HANDBOOK

of
INTERNAL MEDICINE



COC(Medicine)
Hospital Authority

5
th
Edition
2008
PREFACE TO 5
th
EDITION
Since the Handbook of Internal Medicine is published its popularity
is rapidly gaining and has become an indispensable tool for
clinicians and interns. As practice of medicine is changing due to
new knowledge and technology it is essential to update our
handbook to keep in touch with the development. So now we are
having the 5
th
edition which is least 10% thicker than the previous
edition.
This new edition includes update guidelines on the major diseases
and I am sure you will find it useful and still convenient to put into
your pocket despite its thickness. I would like to thank every one in
the Editorial Board and all the specialists who have reviewed and
update the various sections. Without their effort this handbook
would not have been materialized. It represents a joint effort from
our large family of physicians and I hope this spirit of fraternity can
guide us to move ahead in the development of our specialty.
` Dr.YW Yeung
Chairman, QA Subcommittee
In Internal Medicine
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Editorial Board Members
Dr. Kin-Wing Chan
Dr. Cheung-Hei Choi
Dr. Moon-Sing Lai
Dr. Sik-To Lai
Dr. Yiu-Wing Luk
Dr. Kong-Chiu Wong
Dr. Jonas Hon Ming Yeung
Central Co-ordinating Committee(Medicine)
Hospital Authority
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CONTENTS

Cardiology
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) C 1-3
Arrhythmias C 4-12
Unstable Angina / Non –ST Elevation MI C 13-14
Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction C 15-21
Acute Pulmonary Oedema C 22
Hypertensive Crisis C 23-25
Aortic Dissection C 26-27
Pulmonary Embolism C 28
Cardiac Tamponade C 29
Antibiotics Prophylaxis for Infective Endocarditis C 30
Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for
Noncardiac Surgery
C 31-35

Endocrinology
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) E 1-2
Diabetic Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic States E 3
Peri-operative Management of Diabetes Mellitus E 4-5
Insulin Therapy for DM Control E 6-7
Hypoglycemia E 8
Thyroid Storm E 9
Myxoedema Coma
Phaeochromocytoma
E
E
10
10
Addisonian Crisis E 11-12
Acute Post-operative/Post-traumatic Diabetes Insipidus E 13
Pituitary Apoplexy E 13

Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Hepatic Failure G 1-2
General Guidelines for Consideration of OLT G 3
Ascites G 4
Variceal Haemorrhage G 5-6
Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding G 7
Peptic Ulcers G 8
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Management of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease G 9-10
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases G 11-14
Acute Pancreatitis G 15-18

Haematology

Haematological Malignancies
Leukemia H 1-2
Lymphoma H 2-3
Multiple Myeloma H 3-4
Extravasation of Cytotoxic Drugs
Intrathecal Chemotherapy
H
H
4-5
5
Performance Status H 6
Non-Malignant Haematological Emergencies/Conditions
Acute Hemolytic Disorders H 7-8
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) H 9-10
Thrombocytopenic Thrombotic Purpura (TTP) H 10-11
Pancytopenia H 11
Thrombophilia Screening H 11
Prophylaxis of Venous Thrombosis in Pregnancy H 12
Special Drug Formulary and Blood Products
Anti-emetic Therapy H 13
Haemopoietic Growth Factors H 13
Immunoglobulin Therapy H 14
Anti-thymocyte Globulin (ATG) H 14
rFVIIa (Novoseven) H 15
Replacement for Hereditary Coagulation Disorders H 15-17
Transfusion
Acute Transfusion Reactions H 18-20
Transfusion Therapy H 20-22
Special Transfusion Requirements H 22-23

Nephrology
Renal Transplant – Donor Recruitment
Electrolyte Disorders
K
K
1-2
3-10
Systematic Approach to the Analysis of Acid-Base Disorders K 11-13
Peri-operative Management of Uraemic Patients K 14
Renal Failure K 15-16
Emergencies in Renal Transplant Patient K 17
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Drug Dosage Adjustment in Renal Failure
Protocol for Treatment of CAPD Peritonitis
Protocol for Treatment of CAPD Exit Site Infection
K
K
K
18-19
20-22
23-24

Neurology
Coma N 1-2
Acute Confusional State (Delirium) N 3
Acute Stroke N 4-5
Subarachnoid Haemorrhage N 6
Tonic-Clonic Status Epilepticus N 7-8
Guillain-Barre Syndrome N 9-10
Myasthenia Crisis N 10
Acute Spinal Cord Syndrome N 11
Delirium Tremens N 12
Wernicke’s Encephalopathy N 13
Peri-operative Mx of Pts with Neurological Diseases N 14-15

Respiratory Medicine
Mechanical Ventilation P 1-3
Oxygen Therapy P 4-5
Massive Haemoptysis P 6
Spontaneous Pneumothorax P 7
Adult Acute Asthma P 8-10
Long Term Management of Asthma P 11-13
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) P 14-16
Pleural Effusion P 17-18
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea P 19
Pre-operative Evaluation of Pulmonary Functions P 20
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV) P 21-22

Rheumatology & Immunology

Approach to Inflammatory Arthritis R 1-2
Gouty Arthritis R 3-4
Septic Arthritis R 5-6
Rheumatoid Arthritis R 7-10
Ankylosing Spondylitis R 11-12
Psoriatic Arthritis R 13-14
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus R 15-20
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Rheumatological Emergencies
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
R
R
21-22
23-24

Infections

Community-Acquired Pneumonia
In 1-3
Hospital Acquired Pneumonia
In 3-4
Opportunistic Pneumonia
In 5
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
In 6
CNS Infection
In 7-8
Urinary Tract Infections
In 9
Enteric Infections
In 10-11
Acute Cholangits
In 12
Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
In 13
Necrotizing Fasciitis
In 14-15
Anti-microbial Therapy for Neutropenic Patients
In 16
Malaria
In 17-18
Chickenpox / Herpes Zoster
In 19
HIV / AIDS
In 20-24
Rickettsial Infection
In 25
Influenza and Avian Flu
In 26-28
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
In 29
Infection Control
In 30-31
Needlestick Injury/Mucosal Contact to HIV, HBV or HCV
In 32-35

General Internal Medicine

Acute Anaphylaxis GM 1
Acute Poisoning
 General Measures
 Specific Drug Poisoning
 Non-pharmacological Poisoning
 Ciguatera Poisoning
 Smoke and Toxic Gas Inhalation
 Snake Bite
GM
GM
GM
GM
GM
GM
GM
2-17
2-3
4-9
9-12
12-13
13-14
15-17
Accidental Hypothermia GM 18
Heat Stroke / Exhaustion GM 19
Near Drowning / Electrical Injury GM 20
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Rhabdomyolysis GM 21
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome GM 22
Nausea, Vomiting and Anorexia in Patients with
Advanced Cancer
GM 23
Pain Management in Cancer Patients GM 24
Guidelines for Prescription of Morphine for Chronic
Cancer Pain
GM 25-26
Palliative Care Emergencies GM 27
Brain Death GM 28-30

Procedures

Endotracheal Intubation Pr 1-2
Setting CVP Line Pr 3
Defibrillation Pr 4
Temporary Pacing Pr 5
Lumbar Puncture Pr 6
Bleeding Time Pr 7
Bone Marrow Aspiration and Trephine Biopsy Pr 8-9
Care of Hickman Catheter Pr 10-11
Renal Biopsy Pr 12
Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis Pr 13-14
Abdominal Paracentesis Pr 15
Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Pr 16-17
Pleural Aspiration Pr 18
Pleural Biopsy Pr 19
Chest Drain Insertion Pr 20

Acknowlegement
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Cardiology
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C1

CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)
1. Determine unresponsiveness
2. Call for Help, Call for Defibrillator
3. Wear PPE - N95/ surgical mask, gown, +/-(glove, goggles,
face shield for high risk patients)
Primary ABCD Survey
A: Assess the Airway
 Clear airway obstruction/secretions
 Head tilt-chin lift or jaw-thrust
 Insert oropharyngeal airway
B: Assess/Manage Breathing
 Ambubag + bact/viral filter + 100%O2 @ 15L/min
 Plastic sheeting between mask and bag
 Seal face with mask tightly
 Give 2 rescue breaths, each lasting 2-4 s
C: Circulation Assessment
 Check carotid pulse for 5-10s & assess other signs of
circulation (breathing, coughing, or movement)
 CPR 30 compressions (depth 1.5-2 inch) to 2 breaths
D: Defibrillate VF or VT as soon as identified
 Check pulse and leads
 Check all clear
 Deliver 360J for monophasic defibrillator, without lifting
paddles successively if no response, or equivalent 200J
for biphasic defibrillator, if defibrillation waveform is
unknown
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C2
Secondary ABCD Survey
A: Place airway devices, intubation if skilled
• If not experienced in intubation, continue Ambubag and call
for help
B: Confirm & secure airway, maintain ventilation
• Primary confirmation: 5-point auscultation
• Secondary confirmation: End-tidal CO2 detectors, oesophageal
detector devices
C: Intravenous access, use monitor to identify rhythm
D: Differential Diagnosis
Common drugs used in resuscitation
Adrenaline 1 mg (10 ml of 1:10,000 solution) q3-5 min iv
Vasopressin 40 IU ivi push
Lignocaine 1 mg/kg iv bolus, then 1-4 mg/min infusion
Amiodarone In cardiac arrest due to pulseless VT or VF, 300
mg in 20 m1 NS / D5 rapid infusion, further doses
of 150 mg over 10 mins if required, followed by 1
mg/min infusion for 6 hrs & then 0.5 mg/min, to
maximum total daily dose of 2.2 g
Atropine 1 mg iv push, repeat q3-5min to max dose of
0.04mg/kg
CaCl 5-10 ml 10% solution iv slow push for
hyperkalaemia and CCB overdose
NaHCO
3
1 mEq/kg initially (e.g. 50 ml 8.4% solution)
in patients with hyperkalaemia
MgSO4 5-10 mmol iv in torsade de pointes
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C3

Tracheal administration of Resuscitation Medications
(If iv line cannot be promptly established)
- Lignocaine, Atropine, Epinephrine,Narcan (L-E-A-N)
- Double dosage
- Dilute in 10 ml NS or water
- Put catheter beyond tip of ET tube
- Inject drug solution quickly down ET tube, followed by several
quick insufflations
- Withhold chest compression shortly during these insufflations
Post-resuscitation care:
- Correct hypoxia with 100% oxygen
- Prevent hypercapnia by mechanical ventilation
- Consider maintenance antiarrhythmic drugs
- Treat hypotension with volume expander or vasopressor
- Treat seizure with anticonvulsant (diazepam or phenytoin)
- Maintain blood glucose within normal range
- Routine administration of NaHCO
3
not necessary
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C4
ARRHYTHMIAS
(I)
Ventricular Fibrillation or
Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia
Primary ABCD Survey
Rapid Defibrillation
DC Shock 360 J (monophasic defibrillation)
or 200J (biphasic shock) if waveform is unknown,
then check pulse
Secondary ABCD Survey
Adrenaline 1 mg iv (10 ml of 1:10,000 solution)
Repeat every 3-5 min
OR
Vasopressin 4 0 IU IV, single dose, 1 time only
DC Shock 360 J or equivalent biphasic within 30-60s
and check pulse
Consider antiarrhythmics
- Amiodarone 300 mg iv push, can consider a second dose of 150
mg iv (maximum total dose 2.2 g over 24 hr)
- Lignocaine 1-1.5 mg/kg iv push, can repeat in 3-5 minutes
(maximum total dose 3 mg/kg)
- Procainamide 30 mg/min (maximum total dose 17 mg/kg)
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C5

(II)
Pulseless Electrical Activity
(Electromechanical Dissociation)

Primary and Secondary ABCD
Consider causes (“6H’s and 6 T’s) and give specific treatment
Hypovolaemia Tablets (drug overdose, accidents)
Hypoxia Tamponade, cardiac
Hydrogen ion (acidosis) Tension pneumothorax
Hyper / hypokalemia Thrombosis, coronary (ACS)
Hypothermia Thrombosis, pulmonary (Embolism)
Hyper/hypoglycaemia Trauma
Adrenaline 1 mg iv (10 ml of 1:10,000 solution)
Repeat every 3-5 min
If PEA rate < 60/min,
Atropine 1 mg iv
Repeat every 3-5 min to a
Total dose of 0.04 mg/kg
 Most common causes of PEA
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C6

(III) Asystole
Primary and Secondary ABCD
Consider causes*

Transcutaneous pacing
If considered, perform immediately
NOT for routine use
Adrenaline 1 mg iv (10 ml of 1:10,000 solution)
Repeat every 3-5 min
Atropine 1 mg iv
Repeat every 3-5 min
Up to a total of 0.04 mg/kg
Consider to stop CPR for arrest victims who, despite
successful deployment of advanced interventions, continue
in asystole for more than 10 minutes with no potential
reversible cause
* Consider causes: hypoxia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, acidosis,
drug overdose, hypothermia
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C7

(IV) Tachycardia
- Assess ABCs & vital signs - Review Hx and perform P/E
- Secure airway and iv line - Perform 12-lead ECG
- Administer oxygen - Portable CXR
- Attach BP, rhythm & O
2
Monitors
Unstable?
(chest pain, SOB, decreased conscious state, low BP, shock,
pulmonary congestion, congestive heart failure, acute MI)
Yes
Immediate Synchronized No or
DC cardioversion 100/200J/300J/360J Borderline
(except sinus tachycardia)

 Atrial fibrillation  Regular Narrow  Regular Wide
Atrial flutter Complex Tachycardia Complex Tachycardia
- For immediate cardioversion
 Consider sedation
 Note possible need to resynchronize after each
cardioversion
 If delays in synchronization, go immediately to
unsynchronized shocks
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C8
   Atrial fibrillation / Atrial flutter
1. Correct underlying causes
- hypoxia, electrolyte disorders, sepsis, thyrotoxicosis etc
2. Control of ventricular rate
• Digoxin* 0.25-0.5 mg iv over 5-10 min or
in 50 ml NS/D5 infuse over 10-20 min or
0.25 mg po, then q8h po for 3 more doses
(total loading of 1 mg)
Maintenance dose 0.125-0.25 mg qd
(reduce dose in elderly and CRF)
• Diltiazem* 10-15 mg iv over 5-10 min, then
iv infusion 5-15 µg/kg/min
• Verapamil* 5 mg iv slowly, can repeat once in 10 min
Risk of hypotension, check BP before 2nd dose
• Metoprolol* 5 mg iv stat, can repeat every 2 min up to
15 mg
• Amiodarone 150 mg/100 ml D5 iv over 1 hr, then 150 mg in
100 ml D5, infuse over 4-8 hr
Maintenance infusion 600-1200 mg/d
* Contraindicated in WPW Sx
- In AF complicating acute illness e.g. thyrotoxicosis,
β-blockers and verapamil may be more effective than
digoxin
- For impaired cardiac function (EF < 40%, CHF), use
digoxin or amiodarone
3. Anticoagulation
Heparin to maintain aPTT 1.5-2 times control or LWMH
Warfarin to maintain PT 2-3 times control (depends on general
condition and compliance of patient and underlying heart disease)
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C9

4. Termination of Arrhythmia
• For persistent AF (> 2 days), anticoagulate for 3 weeks
before conversion and
continue for 4 weeks after (delayed cardioversion approach)
• Pharmacological conversion :
Procainamide 15 mg/kg iv loading at 20 mg/min (max 1 g),
then 2-6 mg/min iv maintenance,
or 250 mg po q4h
Amiodarone same dose as in C8
• Synchronized DC cardioversion
- Atrial fibrillation 100-200J and up
- Atrial flutter 50-100J and up
5. Prevention of Recurrence
• Class Ia, Ic, sotalol or amiodarone
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C10
 Stable Regular Narrow Complex Tachycardia
Vagal Manoeuvres *
ATP 10 mg rapid iv push
#
1-2 mins
ATP 20 mg rapid iv push
(may repeat once in 1-2 mins)
Blood pressure
Normal or
Elevated Low

Verapamil 2.5-5 mg iv
15-30 mins Synchronized DC
Verapamil 5-10 mg iv Cardioversion
- start with 50 J
- Increase by 50-100 J increments
Consider
- digoxin
- β-blocker
- diltiazem
- amiodarone
* Carotid sinus pressure is C/I in patients with carotid bruits
Avoid ice water immersion in patients with IHD
# contraindicated in asthma & warn patient of transient flushing
and chest discomfort
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C11

 Stable Wide Complex Tachycardia
Attempt to establish a specific diagnosis

DC cardioversion DC cardioversion Procainamide Amiodarone
or or or or
Procainamide Amiodarone Sotabol Lignocaine,
or (Amiodarone, then
Amiodarone lignocaine cardioversion
Acceptable)

Dosing:
- Amiodarone 150 mg IV over 10 mins, repeat 150 mg IV over 10
mins if needed. Then infuse 600-1200 mg/d. (Max 2.2 g in 24
hours)
- Procainamide infusion 20-30 mg/min till max. total 17 mg/kg or
hypotension
- Lignocaine 0.5-0.75 mg/kg IV push and repeat every 5 to 10
mins, then infuse 1 to 4 mg/min (Max. total dose 3 mg/kg)
EF < 40%,
CHF
EF < 40%,
CHF
Preserved
cardiac function
Preserved
cardiac function
Confirmed SVT
Unknown type
Confirmed VT
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(V) Bradycardia

- Assess ABCs & vital signs - Review Hx and perform P/E
- Secure airway and iv line - Perform 12-lead ECG
- Administer oxygen - Portable CXR
- Attach BP, rhythm & O
2
Monitors - Watch out for hyperkalaemia
Unstable?
(chest pain, SOB, decreased conscious state, low BP, shock,
pulmonary congestion, congestive heart failure, acute MI)
No Yes

Type II 2nd degree AV block? Intervention sequence:
Third degree AV block? ♣ - Atropine 0.5-1 mg *
- Transcutaneous pacing (TCP)
#

No Yes - Dopamine 5-20µg/kg/min
- Adrenaline 2-10 µg/min
Observe Pacing
(bridge over with TCP)
#
* - Do not delay TCP while awaiting iv access to give atropine
- Atropine in repeat doses in 3-5 min (shorter in severe condition) up
to a max of 3 mg or 0.04 mg/kg. Caution in AV block at or below
His-Purkinje level (acute MI with third degree heart block and
wide complex QRS; and for Mobitz type II heart block)
♣ Never treat third degree heart block plus ventricular escape with
lignocaine
# Verify patient tolerance and mechanical capture. Analgesia and
sedation prn
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C13

UNSTABLE ANGINA / NON-ST ELEVATION MI
Aims of Treatment: Relieve symptoms, monitor for complications,
improve long-term prognosis
Mx
1. Admit CCU for high risk cases*
2. Bed rest with continuous ECG monitoring
3. ECG stat and repeat at least daily for 3 days (more frequently
in severe cases to look for evolution to MI)
4. Cardiac enzymes daily for 3 days. Troponin stat (can repeat 6-
12 hours later if 1
st
Troponin is normal)
5. CXR, CBP, R/LFT, lipid profile (within 24 hours), aPTT, INR
as baseline for heparin Rx
6. Allay anxiety - Explain nature of disease to patient
7. Morphine IV when symptom are not immediately relieved by
nitrate e.g. Morphine 2-5 mg iv (monitor BP)
8. Correct any precipitating factors (anaemia, hypoxia,
tachyarrhythmia)
9. Stool softener & supplemental oxygen for respiratory distress
10. Consult cardiologist to consider GP IIb/IIIa antagonist, IABP,
urgent coronary angiogram/revascularisation if refractory to
medical therapy
Specific drug treatment:
Antithrombotic Therapy
a. Aspirin (soluble or chewed) 160 mg stat, then 75 to 325 mg
daily
b. Clopidogrel 300mg stat, then 75mg daily if aspirin is
contraindicated or combined with aspirin in high risk case
c. Low-molecular-Weight-Heparin e.g
Enoxaparin (Clexane) 1 mg/kg sc q12h
Nadroparin (Fraxiparine) sc 0.4 ml bd if <50 kgf BW,
0.5 ml bd if 50-59 kgf BW, 0.6 ml bd if >60 kgf BW
Dalteparin (Fragmin) 120 iµ/kg (max 10000 iµ) sc q12h
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C14
Anti-Ischemic Therapy
a. Nitrates
• reduces preload by venous or capacitance vessel dilatation
• Contraindicated if sildenafil taken in preceding 24 hours
Sublingual TNG 1 tab/puff Q5min for 3 doses for patients with
ongoing ischemic discomfort
IV TNG indicated in the first 48 h for persistent ischemia,
heart failure, or hypertension
NitroPhol 0.5-1mg/hr (max 8-10 mg/min)
Isosorbide dinitrate (Isoket) 2-10 mg/hr
- Begin with lowest dose, step up till pain is relieved
- Watch BP/P, Keep SBP > 100 mmHg
• Isosorbide dinitrate - Isordil 10-30 mg tds
Isosorbide mononitrate - Elantan 20-40 mg bd or
Imdur 60-120 mg daily
b. ß-blockers (if not contraindicated)
• reduce HR and BP (titrate to HR<60)
• Metoprolol (Betaloc) 25-100 mg bd
• Atenolol (Tenormin) 50-100 mg daily
c. Calcium Antagonists (when β-blocker is contraindicated in
the absence of clinically significant LV dysfunction)
• Diltiazem (Herbesser) 30-60 mg tds
• Verapamil 40-120 mg tds
*High risk features (Consider Early PCI)
 ongoing or recurrent rest pain
 hypotension & APO
 Ventricular arrhythmia
 ST segment changes ≥ 0.1 mV; new bundle branch block
 Elevated Troponin > 0.1 mg/mL
 High Risk Score (TIMI, GRACE)
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C15

ACUTE ST ELEVATION
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
Ix - Serial ECG for 3 days
 Repeat more frequently if only subtle change on 1
st
ECG; or
when patient complains of chest pain

Area of Infarct Leads with ECG changes
inferior II, III, aVF
lateral I, aVL, V
6
anteroseptal V
1
, V
2
, V
3
anterolateral V
4
, V
5
, V
6
anterior V
1
- V
6
right ventricular V
3
R, V
4
R

 Serial cardiac injury markers* for 3 days
 CXR, CBP, R/LFT, lipid profile (within 24 hours)
 aPTT, INR as baseline for thrombolytic Rx
General Mx
- Arrange CCU bed
- Close monitoring : BP/P, I/O q1h, cardiac monitor
- Complete bed rest (for 12-24 hours if uncomplicated)
- O
2
by nasal prongs if hypoxic or in cardiac failure; routine
O
2
in the first 6 hours
- Allay anxiety by explanation/sedation (e.g. diazepam 2-5 mg
po tds)
- Stool softener
- Adequate analegics prn e.g. morphine 2-5 mg iv (monitor BP
& RR)
* CK-MB; troponin; myoglobin (depending on availability)
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Specific Rx Protocol
Prolonged ischaemic-type chest discomfort
Aspirin (160-325mg chewed)
ECG
ST elevation
1
or new LBBB ST depression +/- T inversion
β-blocker (if not contraindicated)
2
Refer to NSTEMI
± Clopidogrel

≤ 12 Hr >12 Hr

Eligible for Not eligible for Not for
4
Persistent
Fibrinolytic Fibrinolytic reperfusion Rx Symptoms
Fibrinolytic
3
Consider Cath then No Yes
(Consider direct PCI or CABG
PCI as alternative)
LMWH
5

Other medical therapy Consider pharmacological
(ACE-I
6
± Nitrate
7
) or catheter-based reperfusion
Persistent / recurrent ischaemia or haemodynamic instability
or recurrent symptomatic arrhythmia
Yes No
- Consider IABP, angiography Continue medical Rx
+/- PCI
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1
At least 1mm in 2 or more contiguous leads
2
e.g. Metoprolol 25 mg bd orally.
Alternatively, metoprolol 5 mg iv slowly stat for 3 doses at 5 min
intervals (Observe BP/P after each bolus, discontinue if pulse <
60/min or systolic BP < 100 mmHg).
3
See C21-22 under “Fibrinolytic therapy”
4
Not for reperfusion Rx if e.g. too old, poor premorbid state
5
If not contraindicated
6
Starting within the first 24 hrs, esp. for anterior infarction or
clinical heart failure. Thereafter, prescribe for those with clinical
heart failure or EF < 40%, (starting doses of ACEI: e.g. acertil
1 mg daily; ramipril 1.25 mg daily; lisinopril 2.5 mg daily)
7
Prescribe if persistent chest pain / heart failure / hypertension
e.g. iv isosorbide dinitrate (Nitropohl/Isoket) 2-10 mg/h (Titrate
dosage until pain is relieved; monitor BP/P, watch out for
hypotension, bradycardia or excessive tachycardia).
C/I if sildenafil taken in past 24 hours
Detection and Treatment of Complications
a. Arrhythmia
• Symptomatic sinus bradycardia
- atropine 0.3-0.6 mg iv bolus
- pacing if unresponsive to atropine
• AV Block :
1st degree and Mobitz type I 2
nd
degree: Conservative
Mobitz Type II 2
nd
degree or 3rd degree: Pacing
(inferior MI, if narrow-QRS escape rhythm &
adequate rate, conservative Rx under careful monitoring
is an alternative)
(Other indications for temporary pacing:
• Bifascicular block + 1st degree AV block
• Alternating BBB or RBBB + alternating LAFB/LPFB)
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• Tachyarrhythmia
(Always consider cardioversion first if severe haemodynamic
compromise or intractable ischaemia)
PSVT
• ATP 10-20 mg iv bolus
• Verapamil 5-15 mg iv slowly (C/I if BP low or on beta-
blocker), beware of post-conversion angina
Atrial flutter/fibrillation
• Digoxin 0.25 mg iv/po stat, then 0.25 mg po q8H for 2
more doses as loading, maintenance 0.0625-0.25 mg daily
• Diltiazem 10-15 mg iv over 5-10 mins, then 5-15
µg/kg/min
• Amiodarone 5 mg/kg iv infusion over 60 mins as loading,
maintenance 600-900 mg infusion/24 h
Wide Complex Tachycardia (VT or aberrant conduction)
Treat as VT until proven otherwise
Stable sustained monomorphic VT :
• Amiodarone 150 mg infused over 10 minutes, repeat 150
mg iv over 10 mins if needed, then 600-1200 mg infusion
over 24h
• Lignocaine 50-100 mg iv bolus, then 1-4 mg/min infusion
• Procainamide 20-30 mg/min loading, then 1-4 mg/min
infusion up to 12-17 mg/kg
• Synchronized cardioversion starting with 100 J
Sustained polymorphic VT :
• Unsynchronized cardioversion starting with 200 J
b. Pump Failure
RV Dysfunction
• Set Swan-Ganz catheter to monitor PCWP. If low or normal,
volume expansion with colloids or crystalloids
LV Dysfunction
• Vasodilators (esp. ACEI) if BP OK (+/- PCWP monitoring)
• Inotropic agents
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- Preferably via a central vein
- Titrate dose against BP/P & clinical state every 15 mins
initially, then hourly if stable
- Start with dopamine 2.5 µg/kg/min if SBP ≤ 90 mmHg,
increase by increments of 0.5 µg/kg/min
- Consider dobutamine 5-15 µg/kg/min when high dose
dopamine needed
• IABP, with a view for catheterization ± revascularization
c. Mechanical Complications
- VSD, mitral regurgitation
- Mx depends on clinical and haemodynamic status
• Observe if stable (repair later)
• Emergency cardiac catheterization and repair if unstable
(IABP for interim support)
d. Pericarditis
• High dose aspirin
• NSAID e.g. indomethacin 25-50 mg tds or
naprosyn 250-500 mg tds for 1-2 days
• Others: colchicines, acetaminophen
After Care (For uncomplicated MI)
- Advise on risk factor modification and treatment
(Smoking, HT, DM, hyperlipidaemia, exercise)
- Stress test (Pre-discharge or symptom limited stress 2-3 wks post
MI)
- Angiogram if + ve stress test or post-infarct angina or other
high-risk clinical features
- Drugs for Secondary Prevention of MI
• β-blocker : Metoprolol 25-100 mg bd
• Aspirin : 75-300 mg daily
• ACEI (esp for large anterior MI, recurrent MI, impaired LV
systolic function or CHF) :
e.g. Lisinopril 5-20 mg daily; Ramipril 2.5-10 mg daily;
Acertil 2-8 mg daily
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Fibrinolytic Therapy
Contraindications
Absolute: - Previous hemorrhagic stroke at any time, other
strokes or CVA within 3 months
- Known malignant intracranial neoplasm
- Known structural cerebrovascular lesion (e.g. AV
malformation)
- Active internal bleeding (does not include menses)
- Suspected aortic dissection
Relative: - Severe uncontrolled hypertension on presentation
(blood pressure > 180/110 mm Hg)

- History of prior cerebrovascular accident or known
intracerebral pathology not covered in
contraindications
- Traumatic or prolonged (>10min) CPR
- Current use of anticoagulants in therapeutic doses;
known bleeding diathesis
- Recent trauma/major surgery (within 2-4 wks),
including head trauma
- Noncompressible vascular punctures
- Recent (within 2-4 wks) internal bleeding
- For streptokinase: prior exposure (>5days ago) or prior
allergic reaction
- Pregnancy
- Active peptic ulcer

Could be an absolute contraindication in low-risk patients with
myocardial infarction.
Administration
• Streptokinase 1.5 megaunits in 100 ml NS, infuse iv over 1 hr
• Soluble Aspirin 80-300 mg daily immediately (if not yet given
after admission)
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If hx of recent streptococcal infection or streptokinase Rx in > 5
days ago, may use
- tPA* (15 mg iv bolus, then 0.75 mg/kg (max 50 mg) in 30 mins,
then 0.5 mg/kg (max 35 mg) over 1 hr or
- TNK-tPA iv over 10 seconds, 6ml (<60 kgf), 7ml (60-69 kgf),
8ml (70-79 kgf), 9 ml (80-89 kgf), 10ml (>90 kgf)
* tPA to be followed by LMWH or unfractionated heparin (5,000 units
iv bolus, then 500-1000 units/hr infusion for 48 hrs to keep aPTT 1.5-
2.5 x control)
Monitoring
- Use iv catheter with obturator in contralateral arm for blood
taking
- Pre-Rx: Full-lead ECG, INR, aPTT, cardiac enzymes
- Repeat ECG 1. when new rhythm detected and
2. when pain subsided
- Monitor BP closely and watch out for bleeding
- Avoid percutaneous puncture and IMI
- If hypotension develops during infusion
• withhold infusion
• check for cause (Rx-related* vs cardiogenic)
* fluid replacement; resume infusion at ½ rate
Signs of Reperfusion
- chest pain subsides
- early CPK peak
- accelerated nodal or idioventricular rhythm
- normalization of ST segment / heart block
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ACUTE PULMONARY OEDEMA
Acute Management :
General measures
1. Complete bed rest, prop up
2. Oxygen (may require high flow
rate / concentration)
3. Low salt diet + fluid restriction
(NPO if very ill)
Identify and treat
precipitating cause
e.g. arrhythmia, IHD,
uncontrolled HT, chest
infection
BP Stable ?
Medications (commonly considered)
1. Frusemide(Lasix) 40-120 mg iv
2. IV nitrate e.g. nitropohl 1-8 mg/hr
3. Morphine 2-5 mg slow iv
Medications (others)
Inotropic agents
- Dopamine
2.5-10 µg/kg/min
- Dobutamine
2.5-15 µg/kg/min
Unsatisfactory
response
BP not stabilized or
APO refractory to
Rx
Monitor BP/P, I/O, SaO
2
,
CVP, RR clinical status
every 30-60 mins
Consider:
1. Intra-aortic balloon pump
(IABP)
2. PCI for ischaemic cause
of CHF
3. Intervention for significant
valvular lesion
Consider ventilatory support in case of
desaturation, patient exhaustion,
cardiogenic shock
1. Intubation and mechanical ventilation
2. Non-invasive: BIPAP/CPAP
BP
stabilized
Yes
No
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HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS
• Malignant BP ≥ 220/120 mmHg + Grade III/IV fundal changes
• Emergency Malignant or severe HT + ICH, dissecting aneurysm,
APO, encephalopathy, phaeochromocytoma crisis,
eclampsia (end organ damage due to HT versus risk
of organ hypoperfusion due to rapid BP drop
Need Immediate reduction of BP to target levels
(initial phase drop in BP by 20-25% of baseline)
• Urgency - Malignant HT without acute target organ damage
- HT asso. with bleeding (post-surgery, severe
epistaxis, retinal haemorrhage, CVA etc.)
- Severe HT + pregnancy / AMI / unstable angina
- Catecholamine excess or sympathomimetic
overdose (rebound after withdrawal of clonidine /
methyldopa; LSD, cocaine overdose; interactions
with MAOI)
BP reduction within 12-24 hours to target levels
Mx
1. Always recheck BP yourself at least twice
2. Look for target organ damage (neurological, cardiac)
3. Complete bed rest, Low salt diet (NPO in HT emergency)
4. BP/P q1h or more frequently, monitor I/O (Close monitoring
in CCU/ICU with intra-arterial line in HT emergency)
5. Check CBP, R/LFT, cardiac enzymes, aPTT/PT, CXR, ECG,
urine x RBC and albumin
6. Aim: Controlled reduction (Rapid drop may ppt CVA / MI)
Target BP (mmHg)
Chronic HT, elderly, acute CVA 170-180 / 100
Previously normotensive, post
cardiac/vascular surgery 140 / 80
Acute aortic dissection 100-120 SBP
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7. Hypertensive urgency
- use oral route, BP/P q15 mins for 60 mins
- Patients already on antiHT, reinstitute previous Rx
- No previous Px or failure of control despite reinstituting Rx
for 4-6 hrs:
Metoprolol 50-200 mg bd / Labetalol 200 mg po stat, then 200 mg
tds
Captopril 12.5-25 mg po stat, then tds po (if phaeo suspected)
Long acting Calcium antagonists (Isradipine 5mg/Felodipine 5mg)
If not volume depleted, lasix 20mg or higher in renal insufficiency
- Aim: Decrease BP to 160/110 over several hours
(Sublingual nifedipine may precipitate ischaemic insult due
to rapid drop of BP)
8. Malignant HT or Hypertensive emergency
- Labetalol 20 mg iv over 2 mins. Rept 40 mg iv bolus if
uncontrolled by 15 mins, then 0.5-2 mg/min infusion in D5
(max 300 mg/d), followed by 100-400 mg po bd
- Na Nitroprusside 0.25-10 µg/kg/min iv infusion (50 mg in
100 ml D5 = 500 µg/ml, start with 10 ml/hr and titrate to
desired BP)
Check BP every 2 mins till stable, then every 30 mins
Protect from light by wrapping, Discard after every 12 hrs
esp good for acute LV failure, rapid onset of action
Do not give in pregnancy or for > 48 hrs (risk of thiocyanide
intoxication
- Hydralazine 5-10 mg slow iv over 20 mins, rept q 30 mins or
iv infusion at 200-300 µg/min and titrate, then 10-100 mg po
qid (avoid in AMI, dissecting aneurysm)
- Phentolamine 5-10 mg iv bolus, repeat 10-20 mins prn (for
catecholamine crisis)
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9. Notes on specific clinical conditions
- APO -Nitroprusside/nitroglycerin + loop diuretic, avoid
diazoxide/hydralazine (increase cardiac work) or Labetalol &
Beta-blocker in LV dysfunction
- Angina pectoris or AMI - Nitroglycerin, nitroprusside,
labetalol, calcium blocker
(Diazoxide or hydralazine contraindicated)
- Increase in sympathetic activity (clonidine withdrawal,
phaeochromocytoma, autonomic dysfunction (GB
Syndrome/post spinal cord injury), sympathomimetic drugs
(phenylpropanolamine, cocaine, amphetamines, MAOI or
phencyclidine + tyramine containing foods)  Phentolamine,
labetalol or nitroprusside
Beta-blocker contraindicated (further rise in BP due to unopposed
alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction)
- Aortic dissection - aim: systolic pressure to 100-120mmHg
and cardiac contractility, nitroprusside + labetalol /
propanolol IV
- Pregnancy - IV hydralazine (pre-eclampsia or pre-existent
HT), Nicardipine / labetalol , no Nitroprusside (cyanide
intoxication) or ACEI
10. Look for causes of HT crisis, e.g. renal artery stenosis
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AORTIC DISSECTION
Suspect in patients with chest, back or abdominal pain and presence of
unequal pulses (may be absent) or acute AR
Dx - CXR, ECG, CK, TnT
- Transthoracic (not sensitive) +/- Transoesophageal echo
- Urgent Dynamic CT scan, MRA & rarely aortogram
Mx

1. NPO, complete bed rest, iv line
2. Oxygen 35-40% or 4-6 L/min
3. Analgesic e.g. morphine iv 3-5 mg
4. Book CCU or ICU bed for intensive monitoring of BP/P
(Arterial line on the arm with higher BP), ECG & I/O
5. Look for life-threatening complication – severe HT, cardiac
tamponade, massive haemorrhage, severe AR, Myocardial, CNS or
renal ischaemia
6. Medical Management
- To stabilize the dissection, prevent rupture, and minimize
complication from dissection propagation
- It should be initiated even before the results of confirmatory imaging
studies available
- Therapeutic goals: reduction of systolic blood pressure to 100-
120mmHg (mean 60-75mmHg), and target heart rate of 60-70/min
Intravenous Labetalol
10mg ivi over 2 mins, followed by additional doses of 20-80mg
every 10-15 mins (up to max total dose of 300mg)
Maintenance infusion: 2mg/min, and titrating up to 5-20mg/min
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Intravenous sodium nitroprusside
Starting dose 0.25 ug/kg/min, increase every 2 mins by 10 µg/min,
max dose 8 µg/kg/min
- Diltiazem and verapamil are acceptable alternatives when beta-
blockers are contraindicated (e.g. COAD)
(Avoid hydralazine or diazoxide as they produce reflex stimulation of
ventricle and increase rate of rise of aortic pressure)
7. Start oral treatment unless surgery is considered
8. Contact cardiothoracic surgeon for all proximal dissection and
complicated distal dissection, e.g. shock, renal artery involvement,
haemoperitoneum, limbs or visceral ischaemia, periaortic or
mediastinal haematoma or haemoperitoneum (endovascular stent graft
is an evolving technique in complicated type B dissection with high
surgical risk)
Intramural hematoma should be managed as a classical case of
dissection
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PULMONARY EMBOLISM
Investigations
Clotting time, INR, aPTT, ABG,D-dimer
CXR (usu. normal, pleural effusion, focal oligemia, peripheral
wedge)
ECG (sinus tachycardia, S
1
Q
3
T
3
, RBBB, RAD, P pulmonale)
TTE +/- TEE, Lower limb Doppler (up to 50% -ve in PE)
CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) or Spiral CT scan (sensitivity
91%, specificity 78%)
Ventilation-Perfusion scan (if high probability: sensitivity 41%,
specificity 97%)

Treatment
1. Establish central venous access, Oxygen 35-40% or 4-6 L/min
2. Analgesic e.g. morphine iv 3-5 mg
3. a) Haemodynamically insignificant
• Unfractionated heparin 5000units iv bolus, then 500-1500
units/hr to keep aPTT 1.5-2.5X control or
Fraxiparine 0.4 ml sc q12h or enoxaparin 1 mg/kg q12h
• Start warfarin on Day 2 to 3: - 5 mg QD for 2 days, then 2
mg QD on 3
rd
day, adjust dose to keep INR 1.5-2.5 x
control. Discontinue heparin on Day 7-10
b) Haemodynamically significant or evidence of dilated RV or
dysfunction (no C/I to thrombolytic)
• Book ICU/CCU,
• Streptokinase 0.25 megaunit iv over 30 mins, then 0.1
megaunit/hr for 24 hrs, or r-tPA 100 mg iv over 2 hours
followed by heparin infusion 500-1500 units/hr to keep
aPTT 1.5-2.5 x control
• Consider surgical embolectomy if condition continues to
deteriorate, or IVC filter if PE occurred while on warfarin or
recurrent PE, mechanical ventilation in profound hypoxic
patient.
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CARDIAC TAMPONADE
Common causes:
- Neoplastic
- Pericarditis (Infective or non-infective)
- Uraemia
- Cardiac Instrumentation / trauma
- Acute pericarditis treated with anticoagulants
Diagnosis: - High index of suspicion (in acute case as little as
200ml of effusion can result in tamponade)
Sign & symptoms:
- Tachypnoea, tachycardia, small pulse volume, pulsus paradoxus
- Raised JVP with prominent x descent, Kussmaul’s sign
- Absent apex impulse, faint heart sound, hypotension, clear chest
Investigation:
1. ECG: Low voltage, tachycardia, electrical alternan
2. CXR: enlarged heart silhouette (when >250ml), clear lung fields
3. Echo: RA, RV or LA collapse, distended IVC, tricuspid flow
increases & mitral flow decreases during inspiration
Management:
1. Expand intravascular volume - D5 or NS or plasma, full rate if
in shock
2. Pericardiocentesis with echo guidance – apical or subcostal
approach, risk of damaging epicardial coronary artery or cardiac
perforation
3. Open drainage under LA/GA
- permit pericardial biopsy
(Watch out for recurrent tamponade due to catheter blockage
or reaccumulation)
Treating tamponade as heart failure with diuretics, ACEI and
vasodilators can be lethal!
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ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS FOR
INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS
1. Procedures to dental, oral, respiratory tract or infected skin/skin
structure, musculoskeletal tissue in patients at highest risk or
adverse outcome in case infective endocarditis developed
a) Amoxicillin 2 gm po 1 hr before or
b) Ampicillin 2 gm im/iv within 30 mins before or
c) # Clindamycin 600 mg or Cephalexin 2 gm or
Azithromycin/Clarithromycin 500 mg po 1 hr before or
d) # Clindamycin 600 mg im/iv or Cefazolin 1 gm im/iv within
30 mins. before procedure
2. Genitourinary/Gastrointestinal Procedure
- Antibiotic prophylaxis solely to prevent infective endocarditis is
not recommended for GU or GI tract procedures.
- Antibiotic treatment to eradicate enterococcal infection or
colonization is indicated in high risk patients for infective
endocarditis undergoing GU or GI procedure.
# Allergic to ampicillin/amoxicillin
High risk category:
- Prosthetic valves
- Previous infective endocarditis
- Cardiac transplant patients with valvulopathy
- Unrepaired cyanotic CHD, including palliative shunts and
conduits
- Completely repaired CHD with prosthetic material or device,
whether placed by surgery or by catheter intervention, during
the first 6 months after the procedure†
- Repaired CHD with residual defects at the site or adjacent to the
site of a prosthetic patch or prosthetic device (which inhibit
endothelialization)
(Reference: Wilson et al. Circulation 2007 (published online 19,
April 2007).
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PERIOPERATIVE CARDIOVASCULAR
EVALUATION FOR NON-CARDIAC SURGERY
Basic evaluation by hx (assess functional capacity), P/E & review of ECG
Clinical predictors of increased perioperative CV risk (MI, CHF, death)
A) Active cardiac conditions mandate intensive Mx (may delay or cancel OT
unless emergent)
• Unstable coronary syndrome – recent (<30 days) or AMI with evidence of
important ischaemic risk by symptom or non-invasive test, Canadian
class III or IV angina
• Decompensated CHF
• Significant arrhythmias – high grade AV block, symptomatic vent.
arrhythmia in presence of underlying heart disease, supravent. arrhythmia
with uncontrolled vent. Rate
• Severe Valvular disease e.g. severe AS or symptomatic MS
B) Clinical risk factors (enhanced risk, need careful assessment of current status)
• History of ischaemic heart disease
• History of compensated or prior CHF
• DM
• Renal impairment
C) Minor predictors (not proven to independently increase risk)
• Advanced age, abn ECG (LVH, LBBB, ST-T abn), rhythm other than
sinus
• Low functional capacity, hx of stroke, uncontrolled systemic HT
Cardiac risk stratification for noncardiac surgical procedures
A) high (risk >5%)
• emergent major OT, aortic & other major vascular, peripheral vascular
• anticipated prolonged surgical procedures with large fluid shifts &/or bl.
loss
B) intermediate (risk 1-5%)
• carotid endarterectomy, head and neck intraperitoneal & intrathoracic
• orthopaedic, prostatic
C) low (risk <1%)
• endoscopic procedures, superficial procedure, cataract, breast
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Stepwise approach to preoperative assessment
Step 1
Need for emergency
non-cardiac OT
OT Room
Perioperative surveillance
& postop risk stratification
& risk factor mx
Active cardiac
conditions
Yes
Yes
Evaluate
& treat
No
Low risk surgery
Yes
To step 5
Proceed with planned surgery
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Good functional capacity
(>4METs) without symptom
Proceed with planned
surgery
No
consider OT
Yes
No
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Step 5
3 or more clinical
risk factors
Proceed with
planned surgery
Vascular
surgery
1or 2 clinical
risk factors
No clinical
risk factor
Vascular surgery or
intermediate risk surgery
Intermediate risk
surgery
Consider testing if
it will change
management
Proceed with surgery with HR
control or consider non-invasive
test if it will change management
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Disease-specific approach
1) Hypertension
• Control of BP preoperatively reduces perioperative ischaemia
• Evaluate severity, chronicity of HT and exclude secondary HT
• Mild to mod. HT with no metabolic or CV abn. – no evidence that
it is beneficial to delay surgery
• Anti-HT drug continued during perioperative period
• Avoid withdrawal of beta-blocker
• Severe HT (DBP >110 or SBP >180)
elective surgery – for better control first
urgent surgery - use rapid-acting drug to control (esp. beta-blocker)
2) Cardiomyopathy & heart failure
• Pre-op assessment of LV function to quantify severity of systolic
and diastolic dysfunction (affect peri-op fluid Mx)
• HOCM avoid reduction of blood volume, decreasein systemic
vascular resistance or decrease in venous capacitance, avoid
catecholamines
3) Valvular heart disease
• Antibiotic prophylaxis
• AS - postpone elective noncardiac surgery (mortality risk around
10%) in severe & symptomatic AS, Need AVR or valvuloplasty
• AR - careful volume control and afterload reduction (vasodilators),
avoid bradycardia
• MS - mild or mod  ensure control of HR, severe  consider
PTMC or surgery before high risk surgery
• MR - afterload reduction & diuretic to stabilize haemodynamics
before high risk surgery
4) Prosthetic valve
• Minimal invasive procedures – reduce INR to subtherapeutic range
(e.g. INR <1.3), resume normal dose immediately following the
procedure
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• Assess risk & benefit of anticoagulation Vs peri-op heparin (if
both risk of bleeding on anticoagulation & risk of
thromboembolism off anticoagulation are high)
5) Arrhythmia
• Search for cardiopul. Ds., drug toxicity, metabolic derangement
• High grade AV block – pacing
• Intravent. conduction delays and no hx of advanced heart block or
symptoms – rarely progress to complete heart block
• AF - if on warfarin, may discontinue for few days, give FFP if rapid
reversal of drug effect is necessary
• Vent. arrhythmia
Simple or complex PVC or Nonsustained VT – usu require no Rx
except myocardial ischaemia or moderate to severe LV dysfunction is
present
Sustained or symptomatic VT – suppressed preoperatively with
lignocaine, procainamide or amiodarone.
6) Permanent pacemaker
• Determine underlying rhythm, interrogate devices to determine its
threshold, settings and battery status
• If the pacemaker in rate-responsive mode  inactivated
• programmed to AOO, VOO or DOO mode prevents unwanted
inhibition of pacing
• electrocautery should be avoided if possible; keep as far as possible
from the pacemaker if used
7) ICD or antitachycardia devices
• programmed “OFF’ immediately before surgery & “ON’ again
post-op to prevent unwanted discharge
• for inappropriate therapy from ICD, suspend ICD function by
placing a ring magnet on the device
VF/unstable VT – if inappropriate therapy from ICD & external
cardioversion is required, paddles preferably >12cm from the device
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E2
Endocrinology
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DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA)
Diagnostic criteria: Plasma glucose > 14 mmol/L, arterial pH < 7.3, plasma
bicarbonate < 15 mmol/L, (high anion gap) and moderate ketonuria or
ketonemia (or high beta-hydroxybutyrate.)
Initial Hour Subsequent Hours
Ix Urine & Blood glucose
Urine + plasma ketones
Na, K, P0
4
, ±Mg,
Urea, Creatinine, Hb
Arterial blood gas (ABG)
If indicated:
CXR
ECG
Blood & urine culture and
sensitivity
Urine & serum osmolality
PT, APTT
Hourly urine and blood
glucose
Na, K & urea till blood
glucose <14 mmol/L
Repeat ABG if indicated
(intensive monitoring of
electrolytes and acid/base
is crucial in the first 24-48
hours)
Repeat urine ± plasma
ketones if indicated
Parameters
to be
monitored
Hourly BP/pulse, respiratory rate, conscious level, urine
output, ±central venous pressure (CVP)
2-hourly temperature
Ancillary
Measures
Aspirate stomach if patient unconscious or vomiting
(protect airway with cuffed endotracheal tube if
necessary)
Catheterize bladder and set CVP as indicated
Give antibiotics if evidence of infection
Treat hypotension and circulatory failure
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Rx Initial Hours Subsequent Hours
Hydration
1-2 litre 0.9%
saline (NS)
1 litre/hour or 2 hours as appropriate
When serum Na > 150 mmol/L, use 0.45%
NS (modify in patients with impaired
renal function). Fluid in first 12 hrs
should not exceed 10% BW, watch
for fluid overload in elderly. When
blood glucose ≤ 14 mmol/L, change
to D5
Insulin Regular human
insulin 0.15
U/kg as IV
bolus,
followed by
infusion
(preferably via
insulin pump)
Regular human insulin iv infusion 0.1
U/kg/hr.
Aim at decreasing plasma glucose by 3-4
mmol/L per hour, double insulin dose to
achieve this rate of decrease in blood
glucose if necessary.
When BG ≤ 14 mmol/L, change to D5 and
decrease dose of insulin to 0.05-0.1
U/kg/hr or give 5-10 units sc q4h,
adjusting dose of insulin to maintain
blood glucose between 8-12 mmol/L. ↓
monitoring to q2h-q4h
Change to maintenance insulin when
normal diet is resumed
K
10 - 20 mmol/hr Continue 10-20 mmol/hr, change if
- K < 4 mmol/L, ↑ to 30 mmol/hr
- K < 3 mmol/L, ↑ to 40 mmol/hr
- K > 5.5 mmol/L, stop K infusion
- K > 5 mmol/L, ↓ to 8 mmol/hr
Aim at maintaining serum K between 4-5
mmol/L
NaHCO
3
If pH between 6.9-7.0, give 50 mmol NaHCO
3
in 1 hr.
If pH < 6.9, give 100 mmol NaHCO
3
in 2 hrs.
Recheck ABG after infusion, repeat every 2 hrs until pH >
7.0.
Monitor serum K when giving NaHCO
3
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E3
DIABETIC HYPEROSMOLAR
HYPERGLYCEMIC STATES
Diagnostic criteria: blood glucose > 33 mmol/L, arterial pH > 7.3,
serum bicarbonate > 15 mmol/L, effective serum osmolality ((2x
measured Na) + glucose) > 320 mOsm/kg H
2
O, and mild ketonuria
or ketonemia, usually in association with change in mental state.
1. Management principles are similar to DKA
2. Fluid replacement is of paramount importance as patient is
usually very dehydrated
3. If plasma sodium is high, use hypotonic saline
4. Watch out for heart failure (CVP usually required for elderly)
5. Serum urea is the best prognostic factor
6. Insulin requirement is usually less than that for DKA, watch
out for too rapid fall in blood glucose and overshot
hypoglycaemia
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E4
PERIOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
OF DIABETES MELLITUS
1. Pre-operative Preparation
a. Screen for DM complications, check standing/lying BP and
resting pulse ± autonomic function tests
b. Glucose, HbA1c, electrolytes, RFT, HCO
3
, urinalysis, ECG
c. Admit 1-2 days before major OT for DM control
d. Aim at blood sugar of 5-11 mmol/L before operation
e. Well controlled patients: omit insulin / OHA on day of OT
(except chlorpropamide: stop for 3 days prior to OT)
f. Poorly controlled patients:
- Stabilise with insulin-dextrose drip for emergency OT:
Blood glucose (mmol/L) Actrapid HM Fluid
< 20 1-2 U/hr D5 q4-6h
> 20 4-10 U/hr NS q2-4h
(Crude guide only, monitor hstix q1h and adjust insulin dose, aim to
bring down glucose by 4-5 mmol/L/hr to within 5-10 mmol/L)
 May need to add K in insulin-dextrose drip
 Watch out for electrolyte disorders
 May use sc regular insulin for stabilisation if surgery elective
2. Day of Operation
a. Schedule the case early in the morning
b. Check hstix and blood sugar pre-op, if blood glucose
> 11 mmol/L, postpone for a few hrs till better control
c. For major Surgery
• For patients on insulin or high dose of OHA, start
dextrose-insulin-K (DKI) infusion at least 2 hrs pre-
operatively:
- 6-8 units Actrapid HM + 10-20 mmoles K in 500 ml D5,
q4-6h (Flush iv line with 40 ml DKI solution before
connecting to patient)
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E5
- Monitor hstix q1h and adjust insulin, then q4h for 24
hrs (usual requirement 1-3U Actrapid/hour)
- Monitor K at 2-4 hours and adjust dose as required to
maintain serum K within normal range
-Give any other fluid needed as dextrose-free solutions
• Patients with mild DM (diet alone or low dose of OHA)
- D5 500 ml q4h alone (usually do not require insulin)
- Monitor hstix and K as above, may need insulin and
K
d. For Minor Surgery
• ay continue usual OHA / diet on day of surgery
• atients exposed to iodinated radiocontrast dyes, withhold
metformin for 48 hours post-op and restart only after
documentation of normal serum creatinine)
• or well-controlled patients on insulin:
Either:
- Omit morning short-acting insulin
- Give 2/3 of usual dose of intermediate-acting insulin
am, and the remaining 1/3 when patient can eat
Or: (safer)
- Use DKI infusion till diet resumed. Then give 1/3 to
1/2 of usual intermediate-acting insulin
• or poorly-controlled patients on insulin:
- Control first, use insulin or DKI infusion for urgent OT
3. Post-operative Care
a. ECG (serially for 3 days if patient is at high risk of IHD)
b. Monitor electrolytes and glucose q6h
c. Continue DKI infusion till patient is clinically stable, then
resume regular insulin (give first dose of sc insulin 30
minutes before disconnecting iv insulin) / OHA when
patient can eat normally
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E6
INSULIN THERAPY FOR DM CONTROL
(For emergency conditions, refer to pages E1-5)
Common insulin regimes for DM control (Ensure dietary compliance
before dose adjustments):
1. For insulin-requiring type 2 DM
(May consider combination therapy (Insulin + OHA) for
patients with insulin reserve)
a. Fasting Glycaemia alone
- Give bed-time intermediate-acting insulin, start with 0.2 U/kg
b. Daytime Glycaemia
- Start with intermediate-acting insulin 0.2-0.5 U/kg 30 mins
before breakfast (AM insulin)
- Increase AM insulin according to FPG as follows:
- Give 2 units insulin for every 2 mmol/L FPG > 7.0 mmol/L
(change not more than 10 units each time)
- When AM dose > 40 U, or if pre-dinner hypoglycaemia
occurs, reduce AM dose by 20%; giving that 20% as
intermediate-acting insulin before dinner (PM dose)
- Increase PM insulin by 2 units for every 1 mmol/L of FPG
above 7.0 mmol/L (change not more than 6 unit each time)
- If FPG persistently high, check blood sugar at mid-night:
- If hypoglycaemic, reduce pre-dinner dose by 5-10%
- If hyperglycaemic, try moving pre-dinner dose to bedtime
- For pre-lunch and pre-bedtime hyperglycaemia, treat with
regular insulin mixed with NPH insulin. Suggested dose is
~2U for every 2 mmol/L above 7.0 mmol/L
• Consider pre-mixed insulin preparations for patients who
have difficulty mixing doses
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2. For type 1 DM
- Start with twice daily or multiple daily dose regimes
- Consider use of Pens for convenience and ease of administration
- Start with 0.5 U/kg/d. Adjust the following day according to
h tix (tds and nocte)
a. For twice daily regimes:
- Give 2/3 of total daily insulin dose pre-breakfast and 1/3
pre-dinner in the evening (30 mins before meals), at 2:1
ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin for morning
dose, and 1:1 ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin
in the evening
- May consider pre-mixed insulin preparations
- Advise on “multiple small meals” to avoid late afternoon and
nocturnal hypoglycaemia
b. For multiple daily dose regimes:
- Give 40-60% total daily dose as long-acting ‘ eakless’ insulin
to satisfy basal needs. It can be given either pre-breakfast,
pre-dinner or before bed-time. Adjust dose according to FPG
- Give the remaining 40-60% as regular insulin, divided into 3
roughly equal doses pre-prandially (slightly higher AM dose
to cover for Dawn Phenomenon, and slightly higher dose
before main meal of the day)
c. For difficult cases, consult endocrinologist for continuous
subcutaneous insulin delivered via a pump
liding scale, if employed at all, must be used judiciously:
1. H tix must be performed as scheduled
2. Dose adjustment should take into consideration factors
that may affect patient’ insulin resistance
3. It should not be used for more than 1-2 days

  E7
2. For type 1 DM
- Start with twice daily or multiple daily dose regimes
- Consider use of Pens for convenience and ease of administration
- Start with 0.5 U/kg/d. Adjust the following day according to
h tix (tds and nocte)
a. For twice daily regimes:
- Give 2/3 of total daily insulin dose pre-breakfast and 1/3
pre-dinner in the evening (30 mins before meals), at 2:1
ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin for morning
dose, and 1:1 ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin
in the evening
- May consider pre-mixed insulin preparations
- Advise on “multiple small meals” to avoid late afternoon and
nocturnal hypoglycaemia
b. For multiple daily dose regimes:
- Give 40-60% total daily dose as long-acting ‘ eakless’ insulin
to satisfy basal needs. It can be given either pre-breakfast,
pre-dinner or before bed-time. Adjust dose according to FPG
- Give the remaining 40-60% as regular insulin, divided into 3
roughly equal doses pre-prandially (slightly higher AM dose
to cover for Dawn Phenomenon, and slightly higher dose
before main meal of the day)
c. For difficult cases, consult endocrinologist for continuous
subcutaneous insulin delivered via a pump
liding scale, if employed at all, must be used judiciously:
1. H tix must be performed as scheduled
2. Dose adjustment should take into consideration factors
that may affect patient’ insulin resistance
3. It should not be used for more than 1-2 days

  E7
2. For type 1 DM
- Start with twice daily or multiple daily dose regimes
- Consider use of Pens for convenience and ease of administration
- Start with 0.5 U/kg/d. Adjust the following day according to
h tix (tds and nocte)
a. For twice daily regimes:
- Give 2/3 of total daily insulin dose pre-breakfast and 1/3
pre-dinner in the evening (30 mins before meals), at 2:1
ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin for morning
dose, and 1:1 ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin
in the evening
- May consider pre-mixed insulin preparations
- Advise on “multiple small meals” to avoid late afternoon and
nocturnal hypoglycaemia
b. For multiple daily dose regimes:
- Give 40-60% total daily dose as long-acting ‘ eakless’ insulin
to satisfy basal needs. It can be given either pre-breakfast,
pre-dinner or before bed-time. Adjust dose according to FPG
- Give the remaining 40-60% as regular insulin, divided into 3
roughly equal doses pre-prandially (slightly higher AM dose
to cover for Dawn Phenomenon, and slightly higher dose
before main meal of the day)
c. For difficult cases, consult endocrinologist for continuous
subcutaneous insulin delivered via a pump
liding scale, if employed at all, must be used judiciously:
1. H tix must be performed as scheduled
2. Dose adjustment should take into consideration factors
that may affect patient’ insulin resistance
3. It should not be used for more than 1-2 days

  E7
2. For type 1 DM
- Start with twice daily or multiple daily dose regimes
- Consider use of Pens for convenience and ease of administration
- Start with 0.5 U/kg/d. Adjust the following day according to
h tix (tds and nocte)
a. For twice daily regimes:
- Give 2/3 of total daily insulin dose pre-breakfast and 1/3
pre-dinner in the evening (30 mins before meals), at 2:1
ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin for morning
dose, and 1:1 ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin
in the evening
- May consider pre-mixed insulin preparations
- Advise on “multiple small meals” to avoid late afternoon and
nocturnal hypoglycaemia
b. For multiple daily dose regimes:
- Give 40-60% total daily dose as long-acting ‘ eakless’ insulin
to satisfy basal needs. It can be given either pre-breakfast,
pre-dinner or before bed-time. Adjust dose according to FPG
- Give the remaining 40-60% as regular insulin, divided into 3
roughly equal doses pre-prandially (slightly higher AM dose
to cover for Dawn Phenomenon, and slightly higher dose
before main meal of the day)
c. For difficult cases, consult endocrinologist for continuous
subcutaneous insulin delivered via a pump
liding scale, if employed at all, must be used judiciously:
1. H tix must be performed as scheduled
2. Dose adjustment should take into consideration factors
that may affect patient’ insulin resistance
3. It should not be used for more than 1-2 days

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2. For type 1 DM
- Start with twice daily or multiple daily dose regimes
- Consider use of Pens for convenience and ease of administration
- Start with 0.5 U/kg/d. Adjust the following day according to
h tix (tds and nocte)
a. For twice daily regimes:
- Give 2/3 of total daily insulin dose pre-breakfast and 1/3
pre-dinner in the evening (30 mins before meals), at 2:1
ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin for morning
dose, and 1:1 ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin
in the evening
- May consider pre-mixed insulin preparations
- Advise on “multiple small meals” to avoid late afternoon and
nocturnal hypoglycaemia
b. For multiple daily dose regimes:
- Give 40-60% total daily dose as long-acting ‘ eakless’ insulin
to satisfy basal needs. It can be given either pre-breakfast,
pre-dinner or before bed-time. Adjust dose according to FPG
- Give the remaining 40-60% as regular insulin, divided into 3
roughly equal doses pre-prandially (slightly higher AM dose
to cover for Dawn Phenomenon, and slightly higher dose
before main meal of the day)
c. For difficult cases, consult endocrinologist for continuous
subcutaneous insulin delivered via a pump
liding scale, if employed at all, must be used judiciously:
1. H tix must be performed as scheduled
2. Dose adjustment should take into consideration factors
that may affect patient’ insulin resistance
3. It should not be used for more than 1-2 days

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2. For type 1 DM
- Start with twice daily or multiple daily dose regimes
- Consider use of Pens for convenience and ease of administration
- Start with 0.5 U/kg/d. Adjust the following day according to
h tix (tds and nocte)
a. For twice daily regimes:
- Give 2/3 of total daily insulin dose pre-breakfast and 1/3
pre-dinner in the evening (30 mins before meals), at 2:1
ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin for morning
dose, and 1:1 ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin
in the evening
- May consider pre-mixed insulin preparations
- Advise on “multiple small meals” to avoid late afternoon and
nocturnal hypoglycaemia
b. For multiple daily dose regimes:
- Give 40-60% total daily dose as long-acting ‘ eakless’ insulin
to satisfy basal needs. It can be given either pre-breakfast,
pre-dinner or before bed-time. Adjust dose according to FPG
- Give the remaining 40-60% as regular insulin, divided into 3
roughly equal doses pre-prandially (slightly higher AM dose
to cover for Dawn Phenomenon, and slightly higher dose
before main meal of the day)
c. For difficult cases, consult endocrinologist for continuous
subcutaneous insulin delivered via a pump
liding scale, if employed at all, must be used judiciously:
1. H tix must be performed as scheduled
2. Dose adjustment should take into consideration factors
that may affect patient’ insulin resistance
3. It should not be used for more than 1-2 days

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E8
HYPOGLYCAEMIA
1. Treatment
a. D50 40 cc iv stat, follow with D10 drip
b. Glucagon 1 mg or oral glucose (after airway protection)
if cannot establish iv line
c. Monitor blood glucose and h’ tix every 1-2 hrs till stable
d. Duration of observation depends on R/LFT and type of
insulin/drug (in cases of overdose)
2. Tests for Hypoglycaemia
a. Prolonged OGTT
 To document reactive hypoglycaemia, limited use
 Overnight fast
 Give 75 g anhydrous glucose po
 Check plasma glucose and insulin at 60 min intervals
for 5 hrs and when symptomatic
b. Prolonged Fasting Test
 Hospitalise patient, place near nurse station
 Fast for maximum of 72 hrs
 At 72 hrs, vigorous exercise for 20 mins
 H’ tix q4h and when symptomatic
 Blood sugar, insulin, C-peptide at 0, 24, 48 and 72
hrs and when symptomatic or h’stix < 2.2 mmol/L
 Terminate test if blood sugar confirmed to be < 2.2
mmol/L
 Consider to check urine sulphonylureas (± other
hypoglycemic agents) level in highly suspected cases
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THYROID STORM
Note: The following regimen is also applicable to patients with
uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis undergoing emergency operation.
1. Close monitoring : often need CVP, Swan-Ganz, cardiac
monitor. ICU care if possible
2. Hyperthermia : paracetamol (not salicylate), physical cooling
Dehydration : iv fluid (2-4 L/d)
iv Glucose, iv vitamin (esp. thiamine)
Supportive : O
2
, digoxin / diuretics if CHF/AF ± inotropes
Treat precipitating factors and/or co-existing illness
3. Propylthiouracil 150-200 mg q4→6h po / via NG tube
Hydrocortisone 200 mg stat iv then 100 mg q6-8h
β-blockers (exclude asthma / COAD or frank CHF):
Propranolol 40-80 mg q4-6h po/NG or Propranolol/Betaloc 1-
10 mg iv over 15 min every several hrs
If β-blockers contraindicated, consider diltiazem 60-120 mg
q8h as alternative
4. 1 hour later, use iodide to block hormone release
a. 6-8 drops Lugol’ solution / SSKI po q6-8h (0.2 g/d)
b. NaI continuous iv 0.5-1 g q12h or
c. Ipodate (Oragrafin) po 1-3 g/d
5. Consider LiCO
3
250 mg q6h to achieve Li level 0.6-1.0 mmol/L
if ATD is contraindicated
6. Consider plasmapheresis and charcoal haemoperfusion for
desperate cases
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E10
MYXOEDEMA COMA
1. Treatment of precipitating causes
2. Correct fluid and electrolytes, correct hypoglycaemia with
D10
3. NS 200 - 300 cc/hr ± vasopressors
4. Maintain body temperature
5. T4 200-500 µg po stat, then 100-200 µg po or
T3 20-40 µg stat, then 20 µg q8h po
6. Consider 5–20 µg iv T3 twice daily if oral route not
possible
7. Hydrocortisone 100 mg q6h iv
PHAEOCHROMOCYTOMA
1. Phentolamine 0.5-5 mg iv, then 2-20 µg/kg/hr infusion or
Nitroprusside infusion 0.3-8 µg/kg/min
2. Volume repletion
3. Propranolol if tachycardia (only after adequate α-blockade)
4. Labetalol infusion at 1-2 mg/min (max 200 mg)
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ADDISONIAN CRISIS
1. Ix
a. RFT, electrolytes, glucose
b. Spot cortisol (during stress) ± ACTH
c. Normal dose (250g) short synacthen test (not required if
already in stress)
#
d. May consider low dose (1 g) short synacthen test if
secondary hypocortisolism is suspected
@
2. Treatment
Treat on clinical suspicion, do not wait for cortisol results
a. Hydrocortisone 100 mg iv stat, then q6h
b. ± 9α-fludrocortisone 0.05-0.2 mg daily po, titrate to
normalise K and BP
c. Correct electrolytes
d. 4 litres of D5/NS at 500-1000 ml/hr, then 200-300
ml/hr, watch out for fluid overload
e. May use dexamethasone 4 mg iv/im q12h (will not interfere
with cortisol assays)
3. Relative Potencies of different Steroids*
Glucocorticoid Mineralocorticoid Equivalent
Action Action doses
Cortisone 0.8 0.8 25 mg
Hydrocortisone 1 1 20 mg
Prednisone 4 0.6 5 mg
Prednisolone 4 0.6 5 mg
Methylprednisolone 5 0.5 4 mg
Dexamethasone 25-30 0 0.75 mg
Betamethasone 25-30 0 0.75 mg
* Different in different tissues
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ADDISONIAN CRISIS
1. Ix
a. RFT, electrolytes, glucose
b. Spot cortisol (during stress) ± ACTH
c. Normal dose (250g) short synacthen test (not required if
already in stress)
#
d. May consider low dose (1 g) short synacthen test if
secondary hypocortisolism is suspected
@
2. Treatment
Treat on clinical suspicion, do not wait for cortisol results
a. Hydrocortisone 100 mg iv stat, then q6h
b. ± 9α-fludrocortisone 0.05-0.2 mg daily po, titrate to
normalise K and BP
c. Correct electrolytes
d. 4 litres of D5/NS at 500-1000 ml/hr, then 200-300
ml/hr, watch out for fluid overload
e. May use dexamethasone 4 mg iv/im q12h (will not interfere
with cortisol assays)
3. Relative Potencies of different Steroids*
Glucocorticoid Mineralocorticoid Equivalent
Action Action doses
Cortisone 0.8 0.8 25 mg
Hydrocortisone 1 1 20 mg
Prednisone 4 0.6 5 mg
Prednisolone 4 0.6 5 mg
Methylprednisolone 5 0.5 4 mg
Dexamethasone 25-30 0 0.75 mg
Betamethasone 25-30 0 0.75 mg
* Different in different tissues
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ADDISONIAN CRISIS
1. Ix
a. RFT, electrolytes, glucose
b. Spot cortisol (during stress) ± ACTH
c. Normal dose (250g) short synacthen test (not required if
already in stress)
#
d. May consider low dose (1 g) short synacthen test if
secondary hypocortisolism is suspected
@
2. Treatment
Treat on clinical suspicion, do not wait for cortisol results
a. Hydrocortisone 100 mg iv stat, then q6h
b. ± 9α-fludrocortisone 0.05-0.2 mg daily po, titrate to
normalise K and BP
c. Correct electrolytes
d. 4 litres of D5/NS at 500-1000 ml/hr, then 200-300
ml/hr, watch out for fluid overload
e. May use dexamethasone 4 mg iv/im q12h (will not interfere
with cortisol assays)
3. Relative Potencies of different Steroids*
Glucocorticoid Mineralocorticoid Equivalent
Action Action doses
Cortisone 0.8 0.8 25 mg
Hydrocortisone 1 1 20 mg
Prednisone 4 0.6 5 mg
Prednisolone 4 0.6 5 mg
Methylprednisolone 5 0.5 4 mg
Dexamethasone 25-30 0 0.75 mg
Betamethasone 25-30 0 0.75 mg
* Different in different tissues
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E12
4. Steroid cover for surgery / trauma
- Indications:
 Any patient given supraphysiological doses of
 glucocorticoids (>prednisone 7.5 mg daily) for >2 wks
 in the past year
 Patients currently on steroids, whatever the dose
 Suspected adrenal or pituitary insufficiency
a. Major Surgery
 Hydrocortisone 100 mg iv on call to OT room
 Hydrocortisone 50 mg iv in recovery room, then 50
mg iv q6h + K supplement for 24 hrs
 Post-operative course smooth: Decrease
Hydrocortisone to 25 mg iv q6h on D2, then taper
to maintenance dose over 3-4 days
 Post-operative course complicated by sepsis,
hypotension etc: Maintain Hydrocortisone at 100
mg iv q6h till stable
 Ensure adequate fluids and monitor electrolytes
b. Minor Surgery
 Hydrocortisone 100 mg iv one dose
 Do not interrupt maintenance therapy
#
Normal dose short synacthen test
250µg Synacthen iv/im as bolus
Blood for cortisol at 0, 30, 60 mins
Can perform at any time of the day
N : Peak cortisol level > 550 nmol/L
@
Low dose short synacthen test
1 g Synacthen (mix 250 g Synacthen into 1 pint
NS and withdraw 2 ml) IV as bolus
Blood for cortisol at 0, 30 mins
Can perform at any time of the day
N: Peak cortisol level > 550 nmol/L
May need to confirm by other tests (insulin tolerance
test or glucagon test) if borderline results
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ACUTE POST-OPERATIVE /
POST-TRAUMATIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS
1. Remember possibility of a Triphasic pattern:
Phase I : Transient DI, duration hrs to days
Phase II : Antidiuresis, duration 2-14 days
Phase III : Return of DI (may be permanent)
2. Mx
a. Monitor I/O, BW, serum sodium and urine osmolarity
closely (q4h initially, then daily)
b. Able to drink, thirst sensation intact and fully conscious:
Oral hydration, allow patient to drink as thirst dictates
c. Impaired consciousness and thirst sensation:
• Fluid replacement as D5 or ½ : ½ solution (Calculate
volume needed by adding 12.5 ml/kg/d of insensible
loss to volume of urine)
• DDAVP 1-4 µg (0.5-1.0 ml) q12-24h sc/iv
Allow some polyuria to return before next dose
Give each successive dose only if urine volume
> 200 ml/hr in successive hours
3. Stable cases
Give oral DDAVP 200 µg bd to tds to maintain urine
output of 1 – 2 litres/day
PITUITARY APOPLEXY
1. Definite diagnosis depends on CT / MRI
2. Surgical decompression under steroid cover if
- signs of increased intracranial pressure
- change in conscious state
- evidence of compression on neighbouring structures
  E13
ACUTE POST-OPERATIVE /
POST-TRAUMATIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS
1. Remember possibility of a Triphasic pattern:
Phase I : Transient DI, duration hrs to days
Phase II : Antidiuresis, duration 2-14 days
Phase III : Return of DI (may be permanent)
2. Mx
a. Monitor I/O, BW, serum sodium and urine osmolarity
closely (q4h initially, then daily)
b. Able to drink, thirst sensation intact and fully conscious:
Oral hydration, allow patient to drink as thirst dictates
c. Impaired consciousness and thirst sensation:
• Fluid replacement as D5 or ½ : ½ solution (Calculate
volume needed by adding 12.5 ml/kg/d of insensible
loss to volume of urine)
• DDAVP 1-4 µg (0.5-1.0 ml) q12-24h sc/iv
Allow some polyuria to return before next dose
Give each successive dose only if urine volume
> 200 ml/hr in successive hours
3. Stable cases
Give oral DDAVP 200 µg bd to tds to maintain urine
output of 1 – 2 litres/day
PITUITARY APOPLEXY
1. Definite diagnosis depends on CT / MRI
2. Surgical decompression under steroid cover if
- signs of increased intracranial pressure
- change in conscious state
- evidence of compression on neighbouring structures
  E13
ACUTE POST-OPERATIVE /
POST-TRAUMATIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS
1. Remember possibility of a Triphasic pattern:
Phase I : Transient DI, duration hrs to days
Phase II : Antidiuresis, duration 2-14 days
Phase III : Return of DI (may be permanent)
2. Mx
a. Monitor I/O, BW, serum sodium and urine osmolarity
closely (q4h initially, then daily)
b. Able to drink, thirst sensation intact and fully conscious:
Oral hydration, allow patient to drink as thirst dictates
c. Impaired consciousness and thirst sensation:
• Fluid replacement as D5 or ½ : ½ solution (Calculate
volume needed by adding 12.5 ml/kg/d of insensible
loss to volume of urine)
• DDAVP 1-4 µg (0.5-1.0 ml) q12-24h sc/iv
Allow some polyuria to return before next dose
Give each successive dose only if urine volume
> 200 ml/hr in successive hours
3. Stable cases
Give oral DDAVP 200 µg bd to tds to maintain urine
output of 1 – 2 litres/day
PITUITARY APOPLEXY
1. Definite diagnosis depends on CT / MRI
2. Surgical decompression under steroid cover if
- signs of increased intracranial pressure
- change in conscious state
- evidence of compression on neighbouring structures
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Gastroenterology
&
Hepatology
Gastroenterology
&
Hepatology
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G1
HEPATIC FAILURE
Child-Pugh Grading of Severity of Chronic Liver Disease
1 2 3
Encephalopathy
Ascites
Bilirubin (µmol/l)
for PBC (µmol/l)
Albumin (g/l)
Prothrombin time (sec prolonged)
None
Absent
< 35
< 70
> 35
1 – 3
I and II
Mild
35 – 50
70 – 170
28 – 35
4 – 6
III and IV
Moderate
>50
>170
< 28
> 6
Grades: A: 5-6 points, B: 7-9 points, C: 10-15 points
Hepatic Encephalopathy
Grading
I Euphoria, mild confusion, mental slowness, slurred speech,
disordered sleep
II Lethargy, moderate confusion, inappropriate behaviour,
drowsiness
III Marked confusion, incoherent speech, sleeping but
arousable
IV Coma, initially responsive to noxious stimuli, later
unresponsive
A. Identify and correct precipitating factors
• Watch out for gastrointestinal bleeding
• Avoid sedatives, diuretics, and hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic
drugs (aminoglycosides, NSAIDs, vascular contrast
products)
• Correct electrolyte imbalance
B. Treatment
• May need ICU care
• Monitor blood glucose, haemoglucostix Q2-6h
• Check PT, blood ammonia level (good for monitoring
progress)
• Renal support for acid-base and electrolyte imbalances
• Nutrition: high CHO and low protein, ordered as amount of
protein in diet
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G2
Energy (kcal) Protein (g) Fat (g) CHO (g)
1634 30 30 310
1803 40 43 310
1800 50 48 290
Low
protein
diet
1485 60 45 210
1500 55 50 210 DAT
1800 70 60 250
• Regular microbial surveillance and aggressive treatment of
presumed infection
• Fleet enema and lactulose 10 – 20 ml tds po or via NG tube, aim
for bowel motions 2 – 3/day
• Neomycin (1g q4-6h) po can be given . Do not give for > 7 days
because potential hazard of nephrotoxicity
C. Watch out for and treat cerebral oedema
 Head elevation 40°
 Artificial ventilation for comatose patient with hyperventilationto
keep PaCO2 ~3.0 kPa, too vigorous hyperventilation to PaCO2
~2.5 kPa may paradoxically reduce cerebral blood flow
 Mannitol (20% solution): loading dose 1 g/kg over 10 min and
repeated q4h. Caution in patient with incipient renal failure and
can be repeated if serum osmolality < 320 mOsm
D. Consider liver transplantation in selected cases
*Alert, refer and transfer early to transplant centers
Indications for liver transplant in acute hepatic failure
A. Non-paracetamol
• Prothrombin time > 100 seconds or
• Any 3 of the followings:
o Aetiology: non-A, non-B, drug induced
o Age < 10 or > 40 years old
o Jaundice to encephalopathy interval > 7 days
o Prothrombin time > 50 seconds
o Serum bilirubin > 300 umol/L
B. Paracetamol (King’s criteria)
• pH < 7.3 after adequate fluid resuscitation or
• In grade III or IV coma + Prothrombin time > 100 seconds
+ creatinine > 300 umol/L
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G3
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR
CONSIDERATION OF ORTHOTOPIC LIVER
TRANSPLANTATION (OLT) IN CHRONIC
LIVER DISEASE OR HEPATOCELLULAR
CARCINOMA
Patients who have an estimated survival of less than 80% chance
after 1 year as a result of liver cirrhosis should be referred for
consideration of orthotopic liver transplantation. If any of the
following are present, it may be appropriate to refer the patient:
A. Child-Pugh score 8 or above
B. Complications of cirrhosis :
• Refractory ascites
• Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
• Encephalopathy
• Very poor cirrhosis related quality of life
• Early stage of hepato-renal syndrome or hepato-
pulmonary syndrome or malnutrition
• Portal hypertensive bleeding not controlled by
endoscopic therapy or transjugular intra-hepatic
porto-systemic shunt
C. For patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, those
with solitary tumour of less than 5cm in diameter or those with
up to 3 tumours (each of which should be < 3 cm) carry a
better prognosis after liver transplantation
Alcoholic patients should show a period of abstinence before
consideration of liver transplantation.
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G4
ASCITES
A. Investigations
• Diagnostic paracentesis, USG abdomen, αFP
B. Conservative Treatment (aim to reduce BW by 0.5 kg/day)
• Low salt diet (2 g salt per day)
• Restriction of fluid intake (< 1L/day) in situation of
dilutional hyponatraemia, Na <130 mmol/l
• Monitor input/output, body weight, urine sodium
• Spironolactone 50 mg bd (max 200 mg bd) or amiloride 5
mg daily (max 40 mg daily)
• Frusemide (40-160 mg per day) as an adjunct
• Frusemide + albumin regimen: 40 mg frusemide plus 25 g
albumin infused in 1 hour
• Therapeutic paracentesis can be used in refractory ascites
• Consider TIPS
C. Therapeutic Paracentesis
• See “ bdominal Paracentesis” under “ rocedures”
• Exclude spontaneous bacterial peritonitis before
paracentesis
• Single paracentesis of < 5L, +/- non-albumin colloids
• Large volume paracentesis >5L, give 6 – 8 gm of albumin
per liter of ascites removed simultaneously
• Caution in patients with hypotension and raised serum
creatinine, monitor vital signs during paracentesis
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G5
VARICEAL HAEMORRHAGE
A. Volume resuscitation as in other causes of upper GIB
• maintain mean arterial pressure at 80mmHg
• avoid overtransfusion, aim for Hb of 10g/dl, haematocrit
of 30%
• correct coagulopathy
B. NG tube can be inserted for emptying of blood in stomach but no
suction should be applied to avoid rupturing varices
C. Investigations
• CBP, LFT, RFT
• PT, APTT & platelet
• Serology for HBV and HCV
• αFP
• Abdominal ultrasound
D. Vasoactive agents, to be given early and maintained for 2 – 5 D
• Octreotide 50 µg iv bolus, then 50 µg/h iv infusion
• Somatostatin 250 µg iv bolus, then 250 µg/h iv infusion
• Terlipressin 1 – 2 mg IV bolus Q4 – 6H
• Vasopressin 0.4 units/min iv infusion
(Off label use, watch out for cardiovascular complications)
E. IV thiamine for those with alcohol excess
F. Anti-encephalopathy regimen
• Correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances
• Lactulose 10-20 ml q4H-q8H to induce diarrhoea
• Low protein and low salt diet
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G6
G. Look for sepsis
• Prophylactic antibiotic: ciprofloxacin 500mg bd or
norfloxacin 400mg bd for 5 – 7 days
• Therapeutic antibiotics early if sepsis detected
H. Control of bleeding
• Endoscopy: Endoscopic variceal ligation / sclerotherapy for
oesophageal varices
Tissue glue like N-butyl-cyanoacrylate injection for fundal
varices
• Consider balloon tamponade if: urgent endoscopy not
available
When vasoactive agent fails to control bleeding, or recurrent
bleeding after endoscopy
• Consider TIPs or surgery.

G6
G. Look for sepsis
• Prophylactic antibiotic: ciprofloxacin 500mg bd or
norfloxacin 400mg bd for 5 – 7 days
• Therapeutic antibiotics early if sepsis detected
H. Control of bleeding
• Endoscopy: Endoscopic variceal ligation / sclerotherapy for
oesophageal varices
Tissue glue like N-butyl-cyanoacrylate injection for fundal
varices
• Consider balloon tamponade if: urgent endoscopy not
available
When vasoactive agent fails to control bleeding, or recurrent
bleeding after endoscopy
• Consider TIPs or surgery.

G6
G. Look for sepsis
• Prophylactic antibiotic: ciprofloxacin 500mg bd or
norfloxacin 400mg bd for 5 – 7 days
• Therapeutic antibiotics early if sepsis detected
H. Control of bleeding
• Endoscopy: Endoscopic variceal ligation / sclerotherapy for
oesophageal varices
Tissue glue like N-butyl-cyanoacrylate injection for fundal
varices
• Consider balloon tamponade if: urgent endoscopy not
available
When vasoactive agent fails to control bleeding, or recurrent
bleeding after endoscopy
• Consider TIPs or surgery.

