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1
ABSTRACT ALGEBRA
DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Solutions provided by Scott Larson.
Contents
0. Preliminaries 3
0.1. Basics 3
0.2. Properties of the Integers 4
0.3. Z/nZ: The Integers Modulo n 6
Part I – Group Theory 8
1. Introduction to Groups 8
1.1. Basic Axioms and Examples 8
1.2. Dihedral Groups 10
1.3. Symmetric Groups 11
1.4. Matrix Groups 11
1.5. Quaternion Groups 13
1.6. Homomorphisms and Isomorphisms 14
1.7. Group Actions 14
2. Subgroups 15
2.1. Deﬁnition and Examples 15
2.2. Centralizers and Normalizers, Stabilizers and Kernels 15
2.3. Cyclic Groups and Cyclic Subgroups 16
2.4. Subgroups Generated by Subsets of a Group 17
2.5. Deﬁnitions and Examples 19
2.6. The Lattice of Subgroups of a Group 20
3. Quotient Groups and Homomorphisms 20
3.1. Deﬁnitions and Examples 20
3.2. More on Cosets and Lagrange’s Theorem 21
3.3. The Isomorphism Theorems 23
3.4. Composition Series and the Holder Program 24
3.5. Transpositions and the Alternating Group 24
4. Group Actions 25
4.1. Group Actions and Permutation Representations 25
4.2. Groups Acting on Themselves by Left Multiplication – Cayley’s Theorem 25
4.3. Groups Acting on Themselves by Conjugation – The Class Equation 25
1
2 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
4.4. Automorphisms 26
4.5. The Sylow Theorems 26
4.6. The Simplicity of A
n
27
5. Direct and Semidirect Products and Abelian Groups 28
5.1. Direct Products 28
5.2. The Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups 29
5.3. Table of Groups of Small Order 30
5.4. Recognizing Direct Products 30
5.5. Semidirect Products 30
6. Further Topics in Group Theory 31
6.1. pgroups, Nilpotent Groups, and Solvable Groups 31
Part II – Ring Theory 33
7. Introduction to Rings 33
7.1. Basic Deﬁnitions and Examples 33
7.2. Examples: Polynomials Rings, Matrix Rings, and Group Rings 34
7.3. Ring Homomorphisms and Quotient Rings 36
7.4. Properties of Ideals 39
7.5. Rings of Fractions 42
8. Euclidean, Principal Ideal, and Unique Factorization Domains 45
8.1. Euclidean Domains 45
9. Polynomial Rings 46
9.1. Deﬁnitions and Basic Properties 46
9.2. Polynomial Rings Over Fields I 47
9.3. Polynomial Rings That are Unique Factorization Domains 48
9.4. Irreducibility Criteria 48
9.5. Polynomial Rings Over Fields II 50
9.6. Polynomials in Several Variables Over a Field and Gr¨obner Bases 50
Part III – Modules and Vector Spaces 53
10. Introduction to Module Theory 53
10.1. Basic Deﬁnitions and Examples 53
13. Field Theory 54
13.1. Basic Theory of Field Extensions 54
13.2. Basic Theory of Field Extensions 54
13.3. Classical Straightedge and Compass Constructions 56
13.4. Splitting Fields and Algebraic Closures 56
13.5. Separable and Inseparable Extensions 56
13.6. Cyclotomic Polynomials and Extensions 57
14. Galois Theory 57
14.1. Basic Deﬁnitions 57
14.2. The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory 57
15. Commutative Rings and Algebraic Geometry 58
15.1. Noetherian Rings and Aﬃne Algebraic Sets 58
15.2. Radicals and Aﬃne Varieties 58
15.3. Integral Extensions and Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz 58
15.4. Localization 58
3
0. Preliminaries
0.1. Basics.
Proposition 0.1. Let f : A →B.
(1) The map f is injective if and only if f has a left inverse.
(2) The map f is surjective if and only if f has a right inverse.
(3) The map f is a bijection if and only if there exists g : B →A such that f ◦ g is the identity map on B and
g ◦ f is the identity map on A.
(4) If A and B are ﬁnite sets with the same number of elements ([A[ = [B[), then f : A →B is bijective if and
only if f is injective if and only if f is surjective.
Proof. (a) Suppose f is injective so that f
−1
(b) contains a single element for b ∈ f(A). Thus g(b) = f
−1
(b) is
welldeﬁned for b ∈ f(A). Hence g(f(a)) = a for all a ∈ A. Now suppose that f has a left inverse g so that
g(f(a)) = a for all a ∈ A. If f(a
1
) = f(a
2
) = b, then g(b) = a
1
and g(b) = a
2
. But g is a welldeﬁned map so
a
1
= a
2
and thus f is injective.
(b) Suppose f is surjective. Take some b ∈ B so we can choose a ∈ A such that f(a) = b. Thus we can deﬁne
g(b) = a such that f(a) = b. Hence f(g(b)) = f(a) = b. Now suppose that f has a right inverse g so that f(g(b)) = b
for all b ∈ B. So f(g(B)) = B and thus f is surjective.
(c) Suppose that f is bijective so there is a left inverse, g
l
, and a right inverse, g
r
, of f. Let f(a) = b so that
a = g
l
(f(a)) = g
l
(b) and b = f(g
r
(b)). Since f is injective, g
r
(b) = a and thus g
l
= g
r
. Thus the right and left
inverses of f are the same map. Now suppose that there exists g : B → A such that f ◦ g is the identity map on
B and g ◦ f is the identity map on A. Then f is surjective because f(g(B)) = B. Now let f(a
1
) = f(a
2
) so that
a
1
= g(f(a
1
)) = g(f(a
2
)) = a
2
. Thus f is injective.
(d) Suppose that f is injective. Then f takes elements of A to unique elements of B. Since [A[ = [B[, f is
surjective. Now suppose that f is surjective. Then since [A[ = [B[, f takes elements of A to unique elements of B
so f is injective. Therefore f is either bijective or neither injective or surjective.
Proposition 0.2. Let A be a nonepty set.
(1) If ∼ deﬁnes an equivalence relation on A then the set of equivalence classes of ∼ form a partition of A.
(2) If ¦A
i
[ i ∈ I¦ is a partition of A then there is an equivalence relation on A whose equivalence classes are
preciselly the sets A
i
, i ∈ I.
In Exercises 1 to 4 let / be the set of 2 2 matrices with real number entries. Recall that matrix multiplication
is deﬁned by
a b
c d
p q
r s
=
ap +br aq +bs
cp +dr cq +ds
Let
M =
1 1
0 1
and let
B = ¦X ∈ / [ MX = XM¦ .
0.1.1. The following elements of / lie in B:
1 1
0 1
,
0 0
0 0
,
1 0
0 1
.
0.1.2. Prove that if P, Q ∈ B, then P +Q ∈ B (where + denotes the usual sum of two matrices).
Proof.
(P +Q)M = PM +QM = MP +MQ = M(P +Q).
0.1.3. Prove that if P, Q ∈ B, then P Q ∈ B (where denotes the usual product of two matrices).
Proof.
(P Q)M = P M Q = M P Q = M(P Q).
4 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
0.1.4. Find conditions on p, q, r, s which determine precisely when
p q
r s
∈ B.
r = 0, p = s.
0.1.5. Determine whether the following functions f are well deﬁned:
(1) f : Q →Z deﬁned by f(a/b) = a.
(2) f : Q →Q deﬁned by f(a/b) = a
2
/b
2
.
Proof. (a) f is not a well deﬁned map because 1/2 = 2/4 and 1 = 2.
(b) f is a well deﬁned map because if a
1
/b
1
= a
2
/b
2
, then a
2
1
/b
2
1
= a
2
2
/b
2
2
.
0.1.6. Determine whether the function f : 1
+
→ Z deﬁned by mapping a real number r to the ﬁrst digit to the
right of the decimal point in a decimal expansion of r is well deﬁned.
f is well deﬁned because the decimal expansion of a real number is unique. Thus there is one and only one
possible ﬁrst number to the right of the decimal for each real number.
0.1.7. Let f : A →B be a surjective map of sets. Prove that the relation
a ∼ b if and only if f(a) = f(b)
is an equivalence relation whose equivalence classes are the ﬁbers of f.
Proof. f(a) = f(a) so ∼ is reﬂexive. If f(a) = f(b), then f(b) = f(a) so ∼ is symmetric. If f(a) = f(b) and
f(b) = f(c), then f(a) = f(c) so ∼ is transitive.
If a
1
, a
2
∈ f
−1
(b), then f(a
1
) = f(a
2
) so a
1
∼ a
2
. If a
1
∼ a
2
then f(a
1
) = f(a
2
) so a
1
and a
2
are in the same
ﬁber of f.
0.2. Properties of the Integers.
(1) (Well Ordering of Z) If A is any nonempty subset of Z
+
, there is some element m ∈ A such that m ≤ a,
for all a ∈ A.
(2) If a, b ∈ Z with a = 0, we say a divides b if there is an element c ∈ Z such that b = ac. In this case we write
a [ b; if a does not divide b we write a [ b.
(3) If a, b ∈ Z` ¦0¦, there is a unique positive integer d, called the greatest common divisor of a and b, satisfying:
(a) d [ a and d [ b,
(b) if e [ a and e [ b, then e [ d.
(4) If a, b ∈ Z` ¦0¦, there is a unique positive integer l, called the least common multiple of a and B, satisfying:
(a) a [ l and b [ l,
(b) if a [ m and b [ m, then l [ m. The connection between the greatest common divisor d and the least
common multiple l of the two integers a and b is given by dl = ab.
(5) The Division Algorithm: if a, b ∈ Z and b = 0, then there exist unique q, r ∈ Z such taht
a = qb +r and 0 ≤ r < [b[ ,
where q is the quotient and r the remainder.
(6) The Euclidean Algorithm is an important procedure which produces a greatest common divisor of two
integers a and b by iterating the Division Algorithm: if a, b ∈ Z` ¦0¦, then we obtain a sequence of quotients
and remainders
a = q
0
b +r
0
b = q
1
r
0
+r
1
r
0
= q
2
r
1
+r
2
r
1
= q
3
r
2
+r
3
.
.
.
r
n−2
= q
n
r
n−1
+r
n
r
n−1
= q
n+1
r
n
where r
n
is the last nonzero remainder. Such an r
n
exists since [b[ > [r
0
[ > [r
1
[ > > [r
n
[ is a decreasing
sequence of strictly positive integers if the remainders are nonzero and such a sequence cannot continue
indeﬁnitely. Then r
n
= (a, b).
5
(7) One consequence of the Euclidean Algorithm which we chall use regularly is the following: if a, b ∈ Z` ¦0¦,
then there exist x, y ∈ Z such that
(a, b) = ax +by
that is, the gcd of a and b is a Zlinear combination of a and b. This follows by recursively writing the
element r
n
in the Euclidean Algorithm in terms of the previous remainders.
(8) An element p of Z
+
is calle a prime if p > 1 and the only posotive divisors of p are 1 and p. An integer
n > 1 which is not prime is called composite. An important property of primes is if p is a prime and p [ ab,
for some a, b ∈ Z then either p [ a or p [ b.
(9) The fundamental theorem of arithmetic says: if n ∈ Z, n > 1, then n can be factored uniquely into the
product of primes, i.e., there are distinct primes p
1
, p
2
, . . . , p
s
and positive integers α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
s
such that
n = p
α1
1
p
α2
2
p
αs
s
.
This factorization is unique in the sense that if q
1
, q
2
, . . . , q
t
are any distinct primes and β
1
, β
2
, . . . , β
t
, are
positive integers such that
n = q
β1
1
q
β2
2
q
βt
t
,
then s = t and if we arrange the two sets of primes in increasing order, then q
i
= p
i
and α
i
= β
i
, 1 ≤ i ≤ s.
Suppose the positive integers a and b are expressed as products of prime powers:
a = p
α1
1
p
α2
2
p
αs
s
, b = p
β1
1
p
β2
2
p
βs
s
where p
1
, p
2
, . . . , p
s
are distinct and the exponents are ≥ 0. Then the gcd of a and b is
(a, b) = p
min(α1,β1)
1
p
min(α2,β2)
2
p
min(αs,βs)
s
and the lcm is obtained by taking the maximum of the α
i
and β
i
instead of the minimum.
(10) The Euler ϕfunction is deﬁned as follows: for n ∈ Z
+
let ϕ(n) be the number of positive integers a ≤ n
with a relatively prime to n, i.e., (a, n) = 1. For primes p, ϕ(p) = p −1, and, more generally, for all a ≥ 1
we have the formula
ϕ(p
a
) = p
a
−p
a−1
= p
a−1
(p −1).
The function ϕ is multiplicative in the sense that
ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) if (a, b) = 1.
Together with the formula above this gives a general formula for the values of ϕ: if n = p
α1
1
p
α2
2
p
αs
s
, then
ϕ(n) = ϕ(p
α1
1
)ϕ(p
α2
2
) ϕ(p
αs
s
)
= p
α1−1
1
(p
1
−1)p
α2−1
2
(p
2
−1) p
αs−1
s
(p
s
−1).
0.2.1. For each of the following paris of integers a and b, determine their gcd, their lcm, and write their gcd in the
form ax +by for some integers x and y.
(a) a = 20, b = 13.
(b) a = 69, b = 372.
(c) a = 792, b = 275.
(d) a = 11391, b = 5673.
(e) a = 1761, b = 1567.
(f) a = 507885, b = 60808.
Solution.
0.2.2. Prove that if the integer k divides the integers a and b then k divides as +bt for every pair of integers s and
t.
Proof.
0.2.3. Prove that if n is composite then there are integers a and b such that n divides ab but n does not divide
either a or b.
Proof.
6 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
0.2.4. Let a, b and N be ﬁxed integers with a and b nonzero and let d = (a, b) be the gcd of a and b. Suppose x
0
and y
0
are particular solutions to ax
+
by = N. Prove for any integer t that the integers
x = x
0
+
b
d
t and y = y
0
−
a
d
t
are also solutions to ax +by = N (this is in fact the general solution).
Proof.
0.2.5. Determine the value ϕ(n) for each integer n ≤ 30 where ϕ denotes the Euler ϕfunction.
Solution.
0.2.6. Prove the Well Ordering Property of Z by induction and prove the minimal element is unique.
Proof.
0.2.7. If p is a prime prove that there do not exist nonzero integers a and b such that a
2
= pb
2
.
Proof.
0.2.8. Let p be a prime, n ∈ Z
+
. Find a formula for the largest power of p which divides n! = n(n−1)(n−2) 2 1.
Solution.
0.2.9. Write a computer program to determine the greatest common divisor (a, b) of two integers a and b and to
express (a, b) in the form ax +by for some integers x and y.
0.2.10. Prove for any given positive integer N there exist only ﬁnitely many integers n with ϕ(n) = N where ϕ
denotes Euler’s ϕfunction. Conclude in particular that ϕ(n) tends to inﬁnity as n tends to inﬁnity.
Proof.
0.2.11. Prove that if d divides n then ϕ(d) divides ϕ(n) where ϕ denotes Euler’s ϕfunction.
Proof.
0.3. Z/nZ: The Integers Modulo n.
Theorem 0.3. The operations of addition and multiplication on Z/nZ are well deﬁned, that is, they do not depend
on the choices of representatives for the classes involved. More precisely, if a
1
, a
2
∈ Z and b
1
, b
2
∈ Z with a
1
= b
1
and a
2
= b
2
, then a
1
+a
2
= b
1
+b
2
and a
1
a
2
= b
1
b
2
, i.e., if
a
1
≡ b
1
mod n and a
2
≡ b
2
mod n
then
a
1
+a
2
≡ b
1
+b
2
mod n and a
1
a
2
≡ b
1
b
2
mod n.
Proposition 0.4. Z/nZ)
×
= ¦a ∈ Z/nZ [ (a, n) = 1¦.
0.3.1. Write down explicitly all the elements in the residue classes of Z/18Z.
Solution.
0.3.2. Prove that the distinct equivalence classes in Z/nZ are precisely 0, 1, 2, . . . , n −1.
Proof.
0.3.3. Prove that if a = a
n
10
n
+a
n−1
n−1
+ +a
1
10 +a
0
is any positive integer then a ≡ a
n
+a
n−1
+ +a
1
+a
0
mod 9.
Proof.
0.3.4. Compute the remainder when 37
100
is divided by 29.
Solution.
0.3.5. Compute the last two digits of 9
1500
.
Solution.
0.3.6. Prove that the squares of the elements in Z/4Z are just 0 and 1.
7
Proof.
0.3.7. Prove for any integers a and b that a
2
+b
2
never leaves a remainder of 3 when divided by 4.
Proof.
0.3.8. Prove that for any integers a and b that a
2
+b
2
= 3c
2
has no solutions in nonzero integers a, b, and c.
Proof.
0.3.9. Prove that the square of any odd integer always leaves a remainder of 1 when divided by 8.
Proof.
0.3.10. Prove that the number of elements of (Z/nZ)
×
is ϕ(n) where ϕ denotes the Euler ϕfunction.
Proof.
0.3.11. Prove that if a, b ∈ (Z/nZ)
×
, then a b ∈ (Z/nZ)
×
.
Proof.
0.3.12. Let n ∈ Z, n > 1, and let z ∈ Z with 1 ≤ a ≤ n. Prove if a and n are not relatively prime then there exists
an itneger b with 1 ≤ b < n such that ab ≡ 0 mod n and deduce that there cannot be an itneger c such that ac ≡ 1
mod n.
Proof.
0.3.13. Let n ∈ Z, n > 1, and let a ∈ Z with 1 ≤ a ≤ n. Prove that if a and n are relatively prime then there is
an integer c such that ac ≡ 1 mod n.
Proof.
0.3.14. Conclude from the previous two exercises that (Z/nZ)
×
is the set of elements a of Z/nZ with (a, n) = 1
and hence prove proposition 0.4. Verify this directly in the case n = 12.
Solution.
0.3.15. For each of the following pairs of integers a and n, show that a is relatively prime to n and determine the
multiplicative inverse of a in Z/nZ.
(a) a = 13, n = 20.
(b) a = 69, n = 89.
(c) a = 1891, n = 3797.
(d) a = 6003722857, n = 77695236973.
Proof.
0.3.16. Write a computer program to add and multiply mod n, for any n given as input. The output of these
operations should be the least residues of the usms and products of two integers. Also include the feature that if
(a, n) = 1, and integer c between 1 and n −1 such taht a c = 1 may be printed on request.
8 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Part I – Group Theory
1. Introduction to Groups
1.1. Basic Axioms and Examples.
Proposition 1.1. If G is a group under the operation , then
(1) the identity of G is unique
(2) for each a ∈ G, a
−1
is uniquely determined
(3) (a
−1
)
−1
= a for all a ∈ G
(4) (a b)
−1
= (b
−1
) (a
−1
)
(5) for any a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
∈ G the value of a
1
a
2
a
n
is independent of how the expression is bracketed.
Proposition 1.2. Let G be a group and let a, b ∈ G. The equations ax = b and ya = b have unique solutions for
x, y ∈ G. In particular, the left and right cancellation laws hold in G, i.e.,
(1) if au = av, then u = v,
(2) if ub = vb, then u = v.
Let G be a group.
1.1.1. Determine which of the following binary operations are associative:
(a) the operation on Z deﬁned by a b = a −b
(b) the operation on 1 deﬁned by a b = a +b +ab
(d) the operation on Z Z deﬁned by (a, b) (c, d) = (ad +bc, bd).
Note that (1 − 2) − 3 = −4 and 1 − (2 − 3) = 2, so (a) is not associative. We calculate that (b) and (d) are
associative below.
(a b) c = (a +b +ab) +c + (a +b +ab)c
= a +b +c +ab +ac +bc +abc
= a +b +c +bc +a(b +c +bc)
= a (b c)
(a, b) (c, d)
(e, f) =
(ad +bc)f +bde, bdf
=
adf +b(cf +de), bdf
= (a, b)
(c, d) (e, f)
1.1.2. Decide which of the following binary operations are commutative:
(a) the operation on Z deﬁned by a b = a −b
(b) the operation on 1 deﬁned by a b = a +b +ab
(d) the operation on Z Z deﬁned by (a, b) (c, d) = (ad +bc, bd).
Note that 1 −2 = −1 and 2 −1 = 1 so (a) is not commutative. We calculate that (b) and (d) are commutative
below.
a b = a +b +ab
= b +a +ba
= b a
(a, b) (c, d) = (ad +bc, bd)
= (cb +da, db)
= (c, d) (a, b)
1.1.3. Prove that addition of residue classes in Z/nZ is associative.
Proof.
1.1.4. Prove that multiplication of residue classes in Z/nZ is associative.
Proof.
9
1.1.5. Prove for all n > 1 that Z/nZ is not a group under multiplication of residue classes.
Proof.
1.1.6. Determine which of the following sets are groups under addition:
(b) the set of rational numbers in lowest terms whose denominators are even together with 0
(d) the set of rational numbers of absolute value ≥ 1 together with 0
(e) the set of rational numbers with denominators equal to 1 or 2.
Note that 1/6 +1/6 = 1/3 so addition is not a binary relation on (b) and thus (b) is not a group. Also note that
−3/2 + 1 = −1/2 so addition is not a binary relation on (d) and thus (d) is note a group. We notice that addition
is a well deﬁned binary relation on (e), addition is associative on the rational numbers so this subset must also have
the associative property, the identity is 0, and the inverse of a is −a. Therefore (e) is a group.
1.1.7. Let G = ¦x ∈ 1 [ 0 ≤ x < 1¦ and for x, y ∈ G let xy be the fractional part of x+y (i.e., xy = x+y−[x+y]
where [a] is the greatest integer less than or equal to a). Prove that is a well deﬁned binary operation on G and
that G is an abelian group under (called the real numbers mod 1).
Proof. Note that the sum of two real numbers has a unique fractional part, x, such that 0 ≤ x < 1. Thus is a
well deﬁned operation that takes x y into G. We show that is associative on G.
(x y) z = (x +y −[x +y]) +z −[(x +y −[x +y]) +z]
= x +y +z −[x +y] + [x +y] −[x +y +z]
= x +y +z −[y +z] + [y +z] −[x +y +z]
= x + (y +z −[y +z]) −[x + (y +z −[y +z])]
= x (y z)
The identity element of G is clearly 0. The inverse of x ∈ G would be given by 1 −x for x = 0 because
x (1 −x) = x + 1 −x −[x + 1 −x] = 1 −1 = 0.
Note that 1 − x ∈ G for x ∈ G and x = 0. The inverse of 0 is clearly 0. We show that G is abelian by letting
x, y ∈ G and computing that is commutative on G.
x y = x +y −[x +y]
= y +x −[y +x]
= y x
1.1.8. Let G = ¦z ∈ C [ z
n
= 1 for some n ∈ Z
+
¦.
(a) Prove that G is a gorup under multiplication.
(b) Prove that G is not a group under addition.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
1.1.9. Let G =
¸
a +b
√
2 ∈ 1 [ a, b ∈ Q
¸
.
(a) Prove that G is a gorup under addition.
(b) Prove that the nonzero elements of G are a group under multiplication.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
1.1.10. Prove that a ﬁnite gorup is abelian if and only if its group table is a symmetric matrix.
Proof.
1.1.14. Find the orders of the following elements of the multiplicative group (Z/36Z)
×
: 1, −1, 5, 13, −13, 17.
1
= 1,
−1
= 2,
5
= 6,
13
= 3,
−13
= 6,
17
= 2.
1.1.25. Prove that if x
2
= 1 for all x ∈ G then G is abelian.
10 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. Since x
2
= 1 we know that x = x
−1
for all x ∈ G. Thus
xy = (xy)
−1
= y
−1
x
−1
= yx.
1.2. Dihedral Groups. In these exercises, D
2n
has the usual presentation
D
2n
=
r, s [ r
n
= s
2
= 1, rs = sr
−1
.
1.2.1. Compute the order of each of the elements in the following groups:
(a) D
6
The order of elements from (a) are: [1[ = 1, [r[ = 3,
r
2
= 3, [s[ = 2, [sr[ = 2,
sr
2
= 2.
1.2.2. Use the generators and relations above to show that if x is any element of D
2n
which is not a power of r,
then rx = xr
−1
.
Proof. If x is not a power of r, then x = sr
k
for some 0 ≤ k < n. So
rsr
k
= sr
−1
r
k
= sr
k−1
= sr
k
r
−1
.
1.2.3. Use the generators and relations above to show that every element of D
2n
which is not a power of r has
order 2. Deduce that D
2n
is generated by the two elements s and sr, both of which have order 2.
Proof. If x ∈ D
2n
is not a power of r, then x = sr
k
for some 0 ≤ k < n. Notice that sr
0
sr
0
= 1 and suppose that
sr
i
sr
i
= 1 for 0 ≤ i < k. Then
sr
k
sr
k
= sr
k−1
sr
−1
r
k
= sr
k−1
sr
k−1
= 1,
by induction.
1.2.7. Show that
a, b [ a
2
= b
2
= (ab)
n
= 1
gives a presentation for D
2n
in terms of the two generators a = s and
b = sr of order 2 computed in Exercise 1.2.3 above. [Show that the relations for r and s follow from the relations
for a and b and, conversely, the relations for a and b follow from those for r and s.]
Proof. First we start with the relations r
n
= s
2
= 1 and rs = sr
−1
. Clearly a
2
= 1, Exercise 1.2.3 shows b
2
= 1,
and
(ab)
n
= (ssr)
n
= r
n
= 1.
Hence the original relations imply the new relations.
Now suppose that a
2
= b
2
= (ab)
n
= 1. Then clearly s
2
= 1, r
n
= (ssr)
n
= (ab)
n
= 1, and
rs = ssrsrr
−1
= sr
−1
.
In Exercise 1.2.9 you can ﬁnd the order of the group of rigid motions in 1
3
(also called the group of rotations)
of the given Platonic solid by following the proof for the order of D
2n
: ﬁnd the number of positions to which an
adjacent pair of vertices can be sent. Alternatively, you can ﬁnd the number of places to which a given face may
be sent and, once a face is ﬁxed, the number of positions to which a vertex on that face may be sent.
1.2.9. Let G be the group of rigid motions in 1
3
of a tetrahedron. Show that [G[ = 12.
Proof. We use the second method described above to show that [G[ = 12. Since there are 4 faces of a tetrahedron,
each face having 3 distinct rotations, there are 4 3 = 12 positions to which a vertex on each ﬁxed face may be
sent.
1.2.17. Let X
2n
=
x, y [ x
n
= y
2
= 1, xy = yx
2
.
(a) Show that if n = 3k, then X
2k
has order 6, and it has the same generators and relations as D
6
when x is
replaced by r and y by s.
(b) Show that if (3, n) = 1, then x satisﬁes the additional relation: x = 1. In this case deduce that X
2n
has
order 2. [Use the facts that x
n
= 1 and x
3
= 1.]
11
Proof (a). Suppose we have the relations given by D
6
. Then clearly x
3k
= (x
3
)
k
= y
2
= 1. We also have
xy = yx
−1
= yx
3−1
= yx
2
.
Now suppose we have the relations given by X
2n
. Then clearly x
3
= y
2
= 1. The relations xy = yx
2
and x
3
= 1
show us
xy = yx
2
= yx
−1
.
Therefore D
6
= X
6
and [X
6
[ = 6.
Proof (b). Since (3, n) = 1, there exist s, t ∈ Z such that 3s +nt = 1. So
x = x
3s+nt
= (x
3
)
s
(x
n
)
t
= 1.
Thus X
2n
has order 2, namely X
2n
= ¦1, y¦.
1.3. Symmetric Groups.
1.3.4. Compute the order of each of the elments in the following groups:
(a) S
3
(b) S
4
For elements in S
3
we calculate that [1[ = 1, [(12)[ = 2, [(13)[ = 2, [(23)[ = 2, [(123)[ = 3, [(132)[ = 3.
For elements in S
4
we calculate that [1[ = 1, [(12)[ = 2, [(13)[ = 2, [(14)[ = 2, [(23)[ = 2, [(24)[ = 2, [(34)[ = 2,
[(123)[ = 3, [(132)[ = 3, [(124)[ = 3, [(142)[ = 3, [(134)[ = 3, [(143)[ = 3, [(234)[ = 3, [(243)[ = 3, [(1234)[ = 4,
[(1243)[ = 4, [(1324)[ = 4, [(1342)[ = 4, [(1423)[ = 4, [(1432)[ = 4, [(12)(34)[ = 2, [(13)(24)[ = 2, [(14)(23)[ = 2.
1.3.7. Write out the cycle decomposition of each element of order 2 in S
4
.
(12), (13), (14), (23), (24), (34), (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23).
1.3.11. Let σ be the mcycle (1 2 . . . m). Show that σ
i
is also an mcycle if and only if i is relatively prime to m.
Proof. First suppose that σ
i
is an mcycle so that
σ
i
= (a
1
a
2
. . . a
m
).
Then assume that α[i and α[m so there are s, t ∈ Z such that
αs = i, αt = m.
So σ
i
= σ
αs
= [(a
1
a
α+1
. . . α
m−α+1
) (a
α
a
2α
. . . a
m
)]
s
which can only be an mcycle if α = 1. Thus i and m
are relatively prime.
Now suppose that i is relatively prime to m so that there are s, t ∈ Z such that
si +tm = 1.
But then σ = σ
si+tm
= σ
si
σ
tm
= (σ
i
)
s
. Since a power of σ
i
is an mcycle, then σ
i
must be an mcycle as well.
1.3.20. Find a set of generators and relations for S
3
.
S
3
=
x
2
, x
3
[ x
2
2
= x
3
3
= 1, x
2
x
3
= x
−1
3
x
2
1.4. Matrix Groups.
1.4.7. Let p be a prime. Prove that the order of GL
2
(F
p
) is p
4
−p
3
−p
2
+p (do not just quote the order formula
in this section). [Subtract the number of 2 2 matrices which are not invertible from the total number of 2 2
matrices over F
p
. You may use the fact that a 2 2 matrix is not invertible if and only if one row is a multiple of
the other.]
Proof. Notice that the total number of 22 matrices over F
p
is p
4
. We count the number of noninvertible matrices
for a matrix
a b
c d
in Figure 1.1 to be p
3
+p
2
−p. Thus the order of GL
2
(F
p
) is p
4
−p
3
−p
2
+p.
1.4.8. Show that GL
n
(F) is nonabelian for any n ≥ 2 and any F.
12 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
a = 0
b = 0
b = 0
c = 0 c = 0 c = 0 c = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
1
p −1 p −1 (p −1)
2
p −1 (p −1)
2
0 0
a = 0
b = 0
b = 0
c = 0 c = 0 c = 0 c = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
p −1
0 (p −1)
2
0 (p −1)
2
(p −1)
3
Figure 1.1. Number of noninvertible matrices.
Proof. First notice
1 1
0 1
0 1
1 0
=
1 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
1 1
0 1
=
0 1
1 1
so that GL
2
(F) is nonabelian for any F. Now notice that extending the matrices with zeros shows the result for
n > 2.
1.4.10. Let G =
a b
0 c
[ a, b, c ∈ 1, a = 0, c = 0
.
(a) Compute the product of
a
1
b
1
0 c
1
and
a
2
b
2
0 c
2
to show that G is closed under matrix multiplication.
(b) Find the matrix inverse of
a b
0 c
and deduce that G is closed under inverses.
(c) Deduce that G is a subgroup of GL
2
(1) (cf. Exercise 26, Section 1).
(d) Prove that the set of elements of G whose two diagonal entries are equal (i.e., a = c) is also a subgroup of
GL
2
(1).
13
Proof (a). Computing the product of two matrices in G, we ﬁnd
a
1
b
1
0 c
1
a
2
b
2
0 c
2
=
a
1
a
2
a
1
b
2
+b
1
c
2
0 c
1
c
2
.
Since a
1
, a
2
= 0 and c
1
, c
2
= 0, this matrix is also in G.
(b). Notice that
a b
0 c
1/a −b/ac
0 1/c
=
1 −b/c +b/c
0 1
=
1 0
0 1
1/a −b/ac
0 1/c
a b
0 c
=
1 b/a −b/a
0 1
=
1 0
0 1
.
Since
1/a −b/ac
0 1/c
is in G, then G is closed under inverses.
(c). First notice that G = ∅ because
1 0
0 1
∈ G. To show that G is a subgroup of GL
2
(1), we must ﬁrst show
that elements of G have nonzero determinant. So let M =
a b
0 c
.
det M = ac = 0.
Thus G ⊆ GL
2
(1). Note matrix multiplication is a binary operation on G, the identity is in G, and G is closed
under inverse. So G is a subgroup of GL
2
(1).
Proof (d). We ﬁrst show that matrix multiplication is a binary operation on G
= ¦G [ a = c¦. So
a
1
b
1
0 a
1
a
2
b
2
0 a
2
=
a
1
a
2
a
1
b
2
+b
1
a
2
0 a
1
a
2
.
Since a
1
a
2
= a
1
a
2
, matrix multipliaction is indeed a binary operation G
. Notice that the identity element is in G
.
The inverse is given by
a b
0 a
−1
=
1/a −b/a
2
0 1/a
due to the calculation of inverse in G. Thus G
is closed under inverse and since G
⊆ G ⊆ GL
2
(1), we must have
G
as a subgroup of GL
2
(1).
1.5. Quaternion Groups.
1.5.1. Compute the order of each of the elements in Q
8
.
Let Q
8
= ¦1, −1, i, −i, j, −j, k, −k¦ as given in the textbook. Then [1[ = 1, [−1[ = 2, [i[ = 4, [−i[ = 4, [j[ = 4,
[−j[ = 4, [k[ = 4, [−k[ = 4.
1.5.2. Write out the group tables for S
3
, D
8
, and Q
8
.
1.5.3. Find a set of generators and relations for Q
8
.
Q
8
=
−1, i, j, k [ (−1)
2
= 1, i
2
= j
2
= k
2
= ijk = −1
14 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
1.6. Homomorphisms and Isomorphisms.
1.6.2. If φ: G → H is an isomorphism, prove that [φ(x)[ = [x[ for all x ∈ G. Deduce that any two isomorphic
groups have the same number of elements of order n for each n ∈ Z
+
. Is the result true if φ is only assumed to be
a homomorphism?
Proof. Let [φ(x)[ = n so that φ(x)
n
= 1 and φ(x)
l
= 1 for 0 < l < n. But 1 = φ(x)
n
= φ(x
n
) and thus x
n
= 1. Now
suppose that x
l
= 1. Then 1 = φ(x
l
) which is a contradiction. Thus [x[ = n. Hence any two isomorphic groups
have the same number of elements of order n for each n ∈ Z
+
because of the bijectivity of φ.
The result that [φ(x)[ = [x[ is not true for φ any homomorphism. For example the trivial map φ(x) = 1 for all
x ∈ G for G nontrivial.
1.6.7. Prove that D
8
and Q
8
are not isomorphic.
Proof. Note that [s[ =
r
2
= 2. But Exercise 1.5.1 shows there are not two elements with order two in Q
8
. Thus
Exercise 1.5.2 shows that D
8
and Q
8
are not isomorphic.
1.6.13. Let G and H be groups and let φ: G → H be a homomorphism. Prove that the image of φ, φ(G), is a
subgroup of H (cf. Exercise 26 of Section 1). Prove that if φ is injective then G
∼
= φ(G).
Proof. Let h
1
, h
2
∈ H so that there are g
1
, g
2
∈ G such that φ(g
1
) = h
1
and φ(g
2
) = h
2
. Thus φ(g
1
g
2
) =
φ(g
1
)φ(g
2
) = h
1
h
2
so h
1
h
2
∈ H. Hence ∗
H×H
: H H → H. Notice that φ(1) = 1 so H is nonempty. Let h ∈ H
and let φ(g) = h. Then φ(g
−1
) = φ(g)
−1
= h
−1
, so H is closed under inverse. Therefore H ⊆ G is a subgroup.
1.6.14. Let Gand H be groups and let φ: G →H be a homomorphism. Deﬁne the kernel of φ to be ¦g ∈ G [ φ(g) = 1
H
¦
(so the kernel is the set of elements in G which map to the identity of H, i.e., is the ﬁber over the identity of H).
Prove that the kernel of φ is a subgroup (cf. Exercise 26 of Section 1) of G. Prove that φ is injective if and only if
the kernel of φ is the identity subgroup of G.
Proof. First note that 1 ∈ ker φ so that ker φ = ∅. Now let g
1
, g
2
∈ ker φ so that φ(g
1
) = φ(g
2
) = 1. Then
φ(g
1
g
2
) = φ(g
1
)φ(g
2
) = 1 so that g
1
g
2
∈ ker φ. Suppose that g ∈ ker φ so that φ(g) = 1. Then φ(g
−1
) = φ(g)
−1
= 1
so g
−1
∈ ker φ and ker φ is closed under inverse. Thus ker φ ⊆ H is a subgroup.
Suppose that φ is injective. Thus there is only one element that maps to 1
H
. Since φ(1
G
) = 1
H
, ker φ = ¦1
G
¦.
Now suppose that ker φ = ¦1
G
¦ and let φ(g
1
) = φ(g
2
). Then φ(g
1
)φ(g
2
)
−1
= 1. So φ(g
1
g
−1
2
) = 1 and since
ker φ = ¦1
G
¦, we must have g
1
g
−1
2
= 1
G
and thus g
1
= g
2
. Therefore φ is injective.
1.6.18. Let G be any group. Prove that the map from G to itself deﬁned by g → g
2
is a homomorphism if and
only if G is abelian.
Proof. First suppose that g → g
2
is a homomorphism. Let g
1
, g
2
∈ G so that g
1
g
2
g
1
g
2
= (g
1
g
2
)
2
= g
2
1
g
2
2
. Thus
g
2
g
1
= g
1
g
2
showing that G is abelian.
Now suppose that G is abelian. Let g
1
, g
2
∈ G so that (g
1
g
2
)
2
= g
1
g
2
g
1
g
2
= g
2
1
g
2
2
and thus g → g
2
is a
homomorphism.
1.7. Group Actions.
1.7.4. Let G be a group acting on a set A and ﬁx some a ∈ A. Show that the following sets are subgroups of G
(cf. Exercise 26 of Section 1):
(a) the kernel of the action.
(b) ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦ –this subgroup is called the stabilizer of a in G.
Proof (a). Notice that 1 a = a for all a ∈ A so the kernel of the action is nonempty. Let g
1
, g
2
be two elements
in the kernel of the action. Then (g
1
g
2
)(a) = g
1
(g
2
a) = g
1
a = a so the group operation on G is a binary operation
on the kernel of the action. Now let g be in the kernel of the action. Then g
−1
a = g
−1
(ga) = (g
−1
g)a = a so the
kernel of the action is closed under inverse. Therefore the kernel of the action is a subgroup of G.
Proof (b). Notice that 1 a = a for all a ∈ A so the stabilizer of a in G is nonempty. Let g
1
, g
2
∈ ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦
so that (g
1
g
2
)a = g
1
(g
2
a) = g
1
a = a and hence the group operation on G is a binary operation on ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦.
Now let g ∈ ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦ so that g
−1
a = g
−1
(ga) = (g
−1
g)a = a and hence ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦ is closed under
inverse. Therefore ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦ is a subgroup of G.
1.7.5. Prove that the kernel of an action of the group G on the set A is the same as the kernel of the corresponding
permutation representation G →S
A
(cf. Exercise 14 in Section 6).
15
Proof. First suppose that ga = a for all a ∈ A. Then σ
g
(a) = a for all a ∈ A hence σ
g
= 1
S
A
. Now suppose that
σ
g
(a) = a for all a ∈ A. Then ga = σ
g
(a) = a. Therefore these kernels are equivalent.
1.7.10. With reference to the preceding two exercises determine:
(a) for which values of k the action of S
n
on kelement subsets is faithful.
Let S
n
act on subsets of order k for some 1 ≤ k ≤ n. Note if n = 1, then the group action is trivially faithful.
Now let σ ∈ S
n
be a nonidentity element for n > 1. Since σ is not the identity, let σ(a
i
) = a
j
for a
i
= a
j
. If k < n,
then we can choose ¦a
1
, . . . , a
k
¦ such that a
i
∈ ¦a
1
, . . . , a
k
¦ and a
j
/ ∈ ¦a
1
, . . . , a
k
¦. Thus
σ ¦a
1
, . . . , a
k
¦ = ¦a
1
, . . . , a
k
¦ .
Hence the homomorphism representing the group action is injective for k < n. If k = n, then σ is just a bijection
of nelement sets so the homomorphism representing the group action is trivial. Therefore the values of k giving
rise to a faithful group action are all values of k < n.
1.7.13. Find the kernel of the left regular action.
If g is in the kernel of the left regular action, then ga = a for all a ∈ G. Thus g = 1 so the kernel of the left
regular action is ¦1¦.
1.7.14. Let G be a group and let A = G. Show that if G is nonabelian then the maps deﬁned by g a = ag for all
g, a ∈ G do not satisfy the axioms of a (left) group action of G on itself.
Proof. Since G is nonabelian we can ﬁnd g
1
, g
2
∈ G such that g
1
g
2
= g
2
g
1
. We assume the axioms of a group
action hold. But g
1
g
2
= a
−1
ag
1
g
2
= a
−1
((g
1
g
2
) a) = a
−1
(g
1
(g
2
a)) = a
−1
(g
1
(ag
2
)) = a
−1
(ag
2
g
1
) = g
2
g
1
, a
contradiction. Therefore this is not a group action.
2. Subgroups
2.1. Deﬁnition and Examples.
Proposition 2.1 (The Subgroup Criterion). A subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if
(1) H = ∅
(2) for all x, y ∈ H, xy
−1
∈ H
Furthermore, if H is ﬁnite, then it suﬃces to check that H is nonempty and closed under multiplication.
2.2. Centralizers and Normalizers, Stabilizers and Kernels.
2.2.2. Prove that C
G
(Z(G)) = G and deduce that N
G
(Z(G)) = G.
Proof. Notice C
G
(Z(G)) =
¸
g ∈ G [ gag
−1
= a, ∀a ∈ Z(G)
¸
by deﬁnition. But a ∈ Z(G) if and only if ag = ga for
all g ∈ G, if and only if a = gag
−1
for all g ∈ G. Thus C
G
(Z(G)) = G.
Since C
G
(Z(G)) ≤ N
G
(Z(G)) and N
G
(Z(G)) ⊆ G, we have N
G
(Z(G)) = G as well.
2.2.4. For each of S
3
, D
8
, and Q
8
compute the centralizers of each element and ﬁnd the center of each group. Does
Lagrange’s Theorem (Exercise 19 in Section 1.7) simplify your work?
S
3
. C
S3
(1) = S
3
, C
S3
((1 2)) = ¦1, (1 2)¦, C
S3
((1 3)) = ¦1, (1 3)¦, C
S3
((2 3)) = ¦1, (2 3)¦, C
S3
((1 2 3)) = ¦1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)¦,
C
S3
((1 3 2)) = ¦1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)¦.
D
8
. C
D8
(1) = D
8
, C
D8
(r) = 'r`, C
D8
(r
2
) = D
8
, C
D8
(r
3
) = 'r`, C
D8
(s) =
¸
1, r
2
, s, sr
2
¸
, C
D8
(sr) =
¸
1, r
2
, sr, sr
3
¸
,
C
D8
(sr
2
) =
¸
1, r
2
, s, sr
2
¸
, C
D8
(sr
3
) =
¸
1, r
2
, sr, sr
3
¸
.
Q
8
. C
Q8
(1) = Q
8
, C
Q8
(−1) = ¦1, −1¦, C
Q8
(i) = ¦1, i¦, C
Q8
(−i) = ¦1, −i¦, C
Q8
(j) = ¦1, j¦, C
Q8
(−j) = ¦1, −j¦,
C
Q8
(k) = ¦1, k¦, C
Q8
(−k) = ¦1, −k¦.
Note that Lagrange’s theorem lets us check our answers because the centralizer is a subgroup and thus must
divide the order of the group.
2.2.5. In each of parts (a) to (c) show that for the speciﬁed group G and subgroup A of G, C
G
(A) = A and
N
G
(A) = G.
(a) G = S
3
and A = ¦1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)¦.
(b) G = D
8
and A =
¸
1, s, r
2
, sr
2
¸
.
(c) G = D
10
and A =
¸
1, r, r
2
, r
3
, r
4
¸
.
16 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof (a). Note that C
G
(A) = ∩
a∈A
C
G
(a) so by Exercise 2.2.4, C
S3
(A) = S
3
∩¦1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)¦∩¦1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)¦ =
A.
Proof (b). Similarly to part (a) by Exercise 2.2.4, C
D8
(A) = D
8
∩
¸
1, r
2
, s, sr
2
¸
∩ D
8
∩
¸
1, r
2
, s, sr
2
¸
= A.
Proof (c). Note that any power of r commutes with any power of r so A ⊆ C
D10
(A). Since C
D10
(r) = 'r`, we also
must have C
D10
(A) ⊆ A.
2.2.9. For any subgroup H of G and any nonempty subset A of G deﬁne N
H
(A) to be the set
¸
h ∈ H [ hAh
−1
= A
¸
.
Show that N
H
(A) = N
G
(A) ∩ H and deduce that N
H
(A) is a subgroup of H (note that A need not be a subset of
H).
Proof. Let x ∈ N
H
(A) so x ∈ H ≤ G and xAx
−1
= A. Thus x ∈ N
G
(A) ∩ H. Now let x ∈ N
G
(A) ∩ H so that
x ∈ HandxAx
−1
= A. Thus x ∈ G
H
(A) and hence N
H
(A) = N
G
(A) ∩ H.
Note that N
G
(A) and H are both subgroups of G and the intersection of two subgroups is again a subgroup.
Therefore N
H
(A) ≤ G.
2.2.10. Let H be a subgroup of order 2 in G. Show that N
G
(H) = C
G
(H). Deduce that if N
G
(H) = G then
H ≤ Z(G).
Proof. Let H = ¦1, h¦, x ∈ N
G
(H) so that x ∈ G and xHx
−1
= H. Since x1x
−1
= 1, we must have xhx
−1
= h so
that x¦1, h¦ x
−1
= ¦1, h¦. Thus x ∈ C
G
(H). Now if x ∈ C
G
(H), then x1x
−1
= 1 and xhx
−1
= h so xHx
−1
= H.
Thus x ∈ N
G
(H) and hence N
G
(H) = C
G
(H).
Note if N
G
(H) = G, then G = C
G
(H). Thus any element of G commutes with any element in H so H ⊆ Z(G).
Since H and Z(G) are subgroups we get H ≤ Z(G).
2.3. Cyclic Groups and Cyclic Subgroups.
Proposition 2.2. If H = 'x`, then [H[ = [x[ (where if one side of this equality is inﬁnite, so is the other). More
speciﬁcally
(1) if [H[ = n < ∞, then x
n
= 1 and 1, x, x
2
, . . . , x
n−1
are all the distinct elements of H
(2) if [H[ = ∞, then x
n
= 1 for all n = 0 and x
a
= x
b
for all a = b in Z.
Proposition 2.3. Let G be an arbitrary group, x ∈ G and let m, n ∈ Z. If x
n
= 1 and x
m
= 1, then x
d
= 1, where
d = (m, n). In particular, if x
m
= 1 for some m ∈ Z, then [x[ divides m.
Theorem 2.4. Any two cyclic groups of the same order are isomorphic. More speciﬁcally,
(1) if n ∈ Z
+
and 'x` and 'y` are both cyclic groups of order n, then the map
ϕ: 'x` →'y`
x
k
→y
k
is well deﬁned and is an isomorphism
(2) if 'x` is an inﬁnite cyclic group, the map
ϕ: Z →'x`
k →x
k
is well deﬁned and is an isomorphism.
Proposition 2.5. Let G be a group, let x ∈ G and let z ∈ Z` ¦0¦.
(1) If [x[ = ∞, then [x
a
[ = ∞.
(2) If [x[ = n < ∞, then [x
a
[ =
n
(n,a)
.
(3) In particular, if [x[ = n < ∞ and a is a positive integer dividing n, then [x
a
[ =
n
a
.
Proposition 2.6. Let H = 'x`.
(1) Assume [x[ = ∞. Then H = 'x
a
` if and only if a = ±1.
(2) Assume [x[ = n < ∞. Then H = 'x
a
` if and only if (a, n) = 1. In particular, then number of generators of
H is ϕ(n).
Theorem 2.7. Let H = 'x` be a cyclic group.
(1) Every subgroup of H is cyclic. More precisely, if K ≤ H, then either K = ¦1¦ or K =
x
d
, where d is the
smallest positive integer such that x
d
∈ K.
17
(2) If [H[ = ∞, then for any distinct nonnegative integers a and b, 'x
a
` =
x
b
. Furthermore, for every
integer m, 'x
m
` =
x
m
, where [m[ denotes the absolute value of m, so that the nontrivial subgroups of H
correspond bijectively with the integers 1, 2, 3, . . ..
