BUILDING TECHNOLOGY LAYOUT AND EXCAVATION

• SPIRIT LEVEL - INSTRUMENT OR TOOL CAPABLE OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL LINE CHECK. • PLUMB BOB - IT’S USES FOR VERTICAL LINE CHECK. • PLASTIC HOSE FILLED W/ WATER – A METHOD OF LEVELLING (HORIZONTAL) BATTERBOARDS WITHOUT TRANSIT. • 3-4-5 MULTIPLES W/ THE USE OF STEEL TAPE MEASURE – A MANUAL METHOD OF SQUARING THE CORNERS OF BUILDING LINES IN BUILDING LAYOUT. • SHEET PILLING – A BARRIER FORMED TO PREVENT THE MOVEMENT OF SOIL TO STABILIZE FOUNDATION.

LAYOUT AND EXCAVATIONS
LAYOUT IS SOMETIMES CALLED “ STAKING OUT” WHICH MEANS THE PROCESS OF RELOCATING THE POINT OF BOUNDARIES AND PROPERTY LINE OF THE SITE WHERE THE BUILDING IS TO BE CONSTRUCTED. IT INCLUDES CLEARING, STAKING, BATTER BOARDS AND ESTABLISHES THE EXACT LOCATION OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION AND WALL LINE ON THE GROUND. • STAKE – ARE WOODEN STICKS USED AS POSTS SHARPENED AT ONE END DRIVEN INTO THE GROUND TO SERVE AS BOUNDARIES OR SUPPORTS OF THE BATTER BOARDS. • BATTER BOARD – WOOD STICK OR BOARD NAILED HORIZONTALLY AT THE STAKE WHICH SERVE AS THE HORIZONTAL PLANE WHERE THE REFERENCE POINT OF THE BUILDING MEASUREMENTS ARE ESTABLISHED.

• STRING – IS EITHER PLASTIC CHORD OR GALVANIZED WIRE ACROSS THE BATTER BOARDS USED TO INDICATE THE OUTLINE OF THE BUILDING WALL AND FOUNDATION.

LAYOUT METHODS AND PROCEDURES
1. 2. BEFORE THE CONSTRUCTION BEGINS, SEE TO IT THAT A BUILDING PERMIT IS FIRST SECURED FROM THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES CONCERNED. RELOCATE THE BOUDARIES OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE RELOCATION OF THE PROPERTY LINE SHALL BE DONE BY GEODETIC ENGINEER SPECIALLY FOR THOSE LOTS WITHOUT EXISTING REFERENCE POINTS OR ADJOINING STRUCTURES. CLEAR THE SITE OF ANY EXISTING STRUCTURE, TREES, AND OTHER ELEMENTS THAT WILL OBSTRUCT THE CONSTRUCTION WORK.

3.

CONSTRUCTION OFFICE. 5. CONSTRUCT AND ALLOCATE A SPACE FOR LABORERS’ QUARTERS. 6. WATER IS ALSO A PRIME NEED IN CONSTRUCTION. VERIFY THE MEASUREMENT IN THE PLAN IF THE DISTANCES INDICATED ARE FORM: • CENTER TO CENTER • OUTER TO CENTER • OUTER TO OUTER • INSIDE TO INSIDE .4. ELECTRIC CURRENT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE POWER NEEDS OF THE TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT AND IS NECESSARY ON OVERTIME SCHEDULES ESPECIALLY IN THE TIME OF CONCRETING. APPLY FOR A TEMPORARY CONNECTIONS OF ELECTRIC AND WATER SUPPLY. CONSTRUCT A TEMPORARY FENCE AROUND THE CONSTRUCTION. 7. BODEGA FOR THE MATERIALS AND WORKING TOOLS AND TEMPORARY WASTE DISPOSAL.

FIX THE BATTER BOARD TO ITS HORIZONTAL POSITION WITH THE AID OF LEVEL INSTRUMENT PREFERABLY PLASTIC HOSE WITH WATER. AFTER ESTABLISHING THE REFERENCE POINT AND LINE OF THE FOOTING. EXCAVATION FOR A SMALL CONSTRUCTION WITH INDEPENDENT WALL. EXCAVATION EXCAVATION WORK IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IS CATEGORIZED INTO TWO TYPES: THE MINOR AND MAJOR EXCAVATION DEPENDING UPON THE SIZE AND NATURE OF THE FOUNDATION TO BE CONSTRUCTED. TRANSFER THE INTERSECTING POINTS OF THE STRING ON THE GROUND BY THE AID OF PLUMB BOB AND INDICATE THE SIZE AND WIDTH TO BE EXCAVATED. OR COMBINED FOOTING IS CLASSIFIED UNDER THE MINOR EXCAVATION. WHILE THE REST WHICH REQUIRES .8. 9.

00 TO 1. WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE IS BIG THAT THERE .SIZEABLES OR TOTAL EXTRACTION OF THE EARTH FALL UNDER THE CATEGORY OF MAJOR CONSTRUCTION. MAJOR EXCAVATION BUILDING CONSTRUCTION THAT REQUIRES WIDE EXCAVATION OR TOTAL EXTRACTION OF THE SOIL ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO CATEGORIES DEPENDING UPON THE CONDITION OR LOCATION OF THE SITE. MINOR EXCAVATION EXCAVATION UNDER THIS CATEGORY ARE THOSE CONSTRUCTION HAVING INDEPENDENT FOOTING AND HOLLOW BLOCK WALL FOOTING WHERE THE DIGGING OF THE SOIL FOR THE FOOTING EXTEND TO A DEPTH FROM 1.50 METER AND ABOUT HALF A METER DEPTH FOR THE WALL FOOTING.

THE MANNER OF THE EXCAVATION TO BE EMPLOYED WHICH WILL NOT AFFECT OR DAMAGED THE ADJOINING STRUCTURE. .IS ENOUGH SPACE TO ACCOMMODATE WORKING ACTIVITIES. 2. STORING OF MATERIALS AND DUMPING GROUND FOR THE EXCAVATED SOIL. PROBLEMS MIGHT BE ENCOUNTER: 1. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ON A BUSY COMMERCIAL CENTER WITH ADJACENT EXISTING STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED TO THE MOST COMPLICATED AMONG THE VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION WORKS SINCE THIS REQUIRES CAREFUL STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF THE RIGHT APPROACH. THE KIND OF EQUIPMENT TO BE USED IN THE DIGGING AND EXTRACTING THE GROUND MAY NOT BE A PROBLEM BUT THE PLACE WHERE TO STATION THE EQUIPMENT DURING THE OPERATION.

5. 4. THE KIND OF SHEETING AND BRACING TO BE USED IN SHORING OR UNDERSPINNING TO PROTECT THE ADJOINING STRUCTURE MUST BE CONSIDERED.3. . HOW AND WHERE TO DISPOSE THE EXTRACTED SOIL INVOLVES THE EFFECTIVE MANNER OF MANEUVERING THE PAYLOAD AND DRUMPTRUCKS IN HAULING WITHOUT OBSTRUCTING THE PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC FLOW. WHERE TO DISPOSE THE UNDERGROUND WATER TO BE DRAINED BY THE WATER PUMP DURING THE PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION WHICH MIGHT CAUSE MUDDY ROAD AND CREATE INCONVENIENCE TO TRAFFIC.

• FOUNDATION – WHICH ARE THE COMPONENTS OF THE BUILDING THAT TRANSFER ITS LOAD INTO THE SOIL. • SUBSTRUCTURE – WHICH IS THE HABITABLE BELOW-GROUND PORTION. 3 MAJOR PARTS OF A BUILDING: • SUPERSTRUCTURE – WHICH IS THE ABOVE GROUND PORTION OF THE BUILDING. UNIFORM SETTLEMENT IS USUALLY OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCES IN A BUILDING. . ALL FOUNDATIONS SETTLE TO SOME EXTENT AS THE SOIL AROUND BENEATH THEM ADJUST ITSELF TO THESE LOADS.FOUNDATION AND FOOTING THE FUNCTION OF A FOUNDATION IS TO TRANSFER THE STRUCTURAL LOADS FROM A BUILDING SAFELY INTO THE GROUND. BUT A DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT CAN CAUSE SEVERE STRUCTURAL DAMAGE.

. • DEEP FOUNDATIONS TRANSFER THE LOAD AT A POINT FAR BELOW THE SUBSTRUCTURE. FOUNDATION IS THAT PORTION OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS THAT CARRY OR SUPPORT THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING.3 TYPES OF SUBSTRUCTURES: • SLAB ON FILL • CRAWLSPACE • BASEMENT 2 BASIC TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS: • SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ARE THOSE THAT TRANSFER THE LOAD TO THE EARTH AT THE BASE OF THE COLUMN OR WALL OF THE SUBSTRUCTURE.

FOUNDATION BED . THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO PROVIDE A SUITABLE MATERIALS WHERE TO TRANSFER THE EXCESS LOAD TO A GREATER DEPTH WHEREIN PILES IS THE ANSWER. PILE FOUNDATION – WHEN A FOUNDATION BED IS TOO WEAK TO SUPPORT A RAFT FOOTING. PILE – IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER OF SMALL CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA WITH REASONABLE LENGTH DRIVEN DOWN THE GROUND BY MEANS OF HAMMERS OR VIBRATORY GENERATOR. . FOOTING IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION STRUCTURE.REFERS TO THE SOIL OR ROCK DIRECTLY BENEATH THE FOOTING.FOOTING IS THAT PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE STRUCTURE WHICH DIRECTLY TRANSMIT THE COLUMN LOAD TO THE UNDERLYING SOIL OR ROCK. PILE IS DISTINGUISHED FROM A CAISSON BY BEING DRIVEN INTO PLACE RATHER THAN DRILED & POURED.

• GRADE BEAM – THAT PART OF A FOUNDATION SYSTEM W/C SUPPORTS THE EXTERIOR WALL OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND BEARS DIRECTLY ON THE COLUMN FOOTING.PILES ARE GENERALLY DRIVEN CLOSELY TOGETHER IN CLUSTERS CONTAINING FROM TWO TO TWENTY-FIVE PILES. THAT BEARS AGAINST AN EARTH OR OTHER FILL SURFACE AND RESISTS LATERAL AND OTHER FORCES. EACH CLUSTER IS LATER JOINED AT THE TOP BY A REINFORCED CONCRETE PILE CAP. CAISSONS – IS SIMILAR TO A COLUMN FOOTING IN THAT IT SPREADS THE LOAD FROM A COLUMN OVER A LARGE ENOUGH AREA OF SOIL. • FOUNDATION WALL – THAT PART OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH FORMS THE PERMANENT RETAINING WALL OF THE STRUCTURE BELOW GRADE. . • RETAINING WALL – A WALL OR LATERALLY BRACED. PILE CAP – DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD OF THE COLUMN OR WALL EQUALLY AMONG THE PILES.

A STEEL PERCENTAGE EQUALS TO 0. • GRAVITY WALL – A MASSIVE CONCRETE WALL THAT RESIST OVERTURNING BY VIRTUE OF IT’S OWN WEIGHT. COLUMN FOOTING – IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES: .• CANTILEVER WALL – A REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL WHICH RESIST OVERTURNING BY THE USE OF CANTILEVER FOOTING.2 TO 0. BEARING WALL – A WALL CAPABLE OF SUPPORTING AN IMPOSED LOAD.3% OF THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONCRETE IS SAID TO BE ADEQUATE EXCEPT ON UNUSUAL CASES. FOOTING ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES: WALL FOOTING OR STRIP FOOTING – IS A STRIP OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WIDER THAN THE WALL WHICH DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD TO THE SOIL.

ISOLATED OR INDEPENDENT FOOTING – IS A KIND OF FOOTING REPRESENTS THE SIMPLEST AND MOST ECONOMICAL TYPE. CONTINUOUS FOOTING – IS SOMETIMES CLASSIFIED AS WALL FOOTING WHICH SUPPORT SEVERAL COLUMNS IN A ROW.1. IT’S EITHER: • INVERTED SLAB FOOTING 4. RAFT OR MAT FOOTING – IT’S OCCUPIES THE ENTIRE AREA BENEATH THE STRUCTURE AND CARRY THE WALL AND THE COLUMN LOADS. COMBINED FOOTING – IS USED WHEN TWO OR MORE COLUMNS ARE SPACED CLOSELY TO EACH OTHER THAT THEIR FOOTING WILL ALMOST OR COMPLETELY MERGE. IN THE FORM OF: • SQUARE BLOCK FOOTING • SQUARE SLOPE FOOTING • SQUARE STEPPED FOOTING 2. IT’S EITHER : • RECTANGULAR • TRAPEZOIDAL 3. .

• MORE WATER PRODUCE LESSER STRENGTH. • DESIGNING OF CONCRETE MIXTURE IS BASED ON THE WATERCEMENT RATIO. SAND. THIS IS KNOWN AS SOLID MASS OR PLAIN CONCRETE. • LESS WATER PRODUCE STRONGER CONCRETE. • 0.CONCRETE CONCRETE IS AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE OUT FROM THE MIXTURE OF CEMENT. OF WATER / lb. .68 lb. OF CEMENT WILL PRODUCE CONCRETE CAPABLE OF DEVELOPING 2. • SLUMP TEST – A READY MEANS OF DETERMINING THE CONSISTENCY OF FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE.500 PSI IN 28 DAYS. CONCRETE IN WHICH REINFORCEMENT IS EMBEDDED IN SUCH A MANNER THAT THE TWO MATERIALS ACT TOGETHER IN RESISTING FORCES IS CALLED REINFORCED CONCRETE. GRAVEL AND WATER.

0 • MORTAR MIXTURE: CLASS MIXTURE “A” 1:2 “B” 1:3 “C” 1:4 “D” 1:5 40kg. 50kg. 14.5 cu.5 0. 1.5 50kg.5 6 0. “A” 1:2:4 9 7 0.5 9.0 1.m. SAND GRAVEL “AA” 1:11/2: 3 12 9.0 “B” 1:21/2:5 7.m.• ADMIXTURE – ACCELERATES OR RETARDS CONCRETE SETTING.0 cu. CEMENT .320mm X 320mm X 330mm • CONCRETE MIXTURE: CLASS MIXTURE 40kg.5 1.m.0 1.5 1. 1. 18 12 9 7.5 7 6 SAND 1. CEMENT – 300mm X 300mm X 300mm • 50 kg.0 cu.0 “C” 1:3:6 6 5 0.0 .5 1. • SIZES OF MEASURING BOX FOR : • 40 kg.

CONCRETE. SQUARE OR OTHER GEOMETRICAL CROSS SECTION PLACED VERTICALLY TO SUPPORT A BUILDING. • LONG COLUMN – WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS MORE THAN TEN TIMES THE SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE CROSS SECTION. STEEL OR COMBINATION OF THE ABOVE MATERIALS. STOREY – IS THE SPACE IN A BUILDING BETWEEN FLOOR LEVELS OR BETWEEN A FLOOR AND A ROOF ABOVE. COLUMN – REFERS TO VERTICAL STRUCTURE USE TO SUPPORT A BUILDING MADE OF STONE. . REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN ARE CLASSIFIED AS: • SHORT COLUMN – WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS NOT GREATER THAN TEN TIMES THE SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE CROSS SECTION.POST AND COLUMN POST – REFERS TO A PIECE OF TIMBER OF EITHER CYLINDRICAL.

• COMBINED COLUMN – WITH STRUCTURAL STEEL ENCASED IN CONCRETE OF AT LEAST 7 cm. THK.TYPES OF COLUMNS ARE: • TIED COLUMN – HAS REINFORCEMENT CONSISTING OF VERTICAL OR LONGITUDINAL BARS HELD IN POSITION BY LATERAL REINFORCEMENT CALLED LATERAL TIES. REINFORCED WITH WIRE MESS SURROUNDING THE COLUMN AT A DISTANCE OF 3 cm. THE VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT IS PROVIDED WITH EVENLY SPACED CONTINUOUS SPIRAL HELD FIRMLY IN POSITION BY AT LEAST THREE VERTICAL BAR SPACERS. • SPIRAL COLUMN – IS THE TERM GIVEN WHERE A CIRCULAR CONCRETE CORE IN ENCLOSED BY SPIRALS WITH VERTICAL OR LONGITUDINAL BARS. INSIDE THE OUTER SURFACE OF THE CONCRETE COVERING. . • COMPOSITE COLUMN – WHERE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMN IS EMBEDDED INTO THE CONCRETE CORE OF A SPIRAL COLUMN.

• LALLY COLUMN – IS A FABRICATED STEEL PIPE PROVIDED WITH A FLAT STEEL BARS OR PLATE WHICH HOLD A GIRDER. SHEAR STRESS 4. TENSION STRESS 3. GIRTS OR BEAM. . METAL REINFORCEMENT THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF STRESSES THAT MAY ACT ON THE STRUCTURE ARE: 1. • REINFORCED CONCRETE – IS A COMBINATION OF CONCRETE AND STEEL. COMPRESSION STRESS 2. TORSION STRESS • REINFORCEMENT NEED TO PROVIDE ON BEAM TO RESPONSE TO POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BENDING WHICH MAY CAUSE FAILURE OR COLLAPSE OF THE STRUCTURE. THE STEEL PIPE IS SOMETIMES FILLED WITH GROUT OR CONCRETE FOR CORROSION.

AN ADDITIONAL STRAIGHT REINFORCING BARS ARE PLACED ON THE TOP OF THE BEAM ACROSS THE SUPPORTS EXTENDED TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH.• CONCRETE – IS STRONG IN SUPPORTING COMPRESSION LOAD BUT WEAK IN RESISTING TENSION FORCES. . • INFLECTION POINTS – REFER TO THE PORTION OF A BEAM WHERE BENDING MOMENT CHANGES FROM POSITIVE TO NEGATIVE. • STEEL – POSSESSES THE STRENGTH TO RESIST BOTH COMPRESSION AND TENSION. • NO BENT BARS – WHEN BARS ARE NOT BENT. • BALANCE BEAM – WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONCRETE AND STEEL ARE JUST ENOUGH TO CARRY THE COMPRESSION AND TENSION FORCES SIMULTANEOUSLY. • BENT REINFORCING BARS – ARE BENT UP ON OR NEAR THE INFLECTION POINT AND ARE EXTENDED AT THE TOP OF THE BEAM ACROSS THE SUPPORT TOWARDS THE ADJACENT SPAN.

• BUILDING CODE REQUIRED THAT A BALANCE BEAM SHALL PROVIDE. – ALLOWANCE PROTECTIVE COVERING OF STEEL BARS FROM THE OUTSIDE OF THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT. • USED LATERAL TIES – 10mm dia. • ADVANTAGE OF THE BEND BARS. . OF THE LATERAL TIES.005 TIMES THE CROSS SECTIONAL PRODUCT OF THE WIDTH AND THE DEPTH OF THE BEAM. THAT THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE EQUAL TO . • SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 48 TIMES THE DIA. IF LONGITUDINAL BARS 36mm BIGGER • THREE FACTORS FOR SPACING OF THE LATERAL TIES: • SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 16 TIMES THE DIA.• 4cm. IF LONGITUDINAL BARS 32mm SMALLER 12mm dia. ITS RESIST THE DIAGONAL TENSION. OF THE LONGITUDINAL OR MAIN REINFORCING BARS.

NAILED OR SCREWED TO TWO BUTTING PIECES IN ORDER TO SPLICE THEM TOGETHER. EACH OF WHICH IS NOTCHED AT THE PLACE WHERE THEY MEET. • SPLICE PLATE – A METAL PLATE USED FOR FASTENING TWO OR MORE MEMBER TOGETHER. HALF THE THICKNESS OF EACH IS CUT . WOOD CONSTRUCTION • SCAB – A SHORT FLAT PIECE OF LUMBER WHICH IS BOLTED. • COGGED JOINT – A CARPENTRY JOINT BY TWO UNEVEN TIMBERS.• NOT MORE THAN THE SHORTEST DIMENSION OF THE COLUMN. • NOTCHING – JOINING OF TIMBERS. • CROSSLAP JOINT – A JOINT CONNECTING TWO WOOD MEMBERS WHICH CROSS EACH OTHER. BY CUTTING A DAP IN ONE OR BOTH PIECES. • FISH PLATE – A WOOD OR METAL PIECE USED TO FASTEN TOGETHER THE ENDS OF TWO MEMBERS WITH NAILS OR BOLTS. USUALLY MEETING OR CROSSING AT RIGHT ANGLES.

