COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INDEX CRIME RATE AND NON-INDEX CRIME RATE IN TRECE MARTIRES CITY

Undergraduate Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Department of Criminal Justice Cavite State University Indang, Cavite

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Criminology

NAIZELL A. ANGGA ARLENE P. TANYAG April 2010

1 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INDEX-CRIME RATE AND NON-INDEX CRIME RATE IN TRECE MARTIRES CITY

Naizell A. Angga Arlene P. Tanyag

A Thesis Manuscript submitted to the faculty of the Department of Criminal Justice, Cavite State University, Indang, Cavite in partial fulfillment of the requirements for graduation with the degree of Bachelor of Science in Criminology with Contribution No. _________________. Prepared under the supervision of Ms. Susan G. Tan.

INTRODUCTION Whatever barometer crime may be, its prevention, detection and prosecution involves substantial public costs and provokes considerable public interest. The public's fear and perceived risks of crime are influential elements in the response to crime. Because the effectiveness of crime suppression and prevention is one of the fundamental measures of the capability of the State, the "crime barometer" is a constructed and contested artifact of these crime control activities. Pertinent, if flawed, "crime statistics" represent the "facts" and serve as the measure of crime. The statistics in turn become phenomena in their own right and the source for data and speculation on changing patterns of crime. Nevertheless apart from bureaucratic need, the State's interest in producing crime statistics is to promote the perception of public order, safety, predictability of law and to highlight its protective and essential role. It is generally acknowledged that societies that are stable with low crime, secure and safe environments and rational means of dealing with conflicts and "rule" breaking are advanced and 'civilized' societies. In rational economic terms, such 'rule of law' states,

2 ³generate sustainable wealth and attract rather than deter investment´ (World Bank. 1997). Crime then is a threat to social order and development as well as a problem of individual pathology or risk. The level of investment by the state in "law and order" reflects the political salience of public order and crime issues (UNDP, 2008). The Philippines supports a relatively large public and private policing establishment. In the last two decades about 12 percent of annual government expenditure was devoted to the maintenance of security, an outlay that is exceeded only by spending on health and education. Traditionally, countries have relied on police statistics of reported and recorded offences to assess changes in rates of offending over time. Since many offences are not reported to the police, victimization surveys, which ask people about the crimes they have experienced, are increasingly used to assess levels of offending and to track trends. Surveys of fear of crime, which are usually included in victimization surveys, are also important ways of assessing levels of insecurity (not necessarily related to actual crime levels) among different populations and communities. The existence of reliable baseline data and research on crime rates and incidence is important in developing and adapting relevant crime prevention programs and strategies. Such data are equally important for the monitoring and evaluation of activities undertaken. Currently, there exists no baseline data on Cavite particularly in Trece Martires City. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of indexcrimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City, the seat of the provincial government of Cavite.

3 This research aims to enhance information and statistics on crime rates and crime incidence in Trece Martires City for the development of crime prevention programs and strategies. There is also a need to disseminate the information obtained in this study to government authorities at all levels, and police services and NGOs, to assist them in developing data, measuring performance and evaluating the impact of current crime prevention programs of the city.

Statement of the Problem In general, this study was conducted to compare the index crime rate and nonindex crime rate in Trece Martires City. Specifically, this sought answers to the following research problems: 1. What type of non-index crimes are recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009? 2. What type of index crimes are recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009? 3. What is the prevalence of recorded index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City in the two periods? 4. What are the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009? 5. Is there significant difference in the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009?

namely: January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009.4 Hypotheses of the Study Ho1: There are no significant differences in the rates of index and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City between January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. Data were limited to index and non-index crimes recorded by the Philippine National Police of Trece Martires City. Drug-related crimes were not covered in this study due to confidentiality of information. the Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP). other members of the public sector. Importance of the Study The study is important because it will be useful to the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). Scope and Limitations of the Study The study focused on the rates of index and non-index crimes for two periods. and students and researchers. Findings and recommendations contained in this study may be of valuable use to the DILG in policy formulation and issuance of Department Orders to . City Government of Trece Martires. The following are expected to benefit from this study: The Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) which authority over local government executives including public safety line bureaus like the Philippine National Police (PNP). Philippine National Police. Secondary data were obtained from the records of the Trece Martires City police station. This study was conducted from November 2009 to March 2010. enables it to direct policy guidelines on matters of public safety and security.

wherein its top hierarchy and units responsible for responding to calls/information regarding crimes of all types. especially NGOs and cause-oriented groups that are well-organized and having a collective drive to push proper authorities into timely action concerning issues. financial or otherwise. the independence. the findings and recommendations contained in this study could be of great importance for purposes of strengthening public safety and security against criminal activities. Operational Definition of Terms For purposes of clarity to establish a common frame of reference for the study. this research could be used by students and other researchers conducting similar studies. The Philippine National Police (PNP). and legal defense and legal aid. City Government authorities on whose shoulders lay the responsibility of keeping their political jurisdictions safe. this study may be used for decision-making concerning further support. to their local PNP units under their operational supervision and control with respect to capability against crime. the following terms are defined operationally as they are used in this study: Access to justice refers to the courts. Finally. orderly and secure from threats. the prosecution service. Other members of the public sector.5 the PNP towards further improvement of the PNP standard operating procedures in dealing with index and non-index crimes. this study may be used as a reference for review and further improvement of measures and procedures towards further operational effectiveness. . impartiality and integrity of the judiciary.

