over the previous 15 years by researchers at Princeton University. Google writes the advertising content into the image that it returns. "advertisers have their ads placed in the most appropriate feed articles. readers see relevant advertising—and in the long run. When the image is displayed by a RSS reader or Web browser. Instead of traditional JavaScript code. Inc. When the user clicks the image. 2008.AdSense 101 History Oingo.[8] In 2009. AdSense for Feeds remained in its beta state until August 15. when it became available to all AdSense users. Just like AdSense for content. The advertisement content is chosen based on the content of the feed surrounding the image. technologies such as PHP. publishers are paid for their original content. a privately held company located in Los Angeles."[9] AdSense for Feeds works by inserting images into a feed. was started in 1998 by Gilad Elbaz and Adam Weissman. 2008.

automated content (e. Google's servers use a cache of the page to determine a set of high-value keywords.AdSense 102 XHTML compatibility As of September 2007. Abuse Some webmasters create websites tailored to lure searchers from Google and other engines onto their AdSense website to make money from clicks. and does not follow modern principles of website design because of its use of • • • • • non-standard end tags. If keywords have been cached already. thus preventing these participants from having valid XHTML websites. • Each time this page is visited. class. To protect against this type of fraud. (More details are described in the AdSense patent [15]. such as </img> and </input>. bgcolor and align.) • For site-targeted advertisements. non-tabular) purposes. advertisements are served for those keywords based on the AdWords bidding system. Google adds money to the advertiser's account when visitors either download the referred software or subscribe to the referred service. Additionally. Many of these websites use content from . the AdSense advertisement units use the JavaScript method document. which is not validated correctly with the XHTML 1. AdSense then ignores clicks from pages other than those specified. it is possible for other website owners to copy the JavaScript code into their own webpages. However. or the price advertisers choose to pay for every thousand advertisements displayed. • Because the JavaScript is sent to the Web browser when the page is requested. 2: the font tag is deprecated but does not fail validation in any XHTML standard.write().[16] [17] • For referrals. and then importing this page into an XHTML webpage with an object tag.1 and the font tag.[18] The referral program was retired in August 2008.g. which are centered around known high-paying keywords. a directory with content from the Open Directory Project. Possibly the most popular form of such "AdSense farms" are splogs (spam blogs).[13] This workaround appears to be accepted by Google.[14] How AdSense works • The webmaster inserts the AdSense JavaScript code into a webpage.2 [12] but nevertheless does not cause a document to fail 1: using a table structure for unintended purposes is strongly discouraged by the W3C. which does not work correctly when rendered with the application/xhtml+xml MIME type. or style — for example. a table structure for purely presentational (i.e. the JavaScript code uses inlined JSON to display content fetched from Google's servers. and pays based on cost per mille (CPM). a workaround has been found by creating a separate HTML webpage containing only the AdSense advertisement units. or scraper websites relying on RSS feeds for content). that get proportionally wider or narrower when browser window resizes in width without active client side scripting). AdSense customers can specify the pages on which advertisements should be shown. These "zombie" websites often contain nothing but a large amount of interconnected.0 Strict or XHTML 1. The units also use the iframe HTML tag.. the attribute checked rather than checked="checked". the advertiser chooses the page(s) on which to display advertisements. validation — there is currently no algorithmic method of determining whether a table is used "correctly" (for displaying tabular data or for displaying elements. • For contextual advertisements.[19] • Search advertisements are added to the list of results after the visitor performs a search.. The terms of the AdSense program forbid its affiliates from modifying the code.0 Transitional DOCTYPEs. the HTML code for the AdSense search box does not validate as XHTML. presentational attributes other than id.

[27] In some cases. or options but a link to file an appeal. Google will pay all earned revenue greater than US$10 when an AdSense account is closed and not disabled. Such pages were tolerated in the past. in which one company clicks on a rival's search engine advertisements to drive up the other company's costs. Many website owners complain that their AdSense accounts have been disabled just before they were supposed to receive their first paycheck from Google. These and related approaches are considered to be search engine spam and can be reported to Google. Your outstanding balance and Google's share of the revenue will both be fully refunded back to the affected advertisers. 103 Criticism Due to alleged concerns about click fraud. In the email. Webmasters that use AdSense must place the appropriate warning in the privacy policy page. Typically. websites displaying AdSense have been banned from showing such content. and all complaints are deferred.[25] Some sites have been banned for distributing copyrighted material even when they hold the copyright themselves or are authorized by [26] the copyright holder to distribute the material. such as Wikipedia.[22] Google withholds payment until an account reaches US$100. Google claims accounts have been disabled due to click fraud or forbidden content. AdSense publishers can choose from a number of click-tracking programs. Google AdSense has been criticized by some search engine optimization firms as a large source of what Google calls "invalid clicks".[24] Google came under fire when the official Google AdSense Blog showcased the French video website Imineo.88 per click.[20] Users have reported that they also pay a range from $0. an advert was generated for a (presumably non-existent) educational qualification in terrorism.com.whether legitimate or not . to attract visitors. This website violated Google's AdSense Program Policies by displaying AdSense alongside sexually explicit material. These programs display detailed information about the visitors who click on the AdSense advertisements. Google states that "Because we have a responsibility to protect our AdWords advertisers from inflated costs due to invalid activity.[21] To help prevent click fraud." The revenue generated .64 to $0. It has been reported that using both AdSense and AdWords may cause a website to pay Google a commission when the website advertises itself.is taken. The payment terms for webmasters have also been criticized. An automated email is sent to the publisher's owner which offers no reasoning. but have offered no proof of this. Publishers can use this to determine whether or not they have been a victim of click fraud. but due to complaints.AdSense other websites. AdSense displays inappropriate or offensive ads. A Made for AdSense (MFA) website or webpage has little or no content. There have also been reports of Trojan horses engineered to produce counterfeit Google advertisements that are formatted looking like legitimate ones. There are a number of commercial tracking scripts available for purchase. in a news story about a terrorist attack in India. For example.[28] AdSense sets tracking cookies that are viewed by some[29] as a threat to privacy. However. The Trojan uploads itself onto an unsuspecting user's computer through a webpage and then replaces the original advertisements with its own set of malicious advertisements. but is filled with advertisements so that users have no choice but to click on advertisements. Google now disables such accounts. we've found it necessary to disable your AdSense account.[30] .[23] but many micro content providers require a long time—years in some cases—to build up this much AdSense revenue.

. [17] "Google AdWords: All About Site-Targeted Ads" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-02-02. google. June 18. co. infotoday. Retrieved May 10. Q2 2010" (http:/ / investor. [6] Paula J. com/ wired/ archive/ 14. html& r=1& f=G& l=50& co1=AND& d=PG01& s1=20040059708& OS=20040059708& RS=20040059708 [16] "Google AdSense Help Center: What are CPM ads?" (http:/ / adwords. . [5] "Google Form 10-Q. google. htm). . com/ adsense [3] What happened to the pay-per-action beta? (http:/ / adwords. org/ adsense. [13] Stu Nicholls. [20] Benaifer Jah (2005-12-27). html). Retrieved 2010-05-03. . com/ support/ bin/ answer. 2009-08-20. html). html). py?answer=25890& topic=11724). py?hl=en& answer=105957). and comments" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-02-02. . com/ news/ 2010-05-03/ google-s-youtube-boosts-display-advertisers-10-fold-update1-. . . Google AdSense Help Center. Press release. TechShout. . [10] AdSense For Domains Now Available For All US Publishers (http:/ / www. py?answer=57153). "Tables" (http:/ / www. . com/ googles-worst-ads-ever-2009-8). [25] "Adult content" (https:/ / www. . Info Today. 2010-11-08. cssplay. 2007-12-29. com/ newsbreaks/ nb1220-2. net/ 2008/ 07/ 01/ google-yanks-adsense-referral-program-offers-shoddy-surrogate/ ). Retrieved 2010-09-08. Mann (January 2006). uspto. [27] "BE CAREFUL when using both AdSense + AdWords by Google" (http:/ / blog. [8] "Google Acquires Applied Semantics" (http:/ / www. html). Google AdSense Help Center. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. blogspot. 2003. google. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. wired. Retrieved 2008-07-01. com/ adsense/ localized-terms) . com/ earnings/ 2011/ Q1_google_earnings. "Google keeps on coining it in" (http:/ / lembingley. techcrunch. uk/ menu/ adsense. google. [14] Roger Johansson (2004-09-01). 2003-04-23. com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. 2007-12-29.AdSense 104 References [1] Google Expands Advertising Monetization Program for Websites (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2007-12-29. anta. 2007-12-29. "Official Google Blog: Feed me" (http:/ / googleblog. ISSN 1797-1993. html). com/ 2009/ 02/ be-careful-when-using-both-adsense. com/ internet/ 2005/ 27/ a-trojan-horse-program-that-targets-google-ads-has-been-detected-by-an-indian-web-publisher/ ). google. . co. w3. uk/ 2007/ 02/ google-keeps-co. offers shoddy surrogate" (http:/ / blog. Dec 12. org/ TR/ CSS2/ tables. html). [12] W3C. [29] Criticism of AdSense cookies (http:/ / www. "How click fraud could swallow the internet" (http:/ / www. google. 2011. . [18] "Google AdSense Help Center: What is the referrals feature?" (https:/ / www. "Adding AdSense to application/xhtml+xml pages" (http:/ / www. 2007-12-29. py?answer=48182& sourceid=aso& subid=ww-ww-et-asui& medium=link). [7] "Google Buys Applied Semantics" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. . com/ support/ bin/ answer. [21] Charles C. Google [2] http:/ / www. com/ 2005/ 05/ feed-me.anta. com/ showPage. 2009-02-19. Press Release. html?page=2196001).net. "Trojan Horse program that targets Google AdSense ads" (http:/ / www. 2008. [22] Lem Bingley (2007-02-01). . google. scroogle. 2003-04-24. html). . google. google. 456bereastreet. html). "Beyond Keyword Searching" (http:/ / www. py?answer=9905). google. com/ archive/ 200409/ content_negotiation_adsense_and_comments/ ). [26] "Google AdSense Program Policies" (https:/ / www. Bloomberg Businessweek. html). blog. . google. "Content negotiation. com/ 2008/ 12/ 12/ adsense-for-domains-now-available-for-all-us-publishers/ ). . gov/ netacgi/ nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF& p=1& u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool. [19] "Google yanks AdSense referral program. html). google. py?answer=54411& topic=13175). AdSense. IT Week. 2010-07-15. computing. com/ press/ pressrel/ applied. [28] "Google's Worst Ads Ever (GOOG)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-10-06. py?answer=97264) [4] "Google Announces First Quarter 2011 Financial Results" (http:/ / investor. Wired. . "Google’s YouTube Boosts Display Advertisers 10-Fold (Update1)" (http:/ / www. Google. businessinsider. html). [9] Shuman Ghosemajumder (2005-05-17). Robin Wauters. [23] "When do I get paid?" (https:/ / www. . com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. Incisive Interactive Marketing LLC. techshout. com/ press/ pressrel/ adsense. google. 01/ fraud. [15] http:/ / appft1. com/ documents/ 20100630_google_10Q. . businessweek. [24] "Disabled Account FAQ . html) [30] Google AdSense terms (https:/ / www. TechCrunch [11] Brian Womack (2010-05-03). com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer. com/ ads/ sitetargeted. 2008-07-01. html).AdSense Help" (http:/ / www. Hane (1999-12-20). google. . colnect.

The idea for remote purchasing originally arose because of conversations with music label Geffen Records in the fall of 1994. including affiliate management agencies. but its program was the first to become widely known and serve as a model for subsequent programs.blogspot. Cybererotica was among the early innovators in affiliate marketing with a cost per click program.uspto. Amazon was not the first merchant to offer an affiliate program.com/) • Google AdSense patent application (http://appft1. Geffen asked CDNOW if it could design a program where CDNOW would handle the order fulfillment. affiliates sometimes use less orthodox techniques. the associate received a commission.com (Amazon) launched its associate program in July 1996: Amazon associates could place banner or text links on their site for individual books. super-affiliates and specialized third party vendors. On the other hand. or link directly to the Amazon home page. CDNOW launched its BuyWeb program. for the completion of an offer.[1] While search engines. e-mail. almost four years after the origination of the World Wide Web. but did not want to implement this capability itself.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2& Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool. The market has grown in complexity to warrant a secondary tier of players. Amazon. and the referral of others to the site.[2] History Origin The concept of revenue sharing—paying commission for referred business—predates affiliate marketing and the Internet. CDNOW had the idea that music-oriented websites could review or list albums on their pages that their visitors may be interested in purchasing. the network. Still.[7] [8] . and website syndication capture much of the attention of online retailers. and the customer. The industry has four core players: the merchant (also known as 'retailer' or 'brand'). Those methods include organic search engine optimization.AdSense 105 External links • Google AdSense (http://www. where users are rewarded with cash or gifts. The translation of the revenue share principles to mainstream e-commerce happened in November 1994[3] . and in some sense display advertising. the publisher (also known as 'the affiliate').[4] During November 1994. The management at Geffen wanted to sell its artists' CDs directly from its website. such as publishing reviews of products or services offered by a partner.[6] When visitors clicked from the associate's website through to Amazon and purchased a book.adsense. affiliates continue to play a significant role in e-retailers' marketing strategies. paid search engine marketing. These websites could also offer a link that would take the visitor directly to CDNOW to purchase the albums. Examples include rewards sites. e-mail marketing. [5] bypassing the CDNOW home page and going directly to an artist's music page. Affiliate marketing—using one website to drive traffic to another—is a form of online marketing. affiliate marketing carries a much lower profile. Affiliate marketing overlaps with other Internet marketing methods to some degree.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PG01& s1=20040059708&OS=20040059708&RS=20040059708) • Inside AdSense (http://adsense. Geffen realized that CDNOW could link directly from the artist on its website to Geffen's website. which is frequently overlooked by advertisers.com/) — Google's official weblog on AdSense Affiliate marketing Affiliate marketing is a marketing practice in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought about by the affiliate's own marketing efforts. because affiliates often use regular advertising methods.

less than one percent of traditional affiliate marketing programs today use cost per click and cost per mille.[10] MarketingSherpa's research team estimated that. but has diminished in use over time due to click fraud issues very similar to the click fraud issues modern search engines are facing today.com/BrainPlay. Also several of the affiliate solution providers expect to see increased interest from business-to-business marketers and advertisers in using affiliate marketing as part of their mix. but not PC Flowers & Gifts. China is one example where Affiliate Marketing does not overtly resemble the same . AutoWeb. The estimates were £1. However.16 billion in the United Kingdom alone. telecom. for example—have impacted the affiliate marketing world as well. and forms of lead generation other than contextual advertising programs.[4] 106 Historic development Affiliate marketing has grown quickly since its inception.[15] Diminished compensation methods Within more mature markets. travel. education. Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his website and display it to his visitors in order to receive a commission.0 concepts—blogging and interactive online communities.[12] The three sectors expected to experience the greatest growth are the mobile phone. publishing. personal finance. gambling. as it is uncertain if contextual advertising can be considered affiliate marketing. The patent application was submitted in June 1997. According to one report. The new media allowed merchants to become closer to their affiliates and improved the communication between them. The e-commerce website.5 billion in bounty and commissions from a variety of sources in retail.com (October 1994). which predates most affiliate programs. While these models have diminished in mature e-commerce and online advertising markets they are still prevalent in some more nascent industries.com (January 1996). viewed as a marketing toy in the early days of the Internet. these compensation methods are used heavily in display advertising and paid search. and the remaining programs use other methods such as cost per click (CPC) or cost per mille (CPM). gaming and gambling. Cost per click was more common in the early days of affiliate marketing. but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website. retail industries and file-sharing services.[12] Web 2.[12] Soon after these sectors came the entertainment (particularly gaming) and Internet-related services (particularly broadband) sectors. and several others. Kbkids. finance. Contextual advertising programs are not considered in the statistic pertaining to diminished use of cost per click. nineteen percent use cost per action (CPA). Amazon announced that it had been granted a patent[9] on components of an affiliate program.com (October 1995).[11] Currently the most active sectors for affiliate marketing are the adult. affiliates worldwide earned US$6. the total sales amount generated through affiliate networks in 2006 was £2. in 2006.35 billion in sales in 2005. and travel sectors.Affiliate marketing In February 2000. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement. became an integrated part of the overall business plan and in some cases grew to a bigger business than the existing offline business.[13] [14] Compensation methods Predominant compensation methods Eighty percent of affiliate programs today use revenue sharing or cost per sale (CPS) as a compensation method. EPage (April 1996).0 Websites and services based on Web 2.

"Affiliates are an extended sales force for your business". The phrase. Such employees are typically paid a commission for each sale they close. most are simply one-tier. the publisher is not concerned about a visitor being a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert. In practical terms. but the compensation models applied to affiliate marketing are very similar to the ones used for people in the advertisers' internal sales department. Affiliate marketing is also called "performance marketing". It is in the best interest for the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. Multi-tier programs Some advertisers offer multi-tier programs that distribute commission into a hierarchical referral network of sign-ups and sub-partners. the full risk and loss (if the visitor can not be converted) to the advertiser. This leaves the greater. Referral programs beyond two-tier resemble multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing but are different: Multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing associations tend to have more complex commission requirements/qualifications than standard affiliate programs. The advertiser must convert that visitor first.Affiliate marketing model in the West. does have the control and influence up to the point where the prospect signs the contract or completes the purchase. in case of cost per mille. publisher "A" signs up to the program with an advertiser and gets rewarded for the agreed activity conducted by a referred visitor. . With many affiliates being paid a flat "Cost Per Day" with some networks offering Cost Per Click or CPM. The sales team of the advertiser. 107 Performance marketing In the case of cost per mille/click. because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission. however. The risk and loss is shared between the affiliate and the advertiser.[16] Affiliates are not employed by the advertiser whose products or services they promote. in reference to how sales employees are typically being compensated. is not completely accurate. which is often used to explain affiliate marketing. Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives commission. Two-tier programs exist in the minority of affiliate programs. and sometimes are paid performance incentives for exceeding targeted baselines. If publisher "A" attracts publishers "B" and "C" to sign up for the same program using his sign-up code. and. The primary difference between the two is that affiliate marketers provide little if any influence on a possible prospect in the conversion process once that prospect is directed to the advertiser's website. all future activities performed by publishers "B" and "C" will result in additional commission (at a lower rate) for publisher "A".

which are [21] OPM companies perform affiliate often founded by veteran affiliate managers and network program managers.e. in which advertising has been largely professional and competitive. Payouts to affiliates or publishers are either made by the networks on behalf of the merchant. . affiliate marketing is not easily scalable. In this environment. in-house) affiliate programs using popular software while others use third-party services provided by intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates (see outsourced program management). Recently.[20] and other unethical methods that have given affiliate marketing a negative reputation. and those requirements are becoming too burdensome for the merchant to manage successfully in-house.[19] trademark infringement. The increased number of Internet businesses and the increased number of people that trust the current technology enough to shop and do business online allows further maturation of affiliate marketing. "cookie cutting". Uncontrolled affiliate programs did—and continue to do so today—aid rogue affiliates.Affiliate marketing 108 From the advertiser perspective Pros and cons Merchants favor affiliate marketing because in most cases it uses a "pay for performance" model. who use spamming.com.e. consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself. a notable example being Amazon. An increasing number of merchants are seeking alternative options found in relatively new outsourced (affiliate) program management (OPM) companies. it is rare for an affiliate program to generate considerable revenue with poor management or no management (i. With the exception of some vertical markets. Merchants can choose from two different types of affiliate management solutions: standalone software or hosted services.. Having a successful affiliate program is more difficult than when such programs were just emerging.[17] Some businesses owe much of their success to this marketing technique. There are significantly more requirements that merchants must meet to be successful. "auto-drive"). Unlike display advertising. program management for the merchants as a service. The opportunity to generate a considerable amount of profit combined with a crowded marketplace filled with competitors of equal quality and size makes it more difficult for merchants to be noticed.. Affiliate management and program management outsourcing Successful affiliate programs require significant work and maintenance. being noticed can yield greater rewards. similar to advertising agencies promoting a brand or product as done in offline marketing. however. meaning that the merchant does not incur a marketing expense unless results are accrued (excluding any initial setup cost). In some areas online media has been rising to the sophistication of offline media. the Internet marketing industry has become more advanced.[18] Implementation options Some merchants run their own (i. false advertising. by the network. typosquatting. typically called affiliate networks. however.

highly relevant ads for products on the site Virtual Currency: a new type of publisher that utilizes the social media space to couple an advertiser's offer with a handout of "virtual currency" in a game or virtual platform. typically characterized by providing a reward system for purchases via points back.g.e. There are currently no industry-wide accepted standards for the categorization. The following types of websites are generic.. search arbitrage) Comparison shopping websites and directories Loyalty websites. yet are commonly understood and used by affiliate marketers. thus requiring continual updates Cost per action networks (i. price comparisons. which are typically more content-heavy Registration path or co-registration affiliates who include offers from other merchants during the registration process on their own website Shopping directories that list merchants by categories without providing coupons. Almost any website could be recruited as an affiliate publisher.e.e. Vendors or existing customers can also become recruits if doing so makes sense and does not violate any laws or regulations. Video Blog: Video content that allows viewers to click on and purchase products related to the video's subject. top-tier affiliates) that expose offers from the advertiser with which they are affiliated to their own network of affiliates Websites using adbars (e. Uploaders are paid by the file-hosting sites based on the number of times their files are downloaded. Users upload content (usually in violation of copyright) to file-hosting sites. cash back CRM sites that offer charitable donations Coupon and rebate websites that focus on sales promotions Content and niche market websites. Adsense) to display context-sensitive. . owners of large opt-in -mail lists that typically employ e-mail drip marketing) and newsletter list affiliates. or other features based on information that changes frequently.. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Search affiliates that utilize pay per click search engines to promote the advertisers' offers (i. advertisers) and affiliate networks.. including product review sites Personal websites Weblogs and website syndication feeds E-mail list affiliates (i. although high-traffic websites are more likely interested in (for their own sake) low-risk cost per mille or medium-risk cost per click deals rather than higher-risk [22] cost per action or revenue share deals. The web sites that host the directory services sell advertising and do not host the files themselves. movies. and there is also an increased chance that publishers in the network apply to the program on their own. File-Sharing: Web sites that host directories of music. games and other software. These publishers could be potentially recruited.Affiliate marketing 109 Types of affiliate websites Affiliate websites are often categorized by merchants (i. and then post descriptions of the material and their download links on directory sites.e. Relevant websites that attract the same target audiences as the advertiser but without competing with it are potential affiliate partners as well. Publisher recruitment Affiliate networks that already have several advertisers typically also have a large pool of publishers. without the need for recruitment efforts by the advertiser.. The file-hosting sites sell premium download access to the files to the general public.

"referral program". Google's PageRank algorithm update ("BigDaddy") in February 2006—the final stage of Google's major update ("Jagger") that began in mid-summer 2005—specifically targeted spamdexing with great success. "affiliates". and 3. an affiliate link leading to a sporting goods website may work well within the context of the articles and information about sports.e. or "webmasters"—usually in the footer or "About" section of the website. whose goal is to provide quality search results for keywords or phrases entered by their users. also known as spamdexing. an affiliate link leading to a merchant's Internet service provider (ISP) within that website's content would be appropriate. Large affiliate networks that provide the platform for dozens or even hundreds of advertisers. This update thus enabled Google to remove a large amount of mostly computer-generated duplicate content from its index. affiliate marketer webmasters must create quality content on their websites that distinguishes their work from the work of spammers or banner farms. . Unscrupulous affiliates have used spam.[25] Such websites were either removed from Google's index or were relocated within the results page (i. 2. many affiliate merchants have refined their terms and conditions to prohibit affiliates from spamming. Each page can be targeted to a different niche market through the use of specific keywords. Past and current issues Since the emergence of affiliate marketing. Spam is the biggest threat to organic search engines. if a website contains information pertaining to publishing a website. it may be the case that there exists a non-public affiliate program. there has been little control over affiliate activity. if a contact method can be located. with the result being a skewed form of search engine optimization. where certain websites were labeled as "thin affiliates". which only contain links leading to merchant sites. false advertising. moved from the top-most results to a lower position). forced clicks (to get tracking cookies set on users' computers).[24] Websites consisting mostly of affiliate links have previously held a negative reputation for underdelivering quality content. (Websites that offer an affiliate program often have a link titled "affiliate program". E-mail spam In the infancy of affiliate marketing. and other methods to drive traffic to their sponsors. adware. To avoid this categorization. this marketing method has historically proven to attract abuse from spammers. Although many affiliate programs have terms of service that contain rules against spam. The goal of such webpages is to manipulate the relevancy or prominence of resources indexed by a search engine. If a website contains information pertaining to sports. many Internet users held negative opinions due to the tendency of affiliates to use spam to promote the programs in which they were enrolled.Affiliate marketing 110 Locating affiliate programs There are three primary ways to locate affiliate programs for a target website: 1. Some commentators originally suggested that Affiliate links work best in the context of the information contained within the website itself.[23] As affiliate marketing matured. Search engine spam As search engines have become more prominent. The goal in this case is to publish quality information within the website and provide context-oriented links to related merchant's websites. Affiliate program directories.. In 2005 there were active changes made by Google.) If the above locations do not yield information pertaining to affiliates. some affiliate marketers have shifted from sending e-mail spam to creating automatically generated webpages that often contain product data feeds provided by merchants. The target website itself. For instance. Utilizing one of the common website correlation methods may provide clues about the affiliate network. The most definitive method for finding this information is to contact the website owner directly.

the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. especially because they noticed that adware often overwrites tracking cookies. more recent examples exist of "thin" affiliate sites that are using the Affiliate Marketing model to create value for Consumers by offering them a service. and how it could damage their brands. complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.) and particularly.[27] and ShareASale's Junction/beFree and Performics. who is typically unaware that such software is installed on his/her computer. thus resulting in a decline of commissions.[28] Regardless of the progress made. Adware often has no valuable purpose and rarely provides any useful content to the user. Most of this activity adds time and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. adware continues to be an issue. Adware Although it differs from spyware. etc. SpyBot. End users frequently confuse the source of their computer infection with a particular website they were viewing at the time. pop-up blockers. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20. Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. These thin content service Affiliate fall into three categories: • Price comparison • Cause related marketing • Time saving 111 Virus and Trojan distribution through advertising networks Server farms hosting advertising content are periodically infected by hackers who alter the behavior of these servers such that the content they serve to end-users includes hidden I-frames and other exploits that leverage vulnerabilities in various web-browsers and operating systems for the purpose of infecting those systems with malware. and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking. Eventually. by the website (commonly users themselves do not understand or appreciate there is a distinction). Third party programs (Ad Aware. Affiliates not employing adware felt that it was stealing commission from them. 2007. Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. adware often uses the same methods and technologies.Affiliate marketing However. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser. Consumer Countermeasures The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and web-sites. Merchants initially were uninformed about adware. affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. Affiliate marketers became aware of the issue much more quickly. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates. what impact it had. and not the advertising network that was linked to.[29] . The result was Code of Conduct by Commission [26] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum.

and provide anonymity. capable of generating US$10. brands. when a single network tried to impose the use of a Javascript tracking code as a replacement for common HTML links on its affiliates. and realized that this space was already well-occupied by their affiliates.[31] Lack of industry standards Certification and training Affiliate marketing currently lacks industry standards for training and certification. Online forums have had very few successes as representing the majority of the affiliate marketing industry. The most recent example of such a success was the halt of the "Commission Junction Link Management Initiative" (CJ LMI) in June/July 2006. Although this situation alone created advertising channel conflicts and debates between advertisers and affiliates. Some advertisers. either directly or via a search marketing agency. however. and service providers such as outsourced program managers—to congregate at one location.[32] Education occurs most often in "real life" by becoming involved and learning the details as time progresses. enable small affiliates to have a larger say. Later in 2000 Google launched its pay per click service. Google AdWords. merchants/advertisers. affiliate networks. and trademarks. however.[30] Some examples of failed regulation efforts are the Affiliate Union and iAfma. This "frontier" life combined with the attitude found in such communities is likely the main reason why the affiliate marketing industry is unable to self-regulate beyond individual contracts between advertisers and affiliates. did and still do embrace this behavior. Affiliate marketing is not commonly taught in universities. Online forums and industry trade shows are the only means for the different members from the industry—affiliates/publishers. This risky approach is one of the reasons why most affiliates fail or give up before they become successful "super affiliates". Lack of self-regulation and collaboration Affiliate marketing is driven by entrepreneurs who are working at the edge of Internet marketing. Online forums are free. the acceptance of such certifications is mostly due to the reputation of the individual or company issuing the certification. and guidelines for the industry. some so-called "how-to" or "silver bullet" books instruct readers to manipulate holes in the Google algorithm. Trade shows are cost-prohibitive to small affiliates because of the high price for event passes. including the advertiser's trademarks.Affiliate marketing 112 Trademark bidding Affiliates were among the earliest adopters of pay per click advertising when the first pay-per-click search engines emerged during the end of the 1990s. going so far as to allow. Because of the anonymity of online forums. which can quickly become out of date. There are some training courses and seminars that result in certifications. the largest issue concerned affiliates bidding on advertisers names. Larger affiliates may even be sponsored by an advertiser they promote. and only a few college instructors work with Internet marketers to introduce the subject to students majoring in marketing. Several advertisers began to adjust their affiliate program terms to prohibit their affiliates from bidding on those type of keywords. The "trial and error" approach is probably the best way to describe the operation methods for affiliate marketers.[32] or suggest strategies no longer endorsed or permitted by advertisers.000 or more per month in commission. An increasing number of merchants engaged in pay per click advertising. Affiliates are often the first to take advantage of emerging trends and technologies. which is responsible for the widespread use and acceptance of pay per click as an advertising channel. Although there are several books on the topic. or even encourage. standards.[33] . third-party vendors. Affiliate marketing has experienced numerous failed attempts to create an industry organization or association of some kind that could be the initiator of regulations. affiliates to bid on any term. the quantitative majority of industry members are unable to create any form of legally binding rule or regulation that must be followed throughout the industry.

weblogs. which requires the web site user to click to reveal the voucher code." . Such companies also try to send each marketing employee to the industry conference of their choice.[34] Other training resources used include online forums. Affiliate Summit is the largest conference in the industry. Cookie stuffing Cookie stuffing involves placing an affiliate tracking cookie on a website visitor's computer without their knowledge. Click to reveal Many voucher code web sites use a click-to-reveal format. The action of clicking places the cookie on the website visitor's computer.com sales to residents of New York. Code of conduct A code of conduct was released by affiliate networks Commission Junction/beFree and Performics in December 2002 to guide practices and adherence to ethical standards for online advertising. Amazon challenged the amendment and lost at the trial level in January. providing much of their training through group collaboration and brainstorming. The IAB [37] have stated that "Affiliates must not use a mechanism whereby users are encouraged to click to interact with content where it is unclear or confusing what the outcome will be.[35] Affiliate marketing is often confused with either network marketing or multi-level marketing. Performance marketing is a common alternative. and specialty websites. but other recommendations have been made as well.Affiliate marketing Outsourced Program Management companies typically combine formal and informal training. essentially stealing their legitimately earned commissions.[36] The state asserts that even one such affiliate constitutes Amazon having a business presence in the state. 113 Marketing term Members of the marketing industry are recommending that "affiliate marketing" be substituted with an alternative name. but also has the potential to overwrite other affiliates' cookies. The case is currently making its way through the New York appeals courts. This not only generates fraudulent affiliate sales. which will then generate revenue for the person doing the cookie stuffing. and is sufficient to allow New York to tax all Amazon sales to state residents. based on the existence of affiliate links from New York–based websites to Amazon. Sales tax vulnerability In April 2008 the State of New York inserted an item in the state budget asserting sales tax jurisdiction over Amazon. podcasts. and many other affiliate networks host their own annual events. 2009. video seminars.

retrieved June 25. [18] Jeff Molander (June 22. html?page=832131.Affiliate marketing 114 Affiliate services • • • • • Affiliate tracking software Affiliate programs directories Affiliate networks (see also Category:Internet advertising services and affiliate networks) Affiliate manager and Outsourced Program Management (OPM or APM) (manages affiliates) Category:Internet marketing trade shows References [1] Prussakov. Meacham (July/August 2006). http:/ / feedmoney. com/ showPage.January. https:/ / affiliate-program. [2] Guide to E-Commerce Technology (http:/ / www. retrieved May 17. retrieved May 17. CPA (http:/ / www. Shady Web of Affiliate Marketing (http:/ / www. Page 36 [22] Marios Alexandrou (February 4th. marketingsherpa. com/ politics/ security/ news/ 2005/ 02/ 66556). Evgenii (2007). ISBN 0-07-135310-0. 2006). com/ expertarticles/ 2006/ 06/ 09/ being-a-bigdaddy-jagger-meister). 2007 [24] Jim Hedger (September 6. 2006). published by Montgomery Research Inc. 2007 [17] Tom Taulli (9 November 2005). wired. 2006 (http:/ / www. thoughtshapers. "A Practical Guide to Affiliate Marketing" (pp.com. WebmasterRadio. Social Media Goes Mainstream (http:/ / web2. qcommission. 2006). Thought Shapers. ISBN 0-9791927-0-6. com/ archives/ 2009/ 06/ 29/ online-marketing-system-affiliate-marketing). (2006). com/ story/ Going+ Out+ Is+ In). retrieved on December 16th. All Things SEM. MarketingSherpa. Affiliate Marketing Networks Buyer's Guide (2006) (http:/ / www. com/ barrier. With this program CDNOW was the first non-adult website to launch the concept of an affiliate or associate program with its idea of click-through purchasing. retrieved on 14. forbes. CDNOW released its BuyWeb program. com/ web_20s_real_secret_sauce_network_effects. Jason. clickz. Creating A Virtual Sales Force (http:/ / www. 10 November 2000.SOA Web Services Journal. [16] CellarStone Inc.16-17). "The Cdnow Story: Rags to Riches on the Internet". com/ : amazon associates. allthingssem. com/ social_media_goes_mainstream. Matthew. QUE Publishing. 2007 [15] AffStat Report 2007 (http:/ / www. [6] "What is the Amazon Associates program?" (https:/ / affiliate-program. 2007 [12] February 2007. revenews. Peter (1999-01). 2007 [20] Wayne Porter (September 6. html). Wired. Google's Content Referral Network: A Grab for Advertisers (http:/ / www. com/ salescommission_details.Lands' End Versus The Affiliate on Typosquatting (http:/ / www. Retrieved 14 May 2007.5 Billion in 2006 (http:/ / www. 2007 [13] Dion Hinchcliff (15.. .July. com/ survey. retrieved on May 17. January 1999. fm/ episodes/ index.0's Real Secret Sauce: Network Effects (http:/ / web2. webpronews. asp). com/ publications/ affiliate-marketing-networks-buyers-guide/ ). socialcomputingjournal. [5] Olim.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-15 from http:/ / www. 2007). .May. Going Out Is In (http:/ / www. 2005). ClickZ Network. Retrieved 2011-04-20. Affiliate Summit 2006 Wrap-Up Report -. php?showId=30). 2006). retrieved on December 16. QCommission. publisher (January 11. Top Floor Publishing. Revenue Magazine. Forbes. and Kent. amazon. CPM vs. Web 2. [9] US 6029141 (http:/ / v3. 2007. 2007 [21] Jennifer D. internetretailer. retrieved June 25. e-Consultancy. webmasterradio. com/ gp/ associates/ join/ getstarted). htm). 2007 [11] Anne Holland.May. php/ weblog/ google-cpa-content-referral-network-goog-vclk-valueclick-david-jackson/ ). McGraw-Hill Trade. "The Complete Guide to Associate and Affiliate Programs on the Net".com Business. com/ business/ 2005/ 11/ 08/ marketing-ecommerce-internet-cx_tt_1109straightup. revenuetoday.com. 2007-08 Edition by Internet Retailer [3] Shashank SHEKHAR (2009-06-29). Issue 12. 2007 [19] Danny Sullivan (June 27. socialcomputingjournal. SOA Web Services Journal. 30 November 1999. Shawn (2000-11-10). com/ wayneporter/ archives/ 002263. Page 6. 2006). e-consultancy. "Successful Affiliate Marketing for Merchants". from pages 12." [4] Collins. Based on survey responses from almost 200 affiliate managers from a cross-section of the industry." [7] Frank Fiore and Shawn Collins. Being a Bigdaddy Jagger Meister (http:/ / www. retrieved November 11. WebProNews.Commissions to Reach $6. Olim. com/ publications/ internet-stats-compendium/ ). com/ E-Commerce/ vendor_list. 2006).13 and 14. htm). NEW FIRST: LinkShare. 2007 [14] Dion Hinchcliff (29. com/ cpm-cpc-cpa/ ). ReveNews. ISBN 0-9661032-6-2. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US6029141) [10] October 2006. The Daily SearchCast News from June 27. "Amazon Associates is one of the first online affiliate marketing programs and was launched in 1996. amazon. History of Affiliate Marketing. e-Consultancy. Daniel (1999-11-30). htm). com/ : Feed Money. Internet Statistics Compendium 2007 (http:/ / www. retrieved June 25. Sales Commission (http:/ / www. com/ index. 2007). April 2001 ISBN 0-7897-2525-8 [8] Gray. Retrieved 2011-04-20. 2007 . e-consultancy. 2007 [23] Ryan Singel (October 2. espacenet. retrieved on 14. cfm?contentID=3157). CPC vs. retrieved on May 17. html). shtml). affstat.fm. "During November 1994.com.com. "Online Marketing System: Affiliate marketing" (http:/ / feedmoney. Pages 149–150.

Page 58. html) (contains original CoC text). ABestWeb. cj. com/ story/ webextra-issue16-2) (Web Extra).15. affiliatetip. iabuk. com/ press/ addendum. retrieved June 26.May. Friday. 2007 [30] Carsten Cumbrowski (November 4. RevenueToday. net/ en/ 1/ iabaffiliatemarketingcouncilstrengthensonlinevouchercodebestpracticeguidelines270309.com. com/ carstencumbrowski/ 2006/ 11/ affiliate_marketing_organizati_1. Revenue Magazine.org/top/Computers/Internet/Web_Design_and_Development/Authoring/ Webmaster_Resources/Affiliate_Programs/) at the BOTW Directory .Affiliate marketing [25] Spam Recognition Guide for Raters (http:/ / www. 2006).ValueClick.Y. do?command=viewArticleBasic& taxonomyName=government& articleId=9077963& taxonomyId=13& intsrc=kc_top). CJ. doc) (Word document) supposedly leaked out from Google (http:/ / www. ShareASale. 27 March 2009 IAB affiliate council strengthens voucher code guidelines (http:/ / www. LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum (http:/ / www. Computerworld. linkshare. com/ news/ press_releases0102/ press_021210. revenuetoday. How Do Companies Train Affiliate Managers? (http:/ / www. to tax goods bought on Amazon (http:/ / www.The Performance Marketing Model of the Future (http:/ / www. retrieved on May 17. retrieved June 26. 2005). 2007 [34] March/April 2007. com/ story/ Learning+ Outside+ the+ Box& readpage=1). Online Marketing Service Providers Announce Web Publisher Code of Conduct (http:/ / www. Law Firms of Nassiri & Jung LLP and Hagens Berman. abestweb. org/ node/ 2709) in 2005. 2007 [27] December 12. The authenticity of the document was neither acknowledged nor challenged by Google. Profit Sharing . link to online version retrieved June 26.2 . 2002. retrieved June 26.com/Business_and_Economy/Business_to_Business/ Business_Opportunities/Directories/Web_Site_Affiliate_Programs/) at the Yahoo! Directory • Affiliate Programs (http://botw.com on June 26. retrieved June 26. AffiliateTip Blog.Vinny Lingham's Blog.October.We are back to Step 0 (http:/ / www. php?t=73747) main discussion thread to CJ's LMI. com/ ).org/Business/Opportunities/Online_Opportunities/Affiliate_Programs/ ) at the Open Directory Project • Website Affiliate Programs (http://dir. 2007 [35] Vinny Lingham (11. retrieved from CJClassAction.dmoz. Affiliate Millions . cjclassaction. retrieved on 16. Learning Outside the Box (http:/ / www. shareasale. revenuetoday. New Javascript Links? (http:/ / forum. computerworld. LinkShare. com/ spamguide. 2007). 2008). retrieved June 26. com/ action/ article.com. threadwatch. 2007 [28] ShareASale Affiliate Service Agreement (http:/ / www. retrieved on 14. searchbistro. Reve News. Commission Junction and beFree (http:/ / www. com/ 2006/ 10/ special-report-profit-sharing-the-performance-marketing-model-of-the-future.Book Report (http:/ / blog. html). html). 2007 [32] Alexandra Wharton (March/April 2007). Affiliate Marketing Organization Initiative Vol. N. com/ showthread. 2007. com/ archives/ affiliate-millions-book-report/ ). 2008 [37] IAB. AdWare Class Action Lawsuit against .April. retrieved May 17. html).com. vinnylingham. mxs) 115 External links • Affiliate marketing (http://www. 2007 [31] May 2006.yahoo. com/ agreement. 2007 [29] April 20.April. revenews.com. cfm). 2007 [36] Linda Rosencrance. 2007 [33] Shawn Collins (June 9. [26] December 10. Issue: March/April 2007. 2002.

These directories then go on PageRank to the author's website and in addition sends traffic from readers. These articles are made available for distribution and publication in the marketplace. Because newspapers and other traditional media are expected to present content on limited budgets. Also it helps in attracting new clients. is an Internet marketing approach to subtly promote products and services online via article directories. Internet Article Marketing Internet article marketing. Internet marketers will typically attempt to maximize the results of an article advertising campaign by submitting their articles to a number of article directories. Some marketers attempt to circumvent this filter by creating a number of variations of an article. one article can theoretically acquire site visitors from a number of article directories. Having your content featured on niche blogs and focused content sites run and managed by others is a popular form of article marketing. Article directories having good web page rank receives excessive quantity of site visitors and are thought-about authority sites by search engines. article marketing is utilized commonly by business owners as a means of obtaining free press space. By doing this. this arrangement is generally advantageous for all parties involved. and published on multiple websites. In paper-print form (as opposed to online forms). which often leads to receiving good quantity of traffic. Becoming a Guest Blogger on these sites introduces the author to interested parties that are otherwise unreachable. However. These articles are often syndicated by other websites. Well-written content articles released for free distribution have the potential to increase the business credibility within its market. A local business provides useful content to the newspaper that too free of cost and in return the newspaper prints the business contact information with the required article. article advertising makes use of article directories as a free host and receives traffic by way of organic searches due to the listing's search engine authority. However. Similarly. Traditional Article Marketing Article marketing has been used by professionals for nearly as long as mass print has been available. a roofing company may offer radio stations a concise article titled "How to Avoid Ice Damage to Your Roof this Winter" shortly before the winter season. This can be very useful to new internet entrepreneurs because it does not require a big budget. Each article has a bio box and byline (collectively known as the resource box) that include references and contact information for the author's business. most of the major search engines want to filter duplicate content to stop the identical content material from appearing multiple times in searches. an accounting firm may market itself by writing an article titled "The Top 10 Ways to Avoid Being Audited" and offering it to the local newspapers several weeks prior to tax season. Most forms of search engine optimization and Internet marketing require a domain.Article marketing 116 Article marketing Article marketing is a type of advertising in which businesses write short articles related to their respective industry. . For example. and promoting budget. internet hosting plan. known as article spinning.

