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of famous mathematicians and scientists. Here, we provide biographical sketches of the more notable pre-twentieth century figures of the modern mathem atical era. As will be seen in the sketches, even the most well recognized pure mathematicians worked on applied problems; indeed, some of their advances were m ade on the way to solving such problems. To appreciate their work, we must remem ber that they did not have the tools we take for granted - they developed them! To help with their places in history, the figure below shows the life-spans of t hose that are discussed.
John Couch Adams [1819-1892] Adams was born in Cornwall and educated at Cambridge University. In 1845 . he calculated the position of a planet beyond Uranus that could account for pe rturbations in the orbit of Uranus. His requests for help in looking for the pla net. Neptune. met with little response among English astronomers. He was later ap pointed Lowndean Professor and Director of the Observatory at Cambridge. An independent set of calculations was .
Arthur Cayley [1821 – 1895] . Along with George Peacock and John Herschel. The fluxion notation (the use of a d ot above the variable x to indicate the derivative.completed in 1846 by Leverrier. George Boole [1815-1864] Boole was born in Lincoln. and he held the position of Lucasian Professor at Cambridge. he was better known as a prominent mathematician of his time. Altho ugh computer scientists associate Babbage with the computer. Charles Babbage [1792-1871] Babbage's design of the Analytical Engine is considered to be the forerunner of the modern computer. Babbage's ideas on the Analytic Engine would have been los t if Ada Lovelace had not clearly described them along with her own ideas. in eastern England. a model built from his plans at a later date worked as B abbage had predicted. whose suggestions to the German astronomer Johan n Galle led to Neptune's discovery. Babbage formed the Analytica l Society to promote analytical methods and the use of Leibniz's differential no tation (the geometrically suggestive dy/dx form that we know today). His important contributions were on the calculus of func tions. English mat hematicians used Newton's fluxion notation almost exclusively until then. Boole's work on linear transformations l ed to some aspects of the theory of invariants. Boole is best remem bered as one of the creators of mathematical logic. Babbage's objective was to replace this "dot-age" with "d-ism" at Cambridge. Adams published a memoir on the mean motion of the Moon in 1855 and computed the orbit of the Leonids in 1867. partly because it was widely held among them that Leibniz appropriated Newton's ideas about calculus and claimed them as his own. he studied classics on his own. however. In addition to his mathematical p rowess. Lack of technology and money prevented Babbage from realizi ng his design. He also performed research on di fferential equations and the calculus of finite differences. which is one of the foundati ons of modern computer technology. They were e specially prominent every 33 years from 902 to 1866. The Leonids a re meteor showers that appear to originate in the constellation Leo. still used in many texts tod ay) was abstract enough to hamper developments in calculus.
and physical as tronomy. Pafnuti Lvovich Chebyshev [1821-1894] Chebyshev was born in Okatovo. His other contributions are in the areas of n-dimensional geometry. He graduated with a degree in mathematics in 1841. including some of his best and most original work. In 1850. He received his doctorate in mathematics from Petersburg University in 1849. who was also devoting his time to both law and mathematics. he met the mathematician. He was well regarded by his contemporaries. Cayl ey invented and developed the theory of matrices. 1894. Roger Cotes [1682-1716] Cotes was educated at Cambridge and later was the university's Plumian Professor of Astronomy. His technological inventions include a ca lculating machine built in the late 1870s. They worked t ogether and founded their greatest work. After graduation in 18 42. whi ch played a crucial role in the development of the theory of relativity. theory of probability. His other work included hydrostatics.Arthur Cayley was a British mathematician and astronomer. During the same time. He died in St. He became interested in the theory of numbers and stated the Chebyshev problem relating probability to the theory of numbers. James Joseph Sylv ester. He was one of the most f amous Russian mathematicians and he made numerous important contributions to the theory of numbers. and applied mathem atics. a position which he held until his death. in 1876. He published the book. including Newton. Chebyshev helped support his family. In 1841. theory of abstract groups. Chebyshev was elected extraordinary professor of mathematics at Petersburg University where he became a full professor in 1860. analysis. he won a silver medal for deriving an er ror estimate in the NewtonRaphson iterative method. he studied and practiced law. He completed his secondary education at home and enrolled in the departme nt of physics and mathematics at Moscow University in 1837. Muc h of Cotes's time was spent in editing a second edition of Newton's Principia Ma thematica. Chebyshev was very curious about mechanical inventions during childhood and it was stated that during his very first lesson in geometr y he saw its applicatins to mechanics. He won several academic honors including the Royal medal in 1859 and the Copley medal in 1881 from the Royal S ociety. Kaluga region in Russia. When his father became very poor duri ng the famine of 1840. the . In 1863 Cayley was elected to the Sadlerian chair of pure mathematics at Cambridge Univ ersity. treatments of rational algebrai c expressions. Russia on December 8. ``Treatise on Elliptic Functions''. During the fourteen years Cayley was at the ba r. Petersburg. algebra. the algebraic theory of invariants. he wrote nearly 300 mathematical papers.
