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Mot So Cong Thuc Giai Nhanh Bai Tap Trac Nghiem Hoa Hoc 1625

# Mot So Cong Thuc Giai Nhanh Bai Tap Trac Nghiem Hoa Hoc 1625

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CÔNG THỨC GIẢI NHANH
CÔNG THỨC GIẢI NHANH

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12/26/2013

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# MOT

THUC GIAI NHANH BAI T~l TRAC NGHI~M HOA HQC Viec ncim vieng cdc cong thuc nay se giup giai nhanh cdc bai toan .Ndu giai thea each thong thuong thi mat rat nhiJu thoi gian. Vqy hay hoc thuoc nhe. 1. Ciing thtrc tinh sa dang phiin ancoZ 0071 chsec no, mach' hi)' : C; H21l+202 S6 dAng phan Cn H2n+202 = 2n- 2 ( 1< n <6) a. C3HgO = 23-2 = 2 h. C4HlOO = 24-2 = 4 C. C5Hl20 = 25-2 = 8
2. Cong thtrc tinh sa ttJng phiin andehit dan chirc no, mf!ch hii : CIl H21lO

so CONG

Vi du :

S6 d6ng

phan cua ancol co cong thirc phan tit hi :

S6 dAng phan Cn H2nO
Vi du :

a. C4H 0 h. C5HIOO C. C6H120

S6 d6ng

= 2n-

3

(

2< n < 7)

phan cua andehit don clnrc no, mach ho co cong thirc phan tir lit :

24-3 = 2 = 25-3 = 4 = 26-3 = 8
= =2
n3 -

3. Cting thtrc tinh sa dang phiin axit cacboxylic

S6 dAng ph an C, H2n02
Vi du :

a. C4Hg02 = 24-3 = 2 53 h. C5HlO02 =2 - = 4 C. C6H1202 = 26-3 = 8 4. Ciing thirc tinh sa dang phtin este 0071 chirc no, mach hi)' : CIIH21l02 S6 dAng ph an Cn H2n02 = 2n-2 ( 1 < n < 5)

S6 d6ng

phan cua axit cacboxylic

don chsrc no, mqch' hii' : CIl H21l02 ( 2 < n < 7) don chirc no, mach ho co cong tlnrc phan nr lit :

Vi du : a.

S6 d6ng
C2~02

phan cua este don chirc no, mach ho co cong thirc phan nr lit : = 22-2 = 1

b. C3H602 C. C4Hg02

=2

= 23-2 =
42 -

2 =4
(n-l).(n-2) _:___---'-_:___----'(

5. Ciing thuc tinh sa dang phiin ete 0071 chirc no, mach hi)' : CIIH21l+20

:..d~ ia So 0 ng p I" n Cn H2n+ 2 0 Vi du :

2 < n < 5)

phan cua ete dun clnrc no, mach ho co cong thirc phan tu la : - (3-1).(3-2) 1 a. C3Hs0 =
2 - (4-1).(4-2)

S6 dong

2

h. C4HIOO

=3
=

2
= (5-1).(5-2)

6 0071 chtrc no, mach hi)' : CIl H21lO
(

2

6. Cong thtrc tinh sa dang phiin xeton

S6 dAng phan Cn H2nO
Vi du :

= (n-2).(n-3)

S6 d6ng

2

3 < n < 7)

phan cua xeton don clnrc no, mach ho co cong tlnrc phan nr la :

a. CHOg 4.
h. C5HlOO
C.
SUIl

=
-

(4-2).(4-3)

=1
3 6

2
(5-2).(5-3) 2 2

C6H120

- (6-2).(6-3)

dim,' GV Ngllyin

Van Klu~ven - THPT LjI T{l' Trong

7. Cong tku-c tinh a6ng phiin amin dan chsrc no, mqcl« hi)' : C,I H2n+3N dang phan Co H20+3N = 20-1 (n < 5 ) Vi du : S6 d6ng phan cua anin dan clnrc no, mach ho co cong tlnrc phan nr la : a. C2H7N = 22-1 =1 31 b. C3H9N =2=3 41 c. C4H12N = 2 =6 8. Cong thtrc tinh sa trieste ( triglixerit) tf!,O glixerol va hJn h(Jp n axit beo : hoi ;. rI n 2 (n + 1) So trl es t e = -..:..______;_

sa

sa

2

Vi du : Dun nong h6n hop gem glixerol voi 2 axit beo la axit panmitic va axit stearic ( xuc tac H2S04 U?c) thi thu duoc bao nhieu trieste? So trieste = 22(2+1)
2

