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Table of Contents
1 2 3 4 Introduction.............................................................................................. 1 Discover 3D Data Formats...................................................................... 3 Discover 3D Menu in the 2D Environment............................................ 7 Discover 3D Interface.............................................................................. 9 The 3D Interface........................................................................................ 9 Navigating in 3D ...................................................................................... 10 Exaggerating the scale............................................................................ 12 View Modes ............................................................................................. 12 Menus...................................................................................................... 13 Workspace Tree ...................................................................................... 13 Inserting datasets .................................................................................... 16 3D Session File ....................................................................................... 16 Properties Dialogs ................................................................................... 16 Display 3D Axes ...................................................................................... 18 3D Cursor Plane ...................................................................................... 19 Feature Toolbar ....................................................................................... 20 5 3D Raster Images .................................................................................. 23 View Map in 3D ....................................................................................... 23 3D Display Wizard ................................................................................... 24 Overlay Image on Grid ............................................................................ 25 Insert Image directly into 3D.................................................................... 25 Georeferencing Wizard ........................................................................... 26 Multi Section Creator............................................................................... 26 6 View Vector Data as 3D DXFs .............................................................. 29 Import 3D Vector File .............................................................................. 29 Import Objects from Table or Selection................................................... 30 Creating 3D Extrusions ........................................................................... 31 7 View 3D Point and Line Data ................................................................ 33 View 3D Point Data ................................................................................. 33 View 3D Line Data................................................................................... 35 8 Gridded Surfaces .................................................................................. 37 What is a Surface Grid? .......................................................................... 37 Configuring Grid File Formats ................................................................. 39 Create Surface Grid ................................................................................ 40 Input Tab ............................................................................................ 41 Modify Grid Appearance.......................................................................... 43 Assign Grid Values to Vector Layers ...................................................... 45 Surface Profile over a Grid or Contour Plan............................................ 46 Contouring a Grid File ............................................................................. 48 Grid Query using Multiple Ranges .......................................................... 49 Convert Grid to New Grid Format............................................................ 51 Importing a Grid Surface ......................................................................... 51 Clip Grid................................................................................................... 52
Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual
Reproject Grid ..........................................................................................54 Gridding Geochemical Data .....................................................................54 Inverse Distance Weighting ................................................................58 Kriging .................................................................................................61 Grid Calculator .........................................................................................61 Gridding Geophysical Data ......................................................................63 Filtering a Surface ....................................................................................64 List of Available Grid Utilities....................................................................65 Displaying Surfaces in 3D ........................................................................66 9 2D Drillholes ...........................................................................................71 Introduction...............................................................................................71 Steps to Create Drillhole Sections ...........................................................72 Drillhole Data Format ...............................................................................73 Collar Table .........................................................................................73 Downhole Survey Table ......................................................................73 Downhole Data Tables........................................................................74 Create Drillhole Project ............................................................................75 Data Validation .........................................................................................77 Create Drillhole Sections and Plans.........................................................79 Display Downhole Data on Section..........................................................82 Create Drillhole Colour Pattern ................................................................84 Using the Drillhole Section Manager........................................................86 Adding a Drillhole Section to a Layout .....................................................88 Extracting Maximum and EOH Assay Values for a Drillhole ..............89 Drillhole Log Display.................................................................................90 Digitizing Boundaries and Exporting to 3D DXF ......................................92 Calculating Sectional Resources .............................................................93 Data Compositing.....................................................................................94 Compositing by Unique Attribute ........................................................95 Compositing by Cut-off Grade.............................................................96 Compositing by Elevation and Downhole Depth.................................96 Calculate 3D Coordinates ........................................................................96 Drillhole Project Management ..................................................................96 10 3D Drillholes ...........................................................................................97 Drillholes...................................................................................................97 Drillhole Sections......................................................................................99 Drillhole Logs......................................................................................... 100 Drillhole Selections................................................................................ 101 Display Downhole Data ......................................................................... 101 Section Boundaries ............................................................................... 107 11 Voxel/Block Models............................................................................. 109 Opening a Voxel Model ......................................................................... 109 Voxel display options............................................................................. 110 Import and Export of Voxel models ....................................................... 112 Creating a Voxel model ......................................................................... 113 Examining the data distribution ........................................................ 114 Gridding numeric data...................................................................... 115 Gridding geological data .................................................................. 117 12 3D Digitization and Solid Generation ................................................ 119 Digitization............................................................................................. 120 Feature editing ...................................................................................... 121 13 Example exercises .............................................................................. 123
Table of Contents
Movie Making ....................................................................................... 125 3D Fly-Through Animation .................................................................... 125 How Fly-Through Animation Works ................................................. 125 Create 3D Fly-Through File................................................................... 127 General Playback Options ............................................................... 128 Add capture points and event details ............................................... 129 Output Formats ................................................................................ 131
3D Printing and Output Options ........................................................ 133 Print Directly from Discover 3D ............................................................. 133 Export 3D View as Raster Image .......................................................... 134 Add 3D View to MapInfo........................................................................ 134 Save to Package ................................................................................... 134 3D Workspace File ................................................................................ 135
Appendix A Menus and Toolbars................................................................. 137 File Menu............................................................................................... 137 View Menu............................................................................................. 138 Insert Menu............................................................................................ 138 Tools Menu............................................................................................ 139 Utilities Menu ......................................................................................... 140 Main Toolbar.......................................................................................... 141 Data Objects Toolbar ............................................................................ 141 Workshop Notes ............................................................................................ 143
View orientations can also be taken from Discover 3D back into MapInfo and displayed in a layout for presentation purposes. Additional objects such as 3D DXFs. drillholes and 3D objects displayed . No additional project specification or data setup is required since the displays within MapInfo. The Discover 3D display below is typical of the type of displays derived from various data types.Introduction 1 1 Introduction Encom Discover 3D is a separate add-on module designed to work seamlessly with Encom Discover. this is all you need to operate Discover 3D. a drillhole project and sections in Discover. geochemistry and geophysics. Discover 3D operates seamlessly with Encom Discover. created by Discover. panning and flythrough capability. Discover 3D enables data to be viewed interactively with zooming. Complex view with surface. are passed directly to Discover 3D for presentation and interactive use. If you know how to create a map. Surfaces representing topography. The module is automatically disabled in the Discover menu unless the Discover 3D module has been purchased. drillhole sections containing assays or lithological data or any other mapped data combinations created using MapInfo/Discover can be transferred to the Discover 3D interactive three-dimensional environment. grid surfaces and raster images plus point and line data can be added to the 3D displays from MapInfo or independently.
Existing DXF files (eg the output from modelling programs) can be opened directly into Discover 3D via a number of menu options. Images can also be directly opened and georeferenced in the 3D window. These display types directly reference the source MapInfo TAB file. but the data cannot be modified or interrogated. DXF/Vector Objects MapInfo vector data such as points. Images The content of any map window open within MapInfo/Discover can be displayed within the 3D environment as a geo-located image. A lot of data can be easily displayed in 3D as an image. Drillhole sections and Drillhole Logs can also be displayed as images using the View Sections and View Logs options. colour. or it can be ‘draped’ over a gridded surface (e. These allow a 3D display to be created both from datasets already open within 2D MapInfo/Discover interface.Discover 3D Data Formats 3 2 Discover 3D Data Formats The Discover 3D module comprises both a Discover 3D menu within the 2D/MapInfo interface. particularly points and polylines. These include point labelling. . .BMP. size and rotation modulation by data values. lines and polygons can be displayed in Discover 3D as DXF files. The image’s RL can be assigned manually. All data sets visible in the map window (e. as well as its own separate 3D interface/window.EGB file (georeferencing header file). Images with an existing . vector data) will be incorporated into the image. a DEM grid). This wizard supports .JPG image formats. grids. however they have limited display options.PNG. This allows a large range of data formats to be created and supported by Discover 3D. or by simply dragging and dropping the DXF from Windows Explorer. This produces a .g. Examples of these display formats: • • Colour modulating regional geochemical point datasets Displaying prospect scale geochemical data as lines offset by an assay value (eg Cu) above a DEM surface. images. using the View Map in 3D menu option. Points/Lines Point data in MapInfo tables can be displayed in Discover 3D as 3D Lines or 3D Points.EGB file can also be opened directly from within the 3D window.g. DXF’s are a very efficient way of displaying a large amount of vector data. This could include infrastructure (roads). using the Georeferenced Image Creation Wizard. . and providing powerful display controls. The View Objects in 3D menu option allows any vector dataset open in MapInfo to be converted into a DXF file and placed into the 3D environment. . contour lines (created from a gridded surface using the Surfaces>Contour a Grid menu option) or orebody boundaries interpreted on drillhole cross sections (display in 3D using the View Section Boundary option).PNG image with an accompanying .GIF and . and/or by opening applicable data directly into the 3D window.TIF. offset controls and support for True Type fonts.
MIF format can be directly displayed in Discover 3D as individually sized and orientated 3D Symbols. A large range of grid types are supported. survey and downhole data . as well as labelling and annotation options. Alternatively. voxel models. Gridded Surfaces Grids created using either the Discover>Surfaces menu or other products (eg topographic or geochemical surfaces in formats such as Geosoft. . The display of 3D drillholes can be modified by colour and thickness modulation.4 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual • Displaying flight lines coloured by date. Surpac. and then edited from within the 3D environment. 3D Symbols Point data in MapInfo . Voxel Models Discover 3D can create. Vulcan and Gocad Voxet. Additionally. ER Mapper. Discover 3D can also directly open Geosoft drillhole databases (usually with a suffix . the relevant collar. polylines and polygons can be digitized and attributed directly into the 3D environment as part of a Feature Database. dxf vector or MapInfo TAB files can be imported as feature database objects. geochemical and/or geophysical grids. Interpretative linework digitized into cross-sections can be exported into 3D as DXF objects. supporting formats such as UBC. This allows the geoscientist to create interpretations in the 3D environment using all relevant datasets (eg drillholes. as well as preliminary support for Datamine.TAB files can be opened directly into Discover 3D if they are assigned to a Discover Drillhole Project.) can displayed in Discover 3D either directly or via the View Surface in 3D menu option. Feature Database Points. etc) without the being limited to traditional 2D cross-sections. Images of cross-sections and drillhole logs created in Discover can also be displayed in 3D. CEMI. however instigating these options on large datasets can severely affect 3D rendering performance. and Noddy. display and manipulate Voxel block models (eg IP resistivity). Support is also provided for the draping of ER Mapper ECW and . Displaying data in 3D as Points or Lines therefore gives the user a great deal of display control and options.GDB).TAB or . Surfer etc.ALG files. Drillholes Drillholes present in an open Discover Drillhole Project can be displayed in Discover 3D using the View Drillholes menu option. Drillhole Selections A selection from a drillhole project (eg all downhole intervals with Au>50ppb in a subset of drillholes) can be displayed as a DXF file in Discover 3D.
.AVI movie files.Discover 3D Data Formats 5 Movies and Fly-Throughs The Fly-Though Wizard allows the creation of both Encom .FLY files for reuse within the 3D environment. as well as .
View Objects in 3D – Select vector objects from a MapInfo map window and view as 3D DXF vector file.Discover 3D Menu in the 2D Environment 7 3 Discover 3D Menu in the 2D Environment To open the Discover 3D menu in the 2D MapInfo/Discover interface select Discover>Discover 3D.Display geophysical/survey data as 3D lines. Discover 3D Menu Options The Discover 3D menu allows a range of data types open within the MapInfo/Discover environment to be displayed in the 3D environment. • • • • • • . View Surface in 3D – Display a gridded surface open in MapInfo in Discover 3D.Display geochemical/geophysical data as 3D points. Create 3D Lines . Refresh All 3D Data – Update data in MapInfo/Discover and send changes through to Discover 3D without having to close down. Create 3D Points . It contains the following functionality: • • Open 3D Window .Open or save 3D Workspace. A 3D workspace saves the current MapInfo and Discover 3D session into a single workspace file. This will place a Discover 3D option on the MapInfo Professional menu bar. View Map in 3D – Display a MapInfo map window view as a georeferenced 3D bitmap image.Open Discover 3D program from MapInfo/Discover Open/Save 3D Workspace .
3D Display Wizard – Display an entire map window view or objects from a table through an easy-to-use wizard interface. • • . etc. veins or mine infrastructure.Display drillholes in 3D. 3D Extrusion Wizard . View Section Boundary – Display section orebody or lithological boundaries as 3D DXF vector files.Display drillhole sections as georeferenced 3D bitmap images. View Sections .Extrude 2D bodies in 3D to aid in visualisation of fault planes. Toggle Auto 3D Selection .Turn the Auto 3D selection option On or Off. map projection. XYZ indicator. images resolution. This option does not load the entire drillhole dataset. Options – Various user-defined system and display settings to customise Discover 3D such as temporary directory location. Use the Overlay Image on Grid to drape a raster image over a gridded surface using the original raster resolution.Display only selected drillholes in 3D. View Drillhole Selection .8 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual • • • • • • • • View Drillholes . View Logs . surface display and compression options. This option loads the entire drillhole dataset.Display drillhole logs as georeferenced 3D bitmap images. 3D Utilities – Use the Multi Section Generator to register multiple images as sections using a series of lines or points.
inserting objects etc.g. This area is used to display windows and dialogs. the Discover 3D window can be accessed when a mappable MapInfo tab file is open in MapInfo/Discover by using the appropriate View option from the Discover 3D menu or by right clicking on a displayed MapInfo Professional map and selecting View in 3D… The 3D Interface The 3D window is divided into six areas: • • The Main Menu items contain the operational pull-down menu controls. A range of buttons within dockable Toolbars are available for controlling various functions (e. The 3D window will open after a short time.Discover 3D Interface 9 4 Discover 3D Interface The main screen items of Discover 3D To open the Discover 3D window. the 3D Navigation Cursor or 3D Cursor coordinates. A Status Bar at the base of the screen to indicate processing and display events. Alternatively. progress bar and other useful progress information. navigation.). • • . select the Discover 3D>Open 3D Window menu option from the Discover 3D menu in the 2D MapInfo interface. Some of these become active only when certain operations or data events are undertaken. A Display Window area that initially contains a white background.
The 3D cursor control sequences are: • • Left mouse button depressed with vertical movement rotates the image about a horizontal axis running through the view point. After clicking the 3D Navigation button move the cursor to the 3D display window (or click the right button while the cursor is located in the display and select Navigate 3D). 2. data sources and controls of the various displays. available through the following buttons: Exercise 4. control the 3D Cursor plane crosshairs. Control of the 3D view is based on the cursor location. select and edit objects and list items. The Interactive Help can be removed from view and restored using the button shown left. Experiment with the controls as detailed below. This option is set by default for normal viewing and display modes (refer to View Modes). Left mouse button depressed with horizontal movement rotates the image about a vertical axis. Data Location: 1. This tree provides a hierarchy view of all objects.10 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual The Workspace Tree on the left of the display window may appear as a separate window or it can be placed or docked where convenient. The Navigate button is used generally to make windows active. and drag and drop the Interp_Structures_all_3D_iso. The Interactive Help (called iHelp) may appear as a separate window or it can be placed or docked where convenient. The 3D Navigation button is used to provide greater control of 3D display manipulation. Sensitivity and speed of movement is controlled by the cursor’s distance from the centre point of the 3D window (the ‘view point’). It can be re-docked by double clicking on the title bar. Navigating in 3D Discover 3D has two modes for controlling for navigation and specifying view positions and movement. . It can be re-docked by double clicking on the title bar.1 Manoeuvre within the 3D environment. Workspace Tree contents alter when a dataset is accessed or a window is highlighted. It allows the 3D display to spin around a horizontal axis if the cursor is moved vertically (with the left mouse button depressed) or in a circular movement around an axis into the screen when the cursor is moved horizontally. Encom Training\Training 3D\Structure From within Windows File Explorer. The Workspace Tree can be removed from view and restored using the button shown left. navigate to the above directory. This sheet provides online assistance for whatever display option is being used.dxf into the 3D window.
Moving the cursor horizontally pans the view (moving the view point left/right). Selection of any of these four buttons rotates and aligns the Discover 3D view to be along the direction selected. whilst moving the cursor vertically moves the view point in a ‘fly-through’ operation. if you Zoom In and hold down the SHIFT key.Discover 3D Interface 11 • Right mouse button with vertical movement zooms the image in or out of the display. . Holding the cursor near the view point reduces the speed of panning. with 1 & 2 applying the slowest zoom speeds and 9 & 0 the fastest. whilst the Pan button enables you to position the cursor in a display window and roam the view. Keyboard entries with mouse manipulation can also be used to control 3D display operation. you can hold down the SHIFT key and the opposite effect is invoked. CTRL key plus pressed left mouse button repositions/rotates the image view whilst maintaining the current eye position. This is only recommended for use in controlling the Page Layout View. East. clicking the N button orients the view to be looking to the north. Left and Right buttons depressed with cursor movement allows positioning of the view point in the X/Y plane. These can be used within the 3D View. While either the Page Zoom In or Zoom Out options are being used. These buttons orient the view to be viewed Upwards or Downwards along the Z (vertical axis). South. and West or Upwards or Downwards. For example. not the 3D View. you can also use this for zoom operations. The numeric keys (1-0) can be used to control the zoom speed. and automatically resizes the page to fit to the extents of the view. • • • • Reset 3D View restores the 3D display to a default such that the first displayed object is centred and shown within the window. but the 3D Navigation control is recommended. The View Direction toolbar is used to automatically align the view to the selected direction North. Nearer the centre of the view reduces the speed of panning. The Page Layout buttons are designed for use mainly within the Page Layout view. the cursor changes to the Zoom Out cursor and has the opposite (Zoom Out) drawing effect. For example. Note If you have a mouse with an ‘active’ wheel. Available combinations include: SHIFT key plus pressed left mouse button repositions the view point in the vertical axis and screen plane (this only operates in Navigate 3D mode). The Fit to Page button is only available in Page Layout view. The Zoom In and Zoom Out controls allow adjustment of the overall zoom ratio of the page display.
This is particularly useful when preserving real world height values (e. Discover 3D displays the 3D objects using all the available area of the display window and provides the most efficient view of data. Two view modes are available: • Normal Mode – This is the default viewing mode. Layout Mode – In Layout mode you can see how objects are positioned on the printed page.g. View Modes The Discover 3D display window varies in appearance depending on the View Mode. DEM grids and drillholes). but exaggerating for example geochemical/geophysical grids. the 3D Map Properties dialog contains options including: • • • • • Add a title to the map window in Page Layout mode Display a bounding box around the 3D data in the map window Display colour and size legends when in Page Layout mode Apply directional or ambient lighting to map window display Apply scaling to map window in XYZ direction Scaling of individual datasets can also be applied via the relevant Property dialog.12 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Exaggerating the scale Bounding Box dialog For Global scaling changes. margins and • . This view is also useful for editing borders. In normal mode.
These menu commands are also duplicated on the Data Object toolbar.Discover 3D Interface 13 the placement of objects prior to printing.On-line help and reference facility. . most of the menu functionality is duplicated in the related Toolbars: • File . Insert – Permits graphical objects to be inserted into existing 3D map window displays. status bar and property dialogs. Solid Generator and DXF utilities. Also provides access to tools such as Grid Flipper. Utilities – Additional Discover 3D add-on modules including Fly-through Wizard. toolbars and control dialogs. Workspace Tree The Workspace Tree is the main means of control used in Discover 3D. except for a few submenu options. Menus Discover 3D contains the following pull-down menus. View . Tools – Provides options and customisation of Discover 3D settings. Features – Import and Export of vectors in feature databases including DXF files. automatically adding 3D window icon (in addition to the present Mapper and Browser icons) with all relevant branches listed beneath it. • • • • • • See Appendix A for full descriptions of menu items.File handling for project sessions and access to external databases is controlled using the options on this menu item. These entities are listed as a hierarchy with various tree branches. This mirrors the functionality of the Workspace Tree. The Workspace Tree is also replicated in the Discover Enhanced Layer Control (ELC).Options to display the various view modes. The Workspace Tree operates by listing ALL objects shown in a display. Setting of printing and exiting are also available. Help . The size and orientation of the page is defined by printer settings specified in the File>Page Setup option You may switch between Normal and Layout views quickly by using the Page Layout button or from the Window menu option.
and selectablilty of each layer as the same as in the Discover Enhanced Layer Control window.14 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Each branch of the tree is subordinate to a higher branch in the hierarchy such that control properties of a higher branch overrule the same properties of a lower branch when they occur. The Workspace Tree grows incrementally as various objects are added or changed. When this is done. editability. or box. . These boxes To the left of each subordinate branch is a small indicate lower levels exist for that branch. The icons to the left of each branch control the visibility. By clicking on these boxes you can expand their content as shown here for the previous tree. additional control branches and data sources appear.
Data Object Branch Properties and Delete options are available. and a Size Scale added. Add axes or add additional data objects such as drillholes.Discover 3D Interface 15 Right mouse button control on Menu display Options available 3D Map Branch Display properties of the 3D Map or any subordinate branches. Open the Fly-through Wizard. Surface Branch Relates to all Data Objects Properties and Delete options are available. The Data Limits can be reset. Colour Legend Branch Properties and Delete options are available. raster images etc. Floating Colour Bar Properties and Add options are available. The Grid Flipper tool can also be accessed. .
from the Open File dialog. The following message appears. the software will not be able to restore the session completely. Discover 3D uses binary session files to save and restore projects. 3D Session File Sessions and project management is controlled by the File>Open Session. their attributes and properties. The session files do not contain data. Message displayed if a component of a session file cannot be read In the event that the requested file is not available. Session file restoration has a lost file recovery mechanism. select the Cancel button and the session will continue through its list of files to restore what it can. Consequently. if a session is opened but the data or object access is not available. Path(s) to drillhole databases. Properties Dialogs From the Workspace Tree every branch can have its properties controlled by either: . Path(s) to any used object. If other files are not accessible. This applies to all component file types that may have been saved with the session. objects or bitmaps. A message is displayed in this circumstance indicating which source file is unreadable. it alerts you and offers the option of browsing for them. Session files are usually saved with the file extension . If Discover 3D cannot locate some data or other necessary files. the above message is repeated. raster and bitmap files.16 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Inserting datasets • Data Objects – allows addition of various data types to 3D view. Save Session and Save Session As items. Within the session files the following information is stored: • • • • • Path(s) to the necessary data source information.EGS. Configuration data for open windows and components.
Discover 3D Interface 17 • • Selecting any branch in the workspace tree and click the right mouse button. • In most cases. the Properties dialog has tabs displayed at the top. select the Restore button to return the control settings to their original state. This is a useful feature that enables changes in various tabs of a Properties dialog to be setup before they are applied (particularly for large datasets where redraw times may be significant). changes to properties are not made until the Apply button is clicked. Select the Workspace Tree branch and then click the Properties button. Each object branch in the Workspace Tree has a Show/Hide check box. If a mistake is made while entering changes. To turn of the visibility of an object branch in the 3D display window uncheck the . The Properties dialog and assorted tab controls If the Auto Apply option is disabled. The Properties menu item accesses the relevant Properties dialog. Double click the relevant item in the Workspace Tree with the left mouse button. enabling the Auto Apply option will apply any changes immediately. which will also close the dialog. Property changes can also be applied by clicking the OK button. Each tab controls a separate aspect of the item selected. In contrast.
sections. font and frequency Axis line and increment style (major and minor linework) Axis origins (as related to axis locations). This dialog allows you to control all aspects of the displayed axes. North –Y and Depth – Z are drawn into the display. 3D display showing axes and Internal 3D Axis dialog The 3D Axis dialog can be displayed from the Properties of the tree branch. Turning off the visibility for an object branch will also turn off the visibility of any sub-branches. Select the Insert>3D Axis menu option. The Workspace Tree.18 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Show/Hide box. Discover 3D allows you to add axes in 3D displays to locate such features. Display 3D Axes Three dimensional displays are powerful tools that assist the understanding of the positions of such things as drillholes. geological features. . (Front/Back/Centre) or (Top/Bottom/Centre) Axis labelling. You have control for: • • • • Axis location (Left/Right/Centre). etc. but they require a clear understanding of their location both in easting/northing and depth. The primary axes (East – X.
