-··~o'····'s ... I Em::-"'pire an..d' Q···.··"r··jd' e r: T-" . h·· e G·····.··cp····'·e·.~,'11and ". dR" lati .senc,er S arne <G····· -e,at.

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The han,dfu~ of N,ew 'Testa.m,ent passages addressing homoeroticism

need to he rt',a)JdYiit.h~nthe widc'f' contexts of

conquest, dominance and submission that characterized the world of tlru,e R,o:m.an empire, In particular, the' sexual ~n[cl~gnitrues ~s.rnted upon sleves provide an il~umina~in.g·M·n.dow' into the ethical concerns of the ear:ly Chris~ian com' m,unity,

ha t de'spwte these in dignili,es bein g: a 5:1 ave cou ~d beca me the' chi ef way of den n in g ~~fe 'i n Christ


ju S1.

radical the Christian vision of rede mpt ion is .. Embodyin.g, such a redemption requires Ch.ris-r~,an cnmmunities ~o

d'F.a.wupon every source th,ey can-bibhcal, i,ega ~ and olherw~se--'o craft, a wel,coming and. aJ1i-rm.wng stance toward
gay a nd

~e:sbi.an peo p[~e bod~

as n d ~.vruidl als and as comm !Ued couples, til

ence, Kansas, Susan Stem~er- reached oun to help a casual


night iln 1994 at the bar of the Ramada Inn in Flor'Conn


ICo]]n~ 's



Steve 'Krll-

Connru re~rea ted to the Fie om, where she a~d~jf~ld a n S tem let if stro S us she wou ld, gWV€ hie r a. ri de horne. S usa, n agreed, A'S the two
was drunk and had suddenly assau bed her,

Conni B'~ack and, put her n .K.r.~ts','struck. :Later tests we're ~ h) revea 1. tha.·~.Kr; ~ i.s~:'s blood al f)o.hol level was a pproxi ma~.'e'ly one and: a half times the le'gal limit, but the oflieers never tes ted his sobriety or even. aske d him to ex ir his veh icle, The accusation that S'~.Ie:m.ler a, lesbian was, a] 'I:it took for' the. was authorities to allow Kritis jo drive off wit.h Conni Bilack

women headed to


car, however, an e:lllra,gled Steve


:Kritis -fol~ow,e.dthem and, struck Susan on the' head with. a 'o'~u o ject, Susan and. 'Conni, escaped to the car, shut ~.he,rur rd doors, and drove off~but 'Kri'~is gave chase in his truck, ram:m ing- into ~.he:ca.rand at te m p~ g to r IJ n I~ wome n or( the' in he road. 'Witnesses called po.~i.oe~, who eventual~y pu11e,d both
veh icle s over, Su sa n 5 tem]e r, d ist raught,

'K' d out b esme [I, m ~ L .ater ~h at evemn g ";:r~",-' tos t cont rot h ~lSI of his truck, causing Conni Black. to 'be thrown from the v[e.h icle a nd ki ned:.. I ~'m,,~ght he argued that t'his was an isolated incl,dent-·an " ',',,"1' hope that wnen tne power orf' the state IS exerI,'L. h II. L ' a b erranon.We h ci 5e,d by police o:fficers,~or presidents or others, ~~. exercised IS,
"_j l_ , 'm -,


..'" Il 'd' K rwh 5 flead t.rlel___ -~.I~l.-:!!, I!!._.o

k"ll. t. he:m..' W-)h n ~ie 0 o' h W. ne Kl'i~i:s'struck he fabricated. a ,different. story" ru_ h ';Q cr .,. I [ .. Kr;~':' "" "old,' t he p -II' Il.ntll!.:~ .. 'J,~ a'; rl'.J, .;oili;'..ifli; ·d- C"-" '0' n n';..J, ~ha0m.JI b-. n

I.o~.d'Officers that rf'teet'S ap p roacrh d w' : J~
[I.. ,It.)!;,..

responsibly, Nevertheless" in this case, the assumptions


crre:> _L\""







'Wi[l~am. 5, ~acy Johnson, Ph, D., (l-Jarvard U n.iye:rs,~ny); J",D",(Wak.e'
Forest 'Un~venity)j is ,Arthur M,., Adams Associate Profe:ssor of
Sys.~ematic Theel Om', P'rin,[c[e~on 'Theolo@] ica~ Senl ina.ry~ (64 ,Me rcer Sn]'iele1~:. rinceton, N'ew jersey 0,8542; e-mail: 5tacy~johnso:rJ.@

abducted 'by Susan Stemler, who, was a ~es.b~an" 8 y this time 'Conn] BlaL'ck was too intoxicated to spea .. clearly for herk sel [, Susan S temler 'i; ns:~ sted that s:he was nol a les,b:~.an, bu ~

police arrested

'her- ,anyw'3Jy and charged her wit.h drunken

drivin:g~ Even ,th.ough an 'independent eyewitness protested hey we re [arrest ing the wron g: person, the officers tol,d '1he eyewit.nes.s lhat hie didn;t understa,nd the :f'ull situ,at~on.and ~o mind hi.s, own bu,s:iness~ Tb~Y' th.en :p:icked U'p (h.e drun:ke:n

A Time to Em,~· br:a.cie:' Sa[me,~'G'enlder R;da,t,ioJ]',sJ1l;ip'S ~~'J1'R,d;;gi(lrl~, La Wi, (l'nd Pblitj;cs (Gr.a'nd. R[a p,wd.s.~M ich ~,ga Eerd man s, 2006),~ it nd i's curren dy n: worJUng .on a book=Ie-ngdll proie,c~, on ill.~e;r:p(re~ing 'l~e gospe',~ ~n ,a, post -m.odern, pls:l~ Holocf},ust" .post.~Se'pte:m.bfr '~I1 'wodd '"


the a t1dt~or most rec-eIlJdy of


I I~Ulle :re':a..."'hn a 5.' .:~ .eBs't '-h ( "e I .~ nd i._ tween a 'R '-'old~( f as~ng' s'exua~ ala' antaae . h IL 'I!. ~ n-.--.-o:l!1~o . OndUCb!.din ~.~ lIe . ..~oillat ton in . ment .e ndy aCCLJse d of b.~]_.~i:n . It~!..-yond.ns'iid.e .lion. C I HJ] . I~" ndl ~h:_'t t.fl: re i:m~~e 1ill ' v. ' .I. uprem.-.' '1' .em n. no such t '~ng .'nl ~'OJ(l(U 'e'r san w I.'nd.d -__L Ilii 'u.j g .. :i:n -. ~I 11""1"" a simple choice an that for' om. i fl-..Icvn t:lrnose ~ 60. IS.' Ic'U~rr:. US.t ' V'U '..a os l s.' _:. h .). Nil 't ill .i.~y j:udi. I. c.~ of II I I-'C'P 0 _rhL I I' ~'I_" __ " r n.-.affirmlwng s -anc toward (l'. 'exts in the New' _: la '-nIL: ._' fu~L_·~ -}I11t:~. s I_rn I.-? . ·r··ti:c..a.he as:srumpli1oln m.~.e chief 'thilng the .._ Ii. " ch :I. cti n w. 'wou d be _ega ~ly unwis.nme'''.' is . 1_:. SPI .h. Ith.rger piclu re_ With ve I a ~ W' I....' text comes on 1. d \vit.I. .I~ fi r· 'l d. '..hC':-J "on'tex(' . (n __[ I' mr . oS Xua Ii .a. .. e"aus W. i: at :tak ~n th gay sex.i. ~ ~ -h·' . urn nt social rd' r t -e pro oundly misguided. b '.~.e ICour' J-..a's:: ~ .~. f.in -h. I er profoundly i. I Ih~. lhlS.oen .'o-ie'ly-~'n'U Iin -:5: ~n which the chun h's LJ 'f -h man k-'eilcon d.~1' w I.in g ga. 'to. d "'-e--. ~'.'. f.or.' ': n t -'pica. I I I M .il. .o Toli..: dl'·f ' exnahty. . ~ ~. of misund .~ lh. Il is .iv..I ~ I' ~" ent.that i 'mists .N'ew ". I situ.' ing of ~t --1:.. ln~!arj"g ~~ t .' depardd tu:r f n '. rep .'h n ··il r' t_·.a.~her he ch. I}U:~N' . IOvie the past lhi'rt.gh c.tile' -'-.. m _. owever.i).ted._Iu. ~: U-'" ..lt unti~ v' ry r .I . prejudi.! th u.e . h t iO f the -. .acture.s. ry ilD.-' W_ h. ._ Du.al.n .'~fu:h ng.'..x. 1.-n. .ad.1_.g .IUt e. '" l soci. '". .e: fact 'i ' I . ]' .· at -'IOU~ :g."1. _ .~_~ :s :j(u.' nY'~ h-. Th ]'1. r '-'(1' -_ a rl_adin I-l-'I~ t i. ..1.N ew 1'1' l' 'I )~ I. ~ \~a_nl to dOc/1m ] in.--omose xu a" 1·.j.sp :_~. an ro" i!. 'I ..such conduft.ballf! 'W. un:: ran. b_. ] '.~on~ h.ea. PI..' w the t 'xl.~ess.onn i.~ 'wbl~caJstudi : but as a Ih. reid a detailed a rg u men t . sh u~d I"_on:s.eanin' olf lhe' b~'ical texts t.-d in -. In ~hi· w-'" L. plaltl ~ r .(I . :IP. - i' i!> '. '.'J=~-..~ . a . aVlor W]![: In Lh]. n w·lh '--.1 " " :-: ' " of the B'i1-"~.'."(..~..-' I I. de.11" • ..-'d _ y I _ a .~vie fr.)1 'W ~f.on h.e " o:il i.It" .a~in U'IT fo -. bUI a.~ -11.nu rt ruled there WC'f· no '.II surface of our .luTie W'._I"..chiing Oml ~his h.cia~]y the: 'imi I:.h'" 'h h b t.-. h" i ness .I. h en . .ase a pe rso n o ~ il:S m. -. ' J c k Ib'fOU g ht.k..'f'r'-' . at ' h. I-lis c aim ...o:spelII r. rd': . .~ :h ' iln.-. _'. r. . Iy .e power of t. lhl. r. hl· jve .--com! m lte d ~e'~l ion ship s a o gay cou -t!eSi~ :i. were _.nol= n ~..round for h" din:.Ing ~n [.y I['owa 'fl.-'-.he go. ':. SU p'lty ~. 'what: if t.' '~u"aJ onduct --'ociely'.cons.w Testa-..'" th -. _ither t' se town or 'the police respo'n:i le: tn e w re pfi t -.I]. isl.v of~. x. kin .u~ r abslr.ft r 1. 'I :h.~.ve" ~ t .iit~. I I..!t 1!111~.h. "a_ I. _' -I i~.'.ey ~ak. _ i: guid" d:._~g nh: 'tr_iti.~ In deed -:. .{'Iii. W d. he gospe. latg r· lex.· ..~.i_.~ is b". iperienced as no ..IJ. s . "'Empire ao. I of£er these re. I~hur'chl '[.'_ ~ " st __" " nd .II..'.' .r' .it re :ri gh I bu I fur the wrOI~ g t'-... -mewO'rk -r ..ra t w'n i. onditioa.-!yt 'h..cons.-IUI~i wmc h' I. d n d f'p].. t.a .. ha~ to :m. ' -'..I' mere surra --.h y .-' e ~ 'soci ely. 'II I.I.to b: th' " '-'~ain m. in ~h ' 'way w.._~.__. Ln· '11 .1 ...'X.··.- ---- .!~'I~' . bot h.." .' ~e t rno al 'beliefs . i ~ 'r hit d= ny~n: the ".pili n (_... wh re I h ~.thin OU'f :fl!'lli'~~ous 'comlei l" .( of em.W.•..fon._y' ].toe k ~ 'h'· -h 'L Ir' -v.. p. h '". b t._':ls in.m. . ': .'C'C . ea lh se a rg.ha~ p ohi'b~t h ·. 1. ..ed (.k" '.lerl ~c..cia[ ~l s:t Iit.~ I~".-..F1d For 'lh.at -' lh~: .p. rro t.n ts.nd 'f.fror ~iry people Iin .~' r d ~:Uin..caus . _ xu 1.nc .m b di .a\Tglf!S t.and Tes~.' must .u~ ~ [ !nlte'x't •. . h. d i'si u:t. reason~ .in lh gospe ] "I. 'h· . nd les ..: th" ~'I 'th ow' Il.h~ch ] b in.'" ent..~la]'1nIOI'~. .~..I mi._..:' ~- SI • I.gay r~ght. throu. L d·.ss wh-'I~ ~.as been 'yery difu:uh~' ~n in'.:( rs t. r' u nt. .egothn >~.:"~ ~ 1-'._~1 ult.'W'.. place. a1 I~y IL DJ . foUow' what lh.J~.' 10 r b .~ .iew 0'_. ti. h'Perha.. i hit be expec I d :in the i'U=b.-' . ~50 know thall 'lher.-ing.w.I..-=--l _ . . _ alid t I 1 n!~-...fle'c(on n 1 ~'S .h Jlun ~tl' -. -r (" I· ~n. ...• aU -''''homo'' bh 'I ~~ t.he' Ir'·.. · .y cla:ilm thal ~J.' rgu ed "2 .[I_'.~..'through immersing oneself mOT" dee pl "' to 'the cen-t xl. '.. My sen s t].l:rrl'!i'r t adi6orr. n fa".'r his ~ tve a nd _~ lesbian coupl.W -~ ._'. s ~in .1!t~ -.id.vi 'I'.0'· p 1 ord. entation is e.archarg.st 'ndi n~:-'OUT ~lm'bliJl[a~ t.·!1 n.ancien'n war..s ~"lII. . [(.f l. ~'ul.a.~.he ide a fha WI. er .~ ing ag. .lam. d:ilfl~_rl_n.). lha. bla ne ket condemnatio ~n. p Ii d_ a. nd .F " an redeem . Ce'nd~'rsof trad.d 'O'rder"" -- partie alar Iffi -ers mad. h _ nt . I" . I.h ' . 't':'.cu~:s tll.a.L re : Ii.OPIJ. h-'ld I ': : --e'llf'rlhe1!e. ]!!Ii is t hat en 'Ji ng a we~com.1. and cu ture.s.5.f. _ I~ -.n aneth r ~ r ~iff' -d I~_ l' U . '-' tmee " fl.ow''-.._. f ~1 ~ h an d .at i'-.If.': wav forwa d in ~ arena has al.' is.r 111-. fi. n I.] '..'- ~I'!2Ii Ii ._.: 1!11 IOf conquesl and "'m'p:i f' th.. II'" . law5'u its '.- W i_' I . within the fr.':ars. .-· n I[t.d th' v :-': ommun:aty (:-harg~id 'wilh.IUf dl' mo 'r.S'Uurn Is~~non an: ~ ~n:I.'. '. m ' numb r 'f -. n ~"sj I'm'" ~ i..ma_g]o ~ T'h e' ::. ' i rontex't.'(1n 0.. llh.. .~ .ch.h=.a ~~:me-g:nder sexual or. -:e ho". upseu....~' 'n:tonin _~[i ~ h "r:'~'.atll -h'· our soc ._'U H.' the POWI 'r of thle~r pOS.' r 0. It we cannot rest contenl : 'w-. social .J:~'_It 'texhi in wa:ys 'tha. '1Itu~1S .. .en'turies. J :l . ]~._' l. \I".mlen~ er.g .:i n t ~1 ~.. _ 1.:h-.: m i:".' gay ~It . Itle no[tJfun:. ' IL •• d [~_ SJ'xu ~1 ~I .__ ~'en-.J texts on h·.~ euates 1. t·'e plol~l.a~'ilywo'U~d ~ ' L'· d" ~ 'h U1f'"' .] '_ er 1" ly in need o'f b ~ 't' ansformer ng "'I ' lb ~ .is al stake b:. 'r. ni m 'r._.nw' :In I.ays is " ctually missing t:h.g:.. .'5 the si .ologian ~ seeking [I. I. 1 i·< "t stak.m n 'w]~~d~ '[ 'h-.' " at :st:ak~ "'....h If.I that Stu: h VWf'W 1 • m My (1 I' -.d tha.es.-ed. S tern ~ and the -'stat' of'.. h._' [lh.'.exts~ ..I!I._ a._'. .~I.urn 'n~.d ur d'.... in .. th.I~'I.i..3. un 0 ].m... hav'l! Iried [to p1. '[e'Ulthe gospel by nen ouncma -:..b ~ n r-)_ .'!Ft flo I .'11' r. su its.~ld ~.d. i 10 I 'n-. [n fhe v. hi e.b _ha. of the hurch~he.'. nil" D' '[ . n.'d. .. :~'S'[..aye':porting 1101 .11l. .' f the"'~Te'stament uU r .. 1_ M '~.ead~ng.~.p. ilo !ernce~. II· ~ n~8. .nom .:.. · . P rva ~ ~'Yl" ~ d U: ~ .V" now" know -']9.H. 'nul .s ob~ect.:11.. t 0.nt ~ sh w th.tlr.1. . rha _-s t -... say to U5~ "'~'_~I ~ I.urrent so. stam: n 'teach.SI_'~f ·'s 'I. " n m . -. ma Y h .__15 .rid vry 0".~ e Cour<1 ~ Ra.h~ps..Iohnson.2UI'ump't moo con-' 'rrn~:' I -:tlll'.iln.' h. . ~i~S.s .pir' I .. u~ng on ~.e n Ro.':11 h moeroti be' 'vior" ' his isa situation where underst mdina ~h.mk.' Wi d'_ f£e'ren'~'anale ". no' fu] 10' slate d u tex~.v· -".ent. _-~t I.m.lflIc: o time.'~1 - I...:.t r..ay se'xualit. 51 ~:~ . h ._d Ii I.onaJ te'alchi . t.:ian -'" pI is in no W.a 11 or'dler I LfjliWfl::"I__' .