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G7
UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING
A. Emergency Management (Consider ICU if severe bleeding)
• Nil by mouth
• Insert large bore IV cannula
• Closely monitor BP, Pulse, I/O, CVP if BP < 90 mmHg
• Blood and fluid replacement as required
• Cuffed ET tube to prevent aspiration if massive haematemesis,
nasogastric tube if massive haematemesis or signs suggestive
of GI obstruction or perforation
• Look out for and treat any medical decompensation secondary
to GIB
• IV H
2
-antagonist and tranexamic acid have NO proven value,
IV proton-pump inhibitor treatment prior to endoscopy
significantly reduces the portion of patients with stigmata of
recent haemorrhage at index endoscopy
• Arrange endoscopy after initial stabilization
• After endoscopic treatment of patients with actively bleeding
ulcer or ulcer with visible vessel, PPI infusion given for 72
hours reduces the risk of rebleeding
• PPI Infusion: omeprazole/esomeprazole/pantoprazole 80mg IVI
stat followed by 8mg/hr infusion
B. Indications for Emergency Endoscopy
• Massive haematemesis
• Haemodynamic shock
C. Contraindications for Endoscopy
• Suspected intestinal perforation
• Suspected intestinal obstruction
• Dysphagia without delineation of level of obstruction
• Unstable cardiac or pulmonary status
D. Indications for Emergency Operation
• Arterial bleeding not controlled by endoscopic treatment
• Transfusion > 8 units
• Rebleeding after apparently successful endoscopic therapy
(in selected cases)
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G8
PEPTIC ULCERS
A. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy
• Triple therapy for 1 week
Proton pump inhibitor bd + Amoxicillin 1gm bd +
Clarithromycin 500mg bd or
Proton pump inhibitor bd + Metronidazole 500mg bd +
Clarithromycin 500mg bd
• Standard dosage of proton pump inhibitors
Omeprazole / Esomeprazole 20mg
Rabeprazole 20mg
Lansoprazole 30 mg
Pantoprazole 40 mg
B. Ulcer-healing drugs
• H
2
-antagonists for 8 weeks
Cimetidine 400 mg bd or 800 mg nocte
Famotidine 20 mg bd or 40 mg nocte
Ranitidine 150 mg bd or 300 mg nocte
• PPI for 4 - 6 weeks
Omeprazole or esomeprazole 20 mg om
Rabeprazole 20mg om
Lansoprazole 30 mg om
Pantoprazole 40 mg om
• Sucralfate 1 g qid for 6 - 8 week
(not recommended for CRF due to its aluminium content)
C. NSAIDs and Peptic Ulcers
• Prevention: Discontinue NSAID if possible
Misoprostol 200 µg bd or
Proton pump inhibitor as prophylaxis
• Treatment Discontinue NSAID
eradicate H pylori if it is present
H2-antagonists or PPI
D. Follow-up Endoscopy
• DU Unnecessary if asymptomatic
• GU Necessary and repeat biopsy until ulcer heals
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G9
MANAGEMENT OF GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL
REFLUX DISEASE (GERD)
A. Upper endoscopy can aid diagnosis and grade the severity of
reflux oesophagitis. Upper GI tract malignancy can be ruled
out.
B. On the other hand, endoscopy may not be the initial
investigation and can be reserved for those who do not respond
to PPI test or those with alarming features like dysphagia,
anaemia, significant weight loss, repeated vomiting and old age.
A PPI (proton pump inhibitors) test in bd dosage for 2 weeks
has a sensitivity of about 70-80% and specificity of 60-70% for
GERD with classical and extra-oesophageal/atypical GERD
symptoms, in particular atypical chest pain.
C. For patients with significant reflux oesophagitis (*LA class B-
D or **Savary-Miller grade 2-4), PPIs have been shown to be
better than standard dose of H2 blockers in the healing of
oesophagitis and maintenance of remission.
D. The standard once daily dosage of PPI is : omeprazole 20mg,
lansoprazole 30mg, pantoprazole 40mg, rabeprazole 20mg,
esomeprazole 40mg. Doubling the dose to bd daily may be
necessary in some patients when symptoms or oesophagitis are
not well controlled. Maintenance therapy is required to prevent
relapse of severe oesophagitis.
E. For patients without erosions (also known as NERD), treatment
success with PPI is variable. When symptoms are well
controlled, the dosage of PPI can be reduced. Some patients
with clear cut periods of relapses and remissions can be
considered for on-demand therapy with PPIs or H2 blockers
for 2-4 weeks.
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G10
*Los Angeles classification of reflux esophagitis
A mucosal break(s) <5mm, no extension between tops of
mucosal folds
B mucosal break >5mm, no extension between tops of
mucosal folds
C mucosal breaks continuous between tops of mucosal
folds, but not circumferential
D mucosal break(s) involving >75% of circumference
**Savary-Miller classification of reflux esophagitis
Grade 1 nonconfluent red patches or streaks, may occur
singly or may appear in multiple nonconfluent
areas
Grade II confluent mucosal breaks which are not
circumferential
Grade III inflammatory lesions involving the entire
circumference
Grade IVa one or several ulcers which may be associated
with circumferential stricturing, oesophageal
shortening, or Barrett’s metaplasia
Grade IVb oesophageal stricture but no evidence of erosion
or ulceration in the strictured area
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G11
INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES –
(ULCERATIVE COLITIS)
A. Investigations:
• CBP, ESR, LFT, CRP
• Stool cultures, particularly for Clostridium difficile toxin
• AXR to assess extent of disease (ulcerated colon contains no
solid faeces) and to exclude toxic megacolon (transverse
colon diameter >5cm)
• Endoscopy and biopsies
B. Assessment of disease activities:
• Mild: <4 stools daily, with or without blood, no systemic
disturbance, normal ESR and CRP
• Moderate: 4 – 6 stools a day with minimal systemic
disturbance
• Severe: >6 stools a day containing blood and evidence of
systemic disturbance (fever, tachycardia, anaemia, or
hypoalbuminaemia)
C. Therapy should be guided by disease activity and extend of
colitis
• Induction of remission
Mild to Moderate:
o Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA)
- oral for pancolitis 1.5 – 2.4 g/day, can
escalate to 3 – 4.8 g /day
- enema for left sided colitis 1 – 4 g /day
- suppository for proctitis 0.5 – 1.5 g /day
o Sulphasalazine
- oral preparation 2 – 6 g /day
o Corticosteroids (prednisolone)
- enema for left sided colitis 20 – 100mg once to
twice/day
but less effective when compared with rectal
mesalazine
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G12
- oral: 40mg/day up to 1mg/kg/day
patients not responding to oral 5-ASA compounds or
rectal corticosteroid
Severe: Hospitalized
o Nil per oral
o Fluid and electrolyte replacement, +/- TPN
o AXR to monitor colonic dilatation, beware of toxic
megacolon
o Stool for culture
o Watch out for infection
o Hydrocortisone 100mg q6H, other
immunosuppressants: Cyclosporin, Tacrolimus,
Infliximab
o Surgical consultation
• Maintenance or remission
o Mesalazine
Oral for pancolitis 1.5 – 4 g /day
Enema for left-sided colitis 1 – 4 g /day
Suppositories for proctitis 0.5 – 1 g /day
o Sulphasalazine 2 – 4 g/day
o Azathioprine 2 – 2.5 mg /day
- relapse while on oral 5-ASA, steroid-dependent,
severe UC requiring induction therapy with
cyclosporin or tacrolimus
o Infliximab: steroid-dependent despite treatment with
5-ASA +/- azathioprine

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G13
Generic
name
Propriet-
ary name
Formu-
lation
Sites of
delivery
Unit
strength
Asacol Release at
pH ≥ 7
Terminal
ileum
400mg
Salofalk Release at
pH ≥ 6
Distal
ileum,
colon
250mg,
500mg
Mesalazine
Pentasa Time
dependent
release
Duodenum
, ileum,
colon
250mg,
500mg
Sulpha-
salazine
Salazo-
pyrin
5-ASA
linked to
sulphapyridi
ne by azo-
bond
Colon 500mg
(200mg
5-ASA)
Olsalazine Dipentum 5-ASA
dimmer
linked by
azo-bond
Colon 250mg
G13
Generic
name
Propriet-
ary name
Formu-
lation
Sites of
delivery
Unit
strength
Asacol Release at
pH ≥ 7
Terminal
ileum
400mg
Salofalk Release at
pH ≥ 6
Distal
ileum,
colon
250mg,
500mg
Mesalazine
Pentasa Time
dependent
release
Duodenum
, ileum,
colon
250mg,
500mg
Sulpha-
salazine
Salazo-
pyrin
5-ASA
linked to
sulphapyridi
ne by azo-
bond
Colon 500mg
(200mg
5-ASA)
Olsalazine Dipentum 5-ASA
dimmer
linked by
azo-bond
Colon 250mg
G13
Generic
name
Propriet-
ary name
Formu-
lation
Sites of
delivery
Unit
strength
Asacol Release at
pH ≥ 7
Terminal
ileum
400mg
Salofalk Release at
pH ≥ 6
Distal
ileum,
colon
250mg,
500mg
Mesalazine
Pentasa Time
dependent
release
Duodenum
, ileum,
colon
250mg,
500mg
Sulpha-
salazine
Salazo-
pyrin
5-ASA
linked to
sulphapyridi
ne by azo-
bond
Colon 500mg
(200mg
5-ASA)
Olsalazine Dipentum 5-ASA
dimmer
linked by
azo-bond
Colon 250mg
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G14
INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES –
CROHN’S DISEASE
Disease location: terminal ileum, colon, ileocolon, upper GIT
Behaviour: non-stricturing/structuring, non-penetrating/penetrating
(fistula +/- abscesses)
A. Induction of remission
• Mild to Moderate
Sulphasalazine 3 – 6 g /day (most benefit in patients with
colonic involvement)
Budesonide 9 mg / day (ileum and right colon involvement)
• Moderate to Severe
Prednisolone 40mg / day up to 1mg/kg/day
Hydrocortisone 100mg q6H
Methotrexate, Infliximab, Adalimumab, Certolizumab pegol
Consider surgery for fulminant ileocaecal disease with
obstructive complication or those unable to tolerate medical
therapy
• Fistulating Crohn’s disease
Ciprofloxacin 1000mg / day
Metronidazole 1 – 1.5g / day
Azathioprine, Infliximab, Adalimumab
Consider surgery
B. Maintenance of remission
• Budesonide 6mg / day for refractory and severe disease,
prolongs the time to relapse
• Azathioprine 2 – 3 mg / kg / day, moderate to severe
disease brought into remission with
conventional corticosteroids, steroid
dependent
• Methotrexate, Infliximab, Adalimumab, Certolizumab pegol
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G15
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
High index of suspicion is needed. Suspect acute pancreatitis in any
patient with upper abdominal pain (esp. with vomiting),
unexplained shock or elevated serum amylase (at least 3X ULN,
excluding other causes of acute abdomen is of paramount
importance).
A. Assessment of severity and prognosis
• Clinical Parameters
Variable Ranson
at at
0 hrs 48 hrs
Glasgow
within first
48 hrs
APACHE II
admission,
then daily
Age >55
years
-
-
-
+
Premorbid
state
WBC count
(x10
9
/l)
>16 >15 +
Blood glucose
(mmol/l)
>11.1 >10 -
AST (U/l) >250 >200 -
LDH (U/l) >350 >600 -
Serum urea
(mmol/l)
> 1.8
rise
>16 creatinine
Serum Ca
(mmol/l)
<2 <2 -
Serum Alb (g/l) - <32 -
PaO
2
(kPa) <8 <8 +
Base deficit >4 - Arterial pH
Fluid
sequestration
>6 L - -
Packed cell
volume (%)
10%
fall
- +
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G16
Serum sodium - - - +
Serum
potassium
- - - +
Temperature - - - +
Meal arterial
BP
- - - +
Heart rate - - - +
Respiratory
rate
- - - +
Glasgow coma
scale
- - - +
Suggested cut
off number
11 criteria: <3
criteria
indicate mild
AP
8 criteria: 
3 criteria
indicate
severe AP
14 criteria:
8 points*
indicate
severe AP
* Points system per variable: from 0 (normal) to +4 (very
abnormal).
minimal score: 0, maximum score: 71.
• C-reactive Protein: 150mg/l at 48hrs predicts a severe attack
• Contrast-enhanced CT pancreas: to detect and stage
complications of acute pancreatitis, especially pancreatic
necrosis, full extent of which cannot be appreciated until at
least three days after symptom onset. Best done on D6-D10
after admission.
Balthazar CT severity index: 7-10 associated with morbidity
of 92%, mortality 17%.
CT severity index Points
Normal pancreas 0
Pancreatic enlargement (edema) 1
Pancreatic inflammation and/or peripancreatic
changes
2
Single peripancreatic fluid collection 3
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G17
Two or more fluid collections and/or
retroperitoneal air
4
The above are exclusive
PLUS ADD
Necrosis (% of pancreatic parenchyma)
0%
<30%
30-50%
>50%
0
2
3
6
Total
B. Watch out for biliary pancreatitis
• ALT > 3 ULN or > 150 U/l in a non-alcoholic patient
would highly suggestive of gallstone etiology
• USG hepatobiliary system for detection of gallstone and
dilated bile ducts, pancreas can only be visualized in 50%
of cases
• EUS is the most accurate test for diagnosing or ruling out
biliary etiology
• Arrange early ERCP and sphincterotomy within 24 to 72
hours after admission
C. Management (ICU care for severe cases)
• Laboratory Ix for assessment of severity (see above)
• CXR, AXR (erect and supine films for excluding other
causes of acute abdomen, serially for monitoring), ECG
• Close monitoring of vital signs, I/O, RFT, Ca, glucose ±
ABG
• Nil by mouth till nausea and vomiting settle. Nutritional
support via enteral route is preferred. TPN is to be
considered if sufficient calories cannot be delivered
through enteral nutrition, as in the case of severe ileus.
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G18
Recommended nutrient requirements in acute severe
pancreatitis
Energy 25-35 kcal/kg/day
Protein 1.2-1.5 g/kg/day
Carbohydrates 3-6 g/kg/day
Lipids 2 g/kg/day
Intensive insulin treatment to maintain blood glucose  6.1
mmol/l.
Fat administration is safe provided hypertriglyceridaemia
(>12 mmol/l) is avoided.
• Nasogastric suction if ileus or protracted vomiting
• Analgesics - Doloxene or Pethidine
• Adequate intravenous hydration (to produce urine output
of 0.5ml/kg/hr in the absence of renal failure) and
supplemental oxygen
• Correct electrolyte and glucose abnormalities
• Cardiovascular, respiratory and renal support as required
• Antibiotics
- given on demand: biliary sepsis, newly developed
sepsis or sepsis inflammatory response syndrome,
failure of two or more organ systems, proven
infection, an increase in CRP in combination with
other evidence supporting the possibility of infection.
- prophylactic antibiotic treatment generally not
recommended but may be considered in patients with
pancreatic necrosis of >30% involvement by CT. It
should be active against enteric organisms (e.g.
imipenam) and be given for one to two weeks.
• Look out for complications e.g. pseudocyst or pancreatic
sepsis
• Consult surgeon in severe cases or when complication
arises
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Haematology
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H1
HAEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES
(1) LEUKAEMIA
1. Investigations at diagnosis
a. Blood tests
CBP PT/APTT/D-dimer/Fibrinogen
G6PD, HB
s
Ag, antiHBc, antiHBs, HBV DNA (optional)
RFT LFT Ca/P Urate Glucose LDH Type&Screen
HCV Ab, HIV Ab, HBV DNA for HBV carrier
Serum lysozyme for AML M4/M5/CMML
Coombs’ test and serum protein IEP for CLL
Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for HCL
b. Bone marrow aspiration and trephine
Contact haematologist for cytogenetic and molecular studies
before BM biopsy
2. Initial management
a. Start allopurinol 300 mg daily (↓ dose if RFT is impaired)
b. Ensure adequate hydration
c. Blood product support:
RBC/blood transfusion if symptoms of anaemia are present
Platelet transfusion if platelet count <10 x 10
9
/L or bleeding
Give FFP if there is evidence of bleeding due to DIC
d. Do sepsis workup if patient has fever
e. Antibiotic therapy:
Give appropriate antibiotic if there is evidence of infection
PCP prophylaxis for patients with acute lymphoblastic
leukaemia:
i. Septrin tab 2 daily three days per week, or
ii. Pentamidine inhalation 300mg/dose (or 5mg/kg) once every
4 weeks.
f. Record patient’ performance status (PS)
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3. Inform haematologist the following medical emergencies
a. Hyperleucocytosis (e.g. WBC >100x10
9
/L) for chemotherapy
± leucopheresis. Avoid blood transfusion till WBC is lowered
b. APL (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) for early use
of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)
4. Subsequent management
a. Consult haematologist for long-term treatment plan
b. Arrange Hickman line insertion if indicated
c. Arrange HLA typing for patient’ siblings if BMT is anticipated
d. CMV negative blood product for potential BMT recipient if
patient is CMV seronegative.
(2) LYMPHOMA
1. Investigations at diagnosis
a. Blood tests
CBP ESR PT/APTT G6PD
RFT LFT Ca/P LDH Urate Glucose Coombs’ test
Serum IgG/IgA/IgM levels serum IEP
HB
s
Ag, antiHBc, antiHBs, HBV DNA (optional)
b. Biopsy
Excisional biopsy of lymph node or other tissue (send fresh
specimen, no formalin)
Send fresh specimen for study (immune markers, EM, DNA)
c. Bilateral iliac crest aspiration and trephine
d. Radiology
Chest X-Ray and X-ray of relevant regions
PET/CT scan or CT scan of thorax, abdomen and pelvis or
other sites of involvement plus Gallium scan
e. Other investigations
Endoscopic and Waldeyer’ ring exam for GI lymphoma
LP with cytospin for patients with high risk of CNS lymphoma
(high grade lymphoma, nasal/ testicular/ marrow lymphoma)
Cardiopulmonary assessment – optional
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2. Initial management
a. Start allopurinal 300 mg daily and ensure adequate hydration
b. Record patient’ performance status (PS)
3. Note the following medical emergencies
a. SVC obstruction due to huge mediastinal lymphoma
b. Hypercalcaemia
c. Tumour lysis syndrome
d. Spinal cord compression
4. Subsequent management
- Consult haematologist for long-term treatment plan
(3) MULTIPLE MYELOMA
1. Investigations at diagnosis
a. Blood tests
CBP ESR RFT LFT Ca/P LDH Urate Glucose
Serum Immunoelectropheresis (IEP) and paraprotein level
Serum IgG/IgA/IgM level, Serum free light chain level
β
2
M CRP HB
s
Ag, antiHBc, antiHBs
b. Urinalysis - Bence Jones Protein (BJP) and free light chains
c. Radiology – skeletal survey and chest X-Ray
d. Bone marrow aspiration and trephine
2 Staging
a. Durie & Salmon staging system (Cancer 36, 842, 1975)
I II II
Hb(g/dL) >10 8.5-10 <8.5
Ca
++
(corrected) <3 mmol/L <3 mmol/L >3 mmol/L
X-ray lesions Normal/solitary Intermediate Advanced
IgG (g/L) <50 50-70 >70
IgA (g/L) <30 30-50 >50
Urine light chain <4g/24h 4-12g/24h >12g/24h
A: normal renal function (serum creatinine < 0.12 mmol/L)
B: impaired renal function (serum creatinine > 0.12 mmol/L)
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b. International Staging System (ISS) (JCO 23:3412, 2005)
Stage Serum Albumin (g/l) Serum β2-
microglobulin (mg/l)
Median survival
( months )
I > 35 <3.5 62
II Neither stage I or III 45
III -- >5.5 29
3. Initial management
a. Ensure adequate hydration and start allopurinol 300 mg daily
Correct hypercalcaemia – pamidronate 15-60 mg iv in 4-6 hrs or
Zometa 4 mg iv within 15 minutes
c. Renal dialysis ± plasmapheresis for patients with renal failure
d. Record patient’s performance status (PS)
e.Consult Radiotherapy or Orthopaedic Team for patients
presenting with skeletal complications (pathologic fracture or
spinal cord compression)
4. Subsequent management
Consult haematologist for long-term treatment plan
(4) EXTRAVASATION OF CYTOTOXIC DRUGS
1. Prevention
a. Extreme care and never give it in a hurry
b. Choose appropriate veins
c. Confirm patency of iv site with NS before injection of cytotoxics
d. Flush with NS on completion of infusion of cytotoxic drugs
e. Stop when patient complains of discomfort, swelling, redness
f. Use central line if indicated e.g. Hickman line
2. Extravasation suspected
a. Leave iv needle in place and suck out any residual drug
b. If there is a bleb, aspirate it with a 25-gauge needle
Anthracycline – apply ice pack
Vinca alkaloid – apply heat
c. Potential antidotes
Anthracycline- apply hydrocortisone or NaHCO
3
locally
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Vinca alkaloid- apply hydrocortisone locally
Cisplatinum- sodium thiosulphate
d. Record the event in clinical notes and inform seniors
(5) INTRATHECAL CHEMOTHERAPY
1. Prescription
a. All intrathecal chemotherapy should be prescribed in a separate
prescription form.
b. Methotrexate, cytarabine and hydrocortisone are the only
THREE drugs that can be prescribed for intrathecal
chemotherapy administration.
c. The route of adminstraion “Intrathecal” must be written in full
in the prescription .
2. Dispensing
a. All dispensed intrathecal drugs must be labeled with a warning
message “ For Intrathecal Use Only”.
b. All dispensed intrathecal chemotherapy must be dispatched
separately in a designated container or in a sealed envelope/bag
(marked “Intrathecal drug”).
3. Consent
a. Prior to intrathecal chemotherapy administration, the medical
staff who is responsible for the procedure, must obtain an
informed written consent from the patient.
4. Administration
a. Parenteral drug(s) and intrathecal drug must be administered
as separate procedures, i.e. separated in time in setting up and
initiating the administration.
b. The staff responsible for the drug administration must verify
the 5 “Rights” (Right patient, right time, right drug, right dose
and right route) against the prescription. A second trained
staff is required to independently verify the patient
identification and drug checking process.
c. Both staff must sign the medication administration (MAR)
record.
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(6) PERFORMANCE STATUS
ECOG Karnofsky(%) Definition
0 100 Asymptomatic
1 80-90 Symptomatic, fully ambulatory
2 60-70 Symptomatic, in bed < 50% of day
3 40-50 Symptomatic, in bed > 50% of day
4 20-30 Bedridden
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NON-MALIGNANT HAEMATOLOGICAL
EMERGENCIES/CONDITIONS
(1) ACUTE HAEMOLYTIC DISORDERS
1. Approaches
a. Collect evidence of haemolysis
- evidence of increased Hb break down
↑ indirect bilirubin ↓ haptoglobin ↑ LDH
Methaemalbuminaemia* Haemoglobinaemia*
↑urinary and faecal urobilinogen Haemoglobinuria*
Haemosiderinuria* (*) evidence of intravascular haemolysis
- evidence of compensatory erythroid hyperplasia
Reticulocytosis Erythroid hyperplasia of bone marrow
- evidence of damage to red cells
Spherocytosis ↑RBC fragility Fragmented RBC Heinz bodies
- evidence of shortened red cell life span
Chromium
51
labelled red cell study
b. Document the cause and nature of haemolysis
- Intracorpuscular/Extracorpuscular defect -Congenital/Acquired
- Intravascular/Extravascular haemolysis - Acute/Chronic
2. Investigations
a. Blood tests
CBP Reticulocyte count Peripheral smear Hb pattern
RFT LFT Bilirubin(direct/indirect) LDH Haptoglobin
Coombs’ test ANF Viral study Screening for malaria
Cold agglutinins (arrange with laboratory)
Sucrose lysis test / PNH screening test(arrange with laboratory)
G6PD assay (may be normal during acute haemolysis)
b. Urine test
Urobilinogen Haemoglobin Haemosiderin
3. Management
a. Must identify cause of haemolysis, then treat accordingly
b. Consult haematologist
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4. Common agents reported to induce haemolytic anaemia in
subjects with G6PD deficiency
Unsafe for class I, II, & III variants Safe for class II & III variants*
Acetanilid Acetaminophen
Dapsone Aminopyrine
Furazolidone Ascorbic acid except very high dose
Methylene blue Aspirin
Nalidixic acid Chloramphenicol
Naphthalene (mothballs, henna) Chloroquine
Niridazole Colchicine
Nitrofurantoin Diphenhydramine
Phenazopyridine Isoniazid
Phenylhydrazine L-DOPA
Primaquine Menadione
Sulfacetamide Paraaminobenzoic acid
Sulfamethoxazole Phenacetin
Sulfanilamide Phenytoin
Sulfapyridine Probenecid
Thiazosulfone Procainamide
Toluidine blue Pyrimethamine
Trinitrotoluene Quinidine
Quinine
) Streptomycin
) Sulfamethoxpyridazine
) Sulfisoxazole
) Trimethoprim
) Tripelennamine
Vitamin K
5. Safety for class I variants is usually not known.
Data from Beutler, E, Blood 1994; 84:3613.
Class 1 (severe deficiency with nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia),
class II (severe deficiency with intermittent hemolysis), and
class III (moderate to mild deficiency). Beutler, E, Blood 1994; 84:3613
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(2) IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC
PURPURA (ITP)
1. Definition
Isolated thrombocytopenia due to peripheral destruction with no
clinically apparent causes but of presumed autoimmune aetiology
Have to rule out conditions such as
-SLE -MDS -TTP -HIV infection
-Gestational thrombocytopenia -Alloimmune thrombocytopenia
-Lymphoproliferative disorders -1
0
anti-phospholipid syndrome
-Drugs e.g.heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)
Type 1 HIT – Non-immune phenomenon occurring < 4 days
after heparin use. Platelet count is rarely < 100x10
9
/L.
Recovers in spite of continued heparin use.
Type 2 HIT – mmunoglobulin mediated phenomenon
occurring
>5days of heparin use. Associated with a ≥ 50% fall in
platelet count (<100x10
9
/L) and new sites of thrombosis
Consult haematologist for diagnostic test and management.
2. Investigations
a. CBP and blood film (to ensure no red cell fragments, leukaemia)
b. Bone marrow examination not mandatory, indicated if
i. the diagnosis of ITP is not certain
ii.in patients age over 60 years to rule out myelosdysplasia
iii. prior to splenectomy
iv.if response to treatment is poor
c. Autoimmune profile and APTT
d. antiHIV serology in patients at risk
3. Management
a. Consult haematologist
b. Initial treatment: Prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day or
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c. For acute life-threatening bleeding
- IVIg 0.4 g/kg/day for 5 days (80% effective, lasts 2-3 weeks)
- or Methylprednisolone 1 g iv in 1 hour daily for 3 days
- or Pulse dexamethasone 40 mg iv/po daily for 4 days
- or Intravenous anti-Rh0 (D)
d. Avoid aspirin and other antiplatelet agents and im injection
e. Platelet transfusion only for life-threatening bleeding
4. Management of ITP in Pregnant Women
a. Consult haematologist
b. During pregnancy
Platelet counts > 50 x10
9
/L and no bleeding – no treatment
Platelet count <50 x10
9
/L - use steroid or IVIg …………..
Be cautions with use of steroid in first trimester
a. At delivery
Mode of delivery according to obstetrical indication
A maternal platelet count > 50 x 10
9
/L is sufficient to prevent
complications due to vaginal delivdery or cesarean section
Avoid epidural or spinal anaesthesia if platelet count < 80 x
10
9
/L
Check infant’s platelet count at delivery
(3) THROMBOCYTOPENIC THROMBOTIC
PURPURA (TTP)
1. Diagnosis
a. A pentad of symptoms – anaemia, thrombocytopenia, fever,
renal impairment, neurologic symptoms and signs
b. Redefined as a syndrome of Coombs’-negative haemolytic
anaemia and thrombocytopenia in the absence of other
possible causes of these manifestations
c. Important to examine blood film for micro-angiopathic features
2. Investigations
CBP Peripheral smear RFT LFT LDH Haptoglobin
Coombs’ test Coagulation profile (relatively normal)
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3. Treatment
a. Consult haematologist
b. Daily plasma exchange should be commenced immediately at
1.5x plasma volume exchange for FFP or cryosupernatant
plasma
c. Platelet transfusion is contraindicated
(4) PANCYTOPENIA
1. Approaches to determine the cause of pancytopenia
a. Bone Marrow disorder (defective synthesis)
-Aplastic anaemia -Reactive haemophagocytosis
-Subleukaemic leukaemia -Megaloblastic anaemia
-MDS -Disseminated tuberculosis
-Marrow infiltration: lymphoma, myeloma, marrow fibrosis,
carcinoma
b. Peripheral destruction
-SLE -DIC -Hypersplenism
-Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH)
2. Investigations
CBP, Peripheral smear, Bone marrow aspiration and trephine
(5) THROMBOPHILIA SCREENING
1. Screening Tests
a. Lupus anticoagulant(LA) Anti-cardiolipin Ab ANF
b. Protein C (PC), Protein S (PS), Antithrombin (AT),
Activated Protein C Resistance (APCR), Factor V Leiden
2. Indications
a. Young patients with idiopathic venous thrombosis
b. Recurrent venous thrombosis or superficial thrombophlebitis
c. Unusual sites of thrombosis (mesenteric, renal, portal veins,
cerebral venous sinus)
d. Warfarin induced skin necrosis
e. Arterial thrombosis with age < 40
f. Recurrent miscarriage
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(6) PROPHYLAXIS OF VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN
PREGNANCY
1. Pre-delivery and delivery
a. Consult haematologist for dosage of LMWH and monitoring
b. Plasma anti-Xa activity is measured 2 hrs post heparin and is
kept between 0.05 and 0.3 iu/ml
c.If need epidural/spinal anesthesia, withhold LMWH 12-24h
before the procedure.
2. Post-delivery
a. Same dose of LMWH is continued until INR on warfarin is
2.0 to 3.0
b. Warfarin is continued for 6-8 weeks
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SPECIAL DRUG FORMULARY AND
BLOOD PRODUCTS
(1) ANTI-EMETIC THERAPY
1. 5-HT
3
antagonists (for patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy)
a. Zofran (ondansetron) 8 mg iv Q8H/Q12H or 8 mg po tds
b. Kytril (granisetron) 3-6 mg iv once daily
c. Navoban (tropisetron) 5 mg iv/po once daily
2. Maxolon 10 mg iv Q6H prn
3. Emend ( Aprepitant )
use in combination with corticosteroid or other 5-HT3
antagonist : 125mg po on day 1, 80mg po daily on day2-3
(2) HAEMOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTORS
Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF)
Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF)
1. Indications
a. Proven clinical applications
- Mobilization of haemopoietic stem cells for transplantation
- Shortening of neutropenia after chemotherapy given when
absolute neutrophil <1x10
9
/L
- Drug-induced agranulocytosis
- Other conditions of severe neutropenia associated with
infection e.g. cyclical neutropenia
b. Applications of less proven value
- Sensitization of leukaemic cells e.g. FLAG for AML
- Differentiation induction
- Autoimmune neutropenia
- Neutropenia associated with Felty’ syndrome
2. Dosage (usage endorsed by haematologist)
G-CSF: 5mcg/kg/day sc/iv (1 vial contains 300mcg)
GM-CSF: 250mcg/m
2
/day sc/iv (1 vial contains 300 mcg)
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(3) IMMUNOGLOBULIN THERAPY
1. Indications
a. As replacement
Primary immunodeficiencies with significant past infections
Secondary Ab deficiencies: CLL, multiple myeloma, post BMT
patients with chronic GvHD and significant past infections
b. As an immunomodulator (haematology)
Proven benefit-ITP with life threatening bleeding or pregnancy
Probable benefit – autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
post infectious thrombocytopenia
Possible benefit – coagulopathy with factor VIII inhibitor
2. Dosage
a. Replacement – 0.2 g/kg Q3weeks
b. Immunomodulator e.g. ITP – 0.4 g/kg/day for 5 days or
1g/kg/day for 2 days
3. Contraindications
a. Previous history of allergy to IVIg
b. IgA deficiency
(4) ANTITHYMOCYTE GLOBULIN (ATG)
1. Indication – Severe Aplastic Anaemia (SAA)
Criteria of SAA
- Hb <10g/dL Retriculocytes <1 x 10
9
/L
Neutrophils <0.4 x 10
9
/L Platelets <20 x 10
9
/L
- Bone marrow cellularity < 20%
2. Premedication (I hour before ATG)
a. Paracetamol 1gm and chlorpheniramine (piriton) 4mg po
b. Methylprednisolone 2-3 mg/kg in 100ml normal saline iv in 1
hour
3. Test dose: 10mg ATG in 100ml normal saline iv in 1 hour
Physician in attendance, anaphylaxis 1 in 50
4. Daily dose: ATG 40mg/kg iv in 4 hours for 4 days
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(5) rFVIIa (NOVOSEVEN)
Dosage:
- 90-120ug/kg/dose
- may be repeated every 2-4 hours
Indications:
-haemophilc patients with inhibitor activity and active bleeding
-factor VII deficiency
-patients with acquired inhibitors and actaive bleeding
-massive catastrophic bleeding for urgent haemostasis
(6) REPLACEMENT FOR HEREDITARY
COAGULATION DISORDERS
General information for therapy in hereditary coagulation
disorders
factors half life replacement material
VIII* 10 hrs VIII conc
1
cryoprecipitate
2
FFP
3

DDAVP
4
IX* 25 hrs FFP IX conc
5
VWF - cryoprecipitate FFP DDAVP
intermediate purity VIII conc
fibrinogen 90 hrs cryoprecipitate FFP
V 15 hrs FFP
VII 5 hrs FFP
X 40 hrs FFP
XI 45 hrs FFP
1
1 unit/kg BW of infused Factor VIII raises plasma level by 2%
2
1 unit of cryoprecipitate contains euco 60-100 U of Factor VIII
3
1 unit FFP contains about 140-175 units of Factor VIII
4
DDAVP is useful for mild haemophilia A if a 3x increase in
Factor VIII suffices. 0.3 µg/kg in 50 ml normal saline iv in 20
minutes causes a peak in Factor VIII level at 30 minutes.
Intranasal DDAVP may be used. As DDAVP stimulates
fibrinolysis, EACA 4g Q4H or tranexamic acid 500 mg Q8H is
H14
(3) IMMUNOGLOBULIN THERAPY
1. Indications
a. As replacement
Primary immunodeficiencies with significant past infections
Secondary Ab deficiencies: CLL, multiple myeloma, post BMT
patients with chronic GvHD and significant past infections
b. As an immunomodulator (haematology)
Proven benefit-ITP with life threatening bleeding or pregnancy
Probable benefit – autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
post infectious thrombocytopenia
Possible benefit – coagulopathy with factor VIII inhibitor
2. Dosage
a. Replacement – 0.2 g/kg Q3weeks
b. Immunomodulator e.g. ITP – 0.4 g/kg/day for 5 days or
1g/kg/day for 2 days
3. Contraindications
a. Previous history of allergy to IVIg
b. IgA deficiency
(4) ANTITHYMOCYTE GLOBULIN (ATG)
1. Indication – Severe Aplastic Anaemia (SAA)
Criteria of SAA
- Hb <10g/dL Retriculocytes <1 x 10
9
/L
Neutrophils <0.4 x 10
9
/L Platelets <20 x 10
9
/L
- Bone marrow cellularity < 20%
2. Premedication (I hour before ATG)
a. Paracetamol 1gm and chlorpheniramine (piriton) 4mg po
b. Methylprednisolone 2-3 mg/kg in 100ml normal saline iv in 1
hour
3. Test dose: 10mg ATG in 100ml normal saline iv in 1 hour
Physician in attendance, anaphylaxis 1 in 50
4. Daily dose: ATG 40mg/kg iv in 4 hours for 4 days
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(5) rFVIIa (NOVOSEVEN)
Dosage:
- 90-120ug/kg/dose
- may be repeated every 2-4 hours
Indications:
-haemophilc patients with inhibitor activity and active bleeding
-factor VII deficiency
-patients with acquired inhibitors and actaive bleeding
-massive catastrophic bleeding for urgent haemostasis
(6) REPLACEMENT FOR HEREDITARY
COAGULATION DISORDERS
General information for therapy in hereditary coagulation
disorders
factors half life replacement material
VIII* 10 hrs VIII conc
1
cryoprecipitate
2
FFP
3

DDAVP
4
IX* 25 hrs FFP IX conc
5
VWF - cryoprecipitate FFP DDAVP
intermediate purity VIII conc
fibrinogen 90 hrs cryoprecipitate FFP
V 15 hrs FFP
VII 5 hrs FFP
X 40 hrs FFP
XI 45 hrs FFP
1
1 unit/kg BW of infused Factor VIII raises plasma level by 2%
2
1 unit of cryoprecipitate contains euco 60-100 U of Factor VIII
3
1 unit FFP contains about 140-175 units of Factor VIII
4
DDAVP is useful for mild haemophilia A if a 3x increase in
Factor VIII suffices. 0.3 µg/kg in 50 ml normal saline iv in 20
minutes causes a peak in Factor VIII level at 30 minutes.
Intranasal DDAVP may be used. As DDAVP stimulates
fibrinolysis, EACA 4g Q4H or tranexamic acid 500 mg Q8H is
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5
1 unit/kg BW of infused Factor IX raises plasma level by 1%
* for Factor VIII and Factor IX deficiencies, use FFP only when
specific factor concentrate is not available
2. Recommended dosage of human AHG for Haemophilia A
Type of
procedure/injury
Post infusion
level required
Replacement for 50 kg
man
Uncomplicated
spontaneous
haemarthrosis or
haematoma
10% 1 T stat dose
Haemarthrosis or
haematoma after
injury
20% 2 T once daily for
2 days
Haematoma in
dangerous sites
40% 4T stat, then
2T Q12H for 3 doses
Dental extraction
- deciduous teeth
- single extraction
- 2-9 extraction
- major extraction (10
or impacted wisdom
teeth)
15%
15%
30%
40%
1.5T QD for 2 days
1.5T QD for 5 days
3T QD for 5 days
4T stat, then
2T Q12H for 5 days
Major surgery 100%
3T Q8H for ≥ 7 days
1 T = 2 AHG = 3 FFP = 6 cryoprecipitate
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 H17
3. Recommended dosage of cryoprecipitate in vWD
Type of Bleeding Desired
Level
Initial Dose
(unit/10 kg)
Maintenance
Dose
Mild
vWD
Severe
vWD
Spontaneous
Haemorrhages

Epistaxis, skin injury 20 0.5 1 as needed
Menorrhagia 30 1 1.5 as needed
GI bleeding 50 1 2 as needed
Head Injury 60 1.5 2.5 7 days
Intracranial haemorrhage 60 1.5 3 7 days
Surgical Procedures
Dental surgery 40 0.5 1 1/2 dose x 7d
Appendicectomy 50 1.5 2 1/2 dose x 7d
Tonsillectomy 60 2 3 1/2 dose x 8d
Hysterectomy 60 2 3 1/2 dose x 8d
Cholecystectomy 60 2 3 1/2 dose x 8d
Coronary Bypass 80 3 4 1/2 dose x 8d
Delivery 50 1.5 2 1/2 dose x 8d
4. Recommended dosage of factor IX for Christmas disease
Type of bleeding
or intervention
Post infusion
level required
Initial dose Maintenance
(u/kg) dose (u/kg)
Haemarthrosis
- mild
- major
20
40

20 20 if needed
40 20 Q12H for 7 days
Muscle bleeding 40 40 20 Q12H for 7 days
Epistaxis 20 20 10 Q12H if needed
Dental extraction 20 20 EACA for 10 days
GI bleeding 40 40 20 Q12H for 7 days
Life-threatening
condition
60 30 Q12H for 10-14
days
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TRANSFUSION
Please refer to HAHO Transfusion Guidelines at HA web page
ACUTE TRANSFUSION REACTIONS
An “Adverse Transfusion Reaction Report Form” should be
completed for all major and minor reactions.
For errors involving blood transfusion or non-compliance with
blood transfusion procedures, a “Blood Transfusion Incident
Report Form” should be completed.
Management for all acute transfusion reactions:
a. STOP transfusion
b. Monitor patient’ vital signs closely
c. Check labels on blood bag and patient’ identity
d. Maintain iv normal saline infusion
e. Determine the type of reaction
1. Acute haemolytic transfusion reactions (AHTR)
- caused by ABO incompatibility
- S/S of AHTR appear within the first 5-15 minutes of
transfusion and include dyspnoea, chest pain, back pain, fever,
chills, rigor, restlessness, tachycardia, hypotension, oliguria,
haemoglobinuria and generalized bleeding
- Further management:
Change iv drip set, give NS, maintain urine output >100ml/hr
Send all used blood packs, administration sets, 10ml of
Patient’ clotted blood and 5ml EDTA blood to blood bank
Check patient’ CBP, RFT and coagulation profile
Do blood culture.
Inform senior
2. Febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR)
- most often caused by reaction of recipient’ antibodies to
donor white cells
- S/S appear from 30 minutes during to 2 hours after
transfusion and include fever, chills, shaking
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- Further management:
Give antipyretic
If no other s/s occur, may restart transfusion at a slower rate
Consider leucocyte-poor products for patients with recurrent
severe febrile non-haemolytic reactions
3. Allergic reactions
- caused by recipient’s reaction to donor plasma proteins.
- S/S such as urticaria occur during or 1 hour post transfusion
- Further management:
Give antihistamine e.g. chlorpheniramine 10 – 20 mg iv
Resume transfusion if no progression of s/s after 30 min
Transfusion may need to be discontinued if antihistamine
does not alleviate the symptoms, or severe persistent
urticaria is associated with bronchospasm
4. Anaphylactic reactions
- caused by interaction between recipient’s preexisting antibody
and protein or allergen in donor’s blood
- S/S occur early during transfusion and include tightness in
the chest, hypotension, bronchospasm. Fever is absent
- Further management:
Give chlorpheniramine 10-20 mg iv, adrenaline 0.5-1 mg im,
salbutamol by eucopeni
Inform senior
5. Acute bacteraemia
- caused by bacteria contamination of blood component
- S/S appear immediately after transfusion and include high
fever, chills, tachycardia, hypotension and vomiting which are
difficult to differentiate from AHTR
- Further management:
Do blood culture and send specimens to blood bank and
laboratory as for acute haemolytic transfusion reactions
Start broad spectrum antibiotics
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6. Volume overload
- especially high risk in elderly patients with poor
cardiopulmonary reserve and chronic renal failure
- S/S can occur during or up to 24 hours after transfusion and
include dyspnoea, cough, crepitation in chest, edema
- Further management:
Oxygen, diuretics, other cardiac support
7. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)
- caused by reaction between donor’s white cell antibodies and
patient’s white cells causing leucoagglutination in the
pulmonary microcirculation and pulmonary damage
- S/S occurs within 2 hours of transfusion up to 4 hours post
transfusion and include dyspnoea, cyanosis, hypotension,
fever, rales and crackles.
- Further management:
Exclude other acute transfusion reactions
Respiratory support ± ICU care
Inform senior
(2) TRANSFUSION THERAPY
1. Red cells/whole blood transfusion
a. Indications
- acute blood loss, > 30% blood volume loss
- low Hb, especially < 8 g/dL
- surgery with anticipated significant blood loss and pre-op
Hb<10 g/dL
- thalassaemia major patients to keep pre-transfusion Hb at 10
g/dL and post transfusion at 15 g/dL
- patients on intensive chemotherapy to maintain Hb>9 g/dL
b. Dosage
1 unit of red cells/blood raises Hb level by 1g/dL in an adult
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c. No evidence to support the use of an absolute Hb value as a
uniform ‘transfusion trigger” for transfusion. Tissue oxygen is
also determined by patient’s cardiopulmonary reserve, cause
and rate of development of anaemia, and bone marrow status
d. Choice
i. Packed red cells
ii. Leukocyte – depleted red cells
iii. CMV negative blood: for seronegative recipient of bone
marrow or solid organ transplant if donor is also
seronegative
iv. Irradiated blood: for cases of aplastic anaemia and post
BMT patients
v. Use of white cell filter to minimize FNHTR as an alternative
for leucocyte-depleted red cells
2. Platelet transfusion
a. Indications
- platelet count < 10 x 10
9
/L and is due to decreased production
(not for ITP without bleeding, TTP, post-transfusion purpura)
- platelet count <50x10
9
/L before surgery or invasive procedure
- platelet count < 100 x 10
9
/L before brain and eye surgery
- severe platelet dysfunction with template bleeding time
>15min with active bleeding or before surgery or invasive
procedure
b. Dosage
1 unit of platelet concentrate per 10 kg body weight brings
about a platelet increment of 10 x 10
9
/L, but may be lower in
platelet refractoriness.
3. Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP)
a. Indications
- replacement of single coagulation factor deficiencies where a
specific coagulation factor concentrate is not available
- immediate reversal of warfarin effect
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- supportive therapy in acute DIC with bleeding
- thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura (TTP)
- clinical coagulopathy (e.g. after massive transfusion, severe
liver disease) with bleeding or before invasive procedures,
with PT/APTT > 1.5 x mid normal range
- C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency with severe angio-oedema
b. Dosage
- 12-15 ml/kg body weight for adults as factor replacement
i.e. 2 – 4 units of FFP for an adult of average body weight
- 3 litres replacement per day for an adult TTP patient on
plasmapheresis
4. Cryoprecipitate
a. Indications
- factor VIII deficiency or von Willebrand disease when
DDAVP or factor concentrate is inappropriate or not
available
- documented hypofibrinogenaemia (< 100 mg/dL)
- documented factor XIII deficiency
- uraemic patients with bleeding and prolonged bleeding time,
and DDAVP and estrogen are not appropriate
b. Dosage for an adult
- for factor VIII replacement – refer to page 14
- for fibrinogen replacement – 2.5 units/10 kg body weight
(1 unit of cryoprecipitate contains 60-100 i.u. of factor VIII
and 150-250 mg of fibrinogen)
(3) SPECIAL TRANSFUSION REQUIREMENTS
1. Irradiated cellular blood components (RBC/platelet)
a. Accepted indications
- severe congenital cellular mediated immunodeficiencies
- allogeneic and autologous BMT/stem cell recipients after
conditioning
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H23
- patients requiring transfusion prior to or during autologous
marrow harvest
- transfusion from first degree relatives
- transfusion of HLA-selected platelets
b. Optional
- Hodgkin’s disease
- lymphoma patients receiving purine analogues (fludarabine,
cladarabine, deoxycoformycin)
2. CMV seronegative cellular blood components (RBC/platelet)
Indications for CMV negative patients:
a. Bone marrow or organ transplant recipients (if marrow or organ
donor is also CMV negative)
b. Potential candidates for transplant
3. Leucocyte-poor cellular blood products (RBC/platelet)
a. Indications
- >=2 episodes of febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions,
especially in patients requiring regular repeated transfusions
e.g. thalassaemia major, MDS
- to decrease risk of transfusion related CMV transmission
- to prevent platelet alloimmunization in certain patients
b. Means to deplete leucocytes
- leucocyte reduced by centrifugation (LRBC)
- leucocyte reduced by filtration/bedside filters (LRBF)
4. Indications for use of blood warmers
a. Cold haemagglutinin disease
b. Large volumes of blood infused at > 50 ml/kg/hr in adults
c. Rapid infusion through central venous catheters
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Nephrology
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K1
RENAL TRANSPLANT–
DONOR RECRUITMENT
Protocol for preparation and Mx of potential organ donor:
Identification of potential organ donor:
a. definite diagnosis, irreversible CNS damage;
b. brain death is imminent;
c. put on mechanical ventilation;
d. GCS  4 / 15, both pupils fixed to light
Exclusion criteria:
age > 75;
uncontrolled fulminant infection;
history of IV drug abuse;
HIV +ve cases or has risk factors for HIV infection;
Maintenance of organ perfusion of potential donor:
Aim: Maintain SBP 100- 140mmHg
Maintain Mean BP > 80mmHg
Maintain CVP of 8-12cm H
2
O
Maintain hourly urine output ~100ml
Maintain SaO
2
> 90%
Maintain body temperature> 36
o
C
a. monitor BP, P, CVP, urine output, SaO
2
, ventilator status
q1h, body temperature q2h
b. monitor electrolytes, RLFT, Ca/PO
4
q6-8h, H’stix q2-4h
c. set two good IV lines, eucopenia one central line
d. monitor hypertension (MBP > 120mmHg), start labetolol
5mg IV over 1 min and repeat at 5 min intervals if necessary
e. monitor hypotentsion (SBP  100mmHg)
: start fluid replacement by infusing crystalloid or colloid
: add dopamine 2.5 – 10 g/kg/min if BP persistently
lowish despite adequate fluid replacement
: add adrenaline 0.1 – 10g/kg/min if BP persistently
lowish
: start hydrocortisone 100mg stat & 50mg q8h
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K2
f. monitor maasive urine output ( > 200ml /hour )
: control hyperglycaemia ( H’stix > 12mmol/L
persistently) by actrapid HM hourly infusion at 2 – 6
units
: control diabetes insipidus (serum Na  150mmol/L) by
dDAVP2 – 6g IV q6-8h
: control hypothermia (body temperature  35
o
C) by
applying patient warming system
g. monitor oliguria (houly urine < 30ml)
: check foley patency
: oliguria with low or normal CVP, start fluid replacement
: oliguria with high CVP, start lasix 20 – 250mg IVI
h. add prophylactic antibiotics after blood culture if fever >
38
o
C.
Routine arrangement:
a. inform transplant coordinator via hospital operator at any
time
b. interview family for grave prognosis,do not discuss organ
donation with family until patient is confirmed brain death
c. once the patient meet brain death criteria, arrange qualifed
personnel to perform brain stem death test
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K3
ELECTROLYTE DISORDERS
Hypokalaemia
Hints - check drug history, most likely attributed to diuretic
therapy;
- usually associated with metabolic alkalosis;
- start intravenous therapy if serum K < 2.5 mM;
- consider magnesium depletion for hypoK resistant to
treatment;
- don’t give potassium replacement therapy in eucopen
solution.
Ix: - serum RFT, total CO2 content, chloride, magnesium;
- simultaneous blood and urine x TTKG (trans-tubular
potassium gradient)
- check baseline ECG (esp. those patients on digoxin
therapy )
Mx: If serum K > 2.5 mM & ECG changes are absent:
KCl 20-30 mmol/hour in saline infusion (up to 60-80
mmol/L) as continuous IV infusion; may combine with
oral KCl 30-40 mmoles (3-4 gm syr KCl) Q4H; maximum
total treatment dose: 100 – 200 mmoles per day (~ 3
mmoles/kg/day).
If serum K < 2.5 mM &/or ECG changes present:
Consult ICU / cardiac monitor;
KCl 30-40 mmol/hour in saline infusion (concentration up
to 80 mmol/L); may combine with oral KCl 30-40 mmoles
(3-4 gm syr KCl) Q4H; maximum total treatment dose:
100 – 200 mmoles per day (~ 3 mmoles/kg/day).
Hypokalaemia associated with metabolic acidosis
Give potassium citrate solution (1 mmole/mL) 15-30 mL
QID in juice after meals; start K replacement before
bicarbonate therapy in separate IV line if indicated.
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K4
Dosage form:
Syrup KCl ( 1 gm = 12.5 mmoles K );
Slow K ( 8 mmoles K / 600 mg tablet );
Potassium citrate ( 1 mL = 1 mmole K );
Phosphate-sandoz ( 3 mmoles K, 16 mmoles phosphate /
tablet ).
Pre-mixed K-containing solution for maintenance IV
infusion for HA Hospitals
0.9% NS with 10 mmoles K / 500 mL ( K conc: 20 mM)
0.9% NS with 20 mmoles K / 500 mL ( K conc: 40 mM)
5% D5 with 10 mmoles K / 500 mL ( K conc: 20 mM)
5% D5 with 20 mmoles K / 500 mL ( K conc: 40 mM)
Lactated Ringer’s with 2 mmoles K /500 mL (K conc: 4
mM)
Hyperkalaemia
Hints: exclude pseudohyerK e.g. haemolysis, esp. in those with
relatively normal renal function;
discontinue K supplement, NSAID, ACEI, K-sparing
diuretic.
Ix: repeat RFT CO
2
chloride, ECG
Rx: For urgent cases ( serum K > 6 mM &/or ECG changes of
hyperK )
1. 10% Calcium gluconate 10-30 mL IV over 2-5
minutes with cardiac monitoring; repeat if no effect
in 5 minutes; if digoxin toxicity is suspected, give
over 30 minutes slowly or omit calcium gluconate
infusion ( onset:1-3 min; duration: 30-60 min ).
2. Dextrose-insulin infusion: give 250 mL D10 or 50
mL D50 with 8-10 units Actrapid HM over 30
minutes; repeat every 4-6 hrs if necessary ( onset: 30
minutes; duration: 4-6 hrs ).
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K5
3. Sodium bicarbonate 8.4% 100-150 mL over 30-60
min; give after calcium infusion in separate IV line;
watch out for fluid overload ( onset: 5-10 minutes;
duration: 2 hrs).
4. Resonium C / A: 25-50 gm orally Q 4-6 hrs or as
retention enema; may be given in 100-200 mL 10%
mannitol as laxative; one gm resonium will bind 1
mmole of K. ( onset: 1-2 hrs; duration: 4-6 hrs).
5. Albuterol 10-20 mg in 3 mL NS by nebulizer ( onset:
15-30 minutes; duration: 2-3 hrs ).
6. Diuretics: furosemide 40-80 mg IV bolus.
7. Emergency haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
For chronic cases:
1. Low K diet ( < 2 gm/ day ).
2. Diuretics: furosemide / thiazide
3. Correct acidosis with sodium bicarbonate 300-900
mg tds (~10-30 mmoles/day).
4. Fludrocortisone 0.1-0.2 mg daily (for Type IV RTA).
Hyercalcaemia
Hints: calculated corrected serum calcium level based on serum
albumin concentration [± 0.02 mM for every ± 1 gm/L (from
40 gm/L) change in serum albumin]); commonly associated
with dehydration.
Ix: check ionized calcium, PO
4
, RFT, ECG
Rx:
1. Off calcium / vitamin D supplement if any.
2. Volume repletion with NS at 150-600 mL/hr infusion ( guided
by CVP / urine output ); start furosemide after rehydration 20-
40 mg IV Q 2-12 H; aim at a urine output of ~ 200 mL/Hr;
close monitoring of Na K Ca Mg level.
3. Pamidronate 30-90 mg in 250-500 mL NS infused over 4-6
hrs; maximum effect is not seen for several days; repeat
another dose after a minimum of 7 days if necessary.
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K6
4. Salmon calcitonin 4 IU/kg IMI / SC Q 12 H; Ca level begins
to fall within 2-3 hrs; tachyphylaxis occurred within 2-3 days.
5. Mitramycin: 25 g/kg IV in 50 mL D5 over 3-6 hrs infusion;
Ca begins to decrease in 12 hrs; peak action at 48 hrs; repeat
dose at 3-7 days interval if necessary (usually reserve for
malignancy-related hypercalcaemia ).
6. Hydrocortisone 5 mg/kg IV Q 8 H then prednisolone 40-100
mg QD ( onset: 3-5 days; useful in haematological malignancy,
vitamin D intoxication, some CA breast).
7. Sandoz-phosphate 2-8 tablets per day; avoid if severe
hypercalcaemia or hyperphosphataemia.
8. Haemodialysis with zero or low Ca dialysate.
Hypocalcaemia
Hints: usually due to chronic renal failure;
Ix: check ionized Ca level, PO
4
, ALP, Mg, RFT, ECG.
Rx: Symptomatic hypocalcaemia: 10% Calcium gluconate 20
mL IV over 10-15 minutes then 30 mL 10% Ca gluconate
in 500 mL NS/D5 Q 4-6 H /pint; monitor Ca level.
Chronic cases: ( add Vit D if no response after 2-4 gm
elemental Calcium )
1. Ca supplement: Caltrate=600 mg elemental Ca / tablet
Oscal=250 mg elemental Ca / tablet
Titralac=168 mg elemental Ca / tablet
Ca gluconate=27mg elemental Ca / tablet
2. Vit D: Calcitriol/1-hydroxycholecalciferol:0.25-2ug
daily

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K7
Hypomagnesaemia
Hints: may be associated with hypoK, hypoCa, arrhythmia.
Ix: check RFT, K, Ca, ECG.
Fractional excretion (FE) of Mg
= 100 x (U
Mg
x P
Cr
) / (0.7 x P
Mg
x U
Cr
)
( if HypoMg, FE > 2.5% indicates renal loss of Mg).
Rx: Emergency:
4 mL 50% MgSO
4
( 8 mmoles ) solution IV in 20 mL NS/D5
infused over 15 minutes then 10 mL 50% MgSO
4
( 20
mmoles ) in 500 mL NS/D5 over 6 hrs.
Less urgent cases:
4 mL 50% MgSO
4
( 8 mmoles ) solution 500 mL NS/D5 Q 8
H/pint for 1 day ( up to 50% of the infused Mg will be
excreted in urine; slow and sustained correction of hypoMg is
preferred)
Chronic cases:
Normal average daily intake of Mg ~ 15 mmoles ( ~ 1/3 is
absorbed ).
1. Mg supplement : Mylanta / Gelusil : 3.5 mmoles/tablet
2. Amiloride: 5 – 10 mg daily PO ( decrease urinary loss of
Mg )
Hypermagnesaemia
Hints: uncommon in the absence of Mg administration or renal
failure;
mild cases ( < 1.5 mM ) usually require no treatment.
Rx: Take off Mg supplement if any;
Saline diuresis: NS 300 – 600 mL / hr infusion;
10% Calcium gluconate 10 – 20 mL in 100 mL NS over 15
minutes;
furosemide 20 – 40 mg Q2-4 Hr ( aim at urine output ~ 200
mL/hr );
haemodialysis if necessary.
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K8
Hyperphosphataemia
Hints: usually attributed to chronic renal failure;
usually resolved in 6-12 hrs if RFT normal;
aim at a serum phosphate level of ~ 1.4 mM for uraemic
patients.
Ix: RFT Ca PO
4
CO
2
ALP
Rx: 1. Low phosphate diet ( < 1 gm / 30 mmoles per day ).
2. Start phosphate-binder:
If serum phosphate < 2 mM:
Caltrate tab 1-2 tds with meal
Titralac tab 1-2 tds with meal
Ca acetate tab 1-2 tds with meal
If serum phosphate > 2 mM:
Alusorb tab 1-3 tds with meal
Alutab tab 1-3 tds with meal
3. Arrange dialysis if necessary.
Hypophosphataemia
Hints: usually required no treatment if serum PO
4
> 0.5 mM;
Replacement rate < 2 mg (0.067 mmoles)/kg per 6 hrs,
otherwise may be associated with metastatic calcification.
Ix: check RFT serum Ca / PO
4
ALP;
fractional excretion (FE) of phosphate
FE = 100 x (U
p
x P
Cr
) / (U
Cr
x P
p
)
(In the presence of hypoPO
4
, FE >5% indicates urinary loss)
Rx: IF serum PO
4
< 0.5 mM with symptoms:
6 mL potassium di-phosphate solution in 500 mL D5 Q 12 H
infusion
(Potassium di-phosphate solution :
14.5 mmoles PO
4
+ 25 mmoles K per 10 mL solution)
Chronic therapy:
Sandoz-phosphate tab 1 QID PO ( 16 mmoles PO
4
; 20
mmoles Na; 3 mmoles K / per tablet )
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K9
Hyponatraemia
Ix: RFT, serum / urine osmolarity, spot urine x Na.
1. Isovolaemia:
(urine Na > 20 mM: SIADH, hypothyroid, Addison’s disease;
urine Na < 10 mM: water intoxication )
Rx: restrict water intake < 1000 mL per day;
high salt diet (> 8 gm/day) ± sodium supplement:
Syr NaCl 2 gm tds (100 mmoles);
demeclocycline 600-1200 mg daily;
For symptomatic hypoNa: 100 mL 5.85% NaCl (1
mmole/mL) over 4-6 hrs + furosemide 40 mg IV; repeat if
necessary until serum Na > 120 mM or patient is
asymptomatic ( rapid collection > 0.5 mM / Hr elevation in
serum Na may lead to central pontine myelinosis ).
2. Hypovolaemia:
(urine Na < 10 mM: fluid loss, hypotension, dehydration;
urine Na > 20 mM: diuretics, adrenal insufficiency, salt
wasting)
NS 500 mL/hr till BP normal, then replace Na deficit with
NS;
Sodium deficit = BW (kg) x 0.6 x (desired [Na] – measured
[Na]); replace first 50% of deficit over 4-6 hrs and the other
50% over next 18-20 hrs till serum Na level reaches 120 mM
or increase by 12-20 mM over 24 hrs.
3. Hypervolaemia:
( urine Na < 10 mM: CHF, cirrhosis; urine Na > 20 mM:
acute / CRF )
Rx: restrict water intake < 1000 mL per day;
Furosemide 40-80 mg IV / 20 – 500 mg PO daily.
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K10
Hypernatraemia
Ix: serum / urine x osmolality.
Rx: Hypervolaemia:
( primary hyperaldosteronism, Cushing’s syndrome, acute salt
overload )
start D5 infusion to correct water deficit;
add furosemide 40-80 mg IV or PO Q12-24 H
Isovolaemia or Hypovolaemia:
( diabetes insipidus, large insensible water loss, renal / GI
loss )
 If volume is depleted, give NS 500 mL/hr infusion till
not orthostatic, then replace water:
Serum Na < 160 mM: give water PO
Serum Na > 160 mM: replace fluid with D5 or half
half saline;
 body water deficit (L) = {0.6 x BW(kg) x (measured
[Na] – 140)} / 140;
replace half of the body water deficit over first 24 hrs,
then remaining deficit over next 1-2 days ( correct Na
at a rate < 0.5 – 1 mM/hr; rapid correction may lead to
cerebral edema );
 for acute DI: give DDAVP 4-8 g Q 3-4 H prn;
 for chronic central DI: DDAVP 10-40g daily
intranasally ( in one to two divided dose)
 for chronic nephrogenic DI: thiazide diuretic, e.g.
indapamide 2.5 mg daily
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SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS
OF ACID-BASE DISORDERS
1. Hx and PE for causes of acid-base disturbance.
2. Identify the primary acid-base disturbance.
3. Assess adaptive response to primary acid-base disorder.
1
o
response Adaptive response
Metabolic
Acidosis HCO
3
pCO
2
: 1.6 kPa per 10 mM in HCO
3
Alkalosis HCO
3
pCO
2
: 0.9 kPa per 10 mM in HCO
3
Respiratory
Acidosis pCO
2
acute: 0.77 mM HCO
3
per 1 kPapCO
2
chronic: 2.7 mMHCO
3
per 1 kPapCO
2
Alkalosis pCO
2
acute: 1.5 mM HCO
3
per 1 kPapCO
2
chronic: 3 mM HCO
3
per 1 kPapCO
2
Suspect mixed metabolic / respiratory acid-base disorder if
compensation is not appropriate ( common in clinical practice!).
4. Calculate serum anion gap ( Na − Cl − HCO
3
; normal 10 ± 4 )
High AG metabolic acidosis:
- treat underlying disorder, consider HCO
3
therapy if serum
HCO
3
< 10.
Normal AG metabolic acidosis:
- use IV NaHCO
3
( 1 mL = 1 mmoles of HCO
3
) if serum HCO
3
<
10 ( to be given in large vein over 1-2 hrs, watch out for fluid /
salt overload ).
- IV NaHCO
3
required = (15 – measured HCO
3
) x BW (kg) x 0.5
(correction to HCO
3
> 15 mM is usually sufficient)
5. For patients with acidosis:
compare ∆AG with ∆serum HCO
3
(abnormal if discrepancy > 5):
∆AG > ∆ serum HCO
3
: mixed metabolic acidosis /
alkalosis
∆AG < ∆ serum HCO
3
: mixed normal AG /AG
metabolic acidosis
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6. Measure urine electrolytes / pH:
a) for patients with metabolic alkalosis
urine Cl < 15 mM – Cl responsive metabolic alkalosis,
e.g.vomiting
urine Cl > 15 mM – Cl resistant metabolic alkalosis,
e.g.mineralocorticol excess, during diuretic therapy.
b) for suspected renal tubular acidosis
urine anion gap : Na + K – Cl ( normal: negative )
urine osmolar gap: [urine osmolarity – 2(Na + K) – urea] / 2
(normal: >30)
abnormal value indicates low ammonium excretion, e.g. distal
RTA
*false positive conditions: - present of an unusual anion in
urine, e.g. ketone; excessive bicarbonaturia, urine pH > 6.5
Causes for high anion gap metabolic acidosis (MULEPAK)
M = methanol , U = uraemia,L = lactic acidosis,
E = ethylene glycol P = paraldehyde, A = aspirin,K = ketosis
Causes for normal anion gap metabolic acidosis (USEDCAR)
U = ureteroenterostomy, S = saline infusion, E = eucopenia d
e.g.: Addison, D = diarrhoea, C = carbonic anhydrase inhibitor,
A = ammonium chloride R = renal tubular acidosis
Therapeutic Options in patient with metabolic acidosis:
Hints: In order to avoid being misled by acute
hyperventilation or hypoventilation, plama [HCO
3
] is,
in general, a better guide to the need of NaHCO
3
therapy than systemic pH.
1. Correction of metabolic acidosis with HCO
3
- oral NaHCO
3
: 300 mg ( 3.6 mmoles ) per tablet
- NaHCO
3
required (mmoles) = (desired – measured HCO
3
) x
BW(kg) x 0.5
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- give over 1 – 2 hours as 8.4% NaHCO
3
IVI ( 1 mL = 1
mmole HCO
3
)
- overcorrection my increase CO
2
production which can
aggravate respiratory acidosis in a poorly ventilated patient.
Watch our for hypercapnia which may cause paradoxical
increase in acidaemia after NaHCO
3
therapy
- can worsen or precipitate hypokalaemia.
2. Hyperventilation:
If the patient with severe metabolic / respiratory acidosis in
pulmonary oedema, one should consider ventilating the
patient to lower their P
CO2
appropriately to treat their
acidaemia. Acidaemia responses much faster to a lowering of
P
CO2
than to IV NaHCO
3
therapy.
3. Dialysis:
- especially in those patients with volume overload;
- use HCO
3
bath for haemodialysis.
Therapeutic options in patients with metabolic alkalosis:
Hints: metabolic alkalosis is a disorder caused by mechanisms
whereby [HCO
3
] is elevated; and a renal basis, e.g.
hypovolaemia, to maintain an elevated [HCO
3
] level. Both
processes must be corrected if possible for an optimal
response to therapy.
Chloride-responsive metabolic alkalosis ( urine chloride < 15 mM ):
- give NS ± KCl to correct ECF volume;
- give H
2
antagonist if alkalosis due to NG suction;
- acetazolamide 250 mg QID PO / IV ( may promote K
loss ).
Chloride-resistant metabolic alkalosis ( urine chloride > 15 mM ):
- block mineralocorticoid effect with spironolactone 100 –
400 mg daily PO.
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K15
RENAL FAILURE
Hints: Exclude pre-renal failure: orthostatic hypotension, CHF,
cirrhosis
Exclude post-renal failure: PR exam, feel for bladder,
bedside USG
Ix: CBP, RLFT, CO2, Cl, urate, Arterial blood gases, CXR,
ECG;
24 hr urine x Na K P Cr Cr Clearance;
MSU x RM C/ST, urine x dysmorphic RBC;
Autoimmune markers : ANF, DsDNA, C3/4, ANCA,
anti-GBM, etc ;
HbsAg/Ab, anti-HCV (urgent HbsAg if HD is anticipated );
Urgent USG kidneys, KUB.
Treatment of suspected acute renal failure:
1. Fluid intake = 500 mL + urine output;
fluid challenge: NS 500-1000 mL over 1-2 hrs for
hypovolaemia;
add furosemide 10 mg/hr IV infusion for fluid overload;
metolazone 5-10 mg daily PO;
dopamine 2.5 g/kg/min to improve renal blood flow.
2. Correct electrolyte disturbances: hyperK, metabolic acidosis.
3. Low salt diet (< 100 mmoles per day), low K (<20
mmoles/day), low phosphorus diet (<800 mg day), low protein
diet (40 gm HBV).
4. Strict I/O chart, daily BW ( < 1 kg increase in BW per day ).
5. Emergency indications for dialysis: uncontrolled hyperK (>6
mM); uncontrolled metabolic acidosis (HCO
3
<10 mM);
uncontrolled pulmonary edema.
6. Less urgent indications for dialysis: uraemic pericarditis,
uraemic encephalopathy, intractable uraemic symptoms.
7. Inform on-call renal physician for acute HD support if
indicated.
8. Avoid nephrotoxic drugs if possible, e.g. NSAID,
aminoglycoside, etc..
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Treatment of chronic renal failure:
1. Consult renal team for assessment of feasibility of long-term
renal replacement therapy.
2. No blood taking / BP measurement from AV fistula arm.
3. Monitor AV fistula daily / exit site dressing daily for CAPD
patients.
4. Strict I/O chart, daily BW ( < 1 kg increase in BW per day ).
5. Diet ( ± consult dietitian ):
Calorie 30-35 kcal/kg/day ( 500-700 kcal from PD
already for CAPD patients );
Protein: 0.6-0.8 gm/kg/day for CRF patients
1.2-1.5 gm/kg/day for CAPD patients
1-1.2 gm/kg/day for HD patients.
Na: < 100 mmoles per day for CRF / HD patients
( except salt-loser )
No restriction for euvolaemic CAPD patients.
K: < 1 mmole/kg/day.
PO
4
: <800 mg/day.
Vitamin: Ascorbic acid 100 mg/day (optional)
Folic acid 5 mg/day (optional)
Rocaltrol / alfacalcidol: 0.25-2 g /day ( for renal
osteodystrophy ).
6. Control hypertension (<140/90): long-acting calcium channel
blocker, beta-blocker, ACEI ( monitor RFT, K ).
7. Correct metabolic acidosis, hyperK, hypocalcaemia.
8. Symptomatic anaemia ( Hb < 6.5 gm/dL ): transfusion
( preferably during dialysis using pack cell); give lasix 20-80
mg IV before transfusion; sustanon 250 mg IMI Q 2-4 week;
consider EPO therapy for refractory anaemia.
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K17
EMERGENCIES IN
RENAL TRANSPLANT PATIENTS
Fever:
both infection and acute graft rejection can present as fever;
a. Infection:
- consider opportunistic infection if < 6 months post-transplant;
- usual pattern of infection if > 6 months post-transplant;
- search for infection : hx, PE, culture from wound, urine, IV lines,
sputum,
blood, viral culture & serology, CMV pp-65 Ag, CXR.
- check CBP D/C, RLFT, CsA / Tacrolimus trough level, 24 hr
urine x P & Cr
- avoid macrolide antibiotics / fluconazole ( may increase CsA /
Tacrolimus level ).
b. Acute graft rejection:
- acute increase in serum creatinine > 20% after excluding other
causes;
- may present as oliguria, graft tenderness, fever, ankle edema,
hypertension;
- check CBP, RLFT, CsA / tacrolimus trough level, 24 hr urine x P
& Cr, MSU
- arrange urgent USG kidney + eucope study
- consider renal biopsy.
Oligouria / Anuria:
- DDx: acute graft rejection
acute CsA, tacrolimus toxicity
obstructive uropathy
urinary leakage
acute tubular necrosis
acute vascular ( arterial or venous ) thrombosis.
- treatment according to the cause
- check CBP, RLFT, CsA / tacrolimus trough level, MSU RM C/ST, 24 hr
urine x P Cr
- monitor I/O chart, hourly urine output
- urgent USG graft kidney + eucope study
- arrange standby MEG-3 / DTPA scan
- renal biopsy.
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K18
DRUG DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT IN RENAL FAILURE
(D: reduce dose (in %), same interval as in normal; I: same dose as
normal, increase interval between 2 dose (in hrs))
Adjustment for Renal Failure
Supplement
Name GFR (ml/min)
for Dialysis
D/I >50 10-50
<10 or ESRF
HD PD
Adriamycin D 100 100 75 ? ?
Allopurinol D 100 75 50 ? ?
I 8 8-12 12-24
Amiloride I 24 36 48 ? ?
Aspirin I 4 4-6
avoid
+ +
Atenolol D 100 50 25 + -
I 24 48 96
Azathioprine D 100 100 75 + -
Captopril D 100 100 50 + -
Carbamazepine D 100 100 75 - -
Chlorpropamide I 24
avoid avoid
- -
Cimetidine D 100 70 50 - -
Colchicine D 100 100 50 - -
Cyclophosphamide D 100 100 50-75 + -
I 24 24 36
Digoxin D 100 25-75 10-25 - -
Disopyramide I none 12-24 24-40 + -
Gemfibrozil D 100 50 25 ? ?
Hydralazine I 8 8 8-16 - -
Insulin D 100 75 50 ? ?
Methyldopa I 6 9-18 12-24 + +
Nadolol D 100 50 25 + -
Neostigmine I 6 6 12-18 ? ?
Penicillamine D 100
avoid avoid
? ?
Probenecid D 100
avoid avoid
? ?
Procainamide I 4 6-12 8-24 + -
Spironolactone D 100 50
avoid
? ?
I 6-12 12-24
avoid

Sulindac D 100 100 50 ? ?
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K19
Common Drugs not requiring dosage adjustment in Renal Failure
Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Bromocriptine Cefoperazone
Ceftriaxone Cholestyramine Cloxacillin Diltiazem
Erythromycin Furosemide Heparin Ketoconazole
Levodopa Lignocaine Minoxidil Nifedipine
Nitrates Prazosin Propylthiouracil Quinidine
Na valproate Steroids Streptokinase Theophylline
Tolbutamide Verapamil Warfarin
Drug interaction with tacrolimus
Increase drug level:
Imidazole: ketoconazole, fluconazole
Macrolide: erythromycin, clarithromycin
Calcium channel blocker: verapamil, diltiazam
Antidepressant: fluoxetine (Prozac)
Grapefruit juice
Decrease drug level:
Anti-TB drug: isonazid, rifampicin, ethambutol
Anti-convulsant: phenytoin,
Lipid-lowering agent: cholestyramine
Sulfamethoxazole
Ethanol
Additive nephrotoxicity:
Aminoglycoside
Amphotericin B
Sulphonamide / Trimethoprim
Colchicine
NSAID
Others:
Hyperkalaemia with ACEI, K-sparing diuretics, NSAID
Myopathy / rhabdomyolysis with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
Estimation of Creatinine Clearance
Cr Cl (ml/min) = [(140-Age) x BW (kg)] / [0.82 x Cr (µM)]
** value x 0.85 for women
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K20
PROTOCOL FOR TREATMENT OF CAPD
PERITONITIS
(BASED ON RECOMMENDATION OF ISPD, 2005)
1. Treatment of peritonitis in CAPD patients
When patient have signs and symptoms of peritonitis S/S:
 Turbid fluid
 Abdominal pain
 Fever
a. ask patient to come back immediately to dialysis unit for
collection of PDF
b. send PDF :
 absolute white cell count, gram smear
 culture
c. rapid flushing of 3 bags of PDF with heparin 500 units per litre
for symptomatic relief
d. adequate analgesia
e. increase to 4 exchanges per day to improve ultrafiltration
f. heparin: 500-1000 units/ L until S/S subsided or until fibrin
clots no longer visible
g. preliminary antibiotics regime:
 Empiric antibiotics must cover both gram-positive and gram-
negative organisms.
 Gram-positive organisms may be covered by vancomycin or
a cephalosporin, and gram-negative organisms by a
third/forth-generation cephalosporin (ceftazidime, cefepime),
aminoglycoside or carbapenam
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  K21
Suggested protocol
A. CAPD (intermittent dosing method)
 Daily urine output > 100 ml per day or deafness or recent
history of aminoglycoside in recent 3 months:
 Protocol 1
Loading dose:
Cefazolin 1 gram and Cefepime 1gram loading IP, allow
to dwell for at least 6 hours
Maintenance dose:
Cefazolin 1 gram + Cefepime 1gram into last bag QD
(at least 6 hours dwell) x 13 days
 Daily urine output < 100 ml per day and no recent
history of or contraindication to aminoglycosides:
Cefazolin 1 gram and Gentamicin 80 mg IP as loading
dose, then Cefazolin 1 gram and Gentamicin 40 mg IP into
last bag x 13 days.
 Substitute vancomycin (1gram iv or IP every 5-7 days)
for cefazolin if MRSE or MRSA suspected; no routine
use of Vancomycin to avoid emergence of VRE
 Change antibiotics regime once culture and sensitivity
result available
 For St. aureus or pseudomonas peritonitis, antibiotics
should be given x 21 days; otherwise 14 days of
antibiotics are adequate
 For refractory, recurrent or relapsing peritonitis, add
Nystatin oral suspension to prevent Candida peritonitis
B. CCPD (intermittent dosing method)
 Can convert to CAPD temporarily
 Intermittent dosing not recommended for severe cases
 Mild to moderate case: Cefazolin with Cefepime 1 gram
into long daytime dwell
 If patient has evidence of septicemia, admit patient and
give parenteral antibiotics
: s
  K21
Suggested protocol
A. CAPD (intermittent dosing method)
 Daily urine output > 100 ml per day or deafness or recent
history of aminoglycoside in recent 3 months:
 Protocol 1
Loading dose:
Cefazolin 1 gram and Cefepime 1gram loading IP, allow
to dwell for at least 6 hours
Maintenance dose:
Cefazolin 1 gram + Cefepime 1gram into last bag QD
(at least 6 hours dwell) x 13 days
 Daily urine output < 100 ml per day and no recent
history of or contraindication to aminoglycosides:
Cefazolin 1 gram and Gentamicin 80 mg IP as loading
dose, then Cefazolin 1 gram and Gentamicin 40 mg IP into
last bag x 13 days.
 Substitute vancomycin (1gram iv or IP every 5-7 days)
for cefazolin if MRSE or MRSA suspected; no routine
use of Vancomycin to avoid emergence of VRE
 Change antibiotics regime once culture and sensitivity
result available
 For St. aureus or pseudomonas peritonitis, antibiotics
should be given x 21 days; otherwise 14 days of
antibiotics are adequate
 For refractory, recurrent or relapsing peritonitis, add
Nystatin oral suspension to prevent Candida peritonitis
B. CCPD (intermittent dosing method)
 Can convert to CAPD temporarily
 Intermittent dosing not recommended for severe cases
 Mild to moderate case: Cefazolin with Cefepime 1 gram
into long daytime dwell
 If patient has evidence of septicemia, admit patient and
give parenteral antibiotics
: s
  K21
Suggested protocol
A. CAPD (intermittent dosing method)
 Daily urine output > 100 ml per day or deafness or recent
history of aminoglycoside in recent 3 months:
 Protocol 1
Loading dose:
Cefazolin 1 gram and Cefepime 1gram loading IP, allow
to dwell for at least 6 hours
Maintenance dose:
Cefazolin 1 gram + Cefepime 1gram into last bag QD
(at least 6 hours dwell) x 13 days
 Daily urine output < 100 ml per day and no recent
history of or contraindication to aminoglycosides:
Cefazolin 1 gram and Gentamicin 80 mg IP as loading
dose, then Cefazolin 1 gram and Gentamicin 40 mg IP into
last bag x 13 days.
 Substitute vancomycin (1gram iv or IP every 5-7 days)
for cefazolin if MRSE or MRSA suspected; no routine
use of Vancomycin to avoid emergence of VRE
 Change antibiotics regime once culture and sensitivity
result available
 For St. aureus or pseudomonas peritonitis, antibiotics
should be given x 21 days; otherwise 14 days of
antibiotics are adequate
 For refractory, recurrent or relapsing peritonitis, add
Nystatin oral suspension to prevent Candida peritonitis
B. CCPD (intermittent dosing method)
 Can convert to CAPD temporarily
 Intermittent dosing not recommended for severe cases
 Mild to moderate case: Cefazolin with Cefepime 1 gram
into long daytime dwell
 If patient has evidence of septicemia, admit patient and
give parenteral antibiotics
: s
K21
Suggested protocol
A. CAPD (intermittent dosing method)
 Daily urine output > 100 ml per day or deafness or recent
history of aminoglycoside in recent 3 months:
 Protocol 1
Loading dose:
Cefazolin 1 gram and Cefepime 1gram loading IP, allow
to dwell for at least 6 hours
Maintenance dose:
Cefazolin 1 gram + Cefepime 1gram into last bag QD
(at least 6 hours dwell) x 13 days
 Daily urine output < 100 ml per day and no recent
history of or contraindication to aminoglycosides:
Cefazolin 1 gram and Gentamicin 80 mg IP as loading
dose, then Cefazolin 1 gram and Gentamicin 40 mg IP into
last bag x 13 days.
 Substitute vancomycin (1gram iv or IP every 5-7 days)
for cefazolin if MRSE or MRSA suspected; no routine
use of Vancomycin to avoid emergence of VRE
 Change antibiotics regime once culture and sensitivity
result available
 For St. aureus or pseudomonas peritonitis, antibiotics
should be given x 21 days; otherwise 14 days of
antibiotics are adequate
 For refractory, recurrent or relapsing peritonitis, add
Nystatin oral suspension to prevent Candida peritonitis
9. CCPD (intermittent dosing method)
 Can convert to CAPD temporarily
 Intermittent dosing not recommended for severe cases
 Mild to moderate case: Cefazolin with Cefepime 1 gram
into long daytime dwell
10. If patient has evidence of septicemia, admit patient and give
parenteral antibiotics
K21
Suggested protocol
A. CAPD (intermittent dosing method)
 Daily urine output > 100 ml per day or deafness or recent
history of aminoglycoside in recent 3 months:
 Protocol 1
Loading dose:
Cefazolin 1 gram and Cefepime 1gram loading IP, allow
to dwell for at least 6 hours
Maintenance dose:
Cefazolin 1 gram + Cefepime 1gram into last bag QD
(at least 6 hours dwell) x 13 days
 Daily urine output < 100 ml per day and no recent
history of or contraindication to aminoglycosides:
Cefazolin 1 gram and Gentamicin 80 mg IP as loading
dose, then Cefazolin 1 gram and Gentamicin 40 mg IP into
last bag x 13 days.
 Substitute vancomycin (1gram iv or IP every 5-7 days)
for cefazolin if MRSE or MRSA suspected; no routine
use of Vancomycin to avoid emergence of VRE
 Change antibiotics regime once culture and sensitivity
result available
 For St. aureus or pseudomonas peritonitis, antibiotics
should be given x 21 days; otherwise 14 days of
antibiotics are adequate
 For refractory, recurrent or relapsing peritonitis, add
Nystatin oral suspension to prevent Candida peritonitis
9. CCPD (intermittent dosing method)
 Can convert to CAPD temporarily
 Intermittent dosing not recommended for severe cases
 Mild to moderate case: Cefazolin with Cefepime 1 gram
into long daytime dwell
10. If patient has evidence of septicemia, admit patient and give
parenteral antibiotics
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 Cefazolin 500 mg i.v.i. Q12Hr + Cefepime 1 Gm i.v.i. Q24H (if
daily urine > 100 ml per day)
 Cefazolin 500 mg i.v.i. Q12Hr + Gentamicin 100 mg Q48Hr (if
anuria and no recent aminoglycosides in 3 months)
i. Change antibiotics later according to c/st result and adequate
duration of antibiotics (14 – 21 days)
j. Repeat PDF x absolute Wcc and gram smear, culture on D4,
reassess the S/S
k. Consider removal of Tenckhoff catheter if peritonitis fails to
respond to appropriate antibiotic within 5 days
l. Change transfer set after completion of antibiotics if patient
recover
6. Treatment of fungal peritonitis
 Arranged removal of TC
 Arrange insertion of triple-lumen central venous catheter for
amphotericin B infusion and haemodialysis
 Continue CAPD until on call to OT, drain out PDF before to OT
 Amphotericin B:
test dose – 1 mg in 100 ml D5 over 1 hr
then 10 mg / 200 ml D5 over 6 hr on D1, 20 mg / 200 ml D5 over
6 hr from D2-21
alternative: Fluconazole: 200 mg loading and then 100 mg QD
p.o. x 3 weeks
7. Antibiotic prophylaxis for procedure:
 For dental procedure, a single oral dose of amoxicillin (2 g) 2
hours before extensive dental procedures
 For patients undergoing colonoscopy with polypectomy –
Ampicillin (1 g) plus a single dose of an aminoglycoside (1.5
mg/kg, max 80 mg), with or without metronidazole, given IV just
prior to the procedure
 The abdomen should be emptied of fluid prior to all procedures
involving the abdomen or pelvis (such as colonoscopy, renal
transplantation, and endometrial biopsy)
K16
Treatment of chronic renal failure:
1. Consult renal team for assessment of feasibility of long-term
renal replacement therapy.
2. No blood taking / BP measurement from AV fistula arm.
3. Monitor AV fistula daily / exit site dressing daily for CAPD
patients.
4. Strict I/O chart, daily BW ( < 1 kg increase in BW per day ).
5. Diet ( ± consult dietitian ):
Calorie 30-35 kcal/kg/day ( 500-700 kcal from PD
already for CAPD patients );
Protein: 0.6-0.8 gm/kg/day for CRF patients
1.2-1.5 gm/kg/day for CAPD patients
1-1.2 gm/kg/day for HD patients.
Na: < 100 mmoles per day for CRF / HD patients
( except salt-loser )
No restriction for euvolaemic CAPD patients.
K: < 1 mmole/kg/day.
PO
4
: <800 mg/day.
Vitamin: Ascorbic acid 100 mg/day (optional)
Folic acid 5 mg/day (optional)
Rocaltrol / alfacalcidol: 0.25-2 g /day ( for renal
osteodystrophy ).
6. Control hypertension (<140/90): long-acting calcium channel
blocker, beta-blocker, ACEI ( monitor RFT, K ).
7. Correct metabolic acidosis, hyperK, hypocalcaemia.
8. Symptomatic anaemia ( Hb < 6.5 gm/dL ): transfusion
( preferably during dialysis using pack cell); give lasix 20-80
mg IV before transfusion; sustanon 250 mg IMI Q 2-4 week;
consider EPO therapy for refractory anaemia.
K16
Treatment of chronic renal failure:
1. Consult renal team for assessment of feasibility of long-term
renal replacement therapy.
2. No blood taking / BP measurement from AV fistula arm.
3. Monitor AV fistula daily / exit site dressing daily for CAPD
patients.
4. Strict I/O chart, daily BW ( < 1 kg increase in BW per day ).
5. Diet ( ± consult dietitian ):
Calorie 30-35 kcal/kg/day ( 500-700 kcal from PD
already for CAPD patients );
Protein: 0.6-0.8 gm/kg/day for CRF patients
1.2-1.5 gm/kg/day for CAPD patients
1-1.2 gm/kg/day for HD patients.
Na: < 100 mmoles per day for CRF / HD patients
( except salt-loser )
No restriction for euvolaemic CAPD patients.
K: < 1 mmole/kg/day.
PO
4
: <800 mg/day.
Vitamin: Ascorbic acid 100 mg/day (optional)
Folic acid 5 mg/day (optional)
Rocaltrol / alfacalcidol: 0.25-2 g /day ( for renal
osteodystrophy ).
6. Control hypertension (<140/90): long-acting calcium channel
blocker, beta-blocker, ACEI ( monitor RFT, K ).
7. Correct metabolic acidosis, hyperK, hypocalcaemia.
8. Symptomatic anaemia ( Hb < 6.5 gm/dL ): transfusion
( preferably during dialysis using pack cell); give lasix 20-80
mg IV before transfusion; sustanon 250 mg IMI Q 2-4 week;
consider EPO therapy for refractory anaemia.
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K23
PROTOCOL FOR TREATMENT OF CAPD EXIT
SITE INFECTIONS
(BASED ON RECOMMENDATION OF ISPD, 2000)
Exit site infection:
1. Purulent discharge from exit site, or
2. 2 out of following features around the exit site:
redness / pain / skin induration / serous discharge / fever
Treatment:
1. Equivocal exit site infection
 Hibitane dressing TDS
 Local treatment: 0.1% Gentamycin cream, 2%
mupirocin cream or otosporin ear drops to exit wound
TDS
2. Exit site infection
 Take swab x R/M, c/st
 Empirical treatment depends on clinical appearance of
exit site
 Oral penicillinase-resistant penicillin (Cloxacillin 500
mg qid) or Cephalexin (500 mg qid) x 14 days if gram
positive organisms suspected (from previous history)
 Oral eucopenia d 500 mg BD p.o. x 14 days if
gram negative organisms suspected (avoids medication
contains multi-valent cations including Sevelamer, Ca
or Fe supplements , Mg-Al containing antacids,
sucralfate, milk; a minimal spacing of 2 hours from
ciprofloxacins if cannot discontinue)
 Change antibiotics regime according to c/st guide once
available
 For Gram +ve organism, if no improvement after 10
days of appropriate antibiotics, add rifamipcin 450 mg
daily; For Gram-ve organisms, if no improvement,
parental antibiotics may be needed
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K24
 If ESI + peritonitis: early removal of TC
 Consult senior for assessment if ESI persistent before
further courses of antibiotics
 Refractory ESI:
- For double-cuffed TC, consult senior for removal
of external cuff if external cuff eroded and extruded
 Recurrent ESI:
- Counsel on personal hygiene, review exit site care,
avoid excessive traction on TC
- Take nasal swab x R/M, c/st. If repeatedly grow St
aureus, give mupirocin cream LA TDS x 1 wk to
eradicate nasal carriage
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Neurology
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N1
COMA
Coma is a medical emergency characterized by the total
absence of arousal and of awareness. Essential management
includes prompt stabilization of vital physiologic functions,
aetiological diagnosis, and directed therapy.
1. Correct any compromised airway, breathing or circulation
(ABC), maintain MAP > 70mmHg and SaO
2
> 90%.
2. Establish aetiology by adequate history, P/E and Ix
a) All patients must have blood sugar checked
b) P/E – T°, BP/P, alcohol smell, evidence of trauma, and a
detailed neurological examination including respiratory
pattern, fundi, meningism, brainstem reflexes, Glasgow
Coma Scale. The neck should be immobilized until cervical
spine instability is ruled out.
c) Ix – blood sugar with h’stix, RFT, LFT, ABG, blood and
urine toxicology, SXR, XR cervical spine, CXR, ECG
d) Other Ix (in selected patients) – CT brain, CSF
examination, EEG, thyroid function tests, cortisol, serum
osmolality, ammonia level, MRI.
3. Initiate specific therapy where appropriate
a) Thiamine 100 mg iv for alcoholic or malnourished patient
b) D50 40 ml iv for hypoglycaemia, after iv thiamine
c) Naloxone (Narcan) 0.8 mg to 2 mg iv stat, then every 2
mins prn up to 10 mg for suspected narcotic overdose
d) Flumazenil (Anexate) 0.2 mg followed by 0.3 mg at 1 min ,
then 0.5 mg every 1 min to a total of 3 mg for suspected
benzodiazepine overdose
e) Antidote or specific therapy (if available) for other drug
overdose
f) Definitive treatment for the cause of coma
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N2
4. Supportive
a) Close monitoring of vital signs and neurological status
b) Proper positioning and turning to avoid aspiration, pressure
nerve palsy, contracture, pressure sore
c) Bladder eucopenia d on
d) Adequate hydration, oxygenation and nutrition
e) Chest and limb physiotherapy
f) Hypromellose eyedrops and secure eyelids if no
spontaneous blinking
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N3
ACUTE CONFUSIONAL STATE
(DELIRIUM)
An acute transient organic mental syndrome characterized by a
global disorder of cognition and attention, abnormally increased
or reduced psychomotor activity and disturbed sleep-wake cycle.
Consciousness can be fluctuating and may be depressed, lethargic
or excited. It is a non-specific manifestation of a wide variety of
acute conditions, especially in elderly.
The diagnosis of delirium is primarily clinical and is based on
careful bedside observation. In the elderly, delirium is a common
manifestation of acute illness and a detail drug history is essential.
1. Choice of Ix according to the clinical presentation
a) CBP, ESR, urea, electrolytes, R/LFT, thyroid function tests,
blood glucose, ABG, urine analysis and culture, blood
culture, ECG, CXR, EEG, blood/urine drug screen
b) Serum B
12
, folate level, syphilis serology, lumbar puncture,
toxicology, urinary porphyrins, HIV antibodies,
autoantibodies, serum Mg, CT brain
2. Management
a) Definitive treatment directed against the cause of delirium
b) Review medications and withdraw the precipitating drugs
c) Supportive and symptomatic treatment
d) Fluid and electrolytes balance, adequate nutrition and
vitamins
e) Reassuring supportive nursing care in well illuminated, quiet
place
f) Low dose haloperidol 1-3 mg daily in divided dose if
sedation necessary
g) Benzodiazepines are drug of choice in case of withdrawal
from alcohol/sedatives
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ACUTE STROKE
It is essential to identify site, subtype, cause and risk factors of
stroke.
1. Admit to designated acute stroke unit.
2. Initial assessment: vital signs including airway, respiration,
haemodynamics, conscious level & neurological impairment.
3. Ix : Urgent non-contrast CT brain, CBP, R/LFT, PT, aPTT,
blood glucose, lipid, CXR, ECG.
4. Special Ix (in selected cases): Magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computer
tomography angiography (CTA), Echocardiography, Duplex
study of carotid arteries, Transcranial Doppler (TCD), cerebral
angiography, hyper-coagulopathy, autoimmune screening.
5. Supportive management:
a) Regular monitoring of neurological and vital signs
b) Swallowing assessment before feeding, positioning splinting
to avoid aspiration, contractures, pressure nerve palsy, shoulder
subluxation, pressure sores, etc
c) Ensure good hydration, nutrition and oxygenation
d) Meticulous control of blood sugar & pyrexia
e) Cautious and gradual lowering of elevated blood pressure
 In ischaemic stroke, lowering of blood pressure only in case
of hypertensive emergencies (eg: hypertensive
encephalopathy, aortic dissection, acute renal failure, acute
pulmonary edema or acute myocardial infarction) or when the
systolic blood pressure >220 mmHg or higher, or the diastolic
blood pressure is 120 mmHg or higher according to repeated
measurements 20 minutes.
 In hemorrhagic stroke, lowering of blood pressure is
considered if the mean arterial blood pressure is >130mmHg.
f) Early chest, limb physiotherapy and mobilization.
6. Specific therapy:
a) Aspirin 75mg to 325 mg daily within 48 hours of onset of acute
ischaemic stroke
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b) Anticoagulation may be considered for acute ischaemic stroke
in:- Arterial dissection
- Documented cardiac or intra-arterial source of embolism
- Cerebral venous thrombosis
Contraindications and precautions
e.g. BP > 180/110 mmHg, large infarct,
elderly (age>80)
The use of anti-coagulation in acute stroke due to large artery
thrombosis is controversial.
7. Neurosurgical consultation:
a) Cerebellar haematoma or large cerebellar infarct with
significant mass effect
b) Large cerebral haematoma (> 30ml) with significant mass effect
c) Impending or established hydrocephalus
d) Subarachnoid haemorrhage
e) Malignant MCA syndrome
8. All acute stroke patients should be assessed by neurologist
or rehabilitation specialist for rehabilitation potential and
admission to organized rehabilitation programmes
9. Secondary prevention:
a) Risk factor modification for all types of stroke
b) Oral anticoagulation in cardiogenic embolism (including non-
valvular AF) and anti-phospholipid syndrome
c) Aspirin 80-300mg daily for ischaemic stroke if anti-coagulation
not indicated, aspirin + controlled release dipyridamole or
clopidogrel are other options for first line anti-platelet agents.
Dual anti-platelet agents may be considered in very high risk
patient on individual basis.
d) Carotid Endartectomy (CEA) is the choice of intervention for
symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis of 50-99% in suitable
surgical candidates; carotid stenting may be considered in case
of: (i) difficult surgical assess, (ii) medical co-morbidities with
high risk of surgery eg: IHD, (iii) radiation induced
arteriopathy, (iv) re-stenosis after CEA
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N6
SUBARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE
Investigations
1. CT brain as soon as possible
2. Lumbar puncture if CT is negative, send CSF for
xanthochromia
3. Urgent cerebral angiogram if early surgery is considered
Management
1. Correct any compromised airway, breathing and circulation
2. Confirm diagnosis (CT + LP) and consult neurosurgeons
3. Assess severity (Hunt and Hess
1
) and neurological status
4. Early surgery should be considered in patients with grade 1, 2
and 3 SAH after aneurysm demonstrated by angiogram
5. Begin nimodipine 60 mg po q4h, or 1 mg/hr iv infusion in
grade 1, 2 and 3 patients (use of nimodipine should be
individualized in grade 4 and 5 patients) with BP check
6. Monitor BP closely and control high BP very carefully (exact
level of target BP is controversial, but avoid treating eactive HT)
7. Monitor GCS, brainstem reflexes, neurological deficits
8. Correct for any abnormalities in T
o
, fluid balance, electrolytes,
osmolality, blood glucose, SaO
2
and cardiac rhythm
9. Anticonvulsant if seizures occur
10. Analgesics, sedatives, acid suppressants and stool softener prn
11. Other medical therapies may be considered (benefit
controversial) – dexamethasone, prophylactic anti-convulsant
and antifibrinolytic agents
1
Hunt & Hess Grading :
Grade 1 Asymptomatic/slight headache
2 Mod/severe headache and nuchal rigidity but no focal or lateralizing
neurologic signs except cranial nerve palsies
3 Drowsiness, confusion and mild focal deficit
4 Stupor, hemiparesis, early decerebrate rigidity and vegetative disturbances
5 Deep coma and decerebrate rigidity
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N7
TONIC-CLONIC STATUS EPILEPTICUS
Operational definition:
1. Two or more epileptic seizures without full recovery of
consciousness between attacks
2. Continuous seizure lasting more than 5 minutes.
Management
1. Establish ABC, administer oxygen
2. Ensure good oxygenation and IV access
3. Check glucose and h’stix, electrolytes (include Ca ± Mg), ABG,
urea, anticonvulsant level
4. Give D50 50 ml iv and/or 100 mg thiamine iv where appropriate.
Treat acidosis if severe
5. Suppress clinical seizures rapidly with iv lorazepam 2 – 4mg
over 2 minute, up to 8mg. Alternative: iv diazepam 5 – 10 mg
over 1-2 minutes, up to 20 mg.
6. Give simultaneously long acting anti-epileptic drug:
Phenytoin – iv loading dose 15mg/kg (elderly) to 20mg/kg
(adult), at rate of 50mg per minute. Lower infusion rate for
elderly or underlying cardiac disease. Undiluted or diluted in
normal saline (phenytoin precipitates with dextrose). Monitor
ECG and BP for cardiorespiratory depression, hypotension and
arrhythmias. Maintenance dose 5mg/kg/day (usually 100mg
Q8H iv).
7. If above agents unsuccessful, ICU admission advisable for
ventilatory assistance and second line agents eg. Thiopentone,
midazolam or propofol, with EEG monitoring.
8. Monitor BP/P,RR, ECG and document further seizures.
Continue intensive treatment for 12-24 hrs after last clinical or
EEG seizure.
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9. Search for and treat any acute symptomatic cause e.g. acute
stroke (infarct or haemorrhage), head injury, CNS infection,
electrolyte/metabolic disturbances, alcoholism, drug
intoxication. If there is a history of epilepsy, look for abrupt
anticonvulsant withdrawal. Identify and treat any complications.
10. If a patient fails to gradually recover after the convulsive
movements stop, EEG monitoring may be needed to ensure
cessation of electrical seizure activity.
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N9
GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROME
Clinical Presentation
1. SUBACUTE PROGRESSIVE polyneuropathy
2. Predominantly MOTOR paralysis
3. Generalized AREFLEXIA or hyporeflexia
4. Clinical progression plateaus by about 4 weeks
5. Miller Fisher syndrome: ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, areflexia
6. Look for preceding infection e.g. Campylobactor jejuni,
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Diagnosis
1. Should NOT have new-onset upper motor neuron signs or
sensory level.
2. Consider paralysis due to other acute neuropathies e.g. toxic
neuropathy (alcohol, heavy metals, insecticides, solvents, drugs
like cytotoxic agents), vasculitis, lymphomatous infiltration,
porphyria, critical illness polyneuropathy; or neuromuscular
junction disorders, e.g. MG crisis, botulism
3. Arrange nerve conduction study (may be normal in 1
st
week)
4. Perform lumbar puncture
Raised CSF protein (may be normal in 1
st
week, ~80%
abnormal in 2
nd
week, peak in 3-4 weeks), but normal cell
count.
5. Nerve biopsy: if presentation atypical or other causes are
suspected e.g. vasculitis.
6. Anti-GQ1b antibody is closely associated with Miller-Fisher
Syndrome.
Management
1. Supportive care remains the cornerstone of treatment eg.
Adequate nutrition and hydration, physiotherapy, appropriate
splinting, clear secretions.
2. Monitor neurological status and FVC regularly.
3. Consider assisted ventilation if FVC < 15-20 ml/kg. NIPPV is
in general NOT appropriate.
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4. Cardiac monitoring (life-threatening autonomic dysfunction
accounts for significant mortality)
5. Steroid treatment has no benefit.
6. In severe cases, give intravenous immunoglobulin 0.4g/kg/day
for 5 days or plasma exchange, totally 50ml/kg/session of
plasma for 4-6 exchanges over 7-14 days.
MYASTHENIC CRISIS
Crisis: severe eucopenia weakness and need for respiratory
support. *Tensilon test – diagnostic test in untreated disease. Not
reliable in differentiating myasthenic and cholinergic crisis and
not without risk, hence not recommended in crisis setting.
Management
1. Watch out for respiratory failure in any patient with
progressive weakness
2. Regularly monitor FVC ± maximal static respiratory pressures
(peak flow rate, SaO
2
, ABG not useful)
3. General supportive measures and ICU care
4. Intubate and initiate mechanical ventilation if FVC < 15-20
ml/kg or patient exhausted
5. Stop anticholinesterase
6. Give IVIG 0.4 g/kg/day for 5 days. An alternative is plasma
exchange 50 ml/kg daily or on alternate days until adequate
response achieved (usually after 2-5 exchanges).
7. Resume anticholinesterase at a smaller dose 48-72 hours after
stabilization and titrate according to response.
8. Start prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day, early steroid-induced
deterioration may occur.
9. Identify and treat any precipitating conditions (e.g. underlying
infection)
10. Avoid any drug that can worsen M.G. e.g. aminoglycosides,
quinine, quinidine, quinolones, procainamide, β-blockers,
muscle relaxants, penicillamine.
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N11
ACUTE SPINAL CORD SYNDROME
It is of paramount importance to make an early diagnosis of acute
spinal cord compression, to provide the patient with the best
chance for neurological recovery. “Sensory level” can be falsely
localizing and imaging of spinal cord rostral to clinical sensory
level is advisable.
Investigations to delineate level and nature of spinal cord
lesion
1. XR spine
2. MRI spine of relevant level if immediately available; otherwise
myelogram and CT myelogram
3. Send CSF obtained during myelogram for microscopy, culture,
biochemistry, Ig and cytology
4. ± Spinal angiogram, Vitamin B12 and folate
Management
1. Correct any compromised airway, breathing and circulation
2. Immobilize relevant level of spine in case of traumatic spinal
cord injury or spine instability.
3. Initiate appropriate treatment for specific spinal cord lesions:
• neurosurgical / orthopaedic consultation for structural lesions
• antimicrobial therapy for abscess or other infections
• methylprednisolone 1 gm intravenously over one hour daily for 3
days, may be useful in non-infectious inflammatory myelitis
4. Institute general supportive care:
 proper positioning & splinting
 adequate hydration and nutrition
 bladder catheterization
 regular monitoring of vital signs
5. Close monitoring of respiratory function (FVC, respiratory rate)
in case of high cord lesions
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DELIRIUM TREMENS
Manifests as tremulousness, hallucinations, agitation, confusion,
disorientation and autonomic overactivity including fever,
tachycardia and profuse perspiration. Consciousness may
fluctuate.
Usually occurs 72-96 hours after complete cessation of drinking,
rarely may occur in a patient still drinking a diminished amount or
following withdrawal of other sedative drugs
− Diagnosis based on clinical features and exclusion of other
causes of delirium
Management
1. General supportive care
2. Monitor BP/P, I/O, T
o
, cardiac rhythm
3. Correct fluid and electrolyte disturbance. Watch out especially
for hypomagnesaemia, hypokalaemia and hypoglycaemia
4. Start benzodiazepine: lorazepam 2 mg TDS (if liver impairment)
or chlordiazepoxide 10 mg – 20 mg TDS oral. Adjust dose
according to severity. Reduce dose in elderly. Taper dosage
gradually over 5-7 days.
Alternative: chlormethiazole 2-3 capsules BD to TDS oral,
depending on severity. Taper dose gradually.
Avoid chlorpromazine because of its epileptogenicity.
5. Give thiamine 50 mg iv before iv dextrose
6. Ensure adequate nutrition and vitamins
7. Search out for and treat any concurrent illnesses
8. Reassuring nursing care in well-illuminated, quiet place
Reference: McKeon et al. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007, 78:1167-1170.
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WERNICKE’S ENCEPHALOPATHY
Clinical syndrome of acute or subacute onset of neurological signs
in alcoholics or severely malnourished patients, including
ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and a confusional state with antegrade
amnesia. Presentation can be partial.
Investigations
- Urea and electrolytes, R/LFT, serum magnesium
- Blood Glucose, h’stix
- ABG
- Serum and RBC thiamine or transketolase activities before
initiating therapy if available,
but this should not delay treatment.
Management
1. General supportive care
2. Monitor BP/P, I/O, T
o
, cardiac rhythm
3. Monitor neurological signs closely, esp. ophthalmoplegia
(should respond within hours to thiamine Rx)
4. Correct fluid and electrolyte disturbance. Watch out especially
for hypomagnesaemia, hypokalaemia and hypoglycaemia
5. Give thiamine at least 100 mg iv daily for 5 days, may need
higher doses. (Oral thiamine is inadequate.)
6. Give parenteral B complex in initial treatment
7. Balanced high calorie diet, vitamins and adequate hydration
8. Watch out for and treat any concurrent illness
Reference: McKeon et al. Alcohol Withdrawal
Syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007,
78:1167-1170.
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N14
PERI-OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT IN
PATIENTS WITH NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES
High risk of peri-operative pulmonary complications:
Parkinsonism, myasthenia gravis, other neuro-muscular disorders
affecting respiratory muscles and any neurological deficits
compromising respiratory effort.
Peri-operative management:
1. Comprehensive pulmonary assessment before operation
2. Optimal control of neurological conditions
3. Vigorous peri-operative chest physiotherapy
4. Regular monitoring of FVC, respiratory rate, SaO2, ABG
5. Continue anti-epileptic, anti-cholinesterase and anti-
parkinsonism drugs as close to normal schedule as possible.
Resume as soon as possible after operation.
Alternative parenteral drugs:
Anti-cholinergic: Benztropine 1-4mg/day im/iv in divided dose
Anti-cholinesterase: Neostigmine 0.5 mg im/iv q4-6h
Anti-epileptic: phenytoin / sodium valproate available in iv
form
6a Bridging therapy is recommended for patient with high risk of
thromboembolic event after anti-coagulant is stopped
6b Discontinue anti-platelet agents 1 week before elective surgery,
but aspirin may be continued in the following procedures: (i)
dental procedures, (ii) endoscopies with biopsies and
polypectomies, (iii) ophthalmologic procedures, (iv) peripheral
vascular procedure, (v) neuraxial anesthesia
7. Avoid aminoglycosides, quinolones, morphine, quinidine, -
blockers, procainamide, penicillamine for myasthenia gravis
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Risk of Peri-operative stroke
1. Increase in hypertension
2. Asymptomatic carotid bruit not an independent risk factor
3 Symptomatic carotid stenosis should be repaired before non-
emergency operation. Symptomatic large vessel stenosis in the
posterior circulation need to have aggressive intraoperative
maintenance of blood pressure to avoid prolonged hypotenion
4. Decreased by avoiding hypotension, hypovolemia,
polycythaemia and anaemia
5. Postpone elective procedures for at least 6 weeks after an
ischaemic stroke to allow healing at the infarct site; smaller
stroke or lacunae may require shorter waiting period
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Respiratory
Medicine
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M
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P1
MECHANICAL VENTILATION
1. Indications
• Acute and acute-on-chronic respiratory failure (ARF)
• Decreasing conscious level (e.g. GCS < 8) for airway protection
and respiratory support
• Following cardiac arrest
• Surgical conditions: prolonged postoperative recovery, recovery
after prolonged major surgery or trauma, control of intracranial
pressure in head injury
Note: No absolute indications for assisted ventilation in terms of ABG
or lung function criteria, important points to consider include:
i. Clinical status: patient distress and exhaustion, trend of
disease, expected prognosis (e.g. reversibility)
ii. Patient’s wish for this highly invasive treatment
2. Suggested initial ventilator settings
Disease
condition
Acute Resp
distress
syndrome
(ARDS)
Acute
pulmonary
oedema
Obstructive
lung disease
(COPD/
Asthma)
Restrictive
lung disease
Chief disease
mechanism
Very low lung
compliance
Low lung
compliance
Airflow
obstruction
Low lung &/
or chest wall
compliance
Tidal volume
(ml/kg
predicted BW)
6 8 – 10 6 – 8 12 – 14
Frequency
(breath/min)
Permissive
hypercapnia
(keep pH just
above 7.25 as
“lung protective
strategy”)
Assisted
control/ SIMV/
pressure support
(PS) mode to
achieve patient
comfort
10 – 14
Ensure long
enough
expiratory
time to avoid
air-trapping
To achieve
desired pH
and ABG
Positive end-
expiratory
pressure/
PEEP
(cmH
2
O)
May need > 10
(open lung
approach)
High (5 – 10)
initially, can be
rapidly tailed
down
0 – 3 max 3 – 5
P1
MECHANICAL VENTILATION
1. Indications
• Acute and acute-on-chronic respiratory failure (ARF)
• Decreasing conscious level (e.g. GCS < 8) for airway protection
and respiratory support
• Following cardiac arrest
• Surgical conditions: prolonged postoperative recovery, recovery
after prolonged major surgery or trauma, control of intracranial
pressure in head injury
Note: No absolute indications for assisted ventilation in terms of ABG
or lung function criteria, important points to consider include:
i. Clinical status: patient distress and exhaustion, trend of
disease, expected prognosis (e.g. reversibility)
ii. Patient’s wish for this highly invasive treatment
2. Suggested initial ventilator settings
Disease
condition
Acute Resp
distress
syndrome
(ARDS)
Acute
pulmonary
oedema
Obstructive
lung disease
(COPD/
Asthma)
Restrictive
lung disease
Chief disease
mechanism
Very low lung
compliance
Low lung
compliance
Airflow
obstruction
Low lung &/
or chest wall
compliance
Tidal volume
(ml/kg
predicted BW)
6 8 – 10 6 – 8 12 – 14
Frequency
(breath/min)
Permissive
hypercapnia
(keep pH just
above 7.25 as
“lung protective
strategy”)
Assisted
control/ SIMV/
pressure support
(PS) mode to
achieve patient
comfort
10 – 14
Ensure long
enough
expiratory
time to avoid
air-trapping
To achieve
desired pH
and ABG
Positive end-
expiratory
pressure/
PEEP
(cmH
2
O)
May need > 10
(open lung
approach)
High (5 – 10)
initially, can be
rapidly tailed
down
0 – 3 max 3 – 5
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M
e
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P2
Adjunctive
measures
Neuromuscular
blockers (NMB)
Cardiac
intervention
NMB
Manually
assisted
expiration
(esp asthma)
Tracheosto-
my
3 Monitoring during mechanical ventilation
a. General: vital signs, bowel motion, regular communication,
psychological status, sedation level
b. P/E: Signs of upper airway obstruction (excessive inspiratory
efforts, inspiratory in-sucking of lower rib cage), ETT (patency,
positioning), pressure sores, signs of DVT, hydration &
nutritional status
c. Important parameters:
i. Cuff pressure: 16-20 (<24) cm H
2
O
ii. Ventilatory status:
• Volume-controlled mode or SIMV (VC + PS): look
for excessive airway pressure
• Pressure-controlled mode or SIMV (PC + PS): look
for inadequate or excessive tidal volume which varies
with airflow obstruction or lung compliance
• Spontaneous mode pressure support mode: look for
excessive or inadequate tidal volume and long/short
inspiratory time
• Pause or plateau pressure (PP): Barotrauma risk ↑ if
PP ≥ 35 cm H
2
O
• Auto-PEEP
P2
Adjunctive
measures
Neuromuscular
blockers (NMB)
Cardiac
intervention
NMB
Manually
assisted
expiration
(esp asthma)
Tracheosto-
my
3 Monitoring during mechanical ventilation
a. General: vital signs, bowel motion, regular communication,
psychological status, sedation level
b. P/E: Signs of upper airway obstruction (excessive inspiratory
efforts, inspiratory in-sucking of lower rib cage), ETT (patency,
positioning), pressure sores, signs of DVT, hydration &
nutritional status
c. Important parameters:
i. Cuff pressure: 16-20 (<24) cm H
2
O
ii. Ventilatory status:
• Volume-controlled mode or SIMV (VC + PS): look
for excessive airway pressure
• Pressure-controlled mode or SIMV (PC + PS): look
for inadequate or excessive tidal volume which varies
with airflow obstruction or lung compliance
• Spontaneous mode pressure support mode: look for
excessive or inadequate tidal volume and long/short
inspiratory time
• Pause or plateau pressure (PP): Barotrauma risk ↑ if
PP ≥ 35 cm H
2
O
• Auto-PEEP
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P3
Patient-ventilator asynchrony
Do not simply sedate a patient who is asynchronous with the
ventilator, look for possible underlying cause(s).
Checklist for trouble-shooting:
Problems Examples
a. Airway-related Inappropriate size/position (Normal 4-6
cm above carina) of ET tube, leaky
cuff/excessive cuff pressure, blocked
/kinked tube, dislodgement
b. Ventilator-related Inadequate humidification, obstruction/
leak in circuit, inability of ventilator to
respond to triggering efforts
c. Inappropriate
ventilator settings
Inappropriate TV/IFR (or
I:E)/sensitivity settings, inadequate
FiO
2
and/or ventilation with persistent
hypoxaemia or hypercapnia
d. Underlying
disease
Stiff lungs, low cardiac output, poor
cerebral perfusion, septic state
e. Complications of
mechanical
ventilation
Atelectasis, ventilator-associated
pneumonia, pneumothorax
f. Others Fear, anxiety, pain, secretions in
airway, hunger, inability to open
bowels/to move, pressure sore

