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Improve Your IELTS Writing Skills(2)

Improve Your IELTS Writing Skills(2)

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IMPROVE YOUR IELTS

Sam McCarter
Norman Whitby
~
MACMILLAN

Introductio n
page 4
Unit 1
page 6
Unit2
page 14
Unit3
page 22
Unit4
page 30
Unit5
page 38
Unit 6
page 46
Unit7
page 54
UnitS
page 62
Unit9
page 70
Unit 10
page 78
Contents
TOp ic
Change and
consequences
The importance
of the past
Machines, cycles,
and processes
Education
Youth
Culture
Arts and sciences
Nature
Health
Individual and
society
Sample answers
page 6
Key
page 96
••• • •••••
• ••
Task 1
Describing trends
Related verbs and nouns
Underst anding data
Comparing information
Adverbs in comparisons
Comparing and contrasti ng
The passive
Sequencing
General and spedfic
statements
Comparing information
Describing proportions
Describing changes
Describing locations
Concluding statement.
Concession ( 1 )
Adverbs
Using actveJ: bs to eva lu at e
data
Avoiding irrelevance
taking predictions
Factual accuracy
Varying vocabulary
Checking pelling
Word order
Linking using wi th
Task 1 revision
Ta..,k Z
Understanding questions
Expressing solutions
Lin king ph rases
Us ing trigger words
Using itltheylthislthese
Planning essays
Devel ping ideas
Using which to organize
information
Expressi ng result and purpose
Avoiding ov rgenerajizati on
Developing reasons
Developing an d j ustifying
opinions
Writing introduct ions
Expressing advantag sand
disadvantage
Advantage and disadvantage
va abulary
Concession (2)
DiSCUSSing other people's opinion
Hypolh e izing
Article
Wri tin g conclusions
Organizing words
Verb-subject agreement
Paragraph struClure
Relevant and irrelevanr
information
Task 2 revision
• 3
• ••
•••••
•• •
• •••
••••
••••
4 ••
In trod-uction
• •
What is Improve your IEL TS Writing Skills?
Improve YOllr fELTS Writing Skills is a complete preparation course for the Academic
Wr iting paper o( the International Engli sh Language Te" ting System. Through
targeted practice, it develops skills and language to help you achieve a higher JELTS
score in the Academic Writing paper.
How can I use this book?
You can use Improve YOllr lELTS Writil1g Skills as a book fo r tudying on your own or in
a class.
If you arc studying on your own, f mprove YOllr f ELTS Wri tillg Skills is designed to guide
au step"by"step through the activities. This book is also completely elf-contained:
a clear and accessible key is provided so that you can easily check you r answ r as
you work through the book. in addition, there is a sample answer to acc mpanyeach
Task 1 and Task 2 question.
If you are studying as part of a class, your teacher will direct you on how to use each
activity. Some activities can be treated a discussions, in which case they can be a
useful opportunity to _hare ideas and techniques with other learners.
How is Improve your IEL TS Writing Skills orga n ized?
J[ consists of ten units based aroun d topics wbich occur commonly in the real test .
Each unit consists of three sections:
Task I: exercises and examples to de velop skills and language for Ta k 1 questi ons.
Ta sk 2: exerdses and examples to develop skills and language for Task 2 questions.
Practice test: a complete Academic Writing paper based on the unit topiC to practi se
the skills learned.
Each Task 1 and Task 2 section is subdivided furthe r into skills se ti ons. These focus
n spedfic areas of relevance to each task.
In addit ion, there are echniqlles boxes throughout the book These rei mor e k.ey
points on how to approach Academi c Writing tasks.
How will Improve your JELTS Writing SkiJJs improve my
score?
By developing skills
The skills secti ons form a detailed syllabus of essential IELTS wriling skills . For
example, key elements of Task 1 preparat ion, su ch as Describing trends and COlI/paril1g
information, are fully covered. Similarly, Task 2 skills, such as Expressing sO/II/iom and
Dnelopil19 ideas are dealt with in detail.
By developing language
Each unit also contains a resour e of useful phrases and vocabular y to II e in each
wri ting task. Over the ourse of Irnprol'eyollr fELTS Writing Skills, you will encounter
a wide rang of ideas (0 ensure thaI you are not lost for words when you get to the
real test. These include concepts such as organjzjng word, trigger words, and linking
phrases, which all contribute to an appropriate academic writing style.
BV developing test technique
The Tedlllique boxes contain shari tips which can easily be memorized and used
as reminders in the real test. These include quick and easy advice about planning,
under tanding questions, and how t o use eUectively the language you have learned.
Introdllctioll

How is the IELTS Academic Writing paper organized?
The academic wri ting omponent of the IELTS lasts one hour. 111 the test, there are
two task of di fferent le ngth. both of which 'ou must all' wer.
What does each task consist of?
In Task I. you will hav to write at least 150 words to describe some data or a
diagram. Data will normally be presented in the form of a graph, a bar or pie chan.
a tabl e. or a ombination of these. A diagram will normall y (elate [Q a process, the
worki ngs [ an object. or changes in map over time. You are always expe ted to
summarize the information by describing the main features. makin J comparison
" .... here relevan t.
In Task 2. you will have to writ e at least 250 words on a topic. Y 1.1 wil l be presented
wilh an opinion, an argument . r a problem, and you will be expected to respond in
son e way. For example. in 'our re pons . you may be asked LO:
xpr s an opinion .
give views about two differem opinions and give your own opinion.
discuss advantages and di sadvantage .
give a solution to a problem by sugges ti ng meas ures.
discuss ca uses of a problem and suggest sol utions.
You are ahvays expe ted to give reasons and include any relevant examples from
your own knowledge and experience.
How will I be assessed?
In both tasks ou will be Clssessed on your ability to expre s yourself clearly an d
accurately in English.
In Task 1. you r an wer is assessed according to your ability to write abou t d ta in an
organized wa y and compare infoID1ation where it is relevant to do so. You. hould
write about the mai n features of the data an a ld rel evant d rail where n e essary.
In Task 2, your answer i assessed a cording to your abili ty to wri in a logical
manner as you give a solution 10 a problem, present andjuslify an opinion, compare
and contrast evict nce and opinions, or evaluate and challenge ideas or arguments.
How much time should I spend on each task?
You are ad ised to spend 20 minutes on Task l.
You are advised to spend 40 minut s on Task .
Even though Task 2 carrie more marks, you should always do Task 1 firs t. This
is because it is shorter, and psychologicCl lly it fee ls better if you ha ve comple ted
on e task.
• 5


II
II
UN IT
1
6 ••••
Change and conseqLlences
Unit aims
Task t
Descnl:lIng trends
Related verbs and nouns
Understanding data
T a s ~ 2
Understandmg questIOns
ExpreSSing soluttons
Linking phrases
USing trigger wards
Task 1 Describing trends
1 The gTaphs relate to sales of media technolog . .
Which graph a- h do au think shows sales for each
item in the photos 1-4?
2 Match each grapb (a-h) with the most appr p riate
description below (1- 10).
]
Sales of auelio cassettes fell steaelily . .......... ~ ......
2 iPo sales rose gradually . ..................
3 Plasma TV sales fluctuated wildly, but the trend
was upward . ..................
4 Sales of video cassettes n uctuated wildly, and the
tTend was downward ..... ....... _ .. ... _
5 Total digital camera sales dropped slightly.
.... ... - ..........
6 Sa es of audio cassettes fell and then levelled off.
..................
7 The sales of MP3-players rose gradually and then
climbed sharply . ..... .... .... _ ....
B Purchases of video cassett e recorders d lined
dramatically . ......... ,' .......
9 Sales of games consoles decreased and then
levelled off ...................
10 CD sales dropped suddenJy ............ .......
3 Underline the verbs in 2 used to describe trend
Example
I Sales of audio cassettes kU steadily.
4 The verbs in 2 are modified by adverb such as
steadily. Find the adverbs and decide wheth r they
mean slow or fast changes. Complete the lists below.
Slow .. ~ ~ ~ ! ~ ~ . ,
Fas!

II
V
iii
-
II
. ~
iii
m
D
~
m
.---------------
iii
~
Technique
• Include a variety of
• structures In your
• writing. Use both
• verb + adverb a 1d
• adjective + noun
• •
• structures In '{our
Task 1 answer.
• Express nouns as
The . of or as TWO
• nouns


UNIT 1 Charlge alld COli eqllell"s
••• • •
Related verbs and nouns
5 containing verb phrQs es such as j eJl steadily call often be re\-\' J.iLLen
using the correct form of there islare and a related noun. Read the examples.
Then rewri te sentences a-j below.
6
Examples
Th consumption of chocolate fell steadily. (verb + adverb)
There was a steady fall in the consumption of chocolate . (there was a + adjective +
noun )
There has been a dramatic rise in the producri oD of films . (there has been a +
adjeCtive + noun)
Th production of film has risell dramaticalry. (verb + adverb)
a Spice expons fr om Afri ca fl uctuated wil dly over the period.
There were ........................................ ................................. .. ..................................... .
b The development of new products fell gradually.
Ther was ...... ............. ..... .......................................................................................... .
c There has been a noticeable decrease in investmen l.
Research ......................... ............... ........... ........ ... .. .................................................. ..
d The purchases of ti.cket dropped significantly last month.
There ............................................................................................................ ..
e On the Internet, the illu rober of sites rose significantly.
There wa .................................................................................................................. ..
There was a su. dden decrease in th e sale of mangos.
The sale .... ...... ........................................................................................................... .
g At the theme park. there "vere very slight fluctuations in the number of
visitors.
The number ................................................................ ............................................... .
h There was a gradual decline in sugar impons.
Sugar .......................................................................................................................... .
The quality of food in supermarkers has tncreased slowly .
There h as ................................................................................................ .......... ......... .
The number of air travellers fluctuated remarkably.
There ........ .. ................ ................................. .. ........................................ ..................... .
Phrases such as the consumplion oj chocolate can often be rewritten as just two
nouns. Read the examples. Then find and revyTit t' olh J examples in 5.
Examples
The consumptioll oj chaco/ate can become Chocolate cOllsumption.
The production offt/lns can become Fillll production. (not Films production).
••••• 7
Technique
To you read
the graph. write the
• Ilames nt tile t.afes
at the end of each

Model text
Understanding data
7 Read the graph and the Task 1 quesli.on. Wh l was the in me in dollar for:
a The Tea Room in January?
$160,000
..... .. ......... . .. ..... .....
b Internet Express in Jul y?
c Wi-fi Cafe in November?
d are Co I in D eember?
e The Tea Room i n February?
Task 1
Y01/ should spend about 20 111 in lit es 011 this task.
The graph sholt·,\, I lJe income of faLl r cafes
i/l Ne w York over lasl year.
Sutnmal'iZl! the informalion by selectil)D
and reporliJ.ID the maill f eatt/res, and
make compllri ons where relevallt.
Write at least 150 words. __ The TeB Room
-+- Internel Express
--- WI ·II Ca fe
-- Cafe Cool
Changing trends in cafe income
.200 -.-------------
180 +-----------+_
160
140 -l--'rl'---1.---I.------.---I--

;3 100 -+-:..:--- -------c
"'
g 80



o
J F M A M J J A SON D
8 Answer t hese questions about rhe graph.
a What do the lett ers , F, M, etc along th b llom of the graph mean?
b What do s OOOs mean .
e What P Ite m an you s 'C?
d What comparisons can you make?
9 Read the model text and decide wherher each missing phras
noun, or an adverb.
Example
1 adverb
me graph providef, informa1ion about the
inc.ome of four over the la5t
increase to $120,000, furthermore, the
inc.ome for both Internet £,y.pre5s and the
10 March options
a-g with gaps
i
ear
There are two baf,ic. general trendf,:
downwar and upward. As regards the
fir5t, the earning5 for The Tea \Zoom,
down over the falling I ... ... .. .. .. from
alm05l earning5 a month tO jU5t
under $50,000 in December,
B-t contrast, the inc.ome for ihc other thre.e
, ak5 went up b'j vat"(ing degrees, There
"las :2. ., ... ....... in Gafe c.ool' (') 5ale5 over
the ten month5, followed b'j a sudden
8 ••••
Wi-fi Gafe'J ............ in Duember. The
former ey. perienc.e.d 4 .... ... ..... to June, but
after Ihat, inc.ome rose S .. .. ..... ... ending
the at $1'30,000.
UKe\o ise, the trend for Wi-fi waf, upward,
Between Janua'1 to earnings
I. .... ........ from $')0,000 to nead'j $100,000
and I .. .......... to around $lqO,ooo.
It if, noticeable that the inc..ome for The
i ea \Zoom i5 lowel' in tne winter montho
than for the. olne.r tnree. c.afes.
1- 7 in Ibe model
text.
a I adily
b then rocketed
e doubled
d significant 11'
e also ended the
year lip
a steady fall
"
il ris '
"
u r ~ r T 1 Cill7.llge mId cOllSeqllellCl!s

Task 2 Understanding questions
1 Task 2 questions cOlltdin a general subject and often in cl ude a spe jfic
organizing word to help you organize your t: ssay. In each group a-d below,
'o.vhich organil'Z ing word has a di fferent meani ng fx JJ1 th e lher two?
a ad\ anlages dr awbacks benefits
b measures st eps reasons
c ause eHecls consequences
d disadvantages drawbacks solutions
2 Cmnpkt ~ e,lCh Task 2 question below v-'" liih organil.ing words 1t! n!)] the b ox.
You may use each item more than nce.
agree or disagree advantages
solutions measures
disadvantages
benefits
causes
a What are the ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 . .. of learning skills jn the mod rn vvodd?
b Any attempts to preserve the natural worl d will alvva is h inder economi c
developmenL. The benefit will howev r far outweigh th e
.................. . Do you .................. ")
c What are the .................. and .................. of laking a eal" 0[[ b tween school
a nd univcrsit y?
d Student s should be trained on how to ope wit h hange in the modern
world. How far do you .................. ?
e Volunteer work wit h disadvantaged groups like underpr ivileged children is
[he best way for you ng people to learn about th e real world. ' '''hat are the
.................. of such work ?
Every day, animals are becoming extinct throughout the world. What do
you think the .................. of this are? What ..... ... .......... can you uggest.
g Ov rcrowding in large ci ties h as always been a problem, but with
popula tions a ro und the world a out to double, the social problems are
certain to multiply. What ............ can you suggest to control th e problems .
3 How many p ans are [here in each quest ion in 2? For example, (a) bas one
p art. If there are two or th ree p arts, how are they related?
• •• 9
-----......
Technique

Identlf the type 01 •
que lion For cause/ -
-
10 •
Expressing solutions
4 Change is more rapid in the modem world than it was in th e pasl. umber
each category belov 1- 5 accord'ing to how rapi dly each is changing in your
opinion (1 = most rapid; 5 = least rapid). Tltink of an example ofrapid
h ange for each category.
Work Technology Travel Communication Health
5 Look at the Task 2 quest ion below and answer the question
Task2
Jou should spend about 40 minutes 011 this task.
Write about the following topic.
/.ore lind. /}l ore people claim ti m" H l O " ~ ' ' ' ' ' 1 1\" rk patterns a re a SOlI/'ce of s l r ess.
What do YOII think are the causes of this? Can you sllggest some possible
SOIIi/iolls'?
Give reasons for your anS'lver and inc/ude any relevant examplf!s from your own
knowledge or experienCe.
a Which part of the question states a problem?
b Which t wO words in the que lion are important for the organization of your
answer?
6 Read the
conversati on
bel ' een rw o
students d iscussing
the problem of stress
at work. w hich p ar t
of the question in 5
are they answering?
What solut ions
and result s do they
suggest?
7 This paragraph
. suggests a solution
to [be Task 2
que llon in 5 .
Complete each gap
with the phrases in
a-f for p r Selliing
sol utions, examples,
and res ult s,
a A further step is to
b for example
Shen:
Tina:
Shen:
Ti na:
Shen:
Tina:
Shan:
Ti na:
How do you t hink people can deal with t heir
stressful lives, especially at w ork?
Firstly, I think employers should encou rage
workers to rel ax.
How?
Well. i n some companies, gym facilities or
massage therapi es are available.
Massage?
Yes. If you help your employees to rel ax, th is
improves their effi ciency and production.
Are t here other solutions?
Of course. Employees could be trai ned i n
how to plan t heir ti me more effectively.
One w ay is to stop people taking work
home. And then the workpl ace will become
a lot happier.
1 .. .. .. ...... for employers to encourage workers to relax .
2 ....... .. " . , in some companies, gym facilities or
massage therapies are available. 3 .' .......... , this
improves their effiCiency and production. 4 .. .. .. . .. . .. train
employees in how to plan their time more effectively,
5 ............ , by stopping people taking work home.
6 ............ , the workplace will become a lot hapPier.
d As a result
I think the most obvious
solution is
e By doing this
For instance
UNIT 1 (/lId coIIseqllellCe!
&I
8 There axe several ways to express sol utjons. Should is used for SIl' ong
suggestions; could is used for possible sugge (i ons. Other phrases can also be
used to express solutions. Read the example [rom 6 and 7 on page 10. Then
rewri te the sent ences in a- f.
Examples
Employers should eJ/courage workers to relax.
[ think the most obvious solution is/or employers to ncouTage workers [Q relax.
Employees could be [rai/led in how to plan their Lime more effectively.
A further st ep is to train employees in h ow [Q plan Ih eir li me more dfe [i vely.
a 1 think the most obvious solution is to encourage people to exercise more.
PeopleshouJd ......................................... , ............................. , ... ,.,. , ....... , .... , .......... , ... .
b The obvious answer is to reduce the number 0 working hours ,
The number of working hours ...... , ....... ....... , ............ , ................................. , .......... .
c The government could provide each employee with their own computer.
One possibility is ....... , .... ... .................................................................... ... ... ...... .... .... .
d One option is to persuade parents to spen d more time with [heir children.
Parents could .............. , ............................................ ..... ... ........... , .. .. .............. ,
e A good idea is to restri ct the number of ars coming into iries,
The number of cars coming into cities .... " . ....... ..... .. ,' .......................................... .
f The go emmenl should build more sky rapers to solve the problem.
A good idea is .................................................................. ... " ... ..................... .
9 Which problems ('[modern life do (he SentenceS in S rein Ill?
overcrowding traffic congestion obesity
lack of discipline stress technology
10 Use·the following phrases (0 add re ults to the Solul ions ab ove. Use YOUT
own ideas and words.
Example
a I think the most obvious solution is to encourage people to exerdse more,
By doing this, they would lose weight and would feel better generally.
As a result, This would enable/help them to This would lead to
This means that they would By doing this, Consequently,

••
11
12
•• •
Linking phrases
11 Linking phrases mark the ftloctions 01 other sent ent: es i1n d phrases, as
solutjons, results, and examples. Match each linl(ing ph rase ' '',I tch th e cor Cl
function.
addi rion a nd
condition
exarnp1e
purpose
reason
resu It
Usin g trigger words
8ftt! conseq uentJy,
and so since
because
therefore, if
as a result.
for instance,
in order to
fu rth crmore,
for example,
12 Read the paragraph from a Task 2 essay on overcrowded cities and find the
UnkLn g phr ases which match these functions.
Reason Result Example Solution
Man\' citie in the worl d have now b ecome very
because people are migrating in from the
counrrysid e in search of work. As a result , fa cilities like
water supplies and public transport cannot cope with
the demands from increased numbers of people, and
so they are under severe strain. The obviol1s answer is
to encourage the creation of jobs outside the cities. For
example) we could encourage certai n business s to set
up branch es in rur al areas.
13 phrases can be used to tr.i gger ideas becau e th ey mark fun ctio n s.
When you plan a Task 2 answer, write down some trigger words to h elp you
devd QP YOUT basic idea. Use [11e trigger w o rds below (a develop th e ideas
given.
A
lfpeople migrale 10 cilies, they become ................ ..
And so ................ ..
And as a rest ill .... .. ........... .
A good idea would be to ................. .
By doing this, ................ ..
B
People spend 100 /lllIch time watching TV.
For example, ................ ..
Con equemly, .. .. , ....... .. .. ..
If .................. , then .............. .. . .
This \vill lead to ........ .. ...... . .
C
The development of tourism of Tell creates resentment among local people because
For example, ......... .. ...... .
The obvious ans wer is to ...... _._ .. .... __
Furthermore, ....... _ .. ....... .
••

• ••
UNIT 1 Cil(l11ge and cOlIst:quenus
••
• •••••
Practice Test 1
Task 1
You should spend aboUl 20 minutes on this task.
The 9rtJph belDH' shows il1 percentage terms tlu changing patterns of domestic aeee s
to Jil(){il'm tecJl11vlo9.\J il1 homes in the UK
SIUJllII{//";ze flu "information by selectil1g and rep(wtillij tI,e IJ1l1in /catllres, anrl make
comparisons where relevant.
Write alleasl 150 words.
Percentages
100 -.--------------------------------------------------------------,
CD pl ayer

60
40
20
o
1996/97
Task 2
-------
I
1998199
You should spend about 40 II/inures on this Jask.
Write about the followil1g topic:
MObile phone
.... .
---
....... ".:.-.--------
- ----- ------
I
2000/01 2002/03
People naturally resist making changes;n their ..
What kind of problems can this calise? What solutioJls can you suggest?
Give reasons for your allswer and include any relevanr examples from your OHI1"1 knowledge
or experimce.
Write at least 250 words.
• •• 13



-




Ballpoint pen,
Laszlo Biro
Tin can patented
by Peter Durand
Technique


In the test. circle

and number
I-
Important de1ails •

in pencil.

14 •••••
The importance of the past
.. ... ..
- - - . - ~ -
Unit aims
Task 1
Comparing information
Adverbs in comparisons
Comparing and contrasting
Task 2
Using it/they/ this/these
Planning essays
Developing Ideas
• •
••••• ••••••
Task 1 Comparing information
The pictures and text show some inventions and who invented them.
Answer the question s.
First mercury thermometer,
Gabriel Fahrenhei t
Safety pin,
Walter Hunt
a Which is the oldes t invention?
b Which is the most recem invention?
Paper money in China
c Which do you think are the most and least important inventions?
d What other important historical inventions are not induded here?
2 The chan shows {he results of a survey about the most important inventi ons
in th e l ast 300 years . Answer [he questions.
Most important inventi ons in t he last 300 years
I. Male 0 Female 1
a What is the most
striking feature of
the chart?
b What voting
patterns can you
see for females?
c What voting
patterns can yo
see for males?
3 You can use a range of structures to make compadsons. Read these exampJe
describing the chart in 2. Then complete s,entences a-j with sui table
information based on the chart.
Examples
More males than females chose the TV. (more + noun + than)
Fewer females than males chose t h e TV. (fewer + noun + than)
The TV was more popular among males than females. (morel less + adjective +
than)
The most popular form of conununication was the Internet. (the most/least +
adjective)
UNIT 2 TIre importGI1Ct! of the pasr
••
a More fe males ....................... ...... males chose [h e bicycle.
b The bicycle was more ........................ .... than any other invention.
c The car was .... ......................... popular among females than males.
d ... ................... .. ..... invention among both sexes was the TV.
e ................ ....... .. .... women than men voted for the mobile phone .
.......................... .. . invention among both sexes was the bicycle.
g ......... ..... ............... males than females picked the radio.
h The computeT was ............................. for women than for men.
More people seleded the bicycle ............................. any other invention.
The TV was ........................ .. ... popular than any other invention.
4 You can also compare information by using a ma/ly ... as when numbers are
very dose, or by using I/ot as many .. _ as. Read the examp les. Then compare
male and female ani( udes (0 cars and mobil e phones.
Examples
As many females as males chose the computer.
Not as many females as males chose tb radi o.
5 Make comparative sentences based on notes a-g below and the chart in 2.
Use the passive or active form of the verb in italics.
Examples
femalesJmalesl sel ect fthe bicycle More females than male sf/eeted the bicycle.
males/femalesl seleetfthe bicycle Fewer males thall f males selected the bicycle.
the bicyclelchooselfemales/males The bicycle was chosen by more females than
males.
a males/femaleslehooselthe car
b women/men/ selwlthe mobile phone
c the Intemetlehooselmales/females
d (emalesJ males! pick/ the radio
e malesl£emaleslpicklthe radio
the comput erl chooselfemales/males
g the bicyclelselect/males/females
••• • 15
16 •••••
Adverbs in comparisons
6 You can add adverbs to comparisons to make them more precise, such as
significantly (more) or almost (as many). Read the examples. Then underline the
adverbs in sentences a-i.
Examples
Significantly mOTe people voted for the bicycle than tbe other inventions.
The bicycle was chosen by almost as many males as females.
a Slightly more women than men voted for th e bi cycle.
b In the past, considerably more people lived in the countryside than towns.
c Many more people can use a computer today than thirt y years ago.
d Substantially less time is now spent doing housework than before.
e There are significantly fewer people now worldng in manufacturing than in
the past.
Sports programmes are watdled by practically as many peopl now as jn
previ ous years.
g The exhibition about dnerna attracted far fewer visirors than expected.
h Illiteracy is much less common than in previous generations .
Nearly as many children as adults watch progranmles about anci enL history.
7 Which adverbs above mean:
a almost? b a lot? c just a few?
8 Look again at the sentences you wrote in 5 on page 15. Add suitable adverbs .
Comparing and contrasting
9 Answer (hese questions about (he b ar chart.
a What do you mink the bar chart provides information about ?
b What could the numbers on the left relate to?
c What do you trunk the words along the bottom of the dl an relate to?
d What could the numbers in the box refer to?
e Is there a time reference for the graph?
7o,-----------------------------------------------,

-------------------1 I
045-65

40
30
20
10
o
Technique
In the test, make
a qUick list of
the comparison
structures you know
before you write
UNiT 2 Tire ;mportallu ofllle past
1 0 Match sentence beginnings 1-6 with endings a-f to form correct senlences
abom the chart.
1 The arts and crafts society has the greatest number of 20-30 year-olds,
2 Only 25 people fTom the younger age group are members of the historical
society,
3 Some societies are clearly more popular with one of tbe age groups,
4 The keep fit and social clubs have slightly more members in the younger age
bracket,
5 In generaL the 20-30 year-olds are more actively involved in societies
6 The keep fit and social clubs attract a broader range f people
a wh reas the archaeological society is equally popular wi th both .
b ill compariso11 with [he hi stori al society,
e but it is one of the least popular clubs with the ol' er age group-
d comp.11'ed with the Ider age group,
e whilt! the figure for 45-65 year-olds is abou 50.
althollgh they are fairly popular with both age grou s.
11 I n which of [he sentences in 10 uld the ending a-f orne fir t? Which
cOlmecting words in italics are followed by a noun phrase only,
12 Read the description of (he chan in 9. For aeh of 1- 6, two options are
possible and one is ineorreCL Delete the in correct opti on.
Model text
l'he Ghart provides information about
how two age groups partic.ipate in 'beveral
dub\') at a Lentr£. for ,j (ktl1s.
We c.an '5Ce. from the data that the
arGhaeologic.al, Keep fit and wc.ial dubs
are popular with both older and
people. I contraM, the
historic.al and art'b and c.rafts wc.ietie-s
dead,! appeal more to one of the age-
groupD. In the historic.al Wc.iet-j, SO of the
members are between 4'5 and (,?,
2. but/whilelhowever "lhere are 2.5
from "lhe age group. For the art
and c.rafts soc.iet-j, the- pattern is reve-rsed.
l'here- are about membe-rs aged
be-twe-e-n'}.() and 30, -; but/whereaslin
c-ompari50n the number of people- in
the- 45 to (pI5 age group is 4 Jar/slightly/
considerably lower.1he Ke-ep fit and wGial
dubs are popular with both age- groupD,
'i howeverlbut/although there are sllghH'i
fewer older people, e-mbe-rship of th
;;rc.haeologic.al Mc.iet., stand5 at it? fo
both groups.
In ge-ne-ral, the- age- group are
v signific.antly/almost/noticeably more
involved in the various wc.ieties than tl1
it?-(;j 01d5.
... • 17
18 •••••
Task 2 Using itltheylthislti'zese
1 Read the text below writlen by a st udent as part of a Task 2 essay. Replace
the words in italics wi th ii, they, this, or these.
Archaeologists, for example, help us to learn about the past. Archaeologists
look for evidence in artefacts like pots and jewellery. Pots aJldjewellery
reveal a lot of information about our ancestors. Revealing infonnatioll about
the past is very useful, but the information is still quite limited.
2 Match 1-4 witb a- d to explain how ro use il, Ihey, this, and tll ese.
I It and this refer to
2 They and these refer to
3 This and these are often used to refer to
4 This can also refer to
a nouns at the end of the previous senten ce.
b plural nouns.
c situations and processes.
d singular nouns.
3 Underline the exact text which it, they, tilis, and these refer [0 in sentences a-h.
The first one has been done for you.
a History teaches children not just facts, but a range of skills. For example,
they can learn how to analyse material, do basic sorting and research .
b Old buildings help create a more relaxing environment in cities than
concrete office blocks . This makes them more pleasant to work and live in .
c Studying history may trigger an interest in other subject areas. This , in tum,
may Lead to other hobbies.
d Built-up areas can be made more attractive by adding monuments and
statues. These can then enrich people's lives considerably.
e Government s should provide more money to preserve historical siles. By
doing this, our heritage would be saved for future generations.
Tradition does not hold us back as some people believe. In facr, it helps us to
build the future.
g Schools and colleges need to emphasize history and related subjects as these
will help give them a wider view of the world.
h The Internet and computers can b<;.' used to preserve the past For example,
they can be used by children to do basic research and store images.
4 Complete sentences a-g with ii, they, 1111:5, or these.
a If the past i to be preserved, .............. .. ,. must be done by usi ng modem
technology.
b The an and language of a country represent its history, so it is important
that ................ .. are both preserved.
c The primary role of advenising is to encourage the public to replace the old
witb the new ................... is called progress by some people.
d History broadens the minds of most people ,"vho study .................. , but
.................. also has the potential to narrow the minds of some.
e History should be given more emphasis in schooL as .................. will help
children to understand better the world they live in.
If hlstory is emphasized more in schools, .......... .. ... : .. wiU lead to a b tter
understanding of the world.
g The past infom1.s us of the present and the future, but few people are
suificiently aware of , .... ... . "" ......
uNiT 2 The imparlQllce afllre pasl

P]ann in g essays
5 Read (he historical facts in a-f below. Rank the events 1-6 according to how
important you think rhey were in human history (1 = most impoTl am; 6 =
least importanr). What other events would you add to the l ist?
a In 1792, France abolished the monarchy and instituted the fi rst republic.
b In 1953, Francis Watson and James Crick described the structure and
importance of DNA.
c In October 1492. Christopher Columbus set foot in the Americas.
d In 1885. Karl Benz built and patented the first automobile.
e In 1983. a computer system connecting universitjes was creat ed. whkh
later became the Internet.
In the nimh cemury. gunpowder was first invented and used by the
Chinese.
6 Read the Task 2 essay question below. Ded de which of points a-g ar
rel evant to this answer.
It is sometimes said tll at history /lever repeats itself, yet there is mild/ ill
it which is relevant to our modern world. Suggest some ways in. whicJI
the study of history migllt help liS today.
a There is often uncertainty about what really happened with regard to
well-known historical events.
b Studymg other historical periods gives insights into different ways of life .
e We can learn about the recent past by asking older relatives.
d HiStory involves investigation and interpretation, so its study develops
thinking skills.
e Learning about conflicts in the past can teach u S hovv to avoid them in
future.
History is a more dHficult area of study than most p ople imagine.
g The past can often provide explanations for the sit uation W ' face today
7 Read the idea below. Choose some of the trigger words to develop tlus
point. The first one has been done for you . Refer to Unit 1 page 12 for more
examples of similar phrases.
Studying other historica.l periods gives insights in to different ways of life.
For example, students ca11 investigate the way in which people lived in ancient limes
such as ................ ..
As a res ulr, ................ ..
Therefore, ................ ..
Furthermore . ................. .
8 Look back at Ihe other relevant sentences you chose in 6 above. Develop
those ideas in the same way llsiJlg tr igger words. Then wri tt: out yow ideas
in a pa.ragr aph.
. .. • . • 19
b
Technique
To help you build
a bank of Ideas.
recycle relevam
Information from

other essay,-s_, _......;I.
20 •••••
Developi ng ideas
9 Read the Task 2 question below. Make a not of any ways you can mink of to
make history more interesting.
Some children find lem'fling history at school very exciting. but matlY
others think it is I'ery boriug. In what ways can history be brought to life
for 0,1/ school children?
10 The list a-i below contains ideas that a student came up with for [he essay
question in 9. There aI\:' thr,ee solutions, each whb an example and an ffe l.
Complete (he table by matching each idea with the appropriate funct ion.
Paragraph 1 Paragrapb 2
Solutions a
Examples
EUects
a using the Internet and computers
b isiting historical sites
c historical places seem more real
l: make a poster about local history
(' go to a local archaeological site
it increase motivation to do research
g these kill can be applied in other subjects
h doing written projects
search for iniorrnation about historical figures online
Paragraph 3
11 Decide which function in 10 these linking phrases rel ate to.
a Another method is to
h T}') is will lead to
c For example,
d Last but not least, children could
e For instance,
such as
g As a result .
h The best way is to
Then
12 Use YOUI answers to 10 and 11 to write the ideas out as three paragraphs.
-
•••••
UNit' 2 The i mponallCt: of rhe past

• • • ••
Practice Test 2
Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes all this task.
The graph below SllOWS the contribution of three sectors - agriculture,
manufacturing, llnd b1lSi1l2.5S ilIId fin lll/cia I services -to the UK economy ill the
twentieth cClllury.
Summarize tile infonnatiol1 by selecting alId reporting tile main jeatw'es, and make
cOlllpm'isolls where relevant.
Write at least 150 wards.
Contribution of selected sectors to the
UK economy in the twentieth century
60
50
40
%
20
10
0-+--'--
Task 2
h'U sholild spend about 40 minutes on this task.
V"'I"itt" ,l bc,ut Ihe/t'llu" .... il1g topic:
o Agriculture
• Manufacturing
o Business and Financial
To some people studying the past has lillIe value it! tile modem I For/d. Wil y do you
tlIil1k it is important to do so? What will be the effect If children are not taugll t
history?
Give reasons foryour answer and include any relevant examples frolll your own knowledge or
expenence.
Write Cit least 250 words.
•• 21
• • Machines, cycles, and processes
• ••••• •• •
II
When describing
processes, sho',",
hat you can use
active and passive
forms where
• appropf i_at_e __ .....
22 • ••••
Unit aims
Tas' l Task 2
The passive
Sequencing
Using whIch to organize informatron
Expressing result and purpose
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ . ~ . ~ . ~ . = - - - ~ = - = - = - = - ~ ~ = - ~ = - ~
Task 1 The passive
1 Look at the five objects a- and answer the questions.
a Which materials are used to make these objects?
b Which of the material in your list are natural and which are
manufactured?
2 Natura] processes are oft en de cribed using (he active form. whereas
manufaClUIi og processes are usual ly described using the passive. Read rh
examples. Then omplete 1-6 with the correct fonns of the verb in bra kelso
Examples
A riverf10ws from its source to the ocean. (active)
Many electronic goods are manufactured in Japan. (passive: bi + past paniciple)
Limestone is the main ingredient of cement. Firstly, it 1 .... .. ............. . . .. .... ..
(extract) from the ground. Then, at the factory. it 2 .. ..................... ... ... (heat)
(Q a high temperature with other ingredients. After thiS, it
3 ........... . .. ........ ....... (cool) with blasts of cold air.
When warm air ~ .. ....... .... ............... . (reach) high ground. it is force to rise.
and, as a result, it 5 ..... ... .. ........... .. .. ... . cool) . Moisture in the air
6 ......... .......... .......... (condense) to form rain.
3 When describing processes, make sure the subject and verb agree. Read the
example, then complete 1-8 with the carr ct forms of the verbs in brackets.
Example
The sun shines and the temperature rises.
Some rock formations I .... ........ (hold) large amounts of water, When it
2 ............ (rain). the tiny spaces in th rock gradually 3 .... .. . .. .. . (fill) with
water so that the rock 4 ... .... ... .. (become) saturated. Tbe top of this saturated
zone is called the wate( table. If long periods of rain 5 ...... .. .. .. (occur). the
water table 6 ............ (rise). If there is no rain, the rock 7 ............ (begin) to
dry out and the water table 8 ............ (fall).
UNIT 3 Machines, cycles, and prOCf!sstS

4 Verbs which requi re an object are called transitive. Ver bs "vh ich never have
an object are caUed Are the verbs in sentence a-c transitive,
intransitive, or both? Which sentence cannot be put iOlO the passive?
a The temperature falls.
b Manufacturers make rubbe r products.
c Sunlight opens the leaves. The leaves Opel! .
5 Put each verb in the box into the correCllist: transiti ve, intransit i ve, Or b oth.
design produce rise
become
se nd
dry
begin
grow
manufacture
cool
Transiti ve:
Intransitive: fall
Both:
obtain die
6 U e the notes below to write short paragraphs ab out production processes.
Example
The production of a car involves various stages. car/design; prototype/make;
car/rna s·produce; car/distribure; car/sell
After the car is designed, a prototype is made and the car is mass-produced. The car is OUr1
distn'buted and sold.
a The production of a motorcycle involves various stages. motorcycle/design;
prototype/make; prototype/test; motorcycle/manufacture; motorcycle!
export; motorcycle/sell .
b The diagram shows the various stages in the production of bread. wheat/
plant; crop/harvest; wheat/transport to the mill; wheat/make fl our; fl ourl
buy/baker; bread/bake; bread/sold.
7 Some diagrams require descriptions using past tenses. COIllpJe!e lhe
paragraph with lhe verbs from the box.
SWAMP
300 mi llion years ago
WATER
100 million years ago
Dirt
Dead plants
Rocks & Dirt
. / ; __ :0=1IIII_, ."
·_·.,' t , t , t .-" .".
Coal
a died and dropped b was formed
c lived d was covered e was t rapped
f turned 9 is now mined h buil t up
The diagrams show the process by which coal
I ............ over a period of millions of years.
First of all, large plants 2 ......... .. . in enonnous
swamps a long time ago. These 3 •.......... • to the
bottom of t.he water. Over the years, the dead
plants formed a layer, which became deeper
and deeper. More and more earth and dirt
4 . .. ......... on top of this layer. Subsequently,
this layer 5 ............ by rocks and dirt, and so the
energy of the dead plants 6 ............ underneath .
As the pressure an d the heat grew over time,
the layer of dead plants 7 ...... . ..... into coal.
Seams of coal were formed, and coal 8 ............ .
• • •• 23
Ie:n
Technique
When describmg
• processes, use
• phrases such as
• F{{st of al/, After
thar, and When as
• . d • trlgger wor s to •
• you sequence •
• Ideas. •
24 •••••
Sequencing
8 The diagram shows how energy is produced from coal. Answer the
questions.
a How is the coal carried to [he pO'wer plant?
b What is added to tbe furnace in addition to coal?
( What gas is produced when coal is burnt in the furnace?
d What do you think is removed from the gas?
e What is the gas called foll owing trus pro ess?
What do you think [he gas does in the turbine?
g What does the turbinE do to the generator?
h Where do the hot exhaust gases come from?
What bappens [0 the gases?
Oxygen
....
syngas
Steam
Gas turbine
Generator
Electricity
9 Complece the model text below by choosing the correct aJtcrnati'\'c in each
case,
Model text
me diagram the variouf> f>tage!> in
the. proauc.tion of dean from wa\ .
I firM of aU/At first/One. the wal if>
mined in deep pitf> underground and then
c.an-jed to the $urfaa .. 2. Furthermore/
After that/As a result, it i$ c.arried
along a belt to a power plant.
'3 when/then/where it i5 burned in a
large furnac. e to i5 added.
4 Ofherwise/from this/Therejore, ral"
i!> proauc.ed. At tne 5tage.
of the proc.ef>f>, harmful f>ubf>tanc.es li\:e
c.arbon dio'l'ide., and sulphur are
removed. S Fol/owing that/ Followino/
Subsequent, the. purified gas i$ U$ed to
drive a gas turbine. me turbine" in turn/
afterwards/therefore powerf> a generator,
produc.i ng eledri c.it{ me gas turbine aIM
produc.e5 hot ga5es. mef>e are
1 then/thertfore/consequently piped to
a heat rewve.t"{ steam generator,
wnvertf> the heat into $team. \he 5team i5
I) tonsequently/subsequent/subsequently
LI $ed to power a steam turbine, whid1
ilgil in if> uf>ed to generate
me e.nerg'1 if> dean buau5e narmful
produd$ are removed and the c.oal if> not
transported to anothe.c 5ite to produc.e
.
UNIT 3 /Hachines, cycles. alld proc£sses

10 ConneCl the sentences below. Use the Unldng words in brackets in each case.
Example
The parts of th e car are assembled. The cars are ex-ported. (aiter)
After the parts of the car are assembled, the cars are exported.
a Tb e snow falls. It covers the ground with a protective layer. (when)
b Her cubs are born. The lioness licks them all over. (as soon as)
c The paper is collected. It i sent for recycling. (once)
d Volcanoes erupt. They send huge amounts of smoke int o the air. (before
e The plants perspire. The air becomes humid. (when)
The trees are cut d OVIlI]. The forest is graduall y dest royed. (and)
11 Connect these sentences using your own words.
a The food is processed. Ir is packaged. It is distributed.
b The cycle is completed. Jt repeats itseli all over again .
c The rubbish is collected. It is sent to a centre for sorting. It is recycled.
d A new model of the bicycle is develope( Tlic bicycle is tested
e The TV is assembled. It is sent to the shops.
The water is purified. It is bottled.
g The data about the weatl1er is collected. The infonnation is then broadcast.
h Th e prototype is tested. It is rnodilied.
12 From your own knowledge, write a short paragraph to des cribe each of the
processes below.
a The process of digital photography from the acti on of taking a photograph
to displaying the image.
b The progress of a lener or parcel from packaging to delivery.
c The life cycle of an animal such as a butterfly or a frog.
d Th e water cycle which creates clouds and rainfall.
25
26 •••••
Task 2 Using which to organize information.
Answer the questions about the list of technologit.'s .
computers automatic doors mobi le phones video games
TV remote controls MP3-players satellite navigation systems
digital cameras
a Which of the technologies can help peopl e and which can make life more
diffi cult ?
b Which technologies might make people more lazy?
c Whicll technologies do you find annoying and which impressive?
2 Read the Task 2 question. What two kc'!' elements must you include in your
answer? Underline the organizing words which tell you [his.
A recent survey has shown that people of all ages are losing the ability
to perfonn basic practical tasks and processes at work. What do you
think are the main causes of this? What solurions can you suggest?
3 Read the following paragraph vvri tten by a student and answer
questions a-e.
People generally are losing traditional practical skills whkh they need to
function in everyday life . This has come about in my opinion, because
people are now so over-reliant on machines. For example, computers
in one form or another perform many of the tasks that people used t
do themselves such as office functions, opening and locking doors, or
switching mach.ines on and off. Consequently, workers annat do basi
practical tasks in depth, which in turn has an impact on how to process
basic informati on mentally when they are at work
a What kind of skills are people losing?
b What is the cause of this?
c Which examples are given?
d What is the practical consequence of all this?
e ' '''hat is the mental consequence?
4 In each sentence below, what does the word in italics refer to?
a People often allow the TV to do their thinking for them at borne, which in
tum has an impact on their mental performance at work. (Effect)
II
b People generally are losing traditional practical skills which they need to
function in every day life.
Technique
• Use which as a
• trigger word to
• add detail to your
• writing.
.1.-_____ ....

UNIT 3 Machines, cycles, and

5 Combine [he following pairs of sentences using which.
a Sometimes, computers make mistakes and prevent things happening. This
wastes valuable ti me and can cost money.
b TV programmes provide people with information about the world around
them, This information is often very useful
c Machines now give us more fr eedom. This means that we have more time
for leisure activi.ties.
d Technology saves us more and more time. This time can be used to create
more machines.
e More and more household tasks are now carried out by robots. They will be
even more common in the future .
Every thing se ms to be available at the touch of a button. Th.i s makes
people expect instant responses from other people.
6 What does whieh refer to in each of your answers in S? In which cases does
the wlll'ell clause express an effect as in 4a?
7 When combining sent ences, a which clause of len cont ains information that
is non-essential to the sentence. Read Ehe examples. Then combine Ih
sentences in a-e, decidin. which information is non-essential.
Examples
News broadcasts about world disasters, which are now available 24 hours a day,
can make people feel anxious.
The si tuation, which people blame the government for, is everyone's fau lt .
a The situation has now become much more complex. It is eUeclively OUI of
control.
b The problem is everyone's responsibility. The public blame the gove rrunent
for it.
c The cause of the problem is the lack of basic Iraining. The cause is not
immediately obvi ous to everyone .
d The solution is, in my opinion, by far the best. The sol ution is to have a day
at work where peopJe do not use computers or other machines.
e Office technology is the cause of much frustration at work. It requires only
basic training to use.
':J .1.1 27
Expressing result and purpose
8 The extract below contains three paragraphs, each organized to express
functions such as cause and result. Identify the ideas that relate to each
function and underline them. The first paragraph has been done for you.
?roblem rirf>t of all, in recent people
all over the worla have aemonf>tratea
fi'l-ing a plug, menaing a pundure on
a or even sewing a button on
a f>hirt. a dear lacK of abilitj to carC'j out certain
baf>ic ta;,K;,. A number of reaf>onf> have
been put forwara for thif>, but far the
mOf>t important, I feel, if> the comple'l-itj of
c..aUf>e ____ the moaern a@e.
Apart from parents, the international
arive towaras learning new
also neeas to a gooa part of the
blame. mif> has lea to ioun9 people
leaVing school literate in certain
computer f>Kills. But it has alw createa
a generation almost aeficient in baf>ic
practical f>Kills, because technical
problem-wiVing liKe maKing things in
has been sguenecl out of the
school curriculum.
Technique
Learn at least one
result phrase and
one purpose phrase
• and use these as
trigger words.
• When you write a
sentence, insert
• your result/purpose
trigger words to
, develop it.
28 •••••

'Parentf>, for e'l-ample, no longer have
enough time to f>pena at home with their
chi\clren, because are worKing
unsociable hours to cope with the
pressures ana aemanas of s worla.
Young people are wnseguentli aeprivea
of valuable time to learn the pradical
f>Kills for life liKe
Paragraph 1: Problem/Cause
Paragraph 2: Example/Cause/Effect
Paragraph 3: Cause/Result I /Result 2/Reason/Example
9 Which linking phrases are used in 8 to express the functions listed?
10
11
Decide whether the linking phrases below express Result or Purpose.
so therefore in order to consequently so as to as a result
with the aim of and so so that for this reason as a consequence
hence which leads to which means that
For each idea below, continue the sentence or write a follow-on sentence
using your own ideas to express Result or Purpose.
a Children are now learning how to do mental arithmetic again .
b Some cities charge motorists to take their cars into the centre.
c Machines are manufactured to break down after a certain time.
•••••••

UNI T 3 Machi nes, cydes, and proc(! ~ s
• • •• ••••••
Practice Test 3
Task 1
You should spmd abollt 20 minutes on this las
T ~ l e diagram behlli' .,11011'5 hOI!' S{ll.t i.'I rt!tI1i)I'f'd from sea water to m,7ki' it drinkable.
Summari ze Ihe illforT1Jilliotl vJ.' st'/c'{(ill.'J alld rq.' orti Jl!} Il l e mdilJ f cd //./res, and make
comparisons where releva/lt.
Write at least 150 words .
. ;. -
Sea
l ask2
Filter 1
backwash
-
Water
forced through
membrane at
high pressure
1 Seawater
concentrate
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Writt' about the following lopic:
To integrated
water supply
system
Water molecules
The widespread lise of the Internet 1las hl'ought many problems. What do you thiflk
{lrc the mail! problems associated witll the use of the web? What sO/lIlioll can YOIl
suggest?
Give reasons for your answer and inclllde any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.
29

30 •••••
Ed-ucation
••
General and specific statements
Comparing Information
Describing proportions
••••••••
Task 2
Avoiding overgeneralization
Developing reasons
•••••••••••••••
Task 1 General and specific statements
1 The statements he10w give students' reasons for choosing a particular
university. Which of these statements do you agree with?
••
a The lecturers' qualifications are more important' than the quality of the
teaching. -
b The sports fa ci lities are as important as the academic reso urces.
c Good library facilities are the most important factor for postgraduate
students.
d A pleasant environment is more important than the university's reputati n.
2 Look at the pie charts and [be Task 1 question. Answer questi ons a-e below.
The pie charts below illustrate tilt' number of journal articles read p.er
week by all students, PhD Sludents, and jun for lecturers at an Alistralian
IIIJiI·ersity.
Number of journal articles Number of journal articles NUIllON of journal articles
read by ju nior lecturers read by all students read by Ph D students

••
. .
75')'.
l - tt05 _6totl 012'!-1
Summa.rize the infonnat.ioH by selectin9 and reporting r!'l e maill feLrtllu'S,
and make comparisotTS' where relevant.
a
b
c
d
e
What does each pie cban describe?
What do tbe numbers on each pi e chart represent?
Wbat does the box at the bottom of tbe pie chart refer to
7
What noticeable feature can you see in each chan?
' !\Tbat gen eral statements can you make abou t each chart?
.,
: Technique
• Aim to make at
• least one general
• statement in the
: middle of your text.
UNIT 4 Education
••••
3 Complete sentences a-g using the ph rases below.
that respectively for example how but
which meanwh ile whereas and
a The three pi.e charts illustrate .. ................ many articles [rom academk
journals are read weekly by PhD students ..... .... ....... .. junior lecturer
compared to other st udents at an Australian unj versit y.
b .................. the overwhelming majority of those studying doctorares read at
least twelve articles per week in comparison with the average student.
c The figures were 80 per cent and twelve per cent .. ................ .
d Furthermore, only five per cent of PhD level students read between one and
five articles, .................. th e average for all st udent in tbis category is a hefty
67 per cent. .
e ............. for junior lecturers the pattern appears to be slightly differenl.
Most read six or more articles per week (99 per cen t), .... : ............. out of this
total 24 per cent read twelve or more, .................. is almost a third of the
corresponding figure for PhD level students.
g It is clear ................ .. those students who are re earching Jor a phD read more
articles than either junior lecturer or other students.
4 The sentences in 3 form a model text. Group the sentences into foU(
p aragrapbs.
Paragraph 1:
Paragraph 2:
Paragraph 3:
Paragraph 4:
5 Descr iptions contain general and specific st atements. Specific statements
contain reference to data, wbereas general statements do not. Which
statements in 3 are general? Wh ich are specific?
6 Divide the following sentences into general and specific statements.
Examples
General: Postgraduate students tended to be better off than other students.
Specific: Seventy-five per cent of school children read comics each week.
a Far fewer female lecturers as opposed to male lecturers are employed at the
uruversity, 25 and 7 5 respectively.
b We can see that there are considerable dHferences in t he proportion of
nationalities in each course.
c Only ten per cent of students preparing for their Masters attended taught
classes.
d OveralL women were more likely to read novels than men.
e Student s preparing for their doctorate read the greatest number ofjoumal
articles.
The sales for all four comparue showed similar trends.
g The pattern for senj or lecturers was very different.
h The vast majority of those students preparing for PhDs read twelve or more
journal articles each week.
• • •• 31
: Technique
• Vary the way you
• express proportions
• - sometimes use
• words instead of
: numbers.
32 •••••



COlnpal'ing information
7 Rewrite th e following sentences using the given word so that the meaning
the same.
a Far more PhD students ,read over twelve articles a week compared with
junior lecture rs.
Far fewer ................................................................................................................. .
b The average student reads fe'Aret journal articles tl:1C111 the average j unior
lect urer.
The average j uni.or lecturer ............................................................ ...................... .
c The other students at the university do not read as many articles as the
average phD student.
The average PhD student .... ..... ... ........................................................................... .
d Junior lecturers do not have as much time to read articles as those students
who are researching for a PhD.
Th ose students who are researching for a PhD ..................... .. .......................... .
Describing proportions
8 The phrases in the list are al ternative ways of describing proportions . Divide
the lis\ inlo four groups that each have similar meanings.
three quarters almost half one third 75 per cent one in three
nearly half 26 per cent 48 per cent about one i n fou r 33 per cent
three out of four just under one half just over a quarter
close to one half
9 These adjective-noun collocations can also be used to describe proport ions.
10
Write the adjectives next to the correct meaning in the table.
the vast majority a tiny minority a massive 85 per cent
a modest twelve per cent a hefty 85 per cent
a mere twelve per cent the oven,vhelming majority
Very big
Very big (used before numbers)
Very small
Not very big (used before numbers)
a-e, replacing the phrases h1 i talics w ,hh an
expression.
a We see from the char t tha t 23 per cent of students failed to finish their
university degree.
b In 1990, nine oul of tel! engineering st udents were male, but by 2000 this
figure had fa1J.en to exactly three quarters .
c In 1960, 34 per cent of se ence graduates went into the teachi ng profession
but in 1970, the figure was just ten per cent.
d Exadly one half of the student population were members of the union in
2001 , bu t live years la ter the figure was 64 per cent.
e Ninety-nvo per cent of people surveyed felt that mixed sex schools were
preferable.
UNIT 4 Educatioll
••••
11 Read the Task 1 question bel ow and all $ \>\' eT a-e.
Task 1
Tlte pie charts below show the t1l1mber of I,ours spent ill a BritislI IIniversity /ibra ry
by undergraduates, pos/Bradlla.les, (/lid tile .t olal siudellt population.
Proport ion of all students
by time spent in library
Proportion of undergrudl!Hltes by
time spent in library
I .1 to 7 0 8 to 14 • 15+ I
Proportion of post graduates by
ti me spent in library
Sumlllarize tlIe illjtJ rmati(1/1 by . ela ting Illd repor/l'ng the main f etllll res, muf make
comparisons where reLevallt .
a What are the similarities between postgraduate and all students?
b What are the main differences between undergraduate and postgraduate
students?
c What tendency can you obse rve as st udents move lrom undergraduate to
postgraduate?
d What is the most interesting feature of the three cha n
e What general concl usi ons can you draw?
12 Choose the most suitable alternrltive to complete the sentences bel ow about
the d(1{ll in 1 L
a Meanwhile, the pattern/amount/majority for postgraduate students was
substantially different.
b OveralL the pattern/size/proportion of postgraduate students who spent
fifteen hours a week or more in the library was very clo . to the entire
student body who spen t 1-7 hours in the library.
c The most striking dillerence in the data for undergraduates was that a
sizeable majority/minority/number spent only 1-7 hours per week in the
library.
d A majority/minority/total of undergraduates (nine per cent) used the library
for fifteen or more hours per week.
e There is a clear trend/progress/drift towards using the library more as students
move towards graduation and post- graduation.
Undergrad uate students were less likely than postgraduate students to use
[h e library witH just u nder one quarter/one third/two-thirds of the former
spending 1-7 hours ther .
g About a third/quarter/minority of undergraduate students as opposed to
nearly a third of postgraduate students spent between eight and f urteen
hours studyi ng.
13 In your own words, write twO sentences about eacb pie chart and one
summarizing sentence.