1~. w S'im'ila. ~.:ra t:ion for ~h i5.j " .h. favors ~ h ~. f. sumption anti-gay advocates take specific1 negatjve refer- :11'1' 'j'.pectled "behavior of all elite . n .r .2l~ ~he . not un ~iKe. _" '.al:5 scxu. P ~I ~ ~n.-- .en ~nto Rom. ' t"".1)ieOpl. -m--~ ·t'L~ earn' e I .. ~he child.allul.. J! .ary Ma.re t h SI:i m'~[a rJy.e: ex.. In fact.f""':.rn' " I' .conq ue:sb~~ ~ t.o~ e to.ch~.hle 'very ye.g' h~m to fill n.I. ~.y:" Sllllme: hav'c even wondered whether t. ca ptured in the firs t 'wo~ds of Ie.-.a1il. a.a Jewish m..e'c. form. pract ice ~IO'rape it he 'women" sex ua H.oerotiC'~srn in hJ . '~d.ealof social dom... 'm. ~he good news" (Mark 1::'15).!i. " 4 BCE.e. . rape.per lod fO'fm[~d ~he 5 ba.Q'.o s]a..e a ou. When the :Roma:ns conquered a. . T1I' .ark n 'wa.a.error of these .p.c. ~ "-.s.ica. t_ J s1 .. W·'h~ 'IL':~:S the same '!r~'-h monentluc t· rng CilJ'II] e:.S1:g n .ra~".a.a~it.a'~.U II.bIish. II.. C"':'of"ij'n. 'Wr ~. . . t."l' ~o h~s m.. ~orlg a.." ~lp .o~ .pl~l.~.•• l . .ultur.TI:N '.n:ife'st1f!d il:selt t he'D .iJI C'._ .s '~orml]la~in:g h~s Gospel-the Rom.a~.age~d. . very' 'word "gospel "'-'~e'Ua.nld egaJ~t.~.i.. in bru. nu ah d·I':l!!IwI f'rlUS:i'es 1 'm. ~ lL. few short . W." " . and noth i:ng:more.sus: 'i"'T'b e t ~me is f u fi'~ ~ led. frorm s ~ of ·hom.~v·..anaI :pe:netrat:io:n but :i.a.aJ bu.llu.ate to 1.a. not. res..il':~. thei · h' Il..t ~t 'm'f'.'her the birth of Jesus~ a.one :gle'nera. . • .~!I.di t'h-.]] ho.e u ~he gos:p.obe a Jew.y'.L'OGY BULLE.e ~ic-e" S' ROlr ex~' m".~re BL d. .. lay just a. 1 ~'~' ~IUt ]" -clI ~. .an'i' t ty.. . _ " .ent 'Greek.pel dQiprU~la. of :sexu..s .~ a" 'lso one t:.R"tome.!!Ulb~j!._'. IL Po 'Pi.y.oerot~c activ i~...IIl. wOrU~id 'h. 'I!. ha R. ~ a wll tnn es .za. them t arbitrarily to the lives. of :gay and lesbian people today. mI' '01'_ '~I' !" lD"4r: I '~C'lll _".:'r~ ._ .1. ~a. Ior a Roman . turn .s.ary so cia~ o:r(~. the wond . 'Z--'iGofi W-""(l~' no" t ..S.a.l· 'O.Y hu Ini~ iate d..act.s" where an . .today. ..:rney 1[10 masculine m.al.. of. city..gooc _ salvation to lh wor ~]d~ e N' ew ie ~. 111'111 .n.. II ...a ~len ge ~ r r.to i!JIul[D.··._ oe.m ~ _ " vU'. .nd there is on~yone mode of homoerotic sexual behavior ~hrough the centuries. ua ~.-:mplre' THE.add:lt~on. r-ica -] (0 "gooc new's n'.h:icn :hom._ 1__ .g'f . 'J 'popu.~ved :here 'was. using .' 'b~..n Rome n of The reign .~ca:nt portions of the d e • J unchanging phenomenon a. a Dr. and.he situation of wid.h. .. e power 01' larger context w ~I 1- iii: r:' ." in other words.-'gh . " . A~hen.acc. .5l 'ror exa. De '~r:m .II . ho rom oerot id~ si r:e" .ntle-r. .ag.i.!l.f a :Roman so~d:i.e a:w'ay in~.~' Q. ~_.~.ns to sack and ra. homoerot ~c act ~vi.evol t b rok. JUI~. a. The purpose of pederas~. by the peder as:~yof the ~HII..U'l1nge.. . Th1e.n··'p.n the Rom..n:gelion-ref1ects t.j ers. raJhlf'r.....y':inv'o..art of th e...f'f" ~ed thn~le' types: . _".OJl. ana ~n reljgions. .C'~6zen to pleasure himself se:xuaUy b. n S.p n:~dom ~ n.el:fout pr. .tizen Fo.nofl' ~'~ IU '.. C ~J savior 'who h.a./' _ .(j.nhabitanh~~ and took :ma.v:i. 'which. of the ~ heo.c~.ecled no :p-rorv-ide :sexu.' T'h r rmgi .n:ing we need to remember :~5 that every page of the New Testaroent was wr~'n.ale'.a firJ wh '.'L-III.effect.~ races.!.Y . . ..oeroll. C.a ime d ~o ch.ny mlor.aUer 'who ~'he'fa.e a free ma~. _'oJ! ~ th 'r~ m.. " .city of Sepphoris" which.ciJ.very" So . ..rs :il. 'C '~'iFil Ull. ~latus. Horsley.1o'!L.ated in hat de W'8. til...a:sS'wfying this conduct enable s us to see more (:~etldy w'hal is wrong vnth 'n.. an d consi g:n .:' h.t = . and the reign o:f:God has.h'.)1 ...ef to rape ano~her ma]e sol~ .1i'III i!J! .e'~ was t. .t certainly seems true that there have been people with homoerotic Ide~ ti d '" I Itu . d i!.chi...a~ly has.speci.ed. Th is...awes~lne' d a..t a. "l.his fact.. ..e-v'ed by rubb:~ng 'be'~ween the 'y'otln..hal ex!em pl i~.~ffe'rentia:ted. tn a IrmW cu. r~.r. .andy hom.ig. 'Wl)U I.miles from Jesus" OWJ~ vi l~ ge O"f N a.. is o rg.~.n.5~..presumab]'y.111l "I ' '_ •.r- F i:rst a.ng I~' I news an dl 'i~ 'I .d e'lh:~c._ res. 111' ['.'l"'.y a.t. was stan da rd.. '0' . t'he .tl (Ie a rJ d suh:m i5~l~on wa:5 Wf"itt..efe.! __ "" C· .]I.oth.s .. " •. IlL' n tr e mpenai 1 IlJ!owogy 0'r.e Ra'hbinic rule' t'ha~ no m.BLICAL d-E" Conquest anc .~ t ruo n 'p.c'kground for' ~h.~IIJil]J.'.~. come near.mi~ia.~.d have' u:ps1et esta... 1f!1iIC' ~ d'. repent.ze:n:~LThis 'was not. ~ .of' of a few 'J) eop]. M:.~ ~her.of imperial exploitation and violence~'Th~s has been em:pl1.d. non.I'moero't'.ca'! y d 'IV Ilde. 'The reign of God.gain in 166 CE-. in .S S~mpl Y' pa. '.?iea'" _ .sm: a..'JJJ.a wo:m a n ~ n . Il I . .er is !consid. 'Em:ployjng ~his.t hi rty 'y. to d·om In. d h f pertaine d.espre ad rape during ~h-..'r ..nat 'wa..II.~t'b ecomes clear theat much o:r ~hie bi'b] lea ~ theology written a bou~. it W'3J.te d hi:m by' :fol1cin. . is issuing an unmistakable.e ge to the n~'~8. ~ d"iet who had bet:n d.OP:iIC.s.d.M!. !the' beh.e of passage.entor . Testame nt prnclai ms a vier}" diffre:rre'rnl sort of good news as I..gs of 'w'.I~' . V'Q'L. Je\-V~5h uprising S chola.I[~ 'I l_ .e:hned" a.t' i.d belen designated "son of God'~' and who was 'b" .'i:A..nd non'violent.'.nd wa. ne _ews ]'" Iv~ng ~n.I ~.~ 'I 'wa.:.Y' bout ~. . m an who was a non-citizen was considered in.nsi ng fro m the d e's. 'I!.. "_ .cru. .C d'. [or the last .you:ng: me'n intol educated.s.a. w. Ill) u.~ffe:!lentia ted hom.s.UM..~ a S.'.e. _ I '. 1ILr.~ _. ---- :BI.gd"aJene wa. Iea ted s. t'". ex.t~ p ra.m~)~. 'U' -I .olld'ef' (~over) .a mOode'~of vi rt 1J e fror a..ci'ljzens~ ~:n .J 5.. .y ma. n-U' '0.na nee ' :~.el .e's s women.a [I ~lco'lriIlo.ve e'm a s·cu. it.' tim e . 1!Ig.lati alton '~O' avery .'.1II ' 5 n.. T'h" was no~ l· !e same' a. esus :.acesa r w as .·t'·o me . __ .d .•.enos'1' being. t. .Y ~.when Je'wi s h.nd always .y run a. 'fied.p i.n.rt of the ~'.elose r to a rit.1. ml ~Jl!l m" yesterday.gender ro~. II! . r. . w\. if.a frele' (even 0 )'\O~' m-_ ":iI!t '-r"e~)'.oW~..· '!.e erom. '.of Rome was synonymous 'w~~.ateld rit:~._ .'b _ . In ~:O'" d' '0' ]' It DY· a~ m· t. operated with the unexamined assumption that there is one t: h" d ornosexuantv..s f-' 1 ba..5e . .Ai'henian m.:in.n uud1e'rstand.J..d· in id' ivine ter ms namelv as ~. . ::"1- " /Ibo...tlen with~n in.. c:uhurle'.oerot ~c'ism ~'S t.gf'aphyp'or t r ay'ed dle'~eale.deballe on th :~.he~ess" the 'way such.e.Uy a.['~ion..much W. that world to 'be norma ~and accepta ble.ha.~ion to another wn M.hould 'we th nk about the :gospe~:i n rel~dio:rf1i '~O samegender se-xuaJity~ The' :f1 rst t..~ UI.s borril)" slaughtered many of ~he c~ty's i. .pohtwlca~ spectrum (e. .. he passing on of v:i f"W ~ ity fro-m ..e with q. _ .naJ pienet.has.:nt to b..a. .uh· icn '__ ' _U_·_ . Sll re..3'~ _ iI.'hs~ Th.~.e ars the .aslz)ed recently' by scholars 'who occupy opposite ends.s .".E 37 How' s.psyc hologica ~ l. .j~.~... the N'e:w Testament mean in g of such activiny m isse S the 'p. and believe in i e nee's to.nciient.YOU n ger male eromcnos (beloved) 'who was under:go:~nga j ou.tal re..elied ~. a bein g sexuany su bdued:-a m'ft.e 1'· 'nl \t "_.-·dur~ng it. '" . ".'a.:'.i na.10.gh~) g .~ .hsexual humiliation.d.'w'. IS . PIQ'W.:I w~ r-~ n 0 ra n . differed dramatically in difrerenft times and places.ans de's~royed the city of M. erroneous as.IL-'.·Ii..aphof' a.'lace 5.nthe B ible a ndl a ppl.elanesian. N'ecver1.0' "m. cha l~.. t're'~:t'~no'~. iii.eonle'm po r. it was considered to be an et hical non-event-a mere release of energy.ars ~ which M..•. ~. . if also :ind'~recta.J! . It..se:we d a.]~IIU Ilor ~ ...c sexua[ o:rien'tal~on..orn.. _ the ig nom iny of a..nd death.(1.a...(1n"d p. J'" W ..ge:1"m. a.o:i t ~ n Indeed.1''-III:o:r. .'f. ~RU l_1r.~.ale 't" . same-gender desire has wo:rked i~s.r:ly.aga~n5t Rnm. . t'l.