Newton later attempted to formulate a similar rule for the complex roots. he was appointed as a co-chair of mathematics. Due to his yo ung age. his actual original c ontributions on algebraic curves and mathematical utility are less well-known. the academies of Berlin. Desc artes attempted at one time to give a physical theory of the universe. including membership in the Royal Society of London. it is clear that he was well aware of three-dimensional representations of a point in space. however. His primary contributions to mathematics are in analyti cal geometry and the theory of vortices. The first two . He also invented the notation for expressing powers. I n the context of developing a theory of algebraic curves. Cramer never married and died in Bagnolssur-ceze. now known as Cramer's rule. He received many honors. France. Gabriel Cramer [1704-1752] Gabriel Cramer (1704 . France and treated mathematics as a hobby while in the army as a young man. Lyons. Switzerland and de fended a thesis dealing with sound at the age of eighteen. Although he is well-known for Cramer's rule and Cramer's paradox.1752) was born and educated in Geneva.earliest attempt to form a theory of errors. he compete d for the chair of philosophy at the Academie de Calvin in Geneva. Cramer pub lished his major work. He abando ned it when he realized that it would result in conflict with the Church. were almost identical to Newton's. Montpellier. In any case. René Descartes [1596-1650] Descartes was born in Tours. . applications of the method of diffe rences. Descartes is responsible for the custom of using early lette rs of the alphabet for known quantities and those near the end of the alphabet f or unknown quantities. He was promoted to chair of mathematics in 1734 and was made professor of philosophy in 1750. in an appendix. ``Introduction a l'analyse des lignes courbes algebriques ''. however. neither of these were totally his original contributions. and problems in particle dynamics. in 1750. His work laid the foundation for analyt ical geometry and focused on the two-dimensional rectangular coordinate system. In fact. He formulated the rule of signs for the positive and negat ive roots of polynomials. At age 20. and the Institute of Bol ogna. eight of the ten laws of nature he proposed were incorrect. Cramer included a meth od of solving systems of algebraic equations.
In 1741. Euler joined the B erlin Academy of Sciences at the strong request of Frederick the Great. the the ory of equations. and analytical geometry. Petersburg.early As a child. He dealt with three-dimensional surfaces. He succeeded Ga uss as Professor of Higher Mathematics at Göttingen. and comp leted his Master's degree at age 16. When they went to Russia at the invitation of Ca therine I. He formed a lifelong friendship with Bernou lli's sons Daniel and Nicholas. Euler was responsible for establishing Newtonian thought in Russia and Prussia. He gave a full analytic treatment of algebra. Among E uler's contributions to mathematics were extensive revisions of almost all of th e branches of mathematics. He continued this practice later in life. Despite this and other misfortunes (including a fire that destroyed many of his papers). Euler eventually became Professor of Mathematics in 1733 when the chair was vacated by Daniel Bernoulli. that good mathematics and good health were p ossible only if one did not wake up too in the morning. He treated series expan sions of functions and stated the rule that only convergent infinite series coul d be used safely. obviously shared by many. studied under Johann Bernoulli at Basel. within a few year s of returning to Russia from Berlin. Empress of Russia. Eule r was one of the most competent and prolific mathematicians of any time. He i ntroduced the current notations for the trigonometric functions (at about the sa me time as Simpson) and showed the relation . Leonhard Euler [1707-1783] Euler was born in Switzerland. trigonometry. and stated the opinion. the theory of the pot ential. fifth-degree equations. He devoted much time to expos itions of works by Gauss and Jacobi. Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet [1805-1859] Dirichlet was the student of Gauss and the son-in-law of Jacobi. Descartes was allowed to stay in bed until late in the morning becau se of his frail health. he was almost totally blind. they obtained a place for Euler at the Academy of Sciences in St. and imaginary numbers among other subjects. His own work established Fourier s Theorem (on heat conduction) and dealt with the theory of numbers. and definite integrals. Petersburg 25 years later (and was succeeded at Berlin by Lagrange). Euler was blind in one eye by the time he was in his late 20s. number theory. calculus and calculu s of variations. He retur ned to St.