P3
4 Patient-ventilator asynchrony
Do not simply sedate a patient who is asynchronous with the
ventilator, look for possible underlying cause(s).
Checklist for trouble-shooting:
Problems Examples
a. Airway-related Inappropriate size/position (Normal 4-6
cm above carina) of ET tube, leaky
cuff/excessive cuff pressure, blocked
/kinked tube, dislodgement
b. Ventilator-related Inadequate humidification, obstruction/
leak in circuit, inability of ventilator to
respond to triggering efforts
c. Inappropriate
ventilator settings
Inappropriate TV/IFR (or
I:E)/sensitivity settings, inadequate
FiO
2
and/or ventilation with persistent
hypoxaemia or hypercapnia
d. Underlying
disease
Stiff lungs, low cardiac output, poor
cerebral perfusion, septic state
e. Complications of
mechanical
ventilation
Atelectasis, ventilator-associated
pneumonia, pneumothorax
f. Others Fear, anxiety, pain, secretions in
airway, hunger, inability to open
bowels/to move, pressure sore
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P4
OXYGEN THERAPY
Common oxygen delivery methods
Standard dual-prong nasal cannula
 FiO
2
0.23 to 0.40 if O
2
flow rate set at 1 to 6 L/min
 Actual FiO
2
non-specific, affected by the O
2
flow setting,
oropharyngeal geometry, tidal volume, respiratory rate, pattern,
and is roughly 20% + (4 × oxygen litre flow per minute)
 Most comfortable and cost-effective
Venturi mask
 Accurate FiO
2
adjustable from 0.24 to 0.50 if O
2
flow rate set at 3 –
15 L/min (O
2
required to drive can be read off from the Venturi
device)
 Maintains a constant (pre-set) FiO
2
Simple face mask with no reservoir bag
 FiO
2
up to 0.50 if O
2
flow rate set at 6 to 10 L/min
 Actual FiO2 non-specific, depends on patient’s inspiratory flow
 O
2
flow rate set below <5L/min may cause CO
2
rebreathing
Rebreathing mask with reservoir bag
 FiO
2
0.70 if O
2
flow rate set at 6 to 10L/min
 O
2
flow must be ≥ 6 L/min to keep reservoir bag inflated
throughout inspiration & expiration
 No one way valve between reservoir bag and mask
Non-rebreathing mask with reservoir bag
 FiO
2
0.60 – 1.00 if O
2
flow rate set at 10 – 15 L/min
 Equipped with one-way valves to prevent exhalation into reservoir
bag and inhalation through mask exhalation ports (but usually only
one of the two valves on the mask exhalation ports is installed for
safety reason)

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P5
Other common oxygen delivery methods
1. T-piece to endotracheal or tracheostomy tube: O
2
delivered through
the shorter end, open window by one-third if PCO
2
is high
2. Thermovent to endotracheal or tracheostomy tube: watch out for
sputum blockage
3. Tracheostomy mask: consider to use humidification in non-infectious
situation (e.g. heated humidifier)
Indications for long-term O
2
therapy in COPD
Start only when clinically stable for 3-4 weeks after eucopenia d of
other therapy
Continuous oxygen:
1. Resting PaO
2
7.3 kPa (55 mm Hg) or SaO2 88%: to maintain PaO
2
8 kPa (60 mm Hg or SaO
2
90%)
2. Resting PaO
2
7.4 to 7.9 kPa (56 to 59 mm Hg) or SaO
2
89% in the
presence of any of the following:
 Dependent edema suggestive of congestive heart failure
 P pulmonale on ECG (P wave >3mm in standard leads II, III, or
aVF)
 Erythrocythaemia (haematocrit >56%)
Noncontinuous oxygen:
Oxygen flow rate and number of hours per day must be specified
1. During exercise: PaO
2
7.3 kPa (55 mmHg) or oxygen saturation
88% with a low level of exertion
2. During sleep: PaO
2
7.3 kPa (55 mmHg) or oxygen saturation
88% with associated complications, such as pulmonary
hypertension, daytime somnolence, and cardiac arrhythmias.
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P6
MASSIVE HAEMOPTYSIS
Definition: Arbituary, eucopenia d blood ranging from >100-
200ml/day. Important management considerations include rate of bleeding
and underlying lung function. Increased volume of bleeding confers a
much higher risk of death due to asphyxia than to haemodynamic
derangement. Airway protection is most important in massive
haemoptysis, close observation and treatment in ICU/HDU is desirable
Management objectives
Prevent asphyxia, localize bleeding site, stop bleeding, determine cause of
bleeding and treat underlying cause
Management
1. Close monitoring of vital sign, i.e. BP/P, RR, SaO
2
2. O
2
supplement
3. Establish IV assess
4. Take blood for CBP, clotting, ABG and X-match
5. Sputum for C/ST, AFB & cytology
6. Avoid sedation and cough suppressant
7. Antibiotic if infection is suspected, e.g. bronchiectasis, TB
8. Lie lateral on side of bleeding if lateralized
9. If depressed conscious state with risk of asphyxia, intubate for
suction and ventilation (single lumen ET if urgent airway access is
required; double lumen ET placement by anaesthetist is better for
isolation of bleeding side)
10. Early bronchoscopy to localize bleeding, diagnose endobronchial
lesion and for therapy
Persistent life-threatening haemoptysis
 Consult radiologist for bronchial arteriogram ± bronchial artery
embolization if expertise available
 Consult surgeon for emergency lung resection if bleeding is
localized and adequate pulmonary reserve
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SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX
(Ref. ACCP Delphi Consensus Statement 2001)
Suspect tension pneumothorax if associated hypotension
Definition
Size: determined by lung apex-to-thoracic cupola distance in upright CXR.
Small < 3cm & large ≥ 3cm
Clinical stability: Stable if RR < 24/min, HR > 60/min or HR < 120/min,
SaO
2
(RA) > 90% and complete sentence(s) between breaths. If not,
unstable
Management
O
2
and analgesic prn
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (no underlying lung
abnormalities)
1. Clinically stable with small pneumothorax
Conservative: monitor symptom and CXR
2. Clinically stable with large pneumothorax
Small bore catheter (≤ 14F) or 16-22F chest drain*
3. Clinically unstable with large pneumothorax
16-22F chest drain*. 24-28F if bronchopleural fistula or
mechanical ventilation anticipated
Persistent air leak > 4 days, surgical referral for thoracoscopy#
Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (underlying lung disease)
Should be hospitalized even if clinically stable
1. Clinically stable with small pneumothorax
Conservative or chest drain* depending on symptom and course
of pneumothorax
2. Clinically stable with large pneumothorax
16-22F chest drain*
3. Clinically unstable with large pneumothorax
24-28F chest drain*
Persistent air leak > 5 days, surgical referral for thoracoscopy#
*attached to water-seal device. Suction should be applied if lung fails to
reexpand
#chemical pleurodesis can be considered if surgery contraindicated or
patient refuses operation or poor prognosis from patient’s underlying
disease.
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P8
Adult Acute Asthma
(Ref: GINA Guidelines 2006)
Features of moderate severe asthma
Talks in phrases, RR>25/min, pulse>110/min, SaO
2
(on air) ~91-
95%, PEF~60-80% predicted or personal best
Features of acute severe asthma
Cannot complete sentence in one breath, RR>30/min,
pulse>120/min, SaO
2
(on air) ≤90%, PEF<60% predicted or
personal best
Life threatening features (dangerous even if only one feature
present)
PEF<33% predicted/best, silent chest, cyanosis, feeble respiratory
effort, bradycardia, hypotension, exhaustion, confusion, coma, low
pH, normal/high PaCO
2
(5-6kPa) severe hypoxia
(PaO
2
<8kPa/SaO
2
≤90% with O
2)
, and/or paradoxical thoraco-
abdominal movement
1. Monitoring
Vital signs, pulse oximetry, PFR, ABG, electrolytes, CXR
2. Management
Moderate episode (life threatening features absent)
 Give 35-50% O
2
, maintain SaO
2
>90%
 Salbutamol 5mg or Terbutaline 10mg nebulised with O
2
OR inhaled Salbutamol/Terbutaline 6 puffs
 Prednisolone 30-60mg po OR Hydrocortisone 200mg iv
OR Methylprednisolone 40mg iv
Severe episode (life threatening features present)
 Consider ICU care, standby equipment for intubation
 Same as treatment for moderate episode plus
: M
P8
Adult Acute Asthma
(Ref: GINA Guidelines 2006)
Features of moderate severe asthma
Talks in phrases, RR>25/min, pulse>110/min, SaO
2
(on air) ~91-
95%, PEF~60-80% predicted or personal best
Features of acute severe asthma
Cannot complete sentence in one breath, RR>30/min,
pulse>120/min, SaO
2
(on air) ≤90%, PEF<60% predicted or
personal best
Life threatening features (dangerous even if only one feature
present)
PEF<33% predicted/best, silent chest, cyanosis, feeble respiratory
effort, bradycardia, hypotension, exhaustion, confusion, coma, low
pH, normal/high PaCO
2
(5-6kPa) severe hypoxia
(PaO
2
<8kPa/SaO
2
≤90% with O
2)
, and/or paradoxical thoraco-
abdominal movement
1. Monitoring
Vital signs, pulse oximetry, PFR, ABG, electrolytes, CXR
2. Management
Moderate episode (life threatening features absent)
 Give 35-50% O
2
, maintain SaO
2
>90%
 Salbutamol 5mg or Terbutaline 10mg nebulised with O
2
OR inhaled Salbutamol/Terbutaline 6 puffs
 Prednisolone 30-60mg po OR Hydrocortisone 200mg iv
OR Methylprednisolone 40mg iv
Severe episode (life threatening features present)
 Consider ICU care, standby equipment for intubation
 Same as treatment for moderate episode plus
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P9
 Nebulised preservative-free ipratropium 0.25-0.5%
(1ml/20 drops) OR inhaled ipratropium 3-4 puffs
 IV Salbutamol/Terbutaline (250µg over 10min) or
Aminophylline (250mg over 20min). Do not give bolus
aminophylline for patients taking oral theophylline
 May consider magnesium sulphate 1.2-2g iv over 2
minutes for very severe cases
1. If satisfactory response
 Continue O
2
to keep SaO
2
>90%
 Prednisolone 30-60mg/d, or Hydrocortisone 100mg iv q6h
 Continue inhaled (MDI or nebulised) β
2
agonist q4h
2. If unsatisfactory response
 Nebulised β
2
agonist OR inhaled β
2
agonist 6-10 puffs up
to q15min
 Nebulised ipratropium 0.25-0.5mg OR inhaled
ipratropium 6puffs q4h
 Aminophylline iv infusion 0.5-0.9mg/kg/h
 Consider IV salbutamol 5µg/min (3-20µg/min) /terbutaline
(1.5-5µg/min). Adjust rate according to response.
Monitor closely and watch out for cardiac arrhythmia and
other side effects
3. Consider ICU admission if
 Life threatening features present
 Deterioration in PEF
 Worsening or persistent hypoxia or hypercapnia
 Respiratory failure requiring IPPV
 Respiratory or cardiorespiratory arrest

P9
 Nebulised preservative-free ipratropium 0.25-0.5%
(1ml/20 drops) OR inhaled ipratropium 3-4 puffs
 IV Salbutamol/Terbutaline (250µg over 10min) or
Aminophylline (250mg over 20min). Do not give bolus
aminophylline for patients taking oral theophylline
 May consider magnesium sulphate 1.2-2g iv over 2
minutes for very severe cases
A. If satisfactory response
 Continue O
2
to keep SaO
2
>90%
 Prednisolone 30-60mg/d, or Hydrocortisone 100mg iv q6h
 Continue inhaled (MDI or nebulised) β
2
agonist q4h
B. If unsatisfactory response
 Nebulised β
2
agonist OR inhaled β
2
agonist 6-10 puffs up
to q15min
 Nebulised ipratropium 0.25-0.5mg OR inhaled
ipratropium 6puffs q4h
 Aminophylline iv infusion 0.5-0.9mg/kg/h
 Consider IV salbutamol 5µg/min (3-20µg/min) /terbutaline
(1.5-5µg/min). Adjust rate according to response.
Monitor closely and watch out for cardiac arrhythmia and
other side effects
C. Consider ICU admission if
 Life threatening features present
 Deterioration in PEF
 Worsening or persistent hypoxia or hypercapnia
 Respiratory failure requiring IPPV
 Respiratory or cardiorespiratory arrest
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P10
D. After improvement
 Stabilize in ward
 Discharge home when symptoms have cleared, PEF>75%
predicted or previous best AND PEF variability <25%
 Actions recommended on discharge include identifying &
avoiding trigger factor(s) that precipitated attack,
Prednisolone tablets (30mg daily) tapering over 1-3 weeks
as reserve, proper follow up arrangements & long term
treatment plan esp. inhalational steroids, AND reviewing
technique on use of inhaler and peak flow meter
E. Therapies NOT recommended during acute attacks
 Sedatives (avoid strictly)
 Cough suppressant (avoid as far as possible)
 Mucolytic drug (may worsen cough)
 Chest physiotherapy (may increase patient discomfort)
 Antibiotics (unless has concomitant bacterial infection)
 Hydration with large volumes of fluid
Note
 Medication from MDI inhaler is preferably given via a
spacer
 Nebulized bronchodilator is preferably given in areas with
negative pressure installed.
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P11
Long Term Management of Asthma
(Ref: GINA 2006)
NOTE
a. The goal of asthma treatment, to achieve and maintain clinical
control, can be reached with a pharmacologic intervention
strategy.
b. Each patient is assigned to one of five “treatment steps”
depending on their current level of asthma control and
treatment should be adjusted in a continuous cycle driven by
changes in patients’ asthma control status
c. In treatment-naïve patients with persistent asthma, treatment
should be started at Step 2, or if very symptomatic
(uncontrolled), at Step 3.
d. At each treatment step, reliever medication (rapid-onset
bronchodilator) should be provided for quick relief of
symptoms.
e. Patients should avoid or control triggers at all times.
f. All therapy at every step must include patient education.
Level of Asthma Control
Character-
istic
Controlled
(All of the
following)
Partly Controlled
(Anyone present
in any week)
Uncon-
trolled
Daytime
symptoms
None
( ≤ 2x/week)
> 2x/week
Limitations
of activities
None Any
Nocturnal
symptoms/
awakening
None Any
≥ 3
features of
partly
controlled
asthma
present in
any week
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P12
Need for
reliever/
rescue
treatment
None
( ≤ 2x/week)
> 2x/week
Lung
function
(PEF or
FEV
1
)
Normal
<80% predicted/
personal best
(if known)
Exacer-
bations
None ≥ 1/year*
One in any
week#
*Any exacerbation should prompt review of maintenance treatment
to ensure that it is adequate
# By definition, an exacerbation in any week makes that an
uncontrolled asthma week
TREATMENT (preferred treatments are bolded)
STEP 1: As-needed reliever medication
a. For untreated patients with occasional daytime symptoms of
short duration
b. Short-acting bronchodilator as reliever: Inhaled β ββ β
2
-agonist
prn (but ≤2times/week). An inhaled anticholinergic, short-
acting po β
2
-agonist, or short-acting therophylline can be
considered as alternatives
c. Inhaled β ββ β
2
-agonist, leukotriene modifier or cromoglycate
before exercise or allergen exposure.
d. Long-term preventive treatment not required.
STEP 2: Reliever medication plus a single controller
a. Reliever: Inhaled β ββ β2-agonist prn (but ≤2times/week).
b. Daily controller medication: Either inhaled corticosteroids
(200–500µg)* or leukotriene modifier, cromoglycate or
nedocromil or theophylline SR.
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P13
STEP 3: Reliever medication plus one or two controllers
a. Short-acting bronchodilator: Inhaled β ββ β
2
-agonist prn but (but
≤2 times/week).
b. (i) Daily inhaled corticosteroids (≥500µg)* PLUS either
long-acting inhaled β ββ β
2
-agonist
#
or theophylline SR or
leukotriene modifier, OR
(ii) Daily inhaled corticosteroids of medium or high dose
(800–2000µg)*
c. Consider leukotriene modifier for aspirin sensitivity or
exercise-induced asthma.
d. Referred to specialist for advice and management
STEP 4: Reliever medication plus two or more controllers
a. Short-acting bronchodilator: Inhaled β ββ β
2
-agonist prn.
b. Daily inhaled corticosteroids (800–2000µg or more)*
PLUS long-acting inhaled β ββ β
2
-agonist and/or theophylline
SR and/or long-acting PO β
2
-agonist and/or leukotriene
modifier
STEP 5: Reliever medication plus additional controller options
a. As in Step 4 plus oral glucocorticosteroid (at lowest
possible dose) and/or addition of anti-IgE treatment
Steroid doses are for beclomethasone dipropionate.
#
Adding long-acting inhaled β
2
-agonist may offer more effective
symptom control than increasing the steroid dosages.
Step-down
Review treatment every 3–6 months. If control has been sustained
for >3 months, consider a gradual stepwise reduction.
Step-up
If control is not achieved, consider stepping up AFTER reviewing
patient’s medication technique, compliance and environmental
control (avoidance of allergens/trigger factors).
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P14
COPD
Treatment of stable COPD
According to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung
Disease (GOLD) guidelines 2006:
Stage 1 = mild (FEV1/FVC < 70%, FEV1>80%,
with or without symptoms)
 Avoidance of risk factor(s): most importantly smoking
cessation
 Influenza vaccination
 short-acting bronchodilator when needed
Stage 2 = moderate (FEV1/FVC < 70%, 50% <=
FEV1<80%, with or without symptoms)
 as for stage 1, add
 regular treatment with one or more long-acting
bronchodilators, and rehabilitation
Stage 3 = severe (FEV1/FVC < 70%, 30% <=
FEV1 < 50%, with or without symptoms)
 as for stage 2, add
 inhaled glucocorticoids if repeated exacerbations
Stage 4 = very severe (FEV1/FVC < 70%, FEV1 < 30% or
FEV1 < 50% predicted + chronic respiratory failure)
 as for stage 3, add
 long term oxygen if chronic respiratory failure, and
 consider surgical treatment (bullectomy, lung volume
reduction surgery, lung transplantation)
Other points to note:
1. Steroid trial not predictive of response to inhaled steroid
2. Long-term oxygen therapy (generally in stage 4 COPD)
 Start only when clinically stable for 3-4 weeks after
optimization of other therapy, in COPD patients who have:
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P15
A. Continuous oxygen therapy (for 15hours/day):
- Resting PaO2 7.3 kPa (55 mm Hg) or SaO2 88%: to
maintain PaO2 8 kPa (60 mm Hg or SaO2 90%); or
- Resting PaO2 7.4 to 7.9 kPa (56 to 59 mm Hg) or SaO2 89%
in the presence of any of the following:
i Dependent edema suggestive of congestive heart failure
ii P pulmonale on ECG (P wave >3mm in standard leads II,
III, or aVF)
iii Erythrocythaemia (haematocrit >56%)
B. Non-continuous oxygen: Oxygen flow rate and number of hours
per day must be specified.
- During exercise: PaO2 7.3 kPa (55 mmHg) or oxygen
saturation 88% with a low level of exertion
- During sleep: PaO2 7.3 kPa (55 mmHg) or oxygen
saturation 88% with associated complications, such as
pulmonary hypertension, daytime somnolence, and cardiac
arrhythmias”
Treatment of acute exacerbation
1. Controlled low dose oxygen administration (start with 24%
Venturi mask or 1-2L/min by nasal prongs). Check ABGs
within 30-60 mins of starting oxygen, modify flow rate
according to PaO
2
and pH
2. Inhaled (using spacer device) β
2
agonist and ipratropium
bromide alone or in combination
3. If no response, consider iv aminophylline (second line
therapy)
4. Corticosteroids (hydrocortisone 100 mg iv Q6-8 hours or
Prednisolone 30-40 mg orally per day). Steroid should be
discontinued after the acute episode (e.g. 7-10 days)
5. Prescribe an antibiotic if exacerbation is severe and requires
invasive or non-invasive ventilation and/or two or more of the
following are present(one being increased sputum purulence):
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P16
 Increased breathlessness;
 Increased sputum volume;
 Development of purulent sputum
6. Indications for NIV:
 Moderate to severe dyspnoea with use of accessory muscles
and paradoxical abdominal motion
 Moderate to severe acidosis (pH 7.35) and/or hypercapnia
(PaCO2 >6.0kPa, 45mmHg)
 Respiratory frequency >25 breaths per minute
 Check ABG 1-2 hours after initiation of NIV. Do not delay
intubation and IPPV if improvement is absent
7. IPPV is likely to be appropriate in all other patients when
 There is a clearly reversible basis for the current
deterioration
 It is the first episode of respiratory failure
 There is an acceptable quality of life
 The patient has not previously had a full medical assessment
 There are few if any co-morbidities
 NIV fails
Indications for intensive monitoring and treatment e.g. ICU
1. Severe dyspnoea with inadequate response to initial
emergency therapy
2. Confusion, lethargy, or respiratory muscle fatigue (as
evidenced by paradoxical diaphragmatic movement)
3. Persistent or worsening hypoxemia despite supplemental
oxygen, or severe/worsening respiratory acidosis (pH < 7.30)
Assisted ventilation is required, whether by means of
mechanical ventilation or NIPPV
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PLEURAL EFFUSION
Diagnosis
1. Diagnostic tapping + pleural biopsy if exudative
2. Ultrasound or CT guided pleural tapping if fluid appeared
loculated or concomitant lung collapse +/- mediastinal shift is
evident
3. Thoracoscopic biopsy is indicated if pleural effusion aetiology
remains undiagnosed after multiple thoracocentesis and
pleural biopsies
4. Bilateral pleural effusion is rarely due to underlying lung
disease but can occur in TB and malignancy. Systemic causes
should always be sought e.g. heart failure, SLE, pancreatitis,
hypoalbuminemia
5. Bronchoscopy is useful if endobronchial / mass lesion in
parenchymal is suspected
6. CT thorax to assess pleural space anatomy, screen
parenchymal lesion, therapeutic result after drainage in
complicated cases
Suspect empyema/ complicated parapneumonic effusion if any of
followings
1. Frank pus on diagnostic tapping
2. Pleural thickening with contrast enhancement on CT thorax
3. Positive gram-stain of pleural fluid +/- positive culture
4. Pleural fluid biochemistry: pH <7.2, LDH >1,000, glucose
<2.2mmol/L
Consult pulmonologist to consider intrapleural thrombolytics
in selected cases
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Indication for chest drain insertion
1. Empyema or complicated parapneumonic effusion
2. Symptomatic malignant pleural effusion (see below)
3. Hemothorax (surgical consult is usually indicated)
Management of persistent/ recurrent malignant pleural effusion
1. Supportive care
2. Consult respiratory physician for difficult cases
3. Tube thoracostomy and chemical pleurodesis
 Agents: Talc 5g in 100ml NS, Tetracycline 1g in 50ml NS
 Must be performed under adequate sedation and analgesia
 Keep patient for 10-15 minutes in each of 4-6 different
posture with drain clamped, then release clamp for
drainage
 Chest tube kept unclamped thereafter for drainage until
daily output <150ml /day and CXR shows the lung to be
re-expanded with most of the effusion drained
4. Surgical pleurodesis (more useful if lung re-expanded well)
 Thoracoscopic: simple and safe, applicable to most
patients even if lung function is compromised.
 Thoracotomy
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P19
OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA
Suspect OSA if
(1) Snoring at night, PLUS
(2) Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)
Mild: activity with little attention needed e.g. public transport
Moderate: activity with some attention e.g. conference
Severe: activity with much concentration e.g. phone call,
conversation; OR
(3) Two out of the following:
Intermittent nocturnal arousal
Nocturnal choking
Unrefreshed sleep at wakening
Daytime fatigue
Impaired daytime concentration
Indications for diagnostic sleep study
1. Suspect OSA
2. Unexplained pulmonary hypertension
3. Recurrent cardiovascular events e.g. CVA, angina, CHF
despite adequate medical therapy and optimization of risk
factors
Indications for urgent arrangement of nasal CPAP
1. Pickwickian syndrome with daytime alveolar hypoventilation,
pulmonary hypertension or cor pulmonale
2. Nocturnal malignant arrhythmia related to the OSA
3. Nocturnal angina related to the OSA
4. Severe EDS that may impose risk to the patient and/ or others
e.g. professional driver especially with history of road traffic
accident
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P20
PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION OF
PULMONARY FUNCTION
Age > 70
Obese
Heavy smoking
Known lung disease
Hx, P/E,
CXR, Spirometry
plus
ABGs
Diffusion capacity
Lung volumes
plus
Calculation of
postoperative FEV1
Lung scintigraphy
assessment
VO2
Upper abdominal surgery
Thoracotomy
FEV1 < 50% of predicted
FVC < 50% of predicted
Lung resection in
borderline lung function
Results indicating high postoperative risk
1. Throacic surgery : FEV
1
< 1L or < 40% of predicted
after lung reaction
2. ABG - Elevated PaCO
2
(>6 kPa, i.e. >45 mmHg)
3. FEV
1
, FVC or MVV <50% of predicted
4. Evidence of pulmonary hypertension
5. Preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing:
VO
2max
<15 ml/kg/min
Consult respiratory physician in high risk cases
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P21
NON-INVASIVE VENTILATION (NIV)
More evidence of efficacy in:
1. Acute COPD exacerbation
2. Acute pulmonary edema
3. Acute respiratory failure in immunosuppressed states
4. Post-operative hypoxaemia (except in upper GI surgery)
5. Early weaning for COPD
6. Prevention of post-extubation respiratory failure (esp COPD)
Less efficacious or even harmful in:
1. Acute severe asthma
2. Acute lung injury (ALI) or Acute respiratory distress
syndrome (ARDS)
3. Pneumonia, esp if copious secretions
4. Treatment of established post-extubation respiratory failure
5. Hypoxaemic respiratory failure of mixed causes (need to
consider individual cause)
Contraindications: respiratory arrest, medical instability, inability
to protect airway, excessive secretions, uncooperative or agitated
status, unfitting mask, and recent upper airway or gastrointestinal
surgery
Practical aspects
1. Machine: sophisticated ICU ventilator (independent insp/exp
limbs, higher max flow); or smaller-sized ventilator dedicated
for NIV delivery (single limb only, with expiratory port
which can be just a hole or a dedicated device, e.g. Whisper-
Swivel or Plateau valve); or a hybrid type of ventilator with
functionality in between the above two types
2. Interface: nasal mask, face mask, total face mask, helmet,
nasal pillows (In acute respiratory failure, start with a mask.)
3. Mode of delivery Singel level (CPAP) or Bi-level (IPAP +
EPAP)
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Factors associated with success: less sick (lower APACHE II
score), higher pH, lower respiratory rate (RR), lower PaCO
2
,
subjective improvement within one hour of start
Factors associated with failure: adentulous, pneumonia, excess
secretions, mouth leaks, poor coordination, acute respiratory
distress syndrome (ARDS), community-acquired pneumonia,
PaO
2
/FiO
2
146, sicker patient (Simplified Acute Physiology Score
(SAPS II)35), age >40.
Common setting
1. Spontaneous/ timed (ST) mode or Spontaneous (S) mode
2. CPAP/EPAP: Pulmonary oedema: 6 to 10 cmH
2
O; COPD: 4
to 5 cmH
2
O
3. IPAP: Aim at tidal volume (Vt)  7ml/kg BW and RR 
25/min
4. Backup RR: 0 to 12; with I:E ratio: 1:2 to 1:3
Points to note
1. Watch out for gastric distension
2. Monitor ABG: Within 1
st
2-6 hours after start to determine
success, and afterwards when indicated
3. Apply continuously for 4-6 hours, then remove mask for short
periods every few hours for meals, sputum clearance or
bronchodilator inhalation
4. Consider invasive mechanical ventilation if there is no
objective signs of improvement after 1 hour of use
5. Stringent infection control measures should be taken during
NIV for patients with suspected respiratory infections (refer
to your hospital guidelines)
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Rheumatology
&
Immunology
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APPROACH TO INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS
Assessment
 Arthralgia – pain in a joint without demonstrable synovitis
 Inflammatory Arthritis (Synovitis) – joint swelling, warmth,
pain and tenderness
 Polyarthralgia/polyarthritis – 5 or more joints.
 Chronic polyarthralgia/polyarthritis – more than 6 weeks.
Major causes of polyarthralgia/polyarthritis
 Bacterial arthritis (staphylococcal, streptococcal, gonococcal,
meningococcal)
 Bacterial endocarditis
 Viral arthritis
 Reactive arthritis
 Crystal–induced arthritis: gout, pseudogout
 Rheumatoid arthritis
 Seronegative arthritis: ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic
arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease
 Connective tissue diseases: SLE, systemic vasculitis, systemic
sclerosis, Still’s disease
 Others: sarcoidosis, palindromic rheumatism, malignancy,
hyperlipoproteinemias, Lyme disease, rheumatic fever
Major causes of monoarthritis
 Septic arthritis
 Crystal-induced arthritis: gout, pseudogout
 Haemarthrosis / trauma / overuse
 Tuberculous arthritis
 Osteoarthritis
 Spondyloarthropathies: ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic
arthritis
 Monoarthritic onset rheumatoid arthritis
 Reactive arthritis
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 Other uncommon causes: avascular necrosis, synovial
metastasis
Relevant investigations
 CBP, ESR, CRP
 Renal function, liver function, calcium, phosphate, urate,
urinalysis
 ANA, RF (if SLE or RA is suspected)
 X-ray of the affected joints, MRI if indicated
 Joint aspiration
 Synovial biopsy (in undetermined cases)
Joint fluid analysis
Send fluid for:
 gram stain and bacterial culture
 white cell count
 crystal microscopy
Joint fluid white cell count:
Classification Clarity WBC/ml % of
neutrophils
Normal Transparent < 200 < 25
Non-
inflammatory
Transparent < 2000 < 25
Inflammatory Translucent 2,000-
100,000
25 – 75
Septic Opaque 50,000-
300,000
> 90
Crystal microscopy:
 Urate crystals are slender and needle-shaped and have strong
negative birefringence under polarized light
 Calcium pyrophosphate crystals are pleomorphic or
rhomboid-shaped, and have weakly positive birefringence
under polarized light
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GOUTY ARTHRITIS
Clinical features
 Acute gout (monoarticular, polyarticular)
 Chronic tophaceous gout
 Uric acid calculi
 Gouty nephropathy
Diagnosis
Definite gout
Intracellular negative birefringent urate crystal seen on joint fluid
microscopy
Presumed gout
Classical history of episodic acute arthritis rapidly resolved with
NSAID (or colchicine) + history of hyperuricaemia
Management
Acute Gouty arthritis
1. NSAID/COX II inhibitors
High dose, tapering over 5 days, reduce dose in renal
impairment:
a) indomethacin 50mg tds -> 25mg tds -> 25mg bd
b) naprosyn 500mg stat -> 250mg tid -> 250mg bd
c) ibuprofen 800mg stat -> 400mg qid -> 200mg tid
2. Colchicine
0.5mg qid x 2 days (stop if nausea/diarrhoea, + simple
analgesic)
Reduce frequency in renal impairment
Q hourly – Q2 hourly x 10 doses regime is not recommended.
3. Corticosteroid
a) Intra-articular kenacort injection after exclusion of septic
arthritis
b) Prednisolone 20-40mg daily x 1 week,
(for patients with NSAID/ colchicine contraindication or
renal failure)
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R4
Urate lowering therapy
Low purine diet is advisable but only small changes in serum uric
acid can be attained. Urate lowering therapy is indicated in patients
with hyperuricaemia and more than 2 attacks of acute gout in one
year, tophaceous gout or urate renal calculi.
1. Xanthine oxidase inhibitor
Allopurinol 300mg po daily (usual dose)
Reduce dose in renal impairment
5% skin side effects
start allopurinol only when acute gout has subsided
+ colchicine 0.5mg daily or bid, for 3-6 months, to prevent
acute gout attacks
Target to reduce serum uric acid < 0.36 mmol/L
2. Uricosuric drugs
Probenecid 250mg bd to 1gm tds
(Contraindications: moderate renal impairment, urate renal
stone, tophaceous gout, high 24 hour urine uric acid excretion)
Benzbromarone is licensed in Hong Kong but not under HA
formulary
Sulfinpyrazone is not licensed in Hong Kong
3. Investigational treatment
a. Febuxostat – a novel nonpurine selective xanthine oxidase
inhibitor
b. Uricase: recombinant urate-oxidase enzyme, Rasburicase, for
paediatric pre-chemotherapy
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SEPTIC ARTHRITIS
1. A hot, swollen and tender joint should be regarded as septic
arthritis until proven otherwise, even in the absence of fever.
Septic arthritis can present with monoarthritis (80-90% cases),
oligoarthritis or polyarthritis.
2. Prompt aspiration of the joint is warranted. Synovial fluid
should be sent for,
 Differential cell counts: Usually >50,000 WBC/ml and often
>100,000/ml, predominantly neutrophils.
 Gram stain
 Culture and sensitivity
 Polarising microscopy for crystals (septic arthritis may co-
exist with crystal arthropathies)
3. Other investigations: CBC with differentials, RFT, LFT, blood
culture, X-ray of the joint. Swabs of pharynx, urethra, cervix
and anorectum if gonococcal infection suspected.
4. Start empirical IV antibiotics immediately according to
suspected organisms and gram stain. Modify according to
culture and sensitivity results. Opinion from microbiologists is
helpful.
5. Repeated aspiration of the joint to dryness.
6. For inadequate response, consider arthroscopic drainage. Open
drainage is usually necessary for hip infection. Refer
orthopaedic surgeons for infected prosthetic joint.
7. Start physiotherapy early.
8. NSAIDs for pain relief
9. IV antibiotics for at least 2 weeks or until signs improved for
non-gonococcal arthritis, then orally for an additional 2-4
weeks.
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R6
Suggested choice of antibiotics:
Synovial fluid
gram stain
Organism IV Antibiotics
Gram +ve
cocci (clusters)
Staph. Aureus Cloxacillin 2g q4hr
Gram +ve
cocci (chains)
Streptococccus Penicillin 2 MU q4hr
Enterobacteriaceae Ceftriaxone 2 g q24hr or
Cefotaxime 1g q8hr
Gram –ve
Bacilli
Pseudomonas Cefepime 2g q12hr or
piperacillin 3g q6hr or
Imipenem 500 mg q6hr
Plus gentamicin
Gram –ve
diplococci
Neisseria
gonorrhoeae**
Ceftriaxone 2g q24hr or
Cefotaxime 1g q8hr or
Ciprofloxacin 400mg q12hr
Empirical
initial therapy
No risk factors for atypical
organisms: Cloxacillin or
Ceftriaxone / Cefotaxime
High risk for gram-ve sepsis
(elderly, frail,
immunocompromised):
Cloxacillin plus
Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime
Gonorrhoea suspected:
Ceftriazone or cefotaxime or
ciprofloxacin
MRSA infection suspected:
Vancomycin plus Ceftriaxone
or Cefotaxime
**Treat possible concurrent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis with doxycycline
(100 mg BD for 7 days) in patients with gonococcal infection.
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R7

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
1. Diagnosis:
1987 ACR criteria for the classification of established RA
At least 4 of the following features
 Morning stiffness >1 hour
 Arthritis and soft tissue swelling of ≥3 joint areas
 Arthritis of hand joints
 Symmetric arthritis
 Subcutaneous nodules in specific places
 Rheumatoid factor at a level above 95
th
percentile
 Radiographic changes suggestive of joint erosion
Clinical symptoms must be present for at least 6 weeks
2. Investigations
 ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP)
 RF (sensitivity ~70%)
 Anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide antibody (anti-CCP) –
highly specific for RA, helpful in undetermined situations
 Plain X-ray of the hands and feet for erosion
 MRI or USG may be useful for detecting early bony
erosion
3. Clinical assessment
Includes: subjective & objective evidence of active synovitis;
efficacy, tolerability & need for adjustment of present Tx;
associated comorbidities (cardiovascular / osteoporosis) &
extra-articular problems
Useful parameters:
 degree of joint pain
 duration of morning stiffness
 number of tender and swollen joints
 functional status
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 patients’ and physicians’ global assessment
 ESR or CRP (if persistently raised without no obvious
synovitis – beware of infection)
 radiographic progression
4. Management overview:
Goal: control synovitis/prevent joint damage/preserve
function (multidisciplinary team care)
(a) Patient education / counseling
(b) Medications (plain analgesic / NSAID / DMARDs /
biological DMARD / judicious use of steroid)
(c) Non-pharmacological: P/T, O/T, podiatrist, dietitian etc.
(d) Surgery
(e) Management of associated comorbidities & their risk
factors
5. EARLY aggressive use of DMARDs is indicated for
patients with poor prognostic factors
 High disease activity at onset (≥ 18 joints)
 High baseline joint damage (erosive disease)
 Persistently high CRP level
 Positive IgM rheumatoid factor or anti-CCP (esp. high
titer)
 Positive family history of RA
 Nodular disease
 Extra-articular manifestations
6. Special considerations in the use of conventional DMARDs
 All are slow-acting and take time to act. Therefore DO NOT
delay starting DMARDs
 Usually start with one drug, but combination DMARDs
should be considered early in patient with severe disease
 DON’T be slow in building up target doses of DMARDs
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 Switching to or adding another DMARD promptly if
synovitis uncontrolled
 Counsel patients on the effects and side effects and their slow
action
7. Conventional DMARDs:
Methotrexate, Sulphasalazine, Leflunomide,
Hydroxychloroquine, Low dose prednisolone (<10mg/day),
Azathioprine, Cyclosporin A, Gold - Oral or IM, Penicillamine
8. Biological DMARDs
 Should be prescribed by rheumatologist & with reference to
relevant local & international guidelines
 Examples: Adalimumab, Etanercept, Infliximab, rituximab
 Safety Net available for etanercept & infliximab, check
HAHO intranet site for details under Samaritan fund
Response criteria
1. ACR response criteria
ACR20/50/70 responses
≥ 20%/50%/70% improvement in
(a) Swollen joint count
(b) Tender joint count
(c) Improvement in at least 3 of the following 5 measures
 Patients’ global assessment of disease activity
 Physicians global assessment of disease activity
 Patients’ assessment of pain
 Acute-phase reactant (ESR, CRP)
 Disability scores (HAQ)
2. EULAR response criteria
Disease activity score (DAS)
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R10
DAS44 and DAS28 (more convenient in daily clinical
practice)
DAS28 = 0.56 • √(t28) + 0.28 • (sw28) + 0.70•Ln(ESR)
+0.014•GH
 Number of tender joints among 28 joints (t28)
 Number of swollen joints among 28 joints (sw28)
 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, mm/hour)
 General health status (GH) using a 100-mm visual analog
scale (VAS)
High disease activity >5.1, low disease activity ≤ ≤≤ ≤ 3.2,
remission <2.6
Present
score
Decrease in DAS28
>1.2 0.6-1.2 <0.6
<3.2 Good
response
Moderate
response
No
response
3.2-5.1 Moderate
response
moderate
response
No
response
>5.1 Moderate
response
No response No
response
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R11

ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS
1. Modified New York criteria for definite AS (1984)
a. Radiological criterion
-Sacroiliitis, ≥ grade II bilateral or grade III to IV
unilaterally
b. Clinical criteria (at least 1 out of 3 )
i. Low back pain & stiffness for > 3 months that
improve with exercise but not relieve by rest
ii. Limitation of motion of lumbar spine in both
sagittal & frontal planes
iii. Limitation of chest expansion relative to normal
correlated for age & sex
2. Extra-skeletal features – apical fibrosis, uveitis, aortic
insufficiency
3. Measurements
a. Modified Schober test
b. Occiput to wall distance, tragus to wall distance
c. Chest expansion
d. Lateral lumbar flexion
4. Investigations
a. XR sacroiliac joints and spine
b. MRI / CT SI joints in doubtful cases
c. HLA-B27 is not diagnostic. Routine HLA-B27 checking
is not recommended.
5. Disease assessment
a. BASDAI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease
Activity Index), active disease defined as ≥ 4 ( 0-10)
b. BASFI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index)
c. BAS-G (Patient’s / Physician’s Global score)
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d. BASMI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology
Index )
e. Acute phase reactants (ESR/CRP), can be normal in
patients with predominant axial involvement.
6. Treatment
a. Education, exercise & physiotherapy
b. NSAIDs for pain and stiffness at optimal tolerated dose
c. Addition of gastroprotective agents or use selective
COX-2 inhibitor in patients with high GI risks (elderly,
history of peptic ulcer, comorbidity)
d. Analgesics such as paracetamol and opioids for patients
in whom conventional NSAIDs or COX-2 inhibitor are
insufficient, contraindicated or intolerated
e. Sulphasalazine for patients with peripheral arthritis
f. Anti-TNF therapy for patients with persistent high
disease activity despite adequate trial of the above
treatment including 2-3 NSAIDs (at least 2 months for
each unless contraindicated). Refer rheumatologist for
assessment of disease activity and indications for anti-
TNF therapy
7. ASAS 50 Response criteria: ↓ BASDAI by 50%
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PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS
Diagnostic criteria
1. Moll & Wright criteria 1973
 inflammatory arthritis (peripheral arthritis and/or
sacroiliitis or spondylitis)
 the presence of psoriasis
 the absence of rheumatoid factor
2. The Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis criteria (CASPAR)
Inflammatory articular disease (joint, spine or entheseal)
[mandatory]
With 3 or more points from the following:
1. Current psoriasis (scores 2 points)
2. Personal history of psoriasis (if current psoriasis not present)
3. Family history of psoriasis (if personal history of psoriasis or
current psoriasis not present)
4. Psoriatic nail dystrophy
5. A negative test for rheumatoid factor
6. Current dactylitis
7. History of dactylitis (if current dactylitis not present)
8. Radiological evidence of juxta-articular new bone formation
Clinical features
 30% psoriasis population has arthritis
 60% psoriasis preceeds arthritis, 20% arthritis preceeds
psoriasis, 20% concurrent
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Features distinguished PsA from RA
 Presence of psoriasis
- (Hidden lesions common, e.g. scalp, hairline, behind the
ear and inside ear cannel, guttate lesions on back, under
the breasts, around umbilicus, around the perineum or even
natal cleft)
 Nail dystrophy
- Onycholysis, pitting, ridging etc
 Distal phalangeal joint involvement
 Spondylitis or sacroilitis
 Enthesitis (inflammation of junction of tendon and bone)
 Dactylitis
Treatment
Early DMARD treatment
 Active arthritis (> 3 tender/ swollen joints, dactylitis counted as
one active joint)
Eg. Methotrexate, sulphasalazine, leflumomide, cyclosporin A
Anti-TNF therapy (to be used by specialist)
 For skin psoriasis
(a) Topical steroid (potency)
- Fluocinolone < betamethasone < clobetasol (to be
used by specialist)
- Lotion < cream < ointment < occlusive dressing
- Common e.g.: 0.1% betamethasone cream, Diprosalic
(betamethasone + salicylate)
(b) Topical Tar products, e.g. shampoo, bathing soap
(c) Vit D analogues: e.g. Dovonex (calcipotriol) (to be used
by specialist)
(d) UVA or UVB (to be used by specialist)
(e) Anti-TNFα therapy and other biologics (to be used by
specialist)
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SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE)
American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for the
classification of SLE (Tan et al. 1982, revised 1997, Hochberg
et al.)
1. Malar rash
2. Discoid rash
3. Photosensitivity
4. Oral ulcers
5. Arthritis
6. Serositis (pericarditis, peritonitis, pleuritis)
7. Renal disease (proteinuria > 0.5g/day, or +++ by dipstick, or
cellular casts)
8. Neurological (seizure, or psychosis)
9. Hematological (hemolytic anemia, or leucopenia < 4 X
10
9
/L, lymphopenia < 1.5 X 10
9
/L, on two or more occasions,
or thrombocytopenia < 100 X 10
9
/L)
10. Immunological (anti-dsDNA, or anti-Sm, or false +ve VDRL
for more than 6 months, or the presence of the
antiphospholipid antibodies)
11. Positive anti-nuclear antibody (ANA)
≥ ≥≥ ≥ 4 criteria, serially or simultaneously = classified as SLE
(specificity = 96%)
Anti-ENA antibodies
 Anti-Ro: associated with photosensitivity and an increased
risk of congenital heart block (~2% incidence). Pre-
pregnancy counseling and ultraviolet light protection should
be advised.
 Anti-ENA antibodies seldom sero-convert and repeating tests
is not necessary.
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R16
Anti-phospholipid antibodies
 Lupus anticoagulant (LAC) and anti-cardiolipin (aCL)
antibody (IgG) are available in most HA hospitals.
 They are strongly associated with cerebro-vascular accidents
in Chinese SLE patients. Other associations:
thrombocytopenia, livedo reticularis, valvular heart lesions,
recurrent miscarriages and venous thrombosis.
 Twice positive tests 12 week apart are necessary for the Dx
of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Only strongly positive
aCL is clinically relevant.
 Because of the association with recurrent abortion and
miscarriages, these antibodies have to be checked before
pregnancy.
 Anti-β2-GPI antibody is more specific than aCL for
thrombosis. Because of its limited sensitivity, anti-β2-GPI
should only be considered in patients in whom
antiphospholipid syndrome is suspected but yet aCL and LAC
is negative.
Monitoring of disease activity
 Clinical assessment (signs and symptoms of disease flares)
 Serology: C3 and C4 level, anti-dsDNA titer
Points to note
 The ANA titer only correlates with disease activity very
roughly and is not reliable for disease monitoring. Thus,
there is no need to repeat ANA every visit.
 C-reactive protein (CRP) is usually not elevated in patients
with active SLE. An elevated CRP in SLE may indicate
persistent synovitis / arthritis, serositis or infection. Infection
has always to be considered before augmentation of
immunosuppressive therapy.
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R17

Disease activity scoring system
The ACR SELENA-SLEDAI is one of the most widely used
disease activity index. Items can be used a check-list for disease
flares
Seizure (8)
Psychosis (8)
Organic brain syndrome (8)
Lupus headache (8)
Cranial nerve disorder (8)
Cerebrovascular accident (8)
Retinal hemorrhage / infarct /
optic neuritis (8)
Vasculitis (8)
Arthritis (> 2 joints) (4)
Myositis (4)
Oral ulcer (2)
Pleuritis (2)
Pericarditis (2)
New skin rash (2)
Alopecia (2)
Fever (1)
Leukopenia (< 3 X 10
9
/L) (1)
Thrombocytopenia (1)
Increase in anti-dsDNA titre (2)
Decrease in C3 (2)
Proteinuria (4)
Urine cast (4)
Red blood cell cast in urine (4)
Sterile pyuria (4)
* Only new features or manifestations are scored
Treatment of SLE
General: Patients’ education and counseling, sun-screening,
screening and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and
osteoporosis
Mild SLE manifestations
 NSAIDs (arthritis, serositis, fever)
 Hydroxychloroquine (arthritis, skin lupus)
 Methotrexate, Leflunomide (persistent and refractory arthritis)
 Topical steroid (skin lupus)
 Small to moderate doses of prednisolone (fever, systemic
upset, mild cytopenias, more severe serositis and skin lupus)
 Azathioprine (hematological, mild renal disease, steroid
sparing)
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Severe SLE manifestations
Glomerulonephritis, neuropsychiatric lupus, severe cytopenias,
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, pulmonary hemorrhage,
myocarditis, pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension
 Moderate to high doses of prednisolone
 Intravenous pulse methylprednisolone
 Azathioprine
 Cyclophosphamide (intravenous pulse or oral)
 Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)
 Cyclosporin A and tacrolimus
 Plasma exchange
 Intravenous immunoglobulin
 Rituximab
 Vasodilatation (bosentan, inhaled iloprost, sildenafil)
 Anticoagulation
Lupus nephritis (ISN/RPS Classification 2003)
Class I: Minimal mesangial lupus nephritis
Class II: Mesangial proliferative lupus nephritis
Class III: Focal proliferative lupus nephritis
Class IVG: Diffuse global proliferative lupus nephritis
Class IVS: Diffuse segmental proliferative lupus nephritis
Class V: Membranous lupus nephritis
Class VI: Advanced sclerotic lupus nephritis
MMF increasingly used as first line treatment for proliferative
lupus nephritis because of the lower frequency of adverse effects.
Cyclophosphamide remains the conventional treatment for those
with rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis and those
with impaired renal function
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R19

Neuropsychiatric lupus
19 Neuropsychiatric syndromes according to the 1999 ACR
classification
Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system
Aseptic meningitis Guillain-Barre syndrome
Cerebrovascular disease Autonomic neuropathy
Demyelinating syndrome Mononeuropathy
Headache (single/multiplex)
Movement disorder Myasthenia gravis
Myelopathy Cranial neuropathy
Seizure disorder Plexopathy
Acute confusional state Polyneuropathy
Anxiety disorder
Cognitive dysfunction
Mood disorders
Psychosis
Diagnosis
 Till now, no specific confirmatory serological & imaging
tests
 A diagnosis by exclusion (to rule out CNS infections,
metabolic encephalopathy, effects of drugs / toxins including
corticosteroids, electrolyte disturbances, rarely brain tumor)
 Lupus activity in other systems increases likelihood for active
neuropsychiatric lupus but CNS infection may coexist with
active neuropsychiatric lupus
 CT brain, MRI brain / spinal cord for anatomical diagnosis
 Lumbar puncture to rule out CNS infection
 EEG
 Antiphospholipid antibodies
 Anti-ribosomal P antibody (private laboratory) is associated
with lupus psychosis but its usefulness is limited by the low
sensitivity
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Treatment
 Symptomatic: anti-convulsants, anti-psychotics, anti-
depressants, sedatives
 Secondary prophylaxis for atherosclerotic vascular disorders:
aspirin / warfarin
 Immunosuppressive or immunomodulating treatment (eg.
high dose corticosteroids, pulse methylprednisolone,
cyclophosphamide, IVIG): severe psychosis, acute
confusional state, myelopathy, myasthenia gravis,
neuropathies, demyelinating syndrome.
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RHEUMATOLOGICAL EMERGENCIES
CERVICAL SUBLUXATION
 Suspect in RA patients with long standing and severe disease
 Commonly presents with neck pain radiating towards the occiput,
clumsiness, abnormal gait, spastic quadriparesis, sensory and
sphincter disturbances. May cause cord compression and death.
 4 forms in descending order of frequency: anterior, posterior,
lateral, vertical
Investigations:
 Plain AP and lateral XR of cervical spine with flexion and
extension views
 Anterior subluxation: distance between the posterior aspect of the
anterior arch of the atlas and the anterior aspect of the odontoid
process (Atlanto-dens interval, ADI) ≥ 4mm
 Dynamic (flexion-extension) MRI (if surgery indicated)
Management:
Medical
 High-impact exercises and spinal manipulation are contraindicated
 Soft collars may serve as reminder for patients and physicians but
provide little structural support
 Stiff cervical collars may provide marginal benefit but compliance
is a problem
 Neuropathic pain relief
Surgical
 Urgent referral to orthopaedic surgeons or neurosurgeons if signs
of cord compression
 Patients with severe subluxation but without signs of cord
compression are at risk for severe injury and perhaps death due to a
variety of insults including falls, whiplash injuries, and intubation.
Surgical decision should be individualized.
 Surgical options: craniocervical decompression, cervical or
occipito-cervical fusion (alone or in combination)
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GIANT CELL ARTERITIS (GCA)
Presentation: At least 3 of following 5 criteria
1. Age ≥50 years
2. Localized headache of new onset
3. Tenderness or decreased pulse of the temporal artery
4. ESR > 50 mm/hr
5. Biopsy revealing a necrotizing arteritis with a
predominance of mononuclear cells or a granulomatous
process with multinucleated giant cells.
 Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) is characterized by aching
and morning stiffness in the shoulder and hip girdles,
occurring in 40-50% of GCA patients.
 Other presentations: jaw or arm claudication, weight loss,
PUO
 Complications: Ischaemic optic retinopathy (visual loss 15-
20%). Blindness is abrupt and painless, may be preceded by
amaurosis fugax.
 Aneurysms, dissections, stenotic lesions of the aorta and its
major branches
Investigations
 Elevated ESR , often >100mm/hr (5% of GCA has ESR<
40mm/hr)
 Temporal artery biopsy of the affected side.
Treatment
 High dose prednisolone (1mg/kg/day)
 For visual symptoms or signs (eg, amaurosis fugax, partial or
complete visual loss), start empirical steroid before temporal
artery biopsy result
 Acute visual changes - consider IV pulse methylprednisolone
(250-1000mg) daily for 3 days
SEPTIC ARTHRITIS (see relevant section)
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NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
DRUGS (NSAIDS)
• Do not use > 1 NSAID at a time
• Use the lowest possible dosage and frequency sufficient for pain
relief
• Efficacy is similar among various NSAIDs. Cheaper ones such
as naproxen, ibuprofen and indomethacin are equally effective.
• If one NSAID is not working despite 2-3 week of treatment at
full dosage, shifting to another NSAID may be considered.
• Coexisting hypertension, fluid retention and/or renal
impairment – consider sulindac
Adverse Effects
• GI: dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, GI bleeding and perforation
• Renal: renal impairment
• CVS: fluid retention, worsening of hypertension, increased
cardiovascular events
• Liver: raised transaminases
• CNS: headache, dizziness and cognitive impairment,
especially use of indomethacin in elderly
• Skin: may range from mild rash to Steven Johnson’s
Syndrome
• Resp: may precipitate or exacerbate bronchospasm in aspirin
sensitive individuals
Risk factors for Gastrointestinal toxicity:
a. Chronically disabled
b. Age > 60 years
c. Previous history of proven peptic disease
d. Co-administration of high dose prednisolone or
anticoagulation
e. Higher dosage of NSAIDs
f. Extent of inflammatory disease for which NSAIDs is
prescribed
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R24
COX-2 inhibitors (COXIB)
Efficacy: similar to non-selective conventional NSAIDs
Advantages:
• Reduce gastrointestinal toxicity.
• Less effect on platelet function, hence less bleeding risk.
• Less risk of precipitating bronchospasm
Adverse effects:
• Increase risk of cardiovascular events (AMI, stroke). Risk α
dosage. May worsen BP control and heart failure
• Nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity similar to
conventional NSAIDs
• Celecoxib should be avoided in patients with sulphonamide
allergy
Current recommendations for patients receiving NSAIDs
1. Prescribe lower-risk agents. Weigh the GI vs the CV risk in
individual patient.
 If estimated risk of life-threatening GI bleeding > risk of CV
events, consider use of NSAIDs with gastroproection or the
COXIBs.
 If risk of CV events > the risk of GI bleeding, COXIBs
should be avoided.
2. Limit duration, frequency and dosage.
3. Patients with known H pylori infection should undergo
eradication before NSAID therapy.
4. For patients at higher risk for GI complications, consider
assessing for and treating H pylori if present and co-therapy
with gastroprotective agents.
5. Gastroprotection.
• Misoprostol
• Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
• COXIB alone is beneficial in reducing GI risks, but with the
possible trade-off of increasing CV risk.
• COXIB with concurrent PPI therapy may be considered in
ultra-high risk patients eg. recurrent ulcer bleeding.
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Infections
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COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA
(Ref: IMPACT 3
rd
Editon 2005)
1. Outpatient pneumonia
 PO β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (e.g. Augmentin/Unasyn) ±
Macrolide, OR
 PO Amoxicillin + a newer macrolide, OR
 Fluoroquinolone for those with DRSP risk(s) or Penicillin
intolerance
2. Hospitalised patients with mild to moderate infection (these
patients have risk factors requiring hospitalisation)
 IV/PO Augmentin/Unasyn ± Macrolide, OR
 Cefotaxime or ceftriaxone ± Macrolide
 With modifying factors such as bronchiectasis:
 Ticarcilline-tazobactam/Piperacillin-tazobactam/Cefepime
+ macrolide, OR
 Fluoroquinolone + an aminoglycoside
3. Severe hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia
(Either 1 out 3 major OR 2 out of 6 minor)
Major criteria: a) ARF, b) Septic shock, c) Require MV
Minor criteria: a) RR>30/min, b) PaO
2
/FiO
2
<250, c) SBP<90 or
DBP<60mmHg, d) Urea>7mmol/L, e) Mental
confusion, f) Multilobar involvement
 IV Piperacillin-tazobactam/Cefotaxime/Ceftriaxone + macrolide,
OR
 Cefepime + a macrolide
# DRSP risk (age>70, antibiotics within the last 3/12, immunosuppressive
therapy, coexisting illness, recent hospitalisation, institutionalisation)
* Modify antibiotics according to C/ST when available
*In general, therapy should not be changed within the 1st 72 hrs
unless there is marked clinical deterioration.
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Organisms Antibiotics
CAP, not
hospitalized
• S. pneumoniae
• H. influenzae
• M pneumoniae
• C. pneumoniae
• PO Amoxicillin-clavulanate
± a newer macrolide or
• Amoxicillin + a newer
macrolide
CAP,
hospitalized
in general
ward
As above
• IV/PO Amoxicillin-
clavulanate,
• Ceftriazone or Cefotaxime
± a newer macrolide
Serious
CAP,
requiring
ICU care
As above +
Enterobacteriaceae
• IV Piperacillin-tazobactam,
• Cefepime,
• Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime
+ a newer macrolide
Remarks
1. In HK, macrolide/azalide or tetracycline should not be used
alone for empiric treatment of CAP as 50-70% pen-S and pen-
R S. pneumoniae isolates are multiply resistant to these agents
2. For S. pneumoniae causing pneumonia (but not otitis media
and meningitis), the following revised categorization was
suggested: ≤ 1µg/ml, sensitive; 2 µg/ml, intermediate; ≥4
µg/ml, resistant. Penicillin or ampicillin or amoxillin are
generally viewed as the beta-lactam drugs of choice for
treatment infections with Pen-S and Pen-I strains of S.
pneumoniae.
3. Augmentin 375mg tds + amoxil 250mg tds may be an
acceptable alternative to high dose Augmentin 1gm bd as they
were demonstrated to be bioequivalent.
4. Use of fluoroquinolone in CAP may lead to: (1) delay in
diagnosis of tuberculosis; (2) increased fluoroquinolone
resistance among M. tuberculosis. Thus, fluoroquinolone is not
recommended as first line therapy in Hong Kong for CAP.
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5. Indications for use of fluoroquinolones in CAP
• Failed first line regimen
• Allergic to alternative agents
• Documented infection due to pneumococci with high level
penicillin resistance (MIC ≥ 4µg/mL).
6. Drugs with activity against both P. aeruginosa and DRSP
include cefepime, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam,
imipenem and meropenem.
7. With pseudomonas risk (e.g. bronchiectasis), give piperacillin-
tazobactam or cefepime + a macrolide; or fluoroquinolone +
aminoglycoside.
HOSPITAL ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA (HAP)
Pneumonia occurring ≥48 hr after admission and excluding any infection
that is incubating at the time of admission
2 empiric Rx categories :
1. Patients with early-onset pneumonia (≤ ≤≤ ≤4 days admission) with no risk
factors for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and any disease
severity
3rd generation cephalosporin OR
β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor
(Amoxycillin-clavulanate/ Ampicillin-sulbactam)
2. Patients with late-onset pneumonia (>4 days admission) OR risk
factors for MDR pathogens and all disease severity
Antipseudomonal β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitor OR
Antipseudomonal cephalosporin OR
Antipseudomonal carbepenem
± aminoglycoside OR fluoroquinolone
Linezolid OR Vancomycin after careful assessment of
indication
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Risk factors for MDR pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ESBL-
producing Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species and MRSA)
 Antimicrobial therapy in preceding 90 days
 High frequency of antibiotic resistance in the community or in the
hospital unit
 Hospitalization for ≥ 2 days in the preceding 90 days
 Residence in a nursing home or extended care facility
 Chronic dialysis within 30 days
 Home wound care
 Family member with multi-resistant pathogen
 Immunosuppressive disease and/or therapy
Empiric antibiotic may need modification/de-escalaton once the results
of blood or respiratory tract cultures become available
Organisms Antibiotics
Onset <4 days after
admission with no
previous antibiotics
• S. pneumoniae,
• H influenzae
• M. Catarrhalis
• S. aureus
• IV/PO Amoxicillin-
clavulanate or
• Cefuorxime if penicillin
allergy (non-type I
hypersensitivity)
Onset ≤ 4 days after
admission + had
received antibiotic
recently, OR
onset ≥ 5 days after
amission OR
mechanical
ventilation
• MRSA;
• P aeruginosa,
• Acinetobacter,
• Klebsiella spp.,
• Enterobacter
spp.
• IV cefoperazone-
sulbactam,
• Cefepime,
• Ticarcillin-clavulanate or
• piperacillin-tazobactam
± an aminoglycoside
± Vancomycin after careful
assessment of indications
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OPPORTUNISTIC PNEUMONIA
1. Pneumocystis carinii
a. Mild cases (PaO
2
> 9 kPa)
- Co-trimoxazole po for 3 weeks (TMP 20 mg/kg &
sulphamethoxazole 100 mg/kg in 3-4 divided doses)
b. Severe cases (PaO
2
≤ 9 kPa)
- Co-trimoxazole iv (TMP 12-20 mg/kg &
sulphamethoxazole 75-100 mg/kg in 3-4 divided doses) till
clinically improved, then oral therapy to complete the 21-
day course + adjunctive systemic steroid
c. Alternative to Co-trimoxazole
- Pentamidine 4 mg/kg by slow 2-hr iv infusion daily x 3 wks
d. Add adjuvant steroids in all severe cases (PaO
2
in RA<
70mmHg/ 9kPa OR A-a gradient >35 mmgHg/ 4.7 kPa)
- Prednisolone 40mg bd for 5 days then 20 mg daily for the
duration of the therapy
2. Fungi
a. Amphotericin B 1-5 mg iv infusion over 2 hrs as test dose
Increase by 10 mg/day up to 0.6-1.0 mg/kg, dissolve in D5 and
infuse over 4-6 hrs after pre-medication with chlorpheniramine 10
mg iv and hydrocortisone 25-50 mg iv
b. Itraconazole 200-400mg daily po if amphotericin is not
tolerated or as follow-up therapy after amphotericin
c. Fluconazole for invasive candidiasis 400 mg po/iv on Day 1,
followed by 200-400 mg daily po/iv
3. CMV pneumonia
a. Ganciclovir 5 mg/kg q12h by iv infusion
b. Alternative - Foscarnet 180 mg/kg daily iv infusion (adjust
dose according to renal function)
4. Nocardia
a. Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (5-10mg/kg TM & 25-
50mg/kg SMX) po/iv in 2-4 divided doses for 6-12 months.
b. Alternative - Carbapenems or third generation cephalosporins
for severely ill or immunocompromised patients.
(Ref: Curr Opin Pulm Med 2006; 12(3): 228-234)
5. Legionella pneumonia
Erythromycin 500-1000mg iv q6h x 2-3 wks ± rifampicin
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PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
Recommendations
*Directly observed treatment (DOT) should be given as far as possible.
1. Uncomplicated new cases – 6 months in total
2 HRZ + (E or S)7/ 4 HR7 (When Rx started in hospital or when
3x/week regimen not tolerated)
2 HRZ + (E or S)
7
/ 4 HR
3
2 HRZ + (E or S)
3
/ 4HR
3
(Government Chest Clinic regimen)
2. Retreatment cases – 9 months in total.
3 (or 4) HRZES
7
/ 6 (or 5) HR r E
7
Notations
Figures in front of drug combinations = duration in months.
Subscript ‘3’ = thrice weekly & ‘7’ = daily.
The slash “/” is used to separate different phases of Rx.
Drugs and dosages
Daily 3x/week
BW Dose BW Dose
H = Isoniazid -- 300 mg
a
-- 10-15 mg/kg
R = Rifampicin <50 kg
t50 kg
450 mg
600 mg
-- 600 mg
Z = Pyrazinamide <50 kg
t50 kg
1-1.5 g
1.5-2 g
<50 kg
t50 kg
2 g
2.5 g
E = Ethambutol
b
-- 15 mg/kg -- 30 mg/kg
S = Streptomycin <50 kg
t50 kg
500-750 mg
c
750 mg
<50 kg
t50 kg
500-750 mg
750-1000 mg
a) i) Some elderly and/or malnourished can only tolerate 200 mg.
ii) Vitamin B6 10 mg/d for malnutrition, alcoholism, pregnancy.
iii) May cause peripheral neuropathy, encephalopathy and
convulsions especially in renal impairment.
iv) Drug interaction with phenytoin & carbamazepine.
b) Assess baseline visual symptoms & acuity before starting Rx with
close monitoring during therapy & consult ophthalmologist prn
c) Lower dose for > 60 years old.
Reference: Chemotherapy of TB in HK – updated in 2006.
www.info.gov.hk/tb_chest
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CNS INFECTIONS
Consider CNS infections in the presence of sepsis and one or more
of the followings: meningism, seizures, headache, impaired
consciousness, photophobia, confusion, signs of increased
intracranial pressure (↑ ICP), focal neurological deficits, presence
of parameningeal focus of sepsis. Signs and symptoms may be
subtle or absent in elderly or immunocompromised host.
1. CSF examination is crucial in the diagnosis of meningitis
2. Watch out for signs of ↑ICP and do urgent CT brain before LP.
If LP is contraindicated, likely to be delayed or fails, empirical
antibiotics can be started after taking blood cultures
3. CSF analysis: cell count, protein, glucose (simultaneous blood
sugar), gram stain, culture, AFB (smear and C/ST),
cryptococcus (India ink smear, Ag and culture), viral studies
Do not wait for C/ST results before starting Rx
4. Other Ix: CBP, RFT, LFT, CXR, EEG, XR skull, sinuses and
mastoid
5. Look for any predisposing factors: sinusitis, endocarditis, otitis
media, skull fracture, immunocompromised state, etc
Typical CSF findings in meningitis
Normal Viral Bacterial TB / Cryptococcal
Appearance clear clear turbid turbid/viscous
Mononuclear
cells (/mm
3
)
<5 10-100 <50 100-300
PMN (/mm
3
) nil nil 200-3000 0-200
Protein (g/l) 0.2-0.4 0.4-0.8 0.5-2.0 0.5-3.0
CSF/blood
glucose
>1/2 >1/2 <1/2 <1/2
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Initial empirical anti-microbial regimes
Bacterial
meningitis
Ceftriaxone 2 g q12h OR Cefotaxime 1.5-2 g iv q4h iv +
Ampicillin 2g iv q4h (if risk of listerosis anticipated
@
)
Brain abscess Ceftriaxone 2 g q12h OR Cefotaxime 1.5-2 g iv q4h iv +
Metronidazole 500 mg iv q8h
TB meningitis INAH 300-600 mg daily
Rifampicin 450-600 mg daily
Pyrazinamide 1.5-2 g daily
Ethambutol 15 mg/kg/d daily (25 mg/kg/d for first 2/12)
Pyridoxine 100 mg daily
± Streptomycin 0.75 g im daily
Cryptococcal
meningitis
Amphotericin B 0.5-0.8 mg/kg iv infusion over 4-6 hrs +
5-Flucytosine 37.5 mg/kg q6h po for 2 weeks, then
fluconazole 400mg/d for a minimum of 10 weeks
(immunocompetent patients)
Viral
encephalitis
Acyclovir 10 mg/kg iv q8h (or 500mg iv q8h)
@ Immunocompromized, pregnancy and elderly
• Dexamethasone 4 mg q6h in complicated TB meningitis or brain
abscess with significant cerebral oedema.
• Dexamethasone (0.15 mg/kg q6h for 2 4 days with the first dose
administered 10 20 min before, or at least concomitant with, the
first dose of antimicrobial therapy) in adults with suspected or
proven pneumococcal meningitis
• Prophylactic anti-convulsant may be considered in cerebral abscess
and subdural empyema
• Duration of Rx for meningitis usually 10-14 days, for brain abscess
6-8 weeks
• Consider prophylaxis for contacts in cases of meningococcal
meningitis: ciprofloxacin 500mg stat, ceftriazone 250mg IM stat
• Duration of treatment: ≥ 7days for H. influenzae, 10-14 days for S.
pneumoniae, 14-21 days for L. monocytogenes and S. agalactiae,
and 21 days for Gram negative bacilli. DO NOT change to oral
therapy.
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URINARY TRACT INFECTION
Diagnosis Organisms (a) Antibiotics
Cystitis E. coli;
S. saprophyticus;
Gp B streptococcus;
Proteus spp;
klebsiella spp.
• PO Nitrofurantoin(b, c)
• Amoxicillin-clavulanate(c)
• TMP-SMX(d)
Acute
pyelonephritis
E. coli;
other
enterobacteriacea;
enterococcus
• IV Amoxicillin-clavulanate
• 3rd cephalosporins (e) ±
Aminoglycoside (f)
• IV/PO Fluoroquinolone (d, f)
Remarks
a. Escherichia coli is the most causative pathogen.
b. Nitrofurantoin is well tolerated, and demonstrates a
consistently low level of resistance among E. coli, gram-
positive cocci (including Enterococcus and S. saprophyticus),
but inactive against most Proteus, and Klebsiella strains.
Nitrofurantoin should not be used to treat pyelonephritis since
it does not achieve reliable tissue levels.
c. Give 5-7 day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate or
Nitrofurantoin as 3-day course may not be as effective as
ciprofloxacin and TMP-SMX.
d. There is the increasing problem of resistance to TMP-SMX
and fluoroquniolone.
e. For example ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. A 14-day regimen is
generally recommended for upper UTI.
f. Aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones achieve higher tissue
levels, relative to serum levels, than do beta lactams
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ENTERIC INFECTIONS