(3) If [H[ = n < ∞, then for each positive integer a dividing n there is a unique subroups of H of order a.
This subgroup is the cyclic group
x
d
, where d =
n
a
. Furthermore, for every integer m, 'x
m
` =
x
(n,m)
,
so that the subgroups of H correspond bijectively with the positive divisors of n.
2.3.1. Find all subgroups of Z
45
= 'x`, giving a generator for each. Describe the containments between these
subgroups.
The subgroups of Z
45
are given by
x
0
, 'x` ,
x
3
,
x
5
,
x
9
,
x
15
. The containments between these
subgroups are given by 'x` ⊇
x
3
⊇
x
5
⊇
x
9
⊇
x
15
⊇
x
0
.
2.3.5. Find the number of generators for Z/49000 Z.
Since Z/49000 Z is cyclic of order 49000, we count the number of relatively prime integers to 49000. This is given
by Euler’s ϕ function, so
ϕ(49000) = ϕ(2
3
5
3
7
2
) = ϕ(2
3
)ϕ(5
3
)ϕ(7
2
) = 2
2
(1) 5
2
(4) 7(6) = 16800.
2.3.8. Let Z
48
= 'x`. For which integers a does the map ϕ
a
deﬁned by ϕ
a
:
¯
1 →x
a
extend to an isomorphism from
Z/48Z onto Z
48
.
All integers a such that (a, 48) = 1. So a ∈ ¦1, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 25, 29, 31, 35, 37, 41, 43, 47¦.
2.3.12. Prove that the following groups are not cyclic:
(b) Z
2
Z
Proof. Suppose Z
2
Z is cyclic and let (x, y) be a generator. Note that x, y are not identity elements in their
respective groups. Then there exists k ∈ Z such that
(1, y) = (x, y)
k
= (x
k
, ky).
Note k = 1 because x = 1. But then y = ky shows that y = 0. This is a contradiction so this group is not cyclic.
2.3.13. Prove that the following pairs of groups are not isomorphic:
(b) QZ
2
and Q.
Proof. Suppose that ϕ: (Q Z
2
) → Q is an isomorphism. Let (0, x) ∈ Q Z
2
be a nonidentity element. So
ϕ((0, x)) = y = 0 but
0 = ϕ((0, 1)) = ϕ((0, x)
2
) = 2y.
Since y = 0 this is a contradiction, thus no such isomorphism exists.
2.3.18. Show that if H is any group and h is an element of H with h
n
= 1, then there is a unique homomorphism
from Z
n
= 'x` to H such that x →h.
Proof. Since h
n
= 1, there is an m ∈ N such that ['h`[ = m so m[n. Deﬁne a map ϕ(x
k
) = h
k
. If x
k
= x
l
so
that k ≡ l (mod n), then k − l = αn for some α ∈ Z. But then h
k
= h
αn+l
= h
l
so ϕ is welldeﬁned. Now take
x
k
, x
l
∈ 'x` so that
ϕ(x
k
)ϕ(x
l
) = h
k
h
l
= h
k+l
= ϕ(x
k+l
)
shows that ϕ is such a homomorphism. Now suppose that ϕ and ψ are two homomorphisms such that ϕ(x) = h =
ψ(x). Take some x
k
∈ 'x` so that
ϕ(x
k
) = ϕ(x)
k
= h
k
= ψ(x)
k
= ψ(x
k
).
Therefore ϕ = ψ shows there is a unique map with these properties.
2.4. Subgroups Generated by Subsets of a Group.
Proposition 2.8. If / is any nonempty collection of subgroups of G, then the intersection of all members of / is
also a subgroup of G.
Proposition 2.9. A = 'A`.
2.4.8. Prove that S
4
= '(1 2 3 4), (1 2 4 3)`.
18 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. First note that [S
4
[ = 4! = 24. Since '(1 2 3 4), (1 2 4 3)` ≤ S
4
, Lagrange’s theorem states we need
to ﬁnd 13 elements generated by this set so that '(1 2 3 4), (1 2 4 3)` = S
4
. So we have (1 2 3 4), (1 2 3 4)
2
=
(1 3)(2 4), (1 2 3 4)
3
= (1 4 3 2), (1 2 4 3), (1 2 4 3)
2
= (1 4)(2 3), (1 2 4 3)
3
= (1 3 4 2), (1 2 3 4)(1 2 4 3) = (1 3 2),
(1 2 3 4)(1 4)(2 3) = (2 4), (1 2 3 4)(1 3 4 2) = (1 4 3), (1 3)(2 4)(1 2 4 3) = (1 4), (1 4 3 2)(1 2 4 3) = (2 3 4), (1 4)(2 4) =
(1 4 2), (1 3)(2 4)(2 4) = (1 3).
2.4.9. Prove that SL
2
(F
3
) is the subgroup of GL
2
(F
3
) generated by
1 1
0 1
and
1 0
1 1
.
Proof. First note that [SL
2
(F
3
)[ = 24 so we use a method similar to exercise 2.4.8 to show this subgroup is
generated by the two matrices. So we have
1 1
0 1
,
1 1
0 1
2
=
1 2
0 1
,
1 1
0 1
3
=
1 0
0 1
,
1 0
1 1
,
1 0
1 1
2
=
1 0
2 1
,
1 1
0 1
1 0
1 1
=
2 1
1 1
,
1 2
0 1
1 0
1 1
=
0 2
1 1
,
1 1
0 1
1 0
2 1
=
1 1
2 1
,
1 0
1 1
1 1
0 1
=
1 1
1 2
,
1 0
1 1
1 2
0 1
=
1 2
1 0
,
1 0
2 1
1 1
0 1
=
1 1
2 0
,
1 0
2 1
2 1
1 1
=
2 1
2 0
,
1 1
1 2
1 2
1 0
=
2 2
0 2
.
2.4.10. Prove that the subgroup of SL
2
(F
3
) generated by
0 −1
1 0
and
1 1
1 −1
is isomorphic to the quaternion
group of order 8. [Use a presentation for Q
8
.]
Proof. Let Q
8
be given by the presentation
Q
8
=
i, j [ i
4
= 1 = j
4
, ij = −ji
.
Notice that
0 −1
1 0
4
= I =
1 1
1 −1
4
, and
0 −1
1 0
1 1
1 −1
=
−1 1
1 1
= −
1 −1
−1 −1
= −
1 1
1 −1
0 −1
1 0
.
Thus the relations of the subgroup of SL
2
(F
3
) generated by the matrices are contained in the presentation of Q
8
.
So the order of the matrix subgroup is less than or equal to 8. Since we have found 5 matrices in this subgroup and
[SL
2
(F
3
)[ = 24, Lagrange’s theorem shows that the order of this subgroup is indeed 8. Therefore these groups are
isomorphic.
2.4.11. Prove that SL
2
(F
3
) and S
4
are two nonisomorphic groups of order 24.
Proof. First notice that there is more than one element of order two in S
4
, namely (1 2) and (1 3). Now let
a b
c d
∈ SL
2
(F
3
) be an element of order 2. So
a b
c d
2
=
a
2
+bc ab +bd
ac +cd bc +d
2
=
1 0
0 1
and ad − bc = 1. Since bc = ad − 1 we see ad − 1 + d
2
= 1. So d(a + d) = 2 shows that cd(a + d) = 2c = 0 hence
c = 0. So ad = a
2
= d
2
= 1 together with b(a + d) = 0 shows that a
2
b + abd = 0 hence b = 0. Therefore the only
element of order 2 is
−1 0
0 −1
and hence these groups are not isomorphic.
2.4.12. Prove that the subgroup of upper triangular matrices in GL
3
(F
2
) is isomorphic to the dihedral group of
order 8. [First ﬁnd the order of this subgroup.]
Proof. Since the diagonal must be have nonzero entries, the diagonal is a string of 1’s. Thus the order of this
subgroup is 2
3
= 8. We will show that the subgroup of upper triangular matrices in GL
3
(F
2
) is equal to
A =
¸
1 1 1
0 1 0
0 0 1
¸
, B =
¸
1 1 0
0 1 1
0 0 1
¸
¸
19
where AB = B
−1
A and B
4
= I = A
2
. Calculating we ﬁnd
¸
1 1 1
0 1 0
0 0 1
¸
2
=
¸
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
¸
¸
1 1 0
0 1 1
0 0 1
¸
4
=
¸
1 1 0
0 1 1
0 0 1
¸
2
¸
1 0 1
0 1 0
0 0 1
¸
=
¸
1 1 0
0 1 1
0 0 1
¸
¸
1 1 1
0 1 1
0 0 1
¸
=
¸
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
¸
.
Thus we found ﬁve matrices generated by A and B to show that it generates the whole group by Lagrange’s theorem.
Therefore these two groups are isomorphic.
2.5. Deﬁnitions and Examples. Let G and H be groups.
2.5.1. Let ϕ: G → H be a homomorphism and let E be a subgroup of H. Prove that ϕ
−1
(E) ≤ G (ie., the
preimage or pullback of a subgroup under a homormorphism is a subgroup). If E H prove that ϕ
−1
(E) G.
Deduce that ker ϕ G.
Proof. Let g
1
, g
2
∈ ϕ
−1
(E) so ϕ(g
1
) = h
1
and ϕ(g
2
) = h
2
where h
1
, h
2
∈ E. But ϕ(1
G
) = ϕ(1
H
) and ϕ(g
1
g
−1
2
) =
h
1
h
−1
2
∈ E so ϕ
−1
(E) ≤ G.
If E H then hEh
−1
⊆ E for all h ∈ H. So take ϕ
g ϕ
−1
(E) g
−1
⊆ ϕ(g) E ϕ(g)
−1
⊆ E. Thus g ϕ
−1
(E) g
−1
⊆
ϕ
−1
(E) shows ϕ
−1
(E) G. Since 1
H
is normal in H then ker ϕ G.
2.5.5. Use the preceding exercise to prove that the order of the element gN in G/N is n, where n is the smallest
positive integer such that g
n
∈ N (and gN has inﬁnite order if no such positive integer exists). Give an example to
show that the order of gN in G/N may be strictly smaller than the order of g in G.
Proof. First note if 1 < m < n then (gN)
m
= g
m
N _ N for g / ∈ N so the order of gN ≥ n. But (gN)
n
= g
n
N = N
so the order of gN is n.
An example with the desired property would be D
8
/
r
2
. Note that
r
2
= 2 in D
8
but
r
2
r
2
= 1 in
D
8
/
r
2
.
2.5.6. Deﬁne ϕ: 1
×
→¦±1¦ by letting ϕ(x) be x divided by the absolute value of x. Describe the ﬁbers of ϕ and
prove that ϕ is a homomorphism.
Proof. The ﬁbers of ϕ are given by ϕ
−1
(1) = ¦α ∈ 1
×
[ α > 0¦ and ϕ
−1
(−1) = ¦α ∈ 1
×
[ α < 0¦. To show ϕ is a
homomorphism we calculate
ϕ(αβ) =
1 αβ > 0,
−1 αβ < 0,
ϕ(α)ϕ(β) =
1 αβ > 0,
−1 αβ < 0.
2.5.9. Deﬁne ϕ: C
×
→ 1
×
by ϕ(a + bi) = a
2
+ b
2
. Prove that ϕ is a homomorphism and ﬁnd the image of ϕ.
Describe the kernel and the ﬁbers of ϕ geometrically (as subsets of the plane).
Proof. We calculate,
ϕ((a +bi)(c +di)) = ϕ(ac +adi +bci −bc)
= (ac −bd)
2
+ (ad +bd)
2
= a
2
c
2
−2abcd +b
2
d
2
+a
2
d
2
+ 2abcd +b
2
d
2
ϕ(a +bi)ϕ(c +di) = (a
2
+b
2
)(c
2
+d
2
)
= a
2
c
2
+a
2
d
2
+b
2
c
2
+b
2
d
2
20 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
so ϕ is a homomorphism.
2.5.11. Let F be a ﬁeld and let G =
a b
0 c
[ a, b, c ∈ F, ac = 0
≤ GL
2
(F).
(a) Prove that the map ϕ:
a b
0 c
→a is a surjective homomorphism from G onto F
×
(recall that F
×
is the
multiplicative group of nonzero elements in F). Describe the ﬁbers and kernel of ϕ.
(b) Prove that the map ψ:
a b
0 c
→ (a, c) is a surjective homomorphism from G onto F
×
F
×
. Describe
the ﬁbers and kernel of ψ.
(c) Let H =
1 b
0 1
[ b ∈ F
. Prove that H is isomorphic to the additive group F.
Proof (a). ϕ is clearly surjective so we show it is a homomorphism by
a
1
b
1
0 c
1
a
2
b
2
0 c
2
=
a
1
a
2
a
1
b
2
+b
1
c
2
0 c
1
c
2
.
The ﬁbers of ϕ are given by ϕ
−1
(a) =
a b
0 c
[ b ∈ F, c = 0
. The kernel of ϕ is elements of G with a = 1.
Proof (b). ψ is clearly surjective and the calculation from proof (a) shows it is a homomorphism. The ﬁbers of ψ
are given by ψ
−1
((a, c)) =
a b
0 c
[ b ∈ F
. The kernel of ψ is elements of G with a = c = 1.
Proof (c). The calculation
1 b
1
0 1
1 b
2
0 1
=
1 b
1
+b
2
0 1
makes it clear that H is isomorphic to F
+
.
2.5.12. Let G be the additive group of real numbers, let H be the multiplicative group of complex numbers of
absolute value 1 (the unit circle S
1
in the complex plane) and let ϕ: G → H be the homomorphism ϕ: r → e
2πir
.
Draw the points on a real line which lie in the kernel of ϕ. Describe similarly the elements in the ﬁbers of ϕ above
the points −1, i, and e
4πi/3
of H.
The points of the real line in the kernel of ϕ are the integers. The ﬁbers are given by ϕ
−1
(−1) = (1/2)(1
+
/Z),
ϕ
−1
(i) = (1/4)(1
+
/Z), ϕ(e
4πi/3
) = (2/3)(1
+
/Z).
2.6. The Lattice of Subgroups of a Group.
3. Quotient Groups and Homomorphisms
3.1. Deﬁnitions and Examples.
Proposition 3.1. Let G and H be groups and let ϕ: G →H be a homomorphism.
(1) ϕ(1
G
) = 1
H
(2) ϕ(g
−1
) = ϕ(g)
−1
for all g ∈ G.
(3) ϕ(g
n
) = ϕ(g)
n
for all n ∈ Z.
(4) ker ϕ is a subgroup of G.
(5) im(ϕ) is a subgroup of H.
Proposition 3.2. Let ϕ: G → H be a homomorphism of groups with kernel K. Let X ∈ G/K be the ﬁber above
a, i.e., X = ϕ
−1
(a). Then
(1) For any u ∈ X, X = ¦uk [ k ∈ K¦
(2) For any u ∈ X, X = ¦ku [ k ∈ K¦.
Theorem 3.3. Let G be a group and let K be the kernel of some homomorphism from G to another group. Then
the set whose eelements are the left cosets of K in G with operation deﬁned by
uK ◦ vK = (uv)K
forms a group, G/K. In particular, this operation is well deﬁned in the sense that if u
1
is any element in uK and
v
1
is any element in vK, then u
1
v
1
∈ uvK, e.e., u
1
v
1
K = uvK so that the multiplication does not depend on the
choice of representatives for the cosets. The same statement is true with “right coset” in place of “left coset.”
21
Proposition 3.4. Let N be any subgroup of the group G. The set of left cosets of N in G form a partition of G.
Furthermore, for all u, v ∈ G, uN = vN if and only if v
−1
u ∈ N and in particular, uN = vN if and only if u and
v are representatives of the same coset.
Proposition 3.5. Let G be a group and let N be a subgroup of G.
(1) The operation on the set of left cosets of N in G described by
uN vN = (uv)N
is well deﬁned if and only if gng
−1
∈ N for all g ∈ G and all n ∈ N.
(2) If the above operation is well deﬁned, then it makes the set of left cosets of N in G into a group. In particular
the identity of this group is the coset 1N and the inverse of gN is the coset g
−1
N i.e., (gN)
−1
= g
−1
N.
Theorem 3.6. Let N be a subgroup of the group G. The following are equivalent:
(1) N G
(2) N
G
(N) = G
(3) gN = Ng for all g ∈ G
(4) the operation on left cosets of N in G described in proposition 3.5 makes the set of left cosets into a group
(5) gNg
−1
⊆ N for all g ∈ G.
Proposition 3.7. A subgroup N of the group G is normal if and only if it is the kernel of some homomorphism.
3.1.36. Prove that if G/Z(G) is cyclic then G is abelian.
Proof. If G/Z(G) is cyclic with generator xZ(G), then if gZ(G) ∈ G/Z(G) we have gZ(G) = (xZ(G))
n
= x
n
Z(G)
for some n ∈ N. Thus there is some z ∈ Z(G) such that g = x
n
z. Now take g
1
, g
2
∈ G such that g
1
= x
m
z
1
and
g
2
= x
n
z
2
. Then
g
1
g
2
= x
m
z
1
x
n
z
2
= x
m
x
n
z
2
z
1
= x
n
x
m
z
2
z
1
= x
n
z
2
x
m
z
1
= g
2
g
1
.
3.2. More on Cosets and Lagrange’s Theorem.
Theorem 3.8 (Lagrange’s Theorem). If G is a ﬁnite gorup and H is a subgroup of G, then the order of H divides
the order of G (i.e., [H[ [ [G[) and the number of left cosets of H in G equals
G
H
.
Corollary 3.9. If G is a ﬁnite group and x ∈ G, then the roder of x divides the order of G. In particular x
G
= 1
for all x in G.
Corollary 3.10. If G is a group of prime order p, then G is cyclic, hence G
∼
= Z
p
.
Theorem 3.11 (Cauchy’s Theorem). If G is a ﬁnite group and p is a prime dividing [G[, then G has an element
of order p.
Theorem 3.12 (Sylow). If G is a ﬁnite group of order p
α
m, where p is a prime and p does not divide m, then G
has a subgroup of order p
α
.
Proposition 3.13. If H and K are ﬁnite subgroups of a group then
[HK[ =
[H[ [K[
[H ∩ K[
.
Proposition 3.14. If H and K are subgroups of a group, HK is a subgroup if and only if HK = KH.
Corollary 3.15. If H and K are subgroups of G and H and H ≤ N
G
(K), then HK is a subgroup of G. In
particular, if K G then HK ≤ G for any H ≤ G.
3.2.8. Prove that if H and K are ﬁnite subgroups of G whose orders are relatively prime then H ∩ K = 1.
Proof. Let [H[ = m and [K[ = n with (m, n) = 1. Now take x ∈ H ∩ K so [x[ [m and [x[ [n so x = 1.
22 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
3.2.9. This exercise outlines a proof of Cauchy’s Theorem due to James McKay. Let G be a ﬁnite group and let p
be a prime dividing [G[. Let o denote the set of ptuples of elements of G the product of whose coordinates is 1:
o = ¦(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
p
) [ x
i
∈ G and x
1
x
2
x
p
= 1¦ .
Deﬁne the relation ∼ on o by letting α ∼ β if β is a cyclic permutation of α.
(a) Show that o has [G[
p−1
elements, hence has order divisible by p.
(b) Show that a cyclic permutation of an element of o is again an element of S.
(c) Prove that ∼ is an equivalence relation on o.
(d) Prove that an equivalence class contains a single element if and only if it is of the form (x, x, . . . , x) with
x
p
= 1.
(e) Prove that every equivalence class has order 1 or p (this uses the fact that p is a prime). Deduce that
[G[
p−1
= k +pd, where k is the number of classes of size 1 and d is the number of classes of size p.
(f) Since ¦(1, 1, . . . , 1)¦ is an equivalence class of size 1, conclude from (e) that there must be a nonidentity
element x in G with x
p
= 1, i.e., G contains an element of order p. [Show p[k and so k > 1.]
Proof (a). The ﬁrst p − 1 coordinates have [G[ choices and the pth coordinate must be the inverse of the product
of the ﬁrst p −1 coordinates. Thus [o[ = [G[
p−1
.
Proof (b). Let (x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
p
) ∈ o and notice x
p
x
1
x
2
x
p−1
= 1 just by multiplication on the right by (x
p
)
−1
,
then the left by x
p
. Thus (x
p
, x
1
, . . . , x
p−1
) ∈ o and any cyclic permutation can be realized by repeating this
process.
Proof (c). Reﬂexive is obvious. If α is a cyclic permutation of β, then β is a cyclic permutation of α so ∼ is
symmetric. If β is a cyclic permutation of α and γ is a cyclic permutation of β, then γ is a cyclic permutation of α
so ∼ is transitive. Thus ∼ is an equivalence relation.
Proof (d). If some x is changed to a y = x, then a cyclic permutation would yield a diﬀerent element of the
equivalence class. If all the x are the same, then any cyclic permutation is indeed the same element of o.
Proof (e). It is clear that every equivalence class has order less than or equal to p. Suppose the equivalence class
is not of the form from part (d) and let σ ∈ S
p
be given by σ(i) ≡ i + j mod p for 0 ≤ j < p and suppose that
(x
1
, . . . , x
p
) ∼ (x
σ(1)
, . . . , x
σ(p)
). Then x
i
= x
σ(i)
= x
σ
2
(i)
= = x
σ
p−1
(i)
for all i. Since not every coordinate is
allowed to be equal, j = 0 because [σ[ = p (for p prime, σ = 1).
Thus the number of equivalence classes is the sum of size 1 and size p classes. Since equivalence classes are
disjoint, [G[
p−1
= k +pd.
Proof (f ). Since p divides [G[, then p divides [G[
p−1
and speciﬁcally p divides k. Thus k > 1 and hence there is an
element x in G with order p.
3.2.10. Suppose H and K are subgroups of ﬁnite index in the (possibly inﬁnity) group G with [G : H[ = m and
[G : K[ = n. Prove that lcm(m, n) ≤ [G : H ∩ K[ ≤ mn. Deduce that if m and n are relatively prime then
[G : H ∩ K[ = [G : H[ [G : K[.
Proof by Dr. Schulze. By Problem 11, you have [G : H ∩ K] = [G : K][K : H ∩ K]. So n divides [G : H ∩ K], and
also m divides by the same argument. Therefore lcm(m, n) ⇐[G : H ∩ K].
Now note that the ﬁrst isomorphism theorem works also for nonnormal subgroups, but you get a statement on
maps of sets (not groups). Apply this to the map G →GG →G/H G/K sending g →(g, g) →(gH, gK).
Its kernel is H ∩ K, so the (set version of the) ﬁrst isomorphism theorem gives an injective map G/(H ∩ K) →
G/H G/K. Thus, [G : H ∩ K] = [G/(H ∩ K)[ ⇐[G/H G/K[ = [G/H[[G/K[ = n m.
3.2.22. Use Lagrange’s Theorem in the multiplicative group (Z/nZ)
×
to prove Euler’s Theorem: a
ϕ(n)
≡ 1 mod n
for every integer a relatively prime to n, where ϕ denotes Euler’s ϕfunction.
Proof. Since a is relatively prime to n, a ∈ (Z`nZ)
×
. Corollary 9 states that a
ϕ(n)
= a
[(Z\nZ)
×
[
= 1
(Z\nZ)
×

≡ 1
mod n.
23
3.3. The Isomorphism Theorems.
Theorem 3.16 (The First Isomorphism Theorem). If ϕ: G → H is a homomorphism of groups, then ker ϕ G
and G/ ker ϕ
∼
= ϕ(G).
Corollary 3.17. Let ϕ: G →H be a homomorphism of groups.
(1) ϕ is injective if and only if ker ϕ = 1.
(2) [G: ker ϕ[ = [ϕ(G)[.
Theorem 3.18 (The Second Isomorphism Theorem). Let G be a group, let A and B be subgroups of G and assume
A ≤ N
G
(B). Then AB is a subgroup of G, B AB, A∩ B A and AB/B
∼
= A/A∩ B.
Theorem 3.19 (The Third Isomorphism Theorem). Let G be a group and let H and K be normal subgroups of G
with H ≤ K. Then K/H G/H and
(G/H)/(K/H)
∼
= G/K.
If we denote the quotient by H with a bar, this can be written
G/K
∼
= G/K.
Theorem 3.20 (The Fourth Isomorphism Theorem). Let G be a group and let N be a normal subgroup of G.
Then there is a bijection from the set of subgroups A of G which contain N onto the set of subgroups A = A/N
of G/N. In particular, every subgroup of G is of the form A/N for some subgroup A of G containing N (namely,
its preimage in G under the natural projection homomorphism from G to G/N). This bijection has the following
properties: for all A, B ≤ G with N ≤ A and N ≤ B,
(1) A ≤ B if and only if A ≤ B,
(2) if A ≤ B, then [B: A[ =
B: A
,
(3) 'A, B` =
A, B
,
(4) A∩ B = A∩ B, and
(5) A G if and only if A G.
3.3.3. Prove that if H is a normal subgroup of G of prime index p then for all K ≤ G either
(i) K ≤ H or
(ii) G = HK and [K: K ∩ H[ = p.
Proof. Suppose that K < K so since K ≤ N
G
(H), HK = KH ≤ G. Since [K[ = 1, [HK[ > H so HK = G because
[G : H[ = p and Lagrange’s theorem. The fact that [K : H ∩ H[ = p is immediate by the diamond isomorphism
theorem.
3.3.4. Let C be a normal subgroup of the group A and let D be a normal subgroup of the group B. Prove that
(C D) (AB) and (AB)/(C D)
∼
= (A/C) (B/D).
Proof. Let π
1
: A → A/C and π
2
: B → B/D which exist by the normality of C and D. Now let Φ: (A B) →
(A/C B/D) be deﬁned by π
1
and π
2
. Thus ker Φ = C D and thus (C D) (A B). Since Φ is surjective,
the ﬁrst isomorphism theorem shows that (AB)/(C D)
∼
= (A/C) (B/D).
3.3.7. Let M and N be normal subgroups of G such that G = MN. Prove that G/(M ∩ N)
∼
= (G/M) (G/N).
[Draw the lattice.]
Proof. Deﬁne a homomorphism ϕ: G → (G/M) (G/N) by ϕ(g) = (g, g). Take some (m, n) ∈ (G/M) (G/N).
Then nm
n
−1
= m so take nm
= g = mn so ϕ(g) = (g, g) = (m, n) so ϕ is surjective. The kernel of ϕ is clearly
M∩N because g ∈ M and g ∈ N if and only if (g, g) = 1
G/M×G/N
. Therefore the ﬁrst isomorphism theorem states
that G/(M ∩ N)
∼
= (G/M) (G/N).
3.3.9. Let p be a prime and let G be a group of order p
a
m, where p does not divide m. Assume P is a subgroup of
G of order p
a
and N is a normal subgroup of G of order p
b
n, where p does not divide n. Prove that [P ∩ N[ = p
b
and [PN/N[ = p
a−b
. (The subgroup P of G is called a Sylow psubgroup of G. This exercise shows that the
intersection of any Sylow psubgroup of G with a normal subgroup N is a Sylow psubgroup of N.)
Proof. First note that [PN[ = ([P[ [N[)/ [P ∩ N[ = (p
a+b
n)/ [P ∩ N[. But this divides p
a
m so [P ∩ N[ = p
b
α.
But then p
b
α divides p
b
n so α divides n shows α does not divide p. But now p
b
α divides p
a
so α = 1 and hence
[P ∩ N[ = p
b
. The diamond isomorphism theorem shows that [PN/N[ = p
a−b
.
24 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
3.4. Composition Series and the Holder Program.
Proposition 3.21. If G is a ﬁnite abelian group and P is a prime dividing [G[, then G contains an element of
order p.
Theorem 3.22 (JordanHolder). Let G be a ﬁnite group with G = 1. Then
(1) G has a composition series and
(2) The composition factors in a composition sereis are unique, namely, if 1 = N
0
≤ N
1
≤ ≤ N
r
= G and
1 = M
0
≤ M
1
≤ ≤ M
s
= G are two composition series for G, then r = s and there is some permutation,
π, of ¦1, 2, . . . , r¦ such taht
M
π(i)
/M
π(i)−1
∼
= N
i
/N
i−1
, 1 ≤ i ≤ r.
3.5. Transpositions and the Alternating Group.
Proposition 3.23. The map : S
n
→ ¦±1¦ is a homomorphism (where ¦±1¦ is a multiplicative version of the
cyclic group of order 2).
Proposition 3.24. Transpositions are all odd permutations and is a surjective homomorphism.
Proposition 3.25. The permutation σ is odd if and only if the number of cycles of even length in its cycle
decomposition is odd.
3.5.3. Prove that S
n
= '¦(i i + 1) [ 1 ≤ i ≤ n −1¦`.
Proof. Let σ ∈ S
n
and decompose σ into a product of transpositions. But if (i j) is any transposition, then
(i j) = (j −1 j) (i i + 1) (j −1 j).
Therefore this set generates S
n
.
3.5.5. Show that if p is prime, S
p
= 'σ, τ` where σ is any transposition and τ is any pcycle.
Proof. Without loss of generality, suppose σ = (1 2) and τ = (1 p). If 1 ≤ i ≤ n −1, then
(i i + 1) = τ
i−1
στ
−i+1
.
Exercise 3.5.3 shows this generates S
p
.
3.5.6. Show that '(1 3), (1 2 3 4)` is a proper subgroup of S
4
. What is the isomorphism type of this subgroup?
Proof. Notice that (1 3)(1 2 3 4)
2
(1 3) = (1 2 3 4)
2
shows that (1 2 3 4)
2
∈ Z('(1 3), (1 2 3 4)`). But
(1 2 3 4)
2
(1 4) = (1 2 4 3) = (1 3 4 2) = (1 4)(1 2 3 4)
2
.
Therefore '(1 3), (1 2 3 4)` < S
4
.
The isomorphism type of this subgroup is D
8
because we can construct 8 elements and we have
(1 3)
2
= (1 2 3 4)
4
= (1 3)(1 2 3 4)(1 3)(1 2 3 4) = 1.
3.5.7. Prove that the group of rigid motions of a tetrahedron is isomorphic to A
4
.
Proof. First notice that both groups are order 12. Now we represent the group of rigid motions of a tetrahedron as
a subgroup of S
n
. The elements in this subgroup are
1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2), (1 3 4), (1 4 3), (1 2 4), (1 4 2), (2 3 4), (2 4 3), (1 3)(2 4), (1 2)(3 4), (1 4)(2 3).
Since all 12 of these elements are even, this is A
4
.
3.5.10. Find a composition series for A
4
. Deduce that A
4
is solvable.
Solution. Let N
1
= ¦1, (1 3)(2 4)¦ and N
2
= ¦1, (1 3)(2 4), (1 2)(3 4), (1 4)(2 3)¦. Simple calculations show that
1 = N
0
N
1
N
2
N
3
= A
4
, while [N
i+1
/N
i
[ = p shows that each composition factor is simple. Since the order
of each composition factor is prime, they are also abelian and hence A
4
is solvable.
3.5.17. If x and y are 3cycles in S
n
, prove that 'x, y` is isomorphic to Z
3
, A
4
, A
5
, or Z
3
Z
3
.
25
Proof. If x = y, then 'x, y` = 'x`
∼
= Z
3
by order argument. Now let x = (i j k) and y = (j k l) and notice these
are both even permutations hence generate even permutations. Since 1, (i j k), (i k j), (j k l), (j l k), (i k l) and
(i j)(k l) are all generated by x and y, then 'x, y`
∼
= A
4
by Lagrange’s theorem. Now let x = (i j k), y = (k l m)
and we will show that 'x, y` A
5
, so they are equal because A
5
is simple. If we can show conjugating (i j k) by any
transposition remains in 'x, y`, then we are done because any permutation can be represented by a transposition, and
the argument for (k l m) will be similar. But (i j k)
(i j)
= (i j k)
(j k)
= (i j k)
(i k)
= (i j k)
−1
, (i j k)
(l m)
= (i j k),
(i j k)
(i l)
= (j k l) = [(i j k)
(k l m)
]
(i j k)
, (i j k)
(j l)
= [(j i k)
(k l m)
]
(j i k)
, (i j k)
(i m)
= [(i j k)
(k m l)
]
(i j k)
,
(i j k)
(j m)
= [(j i k)
(k m l)
]
(j i k)
, (i j k)
(k l)
= (i j k)
(k l m)
, and (i j k)
(k m)
= (i j k)
(k m l)
. If x and y are
disjoint 3cycles, then it is clear that 'x, y`
∼
= Z
3
Z
3
.
4. Group Actions
4.1. Group Actions and Permutation Representations.
4.2. Groups Acting on Themselves by Left Multiplication – Cayley’s Theorem.
4.2.2. List the elements of S
3
as 1, (1 2), (2 3), (1 3), (1 2 3), (1 3 2) and label these with the integers 1,2,3,4,5,6
respectively. Exhibit the image of each element of S
3
under the left regular representation of S
3
into S
6
.
Solution.
4.2.4. Use the left regular representation of Q
8
to produce two elements of S
8
which generate a subgroup of S
8
isomorphic to the quaternion group Q
8
.
Solution.
4.2.8. Prove that if H has ﬁnite index n then there is a normal subgroup K of G with K ≤ H and [G : K[ ≤ n!.
Proof.
4.2.10. Prove that every nonabelian group of order 6 has a nonnormal subgroup of order 2. Use this to classify
groups of order 6. [Produce an injective homomorphism into S
3
.]
Proof.
4.3. Groups Acting on Themselves by Conjugation – The Class Equation.
4.3.3. Find all conjugacy classes and their sizes in the following groups:
(c) A
4
.
Solution (c).
4.3.6. Assume G is a nonabelian group of order 15. Prove that Z(G) = 1. Use the fact that 'g` ≤ C
G
(g) for all
g ∈ G to show that there is at most one possible class equation for G. [Use exercise 36, section 3.1.]
Proof.
4.3.13. Find all ﬁnite groups which have exactly two conjugacy classes.
Solution.
4.3.27. Let g
1
, g
2
, . . . , g
r
be representatives of the conjugacy classes of the ﬁnite group G and assume these elements
pairwise commute. Prove that G is abelian.
Proof.
4.3.29. Let p be a prime and let G be a group of order p
α
. Prove that G has a subgroup of order p
β
, for every β
with 0 ≤ β ≤ α. [Use theorem 8 and induction on α.]
Proof.
26 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
4.4. Automorphisms. Let G be a group.
4.4.1. If σ ∈ Aut(G) and ϕ
g
is conjugation by g prove σϕ
g
σ
−1
= ϕ
σ(g)
. Deduce that Inn(G) Aut(G).
Proof. Let x ∈ G, so
σϕ
g
σ
−1
(x) = σ(gσ
−1
(x)g
−1
)
= σ(g)xσ(g)
−1
= ϕ
σ(g)
(x)
shows the desired equation. Since conjugating an element of Inn(G) with an element of Aut(G) is contained in
Inn(G), normality must hold.
4.4.2. Prove that if G is an abelian group of order pq, where p and q are distinct primes, then G is cyclic.
Proof. We use Cauchy’s theorem to pick x, y ∈ G with [x[ = p and [y[ = q. But if 1 = (xy)
k
= x
k
y
k
for k ≥ 1, then
k [ p and k [ q. Since x = y
−1
, then k ≥ pq. Thus 'xy` = G and therefore G is cyclic.
4.4.3. Prove that under any automorphism of D
8
, r has at most 2 possible images and s has at most 4 possible
images (r and s are the usual generators). Deduce that [Aut(D
8
)[ ≤ 8.
Proof. Since there is only one subgroup of order 4, 'r` is characteristic so if σ ∈ Aut(D
8
), then σ('r`) = 'r`. Since
[r[ = 4, then σ(r) ∈
¸
r, r
3
¸
. Since σ('r`) = 'r`, we must have σ(s) ∈
¸
s, sr, sr
2
, sr
3
¸
.
If x ∈ D
8
, then x = sr
k
for some 0 ≤ k ≤ 3. So σ(x) = σ(sr
k
) = σ(s)σ(r)
k
and thus the automorphism is
uniquely determined by the value on s and r. So [Aut(D
8
)[ ≤ 2 4 = 8.
4.4.11. If p is a prime and P is a subgroup of S
p
of order p, prove N
Sp
(P)/C
Sp
(P)
∼
= Aut(P).
Proof. We know from a previous exercise that
N
Sp
(P)
= p(p −1) and from Corollary 15 that N
Sp
(P)/C
Sp
(P)
∼
=
H ≤ Aut(P). Since C
Sp
(P) = P and [Aut(P)[ = p −1, we have the desired isomorphism.
4.4.18. This exercise shows that for n = 6 every automorhpism of S
n
is inner. Fix an integer n ≥ 2 with n = 6.
(a) Prove that the automorphism group of a group G permutes the conjugacy classes of G, i.e., for each
σ ∈ Aut(G) and each conjugacy class / of G the set σ(/) is also a conjugacy class of G.
(b) Let / be the conjugacy class of transpositions in S
n
and let /
be the conjugacy class of any element of
order 2 in S
n
that is not a transposition. Prove that [/[ = [/
[. Deduce that any automorphism of S
n
sends transpositions to transpositions.
(c) Prove that for each σ ∈ Aut(S
n
)
σ: (1 2) →(a b
2
), σ: (1 3) →(a b
3
), . . . , σ: (1 n) →(a b
n
)
for some distinct integers a, b
2
, b
3
, . . . , b
n
∈ ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦.
(d) Show that (1 2), (1 3), . . ., (1 n) generate S
n
and deduce that any automorphism of S
n
is uniquely determined
by its action on these elements. Use (c) to show that S
n
has at most n! automorphisms and conclude that
Aut(S
n
) = Inn(S
n
) for n = 6.
Proof (a).
4.5. The Sylow Theorems. Let G be a ﬁnite group and let p be a prime.
4.5.1. Prove that if P ∈ Syl
p
(G) and H is a subgroup of G containing P then P ∈ Syl
p
(H). Give an example to
show that, in general, a Sylow psubgroup of a subgroup of G need not be a Sylow psubgroup of G.
Proof. Let [P[ = p
k
. Then p
k
[H[
[G[, so P ∈ Syl
p
(H).
Example. Let 1 = H _ G and p
[G[. Then 1 ∈ Syl
p
(H) and 1 / ∈ Syl
p
(G).
4.5.3. Use Sylow’s Theorem to prove Cauchy’s Theorem. (Note that we only used Cauchy’s Theorem for abelian
groups – Proposition 3.21 – in the proof of Sylow’s Theorem so this line of reasoning is not circular.)
Proof. Suppose that p
[G[ and let P ∈ Syl
p
(G) with [P[ = p
k
. Now take x ∈ P`1 so [x[
p
k
and let [x[ = p
l
. Then
x
l
= p.
4.5.9. Exhibit all Sylow 3subgroups of SL
2
(F
3
).
27
Solution. Note [SL
2
(F
3
)[ = 24 so if P ∈ Syl
3
(SL
2
(F
3
)) then [P[ = 3. Since n
3
≡ 1 mod 3, n
3
∈ ¦1, 4¦. But
1 1
0 1
,
1 0
1 1
,
0 1
2 2
,
0 2
1 2
,
all generate diﬀerent subgroups of order 3.
4.5.13. Prove that a group, G, of order 56 has a normal Sylow psubgroup for some prime p dividing its order.
Proof. Note 56 = 2
3
7. Suppose n
2
, n
7
> 1. Then (
¸
Syl
2
(G))`1 ≥ 14 and (
¸
Syl
7
(G))`1 ≥ 48. These are clearly
all distinct elements, so n
2
or n
7
is equal to 1.
4.5.18. Prove that a group of order 200 has a normal Sylow 5subgroup.
Proof. Note 200 = 2
3
5
2
. But n
5
∈ ¦1, 6¦ and since 6 [ 8 we must have n
5
= 1.
4.5.19. Prove that if [G[ = 6545 then G is not simple.
Proof. Note 6545 = 5 7 11 17. But since n
11
≡ 1 mod 11 and n
11
[ 595, we must have n
11
= 1.
4.5.30. How many elements of order 7 must there be in a simple group of order 168?
Solution. Note 168 = 2
3
3 7. Since the group is simple, n
7
> 1. Since n
7
≡ 1 mod 7 and n
7
[ 24, we must have
n
7
= 8. Therefore there are 6 8 = 48 elements of order 7.
4.5.32. Let P be a Sylow psubgroup of H and let H be a subgroup of K. If P H and H K, prove that P is
normal in K. Deduce that if P ∈ Syl
p
(G) and H = N
G
(P), then N
G
(H) = H.
Proof. If P H, then P is characteristic in H. Since P is characteristic in H and H K, then P K.
Now if P ∈ Syl
p
(G) and H = N
G
(P), then P ∈ Syl
p
(H) and P is characteristic in H. Thus if H
g
= H, then
P
g
= P so g ∈ N
G
(P) = H. Therefore N
G
(H) = H.
4.5.40. Prove that the number of Sylow psubgroups of G = GL
2
(F
p
) is p + 1.
Proof. Note [GL
2
(F
p
)[ = (p −1)
2
p(p + 1) and n
p
≡ 1 mod p. Since
P
1
=
1 γ
0 1
, P
2
=
1 0
γ 1
∈ Syl
p
(G),
for γ ∈ F
p
` ¦0, 1¦, we must have n
p
≥ p + 1.
Now we show that the upper triangular matrices are a subgroup of N
G
(P
1
) with order (p − 1)
2
p. Simple
calculations show that for a, b, c ∈ F
p
, we have
a b
0 c
−1
=
a
−1
−a
−1
bc
−1
0 c
−1
.
Now if γ ∈ F
p
` ¦0, 1¦ we get
a b
0 c
−1
1 γ
0 1
a b
0 c
=
1 a
−1
γb −a
−1
bc
−1
b
0 1
.
Since the upper diagonal matrices have nonzero diagonal elements and any upper right entry, the order must be
(p −1)
2
p. Thus (p −1)
2
p [ N
G
(P
1
).
Sylow’s theorem states that n
p
= [G: N
G
(P
1
)], so n
p
[ p + 1. Therefore n
p
= p + 1.
4.6. The Simplicity of A
n
.
28 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
5. Direct and Semidirect Products and Abelian Groups
5.1. Direct Products.
5.1.10. Let p be a prime. Let A and B be two cyclic groups of order p with generators x and y, respectively. Set
E = AB so that E is the elementary abelian groups of order p
2
: E
p
2. Prove that the distinct subgroups of E of
order p are
'x` , 'xy` ,
xy
2
, . . . ,
xy
p−1
, 'y`
(note that there are p + 1 of them).
Proof. Example 3 in this section shows that there are p + 1 subgroups of order p. Note that these p + 1 subgroups
are all distinct and nontrivial, so if the pth power of each generator is the identity element, then we are done. But
x
p
= 1, (xy)
p
= x
p
y
p
= 1, (xy
k
)
p
= x
p
(y
k
)
p
= 1, y
p
= 1.
5.1.11. Let p be a prime and let n ∈ Z
+
. Find a formula for the number of subgroups of order p in the elementary
abelian group E
p
n.
Solution. Every nonidentity element has order p, so there are p
n
− 1 many elements of order p. By Lagrange’s
theorem, each distinct subgroup intersects trivially. So there are (p
n
− 1)/(p − 1) = p
n−1
+ p
n−2
+ + 1 many
distinct subgroups of order p.
5.1.12. Let A and B be groups. Assume Z(A) contains a subgroup Z
1
and Z(B) contains a subgroup Z
2
with
Z
1
∼
= Z
2
. Let this isomorphism be given by the map x
i
→ y
i
for all x
i
∈ Z
1
. A central product of A and B is a
quotient
(AB)/Z where Z =
¸
(x
i
, y
−1
i
) [ x
i
∈ Z
1
¸
and is denoted by A∗ B – it is not unique since it depends on Z
1
, Z
2
and the isomorphism between them. (Think
of A ∗ B as the direct product of A and B “collapsed” by identifying each element x
i
∈ Z
1
with its corresponding
element y
i
∈ Z
2
.)
(a) Prove that the images of A and B in the quotient group A ∗ B are isomrophic to A and B, respectively,
and that these images intersect in a central subgroup isomorphic to Z
1
. Find [A∗ B[.
(b) Let Z
4
= 'x`. Let D
8
= 'r, s` and Q
8
= 'i, j` be given by their usual generators and realtions. Let
Z
4
∗ D
8
be the central product of Z
4
and D
8
which identiﬁes x
2
and r
2
(i.e., Z
1
=
x
2
, Z
2
=
r
2
and the
isomorphism is x
2
→ r
2
) and let Z
4
∗ Q
8
be the central product of Z
4
and Q
8
which identiﬁes x
2
and −1.
Prove that Z
4
∗ D
8
∼
= Z
4
∗ Q
8
.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
5.1.18. In each of (a) to (e) give an example of a group with the speciﬁed properties:
(a) an inﬁnite group in which every element has order 1 or 2
(b) an inﬁnite group in which every element has ﬁnite order but for each positive integer n there is an element
of order n
(c) a group with an element of inﬁnite order and an element of order 2
(d) a group G such that every ﬁnite group is isomorphic to some subgroup of G
(e) a nontrivial group G such that G
∼
= GG.
Solution (a). The direct sum Z
2
Z
2
.
Solution (b). The direct sum Z
2
Z
3
.
Solution (c). Z Z
2
.
Solution (d). S
2
S
3
.
Solution (e). G = Z
2
Z
2
.
29
5.2. The Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups.
5.2.2. In each of parts (a) to (e) give the lists of invariant factors for all abelian groups of the speciﬁed order:
(a) order 270
Solution (a). Since 270 = 2 3
3
5, the list of invariant factors is given by (30, 3, 3), (90, 3).
5.2.3. In each of parts (a) to (e) give the lists of elementary divisors for all abelian groups of the speciﬁed order
and then match each list with the corresponding list of invariant factors found in the preceding exercise:
(a) order 270
Solution (a). The elementary divisors of an abelian group of order 270 are either (2, 3, 3, 5) or (2, 9, 5) with lists
corresponding to respective orderings.
5.2.7. Let p be a prime and let A = 'x
1
` 'x
2
` 'x
n
` be an abelian pgroup, where [x
i
[ = p
αi
> 1 for all i.
Deﬁne the pthpower map
ϕ: A →A by ϕ: x →x
p
.
(a) Prove that ϕ is a homomorphism.
(b) Describe the image and kernel of ϕ in terms of the given generators.
(c) Prove both ker ϕ and A/imϕ have rank n (i.e., have the same rank as A) and prove these groups are both
isomorphic to the elementary abelian group, E
p
n, of order p
n
.
Proof (a). This map is clearly welldeﬁned, so we calculate
ϕ(xy) = (xy)
p
= x
p
y
p
= ϕ(x)ϕ(y).
Solution (b). The image of ϕ is given by
ϕ(A) = ¦(β
1
, . . . , β
n
) [ β
i
= (x
γ
i
)
p
, γ ∈ Z¦ .
The kernel of ϕ is given by ¦(k
1
, . . . , k
n
)¦ where
k
i
∈ ¦x
γ
i
[ (x
γ
i
)
p
= 1, γ ∈ Z¦ .
Proof (c). The kernel of ϕ is of type (k
1
, . . . , k
n
) so it has rank n, while A/imϕ is of type (¯ a
1
, . . . , ¯ a
n
) so also has
rank n. If (x
γ
i
)
p
= 1, then [x
γ
i
[
p so
x
p
α
i
−1
i
= p, with each element to the power of p clearly one. Thus
ker ϕ
∼
=
n
¸
i=1
x
p
α
i
−1
so it is isomorphic to E
p
n. Since ϕ: A →A and
ker ϕ[
xi
= p, then
imϕ[
xi
= α
p−1
i
. Thus 'x
i
` /imϕ[
xi
∼
= Z
p
.
Therefore A/imϕ
∼
= E
pn
.
5.2.5. Prove that A
n
is the commutator subgroup of S
n
for all n ≥ 5.
Proof. Since A
n
S
n
and S
n
/A
n
∼
= Z
2
is abelian, proposition 7 part (4) states S
n
≤ A
n
. Also by proposition 7
part (3), S
n
is characteristic in S
n
. Since A
n
is simple, S
n
A
n
, and S
n
is non abelian, we must have A
n
= S
n
.
5.2.11. Prove that if G = HK where H and K are characteristic subgroups of G with H ∩ K = 1 then Aut(G)
∼
=
Aut(H) Aut(K). Deduce that if G is an abelian group of ﬁnite order then Aut(G) is isomorphic to the direct
product of the automorphism groups of its Sylow subgroups.
30 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. Let φ, ψ ∈ Aut(G) and notice that φ[
H
∈ Aut(H) and φ[
K
∈ Aut(K) since H, K are characteristic in G.
