Gita 3.27: Deluded egoism (illusion of doership, experiencership): Prakriteh (By activating natural force in the universe) kriyamanani (are initiated and performed) gunair (through the natural dispositions or patterns) karmani (actions, occurrences) sarvashah (everywhere) ahamkara (egoism) vimudhatma (deluded mind) kartaham (I am doer) iti (thus) manyate (believes). Everywhere the established patterns of Natural Forces initiate and perform all actions and occurrences in the universe. But deluded by egoism or self-centredness (thought, generated and sustained in a body-mind complex, identifying with elements of nature resulting in a false sense of ownership and segregating those elements from the rest of the universe), one believes and thinks "I am the doer". Gita 3.28: Realisation of truth about patterns and action in prakriti: Tattvavit tu (but realising the underlying real principle) mahabaho (O mighty armed) gunakarma (patterns in actions and occurrences) vibhagayoh (of divisions, aspects); guna (conditioned natural instruments of experience) guneshu (conditioned objects of experience) vartanta (remain) iti (this, thus) matva (recognising, understanding) na (not) sajjate (get addicted or hooked to) But the one who has realised the truth underlying the conditioned patterns of nature and the actions or occurrences springing from such conditionings do not get deluded through attachment thanks to the understanding that instruments of experience are naturally conditioned to restrictively capture and dwell on certain conditioned objects of experience as a matter of stimulus and response. Gita 3.33- Every action & reaction is conditioned by natural forces and patterns. sadrisham (in accordance with) cheshtate (act, behave) svasyah (personal) prakriter (natural disposition) gnyanavan (wise one) api (even); prakritim (nature) yanti (obey, follow) bhutani (beings) nigraha (detachment, restraint) kim (what) karishyati (will do) Even a wise person acts and behaves in accordance with their conditioned natural dispositions. All beings follow the dictates of natural patterns and conditionings. So where does the question of practiced detachment or self-restraint arise? (Nature is all-powerful and dictates everything).


Gita 5.8-9: Non-doer Naiva kinchit karomi (I do not do anything) iti yukto manyate tattvavit (thus a spiritually awakened person should realise after understanding the underlying real principle) pashyan (while seeing), shrinvan (listening) sprisham (touching) jighran (smelling) ashnan (eating) gacchan (walking) svapnan (dreaming in sleep), shvasan (breathing), pralapan (talking) visrijan (evacuating) grihnann (holding) unmishan nimishan (opening closing eyelids) api (even), indriyani (natural instruments of experience) indriyartheshu (in the objects of sensory experience) vartanta (remain occupied with) iti (thus) dharayan (direct observation in attention). ‘I do nothing!’ Thus, a spiritually awakened person should realise after understanding the underlying principle of reality. Through direct observation in attention, it is known that only the sensory instruments of nature are occupied with their respective objects of experience even when involved in seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, going or moving, sleeping or dreaming, breathing, speaking, evacuating waste, holding or handling, and winking. Gita 5.10: Abandoning selfish attachment and identification Brahmany (in the grand cosmic field) adhaya (resigning) karmani (actions) sangam (identification through association) tyaktva (abandoning) karoti yah (who does), lipyate na sa (one is not tainted) papena (by vileness and wickedness) padma patram (lotus leaf) iva (like, even as) ambhasa (in water). One who resigns all actions to the dynamic cosmic field of existence and abandons the sense of doership, born out of identification, is not contaminated by vileness and wickednes (or illusory sense) just like a lotus leaf is not wetted by water. Gita 5.11: right action Kayena (with body) manasa (by mind) buddhya (by intellect) kevalair (merely) indriyair api (even with sensory instruments or organs), yoginah (yogis, awakened persons) karma (actions) kurvanti (perform) sangam (identification) tyaktva (abandoning) atma (consciousness, mind) shuddhaye (for purification). For maintaining purity of consciousness, awakened persons, even when performing actions through body, mind, intellect or merely the sensory organs, do so without any thought of identification or doership. Gita 5.14: Actionless Self, Actionful Natural forces Na kartritvam (no sense of doing) na karmani (nor actions) lokasya (for the world) srijati (generate) prabhuh (original being), na karmaphala-samyogam (nor interconnection with the fruits or results of actions) svabhavas (natural disposition) tu (only) pravartate (acts)

In regard to beings of the world, the Original One (Self) has nothing to do with the sense of doing, the actions to be done and the resulting consequences of actions done. It is the nature-driven dispositions that do all this. Gita 5.15: The veil of ignorance Nadatte (not take) kasyachit (of anyone) papam (transgression) na chaiva (and not also) sukritam (righteous acts) vibhuh (All-pervading One or Unique Being), agnyanena (by ignorance) avritam (is veiled) gnyanam (knowing) tena (by that) muhyanti (are deluded) jantavah (people). The All-pervading One neither endorses the transgressions nor the righteous acts of anyone. True understanding is veiled by ignorance and therefore people are deluded (into falsely believing themselves as doers, who reap the fruits of personal actions). Gita: 7.2. Special Knowledge Jnanam (knowledge) te (unto you) aham (I) sa (with) vijnanam (deeper realisation) idam (this) vakshyami (shall explain) asheshatah (in full), yat (which) jnatva (by knowing) na (not) iha (in this world) bhuyah (more, further) anyat (anything) jnatavyam (to be known) avashishyate (remains not). I shall now explain to you in fullness that unique knowledge together with Its deeper understanding or implication, by knowing which nothing more remains to be known in this world Gita: 7.3. Manushyanam (of human beings) sahasreshu (out of many thousands) kashchit (someone) yatati (endeavours) siddhaye (for spiritual fulfilment), yatatam (of those so endeavouring) api (even, only) siddhanam (of those awakened) kaschit (someone) mam (Me) vetti (does know) tattvatah (actually). Out of many thousands among people, one may endeavour for spiritual awakening to fulfilment, and of those who have spiritually awakened to fulfilment, only one knows the divine “I AM” in truth. Gita: 7.4: Apara prakriti Bhumih (earth-constituted matter) apah (water, fluids) analah (fire, heat) vayuh (air, life breath) kham (sky, space) manah (sensing, perceiving, feeling, thinking, recording & recalling mind) buddhih (reflecting, planning, cognising, attributing, deciding & judging intellect) eva (indeed) cha (and), ahankarah (identifying, separating, self-talking biographical ego) iti (thus) iyam (all this) me (My) bhinna (divided, categorised) prakritih (nature based energies) astadha (eightfold).

Earth, water, fire, air, space, mind, intellect and indeed the separative personal-self – together these constitute My varied discrete material forms, which are eightfold. Gita: 7.5. Para-prakriti Apara (inferior) iyam (this) itah (besides) tu (but) anyam (another) prakritim (nature-based energy) viddhi (know) me (My) param (superior), jiva-bhutam (the living entities) maha-baho (O mighty-armed) yaya (by which) idam (this) dharyate (being sustained) jagat (the world, existence) Besides this My inferior nature, O mighty-armed Arjuna, know that there is another one: a superior nature-based energy of Mine, by which (all) living entities and this (whole) world are sustained. Gita: 7.6. Prabhu Etat (these two natural energy states) yonini (as the source and origin) bhutani (living entities) sarvani (all) iti (thus) upadharaya (understand), aham (I) kritsnasya (of the entire) jagatah (universe, world) prabhavah (emanation) pralayah (dissolution) tatha (as well as). Understand that all living entities have these two natures of Mine as their source. I AM is the origin as well as the finality of this entire existence. Gita: 7.7 Mattah (than Myself) para-taram (superior) na (not) anyat kincit (anything else) asti (exists) dhananjaya (O conqueror of wealth), mayi (in Me) sarvam (everything) idam (here in existence) protam (is strung or held) sutre (by a thread) mani-ganah (row of pearls) iva (like, as if). O conqueror of wealth [Arjuna], there is no being superior to Me (I AM). As a row of pearls is held together by a string, likewise everything in existence is sustained in and by Me (I AM). Gita: 7.12. Ye (whatever) ca (and) eva (certainly) sattvikah (in mode of stability and clarity) bhavah (being manifested or experienced) rajasah (mode of passion and impulsivity) tamasah (mode of dullness and ignorance) cha (also) ye (whatever), mattah (from Me) eva (certainly) iti (thus) tan–them viddhi (know) na (not) tu(but) aham(I) teshu–in them te (they) mayi (in Me). Whatever experiences or manifestations there are of sattvik, rajassik and tamasik modes or conditions, they have all verily emanated from Me. I am not in them but they are in Me.

Gita: 7.13. Tribhir (by three) gunamayair (formed of gunas) bhavair (experiences, mental states) ebhih (by these) sarvam (all) idam (this) jagat (world), mohitam (deluded) n’abhijanati (not grasp) mam (Me) ebhyah param (superior to them) avyayam (immutable). Deluded by experiences and mental states, based on the three Gunas or everchanging nature-based conditioning modes of experiences and mental states, this world grasps not the divine “I AM”, the Immutable Being, transcending these gunas or changing modes. Gita: 7.14. Daivi (extraordinary) hi (certainly) esha (this) guna-mayi (conditioned modes) mama (My) maya (nature-based field of multiple energies and changing appearances) duratyaya (very hard to cross), mam (unto Me) eva (certainly, alone) ye (who) prapadyante (surrender, relaxes personal will) mayam (formidable field of multiple energies and changing appearances) etam (this) taranti (go beyond) te (they). This extraordinary field of multiplicity of Mine, consisting of the three conditioned modes of manifestations and experiences, is indeed very hard to cross beyond. But those who have surrendered their personal will unto Me alone, they can go beyond this diversified field of Maya. Gita: 7.19. Bahunam (many) janmanam (generations) ante (after) jnana-van (a spiritually awakened person) mam (unto Me) prapadyate (surrenders their personal will), vasudevah (the unborn life-giving primordial ground) sarvam (all) iti (thus) sah (such) maha-atma (elevated being) su-durlabhah (very rare). After the passage of many generations, when a spiritually awakened person emerges, he or she surrenders totally unto Me, realising Me, the unoriginated cause of all causes, as all that is in existence. Such a fine being is very rare to find. Gita: 7.24. Avyaktam (Unmanifested) vyaktim (particular entity, individuality) apannam (possessing) manyante (believe) mam (Me) abuddhayah (those devoid of understanding), param (supreme) bhavam (state of being) ajanantah (not knowing) mama (My) avyayam (immutable) anuttamam (the finest)


Without realising My Supreme Nature as Unsurpassed and Immutable Being, people of little understanding conceive Me, the Unmanifest, as possessing a particular manifest identity (form, image, history). Gita: 7.25. Na (not) aham (I) prakasah (manifest, revealed) sarvasya (to everyone) yogamaya (associated formidable field of becoming) samavritah (veiled, covered), mudhah (deluded) ayam (this) na (not) abhijanati (understand) lokah (world) mam (Me) ajam (unborn, unoriginated) avyayam (immutable). I am not revealed to everyone owing to the veil of My Formidable Field of Becoming (Yogamaya). This deluded world does not know Me, the Immutable Unborn. Gita: 7.26. Veda (know) aham (I) samatitani (whole past) vartamanani (present) cha (and) arjuna (O Arjuna), bhavisyani (future) cha (also) bhutani (living entities) mam (Me) tu (but) veda (knows) na (not) kascana (anyone). O Arjuna! (As the timeless basis) I know (enlighten) everything that has happened in the past, all that is happening in the present as well as all that is yet to happen. I also know (enlighten) all living entities; but no one knows Me (the Enlightening One). Gita: 7.27. Iccha (desire) dvesa (repulsion) samutthena (sprouting from) dvandva (duality, opposing pairs) mohena (bewitched, overcome) bharata (O scion of Bharata), sarva (all) bhutani (living entities) sammoham (into widespread delusion) sarge (from birth) yanti (go, attain) parantapa (O conqueror of foes). O Arjuna! From their very birth, all living beings get naturally deluded by the bewitchment of the pairs of opposites, sprouting from contrary senses or counterpulls of attraction and repulsion, etc. Gita: 7.28. Yesham (whose) tu (but) antagatam (come to an end) papam (sin: harmful thoughts, feelings and deeds, both to self and others) jananam (of the persons) punya (virtuous) karmanam (activities), te (they) dvandva (duality, contradiction) moha (delusion) nirmuktah (free from) bhajante (love, adore) mam (Me) dridhavratah (with unswerving faith).