Since the primary goal behind article marketing is to get search engine traffic. the presentation is recorded using a screen capture software like Camtasia and the slideshow is now turned into a video that can be uploaded to a video sharing site like YouTube for sharing. Related Software • Microsoft Powerpoint • Windows Movie Maker • Article Video Robot References . References Article video marketing Article Video marketing Article video marketing is a new type of internet marketing and advertising in which business create 2-5 minute short videos about specific topics using content from articles and other text sources. Relevant pictures are then added to the slideshow and voice is recorded over each slide to create a voice-over narration for the video. Being an audio-visual medium. authors generally incorporate relevant keywords or keyphrases in their articles. articles turned into videos also reduce the time required to read the articles. Converting articles into videos There are several ways to for turning articles into videos. The most traditional way is by creating a powerpoint presentation of the original article. Finally. which is basically transforming the article text into an animated slideshow. The videos are then uploaded to various video sharing websites like youtube for distribution and exposure.Article marketing 117 Commonly Accepted Article Structure and Format When publishing on the internet the most commonly accepted practice is to write articles having catchy title using relevant keywords and 250-500 words in the body of the article. and get more exposure. The generally accepted keyword density for most article directories is about 2 to 3% and anything above that can be considered as keyword stuffing. Advantages of Article Video marketing Article Video marketing is an extension of Article marketing but serves as an alternate medium for businesses to convey their message to a wider audience. Most article directories currently do not accept HTML tags in either title or in the body of the article.

2002 invitation to comment on the Alabama Rules of Professional Conduct entitled Information about Legal Services. Online directories can be seen as internet versions of the Yellow Pages. ACM websites allow users to submit their legal needs online by practice area and location. and may then submit bids to work with the clients who can then choose which practitioners they wish to hire." and noted that "lack of legal advertising could be viewed as the profession's failure to 'reach out and serve the community.[2] The Supreme Court rejected the argument by the Arizona Bar that attorney advertising was "inherently misleading" and "tarnish the dignified public image of the profession. CA-based LegalMatch. the ABA created the Model Code of Professional Responsibility ("Model Code") in 1969.Attorney-client matching 118 Attorney-client matching Attorney-Client Matching (ACM). the American Bar Association ("ABA") established its first ethics code. The legal practitioners then review the requests. many consumers turned to the web to search for goods and services. The Model Code was an effort by the ABA to create practical rules that went "beyond the pretty details of form and manners" and addressed "the chained relationship of the lawyer to his clients. Companies like San Francisco. Online Legal Directories Online legal directory services pool attorney information in one place for consumers to search for attorneys on their own." The Court found "the postulated connection between advertising and the erosion of true professionalism to be severely strained.[5] Given that consumer habits changed and working within the regulations of the Bates v. Attorney-Client Matching Services Attorney-client matching provides lawyers with the opportunity to increase exposure and reach their audience online. Due to the progression of the legal profession and the desire to update the Canons of Professional Ethics. in many instances consumers would rely upon the Yellow Pages and referral services to find an attorney. Two key categories currently define online legal advertising: online legal directories and attorney-client matching services. or hire none at all. The system allows clients to submit requests for legal work to a community of legal practitioners. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) responded to the Supreme Court of Alabama's June 26. ruled that lawyer advertising is partially protected by the First Amendment.[4] Before the boom. is a subset of legal advertising that allows participating attorneys to be matched with potential clients seeking legal representation. Law firms or lawyers that opt to use these services are then matched with clients by need and location. State bar associations and websites like Avvo. History In 1908. In this response. and submit feedback about the work of the legal practitioners. including the legal profession.com provide lawyer directories and rank attorneys according to their credentials and experience. on May 26.com and Martindale-Hubbell's Lawyers. in Bates v. the United States Supreme Court. to the maximum extent compatible with other state and federal goals.'"[3] With the internet boom in the 1990s. the FTC commented on the State Bar of Texas Professional Ethics Committee's consideration on whether or not it is ethical for a Texas attorney to . Sharktank[6] and LegalOpinion[7] (Sharktank and LegalOpinion are now defunct) were the first to provide the attorney-client matching as a service. Arizona State Bar outcome."[1] In 1977. the FTC "encourages competition in the licensed professions. which has sometimes been referred to as online legal matching. State Bar of Arizona. lawyers and law firms also changed their habits of presenting their services to consumers online. 2006. to his professional brethren and to the public."[8] Additionally. known as the Canons of Professional Ethics. which condemned all advertisement and solicitation by lawyers.

cornell.com Team. html [11] Utah State Bar and LegalMatch http:/ / www. "The World Wide Web of E-Law" BusinessWeek (January 2001) http:/ / www. ftc.http:/ / www. and Total Attorneys.S. The" Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics. The FTC determined that "online legal matching services are a valuable option for Texans: they are likely to reduce the consumers' cost for finding legal representation and have the potential to increase completion among attorneys. allow users to search their directories for lawyers as well as obtain legal representation through form based attorney-client matching. gov/ os/ 2006/ 05/ V060017CommentsonaRequestforAnEthicsOpinionImage [10] Harlow. Will and Staud.. form-based submissions for free. internetnews. php/ 594871 [8] Federal Trade Commission. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3975/ is_200507/ ai_n14684376/ ?tag=content. the Utah State Bar partnered with LegalMatch as an additional resource available for Utah attorneys to receive screened cases of potential new clients and to help consumers find a pre-screened Utah lawyer. it's a prostitution of the legal profession . com/ bus-news/ article. Law "Attorney-Client Matching" Law Firm Marketing Solutions (July 2006) http:/ / www. But you lose your confidentiality if you share the information . JDFinder. org/ legalservices/ findlegalhelp/ faq_hiringlawyer. "Response to Alabama Rules of Professional Conduct" (September 2002) http:/ / www..col1 [2] Bates v. com/ Law_Firm_Marketing_Solutions-newsletter-002. According to Reuters. over 9 million consumers will search online for legal services each month. 433 U. and the attorneys receive their information. businessweek."[14] References [1] Olson. Emily. htm [7] The seattle. Ron.internet. Normally. Subsequent companies to enter this field have been CasePost. "Comments on a Request for Ethics Opinion Regarding Online Attorney Matching Programs" (May 2006) http:/ / www. Henry. The (2005) http:/ / findarticles. html . when you hire a lawyer and tell him/her your story.[12] Controversy ". com/ legal/ 1029492-1. cfm#lawyerreferral [6] Green. abanet. edu/ supct/ html/ historics/ USSC_CR_0433_0350_ZS. gov/ be/ v020023. 350..Attorney-client matching participate in an online legal matching service. com/ smallbiz/ content/ jan2001/ sb20010116_790. html# [5] American Bar Association."[9] Larger corporations. Users of ACM websites complete confidential.com powered by FindLaw and LexisNexis Martindale-Hubbell's Lawyers.. which intends to save time for both parties and them to make better decisions. such as Thomson Reuters' LegalConnection.com.[10] In 2003. "Navigating a sea of uncertainty: How existing ethical guidelines pertain to the marketing of legal services over the Internet" The Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics (July 2001) http:/ / www. "Ethics of Attorney Advertising: The Effects of Different State Regulatory Regimes.. Rick and Palmer. Ann Therese. LegalFish. org/ public/ lawyer_referral_service_main. pdf [9] Federal Trade Commission. Attorney-client matching websites charge attorneys membership fees to participate in the service. allbusiness.. Some services allow the attorneys to choose the cases while others allow the client to select the best attorney for their issue.[11] 119 How Attorney-Client Matching Works An increasing number of people are turning to the internet to search for legal services and are relying on phone books and offline media less and less. it leads to lawyers fighting to undercut each other. State Bar of Ariz. "Technological Innovations and Their Ethical Implications" American Bar Association http:/ / www. law."[13] "One concern about such services relates to client confidentiality. html [4] Hornsby. html [3] Haywood.. "Legalopinion. the lawyer is bound by rules of ethics and the courts to keep that information absolutely confidential. ftc. law-firm-marketing-coach. abanet. utahbar. org/ cle/ clenow/ nosearch/ public/ probonotechethics/ part1. Amy. 363-64 (1977). "Consumers' Guide to Legal Help Hiring a Lawyer" (April 2008) http:/ / www.com Refocuses Company Direction" Internet News (February 2001) http:/ / www. Attorney-client matching services provide both clients and attorneys with information about each other before they actually speak.

” and “intensive marketing. In the world of marketing. How it works Blitz campaigns use various mass media outlets. One of the most common and most advantageous ways to complete a blitz campaign is to use search engines. magazine.org (http:/ / www. to deliver information about a local product or local business quickly to a local audience. E-mail is another method of delivering local product or local business information during a blitz campaign. newspaper ads. including search engine optimization and mobile marketing. and focused marketing campaign for a small business. without careful audience targeting you may not achieve the results you desire.Attorney-client matching [12] Popper. A blitz campaign is a marketing strategy designed to promote a product or a business quickly through the use of mass media. builds business reputation. "Online Lawyers: Starting to Click" BusinessWeek http:/ / www.co.abanet. and coupons. . However. blitz campaigns are geared toward local businesses and not a more widespread audience. A blitz campaign includes strategies from search engine marketing. utterant.uk (http:/ / www. specifically the internet. A concentrated campaign means very fast. com/ smallbiz/ content/ sep2003/ sb20030930_0886_sb016. intensive. htm [13] utterant. Ted.” The idea behind a blitz campaign is to have as many people see a small business or small business product as possible in a very short period of time. You must know your local audience to successfully complete a blitz campaign. Blitz campaigns usually don't make use of print mediums such as brochures. Ideally. businessweek. The time interval of a blitz campaign is also advantageous. once a campaign is set up. This type of campaign can help a completely new product become something of note. instead of something to look past. co. sometimes it is also referred to as “marketing blitz. A blitz campaign can be the perfect marketing tool for seasonal content. if you have a holiday event you want to advertise you should promote it during the appropriate season and it will yield better results. For example. Advantages Blitz campaigns help local businesses and local products become better known to a specific audience through the use of persistent media exposure. It originates from the German noun Blitz which means lightning.org/) Blitz Campaign A blitz is defined as an intensive campaign or attack [1] . uk/ current-affairs/ bid4fees-making-solicitors-bid-for-legal-work/ ) Retrieved 29 October 2010 [14] abnet. org/ legalservices/ findlegalhelp/ usa_findlawyer. It is a very fast. cfm) Retrieved 29 October 2010 120 External links • American Bar Association (http://www. abanet. Push a product when there is buzz about it. blitz campaign defines the proprietary methodology developed by German speaking Marlene Dewitte [2] . a local business or local product would quickly show up in search engines. grows a local company’s visibility and attracts more customers.” a “ time-based marketing campaign. A Blitz Campaign lowers customer acquisition costs. very direct results. Typically.

Blitz Campaign

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Disadvantages
A blitz campaign has several advantages but there are also some limitations to what such a marketing campaign can do. One of the advantages of the blitz campaign methodology which is focused and local impact to an area can also hinder its performance if spread out further from the campaign’s heart. Because location is so important, not understanding your audience will most likely lead to a weaker campaign.

Successful Marketing Blitzes
In recent years, there have been several successful marketing blitzes, primarily from computercompanies and video game companies. One such blitz came from Microsoft in 2009 for its Halo 3 game. Microsoft planned on using online, print, and television media to bring attention to the game. [3] Another successful blitz comes from McDonaldsfor their McCafecoffee drinks. McDonalds used several media outlets and coupon booklets to promote their coffee beverages. [4] Googlealso embarked on a marketing blitz for the Nexus One phone. This product had its own YouTubechannel and was also present in Google web pages. [5]

References
[1] Definition of "Blitz" from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ blitz) [2] Glossary: Blitz (http:/ / www. blitzcampaign. com/ glossary. php) [3] Microsoft plans Halo 3: ODST marketing blitz (http:/ / www. mcvuk. com/ news/ 35402/ Halo-marketing-blitz-detailed) [4] Get Ready for the McCafe Marketing Blitz (http:/ / www. nacsonline. com/ NACS/ News/ Daily/ Pages Archive/ ND0507096. aspx) [5] Let The Nexus One Marketing Blitz Begin (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 01/ 05/ nexus-one-ads/ )

Content farm
In the context of the World Wide Web, the term content farm is used to describe a company that employs large numbers of often freelance writers to generate large amounts of textual content which is specifically designed to satisfy algorithms for maximal retrieval by automated search engines. Their main goal is to generate advertising revenue through attracting reader page views[1] as first exposed in the context of social spam.[2] Articles in content farms have been found to contain identical passages across several media sources, leading to [3] questions about the sites placing search engine optimization goals over factual relevance. Proponents of the content farms claim that from a business perspective, traditional journalism is inefficient.[1] Content farms often commission their writers' work based on analysis of search engine queries[1] that proponents represent as "true market demand", a feature that traditional journalism lacks.[1]

Characteristics
Some sites labeled as content farms may contain a large number of articles and have been valued in the millions of dollars. Demand Media is projected to be publishing 1 million items a month, the equivalent of four English-language Wikipedias a year.[4] Another site, Associated Content, was purchased in May 2010 by Yahoo! for $90 million.[5] Pay scales for content are low compared to traditional salaries received by copy editors. One company compensated writers at a rate of $3.50 per article. Such rates are substantially lower than what a typical copy editor might receive, however some content farm contributors produce many articles per day and may earn enough for living. It has been reported that content writers are often educated women with children seeking supplemental income while working at home.[6]

Content farm

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Criticisms
Critics allege that content farms provide relatively low quality content,[7] and that they maximize profit by producing "just good enough" material rather than high-quality articles.[8] Articles are usually composed by human writers rather than automated processes, but they may not be written by a specialist in the subjects reported. Some authors working for sites identified as content farms have admitted knowing little about the fields on which they report.[9] Search engines see content farms as a problem, as they tend to bring the user to less relevant and lower quality results of the search.[10] The reduced quality and rapid creation of articles on such sites has drawn comparisons to the fast food industry[11] and to pollution[2] :

Information consumers end up with less relevant or valuable resources. Producers of relevant resources receive less cash as a reward (lower clickthrough rate) while producers of junk receive more cash. One way to describe this is pollution. Virtual junk pollutes the Web environment by adding noise. Everybody but the polluters pays a price for Web pollution: search engines work less well, users waste precious time and attention on junk sites, and honest publishers lose income. The polluter spoils the Web environment for everybody else.

Google reaction
In one of Google's promotional videos for search published in the summer of 2010, the majority of the links available were reported to be produced at content farms.[12] In late February, 2011, Google announced it was adjusting search algorithms significantly to "provide better rankings for high-quality sites—sites with original content and information such as research, in-depth reports, thoughtful analysis and so on."[13] This was reported to be a reaction to content farms and an attempt to reduce their effectiveness in manipulating search result rankings.[14]

Research
Because of their recent appearance on the Web, content farms have not yet received a lot of explicit attention from the research community. The model of hiring cheap freelancers to produce content was first discussed as an alternative strategy to generating fake content automatically, together with an example of the infrastructure necessary to make it profitable through online ads, and techniques to detect social spam that promotes such content.[2] While not explicitly motivated by content farms, there has been recent interest in the automatic categorisation of web sites according to the quality of their content. [15] [16] A detailed study on the application of these methods to the identification of content farm pages is yet to be done.

References
[1] Dorian Benkoil (July 26, 2010). "Don't Blame the Content Farms" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ mediashift/ 2010/ 07/ dont-blame-the-content-farms207. html). PBS. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [2] Markines, Benjamin; Cattuto, Ciro; Menczer, Filippo (2009), "Social Spam Detection" (http:/ / airweb. cse. lehigh. edu/ 2009/ papers/ p41-markines. pdf), Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web (AIRWeb '09) (http:/ / airweb. cse. lehigh. edu/ 2009/ proceedings. html), ACM, pp. 41–48, doi:10.1145/1531914.1531924, ISBN 978-1-60558-438-6, [3] http:/ / www. mediapost. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. showArticle& art_aid=144020 [4] Roth, Daniel (November 2009). "The Answer Factory: Demand Media and the Fast, Disposable, and Profitable as Hell Media Model" (http:/ / www. wired. com/ magazine/ 2009/ 10/ ff_demandmedia/ ). Wired. . Retrieved 27 February 2011. [5] http:/ / www. beet. tv/ 2010/ 05/ yahoo-harvests-content-farm-associated-content-for-90-million-report-. html Yahoo Harvests "Content Farm" Associated Content for $90 Million, Report [6] What It's Like To Write For Demand Media: Low Pay But Lots of Freedom - Page 2 (http:/ / www. readwriteweb. com/ archives/ what_its_like_to_write_for_demand_mediap2. php) [7] Patricio Robles (9 April 2010). "USA Today turns to the content farm as the ship sinks" (http:/ / econsultancy. com/ blog/ 5725-usa-today-turns-to-the-content-farm-as-the-ship-sinks). econsultancy.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [8] John Reinan (July 19, 2010). "I'm still waiting to make a bushel from my content farm work" (http:/ / www. minnpost. com/ johnreinan/ 2010/ 07/ 19/ 19783/ im_still_waiting_to_make_a_bushel_from_my_content_farm_work). minnpost.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-26. [9] Writers Explain What It's Like Toiling on the Content Farm (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ mediashift/ 2010/ 07/ writers-explain-what-its-like-toiling-on-the-content-farm202. html)

Content farm
[10] How Google Can Combat Content Farms http:/ / www. readwriteweb. com/ archives/ how_google_can_combat_content_farms. php [11] Michael Arrington: The End Of Hand Crafted Content (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2009/ 12/ 13/ the-end-of-hand-crafted-content/ ). In: TechCrunch vom 13. Dezember 2009. [12] Article on Techcrunch (http:/ / techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 07/ 23/ content-farms/ ) [13] "Finding more high-quality sites in search" (http:/ / googleblog. blogspot. com/ 2011/ 02/ finding-more-high-quality-sites-in. html). Google, Inc.. . Retrieved 26 February 2011. [14] Guynn, Jessica (February 26, 2011). "Google makes major change in search ranking algorithms" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ business/ la-fi-google-search-20110226,0,3543493. story). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 26 February 2011. [15] "Discovery Challenge 2010 - ECML PKDD 2010" (http:/ / www. ecmlpkdd2010. org/ articles-mostra-2041-eng-discovery_challenge_2010. htm). 2010. . [16] "Joint WICOW/AIRWeb Workshop on Web Quality" (http:/ / www. dl. kuis. kyoto-u. ac. jp/ webquality2011/ ). 2011. .

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Contextual advertising
Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites or other media, such as content displayed in mobile browsers. The advertisements themselves are selected and served by automated systems based on the content displayed to the user.

How contextual advertising works
A contextual advertising system scans the text of a website for keywords and returns advertisements to the webpage based on what the user is viewing.[1] The advertisements may be displayed on the webpage or as pop-up ads. For example, if the user is viewing a website pertaining to sports and that website uses contextual advertising, the user may see advertisements for sports-related companies, such as memorabilia dealers or ticket sellers. Contextual advertising is also used by search engines to display advertisements on their search results pages based on the keywords in the user's query. Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising in which the content of an ad is in direct correlation to the content of the web page the user is viewing. For example, if you are visiting a website concerning travelling in Europe and see an ad pops up offering a special price on a flight to Italy, that’s contextual advertising. Contextual advertising is also called “In-Text” advertising or “In-Context” technology.[2] .

Service providers
Google AdSense was the first major contextual advertising network. It works by providing webmasters with JavaScript code that, when inserted into webpages, displays relevant advertisements from the Google inventory of advertisers. The relevance is calculated by a separate Google bot, Mediabot, that indexes the content of a webpage. Recent technology/service providers have emerged with more sophisticated systems that use language-independent [3] proximity pattern matching algorithm to increase matching accuracy. Since the advent of AdSense, Yahoo! Publisher Network, Microsoft adCenter, Advertising.com Sponsored Listings (formerly Quigo) and others have been gearing up to make similar offerings.

Contextual advertising 124 Impact Contextual advertising has made a major impact on earnings of many websites.com.hbs.gov/opa/2007/12/ principles. Harvard Business Review. pcmag. techcrunch. Agency roles There are several advertising agencies that help brands understand how contextual advertising options affect their advertising plans.com/2008/ 06/19/contextual-advertising/).00. www.shmula.[4] Keywords on a webpage are displayed as hyperlinks that lead to advertisers. "When Contextual Advertising Goes Horribly Wrong .ftc.com/194/ steve-irwins-death-contextual-advertising-gone-bad). David Szetela. Retrieved 2008-10-20. com/ 2008/ 01/ 15/ proximic-signs-deals-with-yahoo-and-ebay-to-turn-product-listings-into-contextual-ads-taking-on-adsense/ ). A large part of Google's earnings is from its share of the contextual advertisements served on the millions of webpages running the AdSense program. thus generating revenue for the owner of the website (and the server of the advertisement). Retrieved 2008-07-21.com/ c/a/Enterprise-Applications/A-Battle-Is-Brewing-Over-Online-Behavioral-Advertising-Market/). • "Steve Irwin’s Death : Contextual Advertising Gone Bad" (http://www. and Marshall. asp).ftc. (November-December 2000). com/ index. Instead of humans choosing placement options. [4] "Customers Now". Notes [1] "Contextual Marketing Definition" (http:/ / www.com.html). Retrieved 2008-07-22.Mashable" (http://mashable. Retrieved 2008-10-20.com.eweek. adgorithms. com/ encyclopedia_term/ 0. mashable. 2009 Further references • Ferguson. they are more likely to be clicked. media planning — where the advertisements are to be run 3. Because the advertisements are more targeted.edu/archive/2124. J. where a third-party installs software onto a user's computer that interacts with the web browser. • "FTC Staff Proposes Online Behavioral Advertising Privacy Principles" (http://www. • Kenny. D. Renee Boucher. . . Retrieved 2008-10-20.shmula.t=contextual+ marketing& i=56351. creation — what the advertisement looks like 2. [2] What is Contextual Advertising (http:/ / www. media buying — how the advertisements are paid for Contextual advertising replaces the media planning component. There are three main components to online advertising:[4] 1. "Contextual Marketing: The Real Business of the Internet" (http://hbswk. Retrieved 2008-10-20. www. "A Battle Is Brewing Over Online Behavioral Advertising" (http://www. www. that function is replaced with computers facilitating the placement across thousands of websites. • Ostrow. Taking on AdSense" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-01-15. Adam.gov.shtm).2542.eweek. php/ advertisers/ adgorithms-ad-network) [3] "Proximic Signs Deals With Yahoo and eBay To Turn Product Listings Into Contextual Ads. Contextual advertising has attracted some controversy through the use of techniques such as third-party hyperlinking. .

in which a buyer pays for the ad to be displayed a set number of times. It differs from cost per impression. where the buyer pays for an advertisement to be placed on a website for a set amount of time. . Cost for time permits the ad to displayed unlimited times over the term of the contract. Some contracts may allow for a guaranteed minimum number of impressions.Cost per time 125 Cost per time Cost Per Time refers to a form of Internet advertising. The time can be as little as an hour or as long as a year.

The company currently operates in several countries around the world and is headquartered in Palo Alto. The Netherlands. Almost one year later.criteo. Retargeting specialists then introduced a slightly more complex form of segmented retargeting [14] This second generation of retargeting enables to display one of a few pre-created messages to lost visitors based on a particular browsing category they fall into. Criteo announced that it hired Greg Coleman as president. CA. and launched its first product in April 2008. and the U. USA Website www. Previously. 2005 Headquarters Palo Alto.[6] History Criteo was founded in Paris. In September 2010. France. Additional retargeting solutions operate on a cost per thousand (CPM) or cost per engagement (CPE). In 2010. meaning that advertisers pay only for The solution operates on a pay per click (PPC those consumers that click on the banner and return to their website. and allow advertisers to bid a different CPC per product category.[2] [3] On April 7. California. and simple form of retargeting is basic static retargeting [13] . Product Criteo’s product is a form of display advertising. Criteo has 300 employees with offices in 20 countries including US. [12] ) / cost per click (CPC) basis.com [1] Criteo describes itself as a 'personalized retargeting company' that works with Internet retailers to serve personalized online display advertisements to consumers that have previously visited the advertiser's website. The move took place four months after launching [9] the 'PPC Retargeting Solution'. with offices in Italy. Their personalized retargeting [11] solution displays interactive banner advertisements. where a single static banner is shown to all viewers who have left a particular website. generated based on the online retail browsing preferences and products for each customer. the company had 120 employees. [4] 2011. France in 2005 and spent the first four years focused on [7] R&D.[10] At the time of its move. This is similar to Google . Europe and Asia. The most common.Criteo 126 Criteo Criteo Type Industry Founded Private Online Advertising Paris. Criteo relocated its headquarters [8] to Silicon Valley in an effort to enhance its profile in the USA.K. Criteo debuted its self-service cost-per-click [15] (CPC) [16] bidding platform that lets advertisers place bids on display retargeting campaigns and see changes and optimize campaigns in real-time.[5] Criteo enables online businesses to follow up visitors who have left their website without making a purchase using personalized banners which aim to drive potential customers back to the business website. [17] The Criteo Performance Optimization Platform allowed display advertisers and agencies to set retargeting campaigns based on category. Coleman served as president and chief revenue officer of The Huffington Post and executive vice president of global sales for Yahoo!.

clickz. marketingterms. mediapost.[20] bringing the total to $24 million.[19] The company displays over 4 billion banners per month but does not disclose the geographical breakdown for those banners. Criteo’s platform allowed for cost-per-click bids to be set down to the individual product level [18] . com/ 3640039 [3] http:/ / www. criteo. showArticle& art_aid=125695 [4] http:/ / kara. some of Criteo's competitors include MediaFORGE.[21] Competitors According to the VentureBeat article. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. digidaydaily. and Retargeter. allthingsd. Criteo began a campaign [23] regarding the use of the popular retargeting and its impact on consumer privacy. asp [14] http:/ / www. criteo. com/ retargeting/ ppc-what-does-it-cost [13] http:/ / www. For example. but for display retargeting ads. com [2] http:/ / www. com/ retargeting [12] http:/ / www. In May 2010. itvent. The campaign aimed to reassure consumers about personalized retargeting and data-driven marketing tactics.Criteo AdWords. adexchanger. with 3M euros in a first institutional round in March 2006 coming from French private equity firm AGF and Elaia Partners. Retargeting only uses anonymous information [24] from the merchant’s site. no data is shared with advertisers or publishers and no third-party data used for targeting purposes. The company denies it relies on personally identifiable information (PII) and doesn’t track identifiable information. com/ aggregator/ sources/ 1?page=8 [15] http:/ / www. com/ dictionary/ cost_per_click/ . showArticle& art_aid=136034& nid=118810 [16] http:/ / www. if a retargeted ad displays three products the consumer had browsed on the site. com/ 20110407/ former-yahoo-aol-huffpo-sales-dude-greg-coleman-lands-again/ [5] http:/ / www. mediapost. com/ content/ 25806. Achievements Criteo wins 2010 Web Award for Outstanding Achievement in Web Development – September 2010 [25] Criteo’s client Boden won the ClickZ Connected Marketing Award [26] for ‘Best Use of Display Advertising’ for its personalized retargeting campaign implemented by Criteo. References [1] http:/ / www. a different cost can be assigned to each product displayed within the single ad. clickz. com/ data/ stories/ why-greg-coleman-bet-on-retargeting/ [6] http:/ / www. and 9M euros in a second round in January 2008 led by Index Ventures. 127 Funding Criteo has secured a total of $17 million in funding. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ [11] http:/ / www. which is priced on a CPA basis. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program [8] http:/ / www. com/ clickz/ news/ 1708656/ french-retargeting-company-descends-silicon-valley [9] http:/ / venturebeat. criteo. which charges a flat monthly fee [22] Privacy In September 2010. Criteo raised a further $7 million of funding from Bessemer Venture Partners. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. Fetchback. imediaconnection. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ [10] http:/ / venturebeat. which has a more flexible pricing model. com/ platforms/ criteo/ [7] http:/ / venturebeat.

Criteo [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] http:/ / www. a former spyware company.[2] [3] [4] The phenomenon of data pimping is being researched and utilized by several ISPs.[5] Also Known As intra-ISP spyware References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Net think thank: Phorm is illegal (http:/ / www. uk/ 2008/ 02/ 25/ phorm_isp_advertising/ ) American ISPs already sharing data with outside ad firms (http:/ / www.com//) Data pimping Data pimping is a pejorative term used to describe the act of an Internet service provider (ISP) profiting from the sale of its users' personal clickstream data. uk/ 2008/ 03/ 17/ phorm_fipr_illegal/ ) BT's 'illegal' 2007 Phorm trial profiled tens of thousands (http:/ / www. internetretailer. allegedly illegal trials of the controversial Webwise system developed by Phorm. asp?eid=15931 http:/ / econsultancy. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ http:/ / techcrunch. co. theregister. com/ online-advertising/ criteo-ceo-rudelle/ http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 05/ 06/ criteo-bessemer-7-million/ http:/ / techcrunch. org/ winner. co. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. com/ 2008/ 01/ 15/ criteo-raises-10-million-from-index-ventures/ http:/ / venturebeat. com/ 2010/ 04/ 09/ criteo-brings-its-personalized-banner-ads-to-us-launches-new-pricing-program/ http:/ / www. co.000 customers in 2006 (http:/ / www. com/ us/ press-releases/ 5150-criteo-client-boden-wins-clickz-connected-marketing-award 128 External links • Criteo Official Website (http://www. co. showArticle& art_aid=136034& nid=118810 http:/ / www. both in the United Kingdom and the United States.[1] The practice of data pimping first appeared through British Telecom's secret. theregister. theregister. adexchanger. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 01/ bt_phorm_2006_trial/ ) ISP data deal with former 'spyware' boss triggers privacy fears (http:/ / www.criteo. com/ online-advertising/ criteo-ceo-rudelle/ http:/ / www. uk/ 2008/ 04/ 10/ american_isps_embrace_behavioral_ad_targeting/ ) . uk/ 2008/ 04/ 14/ bt_phorm_2007/ ) BT and Phorm secretly tracked 18. webaward. adexchanger. com/ 2010/ 09/ 23/ criteo-makes-placing-display-ads-do-it-yourself http:/ / venturebeat. theregister. co. mediapost. theregister.

deliver digital work. The Digital Marketing Engineer is either part of the senior marketing management team or operates as a consultant. viral campaigns. to the more specialist such as viral campaigns. These services range from the more generalist such as web design. widget development and mobile or social applications. Advertising and Marketing agencies do however. These services include web design. content producers and subject matter experts on the digital marketing presence • Maintains the relationship for a number of digital vendors . Digital creative agency A Digital Creative Agency is a business that delivers services for the creative and technical development of internet based and mobile products. Digital creative agencies differ from traditional advertising agencies in that they normally do not deliver offline work unless it is a suitable extension to a digital project (ex. Responsibilities The Digital Marketing Engineer: • • • • • • Is responsible for architecting.0 technology and digital marketing platforms (such as websites. product marketing. marketing managers. banner advertising. web developers. The need for Digital Marketing Engineers arose as a result of marketing becoming reliant on Internet technology[1] . and executive teams to accomplish business goals Collaborates with web designers. sales. branding and application development. sales managers. a print campaign promoting the business' online presence). It is a hybrid role that involves marketing and technology knowledge. the digital strategy established through cooperation with the Chief Marketing Officer or business owner. often using outside sources. implementing and overseeing the systems used for digital marketing purposes Advises the organization on how digital technology can be used to improve marketing and business results Enables a viable digital marketing presence Monitors and works to improve KPIs Collaborates with marketing.Digital agency 129 Digital agency A digital or new media agency is a business that delivers services for the creative and technical development of internet based products. email. References Digital marketing engineer The term Digital Marketing Engineer is used to describe someone that applies web 2. search engine optimization. which continues to become more sophisticated. e-mail marketing and microsites etc. business owners. These agencies tend to differ from their more traditional advertising agency and marketing agency counterparts in that they rarely deliver offline work. apps and mobile) for the purpose of achieving business goals. Role The Digital Marketing Engineer executes. podcasting. or advises on the execution of. microsites.

Areas of Focus • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Analytics for a website. "Why You're No Longer Qualified to be a B2B Marketer". com/ nxtbooks/ junta42/ 201104na_cco/ index. 10.Digital marketing engineer 130 Challenges The nature of this role requires aptitude in both marketing and technology. contentmarketinginstitute. p. nxtbook. social media profiles or ad campaigns Audience development and social/community development Banner/display advertising Content management systems Content marketing Conversions and conversion optimization Copywriting Email marketing KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) Landing pages Marketing automation Mobile marketing platforms Paid search and Search engine optimization (SEO) Podcasting / video Social media profiles and integrations User experience Website design and development References [1] Chris Koch. com/ chief-content-officer/ ) magazine. Julie Schwartz. ( eBook article (http:/ / www. Communicating technical significance to a non-technical audience is one type of challenge. April 2011. Chief Content Officer (http:/ / www. php#/ 10/ OnePage)) . Another is staying up-to-date with the latest technology and marketing methods.

aspx?dLetter=E) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of email marketing . and is not easily tracked and measured. spawning the direct digital marketing concept. September 2009. aspx?dLetter=D) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of direct digital marketing.[2] Channels • Email • Web • Mobile Additional Types of Marketing Traditional marketing communications are divided into two primary types: direct marketing[3] and mass marketing. marketingpower.[6] References [1] (http:/ / www. [3] (http:/ / marketing. Consumers opt in to receive messages. Direct marketing campaigns feature calls-to-action that allow marketers to track and measure responses from consumers. marketingpower. Mass marketing is a marketing method that broadcasts a message to a large audience.[4] Mobile marketing is a marketing method that allows marketers to send marketing messages to consumers through the technologies found on a consumer’s mobile device. With direct digital marketing addressability comes in one of three forms: an email address. com/ _layouts/ Dictionary. [2] (http:/ / www. and a mobile phone number. com/ od/ marketingglossary/ g/ dirmktgdef. htm) About. search engine optimization and banner ads to send marketing messages to consumers. com/ ResourceLibrary/ Pages/ Marketing Matters/ mmnews9. 09/ direct_marketing_goes_digital. Direct marketing is a marketing method that uses such things as a consumer’s postal address to send addressable communications to a target audience.[1] The modernization and mobility of the consumer has forced marketers to innovate.[5] Email marketing is a marketing method that uses email to send a marketing message to a targeted audience. com/ wiki/ mobile-marketing) Mobile Marketing Association definition of mobile marketing [6] (http:/ / www. aspx?dLetter=O) American Marketing Association Dictionary definition of online marketing [5] (http:/ / mmaglobal. about. marketingpower. aspx)"Direct Marketing Goes Digital: Addressability Matters More Than Ever" American Marketing Association.Direct digital marketing 131 Direct digital marketing Direct digital marketing is an addressable digital marketing method.com Marketing Glossary: Direct marketing [4] (http:/ / www. Online marketing is a marketing method that uses Internet tools such as email. 28. The marketing message is not addressable. marketingpower. The personalization and targeting capabilities of direct marketing have proven effective. com/ _layouts/ Dictionary. a Web browser cookie. Traditional direct marketing is achieved using a customer’s postal address. com/ _layouts/ Dictionary.

classified advertising generally appears in a distinct section. and site based targeting are all common ways in which advertisers choose to target their banner ads.S. this may change in the future as display advertising is becoming much more targeted to users. or on the page adjacent to. an industry trade group. quirks. [2] Display advertising on the Internet is widely used for branding. emails. transit cards. Banner ads can be targeted to internet browsers in many different ways in order to reach the advertiser's most relevant audience. These banners can consist of static or animated images. logos. Internet Marketing Definitions: definition of direct internetmarketingdefinitions. audio. Display advertising appears on web pages in many forms. Display advertisements are not required to contain images. in part due to increased resolution of standard monitors and browsers. sets some standards for online shapes and sizes. The Interactive Advertising Bureau. com/ open-dictionary/entries/direct-digital-marketing. The standards continue to evolve.e.com/DirectDigitalMarketing) Definition of: definition of direct digital marketing (http://www. market in online display advertising. However. as a form of internet marketing.html) Entrepedia: definition of direct digital marketing (http://www. tents. This is why metrics like interaction time are becoming more relevant. 2011 display advertising is a $17 billion business globally. geographic targeting. and similar items. in part to provide advertisers with more impact for their investment. techtarget. .org/wiki/Glossary_-_D) Display advertising Display advertising is a type of advertising that typically contains text (i.definition-of. fliers. photographs or other images. macmillandictionary. In contrast. as well as interactive media that may include audio and video elements. com/ TERM/ D/ digital marketing (http:/ / www. Behavioral retargeting. Posters. display advertising can appear on the same page as. In periodicals. scale models are examples of display advertising. One common form of display advertising involves billboards. Yahoo currently has the largest share of the U.com: definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / whatis.htm) Quirk's Marketing Research Glossary definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / www. On the Internet Display advertising also appears on the Internet.. demographic targeting. etc. An example of textual advertisements is commercial messages sent to mobile device users. com/ glossary/search. was traditionally text-only. location maps. much like how search engine ads can be extremely relevant users based on what they are searching for.aspx?searchID=52967112) Tech Target's Whatis. copy).com/direct digital marketing) MacMillan Dictionary: definition of direct digital marketing (http:/ / www. and was available in a limited selection of typefaces.html) digital marketing (http:/ / webopedia. Adobe Systems Flash or . or video: Textual advertisements are also used where text may be more appropriate or more effective. Display advertisers use cookie and browser history to determine demographics and interests of users and target appropriate ads to those browsers. Banner ad standards have changed over the years to larger sizes. com/ definition/ direct-digital-marketing.Direct digital marketing 132 External links Webopedia: definition of direct direct_digital_marketing.gif are the preferred presentation formats for such interactive advertisements. general editorial content.[1] As of February 28th. including web banners.entrepedia.

2011. . allthingsd. .Display advertising 133 Typical web banner. February 28. Mashable. com/ 2011/ 02/ 28/ schmidt-mobile-growth/ ). sized 468×60 pixels. com/ 20100111/ yahoos-pitch-to-advertisers-we-sell-ginormous-ads/ ?mod=ATD_sphere) [2] "Google CEO: Mobile Growing Faster Than “All Our Predictions”" (http:/ / mashable. References [1] Yahoo Pitch to Advertisers: We Sell Ginormous Ads (http:/ / mediamemo.

Twitter Non-fiction. the Microblogging service.co. The book is published by Infinite Ideas is an independent publishing house based in Oxford. Business..uk Best Seller Get Into Bed With Google.Dominate Your Market With Twitter 134 Dominate Your Market With Twitter Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet your way to business success Dominate Your Market With Twitter Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Pages ISBN Jon Smith José Llinares United Kingdom English Internet Marketing.[3] . to improve communications both internally between staff and as a tool to engage with existing and potential customers. The release of the book was promoted via online channels. .. Infinite Ideas July 2009 152 pp 978-1906821166 Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet your way to business success is a 2009 book by Jon Smith and José Llinares.book of the year so far finds its way to City Spy: Dominate Your Market With Twitter: Tweet Your Way to Business Success. to Bloggers[1] and online news[2] and PR agencies utilizing the concept of pass-it-on marketing and Social Media to promote the title. The book aims to inform business owners how to use Twitter.Smith is an Internet marketing expert. entrepreneur and author of the Amazon. by the authors.

com/ 2009/ 12/ 31/ dominate-your-market-with-twitter/ [3] http:/ / www. References [1] http:/ / blogs. digital marketing experts Jon Smith and José Llinares. wordpress. uk/ standard-business/ article-23714052-city-spy-in-the-business-of-making-excuses. html [2] http:/ / ninfield. skillsoft. co.Dominate Your Market With Twitter 135 Synopsis The book introduces Twitter as a social networking and microblogging service that allows its users to send and read other users' updates (known as tweets). Dominate your market with Twitter was the first UK book to be published on this growing spectacle. do . which are text-based posts of up to 140 characters in length. build their brand. The book explores how and why twittering is growing at a phenomenal rate. outline how marketers can use Twitter to their best advantage. com/ learning-re-imagined/ 2011/ 03/ books24x7-digital-books-reading-list-social-media. creating strategies to build a loyal following among Twitter members and expand awareness for their product or service. Highlighting how companies like Apple Inc. In it. and increase sales. Updates are displayed on the user's profile page and delivered to other users who have signed up to receive them. thisislondon. and Ford are using social media tools to reach consumers directly.

Finland.Dreaming in Mono 136 Dreaming in Mono Dreaming in Mono Client Agency McDonald's Shaun Russell. produced by Happy Fiction. the role of McDonald's as the largest host of diverse people and fun experiences in the region. in the four Nordic countries of Denmark. Swedish Official website [1] Dreaming in Mono is a transmedia storytelling branded content initiative from McDonald's and Perfect Fools. rivalries and stereotypes of the Nordic nations. Norway and Sweden. the prejudices. Managing Director Tony Högkvist. Global Creative Jens Jonson Happy Fiction Lukas Wojarski Bernard Cauchard Jari Hinshelwood Ole Vevle Marie Bergman Andreas Holm-Hansen Linnea Lundmark Marica Rosengarden Alexandra Alegren Felipe Morales McOwan Martin Landqvist Directed by Production company Produced by Starring Music by Release date(s) January 2010 Running time Language 7 episodes x 8 minutes English. Founding Partner. Danish.[2] . Senior Marketing Director Nordic Perfect Fools Fredrik Heghammar. The story combines three principle themes: the Nordic passion for winter sports. Norwegian.