and diagonalsums are identical. the articularly extraordinary Euler magic s uare (Ref. a d Lagra ge's calculus of variatio s have bee give a E uleria flavor. Euler made sig ifica t co tributio s to astro omy. Yet a other Euler equatio is the i viscid equatio of motio i flui d dy amics. column sums. He is famous for his ex eriments on heat conduction which. Outside of pure mathema tics. This exte ds eve to the symbol π. (Baron) Jean Ba tiste Jose h Fourier [1768-1830] Fourier was among the rominent French hysicists who also had su erb abilities in mathematics. which ear ed his widow £5000 from the E glish Parliame t. the umber of faces f. Euler's s uare is an (8 x 8) matrix in which the row sums and column sums (but not the dia gonal sums) are identical. Another Euler e uation (ν + f . the integers from 1 to n2 fill the (n x n) cells of a matrix in such a way that all row sums. along with ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . The interesting features are that the sum for half a row or column is half of the full sum. Euler tackled the three-body problem of celestial mecha ics. A-2. a d the umber of edges of a polyhedr o .between the trigonometric and exponential functions in the equation that bears h is name .(exp(iθ) = cosθ + i sinθ). In magic s uares. The Beta a d Gamma fu ctio s were i ve ted by Euler. the ex onential symbol e. the functional n otation f(x). a d acoustics. Most eo le are familiar with the (3 x 3) s uare. and that the numbers re resent consecutiv e moves that a knight makes on a chessboard to hit every s uare once. almost every traditio al subject i physics a d mathema tics that the moder e gi eeri g stude t is likely to e cou ter has Euler's impr i t. the imaginary number i. £300 was also se t to Euler as a ho orarium. 21) is shown in Fig. Euler's results e abled Joha Mayer to co struct lu ar tables. Eve curre t forms of Ber oulli's hydrostatic equatio .e = 2) relates the umber of vertices ν. optics. I astro omy. and the summation symbol Σ. mecha ics. I short. To close the int roduction to Euler. Lagra ge's d escriptio of fluids.
His analysis res ulted in an a ointment as Director of the Göttingen observatory and as Professor of Astronomy. roofs. Karl Friedrich Gauss [1777-1855] Gauss was born in Braunschweig. he removed all of his analytical ste s and re laced them with extremely br ief. his ublished work was often difficul t to follow. however. His work on the last is commemorated by the Gauss as the unit of magnetic flux density. Gauss's interests were so far ranging that they o ened avenues of investigation for many others. and La lace are widely considered to be giants of analysis. and they built an ironfree magnetic' observatory at Göttingen. As a result. He was created a Baron in 1808 by Na oleon. Fourier had accom anied Na oleon's eastern ex edition to Egy t and served as Governor of Lower Egy t from 1798 until the French surrendered to Bri tish forces in 1801. and electrici ty and magnetism. Lagrange. Gauss. Gauss and Weber invented the declination instrument an d the magnetometer. He h ad also obtained certain results on the theory of functions that were later foun d by Abel and Jacobi. Among their researches. which is widely used in mod ern analysis. Although he retained these ositions until he died. they demonstrated the feasibility of telegra hic commun ications. o tics. Among the other subjects were geodesy. The reluctance to ublish was erha s also related to Gauss's style. Gauss also develo ed th e method of least s uares and the fundamental laws of robability distributions. but he was unwilling to allow his students to take notes. though rigorous. various branches of algebra. these were not ublished. gave rise to Fourier's Theorem. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . In his ublished work. His notable mathematical work included the theory of numbers. Fourier's work on the analytic al theory of heat contained the Fourier sine series. Others had ro osed similar ideas . Germany. the last formed the basis for Jacobi's work in that area. and the theory of determinants. His oral resentations contained much of the analysis that was obscured in his ublished w ork. Gauss moved on to other subjects. Gauss's interests included astronomy (he calculated the orbital ele ments of the asteroid Ceres following its discovery by Piazzi).Lagrange had given s ecific cases and Budan had st ated the same theorem without satisfactory roof.ideas drawn from Newton's Law of Cooling.
