# Mechanical Vibrations

Lecture 2

Free and forced vibrations of undamped systems

Phase angle and magnitude
x ! A sin([t  J )  x ! [A cos([t  J ) at  t ! 0 x ! x0 v0 ! x0 so x0 ! A sin J v0 ! [A cos J dividing x0 1 ! tan J v0 [ or 1 [x0 J ! tan v0
x k

Phaser

[t  J

v0 [

A sin([t  J )

J
x0

Forced vibration
F0 cos ;t

k 

m kx ! F0 cos ;t x   x k F x ! 0 cos ;t m m
2 n

Homogeneou s solution xh ! A1 sin [ n t  A2 cos [ n t Combining solutions x ! x p  xh ! A1 sin [ n t  A2 cos [ n t  At t ! 0 x ! x0 So x0 ! A2  Giving x!
¨ ¸ v0 f f sin [ nt  © x0  2 0 2 ¹ cos [ n t  2 0 2 cos ;t © ¹ [n [n  ; º [n  ; ª 

[ ! f 0 cos ;t  x Particular solution of the form x p ! A0 cos ;t Substituti ng 2  ; 2 A0 cos ;t  [ n A0 cos ;t ! f 0 cos ;t So f A0 ! 2 0 2 [n  ; giving f x p ! 2 0 2 cos ;t [n  ;

f0 cos ; t [  ;2
2 n

and 

x ! v0

f0 and v0 ! [ n A1 [  ;2
2 n

Forced Vibration
F0 cos ;t

k

Using trig identities and x0 ! 0 v0 ! 0 gives 2 f 0 ¨ [n  ; ¸ ¨ [n  ; ¸ x ! 2 sin © t ¹ sin © t¹ [n º º ª 2 ª 2

Forced Vibration