=6

9. Cong thuc tinh sa ttJng phiin ete tao boi hJn hop n ancol don chtrc .

sa ete

= 11. (11.+1) 2
U?C

Vi du : Dun nong h6n hop g6m 2 ancol dun clnrc no voi H2S04 nhieu ete ? = 2 (2+1) = 3 S6 ete
2

a 140 c
0

diroc h6n hop bao

10. Cong thu'c tinh sa C cua ancol no, ete no hoiic cua ankan d,!'a vao phan u'ng chiiy :

sa Cella

aneol no ho~e ankan

=

nco,

Vi dl} 1 : D6t chay mot hrong ancol no dan chirc A duoc 15,4 gam CO2 va 9,45 gam H20. cong tlnrc phan nr cua A ? S6 C cua ancol no
=

Tim

nco,

----=2

0,35

0,525-0,35

Vay A co cong tlnrc phan nr la C2H60

Vi dl} 2: D6t chay hoan toan mot luong hidrocacbon A thu diroc 26,4 gam CO2 va 16,2 gam H20 . Tim cong thirc phan nr cua A ? (V6i nH2 = 0,7 mol> neo2 = 0,6 mol) => Ala ankan

°

S6 C cua ankan

=

nco,

0,6 0,7 - 0,6

=6

Vay A co cong thirc phan tir Ia C6H14 11. Cong thuc tinh khai IU'(J'ng ancol dan chtrc no hoiJc hJn h(Jp ankan don chtec notheo khai IU'(J'ng 2 va khai IU'(J'ng 20 : CO H
IDancol

=

IDH2 0 -

It
meo eo U m,

Vi du : Khi d6t chay hoan toan m gam h6n hop hai ancol don chirc no, mach ho thu duoc 2,24 lit CO2 ( dktc ) va 7,2 gam H20. Tinh kh6i hrong cua ancol ?
_
mancol -IDH20 -

=7,2-

U

4,4

=6,8

12. Cong thtrc tinh sa di, tri, tetra ..... n peptit tai da tf!,Obtii hJn h(Jp g6m x amino axit khtic nhau :
Suu tiim " GV Nguyln Van Khl~ven- THPT Lj Tlf Trang

S on peptltmax = x Vi du : Co t6i da bao nhieu dipeptit, tripeptit thu duoc nr h6n hop gom 2 amino axit la glyxin va
alanin ? S6 dipeptit S6 tripeptit

l..

n

= 22 = 4
=

23 = 8 13. Cimg thu«: tinh khai hnrng amino axit A( chua n nhom -NH2 va m nhom -COOH) khi cho amino axit nay vao dung dich chsra a mol HCI, sau ao cho dung djch sau phiin ung uic dung viea au vui b mol NaOH. mA=MA -b-a
m

Vi du : Cho m gam glyxin vao dung dich chua 0,3 mol HCl , Dung dich sau phan irng tac dung vira du voi 0,5 mol NaOH, Tim ill ? ( MgJyxin = 75 ) m= 75 0,5-0,3_ 15 cram
1.
b

14. Cimg thii«: tinh khai luong amino axit A( chua n nhom -NH2 va m nhom -COOH) khi cho amino axit nay vao dung dich chtra a mol NaOH, sau ao cho dung djch sau phiin ung tdc d{mg viea ilu vo'i b mol HCI. mA=MA -b-a
n

Vi du : Cho m gam alanin vao dung dich chua 0,375 mol NaOH , Dung dich sau phan img tac dung vira du voi 0,575 mol HCl , Tim m ? ( Malanio = 89 ) mA - 89 0,575-0,375 - 17 8 cram 1. '
0

15. Cimg thsrc xdc iljnh ciing thtrc phiin tir cua m§t anken d1!'avao phiin tie khai cua han hfJ'p anken va H2 trutrc va sau khi dan qua b§t Ni nung nong,
Anken (M1)

+ H2
n

Ni/'

"

A (M2) ( phan irng hidro hoa anken hoan toan )
J

;., ~ So n eua an ken (C H)