number theory. Jacobi married Marie chwinck in 1831 and they had five sons and three daughters. He entered the Gymnasium at Potsdam in 1816 an d excelled in Greek. Latin. and his solution of fifth-degree e uation by elli tic funct ions. He became an ins iring figure in mathematics not o nly during his life time but also afterwards. communicated his discoveries to Jacobi who got those letters rinted in Crille's Journal. After seeing no ros ect of romoti on in Berlin. Gauss and Lagrange instead of re aring for his examinations. Hermite inte r olation rocedure. first at the College Henri IV and later at the College Louis-le-Grand. when he was only twenty yea rs old. He submitted his Ph. he moved to the University of Konigsberg in May 1826 and became a full rofessor in 1832. and generalized some of the theorems. mathematical analysis. Germany) was a German mathematician who was born in a wealthy and cultured family. but left Polytechni ue without graduation. He studied in Paris. history and mathematics by the time he graduated fro m the Gymnasium in 1821. There he read the works of Euler. He then joined the University of Berlin and after findi ng the level of lectures in mathematics to be elementary. Hermite joined the Ecole Polytechni ue in 1848 as re etiteur a nd admissions examiner and subse uently took over Duhamel's chair as rofessor o f analysis at the same lace. Jacobi's fundamental research. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . who was the sixth of the seven child ren of Ferdinand Hermite and Madeleine Lallemand. Germany and died on 18 February 1851 in Berlin. and mechani cs. For exam le. He got admitted wit h a oor rank. was ublished in Crelle's Journal fur die reine und angewandte Mathematik. but also into th e theories of integration and differential e uations. mostly in the theory of elli tic functions. Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi [1804-1851] Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (born on 10 December 1804 in Potsdam. He took the examinatio ns for a career of rofesseur.Charles Hermite [1822 – 1901] Charles Hermite was a French mathematician. he studied the works o f Euler. La ter he tried to continue his studies at Ecole Polytechni ue. his solution of Lame differential e uation. thesis in 1825 and began his career as Privatdozent at th e University of Berlin at the age of twenty. The methods he devel o ed for solving linear algebraic e uations and the algebraic eigenvalue roblem have become known as Jacobi methods. Later he studied the works of Cauchy and Liouvill e on function theory as well as those of Jacobi on elli tic and hy erbolic funct ions.D. J acobi linked his research to different mathematical disci lines. geometry. Hermitean olynomials. In todays mathematics. a com lex generalization of uadratic forms. Lagrange and other leading mathematicians rivately and mastered them. Jacobi resented it systematically and also in troduced the term "Jacobian" in the theory of determinants. In 1843. he introduced elli tic functions not only into the number theory. Hermite is remembered through Hermitean forms. Although the theory of det erminants was started by Leibniz.