n manhoed.as. d '-hI< .'inated by :Roman power..an d 0 :P '"]. . S~nc)e Rom.' r a. 1- male sex ach~r-·w.a ~''body'''' or. rea ~ goi.icms:m.u.:~:' .~ .erpre' t ·ID.ne I' C'-_'. enduring..a~ u].eo ogy 0.~ I j .~ 'which :~sega ~ ita:ria. . 'D·"ieC'" ~ng s 1'a. ~'h'" ·d· [·"~~'1·'·" -"".(ed :il s the POSIt:! 'w'ay that a'~1('h ree N ew Testament text s presupli'he mlaJe imperial .yin the R. assert d-. :n.h t'h.nO:lie' l:~e-ruta.n 'i n character. of sexual a. ..an c1ou.- _..:!J' 'I' 1 eSIL.c.:.efine:d .pty T.an soci- d] ety was.sbr!'r...a.uH .pecifi.gS n is to miss the waY' sexuality is social~y constructed :~nat parti.son.hispa. _'0 .r waY' the: :mas~:ler 'wish'edJ) 'includi.'h.in. 'because of '(he active/passive ideoltlJrg}" of dle .e~.sm that chasacterieed the . The <Ii Ii.= M' re'Spo:nsi'bi~ity and IJrominle:nce 7 50n.g.".ti.s.aM ~s r'e-aUy at stake in the New ~e~dameFlt The more . to talk about sexuality . cou~.. 1.og.1e 'was Ico':FlI...-..caUy men t ion in g' homoerotic ac.h._re sex UI.o pIO(5il~On.usi vel y= n ' ~:IE:'.ion or mai. U~.oou'l..e first place. 'f'! · --_. but. '.Jlied.~.n.~n :Rom!e apart fl10m sla:very is.very .:pla~.ll.5) 'U'nd.• :.y'pe.g:ter s.·am1cn· g. I. --.abs()).er (Paltlf'rson: '11.{l:5 ~he ba sic form of hQ(m. pe·rso:n. s~.'I.1. f P QU1. with out accou n ~in g (0:.As is 'we~l'kno1wo.r ~ime and place.le to aUow' himself to he sexually penetrated by another' m a.r50:n .1l ut the fact that th. . A.a.' ega ].frustes and !fro..d '~e freed by arnund the age of t.J Ro:man citizle-:n to lose centro] of th. .he . ~i. ~ 'L L '" e '[ '·'h .. N . and 'their fn endshi p was often.1 Ea.: .g.. .dulthood~ 'W'hat We's'te:rn :socleti'f 5 ar'~ d. Ihem se:lves to leach otbe''f ~ etxcl.re an dOd =.ment ~exh3.. In 'lh._ '1'1". or that mat ter. L or.te'rson .'E..eth'er heterosexual or.a. d.youn. supposed 10 b.eupshot I II :~egirn with 1 Timothy l: ~0" 'because of the three N'ew 'Te sta ment text s g...] so-c'"1 l[]Jif. is not that pederast y d isappea red in. the slave a.'were r d b SO(IClJ superiors upon :SOc. ~] ".ty:" 'I believe th..and lesbi.I.m' C'O' :m'm~.1.hn g th-"es'e r i'ac-ts QU~.s w:hal is.at i::s .~lIldlj~. doma.ine:'h. .bons UU!if:f' 'w. did not conti n ue .n P:a t'ter:so:n contend:s that the cond ition of :slavery ]S mO.:r]. rna.:nd .are g~vin_g. elite.' ca p:itaJ ism and the pervasiveness or sex ~ nterta ~n mien t an d adVIE!lit:isin g'" To igno re ~hie se t hi D. tutm. the SIO C ial 'world.of d.e'w 'I .og:~st.'f::s . slave was t.aY5 .lcy~ 'Ha. .nen~.e: sexual act was ~houg.rrormerr . the .iv~ty in 'Rol:m.:fif: '~han a m. .uaJ..Uy a.pea. whi. body eoul.IO.or'W.~ahnn ~.a~l. ~h b H".1 'I con-d~. r 'IL '[" D '~ ml~ ...a.a1~1 Ik 0:. n ~o' '0-H-. :5 ave economy. slavery IS an integral part of the ethos of'ma:stery a.h. have belen ..'oman. H:eJie.. a JI .ed as part !of I.slave was.- .'t\vtf:S status. rw. 't.n.t·iPd"riil'li'~~ 't'.en in at world . 1[)j. f oun d Ie: on a.ai-l "ess..~ OEJjelct.a. e .ct.er H' .e£ini~ion of .s". avery in t.s Illelen 'I . the economic and. I: [11.s.efinin. rew :Icrlpture.d. t'he sexual relationship '~I:seIf was net mut ua] a nd.sses II ell.d : .rr.· Hie I D t·· . h.3. in exegesi s is to m'w s. status-defined relationships are those :tn 'which O]lU~'partner perlorms a sexual role that 'is active and the other a passive and U:5uaUy st igmatized role .U ~be .'.e'r-I.vl..n. ·t ··.- lii""'~ I ml .efilt. h.' .c.a.1j __l1'Ir'. ~hen~ (l.g 'to understand s:ex. I t.'wi~..'worse'.n 0 l 1 ~ I • O' 'II IlL..ht unseemly.uta. ' . be used .. ~ru·'l II:" e bv mrenors.e:f'i.p thou ght of Roman.he d.But 'h b d' 'IL·' L 'we :mus.t ex pnCh y . HE m.in~ .a.• I . N-···'." J arlan ~.n~{' 'h l' b"" t e retahonsmp :t:smutuat..mahca 'l-'~ . r.''1n.orf'd.~..ent. . I'".". slavery' is pervasive.a.Th is 'W.lDl.me!.ng' on in the ea dy Cb ristjan world '.en.an.ves"" s wen.~i:v'~l.ng: hut mlere~y . J .'I W' e cannot .'"'-b .hn::e N..Roman world.e'aJt'h.a:rva'li~d-S-OCUJI..Y' s.hie asymmetrical 'way in wh ich the Rom.j' '110 .ntain-ing a b£elons' relati.s'j... 1~l:S a t_ ~bru ..:IS one provides the most inumina:t~ng: 'W "ndow into w':h.ti.·'(!"W <_ .s .P artners are eq ural~ In con trast 'to (. .. gra 1'i ry his own sexual urges 'W'W ~ h a male slave or other social n-feri.t a ~ .st sla:v'es live:d (B.d'of the New Testament ~ N'ot Ito take accou nt of lh is fac~. is. 't 'l_ 'ma. b So.'~ "fi..tncn mo. ror a .s:~dered sh.e type i..-' P '.to ne .houghl Q!f" not a.: e.sof' grea.ned ~ T~h ere.IS ~I!i.as ..a.f.u ".' . ·.s'Sive/~u:6v'e·d :tcho~. G": . it. And thi.s.~mar . ~.hirty .··t .P. 01' neal~ 'lexljl ~n led.ll~lege of d.m I: en.J .s.p'nl~ IU ~ 'L._- Second._ . :~n the second plaice'.m l h" g.gle.s .Cl:S considered appropriate ~ :1ndeled i~.lh. er t:..oero6ci..ssing ~he selcop.nten~.o'm.homose-x.toe R-' r 'n h .(:~n. 'what We'stern societ ie s art: being asked to approve lOlday.. (l. primary locus.menos.e s pe1cwa.a. was not nearly as central ~ I' _ l as In ancient •.c~oudof wh a..t -h .I "d.oer-o"li. W'h L 'IL '. t:hal d irectl.ke try:~n. to ."I'p'~ another '[or better or. !!i..ity i'n. a..a..I.g. m L" :sexua.IIon Ith a. re ancien t e 'wo:r~d-. ~.ab ove'. as eve n exw pc·tl.n way or 1. world.l-.~.m:i.e·:x. slavery as fe~ fair:~ybenign since slaves .Y di'~dlon.dley':.~arns 8!IlJOU t the pervasiveness or S'. l:ivin g 'U ndif'r .l scholars. 0" '" shaping.'...-. n rea:ched a. as 'wen ~ It.omy 'was.t. l:y i'n.d aW'ed' b~ Ull '.re.fti. r at.er Ro'man law .ch meant thal there were conventions :~01Fhow 'women.c'k.:ger In.d ~u r-.e master-sl ave relao tionship was a. w:hab::vle.a. 'for years. the pederastic relationship 'was. ~I d. person.an 50(: ~!et. -'.k about h'omoe'ro'lici:s\m~ All d1T ee are add.~ 5c'r~i:bes.el.g heterosexual a[. 'But. 't. .an empire.r~ ier schola rsh i.~per..his :is obvioUlh and: bib=aca. domination of nataU:y' aJi. ~d ng d ouble-st anda rd: for a freeborn ari ma~. tod~Y' is so:m.~U 200.-h.domr~nance al the center o:f '(he' Rom:(I.ew 'Tes~a.e was the creation of a.3)~ d ami n a.'" .UII. .. G I. Ie'~CJ. another 'w'ay~..~o put.~p I..iLL.. r~. . of ~he 'Rom.obedienclf'.enated and g'ene'ran.S~%!uru (Glancy).p:n..eece.y-~h.p[e's.. ~ ~ tne centra ~t ts 'L_ c '[ rea 1'·' .A'~I 'l. .ua.d type of 'homoerot"cism.Glreiclol='Rom.ne iia perm..d 'r~s.re only t.~t" .le:re'ly lega] Qlr econo.a'S 't.a nt. . '.m s conceived s ex~ here w one recognizes thal many readings of the New Testament on this topic are inadequate.y" t:h.he.ring mu hl.~ (]I [I.e·.t_.p·~._.a.a. social 'wo:r~.n. '~llj r'~' . ._y __ __ ru that th:e're never was such a rela tjonsh pin the anc ient 'wor:~d ~ After all. .t. h Il ...a ..e.'I 10"1 LA . Some ~sla.g"!' (res)-==-. _ .n.d.' .al ben.d.na.'L'~ 1.1("' .onship".~ .e: .ra. one' . '.ne:ss and in.lut.Rom:a.ebcuin.ol ~ l.d'd re. the basic 'way .. The' ~hilld type of ho m.1 be c:aUs l ._.emor. were to behave d'uti:n g sexu al acti v'~iy~T ]"J.ne :5.elhi'ng very' diUe:renL 'Today gaY' .sta tU5 -. i.m"erlca.1Il1~~ r·l..~ '~ie's..o:m.J -hn..a 'Ulhj.a·-. i. 00.~" even c r ~'m'~'na b ut [0:1" h~m to ~~. A.n.an: of slavery aims. non.t'he citiz.I· _:~:_" .~n 'the ma..

an :soci. of these' s_.. . ~·L. lDStsllng 1.e 'w'as sy nony moU's w'~~. .H. Th ey were: :st(l. werle intimately.._e _ .:...s.. . 'I9i. used car sasesmen.----_ .€! ]t was.e:s.ill In ..~ove'r w h~~!C ~.a. a rampant lea ture O'~ Homan hle that tne Rom:a ns themselves became uncomfortable wit~h the practjce and on th ree occasions passed la\V'S Idesig. The slave is not '()In'~.ame b:re:al~ . " " 'd--sold 1.TIN' _ .·. t ion 0.:nd sold :n o~.he:ssalonia. I' I .JI d'" '.h.. .. .· 'N' TA~'IMo''!!im'ent wr:. I"' _ -.I! :'. '_ ".nst.n d:iscu..egis~ ation test i."_' .t 0-f me.".. SPOll. '. ""'.' " ... H. -:h-:.po: ".g direc~ 1y to seJoJla] :praC'~i. '.·0 ·_y __ h: __ ' .-.. not hard to unagme 'b ow ehte "R' nsoam.JI ·llc Ion. V '-- _\ .-. .._ ~ ~._.hid'eou. .JI .t .'t····· '.Y~ The trade in sexuality was 'M"dely practiced and.:. sex object.. :Elder. .mo... .about sJexua'lity elslfwhere in his corpus .5U.I' _ '. 'I.'.'-: '.lh.er tha.~o:rn ic a.a tine ~ude's in the s.' .~.sexua. •••.mp.Uil.n(]e a rI!d-. .if sw.. ·d--' · . ..se uf ~-vhat wa. . 1'·. .e. I I . •.._ -es.he l . ~~ _ . bee .sla. f slaves who were captured 'by the :Rom.. t'h e slave fa m ily cou'~ditse~f be broken up" boug._'om1. -.i'..lfilling 'their duties... • .cr'h g.:1 ".ct'~lces.' . . .s famous qui p of Seneca.d'f'rs (a.. .'". Rom. ..·:f: war ano I.. t h e. .d in honor. .'--1d-.sla.O.~~ (n: .s '.a. in' he va rious ant ii-· 'IL '..' '.' ·St2U j! .' f ·' ·' cepte d-'~a n d.-..A slave' 'Was..ed by m..rmu:s.'h h· :nl...~ . use. . to the master.. A' ..·o· s c:alled vi c.iI!:' M.t' II'h· .-'.~. in the ead ~." . .e(l~en.. ..:num.. ". and a duty [oj· ·w m '. Tbatt.:~s c' 11 bv hi.k. r-homO'frotu::e b h'· '.e ~tad"e' i.. To understand ·!.y shi nes upon slavery and '~.ans o '1 war.. [. .enoko. IL... •• ... ..d.~.an..nOI!!.S social.1..eicl one From.'.ype$ of d'isrf 5peicted person s ~.e:ad.• ~....I' !~.~. T'hat this is sim:'p1. _ .more ..rvoman an d . .al .ns ··.~ . 0.. It IS.. '..wlly t_-. ...land a Ild'5of sexua'~ p1m 'Wh at he SBl 5 he'JiI:~antici· ._ . 5h.il-.~-._.. ntv -1' _ -o-~' .. e' 'Into .. the. "".ror the s'~.:. 0.very a rId sexuality~.~th~n·k.5. ~...-h· .. . d.'I '~I b b'iU~ 'ho prOV~Uie (I.gSJosl trus.C{I.To 'be ill s. b' g 1:~~m'piSe h· :seX.. ' • .S. .. ~:'_. -'..s.i~d.~. . .f. ..Y deprived O'_ freedom. In Roma.:.'_ I •• 'J • ' .nance.'hou~. p _. '.:ry:. 'L. ·d' yo . .". ...11.ron.'. ~O "hi . '.a..ad..1 et. bJut on '.:~'·L.-d'rcu 1e. a necessity .t I-. .~.w t'ha.e.iss:ton.even di d.._ i'.. to the powerfu ~ t as one aspect of fu.wn.. . g~i.. .- to 'be total.peCla.u.' ' 10l1.-: . .. '":"'j •• I···· ~ ..· as par.'h··· .id..'e~ydevoid IOf honor.' ."lJ.1 7 ru .0 h .Roman citizen to release his sexua] energy at the expense his slave..:'-.a.some otr-11e m b~' ore 0 f.ity [:i mpudJ~'citi:a' is a CJ~' me for d~'e'fliee'born boy.. wor.ve tr..~.. may st:em! ~hat the [irs~ ~:wo. to its '~ucrtdivene.oexerc'~se .~ b•e seen against .7' .~. if:'[er from t he' third" h avi fIg tID Id d().[.had 'won their free\do:m sti.. no~ fe :p erm i~ to ma rry.. • .a'l one was a. ~ OCil~Urs ".. - I~ .e: (see H'." ' .all.tors (fJ orno.use IS 't_e pnm.._..o.·R·. '-::-.e". ... the slave is considered comple~. ....r structu res wl'lh in which.heycontinue to :I-~ve" hen de-a th 'wou~d have been an honorw able end.n hum. -. _. .."~ . considere d a. .and sla.'e :n. .· ..seldoi:m even mentioned...0'" n··· ~co ml.n ~il. . ".ary. . ave: d .. If the slave cohabited 'w<~'n another.. the b~d h offspring from this union belonged. a.. _.IL . __ .'1 '.·th' b 1. t.lefSwit h a s. It. - . . exptem tne .era. If the slave owed ahsn...g:es· blK. n..:. !...e'a. 'who .orver..-.New ~es:tament stalements against _.gay [)ooks pnrportmg to.~..chs an in)o. the sexual resort 10 slaves. society root.ra.g'ed in any detaa~ SliU. '·'If'..' ll.'~_ . And S1 nee i~was..• : 'I - ..' "-.. :L.m o oral pra...h'e :sex ~..oe'j t:h is iDeluded complete sexual obed ience. tlL ... ··u . 'L·_C . .. '!I. ~._".1' . .I. "..~glll it :ies.sve traders .enlCe.f .' •.• ..' -_.~ut. .I. I I' -"'~ - . • - "_' ...-.. the '. -.an '. '11_ • ·~I'· hh 'L ~ a. ._.:$ .th. r l h... ·t' . .Im. . 'tt continued despite th i.•. ]' ~.---. men -'Who -have·-s ex. ... p'hy:51c._.. 11 . ~ :.~' .iu. an"d .s ~...c.hi'S.:-v:.ou fic.e:xt'two pa."-' 'T._ 'J~' '_'.[e:nn:g them on the auction block.bi".' . 'I' h~ .or S'l~~s fo:rt h a '~~:5't f '~m..' fnce ""'.. the fact that ~. " ruves u. - J ••• - - - '.~avlewas.8.' . '.s going on wh!en 'we fe'ad: ~h.' linked .. _.~ at the mitistier s w h ~m.!jjll....i. People 'W'e:fie n ~ bOH ght a. In. _ liD . .and sold...he p~a. 'i n 1 Tru mot hy 1::10 ~ Tlu~: a l1..6i. n' -a'-·~t h.ssa..:. __ !jpl. I n ract" this mu ti~alion an.' .10. The spotlight th at '~Ti moth. Unchast..- B1BLICA.. n'b d .ILwe ann nomosexnan~:~i"-.nlll ~ner con '--n' lfma.e." .ave .· • ... ~h e S~ ~lt~ters castrate. '~lnese 'were youngsters wr'-h0 . een "~"--t. .e I. .d.. :Mor'e.:. rr.a meir custemers-e-mucr h.w. .n It-'~·... ..~ . of this int~rp·reta... !l.c' _' '.....arriiU '19.e nu merated.o!ero~i!c .HE'OLO·GY BUL:LE. ~'I :davery~.sanctJncahon --.get:h is tr fa r f Ilo'm a rbi It. . '-'-.. II....it'ai).(i.~ IS :. by de:fin.m. ""'on f:rnm whl· if"h .y :~inked:wn ~h.'t. ·' a .' '.aul provides a first. _.~ I .'. m iIi·j. ~~'.. IIp .you .~ na. I ..m..e..ve tra.. ... . _ ~.e ancient 'world. ..(]':Ii' II! . ..ave suggested 'thal .~h.hemselves gra.--.". .h.. even ~hough the i.e11u m Sou ~h...th'f' pF~.·with· m!e:ml h" i (ars.011.o. 1 : .:_I·~i·'" 1 .thi. .![usu. t~ oe .:omans.nr-kO!'i.E 3...c.~..· :-··f·' "· :.. .. -.with th.. r . '.te'rc v·. . ·om..r f 'R~'·t 1L L 0:f '. "f. ."'. " .. ' .. _ '.. ·d·'.- -..peruu VIO ]-._.'[··+t···· .iVf ~... '.fies.owle'v'e:r~ the: . 'J _'.' ...._ ..s. It d '.a ·t·· -'i -.to th~s impler~aJ 'V]oleoCJe'.t'h·.a Ie Rom.ra. T hese were persons who n m il ita ry terms.s5.·. n.i~u~ion'Of slavery was one of this the ihi. ..-[."" :-".d· .J1cium] fo:r ~h.e of o ~J ... ".' ~' ["or ._. . 'w'e "j' 1 Slavery and sexuality:' just like: power and . "~... s.nhng: sexual favors.•. .' _ . pro:t...!ai(~~Jl !J)u:n".a~nd.e'S.ition no be a.nd~a:fJod'i.. In . er . commonplace to thi.. .. pjJL--.: '111:50. _ _. exP.-' or men might have harbored ambiguene ie'flings about this widespread practice of castra tion.... .. owers a... sh<or t .sla._e .WY·1. .'". the fact t:h.50].Y to provi de mlaS'~.._··U .. _ .ce -.a]... .. was common" Even some slaves. '-" .~"II!'iIfiI. One pervasive fea'~ure of Roman sexual practice 'was.iC"i!1'·u·'m' e._.. . ·th. _::_...ne.. 11.. 'B" "h' d . Ject 0.W(Ui. . l ._...R·. ~h e .e t:hJle Ie. d.: ~L.:'_.n' t'h -:· .. .an pow'er brought w:~th i~.'Vilege .ad!f ~ Rom.~.t.. .to '...P Ufe. bel'ngs".' "...99 J. -- '- .an C''''l il'ens. 15 was sum.'.ure it 'was. 'tet slaven" is .b .m. _ . . .. f· t' L .. IL -d ... . 'pates what he 'wWll:say .1I.~.~ - 0.--. Ctdch. .. .yet at t _if same tim. _ne .ICing: of 'I hes.UKe.:: .ass.et.d' ..al~u]nO.' .'1 -]d 1.._e'L er an.- _. . I.-.raUy neutral ~hin g (or a.0····· th e'-' ncient world..f' eV11[J.. .-. slave meant that one's reproduc t.. .y at the heart of Rom._' =_ ..ll :~-otlnd..' .' ..i was no longer one's own.av~lo. Just as in the a nteh.1 :N'ew Testa'ment ra. .3. 'J I 11r. .oli"\It!!:~ly-. ho:m. i.g . .-0 G".' ..'.b'· ....... ..y the 'way the Roman world was run is summed.'.rt.In order for these slarv.. ••• - - iJ. I. not..a-cor . The prns:p eel of ma. non_'·:. .ctivity occurred in the Roman 'world. .'_.e .g ~ '...rll-l·.at t.d n have been d.'1 .n ". pu~...Ie letter:' vni~len by st th'e Apostle Paul~ I'n 'I T.. only underscored their status as neitherpossessing 'honor nor deserving any:.. In. wid!e:~Y' ac--h .. '. . _.e nd. .'L ..OIB=12)~ This p'anah status it~t~~~r reAr.L - T:.d:itton . . d'.Ii!l! L !!.e'freedman (Seneca: 'II '::43I). '.g. - • ·V'OLUM...d sale ' b0 _'L ..:.__ . 'pertainin.'.aim.om.. . b 1 ]rve1y tra d e In youngooy-sieves._I!". ._. tOI 'ban it. ". '.eo'b.p.n. r .••• ' . ~..moral scal.f'ad. pariahs who hahitually mistreated their merchandise aru:l eheated ~. . • - I . [.... to retain their youthful appearance.aVt.. '.• .ender.i).j U:S'~ 1ike powe rand ge nd er:~ were intimate~. .