Characters • • • • • • • • • • Alain Duchamp: Former alpine ski professional. website. meanwhile. independent Finnish entrepreneur and former love interest of Alain Duchamp Yasmine Carlsson: Ambitious young Swedish documentary film-maker Carlos: Reluctant documentary cameraman from Spain Tony Giuseppe Giacosa: Hansi’s loyal sidekick and bodyguard Content Dreaming in Mono combines a 56 minute-long drama (divided into 7x8 minute episodes) with character interviews by the fictional documentary film-maker Yasmine. online 'McDate' tool.[3] A number of elements were also designed to enable the audience to interact with the content both live and online including: Hansi 'Two Sides of Me' song remix. Familiar products such as McNuggets. social media sites. Finland and Norway still unable to come to terms with what happened so long ago. Founder of 'Team Monoski' Hansi Von Spitzmark: 1970s alpine ski legend.Dreaming in Mono 137 Story Dreaming in Mono is a fictional drama revolving around McDonald's customer and former professional alpine skier Alain Duchamp and his archrival Hansi Von Spitzmark. character songs and videos. He devises a plan to exact his revenge on Hansi and enlists a disparate group of Nordic characters to help him. Fast-forward to the present day and Alain is based somewhere remote in the northern borderlands of Sweden. Facebook Fan pages and the opportunity to comment or start discussions on both the site and social media pages. Poet. Transmedia activation Dreaming in Mono launched in mid-January 2010 with movie-style trailers and ran until the end of February across TV and cinema media. YouTube and MSN Video and broadcast with exclusive TV station partners either as part of the station's program schedule (Sub Finland) or as full 8 minute . In one particular race Alain attempted to race against Hansi by using his revolutionary new monoski. The aim of the initiative was to connect via non-traditional and social media with an audience difficult to reach through conventional marketing tactics and messages. polls. print media and in McDonald's own restaurants within the Nordic region. juice. competitions. iPhone 'random menu generator' application. Hansi quickly reported Alain to the relevant ski governing body and Alain was disqualified and never raced again.[4] Branding elements The McDonald's name only appears in the introduction title to each episode: "McDonald's Nordic Presents". coffee and soda are visible in the restaurant scenes. Much of the story then takes place in and around a McDonald's restaurant in the far north. Big Mac. The 7 episodes were released weekly both online on Vimeo. The two rivals regularly competed against each other in the 1970s with fundamentally different styles and philosophies concerning their approach to life and to their sport. history of monoskiing backstories. Hansi. video sites. 'Mad Mads' milkshake flashmob live events. won gold after gold medal and became an international celebrity. character Twitter feeds. character MySpace and Facebook pages. recording artist and media celebrity Terje Olsen: Obsessive but shy Norwegian monoski engineer Lene Olsen: Terje’s long-suffering wife 'Mad Mads' Steen: Self-styled Danish daredevil and extreme sports enthusiast Lovisa Svensson: Talented Swedish snowboarder Tiina Nieminen: Tough.

com/winners2010. This super group consists of Amir Chamden from ‘Infinite Mass’. each accentuating the central idea.Dreaming in Mono commercial 'powerbreaks' (TV3 Puls Denmark. and closing weekend of. What makes it stand out from other branded content initiatives is the way in which brand. singer/songwriter from Sydney Australia. recording artist. The timing of the activation was designed to coincide with the build-up to. Meja and Titiyo. Both the character interviews and character webpages were released online in advance of and during the episodal broadcast. Swedish music producer. Viasat 4 Norway. Pictures . The Cardigans. He has produced and remixed music for big artists such as Kent. Awards Dreaming in Mono was awarded with a Gold medal in Web at the Golden Award of Montreux. known for his work with Robyn. php?season=14 Sets and locations • • • • Mc´Donalds Häggvik (Sweden) Högfjällshotellet Sälen (Sweden) Gammelgården Sälen (Sweden) Sälen & surroundings (Sweden) Credits Digital agency Perfect Fools] and production company Happy Fiction [6] originated and developed the concept in partnership with McDonald's Nordic. webbyawards. TV6 Sweden). Dregen from ‘Backyard Babies’ and Brady Blade. A-ha. Martin is also a member of the band ‘Peking Laundry’ together with Martin Sköld from Kent. director and media outlets worked together to extend that story across a variety of platforms. See full list of Webby Honorees for 2010 here: http:/ / www. Jordin Sparks. Oh Laura and Christian Waltz. previously writer/director of the movie King of Ping-Pong which won the Grand Jury Prize at the 2008 Sundance Film Festival. See full list of winners here: http://www. Real Vikings Monoski [7] provided monoski content for the website and action scenes for the episodes.Fashion".[5] 138 Music Music written by Martin Landqvist. com/ webbys/ current_honorees. remixer and songwriter working under the name Nåid. The track is mixed by Ollie Olson. ‘Snowracer’ is another of Martin Landquists projects. the Vancouver Winter Olympics in which McDonald's was a global sponsor. agency. The episodes and character interviews were written and directed by Jens Jonsson.html Dreaming in Mono is a Webby Award Honoree in "Integrated Campaigns" and "Websites .goldenawardmontreux. The soundtrack "If we´re a part of it" is written by Martin Landqvist in corporation with Amanda King.

Dreaming in Mono 139 References [1] http:/ / www. Boards Magazine. dreaminginmono. com [2] Renegademedia.com) Perfect Fools (http://www. 2010 (http:/ / www. 2010 (http:/ / www. net/ Latest/ sophie48097. Shaun Russell (http://vimeo.Grand Finale (http://vimeo.html#) • The Transmedia Dream.The Man with the Dream (http://vimeo.dreaminginmono. com/ articles/ magazine/ 20100301/ mcdonalds. 57th Cannes International Advertising Festival.cfm?event_id=42) . McDonald's Premieres "Dreaming In Mono" (http:/ / www. March 1. canneslions.starlightrunner. com/winners2010.Bringing in the Mountain (http://vimeo. February 2. com [7] http:/ / www.com/9729251) on Vimeo Episode 7 .goldenawardmontreux. seminar program (http://www. burgerbusiness.The Gathering (http://vimeo.com/9381504) on Vimeo Episode 5 .com/9550364) on Vimeo Episode 6 . com/ online-marketing/ dreaming-in-mono-by-mcdonalds) [5] The Winter's Tale. com/ ?p=3764) [4] Viralblog.com/transmedia) Dreaming in Mono wins gold at Golden Award of Montreux 2010 Festival (http://www.com/9203671) on Vimeo Episode 4 . viralblog.com/9045956) on Vimeo Episode 3 .com/title/tt1592541/) What is Transmedia? (http://www. realvikingsmonoski External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Official website (http://www.imdb.com/8864917) Dreaming in Mono on IMDB (http://www. html) [6] http:/ / www. boardsmag. Burger Business.Up North Where We Belong (http://vimeo. html) [3] McDonald's Next Step: Create the Content.Rebels outside the Box (http://vimeo.com/8862274) on Vimeo Episode 2 .com) Episode 1 .perfectfools. Control the Media. 2010 (http:/ / www.com January 30.com/9755630) on Vimeo Interview with McDonald's Nordic Marketing Director. renegademedia. happyfiction.All a part of It (http://vimeo.com/festival/event_detail_page.

as of mid-2008 email deliverability is still an issue for legitimate marketers.[5] Companies considering the use of an email marketing program must make sure that their program does not violate spam laws such as the United States' Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act (CAN-SPAM). rising an estimated 15% in 2009 to £292m in the UK. network email and FIDO). the term is usually used to refer to: • sending email messages with the purpose of enhancing the relationship of a merchant with its current or previous customers.. • sending email messages with the purpose of acquiring new customers or convincing current customers to purchase something immediately. Advantages Email marketing (on the Internet) is popular with companies for several reasons: • An exact return on investment can be tracked ("track to basket") and has proven to be high when done properly. as email did and does exist outside the Internet (e. or their Internet service provider's acceptable use policy. every email sent to a potential or current customer could be considered email marketing.Email marketing 140 Email marketing Email marketing is a form of direct marketing which uses electronic mail as a means of communicating commercial or fund-raising messages to an audience. to encourage customer loyalty and repeat business. legitimate email servers averaged a delivery rate of 56%. Researchers estimate that United States firms alone spent US $400 million on email marketing in 2006. and • sending email messages over the Internet. consented) to receive email communications on subjects of interest to them. twenty percent of the messages were rejected.g. and eight percent were filtered. In its broadest sense.[4] Disadvantages A report issued by the email services company Return Path.[2] • Advertisers can reach substantial numbers of email subscribers who have opted in (i.. • Over half of Internet users check or send email on a typical day.[1] Comparison to traditional mail There are both advantages and disadvantages to using email marketing in comparison to traditional advertising mail. • adding advertisements to email messages sent by other companies to their customers. According to the report. Email marketing is often reported as second only to search marketing as the most effective online marketing tactic.[6] the European Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations 2003. However.[3] • Email is popular with digital marketers. .e.

Email marketing

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Opt-in email advertising
Opt-in email advertising, or permission marketing, is a method of advertising via email whereby the recipient of the advertisement has consented to receive it. This method is one of several developed by marketers to eliminate the disadvantages of email marketing.[7] Opt-in email marketing may evolve into a technology that uses a handshake protocol between the sender and receiver.[7] This system is intended to eventually result in a high degree of satisfaction between consumers and marketers. If opt-in email advertising is used, the material that is emailed to consumers will be "anticipated". It is assumed that the consumer wants to receive it, which makes it unlike unsolicited advertisements sent to the consumer. Ideally, opt-in email advertisements will be more personal and relevant to the consumer than untargeted advertisements. A common example of permission marketing is a newsletter sent to an advertising firm's customers. Such newsletters inform customers of upcoming events or promotions, or new products.[8] In this type of advertising, a company that wants to send a newsletter to their customers may ask them at the point of purchase if they would like to receive the newsletter. With a foundation of opted-in contact information stored in their database, marketers can send out promotional materials automatically—known as Drip Marketing. They can also segment their promotions to specific market segments.[9]

Legal requirements
In 2002 the European Union introduced the Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications. Article 13 of the Directive prohibits the use of email addresses for marketing purposes. The Directive establishes the opt-in regime, where unsolicited emails may be sent only with prior agreement of the recipient. The directive has since been incorporated into the laws of member states. In the UK it is covered under the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003[10] and applies to all organisations that send out marketing by some form of electronic communication. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 authorizes a US $16,000 penalty per violation for spamming each individual recipient. Therefore, many commercial email marketers within the United States utilize a service or special software to ensure compliance with the Act. A variety of older systems exist that do not ensure compliance with the Act. To comply with the Act's regulation of commercial email, services typically require users to authenticate their return address and include a valid physical address, provide a one-click unsubscribe feature, and prohibit importing lists of purchased addresses that may not have given valid permission. In addition to satisfying legal requirements, email service providers (ESPs) began to help customers establish and manage their own email marketing campaigns. The service providers supply email templates and general best practices, as well as methods for handling subscriptions and cancellations automatically. Some ESPs will provide insight/assistance with deliverability issues for major email providers. They also provide statistics pertaining to the number of messages received and opened, and whether the recipients clicked on any links within the messages. The CAN-SPAM Act was updated with some new regulations including a no fee provision for opting out, further definition of "sender", post office or private mail boxes count as a "valid physical postal address" and definition of "person". These new provisions went into effect on July 7, 2008.[11]

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References
[1] DMA: "The Power of Direct Marketing: ROI, Sales, Expenditures and Employment in the U.S., 2006-2007 Edition", Direct Marketing Association, October 2006 [2] "New Survey Data: Email's ROI Makes Tactic Key for Marketers in 2009 " (http:/ / www. marketingsherpa. com/ article. php?ident=31009#), MarketingSherpa, January 21, 2009 [3] Pew Internet & American Life Project, "Tracking surveys" (http:/ / www. pewinternet. org/ trends. asp), March 2000 – March 2007 [4] MediaWeek: UK e-mail marketing predicted to rise 15% MediaWeek.co.uk (http:/ / www. mediaweek. co. uk/ news/ comment/ vital+ stats/ 945161/ UK-e-mail-marketing-predicted-rise-15/ ) [5] Return Path's Reputation Benchmark Report: "5 ways to increase deliverability" (http:/ / www. btobonline. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 20080731/ FREE/ 180513096/ 1116/ FREE), BtoB Magazine, July 2008 [6] The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ bcp/ conline/ pubs/ buspubs/ canspam. htm) online at ftc.gov or PDF Version (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ bcp/ conline/ pubs/ buspubs/ canspam. pdf) [7] Fairhead, N. (2003) “All hail the brave new world of permission marketing via email” (Media 16, August 2003) [8] Dilworth, Dianna. (2007) Ruth's Chris Steak House sends sizzling e-mails for special occasions (http:/ / www. dmnews. com/ Ruths-Chris-Steak-House-sends-sizzling-e-mails-for-special-occasions/ article/ 94733/ ), DMNews retrieved on February 19, 2008 [9] O'Brian J. & Montazemia, A. (2004) Management Information Systems (Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.) [10] Full text of Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations (http:/ / www. opsi. gov. uk/ si/ si2003/ 20032426. htm) [11] FTC Approves New Rule Provision Under The CAN-SPAM Act (http:/ / www. ftc. gov/ opa/ 2008/ 05/ canspam. shtm)

Get Into Bed With Google

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Get Into Bed With Google
Get Into Bed With Google: Top ranking search optimisation techniques

Get into bed with Google Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Pages ISBN Jon Smith United Kingdom English Internet Marketing, Business, SEO Non-fiction, Infinite Ideas January 2008 180 pp 978-1905940493

Get Into Bed With Google: Top ranking search optimisation techniques is a 2008 book by Jon Smith, an Internet marketing expert, entrepreneur and author of the Amazon.co.uk Best Seller The Bloke's Guide To Pregnancy. The book aims to teach business owners how to use ethical Search Engine Optimization techniques to improve the visibility of their webpages on the world's major Search Engines and on Google in particular. By September 2008, Get Into Bed With Google was the most popular book about Search Engine Optimization and had spent 10 weeks in Bookscan's Top 100. The book has been translated into Danish[1] , Thai[2] and German[3] . The book is published in the USA[4] with the title Be #1 on Google by McGraw-Hill An updated UK second edition [5] was released in paperback September 2010.

co. Joanna (August 2. do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& . John P. [5] Tovia.[2] Prior to venturing into sales on eBay. com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview. Dahlynn (2006). uk/ Get-Into-Bed-Google-optimisation/ dp/ 190682164X/ Adam Ginsberg Adam Ginsberg is a guru of internet marketing. amazon. "One man's trash is another's treasure" (http:/ / www. com/ product. lexisnexis. amazon. dk/ Products/ 9788702073904. [2] "Authour Adam Ginsberg" (http:/ / www. php?isbn=0071629602 http:/ / www. Retrieved 22 November 2009. [3] Mello. com/ eshop/ Products/ Detail. The book includes references to many paid and free tools available on the web to assist readers as well as short case studies. Sell & Profit on eBay" (http:/ / www. Kiplinger's Personal Finance (Kiplinger Washington Editors.[4] [5] By the end of 2002 Ginsberg had been named as eBay's "number-one new seller". aspx?No=9789742127459 http:/ / www. Although he claims to have been initially skeptical about selling through eBay. Amazon website. Chicken soup for the enterepreneur's soul: advice and inspiration on fulfilling Dreams. Patrick (July 26. . co. [8] Roseman. Daily Telegraph: Pg. com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview. in 2001 he placed a pool table for sale on the service and met success. ISSN 15289729. "The Secrets of Power Sellers". 106. Retrieved 22 November 2009.) 57 (7): 75. [4] Siskos. which were published by Nightingale Conant. uk/ exec/ obidos/ search-handle-url?_encoding=UTF8& search-type=ss& index=books-uk& field-author=Adam Ginsberg). He has written the book 'How to buy. uk/ How-Buy-Sell-Profit-eBay/ dp/ 006076287X). Ginsberg ran a business in San Diego selling pool tables.[6] [7] [8] In 2005 Ginsberg released How to buy. [7] Lion. Catherine (July 2003). Amazon website. Jack. Hansen. com/ us/ lnacademic/ results/ docview/ docview.Get Into Bed With Google 144 Synopsis The book provides 52 practical solutions to Search Engine Optimisation problems faced by many small to medium sized websites.[1] along with other titles. co. 2004). do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=244786& docNo=2). aspx http:/ / www. and he is said to have sold over $20 million worth of products through the online service. amazon. lexisnexis. se-ed. lexisnexis. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www. . expanding his online business and eventually closing his physical store. sell and profit on eBay. McKowen. do?docLinkInd=true& risb=21_T8063942636& format=GNBFI& sort=RELEVANCE& startDocNo=1& resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=244786& docNo=7). sell and profit on eBay. Daily Telegraph: Pg. Ellen (February 29. "A Skeptic's Transformation to an eBay Fanatic". 2005).[3] References [1] "How to Buy. 32. "Selling to the masses on eBay" (http:/ / www.[3] As a result he continued to engage in eBay sales. HCI. php?products_id=303 http:/ / www. The Boston Globe: E2. 25. He has promoted software for marketing on Myspace and training on selling on ebay. 2005). [6] Canfield. (May 1. From creating basic Metatags to help categorise pages through to more advanced keyword density ratios. ISBN 0-7573-0261-0. 2005). The book outlines techniques which can be employed at the back-end or within the site’s code as well as front-end or editorial techniques to help improve visibility within the search engines.'. mhprofessional. Inc. ch/ catalog/ product_info. Mark Victor. The updated second edition contains new material relating to social networks and Google Analytics to assist readers with utilising and benefiting from these tools in relation to Search Engine Optimisation. midas. gyldendalbusiness. p. "Smart Ebay traders cash in" (http:/ / www.

[2] Origins This term relates to search engine marketing strategies and was coined back in 2005 during studies which were carried out by Google to show which area on search result pages drew the attention of viewers the most. The Toronto Star: BUSINESS. then the title and only part of the description of the next few results. For marketing purposes. Using the Golden Triangle The Golden Triangle is the area of the page where users read the title and the description of each search result which eventually results in higher click-through rates. It was previously considered that a website should be seen on the first page of the search engine and it was even better if the website was ranked higher on the first page. Google carried out a study to better understand the average search patterns and to try to find out whether there was anything which differentiated a result ranked first from a result ranked sixth on a search engine page. which gives rise to an “F” form. 145 Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) The Golden Triangle in internet marketing depicts the triangular viewing pattern on a webpage which is created based on the eye-tracking activity of users. SEO marketers should also use long-tail keywords to increase their chances of being displayed within the Golden Triangle for less popular keywords. they tend to read only titles and then. company’s try to place their websites in the top results for searches.[5] Implications of the Golden Triangle The reason for the increase in click through rates on the first three search results is due to the way users view the result page.[4] An eye tracking study done by an eye tracking company and search marketing firms has shown that. getting a website into the Golden Triangle of any search result page is the key to increasing traffic to a site. showing that it was only the first three results on a search engine that had high click-through rates whilst the remaining results had very low click-through rates. not even that. This was until a trend was identified.[6] This implies that a website may not be getting any traffic due to its positioning on the search results.[1] It is an eye-tracking heat-mapping that shows that people look and click on a specific area on a page of search results. The results of the study show that any search engine optimisation (SEO) marketing performed is most effective a website ranks in the top three for your primary keyword. .[3] In search engine marketing.Adam Ginsberg resultsUrlKey=29_T8063942640& cisb=22_T8063942639& treeMax=true& treeWidth=0& csi=8286& docNo=25). Google’s study showed that users usually read the entire title and description of the first three listings. The Golden Triangle forces internet marketers to focus on tailoring a website’s title and description to give relevant and concise information. towards the end of the page. C01. As users scroll down the page. Pg. the vast majority of eye tracking activities happens in a triangle at the top of the search results page indicating that the areas of maximum interest create a "golden triangle". during a search.

com/ Internet-Marketing-eBook) Eyetools. Retrieved 2010-12-08. html) . com/ internet-marketing-glossary/ g/ golden-triangle). Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. Strategic and consistent keyword placement can be used to try to be within the Golden Triangle without paying out excessive advertising fees. Hubspot. com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap. Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. 5 Tips to Turn Your Website into a Marketing Machine (http:/ / www. com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap. The Importance of The Golden Triangle in Internet Marketing (http:/ / articlesadv.Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing) 146 Forming part of the Golden Triangle It can be difficult to be placed within the Golden Triangle. saelstrom. html) Eyetools. hubspot. For instance Google sells the first two top ranked spots on their results page to bidders. com/ research_google_eyetracking_heatmap. html) Vincent Murphy. Google Search’s Golden Triangle (http:/ / eyetools. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] "Definition of Golden Triangle" (http:/ / www. html) [6] Eyetools. com/ marketing/ the-importance-of-the-golden-triangle-in-internet-marketing-aRtI3OZk. . who pay to be placed in those strategic spots. Use of quality SEO is the key to being able to get within the Golden Triangle on a search result page.

Mediacom and City & Law. JP Morgan. also participated in the round. Simon Levene. Engineers Without Borders and the British Judo Association. Yale. Stafford Long. GroupSpaces has worked with over 70 graduate recruiters including Allen & Overy. Barclays Capital. Freshfields. hobbyists and entrepreneurial clubs. KPMG.[5] Revenue and funding GroupSpaces generates revenue via a combination of premium accounts. targeted advertising and transaction commission from payments made through the site. top schools such as Harvard.[8] The company raised a small amount of angel finance from Avonmore Developments in January 2008. Work Communications. UBS. Ariel Poler and Quincy Smith of CODE Advisors. Stephen Bullock and Simon and Michael Blakey.000) investment round from Index Ventures and a leading angel investor consortium including Dave McClure. and promote themselves [2] online.[9] In June 2010 it secured a $1. Meagan Marks. 2007 Headquarters New York City. Morgan Stanley. Lloyd's of London and the NHS. SAS Design. Deutsche Bank. BCG. Clifford Chance. In the first few months of operation in the United States.[11] The funding has been used to expand both the technical and marketing teams in both the United Kingdom and United States.3 million (£860. Slaughter & May.com [1] Website GroupSpaces (styled groupspaces) is a London-based online company that provides technology to help real-world clubs.[10] The previous backers. Citi.[7] Since 2007. GroupSpaces also works with many of the leading recruitment agencies in the UK including Euro RSCG Riley. Founded by Oxford University students David Langer and Andy Young.[6] The company also generates revenue by allowing graduate recruiters to advertise their campus activities and promote their opportunities to a highly employable community of students throughout the whole academic year. MIT and Stanford signed on with GroupSpaces. Accenture. its software is used to host over 1 million memberships. Credit Suisse. PwC. Deloitte. Thirty Three. of Avonmore Developments. Andy Young: Cofounder and CTO groupspaces. GroupSpaces has also partnered with many leading nationwide networks of groups such as SIFE. McKinsey & Company. Bank of England. RBS.[12] .[4] As of November 2010. associations and other groups manage their membership and activities. societies.GroupSpaces 147 GroupSpaces GroupSpaces Type Industry Founded Group Management Internet October. London Key people David Langer: Cofounder and CEO. Campaigns can be targeted to specific universities and audiences such as fraternities. TMP Worldwide. Chris Sacca. the company was launched in the United Kingdom in 2007[3] and has since expanded into the United States and over 30 other countries. Princeton.

[8] . "GroupSpaces secures $1. "GroupSpaces secures $1. Science Business. Retrieved 2011-02-27. html). and Andy Young. [9] Butcher. New York Times. uk/ technology/ technology-startup100/ 8446409/ Spotify-crowned-winner-of-Start-Up-100-Awards.com/) .GroupSpaces 148 Founders GroupSpaces was cofounded in October 2007 by David Langer. CrunchBase. http:/ / www. article. Online Recruitment. Rory (2010-07-05).3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / www. recruiter. [10] Cellan-Jones.5m status updates per month. techcrunch. 2010-09-01. [7] . BBC News. telegraph. Retrieved 2011-02-21. co. . 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2011-04-15. Retrieved 2011-02-26. . . net/ NewsArticle. [12] "GroupSpaces raises $1. Retrieved 2011-02-27.000 users and 1. 2011. recruiter. [15] "2011 Startup 100 Awards Announcement" (http:/ / www. Andy Young serves as cofounder and CTO of GroupSpaces. References [1] http:/ / groupspaces. Recruiter Magazine. 2010-09-15. [5] . [14] "Andrew Young CrunchBase profile" (http:/ / www. bbc. Langer was president. Retrieved 2011-03-01. . . http:/ / www. TechCrunch. co. . com/ company/ groupspaces. co.GroupSpaces. uk/ groupspaces-makes-a-bid-to-join-the-us-club/ 1006877. captain. uk/ groupspaces-makes-a-bid-to-join-the-us-club/ 1006877. Retrieved 2011-02-27. com/ 2010/ 06/ 30/ groupspaces-secures-1-3-million-and-brings-valley-players-on-board/ ). Richard (2010-07-01). External links • Official website (http://www. Crunchbase. 2010-07-02. http:/ / www. [4] Tyler. co. Telegraph Media Group Limited.S. . http:/ / www. treasurer. com/ news/ groupspaces_raises_1_3m_from_index_ventu). co. uk/ finance/ yourbusiness/ 7866758/ GroupSpaces-secures-Index-Ventures-investment-to-help-clubs-flourish. Mike (2010-06-30). with over 500. [11] "Oxford’s GroupSpaces raises $1. . crunchbase. 2010-07-08. GroupSpaces was named the winner of the Social Networking and Collaboration category of the Startup 100 awards[15] . webmaster and a member of groups with activities ranging from triathlon to table tennis.[13] Langer previously worked at JP Morgan. Retrieved 2011-02-25. McKinsey & Company and Lehman Brothers.3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / eu. crunchbase. As a student. "UK dotcoms: Two success stories" (http:/ / www. Crunchbase. com/ company/ groupspaces. Retrieved 2011-02-21. aspx?ArticleId=67982). 2010-09-15. CrunchBase. . Mike (2010-06-30). Retrieved 2011-03-01. telegraph. Telegraph. 26. [3] Butcher. . the most popular third-party app to link Twitter and Facebook.3M for online club administration system" (http:/ / bulletin. uk/ blogs/ thereporters/ rorycellanjones/ 2010/ 07/ uk_dot_coms_two_success_storie. 2010-07-01.3 million and brings Valley players on board" (http:/ / eu. crunchbase. nytimes. He cofounded GroupSpaces while studying for a mathematics degree at Oxford University and was subsequently awarded second place in the 2007 UK Graduate of the Year competition. article. crunchbase.3M from Index Ventures and launches in U. Retrieved 2011-02-26. 25. com/ 2010/ 06/ 30/ groupspaces-secures-1-3-million-and-brings-valley-players-on-board/ ). html). [13] "David Langer CrunchBase profile" (http:/ / www. com/ person/ andy-young). . com [2] "GroupSpace attracts high-profile investors" (http:/ / dealbook.[14] Awards On April 13. After studying how their college’s clubs and societies worked–and running a few themselves–the two came up with GroupSpaces. Recruiter Magazine. com/ 2010/ 07/ 02/ groupspaces-attracts-high-profile-investors/ ). "GroupSpaces secures $1. onrec. Retrieved 2011-02-27. university market" (http:/ / www. techcrunch. html). Retrieved 2011-02-27. Retrieved 2011-02-26. TechCrunch. while the two were students at Oxford University. . He is the creator of Selective Tweets. com/ person/ david-langer). sciencebusiness. [6] .

even for complex and technical solutions. product manufacturer websites and service providers. furthermore. Goal and Approach The goal of Guided Selling-solutions is to bring together potential buyer's needs and products or services that fulfill his needs in order to facilitate buying decisions. Guided selling-solutions are applied in the following use cases: • Websites of online-shops. A functional definition of the solution is provided to the customer. private. illustrations. call-center solutions and instore-devices in specialised trade stores. commercial and technical aspects of the customer needs and the possible solutions. such as prices. The Guided Selling-system asks questions and offers answer options that help the online-shopper to learn about and define his needs. product advisors.g. The knowledge stored is related to functional. complete with commercial aspects of the proposal. . Guided selling does not address the internal. Guided selling-solutions are used to analyse user requirements and generate buying recommendations to make sure online-shoppers find the product best fitting to their needs • Kiosk-applications. define the solution. In addition. margins. Process and Practice Guided selling is put in practice with an information system that supports the central management and maintenance of knowledge. brands. product configuration. retailer) to actively guide their customers to a buying decision and thus increases their conversion rate. customers. dealers and sales representatives. Goal is to help the potential buyer and / or the sales representative or service agent to efficiently guide through the product selection and purchasing process.Guided selling 149 Guided selling Guided selling is a process that helps potential buyers of products or services to choose the product best fulfilling their needs and hopefully guides the buyer to buy. commercial calculations and document generation. and generate a proposal to fulfill those needs. or behind-the-scenes decision issues that buyers must address before they are ready to make a solution choice. these models are interacted with by means of questionnaires and explanations to / feedback options to product recommendations. Guided selling simplifies and automates the maintenance and deployment of all knowledge that is required to analyze customer needs. The proposal-specific functions of guided selling are recommender systems. texts. Guided Selling-Systems increase the shopping experience and the usability of the website since they typically offer a better access to the product assortment than done by filtering systems or free text search. technical calculations. At the same time. Such knowledge is stored in semantic knowledge models. It also helps vendors of products (e. the system supports the use of this knowledge by web services such as online product advisors. the vendor understands step by step the refined customer needs. and lay-outs. offline. the technical specification of the solution (such as bills of materials and routings) is generated for manufacturing and distribution.

it is not enough to filter out products that just fulfill the requirements expressed by the user.g. but not technical specs . a website. a certain processor type. In order to calculate valuable product recommendations. The advantage of Guided Selling to recommender systems is an objectively calculated product proposal and a needs-based product advice that usually has a higher quality than products suggested by recommender systems. website usage data such as "users who watched this product also watched these other products"). Guided Selling-systems rather analyse the individual user's input to calculate recommendations that best fulfil his personal needs. The Guided Selling-software allows to simulate a dialog to find out the buyer's needs. . Product attributes that are always beneficial (e. • provide buying arguments and convince the customer: The goal of the Guided Selling-System is to objectively advise the potential buyer.g. RAM-size). The product characteristics that are relevant to a buying decision are explained. Guided Selling-systems thus require product information (fact sheets). • analyse customer's needs: Consumers typically can express buying desires.g. hard disk size. the Guided Selling-System needs to calculate alternatives that come close to the actual requirements. If no product fulfills all requirements. Since the Guided Selling-System explains product attributes and use cases. Guided Selling-systems are a kind of Recommender systems. Thus. A Guided Selling-System must thus be able to translate buying desires expressed in consumer language (e. but non-technical product attributes ("a fast processor") in technical product specifications (e. Boundaries Guided Selling-Systems are different from Recommender systems in the way that statistical recommenders calculate recommendations based on usage data instead of the actual user input to a questionnaire. all relevant product attributes need to be evaluated and matched against the user requirements. operating system. Helping the customer to understand his needs and then really understand the attributes important to him is key to calculate product recommendations that fit the customer's requirements. Goal of this approach is to calculate objective recommendations that are based on the individual user's needs. Technology Required Guided Selling-solutions are software systems. However. A matching technology then maps the needs on technical product details and matches the buyer's profile with the available products. buyers are enabled to express their needs. Other than Collaborative filtering that calculates recommendations based on historical data (e. • recommend products: The technical product specifications inferred from the customer's needs need to be matched on the fact sheets of the available products.g.Guided selling 150 Guided Selling-Process Guided Selling-Systems put in practice the following Guided Selling-Process to advice. but not which exact technical requirements are needed. longer battery lifetime) need to be treated accordingly.g. refine existing needs and discover new needs. create trust in the product recommendations and the products offered and thus turn prospects into buyers. "I need a business notebook") or concrete. each product recommendation needs to be explained using a reasoning engine and the advantages / disadvantages of each recommendation need to be shown. convince and sell (based on the need/solution-placement dynamic): • understand the customer's needs: The potential customer is asked for his buying needs. The drawback is that Guided Selling-Systems need domain-specific knowledge about the product category whereas recommender systems (at least Collaborative filtering can work across all product categories of e.a consumer knows how he wants to use the product.

Guided selling

151

Sources
• Whitepaper Guided Selling published by a Guided Selling specialist [1] • J. Lester, K. Branting, B. Mott: Conversational agents [2], Practical handbook of Internet computing, 2004, S. 3ff • Guided Selling: On demand information for buyers [3], Executive technology report, IBM, August 2005. The paper shows the challenges of retail as buying decisions are taken only more and more and shows how to face the challenges with Guided Selling-solutions. • Axel Schultze: Channel Excellence [4], published by Lulu.com, 2007, S. 215ff, ISBN 061517759X • Sridhar Seshadri, Dana Popescu: Inventory and Ecommerce [5], Department of Information, Operations and Management Science, Leonard Stern School of Business, New York University, New York, NY 10012

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. excentos. com/ en/ whitepaper-guided-selling http:/ / ftp. ida. liu. se/ ~729A15/ mtrl/ Lester_et_al. pdf http:/ / www-935. ibm. com/ services/ us/ imc/ pdf/ gt510-6205-guided-selling. pdf http:/ / books. google. de/ books?hl=de& lr=& id=rT1UAyyYiswC& oi=fnd& pg=PA7& dq=%22Guided+ Selling%22& ots=Q4PVt6RMnr& sig=QwSUXqICgpi8KGPOGK2yOeZQms0 [5] http:/ / pages. stern. nyu. edu/ ~dpopescu/ IME. pdf

Image search optimization
Image search optimization (or image search engine optimization) is the process of organizing the content of a webpage to increase relevance to a specific keyword on image search engines. Like search engine optimization, the aim is to achieve a higher organic search listing and thus increasing the volume of traffic from search engines. Image search optimization techniques can be viewed as a subset of search engine optimization techniques that focuses on gaining high ranks on image search engine results. Unlike normal SEO process, there isn't much to do for ISO. Making high quality images accessible to search engines and providing some description about images is almost all that can be done for ISO.

Checklist For ISO
• Image Naming: • Use a meaningful name rather than 'DC00001.jpg' • Separate words with a hyphen or underscore, but try not to use too many. i.e. green-tree.jpg and green_tree.jpg are better than greentree.jpg or DC00001.jpg.[1] • alt Attribute • Provide a small description of image in alt attribute of img tag. • As a good practice do not leave alt attribute empty, provide at least one word. • Do not fill the alt attribute with lots of keywords, even if they are relevant. • Text Around The Image • Place some text around the image that describes it. • Image Quality • Try to use high resolution images. • If available, provide different resolutions of images • Image Accessibility • Make sure that the directory that contains your images is fully accessible by crawlers.

Image search optimization

152

References
[1] http:/ / searchengineland. com/ its-not-just-google-that-treats-underscores-like-dashes-11854

Impression (online media)
An Impression (online media) according to the "Basic Advertising Measures," from FAST, an ad industry group, is "The count of a delivered basic advertising unit from an ad distribution point." Impressions are how most Web advertising is sold and the cost is quoted in terms of the cost per thousand impressions ( [CPM] ).[1] Another definition of online advertisement impression is the single appearance of an advertisement on a web page. Each time an advertisement loads onto a user's screen, the ad server may count that loading as one impression.

References
[1] "http:/ / whatis. techtarget. com/ definition/ 0,,sid9_gci211535,00. html#"

External links
• CPM (http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci211535,00.html#cpm/) • FAST (http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci211535,00.html#fast/)

In-text advertising
In-text advertising is a form of contextual advertising where specific keywords within the text of a web-page are matched with advertising and/or related information units.

Description
Although contextual advertising in general refers to the inclusion of advertisements adjacent to relevant online context (e.g., Google AdSense), in-text advertising places hyperlinks directly into the text of the webpage.

Advertising Model

Expanded advertisement window associated with the in-text term "PC" (double-underlined).

In text advertising works on a cost per click (CPC) model, which means that each time a website visitor clicks on an In-text ad, the websites owner gets paid by the advertiser.

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153

Criticism
The use of this type of advertising in news and journalism websites has been criticized by journalism ethics counselors as "ethically problematic at the least and potentially quite corrosive of journalistic quality and credibility."[1] However, publishers such as the Indianapolis Star who use in-text advertising have reported that despite early objections by some readers, such complaints have "tapered off".[2]

References
[1] Is It News...or Is It an Ad? (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ public/ article/ SB116412309878729621-1mr_uV3L7Bc8GGLks5qCcsusmyw_20071127. html) By David Kesmodal and Julia Angwin, Wall Street Journal November 27, 2006; Page R8 [2] Pitching Between the Lines (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ magazine/ content/ 07_49/ b4061070. htm?chan=technology_technology+ index+ page_top+ stories) by Catherine Holahan, BusinessWeek December 3, 2007

Interactive advertising
Interactive advertising uses online or offline interactive media to communicate with consumers and to promote products, brands, services, and public service announcements, corporate or political groups. In the inaugural issue of the Journal of Interactive Advertising [1], editors Li and Leckenby (2000) defined Interactive Advertising as the "paid and unpaid presentation and promotion of products, services and ideas by an identified sponsor through mediated means involving mutual action between consumers and producers." This is most commonly performed through the Internet; often using video content as a delivery medium.

Interactive advertising objectives
The goals of interactive advertising are usually akin to the traditional objectives of advertising, i.e. to sell a product. This in turn means that many of the traditional elements of advertising impact and effectiveness remain relevant, even within the scope of interactive media. However, according to the Journal of Interactive Advertising 2001, interactive advertising also has some properties that expand the range of potential objectives and that improve advertising effectiveness. Interactive advertising also has the potential to decrease the losses associated with poorly coordinated advertising, to reduce the difficulties commonly encountered in clearly communicating an advertising message and to help overcome new product hurdles, such as a consumer rejection.

Elements of interactive advertising
There are many different facets to Interactive Advertising, including varying methods and types. Using many different types of cognitive tools and advert presentations, organizations can enhance the impact of their campaigns with this type of advertising. According to Thorson (1996), all advertisements can be classified into one of five basic categories, including: product/service, public service announcement, issue, corporate and political. Advert types also interact with the user's motives to influence outcomes, or consumer responses, reinforcing the need for Interactive Advertising as a means of persuading potential consumers and target audiences. Using the Internet as the main medium for Interactive Advertising to study the methods, types and outcomes, we can then sound out the different user or advertiser controlled aspects.

• Rodgers. Most of these variables include structural elements. pdf . In fact. In R. Using search to find the businesses that excel in this medium reveals that the organic search leads are dominating the pay per click companies in this area. 2001. Thorson (Eds. Advertiser controlled aspects Internet aspects that are under the control of the advertiser. H. formats and features. Internet motives and mode are the main factors of user [controlled aspects. & Haugtvedt. (1997). 27-39).. pop-up ads. JIAD. John D.Interactive advertising 154 User generated/controlled aspects Functions. googlepages. 99-117). Mahwah. IL: NTC Business Books. such as ad types. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Internet Advertising Formats and Effectiveness. P.). (1999). a number of researchers and practitioners argue that consumers have more control on the Internet than do advertisers (Roehm & Haugtvedt. C. R. In D. E. Advertising and the World Wide Web (pp. Schumann & E. sponsorship. Understanding interactivity of cyberspace advertising. This does not mean that consumers never control the structure of the interactive ads. Brady. Customer-focused strategies and tactics. Banner Ads. See Also Digital marketing References • Li. 3rd edition.. Cybermarketing: Your Interactive Marketing Consultant (pp. W. S. J. Forrest. [2] (accessed 02/25/2010) • Flew. hyperlinks and non-carrier websites are examples of Advertiser controlled Interactive Advertising. Mizerski (Eds. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Advertising and the World Wide Web (pp. http:// jiad. Leckenby. Lincolnwood. • Thorson (Eds. New Media: an introduction Melbourne: Oxford. T. Center for Interactive Advertising. & R. The Interactive Advertising Model: How Users Perceive and Process Online Ads. 2004. & Smith. Hairong. Mahwah. org/ issue1 [2] http:/ / champtec. 1997). Some have gone so far as to argue that interactive marketing and advertising techniques will not work unless practitioners "step into the shoes" of and approach the Internet from the consumer's vantage point (Cross & Smith. 2008. • Roehm. A.). • Cross. References [1] http:/ / jiad. 55-78). com/ ad_format_print.). 1999).org/article5 (accessed 03/09/2008) It is important to remember interactive advertising begins with online advertising.

email marketing.[3] Internet marketing ties together the creative and technical aspects of the Internet. but also includes marketing done via e-mail and wireless media.[2] Digital customer data and electronic customer relationship management (ECRM) systems are also often grouped together under internet marketing. The New York Times. Internet marketing is considered to be broad in scope[1] because it not only refers to marketing on the Internet. also known as digital marketing. is the marketing (generally promotion) of products or services over the Internet. the authors found that the potential for collecting data was up to 2.0 strategies. working with comScore. [4] advertising.[5] . In 2008. including design. banner ads on specific websites. search marketing or e-marketing. search engine optimization (SEO).Internet marketing 155 Internet marketing Marketing Key concepts Product • Pricing Distribution • Service • Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Marketing ethics Marketing effectiveness Market research Market segmentation Marketing strategy Marketing management Market dominance Promotional content Advertising • Branding • Underwriting Direct marketing • Personal Sales Product placement • Publicity Sales promotion • Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing • Premiums • Prizes Promotional media Printing • Publication Broadcasting • Out-of-home Internet marketing • Point of sale Promotional merchandise Digital marketing • In-game In-store demonstration Word-of-mouth marketing Brand Ambassador • Drip Marketing Internet marketing. and sales. online marketing. published an initial estimate to quantify the user data collected by large Internet-based companies. and Web 2. web marketing.500 times per user per month. Internet marketing also refers to the placement of media along many different stages of the customer engagement cycle through search engine marketing (SEM). development. Counting four types of interactions with company websites in addition to the hits from advertisements served from advertising networks.

and other criteria. such as latitude and longitude. Therefore. whereas in traditional Internet marketing a website would be created and promoted on a high-level topic such as kitchen appliances. • Lead-based websites: a strategy whereby an organization generates value by acquiring sales leads from its website. gender. tracking facilities. country. niche marketing would focus on more specific topics such as 4-slice toasters. the vast majority of affiliate marketing relationships come from e-commerce businesses that offer affiliate programs. Internet Protocol (IP) address. metro code or zip code. Local Internet marketing uses tools such as social media marketing.g. geography. region or state. One-to-one approach In a one-to-one approach. These prospects are often referred to as organic leads. or from consumer to consumer (C2C). for which the advertisements are based on search engine keywords entered by the users. local directory listing. rather than reaching out to a broadly defined demographic. marketers target a user browsing the Internet alone and so that the marketers' messages reach the user personally. organization. Similar to walk-in customers in retail world.Internet marketing 156 Business models Internet marketing is associated with several business models: • E-commerce: a model whereby goods are sold directly to consumers (B2C). The entity that owns the product may provide some marketing material (e. Advantages and Limitations of Internet marketing Advantages Internet marketing is inexpensive when examining the ratio of cost to the reach of the target audience. and other general factors. city.[6] and targeted online sales promotions. The nature of the medium allows consumers to research and to purchase products and services conveniently. affiliate links.). and allows the creators to establish themselves as authorities on the topic or product. Geo-targeting In Internet marketing. Companies can reach a wide audience for a small fraction of traditional advertising budgets. businesses have the advantage of appealing to consumers in a medium that can bring results quickly. businesses (B2B). ISP. These marketers typically segment their markets according to age group. Niche Marketing Niche and hyper-niche internet marketing put further emphasis on creating destinations for web users and consumers on specific topics and products. geo targeting and geo marketing are the methods of determining the geolocation of a website visitor with geolocation software. Niche marketing provides end users of such sites very targeted information. marketers place an emphasis on appealing to a specific behavior or interest. etc.[7] This approach is used in search marketing. This approach usually works under the pay per click (PPC) method.. Appeal to specific interests When appealing to specific interests. however. sales letters. Niche marketers differ from traditional Internet marketers as they have a more specialized topic knowledge. and delivering different content to that visitor based on his or her location. • Affiliate Marketing: a process wherein a product or service developed by one entity is sold by other active sellers for a share of profits. For example. The strategy and overall effectiveness of . • Local Internet marketing: a strategy through which a small company utilizes the Internet to find and to nurture relationships that can be used for real-world advantages.

