A compilation of the Abridged Tafsir Ibn Kathir Volumes 1 - 10. In The English Language with Arabic Verses Biography of Hafiz Ibn Kat hir - The Aut hor of Tafsir Ibn Kat hir By t he Honored Shaykh ` Abdul-Qadir Al-Arna'ut , may Allah prot ect him. He is t he respect ed Imam, Abu Al-Fida', ` Imad Ad-Din Isma il bin 'Umar bin Kat hir Al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi - Busraian in origin; Dimashqi in t raining, learning and residence. Ibn Kat hir was born in t he cit y of Busra in 701 H. His fat her was t he Friday speaker of t he village, but he died while Ibn Kat hir was only four years old. Ibn Kat hir's brot her, Shaykh Abdul-Wahhab, reared him and t aught him unt il he moved t o Damascus in 706 H., when he was five years old. Ibn Kat hir's Teachers Ibn Kat hir st udied Fiqh - Islamic j urisprudence - wit h Burhan Ad-Din, Ibrahim bin ` Abdur-Rahman Al-Fizari, known as Ibn Al-Firkah (who died in 729 H). Ibn Kat hir heard Hadit hs from ` Isa bin Al-Mut im, Ahmad bin Abi Talib, (Ibn Ash-Shahnah) (who died in 730 H), Ibn AlHaj j ar, (who died in 730 H), and t he Hadit h narrat or of Ash-Sham (modern day Syria and surrounding areas); Baha Ad-Din Al-Qasim bin Muzaffar bin ` Asakir (who died in 723 H), and Ibn Ash-Shirdzi, Ishaq bin Yahya Al-Ammuddi, also known as ` Afif Ad-Din, t he Zahiriyyah Shaykh who died in 725 H, and Muhammad bin Zarrad. He remained wit h Jamal Ad-Din, Yusuf bin Az-Zaki AlMizzi who died in 724 H, he benefit ed from his knowledge and also married his daught er. He also read wit h Shaykh Al-Islam, Taqi Ad-Din Ahmad bin ` Abdul-Halim bin ` Abdus-Salam bin Taymiyyah who died in 728 H. He also read wit h t he Imam Hafiz and hist orian Shams Ad-Din, Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Ut hman bin Qaymaz Adh-Dhahabi, who died in 748 H. Also, Abu Musa Al-Qarafai, Abu Al-Fat h Ad-Dabbusi and 'Ali bin ` Umar As-Suwani and ot hers who gave him permission t o t ransmit t he knowledge he learned wit h t hem in Egypt . In his book, Al-Mu j am Al-Mukht as, Al-Hafiz Adh-Dhaliabi wrot e t hat Ibn Kat hir was, "The Imam, scholar of j urisprudence, skillful scholar of Hadit h, renowned Fagih and scholar of Tafsir who wrot e several beneficial books." Furt her, in Ad-Durar Al-Kdminah, Al-Hafiz Ibn Haj ar AlAsqalani said, "Ibn Kat hir worked on t he subj ect of t he Hadit h in t he areas of t ext s and chains of narrat ors. He had a good memory, his books became popular during his lifet ime, and people benefit ed from t hem aft er his deat h." Also, t he renowned hist orian Abu Al-Mahasin, Jamal Ad-Din Yusuf bin Sayf Ad-Din (Ibn Taghri Bardi), said in his book, AlManhal As-Safi, "He is t he Shaykh, t he Imam, t he great scholar ` Imad Ad-Din Abu Al-Fida'. He learned ext ensively and was very act ive in collect ing knowledge and writ ing. He was excellent in t he areas of Fiqh, Tafsfr and Hadit h. He collect ed knowledge, aut hored (books), t aught , narrat ed Hadit h and wrot e. He had immense knowledge in t he fields of Hadit h, Tafsir, Fiqh, t he Arabic language, and so fort h. He gave Fat awa (religious verdict s) and t aught unt il he died, may Allah grant him mercy. He was known for his precision and vast knowledge, and as a scholar of hist ory, Hadit h and Tafsir." Ibn Kat hir's St udent s Ibn Haj j i was one of Ibn Kat hir's st udent s, and he described Ibn Kat hir: "He had t he best memory of t he Hadit h t ext s. He also had t he most knowledge concerning t he narrat ors and aut hent icit y, his cont emporaries and t eachers admit t ed t o t hese qualit ies. Every t ime I met him I gained some benefit from him." Also, Ibn Al-` Imad Al-Hanbali said in his book, Shadhardt Adh-Dhahab, "He is t he renowned Hafiz ` Imad Ad-Din, whose memory was excellent , whose forget fulness was miniscule, whose underst anding was adequat e, and who had good knowledge in t he Arabic language." Also, Ibn Habib said about Ibn Kat hir, "He heard knowledge and collect ed it and wrot e various books. He brought comfort t o t he ears wit h his Fat was and narrat ed Hadit h and brought benefit t o ot her people. The papers t hat cont ained his Fat was were t ransmit t ed t o t he various (Islamic) provinces. Furt her, he was known for his precision and encompassing knowledge." Ibn Kat hir's Books 1 - One of t he great est books t hat Ibn Kat hir wrot e was his Tafsir of t he Noble Qur'an, which is one of t he best Tafsir t hat rely on narrat ions [of Ahadit h, t he Tafsir of t he Companions, et c.]. The Tafsir by Ibn Kat hir was print ed many t imes and several scholars have summarized it . 2- The Hist ory Collect ion known as Al-Biddyah, which was print ed in 14 volumes under t he name Al-Bidayah wanNihdyah, and cont ained t he st ories of t he Prophet s and previous nat ions, t he Prophet 's Seerah (life st ory) and Islamic hist ory unt il his t ime. He also added a book Al-Fit an, about t he Signs of t he Last Hour. 3- At -Takmil ft Ma` rifat At h-Thiqat wa Ad-Du'afa wal Maj dhil which Ibn Kat hir collect ed from t he books of his t wo Shaykhs Al-Mizzi and Adh- Dhahabi; Al-Kdmal and Mizan Al-Ft iddl. He added several benefit s regarding t he subj ect of Al-Jarh and At T'adil. 4- Al-Hadi was-Sunan ft Ahadit h Al-Masdnfd was-Sunan which is also known by, Jami` Al-Masdnfd. In t his book, Ibn Kat hir collect ed t he narrat ions of Imams Ahmad bin Hanbal, Al-Bazzar, Abu Ya` la AlMawsili, Ibn Abi Shaybah and from t he six collect ions of Hadit h: t he Two Sahihs [Al-Bukhari and Muslim] and t he Four Sunan [Abu Dawud, At -Tirmidhi, AnNasa and Ibn Maj ah]. Ibn Kat hir divided t his book according t o areas of Fiqh. 5-Tabaqat Ash-Shaf iyah which also cont ains t he virt ues of Imam AshShafi. 6- Ibn Kat hir wrot e references for t he Ahadit h of Adillat At Tanbfh, from t he Shafi school of Fiqh. 7- Ibn Kat hir began an explanat ion of Sahih Al-Bukhari, but he did not finish it . 8- He st art ed writ ing a large volume on t he Ahkam (Laws), but finished only up t o t he Haj j rit uals. 9- He summarized Al-Bayhaqi's 'Al-Madkhal. Many of t hese books were not print ed. 10- He summarized ` Ulum Al-Hadit h, by Abu ` Amr bin AsSalah and called it Mukht asar ` Ulum Al-Hadit h. Shaykh Ahmad Shakir, t he Egypt ian Muhaddit h, print ed t his book along wit h his comment ary on it and called it Al-Ba't h Al-Hat hft h fi Sharh Mukht asar ` Ulum Al-Hadit h. 11- As-Sfrah An-Nabawiyyah, which is cont ained in his book AlBiddyah, and bot h of t hese books are in print . 12- A research on Jihad called Al-Ij t ihad ft Talabi Al-Jihad, which was print ed several t imes. Ibn Kat hir's Deat h Al-Hafiz Ibn Haj ar Al-Asgalani said, "Ibn Kat hir lost his sight j ust before his life ended. He died in Damascus in 774 H." May Allah grant mercy upon Ibn Kat hir and make him among t he resident s of His Paradise. The Tafsir of Surat Al-Fat ihah (Chapt er 1) Which was revealed in Makkah The Meaning of Al-Fatihah and its Various Name This Surah is called Al-Fat ihah, t hat is, t he Opener of t he Book, t he Surah wit h which prayers are begun. It is also called, Umm Al-Kit ab (t he Mot her of t he Book), according t o t he maj orit y of t he scholars. In an aut hent ic Hadit h recorded by At -Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih, Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや ぁ ぺヱ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや ぁ ぺ リΒ͡ ャゅ∠ ∇ャや ゆケ ぶ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや» ͡ わ͡ ュ⊥∠ ͡ ⊥ ュ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ «ユΒ͡ バ∇ャや ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや∠ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ノ∇らジャや∠ ⊥ ヌ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヱ ル ん∠ ⊥ z ヱ (Al-Hamdu lillahi Rabbil-` Alamin is t he Mot her of t he Qur'an, t he Mot her of t he Book, and t he seven repeat ed Ayat of t he Glorious Qur'an.) It is also called Al-Hamd and As-Salah, because t he Prophet said t hat his Lord said, や∠ みプ ∩͡ ∇Βヘ∇ダル ヵ͡ ∇らハ リ∇Βよヱ ヶ͡ ∇Βよ りゅ∠ダャや ろ∇ヨジホ» ク͡∠ リ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ヤz ⊥ ∠ ∠ :ぶや メゅ∠ ∩∠ Β͡ ャゅ∠ ∇ャや ゆケ ぶ͡ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや:ギ∇らバ∇ャや メゅ∠ ⊥ ∠ ホ リ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ キ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ «ヵ͡ ∇らハ ヶ͡ ギヨェ ギ ∠ ル∠ ͡ ∠ (` The prayer (i.e., Al-Fat ihah) is divided int o t wo halves bet ween Me and My servant s.' When t he servant says, ` All praise is due t o Allah, t he Lord of exist ence,' Allah says, 'My servant has praised Me.') Al-Fat ihah was called t he Salah, because recit ing it is a condit ion for t he correct ness of Salah t he prayer. Al-Fat ihah was also called Ash-Shifa' (t he Cure). It is also called Ar-Ruqyah (remedy), since in t he Sahih, t here is t he narrat ion of Abu Sa` id t elling t he t he st ory of t he Companion who used Al-Fat ihah as a remedy for t he t ribal chief who was poisoned. Lat er, t he Messenger of Allah said t o a Companion, «∀ ∠ ∇ホケ ゅ∠ ルぺ マΑ͡ ∇ギΑ ゅ∠ ヱ» る Β ⊥ ヰz ∠ ∠ ケ ⊥ ョ ∠ (How did you know t hat it is a Ruqyah) Al-Fat ihah was revealed in Makkah as Ibn ` Abbas, Qat adah and Abu Al-` Aliyah st at ed. Allah said, びヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや リョ ゅ⇔ ∇らシ マ⇒∠ ∇Βゎや¬ ∇ギボャヱぴ ル ん∠ ∠ あ バ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (And indeed, We have best owed upon you t he seven Mat hani) (seven repeat edly recit ed verses), (i.e. Surat Al-Fat ihah) (15:87). Allah knows best . ous Names How many Ayat does Al-Fatihah contain There is no disagreement over t he view t hat Al-Fat ihah cont ains seven Ayat . According t o t he maj orit y of t he recit ers of Al-Kufah, a group of t he Companions, t he Tabi` in, and a number of scholars from t he successive generat ions, t he Bismillah is a separat e Ayah in it s beginning. We will ment ion t his subj ect again soon, if Allah wills, and in Him we t rust . The Number of Words and Letters in Al-Fatihah The scholars say t hat Al-Fat ihah consist s of t went y-five words, and t hat it cont ains one hundred and t hirt een let t ers The Reason it is called Umm Al-Kitab In t he beginning of t he Book of Tafsir, in his Sahih, Al-Bukhari said; "It is called Umm Al-Kit ab, because t he Qur'an st art s wit h it and because t he prayer is st art ed by recit ing it .'' It was also said t hat it is called Umm Al-Kit ab, because it cont ains t he meanings of t he ent ire Qur'an. Ibn Jarir said, "The Arabs call every comprehensive mat t er t hat cont ains several specific areas an Umm. For inst ance, t hey call t he skin t hat surrounds t he brain, Umm Ar-Ra's. They also call t he flag t hat gat hers t he ranks of t he army an Umm.'' He also said, "Makkah was called Umm AlQura, (t he Mot her of t he Villages) because it is t he grandest and t he leader of all villages. It was also said t hat t he eart h was made st art ing from Makkah.'' Furt her, Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah narrat ed about Umm Al-Qur'an t hat t he Prophet said, ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや ヶワヱ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ノ∇らz ャや ヶワヱ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや ぁ ぺ ヶワ» ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ル ん∠ ⊥ ジ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ュ⊥ ∠ ͡ «ユΒ͡ バ∇ャや ⊥ ヌ∠ (It is Umm Al-Qur'an, t he seven repeat ed (verses) and t he Glorious Qur'an.) Also, Abu Ja` far, Muhammad bin Jarir At -Tabari recorded Abu Hurayrah saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said about Al-Fat ihah, ノ∇らz ャや ヶワヱ ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや るエゎゅ∠ ヶワヱ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや ぁ ぺ ヶワ» ⊥ ジ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ュ⊥ ∠ ͡ «ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ル ん∠ (It is Umm Al-Qur'an, Al-Fat ihah of t he Book (t he Opener of t he Qur'an) and t he seven repeat ed (verses).) Virtues of Al-Fatihah Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded in t he Musnad t hat Abu Sa` id bin Al-Mu` alla said, "I was praying when t he Prophet called me, so I did not answer him unt il I finished t he prayer. I t hen went t o him and he said, (What prevent ed you from coming) I said, 'O Messenger of Allah ! I was praying.' He said, (` Didn't Allah say), や∠ ま メヲ⊥ ゲヤ͡ヱ ヮヤャ ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ わ∇シや ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ク͡ ͡ シz ャ∠ ͡ z͡ ら イ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ほ び∇ユムΒ͡ ∇エΑ ゅ∠ ャ ∇ユミゅ∠ キ ⊥ Β ⊥ ヨ͡ ⊥ ハ ∠ (O you who believe! Answer Allah (by obeying Him) and (His) Messenger when he () calls you t o t hat which gives you life) He t hen said, ァゲ∇ガゎ ∇ラぺ モ∇らホ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや ヶ͡ りケヲ⊥ ユヌ∇ハぺ マレヨヤハほャ» ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ プ ∃ ∠ シ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ あ∠ ⊥∠ «ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや リョ ͡͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ (I will t each you t he great est Surah in t he Qur'an before you leave t he Masj id.) He held my hand and when he was about t o leave t he Masj id, I said, ` O Messenger of Allah! You said: I will t each you t he great est Surah in t he Qur'an.' He said, (Yes.) び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ (Al-Hamdu lillahi Rabbil-` Alamin)'' ヵ͡ ャや ユΒ͡ バ∇ャや ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや∠ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ノ∇らz ャや ヶワ ∇ユバル» グz ⊥ ヌ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヱ ル ん∠ ⊥ ジ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ «ヮわΒ͡ ヱ⊥ ⊥⊥ ゎ ぺ (It is t he seven repeat ed (verses) and t he Glorious Qur'an t hat I was given.)'' Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah also recorded t his Hadit h. Also, Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah went out while Ubayy bin Ka` b was praying and said, (O Ubayy!) Ubayy did not answer him. The Prophet said, (O Ubayy!) Ubayy prayed fast er t hen went t o t he Messenger of Allah saying, ` Peace be unt o you, O Messenger of Allah!' He said, (Peace be unt o you. O Ubayy, what prevent ed you from answering me when I called you) He said, ` O Messenger of Allah! I was praying.' He said, (Did you not read among what Allah has sent down t o me,) び∇ユムΒ͡ ∇エΑ ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ユミゅ∠ キ や∠ ま メヲ⊥ ゲヤ͡ヱ ヮヤャ ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ わ∇シやぴ ⊥ Β ⊥ ヨャ ⊥ ハ∠ ク͡ ͡ シz ャ∠ ͡ z͡ ら イ∠ (Answer Allah (by obeying Him) and (His) Messenger when he () calls you t o t hat which gives you life) He said, ` Yes, O Messenger of Allah! I will not do it again.' t he Prophet said, りや∠ ヲz ャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ∇メゴ∇レゎ ∇ユャ りケヲ⊥ マヨヤハぺ ∇ラぺ ょエゎぺ» ͡ ケ わ プ ャ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ シ ∠ ∠ あ∠ ⊥ ∠ ぁ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ラゅ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ヱ ケヲ⊥ ゴャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ヱ モΒ͡ ∇ルみ∇ャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ヱ ͡ ホ ⊥ プ ャ∠ ͡ よz プ ャ∠ ͡ イ ͡ プ ャ∠ «∨ゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ヰ∠ ͡ (Would you like me t o t each you a Surah t he likes of which not hing has been revealed in t he Tawrah, t he Inj il, t he Zabur (Psalms) or t he Furqan (t he Qur'an)) He said, ` Yes, O Messenger of Allah!' The Messenger of Allah said, (I hope t hat I will not leave t hrough t his door unt il you have learned it .) He (Ka` b) said, ` The Messenger of Allah held my hand while speaking t o me. Meanwhile I was slowing down fearing t hat he might reach t he door before he finished his conversat ion. When we came close t o t he door, I said: O Messenger of Allah ! What is t he Surah t hat you have promised t o t each me' He said, (What do you read in t he prayer.) Ubayy said, ` So I recit ed Umm Al-Qur'an t o him.' He said, ゅ∠ヱ りや∠ ヲz ャや ヶ͡ ぶや メゴ∇ルぺ ゅ∠ ロギΒよ ヶ͡ ∇ヘル ヵ͡ ャや∠ » ャ∠ ͡ ケ わ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ジ ∠ グz ヱ ゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ラゅ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ヱ ケヲ⊥ ゴャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ヱ モΒ͡ ∇ルみ∇ャや ヶ͡ ヰ∠ ͡ ͡ ホ ⊥ プ ャ∠ ͡ よz プ ャ∠ ͡ イ ͡ プ «ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ノ∇らz ャや ゅ∠ ルま ル ん∠ ⊥ ジ ヰz ͡ (By Him in Whose Hand is my soul! Allah has never revealed in t he Tawrah, t he Inj il, t he Zabur or t he Furqan a Surah like it . It is t he seven repeat ed verses t hat I was given.)'' Also, At -Tirmidhi recorded t his Hadit h and in his narrat ion, t he Prophet said, ヵ͡ ャや ユΒ͡ バ∇ャや ͡ へ∇ゲボ∇ャや∠ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ノ∇らジャや リョ ゅ∠ ルま» グz ͡ ヌ∠ ラ ⊥ ヱ ル ん∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ヰz ͡ «ヮわΒ͡ ∇ハぺ ⊥⊥ ト ⊥ (It is t he seven repeat ed verses and t he Glorious Qur'an t hat I was given.) At -Tirmidhi t hen comment ed t hat t his Hadit h is Hasan Sahih. There is a similar Hadit h on t his subj ect narrat ed from Anas bin Malik Furt her, ` Abdullah, t he son of Imam Ahmad, recorded t his Hadit h from Abu Hurayrah from Ubayy bin Ka` b, and he ment ioned a longer but similar wording for t he above Hadit h. In addit ion, At -Tirmidhi and An- Nasa'i recorded t his Hadit h from Abu Hurayrah from Ubayy bin Ka` b who said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, あ ぺ モ∇んョ モΒ͡ ∇ルみ∇ャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ヱ りや∠ ヲz ャや ヶ͡ ぶや メ∠ ∇ルぺ ゅ∠ » ュ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ イ ͡ プ ャ∠ ͡ ケ わ プ ⊥ ゴ ∠ ョ ヶ͡ ∇Βよ ∀ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇ボ∠ ヶワヱ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ノ∇らz ャや ヶワヱ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや レ ∠ るョ ジ ョ ∠ ͡ ∠ ル ん∠ ⊥ ジ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ «リ∇Βヘ∇ダル ヵ͡ ∇らハ リ∇Βよヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (Allah has never revealed in t he Tawrah or t he Inj il anyt hing similar t o Umm Al-Qur'an. It is t he seven repeat ed verses and it is divided int o t wo halves bet ween Allah and His servant .) This is t he wording report ed by An-Nasa'i. At -Tirmidhi said t hat t his Hadit h is Hasan Gharib. Also, Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Ibn Jabir said, "I went t o t he Messenger of Allah aft er he had poured wat er (for purificat ion) and said, ` Peace be unt o you, O Messenger of Allah!' He did not answer me. So I said again, ` Peace be unt o you, O Messenger of Allah!' Again, he did not answer me, so I said again, ` Peace be unt o you, O Messenger of Allah!' St ill he did not answer me. The Messenger of Allah went while I was following him, unt il he arrived at his residence. I went t o t he Masj id and sat t here sad and depressed. The Messenger of Allah came out aft er he performed his purificat ion and said, (Peace and Allah's mercy be unt o you, peace and Allah's mercy be unt o you, peace and Allah's mercy be unt o you.) He t hen said, (O ` Abdullah bin Jabir! Should I inform you of t he best Surah in t he Qur'an) I said, ` Yes, O Messenger of Allah!' He said, (Read, ` All praise be t o Allah, t he Lord of t he exist ence,' unt il you finish it .)'' This Hadit h has a good chain of narrat ors. Some scholars relied on t his Hadit h as evidence t hat some Ayat and Surahs have more virt ues t han ot hers. Furt hermore, in t he chapt er about t he virt ues of t he Qur'an, Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Abu Sa` id Al-Khudri said, "Once, we were on a j ourney when a female servant came and said, ` The leader of t his area has been poisoned and our people are away. Is t here a healer among you' Then a man whose healing expert ise did not int erest us st ood for her, he read a Ruqyah for him, and he was healed. The chief gave him t hirt y sheep as a gift and some milk. When he came back t o us we said t o him, ` You know of a (new) Ruqyah, or did you do t his before' He said, ` I only used Umm Al-Kit ab as Ruqyah.' We said, ` Do not do anyt hing furt her unt il we ask t he Messenger of Allah.' When we went back t o Al-Madinah we ment ioned what had happened t o t he Prophet . The Prophet said, ヶ͡ やヲ⊥ ͡ ∇ッや∠ やヲ⊥ ジ∇ホや ∀ ∠ ∇ホケ ゅ∠ ルぺ ヮΑ͡ ∇ギΑ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ» ャ よゲ ヱ ヨ͡ るΒ ⊥ ヰz ∠ ͡ ケ ⊥ ∠ ミ ョ∠ «ユ∇ヰジよ ∃ ∠͡ (Who t old him t hat it is a Ruqyah Divide (t he sheep) and reserve a share for me.)'' Also, Muslim recorded in his Sahih, and An-Nasa'i in his Sunan t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "While Jibril (Gabriel) was wit h t he Messenger of Allah , he heard a noise from above. Jibril lift ed his sight t o t he sky and said, ` This is a door in heaven being open, and it has never been opened before now.' An angel descended from t hat door and came t o t he Prophet and said, ` Receive t he glad t idings of t wo light s t hat you have been given, which no ot her Prophet before you was given: t he Opening of t he Book and t he last (t hree) Ayat of Surat Al-Baqarah. You will not read a let t er of t hem, but will gain it s benefit .''' This is t he wording collect ed by An-Nasa'i (Al-Kubra 5:12) and Muslim recorded similar wording (1:554). Al-Fatihah and the Prayer Muslim recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Prophet said, ヶヰプ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや z ぺ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ぺゲ∇ボΑ ∇ユャ りゅ∠タ ヴ∠タ ∇リョ» ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ュ⊥ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヤ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ «ュゅ∠ ゎ ゲ∇Βビ ゅ⇔ ゅ∠を ∀ や∠ ͡ ∃ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ を ヤ∠ ァ ギカ (Whoever performs any prayer in which he did not read Umm Al-Qur'an, t hen his prayer is incomplet e.) He said it t hrice. Abu Hurayrah was asked, " When we st and behind t he Imam'' He said, "Read it t o yourself, for I heard t he Messenger of Allah say, リ∇Βよヱ ヶ͡ ∇Βよ りゅ∠ダャや ろ∇ヨジホ :モィヱ ゴハ ヮヤャや メゅ∠ » ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ヤ∂ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ホ :メゅ∠ や∠ みプ メほシ ゅ∠ ヵ͡ ∇らバャヱ リ∇Βヘ∇ダル ヵ͡ ∇らハ ∠ ホ ク͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ギ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ヶ͡ ギヨェ :ぶや メゅ∠ ∩び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ル∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ホ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ :メゅ∠ や∠ まヱ ヵ͡ ∇らハ ∠ ホ ク͡ ∠ ギ ∠ ∩ヵ͡ ∇らハ ヶヤハ ヴレ∇をぺ :ぶや メゅ∠ ∩び ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャやぴ ギ ∠ z ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ホ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z :メゅ∠ や∠ み∠ ∠ ホ クプ メゅ∠ ヱ ヵ͡ ∇らハ ヶ͡ ギイョ :ぶや メゅ∠ ∩び リΑあ ャや ュ∇ヲΑ マヤ⇒∠ ぴ ∠ ホ∠ ギ ∠ ル∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ホ ͡ ギ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ョ :メゅ∠ や∠ みプ ヵ͡ ∇らハ ヶャま チヲプ :りゲョ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ ギ ∠ z ∠͡ ∠ z ∠ ⇔ z ∠ リ∇Βよヱ ヶレ∇Βよ や∠ ワ :メゅ∠ ∩び リΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅz まヱ ギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ グ ∠ ホ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ :メゅ∠ や∠ みプ ∩∠ ほシ ゅ∠ ヵ͡ ∇らバャヱ ヵ͡ ∇らハ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ メ∠∠ ョ ギ ∠ ͡∠ ギ ∠ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ リΑ͡ ャや ヅや∠ タ - ユΒ͡ わ∇ジヨ∇ャや ヅや∠ ダャや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ワやぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲあ ルギ ∩び ∠ Βあべz ャや Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ リ ャ ツ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ «メほシ ゅ∠ ヵ͡ ∇らバャヱ ヵ͡ ∇らバャ や∠ ワ :ぶや メゅ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ギ ∠ ͡∠ ギ ∠ ͡ グ ⊥ ∠ ホ (Allah, t he Exalt ed, said, ` I have divided t he prayer (Al-Fat ihah) int o t wo halves bet ween Myself and My servant , and My servant shall have what he asks for.' If he says, び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ (All praise and t hanks be t o Allah, t he Lord of exist ence.) Allah says, ` My servant has praised Me.' When t he servant says, び ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャやぴ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z (The Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful.) Allah says, ` My servant has glorified Me.' When he says, び リΑあ ャや ュ∇ヲΑ マヤ⇒∠ ぴ ͡ ギ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ョ (The Owner of t he Day of Recompense.) Allah says, ` My servant has glorified Me,' or ` My servant has relat ed all mat t ers t o Me.' When he says, び リΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅz まヱ ギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ (You (alone) we worship, and You (alone) we ask for help.) Allah says, ` This is bet ween Me and My servant , and My servant shall acquire what he sought .' When he says, ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ リΑ͡ ャや ヅや∠ タ - ユΒ͡ わ∇ジヨ∇ャや ヅや∠ ダャや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ワやぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲあ ルギ び リΒあべz ャや Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∠ ャ ツ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ (Guide us t o t he st raight pat h. The way of t hose on whom You have grant ed Your grace, not (t he way) of t hose who earned Your anger, nor of t hose who went ast ray), Allah says, ` This is for My servant , and My servant shall acquire what he asked for.').'' These are t he words of An-Nasa'i, while bot h Muslim and An-Nasa'i collect ed t he following wording, "A half of it is for Me and a half for My servant , and My servant shall acquire what he asked for.'' Explaining this Hadith The last Hadit h used t he word Salah ` prayer' in reference t o recit ing t he Qur'an, (Al-Fat ihah in t his case) j ust as Allah said in anot her Ayah, リ∇Βよ ヒわ∇よや∠ ゅ∠ よ ∇ろプゅ∠ ゎ Ιヱ マゎΚ∠ よ ∇ゲヰ∇イゎ Ιヱぴ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヱ ヰ͡ ͡ ガ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ダ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びΚΒ͡ シ マャク ⇔ ら∠ ∠ ͡∠ (And offer your Salah (prayer) neit her aloud nor in a low voice, but follow a way bet ween.) meaning, wit h your recit at ion of t he Qur'an, as t he Sahih relat ed from Ibn ` Abbas. Also, in t he last Hadit h, Allah said, "I have divided t he prayer bet ween Myself and My servant int o t wo halves, a half for Me and a half for My servant . My servant shall have what he asked for.'' Allah next explained t he division t hat involves recit ing Al-Fat ihah, demonst rat ing t he import ance of recit ing t he Qur'an during t he prayer, which is one of t he prayer's great est pillars. Hence, t he word ` prayer' was used here alt hough only a part of it was act ually being referred t o, t hat is, recit ing t he Qur'an. Similarly, t he word ` recit e' was used where prayer is meant , as demonst rat ed by Allah's st at ement , びや⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇ゼョ ラゅ∠ ゲ∇イヘ∇ャや ラや∠ ∇ゲホ ラま ゲ∇イヘ∇ャや ラや∠ ∇ゲホヱぴ キ ヰ ∠ ∠ ミ ͡ ∠ ∠ ¬ ⊥ z ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ¬ ⊥∠ (And recit e t he Qur'an in t he early dawn.Verily, t he recit at ion of t he Qur'an in t he early dawn is ever wit nessed.) in reference t o t he Faj r prayer. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat t he angels of t he night and t he day at t end t his prayer. Reciting Al-Fatihah is required in Every Rak` ah of the Prayer All of t hese fact s t est ify t o t he requirement t hat recit ing t he Qur'an (Al-Fat ihah) in t he prayer is required, and t here is a consensus bet ween t he scholars on t his ruling. The Hadit h t hat we ment ioned also t est ifies t o t his fact , for t he Prophet said, ヶヰプ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや あ ほよ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ぺゲ∇ボΑ ∇ユャ りゅ∠タ ヴzタ ∇リョ» ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ュ⊥ ͡ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヤ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ «∀ や∠ ͡ ァ ギカ (Whoever performs any prayer in which he did not recit e Umm Al-Qur'an, his prayer is incomplet e.) Also, t he Two Sahihs recorded t hat ` Ubadah bin As-Samit said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, «ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや るエゎゅ∠ よ ∇ぺゲ∇ボΑ ∇ユャ ∇リヨャ りゅ∠タ ゅ∠» ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヘ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ャ (There is no prayer for whoever does not recit e t he Opening of t he Book.) Also, t he Sahihs of Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, «ラへゲ⊥ ∇ャや あ ほよ ゅ∠ Β͡ ぺゲ∇ボΑ ゅ∠ ∀ ゅ∠∠ むゴ∇イゎ ゅ∠» ͡ ボ ュ⊥͡ ヰ プ ⊥∠ ⊥ ャ り ヤタ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ャ (The prayer during which Umm Al-Qur'an is not recit ed is invalid.) There are many ot her Hadit hs on t his subj ect . Therefore, recit ing t he Opening of t he Book, during t he prayer by t he Imam and t hose praying behind him, is required in every prayer, and in every Rak` ah. The Tafsir of Isti` adhah (seeking Refuge) Allah said, リΒ͡ヰ⇒∠ ∇ャや リハ チ͡ ∇ハぺヱ フ∇ゲバ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ゲョ∇ぺヱ ヲ∇ヘバ∇ャや グカぴ ∠ ヤ͡ イ ͡ ∠ ゲ ∠∠ ͡ ⊥ よ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヮヤャゅ͡ ∇グバわ∇シゅ∠ ∀ ∇ゴ∠ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ マレビゴレΑ ゅz まヱ ͡ z よ ͡ ∠ プ パ ル ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ͡ ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ Β͡ ∠ ヮz ま ユ ヤハ ノ ヨシ ⊥ ル͡ (Show forgiveness, enj oin what is good, and st ay away from t he foolish (i.e. don't punish t hem). And if an evil whisper comes t o you from Shayt an (Sat an), t hen seek refuge wit h Allah. Verily, He is Hearing, Knowing) (7:199-200), ゅ∠ ͡ ユヤ∇ハぺ リ∇エル るゃΒジャや リジ∇ェぺ ヴワ ヴ͡ ャゅ͡ ∇ノプ∇キやぴ ヨよ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ わz よ ∠ れや∠ ヨワ ∇リョ マよ クヲ⊥ ぺ ゆケ ∇モホヱ - ラヲ⊥ ダΑ ͡ ゴ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ハ ∠ あ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ツ∇エΑ ラ∠ ゆケ マよ クヲ⊥ ぺヱ - リΒ͡ ⇒Βz ャや ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ぺ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ハ∠∠ ͡ ト ゼ (Repel evil wit h t hat which is bet t er. We are Best -Acquaint ed wit h t hings t hey ut t er. And say: "My Lord! I seek refuge wit h You from t he whisperings (suggest ions) of t he Shayat in (devils). And I seek refuge wit h You, My Lord! lest t hey should come near me.'') (23:96-98) and, ヴワ ヴ͡ ャゅ͡ ∇ノプ∇キや る∠ Βジャや Ιヱ るレジエ∇ャや ン͡ ∠ ∇ジ∠ Ιヱぴ ∠ ͡ わz よ ∠ ⊥ ゃあ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヲわ ゎ ∠ ∠ ヴャヱ ヮルほミ ∀ ∠ や∠ ∠ ヮレ∇Βよヱ マレ∇Βよ ン͡ ャや や∠ みプ リジ∇ェぺ x ͡∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ りヱ ギハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ク͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ べ∠ ゅz ヤΑ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ らタ リΑ͡ ャや Ιま ゅ∠ ゅz ヤΑ ゅ∠ ヱ - ∀ Β͡ ェ ワ ボ∠⊥ ョヱ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ワ ボ∠⊥ ョ∠ ユ ヨ∠ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ マレビゴレ∠ ゅz まヱ - ユΒ͡ ハ ナェ ヱ⊥ Ιま ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ Α ョ͡ ∠ ∃ ヌ ∠ あ ∠ ク z ͡ び ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ヲワ ヮzま ヮヤャゅ͡ ∇グバわ∇シゅ∠ ∀ ∇ゴ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ル͡ ͡ z よ ͡ ∠ プ パ ル (Repel (an evil) wit h one which is bet t er, t hen verily he wit h whom t here was enmit y bet ween you, (will become) as t hough he was a close friend. But none is grant ed it except t hose who are pat ient and none is grant ed it except t he owner of t he great port ion (of happiness in t he Hereaft er, i.e. Paradise and of a high moral charact er) in t his world. And if an evil whisper from Shayt an t ries t o t urn you away (O Muhammad ) (from doing good), t hen seek refuge in Allah. Verily, He is t he Hearing, t he Knowing.) (41:34-36) These are t he only t hree Ayat t hat carry t his meaning. Allah commanded t hat we be lenient human enemy, so t hat his soft nat ure might make him an ally and a support er. He also commanded t hat we seek refuge from t he sat anic enemy, because t he devil does not relent in his enmit y if we t reat him wit h kindness and leniency. The devil only seeks t he dest ruct ion of t he Son of Adam due t o t he vicious enmit y and hat red he has always had t owards man's fat her, Adam. Allah said, ユ⊥ ∇Αヲよぺ ァゲ∇カぺ べ∠ ミ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや ユムレレわ∇ヘΑ Ι ュキへ ヴ͡ ら⇒∠ ぴ ム ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ト z ⊥ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ∠ Α びるレイ∇ャや リョ ͡ z∠ ∠ あ (O Children of Adam! Let not Shayt an deceive you, as he got your parent s Adam and Hawwa' (Eve) out of Paradise) (7:27), ヲ⊥ ∇ギ∠ ゅ∠ ルま やヱギハ ロヱ⊥ ガゎゅ∠ ヱギハ ∇ユムャ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや ラまぴ ハ Α ヨz ͡ ⇔ ∂ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ グ ͡ z プ x ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ト z z ͡ び ゲΒ͡ ジャや ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ ∇リョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Βャ ヮよ∇ゴェ ͡ バz ͡ エ ∠ ͡ ル ム∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ (Surely, Shayt an is an enemy t o you, so t ake (t reat ) him as an enemy. He only invit es his Hizb (followers) t hat t hey may become t he dwellers of t he blazing Fire) (35:6) and, ∇ユムャ ∇ユワヱ ヴ͡ ヱ⊥ リ͡ ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ヮわz あ クヱ ヮルヱ⊥ ガわわプぺぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ル キ ョ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ Αケ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ グ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ びΙギよ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ヤ͡ ザ∇ゃよ ヱギハ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ャ ∠ ͡ x ⊥ ∠ (Will you t hen t ake him (Iblis) and his offspring as prot ect ors and helpers rat her t han Me while t hey are enemies t o you What an evil is t he exchange for t he Zalimun (polyt heist s, and wrongdoers, et c)) (18:50). The devil assured Adam t hat he want ed t o advise him, but he was lying. Hence, how would he t reat us aft er he had vowed, ユヰ∇レョ ポキゅ∠ ハ ΙみレΒ͡ ヨ∇ィぺ ∇ユヰレΑヲ∇ビΕ マゎゴバらプぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ら͡ z ͡∠ バ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡z ͡ ͡∠ び リΒ͡ ヤ∇ガヨ∇ャや ∠ ダ∠ ⊥ ("By Your might , t hen I will surely, mislead t hem all. Except Your chosen servant s among t hem (i.e. fait hful, obedient , t rue believers of Islamic Monot heism).'') (38:82-83) Also, Allah said, リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ ヮヤャゅ͡ ∇グバわ∇シゅ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや れ∇ぺゲホ や∠ みプぴ ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ ͡ z よ ͡ ∠ プ ∠ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ ∠ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ͡ ィz ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ ラゅ∠ ∇ヤシ ヮャ ザ∇Βャ ヮz まぴ ヤハヱ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヤ∠ ∀ ト ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ヮル∇ヲャヲわΑ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ ヮレ⇒∠ ∇ヤシ ゅ∠ ルま - ラヲ⊥ミヲわΑ ∇ユヰよケ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ト ⊥ ヨz ͡ ∠ ヤz ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ び ラヲミゲ∇ゼョ ヮよ ユ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ワ ∠ グz ヱ (So when you want t o recit e t he Qur'an, seek refuge wit h Allah from Shayt an, t he out cast (t he cursed one). Verily, he has no power over t hose who believe and put t heir t rust only in t heir Lord (Allah). His power is only over t hose who obey and follow him (Sat an), and t hose who j oin part ners wit h Him.) (16:98-100). Seeking Refuge before reciting the Qur'an Allah said, リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ ヮヤャゅ͡ ∇グバわ∇シゅ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや れ∇ぺゲホ や∠ みプぴ ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ ͡ z よ ͡ ∠ プ ∠ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ ∠ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ͡ ィz (So when you want t o recit e t he Qur'an, seek refuge wit h Allah from Shayt an, t he out cast (t he cursed one).) meaning, before you recit e t he Qur'an. Similarly, Allah said, ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ジ∇ビゅプ りヲヤz ャや ヴ∠ま ∇ユわ∇ヨホ や∠ まぴ ⊥ ∠ ィ⊥ ヤ͡ ͡ ダ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ク ͡ び∇ユムΑギ∇Αぺヱ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ (When you int end t o offer As-Salah (t he prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms)) (5:6) meaning, before you st and in prayer, as evident by t he Hadit hs t hat we ment ioned. Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Abu Sa` id Al-Khudri said, "When t he Messenger of Allah would st and up in prayer at night , he would st art his prayer wit h t he Takbir (saying "Allahu Akbar''; Allah is Great er) and would t hen supplicat e, ∩∠ ヨ∇シや ポケゅ∠ ゎヱ ∩∠ ギ∇ヨエよヱ ユヰヤャや マルゅ∠ ∇らシ» マ⊥ ∠ ∠ ら∠ ∠ ポ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ⊥ z ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ «ポゲ∇Βビ ヮャま ゅ∠ヱ ∩∠ ギ∠ ヴ∠ゅ∠ ゎヱ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠͡ ャ∠ ポぁ ィ ャ バ∠ ∠ (All praise is due t o You, O Allah, and also t he t hanks. Blessed be Your Name, Exalt ed be Your sovereignt y, and t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except You.) He would t hen say t hrice, «ぶや ゅzま ヮャま ゅ∠» ⊥ ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ (There is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah,). He would t hen say, ユΒ͡ ゲャや ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ぶゅ͡ クヲ⊥ ぺ» ͡ ィz ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ヨz ͡ よ ⊥ ハ∠ «ヮん∇ヘルヱ ヮガ∇ヘルヱ ロゴ∇ヨワ ∇リョ ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ (I seek refuge wit h Allah, t he Hearing, t he Knowing, from t he cursed Sat an, from his coercion, lures t o arrogance and poems.).'' The four collect ors of t he Sunan recorded t his Hadit h, which At -Tirmidhi considered t he most famous Hadit h on t his subj ect . Abu Dawud and Ibn Maj ah recorded t hat Jubayr bin Mut ` im said t hat his fat her said, "When t he Messenger of Allah st art ed t he prayer, he said, ゅ⇔ ゅ∠を や⇔ Β͡ ミ ぶ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや ゅ⇔ ゅ∠を や⇔ Β͡ ミ ゲら∇ミぺ ぶや» を ヤ∠ ゲ ん∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ を ヤ∠ ゲ ら∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ マよ クヲ⊥ ぺ ヶあ ま ユヰヤャや ゅ⇔ ゅ∠を ゅ⇔Β͡ ぺヱ りゲ∇ムよ ぶや ラゅ∠ ∇らシ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ハ∠ ル͡ z ⊥ z を ヤ∠ ヤ タ∠∠ ⇔ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ エ ⊥ «ヮん∇ヘルヱ ヮガ∇ヘルヱ ロゴ∇ヨワ ∇リョ ユΒ͡ ゲャや ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ィz ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ (Allah is t he Great er, t ruly t he Great est (t hrice); all praise is due t o Allah always (t hrice); and all praise is due t o Allah day and night (t hrice). O Allah! I seek refuge wit h You from t he cursed Sat an, from his Hamz, Nafkh and Naft h.).'' ` Amr said, "The Hamz means asphyxiat ion, t he Nafkh means arrogance, and t he Naft h means poet ry.'' Also, Ibn Maj ah recorded t hat ` Ali bin Al-Mundhir said t hat Ibn Fudayl narrat ed t hat ` At a' bin As-Sa'ib said t hat Abu ` Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami said t hat Ibn Mas` ud said t hat t he Prophet said, ユΒ͡ ゲャや ラゅ∠ Βz ャや リョ マよ クヲ⊥ ぺ ヶあ ま ユヰヤャや» ͡ ィ∠ ͡ ト ゼ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ハ∠ ル͡ z ⊥ z «ヮん∇ヘルヱ ヮガ∇ヘルヱ ロゴ∇ヨワヱ ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ (O Allah! I seek refuge wit h You from t he cursed devil, from his Hamz, Nafkh and Naft h.) He said, "The Hamz means deat h, t he Nafkh means arrogance, and t he Naft h means poet ry.'' Seeking Refuge with Allah when One is Angry In his Musnad, Al-Hafiz Abu Ya` la Ahmad bin ` Ali bin Al-Mut hanna Al-Mawsili report ed t hat Ubayy bin Ka` b said, "Two men disput ed wit h each ot her in t he presence of t he Messenger of Allah and t he nose of one of t hem became swollen because of ext reme anger. The Messenger of Allah said, :ギイΑ ゅ∠ ヮ∇レハ ょワグャ ヮャゅ∠ ∇ヲャ ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ユヤ∇ハほャ ヶあ ま» ⊥ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ホ ∠ ゃ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ル͡ «ユΒ͡ ゲャや ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ ぶゅ͡ クヲ⊥ ぺ ͡ ィz ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ ͡ よ ⊥ ハ ∠ (I know of some words t hat if he said t hem, what he feels will go away, 'I seek refuge wit h Allah from t he cursed Sat an.')'' An-Nasa'i also recorded t his Hadit h in his book, Al-Yawm wal-Laylah. Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Sulayman bin Surad said, "Two men disput ed in t he presence of t he Prophet while we were sit t ing wit h him. One of t hem was cursing t he ot her fellow and his face t urned red due t o anger. The Prophet said, ∇ヲャ ∩⊥ イΑ ゅ∠ ヮ∇レハ ょワグャ ゅ∠ ャゅ∠ ∇ヲャ るヨヤミ ユヤ∇ハほャ ヶあ ま» ∠ ギ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ホ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ル͡ «ユΒ͡ ゲャや ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ ぶゅ͡ クヲ⊥ ぺ :メゅ∠ ͡ ィz ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ ͡ よ ⊥ ハ ∠ ∠ ホ (I know of a st at ement which if he said it , will make what he feels disappear, ` I seek refuge wit h Allah from t he cursed Sat an.') They said t o t he man, ` Do you not hear what t he Messenger of Allah is saying' He said, ` I am not insane.''' Also, Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i recorded t his Hadit h. There are many ot her Hadit hs about seeking refuge wit h Allah. One can find t his subj ect in t he books on supplicat ion and t he virt ues of right eous, good deeds Is the Isti` adhah (seeking Refuge) required The maj orit y of t he scholars st at e t hat recit ing t he Ist i` adhah (in t he prayer and when recit ing t he Qur'an) is recommended and not required, and t herefore, not recit ing it does not const it ut e a sin. However, Ar-Razi recorded t hat ` At a' bin Abi Rabah said t hat t he Ist i` adhah is required in t he prayer and when one reads t he Qur'an. In support of ` At a's st at ement , Ar-Razi relied upon t he apparent meaning of t he Ayah, び∇グバわ∇シゅ∠ ぴ ͡∠ プ (Then seek refuge.) He said t hat t he Ayah cont ains a command t hat requires implement at ion. Also, t he Prophet always said t he Ist i` adhah. In addit ion, t he Ist i` adhah wards off t he evil of Sat an, which is neccessary, t he rule is t hat t he means needed t o implement a requirement of t he religion is it self also required. And when one says, "I seek refuge wit h Allah from t he cursed devil.'' Then t his will suffice. Virtues of the Isti` adhah The Ist i` adhah cleanses t he mout h from t he foul speech t hat it has indulged in. It also purifies t he mout h and prepares it t o recit e t he speech of Allah. Furt her, t he Ist i` adhah ent ails seeking Allah's help and acknowledging His abilit y t o do everyt hing. The Ist i` adhah also affirms t he servant 's meekness, weakness and inabilit y t o face t he enemy of his inner evil, whom Allah alone, Who creat ed t his enemy, is able t o repel and defeat . This enemy does not accept kindness, unlike t he human enemy. There are t hree Ayat in t he Qur'an t hat affirm t his fact . Also, Allah said, マよゲよ ヴ∠ ミヱ ∀ ⇒∠ ∇ヤシ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ マャ ザ∇Βャ ン͡ ゅ∠ ハ ラまぴ ∠ あ ∠ ͡ ヘ∠ ∠ リ ト ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ キ ら͡ z ͡ び ΚΒ͡ ヱ ⇔ ミ∠ (Verily, My servant s (i.e. t he t rue believers of Islamic Monot heism) t hem. And sufficient is your Lord as a Guardian.) (17:65). you have no aut horit y over We should st at e here t hat t he believers, whom t he human enemies kill, become mart yrs, while t hose who fall vict im t o t he inner enemy - Sat an - become bandit s. Furt her, t he believers who are defeat ed by t he apparent enemy - disbelievers - gain a reward, while t hose defeat ed by t he inner enemy earn a sin and become misguided. Since Sat an sees man where man cannot see him, it is befit t ing t hat t he believers seek refuge from Sat an wit h Whom Sat an cannot see. The Ist i` adhah is a form of drawing closer t o Allah and seeking refuge wit h Him from t he evil of every evil creat ure. What does Isti` adhah mean Ist i` adhah means, "I seek refuge wit h Allah from t he cursed Sat an so t hat he is prevent ed from affect ing my religious or worldly affairs, or hindering me from adhering t o what I was commanded, or luring me int o what I was prohibit ed from.'' Indeed, only Allah is able t o prevent t he evil of Sat an from t ouching t he son of Adam. This is why Allah allowed us t o be lenient and kind wit h t he human devil, so t hat his soft nat ure might cause him t o refrain from t he evil he is indulging in. However, Allah required us t o seek refuge wit h Him from t he evil of Sat an, because he neit her accept s bribes nor does kindness affect him, for he is pure evil. Thus, only He Who creat ed Sat an is able t o st op his evil. This meaning is reit erat ed in only t hree Ayat in t he Qur'an. Allah said in Surat Al-A` raf, リハ チ͡ ∇ハぺヱ フ∇ゲバ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ゲョ∇ぺヱ ヲ∇ヘバ∇ャや グカぴ ͡∠ ゲ ∠∠ ͡ ⊥ よ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ びリΒ͡ヰ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ ヤ͡ イ (Show forgiveness, enj oin what is good, and t urn away from t he foolish (i.e. don't punish t hem).) (7:199) This is about dealing wit h human beings. He t hen said in t he same Surah, ヮヤャゅ͡ ∇グバわ∇シゅ∠ ∀ ∇ゴ∠ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ マレビゴレΑ ゅョまヱぴ ͡ z よ ͡ ∠ プ パ ル ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ Β͡ ∠ ヮz ま ユ ヤハ ノ ヨシ ⊥ ル͡ (And if an evil whisper comes t o you from Shayt an, t hen seek refuge wit h Allah. Verily, He is Hearing, Knowing (7: 200).) Allah also said in Surat Al-Mu'minun, ゅ∠ ͡ ユヤ∇ハぺ リ∇エル るゃΒジャや リジ∇ェぺ ヴワ ヴ͡ ャゅ͡ ∇ノプ∇キやぴ ヨよ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ わz よ ∠ れや∠ ヨワ ∇リョ マよ クヲ⊥ ぺ ゆケ ∇モホヱ - ラヲ⊥ ダΑ ͡ ゴ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ハ ∠ あ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ツ∇エΑ ラ∠ ゆケ マよ クヲ⊥ ぺヱ - リΒ͡ ⇒Βz ャや ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ぺ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ハ∠∠ ͡ ト ゼ (Repel evil wit h t hat which is bet t er. We are Best -Acquaint ed wit h t he t hings t hey ut t er. And say: "My Lord! I seek refuge wit h You from t he whisperings (suggest ions) of t he Shayat in (devils). And I seek refuge wit h You, My Lord! lest t hey should come near me.'' (23:96-98).) Furt her, Allah said in Surat As-Saj dah, ヴワ ヴ͡ ャゅ͡ ∇ノプ∇キや る∠ Βジャや Ιヱ るレジエ∇ャや ン͡ ∠ ∇ジ∠ Ιヱぴ ∠ ͡ わz よ ∠ ⊥ ゃあ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヲわ ゎ ∠ ∠ ヴャヱ ヮルほミ ∀ ∠ や∠ ∠ ヮレ∇Βよヱ マレ∇Βよ ン͡ ャや や∠ みプ リジ∇ェぺ x ͡∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ りヱ ギハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ク͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ べ∠ ゅz ヤΑ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ らタ リΑ͡ ャや Ιま ゅ∠ ゅz ヤΑ ゅ∠ ヱ - ∀ Β͡ ェ ワ ボ∠⊥ ョヱ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ワ ボ∠⊥ ョ∠ ユ ヨ∠ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ マレビゴレ∠ ゅz まヱ - ユΒ͡ ハ ナェ ヱ⊥ Ιま ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ Α ョ͡ ∠ ∃ ヌ ∠ あ ∠ ク z ͡ び ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ヲワ ヮzま ヮヤャゅ͡ ∇グバわ∇シゅ∠ ∀ ∇ゴ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ル͡ ͡ z よ ͡ ∠ プ パ ル (The good deed and t he evil deed cannot be equal. Repel (t he evil) wit h one which is bet t er, t hen verily he, bet ween whom and you t here was enmit y, (will become) as t hough he was a close friend. But none is grant ed it (t he above qualit y) except t hose who are pat ient and none is grant ed it except t he owner of t he great port ion (of happiness in t he Hereaft er, i.e. Paradise and of a high moral charact er) in t his world. And if an evil whisper from Shayt an t ries t o t urn you away (from doing good), t hen seek refuge in Allah. Verily, He is t he Hearing, t he Knowing) (41:34-36). Why the Devil is called Shaytan In t he Arabic language, Shayt an is derived from Shat ana, which means t he far t hing. Hence, t he Shayt an has a different nat ure t han mankind, and his sinful ways are far away from every t ype of right eousness. It was also said t hat Shayt an is derived from Shat a, (lit erally ` burned'), because it was creat ed from fire. Some scholars said t hat bot h meanings are correct , alt hough t hey st at e t hat t he first meaning is more plausible. Furt her, Siybawayh (t he renowned Arab linguist ic) said, "The Arabs say, ` So-and-so has Tashayt an,' when he commit s t he act of t he devils. If Shayt an was derived from Shat a, t hey would have said, Tashayyat a (rat her t han Tashayt an).'' Hence, Shayt an is derived from t he word t hat means, far away. This is why t hey call t hose who are rebellious (or mischievous) from among t he Jinns and mankind a ` Shayt an'. Allah said, ザ∇ルΗや リΒ͡ ⇒∠ セ やヱギハ ヴらル あ ムャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ト Β∠ ⇔∂ ⊥ ∠ y ͡ ͡ モ⊥ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ メ∇ヲボ∇ャや フゲ∇カコ ヂ∇バよ ヴ∠ま ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ リイ∇ャや∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ェ Α あ ͡ ヱ びやケヱ⊥ ビ ⇔ ゲ⊥ (And so We have appoint ed for every Prophet enemies Shayat in (devils) among mankind and Jinn, inspiring one anot her wit h adorned speech as a delusion (or by way of decept ion)) (6:112). In addit ion, t he Musnad by Imam Ahmad records t hat Abu Dharr said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, «リイ∇ャや∠ ザ∇ルみ∇ャや ͡ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇リョ ぶゅ͡ ∇クヲバゎ ケク ゅ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ » あ ͡ ヱ ͡ ͡ リ デ Βセ ͡ ͡ よ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ よぺ Α (O Abu Dharr! Seek refuge wit h Allah from t he devils of mankind and t he Jinns.) Abu Dharr said, "I asked him , ` Are t here human devils' He said, (Yes.)'' Furt hermore, it is recorded in Sahih Muslim t hat Abu Dharr said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, «キヲ∇シほ∇ャや ょ∇ヤム∇ャや∠ ケゅ∠ エ∇ャや∠ りぺ∇ゲヨ∇ャや りゅ∠ダャや ノト∇ボΑ» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ヨ͡ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤz ⊥ ∠ ∠ (The woman, t he donkey and t he black dog int errupt t he prayer (if t hey pass in front of t hose who do not pray behind a Sut rah, i.e. a barrier).) Abu Dharr said, "I said, ` What is t he difference bet ween t he black dog and t he red or yellow dog' He said, «∀ ゅ∠ ∇Βセ キヲ∇シほ∇ャや ょ∇ヤム∇ャや» ラ ト ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (The black dog is a devil.).'' Also, Ibn Jarir At -Tabari recorded t hat ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab once rode a Bert hawn (huge camel) which st art ed t o proceed arrogant ly. ` Umar kept st riking t he animal, but t he animal kept walking in an arrogant manner. ` Umar dismount ed t he animal and said, "By Allah! You have carried me on a Shayt an. I did not come down from it unt il aft er I had felt somet hing st range in my heart .'' This Hadit h has an aut hent ic chain of narrat ors. The Meaning of Ar-Rajim Ar-Raj im means, being expelled from all t ypes of right eousness. Allah said, ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ヤバィヱ ウΒ͡ ⇒∠ ヨよ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ∠ べ∠ ジャや ゅz Αコ ∇ギボャヱぴ ヰ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ら ダ∠ ͡ Β ぁ ¬ ヨz レz ∠ ∠ ∠∠ びリΒ͡ ⇒∠ ゼヤあ ゅョヲ⊥ ケ ͡ ト Βz ャ ⇔ ィ⊥ (And indeed We have adorned t he nearest heaven wit h lamps, and We have made such lamps Ruj uman (as missiles) t o drive away t he Shayat in (devils)) (67:5). Allah also said, ゅヌ∇ヘェヱ - ょミヲム∇ャや るレΑ͡ よ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ¬べ∠ ジャや ゅz Αコ ゅz ͡ぴ ⇔ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ゴ͡ Β ぁ ∠ ヨz レz ∠ ルま Θヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ま ラヲ⊥ ヨジΑ Ι - キケゅz リ⇒∠ ∇Βセ あ ミ リあ ͡∠ ャ͡ ∠ バz z ∠ z ∃ ͡ ョ ∃ ト ∠ モ⊥ ョ ∇ユヰャヱ やケヲ⊥ キ - ょルゅ∠ あ ミ リ͡ ラヲ⊥ グ∇ボΑヱ ヴ∠∇ハΙや ⊥ ∠∠ ⇔ ェ⊥ ∃ ͡ ィ モ⊥ ョ ∠ プ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ x ヮバら∇ゎほプ るヘ∇トガ∇ャや ブトカ ∇リョ Ιま - ∀ ͡ や∠ ∀ やグ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ょタ ヱ ゆ ハ び ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ ∀ ゅ∠ セ ょホ を ゆ ヰ͡ (Verily, We have adorned t he near heaven wit h t he st ars (for beaut y). And t o guard against every rebellious devil. They cannot list en t o t he higher group (angels) for t hey are pelt ed from every side. Out cast , and t heirs is a const ant (or painful) t orment . Except such as snat ch away somet hing by st ealing, and t hey are pursued by a flaming fire of piercing bright ness) (37:6-10). Furt her, Allah said, リΑ͡ ヌ⇒z ヤ͡ ゅ∠ ⇒z Αコヱ ゅ⇔ ヱ⊥ よ ¬ゅ∠ ジャや ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ∇ギボャヱぴ ∠ ゲ͡ レ ャ ヰ レz ∠ ∠ ィ ゲ⊥ ͡ ヨz プ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ リョ Ιま - ユΒ͡ ケ リ⇒∠ ∇Βセ あ ミ リ͡ ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ヌヘェヱ ͡ ∠ z ͡ ∃ ィz ∃ ト ∠ モ⊥ ョ ヰ レ ͡ ∠ ∠ び ∀ Β͡ ョ ∀ ゅ∠ セ ヮバら∇ゎほプ ノ∇ヨジャや ベゲわ∇シや リ らぁ ゆ ヰ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ (And indeed, We have put t he big st ars in t he heaven and We beaut ified it for t he beholders. And We have guarded it (near heaven) from every Shayt an Raj im (out cast Shayt an). Except him (devil) who st eals t he hearing t hen he is pursued by a clear flaming fire.) (15:16-18). There are several similar Ayat . It was also said t hat Raj im means, t he person who t hrows or bombards t hings, because t he devil t hrows doubt s and evil t hought s in people's heart s. The first meaning is more popular and accurat e. Bismillah is the First Ayah of Al-Fatihah The Companions st art ed t he Book of Allah wit h Bismillah: び ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヮヤャや ユ∇ジよぴ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z ͡ z ͡ ͡ (1. In t he Name of Allah, t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful.) The scholars also agree t hat Bismillah is a part of an Ayah in Surat An-Naml (chapt er 27). They disagree over whet her it is a separat e Ayah before every Surah, or if it is an Ayah, or a part of an Ayah, included in every Surah where t he Bismillah appears in it s beginning. Ad-Daraqut ni also recorded a Hadit h from Abu Hurayrah from t he Prophet t hat support s t his Hadit h by Ibn Khuzaymah. Also, similar st at ement s were at t ribut ed t o ` Ali, Ibn ` Abbas and ot hers. The opinion t hat Bismillah is an Ayah of every Surah, except Al-Bara'ah (chapt er 9), was at t ribut ed t o (t he Companions) Ibn ` Abbas, Ibn ` Umar, Ibn Az-Zubayr, Abu Hurayrah and ` Ali. This opinion was also at t ribut ed t o t he Tabi` in: ` At a', Tawus, Sa` id bin Jubayr, Makhul and AzZuhri. This is also t he view of ` Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak, Ash-Shafi` i, Ahmad bin Hanbal, (in one report from him) Ishaq bin Rahwayh and Abu ` Ubayd Al-Qasim bin Salam. On t he ot her hand, Malik, Abu Hanifah and t heir followers said t hat Bismillah is not an Ayah in Al-Fat ihah or any ot her Surah. Dawud said t hat it is a separat e Ayah in t he beginning of every Surah, not part of t he Surah it self, and t his opinion was also at t ribut ed t o Ahmad bin Hanbal. Basmalah aloud in the Prayer As for Basmalah aloud during t he prayer, t hose who did not agree t hat it is a part of Al-Fat ihah, st at e t hat t he Basmalah should not be aloud. The scholars who st at ed t hat Bismillah is a part of every Surah (except chapt er 9) had different opinions; some of t hem, such as Ash-Shafi` i, said t hat one should recit e Bismillah wit h Al-Fat ihah aloud. This is also t he opinion of many among t he Companions, t he Tabi` in and t he Imams of Muslims from t he Salaf and t he lat er generat ions. For inst ance, t his is t he opinion of Abu Hurayrah, Ibn ` Umar, Ibn ` Abbas, Mu` awiyah, ` Umar and ` Ali - according t o Ibn ` Abdul-Barr and Al-Bayhaqi. Also, t he Four Khalifahs - as Al-Khat ib report ed - were said t o have held t his view alt hough t he report from t hem is cont radict ed. The Tabi` in scholars who gave t his Tafsir include Sa` id bin Jubayr, ` Ikrimah, Abu Qilabah, Az-Zuhri, ` Ali bin Al-Hasan, his son Muhammad, Sa` id bin Al-Musayyib, ` At a', Tawus, Muj ahid, Salim, Muhammad bin Ka` b Al-Qurazi, Abu Bakr bin Muhammad bin ` Amr bin Hazm, Abu Wa'il, Ibn Sirin, Muhammad bin Al-Munkadir, ` Ali bin ` Abdullah bin ` Abbas, his son Muhammad, Nafi` t he freed slave of Ibn ` Umar, Zayd bin Aslam, ` Umar bin ` Abdul-Aziz, Al-Azraq bin Qays, Habib bin Abi Thabit , Abu Ash-Sha` t ha', Makhul and ` Abdullah bin Ma` qil bin Muqarrin. Also, Al-Bayhaqi added ` Abdullah bin Safwan, and Muhammad bin AlHanafiyyah t o t his list . In addit ion, Ibn ` Abdul-Barr added ` Amr bin Dinar. The proof t hat t hese scholars relied on is t hat , since Bismillah is a part of Al-Fat ihah, it should be recit ed aloud like t he rest of Al-Fat ihah. Also, An-Nasa'i recorded in his Sunan, Ibn Hibban and Ibn Khuzaymah in t heir Sahihs and Al-Hakim in t he Must adrak, t hat Abu Hurayrah once performed t he prayer and recit ed Bismillah aloud. Aft er he finished t he prayer, he said, "Among you, I perform t he prayer t hat is t he closest t o t he prayer of t he Messenger of Allah .'' Ad-Daraqut ni, Al-Khat ib and Al-Bayhaqi graded t his Hadit h Sahih Furt hermore, in Sahih AlBukhari it is recorded t hat Anas bin Malik was asked about t he recit at ion of t he Prophet . He said, "His recit at ion was unhurried.'' He t hen demonst rat ed t hat and recit ed, while lengt hening t he recit at ion of Bismillah Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim, Also, in t he Musnad of Imam Ahmad, t he Sunan of Abu Dawud, t he Sahih of Ibn Hibban and t he Must adrak of Al-Hakim - it is recorded t hat Umm Salamah said, "The Messenger of Allah used t o dist inguish each Ayah during his recit at ion, ゆケ ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや - ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヮヤャや ユ∇ジよぴ あ ∠ ͡z ⊥ ∠ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z ͡ z ͡ ͡ び リΑあ ャや ュ∇ヲΑ マヤ⇒∠ - ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや - リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ͡ ギ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ョ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z ∠ ヨ∠ バ (In t he Name of Allah, t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful. All praise and t hanks be t o Allah, t he Lord of all t hat exist s, t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful. The Owner of t he Day of Recompense.)'' Ad-Daraqut ni graded t he chain of narrat ion for t his Hadit h Sahih Furt hermore, Imam Abu ` Abdullah Ash-Shafi` i and Al-Hakim in his Must adrak, recorded t hat Mu` awiyah led t he prayer in Al-Madinah and did not recit e t he Bismillah. The Muhaj irin who were present at t hat prayer crit icized t hat . When Mu` awiyah led t he following prayer, he recit ed t he Bismillah aloud. The Hadit hs ment ioned above provide sufficient proof for t he opinion t hat t he Bismillah is recit ed aloud. As for t he opposing evidences and t he scient ific analysis of t he narrat ions ment ioned t heir weaknesses or ot herwise it is not our desire t o discuss t his subj ect at t his t ime. Ot her scholars st at ed t hat t he Bismillah should not be recit ed aloud in t he prayer, and t his is t he est ablished pract ice of t he Four Khalifahs, as well as ` Abdullah bin Mughaffal and several scholars among t he Tabi` in and lat er generat ions. It is also t he Madhhab (view) of Abu Hanifah, At h-Thawri and Ahmad bin Hanbal. Imam Malik st at ed t hat t he Bismillah is not recit ed aloud or silent ly. This group based t heir view upon what Imam Muslim recorded t hat ` A'ishah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah used t o st art t he prayer by recit ing t he Takbir (Allahu Akbar; Allah is Great er) and t hen recit e, び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ (All praise and t hanks be t o Allah, t he Lord of all t hat exist s.) (Ibn Abi Hat im 1:12). Also, t he Two Sahihs recorded t hat Anas bin Malik said, "I prayed behind t he Prophet , Abu Bakr, ` Umar and ` Ut hman and t hey used t o st art t heir prayer wit h, び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ (All praise and t hanks be t o Allah, t he Lord of all t hat exist s.) Muslim added, "And t hey did not ment ion, び ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヮヤャや ユ∇ジよぴ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z ͡ z ͡ ͡ (In t he Name of Allah, t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful) whet her in t he beginning or t he end of t he recit at ion.'' Similar is recorded in t he Sunan books from ` Abdullah bin Mughaffal, may Allah be pleased wit h him. These are t he opinions held by t he respect ed Imams, and t heir st at ement s are similar in t hat t hey agree t hat t he prayer of t hose who recit e Al-Fat ihah aloud or in secret is correct . All t he favor is from Allah. The Virtue of Al-Fatihah Imam Ahmad recorded in his Musnad, t hat a person who was riding behind t he Prophet said, "The Prophet 's animal t ripped, so I said, ` Cursed Shayt an.' The Prophet said, ザバゎ :ろ∇ヤホ や∠ ま マルみプ ∩⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや ザバゎ :∇モボゎ ゅ∠» ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ク͡ ∠ z ͡∠ ラ ト z ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ャ や∠ まヱ ∩⊥ わ∇ハゲタ ヶ͡ ヲボよ :メゅ∠ ヱ ユニゅ∠ ゎ ∩⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや ク͡∠ ヮ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゎz ⊥ ͡ ∠ ホ∠ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ラ ト z モ∇んョ ゲΒ͡ Α ヴわ∠ ゲビゅ∠ ゎ ぶや ユ∇シゅ͡ :ろ∇ヤホ ∠ ͡ ∠ ダ∠ ェ ∠ ∠ ダ∠ ͡ ͡ よ ∠ ⊥ «ゆゅ∠ グャや ͡ よ⊥ (Do not say, 'Cursed Shayt an,' for if you say t hese words, Sat an becomes arrogant and says, 'Wit h my st rengt h I made him fall.' When you say, 'Bismillah,' Sat an will become as small as a fly.) Furt her, An-Nasa'i recorded in his book Al-Yawm wal-Laylah, and also Ibn Marduwyah in his Tafsir t hat Usamah bin ` Umayr said, "I was riding behind t he Prophet ...'' and he ment ioned t he rest of t he above Hadit h. The Prophet said in t his narrat ion, ∩͡ ∇Βら∇ャゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ Α ヴz ェ ユ∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ∠ ヮルみプ や∠ ムワ ∇モボゎ ゅ∠» ろ ∠ ミ ∠ ム∠ わ∠ ⊥ ニ バわΑ ⊥ z ͡∠ グ∠ ⊥∠ ャ ラヲ⊥ Α ヴz ェ ゲピ∇ダΑ ヮz み∠ ∩͡ や ユ∇ジよ :∇モホ ∇リムャ∠ ∠ ム∠ わ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル プ ぶ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ヱ «るよゅ∠ グャゅ∠ ͡ ∠ よ⊥ ミ (Do not say t hese words, because t hen Sat an becomes larger; as large as a house. Rat her, say, 'Bismillah,' because Sat an t hen becomes as small as a fly.) This is t he blessing of recit ing Bismillah. Basmalah is recommended before performing any Deed Basmalah (recit ing Bismillah) is recommended before st art ing any act ion or deed. For inst ance, Basmalah is recommended before st art ing a Khut bah (speech). The Basmalah is also recommended before one ent ers t he place where he want s t o relieve himself, t here is a Hadit h concerning t his pract ice. Furt her, Basmalah is recommended at t he beginning of ablut ion, for Imam Ahmad and t he Sunan compilers recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah, Sa` id bin Zayd and Abu Sa` id narrat ed from t he Prophet , «ヮ∇Βヤハ ぶや ユ∇シや ゲミ∇グΑ ∇ユャ ∇リヨャ ¬ヲ⊥ ヱ ゅ∠» ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ッ⊥ ャ (There is no valid ablut ion for he who did not ment ion Allah's Name in it .) This Hadit h is Hasan (good). Also, t he Basmalah is recommended before eat ing, for Muslim recorded in his Sahih t hat t he Messenger of Allah said t o ` Umar bin Abi Salamah while he was a child under his care, «マΒ͡Α ゅz ョ ∇モミヱ マレΒ͡ Βよ ∇モミヱ ぶや ユ∇ジよ ∇モホ» ∠ ヤ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ (Say Bismillah, eat wit h your right hand and eat from what ever is next t o you.) Some of t he scholars st at ed t hat Basmalah before eat ing is obligat ory. Basmalah before having sexual int ercourse is also recommended. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ユ∇ジよ :メゅ∠ ヮヤ∇ワぺ ヶゎ∇ほΑ ∇ラぺ キや∠ ぺ や∠ ま ∇ユミギェぺ ラぺ ∇ヲャ» ͡ ͡ ∠ ホ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ケ∠ ク͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや ょレィヱ ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや ゅ∠ ∇らレィ z ヰヤャや ぶや ョ ∠ ト z ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ト z レ あ ∠ ユ⊥ ∠ ͡ ロz ツΑ ∇ユャ ギャヱ ゅ∠ ヰレ∇Βよ ∇ケギボΑ ∇ラま ヮルみ∠ ∩ゅ∠ わ∇ホコケ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ z プ レ∠ ∠ ∠ «や⇔ よぺ ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ ト z (If anyone of you before having sexual relat ions wit h his wife says, 'In t he Name of Allah. O Allah! Prot ect us from Sat an and also prot ect what you grant us (meaning t he coming offspring) from Sat an,' and if it is dest ined t hat t hey should have a child t hen, Sat an will never be able t o harm t hat child.) The Meaning of "Allah Allah is t he Name of t he Lord, t he Exalt ed. It is said t hat Allah is t he Great est Name of Allah, because it is referred t o when describing Allah by t he various at t ribut es. For inst ance, Allah said, ょ∇Βピ∇ャや ユャゅ∠ ヲワ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま Ι ン͡ ャや ヮヤャや ヲワぴ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ハ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ∠ グz ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ Ι ン͡ ャや ヮヤャや ヲワ - ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヲワ りギ⇒∠ ゼャや∠ ∠ グz ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヨ z ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヰz ヱ リョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ユ⇒∠ジャや サヱぁ ボ∇ャや マヤヨ∇ャや ヲワ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ヤz ⊥ ギ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ゅz ハ ヮヤャや リ⇒∠ ∇らシ ゲらムわヨ∇ャや ケゅz イ∇ャや ゴΑ͡ バ∇ャや リヨ∇Βヰヨ∇ャや ヨ∠ ͡ z ∠ エ ⊥ ⊥ あ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ ゴ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヮャ ケあ ダヨ∇ャや ¬ン͡ ゅ∠ ∇ャや ペヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヮzャや ヲワ - ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼΑ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヲ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ケ ら ⊥ ͡ ガ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ヮャ ウあ ジΑ ヴ∠ ∇ジエ∇ャや ¬べ∠ ∇シΙや ͡ ∠ ヨz プ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ レ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ x び ユΒ͡ エ∇ャや ゴΑ͡ バ∇ャや ヲワヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ ⊥ ム∠ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ x ヱ (He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa (none has t he right t o be worshipped but He) t he Knower of t he unseen and t he seen. He is t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful. He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, t he King, t he Holy, t he One free from all defect s, t he Giver of securit y, t he Wat cher over His creat ures, t he Almight y, t he Compeller, t he Supreme. Glory be t o Allah! (High is He) above all t hat t hey associat e as part ners wit h Him. He is Allah, t he Creat or, t he Invent or of all t hings, t he Best ower of forms. To Him belong t he Best Names. All t hat is in t he heavens and t he eart h glorify Him. And He is t he Almight y, t he Wise) (59:22-24). Hence, Allah ment ioned several of His Names as At t ribut es for His Name Allah. Similarly, Allah said, びゅ∠ よ ロヲ⊥ ∇キゅ∠ ヴ∠ ∇ジエ∇ャや ¬べ∠ ∇シΕや ヮヤャ∠ ぴ ヰ͡ ⊥ ハ プ レ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ͡ z ヱ (And (all) t he Most Beaut iful Names belong t o Allah, so call on Him by t hem) (7:180), and, ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ギゎ ゅz ゅ6 ∠ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや ヱぺ ヮヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや モホぴ ハ ∠ ョ Αぺ ∠ ヨ z ハ ͡ ∠ ∠z ハ ͡ ⊥ びヴ∠ ∇ジエ∇ャや ¬べ∠ ∇シΙや ヮヤプ レ ⊥ ∠ ヨ x ⊥ ∠∠ (Say (O Muhammad :) "Invoke Allah or invoke t he Most Gracious (Allah), by what ever name you invoke Him (it is t he same), for t o Him belong t he Best Names.'') (17:110) Also, t he Two Sahihs recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ∇リョ ∩や⇔ ェや∠ ゅ∠ま るもゅ͡ ∩ゅ⇔ ∇シや リΒ͡ ∇ジゎヱ るバ∇ジゎ ぶ ラま» ∠ ギ͡ ヱ ャ͡ ⇔ ∠ ョ ヨ ∠ バ ͡ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ͡ z ͡ «るレイ∇ャや モカキ ゅワゅ∠ ∇ェぺ ∠ z∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ダ ∠ (Allah has ninet y-nine Names, one hundred minus one, whoever count s (and preserves) t hem, will ent er Paradise.) These Names were ment ioned in a Hadit h recorded by At -Tirmidhi and Ibn Maj ah, and t here are several differences bet ween t hese t wo narrat ions. The Meaning of Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim - the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim are t wo names derived from Ar-Rahmah (t he mercy), but Rahman has more meanings t hat pert ain t o mercy t han Ar-Rahim. There is a st at ement by Ibn Jarir t hat indicat es t hat t here is a consensus on t his meaning. Furt her, Al-Qurt ubi said, "The proof t hat t hese names are derived (from Ar-Rahmah), is what At -Tirmidhi recorded - and graded Sahih from ` Abdur-Rahman bin ` Awf t hat he heard t he Messenger of Allah say, ユェゲャや ろ∇ボヤカ リヨ∇ェゲャや ゅ∠ ∠ :ヴャゅ∠ ゎ ぶや メゅ∠ » ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ z ルぺ バ∠ ⊥ ∠ ホ ゅ∠ ヤタヱ ∇リヨプ ∩ヶ͡ ∇シや リョ ゅ⇔ ∇シや ゅ∠ ∠ ろ∇ボボセヱ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ ͡͡ ヨ ヰャ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ «ヮわ∇バトホ ゅヰ∠ トホ ∇リョヱ ヮわ∇ヤタヱ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Allah t he Exalt ed said, 'I Am Ar-Rahman. I creat ed t he Raham (womb, i.e. family relat ions) and derived a name for it from My Name. Hence, whoever keeps it , I will keep t ies t o him, and whoever severs it , I will sever t ies wit h him.') He t hen said, "This is a t ext t hat indicat es t he derivat ion.'' He t hen said, "The Arabs denied t he name Ar-Rahman, because of t heir ignorance about Allah and His at t ribut es.'' Al-Qurt ubi said, "It was said t hat bot h Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim have t he same meaning, such as t he words Nadman and Nadim, as Abu ` Ubayd has st at ed. Abu ` Ali Al-Farisi said, ` ArRahman, which is exclusively for Allah, is a name t hat encompasses every t ype of mercy t hat Allah has. Ar-Rahim is what effect s t he believers, for Allah said, びゅヨΒ͡ ケ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャゅ͡ ラゅ∠ ヱぴ ⇔ ェ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ よ ∠ ミ∠ (And He is ever Rahim (merciful) t o t he believers.)' (33:43) Also, Ibn ` Abbas said - about ArRahman and Ar-Rahim, ` They are t wo soft names, one of t hem is soft er t han t he ot her (meaning it carries more implicat ions of mercy).''' Ibn Jarir said; As-Surri bin Yahya At -Tamimi narrat ed t o me t hat ` Ut hman bin Zufar relat ed t hat Al-` Azrami said about Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim, "He is Ar-Rahman wit h all creat ion and ArRahim wit h t he believers.'' Hence. Allah's st at ement s, びリ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ス∇ゲバ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ン∠ わ∇シや z をぴ ⊥ ヨ z ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ヲ∠ ユ⊥ (Then He rose over (Ist awa) t he Throne (in a manner t hat suit s His maj est y), Ar-Rahman) (25:59),) and, び ン∠ ∠ ∇シや ス∇ゲバ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャやぴ ヲわ ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ヨ z (Ar-Rahman (Allah) rose over (Ist awa) t he (Might y) Throne (in a manner t hat suit s His maj est y).) (20:5) Allah t hus ment ioned t he Ist awa - rising over t he Throne - along wit h His Name Ar-Rahman, t o indicat e t hat His mercy encompasses all of His creat ion. Allah also said, びゅヨΒ͡ ケ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャゅ͡ ラゅ∠ ヱぴ ⇔ ェ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ よ ∠ ミ∠ (And He is ever Rahim (merciful) t o t he believers), t hus encompassing t he believers wit h His Name Ar-Rahim. They said, "This t est ifies t o t he fact t hat Ar-Rahman carries a broader scope of meanings pert aining t o t he mercy of Allah wit h His creat ion in bot h lives. Meanwhile, Ar-Rahim is exclusively for t he believers.'' Yet , we should ment ion t hat t here is a supplicat ion t hat reads, «ゅ∠ ヰヨΒ͡ ケヱ りゲカべ∇ャや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや リヨ∇ェケ» ヨ⊥ ∠ ェ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヱ Β ぁ ∠ ∠ (The Rahman and t he Rahim of t his life and t he Hereaft er) Allah's Name Ar-Rahman is exclusively His. For inst ance, Allah said, ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ギゎ ゅz ゅ6 ∠ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや ヱぺ ヮヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや モホぴ ハ ∠ ョ Αぺ ∠ ヨ z ハ ͡ ∠ ∠z ハ ͡ ⊥ びヴ∠ ∇ジエ∇ャや ¬べ∠ ∇シΙや ヮヤプ レ ⊥ ∠ ヨ x ⊥ ∠∠ (Say (O Muhammad ): "Invoke Allah or invoke Ar-Rahman (Allah), by what ever name you invoke Him (it is t he same), for t o Him belong t he Best Names) (17:110),) and, ゅレ∇ヤバィぺ べ∠ ͡シケ リ͡ マヤ∇らホ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ ∇リョ ∇モゃ∇シや∠ ぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ レヤ ⊥ ぁ ョ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ び ラヱ⊥ ら∇バΑ るヰャや∠ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ¬ ͡ ヨ z ͡ キ ョ (And ask (O Muhammad ) t hose of Our Messengers whom We sent before you: "Did We ever appoint alihah (gods) t o be worshipped besides Ar-Rahman (Most Gracious, Allah)'') (43:45). Furt her, when Musaylimah t he Liar called himself t he Rahman of Yamamah, Allah made him known by t he name ` Liar' and exposed him. Hence, whenever Musaylimah is ment ioned, he is described as ` t he Liar'. He became an example for lying among t he resident s of t he cit ies and villages and t he resident s of t he desert s, t he bedouins. Therefore, Allah first ment ioned His Name - Allah - t hat is exclusively His and described t his Name by Ar-Rahman, which no one else is allowed t o use, j ust as Allah said, ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ギゎ ゅz ゅ6 ∠ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや ヱぺ ヮヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや モホぴ ハ ∠ ョ Αぺ ∠ ヨ z ハ ͡ ∠ ∠z ハ ͡ ⊥ びヴ∠ ∇ジエ∇ャや ¬べ∠ ∇シΙや ヮヤプ レ ⊥ ∠ ヨ x ⊥ ∠∠ (Say (O Muhammad ): "Invoke Allah or invoke Ar-Rahman (Allah), by what ever name you invoke Him (it is t he same), for t o Him belong t he Best Names.'') (17:110) Only Musaylimah and t hose who followed his misguided ways described Musaylimah by ArRahman. As for Allah's Name Ar-Rahim, Allah has described ot hers by it . For inst ance, Allah said, ゅョ ヮ∇Βヤハ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇リョ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇ギボャぴ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ゴ ゴハ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ぺ あ メ シケ ⊥ ∠ ィ ∠ ∠ び ∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヱ⊥ ∠ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ∀ Α͡ ェ ∇ユわレハ ユ ェz フ ¬ケ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ よ ⊥ ∠∠ ゾ ゲ∠ ぁ ͡ ∠ (Verily, t here has come unt o you a Messenger (Muhammad ) from amongst yourselves (i.e. whom you know well). It grieves him t hat you should receive any inj ury or difficult y. He (Muhammad ) is anxious over you (t o be right ly guided) for t he believers (he is) kind (full of pit y), and Rahim (merciful)) (9:128). Allah has also described some of His creat ion using some of His ot her Names. For inst ance, Allah said, ͡ Β͡∠ ∇らル ァゅ∠ ∇ョぺ るヘ∇トル リ͡ リ⇒∠ ル͡ や ゅ∠ ∇ボ∠∠ ゅz ͡ぴ ヮ ヤ わ z ∃ ゼ ∠ ∃ ∠ ぁ ョ ∠ ジ Η レ ヤ カ ルま び やゲΒ͡ よ ゅバΒ͡ シ ヮ⇒∠ ∇ヤバイプ ⇔ ダ∠ ⇔ ヨ∠ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Verily, We have creat ed man from Nut fah (drops) of mixed semen (sexual discharge of man and woman), in order t o t ry him, so We made him hearer (Sami` ) and seer (Basir) (76:2). In conclusion, t here are several of Allah's Names t hat are used as names for ot hers besides Allah. Furt her, some of Allah's Names are exclusive for Allah alone, such as Allah, Ar-Rahman, Al-Khaliq (t he Creat or), Ar-Raziq (t he Sust ainer), and so fort h. Hence, Allah st art ed t he Tasmiyah (meaning, ` In t he Name of Allah, Most Gracious Most Merciful') wit h His Name, Allah, and described Himself as Ar-Rahman, (Most Gracious) which is soft er and more general t han Ar-Rahim. The most honorable Names are ment ioned first , j ust as Allah did here. A Hadit h narrat ed by Umm Salamah st at ed t hat t he recit at ion of t he Messenger of Allah was slow and clear, let t er by let t er, ゆケ ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや - ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヮヤャや ユ∇ジよぴ あ ∠ ͡z ⊥ ∠ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z ͡ z ͡ ͡ び リΑあ ャや ュ∇ヲΑ マヤ⇒∠ - ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや - リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ͡ ギ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ョ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z ∠ ヨ∠ バ (In t he Name of Allah, t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful. All t he praises and t hanks be t o Allah, t he Lord of all t hat exist s. The Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful. The Owner of t he Day of Recompense) (1:1-4). And t his is how a group of scholars recit e it . Ot hers connect ed t he recit at ion of t he Tasmiyah t o Al-Hamd. び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ (2. Al-Hamd be t o Allah, t he Lord of all t hat exist s.) The Meaning of Al-Hamd Abu Ja` far bin Jarir said, "The meaning of びヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ͡z ⊥ ∠ (Al-Hamdu Lillah) (all praise and t hanks be t o Allah) is: all t hanks are due purely t o Allah, alone, not any of t he obj ect s t hat are being worshipped inst ead of Him, nor any of His creat ion. These t hanks are due t o Allah's innumerable favors and bount ies, t hat only He knows t he amount of. Allah's bount ies include creat ing t he t ools t hat help t he creat ion worship Him, t he physical bodies wit h which t hey are able t o implement His commands, t he sust enance t hat He provides t hem in t his life, and t he comfort able life He has grant ed t hem, wit hout anyt hing or anyone compelling Him t o do so. Allah also warned His creat ion and alert ed t hem about t he means and met hods wit h which t hey can earn et ernal dwelling in t he residence of everlast ing happiness. All t hanks and praise are due t o Allah for t hese favors from beginning t o end.'' Furt her, Ibn Jarir comment ed on t he Ayah, びヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ͡z ⊥ ∠ (Al-Hamdu Lillah), t hat it means, "A praise t hat Allah praised Himself wit h, indicat ing t o His servant s t hat t hey t oo should praise Him, as if Allah had said, ` Say: All t hanks and praise is due t o Allah.' It was said t hat t he st at ement , びヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ͡z ⊥ ∠ (All praise and t hanks be t o Allah), ent ails praising Allah by ment ioning His most beaut iful Names and most honorable At t ribut es. When one proclaims, ` All t hanks are due t o Allah,' he will be t hanking Him for His favors and bount ies.'' The Difference between Praise and Thanks Hamd is more general, in t hat it is a st at ement of praise for one's charact erist ics, or for what he has done. Thanks are given for what was done, not merely for charact erist ics. The Statements of the Salaf about Al-Hamd Hafs ment ioned t hat ` Umar said t o ` Ali, "We know La ilaha illallah, Subhan Allah and Allahu Akbar. What about Al-Hamdu Lillah'' ` Ali said, "A st at ement t hat Allah liked for Himself, was pleased wit h for Himself and He likes t hat it be repeat ed.'' Also, Ibn ` Abbas said, "Al-Hamdu Lillah is t he st at ement of appreciat ion. When t he servant says Al-Hamdu Lillah, Allah says, ` My servant has praised Me.'' Ibn Abi Hat im recorded t his Hadit h The Virtues of Al-Hamd Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded t hat Al-Aswad bin Sari` said, "I said, ` O Messenger of Allah! Should I recit e t o you words of praise for My Lord, t he Exalt ed, t hat I have collect ed' He said, «ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや ぁ エΑ マよケ ラま ゅ∠ ぺ» ∠ ∠ ょ͡ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ z ͡ ョ ∠ (Verily, your Lord likes Al-Hamd.)'' An-Nasa'i also recorded t his Hadit h. Furt hermore, Abu ` Isa At -Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah recorded t hat Musa bin Ibrahim bin Kat hir relat ed t hat Talhah bin Khirash said t hat Jabir bin ` Abdullah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ¬ゅ∠ ギャや モツ∇プぺヱ ∩⊥ や ゅzま ヮャ͡ ゅ∠ ゲ∇ミグャや モツ∇プぺ» ͡ ハぁ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ぶ ャ͡ ∠ ま ャ ͡ あ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «ぶ͡ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや キ⊥ ∠ (The best Dhikr (remembering Allah) is La ilaha illallah and t he best supplicat ion is Al-Hamdu Lillah.) At -Tirmidhi said t hat t his Hadit h is Hasan Gharib. Also, Ibn Maj ah recorded t hat Anas bin Malik said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ゅzま ∩͡ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや :メゅ∠ プ るヨ∇バルギ∇らハ ヴ∠ハ ぶや ユバ∇ルぺ ゅ∠ » ャ͡ ぶ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ «グカぺ ゅz ョ モツ∇プぺ ヴ∠ ∇ハぺ ヵ͡ ャや ラゅ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ト ∠ グz ∠ ミ (No servant is blessed by Allah and says,` Al-Hamdu Lillah', except t hat what he was given is bet t er t han t hat which he has himself acquired.) Furt her, in his Sunan, Ibn Maj ah recorded t hat Ibn ` Umar said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ゅ∠ ∠ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや マャ ゆケ ゅ∠ :メゅ∠ ぶや キゅ∠ ハ ∇リョ や⇔ ∇らハ ラま» ヨミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ Α ∠ ホ ͡ ͡ ら͡ ͡ ギ ∠ z ͡ ∇ろヤツバプ .マルゅ∠ ∇ヤシ ユΒ͡ ハヱ マヰ∇ィヱ メゅ∠イャ ヶ͡ ら∇レΑ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ト ⊥ ͡ ヌ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ピ∠ ∠ ぶや ヴ∠ま や∠ バダプ ゅ∠ ルゅ∠ わ∇ムΑ ブ∇Βミ ゅ∠ ケ∇ギΑ ∇ユヤプ リ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャゅ͡ ͡ ャ͡ ギ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ ら⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ よ ブ∇Βミ ヵ͡ ∇ギル ゅ∠ るャゅ∠ ョ メゅ∠ ∇ギホ や⇔ ∇らハ ラま ゅ∠ よケ ゅ∠ :ゅ∠ゅ∠ プ ∠ ∠ ケ ∠ ャ ⇔ ∠ ボ∠ ∠ ホ ∠ ギ ∠ z ͡ レz ∠ Α ャ ボ∠ や∠ ゅ∠ :ロギ∇らハ メゅ∠ ゅ∠ よ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヲワヱ ∩⊥ や メゅ∠ ∩ゅ∠ らわ∇ムル ク ョ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ぶ ∠ ホ ヰ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゅ∠ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや マャ :メゅ∠ ヮz ま ゆケ ゅ∠ :ゅ∠ゅ∠ ∨ヵ͡ ∇らハ メゅ∠ Α ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ⊥ ル͡ あ ∠ Α ャ ホ ギ ∠ ∠ ホ .マルゅ∠ ∇ヤシ ユΒ͡ ハヱ マヰ∇ィヱ メゅ∠イャ ヶ͡ ら∇レΑ ゅ∠ ミ ゆケ ∠ ͡ ト ⊥ ͡ ヌ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ピ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ あ ∠ ヴz ェ ∩ヵ͡ ∇らハ メゅ∠ ゅ∠ ミ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ わ∇ミや :ゅ∠ ヰ∠ ぶや メゅ∠ プ わ∠ ギ ∠ ∠ ホ ヨ ∠ ワ ら⊥ ヨ⊥ ャ ⊥ ∠ ボ∠ «.ゅ∠ よ ヮΑ͡ ∇ィほプ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤΑ ヰ͡ ͡ ゴ ∠ ∠ ル ボ ∠ (A servant of Allah once said, ` O Allah! Yours is t he Hamd t hat is suit able for t he grace of Your Face and t he great ness of Your Supreme Aut horit y.' The t wo angels were confused as t o how t o writ e t hese words. They ascended t o Allah and said, ` O our Lord! A servant has j ust ut t ered a st at ement and we are unsure how t o record it for him.' Allah said while having more knowledge in what His servant has said, 'What did My servant say' They said, ` He said, ` O Allah! Yours is t he Hamd t hat is suit able for t he grace of Your Face and t he great ness of Your Supreme Aut horit y.' Allah said t o t hem, ` Writ e it as My servant has said it , unt il he meet s Me and t hen I shall reward him for it .) Al before Hamd encompasses all Types of Thanks and Appreciation for Allah The let t ers Alif and Lam before t he word Hamd serve t o encompass all t ypes of t hanks and appreciat ion for Allah, t he Exalt ed. A Hadit h st at ed, ポギΒよヱ ∩⊥ ヤミ マ∇ヤヨ∇ャや マャヱ ∩⊥ ヤミ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや マャ ユヰヤャや» ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヮぁ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ヮぁ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ⊥ z «ヮぁミ ゲ∇ョほ∇ャや ノィ∇ゲΑ マ∇Βャまヱ ∩⊥ ヤミ ゲ∇Βガ∇ャや ⊥ ヤ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠͡∠ ヮぁ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (O Allah! All of Al-Hamd is due t o You, You own all t he ownership, all t ypes of good are in Your Hand and all affairs belong t o You.) The Meaning of Ar-Rabb, the Lord Ar-Rabb is t he owner who has full aut horit y over his propert y. Ar-Rabb, linguist ically means, t he mast er or t he one who has t he aut horit y t o lead. All of t hese meanings are correct for Allah. When it is alone, t he word Rabb is used only for Allah. As for ot her t han Allah, it can be used t o say Rabb Ad-Dar, t he mast er of such and such obj ect . Furt her, it was report ed t hat ArRabb is Allah's Great est Name. The Meaning of Al-` Alamin Al-` Alamin is plural for ` Alam, which encompasses everyt hing in exist ence except Allah. The word ` Alam is it self a plural word, having no singular form. The ` Alamin are different creat ions t hat exist in t he heavens and t he eart h, on land and at sea. Every generat ion of creat ion is called an ` Alam. Al-Farra` and Abu ` Ubayd said, "` Alam includes all t hat has a mind, t he Jinns, mankind, t he angels and t he devils, but not t he animals.'' Also, Zayd bin Aslam and Abu Muhaysin said, ` Alam includes all t hat Allah has creat ed wit h a soul.'' Furt her, Qat adah said about , びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ (The Lord of t he ` Alamin), "Every t ype of creat ion is an ` Alam.'' Az-Zaj j aj also said, "Alam encompasses everyt hing t hat Allah creat ed, in t his life and in t he Hereaft er.'' Al-Qurt ubi comment ed, "This is t he correct meaning, t hat t he ` Alam encompasses everyt hing t hat Allah creat ed in bot h worlds. Similarly, Allah said, ゆケ メゅ∠ - リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ ゅ∠ ヱ ラ∇ヲハ∇ゲプ メゅ∠ ぴ ぁ ∠ ∠ ホ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ぁ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ び リΒ͡ ホヲぁ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ べ∠ ヰレ∇Βよ ゅ∠ ヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ∠ レ͡ ョ ⊥ ミ ま ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz (Fir` awn (Pharaoh) said: "And what is t he Lord of t he ` Alamin'' Musa (Moses) said: "The Lord of t he heavens and t he eart h, and all t hat is bet ween t hem, if you seek t o be convinced wit h cert aint y'') (26:23-24). Why is the Creation called ` Alam ` Alam is derived from ` Alamah, t hat is because it is a sign t est ifying t o t he exist ence of it s Creat or and t o His Oneness.'' び ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャやぴ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z (3. Ar-Rahman (t he Most Gracious), Ar-Rahim (t he Most Merciful)). Allah said next , び ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャやぴ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z (Ar-Rahman (t he Most Gracious), Ar-Rahim (t he Most Merciful)) We explained t hese Names in t he Basmalah. Al-Qurt ubi said, "Allah has described Himself by ` Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim' aft er saying ` t he Lord of t he Alamin', so His st at ement here includes a warning, and t hen an encouragement . Similarly, Allah said, ラぺヱ - ユΒ͡ ゲャや ケヲ⊥ ピ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∠ ヴあ ぺ ン͡ ゅ∠ ハ ∇¬ヴあ ルぴ z ∠∠ ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヘ∠ ルぺ ル∠ キ ら͡ ら∠ び ユΒ͡Ιや ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ヲワ ヴ͡ や∠ ハ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ グ∠ ∠ ⊥ よ グ ∠ (Declare (O Muhammad ) unt o My servant s, t hat t ruly, I am t he Oft -Forgiving, t he Most Merciful. And t hat My t orment is indeed t he most painful t orment .) (15:49-50) Allah said, び∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヲ⊥ ピャ ヮルまヱ ゆゅ∠ バ∇ャや ノΑ͡ シ マよケ ラまぴ ユ ェz ケ ヘ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ͡ ボ͡ ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ z ∠ z ͡ (Surely, your Lord is swift in ret ribut ion, and cert ainly He is Oft -Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (6:165) Hence, Rabb cont ains a warning while Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim encourages. Furt her, Muslim recorded in his Sahih t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ノヨデ ゅ∠ るよヲ⊥ バ∇ャや リョ ぶや ギ∇レハ ゅ∠ リョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ユヤ∇バΑ ∇ヲャ» ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ボ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ リョ ぶや ギ∇レハ ゅ∠ ゲプゅ∠ ∇ャや ユヤ∇バΑ ∇ヲャヱ ∩∀ ェぺ ヮわレィ ヶ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ ⊥ ͡ ム ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ギ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ z ∠ プ «ギェぺ ヮわヨ∇ェケ ∇リョ テレホ ゅ∠ るヨ∇ェゲャや ∀ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ョ ͡ ∠ z (If t he believer knew what punishment Allah has, none would have hope in acquiring His Paradise, and if t he disbeliever knew what mercy Allah has, none will lose hope of earning His earning.) び リΑあ ャや ュ∇ヲΑ マヤ⇒∠ ぴ ͡ ギ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ョ (4. The Owner of t he Day of Recompense.) Indicating Sovereignty on the Day of Judgment Allah ment ioned His sovereignt y of t he Day of Resurrect ion, but t his does not negat e His sovereignt y over all ot her t hings. For Allah ment ioned t hat He is t he Lord of exist ence, including t his eart hly life and t he Hereaft er. Allah only ment ioned t he Day of Recompense here because on t hat Day, no one except Him will be able t o claim ownership of anyt hing what soever. On t hat Day, no one will be allowed t o speak wit hout His permission. Similarly, Allah said, Ιま ∠ ヲ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ Ι ゅヘタ るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや∠ ゥヱぁ ャや ュヲ⊥ Α ュ∇ヲΑぴ z ͡ ラ ヨzムわΑ z ⇔∂ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ヱ ⊥ ゲ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ び ゅよや∠ タ メゅ∠ ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヮャ ラクぺ ∇リョ ⇔ ヲ∠ ∠ ホ∠ ⊥ ヨ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (The Day t hat Ar-Ruh (Jibril (Gabriel) or anot her angel) and t he angels will st and fort h in rows, t hey will not speak except him whom t he Most Gracious (Allah) allows, and he will speak what is right .) (78:38), Ιま ノヨ∇ジゎ Κプ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲヤ͡ れや∠ ∇タΕや ろバゼカヱぴ z ͡ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨ z ャ ⊥ ヲ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ びゅジ∇ヨワ ⇔ ∠ (And all voices will be humbled for t he Most Gracious (Allah), and not hing shall you hear but t he low voice of t heir foot st eps.)(20:108), and, ヴボセ ∇ユヰ∇レヨプ ヮル∇クみよ Ιま ∀ ∇ヘ∠ ユヤムゎ Ι れ∇ほΑ ュ∇ヲΑぴ x ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡͡ z ͡ ザ ル ⊥ z∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ギΒ͡ シヱ ∀ バ∠ ∠ (On t he Day when it comes, no person shall speak except by His (Allah's) leave. Some among t hem will be wret ched and (ot hers) blessed) (11:105). Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed, "Allah says, ` On t hat Day, no one owns anyt hing t hat t hey used t o own in t he world.''' The Meaning of Yawm Ad-Din Ibn ` Abbas said, "Yawm Ad-Din is t he Day of Recompense for t he creat ures, meaning t he Day of Judgment . On t hat Day, Allah will reckon t he creat ion for t heir deeds, evil for evil, good for good, except for t hose whom He pardons.'' In addit ion, several ot her Companions, Tabi` in and scholars of t he Salaf, said similarly, for t his meaning is apparent and clear from t he Ayah. Allah is Al-Malik (King or Owner) Allah is t he True Owner (Malik) (of everyt hing and everyone). Allah said, サヱぁ ボ∇ャや マヤヨ∇ャや ヲワ Ιま ∠ ⇒∠͡ Ι ン͡ ャや ヮヤャや ヲワぴ ⊥ ギ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ヮ ャま ∠ グz ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ びユ⇒∠ジャや ⊥ ヤz (He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, t he King, t he Holy, t he One free from all defect s) (59:23). Also, t he Two Sahihs recorded Abu Hurayrah saying t hat t he Prophet said, ポゅ∠∇ョほ∇ャや マヤヨよ ヴz ジゎ ∀ ィ∠ ぶや ギ∇レハ ユ∇シや ノレ∇カぺ» ͡ ヤ ∠ ͡ ͡∠ ͡ ヨ∠ ∠ モ⊥ ケ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «ぶや ゅzま マャゅ∠ ゅ∠ヱ ⊥ ャ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ ャ∠ (The most despicable name t o Allah is a person who calls himself t he king of kings, while t here are no owners except Allah.) Also t he Two Sahihs recorded t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, z を ヮレΒ͡ Βよ ¬ゅ∠ ジャや ヵ͡ ∇トΑヱ チ∇ケほ∇ャや ぶや ヂら∇ボΑ» ユ⊥ ͡ ͡ ヨ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨz ヲ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ リ∇Αぺ ∨͡ ∇ケほ∇ャや ポヲ⊥ョ リ∇Αぺ ∩⊥ ヤヨ∇ャや ゅ∠ ぺ :メヲ⊥ Α ∠ ∠ チ ∠ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ マ͡∠ ル∠ ⊥ ボ∠ «∨∠ ヱ⊥ らムわヨ∇ャや リ∇Αぺ ∨∠ ヱ⊥ ゅz ∠ ∇ャや ラ ゲあ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ラ ケ らイ ((On t he Day of Judgement ) Allah will grasp t he eart h and fold up t he heavens wit h His Right Hand and proclaim, 'I Am t he King! Where are t he kings of t he eart h Where are t he t yrant s Where are t he arrogant ') Also, in t he t he Glorious Qur'an; びケゅz ボ∇ャや ギェヲ∇ャや ヮヤャ ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや マ∇ヤヨ∇ャや リヨャぴ ͡ ヰ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ z͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ あ (Whose is t he kingdom t his Day Allah's, t he One, t he Irresist ible.)(40:16). As for calling someone ot her t han Allah a king in t his life, 3-24). :23NNA r-Rahman (t he Most Gracious), Ar-Rahim (t he Most Merciful)) We explained t hese Names in t he Basmalah. Al-Qurt ubi said, "Allah has described Himself by ` Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim' aft er saying ` t he Lord of t he Alamin', so His st at ement here includes a warning, and t hen an encouragement . Similarly, Allah said, RNA ? Allah is Al-Malik (King or Owner) Allah is t he True Owner (Malik) (of everyt hing and everyone). Allah said, サヱぁ ボ∇ャや マヤヨ∇ャや ヲワ Ιま ∠ ⇒∠͡ Ι ン͡ ャや ヮヤャや ヲワぴ ⊥ ギ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ヮ ャま ∠ グz ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ びユ⇒∠ジャや ⊥ ヤz (He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, t he King, t he Holy, t he One free from all defect s) (59:23). Also, t he Two Sahihs recorded Abu Hurayrah saying t hat t he Prophet said, ポゅ∠∇ョほ∇ャや マヤヨよ ヴz ジゎ ∀ ィ∠ ぶや ギ∇レハ ユ∇シや ノレ∇カぺ» ͡ ヤ ∠ ͡ ͡∠ ͡ ヨ∠ ∠ モ⊥ ケ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «ぶや ゅzま マャゅ∠ ゅ∠ヱ ⊥ ャ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ ャ∠ (The most despicable name t o Allah is a person who calls himself t he king of kings, while t here are no owners except Allah.) Also t he Two Sahihs recorded t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, z を ヮレΒ͡ Βよ ¬ゅ∠ ジャや ヵ͡ ∇トΑヱ チ∇ケほ∇ャや ぶや ヂら∇ボΑ» ユ⊥ ͡ ͡ ヨ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨz ヲ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ リ∇Αぺ ∨͡ ∇ケほ∇ャや ポヲ⊥ョ リ∇Αぺ ∩⊥ ヤヨ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∠ :メヲ⊥ Α ∠ ∠ チ ∠ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ マ͡∠ ルぺ ⊥ ボ∠ «∨∠ ヱ⊥ らムわヨ∇ャや リ∇Αぺ ∨∠ ヱ⊥ ゅz ∠ ∇ャや ラ ゲあ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ラ ケ らイ ((On t he Day of Judgement ) Allah will grasp t he eart h and fold up t he heavens wit h His Right Hand and proclaim, 'I Am t he King! Where are t he kings of t he eart h Where are t he t yrant s Where are t he arrogant ') Also, in t he t he Glorious Qur'an; びケゅz ボ∇ャや ギェヲ∇ャや ヮヤャ ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや マ∇ヤヨ∇ャや リヨャぴ ͡ ヰ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ z͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ あ (Whose is t he kingdom t his Day Allah's, t he One, t he Irresist ible.)(40:16). As for calling someone ot her t han Allah a king in t his life, t hen it is done as a figure of speech. For inst ance, Allah said, びゅ⇔ ヤョ れヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇ユムャ ゑバよ ∇ギホ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ム͡∠ ∠ ャ デ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ (Indeed Allah appoint ed Talut (Saul) as a king over you.) (2:247), び∀ ͡ョ ユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ヱ ラゅ∠ ヱぴ マヤz ワ∠ ケ∠ ∠ ミ∠ (As t here was a king behind t hem)(18:79), and, びゅミヲ⊥ョ ∇ユムヤバィヱ ¬べ∠ ら∇ルぺ ∇ユムΒ͡ モバィ ∇クまぴ ⇔ ヤぁ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ When He made Prophet s among you, and made you kings )5:20(. Also, t he Two Sahihs recorded, «りゲシほ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ポヲ⊥ヨ∇ャや モ∇んョ» ͡ z ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ͡ ヤ⊥ ⊥ ͡ (Just like kings reclining on t heir t hrones) The Meaning of Ad-Din Ad-Din means t he reckoning, t he reward or punishment . Similarly, Allah said, びペエ∇ャや ユヰレΑ͡ ヮzャや ユヰΒあ ヲΑ グゃョ∇ヲΑぴ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ キ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ͡ プ∠ ⊥ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∠ (On t hat Day Allah will pay t hem t he (Dinahum) recompense (of t heir deeds) in full) (24:25), and, びラヲ⊥ Α͡ ∠ ∠ ゅz ¬ぺぴ ∠ レ ギヨャ ル͡ ∠ (Shall we indeed (be raised up) t o receive reward or punishment (according t o our deeds)) (37:53). A Hadit h st at ed, «れヲ∠ ∇ャや ギ∇バよ ゅ∠ ャ モヨハヱ ヮジ∇ヘル ラや∠ ∇リョ ザあム∇ャや» ͡ ヨ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ キ ∠ ⊥ Β∠ (The wise person is he who reckons himself and works for (his life) aft er deat h.) meaning, he holds himself account able. Also, ` Umar said, "Hold yourself account able before you are held account able, weigh yourselves before you are weighed, and be prepared for t he biggest gat hering before He Whose knowledge encompasses your deeds, び るΒプゅ∠ ∇ユムレ͡ ヴ∠ ∇ガゎ Ι ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇バゎ グゃョ∇ヲΑぴ ∀ ∠ ͡ カ ⊥ ョ ヘ ∠ ∠ ∠ ッ∠ ⊥ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∠ (That Day shall you be brought t o Judgement , not a secret of yours will be hidden) (69:18).'' び リΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅz まヱ ギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ (5. You we worship, and You we ask for help.) (1:5) The Linguistic and Religious Meaning of ` Ibadah Linguist ically, ` Ibadah means subdued. For inst ance, a road is described as Mu` abbadah, meaning, ` paved'. In religious t erminology, ` Ibadah implies t he ut most love, humilit y and fear. The Merit of stating the Object of the Action before the Doer of the Act, and the Merit of these Negations You...'', means, we worship You alone and none else, and rely on You alone and none else. This is t he perfect form of obedience and t he ent ire religion is implied by t hese t wo ideas. Some of t he Salaf said, Al-Fat ihah is t he secret of t he Qur'an, while t hese words are t he secret of AlFat ihah, び リΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅz まヱ ギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ (5. You we worship, and You we ask for help from.) The first part is a declarat ion of innocence from Shirk (polyt heism), while t he second negat es having any power or st rengt h, displaying t he recognit ion t hat all affairs are cont rolled by Allah alone. This meaning is reit erat ed in various inst ances in t he Qur'an. For inst ance, Allah said, ゅz ∠ モヘ⇒∠ よ マよケ ゅ∠ ヱ ヮ∇Βヤハ ∇モミヲゎヱ ロ∇ギら∇ハゅ∠ ぴ ヨハ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ∠ ぁ ∠ ョ∠ ͡ ∠∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ プ び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ラ ヤヨ ゎ (So worship Him (O Muhammad ) and put your t rust in Him. And your Lord is not unaware of what you (people) do.) (11:123), びゅレ∇ヤミヲゎ ヮ∇Βヤハヱ ヮよ ゅz ョや∠ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヲワ ∇モホぴ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ ヨ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ (Say: "He is t he Most Gracious (Allah), in Him we believe, and in Him we put our t rust .'') (67:29), ロ∇グガz ゅ∠ ヲワ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま Ι ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ゆケぴ ⊥ ͡ ゎ プ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ ͡ ∠ ぁ z び ΚΒ͡ ヱ ⇔ ミ∠ ((He alone is) t he Lord of t he east and t he west ; La ilaha illa Huwa (none has t he right t o be worshipped but He). So t ake Him alone as Wakil (Disposer of your affairs)), (73:9), and, び リΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅz まヱ ギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ (You we worship, and You we ask for help from). We should ment ion t hat in t his Ayah, t he t ype of speech here changes from t he t hird person t o direct speech by using t he Kaf in t he st at ement Iyyaka (You). This is because aft er t he servant praised and t hanked Allah, he st ands before Him, addressing Him direct ly; び リΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅz まヱ ギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ (You we worship, and You we ask for help from). So t ake Him alone as Wakil (Disposer of your affairs)), (73:9), and, び リΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅz まヱ ギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ (You we worship, and You we ask for help from). We should ment ion t hat in t his Ayah, t he t ype of speech here changes from t he t hird person t o direct speech by using t he Kaf in t he st at ement Iyyaka (You). This is because aft er t he servant praised and t hanked Allah, he st ands before Him, addressing Him direct ly; び リΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅΑまヱ ギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ (You we worship, and You we ask for help from). Al-Fatihah indicates the Necessity of praising Allah. It is required in every Prayer The beginning of Surat Al-Fat ihah cont ains Allah's praise for Himself by His most beaut iful At t ribut es and indicat es t o His servant s t hat , t hey t oo, should praise Him in t he same manner. Hence, t he prayer is not valid unless one recit es Al-Fat ihah, if he is able. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat ` Ubadah bin As-Samit said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, «ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや るエゎゅ∠ よ ∇ぺゲ∇ボΑ ∇ユャ ∇リヨャ りゅ∠タ ゅ∠» ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヘ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ャ (There is no valid prayer for whoever does not recit e Al-Fat ihah of t he Book.) Also, it is recorded in Sahih Muslim t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, リ∇Βよヱ ヶ͡ ∇Βよ りゅ∠ダャや ろ∇ヨジホ : ヴ∠ゅ∠ ゎ ヮzャや メヲ⊥ Α» ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ヤz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ バ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ボ∠ ヵ͡ ∇らバャ ゅ∠ ヘ∇ダルヱ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヘ∇ダレプ ∩͡ ∇Βヘ∇ダル ヵ͡ ∇らハ ギ ∠ ͡ ヰ⊥ ͡ ∠ ャ ヰ⊥ ͡ ∠ リ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ :ギ∇らバ∇ャや メゅ∠ や∠ ま ∩∠ ほシ ゅ∠ ヵ͡ ∇らバャヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡ メ∠∠ ョ ギ ∠ ͡∠ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ヮzャや ラま ュ∇ヲΑ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャや» ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ z ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ∂ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ヮzャや ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ ͡ ツ∠ ヤ∠ りヲ ゼビ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ ゲ∠ ∠ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ¬へ∠ シ ヮzャや ラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ z ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヲ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ボ͡ Α ∇ユヰバ∇ヨシ ょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ヮzャや ラヲ⊥ ホヲ⊥ ∇ユワ∇ケグレ⊥ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ⊥ ヤ ∠ レ͡ Α ⊥ ͡ ゎ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ヮヤャや ∇ュぺ ュ∇ヲΑ ∇ユワ∇ケグレ⊥ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ∠ ボz ⊥ ∂ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ゎ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ヮzャや ラま ラヲレョ∇ぽΑ ヮヤャや べ∠ よ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ z ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ z ヨ͡ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ «ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ヮzャや ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z ͡ ツ ∠ ⊥ ヤ :メゅ∠ や∠ み∠ ヵ͡ ∇らハ ヶヤハ ヴレ∇をぺ :ぶや メゅ∠ ∩ ∠ ホ ク プ ギ ∠ z ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ホ や∠ まヱ ∩ヵ͡ ∇らハ ヶ͡ ギイョ :ぶや メゅ∠ ∩び リΑあ ャや ュ∇ヲΑ マヤ⇒∠ ぴ ク͡∠ ギ ∠ ル∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ホ ͡ ギ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ョ :メゅ∠ ∠ ホ リ∇Βよヱ ヶ͡ ∇Βよ や∠ ワ :メゅ∠ ∩び リΒバわ∇ジル ポゅz まヱ ギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ グ ∠ ホ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ :メゅ∠ や∠ みプ ∩∠ ほシ ゅ∠ ヵ͡ ∇らバャヱ ∩ヵ͡ ∇らハ ∠ ホ ク ͡ ∠ メ∠ ∠ ョ ギ ∠ ͡ ∠ ギ ∠ び ユΒ͡ わ∇ジヨ∇ャや ヅや∠ ダャや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ワやぴ ∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲあ ルギ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ リΑ͡ ャや ヅや∠ タぴ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ゲ͡ ヵ͡ ∇らバャヱ ∩ヵ͡ ∇らバャ や∠ ワ :メゅ∠ ∩び リΒあべz ャや Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ギ ∠ ͡∠ ギ ∠ ͡ グ ∠ ホ ∠ ャ ツ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ «メほシ ゅ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ョ (Allah said, ` I divided t he prayer int o t wo halves bet ween Myself and My servant , one half is for Me and one half for My servant . My servant shall have what he asks for.' When t he servant says, び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ (All praise and t hanks be t o Allah, t he Lord of all t hat exist s.), Allah says, ` My servant has praised Me.' When t he servant says, び ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャやぴ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z (The Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful), Allah says, ` My servant has praised Me.' When t he servant says, び リΑあ ャや ュ∇ヲΑ マヤ⇒∠ ぴ ͡ ギ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ョ (The Owner of t he Day of Recompense), Allah says, ` My servant has glorified Me.' If t he servant says, び リΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅz まヱ ギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ (You we worship, and You we ask for help), Allah says, ` This is bet ween Me and My servant , and My servant shall have what he asked.' If t he servant says, ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ リΑ͡ ャや ヅや∠ タ - ユΒ͡ わ∇ジヨ∇ャや ヅや∠ ダャや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ワやぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲあ ルギ び リΒあべz ャや Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∠ ャ ツ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ (Guide us t o t he st raight pat h. The pat h of t hose on whom You have best owed Your grace, not (t hat ) of t hose who have earned Your anger, nor of t hose who went ast ray), Allah says, ` This is for My servant , and My servant shall have what he asked.') Tawhid Al-Uluhiyyah Ad-Dahhak narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, びギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ (You we worship) means, "It is You whom we single out , Whom we fear and Whom we hope in, You alone, our Lord, Tawhid Ar-Rububiyyah びリΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅz まヱぴ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ (And You we ask for help from), t o obey you and in all of our affairs.'' Furt her, Qat adah said t hat t he Ayah, び リΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅz まヱ ギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ (You we worship, and You we ask for help from) "Cont ains Allah's command t o us t o perform sincere worship for Him and t o seek His aid concerning all of our affairs.'' Allah ment ioned, びギら∇バル ポゅz まぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡ (You we worship) before, びリΒ͡ わ∇ジル ポゅz まヱぴ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ (And You we ask for help from), because t he obj ect ive here is t he worship, while Allah's help is t he t ool t o implement t his obj ect ive. Cert ainly, one first t akes care of t he most import ant aspect s and t hen what is less import ant , and Allah knows best . Allah called His Prophet an ` Abd Allah called His Messenger an ` Abd (servant ) when He ment ioned sending down His Book, t he Prophet 's involvement in invit ing t o Him, and when ment ioning t he Isra' (overnight j ourney from Makkah t o Jerusalem and t hen t o heaven), and t hese are t he Prophet 's most honorable missions. Allah said, びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ロギ∇らハ ヴ∠ハ メゴ∇ルぺ ン͡ ャや ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ∠ わ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ͡ z͡ ⊥ ∠ (All praise and t hanks be t o Allah, Who has sent down t o His servant (Muhammad ) t he Book (t he Qur'an)) (18:1), びロヲ⊥ ∇ギΑ ヮヤャや ギ∇らハ ュゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ヮルぺヱぴ ⊥ ハ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ヨz ⊥ z ∠ ∠ (And when t he servant of Allah (Muhammad ) st ood up invoking Him (his Lord prayer)), (72:19) and, Allah in びΚ∇Βャ ロギ∇らバよ ン∠ ∇シぺ ン͡ ャや ラゅエ∇らシぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ ∠ グz ∠ ∠ ⊥ (Glorified (and Exalt ed) be He (Allah) (above all t hat t hey associat e wit h Him) Who t ook His servant (Muhammad ) for a j ourney by night ) (17:1). Encouraging the Performance of the Acts of Worship during Times of Distress Allah also recommended t hat His Prophet resort t o act s of worship during t imes when he felt dist ressed because of t he disbelievers who defied and denied him. Allah said, - ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ よ ポケ∇ギタ ペΒ͡ Α マルぺ ユヤ∇バル ∇ギボャヱぴ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ツ∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∇ギら∇ハや∠ - リΑ͡ イ⇒z ャや リョ ∇リミヱ マよケ ギ∇ヨエよ ∇ウらジプ ⊥ ヱ ∠ ギ͡ ジ ∠ あ ⊥ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ び リΒ͡ Β∇ャや マΒゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェ マよケ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ ∠ z ∠ (Indeed, We know t hat your breast is st rait ened at what t hey say. So glorify t he praises of your Lord and be of t hose who prost rat e t hemselves (t o Him). And worship your Lord unt il t here comes unt o you t he cert aint y (i.e. deat h)) (15:97-99). Why Praise was mentioned First Since t he praise of Allah, Who is being sought for help, was ment ioned, it was appropriat e t hat one follows t he praise by asking for his need. We st at ed t hat Allah said, «メほシ ゅ∠ ヵ͡ ∇らバャヱ ∩ヵ͡ ∇らバャ ゅ∠ ヘ∇ダルヱ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヘ∇ダレプ» ∠ ∠∠ ョ ギ ∠ ͡∠ ギ ∠ ͡ ヰ⊥ ͡ ∠ ャ ヰ⊥ ͡ ∠ (One half for Myself and one half for My servant , and My servant shall have what he asked.) This is t he best met hod for seeking help, by first praising t he one whom help is sought from and t hen asking for His aid, and help for one's self, and for his Muslim bret hren by saying. び ユΒ͡ わ∇ジヨ∇ャや ヅや∠ ダャや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ワやぴ ∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲあ ルギ (Guide us t o t he st raight pat h.) This met hod is more appropriat e and efficient in bringing about a posit ive answer t o t he pleas, and t his is why Allah recommended t his bet t er met hod. Asking for help may t ake t he form of conveying t he condit ion of t he person who is seeking help. For inst ance, t he Prophet Moses said, び∀ Β͡ ∠ ゲ∇Βカ ∇リョ ヴャま ろ∇ャゴル∠ べ∠ ャ ヴあ ま ゆケぴ ゲ ボプ ∃ ∠ ͡ z ∠͡ ∠ ∠ ぺ ヨ͡ ル͡ あ ∠ (My Lord! Truly, I am in need of what ever good t hat You best ow on me!) (28:24). Also, one may first ment ion t he at t ribut es of whoever is being asked, such as what Dhun-Nun said, びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや リョ ろレ⊥ ヴあ ま マレ⇒∠ ∇らシ ろル∠ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま Ιぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ミ ル͡ ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ ∠ ぺ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ z (La ilaha illa Ant a (none has t he right t o be worshipped but You (O Allah)), Glorified (and Exalt ed) be You (above all t hat t hey associat e wit h You)! Truly, I have been of t he wrongdoers) (21:87). Furt her, one may praise Him wit hout ment ioning what he needs. The Meaning of Guidance ment ioned in t he Surah The guidance ment ioned in t he Surah implies being direct ed and guided t o success. Allah said, び ユΒ͡ わ∇ジヨ∇ャや ヅや∠ ダャや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ワやぴ ∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲあ ルギ (Guide us t o t he st raight pat h) meaning guide, direct , lead and grant us t he correct guidance. Also, び リΑ∠ ∇イレャや ヮ⇒∠ ∇Αギワヱぴ ͡ ギ z ⊥ レ ∠∠ ∠ (And shown him t he t wo ways (good and evil)) (90:10), means, ` We explained t o him t he pat hs of good and evil.' Also, Allah said, びユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ヴ∠ま ロや∠ ワヱ ヮ⇒∠ わ∇ィやぴ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ (He (Allah) chose him (as an int imat e friend) and guided him t o a st raight pat h) (16:121), and, びユΒ͡ イ∇ャや ヅゲタ ヴ∠ま ∇ユワヱ⊥ ∇ワゅ∠ ぴ ͡ エ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ⊥ ギ プ (And lead t hem on t o t he way of flaming Fire (Hell)) (37:23). Similarly, Allah said, びユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ヴ∠ま ン͡ ∇ヰわャ マルまヱぴ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ (And verily, you (O Muhammad ) are indeed guiding (mankind) t o t he st raight pat h) (42:52), and, びや∠ ⇒∠ ャ ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ン͡ ャや ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ グ ヰ͡ ル ギ∠ グz ͡ z͡ ⊥ ∠ (All praise and t hanks be t o Allah, Who has guided us t o t his) (7:43), meaning, guided us and direct ed us and qualified us for t his end - Paradise. The Meaning of As-Sirat Al-Mustaqim, the Straight Path. As for t he meaning of As-Sirat Al-Must aqim, Imam Abu Ja` far At -Tabari said, "The Ummah agreed t hat Sirat Al-Must aqim, is t he clear pat h wit hout branches, according t o t he language of t he Arabs. For inst ance, Jarir bin ` At iyah Al-Khat afi said in a poem, ` The Leader of t he fait hful is on a pat h t hat will remain st raight even t hough t he ot her pat hs are crooked.'' At -Tabari also st at ed t hat , "There are many evidences t o t his fact .'' At -Tabari t hen proceeded, "The Arabs use t he t erm, Sirat in reference t o every deed and st at ement whet her right eous or wicked. Hence t he Arabs would describe t he honest person as being st raight and t he wicked person as being crooked. The st raight pat h ment ioned in t he Qur'an refers t o Islam. Imam Ahmad recorded in his Musnad t hat An-Nawwas bin Sam` an said t hat t he Prophet said, ヴ∠ハヱ ∩ゅ⇔ Β͡ わ∇ジョ ゅ⇔ や∠ タ ゅ⇔んョ ぶや ゆゲッ» ヤ∠ ∠ ヨ ボ∠ ⊥ デ ゲ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∩∀ エわヘョ ∀ や∠ ∇よ∠ ゅ∠ ͡ Β͡ ラや∠ ヲ⊥ ヅや∠ ダャや ヶわら∇レィ る∠ z ∠ ⊥ ゆ ヲ ぺ ヨヰ プ ͡ ケ シ ͡ ゲあ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ゆゅ∠ ヴ∠ハヱ ∩∀ ゅ∠ ∇ゲョ ∀ ヲ⊥ シ ゆや∠ ∇よほ∇ャや ヴ∠∠ ∠ ͡ よ ヤ∠ ∠ り カ ⊥ ケ わ⊥ ͡ ヲ ∠ ヤハ ヱ やヲ⊥カ∇キや サゅz ャや ゅ∠ Αぺゅ∠ :メヲ⊥ Α ネや∠ ヅや∠ ダャや ヤ⊥ ⊥ レ ヰぁ ∠ Α ⊥ ボ∠ ∃ キ ͡ ゲあ ∇リョ ヲ⊥ ∇ギ∠ ネや∠ ヱ ∩やヲぁ ヲ∇バゎ ゅ∠ヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ィ ヅや∠ ダャや ͡ ハ Α ∃ キ∠ ィ∠ ∠ ャ∠ バ ヨ∠ ∠ ゲあ ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ウわ∇ヘΑ ∇ラぺ ラゅ∠ ∇ルみ∇ャや キや∠ ぺ や∠ みプ ∩͡ や∠ ダャや ベ∇ヲプ ゃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ジ ͡ ∠ ケ∠ ク͡∠ ヅ ゲあ ͡ ∠ ∇ラま マルみプ ヮ∇エわ∇ヘゎ ゅ∠ マエ∇Αヱ:メゅ∠ ゆや∠ ∇よほ∇ャや マ∇ヤゎ ∇リョ ͡ ∠ z͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ヲ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ キヱ⊥ ェ :ラや∠ ヲぁ ャや∠ ュゅ∠∇シみ∇ャや :ヅや∠ ダャゅ∠ ヮ∇イヤゎ ヮわ∇エわプ ⊥ ギ⊥ ͡ ケ ジ ヱ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ⊥ ゲあ プ ⊥ ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヶ͡ やz ャや マャクヱ ぶや ュケゅ∠ ョ るエわヘヨ∇ャや ゆや∠ ∇よほ∇ャや∠ ぶや ハ ギ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ エ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヲ ∠ ヱ ͡ ∇リョ ヶ͡ やz ャや∠ ∩͡ や ゆゅ∠ ミ ヅや∠ ダャや サ∇ぺケ ヴ∠ハ ͡ ハ ギ ヱ ぶ ⊥ わ͡ ͡ ゲあ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ «ユヤ∇ジョ あ ミ ょ∇ヤホ ヶ͡ ぶや ナハや∠ ヅや∠ ダャや ベ∇ヲプ ∃ ͡ ⊥ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ プ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ヱ ͡ ゲあ ͡ ∠ (Allah has set an example: a Sirat (st raight pat h) t hat is surrounded by t wo walls on bot h sides, wit h several open doors wit hin t he walls covered wit h curt ains. There is a caller on t he gat e of t he Sirat who heralds, 'O people! St ay on t he pat h and do not deviat e from it .' Meanwhile, a caller from above t he pat h is also warning any person who want s t o open any of t hese doors, 'Woe unt o you! Do not open it , for if you open it you will pass t hrough.' The st raight pat h is Islam, t he t wo walls are Allah's set limit s, while t he doors resemble what Allah has prohibit ed. The caller on t he gat e of t he Sirat is t he Book of Allah, while t he caller above t he Sirat is Allah's admonishment in t he heart of every Muslim.) The Faithful ask for and abide by Guidance If someone asks, "Why does t he believer ask Allah for guidance during every prayer and at ot her t imes, while he is already properly guided Has he not already acquired guidance'' The answer t o t hese quest ions is t hat if it were not a fact t hat t he believer needs t o keep asking for guidance day and night , Allah would not have direct ed him t o invoke Him t o acquire t he guidance. The servant needs Allah t he Exalt ed every hour of his life t o help him remain firm on t he pat h of guidance and t o make him even more firm and persist ent on it . The servant does not have t he power t o benefit or harm himself, except by Allah's permission. Therefore, Allah direct ed t he servant t o invoke Him const ant ly, so t hat He provides him wit h His aid and wit h firmness and success. Indeed, t he happy person is he whom Allah guides t o ask of Him. This is especially t he case if a person urgent ly needs Allah's help day or night . Allah said, ヮャヲ⊥ ケヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ シ∠ ∠ ͡ z よ レ͡ ¬ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α ン͡ ャや ͡ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ャや∠ ヮャヲ⊥ ケ ヴ∠ハ メゴル ン͡ ャや ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや∠ グz ょ わム ヱ ͡ ͡ シ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ z ∠ グz ͡ わ͡ ヱ びモ∇らホ リ͡ メゴ∠ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ル∠ (O you who believe! Believe in Allah, and His Messenger (Muhammad ), and t he Book (t he Qur'an) which He has sent down t o His Messenger, and t he Script ure which He sent down t o t hose before (him)) (4:16). Therefore, in t his Ayah Allah commanded t he believers t o believe, and t his command is not redundant since what is sought here is firmness and cont inuit y of performing t he deeds t hat help one remain on t he pat h of fait h. Also, Allah commanded His believing servant s t o proclaim, リ͡ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ょワヱ ゅ∠ わ∇Αギワ ∇クま ギ∇バよ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇パゴゎ Ι ゅ∠ よケぴ ョ レャ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ヤ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ レz ∠ び ゆゅz ヲ∇ャや ろル∠ マルま るヨ∇ェケ マル⊥ ャ ⊥ ワ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギz (Our Lord! Let not our heart s deviat e (from t he t rut h) aft er You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You. Truly, You are t he Best ower.) (3:8). Hence, び ユΒ͡ わ∇ジヨ∇ャや ヅや∠ ダャや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ワやぴ ∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲあ ルギ (Guide us t o t he st raight way) means, "Make us firm on t he pat h of guidance and do not allow us t o deviat e from it .'' ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ リΑ͡ ャや ヅや∠ タぴ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ゲ͡ び リΒあべz ャや Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∠ ャ ツ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ (7. The way of t hose upon whom You have best owed Your grace, not (t hat ) of t hose who earned Your anger, nor of t hose who went ast ray). We ment ioned t he Hadit h in which t he servant proclaims, び ユΒ͡ わ∇ジヨ∇ャや ヅや∠ ダャや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ワやぴ ∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲあ ルギ (Guide us t o t he st raight way) and Allah says, "This is for My servant , and My servant shall acquire what he asks for.'' Allah's st at ement . び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ リΑ͡ ャや ヅや∠ タぴ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ゲ͡ (The way of t hose upon whom You have best owed Your grace) defines t he pat h. ` Those upon whom Allah has best owed His grace' are t hose ment ioned in Surat An-Nisa' (chapt er 4), when Allah said, ユバ∇ルぺ リΑ͡ ャや ノョ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱほプ メヲ⊥ ゲャや∠ ヮヤャや ノトΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ∠ ∠ シz ヱ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ⊥ ョ ∠ ¬へ∠ ヰゼャや∠ リΒ͡ Αあ ダャや∠ リΒあ らレャや リョ ユ͡ ∇Βヤハ ヮzャや ͡ ギ∠ ぁ ヱ ∠ ボ ギあ ヱ ∠ Β͡ z ∠ あ ヰ ∠∠ ⊥ ヤ モ∇ツヘ∇ャや マャク - ゅボΒ͡ ケ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ リジェヱ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャやヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⇔ プ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ͡ ダ ∠ び ゅヨΒ͡ハ ヮヤャゅ͡ ヴ∠ ミヱ ヮヤャや リョ ⇔ ヤ∠ ͡ z よ ヘ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ (And whoever obeys Allah and t he Messenger (Muhammad ), t hen t hey will be in t he company of t hose on whom Allah has best owed His grace, t he Prophet s, t he Siddiqin (t he t ruly fait hful), t he mart yrs, and t he right eous. And how excellent t hese companions are! Such is t he bount y from Allah, and Allah is sufficient t o know) (4:69-70). Allah's st at ement , びリΒあべz ャや Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビぴ ∠ ャ ツ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ (Not (t he way) of t hose who earned Your anger, nor of t hose who went ast ray) meaning guide us t o t he st raight pat h, t he pat h of t hose upon whom you have best owed Your grace, t hat is, t he people of guidance, sincerit y and obedience t o Allah and His Messengers. They are t he people who adhere t o Allah's commandment s and refrain from commit t ing what He has prohibit ed. But , help us t o avoid t he pat h of t hose whom Allah is angry wit h, whose int ent ions are corrupt , who know t he t rut h, yet deviat e from it . Also, help us avoid t he pat h of t hose who were led ast ray, who lost t he t rue knowledge and, as a result , are wandering in misguidance, unable t o find t he correct pat h. Allah assert ed t hat t he t wo pat hs He described here are bot h misguided when He repeat ed t he negat ion ` not '. These t wo pat hs are t he pat hs of t he Christ ians and Jews, a fact t hat t he believer should beware of so t hat he avoids t hem. The pat h of t he believers is knowledge of t he t rut h and abiding by it . In comparison, t he Jews abandoned pract icing t he religion, while t he Christ ians lost t he t rue knowledge. This is why ` anger' descended upon t he Jews, while being described as ` led ast ray' is more appropriat e of t he Christ ians. Those who know, but avoid implement ing t he t rut h, deserve t he anger, unlike t hose who are ignorant . The Christ ians want t o seek t he t rue knowledge, but are unable t o find it because t hey did not seek it from it s proper resources. This is why t hey were led ast ray. We should also ment ion t hat bot h t he Christ ians and t he Jews have earned t he anger and are led ast ray, but t he anger is one of t he at t ribut es more part icular of t he Jews. Allah said about t he Jews, びヮ∇Βヤハ ょツビヱ ヮヤャや ヮレバャ リ∠ ぴ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ョ (Those (Jews) who incurred t he curse of Allah and His wrat h) (5:60). The at t ribut e t hat t he Christ ians deserve most is t hat of being led ast ray, j ust as Allah said about t hem, リ∠ ∇やヲぁッヱ やゲΒ͡ ミ ∇やヲぁッぺヱ モ∇らホ リ͡ ∇やヲぁッ ∇ギホぴ ハ ヤ∠ ∠ ⇔ ん∠ ヤ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ヤ∠ ∠ びモΒ͡ ジャや ¬へ∠ シ ͡ らz ͡ ヲ∠ (Who went ast ray before and who misled many, and st rayed (t hemselves) from t he right pat h) (5:77). There are several Hadit hs and report s from t he Salaf on t his subj ect . Imam Ahmad recorded t hat ` Adi bin Hat im said, "The horsemen of t he Messenger of Allah seized my pat ernal aunt and some ot her people. When t hey brought t hem t o t he Messenger of Allah , t hey were made t o st and in line before him. My aunt said, ` O Messenger of Allah! The support er is far away, t he offspring have st opped coming and I am an old woman, unable t o serve. Grant me your favor, may Allah grant you His favor.' He said, ` Who is your support er' She said, ` Adi bin Hat im.' He said, ` The one who ran away from Allah and His Messenger' She said, ` So, t he Prophet freed me.' When t he Prophet came back, t here was a man next t o him, I t hink t hat he was ` Ali, who said t o her, ` Ask him for a means of t ransport at ion.' She asked t he Prophet , and he ordered t hat she be given an animal. '' ` Adi t hen said, "Lat er on, she came t o me and said, ` He (Muhammad ) has done a favor t hat your fat her (who was a generous man) would never have done. So and-so person came t o him and he grant ed him his favor, and so-and-so came t o him and he grant ed him his favor.' So I went t o t he Prophet and found t hat some women and children were gat hering wit h him, so close t hat I knew t hat he was not a king like Kisra (King of Persia) or Caesar. He said, ` O ` Adi! What made you run away, so t hat La ilaha illallah is not proclaimed Is t here a deit y wort hy of worship except Allah What made you run away, so t hat Allahu Akbar (Allah is t he Great er) is not proclaimed Is t here anyt hing Great er t han Allah' I proclaimed my Islam and I saw his face radiat e wit h pleasure and he said: リΒ͡ゅz ャや ラま ヱ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ラま» ∠ ャ ツ z ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ツ ∠ z ͡ «ン∠ ゅ∠ レャや ケ ダz (Those who have earned t he anger are t he Jews and t hose who are led ast ray are t he Christ ians.)'' This Hadit h was also collect ed by At -Tirmidhi who said t hat it is Hasan Gharib. Also, when Zayd bin ` Amr bin Nufayl went wit h some of his friends - before Islam - t o Ash-Sham seeking t he t rue religion, t he Jews said t o him, "You will not become a Jew unless you carry a share of t he anger of Allah t hat we have earned.'' He said, "I am seeking t o escape Allah's anger.'' Also, t he Christ ians said t o him, "If you become one of us you will carry a share in Allah's discont ent .'' He said, "I cannot bear it .'' So he remained in his pure nat ure and avoided worshipping t he idols and t he polyt heist ic pract ices. He became neit her a Jew, nor Christ ian. As for his companions, t hey became Christ ians because t hey found it more pure t han Judaism. Waraqah bin Nawfal was among t hese people unt il Allah guided him by t he hand of His Prophet , when he was sent as Prophet , and Waraqah believed in t he revelat ion t hat was sent t o t he Prophet may Allah be pleased wit h him. The Summary of Al-Fatihah The honorable Surah Al-Fat ihah cont ains seven Ayat including t he praise and t hanks of Allah, glorifying Him and praising Him by ment ioning His most Beaut iful Names and most high At t ribut es. It also ment ions t he Hereaft er, which is t he Day of Resurrect ion, and direct s Allah's servant s t o ask of Him, invoking Him and declaring t hat all power and st rengt h comes from Him. It also calls t o t he sincerit y of t he worship of Allah alone, singling Him out in His divinit y, believing in His perfect ion, being free from t he need of any part ners, having no rivals nor equals. Al-Fat ihah direct s t he believers t o invoke Allah t o guide t hem t o t he st raight pat h, which is t he t rue religion, and t o help t hem remain on t hat pat h in t his life, and t o pass over t he act ual Sirat (bridge over hell t hat everyone must pass over) on t he Day of Judgment . On t hat Day, t he believers will be direct ed t o t he gardens of comfort in t he company of t he Prophet s, t he t rut hful ones, t he mart yrs and t he right eous. Al-Fat ihah also encourages performing good deeds, so t hat t he believers will be in t he company of t he good-doers on t he Day of Resurrect ion. The Surah also warns against following t he pat hs of misguidance, so t hat one does not end up being gat hered wit h t hose who indulge in sin, on t he Day of Resurrect ion, including t hose who have earned t he anger and t hose who were led ast ray. The Bounties are because of Allah, not the Deviations Allah said, び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ リΑ͡ ャや ヅや∠ タぴ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ゲ͡ (The way of t hose upon whom you have best owed Your grace), when He ment ioned His favor. On ment ioning anger, Allah said, び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビぴ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ (Not (t hat ) of t hose who earned Your anger), wit hout ment ioning t he subj ect , alt hough it is He Who has sent down t he anger on t hem, j ust as Allah st at ed in anot her Ayah, びユ͡ ∇Βヤハ ヮヤャや ょツビ ゅョ∇ヲホ ∇や∇ヲャヲゎ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ま ゲゎ ∇ユャぺぴ ヰ ∠∠ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ ∠ z∠ ∠ ∠ グz ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (Have you (O Muhammad ) not seen t hose (hypocrit es) who t ake as friends a people upon whom is t he wrat h of Allah (i.e. Jews)) (58:14). Also, Allah relat es t he misguidance of t hose who indulged in it , alt hough t hey were j ust ly misguided according t o Allah's appoint ed dest iny. For inst ance, Allah said, ヮャ ギイゎ リ∠プ ∇モヤ∇ツΑ リ∠ ヱ ギわ∇ヰヨ∇ャや ヲヰプ ヮzャや ギ∇ヰΑ リ∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ∠ ョ びや⇔ セ∇ゲョ ゅ6 ャヱ ギ͡ ぁ Β͡∠ (He whom Allah guides, he is t he right ly-guided; but he whom He sends ast ray, for him you will find no Wali (guiding friend) t o lead him (t o t he right pat h)) (18:17) and, ヴ͡ ∇ユワケグΑヱ ヮャ ヵキゅ∠ Κプ ヮzャや モヤ∇ツΑ リ∠ ぴ プ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ワ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ョ び ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇ピデ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β ⊥ (Whomsoever Allah sends ast ray, none can guide him; and He let s t hem wander blindly in t heir t ransgression) (7:186). These and several ot her Ayat t est ify t o t he fact t hat Allah alone is t he One Who guides and misguides, cont rary t o t he belief of t he Qadariyyah sect , who claimed t hat t he servant s choose and creat e t heir own dest iny. They rely on some unclear Ayat avoiding what is clear and cont radict s t heir desires. Theirs, is t he met hod of t he people who follow t heir lust , desire and wickedness. An aut hent ic Hadit h narrat ed, マゃャヱ⊥プ ヮ∇レョ ヮよゅ∠ ゎ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ らわΑ リΑ͡ ャや ユわ∇Αぺケ や∠ ま» ∠ ͡ ほ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ ョ ∠ バ͡ z ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ク͡ «∇ユワヱ⊥ グ∇ェゅ∠ ぶや ヴz シ リΑ͡ ャや ⊥ ケ∠ プ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ グz (When you see t hose who follow what is not so clear in it (t he Qur'an), t hen t hey are t hose whom Allah has ment ioned (refer t o 3:7). Hence, avoid t hem.) The Prophet was referring t o Allah's st at ement , ヮら⇒∠ ゎ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ らわΒプ ∀ ∇Α∠ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴプ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ほプぴ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ ョ ∠ バ͡ z ∠ ∠ ヒ コ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ∠ グ z ョ∠ ∠ びヮヤΑ͡ ∇ほゎ ¬べ∠ わ∇よや∠ るレ∇わヘ∇ャや ¬べ∠ わ∇よや ヮ∇レョ ͡ ͡ ヱ ∠ ∠ ピ͡ ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ピ͡ ⊥ ͡ (So as for t hose in whose heart s t here is a deviat ion (from t he t rut h) t hey follow t hat which is not ent irely clear t hereof, seeking Al-Fit nah (polyt heism and t rials), and seeking for it s hidden meanings)(3:7). Verily, no innovat or in t he religion could ever rely on any aut hent ic evidence in t he Qur'an t hat t est ifies t o his innovat ion. The Qur'an came t o dist inguish bet ween t rut h and falsehood, and guidance and misguidance. The Qur'an does not cont ain any discrepancies or cont radict ions, because it is a revelat ion from t he Most Wise, Wort hy of all praise. Saying Amin It is recommended t o say Amin aft er finishing t he recit at ion of Al-Fat ihah. Amin means, "O Allah! Accept our invocat ion.'' The evidence t hat saying Amin is recommended is cont ained in what Imams Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At -Tirmidhi recorded, t hat Wa'il bin Huj r said, "I heard t he Messenger of Allah recit e, びリΒあべz ャや Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビぴ ∠ ャ ツ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ (Not (t hat ) of t hose who earned Your anger, nor of t hose who went ast ray), and he said ` Amin' ext ending it wit h his voice.'' Abu Dawud's narrat ion added, "Raising his voice wit h it .'' At -Tirmidhi t hen comment ed t hat t his Hadit h is Hasan and was also narrat ed from ` Ali and Ibn Mas` ud. Also, Abu Hurayrah narrat ed t hat whenever t he Messenger of Allah would recit e, びリΒあべz ャや Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビぴ ∠ ャ ツ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ (Not (t he way) of t hose who earned Your anger, nor of t hose who went ast ray), He would say Amin unt il t hose who were behind him in t he first line could hear him. Abu Dawud and Ibn Maj ah recorded t his Hadit h wit h t he addit ion, "Then t he Masj id would shake because of (t hose behind t he Prophet ) recit ing Amin.'' Also, Ad-Daraqut ni recorded t his Hadit h and comment ed t hat it is Hasan. Furt her, Bilal narrat ed t hat he said, "O Messenger of Allah! Do not finish saying Amin before I can j oin you.'' This was recorded by Abu Dawud. In addit ion, Abu Nasr Al-Qushayri narrat ed t hat Al-Hasan and Ja` far As-Sadiq st ressed t he ` m' in Amin. Saying Amin is recommended for t hose who are not praying (when recit ing Al-Fat ihah) and is st rongly recommended for t hose who are praying, whet her alone or behind t he Imam. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ヮレΒ͡ ∇ほゎ ペプや∠ ∇リョ ヮルみプ ∩やヲ⊥ ョほプ ュゅ∠ み∇ャや リョぺ や∠ ま» ⊥ ⊥ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ レあ ∠∠ ⊥ ョ͡ ∠ z ∠ ク͡ «ヮら∇ルク ∇リョ ュギボゎ ゅ∠ ヮャ ゲヘビ るムもゅ∠ヨ∇ャや リΒ͡ ∇ほゎ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ (When t he Imam says, ' Amin', t hen say, 'Amin', because whoever says, Amin' wit h t he angels, his previous sins will be forgiven.) Muslim recorded t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ヶ͡ るムもゅ∠ヨ∇ャや∠ ∩∠ Β͡ へ :りゅ∠ダャや ヶ͡ ∇ユミギェぺ メゅ∠ や∠ ま» プ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ヱ リ ョ ͡ ヤz プ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡ ヮャ ゲヘビ ン∠ ∇カほ∇ャや ゅ∠ ワや∠ ∇ェま ∇ろボプや∠ プ ∩∠ Β͡ へ :͡ ゅ∠ ジャや ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ゲ ⊥ ヨ⊥ ギ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヲ∠ リ ョ ¬ ヨz «ヮら∇ルク ∇リョ ュギボゎ ゅ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠∠ ョ (When any of you says in t he prayer, 'Amin ` and t he angels in heaven say, ` Amin', in unison, his previous sins will be forgiven.) It was said t hat t he Hadit h t alks about bot h t he angels and t he Muslims saying Amin at t he same t ime. The Hadit h also refers t o when t he Amins said by t he angels and t he Muslims are equally sincere (t hus bringing about forgiveness). Furt her, it is recorded in Sahih Muslim t hat Abu Musa relat ed t o t he Prophet t hat he said, :やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ プ ∩∠ Βあゅz ャや ゅ∠ヱ : ュゅ∠ み∇ャや ヶ͡ バ∠ メゅ∠ や∠ ま» ャ ボ∠ リ ャ ツ ャ∠ ∠ ョ͡ レ Α ∠ ホ ク͡ «ぶや ユム∇らイΑ ∩∠ Β͡ へ ⊥ ⊥⊥ ͡ ⊥ リ ョ (When t he Imam says, ` Walad-dallin', say, ` Amin' and Allah will answer your invocat ion.) In addit ion, At -Tirmidhi said t hat ` Amin' means, "Do not disappoint our hope'', while t he maj orit y of scholars said t hat it means. "Answer our invocat ion.'' Also, in his Musnad, Imam Ahmad recorded t hat ` A'ishah said t hat when t he Jews were ment ioned t o him, t he Messenger of Allah said, ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ジ∇エΑ ゅ∠ ミ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ジ∇エΑ ∇リャ ユ⊥ ルま» ル ギ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ル ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ∩ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ∠ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るバヨイ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰャ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ャ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ヴ∠∠ ∠ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤハ ヱ «リΒ͡ へ :ュゅ∠ み∇ャや ブ∇ヤカ ゅ∠ ャ∇ヲホ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ∠ ヤハ ヱ (They will not envy us for anyt hing more t han t hey envy us for Friday which we have been guided t o, while t hey were led ast ray from it , and for t he Qiblah which we were guided t o, while t hey were led ast ray from it , and for our saying ` Amin' behind t he Imam.) Also, Ibn Maj ah recorded t his Hadit h wit h t he wording, ヴ∠ハ ∇ユム∇ゎギジェ ゅ∠ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ユム∇ゎギジェ ゅ∠ » ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ «リΒ͡ ∇ほわャや∠ ュゅ∠ジャや ͡ ョ z ヱ ͡ ヤz (The Jews have never envied you more t han for your saying t he Salam (Islamic greet ing) and for saying Amin.) rgiveness). veneooA ? Furt her, it is recorded in Sahih Muslim t hat Abu Musa relat ed t o t he Prophet t hat he said, :やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ プ ∩∠ Βあゅz ャや ゅ∠ヱ : ュゅ∠ み∇ャや ヶ͡ バ∠ メゅ∠ や∠ ま» ャ ボ∠ リ ャ ツ ャ∠ ∠ ョ͡ レ Α ∠ ホ ク͡ «ぶや ユム∇らイΑ ∩∠ Β͡ へ ⊥ ⊥⊥ ͡ ⊥ リ ョ (When t he Imam says, ` Walad-dallin', say, ` Amin' and Allah will answer your invocat ion.) In addit ion, At -Tirmidhi said t hat ` Amin' means, "Do not disappoint our hope'', while t he maj orit y of scholars said t hat it means. "Answer our invocat ion.'' Also, in his Musnad, Imam Ahmad recorded t hat ` A'ishah said t hat when t he Jews were ment ioned t o him, t he Messenger of Allah said, ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ジ∇エΑ ゅ∠ ミ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ジ∇エΑ ∇リャ ユ⊥ ルま» ル ギ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ル ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ∩ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ∠ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るバヨイ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰャ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ャ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ヴ∠∠ ∠ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤハ ヱ «リΒ͡ へ :ュゅ∠ み∇ャや ブ∇ヤカ ゅ∠ ャ∇ヲホ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ∠ ヤハ ヱ (They will not envy us for anyt hing more t han t hey envy us for Friday which we have been guided t o, while t hey were led ast ray from it , and for t he Qiblah which we were guided t o, while t hey were led ast ray from it , and for our saying ` Amin' behind t he Imam.) Also, Ibn Maj ah recorded t his Hadit h wit h t he wording, ヴ∠ハ ∇ユム∇ゎギジェ ゅ∠ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ユム∇ゎギジェ ゅ∠ » ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ «リΒ͡ ∇ほわャや∠ ュゅ∠ジャや ͡ ョ z ヱ ͡ ヤz (The Jews have never envied you more t han for your saying t he Salam (Islamic greet ing) and for saying Amin.) The Bounties are because of Allah, not the Deviations Allah said, び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ リΑ͡ ャや ヅや∠ タぴ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ゲ͡ (The way of t hose upon whom you have best owed Your grace), when He ment ioned His favor. On ment ioning anger, Allah said, び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビぴ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ (Not (t hat ) of t hose who earned Your anger), wit hout ment ioning t he subj ect , alt hough it is He Who has sent down t he anger on t hem, j ust as Allah st at ed in anot her Ayah, びユ͡ ∇Βヤハ ヮヤャや ょツビ ゅョ∇ヲホ ∇や∇ヲャヲゎ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ま ゲゎ ∇ユャぺぴ ヰ ∠∠ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ ∠ z∠ ∠ ∠ グz ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (Have you (O Muhammad ) not seen t hose (hypocrit es) who t ake as friends a people upon whom is t he wrat h of Allah (i.e. Jews)) (58:14). Also, Allah relat es t he misguidance of t hose who indulged in it , alt hough t hey were j ust ly misguided according t o Allah's appoint ed dest iny. For inst ance, Allah said, ヮャ ギイゎ リ∠プ ∇モヤ∇ツΑ リ∠ ヱ ギわ∇ヰヨ∇ャや ヲヰプ ヮzャや ギ∇ヰΑ リ∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ∠ ョ びや⇔ セ∇ゲョ ゅ6 ャヱ ギ͡ ぁ Β͡∠ (He whom Allah guides, he is t he right ly-guided; but he whom He sends ast ray, for him you will find no Wali (guiding friend) t o lead him (t o t he right pat h)) (18:17) and, ヴ͡ ∇ユワケグΑヱ ヮャ ヵキゅ∠ Κプ ヮzャや モヤ∇ツΑ リ∠ ぴ プ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ワ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ョ び ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇ピデ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β ⊥ (Whomsoever Allah sends ast ray, none can guide him; and He let s t hem wander blindly in t heir t ransgression) (7:186). These and several ot her Ayat t est ify t o t he fact t hat Allah alone is t he One Who guides and misguides, cont rary t o t he belief of t he Qadariyyah sect , who claimed t hat t he servant s choose and creat e t heir own dest iny. They rely on some unclear Ayat avoiding what is clear and cont radict s t heir desires. Theirs, is t he met hod of t he people who follow t heir lust , desire and wickedness. An aut hent ic Hadit h narrat ed, マゃャヱ⊥プ ヮ∇レョ ヮよゅ∠ ゎ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ らわΑ リΑ͡ ャや ユわ∇Αぺケ や∠ ま» ∠ ͡ ほ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ ョ ∠ バ͡ z ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ク͡ «∇ユワヱ⊥ グ∇ェゅ∠ ぶや ヴz シ リΑ͡ ャや ⊥ ケ∠ プ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ グz (When you see t hose who follow what is not so clear in it (t he Qur'an), t hen t hey are t hose whom Allah has ment ioned (refer t o 3:7). Hence, avoid t hem.) The Prophet was referring t o Allah's st at ement , ヮら⇒∠ ゎ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ らわΒプ ∀ ∇Α∠ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴプ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ほプぴ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ ョ ∠ バ͡ z ∠ ∠ ヒ コ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ∠ グ z ョ∠ ∠ びヮヤΑ͡ ∇ほゎ ¬べ∠ わ∇よや∠ るレ∇わヘ∇ャや ¬べ∠ わ∇よや ヮ∇レョ ͡ ͡ ヱ ∠ ∠ ピ͡ ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ピ͡ ⊥ ͡ (So as for t hose in whose heart s t here is a deviat ion (from t he t rut h) t hey follow t hat which is not ent irely clear t hereof, seeking Al-Fit nah (polyt heism and t rials), and seeking for it s hidden meanings)(3:7). Verily, no innovat or in t he religion could ever rely on any aut hent ic evidence in t he Qur'an t hat t est ifies t o his innovat ion. The Qur'an came t o dist inguish bet ween t rut h and falsehood, and guidance and misguidance. The Qur'an does not cont ain any discrepancies or cont radict ions, because it is a revelat ion from t he Most Wise, Wort hy of all praise. Saying Amin It is recommended t o say Amin aft er finishing t he recit at ion of Al-Fat ihah. Amin means, "O Allah! Accept our invocat ion.'' The evidence t hat saying Amin is recommended is cont ained in what Imams Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At -Tirmidhi recorded, t hat Wa'il bin Huj r said, "I heard t he Messenger of Allah recit e, びリΒあべz ャや Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビぴ ∠ ャ ツ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ (Not (t hat ) of t hose who earned Your anger, nor of t hose who went ast ray), and he said ` Amin' ext ending it wit h his voice.'' Abu Dawud's narrat ion added, "Raising his voice wit h it .'' At -Tirmidhi t hen comment ed t hat t his Hadit h is Hasan and was also narrat ed from ` Ali and Ibn Mas` ud. Also, Abu Hurayrah narrat ed t hat whenever t he Messenger of Allah would recit e, びリΒあべz ャや Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ∇ピヨ∇ャや ゲ∇Βビぴ ∠ ャ ツ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ツ ∠ ͡ ∠ (Not (t he way) of t hose who earned Your anger, nor of t hose who went ast ray), He would say Amin unt il t hose who were behind him in t he first line could hear him. Abu Dawud and Ibn Maj ah recorded t his Hadit h wit h t he addit ion, "Then t he Masj id would shake because of (t hose behind t he Prophet ) recit ing Amin.'' Also, Ad-Daraqut ni recorded t his Hadit h and comment ed t hat it is Hasan. Furt her, Bilal narrat ed t hat he said, "O Messenger of Allah! Do not finish saying Amin before I can j oin you.'' This was recorded by Abu Dawud. In addit ion, Abu Nasr Al-Qushayri narrat ed t hat Al-Hasan and Ja` far As-Sadiq st ressed t he ` m' in Amin. Saying Amin is recommended for t hose who are not praying (when recit ing Al-Fat ihah) and is st rongly recommended for t hose who are praying, whet her alone or behind t he Imam. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ヮレΒ͡ ∇ほゎ ペプや∠ ∇リョ ヮルみプ ∩やヲ⊥ ョほプ ュゅ∠ み∇ャや リョぺ や∠ ま» ⊥ ⊥ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ レあ ∠∠ ⊥ ョ͡ ∠ z ∠ ク͡ «ヮら∇ルク ∇リョ ュギボゎ ゅ∠ ヮャ ゲヘビ るムもゅ∠ヨ∇ャや リΒ͡ ∇ほゎ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ (When t he Imam says, ' Amin', t hen say, 'Amin', because whoever says, Amin' wit h t he angels, his previous sins will be forgiven.) Muslim recorded t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ヶ͡ るムもゅ∠ヨ∇ャや∠ ∩∠ Β͡ へ :りゅ∠ダャや ヶ͡ ∇ユミギェぺ メゅ∠ や∠ ま» プ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ヱ リ ョ ͡ ヤz プ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡ ヮャ ゲヘビ ン∠ ∇カほ∇ャや ゅ∠ ワや∠ ∇ェま ∇ろボプや∠ プ ∩∠ Β͡ へ :͡ ゅ∠ ジャや ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ゲ ⊥ ヨ⊥ ギ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヲ∠ リ ョ ¬ ヨz «ヮら∇ルク ∇リョ ュギボゎ ゅ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠∠ ョ (When any of you says in t he prayer, 'Amin ` and t he angels in heaven say, ` Amin', in unison, his previous sins will be forgiven.) It was said t hat t he Hadit h t alks about bot h t he angels and t he Muslims saying Amin at t he same t ime. The Hadit h also refers t o when t he Amins said by t he angels and t he Muslims are equally sincere (t hus bringing about forgiveness). Furt her, it is recorded in Sahih Muslim t hat Abu Musa relat ed t o t he Prophet t hat he said, :やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ プ ∩∠ Βあゅz ャや ゅ∠ヱ : ュゅ∠ み∇ャや ヶ͡ バ∠ メゅ∠ や∠ ま» ャ ボ∠ リ ャ ツ ャ∠ ∠ ョ͡ レ Α ∠ ホ ク͡ «ぶや ユム∇らイΑ ∩∠ Β͡ へ ⊥ ⊥⊥ ͡ ⊥ リ ョ (When t he Imam says, ` Walad-dallin', say, ` Amin' and Allah will answer your invocat ion.) In addit ion, At -Tirmidhi said t hat ` Amin' means, "Do not disappoint our hope'', while t he maj orit y of scholars said t hat it means. "Answer our invocat ion.'' Also, in his Musnad, Imam Ahmad recorded t hat ` A'ishah said t hat when t he Jews were ment ioned t o him, t he Messenger of Allah said, ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ジ∇エΑ ゅ∠ ミ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ジ∇エΑ ∇リャ ユ⊥ ルま» ル ギ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ル ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ∩ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ∠ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るバヨイ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰャ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ャ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ヴ∠∠ ∠ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤハ ヱ «リΒ͡ へ :ュゅ∠ み∇ャや ブ∇ヤカ ゅ∠ ャ∇ヲホ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ∠ ヤハ ヱ (They will not envy us for anyt hing more t han t hey envy us for Friday which we have been guided t o, while t hey were led ast ray from it , and for t he Qiblah which we were guided t o, while t hey were led ast ray from it , and for our saying ` Amin' behind t he Imam.) Also, Ibn Maj ah recorded t his Hadit h wit h t he wording, ヴ∠ハ ∇ユム∇ゎギジェ ゅ∠ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ユム∇ゎギジェ ゅ∠ » ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ «リΒ͡ ∇ほわャや∠ ュゅ∠ジャや ͡ ョ z ヱ ͡ ヤz (The Jews have never envied you more t han for your saying t he Salam (Islamic greet ing) and for saying Amin.) rgiveness). veneooA ? Furt her, it is recorded in Sahih Muslim t hat Abu Musa relat ed t o t he Prophet t hat he said, :やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ プ ∩∠ Βあゅz ャや ゅ∠ヱ : ュゅ∠ み∇ャや ヶ͡ バ∠ メゅ∠ や∠ ま» ャ ボ∠ リ ャ ツ ャ∠ ∠ ョ͡ レ Α ∠ ホ ク͡ «ぶや ユム∇らイΑ ∩∠ Β͡ へ ⊥ ⊥⊥ ͡ ⊥ リ ョ (When t he Imam says, ` Walad-dallin', say, ` Amin' and Allah will answer your invocat ion.) In addit ion, At -Tirmidhi said t hat ` Amin' means, "Do not disappoint our hope'', while t he maj orit y of scholars said t hat it means. "Answer our invocat ion.'' Also, in his Musnad, Imam Ahmad recorded t hat ` A'ishah said t hat when t he Jews were ment ioned t o him, t he Messenger of Allah said, ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ジ∇エΑ ゅ∠ ミ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ジ∇エΑ ∇リャ ユ⊥ ルま» ル ギ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ル ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ∩ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ∠ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るバヨイ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰャ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ャ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ヴ∠∠ ∠ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤハ ヱ «リΒ͡ へ :ュゅ∠ み∇ャや ブ∇ヤカ ゅ∠ ャ∇ヲホ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ∠ ヤハ ヱ (They will not envy us for anyt hing more t han t hey envy us for Friday which we have been guided t o, while t hey were led ast ray from it , and for t he Qiblah which we were guided t o, while t hey were led ast ray from it , and for our saying ` Amin' behind t he Imam.) Also, Ibn Maj ah recorded t his Hadit h wit h t he wording, ヴ∠ハ ∇ユム∇ゎギジェ ゅ∠ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ユム∇ゎギジェ ゅ∠ » ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ «リΒ͡ ∇ほわャや∠ ュゅ∠ジャや ͡ ョ z ヱ ͡ ヤz (The Jews have never envied you more t han for your saying t he Salam (Islamic greet ing) and for saying Amin.) Surat Al-Baqarah Which was revealed in Al-Madinah The Virt ues of Surat Al-Baqarah In Musnad Ahmad, Sahih Muslim, At -Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i, it is recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Prophet said, ぺゲ∇ボゎ ヵ͡ ャや ろ∇Βら∇ャや ラみプ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ホ ∇ユムゎヲ⊥ よ やヲ⊥バ∇イゎ ゅ∠» ⊥∠ ⊥ グz ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ケ ら⊥ ⊥ ∠ Β⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ャ «ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや ヮヤカ∇ギΑ ゅ∠ りゲボら∇ャや りケヲ⊥ ヮΒ͡ ト z ⊥ ⊥⊥ ∠ ャ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ シ ͡ プ (Do not t urn your houses int o graves. Verily, Shayt an does not ent er t he house where Surat AlBaqarah is recit ed.) At -Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih. Also, ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud said, "Shayt an flees from t he house where Surat Al-Baqarah is heard.'' This Hadit h was collect ed by An-Nasa'i in Al-Yawm wal-Laylah, and Al-Hakim recorded it in his Must adrak, and t hen said t hat it s chain of narrat ion is aut hent ic, alt hough t he Two Sahihs did not collect it . In his Musnad, Ad-Darimi recorded t hat Ibn Mas` ud said, "Shayt an depart s t he house where Surat Al-Baqarah is being recit ed, and as he leaves, he passes gas.'' Ad-Darimi also recorded t hat Ash-Sha` bi said t hat ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud said, "Whoever recit es t en Ayat from Surat Al-Baqarah in a night , t hen Shayt an will not ent er his house t hat night . (These t en Ayat are) four from t he beginning, Ayat Al-Kursi (255), t he following t wo Ayat (256-257) and t he last t hree Ayat .'' In anot her narrat ion, Ibn Mas` ud said, "Then Shayt an will not come near him or his family, nor will he be t ouched by anyt hing t hat he dislikes. Also, if t hese Ayat were t o be recit ed over a senile person, t hey would wake him up.'' Furt her, Sahl bin Sa` d said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ∩⊥ ゲボら∇ャや ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや ュゅ∠ シ ラまヱ ∩ゅ⇔ ゅ∠ シ ¬∇ヶセ あ ムャ ラま» り∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ レ∠ z ͡∠ ョ レ∠ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや ヮ∇ヤカ∇ギΑ ∇ユャ るヤ∇Βャ ヮわ∇Βよ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ぺゲホ ∇リョ ラまヱ ⊥ ト z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ワ∠∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ヮ∇ヤカ∇ギΑ ∇ユャ や⇔ ゅ∠ ル ヮわ∇Βよ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ぺゲホ ∇リョヱ ∩∃ ゅ∠ ャ ゐゅ∠を ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ケ ヰ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ワ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ メ Β∠ ∠ ヤ∠ «ュゅz ぺ るをゅ∠を ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや Α∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ト z (Everyt hing has a hump (or, high peek), and Al-Baqarah is t he high peek of t he Qur'an. Whoever recit es Al-Baqarah at night in his house, t hen Shayt an will not ent er t hat house for t hree night s. Whoever recit es it during a day in his house, t hen Shayt an will not ent er t hat house for t hree days.) This Hadit h was collect ed by Abu Al-Qasim At -Tabarani, Abu Hat im Ibn Hibban in his Sahih and Ibn Marduwyah. At -Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah sent an expedit ion force comprising of many men and asked each about what t hey memorized of t he Qur'an. The Prophet came t o one of t he youngest men among t hem and asked him, ` What have you memorized (of t he Qur'an) young man' He said, ` I memorized such and such Surahs and also Al-Baqarah.' The Prophet said, ` You memorized Surat Al-Baqarah' He said, ` Yes.' The Prophet said, ` Then you are t heir commander.' One of t he not ed men (or chiefs) comment ed, ` By Allah! I did not learn Surat Al-Baqarah, for fear t hat I would not be able t o implement it . The Messenger of Allah said, ∇リヨャ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや モんョ ラみプ ∩⊥ ヱ⊥ ゲ∇ホや∠ ラへ∇ゲボャや やヲ⊥ ヤバゎ» ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ロ ¬∠ ヱ ∠ ⊥ ヨz∠ ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇ジョ ヲゼ∇エョ ゆや∠ ィ モんヨミ ヮよ ュゅ∠ ヱ ぺゲボプ ヮヨヤバゎ ム ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ゲ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ホ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ∠ ヮヨヤバゎ ∇リョ モんョヱ ∩∃ ゅ∠ ョ あ ミ ヶ͡ ヮエΑ͡ ゥヲ⊥ Α ⊥ ∠ z∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ラ ム∠ モ⊥ プ ⊥ ⊥ ケ ⊥ ヘ∠ ヴヤ∠ ヶミヱ⊥ ゆや∠ ィ モんヨミ ヮプ∇ヲィ ヶ͡ ヲワヱ ギホ∇ゲΒプ ハ ∠ ͡ ぺ ∃ ゲ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «マ∇ジョ ͡ (Learn Al-Qur'an and recit e it , for t he example of whoever learns t he Qur'an, recit es it and adheres t o it , is t he example of a bag t hat is f ull of musk whose scent fills t he air. The example of whoever learns t he Qur'an and t hen sleeps (i.e. lazy) while t he Qur'an is in his memory, is t he example of a bag t hat has musk, but is closed t ight .) This is t he wording collect ed by At -Tirmidhi, who said t hat t his Hadit h is Hasan. In anot her narrat ion, At -Tirmidhi recorded t his same Hadit h in a Mursal manner, so Allah knows best . Also, Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Usayd bin Hudayr said t hat he was once recit ing Surat AlBaqarah while his horse was t ied next t o him. The horse st art ed t o make some noise. When Usayd st opped recit ing, t he horse st opped moving about . When he resumed reading, t he horse st art ed moving about again. When he st opped recit ing, t he horse st opped moving, and when he resumed reading, t he horse st art ed t o move again. Meanwhile, his son Yahya was close t o t he horse, and he feared t hat t he horse might st ep on him. When he moved his son back, he looked up t o t he sky and saw a cloud radiat ing wit h light t hat looked like lamps. In t he morning, he went t o t he Prophet and t old him what had happened and t hen said, "O Messenger of Allah! My son Yahya was close t o t he horse and I feared t hat she might st ep on him. When I at t ended t o him and raised my head t o t he sky, I saw a cloud wit h light s like lamps. So I went , but I couldn't see it .'' The Prophet said, "Do you know what t hat was'' He said, "No.'' The Prophet said, れ∇ぺゲホ ヲ∠ヱ マゎ∇ヲダャ ∇ろルキ るムもゅ∠ヨ∇ャや マ∇ヤゎ» ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ «ユ⊥ ∇レョ ン∠ やヲ∠ ゎ ゅ∠ ∩ゅ∠ ∇Βャま サゅzャや ゲヌ∇レΑ ろ∇エら∇タほャ ヰ ͡ ケ わ∠ ャ ヰ ∠͡ ⊥ レ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (They were t he angels, t hey came close hearing your voice (recit ing Surat Al-Baqarah), and if you had kept reading, t he people would have been able t o see t he angels when t he morning came, and t he angels would not be hidden from t heir eyes.) This is t he narrat ion report ed by Imam Abu Ubayd Al-Qasim bin Salam in his book Fada'il AlQur'an. Virtues of Surat Al-Baqarah and Surat Al ` Imran Imam Ahmad said t hat Abu Nu` aym narrat ed t o t hem t hat Bishr bin Muhaj ir said t hat ` Abdullah bin Buraydah narrat ed t o him from his fat her, "I was sit t ing wit h t he Prophet and I heard him say, ゅ∠ ミ∇ゲゎヱ ∩∀ ミゲよ ゅ∠ グ∇カぺ ラみプ りゲボら∇ャや りケヲ⊥ やヲ⊥ ヤバゎ» ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ る∠ ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ シ ヨz∠ ∠ «る∠トら∇ャや ゅ∠ バΒ͡ わ∇ジゎ ゅ∠ヱ ∩∀ ゲ∇ジェ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ⊥ ト∠ ∠ ャ∠ り∠ ∠ (Learn Surat Al-Baqarah, because in learning it t here is blessing, in ignoring it t here is sorrow, and t he sorceresses cannot memorize it .) He kept silent for a while and t hen said, ゅ∠ ヰルみプ ラや∠ ∇ヨハ メへ∠ りゲボら∇ャや りケヲ⊥ やヲ⊥ ヤバゎ» ヨ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ シ ヨz∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ヰルほミ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ゅ∠ ヰ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ ラゅzヌΑ ∩͡ や∠ や∠ ∇ワゴャや ヨ⊥ z ∠∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ らェ タ ͡ ヤ͡ ⊥ ラ ヱ ゲ z ゲ∇Βデ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ∇ゲプ ∇ヱぺ ラゅ∠ Αゅ∠ ビ ∇ヱぺ ラゅ∠ ョゅ∠ ビ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ホ ͡ ∠ ͡ わ∠ Β∠ ∠ ͡ わ∠ ヨ∠ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ヮらェゅ∠ ヴボ∇ヤΑ ラへゲ⊥ ∇ャや ラまヱ ∩z や∠ タ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ タ ∠ ∠ ボ z ͡∠ フ ヲ∠ メヲ⊥ Βプ ょェゅz ャや モィゲャゅ∠ ロゲ∇らホ ヮ∇レハ ペゼ∇レΑ リΒ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ゼ ͡ ⊥ z ミ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ∠ ェ ゅ∠ ∠ :メヲ⊥ Βプ .マプゲ∇ハぺ ゅ∠ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∨ヶ͡ プゲ∇バゎ ∇モワ :ヮャ ルぺ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲィや∠ ヰ∇ャや ヶ͡ マゎ∇ほヨ∇ニぺ ヵ͡ ャや ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや マらェゅ∠ ͡ ͡ ヲ∠ プ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ タ ∩͡ ゎケゅ∠ ゎ ¬や∠ ヱ ∇リョ ゲィゅ∠ z ミ ラまヱ マヤ∇Βャ れ∇ゲヰ∇シぺヱ ヮ͡ ∠ イ͡ ͡ ケ∠ ͡ ∃ ͡ ゎ モ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ マ∇ヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ ∇バΒプ りケゅ∠ ゎ あ ミ ¬や∠ ヱ ∇リョ ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや マルまヱ ∠ ⊥ ト ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ イ͡ モ⊥ ͡ ケ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ァゅ∠ ヮシ∇ぺケ ヴ∠ハ ノッヲ⊥ ヱ ヮャゅ∠ ゼよ ギ∇ヤガ∇ャや∠ ヮレΒ͡ Βよ ⊥ ゎ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ Α∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヱ ͡ ͡ ヨ∠ ͡ モ∇ワぺ ゅ∠ ヰ∠ ュヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ ラゅ∠ ヤェ ロや∠ ャや∠ ヴ∠ ∇ムΑ∠ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ヲ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ヨ⊥ ャ ⊥ ボ∠ ャ ͡ わz⊥ ⊥ ギ͡ ヱ ジ ⊥ ヱ ケ ホ∠ グ∇カほよ :メゅ∠ Βプ ∨や∠ ワ ゅ∠ Β͡ ミ ゅ∠ よ :ラゅ∠ヲ⊥ Βプ ∩ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ グ∠ レ ジ⊥ ヨ͡ ͡ ャ ボ∠ ∠ Β ぁ ァケキ ヶ͡ ∇ギバ∇タや∠ ∇ぺゲ∇ホや :メゅ∠ Α z を ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや ゅ∠ ミギャヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ プ ∠ ヱ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ユ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヨ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ や6 ワ ぺゲ∇ボΑ ュや∠ ゅ∠ キヲ⊥ タ ヶ͡ ヲヰプ ∩ゅ∠ プゲビヱ るレイ∇ャや グ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ キ ョ ∃ バ⊥ プ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヰ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ∠ «ゅ⇔Β͡ ∇ゲゎ ∇ヱぺ ラゅ∠ ヤゎ ∠ ∠∠ ミ (Learn Surat Al-Baqarah and Al ` Imran because t hey are t wo light s and t hey shade t heir people on t he Day of Resurrect ion, j ust as t wo clouds, t wo spaces of shade or t wo lines of (flying) birds. The Qur'an will meet it s companion in t he shape of a pale-faced man on t he Day of Resurrect ion when his grave is opened. The Qur'an will ask him, 'Do you know me' The man will say, 'I do not know you.' The Qur'an will say, 'I am your companion, t he Qur'an, which has brought you t hirst during t he heat and made you st ay up during t he night . Every merchant has his cert ain t rade. But , t his Day, you are behind all t ypes of t rade.' Kingship will t hen be given t o him in his right hand, et ernal life in his left hand and t he crown of grace will be placed on his head. His parent s will also be grant ed t wo garment s t hat t he people of t his life could never afford. They will say, 'Why were we grant ed t hese garment s' It will be said, 'Because your son was carrying t he Qur'an.' It will be said (t o t he reader of t he Qur'an), 'Read and ascend t hrough t he levels of Paradise.' He will go on ascending as long as he recit es, whet her recit ing slowly or quickly.)'' Ibn Maj ah also recorded part of t his Hadit h from Bishr bin Al-Muhaj ir, and t his chain of narrat ors is Hasan, according t o t he crit eria of Imam Muslim. A part of t his Hadit h is also support ed by ot her Hadit hs. For inst ance, Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Abu Umamah Al-Bahili said t hat he heard t he Messenger of Allah say, るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ヮヤ∇ワほャ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ ヮルみプ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや やヱ⊥ゲ∇ホや» ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ノプ セ ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ ゅ∠ ヰル͡∠ ∩∠ や∠ ∇ヨハ メへ∠ りゲボら∇ャや ∩͡ ∇Αヱや∠ ∇ワゴャや やヱ⊥ゲ∇ホや ヨ⊥ z みプ ラ ゲ ͡ ∠ ヱ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ リ ∠ ゲ z ぺ∠ ゅ∠ ヰル∠∠ ∇ヱぺ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ョゅ∠ ビ ゅ∠ ヰル∠∠ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ͡ ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ほ∠ ヨ⊥ z ほミ ∠ ラ わ∠ ヨ∠ ヨ⊥ z ほミ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ラ Βゎ Α ∩z や∠ タ ゲ∇Βデ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ∇ゲプ ゅ∠ ヰル∠∠ ∇ヱぺ ラゅ∠ Αゅ∠ ビ フ ヲ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ホ ͡ ヨ⊥ z ほミ ∠ ͡ わ∠ Β∠ «る∠ ゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ゅ∠ ヰヤ∇ワぺ ∇リハ ラゅz ゅ∠ Α ョ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ィ エ⊥ (Read t he Qur'an, because it will int ercede on behalf of it s people on t he Day of Resurrect ion. Read t he t wo light s, Al-Baqarah and Al ` Imran, because t hey will come in t he shape of t wo clouds, t wo shades or t wo lines of birds on t he Day of Resurrect ion and will argue on behalf of t heir people on t hat Day.) The Prophet t hen said, りゲ∇ジェ ゅ∠ ミ∇ゲゎヱ るミゲよ ゅ∠ グ∇カぺ ラみプ りゲボら∇ャや やヱ⊥ゲ∇ホや » ∀ ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぺ∠ «る∠トら∇ャや ゅ∠ バΒ͡ わ∇ジゎ ゅ∠ヱ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ⊥ ト∠ ∠ ャ∠ (Read Al-Baqarah, because in having it t here is blessing, and in ignoring t here is a sorrow and t he sorceresses cannot memorize it .) Also, Imam Muslim narrat ed t his Hadit h in t he Book of Prayer Imam Ahmad narrat ed t hat An-Nawwas bin Sam` an said t hat t he Prophet said, やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや ヮヤ∇ワぺヱ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ラへ∇ゲボャゅ͡ ヴ∠ ∇ぽΑ» ル ミ ∠ グz ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ よ ゎ ⊥ «ラや∠ ∇ヨハ メへ∠ りゲボら∇ャや りケヲ⊥ ユ⊥ ョギ∇ボゎ ヮよ ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゲ ͡ ⊥ ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ シ ヰ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ラ ヤヨ Α (On t he Day of Resurrect ion t he Qur'an and it s people who used t o implement it will be brought fort h, preceded by Surat Al-Baqarah and Al ` Imran.) An-Nawwas said, "The Prophet set t hree examples for t hese t wo Surahs and I did not forget t hese examples ever since. He said, ゅ∠ ヰレ∇Βよ ラや∠ や∠ ヲ∠ ラゅ∠ ヤニ ∇ヱぺ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ョゅ∠ ビ ゅ∠ ヰル∠∠ » ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヱ キ シ ͡ わz⊥ ∠ ラ わ∠ ヨ∠ ヨ⊥ z ほミ ∩z や∠ タ ゲ∇Βデ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ∇ゲプ ゅ∠ ヰル∠∠ ∇ヱぺ ∩∀ ∇ゲセ フ ヲ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ホ ͡ ヨ⊥ z ほミ ∠ ベ ∠ «ゅ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ゅ∠ ∇リハ ラゅz ゅ∠ Α ヨ ヰ ら ェ タ ∠ ͡ ィ エ⊥ (They will come like t wo clouds, t wo dark shades or t wo lines of birds arguing on behalf of t heir people.) It was also recorded in Sahih Muslim and At -Tirmidhi narrat ed t his Hadit h, which he rendered Hasan Gharib. Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed in Al-Madinah There is no disagreement over t he view t hat Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed in it s ent iret y in AlMadinah. Moreover, Al-Baqarah was one of t he first Surahs t o be revealed in Al-Madinah, while, Allah's st at ement , びヮヤャや ヴ∠ま ヮΒ͡ ラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲゎ ゅ⇔ ∇ヲΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゎや∠ ぴ ͡ z ャ͡ ͡ プ ∠ バ∠ ⊥ ョ ∠ ボz ヱ (And be afraid of t he Day when you shall be brought back t o Allah.) (2:281) was t he last Ayah t o be revealed from t he Qur'an. Also, t he Ayat about usury were among t he last Ayat t o be revealed. Khalid bin Ma` dan used t o call Al-Baqarah t he Fust at (t ent ) of t he Qur'an. Some of t he scholars said t hat it cont ains a t housand news incident s, a t housand commands and a t housand prohibit ions. Those who count said t hat t he number of Al-Baqarah's Ayat is t wo hundred and eight y-seven, and it s words are six t housand t wo hundred and t went y-one words. Furt her, it s let t ers are t went y-five t housand five hundred. Allah knows best . Ibn Jurayj narrat ed t hat ` At a' said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed in AlMadinah.'' Also, Khasif said from Muj ahid t hat ` Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr said; "Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed in Al-Madinah.'' Several Imams and scholars of Tafsir issued similar st at ement s, and t here is no difference of opinion over t his as we have st at ed. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Ibn Mas` ud kept t he Ka` bah on his left side and Mina on his right side and t hrew seven pebbles (at t he Jamrah) and said, "The one t o whom Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed (i.e. t he Prophet ) performed Rami (t he Haj j rit e of t hrowing pebbles) similarly.'' The Two Sahihs recorded t his Hadit h. Furt her, Ibn Marduwyah report ed a Hadit h of Shu` bah from ` Aqil bin Talhah from ` Ut bah bin Mart had; "The Prophet saw t hat his Companions were not in t he first lines and he said, «り∠ ボら∇ャや りケヲ⊥ ゆゅ∠ ∇タぺ ゅ∠ » ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ シ ∠ エ ∠ Α (O Companions of Surat Al-Baqarah.) I Think t hat t his incident occurred during t he bat t le of Hunayn when t he Companions ret reat ed. Then, t he Prophet commanded Al-` Abbas (his uncle) t o yell out , «り∠ イゼャや ゆゅ∠ ∇タぺ ゅ∠ » ゲ∠ z ∠ エ ∠ Α (O Companions of t he t ree!) meaning t he Companions who part icipat ed in t he pledge of ArRidwan (under t he t ree). In anot her narrat ion, Al- ` Abbas cried, "O Companions of Surat AlBaqarah!'' encouraging t hem t o come back, so t hey ret urned from every direct ion. Also, during t he bat t le of Al-Yamamah, against t he army of Musaylimah t he Liar, t he Companions first ret reat ed because of t he huge number of soldiers in Musaylimah's army. The Muhaj irun and t he Ansar called out for each ot her, saying; "O people of Surat Al-Baqarah!'' Allah t hen gave t hem vict ory over t heir enemy, may Allah be pleased wit h all of t he companions of all t he Messengers of Allah. び ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヮヤャや ユ∇ジよぴ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z ͡ z ͡ ͡ び ユャやぴ (In t he Name of Allah, t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful) (1. Alif Lam Mim). The Discussion of the Individual Letters The individual let t ers in t he beginning of some Surahs are among t hose t hings whose knowledge Allah has kept only for Himself. This was report ed from Abu Bakr, ` Umar, ` Ut hman, ` Ali and Ibn Mas` ud. It was said t hat t hese let t ers are t he names of some of t he Surahs. It was also said t hat t hey are t he beginnings t hat Allah chose t o st art t he Surahs of t he Qur'an wit h. Khasif st at ed t hat Muj ahid said, "The beginnings of t he Surahs, such as Qaf, Sad, Ta Sin Mim and Alif Lam Ra, are j ust some let t ers of t he alphabet .'' Some linguist s also st at ed t hat t hey are let t ers of t he alphabet and t hat Allah simply did not cit e t he ent ire alphabet of t went y-eight let t ers. For inst ance, t hey said, one might say, "My son recit es Alif, Ba, Ta, Tha... '' he means t he ent ire alphabet alt hough he st ops before ment ioning t he rest of it . This opinion was ment ioned by Ibn Jarir. The Letters at the Beginning of Surahs If one removes t he repet it ive let t ers, t hen t he number of let t ers ment ioned at t he beginning of t he Surahs is fourt een: Alif, Lam, Mim, Sad, Ra, Kaf, Ha, Ya, ` Ayn, Ta, Sin, Ha, Qaf, Nun. So glorious is He Who made everyt hing subt ly reflect His wisdom. Moreover, t he scholars said, "There is no doubt t hat Allah did not reveal t hese let t ers for j est and play.'' Some ignorant people said t hat some of t he Qur'an does not mean anyt hing, (meaning, such as t hese let t ers) t hus commit t ing a maj or mist ake. On t he cont rary, t hese let t ers carry a specific meaning. Furt her, if we find an aut hent ic narrat ion leading t o t he Prophet t hat explains t hese let t ers, we will embrace t he Prophet 's st at ement . Ot herwise, we will st op where we were made t o st op and will proclaim, びゅ∠ よケ ギレ͡ ∇リョ モミ ヮよ ゅz ョや∠ ぴ レあ ∠ ͡ ハ あ x ⊥ ͡ ͡ レ∠ ¬ (We believe in it ; all of it (clear and unclear verses) is from our Lord) (3:7). The scholars did not agree on one opinion or explanat ion regarding t his subj ect . Therefore, whoever t hinks t hat one scholar's opinion is correct , he is obliged t o follow it , ot herwise it is bet t er t o refrain from making any j udgment on t his mat t er. Allah knows best . These Letters testify to the Miraculous Qur'an The wisdom behind ment ioning t hese let t ers in t he beginning of t he Surahs, regardless of t he exact meanings of t hese let t ers, is t hat t hey t est ify t o t he miracle of t he Qur'an. Indeed, t he servant s are unable t o produce somet hing like t he Qur'an, alt hough it is comprised of t he same let t ers wit h which t hey speak t o each ot her. This opinion was ment ioned by Ar-Razi in his Tafsir who relat ed it t o Al-Mubarrid and several ot her scholars. Al-Qurt ubi also relat ed t his opinion t o Al-Farra' and Qut rub. Az-Zamakhshari agreed wit h t his opinion in his book, Al-Kashshaf. In addit ion, t he Imam and scholar Abu Al-` Abbas Ibn Taymiyyah and our Shaykh Al-Hafiz Abu AlHaj j aj Al-Mizzi agreed wit h t his opinion. Al-Mizzi t old me t hat it is also t he opinion of Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah. KAz-Zamakhshari said t hat t hese let t ers, "Were not all ment ioned once in t he beginning of t he Qur'an. Rat her, t hey were repeat ed so t hat t he challenge (against t he creat ion) is more daring. Similarly, several st ories were ment ioned repeat edly in t he Qur'an, and also t he challenge was repeat ed in various areas (i.e., t o produce somet hing like t he Qur'an). Somet imes, one let t er at a t ime was ment ioned, such as Sad, Nun and Qaf. Somet imes t wo let t ers were ment ioned, such as び ユ⇒ェぴ (Ha Mim) (44:1) Somet imes, t hree let t ers were ment ioned, such as, び ユャやぴ (Alif Lam Mim (2: 1)) and four let t ers, such as, びゲヨャやぴ (` Alif Lam Mim Ra) (13:1), and び ゾヨャやぴ (Alif Lam Mim Sad) (7:1). Somet imes, five let t ers were ment ioned, such as, び ゾバΒヰミぴ (Kaf Ha Ya ` Ayn Sad) (19:1), and; び ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ゴΑ͡ バ∇ャや ヮヤャや リョ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モΑ͡ レ∠ - ユ⇒ェぴ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ゴ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ゴ ゎ (Ha Mim. ` Ayn Sin Qaf) (42:1-2). This is because t he words t hat are used in speech are usually comprised of one, t wo, t hree, four, or five let t ers.'' Every Surah t hat begins wit h t hese let t ers demonst rat es t he Qur'an's miracle and magnificence, and t his fact is known by t hose well-versed in such mat t ers. The count of t hese Surahs is t went y-nine. For inst ance, Allah said, びヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャク ユャやぴ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠ (Alif Lam Mim) This is t he Book (t he Qur'an), wherein t here is no doubt (2:1-2), リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャク - ユャやぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠ びヮ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ ャ ゅホあ ダョ ペエ∇ャゅ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや マ∇Βヤハ メゴル ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ⇔ ギ∠ ⊥ あ ∠ よ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ z ∠ (Alif Lam Mim. Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has t he right t o be worshipped but He), AlHayyul-Qayyuum (t he Ever Living, t he One Who sust ains and prot ect s all t hat exist s). It is He Who has sent down t he Book (t he Qur'an) t o you (Muhammad ) wit h t rut h, confirming what came before it .) (3:1-3), and, ポケ∇ギタ ヴ͡ リ⊥ Α Κプ マ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ ∀ ⇒∠ ͡ ゾヨャやぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ プ ム∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ょ わ ミ びヮ∇レあ ァゲェ ⊥ ョ∀∠∠ (Alif Lam Mim Sad. (This is t he) Book (t he Qur'an) sent down unt o you (O Muhammad ), so let not your breast be narrow t herefrom) (7:1-2). Also, Allah said, リョ サゅz ャや ァゲ∇ガわャ マ∇Βャま ヮ⇒∠ ∇ャゴル∠ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ ゲャやぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ レ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ぺ ゆ わミ び∇ユヰよケ ラ∇クみよ ͡ ヲぁ ャや ヴ∠ま ろ⇒∠ ヤヌャや ͡ あ ∠ ͡ ͡͡ ケ レ ャ͡ ͡ ヨ⊥ぁ (Alif Lam Ra. (This is) a Book which We have revealed unt o you (O Muhammad ) in order t hat you might lead mankind out of darkness (of disbelief and polyt heism) int o t he light (of belief in t he Oneness of Allah and Islamic Monot heism) by t heir Lord's leave) (14:1), び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャク - ユャやぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠ (Alif Lam Mim. The revelat ion of t he Book (t his Qur'an) in which t here is no doubt , is from t he Lord of t he ` Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all t hat exist s)!) (32:1-2), び ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ゴΑ͡ バ∇ャや ヮヤャや リョ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モΑ͡ レ∠ - ユ⇒ェぴ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ゴ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ゴ ゎ (Ha Mim. A revelat ion from (Allah) t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful) (41:1-2), and, - ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ゴΑ͡ バ∇ャや ヮヤャや リョ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モΑ͡ レ∠ - ユ⇒ェぴ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ゴ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ゴ ゎ ン͡ ゆゅ∠ バ∇ャや ギΑ͡ セ ゆ∇ヲわャや モよゅ∠ ヱ ょルz ャや ゲプゅ∠ ク ͡ ボ͡ ͡ ギ∠ ͡ z ͡ ͡ ホ∠ ͡ グ ͡ ͡ ビ び ゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ヮ∇Βャま ヲワ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま Ι メ∇ヲトャや ⊥ ダ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ∠ ͡ z (Ha Mim. ` Ain Sin Qaf. Likewise Allah, t he Almight y, t he Wise sends revelat ion t o you (O Muhammad ) as (He sent revelat ion t o) t hose before you.) (42:1-3). There are several ot her Ayat t hat t est ify t o what we have ment ioned above, and Allah knows best . び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャクぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠ (2. That is Book in which t here is no Rayb, guidance for t he Mut t aqin). There is no Doubt in the Qur'an The Book, is t he Qur'an, and Rayb means doubt . As-Suddi said t hat Abu Malik and Abu Salih narrat ed from Ibn ` Abbas, and Murrah Al-Hamadani narrat ed from Ibn Mas` ud and several ot her Companions of t he Messenger of Allah t hat , びヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ιぴ ͡ プ∠ ∠ ∠ (In which t here is no Rayb), means about which t here is no doubt . Abu Ad-Darda', Ibn ` Abbas, Muj ahid, Sa` id bin Jubayr, Abu Malik, Nafi` ` At a', Abu Al-` Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Muqat il bin Hayyan, As-Suddi, Qat adah and Isma` il bin Abi Khalid said similarly. In addit ion, Ibn Abi Hat im said, "I do not know of any disagreement over t his explanat ion.'' The meaning of t his is t hat t he Book, t he Qur'an, is wit hout a doubt revealed from Allah. Similarly, Allah said in Surat As- Saj dah, び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャク - ユャやぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠ (Alif Lam Mim). The revelat ion of t he Book (t his Qur'an) in which t here is no doubt , is from t he Lord of all t hat exist s) (32:1-2). Some scholars st at ed t hat t his Ayah - 2:2 - cont ains a prohibit ion meaning, "Do not doubt t he Qur'an.'' Furt hermore, some of t he recit ers of t he Qur'an pause upon reading, びょ∇Αケ Ιぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ (t here is no doubt ) and t hey t hen cont inue; びリΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ (in which t here is guidance for t he Mut t aqin (t he pious and right eous persons)). However, it is bet t er t o pause at , びヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ιぴ ͡ プ∠ ∠ ∠ (in which t here is no doubt ) because in t his case, びン⇔ ワぴ ギ⊥ (guidance) becomes an at t ribut e of t he Qur'an and carries a bet t er meaning t han, びン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ぴ ギ⊥ ͡ プ (in which t here is guidance). Guidance is granted to Those Who have Taqwa Hidayah - correct guidance - is only grant ed t o t hose who have Taqwa - fear of Allah. Allah said, Ι リΑ͡ ャや∠ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ∠ ン⇔ ワ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ヲワ ∇モホぴ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ ¬ ヘセヱ ギ⊥ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヴ⇔ ハ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ヲワヱ ∀ ∇ホ∠ ∇ユヰルや∠ や∠ ヴ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ヨ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲ ヱ ͡ ͡ ク ¬ プ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ びギΒ͡ よ ラゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ラ∇ヱキゅ∠ Α マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ ∃ バ∠ ∃ ムz ョ ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (Say: It is for t hose who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for t hose who disbelieve, t here is heaviness (deafness) in t heir ears, and it (t he Qur'an) is blindness for t hem. They are t hose who are called from a place far away (so t hey neit her list en nor underst and)) (41:44), and, るヨ∇ェケヱ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ヲワ ゅ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや リョ メあ レルヱぴ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヘセ ∠ ⊥ ョ ͡ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ゴ∠ ⊥ ∠ び や⇔ ゅ∠ カ Ιま リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ギΑ͡ Α Ιヱ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ ケ ジ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ あ (And We send down of t he Qur'an t hat which is a healing and a mercy t o t hose who believe (in Islamic Monot heism and act on it ), and it increases t he Zalimin (wrongdoers) in not hing but loss) (17:82). This is a sample of t he numerous Ayat indicat ing t hat t he believers, in part icular, benefit from t he Qur'an. That is because t he Qur'an is it self a form of guidance, but t he guidance in it is only grant ed t o t he right eous, j ust as Allah said, ∇ユムよケ リz るヌハ∇ヲョ ∇ユム∇ゎ¬べ∠ ∇ギホ サゅz ャや ゅ∠ Α∠∠ ぴ ⊥ あ z ョ ∀ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ィ ∠ ⊥ レ ヰぁ ほΑ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ るヨ∇ェケヱ ン⇔ ワヱ ケヱ⊥ ダャや ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ャ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ あ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ͡ ギぁ プ ヨあ ¬ ヘセヱ び (O mankind! There has come t o you a good advice from your Lord (i. e. t he Qur'an, enj oining all t hat is good and forbidding all t hat is evil), and a healing for t hat (disease of ignorance, doubt , hypocrisy and differences) which is in your breast s, a guidance and a mercy (explaining lawful and unlawful t hings) for t he believers) (10:57). Ibn ` Abbas and Ibn Mas` ud and ot her Companions of t he Messenger of Allah said, びリΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ (guidance for t he Mut t aqin (t he pious and right eous persons), means, a light for t hose who have Taqwa. The Meaning of Al-Muttaqin Ibn ` Abbas said about , びリΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ (guidance for t he Mut t aqin) t hat it means, "They are t he believers who avoid Shirk wit h Allah and who work in His obedience.'' Ibn ` Abbas also said t hat Al-Mut t aqin means, "Those who fear Allah's punishment , which would result if t hey abandoned t he t rue guidance t hat t hey recognize and know. They also hope in Allah's mercy by believing in what He revealed.'' Furt her, Qat adah said t hat , びリΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ (Al-Mut t aqin), are t hose whom Allah has described in His st at ement ; びりヲヤz ャや ラヲ⊥ Β͡ Αヱ ょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ∠ ダ ∠ ヨ ボ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz (Who believe in t he Ghayb and perform t he Salah) (2:3), and t he following Ayat . Ibn Jarir st at ed t hat t he Ayah (2:2) includes all of t hese meanings t hat t he scholars have ment ioned, and t his is t he correct view. Also, At -Tirmidhi and Ibn Maj ah narrat ed t hat ` At iyah As-Sa` di said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ゅ∠ゅ∠ ネギΑ ヴz ェ リΒ͡ zヨ∇ャや リョ ラヲ⊥ Α ∇ラぺギ∇らバ∇ャや ヒヤ∇らΑ ゅ∠» ャ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ∠ ボわ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ム∠ ∠⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ «サ∇ほよ ヮよ ゅz ョ や⇔ グェ ヮよ サ∇ほよ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ͡ ケ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ (The servant will not acquire t he st at us of t he Mut t aqin unt il he abandons what is harmless out of fear of falling int o t hat which is harmful.) At -Tirmidhi t hen said "Hasan Gharib.'' There are Two Types of Hidayah (Guidance) Huda here means t he fait h t hat resides in t he heart , and only Allah is able t o creat e it in t he heart of t he servant s. Allah said, びろ∇らら∇ェぺ ∇リョ ン͡ ∇ヰゎ Ι マルまぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ z͡ (Verily, you (O Muhammad ) guide not whom you like) (28:56), び∇ユワや∠ ワ マ∇Βヤハ ザ∇Βャぴ ⊥ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z (Not upon you (Muhammad ) is t heir guidance) (2:272), びヮャ ヵキゅ∠ Κプ ヮヤャや モヤ∇ツΑ リ∠ ぴ ⊥∠ ∠ ͡ ワ ∠ ∠ ⊥z ͡ ͡ ⊥ ョ (Whomsoever Allah sends ast ray, none can guide him) (7:186), and, ヮャ ギイゎ リ∠プ ∇モヤ∇ツΑ リ∠ ヱ ギわ∇ヰヨ∇ャや ヲヰプ ヮzャや ギ∇ヰΑ リ∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ∠ ョ びや⇔ セ∇ゲョ ゅ6 ャヱ ギ͡ ぁ Β͡∠ (He whom Allah guides, he is t he right ly guided; but he whom He sends ast ray, for him you will find no Wali (guiding friend) t o lead him (t o t he right pat h)) (18:17). Huda also means t o explain t he t rut h, give direct ion and lead t o it . Allah, t he Exalt ed, said, びユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ヴ∠ま ン͡ ∇ヰわャ マルまヱぴ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ (And verily, you (O Muhammad ) are indeed guiding (mankind) t o t he st raight pat h (i.e. Allah's religion of Islamic Monot heism)) (42: 52), びキゅ∠ ュ∇ヲホ モムャヱ ∀ ͡ レ⊥ ろル∠ べ∠ ルまぴ ∃ ワ ∃ ∠ あ ⊥ ͡∠ ケグ ョ ∠ ぺ ヨz ͡ (You are only a warner, and t o every people t here is a guide) (13:7), and, ヴ∠ハ ヴ∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヲぁ エわ∇シゅ∠ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Αギヰプ キヲ⊥ を ゅz ぺヱぴ ヤ∠ ヨ∠ ら∠ ∠ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ョ∠∠ びン∠ ヰ∇ャや ギ⊥ (And as for Thamud, We showed and made clear t o t hem t he pat h of t rut h (Islamic Monot heism) t hrough Our Messenger (i.e. showed t hem t he way of success), but t hey preferred blindness t o guidance) (41:17). t est ifying t o t his meaning. Also, Allah said, び リΑ∠ ∇イレャや ヮ⇒∠ ∇Αギワヱぴ ͡ ギ z ⊥ レ ∠∠ ∠ (And shown him t he t wo ways (good and evil).) (90:10) This is t he view of t he scholars who said t hat t he t wo ways refer t o t he pat hs of right eousness and evil, which is also t he correct explanat ion. And Allah knows best . Meaning of Taqwa The root meaning of Taqwa is t o avoid what one dislikes. It was report ed t hat ` Umar bin AlKhat t ab asked Ubayy bin Ka` b about Taqwa. Ubayy said, "Have you ever walked on a pat h t hat has t horns on it '' ` Umar said, "Yes.'' Ubayy said, "What did you do t hen'' He said, "I rolled up my sleeves and st ruggled.'' Ubayy said, "That is Taqwa.'' びょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz (3.Those Who have fait h in t he Ghayb). The Meaning of Iman Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi said t hat Al-` Ala' bin Al-Musayyib bin Rafi` narrat ed from Abu Ishaq t hat Abu Al-Ahwas said t hat ` Abdullah said, "Iman is t o t rust .''. ` Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ (who have fait h) means t hey t rust . Also, Ma` mar said t hat Az-Zuhri said, "Iman is t he deeds.'' In addit ion, Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi said t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat , ` They have fait h', means, t hey fear (Allah). Ibn Jarir (At -Tabari) comment ed, "The prefered view is t hat t hey be described as having fait h in t he Unseen by t he t ongue, deed and creed. In t his case, fear of Allah is included in t he general meaning of Iman, which necessit at es following deeds of t he t ongue by implement at ion. Hence, Iman is a general t erm t hat includes affirming and believing in Allah, His Books and His Messengers, and realizing t his affirmat ion t hrough adhering t o t he implicat ions of what t he t ongue ut t ers and affirms.'' Linguist ically, in t he absolut e sense, Iman merely means t rust , and it is used t o mean t hat somet imes in t he Qur'an, for inst ance, Allah t he Exalt ed said, びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ リョ∇ぽΑヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョ∇ぽΑぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z よ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ (He t rust s (yu'minu) in Allah, and t rust s (yu'minu) in t he believers.) (9: 61) Prophet Yusuf's brot hers said t o t heir fat her, びリΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ゅz ミ ∇ヲャヱ ゅ∠ ャ リョ∇ぽヨよ ろル∠ べ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ホ ͡ タ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ レz ∃ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ぺ ョ ∠ (But you will never believe us even when we speak t he t rut h) (12:17). Furt her, t he word Iman is somet imes ment ioned along wit h deeds, such as Allah said, びろ⇒∠ ヤ⇒z ャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや Ιまぴ ͡ エ͡ ダ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz z ͡ (Save t hose who believe (in Islamic Monot heism) and do right eous deeds) (95:6). However, when Iman is used in an unrest rict ed manner, it includes beliefs, deeds, and st at ement s of t he t ongue.We should st at e here t hat Iman increases and decreases. There are many narrat ions and Hadit hs on t his subj ect , and we discussed t hem in t he beginning of our explanat ion of Sahih Al-Bukhari, all favors are from Allah. Some scholars explained t hat Iman means Khashyah (fear of Allah). For inst ance, Allah said; びょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ユ⊥ よケ ラ∇ヲゼ∇ガΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ͡ ∠ よ ヰz ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ (Verily, t hose who fear t heir Lord unseen (i.e. t hey do not see Him, nor His punishment in t he Hereaft er)) (67:12), and, び ょΒ͡ ョ ょ∇ヤボよ ¬べ∠ ヱ ょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヴゼカ ∇リョぴ ∃ レぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ィ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ ヨ z ∠ ͡ ∠ z (Who feared t he Most Gracious (Allah) in t he Ghayb (unseen) and brought a heart t urned in repent ance (t o Him and absolut ely free from every kind of polyt heism)) (50: 33). Fear is t he core of Iman and knowledge, j ust as Allah t he Exalt ed said, び¬ゅ∠ ヤバ∇ャや ロキゅ∠ ハ ∇リョ ヮヤャや ヴ∠ ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ ルまぴ ⊥ ヨ∠⊥ ͡ ͡ ら͡ ͡ ∠ z ゼ ∠ ヨz ͡ (It is only t hose who have knowledge among His servant s t hat fear Allah) (35:28). The Meaning of Al-Ghayb As for t he meaning of Ghayb here, t he Salaf have different explanat ions of it , all of which are correct , indicat ing t he same general meaning. For inst ance, Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi quot ed Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, report ing from Abu Al-` Aliyah about Allah's st at ement , i びょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑぴ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ((Those who) have fait h in t he Ghayb), "They believe in Allah, His angels, Books, Messengers, t he Last Day, His Paradise, Fire and in t he meet ing wit h Him. They also believe in life aft er deat h and in Resurrect ion. All of t his is t he Ghayb.'' Qat adah bin Di` amah said similarly. Sa` id bin Mansur report ed from ` Abdur-Rahman bin Yazid who said, "We were sit t ing wit h ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud when we ment ioned t he Companions of t he Prophet and t heir deeds being superior t o our deeds. ` Abdullah said, ` The mat t er of Muhammad was clear for t hose who saw him. By He ot her t han Whom t here is no God, no person will ever acquire a bet t er t ype of fait h t han believing in Al-Ghayb.' He t hen recit ed, リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャク - ユャやぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠ びょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャや ͡ ∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz (Alif Lam Mim. This is t he Book, wherein t here is no doubt , a guidance for t he Mut t aqin. Those who believe in t he Ghayb), unt il, びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヘヨ∇ャやぴ ∠ エ͡ ⊥ (t he successful). '' Ibn Abi Hat im, Ibn Marduwyah and Al-Hakim, in his Must adrak, recorded t his Hadit h. Al-Hakim comment ed t hat t his Hadit h is aut hent ic and t hat t he Two Shaykhs - AlBukhari and Muslim - did not collect it , alt hough it meet s t heir crit eria. Ahmad recorded a Hadit h wit h similar meaning from Ibn Muhayriz who said: I said t o Abu Jumu` ah, "Narrat e a Hadit h for us t hat you heard from t he Messenger of Allah.'' He said, "Yes. I will narrat e a good Hadit h for you. Once we had lunch wit h t he Messenger of Allah . Abu ` Ubaydah, who was wit h us, said, ` O Messenger of Allah! Are people bet t er t han us We embraced Islam wit h you and performed Jihad wit h you.' He said, «ヶ͡ ∇ヱゲΑ ∇ユャヱ ヶ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ∇ユミギ∇バよ ∇リョ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ∇ユバル» ル ∠ ∠ ∠∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ュ ホ ∠ ∠ (Yes, t hose who will come aft er you, who will believe in me alt hough t hey did not see me.)'' This Hadit h has anot her rout e collect ed by Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah in his Tafsir, from Salih bin Jubayr who said: ` Abu Jumu` ah Al-Ansari, t he Companion of t he Messenger of Allah , came t o Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) t o perform t he prayer. Raj a' bin Haywah was wit h us, so when Abu Jumu` ah finished, we went out t o greet him. When he was about t o leave, he said, "You have a gift and a right . I will narrat e a Hadit h for you t hat I heard from t he Messenger of Allah. '' We said, "Do so, and may Allah grant you mercy.'' He said, "We were wit h t he Messenger of Allah, t en people including Mu` adh bin Jabal. We said, "O Messenger of Allah! Are t here people who will acquire great er rewards t han us We believed in Allah and followed you.' He said, ∇ユミゲヰ∇ニぺ リ∇Βよ ぶや メヲ⊥ ケヱ マャク ∇リョ ∇ユムバレ∇ヨΑ ゅ∠ » ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ シ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ∇ユヰΒ͡ ∇ほΑ ∇ユミギ∇バよ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ∇モよ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ジャや リョ ヶ∇ェヲ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ユムΒ͡ ∇ほΑ ͡ ゎ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ュ ホ ∠ ¬ ヨz ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ よ ⊥ ゎ ∠ ゅ∠ ͡ ラヲ⊥ヨ∇バΑヱ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リ∇Βェ∇ヲャ リ∇Βよ ∇リョ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ ヨよ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゆ わミ «リ∇Βゎゲョ や⇔ ∇ィぺ ∇ユム∇レョ ユヌ∇ハぺ マゃャヱ⊥ ∩͡ Β͡ ∠z ∠ ゲ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヮ プ (What prevent s you from doing so, while t he Messenger of Allah is among you, bringing you t he revelat ion from heaven There are people who will come aft er you and who will be given a book bet ween t wo covers (t he Qur'an), and t hey will believe in it and implement it s commands. They have a great er reward t han you, even t wice as much.)'' びラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅヨョヱ りヲヤz ャや ラヲ⊥ Β͡ Αヱぴ ∠ ボ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ダ ∠ ヨ ボ⊥ ∠ (And perform Salah, and spend out of what we have provided for t hem) Meaning of Iqamat As-Salah Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , びりヲヤz ャや ラヲ⊥ Β͡ Αヱぴ ∠ ダ ∠ ヨ ボ⊥ ∠ (And perform t he Salah), means, "Perform t he prayer wit h all of t he obligat ions t hat accompany it .'' Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Iqamat As-Salah means t o complet e t he bowings, prost rat ions, recit at ion, humbleness and at t endance for t he prayer.'' Qat adah said, "Iqamat As-Salah means t o preserve punct ualit y, and t he ablut ion, bowings, and prost rat ions of t he prayer.'' Muqat il bin Hayyan said Iqamat As-Salah means "To preserve punct ualit y for it , as well as complet ing ones purit y for it , and complet ing t he bowings, prost rat ions, recit at ion of t he Qur'an, Tashahhud and blessings for t he Prophet . This is Iqamat As-Salah.'' The Meaning of "Spending'' in this Ayah Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, びラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅz ͡ ∠ ぴ ∠ ボ ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ヨョヱ (And spend out of what We have provided for t hem) means, "The Zakah due on t heir wealt h.'' As-Suddi said t hat Abu Malik and Abu Salih narrat ed from Ibn ` Abbas, as well as Murrah from Ibn Mas` ud and ot her Companions of t he Messenger of Allah , t hat , びラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅz ͡ ∠ ぴ ∠ ボ ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ヨョヱ (And spend out of what We have provided for t hem) means, "A man's spending on his family. This was before t he obligat ion of Zakah was revealed.'' Juwaybir narrat ed from Ad-Dahhak, "General spending (in charit y) was a means of drawing nearer t o Allah, according t o one's discret ion and capabilit y. Unt il t he obligat ion of charit y was revealed in t he seven Ayat of Surat Bara'ah (chapt er 9), were revealed. These abrogat ed t he previous case.'' In many inst ances, Allah ment ioned prayer and spending wealt h t oget her. Prayer is a right of Allah as well as a form of worshipping Him. It includes singling Him out for one's devot ion, praising Him, glorifying Him, supplicat ing t o Him, invoking Him, and it displays one's dependence upon Him. Spending is form of kindness t owards creat ures by giving t hem what will benefit t hem, and t hose people most deserving of t his charit y are t he relat ives, t he wife, t he servant s and t hen t he rest of t he people. So all t ypes of required charit y and required spending are included in Allah's saying, びラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅz ͡ ∠ ぴ ∠ ボ ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ヨョヱ (And spend out of what we have provided for t hem). The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Ibn ` Umar said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ぶや ゅzま ヮャ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ラぺ りキゅ∠ セ :ザ∇ヨカ ヴ∠ハ ュゅ∠∇シみ∇ャや ヶレよ» ⊥ ャ͡ ∠ ま ャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヰ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ¬ゅ∠ Α͡ヱ ∩͡ ゅ∠ダャや ュゅ∠ まヱ ∩͡ や メヲ⊥ ケ やギヨエョ ラぺヱ ͡ わ ま∠ り ヤz ͡ ホ͡∠ ぶ ⊥ シ∠ ⇔ z ∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ «ろ∇Βら∇ャや アェヱ ∩∠ ゅ∠ ョケ ュ∇ヲタヱ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ゴャや ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ラ ツ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ り ミz (Islam is built upon five (pillars): Test ifying t hat t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah and t hat Muhammad is t he Messenger of Allah, est ablishing t he prayer, giving Zakah, fast ing Ramadan and Haj j t o t he House.) There are many ot her Hadit hs on t his subj ect . The Meaning of Salah In t he Arabic language, t he basic meaing of Salah is supplicat ion. In religious t erminology, Salah is used t o refer t o t he act s of bowing and prost rat ion, t he remaining specified act s associat ed wit h it , specificed at cert ain t imes, wit h t hose known condit ions, and t he charact erist ics, and requirement s t hat are well-known about it . リ͡ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ マ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ よ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ョ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz ヱ び ラヲ⊥ ホヲ⊥ ∇ユワ りゲカ∇Εゅ͡ ヱ マヤ∇らホ ∠ レ͡ Α ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ よ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ (4. And who have fait h in what is revealed t o you and in what was revealed before you, and in t he Hereaft er t hey are cert ain.) Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , リ͡ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ マ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ よ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ョ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz ヱ びマヤ∇らホ ∠ ͡∠ (And who have fait h in what is revealed t o you and in what was revealed before you.) means, "They believe in what Allah sent you wit h, and in what t he previous Messengers were sent wit h, t hey do not dist inguish bet ween (believing) t hem, nor do t hey rej ect what t hey brought from t heir Lord.'' びラヲ⊥ ホヲ⊥ ∇ユワ りゲカ∇Εゅ͡ ヱぴ ∠ レ͡ Α ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ よ∠ (And in t he Hereaft er t hey are cert ain) t hat is t he resurrect ion, t he st anding (on t he Day of Resurrect ion), Paradise, t he Fire, t he reckoning and t he t he Scale t hat weighs t he deeds (t he Mizan). The Hereaft er is so named because it comes aft er t his eart hly life. Attributes of the Believers The people described here (2:4) are t hose whom Allah described in t he preceding Ayah, ゅz ョヱ りヲヤz ャや ラヲ⊥ Β͡ Αヱ ょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ヨ͡ ∠ ∠ ダ ∠ ヨ ボ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz び ラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ∠ ボ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ (Those who have fait h in t he Ghayb and perform Salah, and spend out of what we have provided for t hem.) Muj ahid once st at ed, "Four Ayat at t he beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah describe t he believers, t wo describe t he disbelievers, and t hirt een describe t he hypocrit es.'' The four Ayat ment ioned in t his st at ement are general and include every believer, whet her an Arab, non-Arab, or a person of a previous Script ure, whet her t hey are Jinns or humans. All of t hese at t ribut es complement each ot her and require t he exist ence of t he ot her at t ribut es. For inst ance, it is not possible t hat one believes in t he Unseen, performs t he prayer and gives Zakah wit hout believing in what t he Messenger of Allah and t he previous Messengers were sent wit h. The same wit h cert aint y in t he Hereaft er, t his is not correct wit hout t hat , for Allah has commanded t he believers, ヮャヲ⊥ ケヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ シ∠ ∠ ͡ z よ レ͡ ¬ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α ン͡ ャや ͡ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ャや∠ ヮャヲ⊥ ケ ヴ∠ハ メゴル ン͡ ャや ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや∠ グz ょ わム ヱ ͡ ͡ シ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ z ∠ グz ͡ わ͡ ヱ びモ∇らホ リ͡ メゴ∠ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ル∠ (O you who believe! Believe in Allah, and His Messenger, and t he Book (t he Qur'an) which He has revealed t o t he Messenger, and t he Book which He sent own t o t hose before (him)) (4:136), リジ∇ェぺ ヴワ ヴ͡ ャゅ͡ Ιま ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇やヲ⊥ギ⇒∠ ゎ Ιヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ わz よ z ͡ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ イ⊥ ∠ ∠ メゴル⊥ ン͡ ャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや Ιま ∠ ͡ ぺ グz よ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ∠ ⊥ ͡ ヨ∠∠ ∠ グz z ͡ び∀ ͡ や∠ ∇ユムヰ⇒∠まヱ ゅ∠ ヰ⇒∠まヱ ∇ユム∇Βャま メゴル⊥ヱ ゅ∠ ∇Βャま ギェ ヱ ⊥ ⊥ ャ͡∠ レ⊥ ャ͡∠ ⊥ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ∠ レ ∠͡ (And argue not wit h t he People of t he Book, unless it be in (a way) t hat is bet t er, except wit h such of t hem as do wrong; and say (t o t hem): "We believe in t hat which has been revealed t o us and revealed t o you; our Ilah (God) and your Ilah (God) is One (i.e. Allah)') (29:46), ゅ∠ ∇ャゴ∠ ゅ∠ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや べ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ レ z ル ヨ͡ レ͡ ¬ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ヰ ぁ ∠ Α び∇ユムバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅホあ ダョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ⇔ ギ ∠ ⊥ (O you who have been given t he Book (Jews and Christ ians)! Believe in what We have revealed (t o Muhammad ) confirming what is (already) wit h you) (4:47), and, ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ゎ ヴz ェ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ∇ユわ∇ジャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワほ⇒∠ ∇モホぴ ヨ ボ⊥ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ∠ Α ⊥ び∇ユムよケ リあ ∇ユム∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ モΒ͡ ル͡ や∠ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ⊥ あ z ョ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ イ Η ヱ ∠ ケ z (Say (O Muhammad ): "O People of t he Book (Jews and Christ ians)! You have not hing unt il you act according t o t he Tawrah (Torah), t he Inj il (Gospel), and what has (now) been revealed t o you from your Lord (t he Qur'an).'') (5:68). Also, Allah t he Exalt ed described t he believers; ヮよケ リ͡ ヮ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ͡ メヲ⊥ ゲャや リョや∠ ぴ ͡ あz ョ ͡ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨよ ⊥ シz ∠ ∠ ¬ ヮらわミヱ ヮわムゃ⇒∠ョヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ モミ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ x ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ヱ びヮヤシケ リあ ギェぺ リ∇Βよ ベあ ヘル Ι ヮヤシケヱ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ぁ ョ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (The Messenger (Muhammad ) believes in what has been revealed t o him from his Lord, and (so do) t he believers. Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. (They say,) "We make no dist inct ion bet ween any of His Messengers'') (2: 285), and, ギェぺ リ∇Βよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ∇ユャヱ ヮヤシケヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ͡⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ び∇ユヰ∇レョ ⊥ あ (And t hose who believe in Allah and His Messengers and make no dist inct ion bet ween any of t hem (Messengers)) (4:152), This is a sample of t he Ayat t hat indicat e t hat t he t rue believers all believe in Allah, His Messengers and His Books. The fait hful among t he People of t he Book, have a special significance here, since t hey believe in t heir Books and in all of t he det ails relat ed t o t hat , so when such people embrace Islam and sincerely believe in t he det ails of t he religion, t hen t hey will get t wo rewards. As for t he ot hers, t hey can only believe in t he previous religious t eachings in a general way. For inst ance, t he Prophet st at ed, ゅ∠ヱ ∇ユワヲ⊥ グムゎ ゅ∠プ ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇ユムをギェ や∠ ま» ャ∠ ⊥ よあ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ ゅ∠ ∇Βャま メゴ∇ルぺ ヵ͡ ャゅ͡ ゅz ョへ :やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ∇リムャ∠ ∇ユワヲ⊥ ギダゎ レ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ グz よ レ∠ ャ ホ ͡ ヱ ⊥ ホ͡ ∠ ⊥ «ユ⊥ ∇Βャま メゴ∇ルぺヱ ム ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥∠ (When t he People of t he Book narrat e t o you, neit her rej ect nor affirm what t hey say. Rat her, say, 'We believe in what was revealed t o us and what was revealed t o you.') However, t he fait h t hat many Arabs have in t he religion of Islam as it was revealed t o Muhammad might be more complet e, encompassing and firmer t han t he fait h of t he People of t he Book who embraced Islam. Therefore, if t he believers in Islam among t he People of t he Book gain t wo rewards, ot her Muslims who have firmer Islamic fait h might gain an equal reward t hat compares t o t he t wo t he People of t he Book gain (upon embracing Islam). And Allah knows best . ユワ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺヱ ∇ユヰよケ リあ ン⇔ ワ ヴ∠ハ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ ͡ あ z ョ ギ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヘヨ∇ャや ∠ エ͡ ⊥ (5. They are on guidance from t heir Lord, and t hey are t he successful.) Guidance and Success are awarded to the Believers Allah said, びマゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ∠ ͡ャ ⊥ (They are) refers t o t hose who believe in t he Unseen, est ablish t he prayer, spend from what Allah has grant ed t hem, believe in what Allah has revealed t o t he Messenger and t he Messengers before him, believe in t he Hereaft er wit h cert aint y, and prepare t he necessary requirement s for t he Hereaft er by performing good deeds and avoiding t he prohibit ions. Allah t hen said, びン⇔ ワ ヴ∠ハぴ ギ⊥ ヤ∠ (On guidance) meaning, t hey are (following) a light , guidance, and have insight from Allah, びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヘヨ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺヱぴ ∠ エ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ (And t hey are t he successful) meaning, in t his world and t he Hereaft er. They shall have what t hey seek and be saved from t he evil t hat t hey t ried t o avoid. Therefore, t hey will have rewards, et ernal life in Paradise, and safet y from t he t orment t hat Allah has prepared for His enemies. ∇ユャ ∇ュぺ ∇ユヰゎ∇ケグル∠¬ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ へ∠ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ぺ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ¬ ヲシ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ び ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι ∇ユワ∇ケグレ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ゎ -(6. Verily, t hose who disbelieve, it is t he same t o t hem whet her you warn t hem or do not warn t hem, t hey will not believe.) Allah said, び∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ (Verily, t hose who disbelieve) meaning, covered t he t rut h and hid it . Since Allah has writ t en t hat t hey would do so, it does not mat t er if you (O Muhammad ) warn t hem or not , t hey would st ill have disbelieved in what you were sent wit h. Similarly, Allah said, - ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι マよケ るヨヤミ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろボェ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ グ z z ͡ び ユΒ͡Ιや ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヱゲΑ ヴz ェ るΑや¬ ぁ ミ ∇ユヰ∇ゎ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ∠ ャx ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ィ ∠∠ (Truly, t hose against whom t he Word (wrat h) of your Lord has been j ust ified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come t o t hem, unt il t hey see t he painful t orment ) (10:96-97). About t he rebellious People of t he Book, Allah said, ゅz るΑや∠ あ ムよ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ろ∇Βゎぺ ∇リゃャヱぴ ョ ∃ ∠ ¬ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ びマわヤ∇らホ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ バ͡ ∠ (And even if you were t o bring t o t he People of t he Book (Jews and Christ ians) all t he Ayat , t hey would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direct ion)) (2:5). These Ayat indicat e t hat whomever Allah has writ t en t o be miserable, t hey shall never find anyone t o guide t hem t o happiness, and whomever Allah direct s t o misguidance, he shall never find anyone t o guide him. So do not pit y t hem - O Muhammad - deliver t he Message t o t hem. Cert ainly, whoever among t hem accept s t he Message, t hen he shall gain t he best rewards. As for t hose who t urn away in rej ect ion, do not feel sad for t hem or concerned about t hem, for びゆゅ∠ エ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハヱ ヒ⇒∠ら∇ャや マ∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ぴ ⊥ ジ͡ レ ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヨz みプ (Your dut y is only t o convey (t he Message) and on Us is t he reckoning) (13: 40), and, び∀ Β͡ ヱ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや∠ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ろル∠ べ∠ ルまぴ モ ミ∠ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ z ヱ ゲ グル ∠ ぺ ヨz ͡ (But you are only a warner. And Allah is a Wakil (Disposer of affairs, Trust ee, Guardian) over all t hings) (11:12). ` Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said about Allah's st at ement , ∇ユャ ∇ュぺ ∇ユヰゎ∇ケグル∠¬ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ へ∠ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ぺ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ¬ ヲシ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ び ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι ∇ユワ∇ケグレ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ゎ (Verily, t hose who disbelieve, it is t he same t o t hem whet her you (O Muhammad ) warn t hem or do not warn t hem, t hey will not believe) "That t he Messenger of Allah was eager for all t he people t o believe and follow t he guidance he was sent wit h. Allah informed him t hat none would believe except for t hose whom He decreed happiness for in t he first place, and none would st ray except t hose who Allah has decreed t o do so in t he first place.'' ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∇ユヰバ∇ヨシ ヴ∠ハヱ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ヮzャや ユわカぴ ヤハヱ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∀ Β͡ ハ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∇ユヰャヱ ∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺ ユ ヌ ゆ グハ ⊥ ∠∠ りヲ ゼビ ͡ ͡ ダ ∠ (7. Allah has set a seal on t heir heart s and on t heir hearing, and on t heir eyes t here is a covering. Theirs will be a great t orment ). Meaning of Khatama As-Suddi said t hat , びヮヤャや ユわカぴ ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ (Khat ama Allah) means, "Allah has sealed.'' Qat adah said t hat t his Ayah means, "Shayt an cont rolled t hem when t hey obeyed him. Therefore, Allah sealed t heir heart s, hearing and sight , and t hey could neit her see t he guidance nor hear, comprehend or underst and.'' Ibn Jurayj said t hat Muj ahid said, び∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ユわカぴ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ (Allah has set a seal on t heir heart s), "A st amp. It occurs when sin resides in t he heart and surrounds it from all sides, and t his submersion of t he heart in sin const it ut es a st amp, meaning a seal.'' Ibn Jurayj also said t hat t he seal is placed on t he heart and t he hearing. In addit ion, Ibn Jurayj said, t hat ` Abdullah bin Kat hir narrat ed t hat Muj ahid said, "The st ain is not as bad as t he st amp, t he st amp is not as bad as t he lock which is t he worst t ype.'' Al-A` mash said, "Muj ahid demonst rat ed wit h his hand while saying, ` They used t o say t hat t he heart is j ust like t his - meaning t he open palm. When t he servant commit s a sin, a part of t he heart will be rolled up - and he rolled up his index finger. When t he servant commit s anot her sin, a part of t he heart will be rolled up' - and he rolled up anot her finger, unt il he rolled up all of his fingers. Then he said, ` Then, t he heart will be sealed.' Muj ahid also said t hat t his is t he descript ion of t he Ran (refer t o 83:14).'' Al-Qurt ubi said, "The Ummah has agreed t hat Allah has described Himself wit h sealing and closing t he heart s of t he disbelievers, as a punishment for t heir disbelief. Similarly, Allah said, び∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヮzャや ノらデ ∇モよぴ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ヰ ∠∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Nay, Allah has set a seal upon t heir heart s because of t heir disbelief) (4:155).'' He t hen ment ioned t he Hadit h about changing t he heart s, (in which t he Prophet supplicat ed), «マ͡ Α͡ ヴヤ∠ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇ろらを ゆヲ⊥ボ∇ャや ょヤボョ ゅ∠ » レ キ ハ レ∠ ヤ⊥ あ ∠ ͡ ヤ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ Α (O You Who changes t he heart s, make our heart s firm on Your religion.) He also ment ioned t he Hadit h by Hudhayfah recorded in t he Sahih, in which t he Messenger of Allah said, や⇔ ヲ⊥ ゲΒ͡ エ∇ャゅ∠ ゆヲ⊥ボ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ リわヘ∇ャや チゲ∇バゎ» キ ハ ͡ ダ∠ ミ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ¬や∠ ∇ヲシ ∀ ∠ ∇ムル ヮΒ͡ ろムル ゅ∠ ∠ ͡ ∇セぺ ょ∇ヤホ ヵほプ ∩や⇔ ヲ⊥ ⊥ キ ∠ る わ ⊥ プ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヰ よゲ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ キ ハ ヴわ∠ ¬ゅ∠ ∇Βよ ∀ ∠ ∇ムル ヮΒ͡ ろムル ゅ∠ ゲム∇ルぺ ょ∇ヤホ ヵぺヱ ェ ⊥ ツ ∠ るわ ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ワ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ぁ ∠∠ ゅ∠プ ∩ゅ∠ ダャや モ∇んョ ヂΒ∇よぺ ヴヤ∠ :リ∇Βら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ ゲΒ͡ ゎ ヤ∠ ヘz ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ハ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ダ∠ ゲカべ∇ャや∠ チ∇ケほ∇ャや∠ れや∠ ヨジャや ろョや∠ ゅ∠ るレ∇わプ ロぁ ツゎ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ヲ∠ z ͡ ∠ キ ョ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ゅ⇔ ヱ⊥ ∇バョ フゲ∇バΑ ゅ∠ ゅ⇔ ガ∠ ョ コヲ⊥ ∇ャゅ∠ や6 ゅ∠ ∇ゲョ キヲ∇シぺ プ ゲ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ャ Βあ イ ⊥ ͡ ム ミ キ よ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «や⇔ ム∇レョ ゲム∇レΑ ゅ∠ヱ ゲ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ャ ∠ (The Fit an (t rials, t est s) are offered t o t he heart s, j ust as t he st raws t hat are sewn int o a woven mat , one aft er anot her. Any heart t hat accept s t he Fit an, t hen a black dot will be engraved on it . Any heart t hat rej ect s t he Fit an, t hen a whit e dot will be engraved on it . The heart s will t herefore become t wo cat egories: whit e, j ust like t he barren rock; no Fit nah shall ever harm t his cat egory as long as t he heavens and eart h st ill exist . Anot her cat egory is black, j ust as t he cup t hat is t urned upside down, for t his heart does not recognize right eousness or renounce evil. ) Ibn Jarir said, "The t rut h regarding t his subj ect is what t he aut hent ic Hadit h from t he Messenger of Allah st at ed. Abu Hurayrah narrat ed t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ヶ͡ ¬や∠ ∇ヲシ るわ∇ムル ∇ろルゅ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇ルク ょル∇クぺ や∠ ま リョぽ⊥ ∇ャや ラま» プ ∠ キ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ミ ら ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ ∠ ͡ ヨ z ͡ ∇ラまヱ ヮら∇ヤホ モボタ ょわ∇バわ∇シや∠ ネゴルヱ ゆゅ∠ ∇ラみプ ∩͡ ら∇ヤホ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ͡ ∠ ヮ͡ ∠ メゅ∠ ヵ͡ ャや ラやz ャや マャグ∠ ∩⊥ ら∇ヤホ ヲヤ∇バゎ ヴz ェ ∇れキや∠ キやコ ∠ ホ グz ⊥ ゲ ∠ ͡ プ ヮ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ わ∠ ∠ コ ∠ ∠ :ヴャゅ∠ ゎ ぶや バ∠ ⊥ び ラヲ⊥ ジ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ラや∠ ∇モよ Κミぴ ∠ ら͡ ∠ ル ミ ョ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ケ ∠ z ∠ (When t he believer commit s a sin, a black dot will be engraved on his heart . If he repent s, refrains and regret s, his heart will be polished again. If he commit s more errors, t he dot s will increase unt il t hey cover his heart . This is t he Ran (st ain) t hat Allah described, び ラヲ⊥ ジ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ラや∠ ∇モよ Κミぴ ∠ ら͡ ∠ ル ミ ョ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ケ ∠ z ∠ (Nay! But on t heir heart s is t he Ran (st ain) which t hey used t o earn)'' (83:14). At -Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah recorded t his Hadit h, and At -Tirmidhi said t hat it is Hasan Sahih. The Meaning of Ghishawah Recit ing t he Ayah, び∇ユヰバ∇ヨシ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ユわカぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヤハヱ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ (Allah has set a seal on t heir heart s and on t heir hearing), t hen pausing, t hen cont inuing wit h, び∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ぴ りヲ ゼビ ͡ ͡ ダ ∠ ヤハヱ (And on t heir eyes t here is a Ghishawah (covering)) is accurat e, for t he st amp is placed on t he heart and t he hearing while t he Ghishawah, t he covering, is appropriat ely placed on t he eyes. In his Tafsir, As-Suddi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas and Ibn Mas` ud said about Allah's st at ement , び∇ユヰバ∇ヨシ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ユわカぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヤハヱ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ (Allah has set a seal on t heir heart s and on t heir hearing), "So t hat t hey neit her underst and nor hear. Allah also said t hat He placed a covering on t heir sight , meaning eyes, and so, t hey do not see.'' The Hypocrites We ment ioned t hat four Ayat in t he beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah described t he believers. The t wo last Ayat (2:6-7) describe t he disbelievers. Aft erwards, Allah begins t o describe t he hypocrit es who show belief and hide disbelief. Since t he mat t er of t he hypocrit es is vague and many people do not realize t heir t rue realit y, Allah ment ioned t heir descript ion in det ail. Each of t he charact erist ics t hat Allah used t o described t hem wit h is a t ype of hypocrisy it self. Allah revealed Surat Bara'ah (chapt er 9) and Surat Al-Munafiqun (chapt er 63) about t he hypocrit es. He also ment ioned t he hypocrit es in Surat An-Nur (24) and ot her Surahs, so t hat t heir descript ion would be known and t heir ways and errors could be avoided. Allah said, ゲカ∇Εや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ メヲ⊥ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ よ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ ボ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Α - リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ワ ョ∠ び ラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ Ιま ラヲ⊥ ギ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ∠ ハ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (8. And of mankind, t here are some who say: "We believe in Allah and t he Last Day'' while in fact t hey do not believe). (9. They t ry t o deceive Allah and t hose who believe, while t hey only deceive t hemselves, and perceive (it ) not !) Meaning of Nifaq Nifaq means t o show conformit y - or agreement - and t o conceal evil. Nifaq has several t ypes: Nifaq in t he creed t hat causes it s people t o reside in Hell for et ernit y, and Nifaq in deed, which is one of t he maj or sins, as we will explain soon, Allah willing. Ibn Jurayj said of t he hypocrit e t hat , "His act ual deeds are different from what he publicizes, what he conceals is different from what he ut t ers, his ent rance and presence are not t he same as his exit and absence.'' The Beginning of Hypocrisy The revelat ions about t he charact erist ics of t he hypocrit es were revealed in Al-Madinah, t his is because t here were no hypocrit es in Makkah. Rat her t he opposit e was t he sit uat ion in Makkah, since some people were forced t o pret end t hat t hey were disbelievers, while t heir heart s concealed t heir fait h. Aft erwards, t he Messenger of Allah migrat ed t o Al-Madinah, where t he Ansar from t he t ribes of Aws and Khazraj resided. They used t o worship idols during t he preIslamic period of ignorance, j ust as t he rest of t he Arab idolat ors. Three Jewish t ribes resided in Al-Madinah, Banu Qaynuqa` -allies of Al-Khazraj , Banu An-Nadir and Banu Qurayzah-allies of t he Aws. Many members of t he Aws and Khazraj t ribes embraced Islam. However, only a few Jews embraced Islam, such as ` Abdullah bin Salam. During t he early st age in Al-Madinah, t here weren't any hypocrit es because t he Muslims were not st rong enough t o be feared yet . On t he cont rary, t he Messenger of Allah conduct ed peace t reat ies wit h t he Jews and several ot her Arab t ribes around Al-Madinah. Soon aft er, t he bat t le of Badr occurred and Allah gave vict ory t o Islam and it s people. ` Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul was a leader in Al-Madinah. He was AlKhazraj 's chief, and during t he period of Jahiliyyah he was t he mast er of bot h t ribes - Aws and Khazraj . They were about t o appoint him t heir king when t he Message reached Al-Madinah, and many in Al-Madinah embraced Islam. Ibn Salul's heart was filled wit h hat red against Islam and it s people. When t he bat t le of Badr t ook place, he said, "Allah's religion has become apparent .'' So he pret ended t o be Muslim, along wit h many of t hose who were j ust like him, as well as many among t he People of t he Book. It was t hen t hat hypocrisy began in Al-Madinah and among t he surrounding nomad t ribes. As for t he Emigrant s, none of t hem were hypocrit es, since t hey emigrat ed willingly (seeking t he pleasure of Allah). Rat her, when a Muslim would emigrat e from Makkah, he would be forced t o abandon all of his wealt h, offspring and land; he would do so seeking Allah's reward in t he Hereaft er. The Tafsir of Ayah 2:8 Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , ゲカ∇Εや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ メヲ⊥ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ よ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ ボ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ び リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ワ ョ∠ (And of mankind, t here are some who say: "We believe in Allah and t he Last Day'' while in fact t hey do not believe) "This refers t o t he hypocrit es among t he Aws and Khazraj and t hose who behaved as t hey did.'' This is how Abu Al-` Aliyah, Al-Hasan, Qat adah and As-Suddi explained t his Ayah. Allah revealed t he charact erist ics of t he hypocrit es, so t hat t he believers would not be deceived by t heir out er appearance, t hus saving t he believers from a great evil. Ot herwise, t he believers might t hink t hat t he hypocrit es were believers, when in realit y t hey are disbelievers. To consider t he sinners as right eous people is ext remely dangerous, Allah said, ゲカ∇Εや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ メヲ⊥ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ よ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ ボ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ び リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ワ ョ∠ (And of mankind, t here are some who say: "We believe in Allah and t he Last Day'' while in fact t hey do not believe) meaning, t hey ut t er t hese false st at ement s only wit h t heir t ongues, j ust as Allah said, ヮヤャや メヲ⊥ ゲャ マルま ギヰ∇ゼル ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ポ¬べ∠ や∠ まぴ ͡ z ⊥ シ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ ホ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ ィ ク͡ びヮャヲ⊥ ゲャ マルま ユヤ∇バΑ ヮヤャや∠ ⊥ ⊥ シ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ヱ (When t he hypocrit es come t o you (O Muhammad ), t hey say: "We bear wit ness t hat you are indeed t he Messenger of Allah.'' Allah knows t hat you are indeed His Messenger) (63:1). This Ayah means t hat t he hypocrit es ut t er t hese st at ement s only when t hey meet you, not because t hey act ually believe what t hey are saying. The hypocrit es emphasize t heir belief in Allah and t he Last Day wit h t heir words, when t hat is not t he case in realit y. Therefore, Allah st at ed t hat t he hypocrit es lie in t heir t est imony of creed, when He said, びラヲ⊥ グ⇒∠ ャ リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ラま ギヰ∇ゼΑ ヮヤャや∠ ぴ ∠ よ͡ ム∠ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ヱ (And Allah bears wit ness t hat t he hypocrit es are indeed liars.) (63:1), and, びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ワ ョ∠ (while in fact t hey believe not ) Allah said, びやヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Αぴ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ (They t ry t o deceive Allah and t hose who believe). The hypocrit es show belief out wardly while concealing disbelief. They t hink t hat by doing t his, t hey will mislead Allah, or t hat t he st at ement s t hey ut t er will help t hem wit h Allah, and t his is an indicat ion of t heir t ot al ignorance. They t hink t hat such behavior will deceive Allah, j ust as it might deceive some of t he believers. Similarly, Allah said, ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇エΑ ゅ∠ ミ ヮャ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇エΒプ ゅバΒ͡ ィ ヮヤャや ユヰんバ∇らΑ ュ∇ヲΑぴ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヨ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユワ ∇ユヰルま Ιぺ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ∇ユヰルぺ ラヲ⊥ ジ∇エΑヱ ∇ユムャ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ら∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ グ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ よ͡ ム (On t he Day when Allah will resurrect t hem all t oget her; t hen t hey will swear t o Him as t hey swear t o you. And t hey t hink t hat t hey have somet hing (t o st and upon). Verily, t hey are liars!) (58:18). aHence, Allah refut ed t heir way by saying, びラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ Ιま ラヲ⊥ ギ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ∠ ハ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (While t hey only deceive t hemselves, and perceive (it ) not !) Allah st at ed t hat t he hypocrit es only deceive t hemselves by t his behavior, alt hough t hey are unaware of t his fact . Allah also said, び∇ユヰハキゅ∠ ヲワヱ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Α リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ラまぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ カ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ z ͡ (Verily, t he hypocrit es t ry t o deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives t hem) (4:142). Also, Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Ibn Jurayj comment ed on Allah's st at ement , び∇ユヰハキゅ∠ ヲワヱ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Α リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ラまぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ カ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ z ͡ (Verily, t he hypocrit es seek t o deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives t hem), "The hypocrit es pronounce, ` There is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah' seeking t o ensure t he sanct it y of t heir blood and money, all t he while concealing disbelief.''Sa` id said t hat Qat adah said, ゲカ∇Εや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ メヲ⊥ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ ボ ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Α - リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ワ ョ∠ び ラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ Ιま ラヲ⊥ ギ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ∠ ハ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (And of mankind, t here are some who say: "We believe in Allah and t he Last Day'' while in fact t hey believe not . They t ry t o deceive Allah and t hose who believe, while t hey only deceive t hemselves, and perceive (it ) not !) "This is t he descript ion of a hypocrit e. He is devious, he says t he t rut h wit h his t ongue and defies it wit h his heart and deeds. He wakes up in a condit ion ot her t han t he one he goes t o sleep in, and goes t o sleep in a different condit ion t han t he one he wakes up in. He changes his mind j ust like a ship t hat moves about whenever a wind blows.'' ∇ユヰャヱ ゅ⇔ ゲョ ヮzャや ユワキや∠ プ ∀ ∠ ョ ユ͡ ͡ ヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ ぴ ⊥ ∠∠ ッ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ チゲz ヰよ ヤ⊥ プ び ラヲ⊥ グ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ͡ ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∠ よ͡ ∠ ル ミ ヨよ ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ (10. In t heir heart s is a disease and Allah has increased t heir disease. A painful t orment is t heirs because t hey used t o t ell lies.) The Meaning of ` Disease' in this Ayah As-Suddi narrat ed from Abu Malik and (also) from Abu Salih, from Ibn ` Abbas, and (also) Murrah Al-Hamdani from Ibn Mas` ud and ot her Companions t hat t his Ayah, び∀ ∠ ョ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ ぴ チゲz ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ プ (In t heir heart s is a disease) means, ` doubt ', and, びゅ⇔ ゲョ ヮzャや ユワキや∠ プぴ ッ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ (And Allah has increased t heir disease) also means ` doubt '. Muj ahid, ` Ikrimah, Al-Hasan AlBasri, Abu Al-` Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qat adah also said similarly. ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam comment ed on, び∀ ∠ ョ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴプぴ チゲz ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ͡ (In t heir heart s is a disease), "A disease in t he religion, not a physical disease. They are t he hypocrit es and t he disease is t he doubt t hat t hey brought t o Islam. びゅ⇔ ゲョ ヮzャや ユワキや∠ プぴ ッ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ (And Allah has increased t heir disease) meaning, increased t hem in shameful behavior.'' He also recit ed, ∇ユワヱ ゅレ⇒∠ Α͡ ∇ユヰ∇ゎキや∠ プ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや¬ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ほプぴ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ ヨ ま ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ レ∠ ∠ グ z ョ∠ ∠ ∇ユヰ∇ゎキや∠ プ ∀ ∠ ョ ユ͡ よヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ぺヲルヱ⊥ ゼ∇らわ∇ジΑ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ チゲz ヰ͡ ヤ⊥ プ ∠ グz ョ∠∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ∠ び∇ユヰジ∇ィケ ヴ∠ま ゅ⇔ ∇ィケ ͡ ͡ ͡ ャ͡ ジ ͡ (As for t hose who believe, it has increased t heir fait h, and t hey rej oice. But as for t hose in whose heart s is a disease, it will add disgrace t o t heir disgrace.) (9:124-125) and comment ed, "Evil t o t heir evil and deviat ion t o t heir deviat ion.'' This st at ement by ` Abdur-Rahman is t rue, and it const it ut es a punishment t hat is compat ible t o t he sin, j ust as t he earlier scholars st at ed. Similarly, Allah said, び ∇ユワや∠ ボゎ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ や∠ ヱ ン⇔ ワ ∇ユワキや∠ ∇や∇ヱギわ∇ワや リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ゎ ¬∠ ギ⊥ ⊥ ∠ コ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ (While as for t hose who accept guidance, He increases t heir guidance and grant s t hem t heir piet y) (47:17). Allah said next , びラヲ⊥ グ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ よぴ ∠ よ͡ ∠ ル ミ ヨ͡ (Because t hey used t o t ell lies). The hypocrit es have t wo charact erist ics, t hey lie and t hey deny t he Unseen. The scholars who st at ed t hat t he Prophet knew t he hypocrit es of his t ime have only t he Hadit h of Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman as evidence. In it t he Prophet gave him t he names of fourt een hypocrit es during t he bat t le of Tabuk. These hypocrit es plot t ed t o assassinat e t he Prophet during t he night on a hill in t hat area. They planned t o excit e t he Prophet 's camel, so t hat she would t hrow him down t he hill. Allah informed t he Prophet about t heir plot , and t he Prophet t old Hudhayfah t heir names. As for t he ot her hypocrit es, Allah said about t hem, モ∇ワぺ ∇リョヱ ラヲ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ョ ゆや∠ ∇ハx や リョ ユ⊥ ャ∇ヲェ ∇リヨョヱぴ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ ͡ ゲ Ι ∠ あ ム∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ リ∇エル ∇ユヰヨヤ∇バゎ Ι ベゅ∠ レャや ヴ∠ハ ∇やヱ⊥ ゲョ るレΑ͡ ヨ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヘz ヤ∠ キ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ギ ∠ び∇ユヰヨヤ∇バル ⊥⊥∠ ∠ (And among t he bedouins around you, some are hypocrit es, and so are some among t he people of Al-Madinah who persist in hypocrisy; you (O Muhammad ) know t hem not , We know t hem) (9:101), and, ∀ ∠ ョ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ラヲ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ヮわレ∠ ∇ユャ リ͡ ャぴ チゲz ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ プ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ ͡ ∠ Α z ゃz Ι z を ∇ユヰよ マレΑゲ∇ピレャ るレΑ͡ ヨ∇ャや ヴ͡ ラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲヨ∇ャや∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ギ∠ プ ∠ ヘ͡ ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ボを ゅ∠ レ∇Αぺ ∠ Β͡ ヲ⊥ ∇ヤョ - ΚΒ͡ホ Ιま べ∠ Β͡ マルヱ⊥ ヱゅ∠ Α ヘ͡ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ リ ル バ z ⇔ ヤ∠ z ͡ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ケ͡ イ⊥ び ΚΒ͡ ∇ボゎ ∇やヲ⊥わホヱ ∇やヱ⊥ カぺ ⇔ わ ∠ ヤ あ ⊥ ∠ グ͡ ⊥ (If t he hypocrit es, and t hose in whose heart s is a disease, and t hose who spread false news among t he people in Al-Madinah do not cease, We shall cert ainly let you overpower t hem, t hen t hey will not be able t o st ay in it as your neighbors but a lit t le while. Accursed, t hey shall be seized wherever found, and killed wit h a (t errible) slaught er) (33:60-61). These Ayat prove t hat t he Prophet was not informed about each and everyone among t he hypocrit es of his t ime. Rat her, t he Prophet was only informed about t heir charact erist ics, and he used t o assume t hat some people possessed t hese charact erist ics. Similarly, Allah said, ∇ユヰ⇒∠ Β͡ よ ユ⊥ わ∇プゲバヤプ ∇ユヰム⇒∠ ∇ΑケΕ ¬べ∠ ル ∇ヲャヱぴ ⊥ ヨ ジ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゼ∠ ∠∠ びメ∇ヲボ∇ャや リ∇エャ ヴ͡ ∇ユヰレプゲ∇バわャヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ プ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ (Had We willed, We could have shown t hem t o you, and you should have known t hem by t heir marks; but surely, you will know t hem by t he t one of t heir speech!) (47:30). The most not orious hypocrit e at t hat t ime was ` Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul; Zayd bin Arqam t he Companion - gave t rut hful t est imony t o t hat effect . In addit ion, ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab once ment ioned t he mat t er of Ibn Salul t o t he Prophet , who said, モわ∇ボΑ や⇔ ヨエョ ラぺ ゆゲバ∇ャや ゐギエわゎ ∇ラぺ ロゲ∇ミぺ ヶあ ま» ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ギz ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ «ヮ∠ ゅ∠ ∇タぺ よエ ∠ (I would not like t he Arabs t o say t o each ot her t hat Muhammad is killing his Companions.) Yet , when Ibn Salul died, t he Prophet performed t he funeral prayer for him and at t ended his funeral j ust as he used t o do wit h ot her Muslims. It was recorded in t he Sahih t hat t he Prophet said, «れ∇ゲわ∇カゅ∠ れ∇ゲあ カ ヶあ ま» ∠ プ ⊥ Β⊥ ル͡ (I was given t he choice (t o pray for him or not ), so I chose.) In anot her narrat ion, t he Prophet said, ヮャ ゲヘ∇ピΑ リΒ͡ ∇らジャや ヴ∠ハ れ∇キコ ∇ヲャ ヶあ ぺ ユヤ∇ハぺ ∇ヲャ» ⊥∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ バ z ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ル∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ «れ∇キゴャ ͡∠ (If I knew t hat by asking (Allah t o forgive Ibn Salul) more t han sevent y t imes t hat He would forgive him, t hen I would do t hat .) ゅ∠ ルま ∇やヲャゅ∠ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ι ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ヨz ͡ ⊥ ホ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ラヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘヨ∇ャや ユワ ∇ユヰルま Ι∠ - ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ダョ リ∇エル ム ャ∠ ∠ ギ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ z ͡ ぺ ∠ エ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ Ι ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ z (11. And when it is said t o t hem: "Do not make mischief on t he eart h,'' t hey say: "We are only peacemakers.'') (12. Verily, t hey are t he ones who make mischief, but t hey perceive not .) Meaning of Mischief In his Tafsir, As-Suddi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas and Ibn Mas` ud comment ed, ゅ∠ ルま ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ι ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ヨz ͡ ャ ホ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ダョ リ∇エル ∠ エ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (And when it is said t o t hem: "Do not make mischief on t he eart h,'' t hey say: "We are only peacemakers.'') "They are t he hypocrit es. As for, びチ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ιぴ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ("Do not make mischief on t he eart h''), t hat is disbelief and act s of disobedience.'' Abu Ja` far said t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat Allah's st at ement , びチ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ι ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク ͡ ∠ (And when it is said t o t hem: "Do not make mischief on t he eart h,''), means, "Do not commit act s of disobedience on t he eart h. Their mischief is disobeying Allah, because whoever disobeys Allah on t he eart h, or commands t hat Allah be disobeyed, he has commit t ed mischief on t he eart h. Peace on bot h t he eart h and in t he heavens is ensured (and earned) t hrough obedience (t o Allah).'' Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qat adah said similarly. Types of Mischief that the Hypocrites commit Ibn Jarir said, "The hypocrit es commit mischief on eart h by disobeying t heir Lord on it and cont inuing in t he prohibit ed act s. They also abandon what Allah made obligat ory and doubt His religion, even t hough He does not accept a deed from anyone except wit h fait h in His religion and cert aint y of it s t rut h. The hypocrit es also lie t o t he believers by saying cont rary t o t he doubt and hesit at ion t heir heart s harbor. They give as much aid as t hey can, against Allah's loyal friends, and support t hose who deny Allah, His Books and His Messengers. This is how t he hypocrit es commit mischief on eart h, while t hinking t hat t hey are doing right eous work on eart h.'' The st at ement by Ibn Jarir is t rue, t aking t he disbelievers as friends is one of t he cat egories of mischief on t he eart h. Allah said, ロヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ Ιま ヂ∇バよ ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑグzや∠ ぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∃ ∠ ⊥ Β͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ヱ び ∀ Β͡ ミ ∀ ゅ∠ ∠ ∠ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ るレ∇わプ ∇リムゎ ゲ ら∠ キ ジプヱ ͡ x プ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ (And t hose who disbelieve are allies of one anot her, if you do not do t his (help each ot her), t here will be t urmoil and oppression on t he eart h, and great mischief.) (8:73), In t his way Allah severed t he loyalt y bet ween t he believers and t he disbelievers. Similarly, Allah said, ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∇やヱ⊥ ͡ わ∠ Ι ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ム グガz ゎ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮヤャ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇イゎ ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ ゎぺ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ z ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ キ ョ び ゅレΒ͡ ョ ゅルゅ∠ ∇ヤシ ⇔ らぁ ⇔ ト ⊥ (O you who believe! Do not t ake disbelievers as Awliya' (prot ect ors or helpers or friends) inst ead of believers. Do you wish t o offer Allah a manifest proof against yourselves) (4: 144). Allah t hen said, リ∠ヱ ケゅz ャや リョ モヘ∇シΙや ポ∇ケギャや ヴ͡ リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ラまぴ ャ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ x ͡ z プ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ z ͡ び やゲΒ͡ ル ∇ユヰャ ギイゎ ⇔ ダ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ (Verily, t he hyprocrit es will be in t he lowest dept h of t he Fire; no helper will you find for t hem) (4:145). Since t he out ward appearance of t he hypocrit e displays belief, he confuses t he t rue believers. Hence, t he deceit ful behavior of t he hypocrit es is an act of mischief, because t hey deceive t he believers by claiming what t hey do not believe in, and because t hey give support and loyalt y t o t he disbelievers against t he believers. If t he hypocrit e remains a disbeliever (rat her t han pret ending t o be Muslim), t he evil t hat result s from him would be less. Even bet t er, if t he hypocrit e becomes sincere wit h Allah and makes t he st at ement s t hat he ut t ers conform t o his deeds, he will gain success. Allah said, ゅ∠ ルま ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ι ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ヨz ͡ ャ ホ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ダョ リ∇エル ∠ エ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (And when it is said t o t hem: "Do not make mischief on t he eart h,'' t hey say: "We are only peacemakers.'') meaning, "We seek t o be friends wit h bot h part ies, t he believers and t he disbelievers, and t o have peace wit h bot h part ies.'' Similarly, Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, ゅ∠ ルま ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ι ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ヨz ͡ ャ ホ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ダョ リ∇エル ∠ エ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (And when it is said t o t hem: "Do not make mischief on t he eart h,'' t hey say: "We are only peacemakers.'') means, "We seek t o make amends bet ween t he believers and t he People of t he Book. '' Allah said, び ラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ Ι リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ラヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘヨ∇ャや ユワ ∇ユヰルま Ι∠ぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ z ム ャ∠ ∠ ギ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ z͡ ぺ (Verily, t hey are t he ones who make mischief, but t hey perceive not .). This Ayah means t hat t he hypocrit es' behavior, and t heir claim t hat it is for peace, is it self mischief, alt hough in t heir ignorance, t hey do not see it t o be mischief. ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ サゅz ャや リョや∠ べ∠ ミ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ャ ホ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヨ∠ レ͡ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや ユワ ∇ユヰルま Ιぺ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや リョへ べ∠ ミ リョ∇ぽルぺ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ラ ヨヤ Α z ム ャ ∠ (13. And when it is said t o t hem: Believe as t he people believe,'' They say: "Shall we believe as t he fools have believed'' Verily, t hey are t he fools, but t hey do not know.) Allah said t hat if t he hypocrit es are t old, びサゅz ャや リョや∠ べ∠ ミ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ぴ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヨ∠ レ͡ ¬ ("Believe as t he people believe,''), meaning, ` Believe j ust as t he believers believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, Resurrect ion aft er deat h, Paradise and Hellfire, et c. And obey Allah and His Messenger by heeding t he commandment s and avoiding t he prohibit ions.' Yet t he hypocrit es answer by saying, び¬べ∠ ヘジャや リョへ べ∠ ミ リョ∇ぽルぺ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ャ ホ ("Shall we believe as t he fools have believed'') t hey meant (may Allah curse t he hypocrit es) t he Companions of t he Messenger of Allah . This is t he same Tafsir given by Abu Al-` Aliyah and AsSuddi in his Tafsir, wit h a chain of narrat ion t o Ibn ` Abbas, Ibn Mas` ud and ot her Companions. This is also t he Tafsir of Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. The hypocrit es said, "Us and t hem having t he same st at us, following t he same pat h, while t hey are fools!'' ` The fool' is t he ignorant , simple-minded person who has lit t le knowledge in areas of benefit and harm. This is why, according t o t he maj orit y of t he scholars, Allah used t he t erm foolish t o include children, when He said, ∇ユムャ ヮzャや モバィ ヴ͡ ャや ユムャヲ∇ョぺ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ぽゎ Ιヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ わz ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ぁ ゎ ⊥ ∠∠ びゅヨ⇒∠ ホ ⇔ Β͡ (And do not give your propert y, which Allah has made a means of support for you, t o t he foolish) (4:5). Allah answered t he hypocrit es in all of t hese inst ances. For inst ance, Allah said here, び¬べ∠ ヘジャや ユワ ∇ユヰルま Ιぺぴ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ z͡ ∠ ∠ (Verily, t hey are t he fools). Allah t hus affirmed t hat t he hypocrit es are indeed t he fools, yet , び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リ͡ ⇒∠ヱぴ ラ ヨヤ Α z ム ャ ∠ (But t hey know not ). Since t hey are so t horoughly ignorant , t he hypocrit es are unaware of t heir degree of deviat ion and ignorance, and such sit uat ion is more dangerous, a severer case of blindness, and furt her from t he t rut h t han one who is aware. ∇や∇ヲヤカ や∠ まヱ ゅz ョや∠ やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ャ や∠ まヱぴ ∠∠ ク͡∠ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ボ∠ ク͡∠ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま ∇ユムバョ ゅz ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇ユヰレΒ͡ ⇒∠ セ ヴャま ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ルま ャ ホ ͡ ͡ ト Β∠ ∠͡ ヶ͡ ∇ユワぁ ヨΑヱ ∇ユヰよ ¬ン͡ ∇ヰわ∇ジΑ ヮzャや - ラヱ⊥ ゴ∇ヰわ∇ジョ プ ⊥ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ゴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ¬͡ ∠ ⊥ び ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇ピデ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β ⊥ (14. And when t hey meet t hose who believe, t hey say: "We believe,'' but when t hey are alone wit h t heir Shayat in (devils), t hey say: "Truly, we are wit h you; verily, we were but mocking.'') (15. Allah mocks at t hem and leaves t hem increasing in t heir deviat ion t o wander blindly.) The Hypocrites' Cunning and Deceit Allah said t hat when t he hypocrit es meet t he believers, t hey proclaim t heir fait h and pret end t o be believers, loyalist s and friends. They do t his t o misdirect , mislead and deceive t he believers. The hypocrit es also want t o have a share of t he benefit s and gains t hat t he believers might possibly acquire. Yet , び∇ユヰレΒ͡ ⇒∠ セ ヴ∠ま ∇や∇ヲヤカ や∠ まヱぴ ͡ ͡ ト Β∠ ャ͡ ∠∠ ク͡∠ (But when t hey are alone wit h t heir Shayat in), meaning, if t hey are alone wit h t heir devils, such as t heir leaders and mast ers among t he rabbis of t he Jews, hypocrit es and idolat ors. Human and Jinn Devils Ibn Jarir said, "The devils of every creat ion are t he mischievous among t hem. There are bot h human devils and Jinn devils. Allah said, ザ∇ルΗや リΒ͡ ⇒∠ セ やヱギハ ヴらル あ ムャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ト Β∠ ⇔∂ ⊥ ∠ y ͡ ͡ モ⊥ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ メ∇ヲボ∇ャや フゲ∇カコ ヂ∇バよ ヴ∠ま ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ リイ∇ャや∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ェ Α あ ͡ ヱ びやケヱ⊥ ビ ⇔ ゲ⊥ (And so We have appoint ed for every Prophet enemies Shayat in (devils) among mankind and Jinn, inspiring one anot her wit h adorned speech as a delusion (or by way of decept ion)) (6:112). The Meaning of ` Mocking Allah said, び∇ユムバョ ゅz ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ルま ャ ホ (They say: "Truly, we are wit h you''). Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Ayah means, "We are wit h you, びラヱ⊥ ゴ∇ヰわ∇ジョ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルまぴ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ (Verily, we were but mocking), meaning, we only mock people (t he believers) and deceive t hem.'' Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Ayah, びラヱ⊥ ゴ∇ヰわ∇ジョ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルまぴ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ (Verily, we were but mocking), means, "We (meaning t he hypocrit es) were mocking t he Companions of Muhammad.'' Also, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qat adah said similarly. Allah's st at ement , ∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇ピデ ヶ͡ ∇ユワぁ ヨΑヱ ∇ユヰよ ¬ン͡ ∇ヰわ∇ジΑ ヮzャやぴ ͡͡Β ⊥ プ ⊥ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ゴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ び ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ (Allah mocks at t hem and leaves t hem increasing in t heir deviat ion t o wander blindly) answers t he hypocrit es and punishes t hem for t heir behavior. Ibn Jarir comment ed, "Allah ment ioned what He will do t o t hem on t he Day of Resurrect ion, when He said, ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ろ⇒∠ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ラヲ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや メヲ⊥ Α ュ∇ヲΑぴ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz͡ ⊥ ボ͡ レ⊥ ヱ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∇ユミ¬へ∠ ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ィ∇ケや モΒ͡ ∇ユミケヲぁ リ͡ ∇ザらわ∇ボル ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ヌルや ⊥ ∠ ケ∠ バ͡ ∠ ホ ⊥ ͡ ル ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ ル ゲ⊥ ∀ ゅ∠ ヮz ケヲ⊥ よ ユ⊥ レ∇Βよ ゆゲツプ やケヲ⊥ ∇やヲジヨわ∇ャゅ∠ ゆ よ ⊥ ャ ∃ ジ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ ル ⊥ ͡ ∠ プ び ゆや∠ ∠ ∇ャや ヮヤらホ リ͡ ロゲヰ⇒∠ ヱ るヨ∇ェz ャや ヮΒ͡ ヮレデゅ∠ ⊥ グバ ͡ ͡∠ ͡ ョ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ニ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲ ͡ プ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ よ (On t he Day when t he hypocrit es men and women will say t o t he believers: "Wait for us! Let us get somet hing from your light !'' It will be said: "Go back t o your rear! Then seek a light !'' So a wall will be put up bet ween t hem, wit h a gat e t herein. Inside it will be mercy, and out side it will be t orment .) (57:13), and, ∀ ∇Β∠ ∇ユヰャ ヴ͡∇ヨル ゅ∠ ルぺ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや リらジ∇エΑ Ιヱぴ ゲ カ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びゅヨ∇をま ∇やヱ⊥ や∠ ∇ゴΒャ ∇ユヰャ ヴ͡∇ヨル ゅ∠ ルま ∇ユヰジヘル6 ⇔ ∠ ͡ キ キ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ⊥ ヨz ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ Ι (And let not t he disbelievers t hink t hat Our post poning of t heir punishment is good for t hem. We post pone t he punishment only so t hat t hey may increase in sinfulness.) (3:178).'' He t hen said, "This, and it s like, is Allah's mockery of t he hypocrit es and t he people of Shirk.'' The Hypocrites suffering for their Plots Allah st at ed t hat He will punish t he hypocrit es for t heir mockery, using t he same t erms t o describe bot h t he deed and it s punishment , alt hough t he meaning is different . Similarly, Allah said, ウヤ∇タぺヱ ゅ∠ ハ ∇リヨプ ゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ るゃΒシ るゃΒシ ¬へ∠ ィヱぴ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヘ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ⊥ あ ∀ ∠ あ ∠ ∃ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ びヮヤャや ヴ∠ハ ロゲ∇ィほプ ͡ z ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (The recompense for an offense is an offense equal t o it ; but whoever forgives and makes reconciliat ion, his reward is wit h Allah) (42:40), and, びヮ∇Βヤハ ∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ハゅ∠ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ン∠ わ∇ハや リヨプぴ ͡ ∠∠ ギ∠ プ ⊥ ∠∠ ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (Then whoever t ransgresses (t he prohibit ion) against you, t ransgress likewise against him) (2:194). The first act is an act of inj ust ice, while t he second act is an act of j ust ice. So bot h act ions carry t he same name, while being different in realit y. This is how t he scholars explain deceit , cunning and mocking when at t ribut ed t o Allah in t he Qur'an. Surely, Allah exact s revenge for cert ain evil act s wit h a punishment t hat is similar in nat ure t o t he act it self. We should affirm here t hat Allah does not do t hese t hings out of j oyful play, according t o t he consensus of t he scholars, but as a j ust form of punishment for cert ain evil act s. Meaning of ` Leaves them increasing in their deviation to wander blindly Allah said, びラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇ピデ ヶ͡ ∇ユワぁ ヨΑヱぴ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β ⊥ プ ⊥ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Allah mocks at t hem and leaves t hem increasing in t heir deviat ion t o wander blindly). As-Suddi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas, Ibn Mas` ud and several ot her Companions of t he Messenger of Allah said t hat , び∇ユワギヨΑヱぴ ⊥ ぁ ⊥ ∠∠ (and leaves t hem increasing) means, He gives t hem respit e. Also, Muj ahid said, "He (causes t heir deviat ion) t o increase.'' Allah said; - リΒ͡ よヱ メゅz リ͡ ヮよ ∇ユワぁ ヨル ゅ∠ ルぺ ラヲ⊥ ジ∇エΑぺぴ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∃ ョ ョ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ギ͡ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ∠ ら∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ Ι モ∠ れゲ∇Βガ∇ャや ヴ͡ ∇ユヰャ ネケゅ∠ ル ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ z よ ͡ ∠ ∠ プ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ジ⊥ (Do t hey t hink t hat by t he wealt h and t he children wit h which We augment t hem. (That ) We hast en t o give t hem wit h good t hings. Nay, but t hey perceive not .) (23:55-56). Ibn Jarir comment ed, "The correct meaning of t his Ayah is ` We give t hem increase from t he view of giving t hem respit e and leaving t hem in t heir deviat ion and rebellion.' Similarly, Allah said, ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ∇ユャ ゅ∠ ミ ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺヱ ∇ユヰゎギゃ∇プぺ ょあボルヱぴ ͡ ͡ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ ダ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∇ユヰルゅ∠ ∇ピデ ヴ͡ ∇ユワケグルヱ りゲョ メヱぺ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β ⊥ プ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ z ∠ ∠ z ∠ (And We shall t urn t heir heart s and t heir eyes away (from guidance), as t hey refused t o believe in it t he first t ime, and We shall leave t hem in t heir t respass t o wander blindly). '' (6:110). Tughyan used in t his Ayah means t o t ransgress t he limit s, j ust as Allah said in anot her Ayah, び るΑケゅ∠ ∇ャや ヴ͡ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤヨェ ¬べ∠ ∇ャや ゅ∠ デ ゅz ∠ ゅz ͡ぴ ͡ ∠ ͡ イ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ ピ∠ ヨャ ルま (Verily, when t he wat er Tagha (rose) beyond it s limit s, We carried you in t he ship) (69:11). Also, Ibn Jarir said t hat t he t erm ` Amah, in t he Ayah means, ` deviat ion'. He also said about Allah's st at ement , びラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇ピデ ヶ͡ ぴ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β ⊥ プ (in t heir deviat ion t o wander), "In t he misguidance and disbelief t hat has encompassed t hem, causing t hem t o be confused and unable t o find a way out of it . This is because Allah has st amped t heir heart s, sealed t hem, and blinded t heir vision. Therefore, t hey do not recognize guidance or find t he way out of t heir deviat ion.'' ゅ∠ プ ン∠ ヰ∇ャゅ͡ るヤ⇒∠ツャや ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ヨ∠ ギ⊥ よ ∠ ∠ ヤz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ び リΑ͡ わ∇ヰョ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰゎゲ⇒∠ ゎ ろ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ミ ョ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ イあ エよケ (16. These are t hey who have purchased error wit h guidance, so t heir commerce was profit less. And t hey were not guided.) In his Tafsir, As-Suddi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas and Ibn Mas` ud comment ed on; びン∠ ヰ∇ャゅ͡ るヤ⇒∠ツャや ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ギ⊥ よ ∠ ∠ ヤz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (These are t hey who have purchased error wit h guidance) saying it means, "They pursued misguidance and abandoned guidance. '' Muj ahid said, "They believed and t hen disbelieved,'' while Qat adah said, "They preferred deviat ion t o guidance.'' Qat adah's st at ement is similar in meaning t o Allah's st at ement about Thamud, ヴ∠ハ ヴ∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヲぁ エわ∇シゅ∠ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Αギヰプ キヲ⊥ を ゅz ぺヱぴ ヤ∠ ヨ∠ ら∠ ∠ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ョ∠∠ びン∠ ヰ∇ャや ギ⊥ (And as for Thamud, We grant ed t hem guidance, but t hey preferred blindness t o guidance) (41:17). In summary, t he st at ement s t hat we have ment ioned from t he scholars of Tafsir indicat e t hat t he hypocrit es deviat e from t he t rue guidance and prefer misguidance, subst it ut ing wickedness in place of right eousness. This meaning explains Allah's st at ement , びン∠ ヰ∇ャゅ͡ るヤ⇒∠ツャや ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ギ⊥ よ ∠ ∠ ヤz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (These are t hey who have purchased error wit h guidance), meaning, t hey exchanged guidance t o buy misguidance. This meaning includes t hose who first believed, t hen lat er disbelieved, whom Allah described, び∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ノらトプ やヱ⊥ ヘミ z を やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰルほよ マャクぴ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ∂ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ z ∠͡ ∠ ͡∠ (That is because t hey believed, and t hen disbelieved; t herefore t heir heart s are sealed) (63:3). The Ayah also includes t hose who preferred deviat ion over guidance. The hypocrit es fall int o several cat egories. This is why Allah said, びリΑ͡ わ∇ヰョ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰゎゲ⇒∠ ゎ ろ∠ ͡ ∠ ゅ∠ プぴ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ミ ョ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ イあ エよケ ヨ∠ (So t heir commerce was profit less. And t hey were not guided), meaning t heir t rade did not succeed nor were t hey right eous or right ly guided t hroughout all t his. In addit ion, Ibn Jarir narrat ed t hat Qat adah comment ed on t he Ayah, びリΑ͡ わ∇ヰョ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰゎゲ⇒∠ ゎ ろ∠ ͡ ∠ ゅ∠ プぴ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ミ ョ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ イあ エよケ ヨ∠ (So t heir commerce was profit less. And t hey were not guided), "By Allah! I have seen t hem leaving guidance for deviat ion, leaving t he Jama` ah (t he communit y of t he believers) for t he sect s, leaving safet y for fear, and t he Sunnah for innovat ion.'' Ibn Abi Hat im also report ed ot her similar st at ement s. ゅ∠ ∇れ¬ゅ∠ ぺ べz ヤプ やケゅ∠ ギホ∇ヲわ∇シや ン͡ ャや モんヨミ ∇ユヰヤんョぴ ョ ∠ ッ∠ ヨ∠∠ ⇔ ル ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ Ι ろ⇒∠ ヤニ ヶ͡ ∇ユヰミゲゎヱ ∇ユワケヲ⊥ よ ヮヤャや ょワク ヮャ∇ヲェ z ∃ ヨ⊥⊥ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ レ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲΑ Ι ∇ユヰプ ∀ ∇ヨハ ∀ ∇ムよ ユタ - ∠ ヱ⊥ ͡ ∇らΑ ∠ バ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヴ ⊥ ユ ⊥ x ⊥ ラ ゲダ ⊥ (17. Their likeness is as t he likeness of one who kindled a fire; t hen, when it illuminat ed all around him, Allah removed t heir light and left t hem in darkness. (So) t hey could not see). (18. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so t hey ret urn not (t o t he right pat h).) The Example of the Hypocrites Allah likened t he hypocrit es when t hey bought deviat ion wit h guidance, t hus acquiring ut t er blindness, t o t he example of a person who st art ed a fire. When t he fire was lit , and illumnit at ed t he surrounding area, t he person benefit ed from it and felt safe. Then t he fire was suddenly ext inguished. Therefore, t ot al darkness covered t his person, and he became unable t o see anyt hing or find his way out of it . Furt her, t his person could not hear or speak and became so blind t hat even if t here were light , he would not be able t o see. This is why he cannot ret urn t o t he st at e t hat he was in before t his happened t o him. Such is t he case wit h t he hypocrit es who preferred misguidance over guidance, deviat ion over right eousness. This parable indicat es t hat t he hypocrit es first believed, t hen disbelieved, j ust as Allah st at ed in ot her part s of t he Qur'an. Allah's st at ement , び∇ユワケヲ⊥ よ ヮzャや ょワクぴ ͡ ͡ レ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Allah removed t heir light ) means, Allah removed what benefit s t hem, and t his is t he light , and He left t hem wit h what harms t hem, t hat is, t he darkness and smoke. Allah said, びろ⇒∠ ヤニ ヶ͡ ∇ユヰミゲゎヱぴ ∃ ヨ⊥⊥ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And left t hem in darkness), t hat is t heir doubt s, disbelief and hypocrisy. びラヱ⊥ ダ∇らΑ Ιぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ⊥ z ((So) t hey could not see) meaning, t hey are unable t o find t he correct pat h or find it s direct ion. In addit ion, t hey are, びユタぴ x⊥ (deaf) and t hus cannot hear t he guidance, び∇ユムよぴ ⊥͡ (dumb) and cannot ut t er t he words t hat might benefit t hem, びヴ⇔ ハぴ ヨ∠ (and blind) in t ot al darkness and deviat ion. Similarly, Allah said, ゆヲ⊥ボ∇ャや ヴ∠ ∇バゎ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ゲ⇒∠ ∇よΙや ヴ∠ ∇バゎ Ι ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ぴ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ヨ ∠ ム ャ ∠ ⊥ ダ x ヨ ∠ ∠ ヰz みプ びケヱ⊥ ダャや ヴ͡ ヴ͡ ャや ͡ ギぁ プ わz (Verily, it is not t he eyes t hat grow blind, but it is t he heart s which are in t he breast s t hat grow blind) (22:46) and t his why t hey cannot get back t o t he st at e of guidance t hat t hey were in, since t hey sold it for misguidance. ベ∇ゲよヱ ギ∇ハケヱ ∀ ⇒∠ ヤニ ヮΒ͡ ¬べ∠ ジャや リョ ょΒダミ ∇ヱぺぴ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ろ ヨ⊥⊥ ͡ プ ͡ ヨz ∠ あ ∃ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ペハヲダャや リョ ユ͡ ルや∠ や∠ ヴ͡ ∇ユヰバら⇒∇タぺ ラヲ⊥バ∇イΑ ͡ ͡ ∠z ∠ あ ヰ͡ ク ¬ プ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ベ∇ゲら∇ャや キゅ∠ Α - リΑ͡ ヘ⇒ム∇ャゅ͡ ∀ Β͡ ョ ヮヤャや∠ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ケグェ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ ゲ͡ よ テ エ⊥ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ へ∠ まヱ ヮΒ͡ ∇や∇ヲゼョ ユ⊥ ャ ¬べ∠ ぺ べ∠ ヤミ ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺ ブト∇ガΑ ク͡∠ ͡ プ ∠ z ヰ∠ ∠ ッ∠ ヨz⊥ ⊥ ∠ ダ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∇ユヰバ∇ヨジよ ょワグャ ヮzャや ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ユヤ∇ニぺ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ セ ∠∠ ョ ホ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラま ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺヱ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ͡ ダ ∠∠ (19. Or like a rainst orm in t he sky, bringing darkness, t hunder, and light ning. They t hrust t heir fingers in t heir ears t o keep out t he st unning t hunderclap for fear of deat h. But Allah ever encompasses t he disbelievers.) (20. The light ning almost snat ches away t heir sight , whenever it flashes for t hem, t hey walk t herein, and when darkness covers t hem, t hey st and st ill. And if Allah willed, He could have t aken away t heir hearing and t heir sight . Cert ainly, Allah has power over all t hings.) Another Parable of the Hypocrites This is anot her parable which Allah gave about t he hypocrit es who somet imes know t he t rut h and doubt it at ot her t imes. When t hey suffer from doubt , confusion and disbelief, t heir heart s are, びょΒダミぴ ∃ あ∠ ∠ (Like a Sayyib), meaning, "The rain", as Ibn Mas` ud, Ibn ` Abbas, and several ot her Companions have confirmed as well as Abu Al-` Aliyah, Muj ahid, Sa` id bin Jubayr, ` At a', Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qat adah, ` At iyah Al-` Awfi, ` At a' Al-Khurasani, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Ad-Dahhak said "It is t he clouds." However, t he most accept ed opinion is t hat it means t he rain t hat comes down during, びろ⇒∠ ヤニぴ ͡ ヨ⊥⊥ (darkness), meaning, here, t he doubt s, disbelief and hypocrisy. びギ∇ハケヱぴ ∀ ∠∠ (t hunder) t hat shocks t he heart s wit h fear. The hypocrit es are usually full of fear and anxiet y, j ust as Allah described t hem, び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ るエ∇Βタ z ミ ラヲ⊥ ジ∇エΑぴ ͡ ∠∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ モ⊥ ∠ ら∠ ∠ (They t hink t hat every cry is against t hem) (63: 4), and, ∇ユヰレム⇒∠ヱ ∇ユムレあ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユムレ͡ ャ ∇ユヰルま ヮヤャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇エΑヱぴ ⊥ z ͡ ャ∠ ⊥ ョ ワ ョ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ͡ z よ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ ∠ ∇ヱぺ れや∠ ⇒∠ ョ ∇ヱぺ ゅゃ∠ ∇ヤョ ラヱ⊥ イΑ ∇ヲャ - ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ヘΑ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ∠ ∃ ゲ ピ∠ ∠ ⇔ イ ∠ ∠ ギ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ∠ ∠ ュ ホ び ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇イΑ ∇ユワヱ ヮ∇Βャま ∇や∇ヲャヲャ Κカギョ ∠ エ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ z∠ z ⇔ ∠ z ⊥ (They swear by Allah t hat t hey are t ruly of you while t hey are not of you, but t hey are a people who are afraid. Should t hey find refuge, or caves, or a place of concealment , t hey would t urn st raight way t heret o in a swift rush) (9:56-57). びベ∇ゲら∇ャやぴ ∠ ∠ (The light ning), is in reference t o t he light of fait h t hat is somet imes felt in t he heart s of t he hypocrit es, ペハヲダャや リョ ユ͡ ルや∠ や∠ ヴ͡ ∇ユヰバら⇒∇タぺ ラヲ⊥バ∇イΑぴ ͡ ͡ ∠z ∠ あ ヰ ͡ ク ¬ プ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒ム∇ャゅ͡ ∀ Β͡ ョ ヮヤャや∠ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ケグェ ∠ ゲ͡ よ テ エ⊥ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (They t hrust t heir fingers in t heir ears t o keep out t he st unning t hunderclap for fear of deat h. But Allah ever encompasses t he disbelievers), meaning, t heir caut iousness does not benefit t hem because t hey are bound by Allah's all-encompassing will and decision. Similarly, Allah said, モよ - キヲ⊥ をヱ ラ∇ヲハ∇ゲプ - キヲ⊥ イ∇ャや ゑΑ͡ ェ ポゅ∠ ぺ モワぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ レ⊥ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∇ユヰもへ∠ ヱ リ͡ ヮヤャや∠ - ∃ Α͡ ∇ム∠ ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ͡ ͡ ケ∠ ョ ⊥ z ヱ ょ グ ゎ プ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz び ∀ Β͡ ョ テ エぁ (Has t he st ory reached you of t wo host s. Of Fir` awn (Pharaoh) and Thamud Nay! The disbelievers (persist ed) in denying. And Allah encompasses t hem from behind!) (85:17-20). Allah t hen said, び∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺ ブト∇ガΑ ベ∇ゲら∇ャや キゅ∠ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ ダ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ム∠ F(The light ning almost snat ches away t heir sight ) meaning, because t he light ning is st rong it self, and because t heir comprehension is weak and does not allow t hem t o embrace t he fait h. Also, ` Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t he Ayah, び∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺ ブト∇ガΑ ベ∇ゲら∇ャや キゅ∠ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ ダ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ム∠ (The light ning almost snat ches away t heir sight ), "The Qur'an ment ioned almost all of t he secret s of t he hypocrit es.'' ` Ali bin Abi Talhah also narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, びヮΒ͡ ∇や∇ヲゼョ ユ⊥ ャ ¬べ∠ ぺ べ∠ ヤミぴ ͡ プ ∠ z ヰ∠ ∠ ッ∠ ヨz⊥ (Whenever it flashes for t hem, t hey walk t herein), "Whenever t he hypocrit es acquire a share in t he vict ories of Islam, t hey are cont ent wit h t his share. Whenever Islam suffers a calamit y, t hey are ready t o revert t o disbelief.''. Similarly, Allah said, ∇ラみプ フ∇ゲェ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ギら∇バΑ リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ͡∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ びヮよ ラほヨ∇デや ∀ ∇Β∠ ヮよゅ∠ ぺ ͡ ͡ z ∠∠ ゲ カ ⊥ ∠ タ∠ (And among mankind is he who worships Allah on t he edge: If good befalls him, he is cont ent wit h t hat .) (22:11). Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ユヤ∇ニぺ へ∠ ͡∠ ヮΒ͡ ∇や∇ヲゼョ ユ⊥ ャ ¬べ∠ ぺ べ∠ ヤミぴ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ クまヱ ͡ プ ∠ z ヰ∠ ∠ ッ∠ ヨz⊥ び∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ョホ (Whenever it flashes for t hem, t hey walk t herein, and when darkness covers t hem, t hey st and st ill), "They recognize t he t rut h and speak about it . So t heir speech is upright , but when t hey revert t o disbeleif, t hey again fall int o confusion.'' This was also said by Abu Al-` Aliyah, AlHasan Al-Basri, Qat adah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and As-Suddi, who narrat ed it from t he Companions, and it is t he most obvious and most correct view, and Allah knows best . Consequent ly, on t he Day of Judgment , t he believers will be given a light according t o t he degree of t heir fait h. Some of t hem will gain light t hat illuminat es over a dist ance of several miles, some more, some less. Some people's light will glow somet imes and be ext inguished at ot her t imes. They will, t herefore, walk on t he Sirat (t he bridge over t he Fire) in t he light , st opping when it is ext inguished. Some people will have no light at all, t hese are t he hypocrit es whom Allah described when He said, ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ろ⇒∠ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ラヲ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや メヲ⊥ Α ュ∇ヲΑぴ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz͡ ⊥ ボ͡ レ⊥ ヱ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∇ユミ¬へ∠ ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ィ∇ケや モΒ͡ ∇ユミケヲぁ リ͡ ∇ザらわ∇ボル ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ヌルや ⊥ ∠ ケ∠ バ͡ ∠ ホ ⊥ ͡ ル ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ ル ゲ⊥ びやケヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨわ∇ャゅ∠ ⇔ ル ジ͡ ∠ プ (On t he Day when t he hypocrit es men and women will say t o t he believers: "Wait for us! Let us get somet hing from your light !'' It will be said t o t hem; "Go back t o you rear! Then seek a light !'') (57:13). Allah described t he believers, ユ⊥ ケヲ⊥ ヴ∠ ∇ジΑ ろ⇒∠ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや∠ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ン∠ ゎ ュ∇ヲΑぴ ワ⊥ ル バ ∠ ͡ レ͡ ⊥ ヱ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ ン͡ ∇イゎ ∀ ⇒z ∠ ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや ユミや∠ ∇ゼよ ユ͡ レ⇒∠ ∇Αほよヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ リ∇Βよ ゲ ∠ ろ レィ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ ⊥ ヰ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ びゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΙや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇エ∠ リ͡ ⊥ ヰ x ヰわ ゎ ョ (On t he Day you shall see t he believing men and t he believing women t heir light running forward before t hem and by t heir right hands. Glad t idings for you t his Day! Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise)) (57:12), and, ヮバョ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヴらレャや ヮzャや ン͡ ∇ガΑ Ι ュ∇ヲΑぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ z ͡ z ⊥ ヤ ゴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ べ∠ よケ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α ∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇Αほよヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ リ∇Βよ ヴ∠ ∇ジΑ ∇ユワケヲ⊥ レz ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ バ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ル ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ マルま べ∠ ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ビや∠ ゅ∠ ケヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ユヨ∇ゎぺ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z ͡ レャ ͡ ヱ ル∠ ル レャ ͡ ∠ び∀ Α͡ ∠ ゲ ギホ (The Day t hat Allah will not disgrace t he Prophet (Muhammad ) and t hose who believe wit h him. Their Light will run forward before t hem and (wit h t heir Records Books of deeds) in t heir right hands. They will say: "Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us and do not put it off t ill we cross over t he Sirat (a slippery bridge over t he Hell) safely and grant us forgiveness. Verily, You are Able t o do all t hings'') (66:8). Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud comment ed on, び∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ リ∇Βよ ヴ∠ ∇ジΑ ∇ユワケヲ⊥ ぴ ͡ ギ∠∠ ∠ バ ∠ ⊥⊥ ル (Their Light will run forward before t hem), "They will pass on t he Sirat . according t o t heir deeds. The light t hat some people have will be as big as a mount ain, while t he light of ot hers will be as big as a dat e t ree. The people who will have t he least light are t hose whose index fingers will somet imes be lit and ext inguished at ot her t imes.'' Ibn Abi Hat im also report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Every person among t he people of Tawhid (Islamic Monot heism) will gain a light on t he Day of Resurrect ion. As for t he hypocrit e, his light will be ext inguished. When t he believers wit ness t he hypocrit e's light being ext inguished, t hey will feel anxious. Hence, t hey will supplicat e, びゅ∠ ケヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ユヨ∇ゎぺ べ∠ よケぴ ル∠ ル レャ ͡ ∠ レz ∠ (Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us).'' Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim said, "On t he Day of Resurrect ion, everyone who has embraced t he fait h will be given a light . When t hey arrive at t he Sirat , t he light of t he hypocrit es will be ext inguished. When t he believers see t his, t hey will feel anxious and supplicat e, びゅ∠ ケヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ユヨ∇ゎぺ べ∠ よケぴ ル∠ ル レャ ͡ ∠ レz ∠ (Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us).'' Types of Believers and Types of Disbelievers Consequent ly, t here are several t ypes of people. There are t he believers whom t he first four Ayat (2:2-5) in Surat Al-Baqarah describe. There are t he disbelievers who were described in t he next t wo Ayat . And t here are t wo cat egories of hypocrit es: t he complet e hypocrit es who were ment ioned in t he parable of t he fire, and t he hesit ant hypocrit es, whose light of fait h is somet imes lit and somet imes ext inguished. The parable of t he rain was revealed about t his cat egory, which is not as evil as t he first cat egory. This is similar t o t he parables t hat were given in Surat An-Nur (chapt er 24). Like t he example of t he believer and t he fait h t hat Allah put in his heart , compared t o a bright ly illuminat ed lamp, j ust like a rising st ar. This is t he believer, whose heart is built on fait h and receiving it s support from t he divine legislat ion t hat was revealed t o it , wit hout any impurit ies or imperfect ions, as we will come t o know, Allah willing. Allah gave a parable of t he disbelievers who t hink t hat t hey have somet hing, while in realit y t hey have not hing; such people are t hose who have compounded ignorance. Allah said, ヮらジ∇エΑ るバΒ͡ よ ゆや∠ ジミ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ボ͡ ∃ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ びゅゃ∇Βセ ロ∇ギイΑ ∇ユャ ロ¬べ∠ や∠ ま ヴz ェ ¬べ∠ ラべ∇ヨヌャや ⇔ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ク͡ わ∠ ⇔ ョ ⊥ z (As for t hose who disbelieved, t heir deeds are like a mirage in a desert . The t hirst y one t hinks it t o be wat er, unt il he comes up t o it , he finds it t o be not hing) (24:39). Allah t hen gave t he example of ignorant disbelievers, simple in t heir ignorance. He said; ヮホ∇ヲプ リあ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ヮ⇒∠ ∇ピ∠ ヴイャ ゲ∇エよ ヴ͡ ろ⇒∠ ヤヌミ ∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ァ ョ ⊥ ゼ Α y あ ぁ ∃ ∠ プ ∃ ヨ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ ベ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ ツ∇バよ ∀ ⇒∠ ヤニ ∀ ゅ∠ ∠ ヮホ∇ヲプ リあ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ⊥ ∠ ろ ヨ⊥⊥ ゆ エシ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ァ ョ モバ∇イΑ ∇ユャ リ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ や∠ Α ∇ギムΑ ∇ユャ ロギΑ ァゲ∇カぺ へ∠ ま ヂ∇バよ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ョ∠ ワ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ ∃ ∠ び ケヲ⊥ リ͡ ヮャ ゅ∠ プ やケヲ⊥ ヮャ ヮzャや ∃ ル ョ ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ ⇔ ル ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ (Or (t he st at e of a disbeliever) is like t he darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed by waves, t opped by dark clouds, (layers of) darkness upon darkness: if a man st ret ches out his hand, he can hardly see it ! And he for whom Allah has not appoint ed light , for him t here is no light ) (24:40). Therefore, Allah divided t he camp of t he disbelievers int o t wo groups, advocat es and followers. Allah ment ioned t hese t wo groups in t he beginning of Surat Al-Haj j , ノらわΑヱ ユ∇ヤハ ゲ∇Βピよ ヮヤャや ヴ͡ メギ⇒∠ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∃ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ z プ ⊥ ͡ イ⊥ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ び ギΑ͡ ョ リ⇒∠ ∇Βセ z ミ ∃ ゲz ∃ ト ∠ モ⊥ (And among mankind is he who disput es about Allah, wit hout knowledge, and follows every rebellious (disobedient t o Allah) Shayt an (devil) (devoid of every kind of good)) (22:3), and, Ιヱ ユ∇ヤハ ゲ∇Βピよ ヮヤャや ヴ͡ メギ⇒∠ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ∠ ∠ ∃ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ z プ ⊥ ͡ イ⊥ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ び ゲΒ͡ ョ ょ⇒∠ ミ Ιヱ ン⇔ ワ ∃ レぁ ∃ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ (And among men is he who disput es about Allah, wit hout knowledge or guidance, or a Book giving light (from Allah)) (22:8). Furt hermore, Allah has divided t he group of t he believers in t he beginning of Surat Al-Waqi` ah (56) and at t he end. He also divided t hem in Surat Al-Insan (76) int o t wo groups, t he Sabiqun (t hose who preceded), t hey are t he "near ones" (Muqaribun) and Ashab Al-Yamin (t he companions of t he right ), and t hey are right eous (Abrar). In summary, t hese Ayat divide t he believers int o t wo cat egories, t he near ones and right eous. Also, t he disbelievers are of t wo t ypes, advocat es and followers. In addit ion, t he hypocrit es are divided int o t wo t ypes, pure hypocrit es and t hose who have some hypocrisy in t hem. The Two Sahihs record t hat ` Abdullah bin ` Amr said t hat t he Prophet said, ∇リョヱ ∩ゅ⇔ ャゅ∠ ゅ⇔ プゅ∠ ョ ラゅ∠ ヮΒ͡ z ミ ∇リョ ∀ ゅ∠∠ » ∠ ∠ ダ͡ カ ボ͡ レ⊥ ∠ ミ ͡ プ リ⊥ ∠ ゐ ヤを リョ るヤ∇ダカ ヮΒ͡ ∇ろルゅミ z ヰ∇レョ りギェや∠ ヮΒ͡ ∇ろルゅ∠ ∠ ͡ ∀ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ͡ ∀ ∠ ͡ ヱ ͡ プ ∠ ミ や∠ ͡∠ ∩∠ グミ ゐギェ や∠ ま ∇リョ :ゅ∠ ハギΑ ヴz ェ ベゅ∠ レャや クまヱ ゆ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ク͡ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ͡ ヘあ «ラゅ∠ リヨわ∇もや や∠ まヱ ∩∠ ヤ∇カぺ ギハヱ カ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ク ͡ ∠ ブ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Whoever has t he following t hree (charact erist ics) will be a pure hypocrit e, and whoever has one of t he following t hree charact erist ics will have one charact erist ic of hypocrisy, unless and unt il he gives it up. Whenever he speaks, he t ells a lie. Whenever he makes a covenant , he proves t reacherous. Whenever he is ent rust ed, he breaches t he t rust ) Hence, man might have bot h a part of fait h and a part of hypocrisy, whet her in deed, as t his Hadit h st ipulat es, or in t he creed, as t he Ayah (2:20) st ipulat es. Types of Hearts Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Sa` id saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said ͡ や∠ ジャや モ∇んョ ヮΒ͡ キゲ∇ィぺ ∀ ∇ヤ∠ :るバよ∇ケぺ ゆヲ⊥ボ∇ャや» ァ ゲあ ⊥ ͡ ͡ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ょ ホ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ょ∇ヤホヱ ヮプゅ∠ビ ヴヤ∠ ヅヲ⊥ ∇ゲョ ブヤ∇ビぺ ょ∇ヤホヱ ゲワ∇ゴΑ ∀ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヤ͡ ハ ∀ よ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ょ∇ヤボプ キゲ∇ィほ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボ∇ャや ゅz ほプ ∩∀ ヘ∇ダョ ょ∇ヤホヱ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∇レョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ウ∠ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ∠ サ ム ∠ ブヤ∇ビほ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボ∇ャや ゅz ぺヱ ∩⊥ ケヲ⊥ ヮΒ͡ ヮィや∠ ジプ リョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠∠ ロ⊥ ル ͡ プ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ペプゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボプ サヲ⊥ ∇レ∠ ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボ∇ャや ゅz ぺヱ ∩͡ プゅ∠ ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボプ ͡ ͡ レ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ム ヨ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠∠ ゲ͡ ム ⊥ ∠ ∠ ウヘ∇ダヨ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボ∇ャや ゅz ぺヱ ゲム∇ルぺ z を フゲハ ゾャゅ∠ ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ガ モんヨミ ヮΒ͡ ラゅ∠ Αみ∇ャや モんョヱ ∀ ゅ∠ ルヱ ラゅ∠ Αま ヮΒ͡ ょ∇ヤボプ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ͡ ヨ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ベ ヘ͡ ∠ ∀ ヨ ͡ プ ∀ ∠ ∠ モんヨミ ヮΒ͡ ベゅ∠ レャや モんョヱ ょΒトャや ¬ゅ∠ ∇ャや ゅ∠ ギヨ∠ るヤ∇ボら∇ャや ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ͡ ヘ あ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ z ⊥ ヨ ワぁ ⊥ Α ͡ ∠ ∠ ∇ろらヤビ リ∇Βゎキゅ∠ ∇ャや ヵほプ ュz ャや∠ ウ∇Βボ∇ャや ゅ∠ ギヨΑ るェ∇ゲボ∇ャや ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ z ヨ ぁ ∠∠ ⊥ ギ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ワぁ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ «ヮ∇Βヤハ ∇ろらヤビ ン∠ ∇カほ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ ⊥ ヤ∠ (The heart s are four (t ypes): polished as shiny as t he radiat ing lamp, a sealed heart wit h a knot t ied around it s seal, a heart t hat is t urned upside down and a wrapped heart . As for t he polished heart , it is t he heart of t he believer and t he lamp is t he light of fait h. The sealed heart is t he heart of t he disbeliever. The heart t hat is t urned upside down is t he heart of t he pure hypocrit e, because he had knowledge but denied it . As for t he wrapped heart , it is a heart t hat cont ains belief and hypocrisy. The example of fait h in t his heart , is t he example of t he herb t hat is sust ained by pure wat er. The example of hypocrisy in it , is t he example of an ulcer t hat t hrives on puss and blood. Whichever of t he t wo subst ances has t he upper hand, it will have t he upper hand on t hat heart ). This Hadit h has a Jayid Hasan (good) chain of narrat ion. Allah said, ヮヤャや ラま ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺヱ ∇ユヰバ∇ヨジよ ょワグャ ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱぴ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ͡ ダ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ セ ∠∠ び∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ (And if Allah willed, He would have t aken away t heir hearing and t heir sight . Cert ainly, Allah has power over all t hings). Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on Allah's st at ement , び∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺヱ ∇ユヰバ∇ヨジよ ょワグャ ヮzャや ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱぴ ͡ ͡ ダ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ セ ∠∠ (And if Allah willed, He would have t aken away t heir hearing and t heir sight ), "Because t hey abandoned t he t rut h aft er t hey had knowledge in it .'' び∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ (Cert ainly, Allah has power over all t hings). Ibn ` Abbas said, "Allah is able t o punish or pardon His servant s as He wills.'' Ibn Jarir comment ed, "Allah only described Himself wit h t he abilit y t o do everyt hing in t his Ayah as a warning t o t he hypocrit es of His cont rol over everyt hing, and t o inform t hem t hat His abilit y complet ely encompasses t hem and t hat He is able t o t ake away t heir hearing and sight .'' Ibn Jarir and several ot her scholars of Tafsir st at ed t hat t hese t wo parables are about t he same kind of hypocrit e. So t he ` or' ment ioned in, び¬べ∠ ジャや リョ ょΒダミ ∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ヨz ∠ あ ∃ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Or like a rainst orm from t he sky) means ` and', j ust as t he Ayah, びやケヲ⊥ ミ ∇ヱぺ ゅヨ͡ や∠ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇ノトゎ Ιヱぴ ⇔ ヘ∠ ∠ ⇔ を ¬ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And obey neit her a sinner or a disbeliever among t hem). Therefore, ` or' in t he Ayah includes a choice of using eit her example for t he hypocrit es. Also, Al-Qurt ubi said t hat ` or' means, "To show compat ibilit y of t he t wo choices, j ust as when one says, ` Sit wit h Al-Hasan or Ibn Sirin.' According t o t he view of Az-Zamakhshari, ` so it means each of t hese persons is t he same as t he ot her, so you may sit wit h eit her one of t hem.' The meaning of ` or' t hus becomes ` eit her.' Allah gave t hese t wo examples of t he hypocrit es, because t hey bot h perfect ly describe t hem.'' I (Ibn Kat hir) say, t hese descript ions are relat ed t o t he t ype of hypocrit e, because t here is a difference bet ween t hem as we st at ed. For inst ance, Allah ment ioned t hese t ypes in Surat Bara'ah (chapt er 9) when He repeat ed t he st at ement , "And among t hem'' t hree t imes, describing t heir t ypes, charact erist ics, st at ement s and deeds. So t he t wo examples ment ioned here describe t wo t ypes of hypocrit es whose charact erist ics are similar. For inst ance, Allah gave t wo examples in Surat An-Nur, one for t he advocat es of disbelief and one for t he followers of disbelief, He said, びるバΒ͡ よ ゆや∠ ジミ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ∃ ∠ ボ͡ ∃ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ (As for t hose who disbelieved, t heir deeds are like a mirage in a desert ) (24:39), unt il, びヴイャ ゲ∇エよ ヴ͡ ろ⇒∠ ヤヌミ ∇ヱぺぴ y あ ぁ ∃ ∠ プ ∃ ヨ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ (Or (t he st at e of a disbeliever) is like t he darkness in a vast deep sea) (24:40). The first example is of t he advocat es of disbelief who have complex ignorance, while t he second is about t he followers who have simple ignorance. Allah knows best . リΑ͡ ャや∠ ∇ユムボヤカ ∇ングャや ユムz ケ ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇ハや サゅz ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ∠ グz ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ z ⊥ ⊥ よ∠ ギ⊥ ⊥ レ ヰぁ ∠ Α チ∇ケΙや ユムャ モバィ ン͡ ャや - ラヲ⊥ わゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ∇ユムヤ∇らホ リ͡ ∠ x ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ボz ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ョ ¬べ∠ ¬べ∠ ジャや リョ メゴル∠ヱ ¬べ∠ よ ¬べ∠ ジャや∠ ゅセや∠ プ ⇔ ョ ͡ ヨz ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぺ∠ ⇔ レ͡ ∠ ヨz ヱ ⇔ ゲ͡ ヮヤャ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇イゎ Κプ ∇ユムャ ゅホ∇コケ れゲヨんャや リョ ヮよ ァゲ∇カほプ ͡ z ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ⇔ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ やキや∠ ル∠ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ⇔ ギ ぺ (21. O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who creat ed you and t hose who were before you so t hat you may acquire Taqwa.) (22. Who has made t he eart h a rest ing place for you, and t he sky as a canopy, and sent down wat er (rain) from t he sky and brought fort h t herewit h fruit s as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unt o Allah (in worship) while you know (t hat He alone has t he right t o be worshipped).) Tawhid Al-Uluhiyyah Allah next ment ioned His Oneness in divinit y and st at ed t hat He has favored His servant s by bringing t hem t o life aft er t hey did not exist . He also surrounded t hem wit h blessings, bot h hidden and apparent . He made t he eart h a rest ing place for t hem, j ust like t he bed, st able wit h t he firm mount ains. び¬べ∠ よ ¬べ∠ ジャや∠ ぴ ⇔ レ͡ ∠ ヨz ヱ (And t he sky as a canopy) meaning, ` a ceiling'. Similarly, Allah said in anot her Ayah, ゅ∠ わ⇒∠ や∠ ∇リハ ∇ユワヱ ゅニヲ⊥ ∇エョ ゅヘ∇ボシ ¬べ∠ ジャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィヱぴ ヰ͡ Α ¬ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ ヘ z ⇔ ∠ ∠ ヨz レ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇バョ ∠ ッ͡ ⊥ (And We have made t he heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded. Yet t hey t urn away from it s signs (i.e. sun, moon, winds, clouds)) (21:32). び¬べ∠ ¬べ∠ ジャや リョ ∇ユムャ メゴル∠ヱぴ ⇔ ョ ͡ ヨz ∠ あ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぺ∠ (And sends down for you wat er (rain) from t he sky) meaning, t hrough t he clouds, when t hey need t he rain. Hence, Allah caused t he various t ypes of veget at ion and fruit s t o grow as a means of sust enance for people and t heir cat t le. Allah reit erat ed t his bount y in various part s of t he Qur'an. There is anot her Ayah t hat is similar t o t his Ayah (2:22), t hat is, Allah's st at ement , ¬べ⇒∠ よ ¬べ∠ ジャや∠ やケや∠ ⇒∠ チ∇ケΙや ユ⇒⊥ ャ モ⇒∠ ィ ン͡ ャやぴ ⇔ レ͡ ∠ ヨz ヱ ⇔ ゲ ホ ∠ x ⊥ ム∠ ∠ バ∠ グz リョ ∇ユ⇒⊥ ホコケヱ ∇ユ⇒⊥ ケヲタ リジ∇ェほプ ∇ユ⇒⊥ ケヲタヱ ∠ あ ム∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ミ∠ z ∠ ∠ ゆケ ヮzャや ポゲ⇒∠ ⇒∠ プ ∇ユ⇒⊥ よケ ヮzャや ユムャク ろ⇒∠ Βトャや ぁ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ら わ∠ ムぁ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ ͡ らあ z びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ ヨ∠ バ (It is He Who has made for you t he eart h as a dwelling place and t he sky as a canopy, and has given you shape and made your shapes good (looking) and has provided you wit h good t hings. That is Allah, your Lord, so Blessed be Allah, t he Lord of all t hat exist s) (40:64). The meaning t hat is reit erat ed here is t hat Allah is t he Creat or, t he Sust ainer, t he Owner and Provider of t his life, all t hat is in and on it . Hence, He alone deserves t o be worshipped, and no one and not hing is t o be associat ed wit h Him. This is why Allah said next , び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ やキや∠ ル∠ ヮヤャ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇イゎ Κプぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ⇔ ギ ぺ ͡ z ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Then do not set up rivals unt o Allah (in worship) while you know (t hat He alone has t he right t o be worshipped)) (2:22). The Two Sahihs record t hat Ibn Mas` ud said, "I said t o t he Messenger of Allah , ` Which evil deed is t he worst wit h Allah' He said, «マ∠ ヤカ ヲワヱ や6 ル ぶ モバ∇イゎ ∇ラぺ» ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ギ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (To t ake an equal wit h Allah, while He alone creat ed you.)'' Also, Mu` adh narrat ed t he Prophet 's st at ement , ゅ∠ヱ ロヱ⊥ ら∇バΑ ∇ラぺ ∨͡ キゅ∠ ハ ヴ∠ハ ぶや ペェ ゅ∠ ヵ͡ ∇ギゎぺ» ャ∠ ⊥ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ロ͡ ら͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ぁ ∠ ョ ケ ∠ ∠ «ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ヮよ やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼΑ ゃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ミ͡ ⊥ (Do you know Allah's right on His servant s They must worship Him alone and refrain from associat ing anyt hing wit h Him in worship.) Anot her Hadit h st at es, ∇リムャ∠ ∩∀ ゅ∠プ ¬ゅ∠ ヱ ぶや ¬ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ユミギェぺ リャヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠» ͡ ヱ ラ ヤ⊥ ∠ セ∠ ⊥ ∠ セ ョ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ボ∠ ャ «ラゅ∠プ ¬ゅ∠ z を ぶや ¬ゅ∠ ゅ∠ :∇モボΒャ ヤ ⊥ ∠ セ ユ⊥ ⊥ ∠ セ ョ ⊥ ∠ ͡ (None of you should say, ` What Allah and so-and-so person wills. Rat her, let him say, ` What Allah wills, and t hen what so-and-so person wills.) Hadith with the same MeaningImam Ahmad narrat ed t hat t hat t he Prophet of Allah said, Al-Harit h Al-Ash` ari said ヮ∇Βヤハ ゅz ゲミコ リ∇よ ヴ∠ ∇エΑ ゲョぺ モィヱゴハ ぶや ラま» ͡ ∠ ∠ Α͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ∠∠ z ∠ ∠z ∠ ∠ z ͡ ゲョ∇ほΑ ∇ラぺヱ ∩z ヰよ モヨ∇バΑ ∇ラぺ れゅ∠ ヤミ ザ∇ヨガよ ュゅ∠ジャや ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ リ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヤz ¬ヴ͡ ∇らΑ ∇ラぺ キゅ∠ ヮルぺヱ リヰよ やヲ⊥ヨ∇バΑ ∇ラぺ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シま ヶ͡ よ ∠ ト ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ⊥ z ∠∠ z ͡ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ も ゲ ͡ レ∠ れ∇ゲョぺ ∇ギホ マルま :ュゅ∠ジャや ヮ∇Βヤハ ヴ∠ Β͡ ヮャ メゅ∠ プ∩ゅ∠ よ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ヤz ͡ ∠∠ ジ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボ∠ ヰ͡ ヶ͡ よ ゲョ∇ほゎヱ リヰよ モヨ∇バゎ ∇ラぺ れゅ∠ ヤミ ザ∇ヨガよ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∇ラぺ ゅz ま∠ ∇ユヰピヤらゎ ∇ラぺ ゅz みプ リヰよ やヲ⊥ヨ∇バΑ ∇ラぺ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シま ∠ ョ ヱ ⊥ ∠ あ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ͡∠ z ͡ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ も ゲ ͡ ∇ラぺ ヶ͡ わ∇ボらシ ∇ラま ヴ∠ ∇カぺ ヶあ ま ヶ͡ ぺ ゅ∠ :メゅ∠ プ ∩z ヰピヤよぺ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゼ ∠ ル͡ カ∠ Α ∠ ボ∠ リ⊥ ∠ あ∠ ⊥ リ∇よ ヴ∠ ∇エΑ ノヨイプ :メゅ∠ ヶ͡ ブジ∇ガΑ ∇ヱぺ ゆグハぺ ⊥ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ よ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z∠ ⊥ ほヤわ∇ョや ヴz ェ サギ∇ボヨ∇ャや ろ∇Βよ ヶ͡ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シま ヶ͡ よ ゅz ゲミコ ∠ ∠∠ わ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ プ ∠ も ゲ ͡ レ∠ Α͡ ∠ ∠ ヴ∠ ∇をぺヱ ぶや ギヨエプ フゲゼャや ヴ∠ハ ギバボプ ∩⊥ イ∇ジヨ∇ャや レ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ͡ ∠ ∇ラぺ れゅ∠ ヤミ ザ∇ヨガよ ヶ͡ ゲョぺ ぶや ラま :メゅ∠ z を ヮ∇Βヤハ ∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ル∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ホ ユ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∇ラぺ :z ヰャz ぺ リヰよ やヲ⊥ヨ∇バゎ ∇ラぺ ∇ユミゲョへ∠ リヰよ モヨ∇ハぺ ∠ リ⊥ ⊥ヱ∠ z ͡ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヱ z ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ マャク モんョ ラみプ ∩ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ヮよ やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼゎ ゅ∠ヱ ぶや やヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ゃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ミ͡ ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ベケヲよ ヮャゅ∠ ゾャゅ∠ ∇リョ や⇔ ∇らハ ン∠ わ∇セや モィケ モんヨミ ∃ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ョ ͡ ͡ カ ͡ ギ ∠ ゲ∠ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ∇Βビ ヴャ͡ ヮわヤビ ヵあ ぽΑヱ モヨ∇バΑ モバイプ ょワク ∇ヱぺ ͡ ∠ ま ⊥ ∠ z∠ キ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぶや ラまヱ ∩∠ ャグ∠ ロギ∇らハ ラヲ⊥ Α ∇ラぺ ロぁ ジΑ ∇ユムΑほプ ∩͡ ギΒシ ∠ z ͡∠ マ͡ ミ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ム∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぁ ∠∠ ロ͡ あ ∠ .ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ヮよ やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼゎ ゅ∠ヱ ロヱ⊥ ら∇ハゅ∠ ∇ユムホコケヱ ∇ユムボヤカ ゃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ミ͡ ⊥ ャ∠ ⊥ ギ⊥ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ヮ∇ィヲャ ヮヰ∇ィヱ ょダ∇レΑ ぶや ラみプ りゅ∠ダャゅ͡ ∇ユミゲョへ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤz よ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヱ ∇ユミゲョへ∠ .やヲ⊥ ヘわ∇ヤゎ ゅ∠プ ∇ユわ∇Βヤタ や∠ みプ ∇ろヘわ∇ヤΑ ∇ユャ ゅ∠ ロギ∇らハ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヱ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ z∠ ク͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∀ ゲタ ヮバョ モィケ モんヨミ マャク モんョ ラみプ ュゅ∠ ダャゅ͡ りz ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ͡ Βあ よ ラまヱ マ∇ジヨ∇ャや ウΑ͡ ギイΑ ∇ユヰぁミ るよゅ∠ ハ ヶ͡ マ∇ジョ ∇リョ z ͡∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ケ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∃ ∠ ダ͡ プ ∃ ͡ ͡ ウΑ͡ ∇リョ ぶや ギ∇レハ ょΒ∇デぺ ユ͡ ゅz ャや ユプ フヲ⊥カ ͡ ケ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ も ダ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ モんヨミ マャク モんョ ラみプ るホギダャゅ͡ ∇ユミゲョへ∠ .マ∇ジヨ∇ャや ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z よ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヱ ͡ ͡ ロヲ⊥ ギホヱ ヮボレハ ヴャ͡ ヮ∇ΑギΑ やヱぁ ゼプ ぁ ギバ∇ャや ロゲシぺ モィケ ⊥ ョz ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ま ͡ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ヱ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ヵギわ∇プぺ ∇ラぺ ∇ユムャ ∇モワ :∇ユヰャ メゅ∠ プ ヮボレハ やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ツΒャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ よ͡ ∠ ͡ モΒ͡ボ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ヮジ∇ヘル ヵ͡ ∠ ∇ヘΑ モバイプ ∇ユム∇レョ ヶ͡ ∇ヘル ͡ ヤ∠ よ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ギわ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ジ ∠ や⇔ Β͡ ミ ぶや ゲ∇ミグよ ∇ユミゲョへ∠ .ヮジ∇ヘル マプ ヴz ェ ゲΒ͡ ム∇ャや∠ ゲ ん∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ わ∠ ͡ ん∠ ヱ ヶ͡ ゅ⇔ や∠ シ ぁ ギバ∇ャや ヮらヤデ モィケ モんヨミ マャク モんョ ラまヱ プ ハ ゲ͡ ヱ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ラまヱ ヮΒ͡ リダエわプ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ゅ⇔ ∇ダェ ヴ∠ ほプ ロゲをぺ z ͡∠ ͡ プ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ダ∠ レ ͡ ゎ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヶ͡ ラゅ∠ や∠ ま ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ ラヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ リダ∇ェぺギ∇らバ∇ャや プ ∠ ミ ク͡ ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ム∠ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ «ぶや ゲ∇ミク ͡ ͡ (Allah commanded Yahya bin Zakariya t o implement five commands and t o order t he Children of Israel t o implement t hem, but Yahya was slow in carrying out t hese commands. ` Isa said t o Yahya, ` You were ordered t o implement five commands and t o order t he Children of Israel t o implement t hem. So eit her order, or I will do it .' Yahya said, 'My brot her! I fear t hat if you do it before me, I will be punished or t he eart h will be shaken under my feet .' Hence, Yahya bin Zakariya called t he Children of Israel t o Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), unt il t hey filled t he Masj id. He sat on t he balcony, t hanked Allah and praised him and t hen said, ` Allah ordered me t o implement five commandment s and t hat I should order you t o adhere t o t hem. The first is t hat you worship Allah alone and not associat e any wit h Him. The example of t his command is t he example of a man who bought a servant from his money wit h paper or gold. The servant st art ed t o work for t he mast er, but was paying t he profit s t o anot her person. Who among you would like his servant t o do t hat Allah creat ed you and sust ains you. Therefore, worship Him alone and do not associat e anyt hing wit h Him. I also command you t o pray, for Allah direct s His Face t owards His servant 's face, as long as t he servant does not t urn away. So when you pray, do not t urn your heads t o and fro. I also command you t o fast . The example of it is t he example of a man in a group of men and he has some musk wrapped in a piece of clot h, and consequent ly, all of t he group smells t he scent of t he wrapped musk. Verily, t he odor of t he mout h of a fast ing person is bet t er before Allah t han t he scent of musk. I also command you t o give charit y. The example of t his is t he example of a man who was capt ured by t he enemy. They t ied his hands t o his neck and brought him fort h t o cut off his neck. He said t o t hem, 'Can I pay a ransom for myself' He kept ransoming himself wit h small and large amount s unt il he liberat ed himself. I also command you t o always remember Allah. The example of t his deed is t hat of a man who t he enemy is t irelessly pursuing. He t akes refuge in a fort ified fort . When t he servant remembers Allah, he will be resort ing t o t he best refuge from Sat an.) Al-Harit h t hen narrat ed t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, るハゅ∠ イ∇ャや :リヰよ ヶ͡ ゲョぺ ぶや ザ∇ヨガよ ∇ユミゲョへ ゅ∠ ぺヱ» ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ z ͡ ͡ ル∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ル∠∠ モΒ͡ シ ヶ͡ キゅ∠ イ∇ャや∠ りゲ∇イヰ∇ャや∠ るハゅz ャや∠ ノ∇ヨジャや∠ ͡ ら∠ プ ͡ ヰ͡ ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヱ ͡ ∠ ト ヱ ͡ z ヱ ∇ギボプ ゲ∇らセ ギΒ͡ るハゅ∠ イ∇ャや リョ ァゲカ ∇リョ ヮルみプ .ぶや ∠ ∠ ∃ ͡ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ͡ ∇リョヱ ノィや∠ Α ∇ラぺ ゅzま ヮボレハ ∇リョ ュゅ∠∇シみ∇ャや るボ∇よケ ノヤカ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ャ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ヤ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ «ユz ヰィ ヴ∠ ィ ∇リョ ヲヰプ るΒヤワゅ∠ ン∠ ∇ハギよ ゅ∠ キ レ∠ ∠ ん⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ z ͡͡ ィ ヲ ∠ ͡ ハ∠ : : やヲ⊥ ∇キゅ∠ ∩∀ ヤ∇ジョ ヮz ぺ ユハコヱ ュゅ∠ ヱ ヴzタ ラまヱ» ハ プ ユ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ル∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ タ∠ ヤ∠ z ͡∠ モィヱ ゴハ ぶや ユワゅz シ ゅ∠ ヴ∠ハ ∇ユヰもゅ∠ ∇シほよ リΒ͡ ヤ∇ジヨ∇ャや z ∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ∠ ョ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ «ぶや キゅ∠ ハ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや リΒ͡ ヤ∇ジヨ∇ャや ∠ ら͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ (And I order you wit h five commandment s t hat Allah has ordered me. St ick t o t he Jama` ah (communit y of t he fait hful), list en and obey (your leaders) and perform Hij rah (migrat ion) and Jihad for t he sake of Allah. Whoever abandons t he Jama` ah, even t he dist ance of a hand span, will have removed t he t ie of Islam from his neck, unless he ret urns. Whoever uses t he slogans of Jahiliyah (t he pre-Islamic period of ignorance) he will be among t hose kneeling in Jahannam (Hellfire).) They said, "O Messenger of Allah! Even if he prays and fast s'' He said, (Even if he prays, fast s and claims t o be Muslim. So call t he Muslims wit h t heir names t hat Allah has called t hem: ` The Muslims, t he believing servant s of Allah.') This is a Hasan Hadit h, and it cont ains t he st at ement , "Allah has creat ed and sust ains you, so worship Him and do not associat e anyt hing wit h Him in worship.'' This st at ement is relevant in t he Ayat (2:21-22) we are discussing here and support s singling Allah in worship, wit hout part ners. Several scholars of Tafsir, like Ar-Razi and ot hers, used t hese Ayat as an argument for t he exist ence of t he Creat or, and it is a most wort hy met hod of argument . Indeed, whoever ponders over t he t hings t hat exist , t he higher and lower creat ures, t heir various shapes, colors, behavior, benefit s and ecological roles, t hen he will realize t he abilit y, wisdom, knowledge, perfect ion and maj est y of t heir Creat or. Once a bedouin was asked about t he evidence t o Allah's exist ence, he responded, "All praise is due t o Allah! The camel's dung t est ifies t o t he exist ence of t he camel, and t he t rack t est ifies t o t he fact t hat someone was walking. A sky t hat holds t he giant st ars, a land t hat has fairways and a sea t hat has waves, does not all of t his t est ify t hat t he Most Kind, Most Knowledgeable exist s'' Hence, whoever gazes at t he sky in it s immensit y, it s expanse, and t he various kinds of planet s in it , some of which appear st at ionary in t he sky - whoever gazes at t he seas t hat surround t he land from all sides, and t he mount ains t hat were placed on t he eart h t o st abilize it , so t hat whoever lives on land, what ever t heir shape and color, are able t o live and t hrive - whoever reads Allah's st at ement , ゅ∠ ルヲ∇ャぺ ブヤわ∇ガョ ∀ ∇ヨェ∠ ∀ Β͡ ∀ ∠ ィ メゅ∠ イ∇ャや リョヱぴ ヰ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∀ ͡∠ ぁ ゲ ⊥ ヱ ヂ よ キギ⊥ ͡ ら͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ユ⇒∠ ∇ルΙや∠ ゆへ∠ ギャや∠ サゅz ャや リョヱキヲ⊥ ょΒ͡ や∠ ビヱ ͡ バ x ヱ あ ヱz ヱ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∀ シ ⊥ よ ゲ∠ ∠ ロキゅ∠ ハ ∇リョ ヮヤャや ヴ∠ ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ ルま マャグミ ヮルヲ∇ャぺ ブヤわ∇ガョ ͡ ͡ ら͡ ͡ ∠ z ゼ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∀ ͡∠ ⊥ び¬ゅ∠ ヤバ∇ャや ⊥ ヨ∠⊥ (And among t he mount ains are st reaks whit e and red, of varying colours and (ot hers) very black. And likewise, men and Ad-Dawabb (moving (living) creat ures, beast s) and cat t le are of various colours. It is only t hose who have knowledge among His servant s t hat fear Allah) (35: 27-28). Whoever t hinks about t he running rivers t hat t ravel from area t o area bringing benefit , whoever ponders over what Allah has creat ed on eart h; various animals and plant s of different t ast es, scent s, shapes and colors t hat are a result of unit y bet ween land and wat er, whoever t hinks about all of t his t hen he will realize t hat t hese fact s t est ify t o t he exist ence of t he Creat or, His perfect abilit y, wisdom, mercy, kindness, generosit y and His overall compassion for His creat ion. There is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah, nor is t here a Lord besides Him, upon Him we rely and t o Him we t urn in repent ance. There are numerous Ayat in t he Qur'an on t his subj ect . ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプ ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ら∠ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴ∠ ゅz ョ ょ∇Αケ ヴ͡ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ヱぴ ゎ ∠ ルギ ハ ヤ ∠ レ z ル ヨ あ ∃ ∠ プ ⊥ ミ ま ∠ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや∠ ヮヤ∇んョ リあ りケヲ⊥ よ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ミ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ハ ヱ ͡ ͡ あ ョ ∃ ∠ ジ͡ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ リ∠ヱ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ ∇ユャ ラ͡プ - リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ z み∠ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま ∇れギハぺ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャやヱ サゅz ャや ゅ∠ キヲ⊥ ∠ ヴ͡ ャや ケゅz ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ イ͡ ∠ ⊥ レ ワ⊥ ホヱ わz ∠ レ ボz プ び リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡ (23. And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christ ians) are in doubt concerning t hat which We have sent down (i.e. t he Qur'an) t o Our servant (Muhammad ), t hen produce a Surah (chapt er) of t he like t hereof and call your wit nesses (support ers and helpers) besides Allah, if you are t rut hful). (24. But if you do it not , and you can never do it , t hen fear t he Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and st ones, prepared for t he disbelievers.) The Message of Messenger of Allah is True Allah begins t o prove t he t rut h of prophet hood aft er He st at ed t hat t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Him. Allah said t o t he disbelievers, びゅ∠ ͡ ∇ら∠ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴ∠ ゅz ョ ょ∇Αケ ヴ͡ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ヱぴ ルギ ハ ヤ∠ レ z ル ヨあ ∃ ∠ プ ⊥ ミ ま∠ (And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christ ians) are in doubt concerning t hat which We have sent down (i.e. t he Qur'an) t o Our servant ) meaning, Muhammad , びりケヲ⊥ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプぴ ∃ ∠ ジ͡ ゎ ∠ (t hen produce a Surah (chapt er)) meaning, similar t o what he brought t o you. Hence, if you claim t hat what he was sent wit h did not come from Allah, t hen produce somet hing similar t o what he has brought t o you, using t he help of anyone you wish inst ead of Allah. However, you will not be able t o succeed in t his quest . Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , びユミ¬へ∠ ヰセぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ (your wit nesses) means "Aids.'' Also, As-Suddi report ed t hat Abu Malik said t he Ayah means, "Your part ners, meaning, some ot her people t o help you in t hat . Meaning t hen go and seek t he help of your deit ies t o support and aid you.'' Also, Muj ahid said t hat , びユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや∠ ぴ ミ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ハ ヱ (and call your wit nesses) means, "People, meaning, wise and eloquent men who will provide t he t est imony t hat you seek.'' The Challenge Allah challenged t he disbelievers in various part s of t he Qur'an. For inst ance, Allah said in Surat Al-Qasas (28:49), べ∠ ヰ∇レョ ン∠ ∇ワぺ ヲワ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ょ⇒∠ ムよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプ ∇モホぴ ヨ⊥ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ ∃ わ ͡ ͡ ゎ ∠ ⊥ び リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ヮ∇バらゎぺ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま ⊥ ͡ z ∠ (Say (t o t hem, O Muhammad ): "Then bring a Book from Allah, which is a bet t er guide t han t hese t wo (t he Tawrah (Torah) and t he Qur'an), t hat I may follow it , if you are t rut hful''). Also, Allah said in Surat Al-Isra' (17:88), ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほΑ ラ∠ ヴ∠ハ リイ∇ャや∠ ザル͡ や ろバヨわ∇ィや リゃャ モ⊥ ぴ ゎ ∠ ぺ ヤ∠ ぁ ͡ ヱ ⊥ Η ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ z ホ ラゅ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ヮヤ∇んヨよ ラヲ⊥ ∇ほΑ Ι ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや や∠ ⇒∠ モ∇んヨよ ∠ ミ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ ⊥ グ ワ ͡ ͡ ͡ び や⇔ Β͡ ニ ヂ∇バらャ ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ゲ ヰ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (Say: "If mankind and t he Jinn were t oget her t o produce t he like of t his Qur'an, t hey could not produce t he like t hereof, even if t hey helped one anot her.'') Allah said in Surat Hud (11:13), ヮヤ∇んョ ケヲシ ゲ∇ゼバよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプ ∇モホ ロや∠ わ∇プや ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α ∇ュぺぴ ͡ ͡ あ ∃ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゎ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ラ͡ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ∇ユわ∇バトわ∇シや リョ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや∠ ∃ ゅ∠ ∠ ∠ ∇ヘョ ま ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ハ ヱ れ Αゲ わ ⊥ び リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ (Or t hey say, "He (Prophet Muhammad ) forged it (t he Qur'an).'' Say: "Bring you t hen t en forged Surahs (chapt ers) like it , and call whomsoever you can, ot her t han Allah (t o your help), if you speak t he t rut h!''), and in Surat Yunus (10:37-38), ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ン∠ わ∇ヘΑ ラ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや や∠ ⇒∠ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ゲ∠ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ¬ ⊥ グ ワ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや モΒ͡ ∇ヘゎヱ ヮ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ン͡ ャや ペΑ͡ ∇ダゎ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ダ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ギ ∠ ム ャ∠ ロや∠ わ∇プや ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α ∇ュぺ - リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ リ͡ ヮΒプ ょ∇Αケ Ι ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ z ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ リあ ∇ユわ∇バトわ∇シや リョ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや∠ ヮヤ∇んョ りケヲ⊥ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプ ∇モホ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ハ ヱ ͡ ͡ あ ∃ ∠ ジ͡ ゎ ∠ ⊥ び リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま ͡ z ͡ キ (And t his Qur'an is not such as could ever be produced by ot her t han Allah (Lord of t he heavens and t he eart h), but it is a confirmat ion of (t he revelat ion) which was before it (i.e. t he Tawrah, and t he Inj il), and a full explanat ion of t he Book (i.e. Laws decreed for mankind) wherein t here is no doubt from t he Lord of all t hat exist s.) (Or do t hey say: "He (Muhammad ) has forged it '' Say: "Bring t hen a Surah (chapt er) like it , and call upon whomsoever you can besides Allah, if you are t rut hful!''). All of t hese Ayat were revealed in Makkah. Allah also challenged t he disbelievers in t he Ayat t hat were revealed in Al-Madinah. In t his Ayah, Allah said, びょ∇Αケ ヴ͡ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ヱぴ ∃ ∠ プ ⊥ ミ ま∠ (And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christ ians) are in Rayb) meaning, doubt . びゅ∠ ͡ ∇ら∠ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴ∠ ゅz ョぴ ルギ ハ ヤ ∠ レ z ル ヨ あ (Concerning t hat which We have sent down (i.e. t he Qur'an) t o Our servant ) meaning, Muhammad , びヮヤ∇んョ リあ りケヲ⊥ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプぴ ͡ ͡ あ ョ ∃ ∠ ジ͡ ゎ ∠ (t hen produce a Surah (chapt er) t he like t hereof) meaning, similar t o t he Qur'an. This is t he Tafsir of Muj ahid, Qat adah, Ibn Jarir At -Tabari, Az-Zamakhshari and Ar-Razi. Ar-Razi said t hat t his is t he Tafsir of ` Umar, Ibn Mas` ud, Ibn ` Abbas, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and t he maj orit y of t he scholars. And he gave preference t o t his view and ment ioned t he fact t hat Allah has challenged t he disbelievers as individuals and as groups, whet her lit erat e or illit erat e, t hus making t he challenge t ruly complet e. This t ype of challenge is more daring t han simply challenging t he disbelievers who might not be lit erat e or knowledgeable. This is why Allah said, びヮヤ∇んョ ケヲシ ゲ∇ゼバよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプぴ ͡͡ あ ∃ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠͡ ゎ ∠ (Bring you t hen t en forged Surahs (chapt ers) like it ) (11:13), and, びヮヤ∇んヨよ ラヲ⊥ ∇ほΑ Ιぴ ͡͡ ͡͡ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ (They could not produce t he like t hereof) (17:88). Therefore, t his is a general challenge t o t he Arab disbelievers, t he most eloquent among all nat ions. Allah challenged t he Arab disbelievers bot h in Makkah and Al-Madinah several t imes, especially since t hey had t remendous hat red and enmit y for t he Prophet and his religion. Yet , t hey were unable t o succeed in answering t he challenge, and t his is why Allah said, び∇やヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ リ∠ヱ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ ∇ユャ ラ͡プぴ ヤ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ z み∠ (But if you do it not , and you can never do it ), indicat ing t hat t hey will never be able t o answer t he challenge. This is anot her miracle, in t hat , Allah clearly st at ed wit hout doubt t hat t he Qur'an will never be opposed or challenged by anyt hing similar t o it , for et ernit y. This is a t rue st at ement t hat has not been changed unt il t he present and shall never change. How can anyone be able t o produce somet hing like t he Qur'an, when t he Qur'an is t he Word of Allah Who creat ed everyt hing How can t he words of t he creat ed ever be similar t o t he Words of t he Creat or Examples of the Miracle of the Qur'an Whoever reads t hrough t he Qur'an will realize t hat it cont ains various levels of superiorit y t hrough bot h t he apparent and hidden meanings t hat it ment ions. Allah said, ユΒ͡ ェ ∇ラギャ リ͡ ∇ろヤダプ z を ヮわ⇒∠ や¬ ∇ろヨム∇ェほら⇒∠ ミゲャやぴ ∃ ム∠ ⊥ z ョ ∠あ ⊥ ユ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ Α ∠ ͡ ⊥∠ わ͡ びゲΒ͡ カ ∃ ら∠ (Alif Lam Ra. (This is) a Book, t he verses whereof are perfect (in every sphere of knowledge, et c.), and t hen explained in det ail from One (Allah), Who is Wise and well-acquaint ed (wit h all t hings)) (11:1) So t he expressions in t he Qur'an are perfect and it s meanings are explained. Furt her, every word and meaning in t he Qur'an is eloquent and cannot be surpassed. The Qur'an also ment ioned t he st ories of t he people of t he past ; and t hese account s and st ories occurred exact ly as t he Qur'an st at ed. Also, t he Qur'an commanded every t ype of right eousness and forbade every t ype of evil, j ust as Allah st at ed, びΙ∇ギハヱ ゅホ∇ギタ マよケ るヨヤミ ∇ろヨゎヱぴ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ͡ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ z ∠ ∠ (And t he Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in t rut h and in j ust ice) (6:115). meaning, t rue in t he st ories it narrat es and j ust in it s Laws. The Qur'an is t rue, j ust and full of guidance. It does not cont ain exaggerat ions, lies or falsehood, unlike Arabic and ot her t ypes of poems t hat cont ained lies. These poems, conform wit h t he popular st at ement , "The most eloquent speech is t he one t hat cont ains t he most lies!'' Somet imes, one would find a long poem t hat mainly cont ains descript ions of women, horses or alcohol. Or, t he poem might cont ain praise or t he descript ion of a cert ain person, horse, camel, war, incident , fear, lion, or ot her t ypes of it ems and obj ect s. Such praise or descript ions do not bring any benefit , except shed light on t he poet 's abilit y t o clearly and eloquent ly describe such it ems. Yet , one will only be able t o find one or t wo sent ences in many long poems t hat elaborat e on t he main t heme of t he poem, while t he rest of t he poem cont ains insignificant descript ions and repet it ions. As for t he Qur'an, it is ent irely eloquent in t he most perfect manner, as t hose who have knowledge in such mat t ers and underst and Arabic met hods of speech and expressions concur. When one reads t hrough t he st ories in t he Qur'an, he will find t hem fruit ful, whet her t hey were in ext ended or short forms, repeat ed or not . The more t hese st ories are repeat ed, t he more fruit ful and beaut iful t hey become. The Qur'an does not become old when one repeat s recit ing it , nor do t he scholars ever get bored wit h it . When t he Qur'an ment ions t he subj ect of warning and promises, it present s t rut hs t hat would make solid, firm mount ains shake, so what about t he comprehending, underst anding heart s When t he Qur'an promises, it opens t he heart s and t he ears, making t hem eager t o at t ain t he abode of peace - Paradise - and t o be t he neighbors of t he Throne of t he Most Beneficent . For inst ance, on t he subj ect of promises and encouragement , t he Qur'an said, ¬へ∠ ィ リΒ∇ハぺ りゲホ リあ ユ⊥ ャ ヴヘ∇カぺ べz ∀ ∇ヘ∠ ユヤ∇バゎ Κプぴ ⇔ ゴ∠ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ョ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ ザ ル ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ よ ラ ヤヨ Α ル ミ ヨ͡ (No person knows what is kept hidden for t hem of j oy as a reward for what t hey used t o do) (32:17), and, ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユわル∠ヱ リΒ∇ハΙや グヤゎヱ ザヘ∇ルΙや ヮΒ͡ わ∇ゼゎ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ヱぴ ヰ プ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ⊥ x ぁ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ x ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ョ ヰ プ ∠ びラヱギヤ⇒∠ ∠ ⊥͡ カ ((There will be) t herein all t hat inner selves could desire, and all t hat eyes could delight in and you will abide t herein forever) (43:71). On t he subj ect of warning and discouragement ; びゲら∇ャや ょルゅ∠ ∇ユムよ ブジ∇ガΑ ラ∠ ∇ユわレ͡ ∠∠ ∠ぴ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ィ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ョほプぺ (Do you t hen feel secure t hat He will not cause a side of t he land t o swallow you up) (17:68), and, チ∇ケΙや ユムよ ブジ∇ガΑ ラ∠ ¬べ∠ ジャや ヴ͡ リz ∇ユわレ͡ ¬ぺぴ ∠ x ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ͡ ヨz プ ョ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ラ∠ ¬べ∠ ジャや ヴ͡ リあ ∇ユわレ͡ ぺ ∇ュぺ - ケヲ⊥ ゎ ヴワ や∠ みプ ぺ ͡ ヨz プ ョ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ ͡ ク͡∠ び ゲΑ͡ ル ブ∇Βミ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バわジプ ゅら͡ ⇒∠ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ モシ∇ゲΑ ͡ グ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ダ ェ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ (Do you feel secure t hat He, Who is over t he heaven (Allah), will not cause t he eart h t o sink wit h you, and t hen it should quake Or do you feel secure t hat He, Who is over t he heaven (Allah), will not send against you a violent whirlwind Then you shall know how (t errible) has been My warning) (67:16-17). On t he subj ect of t hreat s, t he Qur'an said, びヮらル∠ よ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ 6 ムプぴ ͡ ͡ グ͡ ル ∠ ∠ Κ⊥ ∠ (So We punished each (of t hem) for his sins) (29:40). Also, on t he subj ect of soft advice, t he Qur'an said, ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ユ⊥ ¬べ∠ z を - リΒ͡ シ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇バわョ ラ͡ ろ∇Αぺゲプぺぴ ル ミ ョ ワ∠ ィ ユ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ レ z z ま ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ わヨΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ∇ユヰ∇レハ ヴ∠ ∇ビぺ べ∠ - ラヱ⊥ ハヲ⊥ ∠ バz ∠ ⊥ ル ミ ョ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ョ ∠ ギ∠ Α (Tell Me, (even) if We do let t hem enj oy for years. And aft erwards comes t o t hem t hat (punishment ) which t hey had been promised. All t hat wit h which t hey used t o enj oy shall not avail t hem) (26:205-207). There are many ot her examples of t he eloquence, beaut y, and benefit s of t he Qur'an. When t he Qur'an is discussing Laws, commandment s and prohibit ions, it commands every t ype of right eous, good, pleasing and beneficial act . It also forbids every t ype of evil, disliked and amoral act . Ibn Mas` ud and ot her scholars of t he Salaf said, "When you hear what Allah said in t he Qur'an, such as, び∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α (O you who believe!), t hen list en wit h full at t ent ion, for it eit her cont ains a t ype of right eousness t hat Allah is enj oining, or an evil t hat He is forbidding.'' For inst ance, Allah said, モエΑヱ ゲム∇レヨ∇ャや リハ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇レΑヱ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ゲョ∇ほΑぴ ぁ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ ∠ よ ワ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ノツΑヱ ゑゃ⇒∠ ガ∇ャや ユヰ∇Βヤハ ュあ エΑヱ ろ⇒∠ Βトャや ユヰャ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ら∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ らあ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろルゅ∠ ヴ͡ ャや モ⇒∠∇ビΙや∠ ∇ユワゲ∇タま ∇ユヰ∇レハ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ わz ∠ ヤ x ヱ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ (He (Muhammad ) commands t hem for Al-Ma` ruf (i.e. Islamic Monot heism and all t hat Islam has ordained); and forbids t hem from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polyt heism of all kinds, and all t hat Islam has forbidden); he allows t hem as lawful At -Tayyibat (i.e. all good and lawful t hings), and prohibit s t hem as unlawful Al-Khaba'it h (i.e. all evil and unlawful t hings), he releases t hem from t heir heavy burdens and from t he fet t ers (bindings) t hat were upon t hem) (7:157). When t he Ayat ment ion Resurrect ion and t he horrors t hat will occur on t hat Day, and Paradise and t he Fire and t he j oys and safe refuge t hat Allah prepared for His loyal friends, or t orment and Hell for His enemies, t hese Ayat cont ain glad t idings or warnings. The Ayat t hen call t o perform good deeds and avoid evil deeds, making t he life of t his world less favorable and t he Hereaft er more favorable. They also est ablish t he correct met hods and guide t o Allah's st raight pat h and j ust legislat ion, all t he while ridding t he heart s of t he evil of t he cursed devil. The Qur'an is the Greatest Miracle given to the Prophet The Two Sahihs record t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Prophet said, れゅ∠ Γや リョ ヶト∇ハぺ ∇ギホ ゅzま ¬ゅ∠ ら∇ルほ∇ャや リョ ヶらル ∇リョ ゅ∠ » ͡ Α ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ャ͡ ͡ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ ヮ⊥ Β͡ ヱ⊥ ヵ͡ ャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ルま∠ ∩⊥ ゼら∇ャや ヮヤ∇んョ ヴ∠ハ リョへ ゅ∠ わ ゎ ぺ グz ∠ ミ ヨz ヱ ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∇ユワゲん∇ミぺ ラヲ⊥ ぺ ∇ラぺ ヲ⊥ ∇ケほプ ヶャま ぶや ロゅ∠ ∇ヱぺ ゅ⇔ ∇ェ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ィ ∠∠ z ∠͡ ⊥ ⊥ ェ ∠ Β ヱ «る∠ ゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ゅ⇔ ͡ ゅ∠ ョ Β͡ ∠ ∠ バよ ゎ (Every Prophet was given a miracle, t he t ype of which brings mankind t o fait h. What I was given is a revelat ion t hat Allah sent down t o me. Yet , I hope t hat I will have t he most following on t he Day of Resurrect ion.) This is t he wording narrat ed by Muslim. The Prophet st at ed t hat among t he Prophet s he was given a revelat ion, meaning, he was especially ent rust ed wit h t he miraculous Qur'an t hat challenged mankind t o produce somet hing similar t o it . As for t he rest of t he divinely revealed Books, t hey were not miraculous according t o many scholars. Allah knows best . The Prophet was also aided wit h innumerable signs and indicat ions t hat t est ify t o t he t rut h of his prophet hood and what he was sent wit h, all t hanks and praise is due t o Allah. Meaning of ` Stones Allah said, りケゅ∠ エ∇ャや∠ サゅz ャや ゅ∠ キヲ⊥ ∠ ヴ͡ ャや ケゅz ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ イ͡ ヱ ⊥ レ ワ⊥ ホヱ わz ∠ レ ボz プ びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ∇れギハぺ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡ z ͡ ⊥ (Then fear t he Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and st ones, prepared for t he disbelievers) (2:24). ` Fuel' is wood, or similar subst ances, used t o st art and feed a fire. Similarly, Allah said, び ゅら∠ ェ ユレヰイャ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ プ ラヲ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゅz ぺヱぴ ⇔ ト∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ム∠ ∠ ト͡ ボ ョ∠∠ (And as for t he Qasit un (disbelievers who deviat ed from t he right pat h), t hey shall be firewood for Hell) (72:15), and, ユレヰィ ょダェ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユムルまぴ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ z ͡ び ラヱ⊥ ケや∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ユわル∠ ∠ キ͡ ヱ ヰャ ⊥ ぺ ゅ∠ Β͡ モミヱ ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ケヱ ゅz るヰャや∠ ¬Ι⊥ ⇒∠ ラゅ∠ ∇ヲャぴ ヰ プ x ⊥ ∠ ワ キ∠ ∠ ョ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ¬ ͡ ぽ ワ ∠ ミ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∠ ギ͡ カ (Cert ainly you (disbelievers) and t hat which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but ) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you ent er it . Had t hese (idols) been alihah (gods), t hey would not have ent ered t here (Hell), and all of t hem will abide t herein) (21:98-99). The st ones ment ioned here are t he giant , rot t en, black, sulfuric st ones t hat become t he hot t est when heat ed, may Allah save us from t his evil end. It was also report ed t hat t he st ones ment ioned here are t he idols and rivals t hat were worshipped inst ead of Allah, j ust as Allah said, びユレヰィ ょダェ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユムルまぴ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ z ͡ (Cert ainly you (disbelievers) and t hat which you are worshipping now besides Allah,are (but ) fuel for Hell!) (21:28). Allah's st at ement , びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ∇れギハぺぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡ z ͡ ⊥ (prepared for t he disbelievers) It appears most obvious t hat it refers t o t he Fire t hat is fueled by men and st ones, and it also may refer t o t he st ones t hemselves. There is no cont radict ion bet ween t hese t wo views, because t hey are dependent upon each ot her. ` Prepared' means, it is ` kept ' and will surely t ouch t hose who disbelieve in Allah and His Messenger . Ibn Ishaq narrat ed t hat Muhammad said t hat ` Ikrimah or Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ∇れギハぺぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡ z ͡ ⊥ (prepared for t he disbelievers), "For t hose who embrace t he disbelief t hat you (disbelievers) have embraced.'' Jahannam (Hellfire) exists now Many of t he Imams of t he Sunnah used t his Ayah t o prove t hat t he Fire exist s now. This is because Allah said, び∇れギハぺぴ z͡ ⊥ (prepared) meaning, prepared and kept . There are many Hadit hs on t his subj ect . For inst ance, t he Prophet said, «ケゅzャや∠ るz イ∇ャや ろィゅ∠ ゎ» レ ヱ ⊥ レ∠ ͡ z エ∠ (Paradise and t he Fire had an argument ..) Also, t he Prophet said, ヶ͡ バ∠ モミぺ ゆケ :∇ろャゅ∠ プ ゅ∠ よケ ケゅz ャや ろルク∇ほわ∇シや» ツ よ ∠ ∠∠ あ ∠ ∠ ボ∠ ヰz ∠ ⊥ レ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ザヘルヱ ¬ゅ∠ ゼャや ヶ͡ ザヘル :リ∇Βジヘレよ ゅ∠ ャ ラクほ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇バよ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ わあ プ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ツ ∠ «ブ∇Βダャや ヶ͡ z プ (The Fire sought t he permission of her Lord. She said, 'O my Lord! Some part s of me consumed t he ot her part s.' And Allah allowed her t wo periods t o exhale, one in wint er and one in summer.) Also, t here is a Hadit h recorded from Ibn Mas` ud t hat t he Companions heard t he sound of a falling obj ect . When t hey asked about it , t he Messenger of Allah said, リΒ͡ ∇らシ グ∇レョ ユレヰィ ゲΒ͡ セ ∇リョ ヮよ ヶボ∇ャぺ ゲイェ や∠ ワ» ∠ バ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ヘ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ∠ グ∠ «ゅ∠ ゲ∇バホ ヴャ͡ モタヱ ラべ∇ャや ∩⇔ レシ ワ͡ ∠ ま ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ る∠ ∠ (This is a st one t hat was t hrown from t he t op of Jahannam sevent y years ago, but only now reached it s bot t om.) This Hadit h is in Sahih Muslim. There are many Hadit hs t hat are Mut awat ir (narrat ed by many different chains of narrat ions) on t his subj ect , such as t he Hadit hs about t he eclipse prayer, t he night of Isra' et c. Allah's st at ement s, びヮヤ∇んョ リあ りケヲ⊥ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプぴ ͡ ͡ あ ョ ∃ ∠ ジ͡ ゎ ∠ (Then produce a Surah (chapt er) of t he like t hereof) (2:23), and, びヮヤ∇んョ りケヲ⊥ よぴ ͡ ͡ あ ∃ ∠ ジ͡ (A Surah (chapt er) like it ) (10:38) t his includes t he short and long Surahs of t he Qur'an. Therefore, t he challenge t o creat ion st ands wit h regards t o bot h t he long and short Surahs, and t here is no disagreement t hat I know of on t his fact bet ween t he scholars of old and new. Before he became Muslim, ` Amr bin Al-` As met Musaylimah t he Liar who asked him, "What has recent ly been revealed t o your fellow (meaning Muhammad ) in Makkah'' ` Amr said, "A short , yet eloquent Surah.'' He asked, "What is it '' He said, び ゲ∇ジカ ヴ͡ ャ リ⇒∠ ル͡ や ラま - ゲ∇ダバ∇ャや∠ ぴ ∃ ⊥ ヘ∠ ∠ ジ Η z ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ (By Al-` Asr (t he t ime). Verily, man is in loss,) (103:1-2) Musaylimah t hought for a while and said, "A similar Surah was also revealed t o me.'' ` Amr asked, "What is it '' He said, "O Wabr, O Wabr (i.e. a wild cat ), you are but t wo ears and a chest , and t he rest of you is unwort hy and t hin.'' ` Amr said, "By Allah! You know t hat I know t hat you are lying.'' ∇ユヰャ ラぺ れゅ∠ ヤ⇒z ャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゲゼよヱぴ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ͡ エ͡ ダ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ コケ ゅ∠ ヤミ ゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΕや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇エ∠ リ͡ ン͡ ∇イゎ ろ⇒z ィ ヰ ͡ ホ͡ ⊥ ヨz⊥ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ヰわ ゎ ョ ゲ ∠ ∃ レ∠ モ∇らホ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ホコケ ン͡ ャや や∠ ⇒∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ゅホ∇コケ りゲヨを リ͡ ⊥ ∠ ョ レ ͡ ⊥ グz グ ワ ャ ホ ⇔ あ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∇ユワヱ りゲヰトョ ァヱ∇コぺ べ∠ Β͡ ∇ユヰャヱ ゅヰ͡ ⇒∠ わョ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ぺヱ ⊥ ∠ ∀ ∠ z ∠ ぁ ∀ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠∠ ⇔ ら ゼ∠ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ゎ⊥∠ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ (25. And give glad t idings t o t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds, t hat for t hem will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise). Every t ime t hey will be provided wit h a fruit t herefrom, t hey will say: "This is what we were provided wit h before,'' and t hey will be given t hings in resemblance (i.e. in t he same form but different in t ast e) and t hey shall have t herein Azwaj un Mut ahharat un (purified mat es or wives), and t hey will abide t herein forever.) Rewards of Righteous Believers Aft er ment ioning t he t orment t hat Allah has prepared for His miserable enemies who disbelieve in Him and in His Messengers, He ment ions t he condit ion of His happy, loyal friends who believe in Him and in His Messengers, adhere t o t he fait h and perform t he good deeds. This is t he reason why t he Qur'an was called Mat hani, based on t he correct opinion of t he scholars. We will elaborat e upon t his subj ect lat er. Mat hani means t o ment ion fait h and t hen disbelief, or vice versa. Or, Allah ment ions t he miserable and t hen t he happy, or vice versa. As for ment ioning similar t hings, it is called Tashabbuh, as we will come t o know, Allah willing. Allah said, ∇ユヰャ ラぺ れゅ∠ ヤ⇒z ャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゲゼよヱぴ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ͡ エ͡ ダ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ͡ あ ∠ ∠ びゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΕや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇エ∠ リ͡ ン͡ ∇イゎ ろ⇒z ィ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ヰわ ゎ ョ ゲ ∠ ∃ レ∠ (And give glad t idings t o t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds, t hat for t hem will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise)). Consequent ly, Allah st at ed t hat Paradise has rivers t hat run beneat h it , meaning, underneat h it s t rees and rooms. From Hadit hs it is learned t hat t he rivers of Paradise do not run in valleys, and t hat t he banks of Al-Kawt har (t he Prophet 's lake in Paradise) are made of domes of hollow pearls, t he sand of Paradise is made of scent ed musk while it s st ones are made from pearls and j ewels. We ask Allah t o grant Paradise t o us, for verily, He is t he Most Beneficent , Most Gracious. Ibn Abi Hat im report ed t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, メゅ∠ ィ ろ∇エゎ ∇リョ ∇ヱぺ メゅ∠ゎ ろ∇エゎ ゲイヘゎ るレイ∇ャや ケゅ∠ ∇ルぺ» ͡ ら͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∃ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ «マ∇ジヨ∇ャや ͡ (The rivers of Paradise spring from beneat h hills, or mount ains of musk.) He also report ed from Masruq t hat ` Abdullah said, "The rivers of Paradise spring from beneat h mount ains of musk.'' The similarity between the Fruits of Paradise Allah said next , や∠ ⇒∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅホ ゅホ∇コケ りゲヨを リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ コケ ゅ∠ ヤミぴ グ ワ ャ ∠ ⇔ あ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ヰ ͡ ホ͡ ⊥ ヨz⊥ びモ∇らホ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ホコケ ン͡ ャや ⊥ ∠ ョ レ ͡ ⊥ グz (Every t ime t hey will be provided wit h a fruit t herefrom, t hey will say: "This is what we were provided wit h before''). Ibn Abi Hat im report ed t hat Yahya bin Abi Kat hir said, "The grass of Paradise is made of saffron, it s hills from musk and t he boys of everlast ing yout h will serve t he believers wit h fruit s which t hey will eat . They will t hen be brought similar fruit s, and t he people of Paradise will comment , ` This is t he same as what you have j ust brought us.' The boys will say t o t hem, ` Eat , for t he color is t he same, but t he t ast e is different . Hence Allah's st at ement , びゅヰ͡ ⇒∠ わョ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ぺヱぴ ⇔ ら ゼ∠ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ゎ⊥∠ (and t hey will be given t hings in resemblance). Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi narrat ed t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat , びゅヰ͡ ⇒∠ わョ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ぺヱぴ ⇔ ら ゼ∠ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ゎ⊥∠ (and t hey will be given t hings in resemblance) means, "They look like each ot her, but t he t ast e is different .'' Also, ` Ikrimah said, びゅヰ͡ ⇒∠ わョ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ぺヱぴ ⇔ ら ゼ∠ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ゎ⊥∠ (and t hey will be given t hings in resemblance) "They are similar t o t he fruit s of t his life, but t he fruit s of Paradise t ast e bet t er. '' Sufyan At h-Thawri report ed from Al-A` mash, from Abu Thubyan, t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Not hing in Paradise resembles anyt hing in t he life of t his world, except in name.'' In anot her narrat ion, Ibn ` Abbas said, "Only t he names are similar bet ween what is in t his life and what is in Paradise.'' The Wives of the People of Paradise are Pure Allah said, びりゲヰトョ ァヱ∇コぺ べ∠ Β͡ ∇ユヰャヱぴ ∀ ∠ z ∠ ぁ ∀ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠∠ (and t hey shall have t herein Azwaj un Mut ahharat un). Ibn Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Purified from filt h and impurit y.'' Also, Muj ahid said, "From menst ruat ion, relieving t he call of nat ure, urine, spit , semen and pregnancies.'' Also, Qat adah said, "Purified from impurit y and sin.'' In anot her narrat ion, he said, "From menst ruat ion and pregnancies.'' Furt her, ` At a', Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Salih, ` At iyah and As-Suddi were report ed t o have said similarly. Allah's st at ement , びラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユワヱぴ ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ (and t hey will abide t herein forever) meaning ult imat e happiness, for t he believers will enj oy everlast ing delight , safe from deat h and disrupt ion of t heir bliss, for it never ends or ceases. We ask Allah t o make us among t hese believers, for He is t he Most Generous, Most Kind and Most merciful. るッヲ⊥ よ ゅz Κんョ ゆゲ∇ツΑ ラ∠ ヴ∇エわ∇ジΑ Ι ヮヤャや ラまぴ ⇔ ∠ バ∠ ョ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ペエ∇ャや ヮz ぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ほプ ゅ∠ ホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ プ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ラ ヨヤ Βプ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ョ∠∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ キや∠ ぺ へ∠ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ぺヱ ∇ユヰよケ リ͡ ∠ ケ∠ ク ョ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ョ∠∠ ͡ あ z ョ や⇔ Β͡ ミ ヮよ ヵ͡ ∇ヰΑヱ や⇔ Β͡ ミ ヮよ ぁ ツΑ Κんョ や∠ ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゲ ん∠ ͡ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ゲ ん∠ ͡ ͡ モ͡ ⊥ ⇔ ∠ ∠ グ ヰ͡ ⊥ ヤ ギ∇ヰハ ラヲ⊥ ボレ∠ リΑ͡ ャや - リΒ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや Ιま ヮよ ぁ ツΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ ∠ ∠ ツ⊥ Α ∠ グz ∠ ボ͡ ヘ z ͡ ͡ ͡ モ͡ ⊥ ョ∠ ラ∠ ヮよ ヮzャや ゲョぺ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ ト∇ボΑヱ ヮボ⇒∠ Β͡ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮヤャや ぺ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ん ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ z ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ チ∇ケΙや ヶ͡ ラヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘΑヱ モタヲ⊥ ⊥⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ ͡ x プ ∠ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ Α び ラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ガ (26. Verily, Allah is not ashamed t o set fort h a parable even of a mosquit o or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) t han it . And as for t hose who believe, t hey know t hat it is t he t rut h from t heir Lord, but as for t hose who disbelieve, t hey say: "What did Allah int end by t his parable'' By it He misleads many, and many He guides t hereby. And He misleads t hereby only t he Fasiqin (t he rebellious, disobedient t o Allah). (27. Those who break Allah's covenant aft er rat ifying it , and sever what Allah has ordered t o be j oined and do mischief on eart h, it is t hey who are t he losers.) In his Tafsir, As-Suddi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas, Ibn Mas` ud, and some Companions said; "When Allah gave t hese t wo examples of t he hypocrit es'' meaning Allah's st at ement s, びやケゅ∠ ギホ∇ヲわ∇シや ン͡ ャや モんヨミ ∇ユヰヤんョぴ ⇔ ル ∠∠ ∠ グz ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ (Their likeness is as t he likeness of one who kindled a fire), and, び¬べ∠ ジャや リョ ょΒダミ ∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ヨz ∠ あ ∃ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Or like a rainst orm from t he sky), "The hypocrit es said, ` Allah's far more exalt ed t han for Him t o make such examples.' So Allah revealed t hese Ayat (2:26-27) up t o: びラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ (Who are t he losers)''. Sa` id said t hat Qat adah said, "Allah does not shy away from t he t rut h when He ment ions a mat t er as a parable, whet her t his mat t er is significant or not . When Allah ment ioned t he flies and t he spider in His Book, t he people of misguidance said, ` Why did Allah ment ion t hese t hings.' So Allah revealed; るッヲ⊥ よ ゅz Κんョ ゆゲ∇ツΑ ラぺ ヴ∇エわ∇ジΑ Ι ヮヤャや ラまぴ ⇔ ∠ バ∠ ョ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ びゅ∠ ホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ プ ヰ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ (Verily, Allah is not ashamed t o set fort h a parable even of a mosquit o or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) t han it ).'' A Parable about the Life of This World Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi report ed t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas comment ed on t his Ayah (2:26); "This is an example t hat Allah has given for t he life of t his world. The mosquit o lives as long as it needs food, but when it get s fat , it dies. This is also t he example of people whom Allah ment ioned in t he Qur'an: when t hey acquire (and collect t he delight s of) t he life of t his world, Allah t hen t akes t hem away.'' Aft erwards, he recit ed, あ ミ ゆや∠ ∇よぺ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇エわプ ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ ミク ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ル ゅz ヤプぴ モ⊥ ∠ ヲ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ レ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ゲあ ⊥ ョ ジ∠ ヨ∠∠ び¬∇ヴセ ∃ ∠ (So, when t hey forgot (t he warning) wit h which t hey had been reminded, We opened for t hem t he gat es of every (pleasant ) t hing) (6:44) In t his Ayah (2:26) Allah st at ed t hat He does not shy away or hesit at e in making an example or parable of anyt hing, whet her t he example involves a significant or an insignificant mat t er. Allah's st at ement , びゅ∠ ∠ ∇ヲ∠ ゅ∠ プぴ ヰホ プ ヨ ∠ (Or so much more when it is bigger t han it ) Fama fawqaha means, somet hing bigger t han t he mosquit o, which is one of t he most insignificant and t iniest of creat ures. Muslim narrat ed t hat Aishah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ∇ろらわミ ゅzま ゅ∠ ホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ ∠ るミヲ∠ ポゅ∠ Α ユヤ∇ジョ ∇リョ ゅ∠ » ∠ ͡ ⊥ ャ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ヨプ ⇔ ∠ セ ⊥ ゼ⊥ ∃ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ョ «る∠ Β͡ カ ゅ∠ よ ヮ∇レハ ∇ろΒエョヱ ∩∀ ィケキ ゅ∠ よ ヮャ ゃ ト∠ ヰ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ る∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ ⊥ ∠ (No Muslim is harmed by a t horn, Fama fawqaha (or somet hing larger), but a good deed will be writ t en for him and an evil deed will be erased from his record.) So Allah has informed us t hat t here is no mat t er t hat is t oo small t hat is exempt from being used as an example, even if it was as insignificant as a mosquit o or a spider. Allah said, リΑ͡ ャや ラま ヮャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨわ∇シゅ∠ モんョ ゆゲッ サゅz ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ∠ グ z z ͡ ⊥ ∠ バ͡ ∠ プ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ヰ ぁ ほ ヲャヱ ゅよゅ∠ ク ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇ガΑ リ∠ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ラヲ⊥ ∇ギゎ ͡ ∠∠ ⇔ よ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ ャ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ∠ ハ ∠ ロヱ⊥ ボレ∠ ∇ジΑ Ι ゅゃ∇Βセ ゆゅ∠ グャや ユヰ∇らヤ∇ジΑ ラ͡ヱ ヮャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨわ∇ィや ⊥ グ͡ わ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ⊥ よぁ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ま∠ ⊥ ∠ バ∠ ∠ び ゆヲ⊥∇トヨ∇ャや∠ ょャゅz ャや ブバッ ヮ∇レョ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ト ∠ ⊥∠ ⊥ ͡ (O mankind! A similit ude has been coined, so list en t o it (carefully): Verily, t hose on whom you call besides Allah, cannot creat e (even) a fly, even t hough t hey combine t oget her for t he purpose. And if t he fly snat ches away a t hing from t hem, t hey will have no power t o release it from t he fly. So weak are (bot h) t he seeker and t he sought .) (22:73), モんヨミ ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ∠ ゎや リΑ͡ ャや モんョぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ グガz ∠ グz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ろ∇Βらャ ͡ ヲ⊥ ら∇ャや リワ∇ヱぺ ラまヱ ゅわ∇Βよ ∇れグガゎや れヲ⊥ ムレ∠ ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ∠ れ Β⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ら∠ バ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ヲャ れヲ⊥ ムレ∠ ∇ャや ラ ヨヤ Α ル ミ ∠ ͡ ら∠ バ (The likeness of t hose who t ake (false deit ies as) Awliya' (prot ect ors, helpers) ot her t han Allah is t he likeness of a spider who builds (for it self) a house; but verily, t he frailest (weakest ) of houses is t he spider's house if t hey but knew.) (29:41), and, るらΒデ るヨヤミ Κんョ ヮzャや ゆゲッ ブ∇Βミ ゲゎ ∇ユャぺぴ ⇔ ∠ あ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ - ͡ べ∠ ジャや ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ハ∇ゲプヱ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヤ∇タぺ るらΒデ りゲ∠ ゼミ ¬ ヨz プ ヰ⊥ ∠ ∠ ろよ を ヰ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ あ ∠ ∃ イ∠ ∠ ヮヤャや ゆゲ∇ツΑヱ ゅ∠ よケ ラ∇クみよ リΒ͡ z ミ ゅ∠ ヤミぺ ヴ͡ ∇ぽゎ ⊥ z ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰあ ∠ ͡ ͡͡ ∃ ェ モ⊥ ヰ∠⊥ ⊥ ゎ ⊥ るヨヤミ モん∠ ヱ - ラヱ⊥ ミグわΑ ∇ユヰヤバャ サゅz ヤ͡ メゅ∠ ∇ョΕや ∃ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ゲz ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ん ∠ ゅ∠ チ∇ケΙや ベ∇ヲプ リ͡ ∇ろんわ∇ィや るんΒ͡ カ りゲイゼミ るんΒ͡ カ ョ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ョ z ⊥ ∃ ∠ ら∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ら∠ メ∇ヲボ∇ャゅ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ヮzャや ろあ んΑ - ケや∠ ホ リ͡ ゅ∠ ャ ͡ ∠ よ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ ∃ ゲ∠ ョ ヰ∠ ヮzャや モツΑヱ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ヱ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや りヲ∠ エ∇ャや ヴ͡ ろよゅz ャや ⊥ ヤ ぁ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ∠ Β ぁ ͡ Β∠ プ͡ ͡ん び ¬べ∠ Α ゅ∠ ヮzャや モバ∇ヘΑヱ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ (See you not how Allah set s fort h a parable A goodly word as a goodly t ree, whose root is firmly fixed, and it s branches (reach) t o t he sky (i.e. very high). Giving it s fruit at all t imes, by t he leave of it s Lord, and Allah set s fort h parables for mankind in order t hat t hey may remember. And t he parable of an evil word is t hat of an evil t ree uproot ed from t he surface of eart h, having no st abilit y. Allah will keep firm t hose who believe, wit h t he word t hat st ands firm in life of t his world (i.e. t hey will keep on worshipping Allah alone and none else), and in t he Hereaft er. And Allah will cause t he Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers) t o go ast ray t hose and Allah does what He wills.) (14:24-27). Allah said, ヴ∠ハ ケギ∇ボΑ Ι ゅ⇔ ヲ⊥∇ヨョ や⇔ ∇らハ Κんョ ヮヤャや ゆゲッぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ z ミ ヤ z ギ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ び¬∇ヴセ ∃ ∠ (Allah put s forward t he example of (t wo men a believer and a disbeliever); a servant under t he possession of anot her, he has no power of any sort ) (16:75). He t hen said, ケギ∇ボΑ Ι ユム∇よぺ べ∠ ワギェぺ リ∇Βヤィケ Κんョ ヮヤャや ゆゲッヱぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠⊥ z ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ Ι ヮヰあ ヲΑ ゅ∠ レ∇Αぺ ロΙ∇ヲョ ヴ∠ハ モミ ヲワヱ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ∠ ぁ ィ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ∠ x ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ びメ∇ギバ∇ャゅ͡ ゲョ∇ほΑ リ∠ ヱ ヲワ ン͡ ∠ ∇ジ∠ ∇モワ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほΑ ͡ ∠ よ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヲ わ Α ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ (And Allah put s forward (anot her) example of t wo men, one of t hem dumb, who has no power over anyt hing, and he is a burden on his mast er; whichever way he direct s him, he brings no good. Is such a man equal t o one who commands j ust ice) (16:76). Also, Allah said, ゅz リあ ∇ユムャ ∇モワ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇リョ Κんョ ∇ユムャ ゆゲッぴ ョ ョ ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ぺ あ ⇔ ∠z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅ∠ ヴ͡ ¬べ∠ ゲセ リあ ∇ユムレ⇒∠ ∇Αぺ ∇ろムヤョ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ョ プ ∠ ミ∠ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (He set s fort h for you a parable from your own selves: Do you have part ners among t hose whom your right hands possess (i.e. your servant s) t o share as equals in t he wealt h we have best owed on you) (30:28). Muj ahid comment ed on Allah's st at ement , るッヲ⊥ よ ゅz Κんョ ゆゲ∇ツΑ ラ∠ ヴ∇エわ∇ジΑ Ι ヮヤャや ラまぴ ⇔ ∠ バ∠ ョ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ びゅ∠ ホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ プ ヰ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ (Verily, Allah is not ashamed t o set fort h a parable even of a mosquit o or so much more when it is bigger t han it .) "The believers believe in t hese parables, whet her t hey involve large mat t ers or small, because t hey know t hat t hey are t he t rut h from t heir Lord, and Allah guides t he believers by t hese parables.'' In his Tafsir, As-Suddi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas, Ibn Mas` ud and ot her people among t he Companions said, びや⇔ Β͡ ミ ヮよ ぁ ツΑぴ ゲ ん∠ ͡ ͡ モ͡ ⊥ (By it He misleads many), "Meaning t he hypocrit es. Allah guides t he believers wit h t hese parables, and t he st raying of t he hypocrit es increases when t hey rej ect t he parables t hat Allah ment ioned for t hem which t hey know are t rue. This is how Allah misleads t hem.'' びヮよ ヵ͡ ∇ヰΑヱぴ ͡ ͡ ギ ∠∠ (And He guides t hereby) meaning, wit h t he parables, びやゲΒ͡ ミぴ ⇔ ん∠ (many) from among t he people of fait h and convict ion. Allah adds guidance t o t heir guidance, and fait h t o t heir fait h, because t hey firmly believe in what t hey know t o be t rue, t hat is, t he parables t hat Allah has ment ioned. This is guidance t hat Allah grant s t hem; びリΒ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや Ιま ヮよ ぁ ツΑ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ボ͡ ヘ z ͡ ͡ ͡ モ͡ ⊥ ョ∠ (And He misleads t hereby only t he Fasiqin (t he rebellious, disobedient t o Allah)), meaning, t he hypocrit es. The Arabs say t hat t he dat e has Fasaqat , when it comes out of it s skin, and t hey call t he mouse a Fuwaysiqah, because it leaves it s den t o cause mischief. The Two Sahihs recorded ` A'ishah saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ゆや∠ ピャや :ュゲエ∇ャや∠ モエ∇ャや ヶ͡ リ∇ヤわ∇ボΑ ペシや∠ プ ∀ ∇ヨカ» ⊥ ゲ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヱ あ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ヲ∠ ザ ∠ «ケヲ⊥ バ∇ャや ょ∇ヤム∇ャや∠ りケ∇ほヘ∇ャや∠ ゆゲ∇ボバ∇ャや∠ りぺギエ∇ャや∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ヱ (Five animals are Fawasiq, and t hey must be killed during Ihram and ot herwise: t he crow, t he kit e, t he scorpion, t he mouse and t he rabid dog.) eFasiq, includes t he disbeliever and t he disobedient . However, t he Fisq of t he disbeliever is worse, and t his is t he t ype of Fasiq t hat t he Ayah is describing here, because Allah described t hem as, ヮボ⇒∠ Β͡ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮヤャや ギ∇ヰハ ラヲ⊥ ボレ∠ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ͡ ͡ ん ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ツ⊥ Α ∠ グz ∠ ヱ⊥ ͡ ∇ヘΑ∠ モタヲ⊥ ラ∠ ヮよ ヮzャや ゲョぺ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ ト∇ボΑヱ ラ ギジ ⊥ ヱ ∠ ∠ Α ぺ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ チ∇ケΙや ヶ͡ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ ͡ x プ (Those who break Allah's covenant aft er rat ifying it , and sever what Allah has ordered t o be j oined and do mischief on eart h, it is t hey who are t he losers.) These are t he charact erist ics of t he disbelievers and t hey cont radict t he qualit ies of t he believers. Similarly, Allah said in Surat Ar-Ra` d, ∇リヨミ ペエ∇ャや マよケ リ͡ マ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ルぺ ユヤ∇バΑ リ∠ ∠ ∠ぴ ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ョ ∠ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨz ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨプぺ リΑ͡ ャや - ょ⇒∠ ∇ャΕや ∇やヲ⊥∇ヱぺ ゲミグわΑ ゅ∠ ルま ヴ∠ ∇ハぺ ヲワ ∠ グz ͡ ら∠ ャ ⊥ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨz ͡ ヨ ∠ ∠ ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや∠ - ペ⇒∠ Β͡ ∇ャや ラヲ⊥ ボレ͡ Ιヱ ヮヤャや ギ∇ヰバよ ラヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ ん ヨ ∠ ツ⊥ Α ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ プ Α ラ∇ヲゼ∇ガΑヱ モタヲ⊥ ラ∠ ヮよ ヮzャや ゲョぺ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ダΑ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ Α ぺ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ び ゆゅ∠ エャや ¬ヲ⊥ ラヲ⊥ ゅ∠ Αヱ ∇ユヰよケ ͡ ジ͡ ∠ シ ∠ プ ガ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ (Shall he t hen, who knows t hat what has been revealed unt o you (O Muhammad ) from your Lord is t he t rut h, be like him who is blind But it is only t he men of underst anding t hat pay heed. Those who fulfill t he covenant of Allah and break not t he Mit haq (bond, t reat y, covenant ). And t hose who j oin t hat which Allah has commanded t o be j oined (i.e. t hey are good t o t heir relat ives and do not sever t he bond of kinship), and fear t heir Lord, and dread t he t errible reckoning.) (13:19-21)) unt il, ヮボ⇒∠ Β͡ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮヤャや ギ∇ヰハ ラヲ⊥ ボレ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ん ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ツ⊥ Α ∠ グz ヱ ∠ ヱ⊥ ͡ ∇ヘΑ∠ モタヲ⊥ ラ∠ ヮよ ヮzャや ゲョぺ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ ト∇ボΑヱ ラ ギジ ⊥ ヱ ∠ ∠ Α ぺ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ び ケやz ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユヰャヱ るレ∇バzャや ユヰャ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ͡ ギ ⊥ シ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ͡ x プ (And t hose who break t he covenant of Allah, aft er it s rat ificat ion, and sever t hat which Allah has commanded t o be j oined (i.e. t hey sever t he bond of kinship and are not good t o t heir relat ives), and work mischief in t he land, on t hem is t he curse (i.e. t hey will be far away from Allah's mercy), and for t hem is t he unhappy (evil) home (i.e. Hell).) (13:25) The covenant t hat t hese deviant people broke is Allah's covenant wit h His creat ion, t hat is, t o obey Him and avoid t he sins t hat He prohibit ed. This covenant was reit erat ed in Allah's Books and by t he words of His Messengers. Ignoring t his covenant const it ut es breaking it . It was said t hat t he Ayah (2:27) is about t he disbelievers and t he hypocrit es among t he People of t he Book. In t his case, t he covenant t hat t hey broke is t he pledge t hat Allah t ook from t hem in t he Tawrah t o follow Muhammad when he is sent as a Prophet , and t o believe in him, and in what he was sent wit h. Breaking Allah's covenant in t his case occured when t he People of t he Book rej ect ed t he Prophet aft er t hey knew t he t rut h about him, and t hey hid t his t rut h from people, even t hough t hey swore t o Allah t hat t hey would do ot herwise. Allah informed us t hat t hey t hrew t he covenant behind t heir backs and sold it for a miserable price. It was also report ed t hat t he Ayah (2:27) refers t o all disbelievers, idol worshippers and hypocrit es. Allah t ook t heir pledge t o believe in His Oneness, showing t hem t he signs t hat t est ify t o His Lordship. He also t ook a covenant from t hem t o obey His commands and refrain from His prohibit ions, knowing t hat His Messengers would bring proofs and miracles t hat none among t he creat ion could ever produce. These miracles t est ified t o t he t rut h of Allah's Messengers. The covenant was broken when t he disbelievers denied what was proven t o t hem t o be aut hent ic and rej ect ed Allah's Prophet s and Books, alt hough t hey knew t hat t hey were t he t rut h. This Tafsir was report ed from Muqat il bin Hayyan, and it is very good. It is also t he view t hat Az-Zamakhshari held. Allah's st at ement next , びモタヲ⊥ ラ∠ ヮよ ヮヤャや ゲョぺ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ ト∇ボΑヱぴ ∠ ∠ Α ぺ ͡ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ (And sever what Allah has ordered t o be j oined) is in reference t o keeping t he relat ions wit h t he relat ives, as Qat adah assert ed. This Ayah is similar t o Allah's st at ement , チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ ラ∠ ∇ユわ∇Βャヲゎ ラ͡ ∇ユわ∇Βジハ ∇モヰプぴ ͡ x プ ギ͡ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ま ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∇ユムョゅ∠ ∇ケぺ ∇やヲ⊥ トボゎヱ ⊥ ∠ ェ ∠ バあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (Would you t hen, if you were given t he aut horit y, do mischief in t he land, and sever your t ies of kinship) (47:22) Ibn Jarir At -Tabari preferred t his opinion. However, it has been said t hat t he meaning of t he Ayah (2:27) here is more general. Hence, everyt hing t hat Allah has commanded t o nurt ure, and t he people severed, is included in it s meaning. The Meaning of ` Loss Muqat il bin Hayyan comment ed on Allah's st at ement , びラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ (It is t hey who are t he losers) "In t he Hereaft er.'' Similarly, Allah said, びケやz ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユヰャヱ るレ∇バヤャや ユヰャ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ギ ⊥ シ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (On t hem is t he curse (i.e. t hey will be far away from Allah's mercy), and for t hem is t he unhappy (evil) home (i.e. Hell)) (13:25). Also, Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Every charact erist ic t hat Allah describes t hose ot her t han t he people of Islam - such as being losers - t hen it refers t o disbelief. However, when t hey are at t ribut ed t o t he people of Islam, t hen t hese t erms refer t o sin.'' Ibn Jarir comment ed on Allah's st at ement , びラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ (It is t hey who are t he losers,) "` Losers is plural for loser, t his word refers t o whoever decreased his own share of Allah's mercy by disobeying Him, j ust as t he merchant loses in his t rade by sust aining capit al loss. Such is t he case wit h t he hypocrit e and t he disbeliever who lose t heir share of t he mercy t hat Allah has in st ore for His servant s on t he Day of Resurrect ion. And t hat is when t he disbeliever and t he hypocrit e most desperat ely need Allah's mercy.'' z を ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ェほプ ゅ⇔ ヲ∇ョぺ ∇ユわレ⊥ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎ ブ∇Βミぴ ユ⊥ ⊥ Β ∠∠ ゎ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ∠ ͡ z よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲゎ ヮ∇Βャま z を ∇ユムΒ͡ ∇エΑ z を ∇ユムわΒ͡ Α ∠ バ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠͡ ユ⊥ ⊥ Β ⊥ ユ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ⊥ (28. How can you disbelieve in Allah seeing t hat you were dead and He gave you life Then He will give you deat h, t hen again will bring you t o life (on t he Day of Resurrect ion) and t hen unt o Him you will ret urn.) Allah t est ifies t o t he fact t hat He exist s and t hat He is t he Creat or and t he Sust ainer Who has full aut horit y over His servant s, びヮヤャゅ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎ ブ∇Βミぴ ͡ z よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (How can you disbelieve in Allah) How can anyone deny Allah's exist ence or worship ot hers wit h Him while; び∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ェほプ ゅ⇔ ヲ∇ョぺ ∇ユわレ⊥ ヱぴ ⊥ Β ∠∠ ゎ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ∠ (You were dead and He gave you life) meaning, He brought t hem from t he st at e of nonexist ence t o life. Similarly, Allah said, ∇ュぺ - ラヲ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ ∇ュぺ ¬∇ヴセ ゲ∇Βビ ∇リョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤカ ∇ュぺぴ ∠ ∠ ボ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ボ͡⊥ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ホヲ⊥ Ι モ∠ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヤカ ∠ レ͡ Α z よ ∠ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ボ∠∠ (Were t hey creat ed by not hing Or were t hey t hemselves t he creat ors Or did t hey creat e t he heavens and t he eart h Nay, but t hey have no firm belief) (52:35-36) and, リ⊥ Α ∇ユャ ゲ∇ワギャや リョ ∀ Β͡ リ⇒∠ ル͡ や ヴ∠ハ ヴ∠ ぺ ∇モワぴ ム∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ あ リ ェ ͡ ジ Η ヤ∠ ゎ∠ ∠ び やケヲ⊥ ∇グョ ゅゃ∇Βセ ⇔ ミz ⇔ ∠ (Has t here not been over man a period of t ime, when he was not a t hing wort h ment ioning) (76:1). There are many ot her Ayat on t his subj ect . Ibn Jarir report ed from ` At a' t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , び∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ェほプ ゅ⇔ ヲ∇ョぺ ∇ユわレ⊥ ヱぴ ⊥ Β ∠∠ ゎ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ∠ (Seeing t hat you were dead and He gave you life) means, "You did not exist beforehand. You were not hing unt il Allah creat ed you; He will bring deat h t o you and t hen bring you back t o life during Resurrect ion.'' Ibn ` Abbas t hen said, "This is similar t o Allah's st at ement ; びリ∇Βわレ∇をや ゅ∠ わ∇ΒΒ∇ェぺヱ リ∇Βわレ∇をや ゅ∠ わョぺ べ∠ よケ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ レz ∠ ∠ レz ∠ ャ ホ (They will say: "Our Lord! You have made us t o die t wice and You have given us life t wice.'') (40:11)'' z を ゅバΒ͡ ィ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ゅz ユ⊥ ャ ペヤカ ン͡ ャや ヲワぴ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヨ∠ ͡ x プ ョ ム∠ ∠ ∠∠ グz ∠ ⊥ ヲワヱ れや∠ ⇒∠ シ ノ∇らシ z ワやz ジプ ¬べ∠ ジャや ヴ∠ま ン∠ わ∇シや ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ヲ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨz ャ͡ ヲ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ムよ ユ ヤハ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ (29. He it is Who creat ed for you all t hat is on eart h. Then He Ist awa ila t he heaven and made t hem seven heavens and He is t he Knower of everyt hing.) Evidence of Allah's Ability Aft er Allah ment ioned t he proofs of His creat ing t hem, and what t hey can wit ness in t hemselves as proof of t hat , He ment ioned anot her proof t hat t hey can wit ness, t hat is, t he creat ion of t he heavens and eart h. Allah said, z を ゅバΒ͡ ィ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ゅz ユ⊥ ャ ペヤカ ン͡ ャや ヲワぴ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヨ∠ ͡ x プ ョ ム∠ ∠ ∠∠ グz ∠ ⊥ びれや∠ ⇒∠ シ ノ∇らシ z ワやz ジプ ¬べ∠ ジャや ヴ∠ま ン∠ わ∇シや ∃ ヲ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨz ャ͡ ヲ∠ (He it is Who creat ed for you all t hat is on eart h. Then He Ist awa ila t he heaven and made t hem seven heavens) meaning, He t urned t owards t he heaven, びz ワやz ジプぴ リ⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ (And made t hem) meaning, t hat He made t he heaven, seven heavens. Allah said, び∀ Β͡∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ムよ ヲワヱ れや∠ ⇒∠ シ ノ∇らシ z ワやz ジプぴ ユ ヤハ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ヲ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ (And made t hem seven heavens and He is t he Knower of everyt hing) meaning, His knowledge encompasses all His creat ion, j ust as He said in anot her Ayah, びペヤカ ∇リョ ユヤ∇バΑ Ιぺぴ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Should not He Who has creat ed know) (67:14). The Beginning of the Creation This Ayah (2:29) is explained in det ail in Surat As-Saj dah where Allah said; ヴ͡ チ∇ケΙや ペヤカ ン͡ ャゅ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムわャ ∇ユムル¬ぺ ∇モホぴ プ ∠ x ∠ ∠∠ グz よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ⊥ - リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ マャク やキや∠ ル∠ ヮャ ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇イ∠ ∠ リ∇Βョ∇ヲΑ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ぁ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ ギ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ラ ヤ バ ゎ ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ケギホヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ポゲ⇒∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ホ∇ヲプ リ͡ ヴシや∠ ケ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバィヱ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ よ∠ ヰ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ヱ∠ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z を - リΒ͡もべジヤあ ¬へ∠ シ ュゅz ぺ るバよ∇ケぺ ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ゎヲ∇ホぺ べ∠ Β͡ ユ⊥ ∠ ヤ͡ z ャ ⇔ ヲ∠ ∃ Α∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ プ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ゅ∠ ャ メゅ∠ プ ∀ ゅ∠ キ ヴワヱ ¬べ∠ ジャや ヴ∠ま ン∠ わ∇シや ヰ∠ ∠ ボ∠ ラ カ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヨz ャ͡ ヲ∠ リΒ͡ もべ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βゎぺ べ∠ ャゅ∠ ゅワ∇ゲミ ∇ヱぺ ゅハ∇ヲデ ゅ∠ わ∇もや チ∇ケΚャヱ ∠ バ͡ デ レ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ホ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ Β͡ ͡ x ͡∠ ヴ͡ ヴ∠ ∇ヱ∠∠ リ∇Βョ∇ヲΑ ヴ͡ れヲ⇒∠ シ ノ∇らシ z ワゅ∠ ボプ プ ェ ぺヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ プ ∃ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ツ∠ ∠ ウΒ͡ ⇒∠ ヨよ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ∠ べ∠ ジャや ゅz Αコヱ ゅ∠ ゲ∇ョぺ ¬べ∠ シ あ ミ ∠ ら ダ∠ ͡ Β ぁ ¬ ヨz レz ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ∠ ∃ ヨ∠ モ⊥ び ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ゴΑ͡ バ∇ャや ゲΑ͡ ∇ボゎ マャク ゅヌ∇ヘェヱ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ゴ∠ ⊥ ギ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ⇔ ͡ ∠ (Say (O Muhammad ): "Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who creat ed t he eart h in t wo Days And you set up rivals (in worship) wit h Him That is t he Lord of all t hat exist s. He placed t herein (i.e. t he eart h) firm mount ains from above it , and He blessed it , and measured t herein it s sust enance (for it s dwellers) in four Days equal (i.e. all t hese four ` days' were equal in t he lengt h of t ime) for all t hose who ask (about it s creat ion). Then He Ist awa ila t he heaven when it was smoke, and said t o it and t o t he eart h: "Come bot h of you willingly or unwillingly.'' They bot h said: "We come willingly.'' Then He finished t hem (as) seven heavens in t wo Days and He made in each heaven it s affair. And We adorned t he nearest (lowest ) heaven wit h lamps (st ars) t o be an adornment as well as t o guard (from t he devils by using t hem as missiles against t he devils). Such is t he decree of t he Almight y, t he Knower) (41:9-12). These Ayat indicat e t hat Allah st art ed creat ion by creat ing eart h, t hen He made heaven int o seven heavens. This is how building usually st art s, wit h t he lower floors first and t hen t he t op floors, as t he scholars of Tafsir reit erat ed, as we will come t o know, Allah willing. Allah also said, ゅ∠ ム∇ヨシ ノプケ - ゅ∠ ⇒∠ よ ¬べ∠ ジャや ュぺ ゅボ∇ヤカ ギセぺ ∇ユわル∠ ぺぴ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ レ∠ ⊥ ヨz ͡ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ¬∠ - ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ッ ァゲ∇カぺヱ ゅ∠ ヤ∇Βャ ズト∇ビぺヱ - ゅ∠ やz ジプ ヰ エ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ワ ヲ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ァゲ∇カぺ - ゅ∠ ⇒∠ キ マャク ギ∇バよ チ∇ケΙや∠ ワ∠ ョ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ ェ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ x ヱ ∇ユムャ ゅバ⇒∠ ョ - ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ケぺ メゅ∠ イ∇ャや∠ - ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ゲョヱ ⊥ z ⇔ わ∠ ヰ シ ∠ ∠ ら͡ ヱ ヰハ ∠∠ び ∇ユムヨ⇒∠ ∇ルΙヱ ⊥͡ バ 6 ∠ (Are you more difficult t o creat e or is t he heaven t hat He const ruct ed He raised it s height , and has perfect ed it . It s night He covers wit h darkness and it s forenoon He brings out (wit h light ). And t he eart h, aft er t hat , He spread it out . And brought fort h t herefrom it s wat er and it s past ure. And t he mount ains He has fixed firmly. (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cat t le) (79:27-33). It is said t hat "Then'' in t he Ayah (2:29) relat es only t o t he order of recit ing t he informat ion being given, it does not relat e t o t he order t hat t he event s being ment ioned t ook place, t his was report ed from Ibn ` Abbas by ` Ali bin Abi Talhah. The Earth was created before Heaven Muj ahid comment ed on Allah's st at ement , びゅバΒ͡ ィ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ゅz ユ⊥ ャ ペヤカ ン͡ ャや ヲワぴ ⇔ ヨ∠ ͡ x プ ョ ム∠ ∠ ∠∠ グz ∠ ⊥ (He it is Who creat ed for you all t hat is on eart h) "Allah creat ed t he eart h before heaven, and when He creat ed t he eart h, smoke burst out of it . This is why Allah said, び∀ ゅ∠ キ ヴワヱ ¬べヨジャや ヴ∠ま ン∠ わ∇シや z をぴ ラ カ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ャ͡ ヲ∠ ユ⊥ (Then He Ist awa ila (t urned t owards) t he heaven when it was smoke.) (41:11) びれや∠ ⇒∠ シ ノ∇らシ z ワやz ジプぴ ∃ ヲ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ (And made t hem seven heavens) means, one above t he ot her, while t he ` seven eart hs' means, one below t he ot her.'' This Ayah t est ifies t o t he fact t hat t he eart h was creat ed before heaven, as Allah has indicat ed in t he Ayat in Surat As-Saj dah. Spreading the Earth out after the Heavens were created Sahih Al-Bukhari records t hat when Ibn ` Abbas was quest ion about t his mat t er, he said t hat t he eart h was creat ed before heaven, and t he eart h was spread out only aft er t he creat ion of t he heaven. Several Tafsir scholars of old and recent t imes also said similarly, as we have elaborat ed on in t he Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi` at (chapt er 79). The result of t hat discussion is t hat t he word Daha (t ranslat ed above as "spread'') is ment ioned and explained in Allah's st at ement , ゅ∠ ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ァゲ∇カぺ - ゅ∠ ⇒∠ キ マャク ギ∇バよ チ∇ケΙや∠ ぴ ワ∠ ョ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ ェ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ x ヱ び ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ケぺ メゅ∠ イ∇ャや∠ - ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ゲョヱ ヰ シ ∠ ∠ ら͡ ヱ ヰ ハ ∠ ∠ (And t he eart h, aft er t hat , He spread it out . And brought fort h t herefrom it s wat er and it s past ure. And t he mount ains He has fixed firmly.) (79:30-32) Therefore, Daha means t hat t he eart h's t reasures were brought t o it s surface aft er finishing t he j ob of creat ing what ever will reside on eart h and heaven. When t he eart h became Daha, t he wat er burst out t o it s surface and t he various t ypes, colors, shapes and kinds of plant s grew. The st ars st art ed rot at ing along wit h t he planet s t hat rot at e around t hem. And Allah knows best . チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ ヶあ ま るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ヤャ マよケ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ͡ ∠ プ モハ ィ ル͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡∠ マヘ∇ジΑヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ギジ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバ∇イゎぺ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ るヘΒ͡カ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ホ ⇔ ∠ ヤ∠ ヶあ ま メゅ∠ マャ サあ ボルヱ ポギ∇ヨエよ ウあ ジル リ∇エルヱ ¬べ∠ ギャや ル͡ ∠ ホ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョあ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (30. And (remember) when your Lord said t o t he angels: "Verily, I am going t o place (mankind) generat ions aft er generat ions on eart h.'' They said: "Will You place t herein t hose who will make mischief t herein and shed blood, while we glorify You wit h praises and t hanks and sanct ify You.'' He (Allah) said: "I know t hat which you do not know.'') Adam and His Children inhabited the Earth, Generation after Generation Allah reit erat ed His favor on t he Children of Adam when He st at ed t hat He ment ioned t hem in t he highest of height s before He creat ed t hem. Allah said, びるムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ヤャ マよケ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡∠ (And (remember) when your Lord said t o t he angels.) This Ayah means, "O Muhammad ! Ment ion t o your people what Allah said t o t he angels, びるヘΒ͡カ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ ヶあ まぴ ⇔ ∠ ヤ∠ ͡ ∠ プ モハ ィ ル͡ (Verily, I am going t o place a Khalifah on eart h). Meaning people reproducing generat ion aft er generat ion, cent ury aft er cent ury, j ust as Allah said, びチ∇ケΙや ブゃ⇒∠カ ∇ユムヤバィ ン͡ ャや ヲワヱぴ ͡ x ∠ ͡ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ⊥ ∠ (And it is He Who has made you (Khala'if) generat ions coming aft er generat ions, replacing each ot her on t he eart h) (6:165), びチ∇ケΙや ¬べ∠ ヤェ ∇ユムヤバ∇イΑヱぴ ͡ x ∠ ヘ∠⊥ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ (And makes you (Khulafa') inherit ors of t he eart h) (27:62), チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ るムゃ⇒∠ョ ∇ユムレ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバイャ ¬べ∠ ル ∇ヲャヱぴ ͡ x プ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ヤz ⊥ ョ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゼ∠ ∠∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ガΑ ∠ ヘ⊥ ∠ (And if it were Our will, We would have (dest royed you (mankind all, and) made angels t o replace you (Yakhlufun) on t he eart h.) (43: 60) and, び∀ ∇ヤ∠ ∇ユワギ∇バよ リ͡ ブヤガプぴ ブ カ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ (Then aft er t hem succeeded an (evil) generat ion (Khalf)) (7:169). It appears t hat Allah was not refering t o Adam specifically as Khalifah, ot herwise he would not have allowed t he angels' st at ement , び¬べ∠ ギャや マヘ∇ジΑヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ギジ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバ∇イゎぺぴ ∠ ョあ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Will You place t herein t hose who will make mischief t herein and shed blood). The angels meant t hat t his t ype of creat ure usually commit s t he at rocit ies t hey ment ioned. The angels knew of t his fact , according t o t heir underst anding of human nat ure, for Allah st at ed t hat He would creat e man from clay. Or, t he angels underst ood t his fact from t he word Khalifah, which also means t he person who j udges disput es t hat occur bet ween people, forbidding t hem from inj ust ice and sin, as Al-Qurt ubi said. The st at ement t he angels ut t ered was not a form of disput ing wit h Allah's, nor out of envy for t he Children of Adam, as some mist akenly t hought . Allah has described t hem as t hose who do not precede Him in speaking, meaning t hat t hey do not ask Allah anyt hing wit hout His permission. When Allah informed t hem t hat He was going t o creat e a creat ion on t he eart h, and t hey had knowledge t hat t his creat ion would commit mischief on it , as Qat adah ment ioned, t hey said, び¬べ∠ ギャや マヘ∇ジΑヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ギジ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバ∇イゎぺぴ ∠ ョあ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Will You place t herein t hose who will make mischief t herein and shed blood) This is only a quest ion for t he sake of learning about t he wisdom of t hat , as if t hey said, Our Lord! What is t he wisdom of creat ing such creat ures since t hey will cause t rouble in t he eart h and spill blood "If t he wisdom behind t his act ion is t hat You be worshipped, we praise and glorify You (meaning we pray t o You) we never indulge in mischief, so why creat e ot her creat ures'' Allah said t o t he angels in answer t o t heir inquiry, び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ まぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ (I know t hat which you do not know.) meaning, "I know t hat t he benefit of creat ing t his t ype of creat ure out weighs t he harm t hat you ment ioned, t hat which you have no knowledge of. I will creat e among t hem Prophet s and send Messengers. I will also creat e among t hem t rut hful, mart yrs, right eous believers, worshippers, t he modest , t he pious, t he scholars who implement t heir knowledge, humble people and t hose who love Allah and follow His Messengers.'' The Sahih recorded t hat when t he angels ascend t o Allah wit h t he records of t he servant 's deeds, Allah asks t hem, while having bet t er knowledge, "How did you leave My servant s'' They will say, "We came t o t hem while t hey were praying and left t hem while t hey were praying.'' This is because t he angels work in shift s wit h mankind, and t hey change shift s during t he Faj r and ` Asr prayers. The angels who descended will remain wit h us, while t he angels who have remained wit h us ascend wit h our deeds. The Messenger of Allah said, ケゅ∠ レャや モヨハヱ ケゅ∠ レャや モ∇らホ モ∇Βヤャや モヨハ ヮ∇Βャま ノプ∇ゲΑ» ͡ ヰz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヰz ∠ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ «モ∇Βヤャや モ∇らホ z ∠ ∠ (The deeds of t he night are elevat ed t o Allah before t he morning, and t he deeds of t he morning before t he night falls. ) Hence, t he angels' st at ement , "We came t o t hem while t hey were praying and left t hem while t hey were praying,'' explains Allah's st at ement , び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ まぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ (I know t hat which you do not know.) It was said t hat t he meaning of Allah's st at ement , びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バゎ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ まぴ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ (I know t hat which you do not know.) is, "I have a specific wisdom in creat ing t hem, which you do not have knowledge of.'' It was also said t hat it is in answer t o, びマャ サあ ボルヱ ポギ∇ヨエよ ウあ ジル リ∇エルヱぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (While we glorify You wit h praises and t hanks and sanct ify You) aft er which Allah said, び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ まぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ (I know t hat which you do not know). Meaning, "I know t hat Iblis is not as you are, alt hough he is among you.'' Ot hers said, リ∇エルヱ ¬べ∠ ギャや マヘ∇ジΑヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ギジ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバ∇イゎぺぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョあ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ びマャ サあ ボルヱ ポギ∇ヨエよ ウあ ジル ∠ ∠ ⊥ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ "(Will You place t herein t hose who will make mischief t herein and shed blood, while we glorify you wit h praises and t hanks and sanct ify You.) is t heir request t hat t hey should be allowed t o inhabit t he eart h, inst ead of t he Children of Adam. So Allah said t o t hem, び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ まぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ (I know t hat which you do not know) if your inhabit ing t he heavens is bet t er, or worse for you.'' Ar-Razi as well as ot hers said t his. Allah knows best . The Obligation of appointing a Khalifah and some related Issues Al-Qurt ubi, as well as ot her scholars, said t hat t his Ayah (2:30) proves t he obligat ion of appoint ing a Khalifah t o pass j udgement s on mat t ers of disput e bet ween people, t o aid t he oppressed against t he oppressor, t o implement t he Islamic penal code and t o forbid evil. There are many ot her t asks t hat can only be fulfilled by appoint ing t he Imam, and what is necessary in performing an obligat ion, is an obligat ion it self. We should st at e here t hat Imamah occurs by eit her naming a successor, as a group among Ahl As-Sunnah scholars said occurred - by t he Prophet - in t he case of Abu Bakr, or hint ing t o a successor. Or, t he current Khalifah names a cert ain person as Khalifah aft er him, as Abu Bakr did wit h ` Umar. Or, t he Khalifah might leave t he mat t er in t he hands of t he Muslim consult at ive council, or a group of right eous men, j ust as ` Umar did. Or, t he people of aut horit y could gat her around a cert ain person t o whom t hey give t he pledge of allegiance, or t hey could select one among t hem t o choose t he candidat e, according t o t he maj orit y of t he scholars. The Khalifah must be a responsible adult Muslim male, able t o perform Ij t ihad (independent legal j udgment s), bodily able, right eous, wit h knowledge of warfare, polit ics. He also must be from t he t ribe of Quraysh, according t o t he correct view, but it is not necessary t hat he be from t he t ribe of Bani Hashim, or t hat he be immune from error, as t he Rafidah (Shiit es) falsely claim. When t he Khalifah becomes an immoral person (Fasiq), should he be impeached There is disagreement over t his mat t er, but t he correct view is t hat he is not t o be removed, because t he Messenger of Allah said, ヮΒ͡ ぶや リョ ∇ユミギ∇レハ ゅ⇔ や∠ よ や⇔ ∇ヘミ や∇ヱゲゎ ∇ラぺ ゅzま» ͡ プ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ェ ヲ∠ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ «ラゅ∠ ∇ゲよ ワ ⊥ (Unless you wit ness a clear Kufr regarding which you have clear proof from Allah. ) Does t he Khalifah have t he right t o resign from his post There is a difference on t his issue. It is a fact t hat Al-Hasan bin ` Ali removed himself from t he posit ion of Khalifah and surrendered it t o Mu` awiyah. However, t his occurred because of a necessit y, and Al-Hasan was praised for t his act ion. It is not permissible t o appoint t wo Imams for t he world or more at t he same t ime. This is not allowed because t he Messenger of Allah said, ∇ユムレ∇Βよ ベゲヘΑ ∇ラぺ ギΑ͡ Α ∀ Β͡ ィ ∇ユミゲ∇ョぺヱ ∇ユミ¬ゅ∠ ∇リョ» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ノ ヨ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ∠ «ラゅ∠ ∇リョ ゅ⇔ ͡ ゅ∠ ロヲ⊥わ∇ホゅ∠ ミ ∠ レも ミ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ プ (Whoever came t o you while you are unit ed and t ried t o divide you, t hen execut e him, no mat t er who he is.) This is t he view of t he maj orit y of scholars. Imam Al-Haramayn st at ed t hat Abu Ishaq allowed t he appoint ment of t wo or more Imams when t he various provinces are far away from each ot her. However, Imam Al-Haramayn himself was indecisive about t his view. ヴ∠ハ ∇ユヰッゲハ z を ゅ∠ ヤミ ¬べ∠ ∇シΕや ュキや∠ ユヤハヱぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ヰz⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z∠ ∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ¬Ιぽ⇒∠ ¬べ∠ ∇シほよ ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ らル∠ メゅ∠ プ るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや ⊥ ミ ま ͡ ∠ ⊥ ワ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ル ゃ͡ ぺ ∠ ボ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ べ∠ わ∇ヨヤハ ゅ∠ Ιま べ∠ ∠ ユ∇ヤハ Ι マレ⇒∠ ∇らシ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ - リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ レ∠ z∠ ョ z ͡ レャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ ャ ホ ∠ ホ͡ タ ユ⊥ ∇ゃらル∠ ュキや∠ ゅ⇒∠ メゅ∠ - ユΒ͡ エ∇ャや ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ろル∠ マルま ヰ ͡ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α ∠ ホ ⊥ ム∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ ∇ユムャ モ⊥ ぺ ∇ユャぺ メゅ∠ ユ͡ もべ∠ ∇シほよ ユ⊥ ほらルぺ べz ヤプ ∇ユヰもべ∠ ∇シほよ ⊥ z ホ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ホ ヰ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ワ∠∠ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ れや∠ ⇒∠ ジャや ょ∇Βビ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ ま ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ヲ ヨz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ び ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱ⊥ ∇らゎ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ (31. And He t aught Adam all t he names (of everyt hing), t hen He showed t hem t o t he angels and said, "Tell Me t he names of t hese if you are t rut hful.'') (32. They (angels) said: "Glory is t o You, we have no knowledge except what you have t aught us. Verily, You are t he Knower, t he Wise.'') (33. He said: "O Adam! Inform t hem of t heir names,'' and when he had informed t hem of t heir names, He said: "Did I not t ell you t hat I know t he Ghayb (unseen) in t he heavens and t he eart h, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing'') The Virtue of Adam over the Angels Allah st at ed t he virt ue of Adam above t he angels, because He t aught Adam, rat her t han t hem, t he names of everyt hing. This occurred aft er t hey prost rat ed t o him. This discussion precedes t hat event here, only t o show t he import ance of his posit ion, and t he absence of t he angels' knowledge about creat ing t he Khalifah when t hey asked about it . So Allah informed t he angels t hat He knows what t hey do not know, and t hen He ment ioned t his t o show t hem Adam's superiorit y over t hem in knowledge. Allah said, びゅ∠ ヤミ ¬べ∠ ∇シΕや ュキや∠ ユヤハヱぴ ヰz⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z∠ ∠ (And He t aught Adam all t he names (of everyt hing)). Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t he Ayah; びゅ∠ ヤミ ¬べ∠ ∇シΕや ュキや∠ ユヤハヱぴ ヰz⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z∠ ∠ (And He t aught Adam all t he names (of everyt hing)) "Meaning, t he names t hat people use, such as human, animal, sky, eart h, land, sea, horse, donkey, and so fort h, including t he names of t he ot her species.'' Ibn Abi Hat im and Ibn Jarir report ed t hat ` Asim bin Kulayb narrat ed from Sa` id bin Ma` bad t hat Ibn ` Abbas was quest ioned, びゅ∠ ヤミ ¬べ∠ ∇シΕや ュキや∠ ユヤハヱぴ ヰz⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z∠ ∠ (And He t aught Adam all t he names (of everyt hing)) "Did Allah t each him t he names of t he plat e and t he pot '' He said, "Yes, and even t he t erms for breaking wind!'' Allah t aught Adam t he names of everyt hing, t heir proper names, t he names of t heir charact erist ics, and what t hey do, j ust as Ibn ` Abbas st at ed about t he t erms for passing gas. In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari explained t his Ayah in t he Book of Tafsir wit h a report from Anas bin Malik who said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ヲャ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ラヲ⊥ ョぽ⊥ ∇ャや ノヨわ∇イΑ» ͡ ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ヨ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヲ⊥ ぺ ろ∇ルぺ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ュキへ ラヲ⊥ ∇ほΒプ ゅ∠ よケ ヴ∠ま ゅ∠ ∇バヘ∇ゼわ∇シや よ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ レあ ∠ ャ͡ レ ∠ ∠ マヨヤハヱ ヮわムもゅ∠ョ マャ ギイ∇シぺヱ ロギΒよ ぶや マボヤカ サゅz ャや ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ レ ヴz ェ マよケ ギ∇レハ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ノヘ∇セゅ∠ ∩∃ ∇ヶセ あ ミ ¬ゅ∠ ∇シぺ わ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ レャ ∠ プ ¬ ∠ モ⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∇ユミゅ∠ ワ ろ∇ジャ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∩やグ∠ ゅ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇リョ ゅ∠ エΑゲ⊥ ⊥ レ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ワ レル ムョ ͡ レ∠ Α メz ぺ ヮz みプ ゅ⇔ ヲ⊥ やヲ⊥ ∇もや ヶ͡ ∇エわ∇ジΒプ ヮら∇ルク ゲミ∇グΑヱ ⊥ ヱ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ェ ル わ Β ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ∩ヮ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇ほ∠ ∠ ∩͡ ∇ケほ∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ヴ∠ま ぶや ヮんバよ メヲ⊥ ケ ル ゎ Βプ チ ∠ ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ シ∠ ヮャ ザ∇Βャ ゅ∠ ヮz ケ ヮ∠や∠ シ ゲ⊥ ∇グΑヱ ∇ユミゅレ⊥ ろ∇ジャ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ よ∠ ャ ぽ⊥ ミ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ワ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ リヨ∇ェゲャや モΒ͡カ やヲ⊥ ∇もや :メヲ⊥ Βプ ヶ͡ ∇エわ∇ジΒプ ユ∇ヤハ ヮ͡ z ∠ ヤ∠ わ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ よ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ やヲ⊥ ∇もや :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∇ユミゅ∠ ワ ろ∇ジャ :メヲ⊥ Β∠ ヮルヲ⊥ ∇ほΒプ シ ョ わ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ レ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ プ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ ろ∇ジャ :メヲ⊥ Β∠ ∩∠ や∠ ∇ヲわャや ロゅ∠ ∇ハぺ∠ ぶや ヮヨヤミ や⇔ ∇らハ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ プ り ケ z ⊥ ト ヱ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ギ ∠ ∇リョ ヶ͡ ∇エわ∇ジΒプ ザ∇ヘル ゲ∇Βピよ ザ∇ヘレャや モ∇わホ ゲミ∇グΒプ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ワ ͡ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ レ⊥ るヨヤミヱ ヮャヲ⊥ ケヱ ぶや∠ ∇らハ ヴジΒ͡ やヲ⊥ ∇もや :メヲ⊥ Βプ ヮよケ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ シ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ハ わ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ やヲ⊥ ∇もや ∇ユミゅ∠ ワ ろ∇ジャ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ヮルヲ⊥ ∇ほΒプ ∩⊥ ェヱ⊥ ヱ ぶや わ ⊥ レ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ ヮ∠ ケ ͡ ∩∠ カほゎ ゅ∠ ヱ ヮら∇ルク ∇リョ ュz ボゎ ゅ∠ ヮャ ゲヘビ や⇔ ∇らハ や⇔ ヨエョ ゲz ∠∠ ョ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ギ ∠ ギz ∠ ⊥ ラク∇ほΒプ ヶあ ケ ヴ∠ハ ラクほわ∇シぺ ヴz ェ ペヤト∇ルほプ ヶあ ヲ⊥ ∇ほΒプ ⊥ ∠ ∠ よ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ͡∠ ∠ ル ゎ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ヶ͡ ハギΒプ や⇔ ィゅ∠ ろ∇バホヱ ヶあ ケ ろ∇Αぺケ や∠ みプ ∩ヶ͡ ョ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ͡ シ ⊥ ∠ ∠ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ク͡ ャ ∇モホヱ ∇ヮト∇バゎ ∇モシヱ マシ∇ぺケ ∇ノプ∇ケや :メゅ∠ Α z を ぶや ¬ゅ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ユ⊥ ⊥ ∠ セ ギΒ͡ ∇エわよ ロギヨ∇ェほプ ヶ͡ ∇ぺケ ノプ∇ケほプ ∩∇ノヘゼゎ ∇ノヘ∇セや∠ ∇ノヨ∇ジΑ ∃ ヨ ∠͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ シ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z∠ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ∠ ⊥ z を るレイ∇ャや ユヰヤカ∇キほプ や6 ェ ヶ͡ ギエΒプ ノヘ∇セぺ z を ヮΒ͡ ヨあバΑ ユ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥͡ ⊥ ギ∠ ャ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ͡ レ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヶ͡ ギエΒプ ノヘ∇セぺ z を ヮヤ∇んョ ヶあ ケ ろ∇Αぺケ や∠ み∠ ヮ∇Βャま キヲ⊥ ぺ ャ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ よ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ク プ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ハ∠ キヲ⊥ ぺ z を るんャゅz ャや キヲ⊥ ぺ z を るレイ∇ャや ユヰヤカ∇キほプ や6 ェ ⊥ ハ ユ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ん ⊥ ハ∠ ユ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥͡ ⊥ ギ ヮジらェ ∇リョ ゅzま ケゅz ャや ヶ͡ ヶボよ ゅ∠ :メヲ⊥ ほプ るバよやz ャや ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ レ プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ホ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ «キヲ⊥ガ∇ャや ヮ∇Βヤハ ょィヱヱ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや ヤ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ (The believers will gat her on t he Day of Resurrect ion and will say, ` We should seek a means of int ercession wit h our Lord' They will go t o Adam and say, ` O Adam! You are t he fat her of all mankind, Allah creat ed you wit h His Own Hand, ordered t he angels t o prost rat e for you and t aught you t he names of everyt hing. Will you not int ercede for us wit h your Lord, so t hat he relieve us from t his gat hering place' On t hat Adam will reply, ` I cannot do what you have asked'. He will have remembered his error and will be embarrassed, saying, ` Go t o Nuh, for he is t he first of Allah's Messengers whom Allah sent t o t he people of t he eart h.' They will go t o Nuh and ask him. He will say, ` I cannot do what you have asked.' He will recall asking Allah what he was not t o know, and will also be embarrassed. He will say, ` Go t o Khalil Ar-Rahman.' They will go t o Ibrahim and he will also say, ` I cannot do what you have asked.' He will say, ` Go t o Musa, a servant t o whom Allah spoke direct ly and gave t he Tawrah.' Musa will say, ` I cannot do what you have asked.' He will remember t hat he killed a person wit hout j ust ificat ion and will be embarrassed before his Lord. He will say, ` Go t o ` Isa, Allah's servant and Messenger and His Word and a spirit of His.' They will go t o ` Isa and he will say, ` I will not do what you asked. Go t o Muhammad, a servant whose previous and lat t er errors were forgiven.' They will come t o me, and I will go t o Allah and seek His permission and He will give me His permission. When I gaze at my Lord, I will prost rat e myself and Allah will allow me t o remain like t hat as much as He will. Then I will be addressed, ` O Muhammad! Raise your head; ask, for you will be given what you ask, and int ercede, for your int ercession will be accept ed.' I will raise my head and t hank and praise Allah wit h such praise as He will inspire me. I will int ercede and He will grant me a quant it y of people t hat He will admit int o Paradise. I will go back t o Him, and when I see my Lord, I will int ercede and He will allow me a quant it y t hat He will admit int o Paradise. I will do t hat for a t hird and t hen a fourt h t ime. I will say, ` There are no more people left in Hell except t hose whom t he Qur'an has incarcerat ed and have t hus acquired et ernit y in Hell.') This Hadit h was collect ed by Muslim, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah. fThe reason why we ment ioned t his Hadit h here is t he Prophet 's st at ement , ぶや マボヤカ サゅz ャや ヲ⊥ ぺ ろ∇ルぺ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ュキへ ラヲ⊥ ∇ほΒプ» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ レ よ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ あ ミ ¬ゅ∠ ∇シぺ マヨヤハヱ ヮわムもゅ∠ョ マャ ギイ∇シぺヱ ロギΒよ モ⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ «¬∇ヶセ ∠ (They will go t o Adam and say, ` O Adam! You are t he fat her of all mankind, and Allah creat ed you wit h His Own Hand, ordered t he angels t o prost rat e for you, and t aught you t he names of everyt hing). This part of t he Hadit h t est ifies t o t he fact t hat Allah t aught Adam t he names of all creat ures. This is why Allah said, びるムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∇ユヰッゲハ z をぴ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then He showed t hem t o t he angels) meaning, t he obj ect s or creat ions. ` Abdur-Razzaq narrat ed t hat Ma` mar said t hat Qat adah said, "Allah paraded t he obj ect s before t he angels, びリΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ¬Ιぽ⇒∠ ¬べ∠ ∇シほよ ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ らル∠ メゅ∠ プぴ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま ͡ ∠ ⊥ ワ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ル ゃ͡ ぺ ∠ ボ∠ (And said, "Tell Me t he names of t hese if you are t rut hful'').'' Allah's st at ement means, "Tell Me t he names of what I paraded before you, O angels who said, び¬べ∠ ギャや マヘ∇ジΑヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ギジ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバ∇イゎぺぴ ∠ ョあ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Will You place t herein t hose who will make mischief t herein and shed blood). You asked, ` Are You appoint ing a Khalifah from us or from ot her creat ions We praise and glorify You. Therefore, Allah said, "If you say t he t rut h, t hat if I appoint a non-angel Khalifah on t he eart h, he and his offspring will disobey Me, commit mischief and shed blood, but if I designat e you t he Khalifahs you will obey Me, follow My command and honor and glorify Me. However, since you do not know t he names of t he obj ect s I paraded before you, t hen you have even less knowledge of what will occur on t he eart h t hat does not exist yet .'' ろル∠ マルま べ∠ わ∇ヨヤハ ゅ∠ Ιま べ∠ ∠ ユ∇ヤハ Ι マレ⇒∠ ∇らシ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レ∠ z∠ ョ z ͡ レャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ ャ ホ び ユΒ͡ エ∇ャや ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ⊥ ム∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ (They (angels) said: "Glory is t o You, we have no knowledge except what you have t aught us. Verily, it is You, t he Knower, t he Wise.''). Here t he angels are praising Allah's holiness, and perfect ion above every kind of deficiency, affirming t hat no creat ure could ever acquire any part of Allah's knowledge, except by His permission, nor could anyone know anyt hing except what Allah t eaches t hem. This is why t hey said, ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ろル∠ マルま べ∠ わ∇ヨヤハ ゅ∠ Ιま べ∠ ∠ ユ∇ヤハ Ι マレ⇒∠ ∇らシぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レ∠ z∠ ョ z ͡ レャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ びユΒ͡ エ∇ャや ⊥ ム∠ ("Glory is t o You, we have no knowledge except what you have t aught us. Verily You are t he Knower, t he Wise) meaning, Allah is knowledgeable of everyt hing, Most Wise about His creat ion, and He makes t he wisest decisions, and He t eaches and deprives whom He wills from knowledge. Verily, Allah's wisdom and j ust ice in all mat t ers is perfect . Adam's Virtue of Knowledge is demonstrated Allah said, ユ⊥ ほらル∠ べz ヤプ ∇ユヰもべ∠ ∇シほよ ユ⊥ ∇ゃらル∠ ュキや∠ ゅ⇒∠ メゅ∠ ぴ ワ∠∠ ぺ ヨ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ヰ ͡ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α ∠ ホ ょ∇Βビ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ ま ∇ユムャ モ⊥ ぺ ∇ユャぺ メゅ∠ ユ͡ もべ∠ ∇シほよ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ ⊥ z ホ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ホ ヰ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱ⊥ ∇らゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ れや∠ ⇒∠ ジャや ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ヲ ヨz び ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ (He said: "O Adam! Inform t hem of t heir names,'' and when he had informed t hem of t heir names, He said: "Did I not t ell you t hat I know t he Ghayb (unseen) in t he heavens and t he eart h, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing'') Zayd bin Aslam said, "You are Jibril, you are Mika'il, you are Israfil, unt il he ment ioned t he name of t he crow.'' Muj ahid said t hat Allah's st at ement , び∇ユヰもべ∠ ∇シほよ ユ⊥ ∇ゃらル∠ ュキや∠ ゅ⇒∠ メゅ∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ヰ ͡ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α ∠ ホ (He said: "O Adam! Inform t hem of t heir names,'') "The name of t he pigeon, t he crow and everyt hing.'' St at ement s of a similar meaning were report ed from Sa` id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, and Qat adah. When Adam's virt ue over t he angels became apparent , as he ment ioned t he names t hat Allah t aught him, Allah said t o t he angels, チ∇ケΙや∠ れや∠ ⇒∠ ジャや ょ∇Βビ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ ま ∇ユムャ モ⊥ ぺ ∇ユャぺぴ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ヲ ヨz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ ⊥ z ホ∠ ∠∠ びラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱ⊥ ∇らゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ (Did I not t ell you t hat I know t he Ghayb (unseen) in t he heavens and t he eart h, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) This means, "Did I not st at e t hat I know t he seen and unseen mat t ers. '' Similarly, Allah said, び ヴ∠ ∇カぺヱ ゲジャや ユヤ∇バΑ ヮルみプ メ∇ヲボ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ゲヰ∇イゎ ラ͡ヱぴ ヘ ∠ ∠ z あ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ ∠ ま∠ (And if you (O Muhammad ) speak (t he invocat ion) aloud, t hen verily, He knows t he secret and t hat which is yet more hidden) (20:7). Also, Allah said about t he hoopoe, t hat it said t o Sulayman; ヴ͡ ¬∇ょガ∇ャや ァゲ∇ガΑ ン͡ ャや ヮヤャ ∇やヱ⊥ イ∇ジΑ Ιぺぴ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ グz ͡ z ギ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ラヲ⊥ ∇ガゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇バΑヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョヱ ∠ ヘ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz び ユΒ͡ バ∇ャや ス∇ゲバ∇ャや ゆケ ヲワ Ιま ∠ ⇒∠͡ Ι ヮヤャや ͡ ヌ ∠ ͡ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ヮ ャま ∠ ⊥ z ( As Shayt an (Sat an) has barred t hem from Allah's way so t hey do not prost rat e before Allah, Who brings t o light what is hidden in t he heavens and t he eart h, and knows what you conceal and what you reveal. Allah, La ilaha illa Huwa (none has t he right t o be worshipped but He), t he Lord of t he Supreme Throne!) (27:25-26). They also have comment s ot her t han what we have said about t he meaning of Allah's st at ement , びラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱ⊥ ∇らゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱぴ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ (And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing). It is report ed from Ad-Dahhak t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , びラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱ⊥ ∇らゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱぴ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ (And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) means, "` I know t he secret s, j ust as I know t he apparent t hings, such as, what Iblis concealed in his heart of arrogance and pride.'' Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi narrat ed t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat , びラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱギ∇らゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱぴ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ (And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) means, "The apparent part of what t hey said was: ` Do you creat e in it t hat which would commit mischief and shed blood' The hidden meaning was: ` We have more knowledge and honor t han any creat ion our Lord would creat e.' But t hey came t o know t hat Allah favored Adam above t hem regarding knowledge and honor.'' Ιま ∇やヱ⊥ イジプ ュキΙ ∇やヱ⊥ イ∇シや るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ヤャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ z ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ 6 ギ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ レ ⊥ ͡ ∠ び リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ムわ∇シや∠ ヴ∠ ぺ ザΒ͡∇よま ∠ ゲ͡ ム ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ よ∠ ∠ ヤ ͡ (34. And (remember) when We said t o t he angels: "Prost rat e yourselves before Adam.'' And t hey prost rat ed except Iblis (Shayt an), he refused and was proud and was one of t he disbelievers (disobedient t o Allah).) Honoring Adam when the Angels prostrated before Him This Ayah ment ions t he great honor t hat Allah grant ed Adam, and Allah reminded Adam's offspring of t his fact . Allah commanded t he angels t o prost rat e before Adam, as t his Ayah and many Hadit hs t est ify, such as t he Hadit h about t he int ercession t hat we discussed. There is a Hadit h about t he supplicat ion of Musa, "O my Lord! Show me Adam who caused us and himself t o be t hrown out of Paradise.'' When Musa met Adam, he said t o him, "Are you Adam whom Allah creat ed wit h His Own Hands, blew life int o and commanded t he angels t o prost rat e before'' Iblis was among Those ordered t o prost rat e before Adam, alt hough He was not an Angel When Allah commanded t he angels t o prost rat e before Adam, Iblis was included in t his command. Alt hough Iblis was not an angel, he was t rying - and pret ending - t o imit at e t he angels' behavior and deeds, and t his is why he was also included in t he command t o t he angels t o prost rat e before Adam. Sat an was crit icized for defying t hat command, as we will explain wit h det ail, Allah willing, when we ment ion t he Tafsir of Allah's st at ement , びヮよケ ゲ∇ョぺ ∇リハ ペジヘプ リイ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ザΒ͡∇よま Ιまぴ ͡ あ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ∠ ヤ ͡ z ͡ (Except Iblis (Sat an). He was one of t he Jinn; he disobeyed t he command of his Lord.) (18:50) Similarly, Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Before he undert ook t he pat h of sin, Iblis was wit h t he angels and was called ` Azazil.' He was among t he resident s of t he eart h and was one of t he most act ive worshippers and knowledgeable persons among t he angels. This fact caused him t o be arrogant . Iblis was from a genus called Jinn.'' The Prostration was before Adam but the Obedience was to Allah Qat adah comment ed on Allah's st at ement , びュキΙ ∇やヱ⊥ イ∇シや るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ヤャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ ∠ 6 ギ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ ∠ ͡ レ ⊥ ͡ ∠ (And (remember) when We said t o t he angels: "Prost rat e yourselves before Adam.'') "The obedience was for Allah and t he prost rat ion was before Adam. Allah honored Adam and commanded t he angels t o prost rat e before him.'' Some people said t hat t his prost rat ion was j ust a prost rat ion of greet ing, peace and honor, hence Allah's st at ement , メゅ∠ ヱ や∠ イシ ヮャ ∇やヱぁ カヱ ス∇ゲバ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヮ∇Αヲよぺ ノプケヱぴ ∠ ホ∠ ギz ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヴあ ケ ゅ∠ ヤバィ ∇ギホ モ∇らホ リ͡ ヴ⇒∠ ∇ぼケ モΑ͡ ∇ほゎ や∠ ⇒∠ ろよほΑ よ∠ ヰ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ Α ⊥ ⊥ ヱ ∠ グ ワ ͡ ∠ ∠ びゅ6 ェ ボ∠ (And he (Prophet Yusuf) raised his parent s t o t he t hrone and t hey fell down before him prost rat e. And he said: "O my fat her! This is t he int erpret at ion of my dream aforet ime! My Lord has made it come t rue!'') (12:100) The pract ice of prost rat ing was allowed for previous nat ions, but was repealed for ours. Mu` adh said t o t he Prophet , "I visit ed Ash-Sham and found t hat t hey used t o prost at e before t heir priest s and scholars. You, O Messenger of Allah, are more deserving of prost rat ion.'' The Prophet said, れ∇ゲョほャ ゲゼらャ ギイ∇ジΑ ∇ラぺ や⇔ ゼよ や⇔ ョへ ろ∇レミ ∇ヲャ ゅ∠» ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ «ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヮボェ ユヌハ ∇リョ ゅ∠ ィヱ∠ ャ ギイ∇ジゎ ∇ラぺ りぺ∇ゲヨ∇ャや ヰ ∠∠ ͡ あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヰ͡ ゴ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (No. If I was t o command any human t o prost rat e before anot her human, I would command t he wife t o prost rat e before her husband because of t he enormit y of his right on her.) Ar-Razi agreed wit h t his view. Also, Qat adah said about Allah's st at ement , リョ ラゅ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ムわ∇シや∠ ヴ∠ ぺ ザΒ͡∇よま Ιま ∇やヱ⊥ イジプぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ よ∠ ∠ ヤ ͡ z ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ム (And t hey prost rat ed except Iblis (Shayt an), he refused and was proud and was one of t he disbelievers (disobedient t o Allah).) "Iblis, t he enemy of Allah, envied Adam because Allah honored Adam. He said, ` I was creat ed from fire, and he was creat ed from clay.' Therefore, t he first error ever commit t ed was arrogance, for t he enemy of Allah was t oo arrogant t o prost rat e before Adam.'' I - Ibn Kat hir say, t he following is recorded in t he Sahih, ∇リョ るらェ メゅ∠ ∇んョ ヮら∇ヤホ ヶ͡ ラゅ∠ ∇リョ るレイ∇ャや モカ∇ギΑ ゅ∠» ͡ ∃ z∠ ⊥ ボ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ z∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ «ゲ∇らミ ∇リョ メキ∇ゲカ ͡ ͡ ∃∠ ∠ (No person who has t he weight of a must ard seed of arrogance in his heart shall ent er Paradise.) Iblis had disbelief, arrogance, and rebellion, all of which caused him t o be expelled from t he holy presence of Allah, and His mercy. Κミヱ るレイ∇ャや マィ∇ヱコヱ ろ∇ルぺ ∇リム∇シや ュキや∠ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ヤホヱぴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α レ ⊥ ∠ りゲイゼャや ログ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ボ∠ Ιヱ ゅ∠ わ∇ゃセ ゑ∇Βェ や⇔ ビケ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ワ よ ゲ ゎ ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ギ ∠ ∠ ヰ ͡ ゅ∠ ∇レハ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや ゅ∠ ヰャコほプ - リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ∇ャや リョ ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ わプ ヰ ∠ ⊥ ト z ヨ⊥ z∠ ∠∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ∠ ͡ ル ム∠ ∠ ∇ユムツ∇バよ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワや ゅ∠ ∇ヤホヱ ヮΒ͡ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ゅz ョ ゅ∠ ヰィゲ∇カほプ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ト ͡ レ ⊥ ∠ ͡ プ ル ミ ヨ ͡ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヴ∠ま ∀ ⇒∠ ョヱ ゲボわ∇ジョ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇ユムャヱ ヱギハ ヂ∇バらャ ャ͡ ノ わ∠ ∠ x ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ プ ⊥ ∠∠ x ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ び リΒ͡ ∃ ェ (35. And We said: "O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in t he Paradise and eat bot h of you freely wit h pleasure and delight , of t hings t herein wherever you will, but come not near t his t ree or you bot h will be of t he Zalimin (wrongdoers). '') (36. Then t he Shayt an made t hem slip t herefrom (t he Paradise), and got t hem out from t hat in which t hey were. We said: "Get you down, all, wit h enmit y bet ween yourselves. On eart h will be a dwelling place for you and an enj oyment for a t ime.'') Adam was honored again Allah honored Adam by commanding t he angels t o prost rat e before him, so t hey all complied except for Iblis. Allah t hen allowed Adam t o live and eat wherever and what ever he wished in Paradise. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah report ed Abu Dharr saying, "I said, ` O Messenger of Allah! Was Adam a Prophet ' He said, «ゅ⇔らホ ヮzャや ヮヨヤミ ゅ⇔ヲ⊥ ケ ゅ6 らル ∇ユバル» ヤ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ャ シ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Yes. He was a Prophet and a Messenger t o whom Allah spoke direct ly), meaning びるレイ∇ャや マィ∇ヱコヱ ろル∠ ∇リム∇シやぴ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ((O Adam!) Dwell you and your wife in t he Paradise.)'' Hawwa' was created before Adam entered Paradise The Ayah (2:35) indicat es t hat Hawwa' was creat ed before Adam ent ered Paradise, as Muhammad bin Ishaq st at ed. Ibn Ishaq said, "Aft er Allah finished crit icizing Iblis, and aft er t eaching Adam t he names of everyt hing, He said, び∇ユヰもべ∠ ∇シほよ ユ⊥ ∇ゃらル∠ ュキや∠ ゅ⇒∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ヰ ͡ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α (O Adam! Inform t hem of t heir names) unt il, びユΒ͡ エ∇ャや ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ろル∠ マルまぴ ⊥ ム∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ (Verily, You are t he Knower, t he Wise.) Then Adam fell asleep, as t he People of t he Book and ot her scholars such as Ibn ` Abbas have st at ed, Allah t ook one of Adam's left ribs and made flesh grow in it s place, while Adam was asleep and unaware. Allah t hen creat ed Adam's wife, Hawwa', from his rib and made her a woman, so t hat she could be a comfort for him. When Adam woke up and saw Hawwa' next t o him, it was claimed, he said, ` My flesh and blood, my wife.' Hence, Adam reclined wit h Hawwa'. When Allah married Adam t o Hawwa' and gave him comfort , Allah said t o him direct ly, ゅ∠ ∇レョ Κミヱ るレイ∇ャや マィ∇ヱコヱ ろ∇ルぺ ∇リム∇シや ュキや∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ヰ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ わプ りゲイゼャや ログ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ゲ∇ボゎ Ιヱ ゅ∠ わ∇ゃセ ゑ∇Βェ や⇔ ビケ ル ム∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ワ よ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ∇ャや リョ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ∠ ͡ ("O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in t he Paradise and eat bot h of you freely wit h pleasure and delight , of t hings t herein wherever you will, but come not near t his t ree or you bot h will be of t he Zalimin (wrongdoers).'').'' Allah tests Adam Allah's st at ement t o Adam, びりゲイゼャや ログ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ゲ∇ボゎ Ιヱぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ワ よ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (but come not near t his t ree) is a t est for Adam. There are conflict ing opinions over t he nat ure of t he t ree ment ioned here. Some said t hat it was t he grape t ree, barley, dat e t ree, fig t ree, and so fort h. Some said t hat it was a cert ain t ree, and whoever eat s from it will be relieved of t he call of nat ure. It was also said t hat it was a t ree from which t he angels eat so t hat t hey live for et ernit y. Imam Abu Ja` far bin Jarir said, "The correct opinion is t hat Allah forbade Adam and his wife from eat ing from a cert ain t ree in Paradise, but t hey at e from it . We do not know which t ree t hat was, because Allah has not ment ioned anyt hing in t he Qur'an or t he aut hent ic Sunnah about t he nat ure of t his t ree. It was said t hat it was barley, grape, or a fig t ree. It is possible t hat it was one of t hose t rees. Yet , t his is knowledge t hat does not bring any benefit , j ust as being ignorant in it s nat ure does no harm. Allah knows best .'' This is similar t o what ArRazi st at ed in his Tafsir, and t his is t he correct opinion. Allah's st at ement , びゅ∠ ∇レハ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや ゅ∠ ヰャ∠ ∠∠ ぴ ヰ ∠ ⊥ ト z ヨ⊥ zコほプ (Then t he Shayt an made t hem slip t herefrom) eit her refers t o Paradise, and in t his case, it means t hat Shayt an led Adam and Hawwa' away from it , as ` Asim bin Abi An-Naj ud recit ed it . It is also possible t hat t his Ayah refers t o t he forbidden t ree. In t his case, t he Ayah would mean, as Al-Hasan and Qat adah st at ed, "He t ripped t hem.'' In t his case, びゅ∠ ∇レハ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや ゅ∠ ヰャ∠ ∠∠ ぴ ヰ ∠ ⊥ ト z ヨ⊥ zコほプ (Then t he Shayt an made t hem slip t herefrom) means, "Because of t he t ree'', j ust as Allah said, び マプぺ ∇リョ ヮ∇レハ マプ∇ぽΑぴ ∠ ͡⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ (Turned aside t herefrom (i.e. from Muhammad and t he Qur'an) is he who is t urned aside (by t he decree and preordainment of Allah)) (51:9) meaning, t he deviant person becomes t urned aside - or slips - from t he t rut h because of so and so reason. This is why t hen Allah said, びヮΒ͡ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ゅz ョ ゅ∠ ヰィゲ∇カほプぴ ͡ プ ル ミ ヨ ͡ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And got t hem out from t hat in which t hey were) meaning, t he clot hes, spacious dwelling and comfort able sust enance. ヴ͡ ∇ユムャヱ ヱギハ ヂ∇バらャ ∇ユムツ∇バよ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワや ゅ∠ ∇ヤホヱぴ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ x ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ト͡ レ ⊥ ∠ びリΒ͡ ヴ∠ま ∀ ⇒∠ ョヱ ゲボわ∇ジョ チ∇ケΕや ∃ ェ ャ ͡ ノ わ∠ ∠ x ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ (We said: "Get you down, all, wit h enmit y bet ween yourselves. On eart h will be a dwelling place for you and an enj oyment for a t ime.'') meaning, dwelling, sust enance and limit ed life, unt il t he commencement of t he Day of Resurrect ion Adam was very Tall Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Ubayy bin Ka` b said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, サ∇ぺゲャや ゲ∇バセ ゲΒ͡ ミ ゅ⇔や∠ デ ゅ⇔ィケ ュキへ ペヤカ ぶや ラま» ͡ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ん∠ ャ ヲ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ z ͡ ヮ∇レハ テボシ りゲイゼャや ベや∠ ゅz ヤプ ∩∀ ヲ⊥ シ るヤ∇ガル ヮルほミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ク ヨ∠∠ ベ エ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ ヴャま ゲヌル ゅz ヤプ ∩⊥ ゎケ∇ヲハ ヮ∇レョ や∠ よ ゅ∠ メヱほプ ヮシゅ∠ ャ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ヮ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ギ∠ ョ ⊥ z ∠∠ ⊥ ⊥ ら͡ ロゲ∇バセ ∇れグカほプ るレイ∇ャや ヶ͡ ギわ∇ゼΑ モバィ ヮ͡ ケ∇ヲハ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ z∠ プ ぁ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ∠ ヶあ ョ ュキへ ゅ∠ :リヨ∇ェゲャや ロや∠ ゅ∠ プ ∩ゅ∠ ハコゅ∠ プ りゲイセ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ Α ⊥ z ⊥ キ レ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ レ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ゆケ ゅ∠ :メゅ∠ リヨ∇ェゲャや ュΚ∠ ノヨシ ゅz ヤプ ∨ぁ ヘゎ ャ あ ∠ Α ∠ ホ ͡ z ∠ ミ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ゲ͡ ∠ «¬ゅ∠ ∇エわ∇シや リムャヱ Β ͡ ͡ ͡∠ (Allah creat ed Adam t all, wit h t hick hair, j ust as a dat e t ree wit h full branches. When Adam at e from t he forbidden t ree, his cover fell off, and t he first t hing t hat appeared was his privat e area. When he saw his privat e area, he ran away in Paradise and his hair got caught in a t ree. He t ried t o free himself and Ar-Rahman called him, 'O Adam! Are you running away from Me' When Adam heard t he words of Ar-Rahman (Allah), he said, 'No, O my Lord! But I am shy.') Adam remained in Paradise for an Hour Al-Hakim recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Adam was allowed t o reside in Paradise during t he t ime period bet ween t he ` Asr (Aft ernoon) prayer, unt il sunset .'' Al-Hakim t hen comment ed t his is "Sahih according t o t he Two Shaykhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim), but t hey did not include it in t heir collect ions.'' Also, Ibn Abi Hat im recorded Ibn ` Abbas saying, "Allah sent Adam t o eart h t o an area called, Dahna, bet ween Makkah and At -Ta'if.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat Adam was sent down t o India, while Hawwa' was sent t o Jeddah. Iblis was sent down t o Dust umaysan, several miles from Basra. Furt her, t he snake was sent down t o Asbahan. This was report ed by Ibn Abi Hat im. Also, Muslim and An-Nasa'i recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ヮΒ͡ るバヨイ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ザ∇ヨz ャや ヮΒ͡ ∇ろバヤデ ュ∇ヲΑ ゲ∇Βカ» ͡ プ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ゼ ͡ プ ∠ ∠∠ ∃ ∠ ⊥ ∠ «ゅ∠ ∇レョ ァゲ∇カぺ ヮΒ͡ ヱ るレイ∇ャや モカ∇キぺ ヮΒ͡ ヱ ュキへ ペヤカ ヰ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ プ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ プ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ (Friday is t he best day on which t he sun has risen. On Friday, Allah creat ed Adam, admit t ed him int o Paradise, and expelled him from it .) A Doubt and a Rebuttal If one asks, "If t he Paradise t hat Adam was t hrown out of was in heaven, as t he maj orit y of t he scholars assert , t hen is it possible for Iblis t o ent er Paradise, alt hough he was expelled from it by Allah's decision (when he refused t o prost rat e before Adam)'' Basically, t he response t o t his would be t hat t he Paradise which Adam was in, was in t he heavens, not on t he eart h, as we explained in t he beginning of our book Al-Bidayah wanNihayah. The maj orit y of scholars said t hat Shayt an was originally prohibit ed from ent ering Paradise, but t here were t imes when he sneaked int o it in secret . For inst ance, t he Tawrah st at ed t hat Iblis hid inside t he snake's mout h and ent ered Paradise. Some scholars said t hat it is possible t hat Shayt an led Adam and Hawwa' ast ray on his way out of Paradise. Some scholars said t hat he led Adam and Hawwa' ast ray when he was on eart h, while t hey were st ill in heaven, as st at ed by Az-Zamakhshari. Al-Qurt ubi ment ioned several beneficial Hadit hs here about snakes and t he ruling on killing t hem. ヲワ ヮz ま ヮ∇Βヤハ ゆゅ∠ プ れゅ∠ ヤミ ヮよケ リ͡ ュキや∠ ヴz ヤわプぴ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ル͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ わ∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ あ z ョ ⊥ ∠ ¬ ボ∠∠ ∠ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ゆやz わャや ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヲz (37. Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accept ed his repent ance). Verily, He is t he One Who forgives (accept s repent ance), t he Most Merciful.) Adam repents and supplicates to Allah It was report ed t hat t he above Ayah is explained by Allah's st at ement , ゅ∠ ∇ヨェ∇ゲゎヱ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ピゎ ∇ユャ ラ͡ヱ ゅ∠ ジヘル∠ べ∠ ∇ヨヤニ ゅ∠ よケ Ιゅ∠ ぴ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ レャ ͡ ∠ z ま∠ レ∠ ⊥ ぺ レ ∠∠ レz ∠ ∠ ホ び リΑ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ リルヲ⊥ レャ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ム∠ ∠ (37. They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not , and best ow not upon us Your mercy, we shall cert ainly be of t he losers.'') (7:23) as Muj ahid, Sa` id bin Jubayr, Abu Al-` Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Al-Hasan, Qat adah, Muhammad bin Ka` b Al-Qurazi, Kha lid bin Ma` dan, ` At a' Al-Khurasani and ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam have st at ed. As-Suddi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on, びれゅ∠ ヤミ ヮよケ リ͡ ュキや∠ ヴz ヤわプぴ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ あ z ョ ⊥ ∠ ¬ ボ∠∠ ∠ (Then Adam received from his Lord Words) "Adam said, ` O Lord! Did You not creat ed me wit h Your Own Hands' He said, ` Yes.' He said, ` And blow life int o me' He said, ` Yes.' He said, ` And when I sneezed, You said, ` May Allah grant you His mercy.' Does not Your mercy precede Your anger' He was t old, ` Yes.' Adam said, ` And You dest ined me t o commit t his evil act ' He was t old, ` Yes.' He said, ` If I repent , will You send me back t o Paradise' Allah said, ` Yes.''' Similar is report ed from Al-` Awfi, Sa` id bin Jubayr, Sa` id bin Ma` bad, and Ibn ` Abbas. Al-Hakim recorded t his Hadit h in his Must adrak from Ibn Jubayr, who narrat ed it from Ibn ` Abbas. AlHakim said, "It s chain is Sahih and t hey (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it .'' Allah's st at ement , びユΒ͡ ゲャや ゆやz わャや ヲワ ヮz まぴ ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヲz ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ル͡ (Verily, He is t he One Who forgives (accept s repent ance), t he Most Merciful) (2:37) means t hat Allah forgives whoever regret s his error and ret urns t o Him in repent ance. This meaning is similar t o Allah's st at ement s, びロキゅ∠ ハ ∇リハ るよ∇ヲわャや モら∇ボΑ ヲワ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ ∇ユャぺぴ ͡ ͡ ら͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z z ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (Know t hey not t hat Allah accept s repent ance from His servant s) (9:104), びヮジ∇ヘル ∇ユヤ∇ヌΑ ∇ヱぺ や¬ヲ⊥ ∇モヨ∇バΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⇔ シ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (And whoever does evil or wrongs himself) (4:110) and びゅエ͡⇒∠ モヨハヱ ゆゅ∠ リ∠ ヱぴ ⇔ ヤ タ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ョ∠ (And whosoever repent s and does right eous good deeds) (25:71). The Ayat ment ioned above, t est ify t o t he fact t hat Allah forgives t he sins of whoever repent s, demonst rat ing His kindness and mercy t owards His creat ion and servant s. There is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah, t he Most Forgiving, t he Most Merciful. ン⇔ ワ ヴあ ョ ユ⊥ レΒゎ∇ほΑ ゅz みプ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ィ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワや ゅ∠ ∇ヤホぴ ギ⊥ レあ ムz ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ͡∠ バ ヨ∠ ヰ ͡ ト͡ レ ⊥ ラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Κプ ヵや∠ ワ ノらゎ リ∠ プ ∠ ル ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ べ∠ わ⇒∠ べ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ グミヱ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ⊥ エ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ レ͡ Α よ よz ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユワ ケゅz ャや ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ レ (38. We said: "Get down all of you from t his place (t he Paradise), t hen whenever t here comes t o you Hudan (guidance) from Me, and whoever follows My guidance, t here shall be no fear on t hem, nor shall t hey grieve.) (39. But t hose who disbelieve and belie Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelat ions, et c.) such are t he dwellers of t he Fire. They shall abide t herein forever.'') Allah st at ed t hat when He sent Adam, Hawwa', and Shayt an t o eart h from Paradise, He warned t hem t hat He will reveal Books and send Prophet s and Messengers t o t hem, i.e., t o t heir offspring. Abu Al-` Aliyah said, "Al-Huda, refers t o t he Prophet s, Messengers, t he clear signs and plain explanat ion.'' びヵや∠ ワ ノらゎ リ∠ プぴ ∠ ギ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ (And whoever follows My guidance) meaning, whoever accept s what is cont ained in My Books and what I send t he Messengers wit h, び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Κプぴ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ (There shall be no fear on t hem) regarding t he Hereaft er, びラヲルゴ∇エΑ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor shall t hey grieve) regarding t he life of t his world. Similarly, in Surat Ta Ha, Allah said, ヱギハ ヂ∇バらャ ∇ユムツ∇バよ ゅバΒ͡ ィ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ワや メゅ∠ ぴ x ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ ヨ∠ ヰ ͡ トら ∠ ホ モツΑ Κプ ンや∠ ワ ノらゎや リヨプ ン⇔ ワ ヴあ ョ ユ⊥ レΒゎ∇ほΑ ゅz みプ ぁ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ レあ ムz ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ͡∠ び ヴ∠ ∇ゼΑ Ιヱ ボ ∠∠∠ (He (Allah) said: "Get you down (from t he Paradise t o t he eart h), bot h of you, t oget her, some of you are an enemy t o some ot hers. Then if t here comes t o you guidance from Me, t hen whoever follows My guidance, he shall neit her go ast ray, nor shall he be dist ressed.) (20:123) Ibn ` Abbas comment ed, "He will not be misguided in t his life or miserable in t he Hereaft er.'' The Ayah, ゅムレ∠ るゼΒ͡ ョ ヮャ ラみプ ン͡ ∇ミク リ∠ チゲ∇ハぺ ∇リョヱぴ ⇔ ッ ⇔ ∠ バ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ͡∠ ゲ ͡ ハ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ヴ∠ ∇ハ∠ るヨ⇒Β͡ ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ロゲゼ∇エルヱ ヨ ぺ ͡ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ (But whosoever t urns away from My Reminder (i.e. neit her believes in t his Qur'an nor act s on it s t eachings) verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on t he Day of Resurrect ion.) (20:124) is similar t o what Allah st at ed here, ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ べ∠ わ⇒∠ べ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ グミヱ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ エ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ レ͡ Α よ よz ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユワ ケゅz ャや ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ レ (But t hose who disbelieve and belie Our Ayat such are t he dwellers of t he Fire. They shall abide t herein forever), meaning, t hey will remain in Hell for et ernit y and will not find a way out of it . ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヶわヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや モΑ͡ ゲ∇シま ヴ͡ ら⇒∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ¬∠ ͡ レ∠ Α ヴ⇒z まヱ ∇ユミギ∇ヰバよ フヱ⊥ ン͡ ∇ヰバよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ヱぺヱ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ぺ ギ ∠ ͡ プ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ∇ユムバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ろ∇ャゴル∠ べ∠ ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ヱ - ラヲ⊥ ワ∇ケゅ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ヨよ レ͡ ¬∠ ͡ ら∠ プ ゅ⇔ ヨを ヶ͡ ⇒∠ べ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ゼゎ Ιヱ ヮよ ゲプゅ∠ メヱぺ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ゎ Ιヱ レ∠ ∠ わ Α よ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∃ ͡ ミ ∠ z ∠ ル ム∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ ヴ⇒z まヱ ΚΒ͡ホ ͡ ボz プ ∠ Α͡∠ ⇔ ヤ∠ (40. O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I best owed upon you, and fulfill (your obligat ions t o) My covenant (wit h you) so t hat I fulfill (My obligat ions t o) your covenant (wit h Me), and fear none but Me.) (41. And believe in what I have sent down (t his Qur'an), confirming t hat which is wit h you (t he Tawrah and t he Inj il), and be not t he first t o disbelieve t herein, and buy not wit h My verses (t he Tawrah and t he Inj il) a small price (i.e. get t ing a small gain by selling My verses), and fear Me and Me alone.) Encouraging the Children of Israel to embrace Islam Allah commanded t he Children of Israel t o embrace Islam and t o follow Muhammad . He also reminded t hem wit h t he example of t heir fat her Israel, Allah's Prophet Ya` qub, as if saying, "O children of t he pious, right eous servant of Allah who obeyed Allah! Be like your fat her, following t he t rut h.'' This st at ement is similar t o one's saying, "O you son of t hat generous man! Do t his or t hat '' or, "O son of t he brave man, engage t he st rong fight ers,'' or "O son of t he scholar, seek t he knowledge,'' and so fort h. Similarly, Allah said, び や⇔ ヲ⊥ セ や⇔ ∇らハ ラゅ∠ ヮz ま ゥヲ⊥ ノョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤヨェ ∇リョ ∠ Αケクぴ ケ ム∠ ギ ∠ ∠ ミ ⊥ ル͡ ∃ ル ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ るz あ ⊥ (O offspring of t hose whom We carried (in t he ship) wit h Nuh (Noah)! Verily, he was a grat eful servant ) (17:3). Israel is Prophet Ya` qub (Jacob) Israel is Prophet Ya` qub, for Abu Dawud At -Tayalisi recorded t hat ` Abdullah Ibn ` Abbas said, "A group of Jews came t o t he Prophet and he said t o t hem, «∨⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇バΑ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シま ラぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇モワ» ゆ ボ ∠ ∠ も ゲ ͡ z ∠ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ (Do you know t hat Israel is Jacob) They said, "Yes, by Allah.'' He said, «ギヰ∇セや ユヰヤャや» ∠ z⊥ z (O Allah! Be wit ness.)'' At -Tabari recorded t hat ` Abdullah Ibn ` Abbas said t hat ` Israel' means, ` t he servant of Allah.' Allah's Blessings for the Children of Israel Allah said, び∇ユム∇Βヤハ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヶわヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クやぴ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ (Remember My favor which I best owed upon you). Muj ahid comment ed, "Allah's favor t hat He grant ed t he Jews is t hat He made wat er gush from st ones, sent down manna and quails for t hem, and saved t hem from being enslaved by Pharaoh.'' Abu Al-` Aliyah also said, "Allah's favor ment ioned here is His sending Prophet s and Messengers among t hem, and revealing Books t o t hem.'' I - Ibn Kat hir - say t hat t his Ayah is similar t o what Musa said t o t he Children of Israel, ∇ユムΒ͡ モバィ ∇クま ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮヤャや るヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや ュ∇ヲボ⇒∠ ぴ ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ͡ ∠ Α やギ∠ ぺ れ∇ぽΑ ∇ユャ ゅz ∇ユム⇒∠ や∠ ヱ ゅミヲ⊥ョ ∇ユムヤバィヱ ¬べ∠ ら∇ルぺ ⇔ ェ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ョ ⊥ ゎ ¬∠ ⇔ ヤぁ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β͡ ∠ びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや リあ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ョ (O my people! Remember t he favor of Allah t o you: when He made Prophet s among you, made you kings, and gave you what He had not given t o any ot her among t he nat ions (of t heir t ime) (5:20) meaning, during t heir t ime. Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, び∇ユム∇Βヤハ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヶわヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クやぴ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ (Remember My favor which I best owed upon you,) means, "My support for you and your fat hers,'' t hat is saving t hem from Pharaoh and his people. Reminding the Children of Israel of Allah's Covenant with Them Allah's st at ement , び∇ユミギ∇ヰバよ フヱ⊥ ン͡ ∇ヰバよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ヱぺヱぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ぺ ギ ∠ ͡ プ ∠∠ (And fulfill (your obligat ions t o) My covenant (wit h you) so t hat I fulfill (My obligat ions t o) your covenant (wit h Me),) means, ` My covenant t hat I t ook from you concerning Prophet Muhammad , when he is sent t o you, so t hat I grant you what I promised you if you believe in him and follow him. I will t hen remove t he chains and rest rict ions t hat were placed around your necks, because of t he errors t hat you commit t ed.' Also, Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "The ` covenant ' is in reference t o Allah's st at ement , i ユヰレ͡ ゅ∠ ∇んバよヱ モΑ͡ ゲ∇シま ヴ͡ よ ペ⇒∠ Β͡ ヮzャや グカぺ ∇ギボャヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ョ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬∠ ͡ レ∠ ∠ ん ョ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ユわ∇ヨホぺ ∇リゃャ ∇ユムバョ ヴあ ま ヮヤャや メゅ∠ ヱ ゅらΒ͡ ル ゲゼハ ∇ヴレ∇をや ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ ⊥ z ∠ ホ∠ ⇔ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヴ͡シゲよ ∇ユわレ∠ や∠ ヱ りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇ユわ∇Βゎや∠ ヱ りヲヤz ャや ヤ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ¬∠ ∠ ミz ⊥ ∠ ¬∠ ∠ ダ ゅレ∠ ェ ゅッ∇ゲホ ヮヤャや ユわ∇ッゲ∇ホぺヱ ∇ユワヲ⊥ ゎ∇ケゴハヱ ⇔ ジ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ン͡ ∇イゎ ろ⇒z ィ ∇ユムレヤカ∇キΕ∠ ∇ユムわ⇒∠ Βシ ∇ユム∇レハ ラ∠ ヘ∠ Ε ゲ ∠ ∃ レ∠ ⊥ z ∠͡ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ゃあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ゲあ ミ⊥ びゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΙや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇エ∠ リ͡ ⊥ ヰ x ヰわ ゎ ョ (Indeed, Allah t ook t he covenant from t he Children of Israel (Jews), and We appoint ed t welve leaders among t hem. And Allah said: "I am wit h you if you perform As-Salah and give Zakah and believe in My Messengers; honor and assist t hem, and lend a good loan t o Allah, verily, I will expiat e your sins and admit you t o Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise)) (5:12).'' Ot her scholars said, "The covenant is what Allah t ook from t hem in t he Tawrah, in t hat , He will send a great Prophet - meaning Muhammad - from among t he offspring of Isma` il, who will be obeyed by all peoples. Therefore, whoever obeys him, t hen Allah will forgive his sins, ent er him int o Paradise and award him t wo rewards.'' We should ment ion here t hat Ar-Razi ment ioned several cases of informat ion brought by t he earlier Prophet s regarding t he coming of Muhammad . Furt her, Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat , びン͡ ∇ヰバよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ヱぺヱぴ ギ ∠ ͡ プ ∠∠ (And fulfill (your obligat ions t o) My covenant (wit h you)) means, "His covenant wit h His servant s is t o embrace Islam and t o adhere t o it .'' Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "` I fulfill My obligat ions t o you' means, ` I (Allah) will be pleased wit h you and admit you int o Paradise.''' AsSuddi, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said similarly. Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Allah's st at ement , びラヲ⊥ ワ∇ケゅ∠ ヴ⇒z まヱぴ ͡ ら∠ プ ∠ Α͡∠ (And fear Me and Me alone.) means, "Fear t he t orment t hat I might exert on you, j ust as I did wit h your fat hers, like t he mut at ion, et c.'' This Ayah cont ains encouragement , followed by warning. Allah first called t he Children of Israel, using encouragement , t hen He warned t hem, so t hat t hey might ret urn t o t he Trut h, follow t he Messenger , heed t he Qur'an's prohibit ions and commands and believe in it s cont ent . Surely, Allah guides whom He wills t o t he st raight pat h. Allah said next , び∇ユムバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ろ∇ャゴル∠ べ∠ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ヨ͡ レ͡ ¬∠ (And believe in what I have sent down, confirming t hat which is wit h you (t he Tawrah and t he Inj il)) meaning, t he Qur'an t hat Allah sent down t o Muhammad , t he unlet t ered Arab Prophet , as bringer of glad t idings, a warner and a light . The Qur'an cont ains t he Trut h from Allah and affirms what was revealed beforehand in t he Tawrah and t he Inj il (t he Gospel). Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat Allah's st at ement , び∇ユムバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ろ∇ャゴル∠ べ∠ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ヨ͡ レ͡ ¬∠ (And believe in what I have sent down (t his Qur'an), confirming t hat which is wit h you (t he Tawrah and t he Inj il)) "means, ` O People of t he Book! Believe in what I sent down t hat conforms t o what you have.' This is because t hey find t he descript ion of Muhammad recorded in t he Tawrah and t he Inj il.'' Similar st at ement s were at t ribut ed t o Muj ahid, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qat adah. Allah said, びヮよ ゲプゅ∠ メヱぺ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ゎ Ιヱぴ ͡ ͡ ∃ ͡ ミ ∠ z ∠ ル ム∠ ∠ ∠ (and be not t he first t o disbelieve t herein). Ibn ` Abbas comment ed, "Do not become t he first t o disbelieve in t he Qur'an (or Muhammad ), while you have more knowledge in it t han ot her people.'' Abu Al-` Aliyah comment ed, "` Do not become t he first t o disbelieve in Muhammad, ' meaning from among t he People of t he Book, ` aft er you hear t hat he was sent as a Prophet .''' Similar st at ement s were at t ribut ed t o AlHasan, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Ibn Jarir st at ed t hat t he Ayah (disbelieve t herein 2:41) refers t o t he Qur'an, ment ioned earlier in t he Ayah, びろ∇ャゴル∠ べ∠ よぴ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ヨ͡ (in what I have sent down (t his Qur'an),) Bot h st at ement s are correct because t hey are int er-relat ed. For inst ance, whoever disbelieves in t he Qur'an will have disbelieved in Muhammad , and whoever disbelieves in Muhammad will have disbelieved in t he Qur'an. Allah's st at ement , びヮよ ゲプゅ∠ メヱぺぴ ͡͡ ∃ ͡ ミ ∠ z∠ (t he first t o disbelieve t herein) means, do not become t he first among t he Children of Israel t o disbelieve in it , for t here were people from Quraysh and t he Arabs in general who rej ect ed Muhammad before t he People of t he Book disbelieved in him. We should st at e here t hat t he Ayah is t alking about t he Children of Israel in specific, because t he Jews in Al-Madinah were t he first among t he Children of Israel t o be addressed by t he Qur'an. Hence, t heir disbelief in t he Qur'an means t hat t hey were t he first among t he People of t he Book t o disbelieve in it . Allah's st at ement , びΚΒ͡ホ ゅ⇔ ヨを ヶ͡ ⇒∠ べ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ゼゎ Ιヱぴ ⇔ ヤ∠ レ∠ ∠ わ Α よ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (and buy not wit h My verses a small price,) means, "Do not subst it ut e fait h in My Ayat and belief in My Prophet wit h t he life of t his world and it s lust s which are minut e and bound t o end. '' Allah said, びラヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ ヴ⇒z まヱぴ ͡ ボz プ ∠ Α͡∠ (and have Taqwa of Me and Me alone). Ibn Abi Hat im report ed t hat Talq bin Habib said, "Taqwa is t o work in Allah's obedience, on a light from Allah, hoping in Allah's mercy, and t o avoid Allah's disobedience, on a light from Allah, fearing Allah's punishment .'' Allah's st at ement , びラヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ ヴ⇒z まヱぴ ͡ ボz プ ∠ Α ͡ ∠ (and fear Me and Me alone) means, t hat Allah warns t he People of t he Book against int ent ionally hiding t he t rut h and spreading t he opposit e of it , as well as, against defying t he Messenger . ∇ユわル∠ヱ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎヱ モト⇒∠ ∇ャゅ͡ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ヤゎ Ιヱぴ ⊥ ぺ∠ z ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ら よ z ∠ ジ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ へ∠ りヲヤz ャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱ - ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∠ ミz ゎヱ ∠ ダ ヨ ホ∠ ∠ ラ ヨヤ ゎ び リΒ͡ ミやz ャや ノョ ∇やヲ⊥ ミ∇ケや∠ ∠ バ͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ヱ (42. And mix not t rut h wit h falsehood, nor conceal t he t rut h while you know (t he t rut h).) (43. And perform As-Salah, and give Zakah, and bow down along wit h Ar-Raki` in.) The Prohibition of hiding the Truth and distorting It with Falsehood Allah forbade t he Jews from int ent ionally dist ort ing t he t rut h wit h falsehood and from hiding t he t rut h and spreading falsehood, ∇ユわル∠ヱ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎヱ モト⇒∠ ∇ャゅ͡ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ヤゎ Ιヱぴ ⊥ ぺ∠ z ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ら よ z ∠ ジ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ラ ヨヤ ゎ (And mix not t rut h wit h falsehood, nor conceal t he t rut h while you know (t he t rut h)). So Allah forbade t hem from t wo t hings; He ordered t hem t o make t he t rut h known, as well as explaining it . Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas ment ioned t he Ayah, びモト⇒∠ ∇ャゅ͡ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ヤゎ Ιヱぴ ͡͡ ら よz ∠ ジ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And mix not t rut h wit h falsehood) and said; "Do not mix t he t rut h wit h falsehood and t he fact s wit h lies.'' Qat adah said t hat , びモト⇒∠ ∇ャゅ͡ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ヤゎ Ιヱぴ ͡͡ ら よz ∠ ジ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And mix not t rut h wit h falsehood) means, "Do not mix Judaism and Christ ianit y wit h Islam, び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ⊥ ぺ ∠ (while you know (t he t rut h).) t hat t he religion of Allah is Islam, and t hat Judaism and Christ ianit y are innovat ions t hat did not come from Allah.'' It was report ed t hat Al-Hasan AlBasri said similarly. Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎヱぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ⊥ ぺ ∠ z ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor conceal t he t rut h while you know (t he t rut h).) means, "Do not hide t he knowledge t hat you have of My Messenger and what he was sent wit h. His descript ion, which you know about , can be found writ t en in t he Books t hat you have.'' It is possible t hat it means, "..alt hough you know t he t remendous harm t hat t his evil will cause people, misguiding t hem and leading t hem t o t he Fire, because t hey will follow t he falsehood t hat you mixed wit h t he t rut h in your claims.'' ノョ ∇やヲ⊥ ミ∇ケや∠ りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ へ∠ りヲヤz ャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱぴ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ヱ ∠ ミz ゎヱ ∠ ダ ヨ ホ∠ ∠ び リΒ͡ ミやz ャや ∠ バ͡ ゲ (And perform As-Salat and give Zakah, and bow down along wit h Ar-Raki` in.) Muqat il said, "Allah's st at ement t o t he People of t he Book, びりヲ∠ダャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱぴ ∠ ヤz ヨ ホ∠ ∠ (And perform As-Salah) commands t hem t o perform t he prayer behind t he Prophet , びりヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲゎへ∠ ぴ ∠ ミz ⊥ ∠ ヱ (and give Zakah) commands t hem t o pay t he Zakah t o t he Prophet , and びリΒ͡ ミやz ャや ノョ ∇やヲ⊥ ミ∇ケや∠ ぴ ∠ バ͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ヱ (and bow down along wit h Ar-Raki` in) commands t hem t o bow down wit h t hose who bow down among t he Ummah of Muhammad . Allah t herefore commands t he People of t he Book t o be wit h, and among t he Ummah of Muhammad .'' In addit ion, Allah's st at ement , びリΒ͡ ミやz ャや ノョ ∇やヲ⊥ ミ∇ケや∠ ぴ ∠ バ͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ヱ (And bow down along wit h Ar-Raki` in) means, "And be among t he believers performing t he best deeds t hey perform, such as, and foremost , t he prayer.'' Many scholars said t hat t his Ayah (2:43) is proof for t he obligat ion of performing t he prayer in congregat ion (for men only). I will explain t his ruling in det ail in Kit ab Al-Ahkam Al-Kabir, Allah willing. ∇ユわル∠ヱ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラ∇ヲジレ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ャゅ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎぺぴ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ あ ͡ よ ∠ レ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ Κプぺ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わゎ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ (44. Enj oin you Al-Birr (piet y and right eousness and every act of obedience t o Allah) on t he people and you forget (t o pract ise it ) yourselves, while you recit e t he Script ure (Tawrah))! Have you t hen no sense) The Condemnation of commanding Others to observe Righteousness while ignoring Righteousness Allah said, "How is it , O People of t he Book, t hat you command people t o perform Al-Birr, which encompasses all t ypes of right eousness, yet forget yourselves and do not heed what you call ot hers t o And you read Allah's Book (t he Tawrah) and know what it promises t o t hose who do not fulfill Allah's commandment s. びラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ Κプぺぴ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Have you t hen no sense) of what you are doing t o yourselves, so t hat you might become aware of your slumber and rest ore your sight from blindness'' ` Abdur-Razzaq said t hat Ma` mar st at ed t hat Qat adah comment ed on Allah's st at ement , び∇ユムジヘル∠ ラ∇ヲジレ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ャゅ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎぺぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ あ ͡ よ ∠ レ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Enj oin you Al-Birr (piet y and right eousness and every act of obedience t o Allah) on t he people and you forget (t o pract ise it ) yourselves,) "The Children of Israel used t o command people t o obey Allah, fear Him and perform Al-Birr. Yet , t hey cont radict ed t hese orders, so Allah reminded t hem of t his fact .'' As-Suddi said similarly. Ibn Jurayj said t hat t he Ayah: びゲら∇ャゅ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎぺぴ あ ͡ よ ∠ レ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Enj oin you Al-Birr on t he people) "Is about t he People of t he Book and t he hypocrit es. used t o command people t o pray and fast . However, t hey did not pract ice what commanded ot hers. Allah reminded t hem of t his behavior. So whoever commands people right eousness, let him be among t he first of t hem t o implement t hat command.'' Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , They t hey t o do Also, び∇ユムジヘル∠ ラ∇ヲジレ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ (And you forget yourselves,) means, "You forget t o pract ice it yourselves, びラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ Κプぺ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わゎ ∇ユわル∠ヱぴ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ (While you recit e t he Script ure (Tawrah)! Have you t hen no sense) You forbid t he people from rej ect ing t he prophet hood and t he covenant t hat you have ment ioned wit h you in t he Tawrah, while you yourselves have forgot en it , meaning t hat ` you have forgot t en t he covenant t hat I made wit h you t hat you will accept My Messenger. You have breeched My covenant , and rej ect ed what you know is in My Book.' '' Therefore, Allah admonished t he Jews for t his behavior and alert ed t hem t o t he wrongs t hat t hey were perpet rat ing against t hemselves by ordering right eousness, yet refraining t hemselves from right eousness. We should st at e t hat Allah is not crit icizing t he People of t he Book for ordering right eousness, because enj oining good is a part of right eousness and is an obligat ion for t he scholars. However, t he scholar is himself required t o heed, and adhere t o, what he invit es ot hers t o. For inst ance, Prophet Shu` ayb said, ∇ラま ヮ∇レハ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ルぺ べ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇ユムヘャゅ∠ ぺ ∇ラぺ ギΑ͡ ぺ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ョ ャ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ カ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ケ⊥ ョ∠ Ιま ヴ͡ Β͡ ∇ヲゎ ゅ∠ ヱ ろ∇バトわ∇シや ゅ∠ ウ⇒∠∇タΗや Ιま ギΑ͡ ぺ z ͡ ボ プ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ヤ ͡ z ͡ ⊥ ケ⊥ びょΒ͡ ぺ ヮ∇Βャまヱ ろ∇ヤミヲゎ ヮ∇Βヤハ ヮヤャゅ͡ ⊥ ル⊥ ͡ ∠͡∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ z よ (I wish not , in cont radict ion t o you, t o do t hat which I forbid you. I only desire reform t o t he best of my power. And my guidance cannot come except from Allah, in Him I t rust and unt o Him I repent ) (11:88). Therefore, enj oining right eousness and performing right eousness are bot h required. Neit her cat egory is rendered not necessary by t he pract ice of t he ot her, according t o t he most correct view of t he scholars among t he Salaf (predecessors) and t he Khalaf. Imam Ahmad report ed t hat Abu Wa'il said, "While I was riding behind Usamah, he was asked, ` Why not advise ` Ut hman' He said, ` Do you t hink t hat if I advise him I should allow you t o hear it I advise him in secret , and I will not st art somet hing t hat I would hat e t o be t he first t o st art . I will not say t o a man, ` You are t he best man,' even if he was my leader, aft er what I heard from t he Messenger of Allah .' They said, ` What did he say' He said, ` I heard him say, ケゅz ャや ヶ͡ ヴ∠ ∇ヤΒプ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ モィゲャゅ͡ ¬ゅ∠ Α» レ プ ボ ⊥ ∠ ͡ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ z よ ⊥ イ⊥ ケヱ⊥ Α ゅ∠ ミ ケゅz ャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ よ ケヱ⊥ Βプ ヮよゅ∠ ∇ホぺ ヮ͡ ペャギ∇レわプ ⊥ ギ∠ ヨ ∠ レ プ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ギ∠ ⊥ ⊥ わ ∠ よ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ケゅz ャや モ∇ワぺ ヮよ ブΒ͡ Βプ ロゅ∠ ゲよ ケゅ∠ エ∇ャや Α ャ ボ∠ ∠ レ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ト⊥ ⊥ ェ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ͡ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅ͡ ゅ∠ ゲョ∇ほゎ ∇リムゎ ∇ユャぺ ∨∠ よゅ∠ ぺ ゅョ ラゅ∠プ ゲ ∠ よ ル⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ マ∠ タ∠ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∇ユミゲョへ ろ∇レミ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∨͡ ム∇レヨ∇ャや リハ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レゎヱ ⊥⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ル ヰ ∠ ∠ «ヮΒ͡ へ∠ ゲム∇レヨ∇ャや リハ ∇ユミゅ∠ ∇ルぺヱ ヮΒ͡ へ ゅ∠ヱ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅよ ゎ ヱ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゎ ャ∠ ͡ ゲ ∠ ͡ (A man will be brought on t he Day of Resurrect ion and t hrown in t he Fire. His int est ines will fall out and he will cont inue circling pulling t hem behind him, j ust as t he donkey goes around t he pole. The people of t he Fire will go t o t hat man and ask him, ` What happened t o you Did you not used t o command us t o do right eous act s and forbid us from commit t ing evil' He will say, ` Yes. I used t o enj oin right eousness, but refrained from performing right eousness, and I used t o forbid you t o perform from evil while I myself did it .').''' This Hadit h was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. eAlso, Ibrahim An-Nakha` i said, "I hesit at e in advising people because of t hree Ayat : び∇ユムジヘル∠ ラ∇ヲジレ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ャゅ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎぺぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ あ ͡ よ ∠ レ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Enj oin you Al-Birr on t he people and you forget (t o pract ise it ) yourselves). - ラヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ Ι ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ ユャ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ͡ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ほ び ラヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ Ι ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ ラ∠ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ゅわ∇ボョ ゲらミ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ャ ボ∠ ぺ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (O you who believe! Why do you say t hat which you do not do Most hat eful it is t o Allah t hat you say t hat which you do not do) (61:2-3).'' And Allah informed us t hat t he Prophet Shu` ayb said, ∇ラま ヮ∇レハ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ルぺ べ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇ユムヘャゅ∠ ぺ ∇ラぺ ギΑ͡ ぺ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ョ ャ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ カ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ケ⊥ ョ∠ Ιま ヴ͡ Β͡ ∇ヲゎ ゅ∠ ヱ ろ∇バトわ∇シや ゅ∠ ウ⇒∠∇タΗや Ιま ギΑ͡ ぺ z ͡ ボ プ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ヤ ͡ z ͡ ⊥ ケ⊥ びょΒ͡ ぺ ヮ∇Βャまヱ ろ∇ヤミヲゎ ヮ∇Βヤハ ヮヤャゅ͡ ⊥ ル⊥ ͡ ∠͡∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ z よ (I wish not , in cont radict ion t o you, t o do t hat which I forbid you. I only desire reform t o t he best of my power. And my guidance cannot come except from Allah, in Him I t rust and unt o Him I repent ) (11:88). Ιま ∀ ゲΒ͡ ムャ ゅ∠ ルまヱ りヲ∠ダャや∠ ゲ∇らダャゅ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ わ∇シや∠ ぴ z ͡ り∠ ら∠ ∠ ヰz ͡∠ ͡ ヤz ヱ ͡ z よ レ バ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰよケ やヲ⊥ ⇒∠ョ ユ⊥ ルぺ ラヲぁ ヌΑ リΑ͡ ャや - リΒ͡ ゼ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ͡ あ ∠ ボ ヤぁ ヰz ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ バ͡ ガ ヤ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ィケ ヮ∇Βャま ∇ユヰルぺヱ ∠ バ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ z ∠∠ (45. And seek help in pat ience and As-Salat (t he prayer) and t ruly, it is ext remely heavy and hard except for Al-Khashi` in.) (46 (They are t hose) who are cert ain t hat t hey are going t o meet t heir Lord, and t hat unt o Him t hey are going t o ret urn.) The Support that comes with Patience and Prayer Allah commanded His servant s t o use pat ience and prayer t o acquire t he good of t his life and t he Hereaft er. Muqat il bin Hayan said t hat t his Ayah means, "Ut ilize pat ience and t he obligat ory prayer in seeking t he Hereaft er. As for pat ience (here), t hey say t hat it means fast ing.'' There are similar t ext s report ed from Muj ahid. Al-Qurt ubi and ot her scholars comment ed, "This is why Ramadan is called t he mont h of pat ience,'' as is ment ioned in t he Hadit h lit erat ure. It was also said t hat ` pat ience' in t he Ayah means, refraining from evil, and t his is why ` pat ience' was ment ioned along wit h pract icing act s of worship, especially and foremost , t he prayer. Also, Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab said, "There are t wo t ypes of pat ience: good pat ience when t he disast er st rikes, and a bet t er pat ience while avoiding t he prohibit ions of Allah.'' Ibn Abi Hat im said t hat Al-Hasan Al-Basri was report ed t o have said similarly. Allah t hen said, びりヲ∠ダャやヱぴ ͡ ヤz (And As-Salah (t he prayer).) The prayer is one of t he best means of assist ance for firmly adhering t o Allah's orders, j ust as Allah said; ラま りヲ∠ダャや ユホぺヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや リョ マ∇Βャま ヴェ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ モ∇ゎやぴ z ͡ ∠ ヤz ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ヮヤャや ゲ∇ミグャヱ ゲム∇レヨ∇ャや∠ ¬べ∠ ∇エヘ∇ャや リハ ヴ∠ ∇レゎ りヲ∠ダャや ͡ z ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヱ ͡ ゼ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヰ ∠ ∠ ヤz びゲら∇ミぺ ⊥∠ ∠ (Recit e (O Muhammad ) what has been revealed t o you of t he Book (t he Qur'an), and perform As-Salah. Verily, As-Salah (t he prayer) prevent s from Al-Fahsha' (i.e. great sins of every kind), and Al-Munkar and t he remembrance of (praising) of (you by) Allah is great er indeed) (29:45). The personal pronoun in t he Ayah, び∀ ゲΒ͡ ムャ ゅ∠ ルまヱぴ り∠ ら∠ ∠ ヰz ͡∠ (And t ruly, it is ext remely heavy and hard) refers t o prayer, as Muj ahid is report ed t o have said, and it was also t he choice of Ibn Jarir. It is possible t hat t he pronoun might be referring t o t he advice - t o observe pat ience and t he prayer - ment ioned in t he same Ayah. Similarly, Allah said about Qarun (Korah), ∀ ∇Β∠ ヮヤャや ゆや∠ を ∇ユムヤ∇Αヱ ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑグャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ ゲ カ ͡ z ⊥ ヲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ホ∠ Ιま べ∠ ゅz ヤΑ Ιヱ ゅエ͡⇒∠ モヨハヱ リョや∠ ∇リヨャ z ͡ ワ ボ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヤ タ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ あ び ラヱ⊥ ら⇒z ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ダ (But t hose who had been given (religious) knowledge said: "Woe t o you! The reward of Allah (in t he Hereaft er) is bet t er for t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds, and t his, none shall at t ain except As-Sabirun (t he pat ient ).'') (28:80). Also, Allah said, ヴワ ヴ͡ ャゅ͡ ∇ノプ∇キや る∠ Βジャや Ιヱ るレジエ∇ャや ン͡ ∠ ∇ジ∠ Ιヱぴ ∠ ͡ わz よ ∠ ⊥ ゃあ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヲわ ゎ ∠ ∠ ヴャヱ ヮルほミ ∀ ∠ や∠ ∠ ヮレ∇Βよヱ マレ∇Βよ ン͡ ャや や∠ みプ リジ∇ェぺ x ͡∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ りヱ ギハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ク͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ べ∠ ゅz ヤΑ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ らタ リΑ͡ ャや Ιま ゅ∠ ゅz ヤΑ ゅ∠ ヱ - ∀ Β͡ ェ ワ ボ∠⊥ ョヱ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ワ ボ∠⊥ ョ∠ ユ ヨ∠ び ユΒ͡ ハ ナェ ヱ⊥ Ιま ∃ ヌ∠ あ ∠ ク z ͡ (The good deed and t he evil deed cannot be equal. Repel (t he evil) wit h one which is bet t er t hen verily he, bet ween whom and you t here was enmit y, (will become) as t hough he was a close friend. But none is grant ed it (t he above qualit y) except t hose who are pat ient and none is grant ed it except t he owner of t he great port ion (of happiness in t he Hereaft er and) in t his world.) (41:34-35) meaning, t his advice is only implement ed by t hose who are pat ient and t he fort unat e. In any case, Allah's st at ement here means, prayer is ` heavy and burdensome', びリΒ͡ ゼ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ Ιまぴ ∠ バ͡ ガ ヤ∠ z ͡ (except for Al-Khashi` in.) Ibn Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t his Ayah, "They (Al-Khashi` in) are t hose who believe in what Allah has revealed.'' Allah's st at ement , ヮ∇Βャま ∇ユヰルぺヱ ∇ユヰよケ やヲ⊥ ⇒∠ョ ユ⊥ ルぺ ラヲぁ ヌΑ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ z ∠∠ ͡ あ ∠ ボ ヤぁ ヰz ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz び ラヲ⊥ ィケ ∠ バ͡ ∠ (They are t hose who are cert ain t hat t hey are going t o meet t heir Lord, and t hat unt o Him t hey are going t o ret urn.) cont inues t he subj ect t hat was st art ed in t he previous Ayah. Therefore, t he prayer, or t he advice t o observe it is heavy, やヲ⊥ ⇒∠ョ ユ⊥ ルぺ ラヲぁ ヌΑ リΑ͡ ャゅ∠ Β͡ ゼ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ Ιまぴ ボ ヤぁ ヰz ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz レ バ͡ ガ ヤ∠ z ͡ び∇ユヰよケ ͡ あ∠ (except for Al-Khashi` in. (They are t hose) who are cert ain (Yazunnuna) t hat t hey are going t o meet t heir Lord,) meaning, t hey know t hat t hey will be gat hered and face t heir Lord on t he Day of Resurrect ion, びラヲ⊥ ィケ ヮ∇Βャま ∇ユヰルぺヱぴ ∠ バ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ z ∠∠ (and t hat unt o Him t hey are going t o ret urn.) meaning, t heir affairs are all subj ect t o His will and He j ust ly decides what He wills. Since t hey are cert ain t hat t hey will be ret urned t o Allah and be reckoned, it is easy for t hem t o perform t he act s of obedience and refrain from t he prohibit ions. Ibn Jarir comment ed on Allah's st at ement ; び∇ユヰよケ やヲ⊥ ⇒∠ョ ユ⊥ ルぺ ラヲぁ ヌΑぴ ͡ あ ∠ ボ ヤぁ ヰz ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ (Yazunnuna t hat t hey are going t o meet t heir Lord) Ibn Jarir said; "The Arabs call cert aint y as well as doubt , Zann. There are similar inst ances in t he Arabic language where a subj ect as well as it s opposit e share t he same name. For inst ance, Allah said, びゅ∠ ヲ⊥ ホや∠ ョ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇やヲぁ ヌプ ケゅz ャや ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇イヨ∇ャや ン∠ケヱぴ ワ バ͡ ヲぁ ⊥ z ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ョ͡ ⊥ ぺ∠ ∠ (And t he Muj rimun (criminals, polyt heist s, sinners), shall see t he Fire and Zannu (apprehend) t hat t hey have t o fall t herein)''(18:53). It is recorded in t he Sahih t hat on t he Day of Resurrect ion, Allah will say t o a servant , "Have I not allowed you t o marry, honored you, made t he horses and camels subservient t o you and allowed you t o become a chief and a mast er'' He will say, "Yes.'' Allah will say, "Did you have Zann (t hink) t hat you will meet Me'' He will say, "No.'' Allah will say, "This Day, I will forget you, j ust as you forgot Me.'' If Allah wills, we will furt her elaborat e on t his subj ect when we explain Allah's st at ement , び∇ユヰΒジレプ ヮヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ ルぴ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ジ∠ (They have forgot t en Allah, so He has forgot t en t hem) (9:67). ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヴ͡ ヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや モΑ͡ ゲ∇シま ヴ͡ ら⇒∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz わ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ¬∠ ͡ レ∠ Α び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∇ユムわ∇ヤz プ ヴあ ∠∠ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ツ∠ ルぺヱ ⊥ ∠∠ (47. O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I best owed upon you and t hat I preferred you over t he ` Alamin (nat ions)) Reminding the Children of Israel that They were preferred above the Other Nations Allah reminds t he Children of Israel of t he favors t hat He grant ed t heir fat hers and grandfat hers, how He showed preference t o t hem by sending t hem Messengers from among t hem and revealing Books t o t hem, more so t han any of t he ot her previous nat ions. Similarly, Allah said, び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ユ∇ヤハ ヴ∠ハ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ゲわ∇カや ギボャヱぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ヤ∠ ∃ ͡ ヤ∠ ⊥ ル ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ (And We chose t hem (t he Children of Israel) over t he ` Alamin, (nat ions) wit h knowledge.) (44:32) and, ヮヤャや るヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや ュ∇ヲボ⇒∠ ヮョ∇ヲボャ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ͡ ∠ Α ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ シ ョ ∠ ホ ͡∠ ゅミヲ⊥ョ ∇ユムヤバィヱ ¬べ∠ ら∇ルぺ ∇ユムΒ͡ モバィ ∇クま ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ⇔ ヤぁ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや リあ やギ∠ ぺ れ∇ぽΑ ∇ユャ ゅz ∇ユム⇒∠ や∠ ヱ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ョ ⇔ ェ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ョ ⊥ ゎ ¬∠ (And (remember) when Musa (Moses) said t o his people: "O my people! Remember t he favor of Allah t o you: when He made Prophet s among you, made you kings, honored you above t he ` Alamin (nat ions).'') (5:20). Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi report ed t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat Allah's st at ement , びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∇ユムわ∇ヤz プ ヴあ ∠∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ツ∠ ルぺヱ (and t hat I preferred you over t he ` Alamin) means, "The kingship, Messengers and Books t hat were grant ed t o t hem, inst ead of grant ing such t o t he ot her kingdoms t hat exist ed during t heir t ime, for every period t here is a nat ion.'' It was also report ed t hat Muj ahid, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qat adah and Isma` il bin Abi Khalid said similarly. The Ummah of Muhammad is Better than the Children of Israel This is t he only way t he Ayah can be underst ood, because t his Ummah is bet t er t han t heirs, as Allah said; ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎ サゅz ヤ͡ ∇ろィゲ∇カぺ るョぺ ゲ∇Βカ ∇ユわレ⊥ ぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∃z⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ ヮヤャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽゎヱ ゲム∇レヨ∇ャや リハ ラ∇ヲヰ∇レゎヱ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅ͡ ͡ z よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ ∠ よ び∇ユヰャ やゲ∇Βカ ∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ リョや∠ ∇ヲャヱ ⊥ z ⇔ ∠ ラ ムャ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠∠ (You are t he best of people ever raised up for mankind; you enj oin good and forbid evil, and you believe in Allah. And had t he People of t he Book (Jews and Christ ians) believed, it would have been bet t er for t hem) (3:110). Also, t he Musnad and Sunan Collect ions of Hadit h recorded t hat Mu` awiyah bin Haydah AlQushayri said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ゅ∠ ョゲ∇ミぺヱ ゅ∠ ゲ∇Βカ ∇ユわ∇ルぺ るョぺ リΒ͡ ∇らシ ラヲぁ ヲゎ ∇ユわ∇ルぺ» ヰ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ワ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ∠ バ ∠ ∠ プ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ «ぶや ヴ∠ハ ヤ∠ (You (Muslims) are t he sevent iet h nat ion, but you are t he best and most honored of t hem according t o Allah.) There are many Hadit hs on t his subj ect , and t hey will be ment ioned when we discuss Allah's st at ement , びサゅz ヤ͡ ∇ろィゲ∇カぺ るョぺ ゲ∇Βカ ∇ユわレ⊥ ぴ ͡ レャ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∃z⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ (You are t he best of peoples ever raised up for mankind) (3:110). Ιヱ ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ザ∇ヘル リ∠ ∀ ∇ヘ∠ ン͡ ∇イゎ Ι ゅ⇔ ∇ヲΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゎや∠ ぴ ∠ ∠ ゃ ∠ ∃ z ハ ザ ル ゴ ∠ z ョ ∠ ボz ヱ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∀ ∇ギ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ グカ∇ぽΑ Ιヱ ∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ モら∇ボΑ ⊥ ∠ ∠ メ ハ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ るバ ヘセ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ び ラヱ⊥ ダレ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ Α (48. And fear a Day (of Judgement ) when a person shall not avail anot her, nor will int ercession be accept ed from him, nor will compensat ion be t aken from him, nor will t hey be helped.) Aft er Allah reminded t he Children of Israel of t he favors t hat He has grant ed t hem, He warned t hem about t he durat ion of t he t orment which He will punish t hem wit h on t he Day of Resurrect ion. He said, びゅ⇔ ∇ヲΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゎや∠ ぴ ョ ∠ ボz ヱ (And fear a Day) meaning, t he Day of Resurrect ion, びゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ザ∇ヘル リ∠ ∀ ∇ヘ∠ ン͡ ∇イゎ Ιぴ ゃ∠ ∃ z ハザル ゴ ∠z (When a person shall not avail anot her) meaning, on t hat Day, no person shall be of any help t o anot her. Similarly, Allah said, びン∠ ∇カぺ ケ∇コヱ りケコや∠ ケゴゎ Ιヱぴ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∀∠ ͡ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And no bearer of burdens shall bear anot her's burden) (35:18) び ヮΒ͡ ∇ピΑ ∀ ∇ほ∠ グゃョ∇ヲΑ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ¬ン͡ ∇ョや あ ムャぴ ͡ レ ⊥ ラ セ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ∃ ゲ モ⊥ ͡ (Every man t hat Day will have enough t o make him careless of ot hers.) (80:37) and, ン͡ ∇イΑ Ι ゅョ∇ヲΑ ∇や∇ヲゼ∇カや∠ ∇ユムよケ ∇やヲ⊥ ゎや サゅz ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ゴ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ∠ ヱ ⊥ z ∠ ボz ⊥ レ ヰ ぁ ほ ロギャや∠ リ∠ コゅ∠ ヲワ ∀ ヲ⊥∇ヲョ Ιヱ ロギャヱ リ∠ ∀ ャや∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ヱ ハ ∃ ィ ∠ ⊥ キ ャ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ハ ギ͡ ヱ びゅゃ∇Βセ ⇔ ∠ (O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord (by keeping your dut y t o Him and avoiding all evil), and fear a Day when no fat her can avail aught for his son, nor a son avail aught for his fat her) (31: 33). This indeed should serve as a great warning t hat bot h t he fat her and t he son will not be of help t o each ot her on t hat Day. Neither Intercession, Ransom, or Assistance will be accepted on behalf of the Disbelievers Allah said, び∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ モら∇ボΑ Ιヱぴ るバ ヘセ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor will int ercession be accept ed from him) meaning, from t he disbelievers. Similarly, Allah said, び リΒ͡ ヘ⇒z ャや るバ⇒∠ セ ∇ユヰバヘレ∠ ゅ∠ プぴ ∠ バ͡ ゼ ⊥ ∠ ヘ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ヨ∠ (So no int ercession of int ercessors will be of any use t o t hem) (74:48) and described t he people of t he Fire saying, び ユΒ͡ ェ ペΑ͡ タ Ιヱ - リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ プぴ ∃ ヨ∠ ∃ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ バ͡ セ ョ レャ ヨ∠ (Now we have no int ercessors. Nor a close friend (t o help us)) (26:100-101). Allah's st at ement here (2:48) び∀ ∇ギ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ グカ∇ぽΑ Ιヱぴ メ ハ ヰ ͡ ⊥∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor will compensat ion be t aken from him) means, t hat Allah does not accept t he disbelievers t o ransom t hemselves. Similarly, Allah said, ∇リョ モら∇ボΑ リ∠プ ∀ ゅz ミ ∇ユワヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ケ ヘ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ョ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ びヮよ ン∠ わ∇プや ヲャヱ ゅ⇔ ワク チ∇ケΙや ¬∇モあ ユ͡ ギェぺ ͡ ͡ ギ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ら∠ ∠ ͡ x ⊥ ョ ワ͡ ∠ ∠ (Verily, t hose who disbelieved, and died while t hey were disbelievers, t he (whole) eart h full of gold will not be accept ed from anyone of t hem even if t hey offered it as a ransom) (3:91) チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ゅz ∇ユヰャ ラぺ ∇ヲャ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ͡ x プ ョ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ュ∇ヲΑ ゆや∠ ハ ∇リョ ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ヘΒャ ヮバョ ヮヤ∇んョヱ ゅバΒ͡ ィ ͡ ∠ ͡ グ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ ヨ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∇ユヰャヱ ∇ユヰ∇レョ モあ ボゎ ゅ∠ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ら⊥ ⊥ ョ ͡ ∠ Β͡ (Verily, t hose who disbelieve, if t hey had all t hat is in t he eart h, and as much again t herewit h t o ransom t hemselves from t he t orment on t he Day of Resurrect ion, it would never be accept ed of t hem, and t heirs would be a painful t orment ) (5:36) びべ∠ ∇レョ ∇グカ∇ぽΑ Ι メ∇ギハ z ミ ∇メギ∇バゎ ラ͡ヱぴ ヰ ͡ ∠ ⊥ z ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ ま∠ (And even if he offers every ransom, it will not be accept ed from him) (6:70) and, ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや リョ Ιヱ るΑ∇ギプ ∇ユムレ͡ グカ∇ぽΑ Ι ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ∠ ぴ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ プ び∇ユム⇒∠∇ヲョ ヴワ ケゅz ャや ユミや∠ ∇ほョ ⊥ ャ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ⊥⊥ ヱ ∠ (So t his Day no ransom shall be t aken from you (hypocrit es), nor of t hose who disbelieved. Your abode is t he Fire. That is your Mawla (friend proper place)) (57:15). Allah st at ed t hat if t he people do not believe in His Messenger and follow what He sent him wit h, t hen when t hey meet Him on t he Day of Resurrect ion, aft er remaining on t he pat h of disbelief, t heir family lineage and/ or t he int ercession of t heir mast ers will not help t hem at all. It will not be accept ed of t hem, even if t hey paid t he eart h's fill of gold as ransom. Similarly, Allah said, Ιヱ ∀ ヤカ Ιヱ ヮΒ͡ ∀ ∇Β∠ Ι ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ヴゎ∇ほΑ ラ∠ モ∇らホ リあ ぴ ∠ ∠ るz⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ノ よ z ュ Α ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ͡ ∠ ョ び∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ∠ るバ ヘセ (Before a Day comes when t here will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor int ercession) (2:254) and, び∀ ⇒∠͡ Ιヱ ヮΒ͡ ∀ ∇Β∠ Ιぴ モ ヤカ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ノ よ z (On which t here will be neit her mut ual bargaining nor befriending) (19:31). Allah's st at ement next , びラヱ⊥ ダレ⊥ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ゲ∠ Α ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor will t hey be helped.) means, "no person shall get angry - or anxious - on t heir behalf and offer t hem any help, or t ry t o save t hem from Allah's punishment .'' As st at ed earlier on t hat Day, neit her t he relat ive, nor persons of aut horit y will feel pit y for t he disbelievers, nor will any ransom be accept ed for t hem. Consequent ly, t hey will receive no help from ot hers and t hey will be helpless t hemsleves. Allah said, びヮ∇Βヤハ ケゅ∠ Α Ιヱ ゲΒ∇イΑ ヲワヱぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ イ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (While He (Allah) grant s refuge (or prot ect ion), but none grant s refuge from Him) (23:88) ヮホゅ∠ ヱ ペをヲ⊥ Ιヱ - ギェぺ ヮよや∠ ハ ゆあ バΑ Ι グゃョ∇ヲΒプぴ ⊥ ∠ を∠ ⊥ ͡ Α ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ グ∠ ⊥ グ∠ ⊥ z ∃ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ギェぺ ∀∠ ∠ (So on t hat Day none will punish as He will punish. And none will bind (t he wicked, disbelievers and polyt heist s) as He will bind) (89:25-26) ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジわ∇ジョ ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや ユワ ∇モよ - ラヱ⊥ ダ⇒∠ ゎ Ι ∇ユムャ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ び ("What is t he mat t er wit h you Why do you not help one anot her (as you used t o do in t he world)'' Nay, but t hat Day t hey shall surrender) (37:25-26) and, ゅルゅ∠ ∇ゲホ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや リΑ͡ ャや ユワゲダル Ι∇ヲヤプぴ ⇔ よ ⊥ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ グ∠ z ∠ グz ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ び∇ユヰ∇レハ ∇やヲぁッ ∇モよ るヰャや∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ (Then why did t hose whom t hey had t aken for alihah (gods) besides Allah, as a way of approach (t o Allah) not help t hem Nay, but t hey vanished complet ely from t hem) (46:28). Also, Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Allah's st at ement , び ラヱ⊥ ダ⇒∠ ゎ Ι ∇ユムャ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ゲ∠ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ("What is t he mat t er wit h you Why do you not help one anot her'') (37:25) means, "This Day, you shall not have a refuge from Us. Not t his Day.'' Ibn Jarir said t hat Allah's st at ement , びラヱ⊥ ダレ⊥ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ゲ∠ Α ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor will t hey be helped.) meaning, on t hat Day, t hey shall neit her be helped by any helper, nor shall anyone int ercede on t heir behalf. No repeal or ransom will be accept ed for t hem, all court esy t owards t hem will have ceased, along wit h any helpful int ercession. No t ype of help or cooperat ion will be available for t hem on t hat Day. The j udgment will, on t hat Day, be up t o t he Most Great , t he Most Just , against whom no int ercessor or helper can ever assist . He will t hen award t he evil deed it s kind and will mult iply t he good deeds. This is similar t o Allah's st at ement , - ラヱ⊥ ダ⇒∠ ゎ Ι ∇ユムャ ゅ∠ - ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ∇ジョ ∇ユヰルま ∇ユワヲ⊥ ホヱぴ ∠ ゲ∠ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ャ ゃ z ⊥ z ͡ ⊥ ヘ͡ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジわ∇ジョ ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや ユワ ∇モよ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (But st op t hem, verily, t hey are t o be quest ioned. "What is t he mat t er wit h you Why do you not help one anot her'' Nay, but t hat Day t hey shall surrender) (37:24-26). ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Α ラ∇ヲハ∇ゲプ メや∠ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇Βイル ∇クまヱぴ ∠ シ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ¬ あ ム レ z ∠ ͡∠ ヴ͡ ヱ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ル ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇エ∠ ∇ジ∠ ∠ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ よ∠ Α ゆや∠ バ∇ャや プ∠ ⊥ ∠ ジ͡ ラ Β わ Αヱ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ラ エあ グ⊥ ͡ グ∠ ゲ∇エら∇ャや ユムよ ゅ∠ ∇ホゲプ ∇クまヱ - ∀ Β͡ ∠ ∇ユムよケ リあ ¬Κよ ∇ユムャク ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ユ ヌハ ⊥ あ z ョ ∀ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ヌレ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ラ∇ヲハ∇ゲプ メや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ホゲ∇ビぺヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇Βイル∠プ ∠ ゲ⊥ ゎ ⊥ ぺ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ¬ レ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ レ ∠ ほ∠ (49. And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir` awn's (Pharaoh) people, who were afflict ing you wit h a horrible t orment , killing your sons and sparing your women, and t herein was a might y t rial from your Lord.) (50. And (remember) when We separat ed t he sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir` awn's (Pharaoh) people while you were wat ching.) The Children of Israel were saved from Pharaoh and His Army Who drowned Allah said t o t he Children of Israel, "Remember My favor on you ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Α ラ∇ヲハ∇ゲプ メや∠ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇Βイル ∇クまヱぴ ∠ シ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ¬ あ ム レ z ∠ ͡∠ びゆや∠ バ∇ャや ͡ グ∠ (And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir` awn's (Pharaoh) people, who were afflict ing you wit h a horrible t orment ,) meaning, ` I - Allah - saved you from t hem and delivered you from t heir hands in t he company of Musa, aft er t hey subj ect ed you t o horrible t ort ure.' This favor came aft er t he cursed Pharaoh had a dream in which he saw a fire emerge from Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), and t hen t he fire ent ered t he houses of t he Copt ics in Egypt , wit h t he except ion of t he Children of Israel. It s purport was t hat his kingship would be t oppled by a man among t he Children of Israel. It was also said t hat some of Pharaoh's ent ourage said t hat t he Children of Israel were expect ing a man among t hem t o arise who would est ablish a st at e for t hem. We will ment ion t he Hadit h on t his subj ect when we explain Surat Ta Ha (20), Allah willing. Aft er t he dream, Pharaoh ordered t hat every newborn male among t he Children of Israel be killed and t hat t he girls be left alone. He also commanded t hat t he Children of Israel be given t asks of hard labor and assigned t he most humiliat ing j obs. The t orment here refers t o killing t he male infant s. In Surat Ibrahim (14) t his meaning is clearly ment ioned, ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ラヲ⊥ よグΑヱ ͡ や∠ ∠ ∇ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ エあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゆ グバ ∠ シ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ び∇ユミ¬べ∠ ル ラヲ⊥ ∇エわ∇ジΑヱ ⊥ ∠ ジ͡ ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ (Who were afflict ing you wit h horrible t orment , and were slaught ering your sons and let t ing your women live.) (14:6). We will explain t his Ayah in t he beginning of Surat Al-Qasas (28), Allah willing, and our reliance and t rust are wit h Him. The meaning of, び∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ (who were afflict ing you) is, "They humiliat ed you,'' as Abu ` Ubaydah st at ed. It was also said t hat it means, "They used t o exaggerat e in t orment ing you'' according t o Al-Qurt ubi. As for Allah saying, び∇ユミ¬べ∠ ル ラヲ⊥ ∇エわ∇ジΑヱ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ よ∠ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ ジ͡ ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ラ エあ グ⊥ (killing your sons and sparing your women) t hat explains His st at ement , びゆや∠ バ∇ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Αぴ ͡ グ∠ ∠ シ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ (who were afflict ing you wit h horrible t orment ) t hen it explains t he meaning of t he favor He gave t hem, as ment ioned in His st at ement , び∇ユム∇Βヤハ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヶわヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クやぴ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ (Remember My favor which I best owed upon you). As for what Allah said in Surat Ibrahim, びヮヤャや ュゅz ほよ ∇ユワ∇ゲミクヱぴ ͡ z ͡ Α∠ ͡ ⊥ あ ∠ ∠ (And remind t hem of t he annals of Allah) (14:5) meaning, t he favors and blessing He grant ed t hem, He t hen said, ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ラヲ⊥ よグΑヱ ͡ や∠ ∠ ∇ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ エあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゆ グバ ∠ シ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ び∇ユミ¬べ∠ ル ラヲ⊥ ∇エわ∇ジΑヱ ⊥ ∠ ジ͡ ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ (Who were afflict ing you wit h horrible t orment , and were slaught ering your sons and let t ing your women live.) (14:6) So Allah ment ioned saving t heir children from being slaught ered in order t o remind t hem of t he many favors t hat He grant ed t hem. We should st at e here t hat ` Pharaoh' (Fir` awn) is a t it le t hat was given t o every disbelieving king who ruled Egypt , whet her from t he ` Amaliq (Canaanit es) or ot herwise, j ust as Caesar (Qaysar) is t he t it le of t he disbelieving kings who ruled Rome and Damascus. Also, Khosrau (Kisra) is t he t it le of t he kings who ruled Persia, while Tubb` a is t he t it le of t he kings of Yemen, and t he kings of Abyssinia (Et hiopia) were called Negus (An-Naj ashi). Allah said, び∀ Β͡ ∠ ∇ユムよケ リあ ¬Κよ ∇ユムャク ヴ͡ ヱぴ ユ ヌ ハ ⊥ あ z ョ ∀ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ プ∠ (And t herein was a might y t rial from your Lord.) Ibn Jarir comment ed t hat t his part of t he Ayah means, "Our saving your fat hers from t he t orment t hat t hey suffered by t he hand of Pharaoh, is a great blessing from your Lord.'' We should ment ion t hat in t he blessing t here a is t est , t he same as wit h hardship, for Allah said, びるレ∇わプ ゲ∇Βガ∇ャや∠ ゲゼャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ヲ⊥∇らルヱぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ あ z よ ミ ヤ ∠∠ (And We shall make a t rial of you wit h evil and wit h good) (21:35) and, びラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲΑ ∇ユヰヤバャ れゅ∠ Βジャや∠ ろ⇒∠ ジエ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ヲヤよヱぴ ∠ バ͡ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ ゃあ z ヱ ͡ レ∠ ∠ よ ⊥ ル ∠∠ ∠ (And We t ried t hem wit h good (blessings) and evil (calamit ies) in order t hat t hey might t urn (t o obey Allah.)) (7:168). Allah's st at ement next , メや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ホゲ∇ビぺヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇Β∠ ル∠∠ ゲ∇エら∇ャや ユムよ ゅ∠ ∇ホゲプ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ ¬ レ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ レ イ ほプ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ び ラヱ⊥ ヌレ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ラ∇ヲハ∇ゲプ ∠ ゲ⊥ ゎ ⊥ ぺ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ (And (remember) when We separat ed t he sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir` awn's (Pharaoh) people while you were wat ching) means, ` Aft er We saved you from Fir` awn and you escaped wit h Musa; Fir` awn went out in your pursuit and We part ed t he sea for you.' Allah ment ioned t his st ory in det ail, as we will come t o know, Allah willing. One of t he short est references t o t his st ory is Allah's st at ement , び∇ユム⇒∠ ∇Β∠ ル∠∠ ぴ ⊥ レ イ ほプ (And saved you) meaning, "We saved you from t hem, drowning t hem while you wat ched, bringing relief t o your heart s and humiliat ion t o your enemy.'' Fasting the Day of ` Ashura It was report ed t hat t he day t he Children of Israel were saved from Fir` awn was called t he day of ` Ashura'. Imam Ahmad report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Messenger of Allah came t o AlMadinah and found t hat t he Jews were fast ing t he day of ` Ashura'. He asked t hem, "What is t his day t hat you fast '' They said, "This is a good day during which Allah saved t he Children of Israel from t heir enemy, and Musa used t o fast t his day.'' The Messenger of Allah said, «ユ⊥ ∇レョ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ よ ペェぺ ゅ∠ ∠» ム ͡ シ ヨ͡ ぁ ∠ ∠ ルぺ (I have more right t o Musa t han you have.) So t he Messenger of Allah fast ed t hat day and ordered t hat it be fast ed. This Hadit h was collect ed by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah. モ∇イバ∇ャや ユゎ∇グガz や z を るヤ∇Βャ リΒ͡ よ∇ケぺ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ギハヱ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ユ⊥ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ バ ∠ ∠ シ ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ユムレ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ヲヘハ z を - ラヲ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ロギ∇バよ リ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ ⊥ ハ ル ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ∠ ヨ͡ ニ ⊥ ぺ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βゎや∠ ∇クまヱ - ラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼゎ ∇ユムヤバャ マャク ∠ わ͡ シ ョ レ ∠ ¬ ͡∠ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ び ラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ャや∠ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ラ ホ ⊥ ヱ (51. And (remember) when We appoint ed for Musa (Moses) fort y night s, and (in his absence) you t ook t he calf (for worship), and you were Zalimun (polyt heist s and wrongdoers).) (52. Then aft er t hat We forgave you so t hat you might be grat eful.) (53. And (remember) when We gave Musa t he Script ure (t he Tawrah)) and t he crit erion (of right and wrong) so t hat you may be guided aright .) The Children of Israel worshipped the Calf Allah t hen said, "Remember My favor on you when I forgave you for worshipping t he calf.'' This happened aft er Musa went t o t he meet ing place wit h his Lord at t he end of t hat period which was fort y days. These fort y days were ment ioned in Surat Al-A` raf, when Allah said, びゲ∇ゼバよ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ヨヨ∇ゎぺヱ るヤ∇Βャ リΒ͡ ⇒∠を ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ぴ ∃ ∠ ͡ ワ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ん ヤ ∠ シ ョ ル ハ ヱヱ (And We appoint ed for Musa t hirt y night s and added (t o t he period) t en (more)) (7:142). It was said t hat t hese days were during t he mont h of Dhul-Qa` dah plus t he first t en days in Dhul-Hij j ah, aft er t he Children of Israel were delivered from Fir` awn and t hey safely crossed t he sea. Allah's st at ement , びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Β∠ や∠ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ わ͡ シ ョ レ ゎ ¬ ͡ ∠ (And (remember) when We gave Musa t he Script ure) means, t he Tawrah, び͡ ゅ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ャや∠ ぴ ラホ ⊥ ヱ (And t he crit erion) t hat is t hat which different iat es bet ween t rut h and falsehood, guidance and deviat ion. びラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ∇ユムヤバャぴ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ (So t hat you may be guided aright ), aft er escaping t he sea, as anot her Ayah in Surat Al-A` raf clearly st at ed, ゅ∠ ∇ムヤ∇ワぺ べ∠ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Β∠ や∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ わ͡ シ ョ レ ゎ ¬ ∠ ∠∠ るヨ∇ェケヱ ン⇔ ワヱ サゅz ヤ͡ ゲもべ∠ よ ヴ∠ヱy や ラヱ⊥ ボ∇ャや ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ͡ ダ∠ ャ Ι ∠ ゲ⊥ び ラヱ⊥ ミグわΑ ∇ユヰヤ∠ ャ ∠ ゲz ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ zバz (And indeed We gave Musa aft er We had dest royed t he generat ions of old t he Script ure (t he Tawrah) as an enlight enment for mankind, and a guidance and a mercy, t hat t hey might remember (or receive admonit ion)) (28:43). ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇ユわ∇ヨヤニ ∇ユムルま ュ∇ヲボ⇒∠ ヮョ∇ヲボャ ヴ∠ ヲョ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ z ͡ ͡ ∠ Α ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ シ ⊥ ∠ ホ ͡∠ び∇やヲ⊥わ∇ホゅ∠ ∇ユムもケゅ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ プ モ∇イバ∇ャや ユミクゅ∠ ゎゅ͡ ヤ⊥ プ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ャ͡ よ わ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ガあ よ (54. And (remember) when Musa said t o his people: "O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping t he calf. So t urn in repent ance t o your Creat or and kill yourselves (t he innocent kill t he wrongdoers among you), t hat will be bet t er for you wit h your Creat or.'' Then He accept ed your repent ance. Truly, He is t he One Who accept s repent ance, t he Most Merciful.) The Children of Israel kill each other in Repentance This was t he repent ance required from t he Children of Israel for worshipping t he calf. Comment ing on Allah's st at ement ; ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇ユわ∇ヨヤニ ∇ユムルま ュ∇ヲボ⇒∠ ヮョ∇ヲボャ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ z ͡ ͡ ∠ Α ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ シ ョ ∠ ホ ͡∠ びモ∇イバ∇ャや ユミクゅ∠ ゎゅ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ガあ よ (And (remember) when Musa said t o his people: "O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping t he calf...), Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "When t heir heart s t hought of worshipping t he calf, ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲぁッ ∇ギホ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇や∇ヱぺケヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ヴ∠ テボシ ゅz ャヱぴ ャ ホ ヤ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ プ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ びゅ∠ ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ピΑヱ ゅ∠ よケ ゅ∠ ∇ヨェ∇ゲΑ ∇ユャ リ͡ ャ レャ ͡ ∠ ∠ レぁ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ z ゃ∠ (And when t hey regret t ed and saw t hat t hey had gone ast ray, t hey (repent ed and) said: "If our Lord does not have mercy upon us and forgive us'') (7:149). This is when Musa said t o t hem, びモ∇イバ∇ャや ユミクゅ∠ ゎゅ͡ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇ユわ∇ヨヤニ ∇ユムルま ュ∇ヲボ⇒∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ガあ よ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ͡ ∠ Α (O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping t he calf...).'' Abu ` Al` Aliyah, Sa` id bin Jubayr and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas comment ed on, び∇ユムもケゅ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ プぴ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ャ͡ よ わ∠ (So t urn in repent ance t o your Bari') t hat it means, "To your Creat or.'' Allah's st at ement , び∇ユムもケゅ∠ ヴ∠まぴ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ャ͡ (t o your Bari' (Creat or)) alert s t he Children of Israel t o t he enormit y of t heir error and means, "Repent t o He Who creat ed you aft er you associat ed ot hers wit h Him in worship.'' An-Nasa'i, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hat im recorded Ibn ` Abbas saying, "Allah t old t he Children of Israel t hat t heir repent ance would be t o slay by t he sword every person t hey meet , be he fat her or son. They should not care whom t hey kill. Those were guilt y whom Musa and Harun were not aware of t heir guilt , t hey admit t ed t heir sin and did as t hey were ordered. So Allah forgave bot h t he killer and t he one killed.'' This is part of t he Hadit h about t he t rials t hat we will ment ion in Surat Ta Ha, (20) Allah willing. Ibn Jarir narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Musa said t o his people, ∇ユムャ ∀ ∇Β∠ ∇ユムャク ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇やヲ⊥わ∇ホゅ∠ ∇ユムもケゅ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ プぴ ⊥ z ゲ カ ⊥ ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ヤ⊥ プ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ャ͡ よ わ∠ びユΒ͡ ゲャや ゆやz わャや ヲワ ヮzま ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ゆゅ∠ プ ∇ユムもケゅ∠ ギレ͡ ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヲz ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ル͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ∠ ハ ("So t urn in repent ance t o your Creat or and kill each ot her (t he innocent kill t he wrongdoers among you), t hat will be bet t er for you wit h your Creat or.'' Then He accept ed your repent ance. Truly, He is t he One Who accept s repent ance, t he Most Merciful.) Allah ordered Musa t o command his people t o kill each ot her. He ordered t hose who worshipped t he calf t o sit down and t hose who did not worship t he calf t o st and holding knives in t heir hands. When t hey st art ed killing t hem, a great darkness suddenly overcame t hem. Aft er t he darkness lift ed, t hey had killed sevent y t housand of t hem. Those who were killed among t hem were forgiven, and t hose who remained alive were also forgiven.'' p ヮヤャや ン∠ ル ヴz ェ マャ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ z ゲ∠ わ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ シ ヨ Α ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ z を - ラヱ⊥ ヌレ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ るボバ⇒z ャや ユム∇ゎグカほプ りゲ∇ヰィ ユ⊥ ∠ ゲ⊥ ゎ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ダ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ∇ユムゎ∇ヲョ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇んバよ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ム レ ∠ ∠ (55. And (remember) when you said: "O Musa! We shall never believe in you unt il we see Allah plainly.'' But you were seized wit h a bolt of light ning while you were looking). (56.Then We raised you up aft er your deat h, so t hat you might be grat eful.) The Best among the Children of Israel ask to see Allah; their subsequent Death and Resurrection Allah said, ` Remember My favor on you for resurrect ing you aft er you were seized wit h light ning when you asked t o see Me direct ly, which neit her you nor anyone else can bear or at t ain.' This was said by Ibn Jurayj . Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Ayah ヮヤャや ン∠ ル ヴz ェ マャ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ z ゲ∠ わ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ シ ヨ Α ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ びりゲ∇ヰィ ⇔∠ ∠ (And (remember) when you said: "O Musa ! We shall never believe in you unt il we see Allah plainly.'') means, "Publicly'', "So t hat we gaze at Allah.'' Also, ` Urwah bin Ruwaym said t hat Allah's st at ement , びラヱ⊥ ヌレ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ゎ ⊥ ぺ∠ (While you were looking) means, "Some of t hem were st ruck wit h light ning while ot hers were wat ching.'' Allah resurrect ed t hose, and st ruck t he ot hers wit h light ning. As-Suddi comment ed on, びるボバ⇒z ャや ユム∇ゎグカほプぴ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ダ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (But you were seized wit h a bolt of light ning) saying; "They died, and Musa st ood up crying and supplicat ing t o Allah, ` O Lord! What should I say t o t he Children of Israel when I go back t o t hem aft er You dest royed t he best of t hem, モバプ ゅ∠ よ ゅ∠ ムヤ∇ヰゎぺ ヴ⇒z まヱ モ∇らホ リあ ユ⊥ わ∇ムヤ∇ワぺ ろ∇ゃセ ∇ヲャぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ レ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ びべz ͡ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや レョ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ (If it had been Your will, You could have dest royed t hem and me before; would You dest roy us for t he deeds of t he foolish ones among us)' Allah revealed t o Musa t hat t hese sevent y men were among t hose who worshipped t he calf. Aft erwards, Allah brought t hem back t o life one man at a t ime, while t he rest of t hem were wat ching how Allah was bringing t hem back t o life. That is why Allah's said, び ラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ∇ユムゎ∇ヲョ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇んバよ z をぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ム レ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then We raised you up aft er your deat h, so t hat you might be grat eful.)'' Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said, "Deat h was t heir punishment , and t hey were resurrect ed aft er t hey died so t hey could finish out t heir lives.'' Qat adah said similarly. ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam comment ed on t his Ayah, "Musa ret urned from meet ing wit h his Lord carrying t he Tablet s on which He wrot e t he Tawrah. He found t hat t hey had worshipped t he calf in his absence. Consequent ly, he commanded t hem t o kill t hemselves, and t hey complied, and Allah forgave t hem. He said t o t hem, ` These Tablet s have Allah's Book, cont aining what He commanded you and what He forbade for you.' They said, ` Should we believe t his st at ement because you said it By Allah, we will not believe unt il we see Allah in t he open, unt il He shows us Himself and says: This is My Book, t herefore, adhere t o it . Why does He not t alk t o us as He t alked t o you, O, Musa''' Then he (` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd) recit ed Allah's st at ement , びりゲ∇ヰィ ヮヤャや ン∠ ル ヴz ェ マャ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ぴ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ゲ∠ わ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ (We shall never believe in you unt il we see Allah plainly) and said, "So Allah's wrat h fell upon t hem, a t hunderbolt st ruck t hem, and t hey all died. Then Allah brought t hem back t o life aft er He killed t hem.'' Then he (` Abdur-Rahman) recit ed Allah's st at ement , び ラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ∇ユムゎ∇ヲョ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇んバよ z をぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ム レ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then We raised you up aft er your deat h, so t hat you might be grat eful), and said, "Musa said t o t hem, ` Take t he Book of Allah.' They said, ` No.' He said, ` What is t he mat t er wit h you' They said, ` The problem is t hat we died and came back t o life.' He said, ` Take t he Book of Allah.' They said, ` No.' So Allah sent some angels who made t he mount ain t opple over t hem.'' This shows t hat t he Children of Israel were required t o fulfill t he commandment s aft er t hey were brought back t o life. However, Al-Mawardy said t hat t here are t wo opinions about t his mat t er. The first opinion is t hat since t he Children of Israel wit nessed t hese miracles, t hey were compelled t o believe, so t hey did not have t o fulfill t he commandment s. The second opinion st at es t hat t hey were required t o adhere t o t he commandment s, so t hat no responsible adult is free of such responsibilit ies. Al-Qurt ubi said t hat t his is what is correct , because, he said, alt hough t he Children of Israel wit nessed t hese t remendous calamit ies and incident s, t hat did not mean t hat t hey were not responsible for fulfilling t he commandment s any more. Rat her t hey are responsible for t hat , and t his is clear. Allah knows best . リヨ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴル∠ヱ ュゅ∠ ピ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇ヤヤ∠ ∠ ぴ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ レ ∠ ぺ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ レ zニヱ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅ∠ ろ⇒∠ Βデ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミ ン∠ ∇ヤジャや∠ ョ∠ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ らあ ∠ ョ ヤ⊥ ヲ z ヱ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヌΑ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ ヤニ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ル ミ ム ャ∠ ル ヨ∠∠ (57. And We shaded you wit h clouds and sent down on you Al-Manna and t he quail, (saying): "Eat of t he good lawful t hings We have provided for you,'' (but t hey rebelled). And t hey did not wrong Us but t hey wronged t hemselves.) The Shade, the Manna and the Quail Aft er Allah ment ioned t he calamit ies t hat He saved t he Children of Israel from, He ment ioned t he favors t hat He grant ed t hem, saying, びュゅ∠ ピ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇ヤヤ∠ ∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ レ zニヱ And We shaded you wit h clouds. This A0yah ment ions t he whit e clouds t hat provided shade for t he Children of Israel, prot ect ing t hem from t he sun s heat during t heir years of wandering. In t he H ad0t h about t he t rials, An-Nasa0 i recorded Ibn Abba0s saying, Alla0h shaded t he Children of Israel wit h clouds during t he years of wandering. Ibn Abi H a0t im said, Narrat ions similar t o t hat of Ibn Abba0s were report ed from Ibn Umar, Ar-Rab0 bin Anas, Abu Mij laz, Ad D ah h a0k, and As-Suddi. Al-H asan and Qat a0dah said t hat , びュゅ∠ ピ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇ヤヤ∠ ∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ レ zニヱ (And We shaded you wit h clouds) "This happened when t hey were in t he desert and t he clouds shielded t hem from t he sun.'' Ibn Jarir said t hat several scholars said t hat t he t ype of cloud t he Ayah ment ioned, "was cooler and bet t er t han t he t ype we know.'' ` Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on Allah's st at ement , びリヨ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴル∠ヱぴ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ぺ∠ And sent down on you Al-Manna, The manna used t o descend t o t hem t o t he t rees, and t hey used t o eat what ever t hey wished of it . Also, Qat a0dah said, The manna, which was whit er t han milk and sweet er t han honey, used t o rain down on t he Children of Israel, j ust as t he snow falls, from dawn unt il sunrise. One of t hem would collect enough for t hat part icular day, for if it remained more t han t hat , it would spoil. On t he sixt h day, Friday, one would collect enough for t he sixt h and t he sevent h day, which was t he Sabbat h during which one would not leave home t o seek his livelihood, or for anyt hing else. All t his occurred in t he wilderness. The t ype of manna t hat we know provides sufficient food when eat en alone, because it is nut rit ious and sweet . When manna is mixed wit h wat er, it becomes a sweet drink. It also changes composit ion when mixed wit h ot her t ypes of food. However, t his is not t he only t ype. The evidence t o t his fact is t hat Al-Bukha0ri narrat ed, t hat Sa 0d bin Zayd said t hat t he Messenger of Alla0h said, «リ∇Βバ∇ヤャ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ ぼゅ∠ ヱ リヨ∇ャや リョ りほ∇ヨム∇ャや» ∠ ͡ ¬ ヘセ ワ⊥ ョ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Kam'ah (t ruffles) is a t ype of manna, and it s liquid is a remedy for t he eyes.) This Hadit h was also collect ed by Imam Ahmad. The group of Hadit h compilers, wit h t he except ion of Abu Dawud, also collect ed it , and At -Tirmidhi graded it Hasan Sahih. At -Tirmidhi recorded Abu Hurayrah saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, りほ∇ヨム∇ャや∠ ユジャや リョ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ Β͡ ヱ るレイ∇ャや リョ りヲ∇イバ∇ャや» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヱ あ ぁ ∠ ͡ ¬ ヘセ ヰ プ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «リ∇Βバ∇ヤャ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ ぼゅ∠ ヱ リヨ∇ャや リョ ∠ ͡ ¬ ヘセ ワ⊥ ョ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ (The ` Aj wah (pressed, dried dat e) is from Paradise and it cures poison, Al-Kam'ah (t ruffles) is a form of manna, and it s liquid heals t he eye.'') At -Tirmidhi is t he only one of t hem who recorded t his Hadit h. As for t he quail (Salwa) in quest ion, ` Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "The (Salwa) is a bird t hat looks like t he quail.'' This is t he same opinion report ed from Muj ahid, AshSha` bi, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, ` Ikrimah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, may Allah have mercy upon t hem. Also, ` Ikrimah said t hat t he Salwa is a bird in Paradise about t he size of a sparrow. Qat adah said "The Salwa is a bird t hat is similar t o a sparrow. During t hat t ime, an Israelit e could cat ch as many quails as was sufficient for t hat part icular day, ot herwise t he meat would spoil. On t he sixt h day, Friday, he would collect what is enough for t he sixt h and t he sevent h day, t he Sabbat h, during which one was not allowed t o depart his home t o seek anyt hing.'' Allah said, び∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅ∠ ろ⇒∠ Βデ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミぴ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ らあ ∠ ョ ヤ ⊥ (Eat of t he good lawful t hings We have provided for you,) (7:160) t his form of command is a simple order of allowance, guiding t o what is good. Allah said, びラヲヨヤ∇ヌΑ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ ヤニ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ル ミ ム ャ∠ ル ヨ∠∠ ョ∠ (And t hey did not wrong Us but t hey wronged t hemselves) means, ` We commanded t hem t o eat from what We gave t hem, and t o perform t he act s of worship (but t hey rebelled).' This Ayah is similar t o Allah's st at ement , びヮャ ∇やヱ⊥ ム∇セや∠ ∇ユムよケ ベ∇コケ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミぴ ⊥ ∠ ゲ⊥ ヱ ⊥ あ ∠ ͡ あ ョ ヤ⊥ (Eat of t he provision of your Lord, and be grat eful t o Him) (34:15). Yet , t he Children of Israel rebelled, disbelieved and commit t ed inj ust ice against t hemselves, even t hough t hey saw t he clear signs, t remendous miracles and ext raordinary event s. The Virtue of Muhammad's Companions over the Companions of all Other Prophets Here it is import ant t o point out t he virt ue of Muhammad's Companions over t he companions of t he ot her Prophet s. This includes firmness in t he religion, pat ience and t he lack of arrogance, may Allah be pleased wit h t hem. Alt hough t he Companions accompanied t he Prophet in his t ravels and bat t les, such as during t he bat t le of Tabuk, in int ense heat and hardship, t hey did not ask for a miracle, t hough t his was easy for t he Prophet by Allah's leave. And when t he Companions became hungry, t hey merely asked t he Prophet - t o invoke Allah - for an increase in t he amount of food. They collect ed what ever food t hey had and brought it t o t he Prophet , and he asked Allah t o bless it , t old each of t hem t o t ake some food, and t hey filled every pot t hey had. Also, when t hey needed rain, t he Prophet asked Allah t o send down rain, and a rain cloud came. They drank, gave wat er t o t heir camels and filled t heir wat er skins. When t hey looked around, t hey found t hat t he cloud had only rained on t heir camp. This is t he best example of t hose who were willing t o accept Allah's decision and follow t he Messenger of Allah . ゑ∇Βェ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ムプ るΑ∇ゲボ∇ャや ログ⇒∠ ∇やヲ⊥カ∇キや ゅ∠ ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ヰ ͡ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ワ ヤ ⊥ レ ⊥ ͡∠ ∀ ト͡ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ や⇔ イシ ゆゅ∠ ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥カ∇キや∠ や⇔ ビケ ∇ユわ∇ゃセ るz ェ ャ ホ∠ ギz ⊥ ∠ ら ヤ⊥ ヱ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ メギらプ - リΒ͡ ジ∇エヨ∇ャや ギΑ͡ レシヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ ⇒∠ カ ∇ユムャ ∇ゲヘ∇ピル ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ Β ト∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ゅ∠ ∇ャゴル∠プ ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ ヵ͡ ャや ゲ∇Βビ Ι∇ヲホ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや レ ∠ ほ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ グz ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ∠ グz ∇やヲ⊥ ゅミ ゅ∠ よ ͡ べ∠ ジャや リョ や⇔ ∇ィケ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ ル ∠ ヨ ͡ ¬ ヨz ∠ あ ゴ ͡ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ グ z ヤ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ジ∇ヘΑ ∠ ボ⊥ ∠ (58. And (remember) when We said: "Ent er t his t own (Jerusalem) and eat bount ifully t herein wit h pleasure and delight wherever you wish, and ent er t he gat e in prost rat ion (or bowing wit h humilit y) and say: ` Forgive us,' and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for t he good-doers.'') (59. But t hose who did wrong changed t he word from t hat which had been t old t o t hem for anot her, so We sent upon t he wrongdoers Rij z (a punishment ) from t he heaven because of t heir rebellion.) The Jews were Rebellious instead of Appreciative when They gained Victory Allah admonished t he Jews for avoiding Jihad and not ent ering t he holy land as t hey had been ordered t o do when t hey came from Egypt wit h Musa. They were also commanded t o fight t he disbelieving ` Amaliq (Canaanit es) dwelling in t he holy land at t hat t ime. But t hey did not want t o fight , because t hey were weak and exhaust ed. Allah punished t hem by causing t hem t o become lost , and t o cont inue wandering, as Allah has st at ed in Surat Al-Ma'idah (5). The correct opinion about t he meaning of, ` t he holy land' ment ioned here is t hat it was Bayt AlMaqdis (Jerusalem), as As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qat adah and Abu Muslim Al-Asfahani, as well as ot hers have st at ed. Musa said, ヮzャや ょわミ ヴ͡ ャや るシギボヨャや チ∇ケΙや やヲ⊥カ∇キや ュ∇ヲホゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ わz ∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ x ヤ⊥ ͡ ∠ Α びやヱぁ ゎ∇ゲゎ Ιヱ ∇ユムャ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (O people! Ent er t he holy land which Allah has assigned t o you and t urn not back (in flight ).) (5:21) However, some scholars said t hat t he holy land is Jericho, (Ariha') and t his opinion was ment ioned from Ibn ` Abbas and ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd. Aft er t he years of wandering ended fort y years lat er, in t he company of Yuwsha` (Joshua) bin Nun, Allah allowed t he Children of Israel t o conquer t he holy land on t he eve of a Friday. On t hat day, t he sun was kept from set t ing for a lit t le more t ime, unt il vict ory was achieved. When t he Children of Israel conquered t he holy land, t hey were commanded t o ent er it s gat e while, びや⇔ イシぴ ギz ⊥ (prost rat ing) in appreciat ion t o Allah for making t hem vict orious, t riumphant , ret urning t hem t o t heir land and saving t hem from being lost and wandering. Al-` Awfi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , びや⇔ イシ ゆゅ∠ ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥カ∇キや∠ ぴ ギz ⊥ ∠ ら ヤ⊥ ヱ (and ent er t he gat e Suj j adan) means, "While bowing''. Ibn Jarir report ed Ibn ` Abbas saying, びや⇔ イシ ゆゅ∠ ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥カ∇キや∠ ぴ ギz ⊥ ∠ ら ヤ⊥ ヱ (and ent er t he gat e in prost rat ion) means, "Through a small door while bowing.'' Al-Hakim narrat ed it , and Ibn Abi Hat im added, "And t hey went t hrough t he door backwards!'