ONE FOOT WIDE AND ONE FOOT LONG. THESE TONGUES FIT INTO CORRESPONDING SLOTS IN THE MORTISED MEMBER. OR OTHER MATERIALS WHICH IS REDUCED IN CROSS SECTION. TENON – THE PROJECTING END OF A PIECE OF WOOD. BOARD FOOT – THE VOLUME OF A PIECE OF WOOD ONE INCH.• • • • • • • • SO THAT THE THICKNESS WILL THE SAME AS THAT OF EACH MEMBER. THICK. DADO – A RECTANGULAR GROOVE CUT ACROSS THE FULL WIDTH OF A PIECE OF WOOD TO RECEIVE THE END OF ANOTHER PIECE. SO THAT IT MAY BE INSERTED IN A CORRESPONDING CAVITY IN ANOTHER PIECE IN ORDER TO FORM A SECURE JOINT. BRIDLE JOINT – A JOINT IN WHICH TWO TONGUES PROJECT FROM THE SIDES OF THE TENONED MEMBER. . YACAL – LUMBER PREFFERED WHEN IN CONTACT WITH CONCRETE. BOLIDEN SALT – TREATMENT IN WOLMANIZED LUMBER. SQUARE SPLICE–A TYPE OF HALF LAPPED USED TO RESIST TENSION. DAP – A NOTCH IN A TIMBER FOR RECEIVING ANOTHER TIMBER.

AND STEEL. WALLS AND BEAMS. TYPES OF MATERIALS TO BE USED – THE CHOICE FROM THE VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SUCH AS LUMBER. 2. LIVE LOAD – REFERS TO THOSE MOVABLE LOADS IMPOSED ON THE FLOOR. THE DESIGN OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM DEPENDS UPON THE FOLLOWING CONSIDERATIONS: 1. . DEAD LOAD – REFERS TO THE STATIC LOAD SUCH AS THE WEIGHT OF THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WHICH GENERALLY CARRY THE LIVE LOAD.• SOLIGNUM – TRADE NAME FOR ANTI-TERMITE SURFACE APPLICATION ON WOOD. CONCRETE. FLOOR STRUCTURE WOOD FLOOR SYSTEM FLOOR FRAMING IS THAT PLATFORM STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING SUSPENDED BY POSTS. COLUMNS. 3.

THE PLATFORM . 5. 4. THE CONVENTIONAL FLOOR FRAMING SYSTEM THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM ARE: • GIRDER – IS A PRINCIPAL BEAM EXTENDING FROM WALL TO WALL OF A BUILDING SUPPORTING THE FLOOR JOISTS OF FLOOR BEAMS.FLOOR FRAMING STRUCTURE IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES: A. COLUMNS OR SUPPORTING WALLS. THE PANELIZED-FLOOR SYSTEM C. THE PLANK AND BEAM FLOOR TYPE B. SPAN OF THE SUPPORTS – PERTAINS TO THE DISTANCES BETWEEN THE POSTS. . • SILL – THAT PART OF THE SIDE OF A HOUSE THAT RESTS HORIZONTALLY UPON THE FOUNDATION.THE SIZING AND SPACING OF THE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS – DEPENDS UPON ITS STRENGTH AND CAPABILITY TO CARRY THE LOAD AT A CERTAIN SPACING.

• TAIL BEAM OR TAIL PIECE – A SHORT BEAM. JOIST OR RAFTER WHICH IS SUPPORTED BY A HEADER JOIST AT ONE END AND A WALL AT THE OTHER. • SOLE PLATE – A HORIZONTAL TIMBER WHICH SERVES AS A BASE FOR THE STUDS IN A STUD PARTITION. . • HEADER AND TRIMMER – HEADER IS A SHORT TRANSVERSE JOISTS THAT SUPPORT THE END OF THE CUT-OFF JOIST AT A STAIR WELL HOLE. FORMING A SEAT FOR THE JOISTS. • DRAFTSTOP PLATE – IS A PIECE OF LUMBER USES TO DRESS UP THE EDGE OF THE JOISTS. • FLOORING – THE TONGUE AND GROOVE WHICH ARE POPULARLY KNOWN AS T & G IS GENERALLY SPECIFIED FOR WOOD FLOORING.• FLOOR JOISTS – ARE THOSE PARTS OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM PLACED ON THE GIRDERS WHERE THE FLOOR BOARDS ARE FASTENED. • LEDGER STRIP – A STRIP OF LUMBER WHICH IS NAILED TO THE SIDE OF THE BEAM. TRIMMER IS A SUPPORTING JOIST WHICH CARRIES AN END PORTION OF A HEADER.

. • TOP PLATE – A HORIZONTAL TIMBER AT THE UPPER PORTION OF THE STUDS IN ASTUD PARTITION. • HANGER OR STIRRUP – A METAL SEAT. • CROSS BRIDGING – DIAGONAL BRACING IN PAIRS. ATTACHED TO A GIRDER TO RECEIVE AND SUPPORT A JOIST. • CRIPPLE STUD – IN ABUILDING FRAME. BETWEEN ADJACENT FLOOR JOISTS TO PREVENT THE JOISTS FROM TWISTING.• SILL PLATE – A HORIZONTAL TIMBER. A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT THAT IS SHORTER THAN USUAL. AT THE BOTTOM OF THE FRAME OF AWOOD STRUCTURE WHICH REST ON THE FOUNDATION. • BALLOON FRAMING – CONSTRUCTION HAS STUDS CONTINOUS TO ROOF SUPPORTING SECOND FLOOR JOISTS. • BLOCK OR SOLID BRIDGING – SHORT MEMBERS WHICH ARE FIXED VERTICALLY BETWEEN FLOOR JOISTS TO STIFFEN THE JOISTS. AS A STUD ABOVE AND BELOW OPENING.

REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM BEAM IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER THAT SUPPORTS THE TRANSVERSE LOAD WHICH USUALLY REST ON SUPPORTS AT ITS END.• WESTERN FRAMING – THAT HAS SUBFLOOR EXTENDED TO THE OUTER EDGE OF THE FRAME AND PROVIDE A FLAT WORK SURFACE AT EACH FLOOR. BEAM ARE CLASSIFIED AS : A) SIMPLE BEAM B) CONTINUOUS BEAM C) SEMI – CONTINUOUS . GIRDER – IS THE TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT SUPPORTS ONE OR MORE SMALLER BEAM.

SIMPLE BEAM – REFERS TO THE BEAM HAVING A SINGLE SPAN SUPPORTED AT ITS END WITHOUT A RESTRAIN AT THE SUPPORT. THE WEB REINFORCEMENT IS NOT ONLY INTENDED TO HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT AND PROVIDE LATERAL SUPPORT BUT ALSO SERVES TO RESIST DIAGONAL TENSION AND COUNTERACT THE SHEAR ACTION . SEMI-CONTINUOUS BEAM – REFERS TO A BEAM WITH TWO SPANS WITH OR WITHOUT RESTRAINT AT THE TWO EXTREME ENDS. CONTINUOUS BEAM – IS A TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT REST ON MORE THAN TWO SUPPORTS. SIMPLE BEAMS IS SOMETIMES CALLED AS SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM. WEB REINFORCEMENT WEB REINFORCEMENT IS THE SAME AS THEIR STIRRUPS USED IN THE BEAM TO HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT IN ITS DESIGNED POSITION. RESTRAINT MEANS A RIGID CONNECTION OR ANCHORAGE AT THE SUPPORT.

4. FLAT SLAB OR GIRDERLESS FLOORS SOLID OR RIBBED. RIBBED FLOORS. 2. . THE VERTICAL STIRRUPS SHOULD ENCIRCLE THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT AND HOOK BENT WITH A DIAMETER NOT LESS THAN 5 TIMES THE DIAMETER OF THE STIRRUPS AT ITS END AND SECURED PROPERLY TO PREVENT SLIPPING OF THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT IN THE CONCRETE. TWOWAY SOLID SLAB BEAM. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB: REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES: 1. 3.ON THE STRUCTURE. ONE WAY SOLID SLAB AND BEAM.

3 STEEL BAR IS USED TO COUNTERACT THE EFFECT OF . THAT IS FROM BEAM TO BEAM. USUALLY NO. THE MAGNITUDE OF THE LOADS TO BE SUPPORTED 3.00 TO 3. ALTHOUGH THE REINFORCEMENTS ARE ALSO PLACED IN THE SLAB PARALLEL WITH THE BEAMS PERPENDICULAR WITH THE MAIN REINFORCEMENTS CALLED “TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENTS”. THE FLOOR SLAB IS KNOWN AS ONE WAY SOLID SLAB. 2. THE ONE WAY SLAB IS COMPARATIVELY ECONOMICAL FOR A MEDIUM AND HEAVY LIVE LOADS ON SHORT SPANS RANGING FROM 2. LENGTH OF THE SPAN 4.EACH TYPE OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM HAS ITS OWN ADVANTAGES IN APPLICATION DEPENDING UPON THE FOLLOWING FACTORS: 1. BECAUSE THE REINFORCEMENTS RUNS ONLY AT ONE DIRECTION. THE COST OF THE CONSTRUCTION ONE WAY SLAB – ONE WAY SLAB IS THE COMMON TYPE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM MADE OF SOLID SLAB SUPPORTED BY TWO PARALLEL BEAMS.50 METERS LONG. SPACING OF THE COLUMNS.

THE SPACING OF THE REINFORCEMENT SHALL NOT BE MORE THAN 3 TIMES THE SLAB THICKNESS AND THE RATIO OF REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE AT LEAST . IN THE CASE OF HEAVY LOAD WHERE THE SHEARING STRESSES MAYBE GREATER THAN THE ALLOWABLE VALUES.0025. UNLIKE BEAMS AND GIRDERS. NOR LESS THAN THE PERIMETER OF THE SLAB DIVIDED BY 180. IT ALSO DISTRIBUTES POSSIBLE CONCENTRATION OF LOADS OVER A LARGER AREA.SHRINKAGE AND CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE. THE DEPTH OF THE SLAB IS INCREASED. THIS TYPE OF REINFORCEMENT WILL TRANSMIT THE LOADS TO THE FOUR SIDES SUPPORTING BEAMS OR WALLS. . FLOOR SLAB NEEDS NO WEB REINFORCEMENT OR STIRRUPS. THE CODE SPECIFIES THAT THICKNESS OF THE SLAB SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 4 INCHES OR 10 CM. TWO WAY SLAB – SLAB WHICH ARE SUPPORTED ON FOUR SIDES WHERE THE FLOOR PANEL IS NEARLY SQUARE IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL TO EMPLOY THE TWO DIRECTIONS OF REINFORCING BARS PLACED AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH EACH OTHER.

5 CM. STRAIGHT BARS ARE PALCED AT THE TOP AND BOTTOM OF THE RIB. GYPSUM TILES OR STEEL FORMS. OR SOMETIMES. THE CONCRETE SURFACE LAYER PLACED ON TOP OF THE TILES RANGES FROM 5 TO 6. TEMPERATURE BARS ARE EITHER NO.RIBBED FLOOR SLAB – IS GENERALLY AN ECONOMICAL TYPE OF FLOOR CONSTRUCTION BUT IS APPLICABLE ONLY TO MEDIUM SPAN LENGTH WITH LIGHT OR MEDIUM LOAD UNLIKE THE ONE WAY OR TWO WAY SLABS THAT COULD CARRY HEAVY LOADS. THE REINFORCEMENT OF A RIBBED FLOOR SYSTEM CONSIST OF TWO BARS PLACED AT THE LOWER PART OF THE RIB WHERE ONE IS BENT AND THE OTHER REMAINED STRAIGHT. . 2 BARS OR 6 MM. ON CENTER MAKING THE RIBS 10 CM. THE TILES ARE GENERALLY 30 X 90 CM. A RIBBED FLOOR SLAB CONSISTS OF SMALL ADJACENT T-BEAM WHEREIN THE OPEN SPACES BETWEEN THE RIBS ARE FILLED BY CLAY TILES. WIDE. OR WIRE MESH WHICH RUNS AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH THE RIBS. THICK.

THE FLAT SLAB FLOOR SYSTEM IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL NOT ONLY IN TERMS OF MATERIALS AS WELL AS LABOR AND IS EVEN THE MOST SUITABLE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION FOR INDUSTRIAL BUILDING . A STRAIGHT FLAT UNDERNEATH IS PROVIDED IN THE SLAB THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEM. ON THE OTHER HAND. WHICH IS CALLED FLAT PLATE CONSTRUCTION. A FLARED HEAD IS EMPLOYED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A FLAT-SLAB FLOOR MAKING A CAPITAL OF THE COLUMN. THESLAB IS EITHER UNIFORM IN THICKNESS OR PROVIDED WITH SQUARE SYMMETRICALAREA DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN REINFORCED WITH BARS RUNNING IN TWO DIRECTIONS.FLAT SLAB – FLAT SLAB FLOOR IS A RECTANGULAR SLAB DIRECTLY SUPPORTED BY COLUMNS WITHOUT BEAMS OR GIRDERS. THE INCREASED AREA DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN CALLED DROP PANEL OR SIMPLY DROP. WHEN THE COLUMN DESIGN IS NOT PROVIDED WITH CAPITAS.

• BLOCK OUT – IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES UNDER CONSTRUCTION.HAVING A WIDER LIVE LOAD AND ALSO FOR BUILDING IN WHICH THE USE OF CAPITALS ARE NOT OBJECTIONABLE. • CONSTRUCTION JOINT – A JOINT WHERE TWO SUCCESSIVE PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE MEET. • CONTROL JOINTS – EMPLOYED TO REDUCE RESTRAINT BY ACCOMODATING MOVEMENT OF MASONRY WALL. • CONTRACTION JOINT OR EXPANSION JOINT – A JOINT BETWEEN ADJACENT PARTS OF A STRUCTURE WHICH PERMITS MOVEMENT BETWEEN THEM. A SPACE WHERE CONCRETE IS NOT TO BE PLACED. .

• CREEP – PERMANENT DEFORMATION OF A MATERIAL UNDER A SUSTAIN LOAD. . LAYING OUT OF STAIRS THE METHOD OF LAYING OUT STAIRS ARE: 1. DIVIDE THE RISE ( HEIGHT IN METER) BY .• COLD JOINT – A JOINT FORMED WHEN A CONCRETE SURFACE HARDEN BEFORE THE NEXT BATCH OF CONCRETE IS PLACED AGAINST.18 TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF STEPS. ORDINARILY. 2. THE RISE PER STEP IS 17 TO 18 CM AND THE MINIMUM TREAD WIDTH IS 25 CM. • CAMBER – CONVEX CURVATURE IN BEAM OR TRUSS.17 OR . DETERMINE THE CLEAR HEIGHT OF THE RISE IN METER.

FOUND IN STEP THREE IS LESS THAN THE NUMBER FOUND IN STEP TWO. THERE SHOULD BE NO FUNCTIONAL VALUE OF A RISER. THE STAIRS WILL NOT BE AN IDEAL ONE.3. DIVIDE THE RUN DISTANCE IN METER BY . THE RUN LENGTH HAS TO BE EXTENDED. 5. TYPE OF STRINGERS . IT IS IMPORTANT TO MAKE A CROSS SECTIONAL SKETCH OF A STAIR BEFORE MAKING THE FINAL PLAN LAYOUT INDICATING THE NUMBER OF STEPS TO AVOID ADJUSTMENTS OF THE RUN DURING THE ACTUAL CONSTRUCTION.25 OR . IF THE RESULT. 4. ADJUST A FUNCTIONAL VALUE IN EQUAL PROPORTION TO THE NUMBER OF RISER HEIGHT. BUT IN NO CASE SHALL THE RISE PER STEP BE GREATER THAN 19 CM OR LESS THAN 17 CM OTHERWISE.30m. SHOULD THERE BE FROM THE RESULT OF STEP TWO.

THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF STRINGER CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE METHOD OF ATTACHIND THE RISERS AND THE TREADS.ARE POPULARLY EMPLOYED IN MOST MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY HOUSE DESIGN.IS DESIGN FOR A VERY ROUGH WORK. 1. 4. 3. 2. CLEATED STRINGER. BUILT-UP STRINGER. CUT CLEATED BUILT-UP RABBETED (HOUSE) CUT STRINGER. .IS EMPLOYED ON THE WIDE STAIRS THAT REQUIRES A CENTER STRINGER.

• BULL-NOSED STEP – A STEP USUALLY LOWEST IN AFLIGHT. HAVING ONE OR BOTH ENDS ROUNDED TO A SEMI-CIRCLE AND PROJECTION BEYOND THE FACE OF THE STAIR STRING/S. VERTICAL MEMBERS AND BOTTOM RAIL. . • RISER – A VERTICAL FACE OF ASTAIR. • BANISTER – HANDRAIL FOR A STAIRCASE. • BALUSTRATE – AN ENTIRE RAILING SYSTEM INCLUDING A TOP RAIL.• BALUSTER – ONE OF A NUMBER OF SHORT VERTICAL MEMBERS OFTEN CIRCULAR IN SECTION. USED TO SUPPORT A STAIR HANDRAIL.

IS CONSIDERED AS THE SIMPLEST FORM OF ROOF CONSISTING OF ONE SINGLE SLOPE. TYPES OF ROOF THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF ROOF AND NUMEROUS VARIETY OF SHAPES THAT ONE HAS TO BE FAMILIAR WITH: SHED OR LEAN-TO ROOF.• KICKER PLATE – STAIR ANCHOR TO CONCRETE. GABLE OR PITCH ROOFTHE MOST COMMON TYPE AND ECONOMICAL FORM OF ROOF MADE OF TRIANGULAR SECTIONS .

HIP AND VALLEY ROOF.IS ALSO A COMMON FORM USED IN MODERN HOUSES HAVING STRAIGHT SIDES ALL SLOPING TOWARD THE CENTER OF THE BUILDING TERMINATING AT THE RIDGE. HAS A VARIETY OF MODIFICATION WHICH ARE NOT ILLUSTRATED.CONSISTING OF TWO SLOPES MEETING AT THE CENTER OF THE RIDGE FORMING A GABLE.IS A MODIFICATION OF A GABLE OR A HIP AND VALLEY ROOF. HIP ROOF.IS A COMBINATION OF THE HIP ROOF AND AN INTERESTING GABLE ROOF FORMING A T OR L SHAPED BUILDING.IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SHED MADE INTO A SERIES TO LEAN-TO ROOF COVERING ONE BUILDING. DOUBLE GABLE ROOF. THIS IS COMMONLY USED ON FACTORIES WHERE EXTRA LIGHT IS REQUIRED THROUGH THE WINDOW ON A VERTICAL SIDE. . SAW TOOTH ROOF. THIS TYPE OF ROOF FORM HOWEVER.

IS A MODIFICATION OF THE MANZARD ROOF WHERE THE SIDES ARE CONCAVE. GAMBREL ROOF.IS A MODIFICATIN OF THE GABLE ROOF WITH EACH SIDE HAVING TWO SLOPES. FRENCH OR CONCAVE MANSARD ROOF.IS A STEEP ROOF OF CIRCULAR SECTION THAT TAPERS UNIFORMLY FROM THE CIRCULAR BASE TO A CENTRAL POINT. . BUTTERFLY ROOF.IS A HEMISPHERICAL FORM OF ROOF USUALLY USED ON OBNSERVATORIES.IS A TWO SHED ROOF WHERE THE SLOPE MEET AT THE CENTER OF THE BUILDING.PYRAMID ROOF. DOME.IS A MODIFICATION OF THE HIP ROOF WHEREIN THE FOUR STAIGHT SIDES ARE SLOPING TOWARDS THE CENTER TERMINATING AT A POINT. MANSARD ROOFWHERE THE SIDES OF THE ROOF SLOPE STEEPLY FROM EACH SIDE OF THE BUILDING TOWARDS THE CENTER FORMING A FLAT DECK ON TOP. CONICAL ROOF OR SPHIRE.

LAMINATED TYPE THE VARIOUS KINDS OF RAFTERS FOR ROOF CONSTRUCTIONS ARE: • COMMON RAFTERS.TYPES OF ROOF FRAME THE THREE TYPES OF ROOF FRAME COMMONLY USED ARE: 1. • HIP RAFTERS. TRUSS TYPE 3. .ARE RAFTERS EXTENDED AT RIGHT ANGLES FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS T THE RIDGE.ARE RAFTERS LAID DIAGONALLY FROM THE CORNER OF A PLATE OR GIRTS TO THE RIDGE. RAFTERS TYPE 2.