) have provided back-end buyer protection systems to address problems if they occur. and "to try on" tangible goods before making an online purchase can be limiting. pay per click. and so on. The results of campaigns can be measured and tracked immediately because online marketing initiatives usually require users to click on an advertisement. from the buyer's perspective. measured. PayPal. Internet marketers also have the advantage of measuring statistics easily and inexpensively. eBay. the price shown on eBay often becomes the item's . As a result. Usage trends Technological advancements in the telecommunications industry have dramatically affected online advertising techniques. Therefore.[8] Internet auctions Internet auctions have become a multi-billion dollar business. also known as opting out. Amazon. Online banking appeals to customers because it is often faster and considered more convenient than visiting bank branches. Many firms are embracing a paradigm that is shifting the focus of advertising methodology from traditional text and image advertisements to those containing more recent technologies like JavaScript and Adobe Flash. clothing. many customers are unaware if and when their information is being shared. to smell. Another major security concern that consumers have with e-commerce merchants is whether or not they will receive exactly what they purchase. and to perform a targeted action. and Overstock.g. However. and are unable to stop the transfer of their information between companies if such activity occurs. several major online payment mechanisms (credit cards. Effects on industries The number of banks offering the ability to perform banking tasks over the internet has increased. gadgets. marketers can determine which messages or offerings are more appealing to the audience. The advertisers can use a variety of methods. and tested. such as pay per impression. Security concerns Information security is important both to companies and consumers that participate in online business. Specialized e-stores sell a vast amount of items like antiques. Some companies that purchase customer information offer the option for individuals to have their information removed from the database.com). Unique items that could only previously be found at flea markets are now being sold on Internet auction websites such as eBay. Online merchants have attempted to address this concern by investing in and building strong consumer brands (e. Google Checkout. eBay is often used as a price-basis for specialized items.com. pay per play. Buyers and sellers often look at prices on the website before going to flea markets.. movie props. and by leveraging merchant and feedback rating systems and e-commerce bonding solutions.Internet marketing marketing campaigns depend on business goals and cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis. However. there is an industry standard for e-commerce vendors to reassure customers by having liberal return policies as well as providing in-store pick-up services. to visit a website. Additionally. advertisers can more effectively engage and connect their audience with their campaigns that seek to shape consumer attitudes and feelings towards specific products and services.[9] [10] As the premier online reselling platform. and pay per action. to taste. Many consumers are hesitant to purchase items over the Internet because they do not believe that their personal information will remain private. the inability of shoppers to touch. All these solutions attempt to assure consumers that their transactions will be free of problems because the merchants can be trusted to provide reliable products and services. almost all aspects of an Internet marketing campaign can be traced. etc. 157 Limitations However.

opensecrets. Retrieved 24 March 2011. "Bid on Dreamgirls Costumes for Charity"" (http:/ / offtherack. doi:10. com/ imagepages/ 2008/ 03/ 10/ technology/ 20080310_PRIVACY_GRAPHIC. com/ 2008/ news. while others have sprung up as purely online businesses. Internet marketing: a practical approach. nytimes. 2010. Andrew (April 21. online advertising has grown to be worth tens of billions of dollars annually. [6] Rayner. Retrieved August 15. automotive or gambling.. Louise and comScore (March 10.1108/14637150710834541. such as digital design and media. References [1] "Internet Marketing .5 Billion in 2007 (http:/ / www. In just a few years. 2006). blogging. org/ pres08/ summary. 2007). . Inc.How. asp?id=9) (SIPP)" (Accessed 28-June-2008) [16] "Center For Responsive Politics (http:/ / www. [2] "Former Wachovia Direct Marketing Executives Launch Full Service Online Marketing and Web Design Company" (http:/ / www. html). Daily Mirror. (2007). html). .Online Adspend (http:/ / www. html?categoryid=1238& cs=1). "Movie props on the block: Mouse to auction Miramax leftovers" (http:/ / www. Time. managingchange.Internet advertising shoots past estimates (http:/ / www. . Butterworth-Heinemann. "To Aim Ads. [10] James. over 500 social network supporters per day to help spread their message. com/ Article.[11] [12] [13] PricewaterhouseCoopers reported that US$16. Retrieved 24 March 2011. net/ en/ 1/ iabknowledgebankadspend. 49. html) (2007-06-18) [14] PricewaterhouseCoopers reported U. iabuk. directtraffic. [11] eMarketer . When. Louise (March 10. music. [7] http:/ / www.Online Ad Spending to Total $19. com/ news04/ online_banking_survey. in 2006. [3] Jaakko Sinisalo et al. Retrieved 2008-03-09.Political Performance Index (http:/ / spartaninternet. Where?" (http:/ / print. prweb. aspx?1004635) (2007-2-28) [12] The Register . lk/ business/ 127-local/ 38977. In 2008. html) (JPEG). and internet service hosting. html) in 2006" (Accessed 18-June-2007) [15] "Spartan Internet Consulting . largely due to online donors. 2008). Alan (2009). Ian (February 27. Web Is Keeping Closer Eye on You" (http:/ / www.S. . in Story. 2010).Internet marketing selling price. candidates for President heavily utilized Internet marketing strategies to reach constituents. htm [8] http:/ / www. consumeraffairs. the effect on the advertising industry itself has been profound. variety.[16] Several industries have heavily invested in and benefited from internet marketing and online advertising. prlog. [5] Story. . Business Process Management Journal 13 (6): 772. . The New York Times (The New York Times Company). "Mobile customer relationship management: underlying issues and challenges" (in (English)). org/ 10638959-put-the-mphasis-on-local-internet-marketing-and-reach-first-page-on-google. uk/ 2006/ 09/ 29/ internet_advertising_booms/ ) (2006-09-29) [13] Internet Advertising Bureau . The New York Times. 2008). html#comment-66215834). "They Know More Than You Think" (http:/ / www.9 billion (http:/ / www. people. com/ article/ VR1117938954.[15] President Barack Obama raised over US$1 million in one day during his extensive Democratic candidacy campaign. com/ onetoone/ overview. During the 2007 primaries candidates added.9 billion was spent on Online marketing in the U. html). pp. David (February 24. Internet marketing spend totaled $16. co. com/ 2008/ 03/ 10/ technology/ 10privacy. dailymirror. theregister.S. Some of them were originally brick and mortar businesses such as publishing. . com/ 2007/ 02/ dress_like_a_dr. html [9] Mohr. on average. nytimes. . org/ OnlineNews/ Internet_marketing_20075115473. 158 Advertising industry In addition to the major effect internet marketing has had on the technology industry. pReed Business Information. "Put the E-mphasis on Local Internet Marketing and reach first page on Google" (http:/ / www.[14] This has caused a growing impact on the United States' electoral process. php?id=N00009638) Fundraising Profile Barack Obama" (Accessed 28-June-2008) com/ releases/ eSynergize/ Online-Marketing/ prweb5163484. emarketer. [4] Charlesworth. htm).

for an organization or company encompasses. with the goal of increasing that entity's online presence and overall internet efficiency. where an advertiser communicates the entity's brand in a synergistic fashion via all areas of online marketing. but is not limited to: • • • • • • • • • E-mail Internet forums Blogs Minisites Search engine listings Social networks (e.g.Internet presence management 159 Internet presence management Internet Presence Management (IPM) is the process of controlling the Web presence. Advantages Internet presence management is useful for organizations or companies that are attempting to embrace the online medium as means of connecting with their target audiences. Facebook. Web analytics. MySpace. . YouTube and Twitter) Web directories Websites Word of mouth marketing (WOMM). or Web presence. and business analytics to streamline a business operationally to do more with less. Methods Internet presence management typically encompasses advanced Internet marketing. as well as reduce customer acquisition and customer service costs. Internet presence The Internet presence. enterprise resource planning. or Internet-based channels of an organization or company.. Other management methods include sales force management systems.

[8] Notable projects In August 2008.[5] [6] In 2009.[7] As of 2010.[9] for which they received a Webby Award nomination in 2009.[14] [15] The same month.[16] [5] On October 22. Intel and Microsoft. "Search for the Moon Rocks".C. com Website JESS3 is a creative interactive agency based in the Washington. International Space .[1] The firm is noted for its work with clients including NASA. infographics and data visualization. 2010.[2] Clients of JESS3 have included Nike. specializing in web design.[12] The website provides access to the digitized C-SPAN video archives of over 160. with more than 100 freelance partners. The first 100 users to earn the pin also received a JESS3-designed special edition map. In October 2010.. JESS3 also developed the C-SPAN Video Library.C.[4] Background Founded by web designer Jesse Thomas in 2007.[13] JESS3 has served as social media adviser to NASA on multiple geosocial networking projects. as well as a special NASA pin. MySpace. and offices in the United Kingdom. Facebook[2] and Wikipedia[3] as well as independent projects such as The Conversation Prism and The Ex-Blocker. JESS3 collaborated with Facebook on a project called Stories to help celebrate the social networking site's 500 millionth profile. D. area. JESS3 coordinated a joint project between NASA and Gowalla. the firm claims 15 full time employees.[2] JESS3 is led by Thomas along with president and co-founder Leslie Bradshaw. branding.000 hours of programming and won an ACC Golden Beacon award on September 16. sortable by geographical location or by topic.JESS3 160 JESS3 JESS3 Type Genre Founder(s) Private Creative agency Jesse Thomas Headquarters Washington.[12] In July 2010. United States Key people Jesse Thomas. JESS3 became Mashable's design partner on projects including their iPhone application. Nike. 2010. JESS3 designed a series of websites related to the 2008 presidential election for the Washington-based C-SPAN public affairs network. creating NASA-related items for the service's users to acquire.[11] which launched in March 2010.[13] The application allows users to share stories about how Facebook has impacted their lives. chairman Leslie Bradshaw. JESS3 organized a partnership between NASA and Foursquare to engineer the first geosocial check-in from space. social media marketing. president http:/ / jess3.[10] In addition to the election websites. D.

the Gulf Oil Spill and other names and phrases into a dripping. A project titled The Conversation Prism elaborately maps methods of communication across numerous online forums. Wheelock checked in to Foursquare from the ISS and unlocked a new "NASA Explorer" badge.000 people have installed the Ex-Blocker plug-in. which enables users to prevent their web browser from showing their ex-lovers' activities and posts on various websites. CA Brooklyn. D.[31] The design appeared in an article about information graphics in the July/August 2009 issue of Communication Arts.[20] [21] 161 JESS3 Labs In June 2010.[32] In the spring of 2009.S.[4] The application was profiled in The Globe and Mail.[18] Other projects JESS3 has developed for NASA include their "Buzzroom" website. As of May 2010.[33] [34] In February 2010. JESS3 debuted the "Black Oil Plug-In" for Firefox that renders any mention of BP.[35] which included a series of infographics outlining the rise of the internet and other information regarding popular social networking and media sites such as YouTube and Twitter.[22] [23] [24] That same month.JESS3 Station (ISS) commander Douglas H.[27] As of October 2010 over 8.[17] In addition. City (11) Washington. plus related images and videos. ten countries and four continents. MA Austin. San Fransisco. NY ? ? Paris ? Boston. space program.[19] which tracks NASA-related tweets. the company released a video titled "The State of the Internet" on Vimeo. the company also introduced The Ex-Blocker. a customized NASA Foursquare homepage was launched which provides information about locations of interest to the U.C.[36] . including an articles in Glamour Magazine UK.[25] mentioned during a segment on Late Night With Jimmy Fallon[26] and received media coverage internationally.[28] Global hubs JESS3 has teams in over a dozen cities. Transocean. 3 countries and one continent are unknown. the video had been viewed online over 1 million times.[29] [30] Data visualization JESS3 has created and co-sponsored numerous visual design projects. black splotch within a user's browser. TX ? ? Country (7)  United States  United States  United States  United Kingdom  Greece  France  Argentina  United States  United States  Sweden  Germany Continent (3) North America North America North America Europe Europe Europe South America North America North America Europe Europe At least one global hub city. the agency designed a diagram called "The Twitterverse" with Brian Solis that outlines the expanding network of applications that function with the popular web tool.

30 May 2008. Spaceref Interactive. Retrieved 27 October 2010. In June 2010. through agency partner New Media Strategies. E-consultancy. Multichannel News. com/ News/ tabid/ 116/ EntryID/ 1058/ Default. . "First Foursquare badge unlocked in space" (http:/ / www. The Webby Awards. We’ve Had A Check-In: NASA Astronaut Just Used Foursquare From Space" (http:/ / www. [17] Matt Fitzpatrick (23 October 2010). Retrieved 20 November 2010. foursquare. cnn. html?pid=31873). com/ article/ 457243-ACC_Awards_Golden_Beacon_To_C_SPAN_s_Video_Library. com/ News/ 2010/ 10/ FirstNews-Briefs-15/ ). NBC. . Retrieved 27 October 2010. multichannel. HBO join mobile check-in game" (http:/ / edition. Mashable. The Hill. [16] Eric Kuhn (22 October 2010). com/ 2010/ 08/ 24/ the-state-of-the-geosocial-universe-infographic/ )"]. ZDNet. [12] Mike Reynolds (16 September 2010). NewBay Media. html). com/ 2010-06-02/ tech/ oil. firefox. [21] "NASA Invites Reporters To Next Space Shuttle Launch And Tweetup" (http:/ / www. "Official Foursquare 'I Voted' Badge Released for Polling Place Check-Ins" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 27 October 2010. . Retrieved 29 October 2010. media/ 10/ 22/ astronaut. com/ the-state-of-wikipedia/ [4] Matthew Lysiak and Erica Pearson (18 July 2010). com/ gadgetreviews/ ?p=381). . Capitol Communicator. . 2 June 2010. with data directly from Twitter's API. [15] Doug Gross (14 October 2010). Zdnet.[37] The site visualized election-related tweets about Barack Obama and John McCain as they happened. . php). prnewswire. [23] "JESS3 Creates Firefox Plugin for BP Oil Spill. com/ webbys/ current. 5 May 2009. nydailynews. . Retrieved 25 October 2010. capitolcommunicator. Zdnet "C-SPAN Launches Gadget-Fueled 'Debate Hub' as Social. . com/ 2008/ 05/ 30/ interview-with-the-entrepreneur-jesse-thomas-of-jess3). LLC. c-span. "500 Million Stories" (http:/ / blog. com/ news/ viewpr. com/ business/ houston-we-ve-had-check-nasa-astronaut-just-used-foursquare-space). [20] Meghan Keane (23 July 2010). Retrieved 29 October 2010. spaceref. Hillicon-Valley. com/ us/ blog/ 6302-q-a-nasa-s-stephanie-schierholz). asp). html). PC Magazine. . aspx). JESS3 designed the website AnOrangeAmerica. Retrieved 26 October 2010. "'Ex-Blocker' deletes all mentions of ex from your Facebook and other social networking sites" (http:/ / www. [7] Pete Cashmore (1 April 2009).2371303. "Mashable iPhone App Launches!" (http:/ / mashable. 22 October 2010. nbcwashington. . com/ blog. . Retrieved 25 October 2010. [8] Jesse Thomas (24 August 2010). Retrieved 27 October 2010. . "Oil spill Firefox plugin blacks out BP across the Web" (http:/ / articles. CNN. php?season=13#webby_entry_politics). C-SPAN. out. Retrieved 29 October 2010. Advantage Business Media. 15 October 2010. [3] http:/ / jess3. JESS3 developed a microsite for "My Discovery". html). 17 March 2010. "NASA.2817. [19] "Houston. "Astronaut Posts First Foursquare Check-In from Space" (http:/ / www.com. [9] Andrew Nusca (25 September 2008). . WorldTech24. [5] Sara Jerome (22 October 2010). com/ 2010/ 07/ 26/ jess3-design-interview/ )"]. space/ ). Retrieved 29 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. "The State of the GeoSocial Universe [INFOGRAPHIC (http:/ / mashable. "Inside the Mind of One of the Web’s Hottest Designers [INTERVIEW (http:/ / mashable. worldtech24. 2010" (http:/ / www. "NASA astronaut 'checks in' on Foursquare from space" (http:/ / thehill. com/ blogs/ hillicon-valley/ technology/ 125417-nasa-astronaut-checks-in-on-foursquare-from-space). blacks. Retrieved 31 October 2010. . [22] Christina Warren (2 June 2010). getglue/ ). CNN. mashable_1_bp-british-petroleum-blacked?_s=PM:TECH). Wireless Week. com/ lifestyle/ 2010/ 07/ 18/ 2010-07-18_ex_out_your_exs_existence_online. NBC Washington. pdf).[38] [39] References [1] "Interview With the Entrepreneur" (http:/ / technosailor. Mashable. [18] Chloe Albanesius (22 October 2010). Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2010. "Q&A: NASA's Stephanie Schierholz on navigating the frontiers of social media" (http:/ / econsultancy.. . Retrieved 27 October 2010. . . php?post=409753352130). "Foursquare Now Allowing Check-ins From Space" (http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ TECH/ mobile/ 10/ 14/ hbo. Political Destination" (http:/ / blogs. cnn. [11] "C-SPAN’s Online Video Library Now Open to the Public" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 25 October 2010. Facebook. CNN. BP Adds VP Cheney's PR Pro" (http:/ / www. . pcmag. bp. [10] "The 13th Annual Webby Awards Nominees & Winners: Politics" (http:/ / webbyawards. Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ 2009/ 04/ 01/ mashable-iphone-app/ ). facebook. "ACC Awards Golden Beacon To C-SPAN's Video Library" (http:/ / www. [2] Jolie O'Dell (26 July 2010). Technosailor.com. . com/ news-releases/ official-foursquare-i-voted-badge-released-for-polling-place-check-ins-105887113. Retrieved 27 October 2010. the Discovery Channel's 25th anniversary program. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010. wirelessweek. [6] PR Newswire (27 October 2010). 18 October 2010. .com and launched it on Election Day. spill. . NY Daily News. cnn. zdnet.JESS3 162 Other projects For the 2008 US Presidential Election. com/ news/ weird/ Foursquare-Now-Allowing-Check-ins-from-Space-105577508. [14] "FirstNews Briefs for October 15. Mashable. com/ article2/ 0. Press release. com/ 2010/ TECH/ social. [13] Mark Zuckerberg (21 July 2010). .00. org/ pdf/ Video Library Now Open.

com/ my-discovery/ ). Vimeo. Retrieved 27 October 2010. [39] Robin Sloan (13 July 2010). com/ 9641036). html). html). com/ about/ [30] http:/ / jess3. com/ News/ tabid/ 116/ EntryID/ 1052/ Default. com/ News/ 860737/ Companies-create-efforts-capitalize-election/ ). Twitter Media. "Powers of Ten for the Twitterverse" (http:/ / www. . [32] JESS3 (30 June 2009). 1 June 2010. timesdispatch. psfk. huffingtonpost. "Small Discoveries" (http:/ / media. [25] Dakshana Bascaramurty (15 July 2010). . com/ 2010/ 06/ 01/ bp-black-oil-firefox-plug_n_596791. [26] "The Ex-Blocker on Late Night With Jimmy Fallon" (http:/ / www. [37] Nicole Zerillo (10 November 2008). Retrieved 27 October 2010. html). net/ jess3/ the-exblocker-on-late-night-with-jimmy-fallon-4854951).JESS3 [24] "Oil Spill Firefox Plugin Dirties Your Browser With 'Black Oil'" (http:/ / www. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 06/ 01/ AR2009060103065. The Washington Post. . com/ rtd/ lifestyles/ leisure/ article/ S-FACE31_20090527-204924/ 270241). . . Retrieved 27 October 2010. jess3. JESS3. Retrieved 27 October 2010. . Glamour Magazine UK. slideshare. [34] Simon Mainwaring (2 June 2009). . Retrieved 27 October 2010. "The Conversation Prism in Communication Arts Magazine" (http:/ / blog. [36] "JESS3 Video Viewed Over 1 Million Times" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 29 October 2010. aspx). com/ 2009/ 06/ conversation-prism-in-communication. The Huffington Post. [28] Ian McCourt (11 October 2010). "How to Erase Your Ex From the Internet" (http:/ / www. html). [27] Jean Hannah Edelstein (22 July 2010). PSFK. Retrieved 27 October 2010. uk/ love-sex-relationships/ g-spot-blog/ 2010/ 07/ block-your-ex-application). SlideShare. [38] "Discovery Communications My Discovery" (http:/ / jess3. Twitter. Retrieved 29 October 2010. Haymarket Business Media. . Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. irishtimes. . "The State of the Internet" (http:/ / vimeo. Retrieved 27 October 2010. . com/ 836/ my-discovery). Brand Republic. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Richmond Times-Dispatch. capitolcommunicator. [35] JESS3 (22 February 2010).com) . . [29] http:/ / jess3. Capitol Communicator. "Companies create efforts to capitalize on election" (http:/ / www. . 163 External links • JESS3 Official website (http://jess3. com/ life/ family-and-relationships/ how-to-erase-your-ex-from-the-internet/ article1641586/ ). [33] MG Siegler (1 June 2009). washingtonpost. co. twitter. com/ 2009/ 06/ powers-of-ten-for-the-twitterverse. "Add-on that can erase your ex" (http:/ / www. . . Retrieved 27 October 2010. com/ newspaper/ features/ 2010/ 1011/ 1224280782476. glamourmagazine. "Block Your Ex" (http:/ / www. html). "The Future Of Twitter Visualized" (http:/ / www. The Globe and Mail. theglobeandmail. "The new networking" (http:/ / www. brandrepublic. The Irish Times. com/ ten-things-ceos-need-to-know-about-design/ Slide 4 [31] Bill Lohmann (31 May 2009). 27 May 2010. JESS3.

SEO tactics may be incorporated into website development and design. video search. or index files in engines like ALIWEB. is another SEO tactic. and by employees who perform SEO services in-house.[6] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines. academic search[1] .[3] The first documented use of the term Search Engine Optimization was John Audette [4] and his company Multimedia Marketing Group as documented by a web page from the MMG site from August. Another class of techniques. as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web.Keyword optimization 164 Keyword optimization Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. In general. the actual search terms typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. 1997. however. videos. and return information found on the page to be indexed. known as an indexer. news search and industry-specific vertical search engines. extract links to other pages from it. images. or inbound links. The acronym "SEOs" can refer to "search engine optimizers. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan. or URL. Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks. local search. the earlier (or higher on the page). Search engine optimizers may offer SEO as a stand-alone service or as a part of a broader marketing campaign. SEO may target different kinds of search. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable. This gives a website web presence." a term adopted by an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients. and more frequently a site appears in the search results list. incomplete. Search engines look for sites that employ these techniques in order to remove them from their indices. [4] The first registered USA Copyright of a website containing that phrase is by Bruce Clay effective March. content management systems. and all links the page contains. the phrase "search engine optimization" probably came into use in 1997. and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches. Meta tags provide a guide to each page's content. uses methods such as link farms.[5] Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag. known as black hat SEO or spamdexing. and other elements that have been optimized for the purpose of search engine exposure. including image search. Other forms of search engine marketing (SEM) target paid listings. which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date. History Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s. Initially. where a second program. SEO considers how search engines work. menus. what people search for. the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. such as the words it contains and where these are located.[7] . extracts various information about the page. as well as any weight for specific words. shopping carts. creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners. 1997. keyword stuffing and article spinning that degrade both the relevance of search results and the quality of user-experience with search engines. Because effective SEO may require changes to the HTML source code of a site and site content. As an Internet marketing strategy. Inaccurate. The term "search engine friendly" may be used to describe website designs. all webmasters needed to do was submit the address of a page. to the various engines which would send a "spider" to "crawl" that page. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines.[2] The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine's own server. because the webmaster's choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site's actual content.

who liked its simple design. as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer.[16] In 2007 Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank.[18] As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank. Many sites focused on exchanging. meta tags. [19] In December 2009 Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results. webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine. Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links. Flash and Javascript. because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search. Google crafted results for logged in users. this means that some links are stronger than others. taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. allowing those results to be false would turn users to find other search sources. To provide better results to their users. Although PageRank was more difficult to game. Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet users. search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results. PageRank. In order to avoid the above. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes. Depending on their history of previous searches. It would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results. Some of these schemes. Bing.[10] By 2004. developed "backrub. such as Rand Fishkin.[8] PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web.[11] The leading search engines. and have published their opinions in online forums and blogs.[15] In 2008. often on a massive scale.[17] On June 15. and follows links from one page to another. is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search.[9] Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency. announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way. Bruce Clay said that "ranking is dead" because of personalized search. 2009. Larry Page and Sergey Brin. a well-known software engineer at Google. and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation. rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters. Page and Brin founded Google in 1998. SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting. headings." a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. Barry Schwartz. Graduate students at Stanford University.Keyword optimization By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster's control. in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting. Matt Cutts. early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages.[12] [13] SEO practitioners may also study patents held by various search engines to gain insight into the algorithms. have studied different approaches to search engine optimization. Aaron Wall and Jill Whalen. and Yahoo.[20] Real-time-search was introduced in late 2009 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. Notable SEO service providers. Google says it ranks sites using more than 200 different signals. In effect. or link farms. Google.[21] 165 .[14] In 2005 Google began personalizing search results for each user. The number calculated by the algorithm. buying. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings. involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming. and selling links. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms.

[25] Google's Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients.Keyword optimization 166 Relationship with search engines By 1997 search engines recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines. In 2005. Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results.[27] [28] [29] Google has a Sitemaps program[30] to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website.[26] Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry.[31] Bing Toolbox provides a way from webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds. operate a paid submission service that guarantee [32] Such programs usually guarantee inclusion in the database. chats. determine how many pages are in the Yahoo! index and view link information. [37] . but do crawling for either a set fee or cost per click. and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords. Traffic Power. and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences. Bing and Yahoo!. an annual conference. allowing users to determine the crawl rate. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization.[35] Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site. Some search engines. Methods Getting indexed The leading search engines. some search engines now have a vested interest in the health of the optimization community. use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. there is potential for an adversarial relationship between search engines and SEO service providers. In fact.[34] Google offers Google Webmaster Tools. search engines sometimes have problems with crawling sites with certain kinds of graphic content. the Wall Street Journal reported on a company.[36] Additionally. Google guidelines are a list of suggested practices Google has provided as guidance to webmasters. flash files. especially pages that aren't discoverable by automatically following links. with the advent of paid inclusion. and dynamic content.[33] Two major directories. Early search engines. such as Infoseek.[24] Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban. portable document format files. the Yahoo Directory and the Open Directory Project both require manual submission and human editorial review. Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web.[23] was created to discuss and minimize the damaging effects of aggressive web content providers. not guarantee specific ranking within the search results. In 2005. adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings. and how many pages have been indexed by their search engine. such as Google. Not every page is indexed by the search engines. for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found. Yahoo! Site Explorer provides a way for webmasters to submit URLs. and seminars. notably Yahoo!. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically.[22] Yahoo and Google offices Due to the high marketing value of targeted search results. which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients. AIRWeb.

and those techniques that search engines do not approve of and attempt to minimize the effect of. thus increasing traffic. technique or method is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines' guidelines and involves no deception.[39] Writing content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase. either as text colored similar to the background. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility. will tend to improve the relevancy of a site's search listings. Adding relevant keywords to a web page's meta data.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. As the search engine guidelines[27] [28] [29] [43] are not written as a series of rules or commandments. When a search engine visits a site. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file. so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic. Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam.Keyword optimization 167 Preventing crawling To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes. Additionally. White hat versus black hat SEO techniques are classified by some into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design. or by a manual site review. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine. White Hat SEO is merely effective marketing. referred to as spamdexing. or positioned off screen. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls.txt file is then parsed. and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users.[44] although the two are not identical. One infamous example was the February 2006 Google . a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine's database by using a meta tag specific to robots. Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines. rather than attempting to game the algorithm. whereas black hats anticipate that their sites will eventually be banned once the search engines discover what they are doing. Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods. and the practitioners who employ them.[38] Increasing prominence A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results.[39] Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site.[41] White hats tend to produce results that last a long time. it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. the robots. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. including the title tag and meta description. or black hat SEO. Traditional marketing means have allowed this through transparency and exposure.txt file in the root directory of the domain.[42] An SEO tactic. The robots. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines. webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots. this is an important distinction to note. A search engine's algorithm takes this into account. either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines' algorithms. as either white hat SEO. Cross linking between pages of the same website to provide more links to most important pages may improve its visibility. and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled. using the "canonical" meta tag[40] or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page's link popularity score. in an invisible div. or involve deception. Some industry commentators classify these methods. In March 2007. making efforts to deliver quality content to an audience that has requested the quality content. but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. not for search engines. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden. such as Google's PageRank. a technique known as cloaking.

their main sources of traffic are links from other websites. depending on the site operator's goals. in a twist of irony.[56] That market share is achieved in a number of countries. a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors. when Google is not leading in a given market.[46] 168 As a marketing strategy SEO is not necessarily an appropriate strategy for every website. Yandex and Seznam are market leaders. addressing technical issues that may keep search engines from crawling and indexing those sites. and other Internet marketing strategies can be much more effective. As of 2009. there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. but it also may involve the use of paid advertising on search engines and other pages. setting up analytics programs to enable site owners to measure their successes. the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise. regardless of language. search engines are not paid for organic search traffic. Otherwise. and there are no guarantees of continued referrals.[53] In markets outside the United States. quickly apologized.[52] International markets Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. In most cases. Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu.[48] SEO may generate a return on investment. and were restored to Google's list. Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages. it is lagging behind a local player. however. A successful Internet marketing campaign may drive organic traffic.[54] As of 2006. (Some trading sites such as eBay can be a special case for this. there were only about five in Germany.org[51] has suggested. receive a very small share of their traffic from search engines. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty.Keyword optimization removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices. Google had an 85-90% market share in Germany.[45] Both companies. South Korea.[55] . Yahoo! Japan. as does competition. Japan." Instead.[47] This includes paid search advertising which has its own version of SEO called ATO (Ad Text Optimization).[49] It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic. achieved through optimization techniques and not paid advertising. their algorithms change. building high quality web pages to engage and persuade.[55] As of June 2008.[50] A top-ranked SEO blog Seomoz. to web pages. "Search marketers.[55] While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time. and web hosting that provides a local IP address. and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007. The search engines' market shares vary from market to market. Naver. Google's share is often larger. However. Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches. the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same. In 2003. The most notable markets where this is the case are China. fixed the offending pages. it will announce how and when the ranking algorithm will change a few months before changing the algorithm). registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market. and improving a site's conversion rate.

au/ ~lloyd/ tilde/ InterNet/ Search/ 1998_WWW7. org/ resources/ phd/ pinkerton_2000." (http:/ / www. against the search engine Google. pp.. . . [8] Brin. com/ 8-things-we-learned-about-google-pagerank/ 5897/ ).org. Norway. Retrieved 2007-05-08. "Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co. SEOmoz. Larry (1998).webpronews. com/ 3563036). searchenginewatch. . cgi?Search_Arg=TX0005001745& Search_Code=REGS& PID=_BQjecgZXtqzP_qe3Szqb-aeqs& SEQ=20110101030626& CNT=25& HIST=1). Retrieved 2007-05-14. SearchKing's claim was that Google's tactics to prevent spamdexing constituted a tortious interference with contractual relations. . KinderStart filed a lawsuit against Google over search engine rankings. [18] "PageRank sculpting" (http:/ / www. Journal of Scholarly Publishing.com.com. Archived from (Document Number 19970801004204) the original (http:/ / www. . . com/ showpost. www. Bill (December 19. Retrieved 2007-06-06. 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CNET. seomoz. searchenginejournal. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-31. [52] "A survey of 25 blogs in the search space comparing external metrics to visitor tracking data" (http:/ / www. 2003. .org.html). com/ showPage.com/help. htm). Search Engine Watch.ericgoldman." article in The New York Times (February 12. usatoday.com/2011/02/13/business/13search. docstoc. . an article from the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences.py?hl=en& answer=35769) • Yahoo! Webmaster Guidelines (http://help.hastingsresearch. "Google UK closes in on 90% market share" (http:/ / www.com Webmaster Guidelines (http://about. May 27. Retrieved 2007-05-31.com&format=b1) • Ask. USA Today.Keyword optimization [51] "SEOmoz: Best SEO Blog of 2006" (http:/ / www. .. Third Edition . Click. "Search Engine Optimizing for Europe" (http:/ / www. guardian.org. Retrieved 2008-05-23.live. com/ 2100-1032_3-1011740. .live. clickz. com/ tech/ news/ 2003-08-25-google_x.yahoo. Retrieved 2008-06-23.html). seomoz.google. [58] Stefanie Olsen (May 30. v. ericgoldman. Google" (http:/ / blog. . . com. "Judge dismisses suit against Google" (http:/ / news.aspx?mkt=en-us&project=wl_webmasters& querytype=&query=&tmt=&domain=help.ask. htm).com/en/docs/about/webmasters. com/ showPage. com/ seomoz-best-seo-blog-of-2006/ 4195/ ). Retrieved 2007-05-14. "Stats Show Google Dominates the International Search Landscape" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. docstoc. [54] Greg Jarboe (2007-02-22). 2006). blog. .nytimes. . org/ article/ search-blog-stats#4).com/l/us/yahoo/search/basics/basics-18.html) • Bing Webmaster Guidelines (http://help. com/ docs/ 618281/ Order-(Granting-Googles-Motion-to-Dismiss-Search-Kings-Complaint)) (PDF). uk/ technology/ blog/ 2008/ jun/ 10/ googleukclosesinon90mark). html?page=3595926). ericgoldman.com. htm). Inc.com v. Inc. London: Guardian. [60] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: Google Sued Over Rankings—KinderStart. 2003). html?page=3625072). [55] Mike Grehan (April 3.com/net/ 09-SEO-ELIS-encyclopedia-article. org/ archives/ 2006/ 03/ google_sued_ove.org. Google Dismissed—With Sanctions Against KinderStart's Counsel" (http:/ / blog.ericgoldman. Google Technology.shtml) • " The Dirty Little Secrets of Search (http://www. blog. January 3. [56] Jack Schofield (2008-06-10). . Retrieved 2007-05-15. org/ archives/ 2007/ 03/ kinderstart_v_g_2.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer. CIV-02-1457-M" (http:/ / www. html). [57] "Search King. Retrieved 2007-05-15. Retrieved 2007-05-10. searchenginejournal. [53] Graham.com. 2011) • Search Engine Optimization and User Behavior (http://www. . co. [59] "Technology & Marketing Law Blog: KinderStart v. 171 External links • Google Webmaster Guidelines (http://www. Retrieved 2008-06-10. "The search engine that could" (http:/ / www. Jefferson (2003-08-26).

Component that handles permissions that pertain to provider procedures (methods) and Stored Procedure implementation. Each provider brings a specific keyword technology to the KSP architecture—for instance. • Shared Services. These interfaces for Web services include keyword extraction (ITermExtraction). The query result is shown in the following table. • Security.Keyword Services Platform 172 Keyword Services Platform The Keyword Services Platform (KSP) is a keyword research tool available through Microsoft adCenter. Selected sets of these procedures are made available to users. • Service Container. To find the five most closely related keywords to "BMW". The platform aims to provide a core set of data and technology to empower search engine marketing and keyword research efforts. accessible via an application programming interface (API) and a Microsoft Excel add-in. These services are based on the Windows Communications Foundation and can be consumed by client applications (e. which allows parallel execution. System that allows researchers to incorporate new algorithms or data mining models within the Service Container. and several others. which contains a set of algorithms for providing information about keywords used in search engine queries. Developers may use . keyword association. Architecture The following components comprise the Keyword Service Platform architecture: • Keyword API. keyword extraction. keyword monetization (ITermMonetization). etc. • Provider Plug-in Framework. Set of providers that support various keyword technologies. the following method call may be used: GetTermSuggestion("BMW". Procedures for consolidating and centralizing the logic behind applications. consisting of a crawler. The KSP uniquely delivers a standardized set of keyword technologies through a Web services model. Dylan Huang.g. in-memory data structures. • Server Object Model. Keyword API The Keyword Service Platform has defined a set of APIs for each class of keyword services. or implement additional business logic processing based on the output from a provider. The KSP was originally conceived by ZhaoHui Tang. KSP API beta access is available for researchers and developers upon request from the Keyword Services Platform [1] feedback link. Host to all service providers and Stored Procedures. sorted by confidence: .NET programming languages to create procedures that combine the use of different providers. and by default. Keyword suggestion Keyword suggestions are handled via the ITermSuggestion interface. keyword categorization (ITermCategorization). keyword forecast (ITermForecast). word stemming algorithms. Data model that allows developers to leverage different services. Core components. These services are used by different providers and executed by stored procedures. Microsoft Excel add-in) or mashups. Set of standard Web services for various keyword tasks. and Wayne Guan at Microsoft adCenter Labs in May 2006. or keyword classification.5). The APIs define the signatures of each Web service.. keyword suggestion (ITermSuggestion). • Stored Procedures.

96 0.true). only four rows are returned. support represents the number of cases supporting the rule in the training dataset. OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus Score 0. The results are similar to those available through the Data Mining Extensions (DMX) in SQL. For example. OriginalTerm BMW BMW Honda Honda Ford Ford Term Auto Car Lexus Sedan Pickup Truck . a filter can be used on the Score column with the following method call: GetTermSuggestion("BMW".89 Support 10000 9000 11000 12000 12800 BMW cars 0. Score represents the confidence or probability.89 0.Keyword Services Platform 173 OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus BMW cars BMW Z4 To view the five suggested five terms with the corresponding confidence score. a third parameter can be used to indicate that statistics should be returned: GetTermSuggestion("BMW".2). as these are the only terms that meet the criterion of the filter.true.5. The query result is shown in the following table. suppose that the keywords are stored in myInputTermTable. OriginalTerm BMW BMW BMW BMW BMW Term Auto Car Lexus Score 0. and only the two most relevant terms for each keyword should be returned: GetTermSuggestion(myInputTermTable.96 0. batch query syntax can be used.83 When the table of terms possibly includes thousands of keywords. In this case.83 BMW Z4 0."Score>0.8").78 To return only those terms with a high confidence score.89 Support 10000 9000 11000 12000 BMW cars 0.5. The query result is shown in the following table along with columns for score and support.89 0. The query result is shown in the following table.

com new cars autos.com used cars 0.msn.msn.30 . the following method call could be used: GetTermDemographics("minivan").msn. The query result is shown in the following table.msn.msn.com luxury cars 0.com auto reviews 0.com".msn.4 50-65 0. and provides the corresponding statistics: GetTermExtraction("autos. The result of the query is shown below. and average cost per click (CPC).true).2 35-50 0. Term Clicks Impressions 2915 Position 3 CTR 0.8.34 autos.Keyword Services Platform 174 Keyword demographics Keyword demographics are handled via the ITermDemographics interface.msn.1 25-35 0.54 0. position.com".38 autos.com compare car 0.62 autos. To obtain the demographic distribution for the keyword "Minivan".60 0-13 0 13-18 0 18-25 0.2 65+ 0. The result of the query is shown below. while the Support column represents the number of occurrences of a keyword on the page.39 0. Term Male Female 0. overall impressions for the keyword. URL Term Score Support 3 2 5 2 1 1 1 1 autos. in the third position of sponsored listings: GetTermKPIs("online bank".com cars autos. where the Score column represents the relevance of the extracted keyword to the page content.msn.40 Keyword monetization Keyword monetization values specific to paid search are handled via the ITermMonetization interface.014 CPC 1. containing the input keyword.48 0.com MSN autos autos.3).msn.LastWeek. The following method call returns the KPIs for the keyword "Online bank" based on the previous week's paid search data. The following method call extracts the eight most relevant keywords from the webpage "autos.1 Minivan 0. the number of clicks in the sponsored link for "Online bank".325 Online bank 42 Keyword extraction Keyword extraction is handled via the ITermExtraction interface.TimeInterval.msn.32 0. average click-through rate (CTR).com sport cars autos.

-5. provider = server. try { server. It will remain during the following calls. // Context can be set if needed. 3).KeywordForecastProvider"). server.Password = "********".GetProviderByImplementation<ITermForecast>("Microsoft.ReleaseService(provider).GetTermForecast(term. // Batch mode API result = provider. -5.microsoft. if (provider != null) { // Single mode API DataTable result = provider. 3).UserName = "username". } } catch (FaultException) { // Handle fault returned from calling the proxy method } catch (CommunicationException) { // Handle lost network connection error } catch (TimeoutException) { // Handle time-out error } finally { if (provider != null) server. DisplayResults(result).Providers. } } .adCenterLabs.com")) { server.Keyword Services Platform 175 Sample code The following code fragment connects to the Keyword Services Platform server and uses the keyword term forecast Web service. ITermForecast provider = null. DisplayResults(result). using (KeywordServer server = new KeywordServer("https://ksp.GetTermForecast(terms.Open().

Managed Extensions for C++. KSP sprocs do not require configuration management or setup requirements. implementation interface. Stored procedures Developers can write stored procedures (sprocs) using any . which enables developers to build secure. ITermExtraction). rather than the source code. A sproc may contain a set of related functions. Once the CLRSP is deployed to KSP through its management interface. and document service contracts included using a service description language for better understanding and testing of the Keyword Service Provider. Once callers obtain the Stored Procedure object. standard . and/or class name. The KSP provider is a server-side object encapsulating a particular implementation of a keyword technology. These conditions help to simplify the task of developing well-integrated management applications. which hosts the Common Language Runtime (CLR). enterprise-scalable management solutions. This provider exposes its functionality through service contracts in the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF). Similar to a database sprocs.NET. Server Object Model and Shared Services Keyword Services Platform Server Object Models and Shared Services enable KSP Service Providers and stored procedure developers to access server-side objects and functionalities easily and consistently. the providers must meet several conditions: • • • • custom configuration settings stored in configuration files. standard Windows Management Interface performance counters for performance monitoring.Keyword Services Platform 176 Providers Each Keyword Services Platform provider supplies a specific type of keyword technology by implementing one class of a specific keyword interface (e. transacted solutions that integrate across platforms and interoperate with existing investments. reliable.NET assembly containing a public interface exposed through the KSP as well as any dependent files. The API defines the signature of each Web service and the format of the returned data. it is compiled on-demand by KSP and becomes callable by KSP client programs. it becomes callable by KSP client programs. The WCF is Microsoft's unified programming model for building service-oriented applications. and/or class name. implementation interface. Once the MASP is uploaded to the KSP through its management interface. Visual Basic . a KSP sproc is designed to enable developers to implement several types of business logic on the server side after retrieving result data from providers. all of the functionalities of the stored procedure are accessible through its public interface. The object model consists of the following three collections: 1. . and correspondingly seamless integration with third-party tools and applications. KSP sprocs are object-oriented.NET programming language. all of the functionalities of the service provider are accessible through its public interface.. The functionalities of the CLRSPs are exposed through a public interface defined in the source file. A CLRSP consists of a source file written in one of the supported CLR programming languages (C#. thus allowing business partners to produce best-of-breed. To enable seamless integration of a provider into the KSP. Two types of stored procedures are supported: Managed Assembly Stored Procedure (MASP) and Common Language Runtime Stored Procedure (CLRSP). or even identically named functions with different signatures. Once callers obtain the Service Provider object. Service providers: This collection enables callers to access server-side Service Provider objects by name.g. A MASP consists of a compiled . Stored procedures: This collection enables callers to access server-side Stored Procedure objects by name. ITermForecast. Compared to database sprocs. 2. ITermSuggestion.NET tracing and message logging to enable service monitoring and diagnostics. These procedures are executed on the Keyword Services Platform server. and others).

the server accumulates usage patterns and statistics of various service providers and stored procedures running on each KSP server in the farm. Many Keyword Services Platform providers require real-time database access. This data is updated on a regular basis based on the provider's requirements. When a KSP server is added to the server farm via the cloud server. their corresponding traffic. is the hub of the KSP server farm. service provider. The scope is limited. KSP can switch to the default provider without any changes on the application side. Each server in the farm can have different configuration to suit a variety of service providers and stored procedures. When a client application calls a service provider or stored procedure through the server. . Technology transfer Keyword Services Platform's architecture permits agile development and rapid technology transfer by providing a platform for researchers to ship their research results to a live system quickly. For example. Once callers obtain the shared service object. The cloud server distributes accesses to services running on a KSP server farm through its load balancer provider. Data mart A data mart is a subset of an organizational data store. A dynamic service load balance server. are discovered and registered automatically with the server. The default implementation of the load balancer provider uses a round-robin scheduling approach. the server will automatically deploy the Keyword Forecast provider to machine "A" and route requests to that machine to balance the load for the Keyword Forecast provider. Services: This collection enables callers to access server-side shared services by name. This infrastructure enables researchers at Microsoft and other academic settings to speed up innovation in keyword technology and deploy the latest research results to KSP consumers. The database may contain a list of reference keywords. Researchers simply need to implement providers and deploy the providers into the selected set of KSP cloud server machines. it will be taken out of rotation by the load balancer automatically. and data mining model contents. 177 Cloud server model The Microsoft adCenter Keyword Services Platform server farm provides a scalable platform for keyword technologies. Any changes in the availability of the KSP server. and/or class name. most recent click-through data. a cloud server.Keyword Services Platform 3. and thus very easy to use for live testing. If a server. all of the functionalities of the shared service provider are accessible through its public interface. usually oriented to a specific purpose or major data subject. This information is used by the server to determine how to automatically deploy additional service providers and stored procedures. as well as all its running service providers and stored procedures. Once the provider is live-tested and proven. all available keyword service providers and stored procedures are dynamically discovered and registered with the server. and the request is routed to the appropriate KSP server. or stored procedure in the KSP server farm is unavailable. a KSP server with a matching service provider or stored procedure is selected by the load balancer provider. that may be distributed to support business needs. if the Keyword Forecast provider is being used heavily in the server farm and the providers running on machine "A" are used lightly. Over time. by implementation interface. The API defines the standard contract between the research models and developers.