including fear of crime. for example: breaches of contract and of other civil law may rank as "offences" or as "infractions".6 Arson is the crime of intentionally and maliciously setting fire to structures or wildland areas. so although "homicide" is often used as a synonym for "murder". Even if nothing is stolen in a burglary. for example. or remaining unlawfully with intent to commit theft or any crime. While every crime violates the law. Crime is the breach of rules or laws for which the Philippine government (via mechanisms such as legal system) can ultimately prescribe a conviction. this is not formally correct . It may be distinguished from other causes such as spontaneous combustion and natural wildfires. and their potential harmful effects on individuals and society. It can also describe a person who has committed such an act. not necessarily a theft. Crime prevention refers to strategies and measures that seek to reduce the risk of crimes occurring. Burglary involves trespassing and theft. Grave threats refer to the act of any person who threatening another with the infliction upon the person. though this use is rare in modern English. not every violation of the law counts as a crime. the act is a statutory offense. would be murder. entering a building or automobile. vandalism. Homicide refers to the act of a human killing a human being. A common form of homicide. Homicide is not always an illegal act. Arson usually describes fires deliberately set to the property of another or to one's own property as to collect insurance compensation. for example. by intervening to influence their multiple causes. honor or property of the latter or of his family of any wrong amounting to a crime.

men. (4) On occasion of any of the calamities. and occur with sufficient regularity to be meaningful. or some essential organ of reproduction. These are mostly composed of victimless offenses (e. These include crimes against person (murder. (2) In consideration of a price. with the aid of armed. and crimes against property (robbery and theft). or in any other manner deprive him of his liberty.g. fire. homicide. stranding of a vessel. shipwreck. crimes against public morals. or of an earthquake. explosion. taking advantage of superior strength. Kidnapping and serious illegal detention refers to any private individual who kidnapped or detained another. epidemic or other public calamity (5) With evident premeditation. poison. crimes against national security. Non-index crimes refer to all other crimes not classified as index crimes. (6) With cruelty. Non-Index Crime includes negligent . derailment or assault upon a street car or locomotive.. eruption of a volcano. destructive cyclone. crimes against the fundamental laws of the state. fall of an airship. reward. (3) By means of inundation. physical injury and rape). either totally or partially. or employing means to weaken the defense or of means or persons to insure or afford impunity. crimes against public order.7 Index crimes refer to those violations of the penal code considered to have socioeconomic significance. by deliberately and inhumanly augmenting the suffering of the victim. or outraging or scoffing at his person or corpse. or with the use of any other means involving great waste and ruin. and violations of special laws). Mutilation refers to the act of a human intentionally mutilating another by depriving him. by means of motor vehicles. Murder refers to the act of a human killing if committed with any of the following attendant circumstances: (1) With treachery. or promise.

or assaulting another. keeping or using of another's property which must be accompanied by a mens rea of dishonesty and/or the intent to permanently deprive the owner or the person with rightful possession of that property or its use. Robbery is the crime of seizing property through violence or intimidation. shall be guilty of the crime of serious physical injuries. Policing refers to public safety and police service delivery.8 manslaughter. offenses against family & children. fraud. Robbery differs from simple theft in its use of violence and intimidation. liquor laws. forgery and counterfeiting. At common law. as opposed to stealth or fraud (which is theft). . driving under the influence. Trespass to dwelling refers to the act of any private person who entered the dwelling of another against the latter's will. narcotic laws. or any of his ascendants. and all other crimes not listed here or in the index crimes. mother. and police information and intelligence systems Rape is an assault by a person involving sexual intercourse with another person without that person's consent. beating. robbery is defined as taking the property of another. Theft refers to unauthorized taking. or his spouse. by means of force or fear. or descendants. with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property. whether legitimate or illegitimate. vandalism. stolen property. prostitution & common law vice. gambling. or child. disorderly conduct. Parricide refers to the act of a human killing his father. weapons. non-aggravated assault. sex offenses. the integrity and accountability of the police. embezzlement. crime investigation. Serious physical injuries refer to the act of a human wounding.

cavite. 1956. who were executed by the Spaniards on September 12. Cajulis jointly prepared House Bill No. Trece Martires City used to be the largest. The City was formerly a barrio of Tanza and was most probably known then as "Quinta" or "Quintana". in May 24. President Ramon Magsaysay. Development is basically agricultural with the land subdivided into cattle ranches and sugar farms. where many of the provincial government offices are located. the incumbent governor then. remotest and one of the oldest barrios in Cavite. the day Governor Delfin N. 2010). . It changed the tempo of development and urbanization in the area. it has a population of 90.gov. 981.9 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Profile of Trece Martires City The City of Trece Martires is a third-class city in the province of Cavite. It was re-named after the thirteen Caviteños who were executed by the Spaniards on September 12. The charter of Trece Martires City originally provided that the Provincial Governor should be the ex-officio city mayor. 981 known as the "Charter of Trece Martires City" which also provides for the transfer of the capital of Cavite Province from Cavite City to Trece Martires City. Montano and Honorable Jose T.177 people in a land area of 49.ph. Philippines. The city serves as the seat of government of the Cavite. According to the NSO census. approved Republic Act No. 1954. 1896. 1896 shortly after the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution. The said House Bill became Republic Act No. Honorable Justiniano S. The city is named after the Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite.10 square kilometers (www. thus became the first chief executive of the new city. 1795. The provincial capitol was formally inaugurated on January 2. Montano was sworn into office. Honorable Dominador Mangubat.