3D Cursor plane display with bounding box. Y & Z coordinates for the crosshair position displayed in the status bar (bottom right of the 3D window). with the corresponding X. Clicking the Show 3D Cursor Plane button will display the default Cursor Plane location surrounded by a bounding Focus Box. This mode is particularly useful for aligning the cursor plane with imaged cross-sections. With the Select button enabled. Alternatively. .Discover 3D Interface 19 3D Cursor Plane The 3D Cursor Plane mode allows the user to identify the 3D coordinates of any point in the 3D window. use the 3D Navigation button to control the view. The selected image’s name is displayed at the bottom left of the 3D Window. use the mouse to rotate the view and the mouse wheel to alter the zoom. reselecting the Select button when finished to display the crosshairs. 3D Cursor crosshairs (red) and associated coordinates in the bottom right Use the Select /Navigate button to enable the 3D Cursor within the plane (default display is red cross hairs). Moving the mouse will move the crosshairs accordingly.
Shrink Enlarge Fit The Edit Cursor Plane Properties button enables the appearance of the cursor plane and focus box to be adjusted. faults and alteration zones for example. or resized to the current view using the Fit button.20 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual The orientation of the cursor plane can be controlled via the options below. Locks the cursor plane in its current position when editing features. Up / Down (↑↓) keyboard cursor /arrow keys Left / Right (← →) keyboard cursor /arrow keys Controls the dip of the cursor plane (rotates it about a line located in the XY plane) Controls the azimuth of the cursor plane (dip is constant) PageUp / PageDown Shifts the cursor plane laterally (plane is kept parallel to but shifted left or right (or keyboard buttons up or down) from it’s current position. Feature Toolbar The Features toolbar provides the controls for the creation. . Bonds the cursor plane with that of the selected georeferenced image. This enables the user to digitize points. orebody outlines. allowing a clear view of the data intersected by the plane. The Toggle Transparency Clipping button allows all data in front of the cursor plane to be made transparent. editing and selection of Feature Objects onto the Cursor Plane. maintaining dip and azimuth) Switches the cursor plane between the X. Y and Z planes. It can be resized using the Shrink and Enlarge buttons. polylines and polygons directly into the 3D environment to create objects representing geological interpretations. The Feature Objects can then be used in the 3D Solid Generator utility to create a 3D solid by interpolating between each object. Options include: • • • • • Line colour and thickness Cursor plane fill colour and opacity Display of the 3D cursor as either 2D or 3D crosshairs Manual input of parameters to control the cursor plane position and orientation Focus box size The Focus Box provides a 3D visual reference for controlling the cursor plane.
Delete selected nodes by pressing the keyboard Delete button or move a selected node by holding down the left mouse button and dragging it to a new location. The Select/Navigate mode on the Zoom Controls Toolbar can also be used to select individual objects.Create a selection region to select all Feature Objects that intersect or lie within this region. Activate Elasticity . The Radius controls which neighbouring nodes are affected by the move. etc). The selected object attributes are listed in the Data tab of the Information Sheet. This selection region is independent of the Cursor Plane.Digitise a polyline on the Cursor Plane by clicking on a series of discrete points or holding down the left mouse button and moving the mouse to create a continuous curve. Create Polygon . This dialog also contains options controlling how the affected nodes are moved . Used in tandem with the keyboard CTRL key enables the selection of multiple Feature Objects. Select individual nodes for editing using the Select/Navigate mode on the Zoom Controls Toolbar.Digitise a polygon on the Cursor Plane by clicking on a series of discrete points or holding down the left mouse button and moving the mouse to create a continuous curve. Double click to close the polygon between the first and last points. Double click to complete the polyline.Display and edit nodes for a selected object. Select Feature . Create Line . the Data tab display cycles through each object.this affect is represented graphically next to each option (Gaussian. rather than listing all object information at once). Create Point . Feature Information . Elasticity is configured via the adjacent pull-down arrow. It is drawn in the screen plane and will select all objects below it.e. Square.Discover 3D Interface 21 A Feature database (cosmetic or created) must be editable for the Feature toolbar to be enabled.Similar in function to the Select/Navigate tool.Digitise a point symbol by clicking with left-mouse button at the desired location on the Cursor Plane.Option to display a dialog after each feature object is created to enable input of attribute data.When this option is enabled and a selected node is moved to a new location neighbouring nodes are moved as well. The following controls are available: Confirm New Feature . . Edit . If multiple objects exist at the cursor location the objects are displayed individually in the Data tab of the Information Sheet (i.
when the cursor moves outside the tolerance. a low pitched doh will sound.22 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Snap to node – Allows the current object’s node (new object or editing an existing object) to be snapped to an existing object’s node. when the cursor is close to an existing node. This allows the Pixel Tolerance to be set (i. the cursor will change to a circle in the middle of the cross-hairs. Upon activation.e. left click to snap to this node. it will change to the standard cross hair. The Duration of these beeps can be set in milliseconds. To the right of the Snap toolbar button is a pull-down options dialog. how close the cursor needs to be to an existing node before it can be snapped to that node). . A high-pitched audible Beep (dee) can also be enabled for when the cursor is within the set pixel tolerance. Further keyboard/mouse combinations can be found under the Click Tips tab of Cursor Plane Properties dialog.
egb file would encompass the extents of the largest input dataset. draw a polygon in the cosmetic layer encompassing just the vector data. Add the geological layers to the new map window with the CH_Topography_Clip grid. or selection of a grid file over which to drape the image. 2. select the Grid option.1 Import a MapInfo map window view into 3D Data Location: 1. In the Workspace Tree to the left of the main view window. Exercise 5.TAB. a correctly positioned raster image. 3.e. select it and clip the grid to this polygon (use the Surfaces>Grid Utilities>Clip tool). In the View in 3D dialog.g. This allows the global control of various 3D attributes.egb) i. The Discover3D > View Map in 3D option opens the Discover 3D Map Wizard. from which the desired map window is selected. Turn the visibility off for the grid. Geology_fill. Right clicking in an open mapper and selecting View in 3D will open the same dialog without the need for map selection. Click Apply to apply the changes.g. Note that the Discover3D>View Map in 3D menu option can also be used. and resize and zoom the mapper window so that the Geology view fills the map window display Right click within this mapper window and select the View in 3D option. To prevent this. open the CopperHill_AMG55_AGD66.TAB and Geology_lwk. If this grid is used to drape the geological information in 3D. line or point colour and styles). 5. adjust the Z axis scaling using the slider to accentuate the vertical scaling of the image. Click OK. Training 3D\Topography and Training 3D\Geology With Discover running. the resulting . and display the geology overlying the topographic surface. double-click on the 3D Map branch to open the 3D Map Properties dialog. Call the resulting grid CH_Topography_Clip. however the data is displayed purely as image pixels. . This is a very simple and quick way of displaying a lot of data in 3D. 6. Note that the extents of the grid are significantly larger than the geology vector information. any data attributes are lost (e. and ensure that the CH_Topography_Clip file is selected in the adjacent drop-down box. Discover 3D will open in a separate window. either a fixed height (flat) option.3D Raster Images 23 5 3D Raster Images View Map in 3D Any data displayed in a MapInfo map window can be visualized in the 3D environment as a georeferenced bitmap image (*. soil copper values) and individual object and datasets properties cannot be altered (e.TAB files into the same map window. For instance under the Scale tab. 4. The 3D Surface sub-window has two options for the height (z) attribute of the output 3D image. in this case the grid file.
24 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 7. Hold down the right mouse button and move the mouse up and down to adjust the zoom aspect. . This can be useful for printing. To navigate around the 3D display. of drillholes). unticking the 3D Axis branch will make the axis invisible. when having a grid in the background clutters the display (e. by selecting the Display tab of the Discover3D>Options menu item. and increasing the Create Raster Images at value (default value of 2x). thereby reducing the redraw speed within the 3D environment. 8. particularly when viewing multiple images. in which the axis display options can be adjusted.g. Hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse to rotate the view about the viewing centroid. Note however that this will increase the size of the output image. Under the Ticks tab. Note The output image quality is dependent on the map window size: a larger map window zoomed to the extents of the dataset will result in a higher resolution image in Discover 3D. Right-click on the main Images branch in the Workspace Tree and select Delete Images to remove the geology raster from view. 3D Display Wizard The 3D Display Wizard can also be used to import a map window view. Holding down both mouse keys allows movement of the viewing centroid in the X-Y plane. This opens the 3D Axis Properties control dialog. click the 3D Navigation button in the toolbar. Right-click on the 3D Axis branch of the Workspace Tree and select the Properties option. whilst holding down the SHIFT key allows movement of the viewing centroid in the Z plane. 9. The screen resolution can also be increased to improve the quality of the output image. deselect the ‘Show ticks on the axis planes only’ option and click Apply. Alternatively.
Data Location: 1.TAB and CopperHill_AMG55_AGD66. .TAB files into the same map window. from which a georeferenced bitmap image can be selected. Exercise 5. 2. Insert Image directly into 3D Images can be imported directly into an open 3D window if they already are in EGB format.3 Import into 3D an airphoto image draped over a topographic surface. Use the wizard to select the underlying grid file and open the image into a 3D window.2 Import a MapInfo map window view using 3D Display Wizard 1. 3.3D Raster Images 25 Exercise 5. EGB images can be added using the Insert>Images menu or the Add Image button from the Data Objects toolbar. Right-clicking on this branch and selecting Properties opens the Image Properties dialog. When either of these options is selected within a 3D window an Image branch is added to the Workspace Tree. Re-position the map window used in Exercise 1 to show a different view and select the Discover3D>3D Display Wizard menu option. Resize and zoom the mapper window so that the Airphoto view fills the map window display. Select the Overlay Image on Grid option from the Discover3D>3D Utilities menu and note the path of the Output EGB file. Close the Geology_fill and Geology_lwk tables and delete the Images branch from the 3D Workspace Tree. Training 3D\Topography Open the Airphoto. Overlay Image on Grid The Discover>3D Utilities>Overlay Image on Grid utility is specifically designed to drape existing raster images over a topographic grid and view in Discover 3D. 2.
000 interpretive geology maps) can be easily displayed correctly located in 3D. Note that colours can selected to be imported as transparent which is useful if an image has. Close all data sets in the 3D window. 4.egb file created in Exercise 5. Browse to Training 3D\Topography directory and select the Airphoto. apply a transparency factor to the whole image or offset the image by a set distance from the DTM grid. black or white space around it when it was captured. . 3. Training 3D\Topography Select the Add Image button from the Data Objects toolbar within Discover 3D to add an Image branch to the Workspace Tree. Right-click on this branch and selecting Properties opens the Image Properties dialog. provided they are accompanied by a table of polylines tracing the X/Y extent of each cross section. 2.4 Display an Image EGB file from Discover3D Data Location: 1.26 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Insert menu Data Objects Toolbar Exercise 5. Georeferencing Wizard An existing non-EGB image can also be georeferenced by using the Image Registration Wizard within this dialog. Alternatively.3. for example. Multi Section Creator Multiple scanned regional cross sections (eg those accompanying geological survey 1:250.
Browse in Windows Explorer to the output directory. 4. This represents the fact geology in zone 54 of South Australia (data courtesy of PIRSA). as contained within the data directory. a top and a bottom RL value. 5. and drag the newly created crosssection_extents. Ensure that the various dialog boxes are populated as below. Click OK. or whether a separate EGB file is created for each section. This tool can only process one image type at a time. These fields are compulsory for the process to function correctly. Note that the Format option indicates the source image type. The type option controls whether a single EGB file is created for all sections.5 Create and display multiple georeferenced regional cross sections in 3D Data Location: 1. 2. Select the Discover 3D>3D Utilities>Multi Section Creator to open this tool. This table contains multiple polylines representing the spatial extents of 9 scanned regional cross-sections. 3.3D Raster Images 27 Exercise 5.egb into the 3D window. . Note that each polyline has the following information: a section name (directly referencing a PNG image file). in this case PNG images. Open the CrossSection_Extents. Training 3D\ Geology\Regional Cross Sections Drag and drop the FactGeol_DTM.TAB file into MapInfo as both a browser and a map window.egb into the 3D window.
View Vector Data as 3D DXFs
View Vector Data as 3D DXFs
DXF files (Data Exchange Format) are a proprietary but widely used digital file format (ASCII or binary) for describing 2D and 3D spatial vector data, developed by Autodesk Corporation. They are a very efficient method of displaying large point, line or region datasets within the 3D environment; this is however at the expense of colour modulation. It is recommended to display data such as gridlines, infrastructure (roads, streams), contour lines and flight lines as DXFs rather than images, which are far more memory intensive and have fewer display options.
Import 3D Vector File
From within the Discover 3D window, existing DXF files (eg the output from a modelling program) can be displayed using the Add Vector button or Insert>3D Vector menu option. The following exercise gives an example of their use. Exercise 6.1 Import various 3D DXF vector files. Data Location: 1. Training 3D\Structure
Select the Add Vector button from the toolbar and double-click on the newly added Vectors branch in the Workspace Tree to open the Vectors Properties dialog. Under the File tab, click the Open File button and open the Interp_Structures.dxf from the above data location. Under the Transparency tab, adjust the Transparency slider to a suitable level and click the Apply button to view the changes. Readjust as necessary. In the Surface tab, enable the Override fill colour options for a number of components, and adjust these in the adjacent colour boxes. Click OK to finish. A quicker method for importing DXF files is simply to drag the file from Windows Explorer into the Discover 3D window. Try this using the Isosurface.DXF file from the Geochemistry folder. Remove all Vector branches when finished.
Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual
Import Objects from Table or Selection
MapInfo vector data such as points, lines and polygons can be displayed in Discover 3D as DXF files using the Discover 3D>View Objects in 3D menu option. A separate Vector branch is created for each dataset within 3D window, allowing each dataset to be coloured separately. Exercise 6.2 Display selected map objects as 3D vectors. Data Location: 1. Training 3D\Topography
Open the CopperHill_AMG55_AGD66.TAB grid and Rivers_AMG55_subset.TAB into a map window. Also open the Streams_Mol_subset.TAB from the Geochemistry folder also into this window. Select Discover 3D>View Objects in 3D to display the View objects in 3D dialog. Highlight the Rivers_AMG55_subset table. In the Assign Z value area tick the From grid option and select the surface grid from the Grid pulldown list. Click OK to display in 3D. Use the View Objects in 3D tool to display the Streams_Mol_subset.TAB in 3D. Note that this table already has an RL field; use this as the Z value by ticking the From field option (and deselecting any other options) and selecting this field from the pull-down list. Click OK to display in 3D. Within Discover 3D, open the 3D Map Properties dialog (double click on the 3D Map branch), select the Scale tab and exaggerate the scale display to better visualize the topography. Note however that the stream samples cannot be labelled or have their symbol display altered (size or colour modulation). This is covered in the next topic.
TAB and DEM_5m. and set this to the Dip field.ers grid file located in the Training 3D\Topography directory. Use the open file button to browse for the DEM_5m. These will be used to control the orientation and colouring of the output DXF objects. and assign this the Generation field. Tick the Enable sunsampling in input data option in Step 1 of the Extrusion Wizard dialog. Click Next. and tick the Plus grid value option. 6. Exercise 6. Data Location: 1. In the Step 2 dialog. A MapInfo table of polygons representing building outlines could be extruded by values in a ‘building height’ field. a map of the surface traces of a series of faults could be extruded by a fixed distance underground to visualise these faults at depth. View the table in a browser window. and click Next. In the Step 5 dialog. and tick the Z Relative to Primary Z option. 5. and perhaps coloured using a ‘type’ field. 2. In the Step 4 dialog. enable the Modulated by field option. and set this to the Dip_Dir field. ensure the Primary Z value is set as 0. 9. In the Step 3 dialog. Click Next. Click Apply to display the output DXF in the 3D Window. Training 3D\Structure Open the Prospect_Structure. 4. set an Extruded Z value of -200. Dip and Generation fields.3 Extrude the selected fault trace map objects as ‘solid’ 3D vectors. perhaps in tandem with a drillhole subset. Click Next. Tick the Use Azimuth Field option. Click Next.View Vector Data as 3D DXFs 31 Creating 3D Extrusions MapInfo vector data can be extruded to form ‘solid’ 3D DXFs. 8. Double-click on the Vectors branch in the 3D Workspace Tree to open the Vectors Properties dialog.tab grid into a map window. The Discover 3D>3D Extrusion Wizard menu option enables all map objects within a MapInfo table to be displayed in Discover 3D as a 3D Vector/DXF file. Tick the Use dip/tilt field option. enable the Specify an Azimuth and Dip option. Clicking OK will apply changes and close the dialog. Alter the Transparency. Select the Discover 3D> 3D Extrusion Wizard. For instance. 7. Note the Dip_Dir. . 3. and apply the changes. Doing so will keep the Extrusion Wizard dialog open allowing changes to be easily made and reapplied. Choose a Colour table eg pseudocolour.
but a topographic surface grid field exists for the data area. Training 3D\Geochemistry In MapInfo.TAB file. select the DHAssay_Cu table. 3. In the Legend/Lookup Table drop-down window below this. Select the Discover 3D > Create 3D Points option. Click OK to display in the 3D window. Data Location: 1. tick the Modulate Colour option and select the Cu field in the adjacent dropdown window. Exercise 7. double-click on the Points 1 [combined_soilsamg. and click Apply. If a point dataset does not have a Z/RL field.1 Display geochemical sample data as points. and select this table from the list. A *selection* option is also available for the display of a previously selected (in a MI mapper) smaller subset of the main dataset. This will open the Points Properties dialog. Select the Symbols tab. applying transforms and decimation. To colour the point symbols by copper values in Discover 3D. Modulate their colour and size. The Points Properties dialog allows the display of the points dataset to be altered through field and symbol selection. use the Surfaces>Assign Values from Grid option to assign elevation data. Y (Northing) and Z (RL) field.TAB] branch in the Workspace Tree. open the combined_soilsamg. 2. . Right-clicking on the Points branch in the Workspace Tree in the 3D Window will access the Properties option. apply labels and set scaling and offset factors. Specify the desired points dataset in the following Show 3D Points dialog. in which each record has an X (Easting).Viewing 3D Point and Line Data 33 7 View 3D Point and Line Data View 3D Point Data The Discover 3D>Create 3D Points option requires an open MI point data table.
Click Apply. Combined with the Colour modulation set in step 3. 1 in every 5 points will be displayed). Zoom into the point dataset. Select the Fixed rate decimation option. reset this to No transform. This is a useful way to offset the data from a surface grid to allow data of low values to be made visible (eg with an offset of say 10m applied).34 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 4. and click Apply. and set a ‘ppm’ suffix. set the Scale as 0. When finished. . Return to the 3D window. Choose the Transform tab. this is an excellent way to apply bivariate mapping in the 3D environment (one attribute modulated by colour. Click the Format button. Click Apply.e. and set a value of 5 (i. Another useful way to view geochemical data is to set the assay value as an Offset. Return to MapInfo. and choose the Cu field. Assign a field from the drop-down list (eg Pb). Assign a Translation of 3 and click Apply. To vary the size of the symbols based on a field values. Set a Label Skip Factor of 5 (1 in 5 labels will be displayed). the other by size). and enter an appropriate size range. To alter the offset scale. Set the Offset to Cu. 5. 7. Tick the Show Labels option. Click Apply. and select a Scale and Translation Transform from the pull-down list. and note the some data is obscured by the surface grid. the data has now been moved a little above the DEM surface. Labels can be quickly applied using the Label tab. 8.2. The Transform tab allows a Translation factor to be applied to the dataset. and with the DEM_5m grid table open. and is now not obscured by the surface grid. and after selecting a Scale and Translation transform. Go to the Fields tab of the Points Properties dialog. click the Advanced Options button adjacent to the Offset field. This will display the data across a very long Z axis. The Decimation tab allows the dataset density to be reduced for very large datasets where rendering performance is an issue. Go to the Transform tab of the Points Properties dialog. tick the Modulate Size option in the Symbols dialog. 6. display it in Discover3D using the View Surface in 3D option (this option will be explained fully in the next section).
The Discover 3D>Create 3D Lines option will open the Discover – Show 3D Lines dialog. Open the Lines Properties dialog by right-clicking on a Lines branch and selecting the Properties option.TAB file contains a Line field. View 3D Line Data Line data generally refers to data that has been collected systematically along linear traverses with samples or measurements taken at discrete intervals. Use Discover3D>View Map in 3D to drape the air photo over the grid file in the 3D window. Alter the appearance of the Line display. assign the Cu field as the Offset. which allows selection of either a lines dataset or selected subset thereof (*selection*). open the DEM_5m grid and Airphoto files into a new MapInfo map window. In a similar fashion to the ELC. Y (Northing) and Z (RL) field along with a line identifier field. Discover3D will display a Define Database Fields dialog prompting for the Line field. Line data tables require each record to have an X (Easting). and make the DEM_5m grid invisible. Data Location: 1. it cannot import datasets into the 3D window. Geophysical survey line profiles are an example of a line data file that can be viewed in Discover 3D. Open a line data table into a map window. 4. Click OK twice to apply this scaling factor. 10. Again use the Advanced Options button and set the Scale factor to 0. line data is represented by a single linear feature for each sample line. note that the combined_soilsamg. However it requires an open 3D point dataset (imported via the View Points function). Assign the Line field. However it requires an open 3D line dataset (imported via the View Points function). The data format is exactly the same as a point data table except whereas point data is displayed as individual points in Discover 3D. Within MapInfo. . Use the Discover 3D>Create 3D Lines option and select this table from the list. Exercise 7. and can be particularly useful for representing infrastructure (eg pipelines). The 3D Line Style tab controls the cross-sectional shape of the lines. 3. In addition to the Points Properties tabs.2 under the Transform tab. The Lines Properties dialog allows manipulation of the line dataset display. the Lines Properties dialog has a Line Style and 3D Line Style tab. The Add Lines button in the 3D window adds a Lines branch to the Workspace Tree. Click OK to display in the 3D window. it cannot import datasets into the 3D window. line style and individual line selection. To view only a subset of the line data table make a selection in the map window. you can control the visibility of branches by deselecting them in the Workspace Tree. 5.2 Display geochemical sample data as Lines.Viewing 3D Point and Line Data 35 9. Tick 2. The Add Points button adds extra point branches to the Discover3D Workspace Tree. Training 3D\Geochemistry From the Training3D\Topography folder. including labels. Use File>Close All to close all open 3D data. In the Points Properties Fields tab.
6. Use File>Close All when finished. and click Apply. . Custom tube shapes can be used via the Import New Shape option built into the Tube Shape Manager found in the Utilities menu: this will import any shape drawn in a MapInfo table. and select a Tube Shape from the list. Alter the Thickness.36 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual the 3D Tube option.