The KSP can be used in advertising campaign creation and management: • The Keyword Association provider can help advertisers generate a set of the most relevant keywords for a campaign. Xing Xie. content advertisements.cs. WWW 2006: 213-222 • Ning Liu.org/). The add-in delivers features such as keyword extraction. com/ Explorer/ Login. Ying Li: Detecting online commercial intention (OCI). Vitor R. leading to more efficient planning and improved return on investment.microsoft. Keyword APIs can be consumed by third-party business applications from paid search. Shuzhen Nong. Zheng Chen. helping to identify what advertisements should be served for that page. Jamie Maclennan. Benyu Zhang. leading to more effectively targeted advertising and a decreased overall spend. Ying Li: Detecting dominant locations from search queries. ICDM 2006: 975-979 • Honghua (Kathy) Dai. Yansheng Lu. Ji-Rong Wen.toprankblog. etc. Chuang Wang.com/microsoft-adcenter-add-in-beta-released.pdf). WWW 2006: 829-837 • Lee Wang. cmu. forecasting. suggestion. Applications of the KSP The Keyword Services Platform incorporates keyword technologies from Microsoft adCenter Labs and other Microsoft Research groups. behavioral targeting. presale business intelligence apps. • Keyword Association providers can help to expand existing customer segments to include other customers with similar interests based on language patterns.cs. Essentially it is an example of the type of mashup and creative use of data that can be associated with the KSP. and eventually help to manage an integrated campaign budget that makes seasonal allowances.php) Review of keyword technologies from the KSP Further reading • Wen-tau Yih (http://scottyih. Ying Li: Similarity of Temporal Query Logs Based on ARIMA Model.azakers. Lee Wang. microsoft. aspx • Microsoft Announces New Keyword Platform at SIS (http://www. Joshua Goodman (http://research. Josh Forman. The add-in makes much of the keyword technology available directly through Excel. Wei-Ying Ma.edu/~vitor/papers/www06. Pyungchul (Peter) Kim: Building data mining solutions with OLE DB for DM and XML for analysis. Jun Yan. The KSP can also be used in behavioral targeting and display advertising: • The Keyword Demographic and Geographic Distribution providers can help advertisers understand various customer segments and their keyword usage patterns.cmu. SIGMOD Record 34(2): 80-85 (2005) .com/~joshuago/).edu/~vitor/): Finding advertising keywords on web pages (http://www. • The Keyword Extraction provider can extract the important keywords on a publisher's webpage. and so on.Keyword Services Platform 178 KSP data access with Microsoft Excel 2007 Microsoft adCenter released an add-in for Microsoft Excel 2007 that allows users to consume the Keyword Services Platform data directly via Excel rather than through the API.com/2007/12/ sis-session-microsoft-new-keyword-services-platform/) • adCenter Add-in Released (http://www. References [1] https:/ / ksp. thus facilitating landing page analysis. Carvalho (http://www. SIGIR 2005: 424-431 • ZhaoHui Tang. Zaiqing Nie. Lingzhi Zhao. • The Keyword Forecasting provider can help advertisers to understand traffic history and trends. monetization.

images. The visitor traffic is immediate as the Adword relies on Google advertising to drive visitors to the webvert.com/AdCenter/ShowForum. the marketing goal focuses on lead generation and interaction with the visitor. The traffic is driven from Google Adwords and is designed for two specific marketing tactics: • To attain high Google Adwords landing page quality scores. dynamic compilations of relevant links. The general goal of a landing page is to convert site visitors into sales leads. always with a reply form or clear way to engage. Reference landing pages are effective if they meet the objectives of their publishers. the page will usually withhold information until some minimal amount of visitor information is provided. with the goal being the immediate or eventual sale of a product or service. A webvert is a reference based. These can display text. is a single web page that appears in response to clicking on an advertisement.microsoft. typically an email address and perhaps a name and telephone number as well – enough to "capture the lead" and add the prospect to a mailing list.microsoft. Jamie Maclennan: Data Mining with SQL Server 2008. or other elements. organizations or public service entities. sometimes known as a lead capture page. effectiveness can be measured by the revenue value of the advertising that is displayed on them. marketers can use click-through rates and Conversion rate to determine the success of an advertisement.com/Explorer/Login. Types of landing pages There are two types of landing pages: reference and transactional.Keyword Services Platform • ZhaoHui Tang. The landing page will usually display directed sales copy that is a logical extension of the advertisement or link. A webvert is not 'transactional' in nature. . the benefit being any Adwords campaign costs are minimized. A transactional landing page seeks to persuade a visitor to complete a transaction such as filling out a form or interacting with advertisements or other objects on the landing page.microsoft. 2008. A special type of 'reference landing page' is the 'webvert'. A reference landing page presents information that is relevant to the visitor. which may be associations.com) Keyword Services Platform (https://ksp.microsoft.com/) Landing page In online marketing a landing page. Landing pages are often linked to from social media.0 (http://advertising. designed on the AIDA principle.microsoft.com/) • Microsoft adCenter (https://adcenter. The webverts consists of an advert. For many reference landing pages. Wiley.com/advertising/adcenter_addin/) adCenter Add-in Forum (http://forums. If information is to be captured. 179 External links • • • • Keyword Services Platform (http://ksp. An eye-tracking Heatmap (simulation shown) revealing where a subject's eyes alight on a landing page under test.aspx) adCenter Add-in for Excel Version 1. • The webvert has a clear call to action.aspx?ForumID=2017& SiteID=44) • Microsoft adCenter Labs (http://adlab. ethical landing page. email campaigns or search engine marketing campaigns in order to enhance the effectiveness of the advertisements.microsoft. By analyzing activity generated by the linked URL.

except that the experimentation is ongoing. Open-ended experimentation. personal demographic information. ratings.) to anticipate (desired) future actions based on predictive analytics. Some of the testing methods used are A/B testing and multivariate testing. Associative content targeting (also called rule-based optimization or passive targeting). browsing patterns. The page content is adjusted by correlating any known information about the visitor (e. prior purchase behavior. geographic information of source traffic.g. Predictive content targeting (also called active targeting). This approach is similar to closed-ended experimentation. . Consumer directed targeting (also called social targeting). A landing page is a webpage that is displayed when a potential customer clicks an advertisement or a search engine result link. etc. Since the economics of many online marketing programs are determined by the conversion rate. 2. 3. the percentage of visitors who complete the desired action. There are two major types of LPO based on experimentation: 1. an optimal page is selected based on the outcome of the experiment. etc. 2. with the goal of improving the percentage of visitors to the website that become sales leads and customers. or other known generic parameters that can be used for explicit non-research-based consumer segmentation. 180 References Landing page optimization Landing page optimization (LPO) is one part of a broader Internet marketing process called conversion optimization. The page content is created using the relevance of publicly available information through a mechanism based on reviews. LPO aims to provide page content and appearance that makes the webpage more appealing to target audiences. tagging. marketers constantly test alternatives and improvements to their landing pages. At the conclusion of the experiment. The page content is modified based on information obtained about the visitor's search criteria. referrals. meaning that the landing page is adjusted dynamically as the experiment results change. or Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO). Consumers are exposed to several variations of landing pages while their behavior is observed. Closed-ended experimentation. The efficiency or quality of the landing page can be measured by its conversion rate.Landing page A visitor taking the desired action on a transactional landing page is referred to as a conversion. This webpage typically displays content that is a relevant extension of the advertisement or link.. Bases for landing page optimization There are three major types of LPO based on targeting[1] : 1.

For an e-commerce website. or A/B split testing.. • Simple because no complex statistical analysis is required. A/B testing has the following disadvantages: • Difficult to control all external factors (e. landing page images and background colours. A/B testing A/B testing. FAQ) to determine which version is most appealing/effective. text) on a page. In sequential testing. The first application of an experimental design for MVLPO was performed by Moskowitz Jacobs Inc. m choices for the featured image or graphic. graphics.g. which are typically complex. MVLPO has the following disadvantages: • As with any quantitative consumer research. • Very limited in that reliable conclusions cannot be drawn for pages that contain multiple elements that vary in each version. Significant improvements can be seen through testing different copy text. This example yields k×m×n landing page configurations. Ideas that are sourced from known customer touchpoints or strategic business objectives are needed to obtain optimal results. Multivariate landing page optimization Multivariate landing page optimization (MVLPO) accounts for multiple variations of visual elements (e. seasonality) when using sequential testing. However. and the traffic is divided between the two.g. and by looking at the results from different tests.and open-ended experimentation.[2] Testing can be conducted sequentially or in parallel. as the results can dramatically be skewed by differing time periods and traffic patterns in which the different tests are run. a few lines of JavaScript allow remote vendor servers to control changes. The data for A/B testing is usually measured via click-through or conversion. A/B testing has the following advantages: • Inexpensive because existing resources and tools are used. is a method for testing two versions of a webpage: version "A" and version "B". the various versions of the webpages are made available online for a specified time period. In parallel (split) testing. In many cases.g. home page. • Focuses on optimizing one page at a time. Website experiences for most sites involve multiple pages. and n choices for the company logo. These methodologies are applicable to both closed. it is possible to identify the elements that consistently tend to produce the greatest increase in conversions. scientifically-based approach for understanding customers' preferences and optimizing their experience. product page. often the easiest to implement. it is typical for a successful purchase to involve between twelve . there is a danger of GIGO (garbage in. form layouts. in 1998 as a simulation/demonstration project for LEGO. • Has evolved to be an easy-to-use approach in which not much IT involvement is required.Landing page optimization 181 Experimentation-based landing page optimization Experimentation-based LPO can be achieved using A/B testing. press releases. • Provides a foundation for open-ended experimentation. This testing method may also be known as A/B/n split testing.. and analyze the results. multivariate LPO. campaigns. a given page may have k choices for the title. For example. not all elements produce the same improvements in conversions. search traffic.. and total-experience testing. MVLPO did not become a mainstream approach until 2003 or 2004. garbage out). the n denoting more than 2 tests being measured and compared. It is not recommended that sequential split testing be performed. MVLPO has the following advantages: • Provides a reliable. collect data. The goal is to test multiple versions of webpages (e. both versions are made available.

linkanchor. .Landing page optimization and eighteen pages. Site is Dead. LinkAnchor. html).[3] Rather than creating multiple websites. and monitors which one is preferred by the customers.com (http:/ / www. where the highest-ranking websites have the highest number of bids. html). is a new and evolving type of experiment-based testing in which the entire website experience of the visitor is examined using technical capabilities of the website platform (e. The Journal of Consumer Marketing. entertainment. Retrieved 2007-07-02.). [2] Matthew Roche (2005-12-19). 26(4): 286-298. html). kaushik. etc. ATG. DOI: 10. "Landing Page Testing Best Practices" (http:/ / www. Howard Moskowitz. total-experience testing uses the website platform to create several persistent experiences.g.1108/07363760910965882. net/ avinash/ 2006/ 05/ experimentation-and-testing-a-primer. Two disadvantages are that total-experience testing requires a website platform that supports experience testing. com/ 2005/ 12/ landing_page_te_1. 182 Total-experience testing Total-experience testing.. Integrating Science into Web Design: Consumer Driven Website Optimization.g. and it takes longer to obtain results than A/B testing and MVLPO.[1] The position/rank for such websites is determined by their frequency of bids. finance). for a support site. siteisdead. Retrieved 2007-07-02.. References [1] "Frequently Asked Questions". and Tonis Mets. References [1] Alex Gofman. An advantage of total-experience testing is that it reflects the customer's total website experience. A link bidding directory offers webmasters a way to gain exposure for their sites. "Experimentation and Testing: A Primer" (http:/ / www. Websites being bid on are often grouped into categories (e. Blue Martini Software. or experience testing. [3] Avinash Kaushik (2006-05-22). even more pages are often required. Link bidding Link bidding is a form of Internet marketing where a website owner bids on other websites to post a backlink to his/her website. 2009. com/ faq. not just the experience with a single page. . Accessed 23 June 2008. . Occam’s Razor.

and negligible stocking and distribution costs. The Long Tail was popularized by Chris Anderson in an October 2004 Wired magazine article. [5] A frequency distribution with a long tail has been studied by statisticians since at least 1946. research. crowdcasting. user-driven innovation (Eric von Hippel). To the right is the long tail. in which he mentioned Amazon. micro-finance (Grameen Bank. heavy tail or right-tail[7] ).com and Netflix as examples of businesses applying this strategy. for example). and marketing (viral marketing). mass media. Notice that the relatively small quantities – usually in addition to selling fewer popular areas of both regions match. and experimentation.[8] . economic models. items in large quantities.[4] The distribution and inventory costs of businesses successfully applying this strategy allow them to realize significant profit out of selling small volumes of hard-to-find items to many customers instead of only selling large volumes of a reduced number of popular items.[1] An example of a power law graph showing The term Long Tail has gained popularity in recent times as describing popularity ranking. crowdsourcing.Long Tail 183 Long Tail The Long Tail or long tail refers to the statistical property that a larger share of population rests within the tail of a probability distribution than observed under a 'normal' or Gaussian distribution. The term has also been used in the finance[6] and insurance business[2] for many years (also referred to as fat tail. peer-to-peer). a large population of customers. to the retailing strategy of selling a large number of unique items in the left are the few that dominate. A long tail distortion will arise with the inclusion of some unusually high (or low) values which increase (decrease) the mean. Given enough choice.[2] [3] Anderson elaborated the concept in his book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More (ISBN 1-4013-0237-8). The total sales of this large number of "non-hit items" is called the Long Tail. and social network mechanisms (e. The work of Benoît Mandelbrot in the 1950s and later has led to him being referred to as "the father of long tails". It is a term used in online business. the selection and buying pattern of the population results in the demand across products having a power law distribution or Pareto distribution. skewing the distribution to the right (or left). The Long Tail concept has found some ground for application.g.

area to the left of the chart. . In other words. derive more sales from the area to the right. or in other words. Pareto distributions and general Lévy distributions). Power law distributions or functions characterize an important number of behaviors from nature and human endeavor. whereas traditional retailers have focused on the occurrences (more than half. the long tails characterizing distributions such as the Gutenberg-Richter law or the words-occurrence Zipf's law.Long Tail 184 Statistical meaning The long tail is the name for a long-known feature of some statistical distributions (such as Zipf. and can often indicate a deep connection with other. In "long-tailed" distributions a high-frequency or high-amplitude population is followed by a low-frequency or low-amplitude population which gradually "tails off" asymptotically. online bookstores 80%) are accounted for by the first 20% of items in the distribution. or Pareto tails. What is unusual about a long-tailed distribution is that the most frequently-occurring 20% of items represent less than 50% of occurrences. As a rule of thumb. fat tails. This suggests that a variation of one mechanism (internet access) or relationship (the cost of storage) can significantly shift the frequency of occurrence of certain events in the distribution. Anderson described the effects of the Long Tail on current and future business models. Weblogs and Inequality". nature: Anderson and Shirky refer to frequency-rank relations. represented here by the portion of the curve to the right of the 20th percentile — can become the largest area under the line. in these latter cases "tails" correspond to large-intensity events such as large earthquakes and most popular words. whereas the Gutenberg-Richter law and the Zipf's law are probability distributions. However. Examples of behaviors that exhibit long-tailed distribution are the occurrence of certain words in a given language. and those highlighted by Anderson and Shirky are of very different. and the relationships that create them. Anderson later extended it into the book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More (2006). low-amplitude (or low-revenue) events — the long tail. "Power Laws.[10] which noted that a relative handful of weblogs have many links going into them but "the long tail" of millions of weblogs may have only a handful of links going into them. and therefore illustrate an opposite phenomenon compared to the Gutenberg-Richter and the Zipf's laws.[9] The concept drew in part from a February 2003 essay by Clay Shirky. The tail becomes bigger and longer in new Chris Anderson and Clay Shirky The phrase the Long Tail was first coined by Chris Anderson. The observation of such a distribution often points to specific kinds of mechanisms. if not opposite. who dominate the distributions. the least-frequently-occurring 80% of items are more important as a proportion of the total population. for such population distributions the majority of markets (depicted in red). Beginning in a series of speeches in early 2004 and culminating with the publication of a Wired magazine article in October 2004. The feature is also known as heavy tails. the income distribution of a business or the intensity of earthquakes (see: Gutenberg-Richter law). seemingly unrelated systems. power laws. the long tails in the frequency-rank plots highlighted by Anderson and Shirky would rather correspond to short tails in the associated probability distributions. The events at the far end of the tail have a very low probability of occurrence. This fact has given rise to a keen scientific and social interest in such distributions. and where the Pareto principle applies. By contrast. Chris Anderson's and Clay Shirky's articles highlight special cases in which we are able to modify the underlying relationships and evaluate the impact on the frequency of events. power-law tails. The shift has a crucial effect in probability and in the customer demographics of businesses like mass media and online sellers. Therefore. In those cases the infrequent.

consumer benefit (a. when compared with traditional channels. the slope may not be constant for all book ranks. Smith. consumer surplus) from access to increased product variety in online book stores is ten times larger than their benefit from access to lower prices online.k."[11] Anderson has explained the term as a reference to the tail of a demand curve. thereby creating a longer tail in the distribution of sales. this rule needs to be modified to a 72/28 rule in order to fit the distribution of product sales in that channel. welcome the new distribution In a 2006 working paper titled "Goodbye Pareto Principle. The difference in the sales distribution is highly significant. they showed empirical evidence that the Internet channel exhibits a significantly less concentrated sales distribution. while most of the discussion about the value of the Internet to consumers has revolved around lower prices. An Amazon employee described the Long Tail as follows: "We sold more books today that didn't sell at all yesterday than we sold today of all the books that did sell yesterday. The Long Tail is a potential market and. as the examples illustrate. by greatly lowering search costs. and Michael D. becoming progressively steeper for more obscure books. and Duncan Simester found that. these authors showed that. Thus. if the store or distribution channel is large enough. the distribution and sales channel opportunities created by the Internet often enable businesses to tap that market successfully. and Michael D. that showed that a significant portion of Amazon.a. In the graph shown above. In an article published in 2003. Their analyses suggest that by 2008.com's sales come from obscure books that are not available in brick-and-mortar stores. The total volume of low popularity items exceeds the volume of high popularity items. and Michael D.[15] Erik Brynjolfsson. They found that a large proportion of Amazon.com's book sales come from obscure books that were not available in brick-and-mortar stores. Anderson cites earlier research by Erik Brynjolfsson. By analyzing data collected from a multi-channel retailing company. who first used a log-linear curve on an XY graph to describe the relationship between Amazon. Goodbye Pareto principle. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. Smith[14] finds that the Long Tail has grown longer over time. An 80/20 rule fits the distribution of product sales in the catalog channel quite well. their new methodology finds that. 185 Academic research Effects of online access In his Wired article. niche books account for 36. . but in the Internet channel. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. even after controlling for consumer differences.[12] The term has since been rederived from an XY graph that is created when charting popularity to inventory. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. with niche books accounting for a larger share of total sales. In addition. while the book or movie ranks are along the horizontal axis. Smith. Hello Long Tail". The Longer Tail over time A recent studied by Erik Brynjolfsson. Chris Anderson cites earlier research. while the widely-used power laws are a good first approximation for the rank-sales relationship.[13] by Erik Brynjolfsson.Long Tail Anderson argues that products in low demand or that have a low sales volume can collectively make up a market share that rivals or exceeds the relatively few current bestsellers and blockbusters. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. Amazon's book sales or Netflix's movie rentals would be represented along the vertical axis.7% of Amazon’s sales and the consumer surplus generated by niche books has increased at least fivefold from 2000 to 2008. They then quantified the potential value of the Long Tail to consumers. They used a theoretical model to show how a reduction in search costs will affect the concentration in product sales. the primary value of the internet to consumers comes from releasing new sources of value by providing access to products in the Long Tail.com sales and sales ranking. information technology in general and Internet markets in particular could substantially increase the collective share of hard-to-find products.

only the most popular products can be sold. An analysis based on this pure fashion model[24] indicates that. its storage costs are far lower and its distribution costs are the same for a popular or unpopular movie. Netflix is therefore able to build a viable business stocking a far wider range of movies than a traditional movie rental store. described in the work of Yochai Benkler. Those economics of storage and distribution then enable the advantageous use of the Long Tail: Netflix finds that in aggregate. For example.[21] Although the distribution of sales may appear to be similar over time.[18] The demand-side factors that lead to the long tail can be amplified by the "networks of products" which are created by hyperlinked recommendations across products.Long Tail 186 Demand-side and supply-side drivers The key supply-side factor that determines whether a sales distribution has a Long Tail is the cost of inventory storage and distribution. as well as innovation. On the supply side. the authors point out how e-tailers' expanded. to maximize its profits. new items constantly enter most fashion markets. • The model of crowdcasting. An MIT Sloan Management Review article titled "From Niches to Riches: Anatomy of the Long Tail"[16] examined the Long Tail from both the supply side and the demand side and identifies several key drivers.[23] takes into account turnover in the relative sales of a given set of items. Their data across 200 subject areas shows that a doubling of this influence leads to a 50% increase in revenues from the least popular one-fifth of books. Networks. a traditional movie rental store has limited shelf space. but over time the relative popularity of the sales of the individual products will change. Where inventory storage and distribution costs are insignificant. including the growth of markets serving smaller niches. even for digital retailers. An MIS Quarterly article by Gal Oestreicher-Singer and Arun Sundararajan shows that categories of books on Amazon. • The crowdsourcing model. the positions of the individual items within it will vary. crowds and the Long Tail The "crowds" of customers.[19] [20] Turnover within the Long Tail The Long Tail distribution applies at a given point in time. There may be an optimal inventory size. is the process of building a network of users and then delivering challenges or tasks to be solved with the purpose of gaining insights or innovative ideas. amplified effects of Long Tail. given the balance between sales and the cost of keeping up with the turnover. tools such as search engines. which is capable of generating power law distributions of sales similar to those observed in practice. centralized warehousing allows for more offerings. it must stock only the most popular movies to ensure that no shelf space is wasted. the optimal . which it pays for in the form of building overhead. thus making it possible for them to cater to more varied tastes. in the sense that entirely new items become offered for sale. in which a company outsources work to a large group of market players using a collaborative online platform. however. A recent fashion-based model [22] of consumer choice. users and small companies that inhabit the Long Tail distribution can perform collaborative and assignment work. it becomes economically viable to sell relatively unpopular products.com which are more central and thus influenced more by their recommendation network have significantly more pronounced Long Tail distributions. recommendation software. when storage and distribution costs are high. non-market networks. "unpopular" movies are rented more than popular movies.[17] On the demand side. Some relevant forms of these new production models are: • The peer-to-peer collaboration groups that produce open-source software or create wikis such as Wikipedia. Because Netflix stocks movies in centralized warehouses. • Work performed by individuals in commons-like. For example. and sampling tools are allowing customers to find products outside their geographic area. The authors also look toward the future to discuss second-order.

It also is a business model that fills an important developmental role in an economy. They are also willing to pay higher interest rates than the standard bank or credit card customer. Examples include eBay (auctions). When the cost of inventory storage and distribution fall. such as Yahoo! or CNET. and certainly before infinite titles. The banks that have followed this strategy of selling services to the low-frequency long tail of the sector have found out that it can be an important niche.[26] . may be threatened by the rise of smaller Web sites that focus on niches of content. These factors have been transformed by easy and cheap Web site software and the spread of RSS. Yahoo! and Google (web search). and military missions. This can. Amazon (retail) and iTunes Store (music and podcasts) amongst the major companies. long ignored by consumer banks. 187 Business models Competitive impact Before a Long Tail works. even at a digital scale. along with smaller Internet companies like Audible (audio books) and Netflix (video rental). which supply the titles that Blockbuster doesn't offer because they are not already very popular. Web content businesses with broad coverage. In other words. Its aim is to offer very small credits to lower-middle to lower class and poor people. For example. have the effect of reducing demand for the most popular products.Long Tail inventory may in many cases be less than the millions of items that they can potentially offer. a wide range of products become available. Similarly. only the most popular products are generally offered. that would otherwise be ignored by the traditional banking business. in turn. But the most important shift in business model due to the Long Tail has come from the various forms of microfinance developed. by proceeding further and further into the Long Tail. mass-market distributors like Blockbuster may be threatened by distributors like Netflix. sales may become so small that the marginal cost of tracking them in rank order. despite their non-existent credit history. It costs significantly less to modify a game than it has been to create unique training applications. might be optimised well before a million titles. As opposed to e-tailers. Microfinance and microcredit The banking business has used internet technology to reach an ever increasing number of customers. and cover that content better than the larger sites. The competitive threat from these niche sites is reduced by the cost of establishing and maintaining them and the bother required for readers to track multiple small Web sites. given its current sales rank and the total number of different titles stocked. Internet companies Some of the most successful Internet businesses have leveraged the Long Tail as part of their businesses. This model can provide further predictions into markets with long-tail distribution. such as the basis for a model for optimizing the number of each individual item ordered. commercial flight. Video and multiplayer online games The adoption of video games and massively multiplayer online games such as Second Life as tools for education and training is starting to show a long-tailed pattern. micro-finance is a distinctly low technology business. such as those for training in business.[25] The recipients of small credits tend to be very good payers of loans. This has led some to envision a time in which game-based training devices or simulations will be available for thousands of different job descriptions.

creating a "rich intellectual commons" and "attacking a major structure of the social division of labor". Kiva. to efficiently sell display inventory that might otherwise go unsold through direct sales force operations. Companies can make use of a series of tools. to give their users a voice and to enable them to do innovation work that is useful to the company. test and diffuse the results. • Pay Per Click and Search Engine Optimization: The marketing of websites on search engines such as Google. most of them based on extensive use of internet technologies. auction-oriented buying/selling mechanisms are also viable to help monetize the long tail of ad impressions available across niche publishers in the display advertising realm. Publishers utilize these ad exchange environments. Social innovation communities formed by groups of users can perform rapidly the trial and error process of innovation. commonly through YouTube videos. As a result. Users want products that are customized to their needs. long-tailed user driven innovation will gain importance for businesses. with an emphasis on the casual.[28] . share information. Among the most representative are: • New Media Marketing: The building and managing of social networks and online or virtual communities to extend the reach of marketing to the low-frequency. in a more democratic way. 188 User-driven innovation According to the user-driven innovation model. • Buzz Marketing: The strategic use of word of mouth and transmission of commercial information from person to person in an online or real-world environment. Given the diminishing cost of communication and information sharing (by analogy to the low cost of storage and distribution. • Viral Marketing: The intentional spreading of marketing messages using preexisting social networks. RSS feeds and podcasts. non-intentional and low cost. Marketing The drive to build a market and obtain revenue from the consumer demographic of the Long Tail has led businesses to implement a series of long-tail marketing techniques. often through blogs. Eric von Hippel of MIT's Sloan School of Management defined the user-led innovation model in his book Democratizing Innovation. viral emails and standalone microsites. using a distinct direct business model. in the case of e-tailers). low-intensity consumer in a cost effective way. such as interactive and internet based technologies. It is their collaboration and aggregated work that results in an innovation effort.[27] Among his conclusions is the insight that as innovation becomes more user-centered the information needs to flow freely. companies can rely on users of their products and services to do a significant part of the innovation work. In Mexico the banks Compartamos and Banco Azteca also service this customer demographic. by January 2011 between 20-25% of all US ad spending was derived from long tail advertisers. They are willing to tell the manufacturer what they really want and how it should work. with an emphasis on consumer credit. such as Right Media or AdECN. the company is using the model to tap into a large group of users that are in the low-intensity area of the distribution.Long Tail Grameen Bank in Bangladesh has successfully followed this business model. Yahoo and Bing by focusing on long-tail keywords which have less competition. In following a long-tailed innovation strategy. • Demand Side Platforms/DSPs: Similar to how Search Engine Marketing monetizes the long tail of keywords.org is an organization that provides micro credits to people worldwide.

In this way. movie studios."[29] Thus. But where the Long Tail works. the Long Tail also has implications for the producers of content. At the end of the Long Tail. These encourage the diversification of products. a Long Tail model may lead to improvement in a society's level of culture. One example of this is YouTube. Contemporary literature The intersection of viral marketing. and television networks. the choice of TV programs grows and greater cultural diversity rises. online communities and new technologies that operate within the Long Tail of consumers and business is described in the novel by William Gibson. These niche products open opportunities for suppliers while concomitantly satisfying the demands of many individuals — therefore lengthening the tail portion of the Long Tail. The opportunities that arise because of the Long Tail greatly affect society's cultures because suppliers have unlimited capabilities due to infinite storage and demands that were unable to be met prior to the Long Tail become realized. people tend to come up with products for varied reasons like expression rather than monetary benefit. production value or lack of popularity make them inappropriate for traditional television — are easily accessible to a wide range of viewers. Military applications and security In military thinking. showing how technology and networking allows the Long Tail of disgruntled groups and criminals to take on the nation state and have a chance to win. where thousands of diverse videos — whose content. Where the opportunity cost of inventory storage and distribution is high. record companies. As the opportunity cost goes down. Pattern Recognition. the advent of services such as Television on demand. Looked at from the producers' side. the Long Tail opens up a large space for authentic works of creativity. but their business distribution models make that of less importance. the Long Tail has made possible a flowering of creativity across all fields of human endeavour. John Robb applies the Long Tail to the developments in insurgency and terrorist movements. the conventional profit-making business model ceases to exist. . The Long Tail presents opportunities for various suppliers to introduce products in the niche category. These may not always attract the highest level of viewership. In situations where popularity is currently determined by the lowest common denominator. especially those whose products could not — for economic reasons — find a place in pre-Internet information distribution channels controlled by book publishers. Pay-per-view and even premium cable subscription services such as HBO and Showtime open up the opportunity for niche content to reach the right audiences. in an otherwise mass medium. Distribution of independent content Often presented as a phenomenon of interest primarily to mass market retailers and web-based businesses. Cultural diversity Television is a good example of this: Chris Anderson defines Long Tail TV in the context of "content that is not available through traditional distribution channels but could nevertheless find an audience. minority tastes become available and individuals are presented a wider array of choices. instead. only the most popular products are sold.Long Tail 189 Cultural and political impact The Long Tail has possible implications for culture and politics.

[30] On his blog. Bentley. arXive [25] The Global Development Research Center. 1655) by R. 2010. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story. 2008 [9] See The origins of "The Long Tail" (http:/ / longtail. co. [2] World Wide Words article on "long tail" (http:/ / www. html#comment-3415583). com/ abstract=1679991) [15] Brynjolfsson. 1998 [8] Obrist. gdrc. David M. June 16. Microcredit and Microfinance (http:/ / www. [4] Interview (http:/ / www. com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 01/ definitions_fin. Elberse defined head and tail using percentages. and Michael D. and Duncan Simester.E. [12] NPR: The Long Tail (http:/ / www. uncdf. benkler. 2003. [14] Bynjolfsson. Bentley. Krehbiel. who suggest that head and tail should be defined by percentages rather than absolute numbers. 124. Hello Long Tail: The Effect of Search Costs on the Concentration of Product Sales" (http:/ / ssrn. "Recommendation Networks and the Long Tail of Electronic Commerce" (http:/ / ssrn.P. "Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety at Online Booksellers" (http:/ / ssrn. evolhumbehav. they reported that 80 percent of the music tracks available sold no copies at all over a one-year period. praising Elberse and the academic rigor with which she explores the issue but drawing a distinction between their respective interpretations of where the "head" and "tail" begin. February 8. com/ abstract=1324064). Anderson responded to the study. royalsociety. org/ library/ journals/ north-american-actuarial-journal/ 1998/ april/ naaj9804_5. [22] "Why are they so popular?". org/ english/ microfinance/ ) [27] Democratizing Innovation. C. Lipo. 07/ longtail_pr.Long Tail 190 Criticism A 2008 study by Anita Elberse. edge. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu.2. 49 (11). org/ 10. by Clay Shirky. Smith.Berenson. com/ abstract=400940). telegraph. edu/ evhippel/ www/ democ1. html) Wired. com/ wired/ archive/ 12. Weblogs and Inequality" (http:/ / www. p.J.W. 10/ tail. org/ abs/ 0808. the earliest being a 1946 paper by Brown and Tukey in the Annals of Mathematical Statistics (volume 17. and Michael D. shirky. "Goodbye Pareto Principle. Shaun "An Actuarial Index of Right-Tail Risk" (http:/ / www. while Anderson uses absolute numbers. org/ documents/ mandelbrot2010/ mandelbrot2010_index. Chris. Herzog & M. 10. 2004. professor of business administration at Harvard Business School.[32] Also in 2008. doi.A. Anderson responded by stating that the study's findings are difficult to assess without access to its data. The Wealth of Networks (http:/ / www. Management Science.Edge. Tan. 1995 [7] Wang. www. uk/ connected/ main. html). Yu (Jeffrey) Hu.[33] [34] Notes [1] Levine. October 2004. mit. Erik. pages 1–12). Prentice Hall. comment #3 by Josh Petersen. misq. typepad. com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 05/ the_origins_of_. wired. 2002.A. Madsen.Stephan. Mark L. Jöel "Risk Management in Banking". [20] MIS Quarterly. (http:/ / www. html The Rise and Fall of the Hit [18] Benkler. Erik. Erik. 002) by R. . in The Daily Telegraph. Yu (Jeffrey) Hu. com/ abstract=918142 From Niches to Riches: Anatomy of the Long Tail [17] http:/ / www. Smith. An interview with Benoît Mandelbrot" (http:/ / www. [11] The Long Tail: Definitions: Final Round! (http:/ / longtail. htm) [3] Anderson.W.. soa. MIT Press (http:/ / web. November 2003. Hans Ulrich "The Father of Long Tales. xml& sSheet=/ connected/ 2004/ 06/ 14/ ixconn. Forthcoming Articles (http:/ / www.org. org/ archives/ 2006/ 08/ chris_anderson.[31] Similar results were published by Serguei Netessine and Tom F. citing sales data which shows that the Web magnifies the importance of blockbuster hits. Timothy C. David. Hahn & S.2 No. Bentley. wired. html) [23] "Random drift and culture change" (http:/ / journals. org/ turnsofphrase/ tp-lon1. econtalk. Shennan (2007) in Proceedings of the Royal Society B 271: 1443-50 [24] "Shelf space strategy in long tail markets" (http:/ / arXiv. calls the Long Tail theory into question. html) with Russ Roberts [5] A search for the phrase "long tail" in the database MathSciNet yielded 81 hits. M. Hahn (2007) in Evolution and Human Behavior 28(3): 151-158.A. North American Actuarial Journal Vol. org/ forthcoming/ ) [21] "Regular rates of popular culture change reflect random copying" (http:/ / dx. Wiley.A. org/ icm/ ) [26] United Nations Capital Development Fund (http:/ / www. "The Longer Tail: The Changing Shape of Amazon’s Sales Distribution Curve" (http:/ / ssrn. MIS Quarterly forthcoming. 1016/ j. "The Long Tail" (http:/ / www. 2006. pdf). [6] Bessis. jhtml?xml=/ connected/ 2004/ 06/ 16/ ecfpop16. 2006. Roger Highfield. com/ abstract=953587) [16] http:/ / ssrn. php?storyId=4156078) [13] Brynjolfsson. com/ writings/ powerlaw_weblog. htm) . Ormerod and M. typepad. com/ wired/ archive/ 14. H. html).. org/ content/ 1n1x17lp0c0q65uj) by R. a sales analysis of an unnamed UK digital music service by economist Will Page and high-tech entrepreneur Andrew Bud found that sales exhibited a log-normal distribution rather than a power law. P. html) [10] "Power Laws. org/ ) [19] Oestreicher-Singer. "Statistics for Managers using Microsoft Excel: 3rd Edition". Gal and Arun Sundararajan. worldwidewords.

longtail. U.) [31] Anderson. "" [29] Chris Anderson. uk/ 2008/ 11/ 07/ long_tail_debunked/ ) The Register. 191 References • Anderson. New York: Hyperion. 2009 External links • Building An Affiliate Marketing Website – Step-by-Step [2] References [1] http:/ / www. 7 Nov 2008. " Long Tail Advertisers Are Back. Chris. In traditional marketing each segment is just identified. cfm?articleid=2338). com/ the_long_tail/ 2008/ 06/ excellent-hbr-p. google. The Long Tail Blog. . uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ music/ article5380304. [33] Orlowski. (Full online article for purchase only. html)".S. Chris (2006). showArticle& art_aid=142294& passFuseAction=PublicationsSearch. com/ 2008/ 06/ step-by-step-guide-to-building-an-affiliate-marketing-website . com/ the_long_tail/ 2005/ 01/ long_tail_tv_pa_2. upenn. ece) TimesOnline. . • The Long Tail (http://demonstrations. 22 Dec 2008. [34] Foster. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles.Long Tail [28] Joe Mandese. edu/ article. mediapost. In marketing the potential customer base is divided into smaller segments.com/books?id=O2k0K1w_bJIC&printsec=frontcover). not provided with any content. Ad Expansion Reaches '03 Levels (http:/ / www. harvardbusiness. With internet marketing content is built for each segment. Anita. co. "Excellent HBR piece challenging the Long Tail" (http:/ / www. com/ pdf/ Why%20behavioural%20targeting%20works%20online%20white%20paper. org/ 2008/ 07/ should-you-invest-in-the-long-tail/ ar/ 1) Harvard Business Review. clicktorch. longtail. "Chopping the Long Tail down to size" (http:/ / www. "Long Tail theory contradicted as study reveals 10m digital music tracks unsold" (http:/ / entertainment.com. showSearchReslts& art_searched="long tail"& page_number=0/ )". "Should You Invest in the Long Tail?" (http:/ / hbr. Patrick. Micro content is a way to provide each customer segment the content required.wolfram. pdf [2] http:/ / getinternetmarketingstrategies.1/17/2005"" [30] Elberse. theregister. The Wolfram Demonstrations Project Micro content Micro content is the content built for each major segment of potential customers used in internet marketing. July–August 2008. Andrew. co. ISBN 1-4013-0237-8. " (http:/ / www. References • Paul Edmunds "Why Behavioural Targeting Works Online" [1]. micro content.com/TheLongTail/) a computer model by Fiona Maclachlan. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More (http://books. wharton. timesonline. html). ClickTorch. 1/04/2011. [32] "Rethinking the Long Tail Theory: How to Define 'Hits' and 'Niches'" (http:/ / knowledge.

for roughly $6 billion. Microsoft adCenter uses both the maximum amount an advertiser is willing to pay per click (PPC) on their ad and the advertisement's click-through rate (CTR) to determine how frequently an advertisement is shown.[8] A Microsoft adCenter promotional graphic Technology Similar to Google AdWords.[2] [3] In May 2007. a company situated in Gatineau.0 framework. Canada. This system encourages advertisers to write effective ads and to advertise only on searches which are relevant to their advertisement. Microsoft adCenter.[4] Microsoft acquired ScreenTonic on May 3. The council was responsible to deliver the next-generation advertising platform for the publishers of digital media resulting in the formation of Microsoft pubCenter. A complete transition of all Yahoo! sponsored ad clients to Microsoft adCenter occurred in October of 2010. to form the Microsoft Search Alliance.Net 2. Microsoft adCenter provides both UI and Web service API front end to advertisers.[5] AdECN on July 26.[7] On February 23.[6] and YaData on February 27. Publisher Leadership Council was created under the umbrella of Microsoft Advertising. Microsoft began developing its own system. aQuantive. 2007. Microsoft agreed to purchase the digital marketing solutions parent company. Google and Yahoo!) to develop its own system for delivering pay per click (PPC) ads. 2007 the Beta version of Microsoft Project Gatineau was released to a limited number of participants. Microsoft adCenter allows advertisers to target their ads by restricting their ads to a given set of demographics and by increasing their bids whenever the ad is seen by a user of a certain demographic.Microsoft adCenter 192 Microsoft adCenter Microsoft adCenter (formerly MSN adCenter). . As the system was phased in. formerly MSN Search. 2008 and merged their technologies into adCenter. MSN search showed Yahoo! and Microsoft adCenter advertising in its search results. Microsoft adCenter provides pay per click advertisements. 2009. the contract between Yahoo! and Microsoft had expired and Microsoft was displaying only ads from adCenter until 2010. Microsoft has built new product AdCenter Analytics based on the acquired technology. A Windows-only desktop application allows users to manage Microsoft adCenter campaigns offline. Similarly. no other PPC advertising system has a similar feature. In June 2006. that created web-analytics software. As of November 2006. as well as offering performance alerts and keyword research features. both are built on Microsoft .[1] As search marketing grew. adCenter allows advertisers to run their ads on specific days of the week or certain times of day. In January of 2010 Microsoft announced a take over of Yahoo! and the combination of Bing. all of the ads displayed on the Bing (formerly MSN Search) search engine were supplied by Overture (and later Yahoo!). is the division of the Microsoft Network (MSN) responsible for MSN's advertising services. 2007. In November 2006 Microsoft Acquired DeepMetrix. MSN collected a portion of the ad revenue in return for displaying Yahoo!'s ads on its search engine. In October. Until the beginning of 2006. for selling PPC advertisements directly to advertisers. History Microsoft was the last of the "Big Three" search engines (Microsoft. or to make bulk changes easily.

techcrunch.com. com/ kcorbin/ 2008/ 02/ microsoft-acquires-yadata.com/blogs/advertiser) • Official adCenter Analytics Blog (http://adcentercommunity. Retrieved 2008-01-12. advertising. searchengineland. internetnews. Microsoft External links • Microsoft adCenter (http://adcenter. php).com (http:/ / www.Microsoft adCenter 193 References [1] Peterson. Kim (2006-05-04).com.com. clickz. [5] Microsoft Acquires European Mobile Ad Firm .com) • adCenter Community (http://www. [3] "Microsoft's Web Analytics Product Project Gatineau Now In Private Beta" (http:/ / searchengineland.0) . microsoft.adcentercommunity. com/ 8301-10784_3-9750765-7.com/blogs/api) • Official adCenter Support Forums (http://adcentercommunity. . [4] "Microsoft Pays $6 billion for aQuantive: Massive Ad Network Consolidation Is Occuring [[[sic (http:/ / www. www.com) • Official adCenter Advertiser Blog (http://adcentercommunity.ClickZ (http:/ / www. com/ html/ businesstechnology/ 2002970721_microsoft04.com.Microsoft Digital Advertising Solutions" (http:/ / advertising. mspx?rss_fdn=Press Releases). .techcrunch. com/ showPage. html?page=3625762) [6] Microsoft acquires 'ad exchange' company AdECN | Tech news blog .microsoft. February 23. Retrieved 2008-01-12. "The Seattle Times: Business & Technology: Microsoft's adCenter is Google.com/learning-center/downloads/ microsoft-advertising-intelligence) (a keyword research and optimization tool. nwsource. html) [7] Microsoft Acquires YaData . com/ 2007/ 05/ 18/ microsoft-pays-6-billion-for-aquantive/ )]]"].microsoft. html). com/ presspass/ press/ 2009/ feb09/ 02-23PublisherAdCouncilPR. News Press Release. Yahoo! rival" (http:/ / seattletimes. [2] "Microsoft Project Gatineau .CNET News.Kenneth Corbin (http:/ / blog. Retrieved 2008-01-12. . 2009. seattletimes. html) [8] Microsoft Advertising Announces Formation of Publisher Leadership Council (http:/ / www. news.com/blogs/analytics) • Official adCenter API Developer Blog (http://adcentercommunity.InternetNews:The Blog . Retrieved 2008-01-12. . microsoft.microsoft.com/forums/) • Microsoft Advertising Intelligence (http://advertising. formerly Add-in for Excel Version 1. com/ 071030-103823.nwsource. com/ gatineau).

microsoft. 2009.microsoft. mspx?rss_fdn=Press Releases). in its beta version. Microsoft Advertising [5] Microsoft Advertising Announces Formation of Publisher Leadership Council (http:/ / www. which is expected to revive in the near future. com/ presspass/ press/ 2009/ feb09/ 02-23PublisherAdCouncilPR. com/ help. 2009. 2009. com& format=b1). 2009 Operating system Cross-platform. which allows advertisers to place ads on search engines as well as select MSN web sites or applications. Currently.[3] Publishers or owners can register in this program using Windows Live ID to earn revenue while enabling their application's audience with valuable ads experience on their websites and WP7 applications. com/ [3] pubCenter Homepage (https:/ / pubcenter.Solutions for publishers (http://advertising.Microsoft pubCenter 194 Microsoft pubCenter pubCenter Developer(s) Preview release Microsoft [1] Beta / November 09. February 23. com/ ). Web service. The council was responsible to deliver the next-generation advertising platform for the publishers of digital media. microsoft. Microsoft Advertising [2] http:/ / pubcenter. pubCenter Blog.[4] On February 23. Windows Phone 7 Type Website Online advertising [2] [2] Microsoft pubCenter is a publisher's ad serving application developed by Microsoft in addition to Microsoft adCenter. November 09.microsoftadvertising. Microsoft External links • Microsoft pubCenter (http://pubcenter.microsoft. Microsoft Advertising [4] About pubCenter (https:/ / adcenterhelp.com/blogs/pubcenter/default. microsoft. com/ blogs/ pubcenter/ archive/ 2009/ 11/ 09/ updates-to-the-pubcenter-beta-in-the-new-release. Publisher Leadership Council was created under the umbrealla of Microsoft Advertising. These advertisements are administered by Microsoft and produce revenue on a per-click basis.com/for-publishers) .com) • Microsoft pubCenter Blogs (http://community. microsoft. Microsoft pubCenter is only available for the Windows Phone 7 and web applications developers in the United States. microsoftadvertising.aspx) • Microsoft Advertising . aspx?project=adCenter_Pub_RTW_ss& market=en-US& querytype=keyword& query=yek006& tmt=& domain=pubcenter.[5] References [1] Microsoft Updates to the pubCenter BETA in the new release (http:/ / community. aspx). pubCenter is closed to new web publishers. News Press Release. microsoft. Incidentally.

g. discrete choice. This example yields k×m×n landing page configurations.. Taguchi methods. Multivariate landing page optimization can be executed in a live (production) environment. the system estimates the impact of individual components on the target measurement (e. and n choices for the company logo. m choices for the featured image or graphic. text) on a webpage are evaluated.com) use a "full factorial" approach. For example. Once sufficient data has accumulated. Some critics of the approach question the possible interactions between the elements of the webpages.). • Likely inappropriate for low-traffic.g.[1] RDE creates individual models for each respondent. uncovers attitudinal segmentation. MVLPO did not become a mainstream approach until 2003 or 2004. and have a higher margin of error. This quality is one reason that choice modeling won the Nobel Prize in 2000. many thousands—than traditional fractional Taguchi designs to achieve statistical significance. a given page may have k choices for the title. IDDEA.Multivariate landing page optimization 195 Multivariate landing page optimization Multivariate landing page optimization (MVLPO) is a specific form of landing page optimization where multiple variations of visual elements (e. time spent on the page. Overview Multivariate landing page optimization is based on experimental design (e. an advanced simulation method based on the Rule Developing Experimentation (RDE) paradigm was introduced.g. which tests all possible combinations of elements.g. Memetrics. in 1998 as a simulation/demonstration project for LEGO. To resolve the limitations of fractional designs... and allows for databasing across tests and over time. conversion rate). discovers any and all synergies and suppressions among the elements[2] . Some vendors (e. a special tool makes dynamic changes to a page so that visitors are directed to different executions of landing pages created according to an experimental design. or through simulations and market research surveys. conjoint analysis. etc. The first application of an experimental design for MVLPO was performed by Moskowitz Jacobs Inc. etc. Live environment execution has the following advantages: • Capable of testing the effect of variations as a real-life experience • Generally transparent to visitors • Relatively simple and inexpensive to execute Live environment execution has the following disadvantages: • High cost • Increased complexity involved in modifying a production-level website • Long period of time required to achieve statistically-reliable data.[3] Live environment execution In live environment MVLPO execution. Fractional designs typically used in simulation environments require the testing of small subsets of possible combinations. which tests a structured combination of webpage elements. This approach requires a smaller sample size—typically. high-importance websites when the site administrators do not want to lose any potential customers . The system keeps track of the visitors and their behavior—including their conversion rate. This situation is due to variations in the amount of traffic that generates the data necessary for a decision. graphics.. and the inability of most fractional designs to address this issue.

