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GUIDE TO STPM PRACTICAL

CONTENTS
SECTION 1 Volumetric analysis 1.1 Important formulae 1.2 Acid-base titration Colour change of acid-base indicators at end point Chemical equations for acid-base titrations 1.3 Potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4, titration Balancing half-equations Balancing ionic equations for redox reactions Important half-equations for KMnO4 titrations Important ionic equations for KMnO4 titrations Precautions in KMnO4 titration 1.4 Iodine-sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) titration Important equations for iodine-sodium thiosulphate titrations Precautions in iodine-sodium thiosulphate titrations

SECTION 2 Physical chemistry Thermochemistry

SECTION 3 Qualitative analysis Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Reactions with dilute hydrochloric acid Reactions with aqueous sodium hydroxide Reactions with aqueous ammonia Reactions with aqueous iron(III) chloride Reactions with silver nitrate solution Reactions with potassium chromate(VI) solution Reactions with potassium iodide solution Reactions of sodium ethanoate solution Reactions of sodium carbonate solution Identification of functional groups in organic compounds

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SECTION 1 Volumetric analysis

1.1 Important formulae


Concentration (in g dm3) Concentration (in mol dm3) = (1.1) Relative molecular mass Concentration (in dm3) = Concentration (in mol dm3) Relative molecular mass (1.2) If the reaction between X and Y to form P and Q is represented by the chemical equation: aX + bY cP + dQ Then, a (M V1)X 1 = (1.3) (M2V2)Y b Example Calculate the concentration in mol dm3 of the following solutions: (a) F1 is hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.913 g dm3. (b) F2 is a solution containing 3.4 g of OH per dm3. (c) F3 is a solution containing 2.38 g MnO4 per dm3. (d) F4 is a solution containing 0.775 g KMnO4 per 250 cm3. (Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16.0; Cl, 35.5; K, 39.1; Mn, 54.9) Solution (a) Relative molecular mass of HCl = 36.5 0.913 Concentration = = 0.025 mol dm3 36.5 (b) Relative formula mass of OH = 17.0 3.4 Concentration = = 0.20 mol dm3 17.0 (c) Relative formula mass of MnO4 = 118.9 2.38 Concentration = = 0.020 mol dm3 118.9 (d) Relative molecular mass of KMnO4 = 158 0.775 Concentration = = 0.0049 mol per 250 cm3 158 = 0.0049 4 = 0.0196 mol dm3

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1.2 Acid-base titration Colour change of acid-base indicators at end point


Solution in the burette Acid Base Acid Base Solution in the conical flask Base Acid Base Acid Indicator in the conical flask Phenolphthalein Phenolphthalein Methyl orange Methyl orange Colour change Pink to colourless Colourless to pink Yellow to orange Red to orange

Chemical equations for acid-base titration


a The ratio of in the second column is obtained by considering b a = number of moles of the first reactant b = number of moles of the second reactant
Equation H+ + OH H2O NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O HClO4 + NaOH NaClO4 + H2O Ba(OH)2 + 2HCl BaCl2 + 2H2O H2SO4 + 2NaOH + Na2SO4 + 2H2O H2C2O4 + 2NaOH + Na2C2O4 + 2H2O a Ratio of b 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2

Example 1 To determine the identity of X in X(OH)2 F1 is hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.1 mol dm3. F2 is a solution containing 6.85 g dm3 of X(OH)2. 25.0 cm3 of F2 required 19.85 cm3 of F1 for complete neutralisation. (a) Write the equation for the reaction between X(OH)2 and hydrochloric acid. (b) Calculate the concentration of X(OH)2 in solution F2. (c) Hence calculate (i) the relative molecular mass of X(OH)2 and (ii) the relative atomic mass of X. (d) Suggest an identity for X. Solution (a) X(OH)2 + 2HCl XCl2 + 2H2O (M1V )X(OH) 1 (b) 1 2 = (M2V2)acid 2

1 Concentration of X(OH)2 = 2

0.1 19.85 = 0.0397 mol dm3 25 Relative molecular mass

(i) Concentration (in g dm3) = Concentration (in mol dm3) 6.85 Relative molecular mass = = 172.5 0.0397 (ii) 172.5 = X + (2 17) X = 138.5 (d) X is barium. (c)