Acute infective diarrhea may be due to viruses e.g. Norovirus,
bacteria and their toxin, and sometimes protozoa. Most are self-
limiting.
Clinical presentation
1. Secretory diarrhoea (Non-inflammatory enteritis)
• Commonly caused by salmonellosis
• Norovirus: pronounced vomiting
• Cholera classically presents as acute painless profuse rice
water diarrhoea without blood or mucus
2. Invasive diarrhoea (Inflammatory enteritis)
• Presents as dysenteric syndrome i.e. transient diarrhoea
followed by abdominal colic, tenesmus, fever, blood and
mucus in stool
• Commonly caused by shigellosis (bacillary dysentery), non-
cholera vibrios (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Plesiomonas
shigelloides) and occasionally Entamoeba histolytica
(amoebic dysentery).
3. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever)
• Caused by Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever) and Salmonella
paratyphi (paratyphoid fever)
• Suspect in patient of high fever with relative bradycarida,
↓platelet, N to ↓WCC, no localized focus of infection.
4. Enteric infections associated with systemic complications
• E coli O157:H7 — haemolytic-uraemic syndrome
• Campylobacter enteritis — Guillain-Barré syndrome
• Non-polio enteroviruses — Hand-foot-mouth disease,
myocarditis, encephalitis, etc.
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5. Enteric infections are often more severe in immuno-
compromised patients, e.g. elderly, diabetes mellitus,
cirrhosis, anatomical or functional hyposplenism, concurrent
immunosuppressant therapy
Management for enteric fever
1. Dx of enteric fever confirmed by culture from blood & stool,
occasionally bone marrow aspirate. Widal serology unreliable.
2. Antibiotics treatment:
• Levofloxacin 500mg daily iv/po OR ciprofloxacin 500mg -
750mg bd po x 5-7 days.
• Alternative: Ceftriaxone 1-2g iv q24h
• Strains with nalidixic acid resistance: Azithromycin
500mg qd x 7 days or Ceftriaxone 1-2g iv q24h x 10 – 14
days
Management for other bacterial enteric infections
1. Adequate fluid and electrolyte supplement
2. Routine antibiotic not recommended for mild to moderate
gastroenteritis
3. Consider fluoroquinolone e.g. levofloxacin 500mg daily po for
3 days for severe gastroenteritis (> 6 unformed stools/day, fever
> 38.5
o
C, blood or faecal WBC +ve)
NOTE: If Campylobacter enteritis is suspected and antimicrobial is
indicated on clinical grounds, a macrolide (e.g.
clarithromycin or azithromycin) is preferred because of
increasing report of fluoroquinolone resistance.
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ACUTE CHOLANGITIS
1. Investigations
a) CBP, LFT, RFT
b) PT, APTT, Glucose
c) Blood culture
d) Cross match
e) Abdominal USG
2. Management
a) Active resuscitation and monitor vital signs
b) IV antibiotics regimens:
- Amoxicillin-clavulanate (± Aminoglycoside)
- Cefuroxime + metronidazole (± Aminoglycoside)
- If penillin allergy, Levofloxacin + metronidazole
- IV antibiotic can be switched to oral formulary for
completion of therapy if clinically stable.
c) Early decompression of biliary obstruction
3. Preparation for ERCP
a) Indications for emergency ERCP
- Increasing pain and guarding in epigastrium or RUQ
- Hypotension despite resusitation
- High fever (> 39
o
C)
- Mental confusion, which is a predictor of poor outcome
b) Correct coagulopathy
c) Fast patient
4. Care for patients who have nasobiliary or percutaneous
(PTBD) drainage of obstructed biliary tract
a) Check input/output chart (including NB drain) daily
b) Check hydration status, RFT, HCO
3
and correct fluid and
electrolyte derangement as necessary
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SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS
High index of suspicion is necessary
1. Cirrhotic patients may have an insidious onset of fever and lack
of peritoneal signs, perform diagnostic paracentesis, send
ascitic fluid for:
• Cell count (EDTA bottle to haematology laboratory,
request differential WBC)
• Low protein level is consistent with spontaneous bacterial
peritonitis
• Fluid for bacterial culture in blood culture broth
• Cytology
2. Diagnostic criteria:
• ascitic fluid WCC > 500/mm
3
or neutrophil > 250/mm
3
3. Perform blood culture
4. Empirical treatment
• Ceftriaxone 2gm q24h IVI OR Cefotaxime 1-2 gm q8h IVI
• May consider reassessment by repeating paracentesis 48
hours later.
• Usual duration of treatment : 5-10 days
5. Watch out for hepatic encephalopathy.
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NECROTIZING FASCIITIS
Necrotizing Fasciitis is a deep seated infection of the subcutaneous
tissue that results in proressive destruction of fascia and fat, but
may spare the skin. Early Recognition is important because there
may be a remarkably rapid progression from an inapparent process
to one associated with extensive destruction of tissue, systemic
toxicity, loss of limb or death.
Diagnosis and Management:
1. Difficult to distinguish from cellulitis in early stages.
2. Excruciating pain and presence of systemic toxicity out of
proportion to the local findings.
3. Skin breakdown with bullae and frank cutaenous gangrene can
be seen.
4. Risk factors assessment and urgent Gram stain may guide
choice of antibiotics.
5. Immediate surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy are the
mainstay of treatment.
Risk Factors Organisms Antibiotics
Following exposure
to freshwater,
seawater or seafood
• Aeromonas spp.
• Vibrio vulnificus
Following
intraabdominal,
gynecological or
perineal surgery
• Polymicrobial
• Enterobacteriacea
• Streptococci
• Anaerobes
• IV Levofloxacin 500-
750mg daily
Plus
• IV Amoxicillin-clavulanate
1.2gm Q8H
Following cuts,
abrasion, recent
chickenpox, IVDU,
healthy adults
• Group A
Streptococcus
• IV penicillin G 4MU Q4H
Plus
• IV clindamycin 600mg
Q8H
• ± ±± ± IVIG (1-2g/kg for 1 dose)
for streptococcal toxic
shock syndrome
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GUIDELINE FOR CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF SKIN &
SOFT TISSUE INFECTION AND CLINICAL SYNDROMES
COMPATIBLE WITH STAPHYLOCOCCAL INFECTION
History and Physical Examination
Complicated SSTI:
Consider hospital
admission
Uncomplicated
SSTI: Impetigo,
Cellulites,
Folliculitis,
Furuncle, Abscess
involvement
Obtain culture if “NARES”
• Not responsive to 1
st
line
antibiotic
• Atypical - body site or
clinical features
• Recurrent SSTI
• Extensive – infection in
multiple sites
• Spreading – in close
contacts involvement
Indications for IV
Antibiotics
(Severe sepsis +
Any one below:
• Complicated SSTI
(e.g. necrotizing
fasciitis, carbuncle)
• Necrotizing
pneumonia
• Periorbital cellulites
• Deep intramuscular
abscess/ pyomyositis
• Pyogenic meningitis
Initiate empiric Rx
I & D
• Ampicillin +
Cloxacillin;
• 1
st
generation
cephalosporin; or
• Amoxycillin-
clavulanate; or
• Ampicillin-
sulbactam
Consider topical therapy
(e.g. chlortetracycline) for
impetigo or mild folliculitis
involvement
Little or no improvement
Obtain culture (if not yet
done)
Clinical assessment
of S/S:
Treat according to
culture results
Clinical improve:
Complete therapy
Advice on personal
hygiene
Alternative therapy
/ consider CA-
MRSA coverage
• Review diagnosis
• Re-assess need
for I&D
If culture showed
MRSA, please notify
Department of Health
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ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY FOR
NEUTROPENIC PATIENTS
(Neutrophil  0.5 x 10
9
/L or  1 x 10
9
/L with a predictable decline
to  0.5 x 10
9
/L in 24 - 48h)
1. Preventive measures:
• Reverse isolation and aseptic nursing care
• Weekly CXR and surveillance cultures from Hickman
catheter, urine, sputum, throat, nasal and rectal swabs for
bacteria and fungus
• Bactericidal mouthwash (Chlorhexidine)
• Antimicrobial prophylaxis may be considered – Fluconazole
200 mg daily po ± Levofloxacin 500 mg daily
2. Empirical therapy for neutropenic fever (stepwise approach):
• Pyrexia > 38.3
0
C or > 38
0
C for more than 1 hour, after
appropriate cultures taken, commence broad spectrum
antibiotics with anti-pseudomonas activity
e.g. Ceftazidime 1-2 g q8h IV
Imipenem 500 mg q6h IVI
Meropenem 500mg q6-8h to 1 g q8h IVI
Tazocin 4.5 g q6-8h IVI
Cefepime 2 g q12h or 1g q8h IVI
Sulperazon 1g q8-12h IV
• In ill cases, add Aminoglycoside (e.g. IVI Amikacin
15mg/kg over 1h q24h, 750mg q24h or 375mg q12h)
• Add vancomycin 500 mg q6h or 1gm Q12H if culture +ve or
highly suggestive of MRSA/skin/catheter infection
• If no response after 5 days and culture – e, add
Amphotericin B 0.5 – 1.0 mg/kg/day
Reference: 2002 Guidelines for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in
Neutropenic Patients with Cancer.
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MALARIA
Management of Acute Attack
1. Anti-malarial chemotherapy should be administered as soon as
the diagnosis is made
2. Monitor blood for parasites and repeat testing is needed if the
diagnosis is strongly suspected
3. Maintain fluid and electrolytes balance; avoid overhydration
4. Renal failure regime for blackwater fever; treat hypoglycaemia
and/or shock if present
5. Pulmonary oedema may develop, treated by prop up, oxygen,
loop diuretic, venodilator; if hypoxic may need positive
pressure ventilation
6. Avoid sedatives and corticosteroids
7. Watch for relapse (usually within 2 months) and signs of
peritoneal irritation (splenic rupture)
Anti-malarial Chemotherapy
A. Uncomplicated P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale
Chloroquine 600 mg base po stat
and 300 mg base 6 hours later
then 300 mg base daily for 2 more days
plus Primaquine 15 mg base (0.25 mg/kg) po daily taken with
food for 14 days in P. vivax and P. ovale infection to eradicate
hypnozoites in the liver
NOTE 1 Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax reported from Oceania
and South America, Mefloquine 750 mg po, then 500
mg 12 hours later
NOTE 2 Primaquine-resistant P. vivax reported in South-east
Asia and Western Pacific. An increased of the dose to
22.5 – 30 mg daily (or 0.5 mg/kg) is effective
NOTE 3 Primaquine is contraindicated in pregnancy. In G6PD
deficiency, primaquine is safe in dosage of 30 mg
once a week for 8 weeks. Monitor Hb level.
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B. Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria
1. Definition: symptomatic malaria without signs of severity or evidence
of vital organ dysfunction
2. Treatment:
a. Artesunate 200 mg (4 mg/kg) po daily for 3 days
plus Mefloquine 1000 mg base po on day 2, then 500 mg po on day 3
b. Quinine 600 mg salt (10 mg/kg) po 8 hourly for 7 days
plus Doxycycline 100 mg po bid for 7 days
C. Severe P. falciparum malaria
1. Definition: presence of one or more of the following clinical or
laboratory features, after excluding other obvious cause of their
symptoms:
a. Clinical: Prostration, Impaired consciousness, Respiratory distress
(acidotic breathing), Multiple convulsions, Circulatory collapse,
Pulmonary oedema (radiological), Abnormal bleeding, Jaundice,
Haemoglobinuria
b. Laboratory: Severe anaemia, Hypoglycaemia, Acidosis, Renal
impairment, Hyperlactataemia, Hyperparasitaemia (>5%)
2. Treatment:
a. Artesunate 2.4 mg/kg i.v. or i.m. given on admission (time = 0), then
at 12 h and 24 h, then once a day until oral medication could be
taken, treat for a total of 7 days
plus Doxycycline 100 mg po bid for 7 days once oral medication
could be taken or Mefloquine as in above section B2a
b. Quinine dihydrochloride 20 mg/kg loading dose in 5% dextrose
infused over 4 hours, maintenance dose 10 mg/kg infused over 2 – 4
hours every 8 hours. Change to oral dose when feasible to complete a
7-day course
plus Doxycycline as in above section C2a
Note 1 Consider Primaquine 45 mg single dose to eradicate
gametocytes in blood at the end of treatment of falciparum
malaria
Note 2 Do not use loading dose if patient has received quinine,
quinidine, or mefloquine in preceding 24 hours.
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CHICKENPOX / HERPES ZOSTER
Diagnosis
1. Virus detected by DIF of vesicular fluid
2. Paired serology in acute and convalescent phases
Management
1. Keep patients from school / work for at least 5 days after onset
of eruption or until vesicles become dry
2. Strict isolation when in hospital (airborne isolation for
chickenpox/ disseminated zoster)
3. Give acyclovir 10 – 12 mg/kg q8h IV infusion for 7 days for
severe zoster or chickenpox in elderly or immuno-
compromised patients
4. Analgesics usually required for zoster
5. Watch for development of severe secondary skin infection
(Staphylococcus/Streptococcus) and consider antibiotics (e.g.
oral cloxacillin) if necessary.
6. For herpes zoster with ophthalmic involvement, urgent eye
consultation is recommended.
7. Varicella-zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG) within 96 hours of
exposure may prevent / modify disease in susceptible contacts
prone to severe varicella. e.g. in pregnancy or
immunocompromised hosts.
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HIV / AIDS
Diagnosis of HIV infection and AIDS:
1. HIV infection: HIV antibody test by screening (ELISA) and
confirmatory (usually Western Blot) tests
2. AIDS: Laboratory evidence of HIV infection plus clinical
evidence of indicator disease for AIDS
3. Obtain informed consent before performing HIV Ab test
4. Counselling is crucial because of major psychological and social
implications of a positive result, the need for confidentiality and
the importance of effecting behavorial modification irrespective
of HIV status
5. Referral for counselling and medical consultation available from
QEH Special Medical Service (2958 6571) & CHP Kowloon
Bay Integrated Treatment Centre (2116 2888)
6. Voluntary reporting of HIV infection and AIDS to Department
of Health (DH2293 form) is encouraged for epidemiological
purpose.
Clinical management of HIV/AIDS
1. Baseline assessment:
• CD4/CD8 count
• HIV RNA level
2. For patients with respiratory symptoms:
• CXR, ABG
• Sputum for C/ST, AFB, pneumocystis
• Empirical Rx for pneumocystis if hypoxaemia present
• Bronchoscopy for non-responsive cases
3. For patients with GI symptoms:
• Stool for microscopy and C/ST
• Stool for cryptosporidia /isospora / microsporidia
• Stool for MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex)
• OGD for dysphagia, colonoscopy for chronic diarrhoea, USG
for impaired LFT
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4. For patients with neurological symptoms:
• CT / MRI brain, CSF examination
• Toxoplasma serology, cryptococcal Ag
• Nerve conduction studies for neuropathy
5. For patients with haematological symptoms:
• Marrow biopsy for histology, AFB smear and culture
6. For patients with PUO:
• Blood culture for fungus and mycobacteria
• Marrow aspirate for histology, AFB and fungal culture
• Blood for CMV pp 65 antigen, cryptococcal Ag and
penicillium serology/ galactomannan
• CXR, CT abdomen
Antiretroviral therapy
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs):
Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT, ZDV) 250 – 300 mg bd
Didanosine (Videx, ddI) 250 – 400 mg daily
Lamivudine (Epivir, 3TC) 150 mg bd
Stavudine (Zerit, d4T) 30 – 40 mg bd
Abacavir (Ziagen, ABC) 300 mg bd
Tenofovir (Viread, TDF) 300 mg daily
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
Nevirapine (Viramune, NVP) 200 mg daily for 2 weeks, then
200 mg bd
Efavirenz (Stocrin, EFV) 600 mg nocte
Protease inhibitors (PIs)
Indinavir (Crixivan, IDV) 800 mg q8h fasting or
800 mg (with RTV 100 mg) bd
Saquinavir (Invirase, SQV) 1000 mg (with RTV 100 mg) bd
Lopinavir /Ritonavir
(Kaletra, LPV/RTV)
2 tab bd
(400/100 mg)
Atazanavir (Reyataz, ATV) 300 mg daily (with RTV 100 mg)
or 400 mg daily
Ritonavir (Norvir, RTV) Used in low-dose (100 mg) for
boosting level of other PIs
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1. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) usually consists
of triple therapy with 2 NRTIs + 1 PI (usually booseted with
RTV or 2NRTIs + 1 NNRTI
2. HAART should be initiated for the following clinical setting:
• AIDS or severely symptomatic HIV disease
• CD4 count <200/ul
3. Treatment may be considered for asymptomatic patients with
CD4 count between 200 - 350/ul especially with HIV viral load
>100,000 copies/ml
4. Important to assess and reinforce drug adherence to prevent
emergence of viral resistance
5. CD4 count and HIV RNA level should be monitored and
genotype resistance assay may be arranged for patients with
non-suppressed viral load
Opportunistic Infection Prophylaxis
1. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP)
Indications: a. after an episode of PCP
b. when CD4 count falls below 200/ul
First line: Septrin 960 mg thrice weekly to daily
Second line: Aerosolised pentamidine 300 mg every 4 weeks
Dapsone 100 mg daily
2. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)
• Indication: CD4 <50/ul
• Azithromycin 1000 mg once weekly OR clarithromycin 500
mg BD
Treatment of Opportunistic Infections
1. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
a) Consider in AIDS patients with fever, dry cough and
dyspnoea
b) May have normal CXR during early stage
c) Diagnosis by sputum induction with hypertonic saline /
BAL/ transbronchial lung biopsy, hypoxaemia on ABG
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d) Oxygen supplement
e) Septrin at TMP 15 mg/kg/d po/IV (3-4 tab qid) for 3 weeks
f) If acutely ill or PaO2 <8: add Prednisone 40 mg bd for 5
days, then 40 mg qd for 5days, then 20 mg qd for 11 days
g) Alternative regimen:
• Clindamycin 600 mg IV q8h + Primaquine 30 mg daily po
for 3 weeks
• Pentamidine isethionate 4 mg/kg/d IV for 3 weeks
2. Tuberculosis Combination therapy (DOTS): isoniazid,
rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol;
levofloxacin and streptomycin for patients with
adverse reaction to first-line drugs
3. MAI Combination therapy with 3 - 4 drugs:
Ciprofloxacin 750mg bd/ levofloxacin 500mg/day
Clarithromycin 500mg bd/azithromycin 500mg/day
Ethambutol 15 mg/kg/day
Rifabutin 300 mg daily
Amikacin 10 - 15 mg/kg/day IV
4. Cryptosporidiosis Nitazoxanide 500 mg bd po x 2 weeks
5. Isosporiasis Septrin 960 mg qid for 10 days, then BD for 3
weeks
6. Cryptococcosis Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg/d iv (Max 1.5 mg/kg/d)
± flucytosine 25 mg/kg q6h for 2 weeks, then
fluconazole 400 mg/d po for total of at least 10
weeks
7. Toxoplasmosis Pyrimethamine 200 mg po x 1 then 50-75 mg/d +
clindamycin 600 mg qid + folinic acid 10-20 mg
daily for 6 weeks
Maintenance: Pyrimethamine 25-50 mg/d +
clindamycin 300-450 mg qid + folinic acid 10-20
mg daily
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8. CMV retinitis Ganciclovir 5 mg/kg IV q12h, foscarnet 60 mg/kg
IV q8h or valganciclovir 900 mg po bd for 3 wks
Maintenance: Valganciclovir 900 mg daily po
9. Candida
oesophagitis
Fluconazole 100 mg/day (higher dose up to 400
mg/day for refractory cases) or
Itraconazole solution 200 mg daily for 2 – 3 weeks
10. Penicilliosis Induction: amphotericin B 0.6 mg/kg/day IV for 2
weeks
Maintenance: itraconazole 200 mg bd
11. Microsporidiosis Albendazole 400 mg bd for 3 weeks
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RICKETTSIAL INFECTION
Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria. They are maintained
in nature through cycle involving reservoir mammals and arthropod
vectors except louse borne typhus. Humans are incidental hosts via
arthropod vector. In Hong Kong, majority of the reported cases
contracted the diseases locally and mostly related to outdoor
activities. Vasculitis of small vessels is basic underlying pathology.
The severity of disease can range from mild to multi-organ failure
and even fatal outcome. Patients usually present with triad (i.e.
fever, skin rash/eschar and headache).
Diagnosis
1. Weil-Felix test: non-sensitive and non-specific
2. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (sent to PHLC):
• Spotted fever group
• Typhus group
• Scrub typhus
Management
1. All beta-lactams and aminoglycosides are not effective.
2. Doxycycline is the most effective drug
3. The usual adult oral dose of doxycycline is 100mg twice daily
for 7-14 days.
4. Azithromycin is an option for those who are contraindicated
for tetracycline such as pregnant wowem and children.
5. Notify to CHP

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INFLUENZA AND AVIAN FLU
An acute viral disease of the respiratory tract caused by the
influenza A (H
3
N
2
, H
1
N
1
, H
5
N
1
etc.), B and C viruses, with fever,
headache, myalgia, prostration, coryza, sore throat and cough.
Diagnosis
1. Nasopharyngeal aspirates/ tracheal aspirates/ bronchoalveolar
lavage specimens for direct antigen detection
(immunofluorescence or EIA) AND viral culture
2. Acute and convalescent sera for specific Ab rise
Complications
Primary viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia,
myocarditis, myositis, rhabdomyolysis, Guillain-Barré syndrome,
transverse myelitis, Reye’ syndrome (associated with use of aspirin
in children)
Management
1. Placement of patients in a private room or cohorting. If
cohorting not possible, separate from other patients by 3 feet
2. Standard and droplet precautions
3. Ask patients to cover the mouth with tissue or handkerchief
while coughing or sneezing or wear a mask where appropriate
4. Treatment
• Reduce severity and duration of illness if given within 48
hours of onset of symptoms
• Both effective against influenza A and B
- Oseltamivir 75 mg bd po x 5 days
- Zanamivir 10 mg bd inhaler puff x 5 days
Please refer to HA intranet for the latest information on management
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Additional information for patients suspected of avian
influenza
1. Enhanced surveillance:
In patients with symptoms of fever and cough/ shortness of breath
OR radiographically confirmed pneumonia, ARDS or other
severe respiratory illness with no alternative diagnosis, watch out
for epidemiological link(s):
• History of recent travel (7 days) outside HK with history of
visiting poultry farm/ zoo/ wild birds in areas known to have
outbreaks of Avian influenza (H5)(H7)(H9) in recent 6
months
• Working in laboratory with Avian Influenza specimens
• Unprotected contact with wild bird, poultry or other animals
in areas/cities known to have Avian Influenza in recent 6
months
• Unprotected contact with human cases of Avian influenza in
the past 1 week
• Unprotected contact with disease wild bird, poultry or their
carcasses in areas known to have Avian influenza in recent 6
months
(For details, please refer to the most recent version of the “A&E
and GOPD triage assessment for febrile patients with no
specific focus identified other respiratory symptoms” on HA
intranet)
2. Infection control measures:
Suspected/ confirmed cases should be managed using combined
isolation precautions comprising standard precautions plus
droplet, contact and airborne precautions. Patients should be
placed in negative pressure airborne single isolation room.
Cohorting is allowed for confirmed cases.
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3. Treatment:
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) 75mg bd for 5 days is the preferred
antiviral. Treat as early as possible. Indications:
• Potentially life threatening influenza-related illness
• In patients with strong epidemiological link or medical risk
factors
• In patient with possible epidemiological link and rapid test for
influenza A positive.
Other modalities of treatment:
• Treat secondary bacterial infection.
• Oxygen and ventilatory care if indicated.
• Avoid salicylates.
• Advise close contact hygiene
4. Notification: Avian influenza (H5/7/9) is a statutorily notifiable
disease.
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SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (SARS)
Aetiological agent: SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
Human to human transmission: Droplets; contact with patient’s
excretion and fomites; aerosolized secretion generated by nebulizer,
bronchoscopy, sputum induction and intubation etc.
Epidemiological links to SARS: Unprotected close contact with
suspected SARS patients in the past 10 days; Hospitalized in or
visited a facility with known SARS patients in the past 10 days;
Contact with risky animals e.g. civet cats; travel to an area currently
known to have SARS cases; working in laboratory with SARS
specimens
Infectivity of SARS patient:
a) Infectious from the onset of symptoms
b)Maximum infectivity: 2
nd
week after onset of symptoms
c) No known infectivity 10 days after fever subsides (while not on
steroid/antipyretic drug)
Incubation period: 2-10 days
Clinical description:
1. Fever (> 38°C) AND
2. One or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract illness (cough,
difficulty breathing, shortness of breath) AND
3. XR evidence of lung infiltrates consistent with pneumonia or
ARDS AND
4. No alternative diagnosis can fully explain the illness.
Remarks:
• Asymptomatic SARS-CoV infection is rare
• May be difficult to differentiate SARS from avian influenza
clinically
Laboratory investigations:
1. PCR for SARS-CoV ( NPA and stool) - Repeated testing for
RT-PCR SARS-CoV RNA is required for patient with strong
suspicion of SARS
2. SARS-CoV serology test
3. Abnormalities in SARS patients: leukopenia, lymphopenia, early
thrombocytopenia followed by thrombocytosis, mild
hyponatremia, LDH, CK, ALT, prolonged APTT
Management: Please refer to the latest HA recommendations on
management of SARS on intranet.
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INFECTION CONTROL
Hand Hygiene (HH)
Good hand hygiene practices is utmost important to prevent healthcare
associated infections.
Indications for HH (WHO recommendations):
1. Before patient contact
2. Before aseptic task
3. After body fluid exposure risk
4. After patient contact
5. After contact with patient surroundings
Precautions to prevent transmission of infectious agents
2 tiers of precautions:
1. Standard precautions (SP)
Applied to all patients in all healthcare setting, regardless of
suspected or confirmed presence of an infectious status. HCWs
should apply SP when contact with
• blood;
• all body fluids, secretions, and excretions except sweat,
regardless of whether or not they contain visible blood;
• nonintact skin; and
• mucous membranes.
2. Transmission-based precautions
Applied to patients who are known or suspected to be infected or
colonized with infectious agents, including epidemiologically
important pathogens which require additional control measures to
effectively prevent transmission. These composed of droplet,
contact and airborne precautions.
Precautions Prevent transmission of infectious agents
Contact spread by direct/ indirect contact with patients or
patient’s environment
e.g. Norovirus, RSV, C. difficile
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Droplet spread through close respiratory or mucous
membrane contact with respiratory secretions
e.g. Influenza, N. meningitides, B. pertussis
Airborne that remain infectious over long distance when
suspended in air
e.g. Measles, Chickenpox, M. tuberculosis
3. Syndomic and empiric applications of transmission-base
precautions
Diagnose of many infections require laboratory confirmation.
Appropriate Transmission-based precautions should be
implemented when test results are pending based on the clinical
presentation and likely pathogens. Examples:
Clinical syndrome Potential
pathogens
Empiric
precautions
Acute diarrhoea with likely
infectious cause in an
incontinent/diapered patient
Enteric
pathogens
Contact
Abscess/draining wound
that cannot be covered
MSSA, MRSA,
Group A
Streptococcus
Contact
Vesicular rash Varicellar-
zoster, variola
Airborne +
Contact
Petechial/ecchymotic with
fever ; meningitis
N.meningitides Droplet (for 24
hrs.of
antimicrobial
therapy); mask
and face
protection for
intubatiion
Maculopapular rash with
cough, coryza and fever
Measles airborne
Cough/ fever/ pulmonary
infiltrate and other clinical
features suggestive of TB
M. tuberculosis airborne
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NEEDLESTICK INJURY OR MUCOSAL
CONTACT TO HIV, HBV AND HCV
Prevention of transmission of HIV, HBV and HCV in healthcare
setting is based on the principle of Standard Precautions.
1. Avoid recapping needles
2. Dispose of sharps immediately after use
3. Plan for safe handling and disposal before beginning any
procedures using sharps
4. Use safety devices, if available
Measures that involve exposure to blood, body fluids, and tissues:
Procedures Handhygiene Gloves
Gown / plastic
apron
Mask
Eye
Protection
1. Suctioning
+ + * * *
2. Inserion of
airways
+ + * * *
3. Artificial
Airway care
+ + * * *
4. CPR
+ + * * *
5. Assisting with

- intubation
+ + * + +
- bronchoscopy
+ + + + +
- tracheotomy
+ + + + +
6. ABG punctures
+ + * * *
7. Cleansing
surfaces or
equipment
+ + * * *
8. Blood taking
+ + * * *
+ Routinely *if soiling or spluttering likely
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Management of needle-stick injuries or mucosal contact with
blood and body fluids
1. First Aid (of utmost importance for lowering the risk of
infection)
• Express blood gently and wash immediately and thoroughly
with soap and water.
• In case of mucosal contact such as spillage into the eyes, wash
immediately and liberally with running water
• wound should be disinfected and dressed
• Attend A & E
2. Reporting: Injured staff should report to his unit head or
physician i/c and Infection Control Team.
3. Counselling
4. Management of occupational exposure to HIV:
• Risk of HIV transmission is about 0.3% after needlestick
injury and 0.1% after mucosal exposure.
• Source patient should be assessed for risk of HIV infection.
Counselling and HIV testing with consent should be offered
where appropriate.
• The injured staff should be encouraged to undergo HIV
testing at 0, 3 and 6 months; additional test at 12 months for
(1) have taken PEP; or (2) have become infected with HCV
after exposure to source co-infected with HIV and HCV to
detect delayed HIV conversion.
• Post-exposure prophylaxis with a 28-day course of HAART
(zidovudine, lamivudine and a protease inhibitor e.g. Kaletra)
should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably within 2
hours after the exposure.
• PEP can be initiated at any A&E department followed by
referral to the Therapeutic Prevention Clinic, CHP
(http://www.info.gov.hk/aids/english/itc/tpclinic.htm;
Tel:2116 2929) or Special Medical Service, QEH (Tel:2958
6571) for counselling, follow up and HIV testing.
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5. Post-exposure prophylaxis against hepatitis B infection
• Save blood for HBV status of source and injured staff, if
status unknown.
• If source person can’t be traced, may treat as if he is HBsAg
+ve
• No treatment is required if injured staff is anti-HBs is +ve
• HBIG and HB Vaccine can be offered to injured staff if anti-
HBs is negative (depends on HBsAg status of source and
vaccination history of injured staff)
POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS
Previously Vaccinated Unvaccinated
Source
HBsAg
status
Known
Responders
Known
Non-
responders
Unknown
Response
HBV
markers
-ve
φ
HBV
markers
+ve
ψ
HBsAg +ve Nil HBIG
within 24
hrs,rept
after 1/12
Depends
on anti-
HBs status
of exposed
HBIG +
HB Vac
Nil
HBsAg -ve Nil Nil Nil HB Vac Nil
HBsAg
unknown
Nil Depends
on source
HBsAg
status
Depends
on anti-
HBs status
of exposed
person
HBIG +
HB Vac
or HBVac,
depending
on source
HBsAg
status
Nil
φ means HBsAg -ve AND anti-HBs -ve
ψ means HBsAg +ve OR anti-HBs +ve
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• Where indicated, one dose of HBIG (0.06 ml/kg) should be
given within 24 h of exposure, and preferably within 7 days
• If HBIG has been given, the first dose of vaccine can be
delayed for up to 1 week after exposure.
• HBIG and HB vac can be given together but at a different sites
• Injured staff can be referred to the Viral Hepatitis Preventive
Service of DH (Tel: 21129911) for vaccination.
5. Post-exposure management against Hepatitis C infection
 There is no universally accepted effective therapy for
preventing HCV infection after accidental occupational
exposure. Early identification of acute HCV infection and
treatment with Interferon plus ribavirin may prevent chronic
HCV.
 Check anti-HCV of source patient.
 Check anti-HCV and aminotransferase (ALT) of exposed
person soon after exposure and again at 6 months. Repeat at 12
month if source is HIV-HCV co-infected.
 If source is HCV infected /IV drug addict /unknown HCV
status, Check ALT of injured at 1
st
and 3
rd
month after
exposure, test HCV-RNA if ALT elevated. Refer the injured to
specialist if HCV-RNA positive.
 In35



within 24
hrs,rept
after 1/12
on anti-
HBs status
of exposed
HB Vac
HBsAg -ve Nil Nil Nil HB Vac Nil
HBsAg
unknown
Nil Depends
on source
HBsAg
status
Depends
on anti-
HBs status
of exposed
person
HBIG +
HB Vac
or HBVac,
depending
on source
HBsAg
status
Nil
φ means HBsAg -ve AND anti-HBs -ve
ψ means HBsAg +ve OR anti-HBs +ve
• Where indicated, one dose of HBIG (0.06 ml/kg) should be
given within 24 h of exposure, and preferably within 7 days
• If HBIG has been given, the first dose of vaccine can be
delayed for up to 1 week after exposure.
• HBIG and HB vac can be given together but at a different sites
• Injured staff can be referred to the Viral Hepatitis Preventive
Service of DH (Tel: 21129911) for vaccination.
6. Post-exposure management against Hepatitis C infection
 There is no universally accepted effective therapy for
preventing HCV infection after accidental occupational
exposure. Early identification of acute HCV infection and
treatment with Interferon plus ribavirin may prevent chronic
HCV.
 Check anti-HCV of source patient.
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General
Internal
Medicine
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GM1
ACUTE ANAPHYLAXIS
* Label patient allergic to that agent thereafter
 AIRWAY COMPROMISE?
Yes: (Call anaesthetist) Try suction and
simple airway manoeuvres → airway
adjuncts → intubation
If failure to intubate → surgical airway
 PATIENT BREATHING?
No: Assist ventilation with 100% O
2
via bag-
valve mask, ET tube or surgical airway
 CIRCULATION: IF IMPAIRED PERFUSION OR GROSS HYPOTENSION OR
GCS < 8
Fast IV colloids (20 ml/kg) and repeat IV adrenaline as above
No: Consider prophylactic
airway if impending airway
oedema
Yes: Maximal FIO
2
therapy
DETERIORATION
DETERIORATION
10 mg IV chlorpheniramine
Prednisolone 40 mg po OR
Hydrocortisone 200 mg IV
Maintain oral chlorpheniramine
Stop causative agent
Assess vital signs
Give chlorpheniramine po
Stop causative agent
Monitor vital signs
High FIO
2
therapy
SC/IM adrenaline (1:1,000 dilution)
10 µg/kg (0.5 ml in 50 kg adult)
10 ml/kg colloid if hypotensive
Nebulised salbutamol (5mg) or nebulised
adrenaline (1-2 ml 1:1,000) if dyspnoeic
Repeat SC/IM
adrenaline or
consider the IV
route
Consider adrenaline infision
(1-5 µg/min) or other inotropic drugs
IV hydrocortisone × 2 above dose q4h
IV chlorpheniramine × 2 above dose q4-6h
GRADE II
Moderate severity
e.g. dyspnoea,
mild, ↓ BP
GRADE I
Minor allergic
reactions involving
skin only
e.g. urticaria
Stop causative agent
Close monitor vital signs
Maximal FIO
2
therapy
Maintain IV access
IV adrenaline (1:100,000 dilution)
Initial dose (0.75-1.5µg)/kg at 1-2 ml
(10-12µg)/min then prn infusion at
same rate up to 5 µg/kg (*Cardiac
monitor × arrhythmia)
GRADE III and IV *(ICU care)
Severe/life threatening
e.g. severe bronchospasm, laryngeal
oedema or cyanosis or signs of
upper airway obstruction, respiratory
arrest, clinical shock or impaired
GCS or peri-arrest signs
RESPONSE
GOOD
RESPONSE
POOR
POOR RESPONSE GOOD RESPONSE
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GM2
ACUTE POISONING
(Contact Hong Kong Poison Information Centre Tel: 26351111 if
necessary)
(All dosages quoted are for adult)

GENERAL MEASURES
- Maintain ABC especially for coma patients
- Close monitor vital signs + neurological status
- Watch out and treat concomitant injuries especially head injury
- Assess psychiatric status, suicidal precautions
- Psychiatric consultation as appropriate
- Identify offending drug as early as possible
- Ix : CBP, L/RFT, glucose, H’stix, ABG
Urine, blood & gastric contents for toxicology
Ethanol, salicylate, panadol level as indicated
- Replenish fluid, correct electrolyte disturbance and treat
arrhythmia
PREVENTION OF FURTHER ABSORPTION
Gastric lavage (GL)
- Acute life-threatening ingestion
eg. Sig. TCA overdose or small  in toxic exposure may be
critical (eg. Ca channel blocker, Lithium, cochicine)
- Preferably within 1 hr post ingestion
- Intubation needed if absent gag reflex, confused, comatose patient
- 36-40F fenestrated oro-gastric tube, 200-300ml NS followed by
aspiration for total 4-6L until return fluid is clear
Activated Charcoal (AC)
- 1g / kg PO
- Not for small molecules (Fe, Li, alcohol), caustic, hydrocarbon
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GM3
Multiple dose activated charcoal (MDAC)
- 1g/kg PO, follow by 0.5g/kg q2-6hr.
- Consider for Aspirin, Theophylline, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin,
Digoxin, Carbamazepine and sustained release (SR) preparation
Whole bowel irrigation (WBI)
- SR preparation, GI drug smuggling, drugs not adsorbed to AC

- PEG 1-2 L/hr till clear rectal effluent (orally or via a NG tube)
Syrup of ipecac (fading out, much left for historical reference)
- 30ml ipecac, follow by 300-500 ml of water
- Repeat if no vomit by 30 min
- C/I : CNS depression, absent gag reflex, rapid deterioration,
- Strong acid / alkali, petroleum products
ENHANCED ELIMINATION
Urinary Alkalinization
- For Aspirin, Phenobarbital, Chlorpropamide, Formate,
- 1-2 mEq/kg NaHCO3 IV bolus, then 50mEq NaHCO3(8.4%) in
500ml D5 Q4-6hr IV infusion
- Works by ion trapping, must get urine pH>7.5 to be effective
- Monitoring serum pH, avoid >7.55, avoid hypokalaemia
Hemodialysis / Hemoperfusion
Hemodialysis Hemoperfusion
Strong
Indication
Methanol / Ethylene Glycol
Lithium, Aspirin
Theophylline
Rarer
Indication
Ethanol / Isopropanol
Aminoglycosides
Carbamazepine,
Phenytoin
Phenobarbital
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GM4
TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC DRUG POISONING
Benzodiazepine overdose
- Supportive measure is the mainstay of treatment
- Flumazenil – start with 0.2 mg IV over 30 sec, larger dose can be
given, but if no response after 2-3mg, assume another diagnosis
C/I :patient with undifferentiated coma. epilepsy, benzodiazepine
dependence, co-ingestion of seizure prone poisons; eg.TCA
Opioid overdose
- Supportive measure is the mainstay of treatment
- Naxolone –Start with IV low dose (0.1mg), repeat Q2-3 min with
0.1-0.4mg increment, (up to 10mg in Dextropropoxyphene DO)
- Naxolone infusion if repeated dose of naxolone needed
(2/3 of initial effective naloxone bolus on an hourly basis:
ie. 4X this dose in 500ml NS, Q6hour)
Amphetamine / Cocaine overdose
- Agitation, Hyperthermia - Rapid cooling, IV benzodiazepine
- HT- IV Phentolamine 0.05-0.1mg/kg or Nitroprusside 0.3-
3ug/kg/min or Nitroglycerin 0.25-0.5ug/kg/min
- Cocaine (Na channel blocking effect) – NaHCO3 1-2mEq/kg IV
bolus till QRS <100ms
Paracetamol overdose
- acute toxic dose: >150mg/kg
- Ix : paracetamol level, LRFT
- AC if within 1
st
hr , NAC if toxic level above Tx line
- NAC has full protection if given within 8 hr post-ingestion, useful
even on later administration
NAC dose In D5 Rate
Loading 150mg/kg 200ml in 1hr
then 50mg/kg 500ml D5 in 4 hr
then 100mg/kg 1000ml D5 in 16 hr
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GM5
- With evidence of liver injury, check prognostic markers:
PT, APTT, L/RFT, blood gas, lactate, PO4, αFP
Salicylate overdose
- >150mg/kg acetylsalicylate (aspirin) – potentially toxic
- Pure methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen): 10ml  14g salicylate
- Ix: R/LFT, blood gas, serial salicylate level, glucose, urine ketone
- Consider GL, AC, MDAC, WBI (depend on amount / formulation)
- Hydration, urine alkalinization if ASA >40mg/dL (>2.9mmmol/L)
- HD if end organ failure or ASA >100mg/dL (>7.3mmol/L)
Anti-cholinergic poisoning
- Physostigmine – 0.5-1mg slow IV, repeated up to 2 mg
C/I : TCA, widen QRS, CV disease, asthma, gangrene
Beta-blocker overdose / Calcium channel blocker overdose
- GI decontamination, haemodynamic and cardiac monitoring
- Treatment options for hypotension and bradycardia :
 Atropine – 0.6mg IVI (up to 3mg) and iv fluid
 Glucagon; 2-5mg IVI over 1 min (up to 10mg) follow by 2-
5mg/hr in D5 (for β blocker poisoning)
 CaCl
2
1g or Ca gluconate 3g slow IV, repeat Q10min
(for CCB poisoning, 2-3 doses can be safely given without
check Ca level)
 High Dose Insulin / Dextrose – Start with 0.5U/kg/hr, titrate
up 1U/kg/hr (Start treatment early for Tx take time to be effective)
 Inotropes : Adrenaline - 0.02 g/kg/min and titrate up
Noradrenaline - 0.1 g/kg/min and titrate up
Dobutamine - 2.5 g/kg/min and titrate up
Isoproterenol - 0.1 g/kg/min and titrate up
(Dopamine not suggested due to its indirect effect)
 NaHCO
3
1-2 mEq/ kg IV bolus for propanolol poisoing if
QRS > 100ms, repeat as indicated.
(Co-administration of calcium and glucagon is useful in
refractory or mixed cases)
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GM6
Digoxin overdose
- Ix : RFT, digoxin level, ECG
- GI decontamination : consider GL, AC, MDAC
- Bradydysrhythmias – atropine
- Tachydysrhythmia – Tx hypoK, hypoMg, lignocaine,amiodarone
- Cardioversion – may precipitate refractory VT, VF, start with low
dose: 10-25J, pre-Tx with lignocaine or amiodarone
- Digoxin Immune Fab fragments indications :
 Brady or Vent arrhythmia not responsive to atropine
 Serum K
+
> 5mEq/dL in acute DO
 Digoxin level: 10-15ng/mL (13-19.5nmol/L) in an acute DO
 Digoxin ingestion of > 10 mg
Situation Dose of digitalis antidote® *
Known amount No. of vial = Amount ingested in mg
Known level No of vial = (Digoxin level (ng/mL)) x
(wt in kg) / 200
Empiric dose
(Unknown dose or
digoxin level)
Acute overdose – 5 vials
Chronic overdose – 2 vials
(Need to multiply by 2 if using Digibind
®
and DigiFab
®
)
Theophylline poisoning
- Ix : Theophylline level, electrolytes, ECG
- ABC monitoring and supportive measures.
- GI decontamination : GL / MDAC
- Patient died from tachyarrhythmia, hypotension and seizure
- Hypotension – IV fluid, α-agonist (Phenylephrine, Norepinephrine)
- Tachyarrhythmia – diltiazem or β-blockers (esmolol, propranolol)
- HP indication: Ileus / IO prevents use of MDAC
Theophylline level >80mg/L (acute) or 60mg/L (chronic)
Elderly with level > 40mg/L with severe symptoms
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GM7
Warfarin or superwarfarin rodenticide overdose
Asymptomatic
INR at ~ 48 hours
Normal Prolonged INR
Oral Vit K1
(5-10mg for warfarin,10-25mg for
superwarfarin)
Monitor INR until plateau
FU, may need months
for superwarfarins
Symptomatic, check INR stat
No severe bleeding Severe/ life threatening
bleeding
FFP, Vit K1
(oral, sc, iv - 10mg)
(<1mg/min if IV)
Not poisoned
No Vit K1
Vit K1 has short duration of action
tds/QID dose needed
Mx guideline for warfarin patient with over anti-coagulation
1998 and 2001 ACCP Recommendations for Reversing Excessive Warfarin-
Associated AC
Psychiatric Drugs
Antipsychotics poisoning
- Supportive care, ECG, GI decontamination as indicated
- Hypotension – IV fluid, inotropes (α-adrenergic agonists)
- Cardiotoxicity, widen QRS – treat like TCAs
- Dystonia – diphenhydramine or cogentin
- Look out for neuroleptic malignant syndrome
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GM8
Tricyclic antidepressant overdose
- Ix : Blood gas, ECG[Feature of poisoning : tachycardia, widen
QRS, terminal 40ms right axis deviation (R wave in aVR)]
- Ensure ABC with intensive monitoring
- Consider GL and AC 1g/kg if < 1-2 hr post ingestion, MDAC
- Aggressive supportive care & early serum alkalization
- Physostigmine & Flumazenil are contraindicated
- Serum alkalization by NaHCO3
Indications QRS >
100ms
Vent
arrhythmia
Hypotension
Dose 1-2 mEq per kg IV bolus
May need repeated bolus or infusion to meet
endpoints
End points QRS
<100ms or
pH 7.5-7.55
Reversal of
arrhythmia or
pH 7.5-7.55
Correction of
BP or pH 7.5-
7.55
Contra-
indications
pH > 7.55 [Consider hypertonic saline]
Intolerable to Na/fluid load [Consider
hyperventilation]
SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and others
- Supportive care, ECG, GI decontamination as indicated
- Look out / Treatment for serotonin syndrome (SS)
SS Tx: Remove offending drugs, Benzodiazepine, hydration,
cooling, cyproheptadine ( 8-12mg, then 2mg Q2hr, up
to 32mg in 1
st
24 hr), neuromuscular blockage.
- Citalopram – observe for > 24 hr, cardiac monitoring [for prolong
QT, Tdp (especially with dose >400mg) ]
- Venlafaxine – seizure; esp with dose >1.5g , prolong QRS
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 GM9
Lithium poisoning
- Ix : RFT, serial Lithium level (Q4hr), AXR
- GI decontamination : GL, WBI
- Volume replacement and correction of hyponatraemia
- Haemodialysis if level esp >4mEq/L, sig DO +/- neuro-toxicity
Valproic acid poisoning
- Ix : LFT, valproic acid level, ammonia
- ABC monitoring and supportive measures.
- GI decontamination : AC , GL / MDAC / WBI
- L-Carnitine for VPA induced ammonemia, encephalopathy ,hepatotoxicity.
- IV Naloxone (0.4mg-2mg) for CNS and respiratory depression
- Haemodialysis / Haemoperfusion : rarely considered
Carbamazepine poisoning
- Ix: Tegretol level, ECG (widen QRS)
- ABC monitoring and supportive measures.
- GI decontamination : AC / MDAC
- NaHCO3 for widen QRS>100ms (theoretically beneficial)
- Hemoperfusion
NON-PHARMACEUTICAL POISONING
Organophosphate poisoning
- Decontamination and staff protection, supportive care
- Ix : plasma pseudocholinesterase, ABG
- Atropine - Initial dose of 0.6-1.2 mg IV, repeat and double the
dose every 5 min until lungs clear (huge dose has been used)
- Pralidoxime - 1-2 g to 100ml NS IV over 30 min, follow by
infusion at 4-8 mg/kg/hr, can be titrated up to 20 mg/kg/hr.
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GM10
Carbamate poisoning
- Similar to organophosphate poisoning
- Atropine - 0.6-1.2 mg IV, repeat and double the dose Q5min until
lungs clear.
- Pralidoxime – not usually recommended
Paraquat poisoning
- More than 10ml 20% paraquat ingestion is potentially fatal
- GI decontamination : GL in early presentation, AC
- Largely supportive treatment, use lowest FiO2 as possible
- Please contact HKPIC for option of anti-inflammation therapy in
severe paraquat poisoning.
Household products
- Disinfectants and multi-purpose cleaners ( Dettol®, Salvon®,
Swipe® , Green water, Household hypochlorite bleach)
- No antidote, mainstay of treatment is supportive
- GI decontamination is potential harmful
- Mainly irritant effect, upper endoscopy is not routinely indicated
- Can be caustic if large quantity & high concentration are ingested
Methanol / Ethylene glycol [EG] poisoning
Ix: Blood : CBP, LRFT, ethanol level, anion gap, osmolar gap,
methanol or ethylene glycol level
Urine for Ca oxalate and fluorescence [EG poisoning]
Management:
- Consider NG suction, IV NaHCO3
- IV Absolute alcohol (16g/20ml), diluted to 10% solution
 Loading: 0.8g/kg in 30min
 Maintenance: start at 0.1g/kg/hr, titrate upwards prn OR
- PO brandy or whisky (~50%)
 1ml/kg loading  0.5ml/kg q2hr, titrate upwards
[aim at ethanol level -100mg/dL]
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GM11
- HD indication :
 Methanol or ethylene glycol level >250mg/L
 High osmolar gap without other cause
 Acid/base abnormality, end-organ toxicity
- IV folinic acid 1mg/kg q4-6hr (for methanol poisoning)
- Thiamine 100mg and pyridoxine 50mg q4-6hr (for Ethylene glycol )
- Fomepizole is available as Level III antidote.
[Contact HKPIC for its indication and mobilization if needed]
Cyanide poisoning
- Ix : RFT, ABG, lactate, AV O2 gradient (PaO2 – PvO2),
CO-Hb, met-Hb, Cyanide level
- ABC monitoring and supportive measures.
- Surface decontamination and staff protection
- GI decontamination : consider AC +/- GL if within 1 hr
- Early use of antidotes:
 Sodium nitrite - 10ml of 3% (300mg) IV over 5 min
 Sodium thiosulphate - 50ml of 25% (12.5g) IV
(Thiosulphate can be repeated if no response in 30 min)
Other antidote (available in some HA hospitals)
 Hydroxocobalamin: 5g IV in 15-30 min (can be repeated at
2-4 hr)
- Treat seizure and correct metabolic acidosis
Carbon monoxide poisoning
- Pulse oximeter not detect CO-Hb; can give false –ve result
- Hyperbarbic oxygen treatment* (HBO)
 Usefulness remains controversial
 Potential risk for patient and medical staffs (during transfer
and within the chamber)
 No definite evidence to support routine use
 Referral is a case to case individual decision by the in-charge
physician
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GM12
Suggested guideline for CO poisoning
Acute CO exposure with symptoms
100% O2, CO-Hb level, ABG, ECG
Syncope, coma, seizure, cardiac ischaemia or vent. arrhythmias
CO-Hb > 25%
Pregnancy with CO-Hb > 15%
Consider ICU care
Monitor acidosis
Continue 100% O2 therapy
Symptomatic (headache,nausea), abnormal mental or neuropsychiatric status
Discharge when CO-Hb < 10%
Consider HBO*
Yes No
Yes
No
No
Yes
CIGUATERA POISONING
Ingestion of large coral reef fishes contaminated with ciguatoxin
(specially grouper and snapper)
risk with fish >3kg, eating fish skin and viscera
- Symptoms onset usually in 1
st
few hr (may delay up to 24 hr)
- GI: N, V, D, abdominal pain (usually appear 1
st
,may last for 1-2 D)
- Neurological: paresthesia, tingling sensations in the extremities or
mouth and cold dysesthesias (burning pain in contact with cold water)
- Cardiovascular: bradycardia / hypotension
- Ix : RFT, ECG, save food remnant +/- vomitus (To FEHD)
- Management
 mainly supportive, replace fluid and electrolytes.
 Symptomatic treatment (analgesic, anti-emetic, etc)
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 Atropine – symptomatic bradycardia.
 IV Mannitol (1g/kg over 1 hr) can be considered for sig.
neuro symptoms(No proven efficacy but supported by case reports)
 Gabapentin (400mg tds) for prolonged neuropathetic pain
 Report to DH and FEHD
 Advise on avoiding ethanol, peanuts and coral reef fish,
especially in the first few months after ciguatera poisoning.

SMOKE AND TOXIC GAS INHALATION
Smoke Inhalation Management Flow-Chart
Unconsciousness, stridor, resp distress, PaO2<8kPa
History of unconsciousness
Close space exposure
Carbonaceous sputum
Facial burn or singed nasal hair
Hoarseness
Oropharyngeal burn, swelling
Intubation
Use adequate-sized ET tube
Humidified O2
Frequent suction
Nasopharynoscopy / Bronchoscopy
Close monitoring Worsen airway / pulmonary status
Yes No
Yes
No
Upper airway edema
No clinically important edema
Pulmonary irritant inhalation
- Highly water soluble: Sulfur dioxide, Ammonia, HCl, Chloramine
(Upper airway, eye, nose irritation, rapid onset, airway compromise)
- Intermediate water solubility: Chlorine
(Delayed irritation, potential prolonged exposure, acute lung injury)
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GM14
- Low water solubility : Phosgene, Nitrogen dioxide
(Non-irritating, affect lower airway, lack of noticeable effects  prolonged
exposure and acute lung injury)
Clinical effects ranging from:
Stridor, bronchospasm  lung injury, bronchiolitis obliterans
High water solubility irritant  Low water solubility irritant
Monitoring/ Ix
- BP / HP / RR / SaO2 / PFR / FEV1/ FVC / voice quality
- ABG, ECG, CXR, Lung function test, fibreoptic bronchoscopy
Treatment
- Remove from exposure, ABC monitoring, O2 and supportive care
- Nebulized -agonists for bronchospasm
- No role for steroids, other than for bronchospasm
- Nebulized bicarbonate for Cl
2
, HCl or other acidic gas
[ 2ml NaHCO
3
8.4% + 2ml water/saline ]
Observation
- SO
2,
NH
3 ,
NH
2
Cl
,
HCl exposure have no delayed toxicity.
(Improving patients will continue to do well; only need to be
observed for the duration of their symptoms)
- Cl
2
, COCl
2,
NO
2;
Low and intermediate water solubility agents
(Potential for acute lung injury with delayed onset of symptom.
Observe all patients with any symptoms for at least 24 hour
Aware of risk of bronchiolitis obliterans)
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 GM15
SNAKE BITE
Local venomous Snake found in the countryside in HK Toxicity
Viper
Bamboo Snake
Chinese Habu
Mountain Pit Viper
Local pain swelling +/- bruising,
Systemic coagulopathy, DIC
Hypotension
Elapidae
Banded Krait
Many Banded Krait
Paralysis , minimal local reaction
Chinese Cobra
King Cobra
Early local necrosis (severe pain and swelling)
Rhabdomyolysis, Paralysis
Coral snake Neurotoxicity with paralysis
Colubridae
Red-necked Keel Back snake

Prolonged bite required for effective envenomation
to cause DIC
Hydrophiidae
Mangrove Water snake
Chinese Water snake
Plumbeous Water snake
Neurotoxic, myotoxic with rhabdomyolysis

Imported Snakes (Usually highly venomous} Toxicity
Vipers
Hundred pacer
Malaysian Pit viper
Agistrodon halys
Local pain swelling and bruising,
Bleeding wounds, coagulopathy
Russel’s Viper Local pain swelling, bruising, coagulopathy,
Pulmonary edema, Rhabdomyolysis, ARF
Rattle Snakes Local tissue damage, coagulopathy, neurotoxic
Investigation
- CBP, APTT, PT (esp. whole blood clotting time), RFT, CPK
- Urine for myoglobin and hemoglobinuria
- ECG, Bed side spirometry for FVC if available, serial PFR, CXR
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GM16
Investigations should be repeated in the following situations
- Progression of local or systemic symptoms.
- Abn result from initial test until normal or other cause identified
- After anti-venom administration
- Snake identification is useful (Photographing at safe distance)
[head, tail, dorsal, ventral feature important for identification]
(HKPIC can facilitate urgent consultation with biologist for snake
identification and advice on anti-venom use)
Treatment
- Supportive care, IV access
- Q1/2 hr assessment in the first few hr (local / systemic S/S)
- Analgesic, Tetanus prophylaxis
- Antivenoms should be considered for
 Local Progression, necrosis , compartment syndrome.
 Systemic toxicities, i.e. coagulopathies, weakness,
rhabdomyolysis, hypotension etc.
 First S/S neurotoxicity after krait bite
 Snake anti-venom available in HA
Antivenoms Starting Dose Snake covered
Agistrodon halys
(China)
6000U Bamboo snake
Chinese Habu
Mountain Pit Viper
Bungarus multicinctus (China) 10000U Many Banded Krait
King Cobra
Bungarus fasciatus (China) 5000U Banded Krait
Naja Naja (China) 2000U Chinese Cobra
Agistrdon actus (China) 8000U Hundred Pacer
Australian Tiger Snake 3000U ?? Sea snake
Russel’s Viper (Thailand) 0.6mg Russell’s viper
 Thai Red-Cross anti-venin also available
[may have different species specificity from that of China]
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GM17
- Green-pit viper (Bamboo snake)
- Cobra, King-cobra
- Banded-krait which may be more species specific
Precautions and pre-treatment in anti-venom administration
- Resuscitation equipment stand-by
- Pre-treatment with anti-histamine and hydrocortisone is advised
- 1st dose to 500 ml NS, give at 100ml/hr.
- If no allergy after 5-10min., fasten rate, dose finish in 30 min.
- May need further doses if clinically indicated
- No evidence to support routine prophylactic antibiotic use
- Debridement and surgery for compartment syndrome as indicated
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GM18
ACCIDENTAL HYPOTHERMIA
(Use low temp thermometer for core temp)
Ix - CBP, RFT, blood glucose, h’ tix, ABG, amylase, cardiac enzymes,
coagulation profile, TSH, blood culture (esp in elderly), CXR, ECG,
toxicology screen and SXR in comatose patient
Mx
* Give prophylactic broad-spectum antibiotics (esp in elderly)
** Cannot be certified dead before core temp ≥36
o
C
Assess responsiveness, breathing and pulse
>34-36
o
C
(mild hypothermia)
Passive rewarming
Active external rewarming
30-34
o
C
(moderate hypothermia)
Passive rewarming
Active external rewarming of
truncal area only
<30
o
C
(severe hypothermia)
Active internal rewarming
Start CPR
Intubate and ventilate with
warm, humid O
2
(42-46
o
C)
Warm (43
o
C) NS iv infusion
Active internal rewarming :
warm iv fluid (43
o
C)
warm humid O
2
(42-46
o
C)
peritoneal lavage (KCl-free fluid)
extracorporeal rewarming
oesophageal rewarming tubes
Continue active internal rewarming till
Core temp ≥35
o
C or
Return of spontaneous circulation or
Resuscitative effort ceases
Absent
Present
GM18
ACCIDENTAL HYPOTHERMIA
(Use low temp thermometer for core temp)
Ix - CBP, RFT, blood glucose, h’ tix, ABG, amylase, cardiac enzymes,
coagulation profile, TSH, blood culture (esp in elderly), CXR, ECG,
toxicology screen and SXR in comatose patient
Mx
* Give prophylactic broad-spectum antibiotics (esp in elderly)
** Cannot be certified dead before core temp ≥36
o
C
Assess responsiveness, breathing and pulse
>34-36
o
C
(mild hypothermia)
Passive rewarming
Active external rewarming
30-34
o
C
(moderate hypothermia)
Passive rewarming
Active external rewarming of
truncal area only
<30
o
C
(severe hypothermia)
Active internal rewarming
Start CPR
Intubate and ventilate with
warm, humid O
2
(42-46
o
C)
Warm (43
o
C) NS iv infusion
Active internal rewarming :
warm iv fluid (43
o
C)
warm humid O
2
(42-46
o
C)
peritoneal lavage (KCl-free fluid)
extracorporeal rewarming
oesophageal rewarming tubes
Continue active internal rewarming till
Core temp ≥35
o
C or
Return of spontaneous circulation or
Resuscitative effort ceases
Absent
Present
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GM19
HEAT STROKE / EXHAUSTION
HEAT STROKE is caused by over-heating of the body core when
sweating is limited.
HEAT EXHAUSTION is caused by sustained heat stress that
causes water and salt depletion (may be complicated by heat stroke
in advanced stage).
Heat Stroke Heat Exhaustion
Risk factors
Skin
Core body temp.
Acid-base
disorder
Renal failure
drugs or diseases
causing limited
sweating esp. in
elderly, infants
hot and dry
40-41
o
C
respiratory alkalosis
lactic acidosis
common
warm and wet
38-39
o
C
pre-renal failure
Management
1. Check CBP, RFT, ABG, coagulation profile, urine myoglobin
2. Monitor vital signs (esp urine output) and core temp
3. Cooling of body by removing all clothing, tepid water
sponging, fanning (Immersion in ice water is dangerous)
4. Oral fluid and salt replacement in heat exhaustion (25 g NaCl
in 5 litres of water)
5. Correction of electrolyte disturbances and hypovolaemia
6. Lactic acidosis not responding to volume expansion should be
treated with bicarbonate
7. Convulsion should be treated with anticonvulsive therapy
8. Look out and support multiorgan failure in heart stroke
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GM20
NEAR DROWNING
The most important consequence of near-drowning is asphyxia
which leads to hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and metabolic acidosis
1. Monitor and maintain ABC. Clear airway and CPR if necessary
2. Ix: ABG, RFT, ECG, CXR, SXR and X ray cervical spine,
cardiac monitoring and body temperature monitoring
3. Beware of head and cervical spine injury and hypothermia
4. Correct hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. Give O
2
therapy
(PEEP may be necessary for severe hypoxia). Treat
bronchospasm with β
2
-agonist. Bronchoscopy may be
necessary if persistent atelectasis or localized wheezing
5. Treat seizure with anticonvulsant
6. Consider antibiotics for pneumonia
7. Rule out drug effects e.g. alcohol, hypnotics, narcotics
ELECTRICAL INJURY
Electrical injuries cause cardiopulmonary arrest, burn, acute
renal failure due to hypovolaemia or myoglobinaemia, injuries to
nervous system, damages to vessels causing thrombosis or
haemorrhage
Alternate current (AC) is more dangerous than direct current (DC)
Current with frequency of 50-60 cycles/sec is more dangerous
- Ix : ECG, ABG, RFT, CPK, LDH, urine myoglobin
- Monitor: Vital signs, cardiac rhythm, neurological status, urine
output and colour
- CPR if necessary
- Antiarrhythmic drugs depend on nature of arrhythmia
- IV fluid replacement
- Treat burn and compartment syndrome as appropriate
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GM21
RHABDOMYOLYSIS
Dx:
Red or brown urine +ve for blood but no RBC under microscopy
Urine +ve for myoglobin
Pigmented granular casts in the urine
↑↑ CPK
Others: hyperkalaemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphataemia,
hyperuricaemia, DIC, ARF
Mx:
Aim : correction of hypovolaemia, enhance clearance of heme
proteins, mitigate the adverse consequences of heme proteins
on the proximal tubular epithelium
• NS infusion 1-1.5 L/hr
• Monitor urine output & haemodynamic parameters
• Continue IV infusion with 500ml NS alternating with D5 1 L/hr
after satisfactory BP and urine output achieved
• Keep urine output at 300ml/hr until myoglobinuria ceased
• Add NaHCO
3
50meq/L to each 2nd or 3rd bottle of D5 to keep
urinary pH > 6.5
• Add 20% mannitol at a rate of 1-2g/kg BW over 4 hr with
plasma osmolar gap kept below 55 mosm/kg
• Withhold mannitol and HCO
3
if marked diuresis not acheived
• May try furosemide & renal dose dopamine for anuric patients
• Extracorporeal elimination of heme protein is controversial
• Look out and treat significant compartment syndrome
NB
• Regimen is less effective if began after the first 6 hrs when renal
failure may already be established
• Elderly patient may require slower volume replacement
• Look out for hypercalcaemia in recovering phase of ARF’
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GM22
SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME
Causes: 80% due to malignancy
*Iatrogenic cause subclavian line, pacemaker wire
P/E: Dilated superificial veins over anterior chest wall
Engorged jugular veins ± facial and arm veins
Oedema of face, neck, and upper extremities with cyanosis
DDx: Pericardial effusion with tamponade
Ix: CXR, CT, bronchoscopy
Tx: Look out for upper airway obstruction (stridor) - may be life-
threatening
Corticosteroids (iv dexamethasone 4mg q6h) - transiently
decrease oedema and inflammatory reactions
associated with tumor necrosis and irradiation
Radiotherapy - primary therapy for most cases of malignant
SVC syndrome (consult oncology dept
promptly)
Systemic chemotherapy - for small cell lung carcinoma or
non-Hodgkin’ lymphoma
Central venous catheter - removal under anticoagulation ±
regional fibrinolytic therapy
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GM23
NAUSEA, VOMITING & ANOREXIA IN
PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED CANCER
1. Nausea and vomiting
a. Elucidate and remove cause of nausea and vomiting (n/v)
if possible (e.g. constipation, hypercalcaemia)
b. Pay attention to environment, odour, food presentation
c. Central anti-dopaminergic drugs (e.g. haloperidol 0.5-5
mg po bd) for CTZ stimulation (e.g. chronic renal failure,
drug-induced)
d. Corticosteroids (e.g. dexamethasone) for raised
intracranial pressure or gastric outlet obstruction
e. Prokinetics (e.g. metoclopramide up to 240 mg/day) for
impaired gastric or intestinal motility
f. Treat intestinal obstruction accordingly
g. If n/v not controlled, consider anti-histamines e.g.
meclizine (should not be given with prokinetics);
dexamethasone; 5HT
3
antagonists or benzodiazepines
2. Anorexia
a. General measures: treatment of pain, depression, oral and
other symptoms; modification of eating habits, such as
providing frequent small meals, allowing patients to eat
what they wish; psychological support
b. Elicit patient’s expectations:
i. Improve strength and mobility: refer physiotherapist
and dietitian
ii. Increase food intake: progestogens (e.g. megestrol 160
mg tid), prokinetics (e.g. metoclopramide) or
corticosteroids (e.g. dexamethasone 4 mg om)
iii. Gain weight: progestogens
iv. Improve well being: corticosteroids
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GM24
PAIN MANAGEMENT IN CANCER PATIENTS
Basic General Principles:
a. By Mouth
b. By the Clock: regular analgesics
c. By the Ladder (WHO Analgesic Ladder)
Step 3: pain persists increases →

Step 2: pain persists/increases →
Step 1: pain→
Non-opioids: panadol 500-1000mg qid
NSAID in conventional dosage
Weak opioids: dextropropoxyphene 32.5mg qid
dextropropoxyphene Co 65mg qid
dihydrocodeine (e.g. DF118) one tablet Q4-6hrs
Strong opioids: morphine, methadone, fentanyl (see below)
 Consult specialist in difficult pain situation.
strong opioids
+/- non-opioids
weak opioids
+/- non-opioids
non-opioids
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GM25
GUIDELINES FOR PRESCRIPTION OF
MORPHINE FOR CHRONIC CANCER PAIN
1. Morphine is still the strong opioid of choice for moderate and severe
cancer pain.
2. Oral route is the optimal route.
3. Use immediate release preparation i.e. syrup morphine for initial
titration.
4. Starting dose: Syrup morphine 5mg Q4H regularly, and not PRN.
Consider a lower starting dose of 2.5mg for the very elderly, those
with cachexia, and chronic obstructive airway diseases.
5. Dose increment: 5mg � 10 � 20 � 30 � 40 � 60 � 80 �
100mg.
6. A double dose can be prescribed before bed time to avoid waking the
patient up at 4am.
7. There is no standard dose of morphine, the correct dose is one that
relieves the pain without any significant side effect.
8. For breakthrough pain, prescribe the SAME dose as the one for
regular use in between the regular interval, given up to hourly.
9. Review within 24 hours and adjust the regular dose according to the
breakthrough requirement.
10. Prescribe a laxative CONCURRENTLY if not contraindicated. A
combination of stimulant and stool softener can be used e.g. Senokot
2 tabs Nocte and lactulose 10ml tid.
11. Prescribe antiemetics for PRN use. Examples of antiemetics:
• Metoclopramide10mg Tid
• Haloperidol 1.5mg - 3mg Daily
12. Decrease dose of morphine or increase dose interval in case of renal
impairment.
13. Adjuvant drugs may be considered e.g. anticonvulsants and
antidepressants for neuropathic pain component, antispasmodics for
colicky pain, and low dose steroid for distending liver capsule from
tumour.
Parenteral route of administration of morphine
1. There is NO special advantage of parenteral route over oral route
2. Consider parenteral route only if the patient cannot take morphine by
mouth e.g. severe vomiting, GIO, impaired conscious level.
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GM26
3. Subcutaneous route is the preferred alternate route. Can also be given
intravenously. No indication for intramuscular injection generally.
4. Method of conversion to SC &IV
 Total oral daily dose of morphine ÷2 = daily dose of morphine
given SC
 Total oral daily dose of morphine ÷ 3 = daily dose of morphine
given IV
 Example: oral morphine 60mg daily = 30mg morphine SC daily=
20mg morphine IV daily
Managing the side effects of opioids
GI Nausea, vomiting, constipation
Autonomic Dry mouth, urinary retention, postural hypotension
CNS Drowsiness, cognitive impairment, hallucination,
delirium, respiratory depression, myoclonus, seizure,
hyperalgesia
Skin Itchiness, sweating
Note:
All opioids have similar side effect profile
Pethidine not recommended because of adverse side effect profile
Buprenorphine (Temgesic®) has limited role in cancer pain as it is a
partial opioid agonist with a ceiling effect in analgesia, and precipitation of
withdrawal reactions can occur when given to patients who are on opioids)
1. Explanation and anticipation - e.g. some side effects will disappear
after initial few days e.g. nausea, drowsiness
2. Preventive measures - give laxative at the same time, as patient will
invariably develop constipation
3. Monitoring – observe mental changes and monitor RR initially,
especially for opioid naïve patients
4. Treat specific side effect - e.g. metoclopramide for nausea,
haloperidol for delirium, methylphenidate for sleepiness
5. Ensure adequate hydration or rehydration
6. Switching to alternative opioid e.g. from morphine to methadone or
fentanyl, please consult specialist. Methadone is not recommended
for use by inexperienced doctors because of highly variable and
unpredictable pharmacokinetics. Transdermal fentanyl patch is not
recommended for initial or rapid dose titration.
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GM27
PALLIATIVE CARE EMERGENCIES
Prompt management can control symptoms and improve QOL.
1. Malignant intestinal obstruction
For inoperable cases, symptoms can often be managed without the
need for nasogastric tube insertion. Obstruction may be reversible.
a. Can start with s.c. infusion of following drugs via syringe
driver. Titrate upwards if necessary.
i. Morphine 15mg q24h for analgesia
ii. Haloperidol 3mg q24h to control nausea and vomiting
iii. Buscopan 40mg q24h to reduce colic and secretions
May also add dexamethasone s.c./iv 4 mg bd-qid-
b. For refractory obstruction, try s.c. octreotide 0.1-0.3mg tid if
high output, and consider venting gastrostomy or stenting.
c. Stop stimulant laxatives and prokinetic agents if complete IO.
Try Maxolon + stool softeners if incomplete IO without colic.
2. Massive terminal haemorrhage
a. Apply direct pressure with adrenaline (1 in 1000) soaked
dressing to any external bleeding point
b. Use green surgical towels to reduce the frightening visual
impact of the bright red blood
c. Sedate with s.c. midazolam 5-10 mg or rectal diazepam 5-10
mg stat to relieve panic and fear.
3. Terminal delirium
Prompt relief is essential to relieve the patient and carer distress.
Look for reversible causes eg unrelieved pain, urine retention,
faecal impaction. Review medication and side effects. Gentle
explanation and reassurance. For agitated delirium, haloperidol
1.5 –5 mg po/sc stat +s.c. infusion 5-30 mg q24h via syringe driver.
4. Death rattle
Excessive respiratory secretions at the terminal phase are very
distressing for dying patients and relatives. Treat with sc buscopan
20-60 mg q24h via syringe driver to reduce the need for suction.
Continue mouth care to relieve the discomfort from accompanying
dry mouth.
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GM28
BRAIN DEATH
( based on HA Guidelines on Diagnosis of Brain Death, 15 August
2007, ref: HA 752/10/1/3 ) - For patients who are 5 yrs of age or
older
Concept: Brain death equates with death both medically and
legally.
1. Pre-conditions and exclusions for considering diagnosis of brain
death
* All the following should coexist
a) Diagnosis of severe irremediable brain injury which is
consistent with progression to brain death (the clinical
diagnosis is usally confirmed by neuro-imaging)
b) Apnoeic patient on a ventilator
- Muscle relaxants and other drugs should have been
excluded as a cause of such findings
c) Exclusion of potentially reversible causes of coma
- Depressant drugs or poisons
- Primary hypothermia: core temp >35°C before
diagnostic tests of brain stem death are carried out
- Metabolic and endocrine disturbances (e.g. severe
electrolyte or endocrine disturbances)
- Arterial hypotension as the cause for the coma should be
excluded.
2. Tests for confirming brain death
* All brain-stem reflexes must be absent.
*The testing of all the following is considered sufficient
a) Pupils - fixed in diameter and non-reactive to light
b) Absence of bilateral corneal reflexes
c) Absence of vestibulo-ocular reflexes - no eye movement
occurs during or after the slow injection of at least 20 ml
ice-cold water into at least one external auditory meatus, or
preferably into each external auditory meatus in turn. Clear
access to the tympanic membrane should be established by
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GM29
direct inspection. This test may be contraindicated on one
or other side by local trauma
d) No motor responses within the cranial nerve distribution can
be elicited by adequate stimulation of any somatic area
e) Absence of gag reflex
f) Absence of cough reflex to bronchial stimulation by a
suction catheter passed down to the trachea
g) Testing for apnoea: should be done last. No respiratory
movements occur when the patient is disconnected from the
mechanical ventilator for long enough to ensure that the
PaCO
2
rises above the threshold for stimulating respiration
(ie PaCO
2
> 60 mmHg (8.0 kPa) and arterial pH < 7.30).
ABG must be available for this test to be performed. The
patient should be disconnected when PaCO
2
reaches 40-45
mmHg (5.3-6.0 kPa). Hypoxaemia during disconnection
should be prevented by preoxygenation and administration
of oxygen during the test, e.g. by delivering O
2
through a
catheter into the trachea
* Period of observation and repetition of tests: 2 full separate
examinations should be performed. The first examination should
be performed after all pre-conditions met, and after at least 4 hrs
of observation of coma (Glasgow Coma Scale of 3) with absent
brain-stem function. An interval of at least 2 hrs should elapse
between the two formal examinations so that the total period of
observation is a minimum of six hours. The minimum period of
observation need to be extended to a total of twelve hours after
primary hypoxic brain damage or other non-traumatic brain
conditions
* Medical practitioners:
- One of the doctor(s) must be a specialist recognised by the
appropriate College as having demonstrated skill and knowledge
in the performance of brain death certification (usually an
Intensivist, Critical Care Physician, Neurologist or
Neurosurgeon).
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GM30
- The other doctor should preferably be of the same qualification
but should be at least 6 years after registration and possess the
skill and knowledge in the performance of brain death
certification
- Neither doctor should be the one authorising tissue removal; or
the one who is proposing to remove the tissue; or the one who is
attending a recipient of tissue to be removed
- Each of the two doctors must actually perform one of the
examinations, although both practitioners may choose to be
present at both examinations
* Confirmatory Ix
If the preconditions for clinical diagnosis and confirmation of
brain death cannot be satisfied, objective demonstration of
absence of intracranial blood flow is required - three or four
vessel radiocontrast angiography or radionuclide scan. Blood
flow should be absent from both vertebro-basilar and
supratentorial circulation
* Time of death - the time when certification of brain death has
been completed (ie following the second confirmatory
examination) or if a confirmatory investigation is used, then the
time of death should be after the confirmatory investigation and
completion of two sets of f clinical examinations of brain stem
functions
* Clinical observations compatible with diagnosis of brain death
- movements of limbs in response to a stimulus outside the
distribution of cranial nerves
- sweating, flushing, tachycardia
- normal BP without pharmacologic support
- absence of diabetes insipidus
- deep tendon reflexes
- extensor plantar reflex
* A Brain Death Certification Form should be used in certification
of brain death
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Procedures
For all procedures,
INFORMED CONSENT
Must be obtained except
In an emergency life-saving
situation
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Pr1
ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION
Indications
1. When respiratory support is required, including CPR
2. To protect airway from aspiration
3. To manage excessive airway secretions
Equipment
1. Bag-valve device
2. Direct laryngoscope with functioning light bulb and blade of
appropriate size (start with size 3)
3. Endotracheal tube (Male 8-8.5 mm, female 7-8.5 mm internal
diameter) with low pressure cuff
• with syringe for cuff inflation, check cuff for leakage
(Inflate with 10 ml syringe, then deflate completely)
• If stylet used, lubricate and insert into ETT. Tip of
stylet must be recessed at > 1.5 cm from distal end of
tube
4. Continuous SaO
2
monitoring using pulse oximeter
5. End-tidal CO2 monitor if available
6. Yankauer sucker
7. Bougie
Note
1. Consult anaesthetists in expectedly difficult cases
2. Do not attempt intubation in suspected cervical spinal problem
without in-line stabilization
3. Do not attempt intubation for >15 sec at a time. Achieve
adequate oxygenation before the next attempt
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Pr2
Procedure
1. Position patient supine on a firm surface
2. Place patient in a head tilt - chin lift position (neck flexed and
head extended), with jaw pushed forward
3. Remove dentures and other foreign bodies
4. Fit a face mask tightly on patient’s nose and mouth and
ventilate using a bag-valve device connected to oxygen
5. Pre-oxygenate for 5 minutes
6. Apply cricoid pressure (Sellick’s manoevre) to prevent
aspiration of gastric contents due to gastric insufflation
7. Perform Rapid Sequence Induction (RSI)
• Give a short acting sedative (e.g. midazolam or propofol)
• followed immediately by a paralytic agent such as
suxamethonium or rocuronium
6. Insert direct laryngoscope: Push tongue to the left, expose
larynx by pulling jaw towards ceiling
7. Gently slide ETT in between cords and immediately remove
stylet. Advance ETT till marking at incisor is 22-24 cm for
males, 20-22 cm for females
8. For more difficult case, use boogie for assistance: insert as a
guidewire, then thread ETT through afterwards
9. Inflate cuff (4-6 mls air to achieve cuff pressure 20 - 24 cm
H
2
O)
10. Connect ETT to bag-valve device
11. Confirm ETT position by observing lung expansion,
auscultation (bilateral chest and epigastrium), or by end-tidal
CO2 device
12. Remove cricoid pressure if endotracheal intubation is certain
** In case of failed intubation, maintain mask ventilation and
summon help
After-care
Urgent CXR to check ETT position (ETT tip 4 to 6 cm from carina,
exclude pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum)
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Pr3
SETTING CVP LINE
- Aseptic technique (Venipuncture C/I in any septic site)
- Use Gauge 14 or 16 angiocatheter
- Several approaches possible
Internal Jugular Vein (IJV) Puncture
(C/I in ipsilateral carotid artery aneurysm)
- IJV runs behind the sternomastoid (SCM) close to the lateral
border of the carotid artery
- Place patient in a 20° head-down position with the head turned to
the opposite side
- Right side preferred to avoid injury to the thoracic duct
(You may use either approach below for landmarking):
(1) Anterior approach: Insert angiocath 0.5cm – 1cm
lateral to carotid pulse at midpoint of the sternal head of SCM.
(2) Central approach:Insert angiocath at apex of triangle
formed by two muscle bellies of SCM and clavicle.
-.Advance angiocath towards ipsilateral nipple with the syringe at
30-45° above the skin. Maintain gentle aspiration till a gush of
blood (dark red) is aspirated
- Gently withdraw stylet of angiocath while pushing angiocath into
position, connect infusion set to angiocatheter
- If the artery is punctured (bright red blood), withdraw everything
and apply firm pressure for at least 5 minutes
- (Never advance beyond clavicle. Pneumothorax can kill)
• Always make sure that the catheter is in vascular space
(Check siponing: Venous blood backflows upon lowering
infusion set below the patient &blood level should oscillate with
respiration)
• Read the first CVP reading yourself
• Always take a CXR afterwards to exclude pneumothorax
• Maintain catheter patency with a steady infusion of fluids
Avoid taking blood via the CVP line to prevent infection
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Pr4
DEFIBRILLATION
The speed with which defibrillation performed is the major
determinant of the resuscitation success. Rapid diagnosis of VF
and pulseless VT followed by immediate defibrillation is important.

1. CPR before defibrillator available.
2. Attach and turn on defibrillator when available.
3. Check rhythm and identify shockable rhythm (VF and pulseless
VT).
4. Apply appropriate conductive material to hand-held paddles or
use defibrillator electrode pads. Do not rub the 2 paddles
together.
5. Select energy level
Monophasic defibrillator – 360J
Biphasic defibrillator – device specific; if waveform type
unknown, use 200J
(150J to 200J for biphasic truncated exponential waveform or
120J for rectilinear biphasic waveform).
6. Press charge button on machine or paddle.
7. Apply firm pressure with one paddle at cardiac apex, the other
over base of heart (if paddles are used)*
8. Warn everybody to stay clear of the patient.
9. Deliver the shock by pressing both discharge buttons
simultaneously.
10. Resume CPR immediately after the shock and give 5 cycles of
CPR (one cycle of CPR: 30 compressions then 2 breaths). Then
check rhythm.
* For patient with permanent pacemaker, anterior-posterior orientation is
preferred or with paddles > 10cm from pacemaker. Interrogate
pacemaker after defibrillation to ensure normal functions.
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Pr5
TEMPORARY PACING
1. Equipment: Venous puncture set, temporary pacing wire and
pacemaker, cardiac monitor, defibrillator/transcutaneous pacing
standby.
2. Select venous access (femoral, internal jugular or subclavian).
3. Give local anaesthesia and perform venipuncture under aseptic
technique.
4. Manipulate pacing wire to RV apex ± fluoroscopic guidance.
5. Connect pacing wire to temporary pacemaker.
6. Test pacing threshold with a pacing rate above the patient’s own
rate. Accept site if threshold <1 volt. Set output at >3x
threshold or 3V whichever is higher.
7. Test for sensing threshold with pacing rate less than patient’s
own rate if clinically feasible. Set sensitivity to 1/2 of sensing
threshold (i.e. more sensitive than the sensing threshold).
8. Set desirable pacing rate, eg. 70-80/min.
9. Secure pacing wire at insertion site and cover with dressing.
10. Record the rhythm.
Aftercare
 Full lead ECG and portable CXR.
 Continue cardiac monitoring.
 Check pacing threshold daily and adjust output accordingly.
 Watch out for complications (infection, bleeding, haematoma,
pneumothorax, cardiac perforation, tachyarrhythmia,
thrombophlebitis).
Transcutaneous Pacing (TCP)
 As interim measure before transvenous pacing.
 Anterior TCP patch at cardiac apex and posterior patch over left
infrascapular region; connect ECG to transcutaneous pacing
machine for sensing.
 Pacing threshold usually 50-100mA.
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Pr6
LUMBAR PUNCTURE
• Always examine the patient for evidence of raised intracranial
pressure and focal cerebral lesion before performing LP
(papilloedema, false localising signs)
• When in doubt, a CT brain should be performed.
Procedures
1. Lie patient in left lateral position with back and knees flexed
(may try sitting position if failure after 2-3 attempts)
2. Aseptic technique
3. Infiltrate skin with local anaesthetic
4. Advance LP needle between spinous processes of L3/4 or L4/5.
Use fine-bore (# 22 or 24) needle if raised ICP suspected
5. At about 4-5 cm, a ‘give’ sensation indicates that the needle has
pierced through ligamentum flavum
6. Remove stylet to allow CSF fluid to come out
7. Note the appearance of the CSF and measure CSF pressure
8. Patient to lie flat for 4-6 hours after LP (24 hours if ICP
increased)
9. Depending on provisional clinical diagnosis, send CSF fluid for:
- Biochemistry (use fluoride bottle for CSF glucose, check
simultaneous blood glucose)
- Microscopy and cell count, cytology
- Gram stain and culture, CIE for bacterial antigen (patient
already on antibiotics)
- AFB smear and culture ± PCR, VDRL / FTA
- Indian Ink preparation, fungal culture and cryptococcal antigen
- Viral isolation and antibody titre ± PCR
- IgG / albumin ratio and oligoclonal bands (with serum)
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BLEEDING TIME

Normal ranges: 2.3 to 9.5 minutes
Preferably to be done by a designated person e.g. a haematologist
or a pathologist
1. Ensure the platelet count is normal
2. Use the Simplate II Bleeding Time Device
3. Inform patient of the possibility of a faint scar after the test.
Keloid formation, though rare, can occur in some patients
4. Place a sphygnomanometer cuff around patient's arm above the
elbow
5. Clean the volar surface of the forearm with alcohol swab and
choose an area of skin devoid of visible superficial veins
6. Remove the device from the blister pack and twist off the white
tear-away tab on the side of the device. Do not push the
trigger or touch the blade slot
7. Inflate the sphygnomanometer cuff to 40 mmHg. Ensure
maintenance of pressure during test procedure
8. Place the device firmly on the forearm. The incision must be
made either parallel or perpendicular to the fold of the elbow
9. Depress the trigger and start the timer simultaneously.
10. Remove the device approximately one second after triggering
11. Blot off the blood exuding from the linear cut gently and
completely with a filter paper or equivalent at 30s intervals
12. Stop the timer when blood no longer stains the filter paper
13. Remove cuff, clean forearm, apply covering bandage. Advice
patient to keep bandage in situ for 24 hrs
14. Record the bleeding time
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Pr8
BONE MARROW ASPIRATION &
TREPHINE BIOPSY
Bone Marrow (BM) Aspiration & Trephine Biopsy
1. Obtain informed consent
2. Use either a reusable BM Biopsy needle supplied by CSSD or a
disposable one e.g. Jamshidi or ‘J’ style BM Biopsy needle
3. Site: Posterior superior iliac crest (patient in lateral recumbent
position)
4. Clean the skin overlying the posterosuperior iliac crest with
betadine and alcohol under aseptic technique
5. Infiltrate overlying skin and periosteum with 2% lignocaine
6. Incise skin with a scapel (2-3 mm incision)
BM Aspiration
1. Hold needle at right angle to iliac crest
2. Advance needle with firm pressure in a clockwise-
anticlockwise motion till a decrease in resistance is felt
3. Remove the stylet
4. Apply gentle suction with a 20 ml syringe, reinsert the stylet
5. Make marrow smear on clean slides before the specimen clots,
and send marrow clot in a EDTA specimen bottle for section
6. Put additional material in appropriate media for special tests e.g.
cytogenetic study, microbiological culture
BM Trephine Biopsy
1. Following the BM aspiration, with the stylet locked in the needle,
push out the needle to the periosteal surface, and advance needle
with firm pressure in a clockwise-anticlockwise motion in a
slightly different angle (not the same track as that of BM
aspiration) till a decrease in resistance is felt
2. Push, rotate and advance the needle till the needle reaches the
trabecular bone
3. Remove the stylet, advance further for 1-1.5 cm using a circular
rotating motion of the needle along its long axis to include a core
of marrow within the needle
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Pr9
4. Withdraw needle by 2-3 mm, then with less pressure advance 2-
3 mm in a different direction to break specimen
5. Withdraw needle by rotation with quick full twists
6. Push the specimen from needle by inserting the stylet at the tip
and put the specimen in a formalin bottle
N.B. For patients with hematological malignancies or myelodysplastic
syndrome, arrange with laboratory haematologist beforehand for
cytogenetic, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping studies
(if available)
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Pr10
CARE OF HICKMAN CATHETER
Hickman Catheter Irrigation & Heparin Lock
1. Wash hands thoroughly with anti-microbial soap and water.
2. Put on non-sterile Latex Gloves.
3. Draw 5 ml of Heparin-Saline (50unit / 5 ml) into a 10ml
syringe and 10 ml 0.9% Normal Saline in another 10 ml
syringe, and eliminate air from the syringes.
4. Swab end one-inch of catheter and the junction (catheter with
Heparin cap or with IV tubing) with Alcolol wipe vigorously
with friction for at least 3 times. Allow the antiseptic or air
dry.
5. Ensure that the catheter clamp is closed.
6. Disconnect the Heparin block or IV tubing and swab the hub
vigorously with friction for at least 3 times with Alcohol wipe.
Allow the antiseptic to air dry.
7. Perform each catheter irrigation and Heparin lock:
Weekly Heparin-Saline flushing
• Connect an empty 10 ml syringe.
• Release clamp, and aspirate 5 ml of blood (3 times the
catheter volume) to clear the catheter.
• Reclamp catheter. Remove and discard the blood
syringe
• Inject 10ml 0.9% Normal Saline, then 5ml Heparin
Saline
• Swab the hub with Alcohol wipe and insert a new
Heparin cap
Clearing of Blocked Hickman Catheter
Stage I – If infusion rate is slow:
1. Wash hand thoroughly with soap and water.
2. Put on non-sterile Latex Gloves.
3. Prepare 10ml 0.9% Normal Saline in a 10ml syringe.
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Pr11
4. Wipe end one-inch of catheter and the junction (catheter with
Heparin block or with IV tubing) with Alcohol wipe
vigorously with friction for at least 3 times. Allow the
antiseptic to air dry.
5. Ensure catheter clamp is closed.
6. Disconnect the Heparin block or IV tubing. Swab the hub
vigorously with friction for at least 3 times with Alcohol wipe.
Allow the antiseptic to air dry.
7. Verify catheter occlusion by attaching an empty syringe to
catheter and attempt to aspirate. If all clots in the catheter can
be aspirated successfully, follow with catheter irrigation and
Heparin block or resume IV infusion.
8. If catheter is still occluded, attempt clearing by using a gentle
alternating irrigation and aspiration (push and pull) with a 20
ml syringe half filled with 0.9% Normal Saline. If this fails,
try with Heparinised-Saline.
N.B. 1. Do not force fluid as catheter damage may result.
2. If necessary, obtain and X-ray image of catheter to
check it is in-situ
Stage II – If the first procedure has failed or the catheter has
been blocked for over 2 hours:
Repeat procedure in stage I but with 3 ml pure Heparin (1000
untis/ml) by Doctor.
Stage III – If stage I & II have failed:
A fibrinolytic agent e.g. Urokinase can be used. Please contact
haematologist or haematology nurse
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Pr12
RENAL BIOPSY
Relative contraindications:
1. Active infection e.g. acute pyelonephritis
2. Very small kidneys (<8 cm)
3. Single kidney
4. Uncontrolled Hypertension
5. Bleeding tendency
Preparation:
1. Check CBP, platelets, PT, aPTT, bleeding time, urine RBC
2. Type and screen/X-match 1 pint packed cells
3. Trace film / report of USG or IVP
4. USG for localisation
Biopsy:
(Preferably done in early morning on a weekday)
1. Platelet count should be >100 x 10
9
/L, PT, aPTT normal
2. Check baseline BP/P
3. Fresh biopsy specimen put into plain bottle with NS and send
for histology, immunofluorescence ± electron microscopy
Post-Biopsy Care:
1. Encourage fluid intake
2. Complete bed rest for 24 hours
3. BP/P monitoring at least hourly for 4 hrs (every 15 mins for one
hour), then q4h if stable
4. Save all urine samples for inspection and for RBC
5. Doloxene 50 mg im q6h prn for 1 day or other appropriate oral
analgesics
6. Inform if gross haematuria, falling BP (SBP<100 mmHg),
increasing pulse rate (>100/min), oozing of blood or severe pain at
biopsy site
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Pr13

INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
I. Tenckhoff catheter in-situ
1. Use automatic peritoneal dialysis machine
- Regular Rx once to twice a week
- Heparinisation (optional): during IPD 100 - 500 units/L
Postdialysis up to 5,000 units IP
2.
Duration of
PD PD
programme
Dialysis Drain
Medication
(per litre
fluid)
1
st
20-80 L 1L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins Heparin
100-500
units
(optional)
Subsequentl
y
2L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins optional
II. Acute PD catheter insertion for patients without a
Tenckhoff Catheter
1. Empty bladder
2. Prime abdomen with 2 litres 1.5% PD Fluid via a #16
angiocatheter at 2 cm below umbilicus
3. Ensure smooth flow. Watch out for extraperitoneal infusion
in obese patients
4. Give local anaesthesia
5. Aseptic technique
6. Insert catheter for acute PD at 2-3 cm below umbilicus in
midline, with catheter tip towards rectovesical pouch
7. Bed cage to protect catheter after insertion
 Pr13



INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
I. Tenckhoff catheter in-situ
1. Use automatic peritoneal dialysis machine
- Regular Rx once to twice a week
- Heparinisation (optional): during IPD 100 - 500 units/L
Postdialysis up to 5,000 units IP
2.
Duration of
PD PD
programme
Dialysis Drain
Medication
(per litre
fluid)
1
st
20-80 L 1L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins Heparin
100-500
units
(optional)
Subsequently 2L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins Optional
II. Acute PD catheter insertion for patients without a
Tenckhoff Catheter
1. Empty bladder
2. Prime abdomen with 2 litres 1.5% PD Fluid via a #16
angiocatheter at 2 cm below umbilicus
3. Ensure smooth flow. Watch out for extraperitoneal infusion
in obese patients
4. Give local anaesthesia
5. Aseptic technique
6. Insert catheter for acute PD at 2-3 cm below umbilicus in
midline, with catheter tip towards rectovesical pouch
7. Bed cage to protect catheter after insertion
 Pr13



INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
I. Tenckhoff catheter in-situ
1. Use automatic peritoneal dialysis machine
- Regular Rx once to twice a week
- Heparinisation (optional): during IPD 100 - 500 units/L
Postdialysis up to 5,000 units IP
2.
Duration of
PD PD
programme
Dialysis Drain
Medication
(per litre
fluid)
1
st
20-80 L 1L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins Heparin
100-500
units
(optional)
Subsequently 2L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins Optional
II. Acute PD catheter insertion for patients without a
Tenckhoff Catheter
1. Empty bladder
2. Prime abdomen with 2 litres 1.5% PD Fluid via a #16
angiocatheter at 2 cm below umbilicus
3. Ensure smooth flow. Watch out for extraperitoneal infusion
in obese patients
4. Give local anaesthesia
5. Aseptic technique
6. Insert catheter for acute PD at 2-3 cm below umbilicus in
midline, with catheter tip towards rectovesical pouch
7. Bed cage to protect catheter after insertion
 Pr13



INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
I. Tenckhoff catheter in-situ
1. Use automatic peritoneal dialysis machine
- Regular Rx once to twice a week
- Heparinisation (optional): during IPD 100 - 500 units/L
Postdialysis up to 5,000 units IP
2.
Duration of
PD PD
programme
Dialysis Drain
Medication
(per litre
fluid)
1
st
20-80 L 1L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins Heparin
100-500
units
(optional)
Subsequently 2L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins Optional
II. Acute PD catheter insertion for patients without a
Tenckhoff Catheter
1. Empty bladder
2. Prime abdomen with 2 litres 1.5% PD Fluid via a #16
angiocatheter at 2 cm below umbilicus
3. Ensure smooth flow. Watch out for extraperitoneal infusion
in obese patients
4. Give local anaesthesia
5. Aseptic technique
6. Insert catheter for acute PD at 2-3 cm below umbilicus in
midline, with catheter tip towards rectovesical pouch
7. Bed cage to protect catheter after insertion
 Pr13



INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
I. Tenckhoff catheter in-situ
1. Use automatic peritoneal dialysis machine
- Regular Rx once to twice a week
- Heparinisation (optional): during IPD 100 - 500 units/L
Postdialysis up to 5,000 units IP
2.
Duration of
PD PD
programme
Dialysis Drain
Medication
(per litre
fluid)
1
st
20-80 L 1L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins Heparin
100-500
units
(optional)
Subsequently 2L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins Optional
II. Acute PD catheter insertion for patients without a
Tenckhoff Catheter
1. Empty bladder
2. Prime abdomen with 2 litres 1.5% PD Fluid via a #16
angiocatheter at 2 cm below umbilicus
3. Ensure smooth flow. Watch out for extraperitoneal infusion
in obese patients
4. Give local anaesthesia
5. Aseptic technique
6. Insert catheter for acute PD at 2-3 cm below umbilicus in
midline, with catheter tip towards rectovesical pouch
7. Bed cage to protect catheter after insertion
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Pr14
8. IPD order: Total duration 40 hours
2 litres 1.5%* PD fluid per shift
Add heparin 100-500 units/litre
Add 4 mEq KCl /litre if serum K < 4 mmol/l
Inflow + indwelling 40 mins; outflow 20 mins
(* may adjust % of PD fluid as required e.g. use 4.25% PD
fluid if fluid overload)
(*Use 1 litre exchanges if in respiratory distress)
9. Monitor inflow/outflow, if poor, reposition patient / fleet
enema / adjust or replace catheter
10. Add soluble insulin (4-6 units/bag for 2L of 2.5% PD fluid)
for diabetics. Monitor h'stix q4-6 hours, aim at sugar ∼10
mmol/l
Relative contraindications to peritoneal dialysis:
1. Severe bleeding tendency
2. Multiple lower abdominal scar, recent abdominal surgery
3. Suspicion of abdominal pathology
4. Respiratory failure
5. Pleuroperitoneal leak
6. Aortoiliac graft
7. Burns or other hypercatabolic state or life threatening
hyperkalemia (not efficient enough)
Preparation for Tenckhoff Catheter Insertion
1. Fleet enema the night before T.C. insertion
2. Transfusion if Hb <8 g/dl, or Hct <0.26
3. dDAVP to correct bleeding tendency
4. Antibiotics prophylaxis (optional) :
Regime 1 :
Ampicillin 500 mg iv + cloxacillin 500 mg iv before insertion,
then Ampicillin 500 mg and Cloxacillin 500 mg qid
Regime 2 :
Vancomycin 1 g in 100 ml NS, infuse over 1 hr
5. Empty urinary bladder before Catheter insertion
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ABDOMINAL PARACENTESIS
1. Correct platelet count to >50 x 10
9
/l, PT <3 secs prolonged
2. Site : Usually right or left lower quadrant of abdomen
Perform on right side if splenomegaly
3. Aseptic technique
4. May infiltrate with 1% lignocaine
5. Insert needle (#19 or 21) and aspirate fluid or use
commercial paracentesis set
6. Send for microscopy, white cell count (total and PMN),
biochemistry, C/ST (use blood culture bottle) and cytology
7. Consider simultaneous albumin infusion 6g albumin/litre of
fluid tapped.
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Pr16
PERCUTANEOUS LIVER BIOPSY
Contraindications
1. PT > 3 secs prolonged; platelet count < 75 x 10
9
/L; bleeding
time > 10 mins; haematocrit < 25%
2. Gross ascites
3. Patient unable to hold breath
4. Extrahepatic biliary obstruction, cholangitis
5. Vascular tumour, hydatid cyst, subphrenic abscess
6. Amyloidosis
Procedure
(Biopsy preferably done on a weekday in the morning)
1. Check CBP, platelet, INR, aPTT, bleeding time
2. X-match 2 pints whole blood for reserve and consider
antibiotic prophylaxis
3. Check BP/P before procedure
4. Instruct patient on how to hold breath in deep expiration for as
long as he can
5. Palpate the abdomen and percuss for liver dullness in the mid-
axillary line
6. Choose rib space with maximum liver dullness (may ascertain
puncture site with USG)
7. Aseptic technique, anaesthetise skin, make a small incision
8. Use the Hepafix needle. Follow instructions in the package.
Make sure that the patient is holding his breath in
deep expiration before introducing the biopsy needle
into liver. Avoid lower border of ribs.
9. Send specimen for histology in formalin or formalin-saline
10. One pass is usually enough
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Post-biopsy Care
1. BP/P every 1/2 hr for 2 hrs, then BP/P q1h for 6 hrs, then q4h
if stable
Watch out for fall in BP, tachycardia, abdominal pain, right
shoulder and pleuritic chest pain
2. Complete bed rest for 8 hrs; first 2 hrs on right side. Patient
may sit up after 4 hrs.
3. Simple analgesics prn
4. Diet: full liquid for 6 hrs, then resume regular diet.
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PLEURAL ASPIRATION
1. Review latest CXR to confirm diagnosis, location and extent of effusion.
(Pitfall: Be careful NOT to mistake bulla as pneumothorax or collapsed
lung as effusion)
2. With patient sitting up, lean him/her slightly forward with arms
comfortably folded on a overbed table
3. Best aspiration site guided by percussion. Aseptic technique. Puncture
lateral chest wall along mid- or posterior axillary line immediately
above a rib. Use ultrasound guidance if effusion small or loculated
and/or abnormal thoracic anatomy
4. Anaesthetise all layers of thoracic wall down to pleura
5. Connect a fine-bore needle (21G)/angiocath to syringe for simple
diagnostic tap. Wide-bore angiocath via a 3-way tap may be used if
repeated aspiration / viscous content is expected.
6. Throughout procedure, avoid air entry into pleural space. (If 3-way tap
is used, ensure proper sealing of all joints of the tap)
7. Withdraw 20-50 ml pleural fluid and send for LDH, protein, cell count
& D/C, cytology (yield improves if larger volume sent), gram stain &
C/ST, AFB smear & culture. Check fluid pH & Sugar (contained in
fluoride tube) if infected fluid/empyema is suspected. Check
concomitant serum protein and LDH
8. For therapeutic tap, connect 3-way tap (+/- connect to bed side bag) and
aspirate slowly and repeatedly. Do not push any aspirated content back
into pleural cavity. DO NOT withdraw more than 1-1.5 L of pleural
fluid per procedure.
9. Take CXR and closely monitor patient to detect complications
Complications
1. Trauma: pneumothorax, haemothorax, haemoptysis, air embolism,
damage to liver and spleen
2. Re-expansion pulmonary oedema from too rapid removal of fluid
3. Pleural infection/empyema
4. Vagal shock
5. Seeding of mesothelioma (avoid biopsy if this is suspected)
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PLEURAL BIOPSY
Contraindications:
1. Uncooperative patient
2. Significant coagulopathy
Procedure
1. Ensure there is pleural fluid before attempting biopsy. Assemble and
check the Abrams needle before biopsy. A syringe may be connected
to the end hole of Abrams needle.
2. Preparation as for Steps 1 to 4 of Pleural Aspiration
(NB: If fluid cannot be aspirated with a needle at the time of
anesthesia, do not attempt pleural biopsy)
3. After skin incision (should be made right above a rib), advance a
CLOSED Abrams needle (with inner-most stylet in situ) through soft
tissue and parietal pleura using a slightly rotary movement
4. Once the needle is in the pleural cavity, rotate the inner tube counter-
clockwise to open biopsy notch (spherical knob of inner tube will
click into position in the upper recess of the groove of the outer tube)
(Aspiration of fluid by the connected syringe confirm pleural
placement of the Abrams needle)
5. Apply lateral pressure on the notch against the chest wall anteriorly,
posteriorly or downwards (but NOT upwards to avoid injuring the
intercostal vessels and nerve) with a forefinger, at the same time
slowly withdraw the needle till resistance is felt when the pleura is
caught in the biopsy notch
6. Hold the needle firmly in this position and sharply twist the grip of
inner tube clockwise to take the specimen
7. Repeat Steps 4 to 6 above in the remaining two directions, totally take
at least 3 specimens if possible
8. Firmly apply a dressing to the wound and quickly remove the needle
when the patient is exhaling
9. While an assistant presses on wound, remove stylet of needle, open
inner tube and flush specimen(s) out with NS
10. If tapping is necessary, aspirate as for Steps 5-8 of Pleural Aspiration
11. Take CXR to detect complication(s)
Complications: As for Pleural Aspiration
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CHEST DRAIN INSERTION
1. Preparation as for Pleural Aspiration. (Preferred patient position in
BTS guideline: Semi-supine on the bed, slightly rotated, with arm on
the side of the lesion behind his/her head to expose axillary area.)
2. Always check the number of rib space from sternal angle. Re-confirm
insertion site by percussion, incise skin right above the rib at anterior
or mid-axillary line in 5th or 6th intercostal space. (Alternate site: 2nd
intercostal space, mid-clavicular line, is uncommonly used nowadays)
3. Insertion site should be within the “safe triangle.” (A space bordered
by anterior border of latissimus dorsi, lateral border of pectoralis
major and a horizontal line superior to nipple.)
4. Anaesthetise all layers of thoracic wall including pleura. (Do not
proceed if needle for anaesthesia cannot aspirate free gas/ fluid).
5. Proceed with blunt dissection of intercostal muscle with artery
forceps down to parietal pleura.
6. Preferred insertion method: Double-clamp outer end of Argyle drain
(24 Fr to drain air/fluid, 28 Fr to drain blood/pus). Apply artery
forceps in parallel with tip of drain. Breach pleura with finger. Insert
drain tip, release forceps and use them to direct drain into place.
7. Alternate method: Insert Argyle drain with inner trocar. Withdraw
trocar by 1 cm into drain immediately after puncturing pleura. Match
every 1 cm advancement of drain with 1-2 cm trocar withdrawal.
Double-clamp chest drain when trocar tip appears outside chest wall
8. Direct drain apically to drain air and basally to drain fluid
9. Attach chest drain to 2 cm underwater seal. Ensure fluid level swings
with respiration and coughing.
10. Apply a skin suture over the wound and make a knot, leaving
appropriate length on both sides. Form a 2 cm “sling” by tying
another square knot 2 cm from previous knot. Tie the “sling” to the
drain; make several knots using remaining threads to prevent slipping.
11. Apply dressing.
12. Take CXR to confirm tube position and detect complication(s)
Complications: As for Pleural Aspiration
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Acknowledgement
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The Editorial Board would like to thank the
Coordinating Committee (COC) in Internal Medicine
for their support and generous contribution to the
publication of this Handbook.
We would also like to extend the heartfelt thanks to all
the colleagues who have made invaluable suggestions to
the contents of Fifth Edition of this Handbook.
Finally, we express our special gratitude to the
following colleagues for their efforts and contribution to
the Handbook
Angela Wong
Bonnie Kho
Carmen Ng
CC Mok
CW Lau
CW Yim
CY Chan
CY Cheung
Emily Kun
FL Lau
Harold Lee
Herman Liu
HW Ng
HY Lo
John Chan
Joyce Chan
KH Yiu
KK Chan
KL Tsui
KS Wong
KW Lee
KY Ying
Loletta So
MC Choi
Patrick Kwan
Patrick Li
PL Miu
PW Ng
SC Tiu
SM Lam
TC Wu
TH Tsoi
TS Tse
TY Tsang
TY Wong
WC Ko
WC Lao
WH Fung
WL Ng
Hong Kong Poison Information Centre YY Leung
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COPYRIGHT RESERVED



























Quality Assurance Subcommittee
of the
Coordinating Committee in Internal Medicine

Preface

PREFACE TO 5th EDITION
Since the Handbook of Internal Medicine is published its popularity is rapidly gaining and has become an indispensable tool for clinicians and interns. As practice of medicine is changing due to new knowledge and technology it is essential to update our handbook to keep in touch with the development. So now we are having the 5th edition which is least 10% thicker than the previous edition. This new edition includes update guidelines on the major diseases and I am sure you will find it useful and still convenient to put into your pocket despite its thickness. I would like to thank every one in the Editorial Board and all the specialists who have reviewed and update the various sections. Without their effort this handbook would not have been materialized. It represents a joint effort from our large family of physicians and I hope this spirit of fraternity can guide us to move ahead in the development of our specialty.

