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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

SEED PRODUCTION
0001 Advancements in seed potato production through tissue culture at NARC. Azra, Quraishi; Nuzhat, Mumtaz; Saeed, Ahmad; Musarrat, Bhatti; Quarishi, A; Mumtaz, N; Ahmad, S; Bhatti, M; Hussain, A. NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan. Research and development of potato production in Pakistan: Proceedings of the National Seminar. 23-25 Apr 1995. p. 26-31. Production of virus-free seed tubers through rapid multiplication by in vitro culture is examined. 0002 Agricultural implementation programme 19801981 [production targets for rice, field crops, vegetable seeds, tropical fruits, pepper, clones, cardamom, nutmeg and apiculture in Sri Lanka]. A working document. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka). [1982], 64p. 0003 Agricultural implementation programme 19821983 [production targets for rice, field crops, vegetable seeds, tropical fruits, pepper, cloves, cardamom, nutmeg and apiculture in Sri Lanka]. A working document. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka). [1981], 96p. 0004 Agricultural implementation programme 1984/85 [production targets for rice, field crops; vegetable seeds; tropical fruits; spices; apiculture] - Sri Lanka. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka). 1986. 89p. 0005 Agricultural implementation programme 1987/1988 [production targets for rice, field crops; vegetable seeds; tropical fruits, spices; apiculture] Sri Lanka. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka). 1989. 87p. 0006 Agricultural implementation programme 1991/1992 [production targets for rice, field crops; vegetable seeds; tropical fruits; spices; apiculture] Sri Lanka. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka). 1993. 104p. 0007 Agricultural implementation programme 1992/1993 [production targets for rice; field crops; vegetable seeds; tropical fruits; spices; and apiculture etc.] - working document. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) 1993. 83 p.

0008 Agronomic improvement of oat seed production in India. Singh, V. Newsletter - International Herbage Seed Production Research Group. 1993, No. 18, 14; 7 ref. Research on seed production for forage oats in India is briefly summarized. 0009 Agronomic studies on seed production of berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) in India. Virendra Singh. Newsletter - International Herbage Seed Production Research Group. 1994, No. 21, 14-15; 14 ref. Research on the effects of sowing date, timing of the last fodder cut, fertilizer application and irrigation on seed production of T. alexandrinum in India is outlined. 0010 Agronomic technology for production of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) seeds. Randhawa, GS; Gill, BS; Saini, SS; Jagjit Singh. Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants. 1996, 4: 3, 43-49 The effects of sowing date, plant spacing and fertilizers (N at 0, 20, 30, 40 or 50 kg/ha; P at 0, 20 or 40 kg/ha) on the yield of T. foenum-graecum seeds were investigated during 1991-93 at the Student's Farm, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Highest yields were obtained when T. foenum-graecum was sown between the last week of October and the first week of November in rows 22.5 cm apart using 30 kg seed/ha. T. foenum- graecum did not respond to N and P application. 0011 An analysis of rapeseed and mustard production in Gird region vs. Madhya Pradesh. Gautam, DS; Rajput, RL; Mishra, MK. Economic Affairs Calcutta. 1997, 42: 3, 178-182; 6 ref. Noting that the majority of rape seed and mustard seed crops produced in Madhya Pradesh, India, are produced in the Gird region, a comparison is presented of relative growth rates, magnitude of change, instability of area, production and yield per ha for the two crops in the state, and the region during period I (1968-78) and period II (1979/80-1989). Data are presented from the publications of the Madhya Pradesh Agricultural Statistics, the Commissioner of Land Records and Settlement, and the Government of Madhya Pradesh. 0012 Annual report 1984 [Seed Production and Input Storage Project (Seed production of wheat, maize and rice, Nepal)] Agriculture Inputs Corp., Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. 1984, 43p. 0013 Artificial seed production in the male bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus L. Mukunthakumar, S; Mathur, J. Plant Science (Ireland). (1992). v. 87(1) p. 109-113.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0014 The Asian hive bee, Apis cerana, as a pollinator in vegetable seed production: an awareness handbook. Verma, LR; Partap, U. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu (Nepal) 1993. 52 p. 0015 Baseline site survey - Charikot Charikot Village panchayat Dolakha District Nepal [information for seed storage house, seed production and cropping pattern, hill area] Agricultural Inputs Corporation, Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Mar 1982. 34p. 0016 Baseline site survey Dailekh mini seed house site Narayan village panchayat Dailekh District, Bheri Zone, Nepal [seed production and storage, hill area]. Bhattarai, DP. Integrated Cereal Project, Lalitpur (Nepal) Apr 1983. 28 p. 0017 Baseline site survey - Galkot Hatiya village panchayat Baglung District Nepal [to set up seed houses to increase the agricultural production, hill area, Nepal]. Agricultural Inputs Corporation, Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Feb 1982. 29 p. 0018 Baseline site survey - Sundar Bazar Tarku village panchayat Lamjung District [to set up seed houses to increase the agricultural production, hill area, Nepal]. Agricultural Inputs Corporation, Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Nov 1981. 31 p. 0019 Baseline site survey - Trisuli Bidur Village panchayat Nuwakot District Nepal [to set up seed houses to increase the agricultural production, hill area] Agricultural Inputs Corporation, Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Nov 1981. 34p. 0020 Baseline site survey Yamkha mini seed house site Yamkha Village Panchayat, Khotang District, Nepal [rice, maize and millet production and seed storage, hill area]. Bhattarai, DP. Agricultural Inputs Corp., Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Inputs Storage Project. Apr 1983. 41 p. 0021 Baseline survey Damauli, Walling, Ghorahi, Dadeldhura and Sindhulimadi small warehouse sites [seed production, processing and storage, hill areas, Nepal] Bhattarai, DP. Agricultural Inputs Corp., Kath-

mandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Aug 1982. 41 p. 0022 Baseline survey Dipayal mini seed house site Kot Bhairab village panchayat Doti District, Nepal [to set up seed houses to increase the agricultural production, hill area]. Agricultural Inputs Corporation, Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Jun 1982. 26 p. 0023 Baseline survey Jirikhimti mini seed house site Jirikhimti Amphuwa village panchayat Tehrathum District, Kosi Zone, Nepal [maize, wheat, rice and millets seed storage and production, tarai area]. Bhattarai, DP. Agriculture Inputs Corp., Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage. Mar 1983. 35 p. 0024 Baseline survey Majuwa mini seed house site Turang village panchayat Gulmi District, Nepal [to set up seed houses to increase the agricultural production, hill area]. Agricultural Inputs Corporation, Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Jun 1982. 29 p. 0025 Baseline survey Pakhribas mini seed house site Pakhribas village panchayat, Dhankuta, Nepal [maize, millet, potatoes, seeds storage and production, hill area]. Khatri, Chhetry, KB. Ministry of Agriculture, Lalitpur (Nepal). Integrated Cereal Project. Mar 1983. 43 p. 0026 Basic seed production through tissue culture and rapid multiplication technique (RMT): Compilation of annual reports July 1991-June 1992: potato. Southeast Asian Program for Potato Research and Development, P.O. Box 933, Manila (Philippines) Sep 1992. v. 1: p. 225-229. Mother plants for the propagation of rooted stem cuttings were produced from the cultivars; Desiree, Sita, Krushi, OP-260, Atzimba and 2540. Rooted stem cuttings were used for production of pre-basic (G-0) and basic (G-1) seeds. The process of basic seed production system is being piloted in Sri Lanka to produce G- 0 to G-4 seed potato tubers for commercial potato production. In this project over 25,000 generation 0(G-0) tuberlets were produced at the RARC, Bandarowela, net house. Production of basic seed (G-1) from rooted stem cuttings in the farmers fields showed that the farmers can produce seeds at a fraction of the cost of seed purchased from outside. 0027 Basic tuber seed production in non-traditional seed areas: Bangladesh and Burma as illustrative

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

cases. Sikka, LC. CIP/Winrock International, Dacca (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the FAO/DANIDA Seminar on Design and Implementation of Seed Programmes. Bangkok (Thailand). 12-16 May 1986. 1988. p. 103-112. 0028 Berry and true potato seed production in relation to nitrogen fertilization. Randhawa, GJ; Bhargava, R. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 1994, 172: 1, 69-72; 8 ref. A field experiment was conducted at the Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, in 1991 to ascertain the effect of 0- 240 kg N/ha as calcium ammonium nitrate on berry and true potato seed production in cv. Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Lalima. The 100-seed weight of both cultivars increased with rate of N application, and was not related to the berry size. Seed weight was greater in Kufri Jyoti than Kufri Lalima. 0029 Biomass and seed production study of forage oats. Paudel, KC; Suwal, MRS. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Pokhara, Kaski (Nepal) May 1996. 15 p. Eleven cultivars of forage oats, which were sown on 1st November 1994 in unirrigated bari land condition at Lumle farm (1675m) to evaluate their productive potential, have shown significant difference in green matter (GM) production between the cultivars tested (Jho-814, Jho-813, LV1, Kent, Awapuri, 346/2, Caraville, V-V3, Charisma, 83 inc 1767 and Taiko). Total GM production varied from 5.7 t/ha (Taiko) to 11.7 t/ha (Awapuri) and the length of time taken to produce this biomass also varied greatly, from 135 days from sowing (Jho-814, Jho813, LV1, Kent) up to 149 days (Taiko, 346/2). All the cultivars were cut twice during this period. The cultivars Awapuri and Kent were the most suitable for this agro ecological zone as they produced a significantly higher amount of biomass (11.7 t/ha and 8.9 t/ha) in 141 and 135 days respectively. Cultivar Taiko was an unsuitable cultivar at this altitude. 0030 Breeder's and foundation seed production and distribution of cereals, grain legumes and oilseed crops in 1994/95. Kadayat, KB; Paudel, BB. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Pokhara, Kaski (Nepal) Aug 1996. 19 p. Seed production and distribution of cereals, grain legumes and oilseed crops conducted in 1994/95 are summarized. A total of 19104.7 kg seed of the mandate crops was produced at Lumle Centre, Testing Site Shera and Off-Station Research Sites. Foundation seed production of wheat, rapeseed, maize and rice was the most important. Similarly, 524 kg breeder's and 13666.2 kg foundation seed of 11 crops was distributed to relevant seed multiplying agencies during this period. However,

wheat, rapeseed, maize and rice foundation seed distribution was in major. Seed of promising lines from advanced trials of self- pollinated crops was collected and micro-plot seed multiplication of promising varieties was done, as appropriate. Initial seed increase of the crop varieties for which Lumle Agricultural Research Centre has been designated as resource centre was also done. 0031 Care you need to raise cowpea seeds [seed production technique for producing genetically pure seed] Jatasra, DS. Intensive Agriculture (India). (Feb 1982). v. 19(12) p. 18-19. 0032 Case study: the conversion of Hatilet block 4A to a seed production area. Thomson, W. Forestry Dept., Kathmandu (Nepal). Tree Improvement Programme. Proceedings. Hands-on Trainer' s Training Course on Establishment and Management of Seed Production Areas and Plus Tree Selection. 17-23 November 1993, Kathmandu (Nepal). Mar 1995. p. 69-81. 0033 Chickpea and lentil seed production and distribution mechanisms in Pakistan. Haqqani, AM; Malik, MR; Thomas, N (ed); Mateo, N. National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. Seed production mechanisms: Proceedings of a workshop. Singapore, 5-9 November 1990. 1993, p. 62-75. The structure of the chickpea and lentil seed production and distribution system in Pakistan and results of a farm survey in Feb.-Mar. 1990 in the main chickpea production zones and the main lentil production district of Sialkot of the Punjab and North West Frontier Provinces are described. Overall 41% of farmers were using improved seeds and the remainder was using local seeds; 90% of farmers were aware of improved cultivars but did not know the sources of improved seeds. 0034 Chickpea production as influenced by seed rate under rainfed condition of Dera Ismail Khan [Pakistan]. Khan, RU; Rashid, A; Khan, A; Khan, SG. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan). (Dec 1997). v. 13(6) p. 551-555. This study was undertaken to determine the optimum seed rate for chickpea cv. NIFA-88 under rainfed condition of D.I.Khan. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with four different seed rates of 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg/ha. The yield data obtained during 1993-94 showed that 100 kg/ha seed rate had significant increase in seed yield over the other seeding rates whereas the seed increase obtained with 100 kg/ha seed rate during 1994-95, is non-significant with 80 kg/ha seed rate which may be due to better rainfall condition during the growth period of the crop. However,

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

both years' data revealed that maximum of 2345 kg/ha and 2548 kg/ha seed yield was obtained With 100 kg/ha seed rate during 1993-94 and 1994-95 respectively. Thus, the seed rate of 100 kg/ha can be recommended to obtain the optimum seed production of chickpea under low rainfall conditions of D.I.Khan. 0035 Choice of seed is vital [for cotton production] Gill, MI; Saunders, JH. Pakistan Agriculture (Pakistan). Apr 1983. v. 5(4) p. 12-13. 0036 Climatic influence on seed production of fodder cowpea. Sinha, NC; Mathur, PN. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 1994, 37: 2, 127-129; 6 ref. In field trials at Akola, Pantnagar, Jorhat, Rahuri, Kanke and Jhansi, the effects of weather conditions on seed production of fodder cowpeas cv. HFC 42- 1, NP-3, IGFRI-450, IGFRI-975 and IGFRI- 978 were studied. Heavy rainfall at pre- and post-anthesis stages with poor sunshine hours and continuous high temperature adversely affected seed development. For normal flowering, cowpeas required 54.5-92.0 mm rainfall/d, 9.1 h sunshine/d and moderate temperature during the vegetative period. Among the locations, seed production was highest at Pantnagar, Kanke and Akola. 0037 Commercial seed production of Verano stylo. Singh, RP; Singh, RA; West, NE. Rangelands in a sustainable biosphere: Proceedings of the Fifth International Rangeland Congress. Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 23-28 July, 1995. Volume 1: Contributed presentations. 1996, 518. Quantitative data were collected from 65 producers of Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano seed in Hindupur, Andhra Pradesh, and Narepally, Karnataka, India. Seed yields ranged from 1.11 to 2.73 t/ha, average production cost was Rs 11 433/ha and average return Rs. 21 160/ha. Bullock/tractor inputs were appropriate but human labour and seed were overused. 0038 Comparative evaluation of some pollinating methods on onion seed and subsequent bulb production [in Bangladesh]. Alam, MZ; Alam, MB; Quadir, MA. Bangladesh Journal of Botany (Bangladesh). (1991). v. 20(2) p. 125-130. A study was undertaken for the comparative evaluation of different pollinating methods on onion seed and the effect on subsequent bulb production. Caged blowfly (Calliphora sp.), caged bee (Apis cerana indica L.) and open pollination along with a control were considered as treatments. Of all the seed yield contributing parameters tested, the caged blowfly pollination was significantly better in comparison to other treatments and

was followed by caged bee pollination, open pollination and the control. The effect of insect pollination was manifested in the progeny of onion with improved germination and lesser extent in bulb production. 0039 Comparative evaluation of some pollination methods on seed and subsequent bulb production. Alam, MZ; Alamgir, SS; Quadir, MA. Institute of Postgraduate Studies in Agriculture, Salna, Gazipur (Bangladesh) Abstracts of Annual Research Review. 1989. p. 11. A study was undertaken at IPSA fir comparative evaluation of some pollinating methods on onion seed and subsequent bulb production. In all the seed yieldcontributing parameters tested the caged blowfly (Caliphora sp.) pollination, open pollination and the control. Two presences of blowfly and honeybee in onion seed producing were played an important role on its seed production. The studies on the comparative evaluation of seeds on subsequent bulb production showed that, bulb yield per ha and average bulb weight were identical in all plants raised from seeds obtained through different pollinating methods. The germination tests revealed that the seeds produced by caged bee pollination were superior in quality followed by those of caged fly pollinated, open pollinated and control plants. The bulb size was statistically similar in all the treatments except the control. 0040 A comparative morpho-physiological study of jute plant grown for seed production from top cuttings and seed-sown plants. Hossain, MA; Fakir, MSA; Prodhan, AKMA; Rahman, ML. Bangladesh Association of Advancement of Science, Dacca (Bangladesh). Proceedings of the 14th Annual Bangladesh Science Conference. 1989. p. 8. Jute plants obtained from three different sources viz, normal March-April sowing (mother plants), their top cuttings (in August) and late-sown (August sowing) plants were compared for their growth habit and seed yield. In Corchorus capsularis, these three types of plants showed 318.5 cm, 99.4 cm, and 106.0 cm plant height having 8.7, 6.9 and 9.4 primary branches per plant respectively. In C. olitorius, mother plants, top cuttings and late-sown plants exhibited 452.5 cm, 105.2 cm and 112.2 cm plant height with e.5, 4.0 and 3.1 primary branches per plant respectively. A significant variation in seed production with these plants were also recorded. Top cuttings showed better fruit and seed yield than those of others. 0041 A comparison of different seed potato production systems. Beukema, HP. Bangladesh - Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

(Bangladesh) Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 43-62. An analysis of the systems of seed potato production in Peru, Bhutan, North Yemen, Rwanda and Bangladesh is presented. Positive and negative aspects of each is pointed out for understanding and comparison. 0042 Comparison of direct versus transplanting for the production of potatoes through true potato seed (TPS) [Bangladesh] Chaudhury, EH; Kabir, MH. Bangladesh Association of Advancement of Science, Dacca (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the 14th Annual Bangladesh Science Conference. 1989. p. 92. Experiments were conducted at the Potato Research Centre, Joydebpur and Munshiganj, Bangladesh during 1985-86 to 1987-88 with 5 hybrids and 4 openpollinated progenies of true potato seed (TPS) to compare the production of seedling tubers by direct sowing and transplanting. TPS sown directly (97%) have shown greater survival percent than that of transplants (93%). Higher yields have been obtained by direct (4.4 kg/m2) sowing than transplanting (3.8 kg/m2). TPS seedlings were found sensitive to transplanting shock and required about 2 weeks to recover. Transplanting also increased the production cost indicating the system of direct sowing as a promising method for the potato growers. The hybrid progenies gave higher yield than the open- pollinated progenies. 0043 Compendium of technical lectures on vegetable seed production [Nepal], given at JT/JTA Trainings, 1981-84. Department of Agriculture, Khumaltar (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. 1984, 168 p. 0044 Constraints of soybean seed production in India: certain researchable issues. Kant, K; Yadav, SP; Gaur, A; Sharma, SP. Seed Research. 1996, publ. 1997, 24: 2, 75-81; 12 ref. The status of soyabean seed production in India, problems of poor seed quality, and constraints to production (including increasing pest and disease problems) are discussed. The main reasons for high rejection rates of soyabean seeds are contamination with seeds of other genotypes, and a high proportion of seeds (about 25%) being too small. 0045 Contract seed production policy, implementation and reporting [buying the seed and supplying the vegetable seed to the farmers, Nepal] Manandhar, CM. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div.; Agriculture Inputs Corporation, Kathmandu (Nepal) Proceedings of the first workshop

seminar on vegetable seed production. 23-26 Feb 1982. p. 92-100. 0046 Contribution of production factors on growth and seed yield of cowpea under rainfed conditions. Yadav, BD; Joon, RK; Singh, JV. Forage Research (India). 1998, 24: 3, 157-158. A field experiment was conducted during 1995-97 to assess the contribution of production factors to seed yield of cowpea at Hisar. The treatment comprised control, recommended fertilizer (40 kg P2O5 + 20 kg N/ha), recommended fertilizer + weed control by kasola [hand hoe] (20 DAS) and recommended fertilizer + weed control and plant protection with the insecticide endosulfan. Mean seed yield was 0.51, 0.57, 0.96 and 1.00 t/ha in the 4 treatments as listed. Growth parameters and yield components are tabulated. 0047 Correlations between storage characters of seed tubers and yield in potato. Note. Dayal, TR; Sharma, KP. Journal of the Indian Potato Association (India). (Dec 1982). v. 9(2,3 and 4) p. 85-87. 0048 Cost effective technology for seed production in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Muni Ram; Dasha Ram; Santosh Singh; Sushil Kumar. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences. 1999, 21: 2, 335-337. Field experiments were carried out at Lucknow, India, for two years, 1996- 97 and 1997-98, the aim being to develop a technology for pure seed production of opium poppy suitable for use by farmers. To restrict the pollination by honeybees and wind, muslin cloth structures 3.5 X 2 X 2 m, with a covered top, were provided in the field plots before the rosette stage of the crop. The total surface area of each structure was 29 m2. In order to maintain near 100% purity of seeds of high yielding poppy cultivars, 5 of the above structures would be needed to produce 7 kg pure seeds, which would cover an area of 1 ha with poppy. These structures, involving an expenditure of Rs 2600, could be used for 4 years; they had no adverse effect on seed production under normal weather conditions. Hence, the production cost of 7 kg seeds would be Rs 650 per year compared with the present cost of Rs 3500. 0049 Cost of hybrid seed production in pigeon pea. Ravikesavan, R; Rathnaswamy, R; Kalaimagal, T. International Chickpea and Pigeon pea Newsletter. 1995, No. 2, 45-46 Estimates are presented of pigeon pea hybrid seed (CoH 1) production costs derived from a trial conducted during 1992 at Coimbatore, India.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0050 Cost of seed production in gynodioecious and dioecious papaya under controlled conditions. Ram, M; Majumder, PK. Seed Research. 1990, 18: 2, 117-120; 4 ref. Seed was produced by hand pollination in the gynodioecious pawpaw cultivars Pusa Delicious and Pusa Majesty using pollen from hermaphrodite plants on flowers of female plants and in the dioecious cultivars Pusa Giant and Pusa Dwarf using pollen from staminate flowers of the same cultivar. The dioecious cultivars produced more seeds at lower cost than the gynodioecious cultivars. Pusa Dwarf produced the highest seed yield (391.7 kg/ha) at lowest cost (Rs 61.10/kg), while Pusa Majesty gave the lowest yield (52.5 kg/ha) at the highest production cost (Rs. 416.60/kg). 0051 Cost of seed production - redgram hybrid COPH 2. Muthiah, AR; Kalaimagal, T; Kumar, DS. Legume Research. 1998, 21: 1, 65-66. An experiment was conducted in Coimbatore, to study the cost (in 1997) of producing COPH 2 hybrid in an area of 60 cents. The production cost was Rs. 44.70 for one kilogram of COPH 2 hybrid seeds. The package of practices followed for hybrid seed production and the cost involved were discussed. The reasons for higher production costs and the means to overcome the difficulties in hybrid seed production were studied. 0052 Costs of seed production in Sri Lanka. Suraweera, E; Abeygunawardana, P. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Seeds Div.; USAID, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) Diversified Agricultural Research Project. Proceedings of the Sri Lanka Seed Workshop. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka), 26 Jan - 6 Feb 1987. p. 41-54. 0053 Cotton seed production - a model scheme for Haryana state. Lather, BPS. Journal of Cotton Research and Development. 1993, 7: 1, 43-53; 5 ref. Cottonseed production in Haryana is described, including production statistics and considerations of breeders' seed, foundation seed and certified seed. 0054 Crop improvement and seed production in highland Balochistan [Pakistan]. Khan, MA; Jalil, SA; Mirza, Z; Alvi, AS. Progressive Farming (Pakistan). Mar-Apr 1995. v. 15(2) p. 13-17. 0055 Crop management technique for increasing hybrid seed production in genetic male sterile cotton. Deshmukh, RK; Rao, MRK; Rajendran, TP; Meshram,

MK; Bhat, MG; Pundarikakshudu, R. Tropical Agriculture. 1995, 72: 2, 105-109; 14 ref. Experiments on hybrid seed production in cotton were conducted at Nagpur, Maharashtra, to reduce the number of pollination days, to determine the feasibility of off-season seed production in summer (second crop) after harvesting the first rainy season crop, and to examine the possibility of harvesting seed from the second rainy season crop (third crop) all from one sowing of parental stock through appropriate crop and fruiting management techniques. Reduction in the pollination period from 60 to 30 days in the first rainy season crop did not lead to any loss in seed yield and also enabled the growing of a summer crop (second crop) which gave a similar seed yield to the first crop following a pollination period of only 17 days. The third crop (second rainy season crop), exposed to 13 days of pollination, gave the highest seed yield of the 3 crops. 0056 Current situation and future strategy in seed potato production for Pakistan: A discussion paper. Naumann, Etienne, K. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan) Pak-Swiss Potato Development Project. 1990. 31p. The current situation in seed potato production and markets in Pakistan is described and the development potential of a series of policy options are discussed. 0057 Cutting management and nitrogen requirement of oats (Avena sativa L.) for seed production. Sidhu, MS; Avtar Singh; Sharma, BD. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University. 1997, 34: 4, 379-383. In a field experiment in 1985-89 in Ludhiana, Punjab, India, oats cv. OL-9 were not cut or cut 70 or 90 days after sowing (DAS) and given 0, 20, 40 or 60 kg N/ha after cutting. Cutting at 70 DAS gave the highest seed yield, while fodder yield was highest with cutting at 90 DAS. Seed yields generally increased with increasing N rate. Returns were highest from cutting for fodder at 90 DAS, with a subsequent seed crop, and increased with increasing N rate up to 40 kg N/ha, but a further increase in N application did not prove beneficial. 0058 Decentralized on-farm seed potato production from pre-basic minitubers: a case study from Nepal. Schulz, S; Wells, GJ; Baniya, BK; Barakoti, TP; Kharel, G; Saha, B; Thapa, BV; Ojha, DN. Experimental Agriculture (United Kingdom). (1998). v. 34(4) p. 487495. 0059 Degeneration studies in relation to seed potato production during autumn season in plains of Pakistan. Hussain, CA; Ali, CMH; Triq, CAH. Journal of Agriculture Research, Pakistan. 1978. v. 16. p. 135-143.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

These studies were carried out in the Vegetable Section, Punjab Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad during the year 1971-72. Varieties Desiree, Multa, Vilja and Norland furnished the experimental material. The data were recorded on percent germination and yield potential. The results revealed that freshly imported seed when during spring compared with seed imported one, two and three years ago, the fall in yield potential was 70.5% in variety Multa, 37.5% in Patrones and 20.0% in variety Desiree. Data collected during autumn crop revealed that one year old seed which was first multiplied during spring, 1970 and then in Autumn, 1970 gave 8.30% more yield than the produce of freshly imported seed. There was 13.8-16.3% in variety Multa. But there was 26.2 to 28.6% improvement in variety Desiree. The results of comparison between Autumn and spring produced seed showed that seed add 59 to 77% in Spring produced seed. There was 7 to 33% improvement in yield of different varieties using Autumn seed as compared to Spring produced seed. 0060 Determination of genetic deterioration over generations of seed production in tomato. Krishnasamy, V; Suthanthirapandian, IR. South Indian Horticulture. 1992, 40: 6, 359-361. Four generations of cv. PKM 1 were grown in plots during 1988- 91 rogued and unrogued for off-type plants to determine the influence of such plants on morphological traits, yield and seed germination rate. Roguing did not influence any plant growth parameters significantly and seeds could be carried over 4 generations without deleterious effects. 0061 Determination of ideal row ratio for hybrid rice seed production. Prabagaran, SR; Ponnuswamy, AS. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1997, 84: 4, 230-231. In a field study in Tamil Nadu, hybrid seed production of rice cv. MGR (CORH 1) was examined using the parents IR 62829 A and IR 10198-66-2R. Seedlings were transplanted in female: male row ratios of 4:1, 5:1, 6:1, 8:2, 10:2 or 12:2. The 6:1 ratio produced the highest seed yield of 1.92 t/ha. 0062 Determination of isolation distance for hybrid maize seed production. Narayanaswamy, S; Jagadish, GV; Ujjinaiah, US. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1997, 26: 11, 193-195; 4 ref. With a view to establishing an appropriate isolation distance for the production of certified hybrid seed in maize, information on pollen movement was derived from maize hybrids differing in grain colour. The results of the study indicated that in maize, pollen can travel up

to a distance of 600 m in a windward direction under Bangalore conditions. The extent of contaminated ears was 0.42% at 600 m isolation. Under Indian minimum seed certification standards, seed ears inspected after harvest should not contain in excess of 0.5% of off-type ears, including ears with off-coloured grain. 0063 Determination of optimum growth stage for gibberellic acid application in hybrid rice seed production. Prabagaran, SR; Ponnuswamy, AS. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1997, 84: 4, 231-232 In a field study in 1995 in Tamil Nadu, a rice hybrid was sprayed with 100 g gibberellic acid/ha in 2 equal splits in consecutive days at various stages of panicle emergence. Seed setting and seed yield/plant were the highest when the crop was sprayed at 15-20% panicle emergence. 0064 An easy method of hybrid seed production in bhindi [okra] Gopimony, R; Gopinathan, Nair, V. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala (India). (Jun 1982). v. 20(1) p. 67-68. 0065 Effect of Boron and Molybdenum on seed production of cauliflower. Sharma, SK. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 2002, 59: 2, 177-180; 7 ref. Field experiments were conducted in Kandaghat, Himachal Pradesh, India, during 1993-94 and 1994-95 on a sandy loam soil to determine the response of cauliflower cv. Pusa Snowball K-1 to different levels of B (5, 15 and 25 kg borax/ha) and Mo (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ammonium molybdate/ha) through soil application. Maximum plant height, number of branches per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed yield per plant (32.67 g) and per hectare (9.80 q/ha) basis, 1000-seed weight and per cent seed germination were obtained when 25 kg borax/ha was applied through soil application. Similarly, the highest values for all these characters were obtained at 1.5 kg ammonium molybdate/ha. Combination of 25 kg borax and 1.5 kg ammonium molybdate/ha recorded the maximum seed yield per plant (35.96 g) and per hectare (10.78 q/ha). 0066 Effect of cultivars and phosphorus levels on the seed production of ricebean under rainfed ecosystem. Mukherjee, AK; Roy, G; Mishra, GC; Nanda, MK. Forage Research (India). 1998, 24: 3, 183-184. In a field study at Gayeshpur, West Bengal in kharif [monsoon] 1995/96, 4 rice bean (Vigna umbellata) cultivars were given 0-90 kg P2O5/ha. Seed yield averaged 1.37, 1.77, 2.02 and 2.07 t/ha with 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5, and ranged from 1.60 t in cv. KR- 21 X KS-6 to 2.06 t in KS-7 X BC-15.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0067 Effect of cutting management and KNO3 foliar spray on seed production of Stylosanthes hamata grown with and without irrigation. Dwivedi, GK; Dinesh, Kumar; Tomer, PS; Kumar, D. Range Management and Agroforestry. 1998, 19: 1, 13-17. In a field experiment from 1993/94 to 1995/96 at Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India, S. hamata was cut once or not cut, not irrigated or irrigated once at flowering, and given 0, 2, 4, or 6 kg KNO3/ha. Seed and stover yields were significantly higher without than with cutting, and seed yield was higher with than without irrigation. Seed yield increased with increasing fertilizer rate, but the increase was significant above 4 kg/ha. 0068 Effect of cutting management and nitrogen levels on growth, seed yield attributes and seed production of Setaria sphacelata cv. Nandi. Dwivedi, GK; Tomer, PS; Kumar, D. Tropical Grasslands. 1999, 33: 3, 146-149. Field experiments were conducted from 1995 to 1997, to determine the best cutting management schedule and optimum level of fertilizer nitrogen for enhanced seed production of Setaria sphacelata cv. Nandi. These experiments were conducted under rainfed conditions at Jhansi, India. The treatments, consisting of 3 cutting regimes (lenient cutting (45 cm height), severe cutting (10 cm height) and uncut) and 4 levels of nitrogen (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha), were allocated factorially in a randomized block design with 3 replicates. The highest seed yield (52.9 kg/ha) was recorded from the uncut crop, which was significantly (P<0.05) higher than from the leniently (44.5 kg/ha) and severely cut (40.9 kg/ha) crops. Seed yield increased significantly with N application up to 80 kg/ha N, with a further increase to 120 kg/ha N just failing to reach significance. Cutting did not favour seed production of S. sphacelata, and the uncut crop produced significantly more seed. 0069 Effect of cutting management on seed production of different varieties of oats. Joshi, YP; Virendra Singh; Verma, SS. Seed Research. 1996, 22: 1, 15-18; 5 ref. In field trials in 1986-88 at Pantnagar, Uttar Pradesh, with oats cv. Kent, UPO-94 and UPO-160 the effects of not cutting or cutting for forage at 50 or 60 d after sowing on seed production were studied. Seed production was greatest from cv. Kent and least from cv. UPO-160. Cutting at 50 d gave higher seed yields and net returns than no cutting or cutting at 60 d. 0070 Effect of date of steckling planting and spacing on seed production of radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

variety Pusa Chetki. Saharan, BS; Baswana, KS. Haryana Journal of Agronomy. 1991, 7: 2, 123-128; 5 ref. Experiments were conducted at Kharindwa, Haryana, to study the effect of 4 steckling planting dates (15 Nov., 1 Dec., 15 Dec. and 30 Dec.) and 3 spacings (60 X 45 cm, 60 X 60 cm and 60 X 75 cm) on plant characteristics and seed yield of cv. Pusa Chetki during 1983-84 and 1984-85. Plant height, days to 50% flowering, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, and yield and test weight of seeds were recorded. Planting date and plant spacing had significant effects on plant characteristics and seed yield. The widest spacing and earliest planting resulted in the highest number of branches and pods per plant. Maximum seed yield/ha was obtained by 15 Nov. planting with the closest spacing, whereas maximum seed yield/plant was obtained with 15 Nov. planting and the widest spacing. 0071 Effect of dates of planting on seed production of some varieties of onion under Akola conditions. Mathankar, VB; Sadawarte, KT; Kale, PB; Kulwal, LV. PKV Research Journal. 1990, 14: 1, 27-30; 7 ref. A study was carried out with four planting dates (26 Nov., 11 Dec., 26 Dec. 1983 and 10 Jan. 1984) and seven cultivars (Pusa Red, Pusa White Flat, Pusa Ratnar, SL102, N-53, N-257-9-1 and Selection Local White). Bulbs of 5-8 cm diameter were planted on ridges at a 22.5 cm intra-row and 30 cm inter-row spacing. N, P and K each at 25 kg/ha were applied at planting with a further 25 kg N applied one month after planting. The highest plant height (74.7 cm), number of leaves/plant (65.1) number of flower stalks/plant (7.9), diameter of the primary umbel (8.2 cm), mean number of seeds/primary umbel (984.9) seed yield/plant (18.7 g) and seed yield/ha (27.5 q) resulted from the 26 Nov. planting. Of the cultivars, Selection Local White produced the highest seed yield (25.11 q), followed by Pusa White Flat (23.64 q) and Pusa Red (22.35 q). Seed yield/plant was positively correlated with yield-contributing factors such as numbers of leaves and umbels/plant, diameters of primary and secondary umbels, number of seeds/umbel and 1000seed weight. 0072 Effect of different agronomic practices on flower synchronization and seed production in rice. Halaswamy, BH; Reddy, BGS; Kulkarni, RS; Murthy, RAK. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1997, 26: 6-7, 100-101; 8 ref. Seven agronomic practices (control (T1), N application (T2), P application (T3), moisture stress (T4), double transplanting (T5), 60 ppm GA3 spray (T6) or 2% urea spray (T7)) were imposed on a male sterile rice line (IR 58025 A) and a restorer line (IR 13419-113-IR)

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grown in a randomised complete block design at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India. Observations were made of: days to 50% flowering; duration of anthesis; plant height; total number of tillers per plant; number of productive tillers per plant; panicle length; total number of spikelets; number of filled spikelets; seed set percentage; 100- grain weight; and seed yield per plant. There was no significant difference between the treatments in days to 50% flowering of the A line but they differed significantly with respect to 50% flowering of the R line. Difference in days to 50% flowering between R and A lines ranged from 0 days in the case of treatment T6 to 4 days with T5. Treatment T6 also resulted in greatest number of filled spikelets per plant, largest seed set and highest seed yield. It was concluded that treatment with 60 ppm GA3 spray at 5% anthesis, after clipping the flag leaves of the seed parent, could be an effective agronomic practice for achieving improved flower synchronization and hybrid seed yield in rice. 0073 Effect of different factors of production technology on seed cotton yield under rainfed condition. Yadav, KS; Rajput, RL; Jain, SC. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika. 1996, 11: 1, 19-24; 4 ref. In field trials in kharif [monsoon] 1983-87 at Indore, Madhya Pradesh, different seed cotton production methods were studied. Local methods + fertilizer application and local methods + fertilizers + plant protection measures gave 73.2 and 120.7% higher yields, respectively, than local methods alone. Improved sowing methods including solid sowing, paired and skip rows with fertilizers and plant protection recorded 174, 215 and 224% higher yield, respectively, than local practice alone. Yields were improved most by application of fertilizers. 0074 Effect of different growth regulators on growth, yield and seed production of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Bagde, TR; Ladole, SS; Matte, AD. Journal of Soils and Crops. 1993, 3: 2, 118-120; 5 ref. In field experiments at Nagpur, Maharashtra in the winter season of 1992, T. foenum-graecum cv. Kasuri was sown on a medium black soil and given 25, 50 or 75 p.p.m. GA3, 15, 30 or 45 p.p.m. IAA, 25, 50 or 75 p.p.m. NAA or 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 ml triacontanol/litre as a foliar spray 10 d after germination; the lowest concentrations were also used to pre-soak seeds for 24 h. The highest seed yield came from 45 p.p.m. IAA applied as a foliar spray; the highest total yield came from 25 p.p.m. GA3 applied as a foliar spray. Seed soaking produced the same increase in yield as foliar sprays.

0075 Effect of different hormone treatments on the seed production in Cassia angustifolia. Khalatkar, AS; Bhargava, YR. International Society for Horticultural Science, Den Haag (Netherlands) Symposium on vegetable and flower seed production. Castrocaro, Forli (Italy). 2-4 Jun 1980. Mar 1981. p. 147-151. 0076 Effect of different levels of phosphorus, GA3, and pickings on seed production of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Bhai, KL; Singh, AK. Environment and Ecology. 1998, 16: 2, 350-352. Experiments were conducted in 1992 and 1993 at Palampur, India, to investigate the effect of phosphorus application rate (50, 70 or 90 kg/ha), concentration of gibberellic acid (GA3) seed soak (0, 200 or 300 ppm) and the number of harvests (1, 2 or 3) on plant height, number of nodes per plant and seed yield of okra. Phosphorus application rate did significantly affect any of the characters. However, plant height, number of nodes per plant and seed yield increased significantly with GA3 treatment up to a concentration of 300 ppm. Two harvests gave the highest values for seed yield and yield components, but plant height and number of nodes per plant showed inconsistent trends. 0077 Effect of different methods of pollination on sunflower seed production [in Bangladesh]. Alam, MZ; Islam, MN; Quadir, MA. Gazipur (Bangladesh). 29 Jun 1989. Abstracts of Annual Research Review - Institute of Postgraduate Studies in Agriculture, Salna, Gazipur (Bangladesh). 1989. p. 11. 1989. An investigation was carried out at IPSA to study the effect of different pollinating methods seed production of sunflower. The treatments were caged bee pollination, hand pollination, open pollination, self-pollination and control. The seed yield contributing characters, namely, number of filled and unfilled seeds per disc, total and zone wise 1000 - seed weight of the disc and ratio of kernel and husk were taken into consideration. In all the parameters tested, the caged bee pollination performed significantly better in comparison to other treatments. Very poor performances were obtained in seed pollinated and control plants minor variation between them. Open pollination accomplished better than hand pollination, self-pollination and the control and was ranked second. Therefore, the presence of honeybee either in cage or in open condition played a deciding role on the seed yield contributing characters of sunflower. 0078 Effect of different seed rate and seed size on growth, yield and seed size tuber production in potato under coastal plain of Orissa. Singh, DN; Nandi, A;

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Tripathy, P. Journal of the Indian Potato Association. 1993, 20: 2, 182-183; 4 ref. In a field trial in the rabi [winter] season of 1987/88 at Bhubaneswar, Orissa, with potatoes cv. Kufri Badshah, planting seed tubers weighing 15, 25 or 50 g at rates ranging from 0.8 to 4.5 t/ha had no significant effects on yield of tubers suitable for use as seed tubers (25-75 g). Total tuber yield was highest with 50-g seed tubers planted at 30 t/ha followed by 25-g seed tubers planted at 30 t/ha. 0079 Effect of different seed sources on potato production. Chaudhry, MH; Chaudhry, MS; Ghani, A; Shafiq, M; Iqbal, J. Vegetable Research Inst., Faisalabad (Pakistan) Proceeding of national seminar on research and development of potato production in Pakistan. NARC, Islamabad, 23-25 April 1995. p. 51-57. Three seed sources i.e. PSC, JBL and Farmers own seed were compared at three important potato growing areas of Punjab for their performance and to demonstrate to the farmers about the importance of quality seed to get better yields. JBL seed gave better emergence and soil coverage than the other sources. JBL seed also reflected the highest yield of 27.3 t/ha as compared to farmers own and PSC seed with yield of 22.0 t/ha and 21.8 t/ha respectively. 0080 Effect of Ethrel on seed production of cauliflower cv. Dania. Jana, BK; Kabir, J. Crop Research Hisar (India). 1991, 4: 2, 222-224; 6 ref. Growing the late cultivar Dania for seed in the Kalimpong subdivision of Darjeeling is problematic since flowering is not uniform, probably due to overcrowding of flowers in the curd. The pod set and maturation are thus irregular and harvesting is prolonged, coinciding with the onset of early rains. Ethrel [ethephon] at 0, 100, 200, 300 or 400 p.p.m. was applied as a single spray at the initiation of primary flower stems in the second week of Jan. Data are tabulated on plant height (including flower stems), number of primary branches/plant, number of siliquas/branch, siliqua length and diameter, number of seeds/siliqua, seed yield/plant and calculated seed yield/ha. Plant height was greatest with 100 p.p.m. Ethrel. The maximum number of branches/plant, largest siliquas, seed yield/plant and yield/ha were obtained with 300 p.p.m. Both growth and seed yield were adversely affected by 400 p.p.m. 0081 Effect of fertilization and spacing on seed production of radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Pandey, UC; Singh, GP; Singh, K. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research (India). (Mar 1981). v. 15(1) p. 1-4.

0082 Effect of foliage-applied plant nutrients on seed production of kanzungula grass (Setaria sphacelata). Dwivedi, GK. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1995, 40: 1, 166-168; 4 ref. In a field experiment in 1987-88 at Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, S. sphacelata cv. Nandi was given foliar applications of 2 kg/ha of KNO3, urea, single super phosphate, ZnSO4 or MgSO4 singly or in combinations of 2 of these nutrients. Seed yield was highest (4.33 kg/ha) with the combined application of KNO3 + urea; this treatment also gave the highest percentage germination (70%) of the harvested seed. 0083 Effect of GA3 and Alar on growth, flowering and seed production of dahlia (Dahlia variabilis L.). Singh, JN; Singh, DK; Sharma, KK. Orissa Journal of Horticulture. 1994, 22: 1-2, 10-12; 4 ref. In an experiment conducted in 1988/89, D. variabilis [D. pinnata] plants were sprayed with GA3 (25, 50 or 75 p.p.m.) or Alar [daminozide] (50, 100 or 150 p.p.m.) at 25 and at 35 days after transplanting (20 Nov.). Compared with untreated plants, those sprayed with GA3 were significantly taller (particularly at 75 p.p.m.), whereas those sprayed with Alar were shorter. However, plants sprayed with Alar at 150 p.p.m. showed the largest leaf number, the widest stem diameter, the largest number of branches per plant, the most flowers per plant, a longer flowering period, and the highest seed weight per plant, compared with controls and most other treatments. 0084 Effect of graded levels of nitrogen and potassium on seed production of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Pusa Chetki. Kumar, PB; Acharya, PK; Dora, DK; Behera, TK. Orissa Journal of Horticulture. 1994, 22: 1-2, 36-40; 7 ref. In a 2-factorial field trial conducted during 199293, cv. Pusa Chetki radishes were given N at 0, 50, 100 or 150 kg/ha and K at 0, 40 or 80 kg/ha. Data on plant growth and yield parameters are tabulated. The highest seed yield (4.97 q/ha) was recorded when plants received N and K at 150 and 40 kg/ha, respectively. 0085 Effect of growth regulator on seed production of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Pusa Chetki. Bhople, SR; Dod, VN; Bharad, SG; Gholap, SV; Jadhao, BJ. Journal of Soils and Crops. 1998, 8: 2, 214-215. The effects of gibberellic acid or NAA at 50, 75 or 100 ppm and of triacontanol at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 ppm on radish seed production was studied during the rabi [winter] season of 1997 at Akola. The highest seed yield, 1000-seed weight and percentage germination were obtained by spraying plants with 100 ppm NAA as bolting began.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0086 Effect of growth regulators on onion seed production. Bhardwaj, ML; Rattan, RS; Kohli, UK. Indian Journal of Hill Farming. 1995, recd 1997, 8: 1, 38-41; 11 ref. Onion cv. Nasik Red was sprayed with GA3 at 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 or 175 ppm and BA at 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 or 175 ppm at the emergence of first floral bud. The application of 75 ppm GA3 or 50 ppm BA spray gave the best economic returns. Thousand-seed weight and germination percentage of the seed were not affected significantly. 0087 Effect of growth regulators on yield and tuber size in relation to seed production in potato cultivar Kufri Chandramukhi. Pandita, ML; Bhutani, RD; Sidhu, AS. Journal of the Indian Potato Association (India). (Dec 1981). v. 8(4) p. 171-176. 0088 Effect of irrigation intensity on seed yield and components of seed production in onion seed crop in India. Patil, JG; Shelar, VR; Shinde, SK. Onion Newsletter for the Tropics. 1993, No. 5, 40-43; 19 ref. Onion (cv. N-2-4-1) bulbs planted during the rabi season (on 1 Nov.) were irrigated with 1.68 m3 of water at regular 12-day intervals, or at intervals determined by cumulative pan evaporimeter (CPE) readings of 40, 55, 70, 85 or 100 mm (which gave mean intervals of 6.9, 9.6, 12.2, 14.8 and 17.4 days, respectively). The highest number of leaves/plant at harvest and the shortest time taken to reach 50% flowering (65.06 and 82.50 days, respectively) occurred in the treatment with the most frequent irrigation (at 40 mm CPE). The highest number of umbels per plant (13.60) occurred in bulbs irrigated regularly at 12-day intervals and the highest seed yields (46.20 g/plant and 2.89 kg/3.0 X 3.6 m plot) occurred in the 55 mm CPE treatment, and decreased with increasing irrigation interval. Time taken to reach seed maturity was shortest (138.55 days) for the longest irrigation interval (at 100 CPE), and increased as the interval decreased. Early-flowering umbels reached larger diameters than late-flowering ones. 0089 Effect of irrigation on seed production of berseem [clover, India]. Shukla, NP; Hukkeri, SB; Lal, M; Saxena, DC. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Nov 1980). v. 50(11) p. 822-824. 0090 Effect of irrigation schedule and last cutting on seed production of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). Barevadia, TN; Patel, KK; Patel, JB. Seed Research. 1994, publ. 1996, 22: 2, 124-126; 6 ref.

In a field trial in the rabi [winter] season of 1990/91 at Anand, Gujarat, M. sativa cv. Gujarat Lucerne-1 was irrigated at irrigation water: cumulative pan evaporation (IW: CPE) ratios of 0.25, 0.50 or 0.75 and the last cutting date for forage was 15 Feb. or 2 or 17 Mar. Seed yield was highest (389 kg/ha) with a combination of the last cutting date on 17 Mar. and irrigation at an IW: CPE ratio of 0.50. 0091 Effect of limited irrigation on seed production, oil yield and water use by Indian mustard. Subedar Singh; Singh, NP; Bandyopadhyay, SK. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1997, 18: 3, 265-269; 10 ref. Experiments were conducted during winter 198689 in New Delhi, India, with Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Bold under different moisture conditions created by withholding irrigation at various stages of plant growth. The stages most sensitive to water stress were the seedling stage followed by the flowering stage. Decrease in seed yield varied from 22.13 to 36.57% when irrigation was withheld at seedling and flowering stages, 17.98 to 32.43% when withheld at seedling and seed development stages, and 1.59 to 3.45% when withheld at the seed development stage compared with irrigation applied at all these stages. However, early water stress from flowering to seed development stages decreased the yield by 4.83 to 15.46% compared with irrigation at all 3 stages. Variation in seed oil content was not significant. However, oil yield increased significantly with the increase in the frequency of irrigation. It was 5.41, 8.06 and 9.42 kg/ha during first, second and third season, respectively, when the crop was irrigated at all 3 stages. Consumptive water use increased and water use efficiency decreased with increase in frequency of irrigations. 0092 Effect of N, P and K fertilizers on seed production of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) cv. Pusa sawani. Amjad, M; Anjum, MA; Hassan, I. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences (Pakistan). (2001). v. 11(2) p. 80-82. Different combinations of NPK were applied to okra cv. Pusa Sawani. All the P and K and half of the N were applied at the time of sowing while the rest of N was applied 30 days after sowing the crops as a top dressing. The highest seed yields were obtained with 140 kg N + 100 kg P2O5 + and 60 kg K2O ha. Although number of fruits per plant, length of mature fruit and number of seeds per fruit were highest with the highest rate of fertilizer application yet 1000-seed weight was not affected by the fertilizer application.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0093 Effect of N, P and K on tomato seed production. Arya, PS; Vidyasagar; Singh, SR. Scientific Horticulture. 1999, 6: 89-91. The optimal combination of N, P and K for fruit quality and seed production was investigated in tomato, cv. EC-129 149, between 1992 and 1994 in Himachal Pradesh, India. The total amount of potash and P was applied with half the dose of N at the time of transplanting and the remaining N was applied at the time of flowering. The optimal N concentration for fruit weight was 100 kg/ha, producing an average fruit weight of 50.28 g. P and K did not affect fruit weight. Marketable fruit yield was greatest (99.87 q/ha) with 100 kg N/ha, 100 kg P/ha and 50 kg K/ha. N, P and K did not significantly influence 1000 seed weight. The greatest seed yield (181.8 kg/ha) was obtained with 100 kg N/ha, 100 kg P/ha and 50 kg K/ha, which is concluded to be the optimal nutrient combination for marketable fruit and seed yield. 0094 Effect of nipping axillary flower buds on yield and yield components in RHA-274 line of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and its implication in seed production. Channakrishnaiah, KM; Gopalareddy, P; Gangappa, E. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 1992, 52: 4, 396-400; 10 ref. Generally, nipped plants of this restorer line of sunflower had higher mean values for the 18 characters studied. Seed yield increased by 26.3% in the nipped plants over the normally branched plants mainly due to increased 100-seed weight. However, increased seed yield in the nipped plants was compensated by increased oil content in the branched plants, thus maintaining the same oil yield per plant in both nipped and branched plants. The significance of inducing plants to produce monoheads artificially is discussed in relation to seed production programmes. 0095 Effect of nitrogen alone and in combination with constant dose of phosphorus and potassium on carrot seed production. Jan, T. NWFP Agricultural Univ., Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Horticulture. May 1991. 48 p. 0096 Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus combinations on seed production of turnip, Brassica rapa (L.) under Quetta conditions [Pakistan] Sheikh, MT; Jamro, GH; Shah, NA; Rehman, F. Balochistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Pakistan). (Jul-Dec 2000). v. 1(2) p. 12-14. Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus (N-P) combinations on seed production of Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) at Vegetable Seed Farm Sariab Quetta, during 1996-98. Six N-P

combinations viz. 100+100, 100+150, 150+100, 150+150, 200+100, and 200+150 kg per hectare were tested in Randomized Complete Block Design, with three replications. Results revealed that all the growth, yield components and seed yield were, highly significantly, affected by N-P combinations, where as all the traits were maximum with higher N-P combination (200+150 kg/ha) and minimum with lower combination (100+100 kg/ha). Maximum seed yield 2153.00 kg/ha was recorded with N- P combination of 200+150 kg/ha followed next higher N-P combination (200+100 kg/ha). Maximum rise in income of Rs.79055/- and Rs.139545/- respectively was found with these two combinations. 0097 Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on seed production of three onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars. Amjad, M; Anjum, MA; Malik, HU. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan). (Jul 1999). v. 2(3) p. 752754. N (0, 25, 50 or 75 kg ha-1) and P2O5 (0, 15, 30 or 45 kg ha-1) were applied in different combinations to onion cultivars; Dark Red, Early Red and Faisal Red. All the P and half of the N were applied at the time of sowing while the rest of N was applied as a top dressing at flowering. Number of flowers per umbel significantly varied among the cultivars and was highest in Faisal Red (667), while the cultivars did not differ significantly in time taken to flowering, number of flower stalks per plant, diameter of umbel and seed yield. Fertilizer doses had significant effect on diameter of umbel, number of flowers per umbel and seed yield, while time taken to flowering and number of flower stalks per plant have no significant response to these particular doses of fertilizer. Interaction between cultivars and fertilizers doses was only significant for number of flower stalks per plant. Maximum number of flower stalks was produced in cv. Faisal Red at a fertilizer dose of 75 kg N+ 45 kg P2O5 ha1. 0098 Effect of nitrogen and potassium on onion seed production in calcareous soil. Mishra, HP. Journal of Potassium Research. 1994, 10: 3, 236-241; 9 ref. In an experiment during 1986-87 and 1987-88 on seed production from Patna Red bulbs, application of 120 kg N/ha significantly increased the number of flowering scapes, umbel size, seed yield and seed germination. K alone had no effect but in combination with N gave positive results. Applying 120 kg N + 40 kg K/ha gave the best results in terms of the number of flowering scapes, umbel size and seed yield. This combination gave the highest seed yield (499 and 555 kg /ha, respectively) and germination (82% and 78% during the first and second year, respectively).

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0099 Effect of nitrogen and spacing on seed production of radish. Singh, AP; Singh, MK; Singh, JP; Singh, SB. Vegetable Science. 1990, 17: 2, 210-212; 5 ref. In field trials with radish cv. Japanese White plants, conducted during 1982-84, N applied at 80 kg/ha and a plant spacing of 60 X 45 cm resulted in the highest seed yield. 0100 Effect of nitrogen, its time of application and boron on cauliflower seed production in calcareous soil. Mishra, HP. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 1992, 49: 1, 83-86; 8 ref. A study was carried out on cauliflower cv. Patna Main during 1984-85 and 1985-86 on a sandy loam soil. Four rates of N (90, 120, 150 or 180 kg/ha) were applied in 3 or 4 equal split doses. B was applied at 10 or 15 kg/ha before transplanting. Of the N treatments, application of 150 kg/ha resulted in the highest 1000- seed weight and seed yield. For B, application of 10 kg/ha resulted in the highest 1000-seed weight and seed yield. There was a significant interaction between the effects of N and B, with highest seed yield (315 kg/ha and 279 kg/ha in 1984-85 and 1985-86, respectively) obtained with 150 kg N + 10 kg B/ha. Time of N application had no significant effect on seed yield and quality. 0101 Effect of nitrogen levels and cuttings on the production of green leaves and seed yield of coriander cv. Narnaul Selection. Thakral, KK; Singh, GR; Pandey, UC; Srivastava, VK. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research. 1992, 22: 1, 35-39; 7 ref. In an experiment at Hisar in 1986-88, Coriandrum sativum was given 0, 30, 60 or 90 kg N/ha and cut once, twice or 3 times at 15-day intervals from 30 days after sowing or not cut. Green leaf yield was highest with 90 kg N/ha (48.41 q/ha) and 3 cuts (65.29 q/ha). Seed yields were highest with 60 kg N/ha (15.98 q/ha) and 1 cut (22.33 q/ha). The highest cost benefit ratio was obtained with 60 kg N/ha and 1 cut. 0102 Effect of nitrogen nutrition and spacing on seed production of cauliflower. Sharma, SK; Rastogi, KB. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 1992, 49: 3, 274-276; 4 ref. Field experiments were conducted at Kandaghat for two years (1988-90), to find out the response of cauliflower (cv. PSB-1) to N rates of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kg/ha and plant spacing at 60 X 30 cm, 60 X 45 cm or 60 X 60 cm. The greatest plant height, number of branches/plant, seed yield/plant and yield/ha were obtained at 200 kg N/ha. The widest spacing of 60 X 60 cm produced the highest number of branches/plant and seed

yield/plant. The greatest seed yield/ha, however, occurred at the closer spacing of 60 X 30 cm. 0103 Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and depth of bulb planting on seed production in onion. Bhardwaj, ML; Rattan, RS; Kohli, UK. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 1991, 48: 3, 264-268; 8 ref. Seed production in onions (Allium cepa) was enhanced by the application of 80 kg N/ha and 60 kg P205/ha, which increased the number of scapes, size of the umbel, seeds per umbel and seed yield per plant. Planting bulbs 2.5 cm deep increased scape number and seed yield per plant. 0104 Effect of onion seeds produced by different pollinating agents on onion production in subsequent generation [in Bangladesh] Alam, MZ. Bangladesh Association of Advancement of Science, Dacca (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the 12th Annual Bangladesh Science Conference. 1987. p. 31. An experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of seeds obtained from natural pollination, bee pollination, blowfly pollination and controlled (mosquito netting) pollination, on onion production in subsequent generation. This was determined on the basis of 4 parameters viz., percent germination, average bulb size, average bulb weight and yield. Seedlings of the four treatments were planted at Institute of Postgraduate Studies in Agriculture (IPSA), Bangladesh experimental field in 1985. All but controlled pollination treatments were statistically similar in respect of all the parameters tested. The seeds from controlled treatment were inferior in all parameters. 0105 Effect of phosphate fertilization on fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed production. Gogoi, S; Mazumder, A; Saikia, TP; Hatibarua, P. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1998, 19: 1, 96-97. In a field experiment on a sandy loam soil (having N, P and K availabilities of 120, 18 and 150 kg/ha, respectively) in 1994/95 in Assam, Trigonella foenumgraecum cv. Pusa was given 0-50 kg P2O5/ha. Seed yield increased with up to 30 kg P2O5 (0.90 t/ha). 0106 Effect of planting dates on seed potato production in Satpura plateau of Madhya Pradesh. Nandekar, DN; Sharma, BR. Journal of the Indian Potato Association. 1998, 25: 1-2, 86-87. In a field trial at Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh, India, potatoes cv. Kufri Badshah and Kufri Jawahar were planted on 10, 20 or 30 October or November. Best overall results for growth and yield and low incidence of PLRV [potato leafroll luteovirus] were obtained with planting on 20 or 30 October.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0107 Effect of planting ratio on seed setting and yield in pearl millet hybrid seed production. Jabeen, F; Reddy, SKN; Reddy, BM. Journal of Research APAU. 1993, 21: 1-2, 46-47. A field experiment in 1992/93 in Nizamabad district in Andhra Pradesh evaluated the production of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum] hybrid (MH 179- MS 81 A X ICP 451) with male and female rows grown in ratios of 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 2:6, 2:8, 2:10 or 2:12. Seed setting was not affected by row ratios. The highest seed yield was obtained with male: female row ratio of 2:12 (2.17 t/ha). 0108 Effect of planting time on out crossing percentage in CMS line seed production of rice. Lavanya, C; Vijaykumar, R; Reddy, NS. International Rice Research Notes. 1999, 24: 3, 9-10. A trial was carried out at monthly intervals from 1 November 1993 to 1 October 1994 at the Agricultural Research Station, Maruteru. IR62829A was sown on the first of every month followed by staggered sowing of IR62829B at 2-day intervals. During transplanting B lines sown on different days were transplanted alternately. Data on yield components and daily meteorological information were collected. A simple correlation was estimated between out crossing percentage, seed yield and weather parameters. The results revealed that June flowering (April sowing) was most favourable followed by August and September flowering. An increasing trend was noted between wind velocity and out crossing percentage (r = 0.95**) and seed yield (r = 0.97**). Relative humidity was negatively correlated with out crossing (r = -0.47) and seed yield (r = -0.5). 0109 Effect of pollen plus water spray on seed set in sorghum hybrid seed production. Sahib, KH; Rao, MN. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1990, 77: 5-6, 233234 Trials were conducted on sorghum to establish if grain set efficiency could be improved by spraying a water-pollen mixture onto ear heads rather than normal dry pollen dusting. Male- sterile line 2077A and pollen parent CS3541 were used in the study. Five female ear heads per day were treated over 3 days by both methods at 4 timings. All dry pollen grain sets were good and greatest between 09.00 and 10.00 h. The water-pollen spray method gave results only 11-20% of those from dry dusting and cannot therefore be recommended as a suitable practice. 0110 Effect of population density, seeding and root volume on seed production of turnip. Gill, BS; Gill, SS. Crop Improvement. 1997, 24: 1, 121-124

Stecklings of different sizes of turnips cv. White-4 were transplanted on 15 November 1 or 15 December or 1 January. Seed yield decreased with transplanting later than 1 December and was greatest from larger stecklings (7.0 cm and above). A row spacing of 45 cm with closer (15 cm) plant-to-plant spacing provided adequate plant population, and yield decreased at wider row and intrarow spacings. None of the factors studied affected seed quality components. 0111 Effect of root age on seed production of radish (Raphanus sativus L). Malik, YS; Singh, KP. Agricultural Science Digest (India). (Mar 1983). v. 3(1) p. 1112. 0112 Effect of seed oil cakes as fertilizer on growth and biomass production of Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Naidu, CV; Swamy, PM. Indian Forester. 1994, 120: 12, 1084-1088; 7 ref. Deoiled seed cakes of Brassica latifolia (mahua [Bassia latifolia=[Madhuca longifolia]), Pongamia glabra [P. pinnata], Azadirachta indica and Ricinus communis were applied as fertilizer to potted saplings of Terminalia bellerica [T. bellirica]. All four deoiled seed cakes promoted better sapling growth than that in control unfertilized trees, with best growth and biomass production promoted by M. longifolia deoiled seed cake. 0113 Effect of seed rate on maximum fodder production of oats [Avena sativa]. Rashid, A. Frontier Journal of Agricultural Research (Pakistan). (Dec 1982). v. 8(1) p. 23-25. Published in 1983. 0114 Effect of seed size and spacing on potato (Solanum tuberosum) production. Negi, SC; Shekhar, J; Saini, JP. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1995, 65: 4, 286-287; 3 ref. Potatoes cv. Kufri Jyoti were grown at Kukumseri, Himachal Pradesh in the 1989-90 summer seasons, from 30-50, 50-70 or 70-90 g seed tubers planted at 15, 20 or 25 cm intrarow spacings. Total tuber yield was highest from large seed tubers planted 20 cm apart. Average tuber weight was higher when large seed tubers were planted. Yield of small tubers was higher from 15 cm intrarow spacing and small seed tubers. 0115 Effect of seed sources on the production of potato cultivar desiree. Hussain, SA; Rab, A; Jan, FA; Asghar, S. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan). (Sep 2000). v. 3(9) p. 1377-1378. Eight potato seed sources viz. tissue culture, Nagar (Gilgit), Sheshghat (Gilgit), Okara, Batakundi, Parachinar (local), Peshawar, and Jaji (Afghanistan) were com-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

pared for their performance at village Luqumankhel, Parachinar during spring 1999. Minimum days (32) to 80% emergence were taken for seed source Peshawar as compared to the maximum days of 43.75 for seed source Jaji. The difference in percent emergence among seed sources was negligible. Significantly maximum soil coverage (94.5%), plant height (57.0 cm), number of stems/plant (5.5), large size tubers weight/plant (718.0 g), marketable yield per ha (62.10 t) with no attack of early blight and potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) was in tissue culture seed source while minimum stems/plant (2.5), plant height (31.7 cm), weight of large size tubers/plant (205.5 g) and total marketable yield/ha (20.31 t) with more infestation of early blight and PLRV was observed in Peshawar seed source. Significantly highest yield of 63.30 t ha-1 was recorded from tissue culture seed source followed by 58.50, 55.66 and 52.40 t ha-1 from seed sources Nagar, Batakundi and Parachinar respectively and lowest yield of 21.07 t ha-1 from Peshawar seed source. 0116 Effect of seed treatment on sesamum production. Chatterjee, BN; Chakraborty, PK; Ghosh, RK; Bhattacharyya, KK. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Apr 1985). v. 55(4) p. 262-264. 0117 Effect of source sink manipulation on nodulation, dry matter production and seed yield of black gram. Rao, JSP. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1995, 82: 12, 646-648; 6 ref. Source sink relations were altered by defoliation, shading and flower removal in black gram [Vigna mungo] cv. T9 in field trials at Tirupati. Greater leaf area below the 6th node increased nodulation and leaf N content, while the leaves above the 7th node influenced pod yield. Flower removal revealed that there was competition for assimilates between growth of nodules and developing pods. The decrease in yield under low light was due to a decrease in DM production caused by poor photosynthesis. 0118 Effect of sowing date and row spacing on seed production of jute (Corchorus species) genotypes with and without clipping. Mishra, GC; Nayak, SC. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1997, 42: 3, 531-534. In a field experiment in 1989-90 in Orissa, jute cv. JRC 7447 (C. capsularis) and JRO 524 (C. olitorius) were sown in rows 30 or 45 cm apart in early April, early May or mid-June, and cut after 6 weeks growth or not cut. Stem yield was decreased by delaying sowing, but mean seed yield was not affected. Stem yield was higher with 30 than 45 cm spacing (9.38 vs. 8.50 t), and cutting decreased the yield (8.37 vs. 9.51 t). Seed yield was not

significantly affected by spacing or cutting. C. olitorius produced higher stem yield (in 1990 only) but lower seed yield than C. capsularis. 0119 Effect of sowing date on curd production and seed yield of cauliflower. Chatterjee, R; Som, MG. Vegetable Science. 1990, 17: 1, 66-69; 4 ref. In field experiments with cauliflower cv. KPS-1, seeds were sown monthly from 15 Jan. 1981 to 15 Dec. 1982 and from 15 Aug. 1983 to 15 Jan. 1984 and the seedlings were transplanted 45 days after sowing. The average curd gross weight (1.59 kg), height (11.07 cm) and diameter (18.70 cm) were greatest for plants sown in Sep. followed by those sown in Aug. Curd weight, height and diameter gradually decreased with delay in sowing after Sep. and no curd was produced on plants raised by sowing seeds in Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June or July. The mean number of inflorescence stalks/curd (12.75), seed test weight (3.79 g) and seed yield (22.39 g/plant or 6.21 q/ha) were highest when seeds were sown in Aug. These decreased in plants sown later than in Aug. and the seed yield for Oct.-sown plants was only 3.50 g/plant (0.96 q/ha). No seeds were produced by plants sown after this month. Percentage germination was highest for seeds harvested from Aug.- and Jan.-sown plants (87.5% for each month) and was only 71.0% for Oct.-sown seeds. It is concluded that seeds should be sown from Aug. to Jan. for curd production and from Aug. to Oct. for seed production. 0120 Effect of sowing date on seed production of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties. Narwal, SS; Sharma, SK; Lathwal, OP; Sharma, KD. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1996, 66: 11, 638-640; 4 ref. In a field experiment during the kharif [monsoon] seasons of 1992-93 at Hisar, Haryana, 3 forage sorghum cultivars were sown on 1, 15 or 30 June or 15 or 30 July. The optimum date for seed production was 30 July with yields of 1.65 and 1.76 t/ha in 1992 and 1993, respectively. Cv. HC 136 was the highest yielding, followed in descending order by HC 260 and HC 171. 0121 Effect of sowing date, variety and method of seed production on the growth and seed yield of early cauliflower. Gautam, BP; Shadeque, A; Chakrabarty, BK. Horticultural Journal. 2001, 14: 2, 171-179; 9 ref. An experiment was conducted in Jorhat, Assam, India during 1993-95 to determine the effect of different sowing dates (15 and 30 July, and 14 August), seed production methods (plants left in situ; and without scooping the curds) and cultivars (Pusa Katki, Pusa Deepali, Selected Early Dawn, Early Chinese Prince and Heavy Silver Plate) on the growth and seed yield of early cauli-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

flower. The 15 July sowing recorded the maximum seed yield (4.5 q/ha). Yield significantly declined with delay in sowing irrespective of the cultivars. Scooping curds significantly increased the seed yield in Pusa Deepli and Heavy Silver Plate, while the rest did not respond to scooping. All cultivars differed significantly from each other in terms of seed yield. Selected Early Dawn recorded the highest yield (4.6 q/ha). 0122 Effect of spacing and clipping on seed production of jute varieties (Corchorus species). Das, K; Choudhary, JK; Guha, B. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1994, 39: 3, 506-507 In a field trial at Shillongani, Assam in the 1990 rainy season, jute seed yield was not significantly affected by cultivar (JRO 524 or JRC 7447) or spacing (30 X 10 or 45 X 10 cm), but was higher with cutting 6 weeks after sowing (0.66 t/ha) than without cutting (0.46 t). Yield components are tabulated. 0123 Effect of spacing and nitrogen levels on seed production of Agrifound Dark Red variety of onion. Lallan Singh; Dubey, BK; Mishra, VK. News Letter National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation. 1993, 13: 3-4, 1-3; 3 ref. In trials carried out with Agrifound Dark Red onion in the rabi season at the Regional Research Station, Sinnar (Nasik), 3 spacings (30 X 30 cm, 45 X 30 cm and 45 X 45 cm) and 4 N levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha) were compared. Half the N was applied as a basal dose and the rest was applied 45 days after planting. The highest seed yields (6.64 and 6.56 q/ha) were obtained at 30 X 30 cm with N at 120 kg/ha and at 30 X 30 cm with N at 80 kg/ha, respectively. 0124 Effect of spacing and planting date on seed production of jute (Corchorus capsularis) propagated by vegetative means. Guha, B; Das, K. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1997, 42: 2, 385-387 In a field experiment in 1991-92 at Shillongani, Assam, jute cv. JRC 212 stem cuttings were planted on 1 or 16 June, 1 or 16 July or 31 July at 30 X 10 or 15 cm spacings. Seed yield was decreased by delaying planting, but was not affected by spacing. 0125 Effect of spacing and planting time on seed production of Olitorius jute propagated by vegetative means. Das, K; Guha, B. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1995, 16: 4, 520-521; 4 ref. In a field experiment in 1991-92 at Shillongani, Assam, delaying planting jute cv. JRO 524 cuttings after 1 June decreased seed yield. Row spacings of 30 X 15 or 10 cm gave similar seed yields.

0126 Effect of spacing and size of corm sett on growth and whole seed corm production of elephant foot yam. Das, PK; Sen, H; Banerjee, NC; Panda, PK. Horticultural Journal. 1995, 8: 2, 131-139; 6 ref. In a field experiment in 1990/91 at Mondouri, West Bengal, 5 set sizes (50, 100, 150, 200 or 250 g) of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius were grown at 30 X 25, 30 or 35 cm spacings. Corm yield was highest (85.8 t/ha) with 250 g sets grown at a spacing of 30 X 25 cm. 0127 Effect of spacing and steckling size on seed production of radish (Raphanus sativus). Jamwal, RS; Thakur, DR. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1993, 63: 3, 170-172; 5 ref. In a field experiment conducted during the winter seasons of 1989-90 and 1990-91 with radish cv. Pusa Himani, planting 3/4- size stecklings (15 cm long) at a spacing of 60 X 45 cm gave the highest seed yield (1.44 t/ha). 0128 Effect of spacing and time of planting of onion bulbs on seed production. Lal, G; Singh, DK; Ram, B. Progressive Horticulture (India). (1982). v. 14(4) p. 264265. 0129 Effect of staggered sowings on flower synchronization in hybrid seed production of rice. Halaswamy, BH; Reddy, BGS; Kulkarni, RS; Murthy, RAK. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1997, 26: 6-7, 91-92; 6 ref. Two rice genotypes, a CMS line (IR 58025 A) and a restorer line (IR 13419- 113-IR), were transplanted to the field in August 1993 in 7 treatment combinations (T1, sowing of restorer (R) line 5 days prior to the sowing of CMS (A) line: T2, sowing of R line on the same day of sowing A line: T3, sowing of R line 5 days after the sowing of A line: T4, combination of T1 and T2: T5, combination of T1 and T3: T6, combination of T2 and T3: and T7, combination of T1, T2 and T3). Time to 50% flowering, duration of anthesis and plant height were recorded for both genotypes, while number of filled spikelets per plant, percent seed set and seed yield per plant were recorded only for the A line. There was no difference in days taken to 50% flowering of A and R lines when the R line was sown on 3 dates (T7), however, differences were observed in the other treatments, with a maximum of 4 days in T3. The highest number of filled spikelets, maximum seed set and maximum seed yield of all treatments were recorded when the male parent (R line) was sown on 3 dates (T7). This was attributed to better synchrony of flowering and a supply of sufficient and continuous pollen.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0130 Effect of storage temperature of seed potatoes on grwoth and yield of early potato crop in the north Indian plains. Ezekie, R. Journal of the Indian Potato Association (India). (Jul 2001). v. 28(1) p. 141-142. In a field experiment conducted at Central Potato Research Station, Modipuram, potato seed tubers stored at 4,12 and 20C were planted in mid- September, to study the effect of storage temperature on crop growth and yield. Seed tubers stored at 12 and 20C, which were physiologically older than those stored at 4C, produced plants with reduced growth vigour. These plants were more susceptible to the high temperature conditions that prevail during crop growth and as a result the yield was reduced. 0131 Effect of time of final cutting and irrigation on lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) seed production. Tiwana, MS; Puri, KP. Journal of Applied Seed Production. 1997, 15: 93-94; 5 ref. The effects of time of final spring cutting (15 or 30 March or 15 April) and irrigation (3-6 applications) on the seed yield of lucerne (Medicago sativa) were investigated in 1983-84 at Ludhiana, Indian Punjab. Taking the final cut on 15 March produced the highest seed yields of 292 and 312 kg/ha in 1983 and 1984, respectively. The number of irrigations after the final cutting did not affect seed yield or its components in either season. Seed quality (germination and 1000-seed weight) did not differ among cutting or irrigation treatments. 0132 Effect of time of haulm cutting on seed production of potato. Banerjee, MK; Samdyan, JS; Hooda, RS. Agricultural Science Digest (India). (Mar 1982). v. 2(1) p. 23-24. 0133 Effect of true seed size (TPS) and seedling treatment on establishment of seedlings and their growth in relation to seedling tuber production. Batra, VK; Malik, YS; Pandita, ML. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 1992, 21: 3-4, 279-284; 8 ref. The effects of treating true seed, obtained from open pollinated potatoes cv. TPS-2 and seedlings, with carbendazim, IBA and single super phosphate were investigated. 0134 Effect of water stress on dry matter production, harvest index, seed yield, and its components in faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Nanda, HC; Yasin, M; Singh, CB; Rao, SK. FABIS Newsletter (ICARDA). (Aug 1988). (no. 21) p. 26-30. 25 genotypes of faba bean were grown during rabi season 1984/85 under water stress (rainfed) and non-

stress (irrigated) conditions with the objective to study the effect of water stress on dry matter production, harvest index, and seed yield and its components. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for seed yield, harvest index, number of seeds/plant, 100seed weight, and protein content under both environments, whereas dry matter production, days to maturity, and number of branches/plant were significantly different under water stress only. The variation due to environments was significant for seed yield and harvest index. Heritability estimates were observed to be moderate to low for all characters, except for protein content and 100seed weight. 0135 Effect of weather on seed production of sorghum. Sidhu, MS; Gill, GS. Journal of Research Punjab Agricultural University (India). (Dec 1983). v. 20(4) p. 415-422. 0136 Effect of weed management and pruning on jute seed production. Punarbasu, Dey; Banerjee, NC; Bhattacharya, SP; Das, D; Bhattacharyya, M. Environment and Ecology. 1998, 16: 1, 1-6; 5 ref. To assess the effects of three different herbicides along with hand weeding and pruning of plants on increasing the yield of jute and higher net returns, an experiment was conducted during 1991 at Mohanpur, Bihar, with Basalin (fluchloralin), Nabu-S (sethoxydim) and Goal (oxyfluorfen) on jute cv. JRO.524 (Naveen). Although weeds were controlled efficiently by hand weeding twice, its efficacy was never statistically superior to Nabu-S at 3.0 litres/ha and Goal at 0.5 litres. Consequently, slightly better growth of jute plants along with a bit higher seed yield were obtained with hand weeding twice. Pruning of apical meristems increased the number of branches per plant and reduced seed yield compared to no pruning. Negative correlation values of 0.81, 0.86 and 0.11 were obtained between jute seed yield and weed population, weed dry weight and number of branches per plant, respectively. The highest net return resulted from the use of Nabu-S at 3.0 litres (Rs 8400/ha), followed by Goal at 0.5 litres (Rs 7800/ha) and hand weeding (Rs 7750/ha) with no pruning. 0137 Effects of de-oiled tree seed cakes on growth and biomass production in Dalbergia sissoo seedlings. Uma Singh; Pokhriyal, TC. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy. Part B: Reviews and Tracts Biological Sciences. 1997, 63: 6, 625-630. The application of deoiled tree seed cakes of caster (Ricinus communis), karanj (Caesalpinia sepiaria), neem (Azadirachta indica), mahua (Bassia latifolia [[Madhuca longifolia]) and sal (Shorea robusta) meal enhanced the

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

growth and biomass production of Dalbergia sissoo seedlings in pot experiments. Mahua deoiled seed cakes were the most effective. 0138 Effects of fertilizers on HYVs of seed in the production of rice in the study area. Siddiqui, ABMMA; Kanazawa, N. Bulletin of the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University. 1990, No. 47, 55-63; 5 ref. Research results from three village studies in Bangladesh are summarized. The adoption of High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of rice and other modern inputs in the area dates from 1960. Differences in acreage and yield were mainly due to different levels of fertilizer application. Gross margins among the farmers differed due to the different combinations of fertilizers used. Balanced doses of fertilizers played an important part in increasing agricultural production. Socio-economic status among the cultivators of HYVs of rice was at different levels because of production differences. 0139 Effects of gametocytes in hybrid seed production of rice. Aswathanarayana, SC; Mahadevappa, M. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1992, 17: 1, 14-16; 8 ref. In a field experiment at Bangalore, rice was treated with 200- 3000 p.p.m. GA3, 500-8000 p.p.m. Ethrel [ethephon], 0.1-1.6% 2,4- D or 0.05-0.8% maleic hydrazide. Compared with the untreated control, all the treatments induced pollen sterility and decreased seed set. In each of the treatments, highest pollen sterility was induced with 800 p.p.m. GA3 (60.56%), 8000 p.p.m. Ethrel (68.60%), 0.8% 2,4-D (61.95%) and 0.2% maleic hydrazide (86%). Effects of growth regulators on plant height, panicle length, and length and width of flag leaves are tabulated. 0140 Effects of nitrogen, Rhizobium and phosphate on seed production of sannhemp. Bodkhe, KY; Shelke, DK. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1996, 21: 3, 473-474; 3 ref. In a field experiment in 1993/94 in Maharashtra, Crotalaria juncea was seed inoculated with Rhizobium or not inoculated and given 0-75 kg N and 25-75 kg P2O5/ha. Seed yield was not affected by inoculation, and was highest with 75 kg N (1.75 t/ha) and 75 kg P2O5 (1.71 t). 0141 Effects of plant spacings and nitrogen levels on maize seed production. Khot, RB; Umrani, NK; Desale, JS; Pol, PS. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1993, 18: 1, 155-156; 4 ref.

In a field experiment during the kharif season in 1989, maize cv. African Tall sown at spacings of 60 X 30, 60 X 45, 75 X 20 or 75 X 30 cm produced grain yields of 2.80, 4.15, 3.18 and 4.59 t/ha, respectively. Application of 80, 120, 160 or 200 kg N/ha produced grain yields of 2.57, 3.11, 4.81 and 4.42 t/ha, respectively. 0142 Effects of pre-sowing high temperature stress on seedling emergence and yield of seed cotton. Khan, RA; Ahmad, S; Hussain, S. Great Britain - Experimental Agriculture. 1973. p. 9-14. The seed of American Cotton, Var. 134, was stressed at 50, 50, 70, 80 and 90 C for 24 or 48 hours before seeding. Stresses at 50 to 70 C. had a stimulatory effect on seedling emergence and subsequent performance of the cotton plants, but higher temperatures caused thermal injury or killed the seed. 0143 Effects of salinity on growth, flowering and seed production in three winter annuals. Chakraborty, RC; Sadhu, MK. Indian Agriculturist. 1990, 34: 2, 107-110; 4 ref. Callistephus chinensis cv. Princes Mixed, Calendula officinalis cv. Suttons' Double and Tagetes signata [T. tenuifolia] cv. Red Brocade plants were grown in a fertilized alluvial clay soil at 3 levels of salinity (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mmhos/cm). With increasing salinity vegetative growth decreased in all 3 cultivars. At 2.0 mmhos/cm height was reduced by between 26.4% (C. officinalis) and 19.3% (C. chinensis) and branching by between 40% (T. signata) and 33.6% (C. chinensis). Flower diameter, weight and longevity were most reduced in C. chinensis at 2 mmhos/cm. The number of seeds/flower and the weight of 100 seeds decreased with increasing salinity in C. chinensis and C. officinalis but were less affected in T. signata. Germination percentage was less affected by salinity than the other variables measured. 0144 Effects of sowing dates on seed production in coriander. Chaudhari, SM; Kharche, SM; Desai, UT. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1995, 20: 1, 139; 3 ref. In a trial carried out in 1990, Coriandrum sativum seeds were sown on 9 dates at 15-day intervals between 15 August and 15 December, at a spacing of 30 X 15 cm. Sowing date had significant effects on seed yield and quality parameters. The highest seed yield (2.47 g/plant, 9.83 q/ha), 1000-seed weight (11.28 g), viability (66.35%) and dry weight of 10 seedlings (30.12 mg) were obtained with sowing on 1 November. 0145 Effects of spacing on seedling tuber production from true potato seeds. Sarker, MH; Kabir, MH. Bang-

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ladesh Horticulture (Bangladesh). (Jun 1989). v. 17(1) p. 11-14. The effect of nine different spacings of directly sown hybrid true potato seed (TPS) progeny, 'Serrata x DT)-28', on seedling tuber production and plant characters were assessed. The percentage of foliage coverage and yield due to treatments were found significantly different. The percentage of foliage coverage at 40 and 50 days after sowing ranged from 40.33 to 70.00 and 78.33 to 97.00 respectively. The maximum foliage coverage was obtained from 10 x 5 cm spacing. The spacing 10 x 5 cm also gave the highest yield (39.67 t/ha) while the lowest yield (24.17 t/ha) was obtained from 30 x 15 cm spacing. The maximum number of tubers were produced in the closer spacing. 0146 Efficient potato production technology through fertiliser and seed management. Roy, SK; Sharma, RC. Fertiliser News (India). 1999, 44: 3, 49-50, 53-54. Field experiments were conducted at the Central Potato Research Station, Jalandhar in 1993-97 to develop efficient potato production technology by adjusting the seed tuber and fertilizer inputs. As the seed tuber rate was increased from 1.5 to 3.0 t/ha, tuber yields showed a linear increase. A linear increase in the yield was also observed as the NPK rate was raised from 50 to 150% of the recommended rate of 180 kg N + 28 kg P + 100 kg K/ha. Higher seed tuber rate increased the total tuber yield by improving both the number and yield of smallsized (<75 g) tubers, while higher fertilizer rates increased the yield by improving the number and yield of large-sized (>75 g) tubers. The use of 3.0 t seed tubers/ha in combination with 150% of recommended NPK produced the highest tuber yield and gave higher net returns than 3.0 t seed tubers/ha with 125 or 100% NPK. Use of 2.25 t seed tubers/ha with 150% NPK gave higher returns that 3.0 t seed tubers/ha and 100-125% NPK. 0147 Epiportion of cabbage plants affecting seed production in situ and under transplanted conditions. Verma, TS. Seed Research. 1998, 26: 1, 19-22. The effects of stumping (removing the head) or coring (trimming the head but leaving the core intact) on seed production in cabbages (cv. Golden Acre) were examined in field experiments at Katrain in Himachal Pradesh in 1992-94. Seed yield was highest from intact plants and lowest from stumped plants. Seed vigour index and 100-seed weight were not significantly different between intact and stumped plants but seed germination was greater in seeds from stumped plants. 0148 Establishment and management of seed production area. Zabala, NQ. FAO, Rome (Italy). Forestry

Dept. Proceedings of the National Hands-on Training Course on Tree Breeding and Propagation. Mar 1995. p. 40-55. 0149 Establishment of demonstration-cum-seed production farms for coconut in non-traditional belts is the need of the hour. Bhalerao, MM; Singh, RK. Indian Coconut Journal Cochin. 1993, 24: 3, 11-16; 6 pl.; 9 ref. There is a large difference between average palm productivity in India and potential productivity (actual and potential annual yields of 31 and 471 nuts/palm, respectively). The need to establish farms to demonstrate to farmers the technology developed by research institutes, especially in non-traditional growing areas, is discussed. Quality of planting material and suitability of cultivars is emphasized. 0150 Evaluation of pollination methods for hybrid seed production in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Yadava, DK; Sangwan, RS; Yadav, OP. Crop Research Hisar (India). 1994, 8: 3, 512-516; 13 ref. Three pollination methods, viz. bee pollination under natural conditions, hand pollination under controlled (under muslin cloth bag) conditions and a combination of both (bee pollination supplemented by hand pollination), were compared for hybrid seed production in three sunflower hybrids grown at Hisar in 1991 under spring and autumn sowings. Data are tabulated on seed set, seed size, number of seeds/head, 1000-seed weight and seed yield/plant. Pollination efficiency was better during the spring than autumn sowing because of favourable weather conditions. Supplementary hand pollination increased percentage seed set in both seasons, but the increase was greater in the autumn. Hand pollination was the poorest method. 0151 Evaluation of potato germplasm for characters important in true potato seed production. Gopal, J; Thakur, SS; Kumar, V. Journal of the Indian Potato Association (India). (Jul 2001). v. 28(1) p. 11-12. Thirty-one early bulking tuberosum accessions as females and 8 accessions as males were evaluated for their suitability in TPS production at CPRS, Kufri (HP). On the basis of % pollination success, number of seeds/berry, number of seeds/flower pollinated, average berry wt. and 100 seed wt., 6 female and 3 male parents have been identified for utilisation in TPS programme. 0152 Evaluation of some tomato cultivars for seed production under mid hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Sharma, SK; Rastogi, KB. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1993, 14: 4, 494-496

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Six Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars, consisting of 1 determinate, 2 indeterminate and 3 semi-determinate types, were evaluated for seed and fruit yields, 7 quantitative characters and seed germination during 1990-91. Significant variations were observed between and within types for days to 50% flowering, plant height, branches/plant and fruits/plant. Indeterminate cultivars Solan Gola and Yashwant recorded the highest mean seed yields (27.0 and 23.5 kg/ha, respectively), followed by determinate cv. S12 (18.2 kg/ha) and Punjab Chhuhara from the semi-determinate group (15.6 kg/ha). The 1000- seed weight was highest for Yashwant (3.9 g). Germination percentage was not significantly different between the cultivars. 0153 Evaluation of true potato seed genotypes for production of seedling tubers. Shivanandam, VN; Khan, MM; Krishnappa, KS. Journal of the Indian Potato Association. 1998, 25: 3-4, 129-130. Seeds of 4 TPS genotypes were sown in nursery beds at Madenur, and seedling tubers were harvested 100 days after sowing and graded for weight and yields. Seedling tubers/plant and tuber weight were highest in HPS-I/13 and HPS-7/67. While the highest number of grade A seedling tubers was recorded in HPS-I/13, HPSII/13 and TPS-C3 had the highest grade B and C tubers, respectively. 0154 Evaluation of true potato seed (TPS) for commercial potato production in Orissa. Dhal, JK; Mishra, PK. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research. 1990, 3: 34, 302-304; 6 ref. 0155 Evaluation of true potato seed (TPS) progenies for the potato production in Jamalpur, Bangladesh. Elias, M; Sarker, S; Torofder, MGS; Miah, RU. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research (Pakistan). (Jul-Sep 1992). v. 13(3) p. 255-259. 0156 Experiences with seed production of Lotus pedunculatus. Roder, W; Dukpa, T; Gyamtsho, P; Dukpa, P. Bhutan Journal of Animal Husbandry. 1992, 13: 2326; 4 ref. In a field experiment in 1982 at Bumthang (alt. 2700 m), Bhutan, L. pedunculatus [L. uliginosus] cv. Mashfield, Beaver, Border, Maku and Grasslands G 4703 produced seed yields of 48, 19, 97, 27 and 200 kg/ha, respectively. In a field experiment in 1987-90 at Bumthang, L. pedunculatus cv. Maku seed yield from harvesting by picking by hand was 61 kg compared with 47 kg from using scythes. Seed yields from harvesting on 9 or 22 Aug. or 13 Sep. were 96, 54 and 12 kg, respectively. In a field experiment in 1989 at Yusipang (alt. 2600 m),

Bhutan, L. pedunculatus broadcast sown or sown in rows produced seed yields of 4 and 12 kg compared with 86 kg where 50-d-old seedlings were transplanted. 0157 Experimental mutagenesis in Capsicum annuum, 1: effect of different doses of gamma radiations on capsule and seed production. Joshi, MM; Khalatkar, AS. International Society for Horticultural Science, Den Haag (Netherlands) Symposium on vegetable and flower seed production. Castrocaro, Forli (Italy), 2-4 Jun 1980. Mar 1981. p. 55-61. 0158 Experiments in hybrid seed production in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Banga, SS; Sandha, GS; Gupta, M; Sohu, RS. Seed Science and Technology. 1995, 23: 1, 51-57; 6 ref. Extensive efforts have been initiated to develop F1 hybrids of Indian mustard for commercial exploitation of heterosis for seed yield. The production of hybrid seed by cross-pollination on male sterile lines is an important factor which will influence the economics of seed production and hence the success of the venture. Four male sterile lines based on Brassica carinata, B. tournefortii, Diplotaxis siifolia and Raphanus sativus (ogura) cytoplasm sources were utilized to determine the optimum male (M): female (F) planting ratio for maximising seed set on mustard male sterile lines. Higher seed set was recorded when CMS lines were sown in greater frequency. Gross hybrid seed yields were higher in the seed production plots having 1M: 3F-sowing designs. The cost of producing hybrid seed ranged from 43 to 196 Rs/kg. Compared with many other crops, mustard has the benefit of requiring a low sowing rate (3.75 kg/ha) and a very high multiplication rate. At the prevailing prices for mustard produce and assumed yield level of 3.0-3.5 t/ha, commercial heterosis of less than 5% will be enough to cover the extra seed cost up to 1200 Rs/ha. In areas with lower mustard yields, especially under rainfed conditions, higher levels of commercial heterosis will be needed to cover the extra seed cost. 0159 Experts report on the production of seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) in Pakistan. Rothhaar, W; Specht, A. GTZ-German Agency for Technical Cooperation. 1976. 58p. In Pakistan the present consumption of potato per head of the population is about 4 kg. To ensure a supply of good quality seed potatoes in areas devoted to potato cultivation, a project is designed by the joint collaboration of Pakistan and Federal Republic of Germany, sponsored by Agricultural Research Council of Pakistan and ARI Tamab. The aims of this project are to increase seed potato production and establish field certification service.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

The officially approved seed potatoes are to be marketed through a cooperative marketing society. Initially the project will comprise two stages of cultivation, during the first, imported nucleus seed stock is to be propagated at a government seed farm in the upper reaches of Kaghan valley and during the second stage the seed potatoes produced here are to be supplied to farmers in the remainder of Kaghan valley. 0160 Extension service in seed production and distribution policy [of rice, maize, wheat, vegetables and potato, Nepal. Baral, JR. Agricultural Projects Services Centre, Kathmandu (Nepal) National Seed Seminar. Kathmandu (Nepal), 16-20 Feb 1983. 14p. 0161 F1 hybrid seed production in muskmelon (Cucumis melon L.): management of the male sterile population. Dhillon, NPS. Seed Science and Technology. 1994, 22: 3, 601-605; 13 ref. The effect of four population densities (3, 4, 5 and 6 seedlings/hill) of seed parent (Msms + msms) and roguing of male fertile plants (Msms) spread over 10, 15 and 20 days on F1 hybrid seed production was investigated. Planting 6 seedlings/hill and roguing of male fertile for 10 days was the most cost effective procedure for F1 hybrid seed production. 0162 Farm machineries for forage and seed production. Gupta, PD. Indian Farming (India). (Jan 1996). v. 45(10) p. 49-51. 0163 Farmers' participatory seed production in Punjab. Kolar, JS; Bajwa, HS; Malhotra, OP. Crop Improvement. 1996, 23: 2, 174-178. Due to close linkages between research scientists, extension staff and farmers in the Punjab, farmers are involved in the development of agricultural technology. Farmers have inclinations and abilities to modify and adapt technologies to their local conditions through their experience. An attempt has been made in the Punjab to introduce a participatory approach in seed production to local farmers. Organised groups of small farmers were involved in seed production and distribution for a cluster of villages. This not only supplemented formal seed production but also helped conservation of biodiversity by producing seed of local crops/varieties which the formal seed sector fails to produce due to risk involved and low returns. 0164 Feasibility report on the expansion of vegetable seed production programme in Nepal. Ali, SM. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Dept. of Agricul-

ture, Vegetable Development Div. FAO Vegetable Seed Production Project. 1982. 0165 Feasibility study on cabbage seed production. Tasaki, S; Ahad, MA. Bangladesh Association for the Advancement of Science, Dacca (Bangladesh). Proceedings of the 6th and 7th Bangladesh Science Conference, 7-11 Feb 1982. Dacca (Bangladesh). BAAS. 1982. P. 11. An experiment was done to explore the possibilities of producing seeds of cabbage under Bangladesh climatic conditions. Seeds of two lines of cabbage namely F-67-2-1 and K-2-4-1-3-1 introduced from Taiwan which have low thermo-sensitivity and high heat tolerance were sown on October and November 1980. In the case of first sowing, head formation of marketable size (1.0-1.5 kg) was obtained 57 days after transplanting in both lines whereas in the second planting it took 64 days. The first planting produced flower stalk on February 28, 1981. In the second planting this line produced flower stalk on March 23, 1981 but failed to produce seeds. 0166 Findings of seed production study on radish (var. Lumle Red), cauliflower (var. Kibo Giant), onion (var. Regal PVP and Early Red) and sponge gourd (var. Pusa Chikani), 1995/96. Jaiswal, JP; Subedi, PP; Bhattarai, SP. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, PO Box 1, Pokhara, Kaski, Nepal. Working Paper - Lumle Agricultural Research Centre. 1997, No. 9733, iii + 14 pp.; 4 ref. Four seed production experiments on radishes (cv. Lumle Red), cauliflowers (cv. Kibo Giant), onions (cultivars Regal PVP and Early Red) and sponge gourds [Lagenaria] (cv. Pusa Chikani), were carried out at different sites in Nepal (altitude of 700-1625 m asl) during 199596. The effect of sowing date at 4 sites in Nepal on radish seed production indicated that the best sowing date was 22 September. Seed yields were 8, 8, 17 and 27% higher than those from sowing dates of 2 October, 2 and 12 September, and 12 October, respectively. Average seed yield was 1.25 t/ha; plants took 138 days to complete development. Seed production of cauliflowers was investigated at Khabara (800 m) and Kundule (1100 m), and was successful at both sites. Average seed yield was 63 kg/ha; plants required 181 days to complete development. Lower seed yields were observed at the higher altitude. Seed production of onions was investigated at Kundule (1100 m) and Keware (1100 m). Regal PVP (213 kg/ha) produced 263% more seeds than Early Red and required 216 days to complete development (46 days earlier than Early Red). Successful seed production of sponge gourds was observed at altitudes of 750-1000 m

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

asl. Average seed yield was 273 kg/ha; plants required 139 days to complete development. 0167 Findings of varietal and plant density trial on bean and micro- plot seed production programme on cowpea conducted at outreach research sites, 1995/96. Jaiswal, JP; Bhattarai, SP; Subedi, PP. P.O. Box 1, Pokhara, Kaski District, Nepal. Working Paper - Lumle Agricultural Research Centre. 1997, No. 97-44, 12 pp.; 5 ref. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Kentucky Wonder and S-9 sown with 1 or 3 plants/hill were compared in a preproduction verification trial at five Outreach Research (OR) sites (650-1400 m asl) of the Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Nepal. On average, cv. S- 9 (69 days) produced marketable fresh pods 22 days earlier than Kentucky Wonder. Irrespective of number of plants/hill, S-9 (10.3 t/ha) produced about 72% higher fresh pod yield than Kentucky Wonder at Dhanubase, whereas Kentucky Wonder outyielded S-9 by about 77%, 143% and 245% at Khabara, Hemja and Lower Salija, respectively. The overall treatment mean across the sites indicated that Kentucky Wonder (13.8 t/ha) produced 86% higher green marketable pod yield than S-9 (7.4 t/ha). However, S-9 was better under commercial scale production, especially during the spring season (off-season) and in low hill areas, mainly because of its earliness in producing fresh pods which fetched a very good market price, escaped from pest and disease damage, and did not need staking. The plants remained green even after harvesting of pods, providing good fodder for livestock. The overall treatment means across the sites indicated that three plants/hill (12.2 t/ha) produced 34% higher green marketable pod yield than one plant/hill (9.1 t/ha). In a micro-plot seed production trial, cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) were grown at two OR sites (650-1100 m asl). The indeterminate cv. Chitwane, Tane Nepal and Kashmiri gave the highest seed yields. At Bhoteodar, cv. Tane Nepal (3.54 t/ha) outyielded other cultivars by 3.8-219%, whereas, at Kudule cv. Chitwane (1.22 t/ha) outyielded other cultivars by 31% to about 10-fold. The overall mean across two sites indicated that cv. Chitwane and Tane Nepal (2.25 and 2.24 t/ha respectively) outyielded Kashmiri, IT-86F-2089-5, IT-86F-2062-5, IT-86F-20141, KU<hash>8 and IT-835-911 by about 3.7%, 69%, 87.5%, 99%, 129.6% and 177.8%, respectively. 0168 Findings of varietal trials on normal season onion and seed production study on new elite onion variety conducted at outreach research sites during 1996/97. Jaiswal, JP; Bhattarai, SP; Subedi, PP. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, P.O. Box 1, Pokhara, Kaski District, Nepal. Working Paper - Lumle Agricultural Research Centre. 1997, No. 97-49, iii + 8 pp.; 7 ref.