••
,i
33
Technique
A common
Cri ticism of IELTS
candidate IS that
they overgener all ze
III Task 2 Avoid
overgeneral izlI lg by
givi ny leasons.
34 • •
Task 2 Avoiding overgeneralization
1 Read the sent ences below. Then 8J1 wer que fion a-c.
The international community should ensure that education is free for all
schoolchildren.
• They should provide books.
• Parents should be encouraged to become involved in schools .
a How are the ideas connected?
b Do the second and third sentences support the first sentence?
c What ideas an you think of to support th first sentence?
2 The opinion stat ement below is very broad. In yOUT opini on, wh ich rea on is
most approp riate?
0 \ in ion sl atem Jl !: Educa lion is a n1ilj or Lx! r i n li fting people ou t of p ' rty
Reason 1: ... ince it gives people more ideas Clb Ul what t do with their liv" .
Reason 2: ,, ' beca use it gives them grea ter opportunities \ hen they I ok for
work.
3 A 11 of the opi ni on statem n ts a- h below are very broad. or each sla tement,
decide vvhelher you ( gree or disagree.
a Univ r -iries should make more links with businesses.
b The pre en! young generation knows more rhan their previous
counterparts.
Teaching thin ing a t c 100) i essentiaL even at primary level.
d More time needs to be devoted to learning musi c. either during or aft r
school bours.
e Phy ieaJ edu ation i a neee ary part f th e learn ing process for all pupils.
Play is a maj or pan of the learning pr ce for children.
g II is importan t f r ch il dren to try [0 learn another lanquage c r ly in [h eir
educa lion .
h Being bored and learning to deal with boredom is a n ce sary p<lrt f th e
learning proces for chil dren.
4 Look again at the tatements you agreed with in 3_ Choose from t h e phrases
below 10 intens ify your opi nions and add the e to the sen ! nces you agreed
with in 3.
Example
Jc is importallt thal universities should make more link with busine .
It is impo rtant that The re is no doubt that One can not deny t hat
It is impossi ble to a rg ue aga inst the fa ct tl1at
Technique
When you make an
opinion statement
that IS velY general.
make sure yot!
Justify It with a
reason Use phrases
such as /.18C8USe
and since as tri gger
words.
UNIT 4 Educa/ioll
••• •••
5 Look ag<lin ,1\ the phrases you disag'rcec! \\' ith in 3. It is 1 ].)11'0$ 'Ill
opinions as belongjng. to someone else - possibly to hide your own opinion.
Choose rr nm the phrases be low ilnd PI (ld to sent enCes you dis,l g l t' E'C]
w ith in 3.
Some people think/feel/believe/claim/argue that
Other people are of the opinion that
Yet other put forward the view that
6 To avoid overgeneraliz8tion, give reasons. Add (he reasons below to opinions
a-h in 3.
since it crea tes a healthy basis for later life.
2 (IS it h elps the brain to funcri on bett er and increases coordination.
3 because children now find it more difficult to reason .
4 since they have more access ro infonnation.
5 bemuse it hel ps t hem intell ectually and also heJps Lo fi nd a job.
6 as thi s would connect their research with the real world.
7 because interaction helps to develop social skills.
8 as it teaches ll, em how to be creat i ve on their own.
Developing reasons
7 I n lELTS, opinions and rt'clSOl'l'i should be supported with 'examp les rrom
your knowledge and experience", Sentences a-c give three examples 10
support the argurnent below. Match each examp le wHh the
description s 1-3.
Play is a major pari of the learl1lng process for children as it teaches litem how 10 be
crealit'e.
a Take for example children in my coun try who lea rn musical g" J1l s at em
earlyage.
b For instance. children who draw and paint are idely known to have
greater spacial awareness.
( For example. play can develop artistic or m usical skills.
a general example
2 an example from knowledge
'3 an example froIU experien ce
• ••
35
Technique
When you state a
reason, think how
you could Illustrate
it with exampl es
Use phrases slich as
For example and like
as trr gger words.
36 ••••
8 Develop [he ideas below by addi ng yom own examples like thos e in 7 on
page 35 . the phrases in the box t hel p you.
For instance, For example, like namely
Take for example A good exampl e is
a Out of sch 01 act lvili es help children develop because they can learn
subjects that are not in the school curriculum.
b Education is being redu ed to a production line becau e [he focus is on
targets rather than on learning.
c Travel helps to broaden the minds f children because it helps to bring to
life the things they read in class .
d Private ducation omplements state ducation very well as it can do things
state education cannot.
e Successful entrepreneu rs and sport s stars should teach in schools and
universities since th ey would provi de good role models for young people.
9 Develop three of the sentences bel ow. Use phrases to intensif I your own or
other ' opinions. Give your own reasons and example".
Example: Too much emphasis is put on passing exam . .
Some people feel til I too much emphasis is put on passing exams, because
pupils spend a large proportion of school time doing tests rather than
learning. For example, children in some Bri tish schools prepare for tests for
weeks before the exams, bw t hey are not taught anything.
a Foreign language learning should be compulsory.
b Studenrs need to have good study skills on entering un iversit y.
c University lecturers need some teacher training.
d Boys and girls ought !O be educated in separate s hools.
e Teachers' salaries need to be as high a doctor' or lawyers'.

UNIT 4 EdllCfll i oll



Practice Test 4
Task 1
lou shollid spend about 20 lIIinutes 011 (his (ask
Tile Lilli" clltlJ"t ,/IOII'S {he 11Ijhcsl qllalifiD1tit'J} all,7incd by Sf'S IlJ/" tilL' \\'<,r/,:il};)
pOpUllllioJl in Wales i112001l2002.
Summari ze the infonHati01J by 5eleC:lil1g and reporting the IIwin reatures, and make
comparisoll s where releval1t.
Write (I( least! 50 words.
Highest quali fications attained: by sex,
for w orking age population 2001/02
Percentages

I_ Mal es Females 1
20-+----------------------
10
5
Task 2
Degree or
equivalent
Higher
education
qual ificati on
GeE A level
or equivalent
YOll should spend abollt 40 mil/ute'S 017 this task.
Writ", about rhe following topic:
GCSE grade
A"-C or
equivalen
Other No
qualifications qualifications
SOJlle people beliere thnt competitive sports, both teaJII alia inail'ialla/, !Jave 110 place
intlte ,'c111JOl' ' IJniculllllJ. HL'I!' fill' ciL' rOil tlgree or disagree?
Give reasons for your answer and iI/elude allY rdel'al/t examples from your OWI1 knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 wards,
37
U N IT
5

38 ••
Youth
Unit aims
Task 1
•••••
Describmg changes
Describing locations
Task 1 Describing changes
Task 2
Developing and JustifYing opinIons
Writing introductions
••••••
Read the comments by three people talki ng about toe [own where they grew
up. Answer the questions below.
Dave
I r emember there wasn ' t much to do her when I was growing up. My
friends and I used to J USl hang around in the park, getting into trouble.
These days th ere's much more here [or young peopl e. For instance, the
coullcil opened the ice rink, the leislIr centre. all d the skate park las I year. I wis h
I' d had things like tbat to keep me entertained.
Sandra
One of the lhings I used to really like about this area was the peace and
qui.et. It was so safe for us as kids . We could play in the sIre ts or in the
nearby woods and fields. They buill a bypass alld all indllstrial estate a few
years ago, and there's been a lot more traffic and developmen t since . I
don' t feel it's safe for my children, aQd I'd like to move away.
Tom
Well, you can' t stand in the way of change, I suppose. Yes, people 100
at the town now and say it's oat as prett y or peaceful as it was in the pasL
I suppose thaI 'S true. Even so, there are more jobs and opportunities
now than there were when I ,;va a teenager. I guess you can't have one
wit hout losing tbe other.
a For each speaker, do they think things were better or worse when they
were young? Why?
b What changes have occurred to the place you corne froro? Do you think
they are positive or negative changes?
c How could you express the phrases in italics in a more formal way .
ct Imagine you are a young person moving to a new town. Whi ch facilities in
the lis! belm'v would be important to you?
golf course skate park thea t re
gal lery stadium ice rink
rfJilw<:Jy station
pa rk college
co ncert hilil
airport
UNIT 5 YOIl/ll
2 The map s below show ch.anges th.at Look plac in Youngsvill in ew Zealand
over a 25-year period from 1980 to 2005. Answer the fa ll wi ng question
a Wbat is th e most n oticeable difference between the two maps?
b Was the town more or less residential in 2005 compared to 1980?
Were there more or fewer trees in 2005?
d \,\'ere the changes dramatic or negligible over tl le 25 -year period?
e Wha t were the two biggest changes north of the; river?
( What happened to the houses and trees along the railway line south of
the river?
9 9 99 9
.
N

t

N
t
Stadi um
• 9 9 9
• Park

Manna
9
River Alanah
"'''''''1 Railway
. 9. . 9 station
School tt1 tI'1 tI'1

t 9
Airport9woodland9 t 9
fi9
1980
School

Airport


a=m
I!mtm
111
Warehouse
"-"-
Skyscrapers
111
Factories
2005
3 Complete the model text below. Use one ";lOrd frOIll lb' following list
to complete each blank space. The first one has bL'l'll dDne [or y i;\ll.
Technique
In order to identify
changes, st udy the
maps and number
the changes on the
Ol le. Think
of some general
statements, and
nlake notes.
houses experienced not iceable factories
facilities
freVei-tt?fflents
COllstr"uction comparison residential corner
Model text
1he maps Dnow the I
tool:: plaa. in the- c.oastal to" n of
Younysville between IqgO and 2005
In IqSO, the. town \-laD a muth grnner
2. •••••••••••• ••• ••• are-a witn a large. number of
treeD and individual houses, but during
tne ne"1-i 25 ie.arD the town ................. .
a number of dramatic. c.hangeD.1he mODt
, ..... ...... ...... i" that all of the trees 50Uth
of tne, \Z-iver AI anah were Gut aO'Mn, with
all the. ' ....... , ........ ,. al ong railVlai
line being I::noG\::u\ down and replaced bi
sKiscrape.ri> More.ove.r, a new industrial
estate. wilD " .................. and
sprang up around the airport and 5(.hoo\.
01'111 a fevl k e.es nodn of tile. river remained,
1he waD c.le.are<\ to maKe wa-,
for a a golf WUITl-, and L2r
I ..... ,........ . .. . Further dw' lopmenh were.
the 0 ..... ... ... ... .... of a stadium near the
no!il1-easP .. ....... ... ...... of1he\aKf. nd a
new Dtrekn of railwai from the river running
airutl'! nortl1. A marina also built at the
OLrth of the river.
Overall , a 10 •••••••• , .. ... . ' of the two mapo
reveals a change from a largel,! rural to a
mainl urban landscape.
• 39
Technique
Do not just describe
the map or maps
Describe the
developments that
took place.
40
II

4 Transform Ihe sentences below by changing the nouns i_nlO verb and using
Ihe passive. Refer [0 page 7 for more information on Rr!/aled verbscl11d JlOlllLS.
Example
There were Sp f' clacll la r changes in th e are,1.
The area was changed spect acularly.
a There were dramatic developments in the town centre.
b There was a complete transfonnation of the n ighbourhood.
c There vva a tOt al reconstruction of the residenti al area.
d There was a total redevelopment of th old fa tori es .
e There \·vas a rebuildi ng of the old houses.
There was a complete modernization of the entertainmenr district .
5 Look again at Ihe sentences you Wl'Oft e in 4. Whi ch coul d be rewritten in the
active fonn?
6 Re ;vrit e sentences a-h below u iog ynonym from the model I Xl in 3.
a Th e maps show changes which OCCllITed between 1980 and 2005.
b Very few trees \<II re lef t.
c Over the nexl 25 years, all these houses were delllolished.
d The si ngle dwellings were replnced by skyscrapers .
e The trees H,'ere chopped down.
The area wimessed dramatic manges.
g The woodland gave way l O a golf COllrse.
h A mari na Wii S also constructed
7 Put the verb' below i nto the correCl fom1. AU of the changes took pl ace
b tween 2000 and 2005.
Examples
Th e block of flats (turn) into a hotel. (passive)
The block of flats .. .. .. (make way) for a hotel. (aclive)
a The row of old hOllses .... .. , ......... .. (knock down) to make way for a road.
b The forest ................ .. (CUI down) 10 build a railway.
c The area .................. (redevelop) completely.
d The fact ory .... .. .. .......... (COnvert) into an art gaUery.
e Th city entre .................. (undergo) a total transformation.
Th e row of old t rraced houses in the cil Y .................. (pull down ) and
.................. (replace) by a block of flats .
g A sport complex .... ........ .. . (conslruCl) in the suburbs.
h A number of spectacular changes ..... , ............ (take place).
The 'whole centre of tbe town ............ ...... (transform) by ne w eveJopments.
UNIT 5 YOll/I,

8 Which of the foll owi ng cannot be used to replace the phrase Betwem 2000 <111
20057
a Over the period c From 2000 to 2005
b During the five year period d Over the past Li ve years
9 The pa t perfect (h(/d done) can also be used to descri be changes occurring
before a specjfjc [LIn in the past. Look at the example . Then insert By 2005
allhe begin ning of each sen tence in 7 and adjust each sentence.
Examples
By 2005, the block of flats had been fUmed into a hotel. (passive)
By 200 , the block of flats had made way for a hotel. (active)
Describing locations
10 It is somet Lmes important to st at e loca tions cl early on a map . Read tbe
examples. Then answer the questions a-g about th e map on page 39 usi ng
the phrases in th e box.
Example
Only a few trees 110rc/7 oflhe river remained.
Where is the golf course? It is norrh-wes/ of ril e lake.
south of the river beside the railway line in the south-west of the town
north of the skyscrapers south of the [Jolf course
south-west of stadium north-east of the lake
a Whe re are lhe skyscrapers? They are ............ .. ............... .
b Where is tbe stadium? It is ........... _." .. _ ........... .
c Where is rhe lake? It is .............. .. ........ .. ... .
d Where is the hospital? It is ..................... " ...... .
e Where is t he railway sta ti on? It is .......... .. ................. .
Where is the airport? It is ...... .. ............ .. ....... _
g Where is the school? It is .... .. .... .... ... . _ .. ... _ .... .
11 Complete the following senfences by choosing the c rreel preposi tions of
place from the alte rn ali v s.
a Several changes took plac al/in/olllh town of Northgate.
b North of the tOwn, there is a lake surrounded in/of/by tree
c A number of new houses we re built besidelarlolilhe railway line.
d There was a large indusuial area located ontilliat the north.
e A new railway was constructed which ranfroll/laflill north to soulh.
f Two new hotels were erected on/ ill /at the banks of t he riv r.
g A large number of new vi ll as were built besidelmlro lhe sea.
h A yachti ng cl ub was set lip oll/il//ot the shor s of the lake.
A number of wind turbines were placed in the sea, just the
coastline.
41
I shoul d get paid
more -I have
more experi ence.
42 •
I get better resu Its.
I should get more.
Tas 2 Developing and
justifying opini ons
1 Look ilt t he p ictures and
the l e \!. An we r th
quest ions bel w.
a Which person do you
agre e with?
Do you agree with the
justifi cation for each
person's opinion.
c Is this sit uation the
same all over the
world?
2 Read the foUovving Ta k 2 question, tben an wer quest i ons a·-b.
Emplo)'!!rs shollid pal )'0 111'1,1} people tIl l!. St}J)/1! .ml'll }· older
colleagues doing the sOlllejvb.
To wlwt extent do .1'0 11 agree or
a Do you hav to strongly agree or disagree? Is is possible to rake a neutral
view?
b Rewrite the ·tatemeDl in your own words. Begin with Young employees . . ..
3 Read a-g, tak en front 3J l illwwer to th e qrUE' slj on in 2, l\1.atcl1 ea h sentence or
p <1. rt-sentence wi.th the correct function from the list. The first one bas been
done for you.
Contradiction Result Example
Reason I x 2) 8piflto-frSt-8"!en'ieI'Tt
a Many people beli eve tha t workers should be paid
accordi ng to age ra ther than merit.
b How ver, I feel that they should be paid according TO
result .
c Take for example someone in their twenties workin in a
financial company.
d They deserve to recei e the same salary . . .
e '" becau e they are doing the same work.
Moreover, young people nowadays are often fa ter at
doing things than their older work colleague ' . ..
g . .. which compensates for Jack of experience.
UNIT 5 Yo 1111,

4 Under li ne the iinl<ing phrases in 3 which in dicate the function 'ou ho e.
5 Using the sen tences in 3 a a model, write a paragraph expressing your own
opinion in response to the question in 2. Use appropriat linking phrases.
6 Read the Task 2 q u.estion and the model answer bel o,-\!. For each of 1--6, two
options are possible a.lld one is incorrect. Del te tbe incorre t opti on.
SOllie people feclthat YOllJlg people face fillY/: presSllres todm' OW/I
the equivaleJlt age groups did il1 previous gCllcral'iL)lIs. Othas Il1il11<
thalilley have a much easier life thon their parcHts did. 'IV/Jal your
opinion?
Model text
life for the 'joung in toda'j' 5 world is in
some wais c.e.rtainli more c.omfortable.
tn.;m for those in previous gene-rations.
\ However!fv1orwver/£ven so, one c.annot
ae.ni tne fad tnat in a number of a:e.as
life is muc.n more- demanding than It Uf>ed
9&11erations. "3
there. is inc.rea5e.d mobilit'j of pe.op\e. In tne
international job mar'Ke.t.
move from tl1e far £.a5t to £.urope.. ndia,
7
to be.
la'Ke tne wor'Kplac.e, for e'f.ample.
Competition for e.ver'jjob if> fierc.e. in
all parts of the orld. not just de.velope.a
c.oUntrie5, 2- whilelbec.auseias '1
oun
9
people. are mor o,ualifie<1 tnan previou5
4 for inManc.e/also!in parfic.ular. nas a .
large. pool of mobile 5'Killea \'lorlCw,. \\115
ofjob511a5 'j C;O()$tqutntly!
howtvtr!as d result put intense pressure.
on iOU119 people af> the.i 5earc.h for
in tneir home GOuntrie.5. I. 1hus!5o!
Substqutntly. it i5 no longer a c.a5e. of just
be.ing goo a: 'jollng people are to
be top rate..
Decide which functions are indicated by the correct linking phrases in 6.
1 a contrast b re ult c ad ilion
2 a contrast b reason c result
3 a addition b contrast c result
4 a contrast b addition c exampl
5 a result b contrast c reason
6 a example b reason c conclusion
•• 43
Technique
When developing
and Justlfymg
OpiniOnS, you do
not need 10 tell
the truth. iv1ake a
statement and use
linking phrases
as tngger words
to think up and
orqanize ideas.
Technique
Keep your
Introductions shon
VVnte only one or
two sentences
44
8 Read the st atements below and in each case cont.rclllic( uhcnl. Begin by \l si !) !.,
one offoll owing expressions in Ihe box.
Nevertheless, I feel.. . However, I think ...
Personally, I be:lieve ...
a Many feel that young people hay oluc 1 more influence in the world than
their counterpart in the pas!.
b According to some people, older wor 'ers are just a equipped to deal with
the modern world as young people.
c Some people are of the opinion that advertising should not be banned in TV
programm s directed at young people.
Writing introductions
9 Read the Task 2 quest ions and .inlIocluctions bel ow. Match each introducti on
a---< with one of (he questions 1-4.
10
All forms of media but especially films and TV programmes sh uld be
censored to prate t young people. To what extent do you agre '?
2 The younger generarion are the main driving force behind many of the
latest technological developments . How far do you agree-?
'3 Blogs on the web are very effective ways for people to expres_ their ideas
and reliev tensions. hat is your opinion?
4 The modern emphasis on computer redu the development of any
creative abilit y. How far do you agre
a It is cen ainly importan l to mal'e sure th at people arc prnlc(lcci Imlll
harmful mnl erial in various media. However, J feel th at care need 10 be
taken in doino so f r ariou reasons.
b In some areas. i1 does appear that computers redt! e creativity. but 1 also feel
they can be used as a tool to develop cr ative abiHt)' in many Ii Id .
c hile the youth of today definitely have an impact on the way new
[echnology dev lops, there are other factors involved.
For the remaining tlll e, it ' our own int rodu tion. Try to paraphrase the
statement illl11e tit le in one sentence, and then write another statement to
show hoy you inte nd to organize your essay.
•• • •
UNIT 5 l' ollllJ
• •
• • • •• •
Practice Test 5
Task 1
You should spend abouI20 minurcs 011 this task.
The maps belol\' sholl' the c1wnges that han, t.7J.:cn plocc at tl7C seaside resort of
Ternpletol1 bctwee111990 and 2005.
Summan"ze the informatio11 by selectil1f) and reportinf) tile main features, and make
C(llJ1p; ,.nisul1s Hil,erI' relevant.
Write at ie(1S1 } 50 wNds.
-
9

t 9
f1f1


III a III
_HOsPital
9
\.-J"
9ITf1
9

y
_tQ
9
9
9

-11 'f.tstation
N
t
Task 2
YOli shouid spend ab011 1.f O mi ilLiles ,1 Ji. Ihis task
Write aboll t the fall ol,vi ll
zJ
!opiC.'
1990
_ HOsPit al
Ferry
2005
YoulIg people are milch 1rI00·e {/ware of and concerned about issues like the
cl1virOl'l1l1ellt, poverty, and animal welfare Ihall previ,,1/.' gl!l1i."1"atiofls. WhClt is your
O\VII opil1iOJ"I?
Giw rf,1$[>I15 for your {i I/s,ver mul iil c/I/de allY relevant examples/rom YOllr own kl1O\.l'!edge or
experieJl ce.
Write at least 250 lyards.
• • •
45
U N I T
6
II
•••
46
Culture
Unit aims
Task 1
•••••••••••••••
Task 2
Concluct ing statement s
Concession {11
Expressing advantages and disadvantages
Advantage and disadvantage vocabulary
Concession (2)
•••••
Task 1 Concluding statements
1 Rank the ideas in the list below 1-10 according to how important they are in
developing understanding between different cultm es (1 = most important;
10 = lease important). Think of examples to justify Y0ul ideas.
organized student exchanges
l:ll1guage learning
international tra de agreements
similar cl imate and landscape
joint cultural events
tmns pon links
tourism
shared scientific and technological know-how
positive media images
similarities in lifestyle and cuhure
2 Which of the ideas in 1 can be carried out by individuals? which can be
carried au( by governments? Which are difficult to change?
3 Statements a-c were used to conclude descriptions of data. Put the words in
italics in the conect order.
a It is clear that JII1?jcnilylpc·L'plel oven'.'/'lZlminqlof/theh-l·cre/,lfljm.·(1J!rim sL·bl )()1
visits between countries.
b OveralL just over half tIl e people su rveyed fou od the climate in the tropi cs
the m05·t difficult thing to ildapt to, alnlll llbcrlwithh"Jil l111cr-l nami llgl all dl

c The lhree languages in question, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese, were named
as after En glish by ab,; H! l of!equnllpeopl elJi li mbers.
4 An sw er these questions about the sentences in 3.
a Which topic in I do they rdatr' to?
b Which pie chart 1-4 on p8gl' 47 vvonld be a good illustrati on of each
concluding statement in 3? esc the proportions in each sentence to
help you.
·1
Technique
Aim to Include
several key features
• In your description:
• a paraphrase of
the question. a
proportion phrase,
some compari son.
some general and
specific statement s.
and a concluding
• statement.
UNIT 6 CII 1/11 re

5 Pie charts are frequently used to summarize dat a. Therefore, they can often
by used as the basis for concluding statements. Match each of the foll owing
conclusions to one of the pie chart s 1-4 above.
a To conclude. only a small minority of people felt that the language banier
would prevent the development o( cultural links. .
b It is evident thar opinions are split almost equally between the three options
as regards the benefits of joinr cultural ventures.
c It would seem that the vast maj ority of people th ink tha r rhe development
of trade links has the greatest impact on international relations.
d Just under hall the peopie surveyed are of the opinion that China wou L be
th e biggest cultural influence in tbe world by 2020.
e About hall of the holiday makers visited ltaly because they were interested
in the art and culture, whereas the food and the cl imate were named as he
most important factors by approximately equal numbers of the remaining
tOlJ rists in the survey .
6 Rewrite the sentences below using a suitable phrase from [h Ii {.
nearly a third almost equal numbers the vast major ity
a tiny minority just under half nearly two-thirds
Examples
Govemmen t subsidies accounted for 63 per cent of all funding.
Govemmen t su bsidies accounted for nearly two-thirds of all funding.
a Eighty-seven per cent ofholiday makers to China were very satisfied with their
experience.
b It is clear that about 50 per cent of both sexes favoured increased cultural
contacts.
c Only eleven percent offilmgoers though t films helped promote cultural
awareness.
d In conclusion, the trend is clearly upward wi th 47 per cent of companies
establishing new trade and cultural links in 2005 .
e To sum up, 32 per cem of all tourists were on some form of package holiday.
7 Look again at the Sl'mences in 3,5, and 6. Make a list ofphra es which are
used to indicate conclusions.
•• 47
Sat isfaction rating
Not sure
48 •••••
The table below shows tile age profili! ofro.llrisls 011 backpacking holidays am
guided tours in Ne w Zealand in 2005, (/11£1 the pie chart gives the satisfaction
rating of their slay.
Age profile Backpacking Gujde d tOU-r5
18-30 62% 7%
23% 22%
41-50 10% 57%
Other 5% 14%
SWJlmari::<, tile infllrlll'arioJl bJ" si!leC-l iJlg ml(/ repo,1ing the maln featu res, alld
make wll1pa";sons where relevdll1.
8 Read the Task 1 question and answer questions a-c ..
a How does the age prof.ile of people on each holiday type differ?
b Which age group is almost equally represented on each type of holiday?
c How would you describ the opinion of the majorit y of visitors?
9 Complete (he model (ext wit h verbs from the box. The firs t gap ha been
done for you.
comes accounts for bel ong
make up
prevtdes
include enjoyed is rated
Model text
1he. table I .. a bre.a\::down
age group of those on
ba(.\::pac.\::ing and gUided tours in New
l.ealand in 200'5, with the pie c.hart
indic.ating whether the.i 1. •.• .•• .....•.••.••
their holida'j.
Au c.an be seen from the table. the age
profile of people on the two different
"tipes of holidai varies c.onsiderabli- For
the majorlti «(,z. per c.ent) of
tl1ose. on bac.\::pac.\::ing holidai£
? ................ . . to the IS-3D age range,
but the 5ame age group <\ ••••• •••••• •• ••••
3 small proportion (seven per c.e.nt) of
tl1ose. on gllided tours. \1oweve.r, the
pattern is the c.omplete reverse when it
s .... .. ....... " .. to 41-'50 iear-olds.1hese
people (; .................. 51 per c.ent of those.
on gUided tours, despitl', aa.ounting for
onli ten per c.ent of bac.\::pac.\::ers.
e>i c.ontrast the profiles for botl1
bac.\::pac.l::ing and gUided tours
1 . ................. roughli equal proportions
from the 31-40 age group: Z.3 and Z.2 per
c.ent resped ivel'{.
It is c.\e<l r from the pie c.hart that New
l.e.aland S ............ . ..... as a popular
holidai destinatiol1 among the
of all holida,{-mal::ers, with a massive 53
per c.ent from both groups stating the'{
enjoied their holida'{
10 which phlase is used to indicat e a concl uding statement in th e model text?
Technique
Show that you can
• combine ideas into
complex sentences.
UNIT 6 Culture
••••••
Concession (1)
11 Read the example sentences below. Then answer questions a-c.
Examples
Fifty-seven per cent of people on guided tours were aged 41-50, although only
leD per cent of backpackers belonged t o this age group ..
Fifty-seven per cent of people on guided tours were aged 41-50. Nevertheless,
only ten per cem of backpackers belonged to this age group.
a Which linldng phrases are used t o introduce a contrast?
b How are the phrases used d.ifferently?
c Find three examples of similar phrases in the model text in 9. Which
phrases in the example sentences are they like? Which phrase can only e
used before a Doun or an -i l1g form?
12 M,ltch a-e below with suitable follow-ons 1-5 to create correct statements
abom the data in 8.
a Despite accounting for nearly eq ual proporti ons of each holiday type.
b Althougli people aged 4 1- 50 were dominant on guided tour ',
c Gui ded tours were leas t popular among people in the 18- 30 age group.
d One in ten people said that they didn't enjoy their boliday.
e Only fourt een per cent of peopl e (rom the ' other' category chose guided
tours.
they still accounted for one in ten backpackers.
2 Nevertheless, most clearly expressed satisfaction.
3 this age group still accounted for under a quarter of each.
4 However, that was still a higher proportion than the J 8- 30 age group.
S bllt they were most popular with the oldest group.
13 Join each of the following sentences using the phrase given.
a The vast majority of visitors to Britain come from Europe. However, they
stay for fewer than ten days on average.
Although ... ... ... .. .. .. ............................................. .. ................................................... .
b Forty-five per cem of people speak a foreign language. Neverthele s. the
vast majorit y are at a low level.
Although forty· five per cent ................................................................................ .
c It has good weather. However. southern France is visited by only two per
cem of Asian tourists.
d
e
Despite .. ........ .. ... .. ... .. ........ .. ........ ..................................... .
The cost of student exchanges went up.
exchanges rose.
The number of studenr exchanges ............................ ..
The event was promoted to teenagers.
only 32 per cent of the audience.
Although ......... .... .. .. .................................... .... .. .. ; ... .. ... ... .
• • • 49
50 ••••
Task 2 Expressing advantages and disadvantages
1 Look at the photos of popular electronic items. Which ideas in the box
explain the popularity of each item in the pictures? What do you think the
next electronic craze will be?
size design portability
business need entertainment
technology
fashion price
2 Read the Task 2 question below. Then answer the questions.
Portable entertainment devices, such as MP3 or DVD-players, which allow
people to listen to music or watch films on the move, are now commonplace.
What do you think are the main advantages and disadvantages of this
development?
a Which part of the question states the general subject?
b Which part of the question contains the organizing words?
3 Decide whether each idea below is an advantage or a disadvantage. Which
entertainment devices would you associate them with?
a It helps people to relax.
b It allows people greater freedom.
c It reduces communication.
d It makes life more enjoyable.
e It makes entertainment more accessible everywhere.
It makes people more isolated.
g It is a nuisance for other travellers.
h It makes people less sociable.
4 Complete each sentence a-fwith a word from the box.
help difficult interfere benefits ideal enable
a These devices bring a number of .................. .
b The main one, in my opinion, is that they .................. people relax, for
example, while they are studying or working in cafes or on trains.
c Some people find it .................. to do so when it is completely quiet outside
their homes.
d So these devices .................. people to relax and create a familiar
environment.
e Sometimes, however, they do .................. with others if the volume is too
high, hence the quiet zones in many trains.
f Nevertheless, laptops, etc are .................. , because they allow people to do
things where they want to rather than being restricted to working at home.
5 Decide whether the words in 4 express advantage or disadvantage.
6 The sentences in 4 form a paragraph taken from an answer to the Task 2
question. Answer questions a-c
a Which sentence in 4 expresses a disadvantage?
b Which linking phrases are used in 4?
c Which ideas from 3 are used in the paragraph?
Technique
Use nouns. verbs
and adjectives.
such as benefit and
• drawback. which
• express advantages
and disadvantages
as trigger words to

help you plan.
UNIT 6 Culture
••••••••
7 The paragraph below is taken from a similar answer. Complete the
paragraph with words from the box.
even if likewise
consequently
for example though
and although
The main drawback is. in my opinion, quite obvious. Take I ................. .
people of all ages who are travelling on trains nowadays. 2 ................. they
are reading, they are plugged into the radio. talking on their mobiles, or
listening to music on their MP3-players. 3 .................. , others are playing
games, watching a film, and working simultaneously, even 4 ................ ..
they have friends next to them to talk to. 5 ........ ........ .. this allows people
greater freedom and flexibility 6 .............. .... takes away the boredom of
journeys, people are becoming more and more isolated in their own
worlds. 7 .... .............. , the an of communication is being lost.
8 Answer these questions about the paragraph in 7.
a Does this paragraph concentrate on an advantage or a disadvantage?
b Which ideas does this paragraph mention from the list in 3 on page 50?
c Underline the main advantage and disadvantage in the paragraph.
Advantage and disadvantage vocabulary
9 Nouns can be used to express advantage and disadvantage. Complete
sentences a-g with words from the box.
benefit problems opportunities chance
handicap drawbacks gain
a Not knowing a foreign language has its .................. , such as when one tries
to make contact with people in other countries.
b Visiting other countries gives people a ........... ....... to experience cultures first
hand.
c The financial .................. to any nation exceeds all other benefits.
d If people take time to find out about the country they are travelling to, they
will face fewer ................ .. .
e These days not having access to the web to find out what is going on is a
serious .................. .
Cultural exchanges offer enormous .................. to the nations involved.
g Being culturally aware is of great ..... ............. in business.
Adjectives can also be used to emphasize advantage and disadvantage. Does
the word serious in ge emphasize advantage or disadvantage?
• • •• 51
52 ••••
11 Decide whether each adjective in the box expresses advantage or
disadvantage.
66.6f1t6geeus beneficial useful worthless
invaluable difficult helpful convenient
Advantage:
Disadvantage:
12 Write the opposite of each of the adjectives in 11. Where possible, add or
remove a prefix or suffix to create the opposite.
Example
advantageous
13 Verbs can also indicate advantages and disadvantages. Complete the
following sentences in your own words.
a International arts festivals encourage ................................................................... .
b Lending artworks to other countries improves .................................................... .
c Films and concerts enhance ................................................................................... .
d To enable children to value their heritage, ....... .................................................. .
e Personal links can benefit ....................................................................................... .
Ignorance of other people's traditions can handicap ......................................... .
g To prevent countries falling out with each other, .............................. ................. .
Concession (2)
14 Read sentences 1 and 2 and answer the questions a and b.
1 Although the vast majority of electronic devices are very usefuL they are
also highly annoying.
2 Despite being highly annoying, the vast majority of electronic gadgets are
very useful.
a Which word introduces the concession in each case?
b Which sentence emphasizes the advantage? Which emphasizes the
disadvantage?
15 Complete sentences a-e with words from the box.
nevertheless however despite although but
a .................. listening to music on CDs is very pleasant, it is not as good as a
live concert.
b Documentaries are invaluable sources of knowledge ......... .......... , they need
to be entertaining as well as informative.
c .................. the large numbers of tourists, ancient buildings and temples are
still inspiring places to visit.
d Sculptures can make gardens and public spaces attractive ................... , they
are expensive to look after.
e Arts exhibitions show the public artefacts they would not normally see,
.................. at a price.
• • • • • •• •
••••••••••
Practice Test 6
Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
••••••••
UNIT 6 Culture
•••••
The table below shows how young people in Tokyo, Japan, listened to music over the
previous month. The pie chart shows a record company's international findings about
whether people preferred live or recorded music.
Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
Male
Female
Live music
60%
44 %
Preference
4%
EI Live • Recorded 0 Don't know
Task 2
MP3-players
79%
40%
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
Internet CDs
55 % 19%
42% 22%
It is important for travellers and business people to understand the cultures they come
into contact with, however briefly. What are the main advantages of doing so? What
do you think is the main disadvantage of not doing so?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words .
• • •• 53
UN I T
54 ••••
Arts and sciences
Unit aims
Task 1
Adverbs
Using adverbs to evaluate data
Avoiding irrelevance
Task 1 Adverbs
••••••
Task 2
Discllssing other people's opinions
Hypothesizing
••••••
1 Read these conflicting views about scientists moving to rich countries,
Answer questions a-c.
The 'brain drain' of skilled workers like scientists and to rich
econon1ie5 is morally wron g.
People should have greater freedoDI to work where Lhey want. Surely. it's a
I e,-s.mal matter.
a Which views do y t.l·ll agree wi th?
b Is [his 'brain drain' a new phenomenon. or has it been around for a long time?
c Should somdhing be done about the situation or is it uns roppable?
2 Read the Task 1 questi.on below. Then answer questions a-e.
Sources of funding for R&D in the UK
o Govemment I
-
I
• Business
,
o Overseas
1999
I
2000
-
I
200 1
,
I I I
10 20 30 40 50
The cha rt abOlJe shows sources of funding for researCH and devel'opment (R&D)
in tile UKfronJ 1999 to 2001. The table below SllOWS tlte percentage of natio11al
income spent on R&D for a range of collntries.
Proportion of national income allocated to R&D (1999)
UK USA Germany France Ital y Japan ED average
1.82% 2.75 % 2.4% 2.3 % 1.1 % 2.9% 1. 81 %
Summmi:e the information by' selecting and repOi1.ing tile ltIain featl/res, and
make compm7so11s where relevant.
a What general tr end can you see in the chart?
b What general pattern can you see in the table?
c Which is clearly the main source of fundin g in [he bar chan?
I
60
d Which piece of data in the table can you Use as a standard for comparison?
e Which pieces of information in the table are signili cant?
UNIT 7 Arts ani! scil!llces
• •
3 Complete (he modellexl below with verbs from the box.
rose contributed (x 2) was overtook
was spent is shown came stmws
Modeftext
"The. c:narl I .. . .... information about
the main 50Un .. es of funding for uientific:
re5earc.h and development (\Z-W) in the
UK.1he. proportion of national inc:ome
spent 0tI j2.M) b'j LOuntf'j 1. ....•.. . .......... in
the table.
Betwe,cn Iqqg and 1-001, jht .amount of
funding al \oc.a"l e.d from eun soura·
., ......... ... ... ... vef'j slightll
half of all inve5tment throughout the
perioa 4 ...... .... ........ fr om busine.5s.
the. government wnsiste.ntl'j
last two 'je.ars it t. ................. . gove-mment
spending in this area.
N, regard.s the proportion of national
inc.ome a\\oc.ated to \2-&0. the. highef>t
perc.entage (1-8 per a .nt) 1 .. ... ......... .... b'j
rapan. fo\\owd c:\05e\'j b'j the U'Sf-
(2.'5 per·Le.nt). B'j contrast l"tal'{
.................. ihc sma\\uit amoLi nt of
national inc:ome to on\'j1.l per c:ent,
f>ignific:antl'j be-low the f,U average of 1$1
per cent
It if> interef>ting to note that al1hough the
? .................. around seventeen per c.ent.
It is abo notic:eable that in IqqS ana Iqqq
over5e.af> '!>pending on in the. UK
wa'!> wmparab\e. to the government' 5, at
around seventeen per c.e.ni. But for the
Uk'5 spending on \2.&D 1 ........... ....... above
the f,U average in IqqS. ii if> c.on'!>iderab\'j
be.hind othe.r dose trading partners
Franc.e and bermanl
4 find examples of adverbs ending in -ly used in [he modeltexl.
5 Choose (he most suitable adverb in sentences a-h.
Examples
The trend for other countries was completely/wd1 different.
Government investment rose significantly/ ftigftIy.
a The government's spending for the past year was significantly /weli higher
than before.
b Women have been consistently /deeply under- represented in science jobs.
c Workers in highly/lowly/considerably paid jobs are generally healthier.
d Th e company's sales are slightly/much behind its competitors.
e Sales were marginally/deeply up OD the previ ous quarter.
Investment in the arts rose quite considerably/slightly/seriously.
g S!ightly/Approximately/Welll1aJf the spending was from the private sector.
h The income for the arts centre was substantially/much/highly down on the
previous year.
6 Match the adverbs a-g below with their opposites 1-7.
a .vcID I rapidly
b marginally 2 slightly
c approximately 3 exactly
d constantly 4 badly
e slowl y 5 considerably
f significantly 6 partiall y
g completely .' 7 errat ically
55
Technique

Use at least one
• adverb or adverbial
• phrase to help you
• evaluate the data.
..
56 •••••
Using adverbs to evaluate data
7 Look again at [he model te x. '1 in 3 on page 55 . Which phrases arc:: used to
introduce sentences instead of noticeably and illteresting/v?
8 Rewrite each sentence a-b using an adverb or starting with It.
Example
Clearly, the trend is upward.
It is clear that the trend is upward.
a It is significanr tbat the number of sci entists per head of population has
de clined in recent y ars .
b Imere tingly, the sales failed to recover.
It .................... ............................ ............................. .. .. .................... , ...... , .................. .
c It is probabl e that numbers will continue to fall over the period.
d It is not surprising that there were skills sbortages in the chemical industry.
e Evidently. inveSl ment needs to be increased.
It ... , .... , .......................................... , ... , ......... , ...... , .. , .... , .. , ......... , ... .. ... .. , .. .... .. .......... .... ,
Noticeably. the pattern for mv lInen! in the art is the revers .
It ........ ...................................... .... ........................................................................... ..
g More importantly, Ihe cost f plasma scre ns is set to fall.
It ............................................................... .. ' ...... ... .................................... , ...... " ........ ,
h Not surprisingly, analogue TV sales then fell.
It ............................................................................................................................... .
9 DifferCIH adverbs can be put in different pillces i.n sentences. Which
sentences a-d are possible?
a Considerably. sal es fell.
b Sales fell considerably.
c Clearly, the trend was downward.
d The trend was clearly downward.
10 Put th e adverb in bracke ts in [he correct place in Ih e sencence. Some can be
used in morc than one place.
11
a The number of science graduates fell. (signifi cantly)
b The number of techni.cal staff in hospitals is falling. (evidently)
c The cost of training scien tists is increasing year by year. (noticeabl y)
d Investment in cap:ital equipment like specialist machinery is down on last
year. (in teres tingly)
e Sales of new televisions soared before the World Cup, (not surprisingly)
The trend is now upward. (obviously)
Write your own sentences about the data in 2 on page 54.
a Describe the bar chart, u ing marginally, apprpximately, and slowly .
b Describe the table, using considerably. evidently, noticeably, slightly, and
interestingly.
Technique
Do not speculate
when you describe
data unless you
are asked to. Avoid
writing lists of
detail
UNIT 7 Arts and deuces

Avoiding irrelevance
12 Look at the chart below, which shows how students on all courses at an
Australian university vkwed subjects on a scale of easy to difficult.
Answer questions a-f.
100%
80%
20
60%
30
60
40%
25
20
60
G Easy
20%
010
o Moderately 30
difficult
25
2Q

• Di fficul t
0%
Languages Chemistry Physics Maths Art
languages languages
a Whose opinions does the chan show?
b How many subjects does the chart show?
c Which subject was rated as 'diffi cult' by the hi ghest percentage of tudents?
d Which other subjeCTS were judged ' difficult' or ' moderately diffi cult' by a
large number (over 70 per cent) of students?
e Which subject was rated as ' easy' by the highest percentage of students?
f Is there a clear correspondence between the type of subject and whether it
was rated as easy or difficult? Give examples to show why/why not.
13 Decide whether the statements a-f are relevant or irrelevant and explain
why. Irrelevant statements may contain an unnecessary opinion, too much
data, or unnecessary speculation.
a The subject which was ra ted as difficult by the highest percentage of
students (70 per cem) was mathematics, mainly because I think it is
complex for many students.
b By contrast, the subject which was most often judged as easy was d1emistry.
c T-he chart shows tbe opinions of Australian students on whether different
subjects \vere easy or difficult .
d Airican languages ,;vere seen as easy, which is somewhat surprising when
YOll consider the range of languages in Africa.
e Oriemallanguages were ranked as easy by only abOll t 20 per cent.
f The Y axis shows the percentages, and the bars contain the numbers about
tbe legend at the bottom.
14 Describe the chart in 12 in your mvn words.
••
57
58
.. '
Task 2 Discussing other pe ople's opinions
1 Complet the list bel ow with a famous artist and scientist from our coumry.
Leonardo da Vi nci
Albert Ei nstein
Si r Isaac Newton
Ni colaus Copernicus
a Are the people in the list famous in your ountry?
b What do you know a out them if they are?
c What benefit do artists and scientists bring to societ y?
d Do art ist an d scientists in your society have a hi gh or low status?
e Should scientists and artists be govemed by the same rules as we are? Why
do you thi nk 507
2 Read the Task 2 ques[iOD b(>Jo\'V and say which p art of the qu 'S UOIl rd a[es [0:
a people's opinions abOllt the arts?
b people's opinions about sciences?
c your opinion?
Some people belie ve tllat tile arts should receive ubsidies or spoJ/SorslIip
f rom governmellt l.11l d big companies. Others f eel suell speud il1g is a
[uxury and that it would be better if it were invested il1 scientific project.
Discuss both views arid give your own opinion.
3 Complete the paragraph with sentences a-c.
a So supporte.rs of art groups feel that the ompany's tra I and
accommodation costs ought {Q recei ve more sub idies or spon orship .
b Touring thea rre groups or dan e companies are a case in poin t.
c Nlany peopl e feel strongly that arts projects like exhibitions of photography.
sculpture, or paintings hould be helped financially by gov rnment and big
companies.
1 .. .. .. .. .... .. .... . They argue that such projects enrich people's lives, often
simply because they are new and show a different way of doing things.
2 ...... .. .. . .. ..... . National companies, for exampl e, can take plays to provincial
areas that don't have their own facilities. This, however, requires a lot
of money. 3 .. ....... .. .. ..... , If thi s were done more by the government and
commercial organizations, then the arts could be brought to a wider public,
4 Which phrases are used in (he paragraph in 3 to i nd icate someone else's
opinion?
UNIT 7 A rls ami sLiences
5 Match the statements a-h wit h the best explanations l-8.
Example: a4
a Amateur arts groups should be en couraged.
b The wealth of a na tion is connected with sdeutific development.
c Science is n ow playing a more important role in our lives than in the past.
d The work of artists should be censored.
e Scientists should have some involvement with artists, and vice versa .
Science is dull and boring.
g Many sdentific e"X.-perimenrs are dangerous to society.
h The work of scientists should Dot be tight ly regulated by socie ty.
Modern economies cannot ad ance without a strong scientific base.
2 Bringin g these two groups together would be bener for sodety as a whole.
3 It ha an effect on everything we 0 from eating to travelling.
4 Such groups help to develop talent and bring people together
5 Cert ain works of art tha t are produced are offensive and should be banned.
6 By limiting scientific work. we might stop certain beneficial devel opments.
7 There are many examples where serious mistakes have been made .
8 Spending time alone in laboratories without much human contact is not
very interesting.
6 It is often useful to suggest [hat an opini on bel ongs to someone else. Read
the example and phrases in the lists below. Th en join your ans \· ers to 5 with
similar phrases.
Example
Some people thin k thal amateur arts groups should be encouraged. rhey argile Ih.lt
such groups help to develop lalent and bring people together.
It is argued by some people that
Yet others believe that
Many people think that
A commonly held belief is that
Some people feel that
They claim that
They feel that
They maintai n that
They argue t hat
7 Use the expressions in the box below to develop the explanations in 5.
Example
They argue that such groups help to develop talent and bring people together. A
good example here is where a young artist joins a local group and progresses on to
TV work.
For example, For instance,
A very good example here is
A case in point is ' " ,which
Take ... for example. It/They
• •
59
Technique
Use linking phrases
like if and unless
in answer to Task 2
questions In order to
hypothesize about
effects.
601 •• • •
Hypothesizing
8 Match the semence halv s a-e wit h the end ings 1-5.
a Personally, I would argue that science need not be
b However, it could possibly be a requirement for the first two or three year ,
c During this time, children can do exciting experiments,
d If trips to places of sciemiiic interest are also arranged,
e Above all. I think it is better fOT science classes to be optional
thi s might motivate some children to take up a science subject.
2 obligatory at this level.
3 because n ot all pupils are good at such subjects and any compulsion migl:t
discourage them.
4 like making basic chemical compounds or colleeri ng plants .
5 as it wouLd give pupils a raster.
9 The sentences in 8 form a paragraph. Why has the writer chosen 10 use word
such as wOllld, ccJuld, and might? Which sentence ask lhe reader to imagine a
situation and iIS consequence?
1 0 The linki ng phrases if, providing, provided, and II It less can all b e used to
hypothesize . Read the example. Then rewrite sentences a-d using the word
given .
Example
A nati.on should nurture the talents of its people. It will then reap many
benefits.
If a nation nurtures the talents of its people, it will reap ~ w l l y bellefits .
a Without being encouraged by parents and teachers, budding
musicians will not develop.
Unless ...................................... ........................................ , ..................................... .
b Science may one day stop tbe ageing process in humans, but will this
benefi t mankind?
If .......................................................................... , .................................................. ?
c If there is no effort to keep traditional crafts alive, they will disappear.
Unless ..................................................................................................................... . .
d If innovation is encouraged, many new jobs will be created .
Providing ............................................................................................................ .... .
11 Complete the following sentences using yow- own ideas,
a Provided parents have an interest in music,
b If government support for arts projects is not available,
c Unless ntrance to museums and an gaLLeries is free,
d Providing young scientists are gi ven the right opportunities,

L
I
60
50
40
%, 30
20
10
0
UNIT 7 Arts and d efl cc:;

••••• ••

••
Pr actlce Test 7
Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
Tile charts belo\.'.! show how selected flge groups puc1Ulsed concert cinema, al1d theatre
tickets online over rIte fit-st three J/lOlltlis of 2006 ilt three cOlin tries and how tile
Internet was accessed.
SWllllwrize the illformation by selecting and reporting the maillfcatures, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
Most li kel y t o buy theat re/concert/ci nema Most common means of access
to buy tickets
Australia
tickets on li ne
I 025-4
4
1
65+
UK Malaysia
Task 2
70
60
50
40
% 30
20
10
0
Desktop
computer
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following tupie:
Laptop
o Australia
_UK
o MalaysIa
Mobile phone
The money spel1t on space re.,earcJ11ws brou.ght enormous bel1efits to mankind, but it
could be /JIore usefttlly applied. How fa.,. do yOIl 11gree?
Give reasons for your answer and i/1clude any relevant examples from your OW1/ or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.
611
••••••
• .... -
,Technique _
• Before you start •
• writing make a list
• of 'predict' verbs
• to use as trigger
words.
62 •••••.


Nature
. ...... _ ...... .
Unit aims
Task 1
Makrng predictions
Factual accuracy
••••••••••••
Task 1 Making predictions
Answer questions a-d.
Task 2
Articles
Writing conclusions
a What aspect of the future do the photos relate to?
b What en vi ronmental developments do you think wlll happen in your
country in the near fut ure?
c What other developments are happening in your country which are not
happening elsewhere in the world?
d What will your c untry be like in ten years' time? in 25 years'
2 Look at the bar chart and description below. Th en answer questions - c
Tlu bar cllm1 SIIOII'S the prt!dictcd nllmber of bll ildiJlgs that will be
powered by so/ar and willd energy in the flllll reo
2025
-
2020
-
2015

o 100 200 300
mil lions
400
I_ Wind power I
! CJ Solar enegy
500 600
a What does the chart show?
b What do the numbers relate to?
c What is the range of the numbers along the bottom of the d1arr?
3 The structure will + infiniti ve or a range of prediction verbs are used to talk
about future stati stics. Complete sentences a-d with tbe words will. predictioll
or predicted.
a The number of solar-powered buildings .................. increase to 500 million
in 2025 .
b It is .................. (hal the number of solar-powered buildings ................. .
increase in the future.
c The ................. . is that the n umber of building powered by solar energy
.. ................ increase .
d The number is ... , .......... ... to increase to 500 million in 2025 .
UNIT 8 Nature
•••• •
4 Answer these questions ;:tbout the StntL"nC\:s in 3.
a Which of these words could replace the word prediction?
projection assumption forecast anticipation
h Which of t hese words coul d replace the word predided?
projected anticipated forecast said
c which other words do you know [0 replace predidion and predicted?
5 Complete sentences a-h with the correct forms of the verbs j n brackets.
a It ................... ... ....... (predict) that in 202 5, solar energy ... , ........................ .
(provide) en ergy for 500 million buil dings worldwide.
b In 20 ) 5, abou t 25 million buildings .................... ......... (expect) to receive
energy from wind power,
c In 2025, much more energy to power buildings ............................. (come)
from solar energy compared to wind power.
d In the future, solar energy ............................. (forecast ) to be a much greater
source of energy than wind power.
e In the future, wind power ............................. (not expect) to be as great a
source of power as solar energy.
In years to come, it ............................. (proj ect ) that wind power
............................. (be) a less .i mportant source of energy than solar energy"
g Solar energy ............................. (set) to assume greater importance as a
source of energy in the fut ure.
h In 201 5, it ............................. (anticipate) that solar energy and wind power
each ............................. (provide) approximately the same amount of energy,
6 Which of the sentences below describes something which will bappen
before a futUre Time? Which describes something in progress aL a time in the
future?
a By 2025, 500 million buildings will have converted to solar power. (will have +
past participle)
bIn/By 2025. 500 milHon bnildings will be using solar power. (will be + ·il1!1
form)
7 Complete sentences a-e with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use
will + infinitive, will have + past participle, or will be + -ing form. You may also
need to use the passive.
a By 2020, it i expected that 30 million buildings ............................. (use) wind
power.
b By 2025, very few people ................ " ........... (live) in the countryside.
c In20IO, more bicycles ............................. (sell ),
d By 2020, it is predicted that many animals ............................. (become)
extinct.
e By the year 2015, it is anticipat ed that many narura! habitats
............................. (destroy).
• • 63
1.8
1. 6
1. 4
1.2
% 1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
factual accuracy
8 Look at the charts. Then ansvveT questions ,1-f.
Forecast for reforestion rate Forecast f or worldwi de
reforestati on rate
Current interest
in reforestat ion
in selected areas of t he world
IJI""
-
. -

i_ 2006
....,
,....,
- r- -
- -
- -
- 1- -
-
r-
-
-
f---
I--
!--
!--
!--
-
!--
1.4 .---- - - ----- - -
1.2 -1-------
% 1.0
0.8
0. 6
0.4
0.2
Hu'ng:!ry Tasmania-'
o
0 2015 020251
a Which chart provides more general information? Which c11art can be used
for the conclusion?
b In general, is the reforestation projected to increase or decrease?
c Which region is prOjected to have the highest rate")
d For which region does the chart show the greatest difference between 2006
and 2025?
e Which chart COntains information which could be used for a conclusion?
In generaL are most people concerned about reforesta tion or not?
9 Find and COlTed SL",( factual errors in the text below.
!he c.hartf> show fOrec.a5tf> for the. annual
de.forestation rate. in f>eluted regions
and worldwide together with the wrrent
attitude towardf> c.onc:.em for tre,e, 10f>5.
benerall i, it fore.c:.a5t that the
refore,f,tation rate in the four region5
will grow until UY3'5. though at vClf'-l ing
rate,s. It is prQjuted that Ire-lana \1ill have.
the highef>t rate in 202'5 at IS per c:.ent
followed c.\ of>el'j -raDrna nia. The- fore.ul5t
for bath regi ons for 20lS iD tl1e f>ame at
1.'5 per Gent. Hungal'(. b-t c:.ontra5t, \'litl1
tl1e 10\'leDl projec:.ted rate throughout
the pe.rioa, \'l ill the.
overall inGrease-. It iD antic.ipated tl1at the
figure lIlill £.limb from os pe.r (.ent in
WI? to 0.11 pe.r (.ent and then riDe- more
f>harpl'j to 1.1 pe.r c. e.nt.
It alf>o worth not ing tl1at the refore-fltation
rate in Thailand if> antic.ipate-a to be
ey.ac:.tli in line \'lith the worldWide average.
for both 2(11) and 2021). 1."3 per c,(',nt .
and 1.0 per c:. ent re5pec:.t ive-l,/- tJl eanwhi\ e..
!-\ur1gal'( will be, be,l ow tne international
rateD, whiie both Ireland and -raDmania
wi \1 ey.c.eed them.
f rom the pie c..hart, c.an be. f>een that
there if> some obvious wnc:.ern about the
nee,d for planting more treef> (wnc.erned'
"3'f per c:. ent, and 'not vef'j c.onc.erned' 2'5
per c.e,nt). while. at the 5ame time there is
a 5i1.eable. proportion of pe.ople who
not wnc.erned.
64 •••••
UNIT 8 a/llri!
..
lOIn each of sentences a-f (here is a word mis si ng. Add th mis ing w rd.
a It predicted that the use of solar energy will become more important.
b We see from the chart that largest amount of money wa spent on lhe warer
conservation project.
c The chart shows the different types of trees are found in different regions.
d From the pie chan, can be seen that hydroelectric power constitutes seven
per cent of the world energy demand.
e It is dear that majority of people are very concerned about climate change.
Recently, a number of campaigns have encouraged people plant trees.
11 Look agai n at the text in 9. Tbere is a missing word in each of tbe last three
p aragraphs. Add the missing words in the correct places . .
12 Read the table. vvh ich describes in thousands the estimated and actual
numbers of houses b uil t in the UK by region in 2002. Answer que lions a-h
to iden tify the conecl facts .
Regions Actu a l Estimated
Scotland 3,000 3,200
Nonhern Ireland 5,000 2,500
Wales 6,300 2,900
North of England 13,500 9,300
Central England 16,200 8,100
Southern England
77, 500 5UOO
(exc. London)
London 47,800 24,800
a What infonnation does the table give?
b How many region of the l JT< is it divided into?
c Usually, was the estimated Dumber above or below the actual n umber?
d In which three regions were the highest numbers of houses built? How did
th e figures for these regions compare with the estimates?
e Which region had a disparity of just over four thousand between lhe
estimate and the actual figure? What were the figures for thi' region?
f Which other two regi ons followed the usual trend? What were the figures
for these two regions'?'
g [n \.vhich region was the lowest number of houses built?
h Which region is an exception to t.he general trend? What were the figures
for this region?
13 Using the facts identified in your an 'weTS to tb e que lions above,
summarize the table by selecting and reporting the main fea nu es, and make
comparisons where relev ant. Wri te at least 150 words.
• 65
66 . •
Task 2 Articles
Answer ques\jons a-d.
a What are the most serious threats that the natural world is facing in the

b What is the most serious threae to the envi ronment in your counery?
c What action is being taken?
d What Cunher steps do you think could be taken?
2 The paragraph below has been taken Crom an essay on measures 10 reduce
river pollution throughout the world. Complete th gaps vdt h the nouns in
the box. The fir st one has been done for you.
factories pollutants action fish wildlife
pmblern leisure incent ives pressure
Pj fa r tne best to Mlve tne.
.. . of Vlater pollution to
locate all 1. . .. " ............. from rive,r5
and. and to in&tall treatment
center'b. i\\ I the .................. in tne wat\'.r
would then be a& ha& been
done in ol d areas in
Voland. and 1hi'b Vloula mean
that .. ................ and. 5 ..................
b\'. able to return to ri ve.r\:, and people
would. be able to use them for
v ... .......... .. ... liKe 5V1imming ana fi'bhing.
There i5 c.on5iderable. 1 ....... . .. ........ on
mani poor countrie& to ckvdop tne.ir
uonomie5 ana 'bO it Vlould b\'. diffiwli to
per&uade mani of them to c:.hange their
pOlic. ies. l1owever, I thinK tha1
'I}, . .. .... , ......... nud.s to be taKen an
perhaps financ.ial 1 .. ................ from
ric.her c.oun1ries would help,
3 AJ'e the words in the lis! below coulltJ.ble or uncountable?
animal
knowledge
information nature
research weather
climate accommodation
tree idea situation fact
4 Look again a( [he paragraph in 2. Are the answers countab Ie or uncountabl e?
5 Add a/an, the, or no anicle [0 sentences a-h.
Examples
The plastic bottles that I threw out yesterday have been taken away for
recydilig:'
Plastic bottles are now being made of .................. biodegradable material ' _ (no
article)
a .................. knowledge about the environment can be foun d in ................. .
books and on the Internet.
b .. ................ energy can be generated from bio-fuels .
( Trees belp to protect .................. soil by conserving wa t r
d Newspapers now use ........... .. ..... hi gh percentage 0 .................. re yel d
paper.
e Looking after .................. nature is important for all of us.
It is better to see animals in .................. wild than in captivity.
g .................. solution to the problem is to fine people for dropping ........ ... , .... ..
rubbish.
h ............ "" .. new plastic containers which 1 bought last week are not harmful
for the environment as they are biodegradable.
UNIT 8 Nallln