ISBN 0-13-613668-0.x [3] Alex Gofman (2007-09-21). the foundation consists of advanced market research techniques. Simulation execution has the following advantages: • Faster and easier to prepare and execute in many cases. com/ articles/ article. Financial Times Press. "Improving the ‘Stickiness’ of Your Website" (http:/ / www. Wharton School Publishing. Journal of Sensory Studies. 26(4): 286-298. [4] Alex Gofman.1108/07363760910965882. Integrating Science into Web Design: Consumer Driven Website Optimization. aspx?p=1015178). At the end of the research phase. the respondents are directed to a survey that presents them with a set of experimentally-designed combinations of a landing page. 2006. [2] Alex Gofman. Alex Gofman (2007-04-11). 21(4): 373-414. purchase intent). These results can be used to synthesize new landing pages as combinations of the top-scoring elements optimized for subgroups or market segments. Retrieved 2007-09-22. In the research phase. Emergent Scenarios. pp. DOI: 10.00072. 2009.Multivariate landing page optimization 196 Simulation (survey) execution In simulation (survey) MVLPO execution. • Necessity to recruit and optionally incentivize the respondents References [1] Howard R. ftpress. . And Suppressions Uncovered within Conjoint Analysis. Selling Blue Elephants: How to make great products that people want BEFORE they even know they want them.. DOI: 10. . Synergies. Howard Moskowitz. as compared to live environment execution • Applicable to low-traffic websites • Capable of producing more robust and rich data because of increased control over the page design Simulation execution has the following disadvantages: • Possible bias because of a simulated environment rather than a live environment. regression analysis models are created either for individual pages or for the entire panel of pages.2006. The outcome relates the presence or absence of page elements on the different landing page executions to the respondents’ ratings.g. 272. Moskowitz.1111/j.1745-459X. The respondents rate each version based on some factor (e. The Journal of Consumer Marketing. with or without interactions[4] . and Tonis Mets. InformIT Network.

France. myThings is a dynamic player in the online display advertising. History Founded in 2005. The solution won the Econsultancy Award[3] in Affiliate Marketing in March 2011. demonstrating the retargeting can generate over 1000% increase in brand related searches. myThings has offices in UK. Its solutions are used by customers in 12 countries including Asia (China. Italy.MyThings 197 MyThings myThings myThings Logo Type Industry Founded Website Private Online Advertising 2005 www. e-commerce and affiliate marketing industry throughout Europe. The company maintains that by reintroducing relevant product or service offers. Additional research from comScore follows this school of thought. myThings was the first company in Europe to offer online retailers with a CPA based business model in which advertisers only pay for conversions. In 2010.myThings. . Benelux and Japan. Germany. personalized online display ads (banners). Personalized retargeting is a form of online targeted advertising by which online advertising is delivered to consumers based on previous Internet actions that did not in the past result in a conversion. in real time. users will greatly increase online purchases (conversions) and click through rates.com [1] myThings is a personalized retargeting provider whose solution enables online advertisers to create relevant. myThings partnered with Affiliate Window[2] to present the first CPA based affiliate retargeting solution on the market that integrates into advertisers' existing affiliate tags. for visitors who have left their website without completing a purchase. as they continue to surf the web. Japan) and Eastern Europe. Spain. myThings also supports traditional CPM and CPC models.

The company is a signatory of the IAB EU framework presented to the UK Government as self-regulatory measures on behalf of the behavioral targeting industry[7] . Carmel Ventures. com/ ) [3] Announcing the winners of the Econsultancy Innovation Awards 2010 (http:/ / econsultancy. myThings technology utilizes cookies in the delivery of advertisements. Accel Partners. References [1] http:/ / www. myThings was also shortlisted for the A4U awards in 4 categories:[9] Affiliate Marketing innovation. and are able to Opt-Out of myThings’s services at any time. dcms.com. 69& id=89) [6] Former Yahoo. gov. net/ en/ 1/ europecommitstoselfregulation140411. allthingsd. affiliatewindow.MyThings 198 Partnerships myThings has over 200 partnerships with online retailers and brands. In partnership with Commission Junction. Deutsche Telekom’s venture capital firm T-Venture invested $6 million in myThings[4] alongside previous backers. Funding In January 2011. techcrunch. iabuk. 47. The cookies do not collect any Personally Identifiable Information (PII). com/ Portfolio/ Company. Each ad is optimized to maximum relevancy for the user. Microsoft Store. Achievements In March 2011. asp?Pid=0. other companies considered competition in the CPC retargeting field include Criteo. com [2] Affiliate Marketing – Affiliate Window – Affiliate Network (http:/ / www. Customers include Orange Mobile. Prospects are informed on how the Retargeting service works. Dot Corp and GP Bullhound. com/ 20110407/ former-yahoo-aol-huffpo-sales-dude-greg-coleman-lands-again/ ) [7] IABUK : Europe commits to self-regulation (http:/ / www. mythings. HuffPo Sales Dude Greg Coleman Lands Again – AllThingsD (http:/ / kara. mxs) [8] HMG response to its consultation on proposals and overall approach including its consultation on specific issues (http:/ / www. Product myThings offers adaptive retargeting ads generated in real-time. com/ news/ 2011/ 03/ a4uawards-2011-shortlist-announced/ ) . the largest independent affiliate marketing company in the UK. Best new entrant and Best retail advertiser with Hotel Chocolat. Privacy myThings is an active member of the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) and is in full compliance with international regulations and the EU standards of privacy. PriceMinister. com/ 2010/ 11/ 23/ mythings-scores-6-million-in-funding-for-personalised-retargeting-technology/ ) [5] Carmel Ventures . for each user based on previous interactions with the advertiser’s website. Telecom Italia and Booking. uk/ publications/ 8048. myThings won the Econsultancy Innovation Award for affiliate marketing in partnership with Affiliate Window. carmelventures. MisterGooddeal. analytics platforms and advertising agencies. The company was recently nominated by Media Momentum [10] as one of the top 50 fastest growing digital media companies in Europe. [5] According to "All Things Digital"[6] . affiliates4u. leading European affiliate networks. The UK government has recently expressed its support of the framework[8] . AOL.a4u (http:/ / www. aspx) [9] a4uAwards 2011 Shortlist Announced . com/ uk/ blog/ 7054-announcing-the-winners-of-the-econsultancy-innovation-awards-2010) [4] myThings scores $6 million in funding for personalised retargeting technology (http:/ / eu.MyThings Inc (http:/ / www. Best 3rd party application. 4.

After the visitor clicks on the confirmation e-mail.list building. Online lead generation Online Lead Generation is a marketing term that refers to the creation or generation of prospective consumer interest or inquiry into a business' products or services online. Online pricing models There are three pricing models in the online advertising market that marketers can use to buy advertising and generate leads. Leads can be generated for a variety of purposes . etc. The OTO is an effective technique to encourage undecided visitors to buy. the trader takes him to the OTO page. the number of times people view an advertisement. The trader takes the audience to a page where they can receive the offer only once. insurance and finance leads. CPM (Cost-per-Thousand) pricing models charge advertisers for impressions — i.e. uk/ 199 External Links Official myThings. age. A lead is a sign-up for an advertiser offer that includes contact information and in some cases. e-newsletter list acquisition. building out reward programs. marketing leads are sold only once. search keywords have become very expensive. However. Implementing an OTO Page Internet traders use this technique after the double-optin. demographic information. Sales leads are typically followed up through phone calls by the sales force. Sales leads are commonly found in the mortgage. A 2007 Doubleclick Performics Search trends report shows that there were nearly six times as many keywords with a cost per click (CPC) of more than $1 in January 2007 than the prior year.MyThings [10] http:/ / www. In direct contrast to sales leads. Because transparency is a necessary requisite for generating marketing leads.com Website (http://www. It is widely used by traders to obtain cash flow quickly. There are two types of leads in the lead generation market: sales leads and marketing leads. mediamomentum. income. The cost per keyword increased by 33% and the . loyalty programs or for other member acquisition programs. co. CPC (Cost-per-Click) advertising overcomes this problem by charging advertisers only when the consumer clicks on the advertisement. The problem with CPM advertising is that advertisers are charged even if the target audience does not click on (or even view) the advertisement. due to increased competition. Marketing leads are brand-specific leads generated for a unique advertiser offer. HHI.mythings. Display advertising is commonly sold on a CPM pricing model. Sales leads are generated on the basis of demographic criteria such as FICO score. If the visitor leaves the page may not come again.com) One-time offer The one-time-offer pages (or OTO) is a technique widely used in Internet marketing. These leads are resold to multiple advertisers. marketing lead campaigns can be optimized by mapping leads to their sources.

• Co-registration advertising (aka Co-Reg): The advertiser receives some or all of the standard fields collected by a site during the site's registration process. the contact information of a person interested in the advertiser's product or service. in favor of action-based models within three years.Online lead generation cost per click rose by as much as 55%. advertisers pay for an interested lead — i. [1] with spending on performance-based pricing models exceeding that on display (IAB PWC 2007 Internet Spending Report) for the first time. In recent times. Also like CPC.e. In a cost-per-lead pricing model. If a visitor to the website doesn't buy anything. CPL advertising is also commonly referred to as online lead generation. The rapid growth is primarily driven by the advertiser demand for ROI focused marketing. CPL pricing models are the most advertiser-friendly. community site. A GP Bullhound Research report states that the online lead generation is growing at 71% YTY — more than twice as fast as the online advertising market. irrespective of the clicks or impressions that went into generating the lead. • On-Line survey: Consumers are asked to complete a survey. The consumer has 'opted-in' to receive correspondence from the advertiser and is therefore considered a qualified lead. there has been a rapid increase in online lead generation—banner and direct response advertising that works off a CPL pricing model. reward program or member acquisition program. It also helps explain why 2007 saw a paradigm shift for the industry. 200 CPL advertising and CPA advertising For marketers that are looking to pay only for specific actions. Contact details are transmitted automatically from the publisher to the advertiser via the back end. the price per lead can be bid up by demand. The advertiser receives the standard fields and answers to as many as twenty custom questions that s/he defines. the advertiser typically pays for a completed sale involving a credit card transaction. The user enters her or his information within the banner. These banners eliminate the need for users to click-through a landing page. • Full Page lead generation: The advertiser's offer appears as a full page ad in an HTML format with relevant text and graphics. Common types of opt-in ad units are: • AdUnitX Banners: AdUnit X banners allow advertisers to run display advertising on a CPL pricing model. A 2009 IBM research study found that two-thirds of senior marketers expect 20 percent of ad revenue to move away from impression-based sales. CPA is all about 'now' — it focuses on driving consumers to buy at that exact moment. who purchase the consumer's information. This information is used as a sales lead for advertisers. there are ways that providers can commit fraud by manufacturing leads or blending one source of lead with another (example: search-driven leads with co-registration leads)to generate higher profits. including their demographic information and product and lifestyle interests. advertisers pay only for qualified leads. a trend that is expected to accelerate during a recession. . In CPA campaigns. there are two options: CPL advertising (or online lead generation) and CPA advertising (also referred to as affiliate marketing) In CPL campaigns. Like CPC. CPL campaigns are suitable for brand marketers and direct response marketers looking to engage consumers at multiple touchpoints — by building a newsletter list. CPL (Cost-per-Lead) advertising solves risk of CPM and CPC by charging only by the lead. there's no easy way to remarket to them.

web content development. the organization needs to know what is being said and discussed about their brand.[2] Most blogs are primarily textual. pay per click marketing. or “entries”. Authoring a blog. These goals help to define the online presence management strategy. videos. whether it is a small business or a major corporation. As part of a total online presence management strategy. Bing. photographs. “posts”. .Online lead generation 201 References • • • • • The B2B Refinery by J. ibm. In order to manage online brand presence. David Green & Michael C. search engine optimization. It is one of the most effective techniques to make sure that a business website or link is listed in the top few links of the millions of results that are displayed in various search engines such as Google. and links. A blog may be composed of text. Saylor (ISBN 0976864703) Lead Generation for the Complex Sale by Brian J. 06 Mar 2009. client-side/server-side scripting. Consumers simply search on various search engines to find information about a certain product or service. Individual articles on a blog are called “blog posts”. The search engines update their indexes on a regular basis. When they perform a query in hope of finding information on an organization or a brand. client liaison. Once this strategy is put in place. hypertext. maintaining a blog. Online presence management strategy works for any size business. while constantly pushing to reduce the cost of achieving those goals by relying more on the organic activity of the Internet rather than the paid placement approaches. the organization/brand would want to make sure that their website and online properties are listed high in the search results. Services provided under online presence management Web Designing and Development This primarily includes web design. Blogs often use a conversational style of documentation. These goals will define the online presence management strategy. and other avenues to create a long-term positive presence for an organization in various search engines. pdf). IBM Global Business Services. com/ services/ us/ gbs/ bus/ pdf/ ibv-g510-7869-01-advertising. . Most of these consumers would not bother going beyond the first page. an ongoing and constant process of evaluating and fine-tuning begins that drives online presence towards the business goals. Yahoo!. Online presence management Online presence management is a process that engineers and stimulates a certain brand online. in addition to the monitoring of a brand.com/download/leadgenerationglossary. or audio. although some focus on art. A person who posts these entries is called a “blogger”.pontiflex. etc. It combines the elements of web design and development. another key component is to analyze online presence within the search engine results. link sharing. images.[1] Creating a long-term positive presence online is imperative for an organization. The term blog is a shortened form of weblog or web log. Blogging A blog is a website in which items are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. social media. blogging. directory listings. or adding an article to an existing blog is called “blogging”.pdf) [1] "The End of Advertising as We Know It" (http:/ / www-935. A blog is like an online journal that is updated daily. Carroll (ISBN 0-07-145897-2) Marketing Management by Philip Kotler (ISBN 0-13-033629-7) Marketing for Dummies (ISBN 0-7645-5600-2) The Online Lead Generation Glossary (http://www. and web server and network security configuration. reputation management. The online presence management process starts by keeping in mind the business goals for the activity.

Bing. The spider follows links to web pages. creating a feedback loop.[6] Social media marketing programs usually center on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages readers to share content with their social networks. and removing negative opinions (if any) and converting them into positive ones. makes copies of the pages. Cost per action Reputation Management Reputation management is the process of tracking people's actions and opinions. Cost per click 3. and radio. as opposed to the brand or company itself. Cost per mille 2. crawler-based listings of search engines. 3. [5] Social Media Marketing Social media marketing is a medium that provides social media tools and platforms to create and foster communities and relationships. magazines. third-party source. The whole blogging process tremendously helps in promoting the online presence of any service or product. The most important task of a reputation manager is to defend clients against damaging information on the web. The main process of reputation management is reporting on those actions and opinions and reacting to that report. or services using the Internet to attract customers. A recent advertising industry survey reveals that Internet advertising will generate about $428 billion in revenues this year. Aol. ideas. bad reviews or complaints that turn up in a search can mean lost business.Online presence management Microblogging is another type of blogging. According to the same survey. Based on this data. 4. Search engines use a spider or a crawler to gather the listings by automatically "crawling" the web. the search engines then index the pages and rank the websites accordingly. Major search engines that index pages using spiders are Google. whereas last year it was about $220 billion. 5. Yahoo.[4] The three most common techniques of internet advertising are: 1. looking for positive and negative opinions about any particular service or product. A corporate message spreads from user to user and presumably resonates because it is coming from a trusted. Internet advertising has now overtaken other traditional advertising media such as newspapers.[3] Some of the methods to optimize a web page in search engines are: 1. 21 percent of Internet users consider online advertising to be the most relevant advertising system. Domain name strategies Linking strategies Keywords used Title tags Meta description tags Alt tags Internet Advertising Internet advertising is a form of broadcasting and promotion of products. it's online presence too gets established. and lycos. 2. Thus reputation management services work on highlighting the positive pages and burying offending sites deep in search results. and stores them in the search engine's index. featuring very short posts. 6. 202 Search Engine Optimization Search Engine Optimization is modifying a website to increase its ranking and thus visibility in the organic or natural ("unpaid"). Social media is all about networking in a way that advocates trust among the parties and . With potential customers increasingly heading online to research products and services. Once a positive opinion about any entity is established online.

com[3] [4] ). More frequently. etc. John. its ranking. [5] Tozzi. although these have had little success. The fee structure is both a filter against superfluous submissions and a revenue generator. com/ ). 2. com/ e4m/ bottombarfiles/ Internet-Advertising. Some detractors of paid inclusion allege that it causes searches to return results based more on the economic standing of the interests of a web site. exchange4media. com/ ). 7. mikemoran. "ProBlogger" (http:/ / www. businessweek. Some have lobbied for any paid listings to be labeled as an advertisement. the fee covers an annual subscription for one webpage. and less on the relevancy of that site to end-users. YouTube. Another advantage of paid inclusion is that it allows site owners to specify particular schedules for crawling pages. Typically. Social media monitoring Social aggregation Social bookmarking and tagging Social analytics and reporting Automation Social media Blog marketing Validation 203 References [1] "Samefaretaxi Studios" (http:/ / www. Paid inclusion Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing product where the search engine company charges fees related to inclusion of websites in their search index. Flickr. or even whether it is shown to any users. com/ smallbiz/ content/ apr2008/ sb20080430_356835. Digg. Mike. Retrieved 17 April 2011. "Social media marketing" (http:/ / www. while defenders insist they are not actually ads since the webmasters do not control the content of the listing. .. Darren. 5. Others. [4] "Internet advertising" (http:/ / www. asp). Businessweek. the most notable being Google. like Google (and as of 2006. . Retrieved 16 April 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011. .[1] A per-click fee may also apply. Scribd. samefaretaxi. many search engines. Paid inclusion proves to be particularly useful for cases where pages are dynamically generated and frequently modified.Online presence management communities involved. . paid inclusion products are provided by most search engine companies. and views and encourages interaction and community building can be classified as social media. pp. Social Media Marketing. 4. which will automatically be catalogued on a regular basis. Some sites allow only paid inclusion. some companies are experimenting with non-subscription based fee structures where purchased listings are displayed permanently. htm). opinions. Search Engine Marketing. [2] Rowse. SEO Made Easy (http:/ / www. Inc. wikipedia. 3. org/ wiki/ Social_media_marketing). Some popular social media sites are: Facebook. exchange4media. problogger. one has no control as to when their page will be crawled or added to a search engine index.[2] mix paid inclusion (per-page and per-click fee) with results from web crawling. Retrieved 17 April 2011. Some of these tools are:[7] 1. like Yahoo!. [6] Moran. . net/ archives/ 2005/ 01/ 06/ about-darren/ ). Also known as sponsored listings. Each search engine is different. 6. [3] Callen. Understanding what tools are available and how to use them effectively is key to success in social media marketing. Twitter. do not let webmasters pay to be in their search engine listing (advertisements are shown separately and labeled as such). Online Presence Management. In the general case. 8. Retrieved 17 April 2011. com/ ). "Do Reputation Management Services Work?" (http:/ / www. MySpace. However. Ask. Retrieved 16 April 2011. [7] "Social Media Marketing" (http:/ / en. Brad. Any website that allows users to share their content. . . Often the line between pay per click advertising and paid inclusion is debatable. bradcallen. 90. .

since experts and firms can test out different approaches to improving ranking.. with higher ranking bids appearing more prominently on the page. engines. [2] Gibson. html). Ask. . . .com. zawodny. wired. is an Internet advertising model in which advertisements appear along with relevant search results from a Web search engine.00.[2] which in some cases led to legal action. co. PermAds. engines. com/ 2000/ TECH/ computing/ 12/ 11/ search. [3] Ulbrich.[1] When one of these keywords is entered into the search engine. the results of the auction on that keyword are presented. com/ 2000/ TECH/ computing/ 12/ 11/ search. lawsuit. the auction model has proven to be effective at producing relevant results for searches where the user wants to purchase something. html) on 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2010-09-12. ask. org/ web/ 20080221002146/ http:/ / archives. Wired News. . instead of waiting weeks or months. Retrieved 2008-04-11.e. archive. guardian. [3] "Search engines sued over 'pay-for-placement'" (http:/ / edition. London: The Guardian. References [1] "Search engines shift gears to increase profits" (http:/ / web. 204 References [1] "FAQ #1: What are PermAds?" (http:/ / www. com/ page. ap/ index. CNN. Archived from the original (http:/ / archives. "Paid Inclusion Losing Charm?" (http:/ / www. without paying the search engine company. Jeremy (2004-03-01). engine. com/ 2002/ TECH/ internet/ 02/ 04/ search. or P4P.com. idg/ index. cnn. cnn. but also a tool of search engine optimization. explored. Owen (2002-05-03). explored. . Pay for placement Pay for placement. advertisers bid for the right to present an advertisement with specific search terms (i. Retrieved 2008-04-11. com/ blog/ archives/ 001671. and see the results often within a couple of days. newmedia). uk/ media/ 2002/ may/ 03/ bbc. however. "Defending Paid Inclusions" (http:/ / jeremy. [4] "FAQ #18: How do I register my site/URL with Ask so that it will be indexed?" (http:/ / about. . Chris (2004-07-06). CNN. Under this model.Paid inclusion Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing method in itself. controversy arose because seventy percent of Internet users were unaware that search results could be skewed as a result of such agreements. php?2#1). Retrieved 2008-04-11. [2] Zawodny. com/ en/ docs/ about/ webmasters. html). P4P is now seen as the most efficient and effective way to monetize search engines. permads. html?tw=wn_tophead_1). . html). . com/ news/ business/ 0. When P4P was first introduced. Knowledge gained this way can be used to optimize other web pages. keywords) in an open auction. cnn.64092.[3] Many users felt that the search results would be irrelevant. shtml#18).1367. "BBC angers rivals by launching online search engine" (http:/ / www. ap/ index. Retrieved 2008-12-19.

or the content of a page that they are browsing). or anywhere a web developer chooses on a content site.[1] Among PPC providers. Cost per click (CPC) varies depending on the search engine and the level of competition for a particular keyword. In many cases.Pay per click 205 Pay per click Pay per click (PPC) is an Internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites. It does this by offering financial incentives (in the form of a percentage of revenue) to affiliated partner sites. or when a content site displays relevant content. In both cases the advertiser must consider the potential value of a click from a given source. and all three operate under a bid-based model. With search engines. In contrast to the generalized portal. PPC implements the so-called affiliate model. Flat-rate PPC In the flat-rate model. and revenue sharing programs. it represents no cost to the merchant. advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market. Cost per click (CPC) is the sum paid by an advertiser to search engines and other Internet publishers for a single click on their advertisement. the advertiser and publisher agree upon a fixed amount that will be paid for each click.[3] Determining cost per click There are two primary models for determining cost per click: flat-rate and bid-based. In many cases the publisher has a rate card that lists the CPC within different areas of their website or network. pay-per-click. The flat-rate model is particularly common to comparison shopping engines. location (for geo targeting). Variations include banner exchange. These sites are usually neatly compartmentalized into product or service categories.. which directs one visitor to the advertiser's website. to purchase or not). .[4] However. and what the advertiser can gain from that visit. However. where advertisers pay the hosting service when the ad is clicked. that provides purchase opportunities wherever people may be surfing. Websites that utilize PPC ads will display an advertisement when a keyword query matches an advertiser's keyword list.g. which seeks to drive a high volume of traffic to one site. usually revenue. and the day and time that they are browsing. and appear adjacent to or above organic results on search engine results pages. the entire core content of these sites is paid ads. As with other forms of advertising targeting is key. and factors that often play into PPC campaigns include the target's interest (often defined by a search term they have entered into a search engine. allowing a high degree of targeting by advertisers. Google AdWords. although Google and others have implemented automated systems[2] to guard against abusive clicks by competitors or corrupt web developers. with content that generally attracts more valuable visitors having a higher CPC than content that attracts less valuable visitors. Content sites commonly charge a fixed price per click rather than use a bidding system. intent (e. in many cases advertisers can negotiate lower rates. This value is based on the type of individual the advertiser is expecting to receive as a visitor to his or her website. and advertisers can pay more for greater visibility.[1] The PPC advertising model is open to abuse through click fraud. which typically publish rate cards. These various amounts are often related to the content on pages. Such advertisements are called sponsored links or sponsored ads. both in the short term as well as in the long term. Yahoo! Search Marketing. and Microsoft adCenter are the three largest network operators. these rates are sometimes minimal. The affiliates provide purchase-point click-through to the merchant. especially when committing to a long-term or high-value contract. It is a pay-for-performance model: If an affiliate does not generate sales.

To maximize success and achieve scale. All bids for the keyword that target the searcher's geo-location. the advertiser signs a contract that allows them to compete against other advertisers in a private auction hosted by a publisher or. These systems can be used directly by the advertiser. there can be multiple winners whose positions on the page are influenced by the amount each has bid. though they are more commonly used by advertising agencies that offer PPC bid management as a service. more commonly. History In February 1998 Jeffrey Brewer of Goto. The ad with the highest bid generally shows up first. which can be anywhere from 50% to over 80% of the gross revenue paid by advertisers. These publishers sign up to host ads on behalf of the network. Content network properties can include websites. or inefficient at best. are then compared and the winner determined. and so forth.com (later Overture) advertisers until November 2001. with the actual amount paid based on the amount bid. the day and time of the search. In general.com started PPC in 1998. It is common practice amongst auction hosts to charge a winning bidder just slightly more (e. ads on content networks have a much lower click-through rate (CTR) and conversion rate (CR) than ads found on SERPs and consequently are less highly valued. The system generally sets each bid based on the goal that has been set for it. These tools generally allow for bid management at scale. Yahoo's primary source of SERPS advertising included contextual IAB . [8] Although GoTo. Google started search engine advertising in December 1999. until then. automated bid management systems can be deployed. now part of Yahoo!). such as maximize profit. presented a pay per click search engine proof-of-concept to the TED conference in California. advertisements were charged at cost-per-thousand impressions. It was not until October 2000 that the AdWords system was introduced. a 25-employee startup company (later Overture.[9] Prior to this. maximize traffic at breakeven. However. Overture has filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Google. In return. When the ad spot is part of a search engine results page (SERP). whichever is lower. The effectiveness of these systems is directly related to the quality and quantity of the performance data that they have to work with low-traffic ads can lead to a scarcity of data problem that renders many bid management tools useless at worst. the automated auction takes place whenever a search for the keyword that is being bid upon occurs. etc. Yahoo! did not start syndicating GoTo. and e-mails. one penny) than the next highest bidder or the actual amount bid. The system is usually tied into the advertiser's website and fed the results of each click. which then allows it to set bids. newsletters.com founder. an advertising network. In addition to ad spots on SERPs.g. PPC was only introduced in 2002. The auction plays out in an automated fashion every time a visitor triggers the ad spot.com. In situations where there are multiple ad spots. These properties are often referred to as a content network and the ads on them as contextual ads because the ad spots are associated with keywords based on the context of the page on which they are found. though additional factors such as ad quality and relevance can sometimes come into play (see Quality Score).[5] Advertisers pay for each click they receive. allowing advertisers to create text ads for placement on the Google search engine. Credit for the concept of the PPC model is generally given to Idealab and Goto. with thousands or even millions of PPC bids controlled by a highly automated system. the major advertising networks allow for contextual ads to be placed on the properties of 3rd-parties with whom they have partnered. Bill Gross. saying the rival search service overstepped its bounds with its ad-placement tools.[6] This avoids situations where bidders are constantly adjusting their bids by very small amounts to see if they can still win the auction while paying just a little bit less per click.Pay per click 206 Bid-based PPC In the bid-based model. they receive a portion of the ad revenue that the network generates. a common occurrence on SERPs. usually using online tools to do so.[7] This presentation and the events that followed created the PPC advertising system. Each advertiser informs the host of the maximum amount that he or she is willing to pay for a given ad spot (often based on a keyword).

com/ support/ bin/ answer. 2002). com/ 2008/ 03/ using-data-to-help-prevent-fraud. Retrieved May 18. "Using data to help prevent fraud" (http:/ / googleblog. London Business School.org/Bulletin/ Dec-05/pedersen. 2009 [7] Overture and Google: Internet Pay Per Click (PPC) Advertising Auctions (http:/ / faculty. html). html).[10] 207 References [1] "Customers Now". 32(2). "Yahoo to buy Overture for $1. pdf). yahoo. C. [2] Shuman Ghosemajumder (March 18. Accessed June 12. Retrieved May 18.63 billion. . Accessed January 9. com/ enroll/ app?service=page/ RateCard) Shopping. com/ 2100-1030_3-1025394. . External links • Paid listings confuse web searchers (http://www.63 billion" (http:/ / news. 12-13. Accessed February 23. 2009. google. 2010. shopping.com/article/112132/ study_paid_listings_still_confuse_web_searchers.pcworld. [9] Yahoo! Inc. 2010.com Merchant Enrollment (https:/ / merchant." (http://www. cnet. cnet. edu/ mottaviani/ PPCA. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. [3] How do you prevent invalid clicks and impressions? (https:/ / www. 2007 [5] Yahoo! Search Marketing (May 18. Accessed June 12. "Yahoo! and Overture Extend Pay-for-Performance Search Agreement" (http:/ / docs. 2011. Pedersen (2006). 2008 [4] Shopping. london. Retrieved May 18. [10] Stefanie Olsen (July 14. Yahoo! announced intent to acquire Overture for $1. Retrieved Jan 28. PC World • D. David Szetela. 2010). Yahoo! Press Release. py?answer=9718& ctx=en:search& query=invalid+ click& topic=& type=f) Google AdSense Help Center. com/ docs/ pr/ release975. yahoo. 2007 [8] Stefanie Olsen and Gwendolyn Mariano (April 5.asis. blogspot. Website Traffic Yahoo! Search Marketing (formerly Overture). com/ adsense/ support/ bin/ answer.html). "Overture sues Google over search patent" (http:/ / news.Pay per click advertising units (mainly 468x60 display ads). html). Retrieved May 18. (2002). 2010. "Sponsored Search: A Brief History. Google Blog. . "Sponsored Search" (http:/ / advertising. . Retrieved May 18. CNET. com/ smallbusiness/ whatsincluded). [6] AdWords Discounter (http:/ / adwords.html). 2003). CNET. 2008). google.com. When the syndication contract with Yahoo! was up for renewal in July 2003. html). 2010. . . Fain and J. O. com/ 2100-1023-876861. py?hl=en& answer=6302) Google AdWords Help. 2010.

Ads are typically automatically played when a visitor loads a web page. . pulled from cookies that are placed on a user’s web browser.[1] In radio advertising. Audio ads vary in length. The term "pay per play" comes from advertisers paying for each audio ad played. Also. with personalized retargeting emerging recently as a more sophisticated technique to present consumers with targeted.[2] References [1] Wall Street Journal Online (http:/ / online. retargeted consumers are nearly 70 percent more likely[2] to complete a sale than non-retargeted consumers and they spend. audio ads normally cannot be stopped once they start. and personalized retargeting providers aim to increase conversion rates by displaying highly relevant. and a website visitor will usually hear only one advertisement per visit to any specific web page. on average. the term "pay per play" can also refer to a relationship between advertisers and audio ad producers. google.[3] Personalized retargeted ads differ from earlier forms of retargeting in that instead of static. branded creative ads. is an online advertising method that plays an audio advertisement on websites. like other forms of retargeting. targeted display ads that are unique to each consumer. reflect the browsing history of each individual user and can feature multiple ads in a single banner. Personalized retargeting functions as a complement to search. also known as Cash per play (CPP). 50 percent more per purchase. History The mechanics of basic retargeting go back about 10 years. personalized ads are produced in real-time. com/ article/ SB120036638439890355. py?hl=en& answer=63154) Personalized retargeting Personalized retargeting is a display advertising technique used by online advertisers to recapture consumers who visit a retailer’s site and leave without making a purchase. Personalized retargeting. SEO and other marketing campaign tactics. to serve display advertisements. the web page playing the audio ad is normally paid for each ad they serve. com/ support/ bin/ answer. wsj. html) [2] Pay-per-play for Audio Ads (http:/ / adwords. according to a study by personalized retargeting provider Criteo. Industry studies have found that nearly 95 percent[1] of website visits don’t translate to purchases. relevant ads based on their previous onsite browsing history. Most commonly initiated via JavaScript. uses basic information. The products that appear in each user’s display ad are unique to each user and reflect products that the user previously viewed on a retailer’s website.Pay per play 208 Pay per play Pay per play (PPP).

including the Federal Trade Commissiomn.[9] Partial list of providers • • • • • • • • • • • 4-Tell[10] BuySight (formerly Permuto)[11] ChoiceStream[12] Criteo[13] Dotomi[14] FetchBack[15] (acquired by GSI Commerce in June 2010)[16] Magnetic[17] mediaFORGE[18] MyBuys[19] myThings[20] TellApart[21] . In October 2010. Providers are blind to a user’s age. This information is not shared among publishers. Yahoo! Search Marketing and Criteo are examples of providers that use a PPC model. providers rely upon data gathered from cookies that are placed on a consumer’s browser by the websites they visit. have expressed privacy[4] concerns[5] around the practice of retargeting. Three prominent models include: • CPM (cost per thousand) • PPC (pay per click) • CPA (cost per action) Cost per impression (CPM) is a common metric used in the online advertising industry to charge advertisers for inventory based on a set price per thousand page impressions. several organizations. Pay per click (PPC) charges advertisers for every verifiable click that leads consumers back to a retailer’s website. Cost per action (CPA) is a pricing model in which advertisers are charged based on pre-arranged action (a purchase. although a completed sale is the most common action used under the CPA model. Congress and the media. An impression is defined as any time a banner ad loads on an individual’s web browser. a view through. etc). however.[7] NAI[8] and TRUSTe to self-regulate. which partner sites will place near banner advertisements that collect non-PII user data. Concerns In the United States. such as the IAB. Instead. sex and other personal information. advertisers working under the PPC model are only charged when a person clicks on an ad. which charges advertisers a flat rate. Google AdWords. responsible personalized retargeting providers don’t collect personally identifiable information (PII) on consumers. the IAB announced its Advertising Option Icon. and instead relies upon the industry and its overarching organizations.Personalized retargeting 209 Pricing models Personalized retargeting providers employ a variety of pricing models to charge advertisers for the ads viewed by consumers. other advertisers or third parties and cannot be linked to a specific user.[6] The United States hasn’t legislated many laws around the practice. Unlike the CPM model.

html?_r=3& src=busln [5] http:/ / online.Personalized retargeting 210 References [1] http:/ / econsultancy. their location. net/ privacymatters/ [8] http:/ / www. com/ [11] http:/ / www. com/ [15] http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 09/ what-so-creepy-about-retargeting/ [7] http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 06/ 01/ fetchback-40-million-gsi-commerce/ [17] http:/ / magnetic. and the industry they are in. writing emails to email contacts they can find for the visiting organization. iab. permuto. com [14] http:/ / www. is/ [18] http:/ / mediaforge. For example. With pressure to generate more leads with small budgets. they distinguish themselves in their ability to supplement IP addresses with data from third-party sources. mediapost. com/ [20] http:/ / www. nytimes. These tools are not so much lead generation software but more data extraction tools that can assist the early stages of a lead generation process. info/ [9] http:/ / www. showArticle& art_aid=137111 [10] http:/ / www. myThings. they provide a powerful insight to marketing executives who want to measure online campaigns based on the type of audiences they are attracting. Post-click marketing relies on specific software and services that go beyond the information collected by popular web analytic tools such as Google Analytics. criteo. mybuys. com/ [13] http:/ / www. enabling marketing managers to view the name of the company visiting their website. or to personalize the content based on the visitor’s language or location. If used properly. Inside Sales tend to use it for lead generation purposes. criteo. com/ article/ SB10001424052748703940904575395073512989404. aboutads. com/ [12] http:/ / www. com/ Post-click marketing Post-click marketing is emerging as a recognized practice that aims at improving sales and marketing results by focusing on website visitors when they respond to online marketing activities such as pay per click advertising. asp [3] http:/ / www. dotomi. com/ content/ 27804. Post-click marketing solutions appeal on many fronts: • Businesses paying for the traffic to their website through pay per click. Marketers might wish to use the information to detect if they are attracting their desired target audience to their landing pages. search engine optimization and other online activities use these tools to discover more about the estimated 98% (quoted by a case paper from the Marketing Sherpa) of visitors who don’t immediately convert into a lead. and can be helpful in engaging visitors who normally go totally unidentified by sales . com/ [16] http:/ / techcrunch. There are many ways in which this information gathered about website visitors can be used. wsj. 4-Tell. choicestream. com/ [4] http:/ / www. com/ [21] http:/ / tellapart. com/ [19] http:/ / www. com/ publications/ ?fa=Articles. com/ 2010/ 08/ 30/ technology/ 30adstalk. and paid searches with the objective on increasing conversion rates. com/ us/ blog/ 6101-increase-search-conversion-with-retargeting [2] http:/ / www. these services are likely to grow in usage. • Sales managers also find them attractive in their ability to generate email alerts to them when important customers visit their website. html [6] http:/ / www. HTML e-mails. • Inside Sales can view the keywords used by specific visitors to help qualify a person who has filled in a form on a landing page. fetchback. adotas. imediaconnection.

Private Label Content comes with different rights depending on the developer so it's important to throughly check each license prior to use. However. Marketers use private label products for reselling under their own brands or in the case of written products for online marketing through channels like article directories. the basic premise is that the license permits buyers to re-brand the content under their own name and brand (excluding copyright). In some cases authorship on the original product is allowed and with unrestricted private label. 211 References • Principles and Practice of Marketing . to ensure that you are familiar with any restrictions that may be in place.Hugh MacFarlane: 2003 Private label rights Private label rights is a concept used in Internet Marketing and derived from private labeling.David Jobber: 4th edition 2004 • Marketing Sherpa . graphic templates etc. resold or repurposed in many different formats. ebook directories. Use The license is used for various digital products such as articles. meaning that you should consider revising and improving existing private label content before distributing it under your own brand. The license is defined by the author of the work and has no legal definition. marketers are often hesitant on incorporating private label content into their marketing campaigns. In general practice this means that the product can be modified. sold. While licenses differ with each author and seller. Private Label Content comes in many different formats. slide-sharing websites and similar. ebooks. Criticism Due to private label being distributed to multiple customers. It's a license where author sell most or all of the intellectual property rights to their work. Similar licenses include resell rights. templates and even videos. content syndication. articles. Because there are many buyers of the same product. Private label is also useful in adding perceived value to existing products.Case Studies 2007 • The Leaky Funnel . including PLR reports. the price of a single unit is generally lower than if one would create a similar product from scratch (either by himself or by outsourcing). minimizing the number of competing marketers using the same content. you can also purchase private label content that is limited in distribution. buyers are often able to resell the same rights they've acquired although not all private label releases offer or permit license distribution or transfer. ebooks. including by using private label as an outline or guide when hiring outsources to create information products. and through time limited offers. both as bonus items. software. There are many different ways to successfully use private label content to minimize workload and production time. graphics. also used in Internet Marketing. . and without being exclusive or unique content.Post-click marketing and marketing. Private Label Content is best used as a "resource" rather than a 'source".