~ omen..a.O!LU~ ~'I.Rom.~rd.. (G~ancy:: 3!9-'70)~ It.e'_~ns:' 'Iom.e.": Ith td no one wron g.f!·k.ave 'iu~e:n is:sue1d .~ ~Th"·. U 'IIL L ie·X. yet 1 terally the C.he.'y~'~~ the' cor.a major focus of t.- J '0 'hnso.e by Id.e5"i the greedy:!. ':d avenger '1n . nott' issumg .g 0:'-r~' ' •.ega.piroslitu.y) a ~ Roma n c i~ 'hi ms elI.5.Ct ices w T h.. s 'G.not.ri.:i·ssib.o~cou ~d.hom..hibition of ~!exuaJ imm. eilber e.a·t.u~. I . for~niOlmion [po'tll'eia I:. we 'lbin:~ a'bout t.cific proh rbit ~.cs 0':( t. n even lb:roa. t.e· more h o~y Iive:s.ie .D.he reason for the .. fo1=· First.~ ~.on~ To th:iis rexte'nt~ Pau] :~5comhining his." L:iter'aHy '~heiphrasJf read·s.8.e Icon h.h.d. Paul a. ~n relationship to the arsexual e~h~.ng t:he me. d ru n k. of you kmorWS hOiW to . e most superhcia.g make 5 ~his clear.se:ss his .. :fa. actu iii ~Iy 'help g:a.~oila.<::/ V ren d· _e:rl:ng'~i''lnat re'.ow· tiQ conl.ttiv.. r h'·1L • .an b rother (to. Jew' and reasoned '~ik.Romlsfn S'~:o:icis.L_ .li.a.~.. 'lha I .e On the' one h.ki ng.e:a Je:'w~ 'Tbis means !t..h b a.'L.S] li.er.co.h a healt.g of th.. I! is.H}f.a ·l'1eceptac. e'lbl= ics. Jennifer A~ IC~a.. c~.~: ~ I th s ~. namely.t.hiler concern.1_.1 eth ical at na iys. 'broth e-r by having sex wit.11~.aJl.s.i s that we shou ~d interpret spea. an et.-v. o'bJeclseven 'with in ~he con text of :m a rr ia:ge ~ From a..o.hfu 1 to the old or w'hetber.an wodd.i[l:.. hI.cifi.leon.meuM. JT 'wU'e'.i:.~ t L' 11 ~ dpro.ea:re w'hen w.it requ ires chan ge or emenda. ~ust as wer . bei n g (most ~ :kel. s.c .:n.he cuh.fein) . beca use' the Lord i5. :matter.ave aJ rea'y ~O~ 'yOU t-L ' befo'reh.'ere l.~g'n~ an t 'Th.n king .vice ]ist s t hat al hld.~ nee th!C' ~.S Mrl>ffl il. 'l r·anslatie d.ciJic.ristia. :Ie.slav1es.lllu'iee l'h~gs nee [I. .0 irnO'W tnat '\tVfong~ oem WI. (ontro:1 one'~s.e:r meani n g. .o:nsin ~g.stern cri~i. I~.moerot.' h one: :5h '~dposse:ss h~ oW'n -Ie'a.ns.'wil ~ not do sim'P~. including a homoerotic one.eU 'lILe~H~:Jw mgs. passage gnment over same-gender to 'be' said.m.:ressi:n g Ch. . penn. used in Judaism to re£er to a woma. w. body (S~iU'OS] in holiness and honor" not Vlith ~'Ustr-u:11 passion I'. hard1y surp:r:ls.It (I.w·ned 'Ch.dec.g lhat al~ sexual act~vity shou ~..own vessel (sk._.. not be su rp:ris~ ~.~:~a.hl of the overarc h ing g. Jewis.:re. 'was e:xp.d a Iso cone e-Iva.c.a:sk of 'knowing: how Ito.whal is l. ~·'1)e· to avoid.hical nonevent. T.~h m'iitl.h h ~m-:thi'5 would 'be lad d.hat P!a.ale' :not O'rfre-n.ar mlen~.Pau~ took ~.ac'n one: r O'~' you .a~ le.en.on. exploi tation I consi der to be ~ be primary teach il ng here.at .u~.a. :[sba]~ return to this point in a moment. Tha.y rejects the.':l one ~ But ~:s I' 'i~is s.~.1.UU1D:5 rer pro: .:. ne .h.e're' .ty' . idolab..e: ~ook. ~h. n in . fro.i.an ~ I"l .d:monis.hts own bod. a genera 1 princi ple O'f ~.ckgrou:nd.and and .vent. 'i· an d Order " I. is more 'p:liohable ~. 'RegaRii.h) was at ~he center o·f' h is ~h. n meaning. no~ L'n.le of maJe semien..his! muc.n .ora.:~t'led s.Irevil W i" 'l ll.d mora. 1.fill'] m - a hm<Lh!e'r or sis ter (l'on adel'llhun) in lh~s.bed: (p.t!y.rf!i. of' New' Testa. .'. 't.od .m asters who o.e~ved:1Rorn ~catorn".for the s cn~ .I:'es'I' .ach one should p'os.1ent '[JI. T'he N'R_5!V' speak s of explo itatinn of a broth er or 51sler.n 'II Corin~hia.n..n adelphion)~ Th is cou~d be an ad mon ish rnent nof to 0 Ffe'nd anothe r brother by ~a. isl ic viewp oi:nl~. t '-h ~ [Ill te ranguage 0'f' the tra ' I.n" UE. &o:m. t:he fOClll5 is sex that con.n .s.ep'.c >.y to repeal the ru le in a very d iffe'fient context without determining whether this new application is.at exploita.i.4 :3'] . 'rt deals in concrete case sand in d rawi ng d·ist nction s from on e case w lowe. nd bring:i n g hoI Iness into sex u al re~.his impera t.he:s h~saudience:: l dO' ·'I~I . N'RS".ned you [~T'hes:s.b .ptc:iaJ aim ..d p:assi. hen:mgfl event.N'fW Testament writer explicid.ug·h_ it reveals the 'way in which women could be thou gh-l .inking· in b'el~. .h.nd .As 50] e:mn:I~Jl war.ge'~s)tba~ 'P:aui may have accepted ~.'lbly (jontempl~.ne .k:in g tha t brot her'. acquaintance "-h :'.d. Pau~ was a. LL ki d D'·you .hey' h.'lre _ .fis..e word.d.rain unb:r:~dl'e.-15 lS.Iusiv'e~y~com'm.wi] I]~nhen'~the .'~ng a.:8 teach :il n g: was ~nth e service of promoting a. .a's . ·bll pos.each one.(t.s.ch I am d.e:s. '-I' .mp. wi -'. And '-Iega] thinking .·' -'.e. i~. 'I".he apostle is..l goal.~ proh ibited .ce 'of the . 16:·'9'-'10. tho.sh ~Iin. of .- ----_ . somle transla.re. 'au" was. en" rol6be'rs~none of Ithese .~ vi 5·ion in this 'lex ~ .ubj:ect b.~.~:salways.rol .sti·~utes exploil.standard presupposition that sex wi:nh the s~euo~ of a slave 'was.h.h~.ek refer. .t whi.tio:u~ Thu S'.)J dle. of 'God ~ 0\0 n O'~ he' . ti!on:s )len d er it.. t' recti ng ills . n iii.. dynamic and ongoing.a't la.ho= ..o us at n:g si nee the S'loics.r.'ng: 'when ·we Ke1e'p '~n ·m'ind ~hat 50 'much of I.S.sleeu.e.l keeps people from.S ~ . have a.~ 'w·~t: ra b bi nic reasoni n. n otner . :s!exual P:IfC1.~e a ".s l~:o m. if lex(.en~~hre· Christ~.'1 is not s:pe."a.Y' C:h:r:ilst.oal .-1 COD Id mean any sexual outlet. nu t flue'S a Imer at COf~I The imperative to avoid exploitation I consider to 'be the primary teaching here.3.and :lie:st.h h d ..d Jewis:h ['h. a '~. be:~ng sexually exp.] _ _II: ~ m pra!c t I.cs. .tive pr.y of IiFe tha.~ ~' t'h'at ney b sancuneo. l~f' 'h '" .y an d le:sbi a n people 10 ~i..h of P:a.5 fra.e're rn m't]..it.mJle-gc·nd er uniuns.S b'e:en :sahs f-· d • Se!comd~ th!e: pro. a re con nee ted with a prac~ical test: Paul is concerned '10 promote a 'w. t.he. Hst speaks in genera~itie.activily~ :I. 'E 'h f:~1' llo anot h.pe.euo~l~'~ ini(:e '~he '~Ierm S '~'vesseliJ.y dose of .ul . at a no~. 'le..r of the New' ~est. rule Pa1lJ:1a rticu Iates :P'a.ncy argues that no .nko:11 his (JM]J. aid u ilt..isi is not s u rp ris'l n g.d om of G.m Thi s shaH ld.~ ions.ke the ICle:nti les whiG do not kn~)w' u j God.:.was sometime's.JI Pi -] .. So 't:h.es.and[f (his.n in.the ter m ~ ngu . .e.rln 5.actice:s 'be'com. mh i. er . own body ."en t. 'In. or explo~'~[plevJ1'ekl.st t.woms.'f:·d as..ba~!e.d that the' sexual use of a slave was a.[)If em:pi.IO :marria ge ~ But.s wi~e...at his hearers 1L IL 1 h 'd-'·· woo 'd neeome more no'y~or '.h. positive sp"iritua..~ ex:p'lo:~~ationw.w (Tor'a.c't t.know :h. It cou l.of as 'mere' sex.es tOi certa in si_p..II. s Ir'~C'1 y ~~.~ t~ben a~.ard s ~ .IIJJU I on: s sa se.d b...matter-of-fact view in the Roman Worl.'~ j zen ancy su g.as .is.~oi. '!'~hody SOC]!a.aiml'RS: wa:s a .for wh ~'c i h ~.evin. also pos 51ble (a.