But those persons, engaged in virtuous activities, in whom sinfulness has been erased—such persons, freed from the bewilderment caused by contradictory mental tensions or mental counterpulls, adore Me with unswerving faith. Gita: 7.29. Jara (decay) marana (death) moksaya (freedom from) mam (unto Me) ashritya (taking shelter or rest) yatanti (endeavour) ye (whoever), te (such persons) brahma (the boundless unmanifest basis, transcendental state) tat (that) viduh (know) kritsnam (everything) adhyatmam (manifest, immanent state) karma (operations, actions) ca (also) akhilam (whole of). Whoever, endeavouring to be free from the travails of decay and death, takes shelter or rest in Me, shall know that Unmanifest absolute basis underlying everything as well as the totality of the divine operations in the manifestation. (Vâsudevam sarvam iti) Gita: 7.30. sa-adhibhuta (underlying all material manifestation) adhidaivam (underlying all divine dimension) mam (Me) sa-adhiyajnam (underlying all spiritual realisation) ca (and) ye (who) viduh (know), prayana-kale (at the time of dying) api (even) ca (and) mam (Me) te (they) viduh (know) yukta-chetasah (with fully integrated consciousness). Those having realised that I am the sustaining basis underlying all material structures, all divine expressions and all spiritual realisations- they continue to know Me, with a fully integrated consciousness, even at the time of passing away. Gita: 8.3. sri-bhagavan uvacha (shri Krishna said), aksharam (indestructible) brahma (Brahman: absolute basis) paramam (highest, transcendental) svabhavah (own nature, being as reflected, sense of being a self) adhyatmam (the spiritual or individual being) uchyate (is called), bhuta-bhava-udbhava-karah (what brings all objects/events/entities into existence or experience) visargah (manifestation) karma (cosmic activity) samjnitah (is called). Shri Krishna said: The Indestructible, Transcendental Aliveness is called the Absolute Brahman, and Its own reflection within existence (at macrocosmic and microcosmic levels) is called the Indwelling Self or Immanent Life. The action through which all objects, events and entities are brought into living existence is called cosmic activity.


Gita: 8.4 Adhibhutam (physical being, material existence) ksharah (of changing & perishable) bhavah (nature) purushah (the Immanent Cosmic Life) cha (and) adhidaivatam (Animating Being), adhiyajnah (the Enlightening Being, underlying all worship and spiritual realisation) aham (I AM) eva (certainly) atra (in this) dehe (body) deha-bhritam (of embodied) vara (the Supreme) Physical nature of material form is mutable and perishable while the Immanent Cosmic Being is the One animating the evolving universe: the cosmic form and individual forms. The sense of “I AM” is verily the Supreme Enlightening Being or Awareness (underlying all worship and spiritual realisation), dwelling in the body of all embodied beings. Gita: 8.8. Abhyasa (being, resting or sitting [asa] in the present [abhi]) yoga-yuktena (being integrated in meditative communion) chetasa (through the conscious mind) na anya-gamina (without moving away), paramam (the Supreme) purusham (Inner Being) divyam (divine, transcendental) yati (attain, go) partha (O son of Prtha) anuchintayan (constantly attentive). O Arjuna! One who is attentive, with the mind consciously resting in the present, integrated in meditative communion, without the tendency to stray away to some object (away from integrated awareness) – such one attains the Supreme Transcendental Spirit (animating and underlying the whole of existence). Gita: 8.18. Avyaktat (from the Unmanifest) vyaktayah (manifestations) sarvah (all) prabhavanti (come into existence) ahah-agame (at the beginning of the cosmic day), ratri-agame (at the fall of cosmic night) praliyante (are dissolved) tatra (into that) eva (certainly) avyakta (the Unmanifest) samjnake (as it is called). At the dawn of the cosmic day, this whole universe of objects, forces, events and entities comes into manifestation from the Unmanifest Source (mahad brahma or prakriti). When the cosmic night begins, everything is indeed dissolved back into what is called the Unmanifest Origin. Gita: 8.19 bhuta-gramah (the aggregate of manifestations) sah (they) eva (certainly) ayam (this) bhutva bhutva (manifesting again and again) praliyate (dissolving), ratri (night) agame (on coming) avasah (automatically, inexorably) partha (O son of Pritha) prabhavati (emanate) ahah (cosmic daytime) agame (on coming).


O son of Pritha! This vast collection of manifestations indeed inexorably comes into existence again and again to dissolve at the commencement of the cosmic night and to again come forth at the dawn of the cosmic day. (This means the Unmanifest becomes manifest during the cosmic day and the manifest becomes the Unmanifest during the cosmic night. In us, human beings, the Unconscious becomes conscious during the wakeful day and the conscious becomes the Unconscious during sleep.) Gita: 8.20. Parah (superior, transcendental) tasmat (from that) tu (but) bhavah (nature, state) anyah (another, different) avyaktah (Non-manifest) avyaktat (from the unmanifest) sanatanah (everlasting, eternal, permanent), yah (that) sah (that) sarveshu (all) bhuteshu (manifestations) nashyatsu (being destroyed) na (not, never) vinasyati (annihilated). Different from this (ever-changing, cyclical) Unmanifest state is the Supreme Immutable Non-manifest Being that is not destroyed when all manifestations are dissolved. (Similarly, different from the Unconscious sleep is the Supreme Immutable Non-manifest Awareness, that is not destroyed when consciousness dissolves into Unconsciousness during sleep.) Gita: 8.21. Avyaktah (The Non-manifest) aksharah (imperishable) iti (thus) uktah (called) tam (that which) ahuh (is said) paramam (ultimate) gatim (destination), yam (which) prapya (gaining, attaining) na (not) nivartante (return, come back) tat dhama (that abode) paramam (supreme) mama (Mine). The Imperishable Non-manifest, as It is called, is said to be the Ultimate Destination. Attaining that, one never comes back into the cycle of manifest and unmanifest. That Non-manifest is My supreme abode. Gita: 8.22. Purushah (Inner Being) sah (that) parah (ultimate) partha (O son of Pritha) bhaktya (by devoted love) labhyah (attainable) tu (but) ananyaya (unswerving, undeviating), yasya (whose) antah-sthani (indwelling) bhutani (living beings) yena (by whom) sarvam (all) idam (whatever is here) tatam (pervade). That Ultimate Inner Being, dwelling within all living beings and sustaining the whole of existence, can be approached and realised only through unswerving devoted love.


Gita: 9.4. Maya (by Me) tatam (pervaded) idam (here, this) sarvam (everything, all) jagat (cosmic manifestation) avyakta-murtina (of Non-manifest form/being), mat-sthani (subsist in Me) sarva-bhutani (all living entities) na (not) cha (also) aham (I) teshu (in them) avasthitah (situated, abiding). All of this cosmic manifestation is pervaded by Me, the Non-manifest Being. All objects and entities subsist in Me, but I am not in them. Gita: 9.5. Na (not, never) cha (also) mat-sthani (situated in Me) bhutani (all manifestations) pasya (behold) me (My) yogam aishvaram (inconceivable supreme glory), bhutabhrit (maintainer of all manifestations) na (not) cha (also) bhuta-sthah (abiding in the cosmic manifestation) mama (My) atma (Self, Being) bhuta-bhavanah (the source of all manifestations). Not even do all manifestations abide in Me! Behold My Inconceivable Supreme Glory! Though the Source and Support of all manifestations, and yet not abiding in them! Gita: 9.6. Yatha (just like) akasha-sthitah (abide in space) nityam (always) vayuh (air, atmosphere) sarvatragah (present everywhere) mahan (great, vast), tatha (similarly) sarvani (all) bhutani (manifestations) mat-sthani (abide in Me) iti (thus) upadharaya (understand). Just as the vast atmosphere present everywhere abides always in space, similarly understand thus that all manifestations abide in Me. Gita: 9.7. sarva-bhutani (all manifestations) kaunteya (O son of Kunti) prakritim (primordial nature as force) yanti (go into, enter) mamikam (My own), kalpa-ksaye (at the end of the cosmic span) punah (again) tani (them) kalpa-adau (in the beginning of the cosmic span) visrijami (bring out) aham (I). At the end of a cosmic cycle, O Arjuna, all the manifestations dissolve into Primordial Nature, which is My own, and at the dawn of a new cycle (after the period of dissolution or pralaya is over), I bring them out again. Gita: 9.8. Prakritim (primordial nature as force) svam (My) avashtabhya (resorting to) visrijami (I bring out) punah punah (again and again), bhuta-gramam (multitude of

manifestations) imam (this) kritsnam (entire) avasham (automatically, inexorably) prakriteh (by the force of primordial nature) vashat (compelled). Resorting to the force of primordial nature (prakriti), which is My own power, I inexorably send forth again and again this multitude of manifested forms, which remain under the sway of Prakriti. Gita: 9.9. Na (not, never) ca (also) mam (Me) tani (those) karmani (cosmic activities) nibadhnanti (anyway bind) dhananjaya (O conqueror of wealth), udasina-vat (as neutrally unconcerned) asinam (resting, remaining) asaktam (without attraction or connection) teshu (in them) karmashu (activities) These cosmic activities, O Arjuna, do not in any way bind Me; I remain without any interest in such activities, as if indifferent (to them). Gita: 9.10-11. Maya (by Me) adhyaksena (witnessing basis) prakrtih (primordial nature) suyate (manifests, hatches) sa (together with) chara-acharam (the living and the nonliving objects), hetuna (for this reason) anena (by this) kaunteya (O son of Kunti) jagat (the cosmic manifestation) viparivartate (evolves). Avajananti (disregarding) mam (Me) mudhah (ignorant people) manushim (in human) tanum (body) ashritam (abiding), param (supreme, transcendental) bhavam (nature, being) ajanantah (not knowing) mama (Mine) bhuta (manifested forms) maha-ishvaram (the great basis) With Me as the Witnessing Basis, Natural Force or Prakriti manifests this universe of sentient and insentient beings. For this reason, the world revolves and evolves. The ignorant persons, ignoring My Supreme Nature as the Great Basis of all that is manifest, disregard My Presence in their human body. Gita: 9.12. mogha-asah (of futile hope) mogha-karmanah (of futile actions) mogha-jnanah (of futile knowledge) vicetasah (bewildered, of perverted understanding), rakshasim (cruelty-driven, insensitive) asurim (pride & passion-driven) cha (and) eva (certainly) prakritim (force of nature, characteristics) mohinim (deluding, bewildering) shritah (possessed of). Futile are the hopes, futile the actions, and futile the knowledge of people possessing a distorted or perverted understanding and who are indeed deluded by innate forces of cruelty and insensitivity, pride and passion.