2.ANY RAFTER WHICH DOES NOT EXTEND FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS TO THE RIDGE. • JACK RAFTERS.ARE RAFTERS PLACED ON AN OCTAGONAL SHAPED PLATE AT THE CENTRAL APEX OR RIDGE POLE. 3. HIT JACKS VALLEY JACKS CRIPLE JACKS . JACK RAFTERS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO: 1.• VALLEY RAFTERS.RAFTERS PLACED DIAGONALLY FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS AT THE INTERSECTION OF GABLE EXTENSION WITH THE MAIN ROOF. • OCTAGONAL RAFTERS.

THE FRAME BETWEEN THE RIDGE AND VALLEY RAFTERS ARE CALLED VALLEY JACKS.JACK RAFTERS FRAMED BATWEEN HIP RAFTERS AND GITS ARE CALLED HIP JACKS. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRUSSES ARE: LIGHT TRUSSES: PITCHED HOWE . TRUSS – IS A BUILT-UP FRAME COMMONLY EMPLOYED ON A LONG SPAN ROOF UNSUPPORTED BY INTERMEDIATE COLUMNS OR PARTITIONS. TRUSS IS A DESIGN OF A SERIES OF TRIANGLES USED TO DISTRIBUTE LOAD. WHILE THOSE FRAMES BETWEEN THE HIP AND THE VALLEY RAFTERS ARE CALLED CRIPPLE JACKS. STFFEN THE STRUCTURE AND FLEXIBILITY FOR THE INTERIOR SPACING AS WELL AS STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY.

SCISSORS RAISED CHORD SAWTOOTH FLAT 1 ½ STORY FRAME UTILITY BOWSTRING .

HEAVY TRUSSES: HOWE TRUSS BELGIAN FINK PRATT .

SCISSORS CAMBERED FINK WARREN FLAT HOWE SAW TOOTH FLAT PRATT .

PURLINS – THE STRUCTURAL MEMBER PLACED ON TOP OF A RAFTER OR TOP CHORD OF A TRUSS THAT SUPPORTS THE ROOF SHEATING. PURLINS SIZE AND SPACING: SPAN: 2.00 3.0 3.50 4.50 SIZE: 50mm X 75mm 50mm X 100mm 50mm X 150mm 50mm X 200mm

ROOF AND ROOFING MATERIALS
THE TERM ROOF USED HERE MEANS THE TOP COVERING OF A BUILDING THAT SERVES AS A PROTECTIVE COVERING FROM THE WEATHER. ROOFING CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE MATERIALS USED:

• • • • • • • •

FIBER WOOD METAL SLATE TILES REINFORCED CONCRETE PLASTICS FIBERGLASS

METAL ROOFING – IS THE MOST COMMON MATERIALS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, THIS ARE CLASSIFIED AS FOLLOWS: • GALVANIZED IRON • ALUMINUM • TIN

• TITANIUM COPPER ZINC • COPPER • STAINLESS STEEL • LEAD AMONG THE METAL ROOFING ENUMERATED, GALVANIZED IRON SHEET IS THE MOST COMMONLY SPECIFIED CONSIDERING THE ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFER. GALVANIZED IRON ROOFING IS EITHER PLAIN OR CORRUGATED. THE THICKNESS ARE MEASURED IN TERMS OF “GAUGE” FROM ga. 14 TO ga. 30. Gauge 26 IS THE MOST COMMONLY USED FOR ROOFING. THE STANDARD COMMERCIAL SIZE WIDTH IS 0.80 m. WITH LENGTH THAT RANGES FROM 1.50 TO 3.60 m. PLAIN G.I. SHEET COMMERCIAL STANDARD SIZE IS 0.90m. X 2.40m. IT’S ALSO USED FOR ROOFING, GUTTERS,FLASHING,RIDGE,HIP AND VALLEY ROLLS, DOWNSPOUT, AND STRAP FOR RIVETING. CORR. G.I.ROOFING FASTENERS:

APPROX. • MISSION TILE – A CLAY ROOFING TILE.• NAILING • RIVETING • PANTILE – A ROOFING TILE WHICH HAS THE SHAPE OF “S” LAID ON IT’S SIDE. . SEMI-CYLINDRICAL IN SHAPE LAID IN COURSES WITH THE UNIT HAVING THEIR CONVEX SIDE ALTERNATELY UP AND DOWN.

• CHORD – A PRINCIPAL MEMBER OF A TRUSS. FORMS ARE USED IN CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION.• ROMAN TILE – A CHANNEL SHAPED. • A FRAME – A 3-PIECE RIGID STRUCTURAL FRAME IN THE SHAPE OF THE UPRIGHT CAPITAL “A”. SHEATING OR PANS USED TO PRODUCE THE DESIRED SHAPE AND SIZE OF CONCRETE. • SPLIT RING – CHORD SPLICE CONNECTORS FOR TRUSSES. SCAFFOLDING AND STAGING FORM IS A TEMPORARY BOARDING. TAPERED. FORM. STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OF A . SINGLE LAP ROOPING TILE. • GALVANIZED – ZINC COATED MATERIALS. • BATTEN – WOOD STRIPS TO SUPPORT ROOF TILES.

BUILDING ARE BUILT-UP INTO ITS SPECIFIED DIMENSIONS BY THE USE OF FORMS THAT SERVES AS MOULD FOR THE MIXED CONCRETE. . FORMS SHOULD BE WATERTIGHT. RIGID AND STRONG ENOUGH TO SUSTAIN THE WEIGHT OF CONCRETE. FACTORS CONSIDERED IN THE SELECTION OF FORMS ARE: • COST OF MATERIALS • THE CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLING COST • THE NUMBER OF TIMES IT COULD BE USED • STRENGTH AND RESISTANCE TO PRESSURE AND THE TEAR & WEAR WOOD BOARD AND PLYWOOD FORMS WOOD FORM IS THE MOST COMMON AND WIDELY USED FORMS IN MINOR OR MAJOR CONSTRUCTION. IT SHOULD BE SIMPLE AND ECONOMICALLY DESIGNED TO BE REMOVE EASILY AND REASSEMBLED WITHOUT DAMAGE TO THEMSELVES OR TO THE CONCRETE.

• PLYWOOD AS FORM IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL BOTH IN LABOR AND MATERIALS. • PLYWOOD HAS PLAIN EVEN SURFACE WITH UNIFORM THICKNESS. METAL FORM ARE SELDOM USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION BECAUSE OF THE VARIED DESIGNS AND SHAPES OF THE STRUCTURES. • THE LAMINATED CROSS-GRAINED OF PLYWOOD HAS MADE THE BOARD STRONGER AND FREE FROM WARPING. OR BLACK IRON SHEET. • IT OFFERS FITTED JOINTS. • PRODUCE SMOOTH FINISHES OF CONCRETE THAT SOMETIMES NEED LITTLE OR NO PLASTERING AT ALL. ELIMINATE DRESSING. • PLYWOOD IS LIGHT-WEIGHT. HANDY AND FAST TO WORK ON. SHEET. ALTHOUGH METAL FORMS ARE EXTENSIVELY USED ON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. PLANING OF THE SURFACE WHICH IS NORMAL TO WOODEN BOARDS FORMS.I. METAL FORMS ARE GENERALLY MADE OUT OF G. SUPPORTED BY FLAT AND ANGLE BARS .

DESIGNED TO BE ASSEMBLED AND LOCKED BE MEANS OF CLAMP. THK. MEDIUM AND MASSIVE STRUCTURE./cu.m.200 TO 2.400 kg. THE THICKNESS OF THE FORM AND THE SIZES OF THE FRAME AND RIBS DEPENDS UPON THE NATURE OF THE STRUCTURE TO BE SUPPORTED CLASSIFIED AS SMALL. PLYWOOOD IS SATIFACTORILY USED SUPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS. CONSTRUCTION OF FORMS CONCRETE WEIGHS ABOUT 2. • SMALL STRUCTURE CONSISTING OF SMALL FOOTINGS. PLYWOOD IS USED AS FORM . FORMS SHALL BE GUARDED AGAINST BULGING AND SAGGING FAILURE THAT OCCUR DURING THE PROCESS OF POURING. BEAMS. BOLTS AND NUTS. COLUMNS AND BEAM FOR ONE OR TWO STOREY BUILDING WHEREIN 6mm. AND CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB GENERALLY OF 2 TO 3 STOREY HIGH. WHEREIN 6mm OR 12mm THK. • MEDIUM STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING CONCRETE COLUMNS.

• MASSIVE STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING HEAVY LOADS USES FORMS OF VARIOUS THICKNESS THAT RANGE FROM 6mm TO 19mm THK.SUPPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm OR 50mm X 75mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS. . PLYWOOD SUPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm TO 50mm X 100mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS. TWO TYPES OF FRAMING: • LONGITUDINAL RIB TYPE • PERPENDICULAR RIB TYPE TYPES OF COLUMN FORMS: • SQUARE • RECTANGULAR • CIRCULAR BEAM FORMS CONSIST OF ONE BOTTOM FORM AND A PAIR OF SIDE FORMS.

YOKE – IS A HORIZONTAL FRAMEWORK AROUND THE FORMWORK FOR A COLUMN. SCAFFOLDING – WORKER’S PLATFORM BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TERMS ENGLISH VERNACULAR ENGLISH VERNACULAR .TYPES OF WALL FORMS: • CONTINUOUS • FULL UNIT • LAYER UNIT GREASING OF FORMS THE PURPOSE OF GREASING THE FORM IS TO MAKE THE WOOD WATER PROOF. IT’S ALSO PREVENTS ADHERENCE OF CONCRETE TO THE PORES OF THE WOOD. THUS PREVENTING ABSORPTION OF WATER IN THE CONCRETE WHICH CAUSES SWELLING AND WARPING.

Trankilya Floor Joist ----------------Baseboard -------------------------.Biga Fill ------------------------Banisters ---------------------------.Adobe Anchor --------------------Aligned ----------------------------Alero.Barandilla Feet -----------------------Beam -------------------------------. Soleras Batidura Sahig.Rodapis Fillet ----------------------Bath tub ---------------------------Baniera Flooring ------------------Bolt --------------------------------Pierno Floor sill -----------------Bottom Chord --------------------Tirante.Batidura Fascia Board -------------Balusters ---------------------------. Liyabe Kaliniya Earth Fill------------------Eave ------------------------ Escombro Sopo Alignment -------------------------Asintada Electrician ----------------Alternate or staggered -----------.Barandil Filler ----------------------Dagdag Barrel Bolt -------------------------.Uno Sinotra Engineer ------------------Anchor -----------------------------Liyabe Exterior Siding ----------Architect ---------------------------Arkitekto Faucet ---------------------Astragal ----------------------------.Barakilan. Estunyo Flush ---------------------Brace ------------------------------Pie de Gallo Foundation or Footings- Elektrista Inhenyero Tabike Gripo Senepa Piye Tambak Tapal. Suelo Guililan Alahado Pundasyon .Balustre.

Brick ------------------------------Canopy ---------------------------Cabinet Hinge -------------------Carpenter ------------------------Carpentry ------------------------Cast Iron -------------------------Ceiling ---------------------------Ceiling Board -------------------Ceiling Joist ---------------------Cement --------------------------Cement Brick -------------------Cement Tiles --------------------Chain bolt -----------------------Aguas Collar ----------------------------Column --------------------------Concrete -------------------------Concrete Slab -------------------Concrete Beam ------------------ Landrillo Media Agua Espolon Karpintero Karpinteria Pundido Kisame Kostil Yahe Semento Ladrilyo Baldosa Baral de Kadena Sinturon Kolumna. MaestroDe Obra Framework --------------Balangkas Gable Roof -------------Dos Aguas Girder --------------------Guililan Girts or Girder ----------Sepo Gravel --------------------Graba Good Grain --------------Haspe Groobe -------------------Canal Gutter --------------------Alulod. canal Hand rail ----------------Gabay Head ---------------------Sombrero Hinge --------------------Bisagra Hip roof -----------------Kuatro Horizontal Stud -------Inch ----------------------Jamb ---------------------Joist ----------------------Kingpost ----------------Trabe-Anzo Pulgada Hamba Suleras Pendolum .Haligue Konkreto Larga Masa Biga Foreman -----------------Kapatas.

G.I.Conductor -----------------------Contractor -----------------------Pahingahan Corr. sheets ----------------Galbanisado Closed Stringer -----------------Crushed Stone ------------------Diagonal Brace -----------------Door ------------------------------Pasante Door Fillet -----------------------Door Head -----------------------Door Jamb -----------------------Drawbore Pin or Drawpin ------ Alulod Kontratista Yiero Canalado Escalera Eskombro Sinturon Pinto Laborer ------------------Landing -----------------Lavatory ----------------- Piyon Mesa Lababo Laying of CHB orAdobe Stone -----------Asinta Lean to roof ------------Sibe Level --------------------Lebel Machine Bolt ----------Peirno Kantero Kanteria Lastilyas Metro Batidora Mason ------------------Sombrero (Pintuan) Masonry ----------------Hamba Pintuan Masonry Fill -----------Punsol Meter --------------------- .

Palitada Pilarete .Mitre or Miter -------------------Mixture of Sand & Gravel -----Mortar ----------------------------Mortar Joists ---------------------Moulding -------------------------Nailers ----------------------------Nail -------------------------------Nail Setter -----------------------Newel Post ----------------------Nut --------------------------------Nicolite Bar ----------------------Oakum ----------------------------Open Stringer --------------------Over Hand or Projector ---------Painter -----------------------------Panel -------------------------------Panellee Door ---------------------Madrina Pattern -----------------------------Pea Gravel ------------------------- Canto Mesa Lastilyas Paupo Kostura Moldura Pamakuan Pako Punsol Tukod Tuerka Estanyo Estopa Hardinera Bolada Pintor Bandeha De Bandeha Plantilya Grabita Septic Tank ------------Shape -------------------Sheet --------------------Shower ------------------Sidings ------------------Sink ----------------------Sketch Plan -------------Slab (rough) -------------Slope ---------------------Solder --------------------Solder Bar ---------------Spacing ------------------Split Knob ---------------Stairs ---------------------Stake ----------------------Stringer (open) ----------Stringer -------------------Stucco --------------------Stud (vertical)------------- Poso Negro Korte Plantsa Dutsha Tabika Prigadero Krokis Larga Masa Bahada Hinang Estaniyo Biento Poleya Hagdanan Staka Hardinera Madre.

Estopa Thread --------------------Roskas Yiero Liso Galbanisado Tinsmith ------------------Latero Lingueta Tinsmithing --------------Lateria Senepa Top Chord ---------------Kilo. Kilo Plumber ----------------------------.Poste.I. Haligue Wainscoating Tiles ------.Tubero Varnished ----------------Varnisado Plumb Line ------------------------.Vaciada Window Head -----------.Pitsa. Tahilan Palitada Transom -----------------Espeho Kusturada Tread ---------------------Baytang.Pendulum (King Post) -----------Pickwork --------------------------Subuhan Piglead -----------------------------Plain G.Pilarete Post ---------------------------------.Mediacana Window Grille ----------Rehas Rabbet ------------------------------.Asolehos Projection --------------------------.Sombrero .Reostra Water Closet -------------.Hulog Truss ----------------------Truss.Hulog Vertical Stud -------------. Strap -------------------Plank Board -----------------------Plaster ------------------------------Plastered Course ------------------- Pendulon Piketa Stud (horizontal) --------Temper (metal work)----- Pabalagbag Suban.Inidoro Putty --------------------------------. Tingga. Perdano Plug ---------------------------------. Tsapa Purlins ------------------------------.I. sheet -------------------Plain G.Tapon Trellise -------------------Pergola Plumb Bob -------------------------.Masilya Window ------------------Bintana Quarter Round ---------------------.Bolada Washer --------------------.

Bakal Ridgeroll ---------------------------.Senepa. Takip Silipan Rivets ------------------------------Rimatse Roof -------------------------------Atip.Caballete Riser --------------------------------.Rebokada Screw ------------------------------Turnilyo Bintana Window Jamb -----------Window Sill -------------W.I.Rafters ------------------------------. Strap ----------------Wiring Knob ------------Wood Grain -------------Wood Plank -------------Wrought Iron Strap ------ Hamba Pasamano Planchuela Poleya Haspe Tabla Plantsuela PRECAST AND PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION . Bubong Sand -------------------------------Buhangin Scaffolding -----------------------Andamiyo.Kilo Bintana Reinforcing Bar -------------------. Plancha Scratch Coat ----------------------.Cabilla.

. GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC. THE DEMAND FOR SKILLED WORKERS ON ON-SITE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IS INCREASINGLY OUTRUNNING THE SUPPLY.THE INTRODUCTION OF PRECAST-CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION WAS BROUGHT ABOUT BY BUILDING COSTS THAT HAS CONSIDERABLY INCREASED FASTER THAT MOST INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS THAT ARE AFFECTED BY THE LARGE AMOUNT OF ON-SITE LABOR INVOLVED IN THE TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION. THE CONCRETE IS CAST IN PERMANENT FORMS OF STEEL. CONCRETE. THE ANSWER TO THERE PROBLEMS WERE BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF CONSTRUCITON AND SUBSTITUTION OF SITE LABOR BY FACTORY PRODUCED PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE WHICH HAS RAPIDLY DEVELOPED AND GAINED IMPORTANCE. THE WET CONCRETE IS VIBRATED MECHANICALLY IN THE FORMS TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM DENSITY AND HIGHEST SURFACE QUALITY.

THEY ARE USED AS CURTAIN WALLS ATTACHED TO COLUMNS AND BEAMS OR SOMETIMES AS BEARING WALLS. THE COMMON SHAPES PRODUCED FOR ONE TO FOUR STOREY HIGH STRUCTURES ARE SECTIONS HAVING A WIDTH UP TO 2.40 m. . FORMS ARE CALLED CASTING BEDS.CONCRETE STRENGTH IN PRECAST IS USUALLY 5000 PSI. PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS ARE USUALLY STEAM CURED WITH THEE USE OF HIGH EARLY STRENGTH CEMENT TO ENABLE A PRECAST TO REMOVE IN FORM IN 24 HOURS. THE CASTING BEDS AVERAGE 125 METERS TO EXTEND 250 METERS IN LENGTH.000 PSI FOR STRENGTH OF STEEL. 270. TYPES OF PRECAST STRUCTURE WALL PANELS – THIS TYPE OF PRECAST STRUCTURE HAS NUMEROUS DESIGNS DEPENDING UPON THE ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS.

STRESSES IN HANDLING AND ERECTION OF THE MEMBER IS MORE THAN THAT OF THE FINISHED FILLED STRUCTURE. PRECAST COLUMN . 4. 3. CONTROL OF CRACKING IS OF GREAT IMPORTANCE. FOAM GLASS.THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WALL PANELS ARE: 1. FLAT TYPE DOUBLE TEE TYPE RIBBED TYPE WINDOW OR MULLION TYPE TO IMPROVE THE THERMAL INSULATION OF THE PANEL. GLASS FIBER OR EXPANDED PLASTIC IS INSERTED BETWEEN TWO LAYERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE ADEQUATELY BONDED INTERCONNECTING THE TWO LAYERS TO ACT AS ONE UNIT. HENCE. 2.

LEDGER BEAM – IS DESIGNED TO REDUCE THE HEIGHT OF THE FLOOR AND ROOF CONSTRUCTION.60meters. 2.60 x . THE VARIOUS SHAPES ARE: 1.30m. PRECAST BEAMS THE SHAPE OF PRECAST BEAMS DEPENDS UPON THE MANNER OF FRAMING. TEE COLUMN IS SOMETIMES USED TO SUPPORT DIRECTLY DOUBLE TEE FLOOR MEMBERS WITHOUT THE USE OF INTERMEDIATE MEMBERS. IN A MULTI-STOREY CONSTRUCTION. THE COLUMNS ARE MADE CONTINUOUS UP TO FOUR STORIES WHEREIN CORBELS ARE USED TO PROVIDE BEARING FOR THE BEAM.PRECAST COLUMN SIZES ARE FROM .30 x . to . . RECTANGULAR BEAM – WHERE THE FLOOR AND ROOF MEMBERS ARE SUPPORTED ON TOP OF THE BEAM.

THE BEAM IS DESIGNED IN A FORM OF L. FIRE RATINGS AND APPEARANCE. ROOF AND FLOOR MEMBERS ROOF AND FLOOR MEMBERS ARE MADE IN WIDE VARIETY TO SUIT THE DIFFERENT CONDITIONS SUCH AS SPAN. L –BEAM – TO PROVIDE BEARING. AASHTO BRIDGE GIRDER – NAMED AFTER THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS. • FLAT SLAB – IS USUALLY 10cm THICK BUT SOMETIMES AS THIN AS 7cm WHEN USED ON CONTINUOUS SEVERAL SPAN HAVING A WIDTH .3. 4. MAGNITUDE OF LOAD.