`

Dr.YW Yeung Chairman, QA Subcommittee In Internal Medicine

Editorial Board Members
Editorial Board Members

Dr. Kin-Wing Chan Dr. Cheung-Hei Choi Dr. Moon-Sing Lai Dr. Sik-To Lai Dr. Yiu-Wing Luk Dr. Kong-Chiu Wong Dr. Jonas Hon Ming Yeung

Central Co-ordinating Committee(Medicine) Hospital Authority

CONTENTS
Cardiology
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Arrhythmias Unstable Angina / Non –ST Elevation MI Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Acute Pulmonary Oedema Hypertensive Crisis Aortic Dissection Pulmonary Embolism Cardiac Tamponade Antibiotics Prophylaxis for Infective Endocarditis Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery C C C C C C C C C C C 1-3 4-12 13-14 15-21 22 23-25 26-27 28 29 30 31-35

Endocrinology
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Diabetic Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic States Peri-operative Management of Diabetes Mellitus Insulin Therapy for DM Control Hypoglycemia Thyroid Storm Myxoedema Coma Phaeochromocytoma Addisonian Crisis Acute Post-operative/Post-traumatic Diabetes Insipidus Pituitary Apoplexy E E E E E E E E E E E 1-2 3 4-5 6-7 8 9 10 10 11-12 13 13

Contents

Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Hepatic Failure General Guidelines for Consideration of OLT Ascites Variceal Haemorrhage Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Peptic Ulcers G G G G G G 1-2 3 4 5-6 7 8

Management of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Acute Pancreatitis

G 9-10 G 11-14 G 15-18

Haematology
Haematological Malignancies Leukemia Lymphoma Multiple Myeloma Extravasation of Cytotoxic Drugs Intrathecal Chemotherapy Performance Status Non-Malignant Haematological Emergencies/Conditions Acute Hemolytic Disorders Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) Thrombocytopenic Thrombotic Purpura (TTP) Pancytopenia Thrombophilia Screening Prophylaxis of Venous Thrombosis in Pregnancy Special Drug Formulary and Blood Products Anti-emetic Therapy Haemopoietic Growth Factors Immunoglobulin Therapy Anti-thymocyte Globulin (ATG) rFVIIa (Novoseven) Replacement for Hereditary Coagulation Disorders Transfusion Acute Transfusion Reactions Transfusion Therapy Special Transfusion Requirements H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5 6 7-8 9-10 10-11 11 11 12 13 13 14 14 15 15-17

Contents

H 18-20 H 20-22 H 22-23

Nephrology
Renal Transplant – Donor Recruitment Electrolyte Disorders Systematic Approach to the Analysis of Acid-Base Disorders Peri-operative Management of Uraemic Patients Renal Failure Emergencies in Renal Transplant Patient K K K K K K 1-2 3-10 11-13 14 15-16 17

Drug Dosage Adjustment in Renal Failure Protocol for Treatment of CAPD Peritonitis Protocol for Treatment of CAPD Exit Site Infection K 18-19 K 20-22 K 23-24 Neurology Coma Acute Confusional State (Delirium) Acute Stroke Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Tonic-Clonic Status Epilepticus Guillain-Barre Syndrome Myasthenia Crisis Acute Spinal Cord Syndrome Delirium Tremens Wernicke’s Encephalopathy Peri-operative Mx of Pts with Neurological Diseases N N N N N N N N N N N 1-2 3 4-5 6 7-8 9-10 10 11 12 13 14-15 Contents Respiratory Medicine Mechanical Ventilation Oxygen Therapy Massive Haemoptysis Spontaneous Pneumothorax Adult Acute Asthma Long Term Management of Asthma Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Pleural Effusion Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Pre-operative Evaluation of Pulmonary Functions Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV) P P P P P P P P P P P 1-3 4-5 6 7 8-10 11-13 14-16 17-18 19 20 21-22 Rheumatology & Immunology Approach to Inflammatory Arthritis Gouty Arthritis Septic Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Ankylosing Spondylitis Psoriatic Arthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus R R R R R R R 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-10 11-12 13-14 15-20 .

HBV or HCV In In In In In In In In In In In In In In In In In In In GM GM GM GM GM GM GM GM GM GM GM 1-3 3-4 5 6 7-8 9 10-11 12 13 14-15 16 17-18 19 20-24 25 26-28 29 30-31 32-35 1 2-17 2-3 4-9 9-12 12-13 13-14 15-17 18 19 20 Contents General Internal Medicine Acute Anaphylaxis Acute Poisoning  General Measures  Specific Drug Poisoning  Non-pharmacological Poisoning  Ciguatera Poisoning  Smoke and Toxic Gas Inhalation  Snake Bite Accidental Hypothermia Heat Stroke / Exhaustion Near Drowning / Electrical Injury .Rheumatological Emergencies Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs R 21-22 R 23-24 Infections Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospital Acquired Pneumonia Opportunistic Pneumonia Pulmonary Tuberculosis CNS Infection Urinary Tract Infections Enteric Infections Acute Cholangits Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Necrotizing Fasciitis Anti-microbial Therapy for Neutropenic Patients Malaria Chickenpox / Herpes Zoster HIV / AIDS Rickettsial Infection Influenza and Avian Flu Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Infection Control Needlestick Injury/Mucosal Contact to HIV.

Vomiting and Anorexia in Patients with Advanced Cancer Pain Management in Cancer Patients Guidelines for Prescription of Morphine for Chronic Cancer Pain Palliative Care Emergencies Brain Death GM 21 GM 22 GM 23 GM 24 GM 25-26 GM 27 GM 28-30 Procedures Endotracheal Intubation Setting CVP Line Defibrillation Temporary Pacing Lumbar Puncture Bleeding Time Bone Marrow Aspiration and Trephine Biopsy Care of Hickman Catheter Renal Biopsy Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis Abdominal Paracentesis Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Pleural Aspiration Pleural Biopsy Chest Drain Insertion Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr 1-2 3 4 5 6 7 8-9 10-11 12 13-14 15 16-17 18 19 20 Contents Acknowlegement .Rhabdomyolysis Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Nausea.

Cardiology Cardiology .

each lasting 2-4 s C: Circulation Assessment  Check carotid pulse for 5-10s & assess other signs of circulation (breathing. or equivalent 200J for biphasic defibrillator.C1 CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR) 1. Determine unresponsiveness 2.N95/ surgical mask. Wear PPE . face shield for high risk patients) Primary ABCD Survey A: Assess the Airway  Clear airway obstruction/secretions  Head tilt-chin lift or jaw-thrust  Insert oropharyngeal airway B: Assess/Manage Breathing  Ambubag + bact/viral filter + 100%O2 @ 15L/min  Plastic sheeting between mask and bag  Seal face with mask tightly  Give 2 rescue breaths. gown. if defibrillation waveform is unknown Cardiology . coughing. without lifting paddles successively if no response. Call for Defibrillator 3. goggles. or movement)  CPR 30 compressions (depth 1.5-2 inch) to 2 breaths D: Defibrillate VF or VT as soon as identified  Check pulse and leads  Check all clear  Deliver 360J for monophasic defibrillator. +/-(glove. Call for Help.

04mg/kg 5-10 ml 10% solution iv slow push for hyperkalaemia and CCB overdose 1 mEq/kg initially (e. repeat q3-5min to max dose of 0.000 solution) q3-5 min iv 40 IU ivi push 1 mg/kg iv bolus. oesophageal detector devices C: Intravenous access. 50 ml 8. 300 mg in 20 m1 NS / D5 rapid infusion.4% solution) in patients with hyperkalaemia 5-10 mmol iv in torsade de pointes Cardiology Atropine CaCl NaHCO3 MgSO4 .g. continue Ambubag and call for help B: Confirm & secure airway. use monitor to identify rhythm D: Differential Diagnosis Common drugs used in resuscitation Adrenaline Vasopressin Lignocaine Amiodarone 1 mg (10 ml of 1:10. followed by 1 mg/min infusion for 6 hrs & then 0.C2 Secondary ABCD Survey A: Place airway devices.2 g 1 mg iv push. to maximum total daily dose of 2.5 mg/min. further doses of 150 mg over 10 mins if required. then 1-4 mg/min infusion In cardiac arrest due to pulseless VT or VF. intubation if skilled • If not experienced in intubation. maintain ventilation • Primary confirmation: 5-point auscultation • Secondary confirmation: End-tidal CO2 detectors.

Withhold chest compression shortly during these insufflations Post-resuscitation care: .Treat seizure with anticonvulsant (diazepam or phenytoin) . followed by several quick insufflations .Double dosage . Epinephrine. Atropine.Dilute in 10 ml NS or water .Consider maintenance antiarrhythmic drugs .C3 Tracheal administration of Resuscitation Medications (If iv line cannot be promptly established) .Put catheter beyond tip of ET tube .Prevent hypercapnia by mechanical ventilation .Correct hypoxia with 100% oxygen .Maintain blood glucose within normal range .Lignocaine.Inject drug solution quickly down ET tube.Narcan (L-E-A-N) .Routine administration of NaHCO3 not necessary Cardiology .Treat hypotension with volume expander or vasopressor .

then check pulse Secondary ABCD Survey Adrenaline 1 mg iv (10 ml of 1:10.Amiodarone 300 mg iv push.000 solution) Repeat every 3-5 min OR Vasopressin 4 0 IU IV. can consider a second dose of 150 mg iv (maximum total dose 2. 1 time only Cardiology DC Shock 360 J or equivalent biphasic within 30-60s and check pulse Consider antiarrhythmics .C4 ARRHYTHMIAS (I) Ventricular Fibrillation or Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia Primary ABCD Survey Rapid Defibrillation DC Shock 360 J (monophasic defibrillation) or 200J (biphasic shock) if waveform is unknown.Procainamide 30 mg/min (maximum total dose 17 mg/kg) .5 mg/kg iv push.2 g over 24 hr) . can repeat in 3-5 minutes (maximum total dose 3 mg/kg) . single dose.Lignocaine 1-1.

000 solution) Repeat every 3-5 min If PEA rate < 60/min. accidents) Hypoxia Tamponade. coronary (ACS) Hypothermia Thrombosis. Atropine 1 mg iv Repeat every 3-5 min to a Total dose of 0.04 mg/kg  Most common causes of PEA Cardiology . pulmonary (Embolism) Hyper/hypoglycaemia Trauma Adrenaline 1 mg iv (10 ml of 1:10. cardiac Hydrogen ion (acidosis) Tension pneumothorax Hyper / hypokalemia Thrombosis.C5 (II) Pulseless Electrical Activity (Electromechanical Dissociation) Primary and Secondary ABCD Consider causes (“6H’s and 6 T’s) and give specific treatment Hypovolaemia Tablets (drug overdose.

C6 (III) Asystole Primary and Secondary ABCD Consider causes* Transcutaneous pacing If considered.000 solution) Repeat every 3-5 min Atropine 1 mg iv Repeat every 3-5 min Up to a total of 0.04 mg/kg Consider to stop CPR for arrest victims who. continue in asystole for more than 10 minutes with no potential reversible cause * Consider causes: hypoxia. perform immediately NOT for routine use Adrenaline 1 mg iv (10 ml of 1:10. drug overdose. despite successful deployment of advanced interventions. hypothermia Cardiology . hypokalemia. hyperkalemia. acidosis.

C7 (IV) Tachycardia .Review Hx and perform P/E . rhythm & O2 Monitors Unstable? (chest pain. acute MI) Yes Immediate Synchronized DC cardioversion 100/200J/300J/360J (except sinus tachycardia) No or Borderline  Atrial fibrillation  Regular Narrow Atrial flutter Complex Tachycardia  Regular Wide Complex Tachycardia Cardiology . congestive heart failure. SOB. go immediately to unsynchronized shocks .Attach BP.Administer oxygen .Perform 12-lead ECG .Assess ABCs & vital signs .Portable CXR .For immediate cardioversion  Consider sedation  Note possible need to resynchronize after each cardioversion  If delays in synchronization. shock. decreased conscious state.Secure airway and iv line . low BP. pulmonary congestion.

hypoxia. Anticoagulation Heparin to maintain aPTT 1.25 mg qd (reduce dose in elderly and CRF) • Diltiazem* 10-15 mg iv over 5-10 min.5-2 times control or LWMH Warfarin to maintain PT 2-3 times control (depends on general condition and compliance of patient and underlying heart disease) .125-0. thyrotoxicosis etc 2.In AF complicating acute illness e. infuse over 4-8 hr Maintenance infusion 600-1200 mg/d * Contraindicated in WPW Sx . then 150 mg in 100 ml D5. then iv infusion 5-15 µg/kg/min • Verapamil* 5 mg iv slowly. can repeat every 2 min up to 15 mg • Amiodarone 150 mg/100 ml D5 iv over 1 hr. CHF).5 mg iv over 5-10 min or in 50 ml NS/D5 infuse over 10-20 min or 0. Correct underlying causes . thyrotoxicosis.g.C8  Atrial fibrillation / Atrial flutter 1.25-0. Control of ventricular rate • Digoxin* 0. check BP before 2nd dose • Metoprolol* 5 mg iv stat. then q8h po for 3 more doses (total loading of 1 mg) Maintenance dose 0.25 mg po. use digoxin or amiodarone Cardiology 3.For impaired cardiac function (EF < 40%. β-blockers and verapamil may be more effective than digoxin . electrolyte disorders. can repeat once in 10 min Risk of hypotension. sepsis.

or 250 mg po q4h Amiodarone same dose as in C8 • Synchronized DC cardioversion .C9 4.Atrial fibrillation 100-200J and up . anticoagulate for 3 weeks before conversion and continue for 4 weeks after (delayed cardioversion approach) • Pharmacological conversion : Procainamide 15 mg/kg iv loading at 20 mg/min (max 1 g).Atrial flutter 50-100J and up 5. Ic. sotalol or amiodarone Cardiology . then 2-6 mg/min iv maintenance. Prevention of Recurrence • Class Ia. Termination of Arrhythmia • For persistent AF (> 2 days).

Increase by 50-100 J increments Consider .C10  Stable Regular Narrow Complex Tachycardia Vagal Manoeuvres * ATP 10 mg rapid iv push 1-2 mins # ATP 20 mg rapid iv push (may repeat once in 1-2 mins) Blood pressure Normal or Elevated Low Verapamil 2.digoxin .β-blocker .diltiazem .amiodarone * Carotid sinus pressure is C/I in patients with carotid bruits Avoid ice water immersion in patients with IHD # contraindicated in asthma & warn patient of transient flushing and chest discomfort Cardiology .start with 50 J .5-5 mg iv 15-30 mins Synchronized DC Verapamil 5-10 mg iv Cardioversion .

Amiodarone 150 mg IV over 10 mins.Procainamide infusion 20-30 mg/min till max. repeat 150 mg IV over 10 mins if needed. total 17 mg/kg or hypotension . then infuse 1 to 4 mg/min (Max. (Max 2.2 g in 24 hours) .Lignocaine 0.5-0. cardiac function CHF EF < 40%.C11 Stable Wide Complex Tachycardia Attempt to establish a specific diagnosis  Confirmed SVT Unknown type Confirmed VT Preserved cardiac function Preserved EF < 40%.75 mg/kg IV push and repeat every 5 to 10 mins. Then infuse 600-1200 mg/d. then cardioversion Cardiology Dosing: . CHF DC cardioversion or Procainamide or Amiodarone DC cardioversion or Amiodarone Procainamide or Sotabol (Amiodarone. lignocaine Acceptable) Amiodarone or Lignocaine. total dose 3 mg/kg) .

decreased conscious state. acute MI) No Type II 2nd degree AV block? Third degree AV block? ♣ No Yes Yes Intervention sequence: .04 mg/kg.C12 Bradycardia (V) .Attach BP. rhythm & O2 Monitors .Watch out for hyperkalaemia Unstable? (chest pain. shock. pulmonary congestion.5-1 mg * .Review Hx and perform P/E . SOB.Atropine in repeat doses in 3-5 min (shorter in severe condition) up to a max of 3 mg or 0.Adrenaline 2-10 µg/min Observe Cardiology Pacing (bridge over with TCP) # * .Assess ABCs & vital signs .Dopamine 5-20µg/kg/min .Atropine 0. Caution in AV block at or below His-Purkinje level (acute MI with third degree heart block and wide complex QRS.Transcutaneous pacing (TCP) # . and for Mobitz type II heart block) ♣ Never treat third degree heart block plus ventricular escape with lignocaine # Verify patient tolerance and mechanical capture.Perform 12-lead ECG . low BP.Administer oxygen . Analgesia and sedation prn .Portable CXR .Do not delay TCP while awaiting iv access to give atropine . congestive heart failure.Secure airway and iv line .

Correct any precipitating factors (anaemia. Clopidogrel 300mg stat. CXR. Stool softener & supplemental oxygen for respiratory distress 10. Allay anxiety . IABP. ECG stat and repeat at least daily for 3 days (more frequently in severe cases to look for evolution to MI) 4. Consult cardiologist to consider GP IIb/IIIa antagonist. Admit CCU for high risk cases* 2. CBP. 0. Aspirin (soluble or chewed) 160 mg stat.C13 UNSTABLE ANGINA / NON-ST ELEVATION MI Aims of Treatment: Relieve symptoms. Morphine IV when symptom are not immediately relieved by nitrate e. then 75 to 325 mg daily b.Explain nature of disease to patient 7. urgent coronary angiogram/revascularisation if refractory to medical therapy Cardiology Specific drug treatment: Antithrombotic Therapy a. tachyarrhythmia) 9. then 75mg daily if aspirin is contraindicated or combined with aspirin in high risk case c. lipid profile (within 24 hours). INR as baseline for heparin Rx 6. R/LFT.6 ml bd if >60 kgf BW Dalteparin (Fragmin) 120 iµ/kg (max 10000 iµ) sc q12h .g. hypoxia. 0. Morphine 2-5 mg iv (monitor BP) 8. Low-molecular-Weight-Heparin e. improve long-term prognosis Mx 1. aPTT. Bed rest with continuous ECG monitoring 3.g Enoxaparin (Clexane) 1 mg/kg sc q12h Nadroparin (Fraxiparine) sc 0. Troponin stat (can repeat 612 hours later if 1st Troponin is normal) 5. Cardiac enzymes daily for 3 days. monitor for complications.4 ml bd if <50 kgf BW.5 ml bd if 50-59 kgf BW.

Isordil 10-30 mg tds Isosorbide mononitrate . heart failure. GRACE) . Keep SBP > 100 mmHg • Isosorbide dinitrate .5-1mg/hr (max 8-10 mg/min) Isosorbide dinitrate (Isoket) 2-10 mg/hr . ß-blockers (if not contraindicated) • reduce HR and BP (titrate to HR<60) • Metoprolol (Betaloc) 25-100 mg bd • Atenolol (Tenormin) 50-100 mg daily c. Calcium Antagonists (when β-blocker is contraindicated in the absence of clinically significant LV dysfunction) • Diltiazem (Herbesser) 30-60 mg tds • Verapamil 40-120 mg tds Cardiology *High risk features (Consider Early PCI)       ongoing or recurrent rest pain hypotension & APO Ventricular arrhythmia ST segment changes ≥ 0.Elantan 20-40 mg bd or Imdur 60-120 mg daily b.1 mV.Watch BP/P. or hypertension NitroPhol 0.Begin with lowest dose.1 mg/mL High Risk Score (TIMI. new bundle branch block Elevated Troponin > 0. step up till pain is relieved . Nitrates • reduces preload by venous or capacitance vessel dilatation • Contraindicated if sildenafil taken in preceding 24 hours Sublingual TNG 1 tab/puff Q5min for 3 doses for patients with ongoing ischemic discomfort IV TNG indicated in the first 48 h for persistent ischemia.C14 Anti-Ischemic Therapy a.

g. myoglobin (depending on availability) Cardiology .Stool softener .O2 by nasal prongs if hypoxic or in cardiac failure. cardiac monitor . V5 .g. I/O q1h. lipid profile (within 24 hours) aPTT. CBP. V4R Serial cardiac injury markers* for 3 days CXR.Allay anxiety by explanation/sedation (e. III. routine O2 in the first 6 hours .V6 V3R. troponin.Close monitoring : BP/P. V6 V 1 .C15 ACUTE ST ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION Ix .Serial ECG for 3 days st  Repeat more frequently if only subtle change on 1 ECG. V2 . aVF I. aVL. or when patient complains of chest pain Area of Infarct inferior lateral anteroseptal anterolateral anterior right ventricular    Leads with ECG changes II. V6 V1 . morphine 2-5 mg iv (monitor BP & RR) * CK-MB.Arrange CCU bed . INR as baseline for thrombolytic Rx General Mx . V3 V 4 .Adequate analegics prn e.Complete bed rest (for 12-24 hours if uncomplicated) . diazepam 2-5 mg po tds) . R/LFT.

PCI Other medical therapy (ACE-I6 ± Nitrate7) Persistent / recurrent ischaemia or haemodynamic instability or recurrent symptomatic arrhythmia No Consider pharmacological or catheter-based reperfusion Continue medical Rx .C16 Specific Rx Protocol Prolonged ischaemic-type chest discomfort Aspirin (160-325mg chewed) ECG ST elevation1 or new LBBB β-blocker (if not contraindicated)2 ± Clopidogrel ≤ 12 Hr >12 Hr ST depression +/.T inversion Refer to NSTEMI Eligible for Fibrinolytic Fibrinolytic 3 (Consider direct PCI as alternative) Not eligible for Fibrinolytic Not for4 reperfusion Rx Persistent Symptoms Consider Cath then PCI or CABG LMWH5 No Yes Cardiology Yes . angiography +/.Consider IABP.

3-0. for anterior infarction or clinical heart failure. (starting doses of ACEI: e. bradycardia or excessive tachycardia).g.g. Metoprolol 25 mg bd orally. monitor BP/P.C17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 At least 1mm in 2 or more contiguous leads e.6 mg iv bolus . See C21-22 under “Fibrinolytic therapy” Not for reperfusion Rx if e. iv isosorbide dinitrate (Nitropohl/Isoket) 2-10 mg/h (Titrate dosage until pain is relieved. Thereafter.pacing if unresponsive to atropine • AV Block : 1st degree and Mobitz type I 2nd degree: Conservative Mobitz Type II 2nd degree or 3rd degree: Pacing (inferior MI. lisinopril 2. Arrhythmia • Symptomatic sinus bradycardia .atropine 0. if narrow-QRS escape rhythm & adequate rate.25 mg daily. metoprolol 5 mg iv slowly stat for 3 doses at 5 min intervals (Observe BP/P after each bolus. Alternatively. watch out for hypotension. prescribe for those with clinical heart failure or EF < 40%.5 mg daily) Prescribe if persistent chest pain / heart failure / hypertension e.g. acertil 1 mg daily. poor premorbid state If not contraindicated Starting within the first 24 hrs.g. too old. esp. conservative Rx under careful monitoring is an alternative) (Other indications for temporary pacing: • Bifascicular block + 1st degree AV block • Alternating BBB or RBBB + alternating LAFB/LPFB) Cardiology . C/I if sildenafil taken in past 24 hours Detection and Treatment of Complications a. ramipril 1. discontinue if pulse < 60/min or systolic BP < 100 mmHg).

25 mg po q8H for 2 more doses as loading. then 1-4 mg/min infusion up to 12-17 mg/kg • Synchronized cardioversion starting with 100 J Sustained polymorphic VT : • Unsynchronized cardioversion starting with 200 J Pump Failure RV Dysfunction • Set Swan-Ganz catheter to monitor PCWP. beware of post-conversion angina Atrial flutter/fibrillation • Digoxin 0.25 mg iv/po stat.25 mg daily • Diltiazem 10-15 mg iv over 5-10 mins.PCWP monitoring) • Inotropic agents Cardiology b. then 600-1200 mg infusion over 24h • Lignocaine 50-100 mg iv bolus. If low or normal.0625-0. then 5-15 µg/kg/min • Amiodarone 5 mg/kg iv infusion over 60 mins as loading. maintenance 600-900 mg infusion/24 h Wide Complex Tachycardia (VT or aberrant conduction) Treat as VT until proven otherwise Stable sustained monomorphic VT : • Amiodarone 150 mg infused over 10 minutes. maintenance 0. .C18 • Tachyarrhythmia (Always consider cardioversion first if severe haemodynamic compromise or intractable ischaemia) PSVT • ATP 10-20 mg iv bolus • Verapamil 5-15 mg iv slowly (C/I if BP low or on betablocker). volume expansion with colloids or crystalloids LV Dysfunction • Vasodilators (esp. then 0. then 1-4 mg/min infusion • Procainamide 20-30 mg/min loading. repeat 150 mg iv over 10 mins if needed. ACEI) if BP OK (+/.

acetaminophen After Care (For uncomplicated MI) .Angiogram if + ve stress test or post-infarct angina or other high-risk clinical features .Consider dobutamine 5-15 µg/kg/min when high dose dopamine needed • IABP. increase by increments of 0. Mechanical Complications .Preferably via a central vein . recurrent MI. exercise) .5-10 mg daily. Lisinopril 5-20 mg daily. with a view for catheterization ± revascularization c.C19 .g. DM. Acertil 2-8 mg daily Cardiology .Stress test (Pre-discharge or symptom limited stress 2-3 wks post MI) . HT. mitral regurgitation . indomethacin 25-50 mg tds or naprosyn 250-500 mg tds for 1-2 days • Others: colchicines.Titrate dose against BP/P & clinical state every 15 mins initially.Start with dopamine 2.5 µg/kg/min if SBP ≤ 90 mmHg. hyperlipidaemia.Mx depends on clinical and haemodynamic status • Observe if stable (repair later) • Emergency cardiac catheterization and repair if unstable (IABP for interim support) d. Ramipril 2. Pericarditis • High dose aspirin • NSAID e. then hourly if stable . impaired LV systolic function or CHF) : e.VSD.Advise on risk factor modification and treatment (Smoking.g.5 µg/kg/min .Drugs for Secondary Prevention of MI • β-blocker : Metoprolol 25-100 mg bd • Aspirin : 75-300 mg daily • ACEI (esp for large anterior MI.

C20 Fibrinolytic Therapy Contraindications Absolute: . AV malformation) .Traumatic or prolonged (>10min) CPR .Active internal bleeding (does not include menses) . other strokes or CVA within 3 months .5 megaunits in 100 ml NS.Current use of anticoagulants in therapeutic doses.Pregnancy . Administration Streptokinase 1. known bleeding diathesis .For streptokinase: prior exposure (>5days ago) or prior allergic reaction . including head trauma .Previous hemorrhagic stroke at any time.Known structural cerebrovascular lesion (e.Recent trauma/major surgery (within 2-4 wks).History of prior cerebrovascular accident or known intracerebral pathology not covered in contraindications .g.Known malignant intracranial neoplasm . infuse iv over 1 hr • Soluble Aspirin 80-300 mg daily immediately (if not yet given after admission) • Cardiology .Active peptic ulcer † Could be an absolute contraindication in low-risk patients with myocardial infarction.Severe uncontrolled hypertension on presentation † (blood pressure > 180/110 mm Hg) .Suspected aortic dissection Relative: .Noncompressible vascular punctures .Recent (within 2-4 wks) internal bleeding .

Pre-Rx: Full-lead ECG.75 mg/kg (max 50 mg) in 30 mins. when pain subsided . 6ml (<60 kgf). aPTT.Repeat ECG 1.normalization of ST segment / heart block Cardiology .chest pain subsides . INR. then 500-1000 units/hr infusion for 48 hrs to keep aPTT 1.TNK-tPA iv over 10 seconds.5 mg/kg (max 35 mg) over 1 hr or .Use iv catheter with obturator in contralateral arm for blood taking . then 0. 8ml (70-79 kgf). then 0.Avoid percutaneous puncture and IMI .accelerated nodal or idioventricular rhythm .Monitor BP closely and watch out for bleeding .If hypotension develops during infusion • withhold infusion • check for cause (Rx-related* vs cardiogenic) * fluid replacement. 10ml (>90 kgf) * tPA to be followed by LMWH or unfractionated heparin (5.C21 If hx of recent streptococcal infection or streptokinase Rx in > 5 days ago. when new rhythm detected and 2.52.5 x control) Monitoring .tPA* (15 mg iv bolus. 9 ml (80-89 kgf). may use . resume infusion at ½ rate Signs of Reperfusion .early CPK peak . cardiac enzymes .000 units iv bolus. 7ml (60-69 kgf).

SaO2. arrhythmia. Low salt diet + fluid restriction (NPO if very ill) Identify and treat precipitating cause e.5-15 µg/kg/min Unsatisfactory response Monitor BP/P. Intubation and mechanical ventilation 2. prop up 2. IV nitrate e. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) 2. Oxygen (may require high flow rate / concentration) 3. chest infection BP Stable ? Yes Medications (commonly considered) 1. nitropohl 1-8 mg/hr 3. CVP.Dopamine 2. PCI for ischaemic cause of CHF 3. Frusemide(Lasix) 40-120 mg iv 2. I/O.Dobutamine 2. Morphine 2-5 mg slow iv BP stabilized No Medications (others) Inotropic agents .g. patient exhaustion. Intervention for significant valvular lesion Cardiology Consider ventilatory support in case of desaturation. cardiogenic shock 1. uncontrolled HT. RR clinical status every 30-60 mins BP not stabilized or APO refractory to Rx Consider: 1. IHD.C22 ACUTE PULMONARY OEDEMA Acute Management : General measures 1.g.5-10 µg/kg/min . Complete bed rest. Non-invasive: BIPAP/CPAP .

Complete bed rest.Malignant HT without acute target organ damage .Severe HT + pregnancy / AMI / unstable angina . acute CVA 170-180 / 100 Previously normotensive. elderly. severe epistaxis.Catecholamine excess or sympathomimetic overdose (rebound after withdrawal of clonidine / methyldopa. Check CBP. interactions with MAOI) BP reduction within 12-24 hours to target levels Mx 1. CXR. ECG. with bleeding (post-surgery. aPTT/PT.C23 HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS • • • Malignant BP ≥ 220/120 mmHg + Grade III/IV fundal changes Emergency Malignant or severe HT + ICH. urine x RBC and albumin 6. cocaine overdose. monitor I/O (Close monitoring in CCU/ICU with intra-arterial line in HT emergency) 5. dissecting aneurysm. Aim: Controlled reduction (Rapid drop may ppt CVA / MI) Target BP (mmHg) Chronic HT. Always recheck BP yourself at least twice 2. cardiac enzymes. cardiac) 3. post cardiac/vascular surgery 140 / 80 Acute aortic dissection 100-120 SBP Cardiology .HT asso. CVA etc. eclampsia (end organ damage due to HT versus risk of organ hypoperfusion due to rapid BP drop Need Immediate reduction of BP to target levels (initial phase drop in BP by 20-25% of baseline) Urgency . encephalopathy. Look for target organ damage (neurological.) . retinal haemorrhage. phaeochromocytoma crisis. APO. BP/P q1h or more frequently. Low salt diet (NPO in HT emergency) 4. LSD. R/LFT.

rapid onset of action Do not give in pregnancy or for > 48 hrs (risk of thiocyanide intoxication Cardiology - - Hydralazine 5-10 mg slow iv over 20 mins.5-25 mg po stat.C24 7. lasix 20mg or higher in renal insufficiency . Malignant HT or Hypertensive emergency . repeat 10-20 mins prn (for catecholamine crisis) .Patients already on antiHT.use oral route. Discard after every 12 hrs esp good for acute LV failure. then 200 mg tds Captopril 12.Aim: Decrease BP to 160/110 over several hours (Sublingual nifedipine may precipitate ischaemic insult due to rapid drop of BP) 8.Labetalol 20 mg iv over 2 mins. reinstitute previous Rx .No previous Px or failure of control despite reinstituting Rx for 4-6 hrs: Metoprolol 50-200 mg bd / Labetalol 200 mg po stat. then 0. then tds po (if phaeo suspected) Long acting Calcium antagonists (Isradipine 5mg/Felodipine 5mg) If not volume depleted. Rept 40 mg iv bolus if uncontrolled by 15 mins. then 10-100 mg po qid (avoid in AMI. rept q 30 mins or iv infusion at 200-300 µg/min and titrate.5-2 mg/min infusion in D5 (max 300 mg/d). dissecting aneurysm) Phentolamine 5-10 mg iv bolus. Hypertensive urgency . BP/P q15 mins for 60 mins . start with 10 ml/hr and titrate to desired BP) Check BP every 2 mins till stable. then every 30 mins Protect from light by wrapping. followed by 100-400 mg po bd .Na Nitroprusside 0.25-10 µg/kg/min iv infusion (50 mg in 100 ml D5 = 500 µg/ml.

APO -Nitroprusside/nitroglycerin + loop diuretic. e. nitroprusside + labetalol / propanolol IV Pregnancy .g. labetalol or nitroprusside Beta-blocker contraindicated (further rise in BP due to unopposed alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction) - - Aortic dissection . Look for causes of HT crisis. calcium blocker (Diazoxide or hydralazine contraindicated) - Increase in sympathetic activity (clonidine withdrawal.Angina pectoris or AMI .Nitroglycerin. labetalol.IV hydralazine (pre-eclampsia or pre-existent HT). cocaine.C25 9. autonomic dysfunction (GB Syndrome/post spinal cord injury). phaeochromocytoma. Nicardipine / labetalol .aim: systolic pressure to 100-120mmHg and cardiac contractility. Notes on specific clinical conditions . renal artery stenosis . sympathomimetic drugs (phenylpropanolamine. amphetamines. avoid diazoxide/hydralazine (increase cardiac work) or Labetalol & Beta-blocker in LV dysfunction . MAOI or phencyclidine + tyramine containing foods)  Phentolamine. nitroprusside. no Nitroprusside (cyanide intoxication) or ACEI Cardiology 10.

NPO. cardiac tamponade. and minimize complication from dissection propagation . Medical Management .CXR. ECG.To stabilize the dissection.g.Transthoracic (not sensitive) +/. followed by additional doses of 20-80mg every 10-15 mins (up to max total dose of 300mg) Maintenance infusion: 2mg/min. and target heart rate of 60-70/min Intravenous Labetalol 10mg ivi over 2 mins. ECG & I/O 5. MRA & rarely aortogram Mx 1. Oxygen 35-40% or 4-6 L/min 3.Transoesophageal echo .Therapeutic goals: reduction of systolic blood pressure to 100120mmHg (mean 60-75mmHg).C26 AORTIC DISSECTION Suspect in patients with chest. prevent rupture.It should be initiated even before the results of confirmatory imaging studies available . Book CCU or ICU bed for intensive monitoring of BP/P (Arterial line on the arm with higher BP).Urgent Dynamic CT scan. massive haemorrhage. back or abdominal pain and presence of unequal pulses (may be absent) or acute AR Dx . CNS or renal ischaemia Cardiology 6. TnT . CK. severe AR. iv line 2. and titrating up to 5-20mg/min . complete bed rest. Myocardial. morphine iv 3-5 mg 4. Analgesic e. Look for life-threatening complication – severe HT.

C27 Intravenous sodium nitroprusside Starting dose 0.g.g.Diltiazem and verapamil are acceptable alternatives when betablockers are contraindicated (e. haemoperitoneum. max dose 8 µg/kg/min . COAD) (Avoid hydralazine or diazoxide as they produce reflex stimulation of ventricle and increase rate of rise of aortic pressure) 7. e. periaortic or mediastinal haematoma or haemoperitoneum (endovascular stent graft is an evolving technique in complicated type B dissection with high surgical risk) Intramural hematoma should be managed as a classical case of dissection Cardiology . renal artery involvement. Start oral treatment unless surgery is considered 8. limbs or visceral ischaemia. shock.25 ug/kg/min. increase every 2 mins by 10 µg/min. Contact cardiothoracic surgeon for all proximal dissection and complicated distal dissection.

5 mg QD for 2 days. specificity 78%) Ventilation-Perfusion scan (if high probability: sensitivity 41%. or IVC filter if PE occurred while on warfarin or recurrent PE. Analgesic e. • Streptokinase 0. adjust dose to keep INR 1.D-dimer CXR (usu.C28 PULMONARY EMBOLISM Investigations Clotting time. then 0. Discontinue heparin on Day 7-10 b) Haemodynamically significant or evidence of dilated RV or dysfunction (no C/I to thrombolytic) • Book ICU/CCU. mechanical ventilation in profound hypoxic patient. ABG.1 megaunit/hr for 24 hrs. INR.5-2. or r-tPA 100 mg iv over 2 hours followed by heparin infusion 500-1500 units/hr to keep aPTT 1.25 megaunit iv over 30 mins. then 2 mg QD on 3rd day. pleural effusion.5 x control • Consider surgical embolectomy if condition continues to deteriorate. Oxygen 35-40% or 4-6 L/min 2. S1Q3T3. P pulmonale) TTE +/. RBBB. Cardiology .5X control or Fraxiparine 0. specificity 97%) Treatment 1. RAD. a) Haemodynamically insignificant • Unfractionated heparin 5000units iv bolus. normal.TEE. peripheral wedge) ECG (sinus tachycardia.4 ml sc q12h or enoxaparin 1 mg/kg q12h • Start warfarin on Day 2 to 3: . Lower limb Doppler (up to 50% -ve in PE) CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) or Spiral CT scan (sensitivity 91%. aPTT. focal oligemia. Establish central venous access.g. then 500-1500 units/hr to keep aPTT 1.5-2.5 x control.5-2. morphine iv 3-5 mg 3.

C29 CARDIAC TAMPONADE Common causes: .Absent apex impulse. risk of damaging epicardial coronary artery or cardiac perforation 3. clear chest Investigation: 1. Echo: RA.Raised JVP with prominent x descent.D5 or NS or plasma.permit pericardial biopsy (Watch out for recurrent tamponade due to catheter blockage or reaccumulation) Treating tamponade as heart failure with diuretics. faint heart sound. hypotension. distended IVC. Open drainage under LA/GA . Expand intravascular volume .Neoplastic . ACEI and vasodilators can be lethal! Cardiology . RV or LA collapse. tachycardia. tachycardia.Tachypnoea. electrical alternan 2. ECG: Low voltage.Acute pericarditis treated with anticoagulants Diagnosis: . full rate if in shock 2. Pericardiocentesis with echo guidance – apical or subcostal approach. CXR: enlarged heart silhouette (when >250ml). Kussmaul’s sign . pulsus paradoxus . clear lung fields 3.Uraemia .Cardiac Instrumentation / trauma .High index of suspicion (in acute case as little as 200ml of effusion can result in tamponade) Sign & symptoms: .Pericarditis (Infective or non-infective) . tricuspid flow increases & mitral flow decreases during inspiration Management: 1. small pulse volume.

Cardiology . oral. .C30 ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS FOR INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS 1.Antibiotic treatment to eradicate enterococcal infection or colonization is indicated in high risk patients for infective endocarditis undergoing GU or GI procedure.Previous infective endocarditis . Procedures to dental. whether placed by surgery or by catheter intervention. Genitourinary/Gastrointestinal Procedure .Prosthetic valves .Unrepaired cyanotic CHD. respiratory tract or infected skin/skin structure. musculoskeletal tissue in patients at highest risk or adverse outcome in case infective endocarditis developed a) Amoxicillin 2 gm po 1 hr before or b) Ampicillin 2 gm im/iv within 30 mins before or c) # Clindamycin 600 mg or Cephalexin 2 gm or Azithromycin/Clarithromycin 500 mg po 1 hr before or d) # Clindamycin 600 mg im/iv or Cefazolin 1 gm im/iv within 30 mins.Completely repaired CHD with prosthetic material or device. Circulation 2007 (published online 19. April 2007). # Allergic to ampicillin/amoxicillin High risk category: . including palliative shunts and conduits . during the first 6 months after the procedure† Repaired CHD with residual defects at the site or adjacent to the site of a prosthetic patch or prosthetic device (which inhibit endothelialization) (Reference: Wilson et al.Antibiotic prophylaxis solely to prevent infective endocarditis is not recommended for GU or GI tract procedures.Cardiac transplant patients with valvulopathy . before procedure 2.

breast Cardiology . arrhythmia with uncontrolled vent. need careful assessment of current status) • History of ischaemic heart disease • History of compensated or prior CHF • DM • Renal impairment C) Minor predictors (not proven to independently increase risk) • Advanced age. peripheral vascular • anticipated prolonged surgical procedures with large fluid shifts &/or bl. head and neck intraperitoneal & intrathoracic • orthopaedic.C31 PERIOPERATIVE CARDIOVASCULAR EVALUATION FOR NON-CARDIAC SURGERY Basic evaluation by hx (assess functional capacity). symptomatic vent. ST-T abn). rhythm other than sinus • Low functional capacity. Canadian class III or IV angina • Decompensated CHF • Significant arrhythmias – high grade AV block. loss B) intermediate (risk 1-5%) • carotid endarterectomy. abn ECG (LVH. death) A) Active cardiac conditions mandate intensive Mx (may delay or cancel OT unless emergent) • Unstable coronary syndrome – recent (<30 days) or AMI with evidence of important ischaemic risk by symptom or non-invasive test. uncontrolled systemic HT Cardiac risk stratification for noncardiac surgical procedures A) high (risk >5%) • emergent major OT. CHF. prostatic C) low (risk <1%) • endoscopic procedures. severe AS or symptomatic MS B) Clinical risk factors (enhanced risk. P/E & review of ECG Clinical predictors of increased perioperative CV risk (MI. LBBB. Rate • Severe Valvular disease e.g. superficial procedure. aortic & other major vascular. supravent. hx of stroke. cataract. arrhythmia in presence of underlying heart disease.

C32 Stepwise approach to preoperative assessment Need for emergency Yes non-cardiac OT Step 1 OT Room Perioperative surveillance & postop risk stratification & risk factor mx No Step 2 Active cardiac conditions Yes Evaluate & treat consider OT No Step 3 Yes Low risk surgery Proceed with planned surgery No Step 4 Good functional capacity (>4METs) without symptom Yes Proceed with planned surgery Cardiology To step 5 .

C33 Step 5 3 or more clinical risk factors 1or 2 clinical risk factors No clinical risk factor Intermediate risk surgery Vascular surgery Vascular surgery or intermediate risk surgery Proceed with planned surgery Cardiology Consider testing if it will change management Proceed with surgery with HR control or consider non-invasive test if it will change management .

C34 Disease-specific approach 1) Hypertension • • • • • • Control of BP preoperatively reduces perioperative ischaemia Evaluate severity.3). HT with no metabolic or CV abn. Need AVR or valvuloplasty • AR . INR <1. – no evidence that it is beneficial to delay surgery Anti-HT drug continued during perioperative period Avoid withdrawal of beta-blocker Severe HT (DBP >110 or SBP >180) elective surgery – for better control first urgent surgery .postpone elective noncardiac surgery (mortality risk around 10%) in severe & symptomatic AS. chronicity of HT and exclude secondary HT Mild to mod.g. decreasein systemic vascular resistance or decrease in venous capacitance. resume normal dose immediately following the procedure • • Cardiology . severe  consider PTMC or surgery before high risk surgery • MR .use rapid-acting drug to control (esp. avoid catecholamines 2) Cardiomyopathy & heart failure • • 3) Valvular heart disease Antibiotic prophylaxis AS .afterload reduction & diuretic to stabilize haemodynamics before high risk surgery 4) Prosthetic valve • Minimal invasive procedures – reduce INR to subtherapeutic range (e. beta-blocker) Pre-op assessment of LV function to quantify severity of systolic and diastolic dysfunction (affect peri-op fluid Mx) HOCM avoid reduction of blood volume.careful volume control and afterload reduction (vasodilators). avoid bradycardia • MS .mild or mod  ensure control of HR.

conduction delays and no hx of advanced heart block or symptoms – rarely progress to complete heart block • AF . paddles preferably >12cm from the device Cardiology . arrhythmia • Simple or complex PVC or Nonsustained VT – usu require no Rx except myocardial ischaemia or moderate to severe LV dysfunction is present Sustained or symptomatic VT – suppressed preoperatively with lignocaine. interrogate devices to determine its threshold. drug toxicity. 6) Permanent pacemaker • Determine underlying rhythm.if on warfarin.C35 Assess risk & benefit of anticoagulation Vs peri-op heparin (if both risk of bleeding on anticoagulation & risk of thromboembolism off anticoagulation are high) 5) Arrhythmia • Search for cardiopul. Ds. settings and battery status • If the pacemaker in rate-responsive mode  inactivated • programmed to AOO.. VOO or DOO mode prevents unwanted inhibition of pacing • electrocautery should be avoided if possible. procainamide or amiodarone. may discontinue for few days. metabolic derangement • High grade AV block – pacing • Intravent. keep as far as possible from the pacemaker if used 7) ICD or antitachycardia devices • programmed “OFF’ immediately before surgery & “ON’ again post-op to prevent unwanted discharge • for inappropriate therapy from ICD. give FFP if rapid reversal of drug effect is necessary • Vent. suspend ICD function by placing a ring magnet on the device VF/unstable VT – if inappropriate therapy from ICD & external cardioversion is required.

E2 Endocrinology Endocrinology .

APTT Parameters to be monitored Subsequent Hours Hourly urine and blood glucose Na. Creatinine. conscious level. ±central venous pressure (CVP) 2-hourly temperature Ancillary Measures Aspirate stomach if patient unconscious or vomiting (protect airway with cuffed endotracheal tube if necessary) Catheterize bladder and set CVP as indicated Give antibiotics if evidence of infection Treat hypotension and circulatory failure Endocrinology . (high anion gap) and moderate ketonuria or ketonemia (or high beta-hydroxybutyrate. K & urea till blood glucose <14 mmol/L Repeat ABG if indicated (intensive monitoring of electrolytes and acid/base is crucial in the first 24-48 hours) Repeat urine ± plasma ketones if indicated Ix Hourly BP/pulse. K. urine output. plasma bicarbonate < 15 mmol/L. Urea. Hb Arterial blood gas (ABG) If indicated: CXR ECG Blood & urine culture and sensitivity Urine & serum osmolality PT.) Initial Hour Urine & Blood glucose Urine + plasma ketones Na. arterial pH < 7. respiratory rate.3. P04. ±Mg.E1 DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA) Diagnostic criteria: Plasma glucose > 14 mmol/L.

9-7.E2 Rx Initial Hours Subsequent Hours Hydration 1-2 litre 0.15 Aim at decreasing plasma glucose by 3-4 U/kg as IV mmol/L per hour. ↓ to 8 mmol/hr Aim at maintaining serum K between 4-5 mmol/L If pH between 6. ↓ monitoring to q2h-q4h Change to maintenance insulin when normal diet is resumed 10 . give 50 mmol NaHCO3 in 1 hr. Fluid in first 12 hrs should not exceed 10% BW. ↑ to 30 mmol/hr .1 U/kg/hr. achieve this rate of decrease in blood followed by glucose if necessary.20 mmol/hr Continue 10-20 mmol/hr. use 0.9. change if . If pH < 6. Recheck ABG after infusion. insulin 0.K > 5. Monitor serum K when giving NaHCO3 saline (NS) Insulin K NaHCO3 Endocrinology . When blood glucose ≤ 14 mmol/L. infusion When BG ≤ 14 mmol/L. repeat every 2 hrs until pH > 7.05-0.5 mmol/L.9% 1 litre/hour or 2 hours as appropriate When serum Na > 150 mmol/L. adjusting dose of insulin to maintain blood glucose between 8-12 mmol/L.45% NS (modify in patients with impaired renal function).K < 4 mmol/L. change to D5 and (preferably via decrease dose of insulin to 0. give 100 mmol NaHCO3 in 2 hrs.1 insulin pump) U/kg/hr or give 5-10 units sc q4h. change to D5 Regular human Regular human insulin iv infusion 0. ↑ to 40 mmol/hr .K > 5 mmol/L. double insulin dose to bolus. stop K infusion . watch for fluid overload in elderly.0.K < 3 mmol/L.0.

watch out for too rapid fall in blood glucose and overshot hypoglycaemia 3. usually in association with change in mental state. arterial pH > 7. effective serum osmolality ((2x measured Na) + glucose) > 320 mOsm/kg H2O. Endocrinology . 1. 4.3. use hypotonic saline Watch out for heart failure (CVP usually required for elderly) Serum urea is the best prognostic factor Insulin requirement is usually less than that for DKA. serum bicarbonate > 15 mmol/L.E3 DIABETIC HYPEROSMOLAR HYPERGLYCEMIC STATES Diagnostic criteria: blood glucose > 33 mmol/L. 6. Management principles are similar to DKA Fluid replacement is of paramount importance as patient is usually very dehydrated If plasma sodium is high. and mild ketonuria or ketonemia. 5. 2.

For major Surgery • For patients on insulin or high dose of OHA. Poorly controlled patients: .Stabilise with insulin-dextrose drip for emergency OT: Fluid Blood glucose (mmol/L) Actrapid HM < 20 1-2 U/hr D5 q4-6h > 20 4-10 U/hr NS q2-4h (Crude guide only. check standing/lying BP and resting pulse ± autonomic function tests b. Glucose. Check hstix and blood sugar pre-op. Schedule the case early in the morning b. Well controlled patients: omit insulin / OHA on day of OT (except chlorpropamide: stop for 3 days prior to OT) f. urinalysis. HbA1c. electrolytes. q4-6h (Flush iv line with 40 ml DKI solution before connecting to patient) Endocrinology . postpone for a few hrs till better control c. if blood glucose > 11 mmol/L. Screen for DM complications. Pre-operative Preparation a. aim to bring down glucose by 4-5 mmol/L/hr to within 5-10 mmol/L)  May need to add K in insulin-dextrose drip  Watch out for electrolyte disorders  May use sc regular insulin for stabilisation if surgery elective 2. Day of Operation a. start dextrose-insulin-K (DKI) infusion at least 2 hrs preoperatively: . Aim at blood sugar of 5-11 mmol/L before operation e. monitor hstix q1h and adjust insulin dose. RFT.6-8 units Actrapid HM + 10-20 mmoles K in 500 ml D5. ECG c.E4 PERIOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS 1. HCO3. Admit 1-2 days before major OT for DM control d.

Then give 1/3 to 1/2 of usual intermediate-acting insulin • or poorly-controlled patients on insulin: . For Minor Surgery • ay continue usual OHA / diet on day of surgery • atients exposed to iodinated radiocontrast dyes. Continue DKI infusion till patient is clinically stable. Post-operative Care a. withhold metformin for 48 hours post-op and restart only after documentation of normal serum creatinine) • or well-controlled patients on insulin: Either: .Monitor hstix q1h and adjust insulin.Use DKI infusion till diet resumed.Omit morning short-acting insulin . and the remaining 1/3 when patient can eat Or: (safer) .Control first. then q4h for 24 hrs (usual requirement 1-3U Actrapid/hour) . may need insulin and K d.Monitor hstix and K as above.Give 2/3 of usual dose of intermediate-acting insulin am.E5 .Monitor K at 2-4 hours and adjust dose as required to maintain serum K within normal range -Give any other fluid needed as dextrose-free solutions • Patients with mild DM (diet alone or low dose of OHA) .D5 500 ml q4h alone (usually do not require insulin) . ECG (serially for 3 days if patient is at high risk of IHD) b. Monitor electrolytes and glucose q6h c. then resume regular insulin (give first dose of sc insulin 30 minutes before disconnecting iv insulin) / OHA when patient can eat normally Endocrinology . use insulin or DKI infusion for urgent OT 3.

Daytime Glycaemia . refer to pages E1-5) Common insulin regimes for DM control (Ensure dietary compliance before dose adjustments): 1.Increase PM insulin by 2 units for every 1 mmol/L of FPG above 7. or if pre-dinner hypoglycaemia occurs.If hypoglycaemic. Suggested dose is ~2U for every 2 mmol/L above 7. giving that 20% as intermediate-acting insulin before dinner (PM dose) . try moving pre-dinner dose to bedtime . Fasting Glycaemia alone . For insulin-requiring type 2 DM (May consider combination therapy (Insulin + OHA) for patients with insulin reserve) a.Give bed-time intermediate-acting insulin. treat with regular insulin mixed with NPH insulin.Start with intermediate-acting insulin 0.Give 2 units insulin for every 2 mmol/L FPG > 7.If FPG persistently high.0 mmol/L • Consider pre-mixed insulin preparations for patients who have difficulty mixing doses Endocrinology .5 U/kg 30 mins before breakfast (AM insulin) .When AM dose > 40 U.Increase AM insulin according to FPG as follows: . start with 0. reduce pre-dinner dose by 5-10% .0 mmol/L (change not more than 10 units each time) .2-0.0 mmol/L (change not more than 6 unit each time) .E6 INSULIN THERAPY FOR DM CONTROL (For emergency conditions.For pre-lunch and pre-bedtime hyperglycaemia.If hyperglycaemic. reduce AM dose by 20%. check blood sugar at mid-night: .2 U/kg b.

divided into 3333 Give theremaining 40-60% asregular insulin.c.     E7 E7  E7  E7  E7   E7 2.Givemultiple daily daily regimes:long-acting eakless’ insulin Give 40-60% total dose dose aslong-acting ‘eakless’ insulin -Give40-60% total daily dose asaslong-acting eakless’ insulin Give 40-60% total daily dose long-acting eakless’ insulin For 40-60% total daily dose totosatisfybasal needs.Consider of Pens convenience andease administration Start with daily ----Startwith 0. For difficult subcutaneous insulin delivered via a pump liding scale. for intermediate-acting: regular insulin for insulin ratio intermediate-acting: regular insulin ratio and inintheevening ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin inthetheevening inintheevening the evening evening dose.must be used judiciously: liding scale. ratio for forintermediate-acting:regular insulin for formorning ratio for intermediate-acting: (30 regularbefore for morning2:1 ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin meals). It Adjust given either pre-breakfast.all. and 1:11:1ratioforintermediate-acting: regular insulin dose.50. must beused judiciously: liding scale. and 1:1 ----Mayconsider pre-mixed insulin preparations Maythe considerpre-mixedinsulin preparations Mayconsider pre-mixed insulin preparations -Mayconsider pre-mixed insulin preparations Mayconsider pre-mixed insulin preparations in evening ----Adviseon on“multiplesmallmeals” totoavoidlate afternoon and Advise consider pre-mixed meals” toavoid late afternoon and Advise on“multiple small meals” preparations afternoon and -Adviseon “multiple small insulin totoavoidlate afternoon and “multiple small meals” avoid late .---Give2/32/3oftotaldaily insulin dose pre-breakfast and 1/31/3 twice of total daily insulin dose pre-breakfast and pre-dinner inofthe evening (30(30minsbefore meals). can be given either pre-breakfast.Fordifficultmain meal consultday) Forbefore cases.5 U/kg/d. Adjust dose according totoFPG pre-dinner before bed-time.ForFordifficultcases.1. and slightly higher dose cover Dawn Phenomenon. It should not be used for more than 1-2 days Endocrinology . atand2:1 pre-dinner in thetheevening(30 mins before meals). employed all.For type11DM 2. and (slightly higher dose cover forDawn Phenomenon.1.HHHtixmustbebeperformed at scheduled 1.Fordifficultcases. pre-dinner ororbeforebed-time.ForFortwicedaily regimes: a.-Give40-60% total daily dose asaslong-acting‘‘‘‘eakless’insulin -.b. Adjust hhhtixtix(tdsand0. convenience and day according following according -Start with use U/kg/d. Adjustdose according FPG before bed-time. canAdjustdoseaccording totoFPG pre-dinner orbasal needs. forAdjustthefollowingease ofaccordingto -Start with 0. at2:1 Give 2/3 daily dose before meals). consult endocrinologist forcontinuous difficult cases.1. and slightly higher dose before main Dawn the day) meal day) to cover c.b. -tosatisfy basal needs.pre-dinnerin the evening insulin minsbefore meals). delivered viaaapump subcutaneousinsulin delivered via a apump subcutaneousinsulin delivered via pump insulin delivered pump c. of the endocrinologist continuous subcutaneous insulin delivered viaviaapump for continuous subcutaneous insulin consult endocrinologist subcutaneous cases. atat 2:1 pre-dinner the evening (30 mins pre-breakfast 2:1 . and 1:1ratio for forintermediate-acting:regular insulin dose. and slightly higher AM before mainformealofthetheday) before mainmeal ofoftheday) before main meal ofoftheday) before mainmeal Phenomenon.2. be dose according FPG to satisfy ----Givethetheremaining40-60%asasregularinsulin. Fortype 11DM Fortype DM type DM .3.Doseadjustmentperformedtakeintoconsideration factors 2.Htixmust be employed asall.---Starttype 1twicedaily orormultipledaily dose regimes For with twice daily orormultiple daily dose regimes ----ConsideruseuseofPensfor forconvenienceandease regimes Consider usetwicePensfororconvenience and easeofofadministration Consider use ofPens for convenienceand dose ofadministration -Consider useofof Pensfor multiple dailyandeaseofofadministration convenience ease administration .5U/kg/d. Adjustdose according toFPG pre-dinner before bed-time. h tix (tds and nocte) a.ForFormultipledaily dose regimes: b.Dosetix adjustmentshouldtakeinto consideration factors 2. at 2:11/3 pre-dinner inintotal evening(30mins before meals). ifififemployedatall.Start with twice daily ormultiple daily dose regimes Start with DM daily multiple daily dose regimes -Start with twice daily multiple daily dose regimes Start with twice 2. divided into FPG -Give theremaining 40-60% regular insulin.Fortwice daily regimes: For twice daily regimes: twice daily regimes: .ItIt Itshouldnotbe used formore than 1-21-2days 3. It cancan long-acting pre-breakfast. pre-dinner ororbeforebed-time. and slightly higher dose roughlyforDawn Phenomenon. according into Give the remaining 40-60% asasregularinsulin.3. Adjust thefollowing dayday administration Start with U/kg/d. satisfy basal needs.scheduled tix scale. Adjust the following day according to Consider 0. H adjustment should take into consideration factors Dose adjustmentshould take scheduled Dose must be should into consideration factors that mayadjustment shouldinsulinresistance that mayaffect patient’ insulin resistance that mayaffect patient’ insulininto consideration factors that mayaffect patient’ insulin resistance that mayaffect patient’ take resistance affect patient’ insulin resistance 2. divided into roughly remaining pre-prandially (slightly higher AM dose -roughlyequal doses pre-prandially (slightly higher AM dose Give equal dosespre-prandially (slightly higher AM dose totocoverforequal doses pre-prandiallyslightly higher dose dose tocover forDawn Phenomenon.2. can be given either pre-breakfast.divided into 3 Give remaining 40-60% pre-dinner or before bed-time. and 1:1 ratio for intermediate-acting: regular morning dose. ItItdosebebegiven either‘ pre-breakfast. employed must used judiciously: 1. consult endocrinologist for forcontinuous c.a.Formultiple daily dose regimes: For multiple daily dose regimes: multiple daily dose regimes: nocturnal hypoglycaemia -b.Adviseon“multiple small meals” avoid late afternoon and May nocturnal onhypoglycaemia meals” to avoid late afternoon and nocturnalhypoglycaemia nocturnal hypoglycaemia nocturnalhypoglycaemia nocturnal “multiple small hypoglycaemia .5nocte) Adjust the following day according to h htix(tdsand nocte) tix (tds and nocte) -tix (tdswithandnocte) Start (tdsandnocte) U/kg/d.Fortwicedaily regimes: a.c. regular insulin.Dose adjustment should takeasinto consideration factors 2.mustbebeusedjudiciously: liding scale.ForGive2/3oftotal daily insulin dose pre-breakfast and 1/3 Give 2/3of oftotal daily insulin dose pre-breakfast and 1/3 Give 2/3daily regimes: insulin dose pre-breakfast and 1/3 -Give total daily a.5 U/kg/d. given either pre-breakfast. consult endocrinologist forcontinuous c.5of PensAdjust thethefollowingdayaccording tototo Start with 0. toGive 40-60% total daily ItItcanas begiveneither eakless’ insulin tosatisfy basal needs.Formultipledaily dose regimes: b. ifbeperformedasasscheduled must performed scheduled must performed liding must be 2. ForFortype1 DM 2.ItItshouldnotnotbeusedfor formorethanresistance 3.mustbeused judiciously: liding scale.a.Advise b.should not bebeusedfor more than 1-2days should notbe used for insulin 1-2 days should used more than days that may affect patient’more than1-2 days 3. Dose 3. consult endocrinologist for continuous difficult cases. and 1:1 ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin dose. at ratio for intermediate-acting: regular insulin for morning ratio intermediate-acting: mins insulin morning pre-dinner in the evening regular insulin for morning dose.Htix tixmustbeperformed asasscheduled used judiciously: 1. ifif employedatatatall.2. and slightly higher dose totocoverfor Dawn Phenomenon. satisfy basal needs. employed atall.divided into Adjust dose divided to roughly the equaldosespre-prandially(slightly higher AM dose 3 roughlyequal doses pre-prandially (slightly higher AM dose roughlyequal doses 40-60% as regular insulin.

2 mmol/L  Terminate test if blood sugar confirmed to be < 2. follow with D10 drip b. Duration of observation depends on R/LFT and type of insulin/drug (in cases of overdose) Tests for Hypoglycaemia a. Glucagon 1 mg or oral glucose (after airway protection) if cannot establish iv line c. 48 and 72 hrs and when symptomatic or h’stix < 2.    Overnight fast Give 75 g anhydrous glucose po Check plasma glucose and insulin at 60 min intervals for 5 hrs and when symptomatic b. C-peptide at 0. Monitor blood glucose and h’ tix every 1-2 hrs till stable d.2 mmol/L  Consider to check urine sulphonylureas (± other hypoglycemic agents) level in highly suspected cases Endocrinology . place near nurse station  Fast for maximum of 72 hrs  At 72 hrs.E8 HYPOGLYCAEMIA 1. 24. Prolonged OGTT  To document reactive hypoglycaemia. insulin. Treatment a. D50 40 cc iv stat. vigorous exercise for 20 mins  H’ tix q4h and when symptomatic  Blood sugar. limited use 2. Prolonged Fasting Test  Hospitalise patient.

Ipodate (Oragrafin) po 1-3 g/d Consider LiCO3 250 mg q6h to achieve Li level 0. 5. 4. consider diltiazem 60-120 mg q8h as alternative 1 hour later. 6-8 drops Lugol’ solution / SSKI po q6-8h (0. ICU care if possible Hyperthermia : paracetamol (not salicylate). iv vitamin (esp.5-1 g q12h or c.6-1. thiamine) Supportive : O2 .2 g/d) b.0 mmol/L if ATD is contraindicated Consider plasmapheresis and charcoal haemoperfusion for desperate cases Endocrinology 3. digoxin / diuretics if CHF/AF ± inotropes Treat precipitating factors and/or co-existing illness Propylthiouracil 150-200 mg q4→6h po / via NG tube Hydrocortisone 200 mg stat iv then 100 mg q6-8h β-blockers (exclude asthma / COAD or frank CHF): Propranolol 40-80 mg q4-6h po/NG or Propranolol/Betaloc 110 mg iv over 15 min every several hrs If β-blockers contraindicated. .E9 THYROID STORM Note: The following regimen is also applicable to patients with uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis undergoing emergency operation. Close monitoring : often need CVP. use iodide to block hormone release a. Swan-Ganz. physical cooling Dehydration : iv fluid (2-4 L/d) iv Glucose. cardiac monitor. NaI continuous iv 0. 6. 2. 1.

then 100-200 µg po or T3 20-40 µg stat. then 20 µg q8h po Consider 5–20 µg iv T3 twice daily if oral route not possible Hydrocortisone 100 mg q6h iv 3. Treatment of precipitating causes Correct fluid and electrolytes. 2. 4. correct hypoglycaemia with D10 NS 200 .E10 MYXOEDEMA COMA 1.300 cc/hr ± vasopressors Maintain body temperature T4 200-500 µg po stat. then 2-20 µg/kg/hr infusion or Nitroprusside infusion 0.3-8 µg/kg/min Volume repletion Propranolol if tachycardia (only after adequate α-blockade) Labetalol infusion at 1-2 mg/min (max 200 mg) . 4. Endocrinology Phentolamine 0. PHAEOCHROMOCYTOMA 1. 6.5-5 mg iv. 7. 3. 5. 2.

Correct electrolytes Correct electrolytes d. then q6h Hydrocortisone 100 mg stat. e. RFT.6 0.05-0.1. titrate to 9α-fludrocortisone 0. then 200-300 ml/hr. watch out for fluid overload ml/hr.Relative Potencies ofofdifferentSteroids* 3. c.8 0.05-0. titrate toto b. electrolytes. do not wait for cortisol results Treat on clinical suspicion.3.6 0.b. c.   E11  E11  E11 ADDISONIAN CRISIS ADDISONIAN CRISIS ADDISONIAN CRISIS 1.then q6h a. 44litresofofD5/NSatat500-1000ml/hr. May use dexamethasone 4mg iv/im q12h (will not interfere May use dexamethasone mg iv/im q12h (will not interfere with cortisol assays) with cortisol assays) with cortisol assays) 3. glucose b.d.May use dexamethasone 4 4mgiv/im q12h (will not interfere e.75 mg 0.6 0. do not wait for cortisol results a.6 0.2.75 mg 0. May consider low dose (1 g) short synacthen test if May consider low dose g) short synacthen test secondary hypocortisolism is issuspected@@ secondary hypocortisolism issuspected@ secondary hypocortisolism suspected 2.8 0.8 0.Normal dose (250g) short synacthen test (not required if if c. then q6h b.2 mg daily po. watch out for fluid overload ml/hr. IxIx 1. Correct electrolytes c.b. do not wait for cortisol results Treat on clinical suspicion.75 mg 0.2 mg daily po.6 0.RFT.5 0. glucose RFT. watch out for fluid overload e. Spot cortisol (during stress) ± ACTH Spot cortisol (during stress) ACTH c. then 200-300 litres D5/NS 500-1000 ml/hr.05-0. a.75 mg Endocrinology **Different in in different tissues * Different different tissues Different in different tissues .May consider low dose (1(1g) short synacthen test if if d.8 0. Hydrocortisone 100 mg ivivstat.8 11 1 44 4 44 4 55 5 25-30 25-30 25-30 25-30 25-30 25-30 Action Action Action 0. Hydrocortisone 100 mg ivstat. Relative Potencies ofdifferent Steroids* Relative Potencies different Steroids* Glucocorticoid Mineralocorticoid Equivalent Glucocorticoid Mineralocorticoid Equivalent Glucocorticoid Mineralocorticoid Equivalent Cortisone Cortisone Cortisone Hydrocortisone Hydrocortisone Hydrocortisone Prednisone Prednisone Prednisone Prednisolone Prednisolone Prednisolone Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone Dexamethasone Dexamethasone Dexamethasone Betamethasone Betamethasone Betamethasone Action Action Action 0. glucose a.Treatment 2. 4 litres ofD5/NS at500-1000 ml/hr. electrolytes. a. titrate normalise KKand BP normalise Kand BP normalise and BP c.5 00 0 00 0 doses doses doses 25 mg 25 mg 25 mg 20 mg 20 mg 20 mg 5 5mg 5mg mg 5 5mg 5mg mg 4 4mg 4mg mg 0.d.5 0. Ix a. electrolytes.8 11 1 0.75 mg 0. ± ±9α-fludrocortisone 0.2 mg daily po.Spot cortisol (during stress) ± ± ACTH b.75 mg 0.6 0. Normal dose (250g) short synacthen test (not required if Normal dose (250g) short synacthen test (not required already ininstress)# # already instress)# already stress) d. ± 9α-fludrocortisone 0. then 200-300 d. Treatment Treatment Treat on clinical suspicion.

then 50 mg iv q6h + K supplement for 24 hrs  Post-operative course smooth: Decrease Hydrocortisone to 25 mg iv q6h on D2. then taper to maintenance dose over 3-4 days  Post-operative course complicated by sepsis. 30. Minor Surgery  Hydrocortisone 100 mg iv one dose  Do not interrupt maintenance therapy # Normal dose short synacthen test 250µg Synacthen iv/im as bolus Blood for cortisol at 0.5 mg daily) for >2 wks  in the past year  Patients currently on steroids. whatever the dose  Suspected adrenal or pituitary insufficiency a.E12 4. Major Surgery  Hydrocortisone 100 mg iv on call to OT room  Hydrocortisone 50 mg iv in recovery room. 30 mins Can perform at any time of the day N: Peak cortisol level > 550 nmol/L May need to confirm by other tests (insulin tolerance test or glucagon test) if borderline results Endocrinology . 60 mins Can perform at any time of the day @ N : Peak cortisol level > 550 nmol/L Low dose short synacthen test 1 g Synacthen (mix 250 g Synacthen into 1 pint NS and withdraw 2 ml) IV as bolus Blood for cortisol at 0. hypotension etc: Maintain Hydrocortisone at 100 mg iv q6h till stable  Ensure adequate fluids and monitor electrolytes b. Steroid cover for surgery / trauma .Indications:  Any patient given supraphysiological doses of  glucocorticoids (>prednisone 7.

0 ml) q12-24h sc/iv Allow some polyuria totoreturnbefore next dose Allow some polyuria toreturn before next dose Allow some polyuria return before next dose Give each successive dose only ififurinevolume Give each successive dose only ifurine volume Give each successive dose only urine volume >>200 ml/hr ininsuccessivehours >200 ml/hr insuccessive hours 200 ml/hr successive hours Stable cases Stable cases Stable cases Give oral DDAVP 200 µg bd tototds totomaintain urine Give oral DDAVP 200 µg bd to tds to maintain urine Give oral DDAVP 200 µg bd tds maintain urine output of 11––22litres/day output of 1 – 2litres/day output of litres/day 2. thirst sensation intact and fully conscious: Oral hydration.5 ml/kg/d of insensible volume needed by adding 12. allow patient totodrinkas thirst dictates Oral hydration.5-1. BW. Monitor I/O. 3. duration hrs totodays Phase I Phase Transient DI. Remember possibility of aaTriphasic pattern: Remember possibility of aTriphasic pattern: Remember possibility of Triphasic pattern: Phase I I: :: Transient DI. duration 2-14 days Phase III : :: Return of DI (may be permanent) Phase III Phase III Return of DI (may be permanent) Return of DI (may be permanent) Mx Mx Mx a. duration 2-14 days Antidiuresis. allow patient drink as thirst dictates c.1.5-1.5 ml/kg/d of insensible loss totovolumeof urine) loss tovolume of urine) loss volume of urine) •• DDAVP 1-4 µg (0. 2. duration 2-14 days Phase II: Phase Antidiuresis. thirst sensation intact and fully conscious: Able drink. BW. Impaired consciousness and thirst sensation: Impaired consciousness and thirst sensation: •• Fluid replacement as D5 or ½½:½½solution(Calculate • Fluid replacement as D5 or ½: :½solution (Calculate Fluid replacement as D5 or solution (Calculate volume needed by adding 12. Able toto drink.--change ininconsciousstate change inconscious state change conscious state . serum sodium and urine osmolarity a. Impaired consciousness and thirst sensation: c. 1. PITUITARY APOPLEXY PITUITARY APOPLEXY PITUITARY APOPLEXY Endocrinology 1.b.   E13  E13  E13 ACUTE POST-OPERATIVE / // ACUTE POST-OPERATIVE ACUTE POST-OPERATIVE POST-TRAUMATIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS POST-TRAUMATIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS POST-TRAUMATIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS 1. 3.a. 2.2.0 ml) q12-24h sc/iv DDAVP 1-4 µg (0.1.5-1.--signs of increased intracranial pressure signs of increased intracranial pressure signs of increased intracranial pressure .0 ml) q12-24h sc/iv • DDAVP 1-4 µg (0. duration hrs days Phase IIII:: Antidiuresis. Definite diagnosis depends on CT / /MRI Definite diagnosis depends on CT /MRI Definite diagnosis depends on CT MRI Surgical decompression under steroid cover ifif Surgical decompression under steroid cover if Surgical decompression under steroid cover . BW.5 ml/kg/d of insensible volume needed by adding 12.2. serum sodium and urine osmolarity Monitor I/O. then daily) b. 2. then daily) closely (q4h initially. Able todrink. then daily) closely (q4h initially.thirst sensation intact and fully conscious: b. duration hrs todays Transient DI. allow patient todrink as thirst dictates Oral hydration. serum sodium and urine osmolarity closely (q4h initially.c. Monitor I/O.--evidence of compression on neighbouring structures evidence of compression on neighbouring structures evidence of compression on neighbouring structures .3. 1.

Gastroenterology & Hepatology Gastroenterology Gastroenterology & & Hepatology Hepatology .

slurred speech. and hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic drugs (aminoglycosides. Identify and correct precipitating factors • Watch out for gastrointestinal bleeding • Avoid sedatives. vascular contrast products) • Correct electrolyte imbalance B. moderate confusion. initially responsive to noxious stimuli. ordered as amount of protein in diet . blood ammonia level (good for monitoring progress) • Renal support for acid-base and electrolyte imbalances • Nutrition: high CHO and low protein. NSAIDs. haemoglucostix Q2-6h • Check PT. incoherent speech. drowsiness III Marked confusion. C: 10-15 points Hepatic Encephalopathy Grading I Euphoria. inappropriate behaviour. mild confusion. diuretics. B: 7-9 points. Treatment • May need ICU care • Monitor blood glucose. sleeping but arousable IV Coma. later unresponsive A. mental slowness.G1 Gastroenterology & Hepatology HEPATIC FAILURE Child-Pugh Grading of Severity of Chronic Liver Disease Encephalopathy Ascites Bilirubin (µmol/l) for PBC (µmol/l) Albumin (g/l) Prothrombin time (sec prolonged) 1 None Absent < 35 < 70 > 35 1–3 2 I and II Mild 35 – 50 70 – 170 28 – 35 4–6 3 III and IV Moderate >50 >170 < 28 >6 Grades: A: 5-6 points. disordered sleep II Lethargy.

G2 Gastroenterology & Hepatology Low protein diet DAT Energy (kcal) 1634 1803 1800 1485 1500 1800 Protein (g) 30 40 50 60 55 70 Fat (g) 30 43 48 45 50 60 CHO (g) 310 310 290 210 210 250 Regular microbial surveillance and aggressive treatment of presumed infection • Fleet enema and lactulose 10 – 20 ml tds po or via NG tube. Caution in patient with incipient renal failure and can be repeated if serum osmolality < 320 mOsm D. . Consider liver transplantation in selected cases *Alert. Watch out for and treat cerebral oedema  Head elevation 40°  Artificial ventilation for comatose patient with hyperventilationto keep PaCO2 ~3. drug induced o Age < 10 or > 40 years old o Jaundice to encephalopathy interval > 7 days o Prothrombin time > 50 seconds o Serum bilirubin > 300 umol/L Paracetamol (King’s criteria) • pH < 7. Do not give for > 7 days because potential hazard of nephrotoxicity C. too vigorous hyperventilation to PaCO2 ~2.3 after adequate fluid resuscitation or • In grade III or IV coma + Prothrombin time > 100 seconds + creatinine > 300 umol/L B. aim for bowel motions 2 – 3/day • Neomycin (1g q4-6h) po can be given .5 kPa may paradoxically reduce cerebral blood flow  Mannitol (20% solution): loading dose 1 g/kg over 10 min and repeated q4h.0 kPa. Non-paracetamol • Prothrombin time > 100 seconds or • Any 3 of the followings: o Aetiology: non-A. non-B. refer and transfer early to transplant centers • Indications for liver transplant in acute hepatic failure A.

G3 Gastroenterology & Hepatology GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR CONSIDERATION OF ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION (OLT) IN CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE OR HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA Patients who have an estimated survival of less than 80% chance after 1 year as a result of liver cirrhosis should be referred for consideration of orthotopic liver transplantation. Child-Pugh score 8 or above B. If any of the following are present. For patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Complications of cirrhosis : • Refractory ascites • Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis • Encephalopathy • Very poor cirrhosis related quality of life • Early stage of hepato-renal syndrome or hepatopulmonary syndrome or malnutrition • Portal hypertensive bleeding not controlled by endoscopic therapy or transjugular intra-hepatic porto-systemic shunt C. those with solitary tumour of less than 5cm in diameter or those with up to 3 tumours (each of which should be < 3 cm) carry a better prognosis after liver transplantation Alcoholic patients should show a period of abstinence before consideration of liver transplantation. it may be appropriate to refer the patient: A. .

αFP B. Investigations • Diagnostic paracentesis. Conservative Treatment (aim to reduce BW by 0. USG abdomen.non-albumin colloids • Large volume paracentesis >5L. monitor vital signs during paracentesis .5 kg/day) • Low salt diet (2 g salt per day) • Restriction of fluid intake (< 1L/day) in situation of dilutional hyponatraemia. give 6 – 8 gm of albumin per liter of ascites removed simultaneously • Caution in patients with hypotension and raised serum creatinine.G4 Gastroenterology & Hepatology ASCITES A. urine sodium • Spironolactone 50 mg bd (max 200 mg bd) or amiloride 5 mg daily (max 40 mg daily) • Frusemide (40-160 mg per day) as an adjunct • Frusemide + albumin regimen: 40 mg frusemide plus 25 g albumin infused in 1 hour • Therapeutic paracentesis can be used in refractory ascites • Consider TIPS C. body weight. Therapeutic Paracentesis • See “ bdominal Paracentesis” under “ rocedures” • Exclude spontaneous bacterial peritonitis before paracentesis • Single paracentesis of < 5L. Na <130 mmol/l • Monitor input/output. +/.

then 250 µg/h iv infusion • Terlipressin 1 – 2 mg IV bolus Q4 – 6H • Vasopressin 0. NG tube can be inserted for emptying of blood in stomach but no suction should be applied to avoid rupturing varices C. Vasoactive agents. haematocrit of 30% • correct coagulopathy B.4 units/min iv infusion (Off label use. Anti-encephalopathy regimen • Correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances • Lactulose 10-20 ml q4H-q8H to induce diarrhoea • Low protein and low salt diet . Investigations • CBP. to be given early and maintained for 2 – 5 D • Octreotide 50 µg iv bolus. watch out for cardiovascular complications) E. RFT • PT. then 50 µg/h iv infusion • Somatostatin 250 µg iv bolus.G5 Gastroenterology & Hepatology VARICEAL HAEMORRHAGE A. Volume resuscitation as in other causes of upper GIB • maintain mean arterial pressure at 80mmHg • avoid overtransfusion. LFT. APTT & platelet • Serology for HBV and HCV • αFP • Abdominal ultrasound D. IV thiamine for those with alcohol excess F. aim for Hb of 10g/dl.

or recurrent bleeding after endoscopy bleeding after endoscopy • Consider TIPs or surgery.G6 G6 Gastroenterology & Hepatology G. . Look for sepsis G. Look for sepsis • Prophylactic antibiotic: ciprofloxacin 500mg bd or • Prophylactic antibiotic: ciprofloxacin 500mg bd or norfloxacin 400mg bd for 5 – 7 days norfloxacin 400mg bd for 5 – 7 days • Therapeutic antibiotics early if sepsis detected • Therapeutic antibiotics early if sepsis detected H. • Consider TIPs or surgery. Control of bleeding • Endoscopy: Endoscopic variceal ligation sclerotherapy for • Endoscopy: Endoscopic variceal ligation // sclerotherapy for oesophageal varices oesophageal varices Tissue glue like N-butyl-cyanoacrylate injection for fundal Tissue glue like N-butyl-cyanoacrylate injection for fundal varices varices • Consider balloon tamponade if: urgent endoscopy not • Consider balloon tamponade if: urgent endoscopy not available available When vasoactive agent fails to control bleeding. or recurrent When vasoactive agent fails to control bleeding. Control of bleeding H.

I/O. nasogastric tube if massive haematemesis or signs suggestive of GI obstruction or perforation • Look out for and treat any medical decompensation secondary to GIB • IV H2-antagonist and tranexamic acid have NO proven value. Indications for Emergency Operation • Arterial bleeding not controlled by endoscopic treatment • Transfusion > 8 units • Rebleeding after apparently successful endoscopic therapy (in selected cases) . Indications for Emergency Endoscopy • Massive haematemesis • Haemodynamic shock C. Pulse. Emergency Management (Consider ICU if severe bleeding) • Nil by mouth • Insert large bore IV cannula • Closely monitor BP. CVP if BP < 90 mmHg • Blood and fluid replacement as required • Cuffed ET tube to prevent aspiration if massive haematemesis. PPI infusion given for 72 hours reduces the risk of rebleeding • PPI Infusion: omeprazole/esomeprazole/pantoprazole 80mg IVI stat followed by 8mg/hr infusion B. IV proton-pump inhibitor treatment prior to endoscopy significantly reduces the portion of patients with stigmata of recent haemorrhage at index endoscopy • Arrange endoscopy after initial stabilization • After endoscopic treatment of patients with actively bleeding ulcer or ulcer with visible vessel.G7 Gastroenterology & Hepatology UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING A. Contraindications for Endoscopy • Suspected intestinal perforation • Suspected intestinal obstruction • Dysphagia without delineation of level of obstruction • Unstable cardiac or pulmonary status D.

. Follow-up Endoscopy • DU Unnecessary if asymptomatic • GU Necessary and repeat biopsy until ulcer heals A. NSAIDs and Peptic Ulcers • Prevention: Discontinue NSAID if possible Misoprostol 200 µg bd or Proton pump inhibitor as prophylaxis • Treatment Discontinue NSAID eradicate H pylori if it is present H2-antagonists or PPI D.8 week (not recommended for CRF due to its aluminium content) C.6 weeks Omeprazole or esomeprazole 20 mg om Rabeprazole 20mg om Lansoprazole 30 mg om Pantoprazole 40 mg om • Sucralfate 1 g qid for 6 . Ulcer-healing drugs • H2-antagonists for 8 weeks Cimetidine 400 mg bd or 800 mg nocte Famotidine 20 mg bd or 40 mg nocte Ranitidine 150 mg bd or 300 mg nocte • PPI for 4 .G8 Gastroenterology & Hepatology PEPTIC ULCERS Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy • Triple therapy for 1 week Proton pump inhibitor bd + Amoxicillin 1gm bd + Clarithromycin 500mg bd or Proton pump inhibitor bd + Metronidazole 500mg bd + Clarithromycin 500mg bd • Standard dosage of proton pump inhibitors Omeprazole / Esomeprazole 20mg Rabeprazole 20mg Lansoprazole 30 mg Pantoprazole 40 mg B.

