To ffipe Off the Tears

The Treaty of Easton and The Lehigh valley
The French and Indian J-Vtzr Pennsylvania in
Tuesday June 25 Moravian Museum Bethlehem

"The Chain of Friendship": Indian Treaty-Making in Colonial Pennsylvania
Saturday July 6 St. John's utheran Church Easton

To Scatter the Clouds
June ~9 & 30 Burnside Plantation Bethlehem

That I Had Kindled a Council Fire
Sunda y July 7 1753 Bachmann Publick House Easton

Weeping on the Road to Nazareth
Saturday July 20 Whitefield House azareth

Sponsored by The Moravian Historical Society in cooperation with The Historic Bethlehem Partnership and the 1753 Bachmann Publick House

Suggested Reading (available at the book tent)
Crucible of War by Fred Anderson Conrad Weiser: Friend King of the Delawares: Early Western Journals, Forts on Ihe Pennsylvania


and Mohawk by Paul A. W. Wallace by Anthony F.C. Wallace

VoL 1 by Reuben Gold Thwaites Frontier by William Hunter

Dansbury Diaries by Ralf Ridgeway Hillman Memorials of the Moravian Churclf, VoL I by William C. Reichel Histol)' of Bethlehem, PA 1741-1892 by 1. Mortimer Levering

The HWoI)' and Culture of Iroquois DiplomtJcy by Francis Jennings "The Moravians and the Indians During the French and Indian War by Albert F. Jordan in The Transactions oj the Moravian Historical Society, Vol. XXII, pl. I Into the American Woods: Negotla1ors on the Pennsylvania
Fronner by James H. Merrell

David Zeifbergu by Earl P. Olmstead History

0/ the Northern


Indians by David Zeisberger

Customs, Manners, and Practices

0/ the Indian Nations by John Heckewelder

We would like to thank our generous sponsors, including:
The Expre - imes The Morning Call ESSROC Robert P .L. Frick Key tone Savings Bank Moravian Hall Square Retirement Community Air Products and Chemicals, Ine, azaretb Heritage Inc. Nazareth Rotary Club Sadie Stauffer Lafayette-Ambassador Bank Snyder-Hoffman and Associates Representativ Richard Grucela Pennsylvania Humanities Council

Finally, we would like to thank you for choosing to spend time with us.

Often the people of history get lost in the history books. heir stories either go untold or unheard. To Wipe Off the Tears i an attempt to offer both familiar stories and some you may not have heard before. Through this exciting interpretive program we hope you will discover something new, and rediscover something you knew. This handout has been prepared as your guide. To help orient you it presents a small eros -section of the complex stories represented during the series. The question (in bold print) can serve as ice-breakers in your conversations with us. Of course, you are welcome (and encouraged) to come up with your own questions. Three living-history events and two accompanying lectures make up the series. You do not have to attend every event to understand individual presentation. ach one has been designed to be independent of the others.

All events are free and open to the public.
In 1756 after suffering through the real and rumored Indian attacks of 1754 and 1755, the Pennsylvania colonial Government convened the first of everal peace conferences with disaffected Delaware Indians at aston. These conferences held the attention of everyone from ettlers on the Pennsylvania frontier to British authorities in London. Most treaty conferences were held in colonial settlements, but followed indian treaty-making patterns. Because of the cultural requirements of Native protocol the "human carnival," as James Merrell called it in his book Into the American Woods, pre ent at treaty conferences created a popular spectacle for local re idents to visit Just as televised court trials today draw crowds of viewers, so did is"-century conferences between Colonial officials and Natives. Certainly they were a dramatic change from daily life. Conferences brought with them wondrous new people who wore trange clothes and behaved differently. Indian culture was very foreign to 181h_ century settlers. or many, treaties were as much entertainment as serious business of state.