6 In each text a-f, th ere is one mistake relating to artjcles. Con eer the mistakes
by adding or deleting a ·word.
Example
Animals like chimpanzees and apes should not be used for the ex-periments.
a Wave power technology is the best answer to the problem of poll ution.
However, the int roduction of such technology also creates the problem.
b Governments worl dwide should tax the cars more. A measure like tbis
would make people think more about nature.
e In near future, bouses will be more energy-efficient than they are now.
d Food industry could pay for recycl ed bottles a Iv as done in the past. The
bot tles would then not be thr own away.
e Insects like the bees, for example, playa vital rol e in most ecosystems. The
bee pollinates plants and flowers.
The fadlities li ke dams and forests are also used for leisure.
Writ ing, COncllllSi oilS
7 Read the two Task 2 queSl tOns . Then decide which question each sentence
a- g relates 10. Write 1 or 2 next to each sentence,
1 Pol/Lltioll from aircraft is one of tlie main factors responsible for
global wm'mi 1f!I. What measures could be taken to l'edtlcc this sour Ce of
climate change?
2 Wilen a COUllt,)' become'S l"ichet : the natural ell d rMll11en t lI ' ill slljTn:
It is /"lot possible for a cOtm tly to both develop its economy and proteL"(
the envil'omnent. To what extent do you a,qree or disagree?
a This means that in the short term we will just have 10 accept paying higher
prices for flights and Ira veUing less.
b In concl usion. I do nOI agree [hat developing a country' s e onomy has to
invol ve dest roying the nat ural world.
c If this type of eco-friendly business is encouraged, then there is no reason
why a healthy economy and a healthy environment cannot exist together.
d All in all I feel that imposing higher taxes on airlines is unavoidable.
e It is true that some businesses move into new areas with no regard for t hei r
effect on the environment.
We can cenainly investigate "lIays of making aixcrah technology cleaner,
but we do not know how long tbey will take to develop.
g However, there are many examples of local busine ses whi ch depend on
and support the local envi ronment .
II • 67
Technique
Always write a
concl usion to your
answer Avoid
repeating words in
your conclusion.
6a •••••
8 A conclusion needs to state your opinion or your most important idea, and
remin d (h e reader of how you argued in favour of it. The sentences in 7 on
page 67 form concluding paragraphs to th e e ~ am question . Wr it e out the two
paragraphs with the sentences in the best order, following the frameworks
hd ow.
Question I
Statement of most important measure:
Another possible measure and why it is Jess effective:
Restatement of most important measure and its consequences:
Question 2
Statement of opinion:
Reference to the opposite vie "' :
Reason against the opposite view:
Restatement of opinion:
9 Look at {he underlined. phrases in the sentences in 7. For each one, ch oose
two alternatives with a similar meaning from the box below.
to sum up I believe of cou rse I would argue that in gene ral
1 0 Your conclusion must be dear but you need to avoid making claims that
sound roo strong. One way to avoid this is to talk a boUt possibilit ie u ing
the phrase There is /10 reaslJ !I WilY + neg.1ti\' e. Read the exampl . Then change
sentences a-d in a similar way.
Example
A healthy economy and a healthy environment can exist together.
There is /10 reason why a healthy econ omy and a h ealthy environmen t cannot
exist toget her.
a Local eeo-friendly businesses can be successful.
b People could take more holidays at home instead of always flying abroad.
c People could travel by fast train instead of taking short flights .
d Governments should gi ve special financial support to eeo-friendly busine s
people.
••
UNIT 8 Na/llre
••• •
••••
Practice Test 8
Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The table below silo II'S tile projected costillgs OVe/' tl1e next five years in American
dollars for tJu'el! ClIVil'OlImental projects Jor SItS/ainable forestry. The pie chal1 shows
the e.ypected e.i'peilditur.e breakdou'Jl aJ/ocll.tiol1 for the first year as the projects m-e
set LIp.
SI./JlllIlI1ri:e the injormution by se!utiJlfj and reporting the JTuli l l fi?alllreS, and make
cOlllparisMls where relevant,
Write at least 150 words.
Year 1 Year 2 Year3
West Africa 10.5 million 7.5 million 2.5 million
Central
20 rrul1ion 12 million 5 million
America
Sout h -east
30 million 20 million 40 million
Asia
Projected expenditure in Year 1
• Set-up costs
• Salaries
o Training
o Office expenses
Task 2
You should spend about 40 m i n u u ~ s on this task
Write about the following topic:
Year 4 Year 5
2.5 million 3.5 million
5 million 5 million
50 million 50 million
More and more city W01*ers are deciding to live il1 the country and travel into work
every day. TIre rest/It is increased traffic cong.estion and damage to fIle 1!!1\'irOJlJIICJIt.
What measures do you thil1k could be taken to encourage people not to travel such
long distllJlces ilf to \i'Ll7'k ?
Give reasons for your ansl'.ver and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write alleast 250 words.
69
U N IT
70 • - •••
Health
Unit aims
Task 1
Varying vocabulary
Checking spelling
••••••
Tasl< 1 Varying vocabulary
Task 2
Organizing words
Verb-subject agreement
1 Answer these questions about hospitals and h alrh care.
a What are the m,li ll p::i"ri( ics of health care in your counlry?
b How is health Gl rc delivered in your home country? If YOll want to nsu it
a doctor. what do you do? -
c Are medicines fre e or do you have to pay for tbem?
d What effect has technology had on medical care in your country'?
2 Read the Task 1 question on page 71. Then arlswer questi ons a-e below.
a What general statement can you mak about the whole graph? Look at the
deSCription and the graph itself.
b What general statement can you make about the French hospital?
c What general statement can you make about the Ukrainian hospital ?
d How can you link the pie charts to the graph?
e How could you use these words to describe the graph.
trend
except that
upward similar pattern reach a peak
saw a continuous rise change coinci de
UNIT 9 rIealtlr


The cllarts below show the average bed use i/1 three rypiml hospitals
illt f l'J1lItiolla/ly and ,lie prop01'til1 n of 1111spital bll dgets a/ll)J Cl"lt ed to
care before and after day-surgery was introc/llced in 2003.
Average bed use for the years 1997- 2006
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
o
-----
.
--
--
...
---.
...
--

.....
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Funds allocated to in-patient care 2002
In-patient
35%
Other cost.
65%
Fu nds allocated to in-patient care 2006
In-patient
27%
Other costs
73%
StwllJl tl r .fze O,e il1fonndtiorJ by seli?ctill9 and reportil1g JIIllill fe.lil/ res, mid
make comparisDns wher e relevant.
3 Complete the text with words frout the box. The first ha. been don for
you.
peak impact
marked reduction
Model text
clear
falling
The graph proviaes I .. . ... about
the. average be.ds in use. eae-h iear in
three similar hospitals before ana after
the introaudion of da'j-c.are. wryer'! .
Da'j-e-are surgef'j seems to have h;}d
an"l. .................. on bed use in all three
hospitals. A.t the. frene-h hospital . the.
figures an upwara ? ............. . ... .
over the. perioa from 40 be.cis to 4(".
Kowever, in 2.003 bed 4 ...... .. ..... . .... had
reac.hed a ................. . of just under 10
beds, before (. .................. bac.k. A. similar
pattern was repe.ate.ci for the UKrainian
hospital, e"1-(.ept that the du.line in bed
oeeu paney trend
sign ifieantly rise
det-&i+s
experi enced
use after 2.00"3 WaS not so 1 ......... .•. ......
(1(; beds in 2.00"3 as against 11 in 2.00v).
1he Chinese hospital, b'f c.omparison,
s .................. a c.ontinua\ 'i .................. in
be.d use behJeen \ Q'l1 and 2.00(;. 11 ;lIla
q"3 re.spe.c.tivel'j. l1o\'lever, we. see. that after
2.004 the rate of ine-re.ase \'las
I •....•• .. ..• •. .. slower than in previous
,{ear", .
It is II .................. that the fall in be.d use
c. oinc.iaes wi th the 11 .. . . . ......•...... in the.
average budget at the three hospitals for
in - patient c-are (?? pe.r a,nt c.ompared to
2.1 per e-ent) between 2.002. and 2.00(;.
•• • 71
Technique
Use a variety
of alternative
expressions when
writing your answer
to avoid repetition.
72 •••••
4 Look again at the words in the gaps in 3 on page 72 and choose an alternative
[or eadl one fTom the box. You \'vill no'! use aliI th e words.
effect use
increase
saw
tendency cut considerably low
decrease droppi ng informat ion
high point sharp dramatically
evident
result
5 For each sentence a-h, there are three alternative phrases to replace the
phrase in it alics. Delete the option which is nOI correct.
a The graph provides details about bed use. (gives/says/shows)
b The introduction of day-care surgery had an impact on bed use. (had all effect
on/ had an affect on/ affected)
c Bed use reached a peak of just under 70 beds. (reached its highest point/reached
a height/hit a peak)
d A similar pattern was se n in th Ukra inian hospita l. (designl trmdlmovellleJ/ (}
e The Chinese hospital, by comparison. continued to see a rise. (by contrast/oil
the other hand/alternatively)
The number of beds ro e from 40 to ar und 45. (approximatelY/l1bolltltoll'ards)
g There was a reduction in the budget ( 35 per cent compared (027 per cent).
(as opposed tolas against/colltrast with)
h The change in bed use is reflected in the budget. (call be seen in/ can b viewed
in/can be detected in)
6 The descripti ons below sUmnlarize the sentenc Slr uctW'e of the model in 3.
Number the notes in the correct order, based on the sentences in th mode\.
The first and last have been done for you.
a General introdu ctory statement .
b Gen · ral statement of first main trend, then specifi c data.
c General statement abom a reinforcing trend, then specifi c dat a.
d Spe ific statement qualifying the trend. without detail.
e General statement about the line graph.
General statement of contrasting trend, then specific data .
g SpeciHc statement qualifying the trend. with detail.
h General conclusion based on pie charts. ... .. J? ..... .. .
UN'T 9 He(llth
•• •
Checking spelling
7 In each group of fOUT words, circle the one which is spell incorrectly and
correct it.
a therdore opposite bcfor limit
b believe achieve recieve bri ef
c stay,ing stayed studing studi ed
d usefllil helpful hopefuUy carefully
e personaly practical usually normal
f efficient sufIicent ancient deficie nt
g unfortunately improvement definitly management
h comfortable diffrent temper ture interested
chaise price increLl se advice
prefe rred commitled rdered happened
8 Look again at your answers in 7. Some of the spellings dep end on simple
rules. What spelling rules explain the misspelt words? Compare your ideas
with tbe key on page llO.
9 Find and correct the spelling mistakes in the following sentences. One of the
semences has two spelling mistakes.
a The numbers declined gradualy and stood at JUS! rwen ry in 2006.
bIn-patient CZl re [Oak up 25 per cent of the funds, wieh was an increas e of SL,{
per cem on the previous yea r.
c A number of significant changes oecured in the following t venty years.
d The percemage increased sharply and reached a pick in 2003 .
e The figres rose from approximatly 45, 000 to 49,000 over the peri od.
Patient numbers rose steadily for the first ten years, and th en flactua ted
around 500 for the following decade.
g The required number of beds exeeded what was anticipa1ed for rha I year.
n Mos[ people in the servey thought that more money should be spent on the
health service.
10 Read the following extract written by an IELTS student on the number of
traffic accident victi.ms seen at a local hospital. Find the eight mistakes that
he made.
me averag numbe.r of rOad traffiL 3Lic\r.nts from mLrea""ed dramati(.a1i
petloJe-t,n Iqqr;; 3nd tne ie.ar 2.000, risi"s from a tob'l of '5'3 to Il£> respedive.ll Over
the. five ieaf5, tnen '1135 a notiLeap\e improvme.nt <15 number:> fell to
a new low point of?J in A'il regard mOlorLid uc.ide.nt5, noV/eve.r. it is dear
the. tnnd is upward, with more oLLuring in thi:> in the. later pe.r.iod.
••• 73
74 •••
Task 2 Organizjng words
1 Which of the following do you (hink are most imponam for good health?
Rank them .in order of importance (1 = most importan t; 6 = least important).
Are there any ot her lifest yle factors which are not included in (he list?
taking regular exercise carefui'ly monitoring your diet
having a wide range of int@rests having a wid@ netw(i)rk of friends
living in the countryside sleeping at least seven hours a nig ht
2 Complete the paragraph by choosing (he best adverb in each case.
!he 1 normallyloutlandishlylstrangely
benefi(.ia\ effec.t that have. on
people.'$ ne<lltn and general well-being is
now 1 tsf>t.ntiallylgoodlylwell ru.ogniz.ut
Ihe idea seem pec.uliar to some people,
but ;I surprisingly/shoc.kinglylunprtdidably
there. is dear evidel1Le of the. partnership.
laKe, the, e;f.,amp\r, of do\phiI15, whic.h are,
4 wildfy/Wide.fylhardly for their
bealing qualitle.$. DOg5 have· al50 bew
used to deted Lanc.er c.el\<:. 'i de.eplyl
proje.s5ionallylac.c.urately in pat ien15 and
are (, oftenlrartlylhardly even taKen
3!"ound hMpita\ 'tJard5 to be. ir'ltf"odua .. d to
1 seriously!17ugtly/deadly ill
of this partiw\ar partnership are
S importantiylrUJ li'yl we/l dowmente.d and
have led to animals being
freqUtnilylseldomlots to wpp\e.ment
c.DIlVl:-lltiollal mMic.ill(:' . 10 {5l1idtntlc.Jearlyl
Oddly. the. c.ondusion If> to maKe more
mone.1 available for .. ard1 Into
animalf> c.an benefit humans.
3 Which pattern does the paragrapb in 2 follow? which organizing \>\ur,: Jrt'
llsed to empbasize eacb elemem of the p attern?
a situation - examples - eUects - conclusion
b si tuat ion - effects - reasons - examples - conel usion
4 Complete sentences a-I with an organizing word from the box.
idea information issue knowledge measure
opinion problem scheme solution
a The best way to improve public health is to provide people with all the facts,
but the ......... ......... needs to be made simple.
b It is often suggested that national health systems should be modernized.
However, many people are opposed t o (he .. .. .. .. .......... of modernization.
c Our programme to introduce new equipment ucceeded in reducing
waiting lists, but the improvement .................. met with considerable
resis lance.
d The government should invest more money in preven ting drug abuse. This
............ ...... , if taken .. would save many lives.
e Obesity is on the rise in many countries and not just in the developed
world. It is now an .................. that demands immediate attenti on.
More nurses need to be uained rather than doctors. This, I feeL is the best
.................. 10 the current crisis .
g People are often aware of the dangers of smoki ng. but even with [his
widespread ........ " ........ , it is difficult to persuade them to stop.
h Some people are againsl the involvement of private companies in health
care, but this .................. is held by fewer people nowadays.
Lack of health care is making the li ves of many people misera Ie. ye( it is a
.................. that can be easily tackled.
Technique
Ai m to use at least
one organizing \/v'ord
in each paragraph
you write.
U NIT 9 Healtlr
5 For each of a-b, read the first sent ence, then complete the follow-up sentence
with your own ideas. Use the organizing words in it alics to help you.
a Some people are concerned that increasing n umb r of old people will
mean more spending on health care.
This issl/e .. ... d.·" ··.· ..... ...... ...................... .. .... ......... " .. " .... ... ... ................ ..... ....... .. .... .
b Conventional and alt rnatjve medicine can complement each other.
This idea could ." ....... .... ............. ....... .. ..... ... ........... .. d . . .. ... .. . . ............... ... .................. .
c In the fut ure, h ealth care will be much cheaper and for everyone.
This predictiol1 .. ... ,." .... .. ........ ..... ......... .... .. ........ .... .... ..... .... ........ ... ..... ... .. ................. .
d The pace of ch ange within many national health systems is speeding up.
Initially, this may be a probbn, but .... .... ................ ..... .................. ........ ............. .. .
e Health care costs are now worrying plan ners throughout the world.
The situatioll, however . ............. ..... .... ..... .. .. ... .... .. .. .. ... .. ........... ........... .... ......... ..... . .
are emphasis should be put on preventive medicine, like health
education.
Measllre like this ....... ..... ..................... .... .... ........................................... .. .............. .
g Acupuncture is becoming more and more popul ar around the world.
Not surprisingly, it is a trend ........... ........ ............ ............. ................. ....... .......... " .. .
h If people live longer, [hen this can lead to other COS ts and problems .
This is a matter that ... ... .... .... ........................................ ...... .................... .. ....... ...... .. .
6 Choose one of the topics a-c below. Make a list of ideas for the topic you have
chusen. Ue ( j ~ e organizing words in the box 10 trigger ideas.
7
a the connection berween music and health
b how alternat ive therapies can influence health
c the conneClion between e>;. ercise and healt h
conclusion effect idea information issue knowledge
matter measure opinion prediction problem
scheme solution trend view example
Write your own paragraph based on your ideas in 6. To plan your answer, a k
yourself these questions.
a What paragraph organization can I use?
b WhicJl connecting words can I use to link the pattern I have chosen to
"'.-Tite?
c Which examples can I use to j ustify my ideas in each paragraph?
• •
75
Technique
Make sure you
check that the
subjects and the
verbs In your
sentences agree.
76 •••
Verb-subject agreement
8 Comple te t he following sentences with is, are, has, or have.
a The number of people who are suffering fTOrn stress .. ................ on the
increase.
b The fact that people live longer nowadays ........ ......... . led to an increased
number of elderly people in sodery.
c Predictions about how long a patient with cancer will live ...... ............ often
inaccurate.
d A ban on advenising all types of junk food .................. probably the onl way
to stop the spread of obesity.
e The pressurized situation in many hospitals ............ ..... . resulted in a stressed
workforce and low morale amongst nurses.
f Elderly people who have a large family ........... ....... generally healthier and
happier than those who have fewer contacts with other people.
g The reason why allergies are becoming more common .................. still not
known.
h An increasing number of patient seem to be dissatisfied wjth conventional
medicine and .................. turned to alternative therapies.
9 In sentence a-g, replace the countable nouns in italics with an uncountabl e
noun [rom the box. Make any other n eces ary changes in verb forms or
pronouns.
progress evidence information work
advice research equipment
a Everyone is aware today of the bad effects of smoking on people's health.
The e fadS are published all around us, even on cigarette packets.
b Most doctors recommend a diet low in sugar and fat. an d high in fibre.
Unfortunately, these suggestions are not often followed.
c Many nurses nowadays do nor carry out basic care such as washing and
feeding patients. Instead, these tasks are carried out by health care assistant .
d Enormous advances have been made in understanding how disease sprea
but the possibility of a worldwide pandemic is still wit h us.
e Many people enjoy keeping fit in the gym by using rowing machines,
walking machines, and so on. However, these devices can be dangerous if
they are not used properly.
f Many doctors do not believe in homeopathic medidne. However, there are
certainly some indications that it is more than just a placebo.
g Some studies have been carried out which sboY': that elderly people li ve
longer if they live with a partner.

UNIT 9 H.:allll
• • •
•• ••
Practice Test 9
Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The 9Taph belmi ' shbwS the average monthly use of a healt11 club jn Mi ami, Florida by
all full-time members over last year. The pie charts shaw the age profile of male and
female members.
Summarize the iflformatiol! by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
compan'soJis tII'll'ere relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
o
;-
r-
;-
'--- - -
J F M
10 Femal e • Male I
i---
r-
'--
A
Male membership by age
Task2
Health club use over last year
~
r--
~
r-
;-
r-
;-
---=
-
'- '--- '--
M J J A s
Female membership by age
You shou Id spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Wrile about the follov,/i1l8 topic:
---=
---=
I-----
'-
r-
-
'-
r-
-
-
- - '--
-
o N o
The numberoje/derly people in the world is increasiJlg. What do you lliill/.: lire the
positive al1d l1egative effects of this trend?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from YOllr own know/edge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words_
• II 77
UN IT
••


L
78
••••
Individual and society
Unit aims
Task 1
Word order
Linking using with
Task 1 revision
Task 1 Word order
Task 2
Paragraph structure
Task 2 revision
Relevant and irrelevant information
1 The list below contains factors which influence career choice. Choose the
five that have influenced you most j.n choosing a career. RanJ, them in order
of importance 1-5 (1 = most important; 5 = least important). Then ans wer
questions a-d.
money interest friends ambition
role models parents teachers
a Why have you chosen these five factors?
b How di d they contribute to your career cboice?
c Why did you not choose the other factors?
d What other [actors might infl uence you?
2 Read the Task 1 quesrion. Then answer questions a-e.
The bar charts show
the results of a Greek
survey from two
selected age 9roups in
2003 011 tile relative
importance of five
factors in choosing a
career.
SlIlJ/JllLlrize the
information by
seleclillg a1/d
repOltin9 the main
featllres, and make
cOlllparisotlS where
relevant.
Main reasons for choosing a career - 20-35 age group
30
25
20
% 15
10
5
o
models
Mai n reaSOnS for choosing a career - 40-50 age group
30
25
20
% 15
10
5
o
a What does each chart refer to generally? Look at the captions .
b What do the items along th e bottom of the bar charts refer to?
c How do the bar charts relate to each other?
d 'Nhat are the most noticeable features of the first bar chan?
e What are the most noticeabl e fea tmes of the second bar chart?
UNIT 10 [ll di vidll al alldsociely
• •
3 Reorder the words in italics in the model text below.
Model text
1he bar c,harts provide information from
a about I reasonslthe/for/
main/c.areer/a/c.hoosing among two age
9roups. 20-'7'5 and 40-'50.
It is de.ar that the two 9rouPS 2. thel
influenc. u1!werelvar-iouslby/fat..tor5
to diffe.re.nt de.gre.es. with the mOflt
inf\ uentia\ facton) whi d) contributed to
Gareer chOice for the. 20-2? age group
being monei (i:lpprO'l'imatel'i 2.1 per cent)
and then pi:lre. nb (2"3 per HOI,eve-r.
the fadors • the/agt/ were/for/ reversel
grouplthel40-50. wah pare.nts affe-d ing
the.m most at '70 per Gent.
1eac.herslaslrtgardslrole/andlmode/:;.
the- relative importance. of e.ac.h was ag"M
the other round: S ninelfifteen/
andlresptc.tivelylgroup/per/c.entljorl
younger/the, and fourtee.n and elwen per
Gent for the. older.
similaritylonly/the/the/twolgroupsl
be-tween/age waf> that fr iends had lef>s
inf\uena over Gareer Ghoice for the
iounger and olde.r groupfl 1 factors!
than/any/other. seven and ten pe.r cent
respe.ctivell
4 Six of the sentences a- h contain a word in the wrong place. Corr: t each
sentence by moving the word to the right place.
Example
Traveller numbers have decreased ov r period in the question.
Traveller numbers have decreased over the period in question.
a The specialist sales of rours have fallen recently.
b In 2006. more males than females tOok up individual spons rather than
team activities.
c As can be seen. more people from the younger age group (Tavel on their
own. in sharp contrast to those over sixty.
d It is dear lbJ t rhe number of flats by single' people in ()ccllpieci major citie
in the West is putting pressure on housing.
e From [he graphs, it can be concl uded that are young people much more
mobile than previous generations.
The noticeable pursuit of a professional career among botb men and
woman has led to a reduction in the birth rate.
g There are similarities in the presentation of the several data.
h Overall the chart shows that the media peopl e are re ponsible for tumin
into eel brities.
• • •• 79
80 •••••
Linking using with
5 Read the example sentence from the model text in 3 on page 79. Then answer
the questions below.
Example
However, the factors were the reverse for the 40-50 age group, with parents
affecting them most at 30%.
a What function does the phrase beginning with with introduce?
b What type of verb struct ure normally follows with?
6 Read the example, Then join the sentences below making an y nec s ary
changes.
Example
There were several similarities . The most and least important factors were the
same.
There were several similarities, with the most and least importan t factors being
the same.
a Sale were upward for most oC the year. The profi l reached a peak in
December.
b The main reason for career dloice was ambition. Fifty per cent chose it.
c IT is expected that the price of one bedroom flats will ri e AccommOdation
for individuals is in shon supply.
d The pattern was different. Passenger numbers dropped in summer and rose
in wlllter.
e The trend was d early upwaTd Manufacturing costs decreased at the same lime.
Consumption of ene rgy rose. The highest point was in January.
Task 1 revision
7 Decide if the following statements about Task 1 techniques are true or false.
a Your first paragraph is usually a general statement about
the subject of the graph, table, map, etc.
b Writi ng in paragraphs is not important for Task l.
c Task 1 will always be written in the past tense.
d If your English is correct, then it does not matter if your
information is inaccurate.
e You need to dedde which is the most important or striking
information in the graph, table, map, etc.
You should quote all th e figures that the information gives you.
g In a paragraph, sentences which quote specific figures nearly
always come before general statements.
h Your conclusion will n ot normally give sped fic figures.
True/False
True/Paise
True/False
True/False
True/False
True/False
True/False
True/False
UNIT 10 I"dividllal al1d S')ciely
•••
Task 2 Paragraph structure
1 For each Task 2 question below, put the sentences that follow in the most
logical order to create a p.:nagraph.
1 Amuit,'cm IS a negative attl"ibllte of a person's character. Do yOIl
agree or d.isagree \.I ith this statement?
a This is because, even when they realize an ambition, they are still not
satisfied.
b It is cenainly Hue [hat ambitious people do not always crea re happiness for
themselves or others.
c If we look at the busin ssman who wants 10 earn a six-figure salary, we see
that in most cases, when he reaches tJus position, he will still want more
povver or an even higher salary.
2 P£I 1'1 iwlilJ' ct/ltu res are IInder threat Jlowadays due tv tile f act that we
art' li\'ing in a global village. Wh at do you think ca ll be dOlle tv protect
a society'S traditiolllll l"alues and wItIJre?
a Nor does ir mean that they will fail to respect an d valu e other people's
cultures .
b One way to protect tr aditional val ues and customs is si mply to teach p e o p l ~
to value their own culture
c On the contrary, it wil give them the confidence to operate in our global
village without feeling that their own identity is under threa r.
d This does not mean that they have to resist the current movement towards
greate r international trade.
3 Emails are the most vaLuable tool for communication in the
twenty-first century. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
a They can exchange ideas and discuss things more often as they are working,
and the result may be a better end product.
b This allows people to work together on the same proj ect even if they are on
opposite sides of the worl d,
c Emails have certain ly bad far-reaching effects on people's ability to
communicate.
d It is now possible for people to correspond cheaply and at length from
anywhere as long as t hey have a connection.
2 Match each of the paragraphs above 1-3 with the correct structure bel ow a-c.
a general statement - reason why this statement is true - example
b general statement - reason why this statement is true - effect - second
effect
c statement of what should happen - statement that a negative result will
not occur - statement that a second negative result will not occur - positive
result
• • • • 81
~ .....
3 Read the following twO essay questions. For each ques ti on, choose one of the
paragraph structures in 2 on p age 81 and write a paragraph which could form
par I of an answer. following [he structure you h ave chosen .
MOll ey does not make happiness. To what ex tent do you agree or disagree?
It is [)fmer to reform criminals instead of jllst pllJ1ishil1g them. What
measures could be taken to attempt to ill tegrate law-breakers back
into society?
Relevant and irrelevant information
4 The three paragraphs below relate to the Task 1 questions in 1 on page 81. In
eAch paragraph, there Cl n: several option s. Choos(, cb." options wh ich are most
relevant to the question.
Text 1
1 Another r eason why ambition is not always good is that ambitious people
may lise unfair or dishonest means of reaching their goa l. F r example.
they may
a work so hard that they neglect their families .
b take the credit for work that they have not done.
2 In some cases, they may damage the careers o( people who they see as
rivals, perhaps by
a making false accusations about them to their employers.
b stealing their money and possessions.
3 In the most extreme cases, they may tum to serious crime . ............ .. .............. .
provides a clear exa mple of this.
a Shakespeare's story of Macbeth
b The story of Sinbad the sail or
Text 2
4 One way to ensure that people value their traditjonal culture is to focus on
language. With the global dominance of Engli sh, some minority languages
such as ............................. may feel under threa t.
a Welsh or Estonian
b Chinese or Arabic
5 Ii people are made familiar with the history and literature of their own
language, then
a they will be more able to talk to older people about it .
b they will appredate their own cult ure more.
6 This could be done by arranging arts festivals or writing competitions. For
example, in the UK
a there are many prizes which novelists and poets can win.
b there is an annual festival to celebrat e the best of Welsh wri ting and culture.
Text 3
UNIT 10 I"dividual and society
•• •
7 However, the effects of the Internet on communication are not all positive.
Emails can be wri tten and replied to very quickly which means that
a people often do not consider carefully what they have written.
b people can check their inbox two or three time 3 day.
8 Another problem is that people simply send and receive co
many emails .................... The result of this Ls that they spend time dealing
wi th this constan t stream of messages instead of doing their real work.
a Children, for example, love to contact tbeir friends frequently by email.
b An office worker, for example. may receive twenty or thirt y emails a day.
5 Reacllhc Task 2 question. Then ans\over questions a-c below.
The current interest in famous people's privale lives has negative effects
both for those people alld JO/' s@ciety as a w·h(J!c. NelVspapen .d·ul/Ild rtot be
nnowed to ptlblish details of people's private lives unless.it is clearly in ti,e
pliblic illterest.
To what extent do y OIl agrel! 01' disagree?
a Think of a famous person who has been in the news recentl y for something
unconnected with his/her job. What were the effects of this?
b How relev3m is your example [Q the guestion . If possibl e, compare your
example with a partner. Which is [he most relevant to the question?
c Write a general statement-example paragraph, using the example you have
chosen.
Task 2 revision
6 Read the Task 2 techniques in the questionnaire. Decide hmv of len you do
these things.
Task 2 techniques questionnaire
Tick the appropriate box. Always Sometimes Never
I mat ch the organizat ion of my essay to the question. D D D
[ use the paragraph structure. D D D
[ divide my essay into paragraphs. D D D
[ use organizi ng words to help develop my sentences. D D D
I use a range of linking phrases - like, because, D D D
for example - to trigger my ideas.
J wTite a shon introduction wbich paraphrases tbe que li oo. D D D
I know that I must write at least 250 words. D D D
lleav myself rime to check my answer. D D D
I develop functi ons like advamages, disadvantages, so/uliotls, D D 0
measures, causes by using reasons, examples,reslllts, effects.
I can state my opinion clearly apd contradict other opinions. D D D
• ••• 83
84 •••••
7 Which phrases can you use as trigger words for each of the following
functions? Make your own list.
a Example: For example, ............................ .
b Reason: because ................ ... ....... .. .
c Effect : As a result, .... ., .... ., ................ .
d Additional inlormation: Moreover, ............................ .
e Hypothesis: If ............................ .
Contrast: but .... , .. ., ........... ., ...... .
g Concession: Although ...... ..... ..... ........... . .
h Conclusion: And 50 .... " ...................... .
8 Some functions are rel ated so (hal one suggests the other. Complete the
Jist below with rdaJed fl!IncHons. Are the combinat ions fix ed or can you
combine them in any way?
a Problem and ................. .
b Measures and ................. .
( Cause and ................. .
d Reason and ........... ...... .
e Example and ................. .
f Effect and ................. .
g Additional information and ... .......... ,., ..
h Condition/ Hypothesis and ........ "" .... ..
Concession and .. " ............ . .
9 Read (he Task 2 question below, then use the trigger words to develop
semences a-f with your own ideas.
Too much emphasis is PHt 011 eaming money rather thal1 lookiJ1g for {/
good qtlality of life. To what extent do you agree with tl1is idea?
a Money is not as important as frien 5, because .... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... ...... ..
b For many people, keeping fi t and healthy is the main factor which is
necessary for a good quality of life. However, .... " .. .... ..... ... , .... , ... .. ... , .... .. .. " ... ... . .
c If one is content with life, then ...................................................... " .... ., .. .. ..... .. .
d What is involved in achieving a good quality oI llie depends on many factors
rather than just one. For example. " ... ., ...... ., ........ ., ... " ............. ... , ................. .. ... . .
e Happiness and contenmlent are more importa nt than the pursuit of
fre edom. The latt er aim ............................................................................ ............. .
Many people living in poor housing conditions are still happy. So the idea
thaI ............................................................................................................... .. .......... .
1 0 Wrire your own paragraph about [he importance of family in mai ntaining a
good qualil y of li fe . W ~ i t e about 60-80 words.
••• •
UNIT 10 TmJil'idllal n ~ J d so ie/.\'
•• • • D •
• • •
Practice Test 10
Task 1
You should spend abo/(( 20 minutes on this task.
Th..: bar Ghart below sholl's fhf pe/·Lt'lItL19i.' of people in Great Britai n li vi119 alone by
age und sex ill 2.004./2005.
SWI/llwrize tJu inft)f' matiim by sd.:ctill9 and reporting the main features, and make
cOn/pan'sons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
People living alone: by sex and age, 2004/05, GB
Percentages
16--24
~
25-44
45-64
65-74
75 and over
I I
o 10 20 30
Task 2
YOIl should spend abollt 40 minutes on this Lask.
Write about the foll owing topic:
I
40 50 60
Indil'idlwls WII do 110tl1il1g to clw/1ge society. Any new deve/olllllt:llts CLlII ollly he
brollght abotlt by govel'l1men ts {lI1d large Itlstitutiotls. How fat· do you ag/'ee 0/'
disagree?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from YOll r OHlII knowledge
or experience.
Write at least 250 words.
• •
85
86 •
Sample answers
The publishers stress that these are not official grades and are for guidance only.
There is no guara nt ee that these answ ers would ob tain these grades in the te st.
Practice Test 1
Task 1
The graph indicates the Valiali on of t h ~ ' privat e use of Interne!, Pc' mobil e phones and CD
player in the UK (rom J 996 to 2003.
The l[cnd in four dements of the study was upward except in mobil e phone that was
rarher erratic. CD player had the biggest figure among al l wit h 60% at ) 996/97 and 80%
,1t 2002/ 03. While the Int ernet access only started in 1998/99 showing the lowes! figur
throughoUl rhe period (from 10% in 1998f99 to above 4.0% in 2002/03).
Be1ween 10996/97 and 1998/99 mobil e phon and PC were going upward "" hile j ust alter
1999 the former exceeded. showing figure oC 70% compared to home c01111 uters with 55%
i n 2002/03.
To sum up. it was expect ed to have home computers as exceeding {i.g ure in the ~ t u d y as the)'
provide fe atures o r CD player and the Internet acces but CD player and mobile phon were
the two top modem technology access in homes . (154 Illords)
Grade: 5
Commen t: The t ext is logically organized, but does not indicate that figures are
approximate. The summary cannot be deduced from the diagram. Vocabulary i
adequate. despite some errors. However, grarnrna!i al mistakes, especially faulty
complex structures, cause some difficulties for the reader.
Task 2
If is obvious rhat people are unwilling to make changes in their lives afr er being accu toOled
to a cert ai n st yle of life . However this could cause many problems.
Take for exampl e. people who leave rheir counrry and going abroad. They might face many
issue .. Firsr of alL they have to adapt to a new culture and habit which might be completely
different from theLr native country. Moreover, it takes time to Cldapt LO 'weather and to the
sl},'le of new IUe wLch may be different [rom where they lived before.
There is another changes in lite. For example. some people al a certain moment in their live
have to change their career, regardless of the reaSons. It is quite difficult they find not easy to
acquire ex.peIience in their new job and difficult to make new friends at work.
In my opinion. people should be lIexible. For people who leaving their country to live and
work in another country I agree that they might have many problems such as a new culture
and languag,,· und habits bur the i.llregration wi th people it could solve the problem. By the
time, they will find themselves a pan of rhe new society. People who change t heir career
the on ly lhing to eli.> it is to concentrate in rheir ne\-\' job. Experience thar they need they will
acquire Ivith time
In conclusion, people ha e to ready for any changes in their lives as no guarantee for anyone
that the LiI e will be stable lorever. (2'>0 \\"e',<I;")
Grade: 6
Comments: All parts of th e prompt are covered, but the content is somewhat
repeti tive. Organiza tion and paragraphing is satisfactory, wi th some e ffec tive use of
links . Vocabulary is generally adequate However, complex sentences are usually
faulty and t here ar e many grammaticaJ errors.
ampl,; flllSlt 'er '
Practice Test 2
Task 1
The graph shows t he cont ribuTion 01 diUercm senor, to the UK economy in the 20th
century, In particular it compares the agri cultural. manufac!.Uring and businc' s and financial
sector .
Pirstly, agriculture sect or shows the higher value at the begi nning oll he period (around
50% in the Iirst 50 years of rhe ce tu ry). By the 1975, it had utt ered a dramatic decrease
(1 5%) tollowed by 11 drop to almost zero in By contra L busine ' s and finantiaJ ' eclOr
weI' almost zero at the beginning bl.J! it sharpl y increased during the pe n od.
,\1anula w ring $ .ctGr seems to follovY rht:: trend of agri ulture, st arri ng with a value oj 45%
in 19(1(). In J 95(\ it !>egan t() lalllill 1975 where ir IVa' bel,)w ,\')"/0 At tl t' end of the period
the pnceillil!;l' for IlIilllllfilC!urillg ,'t'ilC:WS 2()%
III general. ilgriclilt ur,ll JlId nl<lnulau uring St' llllr has .'l trends but th<.: f rmer
dropped much more at the end of the tll,m the contrat, th", l r t:nd o{
bu ' iness and financial increased during the periou. (l68 IViJrd,\)
Grade: 6
Comments: Use of tbe rubric unchanged reduces the word count . The infurmalioll
logically ordered, but the business sector data is omitted. Vocabulary is adequate and
usually appropriate, as is the range of sentence forms, but there are some imponant
errors.
Studying the history is on of che most importantsnbjectsin the drculum of primary and
secondary schools. Some people argue that there is nu benefit 01 that and history can be
substituted by oth er more important subj ect s. However, it i;; no! a logical opinion for many
reasons.
Althougb it is true thilt the <.:I'ents lllal a!'c studied in history haprcm,d in the past, it is also
true that it reptesen! il nJuabk human experience. This can be VL'ry useful in planning for
the futuTe. rr humans know rhe mistakes thi)[ had been done .'lnd caused disastTia.se events
in the past, lhey will try 10 avoid doing the same mistakes ill the tuture.
Moreover studying the past of other nation, will give' the oppOrEUnily to .know more about
their society. Tbl, will help gol.vi I'etwcer: diUerelll c untri es.
Children art tht' peopie who \l'ilI h:\ld tIl<' world in the f 11 ru.re 50 they should for
this role. The kno,,,,· 1edge V;' llich can be gained trom the history is one of the most important
sources for their ski ll s of unders tanding the h uman society As m lIch as they learn [rom the
history. they will be efficient in their ability to decide when t h y tace any problem in the
future. Also the fliswry can give a good information aboul the development in different
branches of scienc . Some of these informalion may have a good alue f r invl' Hors,
In concl usion. it is undeniable that history, the suounary of human experience, js very
import ant in improvem ent of human's future if they can u:;e it pn1perly. (261)
Grade: 6
Comments: The topic is adequately covered, tbough there is some repetilion . The
order and paragraphing of ideas is mostly logical. Vocabulary is adequate and has
some precision. Complex sentences are well managed, but there are many min r
grammatical errors.

87
88 • • • •
Practice Test 3
Task 1
The diagramilluStralE'$ the I'arious stages in the desalinati.on of seawater to make it suitable
for drinking.
Pirst of all. water is taken from the sea Jnel then passed througll a pre -t reatment filler where
the big impurit ies are removed. This backwash is then piped back into the sea through
another rUr er. At the next st age in the process, the remail1illg wilter is forced through 1\
membrane at high pressure an d any impurities incl udin g salt are removed. Alter that,
the seawater concentrate i returned to the sea while the remaining water goes through a
pOSt treatment process . In this phase, the water is treated wit h lime, chlori ne and fluoride
to make it drinkable before it is stored in a reservoir. Finally. the desalinated water is
distributed to the integrated water supply system for people to use as d rUl king water.
Desa lination involves a process of purifica ti on of VI'ater foll owed by fi ltration and adding
chemical agents. (153 words)
Grade: 7
Com.ments: Interest is maintained by the nexi Ie use of input language, and a wi e
ra nge of vo abulary and skilfully deployed grammatical st ructures. All stage: arc:
covered accurately, though some additions are made, The overview should more
logically be the second sentenc .
Tasl< 2
Great changes h ave taken place in our life along with d v [opment of society, As far as I am
concerned, the Internet plays a big part in this.
Firsr. of aU, wi th the opp<)rtllIli ty of su r fing Ullcrnct or playing computer and video games,
people h ave a more sedentary li fe style. Children no longer play games outside and get
exerose bur they spend time on the computer. This has bad effect on their health and can
cause problems such as obesity.
Anot her probl em is the negative effect on their relationship with their family, Internet
access fills most young people's time, and even thei r leisure time, so this is the cause of their
disconnection with t heir family and ultimately can have an eli ct on tbeir social behaviour.
A thjrd problem is that not all internet sites are USdlJI. tnlormation is often not accurate
and some sites are not suitable lor children. Some interneT sites like chat rooms can eveu be
dangerou because you do nut know who is the other person.
As regarding children's use of the Internet, the Lirst solution must be wilh tb parents,
They need to limit hours that children spend 00 the computer and to encourage them to
have other hobbies and pastimes. There is an impon ant need for them to s p l ~ n d mor e time
to speak v.'itb their famil y than an electronic connection. Parents sh, uld also en ourage
children to use other means of inIonnalion in addition to internet.
To concl ude, I would say thaI the internet has hrought many benefits and it will Do t
disappear, therefore il is very importitll! that we learntlO me it well so lilat we can reap tbe
benefils and not me disad anl ages. (278 words)
Grade: 7
Comments: The topic is considered fully, with ideas presented in a clear progression
wi th mostly logical paragraphing. A good range of vocabulary gives fl exibili ty
and preasion to the writing. Sentence st ru cture is reasonably varied, bu t minor
grammatical errors are frequent.
Sample answer;
• •
Practice Test 4
Task I
The bar chart shows the figures for qualifications a ltai,net.i in wornl'n an m(;;n in Wale in
200] ilnd 2002 in pt'r"(l'1I1ilges.
The information can be divided in to three gro ups. Tilt' br,l category includes degree a nd
higher education qualification. The percentages Well: awund 13% and app roximately 11 %
fur mell an d women respeC!ively for but for hi l1.her ed ucali,.Hl q:vdHicati on 8% for
male and 9% for female.
for GeE A level and GCSE grade A to C the percemagc was DlllCb higher co mpared wit h the
other two groups. TIK number of mak';, in GeE A level Wel) roughl y 28% but for females
about 15%. However, tbe GCSE gr,lde A--( sbowe d a revC[,;c: patlern, 18 'Yo ami 28 % for
men arrd womel) respeClively.
The for the third group were mllch hw.'er. Other qualifications figures cit ed 12% for
men and 11 % for women. No qualifica tions were rccordnl for higher numbers of men and
womerr. 20% and 23%.
Overall, men h ad more higher degrees whereas women b ad more GeE or equivalent
qualifications. (168 words)
Grade: 6
Comments: Details are accurately li ste d, bu r there is no real overview. The key
points a re n o t brought our. However. the vocab ul ary sho w s some variet y and
precision. Despite minor errors of grammar, simple sen tences al e used wdL but
complex structures are lacki ng.
Task 2
To some extent I disagree with lhe no tion that competitive spons cannut be part of the
school curriculum. However, the amount of time giVt"D SbOllJd not be overlooked.
Sports as a is an ill\jlort.J11l pJrt 01 growjng up. Students regardle s of th eir age take
pilri in exercise individua:U v or as il tcam member. Ta ke primary scbools for instance, they
havL" playgrounds and [aid)' enough fadlitit:s fmrn whi.ch student' can tak e benefit.
In $tL' ondary 5cl!ooh St uuents' attitude {(I sport change'. The demand for more facilities and
equipments rises. As Can be seen, more dnd 1110re teenage rs turn (0 [ootbll11, swimnling,
even body building oUtside school hours. They tr y 10 make use of t he facibties avallable t
[hem ill schoo! as well. Whilt is imponant is time \.o;'hich shoul d nOl be spent on taken up
and nll! doing Dther school work or study.
On the other hand, considering the availability of the facilities to all schools is not a bad idea.
To illuslrilll· this, some schools are well equipped while others do poorly. NQ matter how
liltk the J'acility studenLI be encouraged [0 take part in competiti ve spons.
Ai] ill aiL r think spon WdS pan of everyday ;ife in the past and iD today's span attracting
sOCielieS. The best place you Sl<lrt yoc:r life after h Ot11e is school. Everyone decides what to do
i1t early i1gt' As sport, il ',va, pan of curriculum vit ae in the pa$t alld will be in t he future
of cOurse, ,\iith ,1 bettc( managernen L (25·1 wrrdsJ
Grade: 6
Comments: Though the ideas are relevant and sullicient. faul ts in ordering and
use of Links sometimes cause diffi cul ty for t h e reader. A good range of vocabular .
is mostly used with precision. A limited but accurate range of complex sen rene
al"e deployed.

89
90 •••••
Practice Test 5
Task 1
Between L990 and 2005 there were so many chauges that took place in to,'! Il of Templeton
in term of developments.
On the weSl of the liver that divide the city imo t wo parts, 1111. ' re main buildings were
construcred repl acing pan 01 the gr'en area and the suburba n home. Besides. more houses
were built to reduce the greell area funher more. To the south 01 the above developments. all
houses were demolished and new buildings raised up instead together with supermarket .
To the east of the river. an airporl was built in an area previously covered by t ree. and more
houses were added to tlle aIea around the hospital
A major development took p lace in south east art of dty whe re a facto ry was constructed
and ferry service was established. replacing all of the old houses and the tree fores t tll at
occupied the area before. Moreover. a new railvvay track Ivas laid down along ide th e
embankment. (15.5 words)
Grade: 6
Comm e nt s: All key points were highlighted, but lacked a cI ar oven·jew. The data
w as logi all)' and coherently arra nged. The vocabulary was adequat E' f r [he t a ~ k .
but induded some inappropriaci es. Sentence structures were varied and usually well
comrolled. despite frequent grammati cal errors.
Task 2
Many people thin ks that the world exist ing problems are only matter the young generation
a they are the candidate who are facing tl, em now and in the future.
Alt hough a considerable percentage of the public might refe r to th esl: hazards as hazards for
the young predominantly. yet n1any of these concerns are actuall y brough t into the scene
by Tbe old people. The previous generati on are those who li ved the new developments in
science and teclmology lhal broughl wit h them pollmi on, PO\' rty and part f it also possible
distinction of many species of pla nts and animals.
So They raise the alarms for tho-e radical and serious consequences. It is often suggested that
old generation are pas ing by and not interested in what happening and only the young who
gives those alerts considerable thoughts.
However from what we are experiencing now. tbat many of green people are old and
work anj \ ely to preserve animal rights and fight fie rcely agaimt global warming and
environment al pollution. This give LIS that the present world coneene; are a shared interest
of both old and new generations. Although many an i is t on these issues appears in the
media and they are from the yomh. still and probably equal number from t he old foll ow the
same rOlltes.
Actually no one in this life want to destroy our planet. Defin it ely every parent is of concern
about his offspri ng lives thereafter. and selfish ness does not dominate OUT rhinlOng at aJl .
What one should be aware of is that such threats are not always djscussed or contemplated
in t he right way by old or young generation. (264 words)
Grade: 5
Comments: Though the ideas are relevant and well argued, cohesi on is faulty and
the paragraphing is notlogicaJ. Vocabulary is fairly varied and precise. However.
omplex structures, thougb frequent, are always (aulty, with grammatical errors
causing some strain for the reader.
,
IJ-
Samplt' O/ISII't'r:s
Practice Test 6
Task I
The table ilJustrates the percent ages of both young boys and gi rl whu listened to musiC' tn
the previous m()l1 th in the capit al ()f Japan.
The mos t striking feat ure i that males were more interested in music than their female
counterparts except tor listening [0 CDs (19% and 22 % respectively). The highest rate wa
79% for boy' who were interested in MP3-players, while wit h regard to tbe same type of
players for girls the proponioll was 40% which was almost mnilar to the percentage of the
Int ernet (42%). With respect to live music, females recorded 44%.
Turning to the pie chart. 70% of young Japanese people prefer live musi c, whereas recorded
music raIl' was 26'% and those who answered Don't know their rale was just 4%.
In conclusion. young females spent less time l'islening to fa v mite music cOlllpared {O the
opposite sex. Regarding prefcrerKe of music Live music scored t he top percentage. (750
word,)
Grade: 6
Comments: The key poin ts are mainly covered, but ther is an important error
(paragraph 3) . It could be ordered more logically. However. cohesive devi e\ an:
well used. Vocabulary is adequate for the purpose. There are a variety of sentence
tructures, but their complexity sometimes causes difficulty for the reader.
Task 2
There is no doubt tJ1at the number of visltors and businessmen and women who are
travelling abroad has beeo incT';;3sing markedly in recent years. However. not surpri ' ingly,
underst anding t he cult ure of IDcal peop1e brings many benefits to all types o[ visitors as well
as problems for those who do n ot understand a n ew culture.
First of all, no sensible p e r ~ o n can deny the importance of breaking dOWJl barriers between
countries By this I mean, people from diiIerenl lands catl soda lize effectively and relate
emotiona lly rega rdless of their race and religion. if they lake lime to learn languages and
to find out about where tbey are gOhlg before they travel. As a res ult . the tensior) between
p0()p,le from different backgrounds would be melted.
Another imponant advantage 111at needs to be taken into account is that travell er:; can
broaden tJleir horizons by travelling. In other I-von:ls, people who travel for busi ness or
tourism definitely would gain a lot of information from t heir hos t societ y. KJ10wing how to
behave can help businessmen make lots 01 money for t hemselves and for their companies.
undoubtedly business and tourism playa pivotal role in employing of peopl e and reviving
the local economy in thei-r 01'\'11 countries and when they travel.
On t he nber hand lack of understanding of the culture and tradi tions of people may lead
to misunderstandi ng and even increased tension between di fferent cQmmunities. imply
because the background of any society can act as a mirrOJ to reflect th'e nature personality
and behaviour 01 people. Certainly. when we know these vitall hings we can overcome
many dilIiculties. (262 words)
Grade: 8
Comments: Ther are many ideas, well organized intO paragraphs and highligbted
clearly, despite minor lapses in forus. The wide range of vocabulary exhibits flexibilil}'
and precision, with only occasional inappropriades. A variety of sentence structures
are used, containing no Significant errors.
• 91
92 • II
Practice Test 7
Task 1
The two bar chart illustrate the percclllage of purchase on-li ne tickets of concert, cinema,
and theatre in (Australia, th..: UK and Malaysia). by a sekcted age group and how !.he
imeres t was accessed over the first three months of 2006.
Purchases for the age group 25-44 was the same in t he western countries at 55%, whereas
in Ma.laysia. it was JUSt under 40°/" . Surprisingly, the percentage wa s very close in t be UK
and Ma laysia a round 40'Y., for Ihe age group 65+, wil.h a slight increase in Australia to about
45 %.
Tn terms 01 the common mean of access to buy tickets, the chart shows that !.he
desktOp computers wa, the predominant means in 1alaysia the UK and Australia at about
60%,62% and 68% respeClivt"ly. Next came the wptop, wit h ados ' percentage in Australia
and Malaysi a around (45 % each). while there was a moderate drop to 30. 5% in the UK
The data might give us an indication about the nline purcha ' iog. (163 words)
Grade: 5
Comments: Excessive use of the rubri r edu es the word count and in urs a penally.
There are many inaccuracies in the data, which lacks an overviev . V('I abulary Jnd
links are inaccurately used, bUI grammar and sentence st ructures are adequate I r
the task.
Task 2
The question of whether money could be more usefully applied to tackle the crisis around
!.he world rat her than spent it OD space research is a very contr vc rsial i.ssu and it is now
a matter of considerable public concern. There are. rherdore, people on both sides of the
(lrgumem who have feeli ngs either tor or agai nst.
Many people believe that money should be spent to solve food crisis in Africa and South
Asia. Drought. [or example, left Atrica with famine. Every 30 second aD African dilld dies
of hunger and abom 45% ot d1ildren in South Asia suirer from malnutrition. Similarly, the
global issue is the conflict of ALDS in AIrica. Although, there are numerous factors in the
spread ot HIV J AIDS , it is largely recognized as a disease of poverty. Medicines, for instance,
are very expensive and Ille government in poor countries can not aHord 10 treat the disease.
tberefore Tlullions are dying. while in rich countries I eople are li ving longer.
Havi ng said that. however, some people oppose the fOIDler argument. They claim that
space research has brought enormou benefits to mankind. Recently, NASA has launched
Satellites lor weather and climate, v,'hi ch will give the scientists a unique view of earth's
auno pbere, helping tbern to improve their abilities to forecast weather and predio climate
change.
From what has been d iscussed abov we may draw the (onclusion that bOlh points of view
bave their merits. Allhough. human life has priority in our 'oci eties, advanced research
should be out to Lind illlolber source of energy, wa ter on other pl anet , and to
uncicrstanJ the plallets and its' effect on earth tor the benefit of aU. (276 words)
Grade: 7
Comments: Though there are sufficient ideas and evidence, the first paragraph
adds nothing. Ideas are logically organized and paragraphed, but the condu ion is
n OI clearly articulated. There is a good range of vocabulary and sentence structures,
despite some jarring punctua tion errors.