1163 relocating the capital and seat of government from Trece Martires City to Imus. education and social services. 1992 Republic Act 7325. The amendment provided for the first local elections in the city (www.ph. to transfer the Provincial Capitol back to the City of Trece Martires. Trece Martires City is politically subdivided into 13 barangays (4 urban and 9 rural). President Corazon C. the projected population by 2010 is 110. The major cause of this ballooning population is inmigration (which is gladly facilitated by the LGU even though it is not sustainable. Aquino approved on March 31. who played a major role in creating the city. 2010). Trece Martires City is strategically located at the heart of the Province of Cavite.ph. It is not coincidence but design that the city was subdivided into thirteen barangays. With its small land area and its . Agriculture has long been neglected in favor of commercialism and industrialization. 2010). Its major source of income is real property taxes.cavite.gov. The city has been awarded in the fields of nutrition. Governor Juanito R.10 President Ferdinand E. this was planned by Senator Justiniano Montano and Congressman Jose Cajulis. amending the charter of the City of Trece Martires.tmc. in order to support the incumbents for the upcoming 2010 elections) (www.gov. cleanliness. literacy. 2010).ph. Remulla requested Marcos. 1977. With its 14.gov. health services. on June 11.tmc. The most noteworthy fact about this city is its cleanliness and the absence of any form of gambling.75% growth-rate.000. in September 1979. Each barangay was named after one of the Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite to commemorate their bravery and heroism (www. Marcos signed. Presidential Decree No.

school fees and burial expenses. As of 2007. September and December. It has extensive programs for the elderly.ph. clean and green. this city is considered one of the most beautiful and prosperous cities in Cavite. These programs all look good on paper. One of its most admirable programs is their blood donation activity every March.gov. The city government provides the following assistance to its indigent: financial. as a result of increasing innovation. crime prevention has traditionally been seen as the responsibility of the police or as stemming from the deterrent aspects of the law or repression of offenders. out-of-school youths and mothers. May. solo parents. This is to be attributed to the admirable leadership of the current mayor (www. 2010). emergency. Balik Ewskwela (school supplies distribution to all public elementary and highschool students).gov. Crime Prevention In many countries. research and experience throughout the world. infrastructure and provision of basic services to the residents (www.ph. but are mundane in actuality (www. . medical.ph. The police cannot do so alone (UNODC .tmc.gov. high school and college scholarship and their livelihood programs.11 income. 2010). 2009). 2010).tmc. However.tmc. it is now recognized that crime has multiple causes and that many other sectors of society can have an impact on crime levels and therefore have a responsibility to act to help prevent crime. the city is fairly manageable in terms of public works. revitalization of agricultural lands.

for example. this Tool emphasizes the need to understand how security and safety emerge in a specific context and what measures may be taken to support governance. More significantly. in the numbers of police and in resources for youth justice have resulted in increasing numbers of young people being drawn into the criminal justice system and being charged or placed in custody (Solomon and Garside. nevertheless. working in partnership with government and public and private institutions. 2009). is that this is not necessarily the case (UNODC. and the involvement of stakeholders and communities in crime prevention. over a 10-year period significant increases in penalties. Having a well-resourced and well-run criminal justice system has been assumed to be the best way not only to build strong democratic institutions.12 There is a much broader role for government at all levels in establishing proactive rather than reactive strategies for preventing and reducing crime and victimization. social services and environmental services can all make a significant difference to crime levels when they work in partnership with the police and justice sector (UNODC. What has become increasingly clear. Housing. 2008). however. recreation. The assumption that prevention can somehow be accomplished through the establishment of the rule of law and a viable criminal justice system remains strong in many countries. . For this reason. but also to prevent crime. In developed countries such as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. health and job creation. this is not just a government role. 2009). but one that includes communities and civil society organizations.

the likelihood of a family being the victim of a common property crime such as burglary or car theft has decreased gradually in the last few years. the likelihood of a family falling victim to a crime in the year 2000 is still between two and three times higher than it was in the 1960s. rising unemployment and little hope for the future. crime rates have escalated dramatically in recent decades. however. Yet. It is well known that levels of insecurity are related to factors other than crime itself: a sense of insecurity may be exacerbated by several factors. Studies show that nine of the 10 countries with the highest rates of serious violent crime are those with economies in transition. The likelihood of violent crime continues to increase to rates that are several times what they were in the 1960s. Murder rates in some cities in developing countries are 10 times or more than those of developed countries in Europe (Reports on Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. remains a main source of public insecurity (Reports on Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. For many developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Crime. owing to an extended rise in crime rates in the 1960s and 1970s.13 Crime Trends in Asia For many developed countries in Asia. Even in countries where crime rates are decreasing. 2000). levels of public insecurity and fear remain high. . 2000). 2000). including precarious living conditions. Violence against women and crimes committed by and against youth are matters of particular concern (Reports on Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders.

manufacture. 2007 is an act instituting the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002.14 The social consequences of crime are significant. 9165 enacted on June 7. Republic Act No. loss of confidence in the justice system for a large segment of society and architecture of fear. dealing in. dealing in. Republic Act No. ammunition or explosives or instruments used in the manufacture of firearms. providing funds therefore. entitled ³Codifying the Laws on Illegal/Unlawful Possession. 1999). 1866. the highest rates of homicide. Philippine Laws relating to Crime Presidential Decree No. acquisition or disposition. 1999). 6425. Crime affects the poor in urban areas more frequently and more deeply than other groups of the population (Graeme. and imposing stiffer penalties for certain violations thereof and for relevant purposes. 1866 are laws on illegal/unlawful possession. between 22 and 64 per 100. manufacture. otherwise known as The Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972.´ . seen in the increase in measures taken to ensure private security. of firearms. as amended. acquisition or disposition of firearms. and for other purposes. as amended. repealing Republic Act No.000 population tend to occur in cities of developing countries (Graeme. ammunition or explosives. Generally. It leads to shattered lives for victims and has an impact on society in general. ammunition or explosives or instruments used in the manufacture of firearms ammunition or explosives and imposing stiffer penalties for certain violations thereof and for relevant purposes. 8294 is an act amending the provisions of Presidential Decree No.