20

(M? - 2)Jvl = -'----=.--.:....__"14(M -M)
2 J

Vi du : Cho X la h6n hop g6m olefm M va H2 , co ti kh6i hoi so voi H2 la 5 , Dftn X qua bot Ni nung nong d~ phan irng xay ra hoan roan duoc h6n hop hoi Y co ti khoi so voi H21a 6,25 , Xac dinh cong thirc phan tu cua M, M1= 10 va M2 = 12,5
' T.a co : n = (12,5-2)10
14(12,5-10)
=

3

M co cong tlnrc phan tir la C3H6

16. Cong thtec xdc iljnh cong thu'c phiin tie cua m§t ankin dtra viio phiin tii' khai cua han hfJ'p ankin va H2 trutrc va sau khi dan qua b§t Ni nung nong,

sa n cua ankin
H% =2_2Mx H% =2_2Mx
My

Ankin (M1)

+ H2
n

Ni/
202

C

A (M2) (phan img hidro hoa ankin hoan toan )
14(M2 -MJ)

(C H _ ) = 2(Ml - 2)MJ

17. Cong thtrc tinh hifU suat phiin rmg hidro hoa anken.

l S.Cimg thtrc tinh hifU suat phiin trng hidro hoa andehit no don chtrc.
My

Suu dim: GV Nguyln Van Klu{ven - THPT Lj T~I' rong T

19.Cong thtrc tinh % ankan A tham gia phiin U1lgtach. %A
= MA

-1

Mx

20.Cong thtrc xdc ilinh phdn tii' ankan A duu vao phiin itng tach. MA
=

v""XM
V
A

x

21. Ciing thuc tinh khai IU'{J'ng muai clorua khi cho kim 10,!i tdc dung vo'i dung dich HCI giiii phong khi H,
IDMu&i clorua = IDKL + 71. nH
2

Vi du : Cho 10 gam h6n h9'P kim loai gom Mg, AI, Zn tac dung voi dung dich HCI thu duoc 22,4 lit khi H2 ( dktc). Tinh kh6i IU9'ng muoi thu duoc . mMu6iclorua = mKL + 71 nH 2 = 10 + 71. 1 = 81 gam

22. Cong thu'c tinh khai IU'{J'ng muai sun/at khi cho kim loqi tdc d!lng vO'i dung dich H2S04 loling giiii phong khi H2
mMu&i sunfat = mKL + 96, DH?

Vi d1} : Cho 10 gam h6n h9'P kim Ioai g6m Mg, AI, Zn tac dung voi dung dich H2S04 loang duoc 2,24 lit khi H2 ( dktc), Tinh khoi hrong muoi thu duoc . illMu3i unfat = mKL + 96. nH, = 10 + 96.0,1 = 29,6 gam S

thu

23. Cong thtrc tinh khai luimg muat sunphat khi cho kim 10,!itdc dung vo'i dung dich H2S04 iliJc t'!-osan phlzm khu' S02, S, H2S va H20
mMu&i sunfat

=

mKL +

96 2'( 2nS02 + 6 ns + 8nH 2 S) bo qua

= IDKL

+96,(

ns02 + 3 ns + 4nHl s)

24. Cimg thtrc tinh khai IU'{J'ng muai nitrat khi cho kim 10,!itdc dung voi dung dich HNO phong khi: N02,NO,N20, N2,NH4NOJ mMu&i Nitrat = mKL + 62( n NO + 3nNO+ 8nN 1 0 +1 OnN 2 +8n NH 4 NO 1 3) * LUll Y : San pham khir nao kh6ng co thi bo qua

* LUll Y : San pham khir nao khong co thi * n H2S04 = 2ns02 + 4 ns + 5nH2s

J

giai

* n HNO

3

= 2nNO

2

+4

nNO + IOnN

2

0+12nN

2

+ IOnNH

4

NO3

25. Cong thu'c tinh khai IU'(fngmuai clorua khi cho muai cacbonat uic dung vO'idung dich HCI giiiiphong khi CO2 va H20
mMuai
clorua

26. Cong thtec tinh khiii IU'(fng muiii sun/at khi cho muiii cacbonat uic dung vo'i dung dich H2SO 4/oiillg giiii phong khi CO2 va H20
IDMu&i sunfat = mMu&i cacbonat + 36. n