Sall/ple all ll"t"1'l
Practice Test 8
Task 1
The table illustrates ex-pected cost ot the Ihree t'll vironm mal pr je IS in three different pans
of t he world in t he next five year .
The t: 'timated cOSt a lthe A1rican project in Year I is 10.5 millioll dollars, almost hal f of the
projected cost for Central America (20 million) and about one third ot t.he Asian proj ect (30
million) . It is preuictecllhat West Africa \ ill money in (he loilowi ng years than
in Year J. faJling 10 3. 5 million in Year 5. Central America h ws a imilar pattern. tn Year 5
expected mst o[ projecl }S 5 million dolla.rs which i.s four times Ie s than in year 1. However.
in South Ea t A. ia in year 5 spending will rise to 50 million dollar,
Regardi ng I he pie chart, 50 % 01 projected cost will cover salaries. The rest 50% will be
shared on training and office expenseS. 10% each, whi le 30% is expected set up costs .
Tu sum up SOUTh Eas! Asia has the pwjccted cos; for ellvilunlllL'nt.l1 projects fur the
next five years . (J n \Vclrr!S)
Grade: 7
Comments: The key points are presented logically and are suitably highlighleJ
by cohesive devices, However, the overview cou ld be more fully dey loped. The
vocabulary range allow some fl exibility of presentatjo.n. Sent en e structures are
vari ed, but some basic grammatical errors occur.
Task 2
Many people are moving Qut of big cities into the counrryside to live to escape [rom city
problems. Tllis is causing problems because most the jobs that are available are in the cities
so peo})le have to travel back into the cities again to work. The trans p'"lrt system can nor cope
so people are using their own cars and the countryside is affected by the traffk pIUS.
One ' oluti,ln to encourage people to Slay in cit ies is 10 improve the qua lity of life tbere. M.ore
money could be spent reducing crime, as this is one of the main reasons why people leave
cit ies. For example, more policemen can be employed lor city centres, which happenedln
NevI' York and is happeni ng here in UK As well as safe places to IVork and live city centres
could be made more iri endly and weJcoming. The en vironment can be made cleaners and
more agreeable to live and work in. This INay pC'opk might be encou raged to y ralher
1ban mOling out.
A very dif ferent ,vay to tackle the problem would to mo e of the job Ollt of city to
smaJler cities or towm. People could then sti ll live in the countryside and enjoy it and only
have ( 0 travel short distances to work. Another step is to encourage workers to spend pan of
their working week a t home, perhaps two da ys and I hen 10 go i ntCl work in the otber days,
This is h appening more and more in many parts of the world.
There are uther ways to overcome the situation but these are the most important. (264 lI'ords)
Grade: 7
Comments: The writers proposals are dearly presented, with logica l paragraphing,
but the conclUSion could be more fully developed. The progression of ideas is well
marked. The vocabulary .is very appropriate t o the task. Sentence structure are
reasonably varied, without significant errors.
• • • 93
94 •••••
Practice Test 9
Task I
The graph gives information about Ihe average moothly use oj a Healt h Club in Miami
Florida by full lime members la -I year.
One o[ the most striking features of the graph is that use the gym was higher in sununer
compared to rhe other months of the year. In January 550 male visited the:: gym the
figure decreased slightly. After that there was a significant increase in nu mber of males
membership [rom January to J unc. In June the !igur!' hit the highest point of 8500 but.in
Juiy there was a slight reduct ion to December. The trend for Ie males membership follow the
arne. However (rom July to September 7200 female useJ the gym in every month.
Turning to pie chart, -\.% more of male membership aged between 2 1 and 45 used the
facilities in gym compared to females. TbirtY- Iw pe::rc fit of femal e member had ag!;: 65+
in contrast to 25% of males. TwelllY percent o( otber age group among males had the
J;nembership compared to 17% of female .
Overall . rugher number of males used the gym than women. (179 words)
Grade: 5
Comments: opying the rubri c reduces tl1 word count. Data is listed mechanically
and, and includes serious errors. The selection, which is not wholly logical, lacks an
overview. The range of both vocabulary and sentence struct ures is limited, with many
grammatical errors .
Task 2
There is no doubt tbat age expectancy has increased over the lasr twenty \,l' a rs. The question
o[ whether the increasing number of elderly people causes posiIive eifCCTS or negative is a
matter of disput e. As far as I am concerned it has negative effect for a number of reasons.
Some people are 1 the opinion rhat this trend should be increased bl' ca use tbere migbt
be more experienced worker' in SOciety. People will work longer than nO·N. Tllli might
have a possitjve effect on economy. A - \w know. these people gi ve tax 10 I h l;: government.
Moreover if we ask anyone, they are happy to live longer as they devote most of their lives
to working. In retirement age elderly people need comfort and such desire 10 do
many rhings that they did not do before. Thus, increas ing aged populali n gives hope w [he
senio who would like to enjoy their lives.
However, I do believe that higher aged population needs higher investment as people in
elder age suffer frOIll diseases ouch as beart disease, srroke, diabetis, Alzehamer disease.
Govenunents need to invest a colosal sums of money treating such pati ents. Fur·ther more
people in elder age become more dependent to orh ers as these people n e to be supervised
by other people. I think nobody likes to live with other people and ust: the facilitjes thaI are
not belong to them. Therefore seniors suffer from depress'ion and psychological problems.
AI the "ame lime jf people work longer, [here j not promotion for rhe:: younger generation
because most positions are occupied by the elderly people.
l' conclude, Heel that the negative effects on ori ety outweigh the positive effects because
of the above reasons. (282 wcrds)
Grade: 6
Comments: There are plenty of ideas. but paragr aphing is not ma naged
However, [he sentences tend to be clearly li nked. The range of vocabulary is adequate
for the purpose, as is the varie ty of sentence struct ur es, but grammatical errors a re
obtrusive.
Samplt! <l1l$Wer;
Practice Test 10
Task I
The bar chart ill ustrat es the percen tage of people in Great Britain living alone according to
their age and gender from 200-1 to 2005.
It is immediat ely apparent t hat Ji ing alone increased as people we re getting older and
percentage of female outnumbered the oppo ite se}; . For instance. the last category of age
howt d that tbe overwhelmi ng majority of people li ving alone female ' about 59%
compared only to 28% of male:: .
As regards males living (m thel r own we can see a little difference in the !:' ond third and
Jourth groups ur age. They alm.os t had the imilar percentage. Howl!Vt' r chi.; !lilt the case
in the first category which was just 5%. UnJike men. Ivomen', predominance began ill the
65174 year old which showeJ a dramati c change. For example the percentage of females
was 32
0
ft, as opposed to 15% lor males . Prior to this group, tbe Ihird category of age had
almust the same:' percentage.
By and large, Jiving al one \'Vas common among women as they go older. The 35-44 year oids
was the only category with a noticeable male predorninan e. (182
Grade: 6
Comments: The rubric is copied, reducing the word count. There is a dear overview.
with well highlighted main points. However, organlzation is less clear in the
thi rd paragraph. Vocabulary and grammar are fairly vari ed, but there are various
inaccurate usages.
Task 2
There is Little doubt that governments and Jarge i.ll stilulions implel11.em many innovation-
iJ1to our society. However, fmm my point of view. rbey are only able to Li o so with th help
of ideas from individ ual citizL'llS.
For a stan, every pan of society, including government and large imitituli ons, consists
of individual members. Governments have the righTS 10 rile furtht'r use of Ih new i.d eas
and in iact ,hould alway, listen to them. For example. a U krainiilll L'ngineer called Pia ion
il1lroduced rhe idea of i1. bridge across thl:" rivLT in Kit\·. Seeing rh.e st rategic
importance of Ihis bridge the govemment pruvidetl funds t.) build it. And nov>' the whult: of
society benefils from tllte' ur Oll(' man's idea.
Furthermore in london, rhe Mayor, Mr livingstOne, announced a comper it ion which can
be entered by individuilb to find a new way to provide air conditioning for the underground
Tliis is yet another example 01 how governments and large i nstitutioTl s rely on the
creativity 01 individual:; to be lnventive- and brin g about change.
Some people might say that goveruments have the st rength, power and mone t() reali se
and introduce new idea 0[1 thei r own. In the case ot illsti tutIOns they possess up to date
equipment and massive facilities. However 1 would sa ( that Ihey are not enough to allow
them to contribut e to society as a whole. This 1. where creal ivity and outstanding ideas come
in. So if an indi vidual's dfom are combined with t11 government" power and money,
there wou ld be many changes that could benefit eVI' T; one.
In conclusion, both indi vidual s and large organizations, lIlcluding governments need 10
work in partnership to bring about any bendjdal change. (278 words)
Grade: 8
Comments: The writer does not fully address the topic but does present a clear
and logi cally _equenced argument, supported by evidence . Cohesive devices are
used eflectively. The range of vocabula ry produces nuency and precision. Sentence
str uct ure is varied and grammaticall y accurat e.
• • •• 95
•••••
Unit 1
Task 1
1




Possible answer
I(ey
Students' own answers. Graphs
associated with iPod and DVD
may be expected to be rising (c
or f) , whereas graphs associated
with audio and vjdeo cassettes
may be expected to be falling (a.
e, g, or b) .
2
19 2c 3 d 4a 5b
6 h 7 f 8 e 9 h 10 e
3
2 rose
3 fluctuated
4 flu tuat ed
5 dropped
6 fell. levell ed aU
7 rose, cli mbed
8 declined
9 decreased, levelled off
10 dropped
4
Slow: steadily, gradually,
slightly
Fast: wildly, sharply. dramat ically,
suddenl y
5
a There were wHd f]UCluauons
in spice exports [rom AIri a
over the period.
b There was a gradual fa ll in the
development of new products.
c Research investment has
decreased noticeably.
d There was a significant drop
in the purch , ses of ti cke ts la$[
month.
e There was a significant r ise
in the number of sites on the
Interne!.
The sale of' mangos decreased
suddenly.
96 ••••
••
• •
g The number of visi tors at the
th eme park fluctuated very
slightly.
h Sugar impons declined
gradually.
There has been a slow increase
in the quality of food in
supermarkets.
There was a remarkable
fluctuation i the number of
air travellers.
6
a African sp ice exports
b new product de velopment
d ticket purchases
e Internet sites
f mango sal es
g theme park vi sitors
supermarket food qualit y
7
b $85,000
c $ 125,000
d $120,000
e $130,000
8
a months of the vea r
b thousands of d ~ l l a r s
c Sales went up for Internet
Express. Wi-fi Cafe, and Cale
Cool, but down for The Tea
Room.
d Bet ween different cafes and
between different mont hs for
[he same cafe.
9
2 noun 3 verb
4 nOUD 5 adverb
6 verb 7 verb
10
d 2 g 3 e 4 f 5 a
6 c 7 b
Task 2
1
a drawbacks
b reasons
c causes
d solutions
••
• •
•••
2
b disadvantage, ngree or
disagree
c advantages/benefit s,
disadva ntages
d agree or disagree
e advantages/benefits
f causes, solutions
g measures
3
b three pans, t wo statements
pl us ques ti on
c one part
d two parts, statement plus
question
e two parts, statem ot plus
quest ion
three pans, Statement plus
two questions
g two parts, statement plus
question
4
Possible answers

Work: people have less srabl jobs
Technology: continually
developing new computer
systems and electronic devices
Travel: air travel is still on the
increase and becoming cheaper
Communication: people are using
text message more
Healt h: life expectancy is
increasing
5
a first sentence
b ca uses, solutions
6
They are answering: can you
suggest some pas ible solutions?
Th ey sugges t: encouraging
employees to relax, providing
gyms and massage therapy,
training employees to manage
their time better.
Results: people wW be more
efficient and producti e; the
workplace ,viii b happier.
7
1 c 2 f 3 d <1 a
5 b 6 e
8
a People should be encouraged
to exercise more.
b The number of working hours
hould be reduced.
c One possibili ty is for the
government to provide each
employee WiIh their own
compUler.
d Parents could be pers uaded t o
spend more ti me wilh thei r
chi ldren .
e The number of cars coming
into cities should/coul d be
restricted
9
A good idea is for the
government to build more
skyscrapers.
a obesity (or stress)
b stress
c (echnology
d lack of disdpline
e traffi c congestion
f overcrowding
10
Possible answers
b As a res ult , peopl e wou ld be
obliged to manage th elr l ime
more effedively.
c Thi would enable them to
work irom hom and avoId
str ess[ul journeys into work.
d This would lead to better
communication between
family members.
e Consequently, the:re woul d
be less traffic congestion
and journey times would be
reduced.
11
By doing this, they would
ensure that there were fewer
people living in crowded or
substandard accommodation.
addition: and, furthermore
condition: H
example: for instan ce, for
example
purpose:
reason :
result:
12
reason:
result :
example:
solution:
13
in order to
because, since
consequently, and so ..
therefore. as a result
because
as a resulr, and so
for example
rhe obvious answer is
Possible answers
A
If people migrate to cities,
they become trapped in poor,
over rowded accommodation and
so thei r healt h deteriorates and as
a result their quality of life may
be no bener than before. A good
idea would be to try to create new
jobs in the countryside. By doing
this, people would not feel the
need to move into ci ties which
are already overcrowded.
B
People spend too much time
watching TV For example, some
children stay up late watching
TV in their bedroom instead
of getting a good night'S , Ieep .
Consequen tly, they arrive at
school tiled and unable to learn.
If hous eholds just have one TV in
rhe main li ving area. then it wiLi
be easier to control h ow many
hours are spent in front of it.
This will lead to better res ult s at
school.
c
The development of tourism
often creates resentment among
local people because tourists
do not help the local e onomy.
For example, they may stay
in international hotels which
make large prouts outside the
country. Tbe obvious answer
is to encourage tourLsts to use
locally available accommodation .
Furthermore, by doing this, they
would learn more about the
COLUJ try they are visiting.
••• •
••••
Unit2
Task 1
'1
a paper lUoney, around eighth
century AD
b ballpoint pen, patented 1938
(other dates are Fahrenheit 's
thermometer 1714, Durand'
tin can 1810, and Hunt's
safety pin 1849)
c Students' own answers.
d There are many otber
important historical
inventions. They could
include paper, the light bulb,
radi o and TV.
2
Fey
a The bicycle was ranked as
most imponant by most males
and females .
b More females thelD males
ranked the bicycle, mobile
phone, and radio as the most
important.
More males than females
ranked the car, computer,
Internet. and TV a the most
importam.
3
a than
b popular
c less
d The least popular
e l\'lore
f The most popular
g Fewer
h less importan t
than
les5
4
Possible answers
Not as many females as males
chose the car.
lot as many males as females
chose the mobile phone.
• • • 97
5
a More males than females
eho e the car.
b More women than meu
selected the mobile phon
c The Internet was chosen by
more males than females.
d More females than males
picked the radio.
e Fe\..,· r males than females
picked the radio.
The computer was chosen by
few r females than males .
g The bicycle was selected by
fewer males than female s.
6
a Slightly
b considerabl y
c Many
d Substant iall y
e signifi can tly
f pracl ically
g far
h mucb
N .arly
7
a nearly, pra ctically
b considerably, many,
'ubstantiaUy, significantly,
far, much
e slightly
8
Possible answers
a Far more males t ban femal es
ch ose the car.
b Considerably more women
th an men sel ected the mobile
phone.
c The Internet was chosen by
significantly mor e males r11an
females.
d Substantially more females
than males picked the radio.
e Significantly fe wer males than
female picked the radio ..
f The computer was chosen by
slightly fe\"o'er females than
mal es.
g The bicycle was elected by
slightly fewer males than
females .
98
•• •
9
Possible answers
a The bar hart probably
provides infom1ation about
the number of people in two
di Uerent age groups who had
various interests.
b numbers of people
c interests/societies
d age groups
e There is no lime reference.
10
1 c 2 e 3 a 4 f
5 d 6 b
1 1
Ending could come first: 2, 3, 4,
5, 6
Noun phrase only: in comparison
wi/h, compared with
12
Correct options
1 However, By contrast
2 but. while
3 but, wh.ereas
4 far, considerabl y
5 but, although
6 significan t.l y, noticeably
Task 2
1
Archeologists, for example, help
us to learn abo ut the pas t. They
look for evidence in artefacts like
pots and jewellery. These reveal
a lot of information abo ut our
ancestors. This is very useful, but
it is still quite li mited.
2
1 d 2 b 3 a 4 c
3
b Old buildings help create a
more relaxing environment
in cities than concrete office
blocks .
c Studying history may ~
an interest in Qther subject
~ .
d Built-up areas can be made
more attractive by adding
monuments and stat ues.
e Gov rnmems should provide
more money to preserve
historical sites.
f Tradit ion does not hold us
back as some people believe.
g Schools and colleges need to
emphasize history and related
subjects .. .
h The Interne! and computers
ca n be used [ 0 preserve the
past.
4
a it/thi s
b , hey
c This
d it, it
e it fthis
f this
g this
5
Students' own answers.
Other impQrtant histori cal
e ents could be the ctiscQvery of
Australia. the discovery that the
earth goes round the sun, or the
first splitting of the atom.
6
Relevant PQints: b, d, e, g
7
Possible answers
__ . such as in Ancient Greece or
during the Roman Empire.
A s a result, they will be able to
compare these societi es with our
own .
Th erefore. they \vill become more
aware of the kind of society that
we live in.
Furthermor ' , they will come tQ
appreciate [h e contribution lhat
these sQcieties made to the way
~ v e think roday.
8
Students' own answ rs.
9
Possible answers
They eQuId visit historical places
such as castles or archaeolQgical
sites.
They ould research their own
family history.
They could do project work on
historical periods or figures whQ
intere t them .
10
Paragraph
1 2 3
Solutions a b h
Examples i e d
Effects f c g
11
a solution b effect
c example d solution
e example f example
g effect h solution
e([ecI
12
Possible answers
One way is to encourage children
to study history by using the
Internet. For example, they could
search for in formation about
histOrical fi gures online. This
coul d increase their motivation to
do historical res earch.
The best wa y is probably to visit
historical ire . For instance,
children could visit a local
archeological site. As a resul t,
the h istorical places will come to
seem more real.
Another method is to involve
children in doing writing projects,
such as p roducing a p ster or an
informa tion booklet . The skills
that they practise in these sorts of
projects could then be applied in
other subj ecis.
Unit 3
Task 1
1
Possi ble answers
a ring: gold, silver
house : cement, stone, wood,
glass
bag: plastic
shoe: 1 athe r
car: steel, plastic, glass
b natural : gol d, silver, ston e,
wood, leather
manufactured: cement, glass,
plastiC, steel
2
1 is extracted
2 is heated
3 is cooled
4 reaches
5 cool s
6 condenses
3
1 hold
2 rain s
3 fil l
4 becomes
4
a intransiti ve
b transitive
c bOlh
5 occur
6 rises
7 begins
c. falls
Semence a cannot be put inlO the
passive.
5
Transitive: design,
produce, send, mamtfact ure,
obtain, become
Intransi tive: fail, ri se, die
Both: begin, dry, grow, cool
6
Some variation is possible.
a A. fter the motorcycle is
designed, a prototype is made .
It is tested and the motorcycle
is manufactured. Ai ter thi s, it
is exported and sold.
b First the wheal i planted, and
later the crop is harvested .
The wheat is transported to
the mill where it is made into
flour. The flour is bough t by a
baker. Later the bread is baked
and sold.
7
1 b 2 c 3 a 4 h 5 d
6 e 7 8 g
8
a by conveyor belt
b oxygen
c raw syngas
d carbon dioxide, mercurv an d
sulphur '
e puriiied syngas
f It drive it.
Key
•••
••••• •••
g It powers it.
h the turbine
They are sent to a heat
reco cry steam generator.
9
1 First of all
2 After that
3 where
4 From this
5 Follo\ving that.
6 in turn
7 then
8 subsequently
10
a When the snow fa l s, it covers
the ground with a protective
layer.
b As soon as her cubs are born,
the lioness licks them all over.
e Once the paper is collected. it
is sent [or re yeUng.
d Before volcanoes erupt, they
send huge amounts of smoke
into the air.
e When the plants perspire, th
ai r becomes h umid.
11
The trees are cut down
and the lorest is gradually
destroyed.
Possible answers
a As soon as the food is
processed, it is packaged and
then it is dis tributed.
b When the cycle is completed.
it repeats itself al l over again.
c Ailer the rubbish is collected.
it is sent to a centre for soning
and then it is recycled.
d. Once a new model of the
bicycle is developed, it is
rested .
e When the TV is assembled, it
is sent to the shops.
s soon as lh e water is
purified, it is bou led.
g The data about the weather is
collected, and the information
is then broadcast.
h Once the prot otype has been
tes ted, it is modified.
• • •• 99
12
Students' own answ n.
Task 2
1
Possible answers
a Computers, au(Omatic doors,
mobile phones, and satellite
navigation systems can all
belp. All of them can make
life difficult as it can take orne
time to learn how to use tbem
and they can go wrong.
b Aut omatic doors and TV
remote controls might make
people lazier. Video games and
lv1P3-players might also make
people lazy in that peopl
might c me to prefer using
these instead of taking up
more active pastimes.
c St udent' own answers.
2
auses, s JUli ons
3
a practical skills for everyday life
b over-reliance on machines
c office functions, openin
and locking doors, switching
machines on and off
d IN rkers cannot do basic
practical tasks.
e They have dilficulty in
processing basic information.
4
a all ow the TV to do their
thinking for them at home
b traditional practical skills
5
a Sometimes computers make
mistakes and prevent things
happening, which wastes
valuable time and can cost
money.
b TV programmes provide
people with infonnation
about the world around them.
which is often very useful.
c Machines now give us more
freedom, which means w
have more time for leisure
activities .
100 •••••
d Technology saves us more and
more lime, which can be used
to create more madlli1.es.
e More and more household
tasks are now carried out by
robots, which will be even
more common in the future.
Ev rything seems to be
available at the touch of a
bulton, which makes people
ex-pect instant responses from
other people.
6
a computers make mistakes and
prevent things happening
b information about the world
c machi nes nov give us more
freedom
d time
e r bots
f everything eems to be
available at the touch of a
utton
The which-clause expresses an
effect in a, c, d, and f.
7
a The situation, which has now
become much more complex.
is effectively out of control.
b The problem, which the public
blame the government for, is
everyone's responsibility.
c The cause of the problem.
which is not immediately
obvi us to everyone, is a lack
of basic training.
d The solution, which in my
opinion, is by far the best. is
to have a day at work where
people do not use computers
or other machines.
e Office technology, which
require only basic lraini.ng
t use, is the cause of much
frustration at work.
8
Paragraph 2
Example: fiting a pl ug, mending
a puncture on a bicycle, or even
sewing a button on a shirt
Cause: parents no longer have
enough time to spend at home
with their children
Effect: young people are
consequently deprived of
valuable lime to I am practical
skills
Paragraph 3
Call (>: j'nt ernatiooal drive
towards leaming new technology
Result 1: young people leavin
school literate in certain
computer skills
Result 2: a generation almost
deficient in ba ic practical skills
Reason: tedmical problem-
solving bas been squeezed OUI
of the curriculum
Example: making thing in
carp ntry
9
Paragra ph 1
Problem: First of all
Cau e: A number of reasons have
been put for ward for thi s, bUl by
fa r the most important
Pa,ragraph 2
Example: li.k
Cause : becau t:
Ellect: consequently
Paragraph 3
Cause: also needs to carry a good
part of the blame
Result 1: This has led to
Result 2: it has also created
Reason: becau e
Example: like
10
Result
so
therefore
consequ ntly
as a result
and so
for this reason
as a consequence
hence
which leads to
which means that
Purpose
in order to
so as to
with the aim of
. 0 that
1 1
Possibl'e answers
a Children are now learning
how to do mental arithmetic
agai n, which means that they
will rely less on calculators
b Some cities charge motorists
to take their cars into the
cemre in order to encourage
people to use public transport.
c Machines are manufactured
to break down after a certain
time, 0 that companies can
sell more of them.
Unit 4
Task 1
1
Students' own answers
2
a The pie charts describe the
proponion.s of each group
reading particular numbers of
article ' each week.
b The number represent
percentage f people.
c It shows the number of
articles read each week. There
are three separate
d For all student , the most
noticeable feature is that the
majority read 1-5 artides .
Por PhD students, the most
noticeable feature is that the
majority read twelve or more
articles per week.
For junior lecturers, the most
noticeable feature is that the
majority read 6-11 articles per
week.
e In general, most students read
between one and five articles
a week.
3
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
Most PhD students read more
articles than other tudents
and junior lecturers.
A tiny minority of junior
lecturers read only 1-5 articles
per week.
how, an
For example,
respectively
whereas
Meanwhile,
but, which
that
4
Paragraph I : a
Paragraph 2: b, c, d
Paragraph 3: e, f
Paragraph 4: g
5
General: a, e, g
Specific: b, c, d, f
6
General: b, d, e, f, g
Specific: a, c, h
7
a Far fewer junior Je turers read
over twelve articles a we . .
compared \ovith PhD students.
The average junior lecturer
reads mort: journal articl
than the average student.
c The average PhD student
reads more articles than
the other students at the
university.
d Those students who are
researching for a PhD have
more time to read articles than
junior lecturers .
8
26 per cent
a.bout one in four
just over a quarter
33 per cent
one third
one in three
48 per cent
almost hali
nearly hali
ju I under one half
close to one hali
75 per cent
three out of four
ree quarters
9
very big: vast, overwhelming
very big (used before numbers) :
massive, hefty
very small: tiny
not very big (used before
n.umbers): modest, mere
K/!)
•••
10
Possible arnswerrs
a about one in four/just under a
quarter
b the overwhelming/vast
majority of; 75 per cent
c about one in three/just over
one third: one in ten
d Filty per cent; a hefty 64 per
cent/over ix ut of ten
e The overwhelming/vast
majority/ About nine out of
ten
1 1
a The percentage who spent
8-14 hour in tbe library are
imilar: 35 p r cent for all
students and 32 per cent {or
postgraduate. The proportion,
are approximately the
but for different of
hours.
b The percentages of ludents
spending 1-7 hours and
fifteen or more hours are very
different in each case.
c As students progre s toward
postgraduate level. the
number of hours spent in the
library increases.
d The similarity between
the diff rent proportions
for undergraduates and
postgraduates, but for
different categories.
e Undergraduate students spend
Ies time tha n other students
in the library. Other stu dents
spend less time in the library
than postgraduate students.
Postgraduate students spend
more time in the Ubrary than
all other students.
12
a pattern e trend
b proportion f two-thirds
c majority g quarter
d minority
13
Students' own answers.
•• • • • 101
Task 2
1
a They are connected by the
topic of education.
b No. th y stand alone. The
statements are very sweeping
and do not dearly support the
fjrst one.
c You could give reasons like:
because chis would help poorer
countries and poorer parts of rich
anmtries develop. Then you
could give example . like: For
example, s hoofs in places like
2
.... could be sponsored by richer
ountries.
B th statements SllPP rt the
opinion.
3
Students' own ans wers.
4
Possible answers
a It is important that
universities should make
more links with businesses.
b There is no doubt that the
present young generation
knows more than therr
previous counterparts.
c One cannot deny that
teaching thinking at school
is e sential, even at primary
level.
d It is impossible to argue
agai n I the fact that more
time needs to be devoted to
learning music, either during
or after school hours.
5
Possible answers
e Some people believe physical
education is a necessary part
of Lhe learning process for aU
pupils.
Some people feel that play is
a major part of the learning
race for children.
g Other people are of the
opinion that it is imponant
{or hildren to LTy to learn
anot her language arly in
their education.
102 •• ••
h Yet other people put forward
the view that being bored and
learning to deal with boredom
is a necessary part of the
learning process for children.
6
e d2 c3 b4 S g
6a 7/ 8h
7
a 3 b 2
8
Possible answers
a For example, they can learn
languages li ke Japanese or
Russian.
b A good example is the endless
tests given to school children
in some countri s.
C Take for example trips to
place. of historical interest likt:
The Great Wall of China or
Istanbul.
d It can, for example, provide
small classes an d sometimes
even better facilities.
e Famous sports stars li ke
footballers could. for instance,
conduct training on a regular
basis.
9
Possible answers
a Some people are of the
opinion that foreign
language learning should be
compuJsory, because it helps
intellectual development.
It can, for instance, develop
one's own language and
improve communication.
b There is no doubt that
students need to have good
study skills on ntering
university. since most subjects
r quire a lot of sophis ticated
skills like listeni ng [0 lect ures,
note taking, etc.
c Yet others feel that university
lecturers need some teacher
training, as they are us d to
lecturi ng rather than teaching
which is not uitable for small
groups. Lecturers could, for
instance, follow short courses
or visit coUeges or schools.
..1
d It is important that boys and
girl ought to be educated in
separate schools. One reason
for thjs is (hat the learn in
different ways. For example.
boys are known to prefer
competitive activities.
e SOIDe people think that
teachers' salaries need to
be as high as doctors' or
lawyers' since they have such
an important job to do. For
instance, creating a future
generation of doctors and
lawyers requires go d welJ-
paid teachers in the present .
Unit 5
Task 1
1
Suggested answers
a Dave thinks it wa worSe.
There is now more lor young
people to do.
Sandra thinks it was better. II
was quiet and peaceful. 0\
there is a bypass.
Tom agrees the tOwn wa
prettier and more pea cful.
However. he thinks there are
more jobs and opportunities.
b Students' own answers.
c Dave: The ice rink, the leisur
centre, and the kate park
were opened by the council
last year.
Sandra: A ypass an an
industrial estat e were built a
few year ago.
d Students' own answers.
2
a The town changed
conSiderably over tbe peri od.
b 11 was more residential.
c There were fewer trees in
2005.
d They were dramatic.
e The construction of the
stadium and tbe removal of
the houses.
They were cut down and
replaced by skyscrapers.
3
2 residential
3 experienced
4 noticeable
5 houses
6 factories
7 facilitie
8 construction
9 comer
10 comparison
4
a The town cent re was
developed dramatically.
The neighbourhood was
completely transformed.
c The residential area was
totalJy reconstructed
d The old factories were totally
redeveloped.
e The old houses were rebuilt .
f The entertainment district was
completely modernized.
5
b The town centre developed
dramatically.
6
a The map shows changes
which took place between 19 0
and 2005.
b cry few trees remained.
c Over the next 25 years. a ll
these houses were kl10cked
down.
d The single dwellings made way
for skyscrapers.
e The trees wae cut down.
f The area experienced dramatic
changes .
g The woodland made way for a
golf course.
h A marina was also built.
7
a was knocked down
b was cut down
c was redeveloped
d was converted
e underwent
J was pulled down/replac d
g was constructed
h took place
was transformed
8
d cannot replace Between 2000 and
2005.
9
a By 2005, the row of old
houses had been knocked
down to make way for a road.
b By 2005, the forest had been
cut down to build a railway.
c By 2005, the area had been
redeveloped completely.
d By 2005, the factory had been
converted into an art gallery.
e By 2005, the city centre
had undergone a total
transformation.
By 2005, the row of old
terraced houses in [he city
bad been pulled down and
replaced by a block of fiats .
g By 2005, a sports omplex
had been conslrUcted in the
suburbs.
h By 2005, a number of
spectacular changes bad taken
place.
10
By 2005, the whole
centre of the town had
been transformed by new
developments.
a Tbey are beside the railvvay
line.
b It is north-east of the lake.
c It is south-west of the
stadium.
d It is south oJ the goll course.
e It is north of the skyscrapers.
f It is in the south-west of the
town.
g It is south of the river.
11
a in
d in
g beside
Task '2
1
b by
e from
b on
Students' own answers.
c beside
f on
off
K ~ j '
••••••
2
a You can agree or disagree
completely. You can agree 50
per cent an d disagree 50 per
cent. You cannot be neutral.
You have to express an
opinion.
b Young employ e should
receive the same amO).lnl of
money as older people i f they
do identical work.
3
a Opinion statement
b Contradiction
t Example
d Explanafion
e Reason
f Reason
g Resuli
4
a Many people believe that
b R wever
c Take {or example
d They deserve to receive the
same salary .
e because
f Moreover,
g which
5
Students' own answers.
6
Delete the following:
1 Moreover
2 while
3 And
4 also
5 however
6 Subsequently
7
1 a. contrast
2 b reason
3 a addition
4 c example
5 a result
6 c conclusion
• • •• 103
8
Possible answers
a Many feel that young people
have much more influence
in the world than their
coumrparts in the past.
Personally, I believe that this is
not necessarily true, because
most people in power belong
to the older generation. For
example, most politicians
throughout the world
are mainly middle-aged.
Moreover, most wealth is
concentrated among people
in their forties upwards. So,
young people may appear
to exert influence, but it is
limited.
b Accorcting 10 some people,
older workers are just as
equipped to deal with the
modem world as young
people. However, I think that
younger people are much
more prepared because they
are much more compllt er-
litera te than older peopJe.
Moreover, they are welJ-
acquainted with the latest
'gadgetS'. For example, many
young people are able to
design their own web pages
and adapt quickly £0 the latest
tools. Thus, I feel they are
better at coping with today's
world.
c Some people are of the
opinion that advertising
should not be banned in TV
programmes directed at young
people. Nevertheless, I fe eL
adverts in these programmes
should be SlOpped, as they
encourage young people to
buy products that neither they
nor their parents can afford.
Take the latest toys or ED
television sets. may be
put under enormous pressure
to buy these, thus ending
9
up in debt. So I think some
control must be exercised
over TV commercials in
programmes for young
people.
1 a 2 C 4 b
104 •
•••
10
Possib,le answer
Some people feel [hat weblogs are
ju t a waste of time and another
way to lure people on to the
Internet. Personally, however,
I feel that they are very useful
for people of all ages, especially
young people, for many reasons.
Unit6
Task 1
1
Students' own answers.
2
Possible answers
Student exchanges, language
learning, joint ultural events,
and shared cientific, and
technological know- how an be
canied out by individuals.
Trade agreements, transport
links, and media images can be
i.mproved by governments.
Tourism can be carried out
by both individuals and
governments.
Climate and landscape, and
lifestyle and culture are difficult
to change.
3
a the overwhelming majority of
people were in (a vour of
b with iii smaller number
naming lifestyle and food
c the most important languages,
about equal numbers of
people
4
a Sentence a relates to student
exchanges, b relates to
climate, and c relates to
language learning.
b Sentence a is illustrated by pie
chart b is illustrated by pie
chart 4, and c is illustrated by
pie char t 3,
5
a pie chart I
b pie chart 3
c pie chart 1
d pie chart 2
e pie chart 4
6
a The vast majority of holiday
makers to China . ..
b It is clear that aIm st equal
numbers of bot h sexes ...
c Only a Liny minority of
filmgoers ...
d Tn conclusion, the trend is
Jearly upward, with just
under hall of companies ...
e To sum up, neady a third of all
tourists .. .
7
Overall
It is clear that
To conclude
It is evident tha l
It would seem that
It is clear that
In conclusion
To sum up
8
a Backpacking is popular
wi th the youngest gr up
and guided tours relatively
unpopular. This pattern is
reversed for (he oldest group.
b 31-40 year aids
c satisfied
9
2 enj oyed
3 belong
4 accounts for
5 comes
6 make up
7 include
8 is rated
10
It is dear ...
11
a although, ne vertheless
b although is a conjunc1ion,
nevertheless is an adverb.
Nevertheless normally starts a
sentence.
c bUL however, despite
But is a conjunction. however is
an adverb and normally starts a
sentence. Despite can only be used
before a noun or an -i119 form.
12
a 3 b 1 c 5 d 2 e 4
13
a Although the ast majority of
vi sitors to Britain come from
Europe, they stay for fewer
than len days on average.
b Alt hough forty-five per cent
of people speak a for ign
language. tb e vast majority
are at a low level.
( Despite its/the good weather,
southern France is vi ited by
only two per cent of Asian
tourists .
d The number of student
exchanges rose, but/although
the st of them wenl up.
e Although the event was
promoted to teenager, they
accounted for only 32 per cent
of the audience.
Task 2
1
Students' own answers
2
a the first sentence
b the s cond sen renee
(advanta es and
disadvantages )
3
(Some other entertainment
devices may be possible.)
a Advantage: iPod, DVD player
b Advantage: Mobile phone.
c Disadvantage: iPod, handheld
game.
d Advantage: iPod, handheld
game.
e Advantage: iPod, mobile
phone, handheld game, DVD
player
Disadvantag : iPod.
g Disadvantage: Mobile phone.
h Disadvantage: iPod, handheld
game.
4
a benefi t
b help
c difficult
d enable/help
e interfere
f ideal
5
Advantage: h Jp, benefits, ideal.
enable
Disadvantage diliicult, interfere,
enable
6
a e
b for example. so, however.
hence, neverth eless, because
c Th y allow people to relax;
they allow people grealer
freedom; they are a nui ' ance
for other travellers .
7
for example
2 even if
3 likewise
4 though
5 Although
6 and
7 Consequently
8
a disadvantage
b (, e, f, h
( Main advantage: this aT/ows
p.:ople greater freedom and
flexibility and takes away the
boredom ofjoll rneys.
Main disadvantage: people are
becomi11g more and more isolated
in their OW1/ worlds. The art of
communication is being lost.
9
a drawbacks
b chance
c gain
d problems
e handicap
f opportunities
g benefit
10
Serio liS empbasizes disadvantage.
Key

11
Advantage: advantageous,
beneficial, useful , invaluable.
helpful, convenient
Disadvantage: wonhless, di Ui cuIt
12
advantageous - di advantageous
beneficial - detrimental
useful- useless
wonhless - valuable/invaluable
invaluable - worthle
difficult - easy
belpful- unhelpful
convenient - inconv !li ent
13
Possible answers
a International art s festival s
en ourage intt:n:sl in [her
people's cultures.
b Lending artworks to other
countries improves their:
knowledge of other culture .
c Films and (oncert enhance
the quality of people's lives.
d To enable children to value
their heritage, we need to
show (hem how strongly it
still influences society tOday.
e Personal links can benefi t
travellers when they are out
of their own country.
Ignorance of ther people's
tradi ti ons can handicap
busi ness partnerships .
g To prevent countries from
falling out with each olher, we
need to promote interest in
part icular cultures.
14
a I Although, 2 Despite
b I emphasizes the
15
disadvantage, 2 emphasizes
the advantage.
a Although
b However/N vertheless
c Despite
d However:/Nevertheless
e but
• • 105
Unit 7
Task 1
1
Students' own answers.
2
a There was little hange over
the period. onJy a slight
increase from each source.
b The highest proportions were
allocated by non-European
countries (Japan and USA .
c business
d the EU average
3
2
4
6
8
4
The highest proportion was
allocated by Japan, the lowest
by Italy.
is shown 3 rose
arne 5 contribut
overtoo ' 7 was spent
contributed 9 wa '
slightly, approximately,
consistently, closely, significantly.
considerably
5
a sign iii can tly
b consistently
highly
d slightly
e marginally
f considerably
g Approximately
h
substantially
6
a 4 b 5 c 3 d 7 e 1
f 2 g 6
7
It is also noticeable that
It is interesting to note that
8
a The number of sdentists
per head of population has
declin d significantly in recent
year .
b It is interesting that the sales
failed to recover.
c Numbers will probably
continue to fall over the
period.
106 •••••
d ot surprisingly, there were
kills shortages in the chemical
industry.
e It is evident that inveslment
needs to be increased.
1t is noticeable that the patter
for investment in the arts is
the reverse.
g It is more important that the
cost of plasma screens is set
to fall.
h It is not surprising that
analogue TV sales then fell.
9
Sentences b, and d are possible.
10
a The number of science
graduates fell significantly.
b Evidently. the number of
technical staff in hospitals is
falling.
c The cost of training scientists
is increasing noticeably year
by year.
d Interestingly. investment
in capital equipment like
spedalist machinery is down
on last year.
e ot surprisingly, sale of new
11
televisions soared before the
World Cup.
The trend is now obviously
upward.
Possible answers
a Funding for R&D increased
only marginally over the
period.
Bu iness provided
approximately halI of the
investment in ! 998.
The amount of funding
increased very slowly over the
period.
b Japan allocated considerably
more of its national income to
R&D than Ita] y.
Evidently, the four EU
countries invested less than
the USA or Japan.
The proporti on of national
income given to R&D was
noticeably higber in Germany
and France than in Ital y.
The proportion allocated
by the UK was onJy slightly
above the EU average.
Interestingly. tlle average
"
12
proponion among EU
oUllIries wa below that for
Japan and the USA.
a students on all courses at an
Au tralian unjversit y
b seven
c maths
d phy ic . rientallanguages
e chemistry
f Apparently not. Fo( example.
chemistry and physic are
both science subjects but
chemistry was seen as easy by
70 per cent of students and
pbysics by only 25 per ent.
Likewise, among language
subjects. African languages
were seen as easy by 60 per
cent but oriental languages by
onl y 20 per cent.
13
a irrelevant
b relevant
c relevant
d irrelevant becau e it contains
an unn essary opinion
e relevant
f irrelevant as it give t 0 much
data. or rather unnecessary
inionnat ion about how the
bar chart is drawn
14
Possible answer
The bar chart shows whether
student at an Australian
university rated different subjects
as easy, moderately difficult. or
difficul t.
Tbe subject which was most
commonly rated as dif[icult was
maths. by 70 P r cent of tudems.
Only 20 per cent saw it as easy.
Physics was also largely judged
to be a dillicult or moderately
difficult subject. Only 25 per cent
of students 'ewed it as easy. By
contrast, chemistry was regarded
as easy by a massiv . 70 per cent
of students.
A far as language subjects are
concerned. language in general
were seen as easy by 40 percent
of students. This percentage
dropped to 20 percent for orienta
languages. African languages,
however, were iewed as ea y by
60 per cent of rudents. An was
judged to be an easy subject by
only 30 per cent of students and.
like physics, 50 per cent rated it as
dillicult.
In conclusion, there seerru to be
no dear correspondence between
the type of subject and whether
it was generally rated as easy or
dillicult.
Task 2
1
Students' own answers.
Background information:
Leonardo da VInci was a famous
Italian anis! and inventor who
aimed the Mona Lisa .
Albert Einstein was a famous
theoretical physicist who came up
with the theor)' of relativity.
Sir Isaac A eWlOn was an English
scientist and mathematician
who described the properties of
gravity.
Nicola us Copernicus was a Polish
sdentist who recognized that the
Earth orbited the Sun.
2
a first sentence
b second sentence
c third sentence
3
I c 2 b 3 a
4
Many people feel strongly; They
argue; Supporters of ans groups
feel
5
a4 bl c3 d5 e2
IS g7 h6
6
Possible answers
b Some people feel that
the wealth of a nation is
connected with scientific
development. They claim that
modem economies cannot
advance without a strong
scientific base.
c A commonly held belief is
that science is now playing a
more important role in our
lives than in the past. People
feel that it has an effect on
everything we do from eating
to travelling.
d It is argued by some people
that the work of artists should
be censored. They maintain
that certain works of art that
are produced are offensive
and should be banned.
e Some people think that
scient ists should have some
involvement with artists. and
vjce versa. They argue that
bringing these two groups
together would be better for
society as a whole.
f Some people feel that science
is dull and boring. They
maintain tbat spending time
alone in laboratories without
much human contact is not
very interesting.
g It is argued by some
people that many sdentific
experiments are dangerous 10
society. They claim that there
are many examples where
serious mistakes bave been
made.
h Yet others believe that the
work of scientists should
n Ot be tightly regulated by
society. They argue that by
limiting scientillc work, we
might stop certain beneficial
developments.
7
Possible answers
b A good example here is
Germany, which produces
a large number of sdence
graduates and has a thriving
economy.
c For example. when we buy
food frOID the supermarket
the flavourings and additives
bave all been measured and
tested sdentilically.
d A case in point are certain
works which depict religious
figures.
Key
••
e For example. more regular
contact between tl1e two would
help scientists to appreciate'
the way in which scientilic
advances are perceived in
society as a whole.
Take the job of lab technician
for instance. It involves
dealing with tests and test
resul ts, and there is very linie
human contact involved.
g A good example is certain
tests in which possible new
medical drugs were tried out
on humans only to find that
they bad unforeseen and very
serious effects on the subjects'
health . .
h For instance. how could we
continue to research cures
for disease. uch as cancer
or AIDS if the
commun ity were allowed
to interfere with scientist '
work?
8
a2 b5 c4 ell e3
9
would. could and might talk about
possibility.
Sentence d asks the reader
to imagine a situation and its
consequence.
10
a Unless they are ncouraged by
parents and teachers. budding
musicians will not develop.
b If science stops the ageing
process in humans one day,
will this benefit mankind?
c Unless there is an effon to
keep traditional crafts alive,
they will disappear.
d Providing innovation is
encouraged, many new jobs
will be created.
11
Possible answers
a Provided parents have an
interest in mlJ sic, they will
encourage musical talent in
their children,
• • •• 10'
b IJ govemment support for ans
projects is not available. they
will be forced to seek funding
elsewhere.
c Unless entrance to museums
and art galleries i free. many
people will never experience
them at all .
d Providing young scientists are
given the right opport unities,
the work they do has the
potential to be of enormous
benefit to society.
Unit 8
Task 1
1
Possible answers
a The photographs relate
ro our changing future
relationship with the
environment.
b-d Students' own answers.
2
a 1f shows predictions for the
number of buildings that will
be powered by solar and wind
energy.
b They relate t the number of
houses.
c 0-600 million
3
a will
b pr dieted, will
c prediction, will
d predicted
4
a projection, forecast,
anticipation
b projected, anticipated. forecast
c prediction: expectation,
estimation
predicted: expected.
estimated, set
5
a is predi ct d. will provid
b are expected
c will come
d i. forecast
e is not expected
r is projected. will be
g is set
h is anticipa ted. will provide
108 •••••
6
Sentence a decribes something
which ""rill happen before a future
time.
Sentence b describes something
in progress at a time in the future.
7
a will be using
b will be living
c will have been old
d will have become
e will have been de troyed
8
a the pie chart
b It is projected to increase.
c Ireland
d Hungary
e the pie chart
( Yes. 64 per cent.
9
The charts show forecasts for
the annual reforestation (not
deforestalion) rate in selected
regions
2 They forecast that the
reforestation rate in th fou r
regions will grow unti l 2025
(not 2035)
3 It i projected that Ireland will
hav the highest ra te in 2025
at 1.7 per cent (nor 1.5 pt'r cent)
4 It i, anticipated that the figure
wi ll cl imb from 0.5 per cent in
200 (not 20]5)
5 with the worldwide average
for both 2015 and 2025, 1. 0
per cent and 1.3 per cent
r especti vely (nol .1.3 and 1.0)
6 (' concerned' 39 per cent, and
' very concerned' 25 per cent).
10
a It is predicted that the use of
solar energy will become more
Lmportant.
b We see from the chart that
the largest amount of money
was spe nt on the water
conservation project.
c The chart shows th· different
types/of trees which are found
in different regions.
d From the pie chart, it can be
seen that hydroelectric power
constitute seven per cent of
the world energy demand.
11
It is clear that tlte majority ot
people are very concerne
about climate change.
Recently, a number of
campaigns have encouraged
people 10 plant trees.
Generally, it is forecast that the
reforestation rate
It is al'O worth noting that
From the pie chart. it can be seen
that
12
a It gives in thousands the
estimated and actual numbers
of houses built in the UK in
2002.
b seven
c below
d outhern England (77. 00).
London (47.800) and in
Central England (16.200) .
These figur far exceeded (he
estimate ..
e North of England. The
estimate was 9. 300 houses
while the actual figure was
1.3.500.
f Nonhern Ireland and Wa e .
In Wales, it was estimated that
2,900 houses would b built.
but the rea l fi ure was 6,300.
Likewise. in orthern Ireland
the stimate was for 2,500
t housand houses, but the rea l
number was 5.000.
g Scotland.
h cotland. 1t was estimated that
13
3.200 hou es would be built
but in the event Ih figure was
nly 3,000.
Possible answer
The diagram give figures for the
actual and estimated numbers of
houses built in the UK by region
in 2002.
In most cases, the estimated
number was below the number
of houses which were actually
built. The highest numbers of
houses were onstructed in
Southern England (77,600),
Loudon (47,800). and i Central
England (16,200), far exceeding
the estimates (5 1. 10 . 24,800,
and 8,100 respectively) . imilarly
in the onh of England. there
was a disparity of just 0 er 4,000
between th two figures, 9,300
houses for the estimated figure
against L3,500 for the actual
figure. orthern Ireland and
Wales foll owed the same trend,
2,500 houses as opposed to 5,000,
and 2.900 compared to 6,300.
Scotland was the region where
the lowest number of houses
were built. It was esti mated
tbat 3,200 houses would e
constructed but in the event th
figure was only 3,000.
In conclusion, it is clear that
many more houses were built io
the UK in 200_ than had been
anticipated.
Task 2
1
Possible answers
a The most serious threats are
water sh nages, dTOugh t
and other natural disasters.
as well as other effects ot:
global warming.
b-d Students' own an wers.
2
2 factories 6 leisure
3 pollutants 7 pressure
4 fish 8 action
5 wildlife 9 incentives
3
animal - countable
information - uncountable
nature - uncountable
cl imate - uncountable
accommodation - uncountable
knowledge - uncountable
research - uncountable
weather - uncountable
tree - countable
idea - countable
situation - coun.table
fact - countable
4
problem - countable
factOries - countable
oll utants - countable
fish - uncountable
wildlife - uncountable
I isure - uncountable
pressure - uncountabl
action - uncountable
incentives - countable
5
a no article, no article
b no anicle
the
d a, no article
e no art icle
f the
g The. no article
h The
6
a Wave power technology is the
best answer to lhe problem
of pollution. However,
the introduction of such
technology also creales a
problem.
b Government worldwide
should tax the cars more . A
measure like this would make
people think more about
nature.
c In the near fut ure, hOllses will
be more energy-eilicient than
rhey are now.
d The food industry could pay
for recycled b t lIes as was
done in the past. The bottles
would rhen not be thrown
away.
e Insects like the bees. for
example, play a vital role in
most ecosystems. Th bee
pollinates plants and flowers.
'fhe Facilities Uke dams and
forests are also used for
leisure.
7
aJ b 2 c2 dl e2
fI g 2
8
Question I
Statement of most important
measure: d
Another possible measure and
why it is I 5S effective: [
Restatement o[ most important
meas ure and it consequences: a
£<e \'

Question 2
Statement of opinion: b
Reference to rhe opposite view: e
Reason against the opposite view: g
Restatement of opinion: c
9
In conclusion: to sum up. to
conclude
I do not agree: I do not accept. I
disagree with the idea tha t
All in all: in generaL all thillg
considered
I feel that: I believe, I would argue
that
cert ainly: of ourse. n doubt
10
a There i no rea on why loca
e o-friendly busincs es cannO!
b uccessfll!.
b There is no reason why people
could not take more holida y$
at home instead of always
flying abroad.
c There is no reason why people
could not tra vel by fast train
instead of taking short [lights.
d There is no reason why
governments should not give
special financial suppon to
eco-friendly busines people.
Unit9
Task 1
1
St udents' own answer .
2
a The graph gives information
about rhe average use of beds
in three typical hospital
around the world before
and after day-surgery is
introduced.
b While rhe trend was upward
f r the French hospital.
th average bed occupancy
dropp d noticeably after the
introduction of day-surgery.
c The trend for the Ukrainian
hospital was similar to that of
the French ho pitat but the
fall in bed use after 2003 was
not as marked.
• 109
d You can make a conn ection
between the coinddental [aU
in the budget for inpatient
care and the fall in bed
occupancy.
e Yo u can use trend to
summarize information.
You can use upward to show
th e direction of the tren d.
3
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
iO
II
12
4
You can use the phrase similar
pattern to compare simila.riti es.
You can use reach a peak to
describe a hi gh poin t.
YOll can use except that to
introduce detail whi ch is
different from the general
trend/pattern.
You can use saw a continuous
rise as an alternative to rose.
You can use change to describe
d c!.iHtrence that OCCl rrs.
You CJl1 use co in cido' to show
when things bappen ilt the
same ti me. vvhether they are
related or nol.
impact
trend
occupancy
peak
falling
marked
ex:perienced
ris e
significantly
d ear
reduction
1 details - information
2 impact - eilect
3 trend - tendency
4 occupancy - use
5 peak - high point
6 faJling - droppi ng
7 marked - sha rp
8 experienced - saw
9 rise - increase
10 Significantl y - considerably
11 d ear - evident
12 reduction - cut/decrease
5
Incorrect answers to be deleted:
a says
b had an affect on
c reached a heigh t
d desi gn
e alternati vely
[ towards
110 •••••
g contrast with
h G lD be vi evved in
6
a 1 b 3 c 5 d 7 e 2
[
6 g 4 h 8
7
a before
b receive
c studying
d useful
e P 'Jsonally
f sufJi cienr
g defin itely
h di ffe rent
choice
referred
8
Spelling rules
i before ,'. except after C:. receive,
bu t not after ch: achieve.
Words (, lldi ng in a vowel then y : y
does no! change. eg studying.
Noun + full : remove th e second /
== rlse/ul .
Adverbs (rom adjectives in
-al: add -Iy and remove nothing,
eg personally.
Adc:verbs from adjectives enti iJl ';
in -e : add -/y and keep the e, eg
defin.itely.
Verbs ending witllY + ·ina : no
change. eg studying.
Words of more tban one syllable:
the consonant doubles if the finaJ
syllable is stressed:
9
a graduillly
b which
c occurred
d peak
e fig ures, approxi m2ll d y
f fluct ua ted
g e:-.:ceeded
h survey
10
average
accidents I
dramaticall y
improvement
steadily
regards
motorcycle
occurring
Task 2
1
Student's own ,lin 'WCl'>.
2
1 strangel y
2 well
3 surprisingly
4 Widely
5 accurately
6 often
7 seriously
8 well
9 frequently
10 Clearly
3
T\:le paragraph foll ows se nt ence
panem a.
Organizing words
Situati on: The idea
ExampJe: Take the example 01
Effects . The effects
ConclUSion: the COIl c/IiSioll IS
4
a information
b idea
c scheme
d r\H:,.a$ ll re
e issue
f sol ution
g knowledge
h opinion
problem
5
Possibl e answers
a Thi s issue n eeds to be
considered when planning
the healt h care budge! for any
country.
b This idea could ha ve benefits
both for people's health and
the education of doctors and
n urses.
c This prediction may seem
surprising, bu t I believe costs
will be reduced as tech nology
becomes more wi dely
available.
d Initially, this may be a
problem, but the changes
wi ll result in a more efficient
health service.
e The situation, however, is one
that can be prepared for by
setting money aside for the
fu ture.
D
Measures like this could lead
t a significant improvemeOl
in the nation's health.
g Not surpri singl y, it is a trend
which is not looked on
favourably by some western
doctors.
h This is a matter that needs to
be considered when planning
for future spending.
6
Possible answers
a music and health
Effect: helps people relax ,
takes lip attention
Measure: music therapy,
used sometimes 10 treat
pat ients with communication
problem .
b alternati e therapies and
health
Example: homeopathy,
herbalism.
Information: contested by
different people.
Opinions: health practitioners
versus people wh o have
experienced these therapies.
Effects: may be due to
influence on the mind as weU
a- body.
c exercise and healt h
7
Effects: strengthens muscles,
helps coordination, help
people to relax.
Problem: hi gh cost of gyms!
health ceotres .
Scheme: companies offer
gym membership as pan of
package to staff.
Students' own answers.
8
a is
e has
9
b has
f are
care
g is
d is
h have
a This information is published
all around us, even on
ci garett e packets.
b Unfortunately, this advice is
not often followed.
c Instead, this work is carried
out by health care assistants.
d Enormous progress has been
made in understanding how
disease spreads, .. .
e However, thi s equipmeOl can
be dangerous if it is not used
properly.
However. there is certainly
some evidence thaI it is more
than ju t a placebo.
g Some research has been
carried out 'which shows that
elderly people live longer if
they live wi ih a partner.
Unit 10
Task 1
Srudeuts' own answers .
2
a Both chart refer to the main
re<1 SOns for choosing a career
according to age group.
b They refer to the reasons
under consideration.
c They show the different
ways in whi ch the two age
groups were influenced by tbe
various factors.
d The most noticeable fea tures
are the imponance of money
and the position of friends.
e The most noticeable features
are the imponance of money
and parents, the reverse of the
younger age group.
3
the main reasons for choosing
a career
2 were influenced by the
various factors
3 were the reverse for the 40-50
age group
4 As regards teachers and role
models
5 nine and fifteen per cent
respec1ively for the younger
group
6 The only similarity between
the two age groups
7 than any other factors
".
••
4
a The sales of specialisllours
have fallen recent ly.
d It i clear that the number of
Hats occupied by si ngle people
in major dties in the West is
pUlling pressure on housing.
e From the graphs, it can be

are much more mobiJe than
previous generations.
The pursuit of a professional
career among both men and
woman has led to a lIoticeablr'
reduction in the birth rate .
g There are several similarities in
the presentation of the data.
h Overall, the chart shows that
tbe media art:: responsible for
urning pt'C'p/e into celcbritks.
5
a an explanation
b with is normally followed by a
noun then a erb with -i119.
6
a Sales were 1I pward for most
of the year, with the profit
reaching a peak in December.
b The main reason for career
choice was ambition, with 50
per cent chOOSing it.
cIt - expeded that the price
of one bedroom nat will
ri se, with accommodation
for individuals being in short
supply.
d The pattern was different,
with passenger numbers
dropping in ummer an
rising in winter.
e The trend was clearly upward,
with manufacturing costs
decreasing at the same time.
Cons umption of energy rose,
wi th the highest point being in
January.
7
a True b False
d False True
g False h True
c False
f False
• • •• 111
Task 2
1
Question 1: b, a,
Question 2: b, d, a, c
Question 3: c. d, b, a
2
Question 1: a
Question 2: c
Question 3: b
3
Possib,le ,answers
Money dves nof JI/,7ke happiness.
To what extt!nt do yotl agree or
disagree?
It is impossible to deny th aI
money h elps people to achieve
happiness because it is impossibl
to do anyiliing in liIe without il.
For example, if you want to ee a
fi lm or a play at tbe theatre, you
need money for the ticket and
for transport. Also, if you want to
have a relaxing time at home you
still n eed money, even to buy a
TV or a computer. (structure b)
It is better to refonl1 crimi nals
iI/stead of just pllflisT1i1l9 them.
'What measures could be taken fa
attempt to integrate law-b"eakers
back into society?
Personall y, I think that criminals
of all levels should be given a
chance to be a pan of society
rat her thanjusl being put into
prison. II this is done, then the
offender will have a better chance
of not reoffending, Society will
al so not have to pay for the cost
of keeping criminals in prisons,
whi ch are very expensive places
to run. Of course, then ocietyas
a whole will benefit. (stnlCl ure c)
4
Text 1
1 [, 2 a 3 a
Text 2
4 a 5 b 6 b
Text 3
7 a 8 b
5
Student s' own answers .
112 •
6
U you want to achieve a good
score band, you need to be able to
tick Always for aU of the items in
t ne Ust.
7
Possible answers
a for example, for instance, a
rase in point is, like
b as, one reason for this is, since
c as a result, therefore, so, this
means that, this leads to
d moreover, furthermore. in
addi tion, and, also.
e if, unless, provided
but, however, while, wher eas .
despite
g although, despite
h and so, and therefore, to sum
up, aU in alL in general
8
Suggested answers
a Problem and solution
b Measures and results
c Cause and effect
d Reason and example
e Example and specific example
f Effect and example
g Additional inIormation and
example
h ConditionlHyporhesi and
result
Concession and contrast
9
Possible answers
a Money is not a important
as frie nds, because it cannot
pr vide emotional support.
b Par many people, keeping
fi t and healthy is the main
factor which is necessary for a
good quali ty of lile. However.
developing a healthy mind is
just as imponant.
c U one is content with liIe, then
there is no longer any need to
pursue unrealistic ambitions .
d What is involved in achieving
a good qUality of life depends
on many factors rather than
just one. For example, money
is important to gain a certain
financial securi ty, but it is not
enough on its own.
e Happiness and contentment
are more important than the
pursuit of freedom. The latter
aim is an illusion as n obody j
ever completely free.
10
Many people living in poor
housing conditions are still
happy, Sotheideathatyou
have to have a high standard
of Uving to b happy is false.
Possible answer
And yet other people believe
[h at the family play an
important role LO maintaining
a good qualit y of life, You just
have to look at societies where
there are extended fami lies 10
see how much more content
people are because they are
surrounded by relatives v\lhn
love them and can look aft er
them if t h ~ y fall ill or ha ve
problems. This support i
not just financial but also
emotional.