50 to 7.THAT RANGES FORM 1.00 m. USED ON ROOF HAVING A SPAN FROM 5.00 TO 6.20 m. A LENGTH UP TO 11.20m.TOPPING IS APPLIED TO ACT MONOLITHICALLY WITH THE HOLLOW PLANK • DOUBLE TEE – ARE THE MOST WIDELY USED SHAPES FOR LONGER SPAN HAVING A DEPTH FROM 4. . IT COULD BE USED ON FLOOR TO A SPAN UP TO 15 METERS DEPENDING UPON THE LOAD AND DEFLECTION REQUIREMENTS.00 m.00 m.60 to 1. • HOLLOW PLANK – IS A LIGHTEIGHT MEMBER THAT COVERS A LONGER SPAN MADE BY EXTENSION IN SPECIAL MACHINE WITH A THICKNESS THAT RANGES FROM 10cm. SPAN WHICH COULD BE AUGMENTED TO 9. WHEN 5cm.40 m. THE FLANGE OF THE TEE CONSTITUTE THE FLOOR OR ROOF SLAB. to 20cm. to 10.50 m. AND THE WIDTH RANGES FORM .00 METERS. • SINGLE TEE – ARE USED FOR ROOFING HAVING A SPAN UP TO 30 METERS AND MORE. AND ALSO ON FLOOR WITH 3. GENERALLY USED ON ROOF HAVING A SPAN UP WITH THE PRECAST MEMBERS.00 m. TO 2.

• INVERTED TEE SECTION – PROVIDES A BEARING LEDGE TO CARRY THE PRECAST DECK MEMBERS HAVING A PERPENDICULAR DIRECTION OF SPAN. THE THICKNESS DEPENDS UPON THE REQUIREMENTS WHILE THE SPAN CAN EXTEND UP TOP 18 METERS. • SINGLE TEE – IS NORMALLY USED FOR LONGER SPAN UP TO 36 METERS WITH HEAVIER LOADS. • CHANNEL SLAB – IS USED FOR FLOORS IN THE INTERMEDIATE SPAN.SHAPE OF PRESTRESSED STRUCTURE THE COMMON SHAPES OF PRESTRESSED STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AREA: • DOUBLE TEE – IS CONSIDERED AS THE MOST WIDELY USED SECTION FOR PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION WITH A FLAT SURFACE HAVING A WIDTH THAT RANGES FROM 1. . ROOF.20 TO 2.40 METERS WIDE. GIRDERS UP TO 36 METERS SPAN. • I –SECTION – IS WIDELY USED FOR BRIDGES.

• BOX GIRDER – IS USED ON BRIDGES FOR INTERMEDIATE AND MAJOR SPAN. PRESTRESSING OF CONCRETE THERE ARE SEVERAL METHODS EMPLOYED IN APPLYING PRESTRESSED FORCE TO A CONCRETE BEAM: • PRECOMPRESSING METHOD – IS A PROCESS OF USING JACKS REACTING AGAINST ABUTMENT. • SELF-CONTAINED METHOD – THE PROCESS IS DONE BY TYING THE JACK BASE TOGETHER WITH WIRES OR CABLES LOCATED ON EACH SIDE OF THE BEAM. USUALLY THE WIRES AND CABLES ARE PRESSED THROUGH A HOLLOW CONDUIT EMBEDDED IN THE CONCRETE BEAM. ONE END OF THE TENDON IS ANCHORED AND FORCES ARE APPLIED AT THE OTHER END. AFTER ATTAINING THE DESIRED PRESTRESS FORCE, THE TENDON IS THEN WEDGED AGAINST THE CONCRETE, REMOVING THE JACK EQUIPMENT.

• BOND FRICTION – THE PRESTRESSING STRANDS ARE STRETCHED BETWEEN MASSIVE ABUTMENT PRIOR TO CASTING OF CONCRETE IN THE BEAM FORMS. AFTER THE CONCRETE HAS GAINED SUFFICIENT STRENGTH, THE JACKS ARE THEN RELEASED TRANSFERRING THE PRESTRESSED FORCE TO THE CONCRETE BY BOND AND FRICTION ALONG THE STRANDS. THE SELF CONTAINED AND THE BOND AND FRICTION METHODS CAN GENERALLY BE CLASSIFIED AS PRE-TENSIONING OR POSTTENSIONING SYSTEM. THESE METHODS CAN BE APPLIED TO MASS PRODUCTION OF CASTING SEVERAL METERS LONG OF STRUCTURE AND CUTTING THE INDIVIDUAL BEAM OR POST TO THE DESIRED LENGTH OUT FROM THE LONG CASTING. THE FAILURE OF EARLY ATTEMPT IN PRESTRESSING CONCRETE WAS DUE TO THE USE OF ORDINARY STEEL HAVING LOW PRESTRESS

STRENGTH CAPABILITY WHICH WAS RAPIDLY LOST DUE TO SHRINKAGE AND CREEP IN THE CONCRETE. PRESTRESSING OF CONCRETE COULD BE EFFECTIVE WHEN A VERY HIGH STRENGTH STEEL ARE USED. EXPERIMENTS SHOW THAT HIGH STRENGTH HAS ONLY ABOUT 15% STRESS LOSS AS COMPARED TO 100 % LOSS IN A BEAM USING ORDINARY STEEL. PRESTRESSING STEEL IS USUALLY IN THE FORM OF INDIVIDUAL WIRE STRAND CABLE MADE UP OF SEVEN WIRES AND ALLOY STEEL BARS. • THERMAL PRESTRESSING – THE STEEL IS PREHEATED BY MEANS OF ELECTRIC POWER WHICH ARE ANCHORED AGAINST THE OPPOSITE END OF THE CONCRETE BEAM. THE COOLING PROCESS PRODUCES PRESTRESS FORCE THROUGH RESTRAINED CONTRACTION. THE CAUSES OF PRESTRESS LOSSES ARE:

4. IT MINIMIZE THE REDUCTION OF PRESTRESS LOSS.000 psi) 280-422 kg/cm2 BECAUSE OF THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFERS. CONCRETE FOR PRESTRESSING CONCRETE OF HIGHER COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IS USED FOR PRESTRESSED STRUCTURES. 2. 5. MOST OF THE PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION SPECIFY A COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BETWEEN (4. SLIP AT ANCHORAGE ELASTIC SHORTENING OF CONCRETE CREEP OF CONCRETE SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE RELAXATION OF STEEL STRESS FRICTIONAL LOSS DUE TO INTENDED OR UNINTENDED CURVATURE IN THE TENDONS. 3. A) HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE HAS A HIGHER MODULUS OF ELASTICITY.000 to 6. 6.1. .

HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE GIVES HIGHER STRENGTH TO PRECAST CONSTRUCTION WHEN CURING IS CAREFULLY CONTROLLED. HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE DEVELOPS STRONGER BOND PRESTRESSES TO PRETENSIONING CONSTRUCTION. . MEASURING THE TENDON ELONGATION.B) C) D) INCREASING THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF THE CONCRETE MEETS THE PROBLEM OF HIGH BEARING STRESSES AT THE ENDS OF POST AND BEAM WHERE THE PRESTRESSING FORCE IS TRANSFERRED FROM THE TENDON TO THE ANCHORAGE DOWELS WHICH DIRECTLY BEARS AGAINST THE CONCRETE. MEASUREMENT OF PRESTRESSING FORCE PRESTRESSING FORCE COULD BE DETERMINED BY: 1.

EXPOSED STRANDS ARE CUT NEAR THE MEMBER TO MINIMIZE SHOCK TO THE CONCRETE. THE CUTTING POINTS AND CUTTING SEQUENCE SHALL BE PREDETERMINED TO AVOID UNDESIRED TEMPORARY STRESSES. THE ELONGATION REQUIREMENTS SHALL BE TAKEN FROM THE AVERAGE LOAD ELONGATION CURVES FOR THE STEEL USED. THE CAUSE OF ANY DIFFERENCE IN DETERMINING THE FORCE WHICH EXCEED 5 PERCENT COULD BE ASCERTAINED AND CORRECTED. THE TOTAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS DUE TO UNREPLACED BROKEN TENDONS SHALL NOT EXCEED 2 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL PRESTRESS.2. . WHERE FORCE TRANSMISSION FROM THE BULKHEADS OF THE PRETENSIONING BED TO THE CONCRETE IS MADE BY FLAME CUTTING THE STEEL. EITHER BY CHECKING JACK PRESSURE ON A CALIBRATED GAGE OR LOAD CELL OR BY THE USED OF CALIBRATED DYNAMOMETER.

• POST TENSIONING – THE STRESSING OF UNBONDED TENDONS AFTER CONCRETE HAS CURED. BUILDING MATERIALS WOOD MATERIALS .

WOOD HAS DURABILITY AND BEAUTY. IT HAS GREAT ABILITY TO ABSORB SHOCKS FROM SUDDEN LOAD AND LIGHT IN WEIGHT WHICH ADAPTABLE IN A COUNTLESS VARIETY OF PURPOSES. STAIRS. PANELLING. FURNITURES AND INTERIOR TRIM. • STRENGTH – TO THE GRAIN. • FLEXIBILITY – THE AMOUNT A PIECE WILL BEND BEFORE BREAKING. • HARDWOOD – THESE ARE USED FOR FLOORING. WHICH A PIECE UNDERGOES WHEN A WEIGHT IS APPLIED. • DURABILITY – THE RELATIVE VALUE / LIFESPAN OF WOOD. PROPERTIES OF WOOD: • HARDNESS – MEASURED BY THE COMPRESSION. TWO MAJOR CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD: • SOFTWOOD – THESE ARE USED FOR GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. .

• PITCH POCKETS – WELL REFINED OPENINGS BETWEEN ANNUAL RINGS CONTAINING SOLID OR LIQUID PITCH. • WANE – IS THE LACK OF WOOD ON THE EDGE OR CORNER OF A PIECE. • KNOTS – IRREGULAR GROWTHS IN THE BODY WHICH INTERRUPS SMOOTH CURVE. • TYPES OF WARPING: CUPPING – IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS CONVEX/CONCAVE ACROSS THE BOARD. • .DEFECTS OF LUMBER: DECAY – CAUSED BY THE ATTACKED OF FUNGI. • CHECKS – CRACKS OR LENGTH WISE SEPARATION ACROSS THE ANNUAL RINGS OF GROWTH.

• DEFINITION OF TERMS: • STRIPS – PIECES LESS THAN 2” THICK AND LESS THAN 8” WIDE. • LOG – PIECES 12” OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION. • BOARDS – PIECES LESS THAN 2” THICK AND AT LEAST 8” WIDE.BOWING – IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS CONVEX/CONCAVE LONGITUDINALLY. • TWISTING – IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH ONE CORNER IS RAISED. THREE CATEGORIES OF LUMBER: . • TIMBER – PIECES 4” OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION. • DIMENSION LUMBER – PIECES MORE THAN 2” THICK AND LESS THAN 5” IN ANY DIMENSION.

YARD LUMBER – USED FOR ORDINARY LIGHT CONSTRUCTION AND FINISHING WORK. • ANGLE GRAIN – WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS ARE AT ABOUT 45 DEG. TO THE FACE. AND CABINETS. AT RIGHT ANGLE TO THE FACE. • SHOP LUMBER – IT IS INTENDED FOR USE IN SHOPS OR IN MILLS MAKING SASH. . • WOOD GRAIN: • EDGE GRAIN – ANNUAL RINGS RUN APPROX. COMMONLY USED FOR FLOORING. • STRUCTURAL LUMBER – IS INTENDED FOR USE IN HEAVY CONSTRUCTION FOR LOAD-BEARING PURPOSES AND IS CUT INTO TIMBERS OF LARGER SIZE. • FLAT GRAIN – WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS RUN MORE OR LESS PARALLEL TO THE SURFACE. DOORS. PLANK SIDING. TRIM AND MOULDING.

IT MUST BE DRIED TO A MOISTURE CONTENT OF NOT MORE THAN 5 TO 10 PERCENT. . THIS ALLOWS AIR TO CIRCULATE AROUND EVERY PIECE WHILE THE SLOPING ALOOWS WATER TO RUN OFF QUICKLY. THIS IS DONE IN AN AIRTIGHT STRUCTURE SCIENTIFICALLY HEATED BY STEAM PIPES IN WHICH THE LUMBER IS ARTIFICIALLY DRIED TO THE CORRECT MOISTURE CONTENT. THE COMPLETE UTILIZATION OF WOOD HAS LEAD TO AN EXPANDED FIELD OF MANUFACTURED BOARDS. MANUFACTURE BOARDS: MANUFACTURED BOARDS ARE MADE OF WOOD BUT DOES NOT APPEAR IN THEIR NATURAL STATE.SEASONING OF LUMBER: • AIR DRYING – LUMBER IS STRIP-PILED AT ASLOPE ON ASOLID FOUNDATION. THIS TYPE OF BUILDING MATERIALS CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS A TYPE OF LUMBER AS THEY ARE THE BY-PRODUCT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF LUMBER. • KILN-DRYING – MORE EXPENSIVE LUMBER WHICH IS REQUIRED FOR MORE REFINED USES SO AS WOOD WILL NOT MOVE.

IT IS LIGHT IN WEIGHT AND STRONG THAT SCREW OR NAIL CAN BE DRIVEN CLOSE TO THE EDGES WITHOUT DANGER OF SPLITTING.TYPES OF BOARDS: • PLYWOOD – IS MADE OF AN ODD NUMBER VENEER SHEETS GLUED TOGETHER WITH THE GRAINS RUNNING AT RIGHT ANGLE TO EACH OTHER. • HARDBOARD – IS MADE FROM WOOD CHIPS WHICH ARE EXPLODED INTO FIBERS UNDER STREAM OF HIGH PRESSURE. TYPES OF PLYWOOD: • SOFT PLYWOOD THE MOST COMMON FOR STRUCTURAL USE • HARDWOOD PLYWOOD – ARE USED FOR PANELLING AND FINSHING WHERE USUALLY ON ONE FACE IS HARD FINISHED. • EXTERIOR OR MARINE PLYWOOD – IS MADE FOR EXTERNAL USE. THE DIFF. .

IT IS NOT BRITTLE AND CAN RESIST WARPING. BOUND TOGETHER AND PRESSED INTO SHEETS AND OTHER MOLDED SHAPED. ITS COLOR VARIES FROM LIGHT TO DARK BROWN. MASONRY MASONRY REFERS TO A MAN-MADE UNITS WHICH ARE FORMED AND HARDENED INTO MODULAR BUILDING UNITS. FIBERS. FLAKES. CURLS.THE LINING IN THE WOOD ITSELF BINDS PRESSED WOOD TOGETHER WITH NO FILLERS OR ARTIFICIAL ADHESIVES APPLIED. SLIVERS ETC. • PARTICLE BOARD – IS MANUFACTURES FROM WOOD CHIPS.e. THIS MODULAR ASPECTS (i. SHAVING. PRESSED WOOD IS EQUALLY STRONG IN ALL DIRECTIONS BUT VERY BRITTLE. UNIFORM SIZE AND PROPORTIONAL RELATIONSHIP) . PARTICLE BOARD HAS EQUAL STRENGTH IN ALL DIRECTION OF A GIVEN CROSS SECTIONAL AREA. STRANDS.

IT MUST HAVE PLASTICITY WHEN MIXED WITH WATER. AND CLAY PARTICLES MUST FUSE TOGETHER WHEN SUBJECTED TO SUFFICIENT HIGH TEMPERATURES. . AGGREGATE AND WATER CERAMIC AND CLAY PRODUCTS: BRICK THE BASIC INGREDIENTS OF BRICK IS CLAY-CLAY WHICH HAS SOME SPECIFIC PROPERTIES. • THROUGH CHEMICAL ACTION – MADE FROM MIXTURE OF CEMENT OR GYPSUM.DISTINGUISHES MASONRY FROM MOST OF THE OTHER CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS. IT MUST HAVE SUFFICIENTTENSILE STRENGTH TO KEEP ITS SHAPE AFTER FORMING. MASONRY UNITS ARE FORMED FROM SHAPELESS MATERIALS AND HARDENED IN EITHER OF TWO WAYS: • THROUGH HEAT – MADE FROM VARIOU TYPE OF CLAY. SO THAT IT CAN BE MOLDED OR SHAPED.

• THE METHOD BY WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL UNITS IN A BRICK STRUCTURE ARE TIED TOGETHER EITHER BY OVERLAPPING OR BY METAL TIES IS KNOWN AS THE STRUCTURAL BOND. CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS: CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS ARE CLASSIFIED AS BEARING AND NON-BEARING BLOCKS. LOAD BEARING BLOCKS ARE THOSE WHOSE . • THE ADHESION OF MORTAR TO BRICKS OR TO STEEL REINFORCEMENT USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THEM IS CALLED THE MORTAR BOND.BRICK BOUNDS • THE METHOD OF LAYING BRICKS IN A WALL IN ORDER TO FORM SOME DISTINCTIVE PATTERN OR DESIGN IS REFERRED TO AS THE PATTERN BOND.

FENCES OR DIVIDERS CARRYING ITS OWN WEIGHT WHOSE THICKNESS RANGES FROM 7. PARTITIONS.5 CM. NON-BEARING BLOCKS ON THE OTHER HAND. TO 20 CM. THE VARRYING SIZES OF THE CELLS WILL AFFECT THE CELL BE ADOPTED IN OUR COMPUTATION. THESE CELLS VARY IN SIZES AS THERE ARE DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS USING DIFFERENT MOULDS. CONCRETE CEMENTS PORTLAND CEMENT . CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS HAS THREE CELLS AND TWO ONE HALF CELLS AT BOTH ENDS HAVING A TOTAL OF FOUR.THICKNESS RANGES FROM 15 CM. TO 10 CM. AND ARE USED TO CARRY LOAD ASIDE FROM ITS OWN WEIGHT. ARE BLOCKS WHICH ARE INTENDED FOR WALLS.

DECORATIVE CONCRETE STUCCO AND TILE GROUT. • MASONRY CEMENT OR TILE ADHESIVES – HAS BEEN SPECIALLY DESIGNED TO PRODUCE BETTER MORTAR THAN THAT MADE WITH . THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS IS CONTROLLED TO PRODUCE A PURE WHITE. PORTLAND CEMENT IS SOLID EITHER IN CEMENT BAGS OF 40 KILOS WEIGHT OR IN BULK INTO CEMENT TRUCKS. OR WHEREVER WHITE OR COLORED CONCRETE OR MORTAR IS SPECIFIED. SPECIAL CEMENTS • WHITE PORTLAND CEMENT – SAME MATERIALS AS NORMAL PORTLAND EXCEPT IN COLOR. FOUR PARTS OF LIMESTONE TO ONE PART CLAY ARE BASIC INGREDIENTS. THESE ARE MIXED.MADE FROM MATERIALS WHICH MUST CONTAIN IN THE PROPER PROPORTIONS OF LIME. IT IS USED PRIMARILY FOR ARCHITECTURAL PURPOSES SUCH AS CURTAIN WALL AND FACING PANELS. ALUMINA AND IRON COMPONENTS. SILICA. NON-STAINING CEMENT. BURNED THEN PULVERIZED.

NORMAL PORTLAND CEMENT OR WITH A LIME-CEMENT HAS PARTICULARLY GOOD PLASTICITY AND WORKABILITY, GOOD ADHESION AND BOND. • WATERPROOFED PORTLAND CEMENT – NORMALLY PRODUCED BY ADDING A SMALL AMOUNT OF STEARATE, USUALLY CALCIUM OR ALUMINUM TO THE CEMENT CLINKER DURING THE FINAL GRINDING. TYPES OF AGGREGATES USED IN CONCRETE CONCRETE CAN BE CONSIDERED TO BE AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE BY BINDING TOGETHER PARTICLES OF SOME INERT MATERIAL WITH A PASTE MADE OF CEMENT AND WATER. THESE INERT MATERIAL ARE THE AGGREGATE. AGGREGATES USED ARE SAND GRAVEL CRUSHED STONE, CINDER. CRUSHED FURNACE SLAG, BURNED CLAY, EXPANDED VERMICULITE, AND PERLITE. SAND - FOUND IN RIVERBEDS, FREE OF SALT AND MUST BE WASHED.