Gita: 9.13. maha-atmanah (highly evolved persons) tu (but) mam (unto Me) partha (O son of Pritha) daivim (enlightened understanding, virtuous behaviour) prakritim (nature, characteristics) ashritah (endowed with), bhajanti (express adoration) ananyamanasah (without deviation of the mind) jnatva (knowing, realising) bhuta (manifestation) adim (origin, source) avyayam (immutable). But highly evolved or noble persons, endowed with finer characteristics like virtue and an enlightened understanding, realise Me as the Immutable Source of the whole manifestation, and adore Me with an attention undistracted by anything else. Gita: 9.14. Satatam (constantly) kirtayantah (glorifying) mam (Me) yatantah (endeavouring) cha (also) dridha-vratah (with unswerving commitment), namasyantah (submitting) ca (also) mam (unto Me) bhaktya (with love) nitya-yuktah (ever contemplative, ever-integrated) upasate (worship). Endeavouring and deeply committed, the ever-contemplative and integrated persons worship Me with devout love, constantly glorifying Me and submitting their lives unto Me. Gita: 9.15. jnana-yajnena (by sanctification of understanding) ca (also) api (certainly) anye (others) yajantah (offers) mam (Me) upasate (contemplate, worship), ekatvena (in unity, as the One) prithaktvena (in duality, as the distinct) bahudha (in diversity) visvatah-mukham (the All-inclusive wholeness) Others, also indeed, through the sanctifying of discriminative understanding as a spiritual offering, contemplate me the All-inclusive Wholeness as the One (vasudevam sarvam iti), as the Distinct (purusha-prakriti), and as the Immanent in the multiplicity of manifestations (ishvara sarva bhutanam). Gita:9.34. mat-manah (connect mind into Me) bhava (become, rest) mat bhaktah (connect devout love to Me) mat-yaji (sacrifice or offer to Me) mam (unto Me) namaskuru (offer submission), mam (unto Me) eva (alone, fully) eshyasi (shall reach) yuktva evam (united indeed) atmanam (the pure mind) mat-parayanah (Me as the Highest Goal). Let your mind be connected to Me. Stay connected to Me with devout love. Offer everything unto Me. Surrender unto Me. Having Me as the Highest goal and

united with Me in the pure mind or consciousness, you shall indeed reach Me alone. Gita: 10.3. Yah (one who) mam (Me) ajam (unborn) anadim (without beginning or origin) ca (also) vetti (knows) loka (the manifestation) maha-ishvaram (the great ordainer), asammudhah (undeluded) sah (such one) martyeshu (among mortals) sarva-papaih (from all sinful actions and reactions) pramuchyate (is released, delivered). The one who knows Me as the beginningless, the unborn and as the Supreme Ordainer of the manifest worlds, such one is undeluded among mortals and is freed from all sinful actions and reactions. Gita: 13.1. shri-bhagavan uvacha–Shri Krishna said: idam (this) sariram (body, living organism) kaunteya (O son of Kunti) kshetram (the field) iti (thus) abhidhiyate (is declared), etat (this) yah (whoever) vetti (knows) tam (such one) prahuh (is called) ksetra-jnah (knower of the field) iti (thus) tat-vidah (one who knows). O Arjuna! This body complex (together with its spheres of experience, actions and faculties) is called the field of experience and action (where experience and action take place). That which knows the field is called the Knower of the field (Awareness: Field Illuminator). This has been declared by the awakened ones. Gita: 13.2. Kshetrajnam (the knower/knowingness of the field) cha (also) api (certainly) mam (Me) viddhi (know) sarva (all) ksetresu (in body-related fields) bharata (O son of Bharata), kshetra (field of experience and action through the body) ksetra-jnayoh (regarding the knower or illuminator of the field) jnanam (knowledge) yat (which) tat (that) jnanam (knowledge) matam (view) mama (My). O scion of Bharata, you should know that I am also the knower or enlightener (Awareness: Knowingness) in all bodies (bodily fields). This knowledge regarding the difference between kshetra (bodily field) and Kshetrajna (Undivided Awareness enlightening the field) alone is (real) knowledge in My opinion. Gita: 13.5-6. maha-bhutani (5 great elements) ahankarah (ego sense) buddhih (intellect) avyaktam (the unmanifested root or potential) eva (certainly) cha (also), indriyani (senses) dasa-ekam (eleven connected to mind) cha (also) pancha (five) cha (also) indriya-gocharah (objects captured by the senses in space), iccha (desire) dvesah (hatred) sukham (happiness feelings) duhkham ( feelings of distress) sanghatah

(associated with) cetana (living consciousness) dhritih (will power), etat (all this) kshetram (the field of bodily experiences and actions) samasena (in summary) savikaram (with its modifications) udahritam (has been described). The five great elements (space, air, fire, water, earth), the ego-sense, the intellectual faculty and the Unmanifest root or potential; the ten instruments of experience and action along with the connected mind as the eleventh, and the five objects underlying experience (sound, sight, taste, smell and touch); urges of desire/attraction/need, impulses of hatred/repulsion, feelings of happiness/pleasure and distress/pain; all associations with the living consciousness, and will power – such is a brief description of the field with its different modifications. (The field is made up of: objects, entities, events in space, sensory organs or instruments of the body, the (brain) seat of experience, of consciousness and of mental/intellectual faculties, of feelings, thoughts, urges, impulses, actions and reactions, and the hidden potential.) Gita: 13.12. Jneyam (to be known) yat (that) tat (which) pravakshyami (I shall explain) yat (which) jnatva (knowing) amritam (immortality) asnute (is attained), anadi-mat (being without origin) param (supreme) brahma (Brahman: absolute) na (neither) sat (real, being, cause) tat (that) na (nor) asat (unreal, effect) uchyate (is described). Let me explain That, which ought to be known, by knowing which one touches immortality. That is the unoriginated supreme Absolute, which is described as neither cause nor effect (in the way sense-bound objects of the field are described). Gita: 13.14. Sarva (all) indriya (sensory instruments) guna (qualities, scope) abhasam (illuminating, revealing) sarva (all) indriya (senses) vivarjitam (being without), asaktam (non attached, non associated) sarva-bhirt (support of all) cha (also) eva (certainly) nirgunam (unconditioned, beyond mind); guna-bhoktri (enjoying the gunas or mental modes) cha (also). By Its presence, all the senses, their functions, objects and scope are revealed and enlightened but It is devoid of all sensory instruments. It is the Supporting basis of all manifestations but It is not attached or identified to anything. Indeed, It is beyond the conditions and operations of physical and mental nature, but these constitute the objects for Its experience or enjoyment. Gita: 13.15. Bahih (external, outside) antash (inside) cha (also) bhutanam (all manifestations) acharam (non–moving) caram (moving) eva (also) cha (and), sukshmatvat (being

very subtle) tat (that) avijneyam (unknowable as an object) durastham (far away) cha (also) antike (nearby) cha (and) tat (that). That is within as well as without all manifestations. Though unmoving, It seems to be moving. Owing to Its subtlety, It cannot be known like an object of experience. It is both far off as well as nearby (The All-pervading Awareness). Gita: 13.16. Avibhaktam (without division) cha (also) bhuteshu (in every entities) vibhaktam (divided) iva (as if) cha (also) sthitam (situated, dwelled), bhuta-bhartri (supportive basis of all entities) cha (also) tat (that) jneyam (to be realised) grasishnu (finality, doom) prabhavishnu (originator, source) cha (also). That which has to be known is the Undivided Whole, which seems to dwell in all entities as if divided into many. It is the source and supportive basis of all manifestations, and also their finality or doom. Gita: 13.17. Jyotisham (in all illumined objects) api (also) tat (that) jyotih (revealing light) tamasah (of darkness) param (beyond) uchyate (is said), jnanam (knowing, awareness) jneyam (fit to be known) jnana-gamyam (attainable by knowing) hridi (in the heart) sarvasya (of everyone) vishthitam (is situated, established). The Self-effulgent Light of Awareness, enlightening all objects including luminous ones, is said to be beyond the contamination of darkness and ignorance. That is pure knowing, which is worthy of knowing, and which is realised through knowing. The Self-effulgent Awareness is established (or shines from) within the heart of all beings. (Heart is the space, which is beyond the mind, intellect and ego; it is the place where body, mind, intellect and ego find true rest.) Gita: 13.18. Iti (thus) ksetram (the field of experience and activities tied to the body) tatha (also) jnanam (pure knowing, awareness) jneyam (fit to be realised) ca (also) uktam (described) samasatah (summarily), mat-bhaktah (My devotee, the one devoted to the Light of Awareness shining in the heart) etat (all this) vijnaya (having realised) mat-bhavaya (My Being, State, Self) upapadyate (attains, is fit for). Thus briefly has been described what is the field as also what constitutes knowingness and what is to be realised. The one devoted to the Self-effulgent Light of Awareness becomes worthy of My State after realising these grand verities.

Gita: 13.19. Prakritim (primordial nature) purusham (Seat of Undivided Life-soul) cha (also) eva (certainly) viddhi (know) anadi (without beginning) ubhau (both) api (also), vikaran (transformations, changing forms) cha (also) gunan (three modes of nature and mind) cha (also) eva (certainly) viddhi (know) prakriti sambhavan (produced from material nature). Know that both Prakriti (the field of becoming and change) and Purusha (the Seat of Undivided Life, Aware Presence) to be without beginning. Know also that all changeful forms and attributes have sprung from Prakriti. Gita: 13.21. Purushah (Seat of Undivided Life, Aware Presence) prakriti-sthah (abiding in the material energy) hi (certainly) bhunkte (experiences, enjoys) prakriti-jan- gunan (objects and their qualities produced out of the field of nature), karanam (cause) guna-sangah (association with the modes of natural conditionings) asya (of the individual entity) sat-asat (conscious and unconscious) yoni (species of life) janmasu (take birth). Abiding in the forms of material energy, the Seat of Undivided Life indeed experiences and relishes in the objects and qualities born out of the field of becoming. Its association with different modes of natural conditionings is the reason for which the Spirit gets embodied in conscious and unconscious species of life. Gita: 13.22. Upadrasta (witnessing, all-revealing background Light) anumanta (permitter) cha (also) bharta (support) bhokta (ever blissful) maha-isvarah (the Cosmic Immanent Life), parama-atma (Supreme Spirit) iti (thus) cha (and) api (exists) uktah (is said) dehe (underlying this bodily field) asmin (this) purushah (Ground of Life and Existence) parah (Ultimate, Transcendental). Underlying this bodily field, there exists also the Ultimate Transcendental Ground of Life and Existence, described as the All-revealing background Light or Unconcerned Witness, the Permitter or Sanctioner, the ever-blissful Support or Basis, the Cosmic Immanent Life and the Supreme Spirit or Self. Gita: 13.23. Yah (whoever) evam (thus) vetti (realises) purusham (formless being) prakrtim (formful manifestation) cha (and) gunaih (modes of material conditionings) saha (along with), sarvatha (in every way) vartamanah (presently living) api (in spite of) na (not, never) sah (such one) bhuyah (again) abhijayate (becoming).

Whoever thus realises the Formless Spirit and formful manifestation along with the latter’s modes of material conditionings and effects- such one will no more be subject to the process of becoming again or recycling through birth, whatever one’s current mode of living. (Note: This concept of “bhuyah abhijayate” is closely related to the concept of “samsara: the cycle of birth and death in manifestation”. Samsara means the essence (sara) of the aggregate (sam). Thus every individual born is a unit representation or form of the aggregate of the human forms and experiences as they had existed in previous generations and as carried over to new generations through procreation and the recycling of possibilities and potentials. This is why human beings are called Manava: not new in the sense that it is human consciousness as conditioned by the gunas of prakriti that keeps taking new embodiments through procreation. Thus, one who is awakened to Purusha brings a spiritual dimension to human consciousness, which may impact on future generations. However, the one who is completely awakened to the Ultimate Spirit is completely disconnected from the field and flow of conditioned human consciousness and there is no recycling of his or her personal consciousness as it is liberated and non-existent.) Gita: 13.24. Dhyanena (by meditation) atmani (within oneself) pashyanti (see, realise) kechit (some) atmanam (Self-existent Being) atmana (by pure consciousness), anye (others) sankhyena yogena (by the path of discriminative understanding) karmayogena (by action without sense of doer) cha (also) apare (others) There are some who realise the Self-existent Being (Atman) within themselves through meditation in a state of pure consciousness or silent mind. Others resort to the path of discrimination between the perishable field and imperishable Being and others still embrace the path of enlightened action without any sense of doer and experiencer. Gita: 13.25. Anye (others) tu (as for) evam (thus) ajanantah (devoid of spiritual awakening) shrutva (by hearing) anyebhyah (from others) upasate (do devotional practice), te (they) api cha (also) atitaranti (overcome) eva (certainly) mrityum (the path of death) shruti-parayanah (having full faith in the scriptural instructions). There are still others who, through lack of spiritual awakening, resort to devotional practices after listening from others. Those having full faith in the instructions of the spiritual scriptures and applying themselves sincerely, they also certainly overcome the sudden halt to spiritual progress imposed by death.

