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CAT CRACKER SEMINAR TRANSCRIPT August 8-9, 2000 Houston, Texas
N A T I O N A L P E T R O C H E M I CAL & R E F I N E R S A S S O C I A T I O N
SUITE 1000 # 1899 L STREET, N.W. # WASHINGTON, DC 20036
NPRA CAT CRACKER SEMINAR AUGUST 8-9, 2000 HOUSTON, TEXAS
TABLE OF CONTENTS Panelists..................................................................................... ii Refractory, Materials, Internals, Expansion Joints, and Slide Valves .........................................................................................3 Rotating Equipment................................................................32 Turnaround/Maintenance/Inspection....................................40 Process/Performance Related Issues......................................51 Exhibitors ................................................................................61
The information and statements herein are believed to be reliable but are not to be construed as a warranty or representation for which the participants assume legal responsibility. Users should undertake sufficient verification and testing to determine the suitability for their own particular purpose of any information or products referred to herein. NO WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE IS MADE. Nothing herein is to be taken as permission, inducement, or recommendation to practice any patented invention without a license.
TX Reliability Engineer Sunoco. TN Frank DeMartino Mike Drosjack C. NJ Engineering Advisor Reliability & Process Safety Westhollow Technology Center Equilon Enterprises LLC Houston. Toledo. IL President Shared Systems Technology Thorofare. TX FCC Technical Services Manager Kellogg Brown & Root Houston.PANELISTS Larry Carper FCCU Mechanical Equipment Consultant BP Amoco Naperville. Farley Jim Marlowe Spence Cousar ii . OH Process Engineer Williams Refining LLC Memphis. Inc. J.
If you have not received the 1996 or 1998. HAZLE: Thank you. My name is Jerry Crail of Equilon LLC and I am the chairman of this year’s seminar. 2000 CRAIL: Good afternoon. The tabletop exhibit will be open this evening after the Q&A Session. I’d like to welcome you to the 2000 Cat Cracker Seminar. For those of you that attended the meeting two years ago. Jerry. The tabletop will also be open tomorrow at lunch for you to see all of the fine things they have out there. I want to thank you all for coming. you should have received your copy by mail within the last week. we will have the workshops and there will be a series of them with six starting in the morning. I'd like to introduce some of the committee members . a fantastic tabletop show. and that will only be coffee . could you stand up? I'd like to thank them again for their fine work. We're employing the usual Q&A format where we solicit questions from past attendees of these conferences. and after looking at the agenda I am sure it will be. [applause] I'd also like to thank the NPRA staff that has worked very hard to make all of these arrangements for the meeting facilities and the tabletop area. They are Jeff Hazle. I also want to thank the exhibitors. and I hope you all appreciate it. We're going to start off today with a Q&A Session. They are Jon Carlson of Koch Petroleum. some of them are repeated. Stacy Lane and Kelly Healy. I think we have a record turnout this year. I hope everyone finds this seminar as fruitful as it has been in the past. If you're here. Tomorrow.the ones that have worked very hard to put on this seminar. This 1 . often consulting other people in the places where they work. and six more in the afternoon. Shailendra Gupta of BP. I want to welcome everybody. First. We'll talk to them in a minute. The Panelists then prepare their responses. Fred Collier of Williams Energy. and put their answers together. I'd like to go ahead and start the conference and turn it over to Jeff Hazle for the Q&A. As you will notice. the transcripts of the last two Cat Cracker Q & A Sessions are available. for introducing the Q&A Session.there will not be any continental breakfast. and we have the panelists here. who then edit those questions submitted to NPRA and select the ones that they will use in the session. Also. could you stand up? [applause] Thank you. I think their participation is one of the things that will really make this conference one that's worthwhile to everyone. I'm looking forward to the agenda. Yvette Brooks. which will enable people to go to different workshops. Pat Lysaght of Marathon Ashland. This is the first year of having a larger exhibit hall. TX August 8-9.2000 Cat Cracker Seminar Adams-Mark Hotel Houston. With that. The Program Committee puts together a panel of experts. It will also be open tomorrow morning. from what I can see. and Charlie Pauls of Cooperative Refining. which is great. you can pick them up at the NPRA registration desk. and tomorrow morning we will have coffee. To start with. If you're around. and I want to thank them for putting on.
We replaced both our reactor and regenerator and installed UOP’s VSS catalyst separation technology in both vessels. and you will have a chance to edit your comments. When they do that. we will mail it out to everybody who speaks.make sure we understood what your question was. so Spence is filling in at the last moment. will talk about how the solution to the problem has evolved as technology has advanced. They had some problem at the refinery. and Jeff couldn’t make it. it’s more informal. I worked for a major refining company for just over 7 years. please state your name and affiliation. if there is one. Farley of Kellogg Brown & Root. there is a disclaimer for this. As usual. We have a different stage setting this year. we have eight Cat Crackers scattered around the country from Delaware City to Louisiana to Houston.000 bbd FCC that processes 100% atmospheric tower resid. The second responder will describe how the problem was addressed initially. And in our company right now. Mike? DROSJACK: Hi. because when we finish the transcript. HAZLE: Thanks. and then we’ll go to the questions. FARLEY: I joined KBR in 1997. The next panelist is C. My job is to perform FCC technical service work for KBR. Hopefully. Next to me is Mike Drosjack with Equilon. which is up the road here. My particular function is providing support in the rotating machinery area. As usual. There is no legal responsibility or liability that goes along with their answers. we ask that you use the microphone when you address questions to the panel. The units I typically interface with are Kellogg/KBR 2 . so if you have a question to ask of the panel. raise your hand. We have a 75. and we provide support to the various refining locations we have. you need to test to see whether or not it’s appropriate for your own facility. He’s a late fill-in for Jeff Warmann at Williams Energy. The panel is representing their experiences. we have tried to organize the answers as much as possible in the following way: The first responder will give some background on the question. if you would. I’m with Equilon Enterprises. and hand a business card to the microphone handler. and the panel. prior to that. With that. J. we will introduce the panelists. the session will be recorded and a transcript will be made. We have microphones in both aisles and one in the back. and somebody will bring the microphone to you. the attendees. which was formed by Shell and Texaco’s refining arms a couple of years ago. I’m in the Westhollow Technology Center. and more conversational. and then the third responder. We completed an FCC revamp in November 1999.year. which means I travel around the world to visit different locations where we have projects as well as heading to places where we have extended service agreements. We also have people who will be carrying the microphones to you. or make changes . Anything that you hear here. of course. It is intended to represent a dialogue with you. Spence. For that reason. if necessary. TN. HAZLE: The next panelist is Spence Cousar. what do you have at Williams? COUSAR: I’m a process engineer at the Williams refinery in Memphis. I will ask each of them to describe the kind of FCC units that they work with. and have a little bit of everything in that package. in Houston.
MATERIALS. HAZLE: The next panelist is Jim Marlowe of Sunoco’s Toledo refinery. Illinois.. could you lead on this. My exchange today will focus on experience with the heritage Amoco units as my exposure to the heritage BP units is limited.000 bpd fuel facility refinery.designs that are anywhere from five years to thirty years old. and shortly will become a free agent.000 bpd. EXPANSION JOINTS. DEMARTINO: I don't have a Cat Cracker. Following each question. I also work with a good number of UOP geometries. C. Let’s go to the first question. HAZLE: Next is Larry Carper. and our Cat Cracker is around a 60. who works in BP Amoco’s Refining Technology Group in Naperville. I'm the president of Shared Systems Technology. HAZLE: Alright. HAZLE: Thank you panelists. MARLOWE: I’ve been with the Sun Toledo Refinery for about ten or fifteen years. J. I work for many companies. REFRACTORY. but I've been working with FCCU’s for 25 years. after the panelists’ responses. INTERNALS. I've been involved in at least 50 Cat Cracker installations and I've probably seen the full spectrum of FCCU technology. such as side-by-side. Has anyone experienced a packed expansion joint failure due to polythionic corrosion and how do you prevent it from occurring? a) What causes this type of corrosion? b) How are stainless steel joints affected? c) Are exotic metallurgies a solution? d) Any new developments? 3 . last is Frank DeMartino. I will ask for questions from the audience. CARPER: BP Amoco currently has 22 Fluid Units utilizing various designs and technologies throughout the world. AND SLIDE VALVES Question 1. please? I. So that's why I am glad to come here and try to share some information with you. For the first question and the first response. and we have a 150. Before that I had service with Amoco and with ARCO. stacked and high-efficiency designs. Some of the units are gas oil units and some are resid units. I have over 23 years experience within the company. I don't work just for one company.
and so materials like 304. the dewpoints change. For high temperature designs. In terms of exotic metallurgies to avoid polythionic attack. Too hot can embrittle the bellows material. If you're above the dewpoint where the acid maybe wouldn't be so much of an issue. Too cool and you risk dewpoint corrosion or polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking. The "sensitization" of stainless steel occurs when the carbon content is "unstabilized" and allows microstructural intergranular paths to form by carbide precipitation during heating (such as welding) when temperatures exceed about 800 °F. or other forms of stress corrosion. because they are not immune to sensitization. The number is 1-800-334-7193. but this still allows carbide precipitation or sensitization to take place. The current thinking within our metallurgy community is Inconel 625-LCF.FARLEY: Polythionic acid (PTA) stress corrosion is caused by acid formation on "sensitized" stainless steel when air and water contact a sulfur contaminated hydrocarbon. There are natural cavities where water can be trapped in these surfaces. there are two general areas to look at to keep this from occurring. as well as low temperature chloride attack. but too much external insulation can overheat the bellows. Internal packing/insulation minimizes catalyst entering the convolutions maintaining the functionality of the bellows or expansion joint. it's not an issue. But now you risk cooling the bellows below dewpoint. And really. We suggest monitoring the bellows temperature during and after startup. But if you're below the dewpoint. We've put this material in some pretty 4 . I can give you an 800 number. you have to look at the costs and benefits when reviewing all of the alternatives. We have looked at things like 800H and 800HT. for Advanced Polymer Sciences. We recently experienced a failure with Inconel 625 bellows. 316 or chemically stabilized 321 are not immune in the expansion joint design. Anyone care to discuss? DEMARTINO: We've had the opportunity to work with a cross-link inorganic compound that's good to 500°F. if you apply this post-cure coating above the dewpoint where the material may be at 500°. Generally. It's choosing the appropriate materials of heat treatment that can handle the manufacturing processes unsensitized and also keeping the process stress heat moisture away from these bellows and keep the polythionic attack (PTA) from occurring. there's a chance that the coating will resist the acid attack for a long time. we tend to stay away from these things. Stainless steel expansion joints have surfaces that exceed the limits of the onset of stress corrosion. CARPER: We have struggled with bellows metallurgy for years. The internal shroud failed exposing the bellows to the high temperature flue gas. Bellows temperature design is critical. Our successes with either material is mixed. Recently we learned that a refinery experienced a bellows failure due to overheating which was caused by excessive external insulation. DROSJACK: We've had these problems in our facilities more than once. We would generally say Inconel 625 is a respectable choice. Previously we specified Incoloy 825 and Inconel 625 as an alternate. It has good resistance to sensitization and PTA attack. we usually require an H grade to maintain high temperature strength. The solution is to insulate externally. then adjusting as necessary.
we point to the riser. To improve your perspective. What we see is coke formation that has occurred over two to three years of operation. This is a pretty well-known problem. and that’s what you can see here in this photograph (Figure 1). Generally when we see this. inside the cyclone. You can have two or three inches of material build up. But generally. high temperature applications and had some real good success. We have also seen that one way to help mitigate this is to use a little bit of sweep steam in the reactor vessel disengager. where feed can be very difficult to vaporize. when we start seeing this type of coke formation. You can have literally heavy components that form liquid droplets that coalesce in this area. so it is not scoured by solids. This has been effective for inhibiting this kind of coke formation. we tend to start looking at the riser operation and start asking whether or not we are getting good atomization in the riser.adverse conditions. Question 2. which then thermally crack. So that may be one thing you want to consider to stop some of your acid attack. but primarily. this makes a very hard coke. and the gas flow is moving towards the left. including some high sulfur. and it gets pretty thick over the run length. this area is pretty inactive in the cyclone body. What kind of temperatures do we have in the riser? Do we have enough catalyst/oil mixing? Is there enough steam in the riser to easily vaporize the hydrocarbon? This has been of particular importance in resid units. 5 . and it happens quite often on the back side of the gas outlet tube. the cyclone inlet horn is located over here (right side of photo). We say that there are basically two root causes for this problem. FIGURE 1 Coke forms for several reasons. Has anyone experienced coke formation on the outside diameter of reactor cyclone gas outlet tubes? a) How can coke formation be eliminated? b) Has anyone used anchors to hold the coke in place? Why not? c) How important is removal of the coke? FARLEY: Question Two is about coke formation on the outside diameter of reactor cyclone gas outlet tubes.
and robotic demolition. we have not experienced coke forming on austenitic stainless steel cyclones in a reactor vessels. because they are going to go back in the vessel to get the material out of the dipleg. Removal? . However. Indiana. how do you keep away from having hot spots? There is not an easy way. see this coke present in the cyclone system. and there’s a chance that the coke would not attach itself to the stainless steel. very common around the world to have units that come down for turnaround. dryout time. because there are two main issues with that. was how important is removal of this coke? And the easy answer is that it’s absolutely critical to remove this coke. low chrome steel cyclones and refractory. And then the discussion was made. So. you really have to take it out. So. And it’s very. What are some of the best methods to remove the coke? DEMARTINO: We’re going to show a sketch here (Figure 2) of some demolition hammers. you know. Of everything we’ve seen 6 . Mt. but it’s something that somebody may want to try if they’re having a lot of coke buildup. my response to question #20 will also cover explosive demolition. Later in the session. FARLEY: One part of the question. Regarding the question of anchoring coke. Vernon. there is a very real chance that all they are doing is buying about two or three weeks of time. That’s the first issue. part C. Most recently we found coke in one of our gas oil units. If you go into the unit and you see this present.000 psi. we have found coke to form on both carbon steel. Coke on the OD of a gas outlet tube is unstable and can plug diplegs. we have seen coke form on the OD (outside diameter) of gas outlet tubes in resid operations. we are very adamant about coke removal. I am not gutsy enough to try and sell this concept! I would like to offer one point of observation.Adamantly recommend removal. just to hold the immense amount of coke so they could go inside and get some inspections and then chip away the coke so there was no accidents. there are ways of arc spray metallizing 304 or 300 grade stainless to carbon steel. plugging a dipleg which resulted in an unplanned outage. It’s a relatively inexpensive method of application. QUINCY SUMMERS (Countrymark Co-op): Quincy Summers with Countrymark. It is an interesting observation. hydrodemolition. once again. The coke was both hard and soft. and decide not to spend the time to get it out.CARPER: Until recently. You may have to do an air dryout when you restart and as you get up to temperature with air. We recently experienced a situation where thermal cycling the reactor was sufficient to dislodge the coke from the outlet tube. So they are using some refractory anchors. which is the answer to your specific question. The bond strengths are up around 10. It’s very important for the coke to be removed if you see it on the gas outlet tube. if it was a stainless steel vessel and the coke wouldn’t attach itself to the vessel. many anchors in place. And when this happens. at least one of my customers is. The second issue is that this material will spall off and end up in a dipleg. We are continuing efforts for understanding and prevention. this coke can be a fuel source. The first one is. DEMARTINO: We happen to work for one customer that has a resid unit that put many.
It’s got about a 30-inch arc on the backside and it’s got imprints of hex mesh on that backside.in all of these refineries I talk to across the United States. It’s got very nice horizontal erosion marks on 7 . It’s not a great thing. I have evidence now that if you stick around FCC units long enough. FIGURE 2 There are some robotic systems out there. ten rivet busters working in the same unit. but they’re one entity demolition pieces whereas you can have six. eight. Everybody ends up covered in coke dust at the end of the shift and you get bigger muscles. it gets you off the critical path pretty quickly. That still seems to be the best way for the demolition. It’s beautiful. the darn things will make you a liar about everything you say. I stood up in front of the NPRA Q&A panel about ten years ago and said Chevron doesn’t have a coking problem inside of cyclones. a rivet buster is the most effective. LEWIS FREDERICKSON (Chevron Products Company): I’m Lew Frederickson from Chevron. And we brought some pictures to show you on the screen of this. There are some sketches coming up of that. PHOTO 1X This is a sample (Photo 1x) of the kind of coke we found on the backside of the cyclone outlet tubes in one of our FCC reactors. basically.
): Not so much a question as a comment. or you might have the same problem we did. This Sun Refinery has regen cyclones that are too small for the throughput that we desire.): We’ve also seen. apparently. It will cause a problem somewhere sooner or later. you might not find coke deposits like this. which was in March 2000. This is primarily important in the sense that as it forms during operation. we’ll certainly talk to you. and Lou Frederickson kind of demonstrated. It went through the diplegs okay. is pickled and does not particularly corrode. and when we tried to startup. we’ve also seen that with regards to coke buildup on things like counter-weighted valves.if you find coke in the cyclones. What is the experience with different refractory systems for regenerator cyclones? MARLOWE: The picture (Figure 3) shows what happened to our unit on our last inspection. we found deposits in the same location. Lou’s stayed on until they started back up again. Unless you’re really looking for it. and the reports that we got were good. I’m Bill Wilson. but it plugged the spent catalyst slide valve. of course. We did not identify coke with the video camera. We attribute it to the fact that the low chrome and the carbon steels will have an oxide surface on them. TENNEY (Marsulex Inc. We missed it during the shutdown. We took several more bucketfuls of coke out of the two cyclones in this FCC unit. If anybody’s interested. it was black in there. This is a picture of our secondary hopper on our secondary cyclone. is that it tends to stay on refractory lined surfaces better than it does on a steel surface. or much rougher than the stainless steel which. an FCC consultant with Barnes and Click. Another option that works sometimes. As you all know. So just another option to at least alleviate some of the downside of this coke buildup. we tried inspecting the reactor cyclones with a video camera due to really tough accessibility. We’ve elected 8 . And you’ve really got to be alert in looking for it. and they didn’t see it. everything was shiny. WILSON (Barnes and Click. Back in the mid-80s. The scary part was that experienced inspectors were in those cyclones.the other side. I agree it needs to come off. One of the questions they had here was about using anchors to hold the coke in place. EDWIN D. What is your experience with erosion in regenerator secondary cyclone dust bowls? Explain the effect of cyclone size and catalyst loading on expected cyclone life. Question 3. and then it came off. we did some experimental work with filling up the back area with some special refractory and a special design. We put it into two units. Inc. you need to take it out. it’s less likely to break off from a small upset. and sometimes the deposits are a lot smoother than this one is. In another FCC shutdown following the coke incident mentioned above. We also had a large pile of coke in the bottom of the spent catalyst stand pipe. but when we did get someone into the cyclones to look specifically for coke. once you find it. It was really easy to figure out where it came from. or had reported in a number of our cyclones that people have had coking in the reactors for all the reasons that were mentioned. if you have refractory lining on the outside of that outlet tube. I fully support the recommendation the panel made . and a rough surface. But we actually have had one case where just lining that tube prevented unexpected shutdowns from plugged diplegs after spalling off the outlet tube. JOSEPH W. The other thing Larry Carper mentioned about the difference between stainless steel and the low chrome and the carbon steels. a lot of this coke spalled off.
even with our improvements. we lost the hex. You can see that we lost the refractory. We also put some wear plates on the diplegs where we found some more wear out areas. We did add some more wear plates and we improved the secondary hoppers by adding some length to them and putting in 1" refractory in lieu of the ¾". In ’95. So we added wear plates. FIGURE 3 So we presented much of what I’m telling you today to our upper management. We added wear plates to the secondary hoppers to try to avoid some of this wear through on the secondary cyclones. And what you're seeing there is circular wear at the very top of the dipleg and that is what's worn the most. we increased our design conditions to 55. In ’89. 9 . We had to do some research with cyclone experts. we talked to Tony Schultz. we had new cyclones. we put new secondary hoppers in on that outage. About six months before our last outage in March. We had excessive wear also in the secondary hoppers. Seven out of our eight hoppers had those kinds of holes in them when we opened them up in the year 2000 after a five year run. In preparing for the 2000 turnaround. we were anticipating to have as many as 104 wear areas that we would be prepared to patch. This is the kind of wear we've seen. And we told them that in ’85. and we added more wear plates. we did run longer. This is a picture (Figure 4) looking down into the bottom of the secondary hopper. In '95. We talked to Ed Tenney. we were one month away from a hole through in both these situations. The history in ’89 with our cyclone wear was that we had excessive wear to our secondary hoppers and diplegs.000 bbd. We had known since ’93 that our cyclones are too small. we decided that we were running velocities that were too high in our cyclones. But still. We had a five year and three month run. hoping that we would be able to run a little longer without having a hole through.to live with that limit as long as possible. and Kellogg specialists. That was on the same hopper that you saw a picture of just a minute ago. and we were wearing into the metal. We were about a month away from hole through. They were put in for the high temperature regeneration.
Each one of those is an actual hole through the hopper area and the dipleg. we couldn’t have run much longer. We could tell that in a four-year run. So we found a way to limit our velocities and we did make it to the turnaround. We had given our management a choice of shutting down earlier or limiting our velocities. We’d have only made it maybe one or two more months. Then for the five year and three month run we had in our ’95 outage. we had an average velocity of about 81 feet per second at the inlet of this second stage hopper. But as you can see. From this photograph (Figure 5) I’ve got some more comments.FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 But we’ve slowed our velocities down from the 86 or 87 feet per second at the inlet of the secondary hoppers. That’s another picture (Figure 5) of the holes where you can see the white dusting there coming down. before we had done some of the improvements. I guess. so we had a pretty good history on this unit. we had an 10 . in relation to the velocities. We had run different run lengths at different velocities.
KBR strongly believes you want to limit the secondary cyclone inlet velocity to about 75 feet per second. and brought it back up. That gives you a really high swirling velocity found in the dust bowl area. We knew with a maximum velocity of 85 and an average of 83 we would be able to hold out. generally. retired): My name is Bazil Burgess. think this is a large factor in erosion in the secondary cyclone. They have an existing cyclone there and they can make money today by running over 75 feet a second. and took the boxes off. But in '93. we had a cyclone holed just below the dipleg in the secondary cyclones. However. of course. In the primary cyclone you have high catalyst loading and that loading provides a kind of cushion for the particles to ride along each other. so you have a reduced swirling velocity. We went in. It's also a very common industry practice to go well over 75 feet a second on the inlet velocity. and we didn’t change to anything that was a larger size or different. But in the secondary cyclones. we’re going to give them these same limits. but we believe you should stay below 175 fps. 11 . it's not uncommon to see holes this size in the dust bowls. We know we’re not going to be able to wear the cyclones out at the secondary hoppers if we control these velocities. and so you have less erosion potential. There is a substantial change in erosion potential with a small increase in velocity. The upper cyclone in the secondary cyclones has low solids loading so it has higher swirling velocities. We also believe that high L/D (length to diameter) ratios will improve cyclone efficiencies. Inlet and outlet velocities in the secondary cyclones are higher than the primary cyclones. we think it’s pretty common to see wear on the secondary cyclones’ dust bowls. And then. we think there is more flexibility in outlet velocity. FARLEY: Regarding the cyclones. which used to be the BP Refinery there before it was sold. Primary cyclones’ high solids loading and fairly low pressure drop means gas usually flows down the dipleg. increased the length of the cyclone dust pots. we had good inspection. Some people believe it is even higher than this. And on the next major shutdown in '94. And just as the picture shows. This is a critical parameter for maximum efficiency. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. Increasing the cyclone size gives you a lower velocity. And that’s basically what we’re doing now. We do not. We think that controlled inlet velocity is critical for having long run length.average of about 82 feet per second. so we knew what to expect. vapor comes up the dipleg. high L/D in the first stage is more useful. This is not to say we do not believe in high L/D. which leads to a much more erosive condition. It is important to note that most people believe erosion is a factor of velocity to at least the third power (cubed). So we had good history. The reason is that companies want to take advantage of capacity in the unit. The high loading exerts some drag on that gas. installed boxes. which makes for very poor conditions in that dust bowl. they have a continual problem. For our next run. So we knew that was the range that we could live with in our situation. It's fairly common to do that. in terms of erosion. however. So it's very easy to have erosion. and I’ve just taken a package from the Premcor refinery in Lima. we went in. In the regenerator cyclone. we think it is a marginal improvement. which gives you lower swirling velocities. refilled them with refractory. in terms of minimizing secondary cyclone erosion. which I believe they're planning on solving by replacing the cyclones next time.
Inc. One thing that I guess I was surprised to see several years ago — we've seen where people have boxed in. everybody has done the wear plate scheme. Obviously. you can’t always lengthen your cyclones. One other comment. I think people have already mentioned inlet velocities as a key item. and talked to our process engineer. talked to our vendor. can be problems in that area. We still had a little problem when we went back in in ’99. that if you have a higher outlet velocity. and he made us up a set of charts based on airflow of the air going into the regenerator. And we were probably increasing our velocity. The last item. I’ve heard people talk about slightly lower limits. And we operated by that. with about 37 years experience in the Cat Cracking business. if you’re trying to fix something during a turnaround. DONALD F. and he had informed us that our cyclones were borderline on length the first time around when they were built. that is considered to be a critical aspect. which I don’t think has been mentioned. because they’re also planning on going up in capacity.): My name is Don Shaw. I listed what I think might be root causes for this problem. And sometimes the fix is to try to improve the primary cyclone. And right at the junction of the dust pot and the dipleg. but we went ahead and made appropriate repairs. 12 . you generate a deeper vortex. and the assumption is you might have a clean sheet of paper and you’re designing new cyclones. which I think cyclone vendors will talk about. You might be putting higher loadings and more catalyst and larger particle sizes into the secondary cyclone. I just wanted to reinforce and maybe offer a few new comments to what were made. At least in some circles. then there’s more time for the vortex kinetic energy to be dissipated before it gets into the dust bowls. is the L over D ratio of the cyclone bodies. And people with cyclones that have put in smaller outlet tubes have seen this erosion occur. but I think we’ve seen in some cases. that the erosion occurred in that little gap. The numbers that I like to see are probably between 75 and 85 feet per second in inlet. SHAW (Carmagen Engineering. So. I sort of call it a dysfunctional primary cyclone. unless they're filled with refractory and really tight to the surface. I think it’s pretty well known if you talk to the cyclone vendors. because of a failure elsewhere in the unit. If the cyclone bodies are longer. if indeed you can. because an existing unit that might shorten the dipleg. and it’s driven down into the dust bowl. At that time. We got a recommendation from them on velocities for that particular cyclone. I believe their plans at this point are to replace those cyclones.We had an opportunity to go back in about two and a half or three years later. The other one. sometimes the wear plates. temperature coming out of the regenerator and also pressure. formerly with Exxon. you might try to accommodate some of these issues. is a primary cyclone that’s not the best cyclone in the world and may not be as efficient as it should be. We had the same circumstances. put a wear plate on. The other item that was alluded to is the gas outlet velocities. and people hole through in that area. and actually there was enough kinetic energy in the gap between wear plate and the old metallic body pieces. and you have to be able to work that out. and discovered that the entire bottom half of the cone of the cyclone on the secondary cyclones had eroded to bare metal. But on the other hand. we’d eroded to bare metal there also. Realizing again. I’m currently with Carmagen Engineering. we didn’t have any idea what had caused it. but it wasn’t as bad. But I think that also depends on the overall system that you have.
so we’re still waiting to get the final results. We trimmed the cone back a little bit so it was a little wider. The material is built inside the capsule to the point that it would embed itself midpoint in a 1" lining or a 3/4" lining. could be Atchem. But this system is for a typical hot wall installation with a thin abrasion-resistant lining. which is basically is to embed a material at a specific thickness in the refractory lining. We could cut back the cone a little bit.): We did some work on this some years ago. but it makes much more difference on the primary cyclone. TENNEY (Marsulex Inc. We didn’t really concern ourselves too much with that. and we found that the shape of the hopper makes a significant difference. on the secondary cyclone. and this refractory that’s in the face of this 13 . like aa-22. And we had a couple of options there. If you’re on a stand pipe or a regenerator wall. We elected to do both. Funding did not follow the requests. The location of our wear was right at the bottom of the vortex from the cone. I would like to poll the audience to determine who is using and who is interested. He and I came up with an idea and we had some patent searches done on it. (Response: One). DEMARTINO: Bill Dawes of United Refining is in the audience this afternoon. As the unit comes online. Is anybody currently using cyclone wear indicators and what type? Is there any interest in it? Please raise your hands. but this probably wouldn’t help you because elevated temperatures are certainly going to tell you that you have refractory loss. I’m not sure. after the cone comes into the secondary hopper. It still was the highest velocity right there at the bottom of the cone. We had the secondary hopper made longer so that where our vortex ended. we would be above our lower transition cone into the dipleg. But could you share with us the L over D and the outlet velocities associated with that? MARLOWE: Yes. you can do a thermal imaging. What we do is embed a detectable material that is encapsulated in the material of choice for the thin wall of various linings . And we have been putting some of those in here for the last several years. But. and we could lengthen the secondary hopper. We assumed that this would be more for the thin wall abrasion linings. Maybe Ed can address it. could be A22. JOSEPH L. It doesn’t make a whole lot of difference.could be plastic. I guess we didn’t really change the L over D. Who is using on-line refractory wear indicators? CARPER: Several of our unit asset managers have asked our technology groups to investigate the development of cyclone wear indicators.EDWIN D. But we have seen the same designs in some online petrochemical cyclones and there we have seen a night and day change from the erosion to no erosion. Question 4. as you can see. We were worried about the wear point in the secondary hopper. ROSS (IFP North America): I thank you for the comment on the 82 or 83 foot a second and four and five year run length you observed. resulting in no development. it didn’t stop the wear. from what I understand. So that seemed to make a little difference.
abrades away, this detectable material would release itself in the operational environment of the Cat Cracker, or a petroleum coke gasifier. We’ve already had some discussion with the catalyst companies that do the testing of the catalyst for the refineries at least every week. And this material is detectable. So, in essence, what we’re saying is if you run your cyclones for 20 months and you have a release, and you pick up a certain ppm, you know that you have a problem somewhere where you had determined to install these devices. And if you know that you ran 20 months and you have a release, it’s time to start thinking that in 20 months, you’re going to start to hole through some of these cyclones, diplegs or internal stand pipes or other things like that. This is patent pending at this point. I don’t have the financial resources to market something like this. And I really don’t want to be bothered. So we’ve been talking to Vesuvius and RHI and Resco and a couple of the others to see if they could purchase it and market it. It’s much more than a company my size can handle, but we think that it’s going to help a lot of companies down the line. KEITH E. BLAIR (Valero Refining Company): Keith Blair, Valero Refining, Paulsboro, New Jersey. Frank, you were talking about actually taking a sample stream of the internal material, whatever the hydrocarbon is off of there. Are you saying something tubing-wise is actually sampling something off of there, or is this a thermocouple-type installation? DEMARTINO: There is no mechanical attachment in electronics or pressure taps or anything like that. This simply releases a specific material, which travels with the catalyst and won’t affect the unit you’re running. KEITH E. BLAIR (Valero Refining Company): Okay, I’ve got you. So you haven’t come across anything where somebody is embedding something like thermocouples halfway through a refractory lining? DEMARTINO: We thought about thermocouples, but then you have a multitude of lines running out the cyclone and through the shell. And it’s just a mess. We couldn’t see how you could encapsulate the lines with A22 and then Bob Jenkins is inspecting more of our stuff, so who would want to pay for that? But on a weekly basis or twice a week, typically the catalyst companies will check the catalyst. And for a nominal fee, they can look for this type of material. Once you say “Hey, we have a release”, you have a potential problem down the line. And then so you don't throw 100 tons of catalyst out after your first run, you have a benchmark of say 1 ppm of the material. So the next time you have a release in there of say 2 ppm, you have another potential problem down the line. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor, retired): When we installed close coupled cyclones in '94, we put a number of thermocouples in the cyclones going to the outside. We also talked to vendors at that time and they suggested there is also a possibility of using this type of cyclone or a thermocouple insulation for a refractory cyclone wear indicator. I don't think anybody has done anything with it, but it was a possibility at that time, so it's probably still suitable, because I do know the thermocouples 14
they’ve got inside the reactor now are still functional, and they are the type of thermocouples that you would need to be able to install in the cyclones that we’re talking about. DEMARTINO: Bazil, are these vibration casted cyclones? BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor, retired): These are all in a high density, abrasion resistant refractory such as the plastics, the rammables. Most of the cyclones we’re talking about do have a 1" or 3/4" of high density, abrasion resistant refractory, both in the reactor and the regenerator. Question 5. What do you do about severe erosion of air grid nozzles? What are the advantages and disadvantages of upward and downward pointed nozzles?
MARLOWE: At the Sun Toledo refinery, we have around 1000 air grid nozzles about an inch and a half in diameter. In the ’95 turnaround, we tried about four different types of repairs after much discussion with different people. Kellogg Engineering agreed that these would be about the best four different methods we could try.
So we tried ceramic nozzles on the air grid on a small scale basis. We had some direct replacement and we had some oversized sleeves that we had tried in the past. We took a look at those and we saw that neither one of those actually solved our problem. We were getting a lot of erosion and backflow into the nozzles. As you can see from this picture (Figure 6), we have a couple different types of nozzles. But the wear is pretty typical for anything that projects outside the refractory. We could see that you get outside wear and you get wear from the catalyst recirculating inside the nozzle. What was interesting to us is, in ’95, once we cut back the nozzle to the refractory lines the eroding lessened or stopped. At least it seemed that way. So we did cut a number of them 15
back flush to the refractory line and we left those that had cut themselves back alone. We had an order in for a couple hundred of the ceramic nozzle inserts, and installed around 40. That’s what you see with the white circles here. Actually, the picture (Figure 6) is from the year 2000 this last spring. They start out pretty square and flat at the surface, and then wear pretty uniformly in more of a dome shape. The other thing we did was replace a number of in-kind nozzles and we did try some oversized sleeves that fit over the worn nozzle tips. But by far, the best thing we could see after we opened up on the year 2000 spring turnaround, was that just cutting back the nozzles to the refractory line worked well. Unless you have a nozzle that actually has recirculation and goes back inside the nozzle past the refractory line, you really don’t have to worry about adverse effects. Kellogg will tell you, that you want to make sure your nozzle length still has critical dimensions or you will still have wear problems. You have to keep a minimum dimension from the orifice of your nozzle out to the end, whether it’s at the refractory line or whether it’s at the end of the nozzles you put in. FARLEY: Jim, you’re right. KBR will tell you about that. In terms of erosion on the air grid, we see a couple of main things. And these were alluded to in Jim’s section. First, we definitely recommend the use of dual diameter nozzles. That is a nozzle that has an orifice at the beginning of the nozzle, and then a specific length of piping before the air discharges into the bed. The orifice takes pressure drop to make sure there is even air distribution. That helps eliminate catalyst backflow in one section of the grid and which then gets discharged through another section of the grid. When catalyst backs into a grid on a routine basis, it’s pretty bad. Grids just do not last. You would generally target air grid pressure drop for around 1.5 psi, or ~ 30% of the static head of the bed at turnaround conditions. And, you have to be careful about catalyst attrition, which can be caused by high velocity jets being discharged from the nozzles. This was actually discussed in 1996 at this meeting. I would like to mention the nozzle length is very important. You want to avoid having a nozzle where the orifice is located too close to the nozzle discharge; this gives you a high velocity jet discharging into the catalyst bed because the flow is not fully developed in the nozzle. That can cause catalyst attrition. KBR also fully refractory lines the external portion of the air grid to improve mechanical reliability. This reduces the temperature the grid operates at as well as cuts down on the temperature differences between the top and bottom surfaces of the grid. There is a portion of the question about upward and downward pointing nozzles. I think the industry experience has been that both types of nozzles will work. KBR prefers the downward pointing nozzles. We believe it’s harder to plug these types of nozzles during upsets. We also believe this has better resistance to backmix erosion. We think there is some mechanical reliability to be gained by having downward point nozzles. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor, retired): When I was working for Charter back in the ’80s, we installed a new UOP dome air grid and had the occasion to try several different nozzles in that air grid. We came up with two designs that worked for us. First of all, we coated the dome itself with 1" of high density, abrasion resistant refractory. At each hole for the nozzle, we installed ceramic nozzles with a tapered configuration that would match the flow distribution as it came out and the inside was
Dynamic-Ceramics has got around that by patenting a design. So we changed to a design similar to that which Kellogg mentioned where we’re looking at a section of pipe with an orifice at the bottom. there’s a little gap there so you have this difference for thermal growth. both the ceramic was hard enough for resistance similar to the refractory. This worked exceptionally well. because the thermal expansion differential is about half of that of the stainless steel. But what we did is we used a thin wall piece of pipe.): Did the gap cause you any problems for vibration? MARLOWE: On vibration? No. We had about a 6" diameter polishing of the top of the refractory. This was reported to this meeting probably in the mid-’80s. since it’s been a while since I’ve done this work. that design also would work for several years. and we put the top of the pipe right at the surface of our refractory. There was one piece of steel that was shaped for the header similar to a sockolet. And then there’s an outer pipe sleeve on top of that. because the designs we were given were based on a square edged orifice. We've used it in other areas other than the air grid nozzle. Historically. That worked fairly well. and we put in a rounded edge orifice. but what we do. We did have a flow problem.rounded so we had an exact diameter for the orifice. We didn't see any cracking or anything like that if that's what you’re referring to.we were looking at 1" thin wall pipe. MARLOWE: This was a Corhart design. Of course. So I would anticipate again. and the one that has come up with that design. and when we came back down and looked at it. either tubing or something like Schedule 5 or Schedule 10 stainless. We're the ones that manufactured the Corguard. It was a ceramic insert inside and it had two pieces of steel outside the ceramic. we allow enough play on both sides of the collar to take care of that expansion 17 . I believe that’s about a 4 to 1 ratio on the pipe and the length. but very little if any at all. RICHARD BINKS (Dynamic-Ceramics Ltd. and the metal was barely worn after several years. What experience does the panel have in joining ceramics to metals and getting around the problem of the differential in thermal expansion? MARLOWE: You mean as far as attaching the two? RICHARD BINKS (Dynamic-Ceramics Ltd. What would happen is you’d get a polishing of the refractory on . we had actually maybe just a few signs of some erosion in the nozzles. RICHARD BINKS (Dynamic-Ceramics Ltd. They probably would have gone for several more runs without any trouble. And those two pieces were welded together and that locked in the ceramic insert.): Good afternoon. But you should consult someone else on that. JOHN PRICE (Corhart Refractories): John Price with Corhart Refractories. there has been a problem in joining ceramics to metals due to the difference in thermal expansion.): Yes.
If you're hand packing. just you’ll be welding the steel to steel whether you’re on a pipe grid or a dome or whatever. scaffolding modifications. Applications can exceed ten tons an hour. but it won’t have an exothermic reaction right away. Plus you can have multiple crafts doing simultaneous workscopes like stud welding. Some applications may not be justified for the use of such materials due to the fact 18 . There are no laminations.and have the surface sealed with the gaskets on both sides so that you can allow for that differential to take place within the nozzle or within the joint and still then. based on the application of any specific turnaround. But when we went to the twopiece design and we controlled the sealing of the ceramic to the steel in our shop. Are the shell temperature (k) values or test results affected? Is coke impregnation affected? DEMARTINO: We have the opportunity to do either wet or dry. The material will gel. Question 7. it really has a chance to reduce some of the critical path that you may have on your turnaround. get your mixes just right. and I’m sure the other competitors will agree with this. The waste factor is down around 5%. So. The application is extremely precise versus the dry gunning. There are retardants that can be put into it so it gives you a little bit more working time. There’s no dusting. If you’re doing a few hundred square feet or a thousand square feet in your regenerator or even your reactor. It uses an acid as the liquid to reduce the heat cure schedules sometimes down to zero. And the set times of the refractories that are being applied can be adjusted. there are some wonderful pluses to doing the wet gunning of refractories. then those problems went away. Compare wet gunning of refractory materials in a coke impregnation service v. by the time you set up all your equipment and slick the hose. if you have continuous feed mixers and a ten ton per hour rockvalve swing tube refractory pump. waste the first ton up in the unit to get it nice and gelled and the proper water/cement ratios. and we had a few installations where there were a couple that leaked. Question 6. Those are the obvious advantages to wet gunning. The big thing you have to remember is if you have enough volume. you can dry gun by that time. Gunite applications require a large amount of personal protective equipment. there was a onepiece collar design that relied too much on the installer to make sure that the seal was good. maybe a little bit higher on the overhead applications. We have gunited the material in large quantities and have hand applied it to many areas of Cat Crackers. And we haven’t had any leakage that I’m aware of since we’ve gone to that two-piece design. Initially. Has anyone used a “no cure” refractory and has the experience been satisfactory? DEMARTINO: The “No cure” refractory that we dealt with made by the John Zink Company is called Thermbond. There are pros and cons to these types of materials. regular gunning. stick welding all at the same time. ramming or casting them they are a pleasure to work with. This is due to the dust and the acid used for wetting the material at the nozzle.
Well. and we were monitoring. or it wasn’t exactly the right material. Between 1995 and the year 2000 for our turnaround. seriously challenge the argument.this is a slow process. not mixed right. And we were planning on replacing this with conventional refractory. We know. These units are tremendous in size and you cannot heat them fast enough. including locations. Before startup. in talking with our refractory specialist and others in the business.e. so this is a picture (Figure 7) of what it looks like when they forming up one of the sections. By the time you start the air blower. Question 8. light the air heater pilot. we had some material here that we’d already replaced and it was less than 15 years old. perform an air test. It doesn’t take it a real long time. They weren’t heat cured and were ramped up to operating temperature quickly with no spalling at all. went and saw. Our approach to refractory dryout is quite simple. Use the total installed cost approach with repairs which includes refractory dryout. What is the experience with form and pump casting technique v. we heard about some people that were trying some of this pump casting material. but we’ve had the opportunity to apply these materials in the air heaters of the Cat Cracker. The units are pretty old. And we try to replace part of the walls. light the torch oil .that the cost and time of application may outweigh the cost and time associated with the heat cure. we had some refractory that was not cured right. cracking. deteriorating to the point where you’ll have hot spots. We went back in with about two-thirds of our regenerator with this pump casting material. getting thermal pictures to make sure that we weren’t getting larger or different spots. have been there since the ’70s. and we’re very hopeful that this is going to hold up just like it has in the couple of 19 . The question you should ask yourself is why do you need to use them? If the argument is you want to save time on the startup due to refractory dryout. The vessels and catalyst are large heat sinks and the start up process is sufficiently slow enough to avoid adding time for refractory dryout. DEMARTINO: I would agree with you in the reactor and the regenerator. i. purge the reactor. wet gunning refractory? MARLOWE: In talking about refractories. But it turned out to be only in the upper third of the shell on the regenerator. that you’re not going to get that refractory to hold up too much longer than 15 or 20 years without having some problems with it spalling. So we were concerned. In the meantime. We try to take a certain square footage of the regenerator and try to get it replaced. we’ve got a lot of different refractories. They stack on top of each other and keep moving the forms up. and we were getting hot spots. In the regenerator. refractory types and quantity of material installed and the startup procedure. heat the catalyst. we have a multi-disciplinary team review the refractory repairs. Some of our corporate people got together. CARPER: I am not aware of any low or no cement castable used in our units. load catalyst. So. every four or five years. and got some information from people who had seen this material first-hand after it had been in service for a while. we actually had to cool our regenerator walls with some steam spray nozzles. at our refinery. we try to get about a third of it done at every major turnaround.
When you start to get up into the higher density refractories. and then a little bitty dent or “snap configuration”. Screwed to that would be a piece of 3/8" stainless steel rod that has a thread for a few inches. you 20 . and it would snap off. But please bear in mind. we cannot install this. After that it would have another nut. But there are some other. Including myself. there is an issue with cracking. and then what you would do is simply fill in this cavity with other refractory that you want to use. it's a non-issue. There are some other systems out there to circumvent the patent system whereby they'll build a set of wooden welders or rent steel forming systems and have supports back to the cyclone system. and everybody gets involved in some of this stuff. maybe slightly better ways to approach the installation. A rod would come through the 3/8" spacers. With the lightweight and the medium weight refractory. by the time you set all this up. so that it can be removed once the pumping is done. By the time you set up this form system.locations we’ve seen. You're going to get a myriad of cracks from this stud to the next stud to the next stud. you're going to set up some tremendous stresses with the higher density refractories. This would support the Masonite or plywood. Once that's complete. put a pair of vise grips on above the snap configuration. and you may have multiple crafts involved. and then a flared nut to retain the base of the footed anchor. have another fender washer and a nut. you would start by welding a 3/8" carbon steel stud on specific centers. torque it. because the carpenters want to do it and the iron workers want to do it. On Jim Marlowe's photograph. it works well. For form and pump casting. you could see this plywood and 2 X 4 whaler that's two 2 X 4's with a 3/8" spacer between them. you simply strip everything out to this point. and then there's a fender washer. because just in the pouring application. I guess it's like pouring a concrete driveway and you're putting a column every six feet. and would certainly fill that little void up with the refractory that you were pumping. But for the medium and the lightweight refractories. So this is one of the options we have over a light gunned refractory material. We’re hoping to get 15 or 20 years without any spalling or cracking. FIGURE 7 DEMARTINO: The system that Jim’s talking about is a patented system. You would attach a naturally a footed anchor around the stud.
MARLOWE: Yes. Boltless Design”). maybe a pair of glasses. but that’s still within spec. Right. The other thing I see. however. Our experience with bolted slide valves is that the bolts coming loose tend to cause the valve to ultimately fail (Figure 8 “Bolting Failure”). The boltless design seems to cure these problems. we installed boltless slide valves in place of our existing Regenerated catalyst and new Recirculating catalyst slide valves. 21 . we would have to repair and/or replace these bolts. if you drop a coffee cup in there or something like that. You do have some issues with making a cavity and filling it with refractory. Say 20 feet tall and the circumference of the 35 feet diameter regenerator. Again. ours was a large area. (Figure 9 “Boltless” Weld-in Design”) (Figure 10 “Traditional vs.could shotcrete it. we haven’t had a full run with them yet. During every turnaround in the past. DEMARTINO: Right. We'd end up cutting the bolts out and tacking the nuts back to the orifice plate anyway. Question 9. What is your operating experience with a slide valve that has “boltless” internals? COUSAR: During our October 1999 revamp. you need quite a bit of volume just to warrant the application. if you know what I mean ( laughs ). Jim? You need more than 100 square feet.
The valve was designed to have less than 100ºF across it. Due to the thermal difference and the tight tolerances in the slide valve tongue and guides. However. We solved this problem by installing a 1" thick thermal blanket on the bottom of the valve. 22 . What do you use to purge the slide valve stem? Are there any advantages for a “purgeless” system? CARPER: I am aware of success stories within the heritage BP units using “purgeless” slide valves. I am also aware of two miserable failures. Question 10. Since then. the slide valve tongue would hang up at 60% open.One problem that we had was due to a design anomaly. we have had no problems operating the valve with up to a 150ºF differential across it. The radiant heat affects the recirculation slide valve body in such a way that there is up to a 250ºF differential across the valve. The Recirculation valve is very close to our combustor due to our structure limitations.
We did experience a packing failure. Purge medium is dependent service. but it was due to an engineering bust related to the spring can hangers on the slide valves. and the purge medium that we use right now is steam.our spent catalyst slide valves and our regenerator slide valves. ensure the steam is properly trapped and dry. If you elect to use steam. usually dry orificed air. For each of those Enpro valves. We do recommend that a detection system be placed on the “purge” port. Our solution was to revert to purged valve stems. MARLOWE: As Larry talked about there are many mediums you can use for purge. Once this happens the risk is not getting the purge back or becoming less and less effective. whether it's in your purge system or in other systems. you're going to plug things up with catalyst and you might not be able to clear it back out. the detector will sense it and more packing material can be added into the packing area thereby sealing off the leak. so good. If you don't have enough flow. Too high a flow gives you a lot of circulation and gets catalyst flowing in there and you're going to wear some things down. We design for a limit at 90 feet per second at the annular area between the stem outside diameter and backseat bushing inside diameter using downstream conditions.Both failures were on flue gas valves. We recommend using steam or nitrogen for regenerated or catalyst control valves and air or nitrogen for flue gas valves. We've had one packing that gave us a little trouble and will continue monitoring. It seems like you can't go four or five years without having some kind of upset or interruption to the purge medium. We do purge the stems of our slide valves . You need to try to establish the right flow just like Larry was talking about. The options that we have for purge in our refinery are steam. Damaged items included stems. stuffing boxes and actuator seals due to the catalyst laden gas. We have used restriction orifice unions which leak and restriction orifice valves. We found manufacturing variances in ROV’s which eventually lead us to restriction orifice plates. We size our restriction orifices using an exit velocity criteria. We do restrict the flow to these purge connections. If a failure of the primary packing occurs. we've just installed three new Enpro butterfly valves out of about six or seven butterfly valves we have on our Cat Cracker. We've tried all these purge mediums in other locations. We were not able to determine the root cause for the failures. air. COUSAR: We have experienced slide valve stem erosion from too much purge and coking of the packing area with too little purge (Figure 11“Too Much Purge” and Figure 12 “Too Little Purge”). For purge control we currently recommend restriction orifice plates. the manufacturer recommends we either leave it purgeless or that we can purge it partially. We've elected to see if we can go purgeless. ROV’s. but it's what we have available. The preferred medium is nitrogen. and keeping the flow consistent is always critical to any of our purge systems. and some of them are on our butterfly valves. and so far. But the flow. and nitrogen. Not necessarily as dry as we'd like to have it. We currently have all purgless systems on slide valves (Figure 13 “Purge-less Stuffing Box”). the amount of flow. and keep it there as consistently as you possibly can and hope it doesn't stop to the point where you plug things up. 23 . Right now. As soon as you get a stop of the flow or you get too much flow or too little flow you are headed for problems with the purge. We have since installed the proper springs to remedy the problem. and the other one seems to be holding up very well.
30º to the other side. But if they’re seconds apart. sledge hammer and making the anchor look like a tortilla until it falls to the bottom of the unit. so just safety glasses are acceptable.Question 11. And there have also been some of the refiners (I won't mention names) who have been through at least two runs on their Cats with the hex anchors and the v-anchors and things like that. they’re three times faster than stick welded hex steel linings. A little bit tougher to stud weld a specific pattern in a conical shape rather than in a barrel. but it seems to be less accepted out West. it appears in the northeastern United States. you don’t need a welding shield. This is a cyclone conical shape. With the single power source. If you pull the trigger on two of them at the same time. because we’re using bricklayers versus boilermakers. I think I have photos (Figures 14 and 15) of a cyclone that we were doing. The welding flash hazard is near zero. especially if you're going up in cyclones hex steel. It's not like taking a 20 lb. and that was for Foster Wheeler cyclones for China. which is an AWSD1. We have installed about three million stud welded anchors in seven years with minimal failure. you can stud weld with up to three guns nearly simultaneously. When we talk to the customer about the hex anchor productivity rates. and have performed extremely well. very easy weld test. they will actuate. and it’s a very. And all that means is you’re going to put a an apparatus over the weld and bend it 30º to one side. The job turned out very well. FIGURE 14 25 . You’re going to get a more consistent weld application. How have stud welded refractory anchors held up in service? How long a run did they have? DEMARTINO: Stud welded refractory anchors have caught on. There’s also reduced labor.1. That's a stud welded hex anchor that happens to be made by Causeway. and the inspector says he thinks it's no good. The savings are about 40% over the hex steel applications. So there’s some reduced costs in equipment use. We put premier Atchem in there. because the flash is contained in the ceramic ferrule. they will not actuate. It's a wonderful way to save money.
’95. This picture here (Figure 16) shows the surface of our regenerator. We do prefer to use the stud welding applications. But there are still some areas where we have the stick welds. FIGURE 16 26 . We put in stud anchors. We did some testing on the stud anchors and came to the conclusion that they were just as apt to bend and break at the anchor as they were to snap at the weld out. very good with them.FIGURE 15 MARLOWE: I wasn’t aware that a lot of people were afraid or worried about the stud anchors because our experience at Sun has been very. It's much faster and easier to use with no adverse problems related to the many installations that Sun has. we have had the stud welding and we've had the stick welds and anchors on the surface. I don't know whether that's just because we make sure we put them in right or we make sure we get the surface preparation you need. and as you can see. and most recently we stud lined the Kbars for the air grid. But we have had good experience with them. and the year 2000 turnarounds. We've been using it in '85 '89.
and about Cat Crackers and concerns about what is the predicted age for how long can you live with 304 stainless steel material. It was a rather expensive repair and this didn’t stop our problem. We had welders in there almost the entire turnaround time. if they’re not solution annealed. We’ve been concerned about that for quite a few years and in ’95 we did find quite a few cracks in our overhead line between the third stage separator and our power recovery turbine. They had to put stiffeners across this crack area (Figure 19) and boxed it up on each end. They estimated that they would be back within 40 days. over three weeks. But if you stud weld the carbon steel stud. there’s no heat affected zone from re-welding a solution-annealed anchor to a carbon steel. and were able to grind down and repair most of the cracks. which you see in the flared nut and put the solution-annealed anchor onto it.DEMARTINO: There’s one more application. We have experienced extensive cracking on a 304H stainless steel line and its welds due to sigma phase change after 25 years of service. We brought in some specialists with aluminum suits and cooling devices and were only able to work twenty to thirty minutes at a time. This was along our 30" bypass line that goes around the PRT (Power Recovery Turbine). We developed an 18" crack along this area (Figure 17). and we were getting these cracks. It seems to help out some of the other applications that we have. We had to do another one before our next planned turnaround. Question 12. we ended up developing some very serious cracks on stream. and it ties into a 54" line. We found over 200 cracks at that time and we did repair them. so we were glad to get this behind us. and 40 days it was. We found some cracks and we sampled those for sigma phase. We still have a few other pieces of 304H that are over 20 years old. Then they put additional material on top with valves to vent off away from themselves. but they’re not in the same temperature cycle. We had to bring in specialty people since this was 1350oF material with catalyst fines coming out. Our ducting is over 20 years old. you really have a big problem. But the majority of it was right around the heat affected area and the welds for the 308 rod material. and we wanted to know if we were going to have a shorter life than we were anticipating. some samples had up to 9 % sigma phase. What is the life of 304H stainless steel and can its remaining life be predicted? MARLOWE: This relates to 304 stainless steel material. So once it starts. 304H specifically. Between the ’95 and the year 2000 turnarounds. Working with Bob Jenkins and doing some vibration casting of refractory applications. We were able to get this 304H line out of service and change it during the turnaround. It probably decimates the solution annealing of it anyhow. Most of the cracks were related to cracks in the weld area or the heat affected area in the parent metal. Larry’s going to have some comments in that direction. because the heavy vibration. have a tendency to fatigue and snap during the refractory installation. 27 . where the two lines come together (Figure 18). I know we’ve had discussions about this before at the NPRA meetings. they recommend that anchors be solution annealed before they’re installed.
FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 28 .
If it was too high. This forced us to look at weld metals. This resulted in changing our specifications from E308 to E347 filler type weld metals when welding 304 stainless steels. I had an opportunity to visit one of our refineries in Europe earlier this year. The PRT was the same vintage. just looking at the picture there. I’ve seen similar and it looks too familiar. Repairs consisted of replacing a section of the duct. decreasing the operating temperature and pressure. A result was they were not experiencing weld failures.FIGURE 19 CARPER: Well. you had cracking when you welded. Less than 4 years. We installed a PRT at one of our refineries in the early ’80s. We've had problems. ROBERT GOSSELIN (ExxonMobil Refining & Supply): Robert Gosselin. Use as thin of sections as practical and 100 percent radiograph the welds. Currently we specify E347-16 as the filler metal when the operating temperature is above 1000ºF and use E308 when the operating temperature is below 1000ºF. but it wasn't as old as your line. In looking at the system. After several years. We had problems all throughout the 26 years. Beaumont. The design for this duct was to use minimal or no corrosion allowance. you had cracking when 29 . and developing a long term repair/replacement strategy. just like what you're talking about. Shortly afterwards we began experiencing weld failures due to stress rupture. We eventually replaced several sections of duct in key areas and replaced the filler metal in many of the longitudinal seams. We put a new line in. the duct wall thickness was substantial when compared to the previous unit resulting in substantially lower hoop stresses. We also recommend controlling the ferrite number below 6. In the mid ‘90s we experienced a failure through the middle of a weldment.what you mentioned about the ferrite content . We found the stress rupture properties of E308 filler metal were about 80 percent of the parent metal at elevated temperatures. We had a line that was in service for close to 26 years. a weld metal study concluded E308 filler metal was not optimum. we had the same problem again. The crack is through the center of the weld.if it was too low. ExxonMobil. What we found .
Is that pretty much the only solution? I guess one of the concerns. A solution is to design the cyclones and especially the hanger system for lower stress. has anybody considered using refractory lined carbon steel. We haven’t tried it yet. 5" of abrasion 30 . We found this welding electrode was not readily available during a late 1980’s project. that's what most of the refineries were going to. Like I said earlier. something like that. but we’re hoping maybe that will help. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. The cost was prohibitive when compared to E347. DEMARTINO: What would be the temperature of this. basically. I don’t remember now. I know the numbers are wrong. even looking at a different metal. retired): Also on the ductwork. We felt like the problem was during the startup going from low ambient temperatures to operating temperature. But I don’t know what else. Has anybody had any experience with cyclones? I've had sigma phase cracking after about ten to twelve years in cyclone welds. retired): All we're talking about right now seems to be ductwork.you started up. An alternate welding electrode was E16-8-2. because back in the late '80s. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. We might look into that later. Bazil. E1682. We did replace that piping with carbon steel. We have seen very little sigma phase cracking in our cyclones and we have one unit where the cyclones are 36-37 years old and another with cyclones 33 years old. one solution is to use thicker metal. one of the options that somebody proposed was use a different material. I guess I’m asking if anybody had experience. What kind of temperatures are you looking at? BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. But EPRI talked about a different rod. It was. Since we weren't considering this line to be redesigned we stayed with the 304H. Is this common also? CARPER: Bazil. E16-8-2 has about 95 to 105 percent of the stress rupture properties of the parent metal. But I guess the only thing that I’ve heard as far as a solution from the panel was basically thicker metals to give you lower stress to extend the life. So we put acoustic emissions monitors in the locations where we had problems and kind of listened for cracks. as we didn't have the time. if you were going to have a carbon steel and put a refractory on the front of the tube? This kind of points to carbon. that was affordable to use? CARPER: We looked at other filler metals during the study discussed earlier. retired): I've actually run overhead lines made out of stainless steel with AA22 in it at 1450oF design temperature at about 50 psig. I think that anything else would be way too expensive. we've seen cracking in cyclones. MARLOWE: No. it was an E1864. we had looked at just what other stainless steels would be acceptable for material.
but there’s not an issue since you put such a massive amount of refractory that you’ve reduced the cold wall temperature. but it also has a SS clad liner inside of it. we decided it was safer for us to go with the cold wall. we were getting thermal fatigue cracking. Between those two phenomena. I believe the gentleman from Sun mentioned this was a line that was tied into a flue gas expander. And where they make the welds. we did get a crack to the atmosphere in the dollar plate at the top of this head. And as a result of that. the dissimilar metal welds for the attachment of the liner. that looked like the best solution for us. and then when it tried to shrink. with the problems we were running into with stainless. JOSEPH W. WILSON (Barnes and Click. Is anyone experiencing problems with E309 stainless steel weld cracking in high temperature service and extended age (>10 years)? MARLOWE: This question pertains to a problem that hit home with us. Again.500 o F shell temperature on that line. 31 . It’s all lined with a 410 strip material or a clad 405 material. because if it comes loose and goes through the expander. the point is. early ’90s. they used a 309 rod. because you’re riding the carbon? BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. with what I just described. because the shell wall of the line was so thick that we were actually getting cracking on the outside due to expansion of the outside wall from pressure from the inside of the shell. retired): Well. probably in the late ’80s. But it had propagated itself all the way out from the liner dissimilar metal welder out to the surface. because not only were we getting sigma phase cracking. you’ve increased the weight of it so you’ve got to go to new hanger designs and a whole lot of other things. This was in the flue area of the plenum. when we had to change it. So we started getting cracking there. DEMARTINO: Okay. Just as a point of clarification. it will take out the rotor pretty thoroughly. Do you need some kind of a membrane system. During a run between 1995 and the year 2000.): Bill Wilson with Barnes and Click. also. we were suspicious that we’ve had a defect that has started and propagated at that location. Inc. it couldn’t.resistant refractory at a later date. you wouldn’t want refractory on that line at all. But. Question 13. In that particular circumstance. So that was the solution for us at the time for regenerator overhead line. you’re running about 400 o F . We have a reactor head that is a low chrome material. and you’ve increased the size of it. It turned out to be about a 40" long crack along that area.
It was a combination of the defect being generated and then propagated by the flexing of this platform at the top. And we’ve seen them do that once in a while. And that’s not what they were designed for. Our metallurgists are recommending using Incoweld A and Inconel 182 filler metals for 300 series stainless steel to carbon steel bimetallic welds. The ferrite numbers ranged from 7 to 15 with an average around 11. You turn your air blower into a catalyst hopper. That’s a picture (Figure 20). II: ROTATING EQUIPMENT Question 14. What is the state-of-the-art for air blower discharge check valves? DROSJACK: The question here concerns check valves in the air blowers failing. Here it is where we had to grind out the area where the old welds were. 32 . we ground out all the crack and went back in and got rid of the 309 rod connections. we’ve had the occasion where you can open the case screens and actually just pour it out. ground that out. There was also difficulty in controlling the ferrite number. and then welded it back up with new 309 rod. Hopefully. too. the problem is you get the catalyst back there. Whenever that occurs. we’ll replace that head at our next outage. we also looked at E309-16 weld rods. the question is what happens? In the best of cases. If you’re really lucky. We found E309-16 welds to have poor stress rupture properties. Currently we restrain ourselves to using E309-16 for bimetallic structural welds and where the structure is not critical. To make the repair.FIGURE 20 So it took some time to get to this condition and it was complicated by some flexing of the platform at the top. went in and repaired all of the defect areas that we could find in the top of the head. And in terms of why is this a bad thing. CARPER: As part of the study discussed earlier. you’ve got to get the catalyst out of the air blower. So we ended up at the turnaround.
that stuff is going to take you a day. but what might be more likely is you don't know you've got catalyst in the bottom in the case and you restart the machine again. But they are changing their specification and they're looking at some improvements so they wanted me to pass along that they have a new design specification and Adams is a brand that is able to meet those new improvements. So if you look at the whole scenario. putting hot catalyst into the air blower cases. two days.That’s kind of lucky. three days. It seems to be the world leader. And I'd like to reiterate what Mike talked about initially on some of these types of failures. these valves have an actuator. in a lot of cases. also. If you really get yourself in bad shape. The next thing that occurs. your time can go on up from there. maybe up to ten days if you're lucky. We're always reconditioning this and repairing it at each outage. If you have an axial air blower. Insurance companies have estimated losses of upwards of $55 million from one incident of a check valve in this service failing. and they have some sort of assist to help this valve close. But we have had that situation at our Philadelphia Refinery. We have them in Toledo. which really aren't high temperature machines. They're going to try the Adams in their unit this fall when they have their shutdown. MARLOWE: We have an Atwood-Morrell check valve for this type of service and we have a couple of refinery locations that have this check valve. It's absolutely critical that this valve works. you might be able to drop catalyst in the machine while it's still rotating. with some catalyst in there. But the issue here is it is not a good thing to have your check valves fail and let the catalyst get back into the machines. we generally look at the Atwood-Morrell swingcheck or isocheck valve. you have to open the machine up and clean it out physically. Okay. it's the valve we tend to come across. and have all the parts available. Units in the industry have been down 30 days because a check valve in this service failed. like Mike mentioned. FARLEY: At KBR. Having said that. they're counterweighted. but more often than not. We always urge you to follow these PM 33 . a few days. you've got a good chance of blowing all the blades off of it. OK? These things have happened. Every time we've looked at units. They'll also have some kind of actuator that's going to have automatic flows on it. you can end up with a more catastrophic failure. even if you get the catalyst out. These are not theoretical failures. Make sure these valves aren't hung up or frozen in place. We've never really had an incident where it backflowed for us through the blowers. if you do severe damage to the case. and you can end up with flange leaks and sometimes warping the things bad enough to cause the machines to rust. so it will be a little quicker response time. And in that case. It's important to periodically exercise these things. Generally. a good way to make sure the valve works is to always do proper preventative maintenance (PM) checks on this valve. and they've had some serious backflows turning their blower into a catalyst hopper. you're going to lose a day. Some of the other guys here are going to talk about what kind of check valves we have and how they work. can cause them to distort. I think several locations have had problems where the proper PM was not done. If you don't have spare rotors. These PM procedures were generally listed either in the technical bulletins from the valve manufacturers or in the original documentation with the valve.
the blowers were slightly farther away. On the unit I worked on recently. when the check valve was caught un-operated. and the piping actually had a trap. but a trip valve like on a turbine or any other non-swing type check valve. 34 . What I’m wondering is has anybody had any luck with something like a trip valve? Not a trip throttle valve. And most of them have these big weighted arms on them and when you walk by those valves. PM is so important. But I would like to make one other point that some people might not think of. And if you love your blower. So if you do get some kind of trip valve or trip check valve. and that needs to be done at least once every three months. you’d better shake that handle every once in a while. UNKNOWN: Yes sir. from what I’ve been able to see from the records. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. So you might want to take a look at piping configuration to help you prevent major damage in your blowers. where the air line went down and then up into the Peabody heater. We’ve had all the bad experiences that the panel and other people have named.you can’t move them far. That’s generally the most significant problem we’ve seen with these types of valves.): Darryl Bertram. It’s a fairly expensive option compared with the traditional check valve. retired): The first unit I worked on with the axial blower actually had a trip check valve on it. Except we have radial blowers. DARRYL BERTRAM (BP Amoco p. a Peabody heater was right under the regenerator. I think this question was originally mine. because I had the opportunity to repair an axial blower that got hot catalyst in to it. The first unit I worked on was a direct line up and down from the blower to the regenerator. FRED COLLIER (Williams Energy Services): I’d just like to reiterate the fact that when you’ve got this check valve. you need to make sure that you’ve got a way of testing it without shutting your unit down while you’re online. and I certainly didn’t at the time. And to date have had pretty good service from that. but it offers quite light pressure drops compared with the normal lever operated swing check type valve. if you’ll just shake those weighted arms . BP Australia.procedures. so we haven’t wrecked a blower. We have plugged it up where we had to take it apart several times.l. So that might be an option for the gentleman as something different to look at. but you can move them just enough to make sure that flapper stays loose. And in that unit. if you love your Cat Cracker. and then that was actually above the level of the catalyst in the unit. We recently installed a Mannesman axial movement check valve on our resid unit at Kwinana. The problem we had is that we were not testing our trip mechanism and as a result. that the PM procedures were not followed. retired): I can certainly testify to the problems they cause. although it’s a 50 year old Cat Cracker. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. What we’re looking for is an alternative to the flapper type check valve. and it was a straight drop to the axial blower. they’ve never had a problem with catalyst getting back in their blowers. similar to what you have underneath a sink. it didn’t work.c.
And part of the issue you have to look at is how long you’re planning to run this unit between turnarounds.there’s some discussion of that later most everybody can get two years. 30 feet of physical space to drop the machine in. How much power you can actually generate from the expander itself. Another part of this is what your separation system does.Question 15. But we did have a number of years ago a catastrophe at one of our refineries in which we had three associated ethylene plants with nine compressors. what have you. If you don’t have a good one. because it’s quite likely that that power recovery train will be the limiting factor on the run length between turnarounds. And then maybe one last factor. And then another 20 or 30 feet of horizontal run from the inlet pipe if you want to have any hope of being successful. there has to be room. Question 16. You can’t have a big enough tank to run the machine until it stops. And the question is whether that power recovery is really worth the cost of putting that machine in. If you put one of these in. Others have nitrogen pressure on top in case the lube oil pumps give out for whatever reason. in our Cat Crackers. One of the things to understand about these. Some of them are just a head tank. How many refineries have a emergency lube oil supply tank that supplies lube oil in the case of a pump failure? DROSJACK: In a number of our refineries. And one of the big things is economics. The two that didn’t had to change out the rotors and it scored them pretty badly. You’re going to need maybe 15. and see if it’s worth the cost. whatever is attached to. Those are some of the principle issues in terms of just deciding. The expander power recovery trains are going to be one of the shortest lived machinery components in the Cat Cracker. power outage. The one that had the rundown tanks did not damage any of the rotors. The separators are one of the big drivers in terms of how long an expander can run. a few people have gotten six years. What factors should be considered in changing the main air blower driver from a steam turbine to a flue gas expander? DROSJACK: This concerns why or what you do if you want to change your main air blower driver from a steam turbine to a flue gas expander. And there’s a couple of things you’ve got to look at that are pretty important. and you’re going to be somewhere in the middle. And if you look at the life . because you’re not going to be very happy. you shut stuff off. is they’re only rundown tanks. don’t think about an expander power recovery turbine in there. And you have to be tied into the trip so that you quit producing any head out of the blower. we have rundown tanks in the Cat Crackers and other units. 20. In a minute I will show some pictures about the ugly things that can happen if your separation system isn’t up to snuff. One is your pressure ratio. The second one is turnaround intervals. though. So one of the things you do have to have is a fairly long open space at the end of your air blower to get this thing in. 35 . And it only gives you a very short period of time to run down to get most of the load off the machine and then it’s going to coast. We have not had serious incidents in my experience. It’s going to cost you a fair amount of money to put one of these in.
2. 3. That’s one thing you need to look at. 4. Question 17. So that’s the deposition issue. And in terms of this machine. But you have to have either a steam turbine and/or an electric motor to start up and get up to operating speed. with a little bit of care and thought in installing it. retired): A couple of other things you probably need to consider is that normally. Between the blade tips and the shroud. And then some of them will progress to have the blade tips fall off. This type of failure is not that unusual. if you lose or have to dump your air or something like that. It will cause deposition of catalyst either on the blades or in the worst case. the remainder of the time.it’s about half as big as a half dollar. your expander will provide 100% of your power during operation or maybe some percentage lower.000 HP motor to come up to speed. And by the time we learned how to operate it and how to maintain it. And the only reason we ran to this point in time was simply to get to a particular time when we could shut this down. To have some perspective on that. If that fills up with catalyst and the blade tips rub. The crack can progress and have a piece fall out. you could feel this thing moving the ground about 300 yards away from the machine. depending on how you design it. you risk over-speeding the entire train. And that motor was an induction motor and acted as a brake also. And this is what can happen (Figure 21). dictated by your vendor. 7. And the issue here is if you lose these pieces. Other than that. between the blade tips and the shroud. Normally. One is simply that passing too much catalyst will cause fouling. and then kicked in a 4. you unbalance the rotor. And the other thing you need to look at is these are going to start up differently from a standard blower. I don’t see any reason why you shouldn’t be able to get four to five years out of an expander. you can generate thermal cracks and then you’ll cause a piece of blade to fall off.BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. Before we brought this down. to slow down the overspeed so that the control systems could catch it. So you need to make sure that you’ve got some kind of mechanism to control the speed of the unit so that you can dump the flue gas going into your expander before it gets above some kind of critical speed. 5. you can see the numbers 1.I have a blade up here if anybody wants to look at it later . Many of the expanders will have tip cracking. What is the affect of the third stage separator on the power recovery turbine’s performance? DROSJACK: There are two effects of malperformance or lack of performance on a separation system. This is a rotor that just came off (Figure 22). we were easily expecting four to five years out of it. An awful lot is seen from the catalyst deposition. that accounts for about 1 or 2 mils extra vibration. and if you look closely. The unit I worked on used a steam turbine up to about 3200 RPM. We started off not quite knowing how to operate it. This thing is about as big . this isn’t supposed to have a piece missing. it was putting out about ten mils vibration. the machine may have 60 to 100 or so thousandths clearance. If you look at this. 6. and you get to the point where you simply can’t stand the vibration. 36 . Those are the pieces that fell off during the course of about six months or a year on this particular machine.
The question is how much you see in yours. passing too many of them. The other thing that can happen. They’re coated with D-Gun. whether or not you’re going to make it. they’ll blast the metal away on the machine. When this occurs.FIGURE 21 Next slide shows another problem that can occur (Figure 23). This kind of phenomenon occurs in all expanders. and again you get into unbalance. This is after two years of operation. And these particular blades are made of waspalloy. this erosion will progress to the point where pieces start to flake off the end of the blade. one of the things that happens is you’re going to lose performance. 37 . At the end of four years. whether indeed the erosion is sufficient to shorten your run length and whether it can run as long as you want. This is erosion. or somewhere between three and four years. And a lot of that is tied to how your separator performs. If the separators are not separating out the large particles. because you’ve screwed up the aerodynamic flowpath. You’re going to lose horsepower. This has gone through the D-Gun into the waspalloy. and you see what happens here. there would have been a hole through here. And that’s pretty hard stuff.
We’ve had some issues with expansion joint cracking.FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 MARLOWE: We were concerned about these issues before our spring turnaround. patched the ceramics a little bit with some mud and let it go. but as far as the ceramic sleeves that are in there and the swirl tube arrangement. We have a Shell third stage separator that’s been in service since ’74 and we’ve never done any major work on it. But the concern was when does it 38 . we’ve never really done anything with it just inspected it.
He had one scenario if you saw some wear quite often. we suspected a E308 filler metal issue. looked at some of the different criterion that he gave us. after another two years. When we looked at it. So we looked at our history.become a problem? What kind of clearances do you need to look for? What kind of wear should you really see on a third stage separator? So getting involved with that investigation and finding out what to look for. So we did have a good running unit and we didn’t have a problem up to this point. Again. He said the design clearance was originally for a thermal growth plus approximately 0. the clearance had probably doubled in size over that 20 or 30 years. Tomorrow during the workshop session a discussion on PRTs and separators is planned. 39 . That was our game plan for the turnaround. The cracks were in the welds. as the Pi number times that clearance. One of the other things that’s done with that is you can use isokinetic testing on the stack dust samples to determine how much catalyst is coming out and what the size distribution is and use that as one of the triggers as to when to work on the separator. we had blades which didn’t have any erosion. DROSJACK: One more comment following onto that. The separator was in service since 1981 and ignored throughout the years.1" for the fit up between the ceramic can and the stainless steel swirl tube. we had the opportunity to go inside a third-stage separator. This was one of the first opportunities to take a good thorough look. I can’t remember precisely how many we replaced. or another if you had a long run. The ceramic liners were in relatively good shape. This was after a two-year run. He said that the performance loss is proportional to Pi. but we assumed that over time. Replacing the number of ceramics and swirl tubes that we did will only help avoid a future problem and make our next run on the separator as uneventful as in the past. There are 144 tubes in this separator. one of the larger separators. was really the challenge. He related that a 5% increased opening would be like a 5% efficiency loss in your third stage separator. So he agreed to that. I did contact Jason Horwege at Shell Technology. and had problems with your unit periodically. and he had some different scenarios for us to look at. but it still was not that noticeable. This would probably guarantee a safe run for another four years. applying some of those fixes. He gave us something else to look at. and when we went in there. and some of the things that I can share with you. we had had some wear. we’d take out 40 in loss. And so we decided that of the 120 that we had. Thirty-eight percent of the top outlet tubes to tubesheet welds were cracked. CARPER: Last fall. And it does work. I just marked the ones that had the worst clearances. Over 85% of bottom tube sheet welds were also cracked. On this same unit. It was an insignificant number. and determined that we’d been running well for quite a long time and we really didn’t know what our clearances were. So we took Jason’s numbers and figured that we would be somewhere between 30% and 50% range for a replacement of the ceramics and the stainless steel swirl tubes.
for those of you that haven’t been inside an expansion joint. You risk damaging the bellows. There really isn’t a good answer. Sorry. If it’s traveling way beyond its limits. we recommend ensuring the packing is intact and repairing any damage due to erosion. make the adjustments. Similarly for an outside inspection. First of all. you can get some scaffolding up there and get a look at them. but your options are pretty much limited. please share with the audience. You do not have a good method of inspecting internally unless you remove the internal shroud. this is a sample of the braided metal hose that seals the gap between the moving parts of a packed expansion joint (PHOTO 2x). it’s good to inspect them before the turnaround. about what you can and can’t do. LEWIS FREDERICKSON (Chevron Products Company): I’ve got some more specimens of my failures. 40 . There just really isn’t a good way to inspect an expansion joint. We recommend removal of the external shroud and penetrant testing the bellows including the attachment welds. Shroud removal is risky. And that’s what we did. I am not aware of any of our plants attempting this and if anybody has any stories.III: TURNAROUND/MAINTENANCE/INSPECTION Question 18. Today. We are hearing stories of people using fiberoptics to inspect bellows. Internally. So if you can get the shrouds off. How do you inspect an expansion joint when the unit is in operation or during turnaround? CARPER: This is a question we have struggled with for many years. MARLOWE: If you do have a problem with your expansion joints. At least you can find out if you’ve got a problem before you come down. find out why. The items of interest are the bellows and hardware. We also recommend inspecting the joints for travel from the cold to hot positions and comparing the actual travel to the design travel. bellows are usually packed. and we were happy to get that all done ahead of time so we had a known indication if we had a problem within the shroud. So I recommend that you try to get an inspection and bring in one of the expansion joint inspectors.
due to time and several other considerations. it can be the forerunner of bigger problems. As has been discussed previously. it’s very difficult to see anything that’s going on inside the expansion joint. We inspected a two-element cold wall expansion joint in the regenerated catalyst standpipe. These kaowool pillows also come in several different forms from different vendors. several manufacturers started coming out with what we called a two-ply testable bellows. Many cold wall expansion joints depend on a kaowool pillow (Figure 3x) for insulation to keep the bellows elements cool. If you’ve got a single ply bellows. this meant that we had lost the insulation in this location. We inspected behind the braided hoses with a boroscope. My recommendation when you’re buying a new expansion joint is to get the closest thing to bullet proof you can find. Of course. We stuffed new sections of kaowool pillow into the void to prevent the bellows from overheating for another year of operation.These braided metal hoses come in different form and with different attachment methods from the different vendors. retired): How you test your expansion joint really depends on what kind you’ve got. You can just check the external refractory and the condition of the internal sleeve. Our inspectors found the braided hose displaced in the upper quadrant in both elements. About ten years ago. the two major failure mechanisms for expansion joints are corrosion because they get too cold or embrittlement because they get too hot. If this braided metal hose is intact in your expansion joint when you’re inspecting it. and then the bellows is 41 . unless you want to go to the expense of putting blinds inside the line and doing an air test on it. The expansion joint we looked at last summer had this kind of insulation. Both plies on the bellows are designed for the full pressure and temperature of the system. There is normally a little wire mesh inside of the two plies. That’s usually not allowable. We shut down one of our FCC units last summer. you have a single ply bellows and a two-ply bellows that is either testable or has an online indicator on it. PHOTO 3X BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. We did not find the kaowool. It looked like the kaowool had been sucked out of the wire mesh covering. Basically on the market now. If the braided hose is damaged or out of place. and found the wire mesh part of this kaowool pillow. and that gap had a vacuum pulled on it to as near absolute as they can get it. about the only thing you can do is a visual test on it.
625 bellows. I’ve worked in too many of the single plies that have cracked and had to be repaired. 42 . Question 19. side-by-side unit. I believe it is a significant problem. Some of the refineries prefer to run two to three campaigns between bellows replacement. and that will tell you whether you need to replace it. My recommendation is to put two-ply testables and at least one manufacturer I know of can put these bellows on your existing expansion joints for you. Currently we are extending the run lengths on some units and are very much concerned about when to you retire the bellows. your historical data. that have failed due to dewpoint corrosion. I just wanted to reinforce the issue regarding bellows temperature and monitoring the bellows temperature. and that’s the main consideration. We have those on a couple of expansion joints so far. you’ve got the other bellows that is in there. because we have been following this issue of dewpoint corrosion now for several years.eighteen years between bellow’s replacement. These joints were on a spent catalyst riser. I fully agree with Bazil’s recommendation for two-ply testable expansion joints. Now when we install new expansion joints. ROBERT BROYLES (Senior Flexonics Pathway): Bob Broyles. if you want them to.sealed before it’s welded onto the shell. We have actually added more external insulation. is probably the best guide. But that would be my recommendation. in place. Is that the time to retire bellows? Basically. Some of them. you have to test those or put a pressure gauge on them or something of that nature. Previously we saw three to four year run lengths and now we are attempting five to six year run lengths between turnarounds. and we have found some very surprising results. I do have with me a sample of bellows. we are also working with the vendors to include a temperature monitoring system so we can tell what temperature the convolutions are actually operating at. But bellows temperature measurement should definitely be part of monitoring of bellows operation online. excuse me. if one bellows goes. Last year we replaced three expansion (rotation) joints. simply because even when you’re online. You figure 3 six year run lengths between bellows replacement . How do you determine when it is time to retire an expansion joint? CARPER: Retiring bellows is a risk management question and this up to the individual refineries. that will carry you to the next turnaround and you can either test it before the turnaround and during the turnaround. monitored onstream and also vacuum tested during shutdowns to make sure you’ve got no leaks on the plies. There is a limited amount of data on the number of runs between replacement. But you’re operating safely at all times. for those who might be interested. They were initially purged joints but the purge was disconnected several years ago allowing the bellows to fill with catalyst. Expansion joints that we expected to be running hot are running colder than we want them to be. Senior Flexonics Pathway. These joints were in service over 25 years and had not experienced any problems with the bellows. At least one manufacturer has a device that will indicate whether that vacuum has been broken or not. LEWIS FREDERICKSON (Chevron Products Company): I just want to add to my earlier comments. two expansion joints. The reason for replacement was concern for bellows age and the hinge hardware was failing.
when the time comes we will have a nightmare due to accessibility. but you have to have a relatively scientific methodology to it. So. period. you know. And I believe that question talked a little bit about dual-ply bellows. And there are machines out there that are relatively slow hitting. are rarely used. Earlier this year I had the opportunity to visit one of our refineries in Europe. The next best answer is not to use expansion joints. but 10 to 20 years is what we typically see. due to the fact that if you don’t have the proper explosives. Still. if that’s any help anywhere between 10 and 15 years on a single-ply bellows is the best I could recommend. If you have maybe a single line where you can put a single person in it. and then let the solid settle out and let the water come out over the top. We see that driving a lot of replacements for expansion joints. I found out. You think you have nightmares. never replaced. and then run until that indicator tells you you’ve lost one of those plies. yd. Robotics is used on a very limited basis. dumpster. We do not know when we are going to replace the bellows. Still in service. there’s bulging of the units that can occur. And then you can run until the next shutdown on the one that’s remaining. retired): I had a lot of trouble in the ’80s with single-ply bellows. We know we will have to face replacement one of these days! So. Again. This is based upon the inspection reports from previous turnarounds. the recommendation is replacing any single-ply you’ve got with two-ply. it’s mostly chipping guns. The problem you’re going to have there is taking care of the water. so there’s some less sensitive issues with the back end of the plant where they would treat the water. Sometimes they’ll take a 30 cu. and I’ve never managed to get enough courage up to extend a run on a single-ply bellows over 15 years. But you’ve got to find that period in time. Question 20. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. FARLEY: This question was covered some in the 1998 session. Explosives. retire them right before they fail. the impression I have is that it’s based more on heightened concern at each location where people have the concern about making it through the next run. the smart answer is. This is a question that we get asked quite a bit. we generally see people in the industry going between 10 and 20 years for replacement of expansion joints. We’ve seen a lot of the hydrodemolition come of age. The bellows metallurgy is 347 stainless steel. everything we’re seeing. This unit has a PRT also. but they’re very hard hitting. run the water into the dumpster. DEMARTINO: Let me run down what I found out in talking to some of the refineries. because there’s a tremendous amount of water that runs out the bottom of the unit. I think it was question number 13. you’d say the criteria are pretty shaky. I can assure you. and they can shear through 43 . And from what KBR can tell. This is the strategy we attempt to achieve. this unit has 38 expansion joints from the top of the regenerator to the precipitator inlet. Is there a better way to remove thick wall refractories than by chipping? Hydrodemolition? Explosive demolition? Robotics? Please describe your experience with any of these new methods. I’m not saying it doesn’t work. And really. robotics may be a good method of repair or removal. Really.We have another expansion joint at one of our refineries that was placed in service in 1956.
The word of warning is. One detonation was too close to the vessel and resulted in a hole in the top head. Typically. but the longer that’s in your unit. That’s actually going to be the cheapest way for you to do that job and the quickest. they put seven shifts in for the coke removal. in one coked up area in the refinery. two years later. We ended up breaking up the coke using blasting technology. Typically cyclone hanger systems are not designed for the excess 44 . Once removed. but the cyclones didn’t like it too much. A couple of points that need to be brought out. So it just gives you an idea of some of the ways that materials can be moved. Now after two years. We did do some work attempting to use explosives. Fresh refractory that even if it’s cured. (I’ve taken it down to three inches) and then plan on doing complete replacement the next shutdown. When we did that. with the same equipment. And they even have the capabilities to remove the vibration cast lines. This was a real nightmare for removal. The best recommendation I could come up with is let your refractory go as long as you possibly can. How do you remove coke from cyclones and other areas in the reactor? How do you know when you are done? What safety and operational concerns have to be addressed? DROSJACK: We’re talking about removal of coke and I think the answers are pretty similar in that the chipping guns are the most common application in our facilities. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. Question 21. they couldn’t cut the stuff. We found the hangers had severe deformation. We had one of our customers last year on an RCC turnaround that had never heard of them. I mean just cut the riser out and put a new riser in. if you get into a similar situation that bad. Anyway. The reactor dome steam was cut off as an energy conservation measure. The bulk of the removal was completed with chipping guns and rivet busters. There were pockets of pyrophoric iron sulphide which ignited upon exposure to air. we inspected the cyclone hangers and found deformation due to the excess load. The coke formed while the cyclone hangers were thermally expanded. and they flew up to our office to witness ARC spray metalizing and the demolition with the rivet buster. One of the issues with the coke is just the ability to get the guns access to the coke as well as the fact that you’ve got to dispose of a lot of dirty water. take a look at your hangers system for distortion. and they can shear through the shell. retired): I’ve had a lot of experience in trying to do that. the more coke that is embedded in the refractory on your risers. with the same people. And by complete replacement. that’s the most widely used thing. and we rattled them pretty badly and damaged them. will be easier to take out. I managed to do some hydrodemolition on a riser with the same company. The same comment on the high pressure water. During shutdown or cool down. the hangers thermally contracted and the coke restrained the contraction. The hangers were strained from the weight of the coke and the restraints imposed by the incompressibility of the coke. CARPER: We saw one unit which filled solid with coke from the top of the cyclones to the top head. which is mainly where the stuff is. It takes a lot of time and it’s almost not worth it. I’ve done it with chipping. They were finished in one. it got some of the coke off. the harder that will be to get out.bolts. There’s also a rivet buster.
They are designed for the weight of the cyclone plus the weight of the catalyst. is that the steam has to be bone dry. This scaffolding. Other steps to minimize coke formation have been addressed earlier. FARLEY: Not so much related to removal of coke. though. etc. digital imaging. This scaffolding helped shave a tremendous amount of time off our recent turnaround. Two identical scaffolding jobs performed within our Regenerator are compared (Figure 24) “Regenerator Scaffolding Comparisons”). You don’t want to have any liquid in that steam that goes into the top of the vessel. but instead to minimize coke formation. especially in units that run resid (a portion of the feed that boils at very. is the most easily erected scaffolding that we have seen to date. What innovative techniques improve turnaround effectiveness? Inspection (thermal imaging. So you might want to review your designs.weight of coke. 45 . They were built to perform exactly the same function to get to specific places in the upper regenerator. Question 22. dome steam can be very useful to minimize coke formation in the top head of the vessel. Once you are down and obtain vessel entry. We have successfully used the Excel brand of scaffolding.) • scaffolding • blinding • refractory removal • chemical cleaning COUSAR: One task that is always in the critical path of turnarounds is scaffolding. very high temperatures). Riser operation can greatly help minimize coke formation. in our opinion. Important warning. scaffolding is the next step. That’s been known to cause more problems than the dome steam ring not being there.
The scaffolding’s unique design allows construction of most angles required. Once oil is out of the unit. the issue is to minimize time until maintenance can get into the unit. This jig-stand that we built during our October '99 turnaround is an example of the versatility of Excel scaffolding (Figure 26 “Jig Stand”). vertical leg heights are in 11” increments up to 9’ 7”. Basically. It was designed and erected in 12 hours by 5 men. FARLEY: There's been a big push the last several years. it has built in ladder components. This was a question that came up in the 1998 session here. and diagonal braces are not needed with gusset designed bars. (Figure 25 “Excel Scaffolding”). And a lot of people think chemical cleaning is the way to speed up that time. node point rings allow 360 degree placing of up to 8 bars. and therefore shorten the overall turnaround duration. It was a fully engineered structure with PE certification designed to hold 300. several people have 46 . personnel can climb through hatched decks. Other benefits of Excel scaffolding are that no tools are needed for assembly. This allowed our inspectors to have the best footing available when crawling up in and around the cyclones.000 lbs.
The issue is that these services are not free. so by the time the vessel is opened up. page 7). We could take those pictures the same day and take them to an extra work request meeting and talk to our managers about this repair. During shutdown. Last weekend we hired a contractor who used rope access technology for an inspection effort inside a regenerator. Theoretically. I’ve gotten a couple of samples and I had them sent up to Rutgers in Livingston. But based on putting it in a frozen environment. MARLOWE: On our last turnaround. tapping it. We unexpectedly shutdown a unit and needed to look inside the regenerator for the cause of a catalyst loss. The valve is used only during startup. We had six or eight of those during the outage. Term the experience as a limited success. I urge people doing this for the first time to devote serious effort to working with the contractor you choose to make sure this goes smoothly. These processes will actually remove benzene and all hydrocarbon (zero LEL). the blind is pulled and the valve closed. Our inspectors all had digital picture cameras. and the teacher pulled them out. So it helped us with our planning. 40 lb. Let us call the experience a learning experience with limited success. And we brought in inspectors who could help us write the reports right off the bat. That’s 47 . hoping we could thermal cycle it back and forth to ease removal. I had them soaked in liquid carbon dioxide. we learned a lot. Nothing happened. I’ve had pretty good luck with cleaning the fractionation systems and I have seen them pay for themselves. All it is is a very slow hitting. New Jersey. And just to touch on the coke. generally you have pretty good working conditions for maintenance.proprietary processes to do this and some of the ones that have been mentioned are U. DEMARTINO: Oh.L. that gave us an idea how many square feet we had in our major problem area. My personal experience has been pretty good with the processes. Prior to startup. and we recommend that highly. There is a cost that goes with these chemical cleaning methods. And as I talked about before on the regenerator wall. here are the demolition hammers (see Figure 2. this procedure saves time during startup. You have to look at the time savings versus the price you pay to do chemical cleaning. the refinery pulls the bonnet to remove the coke. This technology is something you might want to consider. During each turnaround. Scaffolding was mentioned previously and I just wanted to share a recent experience. hammer that’s made to shear through vibration casting and coke. Zyme Flow and Phillips Lifeguard Process. not a damn thing happened. but it also helped us find out through thermal imaging any other spots that we would need to repair. So the next thing we were going to try was CO2 blasting. And also that was available for a turnaround report almost immediately after the turnaround. a blind is installed. we used thermal imaging ahead of time to try to determine where we had problems. It does not take that much of a schedule delay to give up a significant portion of your cost savings. It helped tremendously in getting the word across and getting the explanation as to why we need to do repairs. so those are all good things to have for these outages. The valve is opened during startup and the disk locked open with a pin. CARPER: One of our refineries has a standard 30" gate valve in the reactor overhead line. learned limitations and applications. and you’d think he would smash it with a hammer.
And we have had several instances. even a vibration casting. It’s not a place you want to be chipping. DARRYL BERTRAM (BP Amoco p. But then. Our metallurgists recommend using a 2% soda ash solution for the regenerator internals. I am hoping to poll the audience on the question. you’re washing down the regenerator with water.c. to have the people who.): Darryl Bertram. Just following on Larry’s comments about rope access. And we had the same problem that he’s discussing where it would coke up during the run. Typically. In every instance. It’s built into part of the valve mechanism. which was right underneath the valve.): Keith Blair. the valve opened and closed when we needed it to. We’ve had a running controversy among refineries as to the effectiveness and the viability of washing down a regenerator as you immediately shut down a unit. to make sure they’re trained. we have made pretty extensive use of rope access techniques. there’s also the drawback of where it goes after you’ve washed it down. BP Australia. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. to see if they do wash them down? HAZLE: If I understand correctly. And in our ’94 shutdown. but you do need to have a look. though. KENNETH BLAIR (Valero Refining): I understand that.our method of removal for refractory. Valero. In fact. I guess the question I really was placing was where does it go? How do you get it out? What do you do with it when it comes out? And does anybody find that to be of a major drawback to doing it in the first place? 48 . at our Kwinana refinery. for these unplanned. and we were able to document a 24-hr savings over blinding on startup and shutdown to justify the cost of the valve.l. there is no harm. we replaced that valve with a through conduit valve. from a safety perspective. But it’s a worthwhile thing for inspecting areas where it’s unlikely you’ll find a large amount of work to do. BLAIR (Valero Refining Co. of being able to use that valve. open it up and want to get as much catalyst out as possible. Like chicken soup. now. quite confident in the techniques. one time we had to use it was right after a fire. it gets rid of a lot of catalyst. nothing we could do to stop it. retired): I’d like to add to what Larry Carper commented on. we get some results. unscheduled shutdowns where process engineering might just like to have a look in cyclones and what-not. How many do that? Washing down a regenerator with water to remove catalyst? Four. And I would like to see if through a show of hands. CARPER: We typically wash down the regenerator in order to improve the dust situation and enhance the inspection effort. NJ. to get the right sort of people involved. and most importantly. you are not sure of the benefit but. In the Lima refinery. which has a normal block and bleed system on it. if each refiner can possibly have one person raise their hands. KEITH E. There are varying philosophies saying that the washing down is a great thing. It’s very important. but it’s not great. if you’re going to use your own people for it. Paulsboro. we had a 36" valve in the position between the regenerator reactor and the fractionator.
LEWIS FREDERICKSON (Chevron Products Company): In response to the question about washing down the regenerator. Inc. We plan for and budget a select group of crackerjack boilermakers. you can talk to me or come over to the presentation tomorrow. So if anybody wants to know more about it. What innovative contracting strategies reduce turnaround duration and cost and/or improve effectiveness. and when you’re putting water in there.e. I think somebody on the panel mentioned earlier to reduce downtime. The same follows with scaffolding.CARPER: The water is collected and properly disposed. you’ve got moisture. Question 23. And it’s a triangle. let them weld pipe. we keep that contractor’s best people focused on their particular scopes of work. pipefitters. The second strategy is the use of what we call a “SWAT Team”. This method also allows the flexibility to contract with the individual contractors a variety of contracts to suit their work (i. especially if you’ve got stainless steel inside it.). I think a lot of our refineries have started integrating the dryout process with a startup procedure and not where you’re drying out refractories. SHAW (Carmagen Engineering. and fire/hole watch personnel on both the 49 . they will end up subcontracting the work. So I’d be very careful about putting water inside regenerators. So you ought to think about that. COUSAR: We have implemented three innovative contracting strategies at Williams. We don’t think our refinery sewers can handle the amount of catalyst that we generate from washing the regenerator. 304 Stainless is really susceptible to polythionic acids. This tends to cause your top-notch crews to sink into mediocrity. By keeping the scope of work for each contractor down. When we have done it we built a dam underneath the regenerator collect the catalyst and then suck it up with a vacuum truck and haul it away. If you expect them to provide all crafts.. the carbon steel portion. lump sum.): I just wanted to add or reinforce. Chevron tries to avoid doing that due to all of the stainless steel components. There’s a lot of ways of getting that dust down besides putting water in there. The dream team is a collection of specific contractors that provide specific services (Figure 27 “Dream Team). not treat it as a separate operation. air and sulfur. If a company is very good at pipe welding. KEN GOTTSELIG (Koch Petroleum Group): I’m giving a talk tomorrow on our incident in the regenerator where we were soda ash washing and ended up with through-wall cracks of the regenerator wall. Most organizations will need to add a contractor to help administrate all the contracts and track the time. This approach allows for one contractor for each required discipline. refractory lining and so on. time and material. It would be very disastrous. you’ve got a very important part of that triangle. FRED COLLIER (Williams Energy Services): Washing a regenerator with water is pretty dangerous. By selecting companies to provide personnel for one particular craft. The first is what we call the “dream team” approach. you get their best people. etc. DONALD F. And that may be something people want to look at. insulating.
This group of 12 to 16 people per shift makes up the “SWAT Team”. This was a very effective tool for us during our recent turnaround. The target price contract is similar to a lump-sum contract. We do insist on getting the contractor’s best people. and if they cannot be provided to us. yet it also provides the flexibility to purchase goods and to contract services that are preferred without the dreaded “change order”. now. We couldn't send one of our best customers some of our best people. They have the biggest hammer in the country. and we get them involved early in the turnaround planning process. now. This group helps keep things on or ahead of schedule as well as takes care of larger items that come up unexpectedly. And some of the other big mergers happen. DEMARTINO: Okay. We let them know in advance what we expect as well as encourage them to help develop the turnaround plan. we will seek alternate contractors.day and night shifts. and I had another 100 people doing other jobs across the country. you have the Exxons and Mobils of the United States. I was fully involved in two Cat Cracker turnarounds. and it happened to me last November. The third strategy is the use of the target price contract. The problem I see with that scenario is. and I had conversation with Exxon and Mobil about this. And do you ever get faced with that kind of scenario? COUSAR: We maintain excellent relationships with our key contractors. Whenever a problem arises or an area needs speeding up. It is all about setting a common goal with incentives that drive each party through a high degree of teamwork. It appears you're hand-picking a few guys from each company. and they 50 . with both parties sharing in overruns and underruns. DEMARTINO: I would just have a question. This team is used to perform work at the sole discretion of the project/turnaround manager. And we failed pretty well on one of our turnarounds. This contract simply allows the two parties to identify and agree upon the suppliers and contractors that will work together. There's got to be a what-if scenario. simply point and shoot. This unique concept allows the comfort of lump-sum contracting. Significant changes in scopes are agreed upon and taken into account in the total target price.
IV: PROCESS/PERFORMANCE-RELATED ISSUES Question 24. and there are no hidden costs for an extra 10 or 15 chipping guns per shift. and it helps speed changes through your system when they're needed. where you're going to put welding machines. anyway. COUSAR: I agree. on your structure in particular. This normally saves a lot of time with the welder trying to find where his machine has to be adjusted and that type of thing. retired): One thing that we did at the Lima Refinery is set up an engineering team with both maintenance engineers and technical experts on metallurgies. and all you've got to do is hook a short welding lead and run it into the unit when you get it open. There's no way to nickel and dime the owner companies. So our day shift and night shift rates include all the equipment. The other thing that I've seen done in the past is most of the time you're always wondering where you're going to get air. my rates include all of my company’s own equipment. And these people. That's all. What are the driving forces for selecting catalyst blends? • selectivity/yield • hardware changes • erosion/attrition 51 . For a lot of the T&M (time and materials) work that we do for the refinery industry. and even go so far as to include the mobilization and demobilzation fleets. we haven't lost a contract that we bid. And then if you need air. So that's kind of a unique way. much to my dislike. And somehow. Since we started doing that. and it takes it out of your supervisor's hands.demand that they get the right people all the time. You don't have to worry about large hoses. You don't have to worry about pressure drops in your piping up there to where you need the air. So you've got enough air for your jack hammers or anything else you need. but the combination of the relationships we maintain with our contractors and the involvement in planning we give to our contractors has been successful for us thus far. So they see one set of rates. We demand. include all the per diems. that’s not going to be fair to the other refiners. This can all be done prior to the shutdown. It can’t happen on every job. DEMARTINO: One of the things we’ve done is come up with a strategy which I guess some of the other people have used out here. someday soon. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. Your inspectors are always finding problems. it gets it right up to the managers. You don't have to worry about running hoses. And it’s not going to happen on every job. I've seen six and eight packs stacked up on the deck where you know you're going to be doing a lot of welding. what I've seen done is an extra pipe run up the structure with hose stations on it so you can hook up portable machines down at the bottom to provide air all the way up the structure. their sole purpose on the refinery during the shutdown is to come up with solutions for those problems. piping and what have you as a trouble-shooting team.
thermal deactivation. We have evolved over the last several years from using primarily Ecat and supplementing with fresh catalyst to using primarily fresh catalyst and supplementing with Ecat. Octane barrels may have very high value. that’s pretty important. There have been some cases where it’s just not possible to get the activity on existing catalyst that refiners want. but basically they all fall under the category of something that reduces residence time in the reactor vessel. I’d also stress that in today’s environment. And in some locations. in select cases. we utilize both fresh catalyst and equilibrium catalysts to provide our conversion as well as bottoms upgrading. more gasoline.S. Things like gasoline olefin content. 52 . The purchased equilibrium catalyst (Ecat) provides an economic alternative to fresh catalyst that allows us to maintain unit activity by controlling metals levels and at times has supplemented for catalyst losses. So there’s been a catalyst change associated with that. You look at units in Japan and places in the U. or not as important ten years ago. I think people need to start looking at something like an olefin barrel value. it may be temperature.S. Additives such as ZSM-5 influence the yield of LPG olefins. is octane important? It’s really important for the process people in the operation to have an understanding of this. gasoline olefin content is very important in selecting catalyst. Generally. and from our experience. That may not be catalyst. it’s pretty interesting where you have a lot of product specifications that are very important today that weren’t important. and metals deactivation. but it’s a real problem. a catalyst change.COUSAR: Refineries select from a variety of catalysts to meet specific yield slates based on economic factors. the number one thing we see that shifts a catalyst blend would be something like a riser termination device. would be feed nozzles. Do you need more LPG. you can lose a little bit of octane with a feed nozzle revamp. Changing reaction system residence times (changing volume in the riser) may necessitate a change in catalyst. It is formulated to achieve a desired yield pattern as well as be resistant to attrition. In terms of things like hardware changes that drive catalyst shifts. Other revamps that may have. These types of additives are used as an adjustment knob to tweak a yield pattern to achieve a certain yield structure. And you see some pretty severe catalyst changes being made to make these specifications. these guys are pretty valuable in giving you direction as to where you want to shift operation. there’s really not that many. Because we operate a resid FCC. There are a lot of different names for these types of devices. You want to do something to recover that octane. You look at recent revamps and consider the recent technology pieces that are used. today. We also add various catalyst additives to make more subtle changes in the yield structure.. people start looking at a lot higher activity catalyst in the FCC after this type of revamp to recover some conversion. We rely on the fresh catalyst to provide the foundation of our catalytic conversion and selectivity. FARLEY: I stress working with your refinery economic planning group when you look at catalyst formulations. You don’t see that commonly in the U. And you get that understanding by working with the economic group. This approach has become a necessity in order to achieve our selected yields as our cat feed has continuously gotten heavier and the metals and con carbon levels have increased. But catalyst is one option for that. Generally. but the primary catalyst used to drive our cat is the fresh catalyst.
I’ll also add to that fluidization. this can also be used on units that are pushing their catalyst circulation limits in the slide 53 . If you change to a catalyst with a lower total void fraction at minimum fluidization conditions. In some cases. And work with that as your baseline. So that is something that you can work out. mentioned in response to an improved riser termination device. we started having that problem. WILSON (Barnes and Click. in the area of hardware changes. The activity change that C. But you can select catalyst blends with hardness considerations. in hydrogen on coke. Back in the late ’80s. Harder does not necessarily mean good things. When we put in those technologies. When it comes to erosion and attrition. In almost every location that we made hardware changes. but we found pretty quickly that we needed a selectivity change along with it.MARLOWE: We have high velocities in our system at Toledo. one of them being catalyst. Inc. For example. And all of a sudden. we couldn’t employ.): Just a couple of other things you might look at when you start thinking about catalyst. It’s been pretty good when it comes to regenerator losses. we found that there were some technologies that some of the suppliers offered that we couldn’t take advantage of because they offered active ingredients that for whatever reason. but it actually has done us some harm in ash increase in our slurries.): Just to add to some of the comments that Jim made. And in particular. probably. retired): For those of you who have hot gas expanders that have had a problem with buildup of catalyst on the shroud. where we did not have it before. Inc. So I’d be careful with getting something that’s harder than you’re more accustomed to running. We’ve found in some of our units that fluidization is more of a concern than erosion or attrition resistance. and we had more options. ROBERT A. and in a couple of cases where we changed the riser residence time. And it’s really not a selection criteria anywhere in our refineries in the Sun system. So we had not gotten around to identifying that particularly. we made several changes. but some reactive properties you can change to deal with other problems in the unit. we went to an activity change. we found we opened up the portfolio more. BAZIL BURGESS (Premcor. and use that with the information that the supplier has in their portfolio to specify a proper product for you. mostly physical properties. It’s not a selection criteria at our location. it can sometimes help overcome problems with an overloaded or an inefficient stripper. but you do have to do that in your own location with the requirements that you have there. and reduce your regenerator temperatures and product loss that way. you might want to look at changing catalyst if you can’t solve the problem any other way. especially when we upgraded our feed nozzles. it can have an affect on the amount of losses from your regenerator in your opacity. and that’s related to the cyclones so we do have a higher attrition. And with less ability to break down or attrite and create much finer particles than you want. than we need. meant that there was a major change in the catalyst formulations that we used in the unit. There are differences in what we have seen with different suppliers’ products. if you have an increase to a catalyst with a higher particle density. but that’s something you might look at. Use your unit to tell you what’s a good operating area based on your expander vibrations that may result or your slurry ashes that may result. LUDOLPH (Sunoco. There are catalyst properties. J. JOSEPH W. especially seasonally.
but it’s bad. which got in the FCC through the air system. We've seen a lot of papers about the effects of iron contamination. calcium. For example. Most of the time. Having said that FCC feed is the usual source of metals. horrible thing to happen. you start seeing high sodium or. potassium. iron. iron. For contaminants like potassium. it’s been in your unit for quite a while. I think everybody pretty well knows sodium is a bad actor as far as it actually physically destroys portions of the catalyst by attacking the acid sites. and zinc? What are the remedies for metal contamination? Are FCC feed desalters the answer? FARLEY: These are not necessarily your typical contaminants. If you start to see metal spikes on your E-cat analysis. and that's a horrible. In terms of rank order. One theory about calcium and iron contamination is the use of the chelant Na4EDTA in the acid stimulation of oil well production. sources can vary. This introduces a lot of lag time in the control of the unit. Does anyone in the audience have any experience with FCC feed desalters as a means of metals removal from cat feed? 54 . So the issue is how do you look at the FCC feed to make sure you don't get the contaminants in the unit to begin with.valves and the stand pipes to get away from those limits by reducing the cat/oil ratio required to get the desired conversion that you need. several locations are running used motor oil through their process units. sodium. By the time you get the sample results. The industry has done a lot of work in the last few years about iron. The main problem is that it is hard to account for variations in feed contaminant loadings on a day to day basis. There have been cases where sodium has come from the air system. and you're never going to find that in the feedstock. Question 25. Calcium acts in a similar fashion. Generally. Potassium is very similar. and zinc. I know of one case in particular where caustic was being unloaded with air pressure. people only make changes upon seeing moves in the FCC equilibrium catalyst properties. caustic got in the air system. it may not be the problem in every instance. it’s feed related. In our experience we’ve seen zinc associated mainly with lube oil or motor oil. you owe it to yourself to look at more than just the feed. we would think sodium. calcium. And literally. My personal experience has been that the bad problems I've had are related to specific sources of feed. then zinc and iron is sort of the order of severity of these contaminants. What are the sources of FCC catalyst metal contaminants such as potassium. COUSAR: Close monitoring of the desalter effluent water pH and management of refinery recycle streams are two means by which we control metals in our topped crude/cat feed. one crude well is undergoing some sort of cleaning operation and suddenly you have 20 ppm iron in your FCC feed sample. Severe pH changes inside the desalters can cause the calcium and iron to be discharged back into the crude while the sodium is picked up again. sodium. high iron. You can't just assume that it's coming from the feedstock. But it happens. It’s not as severe as sodium. Zinc also has a similar type of attack. EDTA has a tendency to pick up iron and calcium while releasing sodium. calcium.
from a design standpoint. PECCATIELLO (Chevron Products Company): In addition to potassium from feedstocks. you should have a double desalter ahead of your resid to take out any sodium that may be coming in with the resid. directionally. which actually demetalizes the catalyst so that less fresh catalyst is required. you come up with some new online optimization routine. you can purchase good equilibrium catalyst to flush out the metals. but these are not common cases. does it correlate with cyclone life? Yes. In terms of catalyst carryover. you can run out of dipleg. And double desalting is very effective at improving the FCC performance.): If you’re going to run resids. it’s a failure that takes place between turnarounds. You’ve got your unit. you can use the Kellogg magnetic separator to minimize the amount of fresh catalyst you need. it does. You’re going to have some sort of failure faster operating with higher velocities than you do running lower velocities. What is the panel’s experience with cyclone velocities greater than 75ft/sec? Does it correlate with cyclone life? What about catalyst carryover? What are the advantages of higher velocities? FARLEY: We see a very large number of units actually operating above 75 fps velocity. I don’t think that anybody really designs to run higher velocities. 30% to 50% of the units that I know of are routinely doing this. But the problem is. At some point in time with continued increases in velocities. which means dipleg backup increases. Normally. We do have problems with higher velocities at our location.KENNETH A. and usually you add sodium for pH control. That’s the real advantage of higher velocities. and you have carryover due to dipleg backup. just as a matter of course. and you can push more capacity to the unit with the same cyclones you have. and you can also use Coastal’s ACT process. FRANK ELVIN (Coastal Catalyst Technology. The other things you can do to handle these metals and the main problem with metals is the nickel and vanadium. you can purchase flash catalyst. The real advantage of higher velocities is you can do it on line. In terms of advantages of higher velocities. Question 26. and this is in the inlet to the second stage. There have been cases where people choose to accept higher velocities due to space limitations. Our opinion is that it shortens cyclone life and if it shortens cyclone life. refiners that are using potassium hydroxide for HF alkylation neutralization and are feeding the acid soluble oil (ASO) back to the FCC unit can introduce additional potassium on the catalyst. The second you’re out of dipleg. The Toledo Refinery does run 83 to 85 feet per second. your cyclone loading goes up so quickly that you never really see that. This is where you want to try to maintain your 85 feet per second. it’s been running two years. but all these other metals also are bad for the FCC yields. increasing cyclone inlet velocity also increases the pressure drop across the cyclone. the catalyst that’s in the cyclone goes out the top. and you choose to do that until your next turnaround. Inc. there’s some marginal improvement in cyclone efficiency. You can add extra fresh catalyst. There’s usually a lot of sodium in the resid coming from your crude unit where you have a desalter. 55 . we don’t plan on this. But in operation. we talked about the high velocities before. MARLOWE: Just to add to that. And.
We ran 86. 88. when you’re making your capital costs comparisons and you’re looking at a new system. So 15% increase in inlet velocity might get you about 50% increase in erosion rate or a 33% decrease in equipment life. Of course. you know. so you really want to monitor your velocity. We’ve seen something similar to that where one advantage of higher cyclone velocities was basically eliminating the need for vessel replacement. yes you could take advantage of some higher velocities. You eventually reach some sort of ultimate capacity where you’ve got high superficial velocity. so it was moving along pretty good. It doesn’t sound like a lot. So if you have pressure drop. a major cause of erosion is your velocity. We find that a increased inlet velocity kind of correlates about to the cube of the increase in velocity. but the two are not necessarily coupled when you’re working with a new design and the effects on erosion and decreased equipment life are a lot more clearly linked to inlet velocity. WILLIAM D. but you have to be very careful.when you’ve got existing cyclones. So you can almost take that calculation factor of 3 and you can kind of take the days or whatever from an initial design of 15 or 20 years. HENNING (Conoco Inc. in our experience. with bigger equipment at higher inlet velocities. you’ve got two real times you’re considering whether you’re going in as an increasing flow to an existing unit that’s just sitting there and it’s a throughput issue. much. we wore down the refractory on the back end of the primary cyclone. there’s just not enough physical space in the top head of that vessel.): We’ve had one Cat Cracker where after about a year of operation. to life. then you probably have close to a 45% increase in your erosion. And one major advantage that at least everybody needs to understand that drives part of the selection is higher inlet velocity ends up with cheaper cyclones. but you don’t want to be using inlet velocity. FARLEY: That’s a good comment from the floor. yet. So you would wear out much. Then we developed a strategy for operating based on velocities. to the velocity range you would like. What we were worried about was we were not monitoring it. In this case. 89 feet per second. And the inlet velocity there was about 85 feet per second. because you can’t get the cyclones in. the 75 feet per second is really a design point that the manufacturers try to maintain so that you can have a normal life of your cyclone. there is a cost disadvantage in the initial capital equipment. but the velocities are a factor of 3 or a factor of 4 related to erosion. and you’ll find out how many days you actually knock off of your life. faster. The next cyclone size is not available for you. and you don’t have enough diameter for the cyclone layout you need. your increase in flow will increase inlet and outlet velocities. and the operations capacities were pushing it to well above 85 feet per second. The other is for a rebuild or repurchase or refitting a vessel with cyclones. outlet velocity is less detrimental. So if you have a 13% increase in your velocity. the head would have to come off. if you’re comparing a system that is 75 feet per second inlet velocity and another one at 65 feet per second inlet velocities. So. So. So what you end up looking at is vessel shell replacement and I have not seen too many people get excited about that. The other thing . If you’re planning on replacing the cyclone or repairing it. much. And so we fixed it up pretty quickly. BILL HEUMANN (Fisher-Klosterman): We’ve done a lot of work with velocities and cyclones. A lot of it is mirroring what the panel said. 87. and we used erosion as proportional to 56 .Now.
and that seemed to fit some previous data in the unit. What are the consequences of using oxygen enrichment? additional maintenance expenses? safety considerations? FARLEY: The background of O2 enrichment is that. and also it seemed to work pretty well until we got to the next turnaround and we could actually replace the cyclones. and of course. it’s pretty important to have a very robust safety interlock system in place and it is very important to control the percentage of oxygen that’s actually entering the regenerator.): In addition to the comments from the podium. on average. CARPER: There’s another reason for using oxygen enrichment. this is due to the loss of some of the nitrogen as heat sinks. do not hot tap into an oxygen line. Some brief comments related to safety. you can decrease your superficial velocity if you run into cyclone loading challenges. keep it dry. Question 27. The issue is. We believe that around 57 . The refinery’s source of information for handling and addressing safety issues was from the Compressed Gas Association and Linde. Lastly one major key our refinery wanted to share: by all means. Once you make the decision to use O2 enrichment. oxygen enrichment levels in our experience have ranged from 21% to 28%. it’s very site specific. it’s not free. They are specifically trained and dedicated to the tasks. Most people report some sort of incremental catalyst deactivation. depending on what the unit configuration is. ROBERT BEST (Air Products and Chemicals. I wanted to mention that oxygen enrichment will slightly increase the regenerator bed temperature. O2 enrichment offers one way to combust incremental coke when you’re out of air blower. I’ve heard numbers at 10%. There is usually an economic debit where the regenerator temperature ends up going up some. given no other changes in process variables. Individual plant economics drive this decision. My direct experience is that most people limit O2 to about 25 mol % being charged to the regenerator. To our knowledge. is that you consider that for each 1% of oxygen enrichment. and hurdle pricing is set where the feed margin has to be over a certain value before you make the decision to use O2 enrichment. And as mentioned. so there may be a loss in cat to oil. if the regenerator temperature goes up. Overall.velocity to the 5th power. we see about 24%. So. so. I’ve heard numbers at 40%. there’s a pretty robust economic evaluation. And there’s still a lot of incremental margin to burn more coke. You have to buy the oxygen to combust the coke. As a general rule of thumb for predicting the temperature rise. and keep it oil free. the FCC oxygen enrichment has been safely practiced by our customers for well over two decades. These numbers go all over the map. In addition to that. the bed temperature can increase by about 3o to 5o F. And I would agree that on an average basis. Inc. what this gets down to is usually. you have a lot of FCCs out there that are out of air blower capacity. There are reports in industry of people going higher than that. there’s usually some sort of decline in the overall yield structure of the unit. One of our refineries uses a dedicated crew to handle the equipment and connections. The keys are quite simple: keep it clean. the safety interlock system is absolutely critical.
I’d just like to mention for more detailed information on FCC O2 enrichment safety and other FCC topics. Inc.com. would follow a formal haz-op review prior to commissioning. we started with a vaporizing system where the oxygen was brought in as a liquid. I’m curious as to what levels of oxygen enrichment people are actually running on a regular basis. Each of our applications. of course. we had to re-route the 58 . Inc. T. mainly for safety purposes. And a brief listing of safety considerations would include a properly designed O2 diffuser. JOSEPH W. high oxygen pressure. I would recommend an interesting and new website put out by Refinery Process Services. high measured O2 enrichment. and then fed into the unit. And initially.the world. that’s a little side benefit you can get. We. The original system we had stainless steel piping throughout. and in part sponsored by Air Products. this should include several key safety interlocks such as high oxygen flow.5%. The address is www. Self-imposed guidelines dictated by CGA and other companies. DAVID PAY (Lyondell-Citgo Refining): David Pay. if anybody’s willing to name numbers. and therefore needs the required cleanliness to do so. J. JASON PAGEL (Lyondell-Citgo Refining): Our typical O2 level is around 24.the answer to the question about what level of enrichment? We see about 24% as a rough average. but when we installed some new equipment back in 1992. regenerator temperature.0 and 4. as a company. on the O2 flow skid and controls. pipeline construction. To add on to Jason’s remarks. the range being from very little to probably a maximum of 28%. Now. proper placement of that diffuser.): I’ve got a question this time. ROBERT BEST (Air Products and Chemicals. And in closing. And just briefly. you try to treat the line as if it’s going to have to carry pure oxygen.): I just want to mention that on average. high temperature conditions in the air main downstream of the O2 injection. low air flow. UNKNOWN: At the one refinery where we use oxygen enrichment. you have . keeping in mind placing it at least ten pipe diameters from any impingement point. observing O2 material construction compatibility issues in piping guidelines. about . FCC O2 enrichment is used in between 40 to 50 FCC units. WILSON (Barnes and Click. we’ve been doing oxygen enrichment since 1983. we have a pipeline connection and so it comes in as a vapor. to name most of the common interlocks. we run 25% to 27%. So. ROBERT RILEY III (Grace Davison): One of the side benefits that we’ve seen as a consequence of oxygen enrichment is that as the EPA and the other regulatory agencies are starting to crack down on SOx emissions.thefccnetwork.above 28%.1 guidelines for O2 material selection. closely follow CGA pamphlet 4. and cleaning practices. Just out of curiosity. Lyondell-Citgo Refining. the catalyst additives for SOx control are generally much more efficient when used in a regenerator using oxygen enrichment. high calculated O2 enrichment levels. and a general catch-all master FCC interlock.