Population pressures and a shortage of land and jobs in rural areas had produced a steady internal migration to the cities. The Communist and Muslim insurgencies compounded the problem of proliferating guns and violence. usually maintained by local politicians and wealthy families. Undisciplined private armies. police pointed to the rapid growth of urban slum and squatter areas. 1997 is an act providing for stronger deterrence and special protection against child abuse. and numerous organized crime gangs were the biggest violators of firearms laws. Widespread possession of firearms--including automatic rifles--was another factor contributing to crime. . Republic Act No. providing for protective measures for victims. Piracy and smuggling also were thriving criminal industries. 2002). more than 25 percent of the population of Metro-Manila were thought to be squatters in the late 1980s. prescribing penalties therefore. and for other purposes. especially in the southern portions of the archipelago (Winslow. exploitation and discrimination and for other purposes. This urbanization of a traditionally agrarian society was commonly mentioned as cause for increased crime rates. In particular.15 Republic Act No. Police attributed the country's chronic crime problems to a variety of social and cultural factors. 7610 enacted on June 17. crime remained a major problem through the end of the 1980s in the Philippines. Widespread poverty and rapid population growth were frequently cited. Crime Trends in the Philippines Despite some improvement in law and order. 9262 is an act defining violence against women and their children.

whereas the improvement in the late 1980s paralleled renewed economic growth under Aquino. In 1988 the crime rate dipped below 300 crimes per 100. and portions of Mindanao--impoverished rural areas where insurgents were active--had the most criminal activity in the mid-1980s (Winslow. but economic conditions appeared to be as important. 2002). particularly in marijuana. was fast becoming a narcotics problem. and there was no evidence of opium poppy cultivation or heroin manufacture (Winslow. . Drug use and trafficking were growing problems during the 1980s.000 people. methamphetamine.000 citizens. to a sustained level of around 310 during 1984 through 1987. 2002). Not surprisingly. the incidence of serious crime escalated through the early 1980s. crime rates were highest in major urban areas.000 population in 1979. Because of differing reporting practices and degrees of coverage. The deterioration in law and order during the early and mid-1980s accompanied a steadily worsening economy. Government officials attributed the decrease in crime to improved police work. then fell dramatically in 1989 to 251 crimes per 100. Known locally as shabu. the western Visayan islands. During the late 1980s. peninsular southern Luzon. it had generally been smuggled into the country. Coca cultivation was not significant in 1989. Regionally. but domestic production expanded sharply in 1989 to meet growing demand. it was difficult to compare Philippine crime rates to those of other countries (Winslow. where unemployment was the highest. from approximately 250 crimes per 100. but the mountainous portions of northern Luzon and the central Visayas were the major marijuana-growing centers.16 According to the police. 2002). then declined in 1988 and 1989. another drug. Cultivation was geographically widespread.

the discharge and demotion of scalawags in the ranks. and terrorism. Communist insurgents also were involved in marijuana cultivation (Winslow. notably Australian. petty graft was commonplace. Production and trafficking of illegal drugs was accomplished by a variety of domestic and foreign criminal groups. Australia. and community leaders. By regularly bringing together responsible government. was used for transhipment of heroin and marijuana destined for Guam. AFP and police commanders also attempted to address the problems of internal corruption and abuse. regional. the security forces. undermined public confidence in. and high-level corruption scandals periodically rocked the government. military. and provincial level were rejuvenated under Aquino. and its elimination was one of the government's most vexing challenges. known as the Sandiganbayan (Winslow. 2002). Despite persistent efforts. crime. Japan. they admitted. and cooperation with. . As part of its continuing efforts to weed out official malfeasance. which. and the United States.17 The Philippines remained a center of drug trafficking and transshipment. Corruption remained a serious problem in the early 1990s. Europe. Other government initiatives targeted corruption. Peace and Order Councils at the national. Manila's Ninoy Aquino International Airport. and the United States. Australia. the government hoped to improve the effectiveness of its anticrime and counterinsurgency programs. the government maintained a special anticorruption court. and ethnic Chinese Filipinos. and Philippine waters were routinely used by other smugglers as a transshipment point for Southeast Asian marijuana bound for North America. too. Top military leaders routinely publicized retraining programs. Cannabis growers exported their product to Hong Kong. American. 2002).

Government agents more than doubled arrests during 1989 and eradicated millions of marijuana plants.51 for USA. For rape. 4. robbery.21 for the Philippines. spearheaded by the constabulary's Narcotics Command.05 for USA. An analysis was done using INTERPOL data for the Philippines. For purpose of comparison. the combined total of these offenses constituting the Index used for trend calculation purposes cannot be made.26 for the Philippines.28 for Japan and 414. compared with 1. aggravated assault.62 for USA. The Philippines does not report data for burglary. . Lacking complete data on property crimes. but they still found it difficult to keep pace with the growing drug trade.78 for Japan and 32.78 for Japan.18 and other measures designed to improve discipline. forcible rape. and 323. the rate in 2000 was 4.10 for the Philippines.92 for USA. The Philippines will be compared with Japan (country with a low crime rate) and USA (country with a high crime rate) with the data available. and 144.06 for the Philippines. and 5. the rate in 2000 was 8.85 for the Philippines. The military also mounted a counternarcotics effort. the rate in 2000 was 7. and motor vehicle theft. and theft data do not exclude burglary and are thus not comparable to FBI data on larceny. For robbery.17 for USA. Index offenses include murder. The rate for motor vehicle theft in 2000 was 3.10 for Japan. data were drawn for five of the seven offenses used to compute the United States FBI's index of crime. 1. According to the INTERPOL data. 23. For aggravated assault.08 for Japan. for murder. compared with 44. The crime rate in the Philippines is low compared to industrialized countries. the rate in 2000 was 15.