Gita: 13.26. Yavat (whatever) sanjayate (is manifest) kinchit (anything) sattvam (existence) sthavara (not moving, insentient) jangamam (moving, sentient), kshetra (material field) kshetra-jna (spiritual knowing of the field) samyogat (union between) tat viddhi (know it) bharata-rishabha (O chief of the Bharatas). O Arjuna! Whatsoever there has been manifested in existence, whether sentient or insentient, know that it has come into being through the union of the material energy field or form (kshetra) and the underlying Knowingness of the field (kshetrajna). Gita: 13.27. Samam (equally) sarveshu (in all) bhuteshu (manifested forms) tishthantam (abiding) parama-ishvaram (supreme being), vinashyatsu (in the destructible) avinashyantam (as imperishable) yah (who) pashyati (perceives, realises) sah (such one) pashyati (actually sees, realises). Anyone who perceives the Supreme Being alike in every manifested form, as the Imperishable Presence abiding amidst perishable phenomena – such one has genuine realisation. Gita: 13.29. Prakritya (by material nature) eva (certainly) cha (also) karmani (actions) kriyamanani (as being done) sarvashah (in all ways), yah (anyone who) pashyati (sees) tatha (also) atmanam (the Self) akartaram (non-doer) sah (that one) pashyati (sees perfectly) Anyone who perceives that Prakriti or material nature (body-mind born of nature) alone is performing all actions in all the different ways and that Atman or one’s true Self is actionless Being – such one has a perfect vision of truth. Gita: 13.30. Yada (when) bhuta (manifested forms) prithak-bhavam (separated identities) ekastham (abiding in the one) anupashyati (gets to perceive) tatah eva (that thereafter) cha (also) vistaram (expand, enhance) brahma (the Absolute) sampadyate (attains, merges into) tada (then) When one gets to perceive the seemingly separate identities of the different manifested forms or bodies as abiding in the One and thereafter that unitary vision expands, then one merges into the Absolute.


Gita: 13.31. Anaditvat (being beginningless) nirgunatvat (being transcendental) parama-atma (the Ultimate Being) ayam (this) avyayah (immutable), sharira-sthah api (though dwelling in the body) kaunteya (O son of Kunti) na karoti (never does anything) na lipyate (is not stained by anything). This Ultimate Being is unoriginated, immaterial and immutable. Though abiding in a bodily field, it is free from all actions and is not stained by anything. O Arjuna! Gita: 13.32. Yatha (as) sarva-gatam (all-pervading) sauksmyat (due to being subtle) akasam (space) na (not, never) upalipyate (stained), sarvatra (everywhere) avasthitah (abiding, situated) dehe (in the bodily field) tatha (similarly) atma (the Self) na (not, never) upalipyate (touched, contaminated). Just as the all-pervading space, on account of its subtle nature, does not mix or is not stained by any contents, likewise this Atman, though abiding everywhere in all bodily fields, is not affected or touched by impurity. Gita: 13.33. Yatha (just as) prakashayati (illuminates) ekah (one) kritsnam (the whole) lokam (solar system, world) imam (this) ravih (sun), ksetram (bodily field) ksetri (field knower, Self) tatha (similarly) kritsnam (entire) prakashayati (illuminates) bharata (O son of Bharata) O Arjuna! Just as only one sun illumines this whole solar world, similarly the One Indwelling Spirit enlightens the entire field of bodies (endowed with selfconsciousness). Gita: 13.34. Kshetra-kshetra-jnayoh (of bodily field and Awareness of the field) evam (in this way) antaram (difference) jnana-chakshusha (by vision of spiritual perception), bhuta (manifestation) prakriti (material field) moksham (liberation) cha (also) ye (who) viduh (knows, realises) yanti (attain, reach) te (they) param (the Ultimate). Those who perceive by spiritual insight the distinction between the changing bodily field and the immutable Awareness underlying the field as also the freedom of the Awareness from the hold of the material field, they attain the Ultimate state. Gita: 15.5. Nih (without) mana (pride) mohah (delusion) jita (having overcome) sanga-dosha (faulty association), adhyatma (spirituality) nityah (constantly) vinivritta (done

with) kamah (obsessive self-pleasure and lust), dvandvaih (with duality) vimuktah (liberated from) sukha-duhkha (happiness and distress) samjnaih (called), gacchanti (attains) amudhah (unbewildered, without ignorance) padam (state of being) avyayam (immutable) tat (that). They who are free from pride and delusion, who are devoid of a faulty sense of attachment or identity, who are ever established in spirituality, who are done with self-centred material pleasures, who are unaffected by the varying situations of pleasure and sorrow – those persons, freed from ignorance, attain That immutable State of Being. Gita: 15.6. Na (not) tat (that) bhasayate (illuminates) suryah (the sun) na (nor) shashankah (the moon, reflecting sunlight) na (nor) pavakah (fire, electricity), yat (where) gatva (reached, attained) na (not, never) nivartante (recycled) tat dhama (that abode, status) paramam (supreme) mama (My). That (Immutable State of Being) is not illumined by the sun, nor the moon, nor fire and electricity (being self-effulgent and source of all lights). Having attained That, one is not recycled in the flow of material consciousness and form (samsara). That is My Supreme State or Abode. Gita: 15.7. Mama (My) eva (certainly) amshah (portion, partial emanation) jiva-loke (world of living beings: biosphere) jiva-bhutah (the life of the embodied living entity) sanatanah (eternal), manah (mind) shashthani (as sixth) indriyani (sensory instruments) prakriti (material nature) sthani (abiding, situated) karshati (attracts). A portion of Myself, immortal in nature, having become the life of the embodied living entity in the world of living beings, attracts to Itself the ever-active outward flowing mind associated with the five instruments of experience, born out of Prakriti and abiding in material nature. Gita: 15.8. Shariram (body) yat (when, as) avapnoti (acquire) yat (when) cha (also) api (virtually) utkramati (discard) ishvarah (the animating cosmic power, Life force), grihitva (taking along) etani (all these instruments) samyati (carry away) vayuh (wind, air) gandhan (smell, odour) iva (like) asayat (from the locus). When at conception, the Life-force, acquires a body complex or abandons one at death, It takes along (in Its movements towards life and death) the operative powers of these six instruments of experience just like the wind, as it blows, carries smells away from their seats

Gita: 15.9. Shrotram (ears, hearing sound) cakshuh (eyes, sight) sparshanam (touch, texture) cha (also) rasanam (tongue, taste) ghranam (nose, smelling power) eva (also) cha (and), adhishthaya (established in) manah (mind) cha (also) ayam (this) vishayan (sense objects) upasevate (experience) Associated with the sensory powers and spheres such as hearing, sight, touch, taste and smell, which are established in the mind (as the sixth sensory power), the Lifeforce experiences their respective sensory objects (which constitute the world as captured through the six instruments.) Gita: 15.10. Utkramantam (disconnecting from the body) sthitam (connected to the body) va api (either) bhunjanam (experiencing) va (or) guna-anvitam (under the spell of the modes of sensorial and mental nature), vimudhah (the unawakened persons) na (not, never) anupasyanti (perceive, recognise) pasyanti (one can see) jnanachakshusah (through the eyes of wisdom). The unawakened does not recognise the Life-force either when It departs from the body structure or when It is connected to the body and is experiencing objects and states owing to mental conditionings. But those endowed with insight and wisdom can actually see and recognise It. (Certainly not as an object of experience, but as the pure awareness of being encompassing and sustaining everything in the field of experience). Gita: 15.11. Yatantah (endeavouring) yoginah (contemplative) cha (also) enam (this) pashyanti (can see) atmani (within themselves) avasthitam (dwelling, abiding), yatantah api (although endeavouring) akrita-atmanah (not awakened to the Self-effulgent Being) na (not) enam (this) pashyanti (see, recognise) achetasah (without awareness). The dedicated contemplatives perceive and recognise the illuminating Life-force abiding within themselves, but not the persons, who are unawakened to the Self and devoid of awareness, although they might appear to be endeavouring. Gita: 15.16. Dvau (two) imau (these, there) purushau (inner living consciousness or being) loke (in the world) ksharah (perishable, divisible) cha (and) aksarah (imperishable, indivisible) eva (certainly) cha (and), ksharah (the perishable divisible) sarvani (all) bhutani (embodied evolving entities) kuta-sthah (established in herenow stillness) aksharah (imperishable indivisible) uchyate (is said).

There are verily two types of spirits or inner living consciousness in this world: the perishable divisible entity and the imperishable indivisible being. The perishable divisible constitutes the totality of embodied entities, which are subject to changing conditions. The imperishable undivided life is said to be ever established in herenow immutability. Gita: 15.17. Uttamah (the ultimate) purushah (being) tu (however) anyah (yet another) paramatma (the Supreme Being) iti (thus) udahritah (is called), yah (who) loka trayam (the three worlds of matter, life and consciousness) avishya (pervading) bibharti (sustains) avyayah (immutable) ishvarah (cosmic life) However, there is another being or spirit, called the Supreme Being or Purushottama, which is the Immutable Cosmic Life pervading and sustaining the three worlds (geosphere, biosphere, psychosphere). Gita: 15.18. Yasmat (because) ksharam (the perishable structure) atitah (transcendental) aham (I) aksharat api (than the imperishable life force) cha (and) uttamah (the highest, ultimate), atah (therefore) asmi (I am) loke (of the world) vede (in the scriptures) cha (and) prathitah (praised, celebrated) purusauttamah (the Supreme Ultimate Being). As I transcend both the perishable structures and the immortal life force, I am praised as the Supreme Ultimate Being in the holy scriptures of the world. Gita: 15.19. Yah (anyone) mam (Me) evam (certainly) asammudhah (without confusion, delusion) janati (knows) purushauttamam (the Supreme Being), sah (that one) sarva-vit (knowing the truth underlying everything) bhajati (revels) mam (unto Me) sarva-bhavena (with one’s whole being) bharata (O son of Bharata) Indeed whoever knows Me, without mental confusion or delusion, as the Ultimate Being, such one knows the truth underlying everything and revels in Me, as Purushottama, with one’s whole being. O Arjuna! Gita: 15.20. Iti (thus) guhya-tamam (the most profound) shastram (revelation) idam (this) uktam (imparted) maya (by Me) anagha (sinless one), etat (this) buddhva (realising) buddhi-man (wise person) syat (shall be) krita-krtyah (total sense of accomplishment) cha (and) bharata (O son of Bharata).

Arjuna, sinless one! This most profound revelation imparted by Me, when actually realised endows the person with real wisdom and a sense of total fulfilment in life (whereby nothing more remains to be accomplished). Gita: 16.21. tri-vidham (three kinds) narakasya (human self contraction and degeneration) idam (this) dvaram (gateway, doorway) nasanam (destructive) atmanah (of self awareness), kamah (obsessive desire for self-centred pleasure, including lust) krodhah (reactions of anger, hostility, cruelty) tatha (as well as) lobhah (drive for personal greed: urge to achieve, accumulate and become more) tasmat (therefore) etat (this) trayam (triad) tyajet (must give up). There are three doorways to human self contraction and degeneration (hellish situation), which are highly destructive of the delicate light of self-awareness. These are obsessive urges for self-centred pleasure/lust, frustration/aggressiveness and inadequacy/greed. This destructive triad should therefore be (recognised through alert attention and) relinquished at all costs. Gita: 16.22. Etaih (from these) vimuktah (being free) kaunteya (O son of Kunti) tamah-dvaraih (the gates of ignorance, dullness and recklessness) tribhih (three kinds) narah (a human being), acharati (conducts, behaves) atmanah (oneself) shreyah (rightfully) tatah (then) yati (reaches, attains) param (supreme) gatim (destination, fulfilment). If a human being is free from these three kinds of gateways to ignorance, dullness and recklessness, one conducts oneself in the right (though not pleasant-preyah) manner and attains the highest sense of fulfilment. Gita: 16.23. Yah (whoever) shastra-vidhim (as per this revealed enlightening teaching) utsrijya (disregards) vartate (remains, lives) kama-karatah (acting as per self-centred whims and caprices), na (not, never) sah (such one) siddhim (fulfilment) avapnoti (achieves) na (not) sukham (happiness) na (not) param (the supreme) gatim (destination). Whoever disregards the revealed enlightening teaching and lives as per the dictates of self-centred whims and caprices- such one neither attains fulfilment nor happiness and certainly not the supreme destination. Gita: 18.7. Niyatasya (prescribed duties) tu (but) sannyasah (renunciation) karmanah (actions) na (not, never) upapadyate (recommended), mohat (by illusion) tasya (these)

parityagah (renunciation) tamasah (in the mode of ignorance) parikirtitah (is declared). Renunciation of actions that ought to be done as a duty is indeed not appropriate or indicated. If, by illusion, one renounces these, such renunciation is declared to be in the mode of ignorance and negligence. Gita: 18.10. Na (not, never) dveshti (abhor, shirk) akushalam (unpleasant) karma (actions, work) kusale (in the pleasant) na (not) anusajjate (get attached), tyagi (the renouncer) sattva (right conduct, well inspired) samavishtah (imbued with) medhavi (intelligent, wise) china (dispelled) samsayah (confusion, doubts). The renouncer (tyagi), when imbued with right conduct, intelligence and clarity of mind and purpose, does not avoid duties merely because they are unpleasant, nor does the tyagi get attached to seemingly pleasant actions. Gita: 18.11. Na (not, never) hi (certainly) deha-bhirta (by the embodied) sakyam (possible) tyaktum (to renounce) karmani (actions) asheshatah (altogether), yah tu (but anyone who) karma-phala (results of actions or sense of doer) tyagi (renouncer) sah (such one) tyagi (renouncer) iti (thus) abhidhiyate (called) It is indeed impossible for an embodied being to abandon actions altogether. But whoever renounces the fruits to be expected from actions (thus renounces the sense of doer and enjoyer/sufferer) - such a relinquisher is called a renouncer. Gita: 18.13. Pancha (five) etani (all these) maha-baho (O mighty-armed one) karanani (causal factors) nibodha (understand, learn) me (from Me), sankhye (in Sankhya or enlightenment or quantum teaching) krita-ante (the end of all actions) proktani (said) siddhaye (for accomplishing) sarva (all) karmanam (actions). Learn from Me, O mighty armed, about the five causal factors that are said to be necessary for accomplishing all actions (whether good or bad undertaken by body, speech and mind) as per the teaching of enlightenment. Gita: 18.14. Adhisthanam (the seat of action) tatha (also) karta (doer) karanam cha (and instruments of action) prithak-vidham (different kinds), vividhah cha (varieties) prithak (distinct) ceshtah (endeavour, effort) daivam (the Animating Force as potential and destiny) cha (also) eva (certainly) atra (in this) panchamam (fifth)