IMPROVE YOUR

IELTS

Sam McCarter Norman Whitby

MACMILLAN

~


Introductio n

Contents

•••

• •••••

••

page 4

TOp ic
Unit 1 page 6 Change and consequences

Task 1

Ta..,k Z
Understanding questions Expressing solu tions Lin king ph rases Us ing trigger words Using itltheylthislthese Planning essays Devel ping ideas

Describing trends Related verbs and nou ns Un derst and ing data

Unit2 page 14

The importance of the past

Comparing information Adverbs in comparisons Com paring and contras ti ng

Unit3 page 22 Unit4 page 30

Machines, cycles, and processes

The passive Sequencing
Ge n era l and sp edfic statements Comparing information Describing proportions De scribing changes Describing locations Concluding statement. Con cession ( 1 )

Using which to organize information Expre ssing result and purpose
Avo iding o v rgenera jiza ti on Developing reasons

Education

Unit5 page 38 Unit 6 page 46

Youth

Developing an d j u stifying opinions Writing introduct ions Expressing advantag sand disadvantage Advantage an d disadvantage va abulary Concession (2)

Culture

Unit7 pag e 54

Arts and sciences

Adverbs

Using actv eJ:bs to eva lu ate data Avoiding irrelevance
Nature

DiSCUSSing other people's opinion Hypo lh e izin g

UnitS page 62 Unit9 page 70 Unit 10 p age 78

taking predictions Factual accura cy
Vary ing vocabulary Checking pelling Word orde r

Article Wri tin g con clusions
Organizing words Verb-subject agreement Paragraph str uClure Relevant and irrelevanr information Task 2 revision

Health

Individual and society

Lin king using wi th
Task 1 revision

Sample answers page 6 Key page 96

3

This book is also completely elf-contained: a clear and accessible key is provided so that you can easily check you r answ r as you w ork through the book. Practice test: a complete Academ ic Writing pape r base d on th e u n it topiC to prac tise the skills learned . How is Improve your IEL TS Writing Skills orga n ized? J[ consists of ten units based aroun d topics wbich occur common ly in the real te st . there are echniqlles boxes throughout the book Th ese reimor e k. key elements of Task 1 prep ara tion. which all contribute to an appropriate academic writing style. Each unit consists of three sections : Task I: exercises and e xamples to de velop skills and la nguage for Ta k 1 questions. in which case they can be a u seful opportunity to _hare ideas and techniq u es w ith othe r lea rners. Each Task 1 and Task 2 section is su b divided furthe r into sk ills se ti on s. su ch as Describing trends an d COlI/paril1g information. By developing language Each unit also contains a resour e of useful phrases and vocabular y to II e in each wri ting task. Ta sk 2 : exerdses and examples to develop skills and language for Task 2 questions. and how t o use eUectively the language you have learned. 4 •• . These include quick and easy advice about planning. If you are studying as part of a class. in addition. If you arc studying on your own . How will Improve your JELTS Writing SkiJJs improve my score? By developing skills The skills secti ons form a detailed syllabus of essential IELTS wriling skills . under tanding question s. For example. it develops skills and language to h elp you achieve a highe r JELTS score in the Academic Writing pape r. you will encounter a wide rang of ideas (0 ensure thaI you are not lost for words when you get to the real test.• •• ••••• •• • • ••• •••• •••• In trod-uction What is Improve your IEL TS Writing Skills? •• Improve YOllr fELTS Writing Skills is a complete preparation course for the Academic Wr iting pape r o( the In ternationa l English Lang u age Te" ting System . Over th e ourse of Irnprol'eyollr fELTS Writing Skills. BV developing test technique The Tedlllique boxes contain shari tips w hich can easily be memorized and used as reminders in the real test. These include concepts such as organjzjng word. are fully covered. and linking phrases. f mprove YOllr f ELTS Writillg Skills is de signed to gu ide au step"by"step through the activities. Through targeted practice. your teacher will direct yo u on how to use each activity. Some activities can be treated a discussions. Task 2 skills.ey points on how to approach Academi c Writing tasks. How can I use this book? You can use Improve YOllr lELTS Writil1g Skills as a book fo r tudying on your own or in a class. trigger words. there is a sample ans w er to acc mpanyeach Task 1 and Task 2 question . These fo cus n spedfic areas of relevance to each task . In addition. Similarly. such as Expressing sO/II/iom and Dnelopil19 ideas are dealt with in detail.

Even though Task 2 ca rrie m o re m arks. In Task 1. you will hav to w rite a t leas t 150 words to describe some data or a diagram. How will I be assessed? In bo th tasks ou will be Clssessed on your ability to expre s yourself clearly an d a ccurate ly in English. This is be cause it is shorter.• Introdllctioll How is the IELTS Academic Writing paper organized? The academic wri ting omponent of the IELTS lasts one hour. • 5 . discuss a dvantages and di sad vantage . In Task 2. makin J comparison ". and you will be expected to respond in so n e w ay. Y 1. or a ombin ation of these. In Task 2. both o f w hich 'ou m u st all' wer. Yo u are advised to spend 40 minut s on Task . ho uld write about the main fea tures of th e da ta an a ld rel evant d rail w here n e essa ry. 111 the test. you sh ould always do Task 1 firs t. or evaluate and challenge ideas or arguments. give views about two differe m opin ions and give your own opinion. How much time should I spend on each task? You are ad ise d to sp end 20 m inu tes on Task l.1 wil l b e presented wilh an opinion. give a so lution to a problem by sugges ti ng meas ures. you r an wer is assessed according to yo ur ability to write abou t d ta in an organized wa y an d compare infoID1a tion where it is relevant to do so. your answer i assessed a cording to your abili ty to wri in a logical m a nner as you give a solution 10 a problem. What does each task consist of? In Task I.. discuss ca uses of a problem and suggest sol u tions. You are ahvays expe ted to give reasons and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experience . or changes in map o ver time. A diagram will norma ll y (elate [Q a process. For exam ple. here relevan t. You are alwa ys exp e te d to summarize the information by describing the main features. present andjuslify an opinion. there are two task of different le n gth.. an d psychologicCl lly it fee ls better if you ha ve comple ted on e task. Data will normally be presented in the form of a graph. r a p roblem. You. you will h ave to w rite at least 250 words on a topic. an argument.. a tabl e. the worki n gs [ an object. in 'our re pons . compare a nd contrast evict nce a nd opinions. a bar or pie chan. yo u may be asked LO: x p r s an opinion .

.... ..... ] Sales of auelio cassettes fell steaelily...... .......... _ .................. ......... 6 •••• .......... _ .. iPo sales rose gradually ...... . 6 Sa es of audio cassettes fell and then levelled off... and the tTend was downward . ..--------------iii ~ II 3 Underline the verbs in 2 used to describe tren d Example I Sales of audio cassettes kU steadily...... Sales of video cassettes nuctuated wildly. .... Find the adverbs and decid e wheth r they mean slow or fast changes... Slow Fas! ... Complete the lists below.10)............. m D 7 The sales of MP3-players rose gradually and then climbed sharply. CD sales dropped suddenJy..~ iii Match each grapb (a-h) w ith the most appr p riate description below (1...h d o au think shows sales for each item in the p hotos 1-4? V .... _ ................. Total digital camera sales dropped slightly.... Purchases of video casse tte recorders d lined dramatically . but the trend was upward ...' ........ ~..... Sales of games consoles decreased and then levelled off . B 9 ~ 10 m... 2 II 3 4 iii 5 . .. Which graph a..... ....... ~~~!~~ .UN IT • • 1 Change and conseqLlences Unit aims Task t Descnl:lIng trends Related verbs and nouns Understanding data Tas~ • 2 Understandmg questIOns ExpreSSing soluttons Linking phrases USing trigger wards Task 1 Describing trends II 1 II 2 The gTaphs relate to sales of media technolog ..... Plasma TV sales fluctuated wildly. 4 The verbs in 2 are modified by adverb such as steadily.......... ...... ....

.... .............................. Th e development of n ew products fell gradually.. .. ............................................................................................... th e i lu rober of sites rose significantly.... ask • E xpress nouns as T he ............ g At the them e park............. .............................................. .. Th ere h as .................... ...................... Read the examples.. ..................... (not Films production)............. ............... There was a gradual declin e in sugar impons...... .......... .. Research ........ of or as TWO • nouns • • 6 The quality of food in supermarkers has tncreased slowly .... • Phrases such as the consumplion oj chocolate can often be rewritten as just two nouns. The number ......................................................................... ............................ e On the Internet.. ......................dden decrease in th e sale o f mangos.............. Examples Th co nsumption of cho colate fell steadily....................... There ......... .................. there "vere very slight fluctuations in the number of visitors............................ ...... ................... There were . ....... ................................. Th ere ~... d The purchases of ti.......................... ...... ..................... (verb + adverb) a b Spice expons fr om Afri ca fl uc tuated wildly over the p eriod. Th e number of air travellers fluctuated remarka bly...... ................ ..... ........ res ~a r ch c There has been a noticeable decrease in investmen l............iLLen u sing the correct form of there islare and a related noun....... .. (there was a + adjective + n oun ) There has been a dramatic rise in the produ crioD o f films ..................... Technique • • • • • • Include a variety of structures In your writing..... .......... h Sugar ........... .cket dropped significantly last month ............................. . Th en rewri te sentences a-j below............................................... (there has been a + adjeCtive + n oun) Th production of film has risell dramaticalry..................................................................................••• Related verbs and nouns UNIT 1 Charlge alld COli eqllell"s • • 5 S en tc'n Cf:~ containin g verb phrQs es s uch as jeJl steadily call often b e re\-\'J........ Read the examples..... .......... ........ .. Ther was ............ ........ Use both verb +adverb a 1 d adjective + noun • structures In '{our T 1 answer...v as ............. ••••• 7 ..... Th en find and revyTitt' olh J examp les in 5 ................ ...................................... ............................. The sale ......... There was a su.............. l There wa ........... Examples The consumptioll oj chaco/ate can become Chocolate cOllsumption ............................... ...... The production offt/lns can become Fillll production ........................ (verb + adverb) There was a steady fall in the consumption of chocolate ......

the earning5 for The Tea \Zoom. UKe\o ise.""""~--->.... A regards the fir5t. Sutnmal'iZl! the informalion by selectil)D .ome for ihc other thre. The graph sholt·. the inc.. or an adverb. .ome fo r The i ea \Zoom i5 lowel' in tne winter montho than for the. and m a ke com pllri ons wh ere relevallt. in Gafe c...+ _ 160 -I--.afes at the end of each Il n~ and reporliJ. . .imate\~ $1'30. . $160.afes. falling I ..- Task 1 Y0 1/ should spend about 20 111 in lites 011 this task.... ......WI ·II Ca fe ... .\. . in Duember... to around $lqO.000.. . The former ey..y...--.There "las :2.Understanding data 7 Read the graph and th e Ta sk 1 q uesli. ak5 went up b'j vat"(ing degrees. the inc.. to June..o n....3 100 -+-:....000 to nead'j $100 ..I . general trendf. followed b'j a sudden increase to $120.ooo.------..ID the maill featt/res..... olne.000 .. ..000 b c Internet Express in Jul y? Wi-fi Cafe in November? d e are Co I in D eember? The Tea Room in February ? Changing trends in cafe income . I lJe income of faLl r cafes i/l Ne w York over lasl year.ome for both Internet £. 10 March options a-g w ith gaps 1.: s downwar and upward.OOO earning5 a month tO jU5t under $50. \~ere down over the ~ear.e . Example 1 adverb Model text me graph providef..ome trend~ of fo ur c...-. __ The TeB Room -+..... from $')0. a b e d I adily then rocketed dou bled significant 11' e also ended the year lip a steady fall il " " ris ' 8 •••• . Wh l was the in me in dollar for: a The Tea Room in January? . .ome rose S ..Internel Express --..._.... F M.7 in Ib e model text. inc. upward...200 . B-t contrast.... .. write the • Ilames nt tile t... the trend for Wi-fi waf.. It if.e.... .ool' (') 5ale5 over the fir~t ten month5.:--- ~120+-----~---~ -~~­ . Between Janua'1 to :ru\~.-A__+_ +---~. Wh a t do s OOOs mean ..------c ~. etc along th b llom of the graph mean? . a b Wh at do the lett ers .....perienc...d 4 ..1'-~60+----~~----~~~~ 40+-----~--~'-~--- Technique To l1el~ you read the graph. . .. ending the ~ear at approy. .. Write at least 150 words. from alm05l $ \ ~O.Cafe Cool "' g 80 2 0 +-~~~-~------ o +--....r tnree........... e d What P Ite m an yo u s 'C? What comparison s can you make? 9 Read the model text and decide wherher each missing phras n oun.... .000 in December...-180 + .......... . . noticeable that the inc. .or--~-------_I__ 140 -l--'rl'---1.--~r_r_~~~~~-r~ J F M A M J J A SON D 8 Answer these questions about rhe graph.000 and I ... earnings I.---I. informa1ion about the inc..afe~ over the la5t i ear There are two baf.pre5s and the Wi-fi Gafe'J ... .. c. .ic......... .. but after Ihat.. furthermore.....

..... 'o.. You may use each item more th an nce...... Do you ..... and .... agree or disagree advantages disadvan tages solutions measures benefits causes a b Wh at a re the ~~~~0... bu t with popula tions a ro und the w orld a out to double.... What do you think th e ....lCh Task 2 question below v-'" li ih organil....... g Ov rcrowding in large ci ties h as always been a problem......... ' '''hat are the ... 3 H ow many p ans are [here in each quest ion in 2? For example... What ... of this are? What ...• Task 2 Understanding questions ur~ rT 1 Cill7.... .... developmenL....... can you uggest.. how are th ey related? • •• 9 ..llge mId cOllSeqllellCl!s 1 Task 2 questions cOlltdin a gen eral subject and ofte n in cl ude a spe jfic organizing word to help y ou org an ize yo ur t: ssay......... of laking a eal" 0[[ b tween school a n d univcrsit y? Stu dent s sh ould be trained on ho w to ope wit h ha nge in the modern world........... of learning skills jn th e mod rn vvo dd? An y attempts to preserve the n a tural w orl d will a lvva is h inder economi c ........ can y o u suggest to control th e p roblem s .... anim a ls are becoming extinct throughout the world . (a) bas one p art. In each group a-d belo w. th e social pro blems are certain to multip ly............ How far do you ......ing words 1t! n!)] th e b ox ......... The benefit will howe v r far outwe igh th e ... of such work ? Every day.........vhich organil'Z ing word has a different m e an i n g fx JJ1 th e lher two? a b ad\ anlages measu res dr aw back s benefits st eps reasons c d ause eHecls consequences drawbacks solutions disadvanta ges 2 Cmnpkt ~ e..... If there are two or th ree p arts.......... ") c d What are the ....... ? e Volunteer work with disadvantaged groups like underpr ivileged children is [he best way for you ng p eople to learn about th e real world ......

and res ults. in some companies..5 accord 'ing to how rapi d ly each is changing in your opinion (1 = most rapid. in so m e co m pa nies. the workplace will become a lot hapPier. What do YOII think are the causes of this? Can you sllggest some possible SOIIi/iolls'? Give reasons for your anS'lver and inc/ude any relevant examplf!s from your own knowledge or experienCe.. 6 7 Technique .. for employers to encourage workers to relax .. . .... /}l o re people claim ti m " Hl O"~'''''1 1\" rk pa tterns a re a SOlI/'ce of s l r ess. umber each category b elov 1.... Massage? Yes .... d e As a result By doing this For instance 10 • ... th is im prove s their effi ciency and prod uctio n.. I think employers should encou rage workers to relax. 5 = least rapid).. .. 3 .....Expressing solutions 4 Change is more rapid in the m odem world than it was in th e pasl. Employees cou ld be trai ned in how to plan t heir ti me mo re effectively.. /. . 4 . .. 5 ... Tltink of an example ofrapid h ange for each catego ry.' . w hich p ar t of the question in 5 are they ans w ering? Wh at so lut ion s and resu lt s d o they suggest? Shen : Tina: Shen : Ti na : S hen: Tina: Sh an : Ti na: How do you t hink people can deal with t heir stressful lives...... Work Technology Travel Communication Health 5 Look at the Task 2 ques tion below and answer the q uestion Task2 Jou should spend about 40 minutes 0 11 this task.. a b A further step is to for example I think the mos t obvious solution is 1 . Write about the following topic... Identlf the type 01 • que lion For cause/ - • - This p aragraph .... . especially at w ork? Firstly. examples.. a Which part of the question states a problem? b Which t wO words in the que lion are important for the organization of your answer? Read the conversati on bel ' een rw o students d iscuss ing the prob lem of s tress at work . On e w ay is to stop peop le taking w o rk home...ore lind... suggests a solution to [be Task 2 que llon in 5 .... . gym facilitie s o r m assa ge thera pies are available. .. . How? Well. And then the workp lace w ill beco me a lot happier. gym facilities or massage therapies are available .. " .... . this improves their effiCiency and production. If you help yo u r employees to re lax.-. .... . Com plete each gap with th e phrases in a-f for p r Selliing so l utions. by stopping people taking work home. .. 2 ..... train employees in how to plan their time more effectively. . 6 . A re t here oth er so lutions? Of co u rse..

. • •• 11 .. ...... .... One possibility is ...' .... could is used for possible s ugge (i on s..............." ............... .............. PeopleshouJd ..... ................ A good idea is to restri ct the number o f ars coming into iries............ .. Employees could be [rai/led in how to plan their Lime more effectively........ ..... ..... ........... Should is u sed for SIl'ong sugges tion s.............. ........... . Parents could ............ ................. ...................... ... Other ph rases can also b e used to express solution s...... A further step is to train employees in h ow [Q plan Ih eir li me more dfe [i vely... a 1 think the most obvious solution is to encourage people to exercise mo re ............ ........... . . ... . .......U NIT 1 Ch al1!J~ (/lId coIIseqllellCe! &I 8 There axe several w ay s to express sol u tjon s......... ....... ........... they would lose weight and would feel better generally........ ......... ..................... By doing this....... One option is to persuade parents to spen d more time with [heir children .... Examp les Employers should eJ/courage workers to relax ...... .............. " ......... The go emmenl should build more sky rapers to solve the problem............... ............ .. [ think the most obvious solution is/or employers to ncouTage workers [Q relax ...... f 9 Which problems ('[modern life do (he SentenceS in S rein Ill? overcrowding traffic congestion obesity lack of discipline stress technology 10 Use·the follo wing phrases own ideas an d w ords. ........................ ... ............... Use YOUT Examp le a I think the most obvious solution is to encourage people to exerdse more ..... .... A good ide a is .. .. This would enable/help them to This would lead to This means that they would By doing this.. The number of cars coming into cities .. ....................f............ . Read the example [rom 6 and 7 on page 10... . Then rewri te the sent ences in a.... .. (0 add re ults to the Solul ions ab ove... . b The obvious answer is to reduce the number 0 wo rking hours ..................................... c d e The government could provide each employee with their own computer.. As a result...... Consequently..... ....... The number of working hours ................

If . ...... for instance.. This \vill lea d to .Itch th e cor Cl function.... . __ 12 •• • ......i gger id eas becau e th ey mark fu n ctio n s .... ........ing phrases can be used to tr.... for example........ . . since and so because in order to therefore.. The obviol1s an swer is to en courage the creation of jobs outside the cities .. By doing this. as a result. ... Con equemly. they be come ... ..... . .. .. . And as a restill ..... if fu rth crmore. A good idea would be to ...... And so ........ addi rion condition a nd p urpose reason exarnp1e resuIt 8ftt! conseq uentJy... ................. Use [11e trigger w o rds below (a d eve lop th e ideas given.. 13 Lin~".... results. .. _ ..... nkL Reason Result Example Solution M an\' citie in th e worl d have now b ecome very ove..._ ..... ......... and examples................ ..... C The development of tourism ofTell creates resentment among local people because For example..Linking phrases 11 Linking phrases mark the ftloctions 01 other s ent e nt: es i1n d phrases..... ... .... .. then .......... Match each linl(ing p h rase ' ' . s u c l~ as solutjons..... ... . . . The obvious ans wer is to Furthermore.... ... Usin g trigger words 12 Read the paragraph from a Task 2 essay on overcrow de d cities and find the U n g phr ases which m a tch these functions. For example. A lfpeople migrale 10 cilies. When you plan a Task 2 answer.. fa cilities like wate r supp lies an d public transport can no t cope with the demand s from increased numb ers of people.. B People spend 100 /lllIch time watching TV... ... . As a result ...... _..... For example) we could encourage certai n business s to set up branch es in rur al areas... . ... write down some trigger words to h elp you dev d QP YOUT basic idea.... ... ..... ...r~rowded because people are migrating in fro m the counrrysid e in search of work... and so th ey are under severe stra in.....

...........-.... Write alleasl 150 words.ze flu "information by selectil1g and rep(wtillij tI......•• •• UNIT 1 Cil(l11g e and cO lIst:q uenus • • ••Practice Test 1 Task 1 • ••••• You should spend aboUl 20 minutes on this task..--.... Write about the followil1g topic: People naturally resist making changes...... Percentages 100 .....e IJ1l1in /catllres... What kind of problems can this calise? What solutioJls can you suggest? Give reasons for your allswer and include any relevanr examples from your OHI1"1 knowledge or experimce....-------- ------ --- 20 o 1996/97 1998199 ------I I 2000/01 2002/03 Task 2 Yo u shou ld spend about 40 II/inures on this Jask... ".......-.... The 9rtJph belDH' shows il1 percentage terms tlu changing patterns of domestic aeee s to Jil(){il'm tecJl11vlo9....... 60 40 .........n their lil'e~. . • •• 13 ...... .. Write at least 250 words.\Jil1 homes in the UK SIUJllII{//". CD pl ay er 80 ~--------------------------~~~~=----=====~ MObile phone .....:. anrl make comparisons where relevant..

. (fewer + n oun + than) The TV was more popular among males than female s. Answer the question s.. Read these examp Je describing the chart in 2. Gabriel Fahrenheit Safety pin.-~- . Answer [he questions.. Laszlo Biro First mercury thermometer.entences a-j with sui table information based on the chart. . Most im porta nt inventi ons in t he last 300 years a What is the most 1 I.• The importance of the past ---. circle • and number • Important de1ails • in pencil. Walter Hunt Paper money in China a b c Tin can patented by Peter Durand d Which is the oldes t invention ? Which is the most recem invention? Which do you think are the most and least important inventions? What other important h istorical in ven tions are n ot induded here? 2 The chan shows {he results of a survey about th e most important inventi ons in th e l ast 300 years . (more + n oun + than) Fewer fe males than m ale s chose th e TV. Then complete s.. Examples • • • More males than females chose the TV. (the most/least + adjective) 14 • • • • • . •• Unit aims Task 1 T 2 ask Comparing information Adverbs in comparisons Comparing and contrasting Using it/they/ this/these Planning essays D eveloping Ideas ••••• Task 1 Comparing information •••••• The pictures and tex t show some inventions and who invented them . Male 0 Female striking feature of the chart? b What voting pattern s can y ou see for females? c What voting patterns can yo see for males? - • Technique • In the test.. Ballpoint pen . (morel less + adjective + than) The most popular form of conununication was the Internet. • • • • I- 3 You can use a range of structures to make comp adsons .

....... The car was .... ... g ..... ....... Fewer m ales thall f males selected the bicycle .. males th an females picked the radio.. ...... Read the examp les .......... a males/femaleslehooselthe car b wom en/men /selwlthe mobile phone c the Intemetlehooselmales/females d (emalesJ males! pick/the radio e malesl£emaleslpicklthe radio the comput erl chooselfemales/males g the bicyclelselect/males/females • • • • 15 .. than any other invention...... popular than any other invention..... invention among both sex es w as the bicycle ...................... .... ..... ........ h The computeT was .............. The TV was .... or by using I/ot as many ..... Then compare m ale and fem ale ani(udes (0 cars an d m ob il e phones.... ........ the bicyclelchooselfemales/male s The bicycle was chosen by more females than males....... ...... invention among both sexes was the TV......... ....•• a b c d e UNIT 2 TIre importGI1Ct! of the pasr More fe males ..... as when numbers are very dose.. .. The bicycle was more .... Use the p assive or active form of the verb in italics . 4 You can also com pare information by using a ma/ly .... ................. _as......... ... women than men voted for the mobile phone .... .. ..... ...... 5 Make comparative sentences based on notes a-g below and the chart in 2. Not as many female s as males chose tb radi o ..... for women than for men .. Examples As many females as males chose the computer...... ......... Examples female sJmale slselectfthe bicycle males/femaleslseleetfthe bicycle M ore females th an m ale sf/eeted the bicycle ... ......... popular among females than males.............................. More people seleded the bicycle .. males chose [h e bicycle.. ..................... any other invention...

In the past. Comparing and con trasting 9 Answer (hese questions about (he b ar chart. a b c d Slightly more w om en than m en voted for th e bi cycle . e g h The exhibition about dnerna attracted far fewer visirors than expected. Then underline the adverb s in senten ces a-i. Substan tially less time is n ow spent doing housework than before. Add suitable adverbs . 7 Which adverbs above mean: a almost? b a lot? c just a few ? 8 Look again at the sentences you wro te in 5 on page 15. such as significantly (more) or almost (as many)._~---------- 40 30 2 0 10 o 16 • • • • • . Exa mples Significantly mOTe people voted for the bicycle than tbe other inventions. Sports progra mmes are watdled by practically as many peopl n ow as jn previous years. -------------------1 I045-65 2~01 60~-----------------------50~--. The bicycle was chosen by almost as many males as female s. Nearly as many children as adults watch progranmles about anci enL history. Illiteracy is much less common than in previous generations . a b Wh at do you mink the bar chart provides information about ? What could th e numbers on the left relate to? What do you trunk the wo rds along the bottom of the dl an relate to? What could the numbers in the box refer to? Is there a time reference for the graph? c d e 7o. Many more people can use a computer today than thirty years ago .Adverbs in comparisons 6 You can add ad verbs to comp arisons to make them more precise. considerably more people lived in the countryside than towns. Read the examples. There are significantly fewer people now worldng in manufacturing than in the past.-----------------------------------------------.

group are v signific. but/whilelhowever "lhere are onl~ 2. Model text l'he G provides information about hart how two age groups partic.rafts soc.() and 30 . In the historic.j ~ear. 'i howeverlbut/although there are sllghH'i fewer older people. make a qUick list of the comparison structures you know before you write .pattern is reve-rsed.45 to (pI5 age group is 4 Jar/slightly/ considerably lower.ieties than tl1 it?-(. but/whereaslin c-ompari50n ~Jith the number of people. whilt! the figure for 45-65 year-olds is abou 50 .rafts wc. Keep fit and wc. e 11 12 I n which of [he sentences in 10 u ld the ending a-f orne fir t? Which cOlmecting words in italics are followed by a noun phrase only.iet.rc.in the.6. l'here.al Mc. Read the d escription of (he chan in 9. e-mbe-rship of th .5 from "lhe ~ounger age group. the historic.antly/almost/noticeably more involved in the various wc. the.mportallu ofllle past 10 Match sentence beginnings 1-6 with endings a-f to form correct senlences abom the chart. the..1he Ke-ep fit and wGial dubs are popular with both age.UNiT 2 Tire .ipate in 'beveral entr£.ietie-s dead.al.~ounge-r age..iet-j.iet-j.11'ed with the Ider age group. -. 2. for . Some societies are clearly more popular with one of tbe age groups. 1 The arts and crafts society has the greatest number of 20-30 year-olds.an '5Ce.ial dubs are popular with both older and ~ounge-r people. I \-IIhile/However~ contraM.haeologic.01d5. ill compariso11 with [he hi stori al society. but it is one of the least popular clubs with the ol' er age group comp. SO of the members are between 4'5 and (. althollgh they are fairly popular with both age grou s.! appeal more to one of the agegroupD.groupD. d ub\') at a L We c. tw o options are possible and one is ineorreCL Delete the in correct op ti on.al and art'b and c. For the art and c. In generaL the 20-30 year-olds are more actively involved in societies The keep fit and social clubs attract a broader range f people wh 2 3 4 5 6 a b e d reas the archaeological society is equally popula r wi th both . The keep fit and social clubs have slightly more members in the younger age bracket..are about ~o membe-rs aged be-twe-e-n'}.?.. Technique In the test. from the data that the arGhaeologic. stand5 at it? fo both groups.al Wc.j(ktl1s. For aeh of 1. • 17 . Only 25 people fTom the younger age group are members of the historica l society. In ge-ne-ral.

"" ..... These can then enrich people's lives considerably.. This . .... a b in sentences a-h. in tum . may L to other hobbies. c d e g h History teaches children not just facts... .. our heritage w ould be saved for future generations...s us of the present an d the future.... is called progress by some people .... it helps us to build the future . so it is importan t that . Archaeologists......"vh o study ... Archaeologists look for evidence in artefacts like pots and jewellery... they.. History should be given more emphasis in schooL as ... this... tilis.. do basic sorting and research .. 2 Match 1-4 witb a... ........ 4 Com p lete sentences a-g with ii.. plural nouns..' used to preserve the pas t For example.. .. wiU lead to a b tter understanding of the world. are both preserved . situations and processes... [0 a b c d 3 Underline the exact text w hich it.......... Revealing infonnatioll about the past is very useful.... The past infom1. for example. I It and this refer to 2 3 4 They and these refer to This and these are often used to refer to This can also refer to nou ns at the en d of the previous senten ce... they... If hlstory is emphasized m ore in schools... but a range of skills... singular nouns. g 18 • • • • • . Tradition does not hold u s back as some people believe .. they. Old buildings help create a more relaxing environment in cities than concrete office blocks . In facr... .. Ihey.. help us to learn about the past. The primary role of advenising is to encourage the public to replace the old witb the new . and tllese........ The Internet and computers can b<.. This makes them more pleasant to work and live in ....Task 2 Using itltheylthislti'zese 1 Read the text below writlen by a st ud ent as part of a Task 2 essay.. .. or these.. and these refer Th e first one has been done for you. will help children to understand better the world they live in . they can be used by children to do basic research and store images..... .. they can learn how to analyse material. By doing this. or these..... For example... Schools and colleges need to emphasize history and related subjects as these will h elp give them a wider view of th e world . this.. The an and language of a country represent its history. ead Built-up areas can be made more attractive by adding monuments and statues... Pots aJldjewellery reveal a lot of information about our ancestors. but the information is still quite limited... also h as the potential to narrow the minds of some . History broadens the minds of m ost people . :. must be done by usi n g modem technology. Stu dyin g history may trigger an in terest in oth er subject areas...... ...........d to explain how ro use il.. 1111:5... Government s should provide more m oney to preserve historical siles. Replace the words in italics wi th ii.. a b c d e If the past i to be preserved.. but few people are suificiently aware o f ... but .

.ragr aph.. The first one has been done for you . In the nimh cemury... As a res ulr... Deve lop those ideas in the same way llsiJlg tr igger words. The past can often provide explanations for the sit uation W ' face tod ay 7 Read the idea below. What other events w ould you add to the l ist? = a b c d e In 1792. whkh later became the Internet. Rank th e events 1-6 according to how important you think rhey were in human history (1 most impoTlam... a b e d e g Th ere is often uncertainty abo ut what really happene d with regard to well-kn own historical events.... . Refer to Unit 1 p age 12 for more examples of similar phrases .. Furthermore . gunpowder was first invented and used by the Chinese .. Studying other historica. In 1983.... Therefore.l p eriods gives insights in to different ways of life. In 1885.. 6 Read the Task 2 essay question below. Then wri tt: out yow ideas in a pa. For example... It is sometimes said tllat h istory /lever repeats itself.. In October 1492.. In 1953 . Learning about conflicts in the past can teach u S hovv to avoid them in future . Karl Benz built and patented the first automobile . ........ • .... .. D ed d e w hich of points a-g ar relevant to this answer...... Suggest some ways in. so its study develops thinking skills. ... .... students ca11 investigate the way in which people lived in ancient limes such as . Francis Watson and James Crick described the structure and importance of DNA.. ..... • 19 . We can learn about the recent past by asking older relatives... . HiStory involves investigation and interpretation.. 6 = least importanr). 8 Look back at Ihe other relevant sentences you chose in 6 above .... a com puter system connecting universitjes was created.• P ]an n in g e ssays uNiT 2 The imparlQllce afllre pasl 5 Read (he historical facts in a-f below.. whicJI the study of h istory migllt help liS today... Choose some of the trigger words to develop tlus point.. Studymg other historical periods gives insights into different ways of life .. France abolished the monarchy and instituted the fi rst republic.. .. Christoph er Columbus se t fo ot in the Americas... yet there is mild/ ill it which is relevant to our modern world ... History is a more dHficult area of study than most p ople imagine ...

but matlY others think it is I'ery boriug. recycle relevam Information from other essay-_ .I.. e g • _. Some children find lem'fling history at school very exciting. s. 12 h Use YOUI answers to 10 and 11 to write the ideas out as three paragraphs. In what ways can history be brought to life for 0. 20 • • • • • b .. such as As a result..Developing ideas 9 Read the Task 2 question below. children could For instance. Last but not least.1/ school children? 10 The list a-i below contains ideas th at a stud ent came up w ith for [he essay question in 9. a h Another method is to T}')is will lead For example.. Paragrapb 2 Paragraph 3 a a b c (' g h using the Internet and computers isiting historical sites historical places seem more real go a local archaeological site to l: make a poster about local history to it increase motivation doing written projects do research these kill can be applied in other subjects search for iniorrnation about historical figures online 11 Decide which function in 10 these linking ph ras es rel ate to.ee solutions. M ake a not of any ways you can mink of to make history more interesting. The best way is to Then to c d Technique To help you build a bank of Ideas. each w h b an example and an ffe Complete (he table by matching each idea with the appropriate fu nct ion .. P aragraph 1 Solutions Examples EUects l.. There aI\:' thr.

Summarize tile infonnatiol1 by selecting alId reporting tile main jea tw'es. Wily do you tlIil1k it is important to do so? What will be the effect If children are not ta ugll t history? Give reasons foryour answer and include any relevant examples frolll you r own kno wledge or expenence. Ihe/t'llu".5S ilIId fin lll/cia I services -to the UK economy ill the twentieth cClllury.- Task 2 V"'I"itt" . Write at least 150 wards.• ••••• Practice Test 2 Task 1 You should spend about 2 0 minutes all this task. U Nit' 2 The i mponallCt: of rhe past • • • •• The graph below SllOWS the contribution of three sectors .ut h'U sholild spend about 40 minutes on this task. and make cOlllpm'isolls where relevant.. •• 21 .l bc.' ..il1g topic: To some people studying the past has lillIe value it! tile modem I For/d.agriculture. Write Cit least 250 words. manufacturing.. llnd b1lSi1l2. Contribution of selected sectors to the UK economy in the twentieth century 60 50 40 o Agriculture • M anufacturing o Business and Financial % 20 10 0-+-.

. it is force to rise... 2 . Moisture in the air 6 . .. the tiny spaces in th rock gradually 3 ......... (rise).. If long periods of rain 5 ...... . Then omp lete 1-6 with the correct fonns of the verb in bra kelso Examples A riverf10ws from its source to the ocean . (begin) to dry out an d the water table 8 .... Some rock formations I .~........ .. then complete 1-8 w ith the carr ct forms of th e verb s in brackets... ...... When warm air ~ . Example The sun shines and the temperature rises. .. ..... When it (rain). Firstly....... .... hat you can use active and passive forms where • appropf i_ e_ _. . .. .. ............ at_ When describing processes... and processes • ••••• •• • Unit aims Tas' l The passive Sequencing T 2 ask Using whIch to organize informatron Expressing result and purpose ~~~~~~......... (reach) high ground... ... (extract) from the ground. .. ... (con dense) to form rain .... (fill) with water so that the rock 4 .".. Read rh examples. Then.... 22 • • • • • ... Tbe top of this saturated zone is called the wate ( table...and answer the questions..~....... (fall)..... (heat) (Q a high temperature with other ingredients. =---~=-=-=-=-~~=-~=-~ • • Task 1 The passive 1 II 2 Look at the five objects a.... make sure the subject and verb agree.. .. it 2 ..... a b W hich materials are used to make these objects? Which of th e material in your list are natural and which are manufactured? Natura] processes are often d e cribed using (h e activ e form.. the water table 6 . ... ......... an d. the rock 7 .. whereas man ufaClUIi og processes are usual ly described using the passive. cool) .......... . ..... it 1 .... sho'..... .........Machines..... ...... ... . ... (active) Many electronic goods are manufactured in Japan. . it 3 ... . If there is no rain....~.. . (cool) with blasts of cold air..... ...... ..... ....... ......... (hold) large amounts of water. at the factory.. (occur). (passive: bi + past paniciple) Limestone is the main ingredient of cement.... (become) saturated..~.. cycles. After thiS......~. Read the example. .. as a result.... ......... 3 When describing processes. . .. it 5 .....

.... intransitive. car/dis tribure.. whea t/tran sport to the mill.• 4 UN IT 3 Machines. .".. intransit i ve.. M ore and m ore earth and dirt 4 ..... 5 Put each verb in the box into the correCllist: transiti ve. proto type/test. this layer 5 .... / .. __ t .. on top of this layer... and coal 8 . Or b oth... over a pe riod of millions of years. The leaves Opel! .... Subsequently.. in enonnous swamps a long time ago.. Coal • • •• 23 . . ..h e w ater. years ago a died and dropped b was formed c lived d was covered e was trapped f turned 9 is now mined h buil t up SWAMP 300 million WATER 100 million years ago Dirt Dead plants Rocks & Dirt ·_·.. Thes e 3 •.. motorcycle/sell. ~ -I . motorcycle/design.. by rocks and dirt.. Manufacturers ma ke rubbe r products. car/design. un de rneath .'t. .. a prototype is made and the car is mass-produced.. cycles.. COIllpJe !e lhe paragraph with lhe verbs from the box. Over the years.... motorcycle! export." t .. Ver b s "v h ich never have an object are caUed ~Intransilive. prototype/make. Sunlight opens the lea ves..... design produce rise se nd dry obtain die become Tra nsitive : Intransitive: fall Both: begin grow manufacture cool 6 U e th e n otes below to write short paragraphs ab out prod uction processes.......... th e dead plants formed a layer.. crop/harvest. The diagram shows th e various stages in the production of bread.. car/sell After the car is designed.. car/rna s·produce. or both? Which sentence cannot be put iOlO the p assive? a b c Th e temperature falls.. bread/bake. and so the energy of the dead plan ts 6 . large plants 2 . The car is OUr1 distn'buted and sold. motorcycle/manufacture. a b The produ ction of a motorcycle involves various stages.. and prOCf!sstS Verbs which requi re an object are called transitive.. w hich became deeper an d deeper.....-" . A s the pressure an d the heat grew over time. prototype/make.. First of all. Seams of coal were form ed....... fl ou rl buy/baker. Are the verbs in sentence a-c transitive.... whea t/make fl our. • to the bottom of t. . :0=1IIII_. 7 Some d iagrams require descriptions using past tenses.. .. the layer of dead plants 7 .... Example The production of a car involves various stages. The diagrams show the process by w hich coal I ..... wheat/ plant.. into coal... .. bread/sold.

purified gas i$ U$ed to drive a gas turbine. Model text m e diagram !>hO"'~ 5 the variouf> f>tage!> in the. • 24 • • • • • Ie:n . mef>e are 1 then/thertfore/consequently piped to a heat rewve.oal if> not transported to anothe. '3 w hen/then/where it i5 burned in a large furnac. use • phrases such as • F{{st of al/. Technique When describmg • processes. and When as • trlgger words to . the. a b ( d e g h How is the coal carried to [he pO'wer plant? What is added to tbe furnace in addition to coal? W hat gas is produced when coal is burnt in the furnace? What do you think is removed from the gas? What is the gas called fo ll owing trus pro ess? What do you th ink [h e gas does in the turbine? What does the turbinE do to the generator? Where do the hot ex haust gases come from? What bappens [0 the gases? Oxygen . S Fol/owing that/ Followino/ Subsequent.. 4 Ofherwise/from this/Therejore. and sulphur are removed. syngas Steam Gas turbine Generator Electricity 9 Complece the model text below by choo sin g the correct aJtcrnati'\'c in each case.arried fter along a (.tr i (. \he 5team i5 I) tonsequently/subsequent/subsequently LI$ed to power a steam turbine. \~hic. At tne ne~t 5tage. me turbine" in turn/ afterwards/therefo re powerf> a generator.t"{ steam generator. the wal if> mined in deep pitf> underground and then c...e e.ing eledric.it{ m e gas turbine aIM produc.onve~o r belt to a power plant. m e e.arbon dio'l'ide. i~ .nerg~ from wa\. it i$ c. F urthermore/ A that/As a result.ef>f>. 2.h o'l'~gen i5 added. After thar.es li\:e c.h wnvertf> the heat into $team. produc.. harmful f>ubf>tanc. i~ .an-jed to the $urfaa.lec.e5 hot e~haust ga5es...e to ~h i(. m{'. Answer the questions. whid1 ilgilin if> uf>ed to generate elutri(.tion of dean e.nerg'1 if> dean buau5e narmful produd$ are removed and the c.c 5ite to produc. I firM of aU/At first/One.rw~. • • ~elp you sequence • • Ideas. of the proc. proauc. ral" $~n9a!> i!> proauc.ed.Sequencing 8 The diagram shows how energy is produced from coal.

A new model of the bicycle is develope( Tlic bicycle is teste d b c d e The TV is assembled. The progress of a lener or parcel from packaging to delivery. It is sent to the shops. It is rnodilied . Jt repeats itseli all over again . The rubbish is collected. (and) 11 Connect these sentences using your own words. Th e lioness licks them all over. (as soon as) The paper is collected. The water is purified . cycles. Th e water cycle which creates clouds and rainfall. It is recycled. Use the Unldng words in brackets in each case. (when) Th e trees a re cut d OVIlI]. It i sent for recyclin g. b c d e The forest is gradually dest royed. write a short paragraph to des cribe each of the processes below. g h The data about the weatl1er is collected . The infonnation is then broadcast. Th e prototype is tested . (once) Volcanoes erupt. (aiter) After the parts of the ca r are assembled. a b c d Th e process of digital photograph y from the acti on of taking a photograph to disp laying the im age . The parts of th e car are assembled. (before The plants perspire. They send huge am ounts of smoke int o th e air. a The food is processed. Th e air becomes humid. Ir is packaged.• 10 Example UNIT 3 /H achines. It is sent to a centre for sorting. alld proc£sses ConneCl the sentences below. It is distributed . 12 From your own knowledge. It is bottled. (when) Her cubs are born . a Tb e snow falls. 25 . the cars are exported. The cars are ex-ported. The life cycle of an animal su ch as a butterfly or a frog. The cycle is completed . It covers th e grou nd with a protective layer.

26 • • • • • . opening and locking doors. For example. or switching mach. Wha t do yo u think are the main causes of this? Wh at solurions can you suggest? 3 Read the following p aragraph vvri tten by a student and answer questions a-e. People generally are losing traditional practical skills whkh they n eed to function in everyday life . computers automatic doors mobi le phones video games TV remote controls MP3-players satellite navigation systems digital cameras a Which of the techn ologies can help peopl e and which can make life more diffi cult? Which technologies might make people more lazy? Whicll technologies do you find annoying and which impressive? b c 2 Read the Task 2 question. computers in one form or anoth er perform man y of the tasks th at people used t do themselves such as office functions. which in tum has an impact on their mental performance at work . what does the word in italics refer to? a b People often allow the TV to do their thinking for them at b orne.Task 2 Using which to organize information. This has come abo ut in my opinion. What two kc'!' elements must you include in your answer? Underline the organizing words which tell you [his.ines on and off. because people are n ow so over-reliant on machines. Consequently.'s . A recent survey has shown that people of all ages are losing the ability to perfonn basic p ractical tasks and processes at work. (Effect) People generally are losing traditional practical skills which they n eed to II function in every day life. which in turn has an impact on h ow to process basic informa ti on mentally when they are at work a b What kind of skills are people losing? What is the cause of this? Which exam ples are given? c d e What is the practical consequence of all this? ' '''hat is the mental co nsequence? 4 In each sentence below. Answer the questions about the list of technolog it. w orkers annat do basi practical tasks in depth.

Sometimes. It requires only basic training to use . which are now available 24 hours a day.. Technology saves us more and more tim e. The public blame the gove rrunent b for it. which information is non-essential. Read E examples. Examples • . a which clause oflen cont ains information that is non-essential to the sentence. The cause is not immediately obvi ous to everyone .-_____.is makes people expect instant response s from other people .1.• 5 a U NIT 3 Machines. More and more household tasks are now carried out by robots. can make people feel anxious. News broadcasts about wo rld disasters.ties. They will be even more common in the future . ':J ~-::: . The solution is. which people blame th e gove rnmen t for. b TV programmes provide people with information about the world around them. in my opinion.1 27 . Th e problem is everyone's responsibility. This means that w e ha ve more tim e for leisure activi. It is eUeclively OUI of co ntrol.. The solution is to have a day at work where peopJe do not use computers or other machines . The situation. by far the best. Th. and prou~sl'S Combine [he following pairs of sentences using which. This information is often very useful c Machines now give us more fr eedom. c The cause of the problem is the lack of basic Iraining . is everyone's fau lt . computers make mistakes and prevent things happening.. Then combine Ih he sentences in a-e. decidin. This tim e can be used to create more machin es. • writing. cycles. a The situation h as now become much more complex. d e Technique • Use which as a • trigger word to • add detail to your 6 7 What does whieh refer to in each of your answers in S? In which cases does the wlll'ell clause express an effect as in 4a? When combining sent ences. d e Office technology is the ca use of much fru stration at work. This wastes valuable time and can cost money. Every thing se m s to be available at the tou ch of a button.1.

so therefore in order to consequently so as to as a result with the aim of and so so that for this reason as a consequence which leads to which means that hence 10 • • • . Young people are wnseguentli aeprivea of valuable time to learn the pradical f>Kills nemsa~ for eve~aa~ life liKe Paragraph 1: Problem/Cause Paragraph 2: Example/Cause/Effect fi'l-ing a plug. • b Some cities charge motorists to take their cars into the centre. insert your result/purpose trigger words to develop it. because ma~ are worKing unsociable hours to cope with the pressures ana aemanas of toaa~ ' s worla. but b~ far the mOf>t important. Paragraph 3: Cause/Result I /Result 2/Reason /Example 9 Technique Learn at least one result phrase and one purpose phrase and use these as trigger words. no longer have enough time to f>pena at home with their chi\clren. a Children are now learning how to do mental arithmetic again . ?roblem rirf>t of all. man~ people ~ all over the worla have aemonf>tratea a dear lacK of abilitj to carC'j out certain baf>ic ta.. in recent ~earf>.aUf>e ____ the moaern a@e. The first paragraph has been done for you. continue the sentence or write a follow-on sentence using your own ideas to express Result or Purpose. 'Parentf>. I feel.. 28 • • • • • . or even sewing a button on a f>hirt. mif> has lea to ioun9 people leaVing school literate in certain computer f>Kills. Identify the ideas that relate to each function and underline them.. But it has alw createa a generation almost aeficient in baf>ic practical f>Kills. c Machines are manufactured to break down after a certain time. Which linking phrases are used in 8 to express the functions listed? Decide whether the linking phrases below express Result or Purpose. menaing a pundure on a bi c~de.K. Apart from parents. the international arive towaras learning new technolog~ also neeas to car~ a gooa part of the blame.Expressing result and purpose 8 The extract below contains three paragraphs. each organized to express functions such as cause and result. 11 For each idea below. When you write a sentence. if> the comple'l-itj of c. for e'l-ample.. A number of reaf>onf> have been put forwara for thif>. because technical problem-wiVing liKe maKing things in carpent~ has been sguenecl out of the school curriculum.

. Write at least 250 words. . and proc(! ~s • • •• •••••• diagram behlli' ./res.. Water forced through membrane at high pressure Sea Filter backwash 1 1 To integrated water supply system l ask2 Seawater concentrate Water molecules You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. 29 . Write at least 150 words . Writt' about the following lopic: The widespread lise of the Internet 1las hl'ought many problems. cydes.7ki' it dr inkable.'I rt!tI1i)I'f'd from sea water to m..'orti Jl!} Il le mdilJ f cd //.' st'/c'{(ill. Summ arize Ihe illforT1Jilliotl vJ.• ••••••• Practice Test 3 Task 1 You should spmd abollt 20 minutes on this las T~le UNI T 3 M achi nes.'J alld rq.t i. What do you thiflk {lrc th e mail! problems associated witll the use of the web ? What sO/lIlioll can YO Il suggest? Give reasons for your answer and inclllde any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. and make comparisons where releva/lt.11011'5 hOI!' S{ll.

Number of journal articles read by all students Number of journal articles read by Ph D students NUIllON of journa l articles read by ju nior lecturers • l .. a b c d What does each pie cban describe? Wh at do tbe numb ers on each pie chart represent? Wbat does th e box at the bottom of tbe pie chart refer to 7 What noticeable feature can you see in each chan? ' !\Tbat gen eral statements can you make abou t each chart? e 30 • • • • • . PhD Sludents. and make comparisotTS' where relevant.e r week by all students.ioH by selectin9 and reporting r!'l e ma ill feLrtllu'S. The pie charts below illustrate tilt' number of journal articles read p.rize the infonnat. .Ed-ucation •• • General and specific statements Comparing Information Describing proportions •••••••• Task 2 Avoiding overgeneralization Developing reasons ••••••••••••••• Task 1 General and specific statements •• 1 The statements he10w give students' reasons for choosing a particu lar university. A pleasant environment is more important than the university's reputati n . c d 2 Look at the p ie charts and [be Task 1 question. 75')'. Good library facilities are the most important factor for postgraduate students. and jun for lecturers at an Alistralian IIIJiI·ersity.. Summa.tt05 _6totl 012'!-1 •• . Which of these statements do you agree with? a b The lecturers' qualification s are more important' th an th e quality of the teaching. Answer questi ons a-e below. The spo rts fa ci lities are as imp ortant as the academic reso urces .

... Most read six or more articles per week (99 per cen t).. wbereas general statements do not... Specific statements contain reference to data..... ... The vast majority of those students preparing for PhDs read twelve or more journal articles each week......... Furthermore... The pattern for senjor lecturers was v ery different.. ..... OveralL women were more likely to read novels than men . .. ju nior lecturer compare d to other students a t an Australian unjversity... the overwhelming majority of those studying doctora res read at least twelve articles per week in comparison with the average student... We can see that there are considerable dHferences in t h e proportion of n ationalities in each course .•••• 3 Complete sentences a-g using the ph rases below. a b c d e : Technique • • • : Aim to make at least one general statement in the middle of your text.... 4 The sentences in 3 form a model text...... only five pe r cent of PhD level students read between one and five articles. ......... Group the sentences into foU( p arag rapbs..... .................... ..... The figures were 80 per cen t and twelve p er cent .. Student s preparing for their doctorate read the greatest n um ber ofjoumal articles.. out of this total 24 per cent read twelve or more... Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph 1: 2: 3: 4: 5 6 Descr iptions contain general and specific st atements..... The sales for all fo ur comparue showed similar trends... :.. 25 and 7 5 respectively..... fo r junior lecturers the pattern appears to be slightly differenl.. those students who are re earching Jor a phD read more a rticles than either junior lecturer or other students... Only ten per cent of stu dents preparing for their Masters attended taught classes.. . .......... many articles [rom academk journals are read weekly by PhD students ............ Which statements in 3 are general? Wh ich are specific? Divide the following sentences into general and specific statements.... g h Far fewer female lecturers as opposed to male lecturers are employed at the uruversity..... that respectively for examp le how but which m eanwh ile whereas and UNIT 4 Education a b c d e g The three pi... ....... Examples General: Postgraduate students tended to be better off than other students... Specific: Seventy-five per cent of school children read comics each week.. . th e average for all st u dent in tbis category is a hefty 67 pe r cent...e charts illustrate . .. • • •• 31 .... ... is almost a third of the corresponding figure for PhD level students. It is clear ..

.......... Far fewer ... nine oul of tel! engineering st udents were male..sometimes use words instead of numbers.. Th ose students w ho are research ing for a PhD ................. 32 • • • • • ..read over twelve articles a week compared with junior lecture rs.......................................or lecturer .... ....... .. ..... three quarters almost half one third 75 per cent o ne in three nearly half 26 per cen t 48 per ce nt about on e in fou r 33 per cent three out of four just under one half just over a quarter close to one half 9 These adjective-noun collocations can also be used to describe proport ions.......... The average student reads fe'Aret journal articles tl:1C111 th e average junior lecturer.. ... The average juni. ..... the figu re was just ten per cen t.... In 1960................vhelming majority Very big Very big (used before numbers) Very small Not v ery big (used before n umbers ) : Technique • • • • : V the way you ary express proportions ............... a b c Far more PhD stu dents ....en to exactly three quarters ............ 10 R <:w ri(~ SCfli ~n ces a-e........ 34 per cent of se ence graduates went into the teachi ng profession but in 1970.........COlnpal'ing information 7 Rewrite th e following sentences using the giv en w ord so that the meaning the same...... bu t live years la ter the figure was 64 per cent......... Describing proportions 8 The phrases in the list are alternative ways of describ ing proportio ns ...... d Junior lecturers do not have as much time to read articles as those students who are researching for a PhD .............................. the vast majority a tiny minority a m assive 85 per cent a modest twelve per cent a hefty 85 per cent a mere tw elve per cent the oven...... Write the adjectives next to the correct meaning in the ta ble..........hh an a L~emative expression.................. ........ D ivide the lis\ inlo four groups that each have similar meanings.......... Exadly one half of the student population were members of the union in 2001 ......... ....... The average Ph D student .... b ut by 2000 this figure had fa1J. Ninety-nvo per cent of people surveyed felt that mixed sex schools were preferable.................... ........ .... .. replacin g the phrases h1 i talics w ... In 1990... The other students at the university do not read as many articles as the average phD studen t......... • • • a b c d e We see from the char t tha t 23 per cent of students fa iled to finish their university degree.........

a b c d e What are the similarities between postgraduate and all students? W hat are the main differences betw een unde rgrad uate and postgraduate students? What te n dency can you obse rve as st ude n ts move lrom undergraduate to postgra du a te? What is th e m ost interesting feature of the three cha n What general co n clu si ons can you draw? 12 Choose the most suitable alternrltive to complete the sentences bel ow about the d(1{ll in 1 L a b c d e g Meanwh ile.tolal siud ellt population . Propo rt ion of all students by time spent in libra ry Proportion of undergrudl!Hltes by time spent in library Proportion of postgraduates by ti m e spen t in library I . A majority/minority/total of undergraduates (nin e per cent) used the library for fifteen or m ore hours p er week . Ov eralL the pattern/size/proportion of postgraduate students who spent fifteen h ours a week or more in th e library was very clo .ours spent ill a BritislI IIniversity /ibra ry by underg raduates.1 to 7 0 8 to 14 • 15+ I Su mllla rize tlIe illjtJ rmati(1/1 by . Task 1 Tlte pie charts below show the t1l1mber of I. twO 13 In your own words. sentences about eacb pie chart and one . There is a clear trend/progress/drift towards using the library more as students m ove towards gradua tion and post. write summarizing senten ce . muf make comparisons where reLevallt. ela ting Illd repor/l'ng the main f etllll res.•••• 11 Read th e Task 1 question bel ow and all $ \>\' eT UNIT 4 Educatioll qu~sti on s a-e.les. to the entire student body who spen t 1-7 hours in the library.i • •• 33 . pos/Bradlla. the pattern/amount/majority fo r postgraduate students w as substa n tia lly different. About a third/quarter/minority of undergraduate students as opposed to n early a third of postgradua te stu dents spent between eight an d f urteen hours stu dyi ng. (/lid tile . Th e most striking dillerence in the data for undergraduates was that a sizeable majority/m inority/n um ber spent only 1-7 h ours per week in the library. Un dergrad uate students were less likely than postgraduate stu dents to use [h e library witH just u n der one quarter/one third/two-thirds of the forme r spending 1-7 hours ther .graduation.

Technique A common riticism of IELTS C candidate IS that they overgenerallze III Task 2 Avoid overgeneral izlIlg by giviny lea sons. Reason 2: . Teaching thin ing a t c 100) i essentiaL even at primary level. ince it gives peop le more ideas Clb Ul what t do with th e ir liv" .' beca u se it gives th em grea ter opportun ities \ hen they I ok for work. The pre en! young generation knows more rhan their previous counterparts.h below are very b road . Phy ieaJ e d u ation i a neee ary part f th e learn ing process for all pupils. either during or aft r school bours. w h ich rea on is most approp riate? 0 \ in ion sl atem Jl !: Ed u ca lion is a n1 ilj or Lx! r i n li fting people ou t o f p ' rty Rea son 1: . Parents should be encouraged How are the ideas connected? Do the second and third sentences support the first sentence? What ideas an you think of to support th first sentence? to become involved in schools . c 2 The op inion stat e ment below is very broad. • • a b They should provide books. Example Jc is importallt thal universities should make more link with busine . Play is a maj o r p a n of the lea rn ing pr ce for children. g h II is impo rtan t f r ch ildren to try educa lion . The international community should ensure that education is free for all schoolchildren.. It is impo rtant tha t The re is no doubt that One can not d e ny that It is impossi ble to a rg ue ag a inst the fa ct tl1at 34 • • . 3 A 11 of the o pi ni on statem n ts a. [0 learn another lanquage c r ly in [h eir Being bo red a n d learning to deal w ith boredom is a n ce sary p<lrt f th e le arning proces for children . d ecide vvhelh e r you ( gree or d isag ree .. Th en 8J1 wer qu e fion a-c. a b Univ r -iries should make m ore links with businesses. d e More time needs to be devoted to learning musi c. 4 Look again a t the tatements you agreed with in 3_ Choose from th e p hrases be low 10 intens ify your opi nions and add the e to the sen ! nces yo u agreed w ith in 3.Task 2 Avoiding overgeneralization 1 Read the sent en ces below. In yOUT opini on.. or each sla tem e nt.