7 'pm

Moravian Museum" June 15

The Freneh and Indian War in. PenDsylvania,

Dr'. Alan. Irvine of the University ofPi.tJtsbUl!gb will discuss theb.istory of this war in Pennsylvania. recreating the :pivotal. moments, and bringing the key p~aye:rsto Ufe. Moravmn Museum, 66W,. Church St., Bethlehem. Sponsored by the Pemsylvani~ HI!ln'UliIDt~es: Council"

To Seatte'r tile Clouds

Burnside Plantati.Qn, JUDe 29-311
The MOI.r:aviansfirst came to the: Letugh VaUeiy in m 740. They e-stabHshed, prosperous commtmJllies whictl 8uPJI'O,ned their suecessfui mission work amon,g American Indians. Because the Indians believed they were ;sme among th,eMoraviam, tbey _isted that the conterenee be held in the Mo[,a,vioo viUa,ge of Bethlehem. The MoravwmJSdecooed,and Easton was selected, •. Why ,di.d 'flit!, M'i!J;nnians dieeline~he offer to bold the CUDire:rences illlDethlehem?
-. ..

.tllr:t1htvJw-~li}l mo am Slwopens to tbepnb1.'ic.
00am. t Clilil4nm's
13 pm

musket: drill'

:~p.m. FMbio:n show

C.-. .uAL _ mush. driUm . bill" !.jI1---O·!ri '.


4 pm

Site clMt'8 kiI tim plI.blic

Sunday June 30 J. pm Site pablie_ ... p.m ~~Id- R!D s·:mllS_1 ''d'''::II'1 - -- ~ ·'1.. '-!IH ;) p.1n Fas'biaIIJ shoWl 4 pm SUe ·eL~ to. dlepuilifi~'

I held


at the Military Crunp at the Bam

Desp:it·e their fe'lucmnoe to participate, the MoraviWlll ghe~Jteredtheir recendy homeless Christian Indian. converts, as well as hestiag Indian de~egad.oms .attendmg tbettecatyand sU!pplying provincial sorndiers who manned the chain of protective forts. When they appealed to the provincial govemment fOF re1ie1. they were to~d.that they should continue to provide for t_ll{l(llgtm.Sts, andthe Colorualgovemment w(f(l!id~embt1fSie them. Anloog. o~her items, the Moravians provided food, ,ciothirlg, tools aud. weapons" • .If Moravia.lIS were paeifiS'ts, wby did 't'hey .make and repair guns? Mor:avian Mi8Si()nari'e~' Beginning in. the' l 1'tlJ!:Os, Meravians established Christian missieos amo'ng the several different tribes of Indians, including the Delawp., who. became (heir most rmmerousooneene. M,en.and. wemea were selected and trained to act as missionaries, ~mguages andcllS'~oms..What made 'the .M<mwians unique was, their wiUiingnessto learn their pot1e-nda,},oorwerts;

MO' Gunsmiths

language and live and work among them. By 1747 they had enough converts to establish a Christian Indian town, which they named Gnadenhuetten. It was this village that was attacked on November 24 1755 bringing the converts, and ultimately all of the people represented today, to Bethlehem.

• After the attacks, did the Moravians plan to end their mission work among American Indians?
Native Delegations
Bethlehem had often hosted Indians, but they had never had to provide for so many. Indian councils sent public speakers who were accompanied by their families, to the conferences. Bethlehem reserved 30 acres of land on the south side of the Lehigh River for these Indians and their families. The Moravians reluctantly provided food, clothing and he Iter for the delegations, worried that they would not have enough for their own families and their converts.

• Why did Native delegations bring their families?
Provincial Militia
When the province of Pennsylvania was established, pacifist Quakers were in control. A the 18th century progressed, their numbers diminished in the province, yet they retained pow r in the Assembly, hindering programs with which they disagreed, including a military establishment. When hostilities broke out in 1754, the province was unprepared offensively and defensively. A chain of forts was quickly erected, some officially and some privately. In Northampton County (which was larger in the 18th century) four forts were constructed, Fort Allen being built on the ruins of the Moravian mission village of Gnadenhuetten.