1838 and died in Paris on January 22. recognizing the su eriority of Lagrange's a roach.Jacobi had small ox and died in the early art of 1851. Italy. He did not show any taste for mathematics until he was 17. he w rote to Euler with the solution of an iso erimetrical roblem that had been disc ussed for over fifty years.Lie's ``continuous grou s'' and Klei n's ``discontinuous grou s''. 1921. Camille Jordan [1838 – 1921] Camille Jordan was born in Lyons. was one of the greatest of the eighteenth-centur y mathematicians. France on January 5. who was a clo se friend of Jacobi. The refinement he suggested to the Gauss eliminati on method for solving linear simultaneous e uations has become known as the Gaus s-Jordan elimination method. While worki ng as an engineer. He was elected a member of the Academy of ciences in 1881. He made many fundamental contributions to grou theor y including the first art of the famous Jordan-Holder theorem and was regarded as the undis uted master of grou theory. he became a lecturer at 18 after only a year's study. entered Ecole Polytechni ue at the age of 17. The n. Kutta. He was born into a well-to-do family where his father was an engineer and mother was a sister of the famous ainter Pierre Puvis de Chavannes . Euler. He also made im ortant contribution to the theory of a Jose h Louis Lagrange [ 1736-1813 ) Lagrange. The method used by Lagrange contained the rinci les of calculus of variations. (1867-1944) was a German mathematician and aerodynamist who extended the Rung develo ed by Runge for numerically solving differential e uations e uations. At 19. Jordan was a brilliant student. born in Turin. Jordan wrote 120 mathematical research a ers. He ublished his results of grou theo ry in ``Traite des substitutions'' in 1870. Wilhelm Kutta. In addition. delivered the memorial lecture at the Berlin Academy on 1 J uly 1852 and called him the greatest mathematicians among the members of the Aca demy since Lagrange. selftaught. He taught simultaneously at t he Ecole Polytechni ue and the College de France from 1873 until his retirement in 1912. and continued as a ractising engineer until 1885. withheld his own a er on the ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . His works were considered to be the s ource for the discoveries of his students . Dirichlet. Wilhelm e-Kutta method to systems of irfoils. which remained a bible in grou theo ry for several years. He was conside red a universal mathematician who ublished a ers in ractically all branches o f mathematics of his time. Jordan obtained several im ortant results in algebra including the finiteness theorems.
he was satisfied that his results were correct. The theory of ca illary attraction is also due to La lace. and on solutions to the linear artial diffe rential e uation. La lace also resen ted the formal roofs for the method of least s uares. Among his early contributions were roofs of the stability of lanetary motions and wo rk on integral calculus. La lace was not well l iked. even so. Des ite his ettiness. Lagrange's style was to seek general solutions to r oblems. He gave either little or no acknowledgment of results that he had a ro ri ated from others. He did not care if roofs of his work were nonexistent or res ented incorrectly. that is.roblem. He gave the com lete solution for the transverse vi bration of a string and discussed echoes. who was im ressed by a a er on mechanics. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ . which had been given em i rically by Gauss and Legendre. his work was easy to follow because of the meticulous care he u sed to ex lain his rocedures. and differential e uations. and did extensive work on çelestial mechanics. he determined the attraction of a s heroid on an exterior article. Because of his ersonality. In the 1780s. and the idea of the otential was taken f rom Lagrange's earlier works. These roofs contain exam les of La lace's a roa ch . He develo ed the La lacian e uation for otentials. La lace ut forth the nebular hy othesis. Lagrange was thus allowed to com lete his work and to receive the credi t for the invention of a new form of calculus. but the analysis was so scanty and had so many er rors that many eo le uestioned if he had actually done the work he resented. Eu ler. Other major work contained solutions of several roblems in dynamics by the calculus of variations. He began his rofessional life on the basis of a r ecommendation from D'Alembert. In his volu mes on celestial mechanics. Pierre imon (Mar uis de) La lace [1749-1827] La lace was born in Normandy. and com ound sounds. finite differences.his results were correet. in so doing. La lace was a very ca able mathematician. on definite integrals as solution s to linear differential e uations. on uadratic factors for e uations of even degree. Other contributions were on determinants (at the same time as Vandermonde). t hat the solar system evolved from a rotating gaseous nebula. Lagrange's later works included c orrections or im rovements to works by such eminent mathematicians as Newton. and D'Alembert. he introduced s herical harmonics (or La lace coefficients) and develo e d the conce t of the otential. imilar coefficients for two-dimensional s ace h ad been resented earlier by Legendre. the henomenon of beats. Taylor.