)11'0 $ 'Ill opinions as belongjng. 3 4 because children now find it more difficult to reaso n . 2 (IS it h elps the brain to funcri on better a nd increases coordination.18C8USe and since as trigger words. Add (he reasons below to opinions a-h in 3. a b ( Take for exam ple children in my cou n try who lea rn mu sical g" J1l s at e m earlyage.l g l t'E'C] w ith in 3. as it teache s ll. 5 6 7 as this would connect their research with the real world. Play is a major pari of the learl1lng process for children as it teaches litem how 10 be crealit'e. since it crea te s a healthy basis for later life . Match each examp le wHh the description s 1-3. For exam ple. bemuse it hel ps t hem intell ec tually and also heJps Lo fi nd a job. to someone else . a general example 2 an exam ple from kno wledge an example froIU experien ce '3 • •• 35 . Some people think/feel/believe/claim/argue that Other people are of the opinion that Yet other peop ~ e put forward the view that reason U phrases se such as /. For instance . 6 To avoid overgeneraliz8tion. 8 Developing reasons 7 I n lELTS. because interaction helps to develop social skills.jbl 1 ].possibly to hide your own opinion. It is p (}s~·. since they have more access ro infonnation. give reasons. em h ow to be creat ive o n their own.••• ••• Technique When you make an opinion sta tement that IS velY general. children who draw and paint are idely known to have grea ter spacial aw are n ess.1\ the phrases you disag'rcec! \\' ith in 3. Choose rr nm the phras es b e low ilnd PI (ld . opinions and rt'clSOl'l'i should be supported with 'examp les rrom your knowledge and experience ". pla y can develop artistic or m usical skills .r l1e s ~ to !lhl~ sent enCes you dis. Sentences a-c g ive three examples 10 support th e arg urn ent below. make sure yot! J ustify It with a UNIT 4 Educa/ioll 5 Lo ok ag<lin .

9 Develop three of th e sentences b elow . . e Su ccessful entrepren eu rs and sport s stars should teach in schools an d universities since th ey wo uld pro vide good role models for young people . a b c d e Foreign lan guage learning should be compulsory. Fo r example. like namely Take for exa mple A good exampl e is a Out of sch 01 act lvili es help children develop because they can learn subjects that are not in the school curriculum . Ex ample: Too much emphasis is put on passing exam .8 Develop [he ideas belo w b y a ddi ng yom own examp les like thos e in 7 on pag e 35 . Studenrs nee d to have go od study skills on entering un iversit y. For example. children in some Bri tish schools prepare for tests for weeks before th e exams. d Priva te d ucation omplemen ts state ducation very well as it can do things state education cannot. think how you could Illustrate it with examples U phrases slich as se For example and like as trrgger words. the phrases in the b ox t help you. Boys and girls o ught !O be educated in separate s hools. Teachers' salaries need to be as high a doctor' or lawyers'. b Education is being red u ed to a production line becau e [he focus is on targe ts rather than on learning. Give your own reasons an d example ". Technique When you state a reason. Some people feel til I too much emphasis is put on passing exams. bw they are n ot taught anyth ing . University lecturers need some teacher training. 36 •••• . Use phrases to intens if I your own or other ' opinions. c Travel helps to broaden the m inds f children because it helps to bring to life the things they read in class . because pupils spend a large proportion of school time doing te sts rather than learning. Fo r instance.

about rhe following topic: SOJlle people beliere thnt competitive sports. for w orking age population 200 1/02 Percentages 30-. UN IT 4 EdllCfll i oll • • tilL' \\'<./IOII'S {he 11Ijhcsl qllalifiD1tit'J} all.--------------------------~=_--~==========~ I_ Ma les ~ Fema les 1 20-+---------------------- 10 5 Degree o r equivalent Highe r education qua lification GeE A level GCSE grade Other No q ualifications qualifications or equivalent A"-C or equivalen Task 2 YOll should spend abollt 40 mil/ute'S 017 this task.• • Practice Test 4 Task 1 lou shollid spend about 20 lIIinutes 011 (his (ask Tile Lilli" clltlJ"t .r/. !Jave 110 place intlte .'c111JOl' ' IJniculllllJ. Highest quali fications attained: by sex.) lI!F~ Sum mari ze the infonHati01J by 5eleC:lil1g and reporting the IIwin reatures. HL'I!' fill' c rOil tlgree or disag ree? iL' Give reasons for your answer and iI/elude allY rdel'al/t examples from your OWI1 knowledge or experience. Writ". Write at least 250 wards. and m ake com parisoll s where releval1t. both teaJII alia inail'ialla/. Write (I( least! 50 words. 37 .:il}.7incd by Sf'S IlJ/" pOpUllllioJl in Wales i112001l2002.

I don' t feel it's safe for m y children. I wis h I' d had things like tbat to keep me entertained. aQd I'd like to move away. We cou ld play in the sIre ts or in the nearby woods and fields. all d the skate park las I year. Imagine you are a young person moving to a new town. Whi ch facilities in th e lis ! be lm'v would be important to you? go lf course gal le ry skate park stadium thea t re ice rink rfJilw<:Jy station pa rk college co ncert hilil airport 38 •• . and there's been a lot more traffic and developmen t since . there are more jobs and opportun ities now than there w ere when I . I guess you can 't h ave on e w ith out losing tb e o th er. a b c ct For each speaker. getting into trouble. Fo r instan ce. the leislIr centre.. the coullcil opened the ice rink.et. Sandra One of the lhings I used to really like about this area was th e peace and q ui. Tom Well. It was so safe fo r us as kids .U N IT 5 • Youth Unit aims Task 1 ••••• T 2 ask Develop ing and JustifYing opinIons Writing introductions •••••• Describmg changes Describing locations Task 1 Describing changes Read the comments by three people talk i ng about toe [o w n where they grew up. These day s th ere 's much more here [or young peopl e.va a teenager. peop le 1 00 at the town now and say it's oat as prett y or peaceful as it was in the pasL I suppose thaI 'S tru e. do they think things were better or worse when they were yo ung? Wh y? What changes have occurred to the p lace you corne froro? Do you think they are positive or negative ch anges? How could you express the phrases in italics in a more formal wa y . Yes. They buill a bypass alld all indllstrial estate a few years ago. I suppose. Dave I r emember there wasn 't much to do her when I was growing up . Even so. Answ er the questions be low. My frien ds and I u sed to J USl han g around in the park. you can' t stand in the way of change.

.. 1he \~ood\and waD c..... tt1 "'''''''1 . a new industrial estate..p......r..... \~h ic. ..are<\ to maKe wa-...h tool:: plaa.. . ..... town \-laD a muth grnner 2. ... .....\ll. a number of dramatic.. In IqSO. treeD and individual houses.es nodn of tile... . and \~ arenouses ilD • 39 . The first one has bL'l'll dDne [or y i.. study the maps and number the changes on the ~ eciJrl d Ol le......'~!9. along th~' railVlai line being I::noG\::u\ down and replaced bi sKiscrape. Use one ".! rural to a mainl urban landscape.. a 10 •••••••• .. a golf WUITl-......~ • Park School 99 ~ N t Stadi um ~ Manna ~~-...\'ere the changes dramatic or negligible over tl le 25 -year period? Wh a t w ere the two bigges t changes north of the. ... . .-~ t 9 ..hoo\.0. river? What happened to the houses and trees along the railway line south of the river? N H~i~ 9 .anges th. w " . with all the.. river remained. .... 01'111 a fevl k e..UN IT 5 YOIl/ll 2 The map s below sh ow ch.. 9 tI'1 Railway station ~ Warehouse a=m Skyscrapers ~ Airport I!mtm 1980 ~ "-"Factories 111 111 2005 Complete the model text below. \Z-iver AI anah were Gut aO'Mn....0....... Think of some general statements......oastal to" n of ounysville between IqgO and 2005 Y sprang up around the airport and 5(.... Answ er th e fa ll wi ng question a b d e ( Wbat is th e m ost n oticeable differen ce between th e two maps? Was the town more or less residential in 2005 compared to 1980? Were there more or fewer trees in 2005? \..le... .. : : :\t 9 ~ rJ 9 9 9 fi9 3 Airport9woodland9 ------------~---=- ..1he mODt ~ .ove... . c.... number of Technique In order to identify changes. •••••••••••• ••• ••• are-a witn a large.at Look plac in Youngsvill in ew Zealand over a 25-year p eriod from 1980 to 2005.. O verall .. .. Further dw' lopmenh were.. and L2r par~in9 I .lOrd frOIll lb' following list to comp lete each blank space.9. . A marina \~ao also built at the OLrth of the river.ri> More.. .~. and nlake notes....c. of1he\aKf.. ' ..... the..... in the. i" that all of the trees 50Uth of tne.. • River Alanah School 9 9 99 9 9 t 999 ~ tI'1 H~P. for a par~.m..hangeD.n~. houses experienced noticeable comparison residential co rner factories facilities freVei-tt?fflents COllstr"uction Model text 1he maps Dnow the I ..arD the town ~ . of a stadium near the no!il1-easP . the 0 .... nd a newDtrekn of railwai from the river running airutl'! nortl1.. ' of the two mapo reveals a change from a largel.. but during tne ne"1-i 25 ie...

. (transform) by ne w eveJopments..... a b c Th e maps sh o w changes wh ich OCCllITed between 1980 and 200 5...4 Tran sform Ihe sentences b elow by chang ing the n ouns i_ lO verb an d using n Ihe passive... ~~.. all these hous es were delllolished... Whi ch coul d b e rewritten in the 6 Re .. A sport complex .. The trees Here chopped down .... (CU I down) 10 build a railway.. (turn) into a hote l.0...... .. .. (acliv e) .... There was a com plete modernization of the entertainmenr district .......1.............. (mak e way ) for a hote l...... 5 Look again at Ihe sentences you active fonn? Wl'O fte in 4..... (COnvert) into an art gaUery. There was a complete transfonnation of the n ighbourhood.. Example There we re Sp f'clacllla r changes in th e are.. d e g h The woodland gave way A m ari na W iiS lO a golf COllrse... The area ... ..?~.......... (pull down ) and ...~?'1. .... (p assive) Th e block of fla ts ...~ ~~y' ... . Th e row of old t rraced hous es in the cil Y .~..... The 'w hole centre of tbe town .. . (knock down) to make way for a road ..... ..vrit e sentences a-h be low u iog ynonym from th e model I Xl in 3... . The fore st .. (conslruCl) in the suburbs. The fact o ry . (take place). Refer [0 page 7 for m ore information on Rr!/aled verbscl11d JlOlllLS. c d e Th ere vva a tOt al reconstruction of th e residen ti al area ..~.... Exam ples Th e block of flats . There was a total redeve lopment of th old fa tori es . There \·vas a rebuildi ng of the old houses.... a b c d e g h The row of old hOlls es . A number of spectacular changes ... ..... .. Th e area was changed spe ct acu larly.... (und ergo) a total transformation .. 40 II • .... . Th city entre . Over the nexl 25 ye ars.. (replace ) b y a block of flats ................ a b There were dramatic developments in the town centre.... Technique Do not just describe the map or maps Describe the developments that took place.. ........ also constructed 7 P u t th e verb' below i nto the correCl fo m1 . AU of th e changes took pl ace b tween 2000 and 2005..... Very few trees \<II re lef t........' The area wimessed d ramatic manges ...r:r. .. (redevelop) completely.. The single dwellings were replnced by skyscrapers .

A yachti ng cl ub was set lip oll/il//ot the shor s of the lake ....... a b c d e f g h Several changes took plac al/in/olllh town of Northgate. .... 41 ........ A large n umber of new vi llas were built besidelmlro lhe sea.. .. . _ c d e g W here is the school? It is . .. Where is tb e stadium? It is . (passive) By 200 .......... . North of the tOwn. ..... Look at the example ... A number of wind turbine s were placed in the sea... W here is the ra ilway sta tion? It is ....... Two new hote ls were erected on/ill /at the banks of the riv r... ...... _ .. " . . the block of flats had made way for a h otel. just l~fflollIlO the coastline.... Then ans wer the question s a-g abou t th e m ap o n p age 39 using th e phrases in th e box... . ... . _ . . . ... Then insert By 2005 allhe begin ning o f each sen tence in 7 and adjust each senten ce .... Where is the hospital? It is ... A new railway was constructed which ranfroll/laflill north to soulh ........ Where is the airport? It is . ....... .. . Which of th e foll o wi ng cannot be used to rep lace the phrase Betwem 2000 <111 a b Over the period During the fiv e year period c Fro m 2000 to 2005 d Over th e past Li ve years 9 The pa t p erfect (h(/d done) can also b e u sed to descri be changes occurring before a sp ecjfjc [LIn in th e p ast. the block of flats had been fUmed into a hotel..... 11 Comple te the following sen fences by choos ing the c rreel preposi tions of p lace from th e alte rn aliv s .... .......... Exa mples By 2005..... ....... _ .. .... ... Where is the golf course? It is norrh-wes/ of rile lake............... There was a large indusuial area located ontilliat the north ... there is a lake su rrounded in/of/by tree A number of new hou ses we re built besidelarlolilhe railway line . Exa mple Only a few trees 110rc/7 oflhe river remained.... ..._ ... ................. (active) Describing locations 10 It is so m et Lmes importan t to st ate loca tion s cl early on a map . Read tbe examp les.• 8 20057 UNIT 5 YOll/I... Where is rhe lake? It is .... south of the river beside the railway line in the south-west of the town north of the skyscrapers south of the [Jolf course south-west of ~he stadium north-east of the lake a b Whe re are lhe skyscrapers? They are .... .." .......

tb en an wer ques t i on s a·-b. Contradiction E >~ plan a ti o n Result Examp le Reason I x 2) 8piflto-frSt-8"!en'ieI'Tt a b Ma ny p eople beli eve tha t workers sh ould be paid according to age ra th er than merit. . . An we r th ques tio n s b el w . . TO c d Take for example someone in their twenties workin in a financial company. g . a Which person do you agre e with? Do you agree with the justification for each person's opinion.. l\1.I get better resu Its. The first one bas b e en don e for you . ..rt-senten ce wi.1'0 11 agree or di.ml'll }· t}~ older St}J)/1! To wlwt extent do . They deserve to recei e the same salary . 3 Read a-g. young people nowadays are often fa ter at doing things than their older work colleague ' . c I shoul d get paid more -I have m o re ex peri en ce. .1} people tIl l!. 42 • ..th the correct function from the list. e '" becau e they are doing the same work. ..~·ag ree ? a b Do you hav to stro ngly agree or disagree? Is is possible to rake a neutra l view? Rewrite the ·tatemeDl in your own w ords. I feel that they should be paid according result . How ve r. Emplo)'!!rs shollid pal )'0 111'1. Tas 2 Developing and jus tifying opini ons 1 Loo k ilt t he p ictures and the l e \!.atcl1 ea h sentence or p <1. which compensates for Jack of experience. Begin with Young employees . Is this situation the same all over the w orld? 2 Read the fo Uovv ing Ta k 2 question. tak en front 3J l illwwer to th e qrUE'slj on in 2. Moreover. I should get more. colleagues doing the sOlllejvb .

oUntrie5.t. In tne international job mar'Ke. 4 for inManc.~pede<1 to be top rate. on iOU119 people af> the. there.h for \~or~ in tneir home GOuntrie.n more.d mobilit'j of pe.m for those in previous gene-rations.. 'I V/Jal i~ your opinion? Model text life for the 'joung in toda'j' 5 world is in some wais c.e.ing gooa:'jollng people are e.• 4 Under line the iinl<ing phrases in 3 which in dicate the function UNIT 5 Yo 1111.e/also!in parfic.estion and the model answer belo. \\115 globali~tion ofjob511a5 'j C. are mor o.. 1hus!5o! Substqutntly. 'o u ho e. 1 a contrast contrast b re u lt b reason b contrast c ad ilion 2 a c result c c c c result exampl reason conclusion 3 a addition 4 a contrast b addition 5 a result 6 a example b contrast b reason •• 43 .annot ae. 5 Using the sen tences in 3 a a model.a5t to £. of just be.omfortable. it i5 no longer a c.lld one is incorrect.ni tne fad tnat in a number of a:e.ample.-\!.urope. pool of mobile 5'Killea \'lorlCw.O()$tqutntly! howtvtr!as d result put intense pressure. ndia. "3 FurihtrmoreiLiktwi5t~Ancl. SOllie people feclthat YOllJlg people fa ce fillY/: presSllres todm' OW/I the equivaleJlt age groups did il1 previous gCllcral'iL)lIs . I. two options are possible a. write a paragrap h express ing your own op inion in response to the question in 2 .rtainli more c.a c. tn.demanding than It Uf>ed to be. is inc.ver'jjob if> 110\~ fierc.auseias '1 oun 9 people.ular. For each o f 1--6. large. D el te tb e inco rre t op ti on. Othas Il1il11< thalilley have a much easier life thon their parcHts did.e. 2. \ However!fv1orwver/£ven so.whilelbec. for e'f. in all parts of the orld. la'Ke tne wor'Kplac. nas a .i 5earc..op\e. Competition for e. one c.ualifie<1 tnan previou5 9&11erations.velope.5. Use appropriat linking phrases.. not just de.as life is muc. ~'Kil\ed \'lor'Ker~ move from tl1e far £.a5e.e. 6 Read th e Task 2 q u.rea5e. 7 Decide which functions are indicated by the correct linking phrases in 6.

. How far do you agre It is ce n ainly importan l to mal'e sure th at people arc prnlc(lcci Imlll '3 4 a ha rmful mnl erial in various media . older wor 'ers are just a equipped to deal with the modern w orld as young people .rc lllic( uhcnl. I be : ieve . Try to paraphrase the Fo r th e remaining tlll e.i nlIocluctions bel ow. I think . Begin by \l si !) !. J feel th at care n eed 10 be Technique Keep your Introductions shon VVnte only one or two sentences taken in doino so f r ariou reason s.. b c Writing introductions 9 R ead the Task 2 q uestions and .. I feel. iv1ake a statement and use linking phrases as tngger words to think up and orqanize ideas. According to some people.8 Read the st atements below and in each case cont. an d then write another statement to show h oy y ou inte nd to organize your essay. statement illl11e title in on e sentence. there are other factors involved. Personally. hat is your opinion? the de velopment of any The modern emphasis on computer redu creative abilit y. a Many feel that young people ha y oluc 1 more influence in the world than their counterpart in the pas!. Howev er... one offoll o wing expressions in Ihe box. How far do you agree-? Blogs on the web are very effective ways for people to expres_ their ideas and reliev tensions. All forms of med ia but especially films and TV programmes sh uld be censored to prate t young people. Match each introd ucti on a---< with one of (he questions 1-4 . To what extent do you agre '? 2 The younger generarion are the main driving force behind many of the latest technological developments . i1 does appear that computers redt! e creativity. hile the youth of today definitely have an impa ct on the way new [echnology dev lops. l Technique When developing and Justlfymg OpiniOnS. 44 . Howeve r. b c In some areas. . Some people a re of the opinion that advertising sh ould not be banned in TV programm s directed a t young p eople. 10 it 'our ow n int rodu tion . Nevertheless. but 1 also feel they can be used as a tool to develop cr ative abiH t)' in many Ii Id . you do not need 10 tell the truth..

Summan"ze the informatio11 by selectil1f) and reportinf) tile main features.ver mul iil c/I/de allY relevant examples/rom YOllr own kl1O\. and animal welfare Ihall previ.nisul1s Hil.erI' relevant. Write at ie(1S1} 50 wNds. Write at least 250 lyards.l'!edge or experieJl ce..1/.:cn plocc at tl7C se aside resort of Ternpletol1 bctwee111990 and 2005.tstation _tQ tt~t~2 9 f1f1 9 ~ y 9 ~f1Q 9~choo.f O mi ilLiles . poverty.1 Ji.. •• • 45 .-J" III a III 9 _HOsPital N t _ 1990 HOsPit al Ferry 2005 Task 2 YO li shouid spend ab0 11 1. WhClt is your O\VII opil1iOJ"I? Giw rf. t.' gl!l1i."1"atiofls.7J.vill zJ !opiC. The m aps belol\' sholl' the c1wnges that han. f1~ 9ITf1 9 99 ~ 9 9 -11 'f. Ihis task Write aboll t the fallol. and make C(llJ1 p.1$[>I15 for y our {i I/s.• • •• UN IT 5 l'o llllJ •• Practice Test 5 Task 1 • •• •• • You should spend abou I20 m inurcs 011 this task.14 t \.' YoulIg people are milch 1rI00·e {/ware of and concerned about issues like the cl1virOl'l1l1ellt..

10 = lease important). a b Wh ich topic in I do they rdatr' to? Which pie chart 1-4 on p8gl' 47 vvonld be a good illu stra ti on of ea ch concluding stateme nt in 3? esc the proportions in each sen ten ce to help you. c The lhree languages in question.'/'lZlminqlof/theh-l·cre/. 4 An sw er these questions about the sentences in 3. w ere n amed as iJll ~Jortl1nt/th ellq r1B 1 1 '?3fS I/Jl:)SI after En glish by ab.·(1J!rim sL·bl )()1 visits between countries.. alnlll llbcrlwithh"Jil l111cr-l nam illgl all dl lij~'sryle/food. Put the words in italics in the conect order.lfljm. Spanish. and Ch inese. H!l of!eq unllpeop lelJi li m bers. 46 . organized stude nt exchan ges l:ll1gu a ge learnin g international tra de agreem ents similar cl im a te and landscape joint cultural events tm ns pon links tourism shared scientific and technological know-how positive media images similarities in lifestyle and cuhure 2 Which of the ideas in 1 can be carried out by individuals? which can be carried au( by governments? Which are difficult to change? Statements a-c were used to conclude descriptions of data. 3 a It is clear that JII1?jcnilylpc·L'plel oven'.U N IT II 6 ••• Culture Unit aims Task 1 C oncluct ing statements C oncession {11 ••••••••••••••• T 2 ask E xpressing advantages and disadvantages Advantage and disadvantage vocabulary C oncession (2) ••••• Task 1 Concluding statements 1 Ra nk the ideas in the list below 1-10 according to how important th ey are in de veloping understanding between different cultm es (1 = most important. b OveralL just over half tIl e people su rveyed fou od the climate in the tropics the m05·t difficult thing to ildapt to. Think of examples to justify Y0ul ideas. Arabic.


·1

UNIT

6

CII 1/11 re

5

Pie charts are frequently used to summarize dat a. Therefore, th ey can often by used as the basis for concluding statements. Match each of th e foll owing conclusions to one of the pie charts 1-4 above.
a

b

c
d

Technique
Aim to Include several key features • In your description: • a paraphrase of the question. a

e

To conclude. only a small minority of people felt that the language banier would preven t the development o( cultural links . . It is eviden t th a r opinions are split almost equally between the three options as regards the benefits of joinr cultural venture s. It would seem th at the vast maj ority o f peop le th ink tha r rhe development of trade links has the greatest impact on international relations. Just under hall the peopie surveyed are of the opinion that China wou L be th e biggest cultural influence in tbe w orld by 2020 . Abou t ha ll of the holida y makers visited ltaly because they were interested in the art and culture, wh ereas the food and the climate were named as he most important factors by approximately equal numbers of the remaining tOlJ rists in the survey.

6

Rewrite the sentences below using a suitable phrase from [h Ii {.
nearly a third almost equal numbers the vast majo r ity a tiny minority just under half nearly two-thirds

proportion phrase,
some comparison. some general and specific statement s. and a concluding • statement.

Examples

Govemmen t su bsidies accounted for 63 per cent of all funding. Govemmen t su bsidies accounted for nearly two-thirds of all funding.
a

Eighty-seven per cent ofholiday makers to China were v ery satisfied with their
experience.

b

It is clear th at about 50 per cent of both sexes favoured increased cultural

contacts. c Only eleven percent offilmgoers tho u gh t films helped promote cultural awaren ess . In conclusion, th e trend is clearly upward w i th 47 per cent of companies establishing new trade and cultural links in 2005 . To sum up, 32 per cem of all tourists were on some form of package holiday.

d

e

7

Look again at the Sl'm ences in 3,5, and 6. Make a lis t ofphra es which are used to in dicate conclusions.

••

47

The table below shows tile age profili! ofro.llrisls 011 backpack ing h olidays am guided tou rs in Ne w Zealand in 2005, (/11£1 the pie chart gives the satisfaction rating of their slay.
Sat isfaction rating
Not sure

Age profile

Backpacking

Gujde d

tOU-r5

18-30
3 1~0

62%
23%

7% 22% 57% 14%
the maln featu res, alld

41-50
Other

10% 5%

SWJlmari::<, tile infllrlll'arioJl bJ" si!leC-l iJlg ml(/ repo,1ing

make wll1pa";sons where relevdll1.

8

Read the Task 1 question and an swer questions a-c .
a b c

How does the age prof.ile of people on each holiday type differ?
W hich age group is almost equally represented on each type of holiday? How would you d escrib the opinion of the majorit y of visitors?

9

Complete (he model (ext wit h verbs from the box. The firs t gap ha been done for you.
comes accounts for bel ong enjoyed is rated m ake up

prevtdes
include

Model text

1he. table I .J?~R0g~.~.. a bre.a\::down ~ ~eluted age group of those on ba(.\::pac.\::ing and gUided tours in New l.ealand in 200'5, with the pie c.hart indic.ating whether the.i 1. •.• .•• .....•.••.•• their holida'j. Au c.an be seen from the table. the age profile of people on the two different "tipes of holidai varies c.onsiderabli- For e~mple, the majorlti «(,z. per c.ent) of tl1ose. on bac.\::pac.\::ing holidai£ ? ................ .. to the IS-3D age range, but the 5ame age group <\ ••••• •••••• •• •••• 3 small proportion (seven per c.e.nt) of tl1ose. on gllided tours. \1oweve.r, the pattern is the c.omplete reverse w it hen

s .... .. ....... ".. to 41-'50 iear-olds.1hese people (; .................. 51 per c.ent of those. on gUided tours, despitl', aa.ounting for onli ten per c.ent of bac.\::pac.\::ers. e>i c.ontrast the profiles for botl1 bac.\::pac.l::ing and gUided tours 1 .................. roughli equal proportions from the 31-40 age group: Z.3 and Z.2 per c.ent resped ivel'{ . It is c.\e<lr from the pie c.hart that New l.e.aland S ............ . ..... as a popular holidai destinatiol1 among the majori~ of all holida,{-mal::ers, with a massive 53 per c.ent from both groups stating the'{ enjoied their holida'{

10

which phlase is used to indicat e a concl uding statement in th e m odel text?

48 • • • • •

••••••
Concession (1)

UNIT

6

Culture

11

Read the example sentences below. Then answer questions a-c.
Examples

Fifty-seven per cent of people on guided tours were aged 41-50, although only leD per cent of backpackers belonged to this age group .. Fifty-se ven per cent of people on guided tours were aged 41-50. Nevertheless, only ten per cem of backpackers belonged to this age group.
a b

c

Which linldng phrases are used to in troduce a contrast? How are th e phrases u sed d.ifferently? Find three examples of similar phrases in the model text in 9. Which phrases in the example sentences are they like? Which phrase can only e used before a Doun or an -il1g form?

12

M,ltch a-e below with suitable follow-ons 1-5 to create correct statements abom the data in 8.
a

Despite accounting for nearly eq ual proporti ons of each holiday type.
Althougli people age d 4 1- 50 were dominant on guided tour ',

b

c d e

Gui ded tours were leas t popular among people in the 18- 30 age group. One in ten people said that they didn't enjoy their boliday. Only fou rteen per cent o f peopl e (rom the 'oth er' category chose guided tours. th ey still accounted for one in ten backpackers. Nevertheless, m ost clearly expressed satisfa ction . this age group still accounted for under a quarter of each. However, th at was still a higher proportion than th e J 8- 30 age group . bllt they were most popular with the oldest grou p.

Technique
Show that you can • combine ideas into complex sentences.

2
3

4
S

13

Join each of the following sentences using the phrase given.

a

The vast majority of visitors to Britain come from Europe. However, they stay for fewer than ten days on average. Although ... ... ... .. .. .. ............................................. .. ................................................... .

b

Forty-five per cem of people speak a foreign language. Neverthele s. the vast majorit y are at a low level. Although fo rty · five per cent ................................................................................ .

c

It has good weather. Howev er. southern Fran ce is visited by only two per cem of Asian tourists. Despite .. ........ .. ... ..... .. ........ .. ............................................. .

d

The cost of student exchange s w ent up . N evertheles~ exchanges rose . The number of stud enr exch anges ............................ .. ~ The event w as promoted to te enagers. Neve rtheless~ only 32 per cent of the audience. Although ............. .. .. .................................... .... .. ..;... .. ... ... .

e

• • •

49

. It makes life more enjoyable..... Some people find it . such as MP3 or DVD-players. Then answer the questions... is that they .. .... It makes people more isolated.. while they are studying or working in cafes or on trains....... ... Sometimes.Task 2 Expressing advantages and disadvantages 1 Look at the photos of popular electronic items.. So these devices . Nevertheless.. help a b c d e f difficult interfere benefits ideal enable These devices bring a number of . for example........... people relax...... hence the quiet zones in many trains.... Answer questions a-c a b c Which sentence in 4 expresses a disadvantage? Which linking phrases are used in 4? Which ideas from 3 are used in the paragraph? 50 •••• .... The sentences in 4 form a paragraph taken from an answer to the Task 2 question.... laptops.... which allow people to listen to music or watch films on the move.... people to relax and create a familiar environment....... What do you think are the main advantages and disadvantages of this development? a b Which part of the question states the general subject? Which part of the question contains the organizing words? 3 Decide whether each idea below is an advantage or a disadvantage........ to do so when it is completely quiet outside their homes. It allows people greater freedom.. because they allow people to do things where they want to rather than being restricted to working at home.. It makes people less sociable... they do .. with others if the volume is too high....... are now commonplace.... It makes entertainment more accessible everywhere. It is a nuisance for other travellers.... 4 Complete each sentence a-fwith a word from the box... The main one. in my opinion.. 5 6 Decide whether the words in 4 express advantage or disadvantage.. etc are ... It reduces communication........... however. Which entertainment devices would you associate them with? a b c d e g h It helps people to relax... Portable entertainment devices. Which ideas in the box explain the popularity of each item in the pictures? What do you think the next electronic craze will be? size design portability business need entertainment technology fashion price 2 Read the Task 2 question below...

..... to the nations involved..... ....... . watching a film... others are playing games...... • Adjectives can also be used to emphasize advantage and disadvantage......... takes away the boredom of journeys..... 3... they will face fewer ....... even 4 . people of all ages who are travelling on trains nowadays. and working simultaneously................... .... Complete sentences a-g with words from the box. Cultural exchanges offer enormous ...... such as when one tries to make contact with people in other countries.......... The financial .... . 7 .... ..... ..... ....... .. people are becoming more and more isolated in their own worlds...........•••••••• 7 UNIT 6 Culture The paragraph below is taken from a similar answer....... Technique Use nouns......... talking on their mobiles....... e g Being culturally aware is of great . they are reading. .. they are plugged into the radio... the an of communication is being lost. Does the word serious in ge emphasize advantage or disadvantage? • • •• 51 ....... . Visiting other countries gives people a ......... benefit problems opportunities chance handicap drawbacks gain a b c d Not knowing a foreign language has its ............. or listening to music on their MP3-players. in my opinion.... If people take time to find out about the country they are travelling to.. such as benefit and • drawback.. which • express advantages and disadvantages as trigger words to help you plan...... ........... Take I . 8 Answer these questions about the paragraph in 7.... 5...... to experience cultures first hand.. they have friends next to them to talk to.. this allows people greater freedom and flexibility 6 . These days not having access to the web to find out what is going on is a serious ... a b c Does this paragraph concentrate on an advantage or a disadvantage? Which ideas does this paragraph mention from the list in 3 on page 50? Underline the main advantage and disadvantage in the paragraph.. .... quite obvious.... to any nation exceeds all other benefits.. .. Advantage and disadvantage vocabulary 9 Nouns can be used to express advantage and disadvantage........ in business.. 2 ...... verbs and adjectives. ................. even if likewise for example though consequently and although The main drawback is.. Complete the paragraph with words from the box.

.................................... Where possible.... ... ......... the vast majority of electronic gadgets are very useful.............. a b c d e g International arts festivals encourage ..... nevertheless however despite although but a b c d e ..................... . Complete the following sentences in your own words......11 Decide whether each adjective in the box expresses advantage or disadvantage......................... listening to music on CDs is very pleasant............................. .... To enable children to value their heritage.................. ... they are expensive to look after............................. Despite being highly annoying................ add or remove a prefix or suffix to create the opposite.....6f1t6geeus beneficial useful worthless invaluable difficult helpful convenient Advantage: Disadvantage: 12 Write the opposite of each of the adjectives in 11.. To prevent countries falling out with each other.. 66. ancient buildings and temples are still inspiring places to visit............. ....... Documentaries are invaluable sources of knowledge . they need to be entertaining as well as informative.................................... ... Arts exhibitions show the public artefacts they would not normally see... Personal links can benefit .............................................. Lending artworks to other countries improves .. Ignorance of other people's traditions can handicap ....................... Sculptures can make gardens and public spaces attractive ... 1 2 a b Although the vast majority of electronic devices are very usefuL they are also highly annoying... ............................ at a price... 52 •••• .................. Which word introduces the concession in each case? Which sentence emphasizes the advantage? Which emphasizes the disadvantage? 15 Complete sentences a-e with words from the box. Concession (2) 14 Read sentences 1 and 2 and answer the questions a and b.......... the large numbers of tourists................... .. .......... ............ ........... Example advantageous 13 Verbs can also indicate advantages and disadvantages.......... ................. it is not as good as a live concert....................... ....... Films and concerts enhance ..............

listened to music over the previous month. Write at least 150 words.•••••••• ••••• • • • • • •• Practice Test 6 Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. What are the main advantages of doing so? What do you think is the main disadvantage of not doing so? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from you r own knowledge or experience. however briefly. and make comparisons where relevant. Write about the following topic: It is important for travellers and business people to understand the cultures they come into contact with. Live music Male Female 60 % 44 % MP3-players 79 % 40 % Internet 55 % 42 % CDs 19% 22 % Preference 4% EI Live • Recorded 0 Don't know Task 2 You should spend abou t 40 minutes on this task. UNIT 6 Culture • •••••••••• The table below shows how young people in Tokyo. The pie chart shows a record company's international findings about whether people preferred live or recorded music. Japan. Write at least 250 words . • • •• 53 . Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features.

81 % Summmi:e the information by'selecting and repOi1.9% ED average 1. The 'brain drain' of skilled workers like scientists and techni~ians to rich econon 1ie5 is morally wron g.82% 2 . I 1999 2000 - I o Govem m ent I • Bus in ess o Overseas 200 1 I . Proportion of national income allocated to R&D (1999) UK USA Germany 2.-s. Sources of funding for R&D in the UK . People should have greater freedoDI to work where Lhey want.4% Fran ce 2.1 % Japan 2. I I I I 60 10 20 30 40 50 The cha rt abOlJe shows sources of funding for researCH and devel'opmen t (R&D) in tile UKfronJ 1999 to 2001.ing tile ltIain featl/res.on below. The table below SllOWS tlte percentage of natio11al income spent on R&D for a range of collntries. or has it been around for a long time? Should somdhing be done about the situation or is it uns roppable ? 2 - Read the Task 1 questi.3 % Ital y 1.l·ll agree with? Is [his 'brain drain' a new phenomenon. Then answer questions a-e. and make compm7so11s where relevant. it's a I e. Answer questions a-c. Surely. a b c d e What general tr en d can you see in the chart? What general pattern can you see in the table? Which is clearly the main source of fundin g in [he bar chan? Which piece of data in the table can you Use as a standa rd for com parison? Which pieces of information in the table are signilicant? 54 •••• .75 % 1.UN I T Arts and sciences Unit aims T 1 ask Task 2 •••••• Discllssing other people's opinions Hypothesizing Adverbs Using adverbs to evaluate data Avoiding irrelevance •••••• Task 1 Adverbs 1 Read these conflicting views about scientists moving to rich countries. a b c Which vie ws do y t.mal m atter.

vef'j slightll i\ppro~imatel~ half of all inve5tment throughout the perioa 4 ... ...h and development (\Z-W) in the UK .... Govern ment investment rose significantly/ ftigftIy..... was came overtook stmws was spent is shown Modeftext "The. .d from eun soura· .e....M) b'j LOuntf'j 1...ars it t.. around seventeen per c.. Choose (he most suitable adverb in sentences a-h..a"le. .e and bermanl 4 find examples of adverbs ending in -ly used in [he modeltexl..represented in science jobs....ent. ... proportion of national inc:ome spent 0tI j2.. Examples 5 Th e trend for other countries was completely/wd1 different. jht ............ b'j rapan.... the....' 7 erratically 55 . It is abo notic:eable that in IqqS ana Iqqq over5e... in the table. Th e company's sales are slightly/much behind its competitors...... \~n i\e the....5s.entage (1-8 per a .. at around seventeen per c. regard...... Sales were marginally/deeply up OD the pre vious quarter... ..ni. 6 Match the adverbs a-g below with their opposites 1-7..... a .... It if> interef>ting to note that al1hough the Uk'5 spending on \2....on'!>iderab\'j be... .. information about the main 50Un. f>ignific:antl'j be-low the f. ....s the proportion of national inc.vcID I rapidly b marginally 2 slightly 3 exactly c approximately d constantly 4 badly e slowl y 5 considerably f significantly 6 pa rtially g completely .1he... highef>t perc..~ ~q~~.. above the f.nt) 1 ... Investment in the arts rose quite considerably/slightly/seriously. B'j contrast l"tal'{ ~ ..•.nt)....ntl'j ? . from busine... ... Workers in highly/lowly/considerably paid jobs are generally healthier.... gove-mment spending in this area. ..... . c:narl I .. ii if> c. on\'j1.U average of 1$1 per cent N... ..... fo\\owd c:\05e\'j b'j the U 'Sf(2.hind othe.U average in IqqS.r dose trading partners Franc.. But for the last two 'je. government wnsiste.... S!ightly/Approximately/Welll1aJf the spending was from the private sector.es of funding fo r uientific: re5earc..• 3 rose contributed (x 2) • U NIT 7 Arts ani! scil!llces Complete (he modellexl below with verbs from the b ox ..'5 per·Le. The income for the arts centre was substantially/much/highly down on the previou s year..... Women h ave b een consistently /deeply u nder. UK wa'!> wmparab\e.af> '!>pending on ~ in the. ..ome a\\oc.l per c:ent.. ihc sma\\uit amoLint of national inc:ome to ~.&D 1 ... ..ated to \2-&0....... a b c d e g h The government's spending for the past year was significan tly /weli higher than before... .. to the government' 5..amount of funding al\oc.cn Betwe Iqqg and 1-001.

....... .. slightly... It ............... ... Which ph rases arc:: us ed to ' introduce sentences in stead of noticeably and illteresting /v? Rewrite each sentence a-b using an adverb or starting with It................cal staff in h ospita ls is falling............... (signifi cantly) Th e number of techni................................... Example 8 Clearly. Describe the table..... ..........................................'.. (in teres tingly) Sales of n ew televisio ns soared before th e World Cup ....... It is probabl e tha t numbers will continue to fall over th e period.......... " ............ a It is significan r tbat the numbe r of scie ntists pe r head of population has de clined in recen t y ars ..... It is clear that the tren d is upward.....1 in 3 on page 55 ........ .... • e • .............. 11 Write your own sentences about the data in 2 on page 54..... ....... inveSlment n eeds to be increased.. ..... the trend is upward........... and interestingly... . and slowly . ...... the trend was downward....... the sales faile d to recover......... ...... b c d e Evidently....... evidently.... The tren d w as clearly downward. ........ It . ..... u ing marginally......Using adverbs to evaluate data 7 Look again at [he model te x........ . g It .... (evidently ) The cost of training scien tists is increasing year by year... .. ... a The number o f science graduates fell.... 9 DifferCIH adverbs can be put in different pillces i................... h Not surprisingly. It is not su rprising that there were skills sbortages in the chemical industry.... 56 • • • • • .. Which sentences a-d are possible? a b c d Considerab ly...............n sentences...... Clearly....... .......... apprpximately.. Some can b e used in morc than one place................ ... (noticeably) Investment in cap:ital equipment like specialist machinery is down on last yea r........................... . the patte rn for mv lInen! in the art is the revers .. Noticeably. ...... ... .... analogu e TV sales then fell........ Sales fell considerably... using considerably........ . (not surprisingly) The trend is n ow upw ard. (obviously) b c d Technique Use at least one • adverb or adverbial • phrase to help you evaluate the data .............. .. Ime re tingly..... ......... It ..... ... Ihe cost f plasma scre ns is set to fall. . a b Describe the bar cha rt................................... ......... ...... ..... sales fell........................... noticeably.... It ....... ................ .............. ...... ........ 10 Put th e adverb in bracke ts in [he correct place in Ih e senc ence.. ............. More importantly........ ......

a The subje ct which was ra ted as difficult by the highest percentage of students (70 per cem ) was mathematics. The Y axis shows th e percentages.vere seen as easy. or unnecessary speculation. which shows how students on all courses at an Australian university vkwed difft:r~'nt subjects on a scale of easy to difficult. Answer question s a-f. the subject which was most often judged as easy was d1emistry. b c d e f 14 Describe the chart in 12 in your mvn words . Irrelevant statements may contain an unnecessary op inion. Oriemallanguages w ere ranked as easy by only abOll t 20 per cent.e chart shows tbe opinions of Australian students on whether different h subjects \v ere easy or difficult . Avoid writing lists of detail 13 Decide whether the statements a-f are relevant or irrelevant and explain why. Technique D not speculate o when you describe data unless you are asked to. too much data. Airican languages . •• 57 . which is somewhat surprising when YO ll consider the range of languages in Africa .• Avoiding irrelevance UNIT 7 Arts and deuces 12 Look at the chart below. and the bars contain the numbers about tbe legend at the bottom .. T. ma inly because I think it is complex for many students. 100% 80% 20 60% 30 60 40% 25 20 60 G Easy o Moderately difficult • Difficul t 20% 010 25 30 2Q ~ 0% Languages Chemistry Physics Maths languages languages Art a b c d Whose opinions does the chan show? How many subjects does the chart show? Which subject was rated as 'diffi cult' by the highest percentage of tudents? Which other subjeCTSwere judged 'difficult' or ' moderately diffi cult' by a large number (over 70 per cent) of students? Which subject was rate d as 'easy' by the highest percentage of students? e f Is there a clear correspondence between the type of subject and whether it was rated as easy or difficult? Give examples to show why/why not. By contrast.

.. Nlan y people feel stron gly th at arts projects like exhibitions of photography. a b c So supporte.. commercial organizations. . ... sculpture......... 2 . . .. 4 Which phrases are used in (he p aragrap h in 3 to ind icate som eone else's opinion? 58 . requires a lot of money....... 3 ... Leo nard o da Vinci Albert Einstein Si r Isaac Newton Ni co laus Copernicus a b c Are the people in the list famous in your ountry? W hat do you know a out th em if they are? What benefit do artists and scientists bring to society? Do art ist an d scientists in your society h ave a high or low status? Sh ou ld scientists and artists be gove med by the same ru les as we are? Why do you thi nk 507 'S U OIl d e 2 Read the Task 2 ques[iOD b(>Jo\'V and say which p art of th e qu a b c people's opinions abOllt the arts? people's opinions abou t sciences? your opinion? rd a[es [0: Some people belie ve tlla t tile a rts should receive ubsidies or spoJ/SorslIip f rom governmellt l. however. can take plays to provincial If thi s were done more by the government and simply because they are new and show a different way of doing things.Task 2 Discussing other p e ople's opinions 1 Complet the list below with a famous artist and scientist from our coumry. . .11l d big companies. ... areas that don't have their own facilities. .. . 3 Complete the paragrap h w ith senten ces a-c.... for example.. This..... . . Discuss both views arid give your own opin ion.. They argue that such projects enrich people's lives.. or paintings hou ld be h elped financially by gov rnment and big companies. 1 .. then the arts could be brought to a wider public. ' .. . often National companies.rs of art groups feel that the ompany's tra I and accommodation costs ough t {Q receive m ore sub idies or sp on o rsh ip .. Oth ers f eel suell speud il1g is a [uxu ry a nd tha t it w ou ld be better if it were invested il1 scientific project... . .. Touring th ea rre groups or dan e companies are a case in poin t.

g Many sdentific e"X. 8 6 It is often useful to suggest [hat an opinion bel ongs to som eone else . Example They argue that su ch groups help to develop talent and bring people together. Read the example and phrases in the lists below. for example. Th en join yo ur ans \· ers to 5 with similar phrases.lt such groups help to develop lalent and bring people together. Modern econ om ies cannot ad ance without a strong scientific base . It ha an effect on everything we 0 from eating to travelling. The work of scientists should Dot h be tightly regulated by socie ty. The wealth of a na tion is connected with sdeutific development. 6 By limiting scientific work. It/They • • 59 . e Scientists should have some involvement with artists. Science is n ow playing a m ore important role in our liv es than in the past. 2 3 Bringin g these tw o groups together would be be ner for sodety as a whole. For example.UNIT 7 A rls ami sLien ces 5 Match the statements a-h w ith the bes t explanation s l-8. For instance. Example Some people thin k th al amateu r arts groups should be encouraged...-perimenrs are dangerous to society. Example: a4 a b c d Amateur arts groups should be en couraged . It is argued by some people that Yet others believe that Many people think that A commonly held belief is that Some people feel that They claim that They feel that They mainta in that They argue that 7 Use the expressions in the box below to develop the e xplanations in 5. A very good example here is A case in point is ' " . 7 There are many examples wh ere serio us mistakes have been made . and vice versa . Spending time alone in laboratories without much human contact is not very interesting . 4 5 Such groups help to develop talent and bring p eople together Certain works of a rt tha t are produced are offensive and should be banned . A good example here is wh ere a young artist joins a local group and progresses on to TV work. we might stop certain beneficial devel opments. Science is dull and boring . rhey argile Ih.which Take . The work of artists shou ld be censored.

A n ati................ ........... providing........ I would argue that science need not be However......... as it wouLd give pupils a raster...... they will disappear......... ... because n ot all pupils are good at such subjects and any compulsion migl:t discourage them........................ a b c d e Personally...... Then rewrite sentences a-d using the word given .....................on should n urture the talents of its people .. ........... If a nation nurtures the talents of its people.......ow n ideas...... Read the example ...... Above all..........Hyp othesizing 8 Match th e semence ha lv s a-e w it h th e en d ings 1-5....... .......... ................................................................... and might? Which sentence ask lhe reader to imagin e a situation and iIS consequence? Technique Use linking phrases like if and unless in answer to Task 2 questions In order to hypothesize about 10 The linkin g phrases if.......... ? c If there is no effort to keep traditional crafts alive..... .............. Unless . and II It less can all b e used to h ypothesize ................ Why has the writer cho sen 10 use word such as wOllld.. 11 Complete the following senten ces using yow. Providing young scientists are given the right opportunities.......... 601 •• • • ...................... Providing ........ but will this benefi t m ankind? If ... a Without being encouraged by parents and teachers...... it could possibly be a requirement for the first two or three year ..... Unless . b Science may one day stop tbe ageing process in humans...... Unless ntrance to museums and an gaLLeries is free..................... ccJuld.... like m aking basic chem ical com poun ds or colleering plants ................ many n ew jobs will be crea ted ................. During this time. a b c d Provided parents have an interest in music... I think it is better fOT science classes to be optional thi s might motivate some children to take up a science subject..... budding m u sicians will not develop.......... 3 4 5 9 The sentence s in 8 form a p aragraph..... 2 obligatory at this level..... If government support for arts projects is not available.... ... provided.... children can do exciting experiments........... ....... Example effects.................. If trips to places of sciemiiic interest are also arranged...... It will then reap many benefits. d If innovation is encouraged. it will reap ~wlly bellefits ............... ..........

. Write at least 250 words. al1d theatre tickets online over rIte fit-st three J/lOlltlis of 2006 ilt th ree cOlin tries and how tile In tern et was accessed.. but it could be /JIore usefttlly applied.! show how selected flge g ro ups p uc1Ulsed concert cinema.earcJ11ws brou. Tile charts belo\. do yOIl 11gree? Give reasons for your answer and i/1clude any relevant examples from your OW1/ experience. L I 60 50 Most li kely t o buy theat re/co ncert/ci nema tickets on li ne I 025-4 65+ Most common m eans of access to buy tickets 4 70 1 60 o Australia _U K 50 o MalaysIa 40 % 30 .ght enormous bel1efits to mankind..• UNIT 7 Arts and d eflcc:. knowledg~ or 611 . SWllllwrize the illformation by selecting and reporting the maillfcatures. Write at least 150 words. Write about the following tupie: The money spel1t on space re. How fa. and make comparisons where relevant.'. • ••••• Pr actlce Test 7 •• • •• Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. 40 % 30 20 20 10 0 Australia 10 UK Malaysia 0 Desktop computer Laptop Mobile phone Task 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

to increase to 500 million in 2025 . Th en answer questions ....Technique ..... increase to 500 million • ............ b It is ....... predictioll or predicted........ .... 62 • • • • •......... d The num ber is . ... • • • • Before you start • writing make a list of 'predict' verbs to use as trigger ~ words.. a b c d What aspect of the future do the photos relate to? What en vironm ental developments do yo u think wlll h appen in your country in the near fut ure? What other developments are h appening in your country which are not happening elsewhere in the world? What will your c untry be like in ten years' time? in 25 years' tjme~) 2 Look at the bar chart and description below .... c • • The ............... increase in the future.... Complete sentences a-d with tb e w ords will...... ........ ..c Tlu bar cllm1 SIIOII'S the prt!dictcd nllmber of bll ildiJlgs that will be powered by so/ar and willd energy in the flllll reo 2025 2020 2015 ~ !CJ Solar enegy I_ Wind power I o 100 200 300 mil lions 400 500 600 a W ha t does the chart sh ow ? b c What do the n umbers relate to? Wha t is the range of the numbers along the bo ttom of the d 1arr? 3 The structure will + infiniti ve or a range of prediction verbs are used to talk about future stati stics. Task 2 Articles Writing conclusions •••••••••••• Task 1 Making predictions Answer questions a-d..... . . in crease . is that the n umber of building powered by solar energy .... (hal the number of solar-powered buildings ....... _... ...... .. a The n umber of solar-p owered buildings ...•••••• Nature Unit aims T 1 ask Makrng predictions F actual accuracy .... _ ---~""'""!--- in 2025 ....

.. a b c d It ........ By 202 0.............. By 2025... b c d e • • 63 ........... 500 million buildings will have converted to solar power.. (become) extinct.. (anticipate) that solar energy and wind power each ........... . solar energy ...... 500 milHon bnildings will be using solar power............. In 20 ) 5............ In years to come..... (provide) approximately the same amo unt of energy........ .......... it i expecte d that 30 million buildings ........... a • UNIT 8 Nature Which of these words could replace the w ord prediction? projection h assumption forecast antic ipation Which of t h ese words coul d replace the word predided? projected anticipated fo recast said c which other words do you know [0 replace predidion and predicted? 5 Complete sentences a-h with the correct forms of the verbs j n brackets.................... solar energy ...... (sell )... (destroy)...... win d power ........ Use will + infinitive................. (expect) to receive e g h energy from wind power... In 201 5.. will have + past participle...... (be) a less ... much more energy to power buildings ........ (proj ect ) that wind power .............................................. (provide ) en ergy for 500 million buildings worldwide.... .. " ... (will be + ·il1!1 form) 7 Complete sentences a-e with the correct form of the verbs in b rackets.. abou t 25 million buildings ......... (not expect) to be as great a source of power as solar energy....... 6 Which of the sentences below describes something which will bappen before a futUre Time? Which describes something in progress aL a time in th e future? a By 2025........•••• 4 Answer these questions ............ In the future..... it is anticipated tha t many narura! habitats .... it is predicted that many animals ..... (come) from solar energy compared to wind power.............. it ........... m ore bicycles ..... (predict) that in 202 5. it .... a By 2020... In 2025. In2 0IO..................... You may also need to use the passive.......... v ery fe w people ..:tbout the StntL"nC\:s in 3.......... or will be + -ing form ..........................im portan t source of energy than solar energy" Solar energy ........ In the futu re. .. (live) in the countryside.............. (will have + past participle) bIn/By 202 5........ (set) to assume greater importance as a source of energy in the future............... (use) wind power..... By the year 20 15................. (forecast ) to be a much greater source of energy than wind power..............

onc:..2 % 1."3 per c.tli in line \'lith the worldWide average.c.tive-l.2 Irelil~ Th~a~d Hu'ng:!ry T asmania-' 0 2015 o i_ 2006 a b Which chart p rovides more general information? Which c11art can be used for the conclusion? In general.onc.r (. It iD antic.('. It alf>o w noting tl1at the refore-fltation orth rate in Thailand if> antic.d for planting more treef> (wnc..\of>el'j b~ -raDrna nia.2 0 r02025 1 0. for both 2(11) and 2021).ac:.ted rate throughout the pe.8 1. 6 0.1 .e. beneralli.nt)..ople who art~ not wnc. Hungal'(. Forecast for wo rldwi de reforestatio n ra te 1.tation rate in the fou r region5 ill w growuntil UY3'5.lowtne international ill rateD. proportion of pe.e.r (. the. ..em for tre.ipated tl1at the figure lIlill £..4 . !-\ur1gal'( w be. w at the 5ame time there is hile..limb from os pe..nt.( factual errors in the text below.nt .a5tf> for the.factual accuracy 8 1. whiie both Ireland and -raDmania wi\1 ey.erned' "3'f per c:. c. - 1..an be.6 1.ern about the nee. a 5i1..eable. 1. ent. Then ansvveT questions .ontra5t. annual de. 4 Look at the charts. and 'not vef'j c.r c.forestation rate. !he c..ul5t for bath regions for 20lS iDtl1e f>ame at 1.8 0./.6 0.f. It is prQjuted that Ire-lana \1ill have..11 pe. in f>eluted regions and worldwide together with the wrrent attitude towardf> c.4 1- !-- 0.f--I-!-!-!-- 1.4 % 1. greate-~t overall inGrease-...1-f.ent in WI? to 0. f>een that there if> some obvious wnc:.tJleanwhi\e. it fore.s. though at vClf'-l ing rate.c:..erned. The. 64 • • • • • .'5 per Gent. ent re5pec:.erned' 2'5 per c.. \'litl1 tl1e 10\'leDl projec:.e. the highef>t rate in 202'5 at IS per c:.eed them .a5t that the refore.0 0. f rom the pie c.e.ent and then riDe.ipate-a to be ey.8 0.nc:. and 1.hartf> show fOrec... \'l ill e. is the reforestation projected to increase or decrease? c d Wh ich region is prOjected to have the highest rate") For which region does the chart show the greatest difference between 2006 and 2025 ? e Wh ich chart C Ontains information which could be used for a conclusion? In ge neraL are most people concerned about reforesta tion or n ot? 9 Find and COlTed SL".0 per c:.more f>harpl'j to 1.0 0.2 .rioa.-- Forecast for reforestion rate in selected areas of t he w orld Cu rrent interest in reforestation - IJI"" .~pe.---.hart.fore.ent followed c. be.1 pe.r- ..r ie. b-t c:. 10f>5.

Regions Scotland Nonhern Ireland Wales North of England Central England Southern England (exc. It predicted that the use of solar energy will become more important. c d e The chart shows the different types o f trees are found in different regions. Add the missing w ords in the correct places . We see from the chart that largest amount of money wa spent on lhe warer conservation project. vvh ich describes in thousands the estimated and actua l num b ers o f ho uses b uilt in the UK by region in 20 02.000 5.500 2. Read the table. From the pie chan.200 Estimate d 3.800 a b c d e f What infonnation does the table give? Ho w many region of the l JT< is it divided into? Usually.900 9.v hich region was the lowest number of houses built? Which region is an exception to t.100 5UOO 24. a n u mber of campaigns have encouraged people plant trees. 500 47. Answer que lions a-h to iden tify the conecl facts .he general trend? What were the figures for this region? 13 Using the facts identified in your an 'weTS to tb e que lion s abov e .800 77. It is dear tha t m ajority of p eople are very concerned about climate ch ange ..300 8.000 6. a b UN IT 8 a/llri! lOIn each of sentences a-f (here is a word mis sing. and make compar isons where relev an t. summarize the tab le b y selecting and reporting the m ain fea n u e s. Wri te at le ast 150 words.500 16. • 65 . . Add th m is ing w rd . Recently. London) London Actu a l 3. Tbere is a missing word in each of tbe last three p aragraphs.200 2. was the estimated Dumber abo ve or below the actual n um ber? In which three regions were the highest numbers of houses built? How did th e figures for these regions compare with the estima tes? Which region had a disparity of just over four thousand between lhe estimate and the actual figure? What were the figure s for thi' region? Which other two regions followed the usual trend? W hat were the figures for these two regions'?' [n g h \. can be seen that hydroelectric power constitutes seven per cent of the world energy demand . 11 12 Look agai n at the text in 9.300 13.