the rate of murder decreased from 14.164 crimes committed in the region in 2008. of the total 5.115) of this were non-index crimes while the remaining 40 percent (2. between 1997 and 2000.94 to 8.1%. Davao del Sur posted the lowest crime rate with only 40 crimes per 100. 2009). Data were not given on auto thefts for 1997.5%. The rate for aggravated assault decreased from 17.000 population (NCSB. 2009).10 per 100.4 percent of the total (NCSB. . among the provinces and cities in Region XI. The preceding section discusses the results of this study: Crime statistics of the Philippine National Police XI revealed that in 2008. an decrease of 44. The rate for rape was not given for 1997. This was followed by murder with 540 reported cases or roughly 26.000.0 percent of the total index crimes.049) were index crimes. The rate of robbery increased from 7. Homicide posted the lowest among index crimes committed in the region with only 132 cases or 6. physical injuries recorded the highest with 573 cases or about 28. On the other hand.000 while Samal City recorded the lowest crime incidence among cities with 64 crimes per 100. an increase of 1. an decrease of 13.37 to 15. One study conducted by the National Statistical Coordination Board (2009) focused on Crime Incidence.19 Crime Statistics in the Philippines In the Philippines. Limited studies were found on regional and provincial crime statistics in the Philippines.11 to 7. Crime Rate/ and Crime Solution Efficiency Rate in Region XI as of 2008.06. Davao del Norte had the highest crime rate of 74 crimes per 100.4%. Among the index crimes committed. according to INTERPOL data.000 population. Among the four provinces in the region. about 60 percent (3.85.4 percent of the total.

2009).5 percent.net/home. Moreover. 2010). This is made possible through the concerted efforts of the Carmona PNP. the highest among the cities in the region (NCSB.20 In terms of crime solution efficiency. despite the unfavorable policeman-to-population ratio of 1:1.net/home. It has a very low crime rate at 7. The province of Compostela Valley topped the other provinces in the region as it recorded the highest crime solution efficiency with 92. Among the industrialized towns in Cavite. Extending support to its efforts. The local police force of Carmona works in close cooperation with other PNP units and agencies both in the provincial and national level. . emergencies and fires are quickly responded to by the local Bureau of Fire Station with additional enforcements from other fire stations in Cavite (http://carmonagov.8 percent while police authorities in Samal City managed to solve 98.15%.6 percent of the total crimes reported in the region in 2008. and organizations with the local government taking the lead (http://carmonagov. or the percentage of crimes solved. the Philippine National Police in Region XI was able to solve 90. private volunteer groups. the Carmona Traffic Management Office oversees road safety and regulations.788. Carmona is considered the most peaceful. 2010). with a crime solution efficiency of 90%.

permission to collect data was obtained from the PNP Chief of Police of Trece Martires City. Secondary data from PNP Trece Martires City was utilized to answer the objectives of this research. the data collection. Physical Education and Recreation. permission was secured from the Research Adviser and Dean of the College of Sports. De Ocampo. locale of the study. Secondary data on index crimes and non-index crimes were collected from the records of the PNP station in Trece Martires City. and the statistical treatment of data. Cabuco. Osorio. Data Collection Prior to the collection of data. Other relevant information were .21 METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the research design. Inocencio. Conchu. This study dealt on the rates of index and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 to January to May 2009. San Agustin. and Luciano. The study was conducted from November 2009 to March 2010. Lapidario. Perez. Thereafter. Locale of the Study The study covered all recorded crimes in all 13 barangays of Trece Martires City namely: Cabezas. Aguado. Lallana. Gregorio. Research Design The study employed descriptive research design.

Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution. journals. and mean were used in analyzing the data gathered. Statistical Treatment of Data For the statistical treatment of data. The formula for percentage is: % = F/N x 100 where: F= frequency of an item or response N= Total number of respondents . 2.22 obtained from the Web. Frequency count was used to determine the types of index crimes and nonindex crimes recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. existing reports. 1996) 1. the prevalence of index and non-index crimes. rank. research papers. The statistical computations were recorded into an SPSS statistical computer program for analysis. and the crime incidence by barangay. the prevalence of index and non-index crimes and the crime incidence by barangay. certain statistical formulas were used in this research work. books. and other publications. percentage. The formulas that were utilized are as follows: (Weiss and Hasset. Percentage (%) was used to determine the types of index crimes and nonindex crimes recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009.

T-test was used to determine the significant differences in the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. of n pieces of sample data can be computed from the formula: § x x s! n 1 where: x §x §x2 = data values = sum of observations = sum of observations squared . The formula for t-test is: t= (n 1  1 )(s 1 ) 2  (n 2  1 )(s 2 ) 2 n1  n 2  2 1 1  n1 n2 where: 1= mean of the first group mean of the second group 2= s1 = standard deviation of the first group s2 = standard deviation of the second group n1 = number of observations in the first group n2 = number of observations in the second group s = standard deviation which is computed as follows: The standard deviation.23 3. s.

2 or s! n.

x2  .

§ x § n (n  1) 2 .

24 x = sample mean = number of pieces of data = deviation from mean 2 n xx .

x  x = squared deviation .

the prevalence of recorded index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City in the two periods. vagrancy. qualified seduction. and the significant different in the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. stabbing incident. violation of R. Types of Index and Non-Index Crimes recorded by the Police Force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 Of the 347 recorded index crimes from January to May 2008 in Trece Martires City. only one incident each was recorded in the same period on the following index crimes: alleged maltreatment. vehicular accident ranked first in the total number of index crimes of the city with 133 recorded vehicular accidents or 38. consented abduction. the incidence of crime by barangay in Trece Martires City. alleged sexual assault. This was followed by mauling incident (12. hacking incident.68%) and alleged thievery incident / alleged theft (9. and budol-budol /salisi gang. Similar to the 2008 data. alleged abduction. On the other hand.25 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This section discusses the types of index and non-index crimes recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. grave oral defamation.A 7610. As . the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009.33 percent of the total index crimes (Table 1).8%). the highest type of recorded index crime in the city from January to May 2009 was also vehicular accident with recorded 91 incidents.

