Stall urinal squatting

Western seat with cover

Used for washi ng excre tory organ s


Indian without footrest FLUSHING SYSTEMS Manual flushing

waterless urinals conserve thousands of Uses 1 . 5 gallons of water gallon water significantly reduce automated approx . sewage flushing Water reduced the urine passes by 50 % through a floating Pressure layer of  Blue flushing 1 - 1 . 6 gallon Seal liquid, which forms water req . a barrier that prevents

COMPONENTS •Glazed ceramic pedestal bowl •Flushing rim •Overflow connected to a waste •Inlet for spray – rises from bowl or •hand held

Counter top COMPONENTS Bowl, Soap tray, Outlet , Water overflow , Holes for fixing taps SUPPORT S Wall brackets Pedestal

The rectangular conventional profile to shower or shower accommodate end bath consists of and side panels , a shower tray or an outlet, receiver to overflow, holes collect water, for taps with a fixed or hand held shower. The wall around fixed showers are lined with some impermeable material (tile) and open side is fitted with a 3 WALL ALCOVE water proof curtain.


A 60" unobstructed opening for each toilet room for maneuvering a wheelchair IS not required if the door swings out. The inside dimensions of the toilet room which includes a water closet and lavatory The top of the water closet seat must be 17" -19" above the finished floor. Both wall-hung and floor mounted water closets are acceptable. Only wash down water closets are permitted The door opening must be 32" net clear width (in between stops). The width of the compartment must be a minimum of 36“ and a maximum of 48". The length of the compartment must be a minimum of 72” The side grab bar must be located within 12 inches of the rear wall, and extended 42 inches from that location. If the grab bar extends to the rear wall it must be at least 54 inches in length. All grab bars must be parallel to the floor. The height of the grab bar above the finished floor is 33 to 36 inches


PUMPING SYSTEMS SUBMERSIBL E PUMPS TURBINE PUMPS Designed so that the motor can be submerged along with the turbine usually has a turbine below the ground water and a driving motor PUMPS above CENTRIFUGAL itmounted on a Has an impeller rotory shaft which increases the water velocity and forces it into the casing EJECTOR PUMPS a venturi tube is added to the centrifuga l pump RECIPROCATING PUMPS It has aplunger that moves back and forth within a cylinder equipped with check ROTATORY PUMPS Has a helical or spiral rotor-a turning vertical shaft with a rubber sleeve and traps water between it and the rotor TYPES OF PUMPS .

HIGH RISE the NATIONAL FIRE STRUCTURES PROTECTION ASSOCIATION defines a high rise building as a building with an occupied floor that is 75 feet above the WATER natural ground level Factories where bath rooms are required to be provided Factories where no bath rooms are Required to be provided Hospital(including laundry): a) Number of beds not exceeding100 b) Number of beds exceeding100 Nurses’ homes and medical quarters Hostels Hotel (Up to 4 Star) Hotel(5 Star and above) Offices Restaurants Cinemas. per day taken REQUIREMENT 45 per head 30 per head 340per head 450 per head 135per head 135per head 180per head 320per head maybe 45 per head 70 per seat 15per seat For 20 storey structures PLUMBING HIGH STOREY . concert halts and theatres Schools: a) Day schools b) Boarding schools NOTE — For calculating water demand for visitors a Consumption of 15litresp~rhead.

DIRECT PUMPING SYSTEMS Water is pumped directly into the distribution system without the aid of any overhead tank. As the building get taller. water from direct supply is normally not available above two or three floors. The system eliminates the requirements of Plumbing engineers found out that as you lift water above a datum. another problem arises as the water pressure at the bottom of a DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN MULTI STOREY BUILDINGS .DIRECT SUPPLY SYSTEM This system is adopted when adequate pressure is available round the clock at the topmost floor. The system depends on a constant and reliable supply of power. except for flushing purposes. With limited pressure available in most city mains. Direct pumping systems are suitable for buildings where a certain amount of constant use of water is always occurring. you lose 1 pound per square inch for every 2. Any failure in the power system would result in a breakdown in the water supply system. The pumps are controlled by a pressure switch installed on the line.3 feet of elevation. This small but incremental loss makes achieving high water pressure at the top of a water column very difficult.