= mMu&i cacbonat 11. D + , ,

co 2

,

co 2

27.Cong thtrc tinh khai IU'{J'ng muai clorua khi cho muai sunfit tdc dung vo'i dung dich HCI giiii phong khi S02 va .H20
mMu&i clorua = mMuai sunlit - 9. n

so 2

28.Cong thirc tinh khai IU'{J'ng muai sun/at khi cho muai sunfit tdc dung vo'i dung dich H2S04 /o{ing giiii phong khi CO2 va H20
IDMu3i sunfat = mMu&i cacbonat 16. n +

29. Cong thu'c tinh

sa mol oxi khi cho oxit
'2 DH (Axit)
1

so 2

tdc d!tng vo'i dung dich axit t'!-omuai va H20

no (Oxit)= no ( H20) =

SU"IItam: GV Nguyin Van Klu~.,en - THPT Lj Tl,l"Trang

30.Cong thu'c tinh kh6i IU'(J'ng mu6i sun/at khi cho oxit kim loai tdc dung vui dung dich H2S04 lodng tao mu6i sunfat va H20 Oxit + dd H2S04 loang -7 Mu6i sunfat + H20
mMu3isunfat mOxit + 80 n =
H 1 SO 4

31.Cong thuc tinh kh6i IU'(J'ng mu6i clorua khi cho oxit kim loai tac dung vO'idung dich HCI
tao mu6i clorua va H20 Oxlt + dd HCI -7 Mu6i clorua + H20 mMu3iclorua = mOxit + 55 n H20 = mOxit + 27,5 n

HCI

32.Cong thuc tinh kh6i IU(J'ngkim loai khi cho oxit kim loai uic dung voi cdc chat khu: nhtr : CO,H2, AI, C 33. Cong thtrc tinh s6 mol kim loai khi cho kim IOf!,itdc dung vui H20, axit, dung djch baza kiJm, dung dich NH3 giai phong hidro. n« L =
~ nn,

mKL = moxit- mo (Oxit) no (Oxit) = nco = n H 2 = n co 1 = n

H20

a

-

voi a la hoa tri cua kim loai

Vi du: Cho kim loai kiem tac dung voi H20: 2M + 2H20 ~ 2MOH + H2

= nOH-, , " 34.Cong thtrc tinh IU'(J'ngket tua xudt hijn khi hap th~l het mi)t lutmg CO2 VtlO dung dich Ca(OHh hoijc Ba(OHh . nkh tiia = nOH- - nco? ( voi nkdllua S nco ; hodc d~ cho dd bazo phan ung hit) Vi du : H~p thu h~t 11,2 lit CO2 (dktc ) vao 350 ml dung- dich Ba(OH)2 1M, Tinh k~t tua thu duoc, Ta co : nco2 = 0,5 mol
nKL= 2nH2

n Ba(OH)2 0,35 mol =
nk&lllia = nOHmkiuua nco
2

=

=

0,2 . 197

= 39,4 (g)

°°°
r

=> nOH7,

= 0,7 mol
,

5=

2 mol

35.Cong tlnrc tinh lU'Q'ng k~t tua xuih hi~n khi h§p thu h~t mQt lU'Q'ng CO2 van dung djch chua han hQ'P gam NaOH, Ca(OH)2 ho~c Ba(OH)2 . Tinh nco ~- = nOH- nco 2 r6i so sanh nCa2+ hoac nBa2+ d~ xem ch~t nao phan irng h~t d~

suy ra nk~tttla (di~u kien neo;- s nco, ) Vi dl} 1 : H~p thu h~t 6,72 lit CO2 ( dktc) vao 300 ml dung dich h6n hop g6m NaOH 0,1 M va
Ba(OH)2 0,6 M. Tinh kh6i hrong k~t tua thu duoc . nco 1 = 0,3 mol nNaOH 0,03 mol = n Ba(OH)2= ,18 mol 0 => nOH- = 0,39 mol

L

ncot =

nOH-

-

neo2 = 0,39- 0,3 = 0,09 mol

Ma nBa2+ = 0,18 mol nen nk&lhia = ncot: = 0,09 mol ~ 197 = 17,73 gam Vi du 2 : H~p thu h~t 0,448 lit CO2 ( dktc) vao 100 ml dung dich h6n hop g6m NaOH 0,06 M va Ba(OH)2 0,12 M thu duoc m gam k~t tua . Tinh m ? (TSDH 2009 kh6i A) A.3,94 B. 1,182 C.2,364 D. 1,97 nco 2 = 0,02 mol
SUIl dim: GV Ngltyin Van Khl~)len- THPT Lj Tu Trong

mki,tUa = 0,09.