29 7 2.58 0 0 1 0.39 2 0.86 0 3 0.39 2 0.39 1 0.17 1 0.29 1 0.39 1 0.29 2 0.59 4 1.78 1 0.29 2 0.29 1 0.17 1 0.44 1 0.42 2 0. Index crimes recorded by police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 INDEX CRIME Abandonment Abortion / alleged abortion Act of lasciviousness Alarm and scandal Alleged abduction Alleged car napping incident Alleged maltreatment Alleged rape Alleged sexual assault Alleged thievery incident / alleged theft Arson Attempted homicide Budol-budol / Salisi gang Consented abduction Damage to property Damage to property and physical injury Direct assault Explosion incident Grave coercion Grave oral defamation Hacking incidents NUMBER OF RECORDED INDEX CRIMES January ± May 2008 January ± May 2009 total % of total total % of total 0 1 0.31 3 1.58 0 9 2.17 GRAND TOTAL 1 2 13 6 3 11 1 6 2 53 2 1 8 2 3 3 3 2 1 3 4 .78 0 1 0.73 1 0.80 19 7.39 3 0.58 1 0.39 1 0.56 3 0.86 3 1.78 8 2.Table 1.29 0 5 1.86 0 0 2 0.39 34 9.29 3 1.

A.34 1 0.29 0 17 4.90 13 5.02 6 2.58 0 9 2.02 16 6.78 7 2.39 347 100.17 1 0. 7610 Violation of R.29 3 1.55 1 0.29 0 133 38.68 22 8.33 91 35.A 9262 TOTAL NUMBER OF RECORDED INDEX CRIMES January ± May 2008 January ± May 2009 total % of total total % of total 1 0.08 0 1 0.59 12 4.69 1 0.25 20 5.39 0 2 0.59 6 2.59 0 0 9 2.29 0 0 1 0.29 2 0.34 44 12.00 GRAND TOTAL 4 30 1 2 13 66 0 21 1 20 2 15 3 23 36 3 1 224 1 1 593 .17 2 0.90 3 1.76 16 6.17 17 4.25 0 3 1.00 246 100.27 Table 1 continued« INDEX CRIME Hacking incidents Hit and run Illegal recruitment Kidnapping Malicious mischief Mauling incident Murder Physical injury Qualified seduction Robbery incident / robbery hold-up Self-accident Shooting incident Stabbing incident Threat / alleged threat Traffic accident Trespass to dwelling Vagrancy Vehicular accident Violation of R.78 7 2.

illegal recruitment. This suggests that the recorded victimless offenses or violations of special laws were declining. Likewise. .18%) and two incidents (20%) in 2009. damage to property. grave coercion. consented abduction.94%) and alleged thievery incident / alleged theft (7. In terms of non-index crimes. results showed that vehicular accident. violation of R. the number of vehicular accidents declined by 42. Ranked second and third type of index crimes recorded were mauling incident (8. only one of the following index crimes was recorded in 2009. This finding is also similar to the ranking of index crimes recorded in 2008. There were 12 recorded alleged libel/estafa incidents in 2008 which declined to six incidents in 2009. Ranked second was unjust vexation with recorded four incidents in 2008 (18.compared to 2008. alleged libel / estafa was the most common nonindex crime recorded by the police force of Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 (Table 2). and alleged rape. Index crimes declined from 347 in 2008 to 246 in 2009 (Figure 1). non-index crimes decreased by 12 between the two periods.72%). Overall. mauling incident and alleged thievery incident / alleged theft were prevalent in Trece Martires City for both periods. In contrast. As a whole data indicate that alleged libel / estafa was the most common nonindex crime recorded in 2008 and 2009. This could mean that the crime prevention program of the city or the performance of the police force in countering crimes was improving. alleged sexual assault. attempted homicide. namely: abandonment.A 9262.

A.00 20.55 4. 9165 Violation of R.55 4.55 4.INDEX CRIMES January ± May 2008 January ± May 2009 total % of total total % of total 1 1 12 1 4 1 0 1 1 22 4.55 4.A.55 100.18 4. 1866 Violation of R.00 0 0 6 0 2 0 2 0 0 10 60.55 18. 8294 Illegal discharge of firearm TOTAL 1 1 18 1 6 1 2 1 1 32 .00 GRAND TOTAL Alleged swindling Gambling Alleged libel / estafa Concubinage Unjust vexation Violation of P.00 100.55 54.00 20.D.Table 2. Non-index crimes recorded by police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 NON-INDEX CRIME NUMBER OF RECORDED NON.