A PPI (proton pump inhibitors) test in bd dosage for 2 weeks has a sensitivity of about 70-80% and specificity of 60-70% for GERD with classical and extra-oesophageal/atypical GERD symptoms. pantoprazole 40mg. Maintenance therapy is required to prevent relapse of severe oesophagitis. D. PPIs have been shown to be better than standard dose of H2 blockers in the healing of oesophagitis and maintenance of remission. Upper GI tract malignancy can be ruled out. For patients with significant reflux oesophagitis (*LA class BD or **Savary-Miller grade 2-4). anaemia. C. the dosage of PPI can be reduced. rabeprazole 20mg. The standard once daily dosage of PPI is : omeprazole 20mg. in particular atypical chest pain. esomeprazole 40mg. On the other hand. When symptoms are well controlled. endoscopy may not be the initial investigation and can be reserved for those who do not respond to PPI test or those with alarming features like dysphagia. repeated vomiting and old age. For patients without erosions (also known as NERD). treatment success with PPI is variable. Upper endoscopy can aid diagnosis and grade the severity of reflux oesophagitis. lansoprazole 30mg.G9 Gastroenterology & Hepatology MANAGEMENT OF GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD) A. . B. E. significant weight loss. Doubling the dose to bd daily may be necessary in some patients when symptoms or oesophagitis are not well controlled. Some patients with clear cut periods of relapses and remissions can be considered for on-demand therapy with PPIs or H2 blockers for 2-4 weeks.

but not circumferential D mucosal break(s) involving >75% of circumference **Savary-Miller classification of reflux esophagitis Grade 1 nonconfluent red patches or streaks. no extension between tops of mucosal folds B mucosal break >5mm. oesophageal shortening.G10 Gastroenterology & Hepatology *Los Angeles classification of reflux esophagitis A mucosal break(s) <5mm. may occur singly or may appear in multiple nonconfluent areas Grade II confluent mucosal breaks which are not circumferential Grade III inflammatory lesions involving the entire circumference Grade IVa one or several ulcers which may be associated with circumferential stricturing. or Barrett’s metaplasia Grade IVb oesophageal stricture but no evidence of erosion or ulceration in the strictured area . no extension between tops of mucosal folds C mucosal breaks continuous between tops of mucosal folds.

ESR. anaemia. Therapy should be guided by disease activity and extend of colitis • Induction of remission Mild to Moderate: o Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid. particularly for Clostridium difficile toxin • AXR to assess extent of disease (ulcerated colon contains no solid faeces) and to exclude toxic megacolon (transverse colon diameter >5cm) • Endoscopy and biopsies B. tachycardia. normal ESR and CRP • Moderate: 4 – 6 stools a day with minimal systemic disturbance • Severe: >6 stools a day containing blood and evidence of systemic disturbance (fever.oral preparation 2 – 6 g /day o Corticosteroids (prednisolone) . can escalate to 3 – 4.enema for left sided colitis 1 – 4 g /day .5 – 2. CRP • Stool cultures.oral for pancolitis 1.8 g /day .5 – 1.5 g /day o Sulphasalazine .G11 Gastroenterology & Hepatology INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES – (ULCERATIVE COLITIS) A.4 g/day. Investigations: • CBP. no systemic disturbance. with or without blood. 5-ASA) . or hypoalbuminaemia) C.enema for left sided colitis 20 – 100mg once to twice/day but less effective when compared with rectal mesalazine . LFT.suppository for proctitis 0. Assessment of disease activities: • Mild: <4 stools daily.

severe UC requiring induction therapy with cyclosporin or tacrolimus o Infliximab: steroid-dependent despite treatment with 5-ASA +/.5 – 4 g /day Enema for left-sided colitis 1 – 4 g /day Suppositories for proctitis 0.G12 Gastroenterology & Hepatology . beware of toxic megacolon o Stool for culture o Watch out for infection o Hydrocortisone 100mg q6H. +/.5 – 1 g /day o Sulphasalazine 2 – 4 g/day o Azathioprine 2 – 2. other immunosuppressants: Cyclosporin. steroid-dependent. Tacrolimus.relapse while on oral 5-ASA.oral: 40mg/day up to 1mg/kg/day patients not responding to oral 5-ASA compounds or rectal corticosteroid Severe: Hospitalized o Nil per oral o Fluid and electrolyte replacement.TPN o AXR to monitor colonic dilatation.5 mg /day .azathioprine . Infliximab o Surgical consultation • Maintenance or remission o Mesalazine Oral for pancolitis 1.

Salofalk Release at Distal 250mg. 500mg 250mg. ileum. Salofalk Release at pH Distal 250mg. ileum. dependent Pentasa Time Duodenum 250mg. 500mg dependent 500mg release colon release colon SulphaSalazo5-ASA Colon linked to SulphaSalazo5-ASA Colon 500mg Sulpha. dependent release . 500mg 500mg (200mg 5-ASA) Gastroenterology & Hepatology 250mg .G13 G13 G13 Generic Generic ProprietGeneric nameProprietname ary name name ary name Mesalazine Mesalazine Asacol Mesalazine Asacol Propriet. . colon ileum. ≥6 ileum. 250mg.pyrin 5-ASA Colon 500mg salazine pyrin linked to sulphapyridi (200mg salazine pyrin linked to (200mg sulphapyridine by azo5-ASA) sulphapyridi 5-ASA) ne by azo.bond ne by azobond bond Olsalazine Dipentum 5-ASA Colon Olsalazine Dipentum 5-ASA Colon 250mg dimmer Olsalazine Dipentum 5-ASA Colon 250mg by dimmer dimmer linked linked linked byazo-bond by azo-bond azo-bond Unit strength 400mg 250mg. 500mg pH ≥≥66 pH colon colon Pentasa Time Duodenum Pentasa Time Duodenum . 500mg colon ileum.FormuSites of ary name lation of FormuSites of delivery Unit FormuSites Unit lation delivery strength lation delivery Terminal strength Asacol Release at Release at pH Terminal ileum 400mg Release at Terminal 400mg ≥7 ileum ileum pH ≥≥7 pH Salofalk7 Release at Distal ileum.salazine Salazo.

Maintenance of remission • Budesonide 6mg / day for refractory and severe disease. Certolizumab pegol .5g / day Azathioprine. prolongs the time to relapse • Azathioprine 2 – 3 mg / kg / day. non-penetrating/penetrating (fistula +/.abscesses) A. Adalimumab. ileocolon. upper GIT Behaviour: non-stricturing/structuring. Adalimumab. moderate to severe disease brought into remission with conventional corticosteroids. Induction of remission • Mild to Moderate Sulphasalazine 3 – 6 g /day (most benefit in patients with colonic involvement) Budesonide 9 mg / day (ileum and right colon involvement) • Moderate to Severe Prednisolone 40mg / day up to 1mg/kg/day Hydrocortisone 100mg q6H Methotrexate. colon. steroid dependent • Methotrexate. Certolizumab pegol Consider surgery for fulminant ileocaecal disease with obstructive complication or those unable to tolerate medical therapy • Fistulating Crohn’s disease Ciprofloxacin 1000mg / day Metronidazole 1 – 1.G14 Gastroenterology & Hepatology INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES – CROHN’S DISEASE Disease location: terminal ileum. Adalimumab Consider surgery B. Infliximab. Infliximab. Infliximab.

Assessment of severity and prognosis • Clinical Parameters Variable Ranson at at 0 hrs 48 hrs >55 years >16 >11. then daily + Premorbid state + creatinine + Arterial pH + Age WBC count (x109/l) Blood glucose (mmol/l) AST (U/l) LDH (U/l) Serum urea (mmol/l) Serum Ca (mmol/l) Serum Alb (g/l) PaO2 (kPa) Base deficit Fluid sequestration Packed cell volume (%) .8 rise <2 <8 >4 >6 L 10% fall Glasgow within first 48 hrs >15 >10 >200 >600 >16 <2 <32 <8 APACHE II admission. unexplained shock or elevated serum amylase (at least 3X ULN. with vomiting).G15 Gastroenterology & Hepatology ACUTE PANCREATITIS High index of suspicion is needed. A.1 >250 >350 > 1. Suspect acute pancreatitis in any patient with upper abdominal pain (esp. excluding other causes of acute abdomen is of paramount importance).

especially pancreatic necrosis. mortality 17%. CT severity index Normal pancreas Pancreatic enlargement (edema) Pancreatic inflammation and/or peripancreatic changes Single peripancreatic fluid collection Points 0 1 2 3 • • . maximum score: 71.G16 Gastroenterology & Hepatology Serum sodium Serum potassium Temperature Meal arterial BP Heart rate Respiratory rate Glasgow coma scale Suggested cut off number - - - + + + + + + + 11 criteria: <3 8 criteria:  14 criteria: criteria 3 criteria 8 points* indicate mild indicate indicate AP severe AP severe AP * Points system per variable: from 0 (normal) to +4 (very abnormal). Balthazar CT severity index: 7-10 associated with morbidity of 92%. full extent of which cannot be appreciated until at least three days after symptom onset. C-reactive Protein: 150mg/l at 48hrs predicts a severe attack Contrast-enhanced CT pancreas: to detect and stage complications of acute pancreatitis. Best done on D6-D10 after admission. minimal score: 0.

Management (ICU care for severe cases) • Laboratory Ix for assessment of severity (see above) • CXR. Nutritional support via enteral route is preferred. RFT. as in the case of severe ileus. . pancreas can only be visualized in 50% of cases • EUS is the most accurate test for diagnosing or ruling out biliary etiology • Arrange early ERCP and sphincterotomy within 24 to 72 hours after admission C. Watch out for biliary pancreatitis • ALT > 3 ULN or > 150 U/l in a non-alcoholic patient would highly suggestive of gallstone etiology • USG hepatobiliary system for detection of gallstone and dilated bile ducts. glucose ± ABG • Nil by mouth till nausea and vomiting settle. Ca. TPN is to be considered if sufficient calories cannot be delivered through enteral nutrition. I/O. ECG • Close monitoring of vital signs. AXR (erect and supine films for excluding other causes of acute abdomen.G17 Gastroenterology & Hepatology Two or more fluid collections and/or retroperitoneal air The above are exclusive PLUS Necrosis (% of pancreatic parenchyma) 0% <30% 30-50% >50% Total 4 ADD 0 2 3 6 B. serially for monitoring).

G18 Gastroenterology & Hepatology • • • • • • • • Recommended nutrient requirements in acute severe pancreatitis Energy 25-35 kcal/kg/day Protein 1. proven infection.2-1. Fat administration is safe provided hypertriglyceridaemia (>12 mmol/l) is avoided.prophylactic antibiotic treatment generally not recommended but may be considered in patients with pancreatic necrosis of >30% involvement by CT. respiratory and renal support as required Antibiotics .given on demand: biliary sepsis.1 mmol/l. newly developed sepsis or sepsis inflammatory response syndrome.g. It should be active against enteric organisms (e. . an increase in CRP in combination with other evidence supporting the possibility of infection. failure of two or more organ systems.5 g/kg/day Carbohydrates 3-6 g/kg/day Lipids 2 g/kg/day Intensive insulin treatment to maintain blood glucose  6.Doloxene or Pethidine Adequate intravenous hydration (to produce urine output of 0.g. Nasogastric suction if ileus or protracted vomiting Analgesics . pseudocyst or pancreatic sepsis Consult surgeon in severe cases or when complication arises . Look out for complications e. imipenam) and be given for one to two weeks.5ml/kg/hr in the absence of renal failure) and supplemental oxygen Correct electrolyte and glucose abnormalities Cardiovascular.

Haematoligy Haematology .

Start allopurinol 300 mg daily (↓ dose if RFT is impaired) b. Ensure adequate hydration c. HBsAg. Blood tests CBP PT/APTT/D-dimer/Fibrinogen G6PD. Antibiotic therapy: Give appropriate antibiotic if there is evidence of infection PCP prophylaxis for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: i. HBV DNA (optional) RFT LFT Ca/P Urate Glucose LDH Type&Screen HCV Ab. Septrin tab 2 daily three days per week. antiHBs. Blood product support: RBC/blood transfusion if symptoms of anaemia are present Platelet transfusion if platelet count <10 x 109/L or bleeding Give FFP if there is evidence of bleeding due to DIC d. Record patient’ performance status (PS) Haematoligy . Pentamidine inhalation 300mg/dose (or 5mg/kg) once every 4 weeks. antiHBc. Initial management a. or ii. Do sepsis workup if patient has fever e. Investigations at diagnosis a. HIV Ab. HBV DNA for HBV carrier Serum lysozyme for AML M4/M5/CMML Coombs’ test and serum protein IEP for CLL Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for HCL b. f. Bone marrow aspiration and trephine Contact haematologist for cytogenetic and molecular studies before BM biopsy 2.H1 HAEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES (1) LEUKAEMIA 1.

Blood tests CBP ESR PT/APTT G6PD RFT LFT Ca/P LDH Urate Glucose Coombs’ test Serum IgG/IgA/IgM levels serum IEP HBsAg.H2 3. CMV negative blood product for potential BMT recipient if patient is CMV seronegative. Arrange Hickman line insertion if indicated c. DNA) c. Bilateral iliac crest aspiration and trephine d. EM. Other investigations Endoscopic and Waldeyer’ ring exam for GI lymphoma LP with cytospin for patients with high risk of CNS lymphoma (high grade lymphoma.g. antiHBs. Inform haematologist the following medical emergencies a. Biopsy Excisional biopsy of lymph node or other tissue (send fresh specimen. antiHBc. no formalin) Send fresh specimen for study (immune markers. Subsequent management a. abdomen and pelvis or other sites of involvement plus Gallium scan e. Avoid blood transfusion till WBC is lowered b. nasal/ testicular/ marrow lymphoma) Cardiopulmonary assessment – optional . Investigations at diagnosis a. Radiology Chest X-Ray and X-ray of relevant regions PET/CT scan or CT scan of thorax. Hyperleucocytosis (e. HBV DNA (optional) b. APL (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) for early use of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) 4. Arrange HLA typing for patient’ siblings if BMT is anticipated d. Consult haematologist for long-term treatment plan b. WBC >100x109/L) for chemotherapy ± leucopheresis. Haematoligy (2) LYMPHOMA 1.

Initial management a. Bone marrow aspiration and trephine 2 Staging a.Bence Jones Protein (BJP) and free light chains c. antiHBs b. Investigations at diagnosis a. 1975) Hb(g/dL) Ca++ (corrected) X-ray lesions IgG (g/L) IgA (g/L) I >10 <3 mmol/L Normal/solitary <50 <30 II 8.12 mmol/L) . Start allopurinal 300 mg daily and ensure adequate hydration b. Subsequent management . SVC obstruction due to huge mediastinal lymphoma b. Hypercalcaemia c. Serum free light chain level β2 M CRP HBsAg. Record patient’ performance status (PS) 3. Note the following medical emergencies a. 842. Tumour lysis syndrome d. Spinal cord compression 4. Radiology – skeletal survey and chest X-Ray d.Consult haematologist for long-term treatment plan Haematoligy (3) MULTIPLE MYELOMA 1. H3 2. Urinalysis . Durie & Salmon staging system (Cancer 36. Blood tests CBP ESR RFT LFT Ca/P LDH Urate Glucose Serum Immunoelectropheresis (IEP) and paraprotein level Serum IgG/IgA/IgM level. antiHBc.12 mmol/L) B: impaired renal function (serum creatinine > 0.5-10 <3 mmol/L Intermediate 50-70 30-50 II <8.5 >3 mmol/L Advanced >70 >50 Urine light chain <4g/24h 4-12g/24h >12g/24h A: normal renal function (serum creatinine < 0.

Prevention a. Stop when patient complains of discomfort. Ensure adequate hydration and start allopurinol 300 mg daily Correct hypercalcaemia – pamidronate 15-60 mg iv in 4-6 hrs or Zometa 4 mg iv within 15 minutes c. Extravasation suspected a. Confirm patency of iv site with NS before injection of cytotoxics d. Initial management a. Hickman line 2.5 Median survival ( months ) 62 45 29 3.5 >5. If there is a bleb.apply hydrocortisone or NaHCO3 locally . Extreme care and never give it in a hurry b. Use central line if indicated e. Potential antidotes Anthracycline.Consult Radiotherapy or Orthopaedic Team for patients presenting with skeletal complications (pathologic fracture or spinal cord compression) 4.H4 b. aspirate it with a 25-gauge needle Anthracycline – apply ice pack Vinca alkaloid – apply heat c. Flush with NS on completion of infusion of cytotoxic drugs e. Subsequent management Consult haematologist for long-term treatment plan Haematoligy (4) EXTRAVASATION OF CYTOTOXIC DRUGS 1. Renal dialysis ± plasmapheresis for patients with renal failure d. Leave iv needle in place and suck out any residual drug b. 2005) Stage I II III Serum Albumin (g/l) > 35 Neither stage I or III -Serum β2microglobulin (mg/l) <3. Record patient’s performance status (PS) e. redness f. International Staging System (ISS) (JCO 23:3412.g. Choose appropriate veins c. swelling.

apply hydrocortisone locally Cisplatinum. All dispensed intrathecal drugs must be labeled with a warning message “ For Intrathecal Use Only”. Record the event in clinical notes and inform seniors (5) INTRATHECAL CHEMOTHERAPY 1. Haematoligy . The route of adminstraion “Intrathecal” must be written in full in the prescription . must obtain an informed written consent from the patient. b. c. Administration a. right dose and right route) against the prescription.H5 Vinca alkaloid. right drug. Prescription a. Prior to intrathecal chemotherapy administration. separated in time in setting up and initiating the administration. b. Both staff must sign the medication administration (MAR) record. All dispensed intrathecal chemotherapy must be dispatched separately in a designated container or in a sealed envelope/bag (marked “Intrathecal drug”). Parenteral drug(s) and intrathecal drug must be administered as separate procedures.sodium thiosulphate d. 3. The staff responsible for the drug administration must verify the 5 “Rights” (Right patient. A second trained staff is required to independently verify the patient identification and drug checking process. 4. i. 2. b.e. All intrathecal chemotherapy should be prescribed in a separate prescription form. the medical staff who is responsible for the procedure. Dispensing a. Methotrexate. cytarabine and hydrocortisone are the only THREE drugs that can be prescribed for intrathecal chemotherapy administration. Consent a. c. right time.

in bed > 50% of day Bedridden Haematoligy .H6 (6) PERFORMANCE STATUS ECOG 0 1 2 3 4 Karnofsky(%) 100 80-90 60-70 40-50 20-30 Definition Asymptomatic Symptomatic. fully ambulatory Symptomatic. in bed < 50% of day Symptomatic.

Must identify cause of haemolysis. Investigations a. Consult haematologist Haematoligy .Acute/Chronic 2.evidence of increased Hb break down ↑ indirect bilirubin ↓ haptoglobin ↑ LDH Methaemalbuminaemia* Haemoglobinaemia* ↑urinary and faecal urobilinogen Haemoglobinuria* Haemosiderinuria* (*) evidence of intravascular haemolysis .evidence of compensatory erythroid hyperplasia Reticulocytosis Erythroid hyperplasia of bone marrow .evidence of shortened red cell life span Chromium51 labelled red cell study b. Blood tests CBP Reticulocyte count Peripheral smear Hb pattern RFT LFT Bilirubin(direct/indirect) LDH Haptoglobin Coombs’ test ANF Viral study Screening for malaria Cold agglutinins (arrange with laboratory) Sucrose lysis test / PNH screening test(arrange with laboratory) G6PD assay (may be normal during acute haemolysis) b. Urine test Urobilinogen Haemoglobin Haemosiderin 3. then treat accordingly b. Management a. Document the cause and nature of haemolysis .Intracorpuscular/Extracorpuscular defect -Congenital/Acquired .H7 NON-MALIGNANT HAEMATOLOGICAL EMERGENCIES/CONDITIONS (1) ACUTE HAEMOLYTIC DISORDERS 1. Collect evidence of haemolysis . Approaches a.Intravascular/Extravascular haemolysis .evidence of damage to red cells Spherocytosis ↑RBC fragility Fragmented RBC Heinz bodies .

II. henna) Niridazole Nitrofurantoin Phenazopyridine Phenylhydrazine Primaquine Sulfacetamide Sulfamethoxazole Sulfanilamide Sulfapyridine Thiazosulfone Toluidine blue Trinitrotoluene ) ) ) ) ) Acetaminophen Aminopyrine Ascorbic acid except very high dose Aspirin Chloramphenicol Chloroquine Colchicine Diphenhydramine Isoniazid L-DOPA Menadione Paraaminobenzoic acid Phenacetin Phenytoin Probenecid Procainamide Pyrimethamine Quinidine Quinine Streptomycin Sulfamethoxpyridazine Sulfisoxazole Trimethoprim Tripelennamine Vitamin K Haematoligy 5. Data from Beutler. & III variants Acetanilid Dapsone Furazolidone Methylene blue Nalidixic acid Naphthalene (mothballs. Blood 1994. 84:3613.    .H8 4. E. Safety for class I variants is usually not known. Common agents reported to induce haemolytic anaemia in subjects with G6PD deficiency Safe for class II & III variants* Unsafe for class I.

Initial treatment: Prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day or Haematoligy .if response to treatment is poor c. leukaemia) b. indicated if i. Consult haematologist b.g. Platelet count is rarely < 100x109/L.heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) Type 1 HIT – Non-immune phenomenon occurring < 4 days after heparin use. 2.in patients age over 60 years to rule out myelosdysplasia iii. Type 2 HIT – mmunoglobulin mediated phenomenon occurring >5days of heparin use. Investigations a. Autoimmune profile and APTT d. Associated with a ≥ 50% fall in platelet count (<100x109/L) and new sites of thrombosis Consult haematologist for diagnostic test and management. CBP and blood film (to ensure no red cell fragments. prior to splenectomy iv. Recovers in spite of continued heparin use. the diagnosis of ITP is not certain ii. Management a. H9 (2) IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA (ITP) 1. Bone marrow examination not mandatory. Definition Isolated thrombocytopenia due to peripheral destruction with no clinically apparent causes but of presumed autoimmune aetiology Have to rule out conditions such as -SLE -MDS -TTP -HIV infection -Gestational thrombocytopenia -Alloimmune thrombocytopenia -Lymphoproliferative disorders -10anti-phospholipid syndrome -Drugs e. antiHIV serology in patients at risk 3.

IVIg 0.4 g/kg/day for 5 days (80% effective.H10 c.. Avoid aspirin and other antiplatelet agents and im injection e. renal impairment. For acute life-threatening bleeding . lasts 2-3 weeks) or Methylprednisolone 1 g iv in 1 hour daily for 3 days or Pulse dexamethasone 40 mg iv/po daily for 4 days or Intravenous anti-Rh0 (D) d. thrombocytopenia.use steroid or IVIg …………. neurologic symptoms and signs b. fever. A pentad of symptoms – anaemia. Be cautions with use of steroid in first trimester a. Redefined as a syndrome of Coombs’-negative haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia in the absence of other possible causes of these manifestations c. Management of ITP in Pregnant Women a. At delivery Mode of delivery according to obstetrical indication A maternal platelet count > 50 x 109 /L is sufficient to prevent complications due to vaginal delivdery or cesarean section Avoid epidural or spinal anaesthesia if platelet count < 80 x 109 /L Check infant’s platelet count at delivery Haematoligy (3) THROMBOCYTOPENIC THROMBOTIC PURPURA (TTP) 1. Investigations CBP Peripheral smear RFT LFT LDH Haptoglobin Coombs’ test Coagulation profile (relatively normal) . During pregnancy Platelet counts > 50 x109/L and no bleeding – no treatment Platelet count <50 x109/L . Important to examine blood film for micro-angiopathic features 2. Consult haematologist b. Diagnosis a. Platelet transfusion only for life-threatening bleeding 4.

Protein C (PC). Platelet transfusion is contraindicated (4) PANCYTOPENIA 1. cerebral venous sinus) d. Factor V Leiden 2. Antithrombin (AT). Bone marrow aspiration and trephine Haematoligy (5) THROMBOPHILIA SCREENING 1. Lupus anticoagulant(LA) Anti-cardiolipin Ab ANF b. renal. Arterial thrombosis with age < 40 f. marrow fibrosis. Investigations CBP. Peripheral destruction -SLE -DIC -Hypersplenism -Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) 2. Peripheral smear.5x plasma volume exchange for FFP or cryosupernatant plasma c. Screening Tests a. Indications a. Young patients with idiopathic venous thrombosis b. carcinoma b.H11 3. Warfarin induced skin necrosis e. Approaches to determine the cause of pancytopenia a. Unusual sites of thrombosis (mesenteric. myeloma. Recurrent miscarriage . Recurrent venous thrombosis or superficial thrombophlebitis c. Treatment a. Bone Marrow disorder (defective synthesis) -Aplastic anaemia -Reactive haemophagocytosis -Subleukaemic leukaemia -Megaloblastic anaemia -MDS -Disseminated tuberculosis -Marrow infiltration: lymphoma. Activated Protein C Resistance (APCR). portal veins. Consult haematologist b. Protein S (PS). Daily plasma exchange should be commenced immediately at 1.

0 to 3. Post-delivery a. Consult haematologist for dosage of LMWH and monitoring b. Same dose of LMWH is continued until INR on warfarin is 2. Plasma anti-Xa activity is measured 2 hrs post heparin and is kept between 0.05 and 0. 2. Warfarin is continued for 6-8 weeks Haematoligy . Pre-delivery and delivery a. withhold LMWH 12-24h before the procedure.3 iu/ml c.0 b.If need epidural/spinal anesthesia.H12 (6) PROPHYLAXIS OF VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN PREGNANCY 1.

Dosage (usage endorsed by haematologist) G-CSF: 5mcg/kg/day sc/iv (1 vial contains 300mcg) GM-CSF: 250mcg/m2/day sc/iv (1 vial contains 300 mcg) .Sensitization of leukaemic cells e. Emend ( Aprepitant ) use in combination with corticosteroid or other 5-HT3 antagonist : 125mg po on day 1. Maxolon 10 mg iv Q6H prn 3. cyclical neutropenia b.H13 SPECIAL DRUG FORMULARY AND BLOOD PRODUCTS (1) ANTI-EMETIC THERAPY 1. 80mg po daily on day2-3 Haematoligy (2) HAEMOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTORS Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) 1. Zofran (ondansetron) 8 mg iv Q8H/Q12H or 8 mg po tds b.Mobilization of haemopoietic stem cells for transplantation .Other conditions of severe neutropenia associated with infection e. Indications a.Shortening of neutropenia after chemotherapy given when absolute neutrophil <1x109/L .Differentiation induction .g. FLAG for AML .Drug-induced agranulocytosis . Navoban (tropisetron) 5 mg iv/po once daily 2.Neutropenia associated with Felty’ syndrome 2. Kytril (granisetron) 3-6 mg iv once daily c. Proven clinical applications .g. Applications of less proven value . 5-HT3 antagonists (for patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy) a.Autoimmune neutropenia .

Premedication (I hour before ATG) a. Methylprednisolone 2-3 mg/kg in 100ml normal saline iv in 1 hour 3.Bone marrow cellularity < 20% 2. Test dose: 10mg ATG in 100ml normal saline iv in 1 hour Physician in attendance.g. Immunomodulator e. Indications a.4 g/kg/day for 5 days or 1g/kg/day for 2 days 3. Daily dose: ATG 40mg/kg iv in 4 hours for 4 days .2 g/kg Q3weeks b. Indication – Severe Aplastic Anaemia (SAA) Criteria of SAA . post BMT patients with chronic GvHD and significant past infections b.Hb <10g/dL Retriculocytes <1 x 109/L 9 Neutrophils <0. Replacement – 0. As replacement Primary immunodeficiencies with significant past infections Secondary Ab deficiencies: CLL. Previous history of allergy to IVIg b.4 x 10 /L Platelets <20 x 109/L . As an immunomodulator (haematology) Proven benefit-ITP with life threatening bleeding or pregnancy Probable benefit – autoimmune haemolytic anaemia post infectious thrombocytopenia Possible benefit – coagulopathy with factor VIII inhibitor 2. IgA deficiency Haematoligy (4) ANTITHYMOCYTE GLOBULIN (ATG) 1. Paracetamol 1gm and chlorpheniramine (piriton) 4mg po b. Dosage a.H14 (3) IMMUNOGLOBULIN THERAPY 1. anaphylaxis 1 in 50 4. Contraindications a. multiple myeloma. ITP – 0.

may repeated g/kg 2-4 hours .3 µg/kg in in 50 ml normal saline iv in 20 minutes causes peak in Factor VIII level at 30 minutes.X Daily dose: ATG 40mg/kg iv in 4 hours for 4 days XI XI 45 45 hrs hrs FFP FFP 1 2 3 4 1 1 unit/kg BW infused Factor VIII raises plasma level by 2% 1 unit/kg BW of of infused Factor VIII raises plasma level by 2% 2 1 unit cryoprecipitate contains euco 60-100 U Factor VIII 1 unit of of cryoprecipitate containseuco 60-100 U of of Factor VIII 3 1 unit FFP contains about 140-175 units Factor VIII 1 unit FFP contains about 140-175 units of of Factor VIII 4 DDAVP useful for mild haemophilia A if a a increase in DDAVP is is useful for mild haemophilia A if 3x 3x increase in Factor VIII suffices.3 µg/kg 50 ml normal saline iv in 20 Factor VIII suffices.4 xVIII /L conc cryoprecipitate 10 10 hrs hrs DDAVP DDAVP4 4 .g. anaphylaxis 1 in 50 X FFP 40 40 hrs hrs FFP 4.VWF Paracetamol 1gm and chlorpheniramine (piriton) 4mg po intermediate purity VIII saline b.cryoprecipitate FFP a. As DDAVP stimulates Intranasal DDAVP may be be used.4 g/kg/day for 5 days or -haemophilc days -haemophilc 2 patients with inhibitor activity and active bleeding 1g/kg/day forpatients with inhibitor activity and active bleeding -factor VII deficiency -factor VII deficiency 3.2every Q3weeks Indications: Indications: b. Indication – Severefor therapy in in hereditary coagulation disorders disorders SAA Criteria of 9 -factors half life Retriculocytes half replacement material <1 x 10 /L factors Hb <10g/dLlife replacement material 9 92 2 1 1 10 concPlateletscryoprecipitate FFP3 3 <20 x 10 /L VIII* VIII FFP VIII* Neutrophils <0.may be be repeated every 2-4 hours a. Contraindications -patients with acquired to IVIg -patients with acquired inhibitors and actaive bleeding a. Intranasal DDAVP may used. As an immunomodulator (haematology) Proven benefit-ITP with life threatening bleeding or pregnancy Probable benefit – autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (5) rFVIIa (NOVOSEVEN) thrombocytopenia (5) rFVIIa (NOVOSEVEN) post infectious Dosage: Dosage: benefit – coagulopathy with factor VIII inhibitor Possible . Test 10mg in 100ml VII 5 FFP VII 5 hrshrs FFP Physician in attendance. EACA 4g4g Q4H or tranexamic acid 500 mg Q8H is .Bone marrow cellularity < 20% IX* FFP conc5 5 25 25 hrs hrs 2. Immunomodulator e. ITP – 0. Replacement – 0. 0. Previous history of allergyinhibitors and actaive bleeding -massive catastrophic bleeding urgent haemostasis -massive catastrophic bleeding forfor urgent haemostasis b. As DDAVP stimulates fibrinolysis.90-120ug/kg/dose 2. Methylprednisolone 2-3intermediate purity normal conc iv in 1 mg/kg in 100ml VIII conc fibrinogen hrs cryoprecipitate FFP FFP fibrinogen 90 90 hrs cryoprecipitate hour FFP normal saline iv in 1 hour V V dose: 15 15 hrs hrs ATG FFP 3. EACA Q4H or tranexamic acid 500 mg Q8H is fibrinolysis. post BMT H15 patients with chronic GvHD and significant past infections b. minutes causes a a peak in Factor VIII level at 30 minutes. multiple myeloma. 0. Dosage .IX* Premedication (I hour FFP IX IX conc before ATG) VWF cryoprecipitate FFP DDAVP DDAVP .Primary immunodeficiencies with significant past infections H15   Secondary Ab deficiencies: CLL.90-120ug/kg/dose . IgA deficiency Haematoligy (6) REPLACEMENT FOR HEREDITARY (6) REPLACEMENT FOR HEREDITARY (4) ANTITHYMOCYTE GLOBULIN (ATG) COAGULATION DISORDERS COAGULATION DISORDERS General information for therapy hereditary General information Aplastic Anaemia (SAA) coagulation 1.

major extraction (10 40% 2T Q12H for 5 days or impacted wisdom teeth) Major surgery 100% 3T Q8H for ≥ 7 days 1 T = 2 AHG = 3 FFP = 6 cryoprecipitate Haematoligy .5T QD for 5 days .single extraction 15% 3T QD for 5 days .2-9 extraction 30% 4T stat. use FFP only when specific factor concentrate is not available 2. then .deciduous teeth 15% 1.H16 5 1 unit/kg BW of infused Factor IX raises plasma level by 1% * for Factor VIII and Factor IX deficiencies.5T QD for 2 days . Recommended dosage of human AHG for Haemophilia A Type of Post infusion Replacement for 50 kg procedure/injury level required man Uncomplicated 10% 1 T stat dose spontaneous haemarthrosis or haematoma Haemarthrosis or 20% 2 T once daily for haematoma after 2 days injury Haematoma in 40% 4T stat. then dangerous sites 2T Q12H for 3 doses Dental extraction 1.

mild .5 2 2 2 3 1.5 2 2. Recommended dosage of cryoprecipitate in vWD Type of Bleeding Desired Level Initial Dose (unit/10 kg) Mild Severe vWD vWD Maintenance Dose Spontaneous Haemorrhages Epistaxis. H17 3.5 0.5 1. Recommended dosage of factor IX for Christmas disease Type of bleeding or intervention Haemarthrosis . skin injury Menorrhagia GI bleeding Head Injury Intracranial haemorrhage 20 30 50 60 60 40 50 60 60 60 80 50 0.5 1.5 3 1 2 3 3 3 4 2 as needed as needed as needed 7 days 7 days 1/2 dose x 7d 1/2 dose x 7d 1/2 dose x 8d 1/2 dose x 8d 1/2 dose x 8d 1/2 dose x 8d 1/2 dose x 8d Haematoligy Surgical Procedures Dental surgery Appendicectomy Tonsillectomy Hysterectomy Cholecystectomy Coronary Bypass Delivery 4.5 1 1.5 1 1 1.major Muscle bleeding Epistaxis Dental extraction GI bleeding Post infusion level required 20 40 40 20 20 40 Initial dose Maintenance (u/kg) dose (u/kg) 20 40 40 20 20 40 20 if needed 20 Q12H for 7 days 20 Q12H for 7 days 10 Q12H if needed EACA for 10 days 20 Q12H for 7 days Life-threatening condition 60 30 Q12H for 10-14 days .

maintain urine output >100ml/hr Send all used blood packs. Acute haemolytic transfusion reactions (AHTR) . Management for all acute transfusion reactions: Haematoligy a.S/S of AHTR appear within the first 5-15 minutes of transfusion and include dyspnoea. chills.caused by ABO incompatibility . Inform senior 2. restlessness. 10ml of Patient’ clotted blood and 5ml EDTA blood to blood bank Check patient’ CBP. STOP transfusion b. RFT and coagulation profile Do blood culture.most often caused by reaction of recipient’ antibodies to donor white cells .S/S appear from 30 minutes during to 2 hours after transfusion and include fever.Further management: Change iv drip set. For errors involving blood transfusion or non-compliance with blood transfusion procedures. chills. Febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) . Monitor patient’ vital signs closely c. hypotension. Check labels on blood bag and patient’ identity d. fever.H18 TRANSFUSION Please refer to HAHO Transfusion Guidelines at HA web page ACUTE TRANSFUSION REACTIONS An “Adverse Transfusion Reaction Report Form” should be completed for all major and minor reactions. rigor. administration sets. Determine the type of reaction 1. back pain. haemoglobinuria and generalized bleeding . tachycardia. shaking . give NS. Maintain iv normal saline infusion e. chest pain. oliguria. a “Blood Transfusion Incident Report Form” should be completed.

S/S appear immediately after transfusion and include high fever. salbutamol by eucopeni Inform senior 5.caused by interaction between recipient’s preexisting antibody and protein or allergen in donor’s blood .caused by bacteria contamination of blood component .5-1 mg im.H19 . chills.Further management: Do blood culture and send specimens to blood bank and laboratory as for acute haemolytic transfusion reactions Start broad spectrum antibiotics Haematoligy .Further management: Give antipyretic If no other s/s occur. or severe persistent urticaria is associated with bronchospasm 4.caused by recipient’s reaction to donor plasma proteins.g. bronchospasm. tachycardia.S/S such as urticaria occur during or 1 hour post transfusion .Further management: Give antihistamine e. Anaphylactic reactions .Further management: Give chlorpheniramine 10-20 mg iv. Allergic reactions . Acute bacteraemia . adrenaline 0. hypotension. hypotension and vomiting which are difficult to differentiate from AHTR .S/S occur early during transfusion and include tightness in the chest. Fever is absent . . may restart transfusion at a slower rate Consider leucocyte-poor products for patients with recurrent severe febrile non-haemolytic reactions 3. chlorpheniramine 10 – 20 mg iv Resume transfusion if no progression of s/s after 30 min Transfusion may need to be discontinued if antihistamine does not alleviate the symptoms.

H20 6. especially < 8 g/dL . cyanosis. cough. Red cells/whole blood transfusion a. crepitation in chest.acute blood loss.S/S can occur during or up to 24 hours after transfusion and include dyspnoea. rales and crackles. Dosage 1 unit of red cells/blood raises Hb level by 1g/dL in an adult . > 30% blood volume loss . diuretics.S/S occurs within 2 hours of transfusion up to 4 hours post transfusion and include dyspnoea. other cardiac support Haematoligy 7. Volume overload . edema .patients on intensive chemotherapy to maintain Hb>9 g/dL b.thalassaemia major patients to keep pre-transfusion Hb at 10 g/dL and post transfusion at 15 g/dL .especially high risk in elderly patients with poor cardiopulmonary reserve and chronic renal failure .caused by reaction between donor’s white cell antibodies and patient’s white cells causing leucoagglutination in the pulmonary microcirculation and pulmonary damage . Indications .Further management: Oxygen. . fever.surgery with anticipated significant blood loss and pre-op Hb<10 g/dL .Further management: Exclude other acute transfusion reactions Respiratory support ± ICU care Inform senior (2) TRANSFUSION THERAPY 1.low Hb. hypotension. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) .

Dosage 1 unit of platelet concentrate per 10 kg body weight brings about a platelet increment of 10 x 109/L. Choice i.platelet count < 100 x 109/L before brain and eye surgery .immediate reversal of warfarin effect Haematoligy . post-transfusion purpura) . Platelet transfusion a. cause and rate of development of anaemia. but may be lower in platelet refractoriness. Leukocyte – depleted red cells iii. Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) a. Use of white cell filter to minimize FNHTR as an alternative for leucocyte-depleted red cells 2. No evidence to support the use of an absolute Hb value as a uniform ‘transfusion trigger” for transfusion. Tissue oxygen is also determined by patient’s cardiopulmonary reserve.replacement of single coagulation factor deficiencies where a specific coagulation factor concentrate is not available . Irradiated blood: for cases of aplastic anaemia and post BMT patients v. TTP. 3.platelet count < 10 x 109/L and is due to decreased production (not for ITP without bleeding. Indications . CMV negative blood: for seronegative recipient of bone marrow or solid organ transplant if donor is also seronegative iv. Packed red cells ii.platelet count <50x109/L before surgery or invasive procedure . Indications .severe platelet dysfunction with template bleeding time >15min with active bleeding or before surgery or invasive procedure b. and bone marrow status d.H21 c.

with PT/APTT > 1.u.supportive therapy in acute DIC with bleeding . Dosage .allogeneic and autologous BMT/stem cell recipients after conditioning .3 litres replacement per day for an adult TTP patient on plasmapheresis 4. Accepted indications .documented factor XIII deficiency . and DDAVP and estrogen are not appropriate b.uraemic patients with bleeding and prolonged bleeding time. severe liver disease) with bleeding or before invasive procedures.e.for factor VIII replacement – refer to page 14 .g. of factor VIII and 150-250 mg of fibrinogen) Haematoligy (3) SPECIAL TRANSFUSION REQUIREMENTS 1.12-15 ml/kg body weight for adults as factor replacement i.severe congenital cellular mediated immunodeficiencies .for fibrinogen replacement – 2.thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura (TTP) .clinical coagulopathy (e.C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency with severe angio-oedema b. Irradiated cellular blood components (RBC/platelet) a.5 x mid normal range . Dosage for an adult . after massive transfusion.H22 . Cryoprecipitate a.factor VIII deficiency or von Willebrand disease when DDAVP or factor concentrate is inappropriate or not available .documented hypofibrinogenaemia (< 100 mg/dL) . Indications . 2 – 4 units of FFP for an adult of average body weight .5 units/10 kg body weight (1 unit of cryoprecipitate contains 60-100 i.

Hodgkin’s disease . Means to deplete leucocytes . Leucocyte-poor cellular blood products (RBC/platelet) a. Bone marrow or organ transplant recipients (if marrow or organ donor is also CMV negative) b. especially in patients requiring regular repeated transfusions e. MDS .transfusion from first degree relatives . CMV seronegative cellular blood components (RBC/platelet) Indications for CMV negative patients: a. Indications for use of blood warmers a. Potential candidates for transplant 3.patients requiring transfusion prior to or during autologous marrow harvest . Optional . deoxycoformycin) 2. Indications .leucocyte reduced by centrifugation (LRBC) . Rapid infusion through central venous catheters Haematoligy .leucocyte reduced by filtration/bedside filters (LRBF) 4.g.lymphoma patients receiving purine analogues (fludarabine. Cold haemagglutinin disease b. cladarabine. thalassaemia major.transfusion of HLA-selected platelets b. Large volumes of blood infused at > 50 ml/kg/hr in adults c.to decrease risk of transfusion related CMV transmission .H23 .>=2 episodes of febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions.to prevent platelet alloimmunization in certain patients b.

Nephrology Nephrology .

history of IV drug abuse. ventilator status q1h.5 – 10 g/kg/min if BP persistently lowish despite adequate fluid replacement : add adrenaline 0. c. d. monitor hypertension (MBP > 120mmHg). CVP. put on mechanical ventilation. both pupils fixed to light Exclusion criteria: age > 75. monitor BP. start labetolol 5mg IV over 1 min and repeat at 5 min intervals if necessary e. Maintenance of organ perfusion of potential donor: Aim: Maintain SBP 100. RLFT. monitor hypotentsion (SBP  100mmHg) : start fluid replacement by infusing crystalloid or colloid : add dopamine 2. definite diagnosis. irreversible CNS damage. GCS  4 / 15. set two good IV lines. H’stix q2-4h c.1 – 10g/kg/min if BP persistently lowish : start hydrocortisone 100mg stat & 50mg q8h Nephrology . P. HIV +ve cases or has risk factors for HIV infection. urine output.K1 RENAL TRANSPLANT– DONOR RECRUITMENT Protocol for preparation and Mx of potential organ donor: Identification of potential organ donor: a. brain death is imminent. SaO2. Ca/PO4 q6-8h. body temperature q2h b. uncontrolled fulminant infection. b. monitor electrolytes. eucopenia one central line d.140mmHg Maintain Mean BP > 80mmHg Maintain CVP of 8-12cm H2O Maintain hourly urine output ~100ml Maintain SaO2 > 90% Maintain body temperature> 36oC a.

inform transplant coordinator via hospital operator at any time b. Routine arrangement: a. start lasix 20 – 250mg IVI h. start fluid replacement : oliguria with high CVP. interview family for grave prognosis.do not discuss organ donation with family until patient is confirmed brain death c. arrange qualifed personnel to perform brain stem death test Nephrology .K2 f. monitor maasive urine output ( > 200ml /hour ) : control hyperglycaemia ( H’stix > 12mmol/L persistently) by actrapid HM hourly infusion at 2 – 6 units : control diabetes insipidus (serum Na  150mmol/L) by dDAVP2 – 6g IV q6-8h : control hypothermia (body temperature  35oC) by applying patient warming system g. monitor oliguria (houly urine < 30ml) : check foley patency : oliguria with low or normal CVP. add prophylactic antibiotics after blood culture if fever > 38oC. once the patient meet brain death criteria.

simultaneous blood and urine x TTKG (trans-tubular potassium gradient) . . Nephrology .serum RFT. may combine with oral KCl 30-40 mmoles (3-4 gm syr KCl) Q4H. may combine with oral KCl 30-40 mmoles (3-4 gm syr KCl) Q4H. If serum K < 2.5 mM. maximum total treatment dose: 100 – 200 mmoles per day (~ 3 mmoles/kg/day). .K3 ELECTROLYTE DISORDERS Hypokalaemia Hints .check drug history. KCl 30-40 mmol/hour in saline infusion (concentration up to 80 mmol/L). Hypokalaemia associated with metabolic acidosis Give potassium citrate solution (1 mmole/mL) 15-30 mL QID in juice after meals. most likely attributed to diuretic therapy.usually associated with metabolic alkalosis. magnesium.don’t give potassium replacement therapy in eucopen solution. . Ix: .start intravenous therapy if serum K < 2. .consider magnesium depletion for hypoK resistant to treatment. total CO2 content. those patients on digoxin therapy ) Mx: If serum K > 2.5 mM &/or ECG changes present: Consult ICU / cardiac monitor. start K replacement before bicarbonate therapy in separate IV line if indicated.check baseline ECG (esp. maximum total treatment dose: 100 – 200 mmoles per day (~ 3 mmoles/kg/day).5 mM & ECG changes are absent: KCl 20-30 mmol/hour in saline infusion (up to 60-80 mmol/L) as continuous IV infusion. chloride. .

Pre-mixed K-containing solution for maintenance IV infusion for HA Hospitals 0. Dextrose-insulin infusion: give 250 mL D10 or 50 mL D50 with 8-10 units Actrapid HM over 30 minutes. give over 30 minutes slowly or omit calcium gluconate infusion ( onset:1-3 min. 16 mmoles phosphate / tablet ). ACEI.g. repeat RFT CO2 chloride. K-sparing diuretic. duration: 30-60 min ). ECG For urgent cases ( serum K > 6 mM &/or ECG changes of hyperK ) 1. Phosphate-sandoz ( 3 mmoles K. Potassium citrate ( 1 mL = 1 mmole K ). NSAID. duration: 4-6 hrs ). 10% Calcium gluconate 10-30 mL IV over 2-5 minutes with cardiac monitoring. esp. Ix: Rx: . haemolysis. repeat if no effect in 5 minutes. Slow K ( 8 mmoles K / 600 mg tablet ). discontinue K supplement.5 mmoles K ). if digoxin toxicity is suspected. 2.K4 Dosage form: Syrup KCl ( 1 gm = 12.9% NS with 10 mmoles K / 500 mL ( K conc: 20 mM) 0. in those with relatively normal renal function. repeat every 4-6 hrs if necessary ( onset: 30 minutes.9% NS with 20 mmoles K / 500 mL ( K conc: 40 mM) 5% D5 with 10 mmoles K / 500 mL ( K conc: 20 mM) 5% D5 with 20 mmoles K / 500 mL ( K conc: 40 mM) Lactated Ringer’s with 2 mmoles K /500 mL (K conc: 4 mM) Nephrology Hyperkalaemia Hints: exclude pseudohyerK e.

one gm resonium will bind 1 mmole of K. Diuretics: furosemide 40-80 mg IV bolus. Ix: check ionized calcium. ECG Rx: 1. RFT. commonly associated with dehydration. 7.1-0. Hyercalcaemia Hints: calculated corrected serum calcium level based on serum albumin concentration [± 0. Low K diet ( < 2 gm/ day ).4% 100-150 mL over 30-60 min. duration: 2 hrs). duration: 2-3 hrs ). Correct acidosis with sodium bicarbonate 300-900 mg tds (~10-30 mmoles/day).2 mg daily (for Type IV RTA). give after calcium infusion in separate IV line. start furosemide after rehydration 2040 mg IV Q 2-12 H. 4. Off calcium / vitamin D supplement if any. repeat another dose after a minimum of 7 days if necessary. Pamidronate 30-90 mg in 250-500 mL NS infused over 4-6 hrs. Volume repletion with NS at 150-600 mL/hr infusion ( guided by CVP / urine output ). Sodium bicarbonate 8. watch out for fluid overload ( onset: 5-10 minutes. maximum effect is not seen for several days. 2. aim at a urine output of ~ 200 mL/Hr. For chronic cases: 1. Resonium C / A: 25-50 gm orally Q 4-6 hrs or as retention enema. duration: 4-6 hrs). Diuretics: furosemide / thiazide 3. Albuterol 10-20 mg in 3 mL NS by nebulizer ( onset: 15-30 minutes. 6. PO4. ( onset: 1-2 hrs. may be given in 100-200 mL 10% mannitol as laxative. 4. 3. Fludrocortisone 0. close monitoring of Na K Ca Mg level.K5 3. Nephrology .02 mM for every ± 1 gm/L (from 40 gm/L) change in serum albumin]). Emergency haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. 2. 5.

ECG. vitamin D intoxication. Ca begins to decrease in 12 hrs. Ca supplement: Caltrate=600 mg elemental Ca / tablet Oscal=250 mg elemental Ca / tablet Titralac=168 mg elemental Ca / tablet Ca gluconate=27mg elemental Ca / tablet 2. Ca level begins to fall within 2-3 hrs. avoid if severe hypercalcaemia or hyperphosphataemia. peak action at 48 hrs. 6. Ix: check ionized Ca level. PO4. Salmon calcitonin 4 IU/kg IMI / SC Q 12 H. Hydrocortisone 5 mg/kg IV Q 8 H then prednisolone 40-100 mg QD ( onset: 3-5 days. Sandoz-phosphate 2-8 tablets per day. Hypocalcaemia Hints: usually due to chronic renal failure. Mg.K6 4. Chronic cases: ( add Vit D if no response after 2-4 gm elemental Calcium ) 1. some CA breast). monitor Ca level. Haemodialysis with zero or low Ca dialysate. Vit D: Calcitriol/1-hydroxycholecalciferol:0. 8.25-2ug daily Nephrology . 7. useful in haematological malignancy. tachyphylaxis occurred within 2-3 days. repeat dose at 3-7 days interval if necessary (usually reserve for malignancy-related hypercalcaemia ). 5. ALP. Rx: Symptomatic hypocalcaemia: 10% Calcium gluconate 20 mL IV over 10-15 minutes then 30 mL 10% Ca gluconate in 500 mL NS/D5 Q 4-6 H /pint. RFT. Mitramycin: 25 g/kg IV in 50 mL D5 over 3-6 hrs infusion.

Mg supplement : Mylanta / Gelusil : 3. FE > 2. ECG. Rx: Take off Mg supplement if any. K. Less urgent cases: 4 mL 50% MgSO4 ( 8 mmoles ) solution 500 mL NS/D5 Q 8 H/pint for 1 day ( up to 50% of the infused Mg will be excreted in urine. arrhythmia. Ca. Nephrology . mild cases ( < 1.5% indicates renal loss of Mg). 10% Calcium gluconate 10 – 20 mL in 100 mL NS over 15 minutes.K7 Hypomagnesaemia Hints: may be associated with hypoK. hypoCa. haemodialysis if necessary. Ix: check RFT. Rx: Emergency: 4 mL 50% MgSO4 ( 8 mmoles ) solution IV in 20 mL NS/D5 infused over 15 minutes then 10 mL 50% MgSO4 ( 20 mmoles ) in 500 mL NS/D5 over 6 hrs. Saline diuresis: NS 300 – 600 mL / hr infusion.5 mM ) usually require no treatment. furosemide 20 – 40 mg Q2-4 Hr ( aim at urine output ~ 200 mL/hr ). 1.7 x PMg x UCr) ( if HypoMg. Amiloride: 5 – 10 mg daily PO ( decrease urinary loss of Mg ) Hypermagnesaemia Hints: uncommon in the absence of Mg administration or renal failure.5 mmoles/tablet 2. Fractional excretion (FE) of Mg = 100 x (UMg x PCr) / (0. slow and sustained correction of hypoMg is preferred) Chronic cases: Normal average daily intake of Mg ~ 15 mmoles ( ~ 1/3 is absorbed ).

Start phosphate-binder: If serum phosphate < 2 mM: Caltrate tab 1-2 tds with meal Titralac tab 1-2 tds with meal Ca acetate tab 1-2 tds with meal If serum phosphate > 2 mM: Alusorb tab 1-3 tds with meal Alutab tab 1-3 tds with meal 3. usually resolved in 6-12 hrs if RFT normal. Low phosphate diet ( < 1 gm / 30 mmoles per day ).4 mM for uraemic patients. aim at a serum phosphate level of ~ 1.067 mmoles)/kg per 6 hrs.5 mmoles PO4 + 25 mmoles K per 10 mL solution) Chronic therapy: Sandoz-phosphate tab 1 QID PO ( 16 mmoles PO4. fractional excretion (FE) of phosphate FE = 100 x (Up x PCr) / (UCr x Pp) (In the presence of hypoPO4.5 mM with symptoms: 6 mL potassium di-phosphate solution in 500 mL D5 Q 12 H infusion (Potassium di-phosphate solution : 14. FE >5% indicates urinary loss) Rx: IF serum PO4 < 0. otherwise may be associated with metastatic calcification. Replacement rate < 2 mg (0.5 mM. Arrange dialysis if necessary. 3 mmoles K / per tablet ) Nephrology . Hypophosphataemia Hints: usually required no treatment if serum PO4 > 0. 20 mmoles Na. 2. Ix: check RFT serum Ca / PO4 ALP. Ix: RFT Ca PO4 CO2 ALP Rx: 1.K8 Hyperphosphataemia Hints: usually attributed to chronic renal failure.

hypothyroid. RFT. 3. adrenal insufficiency. then replace Na deficit with NS. high salt diet (> 8 gm/day) ± sodium supplement: Syr NaCl 2 gm tds (100 mmoles). Isovolaemia: (urine Na > 20 mM: SIADH. repeat if necessary until serum Na > 120 mM or patient is asymptomatic ( rapid collection > 0. Addison’s disease. Nephrology 2. salt wasting) NS 500 mL/hr till BP normal. urine Na > 20 mM: acute / CRF ) Rx: restrict water intake < 1000 mL per day. spot urine x Na. . Furosemide 40-80 mg IV / 20 – 500 mg PO daily. hypotension. Hypovolaemia: (urine Na < 10 mM: fluid loss. urine Na > 20 mM: diuretics.85% NaCl (1 mmole/mL) over 4-6 hrs + furosemide 40 mg IV. Sodium deficit = BW (kg) x 0. replace first 50% of deficit over 4-6 hrs and the other 50% over next 18-20 hrs till serum Na level reaches 120 mM or increase by 12-20 mM over 24 hrs. demeclocycline 600-1200 mg daily.K9 Hyponatraemia Ix: 1. urine Na < 10 mM: water intoxication ) Rx: restrict water intake < 1000 mL per day.5 mM / Hr elevation in serum Na may lead to central pontine myelinosis ). Hypervolaemia: ( urine Na < 10 mM: CHF. serum / urine osmolarity.6 x (desired [Na] – measured [Na]). cirrhosis. For symptomatic hypoNa: 100 mL 5. dehydration.

renal / GI loss )  If volume is depleted. then replace water: Serum Na < 160 mM: give water PO Serum Na > 160 mM: replace fluid with D5 or half half saline.g.  for acute DI: give DDAVP 4-8 g Q 3-4 H prn. Rx: Hypervolaemia: ( primary hyperaldosteronism. give NS 500 mL/hr infusion till not orthostatic.K10 Hypernatraemia Ix: serum / urine x osmolality. rapid correction may lead to cerebral edema ). large insensible water loss. replace half of the body water deficit over first 24 hrs. add furosemide 40-80 mg IV or PO Q12-24 H Isovolaemia or Hypovolaemia: ( diabetes insipidus. then remaining deficit over next 1-2 days ( correct Na at a rate < 0. indapamide 2. Cushing’s syndrome.  body water deficit (L) = {0. e.  for chronic central DI: DDAVP 10-40g daily intranasally ( in one to two divided dose)  for chronic nephrogenic DI: thiazide diuretic.5 – 1 mM/hr. acute salt overload ) start D5 infusion to correct water deficit.5 mg daily Nephrology .6 x BW(kg) x (measured [Na] – 140)} / 140.

normal 10 ± 4 ) High AG metabolic acidosis: .9 kPa per 10 mM in HCO3 Respiratory Acidosis pCO2 acute: 0.5 mM HCO3 per 1 kPapCO2 chronic: 3 mM HCO3 per 1 kPapCO2 Suspect mixed metabolic / respiratory acid-base disorder if compensation is not appropriate ( common in clinical practice!).5 (correction to HCO3 > 15 mM is usually sufficient) 5.IV NaHCO3 required = (15 – measured HCO3) x BW (kg) x 0.6 kPa per 10 mM in HCO3 Alkalosis HCO3 pCO2: 0. Normal AG metabolic acidosis: . 4. .77 mM HCO3 per 1 kPapCO2 chronic: 2. 1o response Adaptive response Metabolic Acidosis HCO3 pCO2: 1. Calculate serum anion gap ( Na − Cl − HCO3. consider HCO3 therapy if serum HCO3 < 10. 3. 2. Hx and PE for causes of acid-base disturbance.treat underlying disorder.7 mMHCO3 per 1 kPapCO2 Alkalosis pCO2 acute: 1.K11 SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF ACID-BASE DISORDERS 1. For patients with acidosis: compare ∆AG with ∆serum HCO3 (abnormal if discrepancy > 5): ∆AG > ∆ serum HCO3: mixed metabolic acidosis / alkalosis ∆AG < ∆ serum HCO3: mixed normal AG /AG metabolic acidosis Nephrology . watch out for fluid / salt overload ). Identify the primary acid-base disturbance.use IV NaHCO3 ( 1 mL = 1 mmoles of HCO3) if serum HCO3 < 10 ( to be given in large vein over 1-2 hrs. Assess adaptive response to primary acid-base disorder.

distal RTA *false positive conditions: . e.mineralocorticol excess. 1. A = aspirin.g. excessive bicarbonaturia. during diuretic therapy. plama [HCO3] is. Measure urine electrolytes / pH: a) for patients with metabolic alkalosis urine Cl < 15 mM – Cl responsive metabolic alkalosis. E = eucopenia d e. Correction of metabolic acidosis with HCO3 .present of an unusual anion in urine.NaHCO3 required (mmoles) = (desired – measured HCO3 ) x BW(kg) x 0. A = ammonium chloride R = renal tubular acidosis Therapeutic Options in patient with metabolic acidosis: Hints: In order to avoid being misled by acute hyperventilation or hypoventilation.5 .6 mmoles ) per tablet . E = ethylene glycol P = paraldehyde.5 Nephrology Causes for high anion gap metabolic acidosis (MULEPAK) M = methanol . D = diarrhoea.L = lactic acidosis. a better guide to the need of NaHCO3 therapy than systemic pH.g.K12 6. urine pH > 6. in general.: Addison. e.oral NaHCO3 : 300 mg ( 3. b) for suspected renal tubular acidosis urine anion gap : Na + K – Cl ( normal: negative ) urine osmolar gap: [urine osmolarity – 2(Na + K) – urea] / 2 (normal: >30) abnormal value indicates low ammonium excretion.g.vomiting urine Cl > 15 mM – Cl resistant metabolic alkalosis. C = carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. U = uraemia.g.g. e. e. S = saline infusion.K = ketosis Causes for normal anion gap metabolic acidosis (USEDCAR) U = ureteroenterostomy. ketone.

Chloride-responsive metabolic alkalosis ( urine chloride < 15 mM ): . Watch our for hypercapnia which may cause paradoxical increase in acidaemia after NaHCO3 therapy . . Dialysis: . one should consider ventilating the patient to lower their PCO2 appropriately to treat their acidaemia. 3. hypovolaemia. to maintain an elevated [HCO3] level.acetazolamide 250 mg QID PO / IV ( may promote K loss ). . Acidaemia responses much faster to a lowering of PCO2 than to IV NaHCO3 therapy.block mineralocorticoid effect with spironolactone 100 – 400 mg daily PO.overcorrection my increase CO2 production which can aggravate respiratory acidosis in a poorly ventilated patient. .give NS ± KCl to correct ECF volume. Nephrology Therapeutic options in patients with metabolic alkalosis: Hints: metabolic alkalosis is a disorder caused by mechanisms whereby [HCO3] is elevated. Chloride-resistant metabolic alkalosis ( urine chloride > 15 mM ): .can worsen or precipitate hypokalaemia. and a renal basis. . Both processes must be corrected if possible for an optimal response to therapy.use HCO3 bath for haemodialysis. . e.give over 1 – 2 hours as 8. Hyperventilation: If the patient with severe metabolic / respiratory acidosis in pulmonary oedema.K13 2.give H2 antagonist if alkalosis due to NG suction.g.4% NaHCO3 IVI ( 1 mL = 1 mmole HCO3 ) .especially in those patients with volume overload.

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etc. fluid challenge: NS 500-1000 mL over 1-2 hrs for hypovolaemia.K15 RENAL FAILURE Hints: Exclude pre-renal failure: orthostatic hypotension. CO2. 8. urate. DsDNA. ECG. NSAID.5 g/kg/min to improve renal blood flow. Inform on-call renal physician for acute HD support if indicated. Urgent USG kidneys. e. C3/4. daily BW ( < 1 kg increase in BW per day ). Low salt diet (< 100 mmoles per day). aminoglycoside.g. low K (<20 mmoles/day). add furosemide 10 mg/hr IV infusion for fluid overload. Cl. uncontrolled pulmonary edema. Avoid nephrotoxic drugs if possible. Emergency indications for dialysis: uncontrolled hyperK (>6 mM). cirrhosis Exclude post-renal failure: PR exam. etc . Strict I/O chart. feel for bladder. urine x dysmorphic RBC. Autoimmune markers : ANF. HbsAg/Ab. anti-HCV (urgent HbsAg if HD is anticipated ). CXR. Correct electrolyte disturbances: hyperK. Arterial blood gases. MSU x RM C/ST. bedside USG Ix: CBP. Fluid intake = 500 mL + urine output. dopamine 2. Treatment of suspected acute renal failure: 1. 3. uncontrolled metabolic acidosis (HCO3 <10 mM). intractable uraemic symptoms. metolazone 5-10 mg daily PO. low phosphorus diet (<800 mg day). Nephrology . 6. 24 hr urine x Na K P Cr Cr Clearance. 7.. KUB. CHF. 2. Less urgent indications for dialysis: uraemic pericarditis. RLFT. anti-GBM. ANCA. metabolic acidosis. low protein diet (40 gm HBV). 4. uraemic encephalopathy. 5.

Strict I/O chart.5 gm/dL ): transfusion ( preferably during dialysis using pack cell). Monitor AV fistula daily / exit site dressing daily for CAPD patients. Na: < 100 mmoles per day for CRF / HD patients ( except salt-loser ) No restriction for euvolaemic CAPD patients. 2. K: < 1 mmole/kg/day. 6.6-0. 7. Diet ( ± consult dietitian ): Calorie 30-35 kcal/kg/day ( 500-700 kcal from PD already for CAPD patients ). Protein: 0.8 gm/kg/day for CRF patients 1.K16 Treatment of chronic renal failure: 1. consider EPO therapy for refractory anaemia. give lasix 20-80 mg IV before transfusion.2 gm/kg/day for HD patients.2-1. sustanon 250 mg IMI Q 2-4 week. 5. Correct metabolic acidosis. daily BW ( < 1 kg increase in BW per day ). Control hypertension (<140/90): long-acting calcium channel blocker. hyperK. Symptomatic anaemia ( Hb < 6. No blood taking / BP measurement from AV fistula arm. beta-blocker. Consult renal team for assessment of feasibility of long-term renal replacement therapy. 4. 8. K ). ACEI ( monitor RFT.5 gm/kg/day for CAPD patients 1-1.25-2 g /day ( for renal osteodystrophy ). <800 mg/day. Nephrology . 3. PO4: Vitamin: Ascorbic acid 100 mg/day (optional) Folic acid 5 mg/day (optional) Rocaltrol / alfacalcidol: 0. hypocalcaemia.

avoid macrolide antibiotics / fluconazole ( may increase CsA / Tacrolimus level ). viral culture & serology.acute increase in serum creatinine > 20% after excluding other causes. . CXR.renal biopsy.K17 EMERGENCIES IN RENAL TRANSPLANT PATIENTS Fever: both infection and acute graft rejection can present as fever. MSU RM C/ST. 24 hr urine x P & Cr. Acute graft rejection: .consider renal biopsy. tacrolimus toxicity obstructive uropathy urinary leakage acute tubular necrosis acute vascular ( arterial or venous ) thrombosis.arrange urgent USG kidney + eucope study . hourly urine output . Infection: . . a.check CBP D/C. RLFT. RLFT. ankle edema.treatment according to the cause . . . CsA / Tacrolimus trough level. RLFT. Nephrology Oligouria / Anuria: acute graft rejection acute CsA.monitor I/O chart.may present as oliguria. PE. urine.urgent USG graft kidney + eucope study . CsA / tacrolimus trough level.arrange standby MEG-3 / DTPA scan . 24 hr urine x P & Cr .usual pattern of infection if > 6 months post-transplant. 24 hr urine x P Cr . graft tenderness. CsA / tacrolimus trough level.check CBP. blood. CMV pp-65 Ag. .consider opportunistic infection if < 6 months post-transplant.search for infection : hx. culture from wound. . IV lines. hypertension. b. MSU . . sputum.check CBP.DDx: . fever.

increase interval between 2 dose (in hrs)) Name Adriamycin Allopurinol Amiloride Aspirin Atenolol Azathioprine Captopril Carbamazepine Chlorpropamide Cimetidine Colchicine Cyclophosphamide Digoxin Disopyramide Gemfibrozil Hydralazine Insulin Methyldopa Nadolol Neostigmine Penicillamine Probenecid Procainamide Spironolactone Sulindac D/I D D I I I D I D D D I D D D I D I D I D I D I D D I D I D Adjustment for Renal Failure GFR (ml/min) <10 or ESRF >50 10-50 100 100 75 100 75 50 8 8-12 12-24 24 36 48 avoid 4 4-6 100 50 25 24 48 96 100 100 75 100 100 50 100 100 75 avoid avoid 24 100 70 50 100 100 50 100 100 50-75 24 24 36 100 25-75 10-25 none 12-24 24-40 100 50 25 8 8 8-16 100 75 50 6 9-18 12-24 100 50 25 6 6 12-18 avoid avoid 100 avoid avoid 100 4 6-12 8-24 avoid 100 50 avoid 6-12 12-24 100 100 50 Supplement for Dialysis HD ? ? ? + + + + + + ? ? + + ? ? ? + ? ? PD ? ? ? + ? ? + ? ? ? ? ? Nephrology .K18 DRUG DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT IN RENAL FAILURE (D: reduce dose (in %). same interval as in normal. I: same dose as normal.

rifampicin.82 x Cr (µM)] ** value x 0. K-sparing diuretics. clarithromycin Calcium channel blocker: verapamil. NSAID Myopathy / rhabdomyolysis with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor Estimation of Creatinine Clearance Cr Cl (ml/min) = [(140-Age) x BW (kg)] / [0.85 for women Nephrology . ethambutol Anti-convulsant: phenytoin. Lipid-lowering agent: cholestyramine Sulfamethoxazole Ethanol Additive nephrotoxicity: Aminoglycoside Amphotericin B Sulphonamide / Trimethoprim Colchicine NSAID Others: Hyperkalaemia with ACEI. fluconazole Macrolide: erythromycin.K19 Common Drugs not requiring dosage adjustment in Renal Failure Barbiturates Ceftriaxone Erythromycin Levodopa Nitrates Na valproate Tolbutamide Benzodiazepines Cholestyramine Furosemide Lignocaine Prazosin Steroids Verapamil Bromocriptine Cloxacillin Heparin Minoxidil Propylthiouracil Streptokinase Warfarin Cefoperazone Diltiazem Ketoconazole Nifedipine Quinidine Theophylline Drug interaction with tacrolimus Increase drug level: Imidazole: ketoconazole. diltiazam Antidepressant: fluoxetine (Prozac) Grapefruit juice Decrease drug level: Anti-TB drug: isonazid.

preliminary antibiotics regime:  Empiric antibiotics must cover both gram-positive and gramnegative organisms.K20 PROTOCOL FOR TREATMENT OF CAPD PERITONITIS (BASED ON RECOMMENDATION OF ISPD. and gram-negative organisms by a third/forth-generation cephalosporin (ceftazidime. adequate analgesia e. send PDF :  absolute white cell count. aminoglycoside or carbapenam Nephrology . Treatment of peritonitis in CAPD patients When patient have signs and symptoms of peritonitis S/S:  Turbid fluid  Abdominal pain  Fever a. heparin: 500-1000 units/ L until S/S subsided or until fibrin clots no longer visible g. cefepime). rapid flushing of 3 bags of PDF with heparin 500 units per litre for symptomatic relief d. increase to 4 exchanges per day to improve ultrafiltration f. ask patient to come back immediately to dialysis unit for collection of PDF b. 2005) 1. gram smear  culture c.  Gram-positive organisms may be covered by vancomycin or a cephalosporin.

A. admitpatient patientand patient has evidence of septicemia.days. IP. (intermittent dosing method) (intermittent dosing method) A. recurrent recurrent or relapsing addadd refractory. CCPD (intermittent dosing method) B.or relapsing peritonitis. routineroutine for for cefazolin if ororor or suspected. 13 13 days. recurrent or relapsing peritonitis.peritonitis. admit patient and andgive  10.peritonitis. to dwelldwelldwellleast at hours6 hours tototofor forleastforleast 6 hours dwell atfor atat hourshours dwell at 6 6 least to for least 6 Maintenance dose:dose:dose: Maintenance dose: Maintenance dose: Maintenance Maintenance Cefazolin CefazolinCefepime 1gram into1gramlast bag QD QD 1 gram + + + Cefepime 1gram into QD Cefazolin 1 gram 1 gram + Cefepime intointointo last bag Cefazolin gram Cefepime 1gram last bagbag QD Cefazolin 1 1 gram + Cefepime 1gram last last bag QD (at (at least 6 least 6dwell) x days days days least least hours hours dwell) x days hours hours dwell) 13 (at least hours dwell) x xdays (at 6 (at 6 6dwell) x 13 1313 13   DailyDaily urine < 100100100 per perand no recent Daily  urine output outputperper day dayday recent recent urine output < 100 < < ml ml and recent no Daily urine output <ml mlml per day and andrecent Daily urine output 100 day and no no no history history ofcontraindicationaminoglycosides: of or contraindication to to to aminoglycosides: historyhistoryor contraindication to aminoglycosides: of or contraindication aminoglycosides: history of or of or contraindication to aminoglycosides: Cefazolin Cefazolin 1 Gentamicin 80 mg mg as loadingloading 1 gram and and Gentamicin 80 80 IP loading Cefazolin 1 1 gramgramGentamicin 80 mg IP as IP as loading Cefazolin 1 gram Gentamicin 80 IP mg mgas Cefazolin gram and andand Gentamicin IP as loading dose. refractory. otherwise 1414 of14 of be should bebe be days. (intermittent dosing method) method) CCPD (intermittent 9.xotherwise otherwise days of antibioticsantibiotics are adequate are adequate antibiotics are adequate antibiotics are adequate antibiotics are adequate  For refractory. CCPD (intermittent dosing  Can  convert toto CAPD temporarily convert to convert temporarily CanCan convert CAPD temporarily convert to CAPD temporarily Can Can CAPD to CAPD temporarily  Intermittent dosing dosing not recommended cases casescases Intermittent dosing dosing not recommended severe cases   Intermittent not recommended for for severe cases Intermittent not recommended for severe for severe Intermittent dosing not recommended for severe  Mildmoderate case: case: case: with Cefepime 1 gram1 gram Mild Mild Mildmoderate case: Cefazolin with Cefepime gramgram toMild to to moderate Cefazolin with Cefepimegram 1 moderate case: Cefazolin with Cefepime 1 1  toto moderate Cefazolin Cefazolin with Cefepime into long long daytime dwelldwell intointo long daytime dwell long daytime dwell into long daytime into daytime dwell  10. admit and give parenteral antibiotics givegive parenteral parenteral antibiotics parenteral antibiotics parenteral antibiotics antibiotics Nephrology :s . routineno cefazolin MRSE MRSA suspected. aureus oror pseudomonas peritonitis. no nono routine useuse Vancomycin to avoid emergence of VRE VREVRE of useVancomycin tototo avoid emergenceVRE of use of Vancomycin to avoid emergence of use ofof Vancomycinavoid emergence ofofof VRE Vancomycin avoid emergence  Change antibiotics regime regime once culturesensitivity Change antibioticsantibiotics once culture and and and sensitivity   Change regime regime once culture sensitivity Change antibiotics once once culture and sensitivity Change antibiotics regime culture and sensitivity result available available result available result available resultresult available  For St. otherwisedays of 21 x 21 21 otherwise 14 should shouldxgiven xdays. IP. allow Cefazolin 1 1 1 gram andand Cefepime loadingloading allow Cefazolin gramgramCefepime 1gram loading IP. recurrentrelapsing peritonitis. aureus aureus or pseudomonas antibiotics aureus or or pseudomonas peritonitis. 14 days days days of be givengiven 2121 days. Cefazolin 1 1 gramgramGentamicin IP mg mg lastlast lastlastdays. then Cefazolin 1 Gentamicin 40 mg mg into IP into into then then Cefazolin gram and Gentamicin 4040 mg into IP Cefazolin 1 gram and and Gentamicin 40 40 dose.days. thenthen Cefazolin 1 gram andand GentamicinIP IP into dose. For refractory. aureuspseudomonas peritonitis.dose. routine cefazolin if if if if or MRSAMRSA suspected. CAPD CAPD (intermittent dosing method) CAPDA. recurrent oror relapsing peritonitis. antibiotics For ForFor St. add Nystatin oral suspension to preventprevent Candida peritonitis Nystatin oraloral suspension to to prevent Candida peritonitis Nystatin suspension to prevent Candida peritonitis Nystatin oral suspension Candida peritonitis Nystatin oral suspension to prevent Candida peritonitis B. CAPD (intermittent dosing method) CAPD (intermittent dosing method)   DailyDaily urine > >ml100100 per peror deafness or recent Daily urineurine output 100 perper daydeafness or recent recent Daily urine output outputmlml per day deafness or recent recent Daily urine output 100 day or or or or deafness  output > 100 > > ml ml daydaydeafness or or history historyaminoglycosiderecent 3in3 months:months: of aminoglycoside in in in recent 3 months: historyhistory aminoglycoside in recent 3 months: of aminoglycoside recent recent history ofof of aminoglycoside months: 3    Protocol 1 1 1 Protocol 1Protocol Protocol   Protocol 1 Loading dose:dose:dose: Loading dose: Loading Loading Loading dose: Cefazolin Cefazolin 1 Cefepime 1gram 1gram loading allow allow 1 gram and and Cefepime loading IP. allow Cefazolin gram and Cefepime 1gram 1gram IP.days. add add For ForFor refractory. no for cefazolin MRSE MRSE suspected. antibiotics For St. If patient patient has evidencesepticemia. 9.dose. patientand evidence of of of septicemia. St. x x 13 lastxbag xbag 13  Substitute vancomycin (1gramor IPivIPivIP5-75-7 5-7 5-7 days) Substitute Substitute vancomycin (1gramorevery days) days)   vancomycin (1gram(1gram or IP orevery days) Substitute vancomycin iv iv or IP 5-7 Substitute vancomycin (1gram iv everyeveryevery days) for for cefazolinMRSE MRSEMRSA MRSA suspected. antibiotics should shouldgiven xgiven days. antibiotics St. bagbag bag 13 x days.CCPD CCPD (intermittent dosing method) B.    K21 K21 K21  K21  K21 Suggested protocol protocol Suggested protocol Suggested protocol Suggested Suggested protocol A. pseudomonas peritonitis.A.If If If hashas evidencesepticemia. admit admit patientgive  patient evidence of septicemia.

100 mg QD Consult renal team for assessment of and then of long-term 1-1.of fluid prior to all procedures  The abdomen should begm/kg/day for CAPD patients 1. culture on D4. 20 patients ml D5 over Protein: 0. No blood taking / BP peritonitis from AV fistula arm. No blood taking / BP measurement from AV fistula arm. recover renal team for assessment of feasibility of long-term Consult renal replacement therapy. K16  5.2 gm/kg/day loading feasibility p. ACEI biopsy) patients.5 gm/dL ): transfusion ) 8. hypocalcaemia. involving the abdomen or(<140/90): long-acting calcium channel Control hypertension pelvis (such as colonoscopy. a single oral dose of amoxicillin (2 g) 2 K: < 1 mmole/kg/day. transplantation. daily BW ( < 1 kg increase in BW per day ).K22   Cefazolin 500 mg i. No restriction  For patients.i. Q12Hr + Gentamicin 100 mg Q48Hr (if anuria and no recent aminoglycosides in 3 months) i.6-0. 4. drain out PDF before to OT Diet ± consult dietitian to  Amphotericin B: Calorie 30-35 kcal/kg/day ( 500-700 kcal from PD test dose – 1 mgalready ml D5 overpatients ). Arranged removal of TC Monitor AV fistula daily / exit site dressing daily for CAPD  Arrange insertion of triple-lumen central venous catheter for patients. Monitor AV fistula daily / for euvolaemic CAPD patients. Symptomatic anaemia ( Hb < No restriction for euvolaemic CAPD patients. Correct ( except salt-loser6. max 80 mg). renal replacement mmoles per day for CRF / HD patients x 3 weeks < 100 therapy. Antibiotic prophylaxis forexit site dressing daily for CAPD procedure: 3. Nephrology . alternative: Fluconazole: 200 mg for HD patients. Q24H (if daily urine > 100 ml per day) Cefazolin 500 mg i. already for without metronidazole. Consider removal of Tenckhoff catheter if peritonitis fails to respond to appropriate antibiotic within 5 days Treatment of chronic renal completion of antibiotics if patient l. given IV just Rocaltrol / alfacalcidol: 0. ( except salt-loser ) 7. acid 5CAPD patients ).2 gm/kg/day ( HD RFT.5 emptied 6.2-1. daily BW ( < 1 kg increase in BW per day ). Change antibiotics later according to c/st result and adequate duration of antibiotics (14 – 21 days) K16 j.5 Folicwith or mg/day (optional) mg/kg.i.v. HD 7. beta-blocker. patients and endometrial day for Na: metabolic acidosis. for blocker. PO4: I/O chart.v.8 over 6 hr for CRF mg / 200 Treatment of chronic renal failure: for CAPD patients 6 hr from D2-211.2-1. reassess the S/S k.  For Diet ( ± consult dietitian ): patients undergoing colonoscopy with polypectomy – 5. 6. Q12Hr + Cefepime 1 Gm i. amphotericin B infusion and haemodialysis Strict I/O chart. < 100 mmoles per monitor CRF / K ). 4. Change transfer set after failure: 1. hyperK. hours before extensive dental procedures Strict <800 mg/day.8 osteodystrophy ).5 gm/kg/day 1. Vitamin: Ampicillin (1 g)Ascorbic acid dose ( 500-700 kcal from PD plus single 100 mg/day (optional) Calorie 30-35akcal/kg/day of an aminoglycoside (1. Treatment of fungal measurement 2.25-2 g /day ( for renal prior to the procedure gm/kg/day for CRF patients Protein: 0. dental procedure. Continue(CAPD until on call ): OT. Na: 2.  3. Repeat PDF x absolute Wcc and gram smear.o. in 100 for CAPD 1 hr then 10 mg / 200 ml D5gm/kg/dayon D1.v. renal 1-1.6-0.i.

if no improvement. Ca or Fe supplements . Purulent discharge from exit site. c/st  Empirical treatment depends on clinical appearance of exit site  Oral penicillinase-resistant penicillin (Cloxacillin 500 mg qid) or Cephalexin (500 mg qid) x 14 days if gram positive organisms suspected (from previous history)  Oral eucopenia d 500 mg BD p.o. add rifamipcin 450 mg daily. 2% mupirocin cream or otosporin ear drops to exit wound TDS Nephrology 2. sucralfate. if no improvement after 10 days of appropriate antibiotics. Equivocal exit site infection  Hibitane dressing TDS  Local treatment: 0. Mg-Al containing antacids. or 2. 2000) Exit site infection: 1. 2 out of following features around the exit site: redness / pain / skin induration / serous discharge / fever Treatment: 1. a minimal spacing of 2 hours from ciprofloxacins if cannot discontinue)  Change antibiotics regime according to c/st guide once available  For Gram +ve organism. For Gram-ve organisms.K23 PROTOCOL FOR TREATMENT OF CAPD EXIT SITE INFECTIONS (BASED ON RECOMMENDATION OF ISPD. parental antibiotics may be needed . x 14 days if gram negative organisms suspected (avoids medication contains multi-valent cations including Sevelamer. milk. Exit site infection  Take swab x R/M.1% Gentamycin cream.

review exit site care. c/st.Counsel on personal hygiene. avoid excessive traction on TC . If repeatedly grow St aureus.K24     If ESI + peritonitis: early removal of TC Consult senior for assessment if ESI persistent before further courses of antibiotics Refractory ESI: . give mupirocin cream LA TDS x 1 wk to eradicate nasal carriage Nephrology .Take nasal swab x R/M. consult senior for removal of external cuff if external cuff eroded and extruded Recurrent ESI: .For double-cuffed TC.

Neurology Neurology .

Essential management includes prompt stabilization of vital physiologic functions. LFT. 2. after iv thiamine c) Naloxone (Narcan) 0.3 mg at 1 min . alcohol smell. and a detailed neurological examination including respiratory pattern. cortisol.2 mg followed by 0. SXR. MRI. ABG. Establish aetiology by adequate history. aetiological diagnosis. ECG d) Other Ix (in selected patients) – CT brain. EEG. and directed therapy. evidence of trauma. Correct any compromised airway. blood and urine toxicology. thyroid function tests.5 mg every 1 min to a total of 3 mg for suspected benzodiazepine overdose e) Antidote or specific therapy (if available) for other drug overdose f) Definitive treatment for the cause of coma Neurology . RFT.8 mg to 2 mg iv stat. fundi.N1 COMA Coma is a medical emergency characterized by the total absence of arousal and of awareness. ammonia level. Glasgow Coma Scale. brainstem reflexes. Initiate specific therapy where appropriate a) Thiamine 100 mg iv for alcoholic or malnourished patient b) D50 40 ml iv for hypoglycaemia. c) Ix – blood sugar with h’stix. breathing or circulation (ABC). CXR. serum osmolality. 3. meningism. then 0. P/E and Ix a) All patients must have blood sugar checked b) P/E – T°. 1. The neck should be immobilized until cervical spine instability is ruled out. maintain MAP > 70mmHg and SaO2 > 90%. XR cervical spine. then every 2 mins prn up to 10 mg for suspected narcotic overdose d) Flumazenil (Anexate) 0. CSF examination. BP/P.

pressure nerve palsy. pressure sore c) Bladder eucopenia d on d) Adequate hydration.N2 4. oxygenation and nutrition e) Chest and limb physiotherapy f) Hypromellose eyedrops and secure eyelids if no spontaneous blinking Neurology . contracture. Supportive a) Close monitoring of vital signs and neurological status b) Proper positioning and turning to avoid aspiration.

syphilis serology. electrolytes. blood culture. CXR. It is a non-specific manifestation of a wide variety of acute conditions. blood glucose. Management a) Definitive treatment directed against the cause of delirium b) Review medications and withdraw the precipitating drugs c) Supportive and symptomatic treatment d) Fluid and electrolytes balance. Choice of Ix according to the clinical presentation a) CBP. lumbar puncture. CT brain 2. urine analysis and culture. thyroid function tests. especially in elderly. ECG. lethargic or excited. Consciousness can be fluctuating and may be depressed. quiet place f) Low dose haloperidol 1-3 mg daily in divided dose if sedation necessary g) Benzodiazepines are drug of choice in case of withdrawal from alcohol/sedatives Neurology . ESR. R/LFT. HIV antibodies. ABG. blood/urine drug screen b) Serum B12. serum Mg. folate level.N3 ACUTE CONFUSIONAL STATE (DELIRIUM) An acute transient organic mental syndrome characterized by a global disorder of cognition and attention. 1. urea. autoantibodies. adequate nutrition and vitamins e) Reassuring supportive nursing care in well illuminated. In the elderly. EEG. abnormally increased or reduced psychomotor activity and disturbed sleep-wake cycle. urinary porphyrins. delirium is a common manifestation of acute illness and a detail drug history is essential. The diagnosis of delirium is primarily clinical and is based on careful bedside observation. toxicology.

1. acute renal failure. ECG. lowering of blood pressure is considered if the mean arterial blood pressure is >130mmHg. Ix : Urgent non-contrast CT brain. pressure sores. positioning splinting to avoid aspiration. f) Early chest. 2. cause and risk factors of stroke. acute pulmonary edema or acute myocardial infarction) or when the systolic blood pressure >220 mmHg or higher. magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). CBP. Specific therapy: a) Aspirin 75mg to 325 mg daily within 48 hours of onset of acute ischaemic stroke Neurology . autoimmune screening. nutrition and oxygenation d) Meticulous control of blood sugar & pyrexia e) Cautious and gradual lowering of elevated blood pressure  In ischaemic stroke. pressure nerve palsy. lipid. aortic dissection. R/LFT. Echocardiography. aPTT. 5. Transcranial Doppler (TCD). shoulder subluxation. 4. PT. 6. respiration. contractures. CXR. haemodynamics. hyper-coagulopathy.  In hemorrhagic stroke. Supportive management: a) Regular monitoring of neurological and vital signs b) Swallowing assessment before feeding. or the diastolic blood pressure is 120 mmHg or higher according to repeated measurements 20 minutes. Initial assessment: vital signs including airway. 3. conscious level & neurological impairment. cerebral angiography. lowering of blood pressure only in case of hypertensive emergencies (eg: hypertensive encephalopathy.N4 ACUTE STROKE It is essential to identify site. Admit to designated acute stroke unit. etc c) Ensure good hydration. subtype. Special Ix (in selected cases): Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Duplex study of carotid arteries. limb physiotherapy and mobilization. blood glucose. computer tomography angiography (CTA).

large infarct.Documented cardiac or intra-arterial source of embolism . carotid stenting may be considered in case of: (i) difficult surgical assess. Dual anti-platelet agents may be considered in very high risk patient on individual basis.Cerebral venous thrombosis Contraindications and precautions e.Arterial dissection . All acute stroke patients should be assessed by neurologist or rehabilitation specialist for rehabilitation potential and admission to organized rehabilitation programmes 9. 7. elderly (age>80) The use of anti-coagulation in acute stroke due to large artery thrombosis is controversial. Secondary prevention: a) Risk factor modification for all types of stroke b) Oral anticoagulation in cardiogenic embolism (including nonvalvular AF) and anti-phospholipid syndrome c) Aspirin 80-300mg daily for ischaemic stroke if anti-coagulation not indicated. BP > 180/110 mmHg. d) Carotid Endartectomy (CEA) is the choice of intervention for symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis of 50-99% in suitable surgical candidates. (ii) medical co-morbidities with high risk of surgery eg: IHD. aspirin + controlled release dipyridamole or clopidogrel are other options for first line anti-platelet agents. (iii) radiation induced arteriopathy.g.N5 b) Anticoagulation may be considered for acute ischaemic stroke in:. Neurosurgical consultation: a) Cerebellar haematoma or large cerebellar infarct with significant mass effect b) Large cerebral haematoma (> 30ml) with significant mass effect c) Impending or established hydrocephalus d) Subarachnoid haemorrhage e) Malignant MCA syndrome 8. (iv) re-stenosis after CEA Neurology .

or 1 mg/hr iv infusion in grade 1. neurological deficits 8. Correct any compromised airway. fluid balance. hemiparesis. brainstem reflexes. Correct for any abnormalities in To. 2 and 3 SAH after aneurysm demonstrated by angiogram 5. acid suppressants and stool softener prn 11. Begin nimodipine 60 mg po q4h.N6 SUBARACHNOID HAEMORRHAGE Investigations 1. Other medical therapies may be considered (benefit controversial) – dexamethasone. Lumbar puncture if CT is negative. 2 and 3 patients (use of nimodipine should be individualized in grade 4 and 5 patients) with BP check 6. prophylactic anti-convulsant and antifibrinolytic agents 1 Neurology Hunt & Hess Grading : Grade 1 Asymptomatic/slight headache 2 Mod/severe headache and nuchal rigidity but no focal or lateralizing neurologic signs except cranial nerve palsies 3 Drowsiness. osmolality. sedatives. Anticonvulsant if seizures occur 10. CT brain as soon as possible 2. Confirm diagnosis (CT + LP) and consult neurosurgeons 3. Early surgery should be considered in patients with grade 1. Analgesics. Monitor GCS. confusion and mild focal deficit 4 Stupor. send CSF for xanthochromia 3. but avoid treating eactive HT) 7. early decerebrate rigidity and vegetative disturbances 5 Deep coma and decerebrate rigidity . SaO2 and cardiac rhythm 9. Urgent cerebral angiogram if early surgery is considered Management 1. Assess severity (Hunt and Hess1) and neurological status 4. electrolytes. breathing and circulation 2. blood glucose. Monitor BP closely and control high BP very carefully (exact level of target BP is controversial.

Maintenance dose 5mg/kg/day (usually 100mg Q8H iv). Monitor BP/P. 8. Continue intensive treatment for 12-24 hrs after last clinical or EEG seizure. Ensure good oxygenation and IV access 3. Give D50 50 ml iv and/or 100 mg thiamine iv where appropriate. Check glucose and h’stix. electrolytes (include Ca ± Mg). hypotension and arrhythmias. ICU admission advisable for ventilatory assistance and second line agents eg. Two or more epileptic seizures without full recovery of consciousness between attacks 2. up to 8mg. Management 1. ECG and document further seizures. Thiopentone. Undiluted or diluted in normal saline (phenytoin precipitates with dextrose). at rate of 50mg per minute. anticonvulsant level 4. 7. ABG. Lower infusion rate for elderly or underlying cardiac disease. up to 20 mg. Continuous seizure lasting more than 5 minutes. Alternative: iv diazepam 5 – 10 mg over 1-2 minutes. urea. Give simultaneously long acting anti-epileptic drug: Phenytoin – iv loading dose 15mg/kg (elderly) to 20mg/kg (adult). Neurology . with EEG monitoring.RR. administer oxygen 2.N7 TONIC-CLONIC STATUS EPILEPTICUS Operational definition: 1. 6. If above agents unsuccessful. Establish ABC. Treat acidosis if severe 5. midazolam or propofol. Monitor ECG and BP for cardiorespiratory depression. Suppress clinical seizures rapidly with iv lorazepam 2 – 4mg over 2 minute.

drug intoxication. acute stroke (infarct or haemorrhage). If a patient fails to gradually recover after the convulsive movements stop. alcoholism. Identify and treat any complications. head injury.N8 9. electrolyte/metabolic disturbances. look for abrupt anticonvulsant withdrawal. Search for and treat any acute symptomatic cause e. If there is a history of epilepsy. EEG monitoring may be needed to ensure cessation of electrical seizure activity. CNS infection. 10. Neurology .g.