A trial on normal season onions to identify suitable cultivars to be grown in low to mid hill areas and a trial to determine the feasibility of seed production by a new elite onion cultivar were carried out at different sites (700-1200 m asl) in Nepal. In the first trial, 3 cultivars (Early Red, Red Creole and Mallajh Local) were included. Red Creole produced 4.4 and 36.5% more bulbs than Mallajh Local and Early Red, respectively, at Kholakhet. Early Red outyielded Red Creole and Mallajh Local by 53 and 54%, respectively, at Kudule. The means across treatments indicated that Early Red (yield of 46.11 t/ha) produced 8.9 and 11% more bulbs than Red Creole and Mallajh Local, respectively. Farmers preferred Early Red since it exhibited less splitting and bolting and it produced good quality bulbs. In the seed production study on new elite onion cv. Red Synthetic, a seed yield of 619 kg/ha was obtained at an altitude of 1200 m asl. The crop took 223 days to produce mature seeds. 0169 Fixation of isolation distance for production of okra seeds. Krishnasamy, V; Palaniappan, GR. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1994, 81: 10, 555-556 A study was made to refix the isolation distance requirement for okra seed production. The red pigmentation character of cultivar CO1 was used as a marker. Plants of cv. Pusa Sawani were raised at different distances from the contaminant source (plants of CO1). Progenies were examined for the occurrence of pigmentation. Out-crossing could be recorded only up to 30 m in two trials. It is suggested that the isolation distance for okra seed production can be refixed as 30 m for certified and 50 m for foundation seed classes. 0170 Floral biology and its usefulness in brinjal (S. melongena) hybrid seed production. Basavaraja, N; Dutta, OP. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1992, 5: 3, 268-270; 6 ref. 0171 Flowering behaviour of genetic male sterile lines and its use in hybrid seed production. Dhatt, AS; Singh, M. Crop Improvement (India). (Dec 1999). v. 26(2) p. 245-248. Genetic male sterile lines MS-1, Ms12 and Prabhat-DT muskmelon, chilli and pigeonpea, respectively, were grown to determine the procedure of screening for male sterile plants required for hybrid seed production. Identification of male sterile and fertile plants was carried out during the entire span of flower initiation. Instead of equal proportion in all the three phases (early, mid and late), the frequency of male fertile plants was significantly higher in early and lower in late phase of flowering. More than 50% male sterile plant population

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

started flowering in middle phase. Screening period can be shortened by initiating identification of male sterile plants towards the lateral part of early followed by middle and initial part of late phase. This practice is likely to improve the quality and yield of hybrid seed with minimal use of skilled labour. 0172 Foliar application of nutrients and triacontanol enhancing seed production and seed characteristics of tea (Camellia sinensis (L) O'Kuntze). Bhuyan, RP; Taparia, M; Deka, A. Journal of the Agricultural Science Society of North East India. 1995, 8: 1, 69-72; 13 ref. The effects of foliar applications of N, K, Zn, B and Paras (a formulation of triacontanol) on seed yield and seed characteristics of the biclonal seed stock TS 378 was studied in a seed garden at Jorhat. N and K application (1 kg each of urea and muriate of potash in 100 litres of water) increased the number of seeds per tree, but failed to increase the percentage of sinker seeds. Zn (1 kg/100 litres) in combination with N and K produced better results. B application (1 kg/100 litres) in addition to N and K tended to decrease the number of seeds but increased seed weight and the proportion of large seeds. Paras together with N and K gave the highest seed yields and increased the proportion of large seeds compared with controls. 0173 Forage and pasture development and forage seed production in Nepal. Pande, RS; Pradhan, DR; Miller, DJ (ed); Craig, SR. Dept. of Livestock Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Harihar Bhawan, Kathmandu, Nepal. Rangelands and pastoral development in the Hindu Kush- Himalaya: Proceedings of a Regional Experts' Meeting. Kathmandu, Nepal, 5-7 November, 1996. 1997, 227-236 One of the major limiting factors for the development of fodder and pasture production in Nepal is the availability of quality seed. Pasture development in Nepal is discussed with particular reference to seed production. The roles of governmental and non-governmental organizations and of the private sector are considered. The scope for forage and pasture seed production, and major limitations and constraints, are discussed. 0174 Forage production and seed yield of berseem as influenced by methods of sowing and number of cuttings. Choubey, S; Prasad, K; Bhagat, RK; Srivastava, VC. Journal of Research, Birsa Agricultural University. 1991, 3: 1, 89-91; 4 ref. Trifolium alexandrinum cv. Mescavi seed was broadcast or sown in rows 20, 30 or 40 cm apart on an acid soil at Chotanagpur and cut 1-4 times (60, 100, 130 and 150 d after sowing). Highest FW and DM yield and

net returns were obtained with broadcasting and cutting 4 times. 0175 Foraging behaviour of Apis cerana on cauliflower and cabbage and its impact on seed production. Verma, LR; Partap, U. Journal of Apicultural Research. 1994, 33: 4, 231-236. In the Kathmandu valley of Nepal, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) plants had averages of 7 branches with 600 flowers and 12 branches with 94 flowers, respectively. Flower diameter was 14.9 mm in cauliflower and 13.8 mm in cabbage. The yellow flowers of both crops opened in the morning and remained open for 2-3 days; the total flowering period of each crop lasted for about one month, with cauliflower beginning in midFebruary and cabbage in mid-March. Apis cerana colonies were caged individually with plants of the target crops. Bees started foraging on cauliflower and cabbage at c. 07.00 h and 06.30 h, respectively, and ceased flight activity at c. 18.00 h and 18.30 h, respectively. Foraging on cauliflower started at ambient temperatures of 7oC. Peak foraging activity was between 11.00 h and 13.00 h for each crop. The duration of individual foraging trips was 26.9 min for cauliflower and 23.9 min for cabbage. Visits to individual flowers lasted from 4.3 to 6.7 s during the day in both crops; bees visited 5-8 flowers/min. On each crop bees collected either pollen or nectar but never both during the same foraging trip. For both crops, pollen collectors outnumbered nectar collectors during the morning while the opposite occurred in the afternoon. Individual loads of cauliflower pollen weighed 5-9 mg; cabbage pollen loads weighed 8-10 mg. Fruit set on cauliflower plants pollinated by A. cerana was 57% higher than on control plants (pollinators excluded) and 20% higher than on open-pollinated plants. Fruit set on cabbage plants following bee pollination was 27% higher than on open-pollinated plants; control plants did not set fruit. Siliques (fruits) from control, open-pollinated and bee-pollinated cauliflower plants had 3, 15 and 20 seeds, respectively. Open-pollinated and bee-pollinated siliques of cabbage had 18 and 28 seeds, respectively. Germination of seeds from bee-pollinated plants was 16% and 12% higher than for seeds from control and openpollinated cauliflower plants, respectively, and 28% higher than for seeds from open-pollinated cabbage plants. 0176 Fruit and seed production of aonla (Emblica officinalis [Phyllanthus emblica]) trees in Madhya Pradesh. Prasad, R. Vaniki Sandesh. 1992, 16: 2, 5-7

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0177 General report about the seed potato production course held at Lahore from 1-9 November, 1976. Hussain, KI; Tariq, AH. Department of Agriculture, Punjab, Publication Wing. Seed Potato Production (Bulletin No.6). 1977. p. 1-9. The present report is about the seed potato production course organized by IPC, lime, Peru in collaboration with PARC, Islamabad at Atomic Energy Centre, Lahore. It discusses the main objectives and important aspects of the production of healthy seed carried out in the course. 0178 Genotype X canopy section interaction for flower production, abortion, and seed yield in soybean. Sharma, KP; Dahal, KR; Subedi, B. Journal of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science. 1991, 12: 73-78; 11 ref. A field study was conducted in 1988 at Rampur, Nepal to investigate genotype X canopy section interactions for flower production, abortion, pod set of different types and seed yield of determinate (cv. Hardee, Hartz, AIRS 87-2 and AIRS 87-4) and indeterminate (cv. Improved Pelican) soyabean (Glycine max) genotypes. Plants were divided into 4 sections, each containing an equal number of flowering nodes. Sections I and IV were the bottom and top section, respectively, whereas II and III were the middle sections. Branches from the nodes at different canopy levels of the main stem were included into the respective sections for data collection. The indeterminate genotype produced a higher proportion of flowers in the bottom section than the determinate genotypes. Significant genotype X canopy section interaction was observed for number of flowers produced, pod set and seed yield. Flower abortion progressively increased towards the top of the canopy. Although 3-seeded pods increased towards the top of the canopy, the proportionate contribution of each section to the seed yield per plant was variable depending on genotype and growth habit. It is concluded that productivity of nodes across the soyabean canopy is more dependent on number of flowers produced than on the level of flower abortion in various sections. 0179 Germplasm introduction and maintenance, and basic seed production of RARDC [Regional Agricultural Research and Development Centre], Bandarawela, Sri Lanka. Fernando, KKS; Jayathilake, PKS; Kulasthunge, KMG; Abeyratne, WM. Asian Sweetpotato and Potato Research and Development, P.O. Box 933, Manila (Philippines) Summaries and abstracts of research and development activities July 1995-June 1996. Nov 1996. p. 12.

During July 1995 to June 1996 period, a total of 32 advanced potato clones were received from CIP and the SAPPRAD Breeding Project, bringing the total collection to 235 accessions. Of the 235 accessions, 65 clones were subjected to field evaluation of RARDC, Bandarawela. In addition, a total of 123 clones are currently being multiplied in the screenhouse to produce basic seeds for field evaluation. Ten commercial and promising clones were also successfully cleaned for viruses using meristem culture. The project staff at Bandarawela continued to produce rooted stem cuttings (RSC) for distribution to government farms and nongovernment organizations involved in seed production. From July 1995 to June 1996, a total of 144,500 RSC and 49500 mother plants were produced. About 52000 minitubers were also harvested from mother plants. 0180 Government's role in accelerated national seed production by public and private seed enterprises. Charles, SH. Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) Proceedings of the FAO/DANIDA Seminar on Design and Implementation of Seed Programmes. Bangkok (Thailand), 12-16 May 1986. 1988. p. 11-29. 0181 Grass seed production under arid environment. Singh, M. Indian Farming (India). (Oct 1984). v. 34(7) p. 44. 0182 Growth and corm production of elephant foot yam as affected by seed corm size, type, NK nutrition and harvesting date and evaluation of the low cost storage methods. Kurup, GT; Palaniswami, MS; Potty, VP; Padmaja, G; Kabeerathumma, S (eds.) Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyala, Kalyani, West Bengal, India. Tropical tuber crops: problems, prospects and future strategies. 1996, 298-305; 6 ref. Seed corm size had no significant effect on sprouting of elephant foot yam [Amorphophallus paeoniifolius], but whole seed corms always had markedly better sprouting than cut corms in field trials at Kalyani, West Bengal, in 1990-91. Highest shoot length and girth was attained by using whole seed corms weighing 1 kg and applying 150 kg N + 75 kg K2O/ha. Larger and whole seed corms produced higher corm bulking rates, average corm weights and total corm production. Applying 150 kg N + 75 kg K2O/ha gave satisfactory corm production. Corm yield increased gradually with delayed harvesting but the maximum net return was obtained when harvested 190 days after planting. Locally available cover materials like dry ash, sand, rice bran, dry soil and saw dust were effective for lengthening shelf life of seed corms in storage; treatment with maleic hydrazide was not so effective.

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0183 Growth, sporulation and toxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and B. sphaericus in media based on mustard-seed meal. Gangurde, RP; Shethna, YI. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (United Kingdom). (1995). v. 11(2) p. 202-205. 0184 Guidelines for prebasic potato seed production. Naumannetienne, K; Khan, B. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan). Pak-Swiss Potato Development Project. 1989. 17p. Methods for in-vitro microtubers and seedlings are described. A brief account of production of prebasic seed in the green house/screen house and field from microtubers, seedlings and from stem cuttings is also given. 0185 HMG/FAO fresh vegetable and vegetable seed production project (GCP/NEP/043/SWI) consultancy report on vegetable variety performances, variety maintenance procedures and guidelines for seed production. Raut, RK. FAO, Kathmandu (Nepal) 1996. 21p. Vegetable screening and evaluation trials conducted at seven Vegetable Development Division/Nepal Agricultural Research Council (VDD/NARC) farms have been reviewed. Important criteria considered was yield. Other criteria like off-season production, disease and pest resistant and growing at various agro-climatic zones were also considered. The important vegetable crops in which trials were conducted are tomato, eggplant, chillis, cauliflower, cabbage, beans, peas, radish, leafy vegetables, etc. Guidelines for seed production and inspection of released vegetable varieties, along with their varietal characteristics, brief cultural practices, isolation to be followed, roguing method to be adopted, yield, etc. have been described. 0186 HMG/FAO fresh vegetable and vegetable seed production project (GCP/NEP/050/SWI) Guidelines for seed production and supervision for released varieties. Raut, RK. FAO, Kathmandu (Nepal) 1996. 47p. In Nepal, organized vegetable seed production started in early sixties on government farms and then in private sector in seventies. Normally, seed production pockets developed in the command area of government horticultural farms. In the private sector in 1975, about a tone of vegetable seeds, under the supervision of government technicians, were produced but now the private sector produces more than 350 tones of vegetable seeds. More than 90% of commercial vegetable seeds are produceed by private seed growers. The government/NARC farms mostly concentrate on foundation and nucleus seeds. The seed growers generally depend on foundation seeds provided by public sector although new seed entre-

preneurs, with, facilities to produce won nucleus and foundation seeds are emerging. But it will take sometime before viable private sector emerges with all aspects of seed industry. Nepal has got certain agro-climatic advantage. From tropical type to temperate types of vegetables can be produced depending upon the altitude of a place. 0187 Hybrid seed production in bajra [pearlmillet] Tyagi, CS; Lal, S. Indian Farming (India). (Nov 1981). v. 31(8) p. 19-21. 0188 Hybrid-seed production in cytoplasmic malesterile line of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) through insect pollination. Avtar, R; Chhabra, BS; Lather, BPS. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Jul 1994). v. 64(7) p. 459-461. 0189 Hybrid seed production studies in CSH-6 sorghum [India] Basavaraju, GV; Bommegowda, A. Sorghum newsletter (USA). (1982). v. 25 p. 6-7. 0190 Hybrid seed production technique for exploitation of heterosis in cotton. Mehta, NP; Patel, CT. Indian Farming (India). (Dec 1983). v. 33(9) p. 23-31. 0191 Hybrid seed production technology of field and vegetable crops: problems and solutions. Sharma, HL; Verma, MM (ed); Virk, DS (ed); Chahal, GS (ed); Dhillon, BS. Department of Seed Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, India. Heterosis breeding in crop plants - theory and application: keynote presentations: symposium Ludhiana, 23-24 February 1993. 1993, p. 135-139. In this examination of general and specific problems in Indian work of this type, the general problems are examined under the following headings: determination of growth duration of parental lines; adjustment in flowering synchrony of parental lines; creating congenial conditions for the pollination; desirable floral traits of the parental lines; and promoting cross pollination through special techniques. The specific problems are dealt with under the headings: varietal hybrids; hybrids using genetic male sterility; and hybrids developed using cytoplasmic genetic male sterility. 0192 Hybrid seed production through natural open pollination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Gill, BS; Gill, SS. Journal of Applied Seed Production. 1995, 13: 37-38; 6 ref. In chillies (Capsicum annuum), the development of stable, male sterile (MS) lines and exploitation of natural out pollination could render commercial hybrid seed production technology economically viable and

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practically feasible. The efficiency of hand pollination and natural out pollination were compared for an MS line (MS-12), grown in a row ratio of 3:1 with a pollinator line Ludhiana Local Selection (LLS) for hybrid seed production. High temperatures (36oC) low humidity (35% RH) and the presence of preferential crops for pollinating agents, such as cucurbits, restricted fruit setting in the summer season. The highest number of fruits and seed yield was recorded in hand pollinated plants. However, under open pollination, the values declined by 50 and 72%, respectively in the first row, while in the second row of the seed parent, the fruit number remained the same but seed yield declined further by 40%. The results suggested that natural out pollination could be relied upon for hybrid seed production of chillies, although the technology requires standardization. 0193 Identification of places of production and storage for rice seed in Andhra Pradesh. Rao, GSP; Reddy, BM; Ankaiah, R; Singh, BG; Satyanarayana, B. Seed Research. 1996, publ. 1997, 24: 2, 116-123; 11 ref. Rice cv. IR64 seeds produced at Tanuku, Kompalli and Kurnool in rabi [winter] 1990/91 were stored for 14 months at 9 sites representing 3 agroclimatic zones of Andhra Pradesh. Seed produced at Kurnool maintained germination for longest, while Tanuku seed lots lost viability and vigour rapidly. The poor quality of seed produced at Tanuku was attributed to high relative humidity (>70%) throughout seed development, harvesting and processing. Seeds stored at Kompalli, Anantapur and Kurnool maintained viability longest, while high moisture content of seeds stored at Vizianagaram, Tanuku and Vijayawada decreased germination and increased fungal infection. 0194 Impact of crop residues on soil organic matter content and the production of late jute seed. Alim, MA; Alam, MM; Khandker, S; Ahmed, SA; Haque, A; Akhter, N. OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan). (Dec 2001). v. 1(12) p. 1124-1126. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the impact of different crop residues on late jute seed yield and organic matter content of soil. The plant height, number of branch/plant, number of pod/plant, number of seeds/pod and seed yield/plant were significantly increased with different crop residues. The performance in seed yield was dry jute leaves (89.30%) greater than lentil straw (87.77%) wheat straw (43.28%) greater than compost (35.35%) greater than rice straw (32.740%) greater than saw-dust (16.91 %) over the control. The resources increased the soil organic matter content in soil by 24.59, 22.92, 26.22, 19.67, 29.51 and 30.33% respectively over the control indicating the enrichment of soil

health. In correlation studies it was observed that the jute seed yield parameters, the seed yield was highly correlated with plant height, number of branches/plant and number of pods/plant. 0195 Impact of insect pollination on carrot seed production. Abrol, DP. Insect Environment. 1997, 3: 3, 61 During observations in India in April-May 1996 on the pollination of carrot, apart from bees (predominantly Apis florea, but also Halictus sp. and Lasioglossum sp.), other flower visitors included Camponotus compressus; Musca sp. and Syrphus sp. Insect-pollinated plots produced significantly more, and heavier, seeds than plots enclosed to exclude insects. 0196 Impact of various densities of planting on the production of seed potatoes. Sulehria, MR. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Horticulture. 1990, 119p. 0197 Importance of seed production and maintenance of improved chickpea and lentil varieties [Cicer arietinum, Lens culinaris, Pakistan] Hussain, A; Ibrahim, CM. National Seed Registration Dept., Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Food Legume Breeding Strategies. Food Legume Breeding Strategies: Proceedings of a Workshop [Pakistan]. Islamabad (Pakistan), 22 Mar 1989. 1991. p. 40-54. 0198 An improved method for selection of seed stands for conversion into seed production areas. Mandal, AK; Lal, RB; Gupta, BN. Indian Forester. 1998, 124: 11, 918-924. No suitable methods have been available for the selection of seed stands of unknown origin for conversion into seed production areas (SPAs). This paper describes a suitable method for the selection and treatment of candidate seed stands (CSS), based on sample plots, and using teak [Tectona grandis, in India] as an example. The steps involved are: (1) Selection of stands in different ecoclimatic zones of the state/country, collecting basic data from the stands, grouping them into similar age and site quality groups, and laying out sample plots and collecting data from them on different tree characteristics, to produce an average stand ranking score; (2) Selection of the best areas within the selected stands, based on data from 3-5 sample plots (depending on stand size); and (3) Selection of trees for retention/culling in the CSS. 0199 Improved Seed Production, Phase II, Asia. Project findings and recommendations. FAO, Rome (Italy). Plant Production and Protection Div. 1993. 48 p.

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0200 Improvement of curd and seed production in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) [Bangladesh] Aditya, DK. Proceedings of the workshop on Bangladesh Agricultural University Research Progress. Mymensingh (Bangladesh), 1991. p. 130-136. Genetic variability and correlation pattern were studied in some cauliflowers. High coefficient of genetic variation was observed for curd weight. Path coefficient analysis indicated that days for curd initiation would be most effective in selection procedure for improving both curd weight and days for curd maturity. Growth and flowering pattern in some cultivars of temperate and tropical cauliflower were studied and their seed production potential in Bangladesh has been evaluated. The prevailing mild winter with short duration did not appear to be suitable for seed production of temperate origin cauliflowers. The indigenous cultivars flowered profusely. The cv. Kartika produced flowered profusely. The cv. Kartika produced flower earlier. Mid and late season cultivars viz. Poushali and Maghi flowered in later part of the season and suffered badly from adverse weather. Application of GA (3) and curd scooping did not increase seed yield in cv. Poushali. However, the percent germination of seed increased significantly when curds of the mother plant were scooped at maturity. 0201 In Gujarat open pollinate okra for seed production. Patel, JJ; Patel, ZB; Patil, NS; Patel, HC. Indian Horticulture (India). (Apr-Jun 1995). v. 40(1) p. 43-45. 0202 Influence of bulb size and plant spacing on seed production in onion (Allium cepa L.). Bhardwaj, ML. Progressive Horticulture. 1991, publ. 1993, 23: 1-4, 7679; 5 ref. Onion (cv. Nasik Red) bulbs of 3 sizes (2.1-3.0 cm, 3.1-5.0 cm or 5.1-7.0 cm diameter) were planted at 5 spacings (30 X 30 cm, 45 X 30 cm, 45 X 45 cm, 60 X 30 cm or 60 X 45 cm). The highest number of scapes/plant, seeds/umbel and seed yield/plant were obtained with large bulbs (5.1-7.0 cm) planted at 60 X 45 cm. Highest seed yield/plot (641.60 g) was obtained with large bulbs planted at 30 X 30 cm (plot size = 2.25 X 1.80 m). 0203 Influence of cutting management and nitrogen levels on seed production in oats. Patel, JR; Sadhu, AC; Patel, PC; Thaker, KR. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal. 1993, 19: 1, 15-20; 7 ref. In a field experiment during the rabi [winter] seasons of 1988- 90 at Anand, Gujarat, oats cv. Kent were not cut or cut 50-55 or 70-75 d after sowing (DAS) and were given 40-120 kg N/ha. Cutting oats 50-55 DAS decreased seed yield by 12.9% and DM yield 10.7%, but increased CP yield by over 2 t/ha. Seed yield was not

affected by N rate, while DM yield increased with up to 80 kg N. 0204 Influence of cutting management on seed production in oats. Desai, SN; Deore, DD. Forage Research (India). (Dec 1982). v. 8(2) p. 151-154. 0205 Influence of cutting management on seed production potentials of berseem [clovers] Desai, SN; Deore, DD. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities (India). (Jan 1983). v. 8(1) p. 28-29. 0206 Influence of fruiting season on seed production of papaya under North Bihar. Mansha, Ram; Ray, PK; Ram, M. Seed Research. 1992, publ. 1994, 20: 2, 81-84; 14 ref. The 1st fruiting cycle of pawpaw cultivars Pusa Delicious and Pusa Dwarf began in June, 8 months after transplanting, and lasted for 5 months until Nov. With both cultivars, the fruits that were set in Sep. and harvested in Dec.-Jan. contained the greatest number of seeds/fruit. Pusa Dwarf produced 891 seeds/fruit, whereas Pusa Delicious only produced 330 seeds/fruit. The 2nd fruiting cycle began 16 months after transplanting, and continued for 10 months. In this cycle, fruit set in Aug.-Sep. and harvested in Nov.-Dec. had the greatest number of seeds/fruit. The cultivars produced a similar number of seeds/fruit as in the 1st cycle. It was concluded that controlled cross-pollination was best carried out in Aug.-Sep. to maximize seed production. 0207 Influence of growth regulators on the seed production of cowpea. Desai, SN; Deore, DD. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities (India). (Jan 1985). v. 10(1) p. 89-90. 0208 Influence of honeybee on pollination and seed production in synthesized cabbage (Brassica napus L.) Miah, MK; Alam, MZ; Islam, Z; Hossain, M. Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University. 1993, 16: 107-113; 13 ref. In trials at Salna, Bangladesh, in 1992-93, Brassica napus plants were grown in mosquito net cages (16 plants per cage) and 4 or 8 honeybees (Apis cerana indica) per plant were introduced at flower initiation. Number of filled siliquas/plant and perfect seeds/siliqua and seed yield/plant were higher with caged bee pollination than with open pollination or in plants caged to prevent entry of pollinating insects. 0209 Influence of inter-row spacing and number of pickings on the growth, pod yield and seed production of okra. Hussaini, ANS; Fazlani, A; Memon, RB. Paki-

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stan Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering Veterinary Sciences (Pakistan). (Jun 1999). v. 15(1) p. 12-15. Influence of plant density represented by row spacing (45 cm, 60 cm, 75 cm and 90 cm) and number of picking on the growth and seed production of okra was investigated using a Randomized Complete Block Design. Inter row spacing and pickings intervals significantly (P* 0.01) affected plant height and seed yield per hectare in okra. The results can be instrumental in developing a package of production technology for okra. 0210 Influence of mid-storage seed treatment on the production potential of stored seeds of tomato and brinjal. Geetharani, P; Ponnuswamy, AS; Karivaratharaju, TV. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1996, 83: 11, 734-735; 4 ref. Eight-month-old seeds of tomato cv. CO 3 and aubergine cv. Annamalai were treated with water, sodium chloride, sodium thiosulfate, disodium phosphate, pamino benzoic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid or neem [Azadirachta indica] seed extract. Treated seeds were subjected to accelerated aging. Growth and yield were influenced by seed treatment. Plants from seeds treated with disodium phosphate exhibited the best growth and yield (812 and 2163 g/plant, for tomatoes and aubergines, respectively, compared with control values of 529 and 1192 g/plant, respectively). 0211 Influence of nitrogen on seed production of sorghum hybrids. Sudhakar, KR; Jayakumar, GWL. International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter. 1996, 37: 6365; 4 ref. The parental sorghum lines of CSH 13 R (ms 296A and RS 29) and CSH 14 (AKMS 14A and AKR 150) were grown in a split-plot design in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Parent plants were given basal applications of 80 kg N/ha and 60 kg P2O5/ha and male parents were given additional N. Sowing rate was maintained so that the female to male parent ratio was 6:2 in each plot. The male plants were taken at intervals and analysed for N and dry matter content. Plants with additional N flowered and completed 50% flowering earlier than plants receiving the basal level. Flowering duration increased with additional N. Nitrogen uptake by male plants at flowering was estimated. The response to increased N was greater in the male parent of hybrid CSH 14 than in the male parent of hybrid CSH 13R. It is concluded that manipulating N supply to the male parents at critical stages can be used to synchronize flowering to obtain increased hybrid seed production.

0212 Influence of partial defoliation on dry-matter production and seed yield of urd bean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) [India] Pandey, RK; Singh, VB. Journal of Agricultural Science (UK). 1981. v. 97(2) p. 437-443. 0213 Influence of seed size and phosphorus levels on root production and phosphorus uptake in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Sivasankar, A; Rao, IVS; Reddy, PR. Legume Research (India). (Dec 1981). v. 4(2) p. 7882. 0214 Influence of sowing time on biomass production and seed yield of three green manure crops. Thomas, L; Palaniappan, SP. International Rice Research Notes. 1997, 22: 3, 29-30. In a field trial at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, the green manure crops Crotalaria juncea, Phaseolus trilobus [Vigna aconitifolia] and Stizolobium deeringianum [Mucuna deeringiana] were sown on the 10th of each month from October 1993 to September 1994. S. deeringianum produced the highest biomass and seed yields at all sowing dates. Biomass of C. juncea and S. deeringianum was highest when sown in June due to a shorter growth period and low temperature. All crops flowered earlier when sown in September. Seed yields of each crop were highest when sown in February, associated with more solar radiation. 0215 Influence of transplanting dates of stecklings and nitrogen levels on seed production of radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Sharma, SK; Kanaujia, SP. Seed Research. 1992, publ. 1994, 20: 2, 92-95; 3 ref. Seed production by radish cv. Japanese White was investigated during the 1989-90 and 1990-91 seasons, at the Horticultural Research Station, Kandaghat. A splitplot design was used, with main plots of stecklings transplanted on 4 dates (25 Nov., 5, 15 and 25 Dec.), and subplots given different N fertilizer rates of zero, 50, 150 and 200 kg N/ha. Transplanting the stecklings on 25 Nov., combined with the application of 200 kg N/ha produced the highest values for the days to 50% bolting and flowering, plant height, number of branches/plant, diameter of the main shoot and seed yield, measured in g/plant and q/ha. 0216 Influence of VAM inoculation and phosphorus on dry matter production and seed yield of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes. Chandrashekara, CP; Patil, VC. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 1997, 14: 2, 210-215. In a field trial at Dharwad, Karnataka in summer 1993, sunflowers cv. Morden and MSFH-8 were inoculated with Glomus fasciculatum at three P levels (38, 56

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1, equal to 50, 75 and 100 per cent of the recommended dose of phosphorus, respectively) on a Vertisol. MSFH-8 performed better than Morden. Application of P fertilizer increased the uptake of phosphorus, dry matter production at all the growth stages except at 30 days after sowing (DAS), and seed yield, with the responses generally significant up to 56 kg P2O5/ha. Inoculation with Glomus fasciculatum increased seed yield, oil yield, total dry matter (16%) and stalk yield over uninoculated plants. The total dry matter production in leaves and stem (at 60 DAS) and in stem and head (at harvest) of mycorrhizal plants at 38 kg P2O5 ha-1 were more than the non-mycorrhizal plants receiving 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. The positive effect of mycorrhizal inoculation decreased at P levels higher than 38 kg P2O5 ha-1. 0217 Integration of potato microtuber technology in breeders' seed production. Shekhawat, GS; Khurana, SMP; Pandey, SK (eds) Central Potato Research Station, Modipuram 250 110, India. Potato: present and future: Proceedings of the National Symposium. Modipuram, India, 1-3 March 1993. 1994, 299-304. Microtubers produced by in vitro culture of 1 indexed tuber of each of the potato cultivars Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Badshah and Kufri Sindhuri were graded into 3 categories (grade A 100 mg, B = between 50 and 100 mg and C 50 mg) and stored in a refrigerator for 6 months; they were removed 15 days before planting and kept at room temperature for sprouting. Sprouted microtubers were sent to the Central Potato Research Station at Modipuram in September 1990 for nursery bed planting. Based on data from the total number (1090) of microtubers planted, overall germination was 82.8% with a final plant harvest of 81.2%. From 1090 microtubers of all the three cultivars and grades planted in the nursery bed (1990-91), 11 860 minitubers were produced, giving a 10.8- fold rate of multiplication in the nursery bed, out of which 10 611 minitubers were planted in the field the next year (1991-92); 50 642 tubers were harvested. The rate of multiplication in the field was 4.7-fold. Thus, from 1 indexed tuber of each of 3 commercial cultivars, 50 642 tubers were produced in 3 years. 0218 Introduction of germplasm and seed production. Robertson, G. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan) Potato Research in Pakistan. 1978. The potato varieties grown in most of the developing countries are mainly of European of North American origin. They have been bred and selected under environmental conditions different from those of the importing countries in the tropics and sub-tropics, and for resistance to diseases and pests that either do not occur or are of

little importance in these regions. For example, many tropical countries could benefit from varieties with resistance to Pseudomonas solacearum, and tolerance to heat: resistance to early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, and Fusarium with is required by Middle East and southwest Asian countries; and varieties best suited for Pakistan should be responsive to short- day conditions, or be day-neutral. These factors are not given stress in breeding programmes in Europe or North America because the problems are unimportant or do not exist. 0219 Isolates of Aspergillus flavus from sorghum seeds and aflatoxin production. Bhadraiah, B; Ramarao, P. Current Science (India). (Dec 1982). v. 51(23) p. 1116-1117. 0220 Isolation requirement in chickpea seed production. Chowdhury, RK; Punia, RC; Tomar, RPS. International Chickpea Newsletter. 1991, No. 25, 8 Studies were conducted on effective distances for separating chickpea plants from contaminating pollen sources, currently regulated at 10 m and 5 m for foundation and certified seed crops, respectively. C235, with pink flowers (dominant trait), was sown in a 5 X 5 m plot, surrounded by the seed parent, Gora Hisari, with white flowers (recessive trait), at 5 m intervals up to 20 m from the marker. Progeny of the seed parent harvested from plots over 3 consecutive years in all directions exhibited no pink flower or other sign of out crossing even at 5 m distance, indicating that 5 m isolation is adequate to ensure genetic purity in foundation and certified seed plots. 0221 Jute Seed Research and Production, Bangladesh. Final report, Feb 1978 to Nov 1981. Auckland, AK. Asian Development Bank, Manila (Philippines). 1978. 44p. 0222 Jute Seed Research and Production Project, Bangladesh. Final Report, February 1979 to April 1982. Johansen, C. FAO, Rome (Italy); Bangladesh Jute Research Inst., Dacca (Bangladesh) 1982, 50p. 0223 Jute seed testing: a step towards increased production [in Bangladesh]. Talukder, FAH; Rahman, MA. Compilation of Popular Articles on Jute (Bangladesh). 1989. v. 3 p. 16-19. 0224 Kaghan Valley Potato Seed Production Project: Mid term appraisal Phase II. Bruning, K. GTZ-German Agency for Technical Cooperation. 1987. 156p. The present is a report for German-Pakistan Kaghan Valley Potato Seed production Project. The four

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activities attached to this project include the production of, pre-basic and basic seed in upper valley, certified seed as a spring cropping Punjab plains and were potatoes during the autumn crop in Punjab plains. This mid term appraisal explains the seed processing techniques, storage and recommendations for future basic seed production and processing and introduction of crop rotation for potato health and control of viruses and mycoses. It outlines a strategy for the future organization of maintenance breeding, rapid multiplication and pre-basic seed production with participation of all project staff. It also considers the financial profitability of potato seed multiplication including demand pricing, marketing and cost structure of potato production. In the end it discusses the management, organization future development of the project and training and extension activities provided to farmers and Pakistani specialists. 0225 Kernel smut-a major constraint in hybrid seed production of rice and its remedial measures. Sharma, RC; Gill, SS; Joshi, DP; Allah, Rang; Geeta, Bassi; Bharaj, TS. Seed Research. 1999, 27: 1, 82-90. The cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines of rice developed and identified at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana were found to be highly susceptible to kernel smut (Tilletia barclayana) which has become a major limiting factor in hybrid seed production. Disease management studies conducted during 1990-96 revealed that the incidence of kernel smut was reduced to a great extent by judicious use (120 kg N/ha) of nitrogenous fertilizers. Application of 240 kg N almost doubled the disease incidence. Flag leaf clipping of CMS lines also brought down the disease incidence marginally. Polythene mulching of nursery beds in June killed the teliospores of the pathogen within 20-30 days. This practice can be followed after uprooting the nursery to eliminate the inoculum coming to the nursery beds through seed. Seed treatment with various fungicides representing different groups including organomercurials, dithiocarbamates, copper, carboxin, carbendazim and triazole compounds was of no value because they showed only fungistatic action against teliospores. The spores resumed their germination after few days of seed treatment. However, two sprays of Tilt (Propiconazole) or Folicur (Tebuconazole) each at 5% panicle emergence stage and 50% flowering gave good control of the disease. Shifting of the hybrid seed production programme to a safer location with integration of other disease management strategies helped in bringing down the level of the disease to the desired levels. None of the genotypes examined was free from disease. Most of the CMS lines had a high incidence of kernel smut as compared to restorer lines and commercial varieties. The duration of floret opening in

CMS lines ranged from 92 to 171 minutes as compared to 31.5 to 49.5 minutes in restorer lines. 0226 Light interception, yield attributes and seed corm production of elephant foot yam as influenced by varying plant densities and sett sizes. Das, PK; Sen, H; Banerjee, NC; Panda, PK. Journal of Root Crops. 1995, 21: 2, 90-96; 6 ref. In field trials in 1990-91 at Mondouri, West Bengal, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius cv. Kovvur seed corm setts weighing 50-250 g were planted at densities of 100 000, 120 000 or 140 000 plants/ha. Percentage light interception, corm DM accumulation, corm bulking rate (60-150 days after planting) and total corm yield increased with increase in plant density and sett size. Corm bulking efficiency (CBE), average corm diameter and corm weight decreased with increase in plant density, whereas CBE decreased and corm diameter and weight increased with increase in sett size. Although the highest plant density and largest sett size performed best, a sett size of 150 g planted at the highest density was recommended as it produced the optimum size of whole seed corm (about 500 g). 0227 A low morphine-containing accession of Papaver somniferum suitable for seed production. Bajpai, S; Gupta, MM; Kumar, S. Plant Breeding. 1996, 115: 5, 425-426; 11 ref. A total of 140 Indian accessions of Papaver somniferum were grown at Lucknow. They were screened for major alkaloids present in the capsules and peduncles using a TLC-densitometry procedure. An accession (CIMAP-OP-1) was identified which has a morphine concentration in its capsules as low as 0.05%. The accession has good agronomic traits. 0228 Lucerne production in Vidarbha as influenced by planting methods, levels of nitrogen and seed rate. Mahajan, MD; Ramekar, BW; Thakare, KK; Urade, PN. Journal of Soils and Crops. 1991, 1: 2, 124-128; 9 ref. In field trials in 1982-85 on medium black soils at Akola and Amravati, Maharashtra, average DM yield of a perennial Medicago sativa cultivar was 8.15, 8.19 and 11.14 t/ha when sown in flat beds, ridges and furrows, or raised beds, respectively, and 9.09, 9.19 and 9.94 t/ha when sown at 25, 37.5 or 50 kg seed/ha, respectively. DM yield increased with up to 30 kg N/ha. Sowing method, sowing rates and N application had no significant effects on digestible CP or TDN. 0229 Maize hybrids and composite varieties: seed production practices. Verma, SS; Mishra, SN; Singh,

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

SD. Indian Farming (India). (Jul 1995). v. 45(4) p. 15,17,24. 0230 Maize research, development, and seed production in India: Contributions of the public and private sectors. Singh, RP; Pal, S; Morris, ML. Centro International de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT), Mexico, DF (Mexico) 1995. 56 p. This paper assesses the relative strengths and weaknesses of India's public and private maize seed industries and examines future options for maize seed industry policies. By 1992, nearly as many maize researchers worked for private seed companies as for public breeding programs a significant departure from earlier years, when public organizations conducted virtually all maize research in India. Private companies have concentrated almost exclusively on developing hybrids, which perform best in the favorable environments where most commercial maize production takes place, whereas public breeding programs have produced a somewhat wider range of materials, including a number of open- pollinating varieties (OPVs) developed specifically for environments where maize production potential is low. Seed production in the public sector and especially in the private sector appears to be reasonably efficient, judging by the level of reported seed production costs. However, seed certification procedures are sometimes ineffective, and a significant proportion of the maize seed produced in India escapes rigorous quality controls. Growth in sales of proprietary hybrids produced by private companies has been much more rapid than growth in sales of public OPVs and hybrids, indicating that private companies deliver seed to farmers more effectively than public agencies. Government involvement in seed production and distribution seems destined to decrease, with responsibility for those functions gradually shifting to the private sector. Even so, private companies will require continuing support from the public sector. There will always be a need for the public sector to participate in the maize seed industry, particularly in supporting basic germplasm improvement research and research targeted at marginal production environments. 0231 Male-sterile single crosses for hybrid seed production in grain sorghum. Bhale, NL; Borikar, ST. Seed Science and Technology (Netherlands). (1982). v. 10(3) p. 373-378. 0232 Management of seed production activity. Singh, G; Asokan, SR. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, India. 1997, 127p. This book is the outcome of a study undertaken by the Centre for Management in Agriculture at the Indian

Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, to understand the processes and practices followed by seed enterprises. Seed production activity in India is carried out in public and private sectors and involves: assessment of demand for seed; planning research and multiplication of quality seed; arranging for parent seed/foundation; seed; selection of crops/varieties, areas and growers for multiplication; fixing compensation; recovery of seed; arranging logistics including processing and storage; and financing. This study examines these operations and practices as followed by the selected seed enterprises; their performance is evaluated. It takes macro and micro views of policies and legislative environment for seed industry that influence the performance of seed enterprises. While highlighting important issues related to seed production, suggestions have been made to make the activity more efficient and dynamic such that adequate quantity of quality seed is not only produced, but also utilised to realize its potential activity. 0233 Management study on seed potato production using two alternative planting materials under greenhouse condition. Khatri, BB; Ganga, ZN. Nepal Agriculture Research Journal (Nepal). (1997). v. 1(1) p. 36-42. This study was conducted in response to the costly and often unavailable seed tubers for growing potatoes. Microtubers and minitubers were used as alternative planting materials of varieties 'Granola' and 'Montanosa.' Results showed that the tuberlet size significantly affected plant height and canopy cover. Larger the tubers planted, the higher the percentage emergence and more number of main stems per plant counted. The number and weight of tuberlets produced were also highly dependent on the size of the micro and minitubers planted. The bigger the tubers planted, the larger were the tuberlets produced. Higher number of tuberlets was obtained from closer spacings. Planting small tubers generally resulted in higher multiplication ration of smaller tuberlets, but required careful management. Findings indicate that the minitubers rather than microtubers should be provided to the farmers as the basic planting material at least where the farmers need clean seed stock and cannot afford proper management of delicate materials. Tuberlet production under greenhouse condition is particularly more suitable and important as the planting materials than the microtubers and stem cuttings which are provided directly to the farmers. Minitubers produced may thus reduce the risk of poor crop establishment and favors better crop stand in the farmers' field. 0234 Mass clonal propagation of potato variety cardinal for basic seed production programme. Ata-urRehman; Sajid, GM; John, I; Qureshi, A. Pakistan Agri-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

cultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan) Potato in Pakistan: the present situation of research production and marketing programme. 1985. p. 123-126. 0235 Meteorological parameters influencing seed production in male sterile line 863A of pearl millet. Ashwani Kumar; Chowdhury, RK; Onkar Singh; Faroda, AS; Kathju, S (eds.). CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 125 004, India. Recent Advances in Management of Arid Ecosystem: Proceedings of a Symposium. March 1997. 1999, 219-222. The seasonal variation in pollen viability and stigma receptivity of male sterile line 863A and maintainer line 863B was studied under 5 different sowing dates (March-July). Maintainer line 863B showed a sharp decline in diurnal pollen viability after 9.00 and 11.00 h, and by the evening (18.00 h) it was reduced to about 50%. Stigma receptivity of the seed parent line 863A increased significantly from March- to July-sown crops. Meteorological parameters influenced pollen viability and stigma receptivity. High average temperature, long sunshine hours and low average relative humidity had an adverse effect on pollen viability and stigma receptivity. 0236 Method of application of gametocides in hybrid seed production in rice. Aswathanarayana, SL; Mahadevappa, M. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1991, 16: 2, 198-200; 9 ref. In a rice field trial grown during kharif 1986, sets of 30 tillers were treated with aqueous solutions of potential gametocides (800 p.p.m. GA3, 8000 p.p.m. Ethrel [ethephon], 0.8% 2,4-D and 0.2% maleic hydrazide) either by (1) local application to the growing tip or (2) spraying with 2 ml/tiller. Both treatments were given once 80 days after sowing (DAS), twice (80 and 85 DAS) or three times (80, 85 and 90 DAS). From observations on percentage pollen sterility, plant height, panicle length and size of flag leaf, it was found that three applications of GA3, Ethrel and maleic hydrazide, using either treatment, gave the highest percentage pollen sterility. Plants treated with GA3 developed increased panicle length. 0237 Methods of potato production through true seeds in Bangladesh. Chaudhury, EH; Quasem, A (et. al.) Tuber Crops Research Centre, BARI, Joydebpur (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the First National Workshop on Tuber Crops. 28-30 May, 1989. 1991, p. 58-64. Potato production through true potato seed (TPS) was evaluated in field trials from 1984-85 to 1988-89 at Joydebpur, Bogra and Munshiganj, Bangladesh. Three methods of production from TPS were investigated in 4 hybrids obtained from CIP, 3 open pollinated hybrids produced locally, and tubers from the varieties Patrones

and Lal Pakri: direct sowing in beds; transplanting in the field; and planting tubers produced from TPS. Highest yields were produced by TSP progenies of hybrids Atzimba X R128.6 and Atzimba X DTO-28 (31.1 and 10.6 t/ha, respectively, raised at Munshiganj). 0238 Modern seed-fertiliser technology and adoption of labour saving technologies in rice production: the Tamil Nadu case. Ramasamy, C; Paramasivam, P; Otsuka, K. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. 1992, 47: 1, 35-47; ref., 6 tab., ISAE. The paper examines factors affecting adoption rates of modern varieties (MVs) and explores their effects on fertilizer use and rice cropping intensity as well as on adoption of labour saving technologies across different rice production environments. The study covers a cross-section of 50 villages representing five different rice production environments in Tamil Nadu. The study districts are Ramanathapuram, Chengalpattu, North Arcot, Thanjavur and Coimbatore. Technology adoption was examined by (1) looking at the trends in adoption of yield increasing and labour saving technologies for the period 1970-87 and (2) estimating technology adoption functions for different technologies. The two- limit probit regression method developed by Rosett and Nelson (1975) was used to explain the rates of technology adoption. Cross- sectional differences in adoption of MVs are explained mainly by environmental rather than socioeconomic factors. Irrigation was an important determinant of MV and fertilizer adoption. It was also clear that relative factor prices are important determinants of adoption of labour saving technologies. MVs did not directly induce adoption of tractors, threshers and direct seeding. 0239 A modified hybrid seed production technique for Asiatic cottons. Mehta, NP; Badaya, SN; Patel, GS. Cotton Development (India). (Apr 1983). v. 13(1) p. 2122. 0240 Morphological characters, seed setting and dry matter production of A and B lines [of rice in India]. Rangaswamy, M; Rangasamy, SRS; Natarajamoorthy, K; Sivasubramanian, v. International Rice Research Newsletter (Philippines). (Jun 1987). v. 12(3) p. 22-23. Morphological characters, seed set percentage, root to straw ration, and dry matter production were estimated in 11 cytosterile lines of rice (A) and their maintainers (B). Five are from China, four from IRRI [International Rice Research Inst., Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines], and two from TNAU [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., India]. The cytosteriles were high in total dry matter production, predominantly distributed in root and straw. In general, root straw was higher in A lines than B

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

lines. Plants of B lines were taller, but panicle length was greater in A lines. The increased weight of vegetative parts in A lines may be due to the mobilization of nutrients to tillers and the prolonged vegetative phase. These, however, were not utilized by the reproductive parts because of poor sink size reflected by spikelet sterility. The reduction in height of A lines may be due to lack of panicle exsertion from the boot leaf. Poor panicle exsertion in the male sterile lines may be associated with a nonrestorer gene or it may be due to interaction between nonrestorer gene and sterile cytoplasm. 0241 Mycoflora changes and aflatoxin production in stored blackgram seeds. Ahmad, SK. Journal of Stored Products Research. 1993, 29: 1, 33-36; 12 ref. The mycoflora of V. mungo and aflatoxin production was investigated during seed storage. At harvest, seeds carried a combination of field and storage fungi with Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Curvularia the predominant species. These moulds gradually disappeared in storage, although Alternaria and Fusarium survived for a comparatively long period. Seeds infected by Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum were observed during harvesting. The population density of these fungi increased during storage along with those of A. terreus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Chaetomium spp. Almost 70% of the A. flavus isolates were toxigenic. Aflatoxin contamination in storage was dependent upon the storage system. The production of aflatoxins was lower in closed metal bins which restricted air exchange and reduced oxygen levels. The highest levels of aflatoxins were detected in samples stored in gunny bags during the wet season. 0242 National seed production activities. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Seeds Div.; USAID, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Diversified Agricultural Research Project. Proceedings of the Sri Lanka Seed Workshop. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka), 26 Jan-6 Feb 1987. p. 172-174. 0243 Nematodes in potato seed production of NWFP. Shuja, MA. Potato Research Centre, Abbottabad (Pakistan) Advances in plant nematology: Proceedings of the US-Pakistan International Workshop on Plant Nematology. Karachi (Pakistan), 6-8 Apr 1986. 1988. p. 203-204. 0244 New approaches to potato seed production. Quraishi, A; John, I; Ata-ur-Rehman. Progressive Farming (Pakistan). v. 7(3) p. 19-23.

0245 New approaches to reduce the cost of hybrid cottonseed production: crossing and boll load management. Bhale, NL; Deshmukh, RK; Rao, MR. Coton et Fibres Tropicales (France). (1989). v. 44(3) p. 249-255. 0246 A new technology for jute seed production by relay intercropping with t. Aman rice [Bangladesh] Choudhury, R; Sobban, MA. Bangladesh Association of Advancement of Science, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the 14th Annual Bangladesh Science Conference. 1989. p. 60. The feasibility of intercropping of jute seed crop in transplanted aman rice field has been studied. At Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Bangladesh fortyfive days old jute seedlings of both Corchorus capsularis (CVE-3) and C. olitorius (0.9897) having the height of 30-40 cm have been transplanted on 19.9.88 without any cultivation between the rows of rice plants (BR-4) having the height of 65-75 cm. The seedling survival has been recorded to be 96 and 92 percent respectively in case of C. capsularis and C. olitorius. The jute seedlings, just depending on residual moisture and nutrition have attained a fast growth and come up at or above rice canopy by three weeks. The jute plants have started flowering from fourth week. Upto first week of November 88, apparently the jute plants were in satisfactory bearing conditions without any adverse influence on rice crop. 0247 Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition in seed production of round melon (Praecitrullus vulgaris watt) Singh, KP; Pandita, ML; Singh, GR. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research (India). (Sep 1983). v. 13(3) p. 413-415. 0248 Nitrogen economy, dry matter production and seed production potential of Setaria sphacelata by intercropping of pasture legumes. Dwivedi, GK; Kumar, D. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 1999, 182: 2, 121-125. Field experiments were conducted in 1993-95 at Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, to evaluate the performance of five pasture legumes (Sesbania sesban, Desmanthus virgatus, Stylosanthes scabra, Clitoria ternatea, and Desmodium tortuosum) as intercrops with Setaria sphacelata. Intercropping increased DM production of S. sphacelata, particularly in the establishment year. Clitoria ternatea and Stylosanthes scabra enriched the nitrogen (39.8 to 46.9 kg N/ha) status of soil and gave mean grass yields over the 3 years of 11.56 and 11.94 t/ha, respectively, compared with 11.75 t/ha with 40 kg N/ha and 8.66 t in grass grown without intercrops or added N. Total pasture yield of grass + legume averaged about 15-15.5 t/ha, except for intercrops with Desmodium tortuosum which grew

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

poorly and gave less benefit. Compared with controls, intercropping or N application increased seed yield of S. sphacelata, with C. ternatea being the most beneficial legume. Increased seed yield was attributed to fertile tiller production, spike length and increased potential sink strength. Seed yield in all treatments was higher in 1993 than in subsequent years. 0249 Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium requirements for targetted seed production of vegetable pea in a Mollisol of U.P. Gangwar, MS; Singh, HN; Singh, S; Singh, K; Gupta, RA. Annals of Agricultural Research (India). 1998, 19: 4, 386-389. In a field study at Pantnagar in rabi [winter] 1994/95, the requirement of N, P and K for the production of 0.1 t of vegetable pea seed was 8.25, 1.03 and 5.65 kg, respectively. The percentage utilization of soil available N (% organic carbon), P2O5 (Olsen-P) and K2O (ammonium acetate-K) was 36.59, 13.83 and 11.81, respectively. The contribution from fertilizer as a percentage of its nutrient content was 188.82, 20.79 and 46.57 for N, P and K, respectively. 0250 A note on the effect of magnetic seed treatment on curd production of cauliflower. Gurusamy, C. Orissa Journal of Horticulture. 1998, 26: 1, 112-113. Graded seeds of cauliflower cv. Kibo Giant were soaked in distilled water for 16 h, exposed to south or north magnetic poles for 8 or 16 h or sprayed with water magnetized to north or south poles. The seeds were then sown in the field and curd characteristics assessed. Curd diameter, length and yield were highest from seeds exposed to a south magnetic pole for 8 h. 0251 A note on the effect of various chemicals on bolting and seed yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) under seed to seed method of seed production. Nehra, BK; Pandita, ML; Kirti Singh. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 1992, 21: 1-2, 103-105; 8 ref. 0252 NWFP production and research programme of Tarnab and Mingora [with special reference to seed production] Haq, A. Pak-Swiss Potato Development Project, PARC. Potato in Pakistan: The Present Situation of Research Production and Marketing Programme. 1985. p. 206-212. A pilot project financed under the Pakistan Seed Industry Project through World Bank Assistance for Standardization of seed production technology and its multiplication in Tarnab and Swat was implemented in February 1978. In this paper program of the seed production project from 1978 to 1984 is summarized. Possibilities of producing quality seed at Marghuzar and

Baghdhesi (mid hill, 400 Ft elevation) were investigated to feed autumn crop. Studies on the seed storage over winter at Kalam was studies and found feasible. Seed of seven sources, produced locally for further multiplication. Preliminary studies on true potato seed are also reported. 0253 Off - season performance of okra for edible pod and seed production. Islam, MS; Rahman, MM; Chowdhury, AK. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science. 2000, 33: 3-4, 107-113; 10 ref. To evaluate the performance of okra as edible fruit and seed during off-season in Bangladesh, seeds of three okra cultivars (IPSA Okra, BARI Dherosh 1 and Parboni Kanti) were sown on (15 July, August, 15 September and 15 October) in a field experiment conducted in Bangladesh from July 1996 to January 1997. The edible fruit and seed yield decreased significantly with delay in sowing from 15 July to 15 October sowing. The performance of IPSA Okra and BARI Dherosh 1 in terms of edible fruit production was similar, with the highest yield recorded during the July planting with slight reduction in August and September and major yield decline in the October sowing. Parboni Kanti performed similarly, but only producing approximately half the yield of the other two cultivars. With respect to seed yield, IPSA Okra and BARI Dherosh 1 were similar but significantly better than Parboni Kanti. Parboni Kanti produced about 2/3 of the seeds of the other two cultivars. 0254 Off-season seed production of Tossa jute as affected by time of sowing and topping. Salim, M; Sarkar, MAR; Hannan, MA. Bangladesh Journal of Training and Development. 1998. 11 (1-2) p. 65-72. Effect of time of sowing and topping on off-season jute seed production was studied at Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Two varieties of olitorius jute, a photo insensitive variety, O-9897 (Falgooni Tossa) and a photosensitive variety, O-4 were sown on 2 October, 19 October and 2 November 1994.Highest seed yield was obtained when the crop was sown on 2 October. Seed yield was found to decrease gradually when sowing was further delayed. Both the photo insensitive and photosensitive varieties performed in the similar way. Adverse effect of delayed sowing on the yield components such as plant height, number of branches/plant and number of seeds/pod concurrently resulted in the reduction of seed yield. Topping enhanced branching but the result suggests that under late sown condition topping operation was not necessary to augment seed production in jute.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0255 On farm seed production and storage at Kanmetherzai, Balochistan [Pakistan] Khan, FU. PakSwiss Potato Development Project, Quetta (Pakistan). Proceeding of national seminar on research and development of potato production Pakistan. NARC, Islamabad, 23-25 April 1995. p. 21-25. During the growth season several joint inspections were made with the farmers and recognition of diseased plants were made as part of training of farmers in this particular field. The information gathered through this experimentation it is concluded that on-farm seed production is technically feasible in the area and both the storage methods used are equally good. The market prices at the time of harvest and the need for cash at the end of the season is a socio economic factor which is limiting the adaption of technique by the farmers. 0256 Onion [Allium ascalonicum] seed production in Sri Lanka. Yazawa, S. Tropical Agriculture Research Series (Japan). (Mar 1990). (no.23) p. 97-101. In order to produce onion seed in Sri Lanka, two trials were conducted by using cv. "Poona Red". In the first trial, the temperature required for flower bud differentiation and the duration of the period of low temperature treatment were determined. In the second trial, the actual seed production of onion based on the first trial was analyzed. Exposure of mother bulbs to the highland conditions for one month (temperature min.: 12.5C, max.: 18.88C) was effective for flower bud differentiation. The use of a house with a plastic film roof was also effective in protecting the plants from diseases and the flowers from rain though devernalization was observed to some extent. 0257 Onion production, storage and seed production in Nepal. Regmi, SK. Onion Newsletter for the Tropics. 1994, No. 6, 27-30. 0258 Organizing farmers for sustainable potato seed production. Khan, M. Swabi Irrigation Agriculture Project, Mardan (Pakistan) Proceeding of national seminar on research and development of potato production in Pakistan. NARC, Islamabad, 23-25 April 1995. p. 93-96. Potato seed is an expensive input in potato production. Farmers are thus interested to start seed production programmes on their own fields. Even though the project started the programme with a small quantity of improved seed, it still was able to train and motivate quite a large number of farmers. They have realized the benefits and the programme is now expanding by itself. 0259 Organizing farmers for sustainable seed production. Muhammad, Khan; Hussain, A. NARC, Islama-

bad, Pakistan. Research and development of potato production in Pakistan: Proceedings of the National Seminar. 23-25 April 1995. p. 93-96. The paper briefly describes SIAP's (Swabi Irrigation Agriculture Project) efforts to assist potato seed production in NWFP, Pakistan. Before the start of the project farmers were faced with the problem of expensive seed potatoes which were of poor quality. SIAP worked as a facilitator with farmers to store potatoes in a cold store to be used as seed for the following season. Through training, field days and visits, farmers improved their potato seed production skills. Other benefits of the project were: greater awareness of farmers regarding the importance of good quality seed; economic and yield benefits; and development of farmers' skills in organizing collective activities. 0260 Overview of potato and seed potato production in Nepal. Wells, GJ; Schulz, S. C/o SDC, PO Box 113, Kathmandu, Nepal. Potato seed systems in Bhutan, Nepal, and Pakistan: Workshop. Islamabad, Pakistan, 2-4 October 1994. 51-62. Potato and seed tuber production in Nepal is described with particular reference to national structures, both public and private, supporting the industry. 0261 An overview of the method and requirements of certified seed production. Abeysekera, DEDJ. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Seeds Div.; USAID, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) Diversified Agricultural Research Project. Proceedings of the Sri Lanka Seed Workshop. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka), 26 Jan - 6 Feb 1987. p. 182-187. 0262 Pakistan - policies on seed production/ potato seed production. Mohammad, Hanif; Ahmad, SI. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Islamabad, Pakistan. Potato seed systems Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan. Workshop held in Islamabad, Pakistan, 2-4 Oct, 1994. 30-34. National requirement for potato seed tubers in Pakistan is about 200,000t. In 1992-93 and 1993-94 only 1322 and 1206t of quality seed tubers were available, respectively. National structures that support seed production, certification and registration are described. Incentives to promote seed production are noted. 0263 Papaya seed production under controlled pollination and isolation. Mansha Ram. Seed Research. 1996, 23: 2, 98-101; 9 ref. In experiments in Bihar, seed yields of pawpaw cv. Pusa Dwarf were higher from isolation plots at

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

Bhairwar (579.18 kg/ha) than under controlled pollination conditions at Pusa (361.78 kg/ha). The cost of seed production per unit weight from isolation plots (Rs 82.65/kg) was lower than under controlled pollination (Rs 190/kg). It is suggested that foundation seed production on a commercial scale may be conducted on isolation fields to meet the increasing demands for pawpaw seed in India. However, breeders' seed should be produced under strictly controlled pollination to maintain the genetic purity. 0264 Pasture and fodder crop seed production in Nepal: fourth report to the Administrator NepalAustralia Livestock Project. Sykes, CJB. Western Australian Dept. of Agriculture, Perth. Seed Products Section. Perth, W.A. (Australia), November-December 1983. 24 p. 0265 Pastures and fodder crop seed production in Nepal: report to the Administration Nepal-Australia Livestock Project. Sykes, CJB. Western Australian Dept. of Agriculture, Perth. Seed Products Section. Perth, W.A. (Australia). May-July 1983. 29p. 0266 Pearl millet: seed production & technology. Khairwal, IS; Chandgi, Ram; Chhabra, AK. Department of Plant Breeding, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India. 1990, 208p. 12p. This book has 14 chapters in 3 broad topic areas, botany, breeding, and seed science. The chapters on botany cover taxonomy, growth, development and morphology, and the chapters on breeding discuss germplasm collection and evaluation, and the development of hybrids and cultivars. There are 10 chapters on seed science, covering the seed industry and the development of pearl millet seed programmes, pearl millet seedproduction classes (nucleus seed, breeder seed, foundation seed and certified seed), management of seed production, seed certification and quality control, seed testing, seed processing and storage, seed marketing, the seed industry in both the public and private sector, various problems of seed production and future prospects, and pearl millet as food, fodder, feed and fuel. Appendices provide addresses of seed certification agencies, the State Seed Corporations, and seed testing laboratories in India. 0267 Performance of jute seed production through late seeding method intercropped with winter vegetable [Bangladesh]. Asaduzzaman, SM; Hussain, MA. Bangladesh Journal of Extension Education (Bangladesh). (Jan- Dec 1990). v. 5(1-2) p. 69-74.

An experiment on late jute seed production along with the winter vegetables was conducted at Farming Systems Research (FSR) site, Bagherpara, Jessore during the late kharif and early rabi season of 1989-90. The main objective of the trial was to evaluate the performance of late jute seed production both as sole and under intercropping situation with the winter vegetables. There were seven treatments including three intercroppings, (i) Jute-Lalsak. (ii) Jute-Spinach and (iii) Jute- Radish with four sole croppings. viz. Jute, Lalsak, Spinach and Radish. It was observed that the maximum jute seed was produced (1273 kg/ha) from jute-radish intercropping where radish yielded 12.33 t/ha. In the jute-spinach intercropping jute seed yielded 1232 kg/ha and spinach gave 5.67 t/ha. The intercropping of jute- lalsak gave 1170 kg/ha of jute seed with 6.0 t/ha of lalsak. There was no significant yield difference among the sole jute and intercropped jute on seed yield of jute. The gross cost and gross margin were found maximum with jute- radish intercropping which was followed by jute-lalsak. The treatment jute-lalsak intercropping gave maximum (11.81) benefit cost ratio (BCR) and it was followed by jute-radish (9.38). 0268 Performance of old and fresh seeds of Corchorus capsularis L. for fibre production [Bangladesh] Hasim, SA; Talukder, FAH; Ali, MM. Jute and Jute Fabrics, Bangladesh (Bangladesh). (Jun 1982). v. 8(6) p. 15-19. An experiment was conducted for three years under field and pot conditions. All the three types of seed was collected from the godown of Jute Seed Division, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute stored under sealed polyethylene packets. Two year old, one year old and fresh seeds of known germination percentage were grown in pots and in field following a randomized block design. Studies in respect of seedling emergence, plant height, base diameter, plant population and fibre weight were recorded. The data obtained in different years showed that there was no marked difference in the plant height, base diameter and fibre yield due to differences in the age of seed. It was also observed that irrespective of germination percentage the field emergence percentage was the important factor in determining the plant stand and consequently fibre yield. 0269 Performance of onion varieties with reference to seed production. Patil, AH; Dod, VN; Kale, PB; Kulwal, LV. PKV Research Journal. 1990, 14: 2, 123126; 8 ref. In a comparison of 9 onion varieties grown at Akola, India, in rabi 1982- 83, Pusa Red produced significantly higher seed yields (1486 kg/ha) than the other

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

varieties studied (909-1360 kg/ha). Seed germination of the primary and secondary umbels was 76 and 71%, respectively, compared with ranges of 60.5-94% and 5582% for the other varieties. It is concluded that Pusa Red, Local White and Line-102 are suitable for seed production under the hot and dry climate of Akola. 0270 Performance of TPS families for potato production as transplanted crop. Verma, RB; Singh, RD. Journal of the Indian Potato Association. Mar-Jun 1995. v. 22(1,2) p. 66-69. 0271 Phenology and seed production of China cabbage (Brassica pekinesis variety Mitchihilili) in the mountain valleys of northern areas of Pakistan. Khan, R; Hassan, I. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan). (Dec 1997). v. 13(6) p. 575-579. An experiment was conducted in KARINA, Juglote during 1991 to 1993 for 3 consecutive years to evaluate the phenology of china cabbage (var. mitchihilili) and seed production system. The crop was planted on 4 different dates i.e. on 7/9, 17/9, 27/9 and on 7/10. Each planting was given 3 treatments i.e. C1 (first harvesting for foliage on 30th January and 2nd harvesting on 10th June for seed production). C2 (first harvesting on 8th February for foliage and 2nd harvesting on 10th June for seeds) and C3 (only one harvesting on 10th June for seed production). The investigation revealed that 1st and 2nd plantings took 3 days for germination and the 3rd and 4th plantings took longer period i.e. 6 and 9 days respectively. The early harvest crop (C1) gave less fresh yield in the 4 planting dates i.e. 40.00 t/ha, 27.00 t/ha, 9.30 t/ha, 1.86 t/ha where as the late harvested crop (C2) gave higher fresh yield in the 4 planting dates i.e. 47.7 t/ha, 39.3 t/ha, 15.5 t/ha and 3.7 t/ha respectively. The uncut crop (C3) gave the highest grain yield of 3.23 t/ha, 2.5 t/ha, 2.57 t/ha and 1.85 t/ha in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th planting respectively. Early cut crop (C1) gave higher yields compared to late harvested crop (C2). The early cut crop in each planting gave 1.87 t/ha, 2.03 t/ha, 2.13 t/ha and 1.23 t/ha respectively whereas the late harvested crop (C2) produced 1.57 t/ha, 1.42 t/ha, 2.23 t/ha, 1.17 t/ha in each planting respectively. The crop having longer growing period produces more grain yield compared to the crop with short growing period. 0272 Phenotypic stability of seed production of different pansy varieties [Viola tricolor Linn.] Jana, BK; Mukherjee, A. Indian Agriculturist (India). (Dec 1983). v. 27(4) p. 337-341. 0273 Picking for cotton seed production. Tyagi, CS; Ram, C. Indian Farming (India). (Aug 1984). v. 34(5) p. 23-25.

0274 Pilot research for seed production in Baluchistan. Shafique, M. Agricultural Research Institute, Sariab. Potato Germaplasm Screening for Leaf Blight, Viruses, Soil Borne disease and Seed Production: Final Technical Report from April 1981 to June 1986. 1986. p. 15-16. In Pakistan there are certain locations, which are very suitable for the production of seed potato. One such location is Kan-Mehtarzai with an altitude of 7,500 ft. Here the seed of all the materials made available were increased and supplied to various units for evaluating the quality.4 prominent varieties/clones produced at KanMehtarzai are B 8685-4. In 1984- 85 these varieties/clones were tested for viral infection and the result revealed that percentage infection is minimum in B 86854 (3.0%) and maximum in Atlantic (20.0%). 0275 Planning and implementation of seed production in Pakistan. Chaudhry, A Rehman. FAO/SIDA, Lahore (Pakistan) Technology for increasing food production: Proceedings of the second FAO/SIDA Seminar on Field Food Crops in Africa and the Far East. 18 Sep5 Oct 1977. 1978. p. 348-350. 0276 Planning and monitoring vegetable seed production programme [Nepal] Pokhrel, MN. Ministry of Agriculture, Lalitpur (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. Proceedings of the first workshop seminar on vegetable seed production. Kathmandu (Nepal). 23-26 Feb 1982. p. 3-9. 0277 Plant growth, fruit and seed production of tomatoes as influenced by sowing season and planting pattern. Shahidul Islam, MD; Khan, Sharmin; Farooque, AM. Thai Journal of Agriculture Science (Thailand). (Oct 1996). v. 29(4) p. 531-543. Establishment of a suitable planting pattern and sowing seasons for tomatoes was studied and discussed. The experiment was conducted during four different sowing seasons using three different planting patterns; 1) one plant per hill, 2) two plants per hill and 3) three plants per hill. The results of the experiment suggested that early winter sowing had a commendable performance for most of the characteristics examined compared with the other sowing seasons. The single plant per hill treatment exhibited comparatively better results than two or three plants, but the total yield of tomato fruits and seeds was the highest in three plants per hill. This data also suggested that fruit yield and seed yield significantly correlated with days to first flowering, the number of fruits per plant, the number of seeds per fruit, 1000 seed weight and the germination percentage of the seeds. The seed germination percentage had a significant correlation with

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

days to first flowering, the number of seeds per fruit and 1000 seed weight. Correlation between different characteristics should be used for better planning of selection of desirable parameters. Moreover, fruit and seed weight had the most intimate relationship with the higher fruit and seed yields. 0278 Plant-parasitic nematodes and potato seed production in the northern areas of Pakistan. Qasim, M; Ahmed, SI. International nematology network newsletter (USA). (Dec 1989). v. 6(4) p. 43-44. 0279 Plant parasitic nematodes associated with crops grown for seed production. Singh, RV; Midha, SK; Kumar, V; Dhawan, SC (ed). Division of Nematology, I.A.R.I., New Delhi-110012, India. Proceedings of national symposium on rational approaches in nematode management for sustainable agriculture. Anand, Gujarat (India), 23-25 November, 1998. 1999, 133-135. A random nematode survey at the IARI Regional Station, Karnal seed production farm, Haryana, India, revealed that the predominant nematode species associated with vegetable seed production were Meloidogyne incognita, Tylenchorhynchus brassicae, T. vulgaris and Helicotylenchus dihystera. Associated with pulse seeds production fields were M. incognita, Pratylenchus thornei and H. pseudorobustus. 0280 Pollination requirement in sunflower hybrid seed production: I. Studies on honeybee foraging behaviour on parental lines. Sinha, SN; Atwal, SS. Seed Research. 1996, publ. 1997, 24: 2, 105-109; 4 ref. Honeybee (Apis spp.) foraging behaviour on parental lines of 4 sunflower (Helianthus annuus) hybrids was studied during 1990-91 at Karnal. Honeybee species and their pollen/nectar collecting behaviour influenced bee visit significantly. Time of observation (1000 and 1400 hrs) did not show significant effect on bee visit. Hybrid LSH3 was more attractive to honeybees than other hybrids. A. mellifera was most abundant of all 3 species of honeybee. The number of pollen gatherers was 50% higher than the number of nectar collectors. Female parents of APSH11 and LSH3 attracted twice as many honeybees as their male parents. However, male parent of BSH1 attracted 4 times more bees than its female parent. Rock bees (A. dorsata) collected only pollen whereas other species, i.e. A. mellifera and A. florea, worked for both pollen and nectar. 0281 Pollination requirement in sunflower hybrid seed production: II. Effect of date of sowing and fertilizer on honeybee foraging behaviour on parental

lines. Sinha, SN; Atwal, SS. Seed Research. 1996, publ. 1997, 24: 2, 110-115; 6 ref. Honeybee (Apis spp.) foraging behaviour was studied on parental lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) hybrid APSH11 in monthly sowing (September to January). Bee visit was not influenced by nitrogen level and time of observations i.e. before or after noon. Maximum bee (120) visit was observed on the crop sown in December and flowering in March when the prevailing air temperature was 22.9oC. Bee visit was lowest (72) on the crop sown in October and flowering in January with a mean air temperature of 12.0oC. A. mellifera was the most abundant of the 3 species of honeybee. Some 48% of bees visited the female parent, while the remaining 52% foraged on male flowers. Around 60% of bees collected nectar and the remaining 40% gathered pollen. Bee visit was the same to both parents for crops sown in October and December. For crops sown in September and November, bees visited more male flowers, but for the crop sown in January, female flowers were preferred. Large numbers of A. dorsata and A. florea visited crops sown in December, whereas visits by A. mellifera remained high irrespective of sowing date. Nectar collectors (70.2%) were twice the number of pollen gatherers on the crop sown in December, but ranged from 50 to 60% in crops sown in other months. A. dorsata and A. florea preferred male flowers whereas A. mellifera preferred females. 0282 Pollination requirement in sunflower hybrid seed production: effect of caging on bee behaviour and pollination. Sinha, SN; Vaishampayan, S. Indian Bee Journal. 1995, 57: 2, 71-73 On a field of Helianthus annuus in Haryana, the microclimate inside nylon mosquito-net cages (20 X 20 X 3 m) was determined during the flowering period. RH was higher and light intensity was lower than on uncaged plots, but air temperatures were similar. Each cage contained a small Apis mellifera colony, but flowers in cages received fewer bee visits than other flowers. Seed set and number of filled seeds/head were similar on plants inside and outside cages, but lower on hand-pollinated plants. However, the weight of seeds/head was significantly lower on caged plants than on open-pollinated plants. Reduced light intensity in the cages seemed to reduce bee activity: bees tended to collect in corners of the cages and did not start to visit flowers until noon, whereas bees visited flowers in the open from 07.00 h. 0283 Polyclonal seed gardens: their role in rubber improvement and production. Mydin, KK. Rubber Board Bulletin. 1990, 26: 1, 3-4; 6 ref.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0284 Potato cultivation at Kalarn [Pakistan] and KIDP [Kalam Integrated Development Project] seed potato production programme. Khan, A; Berger, F. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. Potato in Pakistan: the present situation of research production and marketing programme. 1985. p. 79-85. 0285 Potato germplasm screening for seed production for winter and summer biotic and abiotic stresses. Webb, RE. Government of NWFP. Department of Agriculture Research. 1983. 78p. 0286 Potato germplasm screening for seed production for winter and summer biotic and abiotic stresses: Final progress report 1981- 1987. Shuja, MA. Potato Research Centre, Abbottabad (Pakistan) 1987, 45p. Screening of germplasm flush out system and effect of various stresses were the main objectives of the second phase, which was carried out from 1981 to 1987. One hundred and sixty six experiments were conducted in plains and mountains of NWFP. Clones and varieties were tested. A number of entries showed promising characteristics on different aspects but none was found over all superior to the present commercial varieties for general adaptability to all the five crops of 3 altitudes of plains, hills and mountains in addition to numerous traits right from colour of skin to storage and cooking qualities. However, these entries are in line for use in breeding programme and future specialized production of area season and other requirements in future. Two more crops (early and late Summer in hills) got established around Abbottabad (which will be spreaded on such and vast areas of the province in accordance with availability of resources). Production of early summer crop (used as seed) gave equal yield to that from Autumn to Autumn Seed source. 0287 Potato production from true potato seed: assessment of TPS progenies for tuberlet production. Dubey, KC; Nandekar, DN; Sharma, TR; Sharma, RC. Journal of the Indian Potato Association. 1992, 19: 1-2, 13-16; 6 ref. Six true potato seed (TPS) progenies were grown for tuberlet production in a nursery bed. Tuberlets smaller than 20 g were successfully used as seed tubers in the next season, and yielded as well as a crop raised from seed tubers (30-50 g) of the local variety Kufri Bahar. Of the 6 progenies, HPS-7/13 gave the most uniform tubers. 0288 Potato production in Baluchistan [Pakistan] and provincial seed project. Khan, F. Pakistan Agricul-

tural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan) Potato in Pakistan: the present situation of research production and marketing programme. 1985. p. 89-96. 0289 Potato seed production and certification by private sector: Indian vs international experience. Sikka, LC; Khurana, SMP; Shekhawat, GS; Singh, BP (Ed); Pandey, SK. Potato, global research and development: Proceedings of the Global Conference of Potato. New Delhi, India, 6-11 December 1999: Volume 1. 2000, 682689; 7 ref. This paper addresses various issues inter alia importance of scientific seed production consistent with local ecological conditions, disease distribution, their epidemiology, limitations on seed potato quality, effectiveness of improved seed and seed certification programmes, as well as future prospects. In this context, the International experience of the advanced countries in Northern latitude versus Indian experience is discussed. 0290 Potato seed production for autumn (mid hills) Sulyman, M; Haq, A; Shujah, A; Miza, S. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan). Potato in Pakistan: the present situation of research production and marketing programme. 1985. p. 86-88. 0291 Potato seed production technology of India and its possible application in Pakistan. Hafiz, A. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. Potato in Pakistan: the present situation of research production and marketing programme. 1985. p. 97-102. 0292 Potato seed production through farmers' group approach. Schultz, S; Baniya, BK; Shah, B. Potato Research and Development Programs (PRP/PDP/SDC/N), P.O. Box 113, Kathmandu (Nepal) Proceedings of the Fourth APA [Asian Potato Association] Triennial Conference. Daekwanryeong (Korea Republic), 5-7 Jul 1994. p. 196-201. Production of disease-free quality seeds is one of the objectives of the National Potato Research and Development Program (PRP/PDP) of Nepal. In the past, a contract farmer system was adopted for seed production but proved to be unsustainable owing to its high costs and manpower requirements. Therefore, the contract farmer system was gradually replaced by a system- involving independent farmers' groups located in traditional seed producing areas. These groups buy pre-basic seed produced by PRP through rapid multiplication techniques and multiply, store and market subsequent generations of this seed under their own responsibility. The Programs' role is to provide technical and managerial advice to these farmers' groups. It has been shown that

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

pre-basic seed (minitubers of 1-20 g) can be successfully multiplied by farmers' groups. The major merit of a farmers' group approach is its improved prospect of establishing a sustainable, decentralized seed production scheme, relatively independent of government resources. The process of group formation and consolidation was greatly assisted by using participatory planning techniques based on problems census and problem solving meetings with the farmers. 0293 Potato seed supply and production in Pakistan. Wooster, P; Farooq, K. Pak-Swiss Potato Development Project, Islamabad, Pakistan. Potato seed systems Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan: Workshop. Islamabad, Pakistan, 2-4 October 1994. 15-29; 8 ref. Potato production, seed tuber production and marketing, and economics of seed tuber production in Pakistan are described and discussed. 0294 Potential for potato seed production during autumn season in plains of Pakistan. Hussain, A. Department of Agriculture, Punjab, Publication Wing. Seed Potato Production (Bulletin No. 6). 1977. 10-23. The paper discusses the potential for Pakistan Seed Potato produced in autumn season. A comparison is given between the seeds grown in summer, spring and autumn crops, through degeneration studies and a scheme is also presented for reducing dependence on imported seeds. 0295 The potential for seed potato production during the autumn season in the Punjab. Hussain, CA. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan) Prospects and Problems of Potato in Pakistan. 1976. p. 25-39. The main potato crop is planted during the growth period of the autumn crop area less favourable for the spread of virus diseases and very good for tuberization. Rate of degeneration was fund to be low during the autumn season, therefore, taking proper measures healthy seed can be produced during this season and the dependence on imported seed can be reduced. 0296 Potential for seed potato production in Baluchistan [Pakistan] Sadiq, M. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan) Potato [Solanum tuberosum] Research in Pakistan: Proceedings of Second Workshop on Potato Research and Development. Islamabad (Pakistan), 13-14 May 1977. 1978. p. 36-37. 0297 Potential of oat (Avena sativa) for forage-cumseed production under different cutting schedules in Pakistan. Hussain, A; Mohammad, D; Khan, S; Bhatti,

MB. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1994, 64: 6, 387-389; 6 ref. In field trials in the winter seasons of 1987-89 at Islamabad, Pakistan, oats cv. PD 2-LV 65 were cut for fodder at 70, 85, 100 or 115 d after sowing and then harvested at maturity for seed, cut at 50% flowering for fodder only or cut at maturity for seed only. Seed yield was 2.19 t/ha with no fodder cut and it decreased from 1.86 to 1.41 t/ha with delay in the date when fodder was cut. Fodder DM yield increased from 1.98 to 7.41 t/ha with delay in cutting date from 75 to 115 d after sowing and it was highest (14.29 t/ha) when cut at 50% flowering (144 d after sowing). Crude protein content of fodder decreased with delay in cutting date whereas crude fibre content increased. 0298 Potential role of TPS technology in the improvement of potato production in Bangladesh. Rashid, MM; Rashid, MH. Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 172-186. As many as 84 TPS progenies have been tested in Bangladesh. The yield given by most of the progenies are comparable and in some cases higher than those obtained from the high yielding potato varieties raised from tubers. Investigations have been undertaken to produce true potato seed of acceptable progenies by overcoming the barrier of climate. 0299 Potential role of TPS (True Potato Seed) in potato production [in Bangladesh] Sarker, MH; Choudhury, EH; Sikka, LC. Bangladesh Association of Advancement of Science, Dacca (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the 13th Annual Bangladesh Science Conference. 1988. p. 125-126. Poor quality seed tubers and its high cost hampered, to a great extent potato production and its extension in developing countries like Bangladesh. TPS can potentially overcome some of the problems associated with the use of seed tubers. Disease transmission by TPS is little importance with that by seed tubers. TPS is known to transmit only a limited number of viruses (Jones, 1982). It is also economical to the traditional method of using seed tubers. The results from the study undertaken during 1986-87 at the PRC, BARI, showed the potential of seedling tubers as propagating materials alternative to costly seed tubers. Among the different progenies Serrana x DTO-33 and Atzimba x R-1286 gave comparable yield with varieties Cardinal and Kufri Sindhuri raised conventionally. It is also remarkable that open pollinated progeny of AVRDC 1282-19 also gave promising results next to the above two hybrids.

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0300 Potentiality of honeybees in hybrid seed production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Rajagopal, D; Veeresh, GK; Chikkadevaiah; Nagaraja, N; Kencharaddi, RN. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1999, 69: 1, 40-43. In a field experiment in summer 1995 at Bangalore, Karnataka, India, sunflowers cv. CMS 234-A, a cytoplasmic male sterile female parent, and CMS 234-B, a maintainer line, were sown at a 2:1 row ratio, and plots were either covered by 1 mm nylon mesh to prevent insect pollination and were untouched or hand pollinated, were covered in 3 mm nylon mesh to allow pollination by small insects other than honeybees, or were left open to allow pollination by honeybees and other insects, with or without hand pollination. Five colonies each of Apis mellifera and A. cerana were placed at a distance of 200 m from the experimental plots. A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana, A. florea and Trigona irridipennis [T. iridipennis] participated in foraging in sunflowers throughout the day. Two peak foraging periods were encountered in all the species. In the case of the female parent, the filled seed weight, seed filling percentage and seed oil content were highest in the plot pollinated only by honeybees. In the case of the maintainer, the filled seed weight and oil content were greatest in the plots pollinated by bees, while seed filling percentage was greatest in the hand-pollinated plot. 0301 Pre-basic seed potato production through tissue culture. Quraishi, A; Chaudhry, Z; Rashid, H; Khaliq, P. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research (Pakistan). (1994). v. 15(1) p. 8-13. 0302 Prebasic seed-potato production techniques. Ata-ur-Rehman; Sajid, GM; Quraishi, A; John, I. Plant tissue culture: Proceedings of the second national meeting on plant tissue culture. Baragali, July 15-17 July 1985. 1986. p. 33-35. 0303 Present status of Myzus persicae in potato seed production in Meerut region. Verma, KD; Chaubey, IP; Jaswani, MD; Khurana, SMP. Journal of the Indian Potato Association. 1998, 25: 3-4, 109- 112. Data were collected for ten years on appearance and build up of M. persicae on potato crop in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh with cv. Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Bahar and Kufri Badshah. The stocks were monitored visually and serologically for PVY [potato Y potyvirus] infection and also compared for their yield vis-a-vis- fresh breeders' seed. M. persicae started appearing from 2nd week of November almost one month after planting but its population remained low till end of December/1st week of January, because of prevailing low temperatures. The

experimental seed stocks did not show degeneration with PVY infection - remaining below 0.5% and yields ranged between 24 and 30 t/ha depending on the cultivar in 90 days even without insecticide. The results show that M. persicae is perhaps not an efficient vector in NW plains of Uttar Pradesh, and hence the seed stocks may be replaced once in five to seven years instead of three to five as recommended now. 0304 Present status, production constraints, future strategies and thrust areas of research in seed spices in India. Vijay, OP; Malhotra, SK. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants. 2001, 3: 3, 111115. This paper discusses the role of India as the world's largest producer, consumer and exporter of seed spices, the distribution of coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek and ajowain [Trachyspermum ammi] in the world and in India, production constraints, strategies for improving the productivity and quality of seed spices in the country for domestic and export markets, and future research prospects. A list of botanical and common names of the seed spices produced in India is provided. Data on the area, production, productivity and export (tonnes and lakhs) of coriander, cumin, fennel and fenugreek for 2000- 01 and on the high-productivity zones of seed spices in different Indian states are tabulated. 0305 Problems and prospects of seed potato production in Pakistan. Shah, SMA. Progressive Farming (Pakistan). (Feb 1981). v. 1(1) p. 24-27. 0306 Problems of certification in onion seed production. Pandey, UB. News Letter - National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation. 1996, 16: 1, 112. Seed production practices are described and certification standards outlined. Problems encountered during the certification process are discussed and measures to overcome these problems are presented. 0307 The problems of seed potato production in Pakistan. Robertson, DG. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan) Potato [Solanum tuberosum] Research in Pakistan [Proceedings of Second Workshop on Potato Research and Development. Islamabad (Pakistan), 13-14 May 1977. p. 6-8. 0308 Proceedings. Hands-on Trainer's Training Course on Establishment and Management of Seed Production Areas and Plus Tree Selection, 17-23 November 1993, Kathmandu, Nepal. Joshi, RB (ed); Za-

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bala, NQ (ed) FAO, Rome (Italy). Forestry Dept. Mar 1995. 83 p. 0309 Proceedings of international workshop/training course on vegetable seed production, October 2-15, 1988. Ashraf, Mohammad; Rana, MS Khan; Bhatti, MH. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan) 1988. 0310 Proceedings of the first workshop seminar on vegetable seed production [Nepal]. [Workshop proceedings] Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. 23-26 Feb 1982. Kathmandu (Nepal). 111 p. 0311 Proceedings of the Workshop Seminar on Vegetable Seed Production. FAO, Rome (Italy). Plant Production and Protection Div. Kathmandu (Nepal), 5 Feb 1984. 204 p. 0312 Proceedings of the Workshop Seminar on Vegetable Seed Production. 2. Department of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. Kathmandu (Nepal). 31 Jan 1983. 183p. 0313 Production and profit potential of Amorphophallus as affected by seed size [yam] Mishra, S; Mishra, SS; Ray, PK. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Jan 1983). v. 53(1) p. 27-29. 0314 Production and utilization of autumn and spring TPS (true potato seed) seedling tubers. Kadian, MS; Pande, PC; Upadhya, MD. Journal of the Indian Potato Association. 1996, 23: 1-2, 62-67; 3 ref. Area and production cost of seedling tubers from true potato seed may be reduced significantly by raising two successive crops of seedling tubers in the autumn and spring seasons. In trials at Modipuram, Uttar Pradesh, true potato seed was sown in 10 X 10 cm spacing in autumn and spring for seed tuber production. After 10 days the seedlings were thinned to 100 plants/m2. Performance of seedlings was better in autumn than in spring with average yields of 4.74-5.89 and 2.34-2.61 kg/m2, respectively. Numbers of seed tubers produced followed the same trend. In spring, a higher proportion of stolons were converted into aerial stems, reducing yields. Production of seed tubers in both spring and autumn reduced the area required to produce seed tubers for 1 ha from 178-264 m2 to 121-161 m2. Total and marketable yield (>35 mm size) of all families except cv. HPS-II/13 from seedling tubers produced in the autumn and spring seasons were equivalent.

0315 Production and utilization of true potato seed in Bangladesh. Rashid, MH; Khurana, SMP; Shekhawat, GS; Singh, BP (ed); Pandey, SK. Tuber Crops Research Center, BARI, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Potato, global research and development: Proceedings of the Global Conference on Potato. New Delhi, India, 6-11 December 1999: Volume 1. 2000, 711-713; 3 ref. Production of potatoes from botanical seeds or true potato seed (TPS) offers a good alternative to traditional seed tubers due to low transmission of pathogens, high multiplication rate and good tuber yield. On-station research results since 1980s and on-farm trials of TCRC scientists since 1985 have shown that seedling tuber production system or in other words, seed tuber production in beds from TPS is very convenient for Bangladeshi farmers. As much as 1000 seedling tubers weighing only about 10 kilos can be obtained out of a m2 bed in 100 days, the average being 5-6 kilos/m2. Using these seedling tubers as seed, 25-30 tonnes of table potatoes can easily be obtained per hectare in the following season. The most limiting factor, availability of true seed, has already been solved by the researchers. Commercial hybrid TPS has been produced under the climatic conditions of Bangladesh by applying flower inducing techniques. Some private entrepreneurs were trained who have started producing commercial hybrid TPS. Some elite farmers have also started business of seedling tubers. 0316 Production of extra-short-duration pigeonpea seed. Singh, L; Chauhan, YS; Johansen, C; Singh, SP (eds.) Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India. Prospects for growing extra-short-duration pigeon pea in rotation with winter crops: proceedings of the workshop and monitoring tour. 16-18 Oct 1995. 1996, 96-101; 5 ref. The current status of seed production of extrashort-duration pigeon peas [Cajanus cajan] in India is briefly discussed. Approaches to deal with current constraints, including a lack of suitable cultivars, low priority given to pigeonpea seed production, poor linkages among researchers, seed producers and farmers, improper seed storage, and poor seed quality, are suggested. 0317 Production of healthy seed in India. Siddiqui, MR. Seed Science and Technology (Netherlands). (1983). v. 11(3a) p. 1063-1070. 0318 Production of hybrid true potato seeds. Kahandawela, JBDS; Malathy, P. Southeast Asian Program for Potato Research and Development, P.O. Box 933, Manila (Philippines) SAPPRAD on the fourth year of phase 3:

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

selected research papers July 1994-June 1995 volume 1: potato. May 1996. p. 43-48. The production of hybrid TPS [true potato seed] was extended from one government farm to three during 1994-95 seasons. Only limited quantities of seeds were produced due to the high PLRV [potato leaf roll virus] infection of parental materials and monsoon winds which caused berry drop. The parentals grown from rooted stem cuttings produced a higher seed yield. A decision was made to replace the planting stock with clean materials from 1996 in the government farms. The UP Country Intermediate Zone (UCIZ) has a good potential as an alternative area for TPS production. Compared to the UP Country Wet Zone (UCWZ), the traditional hybrid seed production agro-ecological region, UCIZ has higher temperature, longer sunshine duration, average rainfall and humid conditions that are conducive for seed production. The availability of land for seed production and relatively shorter duration required for TPS production are added advantages. Likewise, the incidence of frost, monsoon winds and late blight disease is lower compared to UCWZ. During 1994, a total of 2000 g TPS was produced in three farmers' fields, surpassing the total production in government farms. 0319 Production of normal seeds from plants regenerated from the meristems of Arachis hypogaea and Cicer arietinum cryopreserved for 20 months. Bajaj, YPS. Euphytica (Netherlands). (1983). v. 32(2) p. 425430. 0320 Production of onion seed (Allium cepa). Fernando, PHD. Krushi (Sri Lanka). (Oct-Dec 1983). v. 6(2) p. 23-24. 0321 Production of pre-foundation seed potato at Debigonj [Dinajpur, Bangladesh] farm of tuber crops Research Center. Quashem, A; Khan, AI; Hossain, MJ. Bangladesh - Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 26-34. Procedural aspects of the present method of foundation seed potato production are mentioned with its drawbacks. Health status of seed potatoes supplied to BADC (Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation) is discussed. Improvement is suggested in respect of seed health with the incorporation of in-vitro production of mini-tubers by tissue culture and subsequent production of seed potatoes at Debigonj under strict sanitary measures.

0322 Production of protein rich meal from mustard seed kernels. Shah, FH; Niazi, AHK; Khan, AD. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research (Pakistan). (Feb 1985). v. 28(1) p. 58-62. 0323 Production of seed and planting material in Northern Areas: FAO-UNDP Project, Progress Report 1990. Christiansen, JA. Department of Agriculture, Gilgit. 1991. 23p. Progress on the research and development activities about potato seed production, establishing tissue culture lab and screening green house activities, pre-basic seed potato production, seed improvement through selection, screening clones from TPS planting, technology transfer activities and linkages and coordination with other agencies and training in given. 0324 Production of Seed and Planting Material in Northern Areas, Pakistan. Report of the evaluation mission. Budden, M; George, RAT; Bhalgari, AK. Aug 1990. 84 p. 0325 Production of specific enzymes by Corynebacterium michiganense in tomato fruits and seeds. Note. Nedumaran, S; Vidhyasekaran, P. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Dec 1981). v. 34(4) p. 518-520. 0326 Production of synthetic seeds in few spice crops. Edison, S; Ramana, KV; Sasikumar, B; Babu, KN (eds.) Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut-673 012, Kerala, India. Biotechnology of spices, medicinal and aromatic plants: Proceedings of the national seminar on biotechnology of spices and aromatic plants. Calicut, India, 24-25 April, 1996. 1997, 65-69; 22 ref. Synthetic [artificial] seeds have been proposed as a safe means for germplasm conservation and exchange. Synthetic seeds were successfully produced for some important spices like black pepper, ginger, cardamom, turmeric, cinnamon, camphor, vanilla, and some herbs like anise, lavender and sage, and stored at 222oC, for 410 months. Data on the explant encapsulated (shoot buds, somatic embryos and regenerating calluses), alginate concentration used, storage medium, storage duration and viability are tabulated. 0327 Production potential of lentil cultivars under varying seed rate and row spacing. Khare, JP; Tomar, GS; Tiwari, UK. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science. 1991, 25: 2, 154-156; 4 ref. In field experiments during the rabi [winter] seasons in 1985- 87 at Sagar, Madhya Pradesh Lens culinaris cv. JL-1, Sehore 74-3, Local Masra produced average seed yields of 0.96, 1.04 and 0.93 t/ha, respectively.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

Sowing rates of 20, 30 or 40 kg/ha produced seed yields of 0.91, 1.06 and 0.96 t/ha, respectively, averaged over cultivars. Interrow spacings of 23, 30 or 37 cm produced seed yields of 0.98, 1.04 and 0.92 t/ha, respectively. The highest seed yield (1.24 t) and net returns were obtained from Sehore 74.3 sown in rows 30 cm apart at the 30 kg/ha seed rate. 0328 Production potential of rabi crops under different seed rates in extreme low land "Bahra" situation. Dwivedi, RK; Mishra, RK; Singh, RN; Paliwal, AK. Advances in Plant Sciences (India). 1999, 12: 2, 609-610. Waterlogging is a problem in the "Bahra" lowland areas of Chhattisgarh region, Madhya Pradesh. Linseed [Linum usitatissimum], chickpeas, lentils and peas were grown in winter 1988/89 at the normal sowing rate, or 25 or 50% higher than the normal sowing rate. Seed yield ranged from 89 kg/ha in chickpeas to 379 kg in a local pea cultivar. There was no significant effect of sowing rate. 0329 Production potential of seed clusterbean genotypes as a sequence crop in dryland. Reddy, TY; Reddy, KR; Rajan, MSS; Reddy, GHS. Indian Journal of Agronomy (India). (Mar 1981). v. 26(1) p. 89-90. 0330 Production, processing and distribution of seed under public sector. Hashem, A. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Seed Certification Agency, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the national seed technology Workshop - 1985. Dhaka (Bangladesh), 1987. p. 111-114. 0331 Profitable seed production of mid-season cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) cvs. New Synthetic and Pusa Synthetic under Mahabaleshwar conditions. Bhautkar, MY. Maharashtra Journal of Horticulture. 1993, 7: 1, 107-108 Seed production of mid-season cauliflower requires high inputs and technical expertise but can be a profitable crop in the temperate zones of India. In field trials conducted in Mahabaleshwar during the 1988/89 and 1989/90 seasons, 4-week-old seedlings of cultivars New Synthetic and Pusa Synthetic were transplanted on 17 Nov., at a spacing of 0.75 X 0.75 m. Compared with cv. Pusa Synthetic, cv. New Synthetic produced more leaves/plant (19.3 vs. 16.7); grew taller (10.6 vs. 9.3 cm); had a wider plant girth [stem diameter] (2.18 vs. 1.85 cm); required more days for 50% curd initiation (52 vs. 49); produced larger curds (diameter, 18.6 vs. 14.3 cm) and heavier curds (825 vs. 600 g/plant); and showed a higher seed yield (1.144 vs. 0.318 kg/plot). The production costs for New Synthetic were about 2.6 times higher

than those for Pusa Synthetic, but the net income was markedly higher at 136 331.45 Rs for the former compared with 21 999.45 Rs/ha for the latter cultivar. 0332 Proposal for a working programme for the period October 1982 - December 1982 [about seed production, Nepal]. Pokhrel, MN; Shilo, A; Rekhi, SS. Ministry of Agriculture, Lalitpur (Nepal). Vegetable Seed Production Project. Nov 1982. 13 p. 0333 Prospects for hybrid rice seed production technology in Andhra Pradesh. Vijaya, Kumar, R; Sita, Devi, B; Reddy, NS. Andhra Pradesh Agricultural Univ., Maruteru, Andhra Pradesh (India). Agricultural Research Station. International Rice Research Conference. Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines), 1994. p. 295. A trial was conducted in three locations, Maruteru, Warangal, and Palem, during the 1991 wet season to find the best environments for optimum outcrossing and seed yield in CMS lines in Andhra Pradesh. Maruteru is in a humid region, where low wind velocity and high humidity are predominant. The other two locations are in an arid zone with low humidity and high wind velocity: IRR CMS line IR62829 and its corresponding maintainer line, IR62829 B, were used in a trial. A row ratio of 4A: 2B was adopted, with a spacing of 15 x 15 cm. One seedling was planted per hill. The CMS line was sown first, followed by two sowings of the maintainer line 4 and 8 d after the CMS line. The plantings were done across the wind direction. Flowering synchronization was good in all three sites. Standard seed production techniques, such as flag leaf clipping and supplementary pollination, were used at all sites, while 60 ppm GA3, was sprayed at Maruteru only. The mean outcrossing percent was very poor (19.35) in the humid environment of Maruteru. At Warangal and Palem, mean percent outcrossing was very high at 43.94 percent and 40.23 percent, respectively. The highest seed yield was 1.2 t/ha, obtained at Warangal, followed closely by 1.0 t/ha at Palem. Yield at Maruteru was 0.4 t/ha. Further increases in outcrossing rate and seed yield of CMS lines are possible by refining the techniques and applying GA3 at Warangal and Palem, especially in the dry season. 0334 Prospects of sal (Shorea robusta) seed production in Orissa. Pradhan, L; Patnaik, RK; Sahoo, AK. Environment and Ecology. 1996, 14: 2, 442-445; 3 ref. A systematic study (mainly based on secondary data for 1983- 95) was undertaken of the potential yields, marketing and socioeconomic aspects of sal seed (an edible product) production in Orissa. Data from the different divisions of the state indicated that there is scope for increasing annual collection of seeds to 353 000 t - on av-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

erage only 10% of this is collected at present. Brief data are also given on the usual periods of seed setting, ripening and time of collection. seed production varies widely between years, depending on the climatic conditions. 0335 Prospects of seed production in forage crops. Virendra Singh. Indian Farming. 1993, 43: 9, 7-8. Seed production in Trifolium alexandrinum, Avena sativa and Sorghum sudanense is discussed. 0336 Prospects of using plant tissue culture techniques for seed potato production in Bangladesh. Rabbani, MG. Bangladesh Agricultural Univ., Mymensingh-2202 (Bangladesh). Dept. of Horticulture. Proceedings of the Fourth APA [Asian Potato Association] Triennial Conference. Daekwanryeong (Korea Republic), 5-7 Jul 1994. p. 191-195. An analysis of the present seed potato production system in Bangladesh and problems associated with it are presented. The use of plant tissue techniques to solve those problems thereby increasing the national average yield of potato in Bangladesh is discussed. 0337 Pulses seed production and distribution program of the Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation. Hussain, MM. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. Proceedings of the second national workshop on pulses; advances in pulses research in Bangladesh,. Joydebpur (Bangladesh). BARI. 1989. p. 157-161. Bangladesh has so far achieved close to 90% selfsufficiency in cereals but the production of noncereal crops like pulses and oilseeds has not kept pace with the population growth and has either remained stagnant or has declined. While due importance has been given to the production of cereals, similar emphasis on pulses is lacking. The per capita consumption of pulses in Bangladesh is only about 5.5 g day (1) whereas in India the present per capita consumption is 45 g day (-1), which is considered to be low. The Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) was set up to bring about a major and quick breakthrough in the agricultural development by production, procurement, and supply of agricultural inputs and by promoting modern technology. During the second Five-Year Plan period (1981- 85) BADC undertook a scheme to produce foundation and certified seed of pulses and oilseeds. Very little was achieved during this period. At the request of the Government of Bangladesh the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) sponsored a feasibility study in 1984/85 for a crop- diversification program and concluded that such a project based on pulses potatoes, and oilseeds would help increase production of these crops.

The BADC proposed to operate the pulses and oilseeds project under this program in the third plan period (198792) with specific objectives. It is expected that the project will be implemented soon. 0338 Pulses seed production in Maharashtra: constraint analysis. Wanjari, KB; Raut, BR. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1994, 19: 1, 44-48; 3 ref. The annual seed requirement for pulse farming in Maharashtra exceeds 60 000 tonnes. Considering 20% coverage under quality certified seed, the requirement of different stages of seed have been estimated. The quantities of seed produced in Maharashtra during 1984-85 to 1988-89, according to records, indicated a considerable shortfall, more particularly of certified and foundation seed. Study of constraints indicated that low output from seed plots, leakage of quality seed from the multiplication channel and non-remunerative procurement prices are important. Measures to overcome the constraints are suggested. 0339 [Recommendations for plant protection in vegetable crops (with reference to vegetable seed production) [Nepal]]. [Workshop proceedings] Ministry of Agriculture, Lalitpur (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. 23-26 Feb 1982. 41 p. 0340 The relationship of some metal ions with citric acid production by Aspergillus niger using tamarind seed powder as raw material. Purohit, HJ; Daginawala, HF. Journal of Fermentation Technology (Japan). (1986). v. 64(6) p. 561-565. 0341 A report on input supply systems at LAC [Lumle Agricultural Centre] produced on behalf of the manager LAC for the 1982 HMG(N) [His Majesty's Govt. Nepal]/ODA review mission [seed supply and production, research, Pokhara, hill area, Nepal] Crooks, GR. Lumle Agricultural Centre, Pokhara (Nepal) Jun 1982. 117p. 0342 Report to Administrator of Nepal-Australia Livestock Project on pasture and fodder crop seed production in Nepal. Sykes, CJB. Western Australian Dept. of Agriculture, Perth. Seed Products Section. Perth, W.A. (Australia). 1982. 10 p. Summer fodder crops, under rainfed and irrigated conditions, can be grown 6 to 7 months of the year. The range of species that can be developed or introduced as monocultures or combination crops is very wide and includes both legumes and non-legumes. Winter fodder crops under dryland or limited irrigation practice have

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

potential for green and conserved forage. Species include oats, vetches and pearl millet. Annual legume pastures, based on Medicago sp. regenerating anually in the winter season, have the potential for valuable grazing on dryland areas. Medicago polymorpha is endemic in the Terai. There are major constraints on production of seed and implementation of forage crop and pasture technology in the farming community. Social and traditional custom as well as the scarcity of irrigated land limits application of summer fodder crops. Dryland pasture development, however, has few constraints apart from climatic variations. 0343 Reproductive biology of potato: basis for 'true seed' production. Mohanram, HY; Juneja, A; Prakash, J (ed); Pierik, RLM. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture. vol. 12.; 25 ref. Scions grafted on tomato stocks flowered profusely with minimum abscission of flower buds. The pollination methods used were: hand pollination with emasculation and bagging (1-3 times) and 3 hand pollinations without emasculation and bagging (allowing open pollination). True seed from 3 hand pollinations with emasculation and bagging showed 80% germination, vs. 56% in seed from 3 hand pollination with no emasculation and bagging. The percentage of type A and B seeds (with 100% germination and good seedling vigour) was nearly 70% after 3 hand pollinations with emasculation and bagging. This pollination method appeared the best for true seed production. 0344 Research and development in seed potato production systems and its implication in Bangladesh. Zaag, DEV. Bangladesh - Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 90-99. For Bangladesh mini or microtubers (M-tubers) are likely to be the best starting material for the production of pre-basic and basic seed. Based on a conservative estimate about 1,200,000 M- tubers are needed to produce 1200 tonnes basic seed in two multiplications, a quantity that is imported annually. Before introducing a system it is recommended to study the possibility of M-tubers on small scale, the advantages and disadvantages of mini and microtubers. Both technical aspects, such as the production of M-tubers, the yielding ability of these tubers, the standard of health of the progeny, etc. and manageable aspects should be taken into consideration. If this proves to be successful, seed import can be restricted to a small quantity of new cultivars. Moreover, the country is then more free in the choice of cultivars and not depend-

ent exclusively on the cultivars produced in the seed exporting countries. 0345 Research on pasture grass and legume seed production - a review. Dwivedi, GK; Sinha, NC; Singh, SN. Range Management and Agroforestry. 1995, 16: 1, 6571; 28 ref. Research at Jhansi on seed production, including the evaluation of cultivars, and the effects of seed treatment, sowing rates, sowing date, spacing, fertilizers and intercropping on seed yields of grasses and fodder legumes are reviewed. 0346 Resource use efficiency in seed-potato production. Rana, RK; Tewari, SC; Raina, KK. Economic Affairs Calcutta. 1993, 38: 3, 168-172; 3 tab. Being one of the main cash crops of Himachal Pradesh and a major export product as seed to other states, the potato is important for the state's economy. Lahaul-Spiti and Shimla districts are the main seedpotato growing areas of the state, contributing 90% towards total seed-potato production. This study analyses the economics of seed-potato cultivation in the two districts. The main objectives of the study are: to estimate costs and returns from seed-potato cultivation and to study resource-use efficiency in seed-potato production. Findings show that the farmers in Lahaul-Spiti reaped higher benefits by using more material inputs than in Shimla. However, the production function estimates and the study of the marginal variable costs to factor cost ratios indicated that resource use in both zones was below the optimum level. 0347 Response of nitrogen and spacing on fenugreek seed production. Sharma, SK. Horticultural Journal. 2000, 13: 2, 39-42; 3 ref. Seeds of fenugreek were sown at 30 x 7.5, 45 x 7.5 or 60 x 7.5 cm and treated with 30, 60 or 90 kg N/ha in a field experiment conducted in Himachal Pradesh, India during 1993-95. The number of branches (4.4) and pods per plant (64), seed yield per plot (725 g) and per hectare, (18.2 g) and germination rate (90.3%) were highest with application of 60 kg N/ha while plant height (94.8 cm) and 1000-seed weight (13.1 kg) were highest with 90 kg N/ha application. Seed yield per plot (747.2 g) and per hectare (18.7 g), as well as 1000-seed weight (11.7 kg) were highest with 30 x 7.5 plant spacing while the number of seed per pod (61.8) and germination rate (93.6%) were highest with 60 x 7.5 cm spacing. The interaction of N application (60 kg/ha) and 30 x 7.5 spacing recorded the highest seed yield per plot (808.3 g) and per hectare (20.2 qtls).

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0348 Response of onion varieties to seed production. Mohanty, BK; Bastia, DK; Mohanty, SK. JNKVV Research Journal. 1998, publ. 2000, 32: 1-2, 38-41; 9 ref. Twelve high-yielding onion cultivars were evaluated in Bhawanipatna, Orissa, India, during 1995-96 and 1996-97 for seed production potential. The highest number of seed stalks per plant was observed in Agrifound Light Red (10.0), N 2-4-1 (9.70), Arka Kalyan (9.38), Punjab Red Round (9.05), and Nasik Red (8.78). Agrifound Light Red produced the longest umbel stalk (117.30 cm). The highest number of flowers per umbel was recorded for N 2-4-1 (426.25), Pusa Red (422.40), N 53 (420.72), Nasik Red (406.97), Punjab Red Round (406.85), Arka Kalyan (395.67), Pusa Madhavi (386.45), Agrifound Dark Red (383.37), and Agrifound Light Red (382.23). Punjab Red Round registered the highest 1000seed weight (3.75 g). The highest yields (q/ha) were produced by Agrifound Light Red (11.65), Punjab Red Round (11.02), Nasik Red (10.80), N 2-4-1 (9.88), and Pusa Red (9.73). Seed weight was the most important yield component, followed by the number of seed stalks per plant and umbel diameter. 0349 Response of sorghum to N and P for seed production. Brar, SPS; Balwinder Singh; Bhajan Singh. Indian Journal of Ecology. 1990, 17: 1, 32-34; 3 ref. Fodder sorghum cv. SL-44 grown for seed at Ludhiana, India in 1984-86 was given 0, 40, 80 or 120 kg N/ha in all combinations with 0, 10, 20 or 30 kg P/ha. Mean seed yield increased with increasing N rate from 0.19 t/ha without applied N to 0.35 t/ha with 80 kg N, while 20 kg P/ha increased yield compared with controls from 0.24 to 0.32 t/ha. Higher fertilizer rates gave no further increases in seed yield, while straw yield was increased by the highest N rate. 0350 Review and Programme Discussion Workshop on Fresh Vegetable and Vegetable Seed Production, Kathmandu, 12-15 June, 1990. Proceedings. Department of Horticulture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. FAO, Kathmandu (Nepal). [1990]. 254 p. 0351 A review of literature on problem of pod formation and poor seed set in radish cv. Mino Early seed production. Basnet, SR; Khanal, R. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta (Nepal) 1997, 12 p. 0352 Revised project implementation strategy seed production and input storage project [Nepal]. Singh, RB; Kayastha, BN; Rood, PG. Agricultural Inputs Corp., Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Jun 1981. 58 p.

0353 Rice ratooning: breeding, agronomic practices, and seed production potentials. Mahadevappa, M; Yogeesha, HS. Agricultural Sciences Univ., Bangalore (India). Dept. of Seed Science and Technology; International Rice Research Inst., Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines) Bangalore (India), 21-25 Apr 1986. 1988. p. 177185. Except in the Dominican Republic and Texas, USA, no special efforts have been made to develop varieties suitable for a rice ratoon cropping system. Varieties observed to possess good ratooning ability were selected incidentally from material screened for other characteristics. Systematic study on the genetics of ratooning ability and related characters has not been done. Disease resistance is important. Available information on selection criteria in breeding for ratoon rice is discussed. Agronomic practices, such as managing the main crop in a way suitable for the whole system, stubble height at main crop harvest, water management under different planting and soil conditions, and fertilizer management, have not been developed for particular situations. A few articles report contradictory results on ratoon grain and seed quality. Possibilities of producing quality seed, maintaining CMS [cytoplasmic male sterility] lines, synchronizing female and male parents and reducing the cost of hybrid seed production using ratoon crops are discussed. Needed location-specific research on potentials of this system in breeding, agronomic practices and seed production are indicated. 0354 Role of insect pollination in seed production of radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Priti; Mishra, RC; Sihag, RC. Seed Research. 2001, 29: 2, 231-234; 12 ref. Pod set, pod length, number of seeds per pod, and seed weight in bee-pollinated and self-pollinated radish were studied in Hisar, Haryana, India [date not given]. The pollinators include Apis florea, A. mellifera (most dominant due to proximity of the area to an aviary), A. dorsata, Halictus sp., Chrysomya bezziana, Gasterophilus sp., Sarcophaga sp., and Eristalis sp. Pollen foragers were more abundant than pollen-nectar (PN) foragers and carried greater amount of pollen than the PN foragers. A. dorsata carried the highest amount of pollen due to its large size and body hairs. However, A. mellifera was the most efficient pollinator. Fruit set (81.00 vs. 56.55%), siliqua length (13.2132.140 vs. 6.8320.911 cm), number of seeds per pod (8.6131.923 vs. 4.8161.201), and seed weight (1.5000.316 vs. 0.9000.260 g) were higher in bee-pollinated than in self- pollinated radish. 0355 Role of pollinating agents on seed production of shallot onion [in Bangladesh] Banik, BR; Khan, SH;

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Ali, M. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics (Bangladesh). (1990). v. 3(1, 2) p. 23-29. Variations due to onion cultivars, pollinating agents and/or their interactions for the number of flowers per umbel, number of filled ovaries per umbel, number of seeds per ovary, number of perfect seeds per umbel, number of imperfect seeds per umbel and seed yield per umbel were significant. The variety 'Taherpuri' produced 1.66 g seeds while the variety 'Bhati' produced 0.82 g seeds per umbel. Honeybee alone contributed substantially (1.34 g/umbel) towards seed production under polyethylene-caged condition. Wind was found very effective for seed setting in 'Bhati' and produced 1.38 g seeds/umbel while the role of gravitational force was very little and helped to produce only 0.45 g seeds/umbel. In open pollinated conditions where honeybee, other insects, wind and gravitational force acted together in the pollination process, the highest seed yield of 2.24 g/umbel was harvested. 0356 Role of public organisation in seed potato production. Quraishi, A. Tissue Culture Laboratory, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan. Potato seed systems in Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan: Workshop. Islamabad, Pakistan, 2-4 October 1994. 47-50. Public organizations in Pakistan, including agricultural research institutes and universities, could play a vital role in seed potato production by producing the prebasic seed through tissue culture. Appropriate incentives by the government could lead to the increased involvement and commercialization of the technology. 0357 Role of seed certification in seed potato production in Pakistan. Ahmad, SI. Federal Seed Certification Department, Islamabad, Pakistan. Potato seed systems in Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan: Workshop. Islamabad, Pakistan, 2-4 October 1994. 35-46; 6 ref. 0358 The role of seed health in sugarcane [Saccharum officinarum] production. Chaudhry, MJ. Pakistan Agriculture (Pakistan). Oct 1982. v. 4(15) p. 37-39. 0359 Role of sowing and planting dates on seed to seed and bulb to seed method of onion seed production. Yadav, PS; Singh, RP; Malik, YS. Agricultural Science Digest (India). (Jun 1983). v. 3(2) p. 95-96. 0360 The role of the agricultural extension service and the agricultural service centers in the production and sale of seed. Abeywardene, POS. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri

Lanka). Seeds Div.; USAID, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) Diversified Agricultural Research Project - Proceedings of the Sri Lanka Seed Workshop. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka), 26 Jan-6 Feb 1987. p. 73-78. 0361 Role of the Pak-Swiss Potato Development Project in seed potato production in Pakistan. Devauz, A. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan). Pak-Swiss Potato Development Project. FAO/DANIDA training Course on Potato Seed Technology. April 5-16, 1987. The Pak-Swiss potato Development Project has been working in coordination with seed production Scheme in order to develop a seed potato production national strategy. The broad objectives of the project are to improve potato productivity and the income of the potato producers, to increase the improtance of potato as a basic food item and to make it more readily available to consumers. The project programme was implemented in four related thrusts. 1) atlas an compendium of potato production. Information by agro- ecological zone. 2) Development and transfer of technology. 3) Seed potato production. 4) Marketing and processing. The project interacts with provincial organizations at research and extension level. 0362 Root and shoot pruning of radish stecklings on the production of seeds. Islam, MS; Haque, MA. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture (Bangladesh). (Dec 1979). v. 4(2) p. 143-146. 0363 Row spacing and leaf cutting in relation to seed production of fenugreek (Trigonella corniculata L. cv. Pusa Kasuri). Pandita, VK; Randhawa, KS. Seed Research. 1994, publ. 1996, 22: 2, 127-129; 4 ref. T. corniculata, a leafy vegetable, was planted at row spacings of 10, 20 or 30 cm and cut once (60 days after sowing), twice (60 and 90 days after sowing) or not cut in trials in 1991-93 at Karnal. Seed yields were highest at a spacing of 20 cm and without harvesting leaves. 0364 Screening groundnuts for resistance to seed invasion by Aspergillus flavus and to aflatoxin production [a review] Mehan, VK. International Crops Research Inst. for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, A.P. (India) International Workshop on Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut. 6-9 Oct 1987, ICRISAT. 1989. p. 323-334. Research on responses of groundnuts to seed colonization and infection by Aspergillus flavus and/or aflatoxin production is reviewed, and progress made in this field at ICRISAT is summarized. Several laboratory and field screening procedures are developed to screen

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groundnuts for resistance to A. flavus infection and/or aflatoxin production. Research on the effects of environmental factors on pod and seed invasion by A. flavus has produced information useful in the development of field screening methods. Imposed drought stress is used to improve large-scale field screening of groundnut genotypes for resistance to preharvest infection of seeds by A. flavus. Several genotypes were found resistant to infection, and some of them were also resistant to in vitro seed colonization by A. flavus in laboratory inoculation tests. Two genotypes supported only very low levels of aflatoxin B1 production when seeds were colonized by an aflatoxin-producing strain of A. flavus. 0365 Screening of common onion varieties for seed production. Mohanty, BK. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities (India). (Sep 2000). v. 25(3) p. 271-273. Twelve cultivars of common onion evaluated over two years for their seed production potential recorded maximum seed yield from the variety Punjab Red Round (11.67 q/ha) followed by Agrifound Light Red (11.17 q/ha), Nasik Red (10.12 q/ha), Pusa Red (10.05 q/ha), Arka Kalyan (9.83 q/ha) and N 2-4-1 (9.72 q/ha). The higher seed yielding these cultivars was related to higher number of seed stalks/plant, taller and wider umbels, more number of flowers/umbel and heavier seeds. 0366 Screening of groundnut bold-seeded genotypes for resistance to Aspergillus flavus seed colonisation and less aflatoxin production. Ghewande, MP; Nagaraj, G; Desai, S; Narayan, P. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland). (1993). v. 21(1) p. 45-51. 0367 Seed colonization and aflatoxin production in groundnut genotypes inoculated with different strains of Aspergillus flavus. Mehan, VK; McDonald, D; Gibbons, RW. Oleagineux (France). (Apr 1982). v. 37(4) p. 185-191. 0368 Seed health studies and crop production in Bangladesh. Rashid, AQMB; Fakir, GA; Mia, MAT; Uddin, KS. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 1995, 6: 2-3, 93-122; 80 ref. In Bangladesh 5% of seeds used for crop production are produced by government organizations and 95% are of unknown quality with respect to their health. Up to 490 seed borne diseases affecting the seed health of 76 different important crops are in Bangladesh and cause yield losses worth $250 million annually. The role of seed health on crop production; research on the seed health of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables and fibre crops; teaching and training on seed health; and status of

seed certification and quarantine in Bangladesh are reviewed. Control measures including the development of quick and cheap Earthen dish-newsprint technique, formation of seed health standards for major seed borne diseases of important crops, detection methods, and the use of chemical and biological control of seed borne pathogens using chemicals and plant extracts, are described. 0369 Seed husbandry research and cultivar maintenance and breeder/foundation seed production activities at PAC during winter, 1992/93. Basnet, SR; Katuwal, KB. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta (Nepal) 1997, 12 p. 0370 Seed paddy production: highlights over the last one and half decades [Sri Lanka] Medagama, WB; Charles, SH. Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) Proceedings of a Symposium on Research, Extension, Education, Training and Seed Production of Rice in Sri Lanka. Colombo (Sri Lanka), 25-26 Sep 1980. p. 247258. 0371 Seed potato production. Vegetable seeds and Seed Potato Project, Islamabad (Pakistan) VSSPP Annual Progress Report 1987-88. 1988. p. 1-25. Progress on the research and development activities of Vegetable seed and Seed Potato Project is given. Results of the experiments on Seed Potato Production, multiplication and distribution, true potato seeds evaluation and progeny testing, of TPS seedlings tubers of different sizes, On-farm seed source trials, and disease survey results are given. 0372 Seed potato production and development centre in Baluchistan. Khan, F. Vegetable Seed and Seed Potato Farm. 1989. The report gives a brief status of the existing situation of seed production, seed supply and marketing in Baluchistan. It also gives a brief account of the existing supporting facilities and assistance required for the future regarding the establishment of seed potato development and production centre in Baluchistan. 0373 Seed potato production at the private sector in Bangladesh. Hashem, A; Hussain, MM; Monninkhof, G. Bangladesh - Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 100-105. The present situation of seed potato production and supply in Bangladesh both under public and private sectors have been discussed. The pre-requisites for a seed

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potato industry under private sector have been indicated and the role and components of a separate project have been suggested. 0374 Seed potato production in Bhutan. Tshering, K; Namgay, K; Gurung, PR. NASEPP, Paro (Bhutan) Potato seed systems in Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan: Workshop. Islamabad, Pakistan, 2-4 October 1994. 69-74. Potato seed tuber production in Bhutan is described with reference to government policy, organization of national seed production scheme and economics of seed production. 0375 Seed potato production in nurseries utilizing true potato seed. Dissanayake, MLBB; Weerasinghe, SPR. Regional Agricultural Centre, Bandarawela (Sri Lanka) Proceedings of the 42. Annual Session. Part 1: Sectional Summaries. Colombo (Sri Lanka). Dec 1986. p. 43. 0376 Seed potato production in NWFP and Pakistan. Shuja, MA. Vegetable Seeds and Seed Potato Project. Proceedings of Potato Seminar 1986. 1986. p. 80-85. Seed is the basis of crop production and pure healthy and viable seed is the basis of successful crop production. Once a pathogen enter the plant or seed it not only stay but goes on multiplying. Therefore, due consideration has to be given to seed in potato production. Potato is grown on 2.03 and 042% of total cropped area in NWFP and the country respectively. Soil, climate and physiological condition of the seed crop and its postharvest handling directly affect the next crop. The present project commenced in 1978 and it's IInd Phase in 1984 for 4 years, with the cooperation of NARC. The main step has been the transfer of technology from NARC to Battakundi farm including pathogen tested free planting material, meristem tissue culture, transplanting and bulking at Battakundi Farm. 0377 Seed potato production in tropical countries under Pseudomonas solanacearum conditions: sources and management of planning material. Zaag, PV. Bangladesh - Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 35-42. Problems of potato production caused by bacterial wilt in a number of sub-tropical countries and different methods of tackling the problem are discussed.

0378 Seed potato production project - Sri Lanka. Consultancy visit from January 4-20, 1982. Beukema, HP. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) 1982. 15 p. 0379 Seed potato production techniques. Hussain, KI; Tariq, AH. Ayub Agricultural Research Institute. 1976. Seeds potato production course was organized by the International Potato Centre, Lime, Peru in collaboration with the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad. The main objectives of the course were: a) To over come the import of seed potato from other countries b) To locate the places where healthy seed can be raised under our conditions c) To organize the seed multiplication programme for meeting our requirements and d) To impart practical training to our research workers on sound lines. 0380 Seed potato production through tissue culture at Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad. Mirza, MS. Agricultural Prices Commission. Improving Productivity and Marketing of Crops. 1990. The culture of tissue under acetic conditions to achieve certain aims is the technique of plant tissue culture. This technique has found broader applications in plant regeneration, plant breeding, plant pathology and other fields. Increasing interest in recent years in regeneration of virus free plants through invitro culture has resulted in eradication of several viruses in several plant genera. Seed potato production in the plains of Punjab has been a problem due to viral diseases. These viruses are now detected through infectivity test, serological test and electron microscopy. Virus eradication occurs through meristem and callus culture elimination of viruses through tissue culture does not result in immunity hence these cured plants should be propagated under aseptical conditions. Through tissue culture technique seed potato production has increased since 1984 and can be used for export, if this industry is taken upon in scientific lines. 0381 Seed potato production through tissue culture in the province of NWFP. Shuja, MA. Ziraat Sarhad (Pakistan). 1989. v. 12(12), p. 16-18. Article provides information about the tissue culture techniques being utilized for the production of improved and healthy seed potatoes in NWFP. 0382 Seed production ability of Chinese cabbage in Bangladesh. Kundu, BC; Hossain, MM; Quadir, MA; Bhowmik, A. Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture (Bangladesh). 1996. 6: 2, 133-137. A study was conducted with 8 heading Chinese cabbage genotypes to assess their flower and seed pro-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

duction ability at Gazipur, Bangladesh during October 1992 to April 1993. All genotypes produced flowers under natural conditions. There were significant differences among the genotypes in respect of flowering behaviour and seed yield. Seed yield was highest (99.31 kg/ha) from the genotype 77 M (3)-27 and lowest from the genotype Hybrid <hash> 62 (42.13 kg/ha). The genotype 77 M (3)-27 was the best in respect of seed yield and other attributes. 0383 Seed production activities in Sri Lanka. Samarasinghe, MD. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Seeds Div.; USAID, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) Diversified Agricultural Research Project. Proceedings of the Sri Lanka Seed Workshop. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka), 26 Jan - 6 Feb 1987. p. 27-40. 0384 Seed production and certification, Sri Lanka. Project findings and recommendations. Terminal report. FAO, Rome (Italy). Agriculture Dept. 1979. 41 p. 0385 The seed production and input storage project: what it is and its objectives [Nepal] Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal); Agricultural Input Corporation, Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Seminar on Seed Production, Processing and Storage. Kathmandu (Nepal), 1 Jul-28 Aug 1981. p. 27-32. 0386 Seed production and inputs storage project. Consultancy report on vegetable seed production [Nepal] Harrington, JF. International Agricultural Development Service, New York (USA) 1981, 73 p. 0387 Seed production and its constraints in Pakistan [cereals, cotton] Khan, AR; Qayyum, A. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad. Symposium on seed production and technology infrastructure. Aleppo (Syria), 22-26 Mar 1981. 23 p. 0388 Seed production and privatization working group. Senanayake, YDA. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Seeds Div. Diversified Agricultural Research Project: Proceedings of the Sri Lanka Seed Workshop. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka), 26 Jan-6 Feb 1987. p. 316-321. 0389 Seed production and research in India. Agrawal, PK. Awamia (Morocco). Dec 1988. (no.65) p. 107-119.

0390 Seed production and yield components as affected by age, size and spacing of stecklings in turnip (Brassica rapa L.) Ahmad, B; Mohammad, I; Khan, H; Iqbal, SZ. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 1999, 15: 5, 399-404. In a field experiment in 1996/97 in Peshawar, Pakistan, turnip stecklings 2, 3 or 4 months old of 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 cm were planted at spacings of 45 X 15, 30 or 45 cm. Three-month-old stecklings of 7.5 cm at 45 X 15 cm spacing gave the best seed yields. 0391 Seed production and yield components as effected by age, size and spacing of stecklings in turnip (Brassica rapa L.) Ahmad, B; Mohammad, I; Khan, H; Iqbal, SZ. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan). (1999). v. 15(5) p. 399-404. An experiment was conducted at Malakandher Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 1996-97 to study the effect of steckling ages (two, three and four months old stecklings), steckling sizes (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 cm) and steckling spacings (45x45, 45x30 and 45x15 cm). Three months old stecklings produced the highest number of siliquae per plant at 5 % level of confidence. However, the age of steckling was ineffectual to cause considerable differences in the number of seeds per siliqua. The number of siliqua and seed per siliqua were positively correlated with steckling size and spacing. Three months old stecklings gave significantly more seeds followed by four months old stecklings and two months old stecklings. Three months old stecklings with 7.5 cm steckling size and 45x15 cm spacing was superior to other treatments considered in this experiment. 0392 Seed production capabilities of some exotic cultivars of turnip. Khokhar, KM; Qureshi, KM; Khan, MA; Hussain, SI. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Pakistan). (1988). v. 25(3) p. 206-211. 0393 Seed production, crop establishment, and incorporation practices as agronomic constraints in green manure production system. Palaniappan, SP; Budhar, MN. Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Centre for Soil and Crop Management Studies. Green manure production systems for Asian ricelands: selected papers from the International Rice Research Conference. 1994. p. 83-97. Green manure (GM) is an important component of low-input sustainable agriculture; however, its use has declined even in areas where it was traditionally practiced. Large-scale adoption of GM is limited by several agronomic constraints: shortage of good quality seed, problems of crop establishment, difficulties of incorporating biomass into the soil, and lack of cost51

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rating biomass into the soil, and lack of cost- effective technology. This paper reviews the research efforts to overcome these constraints and highlights future research and development needs. 0394 Seed production in castor. Chand, P. Indian Farming (India). (Aug 2001). v. 51(5) p. 15. Castor (Ricinus communis Linn.), a highly skilled and specialized process because of the characteristics breeding system and the complexity of sex mechanism that it has. The extent of cross-pollination mainly depends on the direction and velocity of wind which is the primary source of pollen dispersal. Adoption of a wide isolation becomes difficult in areas where seed production overlaps with commercial crop. It is therefore, preferable to locate seed production in non-conventional areas and season situations distinctly different from commercial crop to ensure the purity of seed. 0395 Seed production in government farms. Tharmarajah, SK; Fernando, KKS; Herat, LG; Obeyratne, WM. Asian Sweetpotato and Potato Research and Development, P.O. Box 933, Manila (Philippines) Summaries and abstracts of research and development activities July 1995-June 1996. Nov 1996. p. 13. The effort to decentralize basic seed production from Bandarawela to other government farms in Sri Lanka has gained a modest success on its second year of implementation. From July 1995 to June 1996, a total of 17,300 RSC, 600 kg G0, 6.0 tons G1, 3.0 tons G3 and 14 tons G4 seeds of Desiree were produced in five farms. 0396 Seed production in India: example of tomato hybrid. Duquesne, M; Couvert, M; Livet, J. PHM Revue Horticole (France). (Jun 1999). (No 404) p. 49-51. 0397 Seed production in jowar [sorghum] Dabholkar, AR; Tikka, SBS. Indian Farming (India). (Sep 1981). v. 31(6) p. 5-9. 0398 Seed production in onion as influenced by time of bulb planting and cut treatments. Nehra, BK; Malik, YS; Yadav, AC. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research. 1989, 19: 3, 225-229; 10 ref. A field study was carried out on onion cv. Hisar-2 during 1985/86 and 1986/87. The nine treatment combinations consisted of 3 dates of planting (16 Oct., 31 Oct. and 15 Nov.) and 3 cutting treatments (whole bulb, removal of the top 33% of the bulb, and two longitudinal incisions through the apex of the bulb to half way, intersecting at right angles). The bulbs were immersed in 0.2% dithane M-45 for 5 min. before planting. Bulbs were planted at a spacing of 45 X 30 cm. P2O5 at 50

kg/ha was applied at planting and 50 kg N/ha was applied in 3 equal split applications at planting, 45 d after planting and at the time of scape initiation. Highest number of scapes/plant (9.8), seed yield/umbel (3.16 g), seed yield/plant (18.97 g) and seed yield (13.69 q/ha) were obtained with whole bulb planting on 16 Oct. 1986. This treatment also resulted in the best results in the 1985planting season. Cutting the bulbs had a negative effect on yield attributes and seed yield at all planting dates. Seed yield declined as planting was delayed until 15 Nov. 0399 Seed production in rice [India] Tyagi, CS; Lal, S. Indian Farming (India). (Dec 1980). v. 30(9) p. 9-10. 0400 Seed production in wheat. Randhawa, AS. Indian Farming (India). (Feb 1983). v. 32(11) p. 17-18. 0401 Seed production is 'Special technique' [India] Hanumaiah, L. Lal Baugh Journal of Mysore Horticultural Society (India). (Sep 1980). v. 25(3) p. 77-78. 0402 Seed production of Atylosia scarabaeoides as affected by fertilizers. Naugraiya, MN; Pathak, PS. Range Management and Agroforestry: International conference: special issue. 1994, 15: 2, 151-156; 6 ref. A. Scarabaeoides was grown on black, calcareous or loam soils with 0 or 30 kg N, 0, 30, 60 or 90 kg P and 0 or 30 kg K/ha during 1989-84. Loam soil produced higher seed yields than the black and calcareous soils. N application increased seed yields on all 3-soil types but most significantly on the black soil and in combination with P and K on the calcareous and loam soils, respectively. P fertilizer increased production on the loam soil. Applications of K were only significant in combination with N on the calcareous soil. 0403 Seed production of berseem varieties as influenced by cutting dates and irrigation. Uppal, HS; Cheema, SS; Walia, AS. Research and Development Reporter. 1991, 8: 2, 186-188; 3 ref. Trifolium alexandrinum grown for seed in the Indian Punjab is normally sown by early Oct. As sowing by Oct. is often not possible due to the previous crop being present, the possibility of sowing T. alexandrinum in Jan. was investigated. cv. BL-1 and BL-10 sown in Jan. were cut for the last time for forage on 1 or 15 Apr. after receiving 13 and 16 irrigations, respectively. After these dates, the seed crops were irrigated at cumulative pan evaporations (CPE) of 20, 40 or 60 mm. Seed crops were harvested in June. Seed yields were 0.45 and 0.40 t/ha in crops last cut on 1 and 15 Apr., respectively, and were 0.51, 0.48 and 0.30 t with irrigation applied at 20, 40 and

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

60 mm CPE, respectively. Seed yield was 13% higher in cv. BL1 than BL10. 0404 Seed production of cauliflower [Nepal] Thapa, P. Krishi (Nepal). (Jan-Feb 1983). v. 19(5) p. 10-13. 0405 Seed production of leafy vegetables. Kanwar, JS. Seeds and Farms. 1990, 16: 1-2, 6-8; 3 ref. The commonly grown cultivars of Palak [spinach beet] and Methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum and T. corniculata) in India, their soil and climatic requirements, and isolation distances required to maintain genetic purity by preventing cross pollination are described. Cultural practices including sowing date and rate, spacing, fertilizer application and irrigation interval are detailed. Roguing, pest and disease control, and harvesting and threshing are discussed. Seed quality standards are given for both crops. 0406 Seed production of muskmelon hybrid "MH10" on commercial scale. Tarsem Lal. Punjab Vegetable Grower. 1995, 30: 47-49. MH10, a muskmelon [Cucumis melo] hybrid recommended for general cultivation in the Indian Punjab, is an F1 hybrid between the gynoecious line WI998 and Punjab Sunehri. Information is presented on: characteristics of MH10 and its inbred parents; maintenance of parental lines; hybrid seed production, including field arrangement for planting the inbred parents, isolation and roguing, bees as pollinating agents, and harvesting the fruits and seed extraction; and yield of F1 seed. 0407 Seed production of Pahadi rai [Brassica rugosa, India] Rai, B. Indian Farming (India). (Jul 1980). v. 30(4) p. 15-16. 0408 Seed production of radish (CV. Red bombay) under different water regime. Islam, A; Quadir, MA; Karim, AJMS; Akanda, I. Institute of Postgraduate Studies in Agriculture, Salna, Gazipur (Bangladesh) Abstracts of Annual Research Review. 1989. p. 18. Seed production of radish (cv. Red Bombay) was observed under five moisture regimes viz. no irrigation, and allowing 60, 45, 30, and 15% depletion of soil available water. It was observed that the treatment allowing 60% depletion of soil available water showed increased number of pods and weight of seeds per plant whereas control (no irrigation) treatments showed poor performance in this respect, the two treatments allowing 45 and 30% depleted soil available water showed moderate response whereas treatment allowing 15% soil available water showed similar poor response as control treatments.

0409 Seed production of temperate vegetables - a perspective in Spiti Valley. Jangpo, B; Malhotra, SK. Seeds and Farms. 1991, 17: 11-12, 6-7. Temperate vegetable crops suitable for production of fresh vegetables and seeds in 3 zones (3000-3400 m, 3400-3800 m and >3800 m alt.) of the Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh, are described. Peas, cabbages, turnips, radishes, bush beans and potatoes are the most widely grown crops. 0410 Seed production of tomato as influenced by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization. Sharma, SK. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1995, 16: 3, 399-400; 5 ref. The effects of N (30, 60, 90 or 120 kg/ha), P (30 or 60 kg P2O5/ha) and K (30 or 60 kg K2O/ha) on seed production by tomato (cv. Solan Gola), growing in Himachal Pradesh, were investigated. Plant height, fruit number, seed yield/plant and seed yield/ha increased with increasing rates of N and P. The highest yields of seeds were observed in the presence of 120 kg N/ha and 60 kg P2O5/ha (189 and 154 kg/ha, respectively). Plant height, fruit number, seed yield/plant and seed yield/ha decreased with increasing rates of K; the highest seed yield (172 kg/ha) was observed at 30 kg K2O/ha. 0411 Seed production of Toria 'type 9' [Brassica campestris Rape, India] Rai, B. Indian Farming (India). (Jul 1983). v. 33(4) p. 17-19. 0412 Seed production of vegetable crops-II : Onion A Review. Naik, LB; Srinivas, K. Agricultural Reviews (India). (Jun 1992). v. 13(2) p. 59-80. 0413 Seed production of velvet beans, sunnhemp and pillipesara as influenced by plant density and phosphorus application. Thomas, L; Palaniappan, SP. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1998, 85: 1, 35-38. In field experiments conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 1993-94, the optimum spacing and P level for seed production of three green manure crops, pillipesara (Phaseolus trilobus [Vigna aconitifolia]), sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea) and velvet beans (Stizolobium deeringianum [Mucuna deeringiana]) were investigated. Velvet beans produced the highest seed yield of 2.03 t/ha in the northeast monsoon (NEM) season while sunnhemp produced a high yield of 1.13 t/ha in the southwest monsoon season. Pillipesara produced a maximum of 795 kg/ha in the NEM season. Seed production varied with season. Highest seed yield was obtained at the widest spacing of 60X20 cm in all the three crops. Application of 50 kg P2O5/ha significantly

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increased the yield components and seed yield. High net returns and benefit: cost ratio were obtained in velvet beans grown in NEM season. 0414 Seed production potential of different genotypes of onion. Sidhu, AS; Kanwar, JS; Chadha, ML. Onion Newsletter for the Tropics. 1996, No. 7, 38-41; 5 ref. During 1988-89, the seed production potentials of 30 genotypes of onion were investigated at Ludhiana. The maximum seed yield was obtained from the variety Punjab Red Round (1.0 t/ha) followed by VL67 (0.87 t/ha), Country White (0.89 t/ha), Sel-102- 1 (0.87 t/ha) and PWO1 (0.87 t/ha). The higher seed in these genotypes was related to higher numbers of seed stalks/plant and to wider umbel diameter. It was concluded that the number of seed stalks/plant is the most useful characteristic either independently or in combination with umbel diameter, for selecting for seed yield in onion seed crops. 0415 Seed production potential of five onion entries [of Bangladesh, Burma, India and Pakistan. Quadir, MA; Ali, M. Institute of Postgraduate Studies in Agriculture, Salna, Gazipur (Bangladesh) Abstracts of annual research review. 1989. p. 19. Seed production parameters of Taherpuri, Burma long, Burma spindle, Indian and Pakistani entries were evaluated. Burma spindle produced maximum no. of umbels and seeds and higher seed weight per plant. This was followed by Taherpuri and Burma long with moderate seed yield. Both Pakistani and Indian entries showed poor performance; Indian being the poorest. 0416 Seed-production potential of oat (Avena sativa) as influenced by cutting management and nitrogen. Patil, SK; Pisal, AA; Khot, RB; Desale, JS. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1993, 38: 3, 389-391 In a field experiment during the winter seasons of 1988-90 at Rahuri, Maharashtra, forage oat cv. Kent produced seed yields of 2.39 and 2.87 t/ha in the respective seasons, whereas cutting the crop after 50 or 70 d growth for forage gave yields of 1.98 and 2.23 t, and 0.87 and 0.97 t, respectively. Seed yield increased with increase in N fertilizer rate (40, 80 or 120 kg N/ha). 0417 Seed production potentialities of cauliflower planted at different dates. Halim, GMA; Elias, M; Miah, MRU; Ahmed, AU. Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture. 1995, 5: 1, 67-70; 7 ref. In a trial in 1991-92 at Jamalpur in Bangladesh, 5 cauliflower cultivars were planted on 10 or 19 October or 2 or 10 November. The number of flower stalks per plant, pods per plant, seeds per pod and seed yield decreased as planting was delayed after 10 October. The

variety Agrahyani showed better performance. Averaged over planting dates, seed yields from cultivars Kartika and Agrahyani were higher than from the other 3 cultivars. The highest seed yield (451.67 kg/ha) was obtained from cv. Patnai planted on 10 October, and the lowest seed yield (78.33 kg/ha) from the same cultivar planted on 10 November. Seed yield in cv. Poushali was higher at the intermediate planting dates than at the earliest and latest ones. 0418 Seed production, processing and distribution system at private level [in Bangladesh] Siddique, BI. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Seed Certification Agency, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the national seed technology Workshop - 1985. Dhaka (Bangladesh), 1987. p. 129134. It is an established factor that a very insignificant part of the total seed requirement of country is being produced by the public sector agencies. Though there are immense possibilities for growth of seed industries at the private level, no such industry has yet developed any where in the country for want of pioneers in the line. No attempt from government side has yet been taken to attract private farming enterprises to set up seed production, processing and marketing on industrial basis. More than 90% of the seed is being produced by the farmers themselves. There is no system for field inspection, seed testing and other measures of quality control and hence deterioration of genetic purity of seeds must occur. Farmers in general have no scientific idea of seed processing and preservation. They simply apply their traditional methods of sun drying of seeds, storing them in earthen pots and gunny bags etc. Lack of knowledge of required moisture content level results in deterioration of germination capacity of their seeds. Privatization of seed industry is important. But there are problems, e.g., lack of knowledge of modern seed technology, lack of facilities for processing, preservation and marketing, financial inability, reluctance of farmers to accept new varieties, fluctuation of varietal demand resulting uncertainty of the kinds of seeds to import. Lack of subsidy in seed distribution and insufficiency of HYV seeds for seed multiplication. To encourage seed industries at the private sector, some public sector agency should come forward to organisms them and provide facilities for training of personnels, necessary equipments, and marketing of their produces. 0419 Seed production, processing and distribution system of Bangladesh jute research institute. Ali, MM. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Seed Certification Agency, Dhaka (Bang-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

ladesh) Proceedings of the National Seed Technology Workshop - 1985. Dhaka (Bangladesh), 27-28 Jan 1985. p. 122-128. 0420 Seed production, processing and distribution system of BADC. Huda, MN. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Seed Certification Agency, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the national seed technology Workshop - 1985. Dhaka (Bangladesh), 1987. p. 115-121. 0421 Seed production studies in muskmelon under different planting density and fertility levels. Pandita, VK; Randhawa, KS. Seed Research. 1992, publ. 1994, 20: 2, 144-146; 6 ref. The muskmelon cv. Pusa Madhuras was planted at 5 000, 6 666 and 10 000 hills/ha (3 seeds/hill, 2.0, 1.5 and 1.0 m apart, respectively on 2-m-wide beds) and fertilizer applied at zero, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha and zero and 60 kg P2O5/ha. The optimum seed yield was obtained with a planting density of 6 666 hills/ha and fertilizer applications of 50 kg N/ha and 60 kg P2O5/ha. 0422 Seed production study on cauliflower cv. Kibo Giant, carrot cv. New Kuroda and elite onion varieties during 1993/94 season. Bhattarai, SP; Subedi, PP. Working Paper - Lumle Regional Agricultural Research Centre. 1996, No. 96-25, 19 pp.; 3 ref. Seed production by cauliflower cv. Kibo Giant was studied in 1993/94 at 5 sites at altitudes ranging from 800 to 2000 m asl. Seed production was achieved at all sites but seed yields were higher at Mallajh and at Lower Salija than at the other sites. Seed production was studied in carrot cv. New Kuroda at 2 sites but red ant damage to the crop before flowering was too severe. Onion seed production was studied at 4 sites using the elite cultivars Regel PVP, Early Red and Red Synthetic. Seed was successfully produced at altitudes of 800-1200 m. Seed yields were highest in Regel PVP followed by Early Red. 0423 Seed production study on cauliflower var. kibo giant and new elite onion varieties (regal pvp, early red and red synthetic) conducted at outreach research sites 1994/95. Jaiswal, JP; Subedi, PP. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Pokhara, Kaski (Nepal) Jul 1996. 14 p. Two seed production experiments, one each on cauliflower and onion, were carried out in farmers field at different Outreach Research (OR) sites and Off-station Research (OSR) sites (800- 1500m asl) in research command area (RCA) of Lumle Agricultural Research Centre (LARC) during 1994/95 under Horticultural Outreach Research Project. The objective of these experiments was

to study the feasibility and potentiality of cauliflower and onion seed production in LARC's RCA. 0424 Seed Production technology for berseem [clovers] Ram, C; Tyagi, CS; Singh, O; Sardana, RK. Indian Farming (India). (Sep 1984). v. 34(6) p. 3-4. 0425 Seed production technology for cowpeas. Tyagi, CS; Paroda, RS; Lodhi, GP. Indian Farming (India). (Oct 1982). v. 32(7) p. 15-16. 0426 Seed production technology for Guar [clusterbean] Tyagi, CS; Paroda, RS; Lodhi, GP. Indian Farming (India). (Jul 1982). v. 32(4) p. 7-9. 0427 Seed production technology of ICPH 8 pigeonpea. Srivastava, DP; Asthana, AN; Lal, S. Indian Farming. 1993, 43: 4, 7, 9-10. Cajanus cajan hybrid ICPH8 was developed at ICRISAT during 1981 by crossing MS Prabhat (DT) as male sterile parent and ICPL161 as pollinator. Optimum seed production was obtained by growing the parents in rows in a respective ratio of 5:1. As pigeon pea is crosspollinated by insects, insecticide was applied. ICPH8 has produced 41, 52 and 15% higher yields than controls UPAS120, Manak and ICPL87, respectively. It is of indeterminate habit, semi-spreading with a height of 140 cm and crop duration of 115-135 days. ICPH8 was released in 1991 for cultivation in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. 0428 Seed production technology of sword bean in foothills of Manipur. Singh, SP; Yadav, DS. Seeds and Farms. 1991, 17: 11-12, 9-11. Plant and seed characteristics of sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) cultivars Manipur Local (bush type) and Faizabad Local (pole type) are tabulated. Recommended sowing dates and rates, spacing, manures and fertilizer, irrigation, cultural practices, roguing, harvesting and plant protection practices are briefly described. 0429 Seed Technology Section [seed production and protection, hill area, Nepal] Bhattarai, MR; Hunter, IG. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta (Nepal) PAC Annual Report, 1980-1981. 1981. p. 200-212. 0430 Seed village for increasing grain production. Agrawal, PK. Barley and Wheat Newsletter (ICARDA). (Jul 1990). v. 9(2) p. 33-35. 0431 Seed yam production through minisetts. Kurup, GT; Palaniswami, MS; Potty, VP; Padmaja, G; Kabeerathumma, S (eds.) Central Tuber Crops Research

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Institute, Trivandum, India. Tropical tuber crops: problems, prospects and future strategies. 1996, 306-309; 6 ref. An experiment was carried out at Trivandrum, Kerala, in 1987- 90 to determine the optimum miniset size for rapid multiplication of seed yams (Dioscorea rotundata cv. Sree Priya). Four sizes of minisets (15, 30, 45 and 60 g) were used. A 30-g miniset was best for rapid seed yam production. Although 60-g minisets gave higher yields (21.7 t/ha), multiplication ratio was only 18:1. Minisets of 30 g size were on a par with 45-g minisets for percentage sprouting. Establishment percentage, however, was higher in the former (86.8%) than in the latter (82.6%). Yield obtained from 30- g minisets (15.5 t/ha) was also on a par with that of 45-g minisets (17.3 t/ha). Multiplication ratio was 25.9:1 with 30-g minisets and 19.3:1 with 45-g minisets. Poor sprouting and establishment percentage coupled with poor yield (9.8 t/ha) were obtained with 15-g minisets. Sawdust and sand were the best seedbed media for presprouting of minisets in the nursery. 0432 Seedcane production programme in the Punjab. Garcha, AIS; Toor, SS; Sarjit Singh. Indian Sugar. 1997, 47: 2, 131-135. Details are given of a seed-cane programme monitored by Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) at 7 centres in the Punjab during 1991-96 to raise quality seedcane for early, mid-season and late sugarcane varieties. The programme consists of 3 levels of seed- cane production: breeder seed-cane produced at the PAU, foundation seed-cane generated from breeder seed-cane at mill seedcane farms and by progressive farmers, and certified seed- cane raised from foundation seed-cane in farmers' fields. Data are tabulated on areas planted to old and new cultivars, and agronomic details are given for the production of quality seed- cane. 0433 Selection criteria to screen wheat germ plasm for seed production. Ghosh, N; Das, NR. Journal of Interacademicia. 1999, 3: 1, 19-24. Twenty-two new wheat varieties together with 3 controls (UP262, Janak and Sonalika) were evaluated for bulking rate (BR), defined as dry matter accumulation rate after anthesis, and 6 yield-related traits in a field trial conducted at Kalyani. It is suggested that BR may be used as an additional selection criterion to screen wheat germplasm for seed production, particularly for areas of mild winters of short duration, as prevalent in the Gangetic plains of the New Alluvium Zone in West Bengal.

0434 Selection of open pollinated lines for true potato seed production. Abeytunge, S. Tropical Agriculturist (Sri Lanka). (1992). v. 148 p. 23-35. 0435 Selection of potato (Solanum tuberosum) crosses for production of true potato seed and varietal improvement. Singh, SV; Pandey, SK; Gaur, PC. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Aug 1994). v. 64(8) p. 562-564. 0436 Selection of seed grower and specific field for seed production [Nepal] Parajuli, BP. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal); Agricultural Input Corporation, Kathmandu (Nepal) Trainer's seminar workshop on seed production, processing and storage. Kathmandu (Nepal), 1 Jul-28 Aug 1981. p. 45-53. 0437 Sesamum seed production through intercropping system. Deshpande, SM; Kulkarni, GN; Vyakaranahal, BS; Shashidhara, SD. Farming Systems. 1992, 8: 3-4, 97-103; 6 ref. 0438 Significance of training block inspectors and farmers in the production and use of good horticultural seed. Zaman, Md. N; Gast, H. BADC, Kashimpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Organisation and management of national seed programmes. Proceedings of a follow-up seminar-workshop. 12-24 Nov 1994, Aleppo (Syria). 1996, 98-100. The importance of practical training in the field for horticultural seed production is discussed. Training of Block inspectors, nurserymen and farmers in advanced technologies for producing crops of vegetables, fruit, spices and ornamental crops from quality seed is outlined. 0439 Silk seed production in Pakistan. Siddiqui, KM. Pakistan Journal of Forestry (Pakistan). (Apr 1990). v. 40(2) p. 139-142. 0440 [Simple methods for new seed production, Nepal] Devkota, R. Shakti (Nepal). (Mar 1981). v. 2(7) p. 25-31. 0441 A situation report on vegetable seed production in the Koshi hills. Ghimire, AJ; Bhattarai, MR. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre. PAC Occasional Paper. 1994, No. 15, 1-16; 7 ref. The hill regions of Nepal have considerable potential for vegetable seed production, but lack the required infrastructure due to the preponderance of subsistence farming. Progress has been made in the Koshi hill district, but the remaining problems of producing seed have

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not been documented. This report highlights the problems of seed husbandry caused by delays in planting, limited use of fertilizers, lack of irrigation, high plant populations and the consequently low seed yields that are prevalent in the area. 0442 Soybean seed yield as influenced by various production factors in Hazara Division of NWFP [Pakistan]. Jehangire, GK; Bashir, M; Malook, I; Sahibzada, QA. Frontier Journal of Agricultural Research (Pakistan). (1984). v. 10(1-2) p. 28-34. 0443 Spacing studies in potatoes for optimum seed tubers production. Farid, M. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Horticulture. 1990, 135p. 0444 Sprouting, growth and whole seed corm production of elephant foot yam as affected by soaking of bottom corm setts in chemicals. Das, PK; Sen, H; Banerjee, NC; Panda, PK. Indian Agriculturist. 1995, 39: 3, 179-185; 6 ref. In field trials in 1990-91 at Mondouri Horticultural Research Station, West Bengal, the effects were studied of soaking bottom corm setts of elephant foot yam [Amorphophallus campanulatus] cv. Kovvur for 6 h in water, thiourea, KNO3, gibberellic acid and CCC [chlormequat]. Soaking corm setts increased sprouting percentage and growth compared with the control. The highest corm yield was obtained by soaking in 200 p.p.m. gibberellic acid. 0445 Stages of seed production and seed multiplication ratio of vegetable crops under Nepalese conditions. Lakshman, Pun. Department of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. Compendium of technical lectures on vegetable seed production, 1981-1984. Feb 1984. p. 109-113. 0446 Standardization of hand made commercial hybrid seed production in sesame. Manivannan, N; Ganesan, J; Verma, MM (ed); Virk, DS (ed); Chahal, GS. Hybrid Sesame Project, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608002, Tamilnadu, India. Heterosis breeding in crop plants - theory and application: short communications: symposium Ludhiana 23-24 February 1993. 1993, 102-103. A hand emasculation and pollination procedure for hybrid seed production was tested with the varieties Co1 and SVPR1 as pollen and seed parent, respectively. The percentage capsule set was as high as 80%. The estimated production of hybrid seed was 2.5 to 3 kg/40 m2.

0447 Standardization of time of planting of onion variety Agrifound Dark Red for seed production. Bhonde, SR; Chauhan, KPS; Panwar, DPS; Shrivastava, KJ; Srivastava, PK; Sharma, VP. Newsletter - Associated Agricultural Development Foundation. 1991, 11: 4, 4, 11. Trials were conducted with cv. Agrifound Dark Red at Jaipur (Rajasthan), Karnal (Haryana) and Nasik (Maharashtra) in the rabi [winter] seasons of 1987-88 and 1988-89. Planting dates were 1, 15 and 30 Nov. and 15 Dec. Highest seed yields were obtained with planting on 1 Nov. at Jaipur, 15 Nov. at Nasik and 15 Dec. at Karnal (7.70, 6.38 and 4.30 q/ha, respectively). 0448 Standardizing hybrid rice A line seed production. Rangaswamy, M; Sree, SR. International Rice Research Newsletter (Philippines). (Aug 1988). v. 13(4) p. 20-21. A trial to standardize A line seed production techniques was conducted in summer 1986. Zhen Shan 97A was used as the B line in the ratios 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, and 6:1. To synchronize flowering and prolong pollen supply, alternate hills of B line were pruned 15 cm above the ground 25 d after planting. Pruned hills flowered 1 wk later than nonpruned hills. Yields of A lines with pruned and nonpruned B lines were not significantly different. Seed yields of A line were equal in 4:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 5:1 row ratios, and significantly superior to those at 6:1 and 1:1. A line seed set was high with 1:1 row ratio and low with 6:1. 0449 Status of seed potato production in Sri Lanka. Samarasinghe, PWSM. Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bandarawela (Sri Lanka). Southeast Asian Program for Potato Research and Development Seed Systems Workshop. Baguio City (Philippines), 1-6 Jun 1992. p. 104-108. 0450 Status of seed production in India and nearby countries. Upadhya, MD. International Potato Center, Lima (Peru) Report of III planning conference. 1990. p. 185-195. 0451 Status of vegetable seed production in Baluchistan [Pakistan] Alizai, MA. Agriculture Research Inst., Sariab (Pakistan) Underutilized Crops of Pakistan. Islamabad (Pakistan) Underutilized Crops of Pakistan: Proceedings of a Symposium. 28-29 May 1997. 1998. p. 79-81. The four province of Pakistan comprise of various agro ecological zones which are suitable for growing a wide range of vegetables. The Mediterranean-type environment not found in other parts of the country has made

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Baluchistan a special location for vegetable seed production. Formerly, vegetable seed production was a commercial enterprise and seed were supplied not only to the Indian sub-continent but also to neighbouring countries. 0452 Studies on designing a pilot plant for the production of detoxified guar meal and guar gum from guar seeds (C. psoralioides): physico-chemical constants. Shakir, S; Begum, A; Ali, SA; Haq, SA. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research (Pakistan). (Jul 1988). v. 31(7) p. 521-523. 0453 Studies on growth and biomass production in response to application of seed oil cakes as fertilizer in Lannea coromandelica. Naidu, CV; Swamy, PM. Indian Journal of Forestry. 1993, 16: 3, 255-259; 7 ref. Deoiled seed cakes of mahua [[Madhuca longifolia], karanj [Pongamia pinnata], neem [Azadirachta indica] and castor [Ricinus communis] were applied as fertilizer to potted saplings of Lannea coromandelica. All 4 seed cakes promoted better growth than that of untreated controls. Best growth and biomass production was observed with mahua oilseed cake. 0454 Studies on hybrids seed production in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.). Devadas, VS; Seemanthini, Ramadas; Ramadas, S. South Indian Horticulture. 1993, 41: 5, 259-263; 9 ref. A complete diallel cross involving 18 parents was grown at Coimbatore during 1991. Hand pollination was initiated 51 days after sowing and continued up to 114 days after sowing. Harvesting of ripe fruit and seed extraction were carried out from 73 to 126 days after sowing. Data were collected on number of flowers pollinated, number of ripe fruits harvested for seed extraction, total number of seeds obtained and mean number of seeds/fruit for each genotype. Some 3629 flowers were pollinated and 53 499 seeds were obtained utilising 313 h of female labour for pollination and seed extraction. Ripe fruits suitable for seed extraction were obtained from 66.2% or the pollinated flowers. On average, per woman h of labour, 36 flowers were pollinated and 530 seeds were extracted. The labour to produce 1 kg of hybrid seed was 29.25 h. Seed yield/fruit was highest in White Long (29 g) and in each of the genotypes Pusa Do Mausami, Coimbatore Local and Coimbatore Long Green (26 g). 0455 Studies on impaired seed-set in the mother plant during sorghum hybrid seed production. Krishnasamy, V; Ramakrishnan, V. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1993, 80: 3, 145-149; 3 ref.

Studies on impaired seed-set during CoH2 (ms2219A X IS3541) hybrid seed production in the Coimbatore District during the December-January season revealed that 61% of ms2219A plants exhibited the symptoms of impaired seed- set. 0456 Studies on onion seed production potentialities in different parts of India. Pandey, UB; Lallan Singh; Chougule, AB. News Letter - National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation. 1994, 14: 2, 5-10. Seed yields are tabulated for onion cultivars Agrifound Light Red, Agrifound Dark Red and Agrifound Rose in various areas over 5 years. Data on average percentage germination and meteorological data are also tabulated. Rajkot is recommended as the most suitable area for onion seed production. 0457 Studies on pollination of male sterile line for foundation seed production in hybrid sunflower. Rao, GM; Nadre, KR; Suryanarayana, MC. Indian Bee Journal. 1995, 57: 4, 170-173. Male-sterile (MS) and male-fertile (MF) sunflower lines (ratio 2:1) were grown in experimental plots which were open-pollinated (by insects), or hand- pollinated, or hand- + insect-pollinated, or netted to exclude insects. The main insect visitors were Apis dorsata and Trigona iridipennis, with some A. cerana and a few A. florea. A. dorsata transferred pollen efficiently from the male to the female line; only nectar foragers visited both lines on the same foraging trip. Seed set was higher on insectpollinated plants (MS 78.75%, MF 76.42%) than on hand-pollinated plants (MS 15.43%, MF 16.86%), and seed yields were about 3 times as high. Additional handpollination of insect-pollinated plants had no significant effect. Seed yields of enclosed plants were negligible. 0458 Studies on seed production in carrot (Daucus carota). Nagalakshimi, S; Nanjan, K; Mohan, L. South Indian Horticulture. 1996, 44: 5-6, 164-165 0459 Studies on seed production of Lolium perenne L. in India. Bajwa, HS; Tiwana, MS; Puri, KP. Journal of Applied Seed Production. 1996, 14: 85-86; 4 ref. Two trials at the same site (Ludhiana, Indian Punjab) in two consecutive seasons were used to examine the effects of sowing date, sowing rate, row spacing and cutting on seed yield of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). In both the 1986/87 and 1987/88 seasons from sowings on 1, 15 or 30 October and 15 November, maximum seed yield was recorded from the 30 October sowing (372 and 387 kg/ha in the 2 seasons, respectively). Seed yield did not differ among sowing rates of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kg ha-1, but was greater at a 60 cm row

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spacing than for 30 and 45 cm row spacings because more tillers were produced. Not cutting the crop significantly reduced seed yield because growth was excessive and plots lodged badly. The difference in seed yield between one early spring cut, and one autumn cut plus one early spring cut, was significant for one of the two seasons. Commercially acceptable yields of perennial ryegrass seed (200- 400 kg ha-1) can be obtained provided irrigation is available. 0460 Studies on seed production techniques in tropical cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) Singh, JP; Ramesh Pathak. Crop Research Hisar (India). 2001, 22: 1, 29-31; 3 ref. The effects of curd treatments (scooping and nonscooping) on cauliflower (cultivars Narendra Gobhi-1 and Pant Subhra) were investigated in Uttar Pradesh, India [date not given]. The number of days required for flower initiation and maturity was greater in Pant Subhra than Narendra Gobhi-1. Pant Subhra also recorded higher number of days from transplanting to maturity and seeds per siliqua. The scooping treatment significantly reduced the number of days required for flowering, the number of seeds per siliqua and seed yield in both cultivars. The test weight of seeds produced from scooped plants was 0.44 g more than that obtained from non-scooped plants. Irrespective of cultivars, scooping also improved the seed vigour. 0461 Studies on the 2,4-D induced spike malformation in wheat and determination of safe time of its application for seed production. Atwal, SS; Sinha, SN; Sharma, SP. Seed Research. 1992, 20: 1, 1-6; 11 ref. Eight wheat cultivars grown at Karnal in winter 1988/89 were sprayed with 0.4 kg 2,4-D/ha at 30, 35, 40 or 50 d after sowing (DAS). Cv. Arjun was most susceptible to damage from 2,4-D, followed by HD-2189. Susceptibility to spike malformation varied with growth stage; cv. HD-2204, Sonalika, HD-2329, HD-2285 and HP- 1205 were less susceptible at 50 DAS (2.6-11.7% spike deformity) than at earlier growth stages, while susceptibility in Kalyansona was higher in later growth stages. Application date did not affect yield components, seed yield or seed germination. 0462 Studies on the effect of different production factors on yield of seed cotton of G. hirsutum (varRHV-1) under summer conditions. Suryavanshi, GB; Tendulkar, AV; Khetmalas, MB; Ransing, SK. Journal of Cotton Research and Development. 1993, 7: 2, 259-264; 11 ref. In field trials in the summer seasons of 1988-90, cotton grown with a full package of recommended prac-

tices comprising use of pure seed of an improved cultivar (RHV-1), spacing of 90 X 60 cm, applying 80 kg N + 40 kg P + 40 kg K/ha, weeding 3 times, 6 insecticide sprays and irrigation at intervals of 10-12 d yielded 1869 kg seed cotton/ha. Yield was reduced to 1625 kg when a seed mixture was used, to 1542 kg at 60 X 60 cm spacing, to 1409 kg when the fertilizer rates were halved and to 1210 kg with no fertilizer. Applying only 3 or no plant protection sprays reduced yields to 1298 and 1216 kg, respectively, and crops irrigated at 20-d intervals yielded 1458 kg/ha. With only one weeding at 30 d after sowing or with no weeding, yields were 684 and 323 kg, respectively. Absence of weeding drastically reduced the number of bolls/plant and boll weight. 0463 Studies on the effect of irrigation on seed production of fodder sorghum. Nathu Singh; Narang, RS. Research and Development Reporter. 1993, 10: 1-2, 2225; 3 ref. In field experiments during the kharif [monsoon] seasons of 1985 and 1986 on loamy sand soil, fodder sorghum cv. SL-44 grown for seed was irrigated at cumulative pan evaporations (CPE) of 60, 90, 120, 150 or 180 mm throughout the season or at 60, 90 or 120 mm CPE until mid Sep. and then 45 mm until harvest. Seed yield was highest with irrigation at 60 mm CPE, but differences between treatments were not statistically significant. It is concluded that seed yields of fodder sorghum were affected by factors other than moisture in this region. 0464 Studies on the method of hybrid seed production in oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus), 3: role and activity of insect visitors in pollination and seed set. Satyanarayana, AR; Seetharam, A. Seed Science and Technology (Netherlands). (1982). v. 10(1) p. 13-17. A study was conducted to find out the relative role and behaviour of different insects in pollination and fertilisation in the production of hybrid sunflower seeds. The sunflower capitulum was visited during flowering by insects belonging to 21 genera of seven orders. Honey bees (Apis dorsata, A. cerena indica and A. florea) constituted more than 85% of the total insects that visited. The bee activity was highest around 10.30a.m. and 4.30p.m. It was observed that the bees tend to visit pollinator plants more frequently than the seed parent plants and their activity on female rows decreased as the distance from the pollinator row increased. 0465 Study of seed tuber production as influenced by spacing in medium early potato variety Desiree. Sohal, AH. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan) 1989, 80p.

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Research studies were carried out to observe the effect of row to row spacings like R1, R2 and R3 (65 cm, 70 cm and 75 cm) and row spacing plus plant spacings such as P1, P2 and P3 (15 cm, 18 cm and 20 cm) on potato seed tubers of variety Desiree. The parameters considered were plant emergence rate, soil coverage, number of stems, incidence of virus infection and disease on potato tubers, number and of stems, incidence of virus infection and disease on potato tubers, number and weight of tubers per plant. Effect of row spacing and its interaction with plant spacing appeared non-significant in all cases, while the effect of plant spacing gave highly significant results after 20 days, significant after week and proved non-significant in remaining cases. Row spacing have no effect on soil coverage in all cases, while plant spacing and interaction between plant and row spacing gave highly significant results after 24 days, while after 38 days the effectiveness of plant spacing as well as of interaction between the plant and row spacing was reduced. Analysis of variance related to number of stems per plant, revealed that row spacing as well as its interaction between plant spacing proved non-significant statistically. The effect of plant spacing was significant. Study of the analysis of variance on virus infection showed that row spacing and its interaction with plant spacing was non-significant, while the effect of plant spacing on the virus infection was significant. Analysis of variance for no of tubers per plant and per plot showed that effect of all factors and their interaction appeared to be nonsignificant, except plant spacing which proved highly effective regarding increasing the number of tubers. 0466 A study on mechanization of the Punjab potato crop in relation to seed production and multiplication. Khan, MB; Naumann, Etienne, K. Pak-Swiss Potato Development Project, PARC, Pakistan. 1989. The sources of seed tubers, pre-planting land preparation, planting date and techniques, cultivars used and seed tuber rates for spring and autumn crops are discussed. Possible improvements in planting equipment are considered. Fertilizer application, plant protection, irrigation, earthing-up, hoeing and roguing are described briefly. Harvesting practices, equipment used and associated problems are discussed. Post-harvest practices are outlined. Recommendations based on the survey results are listed. 0467 Study on the effects of planting space and bulb size on seed production in onion crop. Ali, N; Baloch, MA; Hussain, SA. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan). (Dec 1998). v. 14(6) p. 563-568. The effects of plant spacings (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm) and bulb sizes (3.5 - 4.5, 4.5 - 5.5. 5.5 - 7 cm dia.)

were studied to establish the optimum platting density and bulb size for higher yield of onion seed in Peshawar. Plants spaced 30 cm apart significantly delayed first flowering (120.67 digs) and seed maturity (194.44 days) and were the least infested (16.11 %) with downy mildew compared to early flowering (113.44 days) seed maturity (182.67 days) and 81.11% disease intensity in 10 cm plant spacing. Yield per plant (4.63 g) and 1000 seeds weight (2.12 g) were significantly higher in plants spaced at 30 cm compared to 1.67 g and 1.84 g respectively in 10 cm planting. Per hectare yield, however, was maximum (335.56 kg) in plants at distance (10 cm) followed by 296.53 kg seed yield from plants spaced at 30 cm distance. Larger bulb size (5.5 - 7.0 cm) significantly enhanced yield per plant (3.30 g), 1000 seed yield (2.08 g) and yield per hectare (322.88 kg) compared to 2.28 g, 1.93 g and 224.00 kg respectively in smallest bulbs (3.5 4.5 cm). Closest plaiting and larger bulbs are recommended. Hot and humid areas like Peshawar, however, are not fit for onion seed production. 0468 Sugarcane variety development, seed production and distribution. Shahjahan, M. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Seed Certification Agency, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the national seed technology Workshop - 1985. 1987. p. 76-85. 0469 Suggestions on coffee breeding and seed production - Part I. Vossen, HAM vander. Indian Coffee. 1999, 63: 5, 3-9. This article looks at: the quality of Indian coffees; coffee research and extension in India; coffee variety development (yield and quality of arabica and robusta cultivars developed in India compared to those in Kenya); and selection for drought tolerance. 0470 Suggestions on coffee breeding and seed production - part II. Vossen, HAM vander. Indian Coffee. 1999, 63: 6, 27-32. This article examines efforts in India to breed for resistance to coffee leaf rust (CLR) caused by Hemileia vastatrix. Also considered is breeding for resistance to coffee berry disease (Glomerella cingulata) and several other important coffee diseases. The contribution made by biotechnology in coffee breeding is also assessed. 0471 Survivorship and seed production of Melilotus Indica All. population in wheat fields. Yadav, AS. Journal of Phytological Research. 1994, 7: 1, 79-81; 6 ref.

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0472 A sustainable substitute to gibberellic acid for hybrid rice seed production. Ponnuswamy, AS; Prabagaran, SR. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1997, 84: 7, 384-385 In a field trial at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, a hybrid rice seed crop was sprayed at 15% flowering with 50-200 g GA3/ha, 1 or 2% urea, 0.5 or 1% boric acid, or 1 or 2% leaf extracts of Albizia amara or Leucaena leucocephala. Seed quality immediately after harvest and after 6 months storage and accelerated aging was determined. Seed yield was highest after treatment with GA3, while among the alternative treatments A. amara gave the best seed setting percentage and yield. Initial germination varied little between treatments, but after 6 months storage germination dropped to 65% in seeds produced using 200 g GA3/ha compared with 74% in controls. It is suggested that spraying with 2% young leaf extract of A. amara may be an alternative treatment to GA3 in hybrid seed production, giving reasonable seed yield and good seed quality after storage. 0473 Technical guideline for sorghum and millet seed production. Chopra, KR. Mahendra Hybrid Seeds Co., Jalna (India) 1982. 119 p. 0474 Technical report on variety evaluation, seed production and agronomic studies conducted during the year 1981-82 [vegetable seeds, Nepal] Rekhi, SS. Ministry of Agriculture, Lalitpur (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. Dec 1982. 54 p. 0475 Technical report on variety evaluation trials, [vegetable] seed production and agronomic studies conducted during the year 1982-83 [Nepal] Rekhi, SS. Kathmandu (Nepal) Jan 1984. 94p. 0476 Techniques of vegetable seed production. Rekhi, SS. Department of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. Compendium of technical lectures on vegetable seed production, 1981-1984. Feb 1984. p. 1-8. 0477 Technologies of seed cotton production in a progressive area of the Punjab [Pakistan]. Aslam, MM. Pakistan Cottons (Pakistan). (Jul 1984). v. 28(3) p. 155-171. 0478 Technology for potato seed production in hills. Garg, VK. Indian Farming (India). (Mar 1985). v. 34(12) p. 11-13.

0479 Technology for production of true potato seed. Upadhya, MD; Chandra, R. Indian Farming (India). (Mar 1985). v. 34(12) p. 18. 0480 Technology for seed production of pasture grasses. Yadav, MS; Rajora, MP; Faroda, AS (ed); Joshi, NL (ed); Kathju, S (ed); Amal, Kar. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342003, India. Recent advances in management of arid ecosystem. Proceedings of a symposium. 1999, 333-338. Most pasture grass species in India produce high fodder yields but have poor seed yield. To address this problem, studies on seed yield and its contributing characters, seed setting ability, germination, and time and method of seed harvesting were carried out at the Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur. For Cenchrus ciliaris, C. setigerus and Dichanthium annulatum a spacing of 50X50 cm and for Lasiurus scindicus and Panicum antidotale a spacing of 50X75 cm were optimum. Soaking seed in fresh water for 8-10 h before sowing improved germination and stand establishment. Significantly higher seed yield was obtained with the application of 40 kg N + 50 kg P/ha. Maximum seed yield was obtained without taking a cutting (121 kg/ha) and the lowest (23 kg/ha) was with the twice-cut regime. The time of optimum seed collection varied from 12 to 16 days after anthesis. 0481 Time of emasculation and pollination in hybrid seed production of desi cotton (G. arboreum) Deshpande, KA; Deshpande, LA; Deosarkar, DB; Kurhade, NG. Seed Research. 1999, 27: 1, 122-124. Seed production of desi cotton hybrid Pha-46 from the female parent Ph-1 and male parent Pha-46 was investigated at Parbhani, Maharashtra in 1989. Boll set was best when emasculation was done between 08.00 and 10.00 h, and pollination between 10.00 and 12.00 h the following day, although pollination could be extended up to 14.00 h. 0482 Tips for sorghum hybrid seed production in Nellore district. Lakshmaiah, K; Reddy, DL; Ramachandraiah, D. Journal of Research APAU. 1990, 18: 4, 344-345; 4 ref. The parents of sorghum cv. CSH 5, CSH 9, CSH 10 and CSH 11 were sown at 10-d intervals from 6 Oct. to 25 Nov. 1988 at Podalakur. Number of days to 50% flowering were recorded in order to determine the optimum sowing dates for synchronisation of flowering in the male and female parents. Synchronisation of flowering between the parents of CSH 10 and CSH 11 was poor, while in CSH 5 and CSH 9 the differences in flowering between the parents were only 3-5 d when sown in

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the 2nd half of Oct., and the parents of CSH 9 flowered on the same date when sown on 6 Oct. 0483 Tissue culture and rapid multiplication: essential components of a seed potato production program. Zaag, PV. Bangladesh - Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 84-89. A system of seed production which utilizes tissue culture and rapid multiplication techniques has proved highly successful in South China, Vietnam and Taiwan. The same is likely to be equally successful in Bangladesh having similar climatic conditions. 0484 To study the effect of different roots sizes on seed production of carrot (Daucus carota) Shaikh, MA. Sind Agricultural University, Pakistan. 1983. 30p. 0485 Towards improving the seed potato production scheme in Sri Lanka. Samarasinghe, PWSM. Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bandawarela (Sri Lanka). Southeast Asian Program for Potato Research and Development] Seed Systems Workshop. Baguio City (Philippines), 1-6 Jun 1992. p. 109-112. 0486 Trainer's seminar workshop on seed production, processing and storage: course syllabus [Nepal]. [Seminar Proceedings] Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Agricultural Input Corporation, Seed Production and Input Storage Project. 1 Jul-28 Aug 1981. 294 p. 0487 Trends and issues in seed production in Madhya Pradesh. Pratibha, Bhatnagar; Ganesh, Kawdia; Bhatnagar, P; Kawdia, G. Journal of Tropical Forestry. 1989, 5: 1, 36-42; 8 ref. Sal [Shorea robusta] seed is collected by the tribal people of Madhya Pradesh for extraction of the fat, which is used for edible and lighting purposes. Commercial collection is considered uneconomic, although the percentage contribution of sal seed oil as a major nonedible oil, in comparison with other minor tree based oils, increased in the late 1970s over that in the early 1970s. Data for sal seed collection for 13 yr (1973-86) were analysed in order to determine the existence of any cyclic trends in production. There was a general trend of increasing seed production in the 1970s and decreasing production in the 1980s. Alternate years were identified as bad years, both from total production figures and by analysing fluctuations in 2-yr moving averages. Seed production behaviour did not appear to be significantly

related to rainfall or dates of monsoon onset. The methods of sal seed collection used (hand picking from trees or picking from the ground after sweeping or burning) are described, and trade and employment aspects and the (adverse) implications for natural regeneration discussed. 0488 True potato seed in potato production in West Bengal. Subrata, Maity; Upadhyay, MD. Environment and Ecology. 1997, 15: 3, 646-649 True potato seed (TPS) families TPS-2 (OP), TPS1/13, TPS- 1/67, TPS-7/13 and TPS-7/67 were evaluated for seedling tuber production, and for ware tuber production from the seedling tubers, at 3 sites in West Bengal (Hooghly, 24 Parganas (N) and Nadia). Average seedling tuber yield was in the range 3.39-3.86 kg/m2 with TPS 7/13 giving the highest yield of 4.98 kg/m2 at Hooghly. The mean ware tuber yield from the seedling tubers was highest from TPS-1/13, which gave a yield of 36.7 t/ha, reaching 41.2 t/ha at Hooghly. Ware tuber yields from planting seed tuber cv. Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Badshah were lower (average yield 27.9 t/ha) with the highest yield of 30.9 t. The cost of using TPS was also found to be lower than seed tubers. 0489 True potato seed: propagule for potato production in 21st century. Upadhya, MD; Shekhawat, GS (ed); Khurana, SMP (ed); Pandey, SK (ed); Chandla, VK. International Potato Centre, SWA Region, IARI Campus, New Delhi 110 012, India. Potato: present & future. Proceedings of the National Symposium. Modipuram, India, 1-3 March 1993. 1994, 15-22; 9 ref. 0490 True seed production of "large onion" at Kalpitiya in the north western dry zone of Sri Lanka. Kuruppuarachchi, DSP. Onion Newsletter for the Tropics (United Kingdom). (1992). (no.) p. 36-39. 0491 Upland rice production with pre-treated seeds. Singh, AI; Chatterjee, BN. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Jun 1981). v. 51(6) p. 393-402. 0492 Use of coppice shoots in seed production areas of teak: a new concept. Rawat, MS; Uniyal, DP; Emmanuel, CJSK. Indian Forester - Special issue: Focus on Teak. 1995, 121: 6, 469-471; 6 ref. The creation of seed production areas is an important interim step in the tree improvement programmes to enable the supply of superior seed for afforestation until seed orchards become fully productive. In teak (Tectona grandis) seed production areas the production of seed is not only insufficient but its collection is also difficult and expensive. This paper suggests a new approach, which utilizes the excellent coppicing capacity of teak, and the

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fact that coppiced/pollarded shoots flower and fruit abnormally early. Some illustrative data are presented from trials at Dehra Dun, Uttar Pradesh. 0493 Use of honey-bee (Apis cerana indica) as pollinator in hybrid seed production on male-sterile lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Short communication. Bhale, NL; Bhat, MG. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Jan 1989). v. 59(1) p. 7477. It is necessary to ensure adequate bee visit to cotton flowers for better pollination. The hand-pollination treatments showed better performance for most of the bolls and seed characteristics, in addition to better boll setting, indicating better pollen transfer by handpollination than insect or bee pollination. 0494 Utilization of male sterility in hybrid seed production in cotton. Sisodia, KPS; Gopal, Bharadwaj; Chauhan, SVS. Plant Cell Incompatibility Newsletter. 1994, No.26, 86-88; 5 ref. Methodology used in exploiting male sterility, including cytoplasmic male sterility, in Indian work on the production of hybrid varieties is described under the following headings: male sterility as a tool in the nursery; male sterility and bollworm [Helicoverpa zea] emergence; and utilization of heterosis on a commercial scale. Associated procedures are given for reducing infestation with bollworm, and it is noted that okra leaf shape would provide more sunlight to the soil surface and better penetration of insecticide into the bud lying on the ground owing to higher bollworm mortality, and that the okra leaf trait also confers resistance to the pink bollworm [Pectinophora gossypiella]. 0495 Utilization of mustard seed protein for the production of protein enriched soft drink. Shah, WH; Yasin, M; Shah, FH. Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lahore (Pakistan) Proceedings of first national workshop on future policies regarding food processing and preservation in Pakistan. June 21-23, 1988, Lahore (Pakistan). 1989. p. 154-160. 0496 Variation of growth stages, mortality, dry matter production and seed yield of rapeseed as influenced by nitrogen, sulphur and. Ali, MH; Zaman, SMH; Hossain, SMA. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1997. 32 (1): 89-97. In field trials during the winter seasons of 1988/89 and 1989/90 in Dhaka, Bangladesh, rape cv. Sonali Sarisha was grown at densities of 100 000, 400 000, 700 000 or 1 000 000 plants/ha and given 0, 60, 120 or 180 kg N/ha and 0, 10, 20 or 30 kg S/ha. Higher N rates delayed

different growth stages and increased mortality. Dry matter (DM) production increased with increasing N rates upto 55 days after sowing (DAS), and thereafter 120 kg N maintained high DM production up to harvest. Harvest index (HI) and seed yield increased with increasing N rate up to 120 kg/ha. Higher S rates delayed different growth stages but decreased mortality. DM production increased with increasing S rate, which significantly increased seed yield and HI only in 1988/89. DM production increased with increasing plant density (PD) up to 40 DAS (up to 55 DAS in 1988/89), and thereafter 400 000 plants/ha maintained high DM production up to harvest. Increasing levels of PD up to 400 000 plants/ha significantly increased HI values, which were positively correlated with high seed yield. 0497 Vegetable in cropping systems nutritional and medical value of vegetables: introducing vegetable cultivation and seed production in the small farmer's development programme [Nepal]. Ministry of Agriculture, Lalitpur (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. Food and Agriculture Organization, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Seed Production Project. Jun 1982. 22 p. 0498 Vegetable seed production and agribusiness in Bangladesh. Huda, Md. Nawserul; Wee, MMB. Vegetable crops agribusiness: proceedings of a workshop. BARC, Farmgate, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2-4 May 1995. 1996, 70-76. The importance of site in vegetable seed agribusiness is explored. Topics covered include production, product, and marketing mix. 0499 Vegetable seed production experience at Pakhribas Agriculture Centre [Dhankuta, hill area, Nepal] Gupta, RP. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div.; Pakhribas Agriculture Centre, Dhankuta (Nepal) Proceedings of the first workshop seminar on vegetable seed production. Kathmandu (Nepal), 23-26 Feb 1982. p. 101-109. 0500 Vegetable Seed Production Project (Phase II), Nepal (1984- 1987). Project achievements. FAO, Rome (Italy) 1990. 26p. 0501 Vegetable seed production: the experience of Mollika seed company. Malik, FR; Wee, MMB. Mollika Seed Company, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Vegetable crops agribusiness: proceedings of a workshop. BARC, Farmgate, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2-4 May 1995. 1996, 6569. The history of the Mollika Seed Company is documented. Its objective was to realize the scope of the

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vegetable seed production, import and distribution sector in Bangladesh. Constraints currently facing the company are discussed along with prospects for the future. 0502 Vegetable seed production through contract growers. Hossain, Meer Mosharraf; Wee, MMB. Contract Growers, BADC, Bangladesh. Vegetable crops agribusiness: proceedings of a workshop. BARC, Farmgate, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2-4 May 1995. 1996, 5564. Vegetables play an important role as a food crop in Bangladesh. Improvements in vegetable seed production are required to meet the demand for vegetables. The Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation's project to develop vegetable seed production through a contract grower system in order to make the industry more competitive is documented. 0503 Winter vegetable seed production at Lumle Agricultural Centre - a cash crop for remote areas? Balogun, P. Lumle Agricultural Centre. LAC Technical Paper. 1989, No. 21, 17 pp.; 3 ref. This study discusses the potential for the production of temperate vegetable seed production as a cash crop in the hills of the Western Development Region of Nepal. Partial budgets are presented for the production of radish, cauliflower and broad leaf mustard seed in 2 locations in the Extension Command Area of Lumle Agricultural Centre (LAC). It is concluded that seeds of these crops are attractive sources of income relative to the common alternative crops, wheat or lentils. The study outlines support given by LAC to the farmers and examines whether LAC's role could be assumed by private seed companies in line with present Government policy. It is concluded that technically there is no real problem, but a major concern for private seed companies will be to maintain a good reputation with farmers. In the Western Region, private seed companies are widely accused of adulterating vegetable seed sold to farmers. 0504 Workshop Seminar on Vegetable Seed Production. 1. Department of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. 23 Feb 1982. 114 p.

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SEED QUALITY
0505 Accumulation of growth inhibitors in relation to viability of stored jute seeds. Bhaumik, M; Mukherji, S. Science and Culture (India). (Feb 1981). v. 47(2) p. 63-64. 0506 Ageing of French bean seeds at ambient temperature in relation to vigour and viability. Pandey, DK. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland). (1989). v. 17(1) p. 41-47. 0507 Association of seed quality of mustard with growth and yield components and its path analysis under irrigated conditions. Joshi, MD; Malik, BS; Vyas, JS. Annals of Plant Physiology. 1992, 6: 1, 103106; 7 ref. In a field trial in 1979-81 at Hissar, Haryana, mustard [Brassica juncea] cv. Prakash was given 40, 80 or 120 kg N/ha, 0, 40 or 80 kg P2O5 and irrigated at irrigation depth: cumulative pan evaporation ratios of 0.3 or 0.5. Seed yield was positively correlated with plant height, DM yield, leaf area, CGR, number of siliquas/plant, number of seeds/siliqua and leaf area duration. 0508 Association of seed yield with some quality attributes of Indian mustard. Yadava, TP; Gupta, SK; Thakral, SK; Kumar, P. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Jul 1983). v. 53(7) p. 605-606. 0509 Brassica (mustard) breeding for quality seed fat. Rahman, L. Bangladesh Association for the Advancement of Science, Dacca (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the 4th and 5th Bangladesh Science Conference. 2-5 Mar 1980. p. 9. The oil quality of mustard and rapeseed is not satisfactory for edible purposes. There has been a large volume of information on this item alone in advanced countries like Canada, Sweden, West Germany and Poland. Breeding approaches taken in many of these countries have improved the quality by reducing the contents of erucic acid and eicosenois acid from seed oil and the glucosinolates from the oil meal. The potentiality of using such programmes was reviewed in this paper. 0510 Carrot seed yield and quality as influenced by different order umbels under varying nitrogen, plant density and geometry. Satyaveer Singh; Nehra, BK; Malik, YS. Crop Research Hisar (India). 1994, 8: 3, 543-548; 10 ref. The effects of umbel order, N application (40, 80 or 120 kg/ha) and spacing (low and high density planting at different spacings) on yield and quality of carrot cv. HV-1 seeds were investigated at CCS Haryana Agri-

cultural University, Hisar during 1991-93. The average contribution to the total seed yield by main, first and second order umbels was 21, 67 and 12%, respectively. N at 80 and 120 kg/ha significantly increased the number of first and second order umbels/plant and the seed yield/ha contributed by main, first and second order umbels in comparison with 40 kg N/ha. Low density planting resulted in more umbels/plant in first and second orders. Significant increases in seed yield/ha in each order were recorded for high density planting at spacings of 45 X 20 and 67 X 13.4 cm in comparison with low density planting. Seed weight of all order umbels was significantly improved by 80 kg N/ha compared with 40 kg N/ha. High density planting in paired rows affected seed weight and vigour adversely in comparison with low density planting. The quality of seed of main and first order umbels was better than that of second order umbels. 0511 Changes in quality attributes of paddy seeds continuously maintained by farmers. Sahoo, P; Swain, SK; Kar, BC; Senapati, N. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research. 1989, 2: 3-4, 180-182 The quality of seeds maintained by farmers for 3 successive generations of rice crops first grown from certified seeds was investigated. Seeds maintained by farmers for different periods showed no appreciable difference in 1000-seed wt and percentage germination compared with certified seeds. However, 3 samples of the 1st generation, 5 samples of the 2nd generation and 7 samples of the 3rd generation did not meet certification standards for physical purity. 0512 Changes in seed quality on deterioration in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Doijode, SD. Progressive Horticulture. 1988, 20: 3-4, 253-256; 9 ref. Seeds of cv. Arka Vikas were subjected to accelerated aging at 40oC and 95% RH for up to 20 days. Seed viability was assessed by germinating the seeds, and vigour by measuring seedling growth. Germination decreased from 71% initially to nil after 12 days of treatment. There was excessive leaching of soluble sugars and free amino acids from deteriorating seeds. Accelerated aging for 8 days is considered optimal for predicting seed quality in tomatoes. 0513 Changes in seed viability and vigour in winter squash seeds affected by ageing. Doijode, SD. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 1989, 18: 3-4, 250-252; 6 ref. Seeds of the Cucurbita maxima cultivar Arka Suryamukhi, exposed to 40oC and 90% RH for up to 20 days, were germinated at 20-30o. Germination decreased from 96% on day zero to 14% on the 20th day of accelerated aging. There was a negative correlation between the percentage of seed germination and leaching of soluble sugars and free amino acids from the seeds with aging. Accelerated aging for 8 days was found optimal for relative evaluation of seed longevity.

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0514 Coffee seed quality as influenced by the position of seed on the plant. Dharmalingam, C; Jayaraj, T; Vijayakumar, S; Sambandamurthi, S. South Indian Horticulture. 1988, 36: 6, 345-346. Berries were collected from the top, middle and lower parts of cultivars Selection-9 and San Ramon plants. The seeds were assessed for quality attributes and the data are tabulated. Generally, the germination % and vigour index were highest for seeds collected from the lower third of the tree. The highest rates of germination of such seeds were 72% in Selection-9 and 55% in San Ramon. 0515 Combining ability analysis for seed yield and quality components of seed and oil in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Mishra, VK; Rai, M. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 1996, 56: 2, 155-161; 14 ref. Information on combining ability is derived from data on seed yield/plant and 8 quality components in a diallel set of 10 diverse linseed varieties grown in 4 environments (E). Highly significant variation was observed for GCA and SCA X E for all the characters, and SCA and GCA X E for all the traits except oil content. Among the parents, T397 proved to be a good general combiner for seed yield/plant, Neelum for palmitic acid and stearic acid contents, LCK 152 for oil, linoleic acid and reduced linolenic acid contents, and LC185 for high linolenic acid. SCA effects were high in SPC23-10 X LC185 for seed yield/plant, and oleic acid and reduced linolenic acid contents, Sweta X LCK152 for palmitic acid and oleic acid contents, and Neelum X R17 for iodine value and higher linolenic acid content. 0516 Combining ability for seed quality traits over environments in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Katiyar, PK. Crop Improvement. 1998, 25: 2, 237-239. Combining ability effects were estimated for 1000-grain weight, grain density and protein content in an 18 X 3 line X tester design under normal and late sown conditions. Both GCA and SCA effects were significant in both the environments. Genotypes UP2373, BW1049 and K8103 for 1000-grain weight and HD2281 and UP2373 for protein content were good general combiners while crosses K8353 X HD2402 for 1000grain weight, CB85 X HD2402 for grain density and HD2329 X DSN72, HUW319 X HD2402 and K8103 X DSN72 were the best specific cross combinations for protein content. 0517 Combining ability for seed yield and quality parameters in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). Devadas, VS; Ramadas, Seemanthini. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 1995, 55: 1, 41-45; 6 ref. Information on combining ability is derived from data on 6 yield components in 12 parental genotypes and their 132 F1 hybrids grown during 1991-92 in

Tamil Nadu. Cultivar MC13 was a good general combiner for seeds/fruit and 100-seed weight, and MC84 was a good general combiner for field emergence, seedling length and seedling dry weight. Six hybrids had a high degree of heterosis for total yield and number of fruits. 0518 Comparative performance of farmers' saved seed vis-a-vis quality seed for yield and seed quality parameters in guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.). Arora, RN; Het, Ram; Tyagi, CS; Jaivir Singh. Forage Research (India). 1998, 24: 3, 159-162. Five samples of farm-saved Cyamopsis tetragonoloba seed, 1 of certified seed and 3 of breeders seed were compared [in Haryana] for field emergence, genetic purity, green and dry fodder yield and seed yield. Emergence was 21.7-68.0% in farm-saved seed, 66.7% in certified seed and 70.3-76.0% in breeders seed. Only the breeders seed showed genetic consistency, with all other seed samples producing a mixture of plants with serrated and smooth leaf margins. Green fodder yield was 12.9-16.2 t/ha from farm- saved seed, 14.8 t from certified seed and 14.3-18.1 t from breeders seed; corresponding seed yields were 0.41-0.63 t, 0.68 t and 0.490.69 t. Forage yield was greatest from breeders seed cv. HFG 119, while seed yield was highest from cv. HG 75. In laboratory tests, farm-saved seed generally had lower percentage germination and more abnormal seedlings and dead seeds than certified and breeders seed, although 1 of the samples of farm- saved seed gave results comparable to the quality seed. 0519 Comparative seed quality studies on processed, unprocessed and hand cleaned wheat varieties. Patil, RB; Shelar, VR; Pokharkar, SM. Current Research University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1995, 24: 6, 115. In laboratory and field trials the effects of growing processed, unprocessed or hand cleaned wheat cv. HD-2189 or NI- 5439 seeds were studied. Physical purity and percentage seed germination were lower in unprocessed seed than processed or hand cleaned seed. Grain yield was not significantly affected by treatments. 0520 Comparative study of different varieties of maize seeds in respect of effect of recommended containers on their shelf life and viability. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Joydebpur. Annual Research Review (Entomology Division) - BARI, 1991-92. p. 111-113. Seeds of Barnali, Shuvra and Khoibhutta stored in traditional tin, polyethene-lined motka, polyethene-lined dole and polyethene- lined jute bag had the lowest infestation ranging from 0.94 to 3.27% upto 6 months of storage. After 8 to 12 months of storage Shuvra got the highest infestation (36.76 to 58.23%) followed by Barnali 36.76 to 57.06%. Seeds of Barnali, Shuvra and Khoibhutta can be stored in traditional tin, polyethenelined, motka,polyethene-lined dole and polyethene lined

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jute bag upto 60 months. This study also revealed that traditional tin and polyethene-lined motka may serve better in storing of maize seeds than polyethene-lined dole and polyethene lined jute bag. The varietal reaction also showed that the variety Khoibhutta is more resistant to Sitophilus zeamais than Barnali or Shuvra. 0521 Correlation and path analysis in seed quality characters of soybean. Jadhav, DJ; Deosarkar, DB; Jawale, LN. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 2001, publ. 2002, 26: 3, 325-326; 4 ref. Correlation and path coefficients for different seed quality traits, i.e. moisture content, test weight, germination percentage, protein content and oil content, were estimated in soyabean cv. JS-335, grown during kharif 1999, in Marathwada, Maharashtra, India. The results revealed that test weight had the highest positive direct effect on seed germination, while oil content and protein content had the highest positive indirect effects on seed germination. 0522 Correlation and path-analysis of seed quality characters in soybean. Tiwari, SP; Joshi, HJ. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 1989, 6: 1, 51-57; 14 ref. Studies were made on 7 characters in 15 cultivars. The results indicated that long hypocotyls and small seeds could be reliable criteria for the selection of genotypes with high seedling vigour. Gujarat Soybean 1 and 2, JS84-1, Sagar Selection 2, MACS13, and JS80-21 possessed high germinability and good early seedling growth. 0523 Cotton seed quality in response to magnitude of solar radiation perceived during flowering in arboreum genotypes. Dhopte, AM; Zode, NG; Potkile, NN; Rahangdale, SL. Annals of Plant Physiology. 1990, 4: 2, 175-181; 5 ref. In a field trial in 1989 five Gossypium arboreum cultivars, plants during the boll development period between 40 and 80 d after sowing were shaded to reduce solar radiation by 20 or 60% or were not shaded (control) and the effects of the treatments on seed quality were studied. Reduction in light intensity decreased 1000-seed wt and also the number of immature seeds by 51-52%. Seeds obtained from shaded plants gave laboratory germination and field emergence 3-7% higher than those obtained from control plants, except in cv. LD-133 in which germination was decreased by 16%. The seeds showed n.s.d. for plumule or radicle length. 0524 Date of sowing and harvest on seed quality and storability in mungbean. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual report 198788. p. 134. Mungbean var. Kanti was sown on three different dates viz., August 15, September 15 and October 15. Seeds of different harvests from these three sowing dates were stored in tin containers in laboratory conditions. Grain development and maturity were earlier

when sown in August than that in September or October which may be due to high temperature (32/26 C) prevailing at that time of grain formation. Seeds harvested from August, September and October sowing attained physiological maturity at 20, 22 and 24 days after flowering, respectively, javomg 11-15% moisture content and 85% germination. At the end of seven months of storage, seeds of three harvests of August sowing had 73% germination while October sowing, with only one harvest had 55% germination but seeds did not germinate after six months of storage. The result indicated that August sowing is suitable for mungbean production. Seeds harvested during October from August sowing had better quality and storability. 0525 Deterioration of different quality soybean seed under humid tropical conditions in Sri Lanka. Arulnandhy, V. Tropical Agriculturist. 1988, 144: 35-44; 14 ref. Samples of good (>80% good seed), medium (6080% good seed) and poor (<60% good seed) quality soyabean cv. Pb-1 seeds were placed in paper bags and stored in ambient conditions (23.5- 32.6oC, RH 73.2%) or in controlled conditions (20 1o, RH 60%) for 9 months. Sand and field germination, mean emergence rate and mean seedling length and DW were recorded initially and after 3, 6 and 9 months. Seed was treated with Captan before germination. Medium to good quality seed lots suffered no loss of viability and vigour after 3 months in ambient storage or 9 months in controlled storage conditions. Poor quality seed lots deteriorated rapidly under any storage conditions. 0526 Deterioration of seed quality due to interaction between Aphelenchoides besseyi and Curvularia lunata in rice. Rao, J; Kauraw, LP; Prakash, A. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Mar 1994). v. 47(1) p. 92-93. 0527 Determination of viability of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit) seed by tetrazolium test. Kumar, A; Sharma, R. Journal of the Society of Indian Foresters. Jun 1982. v. 20(1 and 2) p. 2629. 0528 Determining optimum season for the production of quality seeds in mungbean. Dharmalingam, C; Basu, RN. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1993, 80: 12, 684-688; 8 ref. In a field experiment at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, mungbeans were sown on the 10th day of every month beginning in Jan. Sowing in Apr. gave the highest seed yield of 8.41 g/plant with a relatively high percentage of hard seeds (22.3%). Sowing during May to Dec. gave low seed yields combined with 2.5-39.5% off- colour seeds. 0529 Development of a suitable method of storage to protect seed viability and spoilage of unshelled groundnut seeds. Bangladesh Agricultural Research

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Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report 1989-90. p. 394. Seeds of groundnut variety DA-1 were sun-dried to moisture content of 6.3% and having initial germination of 97% were stored in nine different containers for 11 months. Results revealed that viability of stored unshelled groundnut seeds in both traditional and improved containers was found to decrease with time. Seed viability after nine months of storage in tin containers (Traditional tin containers made of M.S sheet, outside painted and with ordinary lid) and polyethene (0.05 mm thickness) lined jute bag were 80% and 83.3%, respectively. This indicates that groundnut seeds can be stored in tin containers and polyethene- lined jute bags to maintain germination above the standard (75% germination) as approved by he Seed Board of Bangladesh. 0530 Development of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed in relation to morphology physiology, chemical composition, and vigour of seed. International Atomic Energy Agency, Austria (Vienna) Proceedings of a final Research Co-ordination Meeting of an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Programme. Vienna (Austria), 1115 January 1993. 1994. p. 25-35. Early harvested fresh bean cv. Apollo seeds having a high moisture content showed radical emergence in petridish. However, drying of the seed was essential to obtain healthy, normal seedlings. Rapid drying of threshed seeds having a high moisture content caused physical injury to the seed and ultimately reduced seed vigour. Slow drying of early harvested pods resulted in dry weight of seed. Pods harvested as early as day 3.1 and dried slowly gave seeds of high vigour. Slow drying of threshed seed harvested between day 39 and 49, with seed moisture content ranging from 54.5 to 23.5% with seed moisture content ranging from 54.5 to 23.5% in all harvests, gave high quality seeds. Seed vigour could not be related to the concentration of starch or nitrogen per gram dry weight of seed or to the development of starch grains in the cotyledon cells. However, in dried seeds, vigour was well correlated with seed dry weight. 0531 Drying and storage method to prolong seed viability and seedling vigour of rabi-summerproduced groundnut. Nautiyal, PC; Ravindra, V. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 1996, 177: 2, 123-128; 7 ref. Groundnuts cv. GG2 were grown in the FebruaryMay dry season at Junagadh, Gujarat in 1992. Pods were dried using three different methods; windrow (W, sun-dried in the field), windrow- shade (WS, pods in 1 windrow covered by haulms of plants from adjacent windrows) and DOR (Directorate of Oilseeds Research, a method in which plant bundles are positioned to shade pods from direct sunlight in the day, but pods are exposed overnight). After drying for 5d, the pods were stored in polyethylene lined gunny bags with or without desiccant (CaCl2 or silica gel, 10 g kg-1 pods). The

seeds were analysed for the retention of seed viability, seedling vigour, membrane integrity and field emergence during storage, and crop stand and pod yield after 12 months of storage. The drying and storage method significantly affected the germinability, seedling vigour and field emergence. Both root length and seedling biomass were adversely affected due to windrow drying (W). The quick loss of viability in the W treatment was associated with an increase in electrical conductivity of the seed leachate. The retention of higher seed viability and vigour in the seeds dried by the DOR method and stored with CaCl2 (DOR-C) was due to lower drying temperatures and lower pod moisture during the initial storage period. The DOR-C method was found to be an effective drying and storage method for retaining acceptable seed viability and vigour till the following years' growing season. 0532 Effect of accelerated ageing on viability and vigour of seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivar PKM 1. Ramamoorthy, K; Karivaratharaju, TV. Annals of Plant Physiology. 1989, 3: 2, 116121; 12 ref. Seeds, with a uniform moisture content of 5.5 0.5%, were kept in perforated bags in a desiccators at 100% RH and 40 1oC for 0 to 10 days. Data are tabulated on seed viability, vigour, membrane functions and phosphorus fraction. Seed germination declined from 92% at 0 day to 34% at day 10 of the aging treatment. It is suggested that, in seed testing, the relative performance of different seed lots could be predicted in a short time by using this method. 0533 Effect of Alternaria blight on yield components, oil content and seed quality of sunflower [India]. Balasubrahmanyam, N; Kolte, SJ. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Sep 1980). v. 50(9) p. 701-706. 0534 Effect of bee and hand pollination on the fruit and seed setting and quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Govinnage, DJL, Sunil. Krushi (Sri Lanka). (Jul-Dec 1993). v. 13(3+4) p. 5-9. 0535 Effect of biofertilizers on yield and seed quality parameters in cotton. Ramamoorthy, K; Jayapaul, P; Karivaratharju, TV. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research. 1991, publ. 1992, 4: 3-4, 173-175; 7 ref. Cotton cv. MCU 9 grown in the 1986-87 kharif [monsoon] seasons was seed and soil inoculated with Azospirillum or Azotobacter, and/or given different rates of N fertilizer. Yield was not increased by inoculation alone. Yield was similar in crops given 80 kg N/ha, Azospirillum + 40 or 60 kg N/ha, or Azotobacter + 60 kg N/ha. Viability of harvested seeds was not affected by treatment. 0536 Effect of bioregulators on reduction of seed number and quality parameters in Kinnow. Dhillon,

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GS; Dhatt, AS; Singh, SN. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University. 1997, 34: 2, 168-173; 9 ref. In studies carried out at Ludhiana, India, during 1994, 6-year- old Kinnow mandarin trees were sprayed in April with GA3 (40 or 60 ppm), maleic hydrazide (MH; 100 or 200 ppm), NAA (150 or 300 ppm) or combinations of MH + GA3 or GA3 + NAA. At harvest in December, the numbers of healthy/aborted seeds/fruit were determined, and data on fruit size, peel thickness and juice content recorded. Treatments had no significant effects on seed numbers or the other parameters assessed. 0537 Effect of Bipolaris sorokiniana leaf blight on some yield components and seed quality of wheat [in Bangladesh]. Rashid, AQMB; Lahiri, BP; Islam, T. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Bangladesh). (Jan 1994). v. 21(1) p. 185-192. The effect of Bipolaris sorokiniana infection causing leaf blight on some yield components and seed quality of five susceptible and highly susceptible cultivars of wheat were studied. Natural and induced epiphytotic field conditions were used. Relationship of the field incidence of leaf blight caused by the pathogen to its subsequent effects on seed quality was determined. No significant difference was found between leaf blight in inoculated plants at pre-ear emergence and post-ear emergence. But both the treatments had significantly higher effects on the disease development than that in the naturally infected plants. Artificial inoculation at pre-ear emergence attributed to maximum reduction in different yield components measured. Corresponding to the maximum disease index (83.52%), the cv. MSl suffered most than other cvs. significantly reducing length of ear (8.44cm.), number of grain per ear (30.54), 1000 grain weight (30.57 g) and single tiller weight (1.07 g), and induced maximum seed-borne infection and insignificantly increased protein content of seeds. The pathogen caused reduction of seed germination up to 59.40 to 75.80%. A comparison between leaf blight incidence in the field and quality assessments of the seeds in laboratory has been presented. 0538 Effect of boll position, different pickings and ginning interval on the quality and storability of cottonseed. Kumar, V; Mehta, NP; Gohil, MD. Cotton Development. 1988, 17: 3-4, 37-42; 20 ref. Effects of the boll position (upper, middle or lower portion of the plant canopy) and picking and ginning intervals on the quality of cottonseed were studied. The first 2 pickings and bolls borne on the upper canopy were the major factors affecting seed cotton yields. The seed index gradually decreased in subsequent pickings. The percentage of immature seeds increased in late pickings. The boll position had no significant effect on seed quality parameters. A high degree of dormancy was observed in seeds, which vanished in about 30 d after storage or with delay in ginning for 1-2 months. After release of dormancy the pickings showed no dif-

ference in percentage germination of seeds. However, subsequent storage for 6 months decreased germination in seeds of the 4th picking. 0539 Effect of bulb chopping and cuts on seed yield and quality in onion (Allium cepa L.). Karm Singh; Jandial, KC; Kohli, UK. Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research. 1990, publ. 1992, 16: 1-2, 70-73; 3 ref. 0540 Effect of bulb size and spacing on the yield and quality of onion seed (Allium cepa L.). Ambulkar, MR; Kale, PB; Gonge, VS; Mahorkar, VK. PKV Research Journal. 1995, 19: 2, 107-109; 6 ref. In a trial conducted during the winter season of 1981-82 with onion cv. Selection Local White, bulbs with a diameter of 3.0- 3.99, 4.0-4.99 or 5.0- 5.99 cm (S1, S2 and S3, respectively) were planted at spacing of 22.5 X 30.0, 22.5 X 45.0, 30.0 X 45.0 or 45.0 X 45.0 cm (SP1, SP2, SP3 and SP4, respectively). Plant height was greatest with S3SP1, while number of leaves/plant was highest with S3SP4. The time to emergence of the first flowering stalk was shortest with S3SP4 and longest with S1SP2 (52 and 64 days, respectively). Number of umbels/plant, umbel diameter, seed number/umbel and seed yield/plant were highest with S3SP4, but seed yield/plot was highest with S3SP1. 0541 Effect of chemical defoliants on earliness, seedcotton yield and quality of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) under irrigated condition. Babu, R; Rao, MVH; Muralikrishna, S; Gurumurty, R; Krishnappa, MR. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1995, 40: 1, 157-159; 3 ref. In a field experiment during the rainy seasons of 1988-89 at Arabhavi, Karnataka, cotton cv. AH 107 was sprayed at 50 or 75% boll opening with 4000 p.p.m. ethephon, 200 g thidiazuron/ha, 1 litre paraquat/ha, 10% urea or 20% NaCl. In 1988, applying the defoliants at 50% boll opening gave (across the treatments) significantly higher seed cotton yield (1.64 vs. 1.60 t/ha). The higher yield was attributed to more bolls harvested/plant and more seed-cotton yield/plant. Ethephon and thidiazuron were the best treatments. 0542 Effect of concentrations and methods of application of 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid on yield, fruit quality and seed quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Mehta, AK; Singh, RP; Lal, G. Vegetable Science. 1989, 16: 1, 1-8; 11 ref. In 2-year (spring-summer) trials with cv. Pusa Ruby, 2,4-D at 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 p.p.m. was used for seed, seedling or plant treatment. The highest early and total yields, the greatest seed weight and number, and the highest percentage germination of the seeds produced following treatment, were obtained by dipping the seeds in 2,4-D at 5 p.p.m. for 24 h before sowing. Dipping of seedlings or spraying of whole plants was less successful.

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0543 Effect of container and storage period on germination and seedling vigour in cotton MC 47 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Selvaraj, JA; Ramaswamy, KR. Cotton Development (India). (Jan 1979). v. 8(3&4) p. 36. 0544 Effect of copper ore tailings on fruit yield and seed quality of chilli. Basavaraja, PK; Nagaraja, A; Jagadeesha, RC; Yogeesha, HS; Manjunathaiah, HM. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1998, 11: 3, 815- 817. The effect of copper ore tailings (COT; 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 t/ha) on fruit yield and seed quality of chilli (Capsicum annuum) cv. Byadagi Kaddi was investigated at Hanumanamatti, India, in 1996. COT was applied in combination with different N sources (urea, DAP [diammonium phosphate] and CAN [calcium ammonium nitrate]) to field-grown plants. Ripe fruits were harvested, dried and weighed, and a sample of seeds used for germination tests. Low levels of COT (0.5 t/ha) resulted in a higher dry fruit yield when combined with urea, compared with plants untreated with COT. As COT application increased, however, the yield decreased irrespective of N form. All COT treatments produced seeds with germination rates below the certifiable limit (60%). 0545 Effect of crossing period on seed quality of a cotton hybrid. Khadi, BM; Prakasha, Rao; Yenjerappa, ST; Janagoudar, BS; Eshanna, MR; Naik, RB. Seed Research. 1996, 22: 1, 7-11; 14 ref. The quality of hybrid seeds produced during different hybridization periods was compared for DDH2 hybrid seed during kharif 1991 at Dharwad. Seeds obtained during the first six weeks were of the highest quality, followed by seeds obtained between 6 and 10 weeks; after 10 weeks seeds were of poor quality. Correlation and path analysis revealed that seed index and shoot length were the major factors contributing towards high seed quality (as reflected in high seedling vigour). 0546 Effect of culture conditions and storage environments on the quality and field performance of wheat seeds. Ahmed, M. Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. M.Sc.Ag. Thesis. 1990. The study was conducted in the Department of Agronomy, BAU to determine the effect of duration of pre-storage drying of seeds on their quality and performance and to characterize environments of commonly used storage containers and their effect on the quality and performance of wheat seed. Result from the experiment clearly indicated that lower seed rate (100 to 120 kg/ha) of the seed crop and higher level of N application (135 kg/ha) and harvesting them at the maturity stage of eight weeks after anthesis ensured production of high quality seed. The seed yielded better in the following generation under field condition, when they were sundried for a longer period between 36 and 54 hours and stored in suitable storage environments.

0547 Effect of cutting date for fodder on the seed quality of berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) sown on different dates. Narwal, SS; Sardana, V. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 1999, 4: 2, 133-136. In a field study at Hisar, Haryana in winter 1992/93 and 1993/94, T. alexandrinum was sown on 1 or 15 October or 1 or 15 November, and cut for fodder on 6 dates between 20 February and 11 April. Seed yield and quality were determined later in the season. Seed weight per capsule and 1000-seed weight increased with delay in sowing from 1 October to 15 November. Delaying the cutting time for fodder increased the 1000-seed weight and seed weight per capsule up to 12 and 22 March, respectively in 1992/93 and up to 2 March in 1993/94. Root length of seedlings decreased but shoot length increased resulting in higher root:shoot ratio with each delay in sowing time. Germination of harvested seeds and shoot length of seedlings (10 DAS) in 1992/93 and root length of seedlings in both years increased up to 12 March cutting date and decreased thereafter. Cutting for fodder on 11 April produced seeds of inferior quality. 0548 Effect of date of sowing and varieties on seed quality, yield and aphid infestation of mustard. Bhagat, DV; Singh, S. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhana Patrika. 1989, 4: 4, 179-183; 11 ref. Three varieties of mustard were evaluated for productivity under 4 sowing dates during rabi 1984-85 and 1985-86 in Madhya Pradesh, India. Sowing on 8 October resulted in higher seed yield, test weight and oil content as compared with late sowing, and aphid incidence was lowest. The improved varieties Varuna and Pusa bold were significantly superior in seed yield to a local variety. 0549 Effect of decapitation on seed yield and quality in cluster bean. Arora, RN; Lodhi, GP; Thakral, NK. Seed Research. 1998, 26: 2, 193-194. In a field study at Hisar, Haryana in the 1992 rainy season, cluster bean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba] cv. HG 365, HG 314, HG 75 and HPG 156 grown for seed were decapitated 15 cm from the top of the main shoot at 55, 70 or 85 days after sowing. Seed yield/plant was decreased by all decapitation treatments, with the biggest decreases from earlier decapitation. Seed yield/plant was highest in cv. HPG 156 and lowest in HG 365, while percentage germination was highest (about 89%) in HG 314 and HG 75. Germination was not affected by decapitation. 0550 Effect of density grading on seed quality attributes in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Selvaraj, JA. South Indian Horticulture. 1988, 36: 1-2, 32-35; 11 ref. Acid-extracted seeds of aubergine cv. Co.1 were conditioned to 8% moisture content and graded into sinkers and floaters by the water flotation method. The

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seeds that sank were of better quality than those that floated, giving 83.5% germination compared with 23.1%. 0551 Effect of detoxification of castor seed (Ricinus communis) protein isolate on its nutritional quality. Puttaraj, S; Bhagya, S; Murthy, KN; Singh, N. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Netherlands). (Jul 1994). v. 46(1) p. 63-70. 0552 Effect of different growth regulators and foliar applied nutrients [planofix, aminofol, micromix, folioronplus, wuxal and greenzit] on the yield and quality of seed cotton. Khan, S. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Agronomy. 1993, 100p. 0553 Effect of different growth regulators [SM3, NITRO/MAX, planofix and soil conditioner] on the yield and quality of seed cotton Niab-78. Chaudhry, KR. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Agronomy. 1987, 68 p. 0554 The effect of different levels and stages of irrigation applications on soil salinization and seed quality of wheat Mexi-Pak 65. Aslam, M. Journal of Agricultural Research (Pakistan). 1983. v. 21(2) p. 87-89. 0555 Effect of different levels of nitrogen and spacing on production and quality of BSH-1 hybrid sunflower. II. Influence of levels of nitrogen and spacing on hybrid seed quality. Ujjinaiah, US; Shambulingappa, KG; Murali, NM. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1990, 24: 4, 450-454; 14 ref. In field trials in 1981 at Kathalgere, parental lines CMS 234A (seed parent) and RHA-274 (pollinator) of BSH-1 hybrid sunflower were sown in 3:1 or 4:1 ratios, in rows 45, 60 or 75 cm apart and given 45, 60 or 75 kg N/ha. The highest 100-seed wt of 49.3, max. seedling vigour index (hypocotyl length in mm X percentage germination) of 9989 and germination of 93% were recorded with the 3:1 ratio, 60-cm row spacing and 75 kg N. The highest oil content of 41.8% was obtained with the 3:1 ratio, 75-cm row spacing and 45 kg N. 0556 Effect of different planting patterns on the seed yield and quality of mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) Younas, M. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Agronomy. 1993, 95p. 0557 Effect of different row spacing and N and P2O5 fertilizer levels on growth, yield, yield components and quality of seeds in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Ujjinaiah, US; Shanthamallaiah, NR; Murali, NM. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1989, 23: 2, 146-150; 10 ref. Sunflowers cv. E.C. 68415 grown in rows 30, 45 or 60 cm apart gave 2-year av. (1982-83) seed yields of 1.30, 1.45 and 1.51 t/ha, resp. Applying N + P2O5 at 40

+ 40, 60 + 60 or 80 + 80 kg/ha gave yields of 1.16, 1.50 and 1.59 t/ha, resp. Increases in spacing and NP rates increased the 1000-seed wt, percentage germination and vigour index of the resulting seeds. Oil content increased from 37.2 to 39.0% with increase in spacing and decreased from 39.7 to 36.9%, with increase in NP rates. 0558 Effect of different seed and soil treatments on the viability of pea seed. Sandhu, KS. Plant Disease Research. 1989, 4: 1, 43-47; 5 ref. Germination of poor quality seed of cv. Punjab87 was increased from 17 to 56% by using steam sterilized soil and raised further up to 69% by treating the seeds with captan. Application of a slurry containing Benlate [benomyl] at 1 g/kg and dry seed treatment with Brassicol [quintozene] at 2.5 g/kg resulted in phytotoxicity after storage for 1 year, germination being inhibited by 100 and 93.9%, respectively. 0559 Effect of different seed sizes on seed quality, crop growth and seed yield of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus) varieties. Paul, SR. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1993, 14: 3, 366-368; 4 ref. In a field experiment during the kharif [rainy] seasons of 1990-91 at Gossasigaon, Assam, seeds of H. cannabinus cv. H.C. 583, M.T.150 or Local were graded into large (retained by 9/64 inch diameter sieve), small (passed through 9/64 inch diameter sieve) or ungraded. Mean seed yields from these 3 grades were 487, 338 and 407 kg/ha, respectively. Field emergence and seedling vigour were highest with large seeds and lowest with small seeds. 0560 Effect of different storage conditions on some biochemical parameters associated with the loss of seed viability in soybean. Kaur, J; Srivastava, AK. Journal of Research Punjab Agricultural University (India). (Dec 1982). v. 19(4) p. 368-373. 0561 Effect of different storage conditions on the viability of seeds of Bambusa arundinacea. Somen, CK; Seethalakshmi, KK. Seed Science and Technology. 1989, 17: 2, 355-360; 13 ref. Seeds of Bambusa arundinacea having an initial moisture content of 11% were stored under 4 conditions: low temperature (-3 to 0oC); over anhydrous calcium chloride in a partially evacuated/non-evacuated desiccator at room temperature (24oC to 34oC); and over the laboratory shelf in a plastic container at room temperature (control). Seeds from different treatments were sown at monthly intervals on polyurethane foam sheets and observations of germination percentage recorded over a period of 413 days. Rapid loss in viability of the control seeds occurred within two months, while in other storage conditions deterioration was gradual, reaching 10% germination or less after 413 days.

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0562 Effect of drying methods on fruit and seed quality of chilli. Nagaraja, A; Basavaraja, PK; Yogeesha, HS. South Indian Horticulture. 1998, 46: 3-6, 262-265. Fruits intended for seed extraction should invariably be dried in sun on any of the locally available materials such as polythene sheets, open ground, cement floor, cow dung smeared floor and zinc sheets that produce seeds comparable in quality to those dried in situ on plants, but never on red tiles or asbestos sheets or in shade. 0563 Effect of drying methods on seed quality in tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum) Gowda, SJ; Talukdar, KC; Ramaiah, H. Seed Research. 1990, 18: 2, 126-129; 4 ref. In a study determining the optimum conditions for drying tomato seeds of cultivar Pusa Ruby on a commercial scale, traditional (sun only, shade only and sun and shade) and mechanical (using a drier at air temperatures of 35, 40, 45, 50 or 55oC) methods were tested. The results showed that combined sun and shade drying resulted in the highest seed germination rate (94 and 90% for laboratory and field tests, respectively). The tomato seeds could be safely dried at temperatures of 35 or 40o with percentage germination maintained at 89-91%. At higher drying temperatures of 45, 50 and 55o, percentage germination decreased from 95% (initial) to 81, 70 and 64%, respectively. 0564 Effect of drying sorghum cobs in different layers on seed quality. Patil, MR; Dighe, RS; Sapkal, PN; Patel, JD. Bulletin of Grain Technology. 1988, 26: 3, 244-246; 4 ref. Sorghum cobs were sun-dried on a concrete floor in heaps of 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 layers or without layering. Sample cobs were selected weekly and hand threshed and seeds were analysed for grain mould and viability. Grain mould increased significantly as the number of layers increased with min. 14.42% in a single layer and max. 15.78% for 5 layers. Duration and method of heaping did not affect seed viability. 0565 Effect of environment on seed quality composition in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Manjusha, Mittal; Nigam, PK; Rao, SK; Rao, S. Legume Research. 1999, 22: 4, 211-221. Ten chickpea cultivars were grown in three different agro climatic zones (Kymore plateau and Satpura Hills, Gird region and Nimar valley) in Madhya Pradesh. Laboratory tests examined genotypeXenvironment interactions for germination, speed of germination, vigour index, seedling length and seedling dry weight. Field establishment (emergence per cent at first and last count, speed of emergence index, vigour index, seedling length and seedling dry weight) was also evaluated. Cultivars grown at Khargone had the highest protein (26%) and reducing sugar (4.95%) contents and the lowest starch (43.15%) content. The cultivars grown

at Jabalpur had the highest starch (48.23%) and nonreducing sugars (1.66%) content and the lowest protein (21.34%) content. Cultivars grown at Jabalpur were at par with Khargone for vigour index and speed of germination. While the performance of seeds produced at Gwalior was significantly lower than other two locations. Seedling emergence, speed of emergence index and vigour index in field vigour tests were higher for the cultivars grown at Jabalpur and Khargone. Implications of these parameters in relation to identification of agroclimatic zones for chickpea seed production is discussed. 0566 Effect of environmental factors on the yield, quality and viability of soybean seed. Kamal, B. NWFP Agricultural Univ., Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Agronomy. Apr 1989. 66p. 0567 Effect of excess soil moisture on seed yield, seed size development and quality in commercial varieties of soybean. Rao, SK; Shrivastava, AN; Rajesh, Mishra; Mishra, R. Legume Research. 1999, 22: 4, 259-262. The average rainfall at Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh is around 137.5 cm, but during the kharif [monsoon] season of 1996, the rainfall exceeded 200 cm.. Eight commercial soybean cultivars were grown on the black cotton soils of Jabalpur. There was continuous rain during the vegetative phase and early stage of seed development of the crop. The seed development was normal and its quality was better, where there was adequate drainage. Under poor drainage, crop growth and seed development were adversely affected. The stressed plants matured early, had blackened and brittle stems, and produced either no seeds or immature small seeds. 0568 Effect of extraction techniques on seed quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Das, RK; Baruah, GKS; Paul, SR. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1997, 18: 2, 220-221; 4 ref. The effect of seed extraction technique on germination and seedling growth and vigour was investigated for seeds of tomato cv. VC 48-1, grown in Assam, India. Manual extraction (control) from fruit pulp was compared with fermentation, or extraction using HCl or NaOH. The highest percentage germinations were observed for seeds extracted using the fermentation technique and after soaking in 2.5% HCl for 30 min (79.05 and 81.87%, respectively). Control seeds exhibited 69.58% germination. 0569 Effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) supplementation on the protein quality of rice (Oryza sativum), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and jowar (Sorghum vulgare). Rao, PU; Sharma, RD. Food Chemistry (UK). (1989). v. 31(2) p. 139-148. 0570 The effect of forms of sulphur on yield and quality of seed, oil and alkaloids of opium poppy

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(Papaver somniferum L.). Subrahmanyam, K; Verma, RK; Naqvi, AA; Singh, DV. Acta Horticulturae. 1990. 1992, No. 306, 431-435; 17 ref. The effects of 4 different forms of sulfur (S, SO42-, SO42- + S (1:1), and S2-) applied as S powder, gypsum and pyrites, at 3 rates (30, 60 or 90 kg S/ha) on the yield and quality parameters of opium poppy were investigated. Maximum increases of 18.6% in seed yield and 28.2% in oil yield were obtained with 60 kg S/ha as SO42- compared with the control. S application increased the oil content by 1.5% and crude protein content by 3.1% in the seed, and linoleic acid by 2.8% and unsaturated fatty acids by 1.2% in the oil. Concentrations and yields of morphine, codeine and thebaine were increased by high rates of S, though the effects of the type of S were not conclusive. 0571 Effect of frequency of irrigation and nitrogen levels on yield and quality of onion seed variety Agrifound Light Red. Bhonde, SR; Mishra, VK; Chougule, AB. News Letter - National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation. 1996, 16: 3, 4-7; 7 ref. The effect of irrigation frequency and N rate on onion (Allium cepa) seed production was studied in Maharashtra using 3 irrigation intervals and 3 rates of N fertilizer. Irrigation at 10-day intervals with 80 kg N/ha in split applications gave the highest yield of quality seed of onion cv. Agrifound Light Red. 0572 Effect of fruit maturity stages and drying methods on seed quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Baruah, GKS; Paul, SR; Das, RK. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1996, 17: 3, 331-332; 3 ref. The effects of fruit maturity (mature green, turning red or red, ripe fruits) and drying methods (in sun or in shade) on the quality of tomato (cv. VC 48-1) seeds were investigated for plants growing in Assam during 1994-95. Seed weight, speed of germination and percentage germination increased with increasing maturity. The number of dead seeds decreased with increasing maturity. Drying method had no significant effects on seed quality (as determined by germination potential). It was concluded that seeds with the best germination potential should be extracted from red, ripe fruits. 0573 Effect of GA3 and storage on germination of Nardostachys jatamansi seeds. Vijay, Kant; Vashist, DP; Kant, V. Journal of Hill Research. 1998, 11: 2, 202-206. Studies were conducted on the viability, germination and storage of N. jatamansi, an endangered medicinal and aromatic plant. Seeds were collected from 4 populations in Garhwal Himalaya. Seeds were treated with GA3 (100-1500 ppm). Storage at RT (26oC) or at low temperature (5-6o) were also compared. Freshly harvested seeds showed 65% germination after 20 days. After storage for 1 month, percentage germination was 60% for cold-stored seeds and 45% for those stored at

RT; corresponding values after 6 months' storage were 25% and 10%. GA3 at 100 ppm resulted in 85% germination. 0574 Effect of gibberellin on rice yield response to nitrogen applied at heading, and quality of seeds. Mukherjee, RK; Prabhakar, BS. Plant and Soil (Netherlands). (1980). v. 55(1) p. 151-154. The influence of gibberellin on the yield response of paddy to nitrogen applied at heading was studied through seed yield and yield components and quality of seeds. The crop response to added nitrogen at heading increased with GA concentration upto 10 ppm. Seed quality in terms of seed protein and germination potential also improved with GA up to 10 ppm and showed a positive correlation with nitrogen level. 0575 Effect of grading on quality of wheat seeds. Kalakannavar, RM; Shashidhara, SA; Kulkarni, GN. Seed Research. 1989, 17: 2, 182-185; 9 ref. Wheat seeds were graded into 4 sizes of (a) 2.783.18, (b) 2.38-2.78, (c) 1.98-2.38 and (d) 1.58-1.98 mm. Seeds within each grade were divided into heavy and light density fractions. Percentage germination in seeds of (a) and (b) grades was similar and higher than in smaller seeds of (c) and (d) grades. Percentage germination was higher in the heavy seeds than in the light seeds. Root length and seedling DW decreased with a decrease in seed size. Heavy seeds were superior to light seeds in seedling DW and vigour index. 0576 Effect of grading on seed quality in peas. Jandial, KC; Yussouf, M; Tanki, MI. Environment and Ecology. 1990, 8: 2, 780-781; 5 ref. Four seed collections not meeting the germination standard for peas cv. Shalimar Mattar were obtained from seed growers in the Kashmir valley and were visually graded as smooth, wrinkled or insect infested. Smooth seeds had highest 100-seed wt and specific gravity but also showed highest germination and viability. 0577 Effect of grading on seed quality of Bauhinia purpurea (L.). Vyakaranahal, BS; Shashidhara, SD; Murthy, TNV; Prabhakar, AS; Venkatesh, Murthy, TN. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1992, 5: 4, 404-405; 3 ref. Grading of seeds (collected in Dharwad, Karnataka) by size indicated that the best germination and seedling vigour were obtained from the largest seeds (those retained by a sieve size of 11.2-12.9 mm). However seed recovery in these larger size classes was low so use of 8.8-9.2 mm seeds is recommended. 0578 Effect of grain protectants on viability of wheat seed. Ramzan, M; Chahal, BS. Seed Research. 1989, 17: 1, 47-54; 14 ref. Wheat seeds were treated with EC formulations of pirimiphos- methyl, phoxim and fenitrothion at 30,

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

50 and 100 p.p.m and dust formulations of malathion and BHC [HCH] at 50, 125 and 250 p.p.m. Treated seeds were put in sealed (air- tight) and unsealed (non air-tight) polythene bags and stored in ambient conditions for 1 year. All rates of HCH adversely affected viability. Malathion even at 250 p.p.m and the lower rates of pirimiphos-methyl and phoxim (30 p.p.m) had no adverse effect on viability. Germination was lower in treated seeds kept in sealed plastic bags than in those kept in unsealed plastic bags. 0579 Effect of green fruit pickings on plant growth, seed yield and seed quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Randhir Singh; Kanwar, JS. Punjab Vegetable Grower. 1995, 30: 54-57; 3 ref. The effects of harvesting green fruits 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 times (at 2-day intervals) on the subsequent seed production of okra cv. Punjab-7 plants were investigated in trials in 1993 and 1994. The number of fruit harvests had no effect on plant height or the number of seeds per pod, but seed yield was highest following 2 fruit pickings (7.42 q/ha in 1993 and 7.35 q/ha in 1994, significantly greater than following 4 pickings). Percentage germination of the seeds produced did not differ significantly between treatments, but 1000-seed weight in 1994 was greatest (64.50 g) with no pickings. Taking into account income from the harvested fruits and the extra costs of picking them, 3 or 4 pickings resulted in lower profits than no pickings, while one and 2 pickings increased profits by Rs 1459 and 2125/ha, respectively, compared with no pickings. 0580 Effect of hand pollination on quality seed production of KBSH- 1 sunflower hybrid and its parents. Ganapathi, KL; Vyakaranahal, BS; Patil, SA; Giriraj, K; Shashidhara, SD; Shekharagouda, M. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1998, 11: 1, 248250. In a field experiment in 1994 in Karnataka, hand pollination significantly increased yield and improved the quality of sunflower seeds. 0581 Effect of harvesting time and method of storing of maize seeds in relation to viability. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. Annual Research Review (Agronomy Division) - BARI, 1991-92. p. 112-114. An experiment on harvesting time and methods of storing of maize seeds was carried out to study the effect of germination on maize seeds during storage. The cobs of Barnali were harvested at three different times and stored under three storage methods viz., cob with/without husk, and shelled seeds in polyethene bags which were kept in close tin containers. Germination was about 90% and above for each storage at four months but it decreased to 75% when it is kept without husk under all storing methods. Seeds in tin container and with husk had 80% germination upto 10 months and then showed sharp loss in viability and germination

ranging between 4 and 10T after 13 months of storage. Harvesting time, however, did not show any significant effect on germination. 0582 Effect of humidity levels and periods of storage on seed quality in different genotypes of tomato. Palanisamy, V; Karivaratharaju, TV. South Indian Horticulture. 1990, 38: 1, 28-34; 13 ref. Seeds of 10 genotypes (Co1, Co2, Co3, PKM1, Pusa Ruby, CE75, LE89, LE113, LE162 and LE994) obtained from a local seed crop were cleaned and graded using a BSS 8 X 8 wire mesh sieve, dried to 78% moisture, then packed and stored individually at 100, 75 and 35% relative humidity (RH) maintained with a saturated solution of potassium hydroxide in three air-tight containers at ambient temperatures of 22.1-29.8oC. Before storage and at 2- month intervals samples were tested for several qualitative traits. LE994 recorded the highest germination rate before storage (60.1%); lowest germination rates averaged over all sampling dates, 29.9-25.7%, were noted for seeds stored at 100% relative humidity, with values up to 40.1% at 75% RH and up to 49.3% at 35% RH; LE75 recorded the highest germination rate at all humidity levels; seed vigour in terms of dehydrogenase activity was highest for Co3 with highest activity at 35% RH. The overall highest alpha-amylase activity was detected after 2 months storage at 35% RH in Pusa Ruby. This storage treatment gave enzyme activities comparable to or higher than those of fresh seeds; activity was lowest for all genotypes at 100% RH. LE75, followed by PKM1, performed best overall for highest germination rate and for germination after accelerated ageing. 0583 Effect of in-situ and replanting in cabbage with different head sizes on seed productivity and its quality. Verma, TS; Joshi, S; Thakur, PC. Recent Horticulture. 1996, 3: 1, 147-150 Two methods of cabbage seed production, viz. leaving the plants in situ or replanting them, were compared using cabbage cv. Golden Acre plants in which the heads destined for seed production were classified as small, medium or large. Seed yield parameters for each head size were greater for plants left in situ than replanted ones and also increased with head size; in situ plants with large heads yielded 54.76 g of seeds/plant. Seed quality (in terms of seedling vigour and percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings and dead seeds) was also better for seeds from in situ plants and generally improved with increasing head size. 0584 Effect of in situ vs. replanting of sugarbeet stecklings on quality seed yield. Arya, PS. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research (India). (Mar 1981). v. 15(1) p. 60-62. 0585 Effect of intercropping lentil (Lens esculenta) or mustard (Brassica campestris) on seed quality and grain production of wheat (Triticum aestivum) Neu-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

pane, PR; Ghimire, AJ; Tiwari, TP; Basnet, SR. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta, C/o BAPSO, PO Box 106, Kathmandu, Nepal. PAC Technical Paper. 1997, No. 176, 10 pp.; 6 ref. A field experiment was carried out at Hattikharka Farm, Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, in the winter seasons of 1991/92 to 19993/94 to study the effect of intercropping wheat cv. Annapurna-1 with lentils cv. Simal or mustard (toria) cv. Bikash. Intercropping had no effect on wheat seed germination, seed purity or 1000grain weight. The highest overall seed/grain yield, land equivalent ratio and monetary returns were obtained by the triple intercrop (100 + 20 + 3 kg seed rate/ha for wheat, lentils and toria, respectively). There was no difference in days to 95% maturity in wheat due to intercropping, but there was a marked year effect. 0586 Effect of intercropping system on seed yield and seed quality of groundnut. Deshpande, SM; Kulkarni, GN; Vyakaranahal, BS; Shashidhara, SD. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1992, 5: 2, 141144; 8 ref. Groundnuts cv. DH-3-30 were grown at Dharwad, Karnataka in the 1988 kharif [monsoon] season as a pure stand or in 1:1, 2:2 or 3:3 row ratios with sorghum cv. CS-3541. Groundnut yield was 1.23, 0.96, 1.26 and 1.86 t/ha in pure stand or 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 intercrops, respectively. Sorghum yield was 3.15-3.55 t/ha. Pod number/plant, seed number/pod and 100-seed weight were highest in groundnuts grown in the 3:3 intercrop. Percentage germination was higher in groundnut seeds produced in a pure stand than in the 1:1 intercrop. Seed vigour index was not significantly affected by cropping system. Seed protein concentration was highest in groundnuts grown as a pure stand, while oil concentration was highest in the 3:3 intercropped groundnuts. 0587 Effect of irradiation and chemical treatment on yield and quality of Brassica juncea (L.) seed and oil. Nagamani, B; Kamala, T; Rao, TC; Lakshminarayana, G. Proceedings of Indian Academy of Sciences (India). (Aug 1981). v. 90(4) p. 281-284. 0588 Effect of irrigation management and nitrogen fertilization on seed yield, recovery and sowing quality of maize. Bharathi, A; Vadivelu, KK; Umarani, R. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1997, 84: 1, 33-36; 4 ref. In a field study, maize cv. CO 1 was irrigated at irrigation water: cumulative pan evaporation (IW: CPE) ratios of 0.5 or 0.75 in all the furrows, alternate furrows or using skip-furrow irrigation. Fertilizer was applied at 75, 125 or 175 kg N/ha. Seed yield was lower with skip furrow irrigation than with the other 2 treatments, was higher with irrigation at 0.75 IW: CPE, and increased with increasing N rate. The percentage of large seeds was higher at 0.75 IW: CPE, with irrigation in all furrows and with 175 kg N/ha. These treatments gave increased seed germination and seedling vigour.

0589 Effect of irrigation methods and levels on seed yield and quality of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Patel, PG; Patel, ZG. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 1996, 13: 1, 53-55; 7 ref. A field experiment was conducted during rabi [winter] seasons of 1992-93 and 1993-94 at the Gujarat Agricultural University, Navsari to study the feasibility of a mini-sprinkler with different levels of irrigation water: cumulative pan evaporation (IW/CPE) ratios on seed yield and quality of safflower cv. Bhima. Irrigation applied through mini-sprinkler produced 15.68% higher seed yield than surface irrigation. The seed yield increased with increasing levels of IW: CPE ratios up to 0.6 under both the systems of irrigation. The oil and protein content in safflower seeds did not differ significantly due to irrigation systems but was influenced by irrigation levels. 0590 Effect of irrigation, nitrogen and sulphur application on seed yield, quality and sulphur uptake by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) Sharma, AK; Sharma, AM; Sharma, YM. Agricultural Science Digest Karnal. 1994, 14: 1, 63-67; 7 ref. In a field experiment during the winter seasons of 1988-90 at Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, B. Juncea cv. Varuna seed yields were increased by irrigation and were higher at irrigation water: cumulative pan evaporation (IW: CPE) ratio of 0.6 than 0.4. Seed oil and CP contents and S uptake were not affected by irrigation. Seed yield and S uptake were highest with 120 kg N/ha; and seed yield increased with up to 30 kg S while S uptake increased with 60 kg S. N application decreased seed oil content and increased CP content while S application increased both oil and CP contents. 0591 Effect of irrigation on seed yield and quality of sorghum. Vanangamudi, K; Kulandaivelu, R; Selvaraj, KV. Seed Science and Technology. 1990, 18: 2, 255258; 4 ref. Field grown sorghum cv. Co25 was irrigated when the cumulative pan evaporation reached 67, 83 or 111 mm, equivalent to irrigation frequencies of 10-11, 12-13 and 14-15 d, respectively. The more frequent irrigations hastened the maturity of the seed crop and resulted in higher seed yield. Seeds obtained from plots given more frequent irrigation had better quality and storability and were less susceptible to attack by storage fungi. 0592 Effect of irrigation, spacing, leaf cutting and their interaction on seed quality of palak (Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis) Phor, SK; Mangal, JL. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 1991, 20: 1-2, 129133; 6 ref. In experiments at Hisar in 1984-85, palak cv. HS-23 was grown in rows 20, 30 or 40 cm apart and irrigated at evaporation pan coefficients of 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2. Leaves were harvested from plants on 1 or 2 occa-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

sions (30 d apart) or not harvested. Seed quality, in terms of 1000-seed weight, germination % and vigour, was greatest from plants grown in rows 20 cm apart which were irrigated when the evaporation pan coefficient was 0.9 and from which leaves were harvested once. 0593 Effect of karnal bunt of wheat on seed viability, embryo vigour and metabolism of plants. Singh, PP; Sohi, HS; Bedi, PS. Journal of Research Punjab Agricultural University. Dec 1983. v. 20(4) p. 481-484. 0594 Effect of light quality on seed germination of certain woody species of Kumaun Himalaya. Rao, PB; Singh, SP. Acta Botanica Indica. 1987, 15: 2, 247254; 19 ref. The results are reported of studies with 29 species, mostly indigenous forest trees, but with some introduced species. Germination was examined under continuous direct light, under red and far-red light, and in the dark. No species showed a clear-cut dormancy although germination increased with age in three: Quercus leucotrichophora, Erythrina arborescence [E. arborescens] and Fraxinus micrantha. About 75% of the species gave >50% germination under laboratory conditions and germination was promoted in respectively 35, 28 and 14% of species by direct, red or direct + red light. Germination of about 21% of species was inhibited (66%) by red and far red light. Five species were insensitive to light quality: E. arborescens, Populus ciliata, Jacaranda mucorossi, Pyrus pashia and Q. floribunda. 0595 Effect of location and genotype on the sunflower seed composition and oil quality. Nagaraj, G; Muralidharudu, Y; Mev Singh. Annals of Plant Physiology. 1990, 4: 1, 48-53; 12 ref. In 1987, 6 sunflower cultivars grown at 6 locations in different regions of India had seed oil, protein and carbohydrate contents of 26.4-46.6%, 26.2- 34.9% and 7.0-13.0%, resp. Oil quality parameters such as iodine value, keeping quality and nutritional quality also varied depending on locations and cultivars. Crops grown at Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ludhiana had higher av. oil contents (40-44%), while those grown at Bangalore, Coimbatore, Akola and Ludhiana had better seed composition and oil quality. Cv. Kharkhov 101 had the best seed and oil quality followed by EC 68415, Pochin and Kharkhov 50. 0596 The effect of location of production and seed quality on storability of rice. Rao, DVSR; Reddy, BM; Ankaiah, R. Journal of Research APAU. 1993, 21: 4, 241-242 Harvested rice cv. Swarna grown at Srikakulam, Nandyal and Rajendranagar during the kharif [monsoon] season of 1989 was stored in cloth bags from Sep. 1989 to Aug. 1990 in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Seed produced at Rajendranagar maintained germination per-

centage of >80% over the 12 months, whereas seed produced at Nandyal and Srikakulum maintained seed germination of >80% under storage for up to 6 and 3 months, respectively. Seedling vigour was related to the germination percentage during storage. 0597 Effect of magnetic seed treatment on sunflower seed yield and quality. Balamurugan, P; Udayasoorian, C; Ayyasamy, M. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1991, 78: 5-8, 294-295; 6 ref. 0598 Effect of maturity stages and desiccant application on seed yield and oil quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Rana, MA; Ozair, CA; Khan, MA; Shafiullah. Crop Research Hisar (India). 1990, 3: 1, 40-50; 10 ref. In a field trial in 1989-89 in Islamabad, sunflowers were harvested at 25, 30, 35, 40 or 45 d after completion of flowering (DFC) or desiccated with paraquat or fomesafen, alone or with the surfactant Agral-90. Seed yield increased from 2.31 to 2.84 t/ha when harvesting was delayed from 25 to 35 DFC. There was no significant increase after 35 DFC 100-seed wt increased markedly from 25 to 40 DFC in 1988 and from 25 to 30 DFC in 1989. Seed moisture content decreased from an av. of 47.1% at 25 DFC to 10.7% at 45 DFC. Seed oil content increased from 40.2% at 25 DFC to 44.8% at 45 DFC. The oleic acid content of the oil decreased significantly (from 56.9 to 49.1%) only in 1988. Linoleic acid content increased from 35.0 + 43.3% between 25 and 35 DFC in 1988 and from about 41 to 44% between 30 and 40 DFC in 1989. Desiccants had no pronounced effects on seed yield and oil content, except that application of 0.25 kg paraquat/ha with surfactant increased the seed yield in 1988. Higher concn of paraquat (0.5 kg/ha) without surfactant reduced seed oil content. Paraquat decreased seed oleic acid content but increased linoleic acid content. 0599 Effect of metabolites of Fusarium moniliforme on seed quality of sorghum. Niranjana, SR; Shetty, HS. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology (India). (Apr 1998). v. 28(1) p. 42-44. 0600 Effect of method of storage on the viability of seed rhizome in turmeric. Venkatesha, J; Vanamala, KR; Khan, MM. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1997, 26: 6-7, 114-115; 3 ref. Studies were carried out at the Division of Horticulture, Bangalore, India, in 1993, to determine the most effective and economical storage method of Curcuma domestica [C. longa] seed rhizomes. Rhizomes were stored in pits, stored in the cold (10oC) or in 100 or 200 gauge polythene bags with 0, 2, 3 or 4% ventilation, were assessed for sprouting, rotting and rooting during storage, and recovery and sprouting after planting in the field. All the studied characters varied significantly between storage treatments. Rhizomes stored at 10o,

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

unlike all other treatments, did not root, rot or sprout during storage. However, these rhizomes exhibited low sprouting (33.05%) in the field. The most effective treatment was storage in 100 gauge polythene bags with 3% ventilation, since a high percentage (98.88%) of healthy rhizomes was recovered which exhibited 91.9% sprouting in the field. During storage, sprouting and rooting of rhizomes was <20%, while no rotting was observed in this treatment. 0601 Effect of methods of cone drying on seed recovery and seed quality of Casuarina equisetifolia. Umarani, R; Bharathi, A; Raju, TVK. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1997, 84: 1, 31-32; 3 ref. A study was conducted to assess the effects of different drying methods on seed recovery, seed germination and seedling vigour for Casuarina equisetifolia. Mature cones were collected from the Tamil Nadu University campus in Coimbatore during June 1994 and 200 spread evenly in a single layer in 9 trays. Three trays were sundried, 3 dried in the shade and 3 oven dried. Seeds shed were collected and 100 seed weight and germination assessed. Seed shed was spread over a period of 4, 5 and 3 days, respectively. Maximum seed recovery was obtained on the first day using oven drying (87.6%) compared to 9.6% on the first day and 86% on the second day in sundried conditions. Seed weight, percentage germination and seedling growth were not significantly different between treatments. Oven drying did not affect seed quality and was superior to other drying techniques in terms of seed recovery and quality. 0602 Effect of methods of storage on germinability and mycoflora of gram (Cicer arietinum L.) seed. Dwivedi, SN; Shukla, TN. Seed Research. 1990, 18: 1, 82-85; 3 ref. C. arietinum seeds stored in 5 types of containers under ambient conditions for 12 months were tested at 3-month intervals for germination and fungal infection. Percentage germination decreased with increase in storage duration. Germination was higher in seeds stored in polythene bags than in other containers. Seeds in paper bags also maintained high germination for up to 6 months of storage. The development of fungal colonies was lowest on seeds stored in polythene bags. Rhizopus arrhizus, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were the most commonly occurring fungi irrespective of container and duration of storage. 0603 Effect of mineral nutrition and seed size on seed quality in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Srimathi, P; Jerlin, R. Indian Agriculturist. 1995, 39: 3, 199-203; 29 ref. In a field trial in winter 1981 at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, with V. unguiculata cv. Co.2 the effects of 0, 30 or 60 kg N or K/ha and 0, 50 or 100 kg P/ha on seed quality were studied. Seed weight was increased by P application but was unaffected by N or K. Seed germination and vigour were increased only by K applica-

tion. Seedling vigour was higher in larger seeds, although seed germination was unaffected by seed size. 0604 Effect of mite infestation on germination of stored maize around Dera Ghazi Khan District [Pakistan] Ashfaq, M; Parvez, A; Ahmedani, MS. Pakistan Entomologist (Pakistan). 1996. v. 18. 1-2. p. 86-87. Studies made, with a view to evaluate the impact of harmful mites on viability loss of stored maize collected from different localities of Dera Ghazi Khan district, have revealed a positive correlation among the mite population and seed germination. 0605 Effect of Mixtalol on growth, seed yield and quality of bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.). Singh, T; Jaiswal, RC; Singh, AK. Vegetable Science. 1991, 18: 2, 217-221; 6 ref. In field trials conducted during 1987-88 and 1988-89, Mixtalol (a mixture of biologically active, long-chain aliphatic alcohols) was applied as a spray to L. siceraria cv. Faizabad Local at a concentration of 20, 25 or 30 ml/10 litres of water. The spray was applied at 20 or 45 days after sowing. Growth, yield and quality parameters increased with increasing concentration of Mixtalol. In 1988-89, the number of fruits/plant was 2.52 and 3.82, and seed yield was 134.62 and 167.66 kg/ha, with 0 and 30 ml/10 litres of water, respectively. Growth and yield parameters were higher when spraying was carried out at 45 days than at 20 days after sowing. 0606 Effect of Mixtalol on the flowering and pod set patterns, yield components, and seed quality of lentil [Lens culinaris]. Setia, N; Setia, RC; Kaur, D; Malik, CP. LENS Newsletter (ICARDA). (1988). v. 15(2) p. 1821. A foliar spray of lentil (Lens culinaris) plants with a mixture of long chain alcohols, Mixtalol, extended the flowering period by four days and induced uniform pod set during the peak period of flowering as compared to control. Mixtalol suppressed the abscission percentage of flowers and pods, thus increasing the number of pods harvested at maturity and seed yield per plant. Partition coefficient and harvest index also increased with Mixtalol. The levels of total soluble sugars, starch, and NaOH soluble protein were also higher in treated seeds. 0607 Effect of moisture content and storage temperature on the viability of Bambusa tulda seed. Thapliyal, RC; Sood, OP; Rawat, MMS. International Tree Crops Journal. 1991, 7: 1-2, 67-75; 6 ref. Bamboos are attractive plantation and multipurpose species, but as seed is only available in quantity during sporadic periods of gregarious flowering it is important to develop effective storage techniques. Tests using seed collected in Uttar Pradesh in April-May 1987 (after gregarious flowering in November- December

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

1986) showed that of 3 incubation temperatures (constant temperatures of 20 or 30oC, and alternating 20/30o temperatures) and 4 substrata (on the top of paper or sand, between 2 paper layers, or in sand) the optimum conditions to evaluate viability involved germination at 30oC between two layers of paper; under these conditions germination was 91%. Seeds stored at their original moisture content of 26% lost germination capacity within 2 months, but when moisture content was reduced to 10.2% and 6.6%, germination after 12 months was 57% and 70% respectively. Seeds stored in perforated polythene bags failed to retain germination capacity for 12 months at all tested temperatures. Storage in sealed polythene bags at ambient room temperature, 5oC and 30oC gave germination of 70%, 80%, 82% and 24% respectively. The seeds exhibited orthodox behaviour and could possibly be stored for longer durations with proper handling and drying techniques. 0608 Effect of moisture content of maize seeds on storage mould. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report 1985-86. p. 50. Maximum incidence of Aspergillus and Rhizopus was recorded in the seeds stored at 16% moisture level. Seeds were found almost rotten with no germination at all. Relatively less incidence of storage mould was recorded in the seeds at 10% moisture content. The germination of the seeds stored at 10% moisture was about 48%. 0609 Effect of moisture content on the viability and storability of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) seeds. Singh, BG; Mahadevan, NP; Shanthi, K; Manimuthu, L; Geetha, S. Indian Forester. 1997, 123: 7, 631-636; 10 ref. Two methods of drying neem seeds (after depulping the fruit) were tested - sun drying and shade drying. Moisture loss was more rapid during sun drying, dropping from an initial 26.6% to 6% in 6 days (compared with 11% in shade dried seeds). Drying did not reduce germination much: undried seed germination was 84%, and germination was as high as 60% at 6% moisture content. Storing seeds with a high moisture content (>25%) under deep freeze conditions had a deleterious effect on viability. Storage of such seeds under ambient or refrigerated conditions gave better results, but viability loss was less if seeds were stored under ambient or refrigerated conditions with a moisture content <10% (i.e. after drying). 0610 Effect of mulching and size of seed materials on the tuber yield and quality of Colocasia (Cochliobolus sativus (L) Schott) Joseph, K; Kunju, UM. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala (India). (Dec 1981). v. 19(2) p. 128-130. 0611 Effect of nitrogen and growth regulators on seed yield and quality of sunflower. Uppar, DS; Kulkarni, GN. Seed Research. 1989, 17: 2, 113-117; 10 ref.

In 1985, increasing N rates from 0 to 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha increased the seed yields from 389 to 500, 741 and 871 kg/ha, resp., in sunflowers cv. CMS-234 A. Foliar application of 250 p.p.m. TIBA, 15 p.p.m. kinetin or 2500 p.p.m. Cycocel [chlormequat] gave yields of 816, 593 and 457 kg/ha, resp. N X growth regulator interaction was significant. 120 kg N plus TIBA gave the highest yield of 1.24 t/ha. Increasing N rates increased 1000-seed wt and seed protein contents. 60 kg N/ha gave the highest oil content. The values for 1000seed wt and protein and oil contents were higher with TIBA than chlormequat or kinetin. 0612 Effect of nitrogen and leaf cuttings on seed quality and economics of fenugreek cultivars. Kaswan, MP; Singh, GR; Thakral, KK; Mangal, JL. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research (India). 1994, 24: 2-3, 123-125; 5 ref. In a field experiment in the winter season of 1991/92 at Hisar, Haryana, fenugreek cv. Pusa Early Bunching and Kasuri were given 0-90 kg N/ha and were not cut or cut at 60 or 60 + 80 d after sowing. Foliage yield increased with rate of N application whereas seed yield increased with up to 60 kg N. Foliage yields were similar between cultivars whereas seed yield was much higher in Pusa Early Bunching (1.41 t/ha) than Kasuri (0.79 t). Seed yield was not affected by 1 cut, however it was decreased by 2 cuts. Seed quality in terms of percentage germination and protein content was increased by N application (except the highest rate) and was greater in Pusa Early Bunching. Cutting had no effect on seed germination and it decreased seed protein content compared with no cutting. Net returns were highest with 60 kg N/ha, Pusa Early Bunching and 2 cuts. 0613 Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition on the yield and quality of onion seeds. Bokshi, AI; Mondal, MF; Pramanik, MHR. Bangladesh Horticulture. 1989, 17: 2, 30-35; 3 ref. In trials at Mymensingh with cv. Faridpur Bhati, uniform bulbs, about 10 g in weight and 28 mm in diameter, were planted on 10 Nov. and given N and P2O5, each at 0, 100, 150 or 200 kg/ha together with a basal dressing of 80 kg K2O/ha. The highest seed yield of 529.7 kg/ha and the best germination (83.7%) was obtained with N and P at the highest rates. The nonfertilized control yield was 158.5 kg/ha with 64.7% germination. 0614 Effect of nitrogen levels and picking of fresh fruits on seed quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Nataraj, SE; Kulkarni, GN; Vyakaranahal, BS; Shashidhara, SD. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1992, 5: 1, 51-53; 8 ref. Three rates of N (75, 125 or 175 kg/ha) and 5 picking levels (0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 pods/plants) for harvesting green fruits as a green vegetable, leaving the remainder for seed production, were compared for the cultivar Pusa Sawani. All plots received 75 kg P2O5 and 62.5 kg

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

K2O, together with half the N dose, before sowing on 25 July. The remaining N was applied 30 days later. Mature fruits were harvested when they were about to open and were dried to 12% moisture content before threshing. The seeds were dried to 8-9% moisture content. Their quality was subsequently assessed with regard to 100-seed weight, seed diameter, % germination, field emergence, root and shoot length, seedling DM accumulation, and seedling vigour index (% germination X root length in cm). The seed contents of N and protein were also determined. The N rates and picking levels did not significantly affect parameters other than the seed protein content, which increased with the N rate applied to the mother plants. 0615 Effect of nitrogen nutrition and intra-row steckling spacing on the quality of carrot seed variety Pusa Kesar [India]. Note. Sharma, SK; Singh, IJ. South Indian Horticulture (India). (Jul 1982). v. 30(3) p. 238-239. 0616 Effect of nitrogen on growth, seed yield and quality of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Naik, LB; Prabhakar, M; Doijode, SD. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1996, 17: 4, 419-421; 5 ref. The effect of N (100, 150 or 200 kg/ha), applied in split doses at 0 + 30, 0 + 30 + 60 or 0 + 30 + 60 + 90 days, on the growth of aubergines (cultivars Arka Keshav and Arka Neelkant) was investigated in the field at Bangalore during 1991-92. All plants received P (100 kg P2O5/ha) and K (50 kg K2O/ha). Plant height and fruit and seed yield (q/ha) increased with increasing rates of N. The highest seed yield (7.32 q/ha) was observed following application of 200 kg N/ha. Splitting the N dose had no beneficial effects on growth or seed yield. 0617 Effect of nitrogen on the seed yield and quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Mahboob, Akhtar; Nadeem, MA; Ahmad, S; Asif, Tanveer; Akhtar, M; Tanveer, A. Journal of Agricultural Research Lahore. 1992, received 1997, 30: 4, 479-484; 8 ref. In a trial at Faisalabad, Pakistan, sunflowers cv. Pioneer 6480 and Pioneer 6431 were given 0, 50, 75 or 100 kg N/ha. In both cultivars, N application increased leaf area per plant, plant height, capitulum diameter, number of seeds per capitulum, seed yield and dry stover yield. Yield increased significantly with up to 75 kg N (2.30 t/ha), compared with 1.96 t without added N. 1000-seed weight and seed lipid contents were not affected significantly. Both the cultivars gave similar seed yield and lipid content. 0618 Effect of nitrogen, potassium and sulphur on seed yield, nutrient uptake, quality and economics of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum). Nageshwar, Lal; Sarawgi, SK; Tripathi, RS; Bhambri, MC; Lal, N. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1995, 40: 2, 333-335; 3 ref.

In a field experiment during the summer season of 1991 at Raipur, Madhya Pradesh, sesame cv. Selection 5 was given 40, 80 or 120 kg N, 0, 30, 60 or 90 kg K2O and 0 or 10 kg S/ha. Seed yield was highest with 120 kg N (1.82 t/ha), increased with up to 60 kg K2O (1.75 t) and was increased by S application (1.68 vs. 1.59 t). Seed oil content was not affected by fertilizer application. Uptake of P, K and S increased with increasing N rate while N uptake was not affected by N rate. P, K and S uptakes were highest with 90 kg K2O. S application increased N and K uptakes. Net return was the highest with 120 kg N. 0619 Effect of NPK application on seed yield and quality of soybean. Akhtar, M; Ahmad, ZI; Nazir, MS. Lahore Journal of Agricultural Research. 1988. v. 26(2) P. 129-134. Studies were conducted to see the effect of NPK application on growth, yield and quality of soybean at University of Agriculture, Faisalahad during 1985. Treatments were 0-0-0, 60-0- 0, 0-90-0, 60-0-60, 0-9060 and 60-90-60 kg NPK per hectare. N application alone or in combination with P and K increased leaf area per plant, number of pods per plant and 1000-seed weight significantly over check. However, combined application of NP, NK, PK and NPK were more effective than single applications of each nutrient. Seed yield did not increase significantly by K application alongwith NP. However, the higher seed yield (996 kg/ha) was obtained in highly fertilized plots (60-90-60 kg NPK/ha) than minimum from check (771 kg/ha). Seed protein and oil contents were not affected significantly by NPK application over check. 0620 Effect of NPK application on the seed yield and quality of mash (Vigna mungo L.) Tashkil-urRaza. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Agronomy. 1987, 85p. 0621 Effect of nutrition, spacing and pickings on seed yield and seed quality in bell pepper. Dharmatti, PR; Kulkarni, GN. Seed Research. 1988, 16: 2, 148151; 4 ref. In a field experiment with capsicum cv. California Wonder, application of different levels of N, P and K and different intra- row spacings significantly influenced seed yield/ha, 1000-seed weight and germination percentage. Treatment with 200 kg N/ha, 112.5 kg P2O5/ha and 75 kg K2O/ha and an intra-row spacing of 45 cm gave the highest yields (97.26 kg/ha) of quality seeds. Picking 91 or 108 days after transplanting rather than after 128 days is recommended. 0622 Effect of opium poppy seed treatments with dithiocarbamates on germination, host vigour and viability of seeds in storage. Cheema, HS; Chakravarti, BP; Thakore, BBL. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology. 1987, 5: 2, 180-183; 5 ref.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

The germination percentage and seedling vigour of Papaver somniferum cv. Dholia improved in response to seed treatment with Dithane M-45 [mancozeb] and Dithane flowable used to control downy mildew (Peronospora arborescens). No germination occurred when treated seeds were stored for 1 yr under ambient conditions. 0623 Effect of packaging material on seed quality of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars. Krishnappa, N; Narayanaswamy, S; Sreerama, R. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1998, 27: 11-12, 205-209. Groundnut cv. JL-24 and TMV-2 seeds were dried to about 7% moisture content and stored for up to 16 months in ambient conditions in different containers (gunny bags, tar coated bags, polythene lined gunny bags, high density polyvinyl bags and Kraft paper bags). Differences in storage potential between cultivars were small, with no significant effect on vigour, and a small but significant difference in germination only after 16 months. Among containers, the polyvinyl bags gave the greatest percentage germination and seed vigour after 16 months, but differences at earlier stages were not significant. All containers maintained the minimum certification standard of 70% germination for 12 months, and polyvinyl bags maintained this standard for 14 months. 0624 Effect of phosphorus and potassium fertilization on plant growth, seed yield and quality of Chinese sarson seed. Sharma, SK. Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research. 1995, 21: 1-2, 32-34 In field trials conducted during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991-92, Chinese sarson (Brassica chinensis) was grown on a sandy loam soil with P at 30, 60 or 90 kg P2O5/ha and K at 30, 60 or 90 kg K2O/ha. Seed yield per plant and per ha was highest with 30 kg P2O5 + 60 kg K2O/ha (57.42 g and 21.34 q/ha, respectively). 0625 Effect of phosphorus levels and genotypes on quality of soybean seed. Tedia, K; Solankey, BS; Shinde, DA. Legume Research. 1992, 15: 2, 76-80; 14 ref. In field experiments in 1983-84 application of 80 kg P2O5/ha to soyabeans gave the greatest seed yield and quality. Seeds of cv. JS-2 and JS 72-44 contained more moisture, oil, total polysaccharides and sugars than cv. Kali Tur, although the latter contained more protein, crude fibre, tryptophan and methionine. 0626 Effect of phosphorus, sulphur and boron on seed yield and quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tamak, JC; Sharma, HC; Singh, KP. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1997, 42: 1, 173-176; 6 ref. In a field trial at Hisar, Haryana in spring 199394, sunflowers cv. MSFH 8 were given 0, 30, 60 or 90 kg P2O5/ha, 0, 25 or 50 kg S/ha, and sprayed with 0.2% borax or not sprayed. Seed yield increased significantly with up to 60 kg P2O5 and 25 kg S, and was increased

by foliar application of B. Oil content of seeds was increased by all fertilizers, while protein content was increased by S but decreased by P and B. 0627 Effect of physiological maturity on the yield and seed viability of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Salauddin, ABM; Begum, SN; Yousuf, A. Bangladesh Association of Advancement of Science, Dacca (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the 8th Bangladesh Science Conference. 1983. p. 2. The nuts gained weight until 107 days after emergence and had 100% viability. 125-day harvest produced significantly higher dry weights of nuts and highest yield. Viability was found dependent mainly on the physiological maturity of the seed. Dac-1 attained physiological maturity between 115 and 125 days after sowing during Rabi season. 125-day harvest was suggested for better yield and seed viability under Joydebpur, Bangladesh condition. 0628 Effect of picking interval on quality of cotton seed. Mohod, VK. Agricultural Science Digest (India). (Jun 1990). v. 10(2) p. 73-74. 0629 Effect of plant densities on seed quality in parental lines of BSH-1 hybrid and cv. Morden of sunflower. Babu, NK; Vyakaranahal, BS; Shashidhara, SD; Giriraj, K. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1993, 6: 1, 33-36; 6 ref. In RHA274 and CMS234B, parents of the hybrid BSH1, and in Morden, decreased plant density increased seed oil percentage, 100-seed weight, germination frequency, shoot length, root length and seedling vigour index. Low density (55 555 plants/ha) gave higher values for seed quality traits than moderate (83 333) or high (166 666 plants/ha) densities. Genotype X plant density interaction effects were noted for germination, field emergence and seedling vigour. 0630 Effect of plant growth regulators on seed quality in partially aged seeds of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). Onkar Singh; Deepte; Ashwani Kumar. Seed Research. 1999, 27: 1, 54-59. Pigeonpea cv. UPAS-120 and Manak seeds were subjected to natural and accelerated aging and treated with plant growth regulators (GA3, IBA or BAP [benzyladenine] at 10-4 M) or distilled water for 4 h at 301oC. GA3 treated seeds showed the highest values for standard germination, tetrazolium test, speed of germination, field emergence index and seedling establishment. Vigour, germination percentage and field establishment after BAP treatment were not significantly different to GA3 treatment, while distilled water gave lower values for all parameters than all growth regulator treatments. BAP gave the highest dehydrogenase activity and respiration rate, and distilled water the lowest values. 0631 Effect of planting geometry and water stress on seed yield and quality of spring planted sunflower

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

(Helianthus annuus L.) Aktar, M; Zubair, M; Saeed, M; Ahmad, R. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1993. v. 30(1), P. 73-76. Effect of planting geometry and water stress on the seed yield and quality of spring planted sunflower hyhrid "SF 100" was studied under field conditions. Crop grown without water stress (five irrigations) resulted in the maximum seed yield of 32.7 q ha-1 while water stress at seed setting gave the lowest seed yield of 22.8 q ha-1. Sunflower grown with water stress at cup formation (floral primordia) and flowering gave the seed yield of 27.2 and 25.8 q ha-1, respectively. Crop grown in 90 cm spaced double row strips exhibited significantly higher seed yield (29.1 q ha-1) than that grown in 60 cm spaced single rows (25.2 q ha- 1). Interactive significantly only on seed yield. The highest yield of 36.6 q ha- 1 was obtained in crop receiving 5-irrigations and planted in 90 cm apart double row strips. Sunflower grown without water stress exhibited the maximum seed oil content (41.3%) while that subjected to water stress at seed setting gave the lowest seed oil content (35%). 0632 Effect of planting methods, different levels of seed and nitrogen on sugarcane yield and quality. Cliandagave, RB. Bharatiya Sugar. 1999, 24: 23-32. In a field experiment in 1995/96 at Sameerwadi, Karnataka, India, sugarcane was planted at rates of 56thin250, 75thin000 or 112thin500 eye buds/ha in single or paired rows and was given 187.5, 250 (recommended rate) or 375 kg N/ha. Cane and CCS [commercial cane sugar] yields increased with increasing N rate and were highest with the intermediate planting rate, but were not affected by row arrangement. Quality parameters did not differ significantly among treatments. 0633 Effect of planting time of stecklings on seed yield and quality attributes in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Arya, PS; Sharma, PP; Pathania, NK. Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research. 1990, publ. 1992, 16: 1-2, 82-85; 7 ref. 0634 Effect of polythene cover and potassium levels on seed yield and quality of tomato. Nandal, JK; Pandey, UC; Tomar, RPS. Agricultural Science Digest Karnal (India). 1998, 18: 4, 274-276. In trials carried out at Haryana, Hisar, India in 1989-90 and 1990-91, tomato (cv. Sel-7) plants grown outdoors produced 4.91- 4.95 g seed/kg fruits compared with 4.86-4.90 g seed/kg fruits in a plastic house. Percentage germination was slightly higher in seeds from outdoor plants (91.00-92.71% compared with 89.5390.97% in plants in a plastic house). Potassium application (0- 120 kg/ha) increased seed yield and percentage germination with 80 kg K2O/ha giving the best results (5.14-5.17 g seed/kg fruits and 91.72-93.18% germination). 0635 Effect of post-harvest operations on seed quality of mungbeans (Vigna radiata L.) Sangakkara, UR;

Wanisekera, WMT. Seed Research. 1990, 18: 1, 54-59; 10 ref. Effects of drying temp. (30 or 60oC), methods of threshing and storage conditions (temp. 15 or 30o and 40 or 90% RH) on seed quality of V. radiata were studied. Seed quality was not affected by low drying temp. Seeds dried under high temp. showed great loss of germinability. Machine threshing was detrimental to seed quality compared with hand threshing. Both low temp. and RH maintained high seed quality throughout the experiment. In contrast, both high temp. and RH reduced seed germinability rapidly. The results highlight the value of low temp. and especially low RH in preserving seed quality during storage. Polyethylene bags were more suitable than jute bags as seed containers for maintaining good germinability. 0636 Effect of potassium nutrition and type of storage container on seed quality of stored groundnut pods. Patra, AK; Tripathy, SK; Samui, RC; Nanda, MK. International Arachis Newsletter. 1996, No. 16, 56-58. In a field experiment in 1992-93 in West Bengal, groundnuts cv. JL 24 were given 0 or 50 kg K2O. The harvested seeds were stored in a gunny bag (300 gauge), a plastic silo or a polyethylene-lined gunny bag containing 25 g anhydrous calcium chloride for between 120 and 360 days. K application maintained higher seed viability over a longer period than where no K was applied. Infection by Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium spp. and Rhizopus spp. was lower in seeds harvested from plants given K. Seed viability was significantly higher in both the plastic silo and the polyethylene-lined gunny bag with CaCl2 than in the ordinary gunny bag. 0637 Effect of potassium nutrition, containers and seed treatments on the keeping quality of stored wheat seeds. Paul, SR; Choudhury, AK. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1992, 13: 3, 308-310; 10 ref. Wheat cv. Sonalika and WH 291 were grown at Gossaigaon, Assam using 0, 20, 40 or 60 kg K2O/ha. Seeds from each crop were treated with captan + BHC [HCH] or not treated, and stored in cloth bags, polyethylene bags or tin containers from May to Dec. Seed germination, averaged over treatments, was not significantly affected by cultivar, was increased by up to 40 kg K2O/ha, was higher in treated seeds, and was lower after storage in cloth bags than in other containers. Germination decreased with storage period. 0638 Effect of pre-harvest sprays of calcium and plant growth regulators on seed quality in sunflower. Ravishankar, C; Singh, BG; Kumari, CA. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology (India). (Jul-Sep 2000). v. 5(3) p. 271-273. Pre-harvest sprays of CaCl2 (0.1 0.5 and 1.0%), BA and 30 ppm) and GA3 (50, 100 and 150 ppm) were given on capitulum of sunflower cv. Morden at 60, 70 and 80 days after sowing (DAS). Application of GA3

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

(100 ppm) especially, at 60 DAS and storage of achenes, particularly in poly pack was more effective in maintaining seed quality in terms of seedling vigour index (SVI) in sunflower. 0639 Effect of pre-sowing storage of aldrin-treated wheat seed on germination, termite damage and grain yield of the crop. Bhanot, JP; Verma, AN; Dahiya, AS. Journal of Insect Science. 1992, 5: 2, 227-228 Wheat seed treated with aldrin 30 EC at 4.0 ml/kg seed was stored under laboratory conditions (19-31oC and 43-76% RH) for periods of 1-60 days before sowing. None of the treatments impaired or improved seed germination or affected the grain yield. In field studies conducted in Hisar, Haryana, India, in 1984-85, all grain treatments controlled termites [Isoptera]. Damage was less when aldrin-treated seed was stored for 1, 5, 15 and 30 days than for seed stored for 45 and 60 days. However, such differences during the 1983-84 growing season were not significant. 0640 Effect of pre-sowing treatment on seed yield and quality in bhendi. Vijayakumar, A; Dharmalingam, C; Sambandamurthi, S. South Indian Horticulture. 1988, 36: 3, 118-120; 7 ref. Ungraded seeds of the okra cv. Pusa Sawani (grown for seed) were treated with growth regulators or minor elements. The highest seed yield/plant (25.57 g), the best seed quality and high germination (95%) of produced seeds were obtained by treating the initial seeds with potassium dihydrogen phosphate at 0.5% for 16 h. 0641 Effect of pre-storage seed treatments on adult mortality, oviposition and development of Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Bruchidae: Coleoptera), and the viability of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L). Wilczek) in India. Babu, TR; Hussaini, SH; Satyanarayana, B. Tropical Pest Management. 1989, 35: 4, 397398; 10 ref. Adult mortality of Callosobruchus chinensis was 100% within 24 h after artificially infesting seeds of Vigna radiata pretreated with inert clay and stored for 12 months under ambient conditions. Pre-treatment with thiram and TCMTB was also effective in controlling the adults by impairing oviposition. The seeds maintained over 80% germination up to 12 months of storage in all treatments. 0642 Effect of presowing seed treatment on growth, flowering, yield and fruit quality of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Ranchi. Ghanta, PK; Dhua, RS; Mitra, SK. Horticultural Journal. 1995, 8: 1, 39-45; 8 ref. Pawpaw cv. Ranchi seeds were soaked for 6 h in water or 1 M solutions of sodium chloride, disodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium nitrate, sodium carbonate or ascorbic acid before sowing in seedbeds. Seedlings were planted in the field when 45 days old. The number of nodes to the first flower was highest with

sodium chloride (29.0, compared with 25.4 in controls) and was significantly reduced by disodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium nitrate and ascorbic acid (22.4, 21.2 and 22.0, respectively). Potassium nitrate and ascorbic acid accelerated flowering by 18.2 and 17.2 days, respectively, and gave the most fruits/plant (26.6 and 24.6, respectively), highest average fruit weight (1.496 and 1.442 kg, respectively), longest fruits (19.2 and 18.6 cm, respectively), highest sugar/acid ratio (46.99 and 45.82, respectively), lowest titratable acidity (0.146 and 0.141% FW basis, respectively) and thickest pulp (3.06 and 3.02 cm, respectively). Significant increases in fruit yield/plant and ascorbic acid content were obtained with all treatments except water and sodium chloride, and significant increases in fruit yield/ha, diameter, TSS, total and reducing sugar contents and total carotene content were obtained with all except sodium chloride. The number of seeds/fruit was reduced by all treatments except potassium nitrate. 0643 Effect of presowing treatment with growth regulators on the growth and seed quality of sunflower [India] Patil, BN; Kherde, MK; Sontakey, PY; Kolhe, GR. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities (India). (Sep 1980). v. 5(3) p. 190-191. 0644 Effect of prolonged field exposure of seed cotton to climatic conditions on seed quality. Sohi, HS; Aulakh, KS; Randhawa, HS. Indian Phytopathology. 1988, 41: 2, 220-224; 16 ref. Prolonged exposure of seed cotton to weathering resulted in loss of germination and higher incidence of seed borne fungi in American and Desi cotton in Punjab, India. The rate of loss of germination was higher at Ludhiana than at Mukatsar, possibly due to the higher incidence of seed borne fungi. The loss in germination due to prolonged exposure of seed cotton is mainly attributed to the increased number of fungi which attack the bolls when these are open to weathering. A total of 21 species belonging to 17 genera were recorded on the seeds of the 2 varieties but Fusarium moniliforme [Gibberella fujikuroi] and Alternaria alternata were the most common. 0645 Effect of provenance and season on seed quality of some rice genotypes (Oryza sativa L.). Deshpande, VK; Mahadevappa, M. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1996, 9: 1, 92-96; 13 ref. Information is presented on seed quality of rice in 8 maintainer lines of promising CMS lines grown at 4 locations in Karnataka during the 1989 wet and 1990 dry seasons. Significant differences in seed quality traits occurred, with V20B giving the highest values for 1000seed weight, seed germination, speed of germination, percentage field emergence and seedling vigour. Quality traits of seeds produced at Mandya and Bangalore were superior to those produced at Shimoga and Mudigere.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0646 Effect of provenance on seed quality attributes in maize. Kurdikeri, MB; Aswathaiah, B; Mahadevappa, M; Rajendraprasad, S; Aswathanarayana, SC. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1995, 24: 10, 186-188; 6 ref. Data are presented on the effects of seed provenance in Karnataka on 100- seed weight, percentage germination, vigour index, seedling growth rate, electrical conductivity, field emergence and percentage survival in 22 lots of maize cv. Deccan 103 seed. 0647 Effect of quality of seed bed preparation on the growth and yield potential of maize. Khan, NU. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Agronomy. 1988, 124p. 0648 Effect of radiation and temperature on germination of maize grain during storage. Sharafat, T; Mehmood, F; Khan, M; Sattar, A. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan). (1999). v. 15(3) p. 193-195. Germination of maize (Zea mays L.) was studied in this investigation which was reduced at 2-4 KGray. A marked reduction in germination was apparent at higher doses. Germination was apparently unaffected at low doses, i.e. 0.5 KGray, but seedling survival diminished as the level of treatment increased. The germination percentage ranged from 99-30% at the end of the year. It was observed that reduction in seed viability depends on its moisture content and radiation dose. The incubation temperature plays insignificant role in seed germination. 0649 Effect of rates, timings and methods of nitrogen application on opium seed yield and quality of opium poppy. Turkhede, BB; De, R; Mathur, VS; Ram, S. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Nov 1981). v. 51(11) p. 782-785. 0650 Effect of relative humidity on the keeping quality of jute seed at room temperature [Bangladesh] Islam, AKMM; Ali, MK. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture (Bangladesh). (Sep 1981). v. 6(2-3) p. 5054. Issued Mar 1982. Jute seed storage experiment was conducted with D 154 and C.G. varieties of C. capsularis and C. olitories respectively. Seed samples were studied for their moisture content and germination percentage for nine months. For humidity studies, seeds were kept in desiccators, the air of which was maintained at 100, 85, 60, 40, and 0 percent humidities with different concentrations of sulpheric acid. A rapid loss in viability with a gradual rise in moisture content was observed in seeds stored at 100 percent and 85 percent humidities. Sixty percent humidity was found favourable in the storage of capsularis and olitorus seeds. Too much drying has been found to be injurious to jute seed. 0651 Effect of removing terminal or axillary heads on the yield and quality of seeds of broccoli cultivar green sprouting. Ghimire, AJ; Bhattarai, MR; Khanal,

R. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta, c/o BAPSO, P. O. Box 106, Kathmandu, Nepal. PAC Working Paper. 1993, No. 77, 1-6; 3 ref. Experimental work on seed production of broccoli revealed that removal of either the auxillary or terminal head produced a higher seed yield (860 and 800 kg/ha, respectively) than when no buds were removed (660 kg/ha). It was therefore possible to harvest both a vegetable crop (760 kg/ha for axillary and 4380 kg/ha for terminal shoot removal) and seed crop without affecting the seed quality. 0652 Effect of root size and umbel order on yield and quality of carrot (Daucus carota var. sativus) seeds. Verma, TS; Ramesh, Chand; Sharma, SC; Lakhanpal, KD; Joshi, S; Chand, R. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1993, 63: 9, 574-577; 11 ref. Trials were conducted during the winter seasons of 1989-90 and 1990-91 to determine the best steckling size for production of high quality seed of carrot cv. Pusa Yamdagni. Seed yield from secondary umbels and seed yield/ha were highest with the largest (125-g) stecklings (78.40 g/plant and 3796.7 kg/ha, respectively). Germination rate was highest for seeds from 78g stecklings. Seed germination from all steckling sizes and umbel orders was considerably higher (90.1292.93%) than the minimum prescribed limit (60%), due to low rainfall at seed maturation and harvesting. 0653 Effect of Rovral on the quality of mustard seed. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report 1989-90. p. 155. The experiment was conducted at Joydebpur with a leaf blight susceptible variety SS-75. Rovral at the rate of 0.2% was sprayed one, two and three times at an interval of 10 days starting from the initiation of leaf blight. Two hundred seeds from each treatment after harvesting were tested to evaluate the seed infection by Alternaria spp. The spray schedules of Rovral significantly reduced the incidence of leaf blight. Rovral spray also significantly reduced the seed infection by Alternaria spp. the difference was negligible within the varying spray schedules. Highest seed germination (96.0%) on the blotter was recorded in seeds sprayed three times. 0654 Effect of salinity on yield, seed quality, and biochemical characteristics in Setaria italica L. Thimmaiah, SK; Viswanath, DP; Vyakaranahal, BS; Hunshal, CS. Cereal Chemistry. 1989, 66: 6, 525-527; 20 ref. In field experiments in June-Sep. 1986 at Dharwad, S. italica was irrigated 6 times throughout the growing season with saline water (1.0-16.0 dS/m). Grain yields were 2.06, 1.92, 1.82, 1.48 and 0.89 t/ha with 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 dS/m salinity, resp. 1000-grain wt decreased from 3.15 to 1.90 g with increase in salinity. Starch, protein, P and Na concn of seeds increased with salinity whereas K and total free amino acid concn decreased. Germination and seedling

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

vigour of seeds produced from plants grown under various levels of salinity were not significantly different. 0655 Effect of seasons and threshing methods on seed quality and longevity in soybean. Reddy, DMV; Gowda, AB; Murthy, KMP. Seed Research. 1995, publ. 1996, 23: 2, 80-83; 6 ref. In experiments in 1988-89, soyabeans were harvested from crops grown in the kharif [monsoon] or rabi [winter] seasons and 3 different threshing methods were compared (hand shelling + naturally shattered seeds during drying, beating dried plants on a soft floor or on a cement floor). Seed quality and storability were tested in the different treatments. The crop grown in kharif was superior to the rabi crop in terms of percentage germination and storability. Percentage germination was highest in hand shelled seed (96.8%) followed by seed threshed on a soft floor (94.5%). 0656 Effect of seed and seedling treatment with growth regulators and nitrogen on yield and seed quality in rice. Ramamoorthy, K; Jayapaul, P; Natarajan, N; Radha, NS. Current Agricultural Research. 1995, 8: 1, 1-5; 10 ref. In field trials during the rabi [winter] seasons of 1987-88 at Madurai, Tamil Nadu, rice cv. Co.37 was given the following treatments: soaking seeds in 5000 p.p.m. Cycocel [chlormequat] for 12 h; foliar application of 20 p.p.m. gibberellic acid to seedlings before transplanting; transplanting after 25, 35, 45 or 55 d; and application of an additional 25 kg N/ha more than the recommended rate of 100 kg/ha. Mean grain yield was 4.08 t/ha in the control, 5.18 t with Cycocel seed treatment, 4.51 t with gibberellic acid and 4.30 t with the additional N application. Grain yield was highest when seedlings were transplanted after 25 d and lowest after 45 d. Seed quality in terms of percentage germination of stored seeds was increased by Cycocel and gibberellic acid and it decreased with age of seedling. 0657 Effect of seed-borne mycoflora on quantity and quality of mustard oil. Shivpuri, A; Siradhana, BS; Bansal, RK. Indian Phytopathology. 1990, 43: 3, 404-407; 13 ref. Eighty-two Indian mustard seed samples were collected from 9 agro-climatic zones of Rajasthan, India, and 16 fungal species were isolated. The effects were studied of these fungi on the quantity and quality of Indian mustard oil. Fusarium oxysporum, Phoma lingam [Leptosphaeria maculans] and P. nebulosa reduced, 6 increased and 7 did not effect oil content. All the fungi caused an unpleasant odour in oil and changed the oil colour significantly. 0658 Effect of seed grade on seed quality during storage in maize. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. Annual Research Review (Agronomy Division) - BARI, 1990-91. p. 164-67.

Maize (Zea mays) seeds of large grade (heavy and bigger size) were found to have a good percentage of germination and vigour while the speed of germination was lower as compared to those of medium and small size. 0659 The effect of seed inoculation with Rhizobium and Azotobacter on yield and quality of lentils (Lens esculenta) Sanoria, CL; Mallik, MK. Journal of Agricultural Science (UK). (1981). v. 97(1) p. 237-239. 0660 Effect of seed maturity on growth and quality of Grewia optiva Drummond seedlings. Nayital, RK; Paul, V. Range Management and Agroforestry. 1995, 16: 1, 87-92; 21 ref. In a study of trees growing at Solan, Himachal Pradesh, seed germination and seedling growth and quality were studied in relation to time of fruit collection (October to December) and diameter of mother trees (10-20, 20-30, >30 cm). Best germination and best quality seedlings were obtained with seeds harvested on October 16 from the medium diameter trees. 0661 Effect of seed production, distribution, viability, losses and germination on the natural regeneration of silver fir (Abies pindrow) in moist temperate forests of Pakistan. Raza, ul, Haq. Pakistan Journal of Forestry. 1992, 42: 2, 102-111; 23 ref. Data were obtained from 2 sites (at Kund and Sharan) in mature coniferous forests (dominated by Abies pindrow) with typically little natural regeneration of Abies pindrow. Seed production from mature and over-mature trees (150-200 yr old) was numerically adequate (up to 136 seeds/m2) in some years. However, the amount of viable seeds did not exceed 20/m2. Seed production in 1987 at Kund was 7X higher than in 1988. No seed was produced in 1989, indicating that a seeding cycle of 2 yr is likely to be occurring in natural stands. Data for Kund (136 seeds/m2) and Sharan (320 seeds/m2) for 1987 indicated that there was large variation in seed production between the 2 localities. Field observations also showed that Abies pindrow does not have a persistent seed bank and that seed remains viable for >1 yr in natural stands. Some 97% of seeds are lost due to rodents, birds and microbial attacks. The results indicate that low seed viability with seed losses must have been a major factor in the poor regeneration in these forests, even if other soil and microclimatic conditions were favourable. 0662 Effect of seed rate and nitrogen on biomass production and quality of oat (Avena sativa). Singh, KN; Bali, AS; Hasan, B; Shah, MH; Khan, HU. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1997, 42: 2, 310-312; 4 ref. In a field experiment on a silty clay-loam soil during the winter seasons of 1991-93 at Shalimar, Jammu and Kashmir, oats cv. Kent were sown at the rate of 75, 100, 125 of 150 kg seed/ha and given 0, 50, 100 or 150 kg N/ha. Forage and dry matter yields were

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

highest with 150 kg N (40.4 and 8.1 t/ha, respectively) and increased with the sowing rate of up to 125 kg seed/ha. Plant crude protein content increased with increasing N rate but decreased with increase in sowing rate. 0663 Effect of seed rate on yield and quality of direct sown small onions. Bhonde, SR; Bhadauria, JS; Chougle, SS. News Letter - National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation. 1995, 15: 3, 3-5 Studies on the effect of sowing rates on bulb yield and quality of small onion cultivar Agrifound Rose cultivated during the kharif [monsoon] season for production of export quality bulbs in Chickballapur area of Karnataka state revealed that a rate of 22.5 kg/ha applied by broadcasting produced a desirable plant population and spacing for obtaining better bulb development, yield and maximum net returns. 0664 Effect of seed rhizome size and varieties on the quality of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) under open and shade. Nizam, SA; Jayachandran, BK. South Indian Horticulture. 1997, 45: 1-2, 50-52. Three sizes of seed rhizomes (5, 10 and 15 g) of ginger cultivars Kuruppampady, Maran, Nedumangadu and Rio de Janeiro were planted in the open, or as an intercrop in a 30-year-old coconut plantation, at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The crop was harvested 8 months after planting, when volatile oil, non-volatile ether extract (NVEE), crude fibre and starch contents were analysed. Volatile oil and starch contents were not significantly influenced by rhizome size. NVEE was significantly influenced by rhizome size in open conditions; plants raised from 15 g rhizomes had significantly higher NVEE than plants raised from 5 or 10 g rhizomes. However, this effect was not observed in the intercropping treatment. In open conditions, plants raised from 5 g rhizomes had the highest crude fibre contents, but when grown as an intercrop plants raised from 15 g rhizomes had the highest crude fibre contents. The variety Kuruppampady recorded the highest NVEE under open and intercropped conditions. 0665 Effect of seed size grades on the seed quality of elite sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Ujjinaiah, US; Seenappa, K; Mahadevappa, M. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1989, 23: 3, 311-314; 12 ref. Elite seeds of sunflowers cv. E.C.-68415 and Morden were graded into 4 size fractions representing good seeds (G-1), under- sized seeds (G-2), small seeds (G-3) and very small seeds (G-4) by screening through a Petkus processing machine. Seeds of G-1 and G-2 grades were markedly superior to those of the other 2 grades in 1000-seed wt, oil content, percentage germination and vigour index. There was not much difference between G-1 and G-2 grade seeds in quality aspects except 1000-seed wt. It was 65.60 and 47.40 g for G-1 and G-2 grades, resp. The elite seedlot had 65.5 and 18.50% G-1 and G-2 seeds, resp.

0666 Effect of seed size on growth, yield and seed quality of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under summer conditions. Borate, DN; Dumbre, AD; Bhingarde, MT. Seed Research. 1993, publ. 1995, 21: 2, 107-109; 5 ref. In a field trial in India, groundnut cv. B-95 seeds graded into large (>10 mm), medium (8-10 mm), small (7-8 mm) and ungraded were sown on 1 Feb., Mar., Apr. or May. Percentage germination and vigour index were highest in large seed and with sowing on 1 Mar. Pod yield/plant was also highest from large seeds and 1 Mar. sowing. 0667 Effect of seed size on growth, yield, yield attributes and seed quality of gram. Bhor, SB; Thete, RY; Patil, RB; Bharud, RW. Seed Research. 1988, 16: 2, 143-147; 9 ref. Seed size studies conducted with gram (Cicer arietinum) cv. Vikas, Vishwas, Chafa, N-31 and N-59 revealed significant differences in field emergence, 1000-seed wt, FW and DW of seedlings. The variances for 50% flowering and days to maturity showed significant differences due to cultivars only. Neither the cultivars nor the seed size or their interactions, however, had a significant effect on final plant count, number of pods and seeds/plant, seed yield/plant and/plot, percentage germination, vigour index and moisture content. It is concluded that as seed size did not play any significant role in gram, seed grading has little or no economic value to farmers. 0668 Effect of seed size on physiological seed quality in shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) Yadav, SS; Hooda, MS; Bangarwa, KS. Indian Journal of Forestry. 1998, 21: 1, 13-15. Seven seed characteristics, including 5 quality parameters, were measured in seeds collected in December 1992 from 5 trees of Dalbergia sissoo in each of 8 girth classes (0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120, 121-150, 151-180, 181-210 and 211-240 cm) in a plantation at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. The quality parameters were electrical conductivity, germination percentage, viability, performance in an accelerated aging test, and vigour index, and the 2 other parameters measured were seed weight and seed volume. Significant variation was recorded for seed size, electrical conductivity and other quality parameters among girth classes. Seed size was highly positively correlated with seed germination, viability, accelerated aging and vigour index, while electrical conductivity was negatively correlated with all the seed quality parameters studied. Overall, the study suggested that a simple measure for high seed quality was large seed size and low electrical conductivity. 0669 Effect of seed size on quality and quantitative traits in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). Reddy,

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

PN; Reddy, KN; Rao, SK; Singh, SP. Seed science and technology (Switzerland). (1989). v. 17(2) p. 289-295. 0670 Effect of seed size on quality parameters in peanut:histological and histochemical studies. Sahoo, AK; Nalini, AS; Uppar, DS; Channappagoudar, BB. Journal of Research APAU (India). (Jul-Dec 1994). v. 22(3-4) p. 106-109. 0671 Effect of seed size on recovery and quality in hybrid sorghum. Gowda, SJ; Rame Gowda; Gowda, B. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1997, 26: 6-7, 95-96; 5 ref. Relationships between sieve size used in grading seeds of 2 sorghum hybrids, CSH-1 and CSH-5, and seed recovery, 1000-seed weight, percentage initial germination, field emergence and percentage germination after 12 months were examined in Bangalore, India, during 1993. Seed recovery increased from 89.9 to 92.1% and from 81.7 to 91.7% in CSH-1 and CSH-5, respectively, as sieve size in grading decreased from 3.5 to 3.0 mm. However, there was a corresponding decrease in 1000-seed weight. There was a positive relationship between seed size and initial germination; germination of seeds retained on 3.0, 3.25 and 3.5 mm sieves was 92.7, 94.0 and 94.7%, respectively. A similar trends were observed in field emergence and germination after 12 months storage of the 3 seed size classes. It is suggested that there is considerable scope to decrease the screen size from 3.5 to 3.0 mm for size grading of sorghum hybrids in order to improve seed recovery, with little loss of seed quality. 0672 Effect of seed size on seed quality and yield of blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper). Paul, SR. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1994, 15: 3, 376-378. Seeds of V. mungo cv. Matikalai were graded into large (retained on a 9/64 inch sieve), medium (retained on a 8/64 inch sieve) and small, or ungraded. Large, medium and small seeds comprised 10.8, 55.2 and 34% of the seed sample, respectively. In a laboratory assessment, emergence, vigour index and seedling growth were greatest from the large seeds, while emergence was lowest from ungraded seeds. In field trials at Gossaigaon, Assam in 1990-91, seed yield averaged 0.56, 0.46, 0.30 and 0.43 t/ha from large, medium, small and ungraded seeds, respectively. 0673 Effect of seed size on seed quality in sunflower cv. Morden. Krishnaveni, K; Sivasubramanian, K. Madras Agricultural Journal. 2001, 88: 1-3, 133-134 A field experiment was conducted in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, during 1994 to determine the effect of seed size on seed quality of sunflower cv. Morden. The seed size was classified as large (G1; 4.0 mm (10/64 inches) retained), medium (G2; 3.6 mm (9/64 inches) retained), small (G3; 3.2 mm (8/64 inches) retained), and ungraded (G4; a mixture of seeds above the size of 8/64 inches). Observations showed significant

differences for plant height, number of leaves, leaf area per plant, days to 50% flowering, diameter of head, weight of filled achene per head, seed recovery, kernel/husk ratio, 100 achene weight, seed yield, germination, vigour index, field emergence and oil content. The germination and vigour index was higher for G1 achenes, and large and medium sized achenes had 8% greater germination than the small sized achenes. The ungraded achenes showed a similar trend to G2. The weight of filled achene per head, kernel/husk ratio, 100 seed weight and seed yield were more pronounced using G1. Considering the total recovery, G1 recorded the optimum of 80%. Though G3 recorded 95% seed recovery, it is inclusive of small sized seeds. G2 recorded the uniform size of seeds which can be used for grading the seeds. Results also revealed that G1 showed positive association between seed size, germination and crop performance. 0674 Effect of seed size on seed quality parameters in three varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Ramaiah, H; Prakash, KS; Bommegowda, A. Indian Agriculturist. 1995, 39: 2, 113-117; 10 ref. Seeds of V. unguiculata cv. C-152, S-488 and TVX-183690-E grown in field trials in 1991-92 at Hebbal, Karnataka, were graded into 3 sizes using 4.0-, 4.8and 5.6-mm sieves. The 3 grades of seed and ungraded seed were tested for 100-seed weight, germination, field emergence, electrical conductivity and vigour index. Percentage germination, field emergence and seed vigour were highest and percentage seedling abnormality and electrical conductivity were lowest in seed retained in a 5.6-mm sieve. 0675 Effect of seed size on yield and quality in bunch groundnut. Sahoo, AK; Kulkarni, GN; Vyakaranahal, BS. Seed Research. 1988, 16: 2, 136-142; 6 ref. Trials with 4 bunch type groundnut cultivars grown from large, small or ungraded seeds showed that seed size had no significant effect on growth characters, yield components, seed yields or seed quality, but affected seed oil contents. These were higher with large and ungraded seeds than with small seeds. 0676 Effect of seed size, seed rate and row spacing on seed quality and yield of buckwheat in Assam. Paul, SR. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1995, 16: 1, 119-121; 5 ref. In a field experiment during the rabi [winter] season of 1990/91 in Assam with a local buckwheat cultivar, grain yield was not significantly affected by seed size. A sowing rate of 10 kg seed/ha at row spacings of 20, 30 or 40 cm gave grain yields of 0.67, 0.50 and 0.35 t/ha compared with 0.41, 0.50 and 0.43 t from a sowing rate of 20 kg seed at the same row spacings, respectively.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0677 Effect of seed source on physical and physiological qualities of Acacia nilotica seeds. Vanangamudi, K; Umarani, R; Bharathi, A; Venkatesh, A. Seed Research. 1998, 26: 2, 114-116. Seeds of Acacia nilotica were collected from 7 different climatic zones of Tamil Nadu. Seed characteristics including length, width, thickness, 100-seed weight, percentage germination, vigour index and root and shoot length of seedlings are tabulated for each seed source. There were significant differences between seed sources for all characteristics except percentage germination. 0678 Effect of seed source on physiological quality of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth seeds in storage. Vijagaragavan, A; Vanangamudi, K. Forest Coll. and Research Inst., Mettupalayam 641 301 Tamil Nadu (India) IUFRO Joint Symposium on Tree Seed Technology, Physiology and Tropical Silviculture. 2001. 225p. Albizia lebbeck commonly called as Vagai or Siris, is a nitrogen fixing, semideciduous tree species, whose leaves and twigs are excellent fodder for camels and other cattle. It is also an excellent source for fuel, charcoal, jaggery mould and gum. Generally, seeds deteriorate, during prolonged storage, but the rate of deterioration varies greatly among the species and provenances. Keeping these in mind, an investigation involving eight different seed sources of A. lebbeck seed collected from four different agro-climatic zones of Tamil Nadu, to evaluate the storage potential of this seed was conducted. After initial evaluation, the seeds at 8% moisture content were packed according to source in plastic containers and stored under ambient conditions. The seed samples were evaluated every three months for seed germinability and vigour. Results, after twentyone months of storage, revealed that Coimbatore and Aliyar sources of the Western Zone stored better based on higher germination and seedling vigour as compared to other seed sources. 0679 Effect of seed sources on seed and seedling quality in Acacia nilotica. Suresh, KK; Jambulingam, R; Sekar, I. Indian Forester. 1997, 123: 5, 422-426; 10 ref. Seeds were collected from 10-yr-old plantations of Acacia nilotica in various soil types and at various sites in Tamil Nadu, and the effect of seed source was determined on 100-seed weight, seed coat/embryo ratio, seed germination (after acid scarification) and seedling quality. Seeds from plantations on clay loam and sandy loam soils were largest, gave the best germination and the best quality seedlings, while seeds from plantations on calcareous, red and black cotton (vertisol) soils and on tank beds which are under prolonged waterlogging gave poor results. 0680 Effect of seed storage and fruit ripening on germination and seedling characteristics in Te-

comella undulata. Jindal, SK; Solanki, KR; Kackar, NL. Myforest. 1990, 26: 1, 59-62; 3 ref. Over-ripe (burst) capsules of Tecomella undulata were collected from natural stands in Rajasthan in May 1983 and 1984, and April 1985. In addition, unripe (green) and 'optimum' ripe capsules were collected in April 1985, and ripe capsules in June 1985. Seeds from each collection were tested for germination on moist filter paper in petri dishes in June 1985. Half the samples were kept at 35oC throughout the germination study and the rest were first kept at 10oC for 6 h. Germination and seedling growth at 5 days old were recorded. There was a progressive loss of germination with storage. Best germination (82%) occurred in the over-ripe seeds collected in April. Between the incubation treatments there was no significant difference with regard to germination, and seedling growth response varied with seed age. 0681 Effect of seed storage and imbibition damage on the seed quality of radish (Raphanus sativus Linn.) and onion (Allium cepa Linn.) seed. Shrestha, HK. Department of Agriculture. University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom. Thesis. 2000. Deterioration of seed quality in radish and onion seeds from seed harvesting and threshing through storage to sowing is a major problem. This is particularly the case where harsh methods of threshing are used and in ambient/open seed storage systems, such as those found in Nepal. This study was conducted to identify the effect of different storage conditions and imbibition damage on seed quality. Both onion and radish seeds were stored at 10% and 15% moisture contents (mc) at 15, 20 and 30o C for different periods of time. In addition, radish was stored at 4% and onion at 5% mc at the same temperatures. After storage, half the seeds from each sample were scratched (1mm) on one side of the seed. Increased storage time led to small reductions in germination and in the extent of vital staining with 2, 3, 5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), and small increases in mean germination time in both unscratched and scratched seeds. 0682 Effect of seed treatment and storage containers on the maintenance of viability of sunflower seed. Mohammad, S; Sunder, RS. Tropical Science (UK). (1991). v. 31(3) p. 223-228. 0683 Effect of seed treatment on germination and incidence of microorganisms in soybean at two temperature regimes. Arulnandhy, V. Tropical Agriculturist. 1984. v. 140 p. 51-59. Twelve soybean (G/ycine max (L.) Merrill) lines were evaluated for germination ability and infection by Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) cohn., a bacteria, and total fungi at 30 and 38o C when the seeds were treated with antibiotic (streptomycin sulphate) and/or fungicide (Vitavax 200-FF). Non-treated seeds served as controls. On the whole, seed treatments streptomycin sulphate, vitavax 200-FF, and combination of both did not improve

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

germination percentages. However, seed treatments streptomycin sulphate and combination of streptomycin sulphate and vitavax 200- FF respectively, significantly improved the germination percentages in soybean cultivars "Centennial" and "Essex" at 38o C. At 30o C all three seed treatments significantly increased the percentage germination of the advanced breeding line N77179, which initially had low germination. Streptomycin sulphate lowered the percentage of seed infected by Bacillus subtilis at 38o C significantly meanwhile vitavax 200-FF significantly reduced the fungal infected seed at 30o C. However, the proportion of streptomycin sulphate treated seed infected with fungi was significantly greater at both temperatures and the incidence of Bacillus subtilis at both temperatures was higher on seed treated with vitavax 200-FF. The presence of Bacillus subtilis increased and germination percentaage declined significantly with increased incubation temperature from 30 to 38o C. 0684 Effect of seed treatment with plant growth substances on fruit characters yield and quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) Kumar, R; Singh, KP. Proceedings of the Bihar Academy of Agricultural Science (India). (1978). v. 26(1) p. 62-73. 0685 Effect of seed weight on germination and seedling quality of Prosopis juliflora. Neeta Mutha; Uday Burman; Tiwari, JC; Harsh, LN. Annals of Arid Zone. 1994, 33: 3, 253-254; 8 ref. Seed samples were collected from a 50 km area around Mandavi, Gujarat, and classified into seven (AG) 100-seed weight groups, ranging from 1.07 to 4 g. Seeds were sown in polybags in FYM/soil/sand (1:1:2) and germination was recorded for 6 days, and seedling growth after 15 and 36 days. Germination increased with increase in seed weight from 26.2 to 87.4%. Seedling growth (assessed as the Dickson Quality Index, a complex ratio involving seedling, shoot and root dry weight, and height and diameter) increased with seed weight up to class E-F (3.21-3.44 g), and fell slightly in class G (4 g); best growth was in classes D-G. 0686 Effect of seeding density on the fodder yield and quality of two maize varieties. Ayub, M; Mahmood, R; Tanveer, A; Sharar, MS. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan). (Jul 1999). v. 2(3) p. 664-666. Two varieties of maize viz., Neelum and Akbar were compared at seed rates of 75, 100, 125 and 150 kg ha-1 in Faisalabad conditions. Varieties showed nonsignificant differences for all parameters studied except dry matter yield. Cultivar Akbar gave significantly more DM yield (7.18 t ha-1) than Neelum (6.09 t ha- 1). Seeding densities showed significant effects on growth and yield parameters. Plant height, green fodder yield, dry matter yield and crude fibre percentage was increased with increasing seed density, whereas, the increase in crude fibre percentage could not reach to a

significant level. While, stem diameter, leaf area plant1, crude protein percentage, total ash percentage and ether extractable fat percentage decreased significantly with increased seed rate. The cultivar Akbar and seed rate of 150 kg ha-1 seems to be the best for producing higher fodder yield of maize in Faisalabad conditions. 0687 Effect of seedling uprooting time and leaf removal on seed quality and seedling vigor of rice Oryza sativa. Das, NR; Mukherjee, NN. Environment and Ecology. 1990, 8: 4, 1091-1094; 9 ref. In laboratory and field experiments in 1988-89 with rice cv. IR-36, the effects of uprooting seedlings 0, 3 or 6 d before transplanting and removing 0, 25, 50 or 100% leaves 1 month after transplanting on the quality of the resulting seeds and their seedlings were studied. Uprooting seedlings 3 and 6 d before transplanting, compared with uprooting on the day of transplanting, decreased seed size and percentage germination and also decreased seedling vigour as measured by root and shoot length and number of roots/seedling. Increases in the degree of defoliation also showed similar adverse effects on quality of seeds and seedlings. 0688 Effect of simulated rains on seed quality of okra cultivars. Gurmit Singh; Hari Singh. Seed Research. 1988, 16: 2, 226-228. In trials with 2 cultivars, unseasonal wet conditions were simulated by spraying the fruits with water 3 times/day for 0-10 days. After treatment, the seeds were dried at room temperature for 2 weeks. Data are tabulated on sprouting %, moisture % in the fresh and dry seeds, 100-seed weight, germination %, and TTC (triphenyltetrazolium chloride) activity. Seed germination % deteriorated with an increase in the number of rainy days, and the deterioration was much greater in cv. Punjab Padmini than in Pusa Sawani. 0689 Effect of soil moisture stress on seed yield and quality of cotton cv. MCU 7. Ponnuswamy, AS; Karivaratharaju, TV. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1996, 83: 4, 225-227; 7 ref. In a field trial in 1984-85 cotton cv. MCU 7 was irrigated at irrigation water:cumulative pan evaporation (IW:CPE) ratios of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 or 0.8. Seed cotton and seed yields, plant height and number of seeds/boll increased with increasing frequency of irrigation. Seed quality in terms of germination percentage and vigour index were also highest with an IW:CPE ratio of 0.8. 0690 The effect of soil temperature, moisture and nitrogen on Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze seed germination, viability and emergence on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) roots under field conditions. Osman, MA; Raju, PS; Peacock, JM. Plant and Soil. 1991, 131: 2, 265-273; 27 ref. Striga seeds contained in nylon bags and buried at 2 cm in the soil, were exposed to different temp. and moisture treatments. Clear polythene, hay mulch and

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

bare soil treatments were used to vary soil temp. giving mean max. temp. of 60o, 48o and 37oC, resp. Irrigation levels of 0, 30 and 60 mm were applied to change soil moisture. After 34 d of preconditioning, the exhumed Striga seeds from polythene-covered plots (solarized plots) did not germinate or retain viability when these seeds were exposed to sorghum root exudate. However, seeds similarly buried under hay mulch or bare soil had similar germination and viability rates. Of these, 75% germinated and 85% were viable, regardless of the temp. treatment. Although seeds stored at high temp. and humidity (solarization) were killed, more Striga plants emerged under the polythene treatment compared to hay mulch and bare soil treatments. The observed Striga plants in the polythene mulch treatment were, therefore, assumed to have come from deeper layers where solarization was not effective. Irrigation treatments did not have significant effects on Striga seed germination and viability, but a slightly higher number of plants emerged at 60 mm irrigation level than at 30 mm and 0 mm. Striga emergence, on the other hand, was directly related to the rate of N application. Nitrogen rates of 0, 25, 50 and 100 kg/ha resulted in the emergence of 11, 34, 38 and 40 Striga plants/plot, resp. Despite the high infestation at high N levels, sorghum plants did not show a loss of vigour. 0691 Effect of soil water conservation practices and sulphur fertilization on seed yield and quality of sunflower on eroded typic Ustochrept. Das, SK; Ahmad, A; Tripathi, SK; Singh, RP. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 1994, 42: 3, 491-493; 9 ref. In a field experiment on sandy loam soil (Inceptisol) during the rabi [winter] seasons of 1983-85 at Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, sunflowers cv. EC-68414 and Composite-7 were mulched with rice straw, maize stalk or sugarcane trash, or sprayed with antitranspirant kaolin and given 0, 20, 40 or 60 kg S/ha. Seed yields were highest with rice straw mulch (816 and 900 kg/ha in 2 years) and increased with increasing S. S application increased seed oil, protein and methionine contents. Composite-7 gave higher seed yield than EC-68414. 0692 Effect of source and levels of potassium and sulphur with molybdenum seed dressing on yield and quality of groundnut. Siddaramappa, SN; Shivaraj, B; Andani Gowda. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1993, 27: 2, 124-129; 15 ref. In a field trial in the kharif [monsoon] season of 1987 at Bangalore, Karnataka, groundnuts cv. TMV-2 were given seed dressings of 2 g sodium molybdate/kg seed and soil applications of muriate of potash (MP), MP + gypsum or potassium sulphate with potassium applied at 25 or 50 kg K2O/ha. Pod, seed and oil yields were highest with potassium sulphate and the higher rate of K application, however oil percentage was slightly higher with MP + gypsum. Yield and oil percentage were unaffected by molybdenum seed treatment.

0693 Effect of sowing date and irrigation levels on seed yield and quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) Yadav, KS; Rajput, RL; Verma, OP; Yadav, RP. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1996, 41: 2, 275-278; 5 ref. A 2-year field experiment was conducted during the winter seasons of 1988-89 and 1989-90 at Morena, Madhya Pradesh, to investigate the effects of sowing date (17 or 27 October, 6 or 16 November) and irrigation (none, at pre-flowering (PF), at siliqua development (SD) or at PF + SD) on the seed yield and seed quality of Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Bold. Early sowing (October) resulted in significantly higher seed, oil and protein yield and N uptake by the seed compared with later sowing. Seed, oil and protein yield, N content and N uptake were highest under PF + SD or PF alone. Oil concentration was greatest in non-irrigated plots. 0694 Effect of sowing date and plant geometry on seed production and quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) cv. Varsha Uphar. Yadav, SK; Dhankhar, BS; Deswal, DP; Tomer, RPS. Seed Research. 2001, 29: 2, 149-152; 8 ref. The effects of sowing date (5 and 15 March; 14 April; 14 and 24 May; 13 June; 3 and 23 July; and 12 August) and spacing (45 x 30 and 67.5 x 20.0 cm) on the seed yield and quality of okra (cv. Varsha Uphar) were studied in Hisar, Haryana, India, during 1997- 98. Crops sown on 13 June gave the highest number of seeds per fruit (48.30), seed yield (17.18 q/ha), test weight (64.86 g), standard germination (90.33%), seedling length (27.6 cm), vigour index (2516), germination percentage after AA test (80.61%), and electrical conductivity of seed leachates (8.50 'hos cm-1 seed- 1). Crops sown at 45 x 30 cm recorded the highest test weight (57.4 g), standard germination (81.35%), seedling vigour (25), vigour index (1970), and germination percentage after AA test (75.51%). Sowing on 13 June at a spacing of 45 x 30 cm gave the greatest seed yield and quality. 0695 Effect of sowing dates and seed rates on the green forage, seed yield and quality of late sown berseem. Narwal, SS; Sardana, V. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities (India). (May 2000). v.25(2) p. 181-184. Field experiment conducted at Hissar revealed that delay in sowing of berseem from December 15 to January 30 significantly reduced the green fooder and seed yields. December 15 sowing yielded 60.2 and 105.7 per cent higher mean green fodder yield and 12.9 and 248.7 percent higher mean seed yield than January 15 and january 30 sowing respectively. Similarly, quality of harvested seed was significantly poor when sowing was delayed from December 30 to January 15 and further to January 30. The green fodder and seed yields increased with increasing seed rate from 25 to 45 kg/ha. Increase in fodder and seed yields with 35 kg seed/ha

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

over 25 kg seed/ha was significant. Further increase in seed rate to 45 kg/ha increased only green fodder yield. However, seed rates did not influence the quality of harvested seeds. Thus berseem for seed production may be sown upto December 30 with seed rate of 35 kg/ha. 0696 Effect of sowing dates and spacings on the yield and quality of okra seed (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.). Singh, K; Sarnaik, DA; Bisen, CS. Research and Development Reporter. 1988, 5: 1-2, 8386; 7 ref. Four sowing dates (20 June-4 Aug.) and 4 plant spacings were compared. Maximum seed yield (1844.12 kg/ha) was obtained when the crop was grown at 45 X 30 cm from a sowing on 20 June. 0697 Effect of sowing dates, time of last cut and fertility levels on the quality of forage, straw and seed of Egyptian clover. Taneja, KD; Sharma, HC; Singh, DP. Haryana Journal of Agronomy. 1991, 7: 2, 101-109; 4 ref. Trifolium alexandrinum grown at Hisar, Haryana in 1983/84 and 1984/85 was sown on 1 Dec., 20 Dec. or 10 Jan., and cut for the last time on 5 Mar., 20 Mar. or 5 Apr. Fertilizer rates were 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5/ha, 37.5 kg N + 75 kg P2O5, 50 kg N + 100 kg P2O5, or no fertilizers. Forage DM yield decreased as sowing date was delayed, increased as date of the last cut was delayed and increased with fertilizer rate of up to 37.5 kg N + 75 kg P2O5/ha. Seed yield decreased when sowing date was later than 20 Dec. and last harvest date was after 20 Mar., and was highest with 37.5 kg N + 75 kg P2O5/ha. Total N and P uptake decreased as sowing date was delayed and when the last cut was on the 5 Apr., and increased with fertilizer rates up to 37.5 kg N + 75 kg P2O5; protein and P concentrations in the dry forage were also highest at this fertilizer rate. Protein and P concentrations in dry forage generally decreased slightly as the dates of sowing and the last cut were delayed. In vitro DM digestibility of dry forage and straw generally decreased with later sowing and final harvest dates, and was highest at 37.5 kg N + 75 kg P2O5. 0698 Effect of spacing and method of nitrogen application on quality and seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Rajput, AL; Singh, DP; Singh, SP. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1994, 39: 3, 493-495 In field trials at Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh in the winter and rainy seasons of 1991-92, seed yield of sunflowers cv. Morden was higher with spacing of 50 X 20 cm than 40 X 20 or 60 X 20 cm. Among 4 N application treatments, yield in both seasons was highest with a combination of basal side placement and side- dressed foliar application. 0699 Effect of spacing and nitrogen levels on growth, yield and quality of seed crop of radish cv. Pusa Chetki. Srivastava, BK; Singh, MP; Jain, SK. Seed Research. 1992, publ. 1994, 20: 2, 85-87; 7 ref.

Seed crops of radish cv. Pusa Chetki were grown at the Horticultural Research Centre, Pantnagar, for 3 seasons (1984- 87), using 3 spacings (60 X 30, 60 X 45 and 60 X 60 cm) and given 4 rates of nitrogen (zero, 40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha). Various aspects of the seed production and quality (plant height, number of primary branches/plant, number of seeds/g, seed yield in g/plant and q/ha together with the seed N and protein content) were determined and found to be significantly improved by each increment in N rate. The maximum seed yield (3-year mean) of 7.95 q/ha, obtained from the application of 120 kg N/ha, was significantly higher than the yield from lower rates of N. The widest spacing, significantly increased the number of primary branches/plant and seed N content. There was a significant interaction between plant spacing and N in 1 season, such that spacing at 60 X 45 cm with 80 kg N/ha gave significantly higher seed yield than the other treatment combinations. The treatments had no significant effect on seed germination. 0700 Effect of spacing, seed rate and N levels on the yield and quality of sugarcane. Jayabal, V; Chockalingam, S. Cooperative Sugar. 1990, 22: 3, 171-172; 4 ref. In field experiments in 1981-83 at Melalathur, Tamil Nadu, increasing N application from 300 to 600 kg/ha increased sugarcane cv. Co.6304 yields from 112.3 to 124.1 t/ha, but reduced commercial cane sugar (CCS) percentage from 13.6 to 12.4%. Planting sugarcane setts in rows 40, 60 or 80 cm apart produced cane yields of 112.7, 114.4 and 96.4 t, respectively. Spacing did not affect CCS percentage. Increasing bud density at planting from 150 000 to 200 000, to 250 000/ha produced cane yields of 106.9, 134.3 and 117.6 t, respectively. Bud density did not affect CCS percentage. 0701 Effect of spacing, seed rate and nitrogen on growth yield and quality of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). Singh, SKP; Singh, SS; Sinha, UP; Singh, AK. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1996, 41: 1, 119-121; 5 ref. In a field experiment in 1990-93 at Pusa, Bihar, sugarcane cv. BO 120 was planted at 6 different row spacings + set rates and given 75, 150 or 225 kg N/ha. A narrow spacing (30 X 60 cm) produced the highest cane yield of 76.5 t/ha. The cane yield was highest with 225 kg N (75.2 t) but the sucrose content in juice decreased with increasing N rate. 0702 Effect of spacings and nitrogen levels on seed quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Bellary Red. Amiroddin; Patel, B; Patil, AA. Progressive Horticulture. 1988, 20: 3-4, 197-199; 4 ref. Plants in rows 10, 20 or 30 cm apart received N at 0, 30, 50 or 90 kg/ha. One-half of the N rate and the basal rate of 60 kg P2O5 + 60 kg K2O/ha were applied 15 days after planting of 30-40 g sets in early Nov. and the remaining N was top dressed 1 month later. The different treatments had no significant effect on 1000- seed

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

weight, seed germination and seedling vigour. However, N had a significant effect on field emergence, which was highest with 60 kg N/ha. 0703 Effect of stage of fruit maturity at harvest on seed quality of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars. Radhe Shyam; Arora, SK; Pandita, ML; Jagdeep Singh. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research. 1996, 26: 3, 195-198; 11 ref. Fruits of 6 cultivars were harvested at the turning or red ripe stages and dried. Seeds were extracted and their quality assessed. Seed moisture content and electrical conductivity were higher in seeds from fruits harvested at the turning stage but test weight, germination percentage and viability were lower. Germination and viability were highest in cultivars Hisar Vijay and Hisar Shakti. 0704 Effect of stage of harvest on seed quality of hybrid sorghum. Basave Gowda; Gowda, SJ. Crop Research Hisar (India). 1996, 12: 2, 138-140; 4 ref. In a field trial in the rabi [winter] season of 1991 at Bellary, seeds of sorghum hybrids CSH 1 and CSH 5 were harvested at 2-day intervals from 10 to 48 days after anthesis. Seed harvested around 40-42 days after anthesis had the highest dry matter accumulation, percentage germination and field emergence. Physiological maturity was attained 116 and 124 days after sowing in cv. CSH 1 and CSH 5, respectively. 0705 Effect of stage of harvesting on seed yield and quality of cauliflower. Gurusamy, C. Seed Science and Technology. 1999, 27: 3, 929-936. The cauliflower cultivar Kibo Giant was sown in 1994-95 and 1995-96 at Udhagamandalam, Tamil Nadu, to determine the influence of stage of harvesting on seed yield and quality. A comparison of 6 stages of harvesting revealed that maximum seed yield and quality parameters were obtained 283 and 290 days after sowing, respectively. The high temperature and relative humidity along with frequent and considerable rainfall during the period of seed development, and heavy rainfall just prior to harvesting reduced seed viability, vigour, cell membrane integrity, protein and oil contents. The harsh weather conditions had also caused lodging of plants and shattering of siliquas. The results suggested that Kibo Giant could be safely harvested from 283 to 290 days after sowing without significant reduction in seed yield and quality. 0706 Effect of storage conditions on viability in rice seeds [India] Prabhakar, BS; Mukherjee, RK. Harvester (India). (1977). v. 19 p. 4-6. 0707 Effect of storage container and pre-sowing drying on some quality attributes and field performance of wheat seed. Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. M.Sc. Ag. Thesis. 1987.

An experiment was conducted in the Seed Processing and Preservation Center and Seed multiplication farm of Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Madhupur, Tangail to evaluate the effect of storage container and pre-storage drying on some quality attributes and field performance of wheat seed. The seed with two dryings having 10% initial moisture absorbed moisture in the storage containers but the level was still safe. The field performance of the seed stored after two dryings and stored in biscuit tin or Hessian bag with polythene cover as expressed in terms of field emergence and grain yield was excellent. 0708 Effect of storage containers and seed moisture content on the germinability and vigour of groundnut seed under ambient condition of storage. Bajracharya, J. Nepalese Journal of Agriculture (Nepal). (1997). v. 18-28 p. 99-102. Various variables of storage containers and moisture level, showed different germination responses. Seeds stored in jute bag maintained germinability 84-87 percent for a period 6 months in all three moisture levels. The groundnut seed in unshelled condition stored in polyined jute bag with 8 percent moisture level also maintained germination and vigour dropped acutely. Form two years of study, jute bag was found as a suitable storage container and 8 percent moisture as the permissible moisture level for storage of groundnut seed in unshelled condition, for one season. 0709 Effect of storage containers on moisture content and viability of maize seeds. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report 1988-89. p. 63-65. Studies on the efficacy of nine different rational and improvised indoor containers indicated that maize seeds (var. Shuvra) with 10.5% initial moisture content could be stored safely in improved tin, traditional tin, polythene (0.09 mm thickness) lined motka, polythenelined dole, polythene-lined jute bag for a period of 10 months. Results revealed that increase of moisture in maize stored in improved tin, traditional tin, polythenelined improved motka, improved dole, improved jute bag was low compared to coal-tar coated motka, plain motka, plain dole and plain jute bag. It was also revealed that if moisture in stored maize increased to 12.7% or above, viability becomes affected. Seventeen fungal species representing 11 genera were detected in the stored samples. Predominant storage fungi like Aspergillus and Penicillium Spp. in improved tin, coal tar coated motka, polythene-lined motka, plain motka, plain dole, polythene- lined dole and plain jute bag were also found with lengthened storage time. 0710 Effect of storage containers on the viability of Tectona grandis seeds from different provenances of Madhya Pradesh. Parvez, Jalil; Jalil, P. Vaniki Sandesh. 1994, 18: 4, 32-37; 3 ref.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

Germination data collected after storage periods of 1 and 6 months, and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years, showed that seeds retained viability for longer and germinated better when stored in air- tight metal containers rather than in loose bags. Germination increased over the first 6 months of storage (indicating initial dormancy) and then started decreasing. Seeds collected from more moist localities had a higher initial germination percentage, but lost viability faster. Very few seeds germinated after 3 years of storage, although there was some variation between provenances in rate of viability loss. 0711 Effect of storage environment on brinjal (Solanum melongena) seed viability. Doijode, SD. Progressive Horticulture. 1988, 20: 3-4, 292-293; 3 ref. Seeds of aubergine cultivar Arka Shirish aged at 40oC and 90% RH for up to 20 days were germinated at 20-30o. The initially high germination (86% after 24 h of aging) was reduced by 50% when seeds were treated for 12 days and it declined to 31% in seeds aged for 20 days. The seed vigour indices were also reduced by aging, and leaching of electrolytes, soluble sugars and free amino acids increased. It is suggested that aging aubergine seeds for 12 days is optimal for estimating their storability. 0712 Effect of storage on seed viability in some leguminous taxa. Kanak, Sahai. Indian Forester. 1999, 125: 6, 609-612. The effect of storage at different temperatures (in the refrigerator at 3-5o, or at room temperature, 2040oC) on the seed viability of 26 leguminous taxa (mostly tree species) was studied continuously over 7 years (1990-96). Seed viability was expressed as the average of the results of the tetrazolium test and seed germinability. The seeds of 9 taxa stored in the refrigerator maintained some viability over the whole period; these were Bauhinia purpurea, Butea monosperma, Caesalpinia coriaria, Cassia glauca, Leucaena glauca [L. leucocephala], Mimosa pudica, Peltophorum ferrugineum [P. pterocarpum], Pithecellobium dulce and Prosopis juliflora. In general, seeds stored at ambient temperature lost viability much more quickly, although there were exceptions to this (e.g. Dalbergia sissoo). There was no difference in the results obtained from seeds stored in airtight bottles or paper bags. 0713 Effect of storage period on germination of sweet pepper seeds. Thakur, PC; Joshi, S; Verma, TS; Kapoor, KS. Capsicum Newsletter. 1988, publ. 1989, No. 7, 58-59; 3 ref. Seeds of 3 Capsicum annuum varieties with a 67% moisture content were stored in brown paper envelopes at 2-26oC for 1-5 years. Seeds stored for 1-3 years germinated within 16-18 days, while older seeds took up to 22 days. Germination percentage ranged from 88.5% in Russian Yellow to 92.0% in California Wonder after storage for 1 year, declining to 42.5 and 29.0%, respectively, after 5 years.

0714 Effect of storage period on seed hardness and germination in soybean. Singh, TP; Phul, PS; Kaur, J. Crop Improvement (India). (Dec 1993). v. 20(2) p. 161165. 0715 Effect of storage periods and temperatures on micronutrient content and germination in jowar (Sorghum vulgare L. J-35) seeds. Mehta, PM; Patel, BV. Advances in Plant Sciences. 1990, 3: 2, 228-235; 26 ref. Sorghum seeds were stored at room temp. or at 8 2oC for 2 years. Percentage germination, embryo axis length and vigour index decreased with increase in storage duration; decreases were smaller in the seeds stored at low temp. Electrical conductivity of the leachate and loss of elements (Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, K, Na, P) from seeds in the leachate were higher for seeds stored at room temp. than for those stored at low temp. 0716 Effect of storage, photoperiod and mechanical scarification on seed germination in Ocimum americanum [far-red irradiation, flash photosensitivity, photocontrol, phytochrome, seed coat]. Amritphale, D; Mukhiya, YK; Gupta, JC; Iyengar, S. Physiologia Plantarum (Denmark). (Aug 1984). v. 61(4) p. 649-652. 0717 The effect of storage temperature, storage period and seed moisture. Nasreen, S; Khan, BR; Mohmand, AS. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan). v. 3(12) p. 2003-2004. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of different seed moisture contents, temperatures and storage period on seed viability of soybean variety, NARC-2. Three factors were included in the experiment, which were storage temperature, storage period and seed moisture content. During storage, the interaction among the three above mentioned factors was statistically significant. In Soybean, the maximum seed viability was observed in control with seed having low moisture content. There was a decline in germination percentage after two months of storage at all temperatures in seed with high and medium moisture contents. High moisture content and high temperature decreases Germinability of seeds. Viability was zero at 37 degree centigrade after two month storage in seeds with low, medium and high moisture contents. The storage life of soybean seed can be increased by lowering temperature and seed moisture content during storage. 0718 Effect of storage temperatures on the viability of sal (Shorea robusta) and talura (Shorea talura) seed [India] Purohit, AN; Sharma, MM; Thapliyal, RC. Forest Science (USA). (Sep 1982). v. 28(3) p. 526-530. 0719 Effect of substratum, storage temperature and orientation on percentage seed germination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem) Mishra, DK; De-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

vendra, Kumar; Mishra, RN; Kumar, D. Seed Research. 1998, 26: 1, 39-42. Fresh seeds of Azadirachta indica were collected from 25 morphologically superior trees in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. In germination tests, the top of filter paper was the best substrate, followed by vermiculite and sand. The germination percentage was higher in seeds stored at low temperature (4oC) as compared with room temperature (35o). Orientation of seed and removal of endocarp showed no appreciable change in the percentage germination. However, endocarp removal decreased the energy period (time to peak germination). 0720 Effect of temperature and storage on seed germination in Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle in Garhwal, Himalaya. Sah, VK; Virendra Singh. Indian Forester. 1995, 121: 4, 273-275; 11 ref. Catkins of P. ciliata were collected in June 1989 from trees growing in the Ranichauri area in Uttar Pradesh, when the capsules started opening (an indication of seed maturity). The catkins were dried in the laboratory at room temperature until the seeds (with cotton) were released. The cotton was rubbed against wire mesh to separate out the seeds. Germination was tested at 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40oC. Storage tests were undertaken in sealed glass vials at 2 and -10oC, for up to one year, and germination tested monthly at 20oC. Maximum germination was obtained at 20oC. The seeds stored at 2oC retained better viability (60.5%) than the seeds stored at -10oC (30.0%) after one year of storage. 0721 Effect of the recommended storage containers on the life and viability of maize seed (var. Mohor) Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report 1985-86. p. 50. Maize (var. Mohor) seeds were stored in simple tin containers, polythene-lined earthen motka, polythene-lined jute bag. Polythene-lined dole and tin with sand. Germination % infestation rate and moisture content percent were recorded at the interval of three months. Only seeds kept in tin containers with sand had 10% germination and low infestation of 10% after six months of storage. Seeds in other stored containers failed to protect seed viability and infestation after six months of storage. 0722 Effect of thiram treatment on sorghum seed quality in relation to accelerated ageing. Shekaramurthy, S; Patkar, KL; Shetty, SA; Prakash, HS; Shekar, Shetty, H. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland). 1994. v. 22(3) p. 607-617. 0723 Effect of threshing methods on seed quality and storability in gram (Cicer arietinum) Verma, OP; Singh, PV; Kushwaha, GD. Seed Research. 1999, 27: 1, 119-121. Cicer arietinum cv. K850 seeds grown in 1993/94 were threshed manually using bamboo sticks, or by bullock or tractor treading. Percentage damaged seed was

lowest, and germination percentage and seedling dry weight highest, from manual threshing, with tractor threshing giving the most damage and lowest germination and seedling weight. After all threshing methods, storage in polythene bags maintained viability longer than storage in jute or cloth bags. Manual threshing and storage in polythene bags gave the highest percentage germination (86%) after 16 months. 0724 Effect of tillage, seed rates and irrigation on the growth, yield and quality of lentil. Tomar, SPS; Singh, RR. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1991, 36: 2, 143-147; 3 ref. In field trials in 1982-84 on sandy loam soil the effects of zero tillage or 1 or 2 ploughings, irrigation only pre-sowing, pre-sowing + 45 d after sowing or presowing + 90 d after sowing and sowing rates of 30, 50 or 70 kg/ha on yield and mineral uptake of lentils cv. Pant L 639 were studied. 0, 1 or 2 ploughings gave av. seed yields of 0.82, 0.84 and 0.78 t/ha, resp. Seed yields were highest with pre-sowing irrigation + irrigation 45 d after sowing, and a sowing rate of 70 kg/ha. Seed protein content was highest with 1 ploughing, irrigation pre- sowing + 45 d after sowing and 30 kg seeds/ha. N and P uptake in the grain and straw was highest with 1 ploughing, irrigation pre- sowing + 45 d after sowing and 70 kg seeds/ha. 0725 Effect of time of harvesting on seed quality attributes in maize (Zea mays). Deshpande, VK; Kulkarni, GN. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science. 1991, 25: 2, 162-164; 6 ref. In a field experiment during the kharif [monsoon] season in 1987 at Dharwad, Karnataka, maize cv. CM111 and CM400 were harvested 70, 77, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112 and 119 d after sowing (DAS). Seedling emergence, root and shoot lengths and vigour index increased as the harvest was delayed from 70 to 98 DAS. Harvesting 105 or 112 DAS produced seeds of similar quality as those harvested 98 DAS. Delaying harvest, however, to 119 DAS decreased seed quality. 0726 Effect of time of planting bulbs on the yield and quality of Bellary onion seed. Krishnaveni, K; Subramanian, KS; Bhaskaran, M; Chinnasami, KN. South Indian Horticulture. 1990, 38: 5, 258-261 Sets of the cultivar Rampur Local were planted at weekly intervals between the 2nd week in Nov. and the 4th week in Feb. 1990. Planting in the 2nd and 3rd week in Nov. gave the highest bulb and seed yields, and the best seed quality (86.0-90.0% germination). No seed yield was obtained from sets planted after the 3rd week in Jan. 0727 Effect of time of planting of onion bulbs on the yield and quality of seeds [under the agro-climatic condition of Mymensingh, Bangladesh]. Mondal, MF; Hussain, A. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture (Bang-

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ladesh). (Sep 1980). v. 5(3) p. 131-134. Received Dec 1981. An experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Farm of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, from September 1977 to April 1978 with a view to finding the appropriate time of planting of onion bulb for seed production under the agro-climatic condition of Mymensingh. The soil of the experimental plot was an alluvial sandy loam and of fairly good inherent fertility. The crop was fertilized with manures and fertilizers. The bulbs were planted on four different dates, 13th October, 23rd October, 3rd November and 13th November. Both the yield and the quality of seeds were found to be the highest when the bulbs were planted on 23rd October. Results showed that the onion bulbs planted on 13th October on an average produced larger number of leaves than those planted on the other dates. The number of leaves was found to decrease gradually with the delayed planting which proves that early planting of bulb favours more vegetative growth. However, the difference in the production of leaves caused by the different dates of planting was not very wide and this difference was found to be statistically insignificant which indicates that slight changes in dates and the environmental conditions produce seeds inferior in quality and smaller in quantity. 0728 Effect of transplanting dates on yield and quality of Capsicum seed. Sharma, SK; Peshin, SN. Seed Research. 1996, publ. 1997, 24: 1, 59-60 Seedlings of Capsicum cv. California Wonder were transplanted on 6 dates during the summer seasons of 1989 and 1990 on a sandy loam soil at Kandaghat in Himachal Pradesh. Days to flowering, plant height, branches/plant, fruits/plant, fruit yield, seed yield, percentage seed recovery, 1000-seed weight and percentage germination were recorded. Data are tabulated. Fruit and seed yields, 1000-seed weight and percentage germination declined as transplanting was delayed after 22 April. 0729 Effect of tree age on germination and seed and pod quality in Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. Swaminathan, C; Srimathi, P; Sivagnanam, K. Indian Journal of Forestry. 1994, 17: 1, 46-48; 9 ref. Ceiba pentandra, a native to the Amazon region, is now widely planted in India for its economic value. Studies were designed to investigate the effect of age of trees on pod and seed attributes and on germination. Mature pods were collected from 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9 year old stands on the Forest College campus at Mettupalayam, Tamil Nadu. Seeds collected from the 7-yearold stand germinated best, and this is ascribed to the greater seed size and weight at this age. Pods were also largest at this age. 0730 Effect of tree girth on seed quality in shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) Yadav, SS; Hooda, MS; Raj

Bahadur. Crop Research Hisar (India). 1995, 9: 3, 449451; 6 ref. Fresh seed pods were collected from 5 trees in each of 8 girth classes (1- 31, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120, 121-150, 151-180, 181-210 and 211-240 cm) at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, during December 1992. After extracting the seeds from pods, data were recorded on 100-seed weight (g), seed viability (%), germination (%), accelerated ageing (%) and vigour index in the seed testing laboratory. The mean performance of different girth classes showed that seed quality increased gradually with increase in girth of mother tree up to the 121-150 cm girth class and then declined gradually. The best quality (1.97 g 100-seed weight, 94.0% viability, 89.7% germination, 82.2%, accelerated ageing, 1191.0 vigour index) was in seeds from trees of girth class 121-150 cm. 0731 Effect of triazole-type plant growth regulators on sunflower and safflower seed viability. Kar, C; Gupta, K. Canadian Journal of Botany. 1991, 69: 6, 1344-1348; 36 ref. Pretreatment of sunflowers cv. Morden and safflower cv. JLA 900 seeds with triazoles decreased the rate of germination and reduced seedling growth, however, if seeds were aged at 90% RH (accelerated aging), triazoles significantly reduced the deleterious effects of accelerated aging on germination percentage and field emergence. Seedling vigour was also greater in seedlings raised from triazole-treated seeds than from untreated seeds after accelerated aging. The activities of enzymes like dehydrogenase declined at a faster rate during accelerated aging in untreated than in triazoletreated seeds. Triazoles also slowed down the degradation of RNA. The rate of change of soluble carbohydrates and amino acid was low in triazole-treated seeds compared with untreated seeds. A positive correlation was evident between increases in membrane permeability and loss of seed viability. Membrane permeability and level of malondialdehyde, a peroxidation product of unsaturated fatty acids, gradually increased in storage at 90% RH, but in seeds pretreated with triazoles these changes were minimal. 0732 Effect of varieties and pre-sowing seed treatment on yield, quality and nutrient uptake by finger millet under lateritic belt of West Bengal. Maitra, S; Jana, PK; Ghosh, DC; Sounda, G; Roy, DK. Annals of Agricultural Research (India). 1999, 20: 3, 360-364. Averaged over 1994 and 1995, yield of Eleusine coracana cv. A- 404, EC 50- 90 and Birsa Marua-1 averaged 1228, 1196 and 950 kg/ha, respectively. Presowing seed treatment with 100 ppm Na2HPO4, 100 ppm KH2PO4, 0.25% CaCl2 and water improved grain yield by 55, 47, 33 and 21%, respectively. Grain protein content was highest in cv. A-494 and was not significantly affected by seed treatment.

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0733 Effect of varieties and simulated rains on seed quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in hills zone of Assam. Baruah, GKS; Paul, SR. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1996, 17: 2, 181-183; 3 ref. The effect of simulated rain for 1, 2, 3 or 4 days applied to harvested, mature okra (cultivars Parbhani Kranti, Pusa Sawani, Red Wonder and Local) fruits on seed quality was investigated. After treatment seeds were dried for 7 days, then placed to germinate. Differences in moisture content were observed between cultivars and treatments. Seed moisture content increased with increasing period of simulated rain. Germination rate and vigour were decreased following treatment. 0734 Effect of variety, row spacing and weed control treatments on yield and quality of soyabean seed. Singh, D; Sharma, KC. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1990, 11: 2, 211-214; 3 ref. In 2 years' trials on silty clay loam soil during kharif, two manual weedings (20 and 40 days after sowing) or alachlor at 2.5 kg/ha pre-em. provided effective weed control and increased oil and protein contents and grain yield of soyabeans, the cv. PK-262 yielding significantly more than T-49. Crop plant density, 1000grain wt, pods/plant and grain/pod were higher with narrow row spacing (30 cm) than wider spacing (60 cm). 0735 Effect of various chemicals on viability of onion seed in storage. Gupta, RP; Usha Mehra; Pandey, UB. Seed Research. 1989, 17: 1, 99-101; 6 ref. Treatment with 5 different chemicals (thiram, captan, captafol, atonik and cytozyme) alone and in combination failed to increase the shelf life of onion seed beyond 1 year. A sudden fall in germination percentage with all the treatments after Jun. was attributed to increases in temp. and RH. No significant differences were observed in germination percentages between the treatments. 0736 Effect of various doses of nitrogen on seed yield and quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench). Singh, IP. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1995, 16: 2, 227-229; 8 ref. In a field trial conducted during the kharif season in 1992 and 1993, plots of okra received N at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 or 150 kg/ha, with half applied before sowing and the rest applied 30 days after sowing. Plant height increased with increasing rate of N. Application of N at 90-150 kg/ha gave the highest number of pods/plant (12.7-14.0), pod length (16.7-17.6 cm), seed yield (17.519.0 q/ha) and 1000-seed weight (67.2-68.7 g). Seed germination rate was not affected by fertilizer application. 0737 Effect of varying levels of nitrogen on the seed yield and quality of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars. Nadeem, MA. University of Agri-

culture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Agronomy. 1990, 112p. 0738 Effect of varying moisture regimes, levels of nitrogen and spacing on quality and chemical composition of seeds of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Pandey, UC; Singh, IJ. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research (India). (Sep 1982). v. 12(3) p. 450-455. 0739 Effect of water stress on seed quality parameters in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) Sajjan, AS; Badanur, VP; Sajjanar, GM. Advances in Agricultural Research in India. 1997, 8: 99-103. A laboratory study was conducted to study the effect of external water potential on seed quality of selected sunflower genotypes. Sunflowers cv. Morden, NSP-92-1 (E) and KBSH-1 were grown in solutions of 3.0, -5, -7 and - 10 bar water potential prepared using polyethylene glycol. Increasing concentrations of external osmoticum decreased percentage germination, radical and plumule length, dry matter accumulation and vigour index. Among the genotypes, KBSH-1 had the highest seed quality parameters indicating its wide adaptability to external water potential conditions. At 10 bar water potential none of the genotypes germinated. 0740 Effect of weed and crop densities on seed quality of soybean. Umarani, R; Selvaraj, JA. World Weeds. 1996, 3: 3-4, 107-111; 7 ref. Field experiments were conducted during the summer and winter seasons of 1990 in Tamil Nadu, India, using the Co 1 variety of soyabean planted at spacings of 30 X 10 cm and 20 X 10 cm and five densities of Trianthema portulacastrum (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) to study the effect of T. portulacastrum on the seed crop of soyabean. Seed germination was impaired in soyabean crops that experienced severe weed competition (at densities of 75 and 100%) and high rainfall in the summer during the pod maturation phase. However, competition did not affect other seed quality attributes (seedling length and vigour index). There was no significant decrease in seed germination during winter. The biochemical composition of soyabeans (electrical conductivity, oil and protein content) remained unaffected by weed densities. 0741 Effect of weed control on soybean yield and seed quality. Rahman, MH; Agarwal, VK; Thapliyal, PN; Singh, RA. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology. 1995, 11: 1-2, 23-28; 19 ref. In field studies conducted in Bangladesh, the highest grain yield of soyabeans was obtained in handweeded plots followed by plots treated with alachlor, fluchloralin, pendimethalin or thiobencarb. The number of brown- and purple-stained seeds and the recovery of fungi from harvested seeds were significantly higher from un-weeded (control) plots than from the other

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treatments. Fungal infection of seed was lowest in handweeded plots. In the majority of cases, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of seed-borne fungi in seeds from hand-weeded or herbicide treated plots where limited weed growth had occurred. Alachlor and fluchloralin reduced the incidence of seed-borne pathogens and improved seed germination compared with pendimethalin and thiobencarb. 0742 Effect of weeds on yield and seed quality of two tropical grain legumes. Sangakkara, UR. Trop Science (UK). 1999. v. 39 (4) p. 227-232. 0743 Effects of chemical defoliants on cotton cv. Laxmi II seed quality. Mavarkar, NS; Koraddi, VR; Guggari, AK; Kamath, KS. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1992, 17: 2, 313-314; 3 ref. In 1988/89 cotton cv. Laxmi II grown in India was sprayed at 30 or 60% boll opening with 2500 or 5000 p.p.m. Ethrel [ethephon], 100 or 200 g Dropp [thidiazuron]/ha, 1 or 2 litre Gramoxone [paraquat]/ha, 5 or 10% urea, 20 or 40% NaCl or with water, or was not sprayed. Mean seed index was 8.20 and 8.54 with spraying at 30 and 60% boll opening, respectively, while corresponding germination percentages were 72.9 and 79.4%. Percentage germination was decreased by some defoliation treatments at 30% but not at 60% boll opening. 0744 Effects of crop season and seed protein level on the viability of rice seeds [India] Prabhakar, BS; Mukherjee, RK. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Oct 1980). v. 50(10) p. 756-760. 0745 Effects of different pickings and genotypes on quality and storability of tomato seed. Danej, GP; Dumbre, AD. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1996, 21: 3, 358-360; 7 ref. During 1993-94, tomato cultivars Dhanashree, Bhagyashree and Pusa Early Dwarf were grown in Rahuri, Maharashtra, India. Seed storage quality in terms of germination and vigour was investigated in relation to the picking sequence of fruits. Fruits were harvested when ripe in 8 sequential pickings at 5-day intervals. Seeds from the earlier 6 pickings showed better storage quality than seeds from the last 2 pickings. Seeds of Bhagyashree showed better storage quality than those of the other cultivars. 0746 Effects of different varieties and planting seasons on seed yield and quality of tomato. Meher, BB; Lawande, KE; Joshi, VR. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1994, 19: 3, 393-395; 11 ref. Tomato cultivars Punjab Chhuhara, Pusa Early Dwarf and Pusa Ruby were planted out in the kharif [monsoon], rabi [winter] or summer seasons of 1988-89. In Pusa Early Dwarf fruit yield was highest in the summer but in the other 2 cultivars it was highest from kharif crops. In Pusa Ruby seed yield was highest from

kharif crops but in the other 2 cultivars it was highest from rabi crops. Seed germination exceeded 76% in all treatments. Seedling vigour was highest in seeds produced by rabi crops. 0747 Effects of different varieties and stages of fruit maturity on yield and quality of seed in tomato. Meher, BB; Lawande, KE; Joshi, VR. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1996, 21: 2, 247249; 11 ref. Studies were carried out in 1988-89 at Rahuri, Maharashtra to determine the effects of different cultivars and stages of fruit maturity on seed yield and quality in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Results revealed that the seed number/fruit, seed yield/plant and seed yield/ha was high in Pusa Ruby. Lowest seed number/fruit and subsequently low seed yield was recorded by Punjab Chhuhara. Harvesting of fruits at the ripe stage recorded highest seed recovery/fruit, compared with harvesting at the fully mature and turing stages. The seed quality in respect of 1000-seed weight, percentage germination, speed of germination and seedling vigour index was superior in seed extracted from fruits harvested at the ripe stage. 0748 Effects of dry permeated gibberellic acid and benzyladenine on germinability of soybean seeds during storage. Singh, B; Amritphale, D. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland). (1993). v. 21(2) p. 351357. 0749 Effects of fruit grading on seed quality characteristics in bittergourd. Vanangamudi, K; Palanisamy, V. Vegetable Science. 1989, 16: 1, 96-98; 6 ref. In trials with the [Momordica charantia] cultivar Green Long, the seeds were extracted from fruits of 5 different lengths. Seed length (1.68 cm), width (0.9 cm), 100-seed weight (25.2 g), and germination (86%) were highest in seeds from the very long fruits (>30 cm), and these parameters declined with fruit size to the lowest values in the shortest fruits (<15 cm). 0750 Effects of growth substances on seed yield and quality of onion. Wagh, RS; Deore, BP. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1995, 20: 1, 144; 4 ref. In a field trial in 1986, an onion cv. N-2-4-1 crop was sprayed 30 days after planting with gibberellic acid (GA; 25 or 50 ppm), NAA (50 or 100 ppm), mepiquat chloride (25 or 50 ppm) or triacontanol (1000 or 2000 ppm). Controls were sprayed with water or not at all. For all the growth regulators, except mepiquat chloride, the higher concentration resulted in a higher seed yield than the lower concentration. The highest seed yield (9.1 q/ha) was obtained with 50 ppm GA, followed by 100 ppm NAA. The 50-ppm GA treatment gave a 1000seed weight of 4.35 g. The smallest percentage of sterile seeds (24.23%) was obtained with 25 ppm mepiquat chloride. The highest seed germination percentage

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(58%) was obtained with 2000 ppm triacontanol. In terms of seedling vigour (shoot and root length), 25 ppm GA gave the best results. 0751 Effects of heat stress on the germinability and vigour of cottonseed. Malik, MA; Ali, MA. Rawalpindi - Pakistan Agriculture. 1983. v. 5(4), p. 13-14. To obtain good germination and optimum plant stand in cotton crop is serious problem. Some of the practices recommended to overcome this problem are: delinting of fuzzy seeds, soaking of seed before sowing, and sowing on actively moist seed bed. However, recently many research wheres have reported that in many plant spectes stimulated germination and vigorous seedlings could be obtained by subjecting the seed to high temperature stress before seedling. It was therefore, thought proper to look into a suitable temperature stress to overcome poor germination and seedling vigour problems in cotton. 0752 Effects of herbicides on nutrient uptake and seed quality of wheat. Surender, Roperia; Hooda, RS; Malik, RK; Roperia, S. Crop Research Hisar (India). 1994, 8: 2, 410-412; 10 ref. Field trials were conducted at Haryana during rabi 1989-90 to study the effects of different herbicides (0.25 and 0.30 kg/ha tralkoxydim, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kg chlorotoluron, and 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kg isoproturon, applied 25 or 35 d after sowing (DAS)) on the nutrient uptake and seed quality of wheat cv. WH-283. Herbicides resulted in 106.9-118.1, 12.1-16.8 and 12.5-14.8 kg/ha uptake of N, P and K, resp., the greatest uptake of P and K occurring as a result of 1.0 kg chlorotoluron applied at 35 DAS and the greatest uptake of N as a result of 1.0 kg isoproturon applied at 35 DAS (compared to 82.9 and 121.0, 9.1 and 16.8, and 9.5 and 16.2 kg N, P and K uptake for the weedy and weed free controls, resp.). Wheat seed germination and viability following herbicide applications were 93.6-96.3% and 98.0-99.6, resp. (the best germination resulting from 0.30 kg tralkoxydim applied at 25 DAS or 0.75 kg isoproturon applied at 35 DAS and the best seed viability resulting from 0.25 or 0.30 kg tralkoxydim, 0.75 kg chlorotoluron and 0.75 isoproturon, all applied at 35 DAS), compared with 94.3 and 99.0% germination, and 95.6 and 99.0% viability in the weedy and weed free controls, resp. Dry weight of 5 seedlings was not found to be significantly affected by herbicide treatments when compared to the values for the weedy and weed free controls. 0753 Effects of planting date and chemicals (TIBA and boron) spray on seed yield, its attributes and quality of single and three way cross sunflower hybrids during different seasons. Vyakaranahal, BS; Shekhargouda, M; Patil, SA; Prabhakar, AS; Giriraj, K. Seed Research. 2001, 29: 2, 127-135; 10 ref. To solve seed production constraints in sunflowers (improper seed filling and low productivity), seed set, seed yield and quality of parental lines of single and

three way cross were examined in a field experiment conducted during the kharif season of 1997 and summer of 1998 at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. Early sowing in kharif (July) and summer (December) recorded 38.4 and 20.7% higher processed seed yield, respectively, and higher yield attributes and seed quality parameters compared to late plantings (August in kharif and January in summer). The seed parent of the three way cross (TWC), (VRF x NDOL-2) x EC376240 x RLC-4 gave seed yield of 30.5 and 39.5% over DSF 15A and CMS234A, respectively, in kharif whereas the same seed parent of TWC yielded 31.9 and 27.1% more seed yield compared to DSF 15A and CMS-234A, respectively during the summer. Foliar application of Triiodobenzoic acid at 25 or 50 ppm at ray floret stage increased the seed yield by 44.5 and 59.6% during the kharif and by 49.3 and 59.2% during the summer, respectively. Likewise, boron at 0.1% spray at ray floret stage increased the processed seed yield by 49.0 and 43.1% during kharif and summer, respectively. These foliar sprays also increased the capitulum diameter, number of filled seeds per capitulum, seed set percentage, seed yield per plant, 100 seed weight, volume weight of seed, oil content in seed, germination percentage, seedling dry weight and seedling vigour index. 0754 Effects of pre-harvest environmental conditions and chemical pretreatments on seed viability. Agrawal, B. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. Jun 1983. v. 26(2) p. 197-202. 0755 Effects of relative humidity and storage period on viability of carbofuran treated sorghum seed and effectiveness against shoot-fly. Mogal, BH; Mali, AR; Rajput, SG. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities (India). (May 1984). v. 9(2) p. 149-151. 0756 Effects of seed moisture content on the longevity of jute seed stored at different temperatures. Islam, AMN; Ali, MK. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture (Bangladesh). (Mar 1982). v. 7(1) p. 31-37. Jute seed storage experiments were conducted at the Jute Research Institute, Dacca with C.G. variety of C. ohtorius in order to study the effect of moisture content of seed and storage temperature on the viability of seed. During nine months of storage, seed samples were studied for their moisture contents and germination percentages. In studying the effect of moisture and temperature, C.G. seeds of different moisture levels were stored immediately after sunning in airtight containers at room temperatures, 60 degrees F and 20 degrees F. Another lot of seeds of different moisture levels were stored after one hour of cooling in shade in airtight containers at room temperature. The result showed that jute seeds must be dried to a moisture level of about 10% before being stored at room temperature or a moisture content less than 19% moisture and stored at 60 degrees F. At a freezing condition of 20 degrees F, the seeds

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

must contain a moisture content less than 13.50%. No difference in the keeping quality of seed was observed if it was stored immediately after sunning or stored after one hour of cooling in shade. 0757 Effects of shading treatments on some quantitative and qualitative characters of mustard and rapeseed. Begum, S; Uddin, MM; Khaleda, S. Bangladesh Association of Advancement of Science, Dacca (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the 8th Bangladesh Science Conference. 1983. p. 107. The effect of shading treatments on some quantitative (pedicle length, pod length, tail length, fertile seed number, sterile seed number and seed weight) and qualitative (oil%) characters of mustard (Rai-5) and rapeseed (Tori-7 and WM-2P) were studied. Lightproof, airpermeable shades were made from photographic interleaf paper. The shading treatments applied to various photosynthetic structures were (i) fruit, (ii) fruit + pedicle, (iii) fruit + tip, (iv) pedicle, (v) tip, (vi) fruit + pedicle + tip and (vii) non-treated. The experiment was conducted in a randomised block design with three replications. Data were taken from ten plants from each replication. Data were taken from ten plants from each replication per variety per treatment. The shading treatments showed significant effects on all the quantitative and qualitative characters. Significant differences were also noted within the shading treatments of a particular variety. All the characters specially oil% significantly decreases under different shading treatments and the oil% was very low in fruit + tip shading treatment compared to others. The correlations of oil% and seed weight were mostly negative with different characters. 0758 Effects of soak treatment to legume seeds on the cooking quality of resultant dhal [pulses] Chavan, JK; Shere, DM; Jawale, HK; Salunkhe, DK. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics (India). (Aug 1983). v. 20(8) p. 249-254. 0759 Effects of sowing dates and seed size on seed yield and quality in mungbean under summer conditions. Bhingarde, MT; Dumbre, AD. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1994, 19: 3, 410412; 9 ref. In a field trial in 1988-89 at Rahuri, Maharashtra, mung beans [Vigna radiata] cv. S-8 which were ungraded, large (>3.35 mm), medium (3.35-3.01 mm) or small (<3.01 mm) were sown on 27 Feb., 12 or 28 March or 11 Apr. Seed yield/plant decreased with delay in sowing date and was highest from the largest seed. The largest seed and the earliest sowing date also produced seed with the highest germination percentage and vigour index. 0760 Effects of sowing dates on physiological maturity and seed quality of sunflower. Badakh, BS; Dumbre, AD; Bhingarde, MT. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1996, 21: 3, 356-357; 6 ref.

In a field experiment in 1993/94 at Rahuri, Maharashtra, sunflowers cv. Morden were sown on 6 dates between 15 July and 1 October and harvested every 5 days between 20 and 45 days after 50% flowering. Sowing on 16th September and harvesting between 35 and 40 days after 50% flowering produced the highest seed yield, 100-seed weight, and seed with highest germination percentage and vigour index. 0761 Effects of storage period and temperature on seed viability of wheat. Nasreen, S. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan). (Oct 1999). v. 2(4) p. 1492-1493. The study was conducted to investigate the effects of storage temperature and storage period on seed viability of a wheat variety, Rawal-87. The seed moisture content and seed viability were determined in control which were 8.0 per cent and 90 per cent respectively. The interaction among storage period and storage temperature was statistically significant. In wheat, the maximum seed viability was observed at -20 and 5 degree centigrade after 12 months storage. A decline in germination percentage was observed at 50 degree centigrade after 4 months. Germination per cent age was higher when petri dishes were used for germination tests. During germplasm storage of wheat, storage temperature and storage period play an important role. 0762 Effects of storage temperature, storage period and seed moisture content on seed viability of mash bean (Vigna mungo) Nasreen, S. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan). (Mar 2000). v. 3(3) p. 513-514. The study was conducted to investigate the effects of different storage conditions on seed viability of mash bean, variety Mash-3. Three factors were included period and seed moisture content. Viability and Moisture content were determined in control which were 91.0 and 8.0 percent respectively. The maximum germination percentage was observed in seeds with low moisture content. There was a decline in germination percentage after 90 days of storage at all temperatures in seeds with high and medium moisture contents. High moisture content and high temperature decreases germinability of seeds. The storage life of mash bean can be increased by lowering temperature and seed moisture content during storage. 0763 Effects of varieties, pre-sowing seed treatments and surface soil compactness on viability and vigour of stored wheat seeds. Paul, SR; Choudhury, AK. Seeds and Farms. 1991, 17: 1-2, 12-13; 18; 6 ref. In a trial in 1985-86 with 2 wheat cultivars, dry seeds or seeds soaked in water or 1.0% KCl or KH2PO4 were sown in a soil with and without compaction. Effects of these treatments on viability of the resulting seeds stored, after treatment with fungicides, in tin containers from May to Dec. under ambient conditions were studied. The treatments had no significant effect on per-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

centage germination. Seedling vigour in terms of root and shoot length and DM accumulation was better in cv. Sonalika than in cv. WH-291 and with seed treatment with KH2PO4 and soil compaction than in other treatments. 0764 Efficiency of organic vs. inorganic form of nitrogen on seed qualities of okra. Abusaleha. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 1992, 49: 4, 367-370; 5 ref. 0765 Electrical conductivity as a measure of planting seed quality in cotton. Malik, MNA; Makhdum, MI; Chaudhry, FI; Hussain, SI. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1994, 37: 6-7, 277-281; 23 ref. Seeds from the 1st and 2nd harvests of 6 cotton cultivars were evaluated for percentage germination and electrical conductivity. Leachate conductance was negatively correlated with germination. Seed quality was highest in cv. MNH-93 and CIM-109 and was higher in seeds harvested at Multan, Pakistan, in early Nov. than in late Sep. It is concluded that electrical conductivity can be used to test for seed quality. 0766 Enhancing the germination of stored bamboo seeds using plant growth regulators. Richa; Sharma, ML. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland). (1994). v. 22(2) p. 313-317. 0767 Estimation of seed quality deterioration of deep-water rice by seed borne micro flora in Assam. Bora, LC; Robin, Gogoi; Gogoi, R. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 1993, 23: 2, 214-216; 4 ref. The 15 fungal species isolated from discoloured seeds included 7 that were borne externally and 3 internally, the remainder being detected both before and after treatment with mercuric chloride. Inoculation of rice seeds with 4 of the isolates (Fusarium moniliforme [Gibberella fujikuroi], F. pallidoroseum, Curvularia affinis and Helminthosporium oryzae [Cochliobolus miyabeanus]) caused discoloration and reduced germinability. 0768 Evaluation of maize seed quality. Javed, HI; Malik, HN; Chughtai, SR; Tareen, MAK; Aslam, M. Progressive Farming (Pakistan). (Nov-Dec 1991). v. 11(6) p. 22-24. 0769 Evaluation of threshing methods for assessing seed quality in soybean. Kausal, RT; Chanpade, SP; Patil, VN. Seed Research. 1992, 20: 1, 44-46; 8 ref. Soyabeans cv. MACS 13, JS 80-21 and Moneta grown at Akola, Maharashtra, were sun-dried after harvest to a moisture content of 11% and then threshed by beating with a stick, treading with a bullock or tractor, or using a multicrop thresher. Mechanical damage to seeds ranged from 7.5% with bullock treading to 12.9% with the multicrop thresher. Percentage germination and

seed vigour index were highest with bullock treading and lowest with the multicrop thresher. Mechanical damage was not significantly different between the cultivars, while germination and vigour were in the order MACS 13 > JS 80-21 > Moneta. 0770 Factors determining seed [Jute] quality. Khondaker, AL. Bangladesh Journal of Jute and Fibre Research (Bangladesh). (Dec 1980). v. 5(1-2) p. 95-102. 0771 FAO/Norway Regional Workshop on Seed Quality Control. 8. Khumaltar (Nepal). 30 Sep-11 Oct 1985. FAO, Rome (Italy). Plant Production and Protection Div. 1988. 14 p. 0772 Fertilizer effect on the growth, yield and seed quality of wheat (T. aestivum L.) variety Sonalika. Chittagong University. Dept. of Botany. M.Sc. thesis. 1978. The effect of factorial combination of three levels of NPK on the growth, yield and seed quality of wheat var. Sonalika was studied. It was observed that variations in growth and yield characteristics due to NPK was significant. However, all the characteristics did not respond similarly to a particular fertilizer dose. Seeds obtained from different fertilizer regimes showed difference in percentage of germination. The highest germination was obtained from the plot which was treated with higher level of nitrogen (10 kg) and phosphorus (12 kg) fertilizer. 0773 Field inspection and certification [field research to improve the quality of seeds, Nepal] Rajbhandary, KL. Ministry of Food, Lalitpur (Nepal). Agricultural Botany Div. Agricultural Botany Seed Technology and Improvement Program. Seminar on Seed Production, Processing and Storage. 1 Jul-28 Aug 1981. p. 99-108. 0774 Gap in supply of quality seeds for important food, pulse and oil seed crops in Shimoga district in Karnataka. Eswarappa, H; Sastry, KNR. Seed Research. 1992, publ. 1994, 20: 2, 172-174; 2 tab. A sample of 240 farmers were randomly selected from 24 villages. The data, which pertain to the agricultural year 1992- 93, were collected through personal interviews. Various aspects of seed supply were estimated by simple tabular analysis. It was found that seed requirement exceeded supply. The major gap was found with regard to paddy [rice] where a supply of 6411 t contrasted with a demand of 2014 t. The gap with regard to pulses was significantly less. It is recommended that government agencies and private companies attempt to fill the seed gap in Karnataka. 0775 Gene action of seed yield and quality traits in bitter group (Momordica charantia Linn.). Devadas, VS; Ramadas, S. Horticultural Journal. 1997, 10: 2, 5156; 7 ref.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

Genetic analysis of seed yield and quality traits in bitter gourd (M. charantia) was performed using data from a diallel cross involving 12 parents of diverse origin and morphology, grown during 1991-92. Additive and non- additive gene effects were observed for seeds/fruit, 100-seed weight and seedling length. Over dominance was also observed for all characters except seeds/fruit. It is concluded that production and use of F1 hybrid seeds is appropriate to improve seed yield and quality in bitter gourd. 0776 Genesis of seed quality and quality control systems: An evolutionary perspective. Seth, R; Misra, LP. Asian Agri History (India). (Jul-Sep 1998). v. 2(3) p. 213-226. 0777 Genetic analysis for some physiological and seed quality traits in adzuki bean. Chaudhary, HK; Tashi, Dawa; Gupta, VP; Dawa, T. Crop Improvement. 1992, 19: 1, 48-52; 14 ref. Information on genetic variance is derived from data on 4 physiological and 3 seed quality traits in 22 pure breeding lines of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) raised as a triple test cross during kharif 1986-88 at Palampur, India. Epistatic, additive, dominance and ambidirectional dominance gene effects were observed for the various traits. 0778 Genetics of seed lustre and joint inheritance of seed coat colour and seed lustre in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) Bhadra, SK; Akhter, MI; Quashem, A. Bangladesh Journal of Botany (Bangladesh). June 1991. v. 20(1) p. 61-64. A digenic duplicate interaction was involved in the inheritance of seed lustre (dull vs shiny), dullness being dominant over shiny while the expression of shiny, lustre needed recessive alleles and at both the loci. Presence of dominant genes at either of the loci was enough for developing dull seed lustre. Symbols, D (1) and D (2) are proposed for the genes of dullness. An analysis of the joint segregation of seed coat colour and seed lustre revealed that the loci for the former acted and inherited independently of those for the later. 0779 Genetics of yield, seed weight and quality traits in pea (Pisum sativum L.) Singh, OP; Singh, RB; Singh, F. Genetica Agraria (Italy). (1981). v. 35(2) p. 115-120. Genetic components were estimated in F(,1)'s of 7 parents diallel (excluding reciprocals) for grain yield, seed weight, protein, methionine and tryptophan contents in pea. Both additive (D) and non-additive (H(,1) and H(,2)) components were significant for grain yield, protein, methionine and tryptophan content. However, for seed weight only non-additive components were significant. Degree of dominance showed over dominance for all the characters. The heritability values were high for tryptophan (44.05%) and protein (31.73%), moderate for methionine (28.47%) and grain yield

(26.94%) but low for seed weight (8.30%). Practical implications of the findings for the improvement of these traits in pea has been discussed. 0780 Genotypic and phenotypic associations among nine quality traits of seed and oil in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Rai, M; Kerkhi, SA; Pandey, S; Naqvi, PA; Vasishtha, AK. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 1990, 7: 2, 3-7; 4 ref. Observations were recorded on 35 linseed varieties at three locations in 1984-85. Significant negative associations were obtained between oil content and protein content, iodine value and stearic acid, iodine value and oleic acid and oleic acid and linolenic acid at all locations, while only iodine value showed a significant positive link with linolenic acid at each location. Linoleic acid showed significant negative correlation with linolenic acid at two locations. Further significant correlation coefficients were observed at only one location. 0781 Germinability of soybean seeds after harvest in subsequent storage. Vyas, RP; Kumar, R; Prakash, V; Katiyar, RP. Seed Research. 1990, 18: 1, 44-46; 7 ref. Seeds of 3 soyabean cultivars graded into 2 sizes (large and small) were studied for germination and electrical conductivity of leachate during 180 d of storage in cloth bags under ambient conditions. A decrease in percentage germination was accompanied by an increase in the leaching of electrolytes. Small seeds showed better performance than large seeds. Electrical conductivity of leachate was also a good indicator of seed storability and germinability. 0782 Germination and storage of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seeds and growth of seedlings. Chaturvedi, OP; Jha, AN; Das, DK. Journal of Tropical Forestry. 1999, 15: 1, 1-7. Neem fruits were collected in September 1991 from 5 trees selected on the Pusa campus of Rajendra Agricultural University in Bihar, India. The fruits were peeled, washed in running water, and the seeds given 5 treatments: none (fresh seeds), air drying in the shade for 6 days, sun drying for 1 or 2 days, and storing in the refrigerator for 6 days. The seeds were then sown in petri dishes in the laboratory or in nursery beds. Fresh seeds exhibited maximum germination (92.8% in the laboratory and 94.1% in the nursery), followed by seeds sun dried for 1 day, seeds air dried for 6 days, seeds sun dried for 2 days, and seeds cold stored for 6 days (the latter giving 63.5% germination in the laboratory and 76.2% in the nursery). Germination energy and the germinable seeds within energy period were maximum in seeds sun dried for 1 day and germinated under laboratory conditions, whereas under nursery conditions these values were maximum for the seeds air dried for 6 days. Fresh seeds stored in air tight containers were viable for a longer period than seeds stored in cold storage, although germination decreased with time in both cases. The highest values in respect of growth and biomass

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

were recorded in seedlings germinated from fresh seeds, with seedling growth decreasing in the other treatments in the same order as for germination percentage. 0783 Germination and storage of shade tree seeds. Ahmed, N; Bezbaruah, HP; Singh, ID. Two and a Bud. 1993, 40: 2, 34-37; 6 ref. Seeds of 4 commonly grown shade trees for tea (Albizia odoratissima, A. chinensis, Indigofera teysmannii and Tephrosia candida) were soaked in cold water for 1 h, warm water for 2 h or concentrated sulfuric acid for 1-2 min. Dry seeds were used as controls. One week after treatment, seeds treated with sulphuric acid had the highest percentage germination (100% in all 4 species). In A. odoratissima and I. teysmannii, germination percentage decreased linearly in the order sulfuric acid > warm water > cold water > controls. In A. chinensis, sulfuric acid was much the most effective treatment, with warm water only resulting in 20% germination and seeds from cold water and control treatments both having negligible germination rates. In T. candida, germination percentage was high (>80%) without any treatment and the cold water and warm water treatments actually reduced germination. In storage tests, seeds scarified with sulfuric acid and control seeds were stored for 3 or 6 months (1) in polyethylene bags at 5oC, (2) in polyethylene bags on racks at room temperature (25-30o), or (3) on the floor at room temperature. Seeds of all 4 species remained highly viable (>80%, measured by the Topographic Tetrazolium Test) under low temperature storage for up to 6 months. Storage on the floor at room temperature resulted in rapid loss of viability. Sulfuric acid scarification did not significantly affect viability in storage but increased the germination percentage for all 4 species after 6 months storage at low temperature from an average of 59.5% in untreated controls to 80.2%. 0784 Germination and viability of some tree seeds. Rai, SN; Nagaveni, HC; Padmanabha, HSA. Van Vigyan. 1986, 24: 1-2, 8-12; 5 ref. Results of studies on the pretreatment, viability and germination of seeds of ten species (Bauhinia faveolata [B. foveolata], Jacaranda ovalifolia, Pongamia pinnata, Delonix regia, Swietenia mahogoni [S. mahagoni], Terminalia tomentosa, Pterocarpus santalinus, Albizia lebbek, C. siamea and C. fistula) are reported. In the case of hard coated seeds like A. lebbek, C. fistula and C. siamea, repeated scarification with concentrated sulfuric acid gave up to 95% germination. The role of cow dung slurry in attracting termites which feed on the fibrous seed covering of T. tomentosa and P. santalinus, thereby hastening germination, is reported. 0785 Germination of pearl millet seeds stored under different conditions for six years. Appa, Rao, S; Kameswara, Rao, N; Mengesha, MH. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland). (1991). v.19(3) p. 605-610.

0786 Germination, seedling vigour and recovery of T. candidauality seedlings as influenced by presowing preparations of seed coconuts. Kumar, ASA; Pillai, SJ. Indian Coconut Journal Cochin. 1990, 20: 10, 6-7 Six pre-sowing treatments were compared and data are tabulated on germination percentage 3, 5 and 8 months after sowing, seedling height, number of leaves, girth at collar, and the percentage of total and highquality seedlings. Sowing the seednuts after dehusking and covering them with the husk of the same nuts gave the highest germination (84.8%) after 8 months and the greatest number of high-quality seedlings (75%). 0787 Germination tests for medium- and long-term storage of okra seeds. Khanna, PP. Division of Germplasm Conservation, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110 012, India. Report of an international workshop on okra genetic resources. 8-12 October 1990. 1991, 117-118. Maintenance of high viability and germination potential of germplasm in long-term storage is one of the requirements of conservation and a major gene bank activity. Germination test conditions for use in a gene bank are outlined. The problem of hardseededness and dormancy in germination tests is highlighted and several successful dormancy breaking treatments are listed. It is suggested that distribution of accessions with hard seeds should be before seed treatment and details of treatments should be provided for the user. 0788 Green revolution in forestry: a possibility with quality seeds [in India] Kandya, AK. Bangladesh Botanical Society, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the International Botanical Conference. Dhaka (Bangladesh), 1991. p. 18. For massive plantation programmes emphasis has been given to find out various physical/biochemical indices of seed maturity for the selection of high quality seeds of different species. Several steps for the production of high quality seeds have been suggested and the integrated effects of all these steps for the revolutionary improvements in forest productivity have been visualized. 0789 Harvest procedure and damage effect on seed quality. Tedia, MD. INTSOY series University of Illinois, College of Agriculture (USA). Mar 1982. (no. 22) p. 26-30. 0790 Harvesting and storage period on the viability of stored groundnut seed. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report 1981-82. p. 145. The study was undertaken to assess the extent of loss in viability of groundnut var. Dhaka-1 seeds in storage. Seeds were harvested at 95, 105, 115, 125 and 135 days after sowing (DAS) and stored under laboratory condition from May to October. Results showed

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

that the seeds harvested at 95 DAS gave 42% germination after one month of storage and then declined. Seeds harvested at 115, 125 and 135 DAS retained viability of 92, 95 and 100%, respectively, after 3 months of storage. But viability declined to 20 and 18% in seeds harvested at 125 and 135 DAS, after 5 months of storage. 0791 Heritability of seed quality characters in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill). Muthuraj, R; Kant, K; Dadlani, M. Seed Research. 2001, 29: 2, 158-160; 8 ref. Broad sense heritability of seed quality characters namely 100- seed weight, germination (%) and electrical conductivity of seed leachate were studied in a field experiment conducted in Delhi, India during the kharif season of 1998 using 27 soyabean cultivars. The broad sense heritability of germination percentage and electrical conductivity of seed leachate were 41.2 and 44.0%, respectively, indicating that these seed quality characters are greatly influenced by environmental factors; the genetic component is quite low. The broad sense heritability for 100-seed weight was high (70.5%) indicating that the character is mainly controlled by additive gene effects. 0792 Heterotic and heterobeltiotic studies for quality traits [lint percentage, seed index, lint index and staple length] in intraspecific crosses of upland cotton. Khan, MA. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan). (Jul 1986). v. 2(1) p. 137-144. 0793 HMG/FAO improvement of seed quality control services project (TCP/NEP/6611) guidelines for seed quality control and minimum seed certification standards. Rana, DS. FAO, Kathmandu (Nepal) 1997. 136p. These guidelines are the final products of the discussion and the objective of these guidelines is to ensure that the quality of seeds produced and distributed to farmers through different formal channels meet the standards as specified in the bylaws of Nepal Seed Act 2045. The quality control guidelines and minimum standards have been prepared to bring production and marketing of seed of improved varieties of food, grain legumes, oil seed, fibre and vegetable crops under seed certification and quality control system. The subject matter covered includes importance of quality control in developing a viable seed programme, seed quality control systems, seed certification sequence, distinguishing characteristics of released and pipeline varieties of field and vegetable crops, procedure for field inspections of various crops, and minimum field and seed standards of important crops. 0794 Hybrid cottonseed quality when produced by a new seed crop system. Deshmukh, RK; Rao, MRK; Rajendran, TP; Meshram, MK; Bhat, MG; Pundarikakshudu, R. Seed Science and Technology. 1994, 22: 1, 149-157; 10 ref.

The objective of this two-year (three seasons/year) crop study was to determine the quality of hybrid cotton seed produced from the same male sterile parental stock in off-season (summer, second crop, SU2) and in second kharif (third crop, KH-3) as compared to the normal seed crop (first kharif crop, KH-1). Modification of the fruiting activity period and morphoframe was achieved through controlled pollination, periodic trimming of excessive vegetative growth and cultural practices to improve root activity. Seed produced in SU2 and KH-3 had germination percentage, seed index and seedling vigour equal or significantly superior to KH-1. It is concluded that second (off-season) and third seed crops can be efficiently harvested in three sequential seasons from the same parental stock without any adverse impact on the seed quality standards required for hybrid cottonseed certification in India. 0795 Hybrid development, seed production and quality enforcement status in Bangladesh. Moquit, SA. Ganges Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Hybrid research and development needs in major cereals in the Asia-Pacific region. 1994. p. 121-126. 0796 Hydration-dehydration treatment of stored carrot seed for the maintenance of vigour, viability and productivity. Kundu, C; Basu, RN. Scientia Horticulturae (Netherlands). (Jun 1981). v. 15(2) p. 117125. Soaking of stored carrot seeds in water or in dilute solutions of chemicals such as sodium thiosulphate (10('-5) M) and disodium phosphate (10('-4 M)) for 2 hours, followed by drying back to the original weight, greatly reduced physiological deterioration during subsequent storage. The treatment effects on storability were more pronounced in carry-over seeds than in seeds of the current year's harvest. Instead of soaking, even dipping of stored seeds for 2 minutes in water or solutions of chemicals, or hydration by moisture equilibration with a saturated atmosphere for 24-48 hours followed by the usual drying back, very effectively minimized the loss of seed viability. Hydration- dehydration alone proved highly beneficial, but further improvement over water was noted with some of the chemicals. The beneficial effects of the mid-storage seed treatments were also noted on field performance and the roots of plants grown from treated seeds were bigger than those from control plants. As in the case of laboratory germination tests, the effects of the treatments on field emergence and productivity were more marked in carry-over seed than in current year's seed. 0797 Impact of growth modification on yield and seed quality in cotton. Deshmukh, RK; Rao, MRK. Seed Research. 1994, publ. 1996, 22: 1, 1-6; 7 ref. In field trials in 1985-89 at Nagpur, Maharashtra, cotton cv. AKH4 was topped (6-8 cm apical portion removed) and/or given a foliar application of 50 p.p.m. lihocin (growth retardant) at various growth stages.

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Topping at 15 d after flowering generally gave the highest seed cotton yield and slightly improved seed index and seedling vigour. Application of lihocin at square initiation and flower initiation decreased seed cotton yield compared with the control. Seed index and germination percentage were improved by lihocin with or without topping. 0798 Impact of Phomopsis vexans on seed quality of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) and its management in vitro. Gangadharaswamy, M; Lokesh, S; Rai, VR. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases. 1997, 15: 1, 43-51. 0799 Impact of seed regulation and quality control standards in the development of commercial seed industry. Rai, A; Gyawati, KK. FAO/TCP/NEP/6611, Kathmandu (Nepal) Proceedings of the National Workshop on Seed Quality Control. 24-25 November 1997. Seed Act, 1988 has created the National Seed Board (NSB) which has authority and responsibility to formulating national policies on seed and setting standards for seed quality control, among others. The Seed Development and quality Control Services Section (SDQCS) under the Division of Crop Science in the Department of Agriculture is responsible for implementing the quality control program on the national level it carries out certification of seeds of various crops according to minimum seed quality standard determined by NSB. To produce and enhance the quality of seeds upto the certain basic facilities are required for overall seed production, processing, maintaining quality and marketing including the export. Because in Nepal's context, the land holding size is smaller, it is necessary that seed production rules be formulated in cooperation with the neighboring farmers to allow for the production of cross pollinated crops. Physical facilities like irrigation, input supply, threshing and drying floor, farm equipment, proper warehouse, bulk packaging materials and transportation system at the farmers level be developed to facilitate quality seed production, stock holding until dispatched for processing and transportation. Proper equipment and building space are required to facilitate the growth of seed business; like handling, shelling, preconditioning, cleaning, size grading, treating, packaging, etc. The seed equipment is more expensive than other industry equipment because of limited buyers so the financial recovery would be very low. The transportation network and related infrastructure throughout Nepal is not much conducive for the growth of seed industry. So, the product movement cost throughout the country in the seed maketing channel is getting higher than the product of low value crops. 0800 Improvement of potato seed quality at farmers' level. Rashid, MM. Bangladesh - Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh). International Seminar on Seed Potato in Bangla-

desh, 8-10 Jan 1990, Dhaka (Bangladesh). BADC. 1990. p.106-110. The reasons for the low national yield of potato in Bangladesh are analysed and the need for increasing the yield quality seeds is emphasized. A system of improvement of the quality of seeds by the farmers themselves is suggested. 0801 Improvement of seed quality and field emergence of Fusarium moniliforme infected sorghum seeds using biological agents. Raju, NS; Niranjana, SR; Janardhana, GR; Prakash, HS; Shetty, HS; Mathur, SB. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (United Kingdom). (1999). v. 79(2) p. 206-212. 0802 Improving seed yield and quality of tomato through integrated nutrient management and liming. Rahman, M; Farid, ATM; Shahidullah, M; Sultana, W. Seed Research. 1996, publ. 1997, 24: 1, 34-37; 7 ref. In experiments at Thakurgaon in Bangladesh in 1991-94, the sandy loam soil of initial pH 4.8 was limed with 0, 1, 2 or 4 t lime/ha before sowing tomato cv. Ratan for seed production. The effects of applying Mg at 15 or 30 kg, Zn at 5 kg, B at 1 kg or Mo at 1 kg/ha and cow manure at 15 kg/ha were studied. A basal application of NPKS fertilizer was made to all plots except an unfertilized control. Seed yields were highest (110141 kg/ha) with Mg + Zn + B + Mo + cow manure on plots limed with 2 t lime/ha, which raised the soil pH to 5.8-6.0. Seed germination and 1000-seed weight were also greatest in this treatment. Applying NPKS fertilizer increased seed yields slightly compared with the unfertilized control but applying the other fertilizers and liming had a greater effect. 0803 In vitro orchid seed germination and cloning of orchids - a success story. Foja Singh. Plant biotechnology: commercial prospects and problems. Andover (United Kingdom). Intercept Limited. 1993. p. 85-109. 0804 Indices for proper stage of seed harvest in relation to seed quality in soybean. Dighe, RS; Zade, VR; Zode, NG; Asalmol, MN. Annals of Plant Physiology. 1995, 9: 2, 142-145; 6 ref. In a field experiment during the kharif [monsoon] seasons in 1991-93, soyabeans cv. PKV-1 and JS 80-21 were harvested at 3-d intervals between 28 and 52 d after flowering. The optimum harvesting date was 46 d after flowering in terms of seed germination and seedling vigour and freeing land earlier for sequential cropping. 0805 Influence of achene size - grading on seed quality and germination in sunflower. Meharwade, MN; Giriraj, K; Shashidhar, SD; Vyakaranahal, BS; Dharmatti, PR. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (1992). v. 5(1) p. 73-76.

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0806 Influence of bollworm infestation on quality and yield of seed cotton. Murugesan, S; Balasubramanian, M. Cotton Development (India). (Oct 1981). v. 11(2 and 3) p. 41-42. 0807 Influence of delayed harvest on soybean seed quality. Arulnandhy, V. Tropical Agriculturist. 1984. v. 140, p. 1-7. Emergence, which is an indication of seed quality, was significantly reduced in seed harvested at four weeks after maturity. However, it did not differ markedly between seed harvested at optimum maturity and two weeks later. The seedling vigour, measured in terms of seedling length, was again significantly reduced in seed harvested at four weeks after maturity. However, in one cultivar, Bossier, the seedling length similar at all three harvests. It appears that prolonged delay in harvest after maturity in soybeans (delay of four weeks in this study) has a significantly adverse influence on the ability of seedlings to emerge in the field and subsequent seedling vigour as well. On the other hand, a short delay in harvest after maturity does not significantly affect these two characteristics. Perhaps, it may depend on the environmental conditions that prevailed. Variation seems to exist in seed deterioration under field conditions among cultivars when the harvest is delayed. Selection against rapid seed deterioration would be advantageous if prolonged delay in harvest cannot be avoided. 0808 Influence of different provenances of Tamil Nadu on sowing quality characteristics of size graded sorghum hybrid seeds. Krishnasamy, V; Ramaswamy, KR. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1993, 80: 7, 380-383; 4 ref. Sorghum hybrid CSH 5 seeds were obtained from certified seed crops in the Pappampatti, Chettipalayam, Coimbatore, Trichy, Salem, Udumalpet and Pollachi areas of Tamil Nadu. Samples were sun-dried to 11% moisture content and graded by separating seeds retained on 10/64 and 9/64 inch sieves or passed through the 9/64 inch sieve. Mean percentage germination was lowest in seeds passed through the smaller sieve, and among provenances was lowest in seeds from Udumalpet and highest in seeds from Pappampatti. Seeds from Trichy and Pappampatti had the highest proportion of larger seeds, and Pappampatti seeds produced the highest seedling DW. The smallest seeds gave significantly lower seedling DW, while there was no significant difference between the 2 larger seed grades. 0809 Influence of genetic contamination on seed yield and quality of IR50. Selvaraj, JA; Subramanian, P. International Rice Research Newsletter (Philippines). (Dec 1988). v. 13(6) p. 26. The effect of cultivar TKM 9 as a contaminant on seed yield and quality was studied in a pure seed crop of IR50 over successive generations of seed multiplication. Field experiments were conducted under irrigated conditions during the dry-wet-dry seasons 1986-87. IR50

was contaminated by transplanting TKM 9 at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12% in a randomized block design. Pure seed crops of IR50 (T0) and TKM 9 (T7) were included for comparison. Levels of contamination and seed yield and quality attributes - germination and vigor - were correlated negatively. Yield potential and seed quality declined with generation advance. Yield reduction was due not only to varietal contamination, but also to loss in vigor across generations. A slow inbreeding depression in seed vigor caused a subsequent reduction in yield. The pure seed crop IR50 gave the highest yield, germination, and vigor in generation 1; seed yield was reduced 4.6% by generation 3. A contamination of 2% reduced yield 42.5%. Germination and vigor declined by 7 and 20% and 24.5 and 45.4%, respectively. Under the present system of seed production, seed is multiplied across four generations - breeder, foundation, and certified 1 and 2. The observed reduction in seed yield and vigor by the third generation highlights the need for renewal of seed stock after 3 years of multiplication. 0810 Influence of harvesting conditions on the yield and quality of brinjal seeds. Jayabarathi, M; Palanisamy, V; Kalavathi, D; Balamurugan, P. Vegetable Science. 1990, 17: 2, 113-118; 3 ref. The effect of harvesting fruits at different stages of maturity on seed yield and quality was studied in 2 successive crops of aubergine cv. PKM. 1. Fruits harvested at the completely yellow stage had the highest seed yield (102.55 and 112.65 kg/ha in the 2 seasons). Fruit yield (3206 and 2995 kg/ha for the first and the second season, respectively), percentage seed recovery, percentage seed germination and the values for vigour indices were also greater for fruits harvested at this stage than at any other stage. Harvesting fruits prior to or later than the full yellow stage resulted in lower seed yield and quality. 0811 Influence of harvesting time on seed viability and yield of maize. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. Annual Research Review (Agronomy Division) - BARI, 1992-93. p. 5. An experiment was conducted at BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur during the Rabi season of 1992-93 to study the influence of different harvesting times on viability and yield of maize (var. Khoibhutta). Seeds collected from 125 DAE harvest were physiologically matured, maintaining 98% viability throughout the year at storage and produced highest grain yield (4.07 t/ha) in the following season. 0812 Influence of herbicidal treatments on yield and seed quality in bhendi Abelmoschus esculentus [okra] (L) Moench. Ramamoorthy, K; Jayapaul, P. Progressive Horticulture. 1990, 22: 1-4, 51-54; 10 ref. In field trials conducted at Madurai (Tamil Nadu) during 1985- 87, thiobencarb at 1.0-2.0 kg/ha, fluchloralin at 0.75-1.25 kg and butachlor at 1.0-2.0 kg were compared with manual weed control 20 and 40 d

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

after sowing for the control of weeds and the effect on yield in okra cv. Pusa Sawani. All herbicides treatments resulted in 84.2-92.9% weed control, with the weed control efficiency increasing with concn. Hand weeding resulted in 94.2% weed control. Irrespective of concn, all herbicides increased fruit yields and seed yields from untreated control values of 2600 and 1240 kg/ha, resp., to 5480- 6300 and 2500-3010 kg, resp. Hand weeding resulted in fruit and seed yields of 5900 and 2870 kg, resp. Fluchloralin at 1 and 1.25 kg resulted in the greatest fruit and seed yields, resp. 0813 Influence of irrigation and nitrogen on the yield and quality of chilli fruit and seed. Vanangamudi, K; Subramanian, KS; Baskaran, M. Seed Research. 1990, 18: 2, 114-116; 4 ref. In an experiment on chilli cv. K2 plants, irrigating once at 7- to 8-day intervals significantly increased fruit size, seed weight, seed yield and seedling root length compared with application at longer intervals of 10-11 or 13-14 days. Seed yields were 722, 639 and 610 kg/ha for irrigation at intervals of 7-8, 10-11 and 13-14 days, respectively, and root lengths at these intervals were 8.03, 7.79 and 7.75 cm/seedling, respectively. Increasing N application from 125 to 200 kg/ha significantly increased the following plant attributes: fruit length and circumference, seed number/fruit, seed yield and fruit yield, and the values were 6.5 and 4.27 cm, 4.03 and 3.40 cm, 54 and 51, 721 and 576 kg/ha, 1835 and 1493 kg/ha for 200 and 125 kg N/ha, respectively. Neither the frequency of irrigation nor the N application rate affected seed germination. The interaction between irrigation and N was significant for seedling root length only. 0814 Influence of irrigation on the seed yield and quality of finger millet. Vanangamudi, K; Selvaraj, KV; Kulandaivelu, R. Seed Science and Technology. 1990, 18: 2, 283-286; 9 ref. Field grown Eleusine coracana cv. CO12 was irrigated when the cumulative pan evaporation reached 56, 67 or 83 mm, equivalent to irrigation frequencies of 8-9 (I1, optimal), 10-11 (I2, below optimal) and 12-13 d (I3, sub-optimal), respectively. I1 and I2 treatments induced early flowering and maturity, and resulted in a higher seed yield, improved quality and storability of seeds and reduced fungal contamination in storage compared with I3. 0815 Influence of light duration and CO2 enrichment on growth, seed yield and quality of sunflower cv. Morden. Vasudevan, SN; Virupakshappa, K; Bhaskar, S; Udayakumar, M. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 1998, 15: 2, 261-266. In a pot experiment during winter 1990/91 in Bangalore, Karnataka, India, sunflowers cv. Morden were exposed to normal photoperiod and ambient [CO2], extended photoperiod (+4 h) from 10 days after sowing (DAS) to harvest, CO2 enrichment (about twice ambient [CO2]) from 10 to 40 DAS or harvest, or from

40 or 60 DAS to harvest, and combinations of the extended photoperiod and CO2 enrichment treatments. In general, seed germination and growth parameters, and yields and yield component values were greatest with extended photoperiod + CO2 enrichment from 10 to 40 DAS, followed by extended photoperiod alone. 0816 Influence of moisture and container on viability of paddy seed during storage under ambient conditions of Punjab. Kaur, J; Randhawa, HS; Sharma, HL. Annals of Biology Ludhiana. 1990, 6: 2, 129-134; 6 ref. Rice cv. PR 106 seeds with initial moisture contents of 10, 12 and 15% were stored in 400 or 700 gauge polyethylene bags, in gunny bags with or without 400 gauge polyethylene linings, or in 'kacha' earthern pots. Germination was recorded after 3-21 months storage in Indian Punjab under ambient conditions. Germination and seedling vigour decreased with increasing storage period, and were highest in seeds with initial moisture contents of 10% stored in polyethylene bags. 0817 Influence of moisture content on viability of paddy seeds [rice, India] Radhakrishnan, TC. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala (India). (Jun 1980). v. 18(1) p. 104-106. 0818 Influence of mother crop nutrition and spacing on seed yield and quality in brinjal. Vijayakumar, A; Arunachalam, M; Suthanthirapandian, IR. South Indian Horticulture. 1995, 43: 5-6, 152-153 In a trial begun in December 1991, aubergine cv. Palur 1 was given 50 kg N + 25 kg P + 15 kg K/ha or twice, 4 or 6 times this rate of NPK fertilizer. All the P and K was applied at planting together with half the N. The remaining N was applied as 2 top dressings 25 and 50 days after planting. Estimated seed yields were highest with 200 kg N + 100 kg P + 60 kg K/ha. Seeds from this treatment exhibited the highest percentage germination. Of the 3 spacings tested, that of 75 X 60 cm produced the highest seed yield. 0819 Influence of nitrogen and naphthalene acetic acid on seed quality in cowpea grown during summer. Jain, PC; Rajput, LPS; Amar, Chandra; Tiwari, JP; Chandra, A. JNKVV Research Journal. 1999, publ. 2000, 33: 1-2, 80-81; 5 ref. The effects of N fertilizer (40, 60, and 80 kg/ha) and NAA (0, 15, 30, and 45 ppm) on the seed protein content of cowpea cv. V.L. 175 were studied in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India, in March 1990. Half of the N (urea) was applied 10 days after sowing while the remaining half was applied 20 days thereafter. NAA was sprayed at the flower initiation stage (35 days after sowing). The application of 60 kg N/ha and 45 ppm NAA gave the highest seed protein content (27.34%). 0820 Influence of nitrogen and spacing on seed quality of sunflower hybrid (BSH-1). Ujjinaiah, US;

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Shambulingappa, KG; Prasad, DT; Seenappa, K. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1992, 26: 3, 244247; 10 ref. In a field experiment on sandy loam soil during the kharif [monsoon] season of 1981 at Kathalgere, Karnataka, sunflowers parental lines CMS-234 (seed parent) and RHA-274 (pollinator) were grown in 3:1 or 4:1 ratios in rows 45, 60 or 75 cm apart and given 45, 60 or 75 kg N/ha. Seed of high quality (in terms of 100seed weight, protein content, vigour index and germination) were produced at 60 cm spacing with application of 75 kg N. 0821 Influence of nitrogen, plant density and geometry on yield and quality of carrot seed. Satyaveer Singh; Nehra, BK; Malik, YS; Narendra Singh. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 1994, 12: 1-2, 71-76; 9 ref. 0822 Influence of NPK on the yield and quality of chilli seeds. Thiagarajan, CP. South Indian Horticulture. 1990, 38: 3, 159-160. In field trials, Capsicum plants received N at 0, 70 or 140 kg/ha, P2O5 at 0, 35 or 70 kg/ha, and K2O at 0, 35 or 70 kg/ha. All the P and K was applied when 35day-old seedlings were transplanted whereas N was applied in 3 split doses at 15, 45 and 90 days after transplanting. The highest seed yield was obtained with 140 kg N + 35 kg P2O5 + 0 kg K2O/ha and seed germination in this treatment was 78%. 0823 Influence of phosphorus fertilization on crop growth, seed cotton yield and fibre quality. Malik, MNA; Makhdum, MI; Chaudhry, FI. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1992, 35: 7-8, 288-290; 16 ref. In a field experiment at Multan, Pakistan, cotton cv. B-557 given 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 kg P2O5/ha produced seed cotton yield of 2.95, 3.09, 3.18, 3.29 and 3.12 t/ha, respectively. P application increased P uptake, but did not affect fibre quality. 0824 Influence of physiological maturity on seed quality in cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn) Renganayaki, PR; Karivaratharaju, TV. Cashew. 1993, 7: 4, 10-13; 17 ref. Nuts were collected when mature (at 40, 50 or 60 days after fruit set) from cashew trees of cultivars VL 21-1, H3-9, H4-11, H3-6 and H3-17. Seeds which matured 40 days after fruit set had the lowest 100-seedweight (339 g, averaged over all cultivars) and seeds which matured in 60 days had the highest (538 g). Seed germination rate and nut oil and protein contents only varied slightly between the 3 maturity categories. 0825 Influence of picking on seed quality and membrane integrity in tomato genotypes. Palanisamy, V; Balakrishnan, K; Karivaratharaju, TV. South Indian Horticulture. 1995, 43: 5-6, 137-139; 6 ref.

0826 Influence of pickingwise seeds and their grades on seed quality in tomato genotypes. Palanisamy, V; Karivaratharaju, TV. Progressive Horticulture. 1990, 22: 1-4, 198-203; 7 ref. Seeds of 10 genotypes obtained from fruits picked at 8 different stages of physiological maturity were graded using an 8 X 8 wire mesh sieve as retained (G1) or passed (G2). For all genotypes seed obtained from early pickings had higher values for all parameters measured. G1 seeds had higher values for 1000-seed weight, percentage germination and vigour than those of G2. 0827 Influence of potassium on seed quality and oil content of extra-long staple cottons (Gossypium spp.). Shanmugam, K; Bhatt, JG. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sicences (India). (Mar 1990). v. 60(3) p. 212-214. 0828 Influence of seed mycoflora and harvesting conditions on milling, popping and malting qualities of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Kumar, LS; Prakash, HS; Shetty, HS; Malleshi, NG. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (United Kingdom). (1991). v. 55(4) p. 617-625. 0829 Influence of seed rate and fertilizer levels on quality of fodder yield of Deccan 101 F2 maize. Somanna, T; Reddy, VC. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1993, 27: 3, 219-222; 7 ref. In field trials in the kharif [monsoon] and summer seasons of 1991-92 at Bangalore, Karnataka, maize hybrid Deccan 101 was sown at rates of 50, 125, 200 or 275 kg seed/ha and given 60 kg N + 30 kg P + 15 kg K, 75 kg N + 50 kg P + 25 kg K, 150 kg N + 75 kg P + 37.5 kg K or 150 kg N + 100 kg P + 50 kg K/ha. Dry forage yields in both seasons increased with rates of seed and fertilizers. N, P, K, crude fibre and CP contents increased with rates of NPK fertilizers. N, P, crude fibre and CP contents were highest with the 125 kg seed rate whereas K content was highest with the 50 kg seed rate. 0830 Influence of seed size and orientation of placement on seed quality characteristics of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell-Arg.) Gunasekaran, M; Krishnasamy, V; Lakshmi, S; Nargis, S. Orissa Journal of Horticulture. 1999, 27: 1, 4-7. In studies carried out in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, small, medium and large rubber, cv. RRIM 600, seeds (1.61, 2.05 and 2.50 cm in diameter, respectively) were sown in sand in a horizontal (micropylar end facing sideways), vertical (micropylar end upwards) or inverted (micropylar end downwards) position. Small seeds sown in a horizontal position had the highest percentage germination (88%) and produced the largest and most vigorous seedlings. Large seeds had the lowest percentage germination.

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0831 Influence of seed size on field germination, seedling vigour yield and quality in self-pollinated crops - a review. Rao, SK. Agricultural Reviews (India). (Dec 1981). v. 2(2) p. 95-101. 0832 Influence of seed size on phenology, yield and quality of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes. Chaudhry, AU; Goheer, MAR. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan). (Jul 1999). v. 2(3) p. 791-793. A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed size on soybean performance. Amongst the three genotypes under study, 95-1 gave highest average seed yield of 2065 kg ha-1 followed by FS-85 which produced 1820 kg ha-1. Williams-82 produced the lowest average seed yield of 1282 kg ha-1, among the seed size categories, maximum average seed yield of 1991 kg ha-1 was produced by medium (4.9 mm - 6.2 mm) seed followed by an average produce of 1976 kg ha-1 by large sized seed. Lowest produce (1171 kg ha-1) was obtained from small size seed. Besides seed yield, the yield components like number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and number of seeds per plant were significantly affected both by genotypes and seed size. Similarly photo biomass producing contributors (number of plant, plant height, biological yield and harvest index) were also found responsive to genotypes and seed size categories. Genotypes also showed significant results regarding phenology but less pronounced results on phenology were shown by seed size. Quality of oil, however, was increased by large seed size which remained 22.40 percent. 0833 Influence of seed treatment and storage container on the viability of lablab (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet) seeds. Karivaratharaju, TV; Palanisamy, V; Vanangamudi, K. South Indian Horticulture. 1989, 37: 2, 121-123; 4 ref. The effects of seed treatment with activated clay, red earth, captan, coconut oil or no treatment and storage in cloth bags, polythene bags or covered mud pots for 3-18 months on germinability of L. purpureus seeds were studied. Germination percentage decreased over the 18 months irrespective of treatment. After 18 months storage, seeds treated with activated clay, red earth, captan, coconut oil or no treatment gave germination percentages of 60, 50, 0, 0 and 0%, resp. The effect of storage container was unclear; on av., germination was higher from seed stored in polythene bags. 0834 Influence of seed vigour on seed quality attributes and seed rate compensation on yield in maize. Kurdikeri, MB; Aswathiah, B; Mahadevappa, M; Aswathnarayana, SC. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1998, 11: 4, 1071-1073. Fresh seeds of maize cv. Deccan 103 were subjected to accelerated aging conditions for 0, 4, 6 or 8 days to produce seeds of different vigour levels. Germination percentage, vigour index and seedling dry weight

decreased but electrical conductivity increased as the period of accelerated aging increased. Field emergence, plant survival at harvest and yield/ha were highest with 4 days accelerated aging but decreased significantly with increased aging periods. 0835 Influence of sowing method of parental lines and nitrogen rates on synchronization of flowering, yield and seed quality of sunflower hybrid APSH-11. Kamala, PM; Lawrence, M; Shaik, Mohammad; Mohammad, S. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 1997, 14: 1, 102-106. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of simultaneous and staggered sowings and application of nitrogen on sunflower. Experiments were carried out in Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India, during 1996. A combination of 2 sowing dates (simultaneous and staggered) and 4 nitrogen rates (100, 125 and 150 kg nitrogen/ha and 100 kg nitrogen/ha + 2% urea as a foliar spray) were tested with the hybrid APSH-11 using a pollen parent (RHA 271) and a seed parent (CMS 71A). Staggered sowing had no effect on plant height, stem girth and head diameter of both parental lines. However, staggered sowing of the pollen parent was effective for synchronisation in flower initiation and 50% flowering. Nitrogen application rates significantly influenced crop growth, with the parental lines growing taller, having greater stem girth and larger head size. The production of both parental lines was greater at 150 kg N/ha. Oil percentage was not influenced by sowing date or nitrogen application. 0836 The influence of storage condition upon the germination of some crops (niger flax, millet, wheat) Pasha, MK; Salehuzzaman, M; Mallik, AU; Das, RK. Chittagong University Studies (Bangladesh). 1984. v. 8(2), p. 53-56. Viability of niger, flax, millet and wheat seeds were tested for two years in three different moisture contents (10%, 12% and room condition) and that of jute and soybean in two different temperatures 100C and room condition) and four different moisture contents (6%, 8%, 10% and room condition). In every case unsealed seeds left in room condition lost their viability rather quickly. viability after two years was best when the seeds were stored in sealed containers at low moisture content and low temperature. 0837 Influence of storage on seed germination in Chromolaena odorata. Ambika, SR; Jayachandra. Seed Research. 1989, 17: 2, 143-152; 13 ref. Mature C. odorata [Eupatorium odoratum] seeds collected from plantations near Ripponpet (Karnataka) would not immediately germinate under laboratory conditions, but germination improved with storage at 2232oC and 45-90% RH up to a max. of 67% after 36 weeks and then declined to 0% by 68 weeks. During storage, seed phenolic content decreased from approx. 2.5-3.5 to 1 mg/g after 44 weeks, and seed coat per-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

meability increased. Increased periods of washing progressively increased germination, such that 72 h washing resulted in 57 and 75% germination of seeds stored for 4 and 20 weeks, resp. Germination was generally higher in the light than the dark or far red. Stored seeds also resulted in seedlings with higher DW e.g. 48-week old seeds resulted in shoot and root DW of 120 and 109% resp., of control seedlings. 0838 Influence of the order of capsule on seed content and its quality in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Verma, OP; Singh, PV; Kushwaha, GD. Seed Research. 1998, 26: 2, 178-179. 0839 Influence of the order of fruit formation on seed content and its quality in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Naik, LB; Prabhakar, M; Hebbar, SS; Doijode, SD. Seed Research. 1995, publ. 1996, 23: 2, 71-74; 13 ref. Studies in 1992-93 at Bangalore on the effects of the order of fruit formation on seed production in aubergine cv. Arka Keshav revealed that generally the first fruit was the largest in size and subsequently size decreased. Seed yield per fruit and 100- seed weight followed a similar trend. The percentage of seed in the fruit (by weight) was lowest in the first fruit (2.92%) and increased in successive fruits to reach a maximum in the last fruit (5.51%). There was no wide variation either in the germination percentage or vigour of the seeds obtained from different fruits. 0840 Influence of time of shelling and seed size on yield, quality and nutrient uptake in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Detroja, CR; Sadaria, SG; Khanpara, VD; Kaneria, BB; Malavia, DD. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1995, 40: 1, 125-126; 3 ref. In a field experiment during the rainy season of 1991 at Junagadh, Gujarat, groundnuts cv. Gujarat Groundnut 2 were shelled at the time of sowing or between 30 and 66 d before sowing. Pod yields were not affected by the shelling date. Yields from sowing large seed (retained on 8 mm sieve), composite seed (taken from bulk) and small seed (passed through 6 mm sieve) were 1.13, 0.97 and 0.84 t/ha, respectively. N, P and K uptake were highest with the large seeds. Seed oil and protein contents were not affected by seed size. 0841 Inhibition of seed germination by Macrophomina phaseolina is related to phaseolinone production. Dipanwita, Bhattacharya; Dhar, TK; Siddiqui, KAI; Ali, E. Journal of Applied Bacteriology (United Kingdom). (1994). v. 77(2) p. 129-133. 0842 Inter-dependence of seed quality, oil and protein content with reference to neem seeds from different origins. Mala, Rathore; Tripathi, YC; Sunil, Kumar; Rathore, M; Kumar, S. Annals of Agri-bio Research (India). 1998, 3: 2, 133-138.

The variation of oil and protein contents of the neem [Azadirachta indica] seeds over different agro climatic regions has been studied. Seeds from Laos, Nepal, Ghana, Bangladesh, Myanmar and 3 areas of India showed marked variation in their oil and protein contents. Considering oil and protein in kernel weight as dependent variables, their relationship with other seed parameters has been sought using the method of all possible regressions. 0843 Interrelationships between seed weight and quality traits in pearl millet. Khairwal, IS; Tomer, RPS. Science and Culture (India). (May 1981). v. 47(5) p. 175-177. 0844 Irrigation and nitrogen management for quality seed production. Vanangamudi, K; Subramanian, KS; Bhaskaran, M. Seeds and Farms. 1989, 15: 9-10, 28-31. The effects of irrigation and N on seed yield and quality of rice, sorghum, finger millet [Eleusine coracana] and chillies are described. The values for seed yields, percentage germination and vigour in rice under continuous submergence were higher than with irrigation 2, 4 or 6 d after subsidence [disappearance of standing water]. Increasing N rates from 0 to 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha increased yields. Seeds from crops given N gave higher percentage germination and shoot length than those from crops given no N. The higher N rates applied to crops under high water stress produced seeds with lower percentage germination and seedling vigour. Irrigation at 10- to 11-d intervals for sorghum and at 8- to 9-d intervals for E. coracana increased seed yields and storage quality, compared with irrigation at less frequent intervals. In chillies irrigation at more frequent intervals and N application increased seed yields and quality. 0845 Jute seed viability: a problem and a solution. Khandakar, AL. Jute and Jute Fabrics Bangladesh (Bangladesh). Oct 1982. v. 8(10) p. 8-13. An experiment was conducted on the storability of jute seeds Corchorus capsularis cul-D154 and C. olitorius cul-04 and the following recommendations were made: (a) jute seed should be dried immediately after the harvest and seed should be dried until the moisture content is reduced to 8% for C. capsularis and 5% for C. olitorius. 0846 Keeping quality of tubers derived from true potato seed (TPS) under natural storage condition [in Bangladesh]. Hossain, MJ; Rashid, MM. Bangladesh Journal of Botany (Bangladesh). (Jun 1991). v. 20(1) p. 21-26. Storage quality of three sizes of tubers of eight TSP progenies against standard variety Cardinal has been studied for 120 days (April to July) under natural storage condition. Weightloss of tubers due to transpiration and respiration was 23.93% in TPS progenies and 11.95% in Cardinal with average monthly loss of 5.98%

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

and 2.99% respectively. Small size tubers were found to suffer most from dehydration. Erwinia sp. Fusarium sp. have been identified to cause rot disease of tubers in storage. The incidence of soft rot and dry rot were 33.40% and 34.15%, respectively. No rot was observed in Cardinal during the period of study. Maximum rottage loss was recorded in large size tubers. Tubers of the TPS progenies sprouted earlier than Cardinal. Maximum number of sprouts per tuber and length of the longest sprout were recorded in TPS progenies. Tubers of TPS progenies shrivelled earlier than Cardinal. 0847 The level of proteins and leakage of solutes in germinating fresh and stored seeds of Cicer arietinum. Hayat, S; Ahmad, A. Biologia Plantarum (Czech Republic). (Dec 1996). v. 38(4) p. 597-599. One-year-old seeds of chickpea (Cicer arietinum cv. C-235) lost about 23 % germinability and leaked larger quantities of N, P, K, saccharides and proteins into the soaking medium in the first 48 h, as compared with fresh seeds. The protein content in stored seeds decreased more than in fresh seeds, as the soaking progressed. 0848 Local toria cultivars with higher oil and better seed quality. Tiwari, AS; Asha, Arora; Arora, A. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 1995, 55: 2, 151-153; 3 ref. Two local toria cultivars (Brassica campestris var. toria) having brown and yellow seed colour were collected from Bhind in Madhya Pradesh, India. Both flowered earlier than T9 and matured in 80-90 days in trials conducted at Gwalior. The improved variety T9 has brown seeds and matures in 90-95 days. The local toria cultivars had a seed yield of 777 kg/ha compared with 611 kg/ha for T9. Both local cultivars had an oil content of 48.5%, while T9 contained 46.7% oil. The erucic acid content of T9 and the brown and yellow seeded local cultivars was 47.5, 46.0 and 48.2%, respectively. A small quantity of eruric acid in the oil (less than 5%) is desirable to improve its quality. 3-Butenyl glucosinolate was the most prominent glucosinolate in both local cultivars and T9. The total glucosinolate content of T9 (103.1 'mol/g) was lower than for the local cultivars (104.1 and 115.4 'mol/g seed meal glucosinolates in the brown and yellow seeded cultivars, respectively). 0849 Loss of seed viability and vigour in sunflower under ambient store conditions. Bhaskar, V; Aswathaiah, B; Rajendraprasad. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1994, 23: 12, 154-156. Six seed lots of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), viz. CMS234A, RHA274R, Morden, EC68415, 6D-IR and KBSH1, grown at Bangalore during kharif 1986, were dried to 6.5-7.5% moisture content and stored in cloth bags for 17 months. During this period, laboratory germination was measured by rolling 100 seeds between

germination paper with 4 replicates. Field emergence was measured by sowing 100 seeds of 4 replicates on a well prepared raised bed. There were wide variations between laboratory germination and field emergence. The results indicated that sunflower seeds stored in cloth bags under ambient conditions at Bangalore can maintain germination above the minimum certification standard (70%) without much loss in viability for 11 months in the laboratory and 7-8 months under field conditions. 0850 Loss of viability and vigour under variable storage conditions in CSH-9 hybrid sorghum seeds. Aswathaiah, B; Prasad, SR; Reddy, AS; Jagadish, GV. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1989, 18: 6, 79-80. Sorghum cv. CSH-9 seeds stored in a desiccators for 30 d at 60% RH and 30oC were first transferred to conditions of 75, 60 and 80% RH at 30o for 4 d and then to conditions of 70% RH/25o for 30 or 15 d. Viability, germination and vigour of seeds stored for 87 d under ambient conditions were not affected. However, under the variable storage conditions an increase in RH greatly decreased viability which was lowest after storage at 80% RH/30o + 70% RH/25o. Germination decreased from 86% to 19% and vigour index from 1659 to 392 after storage in high RH. 0851 Maintenance of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) seed viability by hydration-dehydration treatments. Kalpana, Sur; Lahiri, AK; Basu, RB. Indian Journal of Forestry. 1989, 12: 2, 142-144; 5 ref. Seeds of D. strictus collected in West Bengal were treated in various ways before storage in order to prevent the usual loss of vigour and viability. Seeds collected 20 days previously and stored in the laboratory were either (1) soaked for 6 h in water followed by drying, or (2) exposed to moisture equilibration with a water-saturated atmosphere for 48 h, followed by drying. Both treatments effectively reduced the loss of viability of seeds stored under natural warm-humid conditions for up to 6 months, in contrast to untreated seeds which completely failed to germinate after 4 months. After 8 months of storage, the germinability of hydrateddehydrated seeds started to decrease rapidly; the loss of germinability was less rapid in (1) than in (2). Storage of seeds at -10oC was also very effective in maintaining seed viability, giving slightly better results than the hydration- dehydration treatments. 0852 Maintenance of seed vigour and viability in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) hybrids and inbreds. Dadlani, M; Varier, A; Mathur, R. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Dec 1995). v. 65(12) p. 858-862. 0853 Maintenance of soybean seed viability by hydration-dehydration treatments. Saha, R; Basu, RN.

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Indian Agriculturist (India). Dec 1981. v. 25(4) p. 275278. 0854 Maintenance of viability and vigour of stored mungbean seeds under the ambient conditions in the hills zone of Assam. Paul, SR; Sarma, NN; Sarma, D; Borah, RK; Nath, PD. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1996, 17: 2, 196-198; 4 ref. Freshly harvested seeds of mung beans (Vigna radiata) cv. ML- 56 were sun- dried, treated with 5 ml mustard oil or coconut oil/kg seeds or with 2 g malathion + 2 g captan/kg seeds, and then stored in cloth bags, covered earthen containers or tin containers. After 9 months storage, germination, seedling length and DW and vigour index were increased, and insect damage decreased, by seed treatment, with malathion + captan giving the best results. Insect damage was lowest, and germination, seedling growth and vigour best, after storage in tin containers. 0855 Maintenance of viability and vigour of stored wheat seeds in the hill zone of Assam. Paul, SR; Sarma, NN; Sarma, D; Nath, PD. Annals of Agricultural Research (India). 1998, 19: 3, 333-335. Freshly harvested wheat cv. Sonalika seeds were sun-dried for 5 days and then treated with 10% malathion dust + captan (each at 2 g/kg seeds) or untreated. Seeds were then placed in cloth bags or tin containers, and after 4 months were untreated or dipped in water or 10-4 M Na2HPO4 for 5 minutes, kept in a moist condition for 2 hours, and then sun-dried to the original weight and placed back in the storage containers. Germination and vigour characteristics were recorded before storage, at the mid-storage treatment, and about 2 and 3 months later. During the first 4 months' storage period, seed moisture content increased, and germination and vigour decreased. Germination and vigour at the final sampling date were similar to after 4 months' storage. Moisture content was lower, and percentage germination and vigour higher, with storage in tins compared with cloth bags. Germination was best when the malathion + captan treated seeds were dipped in Na2HPO4 during storage. 0856 Maintenance of vigour and viability of stored gingelly (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds. Ramamoorthy, K; Palanisamy, V; Kalavathi, D; Vanangamudi, K; Karivaratharaju, TV. Tropical Agriculture. 1990, 67: 3, 209-212; 19 ref. Hydration/dehydration of 7-month-old sesame cv. TMV 3 seeds through moisture equilibration in moist air, soaking or moist- sand conditions either with water or sodium phosphate solution (dibasic 2.5 X 10-3 M) for 48 h, 30 min and 96 h, resp., followed by drying to original moisture content (6.5-6.7%) reduced the loss of vigour and viability when seeds were subjected to accelerated and natural aging. Treated seeds maintained membrane integrity as indicated by lower electrical conductivity of seed leachate and reduced leakage of

sugars and amino acids. Lower lipid peroxidation values were recorded in treated seeds. 0857 Maintenance of vigour and viability of stored pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds. Ramamoorthy, K; Kalavathi, D; Paramasivam, M. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science (Germany). (1992). v. 169(4) p. 223228. 0858 Maintenance of vigour, viability and yield potential of stored wheat seed. Mandal, AK; Basu, RN. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Oct 1983). v. 53(10) p. 905-912. 0859 Maternal influence of cytoplasmic genic male sterile lines on seed quality in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Kannababu, N; Karivaratharaju, TV. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology (India). (Apr-Jun 2000). v. 5(2) p. 159-162. A line x tester analysis of sunflower was carried out with four cytoplasmic genic male steriles as lines and eight fertility restoring genetic accessions of Helianthus annuus L. inbreds as testers. The parents and their thirty two hybrid crosses were subjected for seed quality analysis by adopting hundred seed weight, germination, root length, shoot length, dry matter production and vigour index as parameters in order to know the maternal and paternal influences on hybrid seed quality. The results indicated the predominant maternal influence on seed quality which is evident through the high percent contribution of lines to the total variance of different seed quality parameters. Therefore, it can be expected that in cases of cytoplasmic inheritance, differences between crosses would result in maternal influences on seed weight and quality. The information of parental influence of seed quality will be useful to the plant breeders in their selection programme to evolve the hybrids with good seed quality. 0860 Measures of planting seed quality in diploid and tetraploid cottons. Meena, RA; Rathinavel, K; Phundan Singh. Journal of Cotton Research and Development. 1993, 7: 1, 146-148; 5 ref. In a field study in 1989-90 at Nagpur, Maharashtra with 20 diverse genotypes of Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. arboreum and G. herbaceum, seedling vigour index and seed density were identified as the most important parameters determining seed quality. 0861 A method for recognizing seed growers and improving quality standards through incentives in seed production schemes of developing countries. Mahendra, R; Bhattarai. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre. PAC Technical Paper. 1989, No.120, 9p. A method is proposed which highlights the components of seed quality that may have direct or indirect, short- or long-term effects on quality and quantity of seeds produced by contract growers (farmers) in seed production and supply schemes. Results obtained from

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

the comparison of field inspection and laboratory tests of seed quality components are ranked from worst to best for each seed lot. Each rank is assigned an arbitrary numerical value giving a constant difference between the ranks from the bottom to the top. Rank values for each component are totaled for each seed lot to identify the best lot, next best lot etc. 0862 Methods of preserving seed viability in groundnut. Nautiyal, PC; Joshi, YC; Reddy, PS. Indian Farming (India). Nov 1993. v. 43(8) p. 28-30. 0863 Mid-storage correction to prolong viability of rice seeds. Dharmalingam, C. International Rice Research Newsletter. 1990, 15: 3, 21-22. Seeds of rice cv. ADT36, Bhavani and CO 40 were stored at 8.5% moisture content in cloth bags under ambient conditions. After 8 months, half the seeds were soaked in 10-4 M NaH2PO4 for 6 h, sun dried to 8.5% moisture content and stored for up to 2 years. Hydrated seeds maintained 85-87% germination after 32 months compared with 16-45% in the controls. Vigour (measured by root length) was also high compared with the control. Cv. Bhavani had a lower storage potential than cv. CO 40 and ADT36. 0864 Mid-storage seed treatment to maintain vigour and productivity of hybrid cotton DCH.32. Ponnuswamy, AS; Karivaratharaju, TV. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1996, 83: 2, 90-91; 6 ref. The effects of mid-storage treatments (water soaking for 2 h, disodium phosphate for 2 h, Dithane M45 [mancozeb] for 2 h or moisture equilibration for 24 or 36 h) on fuzzy and delinted 10- month-old cotton cv. DCH.32 seeds were studied. Seeds were stored for a further 8 months after treatment. Treatment with disodium phosphate gave the highest seed germination, seedling DW and vigour after storage. When tested in the field there were no significant effects of seed treatment on kapas yield. 0865 Mother crop nutrition influencing seed quality of mustard (Brassica juncea) grown in the western tract of Tamil Nadu. Saraswathy, S; Dharmalingam, C. Seed Research. 1992, publ. 1994, 20: 2, 88-91; 16 ref. In a field experiment on sandy loam soil during the rabi [winter] season of 1991/92 in Tamil Nadu with irrigated B. Juncea cv. B 85, application of 50 kg N + 20 kg P + 30 kg K/ha gave the highest seed yield and seed of high quality in terms of processing recovery, 100-seed weight, germination potential, seedling vigour, and oil and protein contents. 0866 Multivariate analysis on the basis of physical quality characters of Vicia faba L. seed. Khare, D; Singh, CB. FABIS Newsletter (ICARDA). (Dec 1990). (no. 27) p. 3-4. A study was undertaken on 25 genotypes of faba bean from different parts of India to make observations

at maturity on 100- seed weight, hydration coefficient, swelling coefficient, hull, dal recovery, cooking time, hard-seed percentage, and protein per seed. The genotypes were grown during winter at livestock farm at the Farm of J.N. Agricultural University in Jabalpur in India in randomized complete block design with four replications, with 30- cm row spacing and 15-cm plant spacing. The soil of the farm is typic chromustent with claytexture and pH (7.5). The crop was fertilized with 20 kg N and 80 kg of P2O5/ha. The assessment of genetic divergence in the 25 genotypes using Mahalanobis D2 analysis of physical quality characters revealed considerable genetic diversity. The genotypes were grouped in three clusters. Cluster I had the highest number of genotypes (11) followed by cluster II (8). There was no relationship between geographical distribution and genotypic diversity. The genotypes of cluster III with minimum hard seed were cooked in minimum time and had maximum hydration, swelling, and dal recovery percentage, and protein content per seed,. 0867 Nepal's hill seed project: supply of good quality seed in remote areas. Rajbhandary, KB; Bal, SS. Agriculture Inputs Corp., Kathmandu (Nepal). FAO/DANIDA Seminar on Design and Implementation of Seed Programmes. Islamabad (Pakistan). 3-7 Mar 1985. p. 124-140. 0868 Nepal seed act, bylaws and regulations to develop sustainable seed industry. Pandey, GP; Shrestha, D; Shrestha, NN. Improvement of Seed Quality Control Service Project (FAO/TCP/NEP/6611, Kathmandu (Nepal) Proceeding of the National Workshop on Seed Quality Control. 24-25 November 1997. p. 38-47. Seed Act was enacted in Nepal in 1988. It is intended to protect the farmers against the risk of sowing seed of inferior quality. The purpose of the act is to regulate the various aspects of seed industry such as seed production, processing, seed quality and seed certification, imports, exports and marketing of the seeds. The act could be regarded as an expression of all the concerned agencies of seed sub-sector for seed quality and government's commitment for the same. 0869 A new area suitable for good quality potato seed tuber production in northeastern hill region of India. Lakshman, Lal; Bahal, VK; Lal, L. Journal of the Indian Potato Association. 1993, 20: 3-4, 201-205; 6 ref. A hilltop area, c. 1950 to 2150 m above sea level, near Mao in the Senapati district of Manipur, northeast India, was found to be suitable for seed potato production. The av. number of aphid (Myzus persicae) vectors in this area varied from 0.15 to 12.25/100 compound leaves, below the critical level of 20 aphids/100 leaves, during 4 consecutive years (1987-90). The area was also free of bacterial wilt (caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum), potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella)

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and other pathogens. This was the only area found to be suitable for potato seed production in the northeastern hills region of India due to the low incidence of aphid vectors and soilborne pathogens. 0870 Nipping side branches - a practical method of improving seed yield and quality in multibranched restorer lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Goud, IS; Patil, SA. Seed Research. 1994, publ. 1996, 22: 1, 12-14; 3 ref. The effect of nipping the side branches in multibranched restorer line RHA274 (the restorer parent of hybrid BSH1) on 9 yield components was studied during 1988-90. Nipping of the side branches at 45 to 50 days after sowing increased seed yield from 796 to 1838 kg/ha. Seed size increased from 5.68 to 6.44 mm; capitulum diameter from 11.0 to 22.3 cm; 100-seed weight from 3.4 to 5.7 g; seed set from 67.2 to 78.6%; and yield per plant from 17.1 g to 36.8 g. Days to maturity and processing losses were reduced by 4 days and 30-40%, respectively. 0871 Nitrogen economy, seed production efficiency and seed vigour of Panicum maximum by intercropping of pasture legumes. Dwivedi, GK; Sinha, NC; Tomer, PS; Dixit, OP. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science (Germany, F.). (1991). v. 166(1) p. 58-62. 0872 A note on germination and seedling vigour of jackfruit seeds as influenced by growth regulators and storage. Chiesotsu, S; Kar, PL; Sanyal, D. Horticultural Journal. 1995, 8: 2, 151-155; 8 ref. Seeds of a local jackfruit cultivar were used fresh or stored at 6oC for 15 days. Seeds were then soaked in solutions of NAA (10, 25 or 50 p.p.m.) or GA3 (50, 100 or 250 p.p.m.) or in distilled water (control) for 24 h before being sown. Growth regulator treatment did not affect percentage germination, time taken for germination or survival percentage of seedlings in the field. Fresh seeds had a higher percentage germination (66.0 vs. 62.1%), more rapid germination (15.1 vs. 16.7 days) and higher seedling survival percentage in the field (63.9 vs. 59.6%) than stored seeds. 0873 A note on the effect of seed sowing dates and planting distances of stecklings on growth, yield and quality of radish seed cv. Pusa Chetki. Maurya, AN; Pathak, MP; Singh, KP. Acta Horticulturae. 1990, No. 267, 169-173. Seeds were sown on 5 Sep. (D1), 25 Sep. (D2), 15 Oct. (D3) and 4 Nov. (D4) at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Plants were lifted after 60 days and the tops and roots trimmed to 15 cm each. These stecklings were planted in another field on 4 Nov., 24 Nov., 14 Dec. and 3 Jan. at distances of 60 X 45, 60 X 60 and 60 X 75 cm. Plant height, numbers of branches/plant, pods/plant and seeds/pod, seed yield/plant and 100 seed weight were recorded. Sowing date had a significant effect on plant height in the order D1 = D2 >D3 >D4.

The number of branches/plant decreased significantly with later sowing dates as did the number of pods/plant and the seed yield/plant. The last sowing date had the lowest number of seeds/pod. The steckling planting distance of 60 X 75 cm produced the largest numbers of branches and pods/plant, and highest seed yield/plant, the figures decreasing with increasing plant density. Seed yield/ha was not affected by spacing, but yields from the last sowing date were poor regardless of spacing. 0874 Oil build up and quality in developing sunflower seed. Lakshminarayana, MR; Ramanathan, KV; Khetrapal, CL. Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse (Italy). (Sep 1984). v. 61(9) p. 487-490. 0875 Onion seed viability influenced by different storage containers. Shelar, VR; Patil, RB; Gawade, ND. Onion Newsletter for the Tropics (United Kingdom). (1992). (no.) p. 39-42. 0876 Pattern of achene set and seed quality as influenced by pollination methods and planting seasons in sunflower. Merwade, MN; Shashidhar, SD; Vyakaranahal, BS; Channabyregouda, MV; Suryana Bhat. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1993, 6: 4, 363-366; 6 ref. Sunflowers cv. Morden were grown in the kharif [monsoon] and rabi [winter] seasons of 1988-90 and were pollinated by open pollination and hand pollination. Percentage and weight of filled achenes, seed oil content and germination percentage were higher with hand pollination than open pollination. Percentage and weight of filled achenes and seed oil content were higher in rabi than in kharif. 0877 Patterns of seed size, germination and seed viability of tropical tree species in southern India. Murali, KS. Biotropica (USA). Sep 1997. v. 29(3) p. 271-279. 0878 Phenotypic stability for seed quality characters in soybean. Rawat, GS; Mishra, Y; Shukla, RS; Mehta, N. JNKVV Research Journal. 2000, publ. 2001, 34: 1-2, 65-66. A study was conducted in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India, with 60 genotypes including 49 promising lines and 11 fixed interspecific crosses of soyabean which were tested during the kharif and summer seasons of 1990-91. Observation was recorded on the seed quality characters: first count, germination rate, germination percentage, seedling growth rate and seedling length. The mean differences for genotypes were significant for all the characters, indicating the presence of genetic variability among the genotypes. The mean square for genotype x environment interaction was significant for all the characters except seedling growth rate. For the germination rate, genotypes JS 72- 280, JS 72-44, JS 71-5, JS 80-21, JS 76-205, JS 87-60, JS 81- 1619, Pb-1,

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

MACS-58 and MACS-245 were the most stable in any environment. JS 87-7, JS 81-1619, Himsoy 1555 and PK 564 were the most stable in any environment for seedling growth rate. For seedling length, genotypes JS 81-1619, AMTS01, PK 472 and Ankur were the most suitable in any environment. Overall, JS 72-280, JS 76205, JS 80-21, JS 81-1619, JS 87-60 and Ankur were the most important genotypes which recorded a stable performance regarding seed quality characters. Hence, these parents may be used in breeding programmes for improving soyabean seed quality characters. 0879 Pod maturity and seed quality in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Kanwar, JS; Saimbhi, MS. Punjab Horticultural Journal. 1987, 27: 3-4, 234-238; 3 ref. In studies with cv. Punjab Padmini, although the number of seeds/pod reached a maximum 28 days after anthesis, the number of mature seeds, seed weight/pod and % germination were highest in seeds from pods harvested 35 days after anthesis. Further delay in harvesting of pods increased the number of damaged seeds and reduced seed weight and % germination. 0880 Prediction of relative germination of cereal seeds stored at different storage systems. Gowda, SJ; Bhole, NG. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1989, 23: 2, 168-171; 10 ref. The effects of 3 different storage systems on the germination of sorghum, bajra [Pennisetum americanum], maize, rice and ragi [Eleusine coracana] seeds were investigated at Bangalore in 1981- 83. The max. safe storage period for the seeds ranged from 6 to 18 months under existing warehouse conditions. 9 to 18 months in flat ventilated storage and 12 to >24 months in air-conditioned storage. Among the seeds, bajra deteriorated fastest followed by maize, sorghum, rice and ragi in all the storage conditions. An empirical equation was developed to predict the relationship between the relative germination percentage and storage period for all the 5 crops and 3 storage conditions. 0881 Preliminary studies on cultivation, seed production and nutrition quality of rhubarb chard (Rheum rhaponticum L.) - a temperate exotic vegetable, in mid hill conditions of Uttarakhand. Khan, IA; Pandey, HK; Verma, GS; Kumar, N. Agricultural Science Digest Karnal (India). 1999, 19: 1, 63-66. Cultivation of rhubarb was investigated under mid hill conditions of Uttratakhand, India, during 199495. Mean yield (petiole)/plant and mean yield/m2 were 435 g and 3.2 kg, respectively. Mean seed yield/plant and mean seed yield/m2 were 19 and 133 g, respectively. Petioles had good nutritive value (0.94% fibre, 0.94% minerals, 0.11% crude fat, 0.49% crude protein and 1.78% carbohydrate). 0882 Preliminary studies on seed germination and viability of Salix alba and S. elegans. Arya, SR; Bha-

gat, S; Virendra Singh. Van Vigyan. 1988, 26: 3-4, 8590; 7 ref. Catkins of the 2 species were collected in June/July 1987 from mixed poplar [Populus] and Salix plantations near Simla, Himachal Pradesh. The catkins were dried inside in the shade. Capsules opened in 3-4 days and the seeds were then extracted and dried for 24 h before germination testing; data are given for germination percentage and germination value under various conditions. Seeds with and without fluff removed were placed on a moist layer of filter paper in a petri dish and kept at room temperature. For S. alba, germination with fluff present was higher than without it (88.25 vs. 81.75%), while the figures obtained for S. elegans were similar (96.75 and 96.50% respectively). Germination of defluffed seeds was tested on 6 different surfaces/media in petri dishes at room temperature: single or double layers of filter paper; cotton layers spread below single or double layers of filter paper; and sand or soil surface. No differences between the media were found for S. elegans, but for S. alba there were significant differences, with germination being best on the sand surface (88.75%) and on the cotton layer below a single layer of filter paper (85.75%), and poorest on the soil surface (79.00%). Germination was also tested at different sowing depths. Defluffed seeds were sown in sand in petri dishes at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm depth. For both species germination was significantly better on the surface, with germination percentage decreasing progressively with increasing sowing depth. The effect of storing the seeds in closed bottles for up to 71 days was tested. The viability of both species decreased rapidly, with germination percentage falling to zero in 4 weeks for S. elegans and in 10 weeks for S. alba. 0883 Preservation of germinability and enhancement of longevity in papaya seeds through controlled atmosphere storage. Doijode, SD. Acta Horticulturae. 1992, No. 296, 123-127. Seeds of the pawpaw cultivar Coorg Honey Dew were packed in paper/foil/polyethylene laminated bags under partial vacuum or with N2 or CO2, or in paper bags (control). They were stored for up to 3 years at ambient temperatures (16-35oC), 5o or 15o. Seeds were germinated at 20o for 16 h alternating with 30o for 8 h, and seedling length and DW were recorded 4 weeks after sowing. Germination capacity after 3 years was highest (40%) for seeds stored in N2 at 5 or 15o; no seeds stored under ambient conditions germinated after 2 years. Increasing storage temperature reduced the % germination and N2 storage was more effective than CO2 or vacuum storage. Seedling vigour decreased with increasing storage duration, it was highest after 3 years for seeds stored in N2 at 5o. 0884 Preservation of viability of brinjal seeds in storage [eggplant, India] Vidhyasekaran, P; Thulasidas, G; Kandaswamy, TK. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Jun 1980). v. 33(2) p. 259-261.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0885 Principles and methods of establishing seed quality standards. Albert, WD. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Seeds Div.; USAID, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) Diversified Agricultural Research Project. Proceedings of the Sri Lanka Seed Workshop. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka), 26 Jan 6 Feb 1987. p. 243-246. 0886 Procedures and problems in seed quality testing. Ariyaratne, KAD. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Seeds Div.; USAID, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Diversified Agricultural Research Project. Proceedings of the Sri Lanka Seed Workshop. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka), 26 Jan - 6 Feb 1987. p. 247-255. 0887 Processing effects on protein quality of different legume seeds. Manzoor, Ullah. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research (Pakistan). (Oct-Dec 1982). v. 3(4) p. 252-258. 0888 Production and maintenance of quality breeder's seed of pigeon pea. Gupta, SC; Ariyanayagam, RP; Saxena, KB. Seeds and Farms. 1991, 17: 5-6, 19-22; 15 ref. The causes of varietal deterioration and procedures for production and maintenance of quality breeder's seed of pigeon pea cultivars are discussed. 0889 Production constraints in rabi pulses and quality seed production techniques of gram (chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.). Punia, RC; Dahiya, BS; Deswal, DP. Seeds and Farms. 1991, 17: 11-12, 3-5. Production of good quality chickpea seeds is discussed under the headings: land and isolation requirements, cultural practices, roguing, harvesting, processing, bagging, tagging, storage, and seed certification. Field standards for off-types and seed testing standards for foundation and certified seeds are tabulated. 0890 Production of high quality seed for important crops in Bangladesh. Ahmed, QA; Ahmed, N. Seed Science and Technology (Netherlands). (1983). v. 11(3a) p. 1079-1086. 0891 Production of phosphatases and esterases in germinating mung seeds under pathogenesis [Vigna radiata Wilczk]. Note. Charya, MAS; Reddy, SM. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Dec 1981). v. 34(4) p. 514-515. 0892 Production of quality seed in cotton. Meena, RA; Tuteja, OP. Indian Farming. 1994, 44: 2, 26-27. Although seed produced by the plant breeder is genetically pure, deterioration in seed quality can occur during seed multiplication. Factors responsible for dete-

rioration such as environmental variation, mechanical mixture, mutation, natural pollination and disease are discussed together with the appropriate precautions necessary to maintain seed quality. The important commercial cotton hybrids, their parents and seed- cotton yields and the states for which they are recommended are tabulated. Methods of hybridization and the precautions for hybrid seed production are outlined. 0893 Productivity and viability of farmers managed seed centres: A case study of districts Swat and Buner [Pakistan] Khan, MN; Shah, M; Khan, N. Journal of Rural Development and Administration (Pakistan). Apr-Jun 1992. v. 24(2) p. 66-72. 0894 Progeny testing for seed quality parameters in Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del. Kaushik, R; Kumar, R; Bangarwa, KS. Legume Research. 1995, 18: 3-4, 170-172; 3 ref. Seed pods from 5 randomly selected Acacia nilotica trees were collected from each of 6 ecologically different sites of Haryana, and were screened to identify fast growing material. Seed germination, seed viability based on the tetrazolium test and vigour index varied significantly among progenies from the same provenance, as well as among progenies of different provenances. Progenies with superior characters are identified. 0895 Progeny testing for seed quality parameters in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Bangarwa, KS; Singh, VP; Tomer, RPS. Seed Science and Technology. 1995, 23: 1, 253-257; 3 ref. Forty-three trees of Dalbergia sissoo were selected from natural populations in the Indian states Uttar Pradesh, Indian Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Bihar on the basis of desirable traits for agro forestry plantation, and seeds were collected for evaluation. Standard germination and tetrazolium tests showed viability above 80% for all the progenies except PT138 from Ranchi. There were significant differences in germination between the progenies of different locations, whereas progenies from the same location showed no significant differences. Nursery germination and establishment can be predicted on the basis of laboratory germination and the tetrazolium test. Significant differences between progenies were observed for germination after accelerated ageing. Vigour index and germination after accelerated ageing were positively associated. Vigour index measured when seeds were selected was significantly higher than when seeds were randomly taken. 0896 Prolongation of seed viability of Oryza sativa L. cultivar Ratna by dikegulac-sodium. Bhattacharjee, A; Bhattacharyya, RN. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland): Proceedings of the International Seed Test Association. (1989). v. 17(2) p. 309-316.

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0897 Protein content in a measure of seed quality in rape seed (Brassica campestris L.) Wahhab, MA; Bechyne, M. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture (Bangladesh). (Sep 1981). v. 6(2-3) p. 39-43. The experiment was conducted in the glass house with 5 rapeseed cultivars: T7, T84, T95 and T180 following the diallel method of crossing. Protein content of the oil-free seed was found to be influenced by seed size and position of seeds on branches. The content was highest in the seeds of the apical branch and was lowest in the seeds of basal branch in almost all populations. The seeds 2mm contained more protein. The variability of protein content was more, with some exception, in the seeds of basal branches in both 2mm and 2mm seedsize groups while it was less in the seeds of central branches of 2mm seeds seed-size. Branches and crosses had significant effect on protein content. 0898 Provenance effect on seed quality and storability of Indian mustard in Uttar Pradesh. Verma, OP; Ram, Bhajan; Kushwaha, GD; Bhajan, R. Cruciferae Newsletter. 1999, No. 21, 27-28. Seed samples of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea] cv. NDR 8501 were collected from different seed producing areas in Uttar Pradesh in rabi [winter] 1995/96. Seeds were graded and stored in cloth bags in ambient conditions until germination dropped below certification standards (85%). Percentage seed recovery, germination, vigour and storage potential (18 months) were greatest in seeds harvested at Faizabad, followed by seeds from Mirzapur. Seeds from Maharajganj and Gazipur failed to meet certification standards. 0899 Provenance effect on seed quality of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Karnataka. Swamy, SN; Shambulingappa, KG. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 1994, 11: 2, 204-209; 10 ref. Twenty seed samples from 2 groundnut cultivars collected in 6 districts of southern Karnataka, viz., Bangalore, Chikkamagalur, Hassan, Kolar, Shimoga and Tumkur, during kharif 1988 were compared for seed quality. There were significant differences between districts for number of kernels per pod, shelling percentage, oil content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate, test weight and germination. Variation in vigour index was non-significant. Number of plants with 3 kernels per pod varied between locations from 3.07 to 11.60% for JL24, shelling varied from 68.20 to 72.73% for TMV2, oil content ranged from 40.41 to 47.43% and test weight ranged from 25.73 to 34.90 g and 38.20 to 46.50 g for TMV2 and JL24, respectively. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium spp. and Mucor spp. were the most commonly found fungi, causing considerable reduction in germination. Provenances with minimum fungal association could be selected for seed multiplication purposes. 0900 Qualitative and quantitative changes in the seed and oil content of Brassica juncea mutants at

different times of harvesting. Ahuja, KL; Badwal, SS; Labana, KS. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. (1981). v. 31(1) p. 61-66. With increasing maturity, the moisture percentage, 'a', 'b', and total chlorophyll and crude fibre content decreased progressively, whereas oil and protein content increased. However, 1000-grain weight and pod yield increased up to stage II. Some significant correlations observed in green pod stage I were absent in the pale yellow stage II and golden yellow stage III of maturity. The positive significant correlations between 1000-grain weight and seed yield existed in both stages I and II, but there was no correlation between these characters at the golden yellow stage III. Thus mustard can be harvested at the pale yellow pod stage without any adverse effect on seed quality and yield. 0901 Qualitative and quantitative estimation of seed mycoflora of some spices. Priya Rani; Ashok Aggarwal; Seema. Advances in Plant Sciences. 1995, 8: 2, 401-403; 11 ref. The seedborne fungi of 5 spices (Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Coriandrum sativum, Indian mustard and Piper nigrum) were investigated in Haryana, India. A total of 17 fungi of 13 genera were isolated. Species of Alternaria, Curvularia, Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Mucor were most common. Results are tabulated. 0902 Qualitative and quantitative estimation on indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the seeds of Shorea robusta. Bhattacharya, A; Das, B; Saha, PK. Journal of Tropical Forest Science (Malaysia). (Jul 1999). v. 11(3) p. 528-536. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of indole3-acetic acid (IAA) in the seeds of Shorea robusta. In India, Shorea robusta (Family:Dipterocarpaceae) is widely distributed forming extensive forests. This economically important tree could not be exploited by foresters due to the short viability period of the seeds. Among the several factors responsible for early induction of non-viability, indole acetic acid (IAA) is one which varied both qualitatively and quantitatively in the seeds at different stages of maturation. It was observed that the amount of IAA in the seeds decreased with maturity. In immature seeds, the content of free and bound IAA were 0.00750 miu gram per gram and 0.00146 miu gram per gram of dry seeds respectively. In mature viable seeds both free and bound IAA levels declined to 0.00132 miu gram per gram and 0.00063 miu gram per gram of seed respectively. The non-viable seeds showed bound IAA of 0.0012 miu gram per gram of seed but no free IAA. In the wheat coleoptile extension bioassay, considerable growth promoting activity was observed in the case of free IAA but no significant activity was recorded in the case of bound IAA. 0903 Qualitative and quantitative factors affecting seed cotton yield in Punjab [Pakistan]. Chaudhry,

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MA; Sharif, M; Khan, TR. Journal of Agricultural Research (Pakistan). (Sep 1989). v. 27(3) p. 247-259. 0904 Qualitative changes in maturing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. Samui, RC; Bhattacharyya, P; Dasgupta, SK; Samanta, SK. Science and Culture (India). (Nov 1980). v. 46(11) p. 404-405. 0905 Qualitative determination of glucosinolate in cruciferae seeds. Liaquat, M; Khan, AH; Ahmad, I; Javidullah; Wahab, S. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan). (Dec 1994). v. 10(6) p. 629-631. 0906 Quality and seed yield of garden pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars as influenced by date of planting and phosphorus levels. Sinha, BN; Mehta, BS; Joydip, Mandal; Mandal, J. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2000, 70: 4, 248-249. In a field experiment in rabi 1997/98 at NauniSolan, Himachal Pradesh, India, peas cv. Arkel and Azad Pea 1 were sown on 1, 15 or 30 November and given 45, 60 or 75 kg P/ha. Seed yield and yield component values decreased with delay in sowing and were greater with Azad Pea 1 than Arkel. Seed yield increased with increasing P rate, but effects on yield components were not consistent. 0907 Quality attributes of seed produced on different tillers of IR50. Selvaraj, JA; Subramanian, P. International Rice Research Newsletter (Philippines). (Jun 1989). v. 14(3) p. 12. A bulk seed crop of IR50 was raised during 1987 dry season (rabi). At the boat leaf stage, 20 plants were marked at random. As panicles emerged, they were numbered sequentially. At harvest, panicles were measured individually for panicle length, number of filled spikelets/tillers, seed weight/tiller, 1,000-grain weight, and germination and vigor before and after eight days accelerated aging. The vigor index is derived from length of seedling x germination percentage. Tillers that headed early had higher values for seed quality attributes. The superior germination and vigor of large, early flowering tiller was evident in the accelerated aging test. It is suggested that only large, early flowering tillers/panicles be used for breeder seed increase. 0908 Quality checks of vegetable seeds. Rekhi, SS. Department of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. Compendium of technical lectures on vegetable seed production, 1981-1984. Feb 1984. p. 17-21. 0909 Quality control: emphasing steps to ensure genetic and seed lot purity. Ahmad, SI. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Cooperatives, Lahore (Pakistan). Federal Seed Certification Dept. Proceedings of the FAO/DANIDA Seminar on Design and Implementation of Seed Programmes. Islamabad (Pakistan), 3-7 Mar 1985. 1988. p. 143-155.

0910 Quality control in seed potato program of Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation. Hussain, MM. Bangladesh - Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 111-120. The standard fixed for various categories of seed potatoes and the steps that are taken for ensuring the minimum required quality in seed potato are discussed. Problems faced at different stages of production, storage and distribution of seeds are indicated. The necessity of improving the quality of seeds has also been emphasised. 0911 Quality control standards for cereals vegetables and other important agricultural corps. Rana, DS; Raut, RK. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmadu (Nepal) Proceedings of the National Workshop on Seed 24-25 November 1997. Quality Control. FAO/TCP/NEP/166. Quality of seed is judged by its high genetic purity, higher vigour and germination, high analytical (physical) purity, freedom from seed borne diseases and higher yielding ability. It is also a known fact that investment on fertilizers, water, plant protection chemicals and other inputs does not yield economical returns, without use of quality seed. For centuries farmers used their own seeds by selecting and saving part of their harvest. These practices of saving seeds of traditional and/or improved varieties are still followed by most farmers in Nepal. Due to limitations of a well-organized quality control system in Nepal, progress of quality seed production has been slow. In vegetable crops there was ups and downs in seed production due to lack of quality seed production affecting the domestic and export market. Awareness regarding seed quality is increasing among seed entrepreneurs, seed growers and farmers. Also planning and policy making authorities in the country are convinced about the importance of an efficient seed quality control system in developing a viable seed production and distribution programme. "Nepal Seed Act" was enacted in 1988 and National Seed Board (NSB) has been constituted to implement Seed Act and advise HMG/N on all matters concerning the development of a viable seed industry. Seed bylaws have recently been approved by the government and they will help to enforce the seed act to control seed quality. Seed quality control systems in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka have been reviewed. 0912 Quality control system in vegetable seed crops: experience of Pakhribas Agricultural Centre. Khanal, R; Bhattarai, MR; Basnet, SR; Neupane, PR. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre. PAC Technical Paper. 1992, No. 149, 16 pp. This paper was presented at the 'Sustainable Vegetable Seed Production and Marketing Workshop'

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

held on 9-11 Jan. 1991 at Lumle Regional Agricultural Research Centre, Nepal. It describes the seed quality control system which has been developed since 1981 by PAC in collaboration with the Central Seed Science and Technology Division of the Government of Nepal. 0913 Quality control system relevant for seed potato production in developing countries. Beukema, HP. Bangladesh - Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 121-125. Different aspects of seed quality and quality control procedures in relation to the production of seed potatoes have been discussed. The quality control measures and regulations as applied now in Bangladesh have been considered. 0914 The quality of Dalbergia sissoo seeds as affected by seed coat colour. Manish, Mishra; Mishra, M. Vaniki Sandesh. 1991, 15: 4, 13-15; 6 ref. Blackish brown seeds gave better germination than brick brown and black seeds. 0915 Quality of paddy seeds used by farmers in Bhadra command area. Prasad, SR; Jagadish, GV; Aswathaiah, B; Reddy, TNV. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1991, 20: 2, 22-23 A survey conducted to determine the quality of rice seeds used by farmers in the Bhadra command area, Karnataka, showed that 56% of the samples met minimum certification standards for physical purity, 59% for inert matter, 98% for other crop seeds, 84% for weed seeds and 100% (all the samples) for standard germination percentage. 0916 Quality of seed as influenced by seed development and maturation in cotton. Singh, AR; Deshpande, SB; Deshpande, LA. Seed Research. 1988, 16: 2, 131-135; 8 ref. A study was undertaken with 4 cultivars of 2 Gossypium spp. and 7 developmental stages during the 1985 kharif [monsoon] and winter seasons. Observations on seed viability, germination and seedling vigour components were recorded during seed developmental stages. The study indicated that days to maturity had a significant impact on seed viability and vigour. Seeds harvested between 55 and 60 d after anthesis exhibited max. values for seed viability, germination and seedling growth in terms of root and shoot lengths, FW, DW and vigour index. The numbers of abnormal seedlings and decayed seeds at this stage were low. The G. hirsutum cv. SRT-1 and Purnima were superior to G. arboreum cv. Rohini and Eknath. 0917 Quality of seeds as influenced by their position in the panicle in rice cv. ADT 36. Krishnasamy, V;

Chetty, NK. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1989, 76: 6, 350-351; 5 ref. 500 panicles were collected randomly from rice cv. ADT 36 grown in field trials at Coimbatore. Seeds were manually separated into those from the lowest, 2nd, 3rd and 4th (uppermost) quarter of the panicle, dried in the shade to 11% moisture content and germinated at 25-27oC and 95% RH. Percentage germination differed significantly with panicle position and was 92, 87, 83 and 87% for seeds from the lowest, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarters of the panicle, resp.; corresponding values after accelerating aging (40o, 95% RH) were 64, 61, 63 and 62%. Shoot length was greatest with seeds from the lowest quarter. Root length was significantly lower with seeds from the 2nd quarter than for all other seeds. Protein content ranged from 11.2% in seeds from the 3rd quarter to 11.8% in seeds from the lowest quarter of the panicle. 0918 Quality oil and meal from neem seed (Azadirachta indica) Lehri, A; Gupta, R; Pathak, JP; Vasishtha, AK. Journal of the Oil Technologists' Association of India. 1987, 19: 4, 94-98; 17 ref. Conventional refining and bleaching were not very effective in upgrading the quality of neem oil. Solvent refining of crude neem oil with aqueous ethanol, carried out in the laboratory, also did not give good results. Extraction of neem seed with aqueous ethanol (rectified spirit:water, 85:15) followed by subsequent extraction with hexane gave oil almost free from lipid associates (bitters), odoriferous principles, colouring matter and free fatty acids. The deoiled meal was also almost free from bitters and odour. 0919 Quality seed production. Raja, MB; Jan, N; Naeem, M. Pakistan Agriculture (Pakistan). 1985. v. 7(9) p. 50-52. 0920 Quality seed production and tree improvement in India. Singhal, RM; Khanna, P. Forest Research Inst., Dehradun (India). Social Forestry Div.; GTZForestry Seed Centre Muguga. Seed procurement and legal regulations for forest reproductive material in tropical and subtropical countries: Proceedings of an International Symposium. 4-10 October 1992, Nairobi (Kenya). 1993. p. 141-146. 0921 Quality seed production at Pantnagar, India. Agarwal, VK. Seed Science and Technology (Netherlands). (1983). v. 11(3a) p. 1071-1078. 0922 Quality seed production of brinjal - a perspective planning for the growers. Kanwar, JS; Chadha, ML; Sidhu, AS. Seeds and Farms. 1991, 17: 9-10, 1215. A brief description is given of the 9 long- and 3 round-fruit Solanum melongena cultivars identified and approved by the All India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Project, together with a further 5 cultivars

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recommended by various agricultural universities. Agronomic practices are described along with crop protection measures necessary to avoid infestation by a variety of pests and diseases. Roguing should be carried out before flowering, at fruiting and at fruit maturity to remove undesirable plants. Recommended isolation distances are given for producing seed stock from this self pollinating species. Manual and mechanical methods of seed collection are described. The average yield ranges from 250 to 500 kg/ha, depending upon the cultivar. 0923 Quality seed production technique of tomato. Kanwar, JS. Seeds and Farms. 1989, 15: 6, 20-23. Tomato cultivars recommended for cultivation for seed production in various regions of India are described. Cultivation techniques, insect pests and diseases, and harvesting procedures are discussed. Details are given of 3 methods of seed extraction: juice extraction, fermentation, and acid treatment. 0924 Quality-seed production through effective and viable farmer's associations. Asif, M; Rasheed, M; Aslam, M; Bhutta, WA. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan). (Oct 1999). v. 2(4) p. 1626-1628. A study was conducted for quality seed production for cotton wheat and barley by organizing effective and viable farmer's association. Purity of the seed produced by these groups was 1 per cent higher than certified and 2-10 per cent higher than basic seed standards fixed by Federal Seed Certification Department. Farmer's of these associations were able to increase their income by 41 per cent through increased the yield about 0.21 t ha-1 or 16 per cent in case of cotton and 0.85 t ha1, (7 to 24%) in case of wheat and barley. 0925 Quality status of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) seeds at farmers level. Vig, AP; Sharma, R; Chauhan, US. Seed Research. 2001, 29: 2, 240-242; 7 ref. The quality of 15 rice seed samples collected from farmers in Gurdaspur, Punjab, India, was evaluated. Three samples (local cultivar and PR 8) were of low physical purity (93-95%) as the samples did not meet the minimum requirement of pure seed fraction (98%). Two samples had inert matter (including broken seeds, empty glumes, sand, stone, chaft, stones and leaves) more than the certification limit (2.0%). The moisture content of the 15 samples ranged from 8.5 to 10.7%, which was within the prescribed limit. The germination percentage was 78-99%. Two samples showed a germination percentage below the prescribed standard (80%), i.e. PR 8 (79%) and PR 111 (78%). Two samples (Padma and local cultivars) had Tilletia barclayana infection (0.55-0.60) that exceeded the prescribed limit (0.50%). 0926 Radiography technique for testing the quality of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F.) seeds. Dharmalingam, C; Masilamani, P. Bangladesh Journal of Forest Science. 1997, 26: 2, 51-55.

Seed germination remains is a problem in teak. Radiography studies of seeds were made using drupes from India (Tamil Nadu) and Thailand, and disclosed certain important features. Teak drupes from the 2 provenances differed in size and weight both within and between seedlots. Radiographs showed the occurrence of 4, 3, 2 and 1 seeds in the tetracarpellary ovary in the frequency of 1, 5, 19 and 48%, respectively, with 27% empty drupes. When drupe size decreased the percentage of single-seeded and empty drupes increased correspondingly. 0927 Rapid viability test rice seeds with tetrazolium salt. Short communication. Umamaheswar, BC; Mahadevappa, M. Oryza (India). Dec 1983. v. 20(4) p. 256-257. 0928 Rapid viability tests for fresh and stored seeds of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, King.) Abdul Kader, S; Seethalakshmi, KK; Chacko, KC. Kerala Forest Research Inst., Peechi-680 653, Thrissur Kerala (India) IUFRO Joint Symposium on Tree Seed Technology, Physiology and Tropical Silviculture. 30 Apr - 3 May 2001. 225p. 0929 Recent developments designed to improve the flow of good quality seed to the farmer. Kelly, AF. FAO, Rome (Italy) FAO/DANIDA Seminar on Design and Implementation of Seed Programmes. Islamabad (Pakistan), 3-7 Mar 1985. 1988. p. 3-17. 0930 Relationship between maturity and seed quality in tomato. Chaudhari, RV; Meshram, LD; Zade, VR; Kukade, BK. Agricultural Science Digest (India). (Mar 1992). v. 12(1) p. 38-40. 0931 Relationship between soybean seed quality and performance in soil. Madhusudanan, K; Padmakumar, N. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland). (1990). v. 18(1) p. 75-82. 0932 Relative effectivity of bruchids (Callosobruchus sp.) infestation on seed quality of chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.) during storage. Charjan, SKU; Tarar, JL. Annals of Plant Physiology. 1994, 8: 1, 6365; 11 ref. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of bruchid (Callosobruchus sp.) infestation on 100-seed weight, viability, vigour and incidence of fungal flora of chickpeas in 1992. Infested chickpea seeds collected from 1-year-old crop seeds from Nagpur, Maharashtra, were placed in 5 categories (with 1, 2 or many holes, with a hole near the micropyle and normal seeds). The 100-seed weight, viability and vigour were significantly greater in the normal seeds, closely followed by seeds with 1 hole, 2 holes, the hole near the micropyle and multi-holed seeds. The maximum percentage incidence of fungal flora was found on multi- holed seeds compared with other damaged and normal seeds.

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0933 Relative influence of different storage container on germinability of sunflower seeds stored under ambient conditions. Sku, C; Tarar, JL. New Agriculturist. 1991, 1: 2, 129-132; 13 ref. Sunflower cv. Morden and Surya seeds (7% moisture content) were stored in cloth, jute or polyethylene bags for up to 12 months under ambient conditions in the warm and moderately humid tropics. Initial percentage germination was 84% in Morden and 76% in Surya. Percentage germination was maintained in all storage conditions for 3 months, and had not decreased after 6 months storage in polyethylene bags. After 12 months, percentage germination was highest (75% in Morden and 61% in Surya), and moisture content lowest, in seeds stored in polyethylene bags. 0934 Relevant post-harvest practices for maintaining fibre and seed quality in cotton. Sundaram, V. Cotton Development (India). (Apr 1984). v. 14(1) p. 711. 0935 Response of nitrogen and spacing on plant growth, seed yield and quality of spinach seed. Sharma, SK. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1994, 15: 4, 462-464; 3 ref. The effects of N (24, 75, 125 or 175 kg/ha) and spacing (20\multiply\7.5, 30 X 7.5 or 40 X 7.5 cm) were investigated on the growth and yield of seeds of Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis cv. Banerjee Giant, grown during 1990-91 and 1991-92 in Himachal Pradesh. The highest seed yield (2.01 t/ha) was observed in treatments receiving N at 175 kg/ha and spaced at 40 X 7.5 cm. There was a significant interaction between these 2 treatments. 0936 Response of nitrogen and spacing on yield and quality of seed of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) during kharif. Singh, V. Advances in Plant Sciences (India). 1999, 12: 1, 199-202. A field experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive years at Faizabad. Seed yields were higher from cv. Parbhani Kranti than from cv. Pusa Sawani. Seed yield increased with increasing N fertilizer rate to reach a maximum at 120 kg N/ha. Seed quality characteristics were not affected significantly. Seed yields were higher at the closer spacing. 0937 Response of soybean to dates of sowing and seed rates on yield and quality. Jasani, KP; Patel, MP; Patel, HS. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal. 1994, 19: 2, 108-110; 3 ref. Soyabean seeds inoculated with Rhizobium japonicum [Bradyrhizobium japonicum] were sown in a clay soil in 1989/90 on 23 June, 8 July, 23 July or 7 Aug. at sowing rates of 40, 50, 60 or 70 kg/ha. Number of pods per plant and test weight decreased with delay in sowing. Seed yield was greatest at the early sowing dates with high sowing rates. Seed protein content was

highest from the early sowings. Maximum seed protein content (40.16%) was obtained with the lowest sowing rate but the highest total protein yield came from higher sowing rates. Delay in sowing reduced seed oil content and yield. Sowing on June 23 at a rate of 60 kg seed/ha provided the optimum conditions for seed, protein and oil yields. 0938 Response of triacontanol application on certain morphological characters, fruit and seed yield and quality of tomato seed. Sharma, SK. Annals of Agricultural Research. 1995, 16: 1, 128-130 Triacontanol (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 p.p.m., as Miraculan) was applied as a spray to tomato cv. Solan Gola plants 4, 8 or 12 weeks after transplanting. Triacontanol application increased the height of plants, the number of branches/plant, the number of fruits/plant, the yields of fruits and seeds, the 1000-seed weight, and the percentage germination values of seeds, compared with untreated plants. It was concluded that triacontanol treatment (7.5 p.p.m.), 4 weeks after transplanting, was the most effective in enhancing fruit and seed yields/ha and improving tomato seed quality. 0939 Results of post-control tests on seed quality, 1991-92. Paudyal, B; Bhattarai, MR. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta, c/o BAPSO, PO Box 106, Kathmandu, Nepal. PAC Working Paper. 1993, No. 75, 11 pp.; 3 ref. During 1991-92, post control tests were undertaken for several crops (including wheat, radish, peas, cauliflower, lentils, broccoli, turnips, maize, rice, soyabeans and finger millet) to provide a check on the seed certification scheme (seed crop inspection and laboratory test). Observations and recommendations for each crop are outlined. Appendices contain details of postcontrol results for wheat, radish, maize and rice including, percentages for off type and seed borne disease. 0940 Role of maturation environment on soybean seed quality. Khare, D; Srivastava, AN; Rajesh, Mishra. Seed Research. 1998, 26: 1, 87-88. In a field study in Madhya Pradesh, 4 soyabean cultivars were grown during the kharif [monsoon] and rabi [winter] seasons of 1995/96. Seeds from the rabi crop had a higher proportion of non- viable seeds (green and/or shrivelled) than the kharif crop. 0941 Scheduling irrigation for seed yield and quality in soybean. Ramamoorthy, K; Radha, NS. Annals of Plant Physiology. 1995, 9: 1, 75-76; 5 ref. In a field experiment in 1991-92 at Killikulam, Tamil Nadu, soyabeans cv. Co.1 seed yield and seed quality (in terms of seed germination and seedling growth) were not significantly affected by withdrawing irrigation over a period of 14 d during early vegetative, late vegetative, early flowering, late flowering, pod filling or maturity stages.

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0942 Screening the best seed source for obtaining high quality seed and seedlings of Acacia nilotica (I.) Willd. subsp. indica Benth. Venkatesh, A Vanangamudi, K; Umarani, R. Central Agricultural Research Inst., A&N Islands (India) IUFRO Joint Symposium on Tree Seed Technology, Physiology and Tropical Silviculture. 2001. 225 p. The best seed source to procure good quality seeds of Acacia nilotica ssp. indica was studied. The seeds were collected from plus trees located in four seed zones viz., Vellore, Tirupattur, Tiruvanamalai (North eastern zone), Salem, Dharmapuri (North western zone), Erode, Coimbatore, Aliyar (Western zone), Virudhunagar, Kovipatty, Madurai, Paramakudi, Cumbum, Periyakulam (Southern zone) [India] were used in this investigation. The evaluation of seed source for high quality seed production indicated that physical characteristics of seeds viz., seed thickness and hundred seed weight was more in Coimbatore (Western zone), while they were less in Vellore (Northeastern zone) and Kovilpatty (Southern zone), respectively. Kovilpatty (Southern zone) for seed length and Virudhunagar (Southern zone) for seed width which showed higher values. Seed length were minimum in Salem (North western zone) and Periyakulam (Southern zone) seed source, respectively. The insect (Bruchus sparimalatus) damage were less in Paramakudi and more in Virudhunagar of Southern zones. Considering the growth attributes of seedlings viz., shoot length, root length, shoot collar diameter, root volume, number of branches and dry weight, the same seed sources performed better over the rest of the sources. The performance of out planted seedlings in the field 16 months after planting showed the superior performance of seedlings from Tirupattur (North eastern zone) in terms of seedling survival percentage and other growth parameters. The performance of seedlings from Salem (North western zone) seed source in the field was poor. 0943 Seasonal effect on hard seed development and seed quality of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). Deswal, DP; Sharma, S; Dahiya, BN. Crop Research Hisar (India). 1996, 12: 2, 200-206; 4 ref. In field trials at Hisar, Haryana, the seed quality of 60 V. radiata genotypes was compared when grown in the summer or kharif [monsoon] seasons. In kharif the average percentage of hard seeds was 20.7% (range 0.7-88%), whereas in summer the average was 12.8% (range 0-40%). Seed quality in terms of seed germination, vigour and field emergence were higher in seeds grown in summer than kharif. 0944 Seed agronomy of jute. I. Production and quality of Corchorus olitorius seed as influenced by seed size used at planting. Bhattacharjee, AK; Mittra, BN; Mitra, PC. Seed Science and Technology. 2000, 28: 1, 129-139. The study investigated the impact of variation in seed size at planting on the production of jute seed and

its quality. Field experiments with five treatments of seed sizes viz. large (>1.201 mm), medium (1.201-1.000 mm), small (1.000-0.954 mm), very small (<0.954 mm) and ungraded were studied in a randomized block design during May-November, 1994 and 1995, at Barrackpore, West Bengal. Harvesting was done at full maturity of pods. Seed quality components of the graded produce were assessed in the laboratory and greenhouse using completely randomized designs. The results suggest that increase in the size of seed at planting was beneficial in terms of plant growth and components of seed yield and its quality (production of large and medium seeds, emergence, emergence rate index, seed weight, seedling dry matter and seedling vigour index of the graded produce). In general, large and medium sized seeds excelled over ungraded, small and very small seeds. The difference between large and medium seeds was, however, not apparent. The superiority of large and medium seeds over others in terms of plant growth, seed production and quality may be attributed to increased seed weight with high initial capital of food reserves causing greater absolute growth rate of seedlings and plants. 0945 Seed agronomy of jute. II. Production and quality of Corchorus olitorius seed as influenced by nutrient management. Bhattacharjee, AK; Mittra, BN; Mitra, PC. Seed Science and Technology. 2000, 28: 1, 141-154. Jute seed crops at Barrackpore, West Bengal, were grown in a sandy loam soil during MayNovember, 1994 and 1995 using a randomized block design with three replications. The fertilizer treatments were N10P10K10, N20P20K20, N40P40K40 and N60P60K60 kg/ha]. The modes of N application were (1) 50% N as basal and the remaining 50% at 30 days after sowing (DAS) (2-split-normal), (2) 50% N at 25 DAS and 50% N during topping at 45 DAS (2-splitmodified) and (3) 50%, 25% and 25% N at 25, 45 and 65 DAS respectively (3-split). Harvesting was done at full maturity of pods and seed quality (viability and vigour) was assessed. The study suggests that gradual increase in the level of NPK fertilization increased growth, seed yield and its vigour. Applying N in 3 splits gave the best results in terms of pod number, pod weight, seed yield per plot, plant nutrient content and proportion of larger seeds produced. Interaction between nutrient level and mode of N application also revealed beneficial effects on these aspects (except nutrient content) with 3-split N application at the highest nutrient level. 0946 Seed and oil quality characteristics of some niger genotypes. Dasthagiriah, P; Nagaraj, G. Journal of the Oil Technologists' Association of India. 1993, 25: 2, 42-44; 9 ref. A field trial during the kharif [monsoon] season of 1990/91 near Visakhpatnam, Andhra Pradesh, evaluated seed yield and composition of 14 niger [Guizotia

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abyssinica] cultivars. The seed oil content was in the range 36.6- 38.0%; protein, 21.0-30.1%; oil yield, 60433 kg/ha; protein yield, 38-260 kg/ha; linoleic acid content of oil, 71.3-77.8%; and nutritional quality index, 4.5- 5.3. 0947 Seed and oil quality of safflower genotypes. Nagaraj, G. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 1994, 11: 2, 242-244; 13 ref. The seeds of 24 safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) genotypes grown during rabi 1991-92 at Sholapur were analysed for oil, protein and fatty acid composition. The oil content of these genotypes varied from 25.1 to 34.1%, while protein content varied from 8.6 to 16.2%. The major fatty acid was linoleic acid (72- 80%) followed by oleic acid (11-19%). Palmitic and stearic acids were also present. In general safflower genotypes had low oil stability values (0.14-0.25) and high nutritional quality indices (7.7-10.3). BLY652, HUS305, 86-9320A, NIRA, JSFI, CTV196, CTV102 and CTV107 had high oil (more than 30%) and linoleic acid levels (more than 75%). 0948 Seed borne mycoflora of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) and their effect on seed germination under different storage conditions. Ushamalini, C; Rajappan, K; Kousalya, Gangadharan; Gangadharan, K. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica. 1998, 33: 3-4, p. 285-290. A study was carried out to investigate the seedborne mycoflora of cowpeas collected from 8 districts of Tamil Nadu, India. The fungi identified were Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum, Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata [Cochliobolus lunatus], Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus stolonifer. M. phaseolina was most the commonly isolated fungus (31.9%) and Rhizopus stolonifer was the least commonly isolated (0.33%). M. phaseolina caused the maximum reduction in germination of cowpea seeds when stored at 100% relative humidity, followed by F. o. f.sp. tracheiphilum, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. As the relative humidity and storage time increased, the reduction in seed germination also increased. Germination of cowpea seeds inoculated with Aspergillus niger was less affected when stored at 10oC compared with seeds inoculated with Aspergillus flavus, F. o. f.sp. tracheiphilum and M. phaseolina. A negative correlation was observed between germination percentage and increasing storage temperature. 0949 Seed certification and quality control. Ahmad, MS. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Seed Certification Agency, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the national seed technology Workshop - 1985. Dhaka (Bangladesh), 1987. p. 90-97. 0950 Seed certification and quality control from the view point of the agricultural extension. Kibria,

AKMA. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Seed Certification Agency, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the national seed technology Workshop - 1985. Dhaka (Bangladesh), 1987. p. 98100. 0951 Seed certification and quality control in India. Agrawal, PK; Tunwar, NS. Plant Varieties and Seeds. 1990, 3: 3, 165-171; 7 ref. In India up to Dec. 1989, 1703 crop cultivars have been notified. Most of these have been evolved by public plant breeding programmes. During the last 10 years private plant breeding has been active and 122 crop cultivars have been evolved by this sector. Systematic seed certification began in the early 1960s, long before the passage of the Seeds Act (1966). Nineteen seed certification agencies and 62 seed testing laboratories are engaged in seed certification and quality control in India. New technologies are being introduced into these processes. 0952 Seed certification, quality control and extension: general. Quddus, MA. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Seed Certification Agency, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the national seed technology Workshop - 1985. Dhaka (Bangladesh), 1987. p. 86-89. 0953 Seed development and maturation in relation to seed quality of gram genotypes. Gontia, AS. New Agriculturist. 1992, 3: 2, 153-159; 11 ref. Five genotypes of black gram (Vigna mungo), grown in the field during 1989-90, were evaluated for percentage seed viability, moisture and dry weight, and plant dry weight at weekly intervals from 21 to 49 days after anthesis (DAA) to determine the stage at which physiological seed maturity was attained. Seeds collected at the same stages of development were stored for 6 months under ambient conditions and evaluated for percentage germination, moisture content, and seedling dry weight and length at monthly intervals. All the genotypes reached physiological maturity by 42 DAA when seed dry weight was at its maximum level. Highest percentage germination was attained by seeds collected 42 DAA for each genotype throughout the storage period. 0954 Seed development process in relation to physical growth and quality characters in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Ali, GM; Rana, MA; Shafiullah; Shaheen, N. Crop Research Hisar (India). 1994, 8: 3, 418-427; 10 ref. Field trials were conducted to study the influence of spring and autumn conditions on the process of seed development in sunflowers cv. NK-212 under irrigation. Seeds were harvested every 2 d, from 4 d after anthesis initiation (DAAI) to 40 DAAI, and sampled for moisture content, oil content, fatty acid profile, 100-seed weight, protein content, germination and hulled

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seed:seed ratio. The moisture content of the seeds decreased through the sampling period but at a faster rate in the spring than in the autumn. The 100-seed weight was lower in the spring but seed oil content was similar (40%) in both seasons. The increase in protein content was higher (6.5%) in spring than in autumn (3.2%) and the hulled seed: seed ratio was at its maximum at 26 DAAI (0.73) in the spring and at 40 DAAI (0.75) in the autumn. Spring linoleic acid content (63.1%) was higher than autumn linoleic acid content (49.9%). The correlations of physical and quality characters were similar in magnitude and direction for both seasons except for the fatty acid profile which was more affected by the environment than the other traits. 0955 Seed dormancy and quality in relation to seed development and maturity in sunflower. Singh, AR; Rao, TS; Borikar, ST. Seed Research. 1990, 18: 2, 121125; 9 ref. Seed germination and seedling growth were determined in sunflowers cv. Morden, EC 68414 and EC 69874 harvested in the field at 5-d intervals from 15 to 50 d after anthesis (DAA) and tested 15, 35 or 55 d after harvest (DAH). Seed viability, percentage normal seedlings and seedling vigour increased, while abnormal seedlings, ungerminated and dead seeds decreased, with increased DAA; percentage germination (normal seedlings) was 11 and 78% in seeds harvested 15 and 50 DAA, respectively. For all harvest dates percentage germination increased substantially between 15 and 55 DAH. Germination (normal seedlings) was >80% in seeds harvested 40-50 DAA and tested 55 DAH, or harvested 50 DAA and tested 35 DAH. Seed germination was higher in seeds from outer rather than from inner florets, and in cv. Morden than other cultivars at harvest dates up to 30 DAA. 0956 Seed germination, biomass production and chlorophyll formation in four germplasm samples of Sesbania bispinosa (Jacq). W.F. wight [in Bangladesh] Hossain, SH; Hossain, M. Nuclear Science and Applications (Bangladesh). (Jan 1991). v. 3(1) p. 45-46. Germination of GS-4 of Sesbania bispinosa was 100%, whereas that of GS-2 was 3%. Maximum biomass was produced by the GS-3 germplasm sample of Sesbania bispinosa. The results also showed that this germplasm produced significantly higher amount of chlorophyll a and b. 0957 Seed health certification programme for production of quality seed. Bhatti, MAR; Mathur, SB; Bhutta, AR. Progressive Farming (Pakistan). (Nov-Dec 1991). v. 11(6) p. 25-29. 0958 Seed invigoration by hydration-dehydration for improvement of seed quality in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Short communication. Ramamoorthy, K; Natarajan, N. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science (Germany). (1997). v. 178(2) p. 125-128.

0959 Seed mycoflora of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and its effect on seed viability. Reddy, CN. Current Science (India). May 1983. v. 52(10) p. 488-490. 0960 Seed production and germination behaviour in nutgrass (Cyperus notundus) Jha, PK; Sen, DN. Australian Weeds (Australia). (Dec 1981). v. 1(2) p. 8-9. 0961 Seed production and germination in vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) Parihar, SS; Mal, B; Shankar, V; Kak, A. Tropical Grasslands. 1998, 32: 3, 173-177. Seed yield components of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) were examined during monsoonal growth for 2 years (1995 and 1996) at Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India. Initial inflorescence emergence (IIE) started by mid-August, about 45 days after the start of the monsoon-initiated growth in the last week of June. Inflorescence density peaked at 139.6/m2 with pure germinating seed (PGS) yield of 648 kg/ha in Year 1 and 150.2/m2 with PGS yield of 418 kg/ha in Year 2. Anthesis was acropetal and lasted c. 5 days. Shedding was basipetal and started after c. 21 days of anthesis. Freshly collected spikelets showed dormancy and required an afterripening period of c. 3 months. A hull-imposed dormancy was evident as removal of the caryopsis from the enclosing husk facilitated germination. Dormancy was broken by application of gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate. 0962 Seed production and seed germination in Chloris virgata. Parihar, SS; Anjali, Kak; Singh, JP; Kak, A. Forage Research (India). 1998, 24: 2, 97-100. Biological seed yield potential of an established pasture of Chloris virgata was estimated in field trials during the monsoon growth period in 1995. Initial head emergence (IHE) started from mid-August, after about 35 days of pasture establishment and inflorescence exertion and continued up to mid-November. Cumulative pure germinating seed (PGS) yield was estimated at 226.2 kg/ha from the third week of August to midNovember 1995. Seed setting in the spikelet varied from 84% in July to 52% in Nov. The caryopsis contributed about 32-42% towards total dispersal unit weight. Freshly- collected spikelets exhibited dormancy and required an after-ripening period of about six months. Dormancy reduction by pre-chilling, GA3, KNO3 and dehusking were observed. No significant difference in germination was observed after 6, 12 and 18 months of storage. 0963 Seed production and seed germination studies in Leucaena leucocephala and Cassia siamea. Awasthi, AK; Tripathi, ND; Singh, DP . Environment and Ecology. 1994, 12: 1, 86-88; 10 ref. In Madhya Pradesh.

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0964 Seed production, seed germination and chemical composition of Panicum maximum (Jacq.) Premaratne, S; Keerthisinghe, KMRB. Peradeniya Univ. (Sri Lanka) Proceedings of the 42. Annual Session. Part 1: Sectional Summaries. Colombo (Sri Lanka). Dec 1986. p. 43-44. 0965 Seed quality and nutrient uptake by coriander as influenced by irrigation and mixtalol spray. Lal, H; Rathore, SVS; Dadhwal, KS. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 1997, 45: 2, 230-234; 7 ref. Field experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil at Bichpuri, Uttar Pradesh during 1991-92 and 1992-93 to study the effects of irrigation and mixtalol [triacontanol] sprays on yield, seed quality and nutrient uptake by coriander cv. Pant Haritima. Besides common pre-sowing irrigation to all the treatments, two irrigations applied pre-flowering and during seed filling produced higher seed and stover yields and improved the test weight, protein and oil contents of seeds and NPK uptake by seed and stover than no post- sowing irrigation or one irrigation at the 6-leaf or peak flowering stages. Spray with 5 mg mixtalol/litre improved seed quality and seed and stover NPK uptake and gave higher seed and stover yields than controls sprayed with water or plant sprayed with 10 mg mixtalol/litre. Two subsequent sprays of mixtalol at the 2- and 4-leaf stages increased the test weight and protein content of seeds, improved seed and stover yield and NPK uptake by seed and stover compared with only one spray at either of the stages. 0966 Seed quality and productivity of peanut in relation to physiological maturity and stage of crop harvest. Kakralya, BL; Karan Singh. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 1994, 37: 1, 9-11; 4 ref. In field experiments in Durgapura, Jaipur, 5 groundnut cultivars were grown on a sandy loam soil and harvested 90, 97, 104, 111, 118, 125, 132 and 13 days after sowing (DAS). Seed yield, seed index, seed oil content, number of pods/plant and pod yield all increased with increasing crop maturity. RS-1, MA-10 and M-13 showed the highest germination when harvested at 132 DAS. RSB-87 and RG-141 germination were highest at 139 and 125 DAS, respectively. The germination percentage decreased during storage in all 5 cultivars. Seed moisture also decreased during storage, the greatest decrease coming from seeds harvested at an early stage; seeds harvested late showed little moisture loss. 0967 Seed quality and seed storage in fruit for short-term conservation of germplasm in Coorg mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Doijode, SD. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter (IPGRI FAO). (1997). (no.111) p. 82-83. 0968 Seed quality and yield as affected by moisture stress at different stages of crop development in soy-

bean. Arulnandhy, V; Senanayake, YDA. Sri Lankan Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Sri Lanka). (1988). v. 25(1) p. 37-44. 0969 Seed quality and yield as influenced by root and shoot cut treatments in radish stecklings [in Bangladesh]. Rashid, A; Razzaque, MA; Abdullah, AM; Hossain, AKMA. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research (Bangladesh). (Jun 1987). v. 12(1) p. 4448. Both age and method of root-shoot cutting significantly influenced seed yield and germination percentage in radish. The performance of 40 day's old plant with one-fourth root and one - half shoot cut was found to be the best in respect of seed yield, germination and other characters studied. It was evident that the plants should be cut and transplanted before onset of the reproductive phase of the crop. 0970 Seed quality as influenced by plant growth regulators in bitter gourd. Gedam, VM; Patil, RB; Suryawanshi, YB; Mate, SN. Seed Research. 1996, publ. 1997, 24: 2, 158-159; 4 ref. The effects were studied of applying gibberellic acid, NAA, ethephon, maleic hydrazide or boron, each at 3 rates to Momordica charantia cv. Co. white Long grown for seed production in field trials in Maharashtra in 1992. The growth regulators and boron were sprayed 40, 55, 70, 85 and 100 days after sowing. Comparison was made with plants sprayed with water or not sprayed. Of the treatments boron at 4 ppm or NAA at 50 ppm had the best effect on seed quality. 0971 Seed quality as influenced by the diameter of the capitulum in sunflower. Dharmalingam, C; Basu, RN. Seed Research. 1989, 17: 1, 1-5; 6 ref. Studies with sunflower cv. EC 68415 inflorescences of various diam.(5-25 cm) harvested from an elite seed production plot showed the superior quality of seeds isolated from medium to large inflorescences (1125.0cm) in terms of seed recovery, 100- seed wt, germination, vigour index and oil content, compared with seeds from small inflorescences. 0972 Seed quality control in castor (Ricinus communis L.). Patel, DR; Patel, PS; Patel, ID. Seeds and Farms. 1991, 17: 7-8, 17-19, 25. Quality control in castor hybrid seed production in India is described. Information is given on seed certification standards for foundation and certified seeds. 0973 Seed quality control programme in vegetable crops. Rajbhandary, KL. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. Proceedings of the first workshop seminar on vegetable seed production. Kathmandu (Nepal), 23-26 Feb 1982. p. 82-88.

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0974 Seed quality evaluation of the hybrid Co 2 and its parents in bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Pandian, M; Selvaraj, JA. Seeds and Farms. 1991, 17: 5-6, 15-18; 19 ref. Information on heterosis and combining ability is derived from data on 21 seed quality characters in hybrid Co 2 and its parents AE180 and Pusa Sawani (male) grown at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, during the monsoon season of 1987. Results showed the parents to be poor combiners for seed quality attributes. 0975 Seed quality in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) as influenced by specific gravity of berries. Dharmalingam, C; Vijayakumar, A. South Indian Horticulture. 1988, 36: 1-2, 46-50; 9 ref. Seeds collected from 5- to 7-year-old trees of the arabica cv. San Ramon were floated on water and separated into floaters and sinkers. There were 93.4% sinkers and 6.6% floaters which gave 75 and 30% germination, respectively. 0976 Seed quality in relation to fruit maturity stage and duration of pulp fermentation in tomato. Pandita, VK; Randhawa, KS; Modi, BS. Gartenbauwissenschaft (Germany, F.R.). 1996, 61: 1, 33-36; 13 ref. Fruits of tomato cv. Pusa Ruby harvested at 5 maturity stages (green, breaker, turner, pink and redripe) were crushed and fermented for 24-144 h at ambient temperatures (23-41oC). Seed quality (germination percentage, vigour index and field emergence) decreased with increasing fermentation period and was highest for seeds extracted at the pink stage. The highest 1000- seed weight was also recorded for seeds extracted at the pink stage. Determination of interactive effects revealed that fruits harvested at turner or pink stages and fermented for 24-48 h yielded the highest quality seeds. 0977 Seed quality in relation to harvesting at physiological maturity in soybeans (Glycine max) Singh, BB; Gupta, DP. Seed Science and Technology (Netherlands). (1982). v. 10(3) p. 469-474. 0978 Seed quality in relation to physico-biochemical composition in developing seed of cotton. Singh, AR; Deshpande, SB. Seed Research. 1989, 17: 1, 78-80; 11 ref. Changes in various indices of seeds of 4 cotton cultivars were determined at 5-d intervals between 30 and 60d after anthesis (DAA) and the effects of these changes on seeds viability were investigated. The values for 100-seed wt, oil content and seed viability increased and those for protein contents decreased with devleopment and maturation of seeds form 30 to 60 DAA. Seed density increased up to 50 DAA and decreased thereafter. Protein content was highest (21.1%) in seeds of Gossypium hirsutum cv. SRTI, oil content in G. arboreum cv. Eknath (16.8%) and 100-seed wt in G. hirsutum cv. Purnima.

0979 Seed quality in relation to position of seed in the pods of mungbean. Borah, RK; Paul, SR. Indian Journal of Pulses Research. 1998, 11: 2, 172-173. Vigna radiata cv. ML 56 was grown at Diphu, Assam, and seeds collected from different parts of 400 randomly selected pods. 100- seed weight was highest in the centre of pods (4th-9th seeds), but percentage germination was not significantly affected by seed position. Seed weight and seedling dry matter were lowest in seeds in the proximal end of the pod (seeds 1-3). 0980 Seed quality in relation to position of seed in the pod at different maturity periods in mung bean Cv. CO3. Dharmalingam, C; Basu, RN. Seed Research. 1988, 16: 2, 168-172; 8 ref. Studies carried out with Vigna radiata cv. CO3 to determine seed quality in relation to position of seed in the pod at 4 maturity stages showed that the seeds developed in proximity to the pedicelar end (1st to 5th seed) were inferior in quality and contained higher percentage of hard seeds. Seeds developed at the distal end of the pod (7th to 12th seed) expressed better quality in respect of 100-seed wt, germination, field emergence and DM content of seedlings associated with low percentage of hard seeds. Seeds harvested at physiological maturity (25 d after flowering) had higher germination and vigour than those harvested at pre-maturity (20 d) or at 2 post-physiological maturity (30 and 35 d after flowering) periods. Retention of seed on the mother plant beyond physiological maturity led to the development of hard seeds. 0981 Seed quality in relation to seed size in radish. Pandita, VK; Randhawa, KS. Seed Research. 1992, publ. 1993, 20: 1, 47-48 In a trial on radish cultivars Pusa Rashmi and Pusa Chetki, seeds were graded into 3 size categories (>2.75 mm, between 1.5 and 2.75 mm and <1.5 mm). Germination percentage (between rolled paper towels in the laboratory) and seedling emergence percentage (in pots) increased significantly with increasing seed size. 0982 Seed quality in relation to sequence of pod setting in mungbean. Suryavanshi, YB; Patil, RB; Purkar, JK; Karale, MU. Seed Research. 1995, publ. 1996, 23: 2, 134-136; 5 ref. In experiments with mung beans [Vigna radiata] cv. J-781 and K- 851 the effects of sequence of pod setting were studied on yield components and seed quality. Pod length and weight, number of seeds/pod, seed weight/10 pods, 100- seed weight and percentage hard seed were highest in the first pods to set and lowest in the 5th pods to set. Seed germination increased from 63% in J-781 and 29% in K-851 in the first pod to set to 81% in J-781 and 50% in K- 851 in the 5th pod to set. 0983 Seed quality in Varalaxmi cotton hybrid in different pickings. Gidnavar, VS. Cotton Development (India). (Oct 1981). v. 11(2 and 3) p. 58-59.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

0984 Seed quality of lentil as affected by various storage techniques [Bangladesh]. Chowdhury, MAH; Hossain, SMA; Talukder, NM. Progressive Agriculture (Bangladesh). (1990). v. 1(1) p. 31-37. The seed of lentil (cv. L5) was stored in 10 different types of storage techniques viz. earthen jar, coaltar coated earthen jar, earthen jar with thick polyethylene cover, seeds mixed with sand in earthen jar, seeds mixed with ash in earthen jar, seeds mixed with Bishkatali (Polygonum hydropper) leaf in earthen jar, seeds mixed with neem (Melia azadirachta) leaf in earthen jar, biscuit tin, hessian bag and hessian bag with polyethylene cover at 10 and 100 per cent moisture content and germination respectively for 120 days. Moisture content and germination test of seeds were made at 30 days' interval. A field performance test, and chemical analysis for protein and starch were done. Biscuit tin, hessian bag with polyethylene cover and coaltar coated earthen jar could maintain the quality of the seed up to planting time. The field performance of the seeds stored in biscuit tin and hessian bag with polyethylene cover as expressed in terms of producing grain yield was excellent. The seed of coaltar coated earthen jar performed similarly in respect of grain yield. The different storage techniques did not produce significant effect on the protein and starch content of the produced lentil grain. 0985 Seed quality of lentil genotypes as evaluated by standard germination as well as tetrazolium test. Chowdhury, AK; Iqbal, TMT; Newas, MA; Hossain, HMMT. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1997. 32: 1: 138-143. An experiment with 32 lentil genotypes to investigate the variations in seed quality of both new and old stocks (6 and 18 months old) using standard germination and tetrazolium tests revealed that genotypic variations were highly significant (P<0.01) in both the new and old seed stocks, indicating ample scope for varietal development for higher germination capacity. 0986 Seed quality of pea (Pisum sativum) as influenced by time of sowing and spacing. Batra, VK; Malik, YS; Pandita, ML. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 1992, 21: 3-4, 241-246; 10 ref. The effects of sowing date and spacing on germination, vigour and contents of protein, and reducing and non-reducing sugars were investigated. 0987 Seed quality studies in ratoon rice. Ramamoorthy, K; Balasubramanian, R; Sundareswaran, S. Annals of Plant Physiology. 1995, 9: 2, 164-166; 5 ref. In a field study at Killikulam, Tamil Nadu, seeds harvested from plant and ratoon rice cv. ADT 36 and ASD-16 crops grown in 1989 and 1990, respectively, were stored for 8 months in fresh cloth bags under ambient conditions. In both cultivars, the plant crops gave markedly higher yields than the ratoon crops. 1000seed weight, seed germination and vigour of seeds from

the plant crops were significantly greater than those from the ratoon crops. 0988 Seed setting and quality as influenced by distance of pollen source and time of sowing in sorghum. Singh, AR; Reddy, MVS; Borikar, ST. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1989, 14: 3, 306-309; 6 ref. The seed (female parent) rows of sorghum hybrid CSH 5 and CSH 9 were kept 0.45 to 3.60 m apart from pollen (male parent) rows to determine optimum seed:pollen row ratio for hybrid seed production. Seed set, seed yield, processing recovery and seed quality in terms of percentage germination and vigour were highest in the seed rows situated up to 0.9 m from both the sides of pollen rows. Yields decreased with a further increase in the distance of seed rows from pollen rows. The seed:pollen row ratio of 4:2 was the optimum ratio for hybrid seed production of both genotypes. Crops sown on 27 June were superior to those sown on 4 or 11 July in seed yield and processing recovery. 0989 Seed storage and germination studies in blue pine. Siddiqui, KM; Pervez, M. Pakistan Journal of Forestry (Pakistan). (Apr 1981). v. 31(2) p. 51-60. 0990 Seed viability in cashew [India] Aravindakshan, M; Gopi, Kumar, K. Cashew Bulletin (India). (Jan 1979). v. 16(1) p. 6-7. 0991 Seed viability of pigeon pea stored in two environments. Rao, NK; Maesen, LGJ van-der; Remanandan, P. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science (Netherlands). (1982). v. 30(2) p. 99-103. Preliminary tests were carried out to obtain data on the viability of pigeon pea seeds in storage. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) cultivars ICP-1, -26, 2624, -6443, and -6997 were stored at 15-20 deg C and 50-60% relative humidity, and compared with ambient room conditions at ICRISAT Center. After 4 years in cool storage, viability of all cultivars except ICP-6997 remained above 92 %. At room temperature ICP-6997 lost viability completely, ICP-2624 maintained 53 % viability and ICP-26, -1, and -6443 germinated for 44, 24, and 4% respectively. In respect of containers, plastic bottles kept viability best at ambient room temperature, and in cool storage no difference was detected with paper and cloth bags. 0992 Seed viability, vigour and storability of soybean genotypes as affected by seasons and methods of seed harvests. Reddy, DMV; Gowda, AB; Reddy, TV. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1993, 27: 2, 105-111; 9 ref. In trials at Bangalore, Karnataka, soyabean cv. Monetta, PK- 471, Bragg, Hardee and KHSb2 were grown in the 1988 or 1988/89 seasons and plants were hand shelled, beaten with a pliable wooden stick on gunny bags on a cement floor or beaten with a wooden

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stick on a cement floor. There was no difference in seed germination of different cultivars after 0 or 3 months' storage, however after 6, 9 or 10 months' storage germination was higher in Monetta, Bragg and KHSb2. Seed germination and vigour was greatest with hand shelling and lowest with beating on a cement floor. Seeds produced in 1988 were superior to those produced in the 1988/89 season. 0993 Seed yield and quality as influenced by the method of pollination in bittergourd (Momordica charantia L.). Devadas, VS; Seemanthini, Ramadas; Ramadas, S. South Indian Horticulture. 1992, 40: 5, 277-279; 6 ref. A comparison was made of seed yield and quality from self- and cross- pollinated flowers of M. charantia cv. Co. 1 at Coimbatore, India, during June-Dec. 1991. Self pollination resulted in a higher seed number per fruit and higher individual seed weight; however, the percentage of field emergence and seedling vigour were significantly higher in seeds obtained by cross pollination. 0994 Seed yield and quality of coriander as influenced by varieties, spacings and fertility levels. Nehra, BK; Rana, SC; Narendra Singh; Azad Singh; Thakral, KK; Kandiannan, K (ed) Water and nutrient management for sustainable production and quality of spices: proceedings of the national seminar. Madikeri, Karnataka, India, 5-6 October 1997. 1998, 73-75. Field experiments were conducted during 199395, at Hisar, Haryana, India, to study the influence of cultivar (Narnaul Selection, Rcr-41 and Pant Haritima), spacing (20 X 20, 30 X 20 and 40 X 20) and fertilizer rates (N + P2O5 rates of 60 + 25, 90 + 25, 60 + 37.5 and 90 + 37.5 kg/ha) on seed yield and quality of coriander. Pant Haritima and Narnaul Selection gave significantly higher seed yields than Rcr-41. Spacing at 30 X 20 cm and application of 90 kg N + 37.5 kg P2O5/ha gave the highest seed yields among the spacing and fertilizer treatments, respectively. Data are also presented for percentage seed germination and seed vigour index. 0995 Seed yield and quality of greengram in relation to sowing time and variety under spring-summer conditions. Yadav, RN; Nagarajan, S. Seed Research. 1995, 23: 1, 43-46; 8 ref. Vigna radiata cv. PS-16 and P-105 seeds were sown on 25 February, 10 March or 6 April at Karnal, Haryana. Emergence took 8.5 days from the first sowing date and 4.5 days from the later 2 dates. Period to maturity decreased with later sowing. Seed yield/plant in both cultivars was greatest with sowing on 10 March. This sowing date also gave the greatest seed germination and vigour. 0996 Seed yield and quality of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) as influenced by NPK application. Malik, MA; Iqbal, RM; Ayyoub, M. Pakistan Journal of Agri-

cultural Sciences (Pakistan). (Apr-Jun 1988). v. 25(2) p. 95-100. 0997 Seed yield and quality of some cultivars of summer sunflower at different seeding dates. Patil, SD; Pol, PS; Shinde, SH; Umrani, NK. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1989, 34: 4, 430-431 In 1984, delay in sowing from 11 Feb. to 3 Mar., 19 Apr. and 11 May decreased av. seed yields of 3 sunflower cultivars from 2.60 to 2.24, 2.18 and 1.60 t/ha, resp. N, P and K uptake and seed oil content were highest in crops sown on 19 Apr. Delay in sowing decreased seed protein content, but the difference was not significant. Cv. Surya, EC-68414 and Morden gave yields of 2.42, 2.11 and 1.79 t, resp.; the difference was not significant. 0998 Seed yield and quality parameters of 'African Tall' maize (Zea mays) as influenced by spacing and level of nitrogen. Khot, RB; Umrani, NK. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1992, 37: 1, 183-184 In a field experiment during the kharif [monsoon] season of 1989 at Rahuri, Maharashtra, row spacings of 60 X 30 or 45 cm or 75 X 20 or 30 cm produced seed yields of 2.80, 4.15, 3.18 and 4.59 t/ha, respectively. Application of 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg N/ha produced seed yields of 2.57, 3.11, 4.81 and 4.45 t/ha, respectively. Germination percentage, germination vigour index and seedling DW were not affected by these treatments. 0999 Seed yield, mineral composition and cooking quality of two varieties of lentil (Lens esculentus) as influenced by different levels of potash. Nazir Ahmad Dhillown. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Agronomy. Various pages. 1981. 1000 Soaking and drying of stored sunflower seeds for maintaining viability, vigour of seedlings and yield potential. Basu, RN; Dey, G. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Jul 1983). v. 53(7) p. 563-569. 1001 Sodium azide induced mutations for quality seeds in Capsicum annuum L. Umalkar, GV; Vyawhare, MK; Kashikar, RM; Kashikar, SG. International Society for Horticultural Science, Den Haag (Netherlands). Symposium on vegetable and flower seed production. Castrocaro, Forli (Italy). 2-4 Jun 1980. Mar 1981. p. 63. 1002 Solute leakage in relation to loss of seed viability on accelerated ageing in different onion cultivars. Doijode, SD. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. Mar 1990. v. 33(1) p. 54-57. 1003 Some factors to be taken to account in determining seed quality [India] Hanumaiah, L. Lal Baugh

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Journal of the Mysore Horticultural Society (India). (Mar 1980). v. 25(1) p. 60-71. 1004 Sources of variability in rice seed quality. Thiagarajan, CP. International Rice Research Newsletter. 1990, 15: 1, 9-10. Seed germination (SG) and seedling vigour (SV) were studied in 5 varieties, of different durations, at 10 sites in the Cauvery Delta Zone. Variability was higher in SV than in SG, between tillers and plants, and was similar across locations irrespective of the variety. Mean variability in SG and SV was 8.4 and 18% among tillers, 5 and 10% among plants within a population and 23 and 24% among locations, respectively. Factors affecting these results included variation in water level, different soil conditions and date of sowing. Variability in SG among tillers was highest in CR1009 (14%) and between locations was highest in ADT36 (28%). Variability in SV between tillers was highest in TKM9 (22%). 1005 Sowing time and cutting frequency affect yield and quality of spinach seed. Jehangir, Khan; Nawab, Ali; Misbahud, Din; Hussain, SA. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 1994, 10: 3, 307-312; 8 ref. Spinach cultivar Kandiari was sown at monthly intervals from 1 Oct. to 1 Jan. and leaves harvested once, twice or three times or not at all. Seed production was greatest from sowing on 1 Nov. and with harvesting leaves once during the season. Seed quality (measured as germination percentage) was also highest in these treatments. 1006 Soyabean seed quality as affected by time of planting in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Arulnandhy, V; Senanayake, YDA. Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka. 1988, 16: 1, 1-10; 12 ref. In field trials at Maha Illuppallama (in the dry zone of Sri Lanka), 8 soyabean cultivars were sown in the 1st week of each month from May 1984 to Apr. 1985. Seeds were harvested at growth stage R8, sundried and stored at 10oC before being tested for germination and vigour. Av. seed yield ranged from 0.49 t/ha with Feb. sowing to 4.84 t with May sowing. Percentage germination and emergence rate of harvested seed in sand and in the field were highest with May sowing of the mother crop and were lowest with Jan. and Feb. sowing. Data are given on seedling length and wt. Seeds sown in Jan. and Feb. matured when daily mean temp. was 30- 31o while those sown in May-June matured when daily mean temp. was 28o at a max. daily RH of 75%. Regression analysis suggested that daily mean temp. and max. daily RH during seed maturation were the major determinants of soyabean seed quality. 1007 Soybean [Glycine max] seed yield and quality as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus in different ecological zones of N.W.F.P. [Pakistan] Khan, P;

Dast, Z; Khan, SA. Frontier Journal of Agricultural Research (Pakistan). (1978). v. 5(1-2) p. 20-23. 1008 Soybean seed quality as affected by time of planting in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Arulnandhy, V; Senanayake, YDA. Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka. 1988. v. 16(1) p. 1-10. Eight soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars were planted during the first week of each calender month in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The soybean crops established from May and June plantings produced yield and size of seed significantly geater than the other plantings. These seeds, which matured under more favourable weather conditions with the combination of daily mean temperature (28 F) and daily maximum relative humidiry (75%), were of the highest quality as indicated by their high level of viability and vigour. In contrast, the crop of January and February plantings gave seeds of lowest quality and at the time of their maturation the daily mean temperature was remarkably high (30-31 C). The predicted model explaining the effect of weather factors on seed quality reveals that daily mean temperature and daily maximum relative humidity are the significant attributes to seed quality of soybean. 1009 Soybean seed quality in relation to environmental stress (temperature, humidity) during seed filling period. Hatam, M; Khalil, MI. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 1994, 10: 3, 223-230; 15 ref. Thirteen soyabean genotypes of each of 10 maturity groups were grown at Peshawar, Pakistan in 1990. After sowing on 12 Feb., harvest date ranged from 1 June (90 d) in maturity group 1 to 2 Sep. (184 d) in maturity group 10. Seed yield increased from 1.82 to 4.94 t/ha with later maturity. With later maturity, the percentage of diseased seeds increased but percentages of wrinkled and shrivelled seeds decreased. The number of healthy seeds increased from 27.7% in maturity group 1 to a maximum of 68.9% in maturity group 9, while percentage germination was lowest (62.9%) in maturity group 4 and highest (80%) in maturity group 10. The percentage of wrinkled and shrivelled seeds was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with RH, while percentage diseased seeds followed the reverse pattern. 1010 Stability analysis for some quality components of seed and oil in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Rai, M; Kerkhi, SA; Pandey, S; Naqvi, PA; Vashistha, AK. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 1989, 49: 3, 291-295 At 3 locations, 8 quality traits were assessed in 35 genotypes during 1984- 85. Highly significant differences between varieties, and also a genotype X environment interaction, were noted for all characters except palmitic acid content. LCM84-259 was stable for all 8 characters while BAU191 and KL26-2 were stable for 6 and 5 characters, respectively.

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1011 Steckling quality in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as affected by seed weight. Karivaratharaju, TV; Palanisamy, V; Vanangamudi, K. South Indian Horticulture. 1988, 36: 1-2, 81-82; 3 ref. The steckling-to-seed method was found more reliable in true to type propagation than the seed-to-seed method. In trials with the cv. Scarlet Red, seeds 3-5, 5.1-10 and 10.1-15 mg in weight were used to raise steckling plants. It is concluded that seeds weighing less than 5 mg should not be used for steckling production but could be used for raising a crop for consumption. 1012 Storage and germination of seeds of Aporusa lindleyana (Wight) Baillon, an economically important plant of Western Ghats (India). Kumar, CA; Thomas, J; Pushpangadan, P. Seed Science and Technology. 1997, 25: 1, 1-6; 8 ref. Seeds of Aporusa lindleyana, a medium size tree native to Peninsula India amd Sri Lanka, normally remain viable only for 2 days in open room conditions and lose their viability when dried to 30% moisture content or stored at temperatures at or below 15oC indicating their recalcitrant nature. In this study, fresh, surfacedried seeds (with 40% moisture content) could be stored for about a year in air-tight polycarbonate bottles or polyethylene bags at 30oC and 85% relative humidity (RH) or in polycarbonate bottles in ambient conditions. 1013 Storage and hot-water treatments enhance germination of guanacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum) seeds. Chacko, KC; Pillai, PKC. International Tree Crops Journal (United Kingdom). (1997). v. 9(2) p. 103-107. 1014 Storage of Vitavax treated wheat seeds in relation to seed moisture and control of loose smut in field. Hooda, KS; Mohinder Singh. Seed Research. 1993, 21: 2, 123-125; 8 ref. The effect of seed treatment with Vitavax [carboxin] on germination of seeds (wheat cv. S-308) stored at 10.5, 12.5 and 15% moisture levels under ambient conditions and on control of Ustilago segetum var. tritici was tested in India in the field in Dec. of 1987 and 1988. The results showed that at all moisture levels tested, seed germination was above the min. seed certification standard (85%) in both treated and untreated seed, up to 15 months of storage. The seedling emergence rate was also above the required level. 1015 Storage potential of Rhizobium treated groundnut seeds at different moisture levels in different containers. Jayaraj, T; Karivaratharaju, TV. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1988, 75: 7-8, 286-287 Groundnut seeds with 8 or 10% moisture content and with and without inoculation with Rhizobium were stored in aluminium foil pouches or cloth bags for 10 d under ambient conditions. Uninoculated seeds with 8% moisture content gave the highest percentage germination irrespective of storage containers. Inoculation de-

creased percentage germination and increased the percentage of abnormal seedlings. Seeds stored in cloth bags gave significantly higher percentage germination than those stored in aluminium foil pouches. 1016 Studies in soil water regimes on flowering, seed yield and quality of harvested seeds of onion [in Bangladesh] Chowdhury, MAM; Chowdhury, MAH; Chowdhury, MMH. Bangladesh Botanical Society, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the International Botanical Conference. Dhaka (Bangladesh), 1991. p. 26. The effect of soil water regimes on flowering, seed yield and quality of harvested seeds in both seed and bulb onion (Allium cepa L. cvs., Faridpuri and Red Cresol-Holland) were studied under potted and field condition. The present study suggests that the moderate soil water regimes (50%) ensure the better quality of harvested seeds compared to both high and low soil water regimes. 1017 Studies on date of harvest on the yield and quality of seed in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). Kalavathi, D; Ramaswamy, KR. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1988, 75: 11-12, 396-400; 16 ref. A trial in 1984 with soyabeans cv. C0.1 harvested at 40, 45, 50, 55 or 60 d after 50% flowering (DAF) showed that crops harvested at 55 DAF had the highest values for number of pods and seeds/plant, seed yield/plant and shelling percentage. 1018 Studies on deterioration of some oil seeds in storage, 3: effects of different storage temperatures and relative humidities on seed moisture, germination and infection. Nandi, D; Mondal, GC; Nandi, B. Seed Science and Technology (Netherlands). (1982). v. 10(1) p. 141-150. Seeds of 2 cultivars of sesame, 2 species of mustard and one linseed were collected after harvest, and 6 and 12 months later from private store-houses and stored under 80% and 90% RH at both 20 deg and 30 deg C. Effect of RH and temperature on seed moisture, germination and fungal invasion were studied at intervals of 21 days up to 84 days. In all cases, both seed moisture and fungal infection were higher at 90% RH and 20 deg C than in other treatments. A gradual decrease in infection by field fungi with concomitant increase by storage fungi, accompanied by a reduction in seed germination, occurred as storage progressed. Highest loss of germinability was noted at 90% RH and 30 deg C. 1019 Studies on flowering and seed quality of some trees of Tectona grandis L.f. Kanak, Sahai; Tandon, S; Sahai, K. Indian Journal of Forestry. 1993, 16: 2, 127131; 10 ref. Detailed observations are reported on flowering and seed quality of three 20-yr-old trees (3 up to flowering, and 2 up to seed production since the fruits abscised prematurely in the third), selected from a group of 8 on

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the campus of the National Botanical Research Institute at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, and observed over a 3-yr (1985-1987) period. 1020 Studies on fruit size, seed production and viability of seeds of keora (Sonneratia apetala). Siddiqi, NA; Islam, MR. Bano Biggyan Patrika. 1988, 17: 1-2, 15-19; 7 ref. Data on the availability of different sizes of fruits, seed production by fruit size class, germination and viability of seeds of S. apetala were collected in 1984-85 in the Chittagong coastal area, Bangladesh. Fruit fall occurred from late July to early Oct. Fruit size was variable, with a high proportion of medium sized fruits. There were no significant differences in germination percent between seeds from different size classes of fruit, dried and sown 1 month after collection. 1021 Studies on germinability and seedling vigour at different intervals of seed storage in ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.). Reddy, YN; Murthy, BNS. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 1990, 47: 3, 314-317; 10 ref. Seeds of the Z. [Ziziphus] mauritiana cultivar Umran were extracted from ripe fruits and stored in polyethylene bags at room temperature for up to 8 months. The seeds were sown at bimonthly intervals and assessed for germination 6, 12 and 18 days after sowing. No significant differences were noted in final germination percentages of seeds stored for 2, 4, 6 or 8 months (41-50% germination). Fresh seeds had the lowest percentage germination (33%). Seedling vigour was greatest after seed storage for 8 months. 1022 Studies on growing, seed production and nutrition quality of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) an European leafy vegetable, in mid hills of Uttarakhand. Khan, IA; Misra, SDL. Agricultural Science Digest Karnal (India). 1998, 18: 4, 243-245. Seeds of Swiss chard (cv. Fordhook) were sown in August 1996 and 1997 in Pithoragarh at 5000 feet a.s.l in the mid hills of Uttarakhand, India, at 3-4 cm depth and 30 X 45 cm spacing. Harvesting for leaves began 64 days after sowing. At harvesting, plants were 55 cm tall with 35 X 40 cm spread. Average leaf length X breadth was 35 X 10 cm and average leaf stalk length was 17 cm. Yields averaged 105 q/ha. Seeds were harvested 194 days after sowing. Seed yield averaged 690 kg/ha. The leaves contained water (89.00%), minerals (1.59%), crude protein (1.23%), crude fat (0.78%), carbohydrates (1.60%), fibre (0.57%) and ascorbic acid (52.44 mg/100 g), and had a total soluble solids content of 6.0. 1023 Studies on mutagenesis to improve yield and seed protein quality in pigeon pea. Ravi, SB. Regional Station, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India. Improvement of grain legume production using induced

mutations: Proceedings of a workshop. Pullman, Washington, USA, 1-5 Jul 1986. 1988, 251-278; 27 ref. The cultivar Hy2 was gamma-irradiated (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 kR) while LRG30 was treated with 0.001, 0.002, 0.003 and 0.004 M sodium azide for 5 h. Mutants were selected in the M2, confirmed in the M3 and further evaluated in the M4. Mutant characteristics included plant size, branching, leaf pattern, earliness, floral structure, grain yield, harvest index, seed colour and seed content of S-containing amino acids. 1024 Studies on non-monitory and monitory inputs like seed rate, spacing and N levels on yield and quality of sugarcane. Balusamy, M; Parameswaran, P; Shanumugasundaram, VS. Indian Sugar. 1994, 43: 10, 771-774; 5 ref. In a field experiment on sandy loam soil in 199092 at Bhavanisagar, Tamil Nadu, sugarcane cv. Co 8021 sown at row spacings of 80 cm (150 000 or 300 000 buds/ha) or 60 cm (187 500 buds/ha) gave mean cane yields of 117.1, 116.3 and 118.9 t/ha. Application of the recommended N rate [not stated] or 125, 150 or 175% of the recommended N rate gave cane yields of 111.4, 116.8, 120.5 and 121.0 t, respectively. Commercial cane sugar content decreased with the increase in N rate. 1025 Studies on seed development and maturation in relation to seed quality in sunflower. Solunke, BR; Singh, AR; Borikar, ST. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1994, 19: 2, 301; 5 ref. In a field experiment in 1986, sunflowers cv. Morden, EC-68414 and EC-69874 were harvested 10-50 d after anthesis (DAA). The flowering heads were divided into outer, middle and inner florets, and seeds sampled from these 3 sections were tested for germination. Seed harvested 30 DAA gave the highest germination percentage and contained the fewest fresh ungerminated and dead seeds. Seeds harvested from the outer and middle florets were fully matured at 25 DAA, whereas seed of inner florets matured 30 DAA. 1026 Studies on seed development and maturation in relation to seed quality in cotton. Singh, AR; Deshpande, SB. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1989, 14: 3, 269-272; 12 ref. In field trials in the kharif [monsoon] season of 1985 the effects of harvesting bolls 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 or 60 d after anthesis on seed quality of cotton cv. Purnima and SRT-1 (Gossypium hirsutum), and Rohini and Eknath (G. arboreum), were studied. FW of bolls and seed moisture content at harvest decreased with increase in maturity, whereas boll DW, seed viability and germination increased. Almost all cultivars harvested 55-60 d after anthesis gave the highest boll DW, viability and germination and the lowest moisture content and number of abnormal seedlings and dead seeds. Seed germination and viability increased with decrease in abnormal seedlings, hard and decayed seeds.

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1027 Studies on seed production and quality of chickpea in intercropping system with sorghum. Hilli, JS; Kulkarni, GN. Seed Research. 1988, 16: 2, 215-217; 8 ref. Cicer arietinum in pure stands gave significantly higher seed yields than when grown as an intercrop in sorghum. Terbutryn at 0.75 and 1.00 kg/ha pre- em. gave effective weed control in both pure and intercropped stands and resulted in yields similar to those obtained with hand weedings (2.22 t/ha). Yields were lowest (1.58 t) without weed control. Seeds obtained from pure and intercropped stands gave similar percentage germination. 1028 Studies on seed production, germination and storage of some plantation species in Bangladesh. Mannan, MA. Bangladesh Journal of Forest Science. 2000, 29: 1, 61-66; 4 ref. A study was conducted during 1981-1990 on 69 plantation tree species in Bangladesh to investigate their seed harvesting time, production, germination and storage. Seeds of some species were pre-treated (heap, pit and heat treatment). The species studied may be grouped into four categories according to seed harvesting time: (1) January-March; (2) April-June; (3) JulySeptember; and (4) October-December. The highest seed production per tree (70- 100 kg/tree) was obtained by Borassus flabellifer and the highest germination of 70-80% was obtained by 22 species. Seed pre- treatment was found necessary for enhanced germination of species with stony seed coat such as Albizia spp., Tectona grandis and others. Seed storage for fleshy and succulent seeds, seeds with hard and stony coat, and thin seeds were not more than 7-10 days, more than a year and not more than two months, respectively. 1029 Studies on seed quality as influenced by different stages of maturity in redgram (Cajanus cajana Mill sp.) genotypes. Ramaiah, H; Tirakannanavar, S; Basavaraj, GV; Rudraradhya, M; Vaster, CS. Indian Agriculturist. 2001, 45: 1-2, 75-79; 11 ref. Red gram cultivars Hyderabad-3C and TTB-7 were grown during the kharif season of 1994 in Bangalore, Karnataka, India to determine seed quality at different stages of picking. The germination percentage, vigour index, 100-seed weight and electrical conductivity of seed leachate differed significantly between the cultivars, whereas field emergence did not significantly differ. Germination percentage, 100-seed weight, field emergence and electrical conductivity of seed leachate significantly differed depending on the stages of picking, whereas seedling dry matter and vigour index did not differ significantly. 1030 Studies on seed residues following carbofuran application in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) with reference to viability. Ramamoorthy, K; Kannathasan, M; Kalavathi, D. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 1991, 166: 5, 353-358; 27 ref.

Soil application of various carbofuran formulations at 1.5 or 3.0 g a.i./m of row before sowing sorghum cv. CO 26 had no effect on the vigour or viability of the harvested seeds. Freshly harvested seeds contained 0.1482-0.2240 p.p.m. carbofuran (permissible limit 0.1 p.p.m.) but artificial aging at 98% RH and 41oC for 4 d reduced residue levels to 0.0384-0.0564 p.p.m. with the lower carbofuran rate and 0.0698-0.0772 p.p.m. at the higher rate. Rates of degradation of carbofuran residues during 10 d germination are shown graphically. 1031 Studies on seed storage, germination and initial development of Doona trapezifolia. De, Zoysa ND. Sri Lanka Forester. 1988, 17: 3-4, 116-137; 18 ref. A tabulated summary is given of the phenology, ecology and distribution of Sri Lankan dipterocarps, using data from Ashton, P.S. (1980). Based on this, a suitable species (D. trapezifolia) for use in reforestation in Sri Lanka was chosen for further study. The characteristics of the species are described. Fruits (which are small) were collected from the Sinharaja MAB Reserve (an area where the species has already been shown to be promising) in Sri Lanka in late April, during the lesser of the 2 fruiting seasons of the species (in March/April); the main fruiting season is in September/October. The fruits collected were freshly fallen overnight, and were transported to France within 24 h for study; seeds (oneseeded fruits) which had already germinated or were insect infested were discarded. Data on seed characteristics and moisture content were recorded, and germination was studied under various conditions (at 25oC in the greenhouse - the control; at 10-30oC in an incubator; under light/dark conditions; or under water to exclude oxygen) and after storage for 2 or 3 wk. Germination was best at 25oC, and at all temperatures 15oC occurred on day 3 or 4, and was complete by day 5; it was highest at 25oC in the greenhouse, where it was 25% in the light, and 60% in the dark. Germination occurred in seeds kept dry at 20 and 30oC for 2 wk, and was not increased by transfer to a moist environment. Germination under water at 25oC in the greenhouse reached 65%. Growth of seedlings was better in the dark than the light. Mortality was high under both conditions, reaching about 20% in the light and about 35% in the dark at 20oC; causes included desiccation and fungal and insect attack. Drawings show fruit morphology and seedling development to 27 days. 1032 Studies on the effect of cuttings on seed yield and quality of Beta vulgaris L. Randhawa, KS. Agricultural Science Digest (India). (Jun 1984). v. 4(2) p. 93-94. 1033 Studies on the effect of moisture during storage on major groundnut seed constituents: oil, protein, fatty acids, and lipid compositions. Ali, MH; Rahman, MS; Ahmed, GM; Hossain, MA; Uddin, MM;

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Gofur, MA. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1995, 30: 1, 93-104; 11 ref. Groundnut seeds with moisture contents of 5.2, 7.8, 9.0 and 10.4% were stored for 0-60 d in polythene or cloth bags. Oil content, iodine values and protein content were not affected by storage moisture content. Seeds stored in polythene bags at 10.4% moisture after 30 d had the highest free fatty acid content of 20.7%. Neutral lipid component was unaffected by storage container at all moisture levels. The level of phospholipid in crude oil extract from seeds of 10.4% moisture stored in polythene and cloth bags increased during storage. 1034 Studies on the effect of moisture stress at different growth phases on seed vigour, viability and storability in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Ramamoorthy, K; Basu, RN. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science (Germany). (1996). v. 177(1) p. 33-37. 1035 Studies on the grain growth maturity pattern and seed quality of cowpea. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. Annual Research Review (Agronomy Disision) - BARI, 1992-93 Cowpea cultivar Haf-16 (determinate type) was grown in the rabi season under normal management practices in Joydebpur. For grain growth, flowers were tagged at anthesis and pods were collected at different dates depending on maturity of grains. Seed weight was taken after oven drying and for storage, pods were harvested at field maturity. The seeds were formed at four days after flowering. Highest dry matter of about 108 mg per seed was recorded at 24 days after flowering. Seeds collected during 22nd and 24th days after anthesis had 92 and 98% germination, respectively. Seeds had 94% viability at the end of storage. 1036 Studies on the influence of intercrops grown for forage and seed on the seed yield and quality of fodder maize. Ramachandra, C; Shivaraj, B; Gowda, A. Farming Systems. 1993, 9: 3-4, 87-92; 10 ref. In a field experiment on sandy loam during the kharif [monsoon] season of 1991/92 at Bangalore, Karnataka, maize cv. South African Tall was intercropped with cowpeas cv. C-152, Dolichos lablab or Vigna umbellata. The legumes were grown for either grain or fodder. Maize/cowpeas (grain) intercrop gave the highest net return followed by sole maize. Maize/V. umbellata (fodder) intercrop had the highest CP content of 12.04%. Maize yield was highest in sole crops followed by maize/cowpeas (grain) intercrop. 1037 Studies on the maintenance of seed viability of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by physicochemical treatments. Dey, G; Basu, RN. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. Mar 1982. v. 25(1) p. 87-97. 1038 Studies on the quality of seeds of component crops in maize based intercropping system. Thiyaga-

rajan, CP. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1994, 81: 1, 46-47 In a field experiment in 1987-89 at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, maize cv. Co.1 was intercropped with cowpeas cv. Co.4, soyabeans cv. Co.1 or maize cv. Co.1 grown for fodder. Maize seed quality was generally not affected by intercropping with the legumes. Soyabeans and cowpeas seed quality were lower from intercropping than sole cropping in terms of seed recovery, germination, 100- seed weight and produced less vigorous seedlings. Maize seed quality was significantly decreased when intercropped with fodder maize. 1039 Studies on the quality of vegetable seeds in the markets of Madhya Pradesh. Kant, K; Verma, MM; Sukhvir Singh. Seed Research. 1999, 27: 1, 1-6. In a seed market survey, 207 seed samples of summer/kharif vegetable crops (cucurbits, fruit vegetables and others) collected from 21 seed markets in Madhya Pradesh, (Jabalpur, Raipur, Indore and Gwalior) were studied at IARI for seed quality parameters in relation to the minimum standards prescribed by the Indian government. Four samples (1.9%) were found sub-standard for physical purity and 68 (32.9%) for germination. Loose seed samples were the most likely to be sub-standard (42.6%) for germination followed by packed seed without a test report (33.3%), and packed seed with a test report (30.2%), respectively. Thus, packing helped to improve seed quality. It was evident that seedsmen were not aware of the provisions of the Seeds Act, 1966 as 91 seed samples (44.0%) did not carry any label or were offered for sale after the expiry date, suggesting an urgent need for strengthening the seed law enforcement programme and educating seedsmen. 1040 Studies on the seed storage and seed viability of the mulberry (Morus spp.). Dandin, SB; Basavaiah; Rajan, MV. Sericologia (France). (1991). v. 31(3) p. 459-467. 1041 Studies on the stage of harvest and postharvest ripening on seed quality in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Nandeesh; Javaregowda, S; Ramegowd. Seed Research. 1995, publ. 1996, 23: 2, 113-115; 8 ref. In a field experiment at Bangalore in 1992, fruits of cucumber cv. Green Long were harvested 20, 30 40 or 50 days after anthesis and subjected to 0, 7 or 15 days of postharvest ripening to improve seed quality. Seed quality was assessed in terms of germination, field emergence and vigour. Seed quality was highest in fruits harvested 40 days after anthesis and in those ripened for 15 days. However, seeds harvested 40 or 50 days after anthesis did not benefit from postharvest ripening. 1042 Studies on types and quality of rice seeds used by farmers in Madhya Pradesh [India]. Note. Moti-

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ramani, DP; Khan, RA; Dubey, AK; Tiwari, PK. Oryza (India). (Aug 1980). v. 17(2) p. 135-138. 1043 Studies on vigour and viability of seeds at different stages of fruit development in tomato in India. Doijode, SD. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries. Singapore. Jul 1983). v. 11(2) p. 106-109. 1044 Study on genetic parameters of plant and seed characteristics of soybean. Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh (Bangladesh) M.Sc.Ag. Thesis. 1982. An experiment was conducted at BAU, Mymensingh to study the variability, different genetic parameters and correlation is in ten plants and seed characters of 20 soybean varieties (Glycine max L. Merril). Significant genetic variations were observed for days to flower, maturity, plant height, branches, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, 1000 seed weight, seed yield per plant, oil and protein content. Highest variability was observed in plant height followed by number of seeds and number of pods per plant. Considering all the characters together, it was culter-71 which proved to be the most desirable by Davis. 1045 Study on the seed quality of mungbean in relation to pod position. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual report, 1989-90. p. 117-118. The experiment was conducted in pots at Joydebpur to study the variation of development, seed size and quality in mungbean. According to nodal position, pods were harvested per plant basis. Four successive pickings were done, and highest number of pods were formed on the fourth node. Each plant thus developed almost 10 nodes. The first node did not show pod development activity and also the second node had little (0.5%) bearing of pods. Pod formation in the plant showed a binodal peak. Over 53% of the total pods were produced by nodes 3-5. Nodes 7-9 formed the second peak producing about 35% of the total pods. Pod length showed no difference due to nodal position except low pod which was considerably shorter. The number of seeds/pod in the lower seven nodes were found identical and ranged from 6.8 to 8.3. Seed size increased progressively from lower to upper node attaining maximum (28.7 mg) in the 6th and the 7th node and then decreased steadily reaching 8.9/mg for the terminal nodes. Seeds from different nodes did not show any consistency in relation to germination though 3rd to 7th node had higher germination. 1046 Supply of zinc and boron on yield and seed quality in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Ramamoorthy, K; Sudarsan, S. Annals of Plant Physiology. 1992, 6: 1, 33-38; 10 ref. In a field trial in 1988 at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, groundnuts cv. Co2 were given 10 or 20 kg ZnSO4/ha applied to the soil, 10 kg ZnSO4 (soil) + 0.5%

ZnSO4 as a foliar spray 30 d after sowing, 2.5 or 5.0 kg borax applied to the soil, 2.5 kg borax (soil) + 0.25% borax as a foliar spray 30 d after sowing or 10 kg ZnSO4 (soil) + 0.5% ZnSO4 (foliar) + 2.5 kg borax (soil) + 0.25% borax (foliar). Application of Zn and/or B increased pod yield, shelling percentage, 100-seed weight and seed protein and oil percentages. Zn and B had no significant effects on germination of freshly harvested seeds. Harvested seeds were stored for 3, 6 or 9 months. Percentage germination decreased and free fatty acid content and electrical conductivity increased with storage time. The loss of viability of seeds in storage was lower in seeds from plants receiving Zn or B treatments. 1047 Techniques of producing and maintaining high quality bajra seed HHB-50. Nijhawan, DC; Yadav, HP; Kapoor, RL. Seeds and Farms. 1991, 17: 5-6, 9-14. Notes on hybrid seed production of bajra [Pennisetum americanum] hybrid HHB-50 in India are given. 1048 Testing salt tolerance variability on the nutritional quality of seeds produced by rice cultivars subjected to salinity. Krishnamurthy, R; Anbazhagan, M; Bhagwat, KA. Seed science and technology (Switzerland). (1989). v. 17(2) p. 269-275. 1049 Threshing methods and seed quality during storage in soyabean. Jha, RK; Saini, SL; Ram, C. Annals of Biology Ludhiana. 1995, 11: 1-2, 86-90; 6 ref. Soyabean cv. PK-327, PK-416 and PK-564 seeds were threshed by hand beating, machine threshing or tractor treading. Seeds were kept under ambient storage conditions and then tested for percentage germination, electrical conductivity and the effects of aging. Hand beating resulted in higher percentage germination levels and less deterioration of seed than the other two techniques at all stages of storage. Significant differences were observed between cultivars. PK-327 maintained the maximum standard percentage germination and lowest electrical conductivity value after 8 months of storage. However, PK-564 and PK-416 showed more vigour under the stress condition of accelerated aging. 1050 To study the effect of seed quality and plant population on the growth and grain yield of maize. Naeem, M. NWFP Agricultural Univ., Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Agronomy. Oct 1985. 60p. 1051 To study the influence of single seed selection on the fibre quality characters in some deshi varieties of cotton. Mishra, MB; Iyer, VS. Journal of the Indian Society for Cotton Improvement. 1988, 13: 2, 124-128; 8 ref. 1052 Tomato seed quality in relation to fruit picking. Dharmatti, PR; Madalageri, BB; Kanamadi, VC; Mannikeri, IM; Patil, YB. Progressive Horticulture. 1990, publ. 1993, 22: 1-4, 145-146; 4 ref.

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Seeds were collected in 1990 from 9 pickings of cv. L-15, which has a potential yield of 45 t/ha. 1000Seed weight increased over the first 4 pickings, then decreased, although the differences were not significant. Germination and field emergence percentage decreased from the 6th picking onwards. Seedling vigour was highest with the 2nd picking and decreased with later pickings. Seed collection from the first 7 pickings is recommended to maximize quality. 1053 Treatment of rice seed with iodine and chlorine for the maintenance of vigour, viability and productivity. Pal, P; Basu, RN. Indian Agriculturist. 1988, 32: 1, 71-75; 13 ref. Exposing freshly harvested rice seeds to very low concn of iodine vapour (50 mg solid iodine crystal volatilized in a 5.5 litre desiccator for 100 g seed) or Cl vapour (10 g bleaching powder in a desiccator for 100 g seeds) or dry dressing the seeds with 1 g iodinated French chalk or 2 g bleaching powder/kg seeds significantly slowed down seed deterioration during storage under ambient conditions for 8 months. The treated seeds gave significantly higher paddy yields than untreated seeds. 1054 Tree regeneration in a subtropical humid forest: effect of cultural disturbance on seed production, dispersal and germination. Barik, SK; Tripathi, RS; Pandey, HN; Rao, P. Journal of Applied Ecology. 1996, 33: 6, 1551-1560; 34 ref. The subtropical humid forest of Meghalaya (India) has been exposed to various kinds of disturbance of varying magnitude during recent years; felling of trees for timber and fuelwood by the local people has become common. In order to analyse the effect of disturbance on natural regeneration of a few dominant and commercially important tree species (Schima khasiana, and the oaks Lithocarpus dealbatus (syn. Quercus dealbata) and Quercus griffithii) a study on seed production, dispersal and germination was carried out in 3 stands with differing degrees of disturbance (undisturbed, and mildly and highly disturbed, respective disturbance indexes of 0, 10 and 60%), during the years 1988-91. Seed production in Q. dealbata and S. khasiana varied significantly between the 3 stands and increased with increasing disturbance. It increased with increase in d.b.h. (diameter at breast height) of the trees in all three species. Heavy seeding occurred in different years in different species. Quercus spp. produced heavier seeds in the disturbed stands than in the undisturbed stand. The number of seeds dispersed from the trees decreased with distance from the parent tree. The dispersal distance for Quercus spp. was greater in the disturbed stands than in the undisturbed stand. However, the dispersal distance in the forest was very low irrespective of degree of disturbance. Seed predation decreased and germination increased with distance from the parent tree in all stands, suggesting that distance- related seed predation was not influenced by disturbance. In an in situ experiment with 4 microsite

treatments (seeds sown on the moss layer, on or below the litter layer, and on the cleared forest floor) the greatest germination of seeds was observed on the moss layer, irrespective of species and forest stand. The presence of litter inhibited germination of seeds to a large extent in all species. Germination of Quercus spp. was better in the undisturbed stand than in the disturbed stands, while that of Schima khasiana was better in the disturbed stands. An analysis of the fate of seed populations of the oak species revealed that loss of seeds caused through consumption by rodents and insects and transportation by various agents accounted for more than 98% of the seeds, while fewer than 1% of them germinated. 1055 True potato seed quality parameters and production. Upadhya, MD. International Potato Center, New Delhi (India) Proceedings of the FAO/DANIDA Seminar on Design and Implementation of Seed Programmes. Bangkok (Thailand), 12-16 May 1986. 1988. p. 113-122. 1056 Ultrastructural and physiological changes associated with loss of seed viability in pigeonpea. Kalpana, R; Raom, KVM. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology (India). (Jun 1993). v. 36(2) p. 86-89. 1057 Upgradation of quality in rain damaged seeds of sorghum inbred 296-A after processing. Manjare, MR; Patil, RB; Suryawanshi, YB. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1993, 18: 2, 328-329; 3 ref. Rainfall during seed development and maturation adversely affects seed viability mainly due to invasion of seeds by moulds. In a field study, foundation sorghum seed was grown during the kharif [monsoon] season of 1989-90. Seventeen seed lots were harvested from seed plots which were caught in rains either at physiological or field maturity stage. The seeds were unprocessed, or processed on air screen cleaner cum grader only or also processed on gravity separator. On average, seed germination was 29 and 44% higher from seeds graded with the latter 2 seed processing measures, respectively. 1058 Use of commercial cold stores for maintenance of germinability of maize seeds. Hari Singh; Gurmit Singh. Seed Research. 1992, publ. 1994, 20: 2, 104-106; 3 ref. Seeds of maize cv. Partap-1 and Vijay were dried to about 8.5% moisture content and packed in gunny bags, sealed polyethylene (single or double) bags or sealed metal containers. The seeds of both cultivars maintained germinability for up to 52 months in polyethylene (single and double) bags and metal containers in a cold store, but only 10-14 months in storage at room temperature.

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1059 Using electrical conductivity to determine maturity stage for quality rice seeds. Sivasubramanian, K; Karivaratharaju, TV. International Rice Research Newsletter. 1990, 15: 3, 21. Seeds of rice cv. IR50 were harvested at 27, 34 and 41 d after 50% anthesis, dried to 8% moisture content, treated with captan and stored in cotton and paperaluminium foil-polythene laminated containers for 9 months. Electrical conductivity (EC) of seed leachate was measured at 0, 3, 6 and 9 months after harvest using an Elico CM-82 conductivity bridge. Harvesting 27 d after 50% anthesis gave the lowest EC and highest germination (96%). Harvesting 41 d after 50% anthesis gave the highest EC and lowest germination (90%). Seeds stored in cotton bags had higher EC than those stored in laminated containers. 1060 Variability in quality aspect of seed spices and future strategy. Sanjeev Agrawal; Sharma, RK. Indian Cocoa, Arecanut and Spices Journal. 1990, 13: 4, 127129; 7 ref. Volatile seed oil contents were determined by distillation of ground 100 g samples of 18 entries of Coriandrum sativum, 14 entries of Cuminum cyminum and 6 entries of Foeniculum foenum- graecum[?]. Volatile oil content ranged from 0.10% (UD1, UD21 and Co1) to 0.35% (CS4) in C. sativum, from 2.3% (UC209) to 4.8% (UC198) in C. cyminum and from 0.45% (UF101) to 1.00% (Local control) in F. foenumgraecum. The correlation coefficient between yield and volatile oil content was not significant in C. sativum (r = -0.018), but had slightly higher negative values in C. cyminum and F. foenum-graecum (r = -0.43 and -0.40, respectively). 1061 Variation for cooking quality traits and their association with seed mass and seed coat in Kabuli chickpea. Waldia, RS; Singh, VP; Sood, DR; Tomar, YS. International Chickpea and Pigeonpea Newsletter. 1995, No. 2, 40-42; 5 ref. Some 110 Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum) genotypes were compared for 10 quality traits. The genotypes showed considerable variation for these characters. Variation was greatest for seed mass (16.4-42.2 g per 100 seeds), followed by seed volume (7-16 ml/seed). Seed coat content varied from 2.39 to 7.80%. The greatest variation among cooking quality traits was for cooked pulse weight (range 191.52-231.25 g). Seed mass was positively and significantly correlated with seed volume, swelling capacity, hydration capacity and cooking time. Seed coat content and water uptake were negatively associated with seed mass. Seed coat content was negatively associated with swelling capacity and weight of cooked pulse. 1062 Variation for seed mass, seedling vigor, and quality attributes in desi and Kabuli chickpea genotypes. Waldia, RS; Chandgi Ram; Sood, DR; Punia,

RC; Chhabra, AK. International Chickpea Newsletter. 1991, No. 24, 15-17. The comparative mean differences for most traits were highly significant between bold- and small-seeded types of both desi and Kabuli genotypes; rates of plumule emergence, radicle emergence, root length, and shoot length were higher in small than in bold seeded types, while the reverse was true for seed volume, hydration capacity, swelling capacity and electrical conductivity. Cystine content was higher in small than in bold types, iron content higher in desi-bold than Kabulibold types, and phosphorus content higher in Kabulismall than in Kabuli-bold types. 1063 Variation in the seed and oil yields and oil quality in the Indian germplasm of opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Suphla, Bajpai; Seema, Prajapati; Srikant, Sharma; Naqvi, A; Sushil, Kumar; Bajpai, S; Luthra, R; Kumar, S. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 1999, 46: 5, 435-439. Variation in seed shape, colour and yield, and oil content, yield and fatty acid composition of seed oil of 109 accessions of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), the majority of them Indian landraces, was investigated. The seeds were white, pale yellow or light brown in colour, reniform or round in shape and varied in size up to three-fold. The oil content, seed and the oil yield varied between 26 to 52%, 1.0 to 7.4 g/plant and 0.4 to 2.7 g/plant, respectively. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid contents in the seed oil ranged between 9.3 to 40.0%, 7.5 to 58.4% and 0.7 to 72.7%, respectively. On a mean basis, the levels of major fatty acids in the seed oil were: oleic (37.1%) > palmitic (27.3%) > linoleic acid (17.2%). Palmitoleic, stearic and linolenic acids were present in the oils of only some of the accessions. Two of the accessions yielded linoleic acid rich seed oil of about the same quality as soyabean and maize oils, and in four accessions, the proportion of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids was roughly equal. Palmitic acid content was relatively less and linoleic acid content more in the seed oil from accessions rich in oil content. The oil that contained greater amount of oleic acid also contained greater amounts of palmitic acid and relatively lower amount of linoleic acid. Correlation analyses revealed a strong positive relationship between seed yield and oil yield (r = +0.81), oil yield and oil content (r = +0.54) and oleic acid and palmitic acid content in the seed oil (r = +0.49), and a weak positive relationship between oil content and linoleic acid content of oil (r = +0.24), and a negative correlation was observed between oil content and palmitic acid content (r = -0.32), palmitic acid and linoleic acid (r = -0.55) and oleic acid and linoleic acid contents of oil (r = -0.68). The observations have permitted selection of accessions that are high seed and oil yielding and/or rich in linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids or containing palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids in. 1064 Varietal and seasonal variation in seed viability in Spanish groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Nauti-

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

yal, PC; Ravindra, V; Joshi, YC. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1990, 60: 2, 143-145; 4 ref. Seedling vigour index was calculated from germination and root length data for 14 varieties sown during the post-rainy season in January (rabi) and in the rainy season in June (kharif) 1986. Pod moisture was also recorded at harvest. Initial percentage germination and seedling vigour index values were lower in material harvested in January than in June. Post-rainy season seeds lost 30-70% viability after 4 months storage, and all varieties had less than 50% viability after 6 months. Only GAUG1 and Chico retained viability close to 50%. Seeds harvested in June retained viability longer (5680% after 24 month). These results were attributed to the high temperatures (30-38oC) and high levels of humidity (70-99%) present after the January harvest. 1065 Varietal performance, heritability and genetic advance for some quality components of seed and oil in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Rai, M; Kerkhi, SA; Naqvi, PA; Pandey, S; Dubey, SD; Vasishtha, AK. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 1990, 7: 2, 8-13 In trials at 3 sites in 1984-85, variability, broadsense heritability and genetic advance were estimated in 35 promising genotypes for moisture content, oil content, protein content and iodine value of the oil. Significant mean differences were obtained between the varieties for all traits. Considerable variability in moisture content (3.25-5.20%), oil content (38.0- 45.06%), protein content (13.55-17.86%) and iodine value (167.68190.25) was observed. Oil content was greatest in variety LCM84259 and lowest in LCK8327. The highest iodine value was observed in variety PBNL2. High heritability with medium to low genetic advance was estimated for all traits except moisture content. 1066 Vegetable seed production and quality control at Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta, 19821983 [hill area, Nepal]. [Workshop Paper]. Bhattarai, MR; Hunter, IG. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta (Nepal) Vegetable Seed Production Workshop. Kathmandu (Nepal), 31 Jan-5 Feb 1983. 12 p. 1067 Viability and moisture content of pulses stored at farmers' level. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report, 1983-84. p. 165. Pre-storage and samples of stored pulses were analyzed for purity, viability and moisture content after 2, 4 and 8 months of storage. The locations were Jamalpur, Jessore, Kishoregonj and Ishurdi and the pulses were lentil, mungbean, grasspea, chickpea, blackgram and pea. It was observed that earthen pitcher (top covered with sand), polythene bag covered with gunny bag, earthen motka and gunnybag with polythene lining proved suitable for storage of lentil at Jamalpur, Jessore, Ishurdi and Kishoregonj, respectively. Germination of lentil seeds was found improved with time in storage, while mungbean and blackgram retained excellent vi-

ability during storage irrespective of containers, at all locations except at Jessore, where blackgram sample stored in earthen motka (top covered with sand) showed downward trend in germination throughout the storage period. Moisture content of mungbean and blackgram ranged from 7.4 to 11.9 and 12.7%, respectively, over all locations during the storage period. Germination of grasspea and pea also improved with storage at all locations, irrespective of containers except at Kishoregonj where grasspea stored in gunnybag showed a downward trend, moisture content of grasspea varied from 11.6 to 12.6% during the storage, Earthen pitcher, top covered with sand and earthen motka with mud- sealed lid were found effective for pea although moisture contents varied from 8.0 to 13.0% on an average. Moisture content of the seeds stored in gunnybag with polythene lining varied from 8.9 to 17.0% on an average. Moisture content of the seeds stored in gunny bag with polythene lining varied from 8.9 to 17.0% in earthen motka at Kishoregonj. 1068 Viability and vigour of off season-grown jute seeds. Rahman, ML; Fakir, MSA; Prodhan, AKMA; Hossain, MA. Bangladesh Botanical Society, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Chittagong Univ. (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the 6th National Botanical Society (Bangladesh). 1989. p. 28-29. Jute seeds obtained from plants of three different sources viz. normal season plant (mother plants), their top cuttings and the off-season-grown plants were tested for germination. Seeds and seedlings of these sources were studied for their morphophysiological characters. There was substantial variation in % germination between seeds of Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius. There was, however, insignificant variation in radicle length, hypocotyl length, cotyledonary leaf size and seedling weight in the same species. 1069 Viability of date palm seeds under different pre-storage treatments. Hore, JK; Sen, SK. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. 1996, 25: 3, 54-56; 3 ref. Ripe date seeds were treated with different chemicals 1 month after harvest, then stored for 1 or 9 months at 10oC in polyethylene bags. In all treatments, treated seeds exhibited better germination than untreated controls. Percentage germination decreased with increasing storage period. The best germination (91.28 and 55.23% after 1 and 9 months storage, respectively) was exhibited by seeds pretreated with gibberellic acid at 200 ppm. 1070 Viability of hot-water treated paddy seeds under different storage conditions. Gokte, N; Mathur, VK. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin (FAO). (1992). v. 40(1/2) p. 36-37.

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1071 Viability of maize during storage. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report, 1988-89. p. 60-61. Clean maize seeds of variety Shuvra having 11% moisture and initial germination of 98% was kept in polythene bags and finally stored in tin containers. The containers were kept in the laboratory from May to March where mean temperature and relative humidity ranged between 29.2-17.10 C and 84-58%, respectively. Germination test results revealed that seed viability can be maintained above 75% for 11 months when the seeds were sealed in polythene bag and stored in tin containers. 1072 Viability of Phalsa seeds stored in different containers [Grewia subinaequalis L.] Sharma, SS; Yamdagni, R; Chauhan, KS. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences (India). (Jun 1982). v. 11(1 and 2) p. 66-67. 1073 Yield and in vitro nutritional quality of some leguminous seed protein isolates. Pandey, VN; Srivastava, AK. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Netherlands). (1991). v. 41(3) p. 247-251. 1074 Yield and quality of radish seeds as affected by time of sowing and spacing. Rashid, MA; Shahabuddin, Ahmed; Mondal, SN; Hossain, AKMA. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research. 1989, 14: 2, 122- 128; 6 ref. 1075 The yield and quality of soybean seeds as affected by foliar application of nitrogen and molybdenum. Ranaweera, SS; Amarawathi, WM. Sri Jayawardenapura Univ., Nugegoda (Sri Lanka) Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Session. Part 1: Sectional summaries. Colombo (Sri Lanka). Dec 1981. p. 36. 1076 Yield and quality of sugarcane as influenced by inter row spacing and seed rate. Shahid, Bashir; Khan, MZ; Naeem, Ahmad. Pakistan Sugar Journal. 2002, 17: 4, 7-9; 7 ref. A field experiment was conducted in Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 1994-95 to study the effects of crop density (37500, 50000, 65000, and 75000 DBS [double- budded setts]/ha) and intrarow spacing (0.72 and 1.20 m) on the yield of sugarcane cultivars CP70-1547, CP72-2086, and BL-4 (control). BL-4 and CP72-2086 produced the highest number of tillers per plant (2.31 and 2.47) while BL-4 and CP70-1547 gave the greatest cane stand (89190 and 78870/ha) and cane yield (75.79 and 68.78 t/ha). Crops established at 62500 and 75000 DBS/ha showed the highest cane (73.41 and 72.63 t/ha) and sugar (10.17 and 10.1 t/ha) yields. 1077 Yield and seed-quality characteristics of varieties of glandless cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Gururajan, KN; Henry, S; Krishnamurthy, R. Indian Jour-

nal of Agricultural Sciences. 1992, 62: 5, 316-318; 11 ref. Glandless cotton, because of the absence of gossypol in its seeds, is a useful source of oil and protein. Eight glandless varieties developed in diverse genetic backgrounds, together with the glanded control, LRA5166, were evaluated for a number of agronomic and technological characters during 1986-87. LRKg1x 931 produced the best seed-cotton yield (1710 kg/ha), with a boll weight (3.9 g) comparable to that of the control. All the varieties recorded higher ginning outturn than the control and belonged to the medium staple category. Most of the varieties recorded adequate values of count strength at 40s counts, indicating their suitability for spinning up to 40s count yarn. Embryo oil and protein percentages were negatively correlated, although Kglx 54620 had fairly high oil (36.6%) and protein (55%) contents and LRKglx 931 had oil and protein contents of 33.4% and 54.6%, respectively, similar to those of the control (32.1% and 54.2%). 1078 Yield and seed quality of mungbean as affected by irrigation in a dry season. Sangakkara, UR. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science (Germany). (1994). v. 172(5) p. 327-332. 1079 Yield and seed quality studies of dry seeded rice ADT 36 in relation to irrigation regimes. Ramamoorthy, K; Thanikodi, M; Srimathi, P; Kalavathi, D. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1993, 80: 11, 621-625; 11 ref. In a field experiment, rice cv. ADT 36 was continuously submerged to 5 cm, irrigated to 5 cm water 3 d after disappearance of ponded water or saturated to a thin film of water after the appearance of hairline cracks. The viability and vigour of seeds from these treatments were similar in fresh and aged seeds.

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SEED PRESERVATION AND STORAGE


1080 Aflatoxin and citrinin in seeds of some medicinal plants under storage. Roy, AK; Kumari, V. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1991, 29: 1, 62-65; 16 ref. Commercial seed samples of Hydnocarpus laurifolia, Blepharis edulis, Piper betle, Acacia concinna, Caesalpina digyna and Cassia fistula were examined for mycoflora and mycotoxin contamination. Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. were the predominant flora. A total of 60 samples were screened for mycotoxin contamination and 36 were positive for aflatoxin B1 (0.02-1.18 'g/g) and 11 were positive for citrinin (0.01-0.76 'g/g). Strains of A. flavus and P. citrinum isolated from the samples were tested for aflatoxin and citrinin production. About 50% of the A. flavus and 20% of the P. citrinum isolates, irrespective of the samples, were found to produce aflatoxin B1 (0.02-2.66 'g/ml of culture filtrate) and citrinin (0.010.79 'g/ml of culture filtrate), respectively. 1081 Aflatoxin contamination of mustard and taramira seeds under storage in Rajasthan. Podder, SR; Purohit, DK. Annals of Arid Zone. 1994, 33: 1, 6768; 13 ref. Aspergillus flavus strains, isolated from seeds of mustard (Brassica juncea) and taramira (Eruca sativa [E. vesicaria]), collected from different parts of Rajasthan, were screened for aflatoxin producing potentials. Forty- nine out of 50 and 71 out of 75 isolates from mustard and taramira, respectively, were toxigenic and elaborated varying amount of aflatoxins. Similarly when 27 and 38 naturally infested samples of taramira and mustard, respectively, were analysed for the presence of aflatoxins, 13 and 10 samples were positive for aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin B1 was invariably present in all of the contaminated samples and the amount of aflatoxin B1 varied from trace to 489 'g/kg in taramira, while in mustard it ranged from trace to 729 'g/kg. 1082 Aflatoxin contamination of sorghum seeds during storage under controlled conditions. Kushal, Mukherjee; Lakshminarasimham, AV; Mukherjee, K. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie. 1995, 282: 3, 237-243; 18 ref. Aflatoxins were estimated in 2 sorghum seed varieties (CSH-9 and AJ 140) collected in India and stored at 3 different temperature and humidity levels. Results indicated that 20oC and 73.5% relative humidity (RH) were safe storage conditions. Max. aflatoxin levels were observed at 31oC and 81.0% RH. Although Aspergillus flavus grew well at 40oC and all humidity levels tested, aflatoxin production was comparatively lower but reached a hazardous level after 5 months of storage. All 4 aflatoxins were detected in both seed SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

samples although aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 were predominant. 1083 Aflatoxins level in stored Strychnos seeds. Chourasia, HK. Indian Botanical Reporter. 1989, 8: 2, 157-158; 12 ref. Aflatoxins were analysed by TLC in 22 and 18 S. nux-vomica seed samples collected from gunny bags and tin containers, respectively. Percentage incidence of Aspergillus was max. in gunny bag samples and A. flavus was the predominant species. Of 37 strains of A. flavus isolated from different samples, 19 were toxigenic and their aflatoxin B1 production potential was in the range 0.11-0.92 'g/ml culture filtrates. 1084 Antifungal activity of some medicinal plants on stored seeds of Eleusine coracana. Note. Pandey, KN. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Sep 1982). v. 35(3) p. 499-501. 1085 An appraisal of seed storage management in agricultural farms of Bangladesh. Sarker, FIMGW; Muniruzzaman, MM; Khan, AH. Bangladesh Rice Journal (Bangladesh). (Jun-Dec 1991). v. 2(1- 2) p. 166. 1086 Baseline survey Arughat mini seed house site Arughat Village Panchayat Gorkha District, Nepal [for supply and storage of seeds, hill area] Khatri, Chhetry, K. Agricultural Inputs Corp., Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Jul 1982. 39 p. 1087 Baseline survey Bhojpur mini seed house site Bhojpur village panchayat Bhojpur district, Nepal [to supply seed, storage of seeds, hill area]. Khatri, Chhetry, K. Ministry of Agriculture, Lalitpur (Nepal). Integrated Cereal Project Agricultural Inputs Corp., Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Inputs Storage Project. Nov 1982. 35 p. 1088 Baseline survey Chainpur mini seed house site Chainpur Village Panchayat Bajhang District, Nepal [for supply and storage of seeds, hill area] Dahal, BN. Agricultural Inputs Corp., Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Jul 1982. 33 p. 1089 Baseline survey patan mini seedhouse site Patan Village Panchayat Baitadi District, Nepal [to supply and store seeds, hill area] Bhattarai, DP. Kathmandu (Nepal). Sep 1982. 26p. 1090 Baseline survey Phidim mini seed house site Phidim village panchayat Panchthar district, Nepal [to supply and store seeds, hill area]. Singh, P. Tribhuvan Univ., Kirtipur (Nepal). Statistics Instruction Committee Agriculture Inputs Corp., Kathmandu

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

(Nepal). Seed Production and Input Storage Project. 1982. 37 p. 1091 Baseline survey Rampurtar mini seed house site Baruneswor village panchayat Okhaldhunga district Sagarmatha Zone, Nepal [to supply and store seeds, hill area, Nepal]. Bhattarai, DP. Agriculture Inputs Corp., Kathmandu (Nepal). Seed Production and Inputs Storage Project. Dec 1982. 32 p. 1092 Bioassay of persistance of variable concentrations of malathion applied to maize stored as seed [Nepal] Neupane, FP. IAAS Journal (Nepal). Dec 1977). v. 1(1) p. 93-96. 1093 Biochemical changes of soybean seed during storage. Sarwar, H; Rubbi, SF. Bangladesh Association for the Advancement of Science, Dacca (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the 4th and 5th Bangladesh Science Conference. Rajshahi (Bangladesh), 2-5 Mar 1981. p. 163. Brogg variety of locally grown soybean seed was stored in polythene bags at room temperature. It was analysed every month for its proximate composition with particular reference to changes in the quality of oil. Initially the moisture content of the sun-dried seeds was (8.5%) and within ten months it increased to 12.27%. With the increase of moisture content, a sharp decrease in iodine value from 138.00 to 70.20 and increase in peroxide values from 10.10 to 42.65 was observed. A slight change of relative humidity was also found during this period. The reasons for such deterioration of the oil and their possible effect on the different aspects of the quality of seed to be used as food has been experimentally justified. 1094 Biochemical studies in bajra seed during storage. Vanangamudi, K; Ramaswamy, KR. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1989, 76: 8, 470-473; 9 ref. Bajra (Pennisetum americanum) seeds were collected from plants given (a) no fertilizer, (b) 100 kg N, (c) 200 kg N, (d) 50 kg P, (e) 100 kg P, (f) 50 kg P, (g) 100 kg K, (h) 100 kg N + 50 kg P + 50 kg K or (i) 200 kg N + 50 kg P + 50 kg K/ha. Seeds retained by 20 mm (G1) and 16 mm (G2) diam. round perforated metal sieves were treated with 2 g thiram slurry/kg seed and dried to 10% moisture content before packing in gada cloth or polyethylene bags. Seeds were stored for 15 months. Initial leachate conductivity ranged from 51 to 53 'mho/cm. Conductivity after storage ranged from 56 in (e) to 59 'mho in (d). Seed amino acid content initially ranged from 31 'g in (h) and (i) to 50 'g in (e) and (f); values after storage ranged from 57 in (i) to 83 'g in (a). Free sugars content ranged from 42 in (h) to 58 'g in (b) initially and from 68 in (c) and (i) to 98 'g in (a) after storage. Conductivity, free amino acid and free sugars content were greater before and after storage in

G1 than in G2 seeds and were greater after storage in cloth than polyethylene bags. 1095 Biodegradation of the cellular and acellular constituents of Aesculus indica seeds under normal storage conditions. Khan, L; Ahmad, N; Farooq, S; Ahmad, KD; Wadood, S. Fitoterapia. 1993, 64: 1, 3134; 2 col. pl.; 6 ref. The seeds of A. indica contain the saponin aescin which is used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. Fresh nuts (collected from Abbottabad, Murree, Pakistan, in Dec.), were stored at 29-30oC, 6567% RH under diffuse light conditions. After 1, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 days of storage, the biodegradation of the cellular and acellular seed constituents was analysed using macro-microscopical, phytochemical and microbiological techniques. Cellular markers in the embryo, cotyledons and endosperm were found to be organized on day 1, intact on day 30, shrinked but defined on day 60 and deformed on day 120. After 240 days, the intercellular walls showed ruptures and empty spaces, whereas after 480 days, seeds were unorganized, lumpy and broken. Aescin contents averaged 1.85, 1.66, 1.52, 1.15 and 0.2% on days 1, 30, 60, 120 and 240, respectively. Protein contents decreased from 8.6% (day 1) to 2.0% (day 240). Corresponding values for starch contents were 34.7 and 17.0%. The oil contents remained stable for at least a month (1.2% on day 1 and day 2), and decreased to 0.6% after 120 days of storage. The presence of spore-forming bacteria was noted after 30 and 60 days; Aspergillus and Penicillium species were detected after 120 and 240 days. Haemolytic activity of aescin diminished markedly after 30 days and was absent by day 240. 1096 Characterization of seed storage proteins of lentil (Lens culinaris M.). Gupta, R; Dhillon, S. Annals of Biology (India). (1993). v. 9(1) p. 71-78. 1097 Characterization of vicilin seed storage protein of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Mandaokar, AD; Koundal, KR; Kansal, R; Bansal, HC. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology (India). (Jan 1993). v. 2(1) p. 35-38. 1098 Chemical changes in the lipids of canola and flax seeds during storage. Gopalakrishnan, N; Cherian, G; Sim, JS. Fett Lipid (Germany). (1996). v. 98(5) p. 168-171. 1099 Chemical composition of seed and electrophoretic pattern of seed storage protein of jute Corchorus olitorius and C. capsularis. Gadgil, JD; Suseelan, KN; Mitra, R; Joshua, C; Bhatia, R; Sinha, MK; Guharoy, MK. Seed Science and Technolgy (Switzerland). (1989). v. 17(3) p. 499-506.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

1100 Chemical control of corn weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky infesting maize seeds in storage. Bhuiyah, IM; Islam, N; Ahmed, A; Uddin, A. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology. 1995, 23: 2, 209-214; 6 ref. Six insecticides (Decis (deltamethrin), Actellic (pirimiphos- methyl), Elsan (phenthoate), Volaton (phoxim), Maladan (malathion) and Sumithion (fenitrothion)) were evaluated against Sitophilus zeamais on stored maize seeds in Bangladesh. All the insecticides except Actellic were found to be effective in protecting the seeds for 9 months under storage conditions. None of them showed adverse effects on seed viability. 1101 Chemical control Sitopluslus spp., infesting maize seeds in storage. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Joydebpur. Annual Research Review (Entomology Division) - BARI 1992-93. p. 8081. Six insecticides viz., Deltamethrin 2.5 E.C. Actellic (pirimiphos methyl) 50 E.C. Elsau (Phenthoate) 50 E.C. Votaton (Baythion) 500, Maladan (Malathion) 57 E.C. Sumithion (Fenitrothion) 30% were tested for controlling of Sitophilus spp. infesting maize seeds in the year 1992-93. All the insecticides gave effective control of the pest. The infestation of treated seed using the insecticides ranged from 2.70 to 9.89% while the infestation was higher in the control ranging from 14.8 to 11.33% up to six months of storage. 1102 Chemical manipulation of seed logevity of four crop species in an unfavourable storage environment. Chhetri, DR; Rai, AS; Bhattacharjee, A. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland). (1993). v. 21(1) p. 31-44. 1103 Chilli seed storage in relation to variety and container. Sharma, SN; Goyal, KC; Kakralya, BL. Seed Research. 1998, 26: 1, 83-86. Seeds of chilli [Capsicum] cultivars Pusa Jwala and Mathania Local were sun-dried to a moisture content of about 6% and treated with 2.5 g thiram/kg seed or not treated. They were then placed in 700-gauge polyethylene bags or paper bags and stored in an insectfree godown for 27 months. Germinability declined during storage particularly after 19 months. Storing seeds of either cultivar in polybags with or without thiram treatment maintained seed germination above the minimum seed certification standard (60%) for 25-26 months. Seed moisture content remained about 6% in polybags but in paper bags it responded to changes in RH and temperature in the godown. 1104 Comparative efficacy of different material against Sitophilus oryzae L. infesting maize seeds in storage. Islam, N; Bhuiyah, MIM; Begum, A; Karim,

MA. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology. 1989, 17: 2, 175178; 9 ref. Two chemical insecticides and 2 plant materials were tested in the laboratory against Sitophilus oryzae in stored maize. Treatment with Decis 2.5 E.C. [deltamethrin] at 3 p.p.m. was the most effective over a period of 9 months, followed by Sevin 10% dust [carbaryl] at 30 p.p.m. Turmeric powder (2%) and 2% Lantana camara powder were nearly as effective as the insecticides. 1105 Comparative studies of three traditional methods of seed rhizome storage of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) practiced in Sikkim and Darjeeling hills. Rai, S; Hossain, M. Environment and Ecology. 1998, 16: 1, 34-36. Ginger is an important crop for hundreds of farmers in Sikkim and Darjeeling hills, India. There are 3 traditional methods of seed rhizome storage, namely, storage in soil pits, storage in a dry, shady place, and storage in the field involving delayed harvesting. The first method is the best for small scale growers, but expensive and laborious for large scale growers. Storage in a dry, shady place is economic for the larger growers but there is a problem of rhizomes drying. Storage in the field by delayed harvesting is not to be encouraged as it harbours rhizome rot causing organisms and pests. 1106 A comparative study on the various seed yam storage techniques under ordinary farm conditions. George, J. Journal of Root Crops - Special Issue. 1991, 17, 116-119; 6 ref. Yams [Dioscorea alata] cv. Sree Roopa showed better storability when placed on racks in a covered barn, compared with an open barn and various pit treatments. Damage due to Fusarium sp. was high in the open barn. 1107 Comparison of storage containers for storage of French bean seeds under ambient conditions. Doijode, SD. Seed Research. 1988, 16: 2, 245-247; 4 ref. Seeds of 5 Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars stored in 5 different containers for 48 months under ambient conditions gave high percentage germination during the first 24 months of storage, which decreased with further increase in storage duration. Seeds stored in glass jars, laminated bags and polyethylene bags gave higher percentage germination than those stored in butter paper or kraft paper bags. The leaching of electrolytes and percentage loss of sugars during storage were greater in non-viable seeds than in viable seeds and were greater in seeds of cv. Sel-2 than in seeds of other cultivars. 1108 Compositional changes and storage protein synthesis in developing seeds of Brassica campestris. Dasgupta, S; Mandal, RK. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland). (1993). v. 21(2) p. 291-299. 3

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1109 Compositional changes in sandal seeds on storage. Ananthapadmanabha, HS; Shankaranarayana, KH; Nagaveni, HC. Indian Journal of Forestry. 1989, 12: 2, 157-158; 6 ref. Analyses were made of composite samples of fresh seeds of sandal (Santalum album) collected from 10 trees and of seeds stored for >2 yr (non-viable seeds). The crushed decoated seeds were extracted with petroleum ether to remove the fatty oil, which was analysed. The protein content and amino acid composition of the remaining deoiled seed meal was determined. The protein content of deoiled seed meal was 60.0% in viable seeds and 41.0% in non-viable seeds; corresponding reductions in various essential amino acids were observed. Fatty oil contents of viable and non-viable seeds were 60.0 and 63.5%, respectively, while the corresponding acid values were 8.21 and 4.57. Both percentage unsaponifiable matter and iodine values increased on storage (78 to 12.3% and 147.0 to 161.0, respectively). The results are briefly discussed in relation to the loss of seed viability. 1110 Control of cigarette beetle in tobacco seed storage. Rao, KN. Indian Tobacco Journal (India). (Dec 1981). v. 13(3) p. 11-12. 1111 Control of Sitophilus orayzae L. in wheat seed under all farmers' store conditions. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report, 1991-92. p. 48-49. Efficacy of different storage treatments, (1) control-1 (closed container), (2) control-11 (open container), (3) the interspace of seed was filled up by dry sand with a sand and grain ratio of 1: 1.4) seed treated with 10% Sevin dust and (5) seed treated with Deltamethrin (Decis 2.5 E.C.) was evaluated against the S. oryzae on wheat seeds. Each container (glass jar) containing one kg of well-dried wheat seeds and 20 newly emerged adult S. oryzae, a sample of 10 g of seed was taken at random from each container 90 days after storage to see the infestation on the basis of holes on the grains. After three months of storage, the lowest infestation of 1.16 percent was obtained from the seeds treated with Decis 2.5 E.C. and the highest infestation of 88.32 percent was obtained from the seeds stored as control-1 (Tin kept open) while the seeds treated with sand, Sevin 10% dust, seeds kept in Tin closed with lid and seeds tread with lantana leaf powder 5% had 1.17, 1.28, 12.37 and 3.36 percent infestation, respectively. 1112 Cryogenic preservation of bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea) seeds for propagation in forests. Suman, Midya; Midya, S. Indian Forester. 1994, 120: 6, 541-543; 9 ref. Bambusa arundinacea has a flowering cycle of 30-45 years. During April/May 1989 there was a widespread seed setting of the species in West Bengal SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

and Orissa, so long-term storage of these was attempted. Freshly collected seeds were sealed in polythene bags and kept at -70o for 1 yr. Introduction to, and withdrawal from this low temperature was done in steps from +4 to -20 to - 70o. Some 65% of seeds germinated after this treatment. 1113 Cultivar variation in storability of soybean seed under a lowland humid environment in Sri Lanka. Arulnandhy, V; Herath, HME. Tropical Agriculturist. 1987. v. 143. p. 1-11. Seeds of 85 soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes of diverse origins were stored under humid tropical conditions. Seeds were germinated periodically and evaluated for viability and vigour. The seed viability and vigour of the genotypes declined at a slow rate during the first three months of storage and rapidly thereafter. However, three small seeded genotypes retained high viability and vigour for six months. Correlation coefficients indicated a tendency for long half-lives to be associated with higher initial germination percentages and smaller seed size. The results suggested that sufficient variability existed in agronomically adapted cultivars for improving seed storability to suit the humid tropical environments. 1114 Deposition of storage proteins in developing mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) seeds. Dhillon, S; Nainawatee, HS. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry New Delhi. 1990, 17: 1, 13-18; 25 ref. Seed development in V. radiata cv. MH-309 lasted for 2 weeks. The most active seed filling period was between 7 and 11 d after flowering (DAF) during which 85% of DM and 78% of protein accumulation took place. [14C]-amino acid incorporation studies showed that storage protein synthesis was max. at 10 DAF. The albumins were synthesized first (7-9 DAF) followed by the globulin and glutelin fractions (9-11 DAF). Daily deposition rates were 285, 375, 893 and 345 'g protein/seed for albumin, legumin, vicilin and glutelin fractions, resp. HPLC of total salt soluble proteins demonstrated that the proportion of low MW proteins was high during early seed development (97% at 5 DAF) but decreased as the seed matured with a concomitant increase in the proportion of higher MW proteins. 1115 Deterioration of physico-chemical properties of chilgoza (Pinus gerardiana wall) seed during storage. Singh, PL; Gupta, MN; Singh, AL. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology (India). (Sep 1992). v. 35(3) p. 231-237. 1116 Deterioration of soybean seed stored in different containers under ambient conditions. Arulnandhy, V; Senanayake, YDA. Seed Research. 1988. v. 16(2) p. 183-192.

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

Seeds of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars were stored in clay pot, closed metal can (unsealed), paper bag and sealed single and double polyethylene bags (guage 150) for a period of 9 months under ambient conditions in the humid tropics. Seeds in polyethylene bags maintained significantly higher viability and vigour for 9 months as compared to 3 months by seeds in other containers. They had 80% germinations in the sand germination test and their mean moisture content increased to only 9.5% from the initial moisture of 9.2% on wet weight hasis. Moisture content of seeds of other containers increased to 11.5%. There was a remarkable fluctuation in the moisture of seeds that were stored in containers other than sealed polyethylene bags. Sealed polyethylene bags which minimize moisture fluctuation in stored seeds may be the appropriate container for storing soybean seeds in the humid tropics; however, seeds must be well dried to around 9% moisture content before storage. 1117 Differences among potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars in northern India in performance of diffuse light stored seed potatoes. Mehta, A; Kaul, HN. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (Netherlands). (1989). v. 32(2) p. 197-202. 1118 Differential deposition of storage protein in developing Brassica juncea seeds. Dhawan, K; Nainawatee, HS; Kumar, P. Cruciferae Newsletter. 1988, No. 13, 120-121; 3 ref. Individual flower buds of field-grown B. juncea were tagged and pods were sampled at 3-d intervals from 10 d after flowering (DAF) to maturity. Proteins were detected in seeds from 24 DAF, onwards. Deposition of 112 kDa proteins increased from around 27 DAF until maturity when it comprised 40.2% of the total proteins. Almost all the storage protein at 24 DAF consisted of 10 kDa protein, the concn of which decreased until around 34 DAF, increased slightly up to 36 d and then decreased until maturity (35.6% of the total proteins). The percentage of 26 kDa protein increased to around 27 DAF but decreased from around 33 DAF until maturity (24.2% of the total proteins). 1119 Drying and storage behaviour of mango (Mangifera indica) seeds and composition of kernel fat. Hemavathy, J; Prabhakar, JV; Sen, DP. ASEAN Food Journal. 1988, 4: 2, 59-63; 11 ref. The seed content of 8 mango cultivars assessed varied from 8.1 to 22.0% of the fruit, and the kernel constituted between 45.7 and 72.8% of the seed. The fat content in kernels ranged from 8.2 to 14.3% on a DW basis. The following physicochemical characteristics of the fat were determined: softening point (25- 34oC), free fatty acids (1.3-3.5 g oleic acid/100 g fat), saponification value (172-206 mg KOH/g fat), iodine value (Wijs 40.1-56.5) and unsaponifiable matter (1.01.8%). The fatty acid composition of the kernel fat from SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

seeds of the 8 cultivars is tabulated. Storage of fresh wet seeds of cv. Alphonso (51.2% moisture content) for 16 days under ambient conditions (23-27o, 60-65% RH) resulted in 25.8% kernel spoilage; the free fatty acids of the kernel fat increased from 1.9 to 4.6 g oleic acid/100 g fat during storage. The fresh wet seeds could be dried to a moisture content of 10.8% prior to storage, by sundrying for 6 to 7 days or by mechanical drying for 24 h. 1120 Effect of chemical modification on some structural and functional properties of pennisetin, a major seed storage protein from pearl millet. Sainani, MN; Gupta, VS; Mishra, VK; Lachke, AH; Ranjekar, PK; Pillay, DTN. Phytochemistry (United Kingdom). (1993). v. 34(4) p. 919-925. 1121 Effect of different temperatures, humidities and period of storage upon prevalance of seed mycoflora of lentil. Vishunavat, K; Shukla, P. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology (India). (Apr 1983). v. 13(1) p. 109-111. 1122 Effect of essential oils of some higher plants on Aspergillus flavus link. Infesting stored seeds of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. (Taub.)). Dwivedi, SK; Dwivedi, SK; Pandey, VN; Dubey, NK. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 1991, 6: 4, 295-297; 13 ref. The essential oils from leaves and seeds of angiosperms in Varanasi, India, as well as from local markets were tested against the mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus. The volatile oil from seeds of Daucus carota exhibited complete toxicity against the test fungus. The min. inhibitory concn of the oil at which it exhibited fungistasis was 2000 p.p.m. when it was not phytotoxic on seed germination and seedling growth of guar, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. It exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum inhibiting the mycelial growth of a number of fungi at 1500, 2000 and 2500 p.p.m. Moreover, the oil was more effective than some synthetic fungicides including Agrosan G.N., copper oxychloride, Derosal, Dithane M-45 and Thiovit. 1123 Effect of hydration-dehydration on storability of tomato and radish seeds. Doijode, SD; Raturi, GB. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology (India). (Jun 1990). v. 33(2) p. 172-174. 1124 Effect of packaging material on storability of poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum). Verma, OP; Singh, PV; Singh, K; Vishwakarma, SK. Seed Research. 1996, publ. 1997, 24: 1, 57-58; 5 ref. Freshly harvested seeds of cultivars NOP1, NOP4 and MC37 at 7% moisture content were stored in cloth bags, paper bags or 700- gauge polyethylene bags and held under ambient conditions for up to 18 months. Germination was assessed at 3-monthly intervals. Germinability declined during storage but this decline was least marked in polyethylene bags and most marked 5

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

in cloth bags. It is suggested that the paper bags may have resisted moisture transfers from the environment to the seeds better than cloth bags. 1125 Effect of relative humidity and temperature on the spoilage of Foeniculum vulgare Mill seeds during storage. Sharma, AK; Sharma, KD. Agricultural Science Digest (India). (Mar 1984). v. 4(1) p. 25-28. 1126 Effect of seed source and period of storage on enzyme activity of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. subsp. indica Benth. Vijagaragavan, A; Vanangamudi, K. Forest Coll. and Research Inst., Mettupalayam, Tamil Nadu (India) IUFRO Joint Symposium on Tree Seed Technology, Physiology and Tropical Silviculture. 2001. 225p. Acacia nilotica is an important multi-purpose tree widely used for fuelwood, fodder, timber, tannin and gum. The climate of India greatly accelerate ageing phenomenon at ambient storage environment causing deterioration and loss of viability. Keeping this in mind, an investigation involving eleven different seed sources of A. nilotica seeds, collected from four different agroclimatic zones of Tamil Nadu were evaluated to determine the storage potential of the seeds. After the initial evaluation, the seeds at 8% moisture content were packed according to seed source in plastic containers and stored under ambient conditions. The samples were evaluated every three months for enzyme activity, seed germinability and vigour. The results after twenty-one months of storage indicated that Erods and Aliyar sources of the Western Zone had higher enzyme activity (amylase, catalase and dehydrogenase), which in turn had higher germination and seedling vigour when compared to other seed sources. 1127 Effect of seed treatments and containers on vegetable seed storage under different agro-climatic conditions. Jayaraj, T; Vadivelu, KK; Dharmalingam, C; Vijayakumar, A; Irulappan, I. South Indian Horticulture. 1988, 36: 4, 183-187 Seeds of the tomato cultivar Co.3, capsicum cv. Co.2, aubergine cv. PKM1 and okra cv. Pusa Sawani were dried to 7% moisture content, treated with captan or thiram (each at 2 g/kg seeds), packed into cloth bags or aluminium foil pouches and stored in ambient conditions for up to 12, 15 and 18 months at 3 locations representing tropical, sub-tropical and temperate conditions. Generally seeds treated with captan and stored in the aluminium foil pouches showed the highest % germination at the end of storage. 1128 Effect of seed treatments on storage life of Casuarina equisetifolia. Umarani, R; Bharathi, A; Karivaratharaju, TV. Journal of Tropical Forest Science (Malaysia). (Sep 1997). v. 10(1) p. 18-23. Umarani, R., Bharathi, a. & Karivaratharaju, T.V. 1997. Effect of seed treatments on storage life of SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

Casuarina equisetifolia. Seeds of Casuarina equisetifolia were treated with leaf powders of arappu (Albizia amara), neem (Azadirachta indica) and notchi (Vitex negundo), and neem oil, Captan, Thiram, Carbaryl, Captan plus Carbaryl, and Thiram plus Carbaryl. The dosage per 100 g of seed for each of the leaf powders was 10 g; neem oil, 1 ml; Captan, 2 g; Thiram, 2 g; Carbaryl, 200 mg; Captan plus Carbaryl, 1 g plus 100 mg; and Thiram plus Carbaryl, 1 g plus 100 mg. They were stored in polythene and paper bags for seven months and then subjected to germination test. Measurements were made of percentage germination, root and shoot lengths, dry matter production and vigour index. Although seed viability and vigour decreased with increase in period of storage, the arappu treatment followed by that of Captan and Carbaryl recorded higher values compared to the rest of the treatments and control. For example, from an initial percentage germination of 70 percent, the value dropped to 22 percent in the control after seven months storage. However, treatments with arappu leaf powder and Captan plus Carbaryl resulted in values of 88 percent and 31 percent respectively after the same period of storage. Germination and vigour were maintained better in polythene than paper containers. 1129 Effect of storage and ripening on peroxidase enzyme, some nutritional and antinutritional factors present in the pulp and seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) Sushmita Gupta; Yamini, Chaturvedi; Ranjana, Nagar. Journal of Food Science and Technology Mysore. 1997, 34: 3, 242-244; 16 ref. The biochemical effects of storage and ripening on pumpkin pulp and seeds were studied with respect to peroxidase enzyme and various nutritional and antinutritional factors. Storage and ripening increased peroxidase enzyme activity, free amino acids and total sugars but decreased protein content. 1130 Effect of storage conditions on longevity of French bean seeds. Borthakur, D; Barua, PK. Journal of the Agricultural Science Society of North East India. 1995, 8: 2, 220-222; 6 ref. Germination of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. PDR-14 and HUR-137 seeds was recorded after 0, 45, 90 and 140 days of storage by 1 of 6 methods: stored in cloth bag inside a sealed polythene bag containing 100 g silica gel (T1) or fine and dry wood ash (T2); stored in cloth bag after treatment with 4 g/kg Indofil M-45 [mancozeb + thiophanate-methyl] and 4 g/kg 5% malathion dust (T3); as T3 but cloth bag sealed inside a polythene bag (T4); stored in earthern pots containing sterilized, dried sand, plugged with sterilized cotton (T5); stored in cloth bag inside sealed polythene bag (T6). All seed bags were kept inside wooden boxes dusted with 5% malathion. The difference in germination percentage between the 2 cultivars was only significant at 45 days storage, HUR-137 showing 6

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

4.5% better germination than PDR-14. Germination percentage declined markedly as storage time increased in all treatments, but remained highest in T1 and T4. Drying of seeds, treatment with effective fungicides and protection from relative humidity of the atmosphere by suitable packaging materials is recommended for improving the longevity of French bean seeds. 1131 Effect of storage conditions on seed longevity. Anjana, Rajput; Mishra, GP. Journal of Tropical Forestry. 1996, 12: 4, 220-229; 13 ref. Seeds of Adina cordifolia, Mitragyna parvifolia and Hymenodictyon excelsum collected in Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, were stored in filled polybags under different conditions (in containers at room temperature, 10, 28 or 45oC, or 90% relative humidity at 30oC; or under a partial vacuum in a desiccator) just after collection for up to 24 months. Best storage for A. cordifolia and H. excelsum was under a partial vacuum; under these conditions the seeds showed 76 and 98% germination, respectively even after 24 months storage, while other treatments resulted in a large loss of viability. M. parvifolia stored much less well, with the best storage condition at 10oC (14.65% germination after 24 months), followed by partial vacuum treatment (10%). 1132 Effect of storage containers on the incidence of storage mould in groundnut. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report 1987-88. p. 173. Groundnut seeds were stored for one year in five different containers: tin container, gunny bag, plain polythene, earthen motka and dole with or without covering polythene, coal tar, cowdung and paddy straw. The incidence of storage microbes viz., Aspergillus hauvus, A. niger, M. phaseolina, Rhizopus spp. and Chaetomium spp. were recorded from seeds stored in different containers. Among them, A. niger and M. phaseolina were very destructive, especially for groundnut. M. phaseolina generally treated as a field fungus had a decreasing trend with the increase in storage period. Earthen motka with polyethene lining inside and earthen motka with coaltar coating outside were more promising for safe storage of groundnut seed than other containers. In both of the treatments, low microbiol association and decreasing trend of A. flavus and A. niger with increase in storage period were pronounced. Curvularia lunata and Gladosporium spp. were not detected at all in earthen motka with polyethene lining inside. Moisture contenst and seed viability after different periods of storage were measured. Seed viability decreased to 79, 76, 74, 37 and 17% resspectively, after six months of storage in motka with poly-lining, dole with poly- lining, jute bag with poly-lining, tin container and motka with coaltar lining, respectively. At the end of one year of storage, seed viability was lost completely in all the containers. SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

1133 Effect of storage of sunflower seeds in high and low relative humidity in solute leaching and internal biochemical changes. Halder, S; Gupta, K. Seed Science and Technology (Netherlands). (1980). v. 8(3) p. 317-321. Sunflower seeds deteriorated completely within 90 days when kept in 95per cent RH at 28+/-1 deg C but it remained almost fully viable for 120 days in 85 per cent RH. Considerable decrease of germination was noted 150 days in 85 per cent RH when germination of seeds stored at 50 per cent RH remained unaffected. Leakage of electrolytes, soluble carbohydrate and soluble nitrogen decreased when seeds were stored at high RH, as did the internal levels of carbohydrate of embryo and cotyledon. Amino acid levels, however, increased in non-viable seeds but soluble protein levels remained unchanged. Such unrelated results created difficulty in explaining the deteriorative changes. 1134 Effect of storage temperatures on the survival of Botrytis cinerea in chickpea seeds. Singh, MP; Tripathi, HS. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology (India). (Aug 1993). v. 23(2) p. 177-179. 1135 Effect of threshing method, drying temperature and storage condition on microbial deterioration of soybean seeds. Sangakkara, UR. Journal of Applied Seed Production. 1988, 6: 1-5; 17 ref. The effects of 2 methods of storage, 4 drying temp. and 2 conditions of storage on the development of fungal infections on soyabean seeds were evaluated. The fungi were identified by culture on potato dextrose media. Seeds threshed mechanically and dried at higher temp. showed a higher percentage of infection. This was most prominent when the seeds were stored at high RH, and was reflected by the rapid development of fungal infection leading to the rapid loss of germinability. Aspergillus and Phomopsis spp. predominated. In contrast, hand threshed seeds dried at lower temp. retained their germinability 12 weeks after storage and were relatively free of fungal infection. Possible methods of retaining the quality of seed under tropical farming conditions are presented. 1136 Effect of wild ginger, Zingiber purpureum Roscoe. on cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in stored cowpea. Bandara, KANP; Seneviratna, DKHWPWR. Tropical Agriculturist (Sri Lanka). (1993). v. 149 p. 89-100. 1137 Effects of seed treatment on seed health of soybean under storage. Solunke, RB; Jawale, LN; Hussaini, MM; Bonde, VJ; Sudewad, SM. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1998, 23: 2, 176-178.

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

In Kharif 1994, seeds of PK-472 and MACS-13 soyabeans were harvested and treated with thiram, captan, mancozeb, carbendazim or thiram + carbendazim, or were an untreated control. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium moniliforme [Gibberella fujikuroi] were the predominant seedborne fungi followed by Curvularia lunata [Cochliobolus lunatus], Alternaria alternata and Penicillium sp. Seeds treated with thiram, captan or mancozeb maintained their viability in cloth bags up to 6 months after harvesting under storage conditions in Parbhani, Maharashtra, India. 1138 Effects of seed treatments and storage on the changes in lipids of pearl millet meal. Kadlag, RV; Chavan, JK; Kachare, DP. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Netherlands). (Jun 1995). v. 47(4) p. 279285. 1139 Effects of treating seed potatoes with trace elements on sprouting and microbial spoilage during storage under tropical conditions. Shashirekha, MN; Narasimham, P. Annals of Applied Biology. 1990, 117: 3, 645-652; 18 ref. Attempts were made to extend the storage life of seed potatoes by treating them with trace elements as antimicrobial and antisprouting agents. In tests to measure the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, it was found to be decreased more by iron, copper and zinc than by boron, manganese and molybdenum. Dipping seed tubers in aqueous solutions of trace element salts decreased both sprouting and microbial spoilage during storage at ambient conditions. Field testing at the end of storage showed that treating seed potatoes with ferrous sulfate did not decrease the yield of tubers or increase their iron content. It is suggested that elements may be used to extend the storage life of seed potato tubers, in tropical conditions. 1140 Efficacy of inert materials for control of pulse beetle infestation of black gram seeds in storage. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report 1983-84. p. 162. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of ash, sand, sawdust, rice husk, wheat husk and rice straw in controlling pulse beetle infestation in black gram seeds after 3, 6 and 9 months of storage. For each treatment, 1 kg seed was placed in a glass jar without lid and covered upto 3 cm thickness with different inert materials. Top layer of ash, sand, sawdust and rice husks gave highly significant reduction in pulse beetle infestation in stored seeds upto 3, 6 and 9 months of storage respectively, and ash and sand were best inert materials as stored seed had no beetle infestation even after nine months.

1141 Evaluation of containers for storing wheat seed grain under farmers conditions [Nepal]. Bhattarai, MR; Hunter, IG; Thapa, BB. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta (Nepal) Jul 1982. 6 p. 1142 Evaluation of deltamethrin as fabric treatment in storage of wheat seed at farm level. Yadav, TD. Indian Journal of Entomology. 1997, 59: 1, 103-109; 10 ref. In studies conducted in India, deltamethrin was applied to jute fabric prior to the storage of wheat. Seed samples from treated jute bags were evaluated for moisture content, germination and insect infestation. Deltamethrin gave excellent protection against the major insect pests (Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica, Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium, Corcyra cephalonica and Ephestia cautella [Cadra cautella]) and seed germination remained high (97%). 1143 Evaluation of lindane and bromophos in groundnut seeds during storage. Shetty, HS; Lakshminarayana, KP; Shetty, SA. Proceedings of the 5. international working conference on stored-product protection. Bordeaux, France, September 9-14, 1990. 1990. v. 1 p. 639-648. 1144 Evaluation of soyabean genotype for seed variability during storage. Arulnandhy, V; Bowers, GR; Smith, OD. Sri Lankan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. Sri Lanka. 1984. v.27 p. 71-81. Seed of 38 soybean (GZycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes selected from the 1980 Southern Region Uniform Soybean Tests, stored under laboratory conditions at approximately 25o C for 12 months (preaged) and fresh seed of 46 genotypes selected from the 1981 Southern Region Uniform Soybean Tests, were assessed for seed viability under ambient and cold storage. In general, germination of pre-aged seed dropped drastically within three months of ambient storage whereas fresh seed stored equally well at ambient and cold temperatures for three months. The rate of loss in viability of pre-aged seed was much greater than that of fresh seed at ambient temperatures. The genotypes differed significantly in aermination ability at all preiods of storage at both storage temperatures; however, pre-aged seed of two genotypes differed sigficantly in germination ability at all preiods of storage at both storage temperatures; however, preaged seed of two genotypes and fresh seed of 14 genotypes maintained above 80% germination for three and six months, respectively, at both conditions of storage. Generally, pre-aged seed of the genotypes, whose fresh seed stored well at ambient temperatures, maintained high viability under cold storage. The rate of loss in viability was remarkably slower and increase of seed moisture was less under cold than ambient storage. Seed moisture increased in both fresh and pre-aged seed 8

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

at three months of storage under both storage conditions, but the moisture gain was much greater under ambient storage where seed viability loss was most rapid. Our results suggest that sufficient variability exists in agronomically adapted material for improving seed-storability under adverse condition. 1145 Evaluation of soybean genotypes for seed storability. Singh, G; Gill, SS; Singh, TP. Soybean genetics newsletter (USA). (May 1994). v. 21 p. 128129. 1146 Functional properties of winged bean genotypes in relation to storage [Bangladesh] Newaz, N; Rahman, Z; Newaz, MA; Haque, MS. Bangladesh Journal of Crop Science (Bangladesh). (Jun 1990). v. 1(1) p. 13-21. Dry mature seeds of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L.) from local and exotic genotypes were investigated for their functional properties. There was little variation in the proximate composition between the two genotypes. Water absorption capacity per gram seed flour was 1.23g in local and 1.30g in the exotic genotype. Least gelation concentration of the flour of both the genotypes was same 16%. foaming capacities (Volume increase) of the flour in the local and exotic genotypes were 17% and 20% respectively. Foaming capacity in both the genotypes was concentration dependent. In vitro protein digestibility of fresh bean was 72.8% and 71.0% for the local and exotic genotype respectively. Long storage of winged bean seeds at ambient temperature after harvest showed little variation in proximate composition but resulted in marked changes in functional properties. Storage moderately increased the water absorption capacity and least gelation concentration of the flour while greatly reduced the foaming capacity and stability. The stored sample suffered and significant loss in protein digestibility. 1147 Grading and storage potential of Casuarina equisetifolia seeds. Jerlin, R; Srimathi, P. Annals of Forestry. 1997, 5: 1, 103-106; 6 ref. Seeds of C. equisetifolia were collected from plus trees at the Forestry Research Station at Mettupalayam, Tamil Nadu, dried, graded by size and stored for 1 yr in cloth bags. Seeds retained by British Sieve Size (BSS) 10 and 12 recorded 93% recovery and performed significantly better during the initial stages of storage compared with seeds which passed through BSS 12. Of various drying regimes (2 in the sun, 1 in the shade and 1 in the oven) drying of cones in the sun between 08.00 and 12.00 and 14.00 and 15.00 h was the best. Cones collected from the top portion of the tree crown gave higher seed recovery and better seed growth performance.

1148 Impact of storage systems on mycoflora of [Madhuca longifolia seeds. Singh, BK; Saha, NK. Indian Phytopathology. 1994, 47: 3, 266-269; 5 ref. Seeds of M. longifolia were collected from forests in Bihar, India. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. tamarii and Penicillium purpurogenum were identified in the initial samples and after 6 months storage A. glaucus, A. nidulans, P. citrinum and Cladosporium herbarum were also identified. The seeds were stored in earthenware pots, gunny bags or metal containers. The earthenware pots and gunny bags allowed free access of the atmospheric moisture leading to higher levels of fungal contamination compared with the sealed metal containers. 1149 Importance of warehouse management [to store the seeds of wheat, maize and rice, Nepal] Basnyat, TD. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal) Rural Save Grain Programme Seminar on Seed Production, Processing and Storage. Kathmandu (Nepal), 1 Jul-28 Aug 1981. p. 160-163. 1150 Indigenous methods of seed selection and preservation on the Andaman islands in India. Bandyopadhyay, AK; Saha, GS. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor. 1998, 6: 1, 3-6. A discussion is presented focusing on farmers' ingenuity in devising ways to obtain sufficient seeds under extremely difficult conditions. As there is no organized system of seed supply in the extremely remote, humid and tropical Andaman and Nicobar Islands Territory in India, individual farmers have developed techniques for selecting and preserving the seeds of the most important food crops (rice, pulses, and vegetables). A number of policy implications are also discussed. 1151 Influence of pollen storage on seed set in pearl millet. Suryavanshi, YB; Ugale, SD; Patil, RB. Seed Research. 1994, publ. 1996, 22: 1, 19-21; 4 ref. The pollen viability of 6 pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum [P. glaucum]) maintainer lines (81B, 834B, 841B, 843B, RHRB1B and Pb111B) was tested during kharif, rabi and summer seasons 1987-88 at Rahuri. Pollen viability was judged in terms of seed yield per ear on the respective male-sterile lines. Pollination with fresh pollen and pollen stored for up to 4 h resulted in good seed setting. RHRB1B and 841B had better pollen viability during all the seasons. Kharif was the most favourable for seed setting. 1152 Influence of sodium-dikegulac on storage potential of selected seed species. Rai, AS; Chhetri, DR; Bhattacharjee, A. International Seed Testing Association' s Secretariat, Reckenholz (Switzerland) Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association. Reckenholz (Switzerland), 1995. p. 249252. 9

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

Accelerated ageing treatment (95 % relative humidity, RH) for 112 days of seeds of some lowvigour species of gram, soybean, sunflower, and safflower increased leaching of soluble carbohydrates and amino acids from all seed lots pretreated with 1000, 2000, and 4000 microgrammes/ml sodium-dikegulac (Na-DK) or distilled water. However, some diminution of leaching was noted in the chemically pre-treated seed lots compared to the controls after 112 days of seed ageing. The ageing-induced reduction in the percentage of TTC-stained seeds and in total dehydrogenase activity was substantially ameliorated by Na-DK. 1153 Inheritance of seed storage proteins in Lathyrus sativus L. Mamta, Chandna; Matta, NK. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding (India). (Nov 1997). v. 57(4) p. 395-400. 1154 Initial source of infestation of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) on lentil and its effect on stored seed. Khandwe, N; Gujrati, JP; Khandwe, R. LENS Newsletter (ICARDA). (1997). v. 24(1-2) p. 4648. A preliminary study on the initial source of infestation of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and its effect on stored lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) seed was carried out for three months of storage in Sehore, M.P., India. Lentil seed collected from different sources was analyzed; seed collected from the field was free from eggs, and no beetle infestation developed over three months. Egg-laying of bruchids was observed in those seeds which were collected from store bags and the threshing floor. Seed collected from the threshing floor (15 days after threshing) recorded 10.8, 78.6 and 103.8 adult beetles per 100 seeds, and seed collected from store bags 20.8, 125.00 and 197.20 adult beetles had emerged per 100 seeds after 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. The percent seed damage and seed weight loss was highest in seeds taken from store bags. 1155 Leaching of sugars from the seeds of sorghum during storage under controlled conditions. Shelar, VR; Bapat, DR. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities (India). (Sep 1992). v. 17(3) p. 376-379. 1156 A literature review on vegetable seed storage and packing. Khanal, R. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre. PAC Occasional Paper. 1990, No. 6, 41 pp.; 92 ref. This review consists of 18 sections entitled: introduction (with particular reference to seed storage problems in Nepal); reason for storage; pre-storage history of seed and its influence on seed; seed deterioration and ageing; seed vigour; orthodox and recalcitrant seed; environmental factors that affect seed longevity in storage; seed moisture content and its relationship with relative humidity; relationship between temperature, moisture and RH; seed viability; storage fungi; insects, pests and mites; seed treatment; seed SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

storage structures; packaging; storage containers and packaging; discussion and recommendations; conclusion. The appendices include a list of species with recalcitrant seeds, data on the storage behaviour of some recalcitrant seeds, an onion seed viability nomograph, survival curves for stored broccoli and cauliflowers seeds. 1157 Local materials as desiccant in onion seed storage. Ghimire, AJ; Khanal, R; Katuwal, KB. Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta (Nepal) 1997, 8 p. 1158 Mid-storage and pre-sowing seed treatments for lettuce and carrot. Pan, D; Basu, RN. Scientia Horticulturae (Netherlands). (1985). v. 25(1) p. 11-19. 1159 Mid storage treatment for MCU 5 cotton seeds. Ponnuswamy, AS; Balamurugan, P; Kalavathy, D; Jayabarathi, M; Karivaratharaju, TV. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1993, 80: 5, 294-295 One-year-old cotton cv. MCU 5 delinted, cleaned seeds were soaked in water, disodium phosphate or dithane M. 45 (0.5%) for 2 h, or equilibrated in moisture for 16 or 24 h and then dried to a moisture content of 8% and treated with 2 g thiram/kg seed and stored for 8 months in a cloth bag under ambient conditions of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. The seed germination percentages for these treatments were 53, 61, 55, 50, 58 and 53%, respectively, compared with 40% from the untreated control. Seed cotton yield/plant was not significantly affected by any one of these treatments. 1160 Monitoring of wheat storage mould in government food storage. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report, 1988-89. p. 18. A survey was conducted on wheat seed storage mould in Government storage and ration shops at Joydebpur and Dhaka. Seed samples were found infested with storage fungi viz. Aspergillus flavus, A. clavaorinica, A. niger, Rhizophus spp. and Pernicillium spp. The live fungi were persented in all samples varying from 20 to 100% of seeds. The infestation of Aspergillus flavus was 100% A. clavatorinica 68%, A. niger 47%, Rhizophus spp. 30% and penicillium spp. 20%. 1161 Mycofloral changes and aflatoxin contamination in stored chickpea seeds. Ahmad, SK; Singh, PL. Food Additives and Contaminants. 1991, 8: 6, 723-730; 14 ref. The mycoflora population change, moisture level and aflatoxin increase in chickpea seeds during 12 months storage in jute bags and metal bins were investigated. Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Curvularia were the dominant fungi associated with fresh seeds but Aspergillus flavus, A. nidulans, A. 10

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

terreus, Penicillium citrinum and P. chrysogenum became the dominant flora in stored chickpea seeds. The shift in mycofloral spectrum was more rapid in seeds stored in jute bags than those stored in metal bins. Moisture content and aflatoxin contamination in seeds of jute bags was maximum during Sept.-Oct. It is concluded that the internal environment of metal bins is comparatively less influenced by the external conditions and initially restricts fungal growth and aflatoxin elaboration. Prolonged storage, however, increases seed moisture content and aflatoxin is increased in chickpea seeds after 6 months storage in metal bins. 1162 Occurrence of aflatoxin and Aspergillus flavus in stored paddy seeds. Pawan Jee; Prasad, JS; Singh, PK. Environment and Ecology (India). 1990, 8: 1A, 122-126; 25 ref. A survey of aflatoxin contamination in stored seeds of 8 paddy varieties commonly cultivated in 3 districts was conducted. Among 82 fluorescencepositive samples (from a total of 343 samples collected), 20 were contaminated with aflatoxins. Aflatoxin B1 was found in 11 samples; B1 and B2 in 5 samples; B1, G1 and G2 in 2 samples; and B1 and G2 in 2 samples. 18 of 82 isolates of A. flavus were aflatoxigenic, which included aflatoxins B1 and B2 in 10 isolates, B1 in 5 isolates, B1 and G1 in 1 isolate and B1, B2 and G2 in 2 isolates. 1163 Opportunities for improved seed storage and warehouse management in Sri Lanka. Peiris, CN. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Seeds Div.; USAID, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) Diversified Agricultural Research Project. Proceedings of the Sri Lanka Seed Workshop. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka), 26 Jan - 6 Feb 1987. p. 256260. 1164 Performance of leaf extracts in preservation of paddy seed. Kumar, S. Seed Research. 1990, 18: 1, 9597; 4 ref. Rice seeds were treated with aqueous leaf extracts of Cycas revoluta and Thuja orientalis and stored in Kothi, Bukhar and gunny bag storage structures. After 15 d fungal incidence and germination percentage were recorded. The fungi isolated from untreated seeds are listed. Treatment with 1% C. revoluta leaf extract controlled fungal growth in seeds stored for 30 d under Kothi storage conditions, 15 d in Bukhari, but in a gunny bag Aspergillus flavus persisted. Thuja orientalis extracts, even at 1%, were less effective but did control some fungi. Storage method had no effect on seed germinability but concn of leaf extracts in terms of storage period were highly significant in affecting seed germination.

1165 Persistance of thiram on stored wheat seed [India] Raju, JN; Chatrath, MS. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Sep 1978). v. 31(3) p. 323-326. 1166 Persistence of carbendazim on stored wheat seed. Sastry, RK; Chatrath, MS. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Dec 1984). v. 37(4) p. 637-640. 1167 Persistence of thiram on soybean seed in storage. Gupta, JP; Chatrath, MS. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Jun 1983). v. 36(2) p. 263-266. 1168 Physico-biochemical composition of wheat during storage on seed treatment. Patel, BM; Patel, BA; Vekariya, PD. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal. 2000, 25: 2, 79-83; 12 ref. Sun-dried seeds of wheat cultivars Sonalika, Lok1, Kalyan Sona, and GW 496 were treated with 2 g carbendazim, 2 g thiram, 10 g parathion-methyl, and 10 g castor oil/kg. Seed samples were stored in polyethylene bags (400 gauge) in May 1992 under ambient conditions of Sardar Krushinagar, Gujarat, India for a period of 12 months. The seeds were tested for electrical conductivity (EC) of the leachate, germination rate (%), and vigour index at monthly intervals. EC of the seed leachate increased while seed germination decreased with prolonged storage period. Vigour index increased with storage up to 6 months and decreased thereafter upon further storage. GW 496 recorded the lowest EC and highest germination rate and vigour index. Seed treatment with thiram recorded the lowest EC (236.8) and highest germination rate (93.86%) and vigour index (2233). Cultivar x seed treatment interaction was significant for EC, germination rate and vigour index. 1169 Physico-chemical changes in food reserve of coriander seed due to storage moulds. Prasad, BK; Shanker, U; Narayan, N; Dayal, S; Kishor, A. Indian Phytopathology. 1988, 41: 3, 386-388; 5 ref. Metabolite losses caused by 6 storage fungi in Coriandrum sativum seeds stored for 6 months were recorded. Max. percentage losses of lipid were due to infection by Alternaria tenuis [A. alternata], Curvularia lunata [Cochliobolus lunatus] and Cladosporium oxysporum; total N due to Aspergillus flavus and Curvularia [Cochliobolus] pallescens; starch due to A. flavus; DW due to C. pallescens; seed germination due to A. flavus; and total free sugar and total free amino acids due to A. flavus and C. pallescens. A. flavus and C. lunatus caused max. decrease in pH. A. candidus had the least effect on metabolite levels. 1170 Physiological components of wheat as influenced by seed treatments during storage. Patel, BM; Patel, BA; Vekaria, PD. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal. 1997, 22: 2, 1-6.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

Seed of 4 wheat genotypes (Sonalika, Lok-1, Kalyan Sona and GW 496) treated with either carbendazim, thiram, parathion-methyl or castor oil were stored in polythene bags and evaluated for physical characters (seed index and seed density) and physiological characters (seed moisture and imbibitional rate). Seed moisture fluctuated and followed the pattern of atmospheric RH. Changes in the seed index followed the pattern seed moisture. Imbibitional rate increased when seed moisture and seed index decreased. Variety GW 496 recorded the lowest seed moisture and highest seed index throughout storage, while variety Lok-1 recorded the highest imbibitional rate. Seed treatment with thiram provided the lowest seed moisture and highest seed density and imbibitional rates throughout the storage period. 1171 Postharvest storage of tea seeds. Barman, TS. Society for Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, New Delhi (India) Proceedings of the international congress of plant physiology. New Delhi, India, 15-20 February 1988. Volume 2. 1990, 1392-1395; 9 ref. The recalcitrant, desiccation-sensitive seeds of tea remain viable for a period of one year when sealed in polyethylene bags and stored in a controlled environment at 4oC and 40-45% RH. Freshly harvested seeds contain 40% moisture and at this level the germination is around 100%. Seeds stored under normal ambient conditions lose moisture at a rapid rate and, at 23% moisture content, germination is reduced to 46%. The critical moisture level in seeds for maintaining viability was 30%, where the germination was 86%. Surface sterilization with 0.1% HgCl2 before cold storage enabled viability to be retained for a longer period. Microbial contaminants in seeds punctured by seed bugs [Poecilocoris latus] were difficult to control either by surface sterilization or by cold storage. 1172 Potato research programme at LARC with emphasis on variety improvement, seed tuber physiology, and storage performance. Dhital, BK; Subedi, M; Ghimire, SR. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Pokhara, Kaski (Nepal) Apr 1996. 25 p. The potato production systems in the hills of Nepal, the associated seed management system, the major constraints to potato production and Lumle Agricultural Research Centre's research strategy and programme to address those constraints are described. Potato is the fourth most important field crop in Nepal and is grown in a range of agro-ecozones from the plains (300m) to the high hills (4000m). Seed is produced and distributed mainly in an informal system in which high quality seed produced in the high hills flow "down hill" and is in high demand. Farmers' field yields are low for which the major reasons are lack of suitable high yielding varieties with good quality, poor availability and quality of seed material, lack of varietal resistance to and incidence of late blight, bacterial wilt SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

and wart diseases, low and declining soil fertility and poor adoption of improved management practices. LARC's potato research programme gives priority to the development and selection of high yielding varieties disease resistance, acceptable taste and storability, and to developing improved seed management methods to improve seed quality and supply through varietal, storage and physiological studies. The programme emphasises relevance to farmers needs and circumstances by research under farmers' conditions. Results of research from 1993 to 1995 are summarised from which some varieties and seed production technologies appear suitable for wider adoption and application. Based on the experience gained, the priority research needs for seed technology and production and variety development, based on local varieties, are identified. 1173 Potato storage and physiological research at LARC, 1996. Dhital, BK; Ghimire, SR; Gurung, TB; Subedi, M. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Pokhara, Kaski (Nepal) 1997. 39 p. A total of three experiments on potato storage and seed tuber physiology were conducted during potato growing seasons of 1995 and 1996. Two experiments viz. study on the effect of sprout manipulation of diffused light stored seed potatoes on tuber yield, yield components and phenology and effect of storage conditions of young seed potatoes on their subsequent field performance in double cropping were conducted at Lumle Centre (1675m). Whereas studies on the possibility of utilizing underground mandarin store for the storage of seed potatoes were conducted at Lumle Centre and Off-station Research Site Yampaphant (475m). Each experiment assessed the storage performance of the seed potatoes and their field performance in the subsequent growing season. 1174 Potential of seed storage at ambient temperature using organic liquids to avoid refrigeration. Pandey, DK; Prakash, J (ed); Pierik, RLM. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture. vol. 12.; 12 ref. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Selection-9 seeds with 5 or 10% moisture content (MC) were sealed hermetically in laminated Al foil packets and incubated at 58oC, or seeds with 9 or 10% MC were immersed in propanediol, sealed hermetically and stored at 28o (ambient) or 58o to study the effects of aging. Seeds immersed in the organic liquid and those with 5% MC were equilibrated to 10% MC before the effects of treatments were assessed. To evaluate seed aging, the following seed attributes were determined: (i) viability (tested as emergence up to 16 days after seed sowing in earthen pots kept outdoors), (ii) vigour (time taken to 50% emergence), (iii) membrane integrity (as electrolyte leakage into the imbibition medium) and (iv) dehydrogenase activity in embryonic axes. When seeds 12

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

were stored at 58oC, aging was more rapid in seeds at 10% MC than in those at 5% MC. Seed immersion in propanediol enhanced seed longevity by about 18-fold. Seed vigour and viability losses in seeds stored with 5% MC were comparable to those in seeds treated with propanediol. Loss of seed moisture in seeds treated with propanediol was greater at 58o than at 28o. It is concluded that the use of organic liquids could replace the expensive method of drying and storing recalcitrant seeds at very low temperatures. 1175 Preliminary storage trials on the seed of Mesua ferra Linn. Bahuguna, VK; Rawat, MMS. Indian Forester. 1989, 115: 10, 762-763. Fresh mature fruits of Mesua ferra [M. ferrea] were collected at Dehra Dun during January 1987 and seeds extracted within a week. Seed moisture content (18%), viability (by the cutting and excised embryo tests, 82 and 78% respectively) and germination (52%) were determined before storage, which was carried out in sealed or perforated polybags at room temperature and 5oC. Germination tests were done in quartz sand trays at 30oC, at monthly intervals. Deterioration of seeds was faster in sealed polybags and at room temperature. Under the optimum storage conditions (perforated polybags at 5oC) germination fell to 44% after 1 month storage, 42% after 2 months, 20% after 3 months and 12% after 4 months. 1176 Preservation of seeds by antifungal volatile compounds. Nandi, B. Burdwan University (India). Botany Department. Proceedings of the 5. international working conference on stored-product protection. Bordeaux, France, September 9-14, v. 1 p. 431-444. 1177 Protection of cowpea seeds against C. maculatus Fab. in storage. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report, 1988-89. p. 206. The experiment was carried out at Joydebpur during rabi. Two hundred grams of cowpea seeds infested with eggs, the first instar larvae, the 4th instar larvae and the pupae of C. maculatus in equal proportions were taken in individual plastic container. Another 300 fresh and infestation free seeds were added, five pairs of one day adults of C. maculatus were also added. Each sample was kept in sealed polythene bags under room temperature and humid condition (20300C) and relative humidity 50.85%) for five months. The results showed that Fumigation by Nogos @ 3 ml/mg of seeds and the heat treatment (dipping seed in sealed polythene bag in boiled water at 1000C for 10 minutes) gave complete protection of cowpea seeds from infestation by C. maculatus. Among the other treatments, neem oil gave the highest protection (95.19%) followed by linseed oil. Deltamethrin (89.88%), Sevin (87.87%) and Fenitrothion (83.62%) while sun drying gave the lowest protection of seeds SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

(67.91%). Thus the efficacies of the methods employed against C. chinensis in the previous study were also found to be similar against C. maculatus. The original germinability of cowpea seed was not much affected by any treatment except heat treatment where slightly higher reduction (4.39%) of germination was noted. 1178 Protection of cowpea seeds against Callosobruchus chinensis L. in storage. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report, 1988-89. p. 202-206. The study was conducted at Joydebpur during June to October in the laboratory. Three chemicals, such as Deltamethrin dust @ 50.0 ppm, Fenitrothion dust @ 30.0 ppm and neem oil @ 10 ml/kg, linseed oil @ 10 ml/kg, tabacco leaf dust @ 2.0 g/kg and clay conting were tested. Ten grams of treated seeds were taken into petridishes in which five pairs of one day old adults of C. chinensis were released and rest of the seeds were kept in the polythene bags and stored in the laboratory under room temperature and humidity (24 C-32 C and 65-90% RH). Deltamethrin @ 3.00 ppm and Sevin @ ppm were effective and caused 100% mortality of C. chinensis adults even upto 4 and 3 months, respectively. Fenitrothion @ 30 ppm gave up to 85% adult mortality upto 3 months of storage. These findings confirmed that Deltamethron and Sevin were effective for 5 months and 3 months, respectively, to restrict further progeny multiplication of the pulse beetles just through killing released adults. On the other hand, neem oil, Fenitrothion or linseed oil were effective for 3 and 2 months, respectively, to present 100% adult emergence through the combined lethal action on eggs first instar larvae and adults of the pulse beetles. 1179 Protection of stored mung bean seeds from bean weevil Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn) by vegetable oil application. II. Post treatment method. Begum, S; Quiniones, AC. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology. 1991, 19: 1, 65-67; 3 ref. In laboratory studies, coconut, soyabean, mustard or peanut [groundnut] oil applied to mung bean [Vigna radiata] seeds infested by Callosobruchus chinensis at 3 ml/kg reduced population numbers more effectively over a 3-month period than seeds treated with the same oils at 0.5 ml/kg. 1180 Protection of stored mungbean seeds from bean weevil Callosobruchus chinensis by vegetable oil application. Begum, S; Quiniones, AC. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology. 1990, 18: 2, 203-210; 11 ref. Experiments were carried out at 24-32.9oC and 61-98% RH to test the efficacy of coconut, soyabean, mustard and groundnut oil in protecting stored seeds of Vigna radiata against the bruchid Callosobruchus chinensis. At dosages of 3 ml/kg, the oils were effective in protecting V. radiata against bruchid infestation and affected oviposition. Except mustard, none of the oils 13

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

affected adult mortality. Oils at 3 ml/kg had a long residual effect reducing oviposition and inducing egg mortality even after 4 months. Germination percentage and water absorption capacity of V. radiata was not affected by the oils. 1181 Relationship of seed maturity with storability in chick-pea. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report, 1987-88. p. 115. The experiment was conducted at Joydebpur to investigate whether the chickpea seeds of earlier harvest have better quality and storability than those of latter harvests. Chickpea variety Sabur-4 was sown on November 20. Five harvest were done, beginning from March 3 at 4 days interval. Seed harvested at different dates between 110 and 120 days after sowing had 8085% germination up to next planting season if stored under insect free ambient conditions. 1182 A report of survey of wheat seed stored by the farmers for sowing. Wheat Research Centre, Nashipur, Dinajpur (Bangladesh) WRC Annual Report 1976-77. 1977. A survey was done in Mymensingh. Tangail, Rajshahi, Jessore and Kushtia to observe the quantity of wheat seeds stored by the farmers in different areas and also to evaluate the effectiveness of wheat seed storage. Germination percentage, storage containers, quantity of seeds stored, was all assessed. Some of the farmers used dry sand, dry ash, dried and powdered neem leaves, nishinda leaves, garlic for storing seeds. Among the containers, tins, metallic drum, polyethene bags, earthen kuthi, earthen pitcher coated with coal tar on the outer surface were found to be the best for storing wheat seeds. 1183 Report on seed certification program in wheat (2039/040) 1982/83 (Seed Testing and Storage, Nepal). (Workshop paper) Rajbhandary, KL. Ministry of Agriculture, Bhairahawa (Nepal). Dept. of Agriculture; National Wheat Development Program. 10. Winter Crops Workshop, Wheat Report. 17-19 Aug 1983. p. 527-535. 1184 Role of cold stores in the improvement of seed potato. Choudhury, AR. Bangladesh - Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 133-138. In Bangladesh the cold storage industry and the potato have been developed hand to hand, each promoting and sustaining the growth of the other. The cold stores have the potential to make useful contribution in the improvement of seed potato production thereby bringing about further development of the crop. SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

1185 Safe storage of cereal seed. Irshad, M. Progressive Farming (Pakistan). (Sep-Oct 1995). v. 15(5) p. 71-73. 1186 Screening of some soybean (Glycine max (L) merrill) varieties for seed storability. Bassi, G; Singh, G; Gill, SS; Singh, TP. Crop Improvement (India). (Dec 1999). v. 26(2) p. 183-187. Seven soybean varities viz PK 1042, PK 564, PK 459, PK 416, SL 317, SL 295 and bragg were compared for their storability under ambient conditions and accelerated ageing conditions. out of these varieties Bragg lost its germinability below 70 per cent more rapidly i.e. after 2 months and adjudged to be the poor storer. While varieties SL 295, PK 1042, PK459 and SL 317 showed 11-13 months of storability and were named as good storers and PK 564 was found to be intermediate storer showing 7 months of storability. However, the storage behaviour under ambient conditions of some varieties did not agree with their response to accelerated ageing. Varieties PK 1042 and PK 459 showed maximum capacity to withstand accelerated ageing of 14 days, PK 416, SL 317 and SL 295 endured 7 days of accelerated ageing. Whereas PK 564 and Bragg could not withstand accelerated ageing of even 7 days. Dry weight changes observed at different intervals of ambient storage were also recorded. 1187 Seasonal variation of mycoflora with Strychnos nux-vomica L. seeds under storage. Dutta, GR. Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology. 1989, 4: 2, 133135; 11 ref. Seeds were sampled monthly from a traditional medicinal plant store in Bhagalpur and 18 fungal species were isolated. The max. numbers of fungi were recorded during Aug. and the min. in Nov.; incidence was related to temp. and RH. The dominant organisms were Aspergillus flavus and A. niger. 1188 Seed-borne infection of Alternaria brassicae in Indian mustard and its elimination during storage. Chahal, AS. Current Science (India). (Jul 1981). v. 50(14) p. 621-622. 1189 Seed conditioning and storage working group. Albert, WD. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Seeds Div.; USAID, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka) Diversified Agricultural Research Project. Proceedings of the Sri Lanka Seed Workshop. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka), 26 Jan-6 Feb 1987. p. 310-312. 1190 Seed deterioration during storage. Agrawal, PK. Society for Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, New Delhi (India) Proceedings of the international 14

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

congress of plant physiology. New Delhi, India, 15-20 February 1988. Volume 2. 1990, 1271-1278; 43 ref. In orthodox seeds, a decrease in the activity of PEP carboxylase and RuBP carboxylase and an increase in protease activity have been observed during storage. The increased protease activity may be responsible for the decrease in the activities of other enzymes. Leaching of water soluble sugars and leucine-14C increased with seed deterioration. The increased leaching was due to membrane deterioration during seed storage. Glucose was exclusively oxidized by the EMP pathway before seed deterioration. With the onset of seed deterioration, a part of the glucose was oxidized by the pentose phosphate pathway also. These changes preceded the loss in germination. 1191 Seed mycoflora of palas (Butea monosperma [Lam] Taub.) during storage. Mamta Purohit; Jamaluddin. Seed Research. 1993, 21: 2, 126-127; 3 ref. A total of 11 fungi of 4 genera and some bacteria were isolated from stored Butea monosperma seed in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India, in 1985. Aspergillus (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. nidulans, A. sulphurious and 3 unidentified species) was predominant. Other species were Penicillium, Chaetomium, Rhizopus stolonifer and bacteria. The effects of storing B. monospora seed in different containers on seed microflora are discussed. 1192 Seed potatoes storage under high hill conditions of upper Kaghan valley. Khan, DI; Zaman, MK; Shaukat, Hussain; Lughmani, AM; Hamidullah, Jan; Iqbal, M; Hussain, S; Jan, H; Hussain, A. NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan. Research and development of potato production in Pakistan: Proceedings of the National Seminar. 23-25 April, 1995. 1995, 102-108; 12 ref. One, 0.5, 0.25 and 1.2 t of seed tubers of potato cv. Cardinal were stored in pits of sizes 4.8 X 1.5 X 1.5 m, 4.1 X 1.2 X 1.3 m, 3.8 X 1 X 1 m or 4 X 1 X 1.5 m (local practice), respectively, for 7 months. The first 3 pits housed seed tubers that were sorted and selected. Storage losses from these 4 pits were 2.4, 2.7, 3.2 and 30%, respectively. The large losses incurred with the traditional practice was suggested to be due to lack of selection and putting a larger quantity of tubers in the pit. 1193 Seed processing, handling and storage. Ministry of Agricultural Development and Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Seeds Div.; USAID, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Diversified Agricultural Research Project. Proceedings of the Sri Lanka Seed Workshop. Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). 26 Jan-6 Feb 1987. p. 199-201.

1194 Seed processing machinery; Indented cylinder grader - Test code. Indian Standard. 1989, No. IS: 12576-1989, 7 p. 1195 Seed source variation in storage life of teak seeds. Short note. Emmanuel, CJSK; Dharmaswamy, SS. Silvae Genetica (Germany, F.). (1991). v. 40(5-6) p. 249-250. 1196 Seed storability in Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Rakesh Kumar; Bangarwa, KS. Annals of Biology Ludhiana. 1996, 12: 1, 62-66; 4 ref. Seeds were collected from 10 randomly selected trees growing naturally in Hisar, Haryana. The seeds were stored under 4 conditions; in plastic bottles, polyethylene bags and cloth bags at room temperature, and under cold storage (4oC) in polyethylene bags. Germination was recorded at 15-day intervals for 60 days. Seeds stored in cloth bags germinated best, followed by those stored in plastic bottles and polyethylene bags (which gave similar results) with germination least in cold stored seeds. Germination percentage showed a steady reduction with time from 15 to 60 days. There was also significant variation in germination between seed collections. 1197 Seed storage and inventory control. Rekhi, SS. Department of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. Compendium of technical lectures on vegetable seed production, 1981-1984. Feb 1984. p. 47-54. 1198 Seed storage and packing principles. Rekhi, SS. Department of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. Compendium of technical lectures on vegetable seed production, 1981-1984. Feb 1984. p. 33-46. 1199 Seed storage and packing principles [of maize and vegetable seeds, Nepal] Rekhi, SS. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div.; Food and Agriculture Organization, Kathmandu (Nepal) Proceedings of the first workshop seminar on vegetable seed production. Kathmandu (Nepal), 23-26 Feb 1982. p. 51-63. 1200 Seed storage: Germplasm bank in Pakistan. Ahmad, SI. Pakistan Agriculture (Pakistan). 1985. v. 8(5) p. 60-64. 1201 Seed storage principles and their application [cereal and vegetable seeds] Rekhi, SS. Food and Agriculture Organization, Kathmandu (Nepal). Trainer's seminar workshop on seed production, processing and storage. Kathmandu (Nepal), 1 Jul-28 Aug 1981. p. 124-139.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

1202 Seed storage research carried out at Lumle agricultural Research Centre during 1994. Panthee, DR. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, c/o BAPSO, P.O. Box 106, Kathmandu (Nepal) Sep 1995. 24 p. Changing pattern of moisture content and other quality of wheat seeds was studied under on-farm condition at high, mid and low hills, and under six different storage structure conditions. The study revealed that the relative increase in moisture content of wheat seeds may go as high as up to 50 and relative decrease in 1000 grain weight and germination percentage may go even up to 14 and 78 respectively under on-farm condition. Considering the changing pattern of moisture, insects, 1000 grains weight and germination percentage of wheat seeds jute bag with inner plastics linning and tin were the best storage structure for safe storage of wheat seeds. It was mainly because they do not allow the moisture to enter inside the structure from the surrounding. The relative decrease in germination percentage of wheat seeds in these structures was only 5 (jute bag with inner plastics lining) and 23 (tin) whereas it was about 80 in rest of the structures. In another study nine different indigenous pesticidal treatments were studied with an objective of screening the best indigenous pesticides for safe storage of wheat seeds. Bojo (Acorus calamus) was found the most effective pesticides against storage pests of wheat seeds. Wood ash and mustard oil were found to be promising and rest of them were ineffective to control the storage pests. 1203 Seed storage studies in greengram (Vigna radiata L.). Mugunthan, S; Selvaraj, JA. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1989, 76: 7, 417-420; 6 ref. Freshly harvested V. radiata cv. CO 4 seeds were cleaned and graded, and graded seeds were (a) untreated or treated with (b) 2 g thiram as slurry/kg seed, (c) 10 g cytozyme slurry/kg, (d) 5 g cowdung ash (e) 2 g thiram + 10 g cytozyme, (f) 2 g thiram + 5 g cowdung ash, (g) 10 g cytozyme + 5 g cowdung ash. Seeds were then dried to 7% moisture content and stored for 8 months in fresh gada cloth bags or polyethylene bags. Seed germination and vigour were assessed bi-monthly. Initial germination was 96.3%. Germination after 8 months in gada cloth bags was 87.3, 90.5, 92.8, 90.0, 89.3, 90.0 and 90.5% for (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f) and (g), resp.; corresponding values for polyethylene bags were 89.3, 92.0, 94.0, 92.5, 92.3, 93.0 and 91.8%. Vigour index before storage was 4091 and after 8 months was 3290, 3516, 3665, 3513, 3508 and 3505 for (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f) and (g), resp., stored in gada cloth and 3435, 3616, 3723, 3613, 3520, 3625 and 3587, resp., with storage in polyethylene bags. 1204 Seed storage studies of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Vanangamudi, K. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin. no. 33, 1986. p. 11-13.

1205 Short note: seed source variation in storage life of teak seeds. Emmanuel, CJSK; Dharmaswamy, SS. Indo-Danish Project on Seed Procurement and Tree Improvement, Coimbatore, India. Silvae Genetica. 1991, 40: 5-6, 249-250; 7 ref. Seeds of teak (Tectona grandis) of the moist forest type (seed source = Karnataka and Tamil Nadu) and very moist forest type (seed source = Kerala) were stored under 3 different conditions: (1) cold storage at 5oC, (2) storage in a gunny bag and (3) storage in a polyethylene bag. The last storage method gave the best results for seeds from Tamil Nadu and Kerala; germination of Karnataka seeds was similar for all 3 storage methods. 1206 Simple storage technique to retain longevity in small samples of rice seeds. Dhanapala, MP; Nugaliyadde, L; Silva, LS. Tropical Agriculturist (Sri Lanka). (1990). v. 146 p. 133-134. 1207 Sprouting behaviour of NAA [Naphthalene acetic acid] treated seed potato tubers after prolonged storage at low temperature. Shashirekha, MN; Ramesh, BS; Narasimham, P. Asian Potato Journal (Philippines). (Jun 1991). v. 2(1) p. 5-11. The relative rates of ageing of naphthalene acetic acid (Na- salt) treated and untreated seed potato tubers during storage at 4 +- 1 deg C and RH 85-90% were assessed by their sprouting behaviour after removal from cold storage at regular intervals followed by field testing at the end of three months storage. The study revealed that (1) NAA treated tubers retained sprout growth vigour up to 9 months, while untreated tubers retained their vigour up to around 6 months; (2) poststorage dormancy breaking treatment with a mixture of gibberellic acid (GA) and ethrel (E), increased the number of sprouts and gave higher sprout weight from pre-storage NAA treated tubers from 7th month onwards, when tested either as whole or cut tubers; (3) a difference in the sprouting behaviour between the apical and lateral buds was noticed in that the lateral buds produced less number of sprouts, and weight of sprouts/piece; and (4) field testing after a 3- month storage revealed that NAA treatment did not have any adverse effects on yield from seed tubers stored at room temperature. It is concluded that better regulation of ageing of seed potato tubers during prolonged cold storage can be achieved by pre-storage, exogenous treatment with Alpha NAA followed by a post-storage treatment with a mixture of GA and E. 1208 Storability of bhendi seeds in different agroecological conditions. Vijayakumar, A. Madras Agricultural Journal. 2001, 88: 7-9, 388-394; 17 ref. An experiment was carried out with bhendi [okra] cv. Parbhani kranti to investigate the effect of agroecological conditions, seed treatment and containers on storability of seeds. Graded seeds of bhendi were 16

SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

packed in cloth polyethylene (700 gaugae) and cloth bags with thiram at 4 g/kg and without seed treatment (control) at 11 locations (Palur, Paiyur, Coimbatore, Periyakulam, Aduthurai, Trichy, Madurai, Killikulam, Petchiparai, Kodaikanal and Yercaud) representing 7 agro-ecological zones in Tamil Nadu, India. The results revealed that among the places of storage, seeds stored at Coimbatore, Yercaud, Kodaikanal and Paiyur maintained higher viability and vigour for 24 months. The seeds treated with thiram and stored in polyethylene bag remained viable for longer period compared to seeds stored in cloth bag in all the places of storage. The seeds remained viable for 21 and 15 months when stored in polyethylene and cloth bags, respectively, irrespective of treatments, locations and periods of storage. 1209 Storability of groundnut as influenced by seed, crop protection and harvesting dates. Chethana, Patil; Nagaraja, A; Patil, C. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1998, 11: 3, 641-645. Groundnuts cv. TMV-2, Dh-40, Dh 3-30, JL-24, TAG-24 and R-8808 were grown during kharif [monsoon] 1996 with or without application of the fungicide chlorothalonil and were harvested at normal maturity or 10 days later. Seeds obtained from the crop protected against foliar diseases and harvested at normal maturity retained the highest quality in terms of germination, vigour and oil content after six months of storage. Germination after storage was highest in cv. Dh-40. 1210 Storability of lentil seeds under ambient conditions. Agrawal, PK. LENS Newsletter (ICARDA). (1982). v. 9 p. 26-27. 1211 Storability of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) seeds as influenced by storage containers. Dod, VN; Gabhane, VV; Patil, BN; Pagar, PC. Crop Research Hisar (India). 1997, 14: 2, 289-292; 9 ref. Seeds of A. indica (9% moisture content) were stored in cloth, polylined jute, paper or polyethylene bags for 2 months (1994) under ambient conditions of Vidarbha region, India. Seeds lost viability with storage period. Seeds stored in cloth bags maintained significantly higher viability (37.9% germination after 60 days of storage) compared with the other treatments (19.03-30.37% germination after 60 days storage). 1212 Storability of seeds of chilli genotypes under ambient conditions. Nagaraja, A; Jagadeesha, RC; Yogeesha, HS. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1998, 11: 3, 807-809. The viability of chilli (Capsicum annuum) seeds, stored under ambient conditions, was investigated during 1994-96. Ripe fruits from 12 cultivars, grown at Hanumanamatti, India, were dried to 11% seed moisture content and stored for 6, 18 and 30 months prior to SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

germination tests. All cultivars produced certifiable germination results (60%) after 6 months' storage. After 18 months, only 2 cultivars, KDSC-110-10 (63.7%) and KSDC-6 (69%) exceeded 60%. After 30 months, none of the cultivars reached 60%. In general, shoot and root growth decreased with increasing seed storage time. 1213 Storage behaviour of true potato seed (TPS) tubers under natural storage condition. Hossain, MM; Uddin, K; Mahbub, ASM; Ahmed, M. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1992, 27: 3-4, 114-124; 16 ref. Eight true potato seed (TPS) progenies Atzimba X DTO-28, Atzimba X R-128.6, Serrana X DTO-28, Serrana X DTO-33, HPS-1/111, TPS-2, P-111 and 1282-19 including 1 recommended cultivar Cardinal, and 3 different grades of large (60-80 g), medium (4060 g) and small (20-40 g) tubers were stored under natural conditions. At 30 d the mean weight loss of all progenies was 5.08% and that increased as storage time increased up to 120 d when average weight loss was 11.78%. Small tubers lost more weight (6.96-12.48% from 30-120 d) than large tubers (3.82- 11.35%, respectively). No soft or dry rot was found in any progeny at 30 d, at 60 d TPS-2 had the highest percentage of soft rot at 4.44% and Atzimba X DTO-28 had the highest percentage of dry rot at 6.66%; at 120 d soft and dry rot were highest in TPS- 2. Sprouting took the longest time in P-111 (79 d) which also had the lowest number of sprouts/tuber (3.58). The shortest time to sprouting was from Serrana X DTO-33 (46.8 d) and Cardinal had the highest number of sprouts/tuber (8.20). The lowest weight of sprouts/tuber was from HPS-1/111 (1.22 g) and highest from Atzimba X R-128.6 at (3.06g). Shrinkage was lowest in Serrana X DTO-28 (0.13) and highest in 1282-19. 1214 Storage life of sprouted rice seed as influenced by leaf lining materials in country baskets. Pinhero, RG; George, TU. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala (India). (1989). v. 27(1and2) p. 53-55. 1215 Storage of bamboo seeds [in Kerala] Seethalakshmi, KK; Soman, CK. KFRI Information Bulletin (India). 1992, No. 12, ii + 5 pp. 1216 Storage of champ (Michelia champaca) seed. Robbins, AMJ. Banko Janakari. 1988, 2: 1, 55-57 Current practice in Nepal is to sow champ seed after collection in autumn, but this gives poor and variable germination. Previous attempts to store the seeds have given poor results. A pilot study reported here, on seed collected in Oct. 1986, indicated that the seed has some orthodox and some recalcitrant characteristics. The fleshy aril of the seed seemed to contain a powerful germination inhibitor since seeds only germinated after its removal (0 vs. 86%). Moist storage for several months (at least 7) was possible at 17

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

5oC, or for at least 4 months in a pit, at about 13oC. Further studies are being made to confirm these findings, and in particular to ascertain the maximum storage period in pits, and whether the seed can be treated as orthodox, if dried to 8% m.c. 1217 Storage of mungbean seeds of different harvests. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report, 1987-88. p. 135. The experiment was carried out at Joydebpur to examnine which of the harvests has better seed viability and vigour for the next planting season. Mungbean var. Mubarik was sown on August 28 and seeds were harvested on October 28 and November 11 and stored in tin containers in the stored seed of the laboratory (20-28 C). Germination of mungbean seeds were affected by time of harvest, the stored seed of the second harvest showed low germination. Seeds of both harvests had the presence of hard seeds which decreased progressively with the storage time. The mean time taken by the seeds to germinate (MGT) indicated that the seed of first harvest had better vigour. Mungbean seeds of first harvest was usually done 60 days after sowing and stored at about 9% moisture content could maintain better viability and vigour than those of later harvests. 1218 Storage of neem seeds: potential and limitations for germplasm conservation. Bhardwaj, SD; Gurdev Chand. Indian Forester - Special issue: Neem - Gift of the gods. 1995, 121: 11, 1009-1011; 7 ref. This paper gives a brief outline of published studies on neem (Azadirachta indica) seed storage, which may be undertaken in the short term for plantation purposes or in long term for conservation of germplasm. Neem seeds have been effectively stored for more than 5 years. The last part of the paper focuses on the potential and limitations for long-term storage of neem seeds. 1219 Storage of seed potatoes under the natural conditions at Kalam (Pakistan) Rahman, A; Khan, S. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan). 1986. v. 2(3) p. 529-535. 1220 Storage of sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo) seed. Robbins, AMJ. Banko Janakari. 1988, 2: 1, 57-59 The results are reported of a study of seed of D. sissoo collected in Jan. 1986 near Hetauda, Nepal. The seeds retained adequate viability for two or more years when stored dry, sealed in a polythene bag, under the ambient conditions of the Kathmandu valley (1340 m alt.); germination of fresh seeds was 87%, and fell to 70% after 2 yr storage. However, under conditions similar to the terai (at Hetauda, 303 m alt.), where the species grows, without major loss was not possible for even one year; germination was 41% after 11 months storage and only 22% after 18 months. It is, therefore, SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

recommended that the seed should be sent to Kathmandu if storage is required for a year or more. Storage in a cold store (5oC) at Kathmandu gave a greater loss of viability than at ambient temperatures but less loss than at Hetauda. This result is attributed to breakdowns in the cold store which produced large temperature fluctuations. 1221 Storage of tea seeds. Bhattacharjee, H; Singh, ID. Two and a Bud. 1994, 41: 1, 32-34; 5 ref. In response to the need for a cheap and simple method of storing tea seeds (which are recalcitrant) in bulk at room temperature, this study (on clone TS 506) found that seed viability of up to 88% could be maintained for up to 6 months when seeds were treated with Jalshakti (a [hydrophilic] starch polymer) at 0.625 or 1.25% and stored in high density polyethylene lined hessian bags. 1222 Storage of wheat seed in stone slab bin. Agrawal, AK; Kanjilal, SC; Thakre, BD; Bansode, PC. Seeds and Farms. 1990, 15: No.3-4, 37-38, 47; 4 ref. Freshly harvested wheat seeds were stored in a large stone slab bin (capacity 1.2 t seeds) under ambient conditions when the indoor temp. varied from 41 to 28oC and RH from 30 to 81%. Germination increased from 86% in May to 100% during Aug.-Oct. (63-188 d storage). The seeds showed no insect or fungal infection. 1223 Storage potential of groundnut. Sardar, MSA; Islam, AJMA. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture (Bangladesh). (Sep 1981). v. 6(2-3) p. 44-49. The loss of viability of naturally sun-dried ground-nut seed was rapid under open warehouse storage followed by sealed storage. A satisfactory level of germination was maintained for 8 months when stored at 31 and 52 percent relative humidity. The laboratory germination percentage of seeds under 80 percent relative humidity was satisfactory up to 2 months after which the germination declined rapidly. The soil emergence percentage of the seed was however, lower than the laboratory germination percentage under each storage condition: 31, 52, 80 percent relative humidity with sealed and open warehouse condition. The regression equations of their germination percentage against storage period were developed for both laboratory and field emergence test. The regression equations were" equals 95.36-2.15 X; equals 91.97-1.82 X; equals 86.95-9.13 X; equals 56.367.94 X and equals 73.29-10.04 X; respectively for seeds stored under 31 percent relative humidity, 52 percent relative humidity, 80 relative humidity, and seeds stored under sealed and warehouse conditions. The respective regression equations for predicting field germination were equals 75.18-1.07 X; equals 74.93-3.09 X; equals 37.45-2.8 X; equals 34.96-5.06 X and equals 46.31-6.48 X. 18

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

1224 Storage studies on sorghum hybrid seeds. Basave, Gowda; Gowda, SJ; Gowda, B. Crop Research Hisar (India). 1999, 17: 2, 191-194. Seeds of sorghum cv. CSH 1, CSH 5, CSH 6 and CSH 9 were stored under ambient conditions of Bellary and Bangalore, Karnataka, India, for 12 months in polyethylene bags (700 gauge), cloth bags or cloth bags lined with polyethylene. Germination and field emergence decreased in all the hybrids during storage in the order, with the greatest decreases in CSH 6. Seeds stored under the ambient conditions of Bellary maintained a higher germination percentage (79.9%) than those stored at Bangalore (70.4%). Polyethylene bags and cloth bags lined with polyethylene maintained higher germination percentages and field emergence than cloth bags. 1225 Store seed rhizomes of ginger this way [methods of storage, India] Maurya, KR; Jha, PC; Singh, BK. Intensive Agriculture (India). (May 1983). v. 21(3) p. 11. 1226 Studies on cold storage of tea seed. Rahman, F. Journal of Plantation Crops. 1987, 15: 2, 142-143. Seeds collected in late Oct. were graded by the flotation method and the sound seeds were stored at 710oC. They were then tested for germination at monthly intervals between Apr. and Aug. The numbers of days for the completion of 90% germination were 16, 15, 17, 20 and 15 for seeds tested in Apr., May, June, July and Aug., respectively. 1227 Studies on partial vacuum storage of onion (Allium cepa L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds. Doijode, SD. Vegetable Science. 1988, 15: 2, 126-129; 6 ref. Seeds of the capsicum cultivar Arka Mohini and the onion cultivar Arka Niketan were extracted and dried in the shade to moisture % of 6.5 (onions) and 6.8 (capsicums). The seeds were packed into paper-foilpolyethylene bags under partial vacuum or in paper bags (control). All the bags were stored in ambient conditions (16-35oC and 25-90% RH) for up to 30 months. No germination was recorded after 30 months; after 18 months, the vacuum-packed and control onion seeds gave 54 and 27% germination, respectively; in capsicums the corresponding figures were 59 and 41%. Seedling vigour, however, was similar in test and control seeds. 1228 Studies on seed processing of bajra hybrid seed. Vanangamudi, K; Ramaswamy, KR. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1989, 76: 10, 574-577; 7 ref. The mechanical damage caused by threshing to bajra [Pennisetum americanum] hybrid seeds with 15 or 20% moisture content was only 2.9-4.1% compared with 18.3-18.7% to seeds with 10 or 25% moisture SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

content. Seeds with 15-20% moisture content gave 94.095.3% germination compared with 80-80.7% for seeds with 10 and 25% moisture content. In accelerated aging tests seeds with 15- 20% moisture content gave 80.781.3% germination compared with 57.3-58.7% for seeds with 10 and 25% moisture content. The electrical conductivity of seed leachate increased with increase in the degree of mechanical damage to seeds. In another experiment, seeds with 15-20% moisture content were threshed by different methods. Threshing by bullock treading, with a mechanical thresher or by tractor wheeling showed 12.3, 3.4 and 1.3% mechanical damage, resp.; seeds gave 82, 90 and 94% germination, resp. In seeds threshed by hand or beating with a stick mechanical damage was 0-0.3% and germination 98%. 1229 Studies on storage of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) seeds. 1. Biocide treatments and containers for storage. Selvaraj, JA. South Indian Horticulture. 1988, 36: 6, 313-317; 10 ref. Seeds of the aubergine cultivar Co.1 were treated in 7 different ways; the moisture content was then reduced to 6% and the seeds were stored for up to 24 months in 3 different types of container at ambient temperature. Seed germination and vigour index were generally acceptable up to 18 months but declined rapidly thereafter; up to 18 months they were highest in seeds treated with 1 g thiram + 1 g Bavistin [carbendazim]/kg seeds and stored in paper-aluminium foil-polyethylene lined pouches. 1230 Studies on storage of seed potatoes under natural conditions. Rahman, A. NWFP Agricultural University. 1986, 53p. In order to improve the quality of seed potato in high hills, this experiment was laid out to select the best method of storing seed potatoes for the summer crop and later on introduce it to the growers of the area, so that they become self-sufficient in seed from their own produce. The investigation reported in this thesis showed that the seed potatoes remain sound and healthy in the method "storing of seed potatoes above ground" in the shape of pyramid covered with soil. The colour of tubers was developed, sprout, rottage was least as compared to other methods of storage (gunny bags, pit storage). The growers at Kalam have now started keeping their potatoes seed for the next summer crop under natural condition because of the successful results of this experiment. 1231 Studies on the preservation of seed cocoons of the tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta D., during diapause. Kapila, ML; Chaudhuri, A; Dubey, OP; Chaudhury, CC; Sinha, SS. Sericologia (France). (1992). v. 32(4) p. 579-596. 1232 A study of the effects of storage environments and rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.) on seed 19

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

deterioration in maize (Zea mays). Khan, I; Hill, MJ; Fenemore, PG. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan). (Dec 1993). v. 9(6) p. 576-585. Seed of maize variety XL-45 was adjusted at three different initial moisture contents (12.4, 15.1 and 18.5%) and stored under four different environments (20 degree Centigrade 40 RH, 20 degree Centigrade 65% RH, 30 degree Centigrade 40% RH and 30 degree Centigrade 65% RH) for 20 weeks. The seed samples were inoculated with adult rice weevils (Sitophilus oryzae). Sampling was carried out after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks storage. Measurements of seed moisture content, germination and change in insect population number survival were made at each sampling time. Major deterioration in seed quality occurred only in those storage environments suitable for rice weevil development, i.e., 20 degree Centigrade 65% RH, 30 degree Centigrade 65% RH. In particular, loss of germination were apparent in these treatments. Under favourable conditions (20 degree Centigrade 65% RH and 30 degree Centigrade 65% RH) rice weevil number increased dramatically. This increase was greatest at 30 degree Centigrade and also resulted in an increase in seed moisture content. The other storage conditions (20 degree Centigrade 40% RH and 30 degree Centigrade 40% RH) were unfavourable for insect survival. This was a direct effect of the low level of relative humidity which resulted in the death of adult rice weevils and prevented the development of larval populations. The level of damage to seed viability by Sitopilus oryzae was clearly a function of the size of the insect population and the time over which it persisted. 1233 A study of the influence of storage environment on seed deterioration in maize (Zea mays). Khan, I; Hill, MJ; Penemore, PG. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan). (Oct 1993). v. 9(5) p. 393-398. Seed of maize variety XL-45 was adjusted to three different initial moisture contents (12.4, 15.1 and 18.5%) and stored under four different environment (20 deg. C-40% RH, 20deg. C-65% RH and 30 deg. C-40% RH and 30 deg. C-65% RH) for 20 weeks. Sampling was carried out after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks storage. Measurements of seed moisture content and germination were carried out at each sampling time. The changes in initial seed moisture content in response to the relative humidity level in the storage environment were rapid. All seed samples reached equilibrium moisture contents (E.M.C) within the first four weeks of storage irrespective of initial moisture level. Equilibrium moisture content in all cases was below 15% considered safe for short term storage of maize. In environment involving a 40% level of humidity, no extensive reduction in germination percentage generally occurred. However, relatively small drop in germination capacity was observed late in the storage period in the most extreme combination (initial moisture content SAARC Agricultural Information Centre (SAIC)

18.5%, 30 deg. C, 65% RH storage environment, 16-20 weeks storage). 1234 Survey on the pulse beetle incidence in stored pulses. Bangladesh. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual report, 1983-84. p. 158-59. The survey was carried out in four locations vize., Jamlpur. Kishoreganj, Ishurdi and Jessore to determine the effectiveness of selected containers against pulse beetle damage during six months of storage at farmer's level. In almost all the storage sample drawn from all locations were either free from or exhibited very low beetle infestation. Seeds stored in earthen containers or metallic drums with sand cover, gunny bag with polyethene lining, very tightly packed gunny bag, plastic bag, metallic pitcher with sealed lid and metallic drum with lid were almost free from beetle infestation during the entire storage period. However,considerable infestations in lentil and chickpea stored in earthen motka with ash and earthen motka with open top, respectively, were observed after four and six months of storage. Grasspea and mungbean also showed considerable infestation when stored in earthen pitcher covering top with sand. 1235 Survey report on the status of maize seed used by farmers at different location in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. ASSP-BARI, Seed Technology Section. 13p. Five districts (60 farmers of each district) Rangpur, Rajshahi, Jessore, Dhaka and Rangamati were selected for conducting the main survey. The majority of farmers of Rangamati district use the local (indigenous) variety. The main source of seed is either BADC or farmers who retained. Maize is comparatively popular in the northern part of Bangladesh. In the case of storage, farmers mainly use metal containers but most farmers of Rangamati store the seed or grain by hanging the cob. The germination percent of sampled seed was frequently below 80%, especially in Rangpur and Rangamati districts. Higher maize production might be achieved in Rangamati district by modern varieties. Introduction of modern varieties and new improved seed management technique is generally necessary for higher maize production. In Rangpur district, the majority of farmers shell maize by beating and store the grain.seed in a dole, often resulting in less than 80% germination and high moisture.Threshing (shelling) seeds by beating may be a major problem in keeping quality and health of the seeds (viability, moisture and insect-pest). In Rajshahi, high seed moisture is recorded in the collected seed samples and threshing by beating is also practized, so seed injury may be an important factor increasing seed moisture. Therefore, in both the locations (Rangpur and Rajshahi), threshing (shelling) by beating should probably be discouraged and other methods of threshing should be lairised. Research finding on seed technology 20

Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

of maize, especially on adaptive storage, threshing (shelling) methods, nutrient effect on quality seed production and method of vigor testing need to be published in the form of leaflets/posters. 1236 Survey report on the status of wheat seed used by farmers at different locations in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. ASSP-BARI, Seed Technology Section. 17p. Six districts (120 farmers of each district) were selected fro conducting the main survey. Highest percentage of respondents raising seed crops separately were in Pabna district. In the large farmer category, 2025% produced wheat seed in Dinajpur, Rahshahi and Pabna districts. The main reason for conducting the survey was to identify the farmers source of seed, their management of seed activities and their perception about modern varieties i.e., details of varietal acceptability, adoption, seed availability, seed quality and awareness among farmers. Most of the growers in Pabna raised their seed separately whereas in collected seed from the crops they had raised for normal grain. The farmers seed from Gazipur showed a lower 1000seed weight and less germination than the standard (80%) and they usually store seed in gunny bags. Farmers need to be trained in all aspects of seed cultivation and preservation. The physical purity of BADC seed was 99% but germination was found lower in these seeds in Dinajpur district. Also seed of a significant portion of marginal farmers in Dinajpur district had a germination less than 80%, this might be connected with the fact that all stored their seeds in earthen pots in this location. Such farmers should be advised to use poly-lined gunny bags or air tight containers. In order to improve the quality of wheat seed production among many marginal farmers and in areas where poor seed is prevalent, seed awareness programs need to be taken. Overall quality of wheat seed used may still be further improved above the minimum official standard and the seed producing farmers need to be trained on production and storage systems of seed by DAE, ARIs and NGOs. Research findings on seed technology of wheat, especially on adaptive storage trial, threshing methods, nutrient effect on quality seed production and method of vigour testing need to be published in the form of leaflets/ posters. 1237 Survival of Septoria nodorum Berk. in wheat seed stored at 5 degrees centigrade. Siddiqui, MR; Mathur, SB. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter (IBPGR FAO). (Sep-Dec 1988). (no. 75-76) p. 7-8. 1238 Technical notes (Nos. 1-55) [based on research on wide range of forestry subjects with information on seed collection, storage, testing, raising of nurseries and management studies] Sheikh, MI. Pakistan Forest Institute. 1984. 114p.

1239 Technological investigations in soybean to study effect of storage on soybean seed and its oil. Waraich, Ata Jilani. University of Agriculture. Fisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of food Technology. 1967. 1240 Use of volatile compounds in the preservation of rice seed under traditional storage, India. Kumar, S. Seed Science and Technology. 1994, 22: 1, 159-162; 10 ref. Three volatile organic compounds, chloroform, acetone and 2- butanone, were tested as preservation agents for rice cv. Sita seeds under traditional 'kothi' (a cylindrical earthern indoor storage structure placed vertically on a platform 1 ft. above ground level) and 'bukhari' (an outdoor, vertically mounted cylindrical structure) storage methods for up to twelve months. Untreated seeds showed rapid losses in germination percentage. Such losses were higher in 'kothi' stored seeds than 'bukhari'. Seeds treated with chloroform (50 'l/g), acetone, (50 'l/g) or 2- butanone (25 'l/g) and stored in 'bukhari' retained 74%, 72% and 80% germinability, respectively, after 12 months. Under 'kothi' storage, treatment effectiveness was slightly lower. Fungal incidence on the seed was decreased when treated. A significant correlation was observed between storage structures, storage time and volatile compound concentrations. 1241 Variability for seed aging and storability in wheat [Triticum aestivum] Chhabra, BS; Yadava, TP; Behl, RK. Wheat Information Service (Japan). (Nov 1992). (no.75) p. 68-71. 1242 Variation and geographical distribution of seed storage proteins and waxy proteins in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) Afzal, M; Kawase, M; Okuno, K; Anwar, R. Pakistant Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan) Proceedings of a national seminar on genetic resources of cereals and their utilization in Pakistan. 8-10 February 1994. p. 137-149. Phylogenetic differentiation and geographical distribution of genetic variation for total seed storage protein and waxy protein in two hundred and seventeen accessions of Setaria italica from Europe and Asia were investigated by SDS-PAGE. Total seed storage protein electrophoregrams were characterized and classified into six types. These six protein profile types have been designated as A, B, C, D, E and F. Results indicated that Indian sub- continent, Afghanistan, Central Asia and Europe share almost the same phylogenetic groups. While Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan have a group unique to this region. Pakistan shares a type which is common to Europe, Central Asia and Far East but not other areas of the sub-continent. On the basis of waxy protein electrophoregrams, the whole germplasm was grouped into three classes, viz: nonwaxy, intermediate and waxy. Waxy lines are distributed in Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Myanmar. Intermediate types were detected 21

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

in Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia. In India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Europe, only nonwaxy types have been detected. A protein fraction of 60 kilodalton, which correlates with the amylose content and, supposedly, functions in the formation of nonwaxy seed was discovered. 1243 Variation of azadirachtin content during growth and storage of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds. Yakkundi, SR; Thejavathi, R; Ravindranath, B. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1995, 43: 9, 2517-2519; 13 ref. Variation of azadirachtin content during the growth and storage of neem seeds was studied by reversed-phase highperformance liquid chromatography using anisole as internal standard. Samples were collected in Bangalore, Karnataka, every fortnight from the initial bud stage to the ripened fruit stage and analysed using an efficient sample preparation protocol developed for this purpose. Azadirachtin appeared only after the 9th week, gradually reaching a maximum of 0.380.06% (w/w, on a dry weight basis) around the 17th week, and decreasing to 0.290.03% (w/w) by the 19th week. Thus, the fruits can be profitably harvested in the 17th week of development (when the neem fruit turns from green to yellow) for better yield of azadirachtin. Application of the method for storage studies of neem seeds indicated that azadirachtin was unstable under normal conditions of storage of the seeds, with azadirachtin content reducing to about 68% of the original level over a period of 4 months in the dark and to 55% in daylight. 1244 Wheat seed storage under tropical conditions. Clements, DJ. Bangladesh-Canada Agricultural Sector Team, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the International Conference on Wheat Production Constraints in Tropical Environments. Chiang Mai, Thailand. 19-23 Jan 1987. 1988. p. 360-365. Wheat seed storage under tropical conditions presents problems not associated with storage in traditional wheat growing areas. High temperatures and relative humidity levels are not conducive to efficient, low-cost storage methods. Farmers have adapted very well to the new matrix of problems associated with wheat seed production. A major constraint to improving the quality and quantity of seed stored at the farm level is the availability of appropriate storage containers. Another important constraint is the inability of small farmers to afford even to set aside part of their crop for seed purposes due to cash and food requirements. 1245 Wheat seeds and their storage under farmers' condition in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report 1977-78

A survey was conducted in 1977 through districts where wheat is concentrated to evaluate the quality at the seeds and their storage at farmers' level. The seeds produced and preserved by farmers was observed to be satisfactory and it is quite possible to meet the requirement of seeds of the country if a farmer is encouraged to store properly a greater quantity of seed is needed for his own requirement.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

SEED PATHOLOGY
1246 Black point of wheat: occurrence, effect of fungicidal seed treatment on germination and quality characters [in Bangladesh]. Dey, TK; Chowdhury, N; Ayub, A; Goswami, BK. Bangladesh Journal of Botany (Bangladesh). (1992). v. 21(1) p. 2732. The percentage of black point infection was recorded from 232 and 150 seed samples of wheat collected from 12 districts of Bangladesh during 1987-88 and 1988-89 respectively. The average black point infection of the varieties/lines during 1987-88 and 198889 ranged from 5.0 to 20.50% and 8.0 to 55.0% respectively. The detected pathogens of the disease were : Drechslera spp. Alternaria spp. and Fusarium oxysporum. Vitavax-200 showed best performance in controlling the disease followed by Tecto-TM and Baytan 10 DS. Alterations in quality characters due to black point were also detected. 1247 Cell wall degrading enzymes production by seed borne fungi isolated from Chilgoza (Pinus geradiana Wall). Singh, PL; Gupta, MN; Singh, AL. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology (India). (Dec 1991). v. 21(3) p. 265-267. 1248 Designated seed-borne diseases and their management to maintain tolerance limit through seed health. Shrestha, K; Timila, RD. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal) Proceedings of the National Workshop on Seed Quality Control. 24-25 November 1997. FAO/TCP/NEP/6611. The designated seed-borne diseases are exclusively seed transmitted, but are also not amenable for control economically in large scale. Major seed- borne diseases of important crops and seed-infection range recorded during seed-health test is presented. Both laboratory and field efforts are equally important for the control of seed-borne diseases in the seed production. Sowing of resistant varieties is the easiest and cheapest method of disease control. In cereals some resistant varieties to certain seed-borne diseases have been reported. In case of vegetable crops, only a few varieties

showing some resistant to certain diseases have been introduced and adopted in the country. Seed health testing is an essential component in producting healthy quality seed production. It determines the health status of seed lot, determines whether seed lot meets the requisite certification standards or not, ascertain causes of low germination capacity or poor field emergence. Finally it also decides need for seed treatment. The techniques of seed-health test are sensitive but it needs proper sampling for effective results. These techniques have to be selected on the basis of nature of organism and its location on or in seed. 1249 Disease-free potato seed production in Lahaul valley [India] Singh, BP; Sharma, KP. Indian Farming (India). (Mar 1985). v. 34(12) p. 24-26. 1250 Effect of black point disease on yield and quality of wheat seed. Shakya, PB. Nepal Agriculture Research Journal (Nepal). (1997). v. 1(1) p. 49-51. The effect of black point disease (Drechslera sorokiniana) on seed yield and quality of seeds of wheat variety Annapurna-1 was studied at Khumaltar during 1992 and 1993 wheat seasons. The study was focussed to find out the effectiveness of Vitavax-200 in producing healthy and high quality wheat seeds. Wheat seed treated with Vitavax-200 at the rate of 3.0 g/kg seed was found promising in lessening the infection by the seed borne organisms and producing good quality and high seed yields and grain weights. 1251 Effect of different methods of dehaulming on virus incidence in potato seed production. Chaubey, IP; Singh, DB. Journal of the Indian Potato Association (India). (Jul 2001). v. 28(1) p. 101-102. Dehaulming the potato seed crop by haulm pulling was found most effective in reducing the virus incidence without affecting the crop yield. 1252 Effect of fungal invasion on sugars of gram (Cicer arietinum L.) seed during storage. Dwivedi, SN. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 1989, 19: 1, 10-13; 8 ref.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium moniliforme [Gibberella fujikuroi] and Penicillium oxalicum were isolated from C. arietinum seed and inoculated individually on surface sterilized seeds. Infection increased the content of reducing sugar but decreased that of non-reducing sugar. This deterioration was commonly observed up to 3-4 weeks after inoculation, depending on the fungus. 1253 Effect of fungicidal seed treatment on primary infection of downy mildew and viability of opium poppy seed. Doshi, A; Thakore, BBL. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. Dec 1995. v. 25(3) p. 160-164. 1254 Effect of fungicidal seed treatment on seed health of sunflower under storage conditions. Solanke, RB; Hussaini, MM; Jawale, LN; Bonde, VJ. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1997, 22: 3, 349-350. Sunflower seeds were collected in 199394, 1994-95 and 1995-96 in India. The seeds were treated with fungicides and the mycoflora was determined every 2 months for 36 months. The fungicide treatments tested were thiram, carbendazim and thiram + carbendazim. Without fungicide treatment a reduction in the sunflower germination was observed (from 91 to 67%) and the mycoflora increased with time in storage. The fungi most commonly isolated were Fusarium moniliforme [Gibberella fujiluroi], Alternaria alternata, Macrophomina phaseolina and Curvularia lunata [Cochliobolus lunatus]. Seed treatments reduced the mycoflora on the seeds and also increased germination. 1255 Effect of fungicides on aflatoxin production in sunflower seed. Dawar, S; Ghaffar, A. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 1998, 30: 2, 291-294. Sunflower seeds inoculated with a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus showed a reduction in seed germination. When seeds were treated with the fungicides captan, triadimenol (as Baytan) and benomyl, seed germination increased and A. flavus infection decreased. Seed treatment with fungicides before inoculation with A. flavus was more

effective in reducing infection by A. flavus and reduced aflatoxin production. 1256 Effect of insecticidal application on the fibre quality, seed- cotton and carry over of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.). Sharma, JP; Agarwal, RA. Journal of Insect Science. 1992, 5: 2, 153-156; 7 ref. In field studies conducted in Uttar Pradesh, India, fenvalerate and cypermethrin (both applied at 100 g a.i./ha), and deltamethrin (applied at 17.5 g a.i./ha) were more effective than carbaryl (applied at 1250 g a.i./ha) in reducing the quantity of stained seed-cotton, double seeds and the number of larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella infesting cotton seeds. Treatment with the former insecticides also resulted in a higher oil content in seeds of the cotton cultivar Bikaneri Narma. Spraying insecticides at the 50% boll formation stage gave higher bundle strength, fibre length, fibre maturity and micronaire values than when sprays were applied at the 50% square formation stage. 1257 Effect of insecticide and fungicide treatment on cowpea seed quality. Hunje, RV; Kulkarni, GN; Shashidhara, SD; Vyakaranahal, BS. Seed Research. 1990, 18: 1, 90-92. Cowpea seeds (8.5% moisture content) treated with insecticides (10 g malathion or BHC [HCH]/kg seeds), fungicides (2 g thiram or Dithane M-45 [mancozeb]/kg) or both insecticides + fungicides in different combinations were stored in cloth bags under ambient conditions and tested at 1-month intervals for germination and vigour index (germination (%) X root length). There was no decrease in germination of seeds treated with insecticides and/or fungicides during 6 months of storage. Germination of untreated seeds markedly decreased after 3 months of storage. The decrease could be attributed to seed infestation with Callosobruchus chinensis and fungal infection. 1258 Effect of insecticide application on seed yield and quality in egg plant (Solanum melongena L.). Krishnasamy, V. Journal of Applied Seed Production. 1990, 8, 1-5; 11 ref. The pyralid (Leucinodes orbonalis) is an important pest of eggplant [aubergine].

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

Field trials, in 1988-89 in Tamil Nadu, of the effect on seed crop yield and quality of carbaryl with sulfur, endosulfan, quinalphos, monocrotophos, phosalone, deltamethrin and fenvalerate were carried out. In the monsoon season, treatment with the pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate) at 0.005% concn increased seed yield. Treatment had little effect on the number of borer holes in fruit, although seed germination and subsequent seedling vigour was improved by treatment with pyrethroids, in particular fenvalerate. 1259 Effect of leaf crinkle virus infection on seed yield and quality in mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) Manadhare, VK; Padule, DN; Mahajan, PD. Seed Research. 1999, 27: 1, 128-130. Mung beans [Vigna radiata] cv. BM-4, K-851 and S-8 grown at Rahuri, Maharashtra in 1993 were examined for incidence of urd bean leaf crinkle virus. Incidence ranged from 0.74% in BM-4 to 1.90% in K-851. Yield/plant was decreased 47.34% in diseased plants, associated with a decrease in pod number/plant of 31.99%. Seeds from diseased plants had germination of 73.3% compared with 85.1% in healthy plants, and also showed reduced vigour. 1260 Effect of moisture content and storage containers on the prevalence of fungi and seed viability of gram. Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. Dept. of Plant Pathology. M.Sc.Ag. Thesis Effects of three moisture contents (8, 12 and 16%) and five storage containers, namely tin, plastic bag, bamboo dole, earthen motka and gunny bag on the prevalence of fungi and viability of gram seeds for 0, 3 and 6 months were studied. The moisture content of gram seeds increased while germinability decreased significantly with increasing time in storage. Twenty-three fungal species of 15 different genera were isolated from the seeds stored under different containers. The most prominents were Alternaria., Aspergillus, Botrytis, Chactomoun, Cladosporium, Colleotrichum and Curvularia. The total individual fungi varied depending on storage condition, storage time, moisture content of the seeds and on their interactions. There was

a positive correlation between the prevalence of storage fungi and loss of germinability of the seed. The results also indicated the possibility of involvement of storage fungi in reducing the germination of gram seeds during storage in all the containers. Seeds stored in the plastic bags having moisture content of 8 and 12% could be kept safely for six months. 1261 Effect of pesticides spray on resultant seed quality in bhendi. Vijayakumar, A. Madras Agricultural Journal. 2001, 88: 7-9, 482-483; 6 ref. The effects of different pesticides on the quality of bhendi [Abelmoschus esculentus] seeds were investigated during June-July and February-March [year not given], in Periyakulam, Tamil Nadu, India. The treatments comprised (P1) endosulfan, 0.05%; (P2) monocrotophos, 0.05%; (P3) fenvalerate, 0.02%; (P4) chlorpyrifos, 0.05%; (P5) carbaryl, 0.1%; (P6) neem oil, 250 ml/acre; (P7) 0.03% dimethoate + P1 + P2 + P4 + P6; and (P0) control. Monocrotophos, endosulfan and neem oil recorded the highest values for seed germination (70.5, 67.5 and 65%, respectively), root length (9.63, 9.00 and 8.75 cm, respectively), shoot length (13.88, 13.88 and 12.13 cm, respectively), dry matter production (282, 268 and 246 mg, respectively) and vigour index (1571, 1515 and 1340, respectively). Repeated application of carbaryl caused adverse effects on all quality parameters of bhendi seeds and seedlings. 1262 Effect of pre-harvest spraying of some pesticides on yield and quality of cowpea seed. Sasikala, K; Krishnasamy, V. Seed Research. 1995, publ. 1996, 23: 2, 102107; 21 ref. In a field trial in monsoon 1993, Vigna unguiculata cv. CO4 was given 0.25% endosulfan, 0.1% malathion, 0.1% dithane M45 [mancozeb], 0.1% carbendazim, endosulfan + dithane M-45, endosulfan + carbendazim, malathion + dithane M-45 or malathion + carbendazim at 30 + 45 days after sowing. Incidence of pod borer (Lampides boeticus) was highest in the untreated control (35%) followed by dithane M-45 treatment (31.5%) and it was lowest with endosulfan + carbendazim (1.7%). Seed yield and seed

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

vigour index were highest with endosulfan + carbendazim. Initial seed germination was highest with malathion + dithane M-45 (97%) followed by endosulfan + carbendazim (96%) and seed germination after 5 months storage was highest with malathion or endosulfan + carbendazim (90%). The incidence of live pulse weevils in seed stored for 5 months was not affected by treatments, however incidence of dead weevils was lowest with malathion or endosulfan + carbendazim. Dithane M-45 gave the lowest incidence of storage fungi (Aspergillus and Rhizopus spp.). 1263 Effect of pre-sowing chemical seed treatment in controlling collar rot disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Bangladesh Association of Advancement of Science, Dacca (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the 13th Annual Bangladesh Science Conference. 29-31 May, 1988. p. 90. Collar rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) is predominantly a seedling disease of chickpea resulting in substantial seedling mortality. The present study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of seed treating fungicides in controlling or reducing the incidence of the disease. Seeds of chickpea treated with six fungicides were sown in inoculated soil in earthen pots placed in open atmosphere. Preand post-emergence seedling mortality was recorded. It was found that seed dressing with Vitavax-200, Thiride-75 and Captan had significant effect in controlling collar rot disease of chickpea, while Bavistin, Benlate and Ridomil treatment did not differ significantly from the control. 1264 Effect of preharvest fungicidal application on soybean seed quality under humid tropical conditions. Arulnandhy, V. Tropical Agriculturist. 1987, 143: 49-60; 15 ref. Five soyabean cultivars were sprayed with benomyl and/or captan biweekly from mid-flowering to maturity. Preharvest foliar application of fungicides significantly reduced field weathering of seeds of cv. F73-14 which is highly susceptible to infection by seedborne fungi. Emergence rate, seedling length and seedling DW were also increased in all cultivars. The rate of deterioration of stored seeds was also significantly reduced and the

half-life period of seeds stored under ambient humid, tropical conditions was extended to 60 d. 1265 Effect of seed-borne fungi on seed germination in soybeans. Arulnandhy, V. Tropical Agriculturist. 1983. v. 139 p. 57-65. Seed of 46 soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) genotypes in maturity groups V through VIII, consisting of 36 advanced breeding lines and 10 cultivars were tested for the presence of seed-borne fungi and germination on potato-dextrose agar at room temperature. It was found that 61.6% of soybean seed infected with phomopsis spp. did not germinate compared to only 8.6% of the seed infected by other fungi. Highly significant inverse relationships between germination percentage and percent of seed infected by Phomopsis spp. and other fungi at room temperature were evident. Seed infected by Phomopsis spp. was responsible for greater proportion of the variation in seed germination at room temperature. Some genotypes showing better germination and less seed infection by seed-borne Phomopsis spp. than the average genotype were identified. The occurrence of Phomopsis spp. was more frequent and germination was lower in early maturing genotypes than the late ones. 1266 Effect of seed-borne fungi on seed viability and seedling vigour. Maheshwari, RK; Mathur, SK; Mathur, A. Indian Phytopathology (India). Dec 1984. v. 37(4) p. 713-714. 1267 Effect of seed treatment with fungicides and insecticides on the viability of pearl millet seeds during storage. Dakshinamoorthy, T; Sivaprakasam, K. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1989, 76: 2, 102-105; 10 ref. Freshly harvested pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum] seeds were dried to 10% moisture and treated with fungicides and/or insecticides. Treatment with 2 g carbendazim/kg seed with or without 6 g thiram increased seed germination after 5 months' storage. Germination also increased with a standard treatment of 200 mg DDT 50% wettable powder + 2 g thiram/kg seed.

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Treatment with 10 g HCH or malathion reduced germination. 1268 Effect of some traditional and improvised indoor containers on insect damage and viability of maize seeds. Karim, MA; Amiruzzaman, M. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology (Bangladesh). (1991). v. 19(1) p. 6976. Maize seeds stored in Polythene lined Motka, Improved tin, Polythene lined jute bag, Traditional tin and Polythene lined Dole showed the lowest infestation rate of 0.46, 0.91, 1.14, 3.02 and 3.38 percent, respectively. The containers were opened once after 13 months, the rate of infestation trend was more or less similar, that is, 0.23, 1.85, 2.10, 2.34 and 2.37 percent infestation were obtained from the seeds stored in polythene lined Motka, Polythene lined jute bag, Improved Tin, Polythene lined Dole and Traditional Tin, respectively. In terms of viability of seeds, Polythene lined Motka and Improved Tin gave the highest germination rate of 76.67 and 73.33 percent, respectively. The percent moisture content of the maize seed increased in all treatments from initial 10.47 to 13.44% but this moisture level did not affect the germination of seeds. 1269 Effect of sunning on different pulse seeds infested by the pulse beetle Callosoburuchus chinensis L. Begum, S; Mannan, MA; Begum, A. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology (Bangladesh). December 1991 Vol. 19(2): 263- 265. The experiment was conducted at BARI Joydebpur during 1979-80. One kg of lentil. Chickpea and black gram seeds were stored upto 8 months. Sunning was done at an interval of 1 and 2 months, respectively. At the beginning, five pairs of adult beetle were released into each sample. The control seeds were kept without sunning. This study confirmed that sunning can inhibit the rate of insect multiplication and this can reduce loss in weight of seeds. 1270 Effectiveness of oils as protectant of maize seeds against corn weevil, Sitophilus zeamais motsch. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report 1989-90. p. 65-66.

The Experiment was conducted at BARI, Joydebpur with five different oils. The oils were mixed with maize seeds (var. Barnali) at 10 ml/kg of seeds. One kg of the treated maize was kept in 2kg of seeds. One kg of the treated maize was kept in 2kg capacity earthen pot sealed with lids. Five pairs of adult weevils were released in each earthen pot. Samples of 50 g of grain were drawn from each earthen pot at regular intervals of three months. Percent infestation in all the treatments increased with the storage period. Upto three months of storage, no significant difference in the percent of infestation were observed. After six months of storage, the untreated control and tishi oil had the highest percent of infestation. The lowest infestation of 8.08% was obtained from the seeds treated with castor oil while maize seeds treated with til, pitraz and sunflower oil had 10.27, 17.04 and 27.38% infestation, respectively, which were not significantly different from the castor oil treatment. 1271 Effects of different fungicides on seedling vigour and seed viability in soybean. Pardeshi, VF; Reddy, VG; Nalwandikar, PK. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1989, 14: 1, 33-36; 6 ref. Soyabean cv. Monetta, JS-72-44, JS-2, MACS-13 and Bragg seeds (3 kg samples) were treated with recommended rates of 2.5 g mancozeb, 2.5 g Bavistin [carbendazim], 4.0 g thiram, 2.5 g Vitavax [carboxin], 2.5 g captan, 6 g S or 3 g Difolatan [captafol]. Seed germination and seedling growth were determined 8 d after sowing. All fungicides (except carboxin on cv. Bragg and captafol on JS-2) increased germination percentage; thiram, carbendazim and captafol were most effective. Root and shoot lengths, vigour index (percentage germination X root + shoot length (cm)) and seedling FW were increased most effectively after application of captan, followed by thiram, sulphur and mancozeb. Most fungicide treatments increased seedling DW after 150 d. Seed viability was increased with application of all fungicides; carbendazim was most effective. 1272 Efficacy and degradation of few fungicides on paddy seeds during storage.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

Behera, B; Narain, A; Swain, NC; Senapati, AK. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research (India). (Sep-Dec 1992). v. 5(3-4) p. 223-224. 1273 Efficacy of fungicides for increasing storability of grain moulds infected seed of sorghum hybrid CSH 14. Padule, DN; Mahajan, PD; Perane, RR; Patil, RB. Seed Research. 1999, 27: 1, 95-99. Sorghum hybrid CSH 14 seeds harvested in 1992-95 were given various preand postharvest treatments against grain mycoflora. Field spraying plus postharvest seed treatment with thiram (0.2%) + carbendazim (0.2%) in a 1:1 ratio was effective in controlling seed mycoflora and also showed higher germination and vigour index in all study years. The storage studies also indicated that the higher the intensity of grain moulds in the field, the lower the life of seeds in storage. The predominant fungi associated with the seeds of sorghum hybrid CSH 14 were Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata [Cochliobolus lunatus], Drechslera sorghicola [Bipolaris sorghicola] and Fusarium moniliforme [Gibberella fujikuroi]. 1274 Efficacy of some bacterial isolates as seed treatment on penetration of Anguina tritici larvae to growing point of wheat seedlings and viability of larvae in the galls formed. Gokte, N; Swarup, G. Indian Journal of Nematology. 1988, 18: 2, 368-369. Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. pumilis and 2 species of Pseudomonas were evaluated in a pot experiment for their effect on larval movement of A. tritici to the growing point of wheat seedlings. All isolates, individually as well as in combination caused reduction in % penetration in comparison to untreated seed. Significant reductions were obtained with B. subtilis and B. pumilus and a combination of all 3 isolates. After 12 months there was a significant loss in viability of larvae from newly formed galls compared with those in galls from untreated seeds. 1275 Efficacy of synthetic pyrethroids and conventional insecticides in controlling pink bollworm and their effect on plant phenology, yield and quality of seed cotton. Khurana, S; Khurana, AD; Verma, AN. Indian

Journal of Entomology. 1994, 56: 1, 28-35; 16 ref. The efficacy of synthetic pyrethroids, conventional insecticides and spray schedules (6 sprays of each treatment) against pink bollworms [Pectinophora gossypiella] on hirsutum cotton was investigated during 1986 in Sirsa, Haryana, India. All 3 synthetic pyrethroids (cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate) and the synthetic pyrethroidconventional insecticide schedule (dimethoate, monocrotophos-fenvalerate-quinalphoscypermethrin- fenitrothion) proved more effective than conventional insecticides (monocrotophos, quinalphos) and conventional spray schedules (dimethoatemonocrotophosfenitrothion-quinalphosendosulfan-fenitrothion) in reducing insect infestation. Among the conventional insecticidal treatments, monocrotophos as well as the conventional spray schedule proved more effective than quinalphos. Studies on the effect of these insecticides on plant phenology of cotton revealed that plant height, number of flowers and bolls were observed to be higher in the synthetic pyrethroid- treated plots whereas the maximum number of leaves was recorded with monocrotophos. Of the various quality characters studied, only oil content and fibre length showed variations due to insecticidal treatments. Per cent oil content was found to be higher in cypermethrin and quinalphos treatments, whereas mean fibre length and span length was observed to be higher in cypermethrin-treated plots and synthetic conventional spray schedules. 1276 ELISA for detection of viruses for seed potato production. Shatrughna Singh; Shiv Kumar; Shekhawant, GS. Journal of the Indian Potato Association. 1993, 20: 2, 117121; 14 ref. A total of 7335 tubers of 7 potato cultivars from 3 seed producing regions of India was indexed by ELISA and the chloroplast agglutination test for the detection of potato X potexvirus (PXV), potato Y potyvirus (PYV) and potato S carlavirus (PSV). ELISA was 97.2, 436.5 and 264.4% more efficient than the chloroplast agglutination test for detection of PXV, PYV and PSV, respectively. The incidence of PXV, PYV and PSV ranged 3.4-20.0, 1.2-13.3 and

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

29.5-92.0%, respectively, in different cultivars. The incidence of these viruses was lower in cultivars Kufri Badshah and Kufri Jyoti than in Kufri Lalima, Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Sindhuri, Kufri Lauvkar and Gulmarg Special. Virus incidence was highest in tubers collected from Patna (97.6%), Gwalior (72.4%) and Jalandhar (71.0%). 1277 Exploration of lesser meal worm for the control of storage insects together with its stages and effect on seed viability. Gautam, RD. Agricultural Situation in India. 1989, 64: 6, 487-489; 4 ref. The potential of the tenebrionid Alphitobius diaperinus as a biological control agent for stored products pests was studied in the laboratory at 27oC and 65% RH. Normal development of larvae occurred on either composite feed or with eggs and larvae of the pyralid Corcyra cephalonica. An average of 948.6 eggs were laid by females with C. cephalonica compared to 638.2 eggs with composite feed. The larval period was 64.91 and 65.23 days on eggs of C. cephalonica and composite feed, resp. Larvae did not develop on whole wheat or sorghum grains or broken or powdered sorghum. The germination of wheat grains which were infested for 45 days by adults of A. diaperinus declined from 99.80% to 79.80, 27.20 and 11.40% after 21, 45 and 90 days storage, resp. Larvae and adults of A. diaperinus fed most voraciously on eggs of the gelechiid Sitotroga cerealella (25 eggs/day), followed by eggs of the tenebrionid Tribolium castaneum and the bruchids Callosobruchus chinensis, C. maculatus and C. analis (14, 6, 5 and 7 eggs/day). Adults also preyed on larvae of S. cerealella, T. castaneum and the anobiid Lasioderma serricorne. 1278 Field evaluation of synthetic pyrethroids for the protection of stored wheat seed against storage pests. Ramzan, M; Chahal, BS; Judge, BK. International Pest Control. 1989, 31: 4, 87-89; 14 ref. Three field trials were conducted in India during 1985-87 using synthetic pyrethroids, namely deltamethrin, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin and cypermethrin, each at 4 and 8 p.p.m. to protect stored wheat grain against

insect pests, in comparison to malathion at 125 p.p.m. and an untreated control. It was observed that when grain was treated with both the dosages of a wettable formulation of deltamethrin, it was almost free from insect damage 6 months after treatment. In other pyrethroid treatments, the damage 6 months after treatment varied from 2.7 to 7.9% during 1985. However, during 1986 and 1987, the damage did not exceed 2.0 and 1.0%, resp., the 2 years being on a par with one another. Fenpropathrin proved significantly inferior. In malathion-treated seed the loss varied from 11.0 to 13.0% as compared to the control where the losses were 29.5 and 34.2% in 1986 and 1987, resp. It was observed that after one year's storage of pyrethroid-treated grains, there was no appreciable reduction in viability even at a dosage of 250 p.p.m., hence they can be safely used for seed treatment. 1279 Fungal deterioration effecting seed quality in peas. Bakshi, S; Chauhan, RKS. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology (India). (Jul 1981). v. 11(2) p. 254255. 1280 Fungal deterioration effecting seed quality in peas. Note. Bakshi, S; Chauhan, RKS. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology (India). (Jul 1981). v. 11(2) p. 254255. 1281 Fungal deterioration of gram seeds during storage under various control conditions. Deo, PP; Gupta, JS. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases. 1988, 6: 1, 115-127; 19 ref. The results are presented of the effects of temp., moisture levels and RH on stored Cicer arietinum seed after 4-24 months. Total N, proteins, sugars and nonreducing sugars gradually decreased while reducing sugars increased during storage. It is recommended that seeds should be stored at low temp. (10oC), low moisture content (7%) and low RH (75%) to reduce deterioration. 1282 Fungi associated with stored carrot seeds in Punjab Province [Pakistan]. Shakir, AS; Khan, SM; Ilyas, MB. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences (Pakistan). (Jan 2000). v. 3(1) p. 186-187.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

Twenty seed-borne-fungi were isolated by blotter paper method from thirty six samples of carrot seed. Among these Alternaria alternata, A. radicina, Aspergillus spp. Rhizopus sp. and Fusarium pallidoroseum were observed in greater number of seed samples. The maximum number of storage fungi were recorded from Gujranwala division of the Punjab. 1283 Fungi moisture content and germinability of rough rice seeds during storage. Mian, IH; Fakir, GA. Seed Research. 1989, 17: 2, 169-173; 15 ref. Fungi were isolated from rough seeds of rice varieties Latishail (DA-17) and Nizershail (DA-25) and stored in 3 types of container (dole, a barrel shaped container made of bamboo slices, motka, a pitcher-shaped large earthen container and gunnybag) for 0, 3, 6 and 9 months. The fungi were grouped into field fungi (Aspergillus heteromorphus, A. niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Curvularia lunata [Cochliobolus lunatus], Drechslera oryzae [Cochliobolus miyabeanus], Fusarium moniliforme [Gibberella fujikuroi], F. oxysporum, Nigrospora [Khuskia] oryzae, Trichoconis [Alternaria] padwickii) and a few unidentified isolates; and storage fungi (Aspergillus candidus, A. clavato-nanica, A. flavosoryzae, A. nidulans, A. ruber, A. sulphureus and A. sydowii). The population of field fungi decreased and that of storage fungi increased with increasing storage period. Germinability of seeds also decreased gradually with storage period. After 6 months storage 84% of seeds germinated but after 9 months only 26% of seeds germinated. 1284 Fungicidal effect on germination of Butea monosperma seeds during storage. Mamta Purohit; Pandey, DK; Jamaluddin. Indian Forester. 1996, 122: 2, 185-186; 5 ref. Seeds were treated with 5 fungicides (Bavistin [carbendazim], Dithane M-45 [mancozeb], Thyride [thiram], Fytolan [copper oxychloride], Ceresan [organomercurial compounds]) and stored for up to 12 months in polybags. Germination tests were performed on treated and untreated seeds either on moistened blotting paper or in a soil/sand/cow dung mixture (1:1:1). Germination was better in all fungicide treated seeds except for those

treated with Fytolan, and better on blotting paper than in the soil medium. It declined progressively with storage. 1285 Fungus induced physicochemical changes in stored coriander seed Note. Prasad, BK. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Sep 1980). v. 33(3) p. 478-479. 1286 Health hazards in man and animals by seed-borne and storage fungi. Sharma, RC; Hari Singh; Sharma, HL; Indu, Sharma. Seeds and Farms. 1989, 15: 2, 26-29; 3 ref. Health hazards in man and animals posed by seed-borne and storage fungi are discussed. The direct effects of seed and storage fungi, including allergic diseases and Aspergillus infections; hazards due to toxins produced by field fungi, such as ergotism, fusaritoxicoses, pink rot dermatitis (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) and lupinosis (Phomopsis leptostromiformis [Diaporthe woodii]); and mycotoxicoses originating from storage fungi, including aflatoxicosis, nephrotoxicoses and neurotoxicoses are included. Some precautions to prevent undue exposure to seed and storage fungi are listed. 1287 Impact of stored grain pests on seed deterioration and aflatoxin contamination in maize. Sinha, KK; Sinha, AK. Journal of Stored Products Research. 1992, 28: 3, 211219; 29 ref. Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum were the dominant species found in maize samples (stored for 4-12 months) collected from different localities of Bihar, India, during June-July 1988. Other species found included Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Trogoderma granarium and Sitotroga cerealella. The incidence of the Aspergillus flavus group fungi, as well as the level of aflatoxins, were comparatively higher in insect-damaged maize samples than undamaged samples. Losses in stored maize, influenced by S. oryzae and T. castaneum, were studied for 15 weeks either with or without inoculation by a toxogenic strain of A. flavus. Insect numbers, moisture content, germinability, dust weight production, mycoflora, especially A. flavus infection, and aflatoxin levels were measured. The number of both insect species increased rapidly after 5

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

weeks in uninoculated maize samples, and the multiplication rate of S. oryzae was greater than that of T. castaneum. In the presence of inoculated A. flavus, the number of both insect species decreased after 10 weeks. Rapid population growth resulted in an increase in the moisture content of grains, dust weight production, A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation, in contrast to a decrease in germinability. Toxigenic strains of A. flavus were isolated from both S. oryzae and T. castaneum. 1288 Importance of seed pathology in crop production. Khanzada, AK; Khan, SAJ; Aslam, M. Progressive Farming (Pakistan). (Mar-Apr 1988). v. 8(2) p. 22-25. 1289 Importance of seed pathology in modern seed production. Khanum, M. Progressive Farming (Pakistan). (Mar-Apr 1991). v. 11(2) p. 28-29. 1290 Influence of pre-harvest spray of fungicides and post-harvest seed treatments on seed quality of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). Saraswthi, N; Shashidhara, SD; Vyakaranahal, BS; Merawade, MN; Puttaswamy, T. Farming Systems. 1995, 11: 34, 21-28; 12 ref. A field experiment was conducted during kharif 1992 in Dharwad, Karnataka, India, and a storage experiment was conducted during the winter-summer season 1992-93, to determine the effect of preharvest fungicidal spray and postharvest seed treatments on germination, germination rate index, vigour index and electrical conductivity of seed leachate of soyabean seeds. Preharvest fungicide (carbendazim (as Bavistin) 1.0 g/litre, mancozeb 2.0 g/litre) sprays applied 10 and 5 d before harvest of the crop and postharvest seed treatment with malathion 5% dust at 2 g/kg; captan + thiram each at 1.5 g/kg; malathion at 2 g/kg + captan + thiram at 1.5 g/kg improved germination count, germination rate and vigour index besides reducing EC of seed leachate compared with the control. 1291 Influence of storage fungi on the physico-characteristics and germination of coriander seed. Prasad, BK; Narayan, N.

Geobios Jodhpur. 1988, 15: 2-3, 141-142; 7 ref. The effects of 6 seedborne fungi (Aspergillus flavus, A. candidus, Alternaria tenuis [A. alternata], Curvularia lunata [Cochliobolus Curvularia lunatus], [Cochliobolus] pallescens and Cladosporium oxysporum) on the chemical characteristics of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seed are tabulated. 1292 Inhibition of production of pectic enzymes of Phoma exigua, seed rot fungus of Vigna radiata [mungbean] Charya, MAS; Reddy, SM. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Sep 1984). v. 37(3) p. 537-539. 1293 Insect pest control of vegetable crops with special reference to seed production. Adhikary, S. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Development Div. Proceedings of the first workshop seminar on vegetable seed production. Kathmandu (Nepal), 23-26 Feb 1982. p. 7281. 1294 Insecticidal potency of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) on pulse beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) infesting cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds during storage. Zibokere, DS. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (India). (Oct 1994). v. 64(10) p. 727-728. 1295 Interaction between Colletotrichum spp. with Phomopsis sojae and Septoria glycines alone or in combination on disease severity and soybean seed quality. Manandhar, JB; Singh, T; Kunwar, IK; Sinclair, JB. Journal of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Nepal. 1987, 8: 75-88; 15 ref. The occurrence of acervuli of C. spp. and pycnidia of either Phomopsis sojae [Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae] or Septoria glycines on petioles or in seeds of soyabean plants spray- inoculated with 1 of 2 isolates of C. truncatum and 1 of C. destructivum, D. phaseolorum var. sojae or S. glycines alone or in combination in the field was recorded. Production of pycnidia by D. phaseolorum var. sojae on petioles was suppressed by C. destructivum and C.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

truncatum. More C. spp. were recovered from seeds of plants inoculated with a mixture of C. truncatum and D. phaseolorum var. sojae than with C. truncatum alone. Plants sprayed with C. spp. had higher levels of seed colonization by D. phaseolorum var. sojae than plants sprayed with the latter alone. A method is described for the mass production of conidia by S. glycines. 1296 Japanese mint oil as fumigant and its effect on insect infestation, nutritive value and germinability of pigeonpea seeds during storage. Srivastava, S; Gupta, KC; Agrawal, A. Seed Research. 1989, 17: 1, 9698; 8 ref. The essential oil from Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) was tested as a fumigant against Callosobruchus chinensis infesting stored seeds of pigeonpeas (Cajanus cajan). Treatment reduced infestation, as compared with no fumigant, but seed germination was reduced. There were no adverse effects on the nutritive value of the seeds. 1297 Management of storage pests at the Sind Seed Corporation's processing plant at Sakrand district Nawabshah [Pakistan]. Special report-2. Ahmed, H. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad (Pakistan). Pest Management Research Inst., Grain Storage Research Lab. Feb 1985. 29p. 1298 Metabolites of seed-borne fungi in relation to the viability of some oil seeds. Deshpande, KS; Kulkarni, GM. Indian Botanical Reporter. 1990, 9: 1, 20-21; 5 ref. K-4-11 groundnut, sunflower and safflower seeds were exposed to a mycotoxin suspension from Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer or were surfaceinoculated with the fungi. Sunflower and safflower seeds were additionally exposed to Verticillium albo-atrum and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. There was a progressive increase in percentage germination and seedling emergence with increased dilutions of mycotoxins, and mycotoxin suspensions were more inhibitory than spore suspensions. Non-viability of seeds and unfavourable environmental conditions also affected seed germination and seedling development.

1299 Organochlorine, organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides affecting food constituents in cotton seeds and wheat grains during storage. Parveen, Z; Afridi, IAK; Masud, SZ. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1998, 41: 6, 275-280. The effects of organochlorine (pp'DDT), organophosphorus (monocrotophos) and synthetic pyrethroid (cyhalothrin) pesticides (@ at 2 p.p.m.) on cotton seeds and wheat grains were evaluated in laboratory tests. The studied samples were stored after pesticide treatment at 30o-3oC for one month, and analysed for carbohydrates, lipids, phosphorus and trace metals along with control samples. Adverse effects were seen on the carbohydrate content in treated cotton seeds and wheat grains. Cyhalothrin caused more adverse effect than pp'-DDT and monocrotophos, and reduced an appreciable amount of lipids in both cotton and wheat. It was also observed that phosphorus content decreased in cotton seeds and wheat grains treated with pp'-D and cyhalothrin but increased with monocrotophos. 1300 Pathological constraints of seed potato production in Bangladesh. Ali, MS; Khan, AL. Bangladesh - Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 187-199. Potato diseases so far recorded in Bangladesh have been listed with their status. The management practices for seed potato production developed through research findings have been discussed. 1301 Peanut stripe virus-free seed production. Middleton, KJ; Saleh, N. International Crops Research Inst. for the Semi-Arid Tropics,Patancheru, A.P. (India) Coordination of research on peanut stripe virus: summary proceedings of the first Meeting to Coordinate Research on Peanut Stripe Virus Disease of Groundnut. Malang, Indonesia, 9-12 June 1987. 1988. p. 20.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

1302 Plant diseases, seed production and seed health testing in Nepal. Proceedings of the First HMG/DANIDA/FAO training course in seed health testing techniques, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal, Nov. 5 to Dec. 19, 1989. Mathur, SB (ed); Amatya, P (ed); Shrestha, K (ed); Manandhar, HK. Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries, Hellerup, Copenhagen, Denmark. 1992, 178 p. The primary aim of this course was to train plant pathologists and lab. technicians in seed health testing techniques. Papers presented as 8 lectures on plant diseases and seed production in Nepal and as practical courses in seed sampling and detection of fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes, are included in this publication. 1303 Potato germplasm screening for leaf blight, viruses, soil borne diseases and seed production: First annual report 1981-1982. Ismail, M. Agricultural Research Institute, Sariab (Pakistan) 1982, Sariab. 14p. For the purpose of selecting a variety with good potentials under stress condition of Baluchistan, 30 varieties/clones were screened both under experimental conditions as well as in farmers field. Varieties Atlantic and Kennebec performed well under the farmers' conditions at Pishin and Gulistan. Two selections from 100-hill, 4 from 60 and 80 from 12 hill observational plots were planted at Kan Mehitarzai for evaluation and did not permit any selection. Bad growing conditions at Kaz Mehtherzai also failed the experiment for seed production. 1304 Potato germplasm screening for leaf blight, viruses, soil borne diseases and seed production: Second annual report 1982-83. Ismail, M. Agricultural Research Institute, Sariab (Pakistan) 1983, 22p. Results of the cultivars/clones tested for yield potential, field resistance to early blight, and moisture stress in the field are reported. Atlanic, B-4969 and Cardinal appears to be less affected by longer irrigation interval as far as total yield is concerned. MY-59 and B-B7744-5 were found to be least susceptible to early blight infection. A disease survey show that PLRV, mild mosaic viruses and early blight, Rhizoctonia and fusarium wilt fungal

diseases are the most common in Baluchistan. Aphid population in Kan Mehtarzai starts building up from middle of August. 1305 Potato, germplasm screening for leaf blight, viruses, soil borne diseases and seed production: Annual Report of Potato Project (PL-480) for the year 1984-85. Shafique, M. Agricultural Research Institute, Sariab (Pakistan) 1985, 14p. The studies being undertaken during the reported period include the evaluation of various varieties/clones for their yield potentials and other characteristics, observation and selections in seedling tubers, effect of different irrigation intervals on different varieties/clones, evaluation of various potato varieties/clones for yield resistance to early blight. 1306 Potato germplasm screening for leaf blight, viruses, soil borne diseases and seed production. Final technical report: April, 1981 to June, 1986. Shafique, M. Agricultural Research Inst., Sariab (Pakistan) 1987, 26p. 1307 Pre-sowing seed treatment in controlling fusarium wilt of chickpea. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report, 1985-86. p. 100. The pre-sowing seed treatment with Benlate T-20 eradicated seed infection with Fusarium oxysporun. Bavistin, Captan, Ridomil and Thiride-75 could not eradicate the pathogen competely, though they reduced the seed infection appreciably. Damage in all the treated seeds were significantly less than in the infected seeds. Ridomil, Benlate T-20 and Bavistin treated seeds produced significantly higher yields. 1308 Preservation of viability of sorghum seeds by controlling seed- borne fungi [India] Vidhyasekaran, P; Thulasidas, G; Ramasamy, KR; Kandaswamy, TK. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Jun 1980). v. 33(2) p. 225-230. 1309 Prevalence, pathogenicity and control of seed borne fungi associated with black gram. Bangladesh Agricultural University

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

(BAU). Dept. of Plant Pathology. M.Sc.Ag. Thesis. 1985. Twenty-three different fungi representing 17 genera were identified from 180 seed samples of black gram collected from Jamalpur, Jessore, Mymensingh and Pabna and 185 black gram lines were taken from Breeding Division, BARI, Joydebpur. The most predominant fungi in order of prevalence were Asgergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarim spp. Twelve fungi out of twenty-three recorded were formed to be pathogenic to the germinating seeds and seedlings of blackgram. Out of these A. flavus, Fusariurm oxysporum, P. sontieotum, M. phaseolina and M. roridum were responsible both for seed rot/germination failure and seedling infection. In order to detect common seed borne pathogens in blackgram, the blotter method with earthen dish appeared to be most suitable for testing the health of blackgram seeds on a routine basis as it is easy, economic, quick and reliable. Complete control of seed borne infection of M. phaseolina and marked increase in germination were possible by treating blackgram seeds with Homai 80 WP and Vitavax-200 in the laboratory and in the field. 1310 Production of disease free seed potato, present status and future areas of research and development in Pakistan. Ahmed, SI; Bhutta, AR; Hussain, A. NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan. Research and development of potato production in Pakistan: Proceedings of the National Seminar. 23-25 April, 1995. 1995, 78-86; 8 ref. A practical application of disease free seed potato technology developed by the Federal Seed Certification Department is presented. A total of 38 328 potato leaf samples were tested during 1985-86 against 5 viruses (potato leaf roll luteovirus, potato X potexvirus, potato Y potyvirus, potato S carlavirus and potato A potyvirus) using ELISA on a commercial scale. As a result of monitoring, viral infection in seed samples was reduced from 23.9% to 9.43%. The impact of work along with the present status and suggestions for further research and development are provided.

1311 Production of peanut stripe virus-free seed and screening groundnuts for resistance to peanut stripe virus. Middleton, KJ; Saleh, N; Horn, N; Reddy, DVR. International Crops Research Inst. for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, A.P. (India). Coordination of research on peanut stripe virus: summary proceedings of the first Meeting to Coordinate Research on Peanut Stripe Virus Disease of Groundnut. Malang, Indonesia, 9-12 June 1987. 1988. p. 21-22. 1312 Production of Peronosclerospora sorghi oospores in maize seeds and further studies on the seed borne nature of the fungus. Muralidhara, Rao, B; Shekara, Shetty, H; Safeeulla, KM. Indian Phytopathology (India). (Jun 1984). v. 37(2) p. 278-283. 1313 Production of virus free seed potato through tissue culture techniques. Hussain, S; Turangzai, MJ; Khan, I. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan). (Aug 1990). v. 6(4) p. 365-369. 1314 Production of virus-tested seed potatoes. Foxe, MJ. Horticulture - new technologies and applications. Dordrecht (Netherlands). Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1991. p. 337- 344. 1315 Protection of forest seeds against insect pests and fungi during storage. Thakur, ML; Sehgal, HS. Journal of Tropical Forestry. 1988, 4: 4, 350-356; 14 ref. The major insect pests and fungi of forest seeds under storage in India are reviewed; for the insect pests a table is included indicating the 15 major pests by tree species - the principal and most important species are from the genera Bruchidius, Bruchus and Caryedon. The factors responsible for infestation are outlined and protection and control methods described and discussed. 1316 Screening of germplasm for bolting resistance disease and insect resistance: and developing improved varieties and their seed production at higher elevations [Pakistan] Beg, Akhtar. Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar (Pakistan) 1980. 110p.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

1317 Seasonal abundance of insect pest in stored wheat seeds. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report, 1981-82. 1982. Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae), lesser grain borer, red grain beetle and figmoth were identified as insect pests in stored wheat seeds. Of these R. dominica infected the seeds more than S. oryza and T. castencum. The infesation by E. cantella was negligible. 1318 Seed bacterization for better quality and more yield of fenugreek. Parakhia, AM; Akbari, LF; Andharia, JH. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal. 2000, 25: 2, 34-38; 4 ref. The effect of combined application of Azotobacter with other two beneficial microbes, viz.; Rhizobium and Pseudomonas striata on fenugreek was studied in Gujarat, India, during 1995-96, 1996- 97 and 1997-98. The nodular mass, shoot height and yield (1068 kg/ha) were greatly influenced by coinoculation of Azotobacter and Rhizobia, which gave the highest net return of Rs. 3594/ha but the coinoculation of Azotobacter with P. striata gave the highest incremental cost benefit ratio (1:55.50). The bacterization of seed could sustain the NPK content in soil. 1319 Seed cotton yield and fibre quality as influenced by different grades of bacterial blight under rainfed conditions. Meshram, MK; Sheo Raj. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 1988, 16: 2, 257-260; 8 ref. The level of Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum infection of cotton was controlled using a combination of copper oxychloride (0.25%) and streptomycin (0.01%) sprays. For min. disease level (grade 0) seeds were soaked for 4 h in 0.01% streptocycline prior to the combination treatment. For max. infection (grade 7) seeds were soaked in bacterial suspension then spray-inoculated with the bacterium. Yield loss was directly proportional to grade of bacterial blight. Losses in cotton cultivar L147 and hybrid H4 depended on the stage at which the plant was infected and on environmental conditions.

1320 Seed health testing of broadbeans. Khan, BA; Saad, AT. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research (Pakistan). v. 14(2&3) p. 227-232. 1321 Seed health testing of lentil. Khan, BA; Saad, AT. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research (Pakistan). v. 14(2 and 3) p. 169-172. 1322 Seed paddy production: pathology and prospects [fungal attacks, Sri Lanka]. Seneviratne, SN, de, S; Jeyanandarajah, P; Nicholas, VH. Central Agricultural Research Inst., Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); National Science Council, Colombo (Sri Lanka). Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Annual Session. Part 1: Sectional summaries. Colombo (Sri Lanka), 17-21 Dec 1982. p. 23-24. 1323 Seed quality as influenced by pod infesting insect pests of pigeon pea Cajanus cajan L. Millsp. Kashyap, RK; Punia, RC. Seed Science and Technology. 1995, 23: 3, 873-876; 9 ref. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is an important legume crop in subtropical regions. In studies in Hisar, Haryana, India, Helicoverpa armigera and Melanagromyza obtusa caused considerable (more than 50%) damage to pods (of cvs UPAS-120 and Manak) during seed production in the field. Depending upon the feeding behaviour of the insects, the loss is reflected either in total seed yield or in seed quality. Cotyledon infestation by M. obtusa resulted in a higher number of dead seeds or abnormal seedlings. Such seeds were difficult to separate during the cleaning and grading process. 1324 Sources of potato seed in relation to production and potato leaf roll virus in Pakhal plain and Kaghan valley of Hazara division. Hassan, A; Jan, H; Muhammad, A. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 1997, 9: 2, 148-151. Studies conducted during autumn 1992 and summer 1993, identified Pakhal plain, farmers own, and Lahore and Daska markets as the 3 main seed sources of potato for the autumn crop. The seed from two cold stores at Lahore showed 44 and 72% potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) infection while farmers

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

own seed showed 60%, and Daska seed 2%. The seed of one cold store at Lahore was virus-free. The yield difference did not reflect the different seed sources or PLRV incidence because of variation in soil type, and time of sowing due to rains. In the Upper Kaghan valley, old farmers own seed, Punjab seed and Battakundi Farm seed appeared to be the 3 major seed sources. A high incidence of PLRV (48-72%) was observed in the farmers own and Punjab seed. Battakundi Farm seed had no PLRV and gave the highest average yield of 27 t/ha as compared to other two sources (9-12 t/ha). 1325 Storage study on efficacy of different fungicides in controlling mycoflora of mouldy seeds of jowar (Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)) CSH-9. Kokate, SB; More, WD; Perane, RR. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 1989, 19: 1, 116-117; 6 ref. Seed treated with thiram showed the best germination and fewest seedborne fungi, followed by that treated with captan. The moisture content of the seed increased from Jan. to Jun. and this was paralleled by an increase in the number of colonies isolated. 1326 Stored grain (seed) pests of rice, wheat, maize and vegetables and their control [injurious insects, Nepal] Khatri, Chhetri, G. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Agricultural Input Corporation, Seed Production and Input Storage Project. Seminar on Seed Production, Processing and Storage. Kathmandu (Nepal), 1 Jul-28 Aug 1981. p. 140-159. 1327 Studies of some indigenous plant materials [rhizomes of Acorus calamus, Allium sativum, seeds of Azadirachta indica, Carum copticum and leaves of Xanthoxylum armatum as grain protectants against insect pests of stored grain. Jilani, G; Haq, HS. Pakistan Entomologist (Pakistan). (1984). v. 6(1-2) p. 9-14. 1328 Studies on deterioration of some oil seeds in storage. I. Variation in seed moisture [fungal] infection and germinability [India] Mondal, GC; Nandi, D; Nandi, B. Mycologia (USA). (Jan-Feb 1981). v. 73(1) p. 157-166.

1329 Susceptible stage for inoculation and effect of Karnal bunt on viability of wheat seed [virus disease] Singh, RA; Krishna, A. Indian Phytopathology (India). Mar 1982. v. 35(1) p. 54-56. 1330 Testing of cowpea seeds for seedsborne viruses. Azeemuddin, S. Pakistan Journal of Botany (Pakistan) v. 14 p. 46.. 1982. 1331 Toxicity of some terpenoids against fungi infesting fruits and seeds of Capsicum annuum L. during storage [chillies]. Tripathi, NN; Asthana, A; Dixit, SN. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift (Germany, F.). (1984). v. 110(4) p. 328-335. 1332 Use of food preservatives aainst fungal invasion on pearl millet seeds in storage and their subsequent effect on seed germination. Jain, SC; Pathak, VN; Jain, KL. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology (India). (Dec 1998). v. 28(3) p. 319-320. 1333 Use of food preservatives against fungal invasion on pearl millet seeds in storage and their subsequent effect on seed germination. Jain, SC; Pathak, VN; Jain, KL. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology (India). (Dec 1998). v. 28(3) p. 319-320. 1334 Viability and germination of soybean seeds in relation to pre- treatment with fungicides, period of storage and type of storage container. Singh, SN; Srivastava, SK; Agarwal, SC. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad and Tobago). Apr 1988. v. 65(2) p. 106-108. The seeds of soybean cultivars JS72-44 were stored under different conditions. Prior to this the seeds were separately treated with five different fungicides and their combinations at a dose of 2.5g of chemical per kg of seed. Various types of containers were used including gunny bags, clothbags and tin containers. The results showed that treatment of the seeds with any of the fungicides significantly improved germination and reduced pre- and post-emergence mortality. The combination of Thiram and Bavistin had the minimum post emergence mortality. The type of container had no significant effect on

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

seed viability. Germination was reduced with the lapse of storage time from January to July, 1984. Relatively higher temperatures during March to July had a detrimental effect on seed viability due to seed desiccation. 1335 Viability of fungicide treated seeds of mungbean and cowpea in storage. Gupta, A; Singh, D. Seed Research. 1990, 18: 1, 70-76; 15 ref. Mung [Vigna radiata] cv. PS-16 and cowpeas cv. C-152 seeds, harvested during 1985, were kept in seed stores after treating with thiram, Deltan, Bavistin [carbendazim], Dithane M-45 [mancozeb], Brassicol [quintozene], metalaxyl and Blitox-50 [copper oxychloride]. The initial germination of mung seeds was <50% owing to the presence of hard seeds. Max. germination was found after 6 months of storage when dormancy of the hard seeds had been broken. The viability of mung seeds was not affected up to 36 months of storage irrespective of the seed treatment. However, in cowpeas, seed viability could be maintained for up to 28 months by treatment with Deltan, thiram or Dithane M-45. Treatment with Blitox-50 had an adverse effect on germination. Deltan, thiram, Dithane M-45 and Bavistin eliminated fungi associated with seeds. 1336 Weight losses of wheat in storage due to insect infestation. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur. BARI Annual Report, 1985-86. p. 15. Only Sitophilus orayzae (L.) was found to infest wheat seeds. After 3, 6, 9 months of storage, the percentage of infestation ranged from 1.7-33.5, 59.1-74.0 and 82.2-99.1 and mean percentages of infestation were 8.02, 68.05 and 93.29, respectively. The percentage of weight loss after 3, 6, 9 months of storage ranged from 2.09 to 12.51, 12.55 to 18.18 and 17.7 to 38.80 and mean percentage of weight loss were 3.95, 15.99 and 22.24, respectively. 1337 Wheat seed health testing for Ustilago tritici and Telletia indica. Ahmad, SI; Bhutta, AR. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research (Pakistan). v. 14(2 and 3) p. 222226.

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

SEED MARKETING ECONOMICS

AND

1338 Consultancy mission on jute and kenaf seed production and marketing: report. Mumby, GW. FAO, Rome (Italy). Plant Production and Protection Div.; International Jute Organisation, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Aug 1992. 48 p. 1339 Economic analysis of forage and seed production of Anjan grass strains in range lands [Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus varieties] Yadav, IPS; Sreenath, PR; Yadav, MS; Rai, P. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research (India). (Sep 1981). v. 15(3) p. 171-176. 1340 Economic efficiency of contractual vegetable seed production in the eastern hills of Nepal. Thapa, PK. Philippines Univ. Los Banos, College, Laguna (Philippines) Feb 1998. 231 leaves. The study found that no net profit was obtained from vegetable seed production in the Koshi Hills as a whole. Seed production was affected not only by higher returns but also by greater employment opportunity and higher cash incomes. The measured mean technical, allocative, and economic efficiencies in production were 89.68, 71.98, and 64.29 percent, respectively. It shows that production can be increased by improving the efficiency, thereby reducing per unit cost of seed. Farmers' education and experience significantly improved efficiency. Production in more remote district like Bhojpur and Tehrathum was significantly lower than that in Dhankuta which has better access to roads and markets. It was also related to the finding that farmers who visit technical information centers more frequently were technically more efficient than others. Moreover, farms farther from the source of inputs were technically less efficient. Because vegetable seed production is purely a market-oriented program, these findings point to the need to review the policy of encouraging vegetable seed production in remote areas. The study found that many farmers did not practice crop rotation. In view of its requirement in seed certification, importance in soil fertility management and

environmental protection, strict monitoring of farmers compliance must be done. Households headed by women were technically more efficient. Women must be asked to play bigger role in vegetable seed production. Labor employment in the production of competing crops showed a complementary relationship between female and male labor. This implied that the study area is mainly characterized by subsistence farming. The labor employment ratio between competing crop and vegetable seed production was 1:1.63 and 1:5.33 for family and hired labor, respectively. This reflects the role of vegetable seed production in helping to alleviate under- and unemployment problems in the rural areas. For the program to run smoothly, both seed producers and traders should honor the contract. There were, however, frequent violations of the terms of the contract. One way to avoid such events would be to enforce the law. 1341 Economic impact of true potato seed on potato production in eastern and northeastern India. Khatana, VS; Upadhya, MD; Chilver, A; Walker, TS (eds.) Case Studies of the Eeconomic Impact of CIP Related Technologies. 1996, 139-156; 15 ref. The economic impact of true potato seed research in India is evaluated. The focus is on the assessment of a technology nearing completion of verification and standardization and in the early stages of farmer acceptance. 1342 Economic returns to seed growers from wheat seed production on Morang District, Nepal. Jha, N. Economic Journal of Nepal. 1994, 17: 3, 156-166. The use of certified seeds is one of the most well recognized factors in raising the levels of returns from a crop. Wheat seed production requires special care to maintain true to type, and high prices are offered to compensate the seed growers for the extra risks and costs involved in seed production. Morang district, which had the largest area under wheat seed production in 1991/92, was selected for a study of the costs involved and the factors that influence certified seed production. The study also investigated the per hectare economic returns to seed growers from wheat seed production. It was found that the

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Annotated Bibliography on Seed Quality, Production & Prevervation in the SAARC Resion

margin of profit was quite low on seed growing farms and could be increased by reducing costs and increasing productivity by the adoption of modern technologies. 1343 The economics of maize seed production and utilization in Pakistan. Longmire, J; Hussain, SS. Economic Program Agricultural Research Insitute, Tarnab (Pakistan) Proceedings of the fourth Asian Islamabad regional maize workshop. (Pakistan), PARC, 1990. p. 361-375. The key economic issues concerning development of an effective maize seed industry for Pakistan are addressed in this paper. Pakistan's maize sector has been severely curtailed through lack of an effective seed industry. The main reasons for this are reviewed. The paper provides estimates of the losses of productivity that arise from having only very low volumes of commercial seed of improved maize in Pakistan. In the irrigated plains, these losses are 18(%), while in the less-developed mountains and rainfed plateaus, they are 11(%). Future prospects for seed of improved varieties and hybrids are good in Pakistan. However, hybrids are unlikely to be profitable in less-favoured areas, even though improved open-pollinated varieties will be. The changes necessary to stimulate the maize seed industry are presented. Special emphasis is given to developing a commercially- oriented and viable sector, in which local small scale seed enterprises play a vital role. 1344 Economics of radish seed production as influenced by transplanting time of stecklings and nitrogen application. Kanaujia, SP; Sharma, SK. Horticultural Journal. 1998, 11: 2, 59-62. In this field trial on radish cv. Japanese White conducted at the Horticultural Research Station, Kandaghat (Himachal Pradesh) during the rabi seasons of 1989-90 and 1990-91, there were 20 treatment combinations comprising 4 transplanting dates (25 November, 5, 15 and 25 December) and 5 N application rates (0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 kg/ha). The highest seed yield (12.36 q/ha) and net returns of Rs 13413/ha were obtained with the combination of transplanting on 25 November and application of 200 kg N/ha.

1345 Economics of seed potato production in Bangladesh. Monninkhof, G. Bangladesh Netherlands Seed Multiplication Project, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Proceedings of the international seminar on seed potato in Bangladesh. 1990. p. 206-218. This paper gives an economic analysis of the seed potato programme of BADC and suggestions to overcome the main economic obstacle. Gradual development of the programme, seed quality, and marketing aspects have been discussed. 1346 Economics of seed potato production in western utter pradesh. Kumar, Nalini, Ranjan; Rambir; Singh, KN; Dahiya, PS. Journal of the Indian Potato Association (India). (Oct-Dec 2000). v. 27(3 & 4) p. 133139. The study was undertaken in Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh to test the viability of prevalent seed production system. It examined the input-output relationship, cost and return analysis and resource use efficiency in seed potato production. The result indicated viability of seed potato production enterprise since benefit-cost ratio in seed potato production was 1.25 on non- certified seed potato farms and 1.29 on certified seed potato farms. There was a deviation from optimal use of resources in case of both certified as well as non-certified seed potato production. Profitability in seed potato production can be increased by increasing the area under seed potato production and decreasing the use of fertilizers to optimum level in both the cases, while in the case of certified seed potato production by increasing the use of human labour, tractor labour and plant protection chemical. Emphasis should be laid on the optimal use of fertilizers and other resources since area under certified seed production can not be increased because of limited quantity of foundation-I seed potato. 1347 Economics of seedling tubers production from true potato seed in different entries. Solanke, AV; Nankar, JT. Journal of the Indian Potato Association. 1993, publ. 1994, 20: 3-4, 198-200; 3 ref.

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An investigation on seed tuber production from true potato seed (TPS) carried out during 1986-87 and 1987-88 revealed that, on average, 30 m2 was required to produce 100 kg of seed tubers. Of the 5 TPS families tested, TPS7(OP) required the least area (24.5 m2) to grow 100 kg of seed tubers, followed by HPS7/III (26.6 m2). TPS7(OP) also produced the greatest weight of seed tubers (3988 g/m2), followed by HPS7/III (3875 g/m2). Number of seed tubers produced by TPS7(OP) and HPS7/III was 936 m2 and 991 m2, respectively. The mean cost of production of seed tubers from TPS was estimated for each family, being cheapest for TPS7(OP). 1348 Economics of true potato seed (TPS) production in western plains of uttar pradesh. Pande, PC. Journal of the Indian Potato Association (India). (Jul 2001). v. 28(1) p. 66-67. Availability of large quantities or quality TPS at reasonable price is imperative for raising commercial crop of potato through TPS technology. However, the information on cost of production of TPS is very scarce and varies from place to place. The experiment conducted at CPRI Campus, Modipuram (NW plains) during 1999-2000 crop season revealed the cost of TPS production to be Rs.6592/- per kg which can be reduced further by increasing the area of crossing block. 1349 Economics of vegetable seed production in Kerala state: a case study. Kutty, CN; Devi, PI; Jaikumaran, U. Seed Research. 1998, 26: 1, 47-52. Costs and returns of vegetable seed production are presented, based on data generated at the Agricultural Research Station, Mannuthy, Kerala, India, during the period 1994/95-1996/97. Eight crops are covered: ash gourd, melon, bitter gourd, snake gourd, aubergine, okra, cowpeas and amaranth. Cost of cultivation showed wide variation from Rs 309 218/ha for okra to Rs 86 412/ha for melon. In all cases, labour was the single highest item of expenditure. Average labour use per crop was estimated at 1394 man days/ha with wide variations between crops. Gross returns and net income were highest for okra. Cowpeas had the highest benefit: cost

ratio and ash gourd and melon had the lowest benefit: cost ratios. 1350 Effect of irrigation, interrow spacing, and seed rate on quality and economics of summer groundnut. Patel, JB; Patel, IS. International Arachis Newsletter. 1995, No. 15, 85-86. In a field trial in summer 1992 at Sardar Krushinagar, Gujarat, groundnuts cv. GG2 were sown in rows 15, 22.5 or 30 cm apart at seed rates of 100, 125 or 150 kg/ha and were irrigated at irrigation water:cumulative pan evaporation ratios of 0.8, 1.0 or 1.2. Shelling percentage and seed oil content were unaffected by treatments, except irrigation at an IW:CPE ratio of 0.8 which slightly reduced shelling percentage. Oil yield was highest with an IW:CPE ratio of 1.2, interrow spacing of 22.5 cm and a seed rate of 150 kg/ha. Net financial returns were decreased by irrigating at an IW:CPE ratio of 0.8 compared with 1.0 or 1.2 and was highest with an interrow spacing of 22.5 cm and seed rate of 125 kg/ha. 1351 Farmers' response and economic aspects of potato production from TPS [true potato seed] Mahrouf, ARM. Southeast Asian Program for Potato Research and Development, P.O. Box 933, Manila (Philippines) SAPPRAD on the third year of phase 3: selected research papers; v.1: potato July 1993-June 1994. May 1995. p. 135-138. The Department of Agriculture introduced two new hybrid true potato seed (TPS), Lakshmi" and "Manike", to farmers in 1992. Agronomic studies demonstrated that these hybrids were moderately resistant to late blight and had high yields. Despite these known advantages, farmers' acceptance of the hybrids had been very low. A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the new hybrids under farmers' management and to determine the cost effectiveness of the TPS technology. Results indicate that farmers can save about Rs 107, 500/ha by using seedling tubers compared to conventional seed tubers. However, farmers were concerned about the short tuber dormancy period, excessive vegetative growth, long maturity and poor tuber quality of the new hybrids. Also, they faced higher risk (low seedling survival in the field) and employed extra labor to manage the

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crop. There is a need to develop new hybrids with early maturity and desirable tuber characteristics to increase farmers' acceptance and utilization of TPS. 1352 Generating better income: economics of tomato seed production in Dharwad district. Naik, BK; Shastry, R; Hosmani, SB. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1996, 9: 2, 369-371; 3 ref. A brief examination is presented examining the economics of tomato seed production in selected villages of Ranebennur, Byadgi and Hirekerur taluks, Dharwad District, Karnataka, India. Data are presented from a survey of farmers in three categories (small, medium and large) [year and survey size not given]. The medium sized farmers generally had higher profits, and better returns per acre of tomato seed production, followed by small farmers, and with large farmers last. 1353 Increasing the use of HYV [High Yield Varieties] seed in Nepal: implications for marketing and price policies [of wheat, rice and maize production]. [Seminar paper] Sharma, M; Sharma, SP. Agricultural Projects Services Centre, Kathmandu (Nepal) Feb 1983. 10 p. 1354 Production, productivity and export of seed spice - a critical review. Sivaraman, K; Thomas, KG; Manojkumar, K; Kumar, S. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants. 2001, 3: 3, 119-139. This paper details the production scenario (area, yield) in the major spicegrowing regions in India, soil and climatic requirements, performance in the export earnings for different cultivars of coriander, cumin, fennel and fenugreek. Graphs of yield trends for some regions dating as far back as 1960 are provided. Development programmes and constraints in area and production statistics are briefly discussed. 1355 Proposal for a working programme for the period July 1981 - October 1982 [about vegetable seed production project and economic aspects, Nepal] Pokhrel, MN; Shilo, A; Rekhi, SS. Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Kathmandu (Nepal). Dept. of Agriculture, Vegetable Development Section

Food and Agriculture Organization, Kathmandu (Nepal) Food and Agriculture Organization, Kathmandu (Nepal). Vegetable Seed Production. Sep 1981. 34 p. 1356 Relative economic efficiency of small and large farms in Hybrid Sorghum Seed and potato [Solanum tuberosum] production Kumar, K; in Karnataka (India) Chandrakanth, M; Ramanna, R; Bisaliah, S; Venkataram, J. Zeitschrift fuer auslaendische Landwirtschaft (Germany, F.R.). 1980. v. 19(3) p. 268-275. 1357 A review of maize seed multiplication programme and seed distribution in 198081 [economic aspects and storage of seeds, Nepal] Upadhyaya, SK; Kayastha, BN. Ministry of Agriculture, Rampur (Nepal). National Maize Development Program; Agricultural Inputs Crop., Kathmandu (Nepal) 9. Summer Crops Workshop on Maize and Fingermillet. Parwanipur (Nepal). 25-29 Jan 1982. p. 232-236. 1358 Seed industry's opinion about the factors affecting marketing of quality seeds. Mandal, TK; Basu, D; Adhikary, MM. Environment and Ecology. 1997, 15: 4, 778782; 11 ref. Thirteen established public and private seed companies in and around Calcutta, West Bengal, India, were selected to study their opinions regarding the factors affecting marketing of quality seed to farmers [year of survey not given]. The seed companies perceived psychological factors of farmers (such as innovative proneness, knowledge about HYVs, education, participation in training, economic motivation and marketing orientation) and economic factors (such as farm size and technical status) as important in influencing seed sales to farmers. The seed companies generally considered farmers as being highly brand loyal. Views on the reasons for brand selection by farmers indicate that product characteristics such as yield potential, company characteristics such as trustworthiness, dealer characteristics, and past experience are important factors. 1359 Seed production, quality control, marketing and distribution systems in

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Nepal. Panthee, DR. Lumle Regional Agricultural Research Centre, Kathmandu (Nepal) LARC Review Paper. 1995, No. 95-1, 16 pp.; 23 ref. The study reviews Nepal's vegetable