compresses the air on top. The system shall have reliable power supply to avoid breakdown in the water supply.HYDRO NUEMATIC SYSTEMS Hydro-pneumatic system is a variation of direct pumping system. The air in the pressure tank slowly reduces the volume due to dissolution in water and leakages from pipe lines. Hydro-pneumatic system generally eliminates the need for an over head tank and may supply water at a much higher pressure than available from overhead tanks particularly on the upper floors. a pressure switch installed on the vessel switches off the pumps. An air compressor is also necessary to feed air into the vessel so as to maintain the required airwater ratio. As water is drawn into the system. An air-tight pressure vessel is installed on the line to regulate the operation of the pumps. When a predetermined pressure is reached in the vessel. The vessel capacity shall be based on the cutting and cut-out pressure of the pumping system depending upon allowable start/stops of the pumping system. As pumps operate. the incoming water is the vessel. resulting in even distribution of water at all floors DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN MULTI STOREY BUILDINGS . pressure falls into the vessel starting the pump at preset pressure.

•In case only UGT is provided . The system comprises pumping water to one or more overhead tanks placed at the top most location of the hydraulic zone.4 . it may be taken as 50 to 150percentof one day’s requirement • •In case combined storage is provided . it distributed to the various.OVER HEAD TANK DISTRIBUTION This is the most common of the distribution systems adopted by various type of buildings. Water collected in the overhead tank • In case only OHT is is provided .6 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN MULTI STOREY BUILDINGS percent UGT and 33.3may be taken as 33 to 50 parts of the building by a set ’s percent of one day of pipes located generally on requirement • the terrace. it maybe taken as 66.

The requirements for fitments for drainage and sanitation for a regular building might be as follows REQUIREMENTS OF A RESTAURANT OFFICE BUILDING REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS PLUMBING .

28 and 35 mm . stainless steel can be used due to very high pressure.generally for long runs where use of 15 mm piping would cause excessive pressure drop PIPING FIXTURES . propylene and PDVF are used. silicon iron. tubing sizes 2 inches and smaller are typically assembled using 95-5 solder. Copper pipe is available in a number of sizes commonly: •8 and 10 mm . •22. borosilicate glass. appliances etc.PIPING FIXTURES water systems for high rise buildings are typically lcopper . in very high buildings.generally for connections to individual taps.for use micro bore central heating systems •12 and 15 mm . in hospitals.

reinforced concrete. PIPE RELATED BYLAWS . wrought iron. where necessary). galvanized mild steel tubes.PIPE SIZES Pipes may be of any of the following materials: cast iron. copper. steel (internally lined or coated with bitumen or a bituminous composition. brass. and out-coated with cement concrete or mortar. prestressed concrete. vertically cast or centrifugally (spun) cast.

This implies that if care is taken and ingenuity brought into play when designing the original building or buildings to be drained.The realization of an economical drainage system is added by compact grouping of fitments in both horizontal and vertical directions. as to simplify the drainage system DISCHARGE PIPING . both in vertical and horizontal planes. it is possible to group the sanitary fittings and other equipment requiring drainage.

the water will adhere to the pipe's walls until the pipe's cross sectional area is about one-fourth full. and fills the pipe considerably more due to the lost speed. The low pressure zones should not be placed near a fixture. Drainage is another common issue in skyscrapers. When water falls vertically down a pipe. or else poor drainage could occur (often recognized by a gulping sound and poor flow performance). the flow velocity drops dramatically. Air ventilation must be controlled so that low pressure zones can be created. air is necessary. and the flow of water can continue. It is however okay to place air vents in the fixtures themselves to increase water flow. It is common practice to use relief or yoke vents to slow the water before it encounters a horizontal flow change. Once the gravity propelled water hits a horizontal bend in the pipe. and is often just as difficult to solve as water pressure problems.DRAINAGE VENTING For water to travel down a vertical pipe. The DRAINAGE .

HEATING SYSTEMS ELECTRI C STORAGE HEATERS a) Electric Storage Heaters 1) Non-pressure or open outlet type 2) Pressure type 3) Cistern type 4) Dual heater type b) Gas Water Heaters 1) Instantaneous type 2) Storage type c) Solar Heating Systems 1) Independent roof mounted heating units 2) Centrally banked heated system d) Central Hot Water System 1) Oil fired 2) Gas fired GAS WATER HEATERS CENTRAL HOT WATER SYSTEMS HOT WATER SYSTEMS .