These are: the seat of action or the body-mind complex, the ego-thought claiming to be the doer, the different instruments/organs of action and their powers, the distinct types of effort and movements involved, and the certainly the Life force as the fifth factor. Gita: 18.16. Tatra (that) evam (indeed) sati (being so) kartaram (as agent) atmanam (the self) kevalam (only) tu (but) yah (whoever), pashyati (sees) akrita-buddhitvat (due to insufficient intelligence) na (not, never) sah (such one) pashyati (sees) durmatih (perverted outlook). That being so, whoever with insufficient intelligence sees the self alone (or any other causal agent) as the sole agent involved in action, - such one, having a perverted outlook, does not really see. Gita: 18.20. sarva-bhuteshu (in all beings) yena (by which) ekam (one) bhavam (essence) avyayam (immutable) ikshate (sees) vibhaktam (undivided) vibhakteshu (among the divided) tat (that) jnanam (knowledge) viddhi (know) sattvikam (in the mode of clarity and sanity). That knowledge by which one sees the immutable unitary essence, undivided among the distinct objects of experience – know this knowledge to be in the mode of clarity and sanity. Gita: 18.26. mukta-sangah (free from all material association and attachment) anaham-vadi (without false ego-self) dhriti-utsaha (with steadfastness and enthusiasm) samanvitah (thus endowed), siddhi (success) asiddhyoh (failure) nirvikarah (unruffled) karta (doer-sense) sattvikah (in the mode of clarity and intelligence) uchyate (said to be). A ‘doer-feeling’ in action, when devoid of attachment to the action and the fruits to be anticipated and without the sense of pride and self-importance, but characterised by steadiness and enthusiasm and composure in success and failure, is said to be in the mode of clarity and intelligence. Gita: 18.40. Na (not) tat (that) asti (there is) prithivyam (on earth) va (or) divi (heaven, astral world) deveshu (amongst the heavenly gods) va (or) punah (again), sattvam (however intelligent being) prakriti-jaih (born of material nature) muktam (free from) yat (which) ebhih (by this) syat (exists) tribhih (threefold) gunaih (modes of material conditionings).

Nowhere, whether on earth or in the heavenly plane of the gods, is there any being, however clear-minded and intelligent, who is completely free from the three modes of material conditionings, born out of the field of change and becoming. Gita: 18.50 Siddhim (fulfilment in absence of sense of doership-naishkarmya) praptah (one attaining) yatha (as) brahma (the Absolute) tatha (so) apnoti (achieves) nibodha (learn) me (from Me), samasena (summarily) eva (though) kaunteya (O son of Kunti) nishtha (stage, consummation) jnanasya (of knowledge, realisation) ya (which) para (highest). Hear from Me in brief how one who is established in the perfection of non-egoic action attains the Absolute Ground of existence, which is the ultimate consummation of realisation.

Gita: 18.51-53 Buddhya (by intelligence) visuddhaya (fully purified) yuktah (endowed with) dhritya (steadfastness) atmanam (self) niyamya (at poise) cha (also), shabda-adin (sound, and the rest of) visayan (sensations) tyaktva (abandoning) raga (attachment, attraction) dveshau (repulsion, antagonism) vyudasya (having ceased) cha (also). vivikta-sevi (resorting to solitude) laghu-asi (eating moderately) yata-vak–kayamanasah (speech, bodily and mental movements at rest), dhyana-yoga-parah (maintaining meditative communion high) nityam (ever, constantly), vairagyam (non-attachment, dispassion) samupashritah (abiding in) ahankaram (false ego, false identity) balam (force, violence) darpam (arrogance) kamam (self-centred pleasure) krodham (anger) parigraham (material accumulations), vimuchya (being free) nirmamah (selfless) shantah (peaceful, even-minded) brahma-bhuyaya (of transcendental nature) kalpate (is worthy). Endowed with purified intelligence, steadily resting in the Self or Being, letting go of the external sensations, disconnecting from attraction and antagonism, resorting to solitude, eating with moderation, putting the tongue, bodily organs and mental ripples to rest, ever soaring in meditative communion, abiding in a state of nonattachment to anything in particular (seeing all with equal vision), free from false ego, violence, arrogance, self-centred pleasure pursuits, anger, the need to ever acquire, become and accumulate, being selfless and established in peace and equipoise – one is fit for oneness with the Absolute Being.


Gita: 18.56 Sarva (all) karmani (actions) api (although) sada (always) kurvanah (performing) mat–vyapashrayah (surrendering unto Me), mat (My) prasadat (grace) avapnoti (obtain) shashvatam (permanent) padam (state, abode) avyayam (immutable). Though ever performing all their actions, one who surrenders unto Me shall, through My grace, attain the permanent and immutable state of liberation or moksha. Gita: 18.57. Chetasa (consciously, mindfully) sarva-karmani (all kinds of actions) mayi (unto Me) sannyasya (renounce, giving up doership and fruits) mat-parah (devoted to Me), buddhi-yogam (intuitive communion) upashritya (adopting, resting in) matchittah (consciousness resting in Me) satatam (constantly) bhava (be, maintain). Resigning with awareness all actions along with the sense of doer and experiencer unto Me, devoted to Me - rest in intuitive communion with your consciousness constantly abiding in Me. Gita: 18.61. Isvarah (Cosmic Immanent Will, Intelligence, Energy, Power) sarva-bhutanam (of all living entities) hrit-deshe (in the heart space) arjuna (O Arjuna) tishthati (abides), bhramayan (directing movements) sarva-bhutani (of all living entities) yantra (wheel-machine) arudhani (seated on) mayaya (under the spell of the field of material energy). The Cosmic Power dwells (tishthati) in the heart space of all living beings, O Arjuna, and is directing the movements of all living entities, as if they are carried away, all seated on a revolving machine, driven by Its Cosmic Conditioning Power. Gita: 18.62. Tam (unto That) eva (certainly) sharanam (surrender) gaccha (going) sarvabhavena (whole being) bharata (O son of Bharata), tat-prasadat (by Its grace) param (supreme, transcendental) shantim (peace, serenity) sthanam (ground, abode) prapsyasi (you will attain) shasvatam (everlasting). O scion of Bharata, surrender unto That (tam) indeed through your whole being. By Its grace, you will attain supreme peace and the ultimate ground.


MEDITATION & LIBERATION 5.27-28. Allowing external sensations to occur outside, allowing the look to stay in between the eyebrows; allowing the incoming and outgoing breath moving through the nostrils to remain even, allowing the senses, mind and intellect to rest (in the herenow awareness) without any movement away (from actual experiencing) in the form of desiring, fearing and angering thoughts and emotions, with the destruction of illusions as a prime spiritual objective- the practitioner, so established in silence, enjoys a sense of liberation forever. MEDITATION PRACTICE & SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCE (For those who need it) 6.10. Let the yogi constantly practice meditative attunement by staying alone and undistracted in a private place, without entertaining any hopes and expectations, without hankering after anything, with the movements of consciousness (imagination and body) completely relaxed. 6.11-12. In a clean place, neither too high nor too low, a seat for oneself is to be made with grass covered by skin and cloth (as per convenience). Steadily seated on it, the yogi should practice meditative attunement to pure undifferentiated awareness, with the movements of imagination and bodily sensations (consciousness) completely relaxed and with the mind being one with the immediate flowing moment. 6.13-14. Maintaining body, head and neck along a straight line and motionless, maintaining the vision at the root of the nose without looking around, fearless, serene, silent in mind, established in gathering the scattered energy of attention, let him settle in the awareness of ‘I AM’ as his highest being. 6.15. With the mind withdrawn from conscious activity and always attuned to the self-effulgent awareness, the yogi rests in peace, which is supreme emptiness of all contents of consciousness and establishment in pure “I AM” or Being. 6.18. When the active mind becomes restful and receptive through surrender and remains established in or attuned to the Self-effulgent Awareness of Being alone, free from longing for all forms of objects of self-centred gratifications – then it is said to be in state of spiritual communion or transcendence. 6.19. The flame of a lamp sheltered from the wind does not flicker. So use that comparison to understand the unwavering (transcendental) state of the yogi whose active mind is at rest, integrated in spiritual communion with the Awareness of Being.


6.20. That state in which the movements of consciousness come to rest through resorting to yoga (attunement), in which the seeing of the Self-existent Light through undivided attention provides spiritual joy… 6.21. In which the yogi experiences a transcendent bliss, beyond the grasp of the sensory instruments of experience but intuited by the silent intellect, established in which, one does not move away from the underlying truth… 6.22. Which having realised, no other gain or attainment is considered as superior and remaining in which one is not afflicted by the greatest of sorrows… 6.23. Know this disconnecting from the connection to sorrow to be what has been described as yoga. It has to be practiced with earnestness and without depression of spirits (joyfully). 6.24-25. Letting-go of completely all the imagination-born longings, gathering energies scattered all around by sensory and mental activities, steadily resting the attentive mind on Being through the silent intellect, one relaxes (into Being) little by little by not getting involved in thinking of anything at all. 6.26. From whatsoever direction or object, the wavering and inattentive mind wanders away from actual experiencing, it is to be observed, recalled and put to rest in Being alone. 6.27. Transcendental joy wells up in a yogi, whose mind is poised, whose impulses are at rest, whose intellect is free from false notions (intellectual impurities) and whose heart is united with Undifferentiated Nondual Awareness (Brahma bhutam). Gita: 6.28. Thus, ever involving oneself in spiritual attunement and communion and being free from the impure notions, a yogi enjoys the intense joy of union with Nondual Being. 6.29. The yogi having spiritual insight through yoga, when established in undifferentiated awareness, sees the One Being underlying all particular entities and all particular entities as resting in the One Being. MEDITATION AT TIME OF DEATH 8.9-10. The person who, endowed with devotion, contemplates, at the time of death with an unwavering attention, having through the power of yoga reposed his life force/breath in between the eyebrows, on the inner Being, which is everknowing, original, subtler than the smallest particle, sustaining and directing

everything, self-effulgent like the sun beyond darkness of unconsciousness/ ignorance-that one unites with the Supreme Enlightening Being. 8.12-13. Withdrawing attention from the sensory outlets, reposing the attentive mind into the heart, gathering one’s life-breath/vital energy into the head, established in yogic absorption, invoking the monosyllable Om, denoting Brahman (Transcendent Being) while recognizing It as the ‘I AM’. Thus, departing from this body, one reaches the Highest Destination. SIGNIFICANCE OF MEDITATION & LIMITATION 6.46. A yogi involved in spiritual attunement or meditation is better than those involved in austerity or penance, those involved in the accumulation and mastery of knowledge as well as those involved in rituals and ceremonies. Therefore, be a yogi, O Arjuna! 12.12. Seeking knowledge for understanding is better than mere (traditional) practice and rites. Meditation is better than accumulation of knowledge. Even better than meditation is the ability to abandon attachment to the fruits of actions done with the sense of doership. Immediately after relinquishing the sense of doership, peace ensues. ---------------------------------------------------SANNYASI & YOGI 6.01. Krishna says: one who does one’s duty without expecting the fruit of actions (without sense of doer or enjoyer) is a Sanyassi and a Yogi both. 6.02. Arjun you must know that what they call Sanyasa is no other than Yoga for none becomes a Yogi who has not given up thought of becoming. YOGARURUKSHA & YOGARUDHA 6.03 Those who desire to climb the heights of Yoga, DISINTERESTED action is spoken of as the starting step; and for the man who is established in Yoga, absence of all thoughts of becoming is said to be the way. 6.04 When there is no attachment (no holding or clinging) neither for sensory objects and experiences nor for actions, then that one who is without all thoughts of becoming and begetting is said to be established in the heights of spiritual communion (yogarudha).