The surface grid is generated from a set of input points each of which have a location and a Z value for that location. The regular surface grid is generated from the irregularly distributed input points by calculating interpolated values at regular positions. It is important to understand that the interpolated values are approximations only of the real values of the surface and that the interpolated values differ depending upon the interpolation method used. The Z value in a grid may represent either real heights (such as topographic elevation. radiometric total count or rainfall). geophysical or other value (such as gold concentration. The Surfaces module has been designed to integrate seamlessly with gridded data created externally from MapInfo and with other Discover modules that use gridded data such as Drillholes. With some interpolation methods. it is possible that the interpolated value is slightly different to that of a data point at the same position. . What is a Surface Grid? A surface grid is a rectangular array of points. depth to weathering or coal seam thickness) or may represent a geochemical.Gridded Surfaces 37 8 Gridded Surfaces The Discover Surfaces module provides a rich suite of functions and tools for creating and analysing gridded surfaces. each of which has an interpolated Z or height value.
but do offer another visualisation method. Contours are generated by tracing lines of equal Z value across the grid. soil geochemistry contours over a magnetics grid). it can be displayed in MapInfo. . A third way in which a grid can be displayed is as contours. the major disadvantage is that of file size and display speed. Although Discover does allow grids to be created in this format. then Discover can display them in MapInfo as a raster image. each one representing a grid cell. If the grid cells are stored in a simple binary format. The contour lines do not provide as much information as a grid. The advantage of this method of display is that the MapInfo standard tools for thematic mapping and querying can be used with the grid. This is useful for displaying contours of one grid over a second grid (for example. The grid can be displayed as a set of rectangular polygons. This method of display is significantly quicker than for polygon grids and allows large grids to be handled efficiently.38 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Regular grid of interpolated points generated from irregularly distributed input points Once a regular grid of interpolated values has been calculated and stored.
XYZ) . *. Use the Grid Format Selection dialog to nominate your preferred grid format. the Discover Surfaces module can assist these operations by: • • • Creating grid surfaces in a preferred format Exporting a grid in a preferred format Internally using the preferred grid format to allow ease of use when MapInfo is used with third-party software packages (such as ER Mapper. Surfer or Oasis Montaj™ by Geosoft). all grids created from this point use the specified format unless an interface option exists to override the setting.TXT) USGS DEM (*.GRD) Surfer (*. imported or exported.Gridded Surfaces 39 Configuring Grid File Formats Discover>Configuration>Grid Handlers When grid formats are created.GRD) ESRI ASCII Grid (*.TAR) Minex (*.ASC.BIL) ER Mapper (*. Vertical Mapper. The preferred grid format can be specified from the Discover>Configuration>Grid Handlers menu item. Once a grid format has been selected. You can alter the preferred Grid Handler used by Discover by selecting another at any time.ERS) Geosoft (*.GRD) Vertical Mapper (*. The following industry standard grid formats are supported by Discover: • • • • • • • • Band Interleaved by Line (*.
Therefore it is possible to create a grid directly from data such as contour lines without having to pre-process the data first and convert the line information into points. soil geochemical sample results or geophysical data such as ground magnetic. The elevation values range from a low of 429. 3. You can check this by selecting Query > Calculate Statistics and selecting the DARLOT_SPOT table and the AHD_RL field.0 or later include a read-only handler. Create Surface Grid Discover can produce a gridded surface from any mapped data. or gravity data.40 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual • Note ASCII (*. A read/write handler for Vertical Mapper format grids is supplied with Discover. MapInfo Vertical Mapper creates raster-based format grids. *.ASC. The elevation data is loaded into the Discover Gridding Tool. All versions of MapInfo Professional 6. Discover can also grid line and polygon data providing there is an associated numeric z-value. Exercise 8. which has a numeric column representing a z-value or grid channel.5. Select Discover>Surfaces menu.6m. Examples of this type of data include topographic spot heights. Select Surfaces>Create Grid and select the DARLOT_SPOT layer or right-mouse click on DARLOT_SPOT layer in the ELC and choose Create Grid. .31 to a high of 528. This utility is controlled via a series of tab pages to the left of the preview window. A new Surfaces menu should appear on the MapInfo Menu Bar.CSV) The Grid Handler support provided in this option is ONLY available for MapInfo versions more recent that Version 5. 2. however we can modify these according to the data to be gridded. query a few of the spot heights to see the associated data. *. On loading the data Discover has automatically computed a set of gridding parameters.TXT.1 Create an elevation grid from spot height data over the Darlot area 1. Open the DARLOT_SPOT table from the Encom Training\Darlot\Topography folder and using the Information Tool. We will create a grid using the AHD_RL field.
Basic summary information is provided for the selected data including the number of points. minimum and maximum field values and minimum and maximum easting (X)/northing (Y) values for the minimum bounding rectangle that fully encloses the input data. Select AHD_RL from the list of numeric fields available to grid. topographic ridge lines or roadways. Click button to remove input points from view. Input Tab The Input tab summarises the input data and provides a selectable list of all numeric data columns that are available for gridding in the source Tab file or query. A Breakline table can be selected in order to force gridded data to conform to certain slope requirements in critical areas. The Statistics Explorer will be examined in more detail in the next exercise. . This button can be used to distribute colours more evenly across the image and is particularly useful for data with poor dynamic range. Apply a histogram equalisation stretch to the image in the preview window. The Data Conditioning option enables you to condition or annotate the data used to grid. Statistics Explorer The Statistics Explorer is a utility for examining and understanding the spatial and statistical aspects of a dataset. Only available if Inverse Distance Gridding method is selected. eg drainage traces.Gridded Surfaces 41 4. View search ellipse in the preview window. null values can be excluded from the gridding process or converted to background values and minimum and maximum capping values can also be set. The input grid data can be clipped to specified extents. Preview Window View input points in the preview window. The Coincident points pull-down list contains a number of options to use in the event that there are two or more data points at the same location.
Save the grid to the same folder as the input data points and click Save to create the grid and open it into a new map window. The sun angle is fixed from the north-east direction. 6. Interrogate the quality of the interpolated surface using the Statistics Explorer. 7. choose the Grid Info button from the Surfaces button bar. Choose the Output tab and select ERMapper as the output grid format.42 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Display images in the preview window as either coloured or monochrome (black and white). The triangular mesh is created by drawing lines between adjacent input data points and forming an irregular network such that no triangle edges are intersected by other triangles. the only parameter that needs to be adjusted is the grid cell size. The triangulation method is best applied to data that is evenly distributed over the gridded area. Click on the Method tab and select Triangulation as the method. This button toggles the image between monochrome and colour. The chosen colour table will be applied to the gridded image when loaded into Discover. As the original data are used to define the triangles. this method is very useful for situations where the data must be honoured very closely (eg elevation data in a digital terrain model). If there are large areas of sparse or missing data distinct triangular facets may appear in the output grid. A regular grid is then computed from the triangular irregular network and grid cell values computed using a natural neighbour interpolation process. This can be used to enhance detail within a gridded image. To report grid cell values directly to the screen. As triangulation uses all the input data to construct the triangular mesh. A pop-up menu can also be accessed by right-clicking with the mouse in the preview window: 5. Click on the Geometry tab and leave the default Cell size at 150m. . The Triangulation method produces a regular gridded surface through a set of data points by using an optimised Delaunay triangulation algorithm. Turn off the visibility for the DARLOT_SPOT layer in the map window. Select a look-up table to colour the grid. Apply a sun illumination to the image in the preview window. Grid cell size can be adjusted to an appropriate value for the dataset.
To view information about the grid select the Surfaces>Grid Information menu option.
Modify Grid Appearance
Exercise 8.2 Modify the appearance of a grid by applying a colour pattern, sun shading, transparency and create a grid legend. By default Discover applies a linear colour pattern whenever a surface grid is created or registered. A linear colour pattern applies each colour in the look-up table to the same sized data range. This method of grid display is generally adequate but in many instances it is desirable to modify the colouring of the grid. 1. 2. Make sure the grid created from the DARLOT_SPOT table is open in a map window. Select Surfaces>Modify Grid Display
In the Colour tab select Histogram Equalization and choose Elevation.LUT from the Select Colour Table pull-down list.
Other available colour methods include: • Full Linear Stretch – Apply a linear colour pattern to the grid between the minimum and maximum values. By default the minimum and maximum data ranges are selected but these values can be manually changed under Options. To return to the original data limits click the Reset to Input Limits button. Auto-clip Linear Stretch – Apply a linear colour pattern between the middle n% of the data. Choose from a 99.9% or 99% clip to remove high and low data values and prevent distortion of the grid display.
Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual
Histogram Equalization Stretch – Discover analyses the distribution of data in the grid and applies colours so that there are approximately equal numbers of grid cells displayed in each colour. By default the minimum and maximum data ranges are selected but these values can be manually changed under Options. To return to the original data limits click the Reset to Input Limits button. Check the Recompute Histogram box to distribute the colour table evenly over the data range if the input limits are changed.
Percentile Range Break – With geochemical data, it is often appropriate to show the grid coloured into just a few ranges, based on the data distribution. For example, gridded geochemical data may be coloured with ranges of 0, 30, 60, 80, 90, 95, 98 and 100%. Each of these ranges would be shown in a different colour to highlight the areas of interest. Data Range Break – Similar to percentile ranges, colouring by data ranges allows the grid to be displayed with a discrete number of colours, specified by data value rather than percentile value. To set a grid transparency, use the Transparency Slider. Set this to 30% and click Apply to view the changes in the map window.
Click on the Histogram tab and view the data ranges and colour scheme applied in graphical format. Experiment with moving the toggles to manually clip the data at Low and High values.
Click on the Sun tab and experiment with dragging the sun icon in the preview window to a new angle and elevation. To view the changes in the map window either use the Apply button or check the Auto Apply box.
To display an additional light source which may be useful when working with geophysical grids select a Sun Highlight Angle and Elevation as well. 7. To display a grid legend select the Surfaces>Make Legend for Grid menu option.
Assign Grid Values to Vector Layers
The Assign Values from Grid menu option assigns grid cell values from the grid to map objects that overlie them. This is used, for example, to assign elevations to sample points or to drillhole locations from a digital elevation model, or to assign mean geochem values from a geochemistry grid to overlying geology polygons. Discover can also assign minimum and maximum values to polygons from the grid cells that lie within the polygon. As well as assigning the values to columns, the values can be reported to the screen. Exercise 8.3 Assign RL to stream sediment samples from elevation grid
Open the MAJOR ELEMENTS table from the Encom Training\Darlot\Geochemistry folder. Make sure this table is editable and add a new float column to the table called Elevation. Select all the stream sediment samples in the map window. Select Surfaces>Assign Values from Grid Assign value to column: Elevation When processing has completed open the selection into a browser window and observe the populated Elevation field.
3. 4. 5.
A profile across a topographic. Profiles for multiple surfaces may be displayed together to show. topographic and base of weathering surfaces. Open the GEOLOGY from the Encom Training\Darlot\Geology folder into the same map window as the elevation grid. Select Surfaces>Draw Grid Profile. Exercise 8.46 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Surface Profile over a Grid or Contour Plan The Discover Draw Grid Profile function provides a powerful tool for identifying and analysing trends or spatial relationships on gridded surfaces. Draw a line in the Cosmetic layer that extends over a portion of the elevation grid and make sure it is selected in the map window. Profiles for any line or polyline can be generated across gridded surfaces or contour plans. 2.4 Draw a profile over a grid and drape with geology 1. 3. together with magnetics and soil geochemistry. . with the surface geology and fault lines draped over the topographic surface. geochemical or geophysical data grid can be integrated with vector information from polygon and line layers to allow the relationships to be interpreted. In the Profile Generator dialog choose the DARLOT_SPOT_AHD_RL grid from the Profile from layer pull-down list. for example.
5. Close all tables apart from the DARLOT_SPOT_AHD_RL grid in the current map window. Click OK to display the surface grid profile in a new map window. Open the DRAINAGE table from the Encom Training\Darlot\Topography folder into the map window. Select the profile line in the map window again and re-create the profile only this time check the Show intersections in profile for all selectable line/polyline layers in the map window box to see where the drainage intersects with the elevation profile.Gridded Surfaces 47 In the Polygon Drape control check the Show polygon intersections in profile box and choose the GEOLOGY table from the Polygon layer pulldown list. . Use the CODE as the Polygon ID column. 4. Assign a profile table name and location and leave the other defaults.
Check the Contour Smoothing box. Select the Contour Parameters for Regular Contour Intervals. 3. Place labels every 10 km and save the labels into a new table called CONTOUR_LABELS in the Topography folder. 5. Regular contour intervals can be specified or contour intervals can be read from a text file. Enter a minor contouring interval of 10 with a major contouring interval of 50. 2. The upper and lower limits to contour between can also be set. 6. 4. Contours can be coloured according to the underlying grid colours and also be smoothed.48 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Contouring a Grid File Discover can contour and label a grid and then export the contours as a 3D DXF file. label contours and export the contours as 3D DXF file. Select Surfaces>Contour a Grid. 1. Select Surfaces>Label Contour Lines Label the contour lines using the ZValue field. . Open the DARLOT_SPOT_AHD_RL grid into a new map window if it is not already open.5 Contour a grid. Exercise 8. Click OK to create contour labels. Click on the Output Contour Table button and save the contours to a table in the Encom Training\Darlot\Topography folder named DARLOT_CONTOURS.
Select all the contour lines in the map window. Select Export Grid File or Contours>Export Contours to 3D DXF from the Surfaces menu and click OK to create the DXF file called DARLOT CONTOURS.DXF into the Topography folder.
Grid Query using Multiple Ranges
The grid query tools provide a convenient method of creating MapInfo polygons that cover the areas of the grid that meet the specified criteria. The grid cells can be selected based on value or percentile and terrain grid cells can also be queried based on their elevation, slope and aspect. Terrain grids can return volume calculations between a base level and the topographic surface. Exercise 8.6 Select areas from a grid based on specific elevation ranges and display as a vector layer
Select Surfaces>Grid Query>Select by Multiple Value Ranges and enter in the following values and colours.
Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual
Save the polygons to a new table in the Encom Training\Darlot\Topography folder and click OK.
See also the Surfaces>Grid Utilities>Classification utility to create a classified grid instead of polygons. 3. To determine the volume of the grid which is located above the 500 RL level select the Surfaces>Grid Query>Calculate Volume for a Grid menu option.
Note the result is displayed on the screen in a message window.
See also the Surfaces>Grid Utilities>Volume utility to calculate a volume between two gridded surfaces.
Convert Grid to New Grid Format
Selected grids can be converted to an alternative grid format including: • • • • • • Exercise 8.7 ERMapper Geosoft Vertical Mapper Surfer GeoTIFF Arc ASCII Grid
Save elevation grid to new grid format
Select Surfaces>Grid Utilities>Convert menu option. Click the Save As button and select Arc ASCII Grid File (*.asc) as the new grid format. A “_converted” suffix is automatically added to the new grid upon export. Click Save to create the new grid file. Close all currently open grids and vector files.
Importing a Grid Surface
Discover can import and display the following grid formats: Banded Interleaved (*.BIL), ER Mapper (*.ERS), Geosoft (*.GRD), Surfer Binary grids (*.GRD), USGSDEM (*.TAR), Vertical Mapper grids (*.GRD) and Minex (*.XYZ). Discover can also import grids in ASCII format including ESRI ASCII format. The Discover Surfaces>Import Grid File option provides a method that enables the user to check the grid header file during the import process. When importing the grid files Discover will attempt to read the grid geometry information from the grid file header. If Discover cannot access the grid geometry information it will check the grid file size, the number of cells and the cell size to ensure that the grid geometry is valid. You can modify or enter any additional information necessary in the registration dialog. When you import a grid file using Discover you are required to specify an appropriate MapInfo Projection for the grid file so it can be correctly registered. Exercise 8.8 Import ERMapper SRTM grid for Copper Hill project area
Select Surfaces>Import Grid File>ERMapper Grid.
Polygonal involves clipping to a selected polygon or polygon file.9 Clip SRTM Grid to Tenement Boundary 1. Rectangle involves clipping by coordinates to reduce the size of the grid. 4.write null values into the area covered by the selected polygon(s) while retaining the surrounding grid. Once the grid is created change the grid display colour from greyscale to pseudocolour and apply a new Histogram Equalization Stretch. then the clipped grid covers the minimum bounding rectangle of the polygon with null values in those parts of the grid outside of the polygon.discard all grid data that lies outside of the selected polygon(s). Open the EL2290_CH_AMG table from the Encom Training\Copper Hill\Tenements folder into the map window containing the imported SRTM grid. Exercise 8.52 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 2. Use this to reduce a large grid to just that covering a tenement for reporting or data sharing purposes.ERS file and click Open. Simply select a polygon covering the area required to clip and choose the appropriate clipping type from the Grid Utilities dialog. Browse to the Encom Training\Copper Hill\Topography folder. In the ER Mapper Grid Registration dialog click on the CoordSys button and choose the Australian Map Grid (AGD84) Zone 55 projection. Blank grid underneath region . • Clip Grid to Region . 3. Clip Grid The Clip tool provides a simple method of reducing the size of the grid to cover just the area of interest. If the selected polygon is not a rectangular shape. . • Clipping regions may be Polygonal or Rectangle. select the PROJECT AREA SRTM DEM 25M.
Gridded Surfaces 53 2. . Note that for irregular clipping regions the grid cells are replaced as null values to the minimum boundary rectangle of the clipping region. The clipped grid is opened into a new map window. Select Surfaces>Grid Utilities>Clip and choose EL2290_CH_AMG as the table to clip against. Select the Clip Grid to Region option and view the clipped grid in the After window. 3. Click the Save As button and enter a name for the clipped grid and save it to the Encom Training\Copper Hill\Tenements folder. 4.
Requires more processing but is more accurate than bilinear interpolation and produces a smoother grid. Gridding Geochemical Data Geochemical data can also be gridded in the same way as elevation data. Nearest Neighbour – simple interpolation whereby the new grid cell value is taken from the closest grid cell in the original grid. Close all currently open tables at the completion of this exercise. 1.10 Reproject the clipped SRTM Grid to new coordinate system 1. Select Cu as the field to grid and Inverse Distance from the Method tab. 5. 4.11 Use the Statistics Explorer to view data to be gridded and investigate the Inverse Distance Interpolation method. Select Surfaces>Grid Utilities>Reproject utility. This operation relocates the various pixel locations in the grid through an interpolation method to match the requested output coordinate system. Click the Choose button under the Target coordinate system window and select Map Grid of Australia 1994 (MGA94) Zone 55. Select an Interpolation Method from the following: Bilinear – the value of a grid cell in the new grid is assigned the weighted value of the four surrounding grid cells in the original grid Bicubic – uses the weighted value of 16 surrounding grid cell values in the original grid to interpolate the value of a grid cell in the new grid. Open the COPPER HILL SOILS table from the Encom Training\Copper Hill\Geochemistry folder. 2. Observe the min and max values. Gridding by a particular element enables geochemical anomalies to be easily distinguished from background values and also provides a means of interpolating values between sample sites. 2.54 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Reproject Grid Surface grids can be reprojected between projected (UTM). Select Surfaces>Create Grid and highlight the COPPER HILL SOILS table. Choose the clipped grid created in the previous exercise and note the source projection. 3. geographic (Lat/Long) and custom coordinate systems. The minimum value is -999 which should be set as null. Click on the Data Conditioning button and enter -999 into the . 3. Click Save As and leave the default file extension “_reprojected” to save the reprojected grid to the Encom Training\Copper Hill\Tenements folder. Exercise 8. Exercise 8.
The Spatial view plots the data using its spatial coordinates and presents basic summary statistics. The lower Property Page window may contain Graph. 5. Records can be selected in this view by clicking on the row headers and displayed in the graph window. . Observe the change in the minimum value for the data to be gridded. 6. Select Spatial as the View type and Cu as the Key field. The top or Spreadsheet view displays the records for the currently viewed selection. The Statistics Explorer can be separated into two sections.Gridded Surfaces 55 Null Value box. Click on the Statistics Explorer button in the Input Tab. Four View types are available: - The Univariate view examines a single field in the input data and presents basic summary statistics and histogram analysis. The Bivariate view examines any two fields in the input data and presents scattergram plots and basic summary statistics. Right-click in the Cu column to view some basic statistics about this dataset. 4. The Variogram view computes a variogram grid and displays directional semi-variogram data. This allows the creation of sample variograms and the creation and editing of model variograms. Statistics and Histogram tabs depending on the type of View selected.
When this is displayed the spreadsheet will show a detailed breakdown of the histogram data. Click on a row header in the spreadsheet to view the corresponding data point in the graph window. Experiment with the Zoom controls in the Graph window. . 7. The Expand button returns the view to the previous selection. The Rectangle and Polygon selection tools can also be used to make graph window selections. 11. Each selection can either include the enclosed data points or exclude them using the Include/Exclude button. Unselect All. The pointer may display as a vertical bar or a cross depending on the graph view. Select All and Inverted buttons Use the Collapse button to extract the selected data points from the dataset to create a new subset. Use the Pointer button to select points in the graph window or click and drag over an area to select multiple points. 8. The Univariate view examines a single field in the input data and presents basic summary statistics and histogram analysis. The first icon restricts zooming and panning to the horizontal dimension only in the spreadsheet view and is only available for selected View types. 9. To remove multiple selections use the Unselect All button. pan and fit to data capability. Choose Cu from the Colour pull-down list to apply a colour modulation to the data points using a simple linear colour stretch. zoom out. It incorporates three property pages: • • • A Linegraph of the data point index versus key field Statistical information for the key field A Histogram of the key field. 10.56 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Note that the minimum value is -999. We will need to set this as the null value back in the Data Conditioning option in the input tab so these values will be ignored in the gridding process. Use the Ctrl and SHIFT keys to make multiple selections or click and drag with the mouse. The spreadsheet and graph views will be redrawn to focus on this subset and the statistics tab will be re-calculated for the selection. Select Univariate as the View type and Cu as the Key field. These tools enable you to zoom in.
This indicates the percentage of data that is below the current value at any point. The upper and lower quartiles are displayed against the X and Y axes as dotted lines.Gridded Surfaces 57 The Graph page plots the Cu versus station index as a linegraph. This type of histogram involves dividing the valid data range into a large number of equal width bins and then computing the frequency of occurrence of Cu values in each bin. The Statistics page presents basic summary statistics for the key field as follows: Sample Count Valid Sample Count Invalid Sample Count Minimum Maximum Mean Variance Standard Deviation S/N Ratio Coefficient of Skewness Skew direction Median Mode Lower quartile Upper quartile Interquartile range The total number of samples in the dataset The total number of samples of valid (non-null/selected) samples in the dataset The total number of samples of invalid (nonnull/selected) samples in the dataset The minimum value of all valid samples The maximum value of all valid samples The mean (average) value of all valid samples The variance of all valid samples The standard deviation of all valid samples The signal to noise ratio of all valid samples The skewness of all valid samples The skew direction (positive/negative) of all valid samples The value of the centre value in the sorted dataset The most frequently occurring valid value in the dataset The value of the dataset at the 25 percent quartile The value of the dataset at the 75 percent quartile The range of the data between the lower and upper quartiles The Histogram page presents an ‘equal width’ histogram of the Cu field. . The cumulative histogram is also displayed as a green line.