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Example 2 To determine the identity of X in HXO4 F3 is 0.10 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide solution. F4 is an acid with molecular formula, HXO4. 25.0 cm3 of F4 required 21.00 cm3 of F3 for complete neutralisation. (a) Write the equation for the reaction between HXO4 and NaOH. (b) Calculate the concentration of HXO4 in solution F4. (c) Hence calculate (i) the relative molecular mass of X(OH)2 and (ii) the relative atomic mass of X. (The concentration of HXO4 is 8.44 g dm3) (d) Suggest an identity for X. Solution (a) HXO4 + NaOH NaXO4 + H2O (M1V1)HXO 1 (b) = 4 (M2V2)NaOH 1

0.1 21.00 Concentration of HXO4 = = 0.084 mol dm3 25 (i) Concentration (in g dm3) = Concentration (in mol dm3) 8.44 Relative molecular mass = = 100.5 0.084 (ii) 100.5 = 1 + X + (4 16) X = 35.5 Relative molecular mass

(c)

(d) X is chlorine. Example 3 NaOH solution is not used to standardise You are asked to determine the accurate concentration of a monoprotic acid because it is a acid, HX in F5 solution from the following experiment. The rough deliquescent solid. Thus, concentration of HX is about 1.0 mol dm3. it is difficult to find the By means of a pipette, 50.0 cm3 of F5 is transferred into a 250 cm3 accurate mass of NaOH as it absorbs the moisture volumetric flask. Distilled water is then added and make up to the mark from the air (deliquescent) on the volumetric flask. The solution is labelled as F6 solution. during weighing. F7 is prepared by dissolving 2.65 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate in 250 cm3 solution. 25.0 cm3 of F7 required 20.95 cm3 of F6 for complete neutralisation using methyl orange as indicator. (a) Calculate the concentration of sodium carbonate in F7 solution. (b) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between sodium carbonate and HX. (c) Calculate the concentration of F6. (d) Hence, calculate the accurate concentration of HX in F5. Solution (a) Relative molecular mass of Na2CO3 = 106 2.65 4 Concentration of Na2CO3 = = 0.1 mol dm3 106 (b) 2HX + Na2CO3 2NaX + CO2 + H2O 2 (M1V1) (c) HX = (M2V2)Na CO 1
2 3

Take Note

2 0.1 25.0 Concentration of HX in F6 = = 0.239 mol dm3 20.95 250 (d) Concentration of HX in F5 = 0.239 = 1.20 mol dm3 50
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1.3 Potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4, titration Balancing half-equations


1. A half-equation is a chemical equation containing electrons. Fe2+ Fe3+ + e Cl2 + 2e 2Cl oxidation reaction reduction reaction

2. The following steps are used to balance half-equations for redox reactions. Step 1 : Determine the oxidation number of the atom that undergoes oxidation or reduction. Step 2 : Balance the half-equation in terms of the total charge and the number of atoms on both sides of the equation. Step 3 : Calculate the number of oxygen atoms on both sides of the equation and add water (if necessary) on the side of equation that has insufficient number of oxygen atoms. Example 1 Balance the equation : MnO4 + H+ Mn2+ Step 1 The oxidation number of Mn decreases from +7 to +2. Hence, 5e must be added to the left-hand side of the equation. MnO4 + H+ + 5e Mn2+ not balanced Step 2 Balance the total charge and number of atoms on both sides of the equation MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O balanced Total charge on LHS of equation = 1 + 8 (+1) + 5 (1) = +2 Total charge on RHS of equation = +2 Total number of atoms on LHS of equation = 1Mn + 4O + 8H Total number of atoms on RHS of equation = 1Mn + 4O + 8H Hence, the half-equation is a balanced equation. Example 2 Balance the equation : XO2 XO3 Step 1 The oxidation number of X increases from +3 to +5. Hence, 2e must be added to the right-hand side of the equation. XO2 XO3 + 2e Steps 2 and 3 XO2 + H2O XO3 + 2e + 2H+ balanced Total charge on LHS of equation = 1 Total charge on RHS of equation = (1) + 2 (1) + 2 (+1) = 1 Total number of atoms on LHS of equation = 1X + 2H + 3O Total number of atoms on RHS of equation = 1X + 3O + 2H Hence, the half-equation is a balanced equation. not balanced

Balancing ionic equations for redox reactions


Step 1 : Write the half-equations for the oxidation and reduction reactions. Step 2 : Combine the half-equations to get an ionic equation that does not contain electrons. Example 3 Balance the equation for the reaction between HCOO and MnO4. Step 1 Write the half-equations for HCOO and MnO4 HCOO H+ + CO2 + 2e oxidation (1) MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O reduction (2)