Adequate nutrition and hydration. appropriate splinting. 2. lymphomatous infiltration. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Diagnosis 1. Consider assisted ventilation if FVC < 15-20 ml/kg. SUBACUTE PROGRESSIVE polyneuropathy 2. solvents. 5.g. critical illness polyneuropathy. Arrange nerve conduction study (may be normal in 1st week) 4. vasculitis. Nerve biopsy: if presentation atypical or other causes are suspected e. 2. Monitor neurological status and FVC regularly. Miller Fisher syndrome: ophthalmoplegia.g. ~80% abnormal in 2nd week. 3. Clinical progression plateaus by about 4 weeks 5. porphyria. insecticides. Generalized AREFLEXIA or hyporeflexia 4. peak in 3-4 weeks). e. heavy metals. vasculitis. physiotherapy. Look for preceding infection e. drugs like cytotoxic agents). areflexia 6. Campylobactor jejuni.g. MG crisis.N9 GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROME Clinical Presentation 1. Consider paralysis due to other acute neuropathies e. Management 1. NIPPV is in general NOT appropriate. Should NOT have new-onset upper motor neuron signs or sensory level. or neuromuscular junction disorders. botulism 3. Supportive care remains the cornerstone of treatment eg. 6. Predominantly MOTOR paralysis 3. clear secretions. toxic neuropathy (alcohol. Neurology . ataxia. Anti-GQ1b antibody is closely associated with Miller-Fisher Syndrome. Perform lumbar puncture Raised CSF protein (may be normal in 1st week. but normal cell count.g.

e. quinolones. Avoid any drug that can worsen M. SaO2.g. β-blockers. In severe cases. 9. Cardiac monitoring (life-threatening autonomic dysfunction accounts for significant mortality) 5. procainamide. aminoglycosides.g. MYASTHENIC CRISIS Crisis: severe eucopenia weakness and need for respiratory support. Intubate and initiate mechanical ventilation if FVC < 15-20 ml/kg or patient exhausted 5. Steroid treatment has no benefit. Give IVIG 0. quinine. early steroid-induced deterioration may occur. muscle relaxants. ABG not useful) 3. Start prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day. General supportive measures and ICU care 4. An alternative is plasma exchange 50 ml/kg daily or on alternate days until adequate response achieved (usually after 2-5 exchanges). Not reliable in differentiating myasthenic and cholinergic crisis and not without risk. Neurology . quinidine. 8. 6. hence not recommended in crisis setting.N10 4.4 g/kg/day for 5 days.G. Stop anticholinesterase 6. totally 50ml/kg/session of plasma for 4-6 exchanges over 7-14 days. underlying infection) 10.4g/kg/day for 5 days or plasma exchange. Management 1. 7. penicillamine. give intravenous immunoglobulin 0. Resume anticholinesterase at a smaller dose 48-72 hours after stabilization and titrate according to response. Watch out for respiratory failure in any patient with progressive weakness 2. Regularly monitor FVC ± maximal static respiratory pressures (peak flow rate. *Tensilon test – diagnostic test in untreated disease. Identify and treat any precipitating conditions (e.

Initiate appropriate treatment for specific spinal cord lesions: • neurosurgical / orthopaedic consultation for structural lesions • antimicrobial therapy for abscess or other infections • methylprednisolone 1 gm intravenously over one hour daily for 3 days.N11 ACUTE SPINAL CORD SYNDROME It is of paramount importance to make an early diagnosis of acute spinal cord compression. breathing and circulation 2. Investigations to delineate level and nature of spinal cord lesion 1. respiratory rate) in case of high cord lesions . 3. culture. to provide the patient with the best chance for neurological recovery. Send CSF obtained during myelogram for microscopy. Vitamin B12 and folate Management 1. “Sensory level” can be falsely localizing and imaging of spinal cord rostral to clinical sensory level is advisable. may be useful in non-infectious inflammatory myelitis Neurology 4. Institute general supportive care:     proper positioning & splinting adequate hydration and nutrition bladder catheterization regular monitoring of vital signs 5. Close monitoring of respiratory function (FVC. MRI spine of relevant level if immediately available. Correct any compromised airway. biochemistry. ± Spinal angiogram. Ig and cytology 4. otherwise myelogram and CT myelogram 3. Immobilize relevant level of spine in case of traumatic spinal cord injury or spine instability. XR spine 2.

N12

DELIRIUM TREMENS
Manifests as tremulousness, hallucinations, agitation, confusion, disorientation and autonomic overactivity including fever, tachycardia and profuse perspiration. Consciousness may fluctuate. Usually occurs 72-96 hours after complete cessation of drinking, rarely may occur in a patient still drinking a diminished amount or following withdrawal of other sedative drugs − Diagnosis based on clinical features and exclusion of other causes of delirium Management 1. General supportive care 2. Monitor BP/P, I/O, To, cardiac rhythm 3. Correct fluid and electrolyte disturbance. Watch out especially for hypomagnesaemia, hypokalaemia and hypoglycaemia 4. Start benzodiazepine: lorazepam 2 mg TDS (if liver impairment) or chlordiazepoxide 10 mg – 20 mg TDS oral. Adjust dose according to severity. Reduce dose in elderly. Taper dosage gradually over 5-7 days. Alternative: chlormethiazole 2-3 capsules BD to TDS oral, depending on severity. Taper dose gradually. Avoid chlorpromazine because of its epileptogenicity. 5. Give thiamine 50 mg iv before iv dextrose 6. Ensure adequate nutrition and vitamins 7. Search out for and treat any concurrent illnesses 8. Reassuring nursing care in well-illuminated, quiet place Reference: McKeon et al. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007, 78:1167-1170.

Neurology

N13

WERNICKE’S ENCEPHALOPATHY
Clinical syndrome of acute or subacute onset of neurological signs in alcoholics or severely malnourished patients, including ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and a confusional state with antegrade amnesia. Presentation can be partial. Investigations - Urea and electrolytes, R/LFT, serum magnesium - Blood Glucose, h’stix - ABG - Serum and RBC thiamine or transketolase activities before initiating therapy if available, but this should not delay treatment. Management 1. General supportive care 2. Monitor BP/P, I/O, To, cardiac rhythm 3. Monitor neurological signs closely, esp. ophthalmoplegia (should respond within hours to thiamine Rx) 4. Correct fluid and electrolyte disturbance. Watch out especially for hypomagnesaemia, hypokalaemia and hypoglycaemia 5. Give thiamine at least 100 mg iv daily for 5 days, may need higher doses. (Oral thiamine is inadequate.) 6. Give parenteral B complex in initial treatment 7. Balanced high calorie diet, vitamins and adequate hydration 8. Watch out for and treat any concurrent illness Reference: McKeon et al. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007, 78:1167-1170.

Neurology

N14

PERI-OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT IN PATIENTS WITH NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES
High risk of peri-operative pulmonary complications: Parkinsonism, myasthenia gravis, other neuro-muscular disorders affecting respiratory muscles and any neurological deficits compromising respiratory effort. Peri-operative management: 1. Comprehensive pulmonary assessment before operation 2. Optimal control of neurological conditions 3. Vigorous peri-operative chest physiotherapy 4. Regular monitoring of FVC, respiratory rate, SaO2, ABG 5. Continue anti-epileptic, anti-cholinesterase and antiparkinsonism drugs as close to normal schedule as possible. Resume as soon as possible after operation. Alternative parenteral drugs: Anti-cholinergic: Benztropine 1-4mg/day im/iv in divided dose Anti-cholinesterase: Neostigmine 0.5 mg im/iv q4-6h Anti-epileptic: phenytoin / sodium valproate available in iv form 6a Bridging therapy is recommended for patient with high risk of thromboembolic event after anti-coagulant is stopped 6b Discontinue anti-platelet agents 1 week before elective surgery, but aspirin may be continued in the following procedures: (i) dental procedures, (ii) endoscopies with biopsies and polypectomies, (iii) ophthalmologic procedures, (iv) peripheral vascular procedure, (v) neuraxial anesthesia 7. Avoid aminoglycosides, quinolones, morphine, quinidine, blockers, procainamide, penicillamine for myasthenia gravis

Neurology

N15 Risk of Peri-operative stroke 1. Increase in hypertension 2. Asymptomatic carotid bruit not an independent risk factor 3 Symptomatic carotid stenosis should be repaired before nonemergency operation. Symptomatic large vessel stenosis in the posterior circulation need to have aggressive intraoperative maintenance of blood pressure to avoid prolonged hypotenion 4. Decreased by avoiding hypotension, hypovolemia, polycythaemia and anaemia 5. Postpone elective procedures for at least 6 weeks after an ischaemic stroke to allow healing at the infarct site; smaller stroke or lacunae may require shorter waiting period

Neurology

Respiratory Medicine

Respiratory Medicine

i.P1 P1 1. Suggested initial ventilator settings 2.Clinical status: patient distress and exhaustion. Indications and acute-on-chronic respiratory failure (ARF) • Acute • • Acute and acute-on-chronic respiratory failure 8) for airway protection Decreasing conscious level (e. 1. reversibility) Patient’s wish for this highly invasive treatment ii.Patient’s wish for this highly invasive treatment Indications MECHANICAL VENTILATION MECHANICAL VENTILATION 2.(open lung expiratory (open initially. recovery after prolonged major surgery or trauma. reversibility) disease.g. expected prognosis (e.25 (PS) mode expiratory “lung protective as achieve patient totime to avoid “lung achieve patient time strategy”) protective comfort air-trapping to avoid strategy”) comfort air-trapping 5 Positive endMay need > 10 High (5 – 10) 0 – 3 max 3– Positive May need > 10initially. control of intracranial after prolonged major surgery or trauma. control of intracranial pressure in head injury pressure in head injury Note: No absolute indications for assisted ventilation in terms Note: No absolute indications for assisted ventilation in terms of ABG of ABG oror lung function criteria. important points to consider include: lung function criteria. recovery • Surgical conditions: prolonged postoperative recovery.25 as just (PS) mode to support enough expiratory above 7. ii. GCS < (ARF) • Decreasing conscious level (e.g. can be 10) High (5 – 0 – 3 max 3–5 expiratory end. pressure/ approach) lung rapidly tailed can be PEEP down rapidly tailed pressure/ approach) (cmH2O) PEEP down Respiratory Medicine (cmH2O) .g. trend oftrend of disease.g. important points to consider include: Clinical status: patient distress and exhaustion. i. expected prognosis (e. GCS < 8) for airway protection and respiratory support and respiratory support • Following cardiac arrest • Following cardiac arrest • Surgical conditions: prolonged postoperative recovery. Suggested initial ventilator settings Disease Disease condition condition Acute Resp Acute Resp AcuteAcute distress pulmonary distress pulmonary syndrome oedema syndrome oedema (ARDS) (ARDS) Chief disease Chief disease Very low low lung Low lung lung Very lung Low mechanism mechanism compliance compliance compliance compliance Obstructive Restrictive Obstructive Restrictive lung disease disease disease disease lung lung lung (COPD/(COPD/ Asthma) Asthma) Airflow Airflow Low lung Low lung &/ &/ obstruction or obstructionchest wallchest wall or compliance compliance 6–8 12 – 14 Tidal volume 6 8 – 10 Tidal volume 6 8 – 10 6–8 12 – 14 (ml/kg (ml/kg predicted BW) predicted BW) Frequency Permissive Assisted 10 – 14 To achieve Frequency Permissive Assisted 10 – To (breath/min) hypercapnia control/ SIMV/ Ensure long 14 desired pH achieve (breath/min) (keep pH just hypercapnia pressure support enough Ensure long ABG desired pH control/ SIMV/ and (keep pH pressure and ABG above 7.

i. Volume-controlled mode or SIMV PS): look • • Volume-controlled mode or SIMV (VC +(VC + PS): look for excessive airway pressure for excessive airway pressure Pressure-controlled mode or SIMV PS): look • • Pressure-controlled mode or SIMV (PC + (PC + PS): look for inadequate or excessive tidal volume which for inadequate or excessive tidal volume which varies varies with airflow obstruction or lung compliance with airflow obstruction or lung compliance Spontaneous mode pressure support look for • • Spontaneous mode pressure support mode: mode: look for excessive or inadequate volume and long/short excessive or inadequate tidal tidal volume and long/short inspiratory time inspiratory time Pause or plateau pressure Barotrauma risk ↑ risk ↑ if • • Pause or plateau pressure (PP): (PP): Barotrauma if PPPP35 35 cmO 2O ≥ ≥ cm H2 H • Auto-PEEP Auto-PEEP • Respiratory Medicine . bowel motion. psychological status. efforts. inspiratory in-sucking of lower rib ETT ETT (patency. positioning). signssigns DVT. Cuff pressure: 16-20 (<24) cm H2O H2O ii. inspiratory in-sucking of lower rib cage). sedation levellevel b. positioning). P/E: Signs of of upper airway obstruction (excessive inspiratory efforts. bowel motion. Important parameters: Cuff pressure: 16-20 (<24) cm i. regular communication. DVT.cage). (patency. pressure sores. a. pressure sores. Important parameters: c. hydration & of of hydration & nutritional status nutritional status c. P/E: Signs upper airway obstruction (excessive inspiratory b. sedation psychological status. General: vital signs.P2 P2 Adjunctive Adjunctive measures measures Neuromuscular Cardiac Cardiac TracheostoTracheostoNeuromuscular NMB NMB my blockers (NMB) intervention Manually Manually my blockers (NMB) intervention assisted assisted expiration expiration (esp asthma) (esp asthma) 3 Monitoring during mechanical ventilation 3 Monitoring during mechanical ventilation a. regular communication. General: vital signs. Ventilatory status: Ventilatory status: ii.

Others Fear. pressure sore airway. hunger. poor hypoxaemia lowhypercapnia disease cerebral perfusion. inability of obstruction/ b. hunger. cuff pressure. ventilator-associated disease mechanical of Atelectasis. secretions in bowels/to move. look for possible underlying cause(s). septic state Atelectasis. pneumothorax e. Do not simply for possible patient who is asynchronous with the ventilator. anxiety. with persistent hypoxaemia or hypercapnia FiO2 and/or ventilation with persistent d.ventilation Others Fear. low cardiac output. inability to open bowels/to move. secretions in airway. inability to open f. Ventilator-related Inadequate humidification. ventilator-associated pneumonia. dislodgement obstruction/ Inadequate humidification. Airway-related Examples Inappropriate size/position (Normal 4-6 cm above carina) of ET tube. septic state d. blocked /kinked tube. inadequate c. anxiety. look sedate a underlying cause(s). inability of ventilator to c. Airway-related a. Complications of cerebral perfusion. P3 P3 4 Patient-ventilator asynchrony Do not simply sedate a Patient-ventilator asynchrony patient who is asynchronous with the ventilator. leaky cm above carina) ofpressure. pain. cuff/excessivedislodgement blocked b. poor e. Underlying Stiff lungs. Inappropriate Inappropriate TV/IFR (or respond to triggering efforts ventilator settings Inappropriate TV/IFR (or I:E)/sensitivity settings. pneumothorax f. leaky Inappropriate size/position (Normal 4-6 cuff/excessive cuff ET tube. pain. ventilator to respond to triggering efforts leak in circuit. leak in circuit. pressure sore Respiratory Medicine . Underlying Stiff lungs. Ventilator-related /kinked tube. Inappropriate FiO2 and/or ventilation inadequate ventilator settings I:E)/sensitivity settings. Complications ventilation mechanical pneumonia. Checklist for trouble-shooting: Checklist for trouble-shooting: Problems Examples Problems a. or cardiac output.

60 – 1.50 if O2 flow rate set at 3 – 15 L/min (O2 required to drive can be read off from the Venturi device)  Maintains a constant (pre-set) FiO2 Simple face mask with no reservoir bag  FiO2 up to 0. affected by the O2 flow setting.40 if O2 flow rate set at 1 to 6 L/min  Actual FiO2 non-specific.00 if O2 flow rate set at 10 – 15 L/min  Equipped with one-way valves to prevent exhalation into reservoir bag and inhalation through mask exhalation ports (but usually only one of the two valves on the mask exhalation ports is installed for safety reason) Respiratory Medicine . respiratory rate.24 to 0.23 to 0.70 if O2 flow rate set at 6 to 10L/min  O2 flow must be ≥ 6 L/min to keep reservoir bag inflated throughout inspiration & expiration  No one way valve between reservoir bag and mask Non-rebreathing mask with reservoir bag  FiO2 0.50 if O2 flow rate set at 6 to 10 L/min  Actual FiO2 non-specific. pattern. oropharyngeal geometry. depends on patient’s inspiratory flow  O2 flow rate set below <5L/min may cause CO2 rebreathing Rebreathing mask with reservoir bag  FiO2 0. and is roughly 20% + (4 × oxygen litre flow per minute)  Most comfortable and cost-effective Venturi mask  Accurate FiO2 adjustable from 0.P4 OXYGEN THERAPY Common oxygen delivery methods Standard dual-prong nasal cannula  FiO2 0. tidal volume.

daytime somnolence.3 kPa (55 mm Hg) or SaO2 88%: to maintain PaO2 8 kPa (60 mm Hg or SaO2 90%) 2. Respiratory Medicine . open window by one-third if PCO2 is high 2. such as pulmonary hypertension.3 kPa (55 mmHg) or oxygen saturation 88% with associated complications.3 kPa (55 mmHg) or oxygen saturation 88% with a low level of exertion 2. and cardiac arrhythmias.4 to 7. Thermovent to endotracheal or tracheostomy tube: watch out for sputum blockage 3. T-piece to endotracheal or tracheostomy tube: O2 delivered through the shorter end. heated humidifier) Indications for long-term O2 therapy in COPD Start only when clinically stable for 3-4 weeks after other therapy eucopenia d of Continuous oxygen: 1. Tracheostomy mask: consider to use humidification in non-infectious situation (e. Resting PaO2 7.g. Resting PaO2 7. III. During sleep: PaO2 7.9 kPa (56 to 59 mm Hg) or SaO2 89% in the presence of any of the following:  Dependent edema suggestive of congestive heart failure  P pulmonale on ECG (P wave >3mm in standard leads II. or aVF)  Erythrocythaemia (haematocrit >56%) Noncontinuous oxygen: Oxygen flow rate and number of hours per day must be specified 1.P5 Other common oxygen delivery methods 1. During exercise: PaO2 7.

e.g. Airway protection is most important in massive haemoptysis. diagnose endobronchial lesion and for therapy Persistent life-threatening haemoptysis  Consult radiologist for bronchial arteriogram ± bronchial artery embolization if expertise available  Consult surgeon for emergency lung resection if bleeding is localized and adequate pulmonary reserve Respiratory Medicine . bronchiectasis. i. stop bleeding. Increased volume of bleeding confers a much higher risk of death due to asphyxia than to haemodynamic derangement. O2 supplement 3. Sputum for C/ST. intubate for suction and ventilation (single lumen ET if urgent airway access is required.P6 MASSIVE HAEMOPTYSIS Definition: Arbituary. Early bronchoscopy to localize bleeding. ABG and X-match 5. AFB & cytology 6.e. Establish IV assess 4. Lie lateral on side of bleeding if lateralized 9. Close monitoring of vital sign. close observation and treatment in ICU/HDU is desirable Management objectives Prevent asphyxia. Important management considerations include rate of bleeding and underlying lung function. If depressed conscious state with risk of asphyxia. TB 8. SaO2 2. double lumen ET placement by anaesthetist is better for isolation of bleeding side) 10. Antibiotic if infection is suspected. determine cause of bleeding and treat underlying cause Management 1. localize bleeding site. RR. Take blood for CBP. BP/P. eucopenia d blood ranging from >100200ml/day. Avoid sedation and cough suppressant 7. clotting.

P7 SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX (Ref. SaO2 (RA) > 90% and complete sentence(s) between breaths. Clinically stable with small pneumothorax Conservative: monitor symptom and CXR 2. ACCP Delphi Consensus Statement 2001) Suspect tension pneumothorax if associated hypotension Definition Size: determined by lung apex-to-thoracic cupola distance in upright CXR. If not. Clinically unstable with large pneumothorax 24-28F chest drain* Persistent air leak > 5 days. Suction should be applied if lung fails to reexpand #chemical pleurodesis can be considered if surgery contraindicated or patient refuses operation or poor prognosis from patient’s underlying disease. surgical referral for thoracoscopy# Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (underlying lung disease) Should be hospitalized even if clinically stable 1. Respiratory Medicine . HR > 60/min or HR < 120/min. Clinically unstable with large pneumothorax 16-22F chest drain*. Clinically stable with large pneumothorax Small bore catheter (≤ 14F) or 16-22F chest drain* 3. Small < 3cm & large ≥ 3cm Clinical stability: Stable if RR < 24/min. unstable Management O2 and analgesic prn Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (no underlying lung abnormalities) 1. Clinically stable with large pneumothorax 16-22F chest drain* 3. Clinically stable with small pneumothorax Conservative or chest drain* depending on symptom and course of pneumothorax 2. 24-28F if bronchopleural fistula or mechanical ventilation anticipated Persistent air leak > 4 days. surgical referral for thoracoscopy# *attached to water-seal device.

PFR. exhaustion. pulse>110/min. Monitoring Vital pulse pulse oximetry. Management Management Moderate episode (life threatening features absent) Moderate episode (life threatening features absent) Give 35-50% 2.P8 P8 Adult Acute Asthma Adult Acute Asthma (Ref: GINA Guidelines 2006) (Ref: GINA Guidelines 2006) Features of moderate severe asthma Features of moderate severe asthma Talks in phrases. CXR Vital signs. . sentence in one breath. SaO22 (on air) ~91Talks in phrases. cyanosis. PEF<60% SaO2 (on air) ≤90%. coma. PEF~60-80% predicted or personal best 95%. maintain SaO2>90%   Give 35-50% OO2maintain SaO2>90%  Salbutamol 5mg or Terbutaline 10mg nebulised with O2 2 Salbutamol 5mg or Terbutaline  nebulised with O OR inhaled Salbutamol/Terbutaline puffs OR inhaled Salbutamol/Terbutaline 66puffs Prednisolone 30-60mg po OR   Prednisolone 30-60mg po OR Hydrocortisone 200mg iv 200mg iv OR Methylprednisolone 40mg iv OR Methylprednisolone 40mg iv Respiratory Medicine Severe Severe episode (life threatening features present) episode (life threatening features present) Consider ICU care. confusion. silent chest. bradycardia. cyanosis. hypotension. RR>30/min. ABG. low hypotension.ABG. electrolytes. PEF<60% personal best RR>30/min. oximetry. SaO2 (on air) ≤90%. normal/high PaCO (5-6kPa) severe hypoxia hypoxia normal/high PaCO22 (5-6kPa) severe (PaO2<8kPa/SaO2≤90% with O2). confusion. pulse>110/min. low pH. feeble respiratory predicted/best. signs. coma. feeble respiratory effort. SaO (on air) ~9195%. RR>25/min. standby equipment for intubation   Consider ICU care. pulse>120/min. electrolytes. and/or paradoxical thoracoand/or paradoxical thoraco2≤90% with O2) abdominal movement movement Monitoring 1. predicted or predicted or Life threatening features (dangerous even if only one feature features (dangerous even if only one feature present) PEF<33% predicted/best. standby equipment for intubation Same treatment for moderate episode plus   Same asas treatment for moderate episodeplus . RR>25/min.. PEF~60-80% predicted or personal best Features of acute severe asthma severe asthma Cannot complete sentence in one breath. PFR. CXR 2. silent chest. exhaustion.

5-5µg/min). Adjust rate according to response.5% (1ml/20 drops) OR inhaled ipratropium 3-4 puffs Nebulised preservative-free ipratropium 0.5-0.  Consider IV salbutamol 5µg/min according to /terbutaline Monitor closely and watch out for cardiac arrhythmia and (1.9mg/kg/h Aminophylline iv infusion  Consider IV salbutamol 5µg/min (3-20µg/min) /terbutaline  Aminophylline iv infusion 0.9mg/kg/h (1. If satisfactory response Continue O2 to keep 1.5mg  Nebulised 6puffs q4h OR inhaled  ipratropium 6puffs q4h 0. or Hydrocortisone 100mg iv q6h  Continue inhaled (MDI or nebulised) β2 agonist q4h B.     3. other side effects Monitor closely and watch out for cardiac arrhythmia and C.  If unsatisfactory response inhaled β2 agonist 6-10 puffs up to q15min  Nebulised β2 agonist OR inhaled β2 agonist 6-10 puffs up  to q15min ipratropium 0.5-5µg/min).5-0.25-0. >90%  Continue O2 to keep SaO2or Hydrocortisone 100mg iv q6h  Continue inhaled (MDI or nebulised) β2 agonist q4h  Prednisolone 30-60mg/d.25-0. Do not give Aminophyllinefor patients taking oral theophylline bolus  aminophylline for patients taking oral theophyllineover 2 May consider magnesium sulphate 1.25-0. Adjust rate (3-20µg/min) response. If unsatisfactory response Nebulised β2 agonist OR 2.2-2g iv over 2 minutes for very severe cases A.  If satisfactory response SaO2 >90%  Prednisolone 30-60mg/d.5mg OR inhaled Nebulised ipratropium ipratropium 0.2-2g iv minutes for very severe cases  May consider magnesium sulphate 1. P9 P9 Nebulised preservative-free ipratropium 0. other side effects Consider ICU admission if  Life threatening features present Consider ICU admission if  Deterioration in PEF  Life threatening features present  Worsening or persistent hypoxia or hypercapnia  Deterioration in PEF  Respiratory failure requiring IPPV  Worsening or persistent hypoxia or hypercapnia  Respiratory or cardiorespiratory arrest  Respiratory failure requiring IPPV  Respiratory or cardiorespiratory arrest Respiratory Medicine .5% IV Salbutamol/Terbutaline (250µg over 10min) or (1ml/20 drops) OR inhaled ipratropium 3-4 puffs Aminophylline (250mg over (250µg over give bolus IV Salbutamol/Terbutaline 20min).25-0. Do not 10min) or aminophylline (250mg over 20min).

P10 D.       Note   Medication from MDI inhaler is preferably given via a spacer Nebulized bronchodilator is preferably given in areas with negative pressure installed. PEF>75% predicted or previous best AND PEF variability <25%  Actions recommended on discharge include identifying & avoiding trigger factor(s) that precipitated attack. proper follow up arrangements & long term treatment plan esp.   After improvement Stabilize in ward Discharge home when symptoms have cleared. inhalational steroids. AND reviewing technique on use of inhaler and peak flow meter Therapies NOT recommended during acute attacks Sedatives (avoid strictly) Cough suppressant (avoid as far as possible) Mucolytic drug (may worsen cough) Chest physiotherapy (may increase patient discomfort) Antibiotics (unless has concomitant bacterial infection) Hydration with large volumes of fluid E. Prednisolone tablets (30mg daily) tapering over 1-3 weeks as reserve. Respiratory Medicine .

b. to achieve and maintain clinical control. At each treatment step. All therapy at every step must include patient education. at Step 3. Each patient is assigned to one of five “treatment steps” depending on their current level of asthma control and treatment should be adjusted in a continuous cycle driven by changes in patients’ asthma control status c. Patients should avoid or control triggers at all times. treatment should be started at Step 2. or if very symptomatic (uncontrolled). In treatment-naïve patients with persistent asthma. reliever medication (rapid-onset bronchodilator) should be provided for quick relief of symptoms. f. d. can be reached with a pharmacologic intervention strategy. Level of Asthma Control Characteristic Daytime symptoms Limitations of activities Nocturnal symptoms/ awakening Controlled (All of the following) None ( ≤ 2x/week) None None Partly Controlled (Anyone present in any week) > 2x/week Any Any Uncontrolled ≥3 features of partly controlled asthma present in any week Respiratory Medicine . e. The goal of asthma treatment.P11 Long Term Management of Asthma (Ref: GINA 2006) NOTE a.

Long-term preventive treatment not required. An inhaled anticholinergic.P12 Need for reliever/ rescue treatment Lung function (PEF or FEV1) Exacerbations None ( ≤ 2x/week) > 2x/week Normal <80% predicted/ personal best (if known) ≥ 1/year* One in any week# None *Any exacerbation should prompt review of maintenance treatment to ensure that it is adequate # By definition. Daily controller medication: Either inhaled corticosteroids (200–500µg)* or leukotriene modifier. STEP 2: Reliever medication plus a single controller a. Inhaled β 2-agonist. leukotriene modifier or cromoglycate before exercise or allergen exposure. b. an exacerbation in any week makes that an uncontrolled asthma week TREATMENT (preferred treatments are bolded) STEP 1: As-needed reliever medication a. d. shortacting po β2-agonist. or short-acting therophylline can be considered as alternatives c. cromoglycate or nedocromil or theophylline SR. Short-acting bronchodilator as reliever: Inhaled β 2-agonist prn (but ≤2times/week). Reliever: Inhaled β 2-agonist prn (but ≤2times/week). For untreated patients with occasional daytime symptoms of short duration b. Respiratory Medicine .

Consider leukotriene modifier for aspirin sensitivity or exercise-induced asthma. As in Step 4 plus oral glucocorticosteroid (at lowest possible dose) and/or addition of anti-IgE treatment # Steroid doses are for beclomethasone dipropionate. consider stepping up AFTER reviewing patient’s medication technique. (i) Daily inhaled corticosteroids (≥500µg)* PLUS either long-acting inhaled β 2-agonist# or theophylline SR or leukotriene modifier. d. If control has been sustained for >3 months. Adding long-acting inhaled β 2-agonist may offer more effective symptom control than increasing the steroid dosages. Short-acting bronchodilator: Inhaled β 2-agonist prn but (but ≤2 times/week). Step-up If control is not achieved. Referred to specialist for advice and management STEP 4: Reliever medication plus two or more controllers a. b. OR (ii) Daily inhaled corticosteroids of medium or high dose (800–2000µg)* c. Short-acting bronchodilator: Inhaled β 2-agonist prn. consider a gradual stepwise reduction.P13 STEP 3: Reliever medication plus one or two controllers a. Respiratory Medicine . compliance and environmental control (avoidance of allergens/trigger factors). Daily inhaled corticosteroids (800–2000µg or more)* PLUS long-acting inhaled β 2-agonist and/or theophylline SR and/or long-acting PO β 2-agonist and/or leukotriene modifier STEP 5: Reliever medication plus additional controller options a. Step-down Review treatment every 3–6 months. b.

and rehabilitation Stage 3 = severe (FEV1/FVC < 70%. FEV1 < 30% or FEV1 < 50% predicted + chronic respiratory failure)  as for stage 3. in COPD patients who have: Respiratory Medicine . add  inhaled glucocorticoids if repeated exacerbations Stage 4 = very severe (FEV1/FVC < 70%. with or without symptoms)  as for stage 2. with or without symptoms)  as for stage 1. Steroid trial not predictive of response to inhaled steroid 2. Long-term oxygen therapy (generally in stage 4 COPD)  Start only when clinically stable for 3-4 weeks after optimization of other therapy. lung transplantation) Other points to note: 1.P14 COPD Treatment of stable COPD According to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines 2006: Stage 1 = mild (FEV1/FVC < 70%. FEV1>80%. 50% <= FEV1<80%. and  consider surgical treatment (bullectomy. with or without symptoms)  Avoidance of risk factor(s): most importantly smoking cessation  Influenza vaccination  short-acting bronchodilator when needed Stage 2 = moderate (FEV1/FVC < 70%. add  regular treatment with one or more long-acting bronchodilators. 30% <= FEV1 < 50%. lung volume reduction surgery. add  long term oxygen if chronic respiratory failure.

Corticosteroids (hydrocortisone 100 mg iv Q6-8 hours or Prednisolone 30-40 mg orally per day).4 to 7. such as pulmonary hypertension.3 kPa (55 mmHg) or oxygen saturation 88% with associated complications. 7-10 days) 5. modify flow rate according to PaO2 and pH 2. Controlled low dose oxygen administration (start with 24% Venturi mask or 1-2L/min by nasal prongs).g. Non-continuous oxygen: Oxygen flow rate and number of hours per day must be specified. Check ABGs within 30-60 mins of starting oxygen.P15 A.During exercise: PaO2 7.During sleep: PaO2 7. Continuous oxygen therapy (for 15hours/day): . or . and cardiac arrhythmias” Treatment of acute exacerbation 1. . III. consider iv aminophylline (second line therapy) 4. Steroid should be discontinued after the acute episode (e. or aVF) iii Erythrocythaemia (haematocrit >56%) B. daytime somnolence. If no response. Inhaled (using spacer device) β2 agonist and ipratropium bromide alone or in combination 3.9 kPa (56 to 59 mm Hg) or SaO2 89% in the presence of any of the following: i Dependent edema suggestive of congestive heart failure ii P pulmonale on ECG (P wave >3mm in standard leads II.3 kPa (55 mmHg) or oxygen saturation 88% with a low level of exertion . Prescribe an antibiotic if exacerbation is severe and requires invasive or non-invasive ventilation and/or two or more of the following are present(one being increased sputum purulence): Respiratory Medicine .Resting PaO2 7.3 kPa (55 mm Hg) or SaO2 88%: to maintain PaO2 8 kPa (60 mm Hg or SaO2 90%).Resting PaO2 7.

whether by means of mechanical ventilation or NIPPV Respiratory Medicine .  Increased sputum volume.P16  Increased breathlessness.30) Assisted ventilation is required. or respiratory muscle fatigue (as evidenced by paradoxical diaphragmatic movement) 3.0kPa. Persistent or worsening hypoxemia despite supplemental oxygen. ICU 1. Indications for NIV:  Moderate to severe dyspnoea with use of accessory muscles and paradoxical abdominal motion  Moderate to severe acidosis (pH 7.g. IPPV is likely to be appropriate in all other patients when  There is a clearly reversible basis for the current deterioration  It is the first episode of respiratory failure  There is an acceptable quality of life  The patient has not previously had a full medical assessment  There are few if any co-morbidities  NIV fails Indications for intensive monitoring and treatment e. 45mmHg)  Respiratory frequency >25 breaths per minute  Check ABG 1-2 hours after initiation of NIV. Confusion. Do not delay intubation and IPPV if improvement is absent 7.35) and/or hypercapnia (PaCO2 >6. lethargy. Severe dyspnoea with inadequate response to initial emergency therapy 2. or severe/worsening respiratory acidosis (pH < 7.  Development of purulent sputum 6.

2mmol/L Consult pulmonologist to consider intrapleural thrombolytics in selected cases Respiratory Medicine . pancreatitis.2. heart failure.g. Ultrasound or CT guided pleural tapping if fluid appeared loculated or concomitant lung collapse +/. Positive gram-stain of pleural fluid +/. Bronchoscopy is useful if endobronchial / mass lesion in parenchymal is suspected 6. Frank pus on diagnostic tapping 2. hypoalbuminemia 5. Diagnostic tapping + pleural biopsy if exudative 2. Systemic causes should always be sought e. Pleural thickening with contrast enhancement on CT thorax 3.mediastinal shift is evident 3.positive culture 4. CT thorax to assess pleural space anatomy.000. LDH >1. Pleural fluid biochemistry: pH <7. SLE. therapeutic result after drainage in complicated cases Suspect empyema/ complicated parapneumonic effusion if any of followings 1. glucose <2. screen parenchymal lesion.P17 PLEURAL EFFUSION Diagnosis 1. Thoracoscopic biopsy is indicated if pleural effusion aetiology remains undiagnosed after multiple thoracocentesis and pleural biopsies 4. Bilateral pleural effusion is rarely due to underlying lung disease but can occur in TB and malignancy.

Empyema or complicated parapneumonic effusion 2. Supportive care 2. Tube thoracostomy and chemical pleurodesis  Agents: Talc 5g in 100ml NS. Tetracycline 1g in 50ml NS  Must be performed under adequate sedation and analgesia  Keep patient for 10-15 minutes in each of 4-6 different posture with drain clamped. applicable to most patients even if lung function is compromised. Surgical pleurodesis (more useful if lung re-expanded well)  Thoracoscopic: simple and safe. then release clamp for drainage  Chest tube kept unclamped thereafter for drainage until daily output <150ml /day and CXR shows the lung to be re-expanded with most of the effusion drained 4.P18 Indication for chest drain insertion 1.  Thoracotomy Respiratory Medicine . Hemothorax (surgical consult is usually indicated) Management of persistent/ recurrent malignant pleural effusion 1. Symptomatic malignant pleural effusion (see below) 3. Consult respiratory physician for difficult cases 3.

Nocturnal angina related to the OSA 4. OR (3) Two out of the following: Intermittent nocturnal arousal Nocturnal choking Unrefreshed sleep at wakening Daytime fatigue Impaired daytime concentration Indications for diagnostic sleep study 1. CHF despite adequate medical therapy and optimization of risk factors Indications for urgent arrangement of nasal CPAP 1. CVA. Unexplained pulmonary hypertension 3.g. Suspect OSA 2.g. conversation. phone call. Recurrent cardiovascular events e. PLUS (2) Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) Mild: activity with little attention needed e.g. Severe EDS that may impose risk to the patient and/ or others e. angina.g.P19 OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA Suspect OSA if (1) Snoring at night. pulmonary hypertension or cor pulmonale 2.g. professional driver especially with history of road traffic accident Respiratory Medicine . Nocturnal malignant arrhythmia related to the OSA 3. conference Severe: activity with much concentration e. public transport Moderate: activity with some attention e. Pickwickian syndrome with daytime alveolar hypoventilation.

Elevated PaCO2 (>6 kPa. >45 mmHg) 3. CXR. FVC or MVV <50% of predicted 4. i.e. FEV1. P/E. ABG . Spirometry Upper abdominal surgery Thoracotomy FEV1 < 50% of predicted FVC < 50% of predicted plus ABGs Diffusion capacity Lung volumes Lung resection in borderline lung function plus Calculation of postoperative FEV1 Lung scintigraphy assessment VO2 Results indicating high postoperative risk 1. Evidence of pulmonary hypertension 5.P20 PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION Age > 70 Obese Heavy smoking Known lung disease Hx. Throacic surgery : FEV1 < 1L or < 40% of predicted after lung reaction 2. Preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing: VO2max <15 ml/kg/min Consult respiratory physician in high risk cases Respiratory Medicine .

Post-operative hypoxaemia (except in upper GI surgery) 5. Hypoxaemic respiratory failure of mixed causes (need to consider individual cause) Contraindications: respiratory arrest. medical instability.g. and recent upper airway or gastrointestinal surgery Practical aspects 1. WhisperSwivel or Plateau valve). Acute lung injury (ALI) or Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) 3. uncooperative or agitated status. face mask. inability to protect airway. Treatment of established post-extubation respiratory failure 5. Acute respiratory failure in immunosuppressed states 4. Acute COPD exacerbation 2. Acute pulmonary edema 3. total face mask.) 3. with expiratory port which can be just a hole or a dedicated device. Pneumonia.P21 NON-INVASIVE VENTILATION (NIV) More evidence of efficacy in: 1. Prevention of post-extubation respiratory failure (esp COPD) Less efficacious or even harmful in: 1. e. nasal pillows (In acute respiratory failure. Acute severe asthma 2. or smaller-sized ventilator dedicated for NIV delivery (single limb only. excessive secretions. helmet. start with a mask. Mode of delivery Singel level (CPAP) or Bi-level (IPAP + EPAP) Respiratory Medicine . Early weaning for COPD 6. Interface: nasal mask. unfitting mask. Machine: sophisticated ICU ventilator (independent insp/exp limbs. higher max flow). esp if copious secretions 4. or a hybrid type of ventilator with functionality in between the above two types 2.

Watch out for gastric distension 2. Common setting 1. poor coordination. community-acquired pneumonia. Stringent infection control measures should be taken during NIV for patients with suspected respiratory infections (refer to your hospital guidelines) Respiratory Medicine . Consider invasive mechanical ventilation if there is no objective signs of improvement after 1 hour of use 5. mouth leaks. then remove mask for short periods every few hours for meals. Monitor ABG: Within 1st 2-6 hours after start to determine success.P22 Factors associated with success: less sick (lower APACHE II score). IPAP: Aim at tidal volume (Vt)  7ml/kg BW and RR  25/min 4. PaO2/FiO2 146. acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). sputum clearance or bronchodilator inhalation 4. pneumonia. excess secretions. with I:E ratio: 1:2 to 1:3 Points to note 1. lower PaCO2. Backup RR: 0 to 12. subjective improvement within one hour of start Factors associated with failure: adentulous. age >40. COPD: 4 to 5 cmH2O 3. and afterwards when indicated 3. lower respiratory rate (RR). higher pH. Spontaneous/ timed (ST) mode or Spontaneous (S) mode 2. Apply continuously for 4-6 hours. sicker patient (Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II)35). CPAP/EPAP: Pulmonary oedema: 6 to 10 cmH2O.

Rheumatology & Immunology Rheumatology & Immunology .

malignancy. hyperlipoproteinemias. inflammatory bowel disease  Connective tissue diseases: SLE. psoriatic arthritis  Monoarthritic onset rheumatoid arthritis  Reactive arthritis .  Chronic polyarthralgia/polyarthritis – more than 6 weeks. meningococcal)  Bacterial endocarditis  Viral arthritis  Reactive arthritis  Crystal–induced arthritis: gout. pain and tenderness  Polyarthralgia/polyarthritis – 5 or more joints. systemic sclerosis. palindromic rheumatism. systemic vasculitis. Lyme disease. rheumatic fever Major causes of monoarthritis  Septic arthritis  Crystal-induced arthritis: gout. pseudogout  Rheumatoid arthritis  Seronegative arthritis: ankylosing spondylitis. Major causes of polyarthralgia/polyarthritis  Bacterial arthritis (staphylococcal. streptococcal. Still’s disease  Others: sarcoidosis. psoriatic arthritis. pseudogout  Haemarthrosis / trauma / overuse  Tuberculous arthritis  Osteoarthritis  Spondyloarthropathies: ankylosing spondylitis. warmth.R1 Rheumatology & Immunology APPROACH TO INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS Assessment  Arthralgia – pain in a joint without demonstrable synovitis  Inflammatory Arthritis (Synovitis) – joint swelling. gonococcal.

000100. phosphate.R2 Rheumatology & Immunology Other uncommon causes: avascular necrosis. calcium.000300. liver function. urate. synovial metastasis Relevant investigations  CBP.000 50. and have weakly positive birefringence under polarized light . CRP  Renal function. urinalysis  ANA. MRI if indicated  Joint aspiration  Synovial biopsy (in undetermined cases) Joint fluid analysis Send fluid for:  gram stain and bacterial culture  white cell count  crystal microscopy Joint fluid white cell count: Classification Normal Noninflammatory Inflammatory Septic Clarity Transparent Transparent Translucent Opaque WBC/ml < 200 < 2000 2.000 % of neutrophils < 25 < 25 25 – 75 > 90  Crystal microscopy:  Urate crystals are slender and needle-shaped and have strong negative birefringence under polarized light  Calcium pyrophosphate crystals are pleomorphic or rhomboid-shaped. RF (if SLE or RA is suspected)  X-ray of the affected joints. ESR.

5mg qid x 2 days (stop if nausea/diarrhoea. + simple analgesic) Reduce frequency in renal impairment Q hourly – Q2 hourly x 10 doses regime is not recommended. tapering over 5 days. polyarticular)  Chronic tophaceous gout  Uric acid calculi  Gouty nephropathy Diagnosis Definite gout Intracellular negative birefringent urate crystal seen on joint fluid microscopy Presumed gout Classical history of episodic acute arthritis rapidly resolved with NSAID (or colchicine) + history of hyperuricaemia Management Acute Gouty arthritis 1. Corticosteroid a) Intra-articular kenacort injection after exclusion of septic arthritis b) Prednisolone 20-40mg daily x 1 week.R3 Rheumatology & Immunology GOUTY ARTHRITIS Clinical features  Acute gout (monoarticular. reduce dose in renal impairment: a) indomethacin 50mg tds -> 25mg tds -> 25mg bd b) naprosyn 500mg stat -> 250mg tid -> 250mg bd c) ibuprofen 800mg stat -> 400mg qid -> 200mg tid 2. NSAID/COX II inhibitors High dose. (for patients with NSAID/ colchicine contraindication or renal failure) . 3. Colchicine 0.

Uricase: recombinant urate-oxidase enzyme. Investigational treatment a. Xanthine oxidase inhibitor Allopurinol 300mg po daily (usual dose) Reduce dose in renal impairment 5% skin side effects start allopurinol only when acute gout has subsided + colchicine 0. for paediatric pre-chemotherapy . high 24 hour urine uric acid excretion) Benzbromarone is licensed in Hong Kong but not under HA formulary Sulfinpyrazone is not licensed in Hong Kong 3. Uricosuric drugs Probenecid 250mg bd to 1gm tds (Contraindications: moderate renal impairment.5mg daily or bid. for 3-6 months. Rasburicase.36 mmol/L 2. 1. to prevent acute gout attacks Target to reduce serum uric acid < 0. Urate lowering therapy is indicated in patients with hyperuricaemia and more than 2 attacks of acute gout in one year. tophaceous gout or urate renal calculi. Febuxostat – a novel nonpurine selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor b.R4 Rheumatology & Immunology Urate lowering therapy Low purine diet is advisable but only small changes in serum uric acid can be attained. urate renal stone. tophaceous gout.

Refer orthopaedic surgeons for infected prosthetic joint.  Gram stain  Culture and sensitivity  Polarising microscopy for crystals (septic arthritis may coexist with crystal arthropathies) 3. Start physiotherapy early. predominantly neutrophils. then orally for an additional 2-4 weeks. 2. For inadequate response. swollen and tender joint should be regarded as septic arthritis until proven otherwise. 4. 5. blood culture. LFT. Swabs of pharynx. urethra. Prompt aspiration of the joint is warranted.  Differential cell counts: Usually >50. 7. Modify according to culture and sensitivity results. NSAIDs for pain relief 9. Synovial fluid should be sent for. consider arthroscopic drainage.000 WBC/ml and often >100. . Repeated aspiration of the joint to dryness. 8. RFT. 6. even in the absence of fever.000/ml. Open drainage is usually necessary for hip infection. Other investigations: CBC with differentials. oligoarthritis or polyarthritis.R5 Rheumatology & Immunology SEPTIC ARTHRITIS 1. Septic arthritis can present with monoarthritis (80-90% cases). cervix and anorectum if gonococcal infection suspected. IV antibiotics for at least 2 weeks or until signs improved for non-gonococcal arthritis. A hot. Opinion from microbiologists is helpful. X-ray of the joint. Start empirical IV antibiotics immediately according to suspected organisms and gram stain.

Aureus cocci (clusters) Gram +ve Streptococccus cocci (chains) Gram –ve Enterobacteriaceae Bacilli Pseudomonas IV Antibiotics Cloxacillin 2g q4hr Penicillin 2 MU q4hr Ceftriaxone 2 g q24hr or Cefotaxime 1g q8hr Cefepime 2g q12hr or piperacillin 3g q6hr or Imipenem 500 mg q6hr Plus gentamicin Ceftriaxone 2g q24hr or Cefotaxime 1g q8hr or Ciprofloxacin 400mg q12hr No risk factors for atypical organisms: Cloxacillin or Ceftriaxone / Cefotaxime High risk for gram-ve sepsis (elderly. frail. immunocompromised): Cloxacillin plus Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime Gonorrhoea suspected: Ceftriazone or cefotaxime or ciprofloxacin MRSA infection suspected: Vancomycin plus Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime Gram –ve diplococci Empirical initial therapy Neisseria gonorrhoeae** **Treat possible concurrent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis with doxycycline (100 mg BD for 7 days) in patients with gonococcal infection. .R6 Rheumatology & Immunology Suggested choice of antibiotics: Synovial fluid Organism gram stain Gram +ve Staph.

Diagnosis: 1987 ACR criteria for the classification of established RA At least 4 of the following features  Morning stiffness >1 hour  Arthritis and soft tissue swelling of ≥3 joint areas  Arthritis of hand joints  Symmetric arthritis  Subcutaneous nodules in specific places th  Rheumatoid factor at a level above 95 percentile  Radiographic changes suggestive of joint erosion Clinical symptoms must be present for at least 6 weeks Investigations  ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP)  RF (sensitivity ~70%)  Anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide antibody (anti-CCP) – highly specific for RA. associated comorbidities (cardiovascular / osteoporosis) & extra-articular problems Useful parameters:  degree of joint pain  duration of morning stiffness  number of tender and swollen joints  functional status 2. tolerability & need for adjustment of present Tx. helpful in undetermined situations  Plain X-ray of the hands and feet for erosion  MRI or USG may be useful for detecting early bony erosion Clinical assessment Includes: subjective & objective evidence of active synovitis.R7 Rheumatology & Immunology RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS 1. efficacy. . 3.

but combination DMARDs should be considered early in patient with severe disease  DON’T be slow in building up target doses of DMARDs . Therefore DO NOT delay starting DMARDs  Usually start with one drug.R8 Rheumatology & Immunology  patients’ and physicians’ global assessment  ESR or CRP (if persistently raised without no obvious synovitis – beware of infection)  radiographic progression 4. dietitian etc. podiatrist. high titer)  Positive family history of RA  Nodular disease  Extra-articular manifestations 5. 6. Management overview: Goal: control synovitis/prevent joint damage/preserve function (multidisciplinary team care) (a) Patient education / counseling (b) Medications (plain analgesic / NSAID / DMARDs / biological DMARD / judicious use of steroid) (c) Non-pharmacological: P/T. (d) Surgery (e) Management of associated comorbidities & their risk factors EARLY aggressive use of DMARDs is indicated for patients with poor prognostic factors  High disease activity at onset (≥ 18 joints)  High baseline joint damage (erosive disease)  Persistently high CRP level  Positive IgM rheumatoid factor or anti-CCP (esp. O/T. Special considerations in the use of conventional DMARDs  All are slow-acting and take time to act.

Gold .R9 Rheumatology & Immunology  Switching to or adding another DMARD promptly if synovitis uncontrolled  Counsel patients on the effects and side effects and their slow action 7. check HAHO intranet site for details under Samaritan fund Response criteria 1. Conventional DMARDs: Methotrexate.Oral or IM. Infliximab. Leflunomide. Hydroxychloroquine. CRP)  Disability scores (HAQ) EULAR response criteria Disease activity score (DAS) 2. Cyclosporin A. Azathioprine. Sulphasalazine. . rituximab  Safety Net available for etanercept & infliximab. ACR response criteria ACR20/50/70 responses ≥ 20%/50%/70% improvement in (a) Swollen joint count (b) Tender joint count (c) Improvement in at least 3 of the following 5 measures  Patients’ global assessment of disease activity  Physicians global assessment of disease activity  Patients’ assessment of pain  Acute-phase reactant (ESR. Biological DMARDs  Should be prescribed by rheumatologist & with reference to relevant local & international guidelines  Examples: Adalimumab. Etanercept. Penicillamine 8. Low dose prednisolone (<10mg/day).

70•Ln(ESR) +0.1 Moderate moderate No response response response >5.6 Present Decrease in DAS28 score >1.56 • √(t28) + 0. mm/hour)  General health status (GH) using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) High disease activity >5.6-1.R10 Rheumatology & Immunology DAS44 and DAS28 (more convenient in daily clinical practice) DAS28 = 0.6 <3.2 <0.2.2 0. low disease activity ≤ 3.014•GH  Number of tender joints among 28 joints (t28)  Number of swollen joints among 28 joints (sw28)  Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR.28 • (sw28) + 0.1 Moderate No response No response response .2-5.1.2 Good Moderate No response response response 3. remission <2.

≥ grade II bilateral or grade III to IV unilaterally b. HLA-B27 is not diagnostic. Modified New York criteria for definite AS (1984) a. BASDAI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index). XR sacroiliac joints and spine b. active disease defined as ≥ 4 ( 0-10) b. BAS-G (Patient’s / Physician’s Global score) 4. Lateral lumbar flexion Investigations a. uveitis. Extra-skeletal features – apical fibrosis. aortic insufficiency 3. 5. Limitation of chest expansion relative to normal correlated for age & sex 2. Measurements a. Disease assessment a. Low back pain & stiffness for > 3 months that improve with exercise but not relieve by rest ii.R11 Rheumatology & Immunology ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS 1. Clinical criteria (at least 1 out of 3 ) i. Occiput to wall distance. tragus to wall distance c. . BASFI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index) c. Limitation of motion of lumbar spine in both sagittal & frontal planes iii. Radiological criterion -Sacroiliitis. Routine HLA-B27 checking is not recommended. MRI / CT SI joints in doubtful cases c. Modified Schober test b. Chest expansion d.

Addition of gastroprotective agents or use selective COX-2 inhibitor in patients with high GI risks (elderly. e. can be normal in patients with predominant axial involvement.R12 Rheumatology & Immunology d. Analgesics such as paracetamol and opioids for patients in whom conventional NSAIDs or COX-2 inhibitor are insufficient. 6. Treatment a. Sulphasalazine for patients with peripheral arthritis f. exercise & physiotherapy b. NSAIDs for pain and stiffness at optimal tolerated dose c. Education. ASAS 50 Response criteria: ↓ BASDAI by 50% . comorbidity) d. BASMI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index ) Acute phase reactants (ESR/CRP). history of peptic ulcer. contraindicated or intolerated e. Anti-TNF therapy for patients with persistent high disease activity despite adequate trial of the above treatment including 2-3 NSAIDs (at least 2 months for each unless contraindicated). Refer rheumatologist for assessment of disease activity and indications for antiTNF therapy 7.

4. spine or entheseal) Inflammatory [mandatory] With 3 or more points from the following: 1. Current psoriasis (scores 2 points) Personal history of psoriasis (if current psoriasis not present) Family history of psoriasis (if personal history of psoriasis or current psoriasis not present) Psoriatic nail dystrophy A negative test for rheumatoid factor Current dactylitis History of dactylitis (if current dactylitis not present) Radiological evidence of juxta-articular new bone formation Clinical features  30% psoriasis population has arthritis  60% psoriasis preceeds arthritis.R13 Rheumatology & Immunology PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS Diagnostic criteria 1. 7. 5. 6. The Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis criteria (CASPAR) articular disease (joint. 3. 2. Moll & Wright criteria 1973  inflammatory arthritis (peripheral arthritis and/or sacroiliitis or spondylitis)  the presence of psoriasis  the absence of rheumatoid factor 2. 20% arthritis preceeds psoriasis. 20% concurrent . 8.

hairline.Fluocinolone < betamethasone < clobetasol (to be used by specialist) . e. dactylitis counted as one active joint) Eg.Lotion < cream < ointment < occlusive dressing . pitting. cyclosporin A Anti-TNF therapy (to be used by specialist)  For skin psoriasis (a) Topical steroid (potency) . around umbilicus. behind the ear and inside ear cannel. Methotrexate.R14 Rheumatology & Immunology Features distinguished PsA from RA  Presence of psoriasis (Hidden lesions common. bathing soap (c) Vit D analogues: e. leflumomide.g. scalp.g.1% betamethasone cream. e. guttate lesions on back.g. Dovonex (calcipotriol) (to be used by specialist) (d) UVA or UVB (to be used by specialist) (e) Anti-TNFα therapy and other biologics (to be used by specialist) .Common e. around the perineum or even natal cleft)  Nail dystrophy Onycholysis. Diprosalic (betamethasone + salicylate) (b) Topical Tar products. ridging etc  Distal phalangeal joint involvement  Spondylitis or sacroilitis  Enthesitis (inflammation of junction of tendon and bone)  Dactylitis Treatment Early DMARD treatment  Active arthritis (> 3 tender/ swollen joints. under the breasts. shampoo. sulphasalazine.: 0.g.

or cellular casts) 8. or thrombocytopenia < 100 X 109/L) 10. Hochberg et al. Serositis (pericarditis. or leucopenia < 4 X 109/L. Immunological (anti-dsDNA. lymphopenia < 1. peritonitis. Prepregnancy counseling and ultraviolet light protection should be advised. serially or simultaneously = classified as SLE (specificity = 96%) Anti-ENA antibodies  Anti-Ro: associated with photosensitivity and an increased risk of congenital heart block (~2% incidence).  Anti-ENA antibodies seldom sero-convert and repeating tests is not necessary. or anti-Sm. or psychosis) 9. Positive anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) ≥ 4 criteria. on two or more occasions. Hematological (hemolytic anemia. revised 1997. 1982.5 X 109/L. Neurological (seizure.) 1. or +++ by dipstick.R15 Rheumatology & Immunology SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE) American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for the classification of SLE (Tan et al.5g/day. . Malar rash 2. Photosensitivity 4. pleuritis) 7. Oral ulcers 5. Discoid rash 3. or false +ve VDRL for more than 6 months. Arthritis 6. Renal disease (proteinuria > 0. or the presence of the antiphospholipid antibodies) 11.

An elevated CRP in SLE may indicate persistent synovitis / arthritis. livedo reticularis. Monitoring of disease activity  Clinical assessment (signs and symptoms of disease flares)  Serology: C3 and C4 level. Because of its limited sensitivity. these antibodies have to be checked before pregnancy.  Because of the association with recurrent abortion and miscarriages. . Infection has always to be considered before augmentation of immunosuppressive therapy.  C-reactive protein (CRP) is usually not elevated in patients with active SLE.R16 Rheumatology & Immunology Anti-phospholipid antibodies  Lupus anticoagulant (LAC) and anti-cardiolipin (aCL) antibody (IgG) are available in most HA hospitals. serositis or infection.  Twice positive tests 12 week apart are necessary for the Dx of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Other associations: thrombocytopenia. recurrent miscarriages and venous thrombosis. valvular heart lesions. anti-dsDNA titer Points to note  The ANA titer only correlates with disease activity very roughly and is not reliable for disease monitoring. Only strongly positive aCL is clinically relevant. anti-β2-GPI should only be considered in patients in whom antiphospholipid syndrome is suspected but yet aCL and LAC is negative.  Anti-β2-GPI antibody is more specific than aCL for thrombosis.  They are strongly associated with cerebro-vascular accidents in Chinese SLE patients. Thus. there is no need to repeat ANA every visit.

Items can be used a check-list for disease flares Seizure (8) New skin rash (2) Psychosis (8) Alopecia (2) Organic brain syndrome (8) Fever (1) Lupus headache (8) Leukopenia (< 3 X 109/L) (1) Thrombocytopenia (1) Cranial nerve disorder (8) Increase in anti-dsDNA titre (2) Cerebrovascular accident (8) Retinal hemorrhage / infarct / Decrease in C3 (2) Proteinuria (4) optic neuritis (8) Urine cast (4) Vasculitis (8) Red blood cell cast in urine (4) Arthritis (> 2 joints) (4) Sterile pyuria (4) Myositis (4) Oral ulcer (2) Pleuritis (2) Pericarditis (2) * Only new features or manifestations are scored Treatment of SLE General: Patients’ education and counseling. Leflunomide (persistent and refractory arthritis)  Topical steroid (skin lupus)  Small to moderate doses of prednisolone (fever. systemic upset. steroid sparing) .R17 Rheumatology & Immunology Disease activity scoring system The ACR SELENA-SLEDAI is one of the most widely used disease activity index. skin lupus)  Methotrexate. mild cytopenias. serositis. screening and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and osteoporosis Mild SLE manifestations  NSAIDs (arthritis. fever)  Hydroxychloroquine (arthritis. more severe serositis and skin lupus)  Azathioprine (hematological. sun-screening. mild renal disease.

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Severe SLE manifestations Glomerulonephritis, neuropsychiatric lupus, severe cytopenias, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, pulmonary hemorrhage, myocarditis, pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension  Moderate to high doses of prednisolone  Intravenous pulse methylprednisolone  Azathioprine  Cyclophosphamide (intravenous pulse or oral)  Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)  Cyclosporin A and tacrolimus  Plasma exchange  Intravenous immunoglobulin  Rituximab  Vasodilatation (bosentan, inhaled iloprost, sildenafil)  Anticoagulation Lupus nephritis (ISN/RPS Classification 2003) Class I: Minimal mesangial lupus nephritis Class II: Mesangial proliferative lupus nephritis Class III: Focal proliferative lupus nephritis Class IVG: Diffuse global proliferative lupus nephritis Class IVS: Diffuse segmental proliferative lupus nephritis Class V: Membranous lupus nephritis Class VI: Advanced sclerotic lupus nephritis MMF increasingly used as first line treatment for proliferative lupus nephritis because of the lower frequency of adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide remains the conventional treatment for those with rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis and those with impaired renal function

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Neuropsychiatric lupus 19 Neuropsychiatric syndromes classification Central nervous system Aseptic meningitis Cerebrovascular disease Demyelinating syndrome Headache Movement disorder Myelopathy Seizure disorder Acute confusional state Anxiety disorder Cognitive dysfunction Mood disorders Psychosis

according to the 1999 ACR Peripheral nervous system Guillain-Barre syndrome Autonomic neuropathy Mononeuropathy (single/multiplex) Myasthenia gravis Cranial neuropathy Plexopathy Polyneuropathy

Diagnosis  Till now, no specific confirmatory serological & imaging tests  A diagnosis by exclusion (to rule out CNS infections, metabolic encephalopathy, effects of drugs / toxins including corticosteroids, electrolyte disturbances, rarely brain tumor)  Lupus activity in other systems increases likelihood for active neuropsychiatric lupus but CNS infection may coexist with active neuropsychiatric lupus  CT brain, MRI brain / spinal cord for anatomical diagnosis  Lumbar puncture to rule out CNS infection  EEG  Antiphospholipid antibodies  Anti-ribosomal P antibody (private laboratory) is associated with lupus psychosis but its usefulness is limited by the low sensitivity

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Treatment  Symptomatic: anti-convulsants, anti-psychotics, antidepressants, sedatives  Secondary prophylaxis for atherosclerotic vascular disorders: aspirin / warfarin  Immunosuppressive or immunomodulating treatment (eg. high dose corticosteroids, pulse methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide, IVIG): severe psychosis, acute confusional state, myelopathy, myasthenia gravis, neuropathies, demyelinating syndrome.

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RHEUMATOLOGICAL EMERGENCIES
CERVICAL SUBLUXATION  Suspect in RA patients with long standing and severe disease  Commonly presents with neck pain radiating towards the occiput, clumsiness, abnormal gait, spastic quadriparesis, sensory and sphincter disturbances. May cause cord compression and death.  4 forms in descending order of frequency: anterior, posterior, lateral, vertical Investigations:  Plain AP and lateral XR of cervical spine with flexion and extension views  Anterior subluxation: distance between the posterior aspect of the anterior arch of the atlas and the anterior aspect of the odontoid process (Atlanto-dens interval, ADI) ≥ 4mm  Dynamic (flexion-extension) MRI (if surgery indicated) Management: Medical  High-impact exercises and spinal manipulation are contraindicated  Soft collars may serve as reminder for patients and physicians but provide little structural support  Stiff cervical collars may provide marginal benefit but compliance is a problem  Neuropathic pain relief Surgical  Urgent referral to orthopaedic surgeons or neurosurgeons if signs of cord compression  Patients with severe subluxation but without signs of cord compression are at risk for severe injury and perhaps death due to a variety of insults including falls, whiplash injuries, and intubation. Surgical decision should be individualized.  Surgical options: craniocervical decompression, cervical or occipito-cervical fusion (alone or in combination)

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GIANT CELL ARTERITIS (GCA) Presentation: At least 3 of following 5 criteria 1. Age ≥50 years 2. Localized headache of new onset 3. Tenderness or decreased pulse of the temporal artery 4. ESR > 50 mm/hr 5. Biopsy revealing a necrotizing arteritis with a predominance of mononuclear cells or a granulomatous process with multinucleated giant cells.  Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) is characterized by aching and morning stiffness in the shoulder and hip girdles, occurring in 40-50% of GCA patients.  Other presentations: jaw or arm claudication, weight loss, PUO  Complications: Ischaemic optic retinopathy (visual loss 1520%). Blindness is abrupt and painless, may be preceded by amaurosis fugax.  Aneurysms, dissections, stenotic lesions of the aorta and its major branches Investigations  Elevated ESR , often >100mm/hr (5% of GCA has ESR< 40mm/hr)  Temporal artery biopsy of the affected side. Treatment  High dose prednisolone (1mg/kg/day)  For visual symptoms or signs (eg, amaurosis fugax, partial or complete visual loss), start empirical steroid before temporal artery biopsy result  Acute visual changes - consider IV pulse methylprednisolone (250-1000mg) daily for 3 days SEPTIC ARTHRITIS (see relevant section)

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NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS)
• • • • • Do not use > 1 NSAID at a time Use the lowest possible dosage and frequency sufficient for pain relief Efficacy is similar among various NSAIDs. Cheaper ones such as naproxen, ibuprofen and indomethacin are equally effective. If one NSAID is not working despite 2-3 week of treatment at full dosage, shifting to another NSAID may be considered. Coexisting hypertension, fluid retention and/or renal impairment – consider sulindac

Adverse Effects • GI: dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, GI bleeding and perforation • Renal: renal impairment • CVS: fluid retention, worsening of hypertension, increased cardiovascular events • Liver: raised transaminases • CNS: headache, dizziness and cognitive impairment, especially use of indomethacin in elderly • Skin: may range from mild rash to Steven Johnson’s Syndrome • Resp: may precipitate or exacerbate bronchospasm in aspirin sensitive individuals Risk factors for Gastrointestinal toxicity: a. Chronically disabled b. Age > 60 years c. Previous history of proven peptic disease d. Co-administration of high dose prednisolone or anticoagulation e. Higher dosage of NSAIDs f. Extent of inflammatory disease for which NSAIDs is prescribed

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COX-2 inhibitors (COXIB) Efficacy: similar to non-selective conventional NSAIDs Advantages: • Reduce gastrointestinal toxicity. • Less effect on platelet function, hence less bleeding risk. • Less risk of precipitating bronchospasm Adverse effects: • Increase risk of cardiovascular events (AMI, stroke). Risk α dosage. May worsen BP control and heart failure • Nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity similar to conventional NSAIDs • Celecoxib should be avoided in patients with sulphonamide allergy Current recommendations for patients receiving NSAIDs 1. Prescribe lower-risk agents. Weigh the GI vs the CV risk in individual patient.  If estimated risk of life-threatening GI bleeding > risk of CV events, consider use of NSAIDs with gastroproection or the COXIBs.  If risk of CV events > the risk of GI bleeding, COXIBs should be avoided. 2. Limit duration, frequency and dosage. 3. Patients with known H pylori infection should undergo eradication before NSAID therapy. 4. For patients at higher risk for GI complications, consider assessing for and treating H pylori if present and co-therapy with gastroprotective agents. 5. Gastroprotection. • Misoprostol • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) • COXIB alone is beneficial in reducing GI risks, but with the possible trade-off of increasing CV risk. • COXIB with concurrent PPI therapy may be considered in ultra-high risk patients eg. recurrent ulcer bleeding.

Infections

Infections

. Outpatient pneumonia  PO β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (e. 3. # DRSP risk (age>70. OR  PO Amoxicillin + a newer macrolide. c) SBP<90 or DBP<60mmHg. e) Mental confusion. OR  Fluoroquinolone + an aminoglycoside Severe hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia (Either 1 out 3 major OR 2 out of 6 minor) Major criteria: a) ARF. OR  Cefotaxime or ceftriaxone ± Macrolide  With modifying factors such as bronchiectasis:  Ticarcilline-tazobactam/Piperacillin-tazobactam/Cefepime + macrolide. recent hospitalisation. OR  Fluoroquinolone for those with DRSP risk(s) or Penicillin intolerance Hospitalised patients with mild to moderate infection (these patients have risk factors requiring hospitalisation)  IV/PO Augmentin/Unasyn ± Macrolide. immunosuppressive therapy. institutionalisation) * Modify antibiotics according to C/ST when available *In general. f) Multilobar involvement  IV Piperacillin-tazobactam/Cefotaxime/Ceftriaxone + macrolide. c) Require MV Minor criteria: a) RR>30/min. b) PaO2/FiO2<250. antibiotics within the last 3/12. therapy should not be changed within the 1st 72 hrs unless there is marked clinical deterioration. Augmentin/Unasyn) ± Macrolide. d) Urea>7mmol/L. coexisting illness. b) Septic shock.In1 COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA (Ref: IMPACT 3rd Editon 2005) 1.g. OR  Cefepime + a macrolide Infections 2.

Thus. 2. ≥4 µg/ml. Use of fluoroquinolone in CAP may lead to: (1) delay in diagnosis of tuberculosis. fluoroquinolone is not recommended as first line therapy in Hong Kong for CAP. . 3. • Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime + a newer macrolide Infections As above + Enterobacteriaceae In HK. sensitive. not hospitalized CAP. pneumoniae H. 2 µg/ml. tuberculosis. (2) increased fluoroquinolone resistance among M. requiring ICU care Remarks 1. Penicillin or ampicillin or amoxillin are generally viewed as the beta-lactam drugs of choice for treatment infections with Pen-S and Pen-I strains of S. intermediate. pneumoniae isolates are multiply resistant to these agents For S. hospitalized in general ward Serious CAP. macrolide/azalide or tetracycline should not be used alone for empiric treatment of CAP as 50-70% pen-S and penR S. influenzae M pneumoniae C. 4. resistant. pneumoniae As above IV/PO Amoxicillinclavulanate. pneumoniae. pneumoniae causing pneumonia (but not otitis media and meningitis). • Ceftriazone or Cefotaxime ± a newer macrolide • IV Piperacillin-tazobactam. • Cefepime. Augmentin 375mg tds + amoxil 250mg tds may be an acceptable alternative to high dose Augmentin 1gm bd as they were demonstrated to be bioequivalent. the following revised categorization was suggested: ≤ 1µg/ml. Antibiotics • • • PO Amoxicillin-clavulanate ± a newer macrolide or Amoxicillin + a newer macrolide • • • • S.In2 Organisms CAP.

aeruginosa and DRSP include cefepime.g. piperacillin-tazobactam. Patients with early-onset pneumonia (≤4 days admission) with no risk ≤ factors for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and any disease severity 3rd generation cephalosporin OR β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (Amoxycillin-clavulanate/ Ampicillin-sulbactam) 2. bronchiectasis). imipenem and meropenem. Patients with late-onset pneumonia (>4 days admission) OR risk factors for MDR pathogens and all disease severity Antipseudomonal β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitor OR Antipseudomonal cephalosporin OR Antipseudomonal carbepenem ± aminoglycoside OR fluoroquinolone Linezolid OR Vancomycin after careful assessment of indication . Drugs with activity against both P. or fluoroquinolone + aminoglycoside. give piperacillintazobactam or cefepime + a macrolide. With pseudomonas risk (e. Infections 7.In3 5. HOSPITAL ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA (HAP) Pneumonia occurring ≥48 hr after admission and excluding any infection that is incubating at the time of admission 2 empiric Rx categories : 1. piperacillin. Indications for use of fluoroquinolones in CAP • Failed first line regimen • Allergic to alternative agents • Documented infection due to pneumococci with high level penicillin resistance (MIC ≥ 4µg/mL). 6.

pneumoniae. OR onset ≥ 5 days after amission OR mechanical ventilation . Acinetobacter species and MRSA)  Antimicrobial therapy in preceding 90 days  High frequency of antibiotic resistance in the community or in the hospital unit  Hospitalization for ≥ 2 days in the preceding 90 days  Residence in a nursing home or extended care facility  Chronic dialysis within 30 days  Home wound care  Family member with multi-resistant pathogen  Immunosuppressive disease and/or therapy Empiric antibiotic may need modification/de-escalaton once the results of blood or respiratory tract cultures become available Organisms Antibiotics • S. Catarrhalis allergy (non-type I • S. • P aeruginosa. • Klebsiella spp. ± an aminoglycoside ± Vancomycin after careful assessment of indications Infections Onset <4 days after admission with no previous antibiotics Onset ≤ 4 days after admission + had received antibiotic recently. • Acinetobacter. • IV cefoperazonesulbactam. • IV/PO Amoxicillinclavulanate or • H influenzae • Cefuorxime if penicillin • M. • Ticarcillin-clavulanate or • piperacillin-tazobactam • Enterobacter spp. • Cefepime. aureus hypersensitivity) • MRSA. ESBLproducing Enterobacteriaceae.In4 Risk factors for MDR pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa..

Carbapenems or third generation cephalosporins for severely ill or immunocompromised patients. Add adjuvant steroids in all severe cases (PaO2 in RA< 70mmHg/ 9kPa OR A-a gradient >35 mmgHg/ 4. 4.Co-trimoxazole iv (TMP 12-20 mg/kg & sulphamethoxazole 75-100 mg/kg in 3-4 divided doses) till clinically improved. 5.Pentamidine 4 mg/kg by slow 2-hr iv infusion daily x 3 wks d. 3. b. Amphotericin B 1-5 mg iv infusion over 2 hrs as test dose Increase by 10 mg/day up to 0. Alternative . Itraconazole 200-400mg daily po if amphotericin is not tolerated or as follow-up therapy after amphotericin c. . 12(3): 228-234) Legionella pneumonia Erythromycin 500-1000mg iv q6h x 2-3 wks ± rifampicin Infections 2. Fluconazole for invasive candidiasis 400 mg po/iv on Day 1.In5 OPPORTUNISTIC PNEUMONIA 1. then oral therapy to complete the 21day course + adjunctive systemic steroid c. Pneumocystis carinii a. Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (5-10mg/kg TM & 2550mg/kg SMX) po/iv in 2-4 divided doses for 6-12 months. followed by 200-400 mg daily po/iv CMV pneumonia a.Prednisolone 40mg bd for 5 days then 20 mg daily for the duration of the therapy Fungi a.Co-trimoxazole po for 3 weeks (TMP 20 mg/kg & sulphamethoxazole 100 mg/kg in 3-4 divided doses) b.7 kPa) . Severe cases (PaO2 ≤ 9 kPa) . Ganciclovir 5 mg/kg q12h by iv infusion b. (Ref: Curr Opin Pulm Med 2006. Mild cases (PaO2 > 9 kPa) . Alternative .6-1.Foscarnet 180 mg/kg daily iv infusion (adjust dose according to renal function) Nocardia a. dissolve in D5 and infuse over 4-6 hrs after pre-medication with chlorpheniramine 10 mg iv and hydrocortisone 25-50 mg iv b.0 mg/kg. Alternative to Co-trimoxazole .

5-2 g 50 kg 2. Drugs and dosages Daily 3x/week PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS Infections BW Dose BW Dose H = Isoniazid -300 mga -10-15 mg/kg R = Rifampicin <50 kg 450 mg -600 mg 50 kg 600 mg Z = Pyrazinamide <50 kg 1-1.5 g E = Ethambutolb -15 mg/kg -30 mg/kg S = Streptomycin <50 kg 500-750 mgc <50 kg 500-750 mg 50 kg 750 mg 50 kg 750-1000 mg a) i) Some elderly and/or malnourished can only tolerate 200 mg.hk/tb_chest . pregnancy. b) Assess baseline visual symptoms & acuity before starting Rx with close monitoring during therapy & consult ophthalmologist prn c) Lower dose for > 60 years old. Reference: Chemotherapy of TB in HK – updated in 2006. encephalopathy and convulsions especially in renal impairment. Subscript ‘3’ = thrice weekly & ‘7’ = daily.In6 Recommendations *Directly observed treatment (DOT) should be given as far as possible.info.5 g <50 kg 2 g 50 kg 1.gov. www. The slash “/” is used to separate different phases of Rx. ii) Vitamin B6 10 mg/d for malnutrition. alcoholism. Retreatment cases – 9 months in total. 1. Uncomplicated new cases – 6 months in total 2 HRZ + (E or S)7/ 4 HR7 (When Rx started in hospital or when 3x/week regimen not tolerated) 2 HRZ + (E or S)7/ 4 HR3 2 HRZ + (E or S)3/ 4HR3 (Government Chest Clinic regimen) 2. iv) Drug interaction with phenytoin & carbamazepine. iii) May cause peripheral neuropathy. 3 (or 4) HRZES7/ 6 (or 5) HR E7 Notations Figures in front of drug combinations = duration in months.

glucose (simultaneous blood sugar). Other Ix: CBP.4-0.In7 CNS INFECTIONS Consider CNS infections in the presence of sepsis and one or more of the followings: meningism. CXR. photophobia. Look for any predisposing factors: sinusitis. CSF examination is crucial in the diagnosis of meningitis 2. sinuses and mastoid 5. EEG. impaired consciousness. Signs and symptoms may be subtle or absent in elderly or immunocompromised host. CSF analysis: cell count. If LP is contraindicated.0 <1/2 turbid/viscous 100-300 0-200 0. seizures.4 >1/2 clear 10-100 nil 0. otitis media. gram stain.0 <1/2 PMN (/mm ) Protein (g/l) CSF/blood glucose 3 . XR skull.2-0. viral studies Do not wait for C/ST results before starting Rx 4.5-3. etc Typical CSF findings in meningitis Normal Viral Bacterial Appearance Mononuclear cells (/mm3) Infections TB / Cryptococcal clear <5 nil 0. endocarditis. cryptococcus (India ink smear. signs of increased intracranial pressure (↑ ICP). headache. skull fracture. RFT. focal neurological deficits.8 >1/2 turbid <50 200-3000 0. Watch out for signs of ↑ICP and do urgent CT brain before LP.5-2. presence of parameningeal focus of sepsis. protein. 1. AFB (smear and C/ST). LFT. culture. Ag and culture). empirical antibiotics can be started after taking blood cultures 3. confusion. immunocompromised state. likely to be delayed or fails.

the first dose of antimicrobial therapy) in adults with suspected or proven pneumococcal meningitis • Prophylactic anti-convulsant may be considered in cerebral abscess and subdural empyema • Duration of Rx for meningitis usually 10-14 days.5-2 g daily Ethambutol 15 mg/kg/d daily (25 mg/kg/d for first 2/12) Pyridoxine 100 mg daily ± Streptomycin 0.75 g im daily Cryptococcal Amphotericin B 0. 10-14 days for S. influenzae.5-2 g iv q4h iv + @ meningitis Ampicillin 2g iv q4h (if risk of listerosis anticipated ) Brain abscess Ceftriaxone 2 g q12h OR Cefotaxime 1. and 21 days for Gram negative bacilli.15 mg/kg q6h for 2 4 days with the first dose administered 10 20 min before. for brain abscess 6-8 weeks • Consider prophylaxis for contacts in cases of meningococcal meningitis: ciprofloxacin 500mg stat. .5 mg/kg q6h po for 2 weeks. or at least concomitant with. pregnancy and elderly Infections • Dexamethasone 4 mg q6h in complicated TB meningitis or brain abscess with significant cerebral oedema.8 mg/kg iv infusion over 4-6 hrs + meningitis 5-Flucytosine 37.5-0. pneumoniae.5-2 g iv q4h iv + Metronidazole 500 mg iv q8h TB meningitis INAH 300-600 mg daily Rifampicin 450-600 mg daily Pyrazinamide 1. • Dexamethasone (0. then fluconazole 400mg/d for a minimum of 10 weeks (immunocompetent patients) Viral Acyclovir 10 mg/kg iv q8h (or 500mg iv q8h) encephalitis @ Immunocompromized. 14-21 days for L.In8 Initial empirical anti-microbial regimes Bacterial Ceftriaxone 2 g q12h OR Cefotaxime 1. agalactiae. ceftriazone 250mg IM stat • Duration of treatment: ≥ 7days for H. DO NOT change to oral therapy. monocytogenes and S.

coli. and Klebsiella strains. e. A 14-day regimen is generally recommended for upper UTI. klebsiella spp. • Amoxicillin-clavulanate(c) Gp B streptococcus. grampositive cocci (including Enterococcus and S. saprophyticus. saprophyticus). • TMP-SMX(d) Proteus spp. d. relative to serum levels. There is the increasing problem of resistance to TMP-SMX and fluoroquniolone. Nitrofurantoin is well tolerated. • PO Nitrofurantoin(b. Escherichia coli is the most causative pathogen. than do beta lactams . f. Give 5-7 day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate or Nitrofurantoin as 3-day course may not be as effective as ciprofloxacin and TMP-SMX.In9 URINARY TRACT INFECTION Diagnosis Cystitis Organisms (a) Antibiotics E. Aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones achieve higher tissue levels. • IV Amoxicillin-clavulanate • 3rd cephalosporins (e) ± Aminoglycoside (f) • IV/PO Fluoroquinolone (d. c. Nitrofurantoin should not be used to treat pyelonephritis since it does not achieve reliable tissue levels. c) S. b. pyelonephritis other enterobacteriacea. but inactive against most Proteus. coli. enterococcus Remarks a. For example ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. and demonstrates a consistently low level of resistance among E. f) Infections Acute E. coli.

fever. ↓platelet. Clinical presentation Infections 1. Most are selflimiting. encephalitis. Invasive diarrhoea (Inflammatory enteritis) • Presents as dysenteric syndrome i. noncholera vibrios (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Plesiomonas shigelloides) and occasionally Entamoeba histolytica (amoebic dysentery). Secretory diarrhoea (Non-inflammatory enteritis) • Commonly caused by salmonellosis • Norovirus: pronounced vomiting • Cholera classically presents as acute painless profuse rice water diarrhoea without blood or mucus 2. Norovirus. 4. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever) • Caused by Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever) and Salmonella paratyphi (paratyphoid fever) • Suspect in patient of high fever with relative bradycarida. . Enteric infections associated with systemic complications • E coli O157:H7 — haemolytic-uraemic syndrome • Campylobacter enteritis — Guillain-Barré syndrome • Non-polio enteroviruses — Hand-foot-mouth disease. transient diarrhoea followed by abdominal colic. blood and mucus in stool • Commonly caused by shigellosis (bacillary dysentery). bacteria and their toxin.In10 ENTERIC INFECTIONS Acute infective diarrhea may be due to viruses e. 3.e. etc. and sometimes protozoa. myocarditis. no localized focus of infection. tenesmus. N to ↓WCC.g.

e. Consider fluoroquinolone e.In11 Enteric infections are often more severe in immunocompromised patients. fever > 38.g. anatomical or functional hyposplenism. levofloxacin 500mg daily po for 3 days for severe gastroenteritis (> 6 unformed stools/day. 2. • Alternative: Ceftriaxone 1-2g iv q24h • Strains with nalidixic acid resistance: Azithromycin 500mg qd x 7 days or Ceftriaxone 1-2g iv q24h x 10 – 14 days Management for other bacterial enteric infections 1. blood or faecal WBC +ve) NOTE: If Campylobacter enteritis is suspected and antimicrobial is indicated on clinical grounds. diabetes mellitus. cirrhosis. clarithromycin or azithromycin) is preferred because of increasing report of fluoroquinolone resistance. Dx of enteric fever confirmed by culture from blood & stool.5oC.g. occasionally bone marrow aspirate. Management for enteric fever 1.g. Adequate fluid and electrolyte supplement 2. Widal serology unreliable. elderly. Routine antibiotic not recommended for mild to moderate gastroenteritis 3. Antibiotics treatment: • Levofloxacin 500mg daily iv/po OR ciprofloxacin 500mg 750mg bd po x 5-7 days. a macrolide (e. concurrent immunosuppressant therapy 5. Infections .

Preparation for ERCP a) Indications for emergency ERCP .Mental confusion. Care for patients who have nasobiliary or percutaneous (PTBD) drainage of obstructed biliary tract a) Check input/output chart (including NB drain) daily b) Check hydration status.IV antibiotic can be switched to oral formulary for completion of therapy if clinically stable. Levofloxacin + metronidazole . RFT.Hypotension despite resusitation .Amoxicillin-clavulanate (± Aminoglycoside) .In12 ACUTE CHOLANGITIS 1. Management a) Active resuscitation and monitor vital signs b) IV antibiotics regimens: . LFT. APTT.Cefuroxime + metronidazole (± Aminoglycoside) . Glucose c) Blood culture d) Cross match e) Abdominal USG 2. HCO3 and correct fluid and electrolyte derangement as necessary Infections . c) Early decompression of biliary obstruction 3. RFT b) PT. which is a predictor of poor outcome b) Correct coagulopathy c) Fast patient 4. Investigations a) CBP.High fever (> 39oC) .If penillin allergy.Increasing pain and guarding in epigastrium or RUQ .

request differential WBC) • Low protein level is consistent with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis • Fluid for bacterial culture in blood culture broth • Cytology 2.In13 SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS High index of suspicion is necessary 1. Watch out for hepatic encephalopathy. • Usual duration of treatment : 5-10 days 5. Infections . Diagnostic criteria: • ascitic fluid WCC > 500/mm3 or neutrophil > 250/mm3 3. Empirical treatment • Ceftriaxone 2gm q24h IVI OR Cefotaxime 1-2 gm q8h IVI • May consider reassessment by repeating paracentesis 48 hours later. Cirrhotic patients may have an insidious onset of fever and lack of peritoneal signs. Perform blood culture 4. perform diagnostic paracentesis. send ascitic fluid for: • Cell count (EDTA bottle to haematology laboratory.

recent Streptococcus chickenpox.2gm Q8H Streptococci Anaerobes • IV penicillin G 4MU Q4H Plus • IV clindamycin 600mg Q8H • ± IVIG (1-2g/kg for 1 dose) for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome Following cuts. • Group A abrasion. 5. to freshwater. healthy adults . Excruciating pain and presence of systemic toxicity out of proportion to the local findings.In14 NECROTIZING FASCIITIS Necrotizing Fasciitis is a deep seated infection of the subcutaneous tissue that results in proressive destruction of fascia and fat. 4. loss of limb or death. Skin breakdown with bullae and frank cutaenous gangrene can be seen. IVDU. Risk Factors Organisms Following exposure • Aeromonas spp. Early Recognition is important because there may be a remarkably rapid progression from an inapparent process to one associated with extensive destruction of tissue. Risk factors assessment and urgent Gram stain may guide choice of antibiotics. Difficult to distinguish from cellulitis in early stages. • Vibrio vulnificus seawater or seafood Following intraabdominal. 2. Infections Diagnosis and Management: 1. 3. but may spare the skin. Immediate surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy are the mainstay of treatment. systemic toxicity. gynecological or perineal surgery • • • • Antibiotics • IV Levofloxacin 500750mg daily Plus Polymicrobial • IV Amoxicillin-clavulanate Enterobacteriacea 1.

please notify Department of Health Alternative therapy / consider CAMRSA coverage • Review diagnosis • Re-assess need for I&D . carbuncle) Necrotizing pneumonia Periorbital cellulites Deep intramuscular abscess/ pyomyositis Pyogenic meningitis Uncomplicated SSTI: Impetigo. Folliculitis. chlortetracycline) for • Amoxycillinimpetigo or mild folliculitis clavulanate.g. Furuncle. Cellulites. or (e. necrotizing fasciitis.In15 GUIDELINE FOR CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF SKIN & SOFT TISSUE INFECTION AND CLINICAL SYNDROMES COMPATIBLE WITH STAPHYLOCOCCAL INFECTION History and Physical Examination Complicated SSTI: Consider hospital admission Indications for IV Antibiotics (Severe sepsis + Any one below: Complicated SSTI (e. • 1st generation Consider topical therapy cephalosporin. Abscess involvement Obtain culture if “NARES” • Not responsive to 1st line antibiotic • Atypical .g.body site or clinical features • Recurrent SSTI • Extensive – infection in multiple sites Initiate empiric Rx • Spreading – in close I&D contacts involvement • Ampicillin + Cloxacillin. or involvement • Ampicillinsulbactam Infections • • • • • Clinical improve: Complete therapy Advice on personal hygiene Clinical assessment of S/S: Treat according to culture results Little or no improvement Obtain culture (if not yet done) If culture showed MRSA.

5 g q6-8h IVI Cefepime 2 g q12h or 1g q8h IVI Sulperazon 1g q8-12h IV • In ill cases.5 x 109/L or  1 x 109/L with a predictable decline to  0. add Amphotericin B 0. Infections . 750mg q24h or 375mg q12h) • Add vancomycin 500 mg q6h or 1gm Q12H if culture +ve or highly suggestive of MRSA/skin/catheter infection • If no response after 5 days and culture – e. Ceftazidime 1-2 g q8h IV Imipenem 500 mg q6h IVI Meropenem 500mg q6-8h to 1 g q8h IVI Tazocin 4. add Aminoglycoside (e. commence broad spectrum antibiotics with anti-pseudomonas activity e. after appropriate cultures taken.g.0 mg/kg/day Reference: 2002 Guidelines for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Neutropenic Patients with Cancer. Preventive measures: • Reverse isolation and aseptic nursing care • Weekly CXR and surveillance cultures from Hickman catheter. urine.In16 ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY FOR NEUTROPENIC PATIENTS (Neutrophil  0. throat. nasal and rectal swabs for bacteria and fungus • Bactericidal mouthwash (Chlorhexidine) • Antimicrobial prophylaxis may be considered – Fluconazole 200 mg daily po ± Levofloxacin 500 mg daily 2.30C or > 380C for more than 1 hour. Empirical therapy for neutropenic fever (stepwise approach): • Pyrexia > 38.g.5 x 109/L in 24 . sputum. IVI Amikacin 15mg/kg over 1h q24h.5 – 1.48h) 1.

P. In G6PD deficiency. malariae and P. then 500 mg 12 hours later NOTE 2 Primaquine-resistant P.In17 MALARIA Management of Acute Attack 1. ovale infection to eradicate hypnozoites in the liver NOTE 1 Chloroquine-resistant P. 7.5 – 30 mg daily (or 0. Uncomplicated P. vivax reported in South-east Asia and Western Pacific. Monitor Hb level. vivax. An increased of the dose to 22. avoid overhydration Renal failure regime for blackwater fever. . treat hypoglycaemia and/or shock if present Pulmonary oedema may develop. venodilator. treated by prop up. 3. oxygen. vivax reported from Oceania and South America. 5. if hypoxic may need positive pressure ventilation Avoid sedatives and corticosteroids Watch for relapse (usually within 2 months) and signs of peritoneal irritation (splenic rupture) Infections 6. primaquine is safe in dosage of 30 mg once a week for 8 weeks. Anti-malarial Chemotherapy A. loop diuretic. ovale Chloroquine 600 mg base po stat and 300 mg base 6 hours later then 300 mg base daily for 2 more days plus Primaquine 15 mg base (0.25 mg/kg) po daily taken with food for 14 days in P. vivax and P. 4. 2. Mefloquine 750 mg po.5 mg/kg) is effective NOTE 3 Primaquine is contraindicated in pregnancy. Anti-malarial chemotherapy should be administered as soon as the diagnosis is made Monitor blood for parasites and repeat testing is needed if the diagnosis is strongly suspected Maintain fluid and electrolytes balance.

4 mg/kg i. Clinical: Prostration.v. Impaired consciousness. Laboratory: Severe anaemia. Hyperlactataemia. Treatment: a. Artesunate 2. then 500 mg po on day 3 b. then once a day until oral medication could be taken. quinidine. Definition: presence of one or more of the following clinical or laboratory features. Uncomplicated P. then at 12 h and 24 h. . Jaundice. or i. falciparum malaria 1. Circulatory collapse.m. Treatment: a. Hypoglycaemia. Change to oral dose when feasible to complete a 7-day course plus Doxycycline as in above section C2a Note 1 Consider Primaquine 45 mg single dose to eradicate gametocytes in blood at the end of treatment of falciparum malaria Note 2 Do not use loading dose if patient has received quinine. Quinine 600 mg salt (10 mg/kg) po 8 hourly for 7 days plus Doxycycline 100 mg po bid for 7 days Infections C. Quinine dihydrochloride 20 mg/kg loading dose in 5% dextrose infused over 4 hours. Haemoglobinuria b. Artesunate 200 mg (4 mg/kg) po daily for 3 days plus Mefloquine 1000 mg base po on day 2. Renal impairment. Hyperparasitaemia (>5%) 2. Respiratory distress (acidotic breathing). given on admission (time = 0). Definition: symptomatic malaria without signs of severity or evidence of vital organ dysfunction 2. or mefloquine in preceding 24 hours. after excluding other obvious cause of their symptoms: a. Acidosis. Pulmonary oedema (radiological). Severe P. falciparum malaria 1. Abnormal bleeding. maintenance dose 10 mg/kg infused over 2 – 4 hours every 8 hours.In18 B. Multiple convulsions. treat for a total of 7 days plus Doxycycline 100 mg po bid for 7 days once oral medication could be taken or Mefloquine as in above section B2a b.

