The Basics: Training Movements (with a few examples) by Tracy Fober 1.

Lower Body Primary These exercises include squat (front, back, single leg) and step up movements and are known as “triple extension” movements. Triple extension involves extension of the hip, knee and ankle in a coordinated fashion. Reps can go as low as 3’s for the experienced squatter, but normally stay in the 6-12 range, 3 to 5 sets with warm up. Bodyweight single-leg squats could go up to 20 reps.

Single Leg Squat

Step Up

2. Lower Body Secondary These exercises emphasize “posterior chain” control, eccentric reaction control by the hamstrings at the hip and knee and co-contraction of the hamstrings with the quads. Focus is on trunk extension at the hip with a neutral spine and coordination of eccentric knee and hip flexion. Bodyweight exercises should be in the 10-20 rep range. I discourage much external resistance with endurance athletes unless you are very experienced and have extremely good torso strength.

45 Degree Trunk/Hip Extension 3. Upper Body Pushing

Swiss Ball Bridge & Flex

These exercises emphasize combined shoulder flexion / elbow extension, otherwise known as “pressing” movements. Triathletes should be sure to avoid pure bench pressing and stick to pure pressing and incline pressing movements, to avoid shoulder range of motion issues. Dips and push ups are also in this category. Reps normally stay in the 6-12 range, 3 to 5 sets with warm up. Bodyweight exercises could go up to 20 reps.

Incline Dumbbell Press

Dips

4. Upper Body Pulling These exercises work shoulder extension, sometimes combined with elbow flexion—rowing type of movements. If you cannot manage your bodyweight, this is where a lat pulldown machine might come in handy. Reps normally stay in the 6-12 range, 3 to 5 sets with warm up. Bodyweight exercises could go up to 20 reps.

Incline Pull Ups

Straight Arm Pulldowns

5. Core Stability / Balance This is when we have fun with toys (med balls, bands, balance boards) and bodyweight exercises. Single leg work and balance, while maintaining a neutral spine (core stability and control) are the key here. Don’t forget to include the shoulder girdle as part of the core and include some upper body weight-bearing for scapulo-humeral rhythm. Reps should be in the 10-20 range or for time.

Cross Over and Touch

Med Ball Pillar

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