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# CM3310 Spring 2008

(Dr. Tom Co, 3/26/2008)

**Lecture 18. Nyquist Stability Criterion
**

1. Recall Connections between Nyquist Plots and Transfer Functions

2. Main Result: Nyquist Stability Criterion For the feedback loop shown in Figure 1,

Figure 1. let the return loop is given by be assumed stable. Then the closed-loop transfer function given by

is asymptotically stable if the Nyquist plot of

does not encircle the point

.

. Complex Mapping Theorem: Given: a transfer function and simple closed contour . Development of the Criterion: 1.Im( H(i )) Re( H(i )) -1 -1 Re( H(i )) stable unstable Figure 2. the map of will encircle the origin times in the clockwise manner ( where means counterclockwise encirclements ). inside and let be the number of poles Then as traverse the contour given by in the clockwise manner. Let of be the number of zeroes of inside .

) b) The frequency response data gives the upper branch map This means that as . c) The map will yield a curve that is a vertical mirror image of . and This means at the radius of the Nyquist contour goes to infinity. the map is just a constant. the order of the denominator is greater or equal to the order of the numerator. Nyquist Contour Im(s) Re(s) 3. with .Im(s) G x o x Re(s) Im(G) G(s) Re(G) 2. i. Stability Criterion a) Physically realizable transfer functions are “proper”. the map is given by the Nyquist plot of the frequency response data.e. then the process is “strictly proper”. ( Note: if .

the Nyquist plot. is the phase shift when the Nyquist plot intersects the unit .d) Thus. Stability Margins ( see page 231-234 ) – as a measure of feedback stability robustness a) Gain Margin where is the distance from the origin to the intersection of the Nyquist plot with the negative real line. b) Phase Margin where circle. together with complex mapping theorem implies that the closed loop system is stable if the Nyquist plot of does not encircle the origin. we need the Nyquist plot of not to encircle the point 3. Equivalently. for stability.

Im( H(i )) x -1 Re( H(i )) Im( H(i )) -1 PM Re( H(i )) .

one can measure and .Example: The Nyquist plot is given by From the figure. Thus we have .