__ .nd i.J-IIL lu . _.ar-e just a.ctuJ.e.e.'was de!c~!ar-d I~. .:fn~..tu=liY:~i'ly''wi'l.u:si. Roman CUSbJimS .Y'm [111 til mo:k ~ .n.n ..en'l a)d'Dloni!l'~OftS .e prem iS'f!d.g .a.~3::.o!i.. ~ ~'V J - I "'J~. I h· 1'0 00:111-.. wh' I~"'.'0'-' a"IUI'.he' 'hext refers to a ..1 i.d ou'hll P:-.afo. . (ocu:s.. T he l!. on Rom a.llcd.s.m amy b e~if:Vle: i'~.his. O()IO= ~ l' Ii c. hom 0 m'o"l:akoi -tot i!c ·p:r.r " I~ II!ilI ~ .-.ru_-.rusts. tiJ~E"o.sue h.!H~.fIU'!I 5.so~d ~'hem:selves to othlfr mlen s~e:kirng.~v" .iIi. _.h e cap'~lo~ .JlI ~onc r. __ . d'l!soend'ed fmom. ..~ .--- - - -.e term a r.audi..-h.i[. m. _ .ion ~s J..~.'0 br l'T.-'1.S of Gad hie !f:lqu.V'e '-IbI IC'U ~I!lIi"~le's' T-J1I:l>Y'.era 1 d.j'1' ' 'g.[do(n~-.iI"I:U.et 'wi~ inth is gen.: .e SfltU . 'w-O:m'1d.'. IlL.AL B -_.LD. sa)" abou~ 'homlotemti.C.."Ir. . mi' .gt. on of" ..esJe N'ew 'Testam..' ...ation.aSS.du c..onof the Hebrew '.~~ A'-".i.V :. ~._U~i""-.. astonjshing statement. Ir:h!ey' a re .5:.a d'istin:c[rion I~:O! wh~.a i.asi'v.~~c.i.0 t. H p.: ieuer o hi .st .:n N'f!w ~esitarmle:n~:ti:me's.ndi i5t~.'. .e.5:~O~. :many olf 'whom would have 3g.a.'b'la.' M.--..~d be' '(he case if hi.:ion.s~ng a sa~'xual s[u r Ito elicil a"gree.~Q. 'wm~hm.OI t.e'was..a.tS h. d'i reel ly :f~om the Seph.: :nghtty poinll ou~ 'hal ~he :m.aJmlo.E'OLOGY _ . ..aJ p(i.ka.e.reri}o. .-If ".no.rea. 'TH.an c. speci 'fie.a.·hie'r[fi(jf!'p'liv'e~ [plenet -a'l)ed pa 'r~ nle.i n:g a gene s njustiee.iitii:zen t. I 1 .ed on c·e'rtaln. llJeUl .c ~ .• I. t~... m of its.is was unlth. IlL· '.!I!.g t'hemse~'ves (o-r bei.twas t·'he S·le:p'hw a g IIrd transla.a.rl eii.homoerotic oo':D.r h IOir 'lB"M ..oJ' i .~y'l'h a.l.. ICh-ri'st our Lord" (Rom '1 :31~4)".social S IJP -f ~o'rs up on soIcia~ .n:.eaning of .ar' a.g t.hum.·1·llt.H t he 'very nie..!!II '11!. h Pa u~ men~i. 61::.ei.:iin.e'n~J' (Q. slave (do.ngs of IC:~.." T.Qr-~·]ly-'mieans . nhis.i.~.y ~he :NRSV' as Ie ma Ie prost itutes" is i J'i~.Irrue ~ink . ra.m: m..~Ji.h.noe 'wa's dO' recb!!'· L..eiy' 0:' '1 em: _Iifie 'bu ~lh:Up!OIl conquest i hie sl f~ r~.-U'~ . ]Je[i_. as a.:de-b. .... b.. .=ancd. . coni: '0.to th' 'R-· om an ~ ~~: ~u rema rk.. r-efers.nbl. .. u nde'fscores a t..__ . I wy' WIn K.~.rig..n. '.tIl' at t he language :.~~ .e t'h.h.i.i 1" oruenta:~I..a.rtOhen=me....s ~L 'IL 'I'm'u '" ~' ..hle:.il .5!.aJlt.'m..ad in til e' :Roman em pirie" Such practices 'we:re . Jie'fe[rr:~n.cy was rife wi~hin ~.~. :ilD ~ne!e'_. __ It" ~..anll..ve" or IcoJyen~nta. lis'ts i~... hi ~".h.b ' gosp!e'~ .u.o a situ·_ .'l·ed Ithle Jew:s.lt.just how rad ie'a1 was .ME .. •.hejie·ws. '10 It.ru1.d Ito leiave .29~'.onst hie 'p e:rv'.utw.a.:h = owe'r a!ccord·ing.~·e!no.a~. is .1 ..dO' .iiJi 1I.2) .n.m u m.~. IOn the other . u nderst:a.e·~.ita. ':crip~.'113-.~ry sort fl :.··illta.r!t.. t h. 0 cleu r5 in ·Clonb::~~xt:5su g:ge~dn g-conom' i.Y [(ljle ata bm'~ ._I~ '~..29-3' 1.ga:~ns~.[t:s.pri'm. .nd iv·idua.'].'n "" ~.~."---'_. .§]. The :specific ~hin gs :f~aul!doe:s. plroba. ~ways.'~'.o.".en-w -h-10 have=·:s[ex. not·~~r~n.' V·O'L..odl W...P'f oif st:'xu a Iity 'b ecemes .1 .'. of action s that m.. ] t-']i'lIl'O!i'I if:l!.u~ is. _.D whelfle on..tio:n.i l1ec!led to C. Rom. '~I !iJI ":II 11. i j I 1 .major themes is the reconciliation of 'G[enti~'e and./eoi is obscu[le'~ .act..hris~~~a.. -la.h.xp~.er ~hat the: :si:ns of ~.'ua. Au hers .d en t: i'~y and bless:wngs of nhe Jewish coven. ~'c r~1 · eet his . and.lc ·w·a.e t. i.he·comrmun:i.e1r.ty' to.II!.ary target of'th.~d '~' "::5 discUl'ss.agin~ transla .'< ew' Te~:laJn"e'nt usage: ~ 'N -:al .ak ow.'81.es!~:s. U: r(U'I'~ t'1'1t. ' I~.no'(he'r~ ·The· m. hi 'v. i.. ~ II 'I!~~~JI'~ lUl sp eCI.ri1la~ 'we ci\.~.n wo:r:~d ~Wh iIe b[e' ] ~fts up 'homoeJlO. Pa'U'_iI":5 0 b ec 'U:.a~ly h is claim that.tO. [I! ~l"W ". ..' e in 'VI ~U5.e homoel'1o~ic behavior of dle Roman 'wl):r. nst:·ea.. Ito the spirit 0" bo~ine:ssl'by' resurrection :f'rom the dead.ac ordling. .iI'd. .anele ol:f th: d:isliln.g ess'e:n~iaUy loving:~ le~(I. ' Ie "!IIi 'Q. ..n.i!!'1L JI " ..~!I.refers..I'ndl ju:s:l.LIC.·hal It.e JOf h10w th'f:' IGen~i~esnavle d.ent from 'h:~s ._.!iJi' Ul~ 'I'.c:.. t. ~B.i··· ~.aspire to uprig'h'r.iin . has .ho go to bed wi~h males. iIi"i>'lnli Ii I_.. e.s.:I'U:.ii g.in:g Itbe' im.e 'm' .-es.:.O\D". a rec 'fu .' 'II JI b •..ch. . .~b ecat ~ D.e S]:H:'C i.d shun beh aviors that would bnng them shame (.: l'The word tra ns~a.oth 0.II·_ [I· iii T"iiI ~"I!! 'I!. .~I.il!! ~['il II ]' .t w. E:pn . Jew'.(!I" :h'e: . .t.r:'Irma.~i:n th~!s f 'w~y 'w'..hW:S message.e:~ a rsen.o ing :~orlat [reema.hemen Iion of 5). ~I t· IS ~ t . ! om m itt e d '(J\iflf'na. ~"'" . 'ei'led such. citizen wou'~d ever vo untarily diD.nd sla. .iI.. .side -____:t!r.. . SHe xu al gr a~Ifica t ion ~ To sell on.lt no Ro(m.e'lur'o 5'h.en'f1'".'.and Gent.. ho-moero:I.r .I nd .~:w'~l[11·w.d..r. ~ _.a. 'WO'fl d s ar. :s:I!I._.O '1J1e: ISlon i[llf G..LLE'TIN ._.'~icla~~y .J to a very different master w i~: .e.~'II. m.a~i wloti:.j.ay have been coiner ..le' o:r Ro:m a.-.' .OJ! .of' GQd:~s :gra(Je' (2.oit..'~I.ted Ib.f~· on .meO'~ aJ1Il.o was.. d ifferem ~ ~:uangelion .for m..~: ID1 . 'lY..ed by .: he emb:races dle status 0:( "d -"r-' daOSIOUlJte servitu ._ .L. !liiD ns-'h.c~i.ma.n Un. in.r.D.U1'W I' maue' :pros!~ ~II'LoU ~'e's.no-'U n. I 5:'~9~23:.ay~.'.2 _." ' . '~.sen:o~o.:k'f's' ci:f'ar i.c'~yto th!f' hedon n I' ~ It· = .I D..[. "1ii -- II' - .I.al .i1n 'l~heGrn[)o-:Rom'riu~ wor..8 specific type of practice in.ur'f'5 dUll was read lIT.clo:m:mna.1 !CQI:mrve:nt ~'OH he:n:~~.and ml(l.~'S.y~.~1y exte nd in g hI G[ent iIes t he 'pro mise of i.or-d.pr.ry .~n. of .~n IG:re.a.:h'f.m.hlors mploy ~.]e'51l. he. IPi !i. ~.hesie ef:uJou'llh!:r.1 is quite sp eci fic". lett t.IC rile x uaJ i.remank ·£1. .Pau]ll:s day" ..d[f.2-0'".IIOlII.n bar'riers an.a~i ICiomb:ines the Greek · u'l e u. _.··· ~'hal sex..j..~d 'w(u:lldl 'have' 'Clol:n$ildi~'fled mora hI' shad.af' dom.c :pra._~:. -au IL --J" DC...t fa US IOU:tSi.:J-.n '~~1 Icon~e':xtof ios of a.. BU._.a:s !oonsid'f'fe demif'.Son~'w:h.Jl1a Icontext ~'-..e:p.ancient.an~n.naI..J'" to a.. When ~h!eNew' Tes.' .. I~ undler'scores .r-!!!.ent way Itba't ·.rs..e:r.(llO1 a. p er.'au~emp 01S''" In '_ Ccrinthians the b~rm~ralflislatle.~ f: 'II~I '~I L '. i:scU'sslon of Jew . . -_.:ng 5'0:1(1 hy othe'rs) could h.e·n.~u:t]c·e's a n! a.9-1 0.and._ . h~m'~udf [as a. .. ordler 11. j. Rom '~:. Th.. course.a.le e ~. w. origin but is a stan d a rei enu m."-1.' '" 1Lr.•.~ They wer.'·ai) Pall] ..mt·tar..rseno~oi'l:a i' [ ..d:~. .37 .~:n ~~LIJ I _.B.111.10 "hook" 'Ih.t han.8.lt U:S.d..s.any ..." IS .... 8.e. It.".la.be .~OIspe~concerning [God's][ .en·6:6. 'Ihis is in keeping 'with 'MY c-Oin~enti'OI:n that 'nhe . ·rh.38-43)~ Again.lm-s._-- ---- ..iIlI_ b-ii'i'iI~ com m ilh!ld.2 'T'im 3·:1." .e'~r audience r!hetorilica..~Giv1en -·he: viol.m.I:5:~.Y'-.rus... ~ . It.ebl ie (.a..ces.e' wOlld a'r.w'I£e:o.iFIi. l'OJjJ~ I 'or a.and fCC¥OI :u..ne R':om···~ W' -""t'-h. I sh. ces ~ t:hat we're 'W i.r '~n .e._.~s..~'~'y~.id.: a..fe beyond: n~de'mpt:~on~ S.I!I. I. of y.a.r·ee.1ill...clourse..¥..i1l10 . h that iof Ceesa r:: "the .c beh tt'''I':io)'' as an exa.~Ie.an l:i.' .de a.plor '.~ ·~nb~-~.ill :slexlLJ..d." 'b. -:.uaJ .IIU"U.~n:~I'fa:mil. Roman citizen and does wha.old hims. 'I Co'~r g .I. thalPI~. :Rom a.'e' Ib"leen m· ' 'h 'w'bo prl@v·.1iI"i _.ere :slaves.al~ r.. __ .aboU'l t.''')··b·l:.il't..len w':ho we1r. to a part icu lar kEndl 'of he don is~j.t..h._II!.~. ! ~ ." T'ha.m p'~.Co..s··-:meianlng: rna. .·.c~[ned. f[lee:-.~' som .enc..has of~·n be!f'u pointle.f' -W'.U·..29..J! il!!lili:" ""U.evi6cus 20:: J 3-'th!'u.ii""I~ o[d ~ a"j~nt' 'P'~0 p' 81 a d] .. :min-d.n 1"Ii..~'b. 'ih.m.gh i -h-·· IS· oe·rta.. Ln '':iiP-.a~~.' .-3 .~appeal :for ~.enlliJ.ates..hand ~. Jesus.l ~ ion er'a.ea.i:nanoe: . --- --- .nil.d 'by' lhe :NRSiV' as "sodomites" is more literaJ~'YI' 'i~maJe:s w'. lelmpl~oy.. D'. arffilJd. m aJie p'ros ·. ph~' §] (1...a rted from. 'lion ~ .. ..f' l if we ~oo·k..fSloo. bad .desprr.re 'po"w ('S PJielcis." '~'i.c:hlon..'Ii.As.-_.n:sn t..an :.p:roAig. __ ~'.OS!Jews ..~ t. '(Martin::: .-. power of' t. _.!! e 'L_ m 0" I I I I\. but: 'who 'upO:f:l bei'ng freed.sleQol(o.aJe-on-·rna~.e seUin..nils .~II.-tl .

b u nn atu ra 'I1'11'-' '( para P' h 'U SU}'I.: the same " ord WS .av.an conqu erors only' wntensi=.g ...ays we ar'e ius.n. i')'.'ving'up natural intercourse (phus. ~.. g-.rememboer II'h"311 P"a U ] ~u stru cted the a--o--ment L nC' n "~.r:.tegor:e sin oJide r .e [o:nsid e..~·0 ~de-grade' (a I i mazo) t h e'ru r bo dies.ay of anothe'f [Ron] ):' -1"s.~O'US cla.11 3 0 '. hie: does not de a~. In (L .piuts.'" ' ason ~"a_ '.e.ted 01~Vie:lIce ~ how 'm. ~m. constn \!VL: 'lu~llI..'.:-. is also pa.ld claim.~a p..aischron) fOlr la.ese nat'll raJl t~. not th a ~ has a n ega t ~'¥e.).. I!.5 wiay:: 'Ii.~y u nclean ~ Sleen [ro:m this perspective. .f.e homoeroticism. ~heir own persons th e due penal ~yfo..24] . since a:nh1.g t hal th e new' h~e in Christ req u ires us ~o reCra n from v i"ew~n g one a nol:h.' .. 'v'f:i] (11 ICor " ~: 6 14l.a.in rl~ les.~i:fied by ." b O'i . ~his perception of '!iI.en (kala' p\nusr'n) a 'M~d O'~lv'e'tree an. ~.e im .ys.ndlr2ulcle wn ~he w.a !C'ubi"v(9l.. "V"a.afted 'back.a.hU'si'n (Rog. B.. our ord..e 'thrO'u g h..rue?' 1m declari ng such acts to be " unnatural" Pa..ena.pea. II ~.8 me 'w. and ~be J homoerot ill: exploits of the Rom.for them a~l"He considered the gospel.and '!'.hion 5.. 'b lOck 14: 1O~ 13 ~ .r the.a 'w.11 homo erotic act s 0 r every sort ~ no mat ter 'wh a~ the con lex t 1:5 It his t.:s'_. and.tsh ] ight: m 'Why do you before plass j'udgme'rDll on .g.reflects the ~. t: hat.nlo .a.n ~. .'T his declaration..:.s.p. ~I""..dgfm1!en~.him'" (I 0 :2. -m'!I'. she shou.ie:s$ not onIy Jews bllt: also G. these very same 'G.d. a.eceiYed in. grn. uve a.ns 18:' )" Instea. it ils degra. n.y ~ha t sornethi ng is 11nnatural if ~ is.entmles (Rom ~::5).nothe'r but reSlohtt:: i.l~ I n d" ~JSOb d· .enta. of these heh.th~.n.e who an:: .! t 'L Den ~n anou-h letter 'D U 1 ~ _. .e ('~:7)" ~ha:nk~n. lOr hli.gr:a}cieful t{.en~ p. 0 . .~" .r·~ ate.old for thos.ers)~.ent l. neJu ding' Jews as 'weU as G entil es CRo'm 'II: ~18. Let u._ 'Christ (Roma.'"au1~·k.e sa.elond e'mn.:m. 'Yet few'wou.y t. d' w a. In order to d e ~end his m ission. and ndeed s. the n.a.a) to h.ary Ito n.-' -0' P _. ave sexual habits that h are 'U nconventiona] or cont rary 10 natu re (para phusiu)._.:a' usin] rhranch es be gr. PauJ s.Pall.iii.But .one of ~hem b1e'iln.used in the 'GreC!o=RO'n1. • UlII~ I 'J 1.!!. fied !Lhisview .a t. h e Rom.od'ts gracious activity among these G.u u!l.. 0' f'~·h" .oreove'T" l: we [ont.e:ntw~e [l: 16}." Romans in the :firs't. od has imprisoned ILnegnll1lJnb~ .:m!w. both Jew and G.means is importa nt.€'r For 'i f .od is pa rt min of the mysterious p~an God has ord. al ~h ave sinned.od..'ever tiQ put a stumb:ling.=ga:y advoc ales claim that here we have a clear New Teslament re:feflence.Sf a t. pasis sion~.hou~d 'he: appIwied Icross-cu:lt"ur. 'w'olman to :nave he:r hair cut off or '1. 1Il. is by n altJ r... u ~I fr.o .a~u:re 1[P€lru .a.hings.an 'world of behavior ranging from extreme acts of coura ge to such ~. g).. and do t:h in gs .m clues in) for u nn a.f~..od: defies. .eep'ing wit.c~z.u~. .ved.:y lical view' of h~:s ida.h this. 10 cnt~.t hat are ~ "I.-' 1 U:ISU ~L I ~f'·' ~ "d~. '~. .atio:n from.3.er?1 For 'm~~Iil~· s~a:nd no· 'Iion g.iCon~:r.'For II:h 'reason God g.ml 'wh. . r-_ L M. The it women exeh an~geld na Mu ral in ~f:Ir'OOUse r I' (P.o IIe t rlJ e of womel1l~\~ha ir fas.!!L.o. m~ .your hrother 0_ sisb. were CQDSUmle1cl with passion ~or one another.g 'God .gra.)!.r-a ph u:sin) and ~ the :5. __'r .d 'tn!f!: :nrst . .t1I.er i'n an overly h a.: u.a n s is.' : ~ .spec:ificaHy wit. Me'n committed shameless acts .". :1:5 'W'-h U. The term "unnatural" is.G. even pro!" igate grace of G. te:r..:'9)~ .i the j iIJ.nste'2!J:d n."..at ~he'F1em:s no .- "111.~.~:nti~e's. man wears long hair.0 b'e s. was to reach all the C.t.e.d. Ihe amazing ~. "he ootewornhy ~hing about the . d . 'v iew of ~ C.?'!" H.'S assa nee at people 'W.•.od "s me rey.' IE ~i I can use ~be very same langua. L.n s 111 Pau 1 uses the very ta.od"s.~'~nc~ionbetween Je'w and 'Ge.e: I-'~Tbere is no distinction be'-ween Jew and C. us bY' opera~:= :~n....-. : In k.g'in. ..gical f:r.a.'V'.~~y" .lUlIC'h m(~t:~: n m lh. 'wo:nJS"... to bc'~ong -~'O all. f ai tn~. apostle.e:'j('u.~tel Is u 5.~. p5. ~ ly.~set . ina ry re ~i'8. 'f.-U0 GDn. ews did ~n those cla.at UG"'.ained for the world from the b -..son Ih t.o :.: I I I[ The debate over wha t ~his ~ext.pUl. GOld acts contrary to what seem s natura] (piara p:h. Or' W~ why do you die'spise your' bro~.F'lim reachi -n'iO'·ut~It' t" :'1"'.-.i n s. people i.e. of God.re. p l unconventional or out of the ordinary.~ own action of including the s Gent:iles wi~hin the covenant grace.UI . G''.emen who wear U ]on. ~n fac~".h~ngis that~. d-' beynn.:n gu age from chapter' '~ to describe C..au _".-2i) ~ Romans 'Paul says that the G.QU I ti~.ge.he It ime we ge ~ to Roma.'r~! you.L'.s tchereforf' l pas.~'we dis/cover :in 'Roman..~ WIC' discoV'f'r elsewher.din. n C.~th mien .her 0.e': u::n.tis d is.6.e.Rom. ha.c. "' "ow .ny also n the' men.usi n) in ord er to grafl.oe .n.en W~-h' '.Rom.S.ny 'i m'plica t. IIbU.a 1 ].- !I.1" ~ Ls'f.d".as th e perceived unnaturalness of eating meat. 'lbl".i n]l.in) \vi~h women.'b u:. Il!!6.ay thaI... or . 'Pi'aul expla:~ns it Ih~.e t. I m '" nbe merci rul to Ia:U'H (RoOm '~'II32).ethem ~Cleu'tilles] up ItO' degm-adi.e e.. G.rs t h.t 'ru w l if" Ii 'Ii 11A~. . 2511-52..n have been inc'~uded 'So t'hat t here is no Inngler any dis..' .e:n61es in~o Gud~'s or~ginal covenant with the Jews". ar~ll.ik"m chreJ.or t hIe very n~.place precisely to defend C.h'~n a theo~.es] ba've been cu t fro.enl on one a.e'k.IU. He wrote to aJ1 G.:~on" 5 ..hlu~i~.:ha.~III' -.(u ral (pa. ." k". ['B!root." : ~ th.to 'b.'.rrus ~h.me~ t hat condem ns a.g (at~mi. ~:is goal as an.a'viors j t~ 1 " them.~ An d ~his ind 'i~sc. .-"~.:s m a. 2::' '112".ld 'wea r a. tbal God 'Sur-pr:iises. .en~aes".icn[ile' people whom Jews considered 'rit ua ~ mora] ~y.Ier' r..nti~.~nue: re:a.I~D im purity d']'d 'no~' prevent p. A'~1.g hair: Do es not n alu re (phu si s) i~ r teach you tha~ ir se] a. regu ~ ion's alone but all .l.Y P IUO 11~ 'h _ Th' _1. in 1:0 U1lierur ph own oHvt! tree [Rom 1 ~:.1) R oma ns '.i r f'rMIJ (Roml 't '::2 f>. . ~hat conde'm:natinn.eler to t.s judgm.L ol'1d IQof gJj a nd is generous to all who c aJ 1 011 .