SANKHYA YOGA GITA CHAPTER 2 & 6 Introducing Saankhya Buddhi Yoga: intelligently and discriminatingly understanding the difference between the perishable mutable and the imperishable immutable. Shri Krishna said: 2.12. Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these rulers; nor shall all of us ever cease to be hereafter. 2.28. All beings have their origin (adini) in the Unmanifest (avyakta); in their interim state (madhyani) between birth and death, do they become manifest (vyakta), and again they get dissolved back (nidhanani) into the Unmanifest. Therefore, what is there to grieve for? 2.30. The ever-existent (nityam) One embodied being (dehi) animating all (sarvasya) the bodies (dehe) is indestructible. Therefore, there is no reason for you to grieve for all these perishable beings (sarvani bhutani). 2.13. Just like the indwelling Life (dehinam) in this manifest body undergoes conditions of childhood, youth and old age, similarly, after the death of one body (dehantara), It takes over (praptir) another body (through the process of reproduction). A person endowed with true understanding (dhirah) is not deluded (na muhyati) by such changing biological conditions. 2.22. Just as old garments are discarded and new apparels are acquired by people, likewise the Life animating a body (dehi) withdraws from (vihaya) decrepit bodies and accomodates (samyati) new ones. 2.14. Only sensory contact (matrasparshah) triggers experiences of cold, heat, pleasure and pain. These experiences come and go, being transient (anityah). Learn to bear them without being disturbed (titiksasva), O Arjuna! 2.15. O best among persons! The individual, who is not perturbed (na vyathayanti) by such fleeting experiences (ete) and who maintains equipoise in experiences of happiness and distress (sama duhkha sukham) – such one is certainly worthy of (kalpate) the imperishable state (amritatvaya). 2.16. Of the unreal (asato) there is no (na vidyate) actual experiencing (bhavo or existence). Of the real (satah), there is no actual non-experiencing (nabhavo vidyate or non existence). The truth (tattva) about these two polarities (ubhayor anayos), is verily seen (drishto) finally (antas) by those having the capacity to see

deeper truths (darshabhih). 2.17. Know that by which (yena) all this (sarvam idam) is animated and pervaded as just indestructible (avinashi tu). No one is ever (na kaschit) able (arhati) to cause (kartum) the destruction (vinasham) of this (asya) immutable (avyayasya) Being. 2.20. This Being (ayam) is not born (na jayate) and does not die (na mriyate) at any time (kadachit). It never came into being through any birth (nayam bhutva), it will not once again (bhuyah) be born in the future (bhavita). It is (ayam) unborn (ajo), ever-existent (nityah), permanent (shashvato) and original or primeval (puranah). It is not destroyed (na hanyate) even when the body (sharire) is destroyed (hanyamane). 2.25. This Being (ayam) is said to be (uchyate) Invisible (avyakta), Inconceivable (achintya) and Unchangeable (avikaro). Knowing It to be so, grieving is therefore improper. 6.29. One in communion with pure awareness of being through yoga (yogayuktatma), established in even-minded vision (sama darshanah), sees (ikshate) the Self-existent Being as abiding (stah) in all beings (sarva bhuta) and all beings (sarva bhutani) as resting in the Self-existent Being. 6.31. The one who adores (bhajaty) Me (the Self-existent Being) abiding in all beings (sarva bhuta sthitam), established in Unity of vision (ekatvam asthitah), verily such a yogi abides (vartate) in Me whatever be the situations (vartamanah) of life (sarvatha). 6.32. By comparison to oneself (atmaupamayena), the one who sees everywhere in all beings (sarvatra) the same principle (samam), whether in happiness (sukham) or in distress (duhkham), such a yogi is considered (matah) to be the best (paramo). ------------------------------THE GUNAS OF PRAKRITI Chapter 14. The Three Modes of Material Nature 14.3 mama–My; yonih–matrix of manifestation; mahat–causal substance; brahma– supreme field; tasmin–in that; garbham–impregnation or embryo; dadhami– generate; aham–I; sambhavah–manifest; sarva-bhutanam–of all entities; tatah– thereafter; bhavati–occurs; bharata–O son of Bharata.

The causal substance of the supreme field of existence is the starting point (womb) of manifestation, and it is that mahadbrahma that I impregnate, making possible the births of all things and beings, O son of Bharata. 14.4 sarva-yonisu–in all species of living entities; kaunteya–O son of Kunti; murtayah–forms; sambhavanti–are born or manifest; yah–whatever; tasam–all of them; brahma–supreme field; mahat yonih– womb of material substance; aham– Myself; bija-pradah–seed-giving; pita–genitor. O son of Kunti, All living entities, whatever be the womb from which they are made, have this supreme field of material nature as their original womb , and that I am the seed-giving genitor. 14.5 sattvam–mode of clarity; rajas–mode of passion; tama–mode of ignorance; iti–thus; gunah–qualities, modes, dispositions; prakrti– cosmic agency; sambhavah–produced of; nibadhnanti–condition/bind; maha-baho–O mightyarmed one; dehe–in this body; dehinam–embodied living awareness; avyayam– immutable. The three gunas or modes of nature, sattva (clarity/vigilance), rajas (impulsiveness/activity) and tamas (dullness/absorption), born of Prakriti, the cosmic agency or material nature. O great warrior! The embodied immutable living awareness, through association with them in the body, gets conditioned by these modes. 14.6 tatra–among them; sattvam–mental clarity; nirmalatvat–being of pure substance; prakasakam–illuminating; anamayam–without any disruptive reaction; sukha–happiness; sangena–association; badhnati–condition/bind; jnana– knowledge; sangena–association; ca–also; anagha–O sinless one. Among these, mental clarity, being purer than the others, is illuminating, and it is free from all disturbing or dis-eased reactions (it is harmonious). O sinless one! It conditions one by an obsession for happiness through knowledge acquisition. 14.7 rajo–impulsive motivation; raga’atmakam–attraction/passion-based; viddhi– know; trishhna–with hankering; sanga–association; samudbhavam–produced of; tat–that; nibadhnati–binds; kaunteya–O son of Kunti; karma-sangena–by association with fruitive activity; dehinam–the embodied being. Know that rajas or impulsive motivation (behind thoughts/feelings/actions) to be passion-based and triggered by an obsession for longings. It conditions the indwelling spirit, O son of Kunti, by an obsession for fruitive activities.


14.8 tamas–dull disposition; tu–but; ajnanajam–product of ignorance; viddhi– know; mohanam–delusion-producing; sarva-dehinam–of all embodied beings; pramada–carelessness; alasya–indolence/slackness; nidrabhih–sleepiness/daydreaming; tan–that; nibadhnati–conditions/binds; bharata–O descendant of Bharata. But know tamas or dull disposition to be born of ignorance and subjecting all embodied beings to delusion. O descendant of Bharata! It binds one by an obsession for mad carelessness, indolence and sleep (& dreaming). 14.9 sattvam–mental clarity; sukhe–happiness; sanjayati–develops; rajah– mental impulsivity; karmani–fruits of activities; bharata–O son of Bharata; jnanam– consciousness; avrtya–covering; tu–but; tamah–mental dullness; premade –folly; sanjayati–develops; uta–indeed. Mental clarity develops a mood of happiness; mental impulsivity, O son of Bharata, generates an urge of fruitive selfish activity. But mental dullness, which veils consciousness or knowledge, indeed triggers a state of craziness or insanity. 14.10 rajas–passion; tamas–dullness; ca–also; abhibhuya–overpowering; sattvam– clarity; bhavati–becomes prominent; bharata–O son of Bharata; rajah– passion; sattvam–clarity; tamah–dullness; ca–also; eva–like that; tamah–dullness; sattvam– clarity; rajah–passion; tatha–likewise. Overpowering passion and dullness, clarity prevails (for some time); suppressing clarity and dullness, passion predominates, O son of Bharata! And likewise dominating over clarity and passion, dullness holds the field. 14.11 sarva-dvaresu–all the doorways; dehe asmin–in this body; prakashah– illumination/attention; upajayate–develops; jnanam–knowledge; yada–when; tada–then; vidyat–must know; vivrddham–predominates; sattvam–clarity; iti–thus; uta–indeed. When through all the bodily doorways (senses), a sense of illumination (attention) shines and immediate knowledge develops, then it is to be understood that mental clarity is indeed dominant. 14.12 lobhah–greed; pravrttih–active outward flow; arambhah– endeavour/planning; karmanam–of activities; asamah–restlessness ;sprha–desire for pleasure; rajasi–in the impulsive mode; etani–all this; jayante–arise; vivrddhe– when there is excess; bharata-rsabha–O best of the descendants of Bharata.


Greed, active extroversion, planning and executing of works, restlessness, desire for pleasure- these arise when impulsiveness prevails. 14.13. aprakasah–absence of light; apravrttih–lack of effort; ca–and; pramadah– heedlessness; mohah–illusion; eva–certainly; ca–also; tamasi–mental dullness; etani–these; jayante–are manifested; vivrddhe–predominate; kuru-nandana–O son of Kuru. Absence of clarity (darkness, blindness), lack of effort, heedlessness and certainly delusion- these arise when dullness prevails. 14.16. karmanah–of work; sukrtasya– virtuous/attentive; ahuh–is said; sattvikam– mode of poise & clarity; nirmalam–unsullied; phalam–result; rajasah–of the mode of passion; tu–but; phalam–result; duhkham–misery; ajnanam–ignorance; tamasah–of the mode of dullness; phalam–result. The result of virtuous action is said to be clear and pure (one gets purified); however, the result of impulsive action is misery (suffering), while dull action promotes ignorance. 14.17. sattvat–from clear poised mind; sanjayate–develops; jnanam–knowledge/ understanding; rajasah–from passionate mindedness; lobhah–greed; eva–certainly; ca–also; pramada–recklessness; mohau–illusion; tamasah–from dull mindedness; bhavatah–develops; ajnanam–ignorance; eva–certainly; ca–also. From the clear poised minded develops knowledge and understanding; from the passion-driven mind certainly greed evolves, and from the dull-witted mind nothing but recklessness, foolishness and ignorance can emerge. 14.18. urdhvam–upwards; gacchanti–proceed; sattva-sthah–one established in alert clarity; madhye–in the middle; tisthanti–remain; rajasah–the impulse-driven; jaghanya guna–evil mode; vrtti-sthah– actively established; adhah–downwards; gacchanti–move; tamasah–the dull-witted. Those abiding in alert clarity elevate themselves; those abiding in impulsivity remain at the intermediate level, while those abiding in dullness degrade themselves. 14.19. na–not; anyam–different from; gunebhyah–the natural dispositions; kartaram–the performer; yada–when; drasta anupasyati–one who sees recognises properly; gunebhyah ca–from the dispositions of nature; param–transcendental; vetti–know; madbhavam–My real nature; sah–he; adhigacchati–attains/merges into.