Inverse Distance Weighting Inverse Distance Weighting uses weighted average interpolation to estimate grid cell values and can be used as either an exact or smoothing interpolator. edited and displayed. A variogram shows the degree of correlation between data in a spatial dataset in different directions and at different distances. The statistics page presents summary statistics for the bivariate distribution as well as spreadsheet for the conditional expectation. A purple quantile vs. . If Kriging has been used as the interpolation method then a Model Variogram can also be created. A linear regression line is displayed as a blue line with a conditional expectation curve displayed as a green line. See the Discover Reference manual or On-line Help for more information on working with Kriging and Variograms. Variogram The Variogram view requires the user to define a key field which will be used in tandem with the spatial coordinates to compute a sample variogram. 12. Each grid cell value in an output surface is calculated using a weighted average of all data points surrounding the grid cell that lie within a specified search radius. In this instance a Scattergram is displayed in the Graph page for both key fields plotted against each other.58 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Bivariate View The Bivariate view requires the user to define two input or key fields. quantile curve line from 5%-95% is also displayed. Click Cancel to exit the Statistics Explorer.
Weighting Options The Elliptical weighting option is only available when the Elliptical Search option is enabled in the Search tab. If the input data points are not evenly distributed then using an oriented search ellipse may produce a more representative grid. This can help to enhance detail in datasets where sample points are unevenly spaced (regional geochem sampling) and may produce a smoother more representative grid. Exponential – the weight of each input point is proportional to its distance from the grid node being interpolated raised to the specified power. for example. The distance weighting parameters can be adjusted under the Weighting Model controls in the Inverse Distance tab. Weighting Model The weighting of an input data point is (by default) inversely proportional to its distance from the grid node (a Power Weight Model). Where grid nodes and data points coincide the distance between them is zero so the data value is assigned a weighting of 1. Selection of the Inverse Distance Weighting method opens both the Search and Inverse Distance tabs. Power – the default option – the weight of each input point is proportional to the inverse of its distance to the specified power from the grid node. The weighting value assigned to each point within the search ellipse is determined by the distance from the data point to the grid node being interpolated. It adjusts the distance weighting function for data points within the search ellipse depending on their relative position with respect to the elliptical shell. A certain number of grids nodes will coincide with the input data points. The Taper controls allow you to apply a taper function to the interpolated value of each grid node based on its distance to the nearest valid sample point.0 and all other data points in the search radius are given a weight value of zero. . The further away a data point lies from the grid node the less the point value will contribute to the final value assigned to that node. The Exact hit distance is a tolerance distance for assigning actual input data values to coincident grid nodes. The Density corrections control dynamically adjusts the search algorithm to optimize grid cell interpolation in areas of data clustering. Gaussian – the weight assigned to each input value is determined according to a 2D Gaussian function centred on the grid node. With this type of data a repeat measurement at a point does not necessarily give the same results as the first measurement. soil samples taken over a regular grid. a grid cell value is then calculated from the weighted average of all data points that lie within the ellipse centred on that cell. Four Power Weight models are available: • • • • Linear – the weight of each input point is proportional to its Euclidian distance from the grid node being interpolated.Gridded Surfaces 59 The IDW method is optimal when the data has a fairly uniform distribution of input points across the area to be gridded and some degree of smoothing is beneficial. A search ellipse of fixed size and orientation can be defined.
The grid line spacing is approximately 120m with some infill lines at 60m. regional data captured at 2km intervals and localized data at 100m intervals) then the use of search expansions may not be enough to populate the grid successfully. You can now experiment with Inverse Distance Gridding Method parameters to create an appropriate looking grid. Directional bias can be applied by enabling an Elliptical or anisotropic search. Contributions from other points within the search radius are ignored. By adjusting the Number of search sectors and Minimum points required (in each sector) the appearance and smoothness of the output grid can be varied. Enabling the Customise gridding rule option allows a node to be gridded only if a specified minimum number of sample points are located in at least a specified minimum number of sectors. This will introduce directional bias into the estimation. Specifying the Use nearest neighbours option enables you to use only the closest Maximum number of samples found within each search sector in each estimation. 13. The solution to this is to use additional refinement Grid Passes which grid the data multiple times at increasingly higher resolution. Set the Maximum number of samples to 8 . Start with the default cell size of 15m and a search radius of 70m. By default the search radius is isotropic creating a circular search area. Sample Selection Input points ‘close’ to the grid node may not be uniformly distributed – eg they may all be on one side of it.e. Go back to the grid in the map window and measure the distance between the sample lines and the sample points along the lines. This can be resolved by using search sectors of 1. If the spatial distribution of the data points is not uniform (i.60 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Search Tab By default Discover uses a circular search with a radius specified via the Search Distance option. The distance along the sample line is around 30m. If any of the sectors contain fewer than the minimum number of specified points the interpolated grid cell value for that node is assigned a null value. If the node cannot be estimated from the points located within the search radius then the search radius can be incrementally increased and the searching repeated using Search Expansions. 2 or 4.
Exercise 8. This is an addition operation. 17. Alter the Search Expansions to 1 and observe the infill of the lines further south in the grid. When you are finished open the ELC and check/uncheck the Visibility box next to each grid layer to display the different grids. logic. The process of using Kriging in interpolation can be complex and requires an intimate knowledge of the structure and variability in the data set so that an appropriate sample model and set of gridding properties can be chosen. adding gridded Pb and Zn together to produce a combined base metal grid. which may be positive or negative values. Pb and Zn geochemistry grids to create a new combined metal grid . but where there is no overlap between the two grids.Gridded Surfaces 61 14. Multiply or divide two grids together – for example. Grid Calculator Use the Grid Calculator to perform any of the following operations: • Subtract one grid from another – for example. base of weathering from topographic surface. The resulting grid shows the difference. 15. It is important that the user has a good understanding of the geology and sample statistics when creating a geochemical grid otherwise the results may be interpreted incorrectly. Kriging Kriging is a geostatistical gridding method which has proven popular across a variety of industries due to its flexibility and data driven approach to surface interpolation. • • • The Discover Grid Calculator can apply arithmetic operations.12 Merge the Cu. coal seam thickness multiplied by calorific value to return a grid showing economic product (in derived units). Stitch adjoining grids together to make one large grid. with null cell values filling the minimum bounding rectangle. Add one grid to another – for example. Save the grid as an ERMapper grid to the same folder as the input points. Repeat the process for the Pb and Zn assay columns. comparative and Boolean operations directly to grids or between grids in any supported grid format. Kriging is an advanced technique which is based on the assumption that the spatial variability in the measured property of a data set is neither due to totally random nor deterministic constraints. 16. In the Output Tab click the Smooth Grid box and change the Smoothing Factor to 5. The output grid covers the combined area of both input grids. The main advantage of Kriging over simpler interpolation techniques such as IDW is that it uses a weighting model which is adaptive to the inherent trends in a data set rather than imposing a set of fixed conditions upon them.
Grids can be assigned an alias name to enable the shortening of complex file names for ease of use in the expression line. Add the “+” operator and repeat the process for the Pb and Zn grids. In the Expression box enter a name for new grid to be created such as COMBINED_METAL followed by the “=” sign.62 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 1. Make sure the three grids created in exercise 8. 4. This list is initially populated by all grids currently open. To create a grid name alias.11 are open in a map window. 5. These grid operations are described in detail in Appendix H . For example. Select Surfaces>Grid Calculator. Use the Save As button to save the new grid to the Encom Training\Copper Hill\Geochemistry folder. double click on the relevant cell in the Alias Name column and type the desired alias name. 3. Use the Information button to obtain details of a selected grid. and removed from the list using the Delete Grid button. Available grids are displayed in the scrollable list at the top of the dialog. . Highlight the Cu grid from the Grids list and use the Add Grid button to move the grid down to the expression line. Assign each grid an alias name Cu. 2. Complex grid operations such a Boolean and decision functions can also be applied. Pb and Zn by clicking in the Alias Name cell next to each grid. The Grid Calculator requires a formula to be specified in the Expression line in the middle of the dialog. instead of COMBINED_TMI_140403 = X + Y we can use W = X + Y. 6. Further grids can be added to the list using the Load Grid button.Grid Calculator Syntax in the Discover Reference manual.
Select the Corrmag field to grid and choose Minimum Curvature from the Method tab. Open the EL2290_CH_AMG table from the Encom Training\Copper Hill\Tenements folder and the COPPER HILL GROUND MAG table from the Encom Training\Copper Hill\Geophysics folder into a map window. the surface bends according to the Interior tension. Gridding of geophysical data can enable magnetic or gravity anomalies (high or low) to be distinguished from background values or enhance structural lineaments over a project area. The Minimum Curvature gridding method is widely used in many branches of science and research. the boundary tension is set to 0. Minimum curvature gridding generates the smoothest possible surface while attempting to honour the data as closely as possible. Use the Statistics Explorer and Data Conditioning to remove any spurious data values from the dataset before we grid it. Minimum curvature attempts to fit a surface through all of the data points without putting any abrupt kinks in the surface. The grid node values are recalculated until successive changes in the values are less minimised. The degree of bending is constrained by a ‘tension’ parameter and this can be specified both within the data area but also near the edges. However. The output grid has the cell size of the first input grid. linearly elastic plate passing through each of the data values defined in the input dataset. Like all gridding methods.13 Grid magnetic data and apply a grid filter 1. . Gridding Geophysical Data Geophysical data can also be gridded in the same way as elevation data. or the maximum number of iterations is reached. By default. the less the distortion. The minimum curvature method produces a grid by repeatedly applying an equation over the grid in an attempt to smooth the grid. The Maximum iterations number can be specified in the Minimum Curvature tab. Select Surfaces>Create Grid and highlight the COPPER HILL GROUND MAG table. the two grids can have different cell sizes. minimum curvature gridding is not an exact interpolation and therefore some error at a majority of data points is observed. Between the fixed observation points. This method creates an interpolated surface similar to a thin. 2. The Boundary tension controls the amount of distortion at the edges. Iteration is used to describe the number of times the equation is to be applied to the grid. This parameter is used to control the amount of distortion on the interior with the higher the tension. 3.Gridded Surfaces 63 Note Both grids used in the grid arithmetic operation must be registered in the same coordinate system. Exercise 8. An important criterion in creating a surface is that it has a minimum amount of bending forced upon it to conform to the data points.
ers) format into the Encom Training\Copper Hill\Geophysics folder. Filters can be used to improve the general appearance of gridded images by smoothing or suppressing high frequency noise. 5. 6.64 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 4. Select FFT Vertical Derivative from the Geophysical button pull-down list. Filtering a Surface Grid filtering is a common method of applying digital image processing techniques to gridded data. Use the Minimum Curvature defaults and a Cell Size of 5. The top Input Grid window shows the original input image. Filters can also be used to enhance detail in an image by displaying the contrast between features (i. Select Surfaces>Grid Filter. . 7. 8. Make sure the Pad grid before filtering option is checked to minimize edge effects on the grid boundaries. It may take a moment to redraw the preview window. identifying edges). Save the grid in ERMapper (. In the Grid Filter dialog select the COPPER_HILL_GROUND_MAG_CORMAG grid from the list at the top of the dialog. The Grid Filter is a power tool that provides the following functionality: • • • Apply Convolution grid filters including smoothing. In the Output tab select the Concave Hull from the Clip option pull-down list and no smoothing.e. Band Pass Apply Padding to grid to remove edge effects The Grid Filter tool has an interactive dialog to allow you to see the effect of any applied filters. The Grid Filter dialog contains three display windows. edge enhancement. while the bottom Output Preview window shows the result of applying the filter. sunangle and user-defined filters Apply Geophysical FFT filters including Reduction to Pole. Vertical Derivatives. More than one filter can be applied with a cumulative result.
Replace nulls within or around a grid by extrapolating values using the surrounding data. . List of Available Grid Utilities The Discover Grid Utilities menu provides the following functionality: • • • • • • • • Classify – Classify each grid cell into one of a number of ranges Grid to Grid Clip – Clip a grid to the non-null area of another grid Clip . Convert . multi-banded RGB grid file.Input a data grid in one format and save to another grid format. View surrounding grid cell values.Gridded Surfaces 65 9. Fill holes . Create RGB .Define a region using an irregular polygon or rectangle and remove the portion of the grid that lies within or outside this region. Click the Save button to save the filtered grid to the Encom Training\Copper Hill\Geophysics folder.Display and edit a selected grid cell.Combine separate grids having Red:Blue:Green colour signatures to a single. Curvature – Compute curvature of a grid Edit .
Interpolation processing is required for this procedure.Used for multi-banded grids. as well as an extensive range of display property options. Shift .Grids can be re-sampled to a new cell size using any of three available interpolation schemes. from which the Surface Properties dialog can be accessed.Compute the view-shed of a tower of a specified height above the grid to an observer at a specified height above the grid. Merge – Merge several grids to form a new grid Overlay . Rotate .Modify grid cell values based on polygon boundaries in a specified TAB or MIF vector file.Apply an easting or northing offset to the origin location of a grid. Reproject – Reproject a grid into a new coordinate system Resample . This powerful control provides a number of surface visualisation options.66 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual • • • • • • • • • • • • • Flip . Volume – Calculate the volume between two grids Displaying Surfaces in 3D The Add Surface button within the 3D Window adds a Surface branch to the Workspace Tree. this operation outputs separate component grids of the individual single bands.Assigns cell values of either maximum slope angle or direction Split . Exercise 8.Allow specific grid values (such as Nulls or nominated values) to be replaced by another data value or Null.Converts each grid cell into a polygon in the output TAB file and assigns each polygon a grey-scale value. Viewshed . Replace .Invert the rows or the columns of a grid in their location either horizontally or vertically.A grid can be rotated about its defined origin by a specified angle. Slope .14 Display a surface grid in 3D. including: Add Pseudocolour Surface Add Contour Surface Add Red Green Blue Surface Add ERMapper Surface Add 3D Depth Surface Each of these options incorporates a grid file import utility. Vectorize . .
Under the 3D Surface tab. an existing LUT (Look-Up Table) can be selected from the pull-down list. 3. The Colour tab provides 3 options for controlling the colouring of the grid surface. In the following properties dialog. This tab also contains options to apply Compression to the grid surface. then either moving by clicking on an edge. by first select the shape. Double click on the Floating Colour Bar branch. or resizing by clicking on a corner. . Click OK to display the gridded surface. Alternatively. Band Pass and Histogram. Within the 3D view. increasing display efficiency and redraw speed in the 3D environment when display large grid surfaces. 5. click on the Open File button. This will add a ‘Surface 1 ’ branch to the Workspace Tree. For all of these options a range of Colour Mapping options are available at the bottom of the dialog: Linear. It also provides controls to display the surface as with either Fill or Lines or both. Ensure the Auto Apply option at the bottom the Surface Properties dialog is ticked off. Double click on the new Colour Legend sub branch within the workspace tree. Select the Add Surface button in the toolbar. as well as the number of colours displayed. Exercise 8. 2. Note that Band Pass and Histogram Colour Mapping can be applied simultaneously. disable the Cell Colour Transparent option. 6. In the Surface Properties dialog. In the Appearance tab. tick spacing and labelling functionality is also available within the Colour Legend Properties dialog. reopen the Interp_Structures. double click on the Surface sub-branch in the Grid Group window. 1. and browse to the Geophysics\IP_Resistivity directory. The 3D Surface tab allows the Transparency of the surface to be altered. This can be modified after creation. 4.15 Create a colour scale for the DEM.dxf vector file from the Structure directory. Adjust the Offset slider to -500 and the Scale slider to 2. Press OK to see display the Colour Scale. and ensure that this is set to 2. 3. draw a rectangle of the desired colour scale size. A range of styling. Open the IP_Collins file. End member colours for can be set for these. select the dataset (eg DEM_5m) for which the colour scale is required from the Connection tab (only bolded items can be selected). Training 3D\Training 3D\Geophysics\IP_Resistivity Training 3D\Training 3D\Structure In the Discover 3D window. Select the Floating Colour Bar button on the Data Objects toolbar.Gridded Surfaces 67 Data Location: and 1. An RGB (Red Green Blue) or HSL (Hue Saturation and Lightness) Interpolation can be applied via the Advanced Colour Options button. Double click on this to open the Surface Properties dialog.
and adjusting accordingly. disable the Cell Colour Transparent option. you may have to exaggerate the Z scale to visualize the topography effectively. View the contours in 3D. Data Location: 1. Colour mapping.17 Display contours as DXF’s in 3D. This can be set either globally (3D Map Properties) or solely for the dataset (Vector Properties). 3. If Scaling is to be applied globally across the 3D dataset. a new Surface branch can be added via right-clicking on the 3D Map branch. and assign the Z Value from the appropriate field. Exercise 8. Double click on the Floating Colour Bar branch. In this instance the Z Value could also be set via the DEM grid. voxel models. 3. first apply a colour scheme to the grid (eg the elevation LUT). 2. To display these contours in 3D. selecting the Scale tab. Exercise 8. select the Discover 3D>View Objects in 3D menu option. Under the Arrangement tab. selecting Add Data>Surface. Under the Arrangement tab. and ensure that this is set to white. Use one of these methods to add the DEM_5m topographic grid to the display. Resize the Colour Scale window to remove the excess space on the right. whereas datasets with non-RL Z values 2. Close all the Surface branches when complete. then enable the Contour Colouring option.68 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual white. Training 3D\Topography In 2D. For added effect. set the Padding to 70. create contours from the DEM_5m grid using 5m and 10m minor and major intervals (use the Surfaces>Contour a Grid menu option). the exaggeration should be applied globally (therefore affecting all datasets with an RL as the Z value. The Lighting tab of the 3D Map Properties dialog can be used to adjust the sun angle/azimuth. Scaling. They can be added to the existing Surface branch (Grid Group) from within its Surface Properties dialog or via the menu command or shortcut button (add Surface). and press OK. Resize the Colour Scale window to remove the excess space on the right. Compression. Generally when exaggerating RL values. 4. The Colour Scale can also be applied to other colour modulated datasets such as drillholes. which will allow independent control of each surface’s visibility from the Workspace Tree rather than from within the Surface properties dialog. Alter its visibility. and press OK. 5. Alternatively. and experiment with the options discussed in exercise 1 (Colour table.16 Displaying multiple surface grids in 3D. Training 3D\Training 3D\Topography Additional grid surfaces can be added to the 3D environment in a number of ways. 4. In the Appearance tab. . Data Location: 1. set the Padding to 70. ensuring that they still all relate to each other spatially). Select the contour table. etc). remember to do so by double-clicking on the 3D Map branch. 3D points and feature databases.
. Exercise 8. Data Location: 1.Gridded Surfaces 69 (eg geochemical or geophysical grids) should be exaggerated independently. Display these contours as vector objects in 3D. using the DEM_5m grid to define the Z value.. In 3D.18 Display a geophysical grid as contours over a topographic surface. 3. Training 3D\ Geophysics\Magnetics Within 2D open and create contours for the Mag grid. exaggerate the Z scale by a factor of 5. try using contour intervals of 50 and 100nT. 2.
linegraphs. traceshades or text .2D Drillholes 71 9 2D Drillholes Drillhole menu and toolbar items Encom Discover provides a comprehensive environment for processing and visualising drillhole data. Introduction The Discover Drillholes module provides the following key features for processing and visualising drillhole data in section and plan view: • • • • • • • Project oriented interface Data validation tool Flexible data model and number of data formats supports Display drillholes in sections of any orientation or plan view Display topographic surface and plan geology in the section Display up to 16 downhole data variables each drillhole Display downhole data as histograms. The Drillholes module links in with functionality in the Surfaces module and also the map-making tools.
File formats such as Access. Use the data validation utility to check for drillhole name mismatches. 2. missing data. 5. sample overlaps or end of hole depth discrepancies. Save the section to be used in the future. 3. displayed in a map window. with up to 24 data columns Digitize section interpretations eg lithological type or ore-body boundaries Downhole data compositing by attribute. downhole geochemical. Add the section to a layout window at the correct scale including section grid and titleblock ready for printing. downhole survey measurements. 7. geological or geophysical data and other related information. cut-off grade. Organize all drillhole data into a format recognized by MapInfo. and Text etc should be first opened into MapInfo to create . . 6.TAB files. 4.72 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual • • • • • • • • • • • • Colour downhole data using colour pattern look-up tables Display profiles of multiple surfaces in section view Create section layout including map grid and titleblock Log style display for individual drillholes. elevation or depth 3D coordinates are calculated on-the-fly Sectional resource calculator Extract maximum and EOH downhole values Display drillhole info tool Export sectional interpretations to 3D DXF files Export a section bitmap to Encom Profile Analyst Steps to Create Drillhole Sections A drillhole dataset is made up of a series of tables containing information such as drillhole collar location and geometry. Select a section line or number of drillholes and create the section. Excel. Select and display downhole data on section. To create drillhole sections and plans use the following steps: 1. Create a new drillhole project and assign the correct table and column names.e. The collar table must be mappable: i. 8.
Discover can use drillhole data stored in any database format that MapInfo can read. which means that it is not necessary to store these coordinates in the original data tables. Downhole Survey Table The downhole survey table is a non-mappable table that contains a list of depths and surveys for each drillhole.2D Drillholes 73 Drillhole Data Format The Drillholes module in Discover can use drillhole data captured in a number of different formats. For native MapInfo tables it is recommended that coordinates are stored in columns with a Float (Floating Decimal) data type. The collar table must include the following columns: • • • • • HoleID Easting Northing Elevation Total Depth If there is no separate downhole survey table then the collar table must contain two additional numeric columns for drillhole collar Azimuth and Dip. Discover calculates 3D coordinates for downhole samples when it displays the drillhole. Dip may be expressed as positive or negative values eg -90 or 90° Any other data columns are optional. All columns must be numeric aside from HoleID which may be a text field. Some or all of the following data tables are used to define the project. This improves ease of use with Microsoft Access database tables and read-only tables (such as Excel spreadsheets). This table is optional but if available must contain the following columns: • • • HoleID Depth Azimuth . with the Hole ID acting as the key to link the different tables. Note The actual names and order of the mandatory columns is not important. Also. as to the columns are nominated during project setup. including Access and ODBC databases. Collar Table The collar location table is a mappable table containing point objects for each drillhole collar. changes to the collar coordinates or to the downhole surveys do not require downhole coordinates to be recalculated. Drillhole data is stored in a number of related tables. Discover does not need to make any alterations or additions to the source data.
a normal ODBC linked table can be created. Alternatively. For example. . Azimuth and Total Depth values from the Collar table. 15-16m. one table for assay data and one table for rock type. Au values may be displayed from 10-11m.0m. Downhole Data Tables Downhole data tables are non-mappable tables that contain geochemical.1m. It is unlikely that other data is included in this table and Discover does not check for any other columns.4m. Note The actual names and order of the mandatory columns is not important. 11.1-21. Discover can directly access just the ODBC data required for a specific section. If the mandatory columns in other downhole data tables are in a different column position then incorrect data may appear on the drillhole sections or plans.4-19. This greatly reduces the local storage requirements for linked tables and can speed up operations. Other data columns (such as sample number. and 18-21m with lithology values from 0-11. Discover enables downhole datasets measured over different sample intervals to be displayed together. The position and data type of the mandatory columns must be the same in each downhole data table. Using the MapInfo File>Open ODBC connection command. The downhole data tables must contain the following columns: • • • HoleID Depth From Depth To Depth From and Depth To columns must be numeric. as to the columns are nominated during project setup. In the above example above two separate downhole tables would be created. Only data that conforms to the same sampling intervals should be stored in the one table. A drillhole project can contain multiple downhole data tables. Drillholes having no downhole surveys are displayed as straight lines using the Dip. 1112m. Note In the drillhole project setup the mandatory columns are assigned using the first downhole table selected. and 19. This linked table is treated as any other MapInfo table.74 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual • Dip Depth. gold grades etc) may be included as required. Multiple downhole data tables may be used as required. ODBC Data Discover can use drillhole downhole data from ODBC databases in one of two ways. rock type. This manner of data access requires a special configuration file to be generated for each ODBC table used and is designed for database administrators to set up direct ODBC access. Discover can display data from any of the columns in the downhole data tables. Azimuth and Dip columns must be numeric and dip values may be positive or negative. geological or geophysical data values for selected intervals down each drill hole.