FINE AGGREGATE COARSE AGGREGATE CONCRETE MIXES CLASS “AA” CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C

- ¼” SMALLER DIAMETER STONES. - BIGGER THAN ¼” DIAMETER STONES.

- 1: 1 ½: 3 - CONCRETE UNDER WATER, RETAINING WALLS - 1:2:4 - FOOTINGS, COLUMNS BEAMS, R.C. SLABS

- 1: 2 1/ 2:5- SLAB ON FILL, NON BEARING WALLS - 1: 3: 6 - CONCRETE PLANT BOXES, ETC.

CONTROL OF CONCRETE MIXES

SLUMP TEST- WHEN FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE IS CHECKED TO ENSURE THAT THE SPECIFIED SLUMP IS BEING ATTAINED CONSISTENTLY. A STANDARD SLUMP CONE IS 12 INCHES HIGH (0.30) AND 8 INCHES (O.20) IN DIAMETER AT THE BOTTOM AND 4 INCHES (O.10) ON TOP WHICH IS OPEN ON BOTH ENDS. THE CONE IS FILLED IN THREE EQUAL LAYERS, EACH BEING TAMPED OR RODDED 25 TIMES WITH A STANDARD 5/8” BULLET NOSED ROD. WHEN THE CONE HAS BEEN FILLED AND LEVELED OFF, IT IS LIFTED CAREFULLY AND THE AMOUNT OF SLUMP IS MEASURED. ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION ‘X’ BEAMS AND COLUMNS SLABS AND TUNNEL INVERTS TOPS AND WALL, PIERS, PARAPET & CURBS SIDE WALLS AND ARCH IN TUNNEL LINING 7.5 cm. (.075) 3” 5.0 cm. (.50) 2” 5.0 cm. (.50) 2” 10.0 cm. (.10) 4”

HIGH AND 6 INCH. BY MAKING THE CYLINDER WHILE STILL WET.075) 3” 5. SPECIMENS ARE USUALLY CYLINDRICAL WITH A LENGHT EQUAL TO TWICE THE DIAMETER. 2.000 psi.CEMENT .500 psi.COMMON QUALITY-CONTROL TEST OF CONCRETE.CANAL LINING HEAVY MASS CONSTRUCTION 7. (. STANDARD SIZE IS 12 INCH.000 psi. (. SOME COMPRESSIVE STRESSES ARE 2. IT IS THEN SENT TO A COMPRESSION TESTING LABORATORY.0 cm. 3.5 cm. FILLING IS DONE THE SAME WAY AS THE SLUMP TEST BUT TAKEN OUT FROM THE MOLD IN 24 HOURS. DIAMETER. BASED ON 7 AND 28 DAYS CURING PERIODS. BRANDS OF PORTLAND CEMENT • ISLAND CEMENT • CONTINENTAL CEMENT • HI.50) 2” COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST.

• • • • • • • UNION CEMENT RIZAL CEMENT FILIPINAS CEMENT PACIFIC CEMENT FORTUNE CEMENT REPUBLIC CEMENT NORTHERN CEMENT BRANDS OF WHITE CEMENT • PRIME WHITE CEMENT • KEENE • TRINITY • SNOWCRETE • MORTAR – CEMENT. SAND & WATER. • CONCRETE – CEMENT. . SAND. GRAVEL & WATER. • GROUT – CEMENT AND WATER MIXTURE.

• EFFLORESCENCE – AN ENCRUSTATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS CAUSED BY FREE ALKALIES LEACHED FROM MORTAR OR ADJACENT CONCRETE AS MOISTURE MOVE THROUGH IT.THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR W/O THE GAIN OR LOSS OF HEAT DURING THE CURING PERIOD. . • ADIABATIC CURING . • ADOBE BRICK – LARGE ROUGHLY MOULDED SUN DRIED CLAY BRICKS OF VARYING SIZES.• TYROLEAN FINISH – ROUGH PLASTER FINISH OBTAINED BY FLINGING PLASTER ON A WALL W/ A HAND OPERATED MACHINE. • FLEMISH BOND – A FORM OF BRICK BOND IN WHICH EACH COURSE IS ALTERBATELY COMPOSED OF ENTIRELY OF HEADERS AND OF STRETCHERS. • WHEATHERED – MOST WATERPROOFED TYPE OF MORTAR JOINTS FOR WALLS. • ASHLAR BRICK – A BRICK WHOSE FACE HAS BEEN HACKED TO RESEMBLE ROUGHLY HACKED STONE.

• ROWLOCK – A BRICK LAID N ITS EDGE SO THAT ITS END IS VISIBLE. • MORTAR FOR BLOCK LAYING IS 0. • ZOCALO – LOW WALL AROUND A CHALET-TYPE HOUSE. • CINDER BLOCK – A LIGHT WEIGHT MASONRY UNIT MADE OF CINDER CONCRETE. • SCRATCH COAT – INITIAL SCORED LAYER OF PLASTER WORK.• RETARDER – NA ADMIXTURE WHICH DELAY THE SETTING OF CEMENT PASTE OR MIXTURES/ AN ADDITIVE MIXED WITH PLASTER TO CONTROL THE RATE OF HARDENING. . • FORTIFICATION – THA WALL OF INTRAMUROS. • STEAM CURING – THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR IN WATER VAPOR AT AN ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AT EITHER ATMOSPHERIC OR HIGH PRESSURE. A HARD STONE OR BRICK USED TO REINFORCE AN EXTERNAL CORNER OF A WALL. • SOLDIER – A MSONRY UNIT WHICH IS SET ON END WITH ITS FACE SHOWING ON THE WALL SURFACE. • QUOIN / COIN – IN MASONRY.0125 m.

016 m. . FOR 4” CHB FERROUS AND NONFERROUS METALS FERROUS.CONTAINING NO. OR VERY LITTLE IRON. NONFERROUS.05 X 0. • MORTAR FILLER FOR HOLLOW CELL 0.00075 X 4 = 0.003 cu.• PLASTERING THICKNESS IS 0.00075 cu.m.m.METAL IN WHICH IRON IS THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENT. FOR 4 CELL/BLOCK = 0.075 X 0.20 = 0.

PRODUCE BY THREE BASIC RAW MATERIALS. MOTORS. AND HAS LITTLE USE FOR CONSTRUCTION. A GRAT VARIETY OF PRODUCTS USED IN CONSTRUCTION ARE MADE. HOWEVER SINCE IT IS CHEAP AND EASY TO CAST. ENGINES AND BECAUSE OF ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IT IS USED FOR PIPES TO SOME EXTENT.FERROUS METAL: STEEL. FROM THESE. RAW MATERIALS WHICH IS MELTED INTO INGOTS PLACE IN MOLDS.GRADE BLAST-FURNANCE CHARGE MATERIAL. PIG IRON IS USED TO MAKE CAST IRON WHICH IS HIGH IN COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT BUT LOW IN TENSILE STRENGHT. ARE BLENDED AND BURNED ON A MOVING GATE TO CAUSE THE FORMATION OF CLINKERS. A HIGH. THESE ARE CALLED SINTER. IRON ORE. IT IS USED FOR PUMPS.A MALLEABLE ALLOY OF IRON AND CARBON PRODUCED BY MELTING AND REFINING PIG IRON AND/ OR SCRAP STEEL. WHICH OTHERWISE WOULD BE WASTE. FIVE PARTICLES OF ALL THREE BASIC INGREDIENTS OF STEEL. THEY INCLUDED: COLD-ROLLED SHEETS ARE GLAVANIZED (GIVEN A ZINC COATING). AND LIMESTONE. . GRADED ACCORDING TO THE CARBON CONTENT.

WROUGHT IRON IS PRODUCED WHEN PIG IRON IS MELTED IN SUCH A WAY AS TO REMOVE NEARLY ALL OF THE CARBON AND OTHER IMPURITIES. COPPER. WIRE AND METAL ORNAMENTS. STEEL PRODUCTS • ROLLED STRUCTURAL SHAPES • SHEET PILING. FASCIA AND GRAVEL STOPS.SECTIONS ARE MADE TO INTERLOCK AND ARE AVAILABLE IN SEVERAL SHAPE. IT’S MAIN USES ARE FOR ROOFING SHEETS. FLASHING. FRAMES FOR DOORS EXPANSION JOINTS. . STAINLESS STEELS ARE MADE WITH CHROMIUM OR A COMBINATION OF NICKEL AND CHROMIUM USED IN BUILDINGS OF EXTERIOR WALLS PANELS. COPINGS.BEARING STEEL HAS HIGH RESISTANCE TO CORROSION AND IS USED FOR MAKING SHEET STEEL AND METAL LATH. IT IS EASILY WORKED AND IS TOUGH AND DUCTILE.

SEAMLESS OR WELDED SMALL DIAMETER PIPE AND ELECTRICALLY WELDED LARGE DIAMETER PIPE. THAT IS. = 12mm. 6= No. 7= ¼“ 3/8” ½” 5/8” ¾” 7/8” = 8 mm. BARS WHICH HAVE LUGS OR DEFORMATIONS ROLLED ON THE SURFACE TO PROVIDE ARCHORAGE IN CONCRETE. REINFORCING STEEL COMES IN PLAIN OR DEFORMED BARS. 4= No. SIZES-START WITH NO.CAR AXLES OR RAILS. . = 16mm. • REINFORCING STEEL.MADE FROM NEW STEEL OR FROM DISCARDED RAILWAY. 5= No. = 10 mm. = 20mm. (DIVIDE A NUMBER OF BAR BY 8 TO GET THE EQUIVALENT IN inch DIAMETER) No. = 22mm.• STEEL PIPE. 2= No. 3= No.2 OR ¼ in.

BOLTS. NAILS. = 30mm.ANOTHER TYPE OF REINFORCING MATERIAL. TRIMS. FOR BOLTS. USED FOR BANDING COLUMN FORMS TO KEEP THEM FROM BULGING UNDER THE PRESSURE OF FRESHLY . POINTS. WIRE IS FED INTO AN AUTOMATIC BOLT-MAKING MACHINE WHICH CUTS TO LENGTH HEADS. IT CONSISTS OF PARALLEL. FENCES.No. • STEEL STRAPPING – MADE FROM HIGH-TENSILE FLAT WIRE IN A NUMBER OF SIZES. NEEDLES. 8= 7/8” No. • WELDED WIRE FABRIC. 9= 1 1/8 = 25mm. • STEEL WIRE – OVER 150. AND IN MANY ROLLS THE THREAD. PIANO WIRE. CABLES.000 USES FOR WIRE INCLUDING PINS. LONGITUDINAL WIRES WELDED TO TRANSVERSE WIRES AT REGULAR INTERVALS. • BOLTS AND NUTS – (EITHER HOT FORGED OR COLD-FORMED FROM WIRE OF THE APPROPRIATE DIAMETER).

AVAILABLE IN 1 5/8. • SHEET STEEL – BLACK AND GALVANIZED. NONFERROUS METALS: . • PANS AND DONES – MANUFACTURED FOR USE IN FORMING ONE-WAY AND TWO-WAY RIBBED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS. A TIGHTERNER TIGHTENS IT AND THE TWO LAPPED ENDS IS SEALED. CAN BE USED TO MANUFACTURE CORRUGATED ROOFING AND SIDING AND FORMED STEEL DECKING. 2 ½ AND 3 5/8 INCHES.POURED CONCRETE. • OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS – LIGHTWEIGHT WARREN-TYPE TRUSSES MADE IN SEVERAL DIFFERENT STYLES. PLUMBING STACKS AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS FIT EASILY INTO A STEEL-FRAMEWALL. • STEEL STUDS – LIGHTWEIGHT. FASTENERS DO NOT POP. MUCH FASTER TO INSTALL THAN WOOD STUD INSTALLATION. REQUIRING MINIMUM STORAGE SPACE AND DOES NOT WARP OR SHRINK. AND JOINTS STAY CLOSED.

BAUXITE. THE REDDISH BROWN ORE IS WASHED AND TREATED IN A SODA SOLUTION TO YIELD A CHALKY-WHITE POWDER CALLED ALUMNA. REQUIRES 10 KILOWATT HOURS FOR EACH POUND OF METAL ALUMINUM EXTRACTED. .ALUMINUM – ITS ORE. WIDELY USED FOR DOWNSPOUTS. IS AN EXCELLENT ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTOR. CONTAINING A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ALUMINUM. HAS HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH. FLASHINGS GUTTERS. COPPER – A LUSTROUS REDDISH METAL. IS AVAILABLE IN A WIDE VARIETY OF SHAPES. ETC. ALUMINUM FOIL – USED AS A VAPOR BARRIER ON WALLS AND CEILINGS AND AS REFLECTIVE INSULATION. HIGHLY DUCTILE AND MALLEABLE. ROOFING. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS.

RELATIVELY UNAFFECTED BY EXPOSURE TO AIR. . RESPECTIVELY. VERY EASY TO CUT AND WORK. SOFR AND MALLEABLE METAL HAVING A LOW MELTING POINT. FLASHING AND SPANDREL WALL PANELS. USED FOR ROOFING. ENABLING IT TO BE FITTED OVER UNEVEN SURFACES. AND THE ALLOYS CONTAINING NICKEL.COPPER ALLOYS ARE BRASSES. HAS LOW MELTING POINT AND A HIGH COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION. LEAD – A SOFT. BRONZES ARE USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF SPRINGS. USED FOR MAKING ALLOYS AND SOLDER AND IN COATING SHEET METAL. HEAVY METAL. AND BRONZES WHICH CONTAIN PRIMARILY ZINC AND TIN. TIN – A LUSTROUS WHITE. BRASSES ARE USED IN ARCHITECTURAL AND HARDWARE APPLICTIONS. MALLEABLE.

SPANDRELS. WIDE FLANGES 5. I-BEAM 2. AND LINTELS . CHANNELS 10. H-COLUMN 4. TEE BEAM 3. IT THEREFORE REQUIRES LATERAL SUPPORT TO PREVENT ITS TENDENCY TO BUCKLE. THE STANDARD CHANNELS ARE GENERALLY USED AS ELEMENTS OF BUILT-UP SECTIONS FOR COLUMNS AND ARE ALSO SUITABLE FOR FRAMING AROUND FLOOR OPENINGS.STRUCTURAL SHAPES THE MOST COMMON SHAPES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ARE THE AMERICAN STANDARD FORMS SUCH AS: 1. ROUND BARS 7. SQUARE BARS 6. ANGLE BARS 9. PLATE BARS 8. ZEE STANDARD CHANNEL THE STANDARD CHANNEL HAS THE SHAPE OF UNSYMMETRICAL BALANCE CONSISTING OF TWO FLANGES ON ONE SIDE.

AND IT WEIGHS 12 kg. WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE MORE EFFICIENT THAN STANDARD I BEAM WITH RESPECT TO BENDING RESISTANCE. COMPARATIVELY. PER METER LENGTH. STANDARD I-BEAM THE USE OF I-BEAM AS A COLUMN IS UNECONOMICAL. PER METER LENGTH. AND WEIGHTS 15 kg. THE CHANNEL SECTION IS IDENTIFIRD AS C 15 x 20 WHICH MEANS THAT THE CHANNEL HAS A DEPTH OF 20 cm. BECAUSE THE WHIRL OR REVOLVING ACTION OF THE STRUCTURE ABOUT AN AXIS .ATTRIBUTED TO THE ABSENCE OF FLANGE ON THE OTHER SIDE. ALL WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE GENERALLY WITH PARALLEL FACE FLANGE ESCEPT THOSE WITH 5% SLOPE INSIDE FACE PRODUCED BY BETLEHEM STEEL COMPANY. WIDE FLANGE WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE DESIGNATED AS W 12 x 24 WHICH MEANS THAT THE FLANGE HAS A DEPTH OF 24 cm.

H-BEARING PILES H-BEARING PILES ALTHOUGH SUITABLE FOR PILE DRIVING ON DEEP EXCAVATIONS IS MUCH MORE SUITABLE THAN THE I-BEAM FOR COLUMNS. • CAST IRON – AN IRON ALLOY USUALLY INCLUDING CARBON AND SILICON WHICH HAS HIGH COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH BUT LOW TENSILE STRENGTH. • WROUGHT IRON – A COMMERCIALLY PURE IRON OF FIBROUS NATURE. . ZEE SECTIONS THE ZEE SECTION IS ANOTHER STRUCTURAL FORM IN A LETTER Z WHICH IS NOT FREQUENTLY USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION EXEPT ON THE FABRICATION OF STEEL WINDOWS AND OTHER FRAMES.THROUGH THE CENTROID PARALLEL TO THE WAB OF THE I-BEAM IS COMPARATIVELY SMALL. VALUED FOR ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE AND DUCTILITY.

A FLUX AND A STABILIZER. ROLLED. . WHILE MOLTEN MAYBE BLOWN. • LAP SEAM – A JOINT FORMED BY OVERLAPPING THE EDGES OF METAL SHEET OR PLATES AND JOINING THEM BY RIVETING OR SOLDERING OR BRACING. PRODUCED BY MELTING A MIXTURE OF SILICA. DRAWN. GLASS A HARD BRITTLE INORGANIC SUBSTANCE.• WELDING – IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH TWO METALS ARE SO JOINT THAT THERE IS AN ACTUAL UNION OF THE INTERATOMIC BONDS. • RED OXIDE – PROTECTIVE COAT FOR IRON. ORDINARILY TRANSPARENT OR TRANSLUCENT. PRESSED OR CAST TO A VARIETY OF SHAPES. • EXTRUSION – THE PROCESS OF PRODUCING METAL SHAPES OF A CONSTANT CROSS SECTION BY FORCING THE HOT METAL THROUGH AN ORFICE IN A DIE BY MEANS OF A PRESSURE RAM.

RECTANGULAR VACUUM CHAMBER. RESULTING IN SAVINGS IN INITIAL AND OPERATING COSTS OF AIR CONDITIONING. THE . WHEN IT IS HEATED. A STATE IN WHICH IT CAN BE WORKED. IT REDUCES SOLAR HEAT GAIN BY REFLECTING THE SUN’S ENERGY. WATERY LIQUID. FINALLY AT STILL HIGHER TEMPERATURES IT BECOMES A THIN. TYPES OF GLASS 1. REFLECTIVE GLASS USED TO CONTROL GLARE AND REDUCE SOLAR HEAT. SYRUPY LIQUID. IT IS THE PRODUCT OF A GLASS-COATING PROCESS WHICH IS CARRIED OUT IN A LARGE. THE GLASS IS COATED WITH MICRO-THIN LAYERS OF METALLIC FILMS WHICH PROVIDE THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GLASS. FURTHER HEATING BRINGS IT TO THE POINT WHEN IT BECOMES THICK. IT FIRST SOFTENS SO THAT IT CAN BE BENT.GLASS HAS NO DEFINE MELTING POINT.

AT NIGHT. WHILE BEING NEUTRALLY TRANSPARENT FROM THE INSIDE. SUCH AS BY FACTORY ROOFS AND WALLS. SILVER AND GOLD. THE GLASS CAN BE SPECIFIED IN ANY ONE OF THREE NOMINAL LIGHT TRANSMITTANCES OF 8. A CHROME COATING PROVIDES SILVERY OUTDOOR REFLECTIONS AND CREATES A COOL EFFECT DURING THE DAYTIME. 2. MANUFACTURED IN TWO TYPES. GLASS OF THIS TYPE IS USED WHERE CLEAR VISION IS NOT REQUIRED. WINDOWS FOR HALLS AND . THE GLASS “REVERSE” ITSELF BY BEING TRANSPARENT FROM THE OUTSIDE AND SEMIREFLECTIVE FROM THE INSIDE. 14. ROLLED AND ROUGH CAST GLASS SIMILAR TO THE PROCESS OF MAKING PLATE GLASS.REDUCED LIGHT TRANSMISSION ALSO DIMINISHES INTERIOR GLARE AND BRIGHTNESS. OR 20 PERCENT.

WITH LENGTHS UP TO 100 in. FROM 40 TO 0 IN. STOCK WIDTHS. THE WIRE GREATLY . AND BECAUSE OF ITS LOW REFLECTING AND ABSORPTION INDEX.STAIRCASES. THICKNESSES VARY FROM 1/8 TO 3/8 in. SKY LIGHTS. AND PARTITIONS IN OFFICES. TRANSMITS 90 TO 93 PERCENT OF LIGHT RAYS STRIKING IT. WIRED GLASS SIMPLY A ROLLED GLASS INTO WHICH WIRE MESH IS INSERTED DURING THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. HOWEVER. 3. 4. CATHEDRAL AND FIGURED GLASSES MANUFACTURING IS SIMILAR TO RILLED AND ROUGH CAST GLASSES. CAST GLASS DIFFUSES LIGHT. THEY CONTAIN A PATTERN OR TEXTURE IMPRESSED USUALLY ON ONE SURFACE BY A PATTERNED ROLLER.