His treatment of elli tic integrals also gave way to later su erior methods by A bel and Jacobi. Urbain Jean Jose h Leverrier [1811-1877] Leverrier was born in t. It was his suggestion to Johann Galle that actually led to Ne tune's discovery within 1 degree of the redicted location. and was later a ointed as a lecturer there. ¢¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ give the inco lace ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ . La lace sought social rominence. Any am bitions he may have had for greater recognition were stifled by La lace's influe nce and hostility. His mastery of to ics ranged over mathematics. inde endently of and later than Ad ams. when it was clear that Na oleon's em ire was crumbling. He. calculated the orbit of Ne tune. Leverrier's main work was in revising tables of lanetary motion. clas sical languages. Later. was educated at the Polytechnic chool in Paris. hiloso hy. Lö. In both cases. theology. Legendre held various ublic service and minor governmental ositions. who sought su ort from scientific community. and law. Legendre's major contributions were in geometry. the theory o f numbers. He was n the ost of Minister of the Interior by Na oleon. he was u staged by La lace who develo ed the full form of s herical harmonics and gave formal roofs for the method of least s uares.Adrian Marie Legendre [1752-1833] Legendre was born in Toulouse and educated in Paris. but he was removed in less than two months because of m etence. His early mathematical contribut ions included work on combinations and an im rovement of Pascal's ¢ Aside from scientific recognition. (Baron) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz  Leibniz was born in Lei zig. He had the misfortune of ha ving lived at the same time as La lace. In addition to a rofessorial a ointmen t. Among th ese are s ecific instances of s herical harmonics and work on the method of leas t s uares. La offered his services to the Bourbons and was granted the title of Mar uis. various to ics in integral calculus. and elli tic functions.
he acted as editor for other works. Leibniz dabbled in dynamics. a reflecting microsco e. Other nota tional conveniences that were introduced by Leibniz include the dot as a symbol for multi lication. The controversy with Leibniz caused many English scholars to ersist in using this notation and resulted in the hindrance of mathematical develo ments until Babbage and his colleagues broke free of that rejudice. and by Hooke on the Earth's diurna l motion. it is clear that his different ial (dy/dx) notation was instrumental in the develo ment of calculus. and was consulted by Leibniz on infinite series. His more im ortant mathematical contribution was in the dev elo ment of calculus. Incorrect estimates of distances caused the first attem t at verification to fail. Des ite controversy about the source of Leibniz's ideas (s ome thought that he had access to Newton's work). He later re eate d the calculations successfully with more ¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ . which allows uick est descent from one oint to another under gravity) and another locus roblem. and his work on o tics. his Laws of Motion. It also seemed that Newton took the least obvious route in demo nstrating some of his hy otheses. which was ver y difficult to master. ( ir) Isaac Newton [1642-1727] Newton was born in Lincolnshire and was educated at Cambridge. Another challenge resulted in Newton's laying down the rinci les of trajectories in a matter of hours. Newton holds a rominent lace in science and mathematics for his conce t of infinitesimal ca lculus. the e ual sign. Newton accom lished in a day what had taken Leibniz six months to solve. and the sextant. For exam le. He also urged Peter the Great to establish the Ac ademy of ciences at t. Euler was one who strongly o o sed this hiloso hy. now known to be the cycloid. He is also credited with the develo ment of the binary number system. Petersburg. Newton's work on calculus used the fluxion notation. but it is clear that his knowl edge in that area was limited. He held that beings called mona ds were the ultimate elements of the universe. Newton had another controversial relation with Hooke and others regard ing the theory of colors. and inferred the existence of God from the harmony that existed among the monads. he sought to verify his early hy othesis on gravitation by considering the orbit of the Moon. his Law of Gravitation. the integral sign. The last included inventions of a refracting telesco e. He was challenged by Johann Bernoulli to solve the bra chistochrone roblem (the curve. He later held the Lucasian Chair at Cambridge (the same one later held by Babbage). and the decimal oint.calculating machine. Leibniz is a lso a major figure in the history of hiloso hy. New ton's genius was so widely recognized that he was always consulted or challenged . For exam le. by Halley on gravitation.
in which he effective ly found the definite integrals of some trigonometric functions by summation tec hni ues. another of the truly great minds. ca illary action. there is the tribute aid to him by Gauss. his father restricted his st udies to languages and rohibited the study of mathematics so that he would not be overworked. and he undertook the study of geometry. The genius in Newton is exem lified by the raise he received from Lagrange and even from La lace. electrostatics. by which he is best remembered. Because of his health. but he reserved the word summus (the best) only for Newton. His aversion to that rofession turned into ermanent abandonment when one of t he first atients he treated by himself died (though not through any fault of Po isson). creati on of the theory of robability (along with Fermat). imeon Denis Poisson [1781-1840] Poisson was born in Pithiviers and was educated by his father to be a hysician. Newto n was knighted in 1705. He also devoted time to the study of cycloids. Another exam le is his develo ment of the series ex ansion for the inverse sine function. Blaise Pascal [1623-1662] Pascal was born in Clermont. G auss used words like mangus or clarus to describe other great mathematicians and hiloso hers. is the correction of La lace's e uation to roduce the Poisson e nation for the otential. he went back and forth between mathematics and religious hiloso hy. Among his mathematical works are those related to the hysics of gases and li uids. fro m which he then deduced the ex ansion for the sine. In later years. He turned to mathematics and became a rolific contributor on the a lic ations of mathematics to roblems in hysics. Another. ¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ . Pascal wrote a a er on conic secti ons at age 16 and built his celebrated adding machine at age 18. Pascal's curiosity soon led him to disregard his father's injunct ion. A major mathem atical accom lishment was on the a lication of Fourier series to the solutions of hysical roblems. and the creation of Pascal' s triangle.accurate estimates obtained in the course of Hooke's consultation. and magnet ism. Above all . These last two s awned new branches of mathematical hysics. mechanics. heat. The fields with which he dealt inc luded robability.
the RungeKutta method for the numerical int egration of differential e uations is amenable for digital com uters and still r emains current. He moved to Konigsberg in 1842 and studied with Bessel and Jacobi. Phili Ludwig von eidel [1821 – 1896] Phili Ludwig von eidel was a German astronomer and mathematician. During the great dis ute in the mathematical commun ity at that time over the discovery of differential calculus. ome of the methods Runge develo ed have become very o ular. He was born in Zweibrucken. including the numerical solution of algebraic e uations. Justus Christian Felix eidel. After graduating from school. a Fellow of the Royal ociety of Lo ndon and a friend of Newton. Carl David Tolme Runge [1856 – 1927] Carl David Tolme Runge was born in Bremen. In 1843. After com leting the Gymnasium at age nineteen. eidel entered Berlin University in 1840 a nd attended the lectures of Dirichlet and Encke. he took rivate lessons in mathematics from L.Jose h Ra hson [1648 – 1715] Jose h Ra hson was an English mathematician. fin ding not much attraction to those lectures. While his brothers ursued commercial careers. was a ost off ice official. robabi lity theory and hotometry. influenced by Kronecker. His fat her accumulated comfortable ca ital before his death in 1864. The hotome tric measurements of fixed stars and lanets he made were the first ones to be m ade and his investigations led to the roduction of im roved telesco es. Germany in a merchant family. Runge showed interest in more intellectual careers from childhood. naturally Ra hson sided with Newton (instead of Leibnitz). However. he moved to Munich and obtained his doctorate for the dissertation. C. in 1846. He was given a rofessorshi at Technische Hoch schule in Hannover in 1886 as a condition of marriage. eidel's major investigations were in the fields of dio trics and mathe matical analysis with some contributions to the method of least s uares. chnurlein. Runge. young Phili eidel had to s end his childhood at several laces. He com leted his doctorate on differetial geo metry in the s ring of 1880. who studied under Gauss. Runge turned to ure mathematics and became a disci le of Weierstrass. he enrolled in t he University of Munich and took courses with Max Planck with whom he maintained friendshi and contact throughout his life. Uber die beste Form der iegel in Telesko en. ince his father. continued to work o n a variety of roblems in algebra and function theory.eidel iteration method. He a l ied robability theory to astronomy and studied the relation between the fre uen cy of certain ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢£ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢¢ ¢ £ £ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ . In the fall of 1877. The method he ro osed for the solution of linear al gebraic e uations has become known as Gauss. Planck and Run ge went to Berlin to attend the lectures of Kirchoff and Helmholtz.