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Step 2 Combine the half-equations into the ionic equation 5 equation (1) gives 5HCOO 5H+ + 5CO2 + 10e (3) 2 equation (2) gives 2MnO4 + 16H+ + 10e 2Mn2+ + 8H2O (4) Adding equations (3) and (4) gives 5HCOO + 2MnO4 + 11H+ 5CO2 + 2Mn2+ + 8H2O

Important half-equations for KMnO4 titrations


MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O Fe2+ Fe3+ + e C2O42 2CO2 + 2e H2O2 O2 + 2H+ + 2e NO2 + H2O NO3 + 2H+ + 2e

Important ionic equations for KMnO4 titrations


Note: a = number of moles for the first reactant, b = number of moles for the second reactant
Ionic equation 5Fe2+ + MnO4 + 8H+ 5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O 5C2O42 + 2MnO4 + 16H+ 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O 5H2O2 + 2MnO4 + 6H+ 5O2 + 2Mn2+ + 8H2O 5NO2 + 2MnO4 + 6H+ 5NO3 + 2Mn2+ + 3H2O 5FeC2O4 + 3MnO4 + 24H+ 5Fe3+ + 3Mn2+ + 12H2O + 10CO2 a Ratio of b 5 1 5 2 5 2 5 2 5 3

Precautions in KMnO4 titration


1. KMnO4 titration is used to determine the concentration of iron(II) salt, ethanedioate (also called oxalate, C2O42), hydrogen peroxide and nitrites. 2. Solutions used for KMnO4 titrations must be acidified. In neutral or alkaline solution, brown MnO2 is precipitated and detection of end point is difficult. MnO4 + 2H2O + 3e MnO2 + 4OH 3. Sulphuric acid is always used for acidification. Hydrochloric acid and nitric acid must not be used for acidification. 4. KMnO4 titrations involving Fe2+, H2O2 and NO2 should be carried out at room temperature. 5. KMnO4 titration involving C2O42 should be carried out at temperatures above 70 C. If the titration is carried out at lower temperatures, the redox reaction is incomplete, precipitation of MnO2 may occur and the result obtained is inaccurate. 6. KMnO4 solution should be added from the burette slowly. If it is added quickly, a brown suspension of MnO2 is formed. 7. No external indicator is required for KMnO4 titration because KMnO4 can act as it own indicator. The end point is reached when one drop of KMnO4 solution produces a light pink colour in the reaction mixture which should last for more than 35 seconds.
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Example 4 To find the mass of FeSO4.7H2O in 250 cm3 solution A sample of iron(II) sulphate crystals, FeSO4.7H2O, was dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid and made up to 250 cm3 with distilled water in a standard flask. 25.0 cm3 of this solution needed 25.80 cm3 of KMnO4 for complete reaction. (a) Write the ionic equation for the reaction between iron(II) sulphate and KMnO4. (b) If the concentration of KMnO4 solution is 3.16 g dm3, calculate the concentration (in g dm3) of (i) FeSO4, (ii) FeSO4.7H2O. (c) What was the mass of FeSO4.7H2O dissolved in 250 cm3 solution? Solution (a) 5Fe2+ + MnO4 + 8H+ 5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O (b) (i) Step 1 Calculate the concentration of KMnO4 in mol dm3 Relative molecular mass of KMnO4 = 158 3.16 Concentration of KMnO4 = = 0.020 mol dm3 158 Step 2 Calculate the concentration of Fe2+ (M1V1)Fe2+ 5 = (M2V2)KMnO 1
4

0.020 = 0.103 mol dm3 25.8 25 Relative molecular mass of FeSO4 = 152 152 = 15.7 g dm3 Concentration of FeSO4 = 0.103 (ii) Relative molecular mass of FeSO4.7H2O = 278 Concentration of FeSO4.7H2O = 0.103 278 = 28.6 g dm3 (c) Mass of FeSO4.7H2O dissolved in 250 cm3 solution 28.6 = = 7.15 g 4 Concentration of Fe2+ = 5 Example 5 To find the concentration of Na2C2O4 F1 is a solution containing oxalic acid, H2C2O4 and sodium oxalate, Na2C2O4. F2 is 0.10 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide solution. F3 is 0.024 mol dm3 KMnO4 solution. 25.0 cm3 of F1 required 18.50 cm3 of F2 for complete neutralisation. 25.0 cm3 of F1 required 33.60 cm3 of F3 for complete redox reaction. (a) Calculate the concentration (in g dm3) of H2C2O4 in F1 solution (b) Calculate the concentration (in mol dm3) of C2O42 ions in F1 solution. (c) Hence, calculate the concentration (in g dm3) of Na2C2O4 in F1 solution. Solution (a) H2C2O4 + 2NaOH Na2C2O4 + 2H2O (M1V1)H C O 1 2 4 = 2 (M2V2)NaOH 2

1 Concentration of H2C2O4 = 2

0.1 18.5 = 0.037 mol dm3 25

Relative molecular mass of H2C2O4 = 90 Concentration of H2C2O4 = 0.037 90 = 3.33 g dm3 (b) 5C2O42 + 2MnO4 + 16H+ 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O (M1V1)C O 2 5 2 = 4 (M2V2)KMnO 2
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5 Concentration of C2O42 = 2

0.024 33.6 = 0.0806 mol dm3 25

(c) Total concentration of C2O42 = 0.0806 mol dm3 Concentration of H2C2O4 = 0.037 mol dm3 Concentration of Na2C2O4 = 0.0806 0.037 = 0.0436 mol dm3 Relative molecular mass of Na2C2O4 = 134 134 = 5.84 g dm3 Concentration of Na2C2O4 = 0.0436 Example 6 Acidified hydroxyammonium ion, NH3OH+, reduces iron(III) ion, Fe3+, to iron(II) ion, Fe2+. In the following experiment, you are asked to determine the chemical equation for the reaction between hydroxyammonium ion and iron(III) ion. F4 is a solution prepared by boiling 1.56 g of hydroxyammonium sulphate, NH3OH+HSO4 ,with excess iron(III) ammonium sulphate and dilute sulphuric acid. The reaction mixture is then made up to 250 cm3 with distilled water. F5 is potassium manganate(VII) solution containing 1.58 g of KMnO4 per 500 cm3. In a titration experiment, 25.0 cm3 of F4 required 24.4 cm3 of F5 for complete reaction. (a) Calculate the concentration of (i) NH3OH+HSO4, (ii) KMnO4 in mol dm3. (b) Calculate the concentration (in mol dm-3) of Fe2+ ions produced in F4. (c) Hence, calculate the number of moles of Fe3+ that react with 1 mol of NH3OH+. (d) The half-equation for the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrogen is: 2NH2OH N2O + H2O + 4H+ + 4e Hence, write a balanced redox equation between NH3OH+ ions and Fe3+ ions. Solution (a) (i) Relative molecular mass of NH3OH+HSO4 = 131 1.56 4 Concentration = = 0.0476 mol dm3 131 (ii) Relative molecular mass of KMnO4 = 158 1.58 2 Concentration = = 0.020 mol dm3 158 (b) 5Fe2+ + MnO4 + 8H+ 5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O (M1V1)Fe2+ 5 = (M2V2)MnO 1
4

5 0.02 24.4 Concentration of Fe2+ = = 0.0976 mol dm3 25 (c) Fe3+ + e Fe2+ 1 mol of Fe2+ is produced from 1 mol of Fe3+. Number of moles of Fe3+ that have reacted with NH3OH+ = 0.0976 NH3OH+ : Fe3+ = 0.0476 : 0.0976 = 1 : 2 (d) 2NH2OH N2O + H2O + 4H+ + 4e Fe3+ + e Fe2+ 2NH2OH + 4Fe3+ 4Fe2+ + N2O + H2O + 4H+

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1.4 Iodine-sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) titration


1. The half-equations for the redox reaction between iodine and thiosulphate are 2S2O32 S4O62 + 2e (1) I2 + 2e 2I (2) 2. The ionic equation for the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and iodine is 2S2O32 + I2 S4O62 + 2I (3) This reaction is used to determine the concentration of iodine by titration against sodium thiosulphate. In some cases, the reaction is used to determine the concentration of an oxidising agent. For example, the oxidising agent is added to potassium iodide solution. The iodine liberated is titrated against sodium thiosulphate. From this, the concentration of the oxidising agent can be deduced indirectly. 3. Iodine has a low solubility in water but dissolves readily in potassium iodide solution. I2(s) + KI(aq) I3(aq) + K+(aq)

In most direct titrations with iodine, a solution of iodine in potassium iodide is used. For simplicity, equation (3) is commonly used for calculation.

Important equations for iodine-sodium thiosulphate titration


Note: a = number of moles of the first reactant; b = number of moles for thiosulphate
Ionic equation 2S2O32 + I2 S4O62 + 2I a Ratio of b

1 2 In the following reactions, iodine produced by the reaction is titrated against sodium thiosulphate solution. H2O2 + 2H+ + 2I 2H2O + I2 (H2O2 I2 2S2O32) IO3 + 6H+ + 5I 3H2O + 3I2 (IO3 3I2 6S2O32) 2Cu2+ + 4I Cu2I2 + I2 (2Cu2+ I2 2S2O32) 1 2 1 6 1 1

Precautions in iodine-sodium thiosulphate titrations


1. Iodine is a volatile substance. Hence the iodine solution prepared should be titrated immediately and quickly to avoid loss of iodine due to evaporation. 2. In I2 S2O32 titration, starch is used as an indicator. The starch solution should not be added at the beginning of the titration where there is a high concentration of iodine. This is because iodine is adsorbed onto the starch molecule and may remain adsorbed even at the end point. 3. The starch solution should be added towards the end of the titration when the reaction mixture turns pale yellow. The reaction mixture in the conical flask should be shaken vigorously but carefully as the titration proceeds. 4. The starch solution will produce a dark blue colour with iodine and when the end point is reached, the solution turns colourless abruptly. 5. When the solution in the conical flask is left aside after titration, the solution becomes blue again. Ignore this, because iodine is formed due to the atmospheric oxidation of excess potassium iodide in the reaction mixture. 6. Starch solution is unstable and should be prepared fresh for each titration.

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Example 1 To determine the concentration of iodine solution F1 contains 20.0 g of Na2S2O3.5H2O per dm3. F2 is an iodine solution. 25.0 cm3 of F2 required 22.5 cm3 of F1 for complete reaction. Calculate (a) the concentration (in mol dm3) of iodine in solution F2, (b) the mass of iodine required to prepare 200 cm3 of F2. Solution (a) Relative molecular mass of Na2S2O3.5H2O = 248 20.0 Concentration of Na2S2O3.5H2O = = 0.0806 mol dm3 248 2S2O32 + I2 S4O62 + 2I (M1V1)I 1 = 2 (M2V2)S O 2 2
2 3

1 Concentration of I2 = 2

0.0806 22.5 = 0.0363 mol dm3 25.0

(b) Relative molecular mass of I2 = 254 Mass of iodine = (0.0363 254) 200 = 1.84 g 1000

Example 2 To determine the percentage purity of hydrated sodium sulphite, Na2SO3.7H2O F3 is a solution containing 11.1 g of hydrated sodium sulphite, Na2SO3.7H2O per dm3. F4 is 0.050 mol dm3 iodine. F5 is 0.025 mol dm3 sodium thiosulphate solution. 25.0 cm3 of F4 is mixed with 25.0 cm3 of F3. The resulting solution required 18.90 cm3 of F5 for complete reaction. Sulphite ion reacts with iodine as represented by the equation Solution Step 1 Calculate excess iodine SO32 + I2 + H2O SO42 + 2HI

0.025 18.90 Number of moles of S2O32 that reacted with excess I2 = = 4.725 1000 2S2O32 + I2 S4O62 + 2I 1 Number of moles of excess I2 = 4.725 104 = 2.36 104 2 Step 2 Calculate amount of iodine reacted with SO32 0.050 25 Number of moles of I2 added = = 1.25 1000 Number of moles of I2 reacted = 1.25 103 2.36 103 104 = 1.014 103

104

Step 3 Calculate mass of pure Na2SO3.7H2O SO42 + 2HI SO32 + I2 + H2O Number of moles of pure Na2SO3.7H2O = 1.014 103 Relative molecular mass of Na2SO3.7H2O = 252 Mass of Na2SO3.7H2O in 25.0 cm3 solution = (1.014 103) Mass of Na2SO3.7H2O in 1000 cm3 solution = 0.256
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252 = 0.256 g

1000 = 10.24 g 25

Step 4 Calculate percentage purity of Na2SO3.7H2O 10.24 % purity = 11.1 100 = 92.3

Alternative method Step 1 Calculate the volume of iodine that did not react with the sulphite ion 2S2O32 + I2 S4O62 + 2I (M1V1)I 1 2 = (M2V2)S O 2 2
2 3

1 Volume of I2 = 2

0.025 18.9 0.05

= 4.73 cm3 Step 2 Calculate the volume of iodine that reacted with the sulphite ion 25.0 4.73 = 20.3 cm3 Step 3 Calculate the concentration of Na2SO3.7H2O SO32 + I2 + H2O (M1V1)SO 2 1 3 = (M2V2)I 1
2

SO42 + 2HI

0.050 20.3 Concentration of SO32 = = 0.0406 25 Relative molecular mass of Na2SO3.7H2O = 252 Concentration of Na2SO3.7H2O = 0.0406 252 = 10.23 g dm3 Step 4 Calculate the percentage purity of hydrated sodium sulphite 10.23 % purity = 11.1 100 = 92.2 %

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SECTION 2 Physical chemistry Thermochemistry


Important formula H = mcT where m = mass of solution, c = specific heat capacity (4.2 J g1 K1) T = maximum rise or fall in temperature Example 1 To determine the heat of reaction between a metal hydrogen carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid. F1 is 1.0 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid. F2 is a metal hydrogen carbonate (MHCO3). 50.0 cm3 of F1 is placed in a polystyrene cup. 4.7 g of F2 is added to F1. The mixture is constantly stirred and the temperature recorded.
Temperature of F1 before mixing Lowest temperature reached after mixing Temperature change 30.0 C 25.0 C 5.0 C

Take Note 1. The density of solution is usually assumed to be 1.0 g cm3. Hence, the mass of solution = volume of solution used. 2. The mass of solution does not include the mass of solid added to water. For example, when 1.0 g of NaOH is added to 100 cm3 of water, the mass of solution is 100 g and not 101 g.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Calculate the amount of heat absorbed in the experiment. Calculate the number of moles of HCl used. Calculate the number of moles of MHCO3 used. Calculate the number of moles of MHCO3 reacted. (The relative molecular mass of the metal hydrogen carbonate = 100) (e) Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction. Solution (a) H = mcT = 50.0 4.2

5.0 = 1050 J = 1.05 kJ

1.0 50.0 (b) Number of moles of HCl used = 1000 = 0.05 4.7 (c) Number of moles of MHCO3 used = 100 = 0.047 (d) MHCO3(aq) + HCl(aq) MCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g); H (+)ve HCl is in excess. Number of moles of MHCO3 reacted = 0.047 1.05 (e) H = = 22.3 kJ mol1 0.047 Example 2 To determine the partition of an organic acid, HOOC(CH2)nCOOH between water and ether. F3 is a solution of an organic acid, HOOC(CH2)nCOOH. F4 is 0.1 mol dm3 NaOH solution. F5 is 0.01 mol dm3 NaOH solution. 40.0 cm3 of F3 is added to a bottle, followed by 60.0 cm3 of ether. The bottle is tightly closed and shaken vigorously. After 30 minutes, 10.0 cm3 of the ether layer is pipetted out and titrated with F5. Then, 10.0 cm3 of aqueous layer is pipetted out and titrated with F4.
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The experiment is repeated using (a) 50.0 cm3 of ether and 50.0 cm3 of F3. (b) 40.0 cm3 of ether and 60.0 cm3 of F3. Results
Titration results Experiment Volume of solution used 40 cm3 F3 + 60 cm3 ether 50 cm3 F3 + 50 cm3 ether 60 cm3 F3 + 40 cm3 ether Volume of F4 (V1) 12.5 cm3 Volume of F5 (V2) 18.25 cm3

15.5 cm3

23.4 cm3

18.8 cm3

28.1 cm3

(a) Plot a graph of V1 (on the y-axis) against V2 (on the x-axis). (b) Based on the graph, determine the partition coefficient for the organic acid between water and ether. Solution
Solution

20

V1 (cm3)

10

10

15

10 V2 (cm3)

20

30

Concentration of acid in aqueous layer (b) K = Concentration of acid in ether layer Concentration of acid is proportional to the number of moles of alkali used. (20 10) V 1 = = 0.67 V2 (30 15) V1 0.1 K = V2 0.01 0.67 0.1 = 0.01 = 6.67

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SECTION 3 Qualitative analysis Table 1 Reactions with dilute hydrochloric acid


(I) Gas released
Observation Gas CO2 SO2 Colour Odour Action on blue litmus paper Little effect Blue red Specific test Limewater turns milky Acidified K2Cr2O7 Orange Green Acidified KMnO4 Decolorisation Inference CO32 or HCO3 present SO32 or S2O32 present

Colourless Odourless Colourless Pungent

NO2

Brown

Pungent

Blue red Blue red

NO2 present CH3COO present

CH3COOH Colourless Vinegar

(II) Precipitate formed


Observation White precipitate, soluble in concentrated HCl White precipitate, turns grey on exposure to sunlight Yellow precipitate White precipitate, dissolves when solution is heated. On cooling, yellow crystals formed Inference Pb present
2+

Explanation PbCl2 formed. Solubility in concentrated HCl due to formation of H2PbCl4 AgCl formed. On exposure to sunlight, Ag deposited Sulphur formed PbCl2 formed. PbCl2 is insoluble in water but dissolves readily in hot water

Ag+ present S2O32 present Pb2+ present

Table 2 Reactions with aqueous sodium hydroxide


(I) Gas liberated
Observation Red litmus blue White fumes with concentrated HCl vapour Inference NH4+ present Explanation NH3 liberated NH3 + HCl NH4Cl

(II) Precipitate formed


Observation Inference
2+ 2+ 2+

Explanation The basic hydroxides, M(OH)2 are formed The amphoteric hydroxides are formed Mn(OH)2 is formed; oxidised by air to Mn(OH)3 The basic hydroxide, Fe(OH)3 is formed The basic hydroxide, Fe(OH)2 is formed, Some Fe(OH)2 is oxidised to brown Fe(OH)3 The basic hydroxide, Ni(OH)2 is formed The basic hydroxide, Cu(OH)2 is formed The amphoteric hydroxide, Cr(OH)3 is formed

White precipitate insoluble in excess Mg , Ca or Ba NaOH present 2+ White precipitate soluble in excess NaOH Pb , Zn2+ or Al3+ present White precipitate turns rapidly to brown; insoluble in excess NaOH Mn2+ present Brown precipitate, insoluble in excess NaOH Fe3+ present Dirty green precipitate, insoluble in excess NaOH Fe2+ present Green precipitate, insoluble in excess NaOH Ni2+ present Blue precipitate, insoluble in excess NaOH Cu2+ present Bluish-green precipitate, soluble in excess NaOH to form a green solution Cr3+ present
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Table 3 Reactions with aqueous ammonia


Note: The asterisk (*) shows the cation that will form a precipitate with NH3(aq) but the precipitate will dissolve when NH4Cl is added.
Observation White precipitate, insoluble in excess NH3(aq) White precipitate, soluble in excess NH3(aq) White precipitate, turns rapidly to brown colour; insoluble in excess NH3(aq) Dirty green precipitate, insoluble in excess NH3(aq) Brown precipitate, insoluble in excess NH3(aq) Bluish-green precipitate, insoluble in excess NH3(aq) Inference Pb2+, *Mg2+, Al3+ present *Zn2+ present Explanation The metal hydroxides are formed Zn(OH)2 is soluble in NH3 due to the formation of [Zn(NH3)4]2+ Mn(OH)2 is oxidised easily to Mn(OH)3
Take Note 1. Ammonia is a weak base. In aqueous solution, it undergoes partial dissociation to form NH4+ and OH ions. NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH(aq) 2. Ca2+(aq) forms a precipitate with NaOH(aq) but it does not form a precipitate with NH3(aq). This is because the concentration of OH ions in aqueous ammonia is very low. The ionic product of Ca(OH)2 for ammonia is lower than the solubility product (Ksp) of Ca(OH)2. Hence, precipitation of Ca(OH)2 cannot occur. 3. Some metal hydroxides, such as Mg(OH)2, dissolve in NH4Cl, because of the common ion effect. In the presence of NH4Cl, the concentration of OH is decreased due to the common ion, NH4+. The metal hydroxide dissolves because the ionic product is less than the solubility product.

*Mn2+ present

*Fe2+ present

Fe(OH)2 formed and oxidised by air to brown Fe(OH)3 Fe(OH)3 formed

Fe3+ present

Cr3+ present

Cr(OH)3 formed

Green precipitate, soluble *Ni2+ present in excess NH3(aq) to form light blue solution Blue precipitate, soluble *Cu2+ present in excess NH3(aq) to form dark blue solution

Ni(OH)2 formed which dissolves in NH3(aq) to form the complex ion [Ni(NH3)6]2+ Cu(OH)2 formed which dissolves in NH3(aq) to form the complex ion, [Cu(NH3)4]2+

Table 4 Reactions with aqueous iron(III) chloride, FeCl3(aq)


(I) Formation of precipitate
Observation Buff-coloured (yellowish-brown) precipitate Brown precipitate; CO2 liberated Inference C6H5COO (benzoate) present CO32 present

Explanation Formation of iron(III) benzoate, (C6H5COO)3Fe Formation of iron(III) carbonate; CO2 liberated because FeCl3(aq) undergoes hydrolysis to produce H+ ions

(II) Colour change without precipitation


Observation Solution turns red; Brown precipitate formed on heating

Inference CH3COO or HCOO present

Explanation (CH3COO)3Fe or (HCOO)3Fe formed. On heating, (CH3COO)3Fe or (HCOO)3Fe undergoes hydrolysis to form the basic salt, e.g. (CH3COO)Fe(OH)2

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Observation Solution turns brownish-red; black deposit may also formed Solution turns deep purple/ violet I present

Inference

Explanation FeCl3 reduces I to I2 Formation of complex ion

Phenol, C6H5OH, or derivatives of phenol, e.g. HOC6H4COOH present

Table 5 Reactions with silver nitrate solution


Observation White precipitate, insoluble in HNO3 but soluble in dilute ammonia solution Cream-coloured precipitate; insoluble in HNO3; insoluble in dilute ammonia solution Yellow precipitate; insoluble in HNO3; insoluble in dilute ammonia solution White precipitate, soluble in HNO3 Cl present

Inference

Explanation AgCl formed. Dissolves in NH3(aq) because of complex ion formation, [Ag(NH3)2]+(aq) AgBr formed

Br present

I present

AgI formed

SO32, NO2 , C2O42, CH3COO or HCOO present

Ag+ ions react with these anions to form insoluble salts. Insoluble salts of weak acids are soluble in HNO3 C6H5COOAg is insoluble in cold water but soluble in hot water

White precipitate, soluble in NH3 and hot water

C6H5COO present

Table 6 Reactions with potassium chromate(VI) solution


Observation Yellow precipitate, soluble in HNO3 Yellow precipitate, soluble in HCl Solution turns green
2+

Inference Ba or Pb present Ba2+ present Reducing agent, such as SO32 or NO2 present
2+

Explanation BaCrO4 or PbCrO4 precipitated BaCrO4 precipitated Reducing agent reduces CrO42 to Cr3+ (green)

Table 7 Reactions with potassium iodide solution


Observation Pale yellow precipitate in brown solution Yellow precipitate, soluble in hot water. Yellow crystals formed on cooling Solution turns brown; black deposit formed Inference Cu2+ present Pb2+ present Explanation 2Cu2+ + 4KI 2CuI(s) + I2 + 4K+ PbI2 formed. PbI2 is soluble in hot water but insoluble in cold water Oxidising agents such as Fe3+, CrO42, Cr2O72 or NO2 oxidises KI to I2.
Take Note NO2 (nitrite) can act as an oxidising agent or a reducing agent depending on the reagent added to it.

Oxidising agent present

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Table 8 Reactions of sodium ethanoate, CH3COONa


Observation Solution turns red. On heating, a brown precipitate formed Inference Fe present
3+ 3+

Explanation 3CH3COO (aq) + Fe (aq) (CH3COO)3Fe red solution On heating, (CH3COO)3Fe + 2H2O (CH3COO)Fe(OH)2 + 2CH3COOH brown precipitate 3CH3COO(aq) + Al3+(aq) (CH3COO)3Al colourless (CH3COO)3Al + 2H2O (CH3COO)Al(OH)2 + 2CH3COOH white precipitate

No visible change. On heating, white precipitate formed

Al3+ present

Table 9 Reactions of sodium carbonate solution


Observation Effervescence. Gas turns limewater milky Pungent gas liberated. Gas turns red litmus blue White precipitate formed Inference Acid, such as C6H5COOH or H2C2O4 or acid salt, such as HSO4 present NH3 given off. NH4+ present Ba2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Pb2+ or Zn2+ present Fe present
3+

Explanation 2H + CO
+ 2 3

H2O + CO2

Na2CO3 is a base. A base will react with NH4+ to give NH3(g) These cations react with CO32(aq) to form insoluble metal carbonates MnCO3 precipitate is oxidised to Mn(III) salt Brown precipitate is Fe(OH)3. Fe2(CO3)3 is unstable and undergoes rapid hydrolysis to form Fe(OH)3. Fe3+(aq) is acidic and reacts with CO32 to give CO2 These cations react with CO32(aq) to form insoluble metal carbonates

White precipitate, turns brown Mn2+ present Brown precipitate, gas liberated turns limewater milky Green precipitate

Fe2+, Cr3+ or Ni2+ present

Table 10 Identification of functional groups in organic compounds


Reagent Cl2 water Observation White precipitate Inference C6H5OH or C6H5NH2 present C6H5NH2 present Unsaturated organic compound present Explanation Precipitation of 2,4,6trichlorophenol or 2,4,6trichlorophenylamine Formation of organic complex C = C + Br2 C C Br Br colourless (b) Decolourisation and white precipitate formed NaNO2 in HCl at 5 C followed by phenol Alcohol + a few drops of concentrated H2SO4, then heat Red dye C6H5OH or C6H5NH2 present C6H5NH2 present Precipitation of 2,4,6trichlorophenol or 2,4,6trichlorophenylamine Diazotisation followed by coupling reaction to form coloured dye

Sodium chlorate(I), NaClO Br2 water

Solution turns purple (a) Decolourisation

Sweet-smelling odour

RCOOH present

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