RAIN WATER HARVESTING need for The increasing green buildings and self sufficient buildings has made rain water harvesting an important part of plumbing in high buildings so that a large amount of water requirements can be met by it A specific minimum area has to be allotted t rain water harvesting according to the national building code RAIN WATER HARVESTING REQUIREMENTS .

Dual flush cisterns are a given. Flow controls can reduce flows from taps by over 50% without a discernable loss of amenity values. Modern showerheads can provide a better shower at half the flow rate of older The grey water collected from the toilets and septic tanks can be recycled and purified.2L of urine with 9 L of perfectly good drinking water. Depending on the level of purification of water.GREY WATER REUSE Latest water saving technologies such as waterless urinals avoid the need to flush 0. New toilets can reliably flush with 35% less water than previously required. it can be used in•Cooling towers and irrigation of the landscaped gardens the tanks can be •Flushing and toilet systems hidden in the •Washing and bathing purposes basement or under the •Drinking only if it is highly purified walkways through advanced systems The grey water reuse and recycling can reduce the fresh water requirements by up to 60 % BRAC W-450 Brac systems are an example of grey water purification systems It saves 35% to 40% off the annual water and sewer bills GREY WATER REUSE .


a constant temperature is maintained INSTALL ON DEMAND HOT WATER CIRCULATION PUMP They supply the hot water instantly REUSE GREY WATER Grey water can replace the fresh water in various purposes and hence. Dual flush cisterns are a given. In this.GREEN BUILDING PLUMBING HIGH EFFICIENCY WATER HEATERS On demand systems and energy efficient heating systems can reduce the energy consumption INSULATING HOT WATER PIPES Insulating the pipes prevents the hot water from cooling down quickly and therefore reduces the load on the heating system USING WATER EFFICIENT FIXTURES Latest water saving technologies such as and prevents the wastage of cold water prior to the hot water. Modern showerheads can provide a better shower at half the flow INSTALL FLOWrate of older REDUCERS ON FAUCETS AND SHOWER HEADS INSTALL HOT WATER HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS Heat is recovered from waste water resulting in energy and water savings Typically installed during new construction under tubs and showers •Water savings for the client •Buy retrofit aerators and screw into faucet head •These reducers are readily available and are attached at the faucet head • GREEN BUILDING PLUMBING TECHNIQUES . the water is constantly moving through the heating system and therefore. the demand is reduced significantly waterless urinals New toilets can reliably flush with 35% less water than previously required.

all buildings containing fire protection systems have large. SAND PIPE SYSTEMS SPRINKLER SYSTEMS FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS . dedicated fire pumps to provide the flows and pressure required at the time of emergency. all buildings should have sprinkler systems and stand pipe systems.FIRE PRTECTION SYSTEMS one area that should not be overlooked in any high rise building is the fire protection systems. as a minimum.

London +Ashok Dhawan Architect lumbing & Fire Fighting Consultants SAVIRAM Engineering Consultants Pvt.821.522.819 sqm Parking / Utilities/BOH PLUMBING SYSTEM CASE STUDY . VATIKA CITY POINT .76 sqm Business use Substructure=10. PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION Area Details & Projected Population Plot area (Net area)=7. Ltd.4 sqm Superstructure =13.GURGAON rchitects Studio U+A .

FIRST FLOOR PLUMBING PLANS WATER SUPPLY DRAINAGE SANITARY SYSTEMS Emphasis on water conservation. one main toilet core exist. All EWCs shall be low volume flushing EWC (4-6 liters) with concealed flush valves. CASE STUDY . IWCs in drivers’ toilets shall be Orissa pan with exposed flush valves. Washer less taps shall be used In the proposed Architectural scheme. better hygiene and ease in maintenance.