IChlr.' atu -e:'n.~ Ye't the 1 ea rll. !a:n .h:~Cil wo(~d Sf'XU h)1 no~..'a.N·e'w T~'s. ill 'Ch nst Ihere is :11.his issu~~no adv'i. 1m ~Sl d OYle:~.~. ~dle'.~::i':r 'Ih~s i:s 8'0.-:~"eryw here slaverv is m ennone d'·' n 'lr:M!<..U.aiVlor~ " I 'L_ h- m ~.an is to b_ ~n11l. . .e nta U ..iJ·~le·nle..orf. .e:n a.h ~1r.nQlm. bouit 'I'he· rolle o( women.vlery as an inI5~iilltul~rnon iLc[)e.o:_·ro:tlc slexua 'l pr.a. .II..11 .le'ncle f .It.h.-'II I . 'ble'a.rd. a :da.:h.et~ve L! ~~:rrug~' at contains loud] y [than wOI:rds.ties.sa.l. .ru-m.yoVler' Il~m. Ic.d ~ th is ~n st.ot S'la. 11 : 314·~ 6).h a.~:S conSl·d.e~ his iln. ew "'E .d:'~f'e h~-dlOI mp] r sl.ood.'._Io'ma.d."~ :pr1oof~t:lexts..hri st 1 1 m~l~ S .ad m. I· 'i:!! = . '.· e· j e'w "] .ehat speak 'iO~ t umes. -.s'sa.plain~ h :m~. T'h -re . W~ I I slaves ~.nt~-gaY' advocates II'" gaY' sexuahly • U· ~s a_g. 0 1.aJ ord.n~:1l .al d fiC~a ra.and living a.\l'.. __ I '~I '~O 111.l. " .le'nlt s.51ave' ~ to do a.cise'~'y not co:ns~d ..h. t.(I~ . 'we _~ n de'velop a. as.at t. m.ll. du. '\-V Ih were n h sexua l ex..ed ~hat.. to ." .~.kg :sp ecifically ma. U.~ ~'ha N:"'C-'w ._I~!!III.as/. I'P:C~U.f. 50mlel..iLV'_S.b . l It .3. ~ha.a ~ha.RJOmL~'n~ . b d 'i-IL ~nose regar!' Ulig sexuanty.:S~...h0 'W' ..t..I es:l. j n of b.\ __ !I:-i.KnrcnN':iins.eIE'!. .e". 't.ea.. UiI!' '-w.g.Bu....oug. -._ . rum. a.a 'le :seXlU~l~ 'fl.g!e:s .ary J f '~II 1~ l:nt."'In IG--:::i.a"" '(i.-' .a!c.fU1fy pIa. 'w'h lit h de.dy not.be sle prev ~ous.'mi l'-.eo'l " Does N'.e. ~n a e m..~re ~s a . .1 concern in g Wh'fd .ers·.icaJ c'on:s~ ruct 10n ~ Tn.'II .amlenl is."I~'.m 'c..~_:.jwe us pause lest 'we th ink.second ex.'" li.~/.i~ence.5pib~ 1. • .en't's treat .IU 5 ~etter 'no " "h~1' Iu~mon. as.ap. 'il.. Ito 'Grod (Roma:ns.a:l 'IlJndelr th.u ra l' w'ay (J' u oS ~·." plh'U3i/r.~IIIIUIUIII!!biLa' nifinUIlmiir"'lpit' 'I!'L_ not.ains'l ponhei'a inc ~ud f.:_ !.i.' vour I ~... :~n]'g It111.II .atgue.n intr~ nsile 'viola. ~ -...f' Ell .e r'e-nee' to the 0'( her (1 Cor' 7:3)..he o N" 'w ~esta men ~spea ks more deri their teac h~ 'h~] (1J" . Col 3:22)~ Paul ad:r[iee. hJI ae summe ~ 'up In tne corn .'1 _'ru i l = $~a. .ibt)" ·.g..xu~J fa\'~lo:f. as.po5 ed to do~ not S.n lll:. .a~y natu rcu'11 u s'e" ~.. n t ·h.m.hle service of Clod the d d '"fi-k ey.a.I~ II! '_ .aU1S:.in ~ icit (a 11d .en. sl a. Ihe d:~scus:sion or ~ The's!"" s.ri ou:s lexls of ~.~ l." . s- 'II ~ - - d m' '·.:28.ote.mp'~.'.a I a Hid 5'0 C~.ave .C':i.BL.?Som· ao't.a.d~.[ '[wo more exa.bout .~y noted.gift.s .j. MIlle .~11~lll"-~i 'liiPlig-" .h.:.m Cnd~ we are . a t.i l IL. _n _ .kc II he nt'ed JOlf' an le·xp.~illLl"-ll pe. ns. •.j:I. . cou ~I. '12 2) G -~"'W~W~ (.lomeira) ~nel u. liS.onr~ t ions .dl()m -u~ to "remain as ~hey an im _ .s of wom1f! 0'-5 Ieq u aJ i~yto ~ome 1.. To 'b e.-. i"1eyo'u'h.i ~ ~.gai mI srl (0 ml ica! i'n '(p.'-Ieclanng ~l Ito be /J()II·'Hleiu il!1!~ I(hle 'm.. ~.' . .ll1id.a 1 righ/ts in ref. v ia'b] e bilb~ 1. _ [I. "C'sttl.h . .Y . . d .al te C'h"" stsans ~n ~'IL ea f~Y' CJ11lJren 'W no '_'3.ia at .enll. _ m.j'le.avery 10 human powers (~[ ~ Cor 7':23).a.~'5. a se'x.R' iQ{J II. ch a. The fi rst a nd mo st 0 b-v:iou:s pertain 5.. I' potential .an wo.- .le q:oest ton sti ~~. w m'" h !I~.s ntO ]onge:r :male landl l~em. o:f t.' ') ~ u.al :me'a.and Ro.p~ a. Id eFe"i n i." . ·n I he' e a fly ehu rch someti mes owned. )' h. n im'p.J ~ _i!J! 11:'9)1". h'._.--- BI.n Chri~~ians.s1.. :N'OI only' ~IS:s~a. !JleFe. 'F' rst.a.~' .ea....~J.en) .:ste'l"i()r ·to ~omeo:n.· en" The' very s me passage rom wh. to ex. ~..alchi~n'.'mp~les of S.'s Y'ery th saJ.a~c"i.1'T'~is :sbiolldd ft"m ind u 8.eit su b ord in.a.•.. _. is now t ime to ment io.d IY'j' t. njJi'.. True.eir ma:st.. rn I i$ accepted.!cl Lh.. Bu...alonians" eh. sacrifice . .h'e sp!oiuses.twas moraUy ne:i:t:he'l"' JU)if It he:rrt..d..no:w that.e-1f'..and . . .an:s 3 .eraJ.a ~ i: nll. - -..rtI"~ 111 . IBldl.hle ~i.J ' 'Ition~...c~ares l. ica et h~ICS for 'the m odern wor~d sim p~y by rep eat in g.a.::J..~:d jI ~ I I' m andmentIt..gg.h~ homo e:rnt iiC s $..~ ~he Ron .m i. there is lhe baptisma] formul a Im Ga~.I-..t}.37 makes plalci'o:g one's 'wholeein:g :im It. then fhe s. I':.lfn' ' I ~-'Ol- VI II! ~~l_ _ (.allJery .~ng~ ·Wh.aII:S w'w'l.a.~ h 11 a bearing on how we assess Ilhle N'ew' Testl.of its statements on s~aYI!Jfm T.h" IL 0' 'women s' :sexluln'('~'".ons if' 'la~• IIUF to be 51ave:~i~1 As we h!itve h .}.s.i:stiians. h·.L.helle -he si]e:n.ry~.edi to ~iye' OU'J lives ~hrough! IGod and..so IIIn.a.il) .' Some'h~me.a_ready mentioned ~hie silence o:f tile N·ew· Testament regarding egalitarian homosle·xual com ..ac~[lce .ey wer .by t. n a.n g~.. n~la~constandy seeks to .U W~.'wICa.11~IC:~t le'~. h 1.e:n~~le on] en as.w Telltam. h i'Vle .~·m1 .~ven :if .efI...= C~res in.. nAnd the' V1ery id ea of be ing .y' C:hr~st: u1.- l.' -.ore' :ru~ ·es. c_ (Eplh 16:5:.' queshon.t a w1om.5 elld h'ere be pom e.' "2"'2 1.he clomm.a·Yie'5.:i1tu~ion was pen asivc .nd al.:mp~ion.. 'TlDiIi:l'Ii'ame'n1i IL~ll~I_:_~..e'w. shO'uld g.UoUl~.~em~: i 'wlord .a.loln:' er "slave or f ree.ma. m ru eSI ror r OW'.ve=:whether m."'ch a. .m!a.d..a ~u. .Here ~5 a pJ1a1clew'.~ion n~II"""'~il!il!d--by ·:'~._~~.. a ken .. _I . 10 '_ 't.. nlot aeb'll le le'ow .'m'!Jiit-··I·~lifriiili!. _. 1III.'. ne . dlfsc:ribes IG.' ~ .he'~ her _0 the m.·r i.ld I~o g -anllt h omule:n)I'l i}c .er an. t -IS.'i' It. p:p e ned~ L 'L . t.. . !el l._·b~l~ [ WYlI~ers L _.- ished to [)hey 'the-ir masters vises I'hem not to seek their are" ('~ leUr 7'::.. () fI "!II.e pe:rltains 1:0 I...'w'. me _Ing d· '~ .d n.'u IlIl pOiss. .'m. is. ~: _S s.N f'\)fle:r .ce of' the .~ici.16)..~~ Pa. U' U'¥" eve rJ' . .-' th~s ~8non~s 1: e' h riiC'~ I. If..s:m.~~un. f..11.~lei'-d:iirferf'nCffh . C nurch ]1 'l_ was.. 'n h.Vle to C. .he . :won of d ru'VI :n~ la.W. 'his le aves us w ~~h t W. S ollle.u::nll.rad'u·~l~.!JJaJ line ss...i(!I:s.h to 'b .t.' .jl!!~'Di"'I' :).s.-..QOffll- 't i 11 ~11UI'!LiI'IL!L!j.hilS la. I:n 1g ~ll 'tall :sexu.s how at sl. up II'-h e naJt.:m.I[uru~ cd jeopla'fld i:.chi!ng: 'lhal most modem ·Weslbe·r.il ha. . _.spok.lt.lJj .-. IL'·I'd' Dll" (lJ __]~--g nll-. alon ..~U d" .'Th. mnl " 0 [' homoeronc i. mit merits bet ween fflf e c:iti Z.n i11S t. wi ~h p.a. lha't spea.S on de:ma nd-'w'.u.E.n .a~~but. 'T'his me aD'S g iv'i n g' our bodies to Clod as a ~i · 3 v..ed in.Icii""'L .d.Fle IOOU nb~n in g pa.a Minv ~~Ie' men oln go~ n g a.IS.~: W '~ 1 could have the r evolutionary e'(f'!N:'t DYler.rgue·d ~hal ~he . --..a~eor re:maJe___.f'rcou F':S e ~ 'Thle Iph r a s'e i:n IG:n~lek. :-H-lie unc erstands specmc oomman d_men~'Sj .s-lJ.d'·Y\oa te!).· rrj~age has Icert ai n Ico:nju g.. tl1lal se~x ni.lrlf.. "'0 . n ~'h C h ...d . ing.l(Ul~'W'C ~. ~ h. 'IL·...:i-gay . 15 nn'I. 1'-: "1'- " (-- l_ '. Nlf'W' es'la·.:1 -L_ N" ''T'" d h· d 'p'l II .e sexual propler-Iy of th. 5'0 Inf ~ ~hCTie a.d e .d:~ti.'l'}·hb.'e'e 'iln It hie N'E:w' '.w~a rup~u n~ ~n the natu r.01 _ere 5 avery l ~. woul not: wa nt to perpetu ate ~ Pau I.~ hal 'wo'llI:~ld .was un.'" _.n rlf:minds u:s it:h.ate' v'i f'W' of wonl n~. 1 ~-_ or Ic!vren IcaJi I.n _.:ro~. es .'es".1:5 a n il'D s'~ilu~"iOinde nOUD©e ill l. '"on ~h: I~. hE~'r.uch~ .C'i l.sle.ns.1'1are ar .l. ." The . be -xpiecb.e:rprelin..read:y n.nave.ma.Q m!uch 'wru ~h ·wo:me·:n~ as ~o p ~he:m~. M'ore hroa.di!ilc. non allowe to marry an d wer lega ~ly ~b. h '. ]j~. '.ct.n t ~'n I )~. mlle:".ssaves .av'] 1 g rve n.es..:hlcre ii.fJ 'vi'La] que's ~ions abou I slavery t..r'f'. ~. ._Ie5.aJI.rem.n view~ or S'f'X:U aI""ly wel~:.m.halt. rSI".~ wi' ' .t. a.l Ihe New a:il'~ .~iilltulioln ~da'Vl"I}'" or s.e· fa.I .p'ledl~uI so are L -]'f. 1nt. ~~: iii' .e·n~ ia Cor id f'a.e.Nlew '~es l.iLl ire_.8hl -Ole' a. ha.~ lh c' 'Very aC'1 0r c 'L '.3. .'e a~ mlQlresof 'tOI Romn cu h tI"lie'~ to h.'1 (he' v a.h t.BU·LLETIN· • ·VO'LU·M.llr 4.of the olog.... (0 lhe' statu s of ·wo:m.a.lL~. .re S. :ment-e-a n.a'~..s:i~.F'lo.lesta nd in g ~ ies f II'· 'I' IL" ..1 ~It 11a s Ii.1 'Wba't the' . it i. or o._"Dung ma. ie ~Sll :.ve: c!o.D -.a.aU~DnomY'.u-] .l_l~ U ~'! .time o:r calIwng into question :sl.ave-.'r:' is the bap t i. j'-. s~.I'CAL THE'OLO·G.