nNaOH 0,006 mol = n Ba(OH)2=,012 mol 0 => nOH- = 0,03 mol

I

nco;
mklitlua

=

nOH-

Ma nBa1+

nco , = 0,03 - 0,02 = 0,01 mol = 0,012 mol nen nkithia = nco: = 0,01 mol
-

= 0,01 . 197 = 1,97 gam

36.Cong tlnrc tinh th~ tich CO2 c§n h§p thu h~t vao mQt dung dich Ca(OH)2 ho~c Ba(OH)2 a~ thu auQ'c mQt IUQ'ngk~t tua theo yeu c§u . Ta co hai kit qua:
- n CO2 - n CO2

= nk€fflla =
nOHnk€f fila

Vi dl} : Hc1p thu hSt V lit CO2 ( dktc) vao 300 ml dung dich va Ba(OH)2 1 M thu diroc 19,7 gam kSt tua . Tinh V ? Giai - nco2 = nk,httla= 0,1 mol => V cO2 = 2,24 lit - nco2 = nOH- - nk~ttua = 0,6 - 0,1 = 0,5 => V cO2 = 11,2 lit

37.Cong tlnrc tinh th~ tich dung djch NaOH c§n cho vao dung dich Ae+ a~ xu§t hi~n mQt lurmg k~t tua theo yeu c§u . Ta co hai kit qua:
- n OH- n OH-

=

3.nk€ffiia nA13+ nkit fila

= 4.

Vi dl} : C~n cho bao nhieu lit dung dich NaOH 1M vao dung dich chua 0,5 mol AICl3 d~ duoc 31,2 gam kSt tua .

Ghii
Ta co hai kSt qua : nOH- = 3.nk~11Ua 3.0,4 = 1,2 mol => V = 1,211t = n OH = 4. nAl3+ - nk~tllia= 4. 0,5 - 0,4 = 1,6 mol => V = 1,6 lit -

38.Cong tlnrc tinh th~ tich dung djch N aOH c§n cho vao han hgp dung djch A13+va H+ a~ xu§t hi~n mQt lUQ'ngk~t tiia theo yeu c§u . Ta co hai kit qua:
- n OH- [min ] - n OH- (max)

= 3.nk€fftia =

+ ne:
-

4.

nA13+

nkifflla+

nn:

Vi du : C~n cho bao nhieu lit dung dich NaOH 1M 16'nnhat vao dung dich chua d6ng thoi 0,6 mol AICb va 0,2 mol HCI d~ duoc 39 gam kSt tua .

Giai
nOH-(max) =4.nAl3+
-

nk~tnla+nH+=4.0,6-0,5+0,2=2,lmol=>V=2,llit

39.Cong thirc tinh th~ tich dung dich HCI c§n cho vao dung dich NaAI02 ho~c Na[Al(OH)J a~ xu§t hi~n mQt lurrng k~t tua theo yeu c§u . Ta co hai kit qua:
- ne: - ne+

= nk€t fila =

4.

nAIO;

-

3.

nkif fila

Suu dim: GV Nguyin

Van Khl{)len - THPT Lj T~l'Trong

Vi dl} : C~n cho bao nhieu lit dung dich HCI 1M van dung dich chua 0,7 mol NaAI02 Na[Al(OH)4] d~ thu diroc 39 gam kSt tua .
Giai Ta co hai kSt qua: nH + = nk~ttua = 0,5 mol => V = 0,5 lit nH+ = 4. nAJO; - 3. nk~trtia 4.0,7 - 3.0,5 = 1,3 mol => V = 1,3 lit =

hoac

40.Cong tlnrc tinh th~ tich dung dich HCI cAn cho vao han hQ'P dung djch NaOH va NaAl02 ho~c Na[Al(OH)J d~ xu§t hi~n m{}t100Q'ng ~t tiia theo yeu cAu . k Ta co hai kit qua:
,2

nn: = nkBlllia + n nn: = 4. nAIO- -

OH-

3.

nkBlflla

+n

OH-

Vi du : Can cho bao nhieu lit dung dich HCI 1M C\l'C dai van dung dich chua dong thai 0,1 mol NaOH va 0,3 mol NaAI02 hoac Na[Al(OH)4] d~ thu duoc 15,6 gam ket tua .
Giai Ta co hai kSt qua : nH+ (max) 4. nAlO; - 3. nk~ttlill nOH- = 4.0,3 - 3.0,2 + 01 = 0,7 mol => V = 0,7 lit = + 41.Cong tlnrc tinh th~ tich dung dich NaOH cAn cho vao han hQ'P dung djch Zn2+ d~ xu§t hi~n m{}t100Q'ng ~t tua theo yeu cAu . k