John's College in 1701.1761) was born in England. a). for finding the area under a curve as where the curve is re laced by a arabola assing through the b) and (C. Brook Taylor [1685-l73l] Brook Taylor was born in England in a well-to-do family. geometry and trigonometry became best sellers.B. degree in 1714. (B. His father was a weaver who wa nted his son to take u the same rofession. Langhans. he worked as a weaver during day time and taught at e venings. degree in 170 9. im son ac uired a local re utation as a fortune teller during his childhood. ``A New Treatise of Fluxions'' in 1737 . Taylor's scientific wor k was influenced by his home life. During this eriod. was elected to the Royal ociety in 1712. received the LL. For some time. it brought additional ublici ty to im son. Lucie. The family archives o f Taylor contained an un ublished manuscri t entitled “On Musick'' and some ainti ngs. ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ £ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ £ ¢ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ . His b ooks on algebra. Although Robert Heath accused him of lagiarism. Through his studies in arithmetic a nd astrology. im son was a ointed second mathematical master at the Royal Mil itary Academy in 1743 and was elected fellow of the Royal ociety in 1745. oints (A. His father was interested in music and art and entertained many musicians in his home.diseases and climate conditions at Munich. he visited France several times and develo ed scienti fic corres ondence with Pierre Remond de Montmort and Abraham De Moivre on infin ite series and robability. He ublished his first mathematical contributions in the well-known ``L adies Diary'' in 1736 and his first book. Taylor entered t. He was made a member of the Bavarian Academy of ciences in 1851 and a full rofessor at Bavaria in 1855. His major scientific contributions are in the areas of vibrating string and ers ective drawing. It is ironic that im son is best remembered for im son's rule. and was awarded the LL.D. and later by the widow of the clergyman. He remained a bachelor . which was discovered long before him. and was cared for until 1889 by his u nmarried sister. Thomas im son [1710-1761] Thomas im son (1710 . c). eidel reti red early due to eye roblems and died in Munich in 1896. He assumed the e ditorshi of the annual ``Ladies Diary'' from 1754 and ac uired a re utation as the ablest analyst that England can boast of. had to retire early due to eye roblems.
a re utable mathematician and devoted much o f his leisure time to mathematics. ualifies Taylor as one of the founders of the calculus of finite differences and as one of the firs t to use it in inter olation and summation of series. his ublica tions dealt with functional analysis and ex eriments on ca illarity. His major work was on the a lication of algebraic tech ni ues to roblems in geometry. was trained as a lawyer. and he devised a closedform method for com ut ing the roots of cubic e uations. François Viete (Franciscus Vieta) [1540-1603] Viete was born in Fontenay. dealing with h the determination of the center of oscillation of a body. He is best known for the theorem or rocess for ex anding functi ons into infinite series that is commonly known as ``Taylor's series ex ansion'' .Taylor ublished his first im ortant a er. His skill in algebra was robably hel ed by his insistence on using notations that clearly indicated a ower. magnetism a nd thermometer. ``Methodus''. and s ent most of his life in ublic service. Much of his later work was o n roots of e uations by factoring. He was. ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ . Taylor's most roductive eriod was 1714-1719. His main interests lay in algebra and geometr y. instead of the cus tom of assigning a different letter for each ower. however. in the Philoso hical Transactions of the Ro yal ocietry in 1714. He knew how to write multi le angle formulas for sines and was ade t at mani ulating algebraic forms. The mathematical book he ublished in 1715.
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