i!JoVP'~IO.~I~I~ IC'' ' h : _ _: S····· n d '~a "'.- .f!:wr rung-wlere rouune .m lence A good explanation is that many 0.rs.s.om he-re:.Pef': h. status of s'~frvle5-includi. -_.:io:n wa s M. .s. hat.~ ~hi.. l~ 'W'i.~ a . into th!a:r slav!f' status.nt. 'e.nl. nave m •W.~I'II!lII' ~1il!Ii''''-II'~'I' a_'b.. ~Il :.j f)!iii. __ _ . ev.~ would we not..··'~ s·.. _ ""'" .a.for this in~ie_.I~ IOf ~hie.ra. . ".ew CTestamen~ III"'ii ~ I.and .JIU.J SII b'lll~ Ii:1ii. iFlIi:!i~' l~"~ ~. in a.Itl 'I:ree.o'm.ls. must n ftL .OU:5 .ion~ From t.enla. i. d .way~.do .~' 'w~r.gh t. a.oo cor _lI nm r " ' ..ell h"i rtil sex u aJ ly-'w as .b. b· ~b. . IJ~ nod.:' .ed free Chri.3)as w. of what 'wa.0·"--' nllb 111 . To refuse one's master in any respect was considered to be of reb.S!uc'h .ere oVle:rsigh.'.ar ~n G··.ng.ere is a. 'Ch r~s..n institution': 'i.pronoul}!Cem.~.r ~'O''!lJ'.ad::m.. 'we're .ed.he I~"S The ''::ii.d'through the Roman streets (Versnel). !I. What does '~.11 n swe r 1:5~he as:(on.·· IP:d: a'e' !k1UU'Y ..a..rla:n.I' U:1f. mandate. :_eedom p' au~.. 'U ~ I lu.n.on how1fver is t:ha..S~.]' .:S at .t. the form. t.' u.. sue h .e r'ed.ilent a'bcHJl slave'my a.'~. ~. :hei:s a.Ii ". lII.v e (Ph 2: :'7) .r 't!L. .~·'t. '.hings.. J o h rrson.r d er n --...'le.t .:::S= ~'~a~' !lJ1Ut)L'I-. Even though there is. . SUit h adv ice to slaves.a's to .c. the institution of slavery ere a te s a life of freedoml n Iii tan gib. shocking jmages ~n the N.:n.d in Ch r ~st.pho.oif~ 'f'r''DDd·' n'm' 'em.a'i mess·a. .'".. . can 'S.lear and W'( l reasoned Cal.ou5~. ~ ~ iii 'I.t..P''[]I'rpa' 't.ki ng = I am w. s]av-e=d es. .~ ~ ..A mo~e '~i.g'f' . expect a clea r New Te:s:tam.e.hismean? I'n one of the mas.1II.ilS.. .S.t.din~.at:h.Jj.aJ~y desirable Icondi~.:U. II.·' "..dyof Patl~ _ : . IOif an a.Y' sexuany h nummate d b thei captors .iD.in t..n.. a ~n.U ..: .v' .uaJ adVlfl n.!.~ rna ny 'C'h ristia ns ac..e.c~.ave '.n) .s inevi= .!'IlL. . ~tocfeur'~e d Vlilh rf'gu ~a. 1l ." VI] I . 'What 'we also know is that no N'ew ~e~sta.e:r" (Gal 5::"1.r the non-slave IC'~. .o ~n.]! degraded. _ 1!!.obV~. a society engenders a. tha:~ d._ '~i= 11t.tive expla.m:p'h. U· tion.awof Chrw:st.~I .. 'pa.H re .'~'.h s woul d..~t. fl10m toil (or the master. '.cle. I t'~~." ~he '~ack of any s'p.' .pi~e the d. part 01 .iCI.h. " .d·' ~'O"I iI:l"e' i""~' ..e~hi(:aUy neutral.-:s]a:very -£i gures: a. 'how a re we' to iIIIterpre I th is.".emp.s on.-._ .!!b iIfI!'f'\lDl . We are told that none other than jesu s him sle~f b)tQ.t'.0 s et fOlrnh a Ic.r1I.I.."A. 1~lo." l~~..'vice varied to homoerotic advances.o giving freedom.e.If homoerot ~'C pract ices were fiea~llynhOD gh~.'I' IL"..8.a:ve]').eny dle fre.: h C ~ '~i as t he vic I. used i.' '!:i. Cor 2.nn to s~'hlalinFl.g: 'fe:d. e W··'!!<-" .'crihce:s ~.'OlIA W" no legal standing to f\efuse a master's homoerotic advances.spo'Ken.a. .h~... L D'y.e'xts a.f.!..ef 'meta.planali.'tcu]ia'f :is if':tS.intrio s ica~ si of u] requ irin g: a sl ave 1y tOI re sist under pa w:n of de.lng f:l'!e..'."' Il..s-t:h.~-u-.:ps the ad.!~.JiI:ll.ll!..'!~'Il'"ha.lj..p':~'e 'of '!:i.)mrul aga~n ~.n:s. hf~.ay you w:~ U fu Ifi~1 the ~.'h.is..~l.""III.:~evers:not ~ '1. .h Dei~'h''''-':''. led.iJi ~'U". re:ady in th.ie sense £o..alily of slavery.~ Th..0 ·11.u .~ IOif '. e:.:mlen~.W. . 'In other words. othert"p·' is 'n.u I :i s doi n..o the pagan god s that ha. however. IOn the one hand.vlE:s cou'~dl'I.o.r'ts bu rd ens.r ~~O.:p f!·cta t. - ----- be exp cted to rouow such a.il new valence.hom. C.atcce:pled a. .I'!'. g.. Paul likens Christian h elievers to defeab~d prisoners o:r war being.'..c" 'How 'e~sleare 'we to h.e:re 'subj ected to ritua.eymade hornoerntic advances." Il· wn'.""..no~h.a..' U 1 D a ~ . at these were .e're . \. _ . absoi'l1lte cer .J'.J111 of£ers 'l 1 .'ed.. good lex:a:m.a I 6.ble" h. ~oi~o.II' .re si~.~"". :r. evidence of' greater " eference to s.tion~! Th.n a RomJan Tri'U.~ ru't com man dm en t.No excep f t ions '~O the ru Ie of obed ience are ]isted act 't ru e an the' N!fW Testa ment to explai n ihie Ch ri~t~an.iD..~ or slave parade (2.~Ie .u ~LAU.iI'he··.'I!.e··. the presence of s~..t. .f the slave makes pnss.een 'u'n. L"!L .s.I..a yoke o( :slav'!e'ry:n(Ga I. __ iN. . Or perhapls th. J. N.and Ido no~s..Did" p ~L ~.a:n me'r'f.d that his followers are .ev.f:! IU. We are not in a position to say with.n IL.ted slave 5" ans eases regarding their vulnerability .~ ..a D 'Victory in wb[lc.c and leaders-w. slave 0" any U-b""" : "'oU'" 1d.'ph was a c':~i-maclic ceremony rol~owing: a Rom.iln~ ex p. !l OJ! 1'!Io!".ct?' :In stead the specific advice of the New Testament is for slaves tOI obey their masters. mi.na. 10!'1i'\C"P'~ I]..Ie..occu 'r:ri 11g..as '.'r..'l~ .he'..e"C'ID'p~'~b.~:'f is in th e fi:rst and seca ond centuries.'Bea:r one a.en't ma ndate to that e'ffe.JJ'-'.:::'1.ade. " '!:i.ew' 'Tes~.s 1:UI'JlP en ~til 8 t_.( h as sa.( these New Testamel1i~ ethical ~m'Pier.ave:5' to one anlol~.t.'v...: e-rottlc sex.'~iorrn~..!'~ "_V~!IJ.'!"IIIi'L'liI'efl'1~~'ue.v'ery" ~'Ih· ...c!im.Q.x.e= spile the socia. m "_1 'I.w..erefore. . g. " E mp ire an d 0.·.OTS 'rather' t ha n the sex u a lly bum jJ ia. n.i!! __ ' ".ab'le t.f d 1n ~n[l.a s~ump~ion ~h at. . rium. ~ 8J' . ..:y.do:m in as a soci.d . .s...to ~'~'y'" t:~. .r.0 sub:m'~t to ci rctl'mcis:ion.a..". Whal we' do 'know' is thar no New' Testament writer reh a need to record.hec:hl.. The rest were led away to a li~e of slavery. h.d.:~ble fJieedom.f..·. tinel 'Il'~ . ~a.n. 1£ slaves were admonished by Christian teaching to obey thei r rna sters ~ al ~ t.' S urety p' 'I' must h.e of '~.oni~.ry -..I :II!.. __ . C' t.nu:::n b 'I'~ fr · d. Even dlOUg.G.'f' very saIne n::ason '~h'etexts are s.e :mo:~d.e"S ror th.'alterson 'L' thesis. :Roman .. become ~I. di[le'c~.r.s._ £.I!.and even though older 'male slaves were le. 5: 1:)~ TIle co.il.'L~Il. ··1"leD Q ~ ..:h.ke~y ex.l~ion '-'deserving dear h~. oourb'!1 :lll'lony ats r' tends 'the re'.ory"..:o b".er -.gra nted vict.'h defeated enemies 'were 'pa.."~ . -_.a re i to . greater vaJu~ ng of free..pi b~' 'e t~he hroken Oless..-. 11.r!~ the' e.(l. ta.a ny evidenoe .lf'nt ri~t' ~lucilj 'J~IL. .g WIOJie t:h. Everyone: knew that these prisonerslaves-whom Pa. mOl'.e sh... ·'b::r fe:~ t he nee d (. .v!er.acts.. a .And yet ~. .:ri~y. . S:·.Q. o:f bei.a. '_.ext here is 'piau] j:s .~_.. (Otlrtulllate la.5s.radox'lc.en 'be: t:ha.I!J.k.b.'l~l .L S 0 ~hen.hi n g :fa..~nw.c.pret.'~~. nhc firm.eemlf:. ' :_ nami. 'ib!: ru !1j"I'J 1 !!. At l a the end of the parade. ..nted :i n C'h r]:st.ha t t:he . fro:rn 5i~uat.n: 1 up as ~he example of Chris6an ll'V= i:ft:s' . tainty what advice was tactually given to slaves lin s:pe--cifi..~' ment.D o.ion 'to iGent~e bel. To do 5-01 is to 'm h .:atte:rnonts thesis a bo ut slavery 8:S consti tu t ~ng a form of socia 1 cleat h ~Th.r' 'N'J~w ~~~~'~m.enee: ca n be h az = ardous.hey 'we:fie a..e.~. some of the vl. to' be .I[M. .I.s t h a:t . The' .ly va hJ.. Is t.~.e'rslood. ~ IV.t..sla.:.::. at .at:~ves were .they .ecifwc 'h" ~I :~have pre:vi.r·t .arly 'Christian coml mig n ity knew' ~hal SlU: h a"et i'Vity 'wa.lav'erl" fundamentally into questioml. _L· ~ ·YL . 1'1 ~'Ikr . m ".is ~he cion nect lOin a mo:ng 'b..e pr01ce SS. ·0 shocking 'was t his ima ge that Joh n Ca ~vi thou gbl 'P:au1. '1i'. ~I .lhoul 5:~avles as the: pa.l de'.'~.Olli6iihil b:~aching'directed 'lu .Y mentioned Q.W!.1'!10..·.' fllb ~" iOJif!' ..s.e: enemy .ave 1:" ten d d..a"p(s 't he.eU aware tha~ a rg uments from 'S]~..lliCii. IS th al a. w:'·"hn'iI.om . 'But on the other hand. ns'. life'. si m p~y.. IlL ~·it _.. to ICh rist ia n masters to rcfra ~ from ic n l suer nomoerot t~C act~..~..·J'te. inclu de n obey ing them 'W~h. ( ) '~et :Pa.to follow hi:m.i. !Io. 'to.e..'n 'n .bused sla'. then .!~ _". l t. .~ nd it was... --- .i mperatives for persons who were' free at nd not e-fJs~a:veld~ On th~s interpretattuFl.4~lc:[ H:afe:ma.adows of s'~a.55:lVe rec:~p:~'en'l. [liD ] P:"Ji.

.('l he i.···ns. len. f.a iie· 'W i a malll a ~Iwilh' wOlman..i_ '-"'I~O t h-] - I~ . I~'ye in .l- ~':·I.mit themselves Ito Ih..i] unions from th..h 'M ~h: lew. [n part" u ar I have ::hown (~n J_w~ chapt 1" 3) how' 11 he trad ilt ional pu rpose s of marri a g . s o:r elhn ic. Id 'wid']. e_.o:mi. n 'ustr. e c~ose by . r w.·lk I'wn ItblC d ~. hor ~ .il~.1.urchl-whel le . nli'''gay '~a'w ren cted nothing 'More than an irrationa] '-al1ll:imu.. lure WQiIJJd r I ~_'.ou...brn~I..3. ··d new's 'ror p.. s:u!'h fJil!ii d I1.'pon SOled _'.'.' p" ..e_ t lils.~: ~hie p o.". na.' I: r .a'S cri ml~ .onecon . me sns d1C ves of :homose -. ~'1'11::_ d·'II" JI u:fu:::ons.. 'm:r [hie 1 be'com.. · ~ h ..' ds:m ..· C'fiat~ n."ok 1~.a ' :In nhe :ilnter~m 'b.~ these distinctions a._.~al. I xp lai t 'h_C' gos .er.3 __d Itwe:~ve 10'1..:' rliOIW ..m.-m.?I t:.. ~ Ul ..sioned iere is a ('~_d~. 'IL ~>DoC rL iulrns .. se f ga m ' rna ge and c-: v. .: S.din g."[ng . bon o:iJ t_"iS.nt. are usee Cion. in ~oca1 oo.zens .e prov~' e .~Jt.em a.'".a-·~s 3:28.: I I ~..·n ra.5181 1(2010~).'nc '. nticipates a new situ tion in 'which [he most '. oa"'·· ~nl d 1show th.<:=. _ e ~.llowth In Icommunllyre a~n~ady ."'I~'iurt . nu Dei 'i. 5. AUo!wi ~<such dis rimin tory ~~'WS...plleme Court held tha. 5 ~ nt roiec rn 'W of r~d. .]I [lom..a Ifun~a-'ng.'_e: lega~ly prO't!ect)ed in the~r h 1 'W ~t' _ or r I.N·····ot OFUy' c ..firm~~. .: u'l-he e is no longer !" 1 er SU:'~~ k there is nOI ~ongle'r' slave or 'ree there ~ no . -] d-I .ation may be Ich.r 'm.t.d. be.no leo ·)~.. s'eicond class Ic·iti. I I'. ~.gi en: If. .k-th.'. t~·~eie'nonse tmg ··.' -II t ~.ai. bas.r d :I l• .. " . I·hun::h~hen we mu:st ~o'rmu l..at.1.hnil ...g.al at lie . [by tarl'e~ing.wt.. lhr .n~y" 0_.. ICrO:orado had v i'DI'" la. di.a'~le'an d ~e'm. very's d. t led in th .e_ni-Jti Ie 1.~" 'lh'f'_.a:~. . war and o:p:p0:5. em's of 'he N.' Jusilv·l. C-I _~:mitm-. m. stgn . w.'n· g..ou g..av a wa· of ein.it." .ay people :s.m.· h.." So Llu~~:n.'United: :. .a-ll.' .n. '. .'IlJr. No' I' .... til -now' ..' '11. I U. ~i:nc~i. gay peop'~ e F·-~m. 1_0 remain 0])1 the books.--.mic .S!o.e' bi' .I~r I·h .--- I _ BIB Lie A L THE 0 LOG Y B U L LET I N__:_VOL U M E 3 7 _ s av ry t!V( '11 'W h. .... '.lcmnahon" Ina.. . 'h nese teat rres that. .1 d re1allonships~ :L!f!·t _. r O]r1J(': n lelm rilFit Je-· o 'wee· I..an people 'to equal protection une er t'h.ons (!\I· .a. p ac .8. asedl on at 'mnisund'e'rstand~ "~-nd a m~sapl~Jica~ion of'th. r ylOIU.al ~ormula 1 notes :n GaJat. leu.1 ·a.IClrU""f con.. k)~Ihe I ~. re.~y :si mi~. ~IB:-:2: slat . S xua~.~..·!ian Pi' OPIJ .t tho '8" "'1L.' ::.~ to elimina te: aU anli-·rdis.her than our . th h~ f metaphor by W·h'· h" .a.. proteete din t eir ba sic ide'n! ity (t h· .urely a red'f'mption Ithis radical i .'e/ t'he .·n:·~ reali 'ie's ··r g:' 111.lIrar· 'nz ~o mucn~0'r d' l_ L ill ..'e'vihc~s.gh.dd !be Ic~·~.~'ibut he' '. . -I ith. ·~-i.(· t.II. br 'a.. an ·.....hlU!l~on."hrii"tian ·uhure [S '. '. 8:.. "p 'aI.. gays l I wha~ [m.env~. 'OCl~U ~ an .':.tes SU.'-ompnionship.c' ~o CUi:~tiv.:.. 'r I.UJiIf!'~..~~ are t ru~y to be w 1·· mled in th._ d. womlan.1_.exas . .'t I m ked _·'.. dl r.idio~' or ~'he: ··. r ~r' '.w 10 t: .·iaJ applic. C" t_ tnrs c_ ojce does nOI a f:rec I.~ora)~0 . '.nd de' 1: e hu an exist nee d." I 'h ~I ~ 'rcm..n.n~ ~.a. hi ·rr state. find . '''1 ". ~_~III .etw'e'en ~'h:.g'e's. 'bilbticaJ j'Us..ID.. 1(1~.'cision ··r Ronler VI. ..~ 'li'Olns. "e Ifl:glnalll I • U-. olofado._'U~.c.ay p -op:l[ ... 1.l~cal tlexts.' Ion·" oft'hem.~.:'sa:ges.. .. issue inl Rom' 'r)~ S ·..d Ion this 'iissue ·i·s not run tho sup·-.CWlS:S rconsht'Ut n.lt!. consent Icould eas.rfi.! ... 'b(f'I. -..ay se.liega~iQt·ns.~I1iI. wltn • 'IL . ~ IL athh. iinlimat·: sexual 'P.ng. lord er=t he's e no on ge r de fi'ne or 11 ~.r:...~ n churlch. an· . ilnts of re~.nl.ank.er...sOlllrce 'iJn Lev m'li.il1a~ion prolle.tihca.CUS. ~ t: pol~h..s to d' re'i. i. _I rt d . ~ d II 'I' n II gay-eu~.~·d _.~o-cullt."'· "Ii I··. i. reli[:: . Ian m. it. opIe who are: 8{ Y and.declaration is. case 0_'f' .·demption indeed. about ilt :iln a w y that lOfif~ ca 1.~ II.. ':'.ew':ho are in .~eing exhibi~.a' 'wou]d il.~ [:n . ri-(. ~ S even yea rs la II It 'he ICOU rt went a step :ru rthJe'r~ In ..ays lit 'IS It.. I" 171 .m iIt Ihe Ifro~owers of IC'h r ~. ~.en'(-ly.IIS I'i r: a .e '.' . .off.1lJ.·- dis'c imination iii 'm. .. person dm. e:fe.(~au'·. cases of in est).t ~ '~ ('20" 'I t '~d. . the Cou'rt stall·. I ( '·. andl por~ics.ajor socio-economic.~ •.ily a. ..·· -'I'~"I"..a~" ultural a.it.nmln.~ a . en1 dis tin I. uoh' -h '"' .a:· .f' in 'lim].h..k!ely s' uri'.il.. p'~. n'5J~"-" ~ng C~llri:·~i.-). 'but the.m ~stak'fs h.d bY' so:· ~eltY'~lnd S ." . ~.- pilL·51 glhe' m.." th.e'm" se .._:If. b· ~ l' ~.~ ~ r'.artner~s-iso 10Dg as ~' h ~ . ~.clLll-. c 'rr _c.ey '~o'/ . ":' -I' I his nd makes and gays alone ""~ nega6ve treatment.me a.tilt.n un~i.h ist. 3 an L 'f'VltU:US.c Book of .i le em ain :ilng t hOlrou.• i._~nt In 's.e'n d-:er s elx U: .··I··".v.yste'ms of power and d. e nIh an d to .ation... :simi'lla" C! nCI 'rn I-t. lure' ':n whit . tern ].'ned. nc om~.r :no.a'ws in .nnrly b.an • 1.sic 'po:~ar:i'ti. I. 5..'~ The y U.tha' a··sur'~ng t h. Rlf the I :~. o:f bibJica'l pri1 of-'ie'ls but ~n l of pe .at~on~ 'iii" .-j'lew ~ a.a.. CI . 1. xUla'~partners.d IG· ...c'ri.1 na.I. ~ie wilh am· -Ie' ". clud s . -" I.·' .1'1 -~I". and.ir choice.shat de~f'ined .I1.~ion ~'-r' . in i'~ I I d ~ J W'..s~d.:n' :r limgiiousl 'ii.1]'".. a.' n t'·-l :5:5 dis.' _ 1_ by' t.\ -..'Ii-I.il'ty I rn .'Qul SOl l 'O"t lh~.U'. t'l I.a's rev.. reHlce t)._ the .e mr 0'. Co.eal status secial ~Ioca.0 he domi-a Ice and ex':~o.prov"dl~n·.w" Ac ord.m.on of g.. mmors or persons wnose .f' sa me~-·.La. 'WOU~I'Ib".i'OIUS. :ales Supt'm C'OI' rt ha __dl' d-w_.ria] [and the a.w l.i ng sbl tie -s.. ·~S .e. _ '. r" '. :~.1C".:h.~~. rights J gay and lesbi.. ~=' .Ula~ persons.!it onc' to -. wr ere 1. II.'h.· D'" _'b _50:1l1_:nl_ :. Consider Ithe' b ptism.'t.in t gay P·-I ~l..~ lb.. -'.e 11 m·(I 1<.:-. k n~y does P.i .d the ICOU:rt". ICO '. 22i . 'm] ·r h' ..~tic.omlaul e'-ccIpire" ' _~.ai.IJ.Olth of th[em :have co'mmit'led an abomin.1 . t . : as.' minls·try" Hie takes another o1lle-slave and free-· .od W' .and_.0.v _f •)~.e way' onwar. . dI] .'lhlt.avy [I1.ll dl L.ate a. ~~.. wer~' 0 bear wilnes.· '.ily be I:.c.gn. I. rIlL J d ····h· ~ n pro"h ~'b· rO.]1' cale-d for sl.. '.()OIRCI rn. US~~.n.>usa·.g.. in which s. 1- '.st.led th . _ 'r[sha ~~ 'hon :-' Ian ~Uust(r.au~ brus.a rleo:m 'H dis.a..': '::: CW' Tesl~' by La en p'a.:~lent ity i m p :-f .a1e: ~o:r a]I~. t¥ b J'':_mes..' .51 invo~'v: an alt:empt . ~ srgmncance ~:n It 'If! _ 'II" ~). ' . 1e%I[1S'I.!r it ir .e'S~hal ~imit.t re icr ain 'he redemption . " n.!I.ng·mups.y also be sup- even more by' tnJe Ich...'m.ie s:~andp.hl_ [ . le:sbian~ >:hr:-. .a~eI£eimaJe) ~h...you :s:h. 1.m. r: .al1 nol.' 10n acce 'pted 51~very while thin king.·f hI n k t d.' a .~on~.no gratlce 'bY' gay cOt'up1es.- - -- .a..5 " . 'lhe' · f con.~anhy' to d .r ." !.' ':··~I.-nd fore:ver=:~or ':-.nd Gre ..~.'f ~h~s. 'Iue . an d ~e:s:Ii n S n fa.' '. ' of I:. n 5: .: ~"..Y should also be pro .ODS.atll···.nn"UD> 'n. f 1111 11_ i. i.cw· ." ~ .1 .. h' h .i i .~. on lappe. t.ii g to the Court".·d ."f I.a~lengeld. in t gaY' :P ..