ARE PRODUCED.INCREASES THE RESISTANCE TO SHATTERING THROUGH IMPACT WIRED GLASS AS MADE IN THICKNESSES OF 7/32. STOCK WIDTHS 47 TO 49 in. SEPARETED BY AN AIR SPACE. CLASSIFICATION OF SHEET GLASS . AND LENGTHS UP TO 178 in. ¼ AND 3/8 in. THEY REDUCE EXTERNAL NOISE BUT STILL PERMIT THE ENTRY OF NATURAL LIGHT. AND JOINED AROUND THE EDGES TO PRODUCE A HERMITICALLY SEALED UNIT. INSULATING GLASS THIS CONSISTS OF TWO SHEETS OF PLATE OR SHEET GLASS. ALL THESE SEALED UNITS PROVIDE THERMAL INSULATION AND GREATLY RESTRICT CONDENSATION. 5.

COMMONLY USED FOR DISPLAY CASES. WINDOW VENTILATORS FURNITURE TOPS AND JALOUSIES MADE OF TWO THICKNESSES 3/6 AND 7/32. GLASS PRODUCTS I. 3. PHOTOGRAPHS. PICTURE GLASS – USED FOR COVERING PICTURES. CHARTS PROJECTOR SLIDES AND INSTRUMENT DIALS. WINDOW GLASS – USED FOR GLAZING WINDOWS DOORS AND STORM SASH IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS WHERE GOOD LIGHT AND VISION ARE REQURED AT MODERATE COST. 2. SHELVING. GLASS BLOCKS COMPARABLE IN MANY WAYS TO UNIT MASONRY BUT HAVE THE ADDED FEATURE OF TRANSMITTING LIGHT. HEAVY SHEET GLASS – USED FOR GLAZING WINDOWS AND DOORS WHERE GREATER STRENGTH IS REQUIRED BUT WHERE LIGHT DISTORTION IS NOT OBJECTIONABLE.1. THEY ARE MADE INTO TWO . MAPS.

. A LIGHT DIRECTING BLOCK – DIRECTS INCOMING LIGHT UPWARD TOWARD THE CEILING. WHICH ARE HEAT-SEALED TOGETHER TO FORM A HOLLOW UNIT WITH REASONBLY HIGH THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND SOUND INSULATION. USED ALWAYS ABOVE EYE LEVEL. FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS – DIRECT OR DIFFUSE THE DAYLIGHT WHICH PASSES THEOUGH THEM TO IMPROVE THE ILLUMINATION OF THE BUILDING INTERIOR. THE EDGE SURFACES OF THE BLOCK ARE COATED WITH A GRITTY MORTAR BOND. THREE STYLES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS: A.SEPARATE HALVES. TWO TYPES: 1.

OPENINGS AND FACADES. PAINT FINISHES . 2. GENERAL PURPOSES BLOCK DECORATIVELY OR ARCHITECTURAL GLASS – AVAILABLE IN A WIDE RANGE OF STYLES AND PATTERNS. THESE GLASS MASONRY UNITS PROVIDE ALMOST UNLIMITED DESIGN VERSATILITY WHEN USED IN WINDOW. A LIGHT DIFFUSING BLOCK – DIFFUSES INCOMING LIGHT EVENLY THROUGHOUT THE INTERIOR OF THE ROOM. C.B. AS INTERIOR WALLS AND DIVIDER PANELING.

PRESERVE OR VISUALLY ENHANCE THE SURFACE TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED. . PAINT GENERALLY REFERS TO OPAQUE OR CLEAR FILM-FORMING MATERIAL THAT ACTS AS A SHIELD OR BARRIER BETWEEN THE BUILDING MATERIAL AND THOSE ELEMENTS OR CONDITIONS THAT MAY ADVERSELY AFFECTS OR DETERIORATE. TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS. IT DEPENDING ON ITS END USED.THE PURPOSE OF A FINISH IS TO PROTECT. IMPROVE HEATING AND LIGHTING EFFECTS. PAINT MAY ALSO SERVE TO MAKE SURFACES MORE SANITARY. THE PAINT FILM MUST RESIST DETERIORATION DUE TO SUNLIGHT HEAT. AND PROMOTE HUMAN COMFORT AND SAFETY. WATER OR MOISTURE VAPOR. FINISHES INCLUDE PLASTIC LAMINATED SURFACE COVERINGS SUCH AS PLASTIC LAMINATED AND VINYL OF FABRIC WALL COVERING. MILDEW AND DECAY CHEMICALS AND PHYSICAL ABRASION.

STIRRING. IT IS ALWAYS ADVISABLE THEREFORE TO FOLLOW THE PAINT MANUFACTURERS RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE APPLICATION AND USE OF A PAINT OR OTHER PROTECTIVE COATING. GLOSSY FINISHES REFLECT LIGHT AND CAN CAUSE GLARE. MOST PAINTS ARE CAREFULLY FORMULATED TO MEET SPECIFIC APPLICATION THAT USE REQUIREMENTS AND ARE READY-MIXED FOR APPLICATION EXCEPT FOR THINNING. WHITE AND LIGHT COLORS REFLECT SIZE OF FORM AND SPACE. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLOR AND SURFACE TEXTURE MUST BE CONSIDERED. DARK COLOR CAN INHIBIT THE PERCEPTION OF FORM AND MAY BE USED FOR CONTRAST.WHEN USING PAINT. CERTAIN COLORS MAY BE STIMULATING WHILE OTHERS ARE RELAXING. EASILY CLEANED. ILLUMINATION EVENLY. BUT THEY ALSO PROVIDE SMOOTH. . NON-ABSORPTIVE SURFACES. OR THE ADDITION OF AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST. FLAT PAINT FINISHES SOFTEN AND DISTRIBUTE.

CONSIDERATIONS IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF A PAINT INCLUDE: SURFACE PREPARATION . TYPE OF PAINT . . .THE DRY FILM THICKNESS (DFT) IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE NUMBER OF COATS.MULTIPLE THIN COATS ARE GENERALLY MORE EFFECTIVE THAN A SINGLE THICK COAT. EXPOSURE. AND MANUFACTURER AND/OR TRADE NAME. FINISH COLOR.THE FOUNDATION OF ANY PAINT SYSTEM MUST BE PROPERLY PREPARED TO ENSURE PROPER ADHESION OF THE PAINT FILM TO ITS SURFACE. .PAINT MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED.A MINIMUM OF 2 COATS IS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE 5 MIL DFT. . FILM THICKNESS .SPECIFICATIONS INCLUDE THE PAINT VEHICLE.

PAINT WITH 100% VOLUME SOLIDS: (NO THINNER) 1 GAL COVERS 1600 SF (149 m2) @ 1 MIL DFT 800 SF ( 74 m2) @ 2 MIL DFT 400 SF ( 37 m2) @ 4 MIL DFT -PAINT WITH 50% VOLUME SOLIDS (50% THINNER) 1 GAL COVERS 800 SF (74 m2) @ 1 MIL DFT 400 SF (37 m2) @ 2 MIL DFT .COVERAGE .A PAINT’S COVERAGE CAN BE ESTIMATED BY ITS PERCENTAGE OF VOLUME SOLIDS: .ie.

.THE TIME AND CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR A PAINT TO DRY MUST BE CHECKED. DYING . PAINT GENERALLY CONSIST OF: PIGMENT – FINELY GROUND SOLIDS THAT PROVIDE THE PAINTS COVERINGS OR HIDING POWER OR ITS COLOR. COATINGS MAY BE BRUSHED.DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS BEING APPLIED. VEHICLE – LIQUID MEDIUM TO CARRY THE PIGMENT IN SUSPENSION DURING APPLICATION.METHOD . AND CONSISTS OF BINDERS AND SOLVENTS. ROLLED OR SPRAYED ON.

PLASTER. EGG SHELL. EVAPORATION. OR BY THERMOSETTING ACTION AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES.. METAL MASONRY. SATIN. ETC. • SOLVENTS OR THINNERS ACTS DRYING AGENTS. FLAT . SURFACE FINISH TEXTURE • GLOSS. PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO: MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED • WOOD. CHEMICAL ACTION. SEMI-GLOSS. CONCRETE. • DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF SOLVENT USED. • BINDERS ARE LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PROTECTIVE QUALITY AND DURABILITY OF THE PAINT FIL OR PROTECTIVE COATING.• BINDER SERVE TO FORM THE PAINT FILM AND CAUSE IT TO ADHERE THE SURFACE BEING PAINTED. A PAINT MAY DRY OR HARDEN BY OXIDATION.

OR ASPHALT OR BASE COATINGS .COLOR • DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MANUFACTURER. LACQUERS. OR TOP COAT. ALKYD. SEALERS RUST INHIBITIVE COATINGS • ZINC-PIGMENTED COATINGS • ZINC. EXPOSURE • EXTERIOR OR INTERIOR APPLICATION • PRIME. CHARACTERISTICS: PIGMENTED COATING • PAINTS AND ENAMEL CLEAR COATINGS • VARNISHES. SHEELAC. SILICONS. SEALING.

.• ASPHALT OR TAR COATINGS THAT FORM NON-PEMEABLE BARRIERS AGAINST WATER AND OXYGEN TO PROTECT SUBMERGED FERROUS METAL AND TO WATERPROOF MASONRY SURFACES. CEMENT MORTAR COATINGS • MIXTURE OF PORTLAND CEMENT. • THE MOST COMMON PAINT VEHICLE . PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ITS VEHICLE OR BINDER: ALKYDS • OIL MODIFIED RESINS THAT HARDEN BY OXIDATION AND EVAPORATION. FUMES. MARINE ENVIRONMENTS ETC. MOLD. LIME AND WATER USED TO DAMPPROOF MASONRY MATERIALS AND PROTECT EXPOSED STEEL PLASTIC AND SYNTHETIC RUBBER COATINGS • COATING RESISTANT TO MILDEW.

AND IMPROVES THE PAINTS WETTING PROPERTIES. ASPHALT • COATINGS WITH A VEHICLE OF BOTH PETROLEUM AND NATURAL ASPHALTS ARE USED TO PROTECT WOOD. STEEL MASONRY. . • HAVE GOOD DRYING PROPERTIES. LOWERS THE GLOSS. • HAVE GOOD WATER RESISTANCES BUT THERMOPLASTIC IN NATURE. DURABILITY AND ELASTICITY TO RESIST BLISTERING. AND GOOD COLOR RETENTION. • ADDITION OF EPOXY RESINS MINIMIZES THE COLD FLOW AND MAXIMIZES THE CHEMICAL-RESISTANCE OF ASPHALT. CONCRETE AND AS ROOF COATING. DURABILITY AND WATER RESISTANCE FOR EXTERIOR EXPOSURES. • ADDITION OF ALUMINUM GLAKES HELPS TO REFLECT THE SUN’S RAYS.• FAST DRYING A HARDER THAN ORDINARY TIME.

CHLORINATED RUBBER • USED IN COATINGS HIGHLY RESISTANT TO ALKALIES. CHEMICALS. TRAFFIC WEAR. • HAS EXCELLENT RESISTANT TO SOLVENTS. WATER TREATMENT PLANTS EPOXY CATALYZED • TWO COMPONENT COATINGS CONSISTING OF A PIGMENTED PRIMER OR ENAMEL AND AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST. • HAS GOOD DURABILITY FOR EXTERIOR EXPOSURE BUT MAY CHALK. COLOR RETENTION AND STAIN RESISTANCE. . AND WATER • MAY BE REMOVED BY COAL TAR SOLVENTS • HAS LIMITED RESISTANCE TO PROLONGED HEAT EXPOSURE • USED IN SWIMMING POOLS. CHEMICALS. A CLEANING MATERIALS • HAS GOOD ADHESION PROPERTIES. PHYSICAL ABRASION. HARD FILM SIMILAR TO BAKED ENAMEL. • MIXED JUST PRIOR TO USE – HAS LIMITED “POT LIFE” • PRODUCES BY CHEMICAL ACTION A DENSE. ACIDS.

HARDWARE MEANT TO BE CONCEALED. WINDOWS. AND OTHER METAL FITTINGS.METAL PRODUCTS USED IN CONSTRUCTION. ESP. NAILS. ROUGH HARDWARE – IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. SOME FINISHING HARDWARE BRANDS: 1. ETC. TOOLS. ETC. THEY ARE CLASSIFIED AS: FINISHING HARDWARE – HARDWARE. MAYBE CONSIDERED PART OF THE DECORATIVE TREATMENT OF A ROOM OR BUILDING. CATCHES. SPIKES. 3. SUCH AS HINGES LOCKS. SUCH AS BOLTS. LOCKS. SCREWS.HARDWARE HARDWARE . SARGENT 7. THAT USED WITH DOORS. 2. HINGES. AND CABINETS. STANLEY 8. RODS. THAT HAS A FINISHED APPEARANCE AS WELL AS FUNCTION. YALE 9. 4. SUCH AS BOLTS. CORBIN 10. RABBIT UNIVERSAL EAGLE MASTER .

WHEN USED FOR EXTERIOR IT IS OF SOLID CORE. RAILS AND SOMETIMES MUNTINS. IT IS OF HOLLOW CORE. 6. ALPHA YETI DOORS – AN ENTRANCE WAY TYPES OF DOOR: • FLUSH – A SMOOTH-SURFACED DOOR HAVING FACES WHICH ARE PLANE WHICH CONCEAL ITS RAILS AND STILES OR OTHER STRUCTURE WHEN USED INSIDE.5. WHICH FORM ONE OR MORE FRAMES AROUND RECESSED THINNER PANELS. KINDS OF DOORS: • SWINGING DOOR . 12. • PANEL DOOR – A DOOR HAVING STILES. SCHLAGE KWIKSET 11.

THE FACES OF THE PANELS CLOSE FLAT AGAINST EACH OTHER. ASSUMES A HORIZONTAL POSITION ABOVE THE DOOR OPENING. WHEN THE DOOR IS OPEN.• • • • OVERHEAD SWING-UP GARAGE DOOR – A RIGID OVERHEAD DOOR WHICH OPENS AS AN ENTIRE UNIT. THE EDGES OF ADJACENT PANELS BUTT AGAINST (OR INTERLOCK) EACH OTHER TO FORM A SOLID BARRIER. WHEN OPEN. OVERHEAD ROLL-UP GARAGE DOOR – A DOOR WHICH. WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED.DRIVEN. . MADE OF SEVERAL LEAVES. EITHER MANUAL OR MOTOR . ACCORDION DOOR – A HINGED DOOR CONSISTING OF A SYSTEM OF PANELS WHICH ARE HUNG FROM AN OVERHEAD TRACK. ROLL-UP DOOR (SOLID OR SEE-THROUGH ALUMINUM SHUTTERS) A DOOR MADE UP OF SMALL HORIZONTAL INTERLOCKING METAL SLATS WHICH ARE GUIDED IN A TRACK: THE CONFIGURATION COILS ABOUT AN OVERHEAD DRUM WHICH IS HOUSED AT THE HEAD OF THE OPENING.

PREVENTS THE DIRECT PASSAGE OF AIR THROUGH THE VESTIBULE.AN EXTERIOR DOOR CONSISTING OF FOUR LEAVES (AT 900 TO EACH OTHER) WHICH PIVOT ABOUT A COMMON VERTICAL AXIS WITHIN A CYLINDRICALLY SHAPED VESTIBULE. SLIDING POCKET DOOR .• • • • • BI-FOLDING DOOR . THEREBY ELIMINATING DRAFTS FROM OUTSIDE.A DOOR WHICH SLIDES INSIDE A HOLLOW OF THE WALL. . SLIDING DOOR .A SLIDING DOOR WHICH SLIDES TO COVER A FIXED DOOR OF THE SAME WIDTH OR ANOTHER SLIDING DOOR.A DOOR MOUNTED ON TRACK WHICH SLIDES IN A HORIZONTAL DIRECTION USUALLY PARALLEL TO ONE WALL.ONE OF TWO OR MORE DOORS WHICH ARE HINGED TOGETHER SO THAT THEY CAN OPEN AND FOLD IN A CONFINED SPACE. BY-PASSING SLIDING DOOR . REVOLVING DOOR .

IT IS FIXED. IN LARGE HINGE. ENABLING IT TO SWING OPEN OR CLOSED.A MOVABLE JOINT USED TO ATTACH SUPPORT AND TURN A DOOR ABOUT A PIVOT.A HINGED DOOR WHICH IS DIVIDED TO TWO. THE PIN IS REMOVABLE. TYPES OF HINGES: 1. TO HUNG A DOOR HINGE. BUTT HINGE .DUTCH DOOR . THE UPPER PART CAN BE OPENED WHILE THE LOWER PORTION IS CLOSED. CONSISTS OF TWO PLATES JOINED TOGETHER BY A PIN WHICH SUPPORT THE DOOR AND CONNECT IT TO ITS FRAME. • FRENCH DOOR • FINISHING HARDWARES: A. .CONSISTS OF TWO RECTANGULAR METAL PLATES WHICH ARE JOINED WITH A PIN. IN SMALL HINGES.

• FULL SURFACE HINGE . • . OFF THE VERTICAL PIN. ONE OF WHICH HAS VERTICAL PIN THAT FITS IN A CORRESPONDING HOLE IN THE OTHER. BY LIFTING THE DOOR UP.A HINGE IN WHICH THE PIN IS FASTENED PERMANENTLY IN PLACE.A DOOR HINGED HAVING TWO KNUCKLES.A HINGE HAVING A REMOVABLE PIN WHICH PERMITS ITS TWO PARTS TO BE SEPARATED. THE DOOR MAY BE REMOVED WITH UNSCREWING THE HINGED.A TYPE OF DOOR HINGE HAVING A SINGLE JOINT OF THE PIVOT TYPE.A HINGED DESIGNED FOR ATTACHMENT ON THE SURFACE OF THE DOOR AND JAMB WITHOUT MORTISING. USUALLY OF MODERN DESIGN. • PAUMELLE HINGED .A PAUMELLE HINGE WITH KNUCKLES FORMING AN OVAL SHAPE. • LOOSE PIN HINGE .FAST PIN HINGE . • OLIVE KNUCKLE HINGE . • LOOSE JOINT HINGE .

KITCHENS. • VERTICAL SPRING PIVOT HINGE. • SINGLE ACTION 3. PIVOT HINGE . . OR IN BOTH DIRECTIONS.EXCELLENT FOR USE IN RESTAURANTS. THE DOOR IS FASTENED TO THE FLOOR AND DOOR HEAD WITH PIVOTS. WHEN A DOOR IS OPENED. THE DOOR OPENS BY JUST PUSHING IT WITH THE SHOULDER OR FEET. HOSPITALS. SPRING HINGES .THE AXLE OR PIN ABOUT WHICH A WINDOW OR DOOR ROTATES. MAY ACT IN ONE DIRECTION ONLY. THE HINGE RETURNS IT TO OPEN POSITION AUTOMATICALLY.A HINGE CONTAINING ONE OR MORE SPRINGS. • DOUBLE ACTION .2.A SPRING HINGE FOR A DOOR WHICH IS MORTISTED INTO THE HEEL OF THE DOOR.

TO FIX ONE SASH TYPES OF BOLT AND FASTENER: • CHAIN HEAD AND FOOT BOLT • DOOR OR BARREL BOLT • FLUSH BOLT • CHAIN DOOR FASTENER C.B. PLATES. . ETC. • BUTTON – A SMALL REJECTING MEMBER USED TO FASTEN THE FRAME OF A DOOR OR WINDOW. SUCH AS KNOBS ESCUTCHEONS. MORE OR LESS SPHERICAL USUALLY FOR OPERATING A LOCK. • KNOB – A HANDLE. TO LOCK THE DOOR LOCKSET – A COMPLETE LOCK SYSTEM INCLUDING THE BASIC LOCKING MECHANISMS AND ALL THE ACCESSORIES.