A dialogue box will appear. and enter a name such as Training. Contoured surfaces must consist of polylines attributed with the appropriate Z value.1 Set up a Drillhole Project using Discover 1. Grids can be in MapInfo. select the project and all relevant tables will be automatically opened. Select Drillholes>Project Setup. choose the New button. Click OK. Create Drillhole Project Defining a drillhole project is the first step in processing and visualising your drillhole data in Discover. A gridded DEM surface provides the best surface profile however attributed contour data can also be used. The first step is to setup the drillhole project with the appropriate files.2D Drillholes 75 Grid and Contour Surfaces Discover can extract profile information from gridded and contoured surfaces (such as surface topography and soil geochemistry) for displaying in the drillhole section. The drillhole project brings together all of the associated drillhole data tables (as described previously). To setup a new project. Select Discover>Drillhole menu. Browse to the folder Encom Training\Drilling. Once a project is defined. A Drillholes menu item will appear on the main menu bar. . Exercise 9. 2. When using contour data the surface geology (or polygon) layer is only shown in the area covered by the contour data. Surface Geology To display a geology layer. This process is only required once and thereafter you only need to choose the project name and click OK to continue working with it. asking you to select the subfolder where you would like to store your project data. ER Mapper or Geosoft format. Discover does not extrapolate data outside the limits of the topography surface. an appropriate surface file must also be used.
76 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 3. Choose the Open Table option from the Topography pull-down list and open the TOPOGRAPHY table. Choose the SURVEYS table. Choose the COLLARS table. If you have setup the subfolder path correctly. In the Downhole Data Tables section of the dialog box. 4. Open the SURFACE_GEOLOGY table to use for the Polygon surface. Click on the Survey Table pull-down list and select Open a Table. Discover allows you to optionally display surface topography and surface geology in profile on your section. Choose the ASSAYS table which contains assay information for the various drill holes and click on the > button to add the data to the selected list. a table called SURVEYS should be listed otherwise you will need to navigate to the correct folder to locate the file. 6. Click OK. The Project Definition dialogue box is displayed. select the Open Table button. In the Collar and Survey Tables section of the dialog box. click on the Collar Table pull-down list and select Open a Table. . 5.
2D Drillholes 77 7. In the Encom Training\Drilling folder there is an Access database containing downhole lithology data. After verifying that the information is correct. After the OK button is clicked a message to validate the drillhole data will appear. The Assign Spatial Columns dialog is displayed and you will need to ensure that the column names match those required for each table. Do not click on the Down Dip is negative checkbox as the sample data does not have a negative sign preceding the dip value. DDH007 and DDH7 are considered by Discover to be different drillholes). 9. click OK. Data validation results are then printed to the screen and/or written to a log file. The validation procedure works upon either the entire project database. Total depth mismatch – if downhole data exists below the total depth specified in the collar table it is not displayed in section. • • . Data Validation Discover includes a number of options to assist in validating the data in your drillhole project. Move the DH_LITHOLOGY table to the Selected Downhole Data Table area and click OK twice to update the project details. It can also occur if the collar data are entered before drilling is complete. Large dip/azimuth changes – data entry errors in either the collar dip/ azimuth or downhole surveys can cause significant problems that are difficult to pick up. Discover lists all drillhole surveys where the drill trace deviates by more than a specified amount between surveys. • Drillhole name mismatch – common problems occur where the hole name is specified differently in the collar table and the downhole tables (for example. Open the DH_LITHOLOGY table into MapInfo so there is an associated TAB file and select the Drillholes>Project Setup. This will take you back to the Project Definition dialog. 8. the currently selected drillholes (selected from the collar map). This time select the Training project and choose Modify. Use of these options can highlight difficult-to-detect situations such as drillhole name or total depth mismatch between the collar and downhole data tables. This can result from data entry errors. The project setup is now complete. or a selected list of the holes.
Choose the ASSAYS table and check the options above. Note that hole MS5 in the collar table has a depth less than the depth in the DH_LITHOLOGY table and hole MS2 contains an overlapping sampling interval. Select Discover>Validate Drillhole Database menu. Make these changes to the downhole tables and run the validation tool again.78 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual • • • Duplicate sample numbers– duplicate sample numbers can be an indication of data entry errors and need to be identified. Repeat the validation procedure for the DH_LITHOLOGY and SURVEY tables. . Exercise 9. 3. 2. Sample interval gaps – although many drillholes do not have contiguous sample intervals from top to bottom. Note that is many cases sample gaps will be present due to non-consecutive sampling intervals. This table does not include a sample number field.2 Validate drillhole project tables 1. Overlapping sample intervals – sample intervals do not usually overlap in a downhole data table and any such intervals must be identified. it is useful to list where gaps are located as part of the data validation process. Select the Validate all Drillholes option in the first dialog. Click OK to view results.
Add the SURFACE GEOLOGY and TOPOGRAPHY layers to the current map window. Exercise 9. On the ELC right-click the mouse button on the COLLARS layer and choose the Add Layer menu option. 2. If you need to honour the survey measurements exactly as would be the case for trench or costean data use the Drillholes>Define New Trench or Costean menu option. . you can display the drillhole data in section or plan view. Note Discover uses a tangential averaging algorithm to generate the drillhole trace. The section is drawn into a normal map window. including a section envelope width to determine which drillholes lie within or intersect the section envelope to be used. or use Query>Select and choose the COLLAR table. Re-order the layers if necessary. Three methods are available for specifying sections: • • • Type in the required information Manually select the required collars Draw a line that will represent the section.3 Create and Display a Drillhole Plan and a Drillhole Section 1.2D Drillholes 79 Create Drillhole Sections and Plans After defining a drillhole project and validating the drillhole database. in a non-earth coordinate system. All collars will be selected in the map window. The horizontal axis is the distance along the section which will be in UTM coordinates for sections running exactly East-West or NorthSouth while oblique sections will read as non-earth coordinates from the section start point. Right-mouse click and choose the Select All menu option. Choose the Drillholes>Define New Section or Plan menu option. The vertical axis represents the elevation and will be displayed in the units selected in the Project Setup. Once the drillholes are selected Discover uses the section geometry. 3.
Alternatively. Next click on the Annotation button and set the scale to 1: 1000. To plot the section immediately. 4.80 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Select the Horizontal Plan option and enter an appropriate name in the Name dialog box. Check the Display EOH labels and Ticks box and click OK. we could make the Cosmetic Layer editable. draw a horizontal line parallel to several of the collars (see map window below) and then use the Select tool to highlight the created line. 5. click the Plot Now button. . Select Drillholes>Define New Section or Plan. Turn on the line labels and select a line in the map window. Open the SECTIONLINES table from the Encom Training\Drilling folder into the current map window as well. Discover will then de-survey your data and plot a horizontal plan of the drill holes. Note that you will not be able to display downhole data on a drillhole trace in plan view unless you uncheck the Plot Survey Traces only box.
Enter an Envelope Width in the range 50-100 metres. Click on the Annotation button and select the following options: Display Surface Line controls whether to display the topographic surface between drillholes. If you place a checkmark in the box Search all holes. 6. The view direction is automatically calculated by Discover based on the selected line orientation or from the section definition parameters. This will be created from the TOPORGRAPHIC grid with . Section view orientations can only be set at +/.90 degrees of the orientation of the section line.2D Drillholes 81 Check the Vertical Section and the Use selected line boxes. You can choose a view direction for the section by activating the View Direction control. For the first section view the section towards the North. Enter an appropriate section name in the Section Name box. then any drill holes that pass into the section envelope at depth will also be displayed.
Show Depth Ticks and labels down the hole. histograms and text labels to the drillholes at the time the section is generated. Discover can place a tick and a text label at nominated depths. If the hole terminates within the envelope. Click OK to exit this dialog and Plot Now in the main dialog. If the hole passes out of the section (away from the viewer). 8. Any collars within the envelope will be plotted on the section.82 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual the SURFACE_GEOLOGY layer draped over it to show the geological intersections at surface. a circle with a dot inside will be displayed. down the hole. Repeat the above process and create two more sections at 200m intervals to the north. 7. Discover enables a user to choose from five available display types: • • • • Text label – Ideal for assays Histogram – Scaled bars for each sample interval indicating the value of that sample Linegraph – Continuous line down the drillhole with distance from the trace indicating the value for that depth Trace Shade – Coloured log style display ideal for lithology . a circle with cross-hairs will be displayed. Display Downhole Data on Section Use the Display Downhole Data menu option to set up how you would like the downhole data to be displayed in the drill section. then a short bar will appear at the end of the hole. Before you can use this function you will need to define a template for the downhole data using the Display Downhole Data form. If the hole leaves the section (towards the viewer). An envelope is drawn around the section line to the specified distance. for example every 50 metres. This can be used as an aid to interpreting and correlating with other information. Use Data Display Setting allows you to apply downhole data display such as linegraphs.
Set the position to Left of trace and Offset to 2mm. the sampling interval used. We can add this but first we need to define a set of colour ranges that are applicable to the data. lithology.16) that you wish to use. Therefore displaying downhole data as text will prove difficult. In the first row of the dialog. structural measurements and downhole geophysical logs can be displayed. select Zn_ppm and from the Display Type pull-down list select Histogram. For each display attribute (1 .0001 in the scale (mm/unit) box. A histogram should then be drawn down the left of the drillhole trace. Up to sixteen types of information along the trace of the drill sections. including assays. you need to select a Downhole Data Table.2D Drillholes 83 • Structure Ticks – Lines drawn across the drillhole trace showing the true or apparent dip of measured structures Each of the display types (except for linegraph) can have a colour pattern applied to it with different values (grades. It is necessary to take into account the depth of the holes. sample numbers. a Column from the column pull-down list and choose one of the five available Display Types. rock type etc) displayed in different colours. From the Column pull-down list. In addition to these data display types. Enter a scale value of 0. Note that the histogram does not have any colour. select the ASSAYS table from the pull-down list. Click the Accept button (to ignore the warning). Click OK twice and select the same section as above. Select Drillholes>Display Downhole Data to display the Downhole Data Display dialog. 2. In this training exercise the holes are very deep and relatively widely spaced. Exercise 9. the hole spacing and the output map scale to determine which downhole display methods are the most appropriate for your data. . you can use the MapInfo Thematic Mapping and labelling tools to display data on the section or plan.4 Display Downhole Data on a Section 1.
Colour patterns (individual or ranged) can have up to 256 categories but if more are required for an individual pattern. a Discover colour table may be imported as a legend to provide an essentially unlimited number of categories.84 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Create Drillhole Colour Pattern Drillhole colour patterns can be used for colouring either numeric data (ranged colour patterns) or text data (individual colour patterns). Select Drillholes>Edit Colour Patterns menu option and click on the New button.5 Create a Drillhole Colour Pattern and apply to sections 1. Select Assays as the Dataset and Zn_ppm as the Field. . 2. Shale). the Legend Editor dialog shows ranged values while for an individual pattern (for example. When creating or editing a ranged pattern. and how many categories or entries the colour pattern is to have. you need to choose which colour pattern type to create. Choose Numeric as the Data Type and the Number of Rows as 5. Check the Populate Legend from Dataset box. Enter a new Legend name Zinc and Click OK. a single Value column is displayed into which is entered the string value (for example. patterns. Enter the following values into the From and To boxes and change the pattern colour fills as indicated. Colour patterns may be created from data in existing fields in a table. linestyles or add/remove entries. Discover can extract all the individual text values for a column or the min and max values for a numeric column and create continuous or discrete ranges. Exercise 9. rock type). When creating a new colour pattern. In both cases the legend can be edited once it has been created to change text or range values.
4. Follow the same procedure to create a legend based on the GeolCode field from the DH_LITHOLOGY table. . Create colour patterns for Pb and Cu values in the ASSAY table using the Legend Editor. Remember to choose Text as the Data Type in this case. 7. To 1000 5000 7500 10000 300000 Colour Blue Light Green Yellow Orange Red Click Save to save the changes and then Close to close the Legend Editor dialog. Experiment with creating patterns automatically using the Step Patterns button or manually by selecting each region individually.2D Drillholes 85 From 0 1000 5000 7500 10000 3. 6. Check the Data Legend and Histogram Scale boxes and click OK and then Apply. Select the same section as used previously to display the downhole data. Select the Colour Pattern Zinc from the pull-down list. Create a new Downhole Display setting by adding a Cu linegraph to the right of the trace and a Lithology trace shade as follows: 5. The downhole data should now be replotted using the Zinc colour pattern. Select Drillholes>Display Downhole Data menu option and choose the Histogram display type again for the Zn_ppm column.
To set up the abbreviations. Using the Drillhole Section Manager The drillhole display Section Manager is designed to help you manage and retrieve sections and plans. Display the Section Manager dialog from the Drillholes>Section Manager menu. . or “below detection limit” you can set up a list of abbreviations and replacement text for Discover to use when displaying numeric downhole data as text. Select the Use button to apply a previously saved downhole display setting.86 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 8. It also provides basic management functions allowing you to modify the project name. If the Available Sections dialog is currently empty then the Section Manager has not been setup to automatically add your sections to the list. simply open and edit the MapInfo table d_abbrev table from the C:\Program Files\MapInfo\Professional\Discover\Config folder. If you have been storing negative numbers to represent non-numeric values such as “no sample taken”. When you are satisfied with the Downhole Display parameters they can be saved using the Save button to enable the same settings to be applied to different sections. The entry in the description field is for commenting purposes and is not plotted by Discover. The value in the number_field is replaced by the alpha_code field value (for example 7 may be replaced by BDL). Text labels can also be coloured using a downhole display pattern. project path and storage location for created sections. To make sure that all of your sections are automatically added to the Section Manager you need to modify the Settings.
2D Drillholes 87 The Section Manager provides facilities to Open or Close existing drill section as well as Add and Delete sections from an active drillhole project.\Program Files\MapInfo\Professional\Tmp folder by default. Repeat for the remaining sections. . If a section has not been added to the Section Manager. Click on the Add button and choose a section to add. Click on the Done button to close the Section Manager. To open/close or add/delete existing sections. Now when you create a new section it will be registered with the Section Manager and available for you to modify at a later date. then the section tables are stored in the . For this exercise we will save each of our sections into a separate Folder below the project root folder so select the second option Create New Folder for each Section. Drillhole Section Manager to Modify a Project’s details On the settings control there are two options for automatically saving each section or plan created in Discover. click on the Settings button to display the Modify Project dialog. To have all the sections saved together in one folder you can select the Add Section to Project Root Folder option (the folder in which the project was established). Now that you have set up the Section Manager you can add any of the currently open sections..
3. Close any other drillhole sections using the Section Manager.88 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Adding a Drillhole Section to a Layout Add one or more sections to the Layout Window with the Add Section to Layout menu item. 1. Exercise 9. From the Frame Setup pull-down list select A0 Portrait and click OK.6 Add a section to a layout frame complete with section grid. Nominate the scale. When you add multiple sections to the Layout Window. the sections are automatically offset from each other so as not to overlap and the number of pages in the layout is increased to fit all the frames. In the Add Section to Layout dialog highlight the drillhole section and choose a Map Scale of 1:5000. . titleblock and scalebar can also be generated in a manner similar to Scaled Output. titleblock. size and position of the section frame in the Layout Window. As the section map window is inserted into the layout. scalebar and collar map plan. 4. When the polygon is positioned correctly select Accept Map Position from the Section Output menu. In the second Add Section to Layout dialog place a checkmark in the Add Plan of Collars to Layout box. Select Drillholes>Add Section to Layout. Position the MapSize polygon that appears in the drillhole section map window over the drillhole data. The Frame Parameters can be modified manually in this dialog and to see how the final map window will appear click the Preview button. Make sure that there is only one drillhole section displayed in the active map window. a section coordinate grid. 2.
Click OK. 6. 8. Extracting Maximum and EOH Assay Values for a Drillhole The maximum and EOH (End Of Hole) assay values can be extracted from all drill holes within the active drillhole project.2D Drillholes 89 5. Fill in any title block details and click OK. Choose an X grid spacing of 100 metres and a RL grid spacing of 100 metres. The Discover Titleblock and Scalebar Options dialog is displayed. . The Drillhole Section Grid dialog box is displayed. Choose TITLEBLK and Scalebar1 and click OK. Change the page size to correspond to the layout page size selected using the File>Page Setup menu and make any final adjustments to the layout so it can be printed using File>Print from the MapInfo menu bar. The drillhole section is now drawn in the Layout window. 7.
Click OK accepting the default name and Discover will extract the maximum value in each of the drill holes as well as the EOH value. Click OK and Discover will ask you for a table name.7 Extract maximum and EOH assay values for all drillholes 1. 3. Select the Drillholes>Calculate Maximum and EOH Values menu option and choose the COLLAR and ASSAYS tables using the pull-down lists. Note The maximum value in the hole may not correspond with the EOH value. Ensure the Training project is open From the Collars map window select drillhole MS3 (3rd most northerly hole). lithology and downhole geophysics within a drillhole. Results can be gridding. The log style of display is a valuable method of visualising relationships between multiple variables such as a suite of element. 2.8 Create a multi-element log display for a drillhole 1. On completion a browser is displayed showing the maximum value and EOH value for each drillhole. . Pb and Cu fields and add them to the right hand selection list.90 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Exercise 9. Choose the Zn. 2. 3. Drillhole Log Display The Drillhole Log Display function in Discover provides the means to display up to 24 columns of downhole data for one drillhole in a plain log style display. contoured or thematically shaded in a map window. Select Drillholes>Log Display to open the Log Display dialog. Exercise 9.
Finally. In the Log Display dialog. use the Colour pattern previously created for the DH_Litho table. Note that the order in which the columns are added is the order they will appear in the final log display. Pb and Zn columns in the Available Columns window and click the >> button to add them to the Selected Columns window. open the Settings for the GeolCode and specify a Trace Shade log type. Opening this for each column allows variation of the display characteristics. The selected assay fields are now displayed in the Log Display dialog. For the Cu display. select a Linegraph log type. for the Zn display. 5. including the log type (Text. and tick the No linegraph fill option. choose the ASSAYS table. Histogram or Trace Shade). In the Column Selection section. select a Histogram display and assign the Zn Colour pattern created previously. 6. Add the GeolCode field to the Selected Columns window and click OK. with a Log Width of 1cm and use the Cu Colour pattern. choose the DH_LITHOLOGY table. Again in the Column Selection section. Click OK. choose a Text log type. Linegraph. For the Pb display. Adjacent to each column name is a Settings button.2D Drillholes 91 4. . highlight the Cu. 7. The following dialog allows specification of the desired columns from this table.
Close all open log windows. Any type of object (polylines.92 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Log for MS3 C u_ppm 0 1 70 1 75 1 80 1 85 1 90 1 95 2 00 2 05 2 10 2 15 2 20 2 25 2 30 2 35 2 40 2 45 2 50 2 55 2 60 2 65 2 70 2 75 2 80 2 85 2 90 2 95 3 00 3 05 3 10 3 15 3 20 3 25 3 28 Pb_ppm 1 68 0 00 0 Zn_ppm 1 69 00 0 GeolC ode 1 70 1 75 1 80 1 85 1 90 1 95 2 00 2 05 2 10 2 15 2 20 2 25 2 30 2 35 2 40 2 45 2 50 2 55 2 60 2 65 2 70 2 75 2 80 2 85 2 90 2 95 3 00 3 05 3 10 3 15 3 20 3 25 3 28 742 511 486 253 324 414 712 812 172 6465 12096 25419 17760 22205 20990 8347 20003 29535 19448 25850 3 43 30 2 64 31 9 30 7 7 51 7 4 83 0 3 92 7 2 10 2 1 55 3 4 00 600 200 500 135 622 116 626 787 347 0 1 68 0 00 0 1 69 00 0 C u_ppm Pb_ppm Zn_ppm GeolC ode 8. it is easy to digitize ore boundaries or geological interpretations. including dimensions and annotation. The Global Settings button in the Log Display dialog controls the general layout of the final log display. optionally placing objects from each section into separate layers which can have the same name as the section. When these objects are exported to DXF. Leave these settings as the default. Objects digitized into the boundary table can then be exported to 3D DXF files for visualisation in other software systems. Digitizing Boundaries and Exporting to 3D DXF Having generated one or more cross-sections with Discover. The log is stored in a table named for that drillhole and mapped in a non-earth (cm based) coordinate system that can be further annotated or added to the layout window and printed. Each section has a separate boundary table that is stored with the other section tables. If multiple drillholes are selected. Discover facilitates this by creating a section table (the boundary table) to digitize into. a separate log is created for each drillhole. and click OK in the Log Display Settings dialog to display the final drillhole log. points etc) may be into the boundary table. The boundary table must be created with the Digitize Boundary menu item and is called <Section_Name>_B. 9. regions. Discover exports from multiple sections to the same DXF file if required. The boundary table can also be used with the sectional resource calculation function to restrict the area over which the resource is interpolated. . any attributes that you have added to these boundary objects are also exported.
2D Drillholes 93 Exercise 9. Once the resource grid has been generated it may be contoured. Click Save to export the digitization as a dxf file. using the functions in the Discover Surfaces module. The resource grid is stored as a table named with the section (or plan) name plus a suffix to show it is a resource grid. Calculating Sectional Resources Discover provides a simple method for interpolating resources from cross-sections or level plans. and stored in the project or section folder. Ensure some downhole assay and lithological data is displayed. This will create a boundary table in the ELC named <Section_Name>_B. Ensure the section and digitised boundary file generated in the previous exercise are open. open a previously created section (highlight the section name and click Open). recoloured etc. Keep the project and files open for the next exercise. Create a boundary table for the section using Drillholes>Boundary Digitizing>Digitize Boundaries. Select Drillholes > Sectional Resource Calculator. . Note Encom does not advise using this function for ore reserve calculations. taking into account geology and assays. tick the Use section name as layer name option and then choose a dxf file name to save to in the following dialog.10 Create a resource section using a digitised boundary to clip the resource 1. a grid of interpolated values can be generated for either the entire section or for a chosen boundary that has already been digitized. Select the desired section from the list of those available. select the appropriate section and click OK. Exercise 9. and then add some appropriate geological polygons across the section using the drawing tools.9 Create a digitized boundary file and export it to DXF 1. In the Calculate from Sections dialog. Using a two dimensional inverse distance weighted interpolator (similar to that used in the Discover Surfaces module). Using Drillholes>Section Manager. Highlight the appropriate section. 3. 2. 5. 4. 2. Ensure this layer is editable. Select Drillholes>Boundary Digitizing>Export Boundaries. queried.