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat t hey were ordered t o prost rat e on t heir faces when t hey ent ered t he cit y, but Ar-Razi discount ed t his explanat ion. It was also said t hat t he Suj ud ment ioned here means, ` submissiveness', for act ually ent ering while prost rat ing is not possible. Khasif said t hat ` Ikrimah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "The door ment ioned here was facing t he Qiblah.'' Ibn ` Abbas, Muj ahid, As-Suddi, Qat adah and Ad-Dahhak said t hat t he door is t he door of Hit t ah in Iylya', which is Jerusalem. Ar-Razi also report ed t hat some of t hem said t hat it was a door in t he direct ion of t he Qiblah''. Khasif said t hat ` Ikrimah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Children of Israel ent ered t he door sideways. As-Suddi said t hat Abu Sa` id Al-Azdy said t hat Abu Al-Kanud said t hat ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud said t hat t hey were commanded t o, u びや⇔ イシ ゆゅ∠ ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥カ∇キや∠ ぴ ギz ⊥ ∠ ら ヤ⊥ ヱ (ent er t he gat e in prost rat ion (or bowing wit h humilit y)) but inst ead, t hey ent ered while t heir heads were raised in defiance. Allah said next , び∀ ト͡ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱぴ る z ェ ャ ホ∠ (and say: ` Hit t ah'). Ibn ` Abbas comment ed, "Seek Allah's forgiveness.'' Al-Hasan and Qat adah said t hat it means, "Say, ` Relieve us from our errors.'' びリΒ͡ ジ∇エヨ∇ャや ギΑ͡ レシヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ ⇒∠ カ ∇ユムャ ∇ゲヘ∇ピルぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ Β ト∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z (and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for t he good-doers) Here is t he reward for fulfilling Allah's commandment . This Ayah means, "If you implement what We commanded you, We will forgive your sins and mult iply your good deeds.'' In summary, upon achieving vict ory, t he Children of Israel were commanded t o submit t o Allah in t ongue and deed and, t o admit t o t heir sins and seek forgiveness for t hem, t o be grat eful t o Allah for t he blessings He gave t hem, hast ening t o do t he deeds t hat Allah loves, as He said, サゅz ャや ろ∇Αぺケヱ - ウ∇わヘ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャや ゲ∇ダル ¬べ∠ や∠ まぴ ∠ レ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ィ ク͡ マよケ ギ∇ヨエよ ∇ウらジプ - ゅィ∠ ∇プぺ ヮヤャや リΑ͡ ヴ͡ ラヲ⊥カ∇ギΑ ∠ あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヲ ∠ ͡ z ͡ キ プ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ び ゅ∠ ヲゎ ラゅ∠ ヮz ま ロ∇ゲヘ∇ピわ∇シや∠ よ͡ ∠ ∠ ミ ⊥ ル͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ (When t here comes t he help of Allah (t o you, O Muhammad against your enemies) and t he conquest (of Makkah). And you see t hat t he people ent er Allah's religion (Islam) in crowds. So glorify t he praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is t he One Who accept s t he repent ance.) (110). Allah said, び∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ ヵ͡ ャや ゲ∇Βビ Ι∇ヲホ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや メギらプぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ グz ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ∠ グz ∠ z ∠ ∠ (But t hose who did wrong changed t he word from t hat which had been t old t o t hem for anot her). Al-Bukhari recorded Abu Hurayrah saying t hat t he Prophet said, :やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ や⇔ イシ ゆゅ∠ ∇ャや やヲ⊥カ∇キや モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シま ヶ͡ らャ モΒ͡ » ャ ホ∠ ギz ⊥ ∠ ら ヤ⊥ ∠ も ゲ ͡ レ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ やヲ⊥ギらプ ユ͡ ワゅ∠ ∇シぺ ヴヤ∠ ラヲ⊥ ェ∇ゴΑ やヲ⊥カギプ ∩∀ ト͡ ャz ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ わ ∠ ハ ヘ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ るz ェ «り∠ ∇バセ ヶ͡ ∀ ら∠ ∩やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱ ゲ ∠ プ るz ェ ャ ホ∠ (The Children of Israel were commanded t o ent er t he door while bowing and t o say ` Hit t ah'. Yet , t hey ent ered t he door on t heir behinds, dist ort ing t he words. They said; ` Habbah (seed), in Sha` rah (a hair).') An-Nasa'i recorded t his part of it from Abu Hurayrah only, but he has a chain from t he Prophet , explaining Allah's st at ement , び∀ ト͡ ぴ るz ェ (` Hit t ah'), saying, "So t hey deviat ed and said ` Habbah.'' Similar was recorded by ` AbdurRazzaq, and his rout e was also collect ed by Al-Bukhari. Muslim and At -Tirmidhi narrat ed similar versions of t his Hadit h, At -Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.'' The summary of what t he scholars have said about t his subj ect is t hat t he Children of Israel dist ort ed Allah's command t o t hem t o submit t o Him in t ongue and deed. They were commanded t o ent er t he cit y while bowing down, but t hey ent ered while sliding on t heir rear ends and raising t heir heads! They were commanded t o say, ` Hit t ah' meaning, "Relieve us from our errors and sins.'' However, t hey mocked t his command and said, "Hint ah (grain seed) in Sha` irah (barley).'' This demonst rat es t he worst t ype of rebellion and disobedience, and it is why Allah released His anger and punishment upon t hem, all because of t heir sinning and defying His commands. Allah said, ゅ∠ ͡ ͡ べ∠ ジャや リョ や⇔ ∇ィケ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴル∠プぴ ヨよ ¬ ヨz ∠ あ ゴ ͡ ヨ∠∠ ∠ グz ヤ∠ レ ∠ ほ∠ びラヲ⊥ ジ∇ヘΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ ボ⊥ ∠ ル ミ (So We sent upon t he wrongdoers Rij z (a punishment ) from t he heaven because of t heir rebellion.) Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Every word in Allah's Book t hat says Rij z means, ` a punishment .''' Muj ahid, Abu Malik, As-Suddi, Al-Hasan and Qat adah were report ed t o have said t hat Rij z means ` Torment .' Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Sa` d bin Malik, Usamah bin Zayd and Khuzaymah bin Thabit said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ラゅ∠ ∇リョ ヮよ ゆグハ ∀ や∠ ∠ .∀ ∇ィ͡ ラヲ⊥ ゅz ャや» ∠ ミ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ あ ⊥ ゆ グハ ゴ ケ ⊥ ハ ト «ユ⊥ ヤ∇らホ ム∠ ∠ (The plague is a Rij z, a punishment wit h which Allah punished t hose before you.) This is also how An-Nasa'i recorded t his Hadit h. In addit ion, t he basis of t his Hadit h was collect ed in t he Two Sahihs, «ゅ∠ ヲ⊥カ∇ギゎ ゅ∠プ チ∇ケほよ ラヲ⊥ ゅz ャや ユわ∇バヨシ や∠ ま» ワ ヤ⊥ ∠ ヤ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ハ ト ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ク͡ (If you hear of t he plague in a land, t hen do not ent er it .) Ibn Jarir recorded Usamah bin Zayd saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ヂ∇バよ ヮよ ゆグハ ∀ ∇ィ͡ ユボジャや∠ ノィヲ∇ャや や∠ ワ ラま» ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ あ ⊥ ゴ ケ ∠ ∠ z ヱ ∠ ∠ ∠ グ∠ z «ユ⊥ ヤ∇らホ ユョほ∇ャや ム∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ (This calamit y and sickness (i.e. t he plague) is a Rij z, a punishment wit h which some nat ions who were before you were punished.) The basis of t his Hadit h was also collect ed in t he Two Sahihs. ゆ͡ ∇ッや ゅ∠ ∇ヤボプ ヮョ∇ヲボャ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ヴ∠ ∇ジわ∇シや クまヱぴ ゲ レ ⊥∠ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ シ ョ ボ ∠ ͡ ͡∠ ゅ⇔ ∇Βハ りゲ∇ゼハ ゅ∠ レ∇をや ヮ∇レョ ∇れゲイヘルゅ∠ ゲイエ∇ャや ポゅ∠ バよ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ダ∠ あ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇セや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ミ ∇ユヰよゲ∇ゼョ サゅ∠ ぺ ぁ ミ ユヤハ ∇ギホ ョ よ∠ ヱ ヤ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∃ ル⊥ モ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ び リΑ͡ ジ∇ヘョ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ∇や∇ヲん∇バゎ Ιヱ ヮヤャや ベ∇コケ ∠ ギ͡ ⊥ ͡ x プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ あ (60. And (remember) when Musa asked for wat er for his people, We said: "St rike t he st one wit h your st ick.'' Then gushed fort h t herefrom t welve springs. Each (group of) people knew it s own place for wat er. "Eat and drink of t hat which Allah has provided and do not act corrupt ly, making mischief on t he eart h.'') Twelve Springs gush forth Allah said, "Remember My favor on you when I answered t he supplicat ion of your Prophet , Musa, when he asked Me t o provide you wit h wat er. I made t he wat er available for you, making it gush out t hrough a st one. Twelve springs burst out of t hat st one, a designat ed spring for each of your t ribes. You eat from t he manna and t he quails and drink from t he wat er t hat I provided for you, wit hout any effort or hardship for you. So worship t he One Who did t his for you. びリΑ͡ ジ∇ヘョ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ∇や∇ヲん∇バゎ Ιヱぴ ∠ ギ͡ ⊥ ͡ x プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And do not act corrupt ly, making mischief on t he eart h) meaning, "Do not ret urn t he favor by commit t ing act s of disobedience t hat cause favors t o disappear.'' Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Children of Israel, "Had a square st one t hat Musa was commanded t o st rike wit h his st aff and, as a result , t welve springs burst out of t hat st one, t hree on each side. Each t ribe was, t herefore, designat ed a cert ain spring, and t hey used t o drink from t heir springs. They never had t o t ravel from t heir area, t hey would find t he same bount y in t he same manner t hey had in t he first area.''This narrat ion is part of t he long Hadit h t hat An-Nasa'i, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hat im recorded about t he t rials. This st ory is similar t o t he st ory in Surat Al-` Araf (Chapt er 7) alt hough t he lat t er was revealed in Makkah. In Surat Al-A` raf, Allah used t he t hird person when He ment ioned t he Children of Israel t o t he Prophet and narrat ed what He favored t hem wit h. In t his Surat Al-Baqarah, which was revealed in Al-Madinah, Allah direct ed His Speech at t he Children of Israel. Furt her, Allah said in Surat Al-A` raf, びゅ⇔ ∇Βハ りゲ∇ゼハ ゅ∠ レ∇をや ヮ∇レョ ∇ろジイらルゅ∠ ぴ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ プ (And t here gushed fort h out of it t welve springs) (7:160), describing what first occurred when t he wat er begins t o gush out . In t he Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah, Allah described what happened lat er on, meaning when t he wat er burst out in full force. Allah knows best . ギェヱ ュゅ∠ デ ヴ∠ハ ゲら∇ダル リ∠ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∃ バ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ z ャ シ ヨ Α ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ リ͡ チ∇ケΕや ろらレ⊥ ゅz ョ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ァゲ∇ガΑ マよケ ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キゅ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ゎ ヨ ͡ レャ ͡ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ レャ ⊥ プ メゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヤダよヱ ゅ∠ シギハヱ ゅ∠ ョヲ⊥ ヱ ゅ∠ もべz ホヱ ゅ∠ ͡∇ボ∠ ∠ ホ ヰ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ プ∠ ヰ͡ ん͡ ∠ ヰヤ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワや ∀ ∇Β∠ ヲワ ン͡ ャゅ͡ ヴ∠ ∇キぺ ヲワ ン͡ ャや ラヲ⊥ギ∇らわ∇ジゎぺ ト͡ ゲ カ ∠ ⊥ グz よ ル ∠ ∠ ⊥ グz ∠ ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び∇ユわ∇ャほシ ゅz ユ⊥ ャ ラみプ や⇔ ∇ダョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ム∠ z ͡ ∠ ゲ ͡ (61. And (remember) when you said, "O Musa ! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us t o bring fort h for us of what t he eart h grows, it s herbs, it s cucumber it s Fum, it s lent ils and it s onions.'' He said, "Would you exchange t hat which is bet t er for t hat which is lower Go you down t o any t own and you shall find what you want !'') The Children of Israel preferred Foods inferior to Manna and Quails Allah said, "And remember My favor on you when I sent down t he manna and quails t o you, a good, pure, beneficial, easily acquired food. And remember your ungrat efulness for what We grant ed you. Remember how you asked Musa t o exchange t his t ype of food for an inferior t ype t hat consist s of veget at ion, and so fort h.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said about t he Children of Israel, "They were bored and impat ient wit h t he t ype of food t hey were provided. They also remembered t he life t hey used t o live, when t heir diet consist ed of lent ils, onions, garlic and herbs.'' They said, ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キゅ∠ ギェヱ ュゅ∠ デ ヴ∠ハ ゲら∇ダル リ∠ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒∠ ぴ レャ ⊥ プ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∃ バ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ z ャ シ ヨ Α ゅ∠ ヤ∇ボよ リ͡ チ∇ケΕや ろらレ⊥ ゅz ョ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ァゲ∇ガΑ マよケ ヰ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ゎ ヨ ͡ レャ ͡ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ びゅ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ シギハヱ ゅ∠ ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ゅ∠ もべz ホヱ ヰヤダよヱ ヰ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰョ プヱ ヰ͡ ん͡ ∠ (O Musa ! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us t o bring fort h for us of what t he eart h grows, it s herbs, it s cucumbers, it s Fum, it s lent ils and it s onions). They said, びギェヱ ュゅ∠ デ ヴ∠ハぴ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∃ バ∠ ヤ∠ (One kind of food) meaning, t he manna and quails, because t hey at e t he same food day aft er day. The Ayah ment ioned lent ils, onions and herbs, which are all known t ypes of foods. As for t he Fum, Ibn Mas` ud read it , Thum (garlic). Also, Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Al-Hasan said about t he Ayah, びゅ∠ ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ぴ ヰョ プ ヱ (It s Fum), "Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Fum means, garlic.'' He also said t hat t he expression, ` Fumu-lanna' means, ` bake for us', according t o t he languages of old. Ibn Jarir comment ed, "If t his is t rue, t hen ` Fum' is one of t he words whose pronounciat ion were alt ered, t he let t er ` fa' was replaced by t he let t er ` t ha', since t hey are similar in sound.'' And Allah knows best . Ot hers said t hat Fum is wheat , t he kind used for bread. Al-Bukhari said, "Some of t hem said t hat Fum includes all grains or seeds t hat are eat en.'' Allah's st at ement , び∀ ∇Β∠ ヲワ ン͡ ャゅ͡ ヴ∠ ∇キぺ ヲワ ン͡ ャや ラヲ⊥ギ∇らわ∇ジゎぺ メゅ∠ ぴ ゲ カ ∠ ⊥ グz よ ル ∠ ∠ ⊥ グz ∠ ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ (He said, "Would you exchange t hat which is bet t er for t hat which is lower'') crit icized t he Jews for asking for inferior foods, alt hough t hey were living an easy life, eat ing t ast y, beneficial and pure food. Allah's st at ement , びや⇔ ∇ダョ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワやぴ ゲ ͡ ト͡ (Go you down t o any Misr) means, ` any cit y', as Ibn ` Abbas said. Ibn Jarir also report ed t hat Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat t he Ayah refers t o Misr, t he Egypt of Fir` awn. The t rut h is t hat t he Ayah means any cit y, as Ibn ` Abbas and ot her scholars st at ed. Therefore, t he meaning of Musa's st at ement t o t he Children of Israel becomes, "What you are asking for is easy, for it is available in abundance in any cit y t hat you might ent er. So since what you asked for is available in all of t he villages and cit ies, I will not ask Allah t o provide us wit h it , especially when it is an inferior t ype of food. '' This is why Musa said t o t hem, ∀ ∇Β∠ ヲワ ン͡ ャゅ͡ ヴ∠ ∇キぺ ヲワ ン͡ ャや ラヲ⊥ギ∇らわ∇ジゎぺぴ ゲ カ ∠ ⊥ グz よ ル ∠ ∠ ⊥ グz ∠ ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び∇ユわ∇ャほシ ゅz ユ⊥ ャ ラみプ や⇔ ∇ダョ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワや ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ム∠ z ͡ ∠ ゲ ͡ ト ͡ (Would you exchange t hat which is bet t er for t hat which is lower Go you down t o any t own and you shall find what you want !) Since t heir request was t he result of boredom and arrogance and since fulfilling it was unnecessary, t heir request was denied. Allah knows best . ょツピよ やヱ⊥ べ∠ ヱ るレム∇ジヨ∇ャや∠ るャグャや ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろよゲッヱぴ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ⊥ zあ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヮヤャや ろ⇒Αべ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ユヰルほよ マャク ヮヤャや リョ ͡ z ͡ ∠ よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ z ∠ あ ∇やヲ∠ ハ ゅ∠ よ マャク ペエ∇ャや ゲ∇Βピよ リΒあ らレャや ラヲ⊥わ∇ボΑヱ ダ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ z ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ びラヱ⊥ わ∇バΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ル ミz (61. And t hey were covered wit h humiliat ion and misery, and t hey drew on t hemselves t he wrat h of Allah. That was because t hey used t o disbelieve in t he Ayat (proofs, evidence) of Allah and killed t he Prophet s wrongfully. That was because t hey disobeyed and used t o t ransgress t he bounds (in t heir disobedience t o Allah, i.e. commit crimes and sins.)) (2:61) Covering the Jews in Humiliation and Misery Allah said, びるレム∇ジヨ∇ャや∠ るャグャや ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろよゲッヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ⊥ zあ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ (And t hey were covered wit h humiliat ion and misery). This Ayah indicat es t hat t he Children of Israel were plagued wit h humiliat ion, and t hat t his will cont inue, meaning t hat it will never cease. They will cont inue t o suffer humiliat ion at t he hands of all who int eract wit h t hem, along wit h t he disgrace t hat t hey feel inwardly. Al-Hasan comment ed, "Allah humiliat ed t hem, and t hey shall have no prot ect or. Allah put t hem under t he feet of t he Muslims, who appeared at a t ime when t he Maj us (Zoroast rians) were t aking t he Jizyah (t ax) from t he Jews.'' Also, Abu Al-` Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and As-Suddi said t hat ` misery' used in t he Ayah means, ` povert y.' ` At iyah Al-` Awfi said t hat ` misery' means, ` paying t he t ilt h (t ax).' In addit ion, AdDahhak comment ed on Allah's st at ement , びヮヤャや リョ ょツピよ やヱ⊥ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z ∠ あ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ よ∠ (and t hey drew on t hemselves t he wrat h of Allah), "They deserved Allah's anger.'' Also, Ibn Jarir said t hat , びヮヤャや リョ ょツピよ やヱ⊥ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z ∠ あ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ よ∠ (and t hey drew on t hemselves t he wrat h of Allah) means, "They went back wit h t he wrat h. Similarly, Allah said, びマヨ∇をまヱ ヴ͡ ∇をみよ ¬ヲ⊥ ゎ ラ∠ ギΑ͡ ぺ ヴあ まぴ ∠ ͡ ͡∠ ヨ ͡͡ ∠ ら∠ ぺ ⊥ ケ⊥ ル͡ (Verily, I int end t o let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours) (Al-Ma'idah 5:29) meaning, ` You will end up carrying my, and your, mist akes inst ead of me'. Thus, t he meaning of t he Ayah becomes, ` They went back carrying Allah's anger; Allah's wrat h descended on t hem; t hey deserved Allah's anger.''' Allah's st at ement , ラヲ⊥わ∇ボΑヱ ヮヤャや ろ⇒∠ べ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ユヰルほよ マャクぴ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ Α よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ⊥ z ∠͡ ∠ ͡∠ びペエ∇ャや ゲ∇Βピよ リΒあ らレャや あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ z (That was because t hey used t o disbelieve in t he Ayat (proofs, evidences, et c.) of Allah and killed t he Prophet s wrongfully.) means, "This is what We rewarded t he Children of Israel wit h: humiliat ion and misery.'' Allah's anger t hat descended on t he Children of Israel was a part of t he humiliat ion t hey earned, because of t heir defiance of t he t rut h, disbelief in Allah's Ayat and belit t ling t he carriers of Allah's Law i.e. t he Prophet s and t heir following. The Children of Israel rej ect ed t he Messengers and even killed t hem. Surely, t here is no form of disbelief worse t han disbelieving in Allah's Ayat and murdering t he Prophet s of Allah. Meaning of Kibr Similarly, in a Hadit h recorded in t he Two Sahihs t he Messenger of Allah said, «サゅz ャや テ∇ヨビヱ ペエ∇ャや ゲトよ ゲ∇らム∇ャや» レ ⊥ ∠∠ あ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠⊥ ͡ (` Kibr, is refusing t he t rut h and degrading (belit t ling) people.) Imam Ahmad recorded, ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ∇ヱぺ ヶらル ヮヤわホ ∀ ィ∠ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ゅ⇔ や∠ ハ サゅz ャや ギセぺ» ∠ x ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ モ⊥ ケ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ よ グ∠ ͡ レ ぁ ∠ ∠ «リΒ͡んヨヨ∇ャや リョ モんヨョヱ るャゅ∠ッ ュゅ∠ まヱ :ゅ6 らル モわホ ヤあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∀ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ョ͡∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (The people who will receive t he most t orment on t he Day of Resurrect ion are: a man who was killed by a Prophet or who killed a Prophet , an unj ust ruler and one who mut ilat es (t he dead).) Allah's st at ement , びラヱ⊥ わ∇バΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇やヲ∠ ハ ゅ∠ よ マャクぴ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ル ミz ダ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ͡ (That was because t hey disobeyed and used t o t ransgress t he bounds) ment ions anot her reason why t he Children of Israel were punished in t his manner, for t hey used t o disobey and t ransgress t he limit s. Disobedience is t o do what is prohibit ed, while t ransgression ent ails overst epping t he set limit s of what is allowed and what is prohibit ed. Allah knows best . ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑグャや ラまぴ ゲ ダz ヱ キ ワ ∠ グz ヱ レ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ z z ͡ モヨハヱ ゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ∠ Β͡ ͡ ⇒z ャや∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ リ ゃら ダ ヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Ιヱ ∇ユヰよケ ギレ͡ ∇ユワゲ∇ィぺ ∇ユヰヤプ ゅエ͡⇒∠ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ハ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⇔ ヤ タ び ラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∠ ル∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (62. Verily, t hose who believe and t hose who are Jews and Christ ians, and Sabians (Sabi'in), whoever believes in Allah and t he Last Day and does right eous good deeds shall have t heir reward wit h t heir Lord, on t hem shall be no fear, nor shall t hey grieve.) Faith and doing Righteous Deeds equals Salvation in all Times Aft er Allah described t he condit ion - and punishment - of t hose who defy His commands, fall int o His prohibit ions and t ransgress set limit s by commit t ing prohibit ed act s, He st at ed t hat t he earlier nat ions who were right eous and obedient received t he rewards for t heir good deeds. This shall be t he case, unt il t he Day of Judgment . Therefore, whoever follows t he unlet t ered Messenger and Prophet shall acquire et ernal happiness and shall neit her fear from what will happen in t he fut ure nor become sad for what has been lost in t he past . Similarly, Allah said, ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Ι ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ラま Ι∠ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ͡ z ∠ Β͡ ∠ z ͡ ぺ び ラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∠ ル∠ ∠ (No doubt ! Verily, t he Awliya' of Allah, no fear shall come upon t hem nor shall t hey grieve) (10:62). The angels will proclaim t o t he dying believers, as ment ioned, メゴレわゎ ∇やヲ⊥ ⇒∠ わ∇シや z を ヮヤャや ゅ∠ よケ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ ボ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ z レぁ ∠ ャ ホ ∠ グz z ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ゼ∇よぺヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ゴ∇エゎ Ιヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゎ Ιぺ るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゲ͡ ∠∠ ル∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ プ ガ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ び ラヱ⊥ ハヲ⊥ ∇ユわレ⊥ ヴ͡ ャや るレイ∇ャゅ͡ ∠ ギ ∠ ゎ ⊥ ミ わz ͡ z ∠ よ (Verily, t hose who say: "Our Lord is Allah (alone),'' and t hen t hey st and firm, on t hem t he angels will descend (at t he t ime of t heir deat h) (saying): "Fear not , nor grieve! But receive t he glad t idings of Paradise which you have been promised!''). (41:30) The Meaning of Mu'min, or Believer Ali bin Abi Talhah narrat ed from Ibn ` Abbas, about , ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ゲ ダz ヱ キ ワ ∠ グz ヱ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz z ͡ びゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ∠ Β͡ ͡ ⇒z ャや∠ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ リ ゃら ダ ヱ (Verily, t hose who believe and t hose who are Jews and Christ ians, and Sabians, whoever believes in Allah and t he Last Day) t hat Allah revealed t he following Ayah aft erwards, ヲワヱ ヮ∇レョ モら∇ボΑ リ∠プ ゅ⇔ Α͡ ユ⇒∠∇シΗや ゲ∇Βビ ヒわ∇らΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ レ キ ͡ ヤ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ び リΑ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ (And whoever seeks religion ot her t han Islam, it will never be accept ed of him, and in t he Hereaft er he will be one of t he losers) (3:85). This st at ement by Ibn ` Abbas indicat es t hat Allah does not accept any deed or work from anyone, unless it conforms t o t he Law of Muhammad t hat is, aft er Allah sent Muhammad . Before t hat , every person who followed t he guidance of his own Prophet was on t he correct pat h, following t he correct guidance and was saved Why the Jews were called ` Yahud The Jews are t he followers of Prophet Musa, who used t o refer t o t he Tawrah for j udgment . Yahud is a word t hat means, ` repent ing', j ust as Musa said, びマ∇Βャま べ⇒∠ ∇ギワ ゅz ͡ぴ ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ⊥ ルま why the christians were called nasara ("Who will be my helpers in Allah's cause'' Al-Hawariyyun said: "We are t he helpers of Allah.'') (61:14) It was said t hat t hey were called ` Nasara', because t hey inhabit ed a land called An-Nasirah (Nazaret h), as Qat adah, Ibn Jurayj and Ibn ` Abbas were report ed t o have said, Allah knows best . Nasara is cert ainly plural for Nasran. When Allah sent Muhammad as t he Last and Final Prophet and Messenger t o all of t he Children of Adam, mankind was required t o believe in him, obey him and refrain from what he prohibit ed t hem; t hose who do t his are t rue believers. The Ummah of Muhammad was called ` Mu'minin' (believers), because of t he dept h of t heir fait h and cert aint y, and because t hey believe in all of t he previous Prophet s and mat t ers of t he Unseen. The Sabi'un or Sabians There is a difference of opinion over t he ident it y of t he Sabians. Sufyan At h-Thawri said t hat Layt h bin Abu Sulaym said t hat Muj ahid said t hat , "The Sabians are bet ween t he Maj us, t he Jews and t he Christ ians. They do not have a specific religion.'' Similar is report ed from Ibn Abi Naj ih. Similar st at ement s were at t ribut ed t o ` At a' and Sa` id bin Jubayr. They (ot hers) say t hat t he Sabians are a sect among t he People of t he Book who used t o read t he Zabur (Psalms), ot hers say t hat t hey are a people who worshipped t he angels or t he st ars. It appears t hat t he closest opinion t o t he t rut h, and Allah knows best , is Muj ahid's st at ement and t hose who agree wit h him like Wahb bin Munabbih, t hat t he Sabians are neit her Jews nor Christ ians nor Maj us nor polyt heist s. Rat her, t hey did not have a specific religion t hat t hey followed and enforced, because t hey remained living according t o t heir Fit rah (inst inct ual nat ure). This is why t he idolat ors used t o call whoever embraced Islam a ` Sabi', meaning, t hat he abandoned all religions t hat exist ed on t he eart h. Some scholars st at ed t hat t he Sabians are t hose who never received a message by any Prophet . And Allah knows best . ∇やヱ⊥ カ ケヲぁ ャや ユムホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ ∇バプケヱ ∇ユムボ⇒∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ ∇クまヱぴ グ⊥ ∠ ト ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ん ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ - ラヲ⊥ わゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ヮΒ͡ ゅ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや∠ りヲボよ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇Βゎや∠ べ∠ ∠ ボz ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ プ ョ ゲ⊥ ヱ ∃ z ⊥ ͡ ム レ ∠ ¬ ョ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮヤャや モ∇ツプ Ι∇ヲヤプ マャク ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ∇Βャヲゎ z を ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ わ z∠ ∠ ユ⊥ び リΑゲジ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ャ ヮわヨ∇ェケヱ ∠ ͡ ͡ ガ ∠ あ わ ム∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (63. And (O Children of Isra'il, remember) when We t ook your covenant and We raised above you t he Mount (saying): "Hold fast t o t hat which We have given you, and remember t hat which is t herein so t hat you may acquire Taqwa.) (64. Then aft er t hat you t urned away. Had it not been for t he grace and mercy of Allah upon you, indeed you would have been among t he losers.) Taking the Covenant from the Jews Allah reminded t he Children of Israel of t he pledges, covenant s and promises t hat He t ook from t hem t o believe in Him alone, wit hout a part ner, and follow His Messengers. Allah st at ed t hat when He t ook t heir pledge from t hem, He raised t he mount ain above t heir heads, so t hat t hey affirm t he pledge t hat t hey gave Allah and abide by it wit h sincerit y and seriousness. Hence, Allah's st at ement , ∀ ͡ や∠ ヮz ぺ ∇やヲぁ ニヱ ∀ ヤニ ヮルほミ ∇ユヰホ∇ヲプ モらイ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ボわル ク͡ヱぴ ノホ ヱ ⊥ ル∠ レ∠ ∠ るz⊥ ⊥ z ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ま∠ ∇ユムヤバャ ヮΒ͡ ゅ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや∠ りヲボよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βゎや∠ べ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ カ ∇ユヰよ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ プ ョ ゲ⊥ ヱ ∃ z ⊥ ͡ ミ レ ∠ ¬ ョ グ⊥ ͡ ͡ び ラヲ⊥ わゎ ∠ ボz ∠ (And (remember) when We raised t he mount ain over t hem as if it had been a canopy, and t hey t hought t hat it was going t o fall on t hem. (We said): "Hold firmly t o what We have given you (Tawrah), and remember t hat which is t herein (act on it s commandment s), so t hat you may fear Allah and obey Him.'') (7:171). The mount ment ioned here is At -Tur, j ust as it was explained in Surat Al-A` raf, according t o t he Tafsir of Ibn ` Abbas, Muj ahid, ` At a', ` Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and ot hers. This is more obvious. There is anot her report from Ibn ` Abbas saying; ` The Tur is a t ype of mount ain t hat veget at ion grows on, if no veget at ion grows on it , it is not called Tur.' And in t he Hadit h about t he t rials, Ibn ` Abbas said; "When t hey (t he Jews) refused t o obey, Allah raised t he mount ain above t heir heads so t hat t hey would list en.'' Al-Hasan said t hat Allah's st at ement , びりヲボよ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇Βゎや∠ べ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ カぴ ∃ z ⊥ ͡ ム レ ∠ ¬ ョ グ⊥ (Hold fast t o t hat which We have given you) means, t he Tawrah. Muj ahid said t hat t he Ayah commanded, "St rict ly adhere t o it .'' Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` said t hat , びヮΒ͡ ゅ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや∠ ぴ ͡ プ ョ ゲ⊥ ヱ (and remember t hat which is t herein) means, "Read t he Tawrah and implement it .'' Allah's st at ement , びヮヤャや モ∇ツプ Ι∇ヲヤプ マャク ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ∇Βャ∠ ∠ z をぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ わ zヲゎ ユ⊥ (Then aft er t hat you t urned away. Had it not been for t he grace of Allah) means, "Yet , aft er t he firm pledge t hat you gave, you st ill deviat ed and broke your pledge''; びヮわヨ∇ェケヱ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮヤャや モ∇ツプ Ι∇ヲヤプぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Had it not been for t he grace and mercy of Allah upon you), meaning, by forgiving you and by sending t he Prophet s and Messengers t o you, びリΑ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ャぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ∠ あ わ ム∠ (Indeed you would have been among t he losers) meaning, in t his life and t he Hereaft er due t o t heir breach of t he covenant . ゅ∠ ∇ヤボプ ろ∇らジャや ヴ͡ ∇ユムレ͡ ∇やヱ∠ わ∇ハや リΑ͡ ャや ユわ∇ヨヤハ ∇ギボャヱぴ レ ⊥∠ ͡ z プ ⊥ ョ ギ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ ∠ ∠∠ ゅ∠ ャ Κ⇒∠ ル ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ヤバイプ - リΒ͡ ジ⇒∠ りキゲホ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇ユヰャ ヨあ ⇔ ム∠ ヰ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゃ͡ カ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ミ ⊥ ∠ び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ るヌハ∇ヲョヱ ゅ∠ ヘ∇ヤカ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ヰ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (65. And indeed you knew t hose amongst you who t ransgressed in t he mat t er of t he Sabbat h (i.e. Sat urday). We said t o t hem: "Be you monkeys, despised and rej ect ed.'') (66. So We made t his punishment an example for t hose in front of it and t hose behind it , and a lesson for AlMut t aqin (t he pious.) The Jews breach the Sanctity of the Sabbath Allah said, びユわ∇ヨヤハ ∇ギボャヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ ∠ ∠∠ (And indeed you knew). This Ayah means, O Jews! Remember t hat Allah sent His t orment on t he village t hat disobeyed Him and broke t heir pledge and t heir covenant t o observe t he sanct it y of t he Sabbat h. They began using deceit ful means t o avoid honoring t he Sabbat h by placing net s, ropes and art ificial pools of wat er for t he purpose of fishing before t he Sabbat h. When t he fish came in abundance on Sat urday as usual, t hey were caught in t he ropes and net s for t he rest of Sat urday. During t he night , t he Jews collect ed t he fish aft er t he Sabbat h ended. When t hey did t hat , Allah changed t hem from humans int o monkeys, t he animals having t he form closest t o humans. Their evil deeds and deceit appeared lawful on t he surface, but t hey were in realit y wicked. This is why t heir punishment was compat ible wit h t heir crime. This st ory is explained in det ail in Surat Al-A` raf, where Allah said (7:163), ゲ∇エら∇ャや りゲッゅ∠ ∇ろルゅ∠ ヴ͡ ャや るΑ∇ゲボ∇ャや リハ ∇ユヰ∇ヤゃ∇シヱぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ェ ∠ ミ わz ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ュ∇ヲΑ ∇ユヰルゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユヰΒ͡ ∇ほゎ ∇クま ろ∇らジャや ヴ͡ ラヱ⊥ ∇バΑ ∇クま ∠ ∠ ⊥⊥ わ ェ ͡ ゎ∠ ͡ ͡ z プ ∠ ギ∠ ͡ マャグミ ∇ユヰΒ͡ ∇ほゎ Ι ラヲ⊥ ら∇ジΑ Ι ュ∇ヲΑヱ ゅ⇔ ゲセ ∇ユヰわ∇らシ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ͡ ゎ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ハz ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ジ∇ヘΑ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ よ ユ⊥ ヲ⊥∇らル ∠ ボ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ヨ͡ ワ ヤ ∠ (And ask t hem (O Muhammad ) about t he t own t hat was by t he sea; when t hey t ransgressed in t he mat t er of t he Sabbat h (i.e. Sat urday): when t heir fish came t o t hem openly on t he Sabbat h day, and did not come t o t hem on t he day t hey had no Sabbat h. Thus We made a t rial of t hem, for t hey used t o rebel (disobey Allah).)(7:163) In his Tafsir, Al-` Awfi report ed from Ibn ` Abbas t hat he said, びリΒ͡ ジ⇒∠ りキゲホ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇ユヰャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤボ∠ ぴ ∠ ゃ͡ カ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ミ ⊥ ∠ レ ⊥ プ (We said t o t hem: "Be you monkeys, despised and rej ect ed'') means, "Allah changed t heir bodies int o t hose of monkeys and swines. The young people t urned int o monkeys while t he old people t urned int o swine.'' Shayban An-Nahwi report ed t hat Qat adah comment ed on, びリΒ͡ ジ⇒∠ りキゲホ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇ユヰャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤボ∠ ぴ ∠ ゃ͡ カ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ミ ⊥ ∠ レ ⊥ プ (We said t o t hem: "Be you monkeys, despised and rej ect ed''), "These people were t urned int o howling monkeys wit h t ails, aft er being men and women.'' The Monkeys and Swine that exist now are not the Descendants of Those that were transformed Ibn Abi Hat im recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Those who violat ed t he sanct it y of t he Sabbat h were t urned int o monkeys, t hen t hey perished wit hout offspring.'' Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Allah t urned t hem int o monkeys because of t heir sins. They only lived on t he eart h for t hree days, for no t ransformed person ever lives more t han t hree days. They did not eat , drink or have offspring. Allah t ransformed t heir shapes int o monkeys, and He does what He wills, wit h whom He wills and He changes t he shape of whomever He wills. On t he ot her hand, Allah creat ed t he monkeys, swines and t he rest of t he creat ion in t he six days (of creat ion) t hat He ment ioned in His Book.'' Allah's st at ement , びΚ⇒∠ ル ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ヤバイプぴ ⇔ ム∠ ヰ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ (So We made t his punishment an example) means, Allah made t he people of t his village, who violat ed t he sanct it y of t he Sabbat h, びΚ⇒∠ ルぴ ⇔ ム∠ (an example) via t he way t hey were punished. Similarly, Allah said about Pharaoh, び ヴ∠∇ヱΙや∠ りゲカΙや メゅ∠ ル ヮzャや ログカほプぴ ャ y ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ x ∠ ム∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (So Allah, seized him wit h punishing example for his last and first t ransgression) (79:25). nAllah's st at ement , びゅ∠ ∠ ∇ヤ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ ャぴ ヰヘ カ ョ ∠ ヰ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ あ (for t hose in front of it and t hose behind it ) meaning, for t he ot her villages. Ibn ` Abbas comment ed, "Meaning, ` We made t his village an example for t he villages around it by t he manner in which We punished it s people.''' Similarly, Allah said, ゅ∠ ∇プゲタヱ ン∠ ボ∇ャや リョ ∇ユムャ∇ヲェ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ム∠∇ワ∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ レ z ∠ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ あ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ レ ヤ ぺ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲΑ ∇ユヰヤバャ ろ⇒∠ Ιや ∠ バ͡ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ Αx (And indeed We have dest royed t owns (populat ions) round about you, and We have (repeat edly) shown (t hem) t he Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelat ions, et c.) in various ways t hat t hey might ret urn (t o t he t rut h and believe in t he Oneness of Allah Islamic Monot heism)).(46:27) Therefore, Allah made t hem an example for t hose who lived during t heir t ime as well as a reminder for t hose t o come, by preserving t heir st ory. This is why Allah said, びリΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ るヌハ∇ヲョヱぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (and a lesson for Al-Mut t aqin (t he pious)), meaning, a reminder. This Ayah means, "The t orment and punishment t hat t his village suff ered was a result of indulging in Allah's prohibit ions and t heir deceit . Hence, t hose who have Taqwa should be aware of t heir evil behavior, so t hat what occurred t o t his village does not befall t hem as well.'' Also, Imam Abu ` Abdullah bin Bat t ah report ed t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ュケゅ∠ ョ やヲぁエわ∇ジわプ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ろらムゎ∇ケや ゅ∠ やヲ⊥ ムゎ∇ゲゎ ゅ∠» ∠ ͡ エ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ら͡ ∠ ∠ ャ «モ∠ エ∇ャや ヴ∠ ∇キほよ ぶや Β͡ ル ∠͡ ͡ (Do not commit what t he Jews commit t ed, breaching what Allah has forbidden, by resort ing t o t he lowest t ypes of deceit .) This Hadit h has a good (Jayid) chain of narrat ion. Allah knows best . ラ∠ ∇ユミゲョ∇ほΑ ヮヤャや ラま ヮョ∇ヲボャ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ぺ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ シ ョ ∠ ホ ͡∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ クヲ⊥ ぺ メゅ∠ や⇔ ゴワ ゅ∠ グ͡ わ∠ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ りゲボよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∠ ∇グ∠ ͡ z よ ⊥ ハ∠ ∠ ホ ヱ⊥ ⊥ ル⊥ ガz ゎぺ ャ ホ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ エよ ゎ び リΒ͡ヰ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ ラヲ⊥ ぺ ∇ラぺ ∠ ヤ͡ イ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ (67. And (remember) when Musa said t o his people: "Verily, Allah commands you t hat you slaught er a cow.'' They said, "Do you make fun of us'' He said, "I t ake Allah's refuge from being among Al-Jahilin (t he ignorant or t he foolish).'') The Story of the murdered Israeli Man and the Cow Allah said, ` O Children of Israel! Remember how I blessed you wit h miracle of t he cow t hat was t he means for discovering t he ident it y of t he murderer, when t he murdered man was brought back t o life.' Ibn Abi Hat im recorded ` Ubaydah As-Salmani saying, "There was a man from among t he Children of Israel who was impot ent . He had subst ant ial wealt h, and only a nephew who would inherit from him. So his nephew killed him and moved his body at night , placing it at t he doorst ep of a cert ain man. The next morning, t he nephew cried out for revenge, and t he people t ook up t heir weapons and almost fought each ot her. The wise men among t hem said, ` Why would you kill each ot her, while t he Messenger of Allah is st ill among you' So t hey went t o Musa and ment ioned t he mat t er t o him and Musa said, ゅ∠ グ͡ わ∠ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ りゲボよ ∇やヲ⊥ よ∇グゎ ラ∠ ∇ユミゲョ∇ほΑ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ル⊥ ガ z ゎ ぺ ャ ホ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ∠ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ びリΒ͡ヰ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ ラヲ⊥ ぺ ∇ラぺ ヮヤャゅ͡ クヲ⊥ ぺ メゅ∠ や⇔ ゴワ ∠ ヤ͡ イ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ͡ z よ ⊥ ハ∠ ∠ ホ ヱ⊥ ⊥ ("Verily, Allah commands you t hat you slaught er a cow.'' They said, "Do you make fun of us'' He said, "I t ake Allah's refuge from being among Al-Jahilin (t he ignorant or t he foolish)).'' "Had t hey not disput ed, it would have been sufficient for t hem t o slaught er any cow. However, t hey disput ed, and t he mat t er was made more difficult for t hem, unt il t hey ended up looking for t he specific cow t hat t hey were lat er ordered t o slaught er. They found t he designat ed cow wit h a man, only who owned t hat cow. He said, ` By Allah! I will only sell it for it s skin's fill of gold.' So t hey paid t he cow's fill of it s skin in gold, slaught ered it and t ouched t he dead man wit h a part of it . He st ood up, and t hey asked him, ` Who killed you' He said, ` That man,' and point ed t o his nephew. He died again, and his nephew was not allowed t o inherit him. Thereaft er, whoever commit t ed murder for t he purpose of gaining inherit ance was not allowed t o inherit .'' Ibn Jarir report ed somet hing similar t o t hat . Allah knows best . メヲ⊥ Α ヮz ま メゅ∠ ヴワ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャ リΒらΑ マよケ ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キや ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ボ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ∠ ホ ∠ ͡ ョ レz ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ レャ ⊥ ャホ マャク リ∇Βよ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∀ ∇ム͡ Ιヱ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ Ι りゲボよ ゅ∠ ルま ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ラ ヲ ハ ゲ よ ∠ ∠ チ ケ プ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ゅ∠ ャ リあ らΑ マよケ ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キや ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ - ラヱゲ∠ ∇ぽゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇プゅ∠ レz Β∠ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ レャ ⊥ ャ ホ ∠ ョ ⊥ ョ ヤ∠ プ ∀ ⇒͡ ゅ∠ ¬へ∠ ∇ヘタ りゲボよ ゅ∠ ルま メヲ⊥ Α ヮz ま メゅ∠ ゅ∠ ル∇ヲャ ゅ∠ ノ ホ プ ⊥ ゲ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ∠ ホ ヰ⊥ ∠ ョ リあ らΑ マよケ ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キや ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ - リΑ͡ ヌ⇒z ャや ぁ ジゎ ゅ∠ ル∇ヲャ Β ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ レャ ⊥ ャ ホ ∠ ゲ͡ レ ゲ⊥ ∠ ヰ⊥ z ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ ラ͡ べz まヱ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヮら⇒∠ ゎ ゲボらャや ラま ヴワ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ⊥ z ∠ セ ま ル͡∠ レ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ レz ゲΒ͡ ゎ ∀ ヲ⊥∠ Ι りゲボよ ゅ∠ ルま メヲ⊥ Α ヮz ま メゅ∠ - ラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰヨャ ⊥ ん⊥ メ ャク z ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ∠ ホ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ るΒセ Ι るヨヤジョ ゐ∇ゲエ∇ャや ヴ͡ ∇ジゎ Ιヱ チ∇ケΙや ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∀ ∠ z∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ x ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ よグプ ペエ∇ャゅ͡ ろ∇ゃィ リ⇒∠や ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ キ ミ ョ ∠ ワ エ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ よ ∠ ͡ ∠ ャ ャ ホ び ラヲ⊥バ∇ヘΑ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ (68. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us t hat He may make plain t o us what it is!'' He said, "He says, ` Verily, it is a cow neit her t oo old nor t oo young, but (it is) bet ween t he t wo condit ions', so do what you are commanded.'') (69. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us t o make plain t o us it s colour.'' He said, "He says, ` It is a yellow cow, bright in it s colour, pleasing t he beholders.' '') (70. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us t o make plain t o us what it is. Verily, t o us all cows are alike. And surely, if Allah wills, we will be guided.'') (71. He (Musa) said, "He says, ` It is a cow neit her t rained t o t ill t he soil nor wat er t he fields, sound, having no blemish in it .' '' They said, "Now you have brought t he t rut h.'' So t hey slaught ered it t hough t hey were near t o not doing it .) The Stubbornness of the Jews regarding the Cow; Allah made the Matter difficult for Them Allah ment ioned t he st ubbornness of t he Children of Israel and t he many unnecessary quest ions t hey asked t heir Messengers. This is why when t hey were st ubborn, Allah made t he decisions difficult for t hem. Had t hey slaught ered a cow, any cow, it would have been sufficient for t hem, as Ibn ` Abbas and ` Ubaydah have said. Inst ead, t hey made t he mat t er difficult , and t his is why Allah made it even more difficult for t hem. They said, びヴワ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャ リΒらΑ マよケ ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キやぴ ∠ ͡ ョ レz ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ レ ャ ⊥ (Call upon your Lord for us t hat He may make plain t o us what it is!), meaning, "What is t his cow and what is it s descript ion'' Musa said, び∀ ∇ム͡ Ιヱ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ Ι りゲボよ ゅ∠ ルま メヲ⊥ Α ヮz まぴ ゲ よ ∠ ∠ チケ プ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ⊥ ル͡ (He says, ` Verily, it is a cow neit her t oo old nor t oo young'), meaning, t hat it is neit her old nor below t he age of breeding. This is t he opinion of Abu Al-` Aliyah, As-Suddi, Muj ahid, ` Ikrimah, ` At iyah Al-` Awfi, ` At a', Al-Khurasani, Wahb bin Munabbih, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Qat adah and Ibn ` Abbas. Ad-Dahhak report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , びマャク リ∇Βよ ∀ や∠ ∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ラ ヲハ (But (it is) bet ween t he t wo condit ions) means, "Neit her old nor young. Rat her, she was at t he age when t he cow is st rongest and fit t est .'' In his Tafsir Al-` Awfi report ed from Ibn ` Abbas t hat , びゅ∠ ル∇ヲャ ∀ ⇒͡ ゅ∠ ぴ ヰ⊥ z ノ ホ プ (bright in it s colour) "A deep yellowish whit e.'' As-Suddi said, びリΑ͡ ヌ⇒z ャや ぁ ジゎぴ ∠ ゲ͡ レ ゲ⊥ ∠ (pleasing t he beholder) meaning, t hat it pleases t hose who see it . This is also t he opinion of Abu Al-` Aliyah, Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Furt hermore, Wahb bin Munabbih said, "If you look at t he cow's skin, you will t hink t hat t he sun's rays radiat e t hrough it s skin.'' The modern version of t he Tawrah ment ions t hat t he cow in t he Ayah was red, but t his is an error. Or, it might be t hat t he cow was so yellow t hat it appeared blackish or reddish in color. Allah's knows best . びゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヮら⇒∠ ゎ ゲボらャや ラまぴ レ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ (Verily, t o us all cows are alike) t his means, t hat since cows are plent iful, t hen describe t his cow for us furt her, びヮzャや ¬べ∠ ラ͡ べz まヱぴ ⊥ ヤ ∠ セ ま ル͡ ∠ (And surely, if Allah wills) and if you furt her describe it t o us, びラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰヨャぴ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ (we will be guided.) チ∇ケΙや ゲΒ͡ ゎ ∀ ヲ⊥∠ Ι りゲボよ ゅ∠ ルま メヲ⊥ Α ヮz ま メゅ∠ ぴ ∠ x ⊥ ん⊥ メ ャク z ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ∠ ホ びゐ∇ゲエ∇ャや ヴ͡ ∇ジゎ Ιヱ ∠ ∠ ボ ∠∠∠ (He says, ` It is a cow neit her t rained t o t ill t he soil nor wat er t he fields') meaning, it is not used in farming, or for wat ering purposes. Rat her, it is honorable and fair looking. ` AbdurRazzaq said t hat Ma` mar said t hat Qat adah said t hat , びるヨヤジョぴ ∀ ∠ z∠ ぁ (sound) means, "The cow does not suffer from any defect s.'' This is also t he opinion of Abu Al` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` . Muj ahid also said t hat t he Ayah means t he cow is free from defect s. Furt her, ` At a' Al-Khurasani said t hat t he Ayah means t hat it s legs and body are free of physical defect s. Also, Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Ayah, びラヲ⊥バ∇ヘΑ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ よグプぴ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ キ ミ ョ∠ ワ エ∠ ∠ ∠ (So t hey slaught ered it t hough t hey were near t o not doing it ) means, "They did not want t o slaught er it .'' This means t hat even aft er all t he quest ions and answers about t he cow's descript ion, t he Jews were st ill reluct ant t o slaught er t he cow. This part of t he Qur'an crit icized t he Jews for t heir behavior, because t heir only goal was t o be st ubborn, and t his is why t hey nearly did not slaught er t he cow. Also, ` Ubaydah, Muj ahid, Wahb bin Munabbih, Abu Al-` Aliyah and ` AbdurRahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "The Jews bought t he cow wit h a large amount of money.'' There is a difference of opinion over t his. ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅz ∀ ͡ ∇ガョ ヮzャや∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユゎ∇ぺケキゅ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇ヘル ∇ユわ∇ヤわホ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ ミ ョ ァゲ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ ヱ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ プ ジ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ヮzャや ヴ∇エΑ マャグミ ゅ∠ ツ∇バらよ ロヲ⊥ ゲ∇ッや ゅ∠ ∇ヤボ∠ - ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ヰ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ よ͡ レ ⊥ プ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ヮわ⇒∠ へ ∇ユムΑ͡ Αヱ ヴ∠ ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Α ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ゎ ∠ (72. And (remember) when you killed a man and disagreed among yourselves as t o t he crime. But Allah brought fort h t hat which you were Takt umun.) (73. So We said: "St rike him (t he dead man) wit h a piece of it (t he cow).'' Thus Allah brings t he dead t o life and shows you His Ayat (proofs, evidences, et c.) so t hat you may underst and.) Bringing the murdered Man back to Life Al-Bukhari said t hat , びゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユゎ∇ぺケキゅ∠ ぴ ヰプ ⊥∠∠ プ (And disagreed among yourselves as t o t he crime) means, "Disput ed.'' This is also t he Tafsir of Muj ahid. ` At a' Al-Khurasani and Ad-Dahhak said, "Disput ed about t his mat t er.'' Also, Ibn Jurayj said t hat , びゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユゎ∇ぺケキゅ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇ヘル ∇ユわ∇ヤわホ ∇クまヱぴ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ プ ジ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ (And (remember) when you killed a man and disagreed among yourselves as t o t he crime) means, some of t hem said, "You killed him,'' while t he ot hers said, "No you killed him.'' This is also t he Tafsir of ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. Muj ahid said t hat , びラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅz ∀ ͡ ∇ガョ ヮヤャや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ ァゲ ⊥ ⊥ z ヱ (But Allah brought fort h t hat which you were Takt umun) means, "what you were hiding.'' Allah said, びゅ∠ ツ∇バらよ ロヲ⊥ ゲ∇ッや ゅ∠ ∇ヤボ∠ ぴ ヰ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ よ͡ レ ⊥プ (So We said: "St rike him (t he dead man) wit h a piece of it (t he cow)'') meaning, "any part of t he cow will produce t he miracle (if t hey st ruck t he dead man wit h it ).'' We were not t old which part of t he cow t hey used, as t his mat t er does not benefit us eit her in mat t ers of life or religion. Ot herwise, Allah would have made it clear for us. Inst ead, Allah made t his mat t er vague, so t his is why we should leave it vague. Allah's st at ement , びヴ∠ ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ヮzャや ヴ∇エΑ マャグミぴ ゎ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ (Thus Allah brings t he dead t o life) means, "They st ruck him wit h it , and he came back t o life.'' This Ayah demonst rat es Allah's abilit y in bringing t he dead back t o life. Allah made t his incident proof against t he Jews t hat t he Resurrect ion shall occur, and ended t heir disput ing and st ubbornness over t he dead person. Allah ment ioned His bringing t he dead back t o life in five inst ances in Surat Al-Baqarah. First Allah said, び∇ユムゎ∇ヲョ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇んバよ z をぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ム レ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then We raised you up aft er your deat h). He t hen ment ioned t he st ory about t he cow. Allah also ment ioned t he st ory of t hose who escaped deat h in t heir land, while t hey were numbering in t he t housands. He also ment ioned t he st ory of t he Prophet who passed by a village t hat was dest royed, t he st ory of Abraham and t he four birds, and t he land t hat comes back t o life aft er it has died. All t hese incident s and st ories alert us t o t he fact t hat bodies shall again become whole, aft er t hey were rot t en. The proof of Resurrect ion is also reit erat ed in Allah's st at ement , ゅ∠ ∇ィゲ∇カぺヱ ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ΒΒ∇ェぺ るわ∇Βヨ∇ャや チ∇ケΙや ユヰz ∀ ∠ や∠ ∠ ぴ レ ∠ ∠∠ ヰ レ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ x ⊥ ⊥ ャ るΑ ¬ヱ リあ ろ⇒z ィ ゅ∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィヱ - ラヲ⊥ミ∇ほΑ ヮ∇レヨプ ゅらェ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ョ ∃ レ∠ ヰ プ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⇔∂ ∠ ヰ ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミ∇ほΒャ - ラヲ⊥ バ∇ャや リョ ゅ∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇ゲイプヱ ょ⇒∠ ∇ハぺヱ モΒ͡ ル ヤ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β⊥ ∠ ͡ ヰ プ ル z ∠ ∠ ∃ レ ∠∠ ∃ ガz び ラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼΑ Κプぺ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ヮ∇わヤヨハ ゅ∠ ヱ ロゲヨを リ͡ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ (And a sign for t hem is t he dead land. We give it life, and We bring fort h from it grains, so t hat t hey eat t hereof. And We have made t herein gardens of dat e palms and grapes, and We have caused springs of wat er t o gush fort h t herein. So t hat t hey may eat of t he fruit t hereof and t heir hands made it not . Will t hey not t hen give t hanks) (36:33-35). ∇ヱぺ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャゅ∠ ヴヰプ マャク ギ∇バよ リあ ∇ユムよヲ⊥ホ ∇ろジホ z をぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ イ͡ ミ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ ヮ∇レョ ゲイヘわΑ ゅ∠ ∠ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャや リョ ラまヱ りヲ∇ジホ ギセぺ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨャ ͡ ∠ イ͡ ∠ ͡ z ͡∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ¬べ∠ ∇ャや ヮ∇レョ ァゲ∇ガΒプ ペボゼ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ラまヱ ゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΕや ⊥ ヨ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z z Α ヨ∠ ヰ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヱ ヮヤャや るΒ∇ゼカ ∇リョ テら∇ヰΑ ゅ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ラまヱ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヨャ ヰ ͡ z ͡∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨ∠ (74. Then aft er t hat your heart s were hardened and became as st ones or even worse in hardness. And indeed, t here are st ones out of which rivers gush fort h, and indeed, t here are of t hem (st ones) which split asunder so t hat wat er flows from t hem, and indeed, t here are of t hem (st ones) which fall down for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.) The Harshness of the Jews Allah crit icized t he Children of Israel because t hey wit nessed t he t remendous signs and t he Ayat of Allah, including bringing t he dead back t o life, yet , びマャク ギ∇バよ リあ ∇ユムよヲ⊥ホ ∇ろジホ z をぴ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then aft er t hat your heart s were hardened). So t heir heart s were like st ones t hat never become soft . This is why Allah forbade t he believers from imit at ing t he Jews when He said, ヮヤャや ゲ∇ミグャ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ノゼ∇ガゎ ラ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ラ∇ほΑ ∇ユャぺぴ ͡ z ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぺ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz͡ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Α Ιヱ ペエ∇ャや リョ メゴル ゅ∠ ヱ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ミ ル ム∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ∇ろジボプ ギョΙや ユヰ∇Βヤハ メゅ∠ プ モ∇らホ リ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ x ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ト∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ わ͡ び ラヲ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∀ Β͡ ミヱ ∠ ボ͡ プ ⊥ あ ゲ ん∠ ∠ (Has not t he t ime come for t he heart s of t hose who believe (in t he Oneness of Allah Islamic Monot heism) t o be affect ed by Allah's Reminder (t his Qur'an), and t hat which has been revealed of t he t rut h, lest t hey become as t hose who received t he Script ure (t he Tawrah) and t he Inj il (Gospel)) before (i.e. Jews and Christ ians), and t he t erm was prolonged for t hem and so t heir heart s were hardened And many of t hem were Fasiqun (t he rebellious, t he disobedient t o Allah)) (57:16). v In his Tafsir, Al-` Awfi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "When t he dead man was st ruck wit h a part of t he cow, he st ood up and became more alive t han he ever was. He was asked, ` Who killed you' He said, ` My nephews killed me.' He t hen died again. His nephews said, aft er Allah t ook his life away, ` By Allah! We did not kill him' and denied t he t rut h while t hey knew it . Allah said, びりヲ∇ジホ ギセぺ ∇ヱぺ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャゅ∠ ヴヰプぴ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ イ͡ ミ ∠ ͡ ∠ (And became as st ones or even worse in hardness). '' And by t he passage of t ime, t he heart s of t he Children of Israel were unlikely t o accept any admonishment , even aft er t he miracles and signs t hey wit hnessed. Their heart s became harder t han st ones, wit h no hope of ever soft ening. Somet imes, springs and rivers burst out of st ones, some st ones split and wat er comes out of t hem, even if t here are no springs or rivers around t hem, somet imes st ones fall down from mount aint ops out of t heir fear of Allah. Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , ラまヱ ゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΕや ヮ∇レョ ゲイヘわΑ ゅ∠ ャ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャや リョ ラまヱぴ z ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ ∠ ͡ ∠ イ͡ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ラまヱ ¬べ∠ ∇ャや ヮ∇レョ ァゲ∇ガΒプ ペボゼ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ヨ∠ ヰ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヨ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z z Α ヨ∠ ヰ ͡ びヮヤャや るΒ∇ゼカ ∇リョ テら∇ヰΑ ͡z ͡∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ (And indeed, t here are st ones out of which rivers gush fort h, and indeed, t here are of t hem (st ones) which split asunder so t hat wat er flows from t hem, and indeed, t here are of t hem (st ones) which fall down for fear of Allah), means, "Some st ones are soft er t han your heart s, t hey acknowledge t he t rut h t hat you are being called t o, び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヱぴ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョ∠ (And Allah is not unaware of what you do).'' Solid Inanimate Objects possess a certain Degree of Awareness Some claimed t hat t he Ayat ment ioned t he st ones being humble as a met aphor. However, ArRazi, Al-Qurt ubi and ot her Imams said t hat t here is no need for t his explanat ion, because Allah creat es t his charact erist ic - humbleness - in st ones. For inst ance, Allah said, チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヴ∠ハ るルゅ∠ Ιや ゅ∠ ∇ッゲハ ゅz ͡ぴ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ョx レ ∠ ∠ ルま びゅ∠ ∇レョ リ∇ボヘ∇セぺヱ ゅ∠ レ∇ヤヨ∇エΑ ラ∠ リ∇Βよほ∠ メゅ∠ イ∇ャや∠ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ∠ ∠ プ ͡ ら͡ ヱ (Truly, We did offer Al-Amanah (t he t rust ) t o t he heavens and t he eart h, and t he mount ains, but t hey declined t o bear it and were afraid of it (i.e. afraid of Allah's t orment )) (33:72), びリヰΒ͡ リ∠ ヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ ノ∇らz ャや れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヮャ ウあ ジゎぴ z ͡ プ ョ∠ ⊥ x ヱ ⊥ ジ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ (The seven heavens and t he eart h and all t hat is t herein, glorify Him) (17:44), び ラや∠ イ∇ジΑ ゲイゼャや∠ ユ∇イレャや∠ ぴ ͡ ギ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ヱ ⊥ z ヱ (And t he st ars and t he t rees bot h prost rat e t hemselves (t o Allah)) (55:6), びほΒヘわΑ ¬∇ヴセ リ͡ ヮzャや ペヤカヴ∠ま ∇や∇ヱゲΒ∇ヨャ ヱぺぴ ⊥z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ョ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠∠ ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Have t hey not observed t hings t hat Allah has creat ed: (how) t heir shadows incline) (16:48), びリΒ͡ もべ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βゎぺ べ∠ ャゅ∠ ぴ ∠ バ͡ デ レ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ホ (They bot h said: "We come willingly.'') (41:11), びモらィ ヴ∠ハ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや や∠ ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ∇ャ∠ ル∠ ∇ヲャぴ ∃ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ¬ ⊥ グ ワ レ ゴ ぺ ∠ (Had We sent down t his Qur'an on a mount ain) (59:21), and, ゅ∠ ボトル∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇ユゎギ͡ セ ユャ ∇ユワキヲ⊥イャ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ レ∠ ∠ ぺ ャ ホ レ ∠∠ ぁ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ͡ ャ ホ∠ びヮzャや ⊥ヤ (And t hey will say t o t heir skins, "Why do you t est ify against us'' They will say: "Allah has caused us t o speak.'') (41:21). It is recorded in t he Sahih t hat t he Prophet said, «ヮぁ エルヱ ゅ∠ らエΑ モらィ や∠ ワ» ら͡ ⊥ ∠ レぁ ͡ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ∠ グ (This (Mount Uhud) is a mount t hat loves us and t hat we love.) Similarly, t he compassion of t he st ump of t he palm t ree for t he Prophet as confirmed in aut hent ic narrat ions. In Sahih Muslim it is recorded t hat t he Prophet said, モ∇らホ ヶヤハ ユあジΑ ラゅ∠ るムヨよ や⇔ イェ フゲ∇ハほャ ヶあ ま» ∠ ∠ z ∠∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ミ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ル͡ «ラべ∇ャや ヮプゲ∇ハほャ ヶあ ま ゑバ∇よぺ ∇ラぺ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ル͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (I know a st one in Makkah t hat used t o greet me wit h t he Salam before I was sent . I recognize t his st one now.) He said about t he Black St one t hat , «る∠ ゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ペエよ ユヤわ∇シや リヨャ ギヰ∇ゼΑ ヮz ま» ョ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル͡ (On t he Day of Resurrect ion it will t est ifiy for t hose who kiss it .) There are several ot her t ext s wit h t his meaning. The scholars of t he Arabic language disagreed over t he meaning of Allah's st at ement , びりヲ∇ジホ ギセぺ ∇ヱぺ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャゅ∠ ヴヰプぴ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ イ͡ ミ ∠ ͡ ∠ (And became as st ones or even worse in hardness) aft er agreeing t hat ` or' here is not being used t o reflect doubt . Some scholars said t hat ` or' here means, ` and'. So t he meaning becomes, "As hard as st ones, and harder.'' For inst ance, Allah said, びやケヲ⊥ ミ ∇ヱぺ ゅヨ͡ や∠ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇ノトゎ Ιヱぴ ⇔ ヘ∠ ∠ ⇔ を ¬ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And obey not a sinner or a disbeliever among t hem) (76:24), and, び やケ∇グル ∇ヱぺ やケ∇グハぴ ⇔ ⊥ ∠⇔ ⊥ (To cut off all excuses or t o warn) (77:6). Some ot her scholars said t hat ` or' here means, ` rat her'. Hence, t he meaning becomes, ` As hard as st ones. Rat her, harder.' For inst ance, Allah said, ∇ヱぺ ヮヤャや るΒ∇ゼガミ サゅレャや ラ∇ヲゼ∇ガΑ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ や∠ まぴ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ペ ゲプ ク͡ びるΒ∇ゼカ ギセぺ ⇔ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ (A sect ion of t hem fear men as t hey fear Allah or even more) (4:77), び ラヱ⊥ Α͡ Α ∇ヱぺ ブ∇ャぺ るも∇ゅョ ヴ∠ま ヮ⇒∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺヱぴ ∠ ギ ゴ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠∠ (And We sent him t o a hundred t housand (people) or even more) (37:147), and, び ヴ∠ ∇キぺ ∇ヱぺ リ∇Βシ∇ヲホ ゆゅ∠ ラゅ∠ プぴ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ∠ ム∠ (And was at a dist ance of t wo bows' lengt h or (even) nearer) (53:9). Some ot her scholars said t hat t his Ayah means t heir heart s are only of t wo t ypes, as hard as st one or harder t han st one. Furt her, Ibn Jarir comment ed t hat t his Tafsir means t hat some of t heir heart s are as hard as st one and some heart s are harder t han st one. Ibn Jarir said t hat he favored t his last Tafsir, alt hough t he ot hers are plausible. I - Ibn Kat hir - say t hat t he last Tafsir is similar t o Allah's st at ement , びやケゅ∠ ギホ∇ヲわ∇シや ン͡ ャや モんヨミ ∇ユヰヤんョぴ ⇔ ル ∠∠ ∠ グz ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ (Their likeness is as t he likeness of one who kindled a fire) (2:17), and t hen His st at ement , び¬べ∠ ジャや リョ ょΒダミ ∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ヨz ∠ あ ∃ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Or like a rainst orm from t he sky) (2:19). It is also similar t o Allah's st at ement , びるバΒ͡ よ ゆや∠ ジミ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ∃ ∠ ボ͡ ∃ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ (As for t hose who disbelieved, t heir deeds are like a mirage in a desert ) (24:39), and t hen His st at ement , びヴイャ ゲ∇エよ ヴ͡ ろ⇒∠ ヤヌミ ∇ヱぺぴ y あ ぁ ∃ ∠ プ ∃ ヨ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ (Or (t he st at e of a disbeliever) is like t he darkness in a vast deep sea) (24:40). This t hen means t hat some of t hem are like t he first example, and some ot hers are like t he second example. Allah knows best . ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ラゅ∠ ∇ギホヱ ∇ユムャ ∇やヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ラ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇トわプぺぴ ⊥ あ ペ ゲプ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ぺ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ロヲ⊥ボハ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮルヲ⊥ ゲエΑ z を ヮヤャや ユ⇒∠ミ ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇ジΑ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ プあ ∠ ⊥ ユ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ャ や∠ ͡∠ - ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユワヱ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ボ∠ クまヱ ラ ヨヤ Α ⊥ ∠ ゅ∠ ͡ ユ⊥ ルヲ⊥ ギエゎぺ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヂ∇バよ ヴ∠ま ∇ユヰツ∇バよ Κカ や∠ まヱ ヨよ ヰ∠ をあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ャ ホ ∃ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡∠ Κプぺ ∇ユムよケ ギレハ ヮよ ユ⊥ ヲぁ べ∠ Βャ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮzャや ウわプ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ミ ィ エ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ラヱぁ ジΑ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇バΑ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ιヱぺ - ラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ ∠ ゲ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ͡∇バΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ラ レヤ ⊥ ョ ∠ (75. Do you (fait hful believers) covet t hat t hey will believe in your religion inspit e of t he fact t hat a part y of t hem (Jewish rabbis) used t o hear t he Word of Allah (t he Tawrah), t hen t hey used t o change it knowingly aft er t hey underst ood it ) (76. And when t hey (Jews) meet t hose who believe (Muslims), t hey say, "We believe,'' but when t hey meet one anot her in privat e, t hey say, "Shall you (Jews) t ell t hem (Muslims) what Allah has revealed t o you t hat t hey (Muslims) may argue wit h you (Jews) about it before your Lord'' Have you (Jews) t hen no underst anding) (77. Know t hey (Jews) not t hat Allah knows what t hey conceal and what t hey reveal) There was little Hope that the Jews Who lived during the Time of the Prophet could have believed Allah said, びラヲ⊥ ヨ∇トわプぺぴ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Do you covet ) O believers, び∇ユムャ ∇やヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ラ∠ぴ ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ぺ (That t hey will believe in your religion) meaning, t hat t hese people would obey you They are t he deviant sect of Jews whose fat hers wit nessed t he clear signs but t heir heart s became hard aft erwards. Allah said next , z を ヮヤャや ユ⇒∠ミ ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇ジΑ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ラゅ∠ ∇ギホヱぴ ユ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ペ ゲプ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ びヮルヲ⊥ ゲエΑ ⊥ ∠ プあ ∠ ⊥ (Inspit e of t he fact t hat a part y of t hem (Jewish rabbis) used t o hear t he Word of Allah (t he Tawrah), t hen t hey used t o change it ) meaning, dist ort it s meaning, びロヲ⊥ボハ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ (aft er t hey underst ood it ). They underst ood well, yet t hey used t o defy t he t rut h, びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ ∇ユワヱぴ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (knowingly), being fully aware of t heir erroneous int erpret at ions and corrupt ion. This st at ement is similar t o Allah's st at ement , ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィヱ ∇ユヰ⇒z バ∠ ∇ユヰボ⇒∠ Βあ ユ͡ ツ∇ボル ゅ∠ らプぴ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ レ ャ ⊥ ∠ ん ョ ヰ ͡ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ びヮバッヲョ リ∠ ユヤム∇ャや ラヲ⊥ ゲエΑ るΒシゅ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ z ハ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ プあ ∠ ⊥ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ホ (So, because of t heir violat ion of t heir covenant , We cursed t hem and made t heir heart s grow hard. They change t he words from t heir (right ) places) (5:13). Qat adah comment ed t hat Allah's st at ement ; び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユワヱ ロヲ⊥ボハ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮルヲ⊥ ゲエΑ z をぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ プ あ ∠ ⊥ ユ ⊥ (Then t hey used t o change it knowingly aft er t hey underst ood it ) "They are t he Jews who used t o hear Allah's Words and t hen alt er t hem aft er t hey underst ood and comprehended t hem.'' Also, Muj ahid said, "Those who used t o alt er it and conceal it s t rut hs; t hey were t heir scholars.'' Also, Ibn Wahb said t hat Ibn Zayd comment ed, びヮルヲ⊥ ゲエΑ z を ヮヤャや ユ⇒∠ミ ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇ジΑぴ ⊥ ∠ プあ ∠ ⊥ ユ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ∠ (used t o hear t he Word of Allah (t he Tawrah), t hen t hey used t o change it ) "They alt ered t he Tawrah t hat Allah revealed t o t hem, making it say t hat t he lawful is unlawful and t he prohibit ed is allowed, and t hat what is right is false and t hat what is false is right . So when a person seeking t he t rut h comes t o t hem wit h a bribe, t hey j udge his case by t he Book of Allah, but when a person comes t o t hem seeking t o do evil wit h a bribe, t hey t ake out t he ot her (dist ort ed) book, in which it is st at ed t hat he is in t he right . When someone comes t o t hem who is not seeking what is right , nor offering t hem bribe, t hen t hey enj oin right eousness on him. This is why Allah said t o t hem, ∇ユわル∠ヱ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラ∇ヲジレ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ャゅ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎぺぴ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ あ ͡ よ ∠ レ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ Κプぺ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わゎ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ (Enj oin you Al-Birr (piet y and right eousness and every act of obedience t o Allah) on t he people and you forget (t o pract ise it ) yourselves, while you recit e t he Script ure (t he Tawrah)! Have you t hen no sense) (2:44)'' The Jews knew the Truth of the Prophet , but disbelieved in Him Allah said next , Κカ や∠ まヱ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲャゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ャ や∠ まヱぴ ∠ ∠ ク͡∠ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ ホ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ボ∠ ク͡∠ びヂ∇バよ ヴ∠ま ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ∃ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (And when t hey (Jews) meet t hose who believe (Muslims), t hey say, "We believe'', but when t hey meet one anot her in privat e..). Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed, びゅz ョや∠ やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ャ や∠ まヱぴ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ボ∠ ク͡∠ (And when t hey (Jews) meet t hose who believe (Muslims), t hey say, "We believe'') "They believe t hat Muhammad is t he Messenger of Allah, ` But he was only sent for you (Arabs)''' However, when t hey meet each ot her t hey say, "Do not convey t he news about t his Prophet t o t he Arabs, because you used t o ask Allah t o grant you vict ory over t hem when he came, but he was sent t o t hem (not t o you).'' Allah t hen revealed, Κカ や∠ まヱ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ャ や∠ まヱぴ ∠ ∠ ク͡∠ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ボ∠ ク͡∠ ヮzャや ウわプ ゅ∠ よ ユ⊥ ルヲ⊥ あ エゎぺ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヂ∇バよ ヴ∠ま ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヰ∠ をギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ャ ホ ∃ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ び∇ユムよケ ギレ͡ ヮよ ユ⊥ ヲぁ べ∠ Βャ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ⊥ あ ∠ ∠ ハ ͡ ͡ ミ ィ エ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And when t hey (Jews) meet t hose who believe (Muslims), t hey say, "We believe,'' but when t hey meet one anot her in privat e, t hey say, "Shall you (Jews) t ell t hem (Muslims) what Allah has revealed t o you, t hat t hey (Muslims) may argue wit h you (Jews) about it before your Lord'') meaning, "If you admit t o t hem t hat he is a Prophet , knowing t hat Allah t ook t he covenant from you t o follow him, t hey will know t hat Muhammad is t he Prophet t hat we were wait ing for and whose coming we find foret old of in our Book. Therefore, do not believe in him and deny him.'' Allah said, ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱぁ ジΑ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇バΑ ヮヤャや ラぺ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ Ιヱぺぴ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ͡∇バΑ ラ レヤ ⊥ (Know t hey (Jews) not t hat Allah knows what t hey conceal and what t hey reveal). Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "When t he Jews met t he believers t hey used t o say, ` We believe.' When t hey met each ot her, some of t hem would say, ` Do not t alk t o t he companions of Muhammad about what Allah has foret old in your Book, so t hat t he news (t hat Muhammad is t he Final Messenger) does not become a proof for t hem against you wit h your Lord, and, t hus, you will win t he disput e.''' Furt her, Abu Al-` Aliyah said about Allah's st at ement , ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱぁ ジΑ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇バΑ ヮヤャや ラぺ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ Ιヱぺぴ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ͡∇バΑ ラ レヤ ⊥ (Know t hey (Jews) not t hat Allah knows what t hey conceal and what t hey reveal), "Meaning t heir secret denial and rej ect ion of Muhammad, alt hough t hey find his coming recorded in t heir Book.'' This is also t he Tafsir of Qat adah. Al-Hasan comment ed on, びラヱぁ ジΑ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇バΑ ヮヤャや ラぺぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ (That Allah knows what t hey conceal), "What t hey concealed refers t o when t hey were alone wit h each ot her away from t he Companions of Muhammad . Then t hey would forbid each ot her from conveying t he news t hat Allah revealed t o t hem in t heir Book t o t he Companions of Muhammad , fearing t hat t he Companions would use t his news (about t he t rut h of Muhammad ) against t hem before t heir Lord.'' び∠ ヲ⊥ ͡∇バΑ ゅョヱぴ ラ レヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And what t hey reveal) meaning, when t hey said t o t he Companions of Muhammad , びゅz ョや∠ ぴ レ∠ ¬ (We believe), as Abu Al-` Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` and Qat adah st at ed. ∇ラまヱ ヴルゅ∠ ぺ Ιま ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ラヲぁョぺ ∇ユヰ∇レョヱぴ ͡∠ z ͡ ョ∠ z ͡ ∠ わ͡ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ Βあ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ び ラヲぁ ヌΑ Ιま ∇ユワ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α z を ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αほよ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ヤャ モ∇Αヲプぴ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ユ⊥ ͡ ギ ∠͡ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ら⊥ ∠ ∠ グzあ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヲプ ΚΒ͡ホ ゅ⇔ ヨを ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ ∠ ∇ゼ∠ ͡ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ や∠ ⇒∠ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヤ∠ レ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ゲわ Βャ ͡ z ͡ ハ ͡ グ ワ び ラヲ⊥ ジ∇ムΑ ゅz ョ ∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヱヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ∇ろらわミ ゅz ョ ∠ ら͡ ∠ ヨ あ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ あ (78. And t here are among t hem (Jews) ` Ummyyun (unlet t ered) people, who know not t he Book, but t hey t rust upon Amani (false desires) and t hey but guess.) (79. Then woe t o t hose who writ e t he book wit h t heir own hands and t hen say, "This is from Allah,'' t o purchase wit h it a lit t le price! Woe t o t hem for what t heir hands have writ t en and woe t o t hem for t hat t hey earn t hereby.) The Meaning of ` Ummi Allah said, びラヲぁ ョぺ ∇ユヰ∇レョヱぴ ∠ Βあ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ (And t here are among t hem Ummyyun people) meaning, among t he People of t he Book, as Muj ahid st at ed. Ummyyun, is plural for Ummi, t hat is, a person who does not writ e, as Abu Al` Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` , Qat adah, Ibrahim An-Nakha` i and ot hers said. This meaning is clarified by Allah's st at ement , びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ιぴ ∠ わ͡ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ (Who know not t he Book) meaning, are t hey not aware of what is in it . Ummi was one of t he descript ions of t he Prophet because he was unlet t ered. For inst ance, Allah said, ヮぁ ガゎ Ιヱ ょ⇒∠ ミ リ͡ ヮヤ∇らホ リ͡ ヲ⊥∇わゎ ろレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ト⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ わ͡ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ヤ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ∠ び ラヲ⊥ト∇らヨ∇ャや ょ⇒∠ ∇ケΙ やク͡ マレΒ͡ Βよ ∠ ヤ͡ ⊥ ∠ ゎ z ⇔ ま ∠ ͡ ヨ∠ ͡ (Neit her did you (O Muhammad ) read any book before it (t his Qur'an) nor did you writ e any book (what soever) wit h your right hand. In t hat case, indeed, t he followers of falsehood might have doubt ed) (29:48). Also, t he Prophet said, や∠ ムワ ゲ∇ヰz ャや ∩⊥ ジ∇エル ゅ∠ヱ ょわ∇ムル ゅ∠ ∀ Βョぺ ∀ ョぺ ゅz ͡» グ∠ ⊥ ゼ ょ͡ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ るz あ ⊥ るz ⊥ ルま «や∠ ムワ∠ や∠ ムワ∠ グ∠ ヱ グ∠ ヱ (We are an Ummi nat ion, neit her writ ing nor calculat ing. The (lunar) mont h is like t his, t his and t his (i.e. t hirt y or t went y-nine days.) This Hadit h st at ed t hat Muslims do not need t o rely on books, or calculat ions t o decide t he t imings of t heir act s of worship. Allah also said, び∇ユヰ∇レョ Ιヲ⊥ ケ リΒあ ョΕや ヴ͡ ゑバよ ン͡ ャや ヲワぴ ⊥ あ ⇔ シ∠ ∠ Βあ ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ⊥ (He it is Who sent among t he Ummiyyin ones a Messenger (Muhammad ) from among t hemselves) (62:2). The Explanation of Amani Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Allah's st at ement , びヴルゅ∠ ぺ Ιまぴ z ͡ ョ∠ z ͡ (But t hey t rust upon Amani) means, "It is j ust a false st at ement t hat t hey ut t er wit h t heir t ongues.'' It was also said t hat Amani means ` wishes and hopes'. Muj ahid comment ed, "Allah described t he Ummiyyin as not underst anding any of t he Book t hat Allah sent down t o Musa, yet t hey creat e lies and falsehood.'' Therefore, t he word Amani ment ioned here refers t o lying and falsehood. Muj ahid said t hat Allah's st at ement , びラヲぁ ヌΑ Ιま ∇ユワ ∇ラまヱぴ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ͡∠ (And t hey but guess) means, "They lie.'' Qat adah, Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` said t hat it means, "They have evil false ideas about Allah.'' Woe unto Those Criminals among the Jews Allah said, ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α z を ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αほよ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲらわ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ヤャ モ∇Αヲプぴ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ユ⊥ ͡ ギ ∠͡ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ グzあ ∀ ∠ ∠ びΚΒ͡ホ ゅ⇔ ヨを ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ ∠ ∇ゼ∠ ͡ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ や∠ ⇒∠ ⇔ ヤ∠ レ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ゲわ Βャ ͡ z ͡ ハ ͡ グ ワ (Then Waylun (woe) t o t hose who writ e t he book wit h t heir own hands and t hen say, "This is from Allah,'' t o purchase wit h it a lit t le price!). This is anot her cat egory of people among t he Jews who called t o misguidance wit h falsehood and lies about Allah, t hriving on unj ust ly amassing people's propert y. ` Waylun (woe)' carries meanings of dest ruct ion and perishing, and it is a well-known word in t he Arabic language. AzZuhri said t hat ` Ubadydullah bin ` Abdullah narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "O Muslims! How could you ask t he People of t he Book about anyt hing, while t he Book of Allah (Qur'an) t hat He revealed t o His Prophet is t he most recent Book from Him and you st ill read it fresh and young Allah t old you t hat t he People of t he Book alt ered t he Book of Allah, changed it and wrot e anot her book wit h t heir own hands. They t hen said, ` This book is from Allah,' so t hat t hey acquired a small profit by it . Hasn't t he knowledge t hat came t o you prohibit ed you from asking t hem By Allah! We have not seen any of t hem asking you about what was revealed t o you.'' This Hadit h was also collect ed by Al-Bukhari. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "The lit t le amount here means t his life and all t hat it cont ains.'' Allah's st at ement , ゅz ョ ∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヱヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ∇ろらわミ ゅz ョ ∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヲプぴ ヨあ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ びラヲ⊥ ジ∇ムΑ ∠ ら͡ ∠ (Woe t o t hem for what t heir hands have writ t en and woe t o t hem for t hat t hey earn t hereby) means, "Woe t o t hem because of what t hey have writ t en wit h t heir own hands, t he lies, falsehood and alt erat ions. Woe t o t hem because of t he propert y t hat t hey unj ust ly acquired.'' Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed, び∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヲプぴ ⊥z ∀ ∠∠ (Woe t o t hem), "Means t he t orment will be t heirs because of t he lies t hat t hey wrot e wit h t heir own hands, びラヲ⊥ ジ∇ムΑ ゅz ョ ∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヱヱぴ ∠ ら͡ ∠ ヨあ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ (And woe t o t hem for t hat t hey earn t hereby), which t hey unj ust ly acquired from people, be t hey commoners or ot herwise.'' ∇モホ りキヱ⊥ ∇バョ ゅ⇔ ゅz ぺ Ιま ケゅz ャや ゅ∠ ジヨゎ リ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ⇔ ∠ ギ z ョ Α∠ z ͡ ⊥ レ レz ∠ ∠ ャ ャ ホ∠ ∇ュぺ ロギ∇ヰハ ヮヤャや ブヤ∇ガΑ リ∠プ や⇔ ∇ヰハ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇ユゎ∇グガゎぺ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ギ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ヮヤャや ヴ∠ハ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ͡ z ヤ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ (80. And t hey (Jews) say, "The Fire shall not t ouch us but for a few numbered days.'' Say (O Muhammad t o t hem): "Have you t aken a covenant from Allah, so t hat Allah will not break His covenant Or is it t hat you say of Allah what you know not '') The Jews hope They will only remain in the Fire for a Few Days Allah ment ioned t he claim of t he Jews, t hat t he Fire will only t ouch t hem for a few days, and t hen t hey will be saved from it . Allah refut ed t his claim by saying, びや⇔ ∇ヰハ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇ユゎ∇グガゎぺ ∇モホぴ ギ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ⊥ (Say (O Muhammad t o t hem): "Have you t aken a covenant from Allah'). Hence, t he Ayah proclaims, ` if you had a promise from Allah for t hat , t hen Allah will never break His promise. However, such promise never exist ed. Rat her, what you say, about Allah, you have no knowledge of and you t hus ut t er a lie about Him.' Al-` Awfi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said about t he Ayah, びりキヱ⊥ ∇バョ ゅ⇔ ゅz ぺ Ιま ケゅz ャや ゅ∠ ジヨゎ リ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⇔ ∠ ギ z ョ Α∠ z ͡ ⊥ レ レz ∠ ∠ ャ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey (Jews) say, "The Fire shall not t ouch us but for a few numbered days.''). "The Jews said, ` The Fire will only t ouch us for fort y days.''' Ot hers added t hat t his was t he period during which t he Jews worshipped t he calf. Also, Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah report ed Abu Hurayrah saying, : «ゅ∠ ヰワ ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ∇リョ ヶ͡ やヲ⊥ ヨ∇ィや» レ⊥ キ ヰΒ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ∠ ャ バ∠ . : «ユ⊥ ヲ⊥ ぺ ∇リョ» ミ よ∠ ∠ : : «ラゅ∠プ ∇ユミヲ⊥ ぺ ∇モよ ∇ユわ∇よグミ» ヤ⊥ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ . : : «ヮ∇レハ ∇ユムわ∇ャほシ ∇ラま ¬ヶ∠ ∇リハ ヶホキゅ∠ ∇ユわ∇ルぺ ∇モワ» ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ∃ セ ∠ z ͡ ͡ タ ⊥ ∠ ∠ : : « ケゅz ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇リョ» ͡ レ ⊥ ∠ ∠ : : «や⇔ よぺ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユムヘヤ∇ガル ゅ∠ ぶや∠ やヲ⊥ ジ∇カや» ギ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ ͡ ヱ ゃ∠ . : «∨⊥ ∇レハ ∇ユムわ∇ャほシ ∇ラま ¬ヶ∠ ∇リハ ヶホキゅ∠ ∇ユわ∇ルぺ ∇モワ» ヮ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ∃ セ ∠ z ͡ ͡ タ ⊥ ∠ ∠ : : «∨ゅ6 シ りゅz ャや ログワ ヶ͡ ∇ユわ∇ヤバィ ∇モワ» ヨ⊥ ͡ ゼ ͡ ͡ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ : : «∨∠ ャク ヴヤ∠ ユ⊥ ヤヨェ ゅ∠ プ» マ͡ ハ ム∠∠ ∠ ヨ∠ : . (When Khaybar was conquered, a roast ed poisoned sheep was present ed t o t he Prophet as a gift (by t he Jews). The Messenger of Allah ordered, ` Assemble before me all t he Jews who were here.' The Jews were summoned and t he Prophet said (t o t hem), ` Who is your fat her' They replied, ` So-and-so.' He said, ` You have lied; your fat her is so-and-so.' They said, ` You have ut t ered t he t rut h.' He said, ` Will you now t ell me t he t rut h, if I ask you about somet hing' They replied, ` Yes, O Abul-Qasim; and if we should t ell a lie, you will know our lie as you have about our fat hers.' On t hat he asked, ` Who are t he people of t he (Hell) Fire' They said, ` We shall remain in t he (Hell) Fire for a short period, and aft er t hat you will replace us in it .' The Prophet said, ` May you be cursed and humiliat ed in it ! By Allah, we shall never replace you in it .' Then he asked, ` Will you t ell me t he t rut h if I ask you a quest ion' They said, ` Yes, O AbulQasim.' He asked, ` Have you poisoned t his sheep' They said, ` Yes.' He asked, ` What made you do so' They said, ` We want ed t o know if you were a liar, in which case we would get rid of you, and if you were a Prophet t hen t he poison would not harm you.') Imam Ahmad, Al-Bukhari and An-Nasa'i recorded similarly. ヮわ⇒∠Β͡ カ ヮよ ∇ろト⇒∠ ぺヱ るゃΒシ ょジミ リ∠ ヴ∠よぴ ⊥ ⊥ ⇒ ト ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ェ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ヤ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ - ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユワ ケゅz ャや ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱほプ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ レ ⊥ エ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ れゅ∠ ヤ⇒ダャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ⊥ エ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ͡ エ͡ z ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユワ るレイ∇ャや ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ (81. Yes! Whosoever earns evil and his sin has surrounded him, t hey are dwellers of t he Fire (i.e. Hell); t hey will dwell t herein forever). (82. And t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds, t hey are dwellers of Paradise, t hey will dwell t herein forever.) Allah says, t he mat t er is not as you have wished and hoped it t o be. Rat her, whoever does an evil deed and abides purposefully in his error, coming on t he Day of Resurrect ion wit h no good deeds, only evil deeds, t hen he will be among t he people of t he Fire. びれゅ∠ ヤ⇒z ャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ͡ エ͡ ダ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ (And t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds) meaning, "They believe in Allah and His Messenger and perform t he good deeds t hat conform wit h t he Islamic Law. They shall be among t he people of Paradise.'' Allah said in a similar st at ement , ∇モヨ∇バΑ リ∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ヴルゅ∠ ぺ Ι∠ ∇ユムΒレ⇒∠ ほよ ザ∇Βャぴ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ あ ͡ ョ∠ ヱ ⊥ あ ͡ ョ∠͡ ∠ z Ιヱ ゅΒャヱ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ヮャ ∇ギイΑ Ιヱ ヮよ ゴ∇イΑ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∂ ͡∠ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ¬ シ ∇ヱぺ ゲミク リ͡ ろ⇒∠ ヤ⇒z ャや リョ ∇モヨ∇バΑ リ∠ ヱ - やゲΒ͡ ル ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ エ͡ ダ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ⇔ ダ∠ Ιヱ るレイ∇ャや ラヲ⊥カ∇ギΑ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱほプ ∀ ͡ ∇ぽョ ヲワヱ ヴ∠ ル⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ∠ リョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ん ぺ び やゲΒ͡ ル ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヌΑ ⇔ ボ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ (It will not be in accordance wit h your desires (Muslims), nor t hose of t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians), whosoever works evil, will have t he recompense t hereof, and he will not find any prot ect or or helper besides Allah. And whoever does right eous good deeds, male or female, and is a (t rue) believer in t he Oneness of Allah (Muslim) , such will ent er Paradise and not t he least inj ust ice, even t he size of a Naqira (speck on t he back of a dat e st one), will be done t o t hem) (4: 123-124). Also, Abu Hurayrah, Abu Wa'il, ` At a', and Al-Hasan said t hat , びヮわ⇒∠Β͡ カ ヮよ ∇ろト⇒∠ ぺヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ⇒ ト ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ェ∠ ∠ (And his sin has surrounded him) means, "His Shirk (polyt heism) has surrounded him.'' Also, AlA` mash report ed from Abu Razin t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Khut haym said, びヮわ⇒∠Β͡ カ ヮよ ∇ろト⇒∠ ぺヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ⇒ ト ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ェ∠ ∠ (And his sin has surrounded him), "Whoever dies before repent ing from his wrongs.'' As-Suddi and Abu Razin said similarly. Abu Al-` Aliyah, Muj ahid, Al-Hasan, Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat , びヮわ⇒∠Β͡ カ ヮよ ∇ろト⇒∠ ぺヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ⇒ ト ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ェ∠ ∠ (And his sin has surrounded him) refers t o maj or sins. All of t hese st at ement s carry similar meanings, and Allah knows best . When Small Sins gather, They bring about Destruction Here we should ment ion t he Hadit h t hat Imam Ahmad recorded, in which ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ヴ∠ハ リ∇バヨわ∇イΑ リヰル͡∠ ͡ ヲ⊥ グャや れや∠ ボエョヱ ∇ユミゅz ま» ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ⊥ z みプ ゆ ルぁ ͡ ゲz ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ Α͡ «ヮ∠ ∇ムヤ∇ヰΑ ヴ∂ ェ モィゲャや レ ͡ ⊥ わ∠ ͡ ⊥ z (Beware of t he belit t led sins, because t hey gat her on a person unt il t hey dest roy him.) He t hen said t hat t he Messenger of Allah gave t hem an example, ノΒ͡ タ ゲツエプ ∩∃ ゅ∠プ チ∇ケほよ やヲ⊥ゴル ュ∇ヲホ モんヨミ» ⊥ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ り ヤ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ャ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ キヲ⊥ ∇ャゅ͡ ¬ヶ͡ Βプ ペヤト∇レΑ モィz ャや モバイプ ュ∇ヲボ∇ャや ͡ バ よ ⊥ イ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ や⇔ や∠ シ やヲ⊥ ヨィ ヴ∂ ェ ∩͡ ヲ⊥ ∇ャゅ͡ ¬ヶ͡ Α モィz ャや∠ キ ヲ∠ バ∠ ∠ わ∠ キ バ よ ⊥ イ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ ヱ «ゅ∠ Β͡ やヲ⊥ グホ ゅ∠ やヲ⊥ ツ∇ルほプ や⇔ ゅ∠ やヲ⊥ ィぺヱ ヰ プ プ∠ ∠ ョ イ∠ ∠∠ ケ ル イz ∠∠ (This is t he example of people who set up camp on a flat land, and t hen t heir servant s came. One of t hem collect ed some wood and anot her man collect ed some wood unt il t hey collect ed a great deal. They t hen st art ed a fire and cooked what t hey put on it .) Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ れゅ∠ ヤ⇒z ャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ͡ エ͡ ダ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Βプ ∇ユワ るレイ∇ャや ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ エ ∠ (And t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds, t hey are dwellers of Paradise, t hey will dwell t herein forever) "Whoever believes in what you (Jews) did not believe in and implement s what you refrained from implement ing of Muhammad's religion, shall acquire Paradise for et ernit y. Allah st at ed t hat t he recompense for good or evil works shall remain wit h it s people for et ernit y. '' Ιま ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ Ι モΑ͡ ゲ∇シま ヴ͡ よ ペ⇒∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ ∇クまヱぴ z ͡ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ͡ レ∠ ∠ ん ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ヴ∠ ⇒∠ Β∇ャや∠ ヴ∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや ン͡ ∠ ゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ∇ェま リ∇Αギャヲ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮヤャや ヨ わ∠ ヱ よ ⊥ クヱ ル ジ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡∠ よ∠ ∠ z りヲ∠ダャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱ ゅ⇔ ∇ジェ サゅz ヤ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ∠ ヤz ヨ ホ∠∠ レ ⊥ ͡ レ ャ ャ ホ∠ ͡ ム ジ∠ ヱ ∇ユわ∇ルぺヱ ∇ユム∇レョ ΚΒ͡ホ Ιま ∇ユわ∇Βャヲゎ z を りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ や∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ あ ⇔ ヤ∠ z ͡ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ∠ ミz ゎ ¬ヱ び ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇バョ ∠ ッ͡ ぁ (83. And (remember) when We t ook a covenant from t he Children of Israel, (saying): Worship none but Allah (alone) and be dut iful and good t o parent s, and t o kindred, and t o orphans and (t he poor), and speak good t o people and perform As-Salah and give Zakah. Then you slid back, except a few of you, while you are backsliders.) The Covenant that Allah took from the Children of Israel Allah reminded t he Children of Israel of t he commandment s t hat He gave t hem, and t he covenant s t hat He t ook from t hem t o abide by t hose commands, and how t hey int ent ionally and knowingly t urned away from all of t hat . Allah commanded t hem t o worship Him and t o associat e none wit h Him in worship, j ust as He has commanded all of His creat ures, for t his is why Allah creat ed t hem. Allah said, ヮ∇Βャま ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ Ιま メヲ⊥ ケ リ͡ マヤ∇らホ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠͡ ェ ル z ͡ ∃ シz ョ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ レ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ら∇ハゅ∠ ∇ゅルぺ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま Ι ヮz ぺ ͡ ギ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ル∠ (And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad ) but We revealed t o him (saying): La ilaha illa Ana none has t he right t o be worshipped but I (Allah) , so worship Me (alone and none else)) (21:25), and, ヮヤャや ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇ハや ラぺ Ιヲ⊥ ケ るョぺ あ ミ ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ∇んバよ ∇ギボャヱぴ ∠ z ギ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⇔ シz ∃ z ⊥ モ⊥ プ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ び∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒z ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ レわ∇ィや∠ れ ピ ト ら͡ ∠ ヱ (And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (communit y, nat ion) a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allah (alone), and avoid t he Taghut (all false deit ies,)) (16:36). This is t he highest and most import ant right , t hat is, Allah's right t hat He be worshipped alone wit hout part ners. Aft er t hat comes t he right of t he creat ures, foremost , t he right of t he parent s. Allah usually ment ions t he right s of t he parent s along wit h His right s. For inst ance, Allah said, びゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ヴャま マ∇Αギャヲャヱ ヴ͡ ∇ゲム∇セや ラぺぴ ⊥ ダ∠ z ∠͡ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ͡∠ ャ ⊥ ͡ ∠ (Give t hanks t o Me and t o your parent s. Unt o Me is t he final dest inat ion) (31:14). Also, Allah said, リ∇Αギャヲ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮ⇒z ま Ιま ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ Ιぺ マよケ ヴ∠ ホヱぴ ͡ ∠ ͡∠ よ∠ ⊥ Α͡ z ͡ ギ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ツ∠ ∠ びゅレ⇒∠ ∇ェま ⇔ ジ ͡ (And your Lord has decreed t hat you worship none but Him. And t hat you be dut iful t o your parent s) (17:23), unt il, びモΒ͡ ジャや リ∇よや∠ リΒ͡ ∇ジヨ∇ャや∠ ヮz ェ ヴ∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや や∠ れや∠ ヱぴ ͡ らz ∠ ヱ ∠ ム ͡ ヱ ⊥ ボ∠ よ ⊥ ク ͡ ¬∠ (And give t o t he kinsman his due and t o t he Miskin (poor) and t o t he wayfarer) (17:26). The Two Sahihs record t hat Ibn Mas` ud said, :ろ∇ヤホ ⊥ ⊥ :メゅ∠ ∨⊥ ツ∇プぺ モ∠ ∠ ∇ャや ヵぺ ぶや メヲ⊥ ケ ゅ∠ » ∠ ホ モ∠ ∠ ヨバ ぁ ͡ ∠ シ∠ Α «ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ホ∠ ヴヤ∠ りゅ∠ダャや» ヰわ ヱ ハ ⊥ ヤz :メゅ∠ ∨x ぺ z を :ろ∇ヤホ ∠ ホ ヵ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ «リ∇Αギャや∠ ∇ャや ゲよ» ∠͡ ヲ ぁ ͡ :メゅ∠ ∨x ぺ z を :ろ∇ヤホ ∠ ホ ヵ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ «ぶや モΒ͡ シ ヶ͡ キゅ∠ イ∇ャや» ͡ ら∠ プ ⊥ ヰ͡ (I said, ` O Messenger of Allah! What is t he best deed' He said, ` Performing t he prayer on t ime.' I said, 'Then what ' He said, ` Being kind t o one's parent s.' I said, ` Then what ' He said, ` Jihad in t he cause of Allah.') Allah t hen said, びヴ∠ ⇒∠ Β∇ャや∠ ぴ ヨ わ∠ ヱ (and t o orphans) meaning, t he young who have no fat hers t o fend for t hem. びリΒ͡ ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ ム ジ∠ ヱ (and Al-Masakin (t he poor)), plural for Miskin, t he one who does not find what he needs t o spend on himself and his family. We will discuss t hese cat egories when we explain t he Ayah of Surat An-Nisa` where Allah said, リ∇Αギャヲ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ゅゃ∇Βセ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼゎ Ιヱ ヮヤャや ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇ハや∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ͡∠ よ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ͡ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ギ⊥ ヱ びゅレ⇒∠ ∇ェま ⇔ ジ ͡ (Worship Allah and j oin none wit h Him (in worship); and do good t o parent s) (4:36). Allah's st at ement , びゅ⇔ ∇ジェ サゅz ヤ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱぴ レ ⊥ ͡ レ ャ ャ ホ∠ (and speak good t o people) meaning, say good words t o t hem and be lenient wit h t hem, t his includes commanding good and forbidding evil. Al-Hasan Al-Basri comment ed on Allah's st at ement , びゅ⇔ ∇ジェ サゅz ヤ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱぴ レ ⊥ ͡ レ ャ ャ ホ∠ (and speak good t o people), ".` The good saying' means commanding good and forbidding evil, and being pat ient and forgiving. The ` good words t o people', as Allah commanded, also includes every good t ype of behavior t hat Allah is pleased wit h.'' Imam Ahmad narrat ed t hat Abu Dharr said t hat t he Prophet said, ペ∇ャゅ∠ ∇ギイゎ ∇ユャ ∇ラまヱ ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャや リョ ラゲボ∇エゎ ゅ∠» ∠ プ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ゃ ∠ ͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ャ «ペ͡ト∇レョ ヮ∇ィヲよ ポゅ∠ ぺ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ カ∠ (Do not belit t le any form of right eousness, and even if you did not find any good deed except meet ing your brot her wit h a smiling face, t hen do so.) This Hadit h was also collect ed by Muslim in his Sahih and At -Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih. Allah commands t he servant s t o say good words t o people, aft er He commanded t hem t o be kind t o t hem, t hereby ment ioning t wo cat egories of manners: good speech and good act ions. He t hen emphasized t he command t o worship Him and t he command t o do good, ordaining t he prayer and t he Zakah, びりヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ へ∠ りヲヤz ャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱぴ ∠ ミz ゎ ヱ ∠ ダ ヨ ホ∠ ∠ (and perform As-Salah and give Zakah). Allah informed us t hat t he People of t he Book, except for a few among t hem, ignored t hese orders, t hat is, t hey knowingly and int ent ionally abandoned t hem. Allah ordered t his Ummah similarly in Surat An-Nisa' when He said, リ∇Αギャヲ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ゅゃ∇Βセ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼゎ Ιヱ ヮヤャや ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇ハや∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ͡∠ よ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ͡ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ギ⊥ ヱ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ヴ∠ ⇒∠ Β∇ャや∠ ヴ∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや ン͡ よヱ ゅレ⇒∠ ∇ェま ͡ ム ジ∠ ヱ ヨ わ∠ ヱ よ ⊥ グ͡ ∠ ⇔ ジ ͡ ょエ⇒z ャや∠ ょレイ∇ャや ケゅ∠ ∇ャや∠ ヴ∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや ン͡ ケゅ∠ ∇ャや∠ ͡ ͡ ダ ヱ ͡ ⊥⊥ ͡ イ ヱ よ ⊥ ク ͡ イ ヱ ヮヤャや ラま ∇ユムレ⇒∠ ∇Αぺ ∇ろムヤョ ゅ∠ ヱ モΒ͡ ジャや リ∇よやヱ ょ∇レイャゅ͡ ∠ z z ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ョ∠ ͡ らz ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ び やケヲ⊥ プ Ιゅ∠ ∇ガョ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぁ エΑ Ι ⇔ ガ∠ ⇔ わ ⊥ ∠ ミ ョ ょ ͡ ⊥ ∠ (Worship Allah and j oin none wit h Him (in worship); and do good t o parent s, kinsfolk, orphans, Al-Masakin (t he poor), t he neighbor who is near of kin, t he neighbor who is a st ranger, t he companion by your side, t he wayfarer (you meet ), and t hose (servant s) whom your right hands possess. Verily, Allah does not like such as are proud and boast ful) (4:36). Of t hese orders, t his Ummah has pract iced what no ot her nat ion before it has, and all praise is due t o Allah. Ιヱ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ キ ラヲ⊥ ヘ∇ジゎ Ι ∇ユムボ⇒∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ョ͡ ∠ ム ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ん ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ∇ユゎ∇ケゲ∇ホぺ z を ∇ユミゲ⇒∠ キ リあ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガゎ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ ͡ Α͡ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ィ͡ ⊥ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ¬Ιぽ⇒∠ ∇ユわル∠ z を - ラヱ⊥ ヰ∇ゼゎ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ワ ⊥ ぺ ユ⊥ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ラヱ⊥ ヰ⇒∠ ゎ ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ キ リあ ユ⊥ レあ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガゎヱ ∠ ゲ∠ ヌ∠ ͡ ͡ Α͡ ョ ム ョ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ィ͡ ⊥ ∠ ン∠ ⇒∠ ぺ ∇ユミヲ⊥ ∇ほΑ ラ͡ヱ ラヱ∇ギバ∇ャや∠ ユ∇をΗゅ͡ ユ͡ ∇Βヤハ ゲ シ⊥ ⊥ ゎ ∠ ま∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヱ ͡ ͡ よ ヰ ∠ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽわプぺ ∇ユヰィや∠ ∇カま ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ∀ ゲ∠ ョ ヲワヱ ∇ユワヱ⊥ ⇒∠ ゎ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ュz エ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ギ ヘ⊥ リ∠ ¬へ∠ ィ ゅ∠ プ ヂ∇バらよ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヂ∇バらよ ョ ⊥ ゴ∠ ヨ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ュ∇ヲΑヱ ゅΒ∇ルギャや りヲ∠ エ∇ャや ヶ͡ ∀ ∇ゴ͡ Ιま ∇ユムレ͡ マャク モバ∇ヘΑ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぁ ͡ Β∠ プン カz͡ ⊥ ョ∠ ͡ ⊥∠ ∠ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮヤャや ゅ∠ ヱ ゆや∠ バャや ギセぺ ヴ∠ま ラヱぁ ゲΑ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ z ョ∠ ͡ グ∠ ∂ あ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ∠ キ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや りヲ∠ エ∇ャや ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ - ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ Β ぁ ∠ Β∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨ∠ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ユヰ∇レハ ブz ガΑ Κプ りゲカΙゅ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ グ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヘ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ x よ び ラヱ⊥ ダレ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ Α (84. And (remember) when We t ook your covenant (saying): Shed not t he blood of your (people), nor t urn out your own people from t heir dwellings. Then, (t his) you rat ified and (t o t his) you bore wit ness.) (85. Aft er t his, it is you who kill one anot her and drive out a part y of you from t heir homes, assist (t heir enemies) against t hem, in sin and t ransgression. And if t hey come t o you as capt ives, you ransom t hem, alt hough t heir expulsion was forbidden t o you. Then do you believe in a part of t he Book and rej ect t he rest Then what is t he recompense of t hose who do so among you, except disgrace in t he life of t his world, and on t he Day of Resurrect ion t hey shall be consigned t o t he most grievous t orment . And Allah is not unaware of what you do.) (86. Those are t hey who have bought t he life of t his world at t he price of t he Hereaft er. Their t orment shall not be light ened nor shall t hey be helped.) The Terms of the Covenant and their Breach of It Allah crit icized t he Jews who lived in Al-Madinah during t he t ime of t he Messenger of Allah . They used t o suffer, because of t he armed conflict s bet ween t he t ribes of Al-Madinah, Aws and Khazraj . Before Islam, t he Aws and Khazraj worshipped idols, and many bat t les t ook place bet ween t hem. There were t hree Jewish t ribes in Al-Madinah at t hat t ime, Banu Qaynuqa` and Banu An-Nadir, t he allies of t he Khazraj , and Banu Qurayzah, who used t o be t he allies of t he Aws. When war erupt ed bet ween Aws and Khazraj , t heir Jewish allies would assist t hem. The Jew would kill his Arab enemy, and somet imes t hey also killed Jews who were t he allies of t he ot her Arab t ribe, alt hough t he Jews were prohibit ed from killing each ot her according t o clear religious t ext s in t heir Books. They would also drive each ot her from t heir homes and loot what ever furnit ure and money t hey could. When t he war ended, t he vict orious Jews would release t he prisoners from t he defeat ed part y, according t o t he rulings of t he Tawrah. This is why Allah said, びヂ∇バらよ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヂ∇バらよ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽわプぺぴ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Then do you believe in a part of t he Script ure and rej ect t he rest ) Allah said, Ιヱ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ キ ラヲ⊥ ヘ∇ジゎ Ι ∇ユムボ⇒∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ョ͡ ∠ ム ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ん ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ び∇ユミゲ⇒∠ キ リあ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガゎ ⊥ ͡ Α͡ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ィ͡ ⊥ (And (remember) when We t ook your covenant (saying): Shed not t he blood of your (people), nor t urn out your own people from t heir dwellings.) meaning, "Do not kill each ot her, nor expel one anot her from t heir homes, nor part icipat e in fight ing against t hem.'' Allah ment ioned t he word ` your own' here, j ust as He said in anot her Ayah. ∇ユムャ ∀ ∇Β∠ ∇ユムャク ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇やヲ⊥わ∇ホゅ∠ ∇ユムもケゅ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ プぴ ⊥ z ゲ カ ⊥ ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ヤ⊥ プ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ャ͡ よ わ∠ び∇ユムもケゅ∠ ギレ͡ ⊥ ͡͡ よ ∠ ハ (So t urn in repent ance t o your Creat or and kill yourselves, t hat will be bet t er for you wit h your Creat or) (2:54) because t he followers of one religion are j ust like one soul. Also, t he Messenger of Allah said, ∇ユヰヨェや∠ ゎヱ ∇ユワキや∠ ゎ ヶ͡ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや モんョ» ͡ ͡ ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ヲ∠ プ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ヮ∇レョ ヴム∠ ∇セや や∠ ま ギェや∠ ∇ャや ギジイ∇ャや るャゴ∇レヨよ ∇ユヰヤタや∠ ゎヱ ⊥ ͡ わ ク͡ ͡ ͡ ヲ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ «ゲ∠ ジャや∠ ヴz エ∇ャゅ͡ ギジイ∇ャや ゲもゅ∠ ヮャ ヴ∠ や∠ ゎ ∀ ∇ツハ ヰz ヱ ヨ⊥ よ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ シ ⊥ ∠ ハ ギ∠ ヲ ⊥ (The example of t he believers in t heir kindness, mercy and sympat hy t o each ot her is t he example of one body, when an organ of it falls ill, t he rest of t he body rushes t o it s aid in fever and sleeplessness.) Allah's st at ement , びラヱギヰ∇ゼゎ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ∇ユゎ∇ケゲ∇ホぺ z をぴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ (Then, (t his) you rat ified and (t o t his) you bore wit ness.) means, "You t est ified t hat you know of t he covenant and t hat you were wit nesses t o it .'' ゅ⇔ Α͡ プ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガゎヱ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ¬Ιぽ⇒∠ ∇ユわル∠ z をぴ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ィ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ワ ⊥ ぺ ユ⊥ び∇ユワゲ⇒∠ キ リあ ユ⊥ レあ ͡ ͡ Α͡ ョ ム ョ (Aft er t his, it is you who kill one anot her and drive out a part y of you from t heir homes). Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t he Ayah, ゅ⇔ Α͡ プ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガゎヱ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ¬Ιぽ⇒∠ ∇ユわル∠ z をぴ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ィ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ワ ⊥ ぺ ユ⊥ び∇ユワゲ⇒∠ キ リあ ユ⊥ レあ ͡ ͡ Α͡ ョ ム ョ (Aft er t his, it is you who kill one anot her and drive out a part y of you from t heir homes) "Allah ment ioned what t hey were doing, and t hat in t he Tawrah He had prohibit ed t hem from shedding each ot her's blood, and required t hem t o free t heir prisoners. Now t hey were divided int o t wo camps in Al-Madinah, Banu Qaynuqa` , who were t he allies of t he Khazraj , and AnNadir and Qurayzah, who were t he allies of t he Aws. When fight ing erupt ed bet ween Aws and Khazraj , Banu Qaynuqa` would fight along wit h t he Khazraj , while Banu An-Nadir and Qurayzah would fight along wit h t he Aws. Each Jewish camp would fight against t heir Jewish bret hren from t he ot her camp. They would shed each ot her's blood, alt hough t hey had t he Tawrah wit h t hem, and t hey knew t heir right s and dues. Meanwhile, t he Aws and Khazraj were polyt heist s who worshipped idols. They did not know about Paradise, t he Fire, Resurrect ion, Divine Books t he lawful and prohibit ed. When t he war would end, t he Jews would ransom t heir prisoners and implement t he Tawrah. Consequent ly, Banu Qaynuqa` would ransom t heir prisoners who were capt ured by t he Aws, while Banu An-Nadir and Qurayzah would ransom t heir prisoners who were capt ured by t he Khazraj . They would also ask for blood money. During t hese wars, t hey would kill whomever (Jews or Arabs) t hey could, while helping t he polyt heist s against t heir bret hren. Therefore, Allah reminded t hem of t his when He said, びヂ∇バらよ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヂ∇バらよ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽわプぺぴ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Then do you believe in a part of t he Script ure and rej ect t he rest ) This Ayah means, ` Do you ransom t hem according t o t he rulings of t he Tawrah, yet kill t hem while t he Tawrah forbade you from killing t hem and from expelling t hem from t heir homes The Tawrah also commanded t hat you should not aid t he polyt heist s and t hose who associat e wit h Allah in t he worship against your bret hren. You do all t his t o acquire t he life of t his world.' I was informed t hat t he behavior of t he Jews regarding t he Aws and Khazraj was t he reason behind revealing t hese Ayat .'' These noble Ayat crit icized t he Jews for implement ing t he Tawrah somet imes and defying it at ot her t imes, alt hough t hey believed in t he Tawrah and knew what t hey were doing was wrong. This is why t hey should not be t rust ed t o preserve or convey t he Tawrah. Furt her, t hey should not be believed when it comes t o t he descript ion of t he Messenger of Allah , his coming, his expulsion from his land, and his Hij rah, and t he rest of t he informat ion t hat t he previous Prophet s informed t hem about him, all of which t hey hid. The Jews, may t hey suffer t he curse of Allah, hid all of t hese fact s among t hemselves, and t his is why Allah said, ヶ͡ ∀ ∇ゴ͡ Ιま ∇ユムレ͡ マャク モバ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ¬へ∠ ィ ゅ∠ プぴ プ ン カ z ͡ ⊥ ョ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ゴ∠ ヨ∠ びゅ∠ ∇ルギャや りヲ∠ エ∇ャや Β ぁ ͡ Β∠ (Then what is t he recompense of t hose who do so among you, except disgrace in t he life of t his world), because t hey defied Allah's Law and commandment s, びゆや∠ バャや ギセぺ ヴ∠ま ラヱぁ ゲΑ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑヱぴ ͡ グ∠ ∂ あ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ∠ キ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And on t he Day of Resurrect ion t hey shall be consigned t o t he most grievous t orment ) as punishment for defying t he Book of Allah t hat t hey had. ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ルヲ⊥ヨ∇バゎ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮヤャや ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ほ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ z ョ∠ びりゲカΙゅ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや りヲ∠ エ∇ャや ͡ ∠ ͡ x よ Β ぁ ∠ Β∠ (And Allah is not unaware of what you do. Those are t hey who have bought t he life of t his world at t he price of t he Hereaft er) meaning, t hey prefer t his life t o t he Hereaft er. Therefore, びゆや∠ バ∇ャや ユヰ∇レハ ブz ガΑ Κプぴ ⊥ グ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヘ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Their t orment shall not be light ened) not even for an hour, びラヱ⊥ ダレ⊥ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ゲ∠ Α ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Nor shall t hey be helped), and t hey shall find no helper who will save t hem from t he et ernal t orment t hey will suffer, nor shall t hey find any t o grant t hem refuge from it . ロギ∇バよ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇Βヘホヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Β∠ や∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ レ z ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ シ ョ レ ゎ ¬ ∠ ∠∠ ヮ⇒∠ ∇ギΑぺヱ ろ⇒∠ Βら∇ャや ユΑ∇ゲョ リ∇よや ヴ∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇Β∠ や∠ ∠ モシゲャゅ͡ ⊥ ル z ∠∠ ͡ レあ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ジ ハ レ ゎ ¬ヱ ͡ ⊥ ぁ よ ン∠ ∇ヰ∠ Ι ゅ∠ よ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ヤムプぺ サギボ∇ャや ゥヱ⊥ よ ヲ ゎ ∠ ヨ͡ メ シケ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨz⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ゲ͡ び ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プヱ ∇ユわ∇よグミ ゅ⇔ Α͡ ヘプ ∇ユゎ∇ゲら∇ムわ∇シや ユ⊥ ジヘル∠ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ム⊥ ⊥ ぺ (87. And indeed, We gave Musa t he Book and followed him up wit h a succession of Messengers. And We gave ` Isa, t he son of Maryam, clear signs and support ed him wit h Ruh-il-Qudus. Is it t hat whenever t here came t o you a Messenger wit h what you yourselves desired not , you grew arrogant Some you disbelieved and some you killed.) The Arrogance of the Jews who denied and killed Their Prophets and desires. Allah ment ioned t hat He gave Musa t he Book, t he Tawrah, and t hat t he Jews changed, dist ort ed, and defied it s commands, as well as alt ered it s meanings. Allah sent Messengers and Prophet s aft er Musa who followed his law, as Allah st at ed, び∀ ヲ⊥ ヱ ン⇔ ワ ゅ∠ Β͡ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ゅ∠ ∇ャゴル∠ べz ͡ぴ ケ ル∠ ギ⊥ ヰ プ ∠ ケ z レ ∠ ぺ ルま ケゅ∠ ∇ェΙや∠ ラヲぁ ルゅz ゲャや∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇シぺ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ⊥ ら x ヱ ∠ Β͡ よz ヱ キ ワ ∠ グz͡ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヮ∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ヮヤャや ょ⇒∠ ミ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ͡ ∇エわ∇シや ゅ∠ よ ͡ ∠∠ ル ミ∠ ͡ z ͡ わ͡ ョ ヌヘ ⊥ ヨ͡ び¬へ∠ ヰセ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ (Verily, We did reveal t he Tawrah (t o Musa), t herein was guidance and light , by which t he Prophet s, who submit t ed t hemselves t o Allah's will, j udged for t he Jews. And t he rabbis and t he priest s (t oo j udged for t he Jews by t he Tawrah aft er t hose Prophet s), for t o t hem was ent rust ed t he prot ect ion of Allah's Book, and t hey were wit nesses t heret o) (5:44). This is why Allah said here, びモシゲャゅ͡ ロギ∇バよ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇Βヘホヱぴ ͡ ⊥ ぁ よ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ レ z∠∠ (And Qaffayna him wit h Messengers). As-Suddi said t hat Abu Malik said t hat Qaffayna means, "Succeeded'', while ot hers said, "Followed". Bot h meanings are plausible, since Allah said, びン∠ ∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∠シケ ゅ∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ z をぴ ゲ ∠ レヤ ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ (Then We sent Our Messengers in succession) (23:44). Thereaft er, Allah sent t he last Prophet among t he Children of Israel, ` Isa t he son of Mary, who was sent wit h some laws t hat differed wit h some in t he Tawrah. This is why Allah also sent miracles t o support ` Isa. These included bringing t he dead back t o life, forming t he shape of birds from clay and blowing int o t hem, aft erwhich t hey became living birds by Allah's leave, healing t he sick and foret elling t he Unseen, as Ibn ` Abbas st at ed. Allah also aided him wit h Ruh Al-Qudus, and t hat refers t o Jibril. All of t hese signs t est ified t o t he t rut hfulness of ` Isa and what he was sent wit h. Yet , t he Children of Israel became more defiant and envious of him and did not want t o differ wit h even one part of t he Tawrah, as Allah said about ` Isa, ∇ユムわ∇ゃィヱ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ュゲェ ヵ͡ ャや ヂ∇バよ ユ⊥ ャ モェΙヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ あ ⊥ グz ∠ ∠ ム∠ z ͡ x ∠ び∇ユムよケ リあ るΑほよ ⊥ あz ョ ∃ ∠ ∠͡ (And t o make lawful t o you part of what was forbidden t o you, and I have come t o you wit h a proof from your Lord) (3:50). Hence, t he Children of Israel t reat ed t he Prophet s in t he worst manner, rej ect ing some of t hem and killing some of t hem. All of t his occurred because t he Prophet s used t o command t he Jews wit h what differed from t heir desires and opinions. The Prophet s also upheld t he rulings of t he Tawrah t hat t he Jews had changed, and t his is why it was difficult for t hem t o believe in t hese Prophet s. Therefore, t hey rej ect ed t he Prophet s and killed some of t hem. Allah said, ユ⊥ ジヘル∠ ン∠ ∇ヰゎ Ι ゅ∠ よ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ヤムプぺぴ ム⊥ ⊥ ぺ ヲ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ メ シケ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨz⊥ ∠ ∠ びラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プヱ ∇ユわ∇よグミ ゅ⇔ Α͡ ヘプ ∇ユゎ∇ゲら∇ムわ∇シや ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Is it t hat whenever t here came t o you a Messenger wit h what you yourselves desired not ,you grew arrogant Some you disbelieved and some you kill). Jibril is Ruh Al-Qudus The proof t hat Jibril is t he Ruh Al-Qudus is t he st at ement of Ibn Mas` ud in explanat ion of t his Ayah. This is also t he view of Ibn ` Abbas, Muhammad bin Ka` b, Isma` il bin Khalid, As-Suddi, ArRabi` bin Anas, ` At iyah Al-` Awfi and Qat adah. Addit ionally, Allah said, リョ ラヲ⊥ わャ マら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ - リΒ͡ Ιや ゥヱぁ ャや ヮよ メゴルぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ム∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ョx ⊥ ゲ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び リΑ͡ グ∇レヨ∇ャや ∠ ケ͡ ⊥ (Which t he t rust wort hy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down. Upon your heart (O Muhammad ) t hat you may be (one) of t he warners) (26:193-194). Al-Bukhari recorded ` A'ishah saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah erect ed a Minbar in t he Masj id on which Hassan bin Thabit (t he renowned poet ) used t o defend t he Messenger of Allah (wit h his poems). The Messenger of Allah said, ∇リハ ウプゅ∠ ゅ∠ ミ サギボ∇ャや ゥヱ⊥ よ ラゅz ェ ∇ギΑぺ ユヰヤャや» ∠ ∠ ∠ ル ヨ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ゲ͡ ∠ ジ∠ あ ∠ z ⊥ z «マあ ͡ ∠ Βらル (O Allah! Aid Hassan wit h Ruh Al-Qudus, for he defended Your Prophet .) Abu Dawud recorded t his Hadit h in his Sunan as did At -Tirmidhi who graded it Hasan Sahih. Furt her, Ibn Hibban recorded in his Sahih t hat Ibn Mas` ud said t hat t he Prophet said, れヲ⊥ ゎ ∇リャ ヮz ぺ ヶ͡ ヱ⊥ ヶ͡ ゑヘル サギボ∇ャや ゥヱ⊥ ラま» ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ハ ケ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ケ z ͡ ぶや やヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ ∩ゅ∠ ヤィぺヱ ゅ∠ ホ∇コケ モヨ∇ムわ∇ジゎ ヴz ェ ∀ ∇ヘ∠ ∠ ボz プ ヰ∠∠ ∠∠ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ザ ル «ょ∠トャや ヶ͡ やヲ⊥ヨ∇ィぺヱ ヤz プ ヤ͡ ∠∠ (Ruh Al-Qudus informed me t hat no soul shall die unt il it finishes it s set provisions and t erm limit . Therefore, have Taqwa of Allah and seek your sust enance in t he most suit able way.) The Jews tried to kill the Prophet Az-Zamakhshari comment ed on Allah's st at ement , びラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プヱ ∇ユわ∇よグミ ゅ⇔ Α͡ ヘプぴ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ (Some you disbelieved and some you kill), "Allah did not say ` killed' here, because t he Jews would st ill t ry t o kill t he Prophet in t he fut ure, using poison and magic.'' During t he illness t hat preceded his deat h, t he Prophet said, ラや∠ ぺ や∠ ヰ∠ ∩ヶ͡ キヱゅ∠ ゎ ゲら∇Βカ るヤ∇ミぺ ∇ろャや∠ ゅ∠ » ⊥ ヱ∠ グ プ ル⊥ ͡ バ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ コ ョ «ヵ͡ ヰ∇よぺ ネゅ∠ ボ∇ルや ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ト͡ (I kept feeling t he effect of what I at e (from t he poisoned sheep) during t he day of Khaybar, unt il now, when it is t he t ime t hat t he aort a will be cut off (meaning when deat h is near).) This Hadit h was collect ed by Al-Bukhari and ot hers ΚΒ͡ボプ ∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ヮzャや ユヰレバz モ∠ ∀ ∇ヤビ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⇔ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ よ ブ ⊥ レ⊥ ヤ⊥ ャ ホ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ゅz ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョ (88. And t hey say, "Our heart s are Ghulf.'' Nay, Allah has cursed t hem for t heir disbelief, so lit t le is t hat which t hey believe.) Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , び∀ ∇ヤビ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ブ ⊥ レ⊥ ヤ⊥ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey say, "Our heart s are Ghulf.''), means, "Our heart s are screened.'' Muj ahid also said t hat , び∀ ∇ヤビ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ブ ⊥ レ⊥ ヤ⊥ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey say, "Our heart s are Ghulf.''), means, "They are covered.''` Ikrimah said, "There is a st amp on t hem.'' Abu Al-` Aliyah said, "They do not comprehend.'' Muj ahid and Qat adah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas read t he Ayah in a way t hat means, "Our heart s cont ain every t ype of knowledge and do not need t he knowledge t hat you (O Muhammad) have.'' This is t he opinion of ` At a' and Ibn ` Abbas. び∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ヮzャや ユヰレバz モ∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ャ よ (Nay, Allah has cursed t hem for t heir disbelief) meaning, "Allah expelled t hem and deprived t hem of every t ype of right eousness.'' Qat adah said t hat t he Ayah, びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ゅz ΚΒ͡ボプぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョ ⇔ ヤ∠ ∠ (So lit t le is t hat which t hey believe.) means, "Only a few of t hem believe.'' Allah's st at ement , び∀ ∇ヤビ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ブ ⊥ レ⊥ ヤ⊥ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey say, "Our heart s are Ghulf .'') is similar t o His st at ement , びヮ∇Βャま ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇ギゎ ゅz ョ るレミぺ ヴ͡ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠͡ ル ハ ∠ ヨ͡ ∃ z ͡ ∠ プ レ⊥ ヤ⊥ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey say: "Our heart s are under coverings (screened) from t hat t o which you invit e us) (41:5). This is why Allah said here, びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ゅz ΚΒ͡ボプ ∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ヮzャや ユヰレバz モ∠ ぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョ ⇔ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ よ (Nay, Allah has cursed t hem for t heir disbelief, so lit t le is t hat which t hey believe.) meaning, "It is not as t hey claim. Rat her, t heir heart s are cursed and st amped,'' j ust as Allah said in Surat An-Nisa' (4:155), ∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヮzャや ノらデ ∇モよ ∀ ∇ヤビ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇ユヰャ∇ヲホヱぴ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ヰ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ブ ⊥ レ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ びΚΒ͡ホ Ιま ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Κプ ⇔ ヤ∠ z ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And of t heir saying: "Our heart s are wrapped (wit h coverings, i.e. we do not underst and what t he Messengers say) nay, Allah has set a seal upon t heir heart s because of t heir disbelief, so t hey believe not but a lit t le.) There is a difference of opinion regarding t he meaning of Allah's st at ement , びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ゅz ΚΒ͡ボプぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョ ⇔ ヤ∠ ∠ (So lit t le is t hat which t hey believe.) and His st at ement , びΚΒ͡ホ Ιま ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Κプぴ ⇔ ヤ∠ z ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (So t hey believe not except a few). Some scholars said t hat t he Ayat indicat e t hat a few of t hem would believe, or t hat t heir fait h is minut e, because t hey believe in Resurrect ion and in Allah's reward and punishment t hat Musa foret old. Yet , t his fait h will not benefit t hem since it is overshadowed by t heir disbelief in what Muhammad brought t hem. Some scholars said t hat t he Jews did not act ually believe in anyt hing and t hat Allah said, びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ゅz ΚΒ͡ボプぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョ ⇔ ヤ∠ ∠ (So lit t le is t hat which t hey believe), meaning, t hey do not believe. This meaning is similar t o t he Arabic expression, "Hardly have I seen anyt hing like t his,'' meaning, "I have never seen anyt hing like t his.'' ゅ∠ ャ ∀ ギ∠ ョ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ユワ¬べィ ゅz ャヱぴ ヨあ ベあ ダ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ ょ わミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠∠ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ ラヲ⊥ わ∇ヘわ∇ジΑ モ∇らホ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰバョ ∠ グ z ヤ ∠ ∠ エ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ル ミ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヮヤャや るレ∇バヤプ ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲハ ゅz ユ⊥ ¬べ∠ ゅz ヤプ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ プ∠ ∠ ョ ワ∠ ィ ヨ∠∠ ゲ∠ ∠ び リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ヤ∠ (89. And when t here came t o t hem (t he Jews), a Book (t his Qur'an) from Allah confirming what is wit h t hem (t he Tawrah) and t he Inj il (Gospel), alt hough aforet ime t hey had invoked Allah (for t he coming of Muhammad ) in order t o gain vict ory over t hose who disbelieved, t hen when t here came t o t hem t hat which t hey had recognised, t hey disbelieved in it . So let t he curse of Allah be on t he disbelievers.) The Jews were awaiting the Prophet's coming, but They disbelieved in Him when He was sent Allah said, びユワ¬べ∠ ゅz ャヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨ∠ ∠ (And when t here came t o t hem) meaning, t he Jews, びヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ ⇒∠ ͡ ぴ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ ょ わミ (a Book from Allah) meaning, t he Qur'an t hat Allah sent down t o Muhammad, び∇ユヰバョ ゅ∠ ャ ∀ ギ∠ ョぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨ あ ベ あ ダ⊥ (confirming what is wit h t hem) meaning, t he Tawrah. Furt her, Allah said, び∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ ラヲ⊥ わ∇ヘわ∇ジΑ モ∇らホ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヤ∠ ∠ エ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ル ミ∠ (alt hough aforet ime t hey had invoked Allah (for coming of Muhammad ) in order t o gain vict ory over t hose who disbelieved) meaning, before t his Messenger came t o t hem, t hey used t o ask Allah t o aid t hem by his arrival, against t heir polyt heist ic enemies in war. They used t o say t o t he polyt heist s, "A Prophet shall be sent j ust before t he end of t his world and we, along wit h him, shall ext erminat e you, j ust as t he nat ions of ` Ad and Iram were ext erminat ed.'' Also, Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "The Jews used t o invoke Allah (for t he coming of Muhammad ) in order t o gain vict ory over t he Aws and Khazraj , before t he Prophet was sent . When Allah sent him t o t he Arabs, t hey rej ect ed him and denied what t hey used t o say about him. Hence, Mu` adh bin Jabal and Bishr bin Al-Bara' bin Ma` rur, from Bani Salamah, said t o t hem, ` O Jews! Fear Allah and embrace Islam. You used t o invoke Allah for t he coming of Muhammad when we were st ill disbelievers and you used t o t ell us t hat he would come and describe him t o us,' Salam bin Mushkim from Bani An-Nadir replied, ` He did not bring anyt hing t hat we recognize. He is not t he Prophet we t old you about .' Allah t hen revealed t his Ayah about t heir st at ement , ゅ∠ ャ ∀ ギ∠ ョ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ユワ¬べ∠ ゅz ャヱぴ ヨあ ベあ ダ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ ょ わミ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨ∠∠ び∇ユヰバョ ⊥∠∠ (And when t here came t o t hem (t he Jews), a Book (t his Qur'an) from Allah confirming what is wit h t hem (t he Tawrah) and t he Inj il (Gospel)).''' Abu Al-` Aliyah said, "The Jews used t o ask Allah t o send Muhammad so t hat t hey would gain vict ory over t he Arab disbelievers. They used t o say, ` O Allah! Send t he Prophet t hat we read about - in t he Tawrah - so t hat we can t orment and kill t he disbelievers alongside him.' When Allah sent Muhammad and t hey saw t hat he was not one of t hem, t hey rej ect ed him and envied t he Arabs, even t hough t hey knew t hat he was t he Messenger of Allah. Hence, Allah said, ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや るレ∇バヤプ ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲハ ゅz ユ⊥ ¬べ∠ ゅz ヤプぴ ヤ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ プ∠ ∠ ョ ワ∠ ィ ヨ∠∠ びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ム (Then when t here came t o t hem t hat which t hey had recognized, t hey disbelieved in it . So let t he curse of Allah be on t he disbelievers). '' メゴルぺ べ∠ よ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムΑ ラ∠ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ ヮよ ∇や∇ヱゲわ∇セや ゅ∠ ジ∇ゃよぴ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ͡ ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤ∇ツプ リ͡ ヮヤャや メあ レΑ ラ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇ピよ ヮzャや ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ z ⊥ ゴ∠ ⊥ ぺ Β ∠ ⊥ ヤ リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャヱ ょツビ ヴ∠ハ ょツピよ ヱ⊥ べ∠ プ ロキゅ∠ ハ ∇リョ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ ら∠ ͡ ͡ ら͡ ͡ び ∀ Β͡ ョ ∀ や∠ ∠ リ ヰぁ ゆ グハ (90. How bad is t hat for which t hey have sold t heir own selves, t hat t hey should disbelieve in t hat which Allah has revealed (t he Qur'an), grudging t hat Allah should reveal of His grace unt o whom He wills of His servant s. So t hey have drawn on t hemselves wrat h upon wrat h. And for t he disbelievers, t here is disgracing t orment .) Muj ahid said, び∇ユヰジヘル∠ ヮよ ∇や∇ヱゲわ∇セや ゅ∠ ジ∇ゃよぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ͡ (How bad is t hat for which t hey have sold t heir own selves), "The Jews sold t he t rut h for falsehood and hid t he t rut h about Muhammad .'' As-Suddi said t hat t he Ayah, び∇ユヰジヘル∠ ヮよ ∇や∇ヱゲわ∇セや ゅ∠ ジ∇ゃよぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ͡ (How bad is t hat for which t hey have sold t heir own selves) means, "The Jews sold t hemselves.'' meaning, what is worse is what t hey chose for t hemselves by disbelieving in what Allah revealed t o Muhammad inst ead of believing, aiding and support ing him. This behavior of t heirs is t he result of t heir inj ust ice, envy and hat red, ∇リョ ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤ∇ツプ リ͡ ヮzャや メあ レΑ ラ∠ぴ ͡ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ゴ∠ ⊥ ぺ びロキゅ∠ ハ ͡ ͡ ら͡ (grudging t hat Allah should reveal of His grace unt o whom He wills of His servant s). '' There is no envy worse t han t his. Therefore, びょツビ ヴ∠ハ ょツピよ ヱ⊥ べ∠ プぴ ∃ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ ら∠ (So t hey have drawn on t hemselves wrat h upon wrat h). Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t his Ayah, "Allah became angry wit h t hem because t hey ignored some of t he Tawrah and disbelieved in t he Prophet t hat He sent t o t hem.'' I (Ibn Kat hir) say t hat t he meaning of, びやヱ⊥ ゅ∠ ぴ ¬よ (And t hey drew on t hemselves) is t hat t hey deserved and acquired mult iplied anger. Also, Abu Al-` Aliyah said, "Allah became angry wit h t hem, because of t heir disbelief in t he Inj il and ` Isa and He became angry wit h t hem again, because t hey disbelieved in Muhammad and t he Qur'an.'' Similar was said by ` Ikrimah and Qat adah. Allah said, び∀ Β͡ ョ ∀ や∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャヱぴ リ ヰぁ ゆ グハ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡∠ (And for t he disbelievers, t here is disgracing t orment ). Since t heir disbelief was a result of t heir t ransgression and envy, which was caused by arrogance, t hey were punished wit h disgrace and humiliat ion in t his world and t he Hereaft er. Similarly, Allah said, ラヲ⊥カ∇ギΒシ ヴ͡ キゅ∠ ハ ∇リハ ラヱ⊥ ら∇ムわ∇ジΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ ら͡ ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ びリΑ͡ カキ ユレヰィ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ (Verily, t hose who scorn My worship (i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe in My Oneness) t hey will surely ent er Hell in humiliat ion!'') (40:60) meaning, "Disgraced, degraded and humiliat ed.'' Imam Ahmad narrat ed t hat ` Amr bin Shu` ayb said t hat his fat her said t hat his grandfat her said t hat t he Prophet said, ヶプ ケグャや メゅ∠ ∇ョぺ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ラヱ⊥ らムわヨ∇ャや ゲゼ∇エΑ» ͡ あ z ∠ ん ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲあ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ケゅ∠ ダャや リョ ¬∇ヶセ ぁ ミ ∇ユワヲ⊥∇バΑ ∩͡ ゅz ャや ケヲタ ͡ ピあ ∠ ͡ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ⊥ ヤ ∠ サ レ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ザャ∇ヲよ .ヮャ メゅ∠ Α ユレヰィ ヶ͡ ゅ⇔ ∇イ͡ やヲ⊥カ∇ギΑ ヴz ェ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ プ レ シ ヤ⊥ ∠ わ∠ メゅ∠ ガ∇ャや るレΒ͡ ∇リョ ラヲ∠ ∇ジΑ ケゅ∠ ∇ルほ∇ャや ケゅ∠ ∇ユワヲ⊥∇バゎ ͡ ら∠ ͡ ∠ デ ͡ ∠ ボ ⊥ ͡ Β ∠ ⊥ ル ⊥ ヤ ∠ «ケゅz ャや モ∇ワぺ りケゅ∠ ハ レ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ダ⊥ (The arrogant people will be gat hered on t he Day of Resurrect ion in t he size of ant s, but in t he shape of men. Everyt hing shall be above t hem, because of t he humiliat ion placed on t hem, unt il t hey ent er a prison in Jahannam called ` Bawlas' where t he fire will surround t hem from above. They shall drink from t he puss of t he people of t he Fire.) リョ∇ぽル ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヮzャや メゴル∠ べ∠ ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ャ ホ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ぺ ヨよ レ͡ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ ペエ∇ャや ヲワヱ ロ¬へ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ よ ラヱゲ⊥ ∇ムΑヱ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ よ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ケ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ヘ ∠ ∠ レ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨ͡ リ͡ ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ らル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ユヤプ ∇モホ ∇ユヰバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ョ ͡ z ∠ Β͡ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ヴ∠ ヲぁ ユ⊥ ¬べ∠ ∇ギボャヱ - リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ラ͡ モ∇らホ シ ョ ミ∠ ィ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ レ͡ ぁ わ ミ ま ⊥ ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ロギ∇バよ リ͡ モ∇イバ∇ャや ユゎ∇グガz や z を ろ⇒∠ Βら∇ャゅ͡ ⊥ ぺ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ユ⊥ ͡ レあ ∠ よ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ニ (91. And when it is said t o t hem (t he Jews), "Believe in what Allah has sent down,'' t hey say, "We believe in what was sent down t o us.'' And t hey disbelieve in t hat which came aft er it , while it is t he t rut h confirming what is wit h t hem. Say (O Muhammad t o t hem): "Why t hen have you killed t he Prophet s of Allah af oret ime, if you indeed have been believers'') (92. And indeed Musa came t o you wit h clear proofs, yet you worshipped t he calf aft er he left , and you were Zalimun.) Although The Jews denied the Truth, They claimed to be Believers! Allah said, び∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡ ∠ (And when it is said t o t hem), meaning, t he Jews and t he People of t he Book, びヮzャや メゴル∠ べ∠ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ぴ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ぺ ヨ͡ レ͡ ¬ (Believe in what Allah has sent down) t o Muhammad , believe in and follow him, びゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ よ リョ∇ぽル ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ャ ホ (They say, "We believe in what was sent down t o us.'') meaning, it is enough for us t o believe in what was revealed t o us in t he Tawrah and t he Inj il, and t his is t he pat h t hat we choose, びロ¬へ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ よ ラヱゲ⊥ ∇ムΑヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ケ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ヘ ∠ ∠ (And t hey disbelieve in t hat which came aft er it ). び∇ユヰバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ペエ∇ャや ヲワヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホ あ ∠ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (while it is t he t rut h confirming what is wit h t hem) meaning, while knowing t hat what was revealed t o Muhammad , び∇ユヰバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ペエ∇ャやぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホ あ ∠ ⊥ ぁ ∠ (it is t he t rut h confirming what is wit h t hem). This means t hat since what was sent t o Muhammad conforms t o what was revealed t o t he People of t he Book, t hen t his fact const it ut es a proof against t hem. Similarly, Allah said, ラヲプゲ∇バΑ ゅ∠ ミ ヮルヲ⊥ ゲ∇バΑ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Βゎへ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ プ͡ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ グz び∇ユワ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ⊥∠ レ∠ (Those t o whom We gave t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) recognize him (Muhammad ) as t hey recognize t heir sons) (2:146). Allah said next , びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ラ͡ モ∇らホ リ͡ ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ らル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ユヤプぴ ∠ レ͡ ぁ わ ミ ま ⊥ ∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ Β͡ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ("Why t hen have you killed t he Prophet s of Allah aforet ime, if you indeed have been believers''). This means, "If your claim t hat you believe in what was revealed t o you is t rue, t hen why did you kill t he Prophet s who came t o you affirming t he Tawrah's Law, alt hough you knew t hey were t rue Prophet s You killed t hem simply out of t ransgression, st ubbornness and inj ust ice wit h Allah's Messengers. Therefore, you only follow your lust s, opinions and desires.'' Similarly, Allah said, ユ⊥ ジヘル∠ ン∠ ∇ヰゎ Ι ゅ∠ よ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ヤムプぺぴ ム⊥ ⊥ ぺ ヲ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ メ シケ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨz⊥ ∠ ∠ びラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プヱ ∇ユわ∇よグミ ゅ⇔ Α͡ ヘプ ∇ユゎ∇ゲら∇ムわ∇シや ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Is it t hat whenever t here came t o you a Messenger wit h what you yourselves desired not , you grew arrogant Some you disbelieved and some you killed.) Also, As-Suddi said, "In t his Ayah, Allah chast ised t he People of t he Book, ユ⊥ レ⊥ ラ͡ モ∇らホ リ͡ ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ らル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ユヤプ ∇モホぴ わ ミ ま ⊥ ∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ Β͡ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽョ ∠ レ͡ ぁ (Say (O Muhammad t o t hem): "Why t hen have you killed t he Prophet s of Allah aforet ime, if you indeed have been believers'').'' びろ⇒∠ Βら∇ャゅ͡ ヴ∠ ヲぁ ユ⊥ ¬べ∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ ͡ レあ ∠ よ シ ョ ミ∠ ィ ∠ ∠∠ (And indeed Musa came t o you wit h clear proofs) meaning, wit h clear signs and clear proofs t hat he was t he Messenger of Allah and t hat t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah. The clear signs -or miracles- ment ioned here are t he flood, t he locust s, t he lice, t he frogs, t he blood, t he st aff and t he hand. Musa's miracles also include part ing t he sea, shading t he Jews wit h clouds, t he manna and quails, t he gushing st one, et c. びモ∇イバ∇ャや ユゎ∇グガz や z をぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ユ⊥ (yet you worshipped t he calf) meaning, as a deit y inst ead of Allah, during t he t ime of Musa. Allah's st at ement , びロギ∇バよ リ͡ ぴ ͡͡ ∠ ョ (aft er he left ) aft er Musa went t o Mount Tur t o speak t o Allah. Similarly, Allah said, Κ∇イハ ∇ユヰΒヤェ ∇リョ ロギ∇バよ リ͡ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ュ∇ヲホ グガゎや∠ ぴ ⇔ ͡ ͡ あ ͡⊥ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ シ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ヱ び∀ や∠ カ ヮz やギ∠ ィ ケ ヲ⊥ ⊥ ャ ⇔ ジ∠ (And t he people of Musa made in his absence, out of t heir ornament s, t he image of a calf (for worship). It had a sound (as if it was mooing)) (7:148). びラヲ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ニ ⊥ ぺ∠ (and you were Zalimun) meaning, you were unj ust in t his behavior of worshipping t he calf, alt hough you knew t hat t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah. Similarly, Allah said, ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲぁッ ∇ギホ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇や∇ヱぺケヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ヴ∠ テボシ ゅz ャヱぴ ャ ホ ヤ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ プ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ リョ リルヲ⊥ レャ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ピΑヱ ゅ∠ よケ ゅ∠ ∇ヨェ∇ゲΑ ∇ユャ リ͡ ャ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ム∠ ∠ レャ ͡ ∠ ∠ レぁ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ z ゃ∠ び リΑ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ガ (And when t hey regret t ed and saw t hat t hey had gone ast ray, t hey (repent ed and) said: "If our Lord have not mercy upon us and forgive us, we shall cert ainly be of t he losers'') (7:149). ∇やヱ⊥ カ ケヲぁ ャや ユムホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ ∇バプケヱ ∇ユムボ⇒∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ ∇クまヱぴ グ⊥ ∠ ト ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ん ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βダハヱ ゅ∠ ∇バヨシ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨ∇シや∠ りヲボよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βゎや∠ べ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ͡ ∠ ャ ホ バ∠ ヱ ∃ z ⊥ ͡ ミ レ ∠ ¬ ョ ゅ∠ ジ∇ゃよ ∇モホ ∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ モ∇イバ∇ャや ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇セぺヱ ヨ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ プ よ͡ ⊥∠ び リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ラ͡ ∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ヮよ ユ⊥ ゲョ∇ほΑ ∠ レ͡ ぁ わ ミ ま ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ま ͡ ͡ ミ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (93. And (remember) when We t ook your covenant and We raised above you t he Mount (saying), "Hold firmly t o what We have given you and hear (Our Word).'' They said, "We have heard and disobeyed.'' And t heir heart s absorbed (t he worship of) t he calf because of t heir disbelief. Say: "Worst indeed is t hat which your fait h enj oins on you if you are believers.'') The Jews rebel after Allah took Their Covenant and raised the Mountain above Their Heads Allah reminded t he Jews of t heir errors, breaking His covenant , t ransgression and defiance, when He raised Mount Tur above t hem so t hat t hey would believe and agree t o t he t erms of t he covenant . Yet , t hey broke it soon aft erwards, びゅ∠ ∇Βダハヱ ゅ∠ ∇バヨシ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ レ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ͡∠ ャホ (They said, "We have heard and disobeyed.'') We have ment ioned t he Tafsir of t his subj ect before. ` Abdur-Razzaq said t hat Ma` mar narrat ed t hat Qat adah said t hat , び∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ モ∇イバ∇ャや ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ͡ ∇セぺ∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ プ よゲ ⊥ヱ (And t heir heart s absorbed (t he worship of) t he calf) means, "They absorbed it s love, unt il it s love resided in t heir heart s.'' This is also t he opinion of Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Allah's st at ement , びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ラ͡ ∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ヮよ ユ⊥ ゲョ∇ほΑ ゅ∠ ジ∇ゃよ ∇モホぴ ∠ レ͡ ぁ わ ミ ま ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ま ͡ ͡ ミ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ ͡ ⊥ (Say: "Worst indeed is t hat which your fait h enj oins on you if you are believers.'') means, "Worse yet is t he manner in which you behaved in t he past and even now, disbelieving in Allah's Ayat and defying t he Prophet s. You also disbelieved in Muhammad , which is t he worst of your deeds and t he harshest sin t hat you commit t ed. You disbelieved in t he Final Messenger and t he mast er of all Prophet s and Messengers, t he one who was sent t o all mankind. How can you t hen claim t hat you believe, while commit t ing t he evil of breaking Allah's covenant , disbelieving in Allah's Ayat and worshipping t he calf inst ead of Allah" るダャゅ∠ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ りゲカΙや ケやz ャや ユムャ ∇ろルゅ∠ ラ͡ ∇モホぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ カ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥∠ ͡ x ⊥ ギ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ま ⊥ - リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇レミ ラ͡ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∇やヲレヨわプ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ⊥ ま ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ キ ョ ∀ Β͡∠ ヮヤャや∠ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ∇ろョギホ ゅ∠ よ や⇔ よぺ ロ∇ヲレヨわΑ リ∠ヱ ユ ヤ ハ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ヨ ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ∠ りヲ∠ ェ ヴ∠ハ サゅz ャや ソゲ∇ェぺ ∇ユヰルギイわャヱ - リΒヨ͡⇒z ャゅ͡ ∃ Β∠ ヤ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ヤ ヌ よ ブ∇ャぺ ゲz バΑ ∇ヲャ ∇ユワギェぺ キヲΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇セぺ リΑ͡ ャや リョヱ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲヨバΑ ラ∠ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや リョ ヮェゴ∇ェゴヨよ ヲワ ゅ∠ ヱ るレシ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ グ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅ∠ よ ∀ Β͡ ∠ ヮヤャや∠ ラ ヤ ヨ Α ヨ ͡ ゲ ダよ ⊥ z ヱ (94. Say t o (t hem): "If t he abode of t he Hereaft er wit h Allah is indeed for you especially and not for ot hers of mankind, t hen long for deat h if you are t rut hful.'') (95. But t hey will never long for it because of what t heir hands have sent before t hem (i.e. what t hey have done). And Allah is Aware of t he Zalimin .) (96. And verily, you will find t hem (t he Jews) t he greediest of mankind for life and (even greedier) t han t hose who ascribe part ners t o Allah. One of t hem wishes t hat he could be given a life of a t housand years. But t he grant of such life will not save him even a lit t le from (due) punishment . And Allah is Seer of what t hey do.) Calling the Jews to invoke Allah to destroy the Unjust Party Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Allah said t o His Prophet , るダャゅ∠ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ りゲカΙや ケやz ャや ユムャ ∇ろルゅ∠ ラ͡ ∇モホぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ カ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥∠ ͡ x ⊥ ギ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ま ⊥ び リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇レミ ラ͡ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∇やヲレヨわプ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ⊥ ま ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ キ ョ (Say t o (t hem): "If t he home of t he Hereaft er wit h Allah is indeed for you especially and not for ot hers, of mankind, t hen long for deat h if you are t rut hful.'') meaning, ` Invoke Allah t o bring deat h t o t he lying camp among t he t wo (Muslims and Jews).' The Jews declined t his offer by t he Messenger of Allah .'' ∀ Β͡∠ ヮヤャや∠ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ∇ろョギホ ゅ∠ よ や⇔ よぺ ロ∇ヲレヨわΑ リ∠ヱぴ ユ ヤハ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ヨ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ∠ び リΒヨ͡⇒z ャゅ͡ ∠ ヤヌ よ (But t hey will never long for it because of what t heir hands have sent before t hem (i.e. what t hey have done). And Allah is Aware of t he Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers).) meaning, "Since t hey know t hat t hey recognize you, and yet disbelieve in you.'' Had t hey wished deat h t hat day, no Jew would have remained alive on t he face of t he eart h. Moreover, Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , びれ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∇やヲレヨわプぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ∠ (Then long for deat h), means, "Invoke (Allah) for deat h.'' Also, ` Abdur-Razzaq narrat ed t hat ` Ikrimah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed, びれ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∇やヲレヨわプぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ∠ (Then long for deat h if you are t rut hful), "Had t he Jews invoked Allah for deat h, t hey would have perished.'' Also, Ibn Abi Hat im recorded Sa` id bin Jubayr saying t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Had t he Jews asked for deat h, one of t hem would have choked on his own saliva.'' These st at ement s have aut hent ic chains of narrat ion up t o Ibn ` Abbas. Furt her, Ibn Jarir said in his Tafsir, "We were t old t hat t he Prophet said, や∇ヱぺゲャヱ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ャ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや や⊥ レ∠ ∠ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ラぺ ∇ヲャ» ∠∠ ∠∠ ゎ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ヲz ヨゎ ∠ ヰ∠ z ∠ ∠ ラヲ⊥ワゅ∠ Α リΑ͡ ャや ァゲカ ∇ヲャヱ ∩͡ ゅz ャや リョ ∇ユワギハゅ∠ ョ ∠ ヤ͡ ら⊥ ∠ グz ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ケ レ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ボ∠ ゅ∠ やヲ⊥ ィゲャ ユ∂シヱ ヮΒヤハ ぶや ヴヤダ͡ ヤャや メヲ⊥ ケ ャ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ ヰ ∠ シ∠ «ゅ⇔ゅ∠ ゅ∠ヱ ゅ⇔∇ワぺ ラヱ⊥ イΑ ャ ョ ャ ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ ギ͡ ∠ (Had t he Jews wished for deat h, t hey would have died and seen t heir seat s in t he Fire. And, t hose who invoked such curse against Allah's Messenger would have found no families or propert y had t hey ret urned t o t heir homes).'' Similar t o t his Ayah is Allah's st at ement in Surat Al-Jumu` ah, ヮヤャ ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ∇ユムルぺ ∇ユわ∇ヨハ∠ ラ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ ΑほΑ ∇モホぴ ͡ z͡ ⊥ Β͡ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ コ ま キ ワ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ ⊥ - リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∇やヲレヨわプ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ キ ョ ∀ Β͡∠ ヮヤャや∠ ∇ユヰΑギ∇Αぺ ∇ろョギホ ゅ∠ よ やギ∠ ぺ ヮルヲz ヨわΑ Ιヱ ユ ヤハ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ヨ͡ ⇔ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヮルみプ ヮ∇レョ ラヱぁ ヘゎ ングャや れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ラま ∇モホ - リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャゅ͡ ⊥ z ͡∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ よ りギ⇒∠ ゼャや∠ ょ∇Βピ∇ャや ユャゅ∠ ヴ∠ま ラヱぁ ゲゎ z を ∇ユムΒ͡ ⇒∠ョ ͡ ∠ ヰ z ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ハ ャ͡ ∠ キ ∠ ⊥ ユ ⊥ ⊥ ボ ヤ ⊥ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ よ ユ⊥ ゃらレΒプ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ⊥ ミ ヨ͡ ム⊥ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ((Say (O Muhammad ): "O you Jews! If you pret end t hat you are friends of Allah, t o t he exclusion of (all) ot her mankind, t hen long for deat h if you are t rut hful. ''But t hey will never long for it (deat h), because of what (deeds) t heir hands have sent before t hem! And Allah knows well t he Zalimin. Say (t o t hem): "Verily, t he deat h from which you flee will surely meet you, t hen you will be sent back t o (Allah) t he Knower of t he unseen and t he seen, and He will t ell you what you used t o do.'') (62:6-8). So t hey claimed t hat t hey are Allah's sons and loved ones and said, "Only t hose who are Christ ian or Jews shall ent er Paradise.'' Therefore, t hey were called t o invoke Allah t o dest roy t he lying group, be it t hem or t he Muslims. When t he Jews declined, every one was sure of t heir wrong, for had t hey been sure of t heir claims, t hen t hey would have accept ed t he proposal. Their lies were t hus exposed aft er t hey declined t he offer t o invoke t he curse. Similarly, t he Messenger of Allah called a delegat ion of Naj ran's Christ ians t o curse aft er he refut ed t hem in a debat e in which t hey demonst rat ed st ubbornness and defiance. Allah said, ∇モボプ ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや リョ ポ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮΒ͡ マィべ∠ ∇リヨプぴ ⊥∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ィ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ プ ∠ z ェ ∠ ∠ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ルヱ ゅ∠ ¬べ∠ ルヱ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇よぺヱ ゅ∠ ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ネ∇ギル ∇や∇ヲャゅ∠ ゎ ⊥ ∠ ジ͡ ∠ ル∠ ジ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠∠ ル∠ レ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ろレ∇バz モ∠ ∇イレプ ∇モヰわ∇らル z を ∇ユムジヘル∠ヱ ゅ∠ ジヘル∠ヱ ヤ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ャ バ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ レ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ び リΒ͡ グ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ よ͡ ム (Then whoever disput es wit h you concerning him (` Isa) aft er (all t his) knowledge t hat has come t o you (i.e. ` Isa) being a servant of Allah, and having no share in divinit y), say (O Muhammad ): "Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves t hen we pray and invoke (sincerely) t he curse of Allah upon t hose who lie.'') (3:61). When t he Christ ians heard t his challenge, some of t hem said t o each ot her, "By Allah! If you do such wit h t his Prophet , none of you will have an eye t hat blinks.'' This is when t hey resort ed t o peace and gave t he Jizyah (t ax) in disgrace. The Prophet accept ed t he Jizyah from t hem and sent Abu ` Ubaydah bin Al-Jarrah wit h t hem as a t rust ee. Similar t o t his meaning is Allah's command t o His Prophet t o proclaim t o t he polyt heist s: リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヮャ ∇キギ∇ヨΒ∇ヤプ るヤ⇒∠ツャや ヴ͡ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ∇モホぴ ⊥ ヨ z ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤz プ ∠ ミ ョ ⊥ びやギョ ⇔∂ ∠ (Say (O Muhammad ) whoever is in error, t he Most Gracious (Allah) will prolong him (in it ).) (19:75) meaning, "Whoever among us has deviat ed, may Allah increase and prolong his deviat ion.'' We will ment ion t his subj ect lat er, Allah willing. The Mubahalah (invocat ion t o Allah t o dest roy t he liars) was called a ` wish' here, because every j ust person wishes t hat Allah dest roy t he unj ust opponent who is debat ing wit h him, especially when t he j ust person has a clear, apparent proof for t he t rut h he is calling t o. Also, t he Mubahalah involves invoking Allah for deat h of t he unj ust group, because t o disbelievers, life is t he biggest prize, especially when t hey know t he evil dest inat ion t hey will meet aft er deat h. Disbelievers wish They could live longer This is why Allah said next , ∀ Β͡∠ ヮヤャや∠ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ∇ろョギホ ゅ∠ よ や⇔ よぺ ロ∇ヲレヨわΑ リ∠ヱぴ ユ ヤハ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ヨ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ∠ びりヲ∠ ェ ヴ∠ハ サゅz ャや ソゲ∇ェぺ ∇ユヰルギイわャヱ リΒヨ͡⇒z ャゅ͡ ∃ Β∠ ヤ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ヤ ヌ よ (But t hey will never long for it because of what t heir hands have sent before t hem (i.e.what t hey have done). And Allah is Aware of t he Zalimin. And verily, you will find t hem (t he Jews) t he greediest of mankind for life.) meaning, greedy t o live longer, because t hey know t heir evil end, and t he only reward t hey will have wit h Allah is t ot al loss. This life is a prison for t he believer and Paradise for t he disbeliever. Therefore, t he People of t he Book wish t hey could delay t he Hereaft er, as much as possible. However, t hey shall cert ainly meet what t hey are t rying t o avoid, even if t hey are more eager t o delay t he Hereaft er t han t he polyt heist s who do not have a divine book. Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on, びゲヨバΑ ラぺ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや リョ ヮェゴ∇ェゴヨよ ヲワ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ グ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ (But t he grant of such life will not save him even a lit t le from (due) punishment .) "Long life shall not save t hem from t orment . Cert ainly, t he polyt heist s do not believe in resurrect ion aft er deat h, and t hey would love t o enj oy a long life. The Jews know t he humiliat ion t hey will suffer in t he Hereaft er for knowingly ignoring t he t rut h.'' Also, ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "The Jews are most eager for t his life. They wish t hey could live for a t housand years. However, living for a t housand years will not save t hem from t orment , j ust as Iblis' Sat an - long life did not benefit him, due t o being a disbeliever.'' t び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅ∠ よ ∀ Β͡ ∠ ヮヤャや∠ ぴ ラ ヤ ヨ Α ヨ ͡ ゲ ダよ ⊥ z ヱ (And Allah is Seer of what t hey do.) meaning, "Allah knows what His servant s are doing, whet her good or evil, and will compensat e each of t hem accordingly.'' マら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ ヮャゴル ヮルみプ モΑ͡ ∇らイャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ∇モホぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠z ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ あ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ ⊥ ン∠ ∇ゼよヱ ン⇔ ワヱ ヮ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ ヮヤシケヱ ヮわムゃ⇒ヤ∠ ヱ ヮヤャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ - リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ ͡ ͡⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ∠ ͡ z∂ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ び リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ヱギハ ヮヤャや ラみプ モ⇒∠ Β͡ ヱ モΑ͡ ∇らィヱ ∠ ゲ͡ ム あ x ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ͡∠ ∠ ム ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ ∠ (97. Say (O Muhammad ): "Whoever is an enemy t o Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (t his Qur'an) down t o your heart by Allah's permission, confirming what came before it (i.e. t he Tawrah and t he Inj il) and guidance and glad t idings for t he believers). (98. "Whoever is an enemy t o Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika'il, t hen verily, Allah is an enemy t o t he disbelievers.'') The Jews are the Enemies of Jibril Imam Abu Ja` far bin Jarir At -Tabari said, "The scholars of Tafsir agree t hat t his Ayah (2: 97-98) was revealed in response t o t he Jews who claimed t hat Jibril (Gabriel) is an enemy of t he Jews and t hat Mika'il (Michael) is t heir friend.'' Al-Bukhari said, "Allah said, びモΑ͡ ∇らイャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぴ ∠ ゲ ͡ あ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ (Whoever is an enemy of Jibril (let him die in his fury)). ` Ikrimah said, "Jibr, Mik and Israf all mean, worshipper, while il means, Allah''. Anas bin Malik said, "When ` Abdullah bin Salam heard of t he arrival of t he Prophet in Al-Madinah, he was working on his land. He came t o t he Prophet and said, ` I am going t o ask you about t hree t hings which nobody knows except a Prophet . What will be t he first port ent of t he Hour What will be t he first meal t aken by t he people of Paradise Why does a child resemble it s fat her, and why does it resemble it s mat ernal uncle' Allah's Messenger said, (Jibril has j ust t old me t he answers.) ` Abdullah said, ` He (i.e. Jibril), among all t he angels, is t he enemy of t he Jews.' Allah's Messenger recit ed t he Ayah, びマら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ ヮャゴル ヮルみプ モΑ͡ ∇らイャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠z ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ あ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ (Whoever is an enemy t o Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (t his Qur'an) down t o your heart ). Allah's Messenger t hen said, (The first port ent of t he Hour will be a fire t hat will bring t oget her t he people from t he east t o t he west ; t he first meal of t he people of Paradise will be t he caudat e lobe of t he liver of fish. As for t he child resembling his parent s: If a man has sexual int ercourse wit h his wife and his discharge is first , t he child will resemble t he fat her. If t he woman has a discharge first , t he child will resemble her side of t he family.) On t hat ` Abdullah bin Salam said, ` I t est ify t hat t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah and you are t he Messenger of Allah.' ` Abdullah bin Salam furt her said, ` O Allah's Messenger! The Jews are liars, and if t hey should come t o know about my conversion t o Islam before you ask t hem (about me), t hey will t ell a lie about me.' The Jews came t o Allah's Messenger , and ` Abdullah went inside t he house. Allah's Messenger asked (t he Jews), (` What kind of man is ` Abdullah bin Salam') They replied, ` He is t he best among us, t he son of t he best among us, our mast er and t he son of our mast er.' Allah's Messenger said, (What do you t hink if he would embrace Islam) The Jews said, ` May Allah save him from it .' Then ` Abdullah bin Salam came out in front of t hem saying, ` I t est ify t hat none has t he right t o be worshipped but Allah and t hat Muhammad is t he Messenger of Allah.' Thereupon t hey said, ` He is t he evilest among us, and t he son of t he evilest among us.' And t hey cont inued t alking badly about him. Ibn Salam said, ` This is what I feared, O Messenger of Allah!.''' Only Al-Bukhari recorded t his Hadit h wit h t his chain of narrat ion. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded t his Hadit h from Anas using anot her chain of narrat ion. Some people say t hat ` il' means worshipper while what ever word t hat is added t o it becomes Allah's Name, because ` il' is a const ant in such conj unct ion. This is similar t o t he names ` Abdullah, ` Abdur-Rahman, ` Abdul-Malik, ` Abdul-Quddus, ` Abdus-Salam, ` Abdul-Kafi, ` Abdul- Jalil, and so fort h. Hence, ` Abd' is const ant in t hese compound names, while t he remainder differs from name t o name. This is t he same case wit h Jibril, Mika'il, ` Azra'il, Israfil, and so fort h. Allah knows best . Choosing Some Angels to believe in over Others is Disbelief like choosing Some Prophets over Others Allah said, マら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ ヮャゴル ヮルみプ モΑ͡ ∇らイャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠z ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ あ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ びヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ (Whoever is an enemy t o Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (t his Qur'an) down t o your heart by Allah's permission,) meaning, whoever becomes an enemy of Jibril, let him know t hat he is Ruh Al-Qudus who brought down t he Glorious Dhikr (Qur'an) t o your heart from Allah by His leave. Hence, he is a messenger from Allah. Whoever t akes a messenger as an enemy, will have t aken all t he messengers as enemies. Furt her, whoever believes in one messenger, is required t o believe in all of t he messengers. Whoever rej ect s one messenger, he has rej ect ed all of t he messengers. Similarly, Allah said, ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ Αヱ ヮヤシケヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ヂ∇バらよ リョ∇ぽル ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α∠ ヮヤシケヱ ヮヤャや リ∇Βよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ャ ボ ヱ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ びヂ∇バらよ ゲヘ∇ムルヱ ∃ ∠͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ (Verily, t hose who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish t o make dist inct ion bet ween Allah and His Messengers (by believing in Allah and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, "We believe in some but rej ect ot hers.'') (4:150) Allah decreed t hat t hey are disbelievers, because t hey believe in some Prophet s and rej ect ot hers. This is t he same wit h t hose who t ake Jibril as an enemy, because Jibril did not choose missions on his own, but by t he command of his Lord, びマよケ ゲ∇ョほよ Ιま メゴレわル ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (And we (angels) descend not except by t he command of your Lord) (19: 64), and, ゥヱぁ ャや ヮよ メゴル - リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ モΑ͡ レ∠ ャ ヮルまヱぴ ⊥ ゲ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ⊥ ゴ わ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ び リΑ͡ グ∇レヨ∇ャや リョ ラヲ⊥ わャ マら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ - リΒ͡ Ιや ∠ ケ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ム∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ョx (And t ruly, t his (t he Qur'an) is a revelat ion from t he Lord of all t hat exist s. Which t he t rust wort hy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down. Upon your heart (O Muhammad ) t hat you may be (one) of t he warners) (26:192-194). Al-Bukhari report ed t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, «ゆ∇ゲ∠ ∇ャゅ͡ ヶ͡ コケゅ∠ ∇ギボプ ゅ6 ャヱ ヶ͡ ン∠ ゅ∠ ∇リョ» エ よ ル∠ ∠ よ ∠ ∠ Β͡∠ ャ キ ハ ∠ (Allah said, ` Whoever t akes a friend of Mine as an enemy, will have st art ed a war wit h Me.) Therefore, Allah became angry wit h t hose who t ook Jibril as an enemy. Allah said, マら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ ヮャゴル ヮルみプ モΑ͡ ∇らイャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠z ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ あ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ びヮ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホ あ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ͡ ͡ (Whoever is an enemy t o Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (t his Qur'an) down t o your heart by Allah's permission, confirming what came before it ) meaning, t he previous Books, びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ ン∠ ∇ゼよヱ ン⇔ ワヱぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ (and guidance and glad t idings for t he believers) meaning, as guidance t o t heir heart s and bringer of t he good news of Paradise, which is exclusively for t he believers. Similarly, Allah said, び∀ べ∠ ͡ ∠ ン⇔ ワ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ヲワ ∇モホぴ ¬ ヘセヱ ギ⊥ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ (Say: "It is for t hose who believe, a guide and a healing.'') (41:44), and, るヨ∇ェケヱ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ヲワ ゅ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや リョ メあ レルヱぴ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヘセ ∠ ⊥ ョ ͡ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ゴ∠ ⊥ ∠ びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ あ (And We send down of t he Qur'an t hat which is a healing and a mercy t o t hose who believe) (17:82). Allah t hen said, モΑ͡ ∇らィヱ ヮヤシケヱ ヮわムゃ⇒ヤ∠ ヱ ヮヤャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぴ ∠ ゲ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ∠ ͡ z∂ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ び リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ヱギハ ヮヤャや ラみプ モ⇒∠ Β͡ ヱ ∠ ゲ͡ ム あ x ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ͡∠ ∠ ム ョ∠ (Whoever is an enemy t o Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika'il (Michael), t hen verily, Allah is an enemy t o t he disbelievers.) Allah st at ed t hat whoever t akes Him, His angels and messengers as enemies, t hen...Allah's messengers include angels and men, for Allah said, びサゅz ャや リョヱ Κシケ るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや リョ ヴ͡ ト∇ダΑ ヮzャやぴ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ヘ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ (Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men) (22:75). Allah said, びモ⇒∠ Β͡ ヱ モΑ͡ ∇らィヱぴ ∠ ム ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ ∠ (Jibril (Gabriel) and Mika'il (Michael)). Allah ment ioned Jibril and Mika'il specifically - alt hough t hey are included among t he angels who were messengers - only because t his Ayah was meant t o support Jibril t he emissary bet ween Allah and His Prophet s. Allah also ment ioned Mika'il here, because t he Jews claimed t hat Jibril was t heir enemy and Mika'il was t heir friend. Allah informed t hem t hat whoever is an enemy of eit her of t hem, t hen he is also an enemy of t he ot her as well as Allah. We should st at e here t hat Mika'il somet imes descended t o some of Allah's Prophet s, alt hough t o a lesser ext ent t han Jibril, because t his was primarily Jibril's t ask, and Israfil is ent rust ed wit h t he j ob of blowing t he Trumpet for t he commencement of Resurrect ion on t he Day of Judgment . It is recorded in t he Sahih t hat whenever t he Messenger of Allah would wake up at night , he would supplicat e, ゲデゅ∠ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シまヱ モΒ͡ ゅ∠ Β͡ ヱ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇らィ ゆケ ユヰヤャや» ∠ ͡ プ ∠ プ ゲ ͡∠ ∠ も ム ョ∠ ∠ も ゲ ͡ z ∠ z ⊥ z ろ∇ルぺ ∩͡ キゅ∠ ゼャや∠ ょ∇Βピ∇ャや ユャゅ∠ チ∇ケほ∇ャや∠ れや∠ ヨジャや ∠ ∠ り∠ ヰz ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ハ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ ヲ∠ z ヶ͡ ギ∇ワや ∩∠ ヲ⊥ ヤわ∇ガΑ ヮΒ͡ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ポキゅ∠ ハ リ∇Βよ ユム∇エゎ ル͡ ラ ヘ͡∠ ∠ ͡ プ ル ミ ヨ プ ∠ ͡ ら͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∇リョ ヵ͡ ∇ヰゎ マルま マル∇クみよ ペエ∇ャや リョ ヮΒ͡ ブヤわ∇カや ゅ∠ ャ ∠ ギ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ プ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ͡ «ユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅや∠ タ ヴャ͡ ¬ゅ∠ ゎ ボ∠ ⊥ ∃ ゲ͡ ま ⊥ ゼ∠ (O Allah, Lord of Jibril, Mika'il and Israfil, Creat or of t he heavens and eart h and Knower of t he seen and t he unseen! You j udge bet ween Your servant s regarding what t hey differ in, so direct me t o t he t rut h which t hey differ on, by Your leave. Verily, You guide whom You will t o t he st raight pat h.) Allah's st at ement , びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ヱギハ ヮヤャや ラみプぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ム あ x ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ͡∠ (t hen verily, Allah is an enemy t o t he disbelievers) informed t he disbelievers t hat whoever t akes a friend of Allah as an enemy, t hen he has t aken Allah as an enemy, and whoever t reat s Allah as an enemy, t hen he shall be Allah's enemy. Indeed, whoever is an enemy of Allah t hen he will lose in t his life and t he Hereaft er, as st at ed earlier; «る∠ ケゅ∠ ヨ∇ャゅ͡ ヮわ∇ルクへ ∇ギボプ ゅ6 ャヱ ヶ͡ ンキゅ∠ ∇リョ» よ∠ エ⊥ よ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β͡∠ ャ ∠ ハ ∠ (Whoever t akes a friend of Mine as an enemy, I shall wage war on him.) Ιま べ∠ よ ゲヘ∇ムΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ろ⇒∠ Βよ ろ⇒∠ や∠ マ∇Βャま べ∠ ∇ャ∠ ル∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ z ͡ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ∃ レあ ∠ ∃ Α ¬ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ゴ ぺ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ∇レョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ログらル や⇔ ∇ヰハ ∇やヱ⊥ ヰ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ヤミヱぺ - ラヲ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヰ あ ペ ゲプ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ギ ∠ ギ∠ ハ ヨz⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ボ͡ ヘ ∇リョ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ユワ¬べ∠ ゅz ャヱ - ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι ∇ユワゲん∇ミぺ ∇モよ あ メ シケ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨ∠∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ャや リョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ グらル ∇ユヰバョ ゅ∠ ャ ∀ ギ∠ ョ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∠ グz ∠ あ ペ ゲプ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ベあ ダ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ハ Ι ∇ユヰルほミ ∇ユワケヲ⊥ ニ ¬へ∠ ヱ ヮヤャや ょ⇒∠ ミ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ ∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ヰ⊥ ∠ ケ∠ ͡ z ∠ わ͡ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ マ∇ヤョ ヴ∠ハ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ z ャや ∇やヲ⊥∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲバらz や∠ - ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ト Βゼ ヤ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ヱ ラ ヨヤ Α ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΒ͡ ゅ∇Βゼャや リム⇒∠ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ ゲヘミ ゅ∠ ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ デ z z ͡ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨ ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ヨ ∠⊥ リ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ゲ∇エジャや サゅz ャや ∠ ヲ⊥ ヤ∠ Α ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ あ ∠ レ ラ ヨあバ⊥ ギェぺ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ヤバΑ ゅ∠ ヱ れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ ヱ れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ モよゅ∠ よ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ワ ∠ ͡ ら͡ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΒプ ∇ゲヘ∇ムゎ Κプ るレ∇わプ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま Ιヲ⊥ Α ヴz ェ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ボ∠ わ∠ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ヮィ∇ヱコヱ ¬∇ゲヨ∇ャや リ∇Βよ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヰ∇レョ ワ ョ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ホ あ ∠ ⊥ ョ ヨ⊥ ͡ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΑヱ ヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ Ιま ギェぺ ∇リョ ヮよ リΑあ べ∠ よ ョ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ z ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ケ ツ͡ ゅ∠ ロや∠ わ∇セや リヨャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤハ ∇ギボャヱ ∇ユヰバヘレ∠ Ιヱ ∇ユワぁ ツΑ ョ ⊥ ゲ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡∠ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ Α ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ヮよ ∇や∇ヱゲセ ゅ∠ ザ∇ゃらャヱ ペ⇒∠カ ∇リョ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ヮャ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∃ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ ⊥∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇ヲャヱ - ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ヲャ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ z∠ ∠∠ ラ ヨヤ Α ル ミ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ヲャ ∀ ∇Β∠ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ よヲ⊥ ヨャ や∇ヲ∠ ゎやヱ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ル ミ z ゲ カ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ る∠ ん∠ ∠ ボz び (99. And indeed We have sent down t o you manifest Ayat and none disbelieve in t hem but Fasiqun (t hose who rebel against Allah's command).) (100. Is it not (t he case) t hat every t ime t hey make a covenant , some part y among t hem t hrow it aside Nay! (t he t rut h is:) most of t hem believe not .) (101. And when t here came t o t hem a Messenger from Allah (i.e. Muhammad ) confirming what was wit h t hem, a part y of t hose who were given t he Script ure t hrew away t he Book of Allah behind t heir backs as if t hey did not know!) (102. They followed what t he Shayat in (devils) gave out (falsely of t he magic) in t he lifet ime of Sulayman (Solomon). Sulayman did not disbelieve, but t he Shayat in (devils) disbelieved, t eaching men magic and such t hings t hat came down at Babylon t o t he t wo angels, Harut and Marut , but neit her of t hese t wo (angels) t aught anyone (such t hings) t ill t hey had said, "We are for t rial, so disbelieve not (by learning t his magic from us).'' And from t hese (angels) people learn t hat by which t hey cause separat ion bet ween man and his wife, but t hey could not t hus harm anyone except by Allah's leave. And t hey learn t hat which harms t hem and profit s t hem not . And indeed t hey knew t hat t he buyers of it (magic) would have no share in t he Hereaft er. And how bad indeed was t hat for which t hey sold t heir own selves, if t hey but knew.) (103. And if t hey had believed and guarded t hemselves from evil and kept t heir dut y t o Allah, far bet t er would have been t he reward from t heir Lord, if t hey but knew!) Proofs of Muhammad's Prophethood Imam Abu Ja` far bin Jarir said t hat Allah's st at ement , びろ⇒∠ Βよ ろ⇒∠ や∠ マ∇Βャま べ∠ ∇ャ∠ ル∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ ∃ レあ ∠ ∃ Α ¬ ∠ ∠͡ レ ゴ ぺ ∠ ∠∠ (And indeed We have sent down t o you manifest Ayat ) means, "We have sent t o you, O Muhammad, clear signs t hat t est ify t o your prophet hood.'' These Ayat are cont ained in t he Book of Allah (Qur'an) which narrat es t he secret s of t he knowledge t hat t he Jews possess, which t hey hid, and t he st ories of t heir earlier generat ions. The Book of Allah also ment ions t he t ext s in t he Books of t he Jews t hat are known t o only t he rabbis and scholars, and t he sect ions where t hey alt ered and dist ort ed t he rulings of t he Tawrah. Since Allah ment ioned all of t his in His Book revealed t o His Prophet Muhammad , t hen t his fact alone should be enough evidence for t hose who are t rut hful wit h t hemselves and who wish t o avoid bringing t hemselves t o dest ruct ion due t o envy and t ransgression. Furt her human inst ict t est ifies t o t he t rut h t hat Muhammad was sent wit h and t he clear signs t hat he brought which he did not learn or acquire from mankind. Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , びろ⇒∠ Βよ ろ⇒∠ や∠ マ∇Βャま べ∠ ∇ャ∠ ル∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ ∃ レあ ∠ ∃ Α ¬ ∠ ∠͡ レ ゴ ぺ ∠ ∠∠ (And indeed We have sent down t o you manifest Ayat ) means, "You recit e and convey t his Book t o t hem day and night , alt hough you are an Ummi (unlet t ered) who never read a book. Yet , you inform t hem of what t hey have (in t heir own Books). Allah st at ed t hat t his fact should serve as an example, a clear sign and a proof against t hem, if t hey but knew.'' The Jews break Their Covenants When t he Messenger of Allah was sent and Allah reminded t he Jews of t he covenant t hat t hey had wit h Him, especially concerning Muhammad , Malik bin As-Sayf said, "By Allah! Allah never made a covenant wit h us about Muhammad, nor did He t ake a pledge from us at all.'' Allah t hen revealed, びユ⊥ ∇レョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ログらル や⇔ ∇ヰハ ∇やヱ⊥ ヰ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ヤミヱぺぴ ヰ あ ペ ゲプ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ギ ∠ ギ∠ ハ ヨz⊥ ∠ ∠ (Is it not (t he case) t hat every t ime t hey make a covenant , some part y among t hem t hrow it aside) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat Allah's st at ement , びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι ∇ユワゲん∇ミぺ ∇モよぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Nay! (t he t rut h is:) most of t hem believe not ) means, "There is not a promise t hat t hey make, but t hey break it and abandon it . They make a promise t oday and break it t omorrow.'' The Jews abandoned the Book of Allah and practiced Magic As-Suddi comment ed on, ゅ∠ ャ ∀ ギ∠ ョ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ユワ¬べ∠ ゅz ャヱぴ ヨあ ベあ ダ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ メ シケ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨ∠∠ び∇ユヰバョ ⊥∠∠ (And when t here came t o t hem a Messenger from Allah (i.e. Muhammad ) confirming what was wit h t hem), "When Muhammad came t o t hem, t hey want ed t o cont radict and disput e wit h him using t he Tawrah. However, t he Tawrah and t he Qur'an affirmed each ot her. So t he Jews gave up on using t he Torah, and t ook t o t he Book of Asaf, and t he magic of Harut and Marut , which indeed did not conform t o t he Qur'an. Hence Allah's st at ement , び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ∇ユヰルほミぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ (As if t hey did not know!).'' Also, Qat adah said t hat Allah's st at ement , び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ∇ユヰルほミぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ (As if t hey did not know!) means, "They knew t he t rut h but abandoned it , hid it and denied t he fact t hat t hey even had it .'' Magic existed before Sulayman (Solomon) As-Suddi said t hat Allah's st at ement , びリ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ マ∇ヤョ ヴ∠ハ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ z ャや ∇やヲ⊥∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ ∠⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ト Βゼ ヤ ∠ ョ バ∠ z ヱ (They followed what t he Shayat in (devils) gave out (falsely of t he magic) in t he lifet ime of Sulayman) means, "` During t he t ime of Prophet Solomon.' Beforehand, t he devils used t o ascend t o heaven and eavesdrop on t he conversat ions of t he angels about what will occur on t he eart h regarding deat h, ot her incident s or unseen mat t ers. They would convey t his news t o t he soot hsayers, and t he soot hsayers would in t urn convey t he news t o t he people. The people would believe what t he soot hsayers t old t hem as being t rue. When t he soot hsayers t rust ed t he devils, t he devils st art ed t o lie t o t hem and added ot her words t o t he t rue news t hat t hey heard, t o t he ext ent of adding sevent y false words t o each t rue word. The people recorded t hese words in some books. Soon aft er, t he Children of Israel said t hat t he Jinns know mat t ers of t he Unseen. When Solomon was sent as a Prophet , he collect ed t hese books in a box and buried it under his t hrone; any devil t hat dared get near t he box was burned. Solomon said, ` I will not hear of anyone who says t hat t he devils know t he Unseen, but I will cut off his head.' When Solomon died and t he scholars who knew t he t rut h about Solomon perished, t here came anot her generat ion. To t hem, t he devil mat erialized in t he shape of a human and said t o some of t he Children of Israel, ` Should I lead you t o a t reasure t hat you will never be able t o use up' They said. ` Yes.' He said, ` Dig under t his t hrone,' and he went wit h t hem and showed t hem Solomon's t hrone. They said t o him, ` Come closer.' He said, ` No. I will wait for you here, and if you do not find t he t reasure t hen kill me. ' They dug and found t he buried books, and Sat an said t o t hem, ` Solomon only cont rolled t he humans, devils and birds wit h t his magic.' Thereaft er, t he news t hat Solomon was a sorcerer spread among t he people, and t he Children of Israel adopt ed t hese books. When Muhammad came, t hey disput ed wit h him relying on t hese books. Hence Allah's st at ement , び∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΒ͡ ゅ∇Βゼャや リム⇒∠ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ ゲヘミ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ デ z z ͡ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨ ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (Sulayman did not disbelieve, but t he Shayat in (devils) disbelieved). The Story of Harut and Marut, and the Explanation that They were Angels Allah said, れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ ヱ れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ モよゅらよ リ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ゲ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ワ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ るレ∇わプ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま Ιヲ⊥ Α ヴz ェ ギェぺ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ヤバΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ボ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ リ∇Βよ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヰ∇レョ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΒプ ∇ゲヘ∇ムゎ Κプ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ョ ヨ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ びヮィ∇ヱコヱ ¬∇ゲヨ∇ャや ͡͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ (And such t hings t hat came down at Babylon t o t he t wo angels, Harut and Marut , but neit her of t hese t wo (angels) t aught anyone (such t hings) t ill t hey had said, "We are for t rial, so disbelieve not (by learning t his magic from us).'' And from t hese (angels) people learn t hat by which t hey cause separat ion bet ween man and his wife). There is a difference of opinion regarding t his st ory. It was said t hat t his Ayah denies t hat anyt hing was sent down t o t he t wo angels, as Al-Qurt ubi st at ed and t hen referred t o t he Ayah, びリ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ ゲヘミ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (Sulayman did not disbelieve) saying, "The negat ion applies in bot h cases. Allah t hen said, ゲ∇エジャや サゅz ャや ラヲ⊥ ヤバΑ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΒ͡ ゅ∇Βゼャや リム⇒∠ヱぴ ∠ あ ∠ レ ∠ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ デ z z ͡ ャ∠ びリ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ (But t he Shayat in (devils) disbelieved, t eaching men magic and such t hings t hat came down at Babylon t o t he t wo angels). The Jews claimed t hat Gabriel and Michael brought magic down t o t he t wo angels, but Allah refut ed t his false claim.'' Also, Ibn Jarir report ed, t hat Al-` Awfi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said about Allah's st at ement , びモよゅ∠ よ リ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ͡ ら͡ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ (And such t hings t hat came down at Babylon t o t he t wo angels) "Allah did not send magic down.'' Also, Ibn Jarir narrat ed t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said about , びリ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ (And such t hings t hat came down t o t he t wo angels), "Allah did not send magic down t o t he t hem.'' Ibn Jarir comment ed, "This is t he correct explanat ion for t his Ayah. びリ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ マ∇ヤョ ヴ∠ハ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ z ャや ∇やヲ⊥∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ ∠⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ト Βゼ ヤ ∠ ョ バ∠ z ヱ (They followed what t he Shayat in (devils) gave out (falsely) in t he lifet ime of Sulayman.) meaning, magic. However, neit her did Solomon disbelieve nor did Allah send magic wit h t he t wo angels. The devils, on t he ot her hand, disbelieved and t aught magic t o t he people of t he Babylon of Harut and Marut .'' Ibn Jarir cont inued; "If someone asks about explaining t his Ayah in t his manner, we say t hat , びリ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ マ∇ヤョ ヴ∠ハ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ z ャや ∇やヲ⊥∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ ∠⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ト Βゼ ヤ ∠ ョ バ∠ z ヱ (They followed what t he Shayat in (devils) gave out (falsely) in t he lifet ime of Sulayman.) means, magic. Solomon neit her disbelieved nor did Allah send magic wit h t he t wo angels. However, t he devils disbelieved and t aught magic t o t he people in t he Babylon of Harut and Marut , meaning Gabriel and Michael, for Jewish sorcerers claimed t hat Allah sent magic by t he words of Gabriel and Michael t o Solomon, son of David. Allah denied t his false claim and st at ed t o His Prophet Muhammad t hat Gabriel and Michael were not sent wit h magic. Allah also exonerat ed Solomon from pract icing magic, which t he devils t aught t o t he people of Babylon by t he hands of t wo men, Harut and Marut . Hence, Harut and Marut were t wo ordinary men (not angels or Gabriel or Michael).'' These were t he words of At -Tabari, and t his explanat ion is not plausible. Many among t he Salaf, said t hat Harut and Marut were angels who came down from heaven t o eart h and did what t hey did as t he Ayah st at ed. To conform t his opinion wit h t he fact t hat t he angels are immune from error, we say t hat Allah had et ernal knowledge what t hese angels would do, j ust as He had et ernal knowledge t hat Iblis would do as he did, while Allah refered t o him being among t he angels, Ιま ∇やヱ⊥ イジプ ュキΕ ∇やヱ⊥ イ∇シや るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ヤャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ z ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ レ ⊥ ͡ ∠ び ヴ∠ ぺ ザΒ͡∇よま よ∠ ∠ ヤ ͡ (And (remember) when We said t o t he angels: "Prost rat e yourselves before Adam.'' And t hey prost rat ed except Iblis (Sat an), he refused) (20:116) and so fort h. However, what Harut and Marut did was less evil t han what Iblis, may Allah curse him, did. Al-Qurt ubi report ed t his opinion from ` Ali, Ibn Mas` ud, Ibn ` Abbas, Ibn ` Umar, Ka` b Al-Ahbar, As-Suddi and Al-Kalbi. Learning Magic is Kufr Allah said, るレ∇わプ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま Ιヲ⊥ Α ヴz ェ ギェぺ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ヤバΑ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ボ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ び∇ゲヘ∇ムゎ Κプ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ (But neit her of t hese t wo (angels) t aught anyone (such t hings) t ill t hey had said, "We are for t rial, so disbelieve not (by learning t his magic from us).) Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi said t hat Ar-Rabi' bin Anas said t hat Qays bin ` Abbad said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "When someone came t o t he angels t o learn magic, t hey would discourage him and say t o him, ` We are only a t est , so do not fall int o disbelief.' They had knowledge of what is good and evil and what const it ut es belief or disbelief, and t hey t hus knew t hat magic is a form of disbelief. When t he person who came t o learn magic st ill insist ed on learning it , t hey commanded him t o go t o such and such place, where if he went , Sat an would meet him and t each him magic. When t his man would learn magic, t he light (of fait h) would depart him, and he would see it shining (and flying away) in t he sky. He would t hen proclaim, ` O my sorrow! Woe unt o me! What should I do.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat t his Ayah means, "The angels were sent wit h magic, so t hat t he people whom Allah willed would be t ried and t est ed. Allah made t hem promise t hat t hey would not t each anyone unt il first proclaiming, ` We are a t est for you, do not fall int o disbelief.''' It was recorded by Ibn Abi Hat im. Also, Qat adah said, "Allah t ook t heir covenant t o not t each anyone magic unt il t hey said, ` We are a t est . Therefore, do not fall in disbelief.''' Also, As-Suddi said, "When a man would come t o t he t wo angels t hey would advise him, ` Do not fall int o disbelief. We are a t est . ' When t he man would ignore t heir advice, t hey would say, ` Go t o t hat pile of ashes and urinat e on it .' When he would urinat e on t he ashes, a light , meaning t he light of fait h, would depart from him and would shine unt il it ent ered heaven. Then somet hing black t hat appeared t o be smoke would descend and ent er his ears and t he rest of his body, and t his is Allah's anger. When he t old t he angels what happened, t hey would t each him magic. So Allah's st at ement , るレ∇わプ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま Ιヲ⊥ Α ヴz ェ ギェぺ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ヤバΑ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ボ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ び∇ゲヘ∇ムゎ Κプ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ (But neit her of t hese t wo (angels) t aught anyone (such t hings) t ill t hey had said, "We are for t rial, so disbelieve not (by learning t his magic from us).) Sunayd said t hat Haj j aj said t hat Ibn Jurayj comment ed on t his Ayah (2:102), "No one dares pract ice magic except a disbeliever. As for t he Fit nah, it involves t rials and freedom of choice.''The scholars who st at ed t hat learning magic is disbelief relied on t his Ayah for evidence. They also ment ioned t he Hadit h t hat Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded from ` Abdullah, which st at es, ∇ギボプ メヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ よ ヮホギダプ や⇔ ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヱぺ ゅ⇔ ͡ ゅ∠ ヴ∠ ぺ ∇リョ» ∠ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ゲェ シ ∠ レワ ミ ゎ∠ ∠ «ユ∂シヱ ヮΒヤハ ぶや ヴヤタ∃ ヨ∠ ョ ヴヤ∠ メゴ∇ルぺ ゅ∠ よ ゲ∠ ∠ ヤ ギz エ⊥ ハ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ͡ ヘミ (Whoever came t o a soot hsayer or a sorcerer and believed in what he said, will have disbelieved in what Allah revealed t o Muhammad .) This Hadit h has an aut hent ic chain of narrat ion and t here are ot her Hadit hs which support it . Causing a Separation between the Spouses is One of the Effects of Magic Allah said, ¬∇ゲヨ∇ャや リ∇Βよ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヰ∇レョ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΒプぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ョ ヨ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びヮィ∇ヱコヱ ͡͡ ∠ ∠ (And from t hese (angels) people learn t hat by which t hey cause separat ion bet ween man and his wife,) This means, "The people learned magic from Harut and Marut and indulged in evil act s t hat included separat ing spouses, even t hough spouses are close t o, and int imat ely associat e wit h each ot her. This is t he devil's work.'' Muslim recorded t hat Jabir bin ` Abdullah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ゑバ∇らΑ z を ¬ゅ∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヮセ∇ゲハ ノツΒャ ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや ラま» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ ͡ ヨ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ト z z ͡ ∇ユヰヨヌ∇ハぺ るャゴ∇レョ ロギ∇レハ ∇ユヰよゲ∇ホほプ サゅz ャや ヶ͡ ロゅ∠ や∠ シ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ レ プ ⊥ Α ゲ∠ ラゅ∠ヘよ ろ∇ャコ ゅ∠ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∇ユワギェぺ ¬ヶ͡ Αヱ るレ∇わプ ロギ∇レハ ∃ ヤ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ョ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ イ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ :ザΒ͡∇よま メヲ⊥ Βプ ∩や∠ ミヱ や∠ ミ メヲ⊥ Α ヲワヱ ヮわ∇ミゲゎ ヴz ェ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ グ∠ ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ∠ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∇ユワギェぺ ¬ヶ͡ Αヱ ∩ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ろ∇バレタ ゅ∠ ぶや∠ ゅ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ イ ∠ ∠ ゃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ヱ ャ :メゅ∠ ∩͡ ͡∇ワ∠ リ∇Βよヱ ヮレ∇Βよ ろ∇ホz プ ヴ∂ ェ ヮわ∇ミゲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ホ ヮヤ ぺ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ «ろ∇ルぺ ユ∇バル :メヲ⊥ Αヱ ヮョゴわ∇ヤΑヱ ヮΒ͡ ∇ギΑヱ ヮよあ ボ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ Β∠ (Sat an erect s his t hrone on wat er and sends his emissaries among t he people. The closest person t o him is t he person who causes t he most Fit nah. One of t hem (a devil) would come t o him and would say, ` I kept incit ing so-and-so, unt il he said such and such words.' Iblis says, ` No, by Allah, you have not done much.' Anot her devil would come t o him and would say, ` I kept incit ing so-and-so, unt il I separat ed bet ween him and his wife.' Sat an would draw him closer and embrace him, saying, ` Yes, you did well.') Separat ion bet ween a man and his wife occurs here because each spouse imagines t hat t he ot her spouse is ugly or ill-mannered, et c. Allah's Appointed Term supercedes Everything Allah said, びヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ Ιま ギェぺ ∇リョ ヮよ リΑあ べ∠ よ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ z ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ケ ツ͡ ワ ョ∠ (But t hey could not t hus harm anyone except by Allah's leave). Sufyan At h-Thawri comment ed, "Except by Allah's appoint ed t erm.'' Furt her, Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat , びヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ Ιま ギェぺ ∇リョ ヮよ リΑあ べ∠ よ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ z ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ケ ツ͡ ワ ョ∠ (But t hey could not t hus harm anyone except by Allah's leave) means, "Allah allows magicians t o adversely affect whomever He wills and saves whomever He wills from t hem. Sorcerers never bring harm t o anyone except by Allah's leave.'' Allah's st at ement , び∇ユヰバヘレ∠ Ιヱ ∇ユワぁ ツΑ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΑヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ Α ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And t hey learn t hat which harms t hem and prof it s t hem not .) means, it harms t heir religion and does not have a benefit compared t o it s harm. ∇リョ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ヮャ ゅ∠ ロや∠ わ∇セや リヨャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤハ ∇ギボャヱぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ ⊥ ∠ ョ ⊥ ゲ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びペ⇒∠カ ∃ ヤ∠ (And indeed t hey knew t hat t he buyers of it (magic) would have no (Khalaq) share in t he Hereaft er.) meaning, "The Jews who preferred magic over following t he Messenger of Allah knew t hat t hose who commit t he same error shall have no Khalaq in t he Hereaft er.'' Ibn ` Abbas, Muj ahid and As-Suddi st at ed t hat ` no Khalaq' means, ` no share.' Allah t hen said, リ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ マ∇ヤョ ヴ∠ハ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ z ャや ∇やヲ⊥∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ ∠⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ト Βゼ ヤ ∠ ョ バ∠ z ヱ ラヲ⊥ ヤバΑ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΒ͡ ゅ∇Βゼャや リム⇒∠ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ ゲヘミ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ デ z z ͡ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨ ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ モよゅ∠ よ リ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ゲ∇エジャや サゅz ャや ∠ ͡ ら͡ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ レ ヴz ェ ギェぺ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ヤバΑ ゅ∠ ヱ れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ ヱ れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ワ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヰ∇レョ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΒプ ∇ゲヘ∇ムゎ Κプ るレ∇わプ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま Ιヲ⊥ Α ョ ヨ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ボ∠ リΑあ べ∠ よ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ヮィ∇ヱコヱ ¬∇ゲヨ∇ャや リ∇Βよ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ∠ ケ ツ͡ ワ ョ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ∇ユワぁ ツΑ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΑヱ ヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ Ιま ギェぺ ∇リョ ヮよ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ z ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ヴ͡ ヮャ ゅ∠ ロや∠ わ∇セや リヨャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤハ ∇ギボャヱ ∇ユヰバヘレ∠ Ιヱ プ ⊥ ∠ ョ ⊥ ゲ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ Α ∠ ∠ ∇ヲャ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ ヮよ ∇や∇ヱゲセ ゅ∠ ザ∇ゃらャヱ ペ⇒∠カ ∇リョ りゲカΙや ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∃ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ x ∀ よヲ⊥ ヨャ や∇ヲボゎやヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇ヲャヱ - ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ る∠ ん∠ ∠ ∠ z レ∠ ¬ ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ ラ ヨヤ Α ル ミ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ヲャ ∀ ∇Β∠ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ル ミ z ゲ カ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ (And how bad indeed was t hat for which t hey sold t heir own selves, if t hey but knew. And if t hey had believed and guarded t hemselves from evil and kept t heir dut y t o Allah, far bet t er would have been t he reward from t heir Lord, if t hey but knew!). Allah st at ed, o びザ∇ゃらャヱぴ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ (And how bad) meaning, what t hey preferred, magic, inst ead of fait h and following t he Messenger, if t hey but comprehend t he advice. ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ よヲ⊥ ヨャ や∇ヲ∠ ゎやヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇ヲャヱぴ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ る∠ ん∠ ∠ ボz レ∠ ¬ ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ び∀ ∇Β∠ ゲカ (And if t hey had believed and guarded t hemselves from evil and kept t heir dut y t o Allah, far bet t er would have been t he reward from t heir Lord,) meaning, "Had t hey believed in Allah and His Messenger and avoided t he prohibit ions, t hen Allah's reward for t hese good deeds would have been bet t er for t hem t han what t hey chose and preferred for t hemselves.'' Similarly, Allah said, ∀ ∇Β∠ ヮヤャや ゆや∠ を ∇ユムヤ∇Αヱ ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ ゲ カ ͡ z ⊥ ヲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ∠ ホ ∠ Ιま べ∠ ゅz ヤΑ Ιヱ ゅエ͡⇒∠ モヨハヱ リョや∠ ∇リヨャ z ͡ ワ ボ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヤ タ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ あ び ラヱ⊥ ら⇒z ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ダ (But t hose who had been given (religious) knowledge said: "Woe t o you! The reward of Allah (in t he Hereaft er) is bet t er for t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds, and t his none shall at t ain except As-Sabirun (t he pat ient in following t he t rut h).'') (28:80). ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ Ι ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ャ ホ∠ レハケ ャ ボ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α キヲΑ ゅz - ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ヘ⇒ムヤ͡ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨ∇シや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲヌルや ぁ ∠ ∠ ョ ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ャ∠ バ∠ ヱ ル ⊥ ラ∠ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや Ιヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇リョ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ぺ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ゾわ∇ガΑ ヮヤャや∠ ∇ユムよケ リあ ゲ∇Βカ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ∇Βヤハ メゴレΑ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ヱ ⊥ あ z ョ ∃ ∠ あ ム ∠∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ び ユΒ͡ バ∇ャや モ∇ツヘ∇ャや ヱ⊥ ヮヤャや∠ ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ヮわヨ∇ェゲよ ͡ ヌ∠ ͡ ∠ ク ⊥ z ヱ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ (104. O you who believe! Say not (t o t he Messenger ) Ra` ina but say Unzurna (make us underst and) and hear. And for t he disbelievers t here is a painful t orment .) (105. Neit her t hose who disbelieve among t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) nor Al-Mushrikin (t he idolat ers) like t hat t here should be sent down unt o you any good from your Lord. But Allah chooses for His mercy whom He wills. And Allah is t he Owner of great bount y.) Manners in Speech Allah forbade His believing servant s from imit at ing t he behavior and deeds of t he disbelievers. The Jews used t o use devious words t hat hide what t hey really meant . May Allah's curse be upon t hem. When t hey want ed t o say, ` hear us,' t hey would use t he word Ra` ina, which is an insult (in Hebrew, but means ` hear us' in Arabic). Allah said, ヮバッや∠ ョ リ∠ ユヤム∇ャや ラヲ⊥ ゲエΑ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや リョぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ヲz ハ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ プあ ∠ ⊥ キ ワ ∠ グz ∠ あ ノヨ∇ジョ ゲ∇Βビ ∇ノヨ∇シや∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βダハヱ ゅ∠ ∇バヨシ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Αヱ ∃ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ͡ ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇ヲャヱ リΑあ ャや ヴ͡ ゅレ∇バデヱ ∇ユヰわレジ∇ャほよ ゅΒャ ゅ∠ ハケヱ ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ギ プ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ⇔∂ ∠ レ͡ ∠ ∠ やゲ∇Βカ ラゅ∠ ャ ゅ∠ ∇ゲヌ∇ルや∠ ∇ノヨ∇シや∠ ゅ∠ ∇バデぺヱ ゅ∠ ∇バヨシ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ム∠ ル ⊥ ヱ ∠ ヱ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ͡ ∠ ャ ホ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Κプ ∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ヮヤャや ユヰレバz リ͡ ャヱ ュヲ∇ホぺヱ ∇ユヰャ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ ム∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ z び ΚΒ͡ホ Ιま ⇔ ヤ∠ z ͡ (Among t hose who are Jews, t here are some who displace words from (t heir) right places and say: "We hear your word (O Muhammad ) and disobey,'' and "Hear and let you (O Muhammad ) hear not hing.'' And Ra` ina wit h a t wist of t heir t ongues and as a mockery of t he religion (Islam). And if only t hey had said: "We hear and obey,'' and "Do make us underst and,'' it would have been bet t er for t hem, and more proper; but Allah cursed t hem for t heir disbelief, so t hey believe not except a few) (4:46). Also, t he Hadit hs st at ed t hat when t hey would greet Muslims, t hey would say, ` As-Samu ` alaykum,' meaning, ` deat h be t o you'. This is why we were commanded t o answer t hem by saying, ` Wa ` alaykum,' meaning, ` and t o you t oo', t hen our supplicat ion against t hem shall be answered, rat her t han t heirs against us. Allah forbade t he believers from imit at ing t he disbelievers in t ongue or deed. Allah said, ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ Ι ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ャ ホ∠ レハケ ャ ボ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α び ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヤ͡ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨ∇シや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲヌルや ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ャ∠ バ∠ ヱ ル ⊥ (O you who believe! Say not (t o t he Messenger ) Ra` ina but say Unzurna (make us underst and) and hear. And for t he disbelievers t here is a painful t orment ) (2:104). Also, Imam Ahmad narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Umar said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ぶや∠ ら∇バΑ ヴz ェ ブ∇Βジャゅ͡ るハゅz ャや ヵギΑ リ∇Βよ ろ∇んバよ» ⊥ ギ∠ ⊥ わ∠ ͡ z よ ͡ ∠ ジ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ モニ ろ∇エゎ ヶ͡ ∇コケ モバィヱ ∩⊥ ャ マΑ͡ セ ゅ∠ ロギ∇ェヱ あ ͡ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヮ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ャ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ブャゅ∠ ∇リョ ヴ∠ハ ケゅ∠ ダャや∠ るャグャや ろヤバィヱ ∩ヶ͡ ∇ョケ ∠ ∠ カ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ピz ヱ ⊥ zあ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ∠ エ ⊥ «ユ⊥ ∇レョ ヲヰプ ュヲ∠ よ ヮらゼゎ ∇リョヱ ∩ヵ͡ ∇ョぺ ヰ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ボ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ ∠ (I was sent wit h t he sword j ust before t he Last Hour, so t hat Allah is worshipped alone wit hout part ners. My sust enance was provided for me from under t he shadow of my spear. Those who oppose my command were humiliat ed and made inferior, and whoever imit at es a people, he is one of t hem.) Abu Dawud narrat ed t hat t he Prophet said, «ユ⊥ ∇レョ ヲヰプ ュ∇ヲボよ ヮらゼゎ ∇リョ» ヰ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ z∠ ∠ ∠ (Whoever imit at es a people is one of t hem.) These Hadit hs indicat e, along wit h t heir t hreat s and warnings, t hat we are not allowed t o imit at e t he disbelievers in t heir st at ement s, deeds, clot hes, feast s, act s of worship, et c., what ever act ions of t he disbelievers t hat were not legislat ed for us. Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t he Ayah, びゅ∠ ͡ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ Ιぴ レハ ケ ャ ボ ∠ ∠ (Say not (t o t he Messenger ) Ra` ina) "They used t o say t o t he Prophet , Ar` ina samak (which is an insult ).'' Ibn Abu Hat im said t hat it was report ed t hat Abu Al-` Aliyah, Abu Malik, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, ` At iyah Al-` Awfi and Qat adah said similarly. Furt her, Muj ahid said, "` Do not say Ra` ina' means, ` Do not disput e'.'' Muj ahid said in anot her narrat ion, "Do not say, ` We hear from you, and you hear from us.''' Also, ` At a' said, "Do not say, びゅ∠ ハケぴ レ͡ ∠ (Ra` ina), which was a dialect t hat t he Ansar used and which was forbidden from use by Allah.'' Also, As-Suddi said, "Rifa` ah bin Zayd, a Jewish man from t he t ribe of Qaynuqa` , used t o come t o t he Prophet and say t o him, ` Hear, Ghayr Musma'in (let you hear not hing).' The Muslims used t o t hink t hat t he Prophet s are greet ed and honored wit h t his t ype of speech, and t his is why some of t hem used t o say, ` Hear, let you hear not hing,' and so on, as ment ioned in Surat An- Nisa.'' Thereaft er, Allah forbade t he believers from ut t ering t he word Ra` ina.'' ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam also said similarly. The extreme Enmity that the Disbelievers and the People of the Book have against Muslims Allah said next (2:105), Ιヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇リョ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや キヲΑ ゅz ぴ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ぁ ∠ ∠ ョ び∇ユムよケ リあ ゲ∇Βカ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ∇Βヤハ メゴレΑ ラ∠ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ⊥ あ z ョ ∃ ∠ あ ム ∠∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ (Neit her t hose who disbelieve among t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) nor AlMushrikin (t he idolat ers), like t hat t here should be sent down unt o you any good from your Lord). Allah described t he deep enmit y t hat t he disbelieving polyt heist s and People of t he Script ure, whom Allah warned against imit at ing, have against t he believers, so t hat Muslims should sever all friendship wit h t hem. Also, Allah ment ioned what He grant ed t he believers of t he perfect Law t hat He legislat ed for t heir Prophet Muhammad . Allah said, ヱ⊥ ヮヤャや∠ ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ヮわヨ∇ェゲよ ゾわ∇ガΑ ヮヤャや∠ ぴ ク ⊥ z ヱ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ヱ びユΒ͡ バ∇ャや モ∇ツヘ∇ャや ͡ ヌ∠ ͡ ∠ (But Allah chooses for His mercy whom He wills. And Allah is t he Owner of great bount y) (2:105). ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほル ゅ∠ ジレ⊥ ∇ヱぺ るΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ヰ あ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヰ͡ ル ∠ ∃ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ ∇ユャぺ - ∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヶセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∇ユヤ∇バゎ ∇ユャぺ ゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ∠∠ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヰ͡ ͡ ユ⊥ ャ ゅ∠ ヱ チ∇ケΕや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや マ∇ヤョ ヮャ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∇ユヤ∇バゎ ム∠ ョ∠ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ∠ び ゲΒ͡ ル Ιヱ ヶャヱ リ͡ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ∃ ダ∠ ∠ ∠ y ͡∠ ョ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ (106. What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh (We abrogat e) or Nunsiha (cause t o be forgot t en), We bring a bet t er one or similar t o it . Know you not t hat Allah is Able t o do all t hings) (107. Know you not t hat it is Allah t o Whom belongs t he dominion of t he heavens and t he eart h And besides Allah you have neit her any Wali (prot ect or or guardian) nor any helper.) The Meaning of Naskh Ibn Abi Talhah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , びるΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∃∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh) means, "What ever an Ayah We abrogat e.'' Also, Ibn Jurayj said t hat Muj ahid said t hat , びるΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∃∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh) means, "What ever an Ayah We erase.'' Also, Ibn Abi Naj ih said t hat Muj ahid said t hat , びるΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∃∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh) means, "We keep t he words, but change t he meaning.'' He relat ed t hese words t o t he companions of ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud. Ibn Abi Hat im said t hat similar st at ement s were ment ioned by Abu Al-` Aliyah and Muhammad bin Ka` b AlQurazi. Also As-Suddi said t hat , びるΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∃∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh) means, "We erase it .'' Furt her, Ibn Abi Hat im said t hat it means, "Erase and raise it , such as erasing t he following wordings (from t he Qur'an), ` The married adult erer and t he married adult eress: st one t hem t o deat h,' and, ` If t he son of Adam had t wo valleys of gold, he would seek a t hird.''' Ibn Jarir st at ed t hat , びるΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∃∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh) means, "What ever ruling we repeal in an Ayah by making t he allowed unlawful and t he unlawful allowed.'' The Nasakh only occurs wit h commandment s, prohibit ions, permissions, and so fort h. As for st ories, t hey do not undergo Nasakh. The word, ` Nasakh' lit erally means, ` t o copy a book'. The meaning of Nasakh in t he case of commandment s is removing t he commandment and replacing it by anot her. And whet her t he Nasakh involves t he wordings, t he ruling or bot h, it is st ill called Nasakh. Allah said next , びゅ∠ ジレ⊥ ∇ヱぺぴ ヰ͡ ル ∠ (or Nunsiha (cause it t o be forgot t en)). ` Ali bin Abi Talhah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , びゅ∠ ジレ⊥ ∇ヱぺ るΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ヰ͡ ル ∠ ∃ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh or Nunsiha) means, "What ever Ayah We repeal or uphold wit hout change.'' Also, Muj ahid said t hat t he companions of Ibn Mas` ud (who read t his word Nansa'ha) said t hat it means, "We uphold it s wording and change it s ruling.'' Furt her, ` Ubayd bin ` Umayr, Muj ahid and ` At a' said, ` Nansa'ha' means, "We delay it (i.e., do not abrogat e it ).'' Furt her, ` At iyyah Al-` Awfi said t hat t he Ayah means, "We delay repealing it .'' This is t he same Tafsir provided by As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. ` Abdur-Razzaq said t hat Ma` mar said t hat Qat adah said about Allah's st at ement , びゅ∠ ジレ⊥ ∇ヱぺ るΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ヰ͡ ル ∠ ∃ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do We abrogat e or cause t o be forgot t en) "Allah made His Prophet forget what He willed and He abrogat ed what He will.'' Allah's said, びゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほルぴ ヰ͡ ͡ ∠ ヰ あ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ (We bring a bet t er one or similar t o it ), bet t er, relat es t o t he benefit provided for t he one it addresses, as report ed from ` Ali bin Abi Talhah t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, びゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほルぴ ヰあ ∃ ∠ ͡͡ ∠ (We bring a bet t er one) means, "We bring fort h a more beneficial ruling, t hat is also easier for you.'' Also, As-Suddi said t hat , びゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほルぴ ヰ͡ ͡ ∠ ヰ あ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ (We bring a bet t er one or similar t o it ) means, "We bring fort h a bet t er Ayah, or similar t o t hat which was repealed.'' Qat adah also said t hat , びゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほルぴ ヰ͡ ͡ ∠ ヰ あ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ (We bring a bet t er one or similar t o it ) means, "We replace it by an Ayah more facilit at ing, permit t ing, commanding, or prohibit ing.'' Naskh occurs even though the Jews deny it Allah said, ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほル ゅ∠ ジレ⊥ ∇ヱぺ るΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ヰ あ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヰ͡ ル ∠ ∃ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ ∇ユャぺ - ∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヶセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∇ユヤ∇バゎ ∇ユャぺ ゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ∠∠ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヰ͡ ͡ ユ⊥ ャ ゅ∠ ヱ チ∇ケΕや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや マ∇ヤョ ヮャ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∇ユヤ∇バゎ ム∠ ョ∠ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ∠ び ゲΒ͡ ル Ιヱ ヶャヱ リ͡ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ∃ ダ∠ ∠ ∠ y ͡∠ ョ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ (Know you not t hat Allah is Able t o do all t hings Know you not t hat it is Allah t o Whom belongs t he dominion of t he heavens and t he eart h And besides Allah you have neit her any Wali (prot ect or or guardian) nor any helper). Allah direct ed His servant s t o t he fact t hat He alone is t he Owner of His creat ures and t hat He does wit h t hem as He wills. Indeed, His is t he supreme aut horit y and all creat ion is His, and j ust as He creat ed t hem as He wills, He brings happiness t o whom He wills, misery t o whom He wills, healt h t o whom He wills and ailment t o whom He wills. He also brings success t o whom He wills and failure t o whom He wills. He j udges bet ween His servant s as He wills, allows what He wills and disallows what He wills. He decides what He wills, t here is no opponent for His j udgment , and no one can quest ion Him about what He does, while t hey shall be quest ioned. He t est s His servant s and t heir obedience t o His Messengers by t he Naskh. He commands a mat t er cont aining a benefit which He knows of, and t hen He out of His wisdom, prohibit s it . Hence, perfect obedience is realized by adhering t o His commands, following His Messengers, believing in what ever t hey convey, implement ing t heir commands and avoiding what t hey prohibit . The st at ement s of Allah here cont ain t remendous benefit , prove t hat t he Jews are disbelievers and refut e t heir claim t hat Naskh does not occur, may Allah curse t he Jews. In ignorance and arrogance t hey claimed t hat t he sound mind st ipulat es t hat Naskh does not occur. Some of t hem falsely claimed t hat t here are divine t ext s t hat dismiss t he possibilit y t hat Naskh occurred. Imam Abu Ja` far bin Jarir said, "The Ayah means, ` Do you not know, O Muhammad, t hat I alone own t he heavens and t he eart h and t hat I decide what ever I will in t hem I forbid what ever I will, change and repeal what ever I will of My previous rulings, whenever I will. I also uphold what ever I will.'' Ibn Jarir t hen said, "Alt hough Allah direct ed His st at ement indicat ing His great ness t owards His Prophet , He also rej ect ed t he lies of t he Jews who denied t hat t he rulings of t he Torah could undergo Naskh. The Jews also denied t he prophet hood of Jesus and Muhammad, because of t heir dislike for what t hey brought from Allah, such as changing some rulings of t he Torah, as Allah commanded. Allah t hus proclaimed t o t he Jews t hat He owns t he heavens and eart h and also all aut horit y in t hem. Furt her, t he subj ect s in Allah's kingdom are His creat ion, and t hey are required t o hear and obey His commands and prohibit ions. Allah has full aut horit y t o command t he creat ion as He wills, forbidding t hem from what He wills, abrogat e what He wills, uphold what He wills, and decide what ever commandment s and prohibit ions He wills.'' I (Ibn Kat hir) say t hat t he Jews' dismissal of t he occurrence of t he Naskh is only a case of t heir disbelief and rebellion. The sound mind does not deny t hat t here could be a Naskh in Allah's commandment s, for He decides what He wills, j ust as He does what He wills. Furt her, Naskh occurred in previous Books and Law. For inst ance, Allah allowed Adam t o marry his daught ers t o his sons and t hen lat er forbade t his pract ice. Allah also allowed Nuh t o eat from all kinds of animals aft er t hey left t he ark, t hen prohibit ed eat ing some t ypes of foods. Furt her, marrying t wo sist ers t o one man was allowed for Israel and his children, but Allah prohibit ed t his pract ice lat er in t he Torah. Allah commanded Abraham t o slaught er his son, t hen repealed t hat command before it was implement ed. Also, Allah commanded t he Children of Israel t o kill t hose who worshipped t he calf and t hen repealed t hat command, so t hat t he Children of Israel were not all ext erminat ed. There are many ot her inst ances t hat t he Jews admit have occurred, yet t hey ignore t hem. Also, it is a well-known fact t hat t heir Books foret old about Muhammad and cont ained t he command t o follow him. These t ext s, in t heir Books, indicat e t hat t he Jews were required t o follow t he Prophet Muhammad and t hat no good deed would be accept ed from t hem, unless it conformed t o Muhammad's Law. The Prophet brought anot her Book, - t he Qur'an -, which is t he last revelat ion from Allah. ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ モゃシ ゅ∠ ミ ∇ユムャヲ⊥ ケ ∇やヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ ゎ ∇ュぺぴ シ ョ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ シ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ モッ ∇ギボプ リ⇒∠ Α͡ ゅ͡ ゲ∇ヘム∇ャや メギらわΑ リ∠ ヱ モ∇らホ リ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨ Η よ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ び モΒ͡ ジャや ¬へ∠ シ ͡ らz ∠ ヲ∠ (108. Or do you want t o ask your Messenger (Muhammad ) as Musa (Moses) was asked before (i.e. show us openly our Lord) And he who changes fait h for disbelief, verily, he has gone ast ray from t he right way.) The Prohibition of Unnecessary Questions In t his Ayah, Allah forbade t he believers from asking t he Prophet numerous quest ions about mat t ers t hat did not occur yet . Similarly, Allah said, ギ∇らゎ ラ͡ ¬べ∠ ∇セぺ ∇リハ ∇やヲ⊥ほ∇ジゎ Ι ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ∠ ⊥ ま ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ほ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや メz レΑ リΒ͡ ゅ∠ ∇レハ ∇やヲ⊥ほ∇ジゎ ラ͡ヱ ∇ユミ∇ぽジゎ ∇ユムャ ⊥ ¬ ⊥ ⊥ ゴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ェ ヰ ∠ ャ ∠ ∠ ま∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ び∇ユムャ ギ∇らゎ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ (O you who believe! Ask not about t hings which, if made plain t o you, may cause you t rouble. But if you ask about t hem while t he Qur'an is being revealed, t hey will be made plain t o you) (5:101). This Ayah means, "If you ask about a mat t er aft er it is revealed, it shall be duly explained t o you. Therefore, do not ask about mat t ers t hat have not occurred yet , for t hey might become prohibit ed, due t o your quest ions.'' This is why t he Sahih narrat ed, ¬∇ヶセ ∇リハ メほシ ∇リョ ゅ⇔ ∇ゲィ リΒ͡ ヤ∇ジヨ∇ャや ユヌ∇ハぺ ラま» ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ «ヮ͡ ャほ∇ジョ モ∇ィぺ ∇リョ ュゲエプ ∩∇ュゲ∠ Α ∇ユャ わ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ あ ⊥ ∠ z エ⊥ ∠ (The great est criminal among t he Muslims is t he one who asks if a t hing is prohibit ed, which is not prohibit ed, and it becomes prohibit ed because of his asking about it .) This is why when t he Messenger of Allah was asked about a husband who finds anot her man wit h his wife; if he exposes t he adult ery, he will be exposing a maj or incident ; if he is quiet about it , he will be quiet about a maj or mat t er. The Messenger of Allah did not like such quest ions. Lat er on, Allah revealed t he ruling of Mula` anah Refer t o Nur 24:6-9 in t he Qur'an . The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Al-Mughirah bin Shu` bah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah "Forbade saying, ` It was said' and ` He said,' and wast ing money and asking many quest ions.'' Muslim recorded t hat t he Prophet said, ∇ユムヤ∇らホ ラゅ∠ ∇リョ マヤワ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ∩∇ユムわ∇ミゲゎ ゅ∠ ヶ͡ ヱ⊥ ク» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヨz みプ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ル ケ∠ や∠ みプ ∩∇ユヰもゅ∠ ら∇ルぺ ヴヤ∠ ∇ユヰプゅ∠わ∇カや∠ ∇ユヰャや∠ シ りゲ∇んムよ ク͡∠ ͡ ͡ Β͡ ∠ ハ ͡ ͡ ヤ͡ ヱ ͡ ͡ ぽ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∇ユムわ∇Βヰル ∇ラまヱ ∇ユわ∇バトわ∇シや ゅ∠ ヮ∇レョ やヲ⊥ ∇ほプ ゲ∇ョほよ ∇ユムゎ∇ゲョぺ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ͡ ゎ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «ロヲ⊥ レわ∇ィゅ∠ ¬∇ヶセ ∇リハ ら͡ ∠ プ ∃ ∠ ∠ (Leave me as I leave you; t hose before you were only dest royed because of t heir excessive quest ioning and disput ing wit h t heir Prophet s. Therefore, when I command you wit h a mat t er, adhere t o it as much as you can, and when I forbid from somet hing, avoid it .) The Prophet only said t his aft er he t old t he Companions t hat Allah has ordered t hem t o perform Haj j . A man asked, "Every year, O Messenger of Allah'' The Prophet did not answer him, but he repeat ed his quest ion t hree t imes. Then t he Prophet said, ゅ∠ ャ ∇ろらィヱ ∇ヲャヱ ∇ろらィヲャ ∩∇ユバル :ろ∇ヤホ ∇ヲャヱ ∩ゅ∠» ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ «ユ⊥ ∇バトわ∇シや わ∠∠ (No. Had I said yes, it would have been ordained, and you would not have been able t o implement it .) This is why Anas bin Malik said, "We were forbidden from asking t he Messenger of Allah about t hings. So we were delight ed when a bedouin man would come and ask him while we list ened.'' Muhammad bin Ishaq said t hat Muhammad bin Abi Muhammad t old him t hat ` Ikrimah or Sa` id said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Rafi` bin Huraymilah or Wahb bin Zayd said, "O Muhammad! Bring us a Book sent down from heaven and which we could read, and make some rivers flow for us, t hen we will follow you and believe in you.'' Allah sent down t he answer t o t his challenge, ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ モゃシ ゅ∠ ミ ∇ユムャヲ⊥ ケ ∇やヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ ゎ ∇ュぺぴ シ ョ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ シ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ モッ ∇ギボプ リ⇒∠ Α͡ ゅ͡ ゲ∇ヘム∇ャや メギらわΑ リ∠ ヱ モ∇らホ リ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨ Η よ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ び モΒ͡ ジャや ¬へ∠ シ ͡ らz ∠ ヲ∠ (Or do you want t o ask your Messenger (Muhammad ) as Musa was asked before (i.e. show us openly our Lord) And he who changes fait h for disbelief, verily, he has gone ast ray from t he right way). Allah crit icized t hose who ask t he Messenger of Allah about a cert ain mat t er j ust for t he purpose of being difficult , j ust as t he Children of Israel asked Musa out of st ubbornness, rej ect ion and rebellion. Allah said, びリ⇒∠ Α͡ ゅ͡ ゲ∇ヘム∇ャや メギらわΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ヨ Η よ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (And he who changes fait h for disbelief) meaning, whoever prefers disbelief t o fait h, びモΒ͡ ジャや ¬へ∠ シ モッ ∇ギボプぴ ͡ らz ∠ ヲ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ (verily, he has gone ast ray from t he right way) meaning, he has st rayed from t he st raight pat h, t o t he pat h of ignorance and misguidance. This is t he case of t hose who deviat ed from accept ing t he Prophet s and obeying t hem and t hose who kept asking t heir Prophet s unnecessary quest ions in defiance and disbelief, j ust as Allah said, ∇やヲぁェぺヱ や⇔ ∇ヘミ ヮヤャや ろヨ∇バル ∇やヲ⊥ギよ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ま ゲゎ ∇ユャぺぴ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ z ∠ ∠ グ z ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ザ∇ゃよヱ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ヲ∠∇ダ∠ ユレヰィ - ケや∠ ら∇ャや ケや∠ ∇ユヰョ∇ヲホ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヰル ヤ Α ∠ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ヲ∠ ∠ キ ⊥ ∠ ∠ び ケや∠ ボ∇ャや ⊥ ゲ∠ (Have you not seen t hose who have changed t he blessings of Allah int o disbelief (by denying Prophet Muhammad and his Message of Islam), and caused t heir people t o dwell in t he house of dest ruct ion Hell, in which t hey will burn and what an evil place t o set t le in!) (14:28-29). Abu Al-` Aliyah comment ed, "They exchanged comfort for hardship.'' ギ∇バよ リ͡ ユ⊥ ルヱぁ ゲΑ ∇ヲャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇リョ ∀ Β͡ ミ キヱぴ ͡ ∠ ョ ム∠ キ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ あ ゲ ん∠ z ∠ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ∇ユヰジヘ∇ルぺ ギ∇レハ ∇リョ や⇔ ジェ や⇔ ゅz ミ ∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ あ ギ∠ ∠ ケ ヘ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ヨ ま ヮzャや ヴゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェ ∇やヲ⊥ ヘ∇タや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ハゅ∠ ペエ∇ャや ユヰャ リΒらゎ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ エ∠ ヱ ヘ プ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱ - ∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラま ロゲ∇ョほよ ヨ ホ∠∠ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ジヘ∇ルΕ ∇やヲ⊥ ギボゎ ゅ∠ ヱ りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ や∠ ∠ りヲ∠ダャや あ ム͡ ⊥ ∠ ョあ ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ミz ゎ ¬ヱ ∠ ヤz び ∀ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅ∠ よ ヮヤャや ラま ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ロヱ⊥ イゎ ゲ∇Βカ ゲ ダよ ラ ヤ ヨ ゎ ヨ ͡ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥ ギ ͡ ∠ ∃ ∠ (109. Many of t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) wish t hat t hey could t urn you away as disbelievers aft er you have believed, out of envy from t heir own selves, even aft er t he t rut h (t hat Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unt o t hem. But forgive and overlook, t ill Allah brings His command. Verily, Allah is able t o do all t hings.) (110. And perform t he Salah and give t he Zakah, and what ever of good you send fort h for yourselves before you, you shall find it wit h Allah. Cert ainly, Allah is t he Seer of what you do.) The Prohibition of following the Ways of the People of the Book Allah warned His believing servant s against following t he ways of t he People of Book, who publicly and secret ly harbor emnit y and hat red for t he believers, and who envy t he believers, while t hey recognize t he virt ue of t he believers and t heir Prophet . Allah also commanded His believing servant s t o forgive t hem and t o be pat ient wit h t hem, unt il Allah delivers His aid and vict ory t o t hem. Allah commanded t he believers t o perform t he prayer perfect ly, t o pay t he Zakah and He encouraged t hem t o preserve t he pract ice of t hese right eous deeds. Ibn Abi Hat im recorded t hat ` Abdullah bin Ka` b bin Malik said t hat Ka` b bin Al-Ashraf, who was a Jew and a poet , used t o crit icize t he Prophet in his poems, so Allah revealed, びユ⊥ ルヱぁ ゲΑ ∇ヲャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇リョ ∀ Β͡ ミ キヱぴ ム∠ キ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ あ ゲ ん∠ z ∠ (Many of t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) wish t hat t hey could t urn you away..) regarding his mat t er. Also, Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "An unlet t ered Messenger came t o t he People of t he Script ures confirming what t hey have in t heir own Books about t he Messengers and t he Ayat of Allah. He also believes in all of t his, j ust as t hey believe in it . Yet , t hey rej ect ed t he Prophet out of disbelief, envy and t ransgression. This is why Allah said, リΒらゎ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ∇ユヰジヘ∇ルぺ ギ∇レハ ∇リョ や⇔ ジェ や⇔ ゅz ミぴ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ あ ギ∠ ∠ ケ ヘ⊥ びペエ∇ャや ユヰャ ぁ ∠ ⊥⊥ ∠ (out of envy from t heir own selves, even aft er t he t rut h (t hat Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unt o t hem). Allah said t hat aft er He illuminat ed t he t rut h for t hem, such t hat t hey were not ignorant of any of it , yet t heir envy made t hem deny t he Prophet . Thus Allah crit icized, chast ised and denounced t hem.'' Allah legislat ed t he charact erist ics t hat His Prophet and t he believers should adhere t o: belief, fait h and accept ing what Allah revealed t o t hem and t o t hose before t hem out of His generosit y and t remendous kindness. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat , び∇ユヰジヘ∇ルぺ ギ∇レハ ∇リョぴ ͡͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ あ (from t heir own selves) means, "of t heir making.'' Also, Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat , びペエ∇ャや ユヰャ リΒらゎ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ぴ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ (even aft er t he t rut h (t hat Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unt o t hem) means, "Aft er it became clear t hat Muhammad is t he Messenger of Allah whom t hey find writ t en of in t he Torah and t he Inj il. They denied him in disbelief and t ransgression because he was not one of t hem.'' Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said similarly. Allah said, びロゲ∇ョほよ ヮzャや ヴゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェ ∇やヲ⊥ ヘ∇タや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ハゅ∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ エ∠ ヱ ヘ プ (But forgive and overlook, t ill Allah brings His command.) t his is similar t o His saying; ∇ユムヤ∇らホ リ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや リョ リバヨ∇ジわャヱぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びやゲΒ͡ ミ ン⇔ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇セぺ リΑ͡ ャや リョヱ ⇔ ん∠ クぺ ミ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ∠ (And you shall cert ainly hear much t hat will grieve you from t hose who received t he Script ure before you (Jews and Christ ians) and from t hose who ascribe part ners t o Allah) (3: 186). ` Ali bin Abi Talhah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Allah's st at ement , びロゲ∇ョほよ ヮzャや ヴゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェ ∇やヲ⊥ ヘ∇タや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ハゅ∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ エ∠ ヱ ヘ プ (But forgive and overlook, t ill Allah brings His command.) was abrogat ed by t he Ayah, び∇ユワヲ⊥ ゎギ∠ ヱ ゑ∇Βェ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥わ∇ホゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ヨぁ ィ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ヤ⊥ プ (Then kill t he Mushrikin wherever you find t hem) (9:5), and, びゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ͡ Ιヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥わ⇒∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ よ ∠ ∠ ͡ z よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz ヤ͡ ホ (Fight against t hose who believe not in Allah, nor in t he Last Day) (9:29) unt il, びラヱ⊥ ピ⇒∠ ∇ユワヱぴ ∠ ゲ͡ タ ⊥ ∠ (And feel t hemselves subdued) (9:29). Allah's pardon for t he disbelievers was repealed.'' Abu Al-` Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qat adah and As-Suddi said similarly: It was abrogat ed by t he Ayah of t he sword." (Ment ioned above). The Ayah, びロゲ∇ョほよ ヮzャや ヴゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェぴ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ (t ill Allah brings His command.) gives furt her support for t his view. Ibn Abi Hat im recorded Usamah bin Zayd saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah and his Companions used t o forgive t he disbelievers and t he People of t he Book, j ust as Allah commanded in His st at ement , ヮヤャや ラま ロゲ∇ョほよ ヮヤャや ヴゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェ ∇やヲ⊥ ヘ∇タや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ハゅ∠ ぴ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ エ∠ ヱ ヘ プ び∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ (But forgive and overlook, t ill Allah brings His command. Verily, Allah is able t o do all t hings). The Messenger of Allah used t o forgive t hem and was pat ient wit h t hem as Allah ordered him, unt il Allah allowed fight ing t hem. Then Allah dest royed t hose who He decreed t o be killed among t he st rong men of Quraysh, by t he Prophet 's forces. The chain of narrat ion for t his t ext is Sahih, but I did not see it s wordings in t he six collect ions of Hadit h, alt hough t he basis of it is in t he Two Sahihs, narrat ed from Usamah bin Zayd. The Encouragement to perform Good Deeds Allah said, ∇やヲ⊥ ギボゎ ゅ∠ ∠ りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ や∠ ∠ りヲ∠ダャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱぴ ョあ ∠ ⊥ ョヱ ∠ ミz ゎ ¬ヱ ∠ ヤz ヨ ホ∠ ∠ びヮヤャや ギレ͡ ロヱ⊥ イゎ ゲ∇Βカ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ジヘ∇ルΕ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥ ギ ͡ ∠ ∃ ∠ あ ム͡ ⊥ ∠ (And perform t he Salah and give t he Zakah, and what ever of good you send fort h for yourselves before you, you shall find it wit h Allah). Allah encouraged t he believers t o busy t hemselves in performing deeds t hat would bring t hem benefit and reward on t he Day of Resurrect ion, such as prayer and paying Zakah. This way, t hey will gain Allah's aid in t his life and on a Day when t he wit nesses t est ify, ∇ユヰャヱ るレ∇バヤ∇ャや ユヰャヱ ∇ユヰゎケグ∇バョ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ノヘレ∠ Ι ュ∇ヲΑぴ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ⊥ ∠ Α ∠ ∠ ∠ び ケやz ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ͡ ギ ⊥ シ (The Day when t heir excuses will be of no profit t o t he Zalimin (wrongdoers). Theirs will be t he curse, and t heirs will be t he evil abode (i.e. painful t orment in Hell-fire)) (40:52). This is why Allah said, び∀ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅ∠ よ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ゲ ダよ ラ ヤ ヨ ゎ ヨ ͡ ∠ z z ͡ (Cert ainly, Allah sees what you do), meaning, t hat He is never unaware of t he deeds of any person, nor will t hese deeds be lost by Him. Whet her deeds are right eous or evil, Allah will award each according t o what he or she deserves based on t heir deeds. ∇ヱぺ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ラゅ∠ リ∠ Ιま るレイ∇ャや モカ∇ギΑ リ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ キ ワ ∠ ミ ョ z ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ャ ャ ホ∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ∇ユムレ⇒∠ ∇ゲよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇モホ ∇ユヰΒルゅ∠ ぺ マ∇ヤゎ ン∠ ⇒∠ ル ⊥ ミ ま ⊥ ∠ ワ ⊥ ゎ ワ ⊥ ⊥ ぁ ͡ ョ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ ダ∠ ∀ ͡ ∇エョ ヲワヱ ヮヤャ ヮヰ∇ィヱ ユヤ∇シぺ ∇リョ ヴ∠よ - リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ リジ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ホ͡ タ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Ιヱ ヮよケ ギレ͡ ロゲ∇ィぺ ヮヤプ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ハ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ヴ∠ハ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろジ∇Βャ キヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ャや ろャゅ∠ ヱ - ラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ヤ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰΒ ͡ ∠ ホ∠ ∠ ル∠ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ろジ∇Βャ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろャゅ∠ ヱ ¬∇ヴセ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ホ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ マャグミ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わΑ ∇ユワヱ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グ z ∠ ホ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ∇ユヰレ∇Βよ ユム∇エΑ ヮzャゅ∠ ∇ユヰャ∇ヲホ モ∇んョ ヨ プ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ プ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ び ラヲ⊥ ヤわ∇ガΑ ヮΒ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ル ミ (111. And t hey say, "None shall ent er Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christ ian.'' These are t heir own desires. Say (O Muhammad ), "Produce your Burhan if you are t rut hful.'') (112. Yes! But whoever submit s his face (himself) t o Allah (i.e. follows Allah's religion of Islamic Monot heism) and he is a Muhsin t hen his reward is wit h his Lord (Allah), on such shall be no fear, nor shall t hey grieve.) (113. The Jews said t hat t he Christ ians follow not hing (i.e. are not on t he right religion); and t he Christ ians said t hat t he Jews follow not hing (i.e. are not on t he right religion); t hough t hey bot h recit e t he Script ure. Like unt o t heir word, said t hose (t he pagans) who know not . Allah will j udge bet ween t hem on t he Day of Resurrect ion about t hat wherein t hey have been differing.) The Hopes of the People of the Book Allah made t he confusion of t he Jews and t he Christ ians clear, since t hey claim t hat no one will ent er Paradise, unless he is a Jew or a Christ ian. Similarly, Allah ment ioned t heir claims in Surat Al-Ma'idah: びロぼゅz ェぺヱ ヮヤャや ¬ゅ∠ ∇よぺ リ∇エルぴ ⊥ ⊥ ら͡ ∠∠ ͡ z ⊥ レ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (We are t he children of Allah and His loved ones) (5:18). Allah refut ed t his false claim and informed t hem t hat t hey will be punished because of t heir sins. Previously we ment ioned t heir claim t hat t he Fire would not t ouch t hem for more t han a few days, aft er which t hey would be put in Paradise. Allah rebuked t his claim, and He said about t his baseless claim, m び∇ユヰΒルゅ∠ ぺ マ∇ヤゎぴ ⊥ ぁ ͡ ョ∠ ∠ ͡ (These are t heir own desires). Abu Al-` Aliyah comment ed, "These are wishes t hat t hey wished Allah would answer, wit hout basis.'' Similar was st at ed by Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Allah t hen said, び∇モホぴ ⊥ (Say) meaning, "Say O Muhammad:'' び∇ユムレ⇒∠ ∇ゲよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ぴ ⊥∠ ワ ⊥ ゎワ ("Produce your Burhan...'') meaning, "Your proof'', as Abu Al-` Aliyah, Muj ahid, As-Suddi and ArRabi` bin Anas st at ed. Qat adah said t hat t he Ayah means, "Bring t he evidence t hat support s your st at ement , びリΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ぴ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま (if you are t rut hful) in your claim. '' Allah t hen said, び∀ ͡ ∇エョ ヲワヱ ヮヤャ ヮヰ∇ィヱ ユヤ∇シぺ ∇リョ ヴ∠よぴ リジ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ (Yes! But whoever submit s his face (himself) t o Allah (i.e. follows Allah's religion of Islamic Monot heism) and he is a Muhsin) meaning, "Whoever performs deeds in sincerit y, for Allah alone wit hout part ners.'' In a similar st at ement , Allah said, リョヱ ヮヤャ ヴヰ∇ィヱ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ ∇モボプ ポヲぁ べ∠ ∇ラみ∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ィ ェ プ びリバらゎや ͡ ∠ ∠z (So if t hey disput e wit h you (Muhammad ) say: "I have submit t ed myself t o Allah (in Islam), and (so have) t hose who follow me.'') (3:20) Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` said t hat , びヮヤャ ヮヰ∇ィヱ ユヤ∇シぺ ∇リョ ヴ∠よぴ ͡ z͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ (Yes! But whoever submit s his face (himself) t o Allah) means, "Whoever is sincere wit h Allah.'' Also, Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat , びユヤ∇シぺ ∇リョ ヴ∠よぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ (Yes! But whoever submit s) means, he is sincere, びヮヰ∇ィヱぴ ⊥∠ ∠ (his face (himself)) meaning, in his religion. び∀ ͡ ∇エョ ヲワヱぴ リジ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (and he is a Muhsin) following t he Messenger . For t here are t wo condit ions for deeds t o be accept ed; t he deed must be performed for Allah's sake alone and conform t o t he Shari` ah. When t he deed is sincere, but does not conform t o t he Shari` ah, t hen it will not be accept ed. The Messenger of Allah said, «キ∠ ヲヰプ ゅ∠ ゲ∇ョぺ ヮ∇Βヤハ ザ∇Βャ ゅ⇔ヨハ モヨハ ∇リョ» ケ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ル⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (Whoever performs a deed t hat does not conform wit h our mat t er (religion), t hen it will be rej ect ed.) This Hadit h was recorded by Muslim. Therefore, t he good deeds of t he priest s and rabbis will not be accept ed, even if t hey are sincerely for Allah alone, because t hese deeds do not conform wit h t he met hod of t he Messenger , who was sent for all mankind. Allah said regarding such cases, ¬べ∠ ワ ロゅ∠ ∇ヤバイプ モヨハ ∇リョ ∇やヲ⊥ヨハ ゅ∠ ヴ∠ま べ∠ ∇ョギホヱぴ ⇔ ら∠ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヤ͡ ∠ ョ ャ͡ レ ͡ ∠ ∠ び やケヲ⊥ レz ⇔ んョ (And We shall t urn t o what ever deeds t hey (disbelievers, polyt heist s, sinners) did, and We shall make such deeds as scat t ered float ing part icles of dust .) (25:23) ヮらジ∇エΑ るバΒ͡ よ ゆや∠ ジミ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ボ͡ ∃ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ びゅゃ∇Βセ ロ∇ギイΑ ∇ユャ ロ¬べ∠ や∠ ま ヴz ェ ¬べ∠ ラべ∇ヨヌャや ⇔ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ク͡ わ∠ ⇔ ョ ⊥ z (As for t hose who disbelieved, t heir deeds are like a mirage in a desert . The t hirst y one t hinks it t o be wat er, unt il he comes up t o it , he finds it t o be not hing.) (24:39) and, ヴ∠∇ダゎ - るらタゅz るヤョゅ∠ - るバゼ⇒∠ グゃョ∇ヲΑ ∀ ヲ⊥ ヱぴ ヤ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ル ∀ ∠ ͡ ハ ∀ ∠ ͡ カ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∠ ロ ィ⊥ び るΒルや∠ リ∇Βハ ∇リョ ヴ∠ ∇ジゎ - るΒョゅ∠ やケゅ∠ ∃ ∠͡ ¬ ∃ ∠ ͡ ボ ⊥ ⇔ ∠͡ ェ ⇔ ル (Some faces, t hat Day will be humiliat ed. Laboring, weary. They will ent er in t he hot blazing Fire. They will be given t o drink from a boiling spring) (88:2-5). When t he deed conforms t o t he Shari` ah out wardly, but t he person did not perform it sincerely for Allah alone, t he deed will also be rej ect ed, as in t he case of t he hypocrit es and t hose who do t heir deeds t o show off. Similarly, Allah said, や∠ ͡∠ ∇ユヰハキゅ∠ ヲワヱ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Α リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ラまぴ クまヱ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ カ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ z ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ へ∠ Α ヴ∠ゅ∠ ミ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ りヲ∠ダャや ヴ∠ま ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ¬ ゲ⊥ ャ ジ⊥ ョ ホ ͡ ヤz ャ͡ ョ ホ び ΚΒ͡ホ Ιま ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ ミ∇グΑ Ιヱ ⇔ ヤ ∠ z ͡ ∠ z ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Verily, t he hypocrit es seek t o deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives t hem. And when t hey st and up for As-Salah (t he prayer), t hey st and wit h laziness t o be seen by people, and t hey do not remember Allah but lit t le.) (4:142) and, ラヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ユヰわ⇒∠タ リ∠ ∇ユワ リΑ͡ ャや - リΒあダヨ∇ヤャ モ∇Αヲプぴ ∠ ワ シ ͡ ͡ ヤ∠ ハ ⊥ ∠ グz ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ あ ∀ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ャや ラヲ⊥ レ∇ヨΑヱ - ラヱ⊥ へ∠ Α ∇ユワ リΑ͡ ャや ∠ ハ ヨ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ゲ⊥ ⊥ ∠ グz (So woe unt o t hose performers of Salah (prayers) (hypocrit es). Those who delay t heir Salah (from t heir st at ed fixed t imes). Those who do good deeds only t o be seen (of men). And wit hhold Al-Ma` un (small kindnesses)) (107:4-7). This is why Allah said, ゅエ͡⇒∠ Κヨハ ∇モヨ∇バΒ∇ヤプ ヮよケ ¬べ∠ ャ ヲ⊥ ∇ゲΑ ラゅ∠ リ∠ プぴ ⇔ ヤ タ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ボ͡ ィ ∠ ∠ ミ ヨ∠ びや∠ ェぺ ヮよケ りキゅ∠ バよ ∇ポゲ∇ゼΑ Ιヱ ギ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ら͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (So whoever hopes for t he meet ing wit h his Lord, let him work right eousness and associat e none as a part ner in t he worship of his Lord) (18: 110). He also said in t his Ayah, び∀ ͡ ∇エョ ヲワヱ ヮヤャ ヮヰ∇ィヱ ユヤ∇シぺ ∇リョ ヴ∠よぴ リジ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ (Yes, but whoever submit s his face (himself) t o Allah (follows Allah's religion of Islamic Monot heism) and he is a Muhsin). Allah's st at ement , ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Ιヱ ∇ユヰよケ ギレ͡ ∇ユワゲ∇ィぺ ∇ユヰヤプぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ハ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ びラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∠ ル∠ ∠ (Shall have t heir reward wit h t heir Lord, on t hem shall be no fear, nor shall t hey grieve) guarant eed t hem t he rewards and safet y from what t hey fear and should avoid. び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Κプぴ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ (There shall be no fear on t hem) in t he fut ure, びラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ル∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor shall t hey grieve) about what t hey abandoned in t he past . Moreover, Sa` id bin Jubayr said, び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Κプぴ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ "(There shall be no fear on t hem) in t he Hereaft er, and びラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ル∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor shall t hey grieve) about t heir imminent deat h.'' The Jews and Christians dispute among Themselves out of Disbelief and Stubbornness Allah said, ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろジ∇Βャ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ろャゅ∠ ヱぴ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ∠ ∇ユワヱ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ キヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ャや ろジ∇Βャ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろャゅ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヰΒ ͡ ∠ ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ホ∠ びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わΑ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ (The Jews said t hat t he Christ ians follow not hing (i.e. are not on t he right religion); and t he Christ ians said t hat t he Jews follow not hing (i.e. are not on t he right religion); t hough t hey bot h recit e t he Script ure.) Allah explained t he disput es, hat red and st ubbornness t hat t he People of t he Book have t owards each ot her. Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "When a delegat ion of Christ ians from Naj ran came t o t he Messenger of Allah , t he Jewish rabbis came and began arguing wit h t hem before t he Messenger of Allah . Rafi` bin Huraymilah said, ` You do not follow anyt hing,' and he reit erat ed his disbelief in Jesus and t he Inj il. Then a Christ ian man from Naj ran's delegat ion said t o t he Jews, ` Rat her, you do not follow anyt hing,' and he reit erat ed his rej ect ion of Musa's prophet hood and his disbelief in t he Torah. So Allah revealed t he Ayah, ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろジ∇Βャ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ろャゅ∠ ヱぴ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ∠ ∇ユワヱ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ キヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ャや ろジ∇Βャ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろャゅ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヰΒ ͡ ∠ ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ホ∠ びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わΑ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ (The Jews said t hat t he Christ ians follow not hing (i.e. are not on t he right religion); and t he Christ ians said t hat t he Jews follow not hing (i.e. are not on t he right religion); t hough t hey bot h recit e t he Script ure. )'' Allah made it clear t hat each part y read t he affirmat ion of what t hey claimed t o rej ect in t heir Book. Consequent ly, t he Jews disbelieve in Jesus, even t hough t hey have t he Torah in which Allah t ook t heir Covenant by t he t ongue of Moses t o believe in Jesus. Also, t he Gospel cont ains Jesus' assert ion t hat Moses' prophet hood and t he Torah came from Allah. Yet , each part y disbelieved in what t he ot her part y had. Allah said, び∇ユヰャ∇ヲホ モ∇んョ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ マャグミぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グ z ∠ ホ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (Like unt o t heir word, said t hose who know not ) t hus exposing t he ignorance displayed by t he Jews and t he Christ ians concerning t heir st at ement s t hat we ment ioned. There is a difference of opinion regarding t he meaning of Allah's st at ement , び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャやぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グ z (who know not ) For inst ance, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qat adah said t hat , び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ マャグミぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グ z ∠ ホ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (Like unt o t heir word, said t hose said t hose who know not ) means, "The Christ ians said similar st at ement s t o t he Jews.'' Ibn Jurayj asked ` At a' "Who are t hose ` who know not ''' ` At a' said, "Nat ions t hat exist ed before t he Jews and t he Christ ians and before t he Torah and t he Gospel.'' Also, As-Suddi said t hat , び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グ z ∠ ホ (said t hose who know not ) is in reference t o t he Arabs who said t hat Muhammad was not following anyt hing (i. e. did not follow a t rue or exist ing religion). Abu Ja` far bin Jarir chose t he view t hat t his Ayah is general and t hat t here is no evidence t hat specifically support s any of t hese explanat ions. So int erpret ing t he Ayah in a general way is bet t er. Allah knows best . Allah said, ヮΒ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ∇ユヰレ∇Βよ ユム∇エΑ ヮzャゅ∠ ぴ ͡ プ ル ミ ヨ プ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ プ びラヲ⊥ ヤわ∇ガΑ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ ∠ (Allah will j udge bet ween t hem on t he Day of Resurrect ion about t hat wherein t hey have been differing.) meaning, t hat Allah will gat her t hem all on t he Day of Ret urn. On t hat Day, Allah will j ust ly j udge bet ween t hem, for He is never unj ust wit h anyone, even as lit t le as t he weight of an at om. This Ayah is similar t o Allah's st at ement in Surat Al-Haj j (22:17), ∠ Β͡ ͡ ⇒z ャや∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ リ ゃら ダ ヱ キ ワ ∠ グz ヱ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz z ͡ ヮヤャや ラま ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇セぺ リΑ͡ ャや∠ サヲ⊥ ヨ∇ャや∠ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや∠ ∠ z z ͡ ミ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ イ∠ ヱ ゲ ダz ヱ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラま るヨ⇒Β͡ ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ∇ユヰレ∇Βよ モダ∇ヘΑ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ び ∀ Β͡ セ ギ ヰ∠ (Verily, t hose who believe (in Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad ), and t hose who are Jews, and t he Sabians, and t he Christ ians, and t he Maj us, and t hose who associat e part ners wit h Allah; t ruly, Allah will j udge bet ween t hem on t he Day of Resurrect ion. Verily, Allah is over all t hings a Wit ness). Allah said, ヲワヱ ペエ∇ャゅ͡ ゅ∠ レ∇Βよ ウわ∇ヘΑ z を ゅ∠ よケ ゅ∠ レ∇Βよ ノヨ∇イΑ ∇モホぴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ あ ∠ よ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ レぁ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ び ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ゥゅz ヘ∇ャや ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ わ∠ (Say: "Our Lord will assemble us all t oget her (on t he Day of Resurrect ion), t hen He will j udge bet ween us wit h t rut h. And He is t he Just Judge, t he Knower of t he t rue st at e of affairs.'') (34:26). ゅ∠ Β͡ ゲミ∇グΑ ラ∠ ヮヤャや ギイ⇒∠ ョ ノレョ リz ョ ユヤ∇ニぺ ∇リョヱぴ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ∠ ∠ z ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ラ∠ ∇ユヰャ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ べ∠ よや∠ カ ヴ͡ ヴ∠ シヱ ヮヨ∇シや ぺ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ヰ͡ ゲ∠ プ バ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヴ͡ ∇ユヰャヱ ∀ ∇ゴ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ヴ͡ ∇ユヰャ リΒ͡ もべ∠ Ιま べ∠ ヲ⊥カ∇ギΑ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ン カ Β ぁ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヘ͡ カ z ͡ ワ ヤ ⊥ ∠ び ∀ Β͡ ∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ りゲカΙや ユ ヌハ ゆ グハ ͡ ∠ ͡ x (114. And who are more unj ust t han t hose who forbid t hat Allah's Name be ment ioned (i.e. prayers and invocat ions) in Allah's Masj ids and st rive for t heir ruin It was not fit t ing t hat such should t hemselves ent er t hem (Allah's Masj ids) except in fear. For t hem t here is disgrace in t his world, and t hey will have a great t orment in t he Hereaft er.) Of the Most Unjust are Those Who prevent People from the Masjids and strive for their Ruin The Quraysh idolat ors are t hose who hindered t he people from t he Masj ids of Allah and want ed t o dest roy t hem. Ibn Jarir report ed t hat Ibn Zayd said t hat Allah's st at ement , ゅ∠ Β͡ ゲミ∇グΑ ラ∠ ヮヤャや ギイ⇒∠ ョ ノレョ リz ョ ユヤ∇ニぺ ∇リョヱぴ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ∠ ∠ z ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びべ∠ よや∠ カ ヴ͡ ヴ∠ シヱ ヮヨ∇シや ヰ͡ ゲ∠ プ バ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ (And who are more unj ust t han t hose who forbid t hat Allah's Name be ment ioned (i.e. prayers and invocat ions) in Allah's Masj ids and st rive for t heir ruin) is about t he Quraysh idolat ors who prevent ed t he Prophet from ent ering Makkah from Al-Hudaybiyyah, unt il he slaught ered t he Hadi (animal for sacrifice) at Dhi-Tuwa. He t hen agreed t o a peace t reat y wit h t he idolat ors and said t o t hem, (No one before has ever prevent ed people from ent ering t he House. One would even see t he killer of his fat her and brot her, but would not prevent him (from ent ering t he House of Allah).) They said, "Whoever killed our fat hers at Badr, shall never ent er it while t here is one of us alive.'' Allah's st at ement , びべ∠ よや∠ カ ヴ͡ ヴ∠ シヱぴ ヰ͡ ゲ∠ プ バ∠ ∠ (and st rive for t heir ruin) means t hose who prevent whoever maint ain t he Masj ids wit h Allah's remembrance and who visit Allah's House t o perform Haj j and ` Umrah. Ibn Abi Hat im recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Quraysh prevent ed t he Prophet from praying at t he Ka` bah in AlMasj id Al-Haram, so Allah revealed, ゅ∠ Β͡ ゲミ∇グΑ ラ∠ ヮヤャや ギイ⇒∠ ョ ノレョ リz ョ ユヤ∇ニぺ ∇リョヱぴ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ∠ ∠ z ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びヮヨ∇シや ⊥⊥ (And who are more unj ust t han t hose who forbid t hat Allah's Name be ment ioned (i.e. prayers and invocat ions) in Allah's Masj ids)'' Aft er Allah chast ised t he Jews and Christ ians, He also crit icized t he idolat ors who expelled t he Messenger of Allah and his Companions from Makkah, prevent ing t hem from praying in Al-Masj id Al-Haram, which t hey kept exclusively for t heir idols and polyt heism. Allah said, リハ ラヱぁ ダΑ ∇ユワヱ ヮzャや ユヰよあ バΑ Ιぺ ∇ユヰャ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ グ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ Ιま ロぼべ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ∇ラま ロ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや z ͡ ⊥ ⊥ Β͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ル ミ ョ∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ∇ユワゲん∇ミぺ リム⇒∠ヱ ラヲ⊥ わヨ∇ャや ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ャ ∠ ∠ ボ z ⊥ (And why should not Allah punish t hem while t hey hinder (men) from Al-Masj id Al-Haram, and t hey are not it s guardians None can be it s guardians except Al-Mut t aqun (t he pious), but most of t hem know not .) (8:34) ぶや ギィゅ∠ ョ ∇やヱ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ラ∠ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ヤャ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ぺ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ ∇ろトらェ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ ゲ∇ヘム∇ャゅ͡ ユ͡ ジヘル∠ ヴ∠ハ リΑ͡ ヰ⇒∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ よ ヰ͡ ⊥ ぺ ヤ∠ ∠ ギ͡ セ ゲヨ∇バΑ ゅ∠ ルま - ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ユワ ケゅz ャや ヴ͡ ヱ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ギ͡ カ ⊥ ͡ レ プ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ュゅ∠ ぺヱ ゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ヮヤャや ギイ⇒∠ ョ ∠ ホ∠∠ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ヴ∠ バプ ヮヤャや Ιま ズ∇ガΑ ∇ユャヱ りヲ∠ ゴャや ヴ∠ や¬∠ りヲ∠ダャや ジ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ミz ゎ ヱ ∠ ヤz び リΑ͡ わ∇ヰヨ∇ャや リョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Α ラ∠ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ル ム∠ ぺ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (It is not for t he Mushrikin (polyt heist s), t o maint ain t he Masj ids of Allah while t hey wit ness against t heir own selves of disbelief. The works of such are in vain and in Fire shall t hey abide. The Masj ids of Allah shall be maint ained only by t hose who believe in Allah and t he Last Day; perform t he Salah, and give t he Zakah and fear none but Allah. It is t hey who are on t rue guidance.) (9:17-18) and, ュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや リハ ∇ユミヱぁ タヱ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ユワぴ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ⊥ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ Ι∇ヲャヱ ヮヤエョ ヒヤ∇らΑ ラ∠ ゅプヲ⊥ ∇バョ ン∇ギヰ∇ャや∠ メ ィケ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ z͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ⇔ ム ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ∇ユワヲ⊥ トゎ ラ∠ ∇ユワヲ⊥ ヤ∇バゎ ∇ユャ ∀ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ぽョ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ∠ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽョ ⊥ ゃ∠ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ z ろ レョ ぁ ¬ ジルヱ ∠ レ͡ ぁ ヴ͡ ヮzャや モカ∇ギΒャ ユ∇ヤハ ゲ∇Βピよ ∀ ゲバョ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇ユム∠ Β͡ わプ プ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ⊥ あ ∃ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ りz ∠ z ⊥ あ ら ダ⊥ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ ∇よグバャ ∇やヲ⊥Αゴゎ ∇ヲャ ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ヮわヨ∇ェケ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz レ z ∠ ∠ ヤz ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ び ゅヨΒ͡ぺ ゅよや∠ ハ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ⇔ ャ ∠ ⇔ グ∠ ⊥ ͡ (They are t he ones who disbelieved and hindered you from Al-Masj id-Al-Haram (at Makkah) and det ained t he sacrificial animals, from reaching t heir place of sacrifice. Had t here not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, t hat you may kill t hem and on whose account a sin would have been commit t ed by you wit hout (your) knowledge, t hat Allah might bring int o His mercy whom He wills if t hey (t he believers and t he disbelievers) had been apart , We verily, would have punished t hose of t hem who disbelieved wit h painful t orment ) (48:25). Therefore, Allah said here, ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ヮヤャや ギイ⇒∠ ョ ゲヨ∇バΑ ゅ∠ ルまぴ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ Ιま ズ∇ガΑ ∇ユャヱ りヲ∠ ゴャや ヴ∠ や¬∠ りヲ∠ダャや ュゅ∠ ぺヱ ゲカΙや z ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ミz ゎ ヱ ∠ ヤz ∠ ホ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ x びヮヤャや ∠z (The Masj ids of Allah shall be maint ained only by t hose who believe in Allah and t he Last Day; perform t he Salah, and give t he Zakah and fear none but Allah). Therefore, if t hose believers who follow t he virt ues ment ioned in t he Ayah were prevent ed from at t ending t he Masj id, t hen what cause for dest ruct ion is worse t han t his Maint aining t he Masj ids not only means beaut ifying t hem, but it involves remembering Allah, est ablishing His Shari` ah in t he Masj ids and purifying t hem from t he filt h of Shirk. The Good News that Islam shall prevail Allah said next , びリΒ͡ もべ∠ Ιま べ∠ ヲ⊥カ∇ギΑ ラ∠ ∇ユヰャ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ∠ ヘ͡ カ z ͡ ワ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (It was not fit t ing t hat such should t hemselves ent er t hem (Allah's Masj ids) except in fear). This Ayah means, "Do not allow t hem - t he disbelievers - t o ent er t he Masj ids, except t o sat isfy t he t erms of an armist ice or a t reat y.'' When t he Messenger of Allah conquered Makkah in 9 H, he commanded t hat someone announce at Mina, "Aft er t he current year, no idolat ors shall perform Haj j , and no naked persons shall perform Tawaf around t he House, except for t hose who have a t reat y. In t his case, t he t reat y will be carried t o t he end of it s t erm.'' This Ayah support s t he Ayah, Κプ ザイル ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ゅ∠ ルま ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ヨz ͡ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ほ びや∠ ⇒∠ ∇ユヰョゅ∠ ギ∇バよ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ボΑ グ ワ ͡ ͡ ハ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ∠ ∠ (O you who believe! (in Allah's Oneness and in His Messenger Muhammad )! Verily, t he Mushrikun (idolat ors) are Naj asun (impure). So let t hem not come near Al-Masj id-Al-Haram (at Makkah) aft er t his year) (9:28). It was also said t hat t his Ayah (2:114) carries t he good news for t he Muslims from Allah t hat He will allow t hem t o t ake over Al-Masj id Al-Haram and all t he Masj ids and disgrace t he idolat ors. Soon aft er, t he Ayah indicat ed, no idolat or shall ent er t he House, except out of fear of being seized or killed, unless he embraces Islam. Allah fulfilled t his promise and lat er decreed t hat idolat ors not be allowed t o ent er Al-Masj id Al-Haram. The Messenger of Allah st at ed t hat no t wo religions should remain in t he Arabian Peninsula, and t he Jews and Christ ians should be expelled from it , all praise is due t o Allah. All of t hese rulings ensure maint aining t he honor of Al-Masj id Al-Haram and purifying t he area where Allah sent His Messenger t o warn and bring good news t o all of mankind, may Allah's peace and blessings be on him. This Ayah also described t he disgrace t hat t he disbelievers earn in t his life, and t hat t he punishment comes in a form comparable t o t he deed. Just as t hey prevent ed t he believers from ent ering Al-Masj id Al-Haram, t hey were prevent ed from ent ering it in t urn. Just as t hey expelled t he believers from Makkah, t hey were in t urn expelled from Makkah, び∀ Β͡ ∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ∇ユヰャヱぴ ユ ヌハ ゆ グハ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ ⊥ ∠∠ (and t hey will have a great t orment in t he Hereaft er) because t hey breached t he sanct it y of t he House and brought filt h t o it by erect ing idols all around it , invoking ot her t han Allah and performing Tawaf around it while naked, et c. Here it is wort h ment ioning t he Hadit h about seeking refuge from disgrace in t his life and t he t orment of t he Hereaft er. Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Busr bin Art ah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah used t o supplicat e, ゅ∠ ∇ゲィぺヱ ゅ∠ ヤミ ケヲ⊥ ほ∇ャや ヶ͡ ゅレわらホゅ∠ ∇リジ∇ェぺ ユヰヤャや» ル ͡ ∠∠ ヰあ⊥ ͡ ョ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ハ ͡ ∠ z ⊥ z «り∠ カべ∇ャや ゆや∠ ハヱ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ヵ∇ゴカ ∇リョ ゲ͡ ͡ グ∠ ∠ Β ぁ ͡ ͡ ͡ (O Allah! Make our end bet t er in all affairs, and save us from disgrace in t his life and t he t orment of t he Hereaft er.) This Hadit h is Hasan. ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャヱぴ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z͡∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ノシヱ ヮヤャや ラま ヮヤャや ユ ヤハ ∀ ͡ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ z (115. And t o Allah belong t he east and t he west , so wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne). Surely, Allah is Sufficient (for His creat ures' needs), Knowing.) Facing the Qiblah (Direction of the Prayer) This ruling brought comfort t o t he Messenger of Allah and his Companions, who were driven out of Makkah and had t o depart from t he area of Al-Masj id Al-Haram. In Makkah, t he Messenger of Allah used t o pray in t he direct ion of Bayt Al-Maqdis, while t he Ka` bah was bet ween him and t he Qiblah. When t he Messenger migrat ed t o Al-Madinah, he faced Bayt Al-Maqdis for sixt een or sevent een mont hs, and t hen Allah direct ed him t o face Al-Ka` bah in prayer. This is why Allah said, ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャヱぴ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z͡∠ びヮヤャや ͡z (And t o Allah belong t he east and t he west , so wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)). ` Ali bin Abi Talhah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "The first part of t he Qur'an t hat was abrogat ed was about t he Qiblah. When t he Messenger of Allah migrat ed t o Al-Madinah, which was inhabit ed by t he Jews, he was at first commanded t o face Bayt Al-Maqdis. The Jews were happy, and t he Messenger of Allah faced Bayt Al-Maqdis for some t en mont hs. However, t he Messenger of Allah liked t o face t he Qiblah of Ibrahim (Al-Ka` bah at Makkah), and he used t o look t o t he sky and supplicat e. So Allah revealed, び͡ べ∠ ジャや ヶ͡ マヰ∇ィヱ ょヤボゎ ン∠ ル ∇ギホぴ ¬ ヨz プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ (Verily, We have seen t he t urning of your (Muhammad's) face t owards t he heaven) unt il, びロゲ∇トセ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ (t urn your faces (in prayer) in t hat direct ion) (2:144). The Jews were dist urbed by t his development and said, ` What made t hem change t he direct ion of t he Qiblah t hat t hey used t o face' Allah revealed, びゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャ モ⊥ ぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z∂ ホ (Say (O Muhammad ): "To Allah belong bot h, east and t he west '') and, びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (So wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)).'' ` Ikrimah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (So wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)) means, "Allah's direct ion is wherever you face, east or west .'' Muj ahid said t hat , びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (So wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)) means, "Wherever you may be, you have a Qiblah t o face, t hat is, Al-Ka` bah.'' However, it was said t hat Allah sent down t his Ayah before t he order t o face t he Ka` bah. Ibn Jarir said, "Ot hers said t hat t his Ayah was revealed t o t he Messenger of Allah permit t ing t he one praying volunt ary prayers t o face wherever t hey wish in t he east or west , while t raveling, when in fear and when facing t he enemy.'' For inst ance, Ibn ` Umar used t o face what ever direct ion his animal was headed and proclaim t hat t he Messenger of Allah did t he same, explaining t he Ayah, びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (So wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah).'' That Hadit h was also collect ed by Muslim, At -Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i, Ibn Abi Hat im, Ibn Marduwyah, and it s origin is in t he Two Sahihs from Ibn ` Umar and ` Amr bin Rabi` ah wit hout ment ioning t he Ayah. In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Nafi` said t hat whenever Ibn ` Umar was asked about t he prayer during t imes of fear, he used t o describe it and would t hen say, "When t he sense of fear is worse t han t hat , pray while st anding, or while riding, whet her facing t he Qiblah or not .'' Nafi` t hen said, "I t hink Ibn ` Umar ment ioned t hat from t he Prophet .'' It was also said t hat t he Ayah was revealed about t hose who are unable t o find t he correct direct ion of t he Qiblah in t he dark or due t o cloudy skies and, t hus, prayed in a direct ion ot her t han t he Qiblah by mist ake. The Qiblah for the People of Al-Madinah is what is between the East and the West In his Tafsir of t his Ayah (2:115), Al-Hafiz Ibn Marduwyah recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, るレΑ͡ ヨ∇ャや モ∇ワほャ るヤ∇らホ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ » ͡ ∠ ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∀ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ «ベや∠ バ∇ャや モ∇ワぺヱ ュゅz ャや モ∇ワぺヱ ゲ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ゼ ͡ ∠∠ (What is bet ween t he east and t he west is t he Qiblah for t he people of Al-Madinah, Ash-Sham and ` Iraq.) At -Tirmidhi and Ibn Maj ah recorded t his Hadit h wit h t he wording, «る∠∇らホ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ » ヤ͡͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ (What is bet ween t he east and t he west is a Qiblah.) Ibn Jarir said, "The meaning of Allah's st at ement ; び∀ Β͡∠ ノシヱ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ユ ヤハ ∀ ͡ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ (Surely, Allah is Sufficient (for His creat ures' needs), Knowing) is t hat Allah encompasses all His Creat ion by providing t hem wit h sufficient needs and by His generosit y and favor. His st at ement , び∀ Β͡∠ ぴ ユ ヤハ (Knowing) means He is knowledgeable of t heir deeds and not hing escapes His wat ch, nor is He unaware of anyt hing. Rat her, His knowledge encompasses everyt hing.'' ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヮz モ∠ ヮレ⇒∠ ∇らシ や⇔ ∠∠ ヮzャや グガゎや ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ プ ョ ⊥ ャ よ ⊥ ∠ エ ⊥ ギャヱ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ z ャ ホ∠ ノΑ͡ よ - ラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz メヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ ル͡∠ や⇔ ∇ョぺ ヴ∠ ホ や∠ まヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ⊥ ボ∠ ヨz みプ ゲ ∠ ツ∠ ク͡∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz び ラヲ⊥ Βプ ∇リミ ヮャ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (116. And t hey (Jews, Christ ians and pagans) say: Allah has begot t en a son (children or offspring). Glory is t o Him (Exalt ed is He above all t hat t hey associat e wit h Him). Nay, t o Him belongs all t hat is in t he heavens and on eart h, and all are Qanit un t o Him.) (117. The Originat or of t he heavens and t he eart h. When He decrees a mat t er, He only says t o it : "Be! and it is.) Refuting the Claim that Allah has begotten a Son This and t he following Ayat refut e t he Christ ians, may Allah curse t hem, and t heir like among t he Jews and t he Arab idolat ors, who claimed t hat t he angels are Allah's daught ers. Allah refut ed all of t hem in t heir claim t hat He had begot t en a son. Allah said, びヮレ⇒∠ ∇らシぴ ⊥∠ エ ⊥ (Glory is t o Him.) meaning, He is holier and more perfect t han such claim; びチ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヮz モ∠ ぴ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz プ ョ ⊥ャ よ (Nay, t o Him belongs all t hat is in t he heavens and on eart h,) meaning, t he t rut h is not as t he disbelievers claimed, rat her, Allah's is t he kingdom of t he heavens and eart h and what ever and whoever is in, on and bet ween t hem. Allah is t he Supreme Aut horit y in t he heavens and eart h, and He is t he Creat or, Provider and Sust ainer Who decides all t he affairs of t he creat ion as He wills. All creat ures are Allah's servant s and are owned by Him. Therefore, how could one of t hem be His son The son of any being is born out of t wo comparable beings. Allah has no equal or rival sharing His grace and great ness, so how can He have a son when He has no wife Allah said, ∇ユャヱ ギャヱ ヮャ ラヲ⊥ Α ヴz ぺ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ノΑ͡ よぴ ∠∠ ∀ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ム∠ ル∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ギ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ムよ ヲワヱ ¬∇ヴセ z ミ ペヤカヱ るらエ⇒∠ ヮz ∇リムゎ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ タ ⊥ ャ ⊥ ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ユ ヤハ (He is t he Originat or of t he heavens and t he eart h. How can He have children when He has no wife He creat ed all t hings and He is t he Knower of everyt hing) (6:101). - やキま ゅゃ∇Βセ ∇ユわ∇ゃィ ∇ギボャ - やギ∠ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや グガゎや ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⇔∂ ͡ ⇔ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨ z ∠ ∠ z ャ ホ∠ チ∇ケΙや ペゼレ∠ ヱ ヮ∇レョ ラ∇ゲトヘわΑ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや キゅ∠ ゎ ⊥ x ぁ ∠ ゎ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ム∠ - やギ∠ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲヤ͡ や∇ヲハキ ラ∠ - やギワ メゅ∠ イ∇ャや ゲガゎヱ ⇔ ャ∠ ͡ ヨ z ャ ∠ ∠ ぺ ⇔∂ ∠ ⊥ ら͡ ぁ ͡ ∠ ∠ リ∠ ぁ ミ ラ͡ - やギ∠ヱ グガわΑ ラ∠ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲヤ͡ ヴ͡ らレ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ョ モ⊥ ま ⇔ ャ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ぺ ͡ ヨ z ャ ピ∠ Α ョ∠ - やギ∇らハ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヴ͡ へ Ιま チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヴ͡ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ヨ z ゎ z ͡ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz プ ュ∇ヲΑ ͡ Β͡ や∠ ∇ユヰぁミヱ - やギハ ∇ユワギハヱ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ェぺ ∇ギボャ ∠ ∠ ヮ ゎ ¬ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ⇔∂ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ダ ∠ ∠ z び やキ∇ゲプ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ (And t hey say: "The Most Gracious (Allah) has begot t en a son (offspring or children).'' Indeed you have brought fort h (said) a t errible evil t hing. Whereby t he heavens are almost t orn, and t he eart h is split asunder, and t he mount ains fall in ruins. That t hey ascribe a son (or offspring or children) t o t he Most Gracious (Allah). But it is not suit able for (t he maj est y of) t he Most Gracious (Allah) t hat He should beget a son (or offspring or children). There is none in t he heavens and t he eart h but comes unt o t he Most Gracious (Allah) as a servant . Verily, He knows each one of t hem, and has count ed t hem a full count ing. And everyone of t hem will come t o Him alone on t he Day of Resurrect ion (wit hout any helper, or prot ect or or defender)) (19:8895), and, ∇ギャヲ⊥ ∇ユャヱ ∇ギヤΑ ∇ユャ - ギヨz ャや ヮヤャや - ギェぺ ヮzャや ヲワ ∇モホぴ ∠ Α ∠∠ ͡∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ダ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ び ギェぺ やヲ⊥ ミ ヮz ∇リムΑ ∇ユャヱ ∀ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヘ⊥ ⊥ ャ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ (Say: "He is Allah (t he) One, Allah t he Samad (t he Self- Sufficent , upon whom all depend), He beget s not , nor was He begot t en, and t here is none comparable t o Him.'') (112). In t hese Ayat , Allah st at ed t hat He is t he Supreme Mast er Whom t here is no equal or rival, everyt hing and everyone was creat ed by Him, so how can He have a son from among t hem This is why, in t he Tafsir of t his Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Prophet said, ∩∠ ャク ヮャ ∇リムΑ ∇ユャヱ ュキへ リ∇よや ヶ͡ よグミ :ヴ∠ゅ∠ ゎ ぶや メゅ∠ » マ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ レ∠ ∂ ∠ ャ バ∠ ⊥ ∠ ホ ヵゅz ま ヮらΑ͡ ∇ムゎ ゅz ほプ ∩∠ ャク ヮャ ∇リムΑ ∇ユャヱ ヶ͡ ヨわセヱ ∠ Α͡ ⊥ ⊥ グ ∠ ョ∠∠ マ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゅz ぺヱ ∩∠ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ミ ロギΒ͡ ぺ ∇ラぺ ケギ∇ホぺ ゅ∠ ヶあ ぺ ユハ∇ゴΒプ ョ∠∠ ラ ミ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ ハ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ャ ル∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ グガゎぺ ∇ラぺ ヶ͡ ゅエ∇らジプ や⇔ ∠∠ ヶ͡ ヮャ∇ヲボプ ヵゅz ま ヮヨ∇わセ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ル ∠ ⊥ ∠ ギャヱ ャ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ «や⇔ ャヱ ∇ヱぺ るらェゅ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ タ (Allah said, ` The son of Adam has denied Me, and t hat is not his right . He has insult ed Me, and t hat is not his right . As for t he denial of Me, he claimed t hat I am unable t o bring him back as he used t o be (resurrect him). As for his insult ing Me, he claimed t hat I have a son. All praise is due t o Me, it is unbefit t ing t hat I should have a wife or a son.') This Hadit h was recorded by Al-Bukhari. It is recorded in t he Two Sahihs t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ∇ユヰルま :ぶや リョ ヮバヨシ ン⇔ ∠ ヴ∠ハ ゲら∇タぺ ギェぺ ゅ∠» ⊥ z ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ クぺ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ «ユ͡ Β͡ ゅ∠ Αヱ ∇ユヰホコ∇ゲΑ ヲワヱ や⇔ ャヱ ヮャ ラヲ⊥バ∇イΑ ヰ プ バ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ギ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ e(No one is more pat ient when hearing an insult t han Allah. They at t ribut e a son t o Him, yet He st ill gives t hem sust anence and healt h.) Everything is within Allah's Grasp Allah said, びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (all are Qanit un t o Him). Ibn Abi Hat im said t hat Abu Sa` id Al-Ashaj informed t hem t hat Asbat informed t hem from Mut arrif, from ` At iyah, from Ibn ` Abbas who said t hat , びリΒ͡ レ⇒∠ ぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ (Qant in) (2:238) means, t hey pray t o Him. ` Ikrimah and Abu Malik also said t hat , びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (and all are Qanit un t o Him.) means, bound t o Him in servit ude t o Him. Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat Qanit un is sincerit y. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat , びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (all are Qanit un t o Him.) means, "St anding up - before Him - on t he Day of Resurrect ion.'' Also, As-Suddi said t hat , びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (and all are Qanit un t o Him.) means, "Obedient on t he Day of Resurrect ion.'' Khasif said t hat Muj ahid said t hat , びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (and all are Qanit un t o Him. ) means, "Obedient . He says, ` Be a human' and he becomes a human.'' He also said, "(Allah says,) ` Be a donkey' and it becomes a donkey.'' Also, Ibn Abi Naj ih said t hat Muj ahid said t hat , びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (and all are Qanit un t o Him.) means, obedient . Muj ahid also said, "The obedience of t he disbeliever occurs when his shadow prost rat es, while he hat es t hat .'' Muj ahid's st at ement , which Ibn Jarir preferred, combines all t he meanings, and t hat is t hat Qunut means obedience and submission t o Allah. There are t wo cat egories of Qunut : legislat ed and dest ined, for Allah said, ゅ⇔ ∇ヲデ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヴ͡ リ∠ ギイ∇ジΑ ヮヤャ∠ ぴ ハ ∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz プ ョ ⊥⊥ ∠ ͡ z ヱ び メゅ∠ Ιや∠ あ ギピ∇ャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ニヱ ゅ⇔ ∇ゲミヱ ͡ タx ヱ ヱ⊥ ⊥ よ ヰ⊥ ヤ͡ ∠ ワ ∠ ∠ (And unt o Allah (alone) falls in prost rat ion whoever is in t he heavens and t he eart h, willingly or unwillingly, and so do t heir shadows in t he mornings and in t he (lat e) aft ernoons) (13:15). The Meaning of Bad ®299 " Allah said, びチ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ノΑ͡ よぴ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ギ∠ (The Badi` (Originat or) of t he heavens and t he eart h.) which means, He creat ed t hem when not hing resembling t hem exist ed. Muj ahid and As-Suddi said t hat t his is t he linguist ic meaning, for all new mat t ers are called Bid` ah. Muslim recorded t he Messenger of Allah saying, «る∠ ∇ギよ るをギ∇エョ z ミ ラみプ» ハ ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ⊥ モ⊥ z ͡∠ (...every innovat ion (in religion) is a Bid` ah.) There are t wo t ypes of Bid` ah, religious, as ment ioned in t he Hadit h: «る∠ゅ∠ッ るハ∇ギよ z ミヱ るハ∇ギよ るをギ∇エョ z ミ ラみプ» ャ ヤ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ モ⊥ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ⊥ モ⊥ z ͡∠ (...every innovat ion is a Bid` ah and every Bid` ah is heresy.) And t here is a linguist ic Bid` ah, such as t he st at ement of t he Leader of t he fait hful ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab when he gat hered t he Muslims t o pray t he Tarawih prayer in congregat ion (which was also an earlier pract ice of t he Prophet ) and said, "What a good Bid` ah t his is.'' Ibn Jarir said, "Thus t he meaning of t he Ayat (2:116-117) becomes, ` Allah is far more glorious t han t o have had a son, for He is t he Owner of everyt hing t hat is in t he heavens and eart h. All t est ify t o His Oneness and t o t heir submissiveness t o Him. He is t heir Creat or and Maker. Wit hout creat ed precedence, He shaped t he creat ures in t heir current shapes. Allah also bears wit ness t o His servant s t hat Jesus, who some claimed t o be Allah's son, is among t hose who t est ify t o His Oneness. Allah st at ed t hat He creat ed t he heavens and eart h out of not hing and wit hout precedent . Likewise, He creat ed Jesus, t he Messiah, wit h His power and wit hout a fat her.'' This explanat ion from Ibn Jarir, may Allah have mercy upon him, is very good and correct . Allah said, びラヲ⊥ Βプ ∇リミ ヮャ メヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ ルみプ や⇔ ∇ョぺ ヴ∠ ホ や∠ まヱぴ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ヨz ͡∠ ゲ ∠ ツ∠ ク͡∠ (When He decrees a mat t er, He only says t o it : "Be! and it is.) t hus, demonst rat ing His perfect ly complet e abilit y and t remendous aut horit y; if He decides a mat t er, He merely orders it t o, ` Be' and it comes int o exist ence. Similarly, Allah said, び ラヲ⊥ Βプ リ⊥ ヮャ メヲ⊥ Α ラ∠ ゅゃ∇Βセ キや∠ ぺ へ∠ ま ロゲ∇ョぺ べ∠ ルまぴ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ ミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボ∠ ぺ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ケ∠ ク͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ (Verily, His command, when He int ends a t hing, is only t hat He says t o it , "Be! (36:82), and it is.) ∇リミ ヮャ メヲ⊥ ル ラ∠ ロゅ∠ ∇キケぺ へ∠ ま ¬∇ヴゼャ ゅ∠ ャ∇ヲホ ゅ∠ ルまぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボz ぺ ⊥ ル ∠ ∠ ク͡ ∃ ∠ ͡ レ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ び ラヲ⊥ Βプ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ (Verily, Our Word unt o a t hing when We int end it , is only t hat We say unt o it : "Be! (16:40) and, and it is.) び ゲダら∇ャゅ͡ ウ∇ヨヤミ りギェヱ Ιま べ∠ ゲ∇ョぺ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ よ ∃ ∠∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ͡ ル⊥ ∠ ョ∠ (And Our commandment is but one as t he t winkling of an eye) (54:50) So Allah informed us t hat He creat ed Jesus by merely saying, "Be!'' and he was, as Allah willed: リ͡ ヮボヤカ ュキや∠ モんヨミ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ヴ∠ Β͡ モんョ ラまぴ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ハ ジ ハ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ び ラヲ⊥ Βプ リ⊥ ヮャ メゅ∠ z を ゆや∠ ゎ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ ミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ユ⊥ ∃ ゲ⊥ (Verily, t he likeness of ` Isa (Jesus) before Allah is t he likeness of Adam. He creat ed him from dust , t hen (He) said t o him: "Be! and he was) (3:59). べ∠ Β͡ ∇ほゎ ∇ヱぺ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヨヤムΑ Ι∇ヲャ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ レ ゎ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ レ⊥ あ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ホ∠ ∇ユヰャ∇ヲホ モ∇んョ ユ͡ ヤ∇らホ リ͡ リΑグャや メゅ∠ マャグミ ∀ ∠ や∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ あ ヰ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ホ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ るΑ ¬ び ラヲ⊥ ホヲ⊥ ュ∇ヲボャ ろ⇒∠ Γや ゅz Βよ ∇ギホ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ∇ろヰら⇒∠ ゎ ∠ レ͡ Α ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ Α レz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ (118. And t hose who have no knowledge say: "Why does not Allah speak t o us (face t o face) or why does not a sign come t o us'' So said t he people before t hem words of similar import . Their heart s are alike, We have indeed made plain t he signs for people who believe wit h cert aint y.) Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Rafi` bin Huraymilah said t o t he Messenger of Allah , "O Muhammad! If you were t ruly a Messenger from Allah, as you claim, t hen ask Allah t o speak t o us direct ly, so t hat we hear His Speech.'' So Allah revealed, べ∠ Β͡ ∇ほゎ ∇ヱぺ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヨヤムΑ Ι∇ヲャ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ レ ゎ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ レ⊥ あ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ホ∠ び∀ ∠ や∠ るΑ ¬ (And t hose who have no knowledge say: "Why does not Allah speak t o us (face t o face) or why does not a sign come t o us'') Abu Al-` Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qat adah and As-Suddi said t hat it was act ually t he st at ement of t he Arab disbelievers: び∇ユヰャ∇ヲホ モ∇んョ ユ͡ ヤ∇らホ リ͡ リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ マャグミぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ あ ヰ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ グz ∠ ホ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ (So said t he people before t hem words of similar import . ) He said, "These are t he Jews and t he Christ ians.'' What furt her proves t hat t he Arab idolat ors said t he st at ement ment ioned in t he Ayah is t hat Allah said, ヴ∠ ∇ぽル ヴz ェ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∀ ∠ や∠ ∇ユヰ∇ゎ¬べ∠ や∠ まヱぴ ゎ ⊥ わ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ ャ ホ るΑ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ィ ク͡∠ モバ∇イΑ ゑ∇Βェ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヮzャや ヮヤャや モシケ ヴゎヱ⊥ べ∠ モ∇んョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ヤ ͡ z ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ∠ ͡ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∀ ゅ∠ タ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ィぺ リΑ͡ ャや ょΒ͡ Βシ ヮわャゅ∠ ケ ͡ z ∠ ハ ケ ピ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ダ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ シ͡ び ラヱ⊥ ム∇ヨΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ よ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ヨ͡ ギ ギセ ゆ グハヱ (And when t here comes t o t hem a sign (from Allah) t hey say: "We shall not believe unt il we receive t he like of t hat which t he Messengers of Allah had received.'' Allah knows best wit h whom t o place His Message. Humiliat ion and disgrace from Allah and a severe t orment will overt ake t he criminals (polyt heist s and sinners) for t hat which t hey used t o plot .) (6:124) and チ∇ケΙや リョ ゅ∠ ャ ゲイ∇ヘゎ ヴz ェ マャ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ x ∠ ͡ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ わ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ ャ ホ∠ び ゅ⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇レΑ ハ ら∠ (And t hey say: "We shall not believe in you (O Muhammad ), unt il you cause a spring t o gush fort h from t he eart h for us) unt il, びΙヲ⊥ ケ や⇔ ゼよ Ιま ろレ⊥ ∇モワ ヴあ ケ リ⇒∠ ∇らシ ∇モホぴ ⇔ シz ゲ∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ミ ∠ よ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ ⊥ (Say (O Muhammad ): "Glorified (and Exalt ed) be my Lord (Allah) above all t hat evil t hey (polyt heist s) associat e wit h Him ! Am I anyt hing but a man, sent as a Messenger'') (17:90-93) and, ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ メゴル⊥ Ι∇ヲャ ゅ∠ ¬べ∠ ャ ラヲ⊥ ∇ゲΑ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ レ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ∠ ∠ ル∠ ボ͡ ∠ ィ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ホ∠ びゅ∠ よケ ン∠ ル ∇ヱぺ るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや レz ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ (And t hose who expect not a meet ing wit h Us (i. e. t hose who deny t he Day of Resurrect ion and t he life of t he Hereaft er) said: "Why are not t he angels sent down t o us, or why do we not see our Lord'') (25:21) and, ゅヘ⊥ タ ヴ∠ ∇ぽΑ ラ∠ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ¬ン͡ ∇ョや ぁ ミ ギΑ͡ Α ∇モよぴ ⇔ エ⊥ ゎ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ あ ∃ ゲ モ⊥ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ び りゲゼレョ ⇔ ∠ z ∠ぁ (Nay, everyone of t hem desires t hat he should be given pages spread out ) (74:52). There are many ot her Ayat t hat t est ify t o t he disbelief of t he Arab idolat ors, t heir t ransgression, st ubbornness, and t hat t hey asked unnecessary quest ions out of disbelief and arrogance. The st at ement s of t he Arab idolat ors followed t he st at ement s of t he nat ions of t he People of t he Two Script ures and ot her religions before t hem. Allah said, リョ ゅら⇒∠ ミ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ メあ レゎ ラ∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ マャほ∇ジΑぴ ∠ あ ⇔ わ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ゴ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ プ マャク リ͡ ゲら∇ミぺ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ほシ ∇ギボプ ͡ べ∠ ジャや ャ ボ∠ ∠ ͡ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ シ ョ ャ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヨz びりゲ∇ヰィ ヮヤャや ゅ∠ ケぺ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ル͡ ∠ (The People of t he Script ure (Jews) ask you t o cause a book t o descend upon t hem from heaven. Indeed, t hey asked Musa (Moses) for even great er t han t hat , when t hey said: "Show us Allah in public,'') (4:153) and, ヮヤャや ン∠ ル ヴz ェ マャ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ z ゲ∠ わ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ シ ヨ Α ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ びりゲ∇ヰィ ⇔∠ ∠ (And (remember) when you said: "O Musa! We shall never believe in you unt il we see Allah plainly.'') (2:55). Allah's st at ement , び∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ∇ろヰら⇒∠ ゎぴ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ (Their heart s are alike. ) means, t he heart s of t he Arab idolat ors are j ust like t he heart s of t hose before t hem, cont aining disbelief, st ubbornness and inj ust ice. Similarly, Allah said, Ιま メヲ⊥ ケ リあ ∇ユヰヤ∇らホ リ͡ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ ぺ べ∠ マャグミぴ z ͡ ∃ シz ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ グz ゎ∠ ョ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ びヮよ ∇や∇ヲタや∠ ゎぺ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∇イョ ∇ヱぺ ∀ ͡ ⇒∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヲ∠ ∠ ラ レ ∠ ∠ ゲエ シ ャ ホ (Likewise, no Messenger came t o t hose before t hem but t hey said: "A sorcerer or a madman!'' Have t hey (t he people of t he past ) t ransmit t ed t his saying t o t hese (Quraysh pagans)) (51:5253). Allah said next , びラヲ⊥ ホヲ⊥ ュ∇ヲボャ ろ⇒∠ Γや ゅz Βよ ∇ギホぴ ∠ レ͡ Α ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ Α レz ∠ ∠ (We have indeed made plain t he signs for people who believe wit h cert aint y.) meaning, We made t he argument s clear, prooving t he t rut h of t he Messengers, wit h no need of more quest ions or proofs for t hose who believe, follow t he Messengers and comprehend what Allah sent t hem wit h. As for t hose whose heart s and hearing Allah has st amped and whose eyes have been sealed, Allah described t hem: - ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι マよケ るヨヤミ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろボェ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ グ z z ͡ び ユΒ͡Ιや ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヱゲΑ ヴz ェ るΑや¬ ぁ ミ ∇ユヰ∇ゎ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ∠ ャx ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ィ ∠∠ (Truly, t hose, against whom t he Word (wrat h) of your Lord has been j ust ified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come t o t hem, unt il t hey see t he painful t orment ) (10:96-97). ∇リハ モ⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱ や⇔ Α͡ ルヱ や⇔ Β͡ よ ペエ∇ャゅ͡ マ⇒∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ ゅz ͡ぴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゲ グ∠ ∠ ゲ ゼ∠ あ ∠ よ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ルま び ユΒ͡ イ∇ャや ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ ͡ エ∠ ͡ エ ∠ (119. Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad ) wit h t he t rut h (Islam), a bringer of glad t idings (for t hose who believe in what you brought , t hat t hey will ent er Paradise) and a warner (for t hose who disbelieve in what you brought , t hat t hey will ent er t he Hellfire). And you will not be asked about t he dwellers of t he blazing Fire.) Allah's st at ement ; びユΒ͡ イ∇ャや ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ ∇リハ モ⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱぴ ͡ エ∠ ͡ エ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And you will not be asked about t he dwellers of t he blazing Fire.) means, "We shall not ask you about t he disbelief of t hose who rej ect ed you.'' Similarly, Allah said, びゆゅ∠ エ∇ャや ゅレ∇Βヤハヱ ヒ⇒∠ら∇ャや マ∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ぴ ⊥ ジ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヨz みプ (Your dut y is only t o convey (t he Message) and on Us is t he reckoning.) (13:40) び ゲト∇Βジヨよ ユ͡ ∇Βヤハ ろ∇ジャ - ∀ ミ∠ ョ ろル∠ べ∠ ルま ∇ゲミグプぴ ∃ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ヰ ∠∠ ∠ z ゲあ グ⊥ ∠ ぺ ヨz ͡ あ ∠ ∠ (So remind t hem (O Muhammad ) t hem.)(88:21-22) and, you are only one who reminds. You are not a dict at or over ケゅz イよ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ろル∠ べ∠ ヱ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ よ ユヤ∇ハぺ リ∇エz ぴ ∃ ら∠ ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル び ギΒ͡ ヱ フゅ∠ Α リ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ゲミグプ ͡ ハ∠ ⊥ ガ∠ ョ ͡ ¬ ⊥ よ あ ∠ ∠ (We know best what t hey say. And you (O Muhammad ) are not t he one t o force t hem (t o belief). But warn by t he Qur'an; him who fears My t hreat ) (50:45). There are many ot her similar Ayat . The Description of the Prophet in the Tawrah Imam Ahmad recorded ` At a' bin Yasar saying t hat he met ` Abdullah bin ` Amr bin Al-` As and said t o him, "Tell me about t he descript ion of t he Messenger of Allah in t he Torah.'' He said, "Yes, by Allah, he is described by t he Torah wit h t he same charact erist ics t hat he is described wit h in t he Qur'an wit h: ` O Prophet ! We have sent you as a wit ness, a bringer of good news, a warner, and as safe refuge for t he unlet t ered people. You are My servant and Messenger. I have called you t he Mut awakkil (who depends and relies on Allah for each and everyt hing). You are not harsh, nor hard, nor obnoxious in t he bazaars. He does not reward t he evil deed wit h an evil deed. Rat her, he forgives and pardons. Allah will not bring his life t o an end, unt il he st raight ens t he wicked's religion by his hands so t hat t he people proclaim: There is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah. By his hands, Allah will open blind eyes, deaf ears and sealed heart s.''' This was recorded by Al-Bukhari only. ヴz ェ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや Ιヱ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや マレ∠ ヴ∠ ∇ゲ∠ リ∠ヱぴ わ∠ ゲ ダz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ∠ ハ ッ ゎ ャ∠ リゃャヱ ン∠ ヰ∇ャや ヲワ ヮヤャや ン∠ ワ ラま ∇モホ ∇ユヰわヤョ ノらわゎ ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ギ⊥ z ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ z͡ ∠ ͡ z ∠ マャ ゅ∠ ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや リョ ポ¬べ∠ ヵ͡ ャや ギ∇バよ ユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ∇ワぺ ろ∇バらゎや ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ィ グz ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ヲ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Βゎへ リΑ͡ ャや - ゲΒ͡ ル Ιヱ ヶャヱ リ͡ ヮヤャや リョ ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ グz ∃ ダ∠ ∠ ∠ y ͡∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ ヮゎヱΚゎ ペェ ヮ∠ ヲ⊥∇わ∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ͡ ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ ル ヤ Α ∠ わ͡ び ラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱほプ ヮよ ∇ゲヘ∇ムΑ リョ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヱ (120. Never will t he Jews nor t he Christ ians be pleased wit h you (O Muhammad ) t ill you follow t heir religion. Say: "Verily, t he guidance of Allah (i.e. Islamic Monot heism) t hat is t he (only) guidance. And if you (O Muhammad ) were t o follow t heir (Jews and Christ ians) desires aft er what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. t he Qur'an), t hen you would have against Allah neit her any Wali (prot ect or or guardian) nor any helper.) (121. Those t o whom we gave t he Book recit e it as it should be recit ed (Yat lunahu Haqqa Tilawat ihi) t hey are t he ones who believe t herein. And whoso disbelieve in it , t hose are t hey who are t he losers.) Ibn Jarir said, "Allah said, ヴz ェ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや Ιヱ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや マレ∠ ヴ∠ ∇ゲ∠ リ∠ヱぴ わ∠ ゲ ダz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ∠ ハ ッ ゎ ャ∠ び∇ユヰわヤョ ノらわゎ ⊥ ∠ z͡ ∠ ͡ z ∠ (Never will t he Jews nor t he Christ ians be pleased wit h you (O Muhammad ) t ill you follow t heir religion.) meaning, ` The Jews and t he Christ ians will never be happy wit h you, O Muhammad! Therefore, do not seek what pleases or appeases t hem, and st ick t o what pleases Allah by calling t hem t o t he t rut h t hat Allah sent you wit h.' Allah's st at ement , びン∠ ヰ∇ャや ヲワ ヮヤャや ン∠ ワ ラま ∇モホぴ ギ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ギ⊥ z ͡ ⊥ (Say: "Verily, t he guidance of Allah (i.e. Islamic Monot heism) t hat is t he (only) guidance'') emeans, ` Say, O Muhammad , t he guidance of Allah t hat He sent me wit h is t he t rue guidance, meaning t he st raight , perfect and comprehensive religion.''' Qat adah said t hat Allah's st at ement , びン∠ ヰ∇ャや ヲワ ヮヤャや ン∠ ワ ラま ∇モホぴ ギ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ギ⊥ z ͡ ⊥ (Say: "Verily, t he guidance of Allah (i.e. Islamic Monot heism) t hat is t he (only) guidance) is, "A t rue argument t hat Allah t aught Muhammad and his Companions and which t hey used against t he people of misguidance.'' Qat adah said, "We were t old t hat t he Messenger of Allah used t o say, ペエ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ラヲ⊥ゎゅ∠ Α ヶ͡ ョぺ ∇リョ るヘもゅ∠ メや∠ ゎ ゅ∠» あ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヤ͡ ボ⊥ わz ⊥ ͡ ∀ ∠ ͡ デ ⊥ ゴ∠ ャ ゲ∇ョぺ ヶゎ∇ほΑ ヴわェ ∇ユヰヘャゅ∠ ∇リョ ∇ユワぁ ツΑ ゅ∠ ∩∠ Α͡ ワゅ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ カ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ャ リ ゲ͡ ニ «ぶや (There will always be a group of my Ummah fight ing upon t he t rut h, having t he upper hand, not harmed by t heir opponent s, unt il t he decree of Allah (t he Last Hour) comes.) This Hadit h was collect ed in t he Sahih and narrat ed from ` Abdullah bin ` Amr. ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや リョ ポ¬べ∠ ヵ͡ ャや ギ∇バよ ユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ∇ワぺ ろ∇バらゎや リゃャヱぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ィ グz ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ヲ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ∠∠ びゲΒ͡ ル Ιヱ ヶャヱ リ͡ ヮヤャや リョ マャ ゅ∠ ∃ ダ∠ ∠ ∠ y ͡∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ (And if you (O Muhammad ) were t o follow t heir (Jews and Christ ians) desires aft er what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. t he Qur'an), t hen you would have against Allah neit her any Wali (prot ect or or guardian) nor any helper.) This Ayah carries a st ern warning for t he Muslim Ummah against imit at ing t he ways and met hods of t he Jews and Christ ians, aft er t hey have acquired knowledge of t he Qur'an and Sunnah, may Allah grant us refuge from t his behavior. Alt hough t he speech in t his Ayah was direct ed at t he Messenger , t he ruling of which applies t o his ent ire Ummah. The Meaning of Correct Tilawah Allah said, びヮゎヱΚゎ ペェ ヮルヲ⊥∇わΑ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Β∠ へ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ゎ ∠ グz (Those t o whom We gave t he Book. Yat lunahu Haqqan Tilawat ih.) ` Abdur-Razzaq said from Ma` mar, from Qat adah, "They are t he Jews and Christ ians.'' This is t he opinion of ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam, and it was also chosen by Ibn Jarir. Sa` id report ed from Qat adah, "They are t he Companions of t he Messenger of Allah .'' Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat Ibn Mas` ud said, "By He in Whose Hand is my soul! The right Tilawah is allowing what it makes lawful, prohibit ing what it makes unlawful, recit ing it as it was revealed by Allah, not changing t he words from t heir places, and not int erpret ing it wit h ot her t han it s act ual int erpret at ion.'' As-Suddi report ed from Abu Malik from Ibn ` Abbas who said about t his Ayah (2:121): "They make lawful what it allows and t hey prohibit what it makes unlawful, and t hey do not alt er it s wordings.'' ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab said, "They are t hose who when t hey recit e an Ayah t hat ment ions mercy, t hey ask Allah for it , and when t hey recit e an Ayah t hat ment ions t orment , t hey seek refuge wit h Allah from it .'' This meaning was at t ribut ed t o t he Prophet , for when he used t o recit e an Ayah of mercy, he invoked Allah for mercy, and when he recit ed an Ayah of t orment , he sought refuge from it wit h Allah. Allah's st at ement , びヮよ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (t hey are t he ones who believe t herein) explains t he Ayah, びヮゎヱΚゎ ペェ ヮルヲ⊥∇わΑ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Β∠ へ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ゎ ∠ グz (Those t o whom We gave t he Book. Yat lunahu Haqqa Tilawat ihi). These Ayat mean, "Those among t he People of t he Book who perfect ly adhered t o t he Books t hat were revealed t o t he previous Prophet s, will believe in what I have sent you wit h, O Muhammad!'' Allah said in anot her Ayah, メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ モΒ͡ ル͡ や∠ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ∇やヲョゅ∠ ぺ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇ヲャヱぴ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ イ Η ヱ ∠ ケ z ⊥ ホ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ろ∇エゎ リ͡ ヱ ∇ユヰホ∇ヲプ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミΙ ∇ユヰよケ リあ ∇ユヰΒ∠ま ͡ ∠ ョ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ヤ ∠ ∂ ͡ あ z ョ ͡ ャ ͡ びユ͡ ヤィ∇ケぺ ヰ͡⊥ ∠ (And if only t hey had act ed according t o t he Tawrah, t he Inj il, and what has (now) been sent down t o t hem from t heir Lord (t he Qur'an), t hey would surely, have got t en provision from above t hem and from underneat h t heir feet .) (5:66). The Ayah, ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ゎ ヴz ェ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ∇ユわ∇ジャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワほ⇒∠ ∇モホぴ ヨ ボ⊥ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ∠ Α ⊥ び∇ユムよケ リあ ∇ユム∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ モΒ͡ ル͡ や∠ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ⊥ あ z ョ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ イ Η ヱ ∠ ケ z (Say (O Muhammad ) "O People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians)! You have not hing (as regards guidance) t ill you act according t o t he Tawrah, t he Inj il, and what has (now) been sent down t o you from your Lord (t he Qur'an).'') means, "If you adhere t o t he Torah and t he Gospel in t he correct manner, believe in t hem as you should, and believe in t he news t hey carry about Muhammad's prophet hood, his descript ion and t he command t o follow, aid and support him, t hen t his will direct you t o adhere t o t rut h and right eousness in t his life and t he Hereaft er.'' In anot her Ayah, Allah said, ン͡ ャや ヴョΕや ヴらレャや メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ らわΑ リΑ͡ ャやぴ グz z あ ⊥ z ͡ z ∠ シz ∠ バ͡ z ∠ ∠ グz びモΒ͡ ル͡ や∠ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ヴ͡ ∇ユワギレ͡ ゅ⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇ムョ ヮ∠ ヱ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ イ Η ヱ ͡ ケ z プ ⊥ ∠ ハ よ わ ∠ ⊥ ル ギイΑ (Those who follow t he Messenger, t he Prophet who can neit her read nor writ e (i.e. Muhammad ) whom t hey find writ t en wit h t hem in t he Tawrah and t he Inj il.) (7:157) and, ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ラま ∇やヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽゎ Ι ∇ヱぺ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇モホぴ ∠͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz z ͡ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ レ͡ ¬ ⊥ - や⇔ イシ ラゅ∠ ∇クΚャ ラヱぁ ガΑ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ヴ∠∇わΑ や∠ ま ヮヤ∇らホ リ͡ ギz ⊥ ͡ ホ x ͡ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ヤ ⊥ ク͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ Ιヲ⊥ ∇ヘヨャ ゅ∠ よケ ギ∇ハヱ ラゅ∠ ラ͡ べ∠ よケ ラゅ∠ ∇らシ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Αヱ ⇔ バ ∠ ∠ レあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ま レあ ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ び (Say (O Muhammad t o t hem): "Believe in it (t he Qur'an) or do not believe (in it ). Verily, t hose who were given knowledge before it , when it is recit ed t o t hem, fall down on t heir faces in humble prost rat ion. And t hey say: "Glory be t o our Lord! Truly, t he promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.'') (17:107-108). These Ayat indicat e t hat what Allah promised for Muhammad will cert ainly occur. Allah also said, - ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ヮよ ユ⊥ ヮヤ∇らホ リ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Βゎや∠ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ワ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ¬ ∠ グz べ∠ よケ リ͡ ペエ∇ャや ヮz ま ヮよ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ヴ∠∇わΑ や∠ ͡∠ レあ z ョ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ͡ ͡ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ ͡ ∠∠ ヤ ⊥ クまヱ ユ⊥ ゲ∇ィぺ ラヲ⊥ ∇ぽΑ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ - リΒ͡ ヤ∇ジョ ヮヤ∇らホ リ͡ ゅzミ ゅz ま ワ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ レ⊥ ル るゃΒジャや るレジエ∇ャゅ͡ ラぼケ∇ギΑヱ ∇やヱ⊥ らタ ゅ∠ よ リ∇Βゎゲョ ∠ ∠ あ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ よ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ͡ ∠ z z び ラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅz ͡ ∠ ∠ ボ ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ヨョヱ (Those t o whom We gave t he Script ure (i. e. t he Tawrah and t he Inj il) before it , t hey believe in it (t he Qur'an). And when it is recit ed t o t hem, t hey say: "We believe in it . Verily, it is t he t rut h from our Lord. Indeed even before it we have been from t hose who submit t hemselves t o Allah in Islam as Muslims. These will be given t heir reward t wice over, because t hey are pat ient , and repel evil wit h good, and spend (in charit y) out of what We have provided t hem.) (28:52-54) and, ∇ラみプ ∇ユわ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ¬ リΒあ ョΙや∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ヤャ ∇モホヱぴ ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ Βあ y ヱ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グzあ ⊥ ∠ ヒ⇒∠∠ ∇ャや マ∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ∇や∇ヲャヲゎ ラ͡ヱ ∇やヱ∠ わ∇ワや ギボプ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇シぺ ⊥ ヤら ∠ ∠∠ ヨz みプ z∠ ∠ まz ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ びキゅ∠ バ∇ャゅ͡ ∀ Β͡ ∠ ヮヤャや∠ ͡ ら͡ よ ゲ ダよ ⊥ z ヱ (And say t o t hose who were given t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) and t o t hose who are illit erat es (Arab pagans): "Do you (also) submit yourselves (t o Allah in Islam)'' If t hey do, t hey are right ly guided; but if t hey t urn away, your dut y is only t o convey t he Message; and Allah is t he Seer of (His) servant s) (3:20). Allah said, びラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱほプ ヮよ ∇ゲヘ∇ムΑ リョ∠ ぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヱ (And whoever disbelieves in it (t he Qur'an), t hose are t hey who are t he losers), j ust as He said in anot her Ayah, びロギハ∇ヲョ ケゅz ャゅ∠ ゆや∠ ∇ェΙや リョ ヮよ ∇ゲヘ∇ムΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ レ プ ͡ ゴ x ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ (But t hose of t he sect s (Jews, Christ ians and all t he ot her non-Muslim nat ions) t hat rej ect it (t he Qur'an), t he Fire will be t heir promised meet ing place) (11:17). As recorded in t he Sahih, t he Prophet said, ログワ ∇リョ ギェぺ ヶ͡ ノヨ∇ジΑ ゅ∠ ロギΒよ ヶ͡ ∇ヘル ヵ͡ ャや∠ » ͡͡ ͡ ∀ ∠ ∠ よ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ジ ∠ グz ヱ ゅzま ヶ͡ リョ∇ぽΑ ゅ∠ z を ヶルや∠ ∇ダル ゅ∠ヱ ヵキヲ⊥ Α るョほ∇ャや ャ͡ よ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ャ ユ⊥ x ͡ ゲ ∠ ャ∠ x ͡ ヰ∠ ͡ z ⊥ «ケゅz ャや モカキ レ ∠∠∠ (By He in Whose Hand is my soul! There is no member of t his Ummah (mankind and Jinns), Jew or a Christ ian, who hears of me, yet does not believe in me, but will ent er t he Fire.) ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヴ͡ ヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや モΑ͡ ゲ∇シま ヴ͡ ら⇒∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz わ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ¬∠ ͡ レ∠ Α ゅ⇔ ∇ヲΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゎや∠ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∇ユムわ∇ヤz プ ヴあ ∠∠ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ョ ∠ ボz ヱ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ツ∠ ルぺヱ ⊥ ∠∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ モら∇ボΑ Ιヱ ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ザ∇ヘル リ∠ ∀ ∇ヘ∠ ン͡ ∇イゎ Ι ヰ͡ ⊥∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ゃ∠ ∃ z ハ ザル ゴ ∠ z び ラヱゲダレ⊥ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ∠ ゅ∠ バヘレ∠ Ιヱ ∀ ∇ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ Α ⊥ ∠ ∠ るバ ヘセ ヰ⊥ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ メ ハ (122. O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I best owed upon you and t hat I preferred you over t he nat ions).) (123. And fear t he Day (of Judgement ) when no person shall avail anot her, nor shall compensat ion be accept ed from him, nor shall int ercession be of use t o him, nor shall t hey be helped.) We ment ioned a similar Ayah at t he beginning of t his Surah, and it is ment ioned here t o emphisize t he import ance of following t he Ummi Prophet and Messenger, who is described for t he People of t he Script ures in t heir Books by his charact erist ics, name, t he good news about him and t he descript ion of his Ummah. Allah warned t hem against concealing t his informat ion, which is among t he favors t hat Allah grant ed t hem. Allah also commanded t hem t o remember t heir daily life and t heir religious affairs and how He blessed t hem. They should not envy t heir cousins, t he Arabs, for what Allah has given t hem, t he Final Messenger of Allah being an Arab. Envy should not incit e t hem t o oppose or deny t he Prophet or refrain from following him, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him unt il t he Day of Judgment . ヴあ ま メゅ∠ リヰヨゎほプ ろ⇒∠ ヤムよ ヮぁ ケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠わ∇よや クまヱぴ ル͡ ∠ ホ z ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡∠ メゅ∠ Α Ι メゅ∠ ヴ͡ Αケク リ͡ ヱ メゅ∠ ゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ま サゅz ヤ͡ マヤバ⇒∠ ⊥ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ わz あ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ホ ョ ョ͡ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ⊥͡ ィ び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ヵ͡ ∇ヰハ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ギ ∠ (124. And (remember) when t he Lord of Ibrahim (Abraham) t ried him wit h (cert ain) commands, which he fulfilled. He (Allah) said (t o him), "Verily, I am going t o make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (t o follow you).'' (Ibrahim) said, "And of my offspring (t o make leaders).'' (Allah) said, "My covenant (prophet hood) includes not Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers).'') Ibrahim Al-Khalil was an Imam for the People Allah is informing us of t he honor of Ibrahim Al-Khalil, who He made an Imam for t he people, and a model t o be imit at ed, because of t he way he conduct ed himself and adhered t o Tawhid. This honor was given t o Prophet Ibrahim when he adhered t o Allah's decisions and prohibit ions. This is why Allah said, びろ⇒∠ ヤムよ ヮぁ ケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠わ∇よや クまヱぴ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡∠ (And (remember) when t he Lord of Ibrahim (i.e., Allah) t ried him wit h (cert ain) commands). This Ayah means, O Muhammad! Remind t he idolat ors and t he People of t he Script ures, who pret end t o be followers of t he religion of Ibrahim, while in realit y t hey do not follow it , while you, O Muhammad, and your followers are t he t rue followers of his religion; remind t hem of t he commands and prohibit ions t hat Allah t est ed Ibrahim wit h. びリヰヨゎほプぴ z ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ (which he fulfilled.) indicat ing t hat Ibrahim implement ed all of Allah's orders. Allah said in anot her Ayah, び ヴz ヱ ン͡ ャや ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よまヱぴ プ∠ グz ∠ ワ∠ ͡∠ (And of Ibrahim (Abraham) who fulfilled (or conveyed) all t hat (Allah ordered him t o do or convey)) (53:37) meaning, he was t rut hful and he was obedient t o Allah's legislat ion. Also, Allah said, リョ マΑ ∇ユャヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ヮヤャ ゅ⇔ レ⇒∠ るョぺ ラゅ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラまぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ヘ レ∠ ͡ z͡ わ͡ ホ ⇔ z ⊥ ∠ ミ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ z ͡ ヴ∠ま ロや∠ ワヱ ヮ⇒∠ わ∇ィや ヮヨバ∇ルΙ やゲ͡ ゅ∠ - リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ャ͡ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⇔ ミ セ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ヮルまヱ るレジェ ゅ∠ ∇ルギ∇ャや ヴ͡ ヮ⇒∠ ∇Βゎや¬∠ - ユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β ぁ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ラぺ マ∇Βャま べ∠ ∇Βェ∇ヱぺ z を - リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや リヨャ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ ∠ エ͡ ダ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ び リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま るヤョ ∇ノらゎや ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヘ レ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ z͡ ͡ z (Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah (or a nat ion), obedient t o Allah, Hanif (i.e. t o worship none but Allah), and he was not one of t hose who were Al-Mushrikin (polyt heist s), (He was) t hankful for His (Allah's) favors. He (Allah) chose him and guided him t o a st raight pat h. And We gave him good in t his world, and in t he Hereaft er he shall be of t he right eous. Then, We have sent t he revelat ion t o you (O Muhammad saying): "Follow t he religion of Ibrahim Hanif (Islamic Monot heism t o worship none but Allah) and he was not of t he Mushrikin.) (16:120-123) ゅ⇔ Α͡ ユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ヴ∠ま ヴあ ケ ヴ͡ や∠ ワ ヴ͡ ルま ∇モホぴ レ キ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ よ∠ ル ギ∠ レz ͡ ⊥ び リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ユΒ͡ や∠ ∇よま るヤョ ゅ⇔ Βホ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヘ レ∠ ∠ ワ ゲ ͡ ∠ zあ ヨ∠ ͡ (Say (O Muhammad ): "Truly, my Lord has guided me t o a st raight pat h, a right religion, t he religion of Ibrahim, Hanifan, and Ibrahim (t o worship none but Allah, alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin.'') (6:161) and, ラゅ∠ リ͡ ャヱ ゅ6 ルや∠ ∇ダル Ιヱ ゅ6 ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ミ ム∠∠ Β͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ ∠ Αキ ヰΑ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ ヴ∠∇ヱ∠ ラま - リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ ヤ∇ジョ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ャ ぺ z ͡ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヨ͡ ぁ ヘ レ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヴらレャや や∠ ⇒∠ ヱ ロヲ⊥ らゎや リΑ͡ ヤャ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よみよ サゅz ャや ∠ グz ヱ ぁ ͡ z グ ワ∠ ⊥ バ∠ z ∠ グz∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡͡ ͡ レ び リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ヴャヱ ヮヤャや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ぁ ͡∠ ⊥ z ヱ レ∠ ¬ (Ibrahim was neit her a Jew nor a Christ ian, but he was a t rue Muslim Hanifan (Islamic Monot heism t o worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin. Verily, among mankind who have t he best claim t o Ibrahim are t hose who followed him, and t his Prophet (Muhammad ) and t hose who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is t he Wali (Prot ect or and Helper) of t he believers) (3:67-68). Allah said, びろ⇒∠ ヤムよぴ ͡ ヨ͡ ∠ ͡ (wit h Kalimat (words)) which means, "Laws, commandment s and prohibit ions.'' ` Words' as ment ioned here, somet imes refers t o what Allah has willed, such as Allah's st at ement about Maryam, リョ ∇ろルゅ∠ ヱ ヮらわミヱ ゅ∠ よケ ろ⇒∠ ヤムよ ∇ろホギタヱぴ ∠͡ ∠ ミ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヰz ∠ ͡ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ びリΒ͡ レ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ わ͡ ボ (And she t est ified t o t he t rut h of t he Words of her Lord, and (also believed in) His Script ures, and she was of t he Qanit in (i.e. obedient t o Allah)) (66:12). "Words'' also refers t o Allah's Law, such as Allah's st at ement , びΙ∇ギハヱ ゅホ∇ギタ マよケ るヨヤミ ∇ろヨゎヱぴ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ͡ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ z ∠ ∠ (And t he Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in t rut h and in j ust ice) (6:115) meaning, His legislat ion. "Words'' also means t rut hful news, or a j ust commandment or prohibit ion. For inst ance, Allah said, びリヰヨゎほプ ろ⇒∠ ヤムよ ヮぁ ケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠わ∇よや クまヱぴ z ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡∠ (And (remember) when t he Lord of Ibrahim t ried him wit h (cert ain) Words (commands), which he fulfilled) meaning, he adhered t o t hem, Allah said, びゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ま サゅz ヤ͡ マヤバ⇒∠ ヴあ まぴ ョ ョ͡ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ⊥͡ ィ ル͡ ("Verily, I am going t o make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (t o follow you).'') as a reward for Ibrahim's good deeds, adhering t o t he commandment s and avoiding t he prohibit ions. This is why Allah made Ibrahim a role model for t he people, and an Imam whose conduct and pat h are imit at ed and followed. What were the Words that Ibrahim was tested with There is a difference of opinion over t he words t hat Allah t est ed Ibrahim wit h. There are several opinions at t ribut ed t o Ibn ` Abbas. For inst ance, ` Abdur-Razzaq said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Allah t est ed him wit h t he rit uals (of Haj j ).'' Abu Ishaq report ed t he same. ` Abdur-Razzaq also narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , びろ⇒∠ ヤムよ ヮぁ ケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠わ∇よや クまヱぴ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡∠ (And (remember) when t he Lord of Ibrahim (Abraham) (i.e., Allah) t ried him wit h (cert ain) commands) means, "Allah t est ed him wit h Taharah (purit y, ablut ion): five on t he head and five on t he body. As for t he head, t hey are cut t ing t he must ache, rinsing t he mout h, inhaling and discarding wat er, using Siwak and part ing t he hair. As for t he body, t hey are t rimming t he nails, shaving t he pubic hair, circumcision and plucking under t he arm and washing wit h wat er aft er answering t he call of nat ure.'' Ibn Abi Hat im said, "A similar st at ement was also report ed from Sa` id bin Al-Musayyib, Muj ahid, Ash-Sha` bi, An-Nakha` i, Abu Salih, Abu Al-Jald, and so fort h.'' There is a similar st at ement t hat Imam Muslim narrat ed from ` A'ishah who said t hat Allah's Messenger said, るΒ∇エヤャや ¬ゅ∠ ∇ハまヱ ゆケゅz ャや ゾホ :りゲ∇トヘ∇ャや リョ ∀ ∇ゼ∠ » ͡ ∠ あ ⊥ ヘ ͡∠ ͡ ͡ ゼ ぁ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ ハ モ∇ジビヱ ケゅ∠ ∇ニほ∇ャや ゾホヱ ¬ゅ∠ ∇ャや ベゅ∠ ∇レわ∇シや∠ ポや∠ ジャや∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヘ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨ ⊥ ゼ ͡ ヱ ⊥ ヲあ ヱ ソゅ∠ わ∇ルや∠ るルゅ∠ ∇ャや ペ∇ヤェヱ テ∇よみ∇ャや ブ∇わルヱ ユィや∠ ら∇ャや ⊥ ボ͡ ヱ ͡ ∠ バ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ゲ∠ «る∠ ヨ∇ツヨ∇ャや ラヲ⊥ ゎ ∇ラぺ ゅzま りゲセゅ∠ ∇ャや ろΒ͡ ルヱ ¬ゅヨ∇ャや ツ∠ ∠ ∠ ム∠ ∠ ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ バ ⊥ ジ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ (Ten are among t he Fit rah (inst inct , nat ural const it ut ion): t rimming t he must ache, growing t he beard, using Siwak, inhaling and t hen exhaling wat er (in ablut ion), cut t ing t he nails, washing bet ween t he fingers (in ablut ion), plucking t he underarm hair, shaving t he pubic hair, washing wit h wat er aft er answering t he call of nat ure, (and I forgot t he t ent h, I t hink it was) rinsing t he mout h (in ablut ion).) The Two Sahihs recorded Abu Hurayrah saying t hat t he Prophet said, ゾホヱ キや∠ ∇エ͡ ∇シゅ∇ャや∠ ラゅ∠ ガ∇ャや :∀ ∇ヨ∠ りゲ∇トヘ∇ャや» ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ギ わ ヱ ⊥ わ͡ ザ カ ⊥∠ ͡ «テ∇よみ∇ャや ブ∇わルヱ ケゅ∠ ∇ニほ∇ャや ユΒ͡∇ボゎヱ ゆケゅz ャや ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ヘ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ゼ (Five are among t he act s of Fit rah: circumcision, shaving t he pubic hair, t rimming t he must ache, cut t ing t he nails and plucking t he underarm hair.) This is t he wording wit h Muslim. Muhammad bin Ishaq report d t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "The words t hat Allah t est ed Ibrahim wit h, and t hat he implement ed were: abandoning his (disbelieving) people when Allah commanded him t o do so, disput ing wit h Nimrod (king of Babylon) about Allah, being pat ient when he was t hrown in t he fire (alt hough t his was ext remely t raumat ic) migrat ing from his homeland when Allah commanded him t o do so, pat ience wit h t he monet ary and mat erial demands of host ing guest s by Allah's command, and Allah's order for him t o slaught er his son. When Allah t est ed Ibrahim wit h t hese words, and he was ready for t he maj or t est , Allah said t o him, びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆゲャ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ メゅ∠ ∇ユヤ∇シぺぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ ("Submit (be a Muslim)!'' He said, "I have submit t ed myself (as a Muslim) t o t he Lord of all t hat exist s. '') (2:131) alt hough t his meant defying and being apart from t he people.'' The Unjust do not qualify for Allah's Promise Allah said t hat Ibrahim said, びヴ͡ Αケク リ͡ ヱぴ わ∠ あ ⊥ ョ∠ (And of my offspring (t o make leaders)) and Allah replied, びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ヵ͡ ∇ヰハ メゅ∠ Α Ιぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ギ ∠ ⊥ レ∠ ∠ (My covenant (prophet hood) includes not Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers)). When Allah made Ibrahim an Imam (Leader for t he fait hful), he asked Allah t hat Imams t hereaft er be chosen from his offspring. Allah accept ed his supplicat ion, but t old him t hat t here will be unj ust people among his offspring and t hey will not benefit from Allah's promise. Thus, t hey will neit her become Imams nor be imit at ed (for t hey will not be right eous). The proof t hat Ibrahim's supplicat ion t o Allah was accept ed is t hat Allah said in Surat Al-` Ankabut (29:27), びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや∠ ∠ ヲらレャや ヮわΑケク ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィヱぴ ∠ わ͡ ヱ りz ⊥ ぁ ͡ ͡ z あ ⊥ プ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And We ordained among his offspring prophet hood and t he Book). Hence, every Prophet whom Allah sent aft er Ibrahim were from among his offspring, and every Book t hat Allah revealed was t o t hem. As for Allah's st at ement , びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ヵ͡ ∇ヰハ メゅ∠ Α Ι メゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ギ ∠ ⊥ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ((Allah) said, "My covenant (prophet hood) includes not Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers). '') Allah ment ioned t hat t here are unj ust people among t he offspring of Ibrahim, and t hey will not benefit from Allah's promise, nor would t hey be ent rust ed wit h anyt hing, even t hough t hey are among t he children of Allah's Khalil (int imat e friend, Prophet Abraham). There will also be t hose who do good among t he children of Ibrahim, and t hese it is who will benefit from Ibrahim's supplicat ion. Ibn Jarir said t hat t his Ayah indicat ed t hat t he unj ust shall not be Imams for t he people. Moreover, t he Ayah informed Ibrahim t hat t here will be unj ust people among his offspring. Also, Ibn Khuwayz Mindad Al-Maliki said, "The unj ust person does not qualify t o be a Khalifah, a ruler, one who gives religious verdict s, a wit ness, or even a narrat or (of Hadit hs).'' リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ゅレ∇ョぺヱ サゅz ヤあ るよゅ∠ ョ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ∇クまヱぴ ョ グ͡ z ヱ ⇔ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ⇔ ∠ ん∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ びヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz (125. And (remember) when We made t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safet y. And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (or t he st one on which Ibrahim as a place) The Virtue of Allah's House Al-` Awfi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on Allah's st at ement , びサゅz ヤあ るよゅ∠ ョ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ∇クまヱぴ ͡ レ ャ ⇔ ∠ ん∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ (And (remember) when We made t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind) "They do not remain in t he House, t hey only visit it and ret urn t o t heir homes, and t hen visit it again.'' Also, Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi narrat ed from Ar-Rabi` bin Anas from Abu Al` Aliyah who said t hat , びゅレ∇ョぺヱ サゅz ヤあ るよゅ∠ ョ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ∇クまヱぴ ⇔ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ⇔ ∠ ん∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ (And (remember) when We made t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safet y) means, "Safe from enemies and armed conflict . During t he t ime of Jahiliyyah, t he people were oft en vict ims of raids and kidnapping, while t he people in t he area surrounding it (Al-Masj id Al-Haram) were safe and not subj ect t o kidnapping.'' Also, Muj ahid, ` At a', As-Suddi, Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas were report ed t o have said t hat t he Ayah (2:125) means, "Whoever ent ers it shall be safe.'' This Ayah indicat es t hat Allah honored t he Sacred House, which Allah made as a safe refuge and safe haven. Therefore, t he souls are eager, but never bored, t o conduct short visit s t o t he House, even every year. This is because Allah accept ed t he supplicat ion of His Khalil, Ibrahim, when he asked Allah t o make t he heart s of people eager t o visit t he House. Ibrahim said (14:40), び¬べ∠ キ ∇モらボゎヱ ゅ∠ よケぴ ͡ ハ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ レz ∠ (Our Lord! And accept my invocat ion). Allah described the House as a safe resort and refuge, for those who visit it are safe, even if they had committed acts of evil. This honor comes from the honor of the person who built it first, Khalil Ar-Rahman, just as Allah said, ヴ͡ ∇ポゲ∇ゼゎ Ι ラ∠ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ラゅ∠ ョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よΗ ゅ∠ ∇ぺヲよ ∇クまヱぴ よ ͡ ⊥ z ぺ ͡ ∠ ∠ ム∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ル z ∠ ͡∠ びゅゃ∇Βセ ⇔ ∠ (And (remember) when We showed Ibrahim t he sit e of t he (Sacred) House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah) (saying): "Associat e not anyt hing (in worship) wit h Me...'') (22:26) and, ゅミ∠ ゅ∠ ョ るムらよ ン͡ ヤャ サゅz ヤ͡ ノッヱ ろ∇Βよ メヱぺ ラまぴ ⇔ ケ ら⊥ ∠ z ∠ ͡ グz∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ∠ z ∠ z ͡ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ ∀ ⇒∠ ⇒あ ∠ ∀ ⇒∠ や∠ ヮΒ͡ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワヱ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ボz ろ レ Βよ ろ Α ¬ ͡ プ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ギ⊥ ∠ びゅレ͡ や∠ ラゅ∠ ヮヤカキ リ∠ ヱ ⇔ ョ ¬ ∠ ミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (Verily, t he first House (of worship) appoint ed for mankind was t hat at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-` Alamin (mankind and Jinn). In it are manifest signs (for example), t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim; whosoever ent ers it , he at t ains securit y) (3:96-97). The last honorable Ayah emphasized t he honor of Ibrahim's Maqam, and t he inst ruct ion t o pray next t o it , びヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz ョ グ͡ z ヱ (And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer). The Maqam of Ibrahim Sufyan At h-Thawri report ed t hat Sa` id bin Jubayr comment ed on t he Ayah, びヴ6ダョ ユΒワゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz ョ グ͡ z ヱ (And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer) "The st one (Maqam) is t he st anding place of Ibrahim, Allah's Prophet , and a mercy from Allah. Ibrahim st ood on t he st one, while Isma` il was handing him t he st ones (const ruct ing t he Ka` bah).''As-Suddi said, "The Maqam of Ibrahim is a st one which Isma` il's wife put under Ibrahim's feet when washing his head." Al-Qurt ubi ment ioned t his, but he considered it unaut hent ic, alt hough ot hers gave it prefrence, Ar-Razi report ed it in his Tafsir from Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qat adah, and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Ibn Abi Hat im report ed t hat Jabir, describing t he Haj j (pilgrimage) of t he Prophet said, "When t he Prophet performed Tawaf, ` Umar asked him, ` Is t his t he Maqam of our fat her' He said, ` Yes.' ` Umar said, ` Should we t ake it a place of prayer' So Allah revealed, びヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz ョ グ͡ z ヱ (And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer.'') Al-Bukhari said, "Chapt er: Allah's st at ement , びヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz ョ グ͡ z ヱ (And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer) meaning, t hey ret urn t o it repeat edly.'' He t hen narrat ed t hat Anas bin Malik said t hat ` Umar bin AlKhat t ab said, "I agreed wit h my Lord, or my Lord agreed wit h me, regarding t hree mat t ers. I said, ` O Messenger of Allah! I wish you t ake t he Maqam of Ibrahim a place for prayer.' The Ayah, びヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz ョ グ͡ z ヱ (And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham)) was revealed. I also said, ` O Messenger of Allah! The right eous and t he wicked ent er your house. I wish you would command t he Mot hers of t he believers (t he Prophet 's wives) t o wear Hij ab. Allah sent down t he Ayah t hat required t he Hij ab. And when I knew t hat t he Prophet was angry wit h some of his wives, I came t o t hem and said, ` Eit her you st op what you are doing, or Allah will endow His Messenger wit h bet t er women t han you are.' I advised one of his wives and she said t o me, ` O ` Umar! Does t he Messenger of Allah not know how t o advise his wives, so t hat you have t o do t he j ob inst ead of him' Allah t hen revealed, やゲ∇Βカ ゅィ∠ ∇コぺ ヮャギ∇らΑ ラ∠ リム∠ ヤ∠ ラ͡ ヮぁ ケ ヴ∠ ハぴ ⇔ ∠ ⇔ ヱ ∠ ⊥ ∠͡ ⊥ ぺ z ⊥ ボzデ ま ⊥ よ∠ ジ∠ びろ⇒∠ ヤ∇ジョ z ムレあ ∃ ヨ͡ ⊥ リ⊥ ョ (It may be if he divorced you (all) t hat his Lord will give him inst ead of you, wives bet t er t han you, Muslims (who submit t o Allah)).'' (66:5) Also, Ibn Jarir narrat ed t hat Jabir said, "Aft er t he Messenger of Allah kissed t he Black St one, he went around t he house t hree t imes in a fast pace and four t imes in a slow pace. He t hen went t o Maqam of Ibrahim, wit h it bet ween him and t he House, and prayed t wo Rak` ahs.'' This is part of t he long Hadit h t hat Muslim recorded in Sahih. Al-Bukhari recorded t hat ` Amr bin Dinar said t hat he heard Ibn ` Umar say, "The Messenger of Allah performed Tawaf around t he House seven t imes and t hen prayed t wo Rak` ahs behind t he Maqam.'' All t hese t ext s indicat e t hat t he Maqam is t he st one t hat Ibrahim was st anding on while building t he House. As t he House's walls became higher, Isma` il brought his fat her a st one, so t hat he could st and on it , while Isma` il handed him t he st ones. Ibrahim would place t he st ones on t he wall, and whenever he finished one side, he would move t o t he next side, t o complet e t he building all around. Ibrahim kept repeat ing t his unt il he finished building t he House, as we will describe when we explain t he st ory of Ibrahim and Isma` il and how t hey built t he House, as narrat ed from Ibn ` Abbas and collect ed by Al-Bukhari. Ibrahim's foot print s were st ill visible in t he st one, and t he Arabs knew t his fact during t he t ime of Jahiliyyah. This is why Abu Talib said in his poem known as ` Al-Lamiyyah', "And Ibrahim's foot print wit h his bare feet on t he st one is st ill visible.'' The Muslims also saw Ibrahim's foot print s on t he st one, as Anas bin Malik said, "I saw t he Maqam wit h t he print of Ibrahim's t oes and feet st ill visible in it , but t he foot print s dissipat ed because of t he people rubbing t he st one wit h t heir hands.'' Earlier, t he Maqam was placed close t o t he Ka` bah's wall. In t he present t ime, t he Maqam is placed next t o Al-Hij r on t he right side of t hose ent ering t hrough t he door. When Ibrahim finished building t he House, he placed t he st one next t o t he wall of Al-Ka` bah. Or, when t he House was finished being built , Ibrahim j ust left t he st one where it was last st anding, and he was commanded t o pray next t o t he st one when he finished t he Tawaf (circumambulat ing). It is underst andable t hat t he Maqam of Ibrahim would st and where t he building of t he House ended. The Leader of t he fait hful ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab, one of t he Four Right ly Guided Caliphs whom we were commanded t o emulat e, moved t he st one away from t he Ka` bah's wall during his reign. ` Umar is one of t he t wo men, whom t he Messenger of Allah described when he said, «ゲ∠ ハヱ ゲ∇ムよ ヶ͡ ぺ ヵ͡ ∇バよ ∇リョ リ∇Αグヤャゅ͡ やヱ⊥ わ∇ホや» ヨ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ よ∠ ギ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ z よ ギ∠ (Imit at e t he t wo men who will come aft er me: Abu Bakr and ` Umar.) ` Umar was also t he person whom t he Qur'an agreed wit h regarding praying next t o Maqam of Ibrahim. This is why none among t he Companions rej ect ed it when he moved it . ` Abdur-Razzaq report ed from Ibn Jurayj from ` At a', "` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab moved t he Maqam back.'' Also, ` Abdur-Razzaq narrat ed t hat Muj ahid said t hat ` Umar was t he first person who moved t he Maqam back t o where it is now st anding.'' Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr, Ahmad bin ` Ali bin AlHusayn Al-Bayhaqi recorded ` A'ishah saying, "During t he t ime of t he Messenger of Allah and Abu Bakr, t he Maqam was right next t o t he House. ` Umar moved t he Maqam during his reign.'' This Hadit h has an aut hent ic chain of narrat ion. i リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ゅレ∇ョぺヱ サゅz ヤあ るよゅ∠ ョ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ∇クまヱぴ ョ グ͡ z ヱ ⇔ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ⇔ ∠ ん∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠ま べ∠ ∇ギヰハヱ ヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ル ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz リΒ͡ ム⇒∠ ∇ャや∠ リΒ͡ もべz ヤ͡ ヴわ∇Βよ や∠ ヰデ ラ∠ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ∠ ヘ͡ バ ヱ ∠ ヘ͡ ト ャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲあ ∠ ぺ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま メゅ∠ ∇クまヱ - キヲ⊥ ジャや ノミゲャや∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ ͡∠ ͡ イぁ ͡ z ぁ ヱ リョや∠ ∇リョ れゲヨんャや リョ ヮヤ∇ワぺ ∇ベコ∇ケや∠ ゅ⇔ ョへ や⇔ ∠∠ や∠ ⇒∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヱ レ͡ ギヤよ グ ワ ヮバあ ョほプ ゲヘミ リ∠ ヱ メゅ∠ ゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ∇レョ ⊥ ⊥ わ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ヰ ͡ ゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ザ∇ゃよヱ ケゅz ャや ゆや∠ ハ ヴ∠ま ロゲト∇ッぺ z を ΚΒ͡ホ ⊥ ダ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ グ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヤ∠ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや リョ ギハや∠ ボ∇ャや ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ノプ∇ゲΑ ∇クまヱ ⊥ バ ヨ ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヲ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ゅ∠ よケ - ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ろル∠ マルま べz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケ レz ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ マャ るヨヤ∇ジョ るョぺ べ∠ わΑケク リ͡ ヱ マャ リ∇Βヨヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ͡ ぁ ⇔ z ⊥ レ͡ z あ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ ゆやz わャや ろル∠ マルま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇ょゎヱ ゅ∠ ムシゅ∠ ョ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ヲz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ レ∠ ͡ レ∠ ルケぺヱ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ⊥ ェz (125. And We commanded Ibrahim (Abraham) and Isma` il (Ishmael) t hat t hey should purify My House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah) for t hose who are circumambulat ing it , or st aying (I` t ikaf), or bowing or prost rat ing t hemselves (t here, in prayer).) (126. And (remember) when Ibrahim said, "My Lord, make t his cit y (Makkah) a place of securit y and provide it s people wit h fruit s, such of t hem as believe in Allah and t he Last Day.'' He (Allah) answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in cont ent ment for a while, t hen I shall compel him t o t he t orment of t he Fire, and worst indeed is t hat dest inat ion!'') (127. And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Isma` il were raising t he foundat ions of t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah), (saying), "Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us. Verily, You are t he Hearer, t he Knower.'') (128. "Our Lord! And make us submissive unt o You and of our offspring a nat ion submissive unt o You, and show us our Manasik, and accept our repent ance. Truly, You are t he One Who accept s repent ance, t he Most Merciful.) The Command to purify the House Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat , びモΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠ま べ∠ ∇ギ͡ ∠ ∠ ぴ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ル ヰハヱ (And We gave Our 'Ahd (command) t o Ibrahim and Isma` il) means, "Allah ordered t hem t o purify it from all filt h and impurit ies, of which none should ever t ouch it .'' Also, Ibn Jurayj said, "I said t o ` At a', ` What is Allah's ` Ahd' He said, ` His command.''' Also, Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t he Ayah, びリΒ͡ ム⇒∠ ∇ャや∠ リΒ͡ もべz ヤ͡ ヴわ∇Βよ や∠ ヰデ ラ∠ぴ ∠ ヘ͡ バ ヱ ∠ ヘ͡ ト ャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲあ ∠ ぺ (t hat t hey should purify My House (t he Ka` bah) for t hose who are circumambulat ing it , or st aying (I` t ikaf)) "Purify it from t he idols.'' Furt her, Muj ahid and Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat , びリΒ͡ もべz ヤ͡ ヴわ∇Βよ や∠ ヰデぴ ∠ ヘ͡ ト ャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲあ ∠ (purify My House for t hose who are circumambulat ing it ) means, "From t he idols, sexual act ivit y, false wit ness and sins of all kinds.'' Allah said, びリΒ͡ もべz ヤ͡ぴ ∠ ヘ͡ ト ャ (for t hose who are performing Tawaf (circumambulat ing) it ). The Tawaf around t he House is a well-est ablished rit ual, Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat , びリΒ͡ もべz ヤ͡ぴ ∠ ヘ͡ ト ャ (for t hose who are circumambulat ing it ) means, st rangers (he means who do not live in Makkah), while; びリΒ͡ ム⇒∠ ∇ャや∠ ぴ ∠ ヘ͡ バ ヱ (or st aying (I` t ikaf)) is about t hose who live in t he area of t he Sacred House. Also, Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat I` t ikaf is in reference t o t hose who live in t he area of t he House, j ust as Sa` id bin Jubayr st at ed. Allah said, びキヲ⊥ ジャや ノミゲャや∠ ぴ ͡ イぁ ͡ z ぁ ヱ (or bowing or prost rat ing t hemselves (t here, in prayer)) Ibn ` Abbas said, when it is a place of prayer it includes t hose who are described as bowing and prost rat ing t hemselves. Also, ` At a' and Qat adah offered t he same Tafsir. Purifying all Masj ids is required according t o t his Ayah and according t o Allah's st at ement , ヮヨ∇シや ゅ∠ Β͡ ゲミ∇グΑヱ ノプ∇ゲゎ ラ∠ ヮzャや ラクぺ れヲ⊥ よ ヴ͡ ぴ ⊥⊥ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∃ Β⊥ プ び メゅ∠ Ιや∠ ヱギピ∇ャゅ͡ ゅ∠ Β͡ ヮャ ウあ ジΑ ͡ タx ヱ あ ⊥ ⊥ よ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ (In houses (mosques) which Allah has ordered t o be raised (t o be cleaned, and t o be honored), in t hem His Name is remembered (i.e. Adhan, Iqamah, Salah, invocat ions, recit at ion of t he Qur'an). Therein glorify Him (Allah) in t he mornings and in t he (lat e) aft ernoons) (24:36). There are many Hadit hs t hat give a general order for purifying t he Masj ids and keeping filt h and impurit ies away from t hem. This is why t he Prophet said, «ヮ∠ ∇ろΒレよ ゅ∠ ャ ギィゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ろΒレよ ゅ∠ ルま» ャ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ͡ ⊥ ͡ ジ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨz ͡ (The Masj ids are est ablished for t he purpose t hat t hey were built for (i. e. worshipping Allah alone).) I have collect ed a book on t his subj ect , and all praise is due t o Allah. Makkah is a Sacred Area Allah said, ゅ⇔ ョへ や⇔ ヤよ や∠ ⇒∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ レ͡ ギ∠∠ グ ワ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ ͡∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ∇レョ リョや∠ ∇リョ れゲヨんャや リョ ヮヤ∇ワぺ ∇ベコ∇ケや∠ ͡z よ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠z ∠ ͡ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ ヱ びゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ͡͡x ͡ ∠ ヱ (And (remember) when Ibrahim said, "My Lord, make t his cit y (Makkah) a place of securit y and provide it s people wit h fruit s, such of t hem as believe in Allah and t he Last Day.'') Imam Abu Ja` far bin Jarir At -Tabari narrat ed t hat Jabir bin ` Abdullah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ろ∇ョz ェ ヶあ ͡∠ ヮレョぺヱ ぶや ろ∇Βよ ュゲェ ユΒ͡ や∠ ∇よま ラま» ⊥ ゲ ∠ ルま ヱ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ワ ゲ ͡ z ͡ ゅ∠ヱ ゅ∠ ギ∇Β∠ キゅ∠ Α ゅ∠プ ∩ゅ∠ ∇Βわよゅ∠ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ るレΑ͡ ヨ∇ャや ャ∠ ワ⊥ タ ⊥ ダ⊥ ヤ∠ ヰ ∠ ∠ ャ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ «ゅ∠ ワゅ∠ ハ ノト∇ボΑ ヰ⊥ ツ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ (Ibrahim made Allah's House a Sacred Area and a safe refuge. I have made what is bet ween t he t wo sides of Al-Madinah a Sacred Area. Therefore, it s game should not be hunt ed, and it s t rees should not be cut .) An-Nasa'i and Muslim also recorded t his Hadit h. There are several ot her Hadit hs t hat indicat e t hat Allah made Makkah a sacred area before He creat ed t he heavens and eart h. The Two Sahihs recorded ` Abdullah bin ` Abbas saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, れや∠ ヨジャや ペヤカ ュ∇ヲΑ ぶや ヮョゲェ ギヤら∇ャや や∠ ワ ラま» ͡ ヲ∠ z ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠∠ グ∠ z ͡ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュヲ∠ ヴャ͡ ぶや るョ∇ゲエよ ∀ や∠ ∠ ヲヰプ ∩∠ ∇ケほ∇ャや∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ͡ Α ま ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ュ ゲェ ∠ ⊥ ∠ チ ∠ ヱ ヶ͡ モエΑ ∇ユャヱ ヶ͡∇らホ ギェほャ ヮΒ͡ メゅ∠ ボ∇ャや モエΑ ∇ユャ ヮルまヱ ャ z ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ヤ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠͡ ͡ プ ⊥ わ͡ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ヴャ͡ ぶや るョ∇ゲエよ ∀ や∠ ∠ ヲヰプ ∩∃ ゅ∠ ル ∇リョ るハゅ∠ ゅzま ま ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ュ ゲェ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ケ ヰ∠ ͡ ⇔ ∠ シ ャ͡ ゅ∠ヱ∩⊥ ギ∇Βタ ゲz レΑ ゅ∠ヱ ヮミ∇ヲセ ギツ∇バΑ ゅ∠ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ャ∠ ロ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヘ∠ ⊥ ャ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ャ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ͡ ∠ «ゅ∠ ゅ∠カ ヴヤ∠ ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ヱ ゅ∠ プゲハ ∇リョ ゅzま ヮわトボャ テボわ∇ヤΑ ワ ヤ∠ わ ⊥ ャ∠ ヰ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ : ∇ユヰゎヲ⊥ ら͡∠ ∇ユヰレ∇Βボャ ヮルみプ ゲカ∇クみ∇ャや ゅ∂ま :ぶや メヲ⊥ ケ ゅ∠ » ͡ ͡ Β⊥ ャ ヱ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ͡ ∠ シ∠ Α :メゅ∠ プ ∠ ボ∠ «ゲ͡ ∇クみ∇ャや ゅzま» カ ͡ ャ͡ (Allah has made t his cit y a sanct uary (sacred place) t he Day He creat ed t he heavens and eart h. Therefore, it is a sanct uary unt il t he Day of Resurrect ion because Allah made it a sanct uary. It was not legal for anyone t o fight in it before me, and it was legal for me for a few hours of one day. Therefore, it is a sanct uary unt il t he Day of Resurrect ion, because Allah made it a sanct uary. None is allowed t o uproot it s t horny shrubs, or t o chase it s game, or t o pick up somet hing t hat has fallen, except by a person who announces it publicly, nor should any of it s t rees be cut .) Al-` Abbas said, ` O Messenger of Allah! Except t he lemon-grass, for our goldsmit hs and for our graves.' The Prophet added, (Except lemon-grass.) This is t he wording of Muslim. The Two Sahihs also recorded Abu Hurayrah narrat ing a similar Hadit h, while Al-Bukhari recorded a similar Hadit h from Safiyyah bint Shaybah who narrat ed it from t he Prophet . Abu Shurayh Al-` Adawi said t hat he said t o ` Amr bin Sa` id while he was sending armies t o Makkah, "O Commander! Let me narrat e a Hadit h t hat t he Messenger of Allah said t he day t hat followed t he vict ory of Makkah. My ears heard t he Hadit h, my heart comprehended it , and my eyes saw t he Prophet when he said it . He t hanked Allah and praised him and t hen said, モエΑ ゅ∠プ サゅz ャや ゅ∠ ∇ョゲエΑ ∇ユャヱ ぶや ゅ∠ ョゲェ るムョ ラま» ぁ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ レ ヰ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ z ∠ ∠ z ∠ z ͡ ゅ∠ ͡ マヘ∇ジΑ ∇ラぺ ゲカべ∇ャや ュヲ∠ ∇ャや∠ ぶゅ͡ リョ∇ぽΑ ¬ン͡ ∇ョゅ͡ ヰよ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ Β ヱ ͡ よ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∃ ゲ ャ メゅ∠ ボよ ゾカゲゎ ギェぺ ∇ラみプ∩⇔ ゲイセ ゅ∠ よ ギツ∇バΑ ゅ∠ヱ ゅ⇔ キ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ り∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ャ∠ ョ∠ ぶや ラま :やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ∠ ユ∂シヱ ヮΒヤハ ぶや ヴヤダ͡ ヤャや メヲ⊥ ケ ∠ z ͡ ャ ボプ ヤ ヰ ͡ シ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ヶ͡ ラクぺ ゅ∠ ルまヱ ∩∇ユムャ ∇ラク∇ほΑ ∇ユャヱ ヮャヲ⊥ ゲャ ラクぺ ヰ プ ャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨz ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ シ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ュヲ∠ ∇ャや ゅ∠ わョ∇ゲェ ∇れキゅ∠ ∇ギホヱ ケゅ∠ ル ∇リョ るハゅ∠ ∠ Β ヰ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ハ ∠ ∠ ∃ ヰ∠ ͡ ⇔ ∠ シ «ょ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ャや ギワゅz ャや ヒヤらΒ∇ヤプ ザ∇ョほ∇ャゅ͡ ゅ∠ わョ∇ゲエミ も ピ ⊥ ͡ ゼ ͡ あ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ヰ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (Allah, not t he people, made Makkah a sanct uary, so any person who has belief in Allah and t he Last Day, should neit her shed blood in it nor should he cut down it s t rees. If anybody argues t hat fight ing in it is permissible on t he basis t hat Allah's Messenger fought in Makkah, say t o him, ` Allah allowed His Messenger and did not allow you.' Allah allowed me only for a few hours on t hat day (of t he Conquest ), and t oday it s sanct it y is valid as it was before. So, t hose who are present should inform t hose who are absent (concerning t his fact ).) Abu Shurayh was asked, ` What did ` Amr reply' He said, (` Amr said) ` O Abu Shurayh! I know bet t er t han you about t his, t he Sacred House does not give prot ect ion t o a sinner, a murderer or a t hief.' This Hadit h was collect ed by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. Aft er t his, t here is no cont radict ion bet ween t he Hadit hs t hat st at ed t hat Allah made Makkah a sanct uary when He creat ed t he heavens and eart h and t he Hadit hs t hat Ibrahim made it a sanct uary, since Ibrahim conveyed Allah's decree t hat Makkah is a sanct uary, before he built t he House. Similarly, t he Messenger of Allah was writ t en as t he Final Prophet when Adam was st ill clay. Yet , Ibrahim said, び∇ユヰ∇レョ Ιヲ⊥ ケ ∇ユヰΒ͡ ∇ゑバ∇よや∠ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⊥ あ ⇔ シ∠ ͡ プ ∠ ヱ レz ∠ (Our Lord! Send amongst t hem a Messenger of t heir own) (2: 129). Allah accept ed Ibrahim's supplicat ion, alt hough He had full knowledge beforehand t hat it will occur by His decree. To furt her elaborat e on t his subj ect , we should ment ion t he Hadit h about what t he Messenger of Allah said when he was asked, "O Messenger of Allah! Tell us about how your prophet hood st art ed.'' He said, ン∠ ∇ゼよヱ ∩⊥ ゅ∠ジャや ヮ∇Βヤハ ∩∠ Β͡ や∠ ∇よま ヶ͡ ぺ りヲ∇ハキ» ゲ ⊥ ∠ ュ ヤz ͡ ∠∠ ユ ワ ゲ ͡ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ァゲカ ヮルほミ ヶあ ぺ ∇れぺケヱ ∩∠ Α∇ゲョ リ∇よや ヴ∠ Β͡ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ ョ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ユ∠ ∠ ͡ ジハ «ュゅz ャや ケヲ⊥ ホ ヮャ ∇れ¬ゅ∠ ぺ ∀ ヲ⊥ ゼ ⊥ ダ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ッ∠ ケ ル (I am t he supplicat ion of my fat her Ibrahim, t he good news of Jesus, t he son of Mary, and my mot her saw a light t hat radiat ed from her which illuminat ed t he cast les of Ash-Sham (Syria).) In t his Hadit h, t he Companions asked t he Messenger about t he beginning of his prophet hood. We will explain t his mat t er lat er, if Allah wills Ibrahim invokes Allah to make Makkah an Area of Safety and Sustenance Allah said t hat Ibrahim said, びゅ⇔ ョへ や⇔ ∠∠ や∠ ⇒∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケぴ レ͡ ギヤよ グ ワ ∠ あ ∠ (My Lord, make t his cit y (Makkah) a place of securit y) (2:126) from t error, so t hat it s people do not suffer from fear. Allah accept ed Ibrahim's supplicat ion. Allah said, びゅレ͡ や∠ ラゅ∠ ヮヤカキ リ∠ ヱぴ ⇔ ョ ¬ ∠ ミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (Whosoever ent ers it , he at t ains securit y) (3:97) and, ブトガわΑヱ ⇔レ͡ や¬ ゅョ∠ ェ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ゅz ∠ ∇や∇ヱゲΑ ∇ユャヱぺぴ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゅ ョ ⇔ ゲ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ルぺ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ び∇ユヰャ∇ヲェ ∇リョ サゅz ャや ͡͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ (Have t hey not seen t hat We have made (Makkah) a secure sanct uary, while men are being snat ched away from all around t hem) (29:67). We have already ment ioned t he Hadit hs t hat prohibit fight ing in t he Sacred Area. Muslim recorded t hat Jabir said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, «ゥゅ∠ジャや るムヨよ モヨ∇エΑ ∇ラぺ ギェほャ モエΑ ゅ∠» ヤあ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ͡ ∠ ャ (No one is allowed t o carry weapons in Makkah.) Allah ment ioned t hat Ibrahim said, びゅ⇔ ョへ や⇔ ∠∠ や∠ ⇒∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケぴ レ͡ ギヤよ グ ワ ∠ あ ∠ (My Lord, make t his cit y (Makkah) a place of securit y) meaning, make t his a safe cit y. This occurred before t he Ka` bah was built . Allah said in Surat Ibrahim, びゅ⇔ ョへ ギヤら∇ャや や∠ ⇒∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま メゅホ ∇クまヱぴ レ͡ ∠ ∠∠ グ ワ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ (And (remember) when Ibrahim said, "My Lord! Make t his cit y (Makkah) one of peace and securit y...'') (14:35) as here, Ibrahim supplicat ed a second t ime aft er t he House was built and it s people lived around it , aft er Ishaq who was t hirt een years Isma` il's j unior was born. This is why at t he end of his supplicat ion, Ibrahim said here, モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シま ゲらム∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヴ͡ ょワヱ ン͡ ャや ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ∠ バ ヨ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ヤ∠ ャ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ͡ z ⊥ ∠ び ¬べ∠ ギャや ノΒ͡ ジャ ヴあ ケ ラま ペ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ͡ ハぁ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ よ∠ z ͡ ∠ エ ͡∠ (All t he praises and t hanks be t o Allah, Who has given me in old age Isma` il (Ishmael) and Ishaq (Isaac). Verily, my Lord is indeed t he Hearer of invocat ions) (14:39). Allah said next , ヮヤャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ∇レョ リョや∠ ∇リョ れゲヨんャや リョ ヮヤ∇ワぺ ∇ベコ∇ケや∠ ぴ ͡z よ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠z ∠ ͡ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ ヱ z を ΚΒ͡ホ ヮバあ ョほプ ゲヘミ リ∠ ヱ メゅ∠ ゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ わ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ びゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ザ∇ゃよヱ ケゅz ャや ゆや∠ ハ ヴ∠ま ロゲト∇ッぺ ⊥ ダ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ グ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ ("...and provide it s people wit h fruit s, such of t hem as believe in Allah and t he Last Day.'' He (Allah) answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in cont ent ment for a while, t hen I shall compel him t o t he t orment of t he Fire, and worst indeed is t hat dest inat ion!'') Ibn Jarir said t hat Ubayy bin Ka` b comment ed on, ヴ∠ま ロゲト∇ッぺ z を ΚΒ͡ホ ヮバあ ョほプ ゲヘミ リ∠ ヱ メゅ∠ ぴ ャ͡ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ わ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ホ びゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ザ∇ゃよヱ ケゅz ャや ゆや∠ ハ ⊥ ダ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ グ∠ (He answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in cont ent ment for a while, t hen I shall compel him t o t he t orment of t he Fire, and worst indeed is t hat dest inat ion!'') "These are Allah's Words (meaning not Ibrahim's)'' This is also t he Tafsir of Muj ahid and ` Ikrimah. Furt hermore, Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on Allah's st at ement , リョ ヮヤ∇ワぺ ∇ベコ∇ケや∠ ゅ⇔ ョへ や⇔ ヤよ や∠ ⇒∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヱ レ͡ ギ∠∠ グ ワ ∠ あ ∠ びゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅよ ユ⊥ ∇レョ リョや∠ ∇リョ れゲヨんャや ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡z ͡ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠z (My Lord, make t his cit y (Makkah) a place of securit y and provide it s people wit h fruit s, such of t hem as believe in Allah and t he Last Day.) "Ibrahim asked Allah t o grant sust enance for t he believers only. However, Allah revealed, ` I will also provide for t he disbelievers, j ust as I shall provide for t he believers. Would I creat e somet hing and not sust ain and provide for I shall allow t he disbelievers lit t le delight , and t hen force t hem t o t he t orment of t he Fire, and what an evil dest inat ion.'' Ibn ` Abbas t hen recit ed, ゅ∠ ∠ マよケ ¬べ∠ ハ ∇リョ ¬Ι⊥ ⇒∠ ヱ ¬Ι⊥ ⇒∠ ギヨル 6 ミぴ ョヱ ∠ あ ∠ ͡ ト∠ ͡ ͡ ぽ ワ∠ ͡ ぽ ワ ぁ ͡ ぁ Κ⊥ び や⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇エョ マよケ ¬べ∠ ハ ラゅ∠ ケ ヌ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ト∠ ∠ ミ (On each t hese as well as t hose We best ow from t he bount ies of your Lord. And t he bount ies of your Lord can never be forbidden) (17:20). This was recorded by Ibn Marduwyah, who also recorded similar st at ement s from ` Ikrimah and Muj ahid. Similarly, Allah said, Ι ゆグム∇ャや ヮヤャや ヴ∠ハ ラヱ⊥ わ∇ヘΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラま ∇モホぴ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ͡z ヤ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ⊥ z を ∇ユヰバィ∇ゲョ ゅ∠ ∇Βャま z を ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ヴ͡ ∀ ⇒∠ ∠ - ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヘΑ ユ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ レ ∠ ͡ ユ⊥ Β ぁ プ ノ わ ョ ∠ エ͡ ⊥ び ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ͡ ギΑ͡ ゼャや ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ユヰボΑ͡ ル ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ヨよ ∠ ギz ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ グ⊥ (Verily, t hose who invent a lie against Allah will never be successful. (A brief) enj oyment in t his world! And t hen unt o Us will be t heir ret urn, t hen We shall make t hem t ast e t he severest t orment because t hey used t o disbelieve.) (10:69-70), ∇ユヰバィ∇ゲョ ゅ∠ ∇Βャま ロゲ∇ヘミ マル⊥ ∇エΑ Κプ ゲヘミ リ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ レ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ - ケヱ⊥ ダャや れや∠ よ ∀ Β͡∠ ヮヤャや ラま ∇やヲ⊥ヨハ ゅ∠ よ ユ⊥ ゃらレレプ ͡ ギぁ ͡ グ͡ ユ ヤハ ∠ z z ͡ ヤ͡ ∠ ヨ͡ ヰ⊥ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ び ナΒ͡ビ ゆや∠ ハ ヴ∠ま ∇ユワゲト∇ツル z を ΚΒ͡ホ ∇ユヰバあ ヨル ∃ ヤ∠ ∃ グ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ わ∠ ⊥ (And whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieve you (O Muhammad ). To Us is t heir ret urn, and We shall inform t hem what t hey have done. Verily, Allah is t he Knower of what is in t he breast s (of men). We let t hem enj oy for a lit t le while, t hen in t he end We shall oblige t hem t o (ent er) a great t orment .) (31:23-24) and, リ∠ ャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバイャ りギェヱ るョぺ サゅz ャや ラヲ⊥ Α ラ∠ Ι∇ヲャヱぴ ヨ͡ レ ∠ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ム∠ ぺ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ ∠ ∠ るツプ リあ ゅヘ⊥ シ ∇ユヰゎヲ⊥ らャ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャゅ͡ ゲヘ∇ムΑ ァケ バョヱ ∃ z ͡ ョ ⇔ ボ⊥ ͡ ͡ Β⊥ ͡ ͡ ヨ z よ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ⇔ケ⊥ シ∠ ゅよ∠ ∇よぺ ∇ユヰゎヲ⊥ らャヱ - ラヱ⊥ ヰ∇ヌΑ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヰ ∠∠ や ゲ⊥ ヱ ⇔ ヲ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β⊥ ͡∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ヰ ∠∠ りヲ∠ エ∇ャや ノ⇒∠ ョ ゅz ャ マャク ぁ ミ ラ͡ヱ ゅプ⊥ ∇カコヱ - ラヲ⊥ ムわΑ ͡ Β∠ ⊥ わ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ͡∠ モ⊥ ま∠ ⇔ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゃ͡ z ∠ び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ マよケ ギレ͡ りゲカΙや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ∠ ボz ⊥ ͡ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ハ ⊥ ∠ ͡ x ヱ Β ぁ (And were it not t hat mankind would have become of one communit y (all disbelievers desiring worldly life only), We would have provided for t hose who disbelieve in t he Most Gracious (Allah), silver roofs for t heir houses, and elevat ors whereby t hey ascend. And for t heir houses, doors (of silver), and t hrones (of silver) on which t hey could recline. And adornment s of gold. Yet all t his would have been not hing but an enj oyment of t his world. And t he Hereaft er wit h your Lord is (only) for t he Mut t aqin (t he pious).) (43:33-35). Allah said next , びゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ザ∇ゃよヱ ケゅz ャや ゆや∠ ハ ヴ∠ま ロゲト∇ッぺ z をぴ ⊥ ダ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ グ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then I shall compel him t o t he t orment of t he Fire, and worst indeed is t hat dest inat ion!) meaning, "Aft er t he delight t hat t he disbeliever enj oyed in t his life, I will make his dest inat ion t orment in t he Fire, and what an evil dest inat ion.'' This Ayah indicat es t hat Allah gives t he disbelievers respit e and t hen seizes t hem in a manner compat ible t o His great ness and abilit y. This Ayah is similar t o Allah's st at ement , z を るヨヤ⇒∠ ヴワヱ ゅ∠ ャ ろ∇Βヤ∇ョぺ るΑ∇ゲホ リあ リあ ほミヱぴ ユ⊥ ∀ ∠ ͡ ニ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ョ Α∠∠ ∠ び ゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ヴャまヱ ゅ∠ ゎ∇グカぺ ⊥ ダ∠ z ∠͡∠ ヰ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And many a t ownship did I give respit e while it was given t o wrongdoing. Then (in t he end) I seized it (wit h punishment ). And t o Me is t he (final) ret urn (of all)) (22:48). Also, t he Two Sahihs recorded, ∇ユヰルま ぶや リョ ヮバヨシ ン⇔ ∠ ヴヤ∠ ゲら∇タぺ ギェぺ ゅ∠» ⊥ z ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ クぺ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ «ユ͡ Β͡ ゅ∠ Αヱ ∇ユヰホコ∇ゲΑ ヲワヱ や⇔ ャヱ ヮャ ラヲ⊥バ∇イΑ ヰ プ バ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ギ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ (No one is more pat ient t han Allah when hearing abuse. They at t ribut e a son t o Him, while He grant s t hem sust enance and healt h.) The Sahih also recorded, «ヮ∇わヤ∇ヘΑ ∇ユャ ログカぺ や∠ ま ヴ∂ ェ ユャゅz ヤ͡ ヶ͡∇ヨΒャ ぶや ラま» ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ わ∠ ͡ ͡ ヌ ャ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ͡ (Allah gives respit e t o t he unj ust person, unt il when He seizes him; He never let s go of him.) He t hen recit ed Allah's st at ement , ラま るヨヤ⇒∠ ヴワヱ ン∠ ボ∇ャや グカぺ や∠ ま マよケ グ∇カぺ マャグ∠ ヱぴ z ͡ ∀ ∠ ͡ ニ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ミ∠ び ∀ Α͡ ∠ ∀ Β͡∠ ログ∇カぺ ギ ギセ ユ ャぺ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Such is t he punishment of your Lord when He punishes t he (populat ion of) t owns while t hey are doing wrong. Verily, His punishment is painful (and) severe). (11:102) Building the Ka` bah and asking Allah to accept This Deed Allah said, モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや リョ ギハや∠ ボ∇ャや ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ノプ∇ゲΑ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ バ ヨ ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヲ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ゅ∠ よケ - ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ろル∠ マルま べz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケ レz ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ マャ るヨヤ∇ジョ るョぺ べ∠ わΑケク リ͡ ヱ マャ リ∇Βヨヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ͡ ぁ ⇔ z ⊥ レ͡ z あ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ ゆやz わャや ろル∠ マルま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇ょゎヱ ゅ∠ ムシゅ∠ ョ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ヲz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ レ∠ ͡ レ∠ ルケぺヱ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ⊥ ェz (And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) and (his son) Isma` il (Ishmael) were raising t he foundat ions of t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah), (saying), "Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us. Verily, You are t he Hearer, t he Knower. Our Lord! And make us submissive unt o You and of our offspring a nat ion submissive unt o You, and show us our Manasik and accept our repent ance. Truly, You are t he One Who accept s repent ance, t he Most Merciful.'') Allah said, "O Muhammad! Remind your people when Ibrahim and Isma` il built t he House and raised it s foundat ions while saying, びユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ろル∠ マルま べz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ (Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us. Verily, You are t he Hearer, t he Knower.'') Al-Qurt ubi ment ioned t hat Ubayy and Ibn Mas` ud used t o recit e t he Ayah t his way, びモΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや リョ ギハや∠ ボ∇ャや ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ノプ∇ゲΑ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ バ ヨ ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヲ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ びユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ろル∠ マルま べz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ (And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Isma` il were raising t he foundat ions of t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah), Saying, "Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us. Verily, You are t he Hearer, t he Knower.'') What furt her t est ifies t o t his st at ement (which adds ` saying' t o t he Ayah) by Ubayy and Ibn Mas` ud, is what came aft erwards, るョぺ べ∠ わΑケク リョヱ マャ リ∇Βヨヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⇔ z ⊥ レ͡ z あ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ レz ∠ びマャ るヨヤ∇ジョ ∠ z ⇔∠͡ ぁ (Our Lord! And make us submissive unt o You and of our offspring a nat ion submissive unt o You). The Prophet s Ibrahim and Isma` il were performing a good deed, yet t hey asked Allah t o accept t his good deed from t hem. Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Wuhayb bin Al-Ward recit ed, モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや リョ ギハや∠ ボ∇ャや ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ノプ∇ゲΑ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ バ ヨ ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヲ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ びべz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ (And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Isma` il were raising t he foundat ions of t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah), (saying), "Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us'') and cried and said, "O Khalil of Ar-Rahman! You raise t he foundat ions of t he House of Ar-Rahman (Allah), yet you are afraid t hat He will not accept it from you'' This is t he behavior of t he sincere believers, whom Allah described in His st at ement , び∇やヲ∠ や¬ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ゎ ョ ∠ ゎ ⊥ ∠ グz ヱ (And t hose who give t hat which t hey give) (23:60) meaning, t hey give away volunt ary charit y, and perform t he act s of worship yet , びるヤィヱ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホヱぴ ∀ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ z (wit h t heir heart s full of fear) (23: 60) afraid t hat t hese good deeds might not be accept ed of t hem. There is an aut hent ic Hadit h narrat ed by ` A'ishah on t his subj ect , which we will ment ion lat er, Allah willing. Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Prophet Ibrahim t ook Isma` il and his mot her and went away wit h t hem unt il he reached t he area of t he House, where he left t hem next t o a t ree above Zamzam in t he upper area of t he Masj id. During t hat t ime, Isma` il's mot her was st ill nursing him. Makkah was t hen uninhabit ed, and t here was no wat er source in it . Ibrahim left t hem t here wit h a bag cont aining some dat es and a wat er-skin cont aining wat er. Ibrahim t hen st art ed t o leave, and Isma` il's mot her followed him and said, ` O Ibrahim! To whom are you leaving us in t his barren valley t hat is not inhabit ed' She repeat ed t he quest ion several t imes and Ibrahim did not reply. She asked, ` Has Allah commanded you t o do t his' He said, ` Yes.' She said, ` I am sat isfied t hat Allah will never abandon us.' Ibrahim left , and when he was far enough away where t hey could not see him, close t o Thaniyyah, he faced t he House, raised his hands and supplicat ed, ン͡ ゲ∇Βビ キや∠ よ ヴ͡ Αケク リ͡ ろレ∠ ∇シぺ ヴz ま べ∠ よケぴ ク ͡ ∠ ∃ ヲ͡ わz あ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ム ∠ ル͡ レz z びュゲエヨ∇ャや マわ∇Βよ ギレ͡ ネ∇ケコ ͡z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ハ ∃ ∠ (O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring t o dwell in an uncult ivable valley by Your Sacred House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah)) unt il, びラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼΑぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ (Give t hanks) (14:37). Isma` il's mot her t hen ret urned t o her place, st art ed drinking wat er from t he wat er-skin and nursing Isma` il. When t he wat er was used up, she and her son became t hirst y. She looked at him, and he was suffering from t hirst ; she left , because she disliked seeing his face in t hat condit ion. She found t he nearest mount ian t o where she was, As-Safa, ascended it and looked, in vain, hoping t o see somebody. When she came down t o t he valley, she raised her garment and ran, j ust as a t ired person runs, unt il she reached t he Al-Marwah mount ain. In vain, she looked t o see if t here was someone t here. She ran t o and fro (bet ween t he t wo mount ains) seven t imes.'' Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, "This is why t he people make t he t rip bet ween As-Safa and Al-Marwah (during Haj j and Umrah).'' "When she reached Al-Marwah, she heard a voice and said, ` Shush,' t o herself. She t ried t o hear t he voice again and when she did, she said, ` I have heard you. Do you have relief' She found t he angel digging wit h his heel (or his wing) where Zamzam now exist s, and t he wat er gushed out . Isma` il's mot her was ast onished and st art ed digging, using her hand t o t ransfer wat er t o t he wat er-skin.'' Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Prophet t hen said, "May Allah grant His mercy t o t he mot her of Isma` il, had she left t he wat er, (flow nat urally wit hout her int ervent ion), it would have been flowing on t he surface of t he eart h.'' "Isma` il's mot her st art ed drinking t he wat er and her milk increased for her child. The angel (Gabriel) said t o her, ` Do not fear abandonment . There shall be a House for Allah built here by t his boy and his fat her. Allah does not abandon His people.' During t hat t ime, t he area of t he House was raised above ground level and t he floods used t o reach it s right and left sides. Aft erwards some people of t he t ribe of Jurhum, passing t hrough Kada', made camp at t he bot t om of t he valley. They saw some birds, t hey were ast onished, and said, ` Birds can only be found at a place where t here is wat er. We did not not ice before t hat t his valley had wat er.' They sent a scout or t wo who searched t he area, found t he wat er, and ret urned t o inform t hem about it . Then t hey all went t o Isma` il's mot her, next t o t he wat er, and said, ` O Mot her of Isma` il! Will you allow us t o be wit h you (or dwell wit h you)' She said, ` Yes. But you will have no exclusive right t o t he wat er here.' They said, ` We agree.''' Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Prophet said, "At t hat t ime, Isma` il's mot her liked t o have human company.'' "And t hus t hey st ayed t here and sent for t heir relat ives t o j oin t hem. Lat er on, her boy reached t he age of pubert y and married a lady from t hem, for Isma` il learned Arabic from t hem, and t hey liked t he way he was raised. Isma` il's mot her died aft er t hat . Then an idea occurred t o Abraham t o visit his dependent s. So he left (t o Makkah). When he arrived, he did not find Isma` il, so he asked his wife about him. She said, ` He has gone out hunt ing.' When he asked her about t heir living condit ions, she complained t o him t hat t hey live in misery and povert y. Abraham said (t o her), ` When your husband comes, convey my greet ing and t ell him t o change t he t hreshold of his gat e.' When Isma` il came, he sensed t hat t hey had a visit or and asked his wife, ` Did we have a visit or' She said, ` Yes. An old man came t o visit us and asked me about you, and I t old him where you were. He also asked about our condit ion, and I t old him t hat we live in hardship and povert y.' Isma` il said, ` Did he ask you t o do anyt hing' She said, ` Yes. He asked me t o convey his greet ing and t hat you should change t he t hreshold of your gat e.' Isma` il said t o her, ` He was my fat her and you are t he t hreshold, so go t o your family (i.e. you are divorced).' So he divorced her and married anot her woman. Again Ibrahim t hought of visit ing his dependent s whom he had left (at Makkah). Ibrahim came t o Isma` il's house, but did not find Isma` il and asked his wife, ` Where is Isma` il' Isma` il's wife replied, ` He has gone out hunt ing.' He asked her about t heir condit ion, and she said t hat t hey have a good life and praised Allah. Ibrahim asked, ` What is your food and what is your drink' She replied, ` Our food is meat and our drink is wat er.' He said, ` O Allah! Bless t heir meat and t heir drink.''' The Prophet (Muhammad ) said, "They did not have crops t hen, ot herwise Ibrahim would have invoked Allah t o bless t hat t oo. Those who do not live in Makkah cannot bear eat ing a diet only cont aining meat and wat er.'' "Ibrahim said, ` When Isma` il comes back, convey my greet ing t o him and ask him t o keep t he t hreshold of his gat e.' When Isma` il came back, he asked, ` Has anyone visit ed us.' She said, ` Yes. A good looking old man,' and she praised Ibrahim, ` And he asked me about our livelihood and I t old him t hat we live in good condit ions.' He asked, ` Did he ask you t o convey any message' She said, ` Yes. He conveyed his greet ing t o you and said t hat you should keep t he t hreshold of your gat e.' Isma` il said, ` That was my fat her, and you are t he t hreshold; he commanded me t o keep you.' Ibrahim t hen came back visit ing and found Isma` il behind t he Zamzam well, next t o a t ree, mending his arrows. When he saw Ibrahim, he st ood up and t hey greet ed each ot her, j ust as t he fat her and son greet each ot her. Ibrahim said, ` O Isma` il, Your Lord has ordered me t o do somet hing.' He said, ` Obey your Lord.' He asked Isma` il, ` Will you help me' He said, ` Yes, I will help you.' Ibrahim said, ` Allah has commanded me t o build a house for Him t here, ' and he point ed t o an area t hat was above ground level. So, bot h of t hem rose and st art ed t o raise t he foundat ions of t he House. Abraham st art ed building (t he Ka` bah), while Isma` il cont inued handing him t he st ones. Bot h of t hem were saying, ` O our Lord ! Accept (t his service) from us, Verily, You are t he Hearing, t he Knowing.' (2.127).''' Hence, t hey were building t he House, part by part , going around it and saying, びユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ろル∠ マルま べz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ (Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us. Verily, You are t he Hearer, t he Knower.) The Story of rebuilding the House by Quraysh before the Messenger of Allah was sent as Prophet In his Sirah, Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said, "When t he Messenger of Allah reached t hirt yfive years of age, t he Quraysh gat hered t o rebuild t he Ka` bah, t his included covering it wit h a roof. However, t hey were weary of demolishing it . During t hat t ime, t he Ka` bah was barely above a man's shoulder, so t hey want ed t o raise it s height and build a ceiling on t op. Some people had st olen t he Ka` bah's t reasure beforehand, which used t o be in a well in t he middle of t he Ka` bah. The t reasure was lat er found wit h a man called, Duwayk, a freed servant of Bani Mulayh bin ` Amr, from t he t ribe of Khuza` ah. The Quraysh cut off his hand as punishment . Some people claimed t hat t hose who act ually st ole t he t reasure left it wit h Duwayk. Aft erwards, t he sea brought a ship t hat belonged t o a Roman merchant t o t he shores of Jeddah, where it washed-up. So t hey collect ed t he ship's wood t o use it for t he Ka` bah's ceiling; a Copt ic carpent er in Makkah prepared what t hey needed for t he j ob. When t hey decided t o begin t he demolit ion process t o rebuild t he House, Abu Wahb bin ` Amr bin ` A'idh bin ` Abd bin ` Imran bin Makhzum t ook a st one from t he Ka` bah; t he st one slipped from his hand and went back t o where it had been. He said, ` O people of Quraysh! Do not spend on rebuilding t he House, except from what was earned from pure sources. No money earned from a prost it ut e, usury or inj ust ice should be included.''' Ibn Ishaq comment ed here t hat t he people also at t ribut e t hese words t o Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah bin ` Abdullah bin ` Amr bin Makhzum. Ibn Ishaq cont inued, "The Quraysh began t o organize t heir effort s t o rebuild t he Ka` bah, each subt ribe t aking t he responsibilit y of rebuilding a designat ed part of it . However, t hey were st ill weary about bringing down t he Ka` bah. Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah said, ` I will st art t o bring it down.' He held an ax and st ood by t he Ka` bah and said, ` O Allah! No harm is meant . O Allah! We only seek t o do a good service.' He t hen st art ed t o chop t he House's st ones. The people wait ed t hat night and said, ` We will wait and see. If somet hing st rikes him, we will not bring it down and inst ead rebuid it t he way it was. If not hing happens t o him, t hen Allah will have agreed t o what we are doing.' The next morning, Al-Walid went t o work on t he Ka` bah, and t he people st art ed bringing t he Ka` bah down wit h him. When t hey reached t he foundat ions t hat Ibrahim built , t hey uncovered green st ones t hat were above each ot her, j ust like a pile of spears.'' Ibn Ishaq t hen said t hat some people t old him, "A man from Quraysh, who was helping rebuild t he Ka` bah, placed t he shovel bet ween t wo of t hese st ones t o pull t hem up; when one of t he st ones was moved, all of Makkah shook, so t hey did not dig up t hese st ones.'' The Dispute regarding Who should place the Black Stone in Its Place Ibn Ishaq said, "The t ribes of Quraysh collect ed st ones t o rebuild t he House, each t ribe collect ing on t heir own. They st art ed rebuilding it , unt il t he rebuilding of t he Ka` bah reached t he point where t he Black St one was t o be placed in it s designat ed sit e. A disput e erupt ed bet ween t he various t ribes of Quraysh, each seeking t he honor of placing t he Black St one for t heir own t ribe. The disput e almost led t o violence bet ween t he leaders of Quraysh in t he area of t he Sacred House. Banu ` Abd Ad-Dar and Banu ` Adi bin Ka` b bin Lu'ay, gave t heir mut ual pledge t o fight unt il deat h. However, five or four days lat er, Abu Umayyah bin Al-Mughirah bin ` Abdullah bin ` Amr bin Makhzum, t he oldest man from Quraysh t hen int ervened at t he right moment . Abu Umayyah suggest ed t hat Quraysh should appoint t he first man t o ent er t he House from it s ent rance t o be a mediat or bet ween t hem. They agreed. The Messenger - Muhammad - was t he first person t o ent er t he House. When t he various leaders of Quraysh realized who t he first one was, t hey all proclaimed, ` This is Al-Amin (t he Honest one). We all accept him; This is Muhammad.' When t he Prophet reached t he area where t he leaders were gat hering and t hey informed him about t heir disput e, he asked t hem t o bring a garment and place it on t he ground. He placed t he Black St one on it . He t hen request ed t hat each of t he leaders of Quraysh hold t he garment from one side and all part icipat e in lift ing t he Black St one, moving it t o it s designat ed area. Next , t he Prophet carried t he Black St one by himself and placed it in it s designat ed posit ion and built around it . The Quraysh used t o call t he Messenger of Allah ` Al-Amin' even before t he revelat ion came t o him.'' Ibn Az-Zubayr rebuilds Al-Ka` bah the way the Prophet wished Ibn Ishaq said, "During t he t ime of t he Prophet , t he Ka` bah was eight een cubit s high and was covered wit h Egypt ian linen, and t hey wit h a st riped garment . Al-Haj j aj bin Yusuf was t he first person t o cover it wit h silk.'' The Ka` bah remained t he same way t he Quraysh rebuilt it , unt il it was burned during t he reign of ` Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr, aft er t he year 6o H, at t he end of t he reign of Yaz 0d bin Mu` awiyah. During t hat t ime, Ibn Az-Zubayr was besieged at Makkah. When it was burned, Ibn Az-Zubayr brought t he Ka` bah down and built it upon t he foundat ions of Ibrahim, including t he Hij r in it . He also made an east ern door and a west ern door in t he Ka` bah and placed t hem on ground level. He had heard his aunt ` A'ishah, t he Mot her of t he believers, narrat e t hat t he Messenger of Allah had wished t hat . The Ka` bah remained like t his t hroughout his reign, unt il Al-Haj j aj killed Ibn Az-Zubayr and t hen rebuilt it t he way it was before, by t he order of ` Abdul-Malik bin Marwan. Muslim recorded t hat ` At a' said, "The House was burnt during t he reign of Yazid bin Mu` awiyah, when t he people of Ash-Sham raided Makkah. Ibn Az-Zubayr did not t ouch t he House unt il t he people came for Haj j , for he want ed t o incit e t hem against t he people of Ash-Sham. He said t o t hem, ` O people! Advise me regarding t he Ka` bah, should we bring it down and rebuild it , or j ust repair t he damage it sust ained' Ibn ` Abbas said, ` I have an opinion about t his. You should rebuild t he House t he way it was when t he people became Muslims. You should leave t he st ones t hat exist ed when t he people became Muslims and when t he Prophet was sent . ' Ibn AzZubayr said, ` If t he house of one of t hem get s burned, he will not be sat isfied, unt il he rebuilds it . How about Allah's House I will invoke my Lord for t hree days and will t hen implement what I decide.' When t he t hree days had passed, he decided t o bring t he Ka` bah down. The people hesit at ed t o bring it down, fearing t hat t he first person t o climb on t he House would be st ruck down. A man went on t op of t he House and t hrew some st ones down, and when t he people saw t hat no harm t ouched him, t hey st art ed doing t he same. They brought t he House down t o ground level. Ibn Az-Zubayr surrounded t he sit e wit h curt ains hanging from pillars, so t hat t he House would be covered, unt il t he building was erect . Ibn Az-Zubayr t hen said, ` I heard ` A'ishah say t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ザ∇Βャヱ ∩∃ ∇ヘムよ ∇ユワギ∇ヰハ ∀ Α͡ ∠ サゅz ャや ラぺ ゅ∠∇ヲャ» ∠ ∠∠ ゲ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゑ ギェ ∠ レ z ∠ ャ ∠ ろ∇レムャ ヮもゅ∠ よ ヴヤ∠ ヶ͡ Αあ ボΑ ゅ∠ るボヘレャや リョ ヵ͡ ∇レハ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ レ͡ ハ レ ヲ∠ ⊥ ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ギ ͡ ヮャ ろ∇ヤバイャヱ ∩∃ ケ∇クぺ るジ∇ヨカ ゲ∇イエ∇ャや リョ ヮΒ͡ ろ∇ヤカ∇キぺ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ネ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «ヮ∇レョ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガΑ ゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ヱ ヮ∇レョ サゅzャや モカ∇ギΑ ゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠ ィ⊥ ∠ よ よ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ レ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ よ よ (If it was not for t he fact t hat t he people have recent ly abandoned disbelief, and t hat I do not have enough money t o spend on it , I would have included in t he House five cubit s from Al-Hij r and would have made a door for it t hat people could ent er from, and anot her door t hat t hey could exit from.) Ibn Az-Zubayr said, ` I can spend on t his j ob, and I do not fear t he people.' So he added five cubit s from t he Hij r, which looked like a rear part for t he House t hat people could clearly see. He t hen built t he House and made it eight een cubit s high. He t hought t hat t he House was st ill short and added t en cubit s in t he front and built t wo doors in it , one as an ent rance and anot her as an exit . When Ibn Az-Zubayr was killed, Al-Haj j aj wrot e t o ` Abdul-Malik bin Marwan asking him about t he House and t old him t hat Ibn Az-Zubayr made a rear sect ion for t he House. ` Abdul-Malik wrot e back, ` We do not agree wit h Ibn Az-Zubayr's act ions. As, for t he Ka` bah's height , leave it as it is. As for what he added from t he Hij r, bring it down, and build t he House as it was before and close t he door.' Therefore, Al-Haj j aj brought down t he House and rebuilt it as it was.'' In his Sunan, An-Nasa'i collect ed t he Hadit h of t he Prophet narrat ed from ` A'ishah, not t he whole st ory, The correct Sunnah conformed t o Ibn Az-Zubayr's act ions, because t his was what t he Prophet wished he could do, but feared t hat t he heart s of t he people who recent ly became Muslim could not bear rebuilding t he House. This Sunnah was not clear t o ` Abdul-Malik bin Marwan. Hence, when ` Abdul-Malik realized t hat ` A'ishah had narrat ed t he Hadit h of t he Messenger of Allah on t his subj ect , he said, "I wish we had left it as Ibn Az-Zubayr had made it .'' Muslim recorded t hat ` Ubadydullah bin ` Ubayd said t hat Al-Harit h bin ` Abdullah came t o ` Abdul-Malik bin Marwan during his reign. ` Abdul-Malik said, ` I did not t hink t hat Abu Khubayb (Ibn AzZubayr) heard from ` A'ishah what he said he heard from her.' Al-Harit h said, ` Yes he did. I heard t he Hadit h from her.' ` Abdul-Malik said, ` You heard her say what ' He said, ` She said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ゅ∠∇ヲャヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ラゅ∠ ∇レよ ∇リョ やヱ⊥ ダ∇ボわ∇シや マョ∇ヲホ ラま» ャ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ Β ⊥ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∇ラみプ ∩⊥ ∇レョ やヲ⊥ ゲゎ ゅ∠ れ∇ギハぺ ポ∇ゲゼャゅ͡ ∇ユワギ∇ヰハ るをや∠ ェ ͡∠ ヮ ͡ ミ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ あ よ ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ギ∠ ゅ∠ マΑケほャ ヶあ ヤ∠ ∠ ロヲ⊥ ∇らΑ ∇ラぺ ヵ͡ ∇バよ ∇リョ マョ∇ヲボャ や∠ よ ョ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥͡ ヨ⊥ヰプ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ギ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ギ∠ «ヮ∇レョ ロヲ⊥ ゲゎ ͡ ⊥ ミ∠ ∠ (Your people rebuilt t he House smaller. Had it not been for t he fact t hat your people are not far from t he t ime of Shirk, I would add what was left out side of it . If your people aft erwards t hink about rebuilding it , let me show you what t hey left out of it .) He showed her around seven cubit s.' One of t he narrat ors of t he Hadit h, Al-Walid bin ` At a', added t hat t he Prophet said, :チ∇ケほ∇ャや ヶ͡ リ∇Βハヲ⊥ ∇ヲョ リ∇Βよゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ろ∇ヤバイャヱ» ͡ ∠ プ ͡ ∠ ッ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ マョヲ∠ ラゅ∠ ユャ リΑ͡ ギ∠ ∇モワヱ ∩ゅ6 よ∇ゲビヱ ゅ6 ホ∇ゲセ ͡ ⊥ ホ ∠ ミ ∠ ͡ ∠ ケ ゎ ∠ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ Β͡ ∠ «∨ゅ∠ よゅ∠ やヲ⊥ プケ ヰ∠ よ バ∠ ∠ : : . : ラゅ∠ プ ∩やヱ⊥ や∠ ぺ ∇リョ ゅzま ゅ∠ ヤカ∇ギΑ ゅ∠ ∇ラぺ や⇔ ゴバゎ» ∠ ム∠ キ ケ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ヰ∠⊥ ∠ ャ ∠ コぁ ∠ ∠ ヶ͡ ゎ∇ゲΑ ヮ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ヤカ∇ギΑ ∇ラぺ キや∠ ぺ ヲワ や∠ ま モィz ャや ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル ハギΑ ヰ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ケ∠ ∠ ⊥ ク͡ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ «テ∠ ジプ ロヲ⊥ プキ モカ∇ギΑ ∇ラぺ キゅ∠ や∠ ま ヴz ェ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ ク͡ わ∠ (I would have made t wo doors for t he House on ground level, one east ern and one west ern. Do you know why your people raised it s door above ground level) She said, ` No.' He said, (To allow only t hose whom t hey want ed t o ent er it . When a man whom t hey did not wish t o ent er t he House climbed t o t he level of t he door, t hey would push him down) ` Abdul-Malik t hen said, ` You heard ` A'ishah say t his Hadit h' He said, ` Yes.' ` Abdul-Malik said, ` I wish I left it as it was.'' An Ethiopian will destroy the Ka` bah just before the Last Hour The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, «る∠ らエ∇ャや リョ リ∇Βわボ∇Αヲジャや ヱ⊥ るら∇バム∇ャや ゆあ ガΑ» ゼ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぁ ク ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ (The Ka` bah will be dest royed by Dhus-Sawiqat ayn (lit erally, a person wit h t wo lean legs) from Et hiopia.) Also, Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Prophet said, «や⇔ イェ や⇔ イェ ゅ∠ バ∠∇ボ∠ アエ∇プぺ キヲ∇シぺ ヮよ ヶあ ほミ» ゲ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ヰ⊥ ヤ Α ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ル∠∠ (As if I see him now: a black person wit h t hin legs plucking t he st ones of t he Ka` bah one aft er anot her.) Al-Bukhari recorded t his Hadit h. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded in his Musnad t hat ` Abdullah bin ` Amr bin Al-` As said t hat he heard t he Messenger of Allah say, るゼらエ∇ャや リョ リ∇Βわボ∇Αヲジャや ヱ⊥ るら∇バム∇ャや ゆあ ガΑ» ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ぁ ク ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ヶあ ほムャヱ ∩ゅヰゎヲ∇ジミ ∇リョ ゅ∠ キゲイΑヱ ゅ∠ わΒ∇ヤェ ゅ∠ らヤ∇ジΑヱ ル∠∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ワ⊥ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ヰ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ゆゲ∇ツΑ ネギ∇Βプぺ ヱ ノヤ∇Βタぺ ヮ∇Βャま ゲヌ∇ルぺ ヰ ∠∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ «ヮ͡ヲ∇バョヱ ヮゎゅ∠ ∇ジヨよ ャ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ エ ͡ ͡ (Dhus-Sawiqat ayn from Et hiopia will dest roy t he Ka` bah and will loot it s adornment s and cover. It is as if I see him now: bald, wit h t hin legs st riking t he Ka` bah wit h his ax.) This will occur aft er t he appearance of Gog and Magog people. Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Abu Sa` id Al-Khudri said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, ァヲ⊥ ∇ほΑ ァヱ⊥ カ ギ∇バよ ラゲヨわ∇バΒャヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや リイ∠ Β∠» ∠ ィ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ z z エ⊥ ャ «ァヲ⊥ ∇ほョヱ ィ∠∠ (There will be Haj j and ` Umrah t o t he House aft er t he appearance of Gog and Magog people.) Al-Khalil's Supplication Allah said t hat Ibrahim and Isma` il supplicat ed t o Him, るョぺ べ∠ わΑケク リ͡ ヱ マャ リ∇Βヨヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⇔ z ⊥ レ͡ z あ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ レz ∠ ろル∠ マルま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇ょゎヱ ゅ∠ ムシゅ∠ ョ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠∠ マャ るヨヤ∇ジョ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ レ∠ ͡ レ∠ ルケぺヱ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ͡ ぁ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ゆやz わャや ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヲz (Our Lord! And make us submissive unt o You and of our offspring a nat ion submissive unt o You, and show us our Manasik, and accept our repent ance. Truly, You are t he One Who accept s repent ance, t he Most Merciful.) Ibn Jarir said, "They meant by t heir supplicat ion, ` Make us submit t o Your command and obedience and not associat e anyone wit h You in obedience or worship.''Also, ` Ikrimah comment ed on t he Ayah, びマャ リ∇Βヨヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ ゅ∠ よケぴ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ レz ∠ (Our Lord! And make us submissive unt o You) "Allah said, ` I shall do t hat .''' びマャ るヨヤ∇ジョ るョぺ べ∠ わΑケク リ͡ ヱぴ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ͡ ぁ ⇔ z ⊥ レ͡ z あ ⊥ ョ∠ (And of our offspring a nat ion submissive unt o You) Allah said, ` I shall do t hat .'" This supplicat ion by Ibrahim and Isma` il is similar t o what Allah informed us of about His believing servant s, ゅ∠ ィヱ∇コぺ ∇リョ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ょワ ゅ∠ よケ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ レ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ レャ ∠ レz ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ グz ヱ び ゅョゅ∠ ま リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ リΒ∇ハぺ りゲホ ゅ∠ わ⇒z ケクヱ ⇔ ョ͡ ∠ ボz ⊥ ͡ レ ∠ ヱ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ⊥ レ͡ Αあ ⊥ ∠ (And t hose who say: ` Our Lord! Best ow on us from our wives and our offspring t he comfort of our eyes, and make us leaders of t he Mut t aqin) (25:74). This t ype of supplicat ion is allowed, because loving t o have offspring who worship Allah alone wit hout part ners is a sign of complet e love of Allah. This is why when Allah said t o Ibrahim, びゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ま サゅz ヤ͡ マヤバ⇒∠ ヴあ まぴ ョ ョ͡ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ⊥͡ ィ ル͡ (Verily, I am going t o make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (t o follow you)) Ibrahim said, びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ヵ͡ ∇ヰハ メゅ∠ Α Ι メゅ∠ ヴ͡ Αケク リ͡ ヱぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ギ ∠ ⊥ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ わz あ ⊥ ョ∠ ("And of my offspring (t o make leaders).'' (Allah) said, "My covenant (prophet hood) includes not t he Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers)'') which is explained by, びュゅ∠ ∇タΙや ギら∇バル ラ∠ ヴレよヱ ヴ͡ ∇らレ∇ィや∠ ぴ ∠ レ x ∠ ⊥ z ぺ z ͡∠∠ レ ⊥ ヱ (And keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols) Muslim narrat ed in his Sahih t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said, :ゐゅ∠を ∇リョ ゅzま ヮヤヨハ ノトボ∇ルや ュキへ リ∇よや れゅ∠ や∠ ま» ∃ ヤ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ク͡ ウャゅ∠ ギャヱ ∇ヱぺ ヮよ ノヘわ∇レΑ ユ∇ヤハ ∇ヱぺ るΑケゅ∠ るホギタ ∃ ͡ タ ∃ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ィ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ «ヮ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇ギ∠ ャ ハΑ (When t he son of Adam dies, his deeds end except for t hree deeds: an ongoing charit y, a knowledge t hat is being benefit ed from and a right eous son who supplicat es (t o Allah) for him.) The Meaning of Manasik Sa` id bin Mansur said t hat ` At t ab bin Bashir informed us from Khasif, from Muj ahid who said, "The Prophet Ibrahim supplicat ed, びゅ∠ ムシゅ∠ ョ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ぴ レ∠ ͡ レ∠ ルケぺヱ (and show us our Manasik) Jibril t hen came down, t ook him t o t he House and said, ` Raise it s foundat ions.' Ibrahim raised t he House's foundat ions and complet ed t he building. Jibril held Ibrahim's hand, led him t o As-Safa and said, ` This is among t he rit uals of Allah.' He t hen t ook him t o Al-Marwah and said, ` And t his is among t he rit uals of Allah.' He t hen t ook him t o Mina unt il when t hey reached t he ` Aqabah, t hey found Iblis st anding next t o a t ree. Jibril said, ` Say Takbir (Allah is t he Great ) and t hrow (pebbles) at him.' Ibrahim said t he Takbir and t hrew (pebbles at ) Iblis. Iblis moved t o t he middle Jamrah, and when Jibril and Ibrahim passed by him, Jibril said t o Ibrahim, ` Say Takbir and t hrow at him.' Ibrahim t hrew at him and said Takbir. The devious Iblis sought t o add some evil act s t o t he rit uals of Haj j , but he was unable t o succeed. Jibril t ook Ibrahim's hand and led him t o Al-Mash` ar Al-Haram and ` Arafat and said t o him, ` Have you ` Araft a (known, learned) what I showed you' t hrice. Ibrahim said, ` Yes I did.''' Similar st at ement s were report ed from Abu Mij laz and Qat adah. a ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥∇わΑ ∇ユヰ∇レョ Ιヲ⊥ ケ ∇ユヰΒ͡ ∇ゑバ∇よや∠ ゅ∠ よケぴ ͡ ∠∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ あ ⇔ シ∠ ͡ プ ∠ ヱ レz ∠ マルま ∇ユヰΒあ ゴΑヱ るヨ∇ムエ∇ャや∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰヨあバΑヱ マわ⇒∠ へ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ミ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヱ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ Α び ユΒ͡ ∠ ャや ゴΑ͡ バャや ろル∠ ⊥ ムエ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ぺ (129. "Our Lord! Send amongst t hem a Messenger of t heir own, who shall recit e unt o t hem Your verses and inst ruct t hem in t he Book (t his Qur'an), and purify t hem. Verily, You are t he Might y, t he Wise.'') Ibrahim's Supplication that Allah sends the Prophet Allah ment ioned Ibrahim's supplicat ion for t he benefit of t he people of t he Sacred Area (t o grant t hem securit y and provision), and it was perfect ed by invoking Allah t o send a Messenger from his offspring. This accept ed supplicat ion, from Ibrahim, conformed wit h Allah's appoint ed dest iny t hat Muhammad be sent as a Messenger among t he Ummiyyin and t o all non-Arabs, among t he Jinns and mankind. Hence, Ibrahim was t he first person t o ment ion t he Prophet t o t he people. Ever since, Muhammad was known t o t he people, unt il t he last Prophet was sent among t he Children of Israel, Jesus t he son of Mary, who ment ioned Muhammad by name. Jesus addressed t he Children of Israel saying, リョ ンギΑ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ ャ ゅホあ ダョ ユ⊥ ∇Βャま ヮヤャや メヲ⊥ ケ ヴあ まぴ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ⇔ ギ∠ ぁ ム ∠͡ ͡ z ⊥ シ∠ ル͡ ヮヨ∇シや ン͡ ∇バよ リ͡ ヴ͡ ∇ほΑ メヲ⊥ ゲよ やゲあ らョヱ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ⊥⊥ ギ ∠ ョ ゎ ∠ ∃ シ∠ ͡ ⇔ ゼ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ケ z びギヨ∇ェぺ ⊥∠ ∠ (I am t he Messenger of Allah unt o you, confirming what is before me in t he Tawrah, and giving glad t idings of a Messenger t o come aft er me, whose name shall be Ahmad) (61:6) This is why t he Prophet said , «ユ∠ ∇ゲョ リ∇よや ヴ∠ Β͡ ン∠ ∇ゼよヱ ユΒ͡ や∠ ∇よま ヶ͡ ぺ りヲ∇ハキ» Α ∠ ͡ ジ ハ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ワ ゲ ͡ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (The supplicat ion of my fat her Ibrahim and t he glad t idings brought fort h by Jesus t he son of Mary.) The Prophet said, ヮャ ∇れ¬ゅ∠ ぺ ∀ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ァゲカ ヮz ぺ ヶあ ぺ ∇れぺケヱ» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ッ∠ ケ ル ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ョ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ «ュゅz ャや ケヲ⊥ ホ ゼ ⊥ ダ⊥ (My mot her saw a light t hat went out of her and radiat ed t he palaces of Ash-Sham.) It was said t hat t he Prophet 's mot her saw t his vision when she was pregnant wit h, narrat ed t his vision t o her people, and t he st ory became popular among t hem. The light ment ioned in t he Hadit h appeared in Ash-Sham (Great er Syria), t est ifying t o what will lat er occur when t he Prophet 's religion will be firmly est ablished in Ash-Sham area. This is why by t he end of t ime, Ash-Sham will be a refuge for Islam and it s people. Also, Jesus t he son of Mary will descend in Ash-Sham, next t o t he east ern whit e minaret in Damascus. The Two Sahihs st at ed, ゅ∠ ペエ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ リΑ͡ ワゅ∠ ヶ͡ ョぺ ∇リョ るヘもゅ∠ メや∠ ゎ ゅ∠» ャあ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ニ わz ⊥ ͡ ∀ ∠ ͡ デ ⊥ ゴ∠ ャ ヶゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェ ∇ユヰヘャゅ∠ ∇リョ ゅ∠ヱ ∇ユヰャグカ ∇リョ ∇ユワぁ ツΑ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ カ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ «マ͡∠ ∠ ∇ユワヱ ぶや ゲ∇ョぺ ャグミ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ «ュゅz ャゅよ ∇ユワヱ» ゼ ⊥∠ (There will always be a group of my Ummah who will be on t he t rut h, undet erred by t hose who fail or oppose t hem, unt il t he command of Allah comes while t hey are on t his.) Al-Bukhari added in his Sahih, (And t hey will reside in Ash-Sham.) The Meaning of Al-Kitab wal-Hikmah Allah said, びょ⇒わム∇ャや ユヰヨあバΑヱぴ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ (and inst ruct t hem in t he Book) meaning, Al-Qur'an, び͡ ∠ ⇒⇒∇ム͡ ∇ャや∠ ぴ るヨ エ ヱ (and Al-Hikmah) meaning, t he Sunnah, as Al-Hasan, Qat adah, Muqat il bin Hayyan and Abu Malik assert ed. It was also said t hat ` Al-Hikmah', means ` comprehension in t he religion', and bot h meanings are correct . ` Ali bin Abi Talhah said, t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat , び∇ユヰΒあ ゴΑヱぴ ͡ ミ∠ ⊥ ∠ (and purify t hem) means, "Wit h t he obedience of Allah.'' びユΒ͡ ∠ ャや ゴΑ͡ バャや ろル∠ マルまぴ ⊥ ムエ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ (Verily, You are t he Might y, t he Wise). This Ayah st at ed t hat Allah is able t o do anyt hing, and not hing escapes His abilit y. He is Wise in His decisions, His act ions, and He put s everyt hing in it s right ful place due t o His perfect knowledge, wisdom and j ust ice. ヮジ∇ヘル ヮヘシ リ∠ Ιま ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま るヤョ リ∠ ょビ∇ゲΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ z ͡ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ zあ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ リヨャ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ヮルまヱ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ヶ͡ ヮ⇒∠ ∇Βヘト∇タや ギボャヱ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ ⊥ z ͡∠ Β ぁ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ メゅ∠ ∇ユヤ∇シぺ ヮぁ ケ ヮャ メゅ∠ ∇クま - リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ ⊥ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ エ͡ ダ ヮΒ͡ よ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま べ∠ よ ヴz ヱヱ - リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆゲャ ͡ レ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ヰ͡ タ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ Κプ リΑあ ャや ユムャ ヴヘト∇タや ヮヤャや ラま ヴレら⇒∠ ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ z z ͡ z ͡∠ Α ⊥ ボ ∠∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ユ⊥ ル∠ヱ Ιま リゎヲ⊥ ゎ ∠ ヨ͡ ぁ わ ぺ∠ z ∠ z ⊥ ヨ∠ (130. And who t urns away from t he religion of Ibrahim (i.e. Islamic Monot heism) except him who fools himself Truly, We chose him in t his world and verily, in t he Hereaft er he will be among t he right eous). (131. When his Lord said t o him, "Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!'' He said, "I have submit t ed myself (as a Muslim) t o t he Lord of t he ` Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all t hat exist s).'') (132. And t his (submission t o Allah, Islam) was enj oined by Ibrahim (Abraham) upon his sons and by Ya` qub (Jacob) (saying), "O my sons! Allah has chosen for you t he (t rue) religion, t hen die not except as Muslims.'') Only the Fools deviate from Ibrahim's Religion Allah refut ed t he disbelievers' innovat ions of associat ing ot hers wit h Allah in defiance of t he religion of Ibrahim, t he leader of t he upright . Ibrahim always singled out Allah in worship, wit h sincerit y, and he did not call upon ot hers besides Allah. He did not commit Shirk, even for an inst ant . He disowned every ot her deit y t hat was being worshipped inst ead of Allah and defied all his people in t his regard. Prophet Ibrahim said, へ∠ ⇒∠ ヴあ ケ や∠ ⇒∠ メゅ∠ るビコゅ∠ ザ∇ヨゼャや ン∠ケ ゅヨ∠プぴ グ ワ よ∠ グ ワ ∠ ホ ⇔ ∠ ͡ よ ∠ z ぺ∠ z ヤ∠ ゅz ョ ∀ ン͡ ∠ ヴあ ま ュ∇ヲボΑ メゅ∠ ∇ろヤプぺ べz ヤプ ゲら∇ミぺ ヨあ ¬ ゲよ ル͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ホ ∠∠ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゲトプ ン͡ ヤャ ヴヰ∇ィヱ ろ∇ヰz ヱ ヴあ ま - ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼゎ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ィ∠ ル͡ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ∇ゅルぺ べ∠ ヱ ゅヘΒ͡ ェ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ⇔ レ∠ ∠ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz び (O my people! I am indeed free from all t hat you j oin as part ners (in worship wit h Allah). Verily, I have t urned my face t owards Him Who has creat ed t he heavens and t he eart h Hanifa (Islamic Monot heism), and I am not of Al-Mushrikin.) (6:78-79). Also, Allah said, ゅz ョ ∀ へ∠ ∠ ヴ͡ ルま ヮョ∇ヲホヱ ヮΒ͡ Ι ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ヨあ ¬ ゲよ レz ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ よ6 ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ ͡∠ び リΑ͡ ∇ヰΒシ ヮルみプ ヴ͡ ゲトプ ン͡ ャや Ιま - ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ル∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ (And (remember) when Ibrahim said t o his fat her and his people: "Verily, I am innocent of what you worship. "Except Him (i.e. I worship none but Allah alone) Who did creat e me; and verily, He will guide me'') (43:26-27), りギハ∇ヲョ リ∠ Ιま ヮΒ͡ Ι ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ケゅ∠ ∇ピわ∇シや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∃ ∠ ͡ z ハ z ͡ ͡ よ6 ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヘ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ラま ヮ∇レョ ぺゲらゎ ヮヤャ ヱギハ ヮz ぺ ヮャ リΒらゎ ゅz ヤプ ロゅz ま べ∠ ギハヱ z ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠z ∠ ∠ ͡ z͡ x ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ⊥ Α͡ ワ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ やz ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ユ ヤェ ロ ヱΕ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ (And Ibrahim's invoking (of Allah) for his fat her's forgiveness was only because of a promise he (Ibrahim) had made t o him (his fat her). But when it became clear t o him (Ibrahim) t hat he (his fat her) was an enemy of Allah, he dissociat ed himself from him. Verily, Ibrahim was Awwah (one who invokes Allah wit h humilit y, glorifies Him and remembers Him much) and was forbearing) (9:114), and, リョ マΑ ∇ユャヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ヮヤャ ゅ⇔ レ⇒∠ るョぺ ラゅ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラまぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ヘ レ∠ ͡ z͡ わ͡ ホ ⇔ z ⊥ ∠ ミ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ z ͡ ヴ∠ま ロや∠ ワヱ ヮ⇒∠ わ∇ィや ヮヨバ∇ルΙ やゲ͡ ゅ∠ - リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ャ͡ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⇔ ミ セ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ヮルまヱ るレジェ ゅ∠ ∇ルギ∇ャや ヴ͡ ヮ⇒∠ ∇Βゎや¬∠ - ユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ⊥ z ͡∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β ぁ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや リヨャ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ∠ エ͡ ダ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ (Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah (a leader having all t he good qualit ies, or a nat ion), obedient t o Allah, Hanif (i.e. t o worship none but Allah), and he was not one of t hose who were AlMushrikin. (He was) t hankful for His (Allah's) favors. He (Allah) chose him (as an int imat e friend) and guided him t o a st raight pat h. And We gave him good in t his world, and in t he Hereaft er he shall be of t he right eous.) (16:120-122). This is why Allah said here, び∠ Β͡ ∠ ∇よ͡ るヤョ リ∠ ょビ∇ゲΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ユ ワゲ ま ͡ zあ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (And who t urns away from t he religion of Ibrahim), meaning, abandons his pat h, way and met hod びヮジ∇ヘル ヮヘシ リ∠ Ιまぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ョ z ͡ (except him who fools himself) meaning, who commit s inj ust ice against himself by deviat ing from t he t rut h, t o wickedness. Such a person will be defying t he pat h of he who was chosen in t his life t o be a t rue Imam, from t he t ime he was young, unt il Allah chose him t o be His Khalil, and who shall be among t he successful in t he Last Life. Is t here anyt hing more insane t han deviat ing from t his pat h and following t he pat h of misguidance and deviat ion inst ead Is t here more inj ust ice t han t his Allah said, び∀ Β͡ ∠ ∀ ∇ヤヌ∠ ポ∇ゲゼャや ラまぴ ユ ヌハ ユ ⊥ ャ ∠ あ z ͡ (Verily, j oining ot hers in worship wit h Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed) (31:13). Abu Al-` Aliyah and Qat adah said, "This Ayah (2:130) was revealed about t he Jews who invent ed a pract ice t hat did not come from Allah and t hat defied t he religion of Ibrahim.'' Allah's st at ement , ラゅ∠ リ͡ ャヱ ゅ6 ルや∠ ∇ダル Ιヱ ゅ6 ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ミ ム∠∠ Β͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ ∠ Αキ ヰΑ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ ヴ∠∇ヱ∠ ラま - リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ ͡∇ジョ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ャ ぺ z ͡ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヨヤ ぁ ヘ レ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヴらレャや や∠ ⇒∠ ヱ ロヲ⊥ らゎや リΑ͡ ヤャ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よみよ サゅz ャや ∠ グz ヱ ぁ ͡ z グ ワ∠ ⊥ バ∠ z ∠ グz∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡͡ ͡ レ び リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ヴャヱ ヮヤャや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ぁ ͡∠ ⊥ z ヱ レ∠ ¬ (Ibrahim was neit her a Jew nor a Christ ian, but he was a t rue Muslim Hanifa (t o worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin. Verily, among mankind who have t he best claim t o Ibrahim are t hose who followed him, and t his Prophet (Muhammad ) and t hose who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is t he Wali (Prot ect or and Helper) of t he believers.) (3:6768), t est ifies t o t his fact . Allah said next , び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆゲャ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ メゅ∠ ∇ユヤ∇シぺ ヮぁ ケ ヮャ メゅ∠ ∇クまぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ ⊥ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ (When his Lord said t o him, "Submit (i. e. be a Muslim)!'' He said, "I have submit t ed myself (as a Muslim) t o t he Lord of t he ` Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all t hat exist s).'') This Ayah indicat es t hat Allah commanded Ibrahim t o be sincere wit h Him and t o abide and submit t o Him; Ibrahim perfect ly adhered t o Allah's command. Allah's st at ement , びゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ヮΒ͡ よ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま べ∠ よ ヴz ヱヱぴ ⊥ ボ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ヰ͡ タ∠ ∠ (And t his (submission t o Allah, Islam) was enj oined by Ibrahim upon his sons and by Ya` qub) means, Ibrahim commanded his offspring t o follow t his religion, t hat is, Islam, for Allah. Or, t he Ayah might be referring t o Ibrahim's words, びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆゲャ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (I have submit t ed myself (as a Muslim) t o t he Lord of t he ` Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all t hat exist s)). This means t hat t hese Prophet s loved t hese words so much t hat t hey preserved t hem unt il t he t ime of deat h and advised t heir children t o adhere t o t hem aft er t hem. Similarly, Allah said, びヮらボハ ヴ͡ るΒボ⇒∠ るヨヤミ ゅ∠ ヤバィヱぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ⇔ ∠ ͡ よ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And he (Ibrahim) made it i.e. La ilaha illallah (none has t he right t o be worshipped but Allah alone) a Word last ing among his offspring, (t rue Monot heism)) (43:28). It might be t hat Ibrahim advised his children, including Jacob, Isaac's son, who were present . It appears, and Allah knows best , t hat Isaac was endowed wit h Jacob, during t he lifet ime of Ibrahim and Sarah, for t he good news includes bot h of t hem in Allah's st at ement , びゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑ ペ⇒∠ ∇シま ¬へ∠ ヱ リ͡ ヱ ペ⇒∠ ∇シみよ ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ゲゼらプぴ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ エ ͡ ͡ ケ∠ ョ∠ ∠ エ ͡͡ ヰ ル z ∠ ∠ (But We gave her (Sarah) glad t idings of Ishaq (Isaac), and aft er Ishaq, of Ya` qub (Jacob)) (11:71). Also, if Jacob was not alive t hen, t here would be no use here in ment ioning him specifically among Isaac's children. Also, Allah said in Surat Al-` Ankabut , ヮわΑケク ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィヱ ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ペ⇒∠ ∇シま ヮャ ゅ∠ ∇らワヱヱぴ ͡ ͡ zあ ⊥ プ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ͡ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや∠ ∠ ヲらレャや ∠ わ͡ ヱ りz ⊥ ぁ (And We best owed on him (Ibrahim), Ishaq and Ya` qub, and We ordained among his offspring prophet hood and t he Book.) (29:27), and, びるヤプゅ∠ ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ペ⇒∠ ∇シま ヮャ ゅ∠ ∇らワヱヱぴ ⇔ ∠͡ ル ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ͡ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And We best owed upon him Ishaq, and (a grandson) Ya` qub) (21:72), t hus, indicat ing t hat t his occurred during Ibrahim's lifet ime. Also, Jacob built Bayt Al-Maqdis, as earlier books t est ified. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Abu Dharr said, "I said, ` O Messenger of Allah! Which Masj id was built first ' He said, (Al-Masj id Al-Haram (Al-Ka` bah).) I said, ` Then' He said, (Bayt Al- Maqdis.) I said, ` How many years lat er' He said, (Fort y years. )'' Furt her, t he advice t hat Jacob gave t o his children, which we will soon ment ion, t est ifies t hat Jacob was among t hose who received t he advice ment ioned in Ayat above (2:130-132). Adhering to Tawhid until Death Allah said, Ιま リゎヲ⊥ ゎ Κプ リΑあ ャや ユムャ ヴ∠ ト∇タや ヮヤャや ラま ヴレら⇒∠ ぴ z ∠ z ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヘ∠ ∠ z z ͡ z ͡∠ Α びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ユ⊥ ル∠ヱ ∠ ヨ͡ ぁ わ ぺ∠ ((Saying), "O my sons! Allah has chosen for you t he (t rue) religion, t hen die not except as Muslims.'') meaning, perform right eous deeds during your lifet ime and remain on t his pat h, so t hat Allah will endow you wit h t he favor of dying upon it . Usually, one dies upon t he pat h t hat he lived on and is resurrect ed according t o what he died on. Allah, t he Most Generous, helps t hose who seek t o do good deeds t o remain on t he right eous pat h. This by no means cont radict s t he aut hent ic Hadit h t hat says, ゅ∠ ヴ⇒∂ ェ るレイ∇ャや モ∇ワぺ モヨバよ モヨ∇バΒャ モィゲャや ラま» ョ わ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z z ͡ ヮ∇Βヤハ ペら∇ジΒプ ∀ や∠ ͡ ∇ヱぺ ∀ ゅ∠ ゅzま ゅ∠ レ∇Βよヱ ヮレ∇Βよ ラヲ⊥ Α ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ネ ケク ∠ ネ よ ャ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ム∠ ラまヱ .ゅ∠ ヤカ∇ギΒプ ケゅz ャや モ∇ワぺ モヨバよ モヨバ∠ プ ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや z ͡∠ ヰ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ レ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ Β∠ ⊥ わ͡ ラヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ ヴわェ ケゅz ャや モワ∠ モヨバよ モヨ∇バΒャ モィゲャや ⊥ ム∠ ョ z ∠ ͡ レ ͡ ぺ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや ヮ∇Βヤハ ペら∇ジΒプ ∀ や∠ ͡ ヱ∠ ∀ ゅ∠ ゅzま ゅ∠ レ∇Βよヱ ヮレ∇Βよ ⊥ わ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ネ ケク ぺ ネ よ ャ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «ゅ∠ ヤカ∇ギΒプ るレイ∇ャや モ∇ワぺ モヨバよ モヨ∇バΒプ ヰ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Man might perform t he works of t he people of Paradise unt il only a span of out st ret ched arms or a cubit separat es him from it , t hen t he Book (dest iny) t akes precedence, and he performs t he works of t he people of t he Fire and t hus ent ers it . Also, man might perform t he works of t he people of t he Fire unt il only a span of out st ret ched arms or a cubit separat es him from t he Fire, but t he Book t akes precedence and he performs t he works of t he people of Paradise and t hus ent ers it .) Allah said, (92:5-10), - ヴ∠ ∇ジエ∇ャゅ͡ ベギタヱ - ヴ∠ ゎや∠ ヴ∠ ∇ハぺ ∇リョ ゅz ほプぴ レ ⊥ よ ∠ z∠ ∠ ボz ヱ ト ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ∠ - ヴ∠ ∇ピわ∇シや∠ モガよ リ∠ ゅz ぺヱ - ン∠ ∇ジΒ∇ヤャ ロゲあ Βレジプ レ ∠ ヱ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ジ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ び ン∠ ∇ジバ∇ヤャ ロゲあ Βレジプ - ヴ∠ ∇ジエ∇ャゅ͡ ゆグミヱ ゲ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ジ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ ⊥ よ ∠ z ∠ ∠ (As for him who gives (in charit y) and keeps his dut y t o Allah and fears Him. And believes in AlHusna. We will make smoot h for him t he pat h of ease (goodness). But he who is a greedy miser and t hinks himself self-sufficient . And belies Al-Husna (none has t he right t o be worshipped except Allah). We will make smoot h for him t he pat h for evil), メゅ∠ ∇クま れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑ ゲツェ ∇クま ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇ユわレ⊥ ∇ュぺぴ ∠ ホ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ミ ∠ ヮ⇒∠まヱ マヰ⇒∠ま ギら∇バル ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ン͡ ∇バよ リ͡ ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ゅ∠ ヮΒ͡ らャ ∠ ャ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ ホ ギ ∠ ョ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ョ ͡ レ∠ ͡ や⇔ ェや∠ ゅ⇔ ⇒∠ま ペ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま マもべ∠ へ ギ͡ ヱ ヰ ャ͡ ∠ エ ͡∠ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ よ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ∇ろヤカ ∇ギホ ∀ ョぺ マ∇ヤゎ - ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱ ョ ヰ∠ ∠∠ ∠ るz ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ハ ラヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱ ユ⊥ ∇らジミ ゅz ユ⊥ ャヱ ∇ろらジミ ル ミ ヨ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ ∠ ∠ ョ ム∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ラ ヤヨ Α n(133. Or were you wit nesses when deat h approached Ya` qub (Jacob) When he said unt o his sons, "What will you worship aft er me'' They said, "We shall worship your AIlah (God Allah) t he Ilah of your fat hers, Ibrahim (Abraham), Isma` il (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), One Ilah, and t o Him we submit (in Islam)).'' (134. That was a nat ion who has passed away. They shall receive t he reward of what t hey earned and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what t hey used t o do.) Ya` qub's Will and Testament to His Children upon His Death This Ayah cont ains Allah's crit icism of t he Arab pagans among t he offspring of Isma` il as well as t he disbelievers among t he Children of Israel Jacob t he son of Isaac, t he son of Ibrahim. When deat h came t o Jacob, he advised his children t o worship Allah alone wit hout part ners. He said t o t hem, ヮ⇒∠まヱ マヰ⇒∠ま ギら∇バル ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ン͡ ∇バよ リ͡ ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ャ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ ホ ギ ∠ ョ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ョ びペ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま マもべ∠ へ ∠ エ ͡∠ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ よ ("What will you worship aft er me'' They said, "We shall worship your Ilah (God of your fat hers, Ibrahim, Isma` il, Ishaq,'') Allah) t he Ilah Ment ioning Isma` il here is a figure of speech, because Isma` il is Jacob's uncle. An-Nahas said t hat t he Arabs call t he uncle a fat her, as Al-Qurt ubi ment ioned). This Ayah is used as evidence t hat t he grandfat her is called a fat her and inherit s, rat her t han t he brot hers (i.e. when his son dies), as Abu Bakr assert ed, according t o Al-Bukhari who narrat ed Abu Bakr's st at ement from Ibn ` Abbas and Ibn Az-Zubayr. Al-Bukhari t hen comment ed t hat t here are no opposing opinions regarding t his subj ect . This is also t he opinion of ` A'ishah t he Mot her of t he believers, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Tawus and ` At a', Malik, Ash-Shaf` i and Ahmad said t hat t he inherit ance is divided bet ween t he grandfat her and t he brot hers. It was report ed t hat t his was also t he opinion of ` Umar, ` Ut hman, ` Ali, bin Mas` ud, Zayd bin Thabit and several scholars among t he Salaf and lat er generat ions. The st at ement , びや⇔ ェや∠ ゅ⇔ ⇒∠まぴ ギ͡ ヱ ヰ ャ ͡ (One Ilah (God)) means, "We single Him out in divinit y and do not associat e anyt hing or anyone wit h Him.'' びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And t o Him we submit ), in obedience meaning, obedient and submissiveness. Similarly, Allah said, ゅ⇔ ∇ヲデ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヴ͡ リ∠ ユヤ∇シぺ ヮャヱぴ ハ ∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz プ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ びラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲΑ ヮ∇Βャまヱ ゅ⇔ ∇ゲミヱ ∠ バ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠͡∠ ワ ∠ ∠ (While t o Him submit t ed all creat ures in t he heavens and t he eart h, willingly or unwillingly. And t o Him shall t hey all be ret urned) (3:83). Indeed, Islam is t he religion of all t he Prophet s, even if t heir rei spect ive laws differed. Allah said, ヮ∇Βャま ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ Ιま メヲ⊥ ケ リ͡ マヤ∇らホ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠͡ ェ ル z ͡ ∃ シz ョ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ レ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ら∇ハゅ∠ ∇ゅルぺ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま Ι ヮz ぺ ͡ ギ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ル∠ (And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad ) but We revealed t o him (saying): La ilaha illa Ana none has t he right t o be worshipped but I (Allah) , so worship Me (alone and none else)) (21:25). There are many ot her Ayat - and Hadit hs - on t his subj ect . For inst ance, t he Prophet said, «ギ͡ や∠ ゅレ⊥ Α͡ れゅzハ キゅ∠∇ヱぺ ¬ゅ∠ ら∇ルほ∇ャや ゲゼ∇バョ リ∇エル» ェ ヱ レ キ ∃ ヤ∠ ⊥ ャ ∠ ͡ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (We, t he Prophet s, are brot hers wit h different mot hers, but t he same religion.) Allah said, び∇ろヤカ ∇ギホ ∀ ョぺ マ∇ヤゎぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ るz ⊥ ∠ ͡ (That was a nat ion who has passed away) meaning, exist ed before your t ime, びユ⊥ ∇らジミ ゅz ユ⊥ ャヱ ∇ろらジミ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャぴ わ ∠ ∠ ョ ム∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ヰ∠ (They shall receive t he reward of what t hey earned and you of what you earn). This Ayah proclaims, Your relat ionship t o t he Prophet s or right eous people among your ancest ors will not benefit you, unless you perform good deeds t hat bring about you religious benefit . They have t heir deeds and you have yours, びラヲ⊥ヨ∇バΑ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ハ ラヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱぴ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ル ミ ヨ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And you will not be asked of what t hey used t o do).'' This is why a Hadit h proclaims, «ヮ⊥ ジル ヮよ ∇ネゲ∇ジΑ ∇ユャ ヮヤヨハ ヮよ ほトよ ∇リョ» ら∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠z ∠ ∠ (Whoever was slowed on account of his deeds will not get any fast er on account of his family lineage.)' ∇モよ ∇モホ ∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ン∠ ⇒∠ ル ∇ヱぺ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ ゲ ダ∠ ∠ キ ワ ル ミ ャ ホ∠ び リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま るヤョ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヘ レ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ z͡ (135. And t hey say, "Be Jews or Christ ians, t hen you will be guided.'' Say (t o t hem O Muhammad ), "Nay, (we follow) only t he religion of Ibrahim, Hanif (Islamic Monot heism), and he was not of Al-Mushrikin (t hose who worshipped ot hers along wit h Allah. ) Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat ` Abdullah bin Suriya Al-A` war said t o t he Messenger of Allah, "The guidance is only what we (Jews) follow. Therefore, follow us, O Muhammad, and you will be right ly guided.'' Also, t he Christ ians said similarly, so Allah revealed, び∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ン∠ ⇒∠ ル ∇ヱぺ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ギ∠ ∠ ゲ ダ∠ ∠ キ ワ ル ミ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey say, "Be Jews or Christ ians, t hen you will be guided.'') Allah's st at ement , びゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま るヤョ ∇モよ ∇モホぴ ヘ レ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ z͡ ∠ ⊥ (Say (t o t hem O Muhammad ), "Nay, (we follow) only t he religion of Ibrahim, Hanif) means, "We do not need t he Judaism or Christ ianit y t hat you call us t o, rat her, びゅヘΒ͡ ェ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま るヤョぴ ⇔ レ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ z͡ ((we follow) only t he religion of Ibrahim, Hanif) meaning, on t he st raight pat h, as Muhammad bin Ka` b Al-Qurazi and ` Isa bin Jariyah st at ed. Also, Abu Qilabah said, "The Hanif is what t he Messengers, from beginning t o end, believed in.'' ヴ∠ま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ぴ ャ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ∠ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ ヅゅ∠ ∇シΕや∠ ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ペ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ͡ ら ∠ ヱ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ͡∠ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ リ͡ ラヲぁ らレャや ヶゎヱ⊥ べ∠ ヱ ヴ∠ Β͡ ヱ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ヴゎヱ⊥ べ∠ ヱ ョ ∠ Β͡ z ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ジ ハ∠ シ ョ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ギェぺ リ∇Βよ ベあ ヘル Ι ∇ユヰよケ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ あ z び (136. Say (O Muslims): "We believe in Allah and t hat which has been sent down t o us and t hat which has been sent down t o Ibrahim (Abraham), Isma` il (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), Ya` qub (Jacob), and t o Al-Asbat (t he offspring of t he t welve sons of Ya` qub), and t hat which has been given t o Musa (Moses) and ` Isa (Jesus), and t hat which has been given t o t he Prophet s from t heir Lord. We make no dist inct ion bet ween any of t hem, and t o Him we have submit t ed (in Islam).'') The Muslim believes in all that Allah ` revealed and all the Prophets Allah direct ed His believing servant s t o believe in what He sent down t o t hem t hrough His Messenger Muhammad and in what was revealed t o t he previous Prophet s in general. Some Prophet s Allah ment ioned by name, while He did not ment ion t he names of many ot hers. Allah direct ed t he believers t o refrain from different iat ing bet ween t he Prophet s and t o believe in t hem all. They should avoid imit at ing whomever Allah described as, ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α∠ ヮヤシケヱ ヮヤャや リ∇Βよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ Αヱぴ ∠ ャ ボ ヱ ͡ ͡⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ͡ わ∠ ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ Αヱ ヂ∇バらよ ゲヘ∇ムルヱ ヂ∇バらよ リョ∇ぽル グガz Α ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ びゅボェ ラヱ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺΚΒ͡ シ マャク リ∇Βよ ⇔∂ ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥⇔ ら∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ (And wish t o make dist inct ion bet ween Allah and His Messengers (by believing in Allah and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, "We believe in some but rej ect ot hers,'' and wish t o adopt a way in bet ween. They are in t rut h disbelievers) (4:150-151). Al-Bukhari narrat ed t hat Abu Hurayrah said, "The People of t he Book used t o read t he Torah in Hebrew and t ranslat e it int o Arabic for t he Muslims. The Messenger of Allah said, :やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ ∇ユワヲ⊥ グムゎ ゅ∠ヱ ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ やヲ⊥ あ ダゎ ゅ∠» ャ ホ ⊥ よあ ∠ ⊥ ャ∠ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ホギ∠ ⊥ ャ «ゅ∠ ∇Βャま メゴ∇ルぺ ゅ∠ ヱ ぶゅ͡ ゅz ョへ レ ∠͡ ⊥ ョ∠ ͡ よ レ∠ (Do not believe t he People of t he Book, nor rej ect what t hey say. Rat her, say, ` We believe in Allah and in what was sent down t o us.)'' Also, Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Most ly, t he Messenger of Allah used t o recit e, びゅ∠ ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ ぴ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ (We believe in Allah and t hat which has been sent down t o us) (2: 136), and, びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ゅz ほよ ∇ギヰ∇セや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ル∠͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ (We believe in Allah, and bear wit ness t hat we are Muslims (i.e. we submit t o Allah)) (3:52) during t he t wo (volunt ary) Rak` at before Faj r.'' Abu Al-` Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` and Qat adah said, "Al-Asbat are t he t welve sons of Jacob, and each one of t hem had an Ummah of people from his descendant s. This is why t hey were called AlAsbat .'' Al-Khalil bin Ahmad and ot hers said, "Al-Asbat among t he Children of Israel are j ust like t he t ribes among t he Children of Isma` il.'' This means t hat t he Asbat are t he various t ribes of t he Children of Israel, among whom Allah sent several Prophet s. Moses said t o t he Children of Israel, ¬べ∠ ら∇ルぺ ∇ユムΒ͡ モバィ ∇クま ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮヤャや るヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クやぴ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ びゅミヲ⊥ョ ∇ユムヤバィヱ ⇔ ヤぁ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Remember t he favor of Allah t o you: when He made Prophet s among you, made you kings) (5:20). Also, Allah said, びゅデゅ∠ ∇シぺ りゲ∇ゼハ ∇ヴわレ∇をや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇バトホヱぴ ⇔ ら ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ⊥ レ z ∠ ∠ (And We divided t hem int o t welve t ribes) (7:160). Al-Qurt ubi said, "Sibt is t he group of people or a t ribe all belonging t o t he same ancest ors.'' Qat adah said, "Allah commanded t he believers t o believe in Him and in all His Books and Messengers. '' Also, Sulayman bin Habib said, "We were commanded t o believe in t he (original) Torah and Inj il, but not t o implement t hem.'' ∇ラまヱ ∇やヱ∠ わ∇ワや ギボプ ヮよ ∇ユわレ∠ や∠ べ∠ モ∇んヨよ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ラみプぴ ͡z ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ョ ¬ ョ ͡ ͡ ͡ レ∠ ¬ ͡∠ ヲワヱ ヮzャや ユヰムΒ͡ ∇ムΒジプ ベゅ∠ セ ヴ͡ ∇ユワ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ∇や∇ヲャヲゎ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヘ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ボ͡ プ ⊥ ヨz みプ z∠ ∠ ヮヤャや リョ リジ∇ェぺ ∇リョヱ ヮヤャや るピ∇らタ - ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ͡z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡z ∠∠ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz び ラヱギ͡ ⇒∠ ヮャ リ∇エルヱ るピ∇らタ ∠ ら ハ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ (137. So if t hey believe in t he like of t hat which you believe t hen t hey are right ly guided; but if t hey t urn away, t hen t hey are only in opposit ion. So Allah will suffice for you against t hem. And He is t he Hearer, t he Knower.) (138. Our Sibghah (religion) is t he Sibghah of Allah (Islam) and which Sibghah can be bet t er t han Allah's And we are His worshippers.) Allah said, if t hey, t he disbelievers among t he People of t he Book and ot her disbelievers, believe in all of Allah's Books and Messengers and do not different iat e bet ween any of t hem, び∇やヱ∠ わ∇ワや ギボプぴ ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (t hen t hey are right ly guided) meaning, t hey would acquire t he t rut h and be direct ed t o it . び∇や∇ヲャヲゎ ラ͡ヱぴ z∠ ∠ ま∠ (but if t hey t urn away) from t rut h t o falsehood aft er proof had been present ed t o t hem, びヮzャや ユヰムΒ͡ ∇ムΒジプ ベゅ∠ セ ヴ͡ ∇ユワ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ぴ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヘ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ボ͡ プ ⊥ ヨz みプ (t hen t hey are only in opposit ion. So Allah will suffice you against t hem) meaning, Allah will aid t he believers against t hem, びユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ヲワヱぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ⊥ ∠ (And He is t he Hearer, t he Knower). Allah said, びヮヤャや るピ∇らタぴ ͡z ∠∠ ͡ (The Sibghah of Allah). Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed, "The religion of Allah.'' This Tafsir was also report ed of Muj ahid, Abu Al-` Aliyah, ` Ikrimah, Ibrahim, Al-Hasan, Qat adah, Ad-Dahhak, ` Abdullah bin Kat hir, ` At iyah Al-` Awfi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi and ot her scholars. The Ayah, びヮヤャや りゲ∇トプぴ ͡ z ∠∠ ͡ (Allah's Fit rah (i.e. Allah's Islamic Monot heism)) (30:30) direct s Muslims t o, "Hold t o it .'' べ∠ ャヱ ∇ユムよケヱ ゅ∠ よケ ヲワヱ ヮヤャや ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ルヲぁ べ∠ ゎぺ ∇モホぴ レ∠∠ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ レぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z プ レ∠ ィ エ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∇ュぺ - ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ガョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱ ∇ユムヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇ユムャヱ ゅ∠ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∠ ∠ ダ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ レ⊥ ヨ ∠ ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ペ⇒⇒∠ ∇シまヱ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラま ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ͡∠ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ∇ユわル∠¬ ∇モホ ン∠ ゅ∠ ル ∇ヱぺ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヅゅ∠ ∇シΕや∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ケ ダ∠ ∠ キ ワ ル ミ ∠ ら ∠ ヱ ヮヤャや リョ ロギレ͡ りギ⇒∠ セ ユわミ ∇リヨョ ユヤ∇ニぺ ∇リョヱ ヮzャや ュぺ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ハ ⇔ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ∇ろヤカ ∇ギホ ∀ ョぺ マ∇ヤゎ ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヱ ヰ∠ ∠∠ ∠ るz ⊥ ∠ ͡ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョ∠ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ハ ラヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱ ユ⊥ ∇らジミ ゅョ ユ⊥ ャヱ ∇ろらジミ ゅ∠ ル ミ ヨ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ ∠ ∠ z ム∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ラ ヤヨ Α (139. Say (O Muhammad t o t he Jews and Christ ians), "Disput e you wit h us about Allah while He is our Lord and your Lord And we are t o be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. And we are sincere t o Him (i.e. we worship Him alone and none else, and we obey His orders).'') (140. Or say you t hat Ibrahim, Isma` il, Ishaq, Ya` qub and Al-Asbat , were Jews or Christ ians Say, "Do you know bet t er or does Allah And who is more unj ust t han he who conceals t he t est imony he has from Allah And Allah is not unaware of what you do.'') (141. That was a nat ion who has passed away. They shall receive t he reward of what t hey earned, and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what t hey used t o do.) Allah direct ed His Prophet t o pre-empt t he argument s wit h t he idolat ors: びヮヤャや ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ルヲぁ べ∠ ゎぺ ∇モホぴ ͡ z プ レ∠ ィ エ⊥ ∠ ⊥ (Say (O Muhammad t o t he Jews and Christ ians), "Disput e you wit h us about Allah) meaning, "Do you disput e wit h us regarding t he Oneness of Allah, obedience and submission t o Him and in avoiding His prohibit ions, び∇ユムよケヱ ゅ∠ よケ ヲワヱぴ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ レぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (while He is our Lord and your Lord) meaning, He has full cont rol over us and you, and deserves t he worship alone wit hout part ners. び∇ユムヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇ユムャヱ ゅ∠ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ べ∠ ャヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ レ⊥ ヨ ∠ レ∠∠ (And we are t o be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds.) meaning, we disown you and what you worship, j ust as you disown us. Allah said in anot her Ayah, ∇ユわル∠ ∇ユムヤヨハ ∇ユムャヱ ヴ͡∠ ∠ ヴあ モ⊥ プ ポヲ⊥ グミ ラ͡ヱぴ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ヤヨハ ャ ボ∠ ∠ よz ∠ ま∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ョ ∀ ン͡ ∠ ∇ゅルぺヱ モヨ∇ハぺ べz ョ ラヲ⊥ Α͡ よ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨあ ¬ ゲよ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ゃ ゲ∠ (And if t hey belie you, say: "For me are my deeds and for you are your deeds! You are innocent of what I do, and I am innocent of what you do!'') (10:41), and, リョヱ ヮヤャ ヴヰ∇ィヱ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ ∇モボプ ポヲぁ べ∠ ∇ラみ∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ィ ェ プ びリバらゎや ͡ ∠ ∠z (So if t hey disput e wit h you (Muhammad ) say: "I have submit t ed myself t o Allah (in Islam), and (so have) t hose who follow me'') (3:20). Allah said about Ibrahim, びヮヤャや ヴ͡ ヴあ ヲぁ ゅ∠ ゎぺ メゅ∠ ヮョ∇ヲホ ヮz べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z プ ル ィ エ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ィ ェ ∠ (His people disput ed wit h him. He said: "Do you disput e wit h me concerning Allah'') (6:80), and, びヮよケ ヴ͡ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ァべ∠ ン͡ ャや ヴ∠ま ゲゎ ∇ユャぺぴ ͡ あ ͡ プ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ z ェ グz ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (Have you not looked at him who disput ed wit h Ibrahim about his Lord (Allah)) (2:258). He said in t his honorable Ayah, びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ガョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱ ∇ユムヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇ユムャヱ ゅ∠ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ べ∠ ャヱぴ ∠ ダ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ レ⊥ ヨ ∠ レ∠∠ (And we are t o be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. And we are sincere t o Him.) meaning, "We disown you j ust as you disown us,'' びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ガョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱぴ ∠ ダ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And we are sincere t o Him), in worship and submission. Allah t hen crit icized t hem in t he claim t hat Ibrahim, t he Prophet s who came aft er him and t he Asbat were following t heir religion, whet her Judaism or Christ ianit y. Allah said, びヮzャや ュぺ ユヤ∇ハぺ ∇ユわル∠¬ ∇モホぴ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ (Say, "Do you know bet t er or does Allah'') meaning, Allah has t he best knowledge and He st at ed t hat t hey were neit her Jews, nor Christ ians. Similarly, Allah said in t he Ayah, ラゅ∠ リ͡ ャヱ ゅΒルや∠ ∇ダル Ιヱ ゅ6 ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ミ ム∠∠ 6 ͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ ∠ Αキ ヰΑ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ び リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ ͡∇ジョ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヨヤ ぁ ヘ レ∠ (Ibrahim was neit her a Jew nor a Christ ian, but he was a t rue Muslim Hanifa (t o worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin) (3:67) and t he following Ayat . Allah also said, びヮヤャや リョ ロギレ͡ りギ⇒∠ セ ユわミ ∇リヨョ ユヤ∇ニぺ ∇リョヱぴ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ハ ⇔ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ And who is more unj ust t han he who conceals t he t est imony he has from Alla0h )2:140(. AlH asan Al-Bas ri said, They used t o recit e t he Book of Alla0h He sent t o t hem t hat st at ed t hat t he t rue religion is Isla0m and t hat Muh ammad is t he Messenger of Alla0h. Their Book also st at ed t hat Ibra0h0m, Isma0 0l, Ish a0q, Ya qu0b and t he t ribes were neit her Jews, nor Christ ians. They t est ified t o t hese fact s, yet hid t hem from t he people. Alla0h s st at ement , び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヱぴ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョ∠ (And Allah is not unaware of what you do), is a t hreat and a warning t hat His knowledge encompasses every one's deeds, and He shall award each accordingly. Allah t hen said, び∇ろヤカ ∇ギホ ∀ ョぺ マ∇ヤゎぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ るz ⊥ ∠ ͡ (That was a nat ion who has passed away.) meaning, exist ed before you, びユ⊥ ∇らジミ ゅz ユ⊥ ャヱ ∇ろらジミ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャぴ わ ∠ ∠ ョ ム∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ヰ∠ (They shall receive t he reward of what t hey earned, and you of what you earn.) meaning, t hey bear t heir deeds while you bear yours, びラヲ⊥ヨ∇バΑ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ハ ラヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱぴ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ル ミ ヨ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And you will not be asked of what t hey used t o do) meaning, t he fact t hat you are t heir relat ives will not suffice, unless you imit at e t heir good deeds. Furt her, do not be deceived by t he fact t hat you are t heir descendant s, unless you imit at e t hem in obeying Allah's orders and following His Messengers who were sent as warners and bearers of good news. Indeed, whoever disbelieves in even one Prophet , will have disbelieved in all t he Messengers, especially if one disbelieves in t he mast er and Final Messenger from Allah, t he Lord of t he worlds, t o all mankind and t he Jinns. May Allah's peace and blessings be on Muhammad and t he rest of Allah's Prophet s. ユヰわヤ∇らホ リ∠ ∇ユヰ⇒zヱ ゅ∠ サゅz ャや リョ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや メヲ⊥ Βシぴ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ハ ⊥ ャ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャ モ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヴ͡ ャや ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z∂ ホ ヰ ∠∠ ル ミ わz マャグミヱ - ユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ヴ∠ま ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ン͡ ∇ヰΑ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ギ ∠ サゅz ャや ヴ∠ハ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ わャ ゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ ͡ レ ヤ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ム ∠ あ ト ∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ゅ∠ ヱ や⇔ Β͡ セ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ Αヱ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ギ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ シz ∠ ム∠ ∠ リz ョ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ノらわΑ リ∠ ユヤ∇バレャ Ιま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ろレ⊥ ヴ͡ ャや ヨ͡ ∠ シz ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ヰ ∠∠ ∠ ミ わz ヴ∠ハ Ιま りゲΒ͡ ムャ ∇ろルゅ∠ ラ͡ヱ ヮ∇Βらボハ ヴ∠ハ ょヤボレ∠ ヤ∠ z ͡ ⇔ ∠ ら∠ ∠ ∠ ミ ま∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡∠ Α ラま ∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮヤャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ヮヤャや ン∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ャや z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ミ ョヱ ⊥ z ギワ ∠ グz び ∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ サゅz ャゅ͡ ヮヤャや ユ ェz フ ¬ゲャ ͡ レ よ ∠ z (142. The fools (idolat ors, hypocrit es, and Jews) among t he people will say: "What has t urned t hem (Muslims) from t heir Qiblah prayer direct ion (t owards Jerusalem) t o which t hey used t o face in prayer.'' Say (O Muhammad ): "To Allah belong bot h, east and t he west . He guides whom He wills t o t he st raight way.'') (143. Thus We have made you t rue Muslims real believers of Islamic Monot heism, t rue followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah (legal ways) , a Wasat (j ust and t he best ) nat ion, t hat you be wit nesses over mankind and t he Messenger (Muhammad ) be a wit ness over you. And We made t he Qiblah which you used t o face, only t o t est t hose who followed t he Messenger (Muhammad ) from t hose who would t urn on t heir heels (i.e., disobey t he Messenger). Indeed it was great (heavy, difficult ) except for t hose whom Allah guided. And Allah would never make your fait h (prayers) t o be lost (i.e., your prayers offered t owards Jerusalem). Truly, Allah is full of kindness, t he Most Merciful t owards mankind.) Changing the Qiblah Direction of the Prayer Imam Al-Bukhari report ed t hat Al-Bara' bin ` Azib narrat ed: "Allah's Messenger offered his prayers facing Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) for sixt een or sevent een mont hs, but he wished t hat he could pray facing t he Ka` bah (at Makkah). The first prayer which he offered (facing t he Ka` bah) was t he ` Asr (Aft ernoon) prayer in t he company of some people. Then one of t hose who had offered t hat prayer wit h him, went out and passed by some people in a mosque who were in t he bowing posit ion (in Ruku` ) during t heir prayers (facing Jerusalem). He addressed t hem saying, ` By Allah, I bear wit ness t hat I have offered prayer wit h t he Prophet facing Makkah (Ka` bah).' Hearing t hat , t hose people immediat ely changed t heir direct ion t owards t he House (Ka` bah) while st ill as t hey were (i.e., in t he same bowing posit ion). Some Muslims who offered prayer t owards t he previous Qiblah (Jerusalem) before it was changed t owards t he House (t he Ka` bah in Makkah) had died or had been mart yred, and we did not know what t o say about t hem (regarding t heir prayers t owards Jerusalem). Allah t hen revealed: サゅz ャゅ͡ ヮヤャや ラま ∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮzャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ レ よ ∠ z z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ミ ョ∠ び∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ ェz フ ¬ゲャ (And Allah would never make your fait h (prayers) t o be lost (i.e., t he prayers of t hose Muslims were valid)) (2:143).'' Al-Bukhari collect ed t his narrat ion, while Muslim collect ed it using anot her chain of narrat ors. Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Al-Bara' narrat ed: Allah's Messenger used t o offer prayers t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis (in Jerusalem), but would keep looking at t he sky await ing Allah's command (t o change t he Qiblah). Then Allah revealed: るヤ∇らホ マレΒャヲレヤプ ͡ べ∠ ジャや ヶ͡ マヰ∇ィヱ ょヤボゎ ン∠ ル ∇ギホぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ あ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ¬ ヨz プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ びュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲゎ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ワ ッ ∠ (Verily, We have seen t he t urning of your (Muhammad's) face t owards t he heaven. Surely, We shall t urn you t o a Qiblah (prayer direct ion) t hat shall please you, so t urn your face in t he direct ion of Al-Masj id Al-Haram (at Makkah).) (2:144) A man from among t he Muslims t hen said, "We wish we could know about t hose among us who died before t he Qiblah was changed (i.e., t owards Makkah) and also about our own prayers, t hat we had performed t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis.'' Allah t hen revealed: び∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮzャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ミ ョ∠ (And Allah would never make your fait h (prayers) t o be lost .) (2:143) The fools among t he people, meaning t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians), said, "What made t hem change t he former Qiblah t hat t hey used t o face'' Allah t hen revealed: びサゅz ャや リョ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや メヲ⊥ Βシぴ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ (The fools (idolat ors, hypocrit es, and Jews) among t he people will say...) unt il t he end of t he Ayah. ` Ali bin Abu Talhah relat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said: When Allah's Messenger migrat ed t o AlMadinah, Allah commanded him t o face Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). The Jews were delight ed t hen. Allah's Messenger faced Jerusalem for over t en mont hs. However, he liked (t o offer prayer in t he direct ion of) Prophet Ibrahim's Qiblah (t he Ka` bah in Makkah) and used t o supplicat e t o Allah and kept looking up t o t he sky (await ing Allah's command in t his regard). Allah t hen revealed: びロゲ∇トセ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ (t urn your faces (in prayer) in t hat direct ion.) meaning, it s direct ion. The Jews did not like t his change and said, "What made t hem change t he Qiblah t hat t hey used t o face (meaning Jerusalem)'' Allah revealed: ヴ∠ま ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ン͡ ∇ヰΑ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャ モ⊥ ぴ ャ͡ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ギ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z∂ ホ びユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ (Say (O Muhammad ): "To Allah belong bot h, east and t he west . He guides whom He wills t o t he st raight way.'') There are several ot her Ahadit h on t his subj ect . In summary, Allah's Messenger was commanded t o face Bayt Al-Maqdis (during t he prayer) and he used t o offer prayer t owards it in Makkah bet ween t he t wo corners (of Ka` bah), so t hat t he Ka` bah would be bet ween him and Bayt AlMaqdis8. When t he Prophet migrat ed t o Al-Madinah, t his pract ice was no longer possible; t hen Allah commanded him t o offer prayer t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis, as Ibn Abbas and t he maj orit y of t he scholars have st at ed. Al-Bukhari report ed in his Sahih t hat t he news (of t he change of Qiblah) was conveyed t o some of t he Ansar while t hey were performing t he ` Asr (Aft ernoon) prayer t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis, upon hearing t hat , t hey immediat ely changed t heir direct ion and faced t he Ka` bah. It is report ed in t he Sahihayn (Al-Bukhari Muslim) t hat Ibn ` Umar narrat ed: While t he people were in Quba' (Mosque) performing t he Faj r (Dawn) prayer, a man came and said, "A (part of t he) Qur'an was revealed t onight t o Allah's Messenger and he was commanded t o face t he Ka` bah. Therefore, face t he Ka` bah. They were facing Ash-Sham, so t hey t urned t owards t he Ka` bah. These Hadit hs prove t hat t he Nasikh (a Text t hat abrogat es a previous Text ) only applies aft er one acquires knowledge of it , even if t he Nasikh had already been revealed and announced. This is why t he Companions ment ioned above were not commanded t o repeat t he previous ` Asr, Maghrib and ` Isha' prayers (alt hough t hey had prayed t hem t owards Jerusalem aft er Allah had changed t he Qiblah). Allah knows best . When t he change of Qiblah (t o Ka` bah in Makkah) occurred, t hose inflict ed wit h hypocrisy and mist rust , and t he disbelieving Jews, bot h were led ast ray from t he right guidance and fell int o confusion. They said: びゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヴ͡ ャや ユヰわヤ∇らホ リ∠ ∇ユヰ⇒zヱ ゅ∠ ぴ ヰ ∠ ∠ ル ミ わz ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ハ ⊥ ャ ∠ ョ (What has t urned t hem (Muslims) from t heir Qiblah t o which t hey used t o face in prayer.) They asked, "What is t he mat t er wit h t hese people (Muslims) who one t ime face t his direct ion (Jerusalem), and t hen face t hat direct ion (Makkah)'' Allah answered t heir quest ions when He st at ed: びゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャ モ⊥ ぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z∂ ホ (Say (O Muhammad ): "To Allah belong bot h, east and t he west .) meaning, t he command, t he decision and t he aut horit y are for Allah Alone. Hence: びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (...so wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne).) (2:115), and: ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや モらホ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ラ∠ ゲら∇ャや ザ∇Βャぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ͡ ∠ z びヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ゲら∇ャや リム⇒∠ヱ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z ͡ z ͡ ャ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ ( It is not Al-Birr (piet y, right eousness) t hat you t urn your faces t owards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is t he one who believes in Allah.) (2:177) This st at ement means, t he best act is t o adhere t o Allah's commands. Hence, wherever He commands us t o face, we should face. Also, since obedience requires implement ing Allah's commands, if He commands us every day t o face different places, we are His servant s and under His disposal, and we face what ever He orders us t o face. Cert ainly, Allah's care and kindness t owards His servant and Messenger, Muhammad , and cert ainly, his Ummah (Muslim nat ion) is profoundly great . Allah has guided t hem t o t he Qiblah of (Prophet ) Ibrahim -- Allah's Khalil (int imat e friend). He has commanded t hem t o face t he Ka` bah, t he most honorable house (of worship) on t he face of t he eart h, which was built by Ibrahim Al-Khalil in t he Name of Allah, t he One wit hout a part ner. This is why Allah said aft erwards: ヴ∠ま ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ン͡ ∇ヰΑ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャ モ⊥ ぴ ャ͡ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ギ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z∂ ホ びユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ (Say (O Muhammad ): "To Allah belong bot h, east and t he west . He guides whom He wills t o t he st raight way.'') Imam Ahmad report ed t hat ` A'ishah (t he Prophet 's wife) said t hat Allah's Messenger said about t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians): ゅレ∠ ヱギ͡ ∇エΑ ゅ∠ ミ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ∠ ヱギ͡ ∇エ∠ Ι ユ⊥ ルま» ル ジ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ レル ジ Α ヰz ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲ⊥ッヱ ゅ∠ ャ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るバヨイ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ヴ∠ハ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ャ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ヴ∠∠ ∠ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤハ ヱ «リΒ͡ へ :ュゅ∠ Ηや ブ∇ヤカ ゅ∠ ャ∇ヲホ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ョ͡ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ∠ ヤハヱ (They do not envy us for a mat t er more t han t hey envy us for Jumu` ah (Friday) t o which Allah has guided us and from which t hey were led ast ray; for t he (t rue) Qiblah t o which Allah has direct ed us and from which t hey were led ast ray; and for our saying ` Amin' behind t he Imam (leader of t he prayer).) The Virtues of Muhammad's Nation Allah said: ヴ∠ハ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ わャ ゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ヤ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ム∠ あ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ びや⇔ Β͡ セ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ Αヱ サゅz ャや ギ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ シz ∠ ム∠ ∠ ͡ レ (Thus We have made you t rue Muslims , a Wasat (j ust ) (and t he best ) nat ion, t hat you be wit nesses over mankind and t he Messenger (Muhammad ) be a wit ness over you.) Allah st at ed t hat He has changed our Qiblah t o t he Qiblah of Ibrahim and chose it for us so t hat He makes us t he best nat ion ever. Hence, we will be t he wit nesses over t he nat ions on t he Day of Resurrect ion, for all of t hem will t hen agree concerning our virt ue. The word Wasat in t he Ayah means t he best and t he most honored. Therefore, saying t hat (t he Prophet 's t ribe) Quraysh is in t he Wasat regarding Arab t ribes and t heir areas, means t he best . Similarly, saying t hat Allah's Messenger was in t he Wasat of his people, means he was from t he best subt ribe. Also, ` Asr, t he prayer t hat is described as ` Wust a' (a variat ion of t he word Wasat ), means t he best prayer, as t he aut hent ic collect ions of Ahadit h report ed. Since Allah made t his Ummah (Muslim nat ion) t he Wasat , He has endowed her wit h t he most complet e legislat ion, t he best Manhaj (way, met hod, et c.,) and t he clearest Madhhab (met hodology, mannerism, et c). Allah said: ∇リョ リΑあ ャや ヴ͡ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ モバィ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ わ∇ィや ヲワぴ ͡ ͡ ギ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ ∠ ⊥ リ͡ リΒ͡ ヤ∇ジヨ∇ャや ユム⇒z シ ヲワ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ∇ユムΒ͡ ぺ るヤョ ァゲェ ョ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ zあ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ やギΒ͡ セ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ Βャ や∠ ⇒∠ ヴ͡ ヱ モ∇らホ ⊥ ∠∠ ⇔ ヰ∠ ⊥ シz ∠ ム∠ ͡ グ ワ プ∠ ⊥ ∠ びサゅz ャや ヴ∠ハ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ゎヱ ͡ レ ヤ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ム∠ ∠ (He has chosen you (t o convey His Message of Islamic Monot heism t o mankind), and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship: it is t he religion of your fat her Ibrahim. It is He (Allah) Who has named you Muslims bot h before and in t his (t he Qur'an), t hat t he Messenger (Muhammad ) may be a wit ness over you and you be wit nesses over mankind!) (22:78) Moreover, Imam Ahmad report ed t hat Abu Sa` id narrat ed: Allah's Messenger said: ∨∠ ∇ピヤよ ∇モワ :ヮャ メゅ∠ Βプ ∩るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ∀ ヲ⊥ ヴ∠ ∇ギΑ» ろ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ゥ ル ハ ⊥ ∇ユムピヤよ ∇モワ :∇ユヰャ メゅ∠ Βプ ヮョ∇ヲホ ヴ∠ ∇ギΒプ ∩∇ユバル :メヲ⊥ Βプ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ∩∃ ェぺ ∇リョ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぺ ゅ∠ ヱ ゲΑ͡ ル ∇リョ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぺ ゅ∠ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ギ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ゎ ョ∠ ∃ グ∠ ͡ ル ゎ ョ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∩⊥ わョぺ∠ ∀ ヨ∠ ョ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∨∠ ∠ ギヰ∇ゼΑ ∇リョ :ゥヲ⊥ ャ メゅ∠ Βプ ヮ⊥ z ⊥ヱ ギz エ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ マャ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ :ヮャ∇ヲホ マャグ∠ メゅホ ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ びゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヮャ ラヱ⊥ ヰ∇ゼわプ ラヲ∠ ∇ギわプ ∩⊥ ∇ギバ∇ャや テシヲ∇ャやヱ :メゅ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ハ ⊥∠ メ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ «ユ⊥ ∇Βヤハ ギヰ∇セぺ z を パゅ∠ら∇ャゅ͡ ム ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ͡ ヤ∠ よ (Nuh will be called on t he Day of Resurrect ion and will be asked, ` Have you conveyed (t he Message)' He will say, ` Yes.' His people will be summoned and asked, ` Has Nuh conveyed (t he Message) t o you' They will say, ` No warner came t o us and no one (Prophet ) was sent t o us.' Nuh will be asked, ` Who t est ifies for you' He will say, ` Muhammad and his Ummah.') This is why Allah said: びゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Thus We have made you a Wasat nat ion.) The Prophet said; (The Wasat means t he ` Adl (j ust ). You will be summoned t o t est ify t hat Nuh has conveyed (his Message), and I will at t est t o your t est imony.) It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari, At -Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah. Imam Ahmad also report ed t hat Abu Sa` id Khudri narrat ed: Allah's Messenger said: ゲん∇ミぺヱ ラゅ∠ィゲャや ヮバョヱ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ヶらレャや ¬ヶ͡ Α» ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ヤ⊥ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ ͡ z ⊥ イ∠ ∨や∠ ワ ∇ユムピヤよ ∇モワ :メゅボΒプ ∩⊥ ョ∇ヲホ ヴ∠ ∇ギΒプ ∩∠ ャク ∇リョ グ∠ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヮ⊥ ∠ ハ ⊥ マ͡ ͡ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∨∠ ョ∇ヲホ ろ∇ピヤよ ∇モワ :ヮャ メゅボ⊥ プ ゅ∠ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ マ∠ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ Β∠ ャ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∩⊥ わョぺヱ ∀ ヨ∠ ョ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∨∠ ∠ ギヰ∇ゼΑ ∇リョ :メゅボ⊥ プ ∩∇ユバル ヮ⊥ z ⊥∠ ギz エ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ マャ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ Β∠ ∠ ∠ や∠ ワ ヒヤよ ∇モワ :∇ユヰャ メゅ∠ Βプ ∩⊥ わョぺヱ ∀ ヨ∠ ョ ヴ∠ ∇ギΒプ グ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ ヮ⊥ z ⊥∠ ギz エ⊥ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∨∇ユムヨ∇ヤハ ゅ∠ ヱ :メゅ∠ Βプ ∩∇ユバル :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ∨⊥ ョ∇ヲホ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ョ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ヮ∠ ∠ ユ∂シヱ ヮΒヤハ ぶや ヴヤタゅ∠ Βらル ゅ∠ ¬ゅ∠ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ヤ レぁ ͡ ∠ ル∠ ィ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ゴハ ヮャ∇ヲホ マ͡グ∠ ∩やヲ⊥ ヤよ ∇ギホ モシゲャや ラぺ ゅ∠ ゲら∇カほプ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ プ ピz∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぁ z ∠ ル∠ ∠ :モィヱ z∠∠ びゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ : ヴ∠ハ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ わャ ゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ヤ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ム∠ あ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ びや⇔ Β͡ セ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ Αヱ サゅz ャや ギ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ シz ∠ ム∠ ∠ ͡ レ (The Prophet would come on t he Day of Resurrect ion wit h t wo or more people (his only following!), and his people would also be summoned and asked, ` Has he (t heir Prophet ) conveyed (t he Message) t o you' They would say, ` No.' He would be asked, ` Have you conveyed (t he Message) t o your people' He would say, ` Yes.' He would be asked, ` Who t est ifies for you' He would say, ` Muhammad and his Ummah.' Muhammad and his Ummah would t hen be summoned and asked, ` Has he conveyed (t he Message) t o his people' They would say, ` Yes.' They would be asked, ` Who t old you t hat ' They would say, ` Our Prophet (Muhammad) came t o us and t old us t hat t he Messengers have conveyed (t heir Messages). ') Hence Allah's st at ement : びゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Thus We have made you a Wasat nat ion.) He said, "(meaning) t he ` Adl,' (he t hen cont inued recit ing t he Ayah): ヴ∠ハ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ わャ ゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ヤ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ム∠ あ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ びや⇔ Β͡ セ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ Αヱ サゅz ャや ギ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ シz ∠ ム∠ ∠ ͡ レ (Thus We have made you, a j ust (and t he best ) nat ion, t hat you be wit nesses over mankind and t he Messenger (Muhammad ) be a wit ness over you.)'' Furt hermore, Imam Ahmad report ed t hat Abul-Aswad narrat ed: I came t o Al-Madinah and found t hat an epidemic had broken out t hat caused many fat alit ies. I sat next t o ` Umar bin AlKhat t ab once when a funeral procession st art ed and t he people praised t he dead person. ` Umar said, "Waj abat (it will be recorded as such), Waj abat !'' Then anot her funeral was brought fort h and t he people crit icized t he dead person. Again, ` Umar said, "Waj abat .'' AbulAswad asked, "What is Waj abat , O Leader of t he fait hful'' He said, "I said j ust like Allah's Messenger had said: ぶや ヮヤカ∇キぺ ゲ∇Βガよ るバよ∇ケぺ ヮャ ギヰセ ユヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ Αぺ» ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∃ ͡ ⊥ ヨぁ ∠ «る⇒⇒zイ∇ャや レ∠ ギェや∠ ∇ャや リハ ヮ∇ャほ∇ジル ∇ユャ z を. ͡ ͡ ヲ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ メゅ∠ :ラゅ∠ ∇をや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ヤボプ :メゅ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ レ ヱ レ ⊥∠ ∠ ホ . «る⇒⇒⇒⇒∠ ゅ∠をヱ» を ヤ∠ ∠ ギェや∠ ∇ャや リハ ヮ∇ャほ∇ジル ∇ユャ ユを. ͡͡ ヲ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z⊥ «ラゅ∠ ∇をや∠ » レ ヱ (Any Muslim for whom four t est ify t hat he was right eous, t hen Allah will ent er him int o Paradise.' We said, ` What about t hree' He said, ` And t hree.' We said, ` And t wo' He said, ` And t wo.' We did not ask him about (t he t est imony) of one (believing) person.)'' This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari, At -Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa'i. The Wisdom behind changing the Qiblah Allah t hen said: リ∠ ユヤ∇バレャ Ιま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ろレ⊥ ヴ͡ ャや るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ヰ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ わz ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ∇ろルゅ∠ ラ͡ヱ ヮ∇Βらボハ ヴ∠ハ ょヤボレ∠ リz ョ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ノらわΑ ∠ ミ ま∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡∠ Α ヨ͡ ∠ シz ⊥ ͡ z ∠ びヮzャや ン∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ Ιま りゲΒ͡ ムャ ⊥ ヤ ギワ ∠ グz ヤ∠ z ͡ ⇔ ∠ ら∠ ∠ (And We made t he Qiblah (prayer direct ion t owards Jerusalem) which you used t o face, only t o t est t hose who followed t he Messenger (Muhammad ) from t hose who would t urn on t heir heels (i.e., disobey t he Messenger). Indeed it was great (heavy, difficult ) except for t hose whom Allah guided.) Allah st at es t hus: We have legislat ed for you, O Muhammad, facing Bayt Al-Maqdis at first and t hen changed it t o t he Ka` bah so as t o find who will follow and obey you and t hus face what ever you face. びヮ∇Βらボハ ヴ∠ハ ょヤボレ∠ リz ョぴ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ Α ヨ͡ (...from t hose who would t urn on t heir heels.) meaning, revert s from his religion. Allah t hen said: びりゲΒ͡ ムャ ∇ろルゅ∠ ラ͡ヱぴ ⇔ ∠ ら∠ ∠ ∠ ミ ま∠ (Indeed it was great (heavy, difficult )) The Ayah indicat es t hat changing t he Qiblah from Bayt Al-Maqdis t o t he Ka` bah is heavy on t he heart , except for whomever Allah has right ly guided t heir heart s, who believe in t he t rut h of t he Messenger wit h cert aint y and t hat what ever he was sent wit h is t he t rut h wit hout doubt . It is t hey who believe t hat Allah does what He wills, decides what He wills, commands His servant s wit h what He wills, abrogat es any of His commands t hat He wills, and t hat He has t he perfect wisdom and t he unequivocal proof in all t his. (The at t it ude of t he believers in t his respect is) unlike t hose who have a disease in t heir heart s, t o whom whenever a mat t er occurs, it causes doubt s, j ust as t his same mat t er adds fait h and cert aint y t o t he believers. Similarly, Allah said: ∇ユムΑぺ メヲボΑ リz ∇ユヰ∇レヨプ ∀ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇ろャゴル⊥ べ∠ や∠ まヱぴ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ョ ⊥ ͡ ∠ り ケ シ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ク͡ ∠ ∇ユヰ∇ゎキや∠ プ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや¬ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ほプ ゅレ⇒∠ Α͡ ログ⇒∠ ヮ∇ゎキや∠ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ レ∠ ∠ グz ョ∠∠ ⇔ ヨ ま ͡ ͡ ワ ⊥ ∠ コ ユ͡ よヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ぺヱ ラヱ⊥ ゼ∇らわ∇ジΑ ∇ユワヱ ゅレ⇒∠ Α͡ ヰ͡ ヤ⊥ プ ∠ グz ョ∠∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ ヨ ま び∇ユヰジ∇ィケ ヴ∠ま ゅ⇔ ∇ィケ ∇ユヰ∇ゎキや∠ プ ∀ ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ͡ ャ͡ ジ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ チゲz (And whenever t here comes down a Surah (chapt er from t he Qur'an), some of t hem (hypocrit es) say: "Which of you has had his fait h increased by it '' As for t hose who believe, it has increased t heir fait h, and t hey rej oice. But as for t hose in whose heart s is a disease (of doubt , disbelief and hypocrisy), it will add doubt and disbelief t o t heir doubt and disbelief; and t hey die while t hey are disbelievers.) (9:124, 125) and: るヨ∇ェケヱ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ヲワ ゅ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや リョ メあ レルヱぴ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヘセ ∠ ⊥ ョ ͡ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ゴ∠ ⊥ ∠ び や⇔ ゅ∠ カ Ιま リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ギΑ͡ Α Ιヱ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ ケ ジ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ あ (And We send down of t he Qur'an t hat which is a healing and a mercy t o t hose who believe, and it increases t he wrongdoers in not hing but loss.) (17:82) Cert ainly, t hose who remained fait hful t o t he Messenger , obeyed him and faced what ever Allah commanded t hem, wit hout doubt or hesit at ion, were t he leaders of t he Companions. Some scholars st at ed t hat t he Early Migrant s (who migrat ed wit h t he Prophet from Makkah t o Al-Madinah) and Ansar (t he resident s of Al-Madinah who gave aid and refuge t o bot h t he Prophet and t he Migrant s) were t hose who offered prayers t owards t he t wo Qiblah (Bayt AlMaqdis and t hen t he Ka` bah). Al-Bukhari report ed in t he explanat ion of t he Ayah (2:143) t hat Ibn ` Umar narrat ed: While t he people were performing t he Faj r (Dawn) prayer in t he Quba' Mosque, a man came and said, "Qur'an was revealed t o t he Prophet and he was ordered t o face t he Ka` bah. Therefore, face t he Ka` bah.'' They t hen faced t he Ka` bah. Muslim also recorded it . At -Tirmidhi added t hat t hey were performing Ruku` (bowing down in prayer), and t hen changed t he direct ion (of t he Qiblah) t o t he Ka` bah while st ill bowing down. Muslim report ed t his last narrat ion from Anas. These Hadit hs all indicat e t he perfect obedience t he Companions had for Allah and His Messenger and t heir compliance wit h Allah's commandment s, may Allah be pleased wit h t hem all. Allah said: び∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮzャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ミ ョ∠ (And Allah would never make your fait h (prayers) t o be lost .) meaning, t he reward of your prayers t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis before would not be lost wit h Allah. It is report ed in Sahih t hat Abu Ishaq As-Sabi` y relat ed t hat Bara' narrat ed: "The people asked about t he mat t er of t hose who offered prayers t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis and died (before t he Qiblah was changed t o Ka` bah). Allah revealed: び∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮzャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ミ ョ∠ (And Allah would never make your fait h (prayers) t o be lost .)'' It was also recorded by At -Tirmidhi from Ibn ` Abbas, and At -Tirmidhi graded it Sahih. Ibn Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas narrat ed: び∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮzャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ミ ョ∠ (And Allah would never make your fait h t o be lost .) ent ails: Your (prayer t owards) t he first Qiblah and your believing your Prophet and obeying him by facing t he second Qiblah; He will grant you t he rewards for all t hese act s. Indeed, び∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ サゅz ャゅ͡ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ユ ェz フ ¬ゲャ ͡ レ よ ∠ z z ͡ (Truly, Allah is full of kindness, t he Most Merciful t owards mankind.)'' Furt hermore, it is report ed in t he Sahih t hat Allah's Messenger saw a woman among t he capt ives who was separat ed from her child. Whenever she found a boy (infant ) among t he capt ives, she would hold him close t o her chest , as she was looking for her boy. When she found her child, she embraced him and gave him her breast t o nurse. Allah's Messenger said: ケギ∇ボゎ ヶ͡ ヱ ケゅz ャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ギャヱ るェケゅデ ログワ ラ∇ヱゲゎぺ » ⊥ ͡ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ レ プ ワ∠ ∠∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ «ヮ∠ ∠ ∇ト∠ ゅ∠ ∇ラぺ ヴヤ∠ ェゲ ゎ ャ ∠ ハ : . : «ゅ∠ ギャヲよ ログワ ∇リョ ロキゅ∠ バよ ユェ∇ケぺ ぶ ぶや∠ プ» ワ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ら͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ヲ∠ (Do you t hink t hat t his woman would willingly t hrow her son in t he fire) They said, "No, O Messenger of Allah!'' He said, (By Allah! Allah is more merciful wit h His servant s t han t his woman wit h her son.) るヤ∇らホ マレΒャヲレヤプ ͡ べ∠ ジャや ヶ͡ マヰ∇ィヱ ょヤボゎ ン∠ ル ∇ギホぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ あ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ¬ ヨz プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲゎ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ワ ッ ∠ リΑ͡ ャや ラまヱ ロゲ∇トセ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ゑ∇Βェヱ ∠ グz z ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰよケ リ͡ ペエ∇ャや ヮz ぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ ョ∠ ͡ あ z ョ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ラ ヨヤ Βャ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ラ ヤヨ Α ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ (144. Verily, We have seen t he t urning of your (Muhammad's) face t owards t he heaven. Surely, We shall t urn you t o a Qiblah (prayer direct ion) t hat shall please you, so t urn your face in t he direct ion of Al-Masj id Al-Haram (at Makkah). And wheresoever you people are, t urn your faces (in prayer) in t hat direct ion. Cert ainly, t he people who were given t he Script ure (i.e., Jews and Christ ians) know well t hat , t hat (your t urning t owards t he direct ion of t he Ka` bah at Makkah in prayers) is t he t rut h from t heir Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what t hey do). The First Abrogation in the Qur'an was about the Qiblah Ali bin Abu Talhah relat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas narrat ed: The first abrogat ed part in t he Qur'an was about t he Qiblah. When Allah's Messenger migrat ed t o Al-Madinah, t he maj orit y of it s people were Jews, and Allah commanded him t o face Bayt Al-Maqdis. The Jews were delight ed t hen. Allah's Messenger faced it for t en and some mont hs, but he liked t o face t he Qiblah of Ibrahim (Ka` bah in Makkah). He used t o supplicat e t o Allah and look up t o t he sky (await ing Allah's command). Allah t hen revealed: び͡ べ∠ ジャや ヶ͡ マヰ∇ィヱ ょヤボゎ ン∠ ル ∇ギホぴ ¬ ヨz プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ (Verily, We have seen t he t urning of your (Muhammad's) face t owards t he heaven), unt il, びロゲ∇トセ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ (t urn your faces (in prayer) in t hat direct ion.) The Jews did not like t his ruling and said: ヮヤャ モ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヴ͡ ャや ユヰわヤ∇らホ リ∠ ∇ユヰ⇒zヱ ゅ∠ ぴ ͡ z∂ ホ ヰ ∠∠ ル ミ わz ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ハ ⊥ ャ∠ ョ びゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ⊥ ͡ ∠ ("What has t urned t hem (Muslims) from t heir Qiblah (prayer direct ion) t o which t hey used t o face in prayer.'' Say (O Muhammad), "To Allah belong bot h, east and t he west .'') (2:142) Allah said: びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (. ..so wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah) (2:115), and: リ∠ ユヤ∇バレャ Ιま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ろレ⊥ ヴ͡ ャや るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ヰ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ わz ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ びヮ∇Βらボハ ヴ∠ハ ょヤボレ∠ リz ョ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ノらわΑ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡∠ Α ヨ͡ ∠ シz ⊥ ͡ z ∠ (And We made t he Qiblah (prayer direct ion t owards Jerusalem) which you used t o face, only t o t est t hose who followed t he Messenger (Muhammad ) from t hose who would t urn on t heir heels (i.e., disobey t he Messenger).) (2:143) Is the Qiblah the Ka` bah itself or its General Direction Al-Hakim relat ed t hat ` Ali bin Abu Talib said: びュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプぴ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ (...so t urn your face in t he direct ion of Al-Masj id Al-Haram (at Makkah).) means it s direct ion.'' Al-Hakim t hen comment ed t hat t he chain of t his narrat ion is aut hent ic and t hat t hey (i.e., AlBukhari and Muslim) did not include it in t heir collect ions. This ruling concerning t he Qiblah is also t he opinion of Abu Al-` Aliyah, Muj ahid, ` Ikrimah, Sa` id bin Jubayr, Qat adah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and ot hers. Allah's St at ement : びロゲ∇トセ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ゑ∇Βェヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And wheresoever you people are, t urn your faces (in prayer) in t hat direct ion) is a command from Allah t o face t he Ka` bah from wherever one is on t he eart h: t he east , west , nort h or sout h. The except ion is of t he volunt ary prayer (Nafl) while one is t raveling, for one is allowed t o offer it in any direct ion his body is facing, while his heart is int ending t he Ka` bah. Also, when t he bat t le is raging, one is allowed t o offer prayer, however he is able. Also, included are t hose who are not sure of t he direct ion and offer prayer in t he wrong direct ion, t hinking t hat it is t he direct ion of t he Qiblah, because Allah does not burden a soul beyond what it can bear. The Jews had Knowledge that the (Muslim) Qiblah would later be changed Allah st at ed t hat : リ͡ ペエ∇ャや ヮzぺ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΒャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ラまヱぴ ョ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz z ͡ ∠ び∇ユヰよケ ͡ あz (Cert ainly, t he people who were given t he Script ure (i.e., Jews and t he Christ ians) know well t hat , t hat (your t urning t owards t he direct ion of t he Ka` bah at Makkah in prayers) is t he t rut h from t heir Lord.) This Ayah means: The Jews, who did not like t hat you change your Qiblah from Bayt Al-Maqdis, already knew t hat Allah will command you (O Muhammad) t o face t he Ka` bah. The Jews read in t heir Books t heir Prophet s' descript ion of Allah's Messenger and his Ummah, and t hat Allah has endowed and honored him wit h t he complet e and honorable legislat ion. Yet , t he People of t he Book deny t hese fact s because of t heir envy, disbelief and rebellion. This is why Allah t hreat ened t hem when He said: び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヱぴ ラ ヤヨ Α ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョ∠ (And Allah is not unaware of what t hey do.) ゅz るΑや∠ あ ムよ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ろ∇Βゎぺ ∇リゃャヱぴ ョ ∃ ∠ ¬ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ツ∇バよ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰわヤ∇らホ ノよゅ∠ よ ろルぺ べ∠ ヱ マわヤ∇らホ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎ ヰ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∃ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ バ͡ ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ∇ワぺ ろ∇バらゎや リゃャヱ ヂ∇バよ るヤ∇らホ ノよゅ∠ よ ͡ ∠ ョ ワ∠ ヲ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∃ ͡ わ͡ び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや リヨャ や∠ ま マルま ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや リョ ポ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ∠ ͡ z ク͡ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ィ ョ (145. And even if you were t o bring t o t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) all t he Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelat ions, et c.), t hey would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direct ion), nor are you going t o follow t heir Qiblah. And t hey will not follow each ot her's Qiblah. Verily, if you follow t heir desires aft er t hat which you have received of knowledge (from Allah), t hen indeed you will be one of t he wrongdoers.) The Stubbornness and Disbelief of the Jews Allah describes t he Jews' disbelief, st ubbornness and defiance of what t hey know of t he t rut h of Allah's Messenger , t hat if t he Prophet brought forward every proof t o t he t rut h of what he was sent wit h, t hey will never obey him or abandon following t heir desires. In anot her inst ance, Allah said: - ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι マよケ るヨヤミ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろボェ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ グ z z ͡ び ユΒ͡Ιや ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヱゲΑ ヴz ェ るΑや¬ ぁ ミ ∇ユヰ∇ゎ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ∠ ャx ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ィ ∠∠ (Truly, t hose, against whom t he Word (wrat h) of your Lord has been j ust ified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come t o t hem, unt il t hey see t he painful t orment .) (10:96, 97) This is why Allah said here: ゅz るΑや∠ あ ムよ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ろ∇Βゎぺ ∇リゃャヱぴ ョ ∃ ∠ ¬ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ びマわヤ∇らホ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ バ͡ ∠ (And even if you were t o bring t o t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) all t he Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelat ions, et c.), t hey would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direct ion)). Allah's st at ement : び∇ユヰわヤ∇らホ ノよゅ∠ よ ろル∠ べ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∃ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ぺ ョ∠ (...nor are you going t o follow t heir Qiblah ), indicat es t he vigor wit h which Allah's Messenger implement s what Allah commanded him. Allah's st at ement also indicat es t hat as much as t he Jews adhere t o t heir opinions and desires, t he Prophet adheres by Allah's commands, obeying Him and following what pleases Him, and t hat he would never adhere t o t heir desires in any case. Hence, praying t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis was not because it was t he Qiblah of t he Jews, but because Allah had commanded it . Allah t hen warns t hose who knowingly defy t he t rut h, because t he proof against t hose who know is st ronger t han against ot her people. This is why Allah said t o His Messenger and his Ummah: リョ ポ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ∇ワぺ ろ∇バらゎや リゃャヱぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ィ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ワ∠ ヲ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ∠∠ びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや リヨャ や∠ ま マルま ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ∠ ͡ z ク͡ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ͡ (Verily, if you follow t heir desires aft er t hat which you have received of knowledge (from Allah), t hen indeed you will be one of t he wrongdoers.) ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇バΑ ゅ∠ ミ ヮルヲ⊥ ゲ∇バΑ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Βゎへ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ∠ プ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ プ͡ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ グz ∇ユワヱ ペエ∇ャや ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムΒャ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プ ラまヱ ∇ユワ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ボ ゲ∠ z ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ リョ リルヲ⊥ ゎ Κプ マよケ リ͡ ペエ∇ャや - ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ム∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ z ョ ぁ ∠ ラ ヨヤ Α び リΑ͡ わ∇ヨヨ∇ャや ∠ ゲ∠ ⊥ (146. Those t o whom We gave t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) recognise him (Muhammad or t he Ka` bah at Makkah) as t hey recognize t heir sons. But verily, a part y of t hem conceal t he t rut h while t hey know it i.e., t he qualit ies of Muhammad which are writ t en in t he Tawrah and t he Inj il ). (147. This is) t he t rut h from your Lord. So be you not one of t hose who doubt ). The Jews know that the Prophet is True, but they hide the Truth Allah st at es t hat t he scholars of t he People of t he Script ure know t he t rut h of what Allah's Messenger was sent wit h, j ust as one of t hem knows his own child, which is a parable t hat t he Arabs use t o describe what is very apparent . Similarly, in a Hadit h, Allah's Messenger said t o a man who had a youngst er wit h him: «や∠ ワ マレ∇よや» グ∠ ∠ ⊥ : (Is t his your son) He said, "Yes, O Messenger of Allah! I t est ify t o t his fact .'' Allah's Messenger said: «ヮ∇Βヤハ ヶ͡ ∇イ∠ ゅ∠ヱ マ∇Βヤハ ヶ͡ ∇イΑ ゅ∠ ヮzま ゅ∠ ぺ» ∠∠ レ ゎ ャ∠ ∠ ∠∠ レ ∠ ャ ⊥ ル͡ ョ∠ (Well, you would not t ransgress against him nor would he t ransgress against you.) According t o Al-Qurt ubi, it was narrat ed t hat ` Umar said t o ` Abdullah bin Salam (an Israelit e scholar who became a Muslim), "Do you recognize Muhammad as you recognize your own son'' He replied, "Yes, and even more. The Honest One descended from heaven on t he Honest One on t he eart h wit h his (i.e., Muhammad's) descript ion and I recognized him, alt hough I do not know anyt hing about his mot her's st ory.'' Allah st at es next t hat alt hough t hey had knowledge and cert aint y in t he Prophet , t hey st ill: びペエ∇ャや ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムΒャぴ z ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ (conceal t he t rut h.) The Ayah indicat es t hat t hey hide t he t rut h from t he people, about t he Prophet , t hat t hey find in t heir Books, び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユワヱぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ⊥ ∠ (while t hey know it . ) Allah t hen st rengt hens t he resolve of His Prophet and t he believers and affirms t hat what t he Prophet came wit h is t he t rut h wit hout doubt , saying: び リΑ͡ わ∇ヨヨ∇ャや リョ リルヲ⊥ ゎ Κプ マよケ リ͡ ペエ∇ャやぴ ∠ ゲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ム∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ z ョ ぁ ∠ ((This is) t he t rut h from your Lord. So be you not one of t hose who doubt .) リ∇Αぺ れゲ∇Βガ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ らわ∇シゅ∠ ゅ∠ Βあ∠ ョ ヲワ るヰ∇ィヱ モムャヱぴ ∠ ∠͡ ∠ ∠ ボ ͡ ∠ プ ヰ ャ ヲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ͡ y ⊥ ͡ ∠ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラま ゅ⇔ Β͡ ィ ヮzャや ユムよ れ∇ほΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ゎ ゅ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ バ ヨ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ル ム∠ ョ び ∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ (148. For every nat ion t here is a direct ion t o which t hey face (in t heir prayers). So hast en t owards all t hat is good. Wheresoever you may be, Allah will bring you t oget her (on t he Day of Resurrect ion). Truly, Allah is able t o do all t hings.) Every Nation has a Qiblah Al-` Awfi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said: びゅ∠ Βあ∠ ョ ヲワ るヰ∇ィヱ モムャヱぴ ヰ ャ ヲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ͡ y ⊥ ͡ ∠ (For every nat ion t here is a direct ion t o which t hey face (in t heir prayers)) "This t alks about followers of t he various religions. Hence, every nat ion and t ribe has it s own Qiblah t hat t hey choose, while Allah's appoint ed Qiblah is what t he believers face.'' Abul-` Aliyah said, "The Jew has a direct ion t o which he faces (in t he prayer). The Christ ian has a direct ion t o which he faces. Allah has guided you, O (Muslim) Ummah, t o a Qiblah which is t he t rue Qiblah.'' This st at ement was also relat ed t o Muj ahid, ` At a' Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi, and ot hers. This last Ayah is similar t o what Allah said: ヮzャや ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ゅイ⇒∠ ∇レョヱ るハ∇ゲセ ∇ユムレ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ y ムャぴ ⊥ ヤ ∠ セ ∠∠ ⇔ ヰ ͡ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ レ ∠ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ や∠ べ∠ ヴ͡ ∇ユミヲヤ∇らΒあ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ りギェヱ るョぺ ∇ユムヤバイャ ム ゎ ¬ ョ プ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ャ ム ャ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びゅバΒ͡ ィ ∇ユムバィ∇ゲョ ぶや ヴ∠ま れや∠ ∇Βガャや やヲ⊥ らわ∇シゅ∠ ⇔ ヨ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ͡ ゲ ∠ ボ͡ ∠ プ (To each among you, We have prescribed a law and a clear way. If Allah had willed, He would have made you one nat ion, but t hat (He) may t est you in what He has given you; so compet e in good deeds. The ret urn of you (all) is t o Allah.) (5:48) In t he Ayah (2:148), Allah said: ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラま ゅ⇔ Β͡ ィ ヮzャや ユムよ れ∇ほΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ゎ ゅ∠ リ∇Αぺぴ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ バ ヨ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ル ム∠ ョ ∠ ∠ び∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ (Wheresoever you may be, Allah will bring you t oget her (on t he Day of Resurrect ion). Truly, Allah is able t o do all t hings.) meaning: He is able t o gat her you from t he eart h even if your bodies and flesh disint egrat ed and scat t ered. ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプ ろ∇ィゲカ ゑ∇Βェ ∇リョヱぴ ͡͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ∠ マよケ リ͡ ペエ∇ヤャ ヮルまヱ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョヱ ∠ あ z ョ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプ ろ∇ィゲカ ゑ∇Βェ ∇リョヱ - ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ゑ∇Βェヱ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ リΑ͡ ャや Ιま ∀ イェ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ サゅz ヤ͡ ラヲ⊥ Α Κゃャ ロゲ∇トセ ∠ グz z ͡ るz ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ム∠ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユゎΙヱ ヴ͡ ∇ヲゼ∇カや∠ ∇ユワ∇ヲゼ∇ガゎ Κプ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ z ͡ x ∠ ル ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ヨ∠ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ∇ユムヤバャヱ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヴ͡ ヨ∇バル ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠∠ わ∠ ͡ (149. And from wheresoever you st art fort h (for prayers), t urn your face in t he direct ion of AlMasj id Al-Haram (at Makkah), t hat is indeed t he t rut h from your Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.) (150. And from wheresoever you st art fort h (for prayers), t urn your face in t he direct ion of Al-Masj id Al-Haram (at Makkah), and wheresoever you are, t urn your faces t owards it (when you pray) so t hat men may have no argument against you except t hose of t hem t hat are wrongdoers, so fear t hem not , but fear Me! And so t hat I may complet e My blessings on you and t hat you may be guided.) Why was changing the Qiblah mentioned thrice This is a t hird command from Allah t o face Al-Masj id Al-Haram (t he Sacred Mosque) from every part of t he world (during prayer). It was said t hat Allah ment ioned t his ruling again here because it is connect ed t o what ever is before and what ever is aft er it . Hence, Allah first said: るヤ∇らホ マレΒャヲレヤプ ͡ べ∠ ジャや ヶ͡ マヰ∇ィヱ ょヤボゎ ン∠ ル ∇ギホぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ あ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ¬ ヨz プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ びゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲゎ ワッ ∠ (Verily, We have seen t he t urning of your (Muhammad's) face t owards t he heaven. Surely, We shall t urn you t o a Qiblah (prayer direct ion) t hat shall please you) (2:144), unt il: リ͡ ペエ∇ャや ヮzぺ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΒャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ラまヱぴ ョ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz z ͡ ∠ び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮヤャや ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰよケ ラ ヤヨ Α ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ z ョ∠ ͡ あ z (Cert ainly, t he people who were given t he Script ure (i.e., Jews and t he Christ ians) know well t hat , t hat (your t urning t owards t he direct ion of t he Ka` bah at Makkah in prayers) is t he t rut h from t heir Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what t hey do.) (2:144) Allah ment ioned in t hese Ayat His fulfillment of t he Prophet 's wish and ordered him t o face t he Qiblah t hat he liked and is pleased wit h. In t he second command, Allah said: ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプ ろ∇ィゲカ ゑ∇Βェ ∇リョヱぴ ͡͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ∠ マよケ リ͡ ペエ∇ヤャ ヮルまヱ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョヱ ∠ あ z ョ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ͡ ゲ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ラ ヤヨ ゎ (And from wheresoever you st art fort h (for prayers), t urn your face in t he direct ion of Al-Masid Al-Haram t hat is indeed t he t rut h from your Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.) Therefore, Allah st at es here t hat changing t he Qiblah is also t he t rut h from Him, t hus upgrading t he subj ect more t han in t he first Ayah, in which Allah agreed t o what His Prophet had wished for. Thus Allah st at es t hat t his is also t he t rut h from Him t hat He likes and is pleased wit h. In t he t hird command, Allah refut es t he Jewish assert ion t hat t he Prophet faced t heir Qiblah, as t hey knew in t heir Books t hat t he Prophet will lat er on be commanded t o face t he Qiblah of Ibrahim, t he Ka` bah. The Arab disbelievers had no more argument concerning t he Prophet 's Qiblah aft er Allah commanded t he Prophet t o face t he Qiblah of Ibrahim, which is more respect ed and honored, rat her t han t he Qiblah of t he Jews. The Arabs used t o honor t he Ka` bah and liked t he fact t hat t he Messenger was commanded t o face it . The Wisdom behind abrogating the Previous Qiblah Allah said: び∀ イェ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ サゅz ヤ͡ ラヲ⊥ Α Κゃャぴ るz ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ム∠ z ∠ ͡ (...so t hat men may have no argument against you) Therefore, t he People of t he Book knew from t he descript ion of t he Muslim Ummah t hat t hey would be ordered t o face t he Ka` bah. If t he Muslims did not fit t his descript ion, t he Jews would have used t his fact against t he Muslims. If t he Muslims had remained on t he Qiblah of Bayt Al-Maqdis, which was also t he Qiblah of t he Jews, t his fact could have been used as t he basis of argument by t he Jews against ot her people. Allah's St at ement : び∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや Ιまぴ ⊥ ͡ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ グ z z ͡ (...except t hose of t hem t hat are wrongdoers,) indicat es t he Mushrikin (polyt heist s) of Quraysh. The reasoning of t hese unj ust persons was t he unsound st at ement : "This man (Muhammad) claims t hat he follows t he religion of Ibrahim! Hence, if his facing Bayt Al-Maqdis was a part of t he religion of Ibrahim, why did he change it '' The answer t o t his quest ion is t hat Allah has chosen His Prophet t o face Bayt Al-Maqdis first for cert ain wisdom, and he obeyed Allah regarding t his command. Then, Allah changed t he Qiblah t o t he Qiblah of Ibrahim, which is t he Ka` bah, and he also obeyed Allah in t his command. He, obeys Allah in all cases and never engages in t he defiance of Allah even for an inst ant , and his Ummah imit at es him in t his. Allah said: びヴ͡ ∇ヲゼ∇カや∠ ∇ユワ∇ヲゼ∇ガゎ Κプぴ ル ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ (. ..so fear t hem not , but fear Me!) meaning: ` Do not fear t he doubt s t hat t he unj ust , st ubborn persons raise and fear Me Alone.' Indeed, Allah Alone deserves t o be feared. Allah said: び∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヴ͡ ヨ∇バル ユゎΙヱぴ ⊥ ∠∠ わ∠ ͡ z ͡ x ∠ (...so t hat I may complet e My blessings on you.) This Ayah relat es t o Allah's st at ement : び∀ イェ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ サゅz ヤ͡ ラヲ⊥ Α Κゃャぴ るz ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ム∠ z ∠ ͡ (...so t hat men may have no argument against you), meaning: I will perfect My bount y on you by legislat ing for you t o face t he Ka` bah, so t hat t he (Islamic) Shari` ah (law) is complet e in every respect . Allah said: びラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ∇ユムヤバャヱぴ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠∠ (...t hat you may be guided.), meaning: ` To be direct ed and guided t o what t he nat ions have been led ast ray from, We have guided you t o it and preferred you wit h it .' This is why t his Ummah is t he best and most honored nat ion ever. ゅ∠ わ⇒∠ へ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥∇わΑ ∇ユム∇レョ Ιヲ⊥ ケ ∇ユムΒ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ べ∠ ミぴ レ͡ Α ⊥ ∠∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ あ ⇔ シ∠ ⊥ プ レ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ゅz ユ⊥ ヨヤ∠ Α∠ るヨ∇ムエ∇ャや∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユムヨあバΑヱ ∇ユムΒあ ゴΑヱ ョ ム⊥ あバ⊥ ヱ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヱ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ム∇セや∠ ∇ユミ∇ゲミ∇クぺ ヴ͡ ヱ⊥ ミ∇クゅ∠ - ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バゎ