Comparison in the number of index crimes recorded from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 .May 2008 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Index crimes 246 347 January .January .May 2009 22 10 Non-index crimes Figure 1.

victimless crimes decreased in the city between 2008 and 2009. establishment of checkpoints at strategic locations of the city during nighttime. conduct of mobile patrolling to all vital installation particularly in crime-prone areas. Prevalence of Recorded Index Crimes and Non-Index Crimes in Trece Martires City As shown in the computation below. respectively. the prevalence rate of index crimes in Trece Martires City was much higher than the prevalence rate of non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009.22% in 2009. and weekly patrolling of the boundaries according to the respective areas of responsibility. the prevalence rates of non-index crimes in the same periods were 0.02% and 0.38% in 2008 and 0. Hence. sustained and strict implementation of OPLAN SITA or regular checkpoint operations to deter criminal elements.31 The decline in the number of index crimes and non-index crimes from 2008 to 2009 could be attributed to the projects and activities implemented by the police force of Trece Martires City between 2008 and 2009. The prevalence rate of index crime was 0. The following step by step procedure was done to compute for prevalence rate: . This shows that there was a decline in crimes against person and property in Trece Martires City between 2008 and 2009.009%. These activities include: continuing conduct of barangay pulong (dialogue) with the barangay leaders and residents to discuss antiinsurgency campaign. On the other hand.

the barangay with the least number of recorded crimes from January to May 2008 was Brgy.177 Prevalence rate of index crime ! Prevalence rate of index crime (2008) ! Prevalence rate of index crime (2008) ! 0.38% 246 x 100 112. Lapidario and Brgy. Brgy. Luciano with 36 recorded crimes. Inocencio with 53 recorded crimes during the same period.452 Prevalence rate of index crime (2009) ! Prevalence rate of index crime (2009) ! 0. Lallana with only one .32 Number of new cases x 100 Total Population 347 x 100 90.index crime (2009) ! Prevalence rate of index crime (2009) ! 0.index crime ! Number of new cases x 100 Total Population 22 x 100 90. This was followed by Brgy.index crime (2008) ! Prevalence rate of non .22% Prevalence rate of non . San Agustin (Table 3).452 Prevalence rate of non . In contrast.177 Prevalence rate of non .index crime (2008) ! 0.02% 10 x 100 112.009% Crime Incidence in Trece Martires City by Barangay from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 The barangay with the highest recorded crime incidence from January to May 2008 of 94 crimes was Brgy. respectively.

San Agustin had the most crime incidence. Cabezas only had eight recorded crimes during the same period. Lallana is the most peaceful among the 13 barangays in Trece Martires City. Brgy. Brgy. Brgy. Brgy. Brgy. This is due to the fact this barangay is located at the heart of the city where crimes against person and property are rampant because of the presence of numerous commercial establishments.33 recorded crime. Crime incidence in Trece Martires City by barangay from January to May 2008 BARANGAY San Agustin Inocencio Lapidario Luciano De Ocampo Hugo Perez Cabuco Aguado Conchu Gregorio Osorio Cabezas Lallana Total Jan 20 16 7 8 9 8 8 5 5 3 5 3 1 98 2008 CRIME INCIDENCE Feb Mar Apr May 25 30 11 8 16 9 7 5 11 8 4 6 9 6 6 7 3 3 5 9 3 6 7 5 3 4 1 6 6 3 2 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 6 1 2 4 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 79 76 55 61 TOTAL 94 53 36 36 29 29 22 19 14 14 14 8 1 369 RANK 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 8 9 10 Similar to 2008 data. the incidence of vehicular accidents within the city proper is higher due to traffic congestion. Brgy. On the other hand. Inocencio had 31 recorded crimes during the same period. Likewise. Aside from this. De Ocampo and Brgy. San Agustin posted the highest crime incidence from January to May 2009 with 82 recorded crimes (Table 4). Luciano with 20 . Data suggest that in 2008. Table 3.

In contrast. San Agustin had the highest crime incidence in both periods. this barangay is located at the heart of the city where crimes against person and property are rampant because of the presence of numerous commercial establishments and congestion.11% was accounted in the recorded index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 and a decline of 54.55% was also accounted in .34 recorded crimes. respectively. Brgy. Crime incidence in Trece Martires City by barangay from January to May 2009 BARANGAY San Agustin Inocencio De Ocampo Luciano Cabuco Hugo Perez Lapidario Conchu Gregorio Aguado Osorio Cabezas Lallana Total Jan 12 4 2 3 2 3 2 2 1 3 1 2 0 37 2008 CRIME INCIDENCE Feb Mar Apr May 18 17 20 15 7 7 9 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 3 4 2 4 6 2 4 5 3 5 2 4 4 1 3 5 3 2 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 1 0 5 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 51 48 69 51 TOTAL 82 31 20 20 18 17 17 14 12 11 8 6 0 256 RANK 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rates of Index crimes and Non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 A decline of 29. As mentioned earlier. Lallana had no recorded crime from January to May 2009 indicating that this area was the most peaceful among the 13 barangays in Trece Martires City. Brgy. As against the 2008 crime incidence. Table 4.

Hence. the violation of victimless crimes and crimes against person or property were decreasing from year to year.596 was not significant at five percent level (Tables 5 and 6). Similarly. The computed t-value of . the null hypothesis of insignificant difference was accepted. the decline was not substantial to construe that crime prevention programs in the city was effective or that police force efficiency in curbing crimes was effective. Hence. .471 was not significant at five percent level. The computed t-value of . Hence. Hence. the application of t-test also showed no significant difference in the rates of non-index crimes between the two periods. This could mean that the crime prevention program of the city was effective or this could also mean that the police force of the city was very active in limiting the incidence of index and non-index crimes.35 the recoded non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 (Figure 2). the null hypothesis of insignificant difference between the rates of non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 was accepted. Comparison in the Rates of Index Crimes and Non-index Crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 Test statistics revealed that there was no significant difference in the rates of index crimes between the two periods (from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009). The findings imply that although there was a decline in the rates of index and non-index crimes in Trece Martires between the two periods. the data suggest that the rates of index crime and non-index crimes between the two periods were generally the same.

00% Index Crimes -10.00% -60.11% -54.00% Non-index crimes -29. Rate of decrease in index and non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 .36 0.55% Figure 2.00% -50.00% -20.00% -30.00% -40.