Data Compositing The Discover drillhole data compositing functions provide the tools to composite downhole data by the following methods: • Composite by unique attribute – Use this to perform compositing by a unique-value attribute such as lithology or alteration. 4. high cut and dilution to produce an output table with intervals above or below the specified cut-off grade. select the Use Digitised Boundaries and deselect all other options. . select the ASSAYS table. In the Clip to Boundaries section. and click OK to run the calculator. • • • The compositing utility also provides a number of options for dealing with negative values or zeroes in a column such as setting to null or setting to a constant value. Composite by downhole depth – An output table is produced with intervals at regular downhole depths. In the Step 3 dialog. Composite by elevation – An output table is produced with downhole intervals at regular elevation intervals. Close all tables. Click OK.94 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 3. All contiguous intervals with the same attribute value are grouped together. Composite by cut-off grade – This function takes numeric parameters for cut-off grade. 5. In the second dialog. leave the grid and interpolation parameters as the default values. and choose an assay column on which to calculate the resource.
alteration. Click OK to start the compositing. Select GeolCode as the value column and leave the default ‘_comp’ suffix. . A table may be composited using the intervals generated from compositing a column in another table. 3. etc. and then open the Define New Section or Plan dialog. Exercise 9. Ensure the ASSAYS_COMP file is Selected as data to display under the Downhole Data button option of this dialog. In the Compositing dialog leave all drillholes selected or use the Select All button if the drillholes are not already selected.11 Composite lithological downhole data and display on drill sections 1. 2. Click OK three times. Choose the ASSAYS table as the Downhole table to composite and tick the Add composited tables to current project option. In the Composite using downhole table pull-down list choose DH_LITHOLOGY. eg lithology. select Drillholes>Project Setup>Modify and ensure the ASSAYS_COMP file is in the Downhole Data Tables window as a Selected table. eg assay grades can be composited based on lithology composite intervals. Plot the section as normal and display using the Display Downhole Data option. 4.2D Drillholes 95 Compositing by Unique Attribute Compositing by unique attribute is commonly used to merge contiguous drillhole intervals together that contain the same attribute. Select Drillholes>Downhole Compositing>By Attribute. To display this composited data in a drillhole section. Open the Training drillhole project.
96 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Compositing by Cut-off Grade Compositing by cut-off grade is commonly used to summarize assay data into intervals above a specified value. whereas values in numeric columns are composited using a weighted average. these coordinates may be needed if the data is to be transferred to another data processing or visualisation software package. XTN. This option enables all related project files including downhole colour patterns. This can cause problems if the standard MapInfo workspace space option is used as project files may reside on local drives. XFN. northing and elevation values for the top and bottom of each sample. • • . The coordinates are written into columns with specific names XFE. project data tables. Cut-off grade composites can only be calculated for one element at a time. and XTR respectively. XFR. Select the downhole data tables from the current project to composite and the compositing interval. Other users can import the project directly into their drillhole module. The composited interval is calculated using a downhole running weighted average of consecutive samples that conform to the cut-off grade parameters. Save Project Workspace – the workspace created with this utility removes all reference to the hidden drillhole project files that are opened but not visible when a project is opened. If the columns do not already exist in the table. However. Drillhole Project Management A number of utilities are available to help management drillhole projects including: • Import/Export Drillhole Project – send a project to another user or archive. the columns will be created. Values in character columns may be cleared to avoid incorrect values being present. The Calculate 3D Coordinates function updates the selected downhole data tables with easting. All project tables are subsetted and saved to a new folder and automatically added as a new project to the Drillholes module. Compositing by Elevation and Downhole Depth Compositing by elevation is useful to normalize downhole data tables to a consistent sampling interval or mining bench height. A minimum interval length can also be specified along with internal dilution constraints. surface files are copied to a single folder which can be zipped. Subset Project – create a new drillhole project based on a selection from an already existing drillhole project. section definition files. Calculate 3D Coordinates 3D coordinates for drillhole samples to not need to be calculated in order for them to be displayed in Discover. XTE.
The DHcollars table has an RL column with an arbitrary Z value assigned. This allows selection and appearance control of the desired drillholes for display in 3D. linking the SampleID columns and the various assay fields. which may not be ideal for very large datasets (the user may experience reduced 3D rendering performance). First create the required assay fields (type float) in the DHassays table using Table>Maintenance>Table Structure. View and label this database in 3D. and need to be manipulated for use in the Discover Drillhole module: The DHcollars table needs to be mappable: use Table>Create Points to set the projection as AGD66 Zone 55. the entire project will be brought into 3D.1 Create a drillhole project using the Copper Hill database. as is often the case for regional drilling where drillhole collars are unsurveyed. Data Location: 1. Training 3D\Drilling\ Project Files Open the drilling dataset located in the above data folder within MapInfo.csv file. - . the Discover 3D>View Drillholes option allows only the selected drillholes to be displayed in 3D as a temporary drillhole project. The Drillholes Properties dialog can be reopened by right clicking on a Drillholes branch and selecting the Properties option. In contrast. which can be useful when examining only a portion of a very large dataset (better 3D rendering). Once these have been opened. Exercise 10. and run the Discover Table Utilities>MultiColumn update tool. these will be highlighted in this dialog. Note The Open Discover Drillholes option provides no subsetting options. including downhole data display and labelling. Then import the csv file as a native MapInfo table. Alternatively. the Add Drillholes button displays the Drillholes Properties control dialog. the Open Discover Drillholes button in the 3D Window allows selection of the appropriate drillhole tables (collar. The DHassays table has no assays. Open a drillhole project in 2D using the Drillholes>Project Setup dialog and select the appropriate drillhole project from the pull-down list. The Discover 3D>View Drillholes option then allows the selection of the drillholes to display in 3D from a list of available drillholes: if collars have already been selected (either graphically in a map window or via a query). survey (optional) and downhole data) provided they are already part of a drillhole project. These typify a new field dataset.3D Drillholes 97 10 3D Drillholes Drillholes In order to view drillholes in Discover 3D the drillholes must be part of a drillhole project. Use the Surfaces module Assign Values from Grid option to populate the RL column with Z values from the DEM_5m grid file. these must be updated from the assay lab’s assays_021103. and examine the tables.
From the list of drillholes available. Click OK to display in the 3D window. double-click on the Drillholes branch in the Workspace Tree to open the Drillholes Properties dialog. Click OK. Return to the Appearance tab. 2. Run the Discover > Drillhole menu. . depth labelling results in multiple labels per drillhole. Assign the appropriate Spatial Columns. - 3. Note Graphical selection of a drillhole subset is also possible within the Discover 3D window using the Holes tab of the Drillholes Properties dialog. and set the Depth interval to 25m.txt file) will significantly increase the processing time. In particular. Note that options are available to load the entire dataset or subset a portion of a drillhole database to assist in loading time and improve 3D re-draw performance when working with large datasets. and is therefore not recommended for large datasets (it also can result in a very cluttered view). it has a . Note that whilst rotating the 3D view. Note Labelling of large datasets consumes a significant amount of graphics memory.csv or . their orientations can be modified via the direction and dip bezels at the base of the dialog. and press the adjacent 6. The graphical selection dialog incorporates individual. Select Discover 3D>View Drillholes. In Discover.98 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Note Ensure that the Get Values from table is a native MapInfo table (i. In the top text field. Operating on a non-native table (eg a .e. as MapInfo cannot index the table. Press OK. Assign the DHcollars and DHsurvey files. then Drillholes > Project Setup. Set the DEM_5m table as the Topography Surface table. the labels remain Facing the Viewer. 5. Sub-setting of the dataset within the 3D environment will not improve re-draw performance. Enable the Collar Label and Depth Label options. and will reduce the speed of 3D rendering. 4. The resulting labels will be fixed in 3D space. Browse to the Project Files folder and click OK. To display both the hole name and total depth at the collar location. choose the entire list to display the double arrow key. start a new line (after the %HOLE_NAME% entry). rectangular and polygonal tools as well as View Direction options (Front. Side and Top). At the bottom of the Appearance tab are a number of hole labelling and symbol options. and select the Downhole Data Tables DHgeology and DHassays. However this is a useful way to view particular spatial areas of a drillhole dataset. Within the 3D window. name the Project “Copper Hill” and click OK. create a new drillhole project called “Copper Hill” using this dataset.DAT file). and tick ‘Down Dip is negative’. again press the Collar Label button under the Appearance tab. and select the Collar Label button. Set the pull-down to the right of the Style button to Fixed 3D. Click the New button.
Click OK and Done.3D Drillholes 99 arrow to display a list of valid fields. Data Location: 1. 5. These section images may include downhole display attributes or orebody boundary polygons along with annotation data. Exercise 10. make all layers suffixed with an A. Some of the sections have additional geological data which will enhance the section display in Discover 3D. Select Discover3D > View Sections to open the Export Located Bitmap dialog.e. Select the %HOLE_BOTTOM_DEPTH% and %UNITS% fields as below. make sure the Copper Hill drillhole project is open (Drillholes > Project Setup). 5500 & 5600 from the list. Use the ELC to turn the visibility Off for all non-Geology files in sections 5300. Drillhole Sections Drillhole sections created in Discover can be viewed in Discover 3D as georeferenced bitmap images. 4. this was generated using the Drillholes > Boundary Digitizing > Digitize Boundaries option. The 5600 section has now been added to the Copper Hill drillhole project (a new folder with these files has been added to the drillhole root directory. Click the Add button and select section geol5600. in this case below Training 3D\Drilling\ Project Files. Training 3D\Drilling\Sections In MapInfo. and click the Settings button. Select section 5300. 5400 and 5500 sections browse to the Geology folder under each section folder and open these additional files into the appropriate section window. For the 5300. Note the digitized orebody outline. 5400. 5400 & 5500 (i. and apply the changes. 5400 & 5500). D 1 or 2 invisible). 2. . 3. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 for the remaining section folders (5300. Select Drillholes > Section Manager. 6.2 Open a number of previously generated cross-sections into the Copper Hill drillhole project. and click OK to export these into the 3D window. Tick the Add New Sections to Section Manager option. View these sections as image bitmaps in 3D. Use File > Open to open all the TAB files in the Sections\geol5600 folder (box select all the files within the folder) into a New Mapper (Preferred View). B. and ensure that the Create New Directory for each Section option is enabled.
5. and highlight the three log in the Export DH Logs to 3D dialog. 3. Pres OK to display. assay values or geophysical readings displayed as text. When finished. Within Discover 3D. 4. linegraphs or histograms. To view in 3D. Useful log display controls include the Transparency. and select the Image tab. select the Discover 3D>View Logs option. 2. Drillhole Logs Drillhole Log Profiles created in Discover can be viewed in Discover 3D as georeferenced bitmap images. with a red colour fill. . CHRC-36 and CHRC-37. Use the Cu field from the DHassay table. and set the display type as a Linegraph of 6cm Log Width. Azimuth and Scale sliders. Click OK twice to create the log displays. 8. open the Drillholes Properties dialog. Once created resize the log display windows to the linegraph extents.3 Create and display drillhole logs in Discover 3D 1. Uncheck the Drillholes branch in the Workspace Tree to view the section images more clearly. Ensure that the Drillhole traces are displayed in Discover 3D. These drillhole log images may include up to 16 columns of downhole lithological information.100 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 7. Within MapInfo/Discover use a SQL Query to select drillholes CHRC-35. Exercise 10. and make the Drillholes branch visible again. Create drillhole logs for these 3 holes in Discover using the Drillholes>Log Display menu option. delete the Images branch. 6.
In a few seconds the drillhole selections will be displayed as vectors in the 3D map window. Select the Discover>Data Utilities>Select by Group utility and bring up the list of lithological codes used in the DHgeology table. This can aid in the effective visualization of trends (eg geological or mineralisation) by displaying only pertinent data in an uncluttered 3D display. but if multiple high resolution images of section are displayed. Double-click on the Vectors 1 branch of the Workspace Tree (QDP. this will lead to a significant decrease in rendering performance (and therefore navigation efficiency) . 3. Create a query to select all samples that are equal or greater than 20000 ppm (2%) Cu. The most effective data selection options to use are the: • • • Discover>Data Utilities>Select by Group tool. enter the name QDP and click OK. 4. Create another selection in MapInfo. Choose a permanent selection. Once the records are selected display them in 3D using the View Drillhole Selection tool. Display Downhole Data The previous exercises have examined methods of displaying downhole data as images. 2. Check the Override fill and line colour box and change the colour of the QDP vectors and click Apply. Save as a Permanent Selection called Cu20000. particularly for selections involving numeric data (egg Au assays > 50ppm. Images are however limited in their applicability in 3D: the image quality must be increased to display the data at a sufficient resolution to be usable within 3D (eg to be able to read text labels etc). It is also generally useful if the drillhole traces are already displayed in 3D without any appearance options enabled. particularly for geological/lithological selections (egg to display all occurrences of limestone) Query>SQL Select tool. Display this in Discover 3D as a permanent selection called Au2. Back in MapInfo go to the Query>Select menu option and select DHassays as the table to query. For a single image this is not a problem.dxf) to display the Vectors Properties dialog.3D Drillholes 101 Drillhole Selections The View Drillhole Selection utility allows the display of selected drillhole data in 3D as DXF vector files. querying all Au values >= 2. With the records selected choose the Discover3D>View Drillhole Selection menu option. Permanent selections are saved into the drillhole project folder. 1. Select the QDP lithology code and then select to display the selected records in a browser window.4 Make a drillhole selection based on geological units and assay grade cut-off. Exercise 10. 5. This tool requires an open drillhole project as well as an open Discover 3D window. or quartz vein intensity > 25%) Graphical selection from cross-sections egg choosing individual drillhole segments using the MapInfo selection tools.
Set the Number of Rows to 5. Press OK. Press OK to apply these changes. and click OK. Note that CHD-1 has a large number of intervals that are not coloured (grey). and patterns will not be displayed.5 Colour modulate drillhole traces using assay and lithology fields. 3D Rose: The most graphically demanding trace display option. Under the Fields tab. and are more memory intensive than the Line display. This is covered in Exercise 10. 2. To create the Cu legend. In the 3D window. 3. Under the Appearance tab. . three Trace Style options are presented in a pull-down list: Line: the most efficient way to display very large drillhole datasets. 3D Tubes support legend patterns and colouring. Enter the -555 value. and the minimum value of the Legend Range to 0 and the maximum to 50000. enable the Colour tick box. they will only display the foreground colour of any patterns. and are planar in nature. create new Colour Legends for the Cu and Lithology fields (of the DHassay and DHgeology tables) using the Legend Editor accessed via the Tools menu. 4. If these are colour modulated. perhaps indicating SNR (Sample Not Received). Check the Populate Legend from Dataset box and choose DHassay as the Dataset and Cu as the Field. and select the colour Legend created in step 1 from the list of available legends. many of these are attributed -555. Select the Data Conditioning button in the Fields tab to the right of the Colour pull-down list. 1. therefore they can only be viewed effectively in 3D from a limited range of aspects. and set it as a Null by pressing the Add button (green cross) as below). Double-click on the Drillholes 1 branch in the Workspace Tree. which are presented in the following exercises. Press the Edit button. Examine this holes assays in 2D using the Discover>Data Utilities>Select by Group tool. These values need to be set as Nulls to be handled correctly in 3D. - - Choose the 3D Tube style for this exercise. These can have different cross-sectional profiles (set under Tube Style). click the New button at the bottom right of the Legend Editor to open the New Legend dialog.6. by default this is a circle. 3D Tube: hole traces are displayed as a solid tube of a user specified diameter. Discover 3D incorporates a number of powerful options for displaying downhole data from directly within the 3D interface.102 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual in 3D. Exercise 10. this allows the hole thickens to be modulated by a numeric field (eg assays or geophysical measurements). as well as colour modulated. Close the Legend Editor dialog. Section images also require (obviously) a 2D section. and populate the adjacent pull-down with the DHassay_Cu field. Holes are presented as simple lines.
6. for example all copper values above 8000. enter the 0->8000 Cu range and assign it as a Null range by pressing the Add button (green cross) as below. To prevent traces with this assigned Null value from displaying.g. -9999 for BDL’s. etc). Within this dialog. disable the Show Gaps option under the Appearance tab. Alternatively the Histogram tab provides a visual presentation of the data distribution. and press OK. -777 for SNR. Press OK twice to observe this change. Note A better way to ensure all such Null values are found and assigned correctly is to utilise the Statistics Explorer button within the Field Data Conditioning dialog. . the user can then immediately ascertain if any Null values need to be assigned. allowing the user to see precisely what Null values may exist (e.3D Drillholes 103 5. The Field Data Conditioning dialog can also be used to display only a desired data range. The Statistics tab within this will list the Valid data range. and set these accordingly.
and that all holes are displayed (under the Holes tab). Use the Get Strings option to auto-populate the pull down list. Ensure that this is populated with the same drillhole project. Set this branches display type to Line (under the Appearance tab) and press OK.5g/t that occur in volcaniclastics). . However. DUMP and DPP attributes as Nulls.104 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Note Using the Field Data Conditioning dialog to control the assay range or lithologies displayed (see step 7 below) provides an faster alternative to the Drillhole Selections method described in Exercise 10. Also note that the Field Data Conditioning dialog (Step 4) could be used to display only specific rock types. This is a useful way of emphasizing a particular data range whilst still visualising the actual hole traces. 7. Add a new Drillholes branch (Drillholes 2) to the Workspace Tree using the Add Drillholes button. Try colouring the hole traces by geology. it does not have the same level of querying power as Drillhole Selections (which can for example be used to display all Au intercepts>0. then set the SOIL. Also disable the visibility of the second drillholes branch (Drillholes 2). 9. disable the Colour option in the Fields tab to turn off the Colour Modulation. using the geology colour table created in step 1. 8. by setting units not of interest as Nulls. When finished.4.
. Tick the first Show box.02). Also turn off the Show Gaps option (Appearance tab) and enable the visibility of the second drillholes branch (Line display). as below. This can help accentuate data ranges. giving greater weighting to larger values. enhancing smaller values Global – Scales each hole’s data display with respect to the entire dataset.Applies a logarithmic expansion to the data.5).Squares the data. The Thickness tab provides three options for scaling the trace thickness. In the Appearance tab. Apply the Cu colour legend in the Fields tab as per the previous exercise. Fe & Zn) to displayed simultaneously.6 Vary the thickness of drillhole traces according to a numeric field (eg assay or geophysical values) Thickness modulation of hole traces can provide a better visual presentation of numeric data than colour modulation. Disable the Colour option when finished. set this to range from 0. A Thickness range will be displayed. 3. 2.02 -> 2. and set the pull-down list to the DHassay_Cu field. set -555 as a Null value. As with step 6 of the previous exercise (10. Enable the Show Gaps option. It also allows multiple fields (eg Cu. Switch to the Thickness tab: this tab is only enabled when a 3D Rose display type is set. Enhance . 4. Generally the default setting of only Global is recommended. 5. thickness modulate only Cu values greater than 8000 using the Field Data Conditioning dialog. Then try applying the geology colour legend. 1. again. rather than scaling each hole in isolation. All Null values will be displayed as the minimum rose thickness (in this case 0. Press OK twice to observe the changes. set the display type to 3D Rose. Within the adjacent Field Data Conditioning button. the Sharpen option however can be applied in addition to datasets with a small number of large values. Sharpen . Note also the effect of disabling the Discrete samples option in the Appearance tab.3D Drillholes 105 Exercise 10. and can also be used in combination with colour modulation (for example display Zn values and lithology data).
7. Press Apply and observe the changes to the drillhole display. To modulate multiple numeric fields simultaneously. The Initial Angle in the Appearance tab defines the angle of the 3D Rose displays facets. Use the Statistics Explorer within the Field Data Conditioning dialog for each field to check for any Null value assignments required. remove the 0-8000 Cu Null assignment. Also.106 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 6. return to the Thickness tab. . as the user will not be able to differentiate between each assay field in the 3D view. Enable two more rows. Note that colour modulation of these traces is not recommended. and set these to the Pb and Zn fields.
7 Create and attribute section boundaries for a cross-section.2 still open. Choose the Sections folder as the destination. Using the 5400 interpreted geological layers as a reference. Training 3D\Drilling\Sections In MapInfo. 3. and click Save to display in 3D. To create 3D DXF vector files. such as ‘main_fault’. Highlight the 4 sections in the ‘Available Section…’ portion of the following Drillhole Display – Boundary Export dialog. ‘ore1’ and ‘BOPO’. 5500 and 5600. 3D DXF vector files allow the efficient display of large amounts of linework. Feature Databases are discussed in Chapter 12. We wish to create a separate file for each individual attribute type: select the Multiple Files option. However Feature Objects can be directly edited within 3D(nodes added. Copper Hill). Data Location: 1. and select Drillholes>Boundary Digitizing>Digitize Boundaries. 2. and separate by the attributes contained in the Feature_Code column. digitize and attribute (into the Feature_Code column) the following objects into this boundary layer: ore1 main_fault south_fault supergene BOPO Use File>Save Table when complete.3D Drillholes 107 Section Boundaries Drillhole section boundaries created in Discover can be viewed in Discover 3D as 3D DXF vector files or as Feature Objects. and allow the line colours to be altered. as well as the digitization of extra objects). . with the suffix being the relevant boundary attribute (egg CH_supergene). select Drillholes>Boundary Digitizing>Export Boundaries. with the 4 sections used in Exercise 10. and can be processed by the 3D Solid Generator to create solids from sectional interpretations. deleted or moved. Import these boundaries into Discover 3D as both 3D DXF vector files and a Feature Database. Note that the various geological polylines and polygons have been assigned common attributes between sections. These section boundary files may represent lithological boundaries or orebody outlines. this will be the prefix for the output files.e. This will add a new layer to the map window called ‘geol5400B’. Exercise 10. We will create a similar attributed section boundary layer for section 5400. Open the 5400 section window. examine the pre-digitized boundary layers (suffixed B) in sections 5300. Click OK and in the Save dialog assign the name CH (i.
The boundaries of the 4 sections will now be visible amongst the drillhole displays. Press OK. By default the output file will be named FeatureExport. . Change to the 3D window and display the newly created vector files (easiest way is to drag and drop them from File Explorer). 5. Change to the 3D interface and examine the output. Their colour can be altered through the relevant Vector Properties dialog. To create a Feature Database in 3D. Remove all Vector and Feature Database branches from the Workspace Tree when finished. select the Discover 3D>View Section Boundaries option. 6. this can be changed.108 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 4.fdb and placed in the drillhole projects root directory. Again highlight the four sections in the list.
a voxel model comprises a series of discrete cells or volumes (with X. 3. or a discrete attribute such as lithology or alteration. Surpac) or inversion packages (eg UBC). They can also be imported from third-party software such as mine simulation (eg Vulcan. 2. The term voxel refers to a volume element and is the three-dimensional equivalent of the two-dimensional grid cell. whether this be a geophysical measurement (such as magnetic susceptibility. Click on the button shown left next to the Properties window to select the IP_10_01. Make sure to change the Recognise NULL value from -1 to -1e32 before clicking the Finish button. Example of complex voxel shape Opening a Voxel Model Exercise 11. Discover 3D incorporates a 3D Gridding tool allowing the creation of voxel models. Voxel models are created by applying a 3D gridding algorithm to an appropriate drillhole or 3D point dataset. Y & Z coordinate. conductivity or IP property).data file from the same directory. Click Apply on the VoxelModel Properties dialog to display the model in 3D. . Training 3D\Geophysics\IP_Resistivity\IP Resistivity Select the Add Voxel Model button in the 3D Window to add a Voxel Model branch to the Workspace Tree. As such. Right-click this and selecting the Properties option will open the VoxelModel Properties dialog. density. In the Data tab of the VoxelModel Properties dialog click on the Load Model Wizard and leave the default UBC 3D voxel model format. Y and Z dimensions) with each cell having an X. an assay value (copper or gold).Voxel Block Models 109 11 Voxel/Block Models Voxel or Block models can be used to model geophysical or geological data in 3D. Additionally each cell has an intrinsic value.1 Open a UBC Voxel Model into Discover 3D Data Location: 1.mesh file. Gemcom. Click Next and use the button shown left next to the Mesh window to browse to the above data location and select the IP_10_01.