In late 2008. By implementing variable minimum bids Google created a mechanism whereby the company could set different minimums for different advertisers for the same keyword. In fact.[4] Purpose Behind Quality Score The major search engines have each independently implemented efforts to maintain and improve the quality of ads listed on their sites. Google takes into account the overall historic CTR of the entire AdWords account as well as the historic CTR of the display URLs in the ad group. presumably in an effort to guide their advertisers towards making better ads. However. Below is a summary of what has been released. To determine the order in which ads are listed. Google determined ad rank by running the following formula against each ad and sorting them in descending order: bid * CTR. Ads are then listed in descending order based on the result of that equation. Yahoo![2] (called Quality Index). thus increasing advertising revenues for the search engine. in some cases advertisers found their minimum bids for some ads were raised to as high as $5. this new feature allowed advertisers to bid as little as $0.00 or $10. each ad has the following formula run against it: bid * Quality Score. The exact weight of Quality Score versus bid has not been revealed by any of the major search engines. and MSN [3] that can influence both the rank and cost per click (CPC) of ads. Factors in Determining Quality Score There are a number of factors that determine the Quality Score of a given ad. While each search engine has released directional information on the factors most important to them.Quality Score 212 Quality Score Quality Score is a variable used by Google[1] . prior to its introduction of Quality Score in July 2005[6] . none has revealed their formulas in detail. Google revealed that Quality Score was used to determine which ads it would show above organic results.the most important factor to Google[5] .01 to have their ad shown.00. Google could test each advertiser's ability to pay these increases. The primary reason for this is to improve the experience of users who click on sponsored links. by raising minimums bids. In addition to the CTR of the keyword and matched ad itself.in their respective Quality Score formulas is the historical click-through rate (CTR) of the keyword and matched ad. Furthermore. and that a high quality score could actually cause ads to jump over ads with lower quality scores that would otherwise not merit that prominent placement. It is reasonable to assume that users who have a great experience when clicking on ads will click on them more frequently. thus increasing competitiveness within the auctions and extracting maximum revenue from each advertiser. On the surface. In addition. . Google chose to introduce variable minimum bids at the same time as it introduced Quality-Based Bidding. Click-Through Rate All three search engines have revealed that a major factor . and potentially increase the average minimum bid without the advertising community as a whole being made aware. and each company has stated that they reserve the right to continually adjust their ranking methodologies.

In particular. References [1] What is 'Quality Score' and how is it calculated? (http:/ / adwords. google. com/ 2008/ 08/ quality-score-improvements. Landing Page Quality All three search engines have revealed that landing page quality is a factor in determining Quality Score. blogspot. it can be assumed that ads with ad copy that contains the keyword will have a higher Quality Score than ads with ad copy that does not contain the keyword. html) Official AdWords Blog. com/ 2008/ 06/ landing-page-load-time-now-affects. com/ support/ bin/ answer.Quality Score 213 Ad Copy Relevance All three search engines have revealed that the relevance of the ad copy to the keyword is a factor in determining Quality Score. com/ support/ bin/ answer. google. com/ Blog/ cns!85E824269AB8C30D!352. entry) adCenter Blog. blogspot. Accessed February 23 2009 [8] Inside AdWords: Landing page load time now affects keywords' Quality Scores (http:/ / adwords. Accessed February 23 2009 [5] Inside AdWords: Improvements to Ads Quality (http:/ / adwords. Accessed February 22 2009 [2] What is the quality index? (http:/ / help. Landing page quality generally refers to whether or not the page contains relevant and original content and the navigability of the site.[7] In the case of MSN. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 10/ improvements-to-ads-quality. live. spaces. blogspot. html) Official AdWords Blog. com/ 2008/ 10/ improvements-to-ads-quality. Accessed February 22 2009 [3] adCenter Quality-Based Ranking? (http:/ / adcenterblog. changes in terms of use in Google Analytics have fed speculation in the search engine marketing (SEM) community that Google is using on-site conversion data in its Quality Score formula. html) Yahoo! Search Marketing Help. Landing Page Load Time In June 2008 Google revealed that landing page load time impacts Quality Score. py?hl=en& answer=10215) Google AdWords Help. Other Factors All three search engines have revealed that other factors are taken into consideration when calculating Quality Score.[8] Geographical Considerations Google has revealed that the accounts performance in the geographical region where the ad will be shown impacts Quality Score. Therefore. Accessed February 22 2009 [4] Inside AdWords: Improvements to Ads Quality (http:/ / adwords. Accessed February 23 2009 [7] How do I create a high quality landing page? (http:/ / adwords. html) Official AdWords Blog. com/ l/ us/ yahoo/ ysm/ sps/ faqs/ quality/ quality_index. Accessed February 23 2009 [6] Inside AdWords: Quality Score improvements (http:/ / adwords. html) Official AdWords Blog. Accessed February 23 2009 . py?hl=en& answer=47884) AdWords Help. they have revealed that ads with landing pages that don't contain the keyword may be declined altogether. yahoo.

product and service and the value and benefit the supplier brings to them and people they know. the referral program was inspired by the Paypal Sign up Bonus [8] program. is the internet based approach to traditional referral marketing.com/watch?v=b8f1zr2UEXo) • Quality Score on Twitter (http://twitter.youtube. a higher retention rate and were more valuable in both the short and long run. between customers acquired through a referral program and other customers. and you get more space yourself too. Dropbox implemented a referral program[6] to encourage their users to tell their friends about Dropbox. Dropbox estimated that their users had sent 2. their company. The study found that referred customers were both more profitable and loyal than normal customers. Online referral marketing. on referral programs and customer value [2] which followed the customer referral program of a German bank that paid customers 25 euro for bringing in a new customer. the study mentioned . informing.com/quality_score) Referral marketing Referral marketing is a method of promoting products or services to new customers through referrals.com/watch?v=SsEGWI1w1L8) • Google Ads Quality Updates Video (http://www. Referral marketing takes word of mouth from the spontaneous situation to one where maximum referrals are generated.Quality Score 214 External links • Google Ads Quality Basics Video (http://www. the Co-founder and CEO of Dropbox. both in the short term and long term. Hence. Given the advances in tracking customer behavior online through the use of web browser cookies. online referral marketing provides a high degree of tracking and accountability. usually word of mouth. According to Professor Van den Bulte. Importantly. Such referrals often happen spontaneously but businesses can influence this through appropriate strategies. promoting and rewarding customers and contacts to think and talk as much as possible about their supplier."Our findings are important news for practitioners considering deploying customer referral programs in their own firm. Their referral program had a two-sided incentive for sharing: the person who signs up for Dropbox through your referral link gets more space than through a normal sign up. Referral marketing does this by encouraging. The referral program was wildly successful and it permanently increased their signups by 60%[9] . Overview Referral marketing is a structured and systematic process to maximize word of mouth potential. According to Drew Houston. referral programs can indeed pay off[5] . In the 30 days before the conference presentation.youtube. On whether customer referral programs are worth the cost." Examples of Successful Referral Marketing Programs Dropbox referral program . Referred customers had a higher contribution margin. Benefits of Referral Programs A study conducted by the Goethe University Frankfurt and the University of Pennslyvannia [1].8 million[11] direct referral invites to their friends. this is the first ever study published on the financial evaluation of customer referral programs[4] . Assuaging prior skepticism. was released in July 2010 [3] . we document a positive value differential.In 2009. Referrals account for roughly 35%[10] of their daily signups (as of April 2010). at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference [7] on 23 April 2010. . using digital marketing as a platform. this value differential is larger than the referral fee.

slideshare. net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 Resource Interactive Resource Interactive is a Privately held digital marketing agency [1] in Columbus. 4 on Advertising Age's Agency A List for 2010. com/ us/ cgi-bin/ webscr?cmd=_web-referrals-mrb-outside [9] Slide 30 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www. Female-founded. upenn. [10] External links • • • • Official Website [11] weThink: Official Company Blog [12] Kelly Mooney's blog. wharton. slideshare. a book by Resource Interactive associates [14] • Website for The Ten Demandments. Nancy Kramer [8] founded the company in 1981 with its first marketing relationship with Apple [9]. slideshare. pdf [6] Referral program . net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 [11] Slide 31 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www.L. we'll give you both 250 MB of bonus space (up to a limit of 8 GB)! (https:/ / www. University of Pennsylvania) [4] http:/ / www. dropbox. edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. sllconf. paypal. Goethe University Frankfurt) and Christophe Van den Bulte (Associate Professor of Marketing. working with Fortune 500 companies to develop digital strategy. Bernd Skiera (Professor of Marketing. Wharton School.Bean. net/ gueste94e4c/ dropbox-startup-lessons-learned-3836587 [10] Slide 32 of presentation given by Drew Houston at the Startup Lessons Learnt Conference on 23 April 2010: http:/ / www. Wal * Mart. Sherwin-Williams and L. upenn. com/ 2010/ 07/ 21/ viral-marketing-referral-program-entrepreneurs-sales-marketing-wharton_print. a book by Kelley Mooney and Laura Bergheim [15] • iCitizen Website [16] . Coca-Cola (co).For every friend who joins Dropbox. wharton. Hewlett Packard. com/ referrals) [7] http:/ / www. forbes. edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. interactive design [5] and technological innovation [6][7] . upenn. Ohio[2] . website creative and interactive technology solutions. html [5] Page 25 of http:/ / marketing. Resource Interactive is recognized for its aptitude in consumer insights and strategy [3][4] . com/ [8] https:/ / www. pdf [2] http:/ / marketing.Referral marketing 215 References [1] http:/ / marketing. Resource Interactive is No. owned and operated. edu/ documents/ research/ Final_Referral%20Programs%20and%20Customer%20Value--July15. Victoria's Secret. pdf [3] conducted by Phillipp Schmitt (Ph. Resource Interactive has since expanded its partnerships with clients to include Procter & Gamble. President and CXO of Resource Interactive [13] Website for The Open Brand. wharton.D student at Goethe University Frankfurt). among others.

php?article_id=126721 AdvertisingAge Top 50 Digital Agencies http:/ / adage. com [12] http:/ / blog. com/ [1] [2] [3] [4] Revenue sharing Revenue sharing has multiple. Congress gave an annual amount of federal tax revenue to the states and their cities. businessweek. Under this policy. com/ [14] http:/ / theopenbrand. United States government revenue sharing was in place from 1972-1987. htm) Retrieved on June 2008. and sharing the proceeds. In 1987. commarts. com/ release-id-856. but it lost federal support during the Reagan Administration. resource. com/ mediacenter/ podcasts/ innovation/ innovation_03_26_08. shipping and other 3rd party cost that the customer pays) generated by customers whom the affiliate refer via various advertising methods. counties and townships. Another form of online revenue sharing consists in people working together and registering online in a way similar to that of a corporation. com/ [16] http:/ / icitizen. htm [7] Flashforward Film Festival Awards 16 Big Orange Rubber Arrows (http:/ / prmac. revenue sharing refers to the sharing of profits and losses among different groups. mooneythinks. thetendemandments. com/ agencya-list/ article?article_id=148348). 4 on the Ad Age Agency A-List" (http:/ / adage. .Resource Interactive 216 Notes http:/ / adage. com/ web-sites/ shaw-floors-try-floor. [5] http:/ / www. htm?campaign_id=rss_daily Innovation of the Week (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ release-id-856. com/ smallagency/ index?sid=Nancy%20Kramer [9] http:/ / www. revenue sharing is also known as cost per sale. resource. Revenue sharing was extremely popular with state officials. Kunur (2011-01-24). htm?campaign_id=rss_daily) . and another between companies in a business alliance. resource.BusinessWeek. html [6] http:/ / prmac. and accounts for about 80% of affiliate compensation programs. com/ [13] http:/ / www. com/ [15] http:/ / www. com/ datacenter/ datapopup. A third form of revenue sharing on the internet consists of enticing internet users to sign up and create content by offering a share of advertising revenue. Advertising Age. One form shares between the general partner(s) and limited partners in a limited partnership. . resource. In business. "Resource Interactive Is No. com/ [10] Patel. apple-history. com/ mediacenter/ podcasts/ innovation/ innovation_03_26_08. Retrieved on June 2008. [11] http:/ / www. revenue sharing was replaced with block grants in smaller amounts to reduce the federal deficit. com/ datacenter/ datapopup. php?article_id=126721 digital marketing agencies http:/ / www. Another form shares with a company's employees.[1] E-commerce web site operators using revenue sharing pay affiliates a certain percentage of sales revenues (usually excluding tax. [8] http:/ / adage. related meanings depending on context. On the Internet.

Unlike PPS. com/ survey. and is designed to be among the first item the reader attends to.reviewerofsites. the last stage of the sales process before the customer places an order. but by a real life selling effort. but not exclusively. It has been defined as "A form of direct mail in which an advertiser sends a letter to a potential customer.html) Suppliers pay commission for sale. It is typically used for products or services which. 8 and 16 page letters being common formats. other sections may be used. the sales letter has become an integral part of internet marketing. Unsolicited sales emails are known as spam. Sales letter A sales letter is a piece of direct mail which is designed to persuade the reader to purchase a particular product or service in the absence of a salesman. . although spam typically consists of emails which are much shorter than a normal sales letter. the sale is not generated by an advertisement.Revenue sharing 217 References [1] AffStat Report 2007 (http:/ / www. Headline The headline is the most prominent text on the sales letter. affstat. the body copy may include embedded video or audio. and is designed to ensure that the prospect is committed to becoming a customer. shtml) — a study based on survey responses from almost 200 affiliate managers in the marketing industry External links • A match between suppliers and agents in real life (http://www. such as the distribution of leaflets and catalogues. On the internet. including Google Adsense and Amazon Associates programs.com/marketing/revenue_sharing. due to their price. and further tends to be mainly textual as opposed to graphics-based. In addition."[1] It is distinct from other direct mail techniques. • A categorized list of internet revenue sharing sites (http://www. as the sales letter typically sells a single product or product line.Internet revenue sharing sites share via a variety of income sources. with 4. Components The sales letter is split into several key sections. A sales letter is often. such as sub-headlines. are a considered purchase at medium or high value (typically tens to thousands of dollars).astal. unsolicited sales letters are known as junk mail. Since the advent of the internet.Agents are people who know they can make a one-time sale. This section will typically contain testimonials from the firm's customers as well as pictures and information about the product.com/ the-internets-largest-list-of-adsense-revenue-sharing-sites/) . Body copy This section is typically quite long. Offline. and typically takes the form of an email or webpage.

paragraph formatting. etc. images. This letter had the headline "They Laughed When I Sat Down At the Piano But When I Started to Play! --"[2] References [1] "Sales Letter (definition)" (http:/ / www. The font. John Caples. com/ caples. with split testing of various elements. Retrieved 2009-11-15. Retrieved 2009-11-15. etc. Sales letters are typically developed incrementally. the bounce rate. Graphic design The graphic design of a sales letter is an important part of the branding. wrote this ad that was considered the very best of its time and is still a classic. typically without any further intervention." (http:/ / www. . Development of sales letters Because of the direct response nature of sales letters. internetmarketingdefinitions. layout. notably the letter by John Caples which sold a home study (also known as distance learning or correspondence course) in piano playing. powerwriting. clickthrough to the checkout. [2] "Famous copywriter. they can be carefully tested on an ongoing basis to determine which version performs best in terms of converting readers to customers. . Classic letters Some sales letters have become design classics in their own right. it is possible to track additional variables. On the internet. such as the open rate of emails. body text or graphic design converts best. all have an effect on the efficacy of the letter. This allows the marketeer or copywriter to confirm which headline.Sales letter 218 Call to action All sales letters include a call to action which is intended to get the customer to commit to purchasing the product or service. com/ SalesLetter). . line spacing. html).

[11] Search engine optimization consultants expanded their offerings to help businesses learn about and use the advertising opportunities offered by search engines. The Yahoo! & Microsoft Search Alliance eventually received approval from regulators in the US and Europe in February 2010. SMM is a type of marketing that involves exploiting social media to influence consumers that one company’s products and/or services are valuable. Also. History As the number of sites on the Web increased in the mid-to-late 90s. organizations. a secondary "search marketing agency" market has evolved. SEM is a constant and tedious task. trying to achieve top ranking without using paid means of achieving top in search engines. (SEM). Another part of SEM is Social Media Marketing (SMM). advertising and making sure SEO has been done. key word analysis needs to be done for both SEO and SEM. In a market dominated by Google.Search engine marketing 219 Search engine marketing Search engine marketing. and paid inclusion.[6] Because of the complex technology. By 2007. The term "Search Engine Marketing" was proposed by Danny Sullivan in 2001[12] to cover the spectrum of activities involved in performing SEO. . and new agencies focusing primarily upon marketing and advertising through search engines emerged.[2] As of 2006. SEM constitutes Ad words. SEM was growing much faster than traditional advertising and even other channels of online marketing. It frequently needs to be updated and monitored continually.com later changed its name[9] to Overture in 2001. is a form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs) through the use of. The largest SEM vendors are Google AdWords. search engines started appearing to help people find information quickly. and PayPerClick SEO. Some marketers have difficulty understanding the intricacies of search engine marketing and choose to rely on third party agencies to manage their search marketing.5 billion on search engine marketing. managing paid listings at the search engines.[1] [2] Search engine optimization (SEO) is "optimizing" website pages to achieve higher ranking in search results via the process of selecting specific keyword expressions associated to the website [3] SEM is utilizing various means of "marketing" a website in order for it to become more relevant in regard to search engine searches and their rankings. Market structure In 2008. and now offers paid search opportunities for advertisers through Yahoo! Search Marketing. Some of the latest theoretical advances include Search Engine Marketing Management (SEMM). For example some of the attention is placed on the web page layout design and how content and information is displayed to the website visitor. Google also began to offer advertisements on search results pages in 2000 through the Google AdWords program. Goto. but not necessarily at the same time. and developing online marketing strategies for businesses.com[8] in 1998.[5] You can do SEM without doing SMM but you can't do SMM without doing SEM because SMM is a higher level of SEM. North American advertisers spent US$13. contextual advertising. submitting sites to directories. [3] article submissions. and was purchased by Yahoo! in 2003. SEMM also integrates organic SEO. paid placement. SEMM relates to activities including SEO but focuses on return on investment (ROI) management instead of relevant traffic building (as is the case of mainstream SEO). such as pay per click programs offered by Open Text[7] in 1996 and then Goto. It should be asserted that SEM is NOT SEO and vice versa. and individuals.[4] which comprises pay per call (particularly beneficial for local providers as it enables potential consumers to get in touch directly to a company with one click). Yahoo! Search Marketing and Microsoft adCenter. pay-per-click programs proved to be primary money-makers[10] for search engines. Search engines developed business models to finance their services. in 2009 Yahoo! and Microsoft announced the intention to forge an alliance.

the easier it is for people to find your site. a consumer advocacy group with ties to Ralph Nader. It requires your pages containing those keywords people are looking for and ensure that they rank high enough in search engine rankings. and the issue of how search engines present advertising on their search result pages has been the target of a series of studies and reports[13] [14] [15] by Consumer Reports WebWatch. Such usage excludes the wider search marketing community that is engaged in other forms of SEM such as Search Engine Optimization and Search Retargeting. highlights. in response to a complaint from Commercial Alert. They range from simple traffic counters to tools that work with log files [18] and to more sophisticated tools that are based on page tagging (putting JavaScript or an image on a page to track actions). These tools can deliver conversion-related information. Most search engines include some form of link popularity in their ranking algorithms.[18] [19] [20] 1.[19] 2. Keyword research and analysis: (a) Make sure the site can be indexed in the search engines. Read a competitor's source code to look for hidden clues. Use the source code and Who Is tools to research legal issues. and (c) use those key phrases on the site in a way that will generate and convert traffic. (c) transaction-based tool: TeaLeaf RealiTea.[20] Useful tools include Who Is Source. There are three major tools used by EBSCO: (a) log file analyzing tool: WebTrends by NetiQ. Back end tools (including Web analytic tools and HTML validators): Web analytic tools can help you to understand what is happening to your website and measure your Web site's success. The followings are major tools measuring various aspects of saturation and link popularity: Link Popularity.Search engine marketing 220 Ethical questions Paid search advertising has not been without controversy. SEM has however nothing to do with link buying and focuses on organic SEO and PPC management. which formerly prohibited these tactics. Who Is tools: show you who owns and operates various Web sites. In 2009 Google changed their policy. ARIN. (b) tag-based analytic programs WebSideStory's Hitbox. 1. highlighting potential problems and many usability issues ensure your website meets W3C code standards.[17] Though the policy has been changed this continues to be a source of heated debate. The debate as to whether third parties should have the right to bid on their competitors' brand names has been underway for years. Major SEM Tools There are four categories of tools to help you optimize Web sites. At the end of February 2011 many started to see that Google has started to penalize companies that are buying links for the purpose of passing off the rank. and reports on slightly different aspects of your Web site. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) also issued a letter[16] in 2002 about the importance of disclosure of paid advertising on search engines. allowing 3rd parties to bid on branded terms as long as their landing page in fact provides information on the trademarked term. Top 10 Google Analysis. Generally. can provide valuable information relating to copyright and trademark issues. and Marketleap's Link Popularity and Search Engine Saturation. 1. Validators check the invisible parts of Web sites. Try to use more than one HTML validator or spider simulator because each tests. the more Web presence you have. (b) find the most relevant and popular key terms and phrases for the site and its products. Vested interests appear to use the expression SEM to mean exclusively Pay per click advertising to the extent that the wider advertising and marketing community have accepted this narrow definition. Web site saturation and popularity: show how much presence a Web site has on search engines through the number of pages of the site that are indexed on each search engine (saturation) and how many times the site is linked to by other sites (popularity). Another ethical controversy associated with search marketing has been the issue of trademark infringement. . Use Web analytics tools to find out more about your customers.

and search engines by understanding the strategies of marketing to attract business. Research on your target audience. AdWords is recognised as a web-based advertising utensil [4] since it adopts keywords which can deliver adverts explicitly to web users looking for information in respect to a certain product or service. and search engines. blogs. track and analyse your performance for better results. the use of search engines for accessing information has become vital to increase business opportunities. The assistance of AdWord canvass could contribute to the huge success in the growth of web traffic for a number of its consumer’s website.Search engine marketing 221 SEM plan Through trial and error you will be able to see how SEM drives highly targeted visitors to your online exhibitions. The following are the steps to a successful SEM plan:[21] 1. Get in the news such as Google News with RSS feeds. . 9. Install good tracking software.g. 8.[4] One of the most successful approaches to the strategy of this project was to focus on making sure that PPC advertising funds were prudently invested.[23] The use of SEM strategic tools for businesses such as tourism can attract potential consumers to view their products but it could also pose various challenges. Google Keyword Selector. Therefore search engines are adjusting and developing algorithms and the shifting criteria by which web pages are ranked sequentially to combat against search engine misuse and spamming. by as much as 250% in only nine months. Google Trends and Keyword Discovery. 7. 4. Flickr and Youtube). offering added value to consumers who endeavor to employ AdWords for promoting their products and services. Check your current ranking. The use of free utensils “Conversion tracking” and “Google Analytics” was deemed to be practical for presenting to clients the performance of their canvass from click to conversion. and video and picture sites(e.[23] To assist the combat of challenges. Examples of Best Practice A successful SEM project was undertaken by one of London’s top SEM companies involving AdWords. thus the payment of the service only applies if their advert has been clicked on. Build an initial list of important keywords that represent your current and most relevant content and potential content. businesses. Colonise the Web by publishing and circulating it in wiki. 6. Search engines were not important to some industries in the past but over the past years.[23] This could enhance the relationship amongst information searchers.[4] AdWords project has enabled SEM companies to train their clients on the utensil and delivers better performance to the canvass. the main objective for businesses applying SEM is to improve and maintain their ranking as high as possible on SERPs so that they can gain visibility. 3. This promotion has helped their business elaborate.[22] 10.[4] Another example of a successful SEM plan is the approach to capture the relationships amongst information searchers. 5.[23] These challenges could be the competition that companies face amongst their industry and other sources of information that could draw the attention of online consumers. SEM companies have embarked on AdWords projects as a way to publicize their SEM and SEO services. This project is highly practical for advertisers as the project hinges on cost-per-click (CPC) pricing. businesses. Pursue link building and partnerships. 2. and to supply the most relevant information to searchers. Optimise the website by improving your web design and architecture and web page content. SEM companies have described AdWords as a fine practical tool for increasing a consumer’s investment earnings on Internet advertising. Validate your keywords by testing and refining them with your keyword selector tools such as Yahoo Keyword Selector. Set your online goals and key performance indicators. Moreover.

About. Information Outlook. draws fire" (http:/ / news. . adwords. cfm). marketingterms. B. November 5. 2010. 2001. Search Engine Land. cfm). htm). . com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_7_9/ ai_n14889940/ ). [16] "Re: Complaint Requesting Investigation of Various Internet Search Engine Companies for Paid Placement or ([[Pay per click (http:/ / www. [17] "Update to U. or. html). Fesenmaier (June 7. php).com. Retrieved 2011-03-21. 2007. [3] "Search Engine Optimization" (http:/ / www. "Social Media Marketing" (http:/ / sbinfocanada. jhtml?_DARGS=/ hww/ results/ results_common. jhtml. Retrieved 2007-06-09.com. com/ 2006/ 03/ 14/ business/ media/ 14adco. searchenginewatch. news.. November 8. .com. news. New York Times.com. 2011). Bing Pan. 1998. . . 2001. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. [10] Jansen. Retrieved 2010-07-15. [21] Feeny. Information Outlook. Retrieved 2011-03-21. searchenginewatch. "14 Tips for Making the Most of Feeds" (http:/ / searchenginewatch.gov. ftc. Retrieved 2007-06-09. 2004. September 10. [9] "GoTo gambles with new name" (http:/ / news. Andrew (February 21.blogspot. blogspot. informationweek. edu/ faculty_pages/ jjansen/ academic/ pubs/ jansen_tweb_sponsored_links. June 9. Retrieved 2007-06-07. . pdf).com. . com/ news/ windows/ microsoft_news/ showArticle. . 2005. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_11_9/ ai_n15966835/ ?tag=content. [23] Zheng Xiang. . Retrieved 2010-03-05. com/ showPage. pdf).org. com/ images/ case-google. . March 3. [2] "The State of Search Engine Marketing 2006" (http:/ / searchengineland. ACM Transactions on the Web. [13] "False Oracles: Consumer Reaction to Learning the Truth About How Search Engines Work (Abstract)" (http:/ / www. [6] Elliott. html). html?page=2164351). consumerwebwatch. . html?ex=1299992400& en=6fcd30b948dd1312& ei=5088). Retrieved 2007-06-09. AccuraCast. [11] "Microsoft-Yahoo Deal Gets Green Light" (http:/ / www. [8] "GoTo Sells Positions" (http:/ / searchenginewatch.com. jhtml?articleID=223000099). consumerwebwatch. consumerwebwatch. February 18. com/ 2009/ 05/ update-to-us-ad-text-trademark-policy. .com. pdf) (PDF). com/ does-sem-seo-cpc-still-add-up-37297).col). org/ dynamic/ search-report-false-oracles-abstract. June 22. 2003. com/ showPage. com/ hww/ results/ external_link_maincontentframe. "Your website: greater visibility and return of investment through search engine marketing" (http:/ / vnweb. Retrieved 2007-06-09. com/ 3641916). hwwilsonweb. Retrieved 2011-04-22. "How search engine marketing tools can work for you. com/ 070208-095009. "More Agencies Investing in Marketing With a Click" (http:/ / www. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0FWE/ is_10_9/ ai_n15890934/ ?tag=content. . Terry Brainerd (July 2005). and Daniel R. (May 2007). ftc. . ad text trademark policy" (http:/ / adwords. com. com/ dictionary/ search_engine_optimization/ ). com/ index/ 929886653. . [22] Girdwood. first of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. February 8. Retrieved 2011-03-30. Retrieved 2007-06-09. [12] "Congratulations! You're A Search Engine Marketer!" (http:/ / searchenginewatch. Rob Law. 2009. 44). cfm). com/ 2100-1023-215491. informationweek. Retrieved 2007-06-09. "How search engine marketing tools can work for you: or. Daniel (2008). [19] Chadwick. Retrieved 2011-03-21. searching is really all about finding. "How search engine marketing tools can work for you: or searching is really all about finding. Retrieved 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2011-04-22. "Assessing the Visibility of Destination Marketing Organizations in Google: A Case Study of Convention and Visitor Bureau Websites in the United States" (http:/ / www.col1).S. third of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. Retrieved 2010-04-22. . accuracast. . [18] Chadwick.com. [20] Chadwick. 2006). Search Engine Watch. "The Comparative Effectiveness of Sponsored and Nonsponsored Links for Web E-commerce Queries" (http:/ / ist. Terry Brainerd (October 2005). org/ dynamic/ search-report-disclosure-abstract. about. J. nytimes. Retrieved 2011-03-21. searchengineland. May 14.com. html?page=2165971). . [4] "Google Adwords Case Study" (http:/ / www. 2007. marketingterms. searching is really all about finding. Retrieved 2007-06-09. shtm)])"].com. com/ od/ socialmedia/ g/ socmedmarketing. informaworld. consumerwebwatch. Information Outlook.org. . 1996. 2010). org/ dynamic/ search-report-disclosure-update-abstract. com. com/ GoTo+ gambles+ with+ new+ name/ 2100-1023_3-272795. consumerwebwatch.org. . Stuart (March 14. [7] "Engine sells results.Search engine marketing 222 References [1] "Does SEM = SEO + CPC Still Add Up?" (http:/ / searchengineland. . [15] "Still in Search of Disclosure: Re-evaluating How Search Engines Explain the Presence of Advertising in Search Results" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-03-21. Terry Brainerd (November 2005). 2002. Second of three articles" (http:/ / findarticles. . Retrieved 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2007-06-07. .com. June 21. [5] Susan Ward (2011). psu. html). consumerwebwatch. gov/ os/ closings/ staff/ commercialalertletter. Retrieved 2010-07-15. . June 30. [14] "Searching for Disclosure: How Search Engines Alert Consumers to the Presence of Advertising in Search Results" (http:/ / www.

and copywriting agencies that offer SEO copywriting as part of comprehensive writing and editing services. search engine designers today do not disclose the complex algorithmic processes of their search engines. scientific process. Together they will not only rewrite text but also alter the code to design a page that is most favored by search engines. The foremost goal of SEO copywriting is to produce succinct. SEO copywriters also strive for unique written content on the page. and the number of links to and from the page from other pages. the placement of the keywords. However. Other factors that determine relevance during a search are the page's Keyword Density. agencies and firms that specialize in SEO (including SEO copywriting). however. effectively persuasive text for a well-written web page. The text appearing at specific locations. while still producing readable and persuasive content. At its worst. While an obvious goal of SEO copywriting is to cause the business's or product's web page to rank highly in a search. gets special attention during SEO. distinguishing it from similar pages competing for placement in the search results. In spite of the insights of optimizing technicians.Search engine optimization copywriting 223 Search engine optimization copywriting Search engine optimization (SEO) copywriting is textual composition for web page marketing that emphasizes skillful manipulation of the page's wording to place it among the first results of a user's search list. Attempting to keep themselves competitive and defending against the composition strategies of so-called black hat SEOs. References . It is not a clear. Writing that "optimizes" a search but offers little useful information or only weak persuasion is frowned upon in the profession as ineffective. SEO copywriting requires finesse and repeated experimentation to assess how the team's page revisions will fare in a potential customer's search. However. most experts in the field would argue that it is of secondary priority. such as in the title tag and the Meta Tag of the page's code. SEO copywriters often work with "optimizers" who are more expert in the technical aspects of SEO. it becomes a costly resource inducing potential buyers to turn away from the site rather than generating sales. there are freelance copywriters who hire out their services solely for SEO. because search engines compare information found there with other pages to determine relevance. SEO copywriting is most often one of the various jobs of a copywriter.

Skyword’s SDM platform “enables writers to create content for partners from consumer to media brands …that is optimized for search and social media to drive more readers to that content. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 2011). portfolio. Search retargeting is similar to search engine marketing (SEM) ) except that the ads displayed are banner ads which do not appear on search engine results pages. com/ business-news/ 2011/ 03/ 08/ nfib-report-shows-small-business-more-inclined-to-hire-and-skyword-reflects-that-and-other-trends#ixzz1GK2yyE9j). boston. Magnetic and Simpli. 2010-06-30. imediaconnection. Portfolio.com. Search-Driven Media Search-Driven Media or SDM. 2010). . Boston.fi offer search retargeting capabilities. in various forms. Chango Inc. html).com.[1] Unlike site retargeting or site remarketing. search retargeting is designed to find new customers which have likely never been to a marketers website before. was created by Skyword. and presents a new approach to SEM[1] .com) . com/ business/ ticker/ 2010/ 12/ skyword_launche. asp).Search retargeting 224 Search retargeting Search retargeting is a form of behavioral retargeting employed by online marketers that target an audience based on the previous searches they conduct on other websites. Retrieved 2011-03-11.” [2] References [1] Globe Staff (December 20. [2] Kent Bernhard. "It’s Hiring Time" (http:/ / www. com/ content/ 27071.skyword. External links • Skyword Inc (http://www. Jr (March 8. iMedia Connection. References [1] "Hot companies for search retargeting" (http:/ / www. "Skyword launches search platform" (http:/ / www. . .

Cookies are the subject of controversy due to privacy issues.applied semantics (http://smartcontentconference.scribemedia.net/2001/swintro/) • IAB Seminar on Semantic and Behavioral Targeting (http://iab. eu/ scadplus/ leg/ en/ lvb/ l24120. An automated function loads advertisements onto the web page based on the text.html/) . a web page containing the word “jaguar” may generate ads about zoos and cars.org/2010/08/ targeting-reaching-the-right-audience-online-2/) • Smart content conference .e.Semantic advertising 225 Semantic advertising Semantic advertising applies semantic technologies to online advertising solutions. By comparison. Behavioral targeting uses information collected on an individual's web-browsing behavior. The Evolution of Online Advertising Advertising on the Internet has the potential to be finely narrowcast. For example. In fact. should be displayed.w3. However. itbusinessedge. searchenginejournal..com/agendafull. i. com/ blogs/ ssg/ ?p=366 http:/ / europa. Semantic analysis of a web page provides an understating of its overall meaning in the semantic approach. keywords can have various meanings. Semantic advertising increases the chance that the viewer will click-thru because only advertising relevant to what they are viewing. ojr. the United States and European governments have taken action towards restricting their use. and therefore their interests. contextual advertising technology bases web page advertising on a keyword scan of the text of a website or Internet search. specifically adjusted to the interests of the individual viewer. such as the pages they have visited or the searches they have made. htm External links • W3C Semantic Web Activity (http://www. org/ ojr/ stories/ 050706glaser/ http:/ / www.[3] [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. The function of semantic advertising technology is to semantically analyze every web page in order to properly understand and classify the meaning of a web page and accordingly ensure that the web page contains the most appropriate advertising. to select which advertisements to display to that individual. many platforms identify visitors by assigning a unique HTTP cookie that tracks the web pages they visit.org/2001/sw/) • The Semantic Web: An Introduction (http://infomesh. The very different nature of these contextual results means that someone’s advertising budget is not being spent wisely. com/ critical-flaws-in-googles-behavioral-targeting-puts-advertisers-at-risk/ 5898/ http:/ / www. mainstream techniques for identifying these interests—contextual advertising and behavioral targeting—are problematic[1] [2] . However. However.

The two methods of targeting of recent times have been behavioral targeting and contextual targeting.e. the user may see advertisements for golf related topics. a fruit. if the user is viewing a website relating to golf. Semantic targeting is also capable of identifying the sentiment of a webpage. Sentiment analysis can determine whether content is talking about a subject in a positive or negative light. The evolution of online advertising The targeting of advertising to specific micro segments is a fundamental requirement for an effective ad campaign. without having an understanding of the true context in which words occur. However. a mountain bike. derogatory or insensitive to the subject. The concept of semantic targeting utilises this capability to identify these concepts and the contexts in which they occur. seeking to identify keywords.[7] Because most words are polysemous. ensuring that their ads will only appear in the context that they request. For example. Behavioral targeting aggregates data based upon a user's viewing of pages from a website. have more than one meaning. where software can programmatically understand and reason how different elements of data are related. The cookie then reports the user's viewing behavior allowing for the identification of patterns of viewing behavior. If the page was being detrimental about a particular subject. Origins Semantic Targeting has originated from the developments arising from Semantic Web. the semantic targeting system could deter the placement of a related ad alongside the story. A semantic targeting system has to examine all the words before it can accurately identify the subject matter of the entire text and deliver an in context advertisement. enabling marketers to deliver highly targeted and specific ad campaigns to webpages. The selection of advertisements are served by automated systems based on the content displayed to the user.[8] For example. such systems are unable to identify the context of the entire page and therefore. The Semantic Web enables the representation of concepts expressed in human language to data in such a way that facilitates automatic processing. a telecommunications company. i.[3] [4] [5] [6] They are also unable to identify the sense or meaning of words. great concern is expressed about the treatment of the user's right to privacy amongst consumer groups and legislators. Generally this is facilitated by the placing of a cookie upon the user's PC. golf holidays etc. against which advertisers have bid to have their ad linked.[1] [2] Contextual advertising scans the content of webpages.Semantic targeting 226 Semantic targeting Semantic targeting is a technique enabling the delivery of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites and is used by online publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns. However. . such as golf equipment. It is now generally accepted that these forms have pitfalls for both advertiser and consumer. the word "orange" can be a color. How semantic targeting works Semantic targeting aims to match the specific context of content on page within a website to an available advertising campaign. leading to a misplacement of ads. instead of scanning a page for bided keywords. through an automated process. and countless other variants. where that website uses semantic targeting. If a match is made the ad is placed alongside the content. A key difference of semantic targeting to a contextual advertising system is that. through effective analysis of the language used on page. a semantic system examines all the words and identifies the senses of those words. Advertisers can locate their ads in given categories using an ontology (computer science) or taxonomy. it is possible to incorrectly assign an advertisement where there is no contextual link. a placement could be made against content that is inappropriate.

cnn. . Such systems can deter placement against such subjects as Adult/Erotica. Bad News and other such topics. html). Nudity. Retrieved 2008-10-10. org/ web/ 20080213195315/ http:/ / www. html). net/ index. [3] Galen Moore (December 20. . . com/ 2008/ POLITICS/ 07/ 01/ mccain. Skyword Skyword Inc provides a Search-Driven Media (SDM) platform[1] that is designed to enable brands to reach their customers via natural search and the social web through content written by experts. com/ 194/ steve-irwins-death-contextual-advertising-gone-bad). wsj. David Crystal & Sacha Carton on semantic targeting" (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-10-10. com/ c/ a/ Enterprise-Applications/ A-Battle-Is-Brewing-Over-Online-Behavioral-Advertising-Market/ ). isense. creates new brand" (http:/ / www. . etre. 2010[4] and was founded by Tom Gerace. [8] "Semantic Targeting" (http:/ / web. Retrieved 2008-10-10. etre. for example. e-consultancy. 2010). com/ 2008/ 09/ semantic-advertising-of-4-different-kinds. . "Q & A Prof.com. "Job Openings Fall in Tough Market" (http:/ / online. Boston Globe. and airline advertising alongside a story about an air disaster. 2008-12-20. "Skyword launches search platform" (http:/ / www. . [2] "FTC Staff Proposes Online Behavioral Advertising Privacy Principles" (http:/ / www.archive.com. Federal Trade Commission.com. 2008-07-01. [4] "Contextual advertising gone bad" (http:/ / www. com/ boston/ news/ 2010/ 12/ 20/ gather-inc-rebrands-as-skyword. "A Battle Is Brewing Over Online Behavioral Advertising" (http:/ / www. eweek. Boston Business Journal. External links • Skyword Inc (http://www. ads/ ).11. dowjones. Retrieved 2011-03-28. "Gather Inc. . php?id=68) on 2008-02-13.[3] The company officially launched on December 20. [7] Graham Charlton (2008-05-16).06. gov/ opa/ 2007/ 12/ principles. chiefmartec. Retrieved 2008-10-10.[9] 227 References [1] Renee Boucher Ferguson (2008-03-27). shtm). 2007. 2008. Mashable. [5] "When Contextual Advertising Goes Horribly Wrong" (http:/ / mashable. Wall Street Journal.com.19. 2010). [4] Globe Staff (December 20. archive. com/ business/ ticker/ 2010/ 12/ skyword_launche. bizjournals. net/ index. Dow Jones Financial Services. com/ 2008/ 06/ 19/ contextual-advertising/ ). iChief marketing technologist. 2010). isense. Retrieved 2010-12-20. fis. "Semantic advertising: 4 different kinds" (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ 2007/ 11/ contextual_advertising_gone_bad/ ). . com/ article/ SB10001424052748703791904576075702148687890.com) . . Retrieved 2008-10-10. com/ article.skyword. e-consultancy. E-week.02. com/ news-blog/ 365601/ q-a-prof-david-crystal-and-sacha-carton-on-semantic-targeting. Offensive language. isense. Retrieved 2011-03-04. Launches Search-Driven Media Platform" (https:/ / www. [9] Scott Brinker. "Gather Rebrands As Skyword. Shmula. . html). This can enable the blocking of an ad placed alongside content of a controversial nature. html#articleTabs=article). This would then avoid the potentially brand damaging occurrence of.Semantic targeting Other capabilities of a semantic targeting system include the availability of brand protection filtering. Retrieved 2010-10-20. Retrieved 2008-10-10. CNN. 2006-09-05. References [1] Sara Murray (January 11. [6] "McCain campaign pulls ads from some anti-Obama Web sites" (http:/ / www. Alcohol. boston. . . . php?id=68). aspx?ProductIDFromApplication=32& aid=DJFVW00020101221e6cm000um& r=Rss& s=DJFVW). [3] "Steve Irwin’s Death : Contextual Advertising Gone Bad" (http:/ / www. html). shmula. Retrieved 2008-10-10.com. [2] Dow Jones Staff (December 22.[2] Skyword’s customers include Procter & Gamble’s Pampers brand and impreMedia.net (copy on web. ftc. Retrieved 2010-12-20. (2008-09-13).org). 2011). Retrieved 2008-10-10.