,

Ta co hai kit qua:
n OH- (mill) n OH- (max)

= 2.nkBlfiia =

4.

nz,,1+ -

2.nkBlliia

Vi du : Tinh th~ tich dung dich NaOH 1M csn cho van 200 ml dung dich

zeci,

2M d~ duoc 29,7

gam kSt tua , Giai Ta co nZn1+ = 0,4 mol nk~trna=0,3 mol Ap dung CT 41 . nOH-(min) = 2.nk~ttua= 2.0,3= 0,6 =>V JJNaOH 0,6 lit = n OH (max) = 4. nZn2+- 2.nk~trna= 4.0,4 - 2.0,3 = 1 mol => V JJNaOH llit = 42.Cong thirc tinh kIl6i 100Q'ng u6i thu dO'Q'ckhi cho ban hQ'P s~t va cac oxit s~t tac dung vOi m HN0310ang du giai phong khi NO. 242
n'lMllai

=( mhJn 80

hl)p

+ 24

nNO)

Vi dl} : Hoa tan hSt 11,36 gam ch§.t r~n X gom Fe, FeO, Fe203, Fe304 trong dung dich RN03 loang du thu duoc m gam muoi va 1,344 lit khi NO ( dktc ) Ia san pham khir duy nhat . Tim m ?
Giai 242 mMu3i= -( mb6nhap+ 24 no)
80·

242 . = -( 11,36
80

+ 24.0,06)

= 38,72 gam

43.Cong tlnrc tinh kh6i 100Q'ng u6i thu dO'Q'ckhi hoa tan h~t han hQ'P s~t va cac oxit s~t b~ng m HN03 d~c nong, dir ghii phong khi N02 •
n'lMllai

=( mhJIl 80

242

hon
.J'

+ 8 nNO

2

)

Vi dl} : Hoa tan hSt 6 gam ch§.t r~n X g6m Fe, FeO, Fe203, Fe304 trong RN03 d?c nong, du thu diroc 3,36 lit khi N02 (dktc ), Co can dung dich sau phan ling thu duoc bao nhieu gam muoi khan.
mMu6i=
242 w(

mh6nhqp+ 8 nN02 ) =

242 w(

6

+8

.0,15) = 21,78 gam

SUIl dim: GV Ngllyin Van Khl{ven - THPT Ly T~I'Trong

44.Cong

RN03

tlnrc tinh khBi IUQ'ng muBi thu dUQ'c khi hoa tan h~t han hop s~t va cac oxit s~t b~ng du giiii phong khi NO va N02.
=-

n'lMIIIJi

242 ( mh61l ho» 80'1'

+ 24.

nNO

+ 8. nNO 2 )

Vi du : Hoa tan h~t 7 gam ch~t r~n X g6m Fe, FeO, Fe203, Fe304 trong RN03 du thu duoc 1,792 lit (dktc ) khi X g6m NO va N02 va m gam mu6i . Bi~t dX/H2 = 19. Tinh m ? Ta co : nNO= nN02 = 0,04 mol
mMu6i

=

242 w(

mb6nbqp

+ 24 nNO+ 8 nN02

)

=

242 w(

7+ 24.0,04 + 8.0,04)=

25,047 gam

45.Cong thirc tinh khBi IUQ'ng muBi thu dUQ'c khi hoa tan h~t han hQ'P Fe, FeO, Fe203, Fe304 b~ng H2S04 d~c, nong, du giiii phong khi S02 .
n'lMIIIJi

=-

400 (mhlfllho't'l + J6.nso ) 160 .1' 2

Vi du : Hoa tan h~t 30 gam ch~t r~n X gom Fe, FeO, Fe203, Fe304 bang H2S04 d~c nong, du thu duoc 11,2 lit khi S02 (dktc ). Co can dung dich sau phan ling thu duoc bao nhieu gam muoi khan. Giiii
mMu6i

=-

400 ( mb6n hop + 16.nso 160 .