USE A DIFFERENT LOCKSET FOR EACH ROOM: • ENTRANCE LOCKSET – WITH A KEY AND UNIVERSAL BUTTON WHICH WHEN PUSHED STAYS PUT AND LOCKS THE DOOR. • PLATES – A THIN FLAT SHEET OF MATERIAL. • STRIKES – A METAL PLATE OR BOX WHICH IS SET IN A DOORJAMB AND IS EITHER PLACED OR RECESSED TO RECEIVE THE BOLT OR LATCH OF A LOCK. PROJECTS OUT FROM THE SIDE OF THE STRIKE PLATE TO PROTECT THE FRAME. . WHEN A DOOR IS CLOSED. • BEDROOM LOCKSET – SAME AS THE ENTRANCE LOCKSET BUT SIMPLER IN DESIGN.• ESCUTCHEON – A PROTECTIVE PLATE SURROUNDING THE KEYHOLE OF A DOOR. FIXED ON DOOR. • LIP STRIKE – THE PROJECTION FROM THE SIDE OF A TRIKE PLATE WHICH THE BOLT OF A LOCK STRIKES FIRST.

NIGHT LATCH – KEY OPERATED LATCH WITH SAFETY PIN. RABBETED LOCK – A LOCK OR LATCH IN WHICH THE FACE IS FLUSH WITH THE RABBET ON A RABBETED DOOR JAMB. • CYLINDER LOCK – A BORED LOCK WHICH HAS A CYLINDRICAL CASE INTO WHICH A SEPARATE LATCH CASE FITS. LATCH – A SIMPLE FASTENING DEVISE HAVING A LATCH BOLT. . BUT NOT A DEAD BOLT CONTAINS NO PROVISIONS FOR LOCKING WITH A KEY.• TOILET LOCKSET – WITHOUT A KEY HAS A BUTTON THAT IS PUSHED TO LOCK INSIDE. A LEVER WHICH LIFTS THE PIVOTED BAR USED TO UNFASTEN THE DOOR. KIND OF LOCKSET: • INTEGRAL LOCK – A TYPE OF MORTISE LOCK HAVING ITS CYLINDER IN THE KNOB. LIFT LATCH – A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH WHICH FASTENS A DOOR BY MEANS OF A PIVOTED BAR THAT ENGAGES A HOOK ON THE DOOR JAMB.

HASP – A FASTENING DEVICE CONSISTING OF A LOOP OR STAPLE AND A SLOTTED HINGE PLATE NORMALLY SECURED WITH A PADLOCK. MAGNETIC PADLOCK – A KIND OF LOCK WHICH OPENS BY USING THE CORRESPONDING MAGNET WHICH GOES WITH IT. HASPLOCK – A KIND OF HASP THAT HAS A BUILT-IN LOCKING DEVICE WHICH CAN BE OPENED ONLY WITH A KEY. THE ROLLER ENGAGES A STRIKE PLATE. SCREEN DOOR LATCH – A SMALL LOCKING OR LATCHING DEVICE USED ON SCREEN DOORS AND GENERATED BY A KNOB OR LEVER HANDLE. HAVING A RECESS FORMED TO RECEIVE. SOMETIMES EQUIPPED WITH A DEAD BOLT. . KEY-PADLOCK – A DEVICE WHICH FASTENS IN POSITION MAYBE OPERATED BY A KEY.ROLLER LATCH – A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH HAS A ROLLER UNDER SPRING TENSION INSTEAD OF A BEVELED SPRING BOLT.

DEAD BOLT – A TYPE OF DOOR LOCK.BORED LOCK – A LOCK INTENDED FOR INSTALLATION IN A CIRCULAR HOLE IN A DOOR. THE BOLT. WHICH IS SQUARE IN SECTION IS OPERATED BY THE DOOR KEY OR A TURN PIECE. TYPES OF AUTOMATIC DOOR CLOSER: • PNEUMATIC TYPE • SEMI-CONCEALED OVERHEAD TYPE • CONCEALED TYPE • OVERHEAD LIQUID TYPE TYPES OF CABINET HINGED DOOR: • FLUSH • OVERLAPPING • OFFSET . CREMONE BOLT – USED TO FASTEN UPPER AND LOWER DOOR.

• PIVOT HINGES – MADE FOR BOTH FLUSH AND OVERLAPPING DOORS. AVAILABLE IN SEMI-CONCEALED AND SURFACE-MOUNTED STYLES.TYPES OF CABINET HINGES: • BUTT HINGES • COMMON BUTT • LOOSE PIN • T-HINGE • PIANO HINGE • DECORATIVE HINGE • OFFSET HINGES – USED FOR HANGING LIPPED OR OVERLAPPING DOORS. THEY CAN BE USED FOR BOTH FLUSH AND OVERLAPPING DOOR. • FLUSH COUNTER HINGE – FOR A DROP DOWN DOOR THAT CAN BE LOWERED TO SERVE AS WORK SURFACES REQUIRE . • INVISIBLE HINGES – DON’T SHOW FROM THE FRONT AND IS EXPENSIVE.

THEY DON’T SHOW WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED. • BULLET CATCH – A FASTENER WHICH HOLDS A DOOR IN PLACE BY MEANS OF A PROJECTING SPRING ARCTUATED STEEL HALL WHICH IS DEPRESSED WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED. CATCHES FOR CLOSING OF CABINET DOORS IN PLACE KINDS OF CATCHES: • FRICTION CATCH – ANY CATCH WHICH WHEN IT ENGAGES A STRIKE. A DROPDOWN DOOR ALSO REQUIRES A CHAIN OR STAY SUPPORT TO HOLD THE DOOR’S WEIGHT WHEN IT’S OPEN. • MAGNETIC CATCH – A DOOR CATCH FLAT THAT USES A MAGNET TO HOLD THE DOOR IN A CLOSED POSITION. MORTISE THEM INTO BOTH SURFACES. IS HELD IN THE ENGAGED POSITION BY FRICTION. .HINGES THAT LAY FLUSH IN THE SURFACE.

WHICH MAY BE USED FOR STEADYING ARE SELF.TYPES OF KNOBS: • SCREW-IN KNOB • BOLT-ON KNOB • FLUSH KNOB • FLUSH RING • PULL OTHER FINISHING ACCESSORIES: • GRAB BAR – A HAND GRIP USUALLY INSTALLED IN SHOWER. . • SELF BRACKET – ANY OVER HANGING MEMBER PROJECTING FROM A WALL OR OTHER BODY TO SUPPORT A WEIGHT. • SPRING DOOR CLOSER – ATTACHED ABOVE A SCREEN DOOR TO AUTOMATICALLY CLOSE IT. • METAL BRACKET – USED TO SUPPORT ANY CABINET OR SHELF.

• FINISHING NAIL WITHOUT HEAD AND FOR BETTER APPEARANCE • MASONRY OR CONCRETE NAIL USED FOR CONCRETE. 3 ½”. 1 ½”. ROUGH HARDWARES: NAILS • COMMON WIRE NAIL WITH HEAD AND FOR STRENGTH.• DOOR STOPPER – TO PREVENT THE DOOR WITH ITS LOCKSET FROM HARMING THE WALL OR TILES. MORTAR AND BRICK SURFACE SIZES. 1”. 4”. 2 ½”. 2 “. 6” OTHER COMMON HAMMER DRIVEN FASTENER • SCOTCH NAILS • BRADS • STAPLES • TACKS . 3”.

HEAD TYPE. AND METALLIC MAKE-UP. TYPES OF SCREW HEAD • FLAT HEAD SCREW • OVAL HEAD SCREW • PHILIPPS HEAD • SHEET-METAL SCREW • ROUND HEAD SCREW • LAG SCREW WASHERS • FLAT • COUNTER SUNK . LENGTH.SCREWS CLASSIFIED BY GAUGE (DIAMETER).

NUTS • • • • • • FLAT SQUARE NUT HEX NUT SQUARE NUT ACORN NUT T – NUT KNURLED NUT . PUSHING A BOLT THROUGH AND ADDING A NUT. TO USE THEM.• FLUSH BOLTS BOLTS HAVE THREADED SHAFTS THAT RECEIVE NUTS. A HOLE IS DRILLED. BOLTS TIGHTENED WITH SCREW WHILE HOLDING THE NUT WITH A WRENCH.

• WING NUT HUNGER BOLTS – FOR HANGING FIXTURES FROM WALLS. JOINERY BRACKETS • MENDING PLATE • T-PLATE • FLAT CORNER PLATE • L-BRACKET . U-BOLTS – TO ATTACH FLAT SURFACE TO ROUND POLES AND PIPES.

• BAY WINDOW – A WINDOW WHICH PROJECTS OUTSIDE THE MAIN LINE OF A BUILDING. • ORIEL WINDOW – A PROJECTED WINDOW BEYOND BUILDING WALL CARRIED BY A CORBEL.A DOOR W/OUT STILES WHICH IS COSTRUCTED OF VERTICAL BOARDS HELD TOGETHER BY HORIZONTAL BATTENS. • HOPPER WINDOW – A WINDOW SASH WHICH OPENS INWARD AND ITS HINGED AT THE BOTTOM. • BATTEN DOOR . • ANCHOR BOLT – A STEEL BOLT USUALLY FIXED IN ABUILDING STRUCTURE WITH ITS THREADED PORTION PROJECTING. • TRANSOM – WINDOW OVER A DOOR. . • DOOR JAMB – FINISHED FRAME SURROUNDING A DOOR. • STILE – VERTICAL FRAMES OF PANELLED DOOR.• AWNING – AN ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTED WINDOW.

BUTTON OR COUNTERSANK. • CARRIAGE BOLT – A BOLT WITH NECK FOR NON-RATATING MOUNTING. • MACHINE BOLT – A THREADED BOLT HAVING A STRAIGHT SHANK AND A CONVENTIONAL HEAD SUCH AS A SQUARE. • BACKSET – THE HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM THE FACE OF A LOCK OF LATCH TO THE CENTER OF THE KNOB OR LOCK CYLINDER. .• PLATE BOLT – A BOLT IN A BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH SECURES THEPLATE OR SILL. • BRAD – A THIN NAIL WITH SMALL HEAD. • KNOB BOLT – A DOOR LOCK WITH A SPRING BOLT CONTROLLED BY ONE OR BOTH KNOBS AND DEAD BOLT CONTROLLED BY AKEY. • LAG SCREW – COMMON HARDWARE FASTENER FOR TRUSS BRACES. • GUSET – A PLATE ATTACHED TO SIDE OF A JOINT FOR INCREASE HOLDING POWER. HEXAGONAL.

• SAHARA – USED FOR WATERPROOFING. • PERFORATED TAPE – A TYPE OF TAPE USED IN FINISHING JOINTS BETWEEN GYPSUM BOARD. . • PARQUET – INLAID WOOD FLOORING USUALLY SET IN SIMPLE GEOMETRIC PATTERN. AGROOVE CUT INTO THE EDGES OF AN ACOUSTICAL TILES TO RECEIVE SPLINES OR SUPPORTING MEMBERS OF THE CEILING SUSPENSION SYSTEM. ETC. • CHASE – A CONTINOUS RECESS BUILT INTO A WALL TO RECEIVE PIPES. • GYPSUM BOARD – MATERIAL USED IN DRYWALL CONSTRUCTION. • VINYL TILE – A FLOOR TILE COMPOSED PRINCIPALLY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. • BEVEL – THE ANGLE WITH ONE SURFACE OF A BODY MAKES WITH ANOTHER SURFACE WHEN THEY ARE NOT AT RIGHT ANGLE. DUCTS. • PLOUGH – A GROOVE EXTENDED ALONG THE EDGE OR FACE OF THE WOOD MEMBER BEING CUT PARALLEL TO GRAIN.• KERF – IN A SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILING.

INVISIBLE SILICONE WATER REPELLENT SPECIALLY FORMULATED FOR APPLICATION ON MASONRY AND BRICKS . • DAMP-PROOFING – PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED BY WATER REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN WATER ASIDE AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO THE EARTH.BUILDING PROTECTION PREVENTIONS • WATERPROOFING – A METHOD OF PROTECTING SURFACES AGAINST THE DESTRUCTIVE EFFECTS OF WATER. CONCRETE – THIS IS A CLEAR. • CLEAR PROTECTIVE TREATMENTS FOR MASONRY. THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE THE BUILDING CAN BE CAUSED BY PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE OR BY CONSIDERATION OF WATER VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE.

LUMBER AND OTHER BOARD THAT RETAINS THE NATURAL BEAUTY. • WOOD PRESERVATIVE (POWDER POST TERMITES) A CHEMICAL LIQUID PAINTED AND APPLIED TO LUMBER TO PRESERVE IT FOR YEARS. GIVES ADDED STRENGTH AND PROTECTS MATERIALS . THE SILICONE LIQUID IS APPLIED BY BRUSH OR LOW PRESSURE SPRAY AND DOES NOT AFFECT THE COLOR OR NATURALNESS OF THE MATERIAL. PLYWOOD. SUCH AS SAP STAIN AND SRYROT. WALLS AND FLOORING. • ANAY (TERMITE) PROOFING BY SOIL POISONING – IT IS IMPORTANT TO POISON THE SOIL AGAINST ANAY (WHITE ANTS) IN ORDER TO STOP THE ANAY FROM INFESTING THE MAINPOSTS. • FIREPROOFING – A CLEAR LIQUID APPLIED EASILY ON WOOD. IT PROTECTS WOOD AGAINST POWDER POST BEATLES (BUKBOK) POWDER POET TERMITE (UNOS).(STANDARD SILICONE REPELLENT) AND FOR LIMESTONE AND CONCRETE THAT SEEPS MUCH RAINWATER (SPECIAL FORMULATED SILICONE REPELLENT). DECAY CAUSING FUNGI.

RUSTPROOFING – A METHOD OF PROTECTING THE FERROUS MATERIALS LIKE STEEL.• • • • AGAINST FIRE. RATPROOFING – A METHOD OF PROTECTING ROOMS AGAINST THE INTRUSION OF RATS AND OTHER SMALL DESTRUCTIVE ANIMALS FROM GNAWING THE WOODEN PARTS OF THE HOUSE. A SPECIAL KIND OF MATERIAL SHOULD BE USED TO PROTECT THE FLOORING. IT REACTS BY DISPERSING THE FLAME. HABITATING ON CEILINGS AND FLOORS OF HOUSES AND BUILDINGS. SINCE THE LIQUID PENETRATED INTO THE WOOD. PAINT AND CHEMICAL STRIPPERS – WHEN AN OLD HOUSE HAVING OLE PAINT IS IN NEED OF REPAINTING. PREVENTING PROGRESSIVE BURNING. WHEN THERE IS FIRE. OR FROM CHEMICAL ABRASIONS AND HEAVY USE. DESCALERS. FLOOR PROTECTION – WHEN FLOORS ARE SUBJECTED TO WEAR AND TEAR. DECAY. IRON FROM RUSTING OR CORROSION. INSECTS AND WARPING. PAINT REMOVER IS APPLIED TO THE SURFACE WHICH SOFTENS AND LIFTS . WEATHER.

STEALERS. ETC. FOR CLEANING OF BUILDINGS FROM STAINS. THIS IS APPLIED ON THE FOLLOWING LOCATIONS: • ROOF DECKS • CONCRETE TERRACES AND BALCONIES • SHEATHING FOR WOOD SHINGLE AND TILE ROOFING • WATER TANKS • CONCRETE ROOF GUTTERS • PLANT BOXES INSIDE • KITCHEN FLOOR . THERE ARE SO MANY EQUIPMENTS WHICH CAN BE INSTALLED. ETC. PROTECT AND MANAGE – FOR BUILDINGS THAT NEED TOTAL CONTROL OF THE INCOMING AND OUTGOING INDIVIDUALS FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE BUILDING AS A WHOLE FROM ROBBERS. RUST.THE PAINT. ALGAE OR EVEN CEMENT BUILD UP FROM FORMS OR EQUIPMENT. A CHEMICAL STRIPPER OR DESCALER IS USED. • CONTROL.

THE MATERIALS USED DEPENDING ON THE . THERE ARE ABOUT 14 USES. SOME OF THE KNOWN BRANDS ARE SAHARA AND SAKURA. AIR CON & PUMP ROOMS REFRIGERATION & COLD STORAGE ROOMS THREE TYPES OF WATERPROOFING: • INTEGRAL TYPE – MEDIUM IN POWDER FORM IS ADDED AND MIXED WITH THE AGGREGATES OF CONCRETE.• • • • • • • TOILETS CANOPIES BASEMENT FLOOR AND WALLS ELEVATOR PITS SWIMMING POOL MACHINE ROOMS. • MEMBRANE TYPE – RECOMMENDED FOR USE WHERE DIRECT RAIN. IN THIS CASE.908 KILOS IS ADDED TO ONE BAG OF KILOS CEMENT. ONE PACK OF USUALLY . OR STANDING WATER ARE EMINENT.

BRICKS AND STEEL. SEAMLESS. WITHSTANDS EXTREME THERMAL MOVEMENT. IMPREGNATED ASBESTOS FELT. • FLUID APPLIED – A FLUID APPLIED ELASTOMERIC COATING BASED ON HAVY SOLIDS ELASTOMER COMPOUND FORMULATED TO WATERPROOF AND PRESERVE THE SUBSTRATE. LIKE CONCRETE. FLEXIBLE AND ELASTIC OVER A WIDE TEMPERATURE RANGE. WOOD. BRUSH. THE WATERPROOFING IS MONOLOTHIC. SETTLING AND CRACKING. THIS ELASTOMERIC FLUID CAN BE APPLIED BY ROLLER. SPRAY OR SQUEEGEE. SOMETIMES THICK POLYETHYLENE SHEETS IS ALSO USED.MANUFACTURER IS EITHER ASPHALT PAPER LAID WITH HOT ASPHALT. ROOFING FELTS – THE BASE FELTS USED IN BUILT-UP ROOFING ARE AVAILABLE IN TWO BASIC TYPE – ASBESTOS FELTS AND ORGANIC OR . OTHER MATERIALS ARE PERFORMED SELF SEALING ASPHALT. IT RESISTS PUNCTURE AND TEARING ABRASIVE OVERLAYMENTS.

ASBESTOS: • ASBESTOS FELTS – COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF ASBESTOS FIBER. • ROT RESISTANT. • MINIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE OR WETTING OR DRYING WHICH MEANS MINIMUM DISTORTION. NON-WICKING INORGANIC MINERAL FIBER.RAG FELTS. A NON-ROTTING. • LOSES STRENGTH SLOWLY WHILE AGING. . • EXCELLENT RESISTANCE TO “BURNOUT” IN HOT CLIMATE. • IDENTICAL EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES TO FINISHING FELTS. SUPERFICIALLY. THEY LOOK ALIKE. BUT THEY DIFFER WIDELY IN SERVICE.

. SUBJECT TO DETERIORATION BY OXIDATION AND TO WICKING. • POOR RESISTANCE TO ROT. • POOR RESISTANCE TO “BURNOUT” IN HOT CLIMATE. • LOSES STRENGTH RAPIDLY WHILE AGING. • MAXIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE ON WETTING AND DRYING WHICH MEANS MAXIMUM DISTORTION. • DIFFERENT EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES FROM FINISHING PLIES. VAPOR INSULATION (DAMPROOFING) THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE BUILDINGS CAN BE CAUSED BY PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE OR BY CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE.ORGANIC: • ORGANIC FELTS – COMPOSED OF FIBROUS ORGANIC MATERIALS.

EARTH CRAWL SPACES. PAPER. LAUNDERING. BASEMENT FLOORS. LATH PLASTER. HENCE. HUMIDIFIES. MOISTURE VAPOR ON THE OTHER HAND CAN PERMEATE MOST ORDINARY BUILDING MATERIALS SUCH AS WOOD. THE MOISTURE VAPOR WILL CONDENSE WATER WHEN ITS TEMPERATURE IS REDUCED BY CONTACT WITH A COOL SURFACE OR COOL AIR.PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED BY WATER REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN ASIDE AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO THE EARTH DONE THE OUTSIDE OF THE BUILDING. . UNTREATED BRICK. MOISTURE VAPOR IS PRODUCED BY COOKING OCCUPANTS. ETC. ETC. HIGH HUMIDITY IN A BUILDING MAY RESULT IN CONDENSATION OF WATER NOT ONLY ON THE INSIDE OF WALLS AND WINDOWS BUT ALSO ON THE OUTSIDE OR WITHIN THE EXTERIOR WALLS. CEILING OR ROOF.