• Were Pennsylvania's military forces part of tbe Briti bArmy?
While at Bernside Plantation please visit tbe farmhouse and summer kitchen. A lide presentation is being offered at balfpast each hour in the Wagon Shed. Admission is free today.

"The Chain of Friendship": Indian Treaty-Making in Colonial Pennsylvania St. John's Lutheran Church, July 6 7pm
Dr. Timothy hannon of Gettysburg College will examine treaty-making from colonial and native perspectives, discussing the participants and rituals that gave the Chain of Friendship its di tinctive character. St. John's Lutheran Church Social Hall, 330 erry St. Easton. Sponsored by the Pennsylvania Humanities Council.

That I Had Kindled a Council Fire

Bachmann PublickHouse, July 7 1-5 pm
Translators Conferences required more than simply an understanding of language. Participants also depended on social and cultural translation. Colonial officials did not speak Native languages and Indian delegates spoke in their own language, even if they knew English. Since both sides were unable or unwilling to speak the other's language, translators were required. Besides serving as translators these men also acted as guides for Native delegates and messengers for officials.

• Besides languages, what else required translation?
Native Women Unlike European and American practices, Indian treaty making included women. During the first Easton conference in 1756, Delaware women were asked to create a belt which included 10 figures, one for each of the Ten Tribes said to be represented at the conference and one large figure representing Pennsylvania (and Oreat Britain). This belt wa u ed to help spread word of the treaty to other Indian nations.

• What role did Native women play during treaty conferences?
Native Delegations Delaware Indians had been dealing with Pennsylvanians since the 1680s. Their relationship had been primarily peaceful, but sore points had arisen, including land sale agreements. Frustrated by these sales, the Indians, with

French support, began raiding the frontiers. Some of those same Indians attended the Easton conferences and worked toward peace. • What did the Delaware hope to gain through tbe treaties?

Quakers, who had originally established Pennsylvania, had been against the establishment of a military force supported by the colony. After the attacks made such pacifistic measures impractical, the Quakers turned their attention to the peace conferences. During the conferences they provided advice to the Indian delegates and brought presents (which were something the provincial government forgot), which were used to seal the treaties. • Had Quakers always been involved in Indian affairs?

Weeping on the Road to Nazareth Whitefield House, July 20 10-4 pm

The Moravians had come to America in 1740 not in search of freedom, but in order to evangelize American Indians and Germans. In order to support these missions, the Moravians established closed communities that required church membership in order to live there. Attempts at preventing outsiders and outside influences from distracting them from their pursuits were set aside when the raids occurred and the Moravians found themselves caring for Moravians and non-Moravians alike. • How did tbe Moravians respond to the attacks?

After the November 24 1755 raid on Gnadenhuetten, settlers north of the Blue Mountains abandoned their homes and farms, running south to find a safe place to hide. They came with only the clothing on their backs, running for their lives. Three hundred refugees crowded into the Whitefield House throughout the Spring of 1756. The Moravians provided food, clothing (given by Philadelphia Quakers) and shelter for the refugees. • How did the refugees feel toward Indians. before and after tbe attacks?
While at the Whitefield House please visit the Dew exhibit, A Place in History: The Moravillns and Northampton COllnty in A~rican History and our permaDent exhibit, In All Things Love: TIle Mo,avitm Churclt in America. Admi ion is free today.

Additional information for
Weeping on the Road to Nazareth Whitefield House, July 20
10-4 pm Indian War Party Before 1754 Pennsylvania and her Indian neighbors lived in relative peace. In fact, they had never gone to war against one another. So it came as a shock to provincial leaders when French-supported Indians, primarily the Delaware, began attacking the frontier. Real and imagined Indian war parties were seen throughout the Pennsylvania frontier, bringing news and rumors of attacks with them. Ultimately the warring Indians came to negotiate a separate peace with Pennsylvania (and Great Britain), hoping to accomplish their goals through diplomacy rather than brutality. • Mter such a long peace, what caused the Indians to attack Pennsylvania?

Additional sponsors:
Alice and Elmer Yeakel

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