Now let f : Aut(G) →Aut(H) Aut(K) be given by
f(φ) = (φ[
H
, φ[
K
).
If φ = ψ, then (φ[
H
, φ[
K
) = (ψ[
H
, ψ[
K
) so f is welldeﬁned. Now we calculate
f(φ ◦ ψ) = ((φ ◦ ψ)[
H
, (φ ◦ ψ)[
K
)
= (φ[
H
◦ ψ[
H
, φ[
K
◦ ψ[
K
)
= (φ[
H
, φ[
K
)(ψ[
H
, ψ[
K
)
= f(φ)f(ψ),
so f is a homomorphism. Now if φ
H
∈ Aut(H) and φ
K
∈ Aut(K), then let φ ∈ Aut(G) be given by φ[
H
= φ
H
and φ[
K
= φ
K
. So f(φ) = (φ[
H
, φ[
K
) = (φ
H
, φ
K
) shows f is surjective. Now if (φ[
H
, φ[
K
) = (ψ[
H
, ψ[
K
), then for
g = hk ∈ G,
φ(hk) = φ(h)φ(k)
= φ[
H
(h)φ[
K
(k)
= ψ[
H
(h)ψ[
K
(k)
= ψ(h)ψ(k)
= ψ(hk),
so φ = ψ. Therefore f shows Aut(G)
∼
= Aut(H) Aut(K).
If G is ﬁnite abelian, then it is the direct product of its (characteristic) Sylow subgroups. Therefore Aut(G) is
isomorphic to the direct product of the automorphism groups of the Sylow subgroups.
5.2.14. Let G = ¦(a
ij
) ∈ GL
n
(F) [ a
ij
= 0 if i > j, and a
11
= a
22
= = a
nn
¦, where F is a ﬁeld, be the group
of upper triangular matrices all of whose diagonal entries are equal. Prove that G
∼
= D U, where D is the group
of all nonzero multiples of the identity matrix and U is the group of upper triangular matrices with 1’s down the
diagonal.
Proof. It is clear that D ∩ U = 1. Now let A, B ∈ G such that
A =
¸
¸
¸
¸
a a
12
a
1n
a a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
¸
, B =
¸
¸
¸
¸
b b
12
b
1n
b b
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
b
¸
and note if AB = I, then ab = 1. If λI ∈ D for λ ∈ F, then
AλIB = λAIB = λAB = λI.
If  ∈ U, then note that there exist 
A
, 
B
∈ U such that A = a 
A
and B = b 
B
and
AB = (a 
A
) (b 
B
) = ab (
A
 
B
) ∈ U.
Thus D and U are normal in G and G
∼
= D U.
5.3. Table of Groups of Small Order.
5.4. Recognizing Direct Products.
5.5. Semidirect Products.
5.5.7. This exercise describes thirteen isomorphism types of groups of order 56.
(a) Prove that there are three abelian groups of order 56.
(b) Prove that every group of order 56 has either a normal Sylow 2subgroup or a normal Sylow 7subgroup.
(c) Construct the following nonabelian groups of order 56 which have a normal Sylow 7subgroup and whose
Sylow 2subgroup S is as speciﬁed:
one group when S
∼
= Z
2
Z
2
Z
2
two nonisomorphic groups when S
∼
= Z
4
Z
2
one group when S
∼
= Z
8
two nonisomorphic groups when S
∼
= Q
8
three nonisomorphic groups when S
∼
= D
8
.
31
(d) Let G be a group of order 56 with a nonnormal Sylow 7subgroup. Prove that if S is the Sylow 2subgroup
of G then S
∼
= Z
2
Z
2
Z
2
.
(e) Prove that there is a unique group of order 56 with a nonnormal Sylow 7subgroup.
Proof (a). Suppose that G is an abelian group of order 56 = 2
3
7. The invariant factors are given by (2
3
7), (2
2
7, 2), (2 7, 2, 2). Thus there are three abelian groups of order 56 given by Z
56
, Z
28
Z
2
, Z
14
Z
2
Z
2
.
Proof (b). Suppose that n
2
, n
7
> 1. Since n
p
≡ 1 mod p, we have n
2
≥ 3 and n
7
≥ 8. Counting [
¸
Syl
2
(G)`1[ +
[
¸
Syl
7
(G)`1[ = 3 7 + 8 6 > 56 reaches a contradiction. Therefore every group of order 56 has either a normal
Sylow 2subgroup or a normal Sylow 7subgroup.
Solution (c). Note for all of the Sylow 2subgroup isomorphism types, if P ∈ Syl
7
(G), we have P ∩ S = 1 and
P G so G is a semidirect product.
If S
∼
= Z
2
Z
2
Z
2
, then we consider the nontrivial homomorphisms ϕ: S → Aut(P), where Aut(P)
∼
= Z
6
.
Thus [ker ϕ[ = 4 and [ϕ(S)[ = 2 for any such ϕ. Therefore P
ϕ
S is the unique isomorphism type.
If S
∼
= Z
4
Z
2
, then ker ϕ ∈
¸
Z
4
, Z
2
2
¸
. Thus there are two isomorphism types.
If S
∼
= Z
8
, then ker ϕ = Z
4
giving rise to one isomorphism type.
If S
∼
= Q
8
, then the trivial map gives rise to the nonabelian Z
7
Q
8
. The nontrivial maps ϕ: S →Aut(P) give
rise to a second isomorphism type.
If S
∼
= D
8
, then the trivial map gives rise to the nonabelian Z
7
D
8
. Two possible kernels of nontrivial maps
are 'r`
∼
= Z
4
and
r
2
, s
∼
= Z
2
Z
2
. Since these kernels are not isomorphic, the comment in part (c) states there
are three isomorphism types.
Proof (d). If n
7
> 1, then the map ϕ: P → Aut(S) is nontrivial so that P is not normal. Thus ker ϕ = 1 and
ϕ(P)
∼
= Z
7
. Let ϕ(P) = 'x` so if s ∈ S`1, then s
x
k
shows all elements in S`1 have the same order. Since every
nonidentity element in S must have order 2, it is given by the elementary abelian group, S
∼
= Z
3
2
.
Proof (e). If S
∼
= Z
3
2
, then Aut(S)
∼
= GL
3
(F
2
) with [Aut(S)[ = 7 6 4 = 168. Let P
1
, P
2
∈ Syl
7
(G) so that for any
nontrivial ϕ: P
i
→ Aut(S), ker ϕ = 1. Thus ϕ(P
i
) ∈ Syl
7
(Aut(S)), so P
1
= P
σ
2
for some σ ∈ Aut(S). Therefore
by exercise 6, S
ϕ
P
1
∼
= S
ϕ
P
2
.
5.5.20. Let p be an odd prime. Prove that if P is a noncyclic pgroup then P contains a normal subgroup U with
U
∼
= Z
p
Z
p
. Deduce that for odd primes p a pgroup that contains a unique subgroup of order p is cyclic.
Proof. Let [P[ = p
n
with P nonabelian. If n = 2, then P
∼
= Z
p
Z
p
since P is not cyclic. Now suppose there exists
U P with U
∼
= Z
p
Z
p
for all k < n. Since p [ [Z(P)[, let Z ≤ Z(P) with [Z[ = p. Thus the noncyclic quotient
group, P/Z, has a subgroup U P/Z with U
∼
= Z
p
Z
p
. Now we have the noncyclic U P with [U[ = p
3
, so
there is a U
P with U
∼
= Z
p
Z
p
.
6. Further Topics in Group Theory
6.1. pgroups, Nilpotent Groups, and Solvable Groups.
6.1.3. If G is ﬁnite prove that G is nilpotent if and only if it has a normal subgroup of each order dividing [G[, and
is cyclic if and only if it has a unique subgroup of each order dividing [G[.
Proof. Suppose G is nilpotent so theorem 3 states G
∼
= P
1
P
s
for P
i
∈ Syl
pi
. But if n [ [G[, then n = p
k1
1
p
ks
s
.
Theorem 1 states each P
i
has a normal subgroup, P
i
, with order p
ki
i
. Thus [P
1
P
s
[ = n with the desired
normality property.
Now suppose G has a normal subgroup of each order dividing [G[. Then each Sylow subgroup is normal in G,
so theorem 3 states G is nilpotent.
If G is cyclic, then theorem 2.7 states it has a unique subgroup of each order dividing [G[.
If G has a unique subgroup of each order dividing [G[, then proposition 5 shows G is cyclic.
6.1.4. Prove that a maximal subgroup of a ﬁnite nilpotent group has prime index.
Proof. Let M < G be a maximal subgroup of G. Since G is nilpotent, MG. Since G/M is nilpotent, exercise 6.1.3
shows it has a normal subgroup of each order dividing [G/M[. If P G/M with
P
= p for p prime, then
M ≤ P ≤ G so P = G by maximality of M. Therefore [G : M] = p.
6.1.8. Prove that if p is a prime and P is a nonabelian group of order p
3
then [Z(P)[ = p and P/Z(P)
∼
= Z
p
Z
p
.
32 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. Since [P[ = p
3
we know P is nilpotent. Since P is a pgroup Z(P) = 1, since P is nonabelian, Z(P) = P.
Thus [Z(P)[ ∈
¸
p, p
2
¸
. If [Z(P)[ = p
2
, then P/Z(P) is cyclic contradicting P being nonabelian. Thus [Z(P)[ = p.
Since P/Z(P) is not cyclic, we must have P/Z(P)
∼
= Z
p
Z
p
.
6.1.12. Find the upper and lower central series for A
4
and S
4
.
Solution. The upper central series of A
4
is Z
i
(A
4
) = 1 and of S
4
is Z
i
(S
4
) = 1 for all i since the center of S
4
is
trivial.
Since s
−1
a
−1
sa is an even permutation, S
1
4
≤ A
4
. But if α ∈ A
4
, we can choose s ∈ S
4
such that s
−1
a
−1
s = αa
so that α ∈ S
1
4
. The same argument shows S
2
4
= A
4
. Since S
1
4
= A
4
and S
2
4
= A
4
, we have found the lower central
series for S
4
.
Now N = ¦1, (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23)¦ is the only proper normal subgroup of A
4
. Thus A
i
4
= N for all i so
this is the lower central series for A
4
.
33
Part II – Ring Theory
7. Introduction to Rings
7.1. Basic Deﬁnitions and Examples.
Proposition 7.1. Let R be a ring. Then
(1) 0a = a0 = 0 for all a ∈ R.
(2) (−a)b = a(−b) = −(ab) for all a, b ∈ R.
(3) (−a)(−b) = ab for all a, b ∈ R.
(4) if R has an identity 1, then the identity is unique and −a = (−1)a.
Proposition 7.2. Assume a, b and c are element of any ring with A not a zero divisor. If ab = ac, then either
a = 0 or b = c. In particular, if a, b, c are any elements in an integral domain and ab = ac, then either a = 0 or
b = c.
Corollary 7.3. Any ﬁnite integral domain is a ﬁeld.
7.1.3. Let R be a ring with identity and let S be subring of R containing the identity. Prove that if u is a unit in
S then u is a unit in R. Show by example that the converse if false.
Proof. If u is a unit in S, then there is a v ∈ S such that uv = 1 = vu. But then v ∈ R and hence u is a unit in R.
Now consider 2 ∈ Q and notice that it is a unit because 1/2 ∈ Q. But Z ⊆ Q is a subring of Q and 2 is not a
unit. Thus the converse is false.
7.1.5. Decide which of the following (a)(f) are subrings of Q:
(a) the set of all rational numbers with odd denominators (when written in lowest terms)
(b) the set of all rational numbers with even denominators (when written in lowest terms)
(c) the set of nonnegative rational numbers
(d) the set of squares of rational numbers
(e) the set of all rational numbers with odd numerators (when written in lowest terms)
(f) the set of all rational numbers with even numerators (when written in lowest terms).
Solution. (a), (f).
7.1.6. Decide which of the following are subrings of the ring of all functions from the closed interval [0, 1] to 1.
(a) the set of all functions f(x) such that f(q) = 0 for all q ∈ Q∩ [0, 1]
(b) the set of all polynomial functions
(c) the set of all functions which have only a ﬁnite number of zeros, together with the zero function
(d) the set of all functions which have an inﬁnite number of zeros
(e) the set of all functions f such that lim
x→1
− f(x) = 0
(f) the set of all rational linear combinations of the functions sin nx and cos mx, where m, n ∈ Z
+
.
Solution. (a), (b), (c), (e).
7.1.7. The center of a ring R is ¦z ∈ R [ zr = rz, ∀r ∈ R¦ (i.e., is the set of all elements which commute with every
element of R). Prove that the center of a division ring is a ﬁeld.
Proof.
7.1.12. Prove that any subring of a ﬁeld which contains the identity is an integral domain.
Proof. Let F be a ﬁeld and let R ⊆ F be a subring of F with 1 ∈ R. Then since R ⊆ F, every element of R is a
unit. Therefore there are no zero divisors in R.
7.1.13. An element x in R is called nilpotent if x
m
= 0 for some m ∈ Z
+
.
(a) Show that if n = a
k
b for some integers a and b then ab is a nilpotent element of Z/nZ.
(b) If a ∈ Z is an integer, show that the element a ∈ Z/nZ is nilpotent if and only if every prime divisor of n
is also a divisor of a. In particular, determine the nilpotent elements of Z/72Z explicitly.
(c) Let R be the ring of functions from a nonempty set X to a ﬁeld F. Prove that R contains no nonzero
nilpotent elements.
7.1.14. Let x be a nilpotent element of the commutative ring R (cf. Exercise 7.1.13).
(a) Prove that x is either zero or a zero divisor.
34 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
(b) Prove that rx is nilpotent for all r ∈ R.
(c) Prove that 1 +x is a unit in R.
(d) Deduce that the sum of a nilpotent element and a unit is a unit.
Proof (a). Suppose x = 0 and since x
m
= 0, let n be the smallest positive integer such that x
n
= 0. Then xx
n−1
= 0
where x
n−1
= 0 so x is a zero divisor.
Proof (b). Since R is commutative, we have (rx)
m
= r
m
x
m
= 0. Thus rx is nilpotent for all r ∈ R.
Proof (c). Observing the calculation
(1 +x)(1 −x +x
2
−x
3
+ x
m−1
) = 1
shows that 1 +x is a unit.
Solution (d). Let u be a unit so vu = 1 and let x be our nilpotent element. Then part (b) shows vx is nilpotent
and part (c) shows 1 +vx is a unit. Thus v(u +x) is a unit and hence u +x is a unit.
7.1.23. Let D be a squarefree integer, and let O be the ring of integers in the quadratic ﬁeld Q(
√
D). For any
positive integer f prove that the set O
f
= Z[fω] = ¦a +bfω [ a, b ∈ Z¦ is a subring of O containing the identity.
Prove that [O: O
f
] = f (index as additive abelian groups). Prove conversely that a subring of O containing the
identity and having ﬁnite index f in O (as additive abelian group) is equal to O
f
. The ring O
f
is called the order
of conductor f in the ﬁeld Q(
√
D). The ring of integers O is called the maximal order in Q(
√
D).
Proof. Let a + bfω ∈ O
f
. Since bf ∈ Z, then a + bfω ∈ O so O
f
⊆ O. Now (a + bfω)(c + dfω) = ac + (ad +
bd)fω +bdf
2
ω
2
∈ O
f
and (a +bfω) −(c +dfω) = (a −c) + (b −d)fω ∈ O
f
. Thus O
f
is a subring of O.
Let a +bω +O
f
= a
+b
ω +O
f
. Then (a +bω) −(a
+b
ω) ∈ O
f
and (a −a
) +(b −b
)ω ∈ O
f
. So b −b
= b
f
thus b ≡ b
mod f. Now let b ≡ b
+ α for 1 ≤ α < f and suppose ∃a, a
such that a + bω + O
f
= a
+ b
ω + O
f
.
But this is a contradiction because f would have to divide b −b
. Thus a +bω +O
f
and a
+b
ω +O
f
are the same
coset if and only if b ≡ b
mod f hence [O: O
f
] = f.
Suppose that a subring, S, of O contains the identity and has ﬁnite index f. Since 1 ∈ S then a ∈ S for all
a ∈ Z because S is closed under addition. Since [O/S[ = f, [ω +S[ divides f. But then S = f(ω +S) = fω +S so
fω ∈ S. Since S is closed under addition then bfω ∈ S for all b ∈ Z. Now we have a + bfω ∈ S for all a, b ∈ Z so
O
f
⊆ S. Since [O
f
[ = [S[, we must have O
f
= S.
7.1.26. Let K be a ﬁeld. A discrete valuation on K is a function ν : K
×
→Z satisfying
(i) ν(ab) = ν(a) +ν(b)
(ii) ν is surjective, and
(iii) ν(x +y) ≥ min ¦ν(x), ν(y)¦ for all x, y ∈ K
×
with x +y = 0.
The set R = ¦x ∈ K
×
[ ν(x) ≥ 0¦ ∪ ¦0¦ is called the valuation ring of ν.
(a) Prove that R is a subring of K which contains the identity. In general, a ring R is called a discrete valuation
ring if there is some ﬁeld K and some discrete valuation ν on K such that R is the valuation ring of ν.
(b) Prove that for each nonzero element x ∈ K either x or x
−1
is in R.
(c) Prove that an element x is a unit of R if and only if ν(x) = 0.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
Proof (c).
7.2. Examples: Polynomials Rings, Matrix Rings, and Group Rings.
Proposition 7.4. Let R be an integral domain and let p(x), q(x) be nonzero elements of R[x]. Then
(1) degree p(x)q(x) = degree p(x) + degree q(x),
(2) the units of R[x] are just the units of R,
(3) R[x] is an integral domain.
Let R be a commutative ring with 1.
7.2.1. Let p(x) = 2x
3
− 3x
2
+ 4x − 5 and let q(x) = 7x
3
+ 33x − 4. In each of parts (a), (b), and (c) compute
p(x) + q(x) and p(x)q(x) under the assumption that the coeﬃcients of the two given polynomials are taken from
the speciﬁed ring (where the integer coeﬃcients are taken mod n in parts (b) and (c)):
35
(a) R = Z,
(b) R = Z/2Z,
(c) R = Z/3Z.
Solution (a).
p(x) +q(x) = 9x
3
−3x
2
+ 37x −9
p(x)q(x) = 14x
6
−21x
5
+ 94x
4
−142x
3
+ 144x
2
−181x + 20
Solution (b).
p(x) +q(x) = x
3
−x
2
+x −1
p(x)q(x) = x
5
−x
Solution (c).
p(x) +q(x) = x
p(x)q(x) = 2x
6
+x
4
+x
3
+ 2x
7.2.6. Let S be a ring with identity 1 = 0. Let n ∈ Z
+
and let A be an n n matrix with entries from S whose
i, j entry is a
ij
. Let E
ij
be the element of M
n
(S) whose i, j entry is 1 and whose other entries are all 0.
(a) Prove that E
ij
A is the matrix whose i
th
row equals the j
th
row of A and all other rows are zero.
(b) Prove that AE
ij
is the matrix whose j
th
column equals the i
th
column of A and all other columns are zero.
(c) Deduce that E
pq
AE
rs
is the matrix whose p, s entry is a
qr
and all other entries are zero.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
Solution (c).
7.2.7. Prove that the center of the ring M
n
(R) is the set of scalar matrices (cf. Exercise 7.1.7). Use Exercise 7.2.6.
Proof. Let [z
ij
] = Z ∈ Z(M
n
(R)) so ZE
ij
= E
ij
Z for all E
ij
. If i = j, then the (j, j)
th
element of E
ji
Z is z
ij
and
the (j, j)
th
element of ZE
ji
is 0, so z
ij
= 0. Now we observe that the (j, i)
th
element of E
ji
Z is z
ii
and the (j, i)
th
element of ZE
ji
is z
jj
, so z
ii
= z
jj
. Thus Z must be a scalar matrix.
If Z = rI, then
AZ = ArI = rAI = rIA = ZA,
for all A ∈ M
n
(R).
7.2.10. Consider the following elements of the integral group ring ZS
3
:
α = 3(1 2) −5(2 3) + 14(1 2 3) and β = 6(1) + 2(2 3) −7(1 3 2)
where (1) is the identity of S
3
. Compute the following elements:
(a) α +β,
(b) 2α −3β,
(c) αβ,
(d) βα,
(e) α
2
.
Solution (a).
α +β = 6(1) + 3(1 2) −3(2 3) + 14(1 2 3) −7(1 3 2)
36 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Solution (b).
2α −3β = −18(1) + 6(1 2) −16(2 3) + 28(1 2 3) + 21(1 3 2)
Solution (c).
αβ = −108(1) + 81(1 2) −21(1 3) −30(2 3) + 90(1 2 3)
Solution (d).
βα = −108(1) + 18(1 2) + 63(1 3) −51(2 3) + 84(1 2 3) + 6(1 3 2)
Solution (e).
α
2
= 34(1) −70(1 2) −28(1 3) + 42(2 3) −15(1 2 3) + 196(1 3 2)
7.2.12. Let G = ¦g
1
, . . . , g
n
¦ be a ﬁnite group. Prove that the element N = g
1
+ g
2
+ + g
n
is in the center of
the group ring RG (cf. Exercise 7.1.7).
Proof. Let X = x
1
g
1
+ +x
n
g
n
for x
i
∈ R. Then
NX =
n
¸
k=1
¸
¸
gigj=g
k
x
j
¸
g
k
=
n
¸
k=1
¸
n
¸
j=1
x
j
¸
g
k
=
n
¸
k=1
¸
¸
gigj=g
k
x
i
¸
g
k
= XN.
7.3. Ring Homomorphisms and Quotient Rings.
Proposition 7.5. Let R and S be rings and let ϕ: R →S be a homomorphism.
(1) The image of ϕ is a subring of S.
(2) The kernel of ϕ is a subring of R. Furthermore, if α ∈ ker ϕ then rα and αr ∈ ker ϕ for every r ∈ R, i.e.,
ker ϕ is closed under multiplication by elements from R.
Proposition 7.6. Let R be a ring and let I be an ideal of R. Then the (additive) quotient group R/I is a ring
under the binary operations:
(r +I) + (s +I) = (r +s) +I and (r +I) (s +I) = (rs) +I
for all r, s ∈ R. Conversely, if I is any subgroup such that the above operations are well deﬁned, then I is an ideal
of R.
Theorem 7.7.
(1) (The First Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) If ϕ: R → S is a homomorphism of rings, then the kernel of
ϕ is an ideal of R, the image of ϕ is a subring of S and R/ ker ϕ is isomorphic as a ring to ϕ(R).
(2) If I is any ideal of R, then the map
R →R/I deﬁned by r →r +I
is a surjective ring homomorphism with kernel I (this homomorphism is called the natural projection of R
onto R/I). Thus every ideal is the kernel of a ring homomorphism and vice versa.
Theorem 7.8. Let R be a ring.
(1) (The Second Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) Let A b ea subring and let B be an ideal of R. Then
A+B = ¦a +b [ a ∈ A, b ∈ B¦ is a subring of R, A∩ B is an ideal of A and A+B/B
∼
= A/(A∩ B).
37
(2) (The Third Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) Let I and J be ideal of R with I ⊆ J. Then J/I is an ideal
of R/I and (R/I)/(J/I)
∼
= R/J.
(3) (The Fourth Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) Let I be an ideal of R. The correspondence A ↔ A/I is an
inclusion preserving bijection between the wset of subrings A of R that contain I and the set of subrings of
R/I. Furthermore, A (a subring containing I) is an ideal of R if and only if A/I is an ideal of R/I.
7.3.12. Let D be an integer that is not a perfect square in Z and let S =
a b
Db a
[ a, b ∈ Z
.
(a) Prove that S is a subring of M
2
(Z).
(b) If D is not a perfect square in Z prove that the map ϕ: Z[
√
D] →S deﬁned by ϕ(a +b
√
D) =
a b
Db a
is
a ring isomorphism.
(c) If D ≡ 1 mod 4 is squarefree, prove that the set
a b
(D −1)b/4 a +b
[ a, b ∈ Z
is a subring of M
2
(Z)
and is isomorphic to the quadratic integer ring O.
Proof (a). S is clearly a group under addition, so we show that S is closed under multiplication. But
a
1
b
1
Db
1
a
1
a
2
b
2
Db
2
a
2
=
a
1
a
2
+Db
1
b
2
a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
D(a
2
b
1
+a
1
b
2
) Db
1
b
2
+a
1
a
2
so S is a subring of M
2
(Z).
Proof (b). We calculate
ϕ((a
1
+b
1
√
D) + (a
2
+b
2
√
D)) = ϕ((a
1
+a
2
) + (b
1
+b
2
)
√
D)
=
a
1
+a
2
b
1
+b
2
D(b
1
+b
2
) a
1
+a
2
=
a
1
b
1
Db
1
a
1
+
a
2
b
2
Db
2
a
2
ϕ((a
1
+b
1
√
D)(a
2
+b
2
√
D)) = ϕ((a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
D) + (a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
)
√
D)
=
a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
D a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
D(a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
) a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
D
=
a
1
b
1
Db
1
a
1
a
2
b
2
Db
2
a
2
so ϕ is a homomorphism of rings. Now let
a
1
b
1
Db
1
a
1
=
a
2
b
2
Db
2
a
2
, so a
1
= a
1
, b
1
= b
2
and thus
a
1
+b
1
√
D = a
2
+b
2
√
D. Now if
a b
Db a
∈ S, then ϕ maps a +b
√
D to this element. Therefore ϕ is an
isomorphism.
Proof (c). This is clearly a group under addition, so we show it is closed under multiplication. But
a
1
b
1
(D −1)b
1
/4 a
1
+b
1
a
2
b
2
(D −1)b
2
/4 a
2
+b
2
=
a
1
a
2
+ (D −1)a
1
b
2
/4 a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
+b
1
b
2
(D −1)(a
1
b
2
+b
1
b
2
)/4 (D −1)b
1
b
2
/4 +a
1
a
2
+a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
+b
1
b
2
so this is a subring of M
2
(Z). Similarly to the proof in part (b), this is isomorphic to the quadratic integer
ring O.
7.3.15. Let X be a nonempty set and let {(X) be the Boolean ring of all subsets of X deﬁned in exercise 21 of
section 1. Let R be the ring of all functions from X into Z/2Z. For each A ∈ {(X) deﬁne the function
χ
A
: X →Z/2Z by χ
A
(x) =
1, x ∈ A,
0, x / ∈ A,
χ
A
is called the characteristic function of A with values in Z/2Z. Prove that the map {(X) → R deﬁned by
A →χ
A
is a ring isomorphism.
38 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. Let A = A
so that ϕ(A) = χ
A
= χ
A
= ϕ(A
), so ϕ is well deﬁned. Now let A, B ⊆ X so that
ϕ(A+B) = ϕ((A`B) ∪ (B`A)) = χ
(A\B)∪(B\A)
.
But
χ
(A\B)∪(B\A)
=
1, x ∈ A`B,
1, x ∈ B`A,
0 x ∈ A∩ B,
0, x ∈ X`(A∩ B)
But simple calculations show this is ϕ(A) +ϕ(B). Similarly,
ϕ(AB) = ϕ(A∩ B)
= χ
A∩B
=
0, x ∈ A`B,
0, x ∈ B`A,
1, x ∈ A∩ B,
0, x ∈ X`(A∩ B),
= ϕ(A)ϕ(B).
Now let f ∈ R so let A ⊆ X be the set such that f(A) = 1 and f(X`A) = 0. So ϕ(A) = χ
A
= f and ϕ is
surjective. Now let f = g ∈ R so there exist A, B such that ϕ(A) = f = g = ϕ(B). So χ
A
= χ
B
, thus A = B and
ϕ is injective. Therefore ϕ is a ring isomorphism.
7.3.17. Let R and S be nonzero rings with identity and denote their respective identities by 1
R
and 1
S
. Let
ϕ: R →S be a nonzero homomorphism of rings.
(a) Prove that if ϕ(1
R
) = 1
S
then ϕ(1
R
) is a zero divisor in S. Deduce that if S is an integral domain then
every ring homomorphism from R to S sends the identity of R to the identity of S.
(b) Prove that if ϕ(1
R
) = 1
S
then ϕ(u) is a unit in S and that ϕ(u
−1
) = ϕ(u)
−1
for reach unit u of R.
Proof (a). If ϕ(1
R
) = 1
S
, then
(ϕ(1
R
) −1
S
)ϕ(1
R
) = ϕ(1
R
)ϕ(1
R
) −1
S
ϕ(1
R
)
= ϕ(1
R
) −ϕ(1
R
)
= 0.
So ϕ(1
R
) is a zero divisor in S. If S is an integral domain, then there are no zero divisors. Since an integral domain
has a 1 = 0 and ϕ(1
R
) = 0 if ϕ(R) = 0, then ϕ(1
R
) −1
S
= 0. Therefore ϕ(1
R
) = 1
S
.
Proof (b). If u ∈ R is a unit, there exists v ∈ R such that uv = 1
R
. So ϕ(u)ϕ(v) = ϕ(uv) = ϕ(1
R
) = 1
S
. Thus
ϕ(u) is a unit, with ϕ(u)
−1
= ϕ(v) = ϕ(u
−1
).
7.3.27. Prove that a nonzero Boolean ring has characteristic 2 (cf. exercise 15, section 1).
Proof. Let a = −1 so that
0 = (−1)
2
+ 1 = 1 + 1.
Since 1 = 0, then R has characteristic 2.
7.3.29. Let R be a commutative ring. Recall (cf. exercise 7.1.13) that an element x ∈ R is nilpotent if x
n
= 0 for
some n ∈ Z
+
. Prove that the set of nilpotent element form an ideal – called the nilradical of R and denoted by
A(R).
Proof.
7.3.30. Prove that if R is a commutative ring and A(R) is its nilradical (cf. exercise 7.3.29) then zero is the only
nilpotent element of R/A(R) i.e., prove that A(R/A(R)) = 0.
Proof. Let x ∈ R/A(R) with x
n
= 0 for some n ∈ N. Then there exists r ∈ R such that x = r +A(R). But then
0 = x
n
= (r +A(R))
n
= r
n
+A(R). This implies r
n
∈ A(R) so r ∈ A(R) and thus x = 0.
7.3.33. Assume R is commutative. Let p(x) = a
n
x
n
+a
n−1
x
n−1
+ +a
1
x +a
0
be an element of the polynomial
ring R[x].
(a) Prove tha tp(x) is a unit in R[x] if and only if a
0
is a unit and a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
are nilpotent in R. [See
exercise 7.1.14.]
39
(b) Prove that p(x) is nilpotent in R[x] if and only if a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n
are nilpotenet elements of R.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
7.4. Properties of Ideals.
Proposition 7.9. Let I be an ideal of R.
(1) I = R if and only if I contains a unit.
(2) Assume R is commutative. Then R is a ﬁeld if and only if its only ideals are 0 and R.
Corollary 7.10. If R is a ﬁeld then any nonzero ring homomorphism from R into another ring is an injection.
Proposition 7.11. In a ring with identity every proper ideal is contained in a maximal ideal.
Proposition 7.12. Assume R is commutative. The ideal M is a maximal ideal if and only if the quotient ring
R/M is a ﬁeld.
Proposition 7.13. Assume R is commutative. Then the ideal P is a prime ideal in R if and only if the quotient
ring R/P is an integral domain.
Corollary 7.14. Assume R is commutative. Every maximal ideal of R is a prime ideal.
Let R be a ring with identity 1 = 0.
7.4.2. Assume R is commutative. Prove that the augmentation ideal in the group ring RG is generated by
¦g −1 [ g ∈ G¦. Prove that if G = 'σ` is cyclic then the augmentation ideal is generated by σ −1.
7.4.3.
(a) Let p be a prime and let G be an abelian group of order p
n
. Prove that the nilradical of the group ring
F
p
G is the augmentation ideal (cf. exercise 7.3.29).
(b) Let G = ¦g
1
, . . . , g
n
¦ be a ﬁnite group and assume R is commutative. Prove that if r is any element of the
augmentation ideal of RG then r(g
1
+ +g
n
) = 0.
Proof (a). Suppose there exists m such that (
¸
p
n
i=1
a
i
g
i
)
m
= 0. If ϕ is the augmentation map, then
0 = ϕ(
p
n
¸
i=1
a
i
g
i
)
m
= (
p
n
¸
i=1
a
i
)
m
. Since F
p
` ¦0¦ is a multiplicative group, we must have
¸
p
n
i=1
a
i
= 0. Thus
¸
p
n
i=1
a
i
g
i
∈ ker ϕ.
Now let g −1 ∈ ker ϕ. Then (g −1)
p
n
= g
p
n
+p(. . .) −1 = 0 in F
p
G. Since exercise 7.4.2 states ker ϕ is generated
by ¦g −1 [ g ∈ G¦, we must have ker ϕ ⊆ A(F
p
G). Therefore ker ϕ = A(F
p
G).
Proof (b). By exercise 7.4.2 we may assume r = g
i
−1. But then
(g
i
−1)(g
1
+ +g
n
) = g
i
g
1
+ g
i
g
n
−g
1
− −g
n
= g
1
+ +g
n
−g
1
− −g
n
= 0.
7.4.7. Let R be a commutative ring with 1. Prove that the principal ideal generated by x in the polynomial ring
R[x] is a prime ideal if and only if R is an integral domain. Prove that (x) is a maximal ideal if and only if R is a
ﬁeld.
Proof. Let ϕ: R[x] → R be given by ϕ(p(x)) = p(0) and notice ker ϕ = (x). Thus R[x]/(x)
∼
= R so by proposi
tion 7.13, (x) is prime if and only if R is an integral domain.
Similarly, proposition 7.12 shows (x) is maximal if and only if R is a ﬁeld.
7.4.10. Assume R is commutative. Prove that if P is a prime ideal of R and P contains no zero divisors then R is
an integral domain.
Proof. Since P is prime, we know that R = R/P is an integral domain. So if r, a ∈ R`P, then ra = r a = 0. Thus
ra = 0 and R is an integral domain.
7.4.13. Let ϕ: R →S be a homomorphism of commutative rings.
40 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
(a) Prove that if P is a prime ideal of S then either ϕ
−1
(P) = R or ϕ
−1
(P) is a prime ideal of R. Apply this
to the special case when R is a subring of S and ϕ is the inclusion homomorphism to deduce that if P is a
prime ideal of S then P ∩ R is either R or a prime ideal of R.
(b) Prove that if M is a maximal ideal of S and ϕ is surjective then ϕ
−1
(M) is a maximal ideal of R. Give an
example to show that this need not be the case if ϕ is surjective.
Proof (a). Let r ∈ ϕ
−1
(P), so ϕ(rs) = ϕ(r)ϕ(s) ∈ P because ϕ(r) ∈ P and P is an ideal. Since R is commutative,
ϕ
−1
(P) is an ideal. Now let rs ∈ ϕ
−1
(P), so ϕ(r)ϕ(s) = ϕ(rs) ∈ P so ϕ(r) or ϕ(s) is in P because P is prime. So
r or s is in ϕ
−1
(P) so ϕ
−1
(P) is prime or ϕ
−1
(P) = R.
Speciﬁcally if R ⊂ S and ϕ is the inclusion homomorphism, then ϕ
−1
(P) is either R or a prime ideal of R. But
ϕ
−1
(P) = P ∩ R.
Proof (b). Let π
1
: S → S/M and π
2
: R/ ker(π
1
◦ ϕ) be the canonical projection maps. Since π
1
◦ ϕ is surjective,
R/ ker(π
1
◦ ϕ)
∼
= S/M. But ker(π
1
◦ ϕ) = ϕ
−1
(M). So R/ϕ
−1
(M) is a ﬁeld and ϕ
−1
(M) is maximal.
7.4.15. Let x
2
+x +1 be an element of the polynomial ring E = F
2
[x] and use the bar notation to denote passage
to the quotient ring F
2
[x]/(x
2
+x + 1).
(a) Prove that E has 4 elements: 0, 1, x and x + 1.
(b) Write out the 4 4 addition table for E and deduce that the additive group E is isomorphic to the Klein
4group.
(c) Write out the 4 4 multiplication table for E and prove that E
×
is isomorphic to the cyclic group of order
3. Deduce that E is a ﬁeld.
Proof (a). Let
¸
n
i=1
a
i
x
i
be an element of F
2
[x]. If n = 1 then
¸
1
i=0
= a
0
+ a
1
x. Suppose there exists c
0
, c
1
such
that
¸
n−1
i=0
a
i
x
i
= c
0
+c
1
x. Then if n is even,
n
¸
i=0
a
i
x
i
=
n−1
¸
i=0
a
i
x
i
+a
n
x
n
=
n−1
¸
i=0
a
i
x
i
+a
n
(x + 1)
n/2
=
n−1
¸
i=0
c
i
x
i
= c
0
+c
1
x.
Now if n > 2 is odd,
n
¸
i=0
a
i
x
i
=
n−1
¸
i=0
a
i
x
i
+a
n
x
n
=
n−1
¸
i=0
a
i
x
i
+a
n
x(x + 1)
(n−1)/2
=
n−1
¸
i=0
b
i
x
i
= c
0
+c
1
x.
So there exist c
0
, c
1
such that
¸
n
i=0
a
i
x
i
= c
0
+c
1
x for all n. Since c
0
, c
1
∈ ¦0, 1¦, F
2
[x]/(x
2
+x+1) ⊆
¸
0, 1, x, x + 1
¸
.
Solution (b). The addition table in table 7.1 shows F
2
[x]/(x
2
+x + 1)
∼
= V
4
.
Solution (c). The multiplication table in table 7.2 shows E
×
∼
= Z
3
. Therefore E is a ﬁeld.
7.4.30. Let I be an ideal of the commutative ring R and deﬁne
rad I =
¸
r ∈ R [ r
n
∈ I for some n ∈ Z
+
¸
called the radical of I. Prove that rad I is an ideal containing I and that (rad I)/I = A(R/I) (cf. exercise 7.3.29).
41
Addition Table
0 1 x 1 +x
0 0 1 x 1 +x
1 1 0 1 +x x
x x 1 +x 0 1
1 +x 1 +x x 1 0
Table 7.1. F
2
[x]/(x
2
+x + 1).
Multiplication Table
0 1 x 1 +x
0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 x 1 +x
x 0 x 1 +x 1
1 +x 0 1 +x 1 x
Table 7.2. F
2
[x]/(x
2
+x + 1).
7.4.31. An ideal I of the commutative ring R is called a radical ideal if rad I = I.
(a) Prove that every prime ideal of R is a radical ideal.
(b) Let n > 1 be an integer. Prove that 0 is a radical ideal in Z/nZ if and only if n is a product of distinct
primes to the ﬁrst power (i.e., n is square free). Deduce that (n) is a radical of Z if and only if n is a
product of distinct primes in Z.
Proof (a). Note P ⊆ rad P. Let r ∈ R so if r
n
∈ P, either r or r
n−1
is in P. Induction shows r ∈ P, so
rad P = P.
Proof (b). Suppose rad 0 = 0 and n = mp
2
. Then mp = 0 mod n and (mp)
2
= 0 mod n which is a contradiction.
Thus n is a product of distinct primes to the ﬁrst power.
Now suppose n is a product of distinct primes to the ﬁrst power. If α
m
= 0 mod n, then α
m
contains all of the
prime factors of n. Thus α must contain all prime factors of n so α = 0 mod n. Therefore rad 0 = 0.
7.4.39. Following the notation of exercise 7.1.26, let K be a ﬁeld, let ν be a discrete valuation on K and let R be
the valuation ring of ν. For each integer k ≥ 0 deﬁne A
k
= ¦r ∈ R [ ν(r) ≥ k¦ ∪ ¦0¦.
(a) Prove that A
k
is a principal ideal and that A
0
⊇ A
1
⊇ A
2
⊇ .
(b) Prove that if I is any nonzero ideal of R, then I = A
k
for some k ≥ 0. Deduce that R is a local ring with
unique maximal ideal A
1
.
Proof (a). Since ν is surjective, A
k
is nonempty. Since −1 ∈ R
×
, ν(−1) = 0. So ν(a − b) ≥ min ¦ν(a), ν(−b)¦ =
min ¦ν(a), ν(b)¦ ≥ k. Also ν(ab) = ν(a) + ν(b) ≥ k so A
k
is a subring. If r ∈ R and a ∈ A
k
then ν(ra) =
ν(r) +ν(a) ≥ k and similarly ν(ar) ≥ k. So A
k
is an ideal.
Now let ν(a) = k by surjectivity of ν. Notice that 0 = ν(1) = ν(aa
−1
) = ν(a) + ν(a
−1
) so ν(a) = −ν(a
−1
). If
b ∈ A
k
then ν(ba
−1
) = ν(b) −ν(a) ≥ 0 so ba
−1
∈ R. Thus b = ba
−1
a ∈ (a), so A
k
⊆ (a). Therefore A
k
is a principal
ideal and it is clear that A
0
⊇ A
1
⊇ A
2
⊃ .
Proof (b). Let k = min ¦ν(I)¦ with ν(r) = k. Then A
k
= (r) = I. From part (a) any proper ideal is contained in
A
1
so A
1
is the unique maximal ideal of R.
7.4.41. A proper ideal Q of the commutative ring R is called primary if whenever ab ∈ Q and a / ∈ Q then b
n
∈ Q
for some positive integer n. Establish the following facts about primary ideals.
(a) The primary ideal of Z are 0 and (p
n
), where p is a prime and n is a positive integer.
(b) Every prime ideal of R is a primary ideal.
(c) An ideal Q of R is primary if and only if every zero divisor in R/Q is a nilpotent element of R/Q.
(d) If Q is a primary ideal then rad (Q) is a prime ideal (cf. exercise 7.4.30).
42 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof (a). Let I ⊂ Z be a primary ideal so I = (n) for some n ∈ Z since every ideal of Z is principal. Let n = pa
for p some prime, so p / ∈ (n), a / ∈ (n) with (n) a primary ideal implies that p
i
∈ (n). So n[p
i
shows that n = p
k
for
some k ≥ 1. Thus (n) = (p
k
).
Now consider (p
k
) ⊆ Z. Let ab ∈ (p
k
) with a / ∈ (p
k
). Then p
k
[ab and p
k
[ a, so p[b. Thus p
k
[b
k
, so b
k
∈ (p
k
) and
(p
k
) is a primary ideal.
Proof (b). Let P be a prime ideal of R with ab ∈ P. If a / ∈ P then b ∈ P so P is a primary ideal.
Proof (c). Let a b = 0 in R = R/Q. Then ab ∈ Q with a
k
∈ Q and b
l
∈ Q for k, l > 1. So a
k
= 0 thus every zero
divisor is nilpotent in R.
Now suppose every zero divisor in R is a nilpotent element. Let ab ∈ Q with a / ∈ Q. Then b is a zero divisor in
R so b
k
= 0. Thus b
k
∈ Q and Q is a primary ideal of R.
Proof (d). Let ab ∈ rad (Q) and a / ∈ rad Q, so (ab)
n
∈ Q and a
m
/ ∈ Q for all m ∈ Z
+
. Since Q is primary then
b
nk
∈ Q so b ∈ rad (Q). Therefore rad (Q) is a prime ideal.
7.5. Rings of Fractions.
Theorem 7.15 (cf. theorem 15.36). Let R be a commutative ring. Let D be any nonempty subset of R that does
not contain 0, does not contain any zero divisors and is closed under multiplication (i.e., ab ∈ D for all a, b ∈ D).
Then there is a commutative ring Q with 1 such that Q contains R as a subring and every element of D is a unit
in Q. The ring Q has the following additional properties.
(1) every element of Q is of the form rd
−1
for some r ∈ R and d ∈ D. In particular, if D = R` ¦0¦ then Q is
a ﬁeld.
(2) (uniqueness of Q) The ring Q is the “smallest” ring containing R in which all elements of D become units,
in the following sense. Let S be any commutative ring with idenitty and let ϕ: R →S be any injective ring
homomorhpism such that ϕ(d) is a unit in S for every d ∈ D. Then there is an injective ring homomorphism
Φ: Q → S such that Φ[
R
= ϕ. In other words, any ring containing an isomorphic copy of R in which all
the elements of D become units must also contain an isomorphic copy of Q.
Corollary 7.16. let R be an integral domain and let Q be the ﬁeld of fractions of R. If a ﬁeld F contains a subring
R
isomorphic to R then the subﬁeld of F generated by R
is isomorphic to Q.
Let R be a commutative ring with identity 1 = 0.
7.5.1. Prove theorem 7.15.
Proof. Let T = ¦(r, d) [ r ∈ R, d ∈ D¦ and deﬁne the relation ∼ on T by
(r, d) ∼ (s, e) if and only if re = sd.
It is immediate that this relation is reﬂexive and symmetric. Suppose (r, d) ∼ (s, e) and (s, e) ∼ (t, f). Then
re − sd = 0 and sf − te = 0. Multiplying the ﬁrst of these equations by f and the second by d and adding them
gives rf − td)e = 0. Since e ∈ D is neither zero nor a zero divisor we must have rf − td = 0, i.e., (r, d) ∼ (t, f).
This proves ∼ is transitive, hence an equivalence relation. Done the equivalence class of (r, d) by
r
d
:
r
d
= ¦(a, b) [ a ∈ R, b ∈ D and rb = ad¦ .
Let Q be the set of equivalence classes under ∼. Note that
r
d
=
re
de
in Q for all e ∈ D, since D is closed under
multiplication.
We now deﬁne an additive and multiplicative structure on Q:
a
b
+
c
d
=
ad +bc
bd
and
a
b
c
d
=
ac
bd
.
In order to prove that Q is a commutative ring with identity there are a number of things to check:
(1) these operations are well deﬁned
(2) Q is an abelian group under addition, where the additive identity is
0
d
for any d ∈ D and the additive
inverse of
a
d
is
−a
d
,
(3) multiplication is associative, distributive and commutative, and
(4) Q has an identity.
43
To check that addition is well deﬁned assume
a
b
=
a
b
(i.e., ab
= a
b) and
c
d
=
c
d
. We must show that
ad+bc
bd
=
a
d
+b
c
b
d
, i.e.,
(ad +bc)(b
d
) = (a
d
+b
c
)(bd).
The left hand side of this equation is ab
dd
+ cd
bb
substituting a
b for ab
and c
d for cd
gives a
bdd
+ c
dbb
,
which is the right hand side. Hence addition of fractions is well deﬁned.
To check that multiplication is well deﬁned assume
a
b
=
a
b
and
c
d
=
c
d
. We must show
(ac)(b
d
) = (a
c
)(bd).
The left hand side of this equation is (ab
)(cd
) substituting a
b for ab
and c
d for cd
gives (a
b)(c
d) which is the
right hand side. Hence multiplication of fractions is well deﬁned.
To show Q is an abelian group under addition note that
0
d
∈ Q with
0
d1
+
r
d2
=
d1r
d1d2
=
r
d2
so there exists an
additive identity in Q. Now if
r1
d1
,
r2
d2
,
r3
d3
∈ Q, then
(
r
1
d
1
+
r
2
d
2
) +
r
3
d
3
=
r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
d
1
d
2
+
r
3
d
3
=
r
1
d
2
d
3
+r
2
d
1
d
3
+r
3
d
1
d
2
d
1
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1
+
r
2
d
3
+d
1
d
2
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1
+ (
r
2
d
2
+
r
3
d
3
).
Thus addition is associative. Now if
r
d
∈ Q, then
−r
d
∈ Q with
r
d
+
−r
d
=
rd −rd
d
2
=
0
d
.
So Q is closed under inverse. Since addition is clearly commutative in Q, we see Q is an abelian group under
addition.
To show multiplication is associative, let
r1
d1
,
r2
d2
,
r3
d3
∈ Q so
(
r
1
d
1
r
2
d
2
)
r
3
d
3
=
r
1
r
2
d
1
d
2
r
3
d
3
=
r
1
r
2
r
3
d
1
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1
r
2
r
3
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1
(
r
2
d
2
r
3
d
3
).
To show multiplication is distributive, let
r1
d1
,
r2
d2
,
r3
d3
∈ Q so
(
r
1
d
1
+
r
2
d
2
)
r
3
d
3
=
r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
d
1
d
2
r
3
d
3
=
r
1
r
3
d
2
+r
2
r
3
d
1
d
1
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1
r
3
d
2
d
2
d
3
+
r
2
d
2
r
3
d
1
d
1
d
3
=
r
1
d
1
r
3
d
3
+
r
2
d
2
r
3
d
3
r
1
d
1
(
r
2
d
2
+
r
3
d
3
) =
r
1
d
1
r
2
d
3
+r
3
d
2
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
r
2
d
3
+r
1
r
3
d
2
d
1
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1
r
2
d
3
d
2
d
3
+
r
1
d
1
r
3
d
2
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1
r
2
d
2
+
r
1
d
1
r
3
d
3
.
44 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
To show multiplication is commutative, let
r1
d1
,
r2
d2
∈ Q so
r
1
d
1
r
2
d
2
=
r
1
r
2
d
1
d
2
=
r
2
r
1
d
2
d
1
=
r
2
d
2
r
1
d
1
.
To show Q has an identity, notice that
d
d
∈ Q for any d ∈ D. Now let
r
d1
∈ Q so
r
d
1
d
d
=
rd
d
1
d
=
r
d
1
.
Next we embed R into Q by deﬁning
ι : R →Q by ι : r →
rd
d
where d is any element of D.
Since
rd
d
=
re
e
for all d, e ∈ D, ι(r) does not depend on the choice of d ∈ D. Now let r
1
, r
2
∈ R so
ι(r
1
+r
2
) =
(r
1
+r
2
)d
d
=
r
1
d
d
+
r
2
d
d
= ι(r
1
) +ι(r
2
)
ι(r
1
r
2
) =
(r
1
r
2
)d
d
=
r
1
d
d
r
2
d
d
= ι(r
1
)ι(r
2
),
so ι is a ring homomorphism. Furthermore, ι is injective because
ι(r) = 0 ⇔
rd
d
=
0
d
⇔rd
2
= 0 ⇔r = 0
because d is neither zero nor a zero divisor. The subring ι(R) of Q is therefore isomorphic to R. We henceforth
identify each r ∈ R with ι(r) and so consider R as a subring of Q.
Next note that each d ∈ D has a multiplicative inverse in Q: namely, if d is represented by the fraction
de
e
then
its multiplicative inverse is
e
de
. One then sees that every element of Q may be written as r d
−1
for some r ∈ R and
some d ∈ D. In particular, if D = R` ¦0¦, every nonzero element of Q has a multiplicative inverse and Q is a ﬁeld.
It remains to establish the uniqueness property of Q. Assume ϕ: R →S is an injective ring homomorphism such
that ϕ(d) is a unit in S for all d ∈ D. Extend ϕ to a map Φ: Q → S by deﬁning Φ(rd
−1
) = ϕ(r)ϕ(d)
−1
for all
r ∈ R, d ∈ D. This map is well deﬁned, since rd
−1
= se
−1
implies re = sd, so ϕ(r)ϕ(e) = ϕ(s)ϕ(d), and then
Φ(rd
−1
) = ϕ(r)ϕ(d)
−1
= ϕ(s)ϕ(e)
−1
= Φ(se
−1
).
Now let r
1
d
−1
1
, r
2
d
−1
2
∈ Q. Then
Φ(r
1
d
−1
1
+r
2
d
−1
2
) = Φ((r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
)(d
1
d
2
)
−1
)
= ϕ(r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
)ϕ(d
1
d
2
)
−1
= ϕ(r
1
)ϕ(d
2
)ϕ(d
1
)
−1
ϕ(d
2
)
−1
+ϕ(r
2
)ϕ(d
1
)ϕ(d
1
)
−1
ϕ(d
2
)
−1
= ϕ(r
1
)ϕ(d
1
)
−1
+ϕ(r
2
)ϕ(d
2
)
−1
= Φ(r
1
d
−1
1
) + Φ(r
2
d
−1
2
)
Φ(r
1
d
−1
1
r
2
d
−1
2
) = Φ((r
1
r
2
)(d
1
d
2
)
−1
)
= ϕ(r
1
r
2
)ϕ(d
1
d
2
)
−1
= ϕ(r
1
)ϕ(d
1
)
−1
ϕ(r
2
)ϕ(d
2
)
−1
= Φ(r
1
d
−1
1
)Φ(r
2
d
−1
2
).
So Φ is a ring homomorphism. Finally, Φ is injective because rd
−1
∈ ker Φ implies r ∈ ker Φ∩R = ker ϕ; since ϕ is
injective this forces r and hence also rd
−1
to be zero.
45
7.5.2. Let R be an integral domain and let D be a nonempty subset of R that is closed under multiplication.
Prove that the ring of fractions D
−1
R is isomorphic to a subring of the quotient ﬁeld of R (hence is also an integral
domain).
Proof. Let Q be the quotient ﬁeld of R. Since R is a domain, D` ¦0¦ is also a multiplicative set of R. By theorem 7.15
there exists an injective ring homomorhpism ι : R →Q with ι(R` ¦0¦) ⊆ Q
×
. Since D` ¦0¦ ⊆ R` ¦0¦, theorem 7.15
states there exists an injective ring homomorhpism ψ: D
−1
R →Q with ψ[
R
= ι.
8. Euclidean, Principal Ideal, and Unique Factorization Domains
8.1. Euclidean Domains.
Proposition 8.1. Every ideal in a Euclidean Domain is principal. More precisely, if I is any nonzero ideal in the
Euclidean Domain R then I = (d), where d is any nonzero element of I of minimum norm.
Proposition 8.2. If a and B are nonzero element sin the commutative ring R such that the ideal generated by a
and b is a principal ideal (d), then d is a greatest common divisor of a and b.
Proposition 8.3. Let R be an integral domain. If two elements d and d
of R generate the same principal ideal,
i.e., (d) = (d
), then d
= ud for some u ∈ R
×
. In particular, if d and d
are both greatest common divisors of a
and b, then d
= ud for some unit u.
Theorem 8.4. Let R be a Euclidean Domain and let a and b be nonzero elements of R. Let d = r
n
be the last
nonzero remainder in the Euclidean Algorithm for a and b described at the beginning of this chapter. Then
(1) d is a greatest common divisor of a and b, and
(2) the principal ideal (d) is the ideal generated by a and b. In particular, d can be written as an Rlinear
combination of a and b, i.e., there are elements x and y in R such that
d = ax +by.
Proposition 8.5. Let R be an integral domain that is not a ﬁeld. If R is a Euclidean Domain then there are
universal side divisors in R.
8.1.3. Let R be a Euclidean Domain. Let m be the minimum integer in the set of norms of nonzero elements of R.
Prove that every nonzero element of R of norm m is a unit. Deduce that a nonzero element of norm zero (if such
an element exists) is a unit.
Proof. Let a ∈ R with N(a) = m. Since R is a Euclidean Domain, there exists q, r ∈ R such that 1 = qa + r with
N(r) < N(a) or r = 0. Since a is chosen to be minimum norm, r = 0. Thus a is a unit.
8.1.5. Determine all integer solutions of the following equations:
(a)
(b) 17x + 29y = 31
(c)
Proof (b). Notice that 372 17 −217 29 = 31. So any solution to this equation has form
x = 372 +m 899, y = −217 −m 527,
for any m ∈ Z.
8.1.8. Let F = Q(
√
D) be a quadratic ﬁeld with associated quadratic integer ring O and ﬁeld norm N as in section
7.1.
(a) Suppose D is −1, −2, −3, −7 or −11. Prove that O is a Euclidean Domain with respect to N.
(b) Suppose that D = −43, −67 or −163. Prove that O is not a Euclidean Domain with respect to any norm.
8.1.10. Prove that the quotient ring Z[i]/I is ﬁnite for any nonzero ideal I of Z[i].
Proof. By exercise 8.1.8(a), Z[i] is a Euclidean Domain. So I = (α) for some α ∈ Z[i]. Let x + I be a coset of I.
Then there exists q, r such that
x +α = qα +r.
Since x / ∈ (α), then r = 0 so N(r) < N(α). But now x+I = r +I, so any coset of I has a representative with norm
less than N(α).
Let F = ¦f ∈ R [ N(f) < N(α)¦. Then if f = f
1
+f
2
i and α = a
1
+a
2
i we have f
2
1
+f
2
2
< a
2
1
+a
2
2
. Since there
are only a ﬁnite number of (f
1
, f
2
) ∈ Z Z with this property, Z[i]/I is ﬁnite for any nonzero ideal I of Z[i].
46 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
8.1.11. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 and let a and b be nonzero elements of R. A least common multiple
of a and b is an element e of R such that
(i) a [ e and b [ e, and
(ii) if a [ e
and b [ e
then e [ e
.
(a) Prove that a least common multiple of a and b (if such exists) is a generator for the unique largest principal
ideal contained in (a) ∩ (b).
(b) Deduce that any two nonzero elements in a Euclidean Domain have a least common multiple which is unique
up to multiplication by a unit.
(c) Prove that in a Euclidean Domain the least common multiple of a and b is
ab
(a,b)
, where (a, b) is the greatest
common divisor of a and b.
Proof (a). First suppose there exists a least common multiple e of a and b. Since a [ e and b [ e we must have
(e) ⊆ (a) and (e) ⊆ (b). If (e
) is a principal ideal such that (e
) ⊆ (a) ∩ (b) then e
[ a and e
[ b. Thus e [ e
and
(e
) ⊆ (e) so (e) is the largest principal ideal contained in (a) ∩ (b).
Now suppose there is a largest principal ideal (e) contained in (a) ∩ (b). Then e [ a and e [ b. If a [ e
and b [ e
,
then (e
) ⊆ (a) ∩ (b). Since (e) is the largest such principal ideal, then (e
) ⊆ (e). But then e [ e
.
Proof (b). If a and b are nonzero elements of R then (a) ∩ (b) is the largest ideal contained in (a) ∩ (b). Since R is
a Euclidean Domain, there exists e ∈ R with (e) = (a) ∩ (b). So part (a) shows e is a least common multiple of a
and b.
Now let e, e
be two least common multiples of a and b. Then e [ e
and e
[ e. So e = se
and et = e
. Since a
and b are nonzero then e is also nonzero so e = ste and e(1 −st) = 0 implies 1 = st because R is a domain. Thus
least common multiples are unique up to multiplication by a unit.
Proof (c). First note that (
ab
(a,b)
) ⊆ (a) ∩ (b) so (
ab
(a,b)
) ⊆ (e). Now let ax = e = by. Then abx = eb and aby = ea
so ab [ eb and ab [ ea. Thus ab [ (ea, eb) and
ab
(a,b)
[ e. So we have (e) ⊆ (
ab
(a,b)
). Therefore
ab
(a,b)
is a least common
multiple of a and b.
8.1.12 (A Public Key Code). Let N be a positive integer. Let M be an integer relatively prime to N and let d
be an integer relatively prime to ϕ(N), where ϕ denotes Euler’s ϕfunction. Prove that if M
1
≡ M
d
mod N then
M ≡ M
d
1
mod N where d
is the inverse of d mod ϕ(N): dd
≡ 1 mod ϕ(N).
Proof. Since (M, N) = 1 we know that M
ϕ(N)
≡ 1 mod N. Thus
M
d
1
≡ M
dd
mod N
≡ M
αϕ(N)+1
mod N
≡ M mod N.
9. Polynomial Rings
9.1. Deﬁnitions and Basic Properties.
Proposition 9.1. Let R be an integral domain. Then
(1) degree p(x)q(x) = degree p(x) + degree q(x) if p(x), q(x) are nonzero
(2) the units of R[x] are just the units of R
(3) R[x] is an integral domain.
Proposition 9.2. Let I be an ideal of the ring R and let (I) = I[x] denote the ideal of R[x] generated by I (the
set of polynomials with coeﬃcients in I). Then
R[x]/(I)
∼
= (R/I)[x].
In particular, if I is a prime ideal of R then (I) is a prime ideal of R[x].
9.1.13. Prove that the rings F[x, y]/(y
2
−x) and F[x, y]/(y
2
−x
2
) are not isomorphic for any ﬁeld F.
Proof. Since y
2
−x
2
= (y −x)(y +x) then F[x, y]/(y
2
−x
2
) is not a domain. Not let ϕ: R[x, y] →R[y] be given by
ϕ(p(x, y)) = p(y
2
, y).
Let p(x, y)(y
2
−x) ∈ (y
2
−x) so that
ϕ(p(x, y)(y
2
−x)) = p(y
2
, y)(y
2
−y
2
) = 0.
47
Thus (y
2
−x) ⊆ ker ϕ. Now let p(x, y) ∈ ker ϕ so that 0 = ϕ(p(x, y)) = p(y
2
, y). Note that we can write p(x, y) =
r(x)+ys(x)+q(x, y)(y
2
−x) by considering cosets of F[x, y]/(y
2
−x). But then 0 = ϕ(r(x)+ys(x)) = r(y
2
)+ys(y
2
).
So r = 0 and s = 0. Therefore p(x, y) = q(x, y)(y
2
−x) so ker ϕ ⊆ (y
2
−x).
9.1.14. Let R be an integral domain and let i, j be relatively prime integers. Prove that the ideal (x
i
− y
j
) is a
prime ideal in R[x, y].
Proof.
9.1.15. Let p(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
) be a homogeneous polynomial of degree k in R[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]. Prove that for all λ ∈ R
we have
p(λx
1
, λx
2
, . . . , λx
n
) = λ
k
p(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
).
Proof. First we write
p(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
) =
m
¸
i=0
a
i
n
¸
j=1
x
kj
j
,
where
¸
n
j=1
k
j
= k. Then
p(λx
1
, λx
2
, . . . , λx
n
) =
m
¸
i=0
a
i
n
¸
j=1
(λx
j
)
kj
= λ
k
m
¸
i=0
a
i
n
¸
j=1
x
kj
j
= λ
k
p(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
).
9.1.17. An ideal I in R[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] is called a homogeneous ideal if whenever p ∈ I then each homogeneous
component of p is also in I. Prove that an ideal is a homogeneous ideal if and only if it may be generated by
homogeneous polynomials.
Proof.
9.2. Polynomial Rings Over Fields I.
Theorem 9.3. Let F be a ﬁeld. The polynomial ring F[x] is a Euclidean Domain. Speciﬁcally, if a(x) and b(x)
are two polynomials in F[x] with b(x) nonzero, then there are unique q(x) and r(x) in F[x] such that
a(x) = q(x)b(x) +r(x) with r(x) = 0 or deg r(x) < deg b(x).
Corollary 9.4. If F is a ﬁeld, then F[x] is a Principal Ideal Domain and a Unique Factorization Domain.
9.2.4. Let F be a ﬁnite ﬁeld. Prove that F[x] contains inﬁnitely many primes.
Proof. Suppose on the other hand that p
1
(x), . . . , p
n
(x) are all of the primes in F[x]. Let p(x) =
¸
n
i=1
p
i
(x) and
notice 1 +p(x) ∈ F[x]. Since F[x] is a unique factorization domain we can write
1 +p(x) =
m
¸
i=1
p
αi
(x)
where each p
αi
(x) is irreducible. But now
1 =
m
¸
i=1
p
αi
(x) −p(x)
= p
α1
(x)
m
¸
i=2
p
αi
(x) −
p(x)
p
α1
(x)
.
This is a contradiction because a prime is not a unit.
9.2.5. Exhibit all the ideals in the ring F[x]/(p(x)), where F is a ﬁeld and p(x) is a polynomial in F[x].
48 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. Since F is a ﬁeld, F[x] is a Euclidean domain and in particular a unique factorization domain. So let
p(x) =
n
¸
i=1
p
i
(x),
where each p
i
(x) is irreducible. Let I/(p(x)) ⊆ F[x]/(p(x)) be an ideal. By the lattice isomorphism theorem,
(p(x)) ⊆ I, and I is an ideal of F[x]. Since F[x] is a Euclidean domain, it is also a principal ideal domain so let I =
(q(x)). Since (p(x)) ⊆ (q(x)), p(x) = r(x)q(x) for some r(x) ∈ F[x]. Let r(x) =
¸
s
i=1
r
i
(x) and q(x) =
¸
t
i=1
q
i
(x)
for r
i
(x), q
i
(x) irreducible. Then α
¸
s
i=1
r
i
(x)
¸
t
i=1
q
i
(x) =
¸
n
i=1
p
i
(x), for some α ∈ F. So there exists σ ∈ S
n
such that α
i
q
i
(x) = p
σ(i)
(x) for all 1 ≤ i ≤ t, α
i
∈ F. Therefore (q(x)) = (
¸
t
i=1
q
i
(x)) = (
¸
t
i=1
p
σ(i)
(x)).
9.2.6. Describe the ring structure of the following rings:
(d) Z[x, y]/(x
2
, y
2
, 2).
Show that α
2
= 0 or 1 for every α in the last ring and determine those elements with α
2
= 0. Determine the
characteristics of each of these rings.
Proof (d). The highest power of x and y is 1 along with the largest coeﬃcient. Let α = α(x, y) + (x
2
, y
2
, 2) so
α
2
= (α(x, y))
2
+ (x
2
, y
2
, 2) ∈
¸
0, 1
¸
because if there is no constant term then every term has even degree and if
there is a constant term, let α(x, y) = β(x, y) +1 where β(x, y) has no constant term. So α(x, y)
2
= (β(x, y) +1)
2
=
β(x, y)
2
+ 2β(x, y) + 1 so this is in 1. The elements with α = 0 are the elements with no constant term.
9.2.10. Determine the greatest common divisor of a(x) = x
3
+ 4x
2
+ x − 6 and b(x) = x
5
− 6x + 5 in Q[x] and
write it as a linear combination in Q[x] of a(x) and b(x).
Solution. Using division of polynomials we calculate
x
5
−6x + 5 = (x
3
+ 4x
2
−x −6)(x
2
−4x + 15) −(50x
2
+ 45x −95)
x
3
+ 4x
2
+x −6 = (50x
2
+ 45x −95)(x/50 + 31/500) + (31/10 x
2
+ 1395/500 x −2945/500)
50x
2
+ 45x −95 = (31/10 x
2
+ 1395/500 x −2945/500)(500/31).
So we write the greatest common divisor as
31/10 x
2
+ 1395/500 x −2945/500 =
= (x
3
+ 4x +x −6)[(x
2
−4x + 15)(x/50 + 31/500) −1] −(x
5
−6x + 5)[x/50 + 31/500].
9.3. Polynomial Rings That are Unique Factorization Domains.
Proposition 9.5 (Gauss’ Lemma). Let R be a Unique Factorization Domain with ﬁeld of fractions F and let
p(x) ∈ R[x]. If p(x) is reducible in F[x] then p(x) is reducible in R[x]. More precisely, if p(x) = A(x)B(x) for some
nonconstant polynomials A(x),B(x) ∈ F[x], then there are nonzero elements r, s ∈ F such that rA(x) = a(x) and
sB(x) = b(x) both lie in R[x] and p(x) = a(x)b(x) is a factorization in R[x].
Corollary 9.6. Let R be a Unique Factorization Domain, let F be its ﬁeld of fractions and let p(x) ∈ R[x]. Suppose
the greatest common divisor of the coeﬃcients of p(x) is 1. Then p(x) is irreducible in R[x] if and only if it is
irreducible in F[x]. In particular, if p(x) is a moni polynomial that is irreducible in R[x], then p(x) is irreducible
in F[x].
Theorem 9.7. R is a Unique Factorization Domain if and only if R[x] is a Unique Factorization Domain.
Corollary 9.8. If R is a Unique Factorization Domain, then a polynomial ring in an arbitrary number of variable
with coeﬃcients in R is also a Unique Factorization Domain.
9.4. Irreducibility Criteria.
Proposition 9.9. Let F be a ﬁeld and let p(x) ∈ F[x]. Then p(x) has a facto of degree one if and only if p(x) has
a roote in F, i.e., there is an α ∈ F with p(α) = 0.
Proposition 9.10. A polynomial of degree two or three over a ﬁeld F is reducible if and only if it has a root in F.
Proposition 9.11. Let p(x) = a
n
x
n
+a
n−1
x
n−1
+ +a
0
be a polynomial of degree n with integer coeﬃcients. If
r/x ∈ Q is in lowest terms (i.e., r and s are relatively prime integers) and r/s is a root of p(x), then r divides the
constant term and s divides the leading coeﬃcient of p(x). In particular, if p(x) is a monic polynomial with integer
coeﬃcients and p(d) = 0 for all itnegers d dividing the constant tterm of p(x), then p(x) has no roots in Q.
49
Proposition 9.12. Let I be a proper ideal in the integral domain R and let p(x) be a nonconstant monic polynomial
in R[x]. If the image of p(x) in (R/I)[x] cannot be factored in (R/I)[x] into two polynomials of smaller degree,
then p(x) is irreducible in R[x].
Proposition 9.13 (Eisenstein’s Criterion). Let P be a prime ideal of the integral domain R and let f(x) =
x
n
+a
n−1
x
n−1
+ +a
1
x +a
0
be a polynomial in R[x] (here n ≥ 1). Suppose a
n−1
, . . . , a
1
, a
0
are all elements of
P and suppose a
0
is not an element of P
2
. Then f(x) is irreducible in R[x].
Corollary 9.14 (Eisenstein’s Criterion for Polynomial Ring over Z). Let p be a prime in Z and let f(x) =
x
n
+a
n−1
x
n−1
+ +a
1
x +a
0
∈ Z[x], n ≥ 1. Suppose p divides a
i
for all i ∈ ¦0, 1, . . . , n −1¦ but that p
2
does not
divide a
0
. Then f(x) is irreducible in both Z[x] and Q[x].
9.4.1. Determine whether the following polynomials are irreducible in the rings indicated. For those that are
reducible, determine their factorization into irreducibles. The notaion F
p
denotes the ﬁnite ﬁeld Z/pZ, p a prime.
(b) x
3
+x + 1 in F
3
[x].
(c) x
4
+ 1 in F
5
[x].
Solution (b).
Solution (c).
9.4.2. Prove that the following polynomials are irreducible in Z[x]:
(c) x
4
+ 4x
3
+ 6x
2
+ 2x + 1
(d)
(x+2)
p
−2
p
x
, where p is an odd prime.
Proof (c).
Proof (d).
9.4.3. Show that the polynomial (x −1)(x −2) (x −n) −1 is irreducible over Z for all n ≥ 1.
Proof.
9.4.6. Construct ﬁelds of each of the following orders: (a) 9, (b) 49, (c) 8, (d) 81.
Solution (a).
Solution (b).
Solution (c).
Solution (d).
9.4.8. Prove that K
1
= F
11
[x]/(x
2
+ 1) and K
2
= F
11
[y]/(y
2
+ 2y + 2) are both ﬁelds with 121 elements. Prove
that the map which sends the element p(x) of K
1
to the element p(y + 1) of K
2
(where p is any polynomial with
coeﬃcients in F
11
) is well deﬁned and gives a ring isomorphism from K
1
to K
2
.
Proof.
9.4.16. Let F be a ﬁeld and let f(x) be a polynomial of degree n in F[x]. The polynomial g(x) = x
n
f(1/x) is
called the reverse of f(x).
(a) Describe the coeﬃcients of g in terms of the coeﬃcients of f.
(b) If f(0) = 0 prove that f is irreducible if and only if g is irreducible.
Solution (a).
Proof (b).
9.4.19. Let F be a ﬁeld and let f(x) = a
n
x + a
n−1
x
n−1
+ + a
0
∈ F[x]. The derivative, D
x
(f(x)), of f(x) is
deﬁned by
D
x
(f(x)) = na
n
x
n−1
+ (n −1)a
n−1
x
n−2
+ +a
1
where, as usual, na = a + +a (n times). Note that D
x
(f(x)) is again a polynomial with coeﬃcients in F.
The polynomial f(x) is said to have a multiple root if there is some ﬁeld E containing F and some α ∈ E such
that x−α)
2
divides f(x) in E[x]. For example, the polynomial f(x) = (x−1)
2
(x−2) ∈ Q[x] has α = 1 as a multiple
root and the polynomial f(x) = x
4
+ 2x
2
+ 1 = (x
2
+ 1)
2
∈ 1[x] has α = ±i ∈ C as multiple roots. We shall prove
in section 13.5 that a nonconstant polynomial f(x) has a multiple root if and only if f(x) is not relatively prime to
50 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
its derivative (which can be detected by the Euclidean Algorithm in F[x]). Use this criterion to determine whether
the following polynomials have multiple roots:
(a) x
3
−3x −2 ∈ Q[x]
(b) x
3
+ 3x + 2 ∈ Q[x]
(c) x
6
−4x
4
+ 6x
3
+ 4x
2
−12x + 9 ∈ Q[x]
(d) Show for any prime p and any a ∈ F
p
that the polynomial x
p
−a has a multiple root.
9.5. Polynomial Rings Over Fields II.
Proposition 9.15. The maximal ideals in F[x] are the ideal (f(x)) generated by irreducible polynomials f(x). In
particular, F[x]/(f(x)) is a ﬁeld if and only if f(x) is irreducible.
Proposition 9.16. Let g(x) be a nonconstant monic element of F[x] and let
g(x) = f
1
(x)
n1
f
2
(x)
n2
f
k
(x)
n
k
be its factorization into irreducibles, where the f
i
(x) are distinct. Then we have the following isomorphism of rings:
F[x]/(g(x))
∼
= F[x]/(f
1
(x)
n1
) F[x]/(f
2
(x)
n2
) F[x]/(f
k
(x)
n
k
).
Proposition 9.17. If the polynomial f(x) has roots α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
k
in F (not necessarily distinct), then f(x) has
(x −α
1
) (x −α
k
) as a factor. In particular, a polynomial of degree n in one variable over a ﬁeld F has at most
n roots in F, even counted with multiplicity.
Proposition 9.18. A ﬁnite subgroup of the multiplicative group of a ﬁeld is cyclic. In particular, if F is a ﬁnite
ﬁeld, then the multiplicative group F
×
of nonzero elements of F is a cyclic group.
Corollary 9.19. Let p be a prime. The multiplicative group (Z/pZ)
×
of nozero residue classes mod p is cyclic.
Corollary 9.20. Let n ≥ 2 be an integer with factorization n = p
α1
1
p
αr
r
in Z, where p
1
, . . . , p
r
are distinct
primes. We have the following isomorphisms of multiplicative groups:
(1) (Z/nZ)
× ∼
= (Z/p
αi
i
Z)
×
(Z/p
αr
r
Z)
×
(2) (Z/2
α
Z)
×
is the direct product of a cyclic group of order 2 and a cyclic group of order 2
α−2
, for all α ≥ 2
(3) (Z/p
α
Z)
×
is a cyclic group of order p
α−1
(p −1), for all odd primes p.
9.6. Polynomials in Several Variables Over a Field and Gr¨obner Bases.
Theorem 9.21 (Hilbert’s Basis Theorem). If R is a Noetherian ring then so is the polynomial ring R[x].
Corollary 9.22. Every ideal in the polynomial ring F[x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
] with coeﬃcients from a ﬁeld F is ﬁnitely
generated.
Theorem 9.23. Fix a monomial ordering on R = F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] and suppose ¦g
1
, . . . , g
m
¦ is a Gr¨obner basis for
the nozero ideal I in R. Then
(1) Every polynomial f ∈ R can be written uniquely in the form
f = f
I
+r
where f
I
∈ I and no nonzero monomial term of the remainder r is divisible by any of the leading terms
LT(g
1
), . . . , LT(g
m
).
(2) Both f
I
and r can be computed by general polynomial division by g
1
, . . . , g
m
and are independent of the
order in which these polynomials are used in the division.
(3) The remainder r provides a unique representative for the coset of f in the quotient ring F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]/I. In
particular, f ∈ I if and only if r = 0.
Proposition 9.24. Fix a monomial ordering on R = F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] and let I be a nonzero ideal in R.
(1) If g
1
, . . . , g
m
are any elements of I such that LT(I) = (LT(g
1
), . . . , LT(g
m
)), then ¦g
1
, . . . , g
m
¦ is a Gr¨obner
basis for I.
(2) The ideal I has a Gr¨ obner basis.
Lemma 9.25. Suppose f
1
, . . . f
m
∈ F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] are polynomials with the same multidegree α and that the linear
combination h = a
1
f
1
+ +a
m
f
m
with constants a
i
∈ F has strictly smaller multidegree. Then
h =
m
¸
i=2
b
i
S(f
i−1
, f
i
), for some constants b
i
∈ F.
51
Proposition 9.26 (Buchberger’s Criterion). Let R = F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] and ﬁx a monomial ordering on R. If I =
(g
1
, . . . , g
m
) is a nonzero ideal in R, then G = ¦g
1
, . . . , g
m
¦ is a Gr¨ obner basis for I if and only if S(g
i
, g
j
) ≡ 0
mod G for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ m.
Theorem 9.27. Fix a monomial ordering on R = F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]. Then there is a unique reduced Gr¨obner basis for
every nonzero ideal I in R.
Corollary 9.28. Let I and J be two ideal in F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]. Then I = J if and only if I and J have the same
reduced Gr¨obner basis with respect to any ﬁxed monomial ordering on F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
].
Proposition 9.29 (Elimination). Suppose G = ¦g
1
, . . . , g
m
¦ is a Gr¨obner basis for the nonzero ideal I in F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]
with respect to the lexicographic monomial ordering x
1
> > x
n
. Then G ∩ F[x
i+1
, . . . , x
n
] is a Gr¨obner basis
of the i
th
elimination ideal I
i
= I ∩ F[x
i+1
, . . . , x
n
] of I. In particular, I ∩ F[x
i+1
, . . . x
n
] = 0 if and only if
G∩ F[x
i+1
, . . . , x
n
] = ∅.
Proposition 9.30. If I and J are any two ideals in F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] then tI + (1 −t)J is an ideal in F[t, x
1
, . . . , x
n
]
and I ∩ J = (tI + (1 −t)J) ∩ F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]. In particular, I ∩ J is the ﬁrst elimination ideal of tI + (1 −t)J with
respect to the ordering t > x
1
> > x
n
.
52 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
9.6.24. Use reduced Gr¨obner bases to show that the ideal I = (x
3
−yz, yz +y) and the ideal J = (x
3
z +x
3
, x
3
+y)
in F[x, y] are equal.
Proof. By corollary 9.28 two ideals in F[x, y, z] are equal if and only if I, J have the same reduced Gr¨obner basis
for any monomial ordering. So ﬁx the lexicographical ordering x > y > z for F[x, y, z]. To ﬁnd a Gr¨obner basis for
I,
S(f
1
, f
2
) = yzf
1
−x
3
f
2
= −y
2
z
2
−x
3
y ≡ 0 mod ¦f
1
, f
2
¦ .
Since x
3
−yz = −1(yz +y) + (x
3
+y), then our reduced Gr¨obner basis for I is G =
¸
x
3
+y, yz +y
¸
.
Now to ﬁnd the reduced Gr¨obner basis for J,
S(g
1
, g
2
) = g
1
−zg
2
= x
3
−yz ≡ −yz −y mod ¦g
1
, g
2
¦
S(g
1
, g
3
) = −yg
1
−x
3
g
3
= −x
3
y +x
3
y ≡ 0 mod ¦g
1
, g
2
, g
3
¦
S(g
2
, g
3
) = x
3
g
2
+yzg
3
= x
3
−y
2
z ≡ 0 mod ¦g
1
, g
2
, g
3
¦ .
Thus ¦g
1
, g
2
, g
3
¦ is a Gr¨obner basis for J. Since LT(g
2
) mod LT(g
1
), G =
¸
x
3
+y, yz +y
¸
is the reduced Gr¨obner
basis for J.
9.6.32. Use Gr¨obner bases to show that (x, z) ∩ (y
2
, x −yz) = (xy, x −yz) in F[x, y, z].
Proof. Let I = (x, z) and J = (y
2
−yz). Then proposition 9.30 states
I ∩ J = (tI + (1 −t)J) ∩ F[x, y, z].
By calculating the S(f
i
, f
j
) we ﬁnd
tI + (1 −t)J = (tx, tz, ty
2
−y
2
, tx −tyz −x +yz, xy
2
, tyz +x −yz, x
2
−xyz, y
2
z, xz −yz
2
, x −yz)
is given by a Gr¨ obner basis. Thus
tI + (1 −t)J = (tz, ty
2
−y
2
, tyz +x −yz, y
2
z, x −yz)
and ﬁnally I ∩ J = (y
2
z, x −yz).
Now to ﬁnd a Gr¨obner basis for (xy, x −yz), we calculate
S(f
1
, f
2
) = f
1
−yf
2
= y
2
z
S(f
1
, f
3
) = yzf
1
−xf
3
= 0
S(f
2
, f
3
) = y
2
zf
2
−xf
3
= −y
3
z
2
≡ 0 mod ¦f
1
, f
2
, f
3
¦ .
Thus
¸
xy, x −yz, y
2
z
¸
is a Gr¨obner basis so
¸
x −yz, y
2
z
¸
is the reduced Gr¨obner basis because x [ xy. Since the
reduced Gr¨obner basis is the same for both ideals, corollary 9.28 states the ideals are equal.
53
Part III – Modules and Vector Spaces
10. Introduction to Module Theory
10.1. Basic Deﬁnitions and Examples.
Proposition 10.1 (The Submodule Criterion). Let R be a ring and let M be an Rmodule. A subset N of M is a
submodule of M if and only if
(1) N = ∅, and
(2) x +ry ∈ N for all r ∈ R and for all x, y ∈ N.
10.1.8. An element m of the Rmodule M is called a torsion element if rm = 0 for some nonzero element r ∈ R.
The set of torsion elements is denoted
Tor(M) = ¦m ∈ M [ rm = 0 for some nonzero r ∈ R¦ .
(a) Prove that if R is an integral domain then Tor(M) is a submodule of M called the torsion submodule of
M.
(b) Give an example of a ring R and an Rmodule M such that Tor(M) is not a submodule.
(c) If R has zero divisors show that every nonzero Rmodule has nonzero torsion elements.
Proof (a). Tor(M) = ∅ because r0 = r(m−m) = rm−rm = 0. If r
1
x = r
2
y = 0, r ∈ R, then
r
1
r
2
(x +ry) = r
2
r
1
x +rr
1
r
2
y = 0
so Tor(M) is a submodule of M because r
1
r
2
= 0.
Example (b). If R = 0, then this is such an example.
Proof (c). Let x, y ∈ R` ¦0¦ with xy = 0. If ym = 0, then xym = 0 so either way there are nonzero torsion
elements.
10.1.14. Let z be an element of the center of R, i.e., zr = rz for all r ∈ R. Prove that zM is a submodule of M,
where zM = ¦zm [ m ∈ M¦. Show that if R is the ring of 2 2 matrices over a ﬁeld and e is the matrix with a 1 in
position 1, 1 and zeros elsewhere then eR is not a left Rsubmodule (where M = R is considered as a left Rmodule
as in example 1) – in this case the matrix e is not in the center of R.
Proof. zM is clearly nonempty. Let x = zm
1
, y = zm
2
, r ∈ R so
x +ry = zm
1
+rzm
2
= zm
1
+zrm
2
= z(m
1
+rm
2
)
so zM is a submodule of M.
If a ∈ eR then a =
f
1
f
2
0 0
but
1 1
1 1
f
1
f
2
0 0
=
f
1
f
2
f
1
f
2
so eR is not a left Rsubmodule.
10.1.16. Prove that the submodules U
k
described in the example of F[x]modules are all of the F[x]submodules
for the shift operator.
Proof. Note since F is a ﬁeld, then if a component contains a nonzero element then that component of the submodule
must contain all of F. But if a component is zero to the left of some nonzero component, then it would not be
Tstable. Thus it is clear that the U
k
s are all of the F[x]submodules by the bjiection of F[x]submodules and
subspaces invariant under T.
10.1.22. Suppose A is a ring with identity 1
A
that is a (unital) left Rmodule satisfying r (ab) = (r a)b = a(r b)
for all r ∈ R and a, b ∈ A. Prove that the map f : R →A deﬁned by f(r) = r 1
A
is a ring homomorphism mapping
1
R
to 1
A
and that f(R) is contained in the center of A. Conclude that A is an Ralgebra and that the Rmodule
structure on A induced by its algebra structure is precisely the original Rmodule structure.
Proof. If f(x) = f(y) then x = x 1
A
= y 1
A
= y so f is well deﬁned. Now f(x +y) = (x +y) 1
A
= f(x) +f(y),
f(xy) = (xy) 1
A
= f(x)f(y) and f(1
R
) = 1
R
1
A
= 1
A
. Since (r 1
A
) a = (r a) 1
A
= a (r 1
A
). Thus
by deﬁnition A is an Ralgebra and the Rmodule structure on A induced by its algebra structure is precisely the
original Rmodule structure.
54 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
13. Field Theory
13.1. Basic Theory of Field Extensions.
Proposition 13.1. The characteristic of a ﬁeld F, ch (F), is either 0 or a prime p. If ch (F) = p then for any
α ∈ F,
p α = α +α + +α = 0.
Proposition 13.2. Let ϕ: F →F
be a homomorphism of ﬁelds. Then ϕ is either identically 0 or is injective, so
that the image of ϕ is either 0 or isomorphic to F.
Theorem 13.3. Let F be a ﬁeld and let p(x) ∈ F[x] be an irreducible polynomial. Then there exists a ﬁeld K
containing an isomorphic copy of F in which p(x) has a root. Identifying F with this isomorphic copy shows that
there exists an extension of F which p(x) has a root.
Theorem 13.4. Let p(x) ∈ F[x] be an irreducible polynomial of degree n over the ﬁeld F and let K be the ﬁeld
F[x]/(p(x)). Let θ = x mod (p(x)) ∈ K. Then the elements
1, θ, θ
2
, . . . , θ
n−1
are a basis for K as a vector space over F, so the degree of the extension is n, i.e., [K : F] = n. Hence
K =
¸
a
0
+a
1
θ +a
2
θ
2
+ +a
n−1
θ
n−1
[ a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n−1
∈ F
¸
consists of all polynomials of degree < n in θ.
Corollary 13.5. Let K be as in theorem 13.4, and let a(θ), b(θ) ∈ K be two polynomials of degree < n in θ. Then
addition in K is deﬁned simply by usual polynomial addition and multiplication in K deﬁned by
a(θ)b(θ) = r(θ)
where r(x) is the remainder (of degree < n) obtained after dividing the polynomial a(x)b(x) by p(x) in F[x].
Theorem 13.6. Let F be a ﬁeld and let p(x) ∈ F[x] be an irreducible polynomial. Suppose K is an extension ﬁeld
of F containing a root α of p(x): p(α) = 0. Let F(α) denote the subﬁeld of K generated over F by α. Then
F(α)
∼
= F[x]/(p(x)).
Corollary 13.7. Suppose in theorem 13.6 that p(x) is of degree n. Then
F(α) =
¸
a
0
+a
1
α +a
2
α
2
+ +a
n−1
α
n−1
[ a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n−1
∈ F
¸
⊆ K.
Theorem 13.8. Let ϕ: F ˜ →F
be an isomorphism of ﬁelds. Let p(x) ∈ F[x] be an irreducible polynomial and let
p
(x) ∈ F
(x) be the irreducible polynomial obtained by applying the map ϕ to the coeﬃcients of p(x). Let α be
a root of p(x) (in some extension of F) and let β be a root of p
(x) (in some extension of F
). Then there is an
isomorphism
σ: F(α) ˜ →F
(β)
mapping α to β and extending ϕ, i.e., such that σ restricted to F is the isomorphism ϕ.
13.2. Basic Theory of Field Extensions.
Proposition 13.9. Let α be algebraic over F. Then there is a unique monic irreducible polynomial m
α,F
(x) ∈ F[x]
which has α as a root. A polynomial f(x) ∈ F[x] has α as a root if and only if m
α,F
(x) divides f(x) in F[x].
Corollary 13.10. If L ⊂ F is an extension of ﬁelds and α is algebraic over both F and L, then m
α,L
(x) divides
m
α,F
(x) in L[x].
Proposition 13.11. Let α be algebraic over the ﬁeld F and let F(α) be the ﬁeld generated by α over F. Then
F(α)
∼
= F[x]/(m
α
(x))
so that in particular
[F(α): F] = deg m
α
(x) = deg α,
i.e., the degree of α over F is the degree of the extension it generates over F.
Proposition 13.12. The element α is algebraic over F if and only if the simple extension F ⊂ F(α) is ﬁnite.
More precisely, if α is an element of an extension of degree n over F then α satisﬁes a polynomial of degree at most
n over F and if α satisﬁes a polynomial of degree n over F then the degree of F(α) over F is at most n.
Corollary 13.13. If the extension F ⊂ K is ﬁnite, then it is algebraic.
55
Theorem 13.14. Let F ⊆ K ⊆ L be ﬁelds. Then
[L: F] = [L: K][K: F],
i.e., extension degrees are multiplicative, where if one side of the equation is inﬁnite, the other side is also inﬁnite.
Corollary 13.15. Suppose F ⊂ L is a ﬁnite extension and let K be any subﬁeld of L containing F, F ⊆ K ⊆ L.
Then [K: F] divides [L: F].
Lemma 13.16. F(α, β) = (F(α))(β), i.e., the ﬁeld generated over F by α and β is the ﬁeld generated by β over
the ﬁeld F(α) generated by α.
Theorem 13.17. The extension F ⊂ K is ﬁnite if and only if K is generated by a ﬁnite number of algebraic
elements over F. More precisely, a ﬁeld generated over F by a ﬁnite4 number of algebraic elements of degrees
n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
k
is algebraic of degree ≤ n
1
n
2
n
k
.
Corollary 13.18. Suppose α and β are algebraic over F. Then α ± β, αβ, α/β (for β = 0), (in particular α
−1
for α = 0) are all algebraic.
Corollary 13.19. Let F ⊂ L be an arbitrary extension. Then the collection of elements of L that are algebraic
over F form a subﬁeld K of L.
Theorem 13.20. If K is algebraic over F and L is algebraic over K, then L is algebraic over F.
Proposition 13.21. Let K
1
and K
2
be two ﬁnite extensions of a ﬁeld F contained in K. Then
[K
1
K
2
: F] ≤ [K
1
: F][K
2
: F]
with equality if and only if an Fbasis for one of the ﬁelds remains linearly independent over the other ﬁeld.
If α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
n
and β
1
, β
2
, . . . , β
m
are bases for K
1
and K
2
over F, respectively, then the elements α
i
β
j
for
i = 1, . . . , n and j = 1, . . . , m span K
1
K
2
over F.
Corollary 13.22. Suppose that [K
1
: F] = n, [K
2
: F] = m in proposition 13.21, where n and m are relatively
prime: (n, m) = 1. Then [K
1
K
2
: F] = [K
1
: F][K
2
: F] = nm.
13.2.1. Let F be a ﬁnite ﬁeld of characteristic p. Prove that [F[ = p
n
for some positive integer n.
Proof. Let ϕ: Z →F be the ring map given by ϕ(n) = n 1
F
. Since pZ ⊆ ker ϕ then ¯ ϕ: F
p
→F is well deﬁned. But
¯ ϕ is a ring map of ﬁelds so it is trivial or injective. Notice ¯ ϕ(1
Fp
) = 1
F
so ¯ ϕ is injective. Thus we can consider F as
a vector space over F
p
. Since F is ﬁnite then
[F[ = [F
p
[
[F: Fp]
= p
n
for some n ∈ Z
+
.
13.2.7. Prove that Q(
√
2+
√
3) = Q(
√
2,
√
3). Conclude that [Q(
√
2+
√
3): Q] = 4. Find an irreducible polynomial
satisﬁed by
√
2 +
√
3.
Proof. Since Q,
√
2,
√
3 are contained in Q(
√
2,
√
3), then Q,
√
2 +
√
3 are contained in Q(
√
2,
√
3). Hence by
deﬁnition Q(
√
2 +
√
3) ⊆ Q(
√
2,
√
3).
To prove the other inclusion notice that
(
√
2 +
√
3)
3
−9(
√
2 +
√
3)
/2 =
√
2. Thus
√
2 ∈ Q(
√
2 +
√
3) thus
√
3 ∈ Q(
√
2 +
√
3). By deﬁnition we have Q(
√
2,
√
3) ⊆ Q(
√
2 +
√
3) and thus equality.
Since Q(
√
2,
√
3) = Q(
√
2 +
√
3) then [Q(
√
2 +
√
3): Q] = [Q(
√
2,
√
3): Q] = 4. Notice that p(
√
2 +
√
3) = 0
where
p(x) = x
4
−10x
2
+ 1.
If p were to be reducible, then there would be an irreducible polynomial with degree less than 4. This contradicts
the minimality of the degree of m
√
2+
√
3
= 4. Therefore p is irreducible in Q.
13.2.10. Determine the degree of the extension Q(
3 + 2
√
2) over Q.
Solution. First note that [Q(
3 + 2
√
2): Q] = [Q(
3 + 2
√
2: Q(
√
2)][Q(
√
2): Q]. But x
2
− 3 + 2
√
2 = (x − 1 +
2
√
2)(x + 1 + 2
√
2) so [Q(
3 + 2
√
2): Q(
√
2)] = 1. Thus [Q(
3 + 2
√
2): Q] = 2.
13.2.13. Suppose F = Q(α
1
, . . . , α
n
) where α
2
i
∈ Q for i = 1, . . . , n. Prove that
3
√
2 / ∈ F.
Proof. Since [Q(α
1
, . . . , α
k
): Q(α
1
, . . . , α
k−1
)] ∈ ¦1, 2¦, then [Q(α
1
, . . . , α
n
): Q] = 2
l
for some l ∈ Z
+
. Now if
3
√
2 ∈ F then Q ⊂ Q(
3
√
2) ⊆ F then [Q(
3
√
2: Q)] [ [F : Q]. Since 3 does not divide 2
l
for l ∈ Z
+
then
3
√
2 / ∈ F.
56 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
13.2.16. Let F ⊂ K be an algebraic extension and let R be a ring contained in K and containing F. Show that
R is a subﬁeld of K containing F.
Proof. Let α ∈ R` ¦0¦ so since α ∈ F then there is some irreducible p ∈ R[x] such that p(α) = 0. Let p(x) be given
by
p(x) = a
n
x
n
+ +a
0
,
and notice since p is irreducible, a
0
= 0. Since p(α) = 0 we have
α
−1
= −a
−1
0
(a
n
α
n−1
+ +a
1
).
Since a
i
∈ F ⊆ R and α ∈ R then α
−1
∈ R and R is a ﬁeld.
13.3. Classical Straightedge and Compass Constructions.
Proposition 13.23. If the element α ∈ 1 is obtained from a ﬁeld F ⊆ 1 by a series of compass and straightedge
constructions then [F(α): F] = 2
k
for some integer k ≥ 0.
Theorem 13.24. None of the classical Greek problems: (I) Doubling the Cube, (II) Trisecting an Angle, and (III)
Squaring the Circle, is possible.
13.4. Splitting Fields and Algebraic Closures.
Theorem 13.25. For any ﬁeld F, if f(x) ∈ F[x] then there exists an extension K of F which is a splitting ﬁeld
for f(x).
Proposition 13.26. A splitting ﬁeld of a polynomial of degree n over F is of degree at most n! over F.
Theorem 13.27. Let ϕ: F ˜ →F
be an isomorphism of ﬁelds. Let f(x) ∈ F[x] be a polynomial and let f
(x) ∈ F
[x]
be the polynomial obtained by applying ϕ to the coeﬃcients of f(x). Let E be a splitting ﬁeld for f(x) over F and
let E
be a splitting ﬁeld for f
(x) over F
. Then the isomorphism ϕ extends to an isomorphism σ: E ˜ →E
, i.e., σ
restricted to F is the isomorphism ϕ.
Corollary 13.28 (Uniqueness of Splitting Fields). Any two splitting ﬁelds for a polynomial f(x) ∈ F[x] over a
ﬁeld F are isomorphic.
Proposition 13.29. Let F be an algebraic closure of F. Then F is algebraically closed.
Proposition 13.30. For any ﬁeld F there exists an algebraically closed ﬁeld K containing F.
Proposition 13.31. Let K be an algebraically closed ﬁeld and let F be a subﬁeld of K. Then the collection of
elements F of K that are algebraic over F is an algebraic closure of F. An algebraic closure of F is unique up to
isomorphism.
Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Algebra). The ﬁeld C is algebraically closed.
Corollary 13.32. The ﬁeld C contains an algebraic closure for any of its subﬁelds. In particular, Q, the collection
of complex numbers algebraic over Q, is an algebraic closure of Q.
13.5. Separable and Inseparable Extensions.
Proposition 13.33. A polynomial f(x) has a multpile root α if and only if α is also a root of D
x
f(x), i.e., f(x)
and D
x
f(x) are both divisible by the minimal polynomial for α. In particular, f(x) is separable if and only if it is
relatively prime to its derivative: (f(x), D
x
f(x)) = 1.
Corollary 13.34. Every irreducible polynomial over a ﬁeld of characteristic 0 is separable. A polynomial over such
a ﬁeld is separable if and only if it is the product of distinct irreducible polynomials.
Proposition 13.35. Let F be a ﬁeld of characteristic p. Then for any a, b ∈ F,
(a +p)
p
= a
p
+b
p
, and (ab)
p
= a
p
b
p
.
Put another way, the p
th
power map deﬁned by ϕ(a) = a
p
is an injective ﬁeld homomorphism from F to F.
Corollary 13.36. Suppose that F is a ﬁnite ﬁeld of characteristic p. Then every element of F is a p
th
power in F,
i.e., F = F
p
.
Proposition 13.37. Every irreducible polynomial over a ﬁnite ﬁeld F is separable. A polynomial in F[x] is separable
if and only if it is the product of distinct irreducible polynomials in F[x].
57
Proposition 13.38. Let p(x) be an irreducible polynomial over a ﬁeld F of characteristic p. Then there is a unique
integer k ≥ 0 and a unique irreducible separable polynomial p
sep
(x) ∈ F[x] such that
p(x) = p
sep
(x
p
k
).
Corollary 13.39. Every ﬁnite extension of a perfect ﬁeld is separable. In particular, every ﬁnite extension of either
Q or a ﬁnite ﬁeld is separable.
13.6. Cyclotomic Polynomials and Extensions.
Lemma 13.40. The cyclotomic polynomial Φ
n
(x) is a monic polynomial in Z[x] of degree ϕ(n).
Theorem 13.41. The cyclotomic polynomial Φ
n
(x) is an irreducible monic polynomial in Z[x] of degree ϕ(n).
Corollary 13.42. The degree over Q of the cyclotomic ﬁeld of n
th
roots of unity is ϕ(n):
[Q(ζ
n
): Q] = ϕ(n).
14. Galois Theory
14.1. Basic Deﬁnitions.
Proposition 14.1. Aut(K) is a group under composition and Aut(K/F) is a subgroup.
Proposition 14.2. Let K/F be a ﬁeld extension and let α ∈ K be algebraic over F. Then for any σ ∈ Aut(K/F),
σα is a root of the minimal polynomial for α over F i.e., Aut(K/F) permutes the roots of irreducible polynomials.
Equivalently, any polynomial with coeﬃcients in F having α as a root also has σα as a root.
Proposition 14.3. Let H ≤ Aut(K) be a subgroup of the group of automorphisms of K. Then the collection F of
elements of K ﬁxed by all the elements of H is a subﬁeld of K.
Proposition 14.4. The association of groups to ﬁelds and ﬁelds to groups deﬁned above is inclusion reversing,
namely
(1) if F
1
⊆ F
2
⊆ K are two subﬁelds of K then Aut(K/F
2
) ≤ Aut(K/F
1
), and
(2) if H
1
≤ H
2
≤ Aut(K) are two subgroups of automorphisms with associated ﬁxed ﬁelds F
1
and F
2
, respec
tively, then F
2
⊆ F
1
.
Proposition 14.5. Let E be the splitting ﬁeld over F of the polynomial f(x) ∈ F[x]. Then
[Aut(E/F)[ ≤ [E: F]
with equality if f(x) is separable over F.
Corollary 14.6. If K is the splitting ﬁeld over F of a separable polynomial f(x) then K/F is Galois.
14.2. The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory.
Theorem 14.7 (Linear Independence of Characters). If χ
1
, . . . , χ
n
are distinct characters of G with values in L
then they are linearly independent over L.
Corollary 14.8. If σ
1
, . . . , σ
n
are distinct embeddings of a ﬁeld K into a ﬁeld L, then they are linearly independent
as functions on K. In particular distinct automorphisms of a ﬁeld K are linearly independent as functions on K.
Theorem 14.9. Let G = ¦σ
1
= 1, σ
2
, . . . , σ
n
¦ be a subgroup of automorphisms of a ﬁeld K and let F be the ﬁxed
ﬁeld. Then
[K: F] = n = [G[ .
Corollary 14.10. Let K/F be any ﬁnite extension. Then
[Aut(K/F)[ ≤ [K: F]
with equality if and only if F is the ﬁxed ﬁeld of Aut(K/F). Put another way, K/F is Galois if and only if F is
the ﬁxed ﬁeld of Aut(K/F).
Corollary 14.11. Let G be a ﬁnite subgroup of automorphisms of a ﬁeld K and let F be the ﬁxed ﬁeld. Then every
automorphism of K ﬁxing F is contained in G, i.e., Aut(K/F) = G, so that K/F is Galois, with Galois group G.
Corollary 14.12. If G
1
= G
2
are distinct ﬁnite subgroups of automorphisms of a ﬁeld K then their ﬁxed ﬁelds are
also distinct.
Theorem 14.13. The extension K/F is Galois if and only if K is the splitting ﬁeld of some separable polynomial
over F. Furthermore, if this is the case then every irreducible polynomial with coeﬃecients in F which has a root
in K is separable and has all its roots in K (so in particular K/F is a separable extension).
Theorem 14.14 (Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory).
58 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
15. Commutative Rings and Algebraic Geometry
15.1. Noetherian Rings and Aﬃne Algebraic Sets.
15.2. Radicals and Aﬃne Varieties.
15.3. Integral Extensions and Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz.
15.4. Localization.
Theorem 15.36 (cf. theorem 7.15). let R be a commutative ring with 1 = 0 and let D be a multiplicatively closed
subset of R containing 1. Then there is a commutative ring D
−1
R and a ring homomorphism π: R → D
−1
R
satisfying the following universal property: for any homomorphism ψ: R → S of commutative rings that sends 1
to 1 such that ψ(d) is a unit in S for every d ∈ D, there is a unique homomorphism Ψ: D
−1
R → S such that
Ψ◦ π = ψ.
Corollary 15.37. In the notation of theorem 15.36,
(1) ker π = ¦r ∈ R [ xr = 0 for some x ∈ D¦; in particular, π: R → D
−1
R is an injetion if and only if D
contains neither zero nor any zero divisors of R, and
(2) D
−1
R = 0 if and only if 0 ∈ D, hence if and only if D contains nilpotent elements.
15.4.18. Let R be any commutative ring with 1 and let f be any element of R. Let D be the multiplicative set
¦f
n
[ n ≥ 0¦ of nonnegative powers of f in R. Deﬁne R
f
= D
−1
R. Note that R
f
= 0 if and only if f is nilpotent.
If f is not nilpotent, then f becomes a unit in R
f
. Prove that R
f
∼
= R[x]/(fx − 1) where R[x] is the polynomial
ring in the variable x, if f is not nilpotent in R.
Proof.
15.4.21. Suppose ϕ: R → S is a ring homomorphism with ϕ(1
R
) = 1
S
and D
is a multiplicatively closed subset
of S. Let D = ϕ
−1
(D
). Prove D is a multiplicatively closed subset of R and the map ϕ
: D
−1
R → D
−1
S given
by ϕ
(r/d) = ϕ(r)/ϕ(d) is a ring homomorphism.
Proof. Let d
1
, d
2
∈ D with ϕ(d
1
d
2
) = ϕ(d
1
)ϕ(d
2
) so d
1
d
2
∈ ϕ
−1
(D
) because D
is a multiplicative set.
Let
r1
d1
=
r2
d2
. Then r
1
d
2
= r
2
d
1
so
ϕ
(
r
1
d
1
) = ϕ
(
r
1
r
2
d
2
r
2
d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
1
r
2
d
2
)
ϕ(r
2
d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
2
d
1
)ϕ(r
2
)
ϕ(r
2
d
1
)ϕ(d
2
)
= ϕ
(
r
2
d
2
)
59
So ϕ
is well deﬁned. Now let
r1
d1
,
r2
d2
∈ D
−1
R. Then
ϕ
(
r
1
d
1
+
r
2
d
2
) = ϕ
(
r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
)
ϕ(d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
1
)
ϕ(d
1
)
+
ϕ(r
2
)
ϕ(d
2
)
= ϕ
(
r
1
d
1
) +ϕ
(
r
2
d
2
)
ϕ
(
r
1
d
1
r
2
d
2
) = ϕ
(
r
1
r
2
d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
1
r
2
)
ϕ(d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
1
)
ϕ(d
1
)
ϕ(r
2
)
ϕ(d
2
)
= ϕ
(
r
1
d
1
)ϕ
(
r
2
d
2
).
15.4.22. Suppose P ⊆ Q are prime ideals in R and let R
Q
be the localization of R at Q. Prove that the localization
R
P
is isomorphic to the localization of R
Q
at the prime ideal P R
Q
(cf. exercise 15.4.21).
Proof.
2
DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
4.4. Automorphisms 4.5. The Sylow Theorems 4.6. The Simplicity of An 5. Direct and Semidirect Products and Abelian Groups 5.1. Direct Products 5.2. The Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups 5.3. Table of Groups of Small Order 5.4. Recognizing Direct Products 5.5. Semidirect Products 6. Further Topics in Group Theory 6.1. pgroups, Nilpotent Groups, and Solvable Groups Part II – Ring Theory 7. Introduction to Rings 7.1. Basic Deﬁnitions and Examples 7.2. Examples: Polynomials Rings, Matrix Rings, and Group Rings 7.3. Ring Homomorphisms and Quotient Rings 7.4. Properties of Ideals 7.5. Rings of Fractions 8. Euclidean, Principal Ideal, and Unique Factorization Domains 8.1. Euclidean Domains 9. Polynomial Rings 9.1. Deﬁnitions and Basic Properties 9.2. Polynomial Rings Over Fields I 9.3. Polynomial Rings That are Unique Factorization Domains 9.4. Irreducibility Criteria 9.5. Polynomial Rings Over Fields II 9.6. Polynomials in Several Variables Over a Field and Gr¨bner Bases o Part III – Modules and Vector Spaces 10. Introduction to Module Theory 10.1. Basic Deﬁnitions and Examples 13. Field Theory 13.1. Basic Theory of Field Extensions 13.2. Basic Theory of Field Extensions 13.3. Classical Straightedge and Compass Constructions 13.4. Splitting Fields and Algebraic Closures 13.5. Separable and Inseparable Extensions 13.6. Cyclotomic Polynomials and Extensions 14. Galois Theory 14.1. Basic Deﬁnitions 14.2. The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory 15. Commutative Rings and Algebraic Geometry 15.1. Noetherian Rings and Aﬃne Algebraic Sets 15.2. Radicals and Aﬃne Varieties 15.3. Integral Extensions and Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz 15.4. Localization
26 26 27 28 28 29 30 30 30 31 31 33 33 33 34 36 39 42 45 45 46 46 47 48 48 50 50 53 53 53 54 54 54 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 58 58 58 58 58
3
0. Preliminaries 0.1. Basics. Proposition 0.1. Let f : A → B. (1) The map f is injective if and only if f has a left inverse. (2) The map f is surjective if and only if f has a right inverse. (3) The map f is a bijection if and only if there exists g : B → A such that f ◦ g is the identity map on B and g ◦ f is the identity map on A. (4) If A and B are ﬁnite sets with the same number of elements (A = B), then f : A → B is bijective if and only if f is injective if and only if f is surjective. Proof. (a) Suppose f is injective so that f −1 (b) contains a single element for b ∈ f (A). Thus g(b) = f −1 (b) is welldeﬁned for b ∈ f (A). Hence g(f (a)) = a for all a ∈ A. Now suppose that f has a left inverse g so that g(f (a)) = a for all a ∈ A. If f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) = b, then g(b) = a1 and g(b) = a2 . But g is a welldeﬁned map so a1 = a2 and thus f is injective. (b) Suppose f is surjective. Take some b ∈ B so we can choose a ∈ A such that f (a) = b. Thus we can deﬁne g(b) = a such that f (a) = b. Hence f (g(b)) = f (a) = b. Now suppose that f has a right inverse g so that f (g(b)) = b for all b ∈ B. So f (g(B)) = B and thus f is surjective. (c) Suppose that f is bijective so there is a left inverse, gl , and a right inverse, gr , of f . Let f (a) = b so that a = gl (f (a)) = gl (b) and b = f (gr (b)). Since f is injective, gr (b) = a and thus gl = gr . Thus the right and left inverses of f are the same map. Now suppose that there exists g : B → A such that f ◦ g is the identity map on B and g ◦ f is the identity map on A. Then f is surjective because f (g(B)) = B. Now let f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) so that a1 = g(f (a1 )) = g(f (a2 )) = a2 . Thus f is injective. (d) Suppose that f is injective. Then f takes elements of A to unique elements of B. Since A = B, f is surjective. Now suppose that f is surjective. Then since A = B, f takes elements of A to unique elements of B so f is injective. Therefore f is either bijective or neither injective or surjective. Proposition 0.2. Let A be a nonepty set. (1) If ∼ deﬁnes an equivalence relation on A then the set of equivalence classes of ∼ form a partition of A. (2) If {Ai  i ∈ I} is a partition of A then there is an equivalence relation on A whose equivalence classes are preciselly the sets Ai , i ∈ I. In Exercises 1 to 4 let A be the set of 2 × 2 matrices with real number entries. Recall that matrix multiplication is deﬁned by a b p q ap + br aq + bs = c d r s cp + dr cq + ds Let M= and let B = {X ∈ A  M X = XM } . 0.1.1. The following elements of A lie in B: 1 0 1 0 , 1 0 0 1 , 0 0 0 . 1 1 0 1 1
0.1.2. Prove that if P, Q ∈ B, then P + Q ∈ B (where + denotes the usual sum of two matrices). Proof. (P + Q)M = P M + QM = M P + M Q = M (P + Q).
0.1.3. Prove that if P, Q ∈ B, then P · Q ∈ B (where · denotes the usual product of two matrices). Proof. (P · Q)M = P · M · Q = M · P · Q = M (P · Q).
4
DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
0.1.4. Find conditions on p, q, r, s which determine precisely when r = 0, p = s. 0.1.5. Determine whether the following functions f are well deﬁned: (1) f : Q → Z deﬁned by f (a/b) = a. (2) f : Q → Q deﬁned by f (a/b) = a2 /b2 .
p r
q s
∈ B.
Proof. (a) f is not a well deﬁned map because 1/2 = 2/4 and 1 = 2. (b) f is a well deﬁned map because if a1 /b1 = a2 /b2 , then a2 /b2 = a2 /b2 . 1 1 2 2 0.1.6. Determine whether the function f : R+ → Z deﬁned by mapping a real number r to the ﬁrst digit to the right of the decimal point in a decimal expansion of r is well deﬁned. f is well deﬁned because the decimal expansion of a real number is unique. Thus there is one and only one possible ﬁrst number to the right of the decimal for each real number. 0.1.7. Let f : A → B be a surjective map of sets. Prove that the relation a ∼ b if and only if f (a) = f (b) is an equivalence relation whose equivalence classes are the ﬁbers of f . Proof. f (a) = f (a) so ∼ is reﬂexive. If f (a) = f (b), then f (b) = f (a) so ∼ is symmetric. If f (a) = f (b) and f (b) = f (c), then f (a) = f (c) so ∼ is transitive. If a1 , a2 ∈ f −1 (b), then f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) so a1 ∼ a2 . If a1 ∼ a2 then f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) so a1 and a2 are in the same ﬁber of f . 0.2. Properties of the Integers. (1) (Well Ordering of Z) If A is any nonempty subset of Z+ , there is some element m ∈ A such that m ≤ a, for all a ∈ A. (2) If a, b ∈ Z with a = 0, we say a divides b if there is an element c ∈ Z such that b = ac. In this case we write a  b; if a does not divide b we write a b. (3) If a, b ∈ Z\ {0}, there is a unique positive integer d, called the greatest common divisor of a and b, satisfying: (a) d  a and d  b, (b) if e  a and e  b, then e  d. (4) If a, b ∈ Z\ {0}, there is a unique positive integer l, called the least common multiple of a and B, satisfying: (a) a  l and b  l, (b) if a  m and b  m, then l  m. The connection between the greatest common divisor d and the least common multiple l of the two integers a and b is given by dl = ab. (5) The Division Algorithm: if a, b ∈ Z and b = 0, then there exist unique q, r ∈ Z such taht a = qb + r and 0 ≤ r < b , where q is the quotient and r the remainder. (6) The Euclidean Algorithm is an important procedure which produces a greatest common divisor of two integers a and b by iterating the Division Algorithm: if a, b ∈ Z\ {0}, then we obtain a sequence of quotients and remainders a = q0 b + r0 b = q1 r0 + r1 r0 = q2 r1 + r2 r1 = q3 r2 + r3 . . . rn−2 = qn rn−1 + rn rn−1 = qn+1 rn where rn is the last nonzero remainder. Such an rn exists since b > r0  > r1  > · · · > rn  is a decreasing sequence of strictly positive integers if the remainders are nonzero and such a sequence cannot continue indeﬁnitely. Then rn = (a, b).
5
(7) One consequence of the Euclidean Algorithm which we chall use regularly is the following: if a, b ∈ Z\ {0}, then there exist x, y ∈ Z such that (a, b) = ax + by that is, the gcd of a and b is a Zlinear combination of a and b. This follows by recursively writing the element rn in the Euclidean Algorithm in terms of the previous remainders. (8) An element p of Z+ is calle a prime if p > 1 and the only posotive divisors of p are 1 and p. An integer n > 1 which is not prime is called composite. An important property of primes is if p is a prime and p  ab, for some a, b ∈ Z then either p  a or p  b. (9) The fundamental theorem of arithmetic says: if n ∈ Z, n > 1, then n can be factored uniquely into the product of primes, i.e., there are distinct primes p1 , p2 , . . . , ps and positive integers α1 , α2 , . . . , αs such that n = pα1 pα2 · · · pαs . s 1 2 This factorization is unique in the sense that if q1 , q2 , . . . , qt are any distinct primes and β1 , β2 , . . . , βt , are positive integers such that then s = t and if we arrange the two sets of primes in increasing order, then qi = pi and αi = βi , 1 ≤ i ≤ s. Suppose the positive integers a and b are expressed as products of prime powers: a = pα1 pα2 · · · pαs , s 1 2 (a, b) = p1 b = pβ1 pβ2 · · · pβs s 1 2 · · · pmin(αs ,βs ) s
β β β n = q1 1 q2 2 · · · qt t ,
where p1 , p2 , . . . , ps are distinct and the exponents are ≥ 0. Then the gcd of a and b is
min(α1 ,β1 ) min(α2 ,β2 ) p2
and the lcm is obtained by taking the maximum of the αi and βi instead of the minimum. (10) The Euler ϕfunction is deﬁned as follows: for n ∈ Z+ let ϕ(n) be the number of positive integers a ≤ n with a relatively prime to n, i.e., (a, n) = 1. For primes p, ϕ(p) = p − 1, and, more generally, for all a ≥ 1 we have the formula ϕ(pa ) = pa − pa−1 = pa−1 (p − 1). The function ϕ is multiplicative in the sense that ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) if (a, b) = 1.
Together with the formula above this gives a general formula for the values of ϕ: if n = pα1 pα2 · · · pαs , then s 1 2 ϕ(n) = ϕ(pα1 )ϕ(pα2 ) · · · ϕ(pαs ) s 1 2
α α = pα1 −1 (p1 − 1)p2 2 −1 (p2 − 1) · · · ps s −1 (ps − 1). 1
0.2.1. For each of the following paris of integers a and b, determine their gcd, their lcm , and write their gcd in the form ax + by for some integers x and y. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) a = 20, b = 13. a = 69, b = 372. a = 792, b = 275. a = 11391, b = 5673. a = 1761, b = 1567. a = 507885, b = 60808.
Solution. 0.2.2. Prove that if the integer k divides the integers a and b then k divides as + bt for every pair of integers s and t. Proof. 0.2.3. Prove that if n is composite then there are integers a and b such that n divides ab but n does not divide either a or b. Proof.
3. Solution.3. Prove for any integer t that the integers b a x = x0 + t and y = y0 − t d d are also solutions to ax + by = N (this is in fact the general solution). Solution.4. Prove that if d divides n then ϕ(d) divides ϕ(n) where ϕ denotes Euler’s ϕfunction.3. if then × a1 ≡ b1 mod n and a2 ≡ b2 mod n mod n.2. 0. Solution.2. Let a. Prove that if a = an 10n + an−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 is any positive integer then a ≡ an + an−1 + · · · + a1 + a0 n−1 mod 9. 2. b) in the form ax + by for some integers x and y. 0. Find a formula for the largest power of p which divides n! = n(n−1)(n−2) · · · 2·1. b2 ∈ Z with a1 = b1 and a2 = b2 .2. 0. . Proof. Proof.3.4.2. a2 ∈ Z and b1 . Z/nZ: The Integers Modulo n. 0.6. Write a computer program to determine the greatest common divisor (a.3.5. Solution. FOOTE 0.3. .10. they do not depend on the choices of representatives for the classes involved. Compute the last two digits of 91500 . then a1 + a2 = b1 + b2 and a1 a2 = b1 b2 . that is. Proof. i.2. Conclude in particular that ϕ(n) tends to inﬁnity as n tends to inﬁnity.e.6 DAVID S. 0. 0.2. 0. Prove that the squares of the elements in Z/4Z are just 0 and 1. n) = 1}. n ∈ Z+ . b) of two integers a and b and to express (a. b and N be ﬁxed integers with a and b nonzero and let d = (a. Prove for any given positive integer N there exist only ﬁnitely many integers n with ϕ(n) = N where ϕ denotes Euler’s ϕfunction.5.8. 0. . 1.6.4. The operations of addition and multiplication on Z/nZ are well deﬁned. . 0. Proof. More precisely. if a1 . a1 + a2 ≡ b1 + b2 mod n and a1 a2 ≡ b1 b2 Proposition 0.7. If p is a prime prove that there do not exist nonzero integers a and b such that a2 = pb2 . DUMMIT AND RICHARD M.1.11. 0.2. Let p be a prime. b) be the gcd of a and b. 0. Determine the value ϕ(n) for each integer n ≤ 30 where ϕ denotes the Euler ϕfunction. Suppose x0 and y0 are particular solutions to ax+ by = N . 0. Compute the remainder when 37100 is divided by 29. Write down explicitly all the elements in the residue classes of Z/18Z.3. Solution. .9.3.2. Prove the Well Ordering Property of Z by induction and prove the minimal element is unique.3. Theorem 0. 0. Proof. Proof.2. Proof.. n − 1. 0. Z/nZ) = {a ∈ Z/nZ  (a. Prove that the distinct equivalence classes in Z/nZ are precisely 0.
3. The output of these operations should be the least residues of the usms and products of two integers. and integer c between 1 and n − 1 such taht a · c = 1 may be printed on request.3. 0. 0. Prove that if a and n are relatively prime then there is an integer c such that ac ≡ 1 mod n. Prove that the square of any odd integer always leaves a remainder of 1 when divided by 8. Proof. b ∈ (Z/nZ)× .13. and let a ∈ Z with 1 ≤ a ≤ n.14. 0. then a · b ∈ (Z/nZ)× .3. Prove for any integers a and b that a2 + b2 never leaves a remainder of 3 when divided by 4. Let n ∈ Z.3. Conclude from the previous two exercises that (Z/nZ)× is the set of elements a of Z/nZ with (a. 0. n = 3797. Prove that if a. Write a computer program to add and multiply mod n. n > 1. Verify this directly in the case n = 12.15. (a) a = 13.3. Let n ∈ Z.4. Also include the feature that if (a.7 Proof. Prove that for any integers a and b that a2 + b2 = 3c2 has no solutions in nonzero integers a. 0.3.3. Proof. 0. b. show that a is relatively prime to n and determine the multiplicative inverse of a in Z/nZ. Proof. 0. n > 1. (b) a = 69. Proof. For each of the following pairs of integers a and n.12.16. n) = 1 and hence prove proposition 0. for any n given as input. and let z ∈ Z with 1 ≤ a ≤ n.7. n) = 1. Proof. Proof.9. Solution. Prove that the number of elements of (Z/nZ)× is ϕ(n) where ϕ denotes the Euler ϕfunction. Prove if a and n are not relatively prime then there exists an itneger b with 1 ≤ b < n such that ab ≡ 0 mod n and deduce that there cannot be an itneger c such that ac ≡ 1 mod n.3. .8. n = 20. 0. (c) a = 1891. (d) a = 6003722857.10.3. 0. and c. Proof. n = 89. 0.3. Proof.11. n = 77695236973.
Note that 1 − 2 = −1 and 2 − 1 = 1 so (a) is not commutative. bdf = adf + b(cf + de).1. Decide which of the following binary operations are commutative: (a) the operation on Z deﬁned by a b = a − b (b) the operation on R deﬁned by a b = a + b + ab (d) the operation on Z × Z deﬁned by (a. then u = v. d) (e. (a b) c = (a + b + ab) + c + (a + b + ab)c = a + b + c + ab + ac + bc + abc = a + b + c + bc + a(b + c + bc) = a (b c) (a.2. an ∈ G the value of a1 a2 · · · an is independent of how the expression is bracketed. d) = (ad + bc. b) (c. b) (c. (2) if ub = vb. . Proposition 1. The equations ax = b and ya = b have unique solutions for x. i.e. (1) if au = av. b ∈ G.1. a2 . d) = (ad + bc.1. . b) (c. If G is a group under the operation . . so (a) is not associative. Prove that multiplication of residue classes in Z/nZ is associative. then u = v. d) (a. the left and right cancellation laws hold in G. bd).8 DAVID S. db) = (c. b) 1. Note that (1 − 2) − 3 = −4 and 1 − (2 − 3) = 2.1. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. d) (e.. bdf = (a. Basic Axioms and Examples. a−1 is uniquely determined (3) (a−1 )−1 = a for all a ∈ G (4) (a b)−1 = (b−1 ) (a−1 ) (5) for any a1 . Introduction to Groups 1. d) = (ad + bc. 1. FOOTE Part I – Group Theory 1. Let G be a group and let a. Proposition 1. bd) = (cb + da. We calculate that (b) and (d) are associative below. Let G be a group. f ) = (ad + bc)f + bde.1. b) (c. . We calculate that (b) and (d) are commutative below. Proof.4. y ∈ G. then (1) the identity of G is unique (2) for each a ∈ G.1. . Proof. bd). f ) 1. 1. a b = a + b + ab = b + a + ba =b a (a. b) (c.3. Determine which of the following binary operations are associative: (a) the operation on Z deﬁned by a b = a − b (b) the operation on R deﬁned by a b = a + b + ab (d) the operation on Z × Z deﬁned by (a.2. Prove that addition of residue classes in Z/nZ is associative. In particular.1.
25. 1. y ∈ G let x y be the fractional part of x+y (i. Proof. (a) Prove that G is a gorup under addition.1.9.e. Let G = {x ∈ R  0 ≤ x < 1} and for x. Determine which of the following sets are groups under addition: (b) the set of rational numbers in lowest terms whose denominators are even together with 0 (d) the set of rational numbers of absolute value ≥ 1 together with 0 (e) the set of rational numbers with denominators equal to 1 or 2. Note that 1/6 + 1/6 = 1/3 so addition is not a binary relation on (b) and thus (b) is not a group.8.5. Let G = {z ∈ C  z n = 1 for some n ∈ Z+ }.7. 13 = 3. x y = x+y −[x+y] where [a] is the greatest integer less than or equal to a). addition is associative on the rational numbers so this subset must also have the associative property.. x y = x + y − [x + y] = y + x − [y + x] =y x x (1 − x) = x + 1 − x − [x + 1 − x] = 1 − 1 = 0. 1. We notice that addition is a well deﬁned binary relation on (e). We show that G is abelian by letting x. 17.1. The inverse of x ∈ G would be given by 1 − x for x = 0 because Note that 1 − x ∈ G for x ∈ G and x = 0. and the inverse of a is −a. y ∈ G and computing that is commutative on G. Let G = a + b 2 ∈ R  a.1. 1. Prove for all n > 1 that Z/nZ is not a group under multiplication of residue classes. −1 = 2. Proof (b). (b) Prove that the nonzero elements of G are a group under multiplication.1. 1. √ 1. (x y) z = (x + y − [x + y]) + z − [(x + y − [x + y]) + z] = x + y + z − [x + y] + [x + y] − [x + y + z] = x + y + z − [y + z] + [y + z] − [x + y + z] = x (y z) is a = x + (y + z − [y + z]) − [x + (y + z − [y + z])] The identity element of G is clearly 0. 1. 1 = 1. The inverse of 0 is clearly 0.1. the identity is 0. Find the orders of the following elements of the multiplicative group (Z/36Z)× : 1.6. 13. −13 = 6. Also note that −3/2 + 1 = −1/2 so addition is not a binary relation on (d) and thus (d) is note a group. (b) Prove that G is not a group under addition. Proof.1. Proof (b). Proof. Proof (a). Note that the sum of two real numbers has a unique fractional part. Proof (a). .1. Therefore (e) is a group.10. Prove that if x2 = 1 for all x ∈ G then G is abelian. −1. such that 0 ≤ x < 1. 1. −13. x. Prove that is a well deﬁned binary operation on G and that G is an abelian group under (called the real numbers mod 1). 5 = 6. Prove that a ﬁnite gorup is abelian if and only if its group table is a symmetric matrix.1. 5. b ∈ Q .14. Thus well deﬁned operation that takes x y into G. We show that is associative on G. (a) Prove that G is a gorup under multiplication.9 1. 17 = 2.
s = 2. 1.] . r2 = 3. then x = srk for some 0 ≤ k < n.2. both of which have order 2. Then srk srk = srk−1 sr−1 rk = srk−1 srk−1 = 1. the relations for a and b follow from those for r and s. (a) Show that if n = 3k.2. 1. In these exercises. Use the generators and relations above to show that if x is any element of D2n which is not a power of r.9 you can ﬁnd the order of the group of rigid motions in R3 (also called the group of rotations) of the given Platonic solid by following the proof for the order of D2n : ﬁnd the number of positions to which an adjacent pair of vertices can be sent.] Proof. In Exercise 1.2. If x is not a power of r. xy = yx2 . (b) Show that if (3. Compute the order of each of the elements in the following groups: (a) D6 The order of elements from (a) are: 1 = 1. Proof. Dihedral Groups. Clearly a2 = 1. [Show that the relations for r and s follow from the relations for a and b and. the number of positions to which a vertex on that face may be sent. [Use the facts that xn = 1 and x3 = 1.3. Since x2 = 1 we know that x = x−1 for all x ∈ G. sr = 2.7. Notice that sr0 sr0 = 1 and suppose that sri sri = 1 for 0 ≤ i < k. We use the second method described above to show that G = 12. and (ab)n = (ssr)n = rn = 1. Proof. each face having 3 distinct rotations.10 DAVID S. once a face is ﬁxed. then x = srk for some 0 ≤ k < n. rs = sr−1 .2. 1.9. Let G be the group of rigid motions in R3 of a tetrahedron. s  rn = s2 = 1. Use the generators and relations above to show that every element of D2n which is not a power of r has order 2. In this case deduce that X2n has order 2. sr2 = 2.17.1.2. 1. Show that G = 12. there are 4 · 3 = 12 positions to which a vertex on each ﬁxed face may be sent. So rsrk = sr−1 rk = srk−1 = srk r−1 . 1. 1.2. Show that a. Since there are 4 faces of a tetrahedron. Let X2n = x. Hence the original relations imply the new relations. you can ﬁnd the number of places to which a given face may be sent and.3 above. Now suppose that a2 = b2 = (ab)n = 1. conversely. r = 3.2. and it has the same generators and relations as D6 when x is replaced by r and y by s.3 shows b2 = 1. then rx = xr−1 . Thus xy = (xy)−1 = y −1 x−1 = yx. If x ∈ D2n is not a power of r. then x satisﬁes the additional relation: x = 1. First we start with the relations rn = s2 = 1 and rs = sr−1 . FOOTE Proof. and rs = ssrsrr−1 = sr−1 . Deduce that D2n is generated by the two elements s and sr. Alternatively. then X2k has order 6. Proof. Exercise 1.2.2. D2n has the usual presentation D2n = r.2. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. n) = 1. by induction. y  xn = y 2 = 1. 1. Then clearly s2 = 1. b  a2 = b2 = (ab)n = 1 gives a presentation for D2n in terms of the two generators a = s and b = sr of order 2 computed in Exercise 1.2. rn = (ssr)n = (ab)n = 1.
(1423) = 4. (13). Symmetric Groups. (1432) = 4. (1324) = 4. Then clearly x3 = y 2 = 1. 1. .7.4. (132) = 3.4. Proof. Show that GLn (F ) is nonabelian for any n ≥ 2 and any F . 1. . (234) = 3. [Subtract the number of 2 × 2 matrices which are not invertible from the total number of 2 × 2 matrices over Fp . (124) = 3. Show that σ i is also an mcycle if and only if i is relatively prime to m. (123) = 3. Compute the order of each of the elments in the following groups: (a) S3 (b) S4 For elements in S3 we calculate that 1 = 1. x3  x2 = x3 = 1. αt = m. Write out the cycle decomposition of each element of order 2 in S4 . . (1243) = 4. (142) = 3.3. am ). (12)(34). So x = x3s+nt = (x3 )s (xn )t = 1. then σ i must be an mcycle as well. (1342) = 4. 1. Let p be a prime. . For elements in S4 we calculate that 1 = 1.3. t ∈ Z such that αs = i. Since (3. . . (12) = 2. c d 1. (24).20. (13)(24). First suppose that σ i is an mcycle so that σ i = (a1 a2 . (23) = 2. t ∈ Z such that si + tm = 1. am )]s which can only be an mcycle if α = 1. m). Prove that the order of GL2 (Fp ) is p4 − p3 − p2 + p (do not just quote the order formula in this section).11 Proof (a). (14). 1. (123) = 3. n) = 1. Now suppose we have the relations given by X2n . (12). (134) = 3. S3 = x2 . Suppose we have the relations given by D6 . (14)(23) = 2. . x2 x3 = x−1 x2 2 3 3 1. Now suppose that i is relatively prime to m so that there are s. Proof (b). We also have xy = yx−1 = yx3−1 = yx2 . (143) = 3. 1. Find a set of generators and relations for S3 . (243) = 3.] Proof. (13) = 2. Thus X2n has order 2. (23) = 2.4.7. So σ i = σ αs = [(a1 aα+1 . Then assume that αi and αm so there are s. The relations xy = yx2 and x3 = 1 show us xy = yx2 = yx−1 . You may use the fact that a 2 × 2 matrix is not invertible if and only if one row is a multiple of the other. Thus i and m are relatively prime. (1234) = 4.11. Since a power of σ i is an mcycle. Notice that the total number of 2 × 2 matrices over Fp is p4 . namely X2n = {1.3. Let σ be the mcycle (1 2 . y}. (12)(34) = 2. (13) = 2. We count the number of noninvertible matrices a b for a matrix in Figure 1. Therefore D6 = X6 and X6  = 6. (24) = 2. 1. (34). there exist s. t ∈ Z such that 3s + nt = 1.4.8. Matrix Groups. (14) = 2. (13)(24) = 2. (34) = 2. . αm−α+1 ) · · · (aα a2α . . But then σ = σ si+tm = σ si σ tm = (σ i )s . (12) = 2. Then clearly x3k = (x3 )k = y 2 = 1.3. (132) = 3. Thus the order of GL2 (Fp ) is p4 − p3 − p2 + p.3. (14)(23).1 to be p3 + p2 − p. (23).
12 DAVID S. (d) Prove that the set of elements of G whose two diagonal entries are equal (i. Let G = a b 0 c  a. FOOTE a=0 b=0 b=0 c=0 c=0 d=0 p−1 c=0 d=0 c=0 d=0 d=0 d=0 d=0 d=0 d=0 1 p − 1 (p − 1)2 p − 1 (p − 1)2 0 0 a=0 b=0 c=0 b=0 c=0 d=0 c=0 d=0 c=0 d=0 p−1 d=0 (p − 1)2 d=0 d=0 d=0 d=0 0 0 (p − 1)2 (p − 1)3 Figure 1. 1. a = 0.. c ∈ R. Section 1). c = 0 .4.1. First notice 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 = = 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 so that GL2 (F ) is nonabelian for any F . (a) Compute the product of . Number of noninvertible matrices.e. Now notice that extending the matrices with zeros shows the result for n > 2. 0 c (c) Deduce that G is a subgroup of GL2 (R) (cf. a = c) is also a subgroup of GL2 (R). 0 c1 0 c2 a b (b) Find the matrix inverse of and deduce that G is closed under inverses. Exercise 26. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. Proof.10. a1 b1 a2 b2 and to show that G is closed under matrix multiplication. b.
−j. So let M = det M = ac = 0. and G is closed under inverse. Quaternion Groups. c2 = 0. −j = 4.3. i2 = j 2 = k 2 = ijk = −1 . we must ﬁrst show a 0 b . −1. −i. Computing the product of two matrices in G. k  (−1)2 = 1. j. Let Q8 = {1. we ﬁnd a1 0 b1 c1 a2 0 b2 c2 = a1 a2 0 a1 b2 + b1 c2 . c1 c2 Since a1 . matrix multipliaction is indeed a binary operation G .1. Notice that the identity element is in G .5.5. a2 = 0 and c1 . Thus G is closed under inverse and since G ⊆ G ⊆ GL2 (R). 1. 1. −k = 4. and Q8 . Find a set of generators and relations for Q8 . j = 4. We ﬁrst show that matrix multiplication is a binary operation on G = {G  a = c}. Write out the group tables for S3 . Note matrix multiplication is a binary operation on G. −k} as given in the textbook. Proof (d). Q8 = −1. So a1 0 b1 a1 a2 0 b2 a2 = a1 a2 0 a1 b2 + b1 a2 . a1 a2 Since a1 a2 = a1 a2 . To show that G is a subgroup of GL2 (R). Notice that a 0 b c 1/a −b/ac 0 1/c = = 1/a −b/ac 0 1/c a 0 b c = = 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 −b/c + b/c 1 0 1 b/a − b/a 1 0 . Compute the order of each of the elements in Q8 . k = 4. −i = 4. −1 = 2. (b). Thus G ⊆ GL2 (R). First notice that G = ∅ because ∈ G. i = 4. 1 Since 1/a −b/ac 0 1/c is in G. Then 1 = 1.13 Proof (a). So G is a subgroup of GL2 (R).5. then G is closed under inverses. k.5. 1. 1 0 0 1 (c). j. The inverse is given by a 0 b a −1 = 1/a −b/a2 0 1/a due to the calculation of inverse in G. this matrix is also in G. we must have G as a subgroup of GL2 (R). i. D8 . i. 1.2. c that elements of G have nonzero determinant. the identity is in G.
Therefore H ⊆ G is a subgroup. Let g1 . Let g1 . But Exercise 1. g2 be two elements in the kernel of the action. i. Therefore the kernel of the action is a subgroup of G. Proof. Prove that the image of φ. Now let g1 . Hence ∗H×H : H × H → H. Is the result true if φ is only assumed to be a homomorphism? Proof. 2 2 Proof. Prove that D8 and Q8 are not isomorphic.7. 1. Homomorphisms and Isomorphisms. g2 ∈ G so that g1 g2 g1 g2 = (g1 g2 )2 = g1 g2 . Therefore φ is injective. 1. First suppose that g → g 2 is a homomorphism. g2 ∈ G so that (g1 g2 )2 = g1 g2 g1 g2 = g1 g2 and thus g → g 2 is a homomorphism.13. Then φ(g −1 ) = φ(g)−1 = h−1 . Then φ(g1 g2 ) = φ(g1 )φ(g2 ) = 1 so that g1 g2 ∈ ker φ.1 shows there are not two elements with order two in Q8 . Thus φ(g1 g2 ) = φ(g1 )φ(g2 ) = h1 h2 so h1 h2 ∈ H. Then φ(g −1 ) = φ(g)−1 = 1 so g −1 ∈ ker φ and ker φ is closed under inverse. Group Actions. Then (g1 g2 )(a) = g1 (g2 a) = g1 a = a so the group operation on G is a binary operation on the kernel of the action. Proof (b).6.. But 1 = φ(x)n = φ(xn ) and thus xn = 1.6. Exercise 26 of Section 1). For example the trivial map φ(x) = 1 for all x ∈ G for G nontrivial. FOOTE 1. Notice that 1 · a = a for all a ∈ A so the kernel of the action is nonempty. Thus g2 g1 = g1 g2 showing that G is abelian. Prove that the kernel of φ is a subgroup (cf. Deduce that any two isomorphic groups have the same number of elements of order n for each n ∈ Z+ . Prove that the kernel of an action of the group G on the set A is the same as the kernel of the corresponding permutation representation G → SA (cf. Let G and H be groups and let φ : G → H be a homomorphism. If φ : G → H is an isomorphism. 1.5. 1. 2 2 Now suppose that G is abelian. = Proof. Now let g ∈ {g ∈ G  ga = a} so that g −1 a = g −1 (ga) = (g −1 g)a = a and hence {g ∈ G  ga = a} is closed under inverse. Exercise 26 of Section 1): (a) the kernel of the action.14.5. Deﬁne the kernel of φ to be {g ∈ G  φ(g) = 1H } (so the kernel is the set of elements in G which map to the identity of H. Notice that 1 · a = a for all a ∈ A so the stabilizer of a in G is nonempty. Let g1 . The result that φ(x) = x is not true for φ any homomorphism. φ(G). Let h1 . 1. (b) {g ∈ G  ga = a} –this subgroup is called the stabilizer of a in G. Prove that φ is injective if and only if the kernel of φ is the identity subgroup of G.7. Thus ker φ ⊆ H is a subgroup.6.2 shows that D8 and Q8 are not isomorphic.5. So φ(g1 g2 ) = 1 and since −1 ker φ = {1G }. g2 ∈ G such that φ(g1 ) = h1 and φ(g2 ) = h2 . Proof (a). Let G and H be groups and let φ : G → H be a homomorphism. 1. Let h ∈ H and let φ(g) = h.14 DAVID S. Then g −1 a = g −1 (ga) = (g −1 g)a = a so the kernel of the action is closed under inverse. Exercise 14 in Section 6). we must have g1 g2 = 1G and thus g1 = g2 . so H is closed under inverse. Let φ(x) = n so that φ(x)n = 1 and φ(x)l = 1 for 0 < l < n. g2 ∈ ker φ so that φ(g1 ) = φ(g2 ) = 1.4. Since φ(1G ) = 1H .7. Note that s = r2 = 2. Thus there is only one element that maps to 1H . Now let g be in the kernel of the action. −1 Now suppose that ker φ = {1G } and let φ(g1 ) = φ(g2 ). g2 ∈ {g ∈ G  ga = a} so that (g1 g2 )a = g1 (g2 a) = g1 a = a and hence the group operation on G is a binary operation on {g ∈ G  ga = a}. is the ﬁber over the identity of H). ker φ = {1G }. Prove that if φ is injective then G ∼ φ(G). Now suppose that xl = 1. Exercise 26 of Section 1) of G. Let G be a group acting on a set A and ﬁx some a ∈ A. Therefore {g ∈ G  ga = a} is a subgroup of G. is a subgroup of H (cf. Let g1 . Proof.2. Prove that the map from G to itself deﬁned by g → g 2 is a homomorphism if and only if G is abelian. 1. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. Thus Exercise 1.e. Let G be any group. Suppose that g ∈ ker φ so that φ(g) = 1.6. Show that the following sets are subgroups of G (cf. 1. Thus x = n. .18.6. h2 ∈ H so that there are g1 . Suppose that φ is injective. Then 1 = φ(xl ) which is a contradiction. First note that 1 ∈ ker φ so that ker φ = ∅.6. Then φ(g1 )φ(g2 )−1 = 1. Notice that φ(1) = 1 so H is nonempty.7. Hence any two isomorphic groups have the same number of elements of order n for each n ∈ Z+ because of the bijectivity of φ. prove that φ(x) = x for all x ∈ G.
CQ8 (k) = {1. CD8 (r) = r . xy −1 ∈ H Furthermore. sr.2. In each of parts (a) to (c) show that for the speciﬁed group G and subgroup A of G. r2 . If k = n. . 2. A subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if (1) H = ∅ (2) for all x. ak } = {a1 . Then σg (a) = a for all a ∈ A hence σg = 1SA . Therefore the values of k giving rise to a faithful group action are all values of k < n.2. CD8 (r3 ) = r . . Centralizers and Normalizers. −j}.5. Since G is nonabelian we can ﬁnd g1 . r2 . Hence the homomorphism representing the group action is injective for k < n. . 2. .10. 1. Proof. k}.1 (The Subgroup Criterion). . sr3 . Find the kernel of the left regular action. sr2 . We assume the axioms of a group action hold. then it suﬃces to check that H is nonempty and closed under multiplication. (c) G = D10 and A = 1. CG (A) = A and NG (A) = G. Show that if G is nonabelian then the maps deﬁned by g · a = ag for all g.4. Note that Lagrange’s theorem lets us check our answers because the centralizer is a subgroup and thus must divide the order of the group. (b) G = D8 and A = 1. Thus / σ · {a1 . Thus CG (Z(G)) = G. . Proposition 2. (1 2 3). ak } and aj ∈ {a1 . then the group action is trivially faithful.13. . Does Lagrange’s Theorem (Exercise 19 in Section 1. CS3 ((2 3)) = {1. r2 . r. Now let σ ∈ Sn be a nonidentity element for n > 1. Let G be a group and let A = G. r3 . CS3 (1) = S3 . Then ga = σg (a) = a. . sr. (1 3 2)}. then we can choose {a1 . CQ8 (−i) = {1. Let Sn act on subsets of order k for some 1 ≤ k ≤ n. (1 2 3). we have NG (Z(G)) = G as well. g2 ∈ G such that g1 g2 = g2 g1 . . CD8 (s) = 1. CD8 (r2 ) = D8 . For each of S3 . . CQ8 (1) = Q8 . −k}. But a ∈ Z(G) if and only if ag = ga for all g ∈ G. Thus g = 1 so the kernel of the left regular action is {1}. .1. . Therefore these kernels are equivalent. 2.15 Proof. Proof. D8 . 1. r2 . CD8 (sr2 ) = 1. i}. Stabilizers and Kernels. (2 3)}. sr2 . s. sr3 . ak }. (1 3)}. First suppose that ga = a for all a ∈ A. . Deﬁnition and Examples.2. then ga = a for all a ∈ G. D8 . . 1. (a) G = S3 and A = {1. r2 . CQ8 (−1) = {1. If k < n. j}. CQ8 (i) = {1. a contradiction. Q8 . (1 3 2)}.7) simplify your work? S3 . Prove that CG (Z(G)) = G and deduce that NG (Z(G)) = G.14. CD8 (sr3 ) = 1. Note if n = 1. (1 2)}. CD8 (1) = D8 .2. . then σ is just a bijection of nelement sets so the homomorphism representing the group action is trivial. r4 . and Q8 compute the centralizers of each element and ﬁnd the center of each group. . Subgroups 2. Since CG (Z(G)) ≤ NG (Z(G)) and NG (Z(G)) ⊆ G. CQ8 (j) = {1. Notice CG (Z(G)) = g ∈ G  gag −1 = a.2. But g1 g2 = a−1 ag1 g2 = a−1 ((g1 g2 ) · a) = a−1 (g1 · (g2 · a)) = a−1 (g1 · (ag2 )) = a−1 (ag2 g1 ) = g2 g1 . ak } such that ai ∈ {a1 . CQ8 (−k) = {1. ∀a ∈ Z(G) by deﬁnition. . ak } . r2 . if H is ﬁnite. CD8 (sr) = 1.7. s. . 2. If g is in the kernel of the left regular action. CS3 ((1 3 2)) = {1. sr2 . 2. −1}. a ∈ G do not satisfy the axioms of a (left) group action of G on itself. y ∈ H. (1 3 2)}. Since σ is not the identity. . CS3 ((1 2)) = {1. Now suppose that σg (a) = a for all a ∈ A. −i}. .7. CS3 ((1 2 3)) = {1. (1 2 3). let σ(ai ) = aj for ai = aj .7. With reference to the preceding two exercises determine: (a) for which values of k the action of Sn on kelement subsets is faithful. if and only if a = gag −1 for all g ∈ G. Therefore this is not a group action. CQ8 (−j) = {1. s. . CS3 ((1 3)) = {1.
Note that CG (A) = ∩a∈A CG (a) so by Exercise 2. . then xd = 1. Let x ∈ NH (A) so x ∈ H ≤ G and xAx−1 = A. then either K = {1} or K = xd . r2 . Thus x ∈ NG (H) and hence NG (H) = CG (H). sr2 ∩ D8 ∩ 1. Let G be an arbitrary group. if K ≤ H. (1 3 2)}∩{1. xn−1 are all the distinct elements of H (2) if H = ∞. n).2. Let H = x .9. Proof. Therefore NH (A) ≤ G. we also must have CD10 (A) ⊆ A. sr2 = A. .2. In particular. If xn = 1 and xm = 1. Show that NH (A) = NG (A) ∩ H and deduce that NH (A) is a subgroup of H (note that A need not be a subset of H). h} x−1 = {1. Proof (b). Let H = {1. Let G be a group. Since x1x−1 = 1. In particular. we must have xhx−1 = h so that x {1. x2 . then H = x (where if one side of this equality is inﬁnite. Thus any element of G commutes with any element in H so H ⊆ Z(G). Thus x ∈ GH (A) and hence NH (A) = NG (A) ∩ H. (1 2 3). Thus x ∈ NG (A) ∩ H. then x1x−1 = 1 and xhx−1 = h so xHx−1 = H. (2) Assume x = n < ∞. Proof (c). Proposition 2. Cyclic Groups and Cyclic Subgroups. then x divides m. FOOTE Proof (a). 2. then xa  = ∞. Then H = xa if and only if a = ±1. Proof. More speciﬁcally (1) if H = n < ∞. Note that NG (A) and H are both subgroups of G and the intersection of two subgroups is again a subgroup. x ∈ NG (H) so that x ∈ G and xHx−1 = H. then xn = 1 for all n = 0 and xa = xb for all a = b in Z. . Note if NG (H) = G. so is the other). (1 3 2)} = A. Since CD10 (r) = r . (3) In particular. Proposition 2. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. Similarly to part (a) by Exercise 2.6. More precisely. (1) If x = ∞. If H = x . x. h}. then xa  = (n.3. where d = (m. 2. CS3 (A) = S3 ∩{1. s.7. then number of generators of H is ϕ(n). Since H and Z(G) are subgroups we get H ≤ Z(G). if x = n < ∞ and a is a positive integer dividing n. n (2) If x = n < ∞. Let H = x be a cyclic group. Any two cyclic groups of the same order are isomorphic.4.10. . Deduce that if NG (H) = G then H ≤ Z(G). Proposition 2.2.3.4. Then H = xa if and only if (a. then xn = 1 and 1. x ∈ G and let m.a) . (1) if n ∈ Z+ and x and y are both cyclic groups of order n. (1) Every subgroup of H is cyclic. r2 . h}.16 DAVID S. . (1) Assume x = ∞. then G = CG (H). where d is the smallest positive integer such that xd ∈ K. Now if x ∈ CG (H). (1 2 3). Note that any power of r commutes with any power of r so A ⊆ CD10 (A). Now let x ∈ NG (A) ∩ H so that x ∈ HandxAx−1 = A. Show that NG (H) = CG (H). n) = 1. CD8 (A) = D8 ∩ 1. then xa  = k → xk n a. let x ∈ G and let z ∈ Z\ {0}. Theorem 2. Let H be a subgroup of order 2 in G. 2. Thus x ∈ CG (H). then the map ϕ: x → y xk → y k is well deﬁned and is an isomorphism (2) if x is an inﬁnite cyclic group.2. Theorem 2.4.2. the map ϕ: Z → x is well deﬁned and is an isomorphism. For any subgroup H of G and any nonempty subset A of G deﬁne NH (A) to be the set h ∈ H  hAh−1 = A . n ∈ Z. Proposition 2. s. if xm = 1 for some m ∈ Z.5. More speciﬁcally.
xa = xb . so that the nontrivial subgroups of H correspond bijectively with the integers 1. . where d = n . 13. for every integer m. Since y = 0 this is a contradiction.13. . x15 .3. So ϕ((0. 41.8. 19. Now suppose that ϕ and ψ are two homomorphisms such that ϕ(x) = h = ψ(x). Now take xk . Show that if H is any group and h is an element of H with hn = 1. Deﬁne a map ϕ(xk ) = hk . x5 . Prove that S4 = (1 2 3 4). 17.. y) = (x. This is a contradiction so this group is not cyclic.12. If xk = xl so that k ≡ l (mod n). Furthermore.8. then k − l = αn for some α ∈ Z.17 (2) If H = ∞. 2. . Find all subgroups of Z45 = x . 2. then the intersection of all members of A is also a subgroup of G. This is given by Euler’s ϕ function. 5. 11. x) ∈ Q × Z2 be a nonidentity element. A = A . then for any distinct nonnegative integers a and b. x)) = y = 0 but 0 = ϕ((0. so ϕ(49000) = ϕ(23 53 72 ) = ϕ(23 )ϕ(53 )ϕ(72 ) = 22 (1) · 52 (4) · 7(6) = 16800. 23. Therefore ϕ = ψ shows there is a unique map with these properties. Let Z48 = x . Proof. Take some xk ∈ x so that ϕ(xk ) = ϕ(x)k = hk = ψ(x)k = ψ(xk ).m) . 2. This subgroup is the cyclic group xd . 35. So a ∈ {1. Suppose that ϕ : (Q × Z2 ) → Q is an isomorphism. Proposition 2. 2. For which integers a does the map ϕa deﬁned by ϕa : ¯ → xa extend to an isomorphism from 1 Z/48Z onto Z48 . All integers a such that (a. 2. then there is a unique homomorphism from Zn = x to H such that x → h. 2. Since hn = 1. 37. Describe the containments between these subgroups. Since Z/49000 Z is cyclic of order 49000. x3 . ky). Prove that the following groups are not cyclic: (b) Z2 × Z Proof. we count the number of relatively prime integers to 49000. 29. x)2 ) = 2y. Note that x. x9 . there is an m ∈ N such that  h  = m so mn. y) be a generator.1. 2. 43. Proposition 2. where m denotes the absolute value of m. Note k = 1 because x = 1. xm = xm . y)k = (xk .3. Suppose Z2 × Z is cyclic and let (x. then for each positive integer a dividing n there is a unique subroups of H of order a. The containments between these subgroups are given by x ⊇ x3 ⊇ x5 ⊇ x9 ⊇ x15 ⊇ x0 .3. 48) = 1. 7. If A is any nonempty collection of subgroups of G. Furthermore. But then hk = hαn+l = hl so ϕ is welldeﬁned. . y are not identity elements in their respective groups. Subgroups Generated by Subsets of a Group.8. thus no such isomorphism exists. 3.3.18. 1)) = ϕ((0. 25. Find the number of generators for Z/49000 Z. (3) If H = n < ∞.4. (1 2 4 3) .3. a so that the subgroups of H correspond bijectively with the positive divisors of n. Proof. 47}. Then there exists k ∈ Z such that (1. But then y = ky shows that y = 0. x . xm = x(n. The subgroups of Z45 are given by x0 .5. Let (0. 31.4. Prove that the following pairs of groups are not isomorphic: (b) Q × Z2 and Q. 2. xl ∈ x so that ϕ(xk )ϕ(xl ) = hk hl = hk+l = ϕ(xk+l ) shows that ϕ is such a homomorphism. giving a generator for each.3.9. for every integer m. 2.
1 is = = = to exercise 2. (1 2 4 3) ≤ S4 . (1 2 4 3)3 = (1 3 4 2). So d(a + d) = 2 shows that cd(a + d) = 2c = 0 hence c = 0. Since the diagonal must be have nonzero entries. Prove that the subgroup of SL2 (F3 ) generated by group of order 8. Therefore these groups are isomorphic. 2. Lagrange’s theorem states we need to ﬁnd 13 elements generated by this set so that (1 2 3 4).4. 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 . Thus the order of this subgroup is 23 = 8. (1 4 3 2)(1 2 4 3) = (2 3 4). So we have . 0 −1 2. First notice that there is more than one element of order two in S4 . DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. = . (1 2 3 4)3 = (1 4 3 2). So we have (1 2 3 4). Now let a b ∈ SL2 (F3 ) be an element of order 2. We will show that the subgroup of upper triangular matrices in GL3 (F2 ) is equal to 1 1 1 1 1 0 A = 0 1 0 .11. the diagonal is a string of 1’s. Notice that 0 1 −1 0 4 1 0 1 1 and 1 1 0 . First note that S4  = 4! = 24. So the order of the matrix subgroup is less than or equal to 8. (1 2 3 4)(1 3 4 2) = (1 4 3).12.9.18 DAVID S. [Use a presentation for Q8 . = . (1 4)(2 4) = (1 4 2). (1 2 3 4)(1 2 4 3) = (1 3 2). (1 2 4 3). Since we have found 5 matrices in this subgroup and SL2 (F3 ) = 24. 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 0 2 1 0 1 2 0 2 2 2 . Lagrange’s theorem shows that the order of this subgroup is indeed 8. Since (1 2 3 4).10.4. = . namely (1 2) and (1 3). Proof. 0 Thus the relations of the subgroup of SL2 (F3 ) generated by the matrices are contained in the presentation of Q8 . and = −1 1 1 1 =− 1 −1 −1 −1 =− 1 1 1 −1 0 1 −1 .4. Prove that SL2 (F3 ) is the subgroup of GL2 (F3 ) generated by Proof.] Proof. Prove that the subgroup of upper triangular matrices in GL3 (F2 ) is isomorphic to the dihedral group of order 8. Prove that SL2 (F3 ) and S4 are two nonisomorphic groups of order 24. So ad = a2 = d2 = 1 together with b(a + d) = 0 shows that a2 b + abd = 0 hence b = 0. Let Q8 be given by the presentation Q8 = i. B = 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 .4. (1 3)(2 4)(2 4) = (1 3). So c d a c b d 2 = a2 + bc ac + cd ab + bd bc + d2 = 1 0 0 1 and ad − bc = 1. (1 3)(2 4)(1 2 4 3) = (1 4). FOOTE Proof. [First ﬁnd the order of this subgroup. . = .8 to show this subgroup 3 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 . 1 1 1 2 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 −1 0 and 1 1 1 −1 is isomorphic to the quaternion =I= 0 1 −1 0 1 1 1 1 1 −1 1 −1 4 . 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 = . ij = −ji .4. First note that SL2 (F3 ) = 24 so we use a method similar 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 generated by the two matrices. = . (1 2 3 4)(1 4)(2 3) = (2 4). (1 2 3 4)2 = (1 3)(2 4). = 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 2 1 0 0 2 1 . (1 2 4 3)2 = (1 4)(2 3).] Proof. Therefore the only −1 0 element of order 2 is and hence these groups are not isomorphic. 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 = . Since bc = ad − 1 we see ad − 1 + d2 = 1. 0 2 2. 2. (1 2 4 3) = S4 . j  i4 = 1 = j 4 .
Let G and H be groups. g2 ∈ ϕ−1 (E) so ϕ(g1 ) = h1 and ϕ(g2 ) = h2 where h1 . Calculating we ﬁnd 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 = 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 4 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 = 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 = 0 1 0 0 1 0 = 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 . αβ < 0. Proof. To show ϕ is a homomorphism we calculate ϕ(αβ) = ϕ(α)ϕ(β) = 1 −1 αβ > 0.5. If E H prove that ϕ−1 (E) G. Prove that ϕ is a homomorphism and ﬁnd the image of ϕ. ϕ((a + bi)(c + di)) = ϕ(ac + adi + bci − bc) = (ac − bd)2 + (ad + bd)2 ϕ(a + bi)ϕ(c + di) = (a2 + b2 )(c2 + d2 ) = a2 c2 − 2abcd + b2 d2 + a2 d2 + 2abcd + b2 d2 = a2 c2 + a2 d2 + b2 c2 + b2 d2 . the preimage or pullback of a subgroup under a homormorphism is a subgroup).5. αβ > 0. Therefore these two groups are isomorphic.5. Let ϕ : G → H be a homomorphism and let E be a subgroup of H.5. But (gN )n = g n N = N / so the order of gN is n. Deﬁne ϕ : C× → R× by ϕ(a + bi) = a2 + b2 . Note that r2 = 2 in D8 but r2 r2 = 1 in 8 D / r2 . 2. Since 1H is normal in H then ker ϕ G. The ﬁbers of ϕ are given by ϕ−1 (1) = {α ∈ R×  α > 0} and ϕ−1 (−1) = {α ∈ R×  α < 0}.6. First note if 1 < m < n then (gN )m = g m N N for g ∈ N so the order of gN ≥ n. Use the preceding exercise to prove that the order of the element gN in G/N is n. 1 Thus we found ﬁve matrices generated by A and B to show that it generates the whole group by Lagrange’s theorem. Proof. Thus g ϕ−1 (E) g −1 ⊆ −1 ϕ (E) shows ϕ−1 (E) G. Prove that ϕ−1 (E) ≤ G (ie. where n is the smallest positive integer such that g n ∈ N (and gN has inﬁnite order if no such positive integer exists).19 where AB = B −1 A and B 4 = I = A2 . Deﬁnitions and Examples. Deduce that ker ϕ G. Deﬁne ϕ : R× → {±1} by letting ϕ(x) be x divided by the absolute value of x. Proof. 2. So take ϕ g ϕ−1 (E) g −1 ⊆ ϕ(g) E ϕ(g)−1 ⊆ E. Give an example to show that the order of gN in G/N may be strictly smaller than the order of g in G. But ϕ(1G ) = ϕ(1H ) and ϕ(g1 g2 ) = −1 h1 h2 ∈ E so ϕ−1 (E) ≤ G. 1 −1 2. An example with the desired property would be D8 / r2 .1. αβ < 0. Let g1 . 2. h2 ∈ E. −1 Proof. 2.9.. We calculate. Describe the kernel and the ﬁbers of ϕ geometrically (as subsets of the plane). If E H then hEh−1 ⊆ E for all h ∈ H.5. Describe the ﬁbers of ϕ and prove that ϕ is a homomorphism.5.
12. Deﬁnitions and Examples. 2. Let G be a group and let K be the kernel of some homomorphism from G to another group.20 DAVID S. The same statement is true with “right coset” in place of “left coset. Then the set whose eelements are the left cosets of K in G with operation deﬁned by uK ◦ vK = (uv)K forms a group. Proposition 3. c ∈ F. X = {uk  k ∈ K} (2) For any u ∈ X. Let G and H be groups and let ϕ : G → H be a homomorphism.1. Let F be a ﬁeld and let G = (a) Prove that the map ϕ : a 0 b c  a. let H be the multiplicative group of complex numbers of absolute value 1 (the unit circle S 1 in the complex plane) and let ϕ : G → H be the homomorphism ϕ : r → e2πir . Let X ∈ G/K be the ﬁber above a. Then (1) For any u ∈ X.6. The calculation 1 0 makes it clear that H is isomorphic to F + .e. X = {ku  k ∈ K}. Describe the ﬁbers and kernel of ϕ. The ﬁbers of ψ a b are given by ψ −1 ((a. 2. −1 ϕ (i) = (1/4)(R+ /Z). The ﬁbers are given by ϕ−1 (−1) = (1/2)(R+ /Z). c) is a surjective homomorphism from G onto F × × F × . 3. u1 v1 K = uvK so that the multiplication does not depend on the choice of representatives for the cosets.5. Prove that H is isomorphic to the additive group F . X = ϕ−1 (a). Describe similarly the elements in the ﬁbers of ϕ above the points −1. Let G be the additive group of real numbers. c1 c2  b ∈ F. The kernel of ϕ is elements of G with a = 1. (4) ker ϕ is a subgroup of G. 0 c Proof (c). then u1 v1 ∈ uvK. a b (b) Prove that the map ψ : → (a. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. this operation is well deﬁned in the sense that if u1 is any element in uK and v1 is any element in vK. ac = 0 ≤ GL2 (F ).3. The Lattice of Subgroups of a Group. The points of the real line in the kernel of ϕ are the integers.1.2. Describe 0 c the ﬁbers and kernel of ψ.5. 0 1 Proof (a). 1 b (c) Let H =  b ∈ F . FOOTE so ϕ is a homomorphism.” b1 1 1 0 b2 1 = 1 0 b1 + b2 1 . Theorem 3. c = 0 . Draw the points on a real line which lie in the kernel of ϕ. G/K. Proposition 3. c)) =  b ∈ F . In particular. and e4πi/3 of H. (3) ϕ(g n ) = ϕ(g)n for all n ∈ Z. i. 2. (5) im (ϕ) is a subgroup of H. Proof (b). i.. Let ϕ : G → H be a homomorphism of groups with kernel K. Quotient Groups and Homomorphisms 3. ϕ is clearly surjective so we show it is a homomorphism by a1 0 The ﬁbers of ϕ are given by ϕ−1 (a) = b1 c1 a 0 a2 0 b c b2 c2 = a1 a2 0 a1 b2 + b1 c2 .. b. The kernel of ψ is elements of G with a = c = 1.11. a b → a is a surjective homomorphism from G onto F × (recall that F × is the 0 c multiplicative group of nonzero elements in F ). ϕ(e4πi/3 ) = (2/3)(R+ /Z). (1) ϕ(1G ) = 1H (2) ϕ(g −1 ) = ϕ(g)−1 for all g ∈ G.e. e. ψ is clearly surjective and the calculation from proof (a) shows it is a homomorphism.
uN = vN if and only if v −1 u ∈ N and in particular. if K G then HK ≤ G for any H ≤ G.13. Theorem 3.e.7. then the roder of x divides the order of G. Proposition 3. n) = 1. where p is a prime and p does not divide m. (1) The operation on the set of left cosets of N in G described by is well deﬁned if and only if gng ∈ N for all g ∈ G and all n ∈ N . If G is a ﬁnite group of order pα m. for all u. Theorem 3. then G is cyclic. If G is a group of prime order p.15. 3. hence G ∼ Zp . H  G) and the number of left cosets of H in G equals H .e. Now take g1 . Let G be a group and let N be a subgroup of G. −1 uN · vN = (uv)N 3. = Theorem 3.8 (Lagrange’s Theorem). If H and K are subgroups of a group.21 Proposition 3. Now take x ∈ H ∩ K so x m and x n so x = 1. Theorem 3. If G is a ﬁnite gorup and H is a subgroup of G. HK is a subgroup if and only if HK = KH. In particular xG = 1 for all x in G. Then g1 g2 = xm z1 xn z2 = xm xn z2 z1 = xn xm z2 z1 = xn z2 xm z1 = g2 g1 .10. then if gZ(G) ∈ G/Z(G) we have gZ(G) = (xZ(G))n = xn Z(G) for some n ∈ N. uN = vN if and only if u and v are representatives of the same coset.2.36. The following are equivalent: (1) N G (2) NG (N ) = G (3) gN = N g for all g ∈ G (4) the operation on left cosets of N in G described in proposition 3. then it makes the set of left cosets of N in G into a group. Let H = m and K = n with (m.6.1. Proof.12 (Sylow). Corollary 3.9.14.2. (2) If the above operation is well deﬁned.5 makes the set of left cosets into a group (5) gN g −1 ⊆ N for all g ∈ G. then the order of H divides G the order of G (i. If H and K are subgroups of G and H and H ≤ NG (K). In particular. 3. . Furthermore. Proposition 3. If G/Z(G) is cyclic with generator xZ(G).8. Let N be a subgroup of the group G. then G has an element of order p. Proof. A subgroup N of the group G is normal if and only if it is the kernel of some homomorphism. (gN )−1 = g −1 N . then HK is a subgroup of G..4. Corollary 3. If G is a ﬁnite group and p is a prime dividing G.. Proposition 3. Prove that if G/Z(G) is cyclic then G is abelian.11 (Cauchy’s Theorem). Thus there is some z ∈ Z(G) such that g = xn z. g2 ∈ G such that g1 = xm z1 and g2 = xn z2 . then G has a subgroup of order pα . If G is a ﬁnite group and x ∈ G. In particular the identity of this group is the coset 1N and the inverse of gN is the coset g −1 N i. If H and K are ﬁnite subgroups of a group then HK = H K . Let N be any subgroup of the group G. Corollary 3. The set of left cosets of N in G form a partition of G. v ∈ G. H ∩ K Proposition 3. More on Cosets and Lagrange’s Theorem.5. Prove that if H and K are ﬁnite subgroups of G whose orders are relatively prime then H ∩ K = 1.
Proof by Dr. . . Proof (b). Apply this to the map G → G × G → G/H × G/K sending g → (g. This exercise outlines a proof of Cauchy’s Theorem due to James McKay. Thus the number of equivalence classes is the sum of size 1 and size p classes. Now note that the ﬁrst isomorphism theorem works also for nonnormal subgroups. 3. . . and also m divides by the same argument. Proof (c). [Show pk and so k > 1. G = k + pd. If some x is changed to a y = x. Since p divides G.2. σ = 1). 1. × Proof. hence has order divisible by p. Let (x1 . . (f) Since {(1. . . you have [G : H ∩ K] = [G : K][K : H ∩ K]. conclude from (e) that there must be a nonidentity element x in G with xp = 1. then γ is a cyclic permutation of α so ∼ is transitive. where k is the number of classes of size 1 and d is the number of classes of size p. Thus S = G . Proof (d). then β is a cyclic permutation of α so ∼ is symmetric. (a) (b) (c) (d) p−1 Show that S has G elements. then a cyclic permutation would yield a diﬀerent element of the equivalence class. . Deﬁne the relation ∼ on S by letting α ∼ β if β is a cyclic permutation of α. x2 . Prove that lcm (m. If β is a cyclic permutation of α and γ is a cyclic permutation of β. xp )  xi ∈ G and x1 x2 · · · xp = 1} . . Since not every coordinate is allowed to be equal. xp−1 ) ∈ S and any cyclic permutation can be realized by repeating this process. . . Then xi = xσ(i) = xσ2 (i) = · · · = xσp−1 (i) for all i. . (e) Prove that every equivalence class has order 1 or p (this uses the fact that p is a prime). . Proof (f ).2. . . Thus k > 1 and hence there is an 3. where ϕ denotes Euler’s ϕfunction. . It is clear that every equivalence class has order less than or equal to p. [G : H ∩ K] = G/(H ∩ K) ⇐ G/H × G/K = G/HG/K = n · m. Since equivalence classes are p−1 disjoint. .] Proof (a). So n divides [G : H ∩ K]. so the (set version of the) ﬁrst isomorphism theorem gives an injective map G/(H ∩ K) → G/H × G/K. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M.2. Deduce that p−1 G = k + pd. Suppose the equivalence class is not of the form from part (d) and let σ ∈ Sp be given by σ(i) ≡ i + j mod p for 0 ≤ j < p and suppose that (x1 . xp ) ∈ S and notice xp x1 x2 · · · xp−1 = 1 just by multiplication on the right by (xp )−1 . . . a ∈ (Z\nZ)× . By Problem 11. Use Lagrange’s Theorem in the multiplicative group (Z/nZ)× to prove Euler’s Theorem: aϕ(n) ≡ 1 mod n for every integer a relatively prime to n. x1 . i. 1)} is an equivalence class of size 1. gK). . G contains an element of order p. x) with xp = 1. If α is a cyclic permutation of β. xσ(p) ). Thus. then any cyclic permutation is indeed the same element of S. Since a is relatively prime to n. If all the x are the same. Thus (xp . x2 . . p−1 and speciﬁcally p divides k. Reﬂexive is obvious. j = 0 because σ = p (for p prime. Deduce that if m and n are relatively prime then G : H ∩ K = G : H · G : K. Prove that an equivalence class contains a single element if and only if it is of the form (x. Proof (e). xp ) ∼ (xσ(1) . g) → (gH. .22. x. then p divides G element x in G with order p.10. . . Thus ∼ is an equivalence relation. Prove that ∼ is an equivalence relation on S. The ﬁrst p − 1 coordinates have G choices and the pth coordinate must be the inverse of the product p−1 of the ﬁrst p − 1 coordinates. Therefore lcm(m. . Show that a cyclic permutation of an element of S is again an element of S. . . . Its kernel is H ∩ K. FOOTE 3.e. Suppose H and K are subgroups of ﬁnite index in the (possibly inﬁnity) group G with G : H = m and G : K = n.22 DAVID S. then the left by xp .9. Corollary 9 states that aϕ(n) = a(Z\nZ)  = 1(Z\nZ)×  ≡ 1 mod n.. n) ⇐ [G : H ∩ K]. n) ≤ G : H ∩ K ≤ mn. . Let S denote the set of ptuples of elements of G the product of whose coordinates is 1: S = {(x1 . but you get a statement on maps of sets (not groups). Schulze. Let G be a ﬁnite group and let p be a prime dividing G.
Theorem 3. n) ∈ (G/M ) × (G/N ). Then AB is a subgroup of G.19 (The Third Isomorphism Theorem). (2) G : ker ϕ = ϕ(G). Proof. Theorem 3. = Theorem 3. = Corollary 3.18 (The Second Isomorphism Theorem).17.20 (The Fourth Isomorphism Theorem). (1) A ≤ B if and only if A ≤ B.3. Let p be a prime and let G be a group of order pa m. B . Deﬁne a homomorphism ϕ : G → (G/M ) × (G/N ) by ϕ(g) = (g. Prove that if H is a normal subgroup of G of prime index p then for all K ≤ G either (i) K ≤ H or (ii) G = HK and K : K ∩ H = p.] Proof. = 3. But now pb α divides pa so α = 1 and hence P ∩ N  = pb . Now let Φ : (A × B) → (A/C × B/D) be deﬁned by π1 and π2 . = [Draw the lattice. Thus ker Φ = C × D and thus (C × D) (A × B). HK > H so HK = G because G : H = p and Lagrange’s theorem. Since Φ is surjective. If ϕ : G → H is a homomorphism of groups. (4) A ∩ B = A ∩ B.23 3. let A and B be subgroups of G and assume A ≤ NG (B). Take some (m. every subgroup of G is of the form A/N for some subgroup A of G containing N (namely. HK = KH ≤ G. B AB.3. its preimage in G under the natural projection homomorphism from G to G/N ). (The subgroup P of G is called a Sylow psubgroup of G. the ﬁrst isomorphism theorem shows that (A × B)/(C × D) ∼ (A/C) × (B/D).7. First note that P N  = (P  N )/ P ∩ N  = (pa+b n)/ P ∩ N .3. (3) A. where p does not divide n.3. Prove that (C × D) (A × B) and (A × B)/(C × D) ∼ (A/C) × (B/D). Then nm n−1 = m so take nm = g = mn so ϕ(g) = (g. Let G be a group and let H and K be normal subgroups of G with H ≤ K. The Isomorphism Theorems. B ≤ G with N ≤ A and N ≤ B. The fact that K : H ∩ H = p is immediate by the diamond isomorphism theorem. (1) ϕ is injective if and only if ker ϕ = 1. B = A. and (5) A G if and only if A G. g) = 1G/M ×G/N . = 3. Since K = 1. 3. Assume P is a subgroup of G of order pa and N is a normal subgroup of G of order pb n. (2) if A ≤ B. 3. A ∩ B A and AB/B ∼ A/A ∩ B. g) = (m. Let G be a group. Let π1 : A → A/C and π2 : B → B/D which exist by the normality of C and D. Suppose that K K so since K ≤ NG (H). g). The kernel of ϕ is clearly M ∩ N because g ∈ M and g ∈ N if and only if (g. But then pb α divides pb n so α divides n shows α does not divide p. where p does not divide m. then B : A = B : A . Therefore the ﬁrst isomorphism theorem states that G/(M ∩ N ) ∼ (G/M ) × (G/N ). then ker ϕ and G/ ker ϕ ∼ ϕ(G).3. This exercise shows that the intersection of any Sylow psubgroup of G with a normal subgroup N is a Sylow psubgroup of N . = Theorem 3. Let ϕ : G → H be a homomorphism of groups. Let M and N be normal subgroups of G such that G = M N .9. The diamond isomorphism theorem shows that P N/N  = pa−b . = Proof. Let G be a group and let N be a normal subgroup of G. In particular.16 (The First Isomorphism Theorem).) Proof. G . Let C be a normal subgroup of the group A and let D be a normal subgroup of the group B. n) so ϕ is surjective. Then there is a bijection from the set of subgroups A of G which contain N onto the set of subgroups A = A/N of G/N . Prove that P ∩ N  = pb and P N/N  = pa−b . this can be written G/K ∼ G/K. But this divides pa m so P ∩ N  = pb α. = If we denote the quotient by H with a bar.3. This bijection has the following properties: for all A.4. Then K/H G/H and (G/H)/(K/H) ∼ G/K. Prove that G/(M ∩ N ) ∼ (G/M ) × (G/N ).
Transpositions are all odd permutations and is a surjective homomorphism. if 1 = N0 ≤ N1 ≤ · · · ≤ Nr = G and 1 = M0 ≤ M1 ≤ · · · ≤ Ms = G are two composition series for G. Theorem 3. (1 2 3). = 1 ≤ i ≤ r.10. Composition Series and the Holder Program. Proposition 3.5. 2. y is isomorphic to Z3 . (1 4)(2 3). Since all 12 of these elements are even. 3. Transpositions and the Alternating Group.4. . 3. Simple calculations show that 1 = N0 N1 N2 N3 = A4 . Let N1 = {1. Proof. But (1 2 3 4)2 (1 4) = (1 2 4 3) = (1 3 4 2) = (1 4)(1 2 3 4)2 .5.5. Proposition 3. (1 2)(3 4). π. (1 4 3). then (i i + 1) = τ i−1 στ −i+1 .7. Therefore this set generates Sn .5. 3.21. (1 3 4). r} such taht Mπ(i) /Mπ(i)−1 ∼ Ni /Ni−1 . Since the order of each composition factor is prime. Without loss of generality. The permutation σ is odd if and only if the number of cycles of even length in its cycle decomposition is odd. Notice that (1 3)(1 2 3 4)2 (1 3) = (1 2 3 4)2 shows that (1 2 3 4)2 ∈ Z( (1 3). (1 2 3 4) is a proper subgroup of S4 .6. (1 3 2). (1 2 4). A5 . prove that x. (1 3)(2 4).25. If x and y are 3cycles in Sn . Let G be a ﬁnite group with G = 1. 3. Now we represent the group of rigid motions of a tetrahedron as a subgroup of Sn . or Z3 × Z3 .23. (2 3 4).17. (1 4 2). this is A4 . Prove that the group of rigid motions of a tetrahedron is isomorphic to A4 . Deduce that A4 is solvable. they are also abelian and hence A4 is solvable. . (1 2 3 4) < S4 . Proof. . then G contains an element of order p. The elements in this subgroup are 1. 3. . of {1. Show that (1 3). Solution. FOOTE 3. Therefore (1 3). (1 2 3 4) ). namely. while Ni+1 /Ni  = p shows that each composition factor is simple. Proposition 3.3 shows this generates Sp . Proof. Let σ ∈ Sn and decompose σ into a product of transpositions. A4 . But if (i j) is any transposition. (1 2)(3 4). Proposition 3. . (1 3)(2 4). DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. Prove that Sn = {(i i + 1)  1 ≤ i ≤ n − 1} . Then (1) G has a composition series and (2) The composition factors in a composition sereis are unique. Find a composition series for A4 . then r = s and there is some permutation.5. The map : Sn → {±1} is a homomorphism (where {±1} is a multiplicative version of the cyclic group of order 2). What is the isomorphism type of this subgroup? Proof.5. (2 4 3).3.24.5. Exercise 3. 3. The isomorphism type of this subgroup is D8 because we can construct 8 elements and we have (1 3)2 = (1 2 3 4)4 = (1 3)(1 2 3 4)(1 3)(1 2 3 4) = 1. then (i j) = (j − 1 j) · · · (i i + 1) · · · (j − 1 j).5. (1 4)(2 3)}. τ where σ is any transposition and τ is any pcycle. First notice that both groups are order 12. Sp = σ. suppose σ = (1 2) and τ = (1 · · · p). (1 3)(2 4)} and N2 = {1. If 1 ≤ i ≤ n − 1. 3.22 (JordanHolder).24 DAVID S. If G is a ﬁnite abelian group and P is a prime dividing G. Show that if p is prime.5.
[Produce an injective homomorphism into S3 . Solution.13. Solution. (1 2 3). 4. (i j k)(k l) = (i j k)(k l m) . Now let x = (i j k) and y = (j k l) and notice these = are both even permutations hence generate even permutations.3. If we can show conjugating (i j k) by any transposition remains in x. 4. Solution (c).3.] Proof.10. Group Actions and Permutation Representations.27. . Find all ﬁnite groups which have exactly two conjugacy classes. 4.4. for every β with 0 ≤ β ≤ α. 4. y = (k l m) = and we will show that x.3.6. .2. Prove that if H has ﬁnite index n then there is a normal subgroup K of G with K ≤ H and G : K ≤ n!. List the elements of S3 as 1. then x. (j l k). Let p be a prime and let G be a group of order pα . Exhibit the image of each element of S3 under the left regular representation of S3 into S6 . But (i j k)(i j) = (i j k)(j k) = (i j k)(i k) = (i j k)−1 . . Proof.3. Proof. Use this to classify groups of order 6. (2 3). [Use exercise 36.2. Use the left regular representation of Q8 to produce two elements of S8 which generate a subgroup of S8 isomorphic to the quaternion group Q8 .8. Prove that G is abelian.3.4.2.1.3. (i j k)(i m) = [(i j k)(k m l) ](i j k) .5. Prove that every nonabelian group of order 6 has a nonnormal subgroup of order 2. (i j k)(j l) = [(j i k)(k l m) ](j i k) . (i j k). (i j k)(j m) = [(j i k)(k m l) ](j i k) . 4.3. y ∼ A4 by Lagrange’s theorem. 4.1. Since 1. and the argument for (k l m) will be similar. Use the fact that g ≤ CG (g) for all g ∈ G to show that there is at most one possible class equation for G. Groups Acting on Themselves by Left Multiplication – Cayley’s Theorem.2. (j k l). (i j k)(i l) = (j k l) = [(i j k)(k l m) ](i j k) . then x. then it is clear that x. y = x ∼ Z3 by order argument.2. gr be representatives of the conjugacy classes of the ﬁnite group G and assume these elements pairwise commute. section 3. Groups Acting on Themselves by Conjugation – The Class Equation.6 respectively.] Proof. Prove that G has a subgroup of order pβ . Assume G is a nonabelian group of order 15. If x and y are disjoint 3cycles. y A5 . 4. [Use theorem 8 and induction on α. y ∼ Z3 × Z3 .3.25 Proof. (1 2). Find all conjugacy classes and their sizes in the following groups: (c) A4 . (1 3 2) and label these with the integers 1. (1 3). 4.] Proof. 4.2. If x = y. Let g1 . y . 4. . Prove that Z(G) = 1. .29. so they are equal because A5 is simple. (i j k)(l m) = (i j k). 4.2. then we are done because any permutation can be represented by a transposition. (i k j). and (i j k)(k m) = (i j k)(k m l) . g2 . Solution. Group Actions 4. = 4. Now let x = (i j k). (i k l) and (i j)(k l) are all generated by x and y.
4. Let G be a ﬁnite group and let p be a prime. Since σ( r ) = r . (1 n) generate Sn and deduce that any automorphism of Sn is uniquely determined by its action on these elements. Then xl = p. normality must hold.4. then k  p and k  q. If x ∈ D8 . a Sylow psubgroup of a subgroup of G need not be a Sylow psubgroup of G. Since there is only one subgroup of order 4. r has at most 2 possible images and s has at most 4 possible images (r and s are the usual generators). . Prove that if P ∈ Sylp (G) and H is a subgroup of G containing P then P ∈ Sylp (H). we have the desired isomorphism. (d) Show that (1 2).. Prove that if G is an abelian group of order pq.4. / 4.9. i. Now take x ∈ P \1 so x pk and let x = pl . Proof.5. The Sylow Theorems. We know from a previous exercise that NSp (P ) = p(p − 1) and from Corollary 15 that NSp (P )/CSp (P ) ∼ = H ≤ Aut(P ).2. σ : (1 3) → (a b3 ). . . sr3 . where p and q are distinct primes. y ∈ G with x = p and y = q. Deduce that Aut(D8 ) ≤ 8. 2.4. Proof.4. Since x = y −1 . Use (c) to show that Sn has at most n! automorphisms and conclude that Aut(Sn ) = Inn(Sn ) for n = 6.5. 4.. FOOTE 4. (c) Prove that for each σ ∈ Aut(Sn ) σ : (1 2) → (a b2 ). Thus xy = G and therefore G is cyclic.18. prove NSp (P )/CSp (P ) ∼ Aut(P ). Prove that K = K . Use Sylow’s Theorem to prove Cauchy’s Theorem. sr. Let 1 = H G and p G. r3 . If p is a prime and P is a subgroup of Sp of order p. b2 . 4. in general. . . 4. But if 1 = (xy)k = xk y k for k ≥ 1. so σϕg σ −1 (x) = σ(gσ −1 (x)g −1 ) = σ(g)xσ(g)−1 = ϕσ(g) (x) shows the desired equation. (a) Prove that the automorphism group of a group G permutes the conjugacy classes of G. . then x = srk for some 0 ≤ k ≤ 3. Aut(G). Automorphisms. .3. So σ(x) = σ(srk ) = σ(s)σ(r)k and thus the automorphism is uniquely determined by the value on s and r. b3 . (b) Let K be the conjugacy class of transpositions in Sn and let K be the conjugacy class of any element of order 2 in Sn that is not a transposition. then k ≥ pq. 4.) Proof. (1 3).5. Proof (a). Suppose that p G and let P ∈ Sylp (G) with P  = pk . 4. Since r = 4. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. Proof. Example.. Let x ∈ G. Fix an integer n ≥ 2 with n = 6. so P ∈ Sylp (H). Then pk H G. = Proof. .e. then G is cyclic. Since CSp (P ) = P and Aut(P ) = p − 1. Deduce that Inn(G) Proof. then σ(r) ∈ r.4. (Note that we only used Cauchy’s Theorem for abelian groups – Proposition 3. sr2 . We use Cauchy’s theorem to pick x. . for each σ ∈ Aut(G) and each conjugacy class K of G the set σ(K) is also a conjugacy class of G. 4. Let P  = pk . Since conjugating an element of Inn(G) with an element of Aut(G) is contained in Inn(G). Prove that under any automorphism of D8 . r is characteristic so if σ ∈ Aut(D8 ). .. n}. So Aut(D8 ) ≤ 2 · 4 = 8. Exhibit all Sylow 3subgroups of SL2 (F3 ). bn ∈ {1. Deduce that any automorphism of Sn sends transpositions to transpositions. then σ( r ) = r .21 – in the proof of Sylow’s Theorem so this line of reasoning is not circular. .3. If σ ∈ Aut(G) and ϕg is conjugation by g prove σϕg σ −1 = ϕσ(g) . . σ : (1 n) → (a bn ) for some distinct integers a.1. we must have σ(s) ∈ s.. 4.1.5. Then 1 ∈ Sylp (H) and 1 ∈ Sylp (G).4. .26 DAVID S.11. This exercise shows that for n = 6 every automorhpism of Sn is inner. Give an example to show that. Let G be a group.
But since n11 ≡ 1 mod 11 and n11  595.27 Solution. But 1 0 all generate diﬀerent subgroups of order 3. Since n3 ≡ 1 mod 3.5. G. 4. c−1 1 0 γ 1 a 0 b c = 1 0 a−1 γb − a−1 bc−1 b . then NG (H) = H. then P K. Proof. The Simplicity of An . 4. 4. Note GL2 (Fp ) = (p − 1)2 p(p + 1) and np ≡ 1 mod p. 2 1 2 .5. Prove that a group of order 200 has a normal Sylow 5subgroup. Deduce that if P ∈ Sylp (G) and H = NG (P ).5. Therefore there are 6 · 8 = 48 elements of order 7. These are clearly 1 1 . Since P is characteristic in H and H K. . Now we show that the upper triangular matrices are a subgroup of NG (P1 ) with order (p − 1)2 p. Prove that a group. Proof. Note 168 = 23 · 3 · 7. Proof. If P normal in K. Note SL2 (F3 ) = 24 so if P ∈ Syl3 (SL2 (F3 )) then P  = 3. then P ∈ Sylp (H) and P is characteristic in H. so np  p + 1. Since P1 = 1 0 γ 1 . Thus (p − 1)2 p  NG (P1 ). the order must be (p − 1)2 p.5.40. Simple calculations show that for a. Proof. 1} we get a 0 b c −1 b c −1 = a−1 0 −a−1 bc−1 . 1}.5. so n2 or n7 is equal to 1. 2 Proof.32. 1 Since the upper diagonal matrices have nonzero diagonal elements and any upper right entry. of order 56 has a normal Sylow psubgroup for some prime p dividing its order. P2 = 1 γ 0 1 ∈ Sylp (G). Therefore np = p + 1. Then ( Syl2 (G))\1 ≥ 14 and ( all distinct elements. 1 2 1 0 . we must have np ≥ p + 1. But n5 ∈ {1. Now if P ∈ Sylp (G) and H = NG (P ).13. then P is characteristic in H. then g P = P so g ∈ NG (P ) = H. b. c ∈ Fp . 4. Therefore NG (H) = H.19. 4}.18. How many elements of order 7 must there be in a simple group of order 168? Solution. prove that P is Syl7 (G))\1 ≥ 48. 4. 6} and since 6 8 we must have n5 = 1. we must have n7 = 8. Note 56 = 23 · 7.6. Let P be a Sylow psubgroup of H and let H be a subgroup of K. 4. 1 1 0 0 . H and H K. we have a 0 Now if γ ∈ Fp \ {0. n3 ∈ {1. Since n7 ≡ 1 mod 7 and n7  24. Suppose n2 . n7 > 1. 4. n7 > 1. Sylow’s theorem states that np = [G : NG (P1 )]. for γ ∈ Fp \ {0.30. Note 200 = 23 · 52 . Thus if H g = H. Prove that if G = 6545 then G is not simple. If P H. we must have n11 = 1. Note 6545 = 5 · 7 · 11 · 17.5. Prove that the number of Sylow psubgroups of G = GL2 (Fp ) is p + 1. Since the group is simple.
The direct sum Z2 × Z3 × · · ·. and that these images intersect in a central subgroup isomorphic to Z1 . so there are pn − 1 many elements of order p. yi )  xi ∈ Z1 xy .1. Direct and Semidirect Products and Abelian Groups 5. Let A and B be two cyclic groups of order p with generators x and y. Note that these p + 1 subgroups are all distinct and nontrivial. Find A ∗ B.11. xy 2 . Solution (d). = Proof (a).e. Solution. Let A and B be groups. (xy k )p = xp (y k )p = 1. The direct sum Z2 × Z2 × · · ·. FOOTE 5. Every nonidentity element has order p. G = Z2 × Z2 × · · ·. Z2 = r2 and the isomorphism is x2 → r2 ) and let Z4 ∗ Q8 be the central product of Z4 and Q8 which identiﬁes x2 and −1.1.1. s and Q8 = i... (xy)p = xp y p = 1. Proof. xy p−1 . y and is denoted by A ∗ B – it is not unique since it depends on Z1 . But xp = 1. Assume Z(A) contains a subgroup Z1 and Z(B) contains a subgroup Z2 with Z1 ∼ Z2 .) (a) Prove that the images of A and B in the quotient group A ∗ B are isomrophic to A and B. So there are (pn − 1)/(p − 1) = pn−1 + pn−2 + · · · + 1 many distinct subgroups of order p. Solution (e). j be given by their usual generators and realtions. Proof (b). (Think of A ∗ B as the direct product of A and B “collapsed” by identifying each element xi ∈ Z1 with its corresponding element yi ∈ Z2 . A central product of A and B is a = quotient (A × B)/Z where −1 Z = (xi .1. Let p be a prime and let n ∈ Z+ .. . 5. By Lagrange’s theorem. = Solution (a). Example 3 in this section shows that there are p + 1 subgroups of order p. Direct Products. Prove that Z4 ∗ D8 ∼ Z4 ∗ Q8 . Prove that the distinct subgroups of E of order p are x . Solution (c).10. so if the pth power of each generator is the identity element. . Z × Z2 . In each of (a) to (e) give an example of a group with the speciﬁed properties: (a) an inﬁnite group in which every element has order 1 or 2 (b) an inﬁnite group in which every element has ﬁnite order but for each positive integer n there is an element of order n (c) a group with an element of inﬁnite order and an element of order 2 (d) a group G such that every ﬁnite group is isomorphic to some subgroup of G (e) a nontrivial group G such that G ∼ G × G. Let this isomorphism be given by the map xi → yi for all xi ∈ Z1 . DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. respectively. 5. y p = 1. (note that there are p + 1 of them). Z2 and the isomorphism between them. Z1 = x2 . Find a formula for the number of subgroups of order p in the elementary abelian group Epn . Let p be a prime.28 DAVID S. Let Z4 ∗ D8 be the central product of Z4 and D8 which identiﬁes x2 and r2 (i. respectively.. (b) Let Z4 = x .18. 5. Let D8 = r. Solution (b). then we are done. 5.1. each distinct subgroup intersects trivially. S2 × S3 × · · ·. Set E = A × B so that E is the elementary abelian groups of order p2 : Ep2 .12.
Sn An . 5) or (2. 5. so we calculate ϕ(xy) = (xy)p = xp y p = ϕ(x)ϕ(y). .. Solution (b). Sn is characteristic in Sn . 3). Deduce that if G is an abelian group of ﬁnite order then Aut(G) is isomorphic to the direct product of the automorphism groups of its Sylow subgroups. .2. 5) with lists corresponding to respective orderings. γ ∈ Z} . kn ) so it has rank n.2. and Sn is non abelian. then im ϕ xi p−1 = αi . i The kernel of ϕ is given by {(k1 . (b) Describe the image and kernel of ϕ in terms of the given generators.2. .2. Proof. = 5. 5. kn )} where ki ∈ {xγ  (xγ )p = 1. . . The kernel of ϕ is of type (k1 . The Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups. an ) so also has a ¯ rank n.3. have the same rank as A) and prove these groups are both isomorphic to the elementary abelian group. Let p be a prime and let A = x1 × x2 × · · · × xn be an abelian pgroup. Deﬁne the pthpower map ϕ: A → A by ϕ : x → xp . Thus xi /im ϕ xi ∼ Zp . .11. The image of ϕ is given by ϕ(A) = {(β1 . .e. Since 270 = 2 · 33 · 5. Since An Sn and Sn /An ∼ Z2 is abelian. the list of invariant factors is given by (30. . . Since ϕ : A → A and ker ϕ Therefore A/im ϕ ∼ Epn . with each element to the power of p clearly one. 5. The elementary divisors of an abelian group of order 270 are either (2. βn )  βi = (xγ )p . proposition 7 part (4) states Sn ≤ An . then xγ  p so i i xp i αi −1 = p. 3). = xi = p.5. Also by proposition 7 = part (3). (90.2. . . Prove that if G = HK where H and K are characteristic subgroups of G with H ∩ K = 1 then Aut(G) ∼ = Aut(H) × Aut(K). 3. (a) Prove that ϕ is a homomorphism. γ ∈ Z} . Proof (a). Thus n ker ϕ ∼ = i=1 xp αi −1 so it is isomorphic to Epn . 5. i i Proof (c).29 5. 3. Epn . . . In each of parts (a) to (e) give the lists of invariant factors for all abelian groups of the speciﬁed order: (a) order 270 Solution (a). This map is clearly welldeﬁned. If (xγ )p = 1. (c) Prove both ker ϕ and A/im ϕ have rank n (i. 9. while A/im ϕ is of type (¯1 . . .7. where xi  = pαi > 1 for all i. .2. Prove that An is the commutator subgroup of Sn for all n ≥ 5.2. 3. Since An is simple. we must have An = Sn . of order pn . . In each of parts (a) to (e) give the lists of elementary divisors for all abelian groups of the speciﬁed order and then match each list with the corresponding list of invariant factors found in the preceding exercise: (a) order 270 Solution (a).
φK )(ψH . Prove that G ∼ D × U .4. ψK ). Now if φH ∈ Aut(H) and φK ∈ Aut(K). DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. Table of Groups of Small Order. ψK ) so f is welldeﬁned. so f is a homomorphism. where D is the group = of all nonzero multiples of the identity matrix and U is the group of upper triangular matrices with 1’s down the diagonal..5. Let G = {(aij ) ∈ GLn (F )  aij = 0 if i > j. φK ). = 5.7. B = . Now let f : Aut(G) → Aut(H) × Aut(K) be given by f (φ) = (φH . Now let A. = If G is ﬁnite abelian. then note that there exist UA . .2. If λI ∈ D for λ ∈ F . 5. Proof. Recognizing Direct Products. . be the group of upper triangular matrices all of whose diagonal entries are equal. φK ) shows f is surjective. FOOTE Proof. φK ) = (ψH . . . ψK ) = f (φ)f (ψ).. then (φH . If U ∈ U . = ··· ··· . This exercise describes thirteen isomorphism types of groups of order 56. φK ) = (φH .14. a and note if AB = I.3. K are characteristic in G. UB ∈ U such that A = a UA and B = b UB and A UB = (a UA ) U(b UB ) = ab (UA U UB ) ∈ U. . 5. then ab = 1. (b) Prove that every group of order 56 has either a normal Sylow 2subgroup or a normal Sylow 7subgroup. Therefore Aut(G) is isomorphic to the direct product of the automorphism groups of the Sylow subgroups. then AλIB = λAIB = λAB = λI. φ(hk) = φ(h)φ(k) = φH (h)φK (k) = ψH (h)ψK (k) = ψ(h)ψ(k) = ψ(hk). .5. (a) Prove that there are three abelian groups of order 56. 5. Thus D and U are normal in G and G ∼ D × U . . φK ) = (ψH . Semidirect Products. Therefore f shows Aut(G) ∼ Aut(H) × Aut(K). b1n b2n . ψ ∈ Aut(G) and notice that φH ∈ Aut(H) and φK ∈ Aut(K) since H. and a11 = a22 = · · · = ann }. (φ ◦ ψ)K ) = (φH . Now if (φH . It is clear that D ∩ U = 1. 5. (c) Construct the following nonabelian groups of order 56 which have a normal Sylow 7subgroup and whose Sylow 2subgroup S is as speciﬁed: one group when S ∼ Z2 × Z2 × Z2 = two nonisomorphic groups when S ∼ Z4 × Z2 = one group when S ∼ Z8 = two nonisomorphic groups when S ∼ Q8 = three nonisomorphic groups when S ∼ D8 .30 DAVID S. So f (φ) = (φH . φK ◦ ψK ) b12 b . then for g = hk ∈ G. If φ = ψ. where F is a ﬁeld. Now we calculate f (φ ◦ ψ) = ((φ ◦ ψ)H . B ∈ G such that a a12 · · · a1n b a · · · a2n A= . so φ = ψ. then it is the direct product of its (characteristic) Sylow subgroups. then let φ ∈ Aut(G) be given by φH = φH and φK = φK . Let φ. b = (φH ◦ ψH .
Then each Sylow subgroup is normal in G. P2 ∈ Syl7 (G) so that for any = 3 = σ nontrivial ϕ : Pi → Aut(S). and Solvable Groups. ker ϕ = 1. But if n  G. (22 · 7. Proof (a). = 5. 2). 6. Prove that if P is a noncyclic pgroup then P contains a normal subgroup U with U ∼ Zp × Zp . The invariant factors are given by (23 · 7). Z14 × Z2 × Z2 . Prove that if S is the Sylow 2subgroup of G then S ∼ Z2 × Z2 × Z2 .1. then we consider the nontrivial homomorphisms ϕ : S → Aut(P ). Therefore [G : M ] = p. Therefore every group of order 56 has either a normal Sylow 2subgroup or a normal Sylow 7subgroup. Pi . Proof (b). The nontrivial maps ϕ : S → Aut(P ) give = rise to a second isomorphism type. 6. then ker ϕ = Z4 giving rise to one isomorphism type.20. Counting  Syl2 (G)\1 +  Syl7 (G)\1 = 3 · 7 + 8 · 6 > 56 reaches a contradiction. Thus there are three abelian groups of order 56 given by Z56 . Suppose that n2 . = Proof. Therefore by exercise 6. Since these kernels are not isomorphic. then the map ϕ : P → Aut(S) is nontrivial so that P is not normal. Thus ker ϕ = 1 and k ϕ(P ) ∼ Z7 . Since np ≡ 1 mod p. Proof. with order pki . = . 2. If S = If S ∼ Q8 .8. Since G/M is nilpotent. S ∼ Z2 . then P ∼ Zp × Zp since P is not cyclic. pgroups. then theorem 2.1. Since every = nonidentity element in S must have order 2.3 G/M with P = p for p prime. has a subgroup U = ∼ Zp × Zp . If S ∼ Z2 × Z2 × Z2 . Now suppose G has a normal subgroup of each order dividing G. then ker ϕ ∈ Z4 .5. Prove that a maximal subgroup of a ﬁnite nilpotent group has prime index. so theorem 3 states G is nilpotent. it is given by the elementary abelian group. if P ∈ Syl7 (G). Z28 × Z2 . = (e) Prove that there is a unique group of order 56 with a nonnormal Sylow 7subgroup.7 states it has a unique subgroup of each order dividing G. M G. 2 If S ∼ Z4 × Z2 . Let P  = pn with P nonabelian. Suppose that G is an abelian group of order 56 = 23 · 7. Let P1 . Let M < G be a maximal subgroup of G. Two possible kernels of nontrivial maps = are r ∼ Z4 and r2 . then Aut(S) ∼ GL3 (F2 ) with Aut(S) = 7 · 6 · 4 = 168. Thus the noncyclic quotient = P/Z with U ∼ Zp × Zp . n7 > 1. Proof. Z2 . we have n2 ≥ 3 and n7 ≥ 8. = ∼ Z8 . then the trivial map gives rise to the nonabelian Z7 × D8 . Proof (d). where Aut(P ) ∼ Z6 . Suppose G is nilpotent so theorem 3 states G ∼ P1 ×· · ·×Ps for Pi ∈ Sylpi . so P1 = P2 for some σ ∈ Aut(S). If P M ≤ P ≤ G so P = G by maximality of M . If n = 2. Since p  Z(P ). Thus P1 × · · · × Ps  = n with the desired i normality property. then proposition 5 shows G is cyclic.3. Let ϕ(P ) = x so if s ∈ S\1. = 3 Proof (e). If S ∼ D8 . 6. P/Z.1. = = Thus ker ϕ = 4 and ϕ(S) = 2 for any such ϕ. then the trivial map gives rise to the nonabelian Z7 × Q8 . and is cyclic if and only if it has a unique subgroup of each order dividing G. Further Topics in Group Theory 6. exercise 6. Nilpotent Groups. Since G is nilpotent. Now we have the noncyclic U P with U  = p3 . Deduce that for odd primes p a pgroup that contains a unique subgroup of order p is cyclic. then n = pk1 · · · pks . If S ∼ Z2 . 2).4. Let p be an odd prime. = s 1 Theorem 1 states each Pi has a normal subgroup. then sx shows all elements in S\1 have the same order. Thus ϕ(Pi ) ∈ Syl7 (Aut(S)). the comment in part (c) states there = = are three isomorphism types. then shows it has a normal subgroup of each order dividing G/M . let Z ≤ Z(P ) with Z = p.1. (2 · 7. If G is cyclic. Solution (c). If n7 > 1. s ∼ Z2 × Z2 . Thus there are two isomorphism types. there is a U P with U = 6. Now suppose there exists = U P with U ∼ Zp × Zp for all k < n. Therefore P ϕ S is the unique isomorphism type. so group. S ϕ P1 ∼ S ϕ P2 .1.31 (d) Let G be a group of order 56 with a nonnormal Sylow 7subgroup. If G has a unique subgroup of each order dividing G. If G is ﬁnite prove that G is nilpotent if and only if it has a normal subgroup of each order dividing G. we have P ∩ S = 1 and P G so G is a semidirect product. Prove that if p is a prime and P is a nonabelian group of order p3 then Z(P ) = p and P/Z(P ) ∼ Zp × Zp . Note for all of the Sylow 2subgroup isomorphism types.
then P/Z(P ) is cyclic contradicting P being nonabelian. we have found the lower central series for S4 . FOOTE Proof. But if α ∈ A4 . we can choose s ∈ S4 such that s−1 a−1 s = αa 1 2 1 2 so that α ∈ S4 . (12)(34). Thus Ai = N for all i so 4 this is the lower central series for A4 . . since P is nonabelian. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. we must have P/Z(P ) ∼ Zp × Zp . p2 .12. (14)(23)} is the only proper normal subgroup of A4 . Solution. 1 Since s−1 a−1 sa is an even permutation. Z(P ) = P . Now N = {1. The upper central series of A4 is Zi (A4 ) = 1 and of S4 is Zi (S4 ) = 1 for all i since the center of S4 is trivial. Since P is a pgroup Z(P ) = 1. Since P/Z(P ) is not cyclic. Since S4 = A4 and S4 = A4 . (13)(24). Thus Z(P ) = p. = 6. If Z(P ) = p2 .1.32 DAVID S. The same argument shows S4 = A4 . Since P  = p3 we know P is nilpotent. Thus Z(P ) ∈ p. S4 ≤ A4 . Find the upper and lower central series for A4 and S4 .
1. Proof. b. If ab = ac. 7. functions f (x) such that f (q) = 0 for all q ∈ Q ∩ [0. then either a = 0 or b = c.12. is the set of all elements which commute with every element of R).1. (4) if R has an identity 1. Let F be a ﬁeld and let R ⊆ F be a subring of F with 1 ∈ R. b ∈ R.13).1. Basic Deﬁnitions and Examples. Prove that the center of a division ring is a ﬁeld. Introduction to Rings 7.6. where m. b ∈ R.3.1. Prove that any subring of a ﬁeld which contains the identity is an integral domain. (b). then there is a v ∈ S such that uv = 1 = vu. Thus the converse is false. Prove that if u is a unit in S then u is a unit in R. (a) Show that if n = ak b for some integers a and b then ab is a nilpotent element of Z/nZ. Then since R ⊆ F . if a. 7.2.. In particular. 7. 7. Any ﬁnite integral domain is a ﬁeld. (a). The center of a ring R is {z ∈ R  zr = rz. Solution. Proof. Decide which of the following (a)(f) are subrings of Q: (a) the set of all rational numbers with odd denominators (when written in lowest terms) (b) the set of all rational numbers with even denominators (when written in lowest terms) (c) the set of nonnegative rational numbers (d) the set of squares of rational numbers (e) the set of all rational numbers with odd numerators (when written in lowest terms) (f) the set of all rational numbers with even numerators (when written in lowest terms).14. 7.1. But then v ∈ R and hence u is a unit in R. Decide which (a) the set of all (b) the set of all (c) the set of all (d) the set of all (e) the set of all (f) the set of all of the following are subrings of the ring of all functions from the closed interval [0. If u is a unit in S. Solution. then the identity is unique and −a = (−1)a. every element of R is a unit. Proposition 7. (c). show that the element a ∈ Z/nZ is nilpotent if and only if every prime divisor of n is also a divisor of a. n ∈ Z+ . together with the zero function functions which have an inﬁnite number of zeros functions f such that limx→1− f (x) = 0 rational linear combinations of the functions sin nx and cos mx. (a) Prove that x is either zero or a zero divisor.e. But Z ⊆ Q is a subring of Q and 2 is not a unit. c are any elements in an integral domain and ab = ac. (2) (−a)b = a(−b) = −(ab) for all a. Let R be a ring. Therefore there are no zero divisors in R.3. Let R be a ring with identity and let S be subring of R containing the identity. Show by example that the converse if false. Proposition 7. then either a = 0 or b = c. Assume a. 7. Exercise 7. b and c are element of any ring with A not a zero divisor. In particular.5. Now consider 2 ∈ Q and notice that it is a unit because 1/2 ∈ Q. . (f).1. (3) (−a)(−b) = ab for all a. 1] to R.7. Corollary 7. (a).1. Let x be a nilpotent element of the commutative ring R (cf.1. (e).1. 7. Proof. (c) Let R be the ring of functions from a nonempty set X to a ﬁeld F . An element x in R is called nilpotent if xm = 0 for some m ∈ Z+ . (b) If a ∈ Z is an integer.13. ∀r ∈ R} (i.33 Part II – Ring Theory 7. 1] polynomial functions functions which have only a ﬁnite number of zeros. Then (1) 0a = a0 = 0 for all a ∈ R.1. Prove that R contains no nonzero nilpotent elements. determine the nilpotent elements of Z/72Z explicitly.
Proof. (b). Since bf ∈ Z. Thus rx is nilpotent for all r ∈ R. Let a + bf ω ∈ Of . Prove conversely that a subring of O containing the identity and having ﬁnite index f in O (as additive abelian group) is equal to Of . Prove that [O : Of ] = f (index as additive abelian groups). The set R = {x ∈ K ×  ν(x) ≥ 0} ∪ {0} is called the valuation ring of ν.23. Now (a + bf ω)(c + df ω) = ac + (ad + bd)f ω + bdf 2 ω 2 ∈ Of and (a + bf ω) − (c + df ω) = (a − c) + (b − d)f ω ∈ Of . Observing the calculation shows that 1 + x is a unit. Let u be a unit so vu = 1 and let x be our nilpotent element. Then xxn−1 = 0 where xn−1 = 0 so x is a zero divisor. Suppose x = 0 and since xm = 0.34 DAVID S. we have (rx)m = rm xm = 0. S. (c) Prove that 1 + x is a unit in R. Since Of  = S.26. ν(y)} for all x. then a + bf ω ∈ O so Of ⊆ O. a ring R is called a discrete valuation ring if there is some ﬁeld K and some discrete valuation ν on K such that R is the valuation ring of ν. Then (1) degree p(x)q(x) = degree p(x) + degree q(x). (d) Deduce that the sum of a nilpotent element and a unit is a unit. Thus Of is a subring of O. (b) Prove that for each nonzero element x ∈ K either x or x−1 is in R. Proof (c). But then S = f (ω + S) = f ω + S so f ω ∈ S. Proof (b). Now let b ≡ b + α for 1 ≤ α < f and suppose ∃a. FOOTE (b) Prove that rx is nilpotent for all r ∈ R. let n be the smallest positive integer such that xn = 0. Now we have a + bf ω ∈ S for all a. Proof (a). (3) R[x] is an integral domain. So b − b = b f thus b ≡ b mod f . Then (a + bω) − (a + b ω) ∈ Of and (a − a ) + (b − b )ω ∈ Of . b ∈ Z} is a subring of O containing the identity. Proof (c).1. b ∈ Z so Of ⊆ S. The ring of integers O is called the maximal order in Q( D). (2) the units of R[x] are just the units of R. a such that a + bω + Of = a + b ω + Of . and (c) compute p(x) + q(x) and p(x)q(x) under the assumption that the coeﬃcients of the two given polynomials are taken from the speciﬁed ring (where the integer coeﬃcients are taken mod n in parts (b) and (c)): . q(x) be nonzero elements of R[x]. 7. Let a + bω + Of = a + b ω + Of . Let p(x) = 2x3 − 3x2 + 4x − 5 and let q(x) = 7x3 + 33x − 4. Examples: Polynomials Rings. In general. Since O/S = f . 7. we must have Of = S. Since S is closed under addition then bf ω ∈ S for all b ∈ Z. Proof (a).2. 7. The ring √ f is called the order O √ of conductor f in the ﬁeld Q( D). Proof (b). DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. Then part (b) shows vx is nilpotent and part (c) shows 1 + vx is a unit. A discrete valuation on K is a function ν : K × → Z satisfying (i) ν(ab) = ν(a) + ν(b) (ii) ν is surjective. (c) Prove that an element x is a unit of R if and only if ν(x) = 0. (1 + x)(1 − x + x2 − x3 + · · · xm−1 ) = 1 Solution (d). Let D be a squarefree integer. Since 1 ∈ S then a ∈ S for all a ∈ Z because S is closed under addition.4. and let O be the ring of integers in the quadratic ﬁeld Q( D). Since R is commutative. Let R be an integral domain and let p(x). Proposition 7. Suppose that a subring. (a) Prove that R is a subring of K which contains the identity. ω + S divides f . of O contains the identity and has ﬁnite index f . √ 7. Matrix Rings. y ∈ K × with x + y = 0. Let R be a commutative ring with 1. For any positive integer f prove that the set Of = Z[f ω] = {a + bf ω  a. and (iii) ν(x + y) ≥ min {ν(x). Let K be a ﬁeld.1. and Group Rings. In each of parts (a).2. But this is a contradiction because f would have to divide b − b .1. Thus a + bω + Of and a + b ω + Of are the same coset if and only if b ≡ b mod f hence [O : Of ] = f . Thus v(u + x) is a unit and hence u + x is a unit.
p(x) + q(x) = 9x3 − 3x2 + 37x − 9 p(x)q(x) = 14x6 − 21x5 + 94x4 − 142x3 + 144x2 − 181x + 20 Solution (b). Solution (a). Solution (c).2.7). Proof.2. j entry is aij .1. so zij = 0. Proof (a). (b) Prove that AEij is the matrix whose j th column equals the ith column of A and all other columns are zero. s entry is aqr and all other entries are zero. 7. If i = j. j entry is 1 and whose other entries are all 0. j)th element of ZEji is 0.10.7. (c) Deduce that Epq AErs is the matrix whose p. p(x) + q(x) = x p(x)q(x) = 2x6 + x4 + x3 + 2x 7. Let [zij ] = Z ∈ Z(Mn (R)) so ZEij = Eij Z for all Eij . Now we observe that the (j. Prove that the center of the ring Mn (R) is the set of scalar matrices (cf.6. Use Exercise 7. i)th element of ZEji is zjj . Let n ∈ Z+ and let A be an n × n matrix with entries from S whose i. (e) α2 . Compute the following elements: (a) α + β. Proof (b). (b) R = Z/2Z.6. (c) R = Z/3Z. Let Eij be the element of Mn (S) whose i. Thus Z must be a scalar matrix. Consider the following elements of the integral group ring ZS3 : α = 3(1 2) − 5(2 3) + 14(1 2 3) and β = 6(1) + 2(2 3) − 7(1 3 2) where (1) is the identity of S3 . then AZ = ArI = rAI = rIA = ZA.35 (a) R = Z. 7. α + β = 6(1) + 3(1 2) − 3(2 3) + 14(1 2 3) − 7(1 3 2) . If Z = rI.2. (d) βα. p(x) + q(x) = x3 − x2 + x − 1 p(x)q(x) = x5 − x Solution (c). Exercise 7. (a) Prove that Eij A is the matrix whose ith row equals the j th row of A and all other rows are zero. so zii = zjj . for all A ∈ Mn (R).2. i)th element of Eji Z is zii and the (j. j)th element of Eji Z is zij and the (j. (c) αβ. (b) 2α − 3β. Let S be a ring with identity 1 = 0. then the (j. Solution (a).
5. b ∈ B} is a subring of R. Proof. .8. Then n gi gj =gk xj gk n NX = k=1 n xj gk = k=1 n j=1 gi gj =gk xi gk = k=1 = XN. if α ∈ ker ϕ then rα and αr ∈ ker ϕ for every r ∈ R.36 DAVID S. then the kernel of ϕ is an ideal of R. Let R and S be rings and let ϕ : R → S be a homomorphism. FOOTE Solution (b). DUMMIT AND RICHARD M.12.2. if I is any subgroup such that the above operations are well deﬁned. Proposition 7. then the map R → R/I deﬁned by r →r+I (r + I) × (s + I) = (rs) + I is a surjective ring homomorphism with kernel I (this homomorphism is called the natural projection of R onto R/I).6. Let R be a ring. (2) If I is any ideal of R. . Then A + B = {a + b  a ∈ A..1. α2 = 34(1) − 70(1 2) − 28(1 3) + 42(2 3) − 15(1 2 3) + 196(1 3 2) 7.3. the image of ϕ is a subring of S and R/ ker ϕ is isomorphic as a ring to ϕ(R). Proposition 7. i. Exercise 7. . 2α − 3β = −18(1) + 6(1 2) − 16(2 3) + 28(1 2 3) + 21(1 3 2) Solution (c). (1) (The Second Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) Let A b ea subring and let B be an ideal of R. βα = −108(1) + 18(1 2) + 63(1 3) − 51(2 3) + 84(1 2 3) + 6(1 3 2) Solution (e).7). ker ϕ is closed under multiplication by elements from R. gn } be a ﬁnite group. Let G = {g1 . then I is an ideal of R.e. (1) The image of ϕ is a subring of S. αβ = −108(1) + 81(1 2) − 21(1 3) − 30(2 3) + 90(1 2 3) Solution (d). Ring Homomorphisms and Quotient Rings. Prove that the element N = g1 + g2 + · · · + gn is in the center of the group ring RG (cf. Let X = x1 g1 + · · · + xn gn for xi ∈ R. . Theorem 7.7. Conversely. Then the (additive) quotient group R/I is a ring under the binary operations: (r + I) + (s + I) = (r + s) + I and for all r. (2) The kernel of ϕ is a subring of R. Let R be a ring and let I be an ideal of R. A ∩ B is an ideal of A and A + B/B ∼ A/(A ∩ B). Furthermore. = . Theorem 7. 7. (1) (The First Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) If ϕ : R → S is a homomorphism of rings. s ∈ R. Thus every ideal is the kernel of a ring homomorphism and vice versa.
. Therefore ϕ is an so this is a subring of M2 (Z).15. this is isomorphic to the quadratic integer ring O. This is clearly a group under addition. A (a subring containing I) is an ideal of R if and only if A/I is an ideal of R/I.3. Proof (c). x ∈ A.37 (2) (The Third Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) Let I and J be ideal of R with I ⊆ J. prove that the set and is isomorphic to the quadratic integer ring O. / χA is called the characteristic function of A with values in Z/2Z. 7. Let D be an integer that is not a perfect square in Z and let S = (a) Prove that S is a subring of M2 (Z). Now let √ √ a1 + b1 D = a2 + b2 D. = (3) (The Fourth Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) Let I be an ideal of R. Now if isomorphism. Let X be a nonempty set and let P(X) be the Boolean ring of all subsets of X deﬁned in exercise 21 of section 1. Then J/I is an ideal of R/I and (R/I)/(J/I) ∼ R/J. Furthermore. The correspondence A ↔ A/I is an inclusion preserving bijection between the wset of subrings A of R that contain I and the set of subrings of R/I. 0. so we show that S is closed under multiplication. then ϕ maps a + b D to this element. For each A ∈ P(X) deﬁne the function χA : X → Z/2Z by χA (x) = 1. b1 = b2 and thus a2 √ ∈ S. so we show it is closed under multiplication. But a1 (D − 1)b1 /4 b1 a 1 + b1 a2 (D − 1)b2 /4 = b2 a2 + b2 a1 a2 + (D − 1)a1 b2 /4 (D − 1)(a1 b2 + b1 b2 )/4 a1 b2 + a2 b1 + b1 b2 (D − 1)b1 b2 /4 + a1 a2 + a1 b2 + a2 b1 + b1 b2 a Db b a a1 a2 + b1 b2 D a1 b2 + a2 b1 D(a1 b2 + a2 b1 ) a1 a2 + b1 b2 D a1 Db1 a1 Db1 b1 a1 b1 a1 = a2 Db2 a2 Db2 b2 a2 b2 . (c) If D ≡ 1 mod 4 is squarefree. S is clearly a group under addition. Let R be the ring of all functions from X into Z/2Z. 7. a b Db a is √ √ (b) If D is not a perfect square in Z prove that the map ϕ : Z[ D] → S deﬁned by ϕ(a + b D) = a ring isomorphism. a Db b a  a. a1 Db1 b1 a1 a2 Db2 b2 a2 a (D − 1)b/4 b a+b  a. so a1 = a1 . Similarly to the proof in part (b). b ∈ Z . We calculate √ √ √ ϕ((a1 + b1 D) + (a2 + b2 D)) = ϕ((a1 + a2 ) + (b1 + b2 ) D) = = a1 + a2 b1 + b2 D(b1 + b2 ) a1 + a2 a1 Db1 b1 a1 + a2 Db2 b2 a2 √ √ √ ϕ((a1 + b1 D)(a2 + b2 D)) = ϕ((a1 a2 + b1 b2 D) + (a1 b2 + a2 b1 ) D) = = so ϕ is a homomorphism of rings.3. Proof (b). x ∈ A. Prove that the map P(X) → R deﬁned by A → χA is a ring isomorphism. But = a1 a2 + Db1 b2 a1 b2 + a2 b1 D(a2 b1 + a1 b2 ) Db1 b2 + a1 a2 so S is a subring of M2 (Z). b ∈ Z is a subring of M2 (Z) Proof (a).12.
then R has characteristic 2. . Assume R is commutative. then (ϕ(1R ) − 1S )ϕ(1R ) = ϕ(1R )ϕ(1R ) − 1S ϕ(1R ) = ϕ(1R ) − ϕ(1R ) = 0. 7. = ϕ(A)ϕ(B). 0. so ϕ is well deﬁned. x ∈ A\B. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE Proof. . Let ϕ : R → S be a nonzero homomorphism of rings. Recall (cf. x ∈ A ∩ B.14. 0. So ϕ(u)ϕ(v) = ϕ(uv) = ϕ(1R ) = 1S . then there are no zero divisors. then ϕ(1R ) − 1S = 0.30. Proof (a). prove that N (R/N (R)) = 0. But 1.27. This implies rn ∈ N (R) so r ∈ N (R) and thus x = 0. Prove that if R is a commutative ring and N (R) is its nilradical (cf. x ∈ B\A. exercise 7. (a) Prove tha tp(x) is a unit in R[x] if and only if a0 is a unit and a1 . (a) Prove that if ϕ(1R ) = 1S then ϕ(1R ) is a zero divisor in S.38 DAVID S. χ(A\B)∪(B\A) = 0 x ∈ A ∩ B. Let R and S be nonzero rings with identity and denote their respective identities by 1R and 1S . Let A = A so that ϕ(A) = χA = χA = ϕ(A ). Now let A. 7. B such that ϕ(A) = f = g = ϕ(B). Proof. So χA = χB . with ϕ(u)−1 = ϕ(v) = ϕ(u−1 ). If ϕ(1R ) = 1S . x ∈ X\(A ∩ B) But simple calculations show this is ϕ(A) + ϕ(B). 7. 1.1.17.. Let x ∈ R/N (R) with xn = 0 for some n ∈ N. Deduce that if S is an integral domain then every ring homomorphism from R to S sends the identity of R to the identity of S. exercise 7. B ⊆ X so that ϕ(A + B) = ϕ((A\B) ∪ (B\A)) = χ(A\B)∪(B\A) . . 7. Prove that the set of nilpotent element form an ideal – called the nilradical of R and denoted by N (R). Since an integral domain has a 1 = 0 and ϕ(1R ) = 0 if ϕ(R) = 0. Therefore ϕ(1R ) = 1S .3. . ϕ(A × B) = ϕ(A ∩ B) = χA∩B 0. there exists v ∈ R such that uv = 1R .29. [See exercise 7. exercise 15. = 1. Proof.3. So ϕ(1R ) is a zero divisor in S. Let p(x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 be an element of the polynomial ring R[x]. x ∈ A\B. But then 0 = xn = (r + N (R))n = rn + N (R). Now let f ∈ R so let A ⊆ X be the set such that f (A) = 1 and f (X\A) = 0. 7.3.3. So ϕ(A) = χA = f and ϕ is surjective. If S is an integral domain. (b) Prove that if ϕ(1R ) = 1S then ϕ(u) is a unit in S and that ϕ(u−1 ) = ϕ(u)−1 for reach unit u of R. Therefore ϕ is a ring isomorphism. section 1).13) that an element x ∈ R is nilpotent if xn = 0 for some n ∈ Z+ . Proof. Prove that a nonzero Boolean ring has characteristic 2 (cf.1. Let a = −1 so that Since 1 = 0. a2 . Thus ϕ(u) is a unit. Proof (b). x ∈ X\(A ∩ B). Similarly.29) then zero is the only nilpotent element of R/N (R) i. .3.3. Now let f = g ∈ R so there exist A. x ∈ B\A. thus A = B and ϕ is injective.] 0 = (−1)2 + 1 = 1 + 1. If u ∈ R is a unit.e. 0.33. an are nilpotent in R. Let R be a commutative ring. Then there exists r ∈ R such that x = r + N (R).
then ra = r a = 0.4.4. . proposition 7. Therefore ker ϕ = N (Fp G).14. Then R is a ﬁeld if and only if its only ideals are 0 and R. Assume R is commutative. Let R be a ring with identity 1 = 0. 7. Thus ra = 0 and R is an integral domain. . .2.4. we must have ker ϕ ⊆ N (Fp G).4. Prove that the principal ideal generated by x in the polynomial ring R[x] is a prime ideal if and only if R is an integral domain. Suppose there exists m such that ( pn i=1 ai gi )m = 0. Proof (b). (x) is prime if and only if R is an integral domain. Properties of Ideals. Corollary 7. 7. The ideal M is a maximal ideal if and only if the quotient ring R/M is a ﬁeld. Since exercise 7.4. 7. a1 . (1) I = R if and only if I contains a unit. . If R is a ﬁeld then any nonzero ring homomorphism from R into another ring is an injection.10. then pn pn 0 = ϕ( i=1 ai gi ) m =( i=1 a i )m pn . . 7. Prove that the nilradical of the group ring Fp G is the augmentation ideal (cf. Thus R[x]/(x) ∼ R so by proposi= tion 7. Prove that if P is a prime ideal of R and P contains no zero divisors then R is an integral domain.13.13.2 we may assume r = gi − 1. Proposition 7. By exercise 7.4. But then (gi − 1)(g1 + · · · + gn ) = gi g1 + · · · gi gn − g1 − · · · − gn = g1 + · · · + gn − g1 − · · · − gn = 0.3. pn i=1 7. a ∈ R\P . Then the ideal P is a prime ideal in R if and only if the quotient ring R/P is an integral domain. Then (g − 1)p = g p + p(. Proof (a). (b) Let G = {g1 .11. If ϕ is the augmentation map. Assume R is commutative.4. . Every maximal ideal of R is a prime ideal.12. n n Now let g − 1 ∈ ker ϕ. . .7. Proof. Since P is prime. exercise 7. Thus i=1 ai gi ∈ ker ϕ. In a ring with identity every proper ideal is contained in a maximal ideal.9. Proof. Let R be a commutative ring with 1. Let I be an ideal of R. Assume R is commutative. . Assume R is commutative. an are nilpotenet elements of R.2 states ker ϕ is generated by {g − 1  g ∈ G}. Prove that the augmentation ideal in the group ring RG is generated by {g − 1  g ∈ G}. .) − 1 = 0 in Fp G. Proposition 7. Prove that (x) is a maximal ideal if and only if R is a ﬁeld.29). . (a) Let p be a prime and let G be an abelian group of order pn . (2) Assume R is commutative. we know that R = R/P is an integral domain. Let ϕ : R[x] → R be given by ϕ(p(x)) = p(0) and notice ker ϕ = (x).39 (b) Prove that p(x) is nilpotent in R[x] if and only if a0 . Let ϕ : R → S be a homomorphism of commutative rings.13. Prove that if r is any element of the augmentation ideal of RG then r(g1 + · · · + gn ) = 0. Proof (a). Corollary 7. 7.4.10. Proposition 7. Prove that if G = σ is cyclic then the augmentation ideal is generated by σ − 1. Similarly.12 shows (x) is maximal if and only if R is a ﬁeld. we must have ai = 0. Assume R is commutative. Proposition 7. gn } be a ﬁnite group and assume R is commutative.3. So if r. Since Fp \ {0} is a multiplicative group. Proof (b).
Proof (a).15. Let that n−1 i=0 n i=1 ai xi be an element of F2 [x]. FOOTE (a) Prove that if P is a prime ideal of S then either ϕ−1 (P ) = R or ϕ−1 (P ) is a prime ideal of R. (a) Prove that E has 4 elements: 0.3.4. Then if n is even. ϕ−1 (P ) is an ideal. = 7. × (c) Write out the 4 × 4 multiplication table for E and prove that E is isomorphic to the cyclic group of order 3. = Solution (c). But −1 ϕ (P ) = P ∩ R. Speciﬁcally if R ⊂ S and ϕ is the inclusion homomorphism. n n−1 ai xi = i=0 i=0 n−1 ai xi + an xn = i=0 n−1 ai xi + an x(x + 1)(n−1)/2 = i=0 bi x i = c0 + c1 x. Let x2 + x + 1 be an element of the polynomial ring E = F2 [x] and use the bar notation to denote passage to the quotient ring F2 [x]/(x2 + x + 1).29).40 DAVID S. Prove that rad I is an ideal containing I and that (rad I)/I = N (R/I) (cf. rad I = r ∈ R  rn ∈ I for some n ∈ Z+ . So R/ϕ−1 (M ) is a ﬁeld and ϕ−1 (M ) is maximal. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. But ker(π1 ◦ ϕ) = ϕ−1 (M ). then ϕ−1 (P ) is either R or a prime ideal of R. (b) Prove that if M is a maximal ideal of S and ϕ is surjective then ϕ−1 (M ) is a maximal ideal of R. Now if n > 2 is odd. x + 1 . ai xi = i=0 i=0 n−1 ai xi + an xn = i=0 n−1 ai xi + an (x + 1)n/2 = i=0 ci xi = c0 + c1 x. 1}. exercise 7. Give an example to show that this need not be the case if ϕ is surjective. R/ ker(π1 ◦ ϕ) ∼ S/M . The multiplication table in table 7. 1. 1.4. Now let rs ∈ ϕ−1 (P ). so ϕ(r)ϕ(s) = ϕ(rs) ∈ P so ϕ(r) or ϕ(s) is in P because P is prime. = 7. Proof (a). Let r ∈ ϕ−1 (P ). F2 [x]/(x2 +x+1) ⊆ 0. Apply this to the special case when R is a subring of S and ϕ is the inclusion homomorphism to deduce that if P is a prime ideal of S then P ∩ R is either R or a prime ideal of R. Let I be an ideal of the commutative ring R and deﬁne called the radical of I. Since R is commutative. Since c0 . If n = 1 then n n−1 1 i=0 = a0 + a1 x. Since π1 ◦ ϕ is surjective. (b) Write out the 4 × 4 addition table for E and deduce that the additive group E is isomorphic to the Klein 4group.2 shows E × ∼ Z3 . x and x + 1.30. c1 such that n i=0 ai xi = c0 + c1 x for all n. So there exist c0 . Proof (b).1 shows F2 [x]/(x2 + x + 1) ∼ V4 . Deduce that E is a ﬁeld. c1 such ai xi = c0 + c1 x. Suppose there exists c0 . Solution (b). x. so ϕ(rs) = ϕ(r)ϕ(s) ∈ P because ϕ(r) ∈ P and P is an ideal. So r or s is in ϕ−1 (P ) so ϕ−1 (P ) is prime or ϕ−1 (P ) = R. The addition table in table 7. Let π1 : S → S/M and π2 : R/ ker(π1 ◦ ϕ) be the canonical projection maps. c1 ∈ {0. Therefore E is a ﬁeld.
Proof (b). Thus b = ba−1 a ∈ (a).4. Let r ∈ R so if rn ∈ P .1. Notice that 0 = ν(1) = ν(aa−1 ) = ν(a) + ν(a−1 ) so ν(a) = −ν(a−1 ). Prove that 0 is a radical ideal in Z/nZ if and only if n is a product of distinct primes to the ﬁrst power (i. If αm = 0 mod n.1. Note P ⊆ rad P .30). Now suppose n is a product of distinct primes to the ﬁrst power. An ideal I of the commutative ring R is called a radical ideal if rad I = I. Induction shows r ∈ P . (b) Prove that if I is any nonzero ideal of R. Ak is nonempty. If Q is a primary ideal then rad (Q) is a prime ideal (cf. Then Ak = (r) = I.26. Therefore rad 0 = 0.4. If r ∈ R and a ∈ Ak then ν(ra) = ν(r) + ν(a) ≥ k and similarly ν(ar) ≥ k. If b ∈ Ak then ν(ba−1 ) = ν(b) − ν(a) ≥ 0 so ba−1 ∈ R. then αm contains all of the prime factors of n. where p is a prime and n is a positive integer. Deduce that (n) is a radical of Z if and only if n is a product of distinct primes in Z. (a) Prove that Ak is a principal ideal and that A0 ⊇ A1 ⊇ A2 ⊇ · · ·.31. Proof (a). Therefore Ak is a principal ideal and it is clear that A0 ⊇ A1 ⊇ A2 ⊃ · · ·. Deduce that R is a local ring with unique maximal ideal A1 . Establish the following facts about primary ideals.41. Then mp = 0 mod n and (mp)2 = 0 mod n which is a contradiction. Thus n is a product of distinct primes to the ﬁrst power. Now let ν(a) = k by surjectivity of ν.4. Multiplication Table 0 0 1 x 1+x 0 0 0 0 1 x 1+x 0 1+x 1 x 0 0 1 x x 1+x 1+x 1 Table 7.4. From part (a) any proper ideal is contained in A1 so A1 is the unique maximal ideal of R. Thus α must contain all prime factors of n so α = 0 mod n..e. then I = Ak for some k ≥ 0.2. Since −1 ∈ R× . 7. 7. Let k = min {ν(I)} with ν(r) = k. Following the notation of exercise 7. F2 [x]/(x2 + x + 1). so rad P = P . Suppose rad 0 = 0 and n = mp2 . ν(b)} ≥ k. either r or rn−1 is in P . Proof (b). so Ak ⊆ (a). For each integer k ≥ 0 deﬁne Ak = {r ∈ R  ν(r) ≥ k} ∪ {0}. An ideal Q of R is primary if and only if every zero divisor in R/Q is a nilpotent element of R/Q. 7. ν(−b)} = min {ν(a). So ν(a − b) ≥ min {ν(a). Every prime ideal of R is a primary ideal.41 Addition Table 0 0 1 x 1+x 1 x x 1+x 0 1 1+x 1+x x 1 0 0 1 1 0 x 1+x 1+x x Table 7. F2 [x]/(x2 + x + 1). exercise 7. . (b) Let n > 1 be an integer. ν(−1) = 0. n is square free). Also ν(ab) = ν(a) + ν(b) ≥ k so Ak is a subring.39. (a) (b) (c) (d) The primary ideal of Z are 0 and (pn ). Proof (a). (a) Prove that every prime ideal of R is a radical ideal. So Ak is an ideal. A proper ideal Q of the commutative ring R is called primary if whenever ab ∈ Q and a ∈ Q then bn ∈ Q / for some positive integer n. let ν be a discrete valuation on K and let R be the valuation ring of ν. Since ν is surjective. let K be a ﬁeld.
Corollary 7. Then b is a zero divisor in / k k R so b = 0. Let ab ∈ Q with a ∈ Q. 7.5. d ∈ D} and deﬁne the relation ∼ on F by (r. f ).36). (1) every element of Q is of the form rd−1 for some r ∈ R and d ∈ D. 7. Let a b = 0 in R = R/Q. d) ∼ (s. distributive and commutative.e. e) ∼ (t. Let n = pa for p some prime. r This proves ∼ is transitive. d d (3) multiplication is associative. Let ab ∈ (pk ) with a ∈ (pk ). d) by d : r = {(a. It is immediate that this relation is reﬂexive and symmetric. so (ab)n ∈ Q and am ∈ Q for all m ∈ Z+ . / Proof (c). Rings of Fractions. b ∈ D and rb = ad} . Suppose (r. Note that d = de in Q for all e ∈ D. 0 d for any d ∈ D and the additive .15 (cf. Proof (b). In particular. Now consider (pk ) ⊆ Z. where the additive identity is inverse of a is −a . Then pk ab and pk a. e) and (s. d) ∼ (s. Thus b ∈ Q and Q is a primary ideal of R. f ). b)  a ∈ R. Therefore rad (Q) is a prime ideal. In other words. Proof (d). Theorem 7.42 DAVID S. in the following sense. FOOTE Proof (a). let R be an integral domain and let Q be the ﬁeld of fractions of R.16.. So ak = 0 thus every zero divisor is nilpotent in R. Multiplying the ﬁrst of these equations by f and the second by d and adding them gives rf − td)e = 0. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. Let D be any nonempty subset of R that does not contain 0. so p ∈ (n). Then there is a commutative ring Q with 1 such that Q contains R as a subring and every element of D is a unit in Q. Thus (n) = (pk ). so bk ∈ (pk ) and / k (p ) is a primary ideal. Let P be a prime ideal of R with ab ∈ P . b d bd b d bd In order to prove that Q is a commutative ring with identity there are a number of things to check: (1) these operations are well deﬁned (2) Q is an abelian group under addition. l > 1. d) ∼ (t. i. e) if and only if re = sd. a ∈ (n) with (n) a primary ideal implies that pi ∈ (n). hence an equivalence relation. Now suppose every zero divisor in R is a nilpotent element. Let ab ∈ rad (Q) and a ∈ rad Q. Done the equivalence class of (r. The ring Q has the following additional properties.. So npi shows that n = pk for / / some k ≥ 1.5. so pb.15. Prove theorem 7. Let I ⊂ Z be a primary ideal so I = (n) for some n ∈ Z since every ideal of Z is principal.1. Let S be any commutative ring with idenitty and let ϕ : R → S be any injective ring homomorhpism such that ϕ(d) is a unit in S for every d ∈ D. Thus pk bk . (2) (uniqueness of Q) The ring Q is the “smallest” ring containing R in which all elements of D become units. and (4) Q has an identity. If a ﬁeld F contains a subring R isomorphic to R then the subﬁeld of F generated by R is isomorphic to Q.e. If a ∈ P then b ∈ P so P is a primary ideal. Then there is an injective ring homomorphism Φ : Q → S such that ΦR = ϕ. Let R be a commutative ring. d r re Let Q be the set of equivalence classes under ∼. Then re − sd = 0 and sf − te = 0. Proof. Since e ∈ D is neither zero nor a zero divisor we must have rf − td = 0. d)  r ∈ R. Let F = {(r. since D is closed under multiplication. Since Q is primary then / / bnk ∈ Q so b ∈ rad (Q). (r. if D = R\ {0} then Q is a ﬁeld. b ∈ D). Let R be a commutative ring with identity 1 = 0. any ring containing an isomorphic copy of R in which all the elements of D become units must also contain an isomorphic copy of Q. ab ∈ D for all a. Then ab ∈ Q with ak ∈ Q and bl ∈ Q for k. does not contain any zero divisors and is closed under multiplication (i. We now deﬁne an additive and multiplicative structure on Q: a c ad + bc a c ac + = and × = . theorem 15.
d3 To show multiplication is distributive.e. then −r d ∈ Q with r −r rd − rd 0 + = = . Now if d1 . which is the right hand side. bd d a b = a b (i.. 2 d d d d So Q is closed under inverse. d1 d2 d1 d3 . ab = a b) and c d = c d . The left hand side of this equation is ab dd + cd bb substituting a b for ab and c d for cd gives a bdd + c dbb . d2 . Now if ∈ Q. d1 d2 d3 r d Thus addition is associative. Hence multiplication of fractions is well deﬁned.e. d3 ∈ Q. d2 . d3 ∈ Q so 1 2 3 ( r1 r2 r3 r1 r2 r3 × )× = × d1 d2 d3 d1 d2 d3 r1 r2 r3 = d1 d2 d3 r1 r2 r3 = × d1 d2 d3 r2 r3 r1 × ( × ). let ( ∈ Q so r1 r2 r3 r1 d2 + r2 d1 r3 + )× = × d1 d2 d3 d1 d2 d3 r1 r3 d2 + r2 r3 d1 = d1 d2 d3 r1 r3 d2 r2 r3 d1 = × + × d1 d2 d3 d2 d1 d3 r1 r3 r2 r3 = × + × d1 d3 d2 d3 r1 r2 r3 r1 r2 d3 + r3 d2 ×( + )= × d1 d2 d3 d1 d2 d3 r1 r2 d3 + r1 r3 d2 = d1 d2 d3 r1 r2 d3 r1 r3 d2 = × + × d1 d2 d3 d1 d2 d3 r1 r2 r1 r3 = × + × . Hence addition of fractions is well deﬁned. d r 0 r r 0 To show Q is an abelian group under addition note that d ∈ Q with d1 + d2 = d11d2 = d2 so there exists an r1 r2 r3 additive identity in Q.. We must show that (ad + bc)(b d ) = (a d + b c )(bd).43 To check that addition is well deﬁned assume ad+bc = a db +b c . i. = d1 d2 d3 r1 r2 r3 d1 . Since addition is clearly commutative in Q. c c To check that multiplication is well deﬁned assume a = a and d = d . d2 . The left hand side of this equation is (ab )(cd ) substituting a b for ab and c d for cd gives (a b)(c d) which is the right hand side. We must show b b (ac)(b d ) = (a c )(bd). r r r To show multiplication is associative. let d1 . then ( r2 r3 r1 d2 + r2 d1 r3 r1 + )+ = + d1 d2 d3 d1 d2 d3 r1 d2 d3 + r2 d1 d3 + r3 d1 d2 = d1 d2 d3 r1 r2 d3 + d1 d2 = + d1 d2 d3 r1 r2 r3 = + ( + ). we see Q is an abelian group under addition.
One then sees that every element of Q may be written as r · d−1 for some r ∈ R and some d ∈ D. d ∈ D. ι(r) does not depend on the choice of d ∈ D. every nonzero element of Q has a multiplicative inverse and Q is a ﬁeld. Now let r d rd r × = = . so ϕ(r)ϕ(e) = ϕ(s)ϕ(d). 2 So Φ is a ring homomorphism. e ∈ D. The subring ι(R) of Q is therefore isomorphic to R. if d is represented by the fraction de then e e its multiplicative inverse is de . d1 d d1 d d1 ∈ Q so Next we embed R into Q by deﬁning rd where d is any element of D. We henceforth identify each r ∈ R with ι(r) and so consider R as a subring of Q. Now let r1 . let ∈ Q so r1 r2 r1 r2 × = d1 d2 d1 d2 r2 r1 = d2 d1 r2 r1 = × . d2 To show multiplication is commutative. d for all d. Φ is injective because rd−1 ∈ ker Φ implies r ∈ ker Φ ∩ R = ker ϕ. so ι is a ring homomorphism. r2 d−1 ∈ Q. and then Φ(rd−1 ) = ϕ(r)ϕ(d)−1 = ϕ(s)ϕ(e)−1 = Φ(se−1 ). FOOTE r1 r2 d1 . ι is injective because rd 0 ι(r) = 0 ⇔ = ⇔ rd2 = 0 ⇔ r = 0 d d because d is neither zero nor a zero divisor. d2 d1 r d1 To show Q has an identity. if D = R\ {0}. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. since ϕ is injective this forces r and hence also rd−1 to be zero. Extend ϕ to a map Φ : Q → S by deﬁning Φ(rd−1 ) = ϕ(r)ϕ(d)−1 for all r ∈ R. It remains to establish the uniqueness property of Q. Then 1 2 Φ(r1 d−1 + r2 d−1 ) = Φ((r1 d2 + r2 d1 )(d1 d2 )−1 ) 1 2 = ϕ(r1 d2 + r2 d1 )ϕ(d1 d2 )−1 = ϕ(r1 )ϕ(d2 )ϕ(d1 )−1 ϕ(d2 )−1 + ϕ(r2 )ϕ(d1 )ϕ(d1 )−1 ϕ(d2 )−1 = ϕ(r1 )ϕ(d1 )−1 + ϕ(r2 )ϕ(d2 )−1 −1 = Φ(r1 d1 ) + Φ(r2 d−1 ) 2 Φ(r1 d−1 r2 d−1 ) = Φ((r1 r2 )(d1 d2 )−1 ) 1 2 = ϕ(r1 r2 )ϕ(d1 d2 )−1 = ϕ(r1 )ϕ(d1 )−1 ϕ(r2 )ϕ(d2 )−1 −1 = Φ(r1 d1 )Φ(r2 d−1 ). . Assume ϕ : R → S is an injective ring homomorphism such that ϕ(d) is a unit in S for all d ∈ D. Finally.44 DAVID S. Now let r1 d−1 . notice that d d ∈ Q for any d ∈ D. since rd−1 = se−1 implies re = sd. This map is well deﬁned. In particular. r2 ∈ R so ι : R → Q by ι: r → ι(r1 + r2 ) = (r1 + r2 )d d r1 d r2 d = + d d = ι(r1 ) + ι(r2 ) Since rd d = re e ι(r1 × r2 ) = (r1 r2 )d d r1 d r2 d × = d d = ι(r1 )ι(r2 ). Next note that each d ∈ D has a multiplicative inverse in Q: namely. Furthermore.
By theorem 7.1. and Unique Factorization Domains 8. if I is any nonzero ideal in the Euclidean Domain R then I = (d). −67 or −163. Let R be an integral domain that is not a ﬁeld. Deduce that a nonzero element of norm zero (if such an element exists) is a unit. In particular. r such that x + α = qα + r. Prove that the ring of fractions D−1 R is isomorphic to a subring of the quotient ﬁeld of R (hence is also an integral domain). r = 0. so any coset of I has a representative with norm / less than N (α).e. Then (1) d is a greatest common divisor of a and b. (a) Suppose D is −1. Then there exists q. Euclidean. Prove that O is a Euclidean Domain with respect to N .1.1. Proposition 8. Prove that every nonzero element of R of norm m is a unit. √ 8. More precisely.45 7.1. x = 372 + m · 899. Principal Ideal. Proof.1. Let R be an integral domain. 8. Let Q be the quotient ﬁeld of R. 8.10. i.1. Since there 1 2 are only a ﬁnite number of (f1 . Since R is a Euclidean Domain. Proof. Euclidean Domains. there are elements x and y in R such that d = ax + by. Let R be a Euclidean Domain and let a and b be nonzero elements of R.5. Proof. Since D\ {0} ⊆ R\ {0}.2. If two elements d and d of R generate the same principal ideal.5. Then if f = f1 + f2 i and α = a1 + a2 i we have f1 + f2 < a2 + a2 . If a and B are nonzero element sin the commutative ring R such that the ideal generated by a and b is a principal ideal (d). So any solution to this equation has form for any m ∈ Z. then d is a greatest common divisor of a and b. Since a is chosen to be minimum norm. D\ {0} is also a multiplicative set of R. Let F = Q( D) be a quadratic ﬁeld with associated quadratic integer ring O and ﬁeld norm N as in section 7. Every ideal in a Euclidean Domain is principal. Let x + I be a coset of I. Let d = rn be the last nonzero remainder in the Euclidean Algorithm for a and b described at the beginning of this chapter..8(a)..1. . Prove that the quotient ring Z[i]/I is ﬁnite for any nonzero ideal I of Z[i]. there exists q. Let R be a Euclidean Domain. In particular.5. then d = ud for some u ∈ R× . 8.3. Thus a is a unit. If R is a Euclidean Domain then there are universal side divisors in R.1. Notice that 372 · 17 − 217 · 29 = 31.3. Since R is a domain. (b) Suppose that D = −43. (d) = (d ).4. r ∈ R such that 1 = qa + r with N (r) < N (a) or r = 0. Theorem 8. Proposition 8. So I = (α) for some α ∈ Z[i]. theorem 7. Proposition 8. Let m be the minimum integer in the set of norms of nonzero elements of R. f2 ) ∈ Z × Z with this property. 8. if d and d are both greatest common divisors of a and b. −2. where d is any nonzero element of I of minimum norm. Determine all integer solutions of the following equations: (a) (b) 17x + 29y = 31 (c) Proof (b). Z[i] is a Euclidean Domain.2.15 there exists an injective ring homomorhpism ι : R → Q with ι(R\ {0}) ⊆ Q× . i. Let a ∈ R with N (a) = m.8. y = −217 − m · 527. then r = 0 so N (r) < N (α). 2 2 Let F = {f ∈ R  N (f ) < N (α)}. and (2) the principal ideal (d) is the ideal generated by a and b. Z[i]/I is ﬁnite for any nonzero ideal I of Z[i]. Proposition 8. d can be written as an Rlinear combination of a and b. Prove that O is not a Euclidean Domain with respect to any norm.15 states there exists an injective ring homomorhpism ψ : D−1 R → Q with ψR = ι. −3. then d = ud for some unit u. Let R be an integral domain and let D be a nonempty subset of R that is closed under multiplication. By exercise 8. Since x ∈ (α). −7 or −11. But now x + I = r + I.e.
ab ab Proof (c). y). ≡M ≡ M αϕ(N )+1 9. then (e ) ⊆ (a) ∩ (b). 8. Let N be a positive integer.1. Therefore (a.1. FOOTE 8. Polynomial Rings 9. y]/(y 2 − x) and F [x. y] → R[y] be given by Let p(x. So part (a) shows e is a least common multiple of a and b. Then abx = eb and aby = ea ab ab ab so ab  eb and ab  ea. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 and let a and b be nonzero elements of R. Let M be an integer relatively prime to N and let d be an integer relatively prime to ϕ(N ). (b) Deduce that any two nonzero elements in a Euclidean Domain have a least common multiple which is unique up to multiplication by a unit. Thus d M1 ≡ M dd mod N mod N mod N. where ϕ denotes Euler’s ϕfunction.b) .11.1.b) ). If a and b are nonzero elements of R then (a) ∩ (b) is the largest ideal contained in (a) ∩ (b). If (e ) is a principal ideal such that (e ) ⊆ (a) ∩ (b) then e  a and e  b. So e = se and et = e .46 DAVID S. where (a. y)(y 2 − y 2 ) = 0. Thus e  e and (e ) ⊆ (e) so (e) is the largest principal ideal contained in (a) ∩ (b). Then ∼ R[x]/(I) = (R/I)[x]. . 9.12 (A Public Key Code). ab (c) Prove that in a Euclidean Domain the least common multiple of a and b is (a. if I is a prime ideal of R then (I) is a prime ideal of R[x]. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. y)) = p(y 2 . Thus least common multiples are unique up to multiplication by a unit. there exists e ∈ R with (e) = (a) ∩ (b). Deﬁnitions and Basic Properties. Since (M. Proof (b). Now let ax = e = by. Proposition 9. then (e ) ⊆ (e). q(x) are nonzero (2) the units of R[x] are just the units of R (3) R[x] is an integral domain.b) ) ⊆ (a) ∩ (b) so ( (a. Since a  e and b  e we must have (e) ⊆ (a) and (e) ⊆ (b). eb) and (a. So we have (e) ⊆ ( (a. Proposition 9. y)(y 2 − x) ∈ (y 2 − x) so that ϕ(p(x. Thus ab  (ea.2.1. Since a and b are nonzero then e is also nonzero so e = ste and e(1 − st) = 0 implies 1 = st because R is a domain. Prove that if M1 ≡ M d mod N then d M ≡ M1 mod N where d is the inverse of d mod ϕ(N ) : dd ≡ 1 mod ϕ(N ). First suppose there exists a least common multiple e of a and b. If a  e and b  e .b)  e. y)(y 2 − x)) = p(y 2 . b) is the greatest common divisor of a and b.b) ) ⊆ (e). Then e  e and e  e. Now suppose there is a largest principal ideal (e) contained in (a) ∩ (b). y]/(y 2 − x2 ) is not a domain. (a) Prove that a least common multiple of a and b (if such exists) is a generator for the unique largest principal ideal contained in (a) ∩ (b). e be two least common multiples of a and b. First note that ( (a. Proof. Then e  a and e  b. Prove that the rings F [x. Then (1) degree p(x)q(x) = degree p(x) + degree q(x) if p(x). A least common multiple of a and b is an element e of R such that (i) a  e and b  e. Proof (a).b) is a least common multiple of a and b. y]/(y 2 − x2 ) are not isomorphic for any ﬁeld F . Now let e. Not let ϕ : R[x.1.13. N ) = 1 we know that M ϕ(N ) ≡ 1 mod N . Since (e) is the largest such principal ideal. Let I be an ideal of the ring R and let (I) = I[x] denote the ideal of R[x] generated by I (the set of polynomials with coeﬃcients in I). But then e  e . In particular. Since R is a Euclidean Domain. Since y 2 − x2 = (y − x)(y + x) then F [x. Let R be an integral domain. ϕ(p(x. Proof. and (ii) if a  e and b  e then e  e .
Polynomial Rings Over Fields I. . . But then 0 = ϕ(r(x)+ys(x)) = r(y 2 )+ys(y 2 ).15. Prove that the ideal (xi − y j ) is a prime ideal in R[x. . Prove that F [x] contains inﬁnitely many primes. 9. . y]. . . . if a(x) and b(x) are two polynomials in F [x] with b(x) nonzero.2. xn ).3. Proof. Proof. x2 . then F [x] is a Principal Ideal Domain and a Unique Factorization Domain. . Note that we can write p(x. Then m n p(λx1 . . . . pn (x) are all of the primes in F [x]. . j be relatively prime integers.1.2. λxn ) = i=0 ai m (λxj )kj j=1 n = λk i=0 k ai j=1 xj j k = λ p(x1 . Prove that for all λ ∈ R we have p(λx1 . An ideal I in R[x1 . . . Proof. y)(y 2 − x) so ker ϕ ⊆ (y 2 − x). Let F be a ﬁeld. Exhibit all the ideals in the ring F [x]/(p(x)). xn ). The polynomial ring F [x] is a Euclidean Domain. . . . . xn ]. . y)(y 2 −x) by considering cosets of F [x. xn ) = i=0 ai j=1 xj j . Let F be a ﬁnite ﬁeld. .4. Proof. y) ∈ ker ϕ so that 0 = ϕ(p(x.1. k where n j=1 kj = k. 9. Speciﬁcally. . . Prove that an ideal is a homogeneous ideal if and only if it may be generated by homogeneous polynomials. x2 . . . λx2 . Corollary 9. Let p(x) = notice 1 + p(x) ∈ F [x]. λx2 . . xn ) be a homogeneous polynomial of degree k in R[x1 . y) = q(x. . . λxn ) = λk p(x1 . . . 9. 9. . Now let p(x. Since F [x] is a unique factorization domain we can write m n i=1 pi (x) and 1 + p(x) = i=1 pαi (x) where each pαi (x) is irreducible. Theorem 9. . 9.4. . Suppose on the other hand that p1 (x). . where F is a ﬁeld and p(x) is a polynomial in F [x]. xn ] is called a homogeneous ideal if whenever p ∈ I then each homogeneous component of p is also in I.1. But now m 1= i=1 pαi (x) − p(x) m = pα1 (x) i=2 pαi (x) − p(x) pα1 (x) . First we write m n p(x1 .14. y).47 Thus (y 2 − x) ⊆ ker ϕ.17. y) = r(x)+ys(x)+q(x. Let p(x1 . Therefore p(x. . x2 . . So r = 0 and s = 0. y)) = p(y 2 . y]/(y 2 −x). Let R be an integral domain and let i. . then there are unique q(x) and r(x) in F [x] such that a(x) = q(x)b(x) + r(x) with r(x) = 0 or deg r(x) < deg b(x).2. . If F is a ﬁeld. x2 . This is a contradiction because a prime is not a unit.5. 9.
So let n p(x) = i=1 pi (x). F [x] is a Euclidean domain and in particular a unique factorization domain. if p(x) is a moni polynomial that is irreducible in R[x]. If p(x) is reducible in F [x] then p(x) is reducible in R[x]. More precisely. then p(x) is irreducible in F [x]. s ∈ F such that rA(x) = a(x) and sB(x) = b(x) both lie in R[x] and p(x) = a(x)b(x) is a factorization in R[x]. Corollary 9.5 (Gauss’ Lemma). y)2 + 2β(x. y 2 . Proposition 9. So there exists σ ∈ Sn t t such that αi qi (x) = pσ(i) (x) for all 1 ≤ i ≤ t. y) + 1 where β(x. αi ∈ F . Describe the ring structure of the following rings: (d) Z[x.e.B(x) ∈ F [x]. then p(x) has no roots in Q. it is also a principal ideal domain so let I = s t (q(x)).48 DAVID S. 9. In particular. Proof (d).7. Then p(x) is irreducible in R[x] if and only if it is irreducible in F [x]. 2). Suppose the greatest common divisor of the coeﬃcients of p(x) is 1. and I is an ideal of F [x].6. If r/x ∈ Q is in lowest terms (i. Let r(x) = i=1 ri (x) and q(x) = i=1 qi (x) s t n for ri (x). . Proposition 9.8. Corollary 9. Solution. y 2 . r and s are relatively prime integers) and r/s is a root of p(x). if p(x) is a monic polynomial with integer coeﬃcients and p(d) = 0 for all itnegers d dividing the constant tterm of p(x)..10. then r divides the constant term and s divides the leading coeﬃcient of p(x). y) has no constant term. 1 because if there is no constant term then every term has even degree and if there is a constant term.2. qi (x) irreducible. Since (p(x)) ⊆ (q(x)). there is an α ∈ F with p(α) = 0. Let α = α(x. y) + (x2 . By the lattice isomorphism theorem. where each pi (x) is irreducible. Irreducibility Criteria. The highest power of x and y is 1 along with the largest coeﬃcient. 2) ∈ 0. let F be its ﬁeld of fractions and let p(x) ∈ R[x]. y) + 1)2 = β(x. Then p(x) has a facto of degree one if and only if p(x) has a roote in F . y))2 + (x2 .6. Therefore (q(x)) = ( i=1 qi (x)) = ( i=1 pσ(i) (x)). y) + 1 so this is in 1. A polynomial of degree two or three over a ﬁeld F is reducible if and only if it has a root in F . Theorem 9. In particular. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. The elements with α = 0 are the elements with no constant term. 9. Show that α2 = 0 or 1 for every α in the last ring and determine those elements with α2 = 0. Polynomial Rings That are Unique Factorization Domains. Since F is a ﬁeld.10. if p(x) = A(x)B(x) for some nonconstant polynomials A(x). then a polynomial ring in an arbitrary number of variable with coeﬃcients in R is also a Unique Factorization Domain.3. FOOTE Proof. i. R is a Unique Factorization Domain if and only if R[x] is a Unique Factorization Domain. 9. let α(x. Let R be a Unique Factorization Domain with ﬁeld of fractions F and let p(x) ∈ R[x]. y) = β(x. Using division of polynomials we calculate x3 + 4x2 + x − 6 = (50x2 + 45x − 95)(x/50 + 31/500) + (31/10 x2 + 1395/500 x − 2945/500) So we write the greatest common divisor as 31/10 x2 + 1395/500 x − 2945/500 = 50x2 + 45x − 95 = (31/10 x2 + 1395/500 x − 2945/500)(500/31). Let p(x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a0 be a polynomial of degree n with integer coeﬃcients. for some α ∈ F . x5 − 6x + 5 = (x3 + 4x2 − x − 6)(x2 − 4x + 15) − (50x2 + 45x − 95) = (x3 + 4x + x − 6)[(x2 − 4x + 15)(x/50 + 31/500) − 1] − (x5 − 6x + 5)[x/50 + 31/500]. Then α i=1 ri (x) i=1 qi (x) = i=1 pi (x). Proposition 9.11. y]/(x2 . p(x) = r(x)q(x) for some r(x) ∈ F [x]. Let F be a ﬁeld and let p(x) ∈ F [x].. Determine the characteristics of each of these rings. Proposition 9.e. Let I/(p(x)) ⊆ F [x]/(p(x)) be an ideal. Let R be a Unique Factorization Domain.9. y)2 = (β(x. y 2 . Determine the greatest common divisor of a(x) = x3 + 4x2 + x − 6 and b(x) = x5 − 6x + 5 in Q[x] and write it as a linear combination in Q[x] of a(x) and b(x). then there are nonzero elements r. If R is a Unique Factorization Domain. So α(x. 2) so α2 = (α(x. (p(x)) ⊆ I.2.4. Since F [x] is a Euclidean domain. 9.
12. Solution (d). 9. Proof.6.5 that a nonconstant polynomial f (x) has a multiple root if and only if f (x) is not relatively prime to . Construct ﬁelds of each of the following orders: (a) 9. 9. Let F be a ﬁeld and let f (x) = an x + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a0 ∈ F [x]. Prove that the map which sends the element p(x) of K1 to the element p(y + 1) of K2 (where p is any polynomial with coeﬃcients in F11 ) is well deﬁned and gives a ring isomorphism from K1 to K2 . (b) If f (0) = 0 prove that f is irreducible if and only if g is irreducible.13 (Eisenstein’s Criterion). Then f (x) is irreducible in R[x].4.4. Suppose an−1 . 9. . 9. Solution (c). Determine whether the following polynomials are irreducible in the rings indicated. Proof (b). Dx (f (x)). Suppose p divides ai for all i ∈ {0. . If the image of p(x) in (R/I)[x] cannot be factored in (R/I)[x] into two polynomials of smaller degree.3. The derivative. (d) 81. The polynomial g(x) = xn f (1/x) is called the reverse of f (x). of f (x) is deﬁned by Dx (f (x)) = nan xn−1 + (n − 1)an−1 xn−2 + · · · + a1 where. The polynomial f (x) is said to have a multiple root if there is some ﬁeld E containing F and some α ∈ E such that x−α)2 divides f (x) in E[x]. (c) x4 + 1 in F5 [x]. Then f (x) is irreducible in both Z[x] and Q[x]. 9. We shall prove in section 13. Solution (c). Prove that K1 = F11 [x]/(x2 + 1) and K2 = F11 [y]/(y 2 + 2y + 2) are both ﬁelds with 121 elements.2.16.14 (Eisenstein’s Criterion for Polynomial Ring over Z). where p is an odd prime. Proposition 9. . p a prime. . a1 . Let p be a prime in Z and let f (x) = xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 ∈ Z[x]. . determine their factorization into irreducibles. 1. (b) 49. n ≥ 1.19.4. For those that are reducible. Proof (d). Show that the polynomial (x − 1)(x − 2) · · · (x − n) − 1 is irreducible over Z for all n ≥ 1. Solution (a). Solution (b). (b) x3 + x + 1 in F3 [x]. .4. 9. Solution (b). (c) 8.1. a0 are all elements of P and suppose a0 is not an element of P 2 . then p(x) is irreducible in R[x].4.4. . Prove that the following polynomials are irreducible in Z[x]: (c) x4 + 4x3 + 6x2 + 2x + 1 p p (d) (x+2) −2 . . Corollary 9. (a) Describe the coeﬃcients of g in terms of the coeﬃcients of f . The notaion Fp denotes the ﬁnite ﬁeld Z/pZ. Let P be a prime ideal of the integral domain R and let f (x) = xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 be a polynomial in R[x] (here n ≥ 1). Solution (a).49 Proposition 9.4. Let I be a proper ideal in the integral domain R and let p(x) be a nonconstant monic polynomial in R[x]. na = a + · · · + a (n times). x Proof (c). the polynomial f (x) = (x−1)2 (x−2) ∈ Q[x] has α = 1 as a multiple root and the polynomial f (x) = x4 + 2x2 + 1 = (x2 + 1)2 ∈ R[x] has α = ±i ∈ C as multiple roots.8. as usual. n − 1} but that p2 does not divide a0 . Note that Dx (f (x)) is again a polynomial with coeﬃcients in F . 9. For example. Proof. Let F be a ﬁeld and let f (x) be a polynomial of degree n in F [x].
. xn ] with coeﬃcients from a ﬁeld F is ﬁnitely generated. . LT (gm )). . . Theorem 9. gm } is a Gr¨bner basis for o the nozero ideal I in R. Use this criterion to determine whether the following polynomials have multiple roots: (a) x3 − 3x − 2 ∈ Q[x] (b) x3 + 3x + 2 ∈ Q[x] (c) x6 − 4x4 + 6x3 + 4x2 − 12x + 9 ∈ Q[x] (d) Show for any prime p and any a ∈ Fp that the polynomial xp − a has a multiple root. . for some constants bi ∈ F. .20. . xn ]/I. . then {g1 . Proposition 9.22. . Proposition 9. where p1 . .19. αk in F (not necessarily distinct). FOOTE its derivative (which can be detected by the Euclidean Algorithm in F [x]). . . α2 . Fix a monomial ordering on R = F [x1 . . Corollary 9. = Proposition 9. . In particular.50 DAVID S. The maximal ideals in F [x] are the ideal (f (x)) generated by irreducible polynomials f (x). xn ] and let I be a nonzero ideal in R. . pr are distinct r primes. . (2) Both fI and r can be computed by general polynomial division by g1 . (1) If g1 . xn ] are polynomials with the same multidegree α and that the linear combination h = a1 f1 + · · · + am fm with constants ai ∈ F has strictly smaller multidegree. then f (x) has (x − α1 ) · · · (x − αk ) as a factor. The multiplicative group (Z/pZ)× of nozero residue classes pα1 1 mod p is cyclic.21 (Hilbert’s Basis Theorem). .23. . . . . . o Lemma 9. . where the fi (x) are distinct. In particular. Fix a monomial ordering on R = F [x1 . . . .17. then the multiplicative group F × of nonzero elements of F is a cyclic group. . Then (1) Every polynomial f ∈ R can be written uniquely in the form f = fI + r where fI ∈ I and no nonzero monomial term of the remainder r is divisible by any of the leading terms LT (g1 ). gm and are independent of the order in which these polynomials are used in the division. (3) The remainder r provides a unique representative for the coset of f in the quotient ring F [x1 . . . . . .6. xn ] and suppose {g1 . Then we have the following isomorphism of rings: F [x]/(g(x)) ∼ F [x]/(f1 (x)n1 ) × F [x]/(f2 (x)n2 ) × · · · × F [x]/(fk (x)nk ). Proposition 9. Polynomials in Several Variables Over a Field and Gr¨bner Bases. 9.24. Corollary 9. . fm ∈ F [x1 . . Let g(x) be a nonconstant monic element of F [x] and let g(x) = f1 (x)n1 f2 (x)n2 · · · fk (x)nk be its factorization into irreducibles. . If R is a Noetherian ring then so is the polynomial ring R[x]. . . . Suppose f1 . a polynomial of degree n in one variable over a ﬁeld F has at most n roots in F . for all odd primes p.25. x2 .18. . . gm are any elements of I such that LT (I) = (LT (g1 ). If the polynomial f (x) has roots α1 . . F [x]/(f (x)) is a ﬁeld if and only if f (x) is irreducible. (2) The ideal I has a Gr¨bner basis. if F is a ﬁnite ﬁeld. LT (gm ). .5. for all α ≥ 2 (3) (Z/pα Z)× is a cyclic group of order pα−1 (p − 1). fi ). 9. . Every ideal in the polynomial ring F [x1 . Polynomial Rings Over Fields II. In particular. . even counted with multiplicity. Corollary 9. We have the following isomorphisms of multiplicative groups: (1) (Z/nZ)× ∼ (Z/pαi Z)× × · · · × (Z/pαr Z)× = r i (2) (Z/2α Z)× is the direct product of a cyclic group of order 2 and a cyclic group of order 2α−2 . . Let p be a prime.16. . . . gm } is a Gr¨bner o basis for I. . . . Proposition 9. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. Let n ≥ 2 be an integer with factorization n = · · · pαr in Z. A ﬁnite subgroup of the multiplicative group of a ﬁeld is cyclic. . . . f ∈ I if and only if r = 0. Then m h= i=2 bi S(fi−1 . In particular.15. . o Theorem 9. .
I ∩ J is the ﬁrst elimination ideal of tI + (1 − t)J with respect to the ordering t > x1 > · · · > xn . . . . . o Proposition 9. .28. . . xn ] = 0 if and only if G ∩ F [xi+1 . . Fix a monomial ordering on R = F [x1 . .27. . . In particular. . . . . . Then there is a unique reduced Gr¨bner basis for o every nonzero ideal I in R. . . . . Corollary 9. . . . .26 (Buchberger’s Criterion). If I and J are any two ideals in F [x1 . . . . . xn ] of I. . . xn ] and I ∩ J = (tI + (1 − t)J) ∩ F [x1 . In particular. . . . . . Let I and J be two ideal in F [x1 . gm ) is a nonzero ideal in R. . . . xn ]. . xn ] = ∅. . . gm } is a Gr¨bner basis for I if and only if S(gi .51 Proposition 9. If I = (g1 . Theorem 9. . Then I = J if and only if I and J have the same reduced Gr¨bner basis with respect to any ﬁxed monomial ordering on F [x1 . . xn ] o with respect to the lexicographic monomial ordering x1 > · · · > xn . . . . .30. . . Let R = F [x1 . Suppose G = {g1 . Proposition 9. . xn ]. gj ) ≡ 0 o mod G for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ m. . Then G ∩ F [xi+1 . gm } is a Gr¨bner basis for the nonzero ideal I in F [x1 . .29 (Elimination). . . xn ] and ﬁx a monomial ordering on R. xn ] then tI + (1 − t)J is an ideal in F [t. . xn ] is a Gr¨bner basis o of the ith elimination ideal Ii = I ∩ F [xi+1 . . . then G = {g1 . xn ]. I ∩ F [xi+1 . . x1 . . . xn ].
ty 2 − y 2 . o S(f2 . g2 } Thus {g1 . corollary 9. y. fj ) we ﬁnd is given by a Gr¨bner basis. g3 ) = x g2 + yzg3 = x − y z ≡ 0 3 3 2 mod {g1 .24. x − yz). z]. z] are equal if and only if I. mod {g1 . By corollary 9. tz. tx − tyz − x + yz. g2 . o S(g1 . x − yz) and ﬁnally I ∩ J = (y 2 z.28 two ideals in F [x. f3 } . y 2 z is a Gr¨bner basis so x − yz. g2 ) = g1 − zg2 = x3 − yz ≡ −yz − y 3 3 3 S(g1 . y 2 z. y] are equal. Now to ﬁnd a Gr¨bner basis for (xy. Since LT (g2 ) mod LT (g1 ). o Proof.6. Since the o o reduced Gr¨bner basis is the same for both ideals. z) and J = (y 2 − yz). . tyz + x − yz. f2 ) = f1 − yf2 = y 2 z S(f1 . g3 } . x − yz) tI + (1 − t)J = (tz. y 2 z is the reduced Gr¨bner basis because x  xy. we calculate o S(f1 . o Now to ﬁnd the reduced Gr¨bner basis for J. Thus o I ∩ J = (tI + (1 − t)J) ∩ F [x. Proof. g2 . g2 . xy 2 . 9. then our reduced Gr¨bner basis for I is G = x3 + y. y.6. G = x3 + y. yz + y is the reduced Gr¨bner o o basis for J. z]. f2 } .32. 3 Since x − yz = −1(yz + y) + (x3 + y). y. Let I = (x. xz − yz 2 . f3 ) = y 2 zf2 − xf3 = −y 3 z 2 ≡ 0 mod {f1 .28 states the ideals are equal. x3 + y) o in F [x. x − yz. Then proposition 9. g3 ) = −yg1 − x g3 = −x y + x y ≡ 0 S(g2 . So ﬁx the lexicographical ordering x > y > z for F [x. J have the same reduced Gr¨bner basis o for any monomial ordering. ty 2 − y 2 . y. y 2 z. mod {g1 . g3 } is a Gr¨bner basis for J. yz + y . z) ∩ (y 2 . tyz + x − yz. x − yz) = (xy. g3 } tI + (1 − t)J = (tx.30 states By calculating the S(fi . Use Gr¨bner bases to show that (x. f2 ) = yzf1 − x3 f2 = −y 2 z 2 − x3 y ≡ 0 mod {f1 . x − yz) in F [x. Use reduced Gr¨bner bases to show that the ideal I = (x3 − yz. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M.52 DAVID S. To ﬁnd a Gr¨bner basis for o I. z]. x − yz). x2 − xyz. yz + y) and the ideal J = (x3 z + x3 . f2 . f3 ) = yzf1 − xf3 = 0 Thus xy. S(f1 . FOOTE 9.
and (2) x + ry ∈ N for all r ∈ R and for all x. y = zm2 . If R = 0. Prove that the submodules Uk described in the example of F [x]modules are all of the F [x]submodules for the shift operator. (c) If R has zero divisors show that every nonzero Rmodule has nonzero torsion elements. 10.14. An element m of the Rmodule M is called a torsion element if rm = 0 for some nonzero element r ∈ R. Proof. r ∈ R so x + ry = zm1 + rzm2 = zm1 + zrm2 = z(m1 + rm2 ) so zM is a submodule of M . Proof (a). Note since F is a ﬁeld. Prove that the map f : R → A deﬁned by f (r) = r · 1A is a ring homomorphism mapping 1R to 1A and that f (R) is contained in the center of A. Now f (x + y) = (x + y) · 1A = f (x) + f (y). y ∈ N . Show that if R is the ring of 2 × 2 matrices over a ﬁeld and e is the matrix with a 1 in position 1. Basic Deﬁnitions and Examples. If ym = 0. The set of torsion elements is denoted Tor(M ) = {m ∈ M  rm = 0 for some nonzero r ∈ R} . Proposition 10. Thus by deﬁnition A is an Ralgebra and the Rmodule structure on A induced by its algebra structure is precisely the original Rmodule structure.. Thus it is clear that the Uk s are all of the F [x]submodules by the bjiection of F [x]submodules and subspaces invariant under T . A subset N of M is a submodule of M if and only if (1) N = ∅. Let R be a ring and let M be an Rmodule.1. y ∈ R\ {0} with xy = 0. Proof. Let z be an element of the center of R. zM is clearly nonempty. where zM = {zm  m ∈ M }. i. Let x = zm1 . then xym = 0 so either way there are nonzero torsion elements. f1 f2 If a ∈ eR then a = 0 0 but 1 1 1 1 so eR is not a left Rsubmodule. zr = rz for all r ∈ R. r ∈ R. then r1 r2 (x + ry) = r2 r1 x + rr1 r2 y = 0 so Tor(M ) is a submodule of M because r1 r2 = 0. Introduction to Module Theory 10.53 Part III – Modules and Vector Spaces 10. 10. b ∈ A. then if a component contains a nonzero element then that component of the submodule must contain all of F .1.1. Suppose A is a ring with identity 1A that is a (unital) left Rmodule satisfying r · (ab) = (r · a)b = a(r · b) for all r ∈ R and a.16. Tor(M ) = ∅ because r0 = r(m − m) = rm − rm = 0. But if a component is zero to the left of some nonzero component.8. Since (r · 1A ) · a = (r · a) · 1A = a · (r · 1A ). Conclude that A is an Ralgebra and that the Rmodule structure on A induced by its algebra structure is precisely the original Rmodule structure. 1 and zeros elsewhere then eR is not a left Rsubmodule (where M = R is considered as a left Rmodule as in example 1) – in this case the matrix e is not in the center of R. If f (x) = f (y) then x = x · 1A = y · 1A = y so f is well deﬁned. then it would not be T stable. Proof. 10. Proof (c). Example (b). (a) Prove that if R is an integral domain then Tor(M ) is a submodule of M called the torsion submodule of M. Prove that zM is a submodule of M . Let x.22.e.1 (The Submodule Criterion).1. f1 0 f2 0 = f1 f1 f2 f2 . (b) Give an example of a ring R and an Rmodule M such that Tor(M ) is not a submodule.1. If r1 x = r2 y = 0. then this is such an example. 10. f (xy) = (xy) · 1A = f (x)f (y) and f (1R ) = 1R · 1A = 1A .
Basic Theory of Field Extensions.2. Let F be a ﬁeld and let p(x) ∈ F [x] be an irreducible polynomial. . such that σ restricted to F is the isomorphism ϕ. and let a(θ). Then the elements 1. so the degree of the extension is n. FOOTE 13. Theorem 13. Basic Theory of Field Extensions. Corollary 13. 13. If the extension F ⊂ K is ﬁnite. Let α be a root of p(x) (in some extension of F ) and let β be a root of p (x) (in some extension of F ).e. Let F be a ﬁeld and let p(x) ∈ F [x] be an irreducible polynomial.F (x) in L[x].5. Let K be as in theorem 13. Let α be algebraic over F . Then there is a unique monic irreducible polynomial mα. Then ∼ F (α) = F [x]/(p(x)).4. . Identifying F with this isomorphic copy shows that there exists an extension of F which p(x) has a root. is either 0 or a prime p. The characteristic of a ﬁeld F .3.F (x) ∈ F [x] which has α as a root. θ2 . a1 . . Then ϕ is either identically 0 or is injective.. then it is algebraic. Proposition 13. ch (F ). Suppose in theorem 13. Theorem 13. Field Theory 13. b(θ) ∈ K be two polynomials of degree < n in θ. . Hence consists of all polynomials of degree < n in θ. i. Proposition 13. K = a0 + a1 θ + a2 θ2 + · · · + an−1 θn−1  a0 . .6. Let ϕ : F →F be an isomorphism of ﬁelds. a1 .e. . Then there is an isomorphism σ : F (α)→F (β) ˜ mapping α to β and extending ϕ.1. Let α be algebraic over the ﬁeld F and let F (α) be the ﬁeld generated by α over F . . Let p(x) ∈ F [x] be an irreducible polynomial of degree n over the ﬁeld F and let K be the ﬁeld F [x]/(p(x)). Let F (α) denote the subﬁeld of K generated over F by α. .8. Theorem 13. . Then F (α) = a0 + a1 α + a2 α2 + · · · + an−1 αn−1  a0 . the degree of α over F is the degree of the extension it generates over F . Suppose K is an extension ﬁeld of F containing a root α of p(x): p(α) = 0. Let ϕ : F → F be a homomorphism of ﬁelds. then mα. Let θ = x mod (p(x)) ∈ K.2.4. Then there exists a ﬁeld K containing an isomorphic copy of F in which p(x) has a root. . Corollary 13.12. so that the image of ϕ is either 0 or isomorphic to F .10.13. Then addition in K is deﬁned simply by usual polynomial addition and multiplication in K deﬁned by a(θ)b(θ) = r(θ) where r(x) is the remainder (of degree < n) obtained after dividing the polynomial a(x)b(x) by p(x) in F [x]. If ch (F ) = p then for any α ∈ F. θ. Proposition 13. .. Theorem 13. i. Let p(x) ∈ F [x] be an irreducible polynomial and let ˜ p (x) ∈ F (x) be the irreducible polynomial obtained by applying the map ϕ to the coeﬃcients of p(x). More precisely.11. Proposition 13. The element α is algebraic over F if and only if the simple extension F ⊂ F (α) is ﬁnite. [K : F ] = n. an−1 ∈ F Corollary 13.F (x) divides f (x) in F [x]. Then F (α) ∼ F [x]/(mα (x)) = so that in particular [F (α) : F ] = deg mα (x) = deg α. Proposition 13.L (x) divides mα. . DUMMIT AND RICHARD M.54 DAVID S.9. Corollary 13.7. p · α = α + α + · · · + α = 0.1.e. If L ⊂ F is an extension of ﬁelds and α is algebraic over both F and L.. A polynomial f (x) ∈ F [x] has α as a root if and only if mα.6 that p(x) is of degree n. if α is an element of an extension of degree n over F then α satisﬁes a polynomial of degree at most n over F and if α satisﬁes a polynomial of degree n over F then the degree of F (α) over F is at most n. i. . θn−1 are a basis for K as a vector space over F . an−1 ∈ F ⊆ K.
21.15. i. .. 2}. 3) = Q( 2 + 3) then [Q( 2 + 3) : Q] = [Q( 2. α/β (for β = 0). . m) = 1. Proposition 13. 3). Since [Q(α1 . This contradicts the minimality of the degree of m√2+√3 = 4. 3). αn ) : Q] = 2l for some l ∈ Z+ . . α2 .10. extension degrees are multiplicative. Let K1 and K2 be two ﬁnite extensions of a ﬁeld F contained in K. Thus 2 ∈ Q( 2 + 3) thus √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 3 ∈ Q( 2√ √ By deﬁnition we have Q( √2.17. the other side is also inﬁnite. . 13. Let F ⊂ L be an arbitrary extension.19. . . then there would be an irreducible polynomial with degree less than 4. If p were to be reducible. Let ϕ : Z → F be the ring map given by ϕ(n) = n · 1F . . But x2 − 3 + 2 2 = (x − 1 + √ √ √ √ √ 2 2)(x + 1 + 2 2) so [Q( 3 + 2 2) : Q( 2)] = 1. then the elements αi βj for i = 1. . Corollary 13. . Since 3 does not divide 2l for l ∈ Z+ then 3 2 ∈ F . + 3). .22. . β2 .7. . 3) ⊆ Q( 2 + √ and thus equality. αk ) : Q(α1 . √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ To prove the other inclusion notice that ( 2 + 3)3 − 9( 2 + 3) /2 = 2. If α1 . F = Fp  [F : Fp ] [K1 K2 : F ] ≤ [K1 : F ][K2 : F ] = pn √ √ √ √ √ √ 13. Then with equality if and only if an F basis for one of the ﬁelds remains linearly independent over the other ﬁeld. Prove that 3 2 ∈ F . respectively.1. F ⊆ K ⊆ L. Hence by √ deﬁnition Q( 2 + 3) ⊆ Q( 2. Then [K : F ] divides [L : F ]. .18. Suppose F ⊂ L is a ﬁnite extension and let K be any subﬁeld of L containing F . More precisely. αβ. the ﬁeld generated over F by α and β is the ﬁeld generated by β over the ﬁeld F (α) generated by α. [K2 : F ] = m in proposition 13. n2 . . nk is algebraic of degree ≤ n1 n2 · · · nk .2. √ 2 13. √ 13. 3) √ √ √ √ √ √ Since Q( 2. . Therefore p is irreducible in Q. .e. But ¯ ϕ is a ring map of ﬁelds so it is trivial or injective. . Thus we can consider F as ¯ ¯ ¯ a vector space over Fp . Proof. . . Lemma 13. . √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Proof. Then [L : F ] = [L : K][K : F ]. / . . Conclude that [Q( 2+ 3) : Q] = 4. n. . Let F ⊆ K ⊆ L be ﬁelds.13. If K is algebraic over F and L is algebraic over K. 3). β) = (F (α))(β). . Suppose F = Q(α1 . a ﬁeld generated over F by a ﬁnite4 number of algebraic elements of degrees n1 .20. Then α ± β. . . . F (α. Suppose α and β are algebraic over F . then Q.55 Theorem 13. . . Since F is ﬁnite then for some n ∈ Z+ .21.16. where n and m are relatively prime: (n. Notice that p( 2 + 3) = 0 where p(x) = x4 − 10x2 + 1. Then [K1 K2 : F ] = [K1 : F ][K2 : F ] = nm. First note that [Q( 3 + 2 2) : Q] = [Q( 3 + 2 2 : Q( 2)][Q( 2) : Q]. √k−1 )] ∈ {1. . Corollary 13. then [Q(α1 . The extension F ⊂ K is ﬁnite if and only if K is generated by a ﬁnite number of algebraic elements over F . where if one side of the equation is inﬁnite.2. . βm are bases for K1 and K2 over F ..14. n and j = 1. . Notice ϕ(1Fp ) = 1F so ϕ is injective. Prove that F = pn for some positive integer n. Let F be a ﬁnite ﬁeld of characteristic p.2. αn and β1 . Corollary 13. 2 + 3 are contained in Q( 2. Now if α √ √ √ 3 2 ∈ F then Q ⊂ Q( 3 2) ⊆ F then [Q( 3 2 : Q)]  [F : Q]. . √ √ √ √ √ Solution. Since pZ ⊆ ker ϕ then ϕ : Fp → F is well deﬁned.e. i. Prove that Q( 2+ 3) = Q( 2.2. . . . Theorem 13. 3 are √ √ contained in Q( 2. Theorem 13. Then the collection of elements of L that are algebraic over F form a subﬁeld K of L. / Proof. Corollary 13. Find an irreducible polynomial √ √ satisﬁed by 2 + 3. then L is algebraic over F . . . . 3) : Q] = 4. Since √ Q. Suppose that [K1 : F ] = n. 3). . (in particular α−1 for α = 0) are all algebraic. . m span K1 K2 over F . Determine the degree of the extension Q( 3 + 2 2) over Q. 2. Thus [Q( 3 + 2 2) : Q] = 2. αn ) where αi ∈ Q for i = 1.
30. is an algebraic closure of Q. and notice since p is irreducible. Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Algebra). Proposition 13. and (III) Squaring the Circle.26. Corollary 13. Show that R is a subﬁeld of K containing F . if f (x) ∈ F [x] then there exists an extension K of F which is a splitting ﬁeld for f (x). α−1 = −a−1 (an αn−1 + · · · + a1 ).e. Separable and Inseparable Extensions. F = Fp .56 DAVID S.23. Let F ⊂ K be an algebraic extension and let R be a ring contained in K and containing F . Let F be an algebraic closure of F . 0 13. σ ˜ restricted to F is the isomorphism ϕ.36. Proof..29. 13. Every irreducible polynomial over a ﬁnite ﬁeld F is separable. Then F is algebraically closed.33. Proposition 13.3. Dx f (x)) = 1. Let K be an algebraically closed ﬁeld and let F be a subﬁeld of K. Corollary 13.e. Let f (x) ∈ F [x] be a polynomial and let f (x) ∈ F [x] ˜ be the polynomial obtained by applying ϕ to the coeﬃcients of f (x). a0 = 0. Let ϕ : F →F be an isomorphism of ﬁelds. Proposition 13. An algebraic closure of F is unique up to isomorphism. A polynomial in F[x] is separable if and only if it is the product of distinct irreducible polynomials in F[x]. Splitting Fields and Algebraic Closures. i. Then the isomorphism ϕ extends to an isomorphism σ : E →E . Let E be a splitting ﬁeld for f (x) over F and let E be a splitting ﬁeld for f (x) over F . Q. In particular. 13.4. and (ab)p = ap bp . f (x) and Dx f (x) are both divisible by the minimal polynomial for α. i. The ﬁeld C contains an algebraic closure for any of its subﬁelds. f (x) is separable if and only if it is relatively prime to its derivative: (f (x).16. FOOTE 13. Let α ∈ R\ {0} so since α ∈ F then there is some irreducible p ∈ R[x] such that p(α) = 0.32. (II) Trisecting an Angle. i. the collection of complex numbers algebraic over Q. Then the collection of elements F of K that are algebraic over F is an algebraic closure of F . DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. . A splitting ﬁeld of a polynomial of degree n over F is of degree at most n! over F . Any two splitting ﬁelds for a polynomial f (x) ∈ F [x] over a ﬁeld F are isomorphic. For any ﬁeld F . Let F be a ﬁeld of characteristic p.34. The ﬁeld C is algebraically closed. A polynomial f (x) has a multpile root α if and only if α is also a root of Dx f (x). Put another way.. Theorem 13. Proposition 13.2.24.28 (Uniqueness of Splitting Fields). None of the classical Greek problems: (I) Doubling the Cube. b ∈ F . If the element α ∈ R is obtained from a ﬁeld F ⊆ R by a series of compass and straightedge constructions then [F (α) : F ] = 2k for some integer k ≥ 0. Since p(α) = 0 we have Since ai ∈ F ⊆ R and α ∈ R then α−1 ∈ R and R is a ﬁeld. Theorem 13.35. (a + p)p = ap + bp . is possible.e. Every irreducible polynomial over a ﬁeld of characteristic 0 is separable. Proposition 13. Suppose that F is a ﬁnite ﬁeld of characteristic p.27. Classical Straightedge and Compass Constructions.31. Proposition 13.. Proposition 13.37. In particular. Corollary 13. Then for any a.25. A polynomial over such a ﬁeld is separable if and only if it is the product of distinct irreducible polynomials. For any ﬁeld F there exists an algebraically closed ﬁeld K containing F . Corollary 13. Then every element of F is a pth power in F. Theorem 13. Let p(x) be given by p(x) = an xn + · · · + a0 .5. Proposition 13. the pth power map deﬁned by ϕ(a) = ap is an injective ﬁeld homomorphism from F to F .
Proposition 14. The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory. σn } be a subgroup of automorphisms of a ﬁeld K and let F be the ﬁxed ﬁeld. Put another way. χn are distinct characters of G with values in L then they are linearly independent over L.38.e. Corollary 14. .. . Proposition 14. The cyclotomic polynomial Φn (x) is a monic polynomial in Z[x] of degree ϕ(n).2. The association of groups to ﬁelds and ﬁelds to groups deﬁned above is inclusion reversing. Let p(x) be an irreducible polynomial over a ﬁeld F of characteristic p. . Proposition 14. Aut(K/F ) permutes the roots of irreducible polynomials. . Theorem 14. Equivalently. Corollary 14.57 Proposition 13. Aut(K) is a group under composition and Aut(K/F ) is a subgroup. Then [K : F ] = n = G . If G1 = G2 are distinct ﬁnite subgroups of automorphisms of a ﬁeld K then their ﬁxed ﬁelds are also distinct. Galois Theory 14. . Lemma 13. Cyclotomic Polynomials and Extensions.6.10.39. .9.11. Proposition 14. Theorem 14. Theorem 13. Corollary 13. so that K/F is Galois. Theorem 14. Aut(E/F ) ≤ [E : F ] k Corollary 14. If χ1 . Let G = {σ1 = 1.7 (Linear Independence of Characters). If K is the splitting ﬁeld over F of a separable polynomial f (x) then K/F is Galois. Every ﬁnite extension of a perfect ﬁeld is separable. Corollary 13.e. Let H ≤ Aut(K) be a subgroup of the group of automorphisms of K. namely (1) if F1 ⊆ F2 ⊆ K are two subﬁelds of K then Aut(K/F2 ) ≤ Aut(K/F1 ). 14. Then for any σ ∈ Aut(K/F ). . then F2 ⊆ F1 . σα is a root of the minimal polynomial for α over F i. In particular.3. if this is the case then every irreducible polynomial with coeﬃecients in F which has a root in K is separable and has all its roots in K (so in particular K/F is a separable extension). . Then there is a unique integer k ≥ 0 and a unique irreducible separable polynomial psep (x) ∈ F [x] such that p(x) = psep (xp ). and (2) if H1 ≤ H2 ≤ Aut(K) are two subgroups of automorphisms with associated ﬁxed ﬁelds F1 and F2 . any polynomial with coeﬃcients in F having α as a root also has σα as a root.41. 13. i. In particular distinct automorphisms of a ﬁeld K are linearly independent as functions on K.12. Then with equality if f (x) is separable over F . Then every automorphism of K ﬁxing F is contained in G. .1. Then the collection F of elements of K ﬁxed by all the elements of H is a subﬁeld of K. The extension K/F is Galois if and only if K is the splitting ﬁeld of some separable polynomial over F . . The cyclotomic polynomial Φn (x) is an irreducible monic polynomial in Z[x] of degree ϕ(n). .. then they are linearly independent as functions on K. Corollary 14. The degree over Q of the cyclotomic ﬁeld of nth roots of unity is ϕ(n): [Q(ζn ) : Q] = ϕ(n). .1.8.14 (Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory).13.6. K/F is Galois if and only if F is the ﬁxed ﬁeld of Aut(K/F ).42. respectively. . If σ1 . Then Aut(K/F ) ≤ [K : F ] with equality if and only if F is the ﬁxed ﬁeld of Aut(K/F ).40.5. Aut(K/F ) = G. Basic Deﬁnitions. Proposition 14. Corollary 14. σn are distinct embeddings of a ﬁeld K into a ﬁeld L. Let G be a ﬁnite subgroup of automorphisms of a ﬁeld K and let F be the ﬁxed ﬁeld. Let K/F be any ﬁnite extension.2. with Galois group G. every ﬁnite extension of either Q or a ﬁnite ﬁeld is separable. Theorem 14. Furthermore.4. σ2 . 14. Let K/F be a ﬁeld extension and let α ∈ K be algebraic over F . Let E be the splitting ﬁeld over F of the polynomial f (x) ∈ F [x].
Then r1 d2 = r2 d1 so 1 2 r1 r2 d2 r1 )=ϕ( ) d1 r2 d1 d2 ϕ(r1 r2 d2 ) = ϕ(r2 d1 d2 ) ϕ(r2 d1 )ϕ(r2 ) = ϕ(r2 d1 )ϕ(d2 ) r2 =ϕ( ) d2 ϕ( . 15. element of R. ∼ R[x]/(f x − 1) where R[x] is the polynomial = Proof. and (2) D−1 R = 0 if and only if 0 ∈ D.21.15).36 (cf. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M.18. (1) ker π = {r ∈ R  xr = 0 for some x ∈ D}. then f becomes a unit in Rf . π : R → D−1 R is an injetion if and only if D contains neither zero nor any zero divisors of R. hence if and only if D contains nilpotent elements. Deﬁne Rf = D−1 R.4. Let R be any commutative ring with 1 and let f be any {f n  n ≥ 0} of nonnegative powers of f in R.3. if f is not nilpotent in R.4.37. Noetherian Rings and Aﬃne Algebraic Sets. Prove D is a multiplicatively closed subset of R and the map ϕ : D−1 R → D −1 S given by ϕ (r/d) = ϕ(r)/ϕ(d) is a ring homomorphism. 15. 15. Radicals and Aﬃne Varieties. 15.2. let R be a commutative ring with 1 = 0 and let D be a multiplicatively closed subset of R containing 1.1. in particular. Localization. Suppose ϕ : R → S is a ring homomorphism with ϕ(1R ) = 1S and D is a multiplicatively closed subset of S. theorem 7.58 DAVID S. In the notation of theorem 15. Let D = ϕ−1 (D ). there is a unique homomorphism Ψ : D−1 R → S such that Ψ ◦ π = ψ. Integral Extensions and Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz. Theorem 15. d2 ∈ D with ϕ(d1 d2 ) = ϕ(d1 )ϕ(d2 ) so d1 d2 ∈ ϕ−1 (D ) because D is a multiplicative set. Proof. If f is not nilpotent. Corollary 15. Then there is a commutative ring D−1 R and a ring homomorphism π : R → D−1 R satisfying the following universal property: for any homomorphism ψ : R → S of commutative rings that sends 1 to 1 such that ψ(d) is a unit in S for every d ∈ D.36. Commutative Rings and Algebraic Geometry 15. Let D be the multiplicative set Note that Rf = 0 if and only if f is nilpotent. Prove that Rf ring in the variable x. FOOTE 15.4. Let d1 . 15. r r Let d1 = d2 .
Then ϕ( r1 r2 r1 d2 + r2 d1 + )=ϕ( ) d1 d2 d1 d2 ϕ(r1 d2 + r2 d1 ) = ϕ(d1 d2 ) ϕ(r1 ) ϕ(r2 ) = + ϕ(d1 ) ϕ(d2 ) r1 r2 =ϕ( )+ϕ( ) d1 d2 r1 r2 r1 r2 ϕ( )=ϕ( ) d1 d2 d1 d2 ϕ(r1 r2 ) = ϕ(d1 d2 ) ϕ(r1 ) ϕ(r2 ) = ϕ(d1 ) ϕ(d2 ) r1 r2 = ϕ ( )ϕ ( ).4. Prove that the localization RP is isomorphic to the localization of RQ at the prime ideal P RQ (cf. exercise 15. . Proof.59 So ϕ is well deﬁned. Now let r1 r2 d1 .22. d1 d2 15. Suppose P ⊆ Q are prime ideals in R and let RQ be the localization of R at Q.21).4. d2 ∈ D−1 R.
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