May 2009 Degrees of freedom = 16 ns = not significant .655 Accept Ho 6.939ns Significance Decision January.596ns Significance Decision January.May 2008 8.00 January. Trece Martires City PERIOD Incidence SD t-test statistics .11 January.736 . T-test results on the difference in the rates of index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009.index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009.May 2008 2.745 2.44 3.471 Accept Ho 1. T-test results on the difference in the rates of non.969 14.028 .46 21.37 Table 5.May 2009 Degrees of freedom = 80 ns = not significant Table 6. Trece Martires City PERIOD Incidence SD t-test statistics .

San Agustin posted the highest crime incidence from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 while Brgy. Lallana posted the least crime incidence in both periods. In terms of crime incidence by barangay. The prevalence rate of index crime was 0. respectively.02% and 0. Results showed that vehicular accident. The prevalence rate of index crimes in Trece Martires City was much higher than the prevalence rate of non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009.009%. Brgy. On the other hand. mauling incident and alleged thievery incident / alleged theft were the most common index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009 while alleged libel / estafa was the most popular non-index crime. the prevalence rates of non-index crimes in the same periods were 0. Specifically.38 SUMMARY.38% in 2008 and 0. the prevalence of recorded index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City in the two periods. the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. the study aimed to identify the type of index and non-index crimes recorded by the police force in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009.22% in 2009. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary A study was conducted to compare the index crime rate and non-index crime rate in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. and the comparison in the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes in Trece Martires City from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. .

This may be attributed to the current economic crisis of the country which prompted many Filipinos to cheat others in paying their debts or financial obligations.39 In terms of rates of increase or decline in index crimes and non-index crimes. Lallana. the following conclusions were drawn: 1. 2. The incidence of index crimes is much higher than the incidence of non-index crimes in Trece Martires City. The computed t-values were less than the critical values at five percent level of significance. 4. Among the 13 barangays of Trece Martires City. Alleged libel / estafa is the most frequent non-index crime in the city. test statistics revealed that there were no significant differences in the rates of index crimes and non-index crimes between the two periods. This suggests that violations against persons and property are more prevalent than victimless crimes. 3. the least orderly is Brgy. Among the index crimes recorded in Trece Martires City.55% was recorded in non-index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. . a decline of 29. a decline of 54. San Agustin while the most peaceful is Brgy. This means traffic management in Trece Martires City needs improvement. Similarly. vehicular accident has the highest incidence record.11% was accounted in the recorded index crimes from January to May 2008 and from January to May 2009. Conclusions In the light of the significant findings of the study. Finally.

rape. or unjust vexation are decreasing along with crimes versus person and property such as murder. gambling. Community-wide and city-wide cooperation to prevent crimes must be sustained. Non-index crimes and index crimes are declining from year to year as evidenced by the computed rates of decrease between 2008 and 2009. 6. No substantial evidence was found to conclude that the crime prevention programs of Trece Martires City are effective as supported by insignificant differences in the rates of non-index crimes and rates of index crimes between the two periods. This comprehensive approach includes clearly stated policies and strategies to ensure that all responses are integrated and coordinated. or theft in Trece Martires City. homicide. robbery. This shows that the prevalence of victimless offenses such as estafa. physical injury. if not strengthened. swindling. This means that that crime prevention programs in the city did not improve from 2008 to 2009 or that police force efficiency in curbing crimes was not effective.40 5. There is an imperative need to sustain the comprehensive approach to combat crimes in the city. Recommendations The City Government of Trece Martires should endeavor to make positive efforts towards effective and efficient police actions against crimes. Equally important is the need to galvanize the structural and operating mechanisms that would develop and sustain the city government's operational capability to respond to criminal activities. .

intelligence and other agencies for the prevention and control of crime is also necessary. This could lend empirical support to the findings of this study. Future research should seek to explore the rates of index and non-index crimes for at least 10 year period allowing for a better representation. to establish a shared central database on provincial as well as national jurisprudence for faster and efficient crime prevention and solutions. A concerted program of action of all law enforcement. .41 While the city government intensifies its campaign against criminality. There is also a need to explore and coordinate information exchanges and training with other government agencies. there is a recognized need to expand and strengthen cooperation and coordination with the community particularly the civilian security unit.

Report of the Secretary-General on United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice. National Statistical Coordination Board. New York. R. Oxford University Press: New York. (2009). World Bank (1997) World Development Report. NCSB Fact Sheet. Winslow. Crime and Criminal Justice Systems in Europe and North America (Helsinki. San Diego State University. Centre for Crime and Justice Studies. Oxford University Press. Solomon and R. HEUNI. .edu/faculty/rwinslow/asia_pacific/philippines. E/CN. Garside (2008) Ten Years of Criminal Justice under Labor: an Independent Audit. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2009). 10-17 April 2000.(November 15. Retrieved from http://carmonagov.sdsu. London. United Nations. Online sources Profile of Carmona. Retrieved from http://wwwrohan. Vienna. FS200910-R11-04. New York. Philippines Crime and Society: A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World. Reports on Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders.42 BIBLIOGRAPHY Graeme. 2007). Kangaspunta and others. (2002).Conflict Situations: a Global UNDP Programme for Justice and Security 2008-2011.html on March 2010. ed.net/home on March 2010. K. UNDP New York. 1998). Cavite. (2008) Strengthening the Rule of Law in Conflict and Post. (1999) Global Report on Crime and Justice. United Nations Development Programme. Crime Prevention Assessment Tool: Criminal Justice Assessment Toolkit. N. Davao del Sur posts lowest crime rate in Davao Region.

43 Appendices .

Vicinity Map of Trece Martires City .44 Appendix Figure 1.

45 Appendix Figure 2. The researchers while gathering data from the records of Trece Martires City Police Station .

The logbook of criminal records at Trece Martires City Police Station .46 Appendix Figure 2.

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