THEY SHOULD BE CONTINUOUS SURFACES OF ASPHALT OR WAX COATED PAPER. FLOOR. THEY CAN BE ATTACHED TO THE INSULATION AS PART OF THE MANUFACTURED PRODUCT OR INSTALLED SEPARATELY IN OR ON THE WARM SIDE OF THE WALL. THEY MUST BE CONTINUOUS AND ALLOW NO OPENINGS THROUGH WHICH VAPOR MAY PASS. ALUMINUM. IT IS NOT A VAPOR BARRIER. AND SHOULD BE USED ON THE OUTSIDE OF A BUILDING FOR THAT PURPOSE. ALTHOUGH ASPHALT PAPER IS A GOOD MOISTURE BARRIER. OR CEILING.VAPOR BARRIERS (DAMPROOFING MATERIALS) THESE ARE MATERIALS WHICH EFFECTIVELY RETARD OR STOP THE FLOW OF WATER VAPOR AND NORMALLY ARE PRODUCED IN SHEETS OR THIN LAYERS. . OR OTHER METAL FOIL SHEETS OR POLYETHYLENE FILM. VAPOR BARRIERS SHOULD BE INSTALLED ON THE WARM SIDE OF THE INSULATION.

OVERLAPS AND EXTENSIONS TO FLOORS AND WALLINGS SHALL BE 6 IN.MATERIALS USED AS VAPOR BARRIERS: • POLYETHYLENE FILM – THUS IS CHEMICALLY INERT PLASTIC. UNAFFECTED BY ACIDS. POLYETHYLENE FILM CAN BE APPLIED VERTICALLY IN 36 IN.001 IN.4 AND 6 MIL (1MIL = . COMMON THICKNESSES ARE 2. OR AS A THIN LAYER OF FOIL LAMINATED TO A HEAVY BACKING OF ASPHALT-IMPREGNATED KRAFT PAPER. ALKALIS AND CAUSTICS.) THIS FILM IS USEFUL NOT ONLY AS VAPOR BARRIER FOR WALLS.3. PRODUCED IN ROLLS OF 3 TO 20 FT. • ALUMINUM FOIL – USED AS VAPOR BARRIER AS A SINGLE SHEET. FILMS ARE STAPLED TO STUDS. CEILINGS AND FLOORS BUT ALSO AS A BARRIER TO PREVENT THE PASSAGE OF MOISTURE FROM THE EARTH UPWARD THROUGH A CONCRETE SLAB LAIN ON THE GROUND. WIDE. CENTERS WITH A FULL OVERLAP ON ALTERNATE STUDS. WIDE STRIPS TO STUDDING ON 16 IN. THIS IS .

• KRAFT PAPER COATED WITH ASPHALT OR WAX. HEATING PANELS. . SOMETIMES TWO LAYERS OF PAPER ARE CEMENTED WITH A CONTINOUS LAYER OF ASPHALT. BY SHELL. INSULATING MATERIALS THERMAL INSULATION IN COLD WEATHER. ANOTHER MATERIALS USED FOR DAMPPROOFING OF CONCRETE WALLS IS “WEATHERKOTE” BITUMINOUS EMULSION. RADIATORS.ALSO DONE WITH TWO LAYERS OF FOIL LAMINATED WITH ASPHALT CEMENT. AT THE SAME TIME WE ARE INTERESTED IN PREVENTING THAT HEAT FROM BEING TRANSFERRED FROM THE INTERIOR OF THE BUILDING TO THE OUTSIDE. INTO VARIOUS ROOMS OF OUR BUILDINGS. WE ARE INTERESTED IN TRANSFERRING HEAT FROM FURNACES.

. ALL OF THESE ARE DONE BY THE JUDICIOUS USE OF MATERIALS WHICH IS BEST PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HEAT. • RADIATION.DURING THE SUMMER. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WE PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HOT OUTSIDE TEMPERATURES TO THE WORKING AND LIVING SPACE WITHIN OUR BUILDINGS. THERE ARE THREE WAYS WHEREIN HEAT IS TRANSFERRED. HEAT IS BEING CONDUCTED FROM THE SIDE OF HIGHER TEMPERATURE TO THAT OF LOWER TEMPERATURE.FROM THIS POINT.THE INSIDE OF A CONCRETE WALL WHICH HAS ONE SIDE EXPOSED TO OUTSIDE WINTER TEMPERATURES FEELS COLD TO THE TOUCH. THIS WE CALL THERMAL INSULATION. IT IS TRANSFERRED TO THE OUTSIDE AIR BY RADIATION. • CONDUCTION.

AND BY DIVIDING THE SPACE INTO SMALL ENCLOSED COMPARTMENTS. IT EXPANDS AND BEGINS TO CIRCULATE DURING THE CIRCULATION. IT COMES IN CONTACT WITH COOLER SURFACE.. IT IS THEREFORE IMPORTANT TO TRY TO PREVENT AIR CURRENTS (CONVECTION CURRENTS) FROM BEING SET UP IN THE WALLS AND CEILINGS OF OUR BUILDINGS. THE CONVECTION CURRENTS SET UP IN THE CONFINED SPACED ARE INSIGNIFICANT AND CAN CAUSES LITTLE HEAT TRANSFER TO PREVENT HEAT LOSS BY CONDUCTION.WHEN AIR IS HEATED. KINDS OF THERMAL INSULATION • LOOSE FILL – THIS BULKY AND DIVIDED INTO: .• CONVECTION. THIS CAN BE DONE BY KEEPING THE LAYER OF AIR RELATIVELY THIN-NOT OVER 1 IN. WE MUST USE THE MATERIALS THAT ARE POOR CONDUCTORS TO PREVENT LOSS BY RADIATION MATERIALS MUST BE USED WHICH WILL REFLECT RATHER THAN RADIATE HEAT. SOME OF ITS HEAT IS GIVEN UP TO THEM.

• GRANULES. TO NO.• FIBROUS TYPE – MADE.IS USED TO INSULATE WALLS OF BUILDINGS THAT HAVE BEEN BUILT WITHOUT INSULATION. IN SUCH CASES HOLES ARE DRILLED IN THE WALL BETWEEN EACH PAIR OF STUDS. OR SLAG WOOL – OR VEGETABLE FIBER – USUALLY WOOD FIBER.ARE GRADED INTO FOUR SIZES. AS FILL FOR THE CORES . 16 SIEVE) AND SIZES 2 (NO. 1. USED AS LOOSE-FILL INSULATION FOR SIDEWALLS AND CEILINGS OVER SUSPENDED CEILINGS. GLASS WOOL. (3/8 IN. • GRANULAR INSULATION – ARE MADE FROM EXPANDED MINERALS SUCH AS PERLITE AND VERMICULITE OR FROM GROUND VEGETABLE MATTER SUCH AS GRANULATED CORK. • FIBROUS LOOSE FILL. 30 SIEVE). BETWEEN WOOD SLEEPERS OVER A CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB. FROM MINERAL WOOLROCK WOOL. 4 TO NO. A HOSE INSERTED AND THE INSULATION BLOWN IN UNTIL THE SPACE IN FILLED.

BLANKETS ARE USED WHERE LARGE AREAS MUST BE INSULATED.16 TO 100 SIEVE).IS MADE FROM SOME FIBROUS MATERIAL SUCH AS MINERAL WOOL. 2. 8 TO NO.OF CONCRETE BLOCKS. OVER HEAD IN FLOORED ATTICS BETWEEN JOISTS IN . SOME ARE MADE WITH NO COVERING AT ALL. 100 SIEVE) SIZE 4 (NO. OR ANIMAL HAIR. LENGTHS OR PUT UP IN ROLLS OF FROM 40 TO 100 LINEAR FEET. COTTON FIBER. AND SIZES 3 (NO. IN 8 FT. WOOD FIBER. SOME WITH A PAPER BACK ON ONE SIDE ONLY. WITH CONTROLLED THICKNESSES OF 1. MANUFACTURED IN THE FORM OF A MAT. THESE INCLUDE SUCH PLACES AS SIDEWALLS IN NEW CONSTRUCTION. ½. 3 AND 4 IN. THOSE WITH BACKING OR ENVELOPES ARE USUALLY PROVIDED WITH A STAPLING FLANGE SO THAT THEY CAN BE STAPLED TO THE SIDES OR EDGES OF STUDS AND JOISTS. SOME WITH VINYL CARDBOARD OR WIRE MESH ONE SIDE. WHILE OTHERS ARE COMPLETELY ENCLOSED IN AN ENVELOPE. 20 OR 24 IN. • BLANKET INSULATION. 16. WIDTH.

CANE. SOME BOARDS ARE IMPREGNATED WITH ASPHALT DURING THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS. • BATTS – SIMILAR TO BLANKETS BUT THEY ARE RESTRICTED TO 48 IN. LONG OR LESS THEY ARE ALWAYS COVERED WITH PAPER.UNFLOORED ATTICS. WHILE OTHERS ARE GIVEN A COAT OF ASPHALT AFTER THEY ARE MADE. AND MADE ESPECIALLY FOR INSTALLATION BETWEEN STUD SPACINGS. BATTS USUALLY HAVE PAPER TABS ALONG THE EDGES FOR EASIER ATTACHMENT TO THE FRAME. • STRUCTURAL INSULATION BOARD – MADE FROM ORGANIC FIBER-WOOD. IN CRAWL SPACES AND OVER SUSPENDED CEILINGS. STRAW OR CORK. THE FIBERS ARE THEN FORMED INTO SHEETS OF VARIOUS THICKNESSES IN A CONTINUING PROCESS AND CUT INTO STANDARD LENGTHS. THE WOOD AND CANE RAW MATERIAL IS FIRST PULPED. . AFTER WHICH IT IS TREATED WITH WATERPROOFING CHEMICALS.

WIDE. FUSED UNDER HEAT AND PRESSURE INTO A PANEL 2 IN. BOARDS ARE COMPLETELY SEALED IN PAPER COVERS OF VARIOUS TYPES TO PROVIDE THE PROPER SURFACE FOR PAINTING. SIZES .• STRAWBOARD – IS MADE FROM CAREFULLY SELECTED STRAW. INTERIOR FINISH BOARD AND INSULATING FORM BOARD. PLASTERING. PAPERING. A COMMON THICKNESS IS 3 IN. ROOF INSULATION UNDER BUILTUP ROOFING. DEPENDING ON THE USE TO WHICH THEY WILL BE PUT. • CORKBOARD – IS MADE FROM GRANULATED CORK MIXED WITH RESIN AND PRESSED INTO SHEETS OF SEVERAL THICKNESSES. THE BOARD BEING USED FOR ROOF INSULATION. STUCCO OR ROOFING. • STRUCTURAL INSULATION BOARD – IS USED IN EXTERIOR WALL SHEATHING ROOF DECKING. SHINGLE BACKER. THICK AND 4 FT.

SQUARE EDGED SHEETS. 4 FT. 3/8 AND ½ IN.. THICK. SHINGLE BACKER – MADE 5/16 OR 3/8 IN. 15. THIS INCLUDE MINERAL WOOL WITH BINDER. THICK IN STRIPS 11 ¾. CELLULAR HARD RUBBER. SHREDDED WOOD . CELLULAR. FOAMED CONCRETE.EXTERIOR SHEATHING – ½ IN. • BLOCK OR RIGID SLAB INSULATION – THIS TYPE OF INSULATION IS SO CALLED BECAUSE THE UNITS ARE RELATIVELY STIFF AND INELASTIC. ROOF INSULATION – MADE FROM ½ TO 3 IN. 13 ½. WIDE AND 48 IN. FRAMED PLASTIC. 15 ½ IN. THICK IN SINGLE OR MULTIPLE LAYERS AND IN SEVERAL DIMENSIONS. LONG IMPREGNATED WITH ASPHALT. WIDE AND FROM 6 TO 12 FT. GLASS. INTERIOR WALL BOARD – MADE 5/16. THICK IN SHEETS OF 4x8 AND 4x10 FT. IN MOST CASES INORGANIC MATERIALS ARE USED IN THEIR MANUFACTURES. LONG.

THICKNESSES OF 2. BLOCKS. THE BASIC MATERIAL IS A NON-CONDUCTOR AND THAT THE FINISHED PRODUCT CONTAINS MILLIONS OF ISOLATED AIR CELLS. WHICH MAKES THESE MATERIALS HIGH IN INSULATIVE VALUE. • CELLULAR GLASS INSULATION – IS MADE FROM EXPANDED MOLTEN GLASS CAST INTO BLOCK FORM AND CUT VARIOUS SIZES AND SHAPES. • FOAMED PLASTIC INSULATION – IS MADE FROM EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE AND EXPANDED POLYURETHANE FORMED INTO SLABS OF VARIOUS DIMENSIONS AND THICKNESSES.AND CEMENT. A 1 ½ IN. THICKNESS IS PRODUCED IN 24 . MINERAL WOOL FROM PERLITE OR VERMICULITE. WHEN MIXED WITH A BINDER AND PROCESSED OR FIXED TO A RIGID BACK. SHEETS ARE PRODUCED WHICH ARE SUITABLE FOR ROOF-DECK INSULATION. 21/2 AND 3 AND 4 IN. ARE AVAILABLE IN 12 x 18 IN.

x 48 IN. • SHREDDED WOOD OR WOOD FIBER BY ITSELF IS A FORM OF BLANKET INSULATION BUT WHEN CEMENT SLURRY OR SPECIAL CEMENTS ARE ADDED. SLABS. METHOD OF APPLICATION ON FLAT SURFACE IS IN HOT ASPHALT OR ASPHALT EMULSION. IT SETS . • FOAMED CONCRETE IS AN IMPORTANT INSULATING MATERIAL BECAUSE OF ITS CLOSED-CELL CONSTRUCTION. FOAMED CONCRETE PRECAST ROOF SLABS ARE USED FOR INSULATIVE AS WELL AS STRUCTURAL PURPOSES AND CAN HAVE A BUILT-UP ROOF APPLIED WITHOUT FURTHER ROOF INSULATION. • CELLULAR HARD RUBBER IS A SYNTHETIC MATERIAL CONTAINING CELLS FILLED WITH NITROGEN. FOR VERTICAL SURFACE. IT IS FORM INTO SLABS OF VARYING SIZES AND THICKNESSES. MASTIC IS USED.

UP INTO A RIGID BLOCK WITH SIMILAR INSULATING QUALITIES. • RIGID SLAB INSULATION- ARE PARTICULARLY USEFUL FOR SUCH APPLICATIONS AS ROOF-DECK INSULATION, PERIMETER INSULATION, PINE INSULATION, COLD STORAGE WORK, AND CAVITY WALL INSULATION. IT CAN ALSO INSULATE MASONRY WALLS WITHOUT FURRING • RIGID INSULATION- WHICH ARE IMPERVOUS TO MOISTURE PENETRATION RESULTING FROM CONTINUOUS CONTACT WITH THE EARTH AND MOISTURE ARE PARTICULARLY USEFUL AS PERIMETER INSULATION. • REFLECTIVE INSULATION – MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS AS ALUMINUM OR COPPER FOIL OR SHEET METAL, WITH BRIGHT SURFACES THAT REFLECT HEAT RATHER THAN ABSORBING IT.

• ALUMINUM FOIL – IS PRODUCED IN SHEETS OR ROLLS AND MADE UP INTO BLANKETS. • COPPER- FOIL INSULATIONS – IS COMMONLY MADE IN THE FORM OF THIN PAPER CORE COVERED ON ONE OR BOTH SIDES WITH COPPER. • REFLECTIVE INSULATION – CAN BE USED IN STUD, RAFTER AND JOIST SPACES, TO INSULATE WALLS, ROOFS, CEILINGS AND FLOORS AND FOR COLD-STORAGE WORK. • SHEET FOIL – IS COMMONLY MADE 36 IN. WIDE AND ON STUD WALLS SHOULD BE INSTALLED VERTICALLY FOR MAXIMUM BENEFIT. A 36 IN. WIDTH WILL SPAN TWO 16 IN. STUD SPACES AND DRAPE BACK BETWEEN EACH PAIR OF STUDS TO FORM AN AIR BETWEEN IT AND THE INSIDE FINISH.

FOAMED-IN PLACE INSULATION – THIS IS POLYURETHANE PRODUCT MADE BY COMBINING A POLYISOCYANATE AND A POLYESTER RESIN. THIS TYPE OF INSULATION CAN BE APPLIED EITHER BY POURING OR BY SPRAYING. THE BASIC INGREDIENTS FOR BOTH ARE DRAWN FROM THEIR CONTAINERS, MEASURED, AND MIXED BY MACHINE. • APPLICATION BY POURING – A CAREFULLY MEASURED AMOUNT OF THE MIXTURE IS DEPOSITED IN AN EXISTING CAVITY. THE MIXTURE REACTS AND FOAMS UP TO FILL A PREDETERMINED PORTION OF THE SPACE TO BE FILLED. THIS VOLUME OF FOAM IS CALLED A "“IFT"” AND NORMALLY IS LIMITED TO A HEIGHT OF ABOUT 14 IN. WHEN THE FOAM HAS SET, A NEW LIFT IS POURED AND THIS PROCESS IS REPEATED UNTIL THE SPACE IS COMPLETELY FILLED. • APPLICATION BY SPRAYING – A NUMBER OF THIN COATS OF FOAM ARE APPLIED, ARE OVER THE OTHER, WITH SUFFICIENT TIME BEING LEFT BETWEEN EACH

THE PRIMER SHOULD BE APPLIED TO ONLY AS MUCH OF THE SURFACE AS CAN BE SPRAYED WITH FIBER WHILE THE ADHESIVE IS STILL TACKY. VERMICULITE AGGREGATE WITH A BINDER SUCH AS PORTLAND CEMENT OR GYPSUM AND PERLITE AGGREGATE USING GYPSUM AS A BINDER. BY THIS SYSTEM. THIS TYPE OF INSULATION ALSO SEALS . OFTEN A LATEX-TYPE WATER EMULSION. ANY DESIRED THICKNESS OF INSULATION CAN BE APPLIED.APPLICATION FOR THE FOAM TO SET UP. MACHINES ARE USED FOR BLOWING THESE INSULATIONS INTO PLACE. • ASBESTOS – FIBER INSULATION IS USUALLY APPLIED OVER A BASE COAT OF SOME ADHESIVE. APPLICATION DIRECT TO METAL LATH DOES NOT REQUIRE THE PRIMING ADHESIVE. • SPRAYED-ON-INSULATIONS – MATERIALS USED ARE POLYURETHANE FOAM ASBESTOS FIBER MIXED WITH INORGANIC BINDERS. AS A RESULT THE SHAPE OR IRREGULARITY OF THE SURFACE BEING INSULATED IS OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCE.

ONE TYPE IS PRODUCED BY SHAPING HEAVY PAPER INTO A SERIES OF FLAT SMALL REGULAR SEMICIRCULAR CORRUGATIONS AND COVERING A BOTH SIDES WITH A SHEET OF FLAT PAPER TO GIVE STRENGTH AND PRODUCE THE AIR POCKETS.• CRACKS AND CREVICES TO PREVENT DUST FROM SHIFTING THROUGH AND ELIMINATES JOINT AND LAP PROBLEMS COMMON TO CORRUGATED BUILDING MATERIALS. VERMICULITE AND PERLITE AGGREGATE CAN BE SPRAYED OVER A BASE OF GYPSUM LATH. BASE COAT PLASTER. THIS CAN BE DONE USING EITHER SINGLE OR MULTIPLE LAYERS OR CORRUGATED PAPER. THIS TYPE OF INSULATION IS PRODUCED EITHER IN SHEETS OR ROLLS. CORRUGATED INSULATION – THIS IS USUALLY MADE FROM PAPER FORMED INTO SHAPES THAT PRODUCE ENCLOSED AIR POCKETS. IT ALSO TENDS TO PROTECT METAL FROM CORROSIVE ACTION. AND IS APPLIED IN STRIPS FITTING BETWEEN STUDS OR IN LARGE SHEETS . DEPENDING ON THE THICKNESS OF THE MAT. MASONRY SURFACE OR METAL LATH.

FROM 1 TO 4 IN. THE WHOLE THING IS GIVEN ITS RIGIDITY BY SPRAYING WITH A THIN COATING OF PORTLAND CEMENT SLURRY OR OTHER TYPE OF STIFFENER. . THE RESULTING PAPER MAT. PLASTERED ON BOTH SIDES. THICK IS QUITE STRONG AND MAY BE USED FOR NONBEARING PARTITIONS. WITHOUT FURTHER SUPPORT.CEMENTED TO A FLAT SURFACE. A MORE RIGID TYPE OF CORRUGATED INSULATION IS MADE BY FORMING A HONEY COMBSHAPED MAT WITH PAPER AND COVERING BOTH SIDES WITH FLAT PAPER SHEET.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful