DESIGNPROCEDUREFORSTEEL

FRAMESTRUCTURESACCORDING
TOBS5950

2.1 Introduction
Structuraldesignisgrosslyabbreviatednameofanoperation,whichformajorprojects
mayinvolvetheknowledgeofhundredsofexpertsfromavarietyofdisciplines.Acode
ofpracticemaythereforeberegardedasaconsensusofwhatisconsideredacceptableat
the time it was written, containing a balance between accepted practice and recent
researchpresentedinsuchawaythattheinformationshouldbeofimmediateusetothe
design engineer. As such, it is regarded more as an aid to design, which includes
allowable stress levels, member capacities, design formulae and recommendations for
goodpractice,ratherthanamanualortextbookondesign.
Once the decision has been taken to construct a particular building, a suitable
structuralsystemmustbeselected.Attentionisthengiventothewayinwhichloadsare
toberesisted.Afterthat,criticalloadingpatternsmustbedeterminedtosuitthepurpose
of the building. There is, therefore, a fundamental two-stage process in the design
operation.Firstly,theforcesactingonthestructuralmembersandjointsaredetermined
byconductingastructuralsystemanalysis,and,secondly,thesizesofvariousstructural
II
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 27
members and details of the structural joints are selected by checking against
specificationmember-capacityformulae.
Section 2.2 starts with definitions of basic limit-states terminology. Then,
determination of loads, load factors, and load combinations are given as requested by
the British codes of practice BS 6399. Accordingly, ultimate limit state design
documents of structural elements are described. In this, the discussion is extended to
cover the strength, stability and serviceability requirements of the British code of
practice BS 5950: Part 1. Finally, the chapter ends by describing methods used, in the
presentstudy,torepresentthechartsoftheeffectivelengthfactorofcolumninswayor
non-swayframesinacomputercode.
2.2 Limitstateconceptandpartialsafetyfactors
Limit state theory includes principles from the elastic and plastic theories and
incorporatesotherrelevantfactorstogiveasrealisticabasisfordesignaspossible.The
following concepts, listed by many authors, amongthemMcCormac(1995),Nethercot
(1995),Ambrose(1997),andMacGinley(1997),arecentraltothelimitstatetheory:
1. account is taken of all separate design conditions that could cause failure or make
thestructureunfitforitsintendeduse,
2. the design is based on the actual behaviour of materials in structures and the
performanceofrealstructures,establishedbytestsandlong-termobservations,
3. the overall intention is that design is to be based on statistical methods and
probabilitytheoryand
4. separatepartialfactorsofsafetyforloadsandformaterialsarespecified.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 28
The limiting conditions given in Table 2.1 are normally grouped under two
headings:ultimateorsafetylimitstatesandserviceabilitylimitstates.Theattainmentof
ultimate limit states (ULS) may be regarded as an inability to sustain any increase in
load. Serviceability limit states (SLS) checks against the need for remedial action or
some other lossofutility. ThusULSareconditionstobeavoidedwhilstSLS couldbe
consideredasmerelyundesirable.Sincealimitstateapproachtodesigninvolvestheuse
of a number of specialist terms, simple definitions of the more important of these are
providedbyNethercot(1995).
Table2.1.Limitstates(takenfromBS5950:Part1)
UltimateStates Serviceabilitystates
1. Strength(includinggeneralyielding,
rupture,bucklingandtransformation
intomechanism)
5. Deflection
6. Vibration(e.g.windinduced
oscillation
2. Stabilityagainstoverturningandsway 7. Repairabledamageduetofatigue
3. Fractureduetofatigue 8. Corrosionanddurability
4. Brittlefracture

Figure 2.1 shows how limit-state design employs separate factors
f
γ , which
reflectthecombinationofvariabilityofloading
l
γ ,materialstrength
m
γ andstructural
performance
p
γ .Intheelasticdesignapproach,thedesignstressisachievedbyscaling
down the strength of material or member using a factor of safety
e
γ as indicated in
Figure2.1,whiletheplasticdesigncomparesactualstructuralmemberstresseswiththe
effectsoffactored-uploadingbyusingaloadfactorof
p
γ .

DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 29

BS 5950 deliberately adopts a very simple interpretation of the partial safety factor
conceptinusingonlythreeseparateγ-factors:
• Variability of loading
l
γ : loads may be greater than expected; also loads used to
counteracttheoverturningofastructure(seesection2.6)maybelessthanintended.
• Variability of material strength
m
γ : the strength of the material in the actual
structuremayvaryfromthestrengthusedincalculations.
• Variability of structural performance
p
γ : The structure may not be as strong as
assumed in the design because of the variation in the dimensions of members,
variability of workmanship and differences between the simplified idealisation
necessaryforanalysisandtheactualbehaviouroftherealstructure.
Avalueof1.2hasbeenadoptedfor
p
γ which, whenmultipliedbythevaluesselected
for
l
γ (approximately 1.17 for dead load and 1.25 for live load) leads to the values of
Numericalvalues
Plasticdesign
Elasticdesign
Limitstatedesign
Strengthofmaterial
orofmember
Stressesorstressresultants
duetoworkingloads
×
f
γ

÷
e
γ
×
p
γ
÷
m
γ

Figure2.1.Levelfordifferentdesignmethodsatwhich
calculationsareconducted(Nethercot,1995)
(takenfromNethercot1995)
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 30
f
γ , which is then applied to the working loads, examples of which are discussed in
Section 2.3. Values of
m
γ have been incorporated directly into the design strengths
given in BS 5950. Consequently, the designer needs only to consider
f
γ values in the
analysis.
2.3 Loadsandloadcombinations
Assessment of the design loads for a structure consists of identifying the forces due to
both natural and designer-made effects, which the structure must withstand, and then
assigningsuitablevaluestothem.Frequently,severaldifferentformsofloadingmustbe
considered, acting either singly or in combination, although in some cases the most
unfavourable situation can be easily identifiable. For buildings, the usual forms of
loadingincludedeadload,liveloadandwindload.Loadsduetotemperatureeffectsand
earthquakes,incertainpartsoftheworld,shouldbeconsidered.Othertypesofstructure
will have their own special forms of loading, for instance, moving live loads and their
corresponding horizontal loads (e.g. braking forces on bridges or braking force due to
thehorizontalmovementofcranes).Whenassessingtheloadsactingonastructure,itis
usuallynecessarytomakereferencetoBS6399:Part1,2,and3,inwhichbasicdataon
dead,liveandwindloadsaregiven.
2.3.1 Deadload
Determinationofdeadloadrequiresestimationoftheweightofthestructuralmembers
together with its associated “non-structural” component. Therefore, in addition to the
bare steelwork, the weights of floor slabs, partition walls, ceiling, plaster finishes and
others (e.g. heating systems, air conditions, ducts, etc) must all be considered. Since
certainvaluesofthesedeadloadswillnotbeknownuntilafteratleastatentativedesign
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 31
isavailable,designersnormallyapproximatevaluesbasedonexperiencefortheirinitial
calculations.Apreliminarilyvalueof6-10kN/m
2
forthedeadloadcanbetaken.
2.3.2 Liveload
Live load in buildings covers items such as occupancy by people, office floor loading,
and movable equipment within the building. Clearly, values will be appropriate for
different forms of building-domestic, offices, garage, etc. The effects of snow, ice are
normallyincludedinthiscategory.BS6399: Part1givesaminimumvalueofthelive
loadaccordingtothepurposeofthestructuralusage(seeBS6399:Part1).
2.3.3 Windload
The load produced on a structure by the action of the wind is a dynamic effect. In
practice,itisnormalformosttypesofstructurestotreatthisasanequivalentstaticload.
Therefore, starting from the basic speed for the geographical location under
consideration, suitably corrected to allow for the effects of factors such as topography,
groundroughnessandlengthofexposuretothewind,adynamicpressureisdetermined.
Thisisthenconvertedintoaforceonthesurfaceofthestructureusingpressureorforce
coefficients,whichdependonthebuilding’sshape.
InBS6399:Part2,forallstructureslessthan100minheightandwherethewind
loadingcanberepresentedbyequivalentstaticloads,thewindloadingcanbeobtained
byusingoneoracombinationofthefollowingmethods:
• standard method uses a simplified procedure to obtain a standard effective wind
speed,whichisusedwithstandardpressurecoefficientstodeterminethewindloads,
• directional method in which effective wind speeds and pressure coefficients are
determinedtoderivethewindloadsforeachwinddirection.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 32
Theoutlineoftheprocedure,forcalculatingwindloads,isillustratedbytheflow
chart given in Figure 2.2. This shows the stages of the standard method (most widely
used method) as indicated by the heavily outlined boxes connected by thick lines. The
stagesofthedirectionalmethodareshownasboxesoutlinedwithdoublelinesandare
directlyequivalenttothestagesofthestandardmethod.
The wind loads should be calculated for each of the loaded areas under
consideration,dependingonthedimensionsofthebuilding.Thesemaybe:
• thestructureasawhole,
• partsofthestructure,suchaswallsandroofs,or
• individualstructuralcomponents,includingcladdingunitsandtheirfixings.
The standard method requires assessment for orthogonal load cases for wind
directions normal to thefacesofthe building.Whenthebuildingisdoubly-symmetric,
e.g. rectangular-plan withflat,equal-duopitchorhippedroof,thetwoorthogonalcases
shown in Figure 2.3 are sufficient. When the building is singly-symmetric, three
orthogonal cases are required. When the building is asymmetric, four orthogonal cases
arerequired.
In order to calculate the wind loads, the designer should start first with evaluating the
dynamicpressure
2
e s
613 0 V . q = (2.1)
where
e
V istheeffectivewindspeed(m/s),whichcanbecalculatedfrom
b s e
S V V = (2.2)
where
s
V isthesitewindspeedand
b
S istheterrainandbuildingfactor.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 33

Yes
Stage1:Dynamicaugmentationfactor
C
r

Stage3:Basicwindspeed
b
V
Stage4:Sitewindspeed
s
V
Stage5:Terraincategories,effective
heightH
e

Stage7:Standardeffectivewind
speedV
e

Stage8:Dynamicpressure
s
q
Stage9:Standardpressure
coefficientsC
pi,
C
pe

Stage10:WindloadsP
Buildingisdynamic.Thispartdoes
notapply
Siteterraintype,levelofupwind
rooftopsH
o
,separationofbuildingsX
Directionalandtopographiceffects
S
c
,T
c
,S
t
,T
t
,S
h

Dynamicpressureq
e,
q
i

DirectionalwindloadsP
No
Figure2.2.Flowchartillustratingoutlineprocedureforthedeterminationofthewind
loads(accordingtoBS6399:Part2)

Stage2:Checklimitsofapplicability
C
r
<0.25,H<300m
Basicwindspeedmap
AltitudefactorS
a
,directionalfactor
S
d
,seasonalfactorS
s

DirectionaleffectivewindspeedV
e

DirectionalpressurecoefficientsC
p

InputbuildingheightH,inputbuilding
typefactor
Stage6:Choiceofmethod
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 34
The terrain and building factor
b
S is determined directly from Table 4 of BS
6399:Part2dependingontheeffectiveheightofthebuildingandtheclosestdistanceto
thesea.
Thesitewindspeed
s
V iscalculatedby
p s d a b s
S S S S V V = (2.3)
where
b
V isthebasicwindspeed,
a
S isthealtitudefactor,
d
S isthedirectionalfactor,
s
S istheseasonalfactorand
p
S istheprobabilityfactor.
The basicwindspeed
b
V canbe estimatedfromthegeographicalvariationgiven
inFigure6ofBS6399:Part2.
The altitude factor
a
S depends on whether topography is considered to be
significantornot,asindicatedinFigure7ofBS6399:Part2.Whentopographyisnot
considered significant, by considering ∆
s
, the site altitude (in meters above mean sea
level),
a
S shouldbecalculatedfrom
a
S =1+0.001
s
∆ .

(2.4)
The directional factor
d
S is utilised to adjust the basic wind speed to produce
windspeedswiththesameriskofbeingexceededinanywinddirection.Table3ofBS
6399:Part2givestheappropriatevaluesof
d
S .Generally,whentheorientationofthe
buildingisunknown,thevalueof
d
S maybetakenas1.
Theseasonalfactor
s
S isemployedtoreducethebasicwindspeedforbuildings,
whichareexpectedtobeexposedtothewindforspecificsubannualperiods.Basically,
for permanent buildings and buildings exposed to the wind for a continuous period of
morethan6monthsavalueof1shouldbeusedfor
s
S .
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 35
Theprobabilityfactor
p
S isusedtochangetheriskofthebasicwindspeedbeing
exceeded from the standard value annually, or in the stated subannual period if
s
S is
alsoused.Fornormaldesignapplications,
p
S maytakeavalueof1.
The second step of calculating the wind loads is evaluating the net surface
pressure p is
i e
p p p − = (2.5)
where
e
p and
i
p are the external and internal pressures acting on the surfaces of a
buildingrespectively.
Theexternalpressure
e
p is
a pe s e
C C q p = ,(2.6)
whiletheinternalsurface-pressure
i
p isevaluatedby
a pi s i
C C q p = (2.7)
where
a
C is the size effect factor,
pe
C is the external pressure coefficient and
pi
C is
theinternalpressurecoefficient.
Values of pressure coefficient
pe
C and
pi
C for walls (windward and leeward
faces)aregiveninTable5ofBS6399:Part2accordingtotheproportionaldimensions
of the building as shown in Figure 2.3 and Figure 2.4. In these figures, the building
surfaces are divided into different zones (A, B, C, and D). Each of these zone has a
differentvalueof
pe
C and
pi
C asgiveninTable5ofBS6399:Part2.
Valuesofsizeeffectfactor
a
C aregiveninFigure4ofBS6399:Part2inwhich
the diagonal dimension (a) of the largest diagonal area to the building category is
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 36
considered.Thecategoryofthebuildingdependsontheeffectiveheightofthebuilding
andtheclosestdistancebetweenthebuildingandthesea.
a
C takesvaluesbetween0.5
and1.0.
ThethirdstepofcalculatingthewindloadsistodeterminethevalueoftheloadP
using
pA P = .(2.8)
Alternatively,theloadPcanbetocomputeby
¯ ¯
+ − = ) C ( ) P P ( . P
r r f
1 85 0 (2.9)
where
¯ f
P isthesummationhorizontalcomponentofthesurfaceloadsactingonthe
windward-facing walls and roofs,
¯ r
P is the summation of horizontal component of
the surface loads acting on the leeward-facing walls and roofs and
r
C is the dynamic
augmentationfactorwhichdetermineddependingonthereferenceheightofthebuilding
r
H . The factor 0.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous action between faces.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 37

Wind
Wind

D
Plan
(a)Loadcases:windonlongfaceandwindonshortface
Plan
D
B
B
Plan
B
C
A A
D
B/2
B/4
B/10
Wind
(b)keytopressurecoefficientzones
Figure2.3.Keytowallandflatroofpressuredata
Wind
Elevationofsideface

D
A B
B/5
H=H
r

BuildingwithD≤B
Wind

C B A
D
B
H=H
r

B/5
BuildingwithD>B
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 38

Wind Wind
Wind
Wind
C C
C
C
B
B
B
B
A
A
A
A
H
2
=H
r

H
r

(b)Cut-outupwind:tallpartlong
(a)Cut-outdownwind:tallpart
long
H
2
=H
r

A
A
B
H
2
=H
r
B
H
r

H
r

H
1
H
1

(c)Cut-outdownwind:tallpartnarrow (d)Cut-outupwind:tallpartnarrow
Figure2.4.Keytowallpressureforirregularflushfaces(takenfromBS5950)

DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 39

2.3.4 Loadcombinations
Allrelevantloadsshouldbeconsideredseparatelyandinsuchrealisticcombinationsas
tocomprisethemostcriticaleffectsontheelementsandthestructureasawhole.These
combinationsareillustratedinBS5950:Part1bythefollowingtable.
Table2.2.Loadfactorsandcombinations(takenfromBS5950)
Loading Factor
f
γ
Deadload 1.4
Deadloadrestrainingupliftoroverturning 1.0
Deadloadactingwithwindandimposedloadscombined 1.2
Imposedloads 1.6
Imposedloadactingwithwindload 1.2
Windload 1.4
Windloadactingwithimposedorcraneload 1.2
Forcesduetotemperatureeffects 1.2
Craneloadingeffects
Verticalload 1.6
Verticalloadactingwithhorizontalloads(crabbingorsurge) 1.4
Horizontalload 1.6
Horizontalloadactingwithvertical 1.4
Craneactingwithwindload 1.2
Theloadpatternthatshouldbeusedtoobtainthecriticaldesignconditionsisnot
obvious in all cases. The following comments given by MacGinley (1997) are
commonlyusedinthedesignpractice:
• All spans fully loaded should give near the critical beam moments. Other cases
couldgivehighermoments.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 40
• Theexternalcolumnsarealwaysbentindoublecurvature.Fullloadswillgivenear
criticalmomentsthoughagainasymmetricalloadscouldgivehighervalues.
• Thepatternstogivecriticalmomentsinthecentrecolumnmustbefoundbytrials.
2.4 Serviceabilitylimitstates
2.4.1 Deflectionlimits
The deflection under serviceability loads of a building or part should not impair the
strength or efficiency of the structure or its components or cause damage to the
finishing.
When checking for horizontal and vertical deflections, the most adverse realistic
combination and arrangement of serviceability loads should be used, and the structure
may be assumed to be elastic. Therefore, BS 5950: Part 1 gives recommended
limitations(
all
∆ forcolumnsand
all
δ forbeams)inTable2.3.Theselimitationscanbe
expressedby
1
all
L U
mem
c
mem
c


∆ − ∆
n n
and(2.10)
1
all
max
mem
b

δ
δ
n
(2.11)
where
L U
mem
c
mem
c
n n
, ∆ ∆ are the upper and lower horizontal displacements of a column
under consideration respectively. The vertical displacement
max
mem
b
n
δ is the maximum
valueofwithinthebeamunderconsideration.
TwoalternativeloadingpatternsarerequestedbyBS5950:Part1.Theseare:
• theserviceabilityloadsaretakenastheunfactoredimposedloads,and
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 41
• when considering dead load plus imposed load plus wind load, only 80% of the
imposedloadandwindneedtobeconsidered.
Table2.3.Deflectionlimitsotherthanforpitchedroofportalframes(seeBS5950)
Deflectiononbeamsduetounfactoredimposedload
Cantilevers Length/180
Beamscarryingplasterorotherbrittlefinish Span/360
Allotherbeams Span/200
Purlinsandsheetingrails Seeclause4.12.2
Deflectiononcolumnsotherthanportalframesduetounfactoredimposed
loadandwindloads
Topsofcolumnsinsingle-storeybuildings Height/300
Ineachstoreyofabuildingwithmorethanonestorey Height of storey under
consideration/300
Cranegantrygirders
Verticaldeflectionduetostaticwheelloads Span/600
Horizontal deflection (calculated on the top flange
propertiesalone)duetocranesurge
Span/500
Note 1. On low-pitched and flat roofs the possibility of ponding needs
consideration.
Note2.ForlimitingdeflectionsinrunwaybeamsrefertoBS2853.

2.4.2 Durabilitylimits
In order to ensure the durability of the structure under conditions relevant to both its
intended use and intended life, reference should be made to BS 5493 and BS 4360.
Generally,thefactors(e.g.theenvironment,theshapeofthemembersandthestructural
detailing,whethermaintenanceispossible,etc)shouldbeconsideredatthedesignstage.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 42
2.5 Strengthrequirements
Situations will often arise in which the loading on a member can not reasonably be
representedasasingledominanteffect.Suchproblemsrequireanunderstandingofthe
way in which the various structural actions interact with one another. In the simplest
cases this may amount to a direct summation of load effects. Alternatively, for more
complex problems, careful consideration of the complicated interplay between the
individual load components and the resulting deformations is necessary. The design
approach discussed in this context is intended for use in situations where a single
memberistobedesignedforaknownsetofendmomentsandforces.
Before presenting the strength requirements, a basic idea on classification of
sectionsaccordingtoBS5950isindicated.Thiscanbepresentedasfollows:
(a) Plastic cross section. A cross section which can develop a plastic hinge with
sufficient rotation capacity to allow redistribution of bending moments within the
structure.
(b) Compact cross section. A cross section which can develop the plastic moment
capacity of the section but in which local buckling prevents rotation at constant
moment.
(c) Semi-compactcrosssection.Acrosssectioninwhichthestressintheextremefibres
shouldbelimitedtoyieldbecauselocalbucklingwouldpreventdevelopmentofthe
plasticmomentcapacityinthesection.
(d) Slendercrosssection.Acrosssectioninwhichyieldoftheextremefibrescannotbe
attainedbecauseofprematurelocalbuckling.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 43
Inordertodifferentiatebetweenthosefourtypesofcrosssections,Table7ofBS
5950: Part 1 illustrates the limiting width to thickness ratios, depending on the type of
cross section (e.g. I-section, H-section, circular hollow sections, etc), within which the
sectioncanbeclassified.Theselimitingratiosaregovernedbytheconstant
y
275
p
= ε (2.12)
where
y
p isthedesignstrength,andmaybetakenas

>

=
s s s
s s s
y
84 0 if 84 0
84 0 if
U . Y U .
U . Y Y
p (2.13)
where
s
Y and
s
U areyieldstrengthandultimatetensilestrength.Alternatively,
y
p can
bedeterminedaccordingtotheflangethicknessasgiveninTable2.4.Incaseofslender
crosssections,
y
p shouldbeevaluatedbymultiplyingthevaluesgiveninTable2.4bya
reductionfactortakenfromTable8ofBS5950:Part1.
Table2.4.Designstrength
SteelGrade
Thicknesslessthanor
equalto(mm)
Designstrength
y
p (N/mm
2
)
16 275
40 265
63 255
43
100 245
2.5.1 Shearstrength
BS 5950: Part 1 requires that the shear force
v
F isnot greaterthanshearcapacity
v
P .
Thiscanbeformulatedas
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 44
1
v
v

P
F
.(2.14)
Theshearcapacity
v
P canbeevaluatedby
v y v
6 0 A p . P × × = (2.15)
where
v
A istheshearareaandcanbetakenasgiveninTable2.5consideringthecross-
sectionaldimensions(t,d,D,B)showninFigure2.5.
Table2.5.Sheararea
SectionType
v
A
RolledI,Handchannelsections tD
Built-upsections td
Solidbarsandplates
g
9 0 A .
Rectangularhollowsections [ ]
g
A ) B D ( D +
Circularhollowsections
g
6 0 A .
Anyothersection
g
9 0 A .

B
D
D
Y
T
d
Y
X
X

t
(b)Rolledbeamsandcolumns (a)Circularhollowsection(CHS)
Figure2.5.Dimensionsofsections
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 45
Whenthedepthtothethicknessratioofawebofrolledsectionbecomes
ε 63 ≥
t
d
,(2.16)
thesectionshouldbecheckedforshearbucklingusing
1
cr
v

V
F
(2.17)
where
cr
V istheshearresistancethatcanbeevaluatedby
t d q V
cr cr
= .(2.18)
In this equation, the critical shear strength
cr
q can be appropriately obtained from
Tables21(a)to(d)ofBS5950:Part1.
2.5.2 Tensionmemberswithmoments
Anymembersubjectedtobendingmomentandnormaltensionforceshouldbechecked
for lateral torsional buckling and capacity to withstand the combined effects of axial
loadandmomentatthepointsofgreatestbendingandaxialloads.Figure2.6illustrates
the type of three-dimensional interaction surface that controls the ultimate strength of
steel members under combined biaxial bending and axial force. Each axis represents a
singleloadcomponentofnormalforceF,bendingabouttheXandYaxesofthesection
(
X
M or
Y
M )andeachplanecorrespondstotheinteractionoftwocomponents.

y e
p A
F
CX
X
M
M

CY
Y
M
M

Figure2.6.Interactionsurfaceoftheultimatestrengthundercombinedloading
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 46
2.5.2.1 Localcapacitycheck
Usually,thepointsofgreatestbendingandaxialloadsareeitheratthemiddleorendsof
membersunderconsideration.Hence,themembercanbecheckedasfollows:
1
CY
Y
CX
X
y e
≤ + +
M
M
M
M
p A
F
(2.19)
whereFistheappliedaxialloadinmemberunderconsideration,
X
M and
Y
M arethe
appliedmomentaboutthemajorandminoraxesatcriticalregion,
CX
M and
CY
M are
themomentcapacityaboutthemajorandminoraxesintheabsenceofaxialloadand
e
A
istheeffectivearea.
Theeffectivearea
e
A canbeobtainedby

>

=
g n e g
g n e n e
e
if
if
A A K A
A A K A K
A (2.20)
where
e
K isfactorandcanbetakenas1.2forgrade40or43,
g
A isthegrossareataken
fromrelevantstandardtables,and
n
A isthenetareaandcanbedeterminedby
¯
=
− =
ϕ n
i
i
A A A
1
g n
(2.21)
where
i
A istheareaoftheholenumberi,and ϕ n isthenumberofholes.
The moment capacity
CX
M can be evaluated according to whether the value of
shear load is low or high. The moment capacity
CX
M with low shear load can be
identifiedwhen
1
6 0
v
v

P .
F
.(2.22)
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 47
Hence,
CX
M should be taken according to the classification of the cross section as
follows:
• forplasticorcompactsections

>

=
, Z p S p Z p
Z p S p S p
M
X y X y X y
X y X y X y
CX
1.2 if 1.2
1.2 if
(2.23)
• forsemi-compactorslendersections
CX
M =
X y
Z p (2.24)
where
X
S is the plastic modulus of the section about the X-axis, and
X
Z is the elastic
modulusofthesectionabouttheX-axis.
Themomentcapacity
CX
M withhighshearloadcanbedefinedwhen
v
v
6 0 P .
F
>1.(2.25)
Accordingly,
CX
M is
• forplasticorcompactsections

> −
≤ − −
=
X y v X y X y
X y v X y v X y
CX
2 1 if 2 1
2 1 if
Z p . ) S S ( p Z p .
Z p . ) S S ( p ) S S ( p
M
ξ
ξ ξ
(2.26)
where
v
S is taken as the plastic modulus of the shear area
v
A for sections with equal
flangesand
5 1
5 2
v
v
.
P
F .
− = ξ ,(2.27)
• forsemi-compactorslendersections
CX
M =
X y
Z p .(2.28)
The moment capacity
CY
M can be similarly evaluated as
CX
M by using the
relevantplasticmodulusandelasticmodulusofthesectionunderconsideration.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 48
2.5.2.2 Lateraltorsionalbucklingcheck
For equal flanged rolled sections, in each length between lateral restraints, the
equivalent uniform moment M is should not exceed the buckling resistance moment
b
M .Thiscanbeexpressedas
1
b

M
M
.(2.29)
The buckling resistance moment
b
M canbeevaluatedformembers withatleast
oneaxisofsymmetryusing
X b b
S p M = (2.30)
where
b
p isthebending strengthandcanbedeterminedfromTable11ofBS5950in
whichtheequivalentslenderness(
LT
λ )and
y
p areused.
Theequivalentslenderness
LT
λ is
λ λ nuv =
LT
(2.31)
where n is the slenderness correction factor, u is the buckling parameters, v is the
slendernessfactorand λ istheminoraxisslenderness.
Theslendernessfactor v canbedeterminedfromTable14ofBS5950according
tothevaleof λ andtorsionalindexofthesection.
Theminoraxisslenderness
Y
eff
r
L
= λ (2.32)
should not exceed those values given in Table 2.6, where
eff
L is the effective length,
and
Y
r istheradiusofgyration abouttheminoraxisofthememberandmaybetaken
fromthepublishedcatalogues.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 49
Table2.6.Slendernesslimits
Description Limits
Formembersresistingloadsotherthanwindloads
1
180

λ

Formembersresistingselfweightandwindloadonly
1
250

λ

For any member normally acting as a tie but subject
toreversalofstressresultingfromtheactionofwind
1
350

λ

Theequivalentuniformmoment M canbecalculatedas
M =
A
M m× (2.33)
where
A
M isthemaximummomentonthememberortheportionofthememberunder
consideration and m is an equivalent uniform factor determined either by Table 18 of
BS5950:Part1orusing

2
2 2

< + +
≥ + + + +
=
43 . 0 0.10 0.33 0.57 if 43 . 0
43 . 0 0.10 0.33 0.57 if 0.10 0.33 0.57
β β
β β β β
m (2.34)
where β istheendmomentratiosasshowninFigure2.7.

M
Figure2.7.Determinationoftheendmomentratio( β )
β negative β positive
β M
β M
β M
β M M
M
M
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 50
2.5.3 Compressionmemberswithmoments
Compression members should be checked for local capacity at the points of greatest
bending moment and axial load usually at the ends or middle. This capacity may be
limited either by yielding or local buckling depending on the section properties. The
member should also be checked for overall buckling. These checks can be described
usingthesimplifiedapproachillustratedinthefollowingsections.
2.5.3.1 Localcapacitycheck
Theappropriaterelationshipgivenbelowshouldbesatisfied.
1
CY
Y
CX
X
y g
≤ + +
M
M
M
M
p A
F
(2.35)
wheretheparameters F ,
X
M ,
Y
M ,
g
A ,
y
p ,
CX
M ,and
CY
M aredefinedinSection
2.5.2.1.
2.5.3.2 Overallbucklingcheck
Thefollowingrelationshipshouldbesatisfied:

1
Y y
Y
b
X
C
g
≤ + +
Z p
M m
M
M m
p A
F
(2.36)
where
C
p isthecompressivestrengthandmaybeobtainedfromTable27a,b,candd
ofBS5950.
2.6 Stabilitylimits
Generally, it is assumed that the structure as a whole will remain stable, from the
commencement of erection until demolition and that where the erected members are
incapable of keeping themselves inequilibriumthensufficientexternalbracing willbe
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 51
provided for stability. The designer should consider overall frame stability, which
embracesstabilityagainstswayandoverturning.
2.6.1 Stabilityagainstoverturning
The factored loads considered separately and in combination, should not cause the
structure or any part of the structure including its seating foundations to fail by
overturning,asituation,whichcanoccurwhendesigningtallorcantileverstructures.
2.6.2 Stabilityagainstsway
Structures should also have adequate stiffness against sway. A multi-storey framework
maybeclassedasnon-swaywhetherornotitisbracedifitsswayissuchthatsecondary
momentsduetonon-verticalityofcolumnscanbeneglected.
Sway stiffness may be provided by an effective bracing system, increasing the
bendingstiffnessoftheframemembersortheprovisionofliftshaft,shearwalls,etc.
To ensure stability against sway, in addition to designing for applied horizontal
loads, a separate check should be carried out for notional horizontal forces. These
notionalforcesarisefrompracticalimperfectionssuchaslackofverticalityandshould
betakenasthegreaterof:
• 1%offactoreddeadloadfromthatlevel,appliedhorizontally;
• 0.5%offactoreddeadandimposedloadsfromthatlevel,appliedhorizontally.
The effect of instability has been reflectedon thedesignproblembyusingeither
theextendedsimpledesignmethodortheamplifiedswaydesignmethod.Theextended
simple design method is the most used method in which the effective lengths of
columns in the plane of the frame are obtained as described in section 2.6.2.2.
Determining the effective lengths of columns which is, in essence, equivalent to
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 52
carryingoutastabilityanalysisforonesegmentofaframeandthismustberepeatedfor
all segments. The amplified sway design method is based on work done by Horne
(1975). In this method, the bending moments due to horizontal loading should be
amplifiedbythefactor
( ) 1
cr
cr
− λ
λ
(2.37)
where
cr
λ isthecriticalloadfactorandcanbeapproximatedby
s.max
cr
200
1
φ
λ = .(2.38)
Inthisequation,
s.max
φ isthelargestvalueforanystoreyoftheswayindex
s
φ =
i
n n
h
L U
mem
c
mem
c
∆ − ∆
(2.39)
where
i
h isthestoreyheight,
L U
mem
c
mem
c
and
n n
∆ ∆ arethehorizontaldisplacementsofthe
topandbottomofacolumnasshowninFigure2.5.
Inamplifiedswaydesignmethod,thecoderequiresthattheeffectivelengthofthe
columns in the plane of the frame may be retained at the basic value of the actual
columnlength.
2.6.2.1 Classificationintosway/non-swayframe
BS 5950: Part 1 differentiates between sway and non-sway frames by considering the
magnitudeofthehorizontaldeflection
i
∆ ofeachstoreyduetotheapplicationofaset
ofnotionalhorizontalloads.Thevalueof
i
∆ canthereforebeformulatedas
i
∆ =
L U
mem
c
mem
c
n n
∆ − ∆ .(2.40)
This reflects the lateral stiffness of the frame and includes the influence of vertical
loading.Iftheactualframeisuncladoriscladandthestiffnessofthecladdingistaken
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 53
into account in the analysis, the frame may be considered to be non-sway if
i
∆ , for
everystorey,isgovernedby
i

4000
i
h
≤ .(2.41)
If,asinfrequentlythecase,theframeworkiscladbuttheanalysisiscarriedouton
the bare framework, then in recognition of the fact that the cladding will substantially
reducedeflections,theconditionisrelaxedsomewhatandtheframemaybeconsidered
asnon-swayifthedeflectionofeverystoreyis
i

2000
i
h
≤ .(2.42)
2.6.2.2 Determinationoftheeffectivelengthfactor
WorkbyWood(1974a)hasledtothedevelopmentoffew‘simple-to-use’charts,which
permit the designer to treat the full spectrum of end restraint combinations. The
approachisbasedupontheconsiderationsofalimitedframeasindicatedinFigure2.9a
where
U
K ,
L
K ,
TL
K ,
TR
K ,
BL
K , and
BR
K are the values for I/L for the adjacent
upper,lower,top-left,top-right,bottom-leftandbottomrightcolumnsrespectively.
For non-sway frames, the analysis is based upon a combination of two possible
distorted components-joint rotations at the upper and lower end of the column under
considerationandthecalculationoftheelasticcriticalloadusingthestabilityfunctions.
For structures inwhichhorizontalforcesaretransmittedtothefoundationsbybending
momentsinthecolumns,asimilarlimitedframeisconsideredasshowninFigure2.9b.
For non-sway frames, the solution to the stability criterion is plotted as contours
directly in terms of effective length ratio as shown in Figure 23 of BS 5950. On the
other hand, for sway structures, the analysis from which the chart (Figure 24 of BS
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 54
5950) is derived has considered not only rotations at the column ends but also the
freedomtosway.Utilisingtherestraintcoefficients
1
k and
2
k evaluatedfrom
BR BL L C
L C
2
TR TL U C
U C
1
and
K K K K
K K
k
K K K K
K K
k
+ + +
+
=
+ + +
+
= .(2.43)
The value of the effective length factor L L
eff
X
may be interpolated from the
plotted contour lines given in either Figure 23 of BS 5950 established for a column in
non-sway framework or Figure 24 of BS 5950 prepared for a column in sway
framework.

WhenusingFigure23and24ofBS5950,thefollowingpointsshouldbenoted.
1. Anymembernotpresentornotrigidlyconnectedtothecolumnunderconsideration
shouldbeallottedaKvalueofzero.
(a)Limitedframeforanon-swayframe (b)Limitedframeforaswayframe
TL
K
L
eff
X
L
L
K
TR
K
U
K
L
I
K =
C

BR
K
BL
K
A
c
t
u
a
l

l
e
n
g
t
h

E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

l
e
n
g
t
h

L
I
K =
C

BL
K
U
K
TR
K
TL
K
BR
K
L
K
Figure2.9.Limitedframeforanon-swayandswayframes
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 55
2. Any restraining member required to carry more than 90% of its moment capacity
(reducedforthepresenceofaxialloadifappropriate)shouldbeallottedaKvalueof
zero.
3. Ifeitherendofthecolumnbeingdesignedisrequiredtocarrymorethan90%ofits
moment-carryingcapacitythevalueof
1
k or
2
k shouldbetakenas1.
4. If the column is not rigidly connected to the foundation,
2
k is taken as minimal
restraint value equal to 0.9, unless the column is actually pinned (thereby
deliberatelypreventingrestraint),when
2
k equalsto1.
5. If the column is rigidly connected to a suitable foundation (i.e. one which can
provide restraint),
2
k should be taken 0.5, unless the foundation can be shown to
providemorerestraintenablingalower(morebeneficial)valueof
2
k tobeused.
Thefirstthreeconditions reflectthelackofrotationalcontinuityduetoplasticity
encroaching into the cross-section and the consequent loss of elastic stiffness, which
mightotherwisebemobilizedinpreventinginstability.
Three additional features, which must be noted when employing these charts,
namelythevalueofbeamstiffness
b
K tobeadopted.Inthebasicanalysisfromwhich
the charts were derived it was assumed that the ends of the beams remote from the
column being designed were encastre (Steel Construction Institute, 1988). This is not
howeveralwaysappropriateandguidanceonmodifiedbeamstiffnessvaluesislistedas
follows:
1. For sway and non-sway cases, for beams, which are directly supporting a concrete
floorslab,itisrecommendedthat
b
K shouldbetakenas L I
b
forthemember.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 56
2. Forarectilinearframenotcoveredbyconcreteslabandwhichisreasonablyregular
inlayout:
a) For non-sway frames, where it can be expected that single curvature bending will
occurinthebeamasindicatedFigure2.10a,
b
K shouldbetakenas L I .
b
5 0 .
b) Forswayframes,whereitcanbeexpectedthatdouble-curvaturebendingwillexist
asindicatedinFigure2.10b,theoperativebeamstiffnesswillbeincreasedand
b
K
shouldbetakenas L I .
b
5 0 .Ariderisaddedtothisclausewhichnotesthatwhere
thein-planeeffectivelengthhasasignificantinfluenceonthedesignthenitmaybe
preferable to obtain the effective lengths from the critical load factor
cr
λ
.
This
reflectsthe approximatenatureofthechartsandthegreateraccuracypossiblefrom
criticalloadcalculation.
3. Forstructureswheresomeresistancetosideswayisprovidedbypartialswaybracing
orbythepresenceofinfillpanels,twootherchartsaregiven.Oneforthesituation
wheretherelativestiffnessofthebracingtothatofthestructuredenotedby
3
k is1
andthesecondwhere
3
k =2.

Figure2.10.Criticalbucklingmodesofframe(takenfromBS5950)
(a)Bucklingmodeofnon-swayframe (b)Bucklingmodeofswayframe
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 57
2.7 Flowchartofdesignprocedure
Figure2.11showsthelimitstatedesignprocedureforastructuralframework.

Yes No
Applynotionalhorizontalloadingcondition,computehorizontal
nodaldisplacementsanddeterminewhethertheframeworkis
swayornon-sway
Applyloadingconditionq=1,2, Q , Λ :iftheframeworkissway,
thenincludethenotionalhorizontalloadingcondition
Analyzetheframework,computenormalforce,shearingforce
andbendingmomentsforeachmemberoftheframework
Designofmember
mem
n =1,2,
mem
N , Λ
Evaluatethedesignstrengthofthemember
B A D
Tension
member?
Computetheeffectivebucklinglengths
Checktheslendernesscriteria
Determinethetypeofthesection(compactorsemi-compactor
compactorslender)utilisingTable7ofBS5950
C
Figure2.11a.Flowchartofdesignprocedureofstructuralsteelwork
Start
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 58

No
Yes
No
Yes
D B A
Localcapacitycheck
Localcapacitycheck
Lateraltorsionalbuckling
check
Overallcapacitycheck
Checktheserviceabilitycriteria
Is
mem
n =
mem
N ?
Isq=Q?
Computethehorizontalandverticalnodaldisplacementsduetothe
specifiedloadingconditionsfortheserviceabilitycriteria
Carryoutthecheckofshearand
shearbucklingifnecessary.
C
End
Figure2.11b.(cont.)Flowchartofdesignprocedureofstructuralsteelwork

DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 59
2.8 Computerbasedtechniquesforthedeterminationofthe
effectivelengthfactor
The values of the effective length factor given in Figures 23 and 24 of BS 5950 are
obtained when the condition of vanishing determinantal form of the unknown of the
equilibrium equations is satisfied (see Chapter 3). The slope deflection method for the
stability analysis is used (see Wood 1974a). This method is based on trial and error
technique. Accordingly, it is difficult to link such this method to design optimization
algorithm. Therefore, to incorporate the determination of the effective length factor
L L
eff
X
for a column in either sway or non-sway framework into a computer based
algorithm for steelwork design, two techniques are presented. These techniques are
describedinthefollowingsections.
2.8.1 Technique1:Digitizingthecharts
It can be seen that each of these figures is symmetric about one of its diagonal thus,
digitizingahalfoftheplotwillbesufficient.Thefollowingprocedureisapplied.
Step1.ThechartshavebeenmagnifiedtotwicetheirsizeasgiveninBS5950:Part1.
Step 2. Each axis (
1
k and
2
k ) is divided into 100 equal divisions, resulting in 101
values{0.0,0.01,…,1.0}foreachrestrainingcoefficient.
Step3.Morecontourlineshavebeenaddedtogetagoodapproximationforeachchart.
Step4.Thevalueof L L
eff
X
wasreadforeachpair(
1
k ,
2
k )ofvaluesaccordingtothe
division mentioned above. These are graphically represented as shown in Figures 2.12
and 2.13 for non-sway and sway charts respectively. In Figure 2.13, values of L L
eff
X

greaterthan5arenotplotted.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 60
Step5.Twoarrays,namedSforswayandNSfornon-sway,arecreatedeachofthemis
a two-dimensional array of 101 by 101 elements. These arrays contain the 10201
digitizedvaluesof L L
eff
X
.
Step 6. The calculated values (
1
k and
2
k ) applying equation (2.43) are multiplied by
100, and the resulting values are approximated to the nearest higher integer numbers
named
h
1
k and
h
2
k .Thevalueof L L
eff
X
maythenbetakenfromthearraysas
L
L
eff
X
=

+ +
+ +
frame. sway - non a in column a for ) 1 1 (
frame sway a in column a for ) 1 1 (
h
2
h
1
h
2
h
1
k , k NS
k , k S
(2.44)
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 61

L
L
eff
X

1
k
2
k
Figure2.12.Surfaceplotoftherestraintcoefficients
1
k and
2
k versus L L
eff
X
for
acolumninarigid-jointednon-swayframe
1.0
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
L
L
eff
X

1
k
2
k
Figure2.13.Surfaceplotoftherestraintcoefficients
1
k and
2
k versus L L
eff
X
for
acolumnarigid-jointedswayframe
1.0
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.6
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 62
2.8.2 Technique2:Analyticaldescriptionsofthecharts
In this section, polynomials are obtained applying two methodologies. Firstly, a
statistical package for social sciences named SPSS is used. Secondly, the genetic
programmingmethodologyisemployed.
2.8.2.1 Regressionanalysis
In thissection,polynomialsareassumedandtheirparametersareobtainedbyapplying
the Levenberg-Marquart method modeled in SPSS (1996). Several textbooks discuss
and give FORTRAN code for this method among them Press et al. (1992). SPSS is a
general-purpose statistical package, which is used for analysing data. In this context,
pairsof(
1
k ,
2
k )andtheircorresponding L L
eff
X
valuesareusedtoformpolynomials,
which can then be tested. A guide to data analysis using SPSS is given by Norusis
(1996).Theprocedureusedcanbedescribedasfollows:
Step1.ThechartsaremagnifiedtotwiceastheirsizeasestablishedinBS5950.
Step 2. Each axis (
1
k and
2
k ) are divided into 20 equal divisions. This results in 21
values[0.0,0.05,…,1.0]foreachaxis.Morecontourlinesarethenaddedtoeachchart.
Hence, the value of L L
eff
X
was approximated for each pair (
1
k ,
2
k ) according to the
divisiongivenabove.
Step 3. The data SPSS data file is prepared. Here, the dependent L L
eff
X
and
independent(
1
k ,
2
k )variablesandtheanalysistype(linearornonlinear)ischosen.
Step4.Ageneralshapeofapolynomialisassumed.Thegeneralforms
2 1 5
2
2 4
2
1 3 2 2 1 1 0
eff
X
k k a k a k a k a k a a
L
L
+ + + + + = ,(2.45)
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 63
3
2 9
3
1 8
2
2 1 7 2
2
1 6
2 1 5
2
2 4
2
1 3 2 2 1 1 0
eff
X
k a k a k k a k k a
k k a k a k a k a k a a
L
L
+ + +
+ + + + + + =
and(2.46)
2
2
k k a k k a k k a k a
k a k a k a k k a k k a
k k a k a k a k a k a a
L
L
2
1 14
3
2 1 13 2
3
1 12
4
2 11
4
1 10
3
2 9
3
1 8
2
2 1 7 2
2
1 6
2 1 5
2
2 4
2
1 3 2 2 1 1 0
eff
X
+ + +
+ + + + +
+ + + + + + =
(2.47)
areutilisedtoexpressthe2
nd
,3
rd
and4
th
orderpolynomials,wherea
0
,a
1
,…,a
n
arethe
parameters.
Step5.Carryingouttheanalysisbyexaminingrelationshipsbetweenthedependentand
independentvariablesandtestingthehypotheses(seeNorusis,1996).
Step6.Acceptingtheobtainedresultsorrepeatsteps4and5.
When applying the proposed technique to achieve polynomials of L L
eff
X
of a
columninswayframework,a poorperformanceoftestingthehypothesesisperformed
because the infinity values of L L
eff
X
is estimated. This occurs when either of the
column ends becomes pinned.Thus,valuesof L L
eff
X
greaterthan 5aretruncatedand
thetechniqueisrepeated.
For a column in non-sway framework, the obtained polynomials of L L
eff
X
are
listed in Table 2.7. Table 2.8comprisespolynomialsforacolumninswayframework.
The4
th
orderpolynomialsaredepictedasshowninFigures2.14and2.15foracolumn
in non-sway and sway framework respectively. The sum of square of the differences
diff
SUM betweenthecalculated
cal
eff
X , i
) L L ( andread
dig
eff
X , i
) L L ( is
diff
SUM =
2
441
1
dig
eff
X
cal
eff
X
¯
=

i
, i , i
L
L
L
L
(2.48)
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 64
Table2.7.Polynomialsobtainedfor L L
eff
X
ofacolumninanon-swayframe
Equation
diff
SUM
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
eff
X
094815 . 0 0772 . 0 0772 . 0
11803 . 0 11803 . 0 50562 . 0
k k k k
k k
L
L
+ +
+ + + =

0.00025
3
2
3
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
eff
X
042576 . 0 042576 . 0 06252 . 0
06252 . 0 0.0302258 1098 . 0
1098 . 0 0.134267 0.134267 0.499363
k k k k
k k k k - k
k k k
L
L
− −
+ +
+ + + + =

0.000736
2
2
2
1
3
2
1 2
3
1
4
2
4
1
3
2
3
1
2
2
1 2
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
eff
X
032727 . 0 053263 . 0 053263 . 0
032573 . 0 032573 . 0 1343541 . 0
1343541 . 0 015352 . 0 015352 . 0
0.0005816 185809 . 0 185809 . 0
0.1129124 0.1129124 0.51496
k k k k k k
k k k
k k k k k
k k - k k
k k
L
L
− +
+ + +
− − +
+ +
+ + + =

0.000579
Table2.8.Polynomialsobtainedfor L L
eff
X
ofacolumninaswayframe
Equation
diff
SUM
3
2
3
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
eff
X
36469 . 2 36469 . 2 629751 . 2
629751 . 2 3.822909 93426 . 2
93426 . 2 1.78797 1.78797 0.78173
k k k k
k k k k - k
k k k
L
L
+ +
+ +
− − + + =

1.8086
2
2
2
1
3
2
1
2
3
1
4
2
4
1
3
2
3
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
eff
X
89349 . 5 22176 . 5
22176 . 5 579345 . 3 579345 . 3
91641 . 6 91641 . 6 41008 . 10
41008 . 10 7.00754 5268 . 5
5268 . 5 1.32226 - 1.32226 - 14112 . 1
k k k k
k k k k
k k k k
k k k k k
k k k
L
L
+
+ + +
+ − −
− − +
+ + =

0.555406
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 65

(a)Surfaceplot

(b)Contourplot

Figure2.14.Graphicalrepresentationofthe4
th
orderpolynomialof L L
eff
X
for
acolumninarigid-jointednon-swayframe
L
L
eff
X

1
k
2
k
1.0
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0.2
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.2
Fixed
Fixed
Pinned
Pinned
k
1
k
2
0
.
5
2
5
0
.
5
5
0
.
5
7
5
0
.
6
0
0
.
6
2
5
0
.
6
5
0
.
7
0
0
.
7
5
0
.
8
0
0
.
6
7
5
0
.
8
5
0
.
9
0
0
.
9
5
1
.
0
0
.
5
0
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 66

(a)Surfaceplot

(b)Contourplot

L
L
eff
X

1
k
2
k
1.0
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.6
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Figure2.15.Graphicalrepresentationof4
th
orderpolynomialof L L
eff
X
for
acolumninarigid-jointednon-swayframe
0.0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0.2
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.2
Fixed
Fixed
Pinned
Pinned
k
1
k
2
1
.
0
5
1
.
1
0
1
.
1
5
1
.
2
0
1
.
2
5
1
.
3
0
1
.
5
0
1
.
6
0
1
.
7
0
1
.
4
0
1
.
8
0
1
.
9
0
2
.
0
2
.
2
0
3
.
0
∞ ∞∞ ∞
4
.
0
5
.
0
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 67
FromFigure2.14,itcanbeobservedthatthe4
th
orderpolynomialobtainedforthe
determinationof L L
eff
X
ofacolumninnon-swayframeworkisalmostidenticaltothe
originaldatathatisshowninFigure2.12.ItcanbealsodeducedfromFigure2.15that
that the 4
th
order polynomial obtained for the determination of L L
eff
X
of a column in
swayframeworkisnotinagoodagreementwiththeoriginaldatashowninFigure2.13.
2.8.2.2 Geneticprogramming(GP)
This section describes the analytical description of Figures 23 and 24 of BS 5950.
ToropovandAlvarez(1998)suggestedtheuseofGPmethodology(Koza,1992)forthe
selectionofthestructureofananalyticalapproximationexpression.Theexpressionsare
composedofelementsfromaterminalset(designvariables
1
k and
2
k ),andafunctional
set (mathematical operators +, *, /, -, etc), which are known as nodes. The functional
set, as shown in Figure 2.16, can be subdivided intobinarynodes,whichtakeanytwo
arguments,andunarynodes,whichtakeoneargumente.g.squareroot.

Modelling the expression evolves through the action of three basic genetic
operations: reproduction, crossover and mutation. In the reproduction stage,
p
N
SQ
+
k
1

k
2

+
a
0

a
2
a
1

Unarynode
Binarynode
Terminalnode
Figure2.16.Typicaltreestructurerepresenting ( )
2
2 2 1 1 0
k a k a a + +
×
×
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 68
expressions are randomly created and the fitness of each expression is calculated.
Astrategymustbeadoptedtodecidewhichexpressionsshoulddie.Thisisachievedby
killing those expressions having a fitness below the average fitness. Then, the
population is filled with the surviving expressions according to fitness proportionate
selection.Newexpressionsarethencreatedbyapplyingcrossoverandmutation,which
provide diversity of the population. Crossover (Figure 2.17) combines two trees
(parents) to produce two children while mutation (Figure 2.18) protects the model
againstprematureconvergenceandimprovesthenon-localpropertiesofthesearch.

Parent2

+
k
1

SQ
/
+
k
2

+
k
1

SQ
/
+
k
2

SQ
k
2

SQ
k
2

k
2

k
1

k
1
k
2

Parent1
Child1 Child2
Figure2.17.Crossover
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 69

TheGPmethodologyhasbeenappliedwherethe4
th
orderpolynomial
(2.49) 03272728 0 053263 0 053263 0
032573 0 032573 0 1343541 0 1343541 0
015352 0 015352 0 0.0005816 185809 0
185809 0 0.1129124 0.1129124 0.51496
2
2
2
1
3
2 1 2
3
1
4
2
4
1
3
2
3
1
2
2 1 2
2
1 2 1
2
2
2
2 1
eff
X
1
k k . k k . k k .
k . k . k . k .
k k . k k . k k - k .
k . k k
L
L
− +
+ + + −
− + +
+ + + + =

isobtainedforthedeterminationoftheeffectivelengthfactorofacolumninnon-sway
framework.Foracolumninswayframework,the7
th
orderpolynomial
(2.50) 9215 49 9215 49 4783 39
4783 39 5579 18 5579 18 97372 8
97372 8 73689 164 37368 141 37368 141
925149 75 925149 75 31407 31 31407 31
337 202 337 202 82327 124 82327 124
49748 47 49748 47 678021 140 84266 103
84266 103 380878 39 380878 39 12882 19
12882 19 2545 45 2545 45 9.269518
70571 4 70571 4 0.843802 0.843802 982287 0
4
2
3
1
3
2
4
1
5
2
2
1
2
2
5
1
6
2 1 2
6
1
7
2
7
1
3
2
3
1
4
2
2
1
2
2
4
1
2
5
1
5
2 1
6
2
6
1
2
2
3 3
2
2
2
4
1
4
2 1
5
2
5
1
2
2
2
1
3
2 1
2
3
1
4
2
4
1
3
2
3
1
2
2 1 2
2
1 2 1
2
2
2
2 1
eff
X
1 1
1
k k . k k . k k .
k k . k k . k k . k .
k . k k . k k . k k .
k k . k k . k . k .
k k . k k . k k . k k .
k . k . k k . k k .
k k . k . k . k .
k . k k . k k . k k
- k . k . k k .
L
L
+ +
+ + + +
+ + − −
− − − −
− + + +
+ + + −
− − − −
+ + + +
− − + + =

isachieved.ThisexpressionisdepictedinFigure2.19.

+
k
1

SQ
k
1

k
2

+
Figure2.18.Mutation
×
×
k
1

SQ
k
1

k
2

DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 70

(a)Surfaceplot

(b)Contourplot
1.0
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.6
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
L
L
eff
X

1
k
2
k
Figure2.19.Graphicalrepresentationof7
th
orderpolynomialof L L
eff
X
for
acolumninarigid-jointednon-swayframe
0.0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0.2
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.2
Fixed
Fixed
Pinned
Pinned
k
1
k
2
1
.
0
5
1
.
1
0
1
.
1
5
1
.
2
0
1
.
2
5
1
.
3
0
1
.
5
0
1
.
6
0
1
.
7
0
1
.
4
0
1
.
8
0
1
.
9
0
2
.
0
2
.
2
0
1
.
0
3
.
0
∞ ∞∞ ∞
4
.
0
5
.
0
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 71
2.9 Concludingremarks
Thischapterreviewedanoverallbackgroundtotheconceptofthelimitstatedesignfor
steelframeworkmemberstoBS5950.Abriefintroductiontotheappliedloadsandload
combination is presented. The serviceability, strength as well as sway stability criteria
employed in the present context are summarised. Furthermore, a general layout of the
developed computer-based technique to framework design is presented. Finally,
analytical polynomials are achieved to automate the determination of the effective
lengthfactor.Inthisinvestigation,thefollowingobservationscanbesummarised.
• For columns in a non-sway framework, the 2
nd
or 3
rd
or 4
th
order polynomials
presented in Table 2.8 can be successfully used to determine the effective length
factorindesignoptimizationbasedtechniques.
• For columns in a sway framework, the 7
th
order polynomial can be applied when
bothofthecolumnrestraintcoefficientsarelessthan0.95.Otherwise,thetechnique
discussedinSection2.8.1maybeutilised.
This chapter now will be followed by theory and methods of computing the
critical buckling load employed for more accurate evaluation of the effective buckling
length.

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