5. 3. in pregnancy or immunocompromised hosts. oral cloxacillin) if necessary.In19 CHICKENPOX / HERPES ZOSTER Diagnosis 1. . For herpes zoster with ophthalmic involvement. urgent eye consultation is recommended. 6.g. Virus detected by DIF of vesicular fluid Paired serology in acute and convalescent phases Infections Management 1. Keep patients from school / work for at least 5 days after onset of eruption or until vesicles become dry Strict isolation when in hospital (airborne isolation for chickenpox/ disseminated zoster) Give acyclovir 10 – 12 mg/kg q8h IV infusion for 7 days for severe zoster or chickenpox in elderly or immunocompromised patients Analgesics usually required for zoster Watch for development of severe secondary skin infection (Staphylococcus/Streptococcus) and consider antibiotics (e.g. e. 7. 2. 4. 2. Varicella-zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG) within 96 hours of exposure may prevent / modify disease in susceptible contacts prone to severe varicella.

For patients with respiratory symptoms: • CXR. AFB. colonoscopy for chronic diarrhoea. ABG • Sputum for C/ST. pneumocystis • Empirical Rx for pneumocystis if hypoxaemia present • Bronchoscopy for non-responsive cases 3. AIDS: Laboratory evidence of HIV infection plus clinical evidence of indicator disease for AIDS 3. For patients with GI symptoms: • Stool for microscopy and C/ST • Stool for cryptosporidia /isospora / microsporidia • Stool for MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex) • OGD for dysphagia. Obtain informed consent before performing HIV Ab test 4. the need for confidentiality and the importance of effecting behavorial modification irrespective of HIV status 5. USG for impaired LFT .In20 HIV / AIDS Diagnosis of HIV infection and AIDS: 1. Counselling is crucial because of major psychological and social implications of a positive result. Baseline assessment: • CD4/CD8 count • HIV RNA level 2. Referral for counselling and medical consultation available from QEH Special Medical Service (2958 6571) & CHP Kowloon Bay Integrated Treatment Centre (2116 2888) 6. Clinical management of HIV/AIDS Infections 1. Voluntary reporting of HIV infection and AIDS to Department of Health (DH2293 form) is encouraged for epidemiological purpose. HIV infection: HIV antibody test by screening (ELISA) and confirmatory (usually Western Blot) tests 2.

For patients with haematological symptoms: • Marrow biopsy for histology. ABC) 300 mg bd Tenofovir (Viread. IDV) 800 mg q8h fasting or 800 mg (with RTV 100 mg) bd Saquinavir (Invirase.In21 4. ddI) 250 – 400 mg daily Lamivudine (Epivir. NVP) 200 mg daily for 2 weeks. cryptococcal Ag • Nerve conduction studies for neuropathy 5. ATV) 300 mg daily (with RTV 100 mg) or 400 mg daily Ritonavir (Norvir. For patients with PUO: • Blood culture for fungus and mycobacteria • Marrow aspirate for histology. cryptococcal Ag and penicillium serology/ galactomannan • CXR. then 200 mg bd Efavirenz (Stocrin. AFB and fungal culture • Blood for CMV pp 65 antigen. TDF) 300 mg daily Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) Nevirapine (Viramune. For patients with neurological symptoms: • CT / MRI brain. 3TC) 150 mg bd Stavudine (Zerit. SQV) 1000 mg (with RTV 100 mg) bd Lopinavir /Ritonavir 2 tab bd (Kaletra. CT abdomen Antiretroviral therapy Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): Zidovudine (Retrovir. LPV/RTV) (400/100 mg) Atazanavir (Reyataz. EFV) 600 mg nocte Protease inhibitors (PIs) Indinavir (Crixivan. CSF examination • Toxoplasma serology. d4T) 30 – 40 mg bd Abacavir (Ziagen. RTV) Used in low-dose (100 mg) for boosting level of other PIs Infections . AZT. ZDV) 250 – 300 mg bd Didanosine (Videx. AFB smear and culture 6.

HAART should be initiated for the following clinical setting: • AIDS or severely symptomatic HIV disease • CD4 count <200/ul 3. dry cough and dyspnoea b) May have normal CXR during early stage c) Diagnosis by sputum induction with hypertonic saline / BAL/ transbronchial lung biopsy. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) usually consists of triple therapy with 2 NRTIs + 1 PI (usually booseted with RTV or 2NRTIs + 1 NNRTI 2. when CD4 count falls below 200/ul First line: Septrin 960 mg thrice weekly to daily Second line: Aerosolised pentamidine 300 mg every 4 weeks Dapsone 100 mg daily 2.350/ul especially with HIV viral load >100. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia a) Consider in AIDS patients with fever.000 copies/ml 4. after an episode of PCP b. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) • Indication: CD4 <50/ul • Azithromycin 1000 mg once weekly OR clarithromycin 500 mg BD Treatment of Opportunistic Infections 1. Treatment may be considered for asymptomatic patients with CD4 count between 200 . Important to assess and reinforce drug adherence to prevent emergence of viral resistance 5. CD4 count and HIV RNA level should be monitored and genotype resistance assay may be arranged for patients with non-suppressed viral load Opportunistic Infection Prophylaxis 1. hypoxaemia on ABG Infections .In22 1. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) Indications: a.

Cryptosporidiosis 5. then BD for 3 weeks Amphotericin B 0. then fluconazole 400 mg/d po for total of at least 10 weeks Pyrimethamine 200 mg po x 1 then 50-75 mg/d + clindamycin 600 mg qid + folinic acid 10-20 mg daily for 6 weeks Maintenance: Pyrimethamine 25-50 mg/d + clindamycin 300-450 mg qid + folinic acid 10-20 mg daily Infections 3.In23 d) Oxygen supplement e) Septrin at TMP 15 mg/kg/d po/IV (3-4 tab qid) for 3 weeks f) If acutely ill or PaO2 <8: add Prednisone 40 mg bd for 5 days. rifampicin. Tuberculosis Combination therapy (DOTS): isoniazid. then 40 mg qd for 5days.4 drugs: Ciprofloxacin 750mg bd/ levofloxacin 500mg/day Clarithromycin 500mg bd/azithromycin 500mg/day Ethambutol 15 mg/kg/day Rifabutin 300 mg daily Amikacin 10 . Isosporiasis 6. levofloxacin and streptomycin for patients with adverse reaction to first-line drugs Combination therapy with 3 .15 mg/kg/day IV Nitazoxanide 500 mg bd po x 2 weeks Septrin 960 mg qid for 10 days. MAI 4. then 20 mg qd for 11 days g) Alternative regimen: • Clindamycin 600 mg IV q8h + Primaquine 30 mg daily po for 3 weeks • Pentamidine isethionate 4 mg/kg/d IV for 3 weeks 2.5 mg/kg/d) ± flucytosine 25 mg/kg q6h for 2 weeks. Cryptococcosis 7. Toxoplasmosis .7 mg/kg/d iv (Max 1. pyrazinamide and ethambutol.

Penicilliosis Infections 11.6 mg/kg/day IV for 2 weeks Maintenance: itraconazole 200 mg bd Albendazole 400 mg bd for 3 weeks 9. foscarnet 60 mg/kg IV q8h or valganciclovir 900 mg po bd for 3 wks Maintenance: Valganciclovir 900 mg daily po Fluconazole 100 mg/day (higher dose up to 400 mg/day for refractory cases) or Itraconazole solution 200 mg daily for 2 – 3 weeks Induction: amphotericin B 0. Candida oesophagitis 10. CMV retinitis Ganciclovir 5 mg/kg IV q12h.In24 8. Microsporidiosis .

2. Humans are incidental hosts via arthropod vector.In25 RICKETTSIAL INFECTION Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria. All beta-lactams and aminoglycosides are not effective. 2. In Hong Kong. They are maintained in nature through cycle involving reservoir mammals and arthropod vectors except louse borne typhus. Vasculitis of small vessels is basic underlying pathology. Notify to CHP Infections . Weil-Felix test: non-sensitive and non-specific Indirect immunofluorescence assay (sent to PHLC): • Spotted fever group • Typhus group • Scrub typhus Management 1. skin rash/eschar and headache). The severity of disease can range from mild to multi-organ failure and even fatal outcome. Patients usually present with triad (i. Doxycycline is the most effective drug The usual adult oral dose of doxycycline is 100mg twice daily for 7-14 days. majority of the reported cases contracted the diseases locally and mostly related to outdoor activities.e. fever. 3. Diagnosis 1. 4. 5. Azithromycin is an option for those who are contraindicated for tetracycline such as pregnant wowem and children.

Oseltamivir 75 mg bd po x 5 days . 2.In26 INFLUENZA AND AVIAN FLU An acute viral disease of the respiratory tract caused by the influenza A (H3N2.Zanamivir 10 mg bd inhaler puff x 5 days Please refer to HA intranet for the latest information on management . If cohorting not possible. B and C viruses. with fever. H5N1 etc. H1N1. Treatment • Reduce severity and duration of illness if given within 48 hours of onset of symptoms • Both effective against influenza A and B . coryza. Ask patients to cover the mouth with tissue or handkerchief while coughing or sneezing or wear a mask where appropriate 4. sore throat and cough. Placement of patients in a private room or cohorting. Guillain-Barré syndrome. myositis. myocarditis. transverse myelitis.). separate from other patients by 3 feet 2. Standard and droplet precautions 3. rhabdomyolysis. secondary bacterial pneumonia. prostration. Reye’ syndrome (associated with use of aspirin in children) Management 1. myalgia. Nasopharyngeal aspirates/ tracheal aspirates/ bronchoalveolar lavage specimens for direct antigen detection (immunofluorescence or EIA) AND viral culture Acute and convalescent sera for specific Ab rise Complications Primary viral pneumonia. Diagnosis Infections 1. headache.

In27 Additional information for patients suspected of avian influenza 1. Cohorting is allowed for confirmed cases. Infections . contact and airborne precautions. please refer to the most recent version of the “A&E and GOPD triage assessment for febrile patients with no specific focus identified other respiratory symptoms” on HA intranet) 2. Infection control measures: Suspected/ confirmed cases should be managed using combined isolation precautions comprising standard precautions plus droplet. Patients should be placed in negative pressure airborne single isolation room. poultry or their carcasses in areas known to have Avian influenza in recent 6 months (For details. poultry or other animals in areas/cities known to have Avian Influenza in recent 6 months • Unprotected contact with human cases of Avian influenza in the past 1 week • Unprotected contact with disease wild bird. ARDS or other severe respiratory illness with no alternative diagnosis. watch out for epidemiological link(s): • History of recent travel (7 days) outside HK with history of visiting poultry farm/ zoo/ wild birds in areas known to have outbreaks of Avian influenza (H5)(H7)(H9) in recent 6 months • Working in laboratory with Avian Influenza specimens • Unprotected contact with wild bird. Enhanced surveillance: In patients with symptoms of fever and cough/ shortness of breath OR radiographically confirmed pneumonia.

. • Oxygen and ventilatory care if indicated. Treat as early as possible. Other modalities of treatment: • Treat secondary bacterial infection.In28 3. Treatment: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) 75mg bd for 5 days is the preferred antiviral. Indications: • Potentially life threatening influenza-related illness • In patients with strong epidemiological link or medical risk factors • In patient with possible epidemiological link and rapid test for influenza A positive. • Advise close contact hygiene 4. • Avoid salicylates. Notification: Avian influenza (H5/7/9) is a statutorily notifiable Infections disease.

Contact with risky animals e. Fever (> 38°C) AND 2. mild hyponatremia.g. civet cats. Abnormalities in SARS patients: leukopenia. LDH. sputum induction and intubation etc. shortness of breath) AND 3.Repeated testing for RT-PCR SARS-CoV RNA is required for patient with strong suspicion of SARS 2. bronchoscopy. difficulty breathing. CK. travel to an area currently known to have SARS cases. prolonged APTT Management: Please refer to the latest HA recommendations on management of SARS on intranet. Remarks: • Asymptomatic SARS-CoV infection is rare • May be difficult to differentiate SARS from avian influenza clinically Laboratory investigations: 1. working in laboratory with SARS specimens Infectivity of SARS patient: a) Infectious from the onset of symptoms b)Maximum infectivity: 2nd week after onset of symptoms c) No known infectivity 10 days after fever subsides (while not on steroid/antipyretic drug) Incubation period: 2-10 days Clinical description: 1. Hospitalized in or visited a facility with known SARS patients in the past 10 days. Epidemiological links to SARS: Unprotected close contact with suspected SARS patients in the past 10 days. early thrombocytopenia followed by thrombocytosis. One or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract illness (cough. contact with patient’s excretion and fomites. PCR for SARS-CoV ( NPA and stool) . lymphopenia. ALT. No alternative diagnosis can fully explain the illness. XR evidence of lung infiltrates consistent with pneumonia or ARDS AND 4. aerosolized secretion generated by nebulizer. SARS-CoV serology test 3.In29 SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (SARS) Aetiological agent: SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Human to human transmission: Droplets. Infections .

and excretions except sweat. HCWs should apply SP when contact with • blood. Standard precautions (SP) Applied to all patients in all healthcare setting. Norovirus. Before aseptic task 3. contact and airborne precautions. regardless of whether or not they contain visible blood. • nonintact skin. secretions. including epidemiologically important pathogens which require additional control measures to effectively prevent transmission. regardless of suspected or confirmed presence of an infectious status. RSV. Precautions Contact Prevent transmission of infectious agents spread by direct/ indirect contact with patients or patient’s environment e. After contact with patient surroundings Precautions to prevent transmission of infectious agents 2 tiers of precautions: 1. These composed of droplet. Indications for HH (WHO recommendations): 1. and • mucous membranes. Before patient contact 2. • all body fluids.In30 INFECTION CONTROL Hand Hygiene (HH) Good hand hygiene practices is utmost important to prevent healthcare associated infections.g. C. difficile Infections 2. Transmission-based precautions Applied to patients who are known or suspected to be infected or colonized with infectious agents. . After body fluid exposure risk 4. After patient contact 5.

meningitides. Examples: Clinical syndrome Acute diarrhoea with likely infectious cause in an incontinent/diapered patient Abscess/draining wound that cannot be covered Vesicular rash Petechial/ecchymotic with fever . tuberculosis Infections 3.g. Syndomic and empiric applications of transmission-base precautions Diagnose of many infections require laboratory confirmation. MRSA. Appropriate Transmission-based precautions should be implemented when test results are pending based on the clinical presentation and likely pathogens. Influenza. variola N.of antimicrobial therapy). Measles. mask and face protection for intubatiion airborne airborne . tuberculosis Airborne + Contact Droplet (for 24 hrs. meningitis Potential pathogens Enteric pathogens MSSA.In31 Droplet Airborne spread through close respiratory or mucous membrane contact with respiratory secretions e. coryza and fever Cough/ fever/ pulmonary infiltrate and other clinical features suggestive of TB Measles M.meningitides Maculopapular rash with cough. B. pertussis that remain infectious over long distance when suspended in air e. Group A Streptococcus Empiric precautions Contact Contact Varicellarzoster. M. Chickenpox. N.g.

intubation . Artificial Airway care 4. HBV and HCV in healthcare setting is based on the principle of Standard Precautions.tracheotomy 6. 1. Inserion of airways 3.In32 NEEDLESTICK INJURY OR MUCOSAL CONTACT TO HIV. Cleansing surfaces or equipment 8. Plan for safe handling and disposal before beginning any procedures using sharps 4. Blood taking + Routinely + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + * * * * * + + * * * * * * * + + + * * * * * * * + + + * * * *if soiling or spluttering likely . Suctioning 2. Use safety devices. HBV AND HCV Prevention of transmission of HIV. body fluids. Avoid recapping needles 2. and tissues: Procedures Handhygiene Gloves Gown / plastic Eye Mask apron Protection Infections 1. CPR 5. if available Measures that involve exposure to blood. ABG punctures 7. Assisting with . Dispose of sharps immediately after use 3.bronchoscopy .

Counselling and HIV testing with consent should be offered where appropriate. Kaletra) should be initiated as soon as possible. • The injured staff should be encouraged to undergo HIV testing at 0.1% after mucosal exposure. Tel:2116 2929) or Special Medical Service. First Aid (of utmost importance for lowering the risk of infection) • Express blood gently and wash immediately and thoroughly with soap and water.gov. 3 and 6 months. • PEP can be initiated at any A&E department followed by referral to the Therapeutic Prevention Clinic. additional test at 12 months for (1) have taken PEP. preferably within 2 hours after the exposure. Infections . wash immediately and liberally with running water • wound should be disinfected and dressed • Attend A & E 2. • In case of mucosal contact such as spillage into the eyes.g. or (2) have become infected with HCV after exposure to source co-infected with HIV and HCV to detect delayed HIV conversion.info. Counselling 4.In33 Management of needle-stick injuries or mucosal contact with blood and body fluids 1.3% after needlestick injury and 0. • Source patient should be assessed for risk of HIV infection. QEH (Tel:2958 6571) for counselling.hk/aids/english/itc/tpclinic. lamivudine and a protease inhibitor e. Management of occupational exposure to HIV: • Risk of HIV transmission is about 0. CHP (http://www. follow up and HIV testing. • Post-exposure prophylaxis with a 28-day course of HAART (zidovudine. Reporting: Injured staff should report to his unit head or physician i/c and Infection Control Team.htm. 3.

depending on source HBsAg status Nil Nil φ means HBsAg -ve AND anti-HBs -ve ψ means HBsAg +ve OR anti-HBs +ve . if status unknown.rept HBs status after 1/12 of exposed HBsAg -ve Nil Nil Nil HBsAg Nil Depends Depends unknown on source on antiHBsAg HBs status status of exposed person HBV HBV markers markers -veφ +veψ HBIG + HB Vac Infections Nil HB Vac HBIG + HB Vac or HBVac. Post-exposure prophylaxis against hepatitis B infection • Save blood for HBV status of source and injured staff.In34 5. • If source person can’t be traced. may treat as if he is HBsAg +ve • No treatment is required if injured staff is anti-HBs is +ve • HBIG and HB Vaccine can be offered to injured staff if antiHBs is negative (depends on HBsAg status of source and vaccination history of injured staff) POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS Previously Vaccinated Unvaccinated Known Known Unknown Source NonResponse HBsAg Responders responders status HBsAg +ve Nil HBIG Depends within 24 on antihrs.

delayed for up to 11week after exposure. HCV. Post-exposure management against Hepatitis C infection   There is no universally accepted effective therapy for There is no universally accepted effective therapy for preventing HCV infection after accidental occupational preventing HCV infection after accidental occupational exposure. Service of DH (Tel: 21129911) for vaccination. Infections 6. Early identification of acute HCV infection and treatment with Interferon plus ribavirin may prevent chronic treatment with Interferon plus ribavirin may prevent chronic HCV. Early identification of acute HCV infection and exposure.  If source is HCV infected /IV drug addict /unknown HCV status. one dose of HBIG (0. • HBIG and HB vac can be given together but a different sites • HBIG and HB vac can be given together but atat a different sites • Injured staff can be referred to the Viral Hepatitis Preventive • Injured staff can be referred to the Viral Hepatitis Preventive Service of DH (Tel: 21129911) for vaccination.  Check anti-HCV and aminotransferase (ALT) of exposed person soon after exposure and again at 6 months. and preferably within days given within 24 hhof exposure. the first dose of vaccine can be • If HBIG has been given. one dose of HBIG (0. Check anti-HCV of source patient.In35 • Where indicated. Post-exposure management against Hepatitis C infection 5. Repeat at 12 month if source is HIV-HCV co-infected.06 ml/kg) should be given within 24 of exposure. the first dose of vaccine can be delayed for up to week after exposure.06 ml/kg) should be • Where indicated. Check ALT of injured at 1st and 3rd month after exposure. Refer the injured to specialist if HCV-RNA positive. and preferably within 7 7 days • If HBIG has been given.   Check anti-HCV of source patient. . test HCV-RNA if ALT elevated.

General Intrenal Medicine General Internal Medicine .

g.GM1 ACUTE ANAPHYLAXIS GRADE I Minor allergic reactions involving skin only e. laryngeal oedema or cyanosis or signs of upper airway obstruction. dyspnoea. 10 ml/kg colloid if hypotensive mild.000 dilution) Moderate severity 10 µg/kg (0.5 ml in 50 kg adult) e.g. ET tube or surgical airway  No: Consider prophylactic airway if impending airway oedema Yes: Maximal FIO2 therapy CIRCULATION: IF IMPAIRED PERFUSION OR GROSS HYPOTENSION OR GCS < 8 Fast IV colloids (20 ml/kg) and repeat IV adrenaline as above POOR RESPONSE GOOD RESPONSE IV hydrocortisone × 2 above dose q4h IV chlorpheniramine × 2 above dose q4-6h Consider adrenaline infision (1-5 µg/min) or other inotropic drugs * Label patient allergic to that agent thereafter . urticaria Stop causative agent Assess vital signs Give chlorpheniramine po 10 mg IV chlorpheniramine Prednisolone 40 mg po OR Hydrocortisone 200 mg IV Maintain oral chlorpheniramine GOOD RESPONSE Repeat SC/IM adrenaline or consider the IV route POOR RESPONSE Stop causative agent DETERIORATION Monitor vital signs High FIO2 therapy GRADE II SC/IM adrenaline (1:1.5µg)/kg at 1-2 ml (10-12µg)/min then prn infusion at same rate up to 5 µg/kg (*Cardiac monitor × arrhythmia) General Intrenal Medicine  AIRWAY COMPROMISE? Yes: (Call anaesthetist) Try suction and simple airway manoeuvres → airway adjuncts → intubation If failure to intubate → surgical airway  PATIENT BREATHING? No: Assist ventilation with 100% O2 via bagvalve mask. respiratory arrest. ↓ BP Nebulised salbutamol (5mg) or nebulised adrenaline (1-2 ml 1:1.g.75-1.000 dilution) Initial dose (0. clinical shock or impaired GCS or peri-arrest signs Stop causative agent Close monitor vital signs Maximal FIO2 therapy Maintain IV access IV adrenaline (1:100.000) if dyspnoeic DETERIORATION GRADE III and IV *(ICU care) Severe/life threatening e. severe bronchospasm.

Ca channel blocker.Assess psychiatric status. alcohol). panadol level as indicated .Psychiatric consultation as appropriate .Ix : CBP.Acute life-threatening ingestion eg.Preferably within 1 hr post ingestion .Not for small molecules (Fe.GM2 ACUTE POISONING (Contact Hong Kong Poison Information Centre Tel: 26351111 if necessary) (All dosages quoted are for adult) GENERAL MEASURES . blood & gastric contents for toxicology Ethanol.Identify offending drug as early as possible .Close monitor vital signs + neurological status .Maintain ABC especially for coma patients . salicylate.Watch out and treat concomitant injuries especially head injury . suicidal precautions . Li.1g / kg PO . ABG Urine.Intubation needed if absent gag reflex. hydrocarbon General Intrenal Medicine . comatose patient . TCA overdose or small  in toxic exposure may be critical (eg. H’stix. confused. cochicine) .36-40F fenestrated oro-gastric tube. L/RFT. glucose. 200-300ml NS followed by aspiration for total 4-6L until return fluid is clear Activated Charcoal (AC) . Lithium. Sig.Replenish fluid. caustic. correct electrolyte disturbance and treat arrhythmia PREVENTION OF FURTHER ABSORPTION Gastric lavage (GL) .

. Theophylline. Digoxin. Aspirin Ethanol / Isopropanol Rarer Aminoglycosides Indication General Intrenal Medicine Hemoperfusion Theophylline Carbamazepine.GM3 Multiple dose activated charcoal (MDAC) .C/I : CNS depression. avoid >7. Carbamazepine and sustained release (SR) preparation Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) . then 50mEq NaHCO3(8. Chlorpropamide.30ml ipecac. rapid deterioration. Phenytoin Phenobarbital . Phenytoin.For Aspirin.Consider for Aspirin. Phenobarbital.Repeat if no vomit by 30 min .Works by ion trapping. petroleum products ENHANCED ELIMINATION Urinary Alkalinization .SR preparation. follow by 300-500 ml of water . drugs not adsorbed to AC . absent gag reflex. .4%) in 500ml D5 Q4-6hr IV infusion .1g/kg PO.Monitoring serum pH.PEG 1-2 L/hr till clear rectal effluent (orally or via a NG tube) Syrup of ipecac (fading out. avoid hypokalaemia Hemodialysis / Hemoperfusion Hemodialysis Strong Methanol / Ethylene Glycol Indication Lithium. follow by 0.5 to be effective . must get urine pH>7.1-2 mEq/kg NaHCO3 IV bolus.55.Strong acid / alkali. much left for historical reference) . Formate. Phenobarbital.5g/kg q2-6hr. . GI drug smuggling.

useful even on later administration NAC dose 150mg/kg 50mg/kg 100mg/kg In D5 200ml 500ml D5 1000ml D5 Rate in 1hr in 4 hr in 16 hr General Intrenal Medicine Loading then then . eg. repeat Q2-3 min with 0. Q6hour) Amphetamine / Cocaine overdose .AC if within 1st hr .IV Phentolamine 0. assume another diagnosis C/I :patient with undifferentiated coma.NAC has full protection if given within 8 hr post-ingestion.Ix : paracetamol level.Cocaine (Na channel blocking effect) – NaHCO3 1-2mEq/kg IV bolus till QRS <100ms Paracetamol overdose . LRFT . IV benzodiazepine .Naxolone infusion if repeated dose of naxolone needed (2/3 of initial effective naloxone bolus on an hourly basis: ie.acute toxic dose: >150mg/kg .GM4 TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC DRUG POISONING Benzodiazepine overdose .5ug/kg/min . 4X this dose in 500ml NS. Hyperthermia .HT. (up to 10mg in Dextropropoxyphene DO) .33ug/kg/min or Nitroglycerin 0. but if no response after 2-3mg.1mg/kg or Nitroprusside 0. benzodiazepine dependence.2 mg IV over 30 sec.4mg increment.1-0.Flumazenil – start with 0.05-0.Supportive measure is the mainstay of treatment .25-0.Agitation.Supportive measure is the mainstay of treatment . larger dose can be given. co-ingestion of seizure prone poisons. epilepsy.TCA Opioid overdose .1mg). NAC if toxic level above Tx line .Naxolone –Start with IV low dose (0.Rapid cooling.

WBI (depend on amount / formulation) . repeated up to 2 mg C/I : TCA. 2-5mg IVI over 1 min (up to 10mg) follow by 25mg/hr in D5 (for β blocker poisoning)  CaCl2 1g or Ca gluconate 3g slow IV.0. αFP Salicylate overdose . (Co-administration of calcium and glucagon is useful in refractory or mixed cases) General Intrenal Medicine .5 g/kg/min and titrate up Isoproterenol . blood gas. repeat as indicated.0.3mmol/L) Anti-cholinergic poisoning . 2-3 doses can be safely given without check Ca level)  High Dose Insulin / Dextrose – Start with 0.9mmmol/L) .2.Physostigmine – 0. APTT.Consider GL. lactate.1 g/kg/min and titrate up (Dopamine not suggested due to its indirect effect)  NaHCO3 1-2 mEq/ kg IV bolus for propanolol poisoing if QRS > 100ms.6mg IVI (up to 3mg) and iv fluid  Glucagon. glucose.Hydration.5-1mg slow IV. urine alkalinization if ASA >40mg/dL (>2. AC. repeat Q10min (for CCB poisoning. blood gas. widen QRS.GM5 . asthma. PO4. CV disease. check prognostic markers: PT.HD if end organ failure or ASA >100mg/dL (>7.0. L/RFT.With evidence of liver injury. haemodynamic and cardiac monitoring .>150mg/kg acetylsalicylate (aspirin) – potentially toxic .02 g/kg/min and titrate up Noradrenaline . MDAC. gangrene Beta-blocker overdose / Calcium channel blocker overdose .Ix: R/LFT. titrate up 1U/kg/hr (Start treatment early for Tx take time to be effective)  Inotropes : Adrenaline .1 g/kg/min and titrate up Dobutamine . urine ketone .Treatment options for hypotension and bradycardia :  Atropine – 0.GI decontamination.Pure methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen): 10ml  14g salicylate .5U/kg/hr. serial salicylate level.

electrolytes. of vial = Amount ingested in mg Known level No of vial = (Digoxin level (ng/mL)) x (wt in kg) / 200 Empiric dose Acute overdose – 5 vials (Unknown dose or Chronic overdose – 2 vials digoxin level) (Need to multiply by 2 if using Digibind® and DigiFab®) Theophylline poisoning . ECG . AC. lignocaine. digoxin level. propranolol) . hypoMg. pre-Tx with lignocaine or amiodarone .Tachydysrhythmia – Tx hypoK.Bradydysrhythmias – atropine .amiodarone .Hypotension – IV fluid.GI decontamination : consider GL.HP indication: Ileus / IO prevents use of MDAC Theophylline level >80mg/L (acute) or 60mg/L (chronic) Elderly with level > 40mg/L with severe symptoms General Intrenal Medicine .5nmol/L) in an acute DO  Digoxin ingestion of > 10 mg Situation Dose of digitalis antidote® * Known amount No. α-agonist (Phenylephrine. ECG .GM6 Digoxin overdose .Ix : RFT. Norepinephrine) . hypotension and seizure .Patient died from tachyarrhythmia.Tachyarrhythmia – diltiazem or β-blockers (esmolol. . start with low dose: 10-25J.Ix : Theophylline level. MDAC . VF.ABC monitoring and supportive measures.Cardioversion – may precipitate refractory VT.Digoxin Immune Fab fragments indications :  Brady or Vent arrhythmia not responsive to atropine  Serum K+ > 5mEq/dL in acute DO  Digoxin level: 10-15ng/mL (13-19.GI decontamination : GL / MDAC .

Look out for neuroleptic malignant syndrome .10-25mg for superwarfarin) (oral.Supportive care.Dystonia – diphenhydramine or cogentin . inotropes (α-adrenergic agonists) . may need months for superwarfarins Vit K1 has short duration of action tds/QID dose needed Mx guideline for warfarin patient with over anti-coagulation 1998 and 2001 ACCP Recommendations for Reversing Excessive WarfarinAssociated AC Psychiatric Drugs Antipsychotics poisoning . widen QRS – treat like TCAs . ECG.Hypotension – IV fluid. GI decontamination as indicated .Cardiotoxicity. check INR stat INR at ~ 48 hours No severe bleeding Severe/ life threatening bleeding Normal Not poisoned No Vit K1 Prolonged INR FFP. iv .GM7 Warfarin or superwarfarin rodenticide overdose Asymptomatic Symptomatic. Vit K1 Oral Vit K1 (5-10mg for warfarin. sc.10mg) (<1mg/min if IV) General Intrenal Medicine Monitor INR until plateau FU.

cooling. GI decontamination as indicated . up to 32mg in 1st 24 hr).Supportive care. esp with dose >1. neuromuscular blockage.Ensure ABC with intensive monitoring .5g . ECG[Feature of poisoning : tachycardia. . cyproheptadine ( 8-12mg. Tdp (especially with dose >400mg) ] .Ix : Blood gas. cardiac monitoring [for prolong QT.5pH 7.5-7.Physostigmine & Flumazenil are contraindicated .Venlafaxine – seizure. Benzodiazepine. widen QRS.5-7.Look out / Treatment for serotonin syndrome (SS) SS Tx: Remove offending drugs.55 [Consider hypertonic saline] Intolerable to Na/fluid load [Consider hyperventilation] General Intrenal Medicine End points Contraindications SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and others .55 7. terminal 40ms right axis deviation (R wave in aVR)] .Consider GL and AC 1g/kg if < 1-2 hr post ingestion. then 2mg Q2hr. hydration.Serum alkalization by NaHCO3 Indications Dose QRS > Vent Hypotension 100ms arrhythmia 1-2 mEq per kg IV bolus May need repeated bolus or infusion to meet endpoints QRS Reversal of Correction of <100ms or arrhythmia or BP or pH 7.GM8 Tricyclic antidepressant overdose .55 pH 7. prolong QRS .Citalopram – observe for > 24 hr.Aggressive supportive care & early serum alkalization .55 pH > 7. MDAC . ECG.

ABG . serial Lithium level (Q4hr). valproic acid level.L-Carnitine for VPA induced ammonemia. AXR .Haemodialysis if level esp >4mEq/L.4mg-2mg) for CNS and respiratory depression .Hemoperfusion NON-PHARMACEUTICAL POISONING Organophosphate poisoning . . WBI . ammonia .hepatotoxicity. ECG (widen QRS) .Pralidoxime . .Atropine . sig DO +/. . supportive care .Ix: Tegretol level.ABC monitoring and supportive measures.Volume replacement and correction of hyponatraemia .GI decontamination : AC . GM9 Lithium poisoning . follow by infusion at 4-8 mg/kg/hr.Ix : plasma pseudocholinesterase. can be titrated up to 20 mg/kg/hr.1-2 g to 100ml NS IV over 30 min. .neuro-toxicity Valproic acid poisoning .GI decontamination : GL.Decontamination and staff protection.ABC monitoring and supportive measures. encephalopathy .IV Naloxone (0.Ix : RFT.6-1.Haemodialysis / Haemoperfusion : rarely considered General Intrenal Medicine Carbamazepine poisoning .2 mg IV.NaHCO3 for widen QRS>100ms (theoretically beneficial) .Initial dose of 0. GL / MDAC / WBI .Ix : LFT.GI decontamination : AC / MDAC . repeat and double the dose every 5 min until lungs clear (huge dose has been used) .

titrate upwards prn OR . .GM10 Carbamate poisoning .PO brandy or whisky (~50%)  1ml/kg loading  0. osmolar gap. LRFT. mainstay of treatment is supportive .8g/kg in 30min  Maintenance: start at 0.2 mg IV.GI decontamination : GL in early presentation.6-1. IV NaHCO3 . Swipe® .IV Absolute alcohol (16g/20ml).Mainly irritant effect. diluted to 10% solution  Loading: 0.Please contact HKPIC for option of anti-inflammation therapy in severe paraquat poisoning. AC .GI decontamination is potential harmful .No antidote.Atropine .1g/kg/hr.Disinfectants and multi-purpose cleaners ( Dettol®. Green water. anion gap. upper endoscopy is not routinely indicated . methanol or ethylene glycol level Urine for Ca oxalate and fluorescence [EG poisoning] Management: . repeat and double the dose Q5min until lungs clear. Household hypochlorite bleach) .Pralidoxime – not usually recommended Paraquat poisoning . ethanol level. Salvon®. Household products .Largely supportive treatment. use lowest FiO2 as possible .Similar to organophosphate poisoning .5ml/kg q2hr.Consider NG suction. titrate upwards [aim at ethanol level -100mg/dL] General Intrenal Medicine .More than 10ml 20% paraquat ingestion is potentially fatal .Can be caustic if large quantity & high concentration are ingested Methanol / Ethylene glycol [EG] poisoning Ix: Blood : CBP.0.

GM11

- HD indication :  Methanol or ethylene glycol level >250mg/L  High osmolar gap without other cause  Acid/base abnormality, end-organ toxicity - IV folinic acid 1mg/kg q4-6hr (for methanol poisoning) - Thiamine 100mg and pyridoxine 50mg q4-6hr (for Ethylene glycol ) - Fomepizole is available as Level III antidote. [Contact HKPIC for its indication and mobilization if needed] Cyanide poisoning - Ix : RFT, ABG, lactate, AV O2 gradient (PaO2 – PvO2), CO-Hb, met-Hb, Cyanide level - ABC monitoring and supportive measures. - Surface decontamination and staff protection - GI decontamination : consider AC +/- GL if within 1 hr - Early use of antidotes:  Sodium nitrite - 10ml of 3% (300mg) IV over 5 min  Sodium thiosulphate - 50ml of 25% (12.5g) IV (Thiosulphate can be repeated if no response in 30 min) Other antidote (available in some HA hospitals)  Hydroxocobalamin: 5g IV in 15-30 min (can be repeated at 2-4 hr) - Treat seizure and correct metabolic acidosis Carbon monoxide poisoning - Pulse oximeter not detect CO-Hb; can give false –ve result - Hyperbarbic oxygen treatment* (HBO)  Usefulness remains controversial  Potential risk for patient and medical staffs (during transfer and within the chamber)  No definite evidence to support routine use  Referral is a case to case individual decision by the in-charge physician

General Intrenal Medicine

GM12

Suggested guideline for CO poisoning
Acute CO exposure with symptoms 100% O2, CO-Hb level, ABG, ECG Syncope, coma, seizure, cardiac ischaemia or vent. arrhythmias
No
Yes Yes

CO-Hb > 25% Pregnancy with CO-Hb > 15%
No

Consider ICU care Monitor acidosis

Continue 100% O2 therapy

Consider HBO*
Yes

Symptomatic (headache,nausea), abnormal mental or neuropsychiatric status
No

General Intrenal Medicine

Discharge when CO-Hb < 10%

CIGUATERA POISONING Ingestion of large coral reef fishes contaminated with ciguatoxin (specially grouper and snapper) risk with fish >3kg, eating fish skin and viscera - Symptoms onset usually in 1st few hr (may delay up to 24 hr) - GI: N, V, D, abdominal pain (usually appear 1st,may last for 1-2 D) - Neurological: paresthesia, tingling sensations in the extremities or mouth and cold dysesthesias (burning pain in contact with cold water) - Cardiovascular: bradycardia / hypotension - Ix : RFT, ECG, save food remnant +/- vomitus (To FEHD) - Management  mainly supportive, replace fluid and electrolytes.  Symptomatic treatment (analgesic, anti-emetic, etc)

 

GM13

  

Atropine – symptomatic bradycardia. IV Mannitol (1g/kg over 1 hr) can be considered for sig. neuro symptoms(No proven efficacy but supported by case reports) Gabapentin (400mg tds) for prolonged neuropathetic pain Report to DH and FEHD Advise on avoiding ethanol, peanuts and coral reef fish, especially in the first few months after ciguatera poisoning.

SMOKE AND TOXIC GAS INHALATION Smoke Inhalation Management Flow-Chart
General Intrenal Medicine
Unconsciousness, stridor, resp distress, PaO2<8kPa
No Yes

History of unconsciousness Close space exposure Carbonaceous sputum Facial burn or singed nasal hair Hoarseness Oropharyngeal burn, swelling

Intubation Use adequate-sized ET tube Humidified O2 Frequent suction

Upper airway edema Yes No

Nasopharynoscopy / Bronchoscopy

No clinically important edema

Close monitoring

Worsen airway / pulmonary status

Pulmonary irritant inhalation - Highly water soluble: Sulfur dioxide, Ammonia, HCl, Chloramine
(Upper airway, eye, nose irritation, rapid onset, airway compromise)

- Intermediate water solubility: Chlorine
(Delayed irritation, potential prolonged exposure, acute lung injury)

GM14

- Low water solubility : Phosgene, Nitrogen dioxide
(Non-irritating, affect lower airway, lack of noticeable effects  prolonged exposure and acute lung injury)

Clinical effects ranging from: Stridor, bronchospasm  lung injury, bronchiolitis obliterans High water solubility irritant  Low water solubility irritant Monitoring/ Ix - BP / HP / RR / SaO2 / PFR / FEV1/ FVC / voice quality - ABG, ECG, CXR, Lung function test, fibreoptic bronchoscopy Treatment - Remove from exposure, ABC monitoring, O2 and supportive care - Nebulized -agonists for bronchospasm - No role for steroids, other than for bronchospasm - Nebulized bicarbonate for Cl2, HCl or other acidic gas [ 2ml NaHCO3 8.4% + 2ml water/saline ] Observation - SO2, NH3 , NH2Cl , HCl exposure have no delayed toxicity. (Improving patients will continue to do well; only need to be observed for the duration of their symptoms) - Cl2, COCl2, NO2; Low and intermediate water solubility agents (Potential for acute lung injury with delayed onset of symptom. Observe all patients with any symptoms for at least 24 hour Aware of risk of bronchiolitis obliterans)

General Intrenal Medicine

 SNAKE BITE

GM15

Local venomous Snake found in the countryside in HK Toxicity Viper  Local pain swelling +/- bruising, Bamboo Snake Systemic coagulopathy, DIC Chinese Habu Hypotension Mountain Pit Viper Elapidae  Paralysis , minimal local reaction Banded Krait Many Banded Krait Early local necrosis (severe pain and swelling) Chinese Cobra Rhabdomyolysis, Paralysis King Cobra Coral snake Colubridae  Red-necked Keel Back snake Hydrophiidae  Mangrove Water snake Chinese Water snake Plumbeous Water snake Neurotoxicity with paralysis Prolonged bite required for effective envenomation to cause DIC Neurotoxic, myotoxic with rhabdomyolysis 
General Intrenal Medicine


Vipers Hundred pacer Malaysian Pit viper Agistrodon halys Russel’s Viper Rattle Snakes Local pain swelling and bruising, Bleeding wounds, coagulopathy Local pain swelling, bruising, coagulopathy, Pulmonary edema, Rhabdomyolysis, ARF Local tissue damage, coagulopathy, neurotoxic

Investigation - CBP, APTT, PT (esp. whole blood clotting time), RFT, CPK - Urine for myoglobin and hemoglobinuria - ECG, Bed side spirometry for FVC if available, serial PFR, CXR

Snake identification is useful (Photographing at safe distance) [head.GM16 Investigations should be repeated in the following situations .  First S/S neurotoxicity after krait bite  Snake anti-venom available in HA Antivenoms Agistrodon halys (China) Bungarus multicinctus (China) Bungarus fasciatus (China) Naja Naja (China) Agistrdon actus (China) Australian Tiger Snake Russel’s Viper (Thailand) Starting Dose 6000U Snake covered Bamboo snake Chinese Habu Mountain Pit Viper Many Banded Krait King Cobra Banded Krait Chinese Cobra Hundred Pacer ?? Sea snake Russell’s viper General Intrenal Medicine 10000U 5000U 2000U 8000U 3000U 0.Supportive care.Q1/2 hr assessment in the first few hr (local / systemic S/S) .Abn result from initial test until normal or other cause identified . i. Tetanus prophylaxis . hypotension etc. ventral feature important for identification] (HKPIC can facilitate urgent consultation with biologist for snake identification and advice on anti-venom use) Treatment . coagulopathies.6mg  Thai Red-Cross anti-venin also available [may have different species specificity from that of China] . weakness.Analgesic. necrosis . IV access .After anti-venom administration . compartment syndrome. tail. dorsal. rhabdomyolysis. .e.  Systemic toxicities.Antivenoms should be considered for  Local Progression.Progression of local or systemic symptoms.

If no allergy after 5-10min.May need further doses if clinically indicated .. give at 100ml/hr. .No evidence to support routine prophylactic antibiotic use . .GM17 - Green-pit viper (Bamboo snake) Cobra.Pre-treatment with anti-histamine and hydrocortisone is advised .Debridement and surgery for compartment syndrome as indicated General Intrenal Medicine .Resuscitation equipment stand-by .1st dose to 500 ml NS. dose finish in 30 min. King-cobra Banded-krait which may be more species specific Precautions and pre-treatment in anti-venom administration . fasten rate.

GCE .GM18 (Use low temp thermometer for core temp) Ix .CBP.mraw noisufni vi SN )Co34( mraW tnesbA eslup dna gnihtaerb . blood glucose.GBA .eliforp noitalugaoc tneitap esotamoc ni RXS dna neercs ygolocixot Continue active internal rewarming till Core temp ≥35oC or Return of spontaneous circulation or Resuscitative effort ceases AIMREHTOPYH LATNEDICCA Active internal rewarming : warm iv fluid (43oC) warm humid O2 (42-46oC) peritoneal lavage (KCl-free fluid) extracorporeal rewarming oesophageal rewarming tubes RPC tratS htiw etalitnev dna etabutnI )Co64-24( 2O dimuh . RFT. h’ tix.xI . TSH. amylase. humid O2 (42-46oC) Warm (43oC) NS iv infusion tneserP 8 1 MG xM General Intrenal Medicine . coagulation profile. ABG. toxicology screen and SXR in comatose patient Mx Present Assess responsiveness. CXR.ssenevisnopser ssessA )pmet eroc rof retemomreht pmet wol esU( Co43-03 )aimrehtopyh etaredom( gnimrawer evissaP fo gnimrawer lanretxe evitcA ylno aera lacnurt >34-36oC (mild hypothermia) Passive rewarming Active external rewarming : gnimrawer lanretni evitcA )Co34( diulf vi mraw )Co64-24( 2O dimuh mraw )diulf eerf-lCK( egaval laenotirep gnimrawer laeroprocartxe sebut gnimrawer laegahposeo llit gnimrawer lanretni evitca eunitnoC ro Co53≥ pmet eroC ro noitalucric suoenatnops fo nruteR ACCIDENTAL HYPOTHERMIA Co03< )aimrehtopyh ereves( gnimrawer lanretni evitcA Absent Start CPR Intubate and ventilate with warm.)ylredle ni pse( erutluc doolb . breathing and pulse 30-34oC (moderate hypothermia) Passive rewarming Active external rewarming of truncal area only <30oC (severe hypothermia) Active internal rewarming Co63-43> )aimrehtopyh dlim( gnimrawer evissaP gnimrawer lanretxe evitcA * Give prophylactic broad-spectum antibiotics (esp in elderly) ** Cannot be certified dead before core temp ≥36oC .TFR .xit ’h .HST .RXC .esoculg doolb . cardiac enzymes.esalyma . ECG.semyzne caidrac . blood culture (esp in elderly).PBC .

Lactic acidosis not responding to volume expansion should be treated with bicarbonate 7. ABG. urine myoglobin 2. Correction of electrolyte disturbances and hypovolaemia 6. Check CBP. Look out and support multiorgan failure in heart stroke . tepid water sponging. in elderly.GM19 HEAT STROKE / EXHAUSTION HEAT STROKE is caused by over-heating of the body core when sweating is limited. Cooling of body by removing all clothing. Acid-base disorder Renal failure warm and wet 38-39 C o General Intrenal Medicine pre-renal failure Management 1. Heat Stroke drugs or diseases causing limited sweating esp. Oral fluid and salt replacement in heat exhaustion (25 g NaCl in 5 litres of water) 5. infants hot and dry 40-41 C respiratory alkalosis lactic acidosis common o Heat Exhaustion Risk factors Skin Core body temp. fanning (Immersion in ice water is dangerous) 4. Monitor vital signs (esp urine output) and core temp 3. coagulation profile. Convulsion should be treated with anticonvulsive therapy 8. RFT. HEAT EXHAUSTION is caused by sustained heat stress that causes water and salt depletion (may be complicated by heat stroke in advanced stage).

Treat bronchospasm with β2-agonist. LDH. Monitor and maintain ABC. Correct hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. alcohol. acute renal failure due to hypovolaemia or myoglobinaemia. Beware of head and cervical spine injury and hypothermia 4. hypercapnia and metabolic acidosis 1.g. injuries to nervous system. Treat seizure with anticonvulsant 6. Give O2 therapy (PEEP may be necessary for severe hypoxia).CPR if necessary . RFT. hypnotics. ECG. SXR and X ray cervical spine.Monitor: Vital signs. Rule out drug effects e. Ix: ABG. narcotics General Intrenal Medicine ELECTRICAL INJURY Electrical injuries cause cardiopulmonary arrest. cardiac monitoring and body temperature monitoring 3. Clear airway and CPR if necessary 2.Treat burn and compartment syndrome as appropriate . ABG. neurological status.GM20 NEAR DROWNING The most important consequence of near-drowning is asphyxia which leads to hypoxaemia. Bronchoscopy may be necessary if persistent atelectasis or localized wheezing 5. urine myoglobin . cardiac rhythm.Antiarrhythmic drugs depend on nature of arrhythmia . urine output and colour . damages to vessels causing thrombosis or haemorrhage Alternate current (AC) is more dangerous than direct current (DC) Current with frequency of 50-60 cycles/sec is more dangerous . Consider antibiotics for pneumonia 7. CXR. RFT.IV fluid replacement .Ix : ECG. burn. CPK.

hyperuricaemia.5 L/hr • Monitor urine output & haemodynamic parameters • Continue IV infusion with 500ml NS alternating with D5 1 L/hr after satisfactory BP and urine output achieved • Keep urine output at 300ml/hr until myoglobinuria ceased • Add NaHCO3 50meq/L to each 2nd or 3rd bottle of D5 to keep urinary pH > 6. DIC. mitigate the adverse consequences of heme proteins on the proximal tubular epithelium • NS infusion 1-1. hypocalcaemia.GM21 RHABDOMYOLYSIS Dx: Red or brown urine +ve for blood but no RBC under microscopy Urine +ve for myoglobin Pigmented granular casts in the urine ↑↑ CPK Others: hyperkalaemia. ARF Mx: Aim : correction of hypovolaemia.5 • Add 20% mannitol at a rate of 1-2g/kg BW over 4 hr with plasma osmolar gap kept below 55 mosm/kg • Withhold mannitol and HCO3 if marked diuresis not acheived • May try furosemide & renal dose dopamine for anuric patients • Extracorporeal elimination of heme protein is controversial • Look out and treat significant compartment syndrome NB • Regimen is less effective if began after the first 6 hrs when renal failure may already be established • Elderly patient may require slower volume replacement • Look out for hypercalcaemia in recovering phase of ARF’ General Intrenal Medicine . hyperphosphataemia. enhance clearance of heme proteins.

GM22 SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME Causes: 80% due to malignancy *Iatrogenic cause subclavian line. CT.transiently decrease oedema and inflammatory reactions associated with tumor necrosis and irradiation Radiotherapy . and upper extremities with cyanosis DDx: Pericardial effusion with tamponade Ix: CXR. pacemaker wire P/E: Dilated superificial veins over anterior chest wall Engorged jugular veins ± facial and arm veins Oedema of face. bronchoscopy Tx: Look out for upper airway obstruction (stridor) .for small cell lung carcinoma or non-Hodgkin’ lymphoma Central venous catheter .primary therapy for most cases of malignant SVC syndrome (consult oncology dept promptly) Systemic chemotherapy .removal under anticoagulation ± regional fibrinolytic therapy General Intrenal Medicine . neck.may be lifethreatening Corticosteroids (iv dexamethasone 4mg q6h) .

odour. Treat intestinal obstruction accordingly g. constipation. If n/v not controlled.g. depression. such as providing frequent small meals. megestrol 160 mg tid). dexamethasone. hypercalcaemia) b. meclizine (should not be given with prokinetics). dexamethasone) for raised intracranial pressure or gastric outlet obstruction e. metoclopramide) or corticosteroids (e. dexamethasone 4 mg om) iii.g.g. Increase food intake: progestogens (e. drug-induced) d. Improve strength and mobility: refer physiotherapist and dietitian ii. General measures: treatment of pain.g.GM23 NAUSEA.g. Central anti-dopaminergic drugs (e. Prokinetics (e. Corticosteroids (e. prokinetics (e. Elicit patient’s expectations: i. haloperidol 0.g. Pay attention to environment. modification of eating habits.g. food presentation c.g. metoclopramide up to 240 mg/day) for impaired gastric or intestinal motility f. consider anti-histamines e. VOMITING & ANOREXIA IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED CANCER 1. Nausea and vomiting a. allowing patients to eat what they wish. psychological support b. Improve well being: corticosteroids General Intrenal Medicine 2. oral and other symptoms. chronic renal failure. Gain weight: progestogens iv.5-5 mg po bd) for CTZ stimulation (e. 5HT3 antagonists or benzodiazepines Anorexia a.g. Elucidate and remove cause of nausea and vomiting (n/v) if possible (e. .

methadone.non-opioids Non-opioids: Weak opioids: panadol 500-1000mg qid NSAID in conventional dosage dextropropoxyphene 32. .GM24 PAIN MANAGEMENT IN CANCER PATIENTS Basic General Principles: a.5mg qid dextropropoxyphene Co 65mg qid dihydrocodeine (e.g. By the Clock: regular analgesics c. DF118) one tablet Q4-6hrs Strong opioids: morphine. By Mouth b. By the Ladder (WHO Analgesic Ladder) Step 3: Step 2: Step 1: General Intrenal Medicine pain persists increases → pain persists/increases → pain→ non-opioids strong opioids +/.non-opioids weak opioids +/. fentanyl (see below)  Consult specialist in difficult pain situation.

A combination of stimulant and stool softener can be used e. Morphine is still the strong opioid of choice for moderate and severe cancer pain. and low dose steroid for distending liver capsule from tumour. Oral route is the optimal route. Parenteral route of administration of morphine 1. and not PRN.5mg for the very elderly. 2. 9. antispasmodics for colicky pain. Consider parenteral route only if the patient cannot take morphine by mouth e.GM25 GUIDELINES FOR PRESCRIPTION OF MORPHINE FOR CHRONIC CANCER PAIN 1. Adjuvant drugs may be considered e. 7. 10. Consider a lower starting dose of 2.5mg . General Intrenal Medicine 11. There is no standard dose of morphine. There is NO special advantage of parenteral route over oral route 2.g. Prescribe a laxative CONCURRENTLY if not contraindicated. impaired conscious level. Prescribe antiemetics for PRN use. Examples of antiemetics: • Metoclopramide10mg Tid • Haloperidol 1. given up to hourly. the correct dose is one that relieves the pain without any significant side effect. anticonvulsants and antidepressants for neuropathic pain component. 6.g. those with cachexia.g. 13. GIO. 5. 3.e. For breakthrough pain. Starting dose: Syrup morphine 5mg Q4H regularly. Review within 24 hours and adjust the regular dose according to the breakthrough requirement. Dose increment: 5mg � 10 � 20 � 30 � 40 � 60 � 80 � 100mg. and chronic obstructive airway diseases. syrup morphine for initial titration.3mg Daily Decrease dose of morphine or increase dose interval in case of renal impairment. severe vomiting. prescribe the SAME dose as the one for regular use in between the regular interval. A double dose can be prescribed before bed time to avoid waking the patient up at 4am. Use immediate release preparation i. . 12. Senokot 2 tabs Nocte and lactulose 10ml tid. 4. 8.

Method of conversion to SC &IV  Total oral daily dose of morphine ÷2 = daily dose of morphine given SC  Total oral daily dose of morphine ÷ 3 = daily dose of morphine given IV  Example: oral morphine 60mg daily = 30mg morphine SC daily= 20mg morphine IV daily Managing the side effects of opioids GI Autonomic CNS General Intrenal Medicine Skin Note: All opioids have similar side effect profile Pethidine not recommended because of adverse side effect profile Buprenorphine (Temgesic®) has limited role in cancer pain as it is a partial opioid agonist with a ceiling effect in analgesia. Ensure adequate hydration or rehydration 6. haloperidol for delirium. seizure. hallucination. postural hypotension Drowsiness. Subcutaneous route is the preferred alternate route. Treat specific side effect . metoclopramide for nausea.e. Transdermal fentanyl patch is not recommended for initial or rapid dose titration. drowsiness 2. Can also be given intravenously. especially for opioid naïve patients 4. vomiting. from morphine to methadone or fentanyl.e. myoclonus. Explanation and anticipation .g. as patient will invariably develop constipation 3.g. No indication for intramuscular injection generally. Preventive measures .g. hyperalgesia Itchiness. Methadone is not recommended for use by inexperienced doctors because of highly variable and unpredictable pharmacokinetics. respiratory depression. methylphenidate for sleepiness 5. and precipitation of withdrawal reactions can occur when given to patients who are on opioids) 1. urinary retention. please consult specialist. delirium. some side effects will disappear after initial few days e. nausea. Monitoring – observe mental changes and monitor RR initially. Nausea. cognitive impairment.g. 4. Switching to alternative opioid e. sweating . constipation Dry mouth.give laxative at the same time.GM26 3.

midazolam 5-10 mg or rectal diazepam 5-10 mg stat to relieve panic and fear.3mg tid if high output.c. a. Obstruction may be reversible. i. Continue mouth care to relieve the discomfort from accompanying dry mouth.GM27 PALLIATIVE CARE EMERGENCIES Prompt management can control symptoms and improve QOL.5 –5 mg po/sc stat +s. Sedate with s. urine retention. Morphine 15mg q24h for analgesia ii. Malignant intestinal obstruction For inoperable cases. Review medication and side effects.c. haloperidol 1. and consider venting gastrostomy or stenting. Haloperidol 3mg q24h to control nausea and vomiting iii. Treat with sc buscopan 20-60 mg q24h via syringe driver to reduce the need for suction.1-0. Death rattle Excessive respiratory secretions at the terminal phase are very distressing for dying patients and relatives. octreotide 0. infusion of following drugs via syringe driver.c. try s. 3. Can start with s. General Intrenal Medicine . Stop stimulant laxatives and prokinetic agents if complete IO.c. Try Maxolon + stool softeners if incomplete IO without colic. Massive terminal haemorrhage a. 1. infusion 5-30 mg q24h via syringe driver. Titrate upwards if necessary. symptoms can often be managed without the need for nasogastric tube insertion. Look for reversible causes eg unrelieved pain. c. For agitated delirium. Gentle explanation and reassurance. faecal impaction. Terminal delirium Prompt relief is essential to relieve the patient and carer distress. Buscopan 40mg q24h to reduce colic and secretions May also add dexamethasone s. 4. For refractory obstruction. Apply direct pressure with adrenaline (1 in 1000) soaked dressing to any external bleeding point b. 2. Use green surgical towels to reduce the frightening visual impact of the bright red blood c./iv 4 mg bd-qidb.c.

g.GM28 BRAIN DEATH ( based on HA Guidelines on Diagnosis of Brain Death. ref: HA 752/10/1/3 ) .Depressant drugs or poisons . or preferably into each external auditory meatus in turn. Tests for confirming brain death * All brain-stem reflexes must be absent. *The testing of all the following is considered sufficient a) Pupils .fixed in diameter and non-reactive to light b) Absence of bilateral corneal reflexes c) Absence of vestibulo-ocular reflexes . severe electrolyte or endocrine disturbances) . Clear access to the tympanic membrane should be established by General Intrenal Medicine .Metabolic and endocrine disturbances (e. 2. 15 August 2007.Arterial hypotension as the cause for the coma should be excluded. 1.Primary hypothermia: core temp >35°C before diagnostic tests of brain stem death are carried out .Muscle relaxants and other drugs should have been excluded as a cause of such findings c) Exclusion of potentially reversible causes of coma . Pre-conditions and exclusions for considering diagnosis of brain death * All the following should coexist a) Diagnosis of severe irremediable brain injury which is consistent with progression to brain death (the clinical diagnosis is usally confirmed by neuro-imaging) b) Apnoeic patient on a ventilator .no eye movement occurs during or after the slow injection of at least 20 ml ice-cold water into at least one external auditory meatus.For patients who are 5 yrs of age or older Concept: Brain death equates with death both medically and legally.

GM29 direct inspection.g.0 kPa). Hypoxaemia during disconnection should be prevented by preoxygenation and administration of oxygen during the test. The patient should be disconnected when PaCO2 reaches 40-45 mmHg (5. by delivering O2 through a catheter into the trachea * Period of observation and repetition of tests: 2 full separate examinations should be performed. Critical Care Physician. The minimum period of observation need to be extended to a total of twelve hours after primary hypoxic brain damage or other non-traumatic brain conditions * Medical practitioners: . An interval of at least 2 hrs should elapse between the two formal examinations so that the total period of observation is a minimum of six hours.30).3-6. and after at least 4 hrs of observation of coma (Glasgow Coma Scale of 3) with absent brain-stem function.0 kPa) and arterial pH < 7. ABG must be available for this test to be performed. General Intrenal Medicine . This test may be contraindicated on one or other side by local trauma d) No motor responses within the cranial nerve distribution can be elicited by adequate stimulation of any somatic area e) Absence of gag reflex f) Absence of cough reflex to bronchial stimulation by a suction catheter passed down to the trachea g) Testing for apnoea: should be done last.One of the doctor(s) must be a specialist recognised by the appropriate College as having demonstrated skill and knowledge in the performance of brain death certification (usually an Intensivist. e. Neurologist or Neurosurgeon). The first examination should be performed after all pre-conditions met. No respiratory movements occur when the patient is disconnected from the mechanical ventilator for long enough to ensure that the PaCO2 rises above the threshold for stimulating respiration (ie PaCO2 > 60 mmHg (8.

three or four vessel radiocontrast angiography or radionuclide scan.GM30 .movements of limbs in response to a stimulus outside the distribution of cranial nerves .Each of the two doctors must actually perform one of the examinations. although both practitioners may choose to be present at both examinations * Confirmatory Ix If the preconditions for clinical diagnosis and confirmation of brain death cannot be satisfied.absence of diabetes insipidus .extensor plantar reflex * A Brain Death Certification Form should be used in certification of brain death General Intrenal Medicine . or the one who is attending a recipient of tissue to be removed .deep tendon reflexes .normal BP without pharmacologic support .The other doctor should preferably be of the same qualification but should be at least 6 years after registration and possess the skill and knowledge in the performance of brain death certification . or the one who is proposing to remove the tissue. objective demonstration of absence of intracranial blood flow is required .the time when certification of brain death has been completed (ie following the second confirmatory examination) or if a confirmatory investigation is used. Blood flow should be absent from both vertebro-basilar and supratentorial circulation * Time of death .Neither doctor should be the one authorising tissue removal. flushing. tachycardia . then the time of death should be after the confirmatory investigation and completion of two sets of f clinical examinations of brain stem functions * Clinical observations compatible with diagnosis of brain death .sweating.

INFORMED CONSENT Must be obtained except In an emergency life-saving situation Procedures .Procedures For all procedures.

5 mm internal diameter) with low pressure cuff • with syringe for cuff inflation. Achieve adequate oxygenation before the next attempt Procedures . including CPR 2. Yankauer sucker 7. Bougie Note 1.5 mm. Do not attempt intubation for >15 sec at a time. check cuff for leakage (Inflate with 10 ml syringe. Consult anaesthetists in expectedly difficult cases 2. female 7-8. then deflate completely) • If stylet used. lubricate and insert into ETT. Direct laryngoscope with functioning light bulb and blade of appropriate size (start with size 3) 3.Pr1 ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION Indications 1.5 cm from distal end of tube 4. Do not attempt intubation in suspected cervical spinal problem without in-line stabilization 3. To manage excessive airway secretions Equipment 1. When respiratory support is required. Continuous SaO2 monitoring using pulse oximeter 5. End-tidal CO2 monitor if available 6. To protect airway from aspiration 3. Tip of stylet must be recessed at > 1. Endotracheal tube (Male 8-8. Bag-valve device 2.

Remove cricoid pressure if endotracheal intubation is certain ** In case of failed intubation. with jaw pushed forward 3.g. Confirm ETT position by observing lung expansion. Place patient in a head tilt . exclude pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum) Procedures . Pre-oxygenate for 5 minutes 6. Connect ETT to bag-valve device 11. Position patient supine on a firm surface 2.chin lift position (neck flexed and head extended). use boogie for assistance: insert as a guidewire. then thread ETT through afterwards 9. For more difficult case. Inflate cuff (4-6 mls air to achieve cuff pressure 20 . Insert direct laryngoscope: Push tongue to the left. maintain mask ventilation and summon help After-care Urgent CXR to check ETT position (ETT tip 4 to 6 cm from carina. Advance ETT till marking at incisor is 22-24 cm for males. auscultation (bilateral chest and epigastrium).24 cm H2O) 10. Remove dentures and other foreign bodies 4. Perform Rapid Sequence Induction (RSI) • Give a short acting sedative (e. Apply cricoid pressure (Sellick’s manoevre) to prevent aspiration of gastric contents due to gastric insufflation 7. expose larynx by pulling jaw towards ceiling 7.Pr2 Procedure 1. or by end-tidal CO2 device 12. midazolam or propofol) • followed immediately by a paralytic agent such as suxamethonium or rocuronium 6. Gently slide ETT in between cords and immediately remove stylet. Fit a face mask tightly on patient’s nose and mouth and ventilate using a bag-valve device connected to oxygen 5. 20-22 cm for females 8.

(Never advance beyond clavicle.Place patient in a 20° head-down position with the head turned to the opposite side .Aseptic technique (Venipuncture C/I in any septic site) .Advance angiocath towards ipsilateral nipple with the syringe at 30-45° above the skin.5cm – 1cm lateral to carotid pulse at midpoint of the sternal head of SCM. Maintain gentle aspiration till a gush of blood (dark red) is aspirated .If the artery is punctured (bright red blood).Use Gauge 14 or 16 angiocatheter .Several approaches possible Internal Jugular Vein (IJV) Puncture (C/I in ipsilateral carotid artery aneurysm) . connect infusion set to angiocatheter . (2) Central approach:Insert angiocath at apex of triangle formed by two muscle bellies of SCM and clavicle. withdraw everything and apply firm pressure for at least 5 minutes . -.Right side preferred to avoid injury to the thoracic duct (You may use either approach below for landmarking): (1) Anterior approach: Insert angiocath 0. Pneumothorax can kill) • Always make sure that the catheter is in vascular space (Check siponing: Venous blood backflows upon lowering infusion set below the patient &blood level should oscillate with respiration) • Read the first CVP reading yourself • Always take a CXR afterwards to exclude pneumothorax • Maintain catheter patency with a steady infusion of fluids Avoid taking blood via the CVP line to prevent infection Procedures .IJV runs behind the sternomastoid (SCM) close to the lateral border of the carotid artery .Pr3 SETTING CVP LINE .Gently withdraw stylet of angiocath while pushing angiocath into position.

Warn everybody to stay clear of the patient. Check rhythm and identify shockable rhythm (VF and pulseless VT). if waveform type unknown. 4. Deliver the shock by pressing both discharge buttons simultaneously. Interrogate pacemaker after defibrillation to ensure normal functions. CPR before defibrillator available. Resume CPR immediately after the shock and give 5 cycles of CPR (one cycle of CPR: 30 compressions then 2 breaths). the other over base of heart (if paddles are used)* 8. 1. Apply appropriate conductive material to hand-held paddles or use defibrillator electrode pads. 5. use 200J (150J to 200J for biphasic truncated exponential waveform or 120J for rectilinear biphasic waveform). Attach and turn on defibrillator when available. Procedures . Apply firm pressure with one paddle at cardiac apex. Do not rub the 2 paddles together. Then check rhythm. anterior-posterior orientation is preferred or with paddles > 10cm from pacemaker. 9. 3.Pr4 DEFIBRILLATION The speed with which defibrillation performed is the major determinant of the resuscitation success. Press charge button on machine or paddle. 2. Rapid diagnosis of VF and pulseless VT followed by immediate defibrillation is important. 6. 7. * For patient with permanent pacemaker. Select energy level Monophasic defibrillator – 360J Biphasic defibrillator – device specific. 10.

Manipulate pacing wire to RV apex ± fluoroscopic guidance.  Continue cardiac monitoring.  Watch out for complications (infection. Secure pacing wire at insertion site and cover with dressing. 70-80/min. 7. Connect pacing wire to temporary pacemaker. 2. Give local anaesthesia and perform venipuncture under aseptic technique. Set desirable pacing rate. eg. defibrillator/transcutaneous pacing standby.  Anterior TCP patch at cardiac apex and posterior patch over left infrascapular region. Set sensitivity to 1/2 of sensing threshold (i.  Pacing threshold usually 50-100mA. tachyarrhythmia.Pr5 TEMPORARY PACING 1. haematoma. cardiac monitor. connect ECG to transcutaneous pacing machine for sensing. Select venous access (femoral. 8.  Check pacing threshold daily and adjust output accordingly. more sensitive than the sensing threshold). 4. Set output at >3x threshold or 3V whichever is higher. Transcutaneous Pacing (TCP)  As interim measure before transvenous pacing. Test pacing threshold with a pacing rate above the patient’s own rate. Test for sensing threshold with pacing rate less than patient’s own rate if clinically feasible. 3. cardiac perforation. 10. 6. Equipment: Venous puncture set. pneumothorax. temporary pacing wire and pacemaker. 5. bleeding. Procedures . Accept site if threshold <1 volt. internal jugular or subclavian).e. Aftercare  Full lead ECG and portable CXR. Record the rhythm. 9. thrombophlebitis).

Advance LP needle between spinous processes of L3/4 or L4/5. a ‘give’ sensation indicates that the needle has pierced through ligamentum flavum 6. a CT brain should be performed. check simultaneous blood glucose) .Viral isolation and antibody titre ± PCR . Procedures 1. Depending on provisional clinical diagnosis. Use fine-bore (# 22 or 24) needle if raised ICP suspected 5.Gram stain and culture. Aseptic technique 3. send CSF fluid for: . Remove stylet to allow CSF fluid to come out 7. false localising signs) When in doubt.Indian Ink preparation. VDRL / FTA .Pr6 LUMBAR PUNCTURE • • Always examine the patient for evidence of raised intracranial pressure and focal cerebral lesion before performing LP (papilloedema.Microscopy and cell count.Biochemistry (use fluoride bottle for CSF glucose. Patient to lie flat for 4-6 hours after LP (24 hours if ICP increased) 9. cytology .AFB smear and culture ± PCR. At about 4-5 cm. Note the appearance of the CSF and measure CSF pressure 8. CIE for bacterial antigen (patient already on antibiotics) .IgG / albumin ratio and oligoclonal bands (with serum) Procedures . Infiltrate skin with local anaesthetic 4. fungal culture and cryptococcal antigen . Lie patient in left lateral position with back and knees flexed (may try sitting position if failure after 2-3 attempts) 2.

Pr7 BLEEDING TIME Normal ranges: 2. 10. can occur in some patients 4. a haematologist or a pathologist 1. Ensure the platelet count is normal 2. Record the bleeding time Procedures . Depress the trigger and start the timer simultaneously. Remove the device approximately one second after triggering 11. Clean the volar surface of the forearm with alcohol swab and choose an area of skin devoid of visible superficial veins 6. Remove cuff. Inflate the sphygnomanometer cuff to 40 mmHg. apply covering bandage. Blot off the blood exuding from the linear cut gently and completely with a filter paper or equivalent at 30s intervals 12. Remove the device from the blister pack and twist off the white tear-away tab on the side of the device. Use the Simplate II Bleeding Time Device 3.g.3 to 9. clean forearm. Stop the timer when blood no longer stains the filter paper 13. Place the device firmly on the forearm. Keloid formation. Place a sphygnomanometer cuff around patient's arm above the elbow 5. though rare. Ensure maintenance of pressure during test procedure 8. Inform patient of the possibility of a faint scar after the test. The incision must be made either parallel or perpendicular to the fold of the elbow 9. Advice patient to keep bandage in situ for 24 hrs 14. Do not push the trigger or touch the blade slot 7.5 minutes Preferably to be done by a designated person e.

Clean the skin overlying the posterosuperior iliac crest with betadine and alcohol under aseptic technique 5. and advance needle with firm pressure in a clockwise-anticlockwise motion in a slightly different angle (not the same track as that of BM aspiration) till a decrease in resistance is felt 2. Remove the stylet 4. Infiltrate overlying skin and periosteum with 2% lignocaine 6.Pr8 BONE MARROW ASPIRATION & TREPHINE BIOPSY Bone Marrow (BM) Aspiration & Trephine Biopsy 1. Apply gentle suction with a 20 ml syringe. microbiological culture BM Trephine Biopsy 1. with the stylet locked in the needle.g. Hold needle at right angle to iliac crest 2. Obtain informed consent 2. Incise skin with a scapel (2-3 mm incision) BM Aspiration 1. Advance needle with firm pressure in a clockwiseanticlockwise motion till a decrease in resistance is felt 3. push out the needle to the periosteal surface. Site: Posterior superior iliac crest (patient in lateral recumbent position) 4. Following the BM aspiration. Use either a reusable BM Biopsy needle supplied by CSSD or a disposable one e. Make marrow smear on clean slides before the specimen clots. Jamshidi or ‘J’ style BM Biopsy needle 3. reinsert the stylet 5. cytogenetic study. advance further for 1-1. Remove the stylet. Push. and send marrow clot in a EDTA specimen bottle for section 6. rotate and advance the needle till the needle reaches the trabecular bone 3.g. Put additional material in appropriate media for special tests e.5 cm using a circular rotating motion of the needle along its long axis to include a core of marrow within the needle Procedures .

Push the specimen from needle by inserting the stylet at the tip and put the specimen in a formalin bottle N. Withdraw needle by rotation with quick full twists 6. For patients with hematological malignancies or myelodysplastic syndrome.Pr9 4. Withdraw needle by 2-3 mm. arrange with laboratory haematologist beforehand for cytogenetic.B. then with less pressure advance 23 mm in a different direction to break specimen 5. cytochemistry and immunophenotyping studies (if available) Procedures .

Wash hands thoroughly with anti-microbial soap and water. Procedures . 7. Perform each catheter irrigation and Heparin lock: Weekly Heparin-Saline flushing • Connect an empty 10 ml syringe. and aspirate 5 ml of blood (3 times the catheter volume) to clear the catheter. Put on non-sterile Latex Gloves.9% Normal Saline in a 10ml syringe. Allow the antiseptic to air dry. 6.9% Normal Saline in another 10 ml syringe. Swab end one-inch of catheter and the junction (catheter with Heparin cap or with IV tubing) with Alcolol wipe vigorously with friction for at least 3 times. Remove and discard the blood syringe • Inject 10ml 0. 3. Put on non-sterile Latex Gloves. Draw 5 ml of Heparin-Saline (50unit / 5 ml) into a 10ml syringe and 10 ml 0. 3. Wash hand thoroughly with soap and water. 5. then 5ml Heparin Saline • Swab the hub with Alcohol wipe and insert a new Heparin cap Clearing of Blocked Hickman Catheter Stage I – If infusion rate is slow: 1. Disconnect the Heparin block or IV tubing and swab the hub vigorously with friction for at least 3 times with Alcohol wipe.9% Normal Saline. Allow the antiseptic or air dry. 2. • Release clamp. 2. Prepare 10ml 0.Pr10 CARE OF HICKMAN CATHETER Hickman Catheter Irrigation & Heparin Lock 1. Ensure that the catheter clamp is closed. and eliminate air from the syringes. • Reclamp catheter. 4.

2. If this fails.g. Stage III – If stage I & II have failed: A fibrinolytic agent e. Allow the antiseptic to air dry. If necessary. 5. Do not force fluid as catheter damage may result. Allow the antiseptic to air dry.Pr11 Wipe end one-inch of catheter and the junction (catheter with Heparin block or with IV tubing) with Alcohol wipe vigorously with friction for at least 3 times. Ensure catheter clamp is closed. 8. Verify catheter occlusion by attaching an empty syringe to catheter and attempt to aspirate. attempt clearing by using a gentle alternating irrigation and aspiration (push and pull) with a 20 ml syringe half filled with 0.9% Normal Saline. try with Heparinised-Saline. Urokinase can be used. If all clots in the catheter can be aspirated successfully. 1. N. Please contact haematologist or haematology nurse 4. Disconnect the Heparin block or IV tubing. 7.B. Swab the hub vigorously with friction for at least 3 times with Alcohol wipe. If catheter is still occluded. 6. follow with catheter irrigation and Heparin block or resume IV infusion. obtain and X-ray image of catheter to check it is in-situ Stage II – If the first procedure has failed or the catheter has been blocked for over 2 hours: Repeat procedure in stage I but with 3 ml pure Heparin (1000 untis/ml) by Doctor. Procedures .

immunofluorescence ± electron microscopy Procedures Post-Biopsy Care: 1. Bleeding tendency Preparation: 1. Platelet count should be >100 x 109 /L. Active infection e.Pr12 RENAL BIOPSY Relative contraindications: 1. Doloxene 50 mg im q6h prn for 1 day or other appropriate oral analgesics 6. BP/P monitoring at least hourly for 4 hrs (every 15 mins for one hour). Check baseline BP/P 3. Single kidney 4. Save all urine samples for inspection and for RBC 5. Type and screen/X-match 1 pint packed cells 3. platelets. oozing of blood or severe pain at biopsy site . Check CBP. aPTT. Complete bed rest for 24 hours 3. bleeding time. Very small kidneys (<8 cm) 3. Fresh biopsy specimen put into plain bottle with NS and send for histology. PT. then q4h if stable 4. Encourage fluid intake 2. falling BP (SBP<100 mmHg). increasing pulse rate (>100/min). USG for localisation Biopsy: (Preferably done in early morning on a weekday) 1. urine RBC 2. acute pyelonephritis 2. PT. Trace film / report of USG or IVP 4.g. Inform if gross haematuria. aPTT normal 2. Uncontrolled Hypertension 5.

midline. Bedcage to to protect catheter towards insertion 7. Tenckhoff catheter I. 1.Heparinisation (optional): during 100 100 units/L . Prime abdomen angiocatheter 2 below umbilicus angiocatheter at 2 below umbilicus angiocatheter at 22cm cmcm below umbilicus angiocatheter at atcmbelow umbilicus angiocatheter at 2 cm below umbilicus Ensure smooth flow.automatic peritoneal dialysis machine . 2. 1.-500500 units/L Heparinisation (optional): duringIPD IPD 100 -units/Lunits/L IPD IPD .cageto protectprotect catheter insertion 7. Empty bladder Empty bladder Prime abdomen with litres litres PD Fluid via Fluid a 2. Duration Duration Medication Medication Duration of of of Medication Duration of of Medication Duration Medication (per litre (per (per litre litre (per litre (per litre Dialysis Drain Drain fluid) fluid) DialysisDrain Drain PD PDPD PD PDPD Dialysis PD PD Dialysis fluid) fluid) PD PD Dialysis Drain fluid) programme programme programme programme programme stst st st 1 st 20-80 1 1L/cycle 1L/cycle 30 mins mins 20mins minsHeparin 30 20 Heparin Heparin 11 20-80 LL L L 1L/cycle 20-80 20-80 1L/cycle 30 30 mins 20 20 mins mins mins Heparin 1 20-80 L 1L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins 100-500 Heparin 100-500 100-500 100-500 100-500 units units units units units (optional) (optional) (optional) (optional) (optional) Subsequently 2L/cycle Subsequently 2L/cycle 2L/cycle 30 mins mins 20mins minsOptional 30 20 Optional Optional Subsequently Subsequently 2L/cycle 30 30 mins 20 20 mins mins mins Optional Subsequentl 2L/cycle 30 mins 20 mins optional y II.5% PDPD Fluid aavia aa #16 2. Aseptic technique Give local anaesthesia 5. 5. 2. 3. 4. UseUse automatic peritoneal dialysis machine 1. Watch out for extraperitoneal infusion in patients in obese patients in in obese patients obeseobese patients in obese patients Give local anaesthesia 4. 4. Prime Prime abdomen 2with2 litres 1. with catheter towards rectovesical pouch midline. smooth flow. out out for extraperitoneal infusion Ensure smooth flow. with catheteracute tip at rectovesical pouch midline.5% Fluid Fluid via #16 Prime abdomen with 2 litres 1. Acute Acute PD catheter insertion for patients withoutaa II.II. Tenckhoff catheter in-situ 1. 2.000 units Postdialysis to to 5.-Heparinisation (optional): duringduring 100. Insert catheter acute PDat 2-3at below umbilicus in Insert catheter for acute 6. catheter for for forPD PD2-3 2-32-3 cm below umbilicus in Aseptic catheter acute at at cm below umbilicus in 6. Insert Insert technique acute PD cm cm below umbilicus in 6. flow. local anaesthesia Give Give local anaesthesia 4. EnsureEnsure smoothWatchWatch out for extraperitoneal infusion 3. Ensure smooth flow. Tenckhoff catheter in-situ I. Aseptic technique Aseptic technique 5. abdomen with with 2 2litres 1. 3. Tenckhoff catheter in-situ I.500 .5% PD via via #16 #16 1.   Pr13 Pr13 Pr13 Pr13 Pr13 INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS I. Bed7. Useautomatic peritoneal dialysis machine 1.Regular Rxonce twice twice week . with catheter tip tip PDtowards rectovesical midline.000 IP IP IP Postdialysis up up5.5% 1. PD PD catheter insertion for patients without a Acute PDcatheter insertion for patients without II. Acute PD catheter insertionpatients without aa Acute catheter insertion for for patients without Tenckhoff Catheter Tenckhoff Catheter Tenckhoff Catheter Tenckhoff Catheter Tenckhoff Catheter 1.Heparinisation (optional): Postdialysis to up 5. 6.Regular onceto toto a a . 2.-Regular Rx Rx Rx totwice aaweeka week Regular Rxonceonceto twiceweek . with catheter towards rectovesical pouch pouch in Insert catheter for tip towards 2-3 cm below umbilicus midline. Watch outfor extraperitoneal infusion 3. 5. II. Use automatic peritoneal dialysis machine Use automatic peritoneal dialysis machine 1.000 units units IP Postdialysis 5.Heparinisation (optional): during IPD 100500 -500 units/L . 2.000 IP Postdialysis up to up to 5.000 units units 2. Bed cage to protect catheter after insertion Procedures . Tenckhoff catheter in-situin-situ I. 2. Aseptic technique 5. 6. Bed cage protectcatheter tip after insertion Bed cage to catheter after after rectovesical pouch 7. bladder Empty bladder 1. Give local anaesthesia 4. Watch for extraperitoneal infusion 3. with catheter after insertion 7. EmptyEmpty bladder 1.Regular once twice week .5% PD #16 2. 1.

Aortoiliac graft 7. Respiratory failure 5. Empty urinary bladder before Catheter insertion Procedures .g. IPD order: Total duration 40 hours 2 litres 1. recent abdominal surgery 3.Pr14 8.5% PD fluid) for diabetics. outflow 20 mins (* may adjust % of PD fluid as required e. or Hct <0. use 4. insertion 2.C.5%* PD fluid per shift Add heparin 100-500 units/litre Add 4 mEq KCl /litre if serum K < 4 mmol/l Inflow + indwelling 40 mins. Suspicion of abdominal pathology 4. aim at sugar ∼10 mmol/l Relative contraindications to peritoneal dialysis: 1. reposition patient / fleet enema / adjust or replace catheter 10. Monitor h'stix q4-6 hours. infuse over 1 hr 5. Monitor inflow/outflow. Burns or other hypercatabolic state or life threatening hyperkalemia (not efficient enough) Preparation for Tenckhoff Catheter Insertion 1. if poor. Antibiotics prophylaxis (optional) : Regime 1 : Ampicillin 500 mg iv + cloxacillin 500 mg iv before insertion. Severe bleeding tendency 2. then Ampicillin 500 mg and Cloxacillin 500 mg qid Regime 2 : Vancomycin 1 g in 100 ml NS.26 3. dDAVP to correct bleeding tendency 4. Fleet enema the night before T. Pleuroperitoneal leak 6. Transfusion if Hb <8 g/dl. Multiple lower abdominal scar.25% PD fluid if fluid overload) (*Use 1 litre exchanges if in respiratory distress) 9. Add soluble insulin (4-6 units/bag for 2L of 2.

C/ST (use blood culture bottle) and cytology Consider simultaneous albumin infusion 6g albumin/litre of fluid tapped. 4. PT <3 secs prolonged Site : Usually right or left lower quadrant of abdomen Perform on right side if splenomegaly Aseptic technique May infiltrate with 1% lignocaine Insert needle (#19 or 21) and aspirate fluid or use commercial paracentesis set Send for microscopy. Procedures . 7.Pr15 ABDOMINAL PARACENTESIS 1. white cell count (total and PMN). 2. 6. biochemistry. 3. 5. Correct platelet count to >50 x 109/l.

subphrenic abscess Amyloidosis Procedure (Biopsy preferably done on a weekday in the morning) 1. 2. 9. INR. platelet count < 75 x 109/L. 4. hydatid cyst. 6. 4. Avoid lower border of ribs. Follow instructions in the package. aPTT. bleeding time > 10 mins. 6. 2. 7. 5. One pass is usually enough . 3. platelet. Procedures Check CBP. 5. bleeding time X-match 2 pints whole blood for reserve and consider antibiotic prophylaxis Check BP/P before procedure Instruct patient on how to hold breath in deep expiration for as long as he can Palpate the abdomen and percuss for liver dullness in the midaxillary line Choose rib space with maximum liver dullness (may ascertain puncture site with USG) Aseptic technique.Pr16 PERCUTANEOUS LIVER BIOPSY Contraindications 1. haematocrit < 25% Gross ascites Patient unable to hold breath Extrahepatic biliary obstruction. 8. PT > 3 secs prolonged. cholangitis Vascular tumour. Send specimen for histology in formalin or formalin-saline 10. Make sure that the patient is holding his breath in deep expiration before introducing the biopsy needle into liver. anaesthetise skin. make a small incision Use the Hepafix needle. 3.

Patient may sit up after 4 hrs. then BP/P q1h for 6 hrs. right shoulder and pleuritic chest pain 2. tachycardia. Diet: full liquid for 6 hrs. BP/P every 1/2 hr for 2 hrs.Pr17 Post-biopsy Care 1. Simple analgesics prn 4. abdominal pain. then q4h if stable Watch out for fall in BP. Procedures . then resume regular diet. Complete bed rest for 8 hrs. 3. first 2 hrs on right side.

Use ultrasound guidance if effusion small or loculated and/or abnormal thoracic anatomy 4. Withdraw 20-50 ml pleural fluid and send for LDH. Best aspiration site guided by percussion. lean him/her slightly forward with arms comfortably folded on a overbed table 3. 9. Trauma: pneumothorax. gram stain & C/ST. Review latest CXR to confirm diagnosis.5 L of pleural fluid per procedure. Vagal shock 5. With patient sitting up. air embolism. For therapeutic tap. avoid air entry into pleural space. location and extent of effusion.connect to bed side bag) and aspirate slowly and repeatedly. Seeding of mesothelioma (avoid biopsy if this is suspected) Procedures . Puncture lateral chest wall along mid. haemothorax.Pr18 PLEURAL ASPIRATION 1. AFB smear & culture. Re-expansion pulmonary oedema from too rapid removal of fluid 3. Wide-bore angiocath via a 3-way tap may be used if repeated aspiration / viscous content is expected. Anaesthetise all layers of thoracic wall down to pleura 5. Connect a fine-bore needle (21G)/angiocath to syringe for simple diagnostic tap. 6. Check fluid pH & Sugar (contained in fluoride tube) if infected fluid/empyema is suspected. Check concomitant serum protein and LDH 8. Pleural infection/empyema 4. protein. Do not push any aspirated content back into pleural cavity. ensure proper sealing of all joints of the tap) 7. connect 3-way tap (+/. (Pitfall: Be careful NOT to mistake bulla as pneumothorax or collapsed lung as effusion) 2.or posterior axillary line immediately above a rib. Throughout procedure. haemoptysis. (If 3-way tap is used. cytology (yield improves if larger volume sent). damage to liver and spleen 2. Aseptic technique. DO NOT withdraw more than 1-1. cell count & D/C. Take CXR and closely monitor patient to detect complications Complications 1.

open inner tube and flush specimen(s) out with NS 10. Once the needle is in the pleural cavity. Significant coagulopathy Procedure 1. rotate the inner tube counterclockwise to open biopsy notch (spherical knob of inner tube will click into position in the upper recess of the groove of the outer tube) (Aspiration of fluid by the connected syringe confirm pleural placement of the Abrams needle) 5. Assemble and check the Abrams needle before biopsy. totally take at least 3 specimens if possible 8. Ensure there is pleural fluid before attempting biopsy. While an assistant presses on wound. Hold the needle firmly in this position and sharply twist the grip of inner tube clockwise to take the specimen 7. advance a CLOSED Abrams needle (with inner-most stylet in situ) through soft tissue and parietal pleura using a slightly rotary movement 4. 2. aspirate as for Steps 5-8 of Pleural Aspiration 11. do not attempt pleural biopsy) After skin incision (should be made right above a rib). If tapping is necessary. Take CXR to detect complication(s) Complications: As for Pleural Aspiration 3. Apply lateral pressure on the notch against the chest wall anteriorly. at the same time slowly withdraw the needle till resistance is felt when the pleura is caught in the biopsy notch 6. Repeat Steps 4 to 6 above in the remaining two directions. remove stylet of needle. Firmly apply a dressing to the wound and quickly remove the needle when the patient is exhaling 9. posteriorly or downwards (but NOT upwards to avoid injuring the intercostal vessels and nerve) with a forefinger. Procedures . Uncooperative patient 2. A syringe may be connected to the end hole of Abrams needle. Preparation as for Steps 1 to 4 of Pleural Aspiration (NB: If fluid cannot be aspirated with a needle at the time of anesthesia.Pr19 PLEURAL BIOPSY Contraindications: 1.

Re-confirm insertion site by percussion. 6. leaving appropriate length on both sides.) 4.) 2. incise skin right above the rib at anterior or mid-axillary line in 5th or 6th intercostal space. Match every 1 cm advancement of drain with 1-2 cm trocar withdrawal. Proceed with blunt dissection of intercostal muscle with artery forceps down to parietal pleura. Withdraw trocar by 1 cm into drain immediately after puncturing pleura. 12. 10. (Alternate site: 2nd intercostal space. Attach chest drain to 2 cm underwater seal. 11. Take CXR to confirm tube position and detect complication(s) Complications: As for Pleural Aspiration 1.” (A space bordered by anterior border of latissimus dorsi. Anaesthetise all layers of thoracic wall including pleura. Procedures . Apply a skin suture over the wound and make a knot. is uncommonly used nowadays) 3.Pr20 CHEST DRAIN INSERTION Preparation as for Pleural Aspiration. Insertion site should be within the “safe triangle. make several knots using remaining threads to prevent slipping. Ensure fluid level swings with respiration and coughing. with arm on the side of the lesion behind his/her head to expose axillary area. Always check the number of rib space from sternal angle. Double-clamp chest drain when trocar tip appears outside chest wall 8. Preferred insertion method: Double-clamp outer end of Argyle drain (24 Fr to drain air/fluid. Direct drain apically to drain air and basally to drain fluid 9. mid-clavicular line. 28 Fr to drain blood/pus). lateral border of pectoralis major and a horizontal line superior to nipple. Apply dressing. release forceps and use them to direct drain into place. Alternate method: Insert Argyle drain with inner trocar. Breach pleura with finger. Form a 2 cm “sling” by tying another square knot 2 cm from previous knot. (Preferred patient position in BTS guideline: Semi-supine on the bed. Apply artery forceps in parallel with tip of drain. (Do not proceed if needle for anaesthesia cannot aspirate free gas/ fluid). Tie the “sling” to the drain. 5. 7. Insert drain tip. slightly rotated.

Acknowledgements Acknowledgement .

We would also like to extend the heartfelt thanks to all the colleagues who have made invaluable suggestions to the contents of Fifth Edition of this Handbook. we express our special gratitude to the following colleagues for their efforts and contribution to the Handbook Angela Wong HY Lo Bonnie Kho John Chan Carmen Ng Joyce Chan CC Mok KH Yiu CW Lau KK Chan CW Yim KL Tsui CY Chan KS Wong CY Cheung KW Lee Emily Kun KY Ying FL Lau Loletta So Harold Lee MC Choi Herman Liu Patrick Kwan HW Ng Patrick Li Hong Kong Poison Information Centre PL Miu PW Ng SC Tiu SM Lam TC Wu TH Tsoi TS Tse TY Tsang TY Wong WC Ko WC Lao WH Fung WL Ng YY Leung Acknowledgements . Finally.The Editorial Board would like to thank the Coordinating Committee (COC) in Internal Medicine for their support and generous contribution to the publication of this Handbook.

COPYRIGHT RESERVED .

Quality Assurance Subcommittee of the Coordinating Committee in Internal Medicine .

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