.. l1owever.r\:. able to return to rive...... I thinK tha1 'I}.. nature is important for all of us.. Examples recydilig:' article) The plastic bottles that I threw out yesterday have been taken away for Plastic bottles are now being made of .... diffiwli to per&uade mani of them to c:. and. liKe 5V1imming ana fi'bhing... 66 ...oun1ries would help...... ..ir uonomie5 ana 'bO it Vlould b\'...........• . \~ ould b\'... 3 AJ'e the words in the lis! below coulltJ.. books and on th e Intern et... .... Trees belp to protect .... or no anicle [0 sentences a-h.erman~ . .......her c.... wild than in captivity........r would then be de~tro~ed.. . energy can be generated from bio-fuels .. Are the answers countab Ie or uncoun tabl e? Add a/an. biodegradable material ' _ (n o a b ( d e g h .... Looking after . ..... . and G. nud.. high percentage 0 ..ble or uncountable? animal knowledge information nature research weather climate accommodation tree idea situa tion fact 4 5 Look again a( [he paragraph in 2. . ....... be able to use them for v........... ........ Complete th gaps vdth th e nouns in the box ..... .... "" ... rubbish.. a& ha& been done in ma n~ old indu~tria\ areas in Voland.....~P.. solution to the problem is to fine people for dropping ........ It is better to see animals in . knowledge about th e environment can be foun d in ... from ric.s to be taKen an perhaps financ..........ies.. ... aVla~ from rive..........on5iderable...... 1........r5 and. of Vlater pollution i~ to locate all 1.... The fir st on e has been done for you..................hange their pOlic.. 1hi'b Vloula mean that ~...... 1..... factories pollutants action fish wildlife incentives pressure pmblern leisure Pj fa r tne best wa~ to Mlve tne..... the........ i\\ I the ~..... .. ...... " . laKe~ and to in&tall wa~te treatment center'b..... soil by conserving wa t r Newspapers n ow use ... and people would....!~r!:1............ in tne wat\'.......... re yel d paper.Task 2 Articles Answer ques\jons a-d... .... ............ ... 5............. ... There i5 c. . on mani poor countrie& to ckvdop tne...... ...P....... .............ial 1............. a b What are the most serious threa ts that the natural world is facing in the ~enty-firstcentury ? c d Wha t is th e most serious threae to the envi ronment in your counery? Wha t action is being taken? What Cunher steps do you think could be ta ken? 2 The paragraph below has been taken Crom an essay on measures 10 reduce river p ollution thro ughout the w orld......... n ew plastic containers which 1 bought last week are not harmful for the environm en t as th ey are biodegradable .... ..........

c If this type of eco-friendly business is encouraged.qree or disagree? a This means that in the short term we will just have prices for flights and Ira veUing less. but we do not kn ow how long tbey will take to develop . COncllllS i oilS 7 Read the two Task 2 queSl tOns . there are many examples of local busine ses whi ch depend on and support the local environment. Writ ing.)' become'S l"ichet : the natural ell d rMll11en t lI'ill slljTn: It is /"lot possible for a cOtm tly to both develop its economy and proteL"( the envil'omnent. What measures could be taken to l'edtlcc this sou r C of e climate change? 2 Wilen a COUllt. 10 accept paying higher b In conclusion. Then decide which q u estion each sentence a. The fadlities like dams and forests are also used for leisure. Write 1 or 2 next to each sentence. g However. II • 67 . then there is no reason w h y a healthy economy and a healthy environment cannot exist together. Example Animals like ch impanzees and apes should not be used for the ex-periments. The bot tles wo uld then not be thr own away. th e introduction of such technology also creates the problem. th ere is one mistake relating to artjcles. a Wave power tech nology is th e best answer to the problem of poll ution.g relates 10. e Insects like the bees. 1 Pol/Lltioll from aircraft is one of tlie main factors responsible for global wm'm i 1f!I. We can cenainly investigate "lIays of making aixcrah technology cleaner.• 6 UNIT 8 Nallln In each text a-f. bouses will be more energy-efficient than they are now. Con eer the mistakes by add ing or deleting a ·w ord. A measure like tbis w ould make people think more about nature . How ever. fo r example. b Governments worldwide should tax the cars m ore . It is tru e that some b usinesses move into new areas with no regard for thei r effect on the environment. To what extent do you a. I do nOI agree [hat d evelop ing a country's e onomy has to involve destroying the n atural world. e d In near futu re. The bee pollinates plants and flo wers. Food industry co u ld pay for recycl ed bottles a Iv as done in the past. d e All in all I feel that imposing higher taxes on airlines is unavoidable . playa vita l role in most ecosystems.

There is /10 reason why a healthy econ omy and a h ealthy environ men t cann ot exist toget h er.8 A con clusion n eeds to state your opinion or your most important idea. follow ing the framework s h d ow. phrases in the sentences in 7. 6a • • • • • . T h e sentences in 7 on page 67 form concluding p aragraphs to th e e~ am ques tion . One way to avoid this is to talk a boUt poss ibilit ie u ing the phrase There is /10 reaslJ!I WilY + neg. to sum up I believe of cou rse I would argue that in gene ral 10 Your conclusion must be dear but you need to avoid m aking claims tha t sound roo strong. Read the exampl . For each one. Example A healthy eco nomy and a healthy environment can exist together.1ti\' e. ch oose two alternatives with a similar m eanin g from the box below. Reaso n agains t th e opposite view: Restatement of opinion: 9 Look at {he underlined. People could travel by fast train instead of taking short flights . Wr it e out th e two paragraphs with the sentences in the best order. and remin d (h e reade r of how you argued in fa vour of it. Question I Statement of most important measure : Another possible me asure and wh y it is Jess e ffective: Restatement of most important measure and its consequences : Question 2 Statement of opinion : Reference to the opposite vie "': Technique Always write a conclusion to your answer Avoid repeating words in your conclusion. c d Governments should give special financial support to eeo-friendly busine s people. Then change sentences a-d in a similar way. a Local eeo-friendly businesses can be successful. b People could take more holid ays a t home instead of always flying abroad.

SI. Year 1 West Africa Central America Sout h -east Asia Year 2 Year3 2. and make cOlllparisMls where relevant. Write alleast 250 words. 69 .5 million 20 rrul1ion 30 million 12 millio n 20 million Projected expenditure in Year 1 • • Set-up costs Salaries Training Office expenses o o Task 2 You should spend about 40 minuu~s on this task Write about the following topic: More and more city W01*ers are deciding to live il1 the country and travel into work every day.ypected e.UNIT 8 Na/llre •• •••Practice Test 8 • Task 1 •••• You should spend about 20 minutes on this task./JlllIlI1ri:e the injormution by se!utiJlfj and reporting the JTuli ll fi?alllreS.5 million 5 million 50 million Year 5 3.ver and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.5 million 7.tiol1 for the first year as the projects m-e set LIp.e brea kdou'Jl aJ/ocll. What measures do you thil1k could be taken to enco urage people not to travel such long distllJlces ilfto \i'Ll7'k ? Give reasons for your ansl'. The pie chal1 sh ows the e.i'peilditur. TIre rest/It is increased traffic cong.5 million 5 million 40 million Year 4 2.5 million 5 million 50 million 10. Write at least 150 words.estion and damage to fIle 1!!1\'irOJlJIICJIt. The table below silo II'S tile projected costillgs OVe/' tl1e next five years in American dollars for tJu'el! ClIVil'OlImental projects Jor SItS/ainable forestry.

a b c What are the m.• • • . a b What general statemen t can you mak about th e whole graph? Look a t the deSCription and the graph itself. What general statement can you make about the French hospital? What general statement can you make about the Ukrainian hospital? How can you link the pie charts to the graph? How could yo u use th ese words to describe the graph. c d e trend except that upward similar pattern reach a peak saw a continuous rise change coincide 70 • . what do you do? nsu it Are medicines fre e or do you hav e to pay for tb em ? What effect has tech nology had on medical care in your country'? d 2 Read the Task 1 question on page 71.U N IT Health Unit aims Task 1 Varying vocabulary Checking spelling •••••• T 2 ask O rganizing words Verb-subject agreement Tasl< 1 Varying vocabulary 1 Answer these questions about hospitals and h alrh care.li ll p::i"ri( ics of he alth care in yo ur counlry? How is health Gl rc delivered in your home coun try? If YO ll wan t to a doctor. Then arlswer questi ons a-e below.

3 Complete the text with words frou t th e box.. beds in 2.. ..... (1(. ...nt c.patient c-are (?? pe... mid make comparisDns whe r e relevant. .line in bed use after 2. .are...... . o 2003 2004 2005 2006 Fu nds allocated to in-patient care 2002 Othe r cost...d use c. before (... ..• • UNIT 9 rIealtlr The cllarts below show the average bed use i/1 three rypiml hospitals illtf l'J1lItiolla/ly and ........ had ow reac...... average be...... ... . 1he Chinese hospital...... A..}d an"l. perioa from 40 be.. and 2. 11 ... similar pattern w repe.. in be....003 bed 4 . see.. The first ~ i:lp ha. •• • 71 .•• . 65% In-patient 35% Fu nds allocated to in-patient care 2006 Other costs 73% In-patien t 27% StwllJltl r .. .. we..00(.. e"1-(...ept that the du..ate.. 1999 -.. .ompared to 2..•..cis to 4("..00v). It is II .tivel'j...... .....lil/ res.. . . l1o\'lever. a c............oinc...• •. figures sho\~ an upwara ? .. been do n for you.... frene-h hospital... eae-h iear in three similar hospitals before ana after the introaudion of da'j-c.. over the.c. peak marked impact clear fallin g reduction oeeu paney trend sign ifieantly ris e det-&i+s experi enced Mode l text The graph proviaes I ... A....ontinua\ 'i . that the fall in be...lie prop01'til1n of 1111spital b lldgets a/ll)JCl"lted to i/'l-pati"~1t care before and after day-surgery was introc/llced in 2003..00(... D a'j-e-are surgef'j seems to have h..iaes wi th the 11 .. the..hed a ~ ....spe..{ear". ... slower than in previous . of just under 10 beds. average budget at the three hospitals for in ....fze O.~ --.•...omparison..00"3 as against 11 in 2..ase \'las I •.. ~ . bac.ds in use..2006 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 -----1997 -1998 .....d use behJeen \Q'l1 and 2.~!!~. K ever..00"3 WaS not so 1 ..r a . b'f c. that after 2. in the... .002.. Av erage bed use for the years 1997.......... s ....0.......1 per e-ent) between 2.. about the.. .004 the rate of ine-re.lIla q"3 re.... ..k. .. 2000 2001 2002 ....e il1fonndtiorJ by seli?ctill9 and reportil1g t/H~ JIIllill fe... in 2...t the...ci for the UKrainian as hospital... wryer'! . on bed use in all three hospitals.......

(designl trmdlmovellleJ/ (} The Chinese hospital. Number the notes in the correct order.. (had all effect on/ had an affect on/ affected) Bed use reached a peak of just under 7 0 beds . (reached its highest point/reached a height/hit a peak) A similar pattern was se n in th Ukra inian h ospita l. You \'vill no'! use aliI th e words . (by contrast/oil the other hand/alternatively) The numbe r of beds ro e from 40 to ar und 45 . a b c d e g h General introdu ctory statement .. . De le te the option which is nOI correct. (call be seen in/ can b viewed in/can be detected in) 6 The descripti ons below sUmnlarize the sentenc Slr uctW'e of th e model in 3. 72 • • • • • . The first and last have been done for you. Gene ral statem ent about the line graph. continued to see a rise . effect use tendency cut considerably low evident increase decrease drop pi ng information result saw high point sharp dramatically 5 For each sentence a-h.. (approximatelY/l1bolltltoll'ards) g h There was a reduction in the budget ( 35 per cent compared (027 per cent).. .. then specifi c data . there are three alternative phrases to replace the phrase in italics .. (gives/says/shows) The introduction of day-care surgery had an impact on bed use.. based on the sentences in th mode\. Gen eral conclusion based on pie charts. by compa rison. Spe ific statement qualifying the trend.Technique Use a variety of alternative expressions when writing your answer to avoid repetition. General statement of contrasting trend. without detail. a b c d e The graph provides details about bed use. 4 Look again at the words in the gaps in 3 on page 72 and choose an alternative [or eadl one fTom the box . J?. then specific data . Ge n · ral statement of first m ain trend. then specific dat a. . General statement abom a reinforcing trend.. with detail. SpeciHc statem ent qualifying the trend. (as opposed tolas against/colltrast with ) The change in bed use is reflected in the budget..

What spelling rules explain the misspelt words? Compare your ideas with tbe key on page llO. a b therdore believe stay. The percemage increased sharply and reached a pick in 2003 . Ai' l regard mOlorLid uc. bIn-pa tient CZl re [Oak up 25 per cent of the funds.000. and th e n flactua ted around 500 for the following decade.ms seen at a local hospital.ll Over the.r of rOad traffiL 3Lic\r. ng i usefllil personaly efficient unfortunately comfortable chaise prefe rred opposite achieve stayed helpful practical sufIicent improvement diffrent price commitled bcfor recieve studing hopefuUy usually ancient definitly temper ture increLl se rdered limit bri ef studied carefully c d e f g n ormal deficie nt m anagem ent interested advice h appened h 8 9 Look again at your answers in 7.000 over the p eriod.{ per cem on the previous ye a r. tnen '1135 a notiLeap\e improvme. Patient numbers rose steadily for the first ten years.iod.nt5.a1i petloJe-t. wieh wa s an increas e of SL. nf·~t five ieaf5.. Mos[ people in the servey thought that more money should be spent on the health service. tnnd is upward. circle the one which is spell incorrectly and correct it.ar 2. it is dear the. later pe. risi"s from a tob'l of '5'3 to Il£> respedive. with more oLLuring in thi:> . 000 to 49 . 3nd tne ie. Find and correct the spelling mistakes in the following sentences. Find the eight mistakes that he made . noV/eve. g The required number of beds exeeded what was anticipa1ed for rha I year. at~' 90!"{ in the.a dil\~ to a new low point of?J in 200~ .ide.nt <15 number:> fell ste. a The numbers declined gradualy and stood at JUS! rwen ry in 2006.nts from G2r~ mLrea""ed dramati(.r.•• Checking spelling • U N 'T 9 He(llth 7 In each group of fOUT words. ••• 73 . n 10 Read the following extract written by an IELTS student on the number of traffic accident victi. me averag numbe. One of the semences has two spelling mistakes. The figres rose from approximatly 4 5. Some of the spellings d ep e nd on simp le rules. c d e A number of significant changes oecured in the following t venty years.n Iqqr.r.

hic...... laKe..ut Ihe idea ma~ seem pec...d and have led to animals being ll~ed ~ freqUtnilylseldomlots to wpp\e..1 available for re$~. Our progra mme to introdu ce new equ ip ment u cceede d in redu cing waiting lists.. if taken .. but even with [his widespread .. c.. " .. but the .......DIlVl:-lltiollal mMic.. . but the improvement .... ard1 Into ho\'~ animalf> c..examples .. partnership..effects .... This. 10 {5l1idtntlc.. DOg5 have· al50 bew used to deted Lanc.Task 2 Organizjng words 1 Which of the following do you (hink are m ost imponam for good health? Rank them .... Are there any ot her lifest yle factors w h ich are n ot included in (he list? taking regular exercise carefui'ly monitoring your diet having a wide rang e of int@rests having a wid@ netw(i)rk of frie nds living in the countryside sleeping at least seven hours a n ig ht 2 Complete the paragraph by choosing (he best adverb in each case.... of modernization.fylhardly ~t1Ovm for their bealing qualitle.. 10 the current crisis ... It is often suggested that national health systems shou ld be modernized. that can be easily tackled.. but ...: ~ Jrt' llsed to emp b asize eacb elemem of the p attern ? a b situation .ia\ effec. . e....... of do\phiI15..ondusion If> to maKe more mone.. More nurses need to be uained rather than doctors. on people.ntiallylgoodlylwell ru.... People are often awa re of the dangers of sm o ki ng. ve~ 'i de.. Obesity is on the rise in many countries and n ot just in the developed world ...... !he 1 normallyloutlandishlylstrangely benefi(. This ....... would save many lives..t that anima\~ have...el\<:. many people are opposed t o (he . ..amp\r.... idea information issue knowledg e m easure opinion problem scheme solution a b c d e g h The best way to improve public health is to provide people with all the facts .......ffed~ of this partiw\ar partnership are S importantiylrUJ li'yl we/l dowmente.....h 4 wildfy/Wide. needs to be made simple.. 74 ••• .kinglylunprtdidably there.......urately in patien15 and are (.$. is dear evidel1Le of the. However.i n order of imp ortance (1 = most imp ortan t.I surprisingly/shoc.. the.eplyl proje. e. Lack of health care is making the lives of many people misera Ie...ment c..eUects .. that deman ds immediate atte nti on .. I feeL is the best . w are... ye( it is a .s5ionallylac.examples .ogniz... ir'ltf"odua. .....er c. The governmen t should in vest more m oney in preven ting drug abuse ... ... Some people are againsl the involvement of private companies in health care.... It is now an ...Jearlyl Oddly.. 3 Which pattern does the paragrap b in 2 follow? which organizing \>\ur.....ill(:'..uliar to some people... oftenlrartlylhardly even taKen 3!"ound hMpita\ 'tJard5 to be...conel usion 4 Complete sentences a-I with an organizing word from the box.. the. lhe.an benefit humans... met with considerable resis lance .. is h eld by fewer people n owadays.......'$ ne<lltn and general well-being is now 1 tsf>t.... d to 1 seriously!17ugtly/deadly ill patient~. but this ....f. it is difficult to persuade them to stop ..... 6 = least important)..c...conclusion situat ion ..reaso ns ..

. c In the fut ure........ ..... .......... Th e situatioll. ..... ..-Tite? Which exa mples can I use to justify my ideas in each paragraph? b c • • 75 ..................... Ue (j~e organizing words in the box 10 trigger id eas. ... read the first sent ence.................. d The pace of ch ange within many national health systems is speeding up . . e Health care costs are now worrying plan ners thro ugh out the wo rld. ..... .." ..... This is a matter that ....... . N ot surprisingly.. . .. ........... this m ay be a probbn.............. . d......... " . .. ............ ... ........ . . ...... ..... .......... . .. h ealth care will be much cheaper and for everyone .... are emphasis should be put on preventive medicine......... .... ........... ..... To plan your answer...... ....... ...." ........ g Acupuncture is becoming more and more popular around the world....... a k yours elf these questions.... Use the organizing words in it alics to help you ... .. .. . ...... .... This idea could ... ... .............. .. " ..... . a What paragraph organization can I use? WhicJl connecting words can I use to link the pattern I have chosen to "'................... . ....... ......... .. .... ..... Choose one of the topics a-c below.............. .... ........ ..· .. ............... .. ......... . This issl/e ... .. b Conventional and alt rn atjv e medicine can complement each other... ........ ...... a Som e p eople are concerned that increasing n umb r of old people will mean m ore sp ending on health care............................ .... .. ... ........ ...ercise and healt h conclusion effect idea information issue knowledg e matter measure opinion prediction problem scheme solution trend view ex a mp le c 7 Write your own paragraph based on your ideas in 6..... ... ................ ..... .... .. ..... h owever........ 6 Technique Ai m to use at least one organizing \/v'ord in each paragraph you write.... ....... " .. .................. .... .. ........U NIT 9 Healtlr 5 For each of a-b.. ........ [h en this can lead to other COS ts and p roblems ...... it is a tren d .. a b the connection berween m usic and health h ow alternative therapies can influence hea lth the conneClion between e>......... ... This predictiol1 ............... ........... ..... ..·" ··.... . like health education. ....... ... d ............ Make a list of id eas for the topic you have chusen....... .... ........ .............. Measllre like this ........... .. . Initially. then comp lete the follow-up sentence with your o wn ideas.................. but ...... ........................ ........ h If people live longer.... ... ....... . .

and so on ..........Verb-subject agreement 8 Comple te t he following sentences with is...... Some studies have been carried out which sb oY': that elderly people li ve longer if they live with a partner......... Ma ny doctors do not believe in homeopathic me didne... progress evidence informatio n w ork equ ipm ent advice research Technique Make sure you check that the subjects and the verbs In your sentences agree. turned to alternative therapies... these suggestions are not often followed. led to an increased number of elderly people in sodery.......... Predictions about how long a patient with cancer will live ... probably the onl way to stop the spread of obesity. often inaccurate ..... resulted in a stressed workforce and low morale amongst n urses. generally healthier and happier than those who have fewer contacts with other people... an d high in fibre. are... The reason why allergies are becoming more common ....... on the increase.. A ban on advenising all types of junk food ......... still not known . b c d Enormous advances have been made in understanding how disease sprea but the possibility of a worldwide pandemic is still with us..... even on cigarette packets. Many people enjoy keeping fit in the gym by using rowing machines.. However. The fact that people live longer nowadays .. Most doctors recommend a diet low in sugar and fat...... Instead.. How ever. replace the countable nouns in italics with an uncountabl e n oun [rom the box...... walking machines... ...... these tasks are carried out by health care assistant .. 9 In sentence a-g... The pressurized situation in many hospitals ..... M ake any other n eces ary changes in verb fo rms or p ronoun s. there are certainly some indications that it is more than just a placebo ... ... has. a Everyone is aware today of the bad effects of smoking on people's health ... Unfortunately.......... The e fadS are published all around us.... or have....... a b c d e f g h The number of people who are suffering fTOrn stress . these devices can be dangerous if they are not used properly.. An increasing number of patient seem to be dissatisfied wjth conventional medicine and .... e f g 76 ••• ........ Many nurs es nowadays do no r carry out basic care such as washing and feeding patients......... Elderly people who have a large family .

• UNIT 9 H. Write at least 150 words. an d m ake compan'soJis tII'll'ere relevant. Summarize the iflformatiol! by selecting and reporting the main features. The pie charts shaw the age profile of male and female members.- i--r- ---= ---= ---= I----r- '- 500 400 300 r- .- r-r- ~ .:allll •• •• The 9Taph belmi ' shbwS the average monthly use of a healt11 club jn Miam i.• • • Practice Test 9 Task 1 You should spend about 20 m inutes on this task.- ~ r- . Florida by all full-time members over last year. Wrile about the fo llov. Write at least 250 words _ • II 77 ./i1l8 topic: The numberoje/derly people in the world is increasiJlg.: lire the positive al1d l1egative effects of this trend? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from YOllr own know/edge or experience. Health club use over last year 900 800 700 600 .- '- r'--- 200 100 o J - F - '-- M A - '- '--- '-- M J J A s - o - '-- N o - 10 Female • Male I Female m em bership by age Male m em bersh ip by age Task2 You shou Id spend about 4 0 minutes on this task. What do you lliill/.

25 20 % 15 10 5 o a b c d e What does each chart refer to generally? Look at the captions . 5 = least important). The bar charts show the results of a Greek survey from two selected age 9roups in 2003 011 tile relative importance of five factors in choosing a career. SlIlJ/JllLlrize the M ain reaso ns for choosing a career . Choose the five that have influenced you most j. RanJ.n choosing a career. Then answer questions a-e. What do the items along th e bottom of the bar charts refer to? How do the bar charts relate to each other? 'Nhat are the m ost noticeable features of the first bar chan ? What are the most noticeable fea tmes of the second bar chart? L 78 •••• .40-50 age group 30 information by seleclillg a1/d repOltin9 the main featllres.UN IT •• • • Individual and society Unit aims Task 1 Task 2 P aragraph structure T 2 revision ask Relevant and irrelevant information Word order Linking using with T 1 revision ask Task 1 Word order 1 The list below contains factors which influence career choice. money interest friends ambition role models parents teachers a Why have you chosen these five factors? How did they contribu te to your career cboice? W hy did you not choose the other factors ? What oth er [actors m ight influence you? b c d 2 Read the Task 1 quesrion. them in order of importance 1-5 (1 = most important. Then ans wer questions a-d . and make cOlllparisotlS where relevant.20-35 age group 30 25 20 % 15 10 5 o models Ma in reaSOnS for choosing a career .

a b c The specialist sales of rours have fallen recently..h contain a word in th e wrong place . It is de. thel o influenc. ent ~ similaritylonly/the/the/twolgroupsl be-tween/age waf> that friends had lef>s inf\uena over G areer G hoice for the iounger and olde. As can be seen.eve-r. Corr: t each sentence by moving the word to the right place.relative importance.1 per cent) and then pi:lre. more people from the younger age group (Tavel on their own.h was ag" M the other \. in sharp contrast to those over sixty. the. 20-2? age group being monei (i:lpprO'l'imatel'i 2. w pare.es.nb (2"3 per u~ nt) . d e It is dear lbJ t rhe number of flats by single' people in ()ccllpieci major citie in the West is pu tting pressure on housing.r groupfl 1 fa ctors! than/any/other.• • 3 Reorder the words in italics in the model text below. Overall the chart sho ws that the media people are re ponsible for tumin in to eel brities . In 2006. g h There are similarities in the presentation of the several data . of e.re. with the mOflt inf\ uentia\ facton) w contributed to hid) Gareer chOice for the.r cent respe.m most at '70 per G ent.ar that the tw 9rouPS 2.gre. Traveller n umbers have decreased over the period in question.ctivell 4 Six of the sentences a. Example Traveller numbers have decreased ov r period in the question. UNIT 10 [ll di vidll al alldsociely Model text 1he bar c .u1!werelvar-iouslby/ at.~ about I reasonslthe/for/ main/c.ac. and fourtee. • • •• 79 . seven and ten pe.hoosing among two age 9roups. ~ 1eac. 20-'7'5 and 40-'50.nts affe-d ing ah the.areer/a/c.tor5 f to diffe. older.nt de.n and elwen per G for the.a~ round: S ninelfifteen/ andlresptc. The noticeable pursuit of a professional career among botb men and wo man has led to a reduction in the birth rate.herslaslrtgardslrole/andlmode/:.harts provide information from a ~reeK surve. HOI. more males than females tOok up individual spons rather than team activities. From [he graphs. the fadors • the/agt/ w ere/for/reversel grouplthel40-50.tivelylgroup/per/c.entljorl younger/the. it can be concluded that are young people much more mobile than p revious generations..

sentences which quote specific figures nearly always com e before general stateme nts. map. with the most and least importan t factors being the same. In a paragraph. Passen ger n umbers dropped in summer and rose in wlllter.Linking using with 5 Read the example sentence from the model text in 3 on page 79. Task 1 w ill always be written in th e past tense. Writing in paragraphs is not important fo r Task l. map. b The main reason for career dloice was ambitio n . Fifty per cent chose it. You should quote all th e figures that the information gives you . the factors were the reverse for the 40-50 age grou p. There were several sim ilarities. e Th e trend was d early upwaTd Manufacturing costs decreased at the same lime . Example There were several similarities . with parents affecting them m ost at 30 %. If your English is correct. Then join the sentences below making an y nec s ary changes. You n eed to dedde which is the most important or striking information in the graph. Then answer the questions below. Consumption of e ne rgy ros e. The profil reached a peak in December. True/False True/Paise Tru e/False True/False True/False Tru e/False True/False True/False 80 • • • • • . then it does no t matter if your information is inaccurate. table. Task 1 revision 7 Decide if the following statements about Task 1 techniqu es a re true or false. a Sale were upward for most oC th e year. table. The m ost and least important factors were the same. Example How ever. The highest point was in January. d The pattern was different. c ITis expected that the price of one bedroom flats will ri e AccommOdation fo r individuals is in shon supply. a b c d e g h Your first paragraph is usually a gen eral statement about the subject of the graph. etc. etc. a b What function does th e phrase beginning with with introduce? What type of verb stru cture normally follows with? 6 Read the example. Your con clusion will n ot normally give sped fic figures .

It is now po ssible for people to correspond cheaply and at length from anywh ere as long as they h ave a conne ction. To what extent do you agree or disagree? a b c d Th ey can exchange ideas and discuss things more often as they are working. Emails ha ve certain ly b ad far-reaching effects on people's ability to communica te. One way to protect tr aditiona l val ues and customs is simply to teach peop l~ to value their own culture On the contrary. even when they realize an ambition. we see tha t in most cases. If we look at the busin ssman w ho wants 10 earn a six-figure salary. 1 Amuit.I ith th is sta tem ent? a b c This is because.:nagraph. and the result may be a be tter end p roduct.positive result • • • • 81 . It is cenainly Hue [h at ambitiou s people do not alw ays crea re happiness for themselves or others. he w ill still want m ore povver or an even higher salary. This does not mean that they h ave to resist the current movement towards greate r internatio nal trade .••• Task 2 Paragraph structure UNIT 10 I"dividllal al1d S')ciely 1 For each Task 2 question below.reason why this statement is true . 2 Match each of the paragraphs above 1-3 with the correct structure below a-c. This allows p eople to work together on the same project even if they are on opposite sides of the world.statement that a second negative result will n ot occur .reason why this statement is true . put the sentences that follow in the most logical order to create a p.'cm IS a negative attl"ib llte of a person's character. when he reaches tJus p osition . it wil give them the con fidence to operate in our global village without feeling that their own identity is under threa r.example general statement . a b c general statement . Wh at do you th ink ca ll be dOlle tv protect a society'S traditiolllll l"alues and wItIJre? a b c d Nor does ir mean that they will fail to respect an d valu e other people's cultures . 2 P£I 1'1 iwlilJ' ct/ltu res are IInder threat Jlowadays due tv tile f act that we art' li\'ing in a global village.isagree \.effect .statement that a negative result will not occur . Do yOIl agree or d. they are still not satisfied. 3 Emails are the most vaLuable tool for communication in the twenty-first century.second effect statement of what should happen .

choose one of the paragraph structures in 2 on p age 81 and w rite a paragraph which could form p ar I of an an swer........ For example.. following [h e structure you h ave chosen ..... there is an annual festival to celebrat e the best of Welsh w riting and culture. What measures could be taken to attempt to ill tegrate law-breakers back into society? Relevant and irrelevant information 4 The three paragraphs below relate to the Task 1 questions in 1 on p age 81.. then a b they will be more able to talk to older people about it . In some cases. With the global dominance of English.... provides a clear exa mp le of th is.. take the credit for work that they have not done... they may a b 2 a work so hard that they neglect their families ... For each ques tion.. ~ . MOlley does not make happiness. . .3 Read the following twO essay questions. in the UK there are many prizes which novelists and poets can win..." options wh ich are most ch relevant to the question. they will appredate th eir own culture m ore. they may tum to serious crime .. some minority languages such as ... stealing their m on ey and possessions.. Text 1 1 Another r eason why ambition is not always good is that ambitious people may lise u nfair or dishonest means of reaching th eir goa l. . .... cb. F r example..... Choos(.... In eA paragraph..... they may damage the careers o ( people who they see as rivals.. 6 a b This could be done by arranging arts festivals or writing competitions.. b Shakespeare's story of Macbeth The story of Sinbad the sailor Text 2 4 One way to ensure that people value their traditjonal culture is to focus on language .......... a Welsh or Estonian b 5 Chinese or Arabic Ii people are made familiar with the history and literature of their own language.. In the most extreme cases. To w hat ex ten t do you ag ree or disagree? It is [)fmer to reform criminals instead of jllst pllJ1ishil1g them.. there Cln: several option s.. . p erhap s by b 3 a making false accusations about them to their employers.. may feel under threa t.

.. Always Sometimes Never [ use the paragraph struc ture. for example. Decide hmv oflen you do these things. for example.like. Emails can be wri tten and replied to very quickly which means that people often do not consider carefully what they have w ritten. lleav myself rime to check my answer..it is clearly in ti. for example . a b 8 a b 5 Reacllhc Task 2 question. The current interest in famous people's privale lives has negative effects both for those people alld JO/' s@ciety as a w·h(J!c.. people can check their inbox two or three time 3 day... If possibl e. I mat ch the organizat ion of my essay to the question. D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 0 D • ••• 83 ..reslllts. the effects of the Internet on communication are not all positive.. I develop functions like advamages. Task 2 techniques questionnaire Tick the appropriate box. To what extent do y OIl agrel! 01' disagree? a b c Think of a famous person who has been in the news recentl y for something unconnected with his/her job. because. examples. I know that I must write at least 250 wo rds. measures. disadvantages.d·ul/Ild rtot be nnowed to ptlblish de tails of people's private lives unless. Another problem is that people simply send and receive co many emails . using the example you have chosen . effects. I can state my opinion clearly apd contradict other opinions.. lov e to contact tbeir friends frequently by em a il.. Which is [he most relevant to the question? Write a general statement-ex amp le paragraph.. Then ans\over questions a-c below. NelVspapen .. [ use organizi ng words to help develop m y sentences. may receive twenty or thirt y emails a day..e pliblic illterest. Task 2 revision 6 Read the Task 2 techniques in the questionnaire. [ divide my essay into paragraph s.to trigger my ideas.. The result of this Ls that they spend time dealing wi th this constan t stream of messages instead of doing their real work. Children .. compare you r example with a partn er. J wTite a shon introduction wbich paraphrases tbe que li oo...•• Text 3 7 • UNIT 10 I"dividual and society However. causes by using reasons. I use a range of linking phrases .. What were the effects of this? How rele v3m is your example [Q th e guestion .. An office w orker. so/uliotls.

...................... " .. Read (he Task 2 question below..... ..... .. g Additional information and ... ... "" .... .. Concession and ............ . ..... ............. However.7 Which phrases can you use as trigger words for each of the following functions ? Make your own list......... . keeping fi t and healthy is the main factor which is necessary for a good qu ality of life......... So the idea thaI ...... ....................... e Happiness and conten mlent are more impo rta nt than the p ursuit of fre edom............. b Reason: because .... .... For example... e Example and ..... beca use ............. ... . Contrast: but ... ..... . Too much emphasis is PHt 011 eaming money rather thal1 lookiJ1g fo r {/ good qtlality of life.. .. .. .............. . " .. To what extent do you agree with tl1is idea? 8 9 a b Money is no t as important as frien 5........... .... 10 84 • • • • • Wrire your own paragraph about [he importance of family in mai ntaining a good qua lil y of li fe ... .... .... ............... ..... . d Reason and ... .... . ...................... ........... ... h Con ditio n/Hypothesis and ........... .. ........... d Additional inlormation: Moreover... e Hypothesis: If .... ............. ...... ............ .............. . .... d What is involved in ach ieving a good quality oI llie depends on man y factors rather than just one...... .. . .... .. ........ Th e latter aim ... . ....... f Effect and .......... " .............. ....... ....... .. W~ite about 60-80 words..... ..... Many people living in poor housing conditions are still happy. ............ ........ c Effect : As a result............................... .. ... .... ...... ............. ..... ... ... Comp lete the Jist below w ith rdaJed fl!In cHons........ ....... ..... . .................... th en use the trigger words to d evelop semences a-f with your own ideas.. For many people.... Some functions are rel ated so (hal one suggests the other. ..... ............................ a Examp le: For example... " .............. h Conclusion: A n d 50 ........ " . ... then .. ..... .. ............ ... ........ " ....... .............. b Measures and . ( Cause and .. ..... ............. ......... c If one is content with life........ ... .. .... " ............... ........... ... .... ......... ..................... Are the combinat ions fix ed or can you combine th em in any way? a Problem and ................... ....... ........ g Concession: Although .

: bar Ghart below sholl's fhf age und sex ill 2. pe/·Lt'lItL19i.. Any new deve/olllllt:llts CLlII ollly he brollght abotlt by govel'l1men ts {lI1d large Itlstitutiotls.:ctill9 and reporting the main features. • • 85 ./2005.U NIT 10 TmJil'idllal n ~ Jd so ie/.\' ••• • •• • • D • Practice Test 10 Task 1 • • • You should spend abo/(( 20 minutes on this task. Th. How fat· do you ag/'ee 0/' disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from YO ll r OHlII knowledge or experience. Write at least 150 words. Write at least 250 words. People living alone: by sex and age.' of people in Great Britain li vi119 alone by SWI/llwrize tJu inft)f'matiim by sd.004. and make cOn/pan'sons where relevant. Write about the following topic: Indil'idlwls WII do 110tl1il1g to clw/1ge society. GB Percentages 16--24 ~ 25-44 45-64 65-74 75 and over I I 20 I 40 o 10 30 50 60 Task 2 YOIl should spen d abollt 40 minutes on this Lask. 2004/05.

They might face many issue.. Th ere is no guara nte e that these an sw ers wou ld ob tain these grades in the te st. Take for exampl e. Experience thar they n eed they will acquire Ivith time In conclusion.Sample answers The p ublishers stress that these are not official grades and are for guidance only. people ha e to ready for any ch anges in their lives as no guarantee for anyone that the LiI e will be stable lorever.peIience in their new job and difficult to make new friends at w ork. wi th some e ffec tive use of links . The l[cnd in four dements of the study was upward except in mobile phone that was rarher erratic. bu t does not indicate that figures are approximate . despite some errors. By the time. Vocabulary i adequate. they will find themselves a pan of rhe ne w society..'le of new IUe w Lch m ay be differe n t [rom where they lived before. It is quite difficult they find not easy to acquire ex. some people al a certain momen t in their live have to change their career. For p eople who leaving their coun try to live and work in another country I agree that they might have m any problems such as a new culture and la nguag. people who leave rheir counrry and going abroad.0% in 2002/03). 86 • . it was ex pected to h ave home computers as e xceeding {i. complex sentences are u sually faulty and there ar e many grammaticaJ errors. For exam ple.1t 20 02/ 03. People who change t heir career the on ly lhing to eli. Be1ween 10996/97 and 1998/9 9 mobile p hon and PC were going upward "" hile j ust alter 1999 th e forme r exceeded. showing figure oC 70% compared to home c01111 uters with 55% in 2002/03. Organiza tion a n d p a ragraphing is sa tisfactory.g u re in the ~tudy as the)' provide fe atures o r CD player and the Internet acces b ut CD player and mobile phon were the two top modem technology access in homes . Task 2 If is obvious rhat people are unwilling to ma ke changes in their lives afr er being acc u toOled to a cert ain st yle of life .<I. (154 Illords) Grade: 5 Commen t: The t ext is logically organized. regardless of the reaSons. Pc' mobile phones and CD player in the UK (rom J 996 to 2003. it takes time to Cldapt LO 'weather and to the sl}. There is anoth er changes in lite . CD pla yer had the biggest figure among all wit h 60% at ) 996/97 and 80% . In my opinion. However this could cause many problems. bu t the content is somewhat repetitive. especially faulty complex structures.") Grade: 6 Comments: All parts of th e prompt are covered. grarnrna!i al mistakes.llregration wi th people it cou ld solve the problem. Firsr of alL they have to adapt to a new culture and h abit which might be completely different from theLr nativ e country. Vocabu lary is generally adequate However. To sum up. Moreover. However. people should be lIexible. (2'>0 \\"e'. While the Internet access only started in 1998/9 9 showing the lowes! figur throughoUl rhe period (from 10% in 19 98f99 to above 4. caus e some difficulties for the reader.> it is to concentrate in rheir ne\-\' job . The summary cannot be deduced from the diagram . Practice Test 1 Task 1 The graph indicates the Valiali on of t h ~' private use of Interne!.· und habits bur the i.

vi rfldti()nshi.. manufac!. By contra L busin e ' s and finantiaJ 'eclOr weI' almost zero at the beginnin g bl. (261) Grade: 6 Comments: Th e topic is adequately covered. The infurmalioll l~ logically ordered. it i. The order and paragraphing of ideas is mostly logical. th ". it is also true that it reptesen! il nJuabk human experience. it had u tt ered a drama tic decrease (1 5%) tollowed by 11 drop to almost zero in ~OOO . • 87 .'lnd caused disastTia. but there are many min r grammatical errors ..se even ts in the past. The kno. it is undeniable that history.know mo re about their society. js very import ant in improvem ent of hu man's future if they can u:.ampl.·1edge V. no! a logical opinion for many reas ons.\) Grade: 6 Comme nts: Use of tbe rubric unchanged reduces the word count .Uring and businc' s and financial sector .l' for IlIilllllfilC!urillg III . Althougb it is true thilt the <. agriculture sect or shows the higher value at the begi nning o ll he period (around 50% in the Iirst 50 years of rhe ce tu ry). Also the fliswry can give a good information aboul the developm ent in different branches of scienc . This can be VL'ry us eful in p lanning for the futuTe.'llich can be gained trom the h istory is one of the most important sources fo r their skills o f und ers tanding the h u man society As m lIch as th ey learn [rom the histo ry. flllSlt 'e r ' Practice Test 2 Task 1 The graph shows the cont ribuTion 01 diUercm senor. Pirstly. .re 50 they s hould ~prepa re for this role.\1anula w ring $ .)w ..ll JlId nl<lnulau uring St' llllr has .:I'ents lllal a!'c studied in history haprcm. Some people argu e that there is nu benefit 01 tha t and history can be substituted by o th er more important subj ect s.'t'ilC:WS 2()% general.: f rmer dropped mu ch more a t the end of the cenl~lry tll. the su ounary of huma n experience. p~ I'etwcer: diUerelll c untries. will give' the oppOrEUnily to .. Som e o f these informalion may have a good a lue f r invl' Hors.ctGr seems to follovY rht:: trend of agri u lture. will help in.d in the past. tbough there is some repetilion .'l ~imilar trends but th<. Complex sentences are well managed. However. (l68 IViJrd. as is the range of sentence forms. but there are some imponant errors. Vocabulary is adequate and has some precision . starri ng with a value o j 45 % in 19(1(). they will be efficient in their ability to decide when th y tace any problem in the future.. Children art tht' peopie who \l'ilI h:\ld tIl<' world in the f 11 ru. lhey will try 10 avoid doing the same mistakes ill the tuture.1J!lild~ ng gol. to th e UK economy in the 20th century.J! it sharpl y increased during the pe n od . In conclusion. l r t:nd o{ bu 'iness and finan cial increased dur ing the periou.\')"/0 At tl t' end of th e period the pnceillil!. Tbl.m the IJllt'r.e it pn1perly. but th e business sector data is omitted . ilgriclilt ur. humans know rhe mistakes thi)[ had been done .li~ contrat. By the 1975. In J 95(\ it !>egan t() lalllill 1975 where ir IVa' bel. rr Moreover studying the past of other nation. Vocabulary is adequate and usually appropriate. In particular it compares the agricultural. Studying the history is on of che most im portantsn bjectsin the drculum of primary and secondary scho ols .

the rem ail1illg wilter is forc ed through 1\ membrane a t high pressure an d any impurities includin g salt are removed. In this phase. Parents sh. of aU. A thjrd problem is that no t all interne t sites are US dlJI. Tasl< 2 Great changes h a ve take n place in our life along w ith d v [opment of society.Practice Test 3 Task 1 The diagramilluStralE'$ the I'arious stages in the desalinati. and even thei r leisure time. Children no longer play games outside and get exerose bur they spend time on the computer. Desa lina tion involves a process of purifica ti on of V I'ater fo llowed by fi ltration a nd adding chemical agents. 88 • • • • . As regarding children's use of the Internet. Anot her problem is the negative effect on their relationship with their family. Sentence st ru cture is reasonably varied.on of seawater to make it suitable for drinking. b u t minor grammatical errors are frequent. the water is treated with lime. They need to limit hours that ch ildren spe nd 00 the computer and to encourage them to have other hobbies and pastimes. the Internet plays a big part in this . As far as I am concerned. The overvie w shou ld more logically be the second sentenc . water is taken from the sea Jnel the n passed througll a pre -treatment filler where the big impurit ies are removed. All sta ge: a rc: covered accurately. There is an impon ant need for th em to spl~nd mor e time to speak v. tnlormation is often n ot accurate and some sites are not suitable lor children. though som e additions are made . I would say thaI th e interne t has hrought many benefits and it will Do t disap pear. (153 words) Grade: 7 Com.ments : Interest is maintained by the nexi Ie use of input language. At the next st age in the process. Firsr. Pirst of all. Internet access fills most young people's time. Finally. uld also en ourage children to use other means of inIonnalion in addition to internet. Alter that. people h ave a more sedentary life style. with ideas presented in a clear progression wi th m ostly logical paragraphing. and a wi e ra nge of vo ab u lary and skilfully deployed grammatical st ructures . the seawater con centrate i retu rned to the sea w hile the remaining water goes through a pOSt treatment process .'itb their famil y than an electronic connection. This has bad effect on their health and can cause problems such as obesity. A good range of vocabulary gives fl exibili ty and preasion to the writing. the Lirst solution must be wilh tb parents. wi th the opp<)rtllIlity o f su r fing U llcrnct or playing compu ter and video games. Some interneT sites like chat rooms can eveu be dangerou because you do n ut know who is the other p erson. chlori ne and fluoride to make it drinkable before it is stored in a reservoir. therefore il is very importitll! tha t we learntlO me it well so lilat w e can reap tbe benefils and not me disad anlages. so this is the cause of their disconnection with t heir family and ultimately can h a ve an eli ct on tbeir social behaviour. (278 words) Grade: 7 Commen ts: The topic is considered fully. the desalinated water is distributed to the integrated water supply system for people to use as d rUl king water. Th is backwash is then pip ed back into the sea through a no ther rUrer. To concl u de.

On the other hand. Other qualifications figures cited 12% for men and 11 % for w omen. 18 'Yo ami 28 % fo r men arrd womel) respeClively. They tr y 10 make use of t h e facibties avallable t [hem ill schoo! as w ell. Task 2 To some ex tent I disa gree with lhe n o tion that competitive spons cannut be part of the school curriculum.• • Practice Test 4 Sample answer. Students re gardle s of th eir age take pilri in exercise individua:U v or as il tcam member.. However.\iith . However.her ed ucali.J11l pJrt 01 growjng up. NQ m atter how liltk the J'acility studenLI ~hould be encouraged [0 take part in competitive spons. is mostly used with precision. Sports as a whol ~' is an ill\jlort. Everyone decides what to do i1t early i1gt' As fo~ sport. in GeE A level The fil~llrcs fo r the third group were mllch hw.1 bettc( lim~ managernen L (25·1 wrrdsJ Ai] ill aiL sOCielieS .. some schools are well equipped while others do poorly.. bu r there is no re al overv iew. considering the availability o f the facilities to all schools is no t a bad idea. the amount of time giVt"D SbOllJd not be overlooked. Tilt' br. sw imnling. r think spon WdS pan of everyday . TIK number of mak'.c: patlern.Hl q:vdHicati on 8% for male and 9% for female. Ta ke primary scbools for instance. m(.'hich should nOl be spent on taken up s~\ on and nll! doing Dther school work or study.net. Despite m inor e rrors of grammar.ife in the past and j ~ iD today's span attracting The best p lace you Sl<lrt yoc:r life after h Ot11e is school. simple sen tences al e used wdL but complex structures are lacki ng. Task I The bar chart shows the figures for qua lifica tions a ltai. Overall.va.o. • 89 . The percentages Well: awund 13% and app roximately 11 % fu r m ell an d women respeC!ively for de~ret: but for hil1. tbe GCSE gr.lde A--( sbowe d a revC[. for GeE A level and GCSE grade A to C the percemagc was Wel) other two grou ps. more dnd 1110re teenage rs turn (0 [ootbll11. an even body building oUtside school ho urs.ch student' can tak e benefit. (168 words) Grade: 6 Comments: Deta ils are accurately li ste d. . they havL" playgrounds and [aid)' enough fadlitit:s fmrn whi. In $tL'ondary 5cl!ooh St uuents' attitude {(I sport ch ange'. The key p oints a re n o t bro ught our. However. 20% and 2 3% .l category includes degree a nd higher education qualification. To illuslrilll· this. Whilt is impona nt is time \. il '.n in Wale in The information can be divided in to three gro u ps. A good ran ge of vocabular . Grade: 6 Comments: Though the ideas are relevant and sullicient. No qualifica tions were rccordnl for higher num bers of men and w omerr. A limited but accurate range of complex sen rene al"e deployed. the voca b ulary sho w s some variet y an d p recision . fa ul ts in ordering and use of Links som etim es cause difficulty for t h e reader. DlllCb higher co m pared wit h the roughl y 28% bu t for females about 15 %.. pan of curriculum vitae in the pa$t alld will be in th e future of cOurse. As C be seen.'er. The demand for m ore facilities and equipments rises.i in wornl'n an 200] ilnd 2002 in pt'r"(l'1I1ilges. m en h ad more higher degrees whereas women b ad more GeE or equivalen t qualifications.

Vocabulary is fairly varied and precise . Howe ver. It is often suggested that old generation are pas ing by and not interested in w hat happening and on ly the young who gives those alerts considerable thoughts. Actually no one in this life want to destroy our planet. To the east of the river.' re main buildings were constru cred replacing pan 0 1 the gr'en area a n d the suburba n h ome . more houses were built to reduce the greell area funher m ore. despite frequent grammati cal errors. tba t many of green pe ople are old and work a nj \ ely to preserve animal rights and fight fie rcely agaimt global warming and environment al pollution. but lacked a cI ar oven·jew. (264 words) Grade: 5 Comments: Though the ideas are relevant and well argued. cohesi on is faulty and the paragraphing is notlogicaJ. 1111.5 words) Grade: 6 Comm e nt s: All key points were highlighted. Moreover.'! Il of Temp leton On the weSl o f the liver that divide the city imo two parts. to. em n ow and in the future. with gram m atical errors causing some strain for the reader. Defin itely every parent is of concern about his offsprin g lives thereafter. (15. The vocabu lary was ad equat E' f r [he t a ~k . and selfish ness does not dominate OUT rhinlOng at aJl. The previous generatio n are those who li ved the new de velopments in science and teclmology lhal brough l wit h them pollmion. What one should be aware of is that such threats are no t always djscussed or contemplated in t he right way by old or young generation. IJ- . 90 • • • • • . Alt h ough a considerable percentage of the public might refe r to th esl: hazards as hazards for the young pred ominantly. a new railvvay track Ivas laid down alo ng id e th e embankment. To the so uth 01 the a bove developments. The data w as logi all)' and cohe rently arra nged . but induded some inappropriaci es. are always (aulty. and more houses were added to tlle aIea around the hospital A m ajor develo pment took p lace in south east art of dty wh e re a facto ry was constructed a nd ferry service was established. However from what we are experiencing now. This give LIS that the prese nt world coneene. are a shared interest of both old and n e w generations. all houses were demolished and new buildings raised up instead toge ther with supermarket . Although many an i is t on these issues appears in the m edia and they are from the yom h. Sentence structures were varied and usually w ell comrolled. Besides. PO\' rty a nd part f it also possible distinction of man y species o f pla nts and animals. omplex structures. yet n1any of these concerns are actuall y brough t into the scene by Tbe old people. still and probably equal nu mbe r fro m t he old follow the same rOlltes. Task 2 Many people thin ks th a t the world exist ing problems are only matter the young generation a they are the candidate who are facing tl.Practice Test 5 Task 1 Be twe en L990 and 2005 there were so many chauges that took pla ce in in term of deve lopments. thougb frequent. So The y ra ise the alarms fo r tho -e radical and serious consequences. an airp orl was bu ilt in an area previously covered by t ree. replacing all of the old houses and the tree fores t tll at occupie d the area before.

females recorded 44%. w ell organized intO paragraph s and highligbted clearly. In conclusion. while wit h regard to tbe same type of players for girls the proponioll was 40 % which was almost mnilar to the percentage of the Internet (42% ). • 91 . imply becaus e the background of any society can act as a mirrOJ to reflect th'e nature personality and behaviour 01people. T here are a variety of sentence tructures. Vocabulary is adequate for the purpose.) Grade: 6 Comments: The key poin ts are mainly covered.Samplt' O/ISII't'r:s Practice Test 6 Task I The table ilJustrates the percentages of both young boys and gi rl whu listened to musiC' tn the previous m()l1 th in th e capital ()f Japan . A variety of sentence stru ctures are used. The wide range of vocabulary exhibits flexibilil}' and precision. However. As a res ult . On t he nber hand lac k of understanding of the culture and tradi tions of people may lead to misunderstandi n g and e ven increased te nsion between different cQm munities. young females spent less time l'islening to fa v mite mu sic cOlllpare d {O the opposite sex. not surpri ' ingly. but the r is an important error (paragraph 3) . despite minor lapses in fo rus. people who travel for busi ness or tourism definitely would gain a lot of info rmation from t heir hos t society. With respect to live m usic.3sing markedly in re cent years. (75 0 wo rd. However. underst anding t he culture of IDcal peop1e brings many benefits to all types o[ visitors as well as problems for those who do n ot unde rstand a n ew culture . when we know these vitall hings we can overcome ma ny dilIiculties.. KJ10 wing how to behave can help businessmen make lots 01 money for t hemselves and for their companies. It could be ordered more logically. Regarding prefcrerKe of music Live music scored t he to p percentage. In other I-von:ls. cohesive devi e\ an: well used . The mos t striking feat ure i that males were m ore interested in music than their female counterparts except to r listening [0 CDs (19% and 22 % respectively). (262 words) Grade: 8 Comments: Ther are m any ideas. The highest rate wa 79% for boy' who were interested in MP 3-players. the tensior) between p0()p. containing no Significant errors. Certa inly. can broaden tJleir horizons by travelling. First of all. Task 2 There is no doubt tJ1at the number of visltors and businessmen and women who are travelling abroad has beeo incT'. peop le from diiIerenl lands catl soda lize effectively and relate emotiona lly rega rdless of their race and religion.e from different backgrou nds would be melted. but their complexity sometimes causes difficulty for the reader. undoubtedly business and tourism playa pivotal role in employing of people and reviving the local economy in thei-r 01'\'11 cou ntries and when they travel. l Another imponant advantage 111at needs to be taken into account is that travell er:. with only occasional inappropriades. if they lake lim e to learn languages and to find out abou t where tbey are gOhlg before they travel. w hereas recorded music raIl' was 26'% and those who a nswered Don't kn o w their rale was just 4% . no sensible per~on can deny the importance of breaking dOWJl barriers between countries By th is I me an. 70 % of young Japanese people prefer live musi c. Turning to the pie chart.

while in rich countries I eople are li ving longer. bUI grammar and sentence st ructures are adequate I r the task. There are many inaccuracies in the data. left Atrica with famine . There is a good range of vocabulary and sentence structures. for instance. Although. the percentage w a s very close in tbe UK and Ma lays ia a round 40'Y. despite some jarring punctua tion errors. helping tbern to im prove their abilities to forecas t weather and predio climate change. there are numerous factors in the spread ot HIV JAID S . [or example. th. and th eatre in (Australia. Many people believe that money should be spent to solve food crisis in Africa and South Asia. 92 • II .: UK and Malaysia). V('I abulary Jnd links are inaccurately used. Surprisingly.. Tn terms 01 the mo~ t common mean of access to buy tickets. v. some people oppose the fOIDler argument. for Ihe age group 65+. Similarly. rherdo re. Drought.he ime res t w as accesse d ove r the first three months of 2006. advanced research should be carri ~ d out to Lind illlolber so urce of energy. the predo minant means in 1alaysia the UK and Australia at about 60%. (163 words) Grade: 5 Comments: Excessive use of the rubri r ed u es the word count and in urs a p enally. tberefore Tlullions are dy ing. it was JUSt under 40 °/" . hum an life has priority in our 'ocieties.62% and 68% respeCliv t"ly. They claim that space researc h has bro ught e n ormou benefits to m ankind. Havi ng said tha t. Next came the wptop .'hi ch w ill give the scien tists a unique view of earth's auno pbere.he world rat he r than spent it OD space research is a very contr vc rsial i. NASA has launched Satellites lor weather and climate. by a se kcted age group and how !. Task 2 The question of whether money could be more usefully applied to tackle the crisis around !. There are. Allhough.he desktOp co mp uters wa. but the condu ion is n OI clearly articulated . ho we ver. th e chart shows that !. the first paragraph adds nothing . Recently. whereas in Ma.~ . while there was a modera te drop to 30 .h a slight increase in Australia to about 45 %. people on both sides of the (lrg umem who have feeli ngs either tor or agai nst.Practice Test 7 Task 1 The two ba r chart illustrate the percclllage of purchase on -li ne tickets o f concert.. and to uncicrstanJ the plallets and its' effect on earth to r the benefit of aU. the global issue is the conflict of A LDS in AIrica.ssu and it is now a matte r of considerable public concern. cinema.la ysia. which lacks an overviev . Every 30 second aD African dilld dies of hunger and abom 4 5% ot d 1ildren in South Asia su irer from malnutrition. it is largely recognized as a disease of poverty. wa ter on othe r planet. Purchases for the age group 25-44 was the same in t he western cou ntries at 55%. w il. Ideas are logically organized and paragraphed. From what has been d iscussed abov we may draw the (onclusion that bOlh points of view bave their merits.5% in the UK The data might give us an indica tion about the nline purcha ' iog. Medicines. wit h ados ' percentage in Australia and M ala ysi a around (45 % each). (276 words) Grade: 7 Comments: Though there are sufficient ideas and evidence. are very expensive and Ille government in poor countries ca n not aHo rd 10 treat the disease.

n . Th e t: 'timated cOSt a lthe A1rican project in Year I is 10 . more policemen can be employed lor city centres.l1 projects fu r th e Grade: 7 Comments: Th e key points are presented logically and are su itably highlighleJ by cohesive devices. for ellvilunlllL'nt. The en vironment can be made cleaners and more agreeable to live a nd work in. Sentence structure are reasonably varied. b ut some basic grammatica l errors o ccur. Rega rdi ng I he pie cha rt. The rest 50% will be sha red on training and office expenseS. A very dif ferent . as this is one of the main reasons why people leave cit ies. People could then still live in the countryside a nd enjoy it and only ha ve ( 0 travel short distances to work. For example.Sall/ple all ll"t"1'l Practice Test 8 Task 1 The table illustrates ex-pected cost ot the Ihree t'll vironm mal pr je IS in three different pans of t he world in t he next five year . This INay pC'opk might be encou raged to ~t y ralhe r 1ban m Oling out. The progression of ideas is well marked. The vocabulary . Task 2 Many people are moving Qut of big cities into the counrryside to live to escape [rom city problems.ore m one y could be spent reducing crime. the overview cou ld be more fully dey loped . 10% each.rs w hich i. in South Ea t A. Tu sum up SOUTh Eas! Asia has the next five years . withou t significant errors. 50 % 01 projected cost w ill cover salaries. It is preuictecllhat West Africa \ ill 'penclles~ money in (h e loilowin g years than in Year J. (J n \Vclrr!S ) highe~t pwjccted cos. Tllis is ca using problems because m ost the jobs that are available are in the cities so peo})le have to travel back into the cities again to work.he Asian proj ect (30 million) . However. w ith logica l paragraphing.is ve ry appropriate t o the task. but the conclUSion could be more fully developed. Sent en e structures are vari ed. One 'oluti. This is h appening m ore and more in ma ny parts of the world . Central America h ws a imilar pattern. There are uther ways to overcome the situation but these are the most important.ln to en courage people to Slay in cit ies is 10 improve the qua lity of life tbere. while 30% is expected set up costs . The voca bu lary range allow some fl exibility of presentatjo. tn Year 5 expected m st o[ projecl }S 5 million dolla. However.5 millioll dollars.vay to tackle the problem wou ld to mo e ~ome of the job Ollt of city to smaJle r cities or towm.s four times Ie s than in year 1. perhaps two da ys and I hen 10 go i ntCl work in the otber days. The trans p'"lrt system can nor cope so people are using their own cars and the countryside is affected by the traffk pIU S. faJling 10 3. ia in year 5 spending will rise to 50 million dollar. almost half o f the projected cost for Central America (20 million) and about one third ot t. which happenedln NevI' Y ork and is happeni ng h ere in UK As well as safe places to IVork and live city centres could be ma de more iriendly and weJcoming. (264 lI'ords) Grade: 7 Comments: The writers proposals are dearly presented. 5 million in Yea r 5. Another ste p is to encourage worke rs to spend pan of their w orking week a t home. • • • 93 . M.

lacks an overview .l' a rs. and in cludes serious errors. People w ill work longer than nO·N. Therefore seniors suffer from depress'ion and psychological problems. bu t paragr aph ing is n o t ~weU ma nage d However. these people give tax 10 I h l. -\.in Juiy there was a slight redu ction to December. A . TwelllY percent o( otber age group among males had the J . AI the "ame lime jf people work longer. The selection. The range of vocabulary is adequate for th e p urpose. The trend for Ie males membership follow the arne. rugher number of males used the gym than women .\w know. Ove rall . Thus. As fa r as I am concerne d it has negative effect for a number of reaso ns. Alzehamer disease . However.% more of male membership aged between 2 1 and 4 5 used the facilities in gym compared to fem ales. Heel that the negative effects on oriety outweigh the positive effects because of the above reasons. they are hap py to live longer as they devote most o f their lives to working. The range of both vocabulary and se ntence struct ures is limited.: government. I do believe that h igher aged population needs higher investment as people in Ill elder age suffer frO diseases ouch as bea rt disease. Tb irtY-Iw pe::rc fit of fem al e m ember had ag!.nembership compared to 17% of female . Task 2 There is no do ubt tba t age expectancy has increased over the lasr twenty \. In June the !igur!' hit th e highest point of 8500 but. Fur· her more people in elder age become more dependent to orh ers as these people n e to be supervised by other people . srroke. Turning to pie chart. In January 550 male visited the:: gym the figure decreased slightly. w hich is n ot w h olly logical. Moreover if we ask anyone. Tllli might have a possitjve effect on economy. but grammatical errors a re obtrusive. The question o[ whether the increasing number of elderly people causes posiIive eifCCTS or negative is a matter of dispute. l' conclude. diabetis. [h e sentences tend to be clearly linked . However (rom July to September 7200 female useJ the gym in every month. 94 • • • • • . In retirement age elderly people need comfort and such p(~ ople desire 10 do many rhings that they did not do before. One o[ the most striking features of the graph is that use the gym was higher in sununer compared to rhe other months of the year. Data is listed mechanically a nd. (282 wcrds) Grade: 6 Comments: There are plenty of ideas.Practice Test 9 Task I The graph gives information about Ihe average moothly use oj a Healt h Club in Miami Florida by full lime members la -I year. t Govenunents n eed to invest a colosal sums of money treating such pati ents.: 65+ in contrast to 25% of males. as is th e va rie ty of sentence struct ur es. [here j not promotion for rhe:: younger generation because most positions are occupied by the elderly people. (179 words) Gra de: 5 Comments : opying the ru bri c reduces tl1 w ord coun t. with many grammatical errors . After that there was a significant increase in th~ nu mber of males membership [rom January to J unc. Some people are 1 the opinion rhat th is trend sho uld be increased bl'ca use tbere migbt be more experienced worker' in SOciety. increas ing aged populali n gives hope w [he senio who would like to enjoy their lives. I think nobody likes to live with other people and ust: the facilitjes thaI are not belong to them.