Press Apply. Additional vertices can be added simply by clicking between existing vertices. The Colour tab is used to alter the voxel model’s colour scheme.110 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Voxel display options Discover 3D contains a number of options for controlling the display of voxel models. Within the Threshold tab. use either the slider bars or manual entry to control the displayed data range (eg 36-47). This can therefore be used to focus the colour distribution across a data range of interest. but allows the user to take ‘corners’ out of the model. The Transparency of the slices can also be modified. Changing the Transparency type to Cloud will set the selected data range as opaque. as well as the First and Last slice coordinates. holding down the CTRL key whilst dragging a vertice will move just that vertice. These are provided under the various tabs of the Voxel Model Properties dialog. for any of which Bandpass Cutoff values can be set (as either percentage or data values). and enable adjacent tick bock. for example.data option is set in the top pull-down list. and set both of these to Multiple. The Chair Clipping tab provides similar functionality. Use the Table button to select a desired colour table or legend. 1. Log). the overall shape of the transform curve can be altered by dragging any vertices. At the bottom of the dialog.2 Modify the display of a voxel model. Select the Slice tab of the VoxelModel Properties dialog. Alternatively. Then use Mapping button to control the distribution of this colour table across the voxel data range. Use either the slider bars or manual entry to limit the geographical extents of the voxel model displayed. Additionally a User-Defined transform can be created. 5. the user can select from a number of predefined Data Transforms (Histogram. Linear. Apply a transparency to this display and press Apply. Enable the Vertical E-W and N-S options. 3. Exercise 11. Ensure the IP_10_01. 2. 4. Within the Colour Mapping dialog. Disable the Show options when complete. Change to the Clipping tab. and display the remaining data range at the transparency level set. . it can be used in addition to many other display options (eg the Slice view in step 1). Note that once clipping is set. Note that the interval between each slice can be manually set. the user can choose to display only a specified data range.
The Isosurface tab allows a number of data values within the voxel model to be displayed as surfaces. and then setting the value either manually or via the slider bar.data is set in the pull down list. A new Property branch will now be listed with an associated data value. deselect the Render thesholded voxel model option. The Transparency of the branch can also be altered. Press Apply to visualise. and press the adjacent Add button. This value can be altered by highlighting the branch.Voxel Block Models 111 6. . Rather than disabling the Threshold settings to turn this view display off. This allows the settings to be preserved and replied if desired. 7. Ensure IP_10_01. under the Appearance tab. This process can be repeated to display multiple surfaces (as multiple branches).
Exercise 11. These isosurfaces can be exported as 3D vector DXF’s. Open the Data tab of the VoxelModel Properties dialog. Select the ASCII Format and press Next. Y & Z fields are correctly assigned. Discover 3D requires a continuous cell coverage across the data extents (whether these are valid or null cells). 2. In the Geometry File dialog. and turn of the Voxel Model visibility. Press the File Open button. Set the X.xyz). and select the Grid Management option. In the File dialog. 4. . Also assign a NULL value of -1e32.xyz file (change the Files of type to All Files). 3. The dialog should recognize the header line. and will require Discover 3D to calculate the actual cell sizes.e. Then drag and drop the newly created DXF file from File Explorer into the 3D window. Select the isosurface to export. From within 3D open the 3D Grid Toolkit. a common universal format is the ASCII format (eg . Press Next. Press Next. which can then be displayed in Discover 3D instead of the source voxel model (with is quite graphically demanding).3 Import an ASCII Voxel Model into Discover 3D Data Location: 1. In particular. Press Save to complete. This voxel model is in ASCII format.112 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 8.csv or . Y & Z dimensions as Unknown: Discover 3D will automatically calculate these. which allows voxel models to be moved between different software packages. ensure that the X. i. Training 3D\Geophysics With WordPad or a similar text editor. browse for the Zinc_Simple. and press Next.xyz file. the input data cannot be a discontinuous data set. and these are set as Centre. press Next and specify an output file name and location. tick the Isosurface tab. and select the Export Model Wizard. Import and Export of Voxel models Discover 3D supports the import and export of voxel models in a range of formats. It contains only the cell centre XYZ coordinates and each cell’s value. open and examine the Zinc_Simple. In the following dialog. For the import file to handled correctly. 5.
In File Explorer. Press Apply to view it in 3D. The 3D Gridding tool within the 3D Grid Toolkit provides a range of powerful customizable gridding algorithms. . they involve very large file sizes in comparison to the specialized block model formats (UBC etc). Back in the Grid File Management dialog.3. This allows the user to create and visualise a continuous 3D model of their discrete geological/assay/geophysical data. Assign the grid a new name and save it to the same directory as the ASCII source file. Highlight this grid.4 Export this block model as a new ASCII file incorporating the cell sizes.Voxel Block Models 113 6. and set the file type to XYZ NX NY NZ Full in the same directory as the source file Examine this new file with WordPad or similar. these are the 3D equivalents of those found in the 2D gridding tool (Surfaces>Create Grid). Line or Drillhole datasets. and the output voxel model from the previous exercise still loaded in it. Specify a new output file name. 1. Whilst ASCII files are easily transported between programs. 7. highlight the imported grid and press the Save button. and highlight this new block model. and select the Export grid button . 3. 2. Exercise 11. examine the difference in file size between the source ASCII and the final output file. Switch to the Display Assistant. Add the DHassay_Zn field as a Data Field and press Finish. Creating a Voxel model Discover 3D can create block models by gridding 3D Point. 8. Press Save and OK. With the 3D Grid Toolkit open. 9. comparing its format to that of the original ASCII file imported in Exercise 11. again open the Grid Management dialog. Either an Encom 3D or UBC format voxel model can be created.
Upon completion of gridding. Press Next. This grid will be created as an . more accurately reflecting the input data but taking a lot more time to process than a Low resolution coarse cell size. The Conditioning tab provides a range of options. Enable the From-To segments option. the first gridding attempt should utilise a Low resolution cell size for speedy processing. It is generally recommended (at least initially) to utilise the options under the Auto button at the top right of the dialog. but perhaps a Z cell height of 1m. and select the Gridding option. Use the VoxelModel Properties for this new block model to display all cells less than 30 metres from a data point. this includes Low. this will treat each measurement as a downhole interval rather than a point sample. Training 3D\Drilling\ Project Files Ensure that the Copper Hill drillholes are displayed in 3D Open the Utilities>3D Grid Toolkit. Set the Data Field as DHassay_Cu. . we would like to create a Distance model.5 Examine the distribution of copper assays in the Copper Hill drillhole project. 2. Therefore enable the ‘Convert null to background’ option and set a Background Value of zero. Once the various search parameters have been refined. ensure the DHcollars is set as the Dataset. Set Auto>Auto Low Res and press Next. The dimensions of the output cells are specified in the Size tab. The Gridding Technique tab provides a range of gridding algorithms. indicating the distance each output cell is from the nearest data point. 7. Note Cell sizes can also be specified manually.E3D (Encom 3D grid) format. then decrease the cell size (higher resolution). and can be variable.5). The Display Assistant dialog will appear: press OK to display the grid. High resolution will result in small cell sizes. Medium and High Resolution cell sizes. Select the Distance to data option. For instance a dataset of regular 40m-spaced holes with downhole sample intervals of 3m could be gridded with X and Y cell widths of 10m. This will allow us to visualise the realistic volume that can be created. such as data capping and Field Data Conditioning (as discussed in Exercise 10. This can be accomplished with either the Threshold or Isosurface controls. ensure the Grid Dimension is set to 3D Grid and press OK In the Input tab. 6. 4. a dialog will prompt for a voxel model name and location.114 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Examining the data distribution Exercise 11. Again. and what search radius may be appropriate. 8. 3. This display will indicate that whilst 9. 5. Prior to creating an actual voxel model of the Cu assay data. Also it may be reasonable to assume that any Null values or intervals not sampled would have assays close to background. These will be examined in the following exercises. Data Location: 1. As such. Press Next. ensure that any negative values are assigned as Null’s. Leave all options disabled in the Distance Parameters tab and press Finish.
and set it to Inverse distance weighting. 2. If the 3D Grid Toolkit is not closed. it will remember the last used settings. Training 3D\Drilling\ Project Files Ensure that the Copper Hill drillholes are displayed in 3D In the 3D Grid Toolkit. Alternatively. Press OK. This highlights quite a number of outlying drillholes whose ‘volumes of influence’ (at 30m) remain isolated from other drillholes. these holes could be selected within the 2D interface. Prior to gridding we need to reduce the input drillholes to just those identified as providing a relatively continuous coverage using a 30m search radius using the Distance grid in Exercise 11. 11. 4. and utilise the Inverse Distance Weighting method (IDW). applying 3D Gridding to this subset. which opens the graphical selection dialog.5. CHAT-11. . However. it would be preferably to have a closer hole spacing with significant overlap (angled holes) to ensure a higher density of assay data in 3 dimensions. Exercise 11.Voxel Block Models 115 the bulk of the drillholes provide relative continuous coverage with a 30m search radius.6 Create a voxel model of the Copper Hill drillhole projects copper assays using Inverse Distance Weighting. We can use this information to now create a block model of the downhole copper values for these relevant drillholes. and then brought in as a new Subset. Data Location: 1. Select the required holes. The Conditioning tab can be left as it is (it will retain the parameters set during the Density grid creation process). we will apply a Continuously Variable gridding technique. etc).e. Note that there is also a Density grid option. select the Lines or Holes selection button. Gridding numeric data The Distance grid created in Exercise 11. Note Experiment with differing cell sizes (i. This can be used in tandem with the Distance gridding option to further refine the appropriate parameters to be used when either Continuously Variable or Discretised gridding (following exercises). a central portion of drillholes provides a sufficient density to result in a relatively continuous output cell coverage using a 30m search radius. higher resolutions). which will generate a voxel model indicating the density of valid data points at each cell based on a specified search radius.5 was used to display all cells within 30m of a drillhole data point. Being a numeric field. Select the Continuously Variable technique. Note however that this drillhole dataset is not ideal. select the Gridding option. the user could instead elect to utilise the Kriging method. a number of holes are too isolated to consider gridding at this search radius (eg NCH001. 3. Alternatively. and display the 3D Gridding dialogs as a series of tabs rather than a wizard when it is reopened. In the Input Data tab. NCH009. 10. hence including these drillholes as input data into 3D gridding my be regarded as inappropriate.
Enable the Nearest Neighbours option. If it still cannot calculate a cell value with data points within this volume. Press OK to add this to the 3D window. Set the search sectors to 2Z. 8. allowing the user to bias the search along for example an inferred fluid conduit or regional mineralisation trend.E3D). The Help button within this dialog provides a detailed description of the various models and their parameters. and set the maximum number of points to 2 per sector. it will then try a 20m radius and finally a 30m (3 by 10m) radius. Differing minor and depth axis distance can be specified. the cell value will be set to Null. The Preview button at the top of the Search tab allows the user to visualise the resulting search volume with an overlay of the drillholes in a rotatable 3D view. The Sample Selection parameters in the Search tab allow the user to control how evenly the data points are distributed within the search volume before a cell value is calculated. with 1 minimum point. set a search Distance of 10m. this can be altered such that only any 2 of the 4 sectors need to have 2 data points to allow a valid cell value to be returned. and the higher the number of minimum points. but the more representative the cell value will be of the surrounding data points. based on their distance are from the cell centre. a Save grid dialog will appear. we may have specified 4 search sectors each of which require 2 data points before a cell value will be returned. If many data points exist within the search volume. Therefore the higher the number of sectors. prompting for a file name and location. With the gridding rules. if it cannot find any data points or meet the other gridding criteria (Step 7 below) within this radius. These control how the data points within the search volume are weighted in the final cell value calculation. Call this Cu_IDW. Press Finish to start the gridding process. as well as the search orientation. The search distance and number of search expansions can be dynamically altered from within this view. Between 1 and 8 sectors can be specified (where the specified axes separate the sectors). the new grid will be displayed in the Display Assistant dialog.116 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 5. Press Next to advance to the final dialog. . 9. 10. 6. 12. 7. the less likely a cell will be gridded. 11. and a Search Expansion of 3. set the cell sizes to Low resolution (this will automatically calculate a cell size of in the region of 10-15m depending on which holes were selected). each sector must contain a Minimum number of points before the cell will be gridded. The Anisotropic controls allows an elliptical search to be provided. The Method tab provides a number of Weight Models. In the Size tab. Upon closing this dialog. Upon gridding completion. In the Search tab. The Sample Selection criteria can be relaxed by enabling the Gridding Rule option. for which the weight of each data point is inversely proportional to its distance from the cell node. This will result in the gridding algorithm using an initial search radius of 10m. only the nearest samples in each sector can be used. The output grid is saved as an Encom 3D format (. For instance. The default option is the Power model. preventing a sector with a large number of data points have more weighting on the cell value than one with few samples. and save it to the Training 3D>Drilling directory.
Data Location: 1.e3D grid.8 Create a lithological voxel model from the Copper Hill drillhole data. and select the Discretised option.e3D voxel model created in Exercise 11. In particular. This legend (created with the Legend Editor) would list only the desired attributes. Note that the majority of the data falls in the first (theoretically background) range of the legend (010000). lithology. and set the minimum accepted value to 10000. Data Location: 1.5 (DHassay_Cu).6 is open is 3D. try increasing the Search Distance.7 Modify the display of the Cu voxel model. unique) attributes. The gridding tabs will be configured for the previous numeric gridding. 2. and ensure that all holes are used in the gridding process. .& 5 indicating different alteration strengths). A new legend can be created if required. 4. grain-size. It may also remove the ‘tubes’ of cells around each drillhole apparent in your initial Cu_IDW. enable the Linear Slider option in the Threshold tab. Alternatively. and experiment with the options available. all other attributes in the dataset would be handled as Null values.Voxel Block Models 117 Exercise 11. 3. Press OK. Training 3D\Drilling\ Project Files Ensure that the Cu_IDW. 5. Modify the Input Data tab to utilise the DHgeology_Lithology field. Regrid the dataset. Use the Colour tab of the VoxelModel Properties dialog to apply the copper colour legend created in Exercise 10. Gridding geological data The 3D Gridding tool can also be used to grid data with discrete (i.5 to remove individual unwanted attributes (eg Tertiary alluvials and soils). Run the Gridding tool. this will result in less Null cells being generated. 4. generally a text field such as geology. If no attributes are to be restricted. and therefore a more extensive and continuous voxel model. etc. 3. To remove this range from view. alteration. as well as the Copper Hill drillhole project. The Field Data Conditioning button in the Classification tab can be used as described in step 7 of Exercise 10. these units will be set as Null values during the gridding process. Try also decreasing the cell size. 2.e. 2. 4. Training 3D\Drilling\ Project Files Ensure that the Copper Hill drillhole project is open in 3D. and refine the output grid. select the Auto-Classify option in the Classification dialog. The list of unique attributes to be gridded can be restricted via either the Conditioning or Classification tabs. Exercise 11. However a series of integer values would also work (1. 3. a custom legend can be specified via the Classify from legend option under the Classification tab.
Colour the lithological model using the colour legend (DHgeology_Lithology) created in Exercise 10. use the browse button to select the DHgeology_Lithology legend. In the Lithology tab. Then go to the Isosurface tab and set the top pull-down to Lithology. Use the Colour tab of the VoxelModel Properties dialog to select and apply this legend. You can now control which individual lithologies to display. 8. It is recommended to note the parameters used for each grid. 7. This legend can also be used to control the display of individual lithologies/rock types in the Isosurface and Threshold tabs. for comparing the various grids effectiveness and validity. and press Apply. Again try applying the Cloud view. Then open the Threshold tab and enable the Threshold by option: multiple rock types can rapidly be displayed using this interface. However this is likely to be at the expense of not preserving the original data points. larger number of search expansions. and exaggerated/unreasonable data extrapolation. and less strict selection parameters will result in a greater coverage of calculated output cells. turn of the Isosurface display via the option under the Appearance tab. with individual transparency settings for each. .5. 10. A search distance of 20 with 3 Search Expansions is a good starting point. Obviously a larger search radius. Set the cell Size to low resolution. 9. Alternatively. and observe the resulting grids.118 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 6. Experiment with a number of different parameter combinations.
and that sections 5300-5600 are open. digitization is therefore free of the orientation constraints imposed in the 2D environment.DXF suffix and placed in the source file directory (this can be altered). ensure that the Copper Hill drillhole project is open. point datasets and vector models. and select the Features tab. Data Location: 1. 3D solid dxfs can then be wireframed from Feature Objects (whether these comprise 2D and/or 3D digitization) by using the 3D Solid Generator. Create solid dxf’s based on an attribute field. Open the 3D Solid Generator (Utilities>3D Solid Generator). ensure that the FeatureExport. as illustrated in exercises 9. polylines and polygons directly into the 3D environment as Feature objects. These boundaries can then be displayed in 3D. etc) can be digitized into 2D drillhole cross sections. This allows interpreted lithological or mineralisation outlines to be converted into coherent 3D models.7).9 & 10. Alternatively these sections boundaries were also exported as dxf files: these could be imported via the Features>Import menu option. This functionality utilises the 3D Cursor Plane as a drawing plane. Change to the 3D interface. Examine the feature datasets attributes in the Features Spreadsheet (open the Information Sheet. 4. lithological boundaries. including their respective ‘B’ layers Send these digitized section B layers to Discover 3D using the Discover 3D > View Section Boundaries menu option. Note These may have been created previously as ‘FeatureExport. Alternatively Discover 3D 2. If so. Encom Training\Training 3D\Drilling\Project Files In the 2D interface. Assign the Feature_Code field as the Body ID Field. such as drillholes.7. . 3.3D Digitization and Solid Generation 119 12 3D Digitization and Solid Generation Attributed geological interpretations (such as mineralization or alteration zones. 6.fdb is selected from the pull down list within this view). However these interpreted boundaries are limited spatially to the vertical planes of the 2D cross sections. then this could be opened directly from within Discover 3D using the Features>Open menu option.1 Import 2D section boundaries into 3D as a Feature Database. the Output file will automatically be named after this with a . Assign the correct Feature Database in the top pull-down list. Digitization directly into the 3D environment also allows the user to visualise multiple datasets whilst digitising their interpretations. voxel models. Exercise 12. importing these vector objects into a new feature database. 2. This will force the tool to generate a separate solid for each series of attributed objects 5. gridded surfaces.5 now gives the user the powerful ability to digitize and attribute points.fdb’ (exercise 10.
The display of each sub layer can be independently controlled via the Surface tab of the Voxel Properties dialog (fill and line colours. Note The Cursor plane can also be snapped to the plane of an existing feature object. Under the Algorithm Options button. Data Location: 1. . 5. in the majority of instances a Flat style is recommended (using None will prevent a volume calculation from being returned). In the main 3D window. assign the database a name ‘Digitization’ and place it on the \Encom Training\Training 3D\Drilling directory. Digitization Exercise 12.fbf is open and make it Selectable in the Workspace Tree. The Cursor plane will align to the orientation of this polygon. make the ‘Digitization’ feature database Editable. Enable the Select tool. turning off the Cursor Plane will make the editable layer uneditable. with the holes modulated by both geology and assay fields. and double click on one of the existing polygons in this database. the keyboard arrow and Page Up/Down keys) into a desired location. 2. however generally it is recommended to create a user specific attribute field. A number of End capping styles are available. a new Vector branch will be added to the Workspace Tree. The Cursor plane can also be snapped to the plane of an image by enabling the Bond to Image button. Manoeuvre the Cursor Plane (controls discussed in Chapter 4 i. The Cursor Plane provides the drawing reference plane for feature objects. In the Workspace Tree. Use the button to add a new ‘Geology’ field. with a sub layer representing each attributed solid. as well as the final wireframed solids. Press Finish to complete the database. Training 3D\Drilling\ Project Files Ensure that the Copper Hill drillhole project is open in 3D. Then use the Select tool to select the target image. In the first dialog of the following wizard.e.120 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 7.2 Digitize and attribute features into a new database and edit. Create a new Feature Database by selecting the Features>Create menu option. 4. The preview screen will display a series of green lines indicating the join order of each series of feature objects. untick the Structure Analysis option. The second wizard dialog allows the names and types of the various feature database fields to be set. Press Apply to run the tool. 8. the Cursor Plane will be displayed. 9. 3. wireframe display). By default this includes a Description field that can hold character attributes. Ensure the FeatureExport. with a text width of 30 characters. Feature Objects can only be digitized into an editable database. and only one database can be editable at a time (as in MapInfo).
press the keyboard Delete button to remove an object. Feature editing Object editing requires one or more objects to be selected in an Editable feature database (ensure the Editable icon is enabled in the Workspace Tree). Deleting an object. Enable the Edit mode button on the Feature Toolbar. If more than one object is selected. each press of the keyboard Page Up/Down buttons will shift the cursor plane laterally 10m. Copy. 9.3D Digitization and Solid Generation 121 6. Objects can be attributed directly after digitization by enabling the Confirm Feature button. all nodes/vertices on the selected objects will be displayed. The object will be moved within the cursor plane. they will be offset to the plane of the last selected object. 8. 50m of data either side of the Cursor Plane will be displayed). Setting the Clip option to Slice will display only the specified distance of data behind the cursor plane. The amount of 3D data displayed either side of the Cursor Plane can be controlled via a Clipping Plane.e. click twice (slowly) to edit the Geology field. Experiment with the Object creation buttons on the Feature toolbar. Double-click the mouse to finish either of these object types. rather than all data behind the cursor plane.e. ensuring that the cursor does not change to a directional cursor. A browser dialog will appear. Object Cut. only drillhole traces within 50m of the cursor plane. then place the cursor over the selected object. Experiment digitizing a series of attributed polylines/polygons into adjacent planes. Open the Cursor Plane Properties dialog (via the button on the Cursor Plane toolbar). Paste and Delete commands are also available from the Feature menu.e. the object to which the cursor plane has snapped) Offsetting an object with respect to its cursor plane – first hold down the keyboard CTRL and SHIFT keys. The Clipping plane can be toggled On/Off using the Clipping Plane button. Double clicking on a editable object will also enable the Edit mode for the object: The following Editing functionality is available with the Select button enabled: • Moving an object within the cursor plane – hold down the keyboard SHIFT key whilst dragging the object to its new location. • • • . right click on the object (not a node) and select the Delete option from the pop-up menu. for example. i. with a clip distance of 50m (i. This allows digitization based on. Generate solids from these. Also set the Step interval to 10m. Note that holding down the mouse button whilst drawing a polyline or polygon will create a continuous series of nodes. Alternatively. 7. it will be offset. The object will be positioned and remain parallel to its initial orientation. Set the Clip option to Envelope. Left click and drag the object to the new location.with or without the Edit mode enabled. all objects will be moved parallel to the plane of the last selected object (i. If multiple objects are selected. duplicating the functionality of section envelopes in 2D.
fdb. etc). • • • Note Feature Datasets can be exported using the Feature>Export menu option as a number of formats. Import the Bifurication_Final. Generate a solid using the Bifurication_Final. right click on the node and choose the Delete option form the pop-up menu. rightclick when the cursor is over the segment and choose Insert Node from the pop-up menu. including dxf’s and ESRI shape files. Exercise 12.dxf as a new feature database. and note the extra polygons guiding the separation of the body. this node can then be repositioned as above. Delete a node – select a node by clicking on it (the cursor plane cross-hairs will converge on the selected node) and press the keyboard Delete key. Add a node – placing the cursor over a polyline/polygon segment will change to cursor to an Add Node cursor.dxf into a new feature database using the Feature>Import menu option. In order to handle bifurcating solids. 3. The Radius of this options affect is set via the arrow button adjacent to the Elasticity button. . Click and drag the node to it’s new location within the cursor plane. Import the Bifurication_Initial. intermediary shapes are required to guide the algorithm. Alternatively.122 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual • Repositioning a node – placing the cursor over a node will change the cursor to Move cursor. Click to add a node at this location. Also note the polygon not utilized. Square.3 Create a bifurcating solid Encom Training\Training 3D\Geology 1. This dialog also contains options controlling how the affected nodes are moved: this affect is represented graphically next to each option (Gaussian. Elastic movement of nodes – Moving a node whilst the Activate Elasticity button is enabled will move its neighbouring nodes. 2. Generate a solid (no Body ID) and note the handling of the separation (bifurcation). Ensure that the Structure Analysis Algorithm Option is enabled to handle non-overlapping polygons. 4. Alternatively.