When one, through deep observation, recognises that the natural dispositions as the agent in all actions or that the doer of actions is not different from the natural dispositions, and recognises oneself as beyond these phenomenal dispositionsthen one attains or merges into My Real Nature (as the pure witnessing awareness). 14.20. gunan–dispositions; etan–these; atitya–transcending; trin–three; dehi– embodied living awareness; deha–body; samudbhavan–produced of; janma–birth; mrtyu–death; jara–old age; duhkhaih–distresses; vimuktah–being freed from; amrtam –state of immortality; asnute–enjoys. The embodied living awareness, having transcended these three mental dispositions which are the cause of the body, is free from the miseries tied to birth, death and ageing and enjoys the state of immortality. 14.21. arjunah uvaca–Arjuna said; kaih–by which; lingaih–traits; trin–three; gunan–conditions; etan–all this; atitah– having transcended; bhavati–become; prabho–Lord; kim–what; acarah–behavior; katham–what; ca–also; etan–these; trin–three; gunan–qualities; ativartate– transcend. Arjuna said: Lord! What are the marks of one who has transcended these three conditions? How does the one behave? And how does the one rise above these three binding conditions? 14.22-25. sri-bhagavan uvaca–Bhagavan said; prakasam ca–and alertness; pravrttim ca–and activity; moham–delusion; eva ca– also; pandava–O son of Pandu; na dvesti–no aversion; sampravrttani–on predominating; na nivrttani–nor in their absence; kanksati–long for; udasina-vat– as if neutral; asinah–remaining; gunaih–by the modes; yah–one who; na–not; vicalyate–perturbed; gunah–the qualities; vartante–function; iti evam–knowing thus; yah–one who; avatisthati– remains; na–never; ingate–waver; sama–alike; duhkha–in distress; sukhah–in happiness; sva-sthah–self poised; sama–alike; losta–a lump of earth; asma–stone; kancanah–gold; tulya–equally disposed; priya–dear; apriyah–undesirable; dhirah–steady; tulya–equally disposed; ninda–in blame; atma-samstutih–in praise of self; mana–in honor; apamanayoh–insult; tulyah–alike; tulyah–alike; mitra–friend; ari–

enemy; paksayoh–towards; sarva–all; arambha–endeavour; parityagi–renouncer; guna-atitah–having transcended the modes; sah–that person; ucyate–is said to be. Bhagavan said: O son of Pandu! One who shows no aversion to alertness, activity or delusion when any of them prevails nor longs for any of them when absent… Who rests as if neutral and unperturbed by the prevailing mode or mood, who, realising that gunas alone operate, remains steady, not wavering in any situations… Who is self-abiding alike in pleasure and in pain, regarding a clod of earth, a stone and gold as of equal worth, who is same towards the loving and the hating, who is unmoved by praise and blame alike… Who is alike in honour and in humiliation, who views friend and foe alike, who has abandoned all sense of agency—such a person is said to have transcended the conditions imposed by natural forces. 14.26. mam–unto Me; ca–also; yah–whoever; avyabhicarena–without wavering; bhakti-yogena–by loving enlightened communion; sevate–serves; sah–that one; gunan–modes of material nature; samatitya–transcending; etan–all this; brahmabhuyaya–to become the supreme original being; kalpate–is considered. The one who serves Me (as the eternal, immutable basis of their own being and of everything else) through loving enlightened communion with unswerving faith can transcend these material modes and is considered fit to become one with the supreme impersonal being. 14.27. brahmano–of the supreme impersonal being; hi–certainly; pratistham–the basis; aham–I am; amrtasya–of the immortal; avyayasya–of the immutable;ca– also; sasvatasya–of the eternal; ca–and; dharmasya–of the cosmic law of nature; sukhasya–of the happiness; aikantikasya–ultimate; ca–also Indeed, I am the basic support of the original supreme impersonal being, which is of immortal, immutable nature, the eternal Law and the absolute unending bliss. Chapter 6 6.3. For the silence-loving person (muneh), aspiring for spiritual elevation through yoga (arurukshor), action (unattached doing) is said to be the means. For one having ascended to the heights of yoga (yogarudha), quiescence or absence of thoughts of becoming (shamah) is indeed said to be the way.

6.4. When one ceases to be attached to or bound by (anushajjate) sensory objects and experiences (indriyartheshu) and to one’s actions, then after having abandoned all self-centred hankerings and objectives (including all thoughts of becoming), one is said to have ascended the heights of spiritual communion(yogarudha). (Nishkaam Karma to start with which later on will develop on its own into sarvasankalpa tyaga) 6.5. One should uplift one’s relative or mental self through one’s real Being. One should not downgrade one’s relative or mental self. For the mental self is verily both one’s own ally (bandhu) and foe (ripu). Or 6.5. By the power of the Atman, one should uplift (uddharet) oneself! The stature of Atman should never be lowered! (avasadayet) For, verily one is an ally of the Atman as well as an enemy of the Atman. 6.6. To one whose mental self (what I think, believe, feel, imagine, say myself to be) has surrendered its dominant position (jitah) to the real Being (what I AM truly), the surrendered psychological self (jitatma) is an ally for oneself. But to one, whose real Being is completely veiled by the dominant relative self (anatmanah), the latter acts like an enemy (shatru) towards oneself. 6.7 The mind having surrendered (jitatmanah) to the Self or Highest Being (paramatma), radiates total peace (prashanta) in a steady manner and remains unperturbed (samahitah) by experiences in situations of heat and cold, joy and grief as well as of honour and dishonour. 6.8. One is called a yogi when, in mindful attention (yukta), one experiences the total peace of Being (triptatma), when there is actual knowing and realising (gnyana-vignyana), when one is established in stillness of being (kutastha), when one’s sensory instruments are totally surrendered (vijitendriyah), and when a clod, a stone and gold appear as similar. (The yogi looks at life from the perspective of total nature – as if nature looking through the mental instruments - where everything is enlightened as it is without mental concepts and values superimposed on them) 6.9 One is said to be still further advanced when one considers all–whether a wellwisher, a friend, a foe, a neutral person, a mediator, an envious person, an ally, a pious person, and even a sinner–with the same enlightening intelligence or vision (sama buddhi – even vision). 6.10. Let the yogi be constantly in meditative/mindful attention (yunjita), remaining alone (ekaki) in a secluded private place, without entertaining any hopes and expectations (nirashi), without holding on to anything (aparigraha), with

the movements of consciousness (in imagination and body) completely relaxed (yata-chittatma). The topic of GUNAS continues with further clarification by Sri Krishna in Chapter 18. 18.5. yajna–sacrifice; dana–charity; tapah–spiritual upliftment; karma–activities; na–not ; tyajyam–to be given up; karyam–to be done; eva–certainly; tat–that; yajnah–sacrifice; danam–charity; tapah–spiritual upliftment ;ca–also; eva– certainly; pavanani–purifying; manisinam–even of the great minds. Sacrifice, charity, and acts of spiritual upliftment should not be abandoned, but should be performed. Indeed, these activities are sanctifying even to the wise person. 18.6. etani–these; api–certainly; tu–must; karmani–activities; sangam–association; tyaktva–renouncing; phalani–results; ca–also; kartavyani–as duty; iti–thus; me– My; partha–O son of Prtha; niscitam–definite; matam–view; uttamam–the best. Even these actions too have to be performed without attachment to the activity itself and without expectation of any rewards, O Partha. Such is my settled and final view. 18.7. niyatasya–prescribed duties; tu–but; sannyasah–renunciation; karmanah– activities; na–not; upapadyate–is proper; mohat–by illusion; tasya–of which; parityagah–abandonment; tamasah–in the mode of ignorance; parikirtitah–is declared. Verily, it is not proper to renounce the prescribed actions and obligations. Their abandonment, originating from delusion, is considered as tamasic (ignorance, negligence, laziness). 18.8. duhkham–painful; iti–thus; eva–certainly; yat–that which; karma–action; kaya–body; klesa–suffering; bhayat–out of fear; tyajet–gives up; sah–that; krtva– after doing; rajasam–impulsive; tyagam–renunciation; na eva–certainly not; tyaga–renounced; phalam–results; labhet–gain. One who renounces actions/works out of fear of physical pain/suffering, feeling it is tedious, is thus performing the rajasic renunciation — such person does certainly not obtain the fruits of renunciation. (One is practicing detachment instead of being non-attached).


18.9. karyam–must be done; iti–thus; eva–indeed; yat–which; karma–work; niyatam–ordained; kriyate–performed; arjuna–O Arjuna; sangam–attachment; tyaktva–relinquishing; phalam–result; ca–also; eva–certainly; sah–that; tyagah– renunciation; sattvikah–in the mode of clarity; matah–considered. One who performs the prescribed action feeling it as an obligatory duty, giving up at the same time attachment to the action as well as thoughts of personal profit — such a unattachment (TYAGAH), O Arjuna, is considered as sattvik (clear, pure). 18.10. na–not; dvesti–hates; akusalam–inauspicious; karma–work; kusale–in the auspicious; na–nor; anusajjate–becomes attached; tyagi–the renouncer; sattva– clarity; samavistah–imbued with; medhavi–intelligent person; chinna–dispelled; samsayah–doubts. Not hating unpleasant work and not attached to pleasant action, the unattached one, imbued with clarity and purity (sattva), is an intelligent person whose doubts have been dispelled. 18.11. na–not; hi–certainly; deha-bhrta–of the embodied being; sakyam–possible; tyaktum–to renounce; karmani–activities; asesatah–completely; yah tu–who but; karma–work; phala–results; tyagi–renouncer; sah–he; tyagi–the renouncer; iti– thus; abhidhiyate–it is said. Verily, no embodied person can possibly renounce actions completely. Only one, who has abandoned thoughts of personal profit to be derived from actions, can be said to be truly unattached (TYAGI). 18.12. anistam–unpleasant; istam–pleasant; misram ca–or mixed; tri-vidham–three kinds; karmanah– of action; phalam–benefit; bhavati–becomes; atyaginam–of non renouncer of desires; pretya–after death; na tu–but not; sannyasinam–the renounced; kvacit–at any time. Good, bad, and mixed — three types are the fruits of action accruing to the nonrelinquisher after discarding the body (death). But for a sannyasi, having abandoned all desire-prompted actions, there is no result to suffer or enjoy.

-------------Krishna’s instructions in Bhagavad GitA: 2.45 trigunya vishayA vedA, nistraigunyo bhavArjuna nirdvandvo nityasattvasto, niryogakshema AtmavAn

The different branches of knowledge or science (vedA) deal with the subjects coming under the three gunas of clarity, passion and dullness (trigunya). O Arjuna! Be above the three gunas (nistraigunya). Be free from mental conflicts and duality caused by holding contrary notions (nirdwandva). Be always established (nitya sthah) in the clarity of actuality or herenow awareness (sattva). Be indifferent to self-centred acquiring and preserving (niryogakshema). Be established in and as Self-existent Being (AtmavAn). 2.47: karmany ev’AdhikAras te mA phaleshu kadAcana mA karma-phala-hetur bhur mA te sango’stv akarmani Your (te) legitimate right (adhikAra) rests only (eva) in the choice and decision of actions to be undertaken (karmani), but you have no right (mA) to claim their fruits (phaleshu) at any time (kadAchana). Do not (mA) consider yourself to be (bhuh) the cause or initiator (hetur) of the results of activities (karma phala), and do not (mA te) be (astu) attached (sanga) to indolent inaction (akarmani). 2.48. yoga-sthah kuru karmAni sangam tyaktvA dhananjaya siddhy-asiddhyoh samo bhutvA samatvam yoga uchyate Be established in yoga (yoga sthah), O Arjuna! by performing actions to be done (kuru karmAni) while abandoning (tyaktvA) all self-centred attachment (sangam), which creates a sense of doer and enjoyer. Be (bhutvA) the same/alike (samo) in success or failure (siddhy-asiddhyoh). Such unperturbed evenness of vision (samatvam) in all conditions of life is called (uchyate) Yoga. 2.49. durena hy avaram karma buddhi-yogAd dhananjaya buddhau sharanam anviccha kripanAh phala-hetavah O Dhananjaya! Certainly (hi) keep away from (durena) self-centred worthless (avaram) action (karma) through the wisdom of yoga (buddhi yogAd), and take (anviccha) refuge (sharanau) in that wisdom (of unperturbed evenness). Those, whose motivation (hetavah) is selfish gain (phala), are to be pitied (kripanAh). 2.50. buddhi-yukto jahAtiha ubhe sukrita-duskrite yogah karmasu kausalam tasmAd yogAya yujyasva

One endowed with this awakened even intelligence (buddhi-yukto) abandons (jahAti) instantly (iha) both (ubhe) good actions (sukrita) and bad actions (duskrite). Therefore (tasmAd) be attuned (yujyasva) with this state of yoga (yogAya). Yoga is a sublime art (kaushalam) of action (karmasu).