.e st rategic importance of Ihis bridge the govemment pruvidetl funds t. Vocabulary and grammar are fairly vari ed. lIlcluding governments need 10 work in partnership to bring about any ben djda l change. So if an indi vidual's dfom are combined with t11 government" power and money. supported by e vidence . including government a nd large imititulions. rhe Mayor. reducing the word count. The 35-44 year oids w as the only category with a noticeable male predornina n e. Tliis is yet another example 01 how governments an d large i nstitutioTl s rely on the creativity 01 individual:.and brin g about change. Cohesive devices are u sed eflectively. Seeing rh. to be lnventive. This 1.Samplt! <l1l$Wer. listen to them. There is a dear overview. tbe Ihird category o f age had almust the sam e:' percentage. the last category of age ~ howt d that tbe overwhelmi ng majority of people li ving alone wa~ female ' abou t 59% compared only to 28% of ma le:: . Practice Test 10 Task I The bar chart illustrates the percen tage o f people in Great Britain living alone according to their age and gender from 200-1 to 200 5. a U krainiilll L'ngineer called Pia ion il1lroduced rhe idea of bLTildinl~ i1. Howl!Vt' r chi. For instance. For example the percentage of females was 32 0ft. In conclusion. power and mone t() realise and introduce new idea 0[1 thei r own.. Ivo m en'. Furthermore in london. Sentence str uct u re is va ried and gra mma tically a ccurat e . there wou ld be m any changes that could benefit eVI' T. consists of individual membe rs.ll stilulions implel11. For example. Jiving alone \'V as common among w ome n as th ey go older. every pan of society. As regards males living (m thel r own we can see a little difference in the !:' ond third and Jourth groups ur age. (278 words) Grade : 8 Comments: Th e writer d o es not fully address the topic but doe s p resent a clear and logi cally _e q uenced a rg u ment. with well highlighted main points. announced a comper it ion which can be entered by individuilb to find a new way to provide air conditioning for the undergro und sy~lcm. wa~ !lilt the case in the first category which was just 5% . Mr livingstOne. Prior to this group. By and large. as opposed to 15 % lor males . They a lm. but there are various inaccurate usages . organlzation is less clear in the third paragraph. Governments have the righTS 10 rile furtht'r use of Ih new i. It is immediat ely apparent that Ji ing alone increased as people w e re getting older and th~' percentage of fem ale outnumbered the oppo ite se}. For a stan. bo th indi vid ual s and large organizations. Some people m ight say tha t goveruments have the st rength. However 1 would sa ( tha t Ih e y are not enough to allo w them to contrib ut e to society as a whole. one. where crealivity and outstand ing ideas come in. predom inan ce began ill the 65174 year old which showeJ a dramatic change.os t had the imila r percentage . bridge across thl:" rivLT in Kit\·.) build it. In the case ot illstitutIOns they possess up to date equipment and massive facilities . fmm my point of view. • • •• 95 . Task 2 Th ere is Little doubt that go vernments and Jarge i.hould alway. Ho w ever.d eas and in iact .e m many innovationiJ1to our society. (182 \\'ord~~ Grade: 6 Comments: The rubric is copied. UnJik e men . And nov>' the whult: of society benefils from tllte' lI~e ur Oll(' man's idea. rb ey are only able to Li o so w ith th help of ideas from individ ual citizL'llS. The range o f vocabula ry produces nuency and precision. However.

ngree or disagree advantages/benefits. cli mbed d eclined decreased.000 4 Possible answers Work: p eople have less srabl jobs Technology: continually d eveloping new computer systems and electronic devices Travel: air travel is still on the increase and becoming cheaper Communication: people are using tex t m essage more Healt h: life expectancy is increasing 8 a months of the vea r thousands of d~llars c Sales w ent up for Internet Express. levell ed aU rose. There was a gradual fa ll in the development of new products. g. h Sugar imp ons decline d gradu ally. b 4 Slow: steadily. g disa dvantage.000 $12 0. bu t d own fo r Th e Tea Room . Research investment has decreased noticeably. d Betw een different cafes and between different mon t hs fo r [h e same cafe. solutions verb 6 5 a 10 d 6 c 2 g 7 b 3 e 4 f e Task 2 1 a b c d drawbacks reasons causes solution s Th ey are ans w ering : can yo u suggest some pas ible solutions? Th ey sugges t: encouraging employees to relax .000 $130. There w as a significant drop in the purch . 96 •••• . e. gradually. There has been a slow increase in the quality of food in supermarkets. Graphs associated with iPod and DVD may be expected to be rising (c or f) . sudd enl y 5 a There were wHd f]UCluauons in spice exports [rom AIri a b c d over the period. statem ot plus quest ion three pans. The sale of' mangos decreased suddenly. dra m atically. Wi-fi Cafe. There was a significant r ise in the number of sites on the Interne!. statement plus question b 2 19 6 h 2c 7 f 3 d 8 e 4a 9 h 5b 10 e 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 rose fluctuate d flu tuated dro pped fell. the w orkplace . training employees to manage their time better. providing gyms and massage therapy. Results: people wW be more efficient and producti e. ses of ticke ts la$[ m onth. g The number of visi tors at the th eme park fluctuated very sligh tly.000 $ 125. Statement plus two qu estions g two parts. disadva ntages agree or disagree advantages/benefits causes. and Cale Cool. solutions measures 3 6 a b d e f g African sp ice exports new produ ct de velopment ticke t pu rch ases Internet site s mango sal es theme park visitors supermarke t food qualit y three pans. levelled off d ropped 7 b c d e $85. or b) .viii b happier. There was a remarkable fluctu a tion i the number of air travellers. 9 2 5 a nou n nOUD 3 5 7 4 6 verb adverb verb b first sentence ca uses.••••• • • • • I(ey •• • • •• 2 b • c d e f • ••• • Unit 1 Task 1 1 Possible answer Students' own answers. w hereas graphs associated with audio and vjdeo cassettes m ay b e expected to be falling (a. slightly Fast: wildly. statem ent plus question e two parts. sharply. tw o statements plu s qu es ti on c one pa rt d two parts.

the light b u lb. and so.Ieep . they would learn more about the COLUJ try they a re visiting. By doing this. furthermore condition : H example : for instan ce. th en it wiLi be easier to control h ow man y ho urs are spent in front of it. b More females thelD males ranked the bicycle. peopl e w ou ld be ob liged to mana ge th elr lime more effedive ly. This will lead to better res ult s a t school. they would ensure that there were fewer people living in crowded or substandard accommodation. over ro wded accommodation and so their h ea lth deteriorates and as a result their q uality o f life may be no bener than before. they become trapped in po or. 3 a b c d e c The development of tourism often creates resentment among local people because tourists do not help the local e onomy. therefore. th an popu lar less The leas t p opula r l\'lore f The most popular g Fewer h less importan t than les5 4 Possible answers Not as many females as males chose the car. More males than females ranked the car. They could inclu de paper. radi o and TV. Parents could be pers uad ed t o spen d m ore time w ilh their chi ld ren . they may stay in international hotels which make large prouts outside the country. c Thi would enable them to w ork irom hom an d avoId str ess[ul jou rneys into work. around eighth century AD b ballpoint pen. mobile phone. B 2 a The bicycle was ranked as most imponant by most males and females . for exam ple • • • 97 . Tbe obvious answer is to encourage tourLsts to use locally available accommodation . 11 addition: and. Consequen tly. A good idea would be to try to create new jobs in the countryside. b People spend too m uch time watching TV For example. and radio as the most important. If ho us eholds just h ave one T V in rhe main li ving area. since consequently. the:re would be less traffic congestion and journey times w ould be reduced . 12 reason : because result : as a resulr. 10 Possible answers As a res ult . they arrive at school tile d and u nable to learn. and Hunt's safety pin 1849) c Students' own answers. d There are many otber importan t h istorical in ve n tions.••• 7 1 c • •••• Fey 5 b 2 f 6 e 3 d <1 a purpose: reason : result: in order to because. Th e number of working hours hould b e red u ced. Furthermore. as a result Unit2 Task 1 8 a b c People should be encouraged to exercise more . d This would lead to better communication between family members. e Consequently. By doing this. some children stay up late watching TV in their bedroom instead of getting a good night'S . The number of cars coming into cities should/coul d be restricted A good idea is for the governmen t to build more skyscrapers. and so example: for example solution: rhe obvious answer is '1 a paper lUoney. and TV a the most importam . 13 Possible answers A d e 9 a b c d e f obesity (o r stress) stress (echnology lack of disdpline traffic con gestion overcrowding If people migrate to cities. patented 1938 (other dates are Fahrenheit's thermometer 1714. computer. by doing this. lot as many males as females chose the mobile phone . people would not feel the need to move into ci ties which are already overcrowded. Internet. One possibili ty is for the governm ent to p rovide each employee WiIh their own compU ler. Durand' tin can 1810. For example.

· r males tha n females picked the radio. B y contrast but. wh. f Th e computer was chosen by slightly fe\"o'er females than males. while 3 but.. b n umbers of people c interests/societies d age grou ps e There is no lime reference.5 a M ore m ales than females 9 Possible answers a The bar hart probably provides infom1ation about the number of people in two di Uerent age groups who had various interests. d. far. significantly. but it is still quite li m ited. F urthe rm o r ' . These reveal a lot of information abo ut our ance stors. for example. much slightly 6 Relevant PQints: b. f eho e the car. 4 a 10 1c 5d 2e 6 b 3a 4 f b c d e 6 Slightly considerably M any d Substantiall y e significan tly f pracl ically g far h m uc b N . d More females than males picked the radio. e Task 2 8 Possible answers a Far more males t ban femal es ch ose th e car.. although 6 significan t.l y. 4. 6 Noun phrase only: in compa rison wi/h. g h Tradition does not hold us back as some people believe. Gov rnmems should provide m ore money to preserve historical sites. g 7 Possible answers __ .hey This it. They could do project work on historical periods or figures whQ intere t them . considerably 5 but. b Considerably more w om en th an m en sel ected th e mobile phone . 3. it it fthis f this g this 11 Ending could come first: 2. Th erefore.ereas 4 far.. pra ctically considerably. 12 Correct options 1 However. the discovery that the earth goes ro un d the su n. many. g The bicycle was selected by fewer males than female s.arly a b c it/this . h elp us to learn abo u t th e pas t. The computer was chosen by few r females than males . Studying history may ~ an in terest in Qther subject ~. they \vill become more aware of th e kin d of society that we live in. such as in Ancient Greece or during th e Roman Empire. Schools and colleges need to emphasize history and related subjects . g The bicycle was elected by slightly fewer males than females . b More women than meu selected the mobile phon c The Internet was chosen by more males than female s. e. c The Internet was chosen by significantly mor e males r11an females. They look for evidence in artefacts like p ots an d jewellery. 98 •• • . compared with 5 Stude nts' own ans wers. o r the first splitting of the atom. 9 Possible answers They eQuId visit historical places such as castles or archaeolQgical sites. . they will be able to compare these socie ties with our own . d Substan tially more females than males picked the radio . 2 1 d 2 b 3 a 4 c 8 Students' own answ rs . They ould research their own family history. e Fe\. 3 b Old buildings help create a more relaxing environment in cities than concrete office blocks . they will come tQ appreciate [h e contrib u tion lhat th ese sQcie ties m ade to the way ~ve think roday. 1 Archeolog ists. The Interne! and compu ters ca n be used [ 0 preserve the past.. 'ubstantiaUy. Other impQrtant histori cal e ents could be the ctiscQvery of Australia. 5. A s a resu lt. This is very useful. c d e Built-up areas can be mad e more attractive by adding monume nts and stat ues. no ticeably 2 7 a b n early. e Significantly fe w er males than female picked the radio .

It is tested and the m otorcycle is m anufactured. it repeats itself al l over again . 12 Possible answers One way is to en courage children to study history b y usin g th e Internet. a prototype is made . Once the paper is collected. become Intransi tive: fail. die Both : begin. th ey could sea rch for in form ation about histOrical figures online . The best wa y is probably to visit h istorical ire . Later the brea d is baked and sold. The flo ur is bo ugh t by a baker. it covers th e ground with a protective layer. it is sent to a centre for soning and then it is recycled. the h isto rica l places will come to seem more real. such as p roducing a p ster or an in forma tion booklet . e W hen the TV is assembled. wood. The wheat is transported to the m ill w h ere it is made into flour. Another method is to involve children in doing writing proje cts. As a resul t. 5 Transitiv e: design. send. glass b natural: gol d. they send huge amo unts of smoke into the air. h Once the prot otype h as b een tes ted. b When the cycle is completed. stone. For instance. lea ther manu factured : cement. falls where From this 5 Follo\ving that. glass bag: plastic shoe: 1 athe r car: steel. it is bou led. silver house : cement. c Ailer th e rubbish is collected. Before volcano es erup t. it is modified . dry. the lioness licks them all over. plastiC. gro w. children could visit a local archeological site . Th e skills that they practise in these sorts of projects could then b e applied in other subj ecis. Once a new model of the bicycle is developed. s soon as lh e water is p urifie d. it is sent [or re yeUng. plastic. • • •• 99 . mercurv an d sulphur ' e puriiied syngas f It drive it. g The data about the weather is collected. it is exported an d sold . a A. reaches 5 cool s 6 condense s 9 1 First of all f c 3 11 a 1 h old 2 rain s solution example example g effect e([ecI c e b d f h effect solution example solu tion 3 fil l 4 becomes 5 occur 6 rises 7 begins c. and the information is then broadcast. This coul d increase their motivation to do historical res earch . it is packaged and then it is dis tributed . rise. For e xample. c bOlh Semence a cannot be put inlO the passive . Ai ter this. Unit 3 Task 1 1 Possible answers a ring: gold. steel 7 1 b 6 e 2 c 7 3 a 8 g 4 h 5 d 8 a by conveyor belt b oxygen c raw syngas d ca rbon dioxide. d. silver. 11 Possible answers a As soon as the food is processed. wood. As soon as her cubs are born. ston e. th air becomes h u mid . The trees are cut down and the lorest is gradually destroyed. obtain. h th e turbin e Th ey are sen t to a heat reco cry steam generator. 6 in turn 7 then 8 subsequently 2 3 4 After that 4 a b intransiti ve transitive 10 a b When the snow fa l s. glass. and later th e crop is harvested . mamtfact ure. Wh en the plants perspire. it is sent to the shops.fte r th e moto rcycle is designed.••• ••••• ••• 10 Paragraph 1 2 Key 2 1 is extracted 3 Solutions Examples Effects a i b e h d g 2 3 4 is heated is cooled g It powers it. cool e d e 6 Som e variation is p ossible . it is rested . produce. b First the wh eal i planted.

and f. mendin g a puncture on a bicycle. w hich has now become much more complex. is effectively out of control.ragraph 2 Example : li. s JUli ons The which-clause expresses an effect in a. c. openin and locking doors. which will be even more common in the fu ture. c Student' own answers. a d Technology saves us more and m ore lime.es. is everyone's responsibility. switching machines on and off d IN rkers cannot do basic practical tasks . mobile phones. is by fa r the best. Office technology. is a lack of basic training. or even sewing a button on a shirt Cause: parents no longer have enough time to spend at home with their children Effect: young people are consequently deprived of valuable lime to I am practical skills 11 Possibl'e answers a Children are now learning how to do mental arithmetic again. is the cause of much frustration a t work . bUl by fa r the m ost important Pa. The cause of the problem. Task 2 1 Possible answers Comp uters. which means that they will rely less on calculators 100 • • • • • . au(Omatic doors. which wastes valuable time and can cost money. is to h ave a day at work wh ere people do not use computers or other machines. a The situation. Video games and lv1P3-players might also make people lazy in that peopl might c me to prefer usin g these instead of takin g up more active pastimes . All of them can make life difficult as it can take orne time to learn how to use tbem and they can go wrong. Ev rything seems to be available at the touch of a bulton.ng t use. b TV programmes provide people with infonnation about the world around them. d. which the public blame the government for. which makes people ex-pect instant responses from other people. c Machines now give us more freedom. a b c d 4 a allow the TV to do th eir thinking for them at home b traditional pra ctical skills e 5 Sometimes computers make mistakes and prevent things happening. Para graph 3 Cause: also needs to carry a good part of the blame Result 1: This has led to Result 2: it has also created Reason: becau e Example: lik e 7 3 a practical skills for everyday life b over-reliance on machines c office functions. w hich is not immediately obvi us to eve ryone. e They have dilficulty in processing basic information.k Cause : becau t: Ellect: consequently 2 auses. and satellite navigation systems can all belp. which require only basic lraini. which can be used to create more madlli1. e More and m ore household tasks are now carried out by robots. which means w have more time for leisure activities . The problem. b Automatic doors and TV remote controls might make people lazier. The solution. Paragraph 3 (> : j'nt ernatiooal drive towards leaming new technology Result 1: young people leavin school literate in certain computer skills Result 2: a generation almost deficient in ba ic practical skills Reason: tedmical problem solving bas been squeezed OUI of the curriculum Example : making thin g in carp ntry Call 6 computers make mistakes and pre vent things happening b information abo ut the world c machi nes nov give us more freedom d tim e e r bots f everything eems to be available a t th e touch of a utton a 9 Paragra ph 1 Problem: First of all Ca u e: A number of reasons have been put for ward for this. 0 that 8 Paragraph 2 Example: fiting a plug. which is often very useful.12 Stu dents' o wn answ n. 10 Result so therefore consequ n tly as a result and so fo r this reaso n as a consequence hence which leads to which means that Purp ose in order to so as to with the aim of . which in my opinion.

c. the most noticeable feature is that the majority read 1-5 artides . c It shows the number of articles read each week. overwhelming very big (used before numbers) : massive.••• b Some cities charge motorists to take their cars into the cemre in order to encourage people to use public transport. The percentages of ludents spending 1-7 hours and fifteen or more hours are very different in each case. v The average junior lecturer reads mort: journal articl than the average student. g Specific: a . e. K/!) 4 Paragraph I : a Paragraph 2: b. mere 13 Students' own answers. c. . are approximately the ~ame. The similarity between the diff rent proportions fo r undergraduates and postgraduates. The proportion. Most PhD students read more articles than other tudents and junior lecturers. For junior lecturers. compared \o ith PhD students. h 1 Students' own answers 2 The pie charts describe th e proponion. f g • • • • • 101 . b The number represent percentage f people . hefty very small: tiny not very big (used before n. Por PhD students. which that 75 per cent three out of four ree quarters 12 a pattern b proportion c majority d minority e trend f two-thirds g quarter 9 very big : vast. Far fewer junior Je turers read over twelve articles a we . d. most students read between one and five articles a week . 75 per cent c about one in three/just over one third: one in ten d Filty per cent. the number of hours spent in the library increases. d. As students progre s toward postgraduate level. f Unit 4 Task 1 6 General: b. Other stu dents spend less time in the library than postgraduate students. d Paragraph 3: e. d For all student . 0 that companies can sell more of them. Postgraduate students spend more time in the Ubrary than all other students. a 7 a 11 a The percentage who spent 8. but. a hefty 64 per cent/over ix ut of ten e The overwhelming/vast majority/ About nine out of ten b 5 General: a. f Paragraph 4: g 10 Possible arnswerrs a about one in four/just under a qua rter the overwhelming/vast majority of. g Specific: b.bo ut one in four just over a quarter 33 per cent one third one in three 48 per cent almost hali n early hali ju I under one half close to one hali d e 3 a how. Undergraduate students spend Ies time tha n other students in the library. b c 8 26 per cent a. c Machines are manufactured to break down after a certain time. e. A tiny minority of junior lecturers read only 1-5 articles per week . respectively whereas Meanwhile. d Those students who are researching for a PhD have more time to read articles than junior lecturers . the most noticeable feature is that the majority read 6-11 articles per week .14 h our in tbe library are imilar: 35 p r cent for all students and 32 per cent {or postgraduate. f.umbers): modest. the most noticeable feature is that the majority read twelve or more articles per week. c.s of each group reading particular numbers of article ' each week . There are three separate categorie~. but for different categories. but for different categorie~ of hours. c The average PhD student reads more articles than the other students at the un iversity. an b c d e For example. e In general.

a d It is important that boys and girl ought to be educated in separate schools. e Famous sports stars li ke footballers could. conduct training on a regular basis. either during or afte r school hours . 102 • • •• . The statements are very sweeping and do not dearly support the fjrst one. g Other people are of the opinion that it is imponant {or hildren to LTy to learn anoth er language arly in their education. b There is no doubt that students need to have good study skills on ntering university. a 5 Possible answers e Some people believe physical education is a necessary part of Lhe learning process for aU pupils. they can learn languages like Japanese or Russian. 9 Possible answers Some people are of the opinion that foreign langu age learning should be comp uJsory. For example. 6 e 6a d2 7/ c3 8h b4 S g because chis would help poorer countries and poorer parts of rich anmtries develop.Task 2 1 They are connected by the topic of education. 2 The town changed conSiderably over tbe peri od. c Yet others feel that university lecturers need some teacher train ing. Lecturers could. They were cut down and replaced by skyscrapers. d Students' own answers. c Dave: The ice rink. could be sponsored by richer ountries. Tom agre es the tOwn wa prettier and more pea cful. However. 1 Suggested answers a Dave th inks it wa worSe. as they are us d to lecturing rather than teaching which is n ot uitable fo r sma ll groups. for instance. th y stand alone ... c There were fewer tree s in 2005. follow short courses o r visit coUeges or schools. Sandra thinks it was better. note taking. Then you could give example . b A good example is the endless tests given to school children in some countri s. e SOIDe people think that teachers' salaries need to be as high as doctors' or lawyers' since they have such an important job to do. It can. and the kate park were opened by the council last year. s hoofs in places like . for example. C Take for example trips to place. b 11 was more residential. like: For example. Some people fe el that play is a major part of the learning race for children. boys are known to prefer competitive activities. There is now more lor young people to do. because it helps intellectual development. b No. c One cannot deny that teaching thinking at school is e sential. For instance. Sandra: A ypass an an industrial estat e were built a 4 Possible answers a It is important that universities should make more links with businesses. d It is impossible to argu e again I the fact that more time needs to be devoted to learning music. One reason for thjs is (h at the learn in different ways.. d It can. 0\ there is a bypass . of historical interest likt: The Great Wall of China or Istanbul. fo r instance. Unit 5 Task 1 3 Students' own ans wers. provide small classes an d sometimes even better facilities. even at primary level.1 . etc. b Students' own answers. c Yo u could give reasons like: a h Yet other people put forward the view that being bored and learning to deal with boredom is a necessary part of the learning process for children. since most subjects r quire a lot of sophis ticated skills like listening [0 lectures. d They were dramatic. he thinks there are more jobs and opportunities. II was quiet and peaceful.. b There is no doubt tha t the present young generation knows more than therr previous counterparts. e The construction o f the stadium an d tbe removal of the houses. the leisur centre. a few year ago. develop one's own lan guage and improve commun ication. 7 a 3 b 2 8 Possible answers For example. creating a future generation of doctors and lawyers requires go d welJpaid teachers in the present . 2 B th statements SllPP rt the opinion. for instance.

e The trees wae cut down . You cannot be neutral. By 2005. a 3 4 5 6 7 9 a b 8 9 10 4 a Th e tow n centre was developed dramatically. a number of spectacular changes bad taken place. g which 10 a Tbey are beside the railvvay line . By 2005. the whole centre of the town had been transformed by new developments. You can agree 50 per cent an d disagree 50 per cent. b a c a c contra st reason addition example result conclusion Task '2 1 Students' own answers. the ro w of old houses had been knocked down to make way for a road. By 2005. By 2005. a sports omplex had been conslrUcted in the suburbs.lnl of money as older people if they do identical work. By 2005. h A marina was also built. By 2005. f It is in the south -west of the town. the row of old terraced houses in [he city bad been pulled down and replaced by a block of fiats . e It is north of the skyscrapers. The neighbourhood was completely transformed. f The entertainment district wa s completely modernized. 5 Students' own answers. c d e g 5 b The town centre developed dramatically. d It is south oJ the goll course . the forest had been cut down to build a railway. the city centre had undergone a tota l transformation. c Over the next 25 years. a ll these houses were kl10cked down. h 6 a The map shows changes which took place between 19 0 and 2005. e The old houses were rebuilt .•••••• 3 2 K~j' 8 residential experienced noticeable houses factories facilitie construction comer comparison d cannot replace Between 2000 and 2005. f The area experienced dramatic changes . g The woodland made way for a golf course. g It is south of the river. c It is south-west of the stadium. the factory had been converted into an art gallery. d The single dwellings made way for skyscrapers. By 2005. b It is north-east of the lake . • • •• 103 . b Young employ e should receive the same amO). the area had been redeveloped completely. e becau se f Moreover. By 2005. By 2005. 2 You can agree or disagree completely. c The residential area was totalJy reconstructed d The old factories were totally redeveloped. 6 Delete the following : 1 Moreover 2 while 3 4 And also 5 however 6 Subsequently 11 a in d in g beside b 7 was knocked down was cut down c was redeveloped d was converted e underwent J was pulled down/replac d g was constructed h took place was transformed b a by e from b on c f beside on off 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 a. b cry few trees remained. 3 a b t d e Opinion statement Contradiction Example Explanafion Reason Reason Resuli f g 4 a Many people believe that b R wever c Take {or example d They deserve to receive the same salary . You have to express an opinion .

8
Po ssible answers
a Many feel that young people have m uch m ore influence in the world than their coumrparts in the past. Personally, I believe that this is not necessarily true, because most people in power belong to the older generation. For example, most politicians throughout the world are mainly middle -aged. Moreover, most wealth is concentrated among people in their forties upwards. So, young people may appear to exert influence, but it is limited. b Accorcting 10 some people, older workers are just as equipped to deal with the modem world as young people. However, I think that younger people are much more prepared because th ey are much more comp llt erlitera te than older peopJe. Moreover, they are welJacquainted with the latest 'gadgetS'. For example, many young people are able to design their own web pages and adapt quickly £0 the latest tools. Thus, I feel they are better at coping with today's world. c Some people are of the opinion that advertising should n ot be banned in TV programmes directed at young people. Nevertheless, I fe eL adverts in these programmes should be SlOpped, as they encourage young people to buy products that neither they nor their parents can afford. Take the latest toys or ED television sets. Pare n t~ may be put under enormous pressure to buy these, thus ending up in debt. So I think some control must be exercised over TV commercials in programmes for young people.

10
Possib,le answer
Some people feel [hat weblogs are ju t a waste of time and another w ay to lure people on to the Internet. Person ally, however, I feel that they are very useful for people of all ages, especially young people, fo r many reasons.

5
a pie chart b p ie chart c pie chart d pie chart e pie chart
I

3
1

2 4

6
a The vast majority of holiday makers to China ... b It is clear that aIm st equal n umbers of bot h sexes ... c Only a Lin y minority of filmg oers ... d Tn conclusion, the trend is Jearly upward, with just under hall of companies ... e To su m up, neady a third of all tourists ...

Unit6
Task 1

1
Students' own answers.

2
Possible answers
Student exchanges, language learning, joint ultural events, and shared cientific, and technological know- h ow an be canied out by individuals. Trade agreements, transport links, and media images can be i.m proved by governments. Tourism can be carried out by both individuals and governments. Climate and landscape, and lifestyle and culture are difficult to change .

7
Overall It is clear that To conclude It is evident tha l It would seem th at It is clear that In conclusion To sum up

8
a Backpacking is popular with the youngest gr up an d guided tours relatively unpopular. This pattern is reversed for (he oldest group . b 31-40 year aids c satisfied

3
a the overwhelming majority of people were in (a vour of b with iii smaller n umber nam ing lifestyle and fo od c the most important languages, about equal numbers of people

9
2 3 4 5

4
a Sentence a rela tes to student exchanges, b relates to climate, and c relates to language learning . b Sentence a is illustrated by pie chart 1~ b is illustrated by pie chart 4, and c is illustrated by pie char t 3,

enj oyed belong accounts for comes 6 make up 7 include 8 is rated

10
It is dear ...

11
a although, ne vertheless b although is a conjunc1ion, nevertheless is an adverb. Nevertheless normally starts a sentence. c bU L however, despite

9
1 a 2 C 4 b

104 •

•••


But is a conjunction. however is
an adverb and normally starts a sentence. Despite can only be used before a noun or an -i119 form .

Key

4
a b c d e f bene fi t help difficult enable/help interfere ideal

11
Advantage : advantageo us, beneficial, useful , invaluable. helpful, convenient Disadvantage: wonhless, di Uicu It

12
a 3
b 1
c 5
d 2

e 4

12
advantageous - di advantageous beneficial - detrimental useful- useless wonhless - valuable/invaluable invaluable - w orthle difficult - easy belpful- unhelpful convenient - inconv !li ent

13
a Although the ast majority of visitors to Britain come from Europe, they stay for fewer than len days on average . b Although forty-five per cent of people speak a for ign language. tb e vast majority are at a low le vel. ( Despite its/the good weather, southern France is vi ited by only two per cent of Asian tou rists . d The number of student exchanges rose, but/altho ugh the st of them wenl up . e Although the event was promoted to teenager, they accounted for only 32 per cent of the audience.

5
Advantage: h Jp, benefits, ideal. enable Disadvantage diliicult, interfere, enable

6
a b e for example. so, however. hence, neverth eless, because c Th y allow people to relax; they allow people grealer freedom; they are a nui ' ance for other travellers .

13
Possible answers
International art s festival s en ourage intt:n:sl in [her people's cultures. b Lending artworks to o ther countries improves th eir: knowledge of other culture . c Films and (oncert enhance the quality of people 's lives. d To enable children to value their heritage, we need to show (hem how strongly it still influences society tOday. e Personal links can bene fi t travellers when they are out of their own country. Ignorance of th er people 's traditions can handicap b usin ess partn erships . g To prevent countries from falling out with each olher, we need to promote interest in part icular cultures. a

7
for example even if likewise 4 though 5 Although 6 and 7 Conseque ntly
2 3

Task 2

1
Stu dents' own answers

8
2
the first sentence b the s cond sen renee (advanta es and disadvan tages ) a a
b
(

disad vantage (, e, f, h Main advantage: this aT/ows

3
(Some other entertainment devices may be possible.)

p.:ople greater freedom and flexibility and takes away the boredom ofjoll rneys. Main disadvantage: people are becomi11g more and more isolated in their OW1/ worlds. The art of communication is being lost.

14
a
I Although, 2 Despite

a Advantage: iPod, DVD player b Advantage: Mobile phone. c Disadvantage: iPod, handheld game . d Advantage: iPod, handheld game. e Advantage: iPod, mobile phone, handheld game, DVD player Disadvantag : iPod. g Disadvantage: Mobile phone. h Disadvantage: iPod, handheld game.

b

I emphasizes the
disadvantage, 2 emphasizes the advantage.

9
a b c d e f g drawbacks chance gain problems handicap opportunities benefit

15
a b c d Although However/N vertheless Despite However:/Nevertheless but

e

10
SerioliS emp basizes disadvantage .

• •

105

Unit 7
Task 1

d

1
Students' own answers.

2
a

There was little hange over the period. onJy a slight increase from each source. b The highest proportions were allocated by non-European countries (Japan and USA . c business d the EU average The highest proportion was allocated by Japan, the lowest by Italy.

ot surprisingly, there were kills shortages in the chemical industry. e It is evident that inveslment needs to be increased. 1t is noticeable that the patter for investment in the arts is the reverse. g It is more important that the cost of plasma screens is set to fall. h It is not surprising that analogue TV sales then fell.

proponion among EU oUllIries wa below that for Japan and the USA.

12
a students on all courses at an Au tralia n unjversit y b seve n c maths d phy ic . rientallanguages e chemistry f Apparently not. Fo( example. chemistry and physic are both science subjects but chemistry was seen as easy by 70 per cent of students and p bysics by only 25 per en t. Likewise, among language subjects. African languages were seen as easy by 60 per cent but oriental languages by onl y 20 per cen t.

9
Sentences b, and d are possible .

10
a The number of science graduates fell significantly. b Evide ntly. the number of technical staff in hospitals is falling . c The cost of training scientists is increasing noticeably year by year. d Interestingly. investment in capital equipment like spedalist machinery is down on last year. e ot surprisingly, sale of new televisions soared before the World Cup. The trend is now obviously upward.

3
is shown arne overtoo ' 8 contributed
2
4 6

3

5 7

rose contribut was spent 9 wa '

13
a b c d

4
slightly, approximately, consistently, closely, significantly. considerably

5
a sign iii can tly b consistently highly d slightly e marginally f considerably g Approximately h substantially

irrelevant relevant rele vant irrelevant becau e it contains an unn essary opinion e relevant f irrelevant as it give t 0 mu ch data. or rather unnecessary inionnat ion abou t how the bar chart is drawn

11
Possible answers
a

14
Possible answer
The bar chart shows whether stude nt at an Australian university rated different subjects as easy, moderately difficult. or difficult. Tbe subject which was most commonly rated as dif[icult was maths. by 70 P r cent of tudems. Only 20 per cent saw it as easy. Physics was also largely judged to be a dillicult or moderately difficult subject. Only 25 per cent of students 'ewed it as easy. By contrast, chemistry was regarded as easy by a massiv . 70 per cent of students. A far as language subjects are concerne d. language in general were seen as easy by 40 percent of students. This percentage dropped to 20 pe rcent for orienta languages. African languages, however, were iewed as ea y by 60 per cent of ruden ts. An was
"

6
a 4
f 2

b 5 g 6

c 3

d 7

e 1

7
It is also noticeable that It is interesting to note that

8
a The number of sdentists per head of population has declin d significantly in rece n t year . b It is interesting that the sales failed to recover. c Numbers will probably contin ue to fall over the period.

Funding for R&D increased only marginally over the period. Bu in ess provided approximately halI of the investment in ! 998. The amount of funding increased very slowly over the period. b Japan allocated considerably more of its national income to R&D than Ita] y. Evidently, the four EU countries invested less than the USA or Japan. The proporti on of national income given to R&D was noticeably higber in Germany and France than in Italy. The proportion allocated by the UK was onJy slightly above the EU average. Interestingly. tlle average

106 • • • • •

d A case in point are certain works which depict religious figures . more regular contact between tl1e two would help scientists to appreciate' the way in which scientilic advances are perceived in society as a whole. Yet others believe that the work of scientists should n Ot be tightly regulated by society. and there is very linie human contact involved. they will encourage musical talent in their children. Take the job of lab technician for instance. It is argued by some people that many sdentific experiments are dangerous 10 society. uch as cancer or AIDS if the n o n-~cienti fic commun ity were allowed to interfere with scientist ' work? 8 a2 b5 c4 ell e3 9 would. They claim that there are m any examples where serious mistakes bave been made. e f g 2 a first sentence b second sentence c third sentence h 3 I c 2 b 3 a that science is now playing a more important role in our lives than in the past. and vjce versa. They claim that modem economies cannot advance without a strong scientific base . 50 per cent rated it as dillicult. It is argued by some people that the work of artists should be censored. Some people feel that science is dull and boring. b If science stops the ageing process in humans one day. h For instance. They maintain tbat spending time alone in laboratories withou t much human contact is not very interesting. In conclusion. 5 a4 IS bl g7 c3 h6 d5 e2 6 Possible answers b Some people feel that the wealth of a nation is connected with scientific development. Supporters of ans groups feel 7 Possible answers b A good example here is Germany. c For example. will this benefit mankind? c Unless there is an effon to keep traditional crafts alive. a 4 Many people feel strongly. which produces a large number of sdence graduates and has a thriving economy. Background information: Leonardo da VInci was a famous Italian anis! and inventor who aimed the Mona Lisa . when we buy food frOID the supermarket the flavourings and additives bave all been measured and tested sdentilically. how could we continue to research cures fo r disease. People feel that it has an effect on everything we do from eating to travelling. g A good example is certain tests in which possible new medica l drugs were tried out on humans only to find that they bad unforeseen and very serious effects on the subjects' health . could and might talk about possibility. d Providing innovation is encouraged. like physics. 10 Unless they are ncouraged by parents and teachers. 11 Possib le answers a Provided parents have an interest in m lJ sic. For example. • • • • 10' . budding musicia ns will not develop . we might stop certain beneficial developments. they will disappear. They maintain that certain works of art that are produced are offensive and should be banned. many new jobs will be created. Albert Einstein was a famous theoretical physicist who came up with the theor)' of relativity. Sentence d asks the reader to imagine a situation and its consequence. It involves dealing with tests and test resul ts. . Sir Isaac A eWlOn was an English scientist and mathematician who described the properties of gravity. there seerru to be no dear correspondence between the type of subject and whether it was generally rated as easy or dillicult. c A commonly held belief is Key e d Task 2 1 Students' own answers. Some people think that scient ists should have some involvement with artists. They argue that by limiting scientillc work. They argue that bringing these two groups toge ther would be better for society as a whole .•• judged to be an easy subject by only 30 per cent of students and. They argue. Nicola us Copernicus was a Polish sdentist who recognized that the Earth orbited the Sun.

3 and 1. forecas t is not expected r is projected.600). They relate t the number of houses. 1t was estimated that 3. will be g is set h is anticipa ted. Recently. 10 It is predicted that the use of solar energy will become more Lmportant.500 thousand houses. e North of England. anticipation b projected.3 . The highest numbers of houses were onstructed in Southern England (77.000. imilarly in the onh of England. b We see from the chart that the largest amount of money was spe nt on the water conservation project.200) .3 per cent r especti vely (n ol . in orthern Ireland the stimate was for 2.7 p er cent (nor 1. and ' very concerned' 25 per cent). it can be seen that hydroelectric powe r constitute seven per cent of the world energy demand. It is clear that tlte majority o t p eople are very concerne about climate change.. In Wales. a number of campaigns have encouraged people 10 plant trees.200). a 1 Possible answers a The photographs relate ro our changing future relationship with the environment. h cotland. the estimated number was below the number of houses which were actually built.300 . 1. estimated. Loudon (47. set a with the worldwide average fo r both 2015 and 2025 . and i Central England (16.2 00 hou es would be built bu t in the event Ih figure was nly 3. b seven c below d outhern England (77 . Unless entrance to museums and art galleries i free. forecast c prediction: expectation.100 respectively) . the work they do has the potential to be of enormous benefit to society. 0-600 million 3 a b c d will pr dieted. forecast. b-d Students' own answers.500 . 64 per cent. These figur far exceeded (he estimate . there 5 a b c d e is predi ct d. m any people will never experience them at all . . London (47. 6 Sentence a decribes something which ""rill happen before a future time. will provid are expected will come i. Ireland Hungary the pie chart Yes. it can be seen that Unit 8 Task 1 8 a b c d e ( the pie chart It is projected to increase . 300 houses while the actual figure was 1. f Nonhern Ireland an d Wa e . anticipated.800). estimation predicted: expected. d From the pie chart. will provide 108 • • • • • . anticipated that the figure will cl imb from 0. 10 . and 8. it is forecast that the reforestation rate It is al'O worth noting that From the pie chart. 0 per cent and 1. Sentence b describes something in progress at a time in the future. 00 ). Likewise. it was estimated that 2. 9 The charts show forecasts for the ann ual reforestation (not deforestalion) rate in selected regions 2 They forecast tha t the reforestation rate in th fou r regions will grow u nti l 2025 (not 2035) 2 a 1f shows predictions for the b c number of buildings that will be powered by solar and wind energy. will predicted 3 It i projected that Ireland will hav the highest ra te in 2025 at 1. 12 It gives in thousands the estimated and actual numbers of houses built in the UK in 2002.000. a 13 Possible answer The diagram give figures for the actual and estimated numbers o f houses built in the UK by region in 2002 . In most cases. c The chart shows th· different types /of trees which are found in different regions.900 houses would b built. will prediction. far exceeding the estimates (5 1. 24.5 per cent in 200 (not 20]5) 5 6 4 projection. The estimate was 9. 7 a b c d e w ill be using will be living will have been old will have become will h ave been de troyed 11 Generally. they will be forced to seek funding elsewhere.0) 1 ('concerned' 39 per cent.5 pt'r cent) 4 It i. but the rea l n umber was 5. Providing young scientists are given the right opp ort unities. g Scotland. but the rea l fi ure was 6.800) and in Central England (16.800.b c d IJ govemment support for ans projects is not available.

c d 2 2 3 4 factories pollutants fish 5 wildlife 6 7 8 9 leisure pressure action incentives e Unit9 Task 1 3 animal . Insects like the bees.500 for the actual fig ure. b While rhe trend was upward f r the French hospital. In conclusion.table fact . to conclude I do n ot agree: I do not accept. I disagree with the idea tha t All in all: in generaL all thillg considered I feel that: I be lieve. d There is no reason why governments should not give special financial suppon to eco-frie ndly busines people. n o article e no article f the g The.uncountabl action .countable situation .uncountable cl imate . 'fhe Facilities Uke dams and forests are also used for leisure.countable £<e \' Question 2 Statement of opinion: b Reference to rhe opposite view: e Reason against the opposite view: g 5 a n o article. 2. In the n ear fut ure.countable factOries . I would argue tha t certainly: of ourse. Government worldwide should ta x the cars more .uncountable I isure . dTOugh t and other natural disasters. the introduction of such technology also crea les a pro blem.countable information . The bottles would rhen not be thrown away. Task 2 10 a There i no rea on why loca e o-friendly busincs es cannO! b uccessfll!.countable oll utants .uncountable wildlife . th average bed occupancy dropp d noticeably after the introduction of day-surgery.uncountable incentives .uncountable nature .3 00. However.uncountable research .000 between th two figures. It was esti mated tbat 3. orthern Ireland and Wales followed the same trend. hOllses will be more energy-eilicient than rhey are now. for example. b There is no reason why people could not take more holida y$ at home instead of always flying abroad .countable 1 St udents' own answer .• was a disparity of just 0 er 4. c There is n o reason why people could not tra vel by fast train instead of taking short [lights. c The trend for the Ukrainia n h ospital was similar to that of the French ho pitat but the fall in bed use after 2003 was not as marked. as well as oth er effects ot: global warming . • 109 .900 compared to 6.countable idea . b-d Students' own an wers. pla y a vital role in m ost ecosystems . 1 Possible answers a b The most serious threats are water sh nages.uncountable weather . 7 aJ 2 a b 2 c2 dl e2 fI g 2 8 Question I Statement of most important measure : d Another possible measure and why it is I 5S effective: [ 4 problem .500 houses as o pposed to 5. it is clear that many more houses were built io the UK in 200_ th an had been anticipated.un countable accom modation . The food industry could pay for recycled b t lIes as was done in the past. and 2.000.200 houses would e constructed but in th e event th figure was only 3.uncountable knowledge . A measure like this would make people think more about nature.300 houses for the estimated figure against L3. Scotla n d was the region where the lowest number of houses we re bu ilt. pressure . 9.000.coun. n o article b no anicle the d a.uncountable Resta tement o[ most important meas ure and it consequences: a The graph gives information about rhe average use of beds in three typical hospital around the world before an d after day-surgery is introduced. Th bee pollina tes plants and flowers. n o article h The Restatement of opinion: c 9 In conclusion: to sum up. n doubt 6 a Wave power techn ology is th e best answer to lhe problem of pollution .countable fish .uncountable tree .

3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 iO II 12 impact trend occupancy p eak falling marked ex:p erienced ris e significantly d ear reduction 4 a b c d information idea scheme r\H:.d You can make a con n ection betw een the coinddental [aU in th e budget for inpatient care and the fall in bed occupan cy. c This prediction may seem surprising. Verbs ending witllY + ·ina : no change. b This idea could ha ve benefits both for people's health and the education of docto rs and n urses.information 5 2 impact . The effects ConclUSion: the COIl c/IiS ioll IS 8 Spelling rules i before . b ut the changes will res u lt in a more efficient h ealth service.lin 'WCl'>.:ceeded survey Possibl e answers Thi s issue n eeds to be considered when planning th e h ealt h care b udge! for any country. e Yo u can use trend to summarize information.use 5 p eak . bu t I believe costs will be reduced as tech nology be com es more widely available .evident 12 reduction . 1 6 a 1 [ 6 b 3 g 4 c 5 h 8 d 7 e 2 2 1 2 7 a before receive c stu dying d useful e P 'Jsonally f sufJi cienr g defin itely h di ffe rent choice referred b 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 strangely well su rprisingly Widely accurately often seriously well frequently Clearly 3 T\:le paragraph fo llows se ntence panem a.considerably 11 d ear . YOll can use except that to introduce detail which is differen t from the general trend/pattern. approxim2lld y fluct ua ted e:-.ten dency 4 occupancy .riti es. e The situation. You can use the phrase similar pattern to compare simila.itely.dropping 7 marked . eg personally. You can use change to describe d c!.high point 6 faJling . Organizing words Situati on: The idea ExampJe: Ta ke th e example 0 1 Effects . except after C:. Words of m ore tban one syllable: the consonant doubles if the finaJ syllable is stressed: r~feTTed . d Initially.cut/decrease 9 a b c d e f g h graduillly which occurred peak fig ures.. a 10 average accid ents I dramatically improvement steadily regards motorcycle occurring 5 Incorrect answers to be deleted: a says b had an affect on c re ached a heigh t d design e alternatively [ towards 110 • • • • • . g contrast with h G lD be vievved in Task 2 Stu dent's own . is one th at can be p repared for by setting money aside for the fu ture. Nou n + full : remove th e second / == rlse/ul. You can u se reach a peak to describe a high poin t. You CJl1 use co in cido to show ' when things bappen ilt the sa me ti me.lldi ng in a vowel then y : y does no! change. Words (. in -e : add -/y and keep the e. Adverbs (rom adjectives ~n dio g in -al: add -Iy and remove nothing. You can use upward to sh ow th e direction of the tren d.iHtrence that OCClrrs. You can use saw a continuous rise as an alternative to rose. however. eg studying . Adc:verbs from adjectives enti iJl'.'.sha rp 8 experienced .increase 10 Significan tl y . bu t not after ch: ach ieve. this m ay be a p roblem. eg studying.saw 9 rise .eilect 3 trend . receive. eg defin. vvheth er they are related or nol.a$ ll re e f issue solution g knowledge h opinion problem 4 1 details .

this equipm eOl can be dangerous if it is not used properly. Information: contested by different people . this advice is n ot often followed.. d It i clear that the number of Hats occupied by si ngle people in major dties in the West is pUlling press ure on housing . 8 a is e has b has f are care g is d is h have 4 5 reaching a peak in December. The y refer to the reasons under consideration . a an explanation b with is n ormally followed by a n oun then a erb with -i119. b Unfortunately. with manufacturing costs decreasing at the same time. e From the graphs. b c 6 a Sales were 1I pward for most of the year. . it is a trend which is not looked on favourably by some western doctors. with passenger numbers dropping in ummer an rising in w inter. .•• Measures like this could lead t a significant improvemeOl in the nation's h ealth. the chart sh ows that tbe media art:: responsible for urning pt'C'p/e into celcbritks. The pursuit of a professional career among both men and woman has led to a lIoticeablr' reduction in the birth rate . Problem: high cost of gyms ! health ceo tres . with the highest point being in January. the reverse of the younger age group . this work is carried out by h ealth care assistants. d The pattern was different.body. Cons umption of energy rose. h This is a matter that needs to be considered w hen plannin g for future spending. Effects: may be due to influence on the mind as weU a. takes lip attention Measure : music therapy. with 50 per cent chOOSing it. c exercise an d hea lth Effects: strengthens muscles. h Overall. are much more mobiJe than previous generations. d Enormous progress has been made in understanding how disease spreads. g There are several similarities in th e presentation of the data. 9 This information is published all around us. a Unit 10 Task 1 Sru deuts' own answers . Opinions: health practitioners versus peop le wh o have experienced these therapies. even on ci garette packets. a 6 7 7 a True d False g False b False True h True c f False False • • •• ". there is certainly some evidence thaI it is more than ju t a placebo . Th e most n oticeable fea tures are the imponance of money and the position of friends. cIt . with accommodation for indiv iduals being in short supply.expeded that the price of one bedroom nat will rise. 4 a The sales of specialisllours h ave fallen recent ly. herbalism. it can be c ondudedthat y oungpeop~ 6 Possible answers music and health Effect: h elps people relax . helps coordination. e The trend was clearly upward. They show the differe nt ways in which the two age groups were influenced by tbe various factors. The most noticeable feature s are the imponance of m oney and parents. e However. help people to relax. with the profit d e 3 2 3 the main reasons for ch oosing a care er were influenced by the various factors were the reverse for the 40-50 age group As regards teachers and role models nine and fifteen per cent respec1ively for the younger group The only similarity between the two age groups than an y other facto rs 7 Students' own answers. 2 a 5 Both chart refer to the main re<1 SOns for choosing a career according to age group. g Not su rp ri singly. Scheme: companies offer gym membership as pan of package to staff. 111 D . g Some research has been carried out 'which shows that elderly people live longer if they liv e wi ih a partner. c Instead. b The main reason for career choice was ambition. used sometimes 10 treat pat ients with communication problem . b alternati e therapies and health Example: homeopathy. However.

7ke happiness. because it cann o t pr vide emotional suppo rt. then ocietyas a w hole will benefit. while. b Par many people. so. Question 2 : b. The latter aim is an illusion as n obody j e ver completely free. II this is done . developing a healthy mind is just as imponant. money is important to gain a certain financial securi ty. e if. a. and therefore. like b as. For example. in addi tion. then there is no longer any need to pursue unrealistic ambitions . aU in alL in general Happiness and contentment are more important than th e pursuit of freedom . also. (structure b) It is better to refonl1 criminals iI/stead ofjust pllflisT1i1l9 them. (stnlCl ure c) 8 Sugg ested answers a b c d e f g h Problem and solution Measures and results Cause and effect Reason and example Example and specific example Effect and example Additional inIormation and example ConditionlHyporhesi and result Concession and contrast 9 Possible answers a Money is n ot a important as frie nds. a. since c as a result. d. Society will also not have to pay fo r th e cost of keeping criminals in priso ns. if you want to have a relaxing time at home you still n eed money. provided bu t. However. you need money for the ticket and for transport. Many people living in poor housing conditions are still happy. c U one is content with liIe. Also. e . furthermore . despite g although. a 10 Possible answer And yet other people believe [h at the family play an important role LO maintaining a good qualit y of life. c Question 3: c. d W hat is involved in achieving a good qUality of life depends on many factors rather than just one . b. To what extt!nt do yotl agree or disagree? It is impossib le to deny th aI mon ey h elps people to a ch ieve h appiness because it is impossibl to do anyiliing in liIe without il. Sotheideathatyou have to have a high standard of Uving to b happy is false. wher eas .a nswers l Money d ves nof JI/. even to buy a TV or a computer. a 2 Question 1: a Question 2: c Question 3: b 7 Possible answers for example. this leads to d moreover. whi ch are very e xpensive p laces to run . one reason for this is. despite h and so. therefore. For example. 4 Text 1 2 a 1 [. a rase in point is. I think that criminals o f all levels should be given a chance to be a pan of society ra ther thanjusl being put into prison. 112 • . unless. this means that. e 1 Question 1: b. d. Text 2 4 a 5 b 3 a 6 b Text 3 7 a 8 b 5 Student s' own answers . You just have to look at societies wh e re there are exte nde d fami lies 10 see how mu ch m ore content peop le are because they are surrounde d by relatives v\lhn love them and can look a fter them if th ~ y fa ll ill o r ha ve problems. keeping fi t and healthy is the main factor which is necessary for a good quali ty of lile. but it is n o t enough on its own. This support i not just financial but also emotional. for instance.Task 2 6 U you want to achieve a good score band. you need to be able to tick Always for aU of the items in tne Ust. 'W hat measures could be taken fa attempt to integrate law-b"eakers back into society ? Personally. Of course. if you want to ee a fi lm or a play at tbe theatre. and. however. 3 Possib. to sum up. then the offender will have a better chance of not reoffending.

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