Y_mid and Z_mid) and populate these with the average of the appropriate From and To fields using Table>Update Column.1 Example exercises Convert a series of drillhole fault intercepts into a 3D fault plane DXF. but without manual digitization. open the Field Data Conditioning dialog. . Use the Browse button to open the ‘Only_Fault2.edc’ file located in the Project Files directory. desurvey the geology table (creating X. Grid this table applying minimum curvature to the Z_mid field and a very small cell size. These points now reflect the real world location of the fault intercepts. and its bounds are likely not satisfactory. Create 3 new columns (eg X_mid. Call the output table Fault2_grid. We want to model our fault plane on the mid-point of these intercepts. This gridded fault plane can be viewed in 3D using Discover 3D>View Surface in 3D. Note however that the fault surface extends above the DEM. Apply this null list. 6. In 2D. Select out the Fault2 attributed intercepts. Open this table. having set the lithology field and appropriate colour legend (created previously for this field). - We would like to create a fault plane encompassing these intercepts. In 3D. 4. Y and X From and To coordinates). A number of drillholes contain a ‘Fault2’ intercept. Open the Copper Hill drillhole project into both 2D & 3D. colour the drillholes so that only the Fault2 lithology is displayed: In the Drillholes Fields tab. all units listed here will be converted to Null intercepts. In 2D. Instead we will grid this data in 2D to create a grid surface 2. clip the Fault2_grid to the 5. as below: 3. This is a list of all lithological units in the Copper Hill project except the ‘Fault2” attribute. and save this as a new table called Fault2_points.Example Exercises 123 13 Exercise 13. Make the Fault2_points table mappable using the new X_mid and Y_mid columns (use AGD66 Zone55). Encom Training\Training 3D\Drilling\Project Files 1.
saving it either to the cosmetic layer or a new feature database. Ensure to Initialize the Z field from the ZValue.TAB file.124 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual DEM grid with the Grid Calculator. . the depth and lateral extents of the Fault_new grid could be clipped with a polygon using the Surfaces>Grid Utilities>Clip tool. View this surface in 3D. Ensure that Contour Smoothing is enabled. Call the output Fault2_contours. we need a series of polylines representing this surface. using the syntax pictured below. If desired. 9. use the Features>Import to browse for the Fault2_Contours. The easiest way to do this is to contour the grid. Run the Solid Generator on this feature database to generate a fault plane dxf. 7. In order to build a fault dxf in 3D using the Solid Generator. 25m spacings are recommended for this surface. Import these contours into 3D as Feature objects. 8. Within 3D. 10.
2. Note that when recorded to an AVI movie file. Audio identification at set points. Both point types require an X. view rotate and point examination Create 3D DXF file of a created flight track including definable points to mark view points Capture fly-through as an AVI movie for later viewing. the view is defined from each Eye Point towards the Look At point and then a gradual change of view to the next successive Eye Point to the next Look At point. Smoothly moving from one position to the next creates the animation. (also called a Capture Point or Position) and directing the view to a Look At point. flight speed. 4.Movie Making 125 14 Movie Making 3D Fly-Through Animation Creation of a 3D Fly-Through Animation is controlled by a wizard that generates a script. The 3D Fly-Through Animation track can be specified from: 1. 3. How Fly-Through Animation Works A fly-through animation operates by positioning an Eye Point. Selection of video compression (CODEC) provided. Sound cues such as “Note the surface anomalism coincident with this drilling…” can be a useful adjunct to seeing the 3D display replayed. Within the script are a series of 3D location points that view the display with different angles and elevations.TAB file Flight path specified from data open in Discover 3D Manually specifying various predefined views Edit an existing Fly-Through (FLY) file Other features of the 3D Fly-Through Animation feature include: • • • • • • Ability to repeat operation or reverse to replay backwards Smooth view along predefined track using a Bezier curve approximation Control frame rate. When played back. These sound effects are heard while a script is being replayed through the computer sound system. the sound is not transferred. MapInfo Professional . view pause. Y and Z specification as shown in the diagram below: .
Each Eye Point (Capture Point) can have a number of events and properties associated with it. sound.126 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Flight path of ‘joined’ Capture Points as they direct their view to Look At points Each Eye Point can be recorded from a manually positioned location in the 3D map display or at interpolated locations from a predefined flight path defined from a database or MapInfo TAB file. including any associated events. An event may be a pause. These files created for a given project area provide the mechanism to replay the fly-through animation as desired. The individual Eye Points and their associated Look At point. The speed at which the fly-through travels is dependent on the Playback Speed and Flight Speed (see General Playback Options). The Eye Points look directly to their associated Look At point and then gradually move and update with the next Eye and Look At points during the animation. The movement from one Eye point to the next can be smoothed or direct (determined by the Smoothing and Tension settings). . are saved to a script file called a FLY file. application of a different LUT. change of display property (egg transparency. etc) or a rotation of the view about an Eye Point or Look At point.
etc.1 Create 3D Fly-through Animation 1.Movie Making 127 Create 3D Fly-Through File Exercise 14. This requires specifying a number of 3D map window views to use as Eye and Look At points which are linked together to form the flight path 2. drillholes. . Fly-Through Wizard dialog and options to create a flight path script This Fly-Through Wizard option is the simplest to use as the flight-path is compiled from a list of Capture Points (Eye and Look At points) which are specified by rotating and zooming to different views in the current Discover 3D map window. The capture points are then displayed in the capture order to simulate the flightpath. There are no additional setup parameters for this option. images. In the Fly-Through Creation Wizard: Step 1 – Input Type dialog choose to create the fly-through Manually from the current Discover 3D view. The Fly-Through Wizard can be accessed from the Utilities toolbar button or from the Utilities menu. Open a selection of 3D data into the 3D window including surfaces.
the flight path joining these points can be a smoothed line (Bezier) or straight line (None) between each point.Actual speed the playback is performed. Use the pulldown list to select the desired option. Repeat Reverse . etc. Note the smoother the animation. A script can be set to: Repeat . For example. Flight Speed – Time taken to move between two capture points. the more closely the replayed flight path will be to the direct path between capture points. If you find • • • . If a script takes 10 seconds playback then changing the Playback Speed to 0. Repeat Reverse Look .5 would take twice as long as normal. a playback speed of 1 is normal. If smoothing is selected. if a value of 2 were assigned. Similarly. the smoother the animation. the playback time would be 5 seconds.replay the script continuously and in reverse but from the view looking back to the capture point. The higher the degree of tension.128 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual General Playback Options General playback and flight path options dialog These options relate to Playback controls and Flight Path Creation. a Bezier smoothing algorithm with Tension is applied. • Smoothing – As each capture point is a location in three dimensional space. Frame Rate – Number of display captures in one second. Playback Speed . a value of 0. a value of 2 would play twice as quickly as normal.replay the script continuously but in reverse. Speed is expressed in units per second (normally in metres per second). the greater the amount of storage required.the fly-through script is played and then repeated from the start continuously. especially if outputting to an AVI movie. The higher the Frame Rate. The following Playback controls are available: • The Loop Style options control the way a script is re-played.5 would change the playback to 20 seconds.
Click on the Camera button to capture the view. then the DXF files created would be called: C:\DATA\FLY1_EYE. The speed of the replay is set in Playback Speed. Rotate and zoom the view in the 3D map window until the next flight-through view is displayed and click on the Camera button to capture the point view. To insert a new capture point view between two existing views check the Insert Mode box and click the Camera button to insert the current 3D view immediately after the highlighted record in the Capture Point List.DXF • 3. Two DXF files get created.FLY. The DXF filenames are dependent on the name given to the fly-through file. Add capture points and event details 4. All replay times get recalculated with new values when this property is altered. To create a new capture point. Continue to create and capture views to be used in the simulated flight-through path. For the purposes of this exercise leave the default general playback options. For example.DXF and C:\DATA\FLY1_LOOK.Movie Making 129 that the time being calculated for movements is too large then increasing the flight speed shortens the movement times. Point Symbol Size – This parameter defines the size of a symbol to represent the Eye and Look at points in the created DXF files. use the 3D Navigation Tools in the Discover 3D map window to rotate and zoom to the flight-path starting point. Specifying and assigning events to the capture points of a fly-through script . The DXF files are created in the same directory as the fly-through file. one for the Eye points and one for the Look At points. if the output fly-though file path is: C:\DATA\FLY1. • Create Eye and Look Path DXF Files – The flight path and capture points of a script can be saved to 3D DXF files.
Event Details The Event Details controls of the Fly-Through Wizard are concerned with the Capture Point records. The Rotate Around button causes the replay to rotate the 3D view around the last Look At position (determined by the previous capture point record). Relative values are used to display a capture point view relative to the previous capture view coordinates. if a point capture view has a relative . Note that a record of this type in the list uses the last Capture Point and then pauses for the required time with no movement. The Rotate View button causes the replay script to halt at the last used Eye position (determined by the previous capture point record) and then rotate the display by an amount determined by an Azimuth and Inclination (looking from the top down). Each entry in the Capture Point List contains two pairs of position points (the Eye Position and the Look At point which determines the direction the fly-through path will follow). you can modify this time. Audio – Either a text entry or specification of a pre-recorded WAV file. Delete the selected Capture Point from the flight path Update the Eye and Look Positions for the current event with the current 3D view The properties of each Capture Point Event are displayed here and can be manually edited: • • • • Look Position – The X.The time taken to complete a rotation (as defined by the Azimuth and Inclination settings) is defined by the Duration. the time is 1 second. Y and Z location of the Look At point in Relative or Absolute coordinates. Absolute values are used to display a capture point view in real world coordinates. Eye Position – The X. For example. Duration – The time in seconds that it takes to move from one Capture Point record to the next. Depending on the Capture Point record selected. The time to complete the rotation is specified by the Duration. By default.130 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual This button causes the replay script to Pause for a specified duration of time. The points can be in either Relative or Absolute coordinates. Y and Z location of the Eye point in Relative or Absolute coordinates. but using the Duration entry field. the content of the Event Details may differ.
Use the button shown bottom left to display selected captures points in the fly-through replay. Movie files allow replay of a fly-through animation completely separated from Discover 3D and are therefore useful for management and overview of a project. Only the capture points highlighted in the list will be included in the replay. The script fly-through (FLY) file can also be run from the pop-up menu which is activated by a right-mouse click in the Discover3D map window. 5. If the previous capture position is in Absolute values then the new view will move in world coordinates by 10 m in the X. use the Stop button. The settings are saved as a FLY file and can be restored for later use with the same project dataset. 10) then the view will be moved 10 units in the X. 6. This is useful for editing long flythrough without having to view the entire flight path every time. A FLY file can be activated via the Display Fly-through option on the Discover 3D map window right-mouse click pop-up menu. metres. 10 units in the Y and 10 units in Z direction from the previous capture position. • Retain the fly-through script and create a movie of the replay . Units are map distance units eg. Add a number of capture points using the Pause. Rotate View and Rotate Around options. 10. Output Formats Two output formats are available in the Fly-through Creation Wizard: Step 5 – Output dialog: • Save the Capture Points and settings of the fly-through script by assigning a file name and location in an Output File. To halt the replay. The pop-up menu provides the options of Display Fly-Through or Stop Fly-Through. To replay fly-through at any stage click the Play button to activate the flythrough. Save the fly-through as an AVI Output movie file. Y and Z directions. The replay uses the Capture Points according to the Loop Style setting and the various speed and event controls.Movie Making 131 coordinate of (10.
. Once the fly has been created it can then be edited by selecting the Edit Existing Fly-through File option in the Fly-through Creation Wizard Step 1 – Input Type dialog. Save the fly-through as an FLY file.132 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual 7.
3D Printing and Output Options 133 15 3D Printing and Output Options Print Directly from Discover 3D The File>Print option creates Discover 3D hardcopy output to a printer or plotter. From these parameters. Selection of the Print option automatically outputs a copy of the active window to a printer (where connected) or to a print file (depending on your computer’s print settings). select the Font button and assign a Silver colour with a Size of 8. Under the Title tab. tick the Show collar label (if not already ticked) and select the Collar Label button. Click OK three times to return to the layout. uncheck the Colour Legend branch in the Workspace Tree associated with the Drillholes branch. type a new title (eg “Russian drillholes over magnetics”) in the Coded Title String section. 1. 6.1 Create a layout page for a 3D view. . Select the Black colour and click OK twice to apply all changes and return to the layout. including line styles and background colours. In the Label dialog. and select Properties. Right click on the Drillholes branch in the Workspace Tree. device/paper size and window size for the display. The output can be scaled or simply made to fit a predefined page size. Discover 3D estimates a suitable scale to fit the print. the Print command determines the printer settings. Under the Appearance tab. right click on the 3D Map branch in the Workspace Tree and select Properties. 3.. Tick the Show Background option. and choose the Landscape option. To print use File > Print. The Appearance tab allows control of the Page Layout’s borders. 5. options but a default printer setting can be defined in the Tools>Options dialog.Page Layout button. 7. 8. The printing function operates on the active (highlighted) display window only. Select File > Page Setup. Experiment with the parameters below to adjust the Title Position. To remove the colour legend from the right of the page layout display. Create a 3D view including drillholes in the map window and click the Normal View…. and click the Set button for the Data Area option. or by altering the View mode through toggling the Normal View…. When invoked. Use the 3D Navigation button to adjust the view within the 3D layout to the desired view. 4. Experiment with the various page zoom buttons to control the page layout display. To rename the Title displayed on the page layout border. The print output can be previewed using the File>Print Preview option. Exercise 15.Page Layout button to display the Page Layout View.. Click OK. 2. Output destination is controlled by the File>Page Setup.
and TIF & EMF. back to MapInfo Professional. Exercise 15. 2.134 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual Export 3D View as Raster Image The File>Save View As option allows the current 3D view to be saved as an image at a user-specified resolution. DXF vector files. Note The MapInfo Professional mapper view of the Discover 3D display is static and is not related in real-time to that of Discover 3D. 3. To transfer a view from Discover 3D to MapInfo Professional: 1. PNG. The transfer creates a bitmap of the Discover 3D screen display with an associated non-earth projection TAB file that is then displayed in a new mapper in MapInfo Professional.2 Create a layout page for a 3D view. The Save View As dialog allowing output resolution specification Add 3D View to MapInfo It is possible to transfer a 3D view displayed in Discover 3D. alter the view and repeat the above steps. A range of output image formats are available. Organise the layers and view position as required in Discover 3D. including BMP. Save to Package This option allows the saving of a 3D Session file and all associated data files (georeferenced images. grid files. etc) to a user specified directory. The TAB and bitmap files used for the Discover 3D view as displayed in MapInfo Professional are stored in the folder defined by the Discover Temp file type under he Discover 3D Tools>Options>File Locations tab. This facilitates the easy transfer of 3D session to other users/computers . return to Discover 3D. To modify the view. Return to MapInfo Professional and a new mapper display window should open containing the Discover 3D view. This is a useful function if you wish to have a 'snapshot' of a particular display that can be used in a MapInfo layout or used for hardcopy output. JPG. Select the Add 3D View to MapInfo button or use the View>Add 3D View to MapInfo menu option. The files are named with a unique filename.
egs WorkspaceName. 3D Workspace File The Discover 3D Open and Save 3D Workspace menu items allow a 3D work session involving drillholes. layer order. The workspace lists all the tables open in the current MapInfo session and their associated file paths.egb The *.D3D WorkspaceName. Instead of having to re-create the MapInfo and Discover 3D views. graphical displays.wor file is a standard MapInfo workspace file that can be viewed in any text editor such as Notepad or Word. To save a current workspace in both MapInfo and Discover 3D. Discover 3D or both programs simultaneously. . images and/or associated tables that are open in Discover 3D and MapInfo to be saved for future use. The workspace created when saving a Discover 3D Workspace can be opened using MapInfo File>Open Workspace. select the Discover 3D>Save 3D Workspace menu option. In the Save 3D Workspace dialog enter an appropriate name for the 3D Workspace file and browse to the preferred folder location. Click OK. labelling and any printer information. the various files that comprise a Discover 3D Workspace can be used to open the tables and views in either MapInfo. the map window dimensions.3D Printing and Output Options 135 by packaging all relevant files into the same directory in a similar fashion to the Discover>Data Utilities>Save Tables and Workspace utility. When a 3D Workspace is saved a number of files are created in the designated folder: WorkspaceName.wor WorkspaceName.
• • • • • • .See Display 3D Drillholes. Save View As – Save the current 3D view as an BMP. – Settings for hardcopy printing. Exit– Exit Discover 3D and return to MapInfo Professional. JPG. A session is the 3D equivalent of a project workspace. PNG.Open and Save a Discover 3D session.. DXF vector files. Display 3D Surfaces and Display 3D Vector Objects in the Discover 3D User Guide for more information on each of these dataset types. grid files. Display 3D Georeferenced Bitmap Images.Appendix A . TIF or EMF image. etc) to a user specified directory Print – creates Discover 3D hardcopy output to a printer or plotter.Menus and Toolbars 137 A Menus and Toolbars File Menu Discover 3D File menu The Discover 3D File Menu provides the following functionality: • Open and Close Discover 3D Datasets . Page Setup. Save to Package – Save a 3D Session file and all associated data files (georeferenced images. Session Management .
Transfer a 3D view back to MapInfo and display as nonearth raster image.Toggle between Normal (3D) and Page Layout (Hardcopy Output) modes Workspace – Show/Hide Workspace Tree Information Sheet – Show/Hide Information Sheet Status Bar – Show/Hide Status Bar Toolbars . View Modes . This enables 3D views to be added to a layout for hardcopy output.138 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual View Menu Discover 3D View menu The Discover 3D View Menu provides the following functionality: • Send to MapInfo . .Show/Hide Toolbars • • • • • Insert Menu Discover 3D allows various external objects to be added to an existing display window. These objects can be included in addition to those displayed from Encom Discover and MapInfo Professional.
Vector – two and three dimensional vector files from sources such as 2D and 3D DXFs. ArcView SHP files. can be draped over a surface such as elevation. lithology and hole location/survey information Points – the location of data can be marked in 3D by symbols that can be controlled for colour. providing a visual cue to the 3D window orientation. size and type Lines – survey line profiles Surfaces – raster and/or image surfaces from a variety of sources. MapInfo MID/MIF. Image – Georeferenced bitmaps and located images.Appendix A . Voxel Model – 3D volume models from 3rd party software applications 3D Axis – allows addition of a 3D axis. In addition to the options available in the Discover 3D>Options utility . Layers of images (such as air photography). GemCom BT2 files or GoCAD TSurf files.Menus and Toolbars 139 Items that can be added include: • • • • Drillholes – with assay. • • • • Tools Menu Tools Menu The Discover 3D Options and Customize menu options are accessed from the Tools menu.
Combine DXF – Combine two or more 3D DXF files into single DXF file Tube Shape Editor – Import new or delete existing tube shapes Fly-Through Wizard .Create a 3D solid object and calculate volume from individual drillhole section or plan boundaries. 3D Symbol Generator .Create 3D Fly-Through animation and AVI movies . Utilities Menu Discover 3D Utilities menu The Discover 3D Utilities provide the following functionality: • • • • • • 3D Solid Generator .140 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual in the Discover menu in MapInfo the following Discover 3D customization utilities are also included: A range of Discover 3D Options such as: • • • Default file locations XYZ indicator display Maximum grid and bitmap file sizes The ability to Customize the user interface in relation to: • • • • Toolbars Menu and toolbar command descriptions Keyboard shortcuts Access to external application tools (using the Edit Menu Options tool).Create 3D symbols at point locations Transform DXF – Modify origin and scaling of objects within DXF files to be moved.
Appendix A . This button allows the control of the Background Colour in the Display Window. Data can be sourced from any opened database. it will not be able to be manipulated. Add 3D View to MapInfo. Using a black background can be particularly effective for onscreen viewing. Data can be sourced from any opened drillhole database. you are requested to locate a Discover 3D session file (*. Undo and Redo buttons. Open an Encom Discover drillhole database. This is an export option for display in the MapInfo environment for printing and reporting purposes. These buttons are used to restore or undo changes made while operating Discover 3D.EGS). Note that when the view is displayed in MapInfo. Add a Surface layer to the Workspace Tree and assign it to an elevation surface. The Workspace Tree can be displayed or turned off using this button. The presented dialog enables navigation to the required file. You may wish to remove the tree when maximum screen area is required. The number of undo steps is limited to the Undo Steps parameter set in the Tools>Options>View tab. You can save a session and assign it a name if it is a new session. Data Objects Toolbar The buttons in this toolbar replicate the menu options available under the Insert Add a Drillhole display object to the Workspace Tree.Menus and Toolbars 141 Main Toolbar The Open Session button has the same functionality as File>Open Session. A list of the available items is displayed when this button is selected. The Save Session button has the same functionality as File>Save Session. Display the Properties Dialog of a selected item in the Workspace Tree. Open Geosoft WHOLEPLOT drillhole database. The iHelp button toggles on the interactive help display. Add a Lines display object to the Workspace Tree. This button acts as a toggle between Normal view and Preview view. Data can be sourced from any opened database. Default 10. Discover 3D can display windows in Page Layout view to allow print previewing and object editing. Add a Points display object to the Workspace Tree. . When selected.
Add a vector layer to the Workspace Tree and assign it to any suitable vector file.EGB file. Add a Voxel Model layer to the Workspace Tree and assign it to supported voxel model files.142 Encom Discover 3D Workshop Manual You can then overlay imagery or contours onto the elevation surface. Vector files can be two or three dimensions. . Add an Image (Georeferenced bitmap layer) to the Workspace Tree and assign it to any suitable . Georeferenced bitmap files can be created by Encom Discover.
Workshop Notes 143 Workshop Notes Discover 3D 3.0 .
Workshop Notes 144 Workshop Notes Discover 3D 3.0 .
0 .Workshop Notes 145 Workshop Notes Discover 3D 3.