MONIQUE STREFF (Fisher Rosemount Systems): I'm just wondering if that $. It is important to look at things like plot space and operating costs when making your decision as far as which type of system to invest in. with Mott also generally listing HCO first. from what I can see. The Gulftronics preferred backwash material is HCO. The three systems do call out that any of the streams below can be satisfactory. a reduction in the disposal costs of the catalyst sludge in the tanks. first installed 1990.9 million in savings was just for a year or considered overall? COUSAR: That was our annualized savings. The decision was made to revamp our FCC reactor and in doing so. The final decision should be based more on life cycle cost analysis as opposed to investment cost only. generally more like 300 ppm solids in the final slurry product. The first column is Gulftronics. filter elements. and the last column is the hydrocyclone. with 50 ppm on the high side. and the elimination of the slurry settling aid. more than 50. We went through the process of evaluating both the Pall and the Mott filtration systems. piping. And the Dorr-Oliver hydrocyclone. while Pall tends to name slurry as their first choice. We did go through a very elaborate cleaning of the system before we commissioned it.) that was sized for approximately 3. valves. COUSAR: Prior to our '99 FCC turnaround . etc. The savings were in the form of a reduction in the frequency of cleaning the slurry tanks. Estimated slurry solid concentration is around 50 ppm.1 million. Question 28. first installed 1979. the third column is the Pall cartridge filter. That was $900. just a quick survey of what's out there in industry. 59 . first installation was 1989. Gulftronics directionally has the highest backwash rate. we were losing quite a bit of catalyst from our reactor. generally estimated to have anywhere from 20 to 50 ppm solids in the slurry product to storage. Gulftronics. There can be some pretty surprising differences in plot space.2 million. The Mott and Pall systems are fairly similar in terms of backwash rates. We were justifying this expenditure based on approximately $0. the second column is the Mott cartridge filter system. The total installed cost was estimated to be $2. so we went with carbon steel lines for the additional piping that we had to put in.000 per year. Pall cartridge systems.9 million of savings. currently has 9 installations. The filter systems have a wider operating temperature range than the Gulftronics. around 50 of those. has a lot of installations.000 bpd of slurry was about $1. and generally estimated to be around 20 ppm slurry solids. pumps.line. The cost estimate for the filtration skid (including the filtration vessels. What kinds of filters or separators have satisfactorily removed catalyst from slurry? FARLEY: The table (Figure 28 – see next page) compares some slurry filters or separators that have satisfactorily removed catalyst from slurry. we reduced our catalyst losses to the point to where the filter project was economically infeasible. 16 of those installations now. Basically. 1960 for first installation. Basically. The Mott system.
2 %.670° F Figure 28 60 . LCO.600° F (480° F normal) Up to 2 % 0 FCC Feed. Device First Installation Number of Installations Estimated Slurry Effluent Solids Concentration.HAZLE: Any other questions or comments? I’ve held you long enough. 550° F maximum design temperature NA 482 . Let’s say thank you to our panelists. [applause]. up to 2 % FCC Feed. LCO. Slurry 302 -392° F (356° F normal) FCC Feed. Slurry 480° F normal operation. Slurry 401 . ppm Percent of slurry feed that is recycled to riser from separator Backwash requirement as a percent of separator feedrate Choices for backwash fluid Operating temperature range (°F) Gulftronics Separator 1979 >50 50 Mott Cartridge Filter System 1990 9 <20 Pall Cartridge Filter System 1989 16 <50 Dorr-Oliver Hydrocyclone 1960 >50 ~ 300 0 0 0 ~9 20 As low as 0. HCO. HCO. HCO. I appreciate you staying for the end of the session. LCO.
61 . 12000 Aerospace Ave. process cooling and more. retrofits and turn-arounds. Temporary and permanent elevators available for new construction. Inc. Inc. Field Piping. 1 vessels trayed towers. TX 77078 713-649-6923 Mr. TX 77061 713-640-8500 Lee Brantley American manufacturer of rack-and-pinion elevator systems specifically engineered for the petrochemical and refinery environments. (CCC) is the world leader in design and manufacture of electronic control systems for all turbomachinery applications. ASME Section VIII Div. TN 37203 615-851-5727 Mr. Aggreko Inc. including cat cracker air blowers and Power Recovery Trains. Darrell McAnelly Causeway manufactures refractory anchoring. Compressor Controls Corporation 11359 Aurora Ave. Engineeral Scaffold. Houston. McKinley Oklahoma City. Custom engineered for your specific project with explosion proof. Champion Elevators.2000 EXHIBITORS ABB Fan Group North America 19065 Highway 174 Pell City. Suite 126 . fabrication with insulation drawings. TX 77034 713-852-4500 Mr. Houston. which will greatly reduce your insulation time. Glenn Poche Rotating machinery protection and management hardware/software and engineering services providing full solutions.Box 169 Nashville. hexmetal. Causeway also offers complete hexmetal and flexmetal. OK 73108 405-634-5434 x222 Mr. Bently Nevada Corporation 7651 Airport Blvd. Leo Poirier Plant inspection services API 510. 653. Atlantic Scaffolding Company 2817 West End Avenue. cooling water. Backed by a professional support team and engineering staff. Des Moines. 6923 Mayfair Houston. hexcels. Services include temporary electricity. Wes Horton TURNKEY scaffolding contractor featuring Excel Modulor System. New Orleans. Suite 300 Houston. Bruce J. Bob James World Wide provider of specialty utility services. AL 35125 205-814-1722 Mr. Nashville. All Tech Inspection 9009 North Loop East #155 Houston.. 8400 Villa Drive Houston. and will engineer upgrades for allexisting fans. Sherwood McDonald FCCU T/A Specialist. Inc. Boardman. TX 77029 713-673-2385 Mr. TX 77061 713-640-1111 x4203 Mr. s-anchors and punchtabs. highpressure fans for fluidization and sulfur recovery. Field Erected Vessels. 5110 Railroad Avenue Deer Park. flexmetal. 570. IA 50322 281-583-7799 Mr. 1135 S. TX 77536 281-478-6200 Mr. Tampa. oil-free air. Tower & Tray Work. AltairStrickland. Regional offices: Baltimore. Jeff McWhirter Compressor Controls Corp. the "no tools -positive locking" system. Inc. Gallagher ABB Fan Group engineers and manufactures FD and ID fans for fired heaters. Mobile. FCC "JIG Stands" reduces costs. Causeway Steel Products. corrosion resistant and variable frequency drives available. CCR blowers. Baton Rouge. Roger Grommet FCCU Components.
W. Overhead Transfer Lines. Stripper Sections. Suite 400 Mississauga. Weston Road. Plaza 1. ON Canada 403-258-6700 Mr. turnaround management training. D-Bar Anchor. coker elbows. 10035 Prospect Ave. Vogler All FCCU Components including Reactor and Regenerator Heads. Chris Lanclos FCCU T/A Specialists. transfer lines. MO 63110 314-781-6300 Mr. and critical flow nozzles. ON Canada 613-968-3481 x245 Ms. TX 77530 281-452-5865 Mr. Risers. 8431 Mosley Houston. Project Management and Corporate Alliances. Clam Shell Joints and on-site services. erosion. riser linings. Richard Binks Advanced ceramic materials and components for wear. FCCU licensors include these valves in their specifications. Risers/Standpipes. Diamond Refractory Services. Internals. INC. CN1 6UA England 011441270501000 Mr. impact. Louis. 62 . Fluegas. Frank Hawley The Rotating Disc Valves renew their sealing surfaces with each cycle. Inc. vacuum to class 2500° temperatures to 1500° F. 16315 Market Street Channelview. Inc. Wyes.Construction & Turnaround Services 12343 East Skelly Drive Tulsa. supported by a full machineshop. Airgrid nozzles. NJ 07080 908-769-0700 Mr. Expansion Joint Systems.. Regenerator Standpipe Joints. Suite 202 Santee. Air Distributors. cyclones (inlets. Reactor/Regenerator Vessels. Vibration Casting. maintenance management technology/CASP (Computer Assisted Scheduling & Planning System). L5N 1P7. dust bowls. Continental Fabricators. Elaine Foster Deloro Stellite is a provider of solutions for wear. 5601 West Park Avenue St. TX 77075 713-378-9200 Mr. CA 92071 619-562-6083 Ms. Ken Beevers Industrial contract maintenance. Dry abrasive media or slurries. EJMA Member. Delta Catalytic Industrial Services 2000 Argentia Road. and ASME Code Pressure Vessels. KY 40210 502-775-7388 C. corrosive and heat resistant problems. Kathy Tyson Manufacturer of metal and fabric expansion joints and piping solutions for various applications including FCCU. diplegs). Components are produced in eight processes. Corhart Refractories 1600 West Lee Street Louisville. and corrosion resistant ceramic. Deloro manufactures cobalt and nickel based alloys. Everlasting Valve Company 108 Somogyi Court South Plainfield. Inc. Air Grids. 3rd stage separater tubes. Wet Gunning. Overhead Lines. Diverter Valves. turnarounds & shutdowns management and execution. Injection Nozzles. Spent Catalyst. revamp. Miller Corguard-Abrasion. ENPRO SYSTEMS. Crewe Cheshire. OK 74128 918-437-4400 Mr. Charles W. plant commissioning and start-up. Rick Crago FCCU Slide & High Performance Butterfly Valves. Dynamic-Ceramic Limited Crewe Hall. Deloro Stellite 471 Dundas Street East Belleville K8N 1A2. Gerald Schivally Mechanical and refractory field contractor for turnarounds and capitol projects. construction and construction management. and corrossion resistance.
Elizabeth W. 14540 Alondra Blvd. Gary Kissel Cyclones. Industrial Gunite. reactor catalyst changeouts. TX 77002-7990 281-492-5880 Mr. Lubrication Systems Company 1740 Stebbins Drive Houston. and acid proof construction and turnarounds. Koch Specialty Plant Services. Air pollution control equipment. 12221 E. TX 77503 713-477-0331 Mr. Suite 260 Houston. all nonmetallic fluid sealing products and bolts. which include modification and repair of fired equipment. API 614 lube oil systems. TX 77063 713-977-4100 Mr. InduMar Products. Louisville. TX 77061 713-222-0284 Ms. 2500 Tanglewilde. Bart Davis InduMar Products. and pre-engineered lube oil systems. ring joint gaskets. revamp. Robert M. Inc. Bob Harrington Manufacturer of: Most advanced oil mist generator available. Thorpe & Son. P. KY 40210 502-572-4000 Mr. Mettee World’s leading supplier of Fluid Cracking Catalysts & FCC Additives. 601 Jefferson Avenue Houston. PA 16033 724-538-5006 Mr. Goolsby Provide refiner’s with information about FCC products offered by Kellogg Brown & Root and how it will help them. Inc. Marsulex Environmental Technologies 200 N. 2nd Floor Columbia. 7th Street Lebanon. Hi-Tech Refractory/Geo. Grace Davison 7500 Grace Drive. heat exchanger gaskets. oil purification systems. Diplegs. Sam Houston Pkwy. wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbers. and specialty fasteners. Inc. Fisher-Klosterman. MO 64111-2999 816-756-2150 Mr. PA 17046 717-272-7212 Mr. fireproof.Fibercon International. Craig Jackson Refractory Engineering & Contracting. MD 21044 410-531-8226 Ms. will be demonstrating the STOP IT® PIPE REPAIR system. Offices are located throughout the USA and Canada. Reintjes 3800 Summit Kansas City. Terry L. on-site hydraulic bolting. 15th St. 2000 Magnolia Street Pasadena. CA 90638 714-670-9500 Mr. Bldg. 100 South Third Street Evans City. are full service refractory installation contractors specializing in FCCU turnarounds.T. and Trickle Valves for fluid bed systems. Tim Coppinger Hi-Tech and the Geo. TX 77043 713-464-6266 Mr. Inc. drawn wire). Debbie D. field machining and bundle extraction. TX 77044 713-427-7715 Ms. anchors. Kellogg Brown & Root. 25. services and replacement parts. Inc. La Mirada. melt extract. maintenance and repair services. Ed Tenney FCC cylcones and electrostatic precipitators. J. Houston. Keith Foley Steel reinforcing fibers (slit sheet. Inc. studs and stud welding equipment for the refractory industry. Ferguson Contractor specializing in refractory. Lamons Gasket Company 7300 Airport Blvd. P. Inc. Warren Manufacturer of spiralwound gaskets. N Houston. Reintjes Co. 63 . Veronica Brown KSPS specializes in tower internal installation. 822 S. Inc.
TX 77039 281-449-0291 Ms. Harbison-Walker. 14330 E. TX 77478 713-948-1534 Mr. Sugar Land. mechanical and chemical disciplines. IN 46319 219-923-0425 Terry Swanson FCCU Turnaround Services. Dave McGrath Senior Flexonics Pathway is recognized as the industry leader in the innovation. Frank DeMartino Refractory Installer. 825 Taylor Station Road Gahanna. TX 77027 713-355-4900 Mr. mechanical. Diverter Valves. Resco Products. NJ 08086 856-853-5700 Mr. remaining life and high temperature applications. catalyst handling. Mark Schnake Manufacturer of refractory products previously produced by N. William W. REMOSA S. RHI Refractories America 600 Grant St. Butterfly. John Norder Ribbon Technology manufactures stainless steel for castable refractory reinforcement. vessel and exchanger specialist. electrical. Robert M. Offices in 5 US cities with expertise in fitness for service. 13800 Westfair East Drive Houston. Philip Services Corp. Huegele Resco Products Inc. TX 77087 713-495-3521 Mr. Suite 207 Houston. design and manufacture of high-quality metal and fabric expansion joints. New Braunfels. Sermatech Technical Services 12505 Reed Rd. Inc.p. Raymond J. Stress Engineering Services Inc. cycling with solids in the line and erosive attack of materials and coatings. Inc. Nooter Construction Company 1400 South Third Street St. Inc.A. Mogas has engineered metal seated ball valve solutions that overcome high temperature and high pressure. and A. MO 63104 800-325-7369 x565 Mr. Louis. 17 South Briar Hollow. Green Refractory companies. Murphy Industrial Constructors 626 East Pine Place Griffith. media build-up. Lori Evans Since 1973. 64 . American. TX 78130 830-629-8080 Mr. PA 15219 573-473-3517 Mr. piping and specialty welding. TX 77041 281-955-2900 Mr. 705 Sarah Ann Nacogdoches. 5200 Cedar Crest Blvd. Cathriner Slide. Tower. OH 43230 614-864-5444 Mr. Mike Prevost Project management.Pathway Division 2400 Longhorn Industrial Dr. 127 Salem Avenue Thorofare. TX 75961 936-560-3335 Mr.P.Mogas Industries. Terry Lechinger SES is a consulting engineering company with disciplines in civil. Hardy Street Houston. Montrey FCCU T/A Maintenance and Repair. Pittsburgh. Senior Flexonics . refractory. Shared Systems Technology. John J Saphier Engineered coatings for steam turbines and axial flow compressors. Houston. manufacturers a complete line of high quality refractories for the refining industry. Ribbon Technology Corp.
We can provide customer contacts who will testify to our longevity in this and other service FCCU applications. Diverter Valves and FCC Equipment. Wedge-within-wedge Valves. Rich Milland Industrial turnaround. TX 77029 713-675-4167 Mr. Zimmermann & Jansen. Inc. maintenance. Steve Kirklin Vesuvius offers a full like of refractory products and services for the construction and maintenance of hydrocarbon processing facilities. bolting and catalyst services. 200 Hermann Drive Alvin. exchanger. Suite A Houston. 620 N. Subsidiaries specialize in tower. electrical/instrumentation. R. Vesuvius Premier 9135 Wallisville Road. TX 77488 713-466-7200 x4 Ms. brick and ceramic fiber. including project management. repair and modification services. CA 94590-6968 707-642-2222 x239 Mr. Bredo Christensen Manufacturer of High Temperature Slide. high pressure leak repairs and hot tap services on cat cracker walls and flue gas ducts (1350° F).TAPCO International 5915 Brittmoore Houston. Gate. Taylor FCC Slide Valves. Double Disc. Humble. Many of our valves have been in service over 10 years without repairs. plus thermowell and sparger installations (1300° F). TX 77511 281-388-5545 Mr. Vesuvius offers a full line of monolithics. Inc. Eldridge #502 Houston. McAfee Team provides high temperature. Butterfly Valves. TX 77041 713-466-0300 Mr. Ronda Kalinec-Espinoza VALVTRON’S metal seated ball valves are a proven solution for tough FCCU applications such as slurry pump isolation. 65 . welding. heater repairs. Team Industrial Services. TX 77338 281-446-8000 Mr. planning and safety. Butterfly. vessel. Mark S. Houston Ave. VALVTRON 6830 N. W. The TIMEC Group of Companies 155 Corporate Place Vallejo.
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