2.51 karma-jam buddhi-yuktA hi phalam tyaktvA manishinah janma-bandhavinirmuktah padam gacchanty anAmayam The wise persons (manishinah), endowed with awakened intelligence (buddhiyuktA), certainly (hi) by abandoning (tyaktvA) the fruit of actions (phalam), by freeing themselves (vinirmuktAh) from the bondage of embodiment (janma bandha), attain (gacchanti) that state (padam), which is free from all forms of miseries (anAmayam). 2.52. yadA te moha-kalilam buddhir vyatitarisyati shrotavyasya shrutasya cha tadA gantAsi nirvedam

When (yadA) your (te) intelligence (buddhir) has crossed over (vyatitarisyati) the dense jungle (kalilam) of delusion (moha), then (tadA) you shall become (gantAsi) indifferent to (nirvedam) all that has been heard (shrutasya- all past knowledge and experience) and (cha) all that is to be heard (shrotavyasya- all knowledge and experience yet to come). 2.53. shruti-vipratipannA te yadA sthAsyati nishchalA samAdhAv acalA buddhis tadA yogam avApsyasi When (yadA) you (te) are no longer bewildered (vipratipannA) by the diverse scriptural interpretations (shruti) and your intelligence (buddhih) remains (sthAsyati) steady (nishchalA) and unwavering (achalA) in the even awareness (samAdhau), then you will have attained (avApyasi) the state of Yoga (divine awareness). 3.7. yas tv indriyAni manasA niyamy’Arabhate ‘rjuna karm-endriyaih karmayogam asaktah sa vishishyate O Arjuna! One whose sensorial organs (indriyAni) connected to the mind (manasA) rest in their subordinate place (niyamya) while engaging (arabhate) the actional organs (karmendriyaih) in action through yoga (karma yogam or Naiskarmya), without self-centred attachment or interest (asaktah)—such a one (sah) excels amongst all. 3.8. niyatam kuru karma tvam karma jyAyo hy akarmanah sharira-yatrA’pi cha te na prasiddhyed akarmanah Accomplish (kuru) your (twam) prescribed (niyatam) actions (karma), for action (karma) is superior (jyAyah) to inaction (akarmanah). Even (api) the maintenance (yatra) of the body (sharira) you (te) cannot (na) effectively undertake (prasiddhyed) without action (akarmanah).

3.9. yajn’ArthAt karmano’nyatra loko’yam karma-bandhanah tad-artham karma kaunteya mukta-sangah samAcara Actions (karmanah) with a sanctifying and altruistic intent (yagnyArtAt) are to be accomplished; done for other reasons (anyatra), actions (karma) bind (bandhanah) one to this (ayam) world of misery (loka). Therefore, O son of Kunti, fulfill (samAchara) your actions (karma) with that (tat) purpose (artham: loka samgrahafor the general good 3.25) at heart, free from (mukta) self-centred attachment/interest (sangah). 3.19. tasmAd asaktah satatam kAryam karma samAcara asakto hy Acaran karma param Apnoti purushah Therefore (tasmAt), without self-centred attachment to fruitive actions (asaktah), constantly (satatam) fulfil (samAchara) all action (karma) that has to be done (kAryam); for by discharging (Acharan) actions (karma) without selfish attachment (asaktah), a person (purusha) certainly (hi) attains (Apnoti) the Almighty (param). 3.37. kAma esha krodha esha rajo-guna-samudbhavah mah’Ashano mahApApmA viddhy enam iha vairinam This power that forces people to indulge in sin against their will (esha) is obsession for self-enjoyment through pleasurable objects and experiences (kAma); itself (esha) the cause of anger (krodha), born out of passion and impulsivity (rajoguna), all-devouring (mahAshanah), prompting to great sin (mahA-pApmA). Know (viddhi) this (enam) to be the enemy (vairinam) here (iha) in our embodied life. 3.39. Avritam jnAnam etena jnAnino nitya-vairinA dushpuren’Analena cha kAma-rupena kaunteya

Thus, knowledge/consciousness (jnAnam) is veiled (Avritam) by this (etana) eternal (nitya) enemy (vairinA) of the aspirant of knowledge (jnAnino) in the form (rupena) of obsessive selfish-pleasure (kAma: desire for enjoyment, lust), which is never appeased (dushpurena) and (cha) which burns like fire (analena). 3.40. indriyAni mano buddhir asy’AdhisthAnam uchyate etair vimohayaty esha jnAnam Avritya dehinam The sensorial instruments (indriyAni), the mind (mano) and the intellect (buddhi) are said (uchyate) to be the seat (AdhisthAnam) of this force (asya), by which all these (etaih) are bewildered (vimohyati), which (esha) veils (Avritya) the awareness (jnAnam) of the embodied entity (dehinam).

3.41. tasmAt tvam indriyAny Adau niyamya bharatarsabha papmAnam prajahi hy enam jnAna-vijnAna-nAshanam Therefore (tasmAt), O best of the Bharatas, you (tvam) need at the very outset (Adau) to relax (niyamya: not to excite or unbridle) the sensorial instruments (indriyAni) in order to neutralise (prajahi) this (enam) source of sin (pApmAnam), which destroys (nAshanam) knowledge (jnAnam) and wisdom (vijnAnam). 3.42. indriyAni parAny Ahur indriyebhyah param manah buddhir yo buddheh paratas tu sah manasas tu parA

The instruments of experience (indriyAni) are said (Ahur) to be superior (parAny) to their objects; processing mind (manah) is superior to (param) the sensory instruments (indriyebhyah); deciding intellect (buddhir) is still higher than the mind (manasah); what (sah) is even (tu) higher than (paratas) the decision-making intellect (buddheh) is That (sah: Atman, Self-existent maintaining everything else). 3.43. evam buddheh param buddhvA samstabhy’AtmAnam AtmanA shatrum mahA-bAho kAma-rupam durAsadam jahi

Thus (evam) realising (buddvA) oneself to be transcendental to (param) the intellect (buddheh), one should establish (samstabhya) oneself (AtmAnam) in the Self-existent Being (AtmanA) and overcome (jahi) this unyielding (durAsadam) enemy (shatrum) in the form (rupam) of obsessive self-pleasure (kAma). 18.5. yajna-dAna-tapah-karma na tyAjyam kAryam eva tat yajno dAnam tapash chaiva pAvanAni manishinAm. Actions (karma) such as sanctifying acts (yagnya: sacrifice), charity (dAna) and austerity (tapah: spiritual incubation) should not (na) be abandoned (tyAjyam); they are indeed (tat eva) to be performed (kAryam). Sanctifying acts, charity and austerity are also (cha eva) indeed purifying (pAvamAni) for the wise persons (manishinAm). 18.6. etAny api tu karmAni sangam tyaktvA phalAni cha pArtha nishchitam matam uttamam kartavyAni’ti me

Even (api tu) these (etAni) activities (karmAni) are be performed by abandoning (tyaktvA) self-centred attachment leading to sense of doer (sangam) and (cha) expectations of personal gains resulting in sense of experiencer ( phalAni). They should be performed as a matter of duty (kartavyAni), O son of Pritha. This (iti) is My (me) firm (nishchitam) highest (uttamam) view (matam).

18.7. niyatasya tu sannyAsah karmano nopapadyate tAmasah parikirtitah

mohat tasya parityAgas

Renunciation of (samnyAsah) actions (karmano) that ought to be done as a duty (niyatasya) is indeed (tu) not (na) appropriate or indicated (upapadyate). If, by illusion (mohat), one renounces (parityAgas) these (tasya), such renunciation is declared to be (parikirtitah) in the mode of ignorance (tAmasah). 18.57. chetasA sarva-karmAni mayi sannyasya mat-parah upAshritya mat-chittah satatam bhava buddhi-yogam

Consciously (chetasA) resigning (samnyasya) all actions (sarva karmAni) to Me (mayi), relying on My Supreme Grace (mat parah), and taking refuge (upAshritya) in communion through wisdom (buddhi yogam), in Me (mat), let your consciousness (chittah) constantly (satatam) be or dwell (bhava). 18.58. mat-chittah sarva-durgAni mat-prasAdAt tarishyasi ahankArAn na shroshyasi vinankshyasi atha chet tvam

If you are in conscious communion with Me (mat chittah), then all the obstacles of conditional life (sarva durgAni) by My grace (mat prasAdAt) will be overcome (tarishyasi). If (chet), however (atha), through false ego (ahankArAn) you do not (na) act as you are taught (shroshyasi), you will perish (ninankshyasi). 18.61. ishvarah sarva-bhutAnAm hrid-deshe ‘rjuna tishthati bhrAmayan sarvabhutAni yantr’ArudhAni mAyayA The Cosmic Being (ishvara) dwells (tishthati) in the heart space (hriddeshe) of all living beings (sarva bhutAnAm), O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings (bhrAmayan) of all living entities (sarva bhutAni), as if they are carried away (bhrAmayan), all seated on a revolving machine (yantrArudhAni), driven by Its Cosmic Conditioning Power (mAyayA). 18.62. tam eva saranam gaccha sarva-bhAvena bhArata shAntim sthAnam prApsyasi shAshvatam tat-prasAdAt param

O scion of Bharata, surrender (sharanam) unto That (tam) indeed (eva) through (gaccha) your whole being (sarva bhAvena). By Its (tat) grace (prasAdAt), you will attain (prApsyasi) supreme (param) peace (shAntim) and the highest eternal (shAshvatam) state (sthAnam). 18.66. sarva-dharmAn parityajya mAm ekam saranam vraja aham tvam sarvapApebhyo moksayisyAmi mA suchah

Abandon (parityajya) all types of (sarva) obligations and practices (dharmAn) and surrender (sharanam vraja) unto Me (mAm) alone (ekam). I (aham) shall deliver (mokshaisyAmi) you (tvam) from all (sarva) sinful reactions (pApebhyah). Do not (mA) grieve or worry (suchah). 18.68. ya idam paramam guhyam mad-bhakteshv abhidhAsyati bhaktim mayi parAm krtvA mAm ev’aishyAty asamshayah Anyone, who (ya) explains (abhidhAsyati) this (idam) supreme (paramam) secret teaching (guhyam) to My (mad) devotees (bhakteshu), doing (kritvA) unto Me (mayi) the highest form (parAm) of loving service (bhaktim), shall eshyati (reach) Me (mAm) alone (eva) undoubtedly (asamshayah). 18.69. na ca tasmAn manushyeshu kaschin me priya-krttamah bhavitA na cha me tasmAd anyah priyataro bhuvi Other than (tasmAt) such a person, none (kaschin) among human beings (manushyeshu) can do anything dearer (priya-krittamah) for Me (me), and (cha) nor (na) any one (anyah) on earth (bhuvi) other than such a one (tasmAd) shall be (bhavitA) dearer (priyataro) to Me (me). 18.70. adhyeshyate cha ya imam dharmyam samvAdam Avayoh jnAna-yajnena ten’Aham ishtah syAm iti me matih And (cha) whoever (ya) shall study (adhyeshyate) this (imam) enlightening (dharmyam) conversation (samvAdam) between both of us (Avayoh), I (aham) shall consider (syAm) such a person (tena) as adoring (ishtah) Me through the sanctifying act (yajnena) of understanding (jnAna). This (iti) is My (me) view (matih). --------------------Krishna’s complaints in Bhagavad Gita: 7.13 Deluded by the mental states of experience conditioned by the three modes of the flow of natural forces, this entire world knows not My Being as the Immutable One transcending such conditionings. 7.24 Without realising My Supreme Nature as Unsurpassed and Immutable Being, people of little understanding conceive Me, the Unmanifest, as a particular manifest unit (form, image, entity).


7.25 I am not revealed to all owing to the veil of My Formidable Field of Becoming (Yogamaya). This deluded world does not know Me, the Immutable Unborn. 9.10-11 With Me as the Witnessing Basis, Natural Force or Prakriti manifests this universe of sentient and insentient beings. For this reason, the world revolves and evolves. The ignorant persons, ignoring My Supreme Nature as the Great Basis of all that is manifest, ignore My Presence in their human body.

Koosraj KORA VENCIAH,, 2010


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