275 LPD ILNG TOWER MAKE-UP ETC.074 lpd [Water quality Q1] Requirement for washing +drinking @55% = 39.400 lpd [Water qualityQ1] Requirement for landscaping etc.250 LPD estaurant/foodcourtetc.079 lpd Expected recovery from STP[if provided] = @95% of influent = 58 .201 lpd [Water quality Q2] = NIL Requirement for HVAC/DG = 23.500 lpd [Water quality Q1] = 14.WATER REQUIREMENT Water body Irrigation = SUBTOTAL C RETAIL [ Ground and First floor ]   Population calculations TOTAL WATER DEMAND [A+B+C] = 1. 06 .000 LPD water demand (Assumed 15% greens) =1.01.059 lpd [Water quality Q2] Wastewater flow to Sewer = 80%domestic water deman +100% equipment backwash = 62.68/10 = 1125 persons@45lpcd = 50.x2 persons= 32 persons@45lpcd = 1. 234 LPD SAY 106 KLD [ X BUSINESS [ 2 nd floor to 11 th floor ] calculations se (all levels) 11250.23/6)= 664persons@15lpcd = 9.400 LPD Equipment backwash demand = 5.625 LPD Water body / irrigation demand make-up (Assumed) = 2.960 LPD extra for equipment back-wash etc. = 6. Consultants input] B = 23.500 LPD 5.500 LPD = 6.85/3+1156. GROSS DAILY WATER DEMAND = 1 .275 lpd Requirement for flushing @45% = 32.175 LPD population Retail shops 16 nos.400 LPD = 9.059 LP Common usage e/service personnel 50 nos@45 lpcd = 2.500 sqm@3 l/sqm/d 4. (Assumed) ~100 seats = 7. 975 lpd SAY 59 KLD [ Y ] NET MAXIMUM DAILY FRESH WATER CASE STUDY .000 LPD SUBTOTAL A = 71. p [As/HVAC consultants input] r washers make-up@1500lphx6 hours er demand [As/HVAC consultants input] tower make-up demand hours] [As/Elect.000 LPD Water Balance Calculations   Domestic water demand = 71.440 LPD Add for 5% = 3 sqm@GF and 6 sqm atFF (1414.


66 kL  SEWERAGE A centralized sewage treatment and recycling plant shall be installed to take care of the discharge from the new development.522. The space requirement for the STP will be approx.e. 95% i.BUILDING SETUP WATER SUPPLY Municipal water supply shall be supplemented through deep bore-wells. STORM WATER DRAINAGE It is suggested to dig two borewells It is proposed to do total rainwater harvesting in this project. chemical & bacteriological analysis of ground water made available from the site its suitability for domestic & DG sets cooling tower make-up purposes shall be established The expected yield from a bore-well shall be approx.000 lit/hour. Based upon the physical. 240 kL. The rainwater calculations are given below:   Plot Area = 7.4 sqm  Average Rainfall = 610 mm / year  Total Annual Catchment Precipitation = 4. The average yearly precipitation is 610 mm. The recycled water can be used for flushing. 15. 150 sqm .588. This shall help in reducing the load on fresh water resources by almost 55 % ( 47 kLD against 106 kLD ) PROPOSED STRUCTURE CASE STUDY . air-washers and DG cooling tower make-up and gardening. The expected recovovery of recycled water is approx. The average yield from a bore-well for 16 hours running operation shall be approx. 59 kLD. The combined discharge from the entire premises shall be ~62cum/day.

Yard Hydrant (To be provided) .   The minimum requirements for fire fighting installations for a Business building exceeding 30 m in height in height as per NBC are:   .FIRE FIGHTING All the fire fighting provisions shall be as per ‘National Building Code of India 2005 Part IV Fire and Life Safety’ published by the Bureau of Indian Standards. .Automatic Detection and Alarm System (To be provided-by electrical agency) .850 lpmand two electrical jockey pumps of 180 lmp capacity}.Water Storage Tanks Underground Static Water Storage Tank (200.Hose Reel (To be provided) -Wet Riser (To be provided) .000 liters) .Manually operated Electric Fire Alarm System (To be provided-by electrical agency) .Fire Extinguishers (In all parts of the building) CASE STUDY . 000 litres) Terrace Tank (20.Fire Pumps {Two Electrical (one each for hydrant and sprinkler circuits) and One Diesel Pump of capacity 2.Automatic Sprinkler System (To be provided-in entire building) .