"· TIl. n' ... proh ~ ~ g them from taking sexu a.'w'O curt texts on homoeroticism..Q m'en f. 1999 '~'~'Th!e ice· of V m . 35-36. .i. Ie0'" Fdhi.A.eJOo=R..he hop e' t:h ill. '·.."f: ~n-I .an!d :inj'Us~.·.~eg~:st~l'~ion be:ing ~o:nsi.n .i' u:~ ..vleet lrl8..:. . -..E'pi:5d:e 0/ .·I.arn.Ii. .' -.e:red .a~l~.'II ~11.covcn.bia. M.d 'l'.JI OJ! L Ib.n)1 L.mentan ':d. 'I'6" 11'" . . :Plfess . 'J' I' _. .Radl= er than ignori n g' the bi blical texts on sexual ity" . C·R::.on:sh i. 1994 ~ Sla Ve'F'y '(uul S(Jci:'ety' :r'".exploita lion .~9:·· C" '.._lIi. it...86.~L~rl. I - .he B.me$t. IGrand Rap~ds..11 ..I[··.m.o. is .g a conse.n s mlUIC It a cus i .n co've'n... L ev ~t.Deale:m ru Th.. . _.'e 'U'sie of a Topo~.with in the larger pi. similar .-cra..ged. MI:: Will~am B~ . gay m"~ h ·'b· ~..bilil.New Jers..i.·.t·'h ~:?·m.rnnois.~ ]...in . "'.r. households...o '1:..L nhons prevented rsrae ite mien..n .(] I lD' Ib- OJ! CI.I~~V"~': If .t the morar ~I ~ Ul 11::.:· ncerninz '0 sexualitv ten died.te:~YJ th.~ .n..' v . set apart and cons e.lkl.(l. to 'be. . evtt ~ cus 'ii' .antal ~oveis b~essed w by ·rel:~g..Y'ersilty Press...~:ament bo.a:r~.oh r . ISIOll th .hId t e cent ra com man ..attention to the context of :~m.b)!e:~. .d . .! II . . ~ 'Fort:una.clu.IV"'liZ!IIn'~'n'~'-llli"'lollJiiP' _.-.S. '1964.'. in .1i< s .f. m. .'n l~~· is. N.ething b eyond .ploi~a·= tion in wlt:~(b the New Testament was written.db flcome a.nson..2 0 0 5'i Sla'ves.iousco:m. ' .ac'cep'~ant.'l'\ant. -' .""...~ 2···'·IDi.. Pbr~ugal.l' .'~ov.. I.IJ..='17)~ Above .a niJ ~.neapol·~s~ .--: gej.- Israel.~ centa i.Pel..~n.'.f.d..1..d ho~y! Ithen .p!i..s ~.· is nocw' ~i'fa:rti. :~~afe'ml1n n ScoU J.. h~s same admlonitruon is reiterated elsewhere in the N. erits in m I'd-I.i' 0/.!t!'nma..'s[..ib~e tea'c he. ' .c:lie:ase.arild Rhode Istan d~.." : '~IlI '11" ~ L] 141 ~B ·~ntegr~... ! ! !!..· lem'on~ ILr. 'we win rediscover Ihe redemption 'wh ~ch the gos:pe~ offers to ..s. ·8Ielgi.en.... .V".y.I..A.W. . Hungary.~.tAre N e:w' 'Tes/.: .~] CI' .W_ is upon t. J.E>pi's ~le& ~o Tr.. . '~2:2IBI.ts..u·~ i ture. ~ 'P' . 'a.age.· !.. cul Lev '119:: '10.10 e:na. S.Soci\lJl! a nd Mo~t{J:1Di mens i i()f1~S~ .an:s~ T.y payin g. of SaInic·=g...e.il'g: ..ng in.e S'p.' J I •.~ ICan. In Vennon~.:lI' lI.116. le:qua'te'wy~ 'In htrma.o 'L . 25::' .!.fW Tes..d" . .r' ..1i!!II·v'nlli!!ir:.ij'L ~"11_. C. '~(~Ieland.. of pla nt ion n :nO' ·d t~.ble hu m.S!ociety·:: :Fcl'lrir..a:tes .dy of 1/ Cor~ .k:~ Cor iG.Paul the' Apost1le ~o J lh.Min. and to ~if t up ~.pa.a.].1l -' J' ~..iln 1~·fe-·i n c] ud: in g '~heSJeX'lLl all ~v!es l_ = (Lev '~19: 8)" which is. a:-._.ada~ Spain.a..~w J York" :NY': Ox:~o~d'U:n:i. means 'to liv'f' a hob~hfe .e~c:k.ed oo:n'lext for the love of gays and: ~es.. = "'" " li.gsbt~lr~.r . . I.n..icut. vision. the 'books 'in many.a:' come : nd 1Iil!!\ii!!id-1.'·o·· ·m· 'II>3··'~.8 i:b. a. nd A a G~a:rrucy~ennife.secr. . 'Wesb!rn eoun~ries.ermam._.eC. ea (' ·wm·~.n. . Cam~ Ke~ 'b ~d ..e.v J-·"::Ii'm·jlJI~ (J"o.' . 'h '. .ilni.2.i(~.2:'" 4·3: J: u). ._ 1]'''fSS.A.l adbit n vantage of 'those within their domain of power. .c. I !i:. ~ (]I I!) fJI.e....(j·. the church M~~. 'T he re'81son for t.re'.: C" L "d . Greal·Br~·~ia·~n..I!.d move towaZ1d ~he' full con secra tio:n of the love of exclusively oom.a. states .r·u.n. . . rrom.a..in.'-h n .e ..Jj..h.eu:) . (heir blood ii!iJj:A":"_I~'.. ~ l~_ ~ohe' Ch·n.3.the key ~.!. an d 5)~: J ..S to delve more deeply '~n where ~~heyi~.·. M in Gr. N'..S. the number of American.d Order' --- .gthe .IIIiIi\iII:!!'·.ly· in. ~or If:!!} ~o ~.:j!O '~IoinU' '0" verd u..u.here M have la.I J D'!OI" LA. W·:O "h"lii1lJ'jD _ 'IL. ~I.ness .le'.ca] ly de n~e''d '" ~ ~ _.(Joel' Ph i. Rather than rep ea~n g c.'I!. T:he: same is t ike·:~Y' concern ~ng ~hese twopassages in qu est i0]] ~W ~th true sex bein g understood as what 'rna ~Iesdo tc others.g an.m·pl(..rin~IJ'.. .deter=m. ". N'ew' Hamlpshire g~y couples.- '.~ of eat ~ g ost rich or ~he sin.. L." ''''E. hu-· [ 'm ./·e .:I.. g ace 'has bee _n .ristianif.ey'i' and.] your neig hb as _yourse 1 ove l ~ . whil.~.t th is sa:mlC ra ~t . j.~ .. '.s to b..ticu:s as merely ' an out moded ... -fa~lh..i""'jll!!iiid·-·t~r.iCJe~n our own context.e. have the 'be:~.mpire.ay prejudice in w:hilch il.' • J "f we 1. 1.at i. more tha. .."lI 'd' ~I wn· b.l 1. It ...Kingdom! 0/ '17.emu st be oon.I·. .son fOir the rule: . Il If being is also possible that these references sought to prevent participation in pagan rituals (Johnson::' '124=29)" Yet ~Iwould be a mistake to dismiss 'Llevl.~y~naw one. to direct its aUe'-nti.. nonetheless provides.iJll C". The Second . these proput sha~l be fL'i" ... k:l"'nd.~~ .. :par~.aU----a:nid especially to those :r-rom 1 whom_.u.. M. e' 'iietLe.f ne~ss h 'B ra. n!!1-. ann .'.o .enl~"" ~ 1 •• 00' ·.'1.~..:1J'~'Ti. but g~y marriage ~'lself:i..D.il ID.. 'UK·. l I ..y Pau~ ~ '" j "u.E·." I.~. ' .dvl. lD"'-'h..g short of hes~.ge -U'" C.an ·heing.amon.a._.s.r:ra~.. J I.. _. [.'-=:!I ·.{uld.' to death.:n..d!ere.m·ld' I "''' '.i'S ethical teaching (e..M:.o. a. word.. il sets rorth is a.mI'.Mau '19:'~19.LilerabJ're 1 '!I.if ct rrom ~he pas t.e-:r !couples.. eviticus is W:lhf'fi' WI' [i..Elsew.efit of the "civil union.." a new le. IL ~ emasculated.2" Slavery . m. In :50 doi ng. .I write this. ··'I'LI.ps.IJ!!I.·~[L.b ienents . d'[ .~h lb.•..bou nd.he' Conl:ex~of' ~ih.IJ'Ikr.JI.t..om.y'.U begm:nto ·rru nd resources ItOI reject the' ant ~-g. entirety. or -m_ mea 1 obhgations a t f the m -d 6.Over the next decade. 1m .·egt'fic.e [11=' se._. imolhy '~:'~O. '~ j ust ice for the' ro'-rei gner "119: 3 -3 4). . Luke 10:2'7).Ul'e .nt ...y IC.i n.s allowed in the Netberla nds.s to 5o..f!ep~y held.ken the view' ~hat the various com mand . hav'e 'be1co:me' t.'Ii"ili!!! glll~ ." .Rom.ClS the' re-a.!!Lr!!Lr .he norm.now dawn~.a'Yl . .~:s'...~be:rL ..iGa. w:hR..J ':)·n· '·w···.end..ng: tlo ma'k.es.d ~ey~.. -emman~i _ __lI relali.cteu.ark.a~ .re· to f the gos..t..A:fnca"i1 and r he State or Mass achuset ts.an~..' .arylan. in .ated to be f" consi.ha. commit rnents but a deepening of them .fo·or J. .EitJ:rl. Connect. ru ~es-su ch as the s U pposed a bom in a..~ us~ra.s cea~~ngs wltn ot lers (l II 9 :.arrld A.reom..22. I ~~ T--h.· . .an..ail . ---- -- --- Joh.".h.dP< tim ~ h'.. llL W 'IL.e :5el~apar'.on to overcoming ..A. N ot on ~ythat. we see ~h. 'T'u.a.Ex..exuality :nf:e:di. . . has been.:_.. :mor'al ~mlpe:rati-v.nd' . H:.ew' "York" ..mitled samegender couples recognizin g that this ~:snot.' wha~..t'he g"race . ~ .rl ~..wne what W. _.nd themes as :mercy 'For ~he po or' (e.. ~t~le:s ·~o:give lh.lia.' J' .avi~ ..o'we.c..- - _ __ .od·'s.s bJi be :set a.~..ef.th. -.U'm.sb!tm chun:h to . . :H:on]ey~j':Rich. to' ·t·~L~ c·.comploic~'l for SiO ~ong.N: Au...g..aJdd its voice in support of this moveme nl ~ 8. .:nl:ve'r~u~y. n'~ . 0:'11. ..mun.'i'( fel~~A new .Fri~n1..f.o Cod".departure :fro:m~.nd t. ' .j:ou'rn.Q.IIJJL~.:on-·.ul S:.o ·be. most d.. 200.. - 't".oYli. .-teld t. II!. S IrJ#erin.:penal ex.. ..:.~ vI' c.s-~.e s:lo·ppin..·· .. IJ. . J 1- .I.1 t.22::37-3'9...N·ew Mexico.OOj! the cluJrCh ~. 'I '9.Si~. the command ~hatJfSlJ5 hffimself places 1 at the center of h. LL· _ l1l. ohn. lOT'L. be chall!e:n..nsshOll ~.of God" The ~F'eas. A ._ ILl! 'J''!!.). Leviticus also art ~ ates such gra.syst-em.g..r'~l"'t-ed "'0 heads 0:'(' LD:"l!'l't ..t or . -b1'''' coup ].he ru ~Ie'w'..· is f u ~D!eSs.on hy' .aUowing gay marriage or civil umons 'win certain.~ 2002 ~jeJus .rk" Nonvay" ISwed. ·Do.BJ'~:: 9'j'- CJ'f~J .n I. The' chu rch shoul. "m . ..F.. g~.. rea d'".nersh~:p laws ia. ~ -' _. . • ~. of hu m." ~ I.·o· . ~.~.tiv(.t"'L.~nd.a~ institution that.m.f. '. 1:~ ·need.-1 51~'m4")' "'.bou.I:an 'I C o'tfejpondcnte.gt:rt ~ Cel'm any-:.ar witn..

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