2

)=-

400 (30 + 16.0,5) = 95 gam 160

46.Cong tlurc tinh khBi IUQ'ng s~t da dung ban dAu, bi~t oxi hoa IUQ'ng s~t nay b~ng oxi dUQ'C han hQ'P r~n X. Hoa tan h~t X vOl HN03loang du giiii phong khi NO.
n'lFe

=-

56 ( nih/ill 80

htm

.1'

+ 24

nNO)

Vi du : D6t m gam s~t trong oxi thu duoc 3 gam ch~t r~n X . Hoa tan h~t X voi RN03 Ioang du giai phong 0,56 lit khi NO ( dktc) . Tim m ? Giai

m-, = -(

56 56 mh6nhop + 24 nNO) = -( 3 + 0,025) 80' 80

= 2,52 gam

47.Cong tlnrc tinh khBi IUQ'ng s~t da dung ban dAu, bi~t oxi hoa lU'Q'ng s~t nay b~ng oxi dUQ'C han hQ'P r~n X. Hoa tan h~t X vOi HN03 d~c , nong .du giiii phong khi N02.
n'lFe

=80

56

(nlh(jll

hon
.r

+ 8 nNO

2

)

Vi d\1 : D6t m gam s~t trong oxi thu duoc 1 gam h6n hop ch~t r~n X . Hoa tan het X voi RN03 dac nong, du giai phong 10,08 lit khi N02 ( dktc) . Tim m ? Giai

°

m-, =
pH v6'i

56 (mh6n hop + 24 UNO ) = 56 ( 10 + 8. 0,45) = 9,52 gam 80 . 2 80 ~

48.Cong tlnrc tinh pH cua dung dich axit y~u HA.

=

-k

(logKa

+ logCa)

hoij,c pH

= -log

(Ct. Ca)

a : la d{J di?n li K; : hang s6 phdn li cua axit

C; : nang d{J molll cua axit (Ca
Gicii pH = - ~ (logk, + logCa)
SUIl dim: GV Nguyln

2:: 0,01

Vi d\11: Tinh pH cua dung dich CH3COOH 0,1 M =-

a 25°C

M)

. Bi~t KcH3 COOH 1,8. 10-5 =

k

(logl ,8. 10-5 + logO,1 ) = 2,87

Van Khl{)len - THPT Lj T{l" Trong

Vi dl} 2: Tinh pH cua dung dich HCOOH 0,46 % (D = 1 g/ml). Cho dung dich la a = 2 %

d9 dien

Ii cua HCOOH trong

Giai 'C T a eo:
M

=

10.D.C% M =

10.1.0,46 -- 0 1 M 46 '
2

PH= -100" (a.e. a ) =-100" (-.01) o 0 1.00'

= 27 ,

49.Cong tlurc tinh pH cua dung dich bazo y~u BOH.

pH= 14 + -(logKb + logCb)
K; : hang s6 phon li cua baza Co : nong d9 molll cua baza Vi du : TinhpH ella dung diehNH3 0,1 M. Cho KNH3 = 1,75.10-5
vO'i pH = 14 + _!_(logKb + 10gCb) = 14 + _!_(logl,75. 10-5 + 10gO,1 ) = 11,13
2 2 2

1

50. Cdng tlnrc tinh pH cua dung dich ant y~u HA va muBi N aA

pH

=-

(logKa + log.£:_)
Cm

Vi du : Tinh pH ella dung dich CH3COOH 0,1 M va CH3COONa 0,1 M Bi~t KCH3 COOH 1,75. 10-5 , be qua Sl,I dien li ella H20. =
5 0,1 PH = - (Iogk, + 100".£:_) = - (100"175. 10- + 100" ' o "c 0, 0 01
m ,

a 25°C.

)

= 474

51. Cong tlurc tinh hi~u su:1t phan ung tAng hop NH3 H% =2_2Mx
My

Mx: han h9P g6m N2 va H2 ban ddu (ti I¢ 1:3) My : han h9P sou phan img Vi du : Ti~n hanh tong hop NH3 ill h6n hop X g6m N2 va H2 e6 ti kh6i hoi so voi H2 la 4,25 thu duoc h6n hop Y e6 ti kh6i hoi so voi H2 la 6,8. Tinh hieu such tong hop NH3 .
Ta e6 : DN 2
:

vai

DH

2

=

1:3
My

H%=2_2Mx

=2-2~

13,6

=75%

Suu tiim : GV Nguyln Van Khl~ven- THPT Lj Tlf Trang

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