Additionally. Social Media Optimization is often at times implemented to foster a [1] community of the associated site. One of the many other methods is search engine optimization or SEO. 5.Social media optimization 228 Social media optimization Social Media Optimization (or SMO or Social SEO) is the methodization of social media activity with the intent of attracting unique visitors to website content. employee engagement and turnover. including: RSS feeds. Bhargava's original five rules for conducting social media optimization are:[3] 1. brand building. video and photo sharing websites. product/service development. including: blogging. 2. Russian. Increasingly smart businesses are integrating social media participation as part of their knowledge management strategy (ie. recruiting. 3. Origins According to search engine expert Danny Sullivan[2] . and incorporating third-party community functionalities like images and videos (b) Promotional activities in social media aside from the content being promoted. There are two categories of SMO/Social SEO methods: (a) Social media features added to the content itself. SMO is one of many online methods of website optimization. primarily the focus on driving traffic from sources other than search engines. In a similar way the engagement with blogs achieves the same by sharing content through the use of RSS in the blogosphere and special blog search engines. Increase your linkability Make tagging and bookmarking easy Reward inbound links Help your content travel Encourage the mashup Get communities connected Several authors added new rules to the original post. Portuguese. commenting on other blogs. 6. business development and more). 5. but differs in several ways. 4. Dutch. though improved search ranking is also a benefit of successful SMO. Social Media Optimization is considered an integral part of an online reputation management (ORM) or Search Engine Reputation Management (SERM) strategy for organizations or individuals who care about their online presence. Four years after the initial post. 3. Social Media Optimization is in many ways connected as a technique to viral marketing where word of mouth is created not through friends or family but through the use of networking in social bookmarking. Today there are 16 rules. which were translated into French. Greek. is not limited to marketing and brand building. and posting status updates on social networking profiles Social Media Optimization is related to search engine marketing. participating in discussion groups. the term "social media optimization" was first used and described by Rohit Bhargava. social news and sharing buttons. user rating and polling tools. 2. Create shareable content Make sharing easy Reward engagement Proactively share content Encourage the mashup . Japanese. 4. Social Media Optimization (SMO). German. Italian.[4] 1. Hebrew and recently also in Thai. allowing for a healthy business to consumer relationship . Rohit Bhargava posted an updated set of five new rules. customer satisfaction and relations. Spanish.

Retrieved 2007-09-06. Retrieved 22 March 2011.com. . 2006). blogherald. com/ 2010/ 08/ 24/ how-big-is-social-media-gaming-how-about-56-million-strong/ ). socialnetworkingseo. as of June 2010. net/ 2010/ 10/ seo-is-dead-and-the-new-king-is- smo / ). .com. and Mafia Wars. com/ nielsenwire/ online_mobile/ what-americans-do-online-social-media-and-games-dominate-activity/ ). [3] Rohit Bhargava (August 10. This game design promotes social media interaction as a means to attaining higher value in Empire Avenue market rankings.[9] [10] [11] Nielsen Media Research estimates that. digitalquarters. Retrieved 13 December 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011. com/ why-social-media-gaming-is-big-business-for-your-business/ ). . com/ weblog/ 2006/ 08/ 5_rules_of_soci. [4] Rohit Bhargava (August 10. [5] Ben Elowitz (October 27. Retrieved 22 March 2011. html). 2010). .Social media optimization Around the same time.searchenginewatch. venturebeat. social networks and online games account for about 1/3 of all online activity by Americans.typepad. "Social Media Optimization: It's Like SEO. typepad. . rohitbhargava.typepad. socialmediaexaminer. com/ company/ empire-avenue). 2006). . "The 5 NEW Rules of Social Media Optimization (SMO)" (http:/ / www. com/ apps/ 2010/ 07/ 26/ empire-avenue-the-stockmarket-where-youre-for-sale-invites/ ).[12] References [1] "Face Book SEO" (http:/ / www. nielsen. [2] Danny Sullivan (August 29.[5] 229 Social media gaming Social media gaming is online gaming activity performed through social media sites with followers/friends and online gaming activity that promotes social media interaction. com/ 2010/ 02/ 24/ empire-avenue-creates-a-stock-market-to-measure-your-social-influence/ ). [6] "Why Social Media Gaming Is Big Business for Your Business" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-11-27. In these games a player's social network is exploited to recruit additional players and allies. [7] "Social Media Gaming Infographic" (http:/ / www. rohitbhargava. FrontierVille. blog. Retrieved 22 March 2011. .net. Retrieved 22 March 2011. . [8] "How Big Is Social Media Gaming? How About 56 Million Strong" (http:/ / www.[6] [7] [8] An example of the latter is Empire Avenue. [12] "What Americans Do Online: Social Media And Games Dominate Activity" (http:/ / blog. [10] "Empire Avenue" (http:/ / www. searchenginewatch. com/ blog/ 060829-150053). [11] "Empire Avenue creates a stock market to measure your social influence" (http:/ / games. dreamgrow. . com/ social-media-gaming-infographic/ ). crunchbase. com/ 2010/ 08/ the-5-new-rules-of-social-media-optimization-smo. And The New King Is SMO" (http:/ / digitalquarters. [9] "Empire Avenue.com. . In Empire Avenue a player's worth is linked to their social media influence and activity as well as that of the other players they have invested virtual currency in. . entrepreneur and blogger Ben Elowitz proposed as SMO as a broader set of online marketing strategies for all published websites in an era where social platforms are ubiquitous. Retrieved 2010-11-24. 2010). "5 Rules of Social Media Optimization (SMO)" (http:/ / rohitbhargava. rohitbhargava. For Social Sites" (http:/ / blog. html). Retrieved 22 March 2011. Retrieved 2007-09-06. . "SEO Is Dead. . the stockmarket where YOU’RE for sale" (http:/ / thenextweb. Retrieved 22 March 2011. a virtual stock exchange where players buy and sell shares of each other's social network worth. Examples of the former include FarmVille. com/ facebook-seo/ ).

" In other words. Retrieved 25 April 2009. first community. ie/ knowledgecentre/ read?id=cd2b127b-12a5-4238-86dc-e3f91c2549e5). It is related to relationship marketing and Seth Godin's idea of permission marketing. try to convert that "mind share" into "wallet share.Double loop marketing 230 Double loop marketing Double Loop Marketing[1] [2] is based upon the notion that in today's information-rich world. . . smeal. Christian Sarkar. A company must first develop "mind share” by building a site that offers genuinely-useful information and advice to consumers. Retrieved 25 April 2009. in the second loop of customer interaction. . Double Loop Marketing is an idea of online-marketing consultant. [2] "Penn State Smeal College of Business" (http:/ / isbm. References [1] "ADWORLD Knowledge Center" (http:/ / www. marketing must of necessity be people and knowledge-driven rather than product driven. Only after such a site achieves credibility among its community of readers can the company. This is the first loop of the firm's interaction with customers. psu. then commerce. edu/ library/ webinars/ double-loop-marketing/ ). adworld.

claims he coined the usage of the term in this sense. In contrast to the above. issuing press releases in the hope they get picked up by the trade press. Knowledge of customer needs drives future company offerings." a pejorative term for this type of marketing is "interruption marketing. not customers themselves. respectively). In this sense." • An older pair of definitions[5] are: • Inbound marketing is market research. In contrast to "permission marketing. and product or service capability. flow into the company. • Antonym for this usage: Traditional marketing (outbound marketing) is a marketing strategy that focuses on finding customers by building brand awareness through advertising and promotion. This sense is related to the term product management (product ownership in Scrum). • Antonym for this usage: Outbound marketing is marketing communications. This sense is related to relationship marketing and Seth Godin's idea of permission marketing. cofounder and CEO of HubSpot. or paying commissioned sales people.) in contrast to outbound marketing where they used to have to "buy. beg. information about finished product capability flows out to prospective customers who have a need for it. or bug their way in" (via paid advertisements. This sense is related to . • One pair of definitions[1] [2] are: • Inbound marketing is a marketing strategy that focuses on getting found by customers. pieces of information about customer needs and interests.Inbound marketing 231 Inbound marketing Marketing Key concepts Product • Pricing Distribution • Service • Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Marketing ethics Marketing effectiveness Market research Market segmentation Marketing strategy Marketing management Market dominance Promotional content Advertising • Branding • Underwriting Direct marketing • Personal Sales Product placement • Publicity Sales promotion • Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing • Premiums • Prizes Promotional media Printing • Publication Broadcasting • Out-of-home Internet marketing • Point of sale Promotional merchandise Digital marketing • In-game In-store demonstration Word-of-mouth marketing Brand Ambassador • Drip Marketing Inbound Marketing and its opposite Outbound Marketing have various meanings depending on the context. Peter Drucker believed[6] this to be the quintessence of marketing. David Meerman Scott recommends[3] that marketers "earn their way in" (via publishing helpful information on a blog etc. [4] Brian Halligan.

Xanga [21] • Videos: YouTube [22]. etc. direct mail/e-mail. LinkedIn. Inbound marketing involves getting found by potential customers through search (opposite of Outbound Marketing). inbound marketing content is created and published using the medium of choice (blog. Outbound marketing. LiveJournal [17]. white paper. etc. white papers. coined the term inbound marketing. spam filtering. HubSpot [10] Types of inbound marketing Inbound marketing mediums are broken down into three categories: • Content (Blogs. etc.Inbound marketing the term product marketing. Metacafe [24] • White Papers: WhitePaperSource [25]. TypePad [19]. is a response to the recent change in consumer behavior. etc. and social media sites) is now much lower than going to a seminar at the Marriott or flying to a trade show in Las Vegas. In outbound marketing. etc. also referred to as “old marketing” or traditional marketing. commercials. videos.[8] Inbound marketing. Vox [20] .Brian Halligan. Search Engine Optimization increases the rank of the content and makes it more accessible.) • SEO (Search Engine Optimization and keyword analysis) • Social media (Twitter [11].[7] . cold calls.) The most successful inbound marketing campaigns contain all three key components[9] First. The shift from outbound to inbound marketing has led to new mediums of outreach to the public. People are more in control of what information they receive and how. Second. Content (Blogs. Facebook [13]. targets a broad audience using print ads. 232 Inbound vs. or “new marketing” and modern marketing. OpenDiary [18]. TiVo. including caller ID.) continue to spread the content. Halligan describes why outbound marketing techniques are becoming less effective: “Your average human today is inundated with over 2000 outbound marketing interruptions per day and is figuring out more and more creative ways to block them out.). Third. telemarketing/cold calls. and Sirius satellite radio. the company is in control. the cost of coordination around learning about something new or shopping for something new using the internet (search engines. eBook. in the newer of the two senses. Using inbound marketing. NetLibrary • Blogs: Blogger [14]. Dailymotion [23]. etc. video. Linked In [12]. WordPress [15]. white papers. social media media(Twitter [11]. CEO & Founder of HubSpot. Rather than interrupting people to get their attention with emails. eBooks. television ads. blogs. inbound marketing relies on the principle that visitors find and come to you. ExpressionEngine [16].) Content is the substance of an inbound marketing campaign. the customer is in control. outbound marketing Brian Halligan.”[9] . (outbound marketing). The Direct Marketing Association [26] (DMA) • EBooks: eBooks. Second. This form of inbound marketing refers to information or tools that attract potential customers to the business or site[9] Some examples of content-publishing sites for inbound marketing purposes include: . etc. Facebook. videos. eBooks.

0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content. In response. CEO of HubSpot and initiator of “inbound marketing”. the Dow Jones Industrial Average depicts businesses shifting marketing dollars into search engine advertising.[32] This study analyzed data from businesses about what types of marketing programs deliver the best return on investment.[29] In 2008. Yahoo!. Social media (Twitter. conducted a 2010 study titled “The State of Inbound Marketing” [31]. Benefits of inbound marketing In an economic recession. SEO allows companies to be found more. inbound marketing is a more efficient way of allocating money than outbound marketing[29] Brian Halligan. In January 2010.[27] SEO considers how search engines work and what people are searching for. Inbound marketing costs less than outbound marketing. AOL Search.T. . LinkedIn. Cost effectiveness In 2001. etc. In inbound marketing. Facebook. etc. Search engine optimization is the practice of building up a web site to maximize its ranking in search engines results.I. The cost effectiveness of the shift from outbound to inbound marketing can be measured using a Return on Investment (ROI). The complete report of “Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software” [34][35] can be viewed online. Most content of inbound marketing is created and generated on web sites that are free of charge. class of 2010. businesses again began shifting money out of expensive paid search advertising into inbound marketing. HubSpot’s major finding was that inbound marketing focused businesses have a 60% lower cost per lead[33] – less money is utilized to produce more results. Ask. Melissa DiBella. divides the benefits of inbound marketing into two main categories: cost effectiveness and better targeting.”[28] In inbound marketing. another economic recession began. another analysis of inbound marketing was conducted by an M. rent booths at trade shows. an inbound marketing agency. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2. conducted independent research into the return on investment of companies using HubSpot software for inbound marketing purposes. etc. or pay-per-click advertising. such as Twitter [30] or [13] Facebook. Sloan School of Management graduate student. Most consumers begin their buying process by using a search engine (Google. HubSpot.). Outbound marketing becomes expensive since companies use money to buy advertisements or e-mail lists. Bing. in response to an economic recession. social media channels increase the impact of the content.) The term “social media” does not have one universal definition.Inbound marketing 233 SEO (Search Engine Optimization & keyword analysis) Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a web site in search engines.

000. and television and radio advertisements[36] Chris Hughes. com/ Outbound-vs-Inbound-Marketing/ ) HubSpot. Anderson. News Releases.40760. com/ growthguy/ 2010/ 03/ marketing-is-fun-again-brian-halligan-inbound-marketing-chapter-2-best-video. Inc. marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy." (http:/ / www.000 Facebook followers.Chris Hughes. companies using outbound marketing reach out to all consumers. pp. Barack Obama connected with voters using the following inbound marketing techniques:[36] Organizing for America blog.Inbound marketing 234 Better targeting Outbound marketing techniques target a broad audience. com/ brian). We tried to open as many direct channels of communication as possible—using e-mail.com [37] and Facebook. . Inbound Marketing. Shah. Instead of identifying a target audience. ISBN 0470547812.: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Online Video. 2007). InboundMarketing. (1974). org/ mrktng/ mrktng. . davidmeermanscott. Retrieved 2009. Best Video” (http:/ / verneharnish.00. Hoboken. Clinton. ISBN 0-06-011092-9. Barack Obama Facebook. BarackObamadotcom YouTube On June 4. and Blogs. html).[38] Obama used his Facebook account to create a “register to vote” function. Inbound Marketing Chapter 2. co-founder of Facebook. [2] Halligan. statistics show only 1-3% of all targeted consumers respond[8] – 97% of all marketing efforts go to waste. [8] HubSpot. . The New Rules of Marketing and PR: How to Use Social Media. Blogs. Brian Halligan. com [11] http:/ / www. typepad. Obama was a first-term senator from Illinois running against the well-known and funded New York State senator. [4] "Brian Halligan. Brian. But the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. Joseph.[36] Notes [1] Vittal. Carter. Obama had less funding and could not compete with Clinton’s e-mails. 864. ISBN 0470499311.org. "There will always. (2010). John Wiley & Sons Inc. Social Media. Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google. com [12] http:/ / linkedin." [7] Harnish. one can assume. Brian (2010). htm).. com/ Research/ Document/ Excerpt/ 0. Management: Tasks. was hired as Obama’s Internet Strategist. forrester. be need for some selling. online networks—and then equip them with the tools to spread the campaign’s message using network technology such as My. Responsibilities. "Outbound vs.). hubspot.A Commonly Misunderstood Term" (http:/ / managementhelp. Barack Obama used inbound marketing to beat Hillary Clinton in the democratic primary[36] Up until the 2008 election. Senator Barack Obama became the democratic nominee for president of the United States.April 19. hubspot. htm) (2 ed. "Marketing Is Fun Again. All that should be needed then is to make the product or service available. @BarackObama Twitter. (2010). [10] http:/ / hubspot. Suresh. aspx) HubSpot. 2008. As a result. Peter F. getting 3.”[36] . [3] David Meerman Scott. N. .BarackObama. "Inbound Marketing vs. Barack Obama LinkedIn. Verne (2010)." (http:/ / blog. html). twitter. com/ books. During the 2008 presidential race. (http:/ / www. text messages. Inbound marketing only targets individuals who self-qualify themselves[29] by demonstrating an interest in your content. direct mail campaigns. Jennifer (January 9. [6] Drucker. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Ideally. [5] McNamara.J. Dharmesh (2009). Elana. com . telemarketing.[36] Hughes explains how the Obama campaign employed inbound marketing: “The aim of our online campaign was to help individuals understand the values of Barack Obama and of our campaign and then to make it as easy as possible for them to actively engage with the campaign’s work. and Viral Marketing to Reach Buyers Directly. "Marketing . New York. Successes in inbound marketing In the 2008 presidential campaign. Retrieved May 7. NY: Harper & Row. HubSpot CEO & Co-Founder" (http:/ / inboundmarketing. Outbound Marketing. Practices. 2009. The Growth Guy.7211. [9] Halligan. "How Technology Enables Inbound Marketing: Evaluate Interaction Management To Optimize Real-Time Recommendations" (http:/ / www. Initially. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 2989/ Inbound-Marketing-vs-Outbound-Marketing..

org/ wiki/ Search_engine_optimization [28] http:/ / en. Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google. com [24] http:/ / www. com [20] http:/ / vox. com [23] http:/ / www.com" (http:/ / www. [30] http:/ / twitter. com/ Default. com/ 2008/ POLITICS/ 06/ 03/ election. com/ blog/ tabid/ 6307/ bid/ 4416/ Inbound-Marketing-the-Next-Phase-of-Marketing-on-the-Web. [34] http:/ / www. com [31] http:/ / www." (http:/ / www. hubspot. com [18] http:/ / opendiary." (http:/ / www. BarackObama. Inc. and Dharmesh Shah (2010). facebook. wikipedia. com [26] http:/ / the-dma. aspx) HubSpot Blog. Print. 2010. hubspot. org [27] http:/ / en. Melissa (2010). metacafe. com [15] http:/ / wordpress. pdf) HubSpot. hubspot. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ resellers/ reports/ state_of_inbound_marketing. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs%2f2010+ ROI+ Report. pdf) HubSpot.com. [36] Halligan. org/ wiki/ Social_media [29] Burnes. (2010). com [25] http:/ / whitepapersource. com [38] "Obama: I Will Be the Democratic Nominee . com [17] http:/ / livejournal. com [22] http:/ / www. Cable News Network. html) (2010). [33] HubSpot." HubSpot. cnn. com [19] http:/ / typepad. [37] http:/ / My. wikipedia. Social Media. com [21] http:/ / xanga. democrats/ index. pdf [35] DiBella.CNN. com/ Portals/ 53/ docs/ resellers/ reports/ state_of_inbound_marketing. dailymotion. Inc." (http:/ / blog. aspx?app=LeadgenDownload& shortpath=docs/ 2010+ ROI+ Report. "The State of Inbound Marketing 2010. (2010). Brian. "Inbound Marketing & the Next Phase of Marketing on the Web. blogger. hubspot. hubspot.CNN. "Return on Investment from Inbound Marketing through Implementing HubSpot Software. "The State of Inbound Marketing 2010. com [14] http:/ / www. youtube.Inbound marketing [13] http:/ / www. com [16] http:/ / expressionengine. and Blogs. com/ Default. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. Rick (2008). 235 . pdf [32] HubSpot.

it has emerged as a serious idea only with the advent of the Internet. the marginal cost of contacting an additional customer is nearly zero and it is easy to deceive the consumer. Another form of permission marketing is in-stream advertising. forged e-mail headers). See Anderson School of Management project Promotions Channel: Permission Marketing [4] Permission marketing and the internet Permission marketing offers the promise of improving targeting by helping consumers interface with marketers most likely to provide relevant promotional messages. branded player skins. For example. This type of marketing involves the showing of an advertisement prior to and/or during an on-line video stream. Another motivation for permission marketing on the Web has been the failure of the direct mail approach of sending unsolicited promotional messages. they are not affected by the measurement problems of banner advertising. standard fifteen to sixty second video advertisements. Due to these problems. Marketers obtain permission before advancing to the next step in the purchasing process.g. which implies a request for information which can include that of a commercial nature. weakening of brand reputation and a slowing of the entire network. They feel that marketing should be done on a one-to-one basis rather than using broad aggregated concepts like market segment or target market. CMGI) claim customer response rates in the region of 5-20% and since most use e-mail. The undesirable opposite of permission marketing is interruption marketing. Since the ads arrive in the mailbox of the individual.Permission marketing 236 Permission marketing Permission marketing is a term popularized by Seth Godin[1] (but found earlier [2] ) used in marketing in general and e-marketing specifically. (2) the Internet has enabled rapid feedback mechanisms due to instantaneous two-way communication.g. To illustrate. This type of marketing allows advertisers to reach a more specific audience that may be more receptive to their product or service. under The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003. consider someone who searches for "buy shoes. In addition. they ask permission to send email newsletters to prospective customers. marketers incur similar costs if they send out 1 million or 10 million e-mails. survey ads. This came into force on the 11 December 2003.com.now part of the business incubator. an opt-in is required for email marketing. it is likely that more attention would be paid to them in comparison to banners.[3] It is mostly used by online marketers. This is one technique used by marketers that have a personal marketing orientation. as well as certain direct marketers who send a catalog in response to a request. This type of advertising allows originators of the video content to show their video in the highest quality versus other videos posted without consent. and even sponsored blocks of time. Among the different types of in-stream advertising are. The two reasons for this are: (1) on the Internet. In the United Kingdom. permission marketing is seen as a ." Online shoe stores have the searchers' permission to make an offer that solves their shoe problem. Moreover. an email or catalog request) or implicit permission (e. This form of marketing requires that the prospective customer has either given explicit permission for the marketer to send their promotional message (e. Many permission-marketing firms (e. this violates their privacy rights. Even though permission marketing can be implemented in any direct medium. Spammers can easily obtain new e-mail addresses from websites and Usenet groups using software programs that “troll” the Internet. querying a search engine). Using it would lead to an excessive message volume for consumers.the cost of obtaining a new e-mail address is minimal. the cost of marketer-to-consumer communication is low. yes mail.g. Senders of spam realize three things. Marketers feel that this is a more efficient use of their resources because the offers are only sent to people that are actually interested in the product. This can be either via an online email opt-in form or by using search engines. Hence. Individuals provide their addresses at these places for other purposes and hence. branded slates. notably email marketers and search marketers. there are now programs that enable the large-scale use of deceptive practices (e. Spam cannot be a legitimate form of marketing communication. The prime example of this is unsolicited commercial e-mail or “Spam”.g.

. podcasts. December 2005. David Meerman (2007). Retrieved May 5.Permission marketing feasible alternative for Internet marketing communication... The most common use of this method is a Buy Now button as used on marketplace sites such as eBay. e. Hyperlink While a hyperlink can be used to send a user anywhere on the internet a transactional link is specifically designed to direct the user to completing a sale. html) Transactional Link A transactional link is a type of hyperlink link used in ecommerce to initiate a purchase.g.if you're asking for someone's e-mail address . ISBN 0-684-85636-0.sethgodin. N. .J. E-mail Online payment systems such as PayPal allows users to send money to one another using an E-mail address. A leading Internet business periodical recently noted that.. wordpress. 162. Inc. Permission Marketing: turning strangers into friends. com/ view/ Entry/ 141214#eid30892945) [3] Scott. p. and friends into customers. Permission marketing is now a large-scale activity on the Internet.edu/vol6/issue2/krishnamurthy. In addition. [2] "permission marketing. com References • "Seth Godin: Agent of Change" (http://www.. Oxford University Press.: J.com/sg/).com (http:/ / oed. everybody is doing it”. 237 Notes [1] Godin. blogs. Now. The new rules of marketing and PR how to use news releases. Third Edition.indiana." [4] http:/ / www. viral marketing and online media to reach your buyers directly. permission marketing has been incorporated in leading texts on marketing management. Accessed 29 March 2011 OED. – official site • A Comprehensive Analysis of Permission Marketing (http://jcmc. Kotler’s millennium edition. When a user clicks on the link they are directed to an online merchant.. ". ISBN 978-0-470-11345-5. In affiliate marketing the transactional link would be an affiliate link from an Affiliate network. The affiliate link tells the network which affiliate sent the traffic and if a purchase is made. New York: Simon & Schuster. Hoboken. On a website with product this is typically an add to shopping cart or checkout link. Wiley & Sons. the affiliate receives a commission. mgmt487. you must provide something equally valuable in return. “permission marketing was once a niche business. 2009." OED Online. Seth (1999).

8th December 2006. theregister. The Independent. independent. google. [6] Google Trends: unboxing (http:/ / www. html). youtube.[5] According to Google Trends. 2010. usually in a pop-up or pop-under advertisement. com/ trends?q=unboxing& ctab=0& geo=all& date=all& sort=0). co. youtube. searches for the term "unboxing" began to surface in the final quarter of 2006. [5] YouTube . com/ results?search_category=28& search_query=opening& search_type=videos& suggested_categories=28. 2006.[3] There are. accessed on May 6. 2010. [3] YouTube . uploaded on June 12. youtube. com/ results?search_type=videos& search_query=unboxing& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse& suggested_categories=28.unpacking (http:/ / www. The term has been labeled a new form of "geek porn.20& uni=3).opening (Science & Technology category) (http:/ / www. Unicast advertisement A Unicast advertisement is an Internet advertisement that consists of a video played like a TV commercial. older videos on the site that show the same activity but using other names such as "opening"[4] or "unpacking". uk/ 2006/ 12/ 08/ unboxing/ ). com/ web-advertising7. com/ results?search_type=videos& search_query=unpacking& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse& suggested_categories=28. howstuffworks.[6] References [1] Unboxing: The new geek porn (http:/ / www."[1] [2] The oldest video on YouTube using the name "unboxing" is the opening of a boxed Nokia E61 smartphone. The whole process is captured on video and later uploaded to the Internet. [4] YouTube . [2] Unboxing: the new geek porn (http:/ / www. however. accessed on May 5.20& uni=3& search_sort=video_date_uploaded_reverse). The Register. uk/ life-style/ gadgets-and-tech/ features/ unboxing-the-new-geek-porn-1333955. except they allow the viewer to click on the ad in order to go to the company's website.Unboxing 238 Unboxing Unboxing is the unpacking of new products.unboxing (http:/ / www. 2010. or get more information.20& uni=3). accessed on May 5. especially hi-tech consumer products. co. Unicast ads have the same influence and power as a regular TV commercial. 14 January 2009. 2010. accessed on May 6.[1] References [1] "How Web Advertising Works" HowStuffWorks http:/ / computer. htm .

This allowed for the utilization of the server log file for collection of metadata to deliver a metric called the Online Impression that in traditional media meant an impression on a viewer. LLC and introduced on Jun 23. With the advent of the Internet. US patent No. LLC. A viewable Impression is measured when the Ad Content is loaded. CPM for print media (when audience data is available): \frac{CPM = Cost of 1 ad × 1000}{Number of prospects reached} . The following are current accepted means of calculating CPM for different mediums: 1. LLC by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in December 2007. was accredited by Media Rating Council [1] on March. with the promise of even more accuracy due to the interactive nature of the Internet eliminating the need for industry accepted approximates such as Nielsen ratings for television and print is based on the circulation a publication has.Viewable Impression (CPMV) 239 Viewable Impression (CPMV) The Viewable Impression is metric used to buy web advertising based on CPMV Cost Per Thousand Views. rendered and at least 60% of the ad surface area is within the visible area of a viewer's browser window on an in focus web page for at least one second. 2008 as the beta network CityAds and later in 2009 as the RealVu advertising and media technology platform. 9 2010 and developed by Rich Media Worldwide. Viewable impression technology was developed by Rich Media Worldwide. CPM for the Internet: CPM = Cost per ad requested × 1000 However the assumption that an ad requested from an ad server is always visible when the viewer is on the requested page was wrong because of a few technical reasons and the fact that the web page is usually longer than the height of a computer screen. This method is based on FSDC technology developed in 2001 and used commercially for the first time on the Terra Lycos portal. and a new CPM equation was created for the internet: 3. 2. called RealVu .313. Nikolai Mentchoukov and Alan Edwards. The first ad server to deliver the metric. A viewable Impression is a new generation metric that was emerged as an alternative to the online impression metric delivered by first ad servers developed in the mid-1990s. The value of an ad traditionally was based upon an estimate of how many different people saw or heard the ad. The core of viewable impression methodology reports client (viewer) side activity by using a direct and closed-loop authentication channel between an ad unit file and a server database. 7. Overview With the development of the first ad servers in 1995–1996 the assumption was that a requested ad was always available to the viewer of a requested web page. This type of advertising metric was meant to resemble Television and print advertising methods for speculating the cost of an advertisement. Eventually it became apparent that a large number of ad impressions measured for CPM pricing . Click-through is enabled at the moment of the "viewable impression".590 for this technique was issued to Rich Media Club. which count by the analysis of http requests records in a server log and cannot provide information on events fired by a viewer’s browser thus being unable to confirm whether ad content was actually visible to a viewer. CPM for broadcast media: CPM = Cost of 1 unit of time (commercial) × 1000 Number of prospects reached by a given program or time period. The company was founded by Brad Krassner. through log file server collecting data it was believed that ad views could be tracked with unprecedented accuracy and “number of different prospects reached” was removed from the equation.

When 60%. or CPT basis. (or other pre-defined area) of the ad content on a web page is within the visible area of the viewer's browser window for one second. on a viewer's in focus web page. tabbed away. browser and ad unit (ad space) embedded in the webpage content. browser type and version and a list of other ads that were previously rendered on the page to prevent duplication of ads on the content page.Cost per sale dCPM .[2] Having no reliable way of measuring actual viewership. scrolling position and web page focus. is used to measure the effectiveness of advertising inventory sold (by the publisher) via a CPC.[3] Once the ad content is loaded and rendered the ad unit sends a message directly to the server’s database and an "Ad Rendered" is reported. CPA.Cost per lead (lead usually meaning a free registration) CPS . The Correlator code continues to monitor the web page focus. With the arrival of the Viewable Impression model – Cost per Thousand Views has emerged. . employing a "Correlator" (a linear correlation control. These JavaScript tags are placed on a web page and when rendered. Partially to avoid the limitations of server side impression methodology many models emerged that were based on direct response: • • • • • CPC . Since the publisher has no control or input on the demand and ad creative quality of the advertised product. ultimately. Viewable Impression Architecture including the viewer’s operating system. Viewable Impression Architecture The Viewable Impression methodology relies on a basic JavaScript tags for placement on the web pages or in the third-party ad servers that distribute ads on the website(s) content. This model may eventually become the standard CPM as it measured at the same point (of the view) as television or print.Cost per click Through CPL . 240 CMPV (Cost per Thousand Views) Until 2010 it was very common for large publishers to charge for most of their advertising inventory on a CPM or CPT basis. sales. minimized. The Correlator can collect additional non-private information from the viewer’s browser. The Correlator continues to monitor the ad space for each individual ad on the web page and its relation to the browser window dimensions.Viewable Impression (CPMV) actually never rendered in the visible area of a viewer’s browser screen. effective cost per mille (eCPM). and the Correlator begins communicating with the web page. giving away significant inventory to ads that are not clicked." an "ad request” (server log impression) is recorded. a message is sent via Correlator to the server database and a "Viewable Impression" is reported. quoted in terms of CPMV. or opened another browser or application window bringing the web page monitored out of focus or portion of the browser window with the ad space outside of the monitor screen. A related term.) The ad space is then "marked up. hits the visible area of the browser window a request is sent to an ad content server to deliver an advertisement. considering if the viewer has scrolled the ad space in or out of the visible area of the browser window.Dynamic CPM CPA – Cost per Action The Viewable Impression enables online advertising effectiveness to be analyzed based on stopping power. web publishers lose control of their yield. branding ability and level of engagement – the three key elements that drive purchase consideration and. Once any portion of the ad unit (definable). web publishers are vulnerable to payment methods that are based on performance-based advertising such as cost per click and cost per transaction.

9. The viewer opens a page in a mobile device that is not configured to show the ad content. and the scroll position at the time the viewable impression was recorded. proxy servers. Current assessments suggests improvement with viewable impression methodology). (Some ad blockers block the ad call. 11. More study should be done in this area). 10. The viewer switches focus to another browser or application. harvesters. 8. The viewer minimizes the browser. 5. or placing the curser on the browser address bar or other browser button) . The viewer has a particular type of ad blocker installed that could disrupt ad serving but still be initiate the count of an impression.Viewable Impression (CPMV) location of ad unit(s) and the visible area of the browser window. web-directories. unobstructed by any other application window. 7. 3. 30 limitations of impression methodology which the Viewable Impression overcomes Reasons why an impression may not appear to a viewer overcome: 1. The ad loads. . spambots or . opening or switching to another [4] browser window tab. 2. The viewer opens another browser tab. The requests made by spiders. • Data for each view includes the viewers display resolution. the view time of the ad is collected by the client (viewer) side engine considering whether the web page the ad resides on is "In focus. • This data results in a visual representation of the viewer's environment of each viewable impression reported. link checkers. 4. The viewer does not have the proper plug-in to render interactive media installed. (This isbad botssue may be addressed in part already by a standard ad server following IAB guidelines but more study needs to done to assess whether all non human technology is identified by the current approaches and whether viewable impression technology can improve on those measures. crawlers. but in an area of the web page that is not within the viewer's browser window dimensions and scrolling position. The viewer clicks to another web page before the ad loads and renders. download managers. • Also. web filtering tools. some do not. Web page focus can be affected by: minimizing the browser. 6." (“In-focus” is defined as when a Web page is the primary window open on a user's screen. opening or switching to another browser window or application. The viewer moves the browser window so the ad is outside the display screen area. Viewable Impression Implementation • Then the position of the ad is calculated as is the area of the ad that shown on the screen. the viewer's browser window dimensions. the dimensions of the web page the ad appeared on. The viewer opens another browser window or another application. and communicates to the server side database logging the “Time in View” for the ads being delivered on the webpage. 241 Viewable Impression Implementation • The complete viewer's environment is gathered by a client side technology for every viewable impression reported and transmitted back to a server side database. the location of the ad on the page.

3rd is not. 3 Ads are in rotation). 3rd is in view. Rotation 2.g. filtered. and in 3rd rotation the 2nd ad is again not in view. 29. frequency and all other measurements. All parties involved see different impressions reports that are impossible to reconcile. The web publisher places multiple ad displays in layers over each other. including viewer's display resolution. (The delivery of the same ads on the same web page. 21. 30. Redundant ad delivery. 25. The viewer then sees one ad. 13. 26. significant delays exist before reporting data is available. No reported log or visual representation of each unique viewer's environment. and an ad resides on the tab that is not in focus. If a click-through is necessary to measure advertising. making click rate misleading. Impressions that are not visible are included in click through rate. The viewer has multiple home pages set so when the browser is opened. No reported log or visual representation of each web page URL an ad is delivered to in addition to the web page dimensions and placement location of the ad on the web page. 27. Ad rotation visibility lottery. but ad 2 was never visible. 24. and browser window area and scrolling position. 28. if the viewer minimizes the browser. All ads are reported as impressions. Reach and Frequency measured for ads that are not visible. Reporting latency. An ad or beacon delivered in an invisible width="0" height="0" Iframe. and transferred to a database for reporting.) 242 . 23. or opens another application over the video while the advertisement is playing or moves the browser window so the video is outside the display screen area. The request was made by an (invisible to the viewer) web page re-direct. adding complete branding messages and contact information in a display ad is prohibitive because then a click through to a website is not necessary. An ad that is not visible did not reach anyone. 16. 2nd not. (e. Display of complete branding messages and contact information is prohibitive. 17. Mutilated (http poisoning) packets Impression fraud [5] Limitations related to data analysis and distribution flow with impression methodology overcome: 20. 19. 18. 1st in view. reach. CPM value dilution because of an unlimited supply of inventory. In the case of pre-roll video and video advertising. tabs away from. making reach and frequency measurements meaningless. two pages open in two tabs. Not knowing which ads in rotation were in view for each ad selection means certain ads may never be visible making all the statistic data meaningless.Viewable Impression (CPMV) 12. No data reported for the view time of each individual viewable impression. Because server log files must be batched. The web publisher places an image or shape on a layer overlapping an ad. but impressions are reported for all layered ads. 2nd is not. Reasons why an impression may not appear to a viewer associated with fraud overcome: 15. 22. For rotation 1 the 1st is in view.

org/ ) Adage: Why Print Advertising Isn't Working (http:/ / adage. MediaPost "How Ad Industry Might Base Impressions On Truth Vs.htm) 3. Marketwire CityAds. marketwire. marketingvox. com/publications/?fa=Articles. mediaratingcouncil.Viewable Impression (CPMV) 243 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Media Rating Council (http:/ / www. pdf) RealVu Description of Methodology (http:/ / www. realvu. org/ index. com/ 2009/ 11/ 02/ this-could-change-everything/) 5.net Enables Advertisers to Accurately Track and Quantify Online Ad Results (http:/ / www. marketwire. Fiction" (http:/ / www. htm) . mediapost. com/ press-release/ Online-Advertising-Purchasing-Problem-Solved-CityAdsnet-Enables-Advertisers-Accurately-871637. pdf) Impression fraud (http:/ / www. eMedia Vitals "Death of the Page death-page-view-how-about-rise-sponsorship) (http:/ / emediavitals. com/ blog/ 17/ 7. owasp. marketwire.net Challenges Standard Online Ad Revenue Model (http:/ / www. com/ mediaworks/ article?article_id=145281) RealVu Description of Methodology (http:/ / www. net/ dom/ RealVu_DOM. Marketwire Online Advertising Purchasing Problem Solved: CityAds. by David Cohen “This Could Change Everything” (http:/ / umwwblog. php/ Man-in-the-middle_attack) External links 1. org/ Accredited Services.htm) 2.showArticle&art_aid=132819) 8. mediaratingcouncil. net/ dom/ RealVu_DOM.htm) 4. com/ press-release/CityAdsnet-Challenges-Standard-Online-Ad-Revenue-Model-871636. realvu. com/ press-release/ RealVu-Revolutionizes-Internet-Advertising-Measurement-With-the-Viewable-Impression-1271884. Media Rating Council "Accredited Services" (http:/ / www. MarketingVox "Tuesday's tuesdays-toolset-watch-5-047089/) Toolset Watch" View" (http:/ / www. UM Blog. com/ 6. Marketwire RealVu Revolutionizes Internet Advertising Measurement With The Viewable Impression (http:/ / www.

makebutton. MediaWiki sites often have a "Powered by Mediawiki" button on the bottom right corner of the page). jpac. com/ buttons/ http:/ / www. 11 May 2007 Steal These Buttons [4]. Button graphics are typically 88×31 pixels in size. Make your own free web buttons and banners with online tool. button graphics. php http:/ / gtmcknight. pacom. programs that are recommended to view the site.com [5]. [3] lifehacker. The buttons are linked to the advertised sites. 80x15 pixels buttons online generator. or that the site passes World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) HTML validation. 80x15. com http:/ / www. smaller 80×15 pixels buttons have become very popular in the blogosphere. com/ . References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.com [2]. Web button with push-button functionality: example on the website of JPAC which links originally to [1].com: Create your own web buttons . External links • • • • Makebutton. web badges or stickers are pictures in some World Wide Web pages which are typically used to advertise programs that were used to create or host the site (for example.Web button 244 Web button Web buttons. but recently. php?page=sitereport_list& size=100& ind=5 http:/ / www. com/ software/ site-tools/ create-your-own-web-buttons-259650. lifehacker. mil/ index. a collection of over 3700 buttons since 2003 80x15. These were first popularized by Netscape and Microsoft during the browser wars.

. began their operations in Russia in 2002. Advertisers may access Yandex.com [2] Yandex. Yandex.Direct 245 Yandex. Yandex. The significant majority of said ads are placed through Yandex. Most of Yandex revenues are generated from text-based ads. .yandex.000 in the first quarter of 2010.000 in the full year 2009. compared with 92. Direct processes millions of auctions every day.Direct is an automated.[4] The service operates in four countries: Russia. com/ [3] "Form F1 REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 YANDEX N.Direct display ads on Yandex search engine results pages and at participant sites of Yandex ad network. References [1] Яндекс.Yandex. Its rivals.000 advertisers in the first quarter of 2011. The service is the largest of its kind in Russia.Direct Yandex. Yandex. Yandex. 2001 [1] Operating system Cross-platform (web-based application) Type Website Online advertising direct.Direct" (http:/ / direct. 2011. yandex. Retrieved May 24. SEC. In addition to targeting ads on the basis of user queries and website content.000 in the full year 2010 and 131. xml) [2] http:/ / direct.Direct through interfaces in Russian. Ukrainian and English. yandex.Direct platform. ru/ news/ press_releases/ 2001/ 07-31_00. [4] "Yandex. gov/ Archives/ edgar/ data/ 1513845/ 000104746911004187/ a2203514zf-1. 180.Direct provides advertisers with a Metrica tool to appraise site audience quality and measure conversion ratio for keyword advertising. Ukraine. ads can be targeted on the basis of users’ demographics as well as behavioral patterns.Direct was launched in 2001. Direct provides two kinds of interface to work with: so called Professional and Easy. Retrieved May 24. htm). characteristics and locations. Begun and Google AdWords.Direct Developer(s) Initial release Yandex July 31. The latter is oriented for novice advertisers. Belarus and Kazakhstan. auction-based system for placement of text-based advertising in Russia.Direct served ads for more than 127. Since 2007.реклама без посредников (http:/ / company.V" (http:/ / sec. . Yandex. yandex. com/ ).Директ .[3] According to Yandex. 2011.

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Content farm. Search retargeting. Unica NetTracker. Revenue sharing. Ad rotation. Double loop marketing. PostRank. Usage data. Dreaming in Mono. Unique user. Google Analytics. VisitLab. Direct This book explains in-depth the real drivers and workings of Web Analytics. Unboxing. One-time offer. Pay for placement. Piwik. Social media optimization. Path analysis (computing). Lyris HQ. AT Internet. org. Google Website Optimizer. Keyword optimization. Permission marketing. Golden Triangle (Internet Marketing). collection. ClickTale. JICWEBS. Avinash Kaushik. Article marketing. Kampyle (Software). Keyword Services Platform. Adam Ginsberg. Site Meter. analysis. analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. Conversion funnel. Digital creative agency. Viewable Impression (CPMV). Web log analysis software. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Sales letter. Resource Interactive. Inbound marketing. Unicast advertisement. Kaspid. Omniture. Webtrends. Urchin Software Corporation. Guided selling. Pay per play. Click analytics. Transactional Link. Microsoft adCenter. JESS3. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. Clickstream. covering: Web analytics. CrawlTrack. Quality Score. Digital marketing engineer. time and resources investment decisions by enabling you to compare your understanding of Web Analytics with the objectivity of experienced professionals. Referral marketing. Image search optimization. Here you will find the most up-to-date information. Ad text optimization. TraceMyIP. Affiliate marketing. Sawmill (software). StatCounter. It reduces the risk of your technology. AWStats. RSS tracking. LivePerson. Impression (online media). Link bidding. Long Tail. Post-click marketing. with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Web Analytics right away. Emetrics Summit. This book is your ultimate resource for Web Analytics. Session replay. Anametrix. Landing page optimization. Yandex. Internet presence management. . Mobile web analytics. HubSpot. Search engine optimization copywriting. Bounce rate. Unique visitor. GroupSpaces. MyThings. Web button. Private label rights. In-text advertising. Digital agency. Web traffic. Online presence management. Paid inclusion. Woopra. Cost per time. Web audience measurement. AdSense. Article video marketing. Microsoft pubCenter. Urchin (software). Hitbox. Mint (software). Unica NetInsight. Blitz Campaign. Get Into Bed With Google. Klout. Pay per click. Rand Schulman. Attorney-client matching. In easy to read chapters. Data pimping. Display advertising. Visit filter. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print advertising campaigns. background and everything you need to know. WebSideStory. Contextual advertising. Microsoft adCenter Analytics. Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Personalized retargeting. Online lead generation. Semantic targeting. Internet marketing. Search-Driven Media.Web analytics is the measurement. Micro content. Dominate Your Market With Twitter. Interactive advertising. Search engine optimization. Semantic advertising. Multivariate landing page optimization. Win–loss analytics. Direct digital marketing. Email marketing. Skyword. List of web analytics software. Usage analysis. HitDynamics. Attitudinal analytics. Criteo. Search engine marketing. Web banner. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research. Landing page.

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