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BLDG_TEChz

BLDG_TEChz

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Published by: Pau Lc on Aug 03, 2011
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12/06/2012

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  • MINOR EXCAVATION
  • MAJOR EXCAVATION
  • PROBLEMS MIGHT BE ENCOUNTER:
  • REINFORCED CONCRETE
  • TYPES OF COLUMNS ARE:
  • THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF STRESSES THAT MAY ACT ON THE STRUCTURE ARE:
  • WOOD FLOOR SYSTEM
  • WEB REINFORCEMENT
  • REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB:
  • TYPE OF STRINGERS
  • TYPES OF ROOF FRAME
  • THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRUSSES ARE:
  • CONSTRUCTION OF FORMS
  • TWO TYPES OF FRAMING:
  • TYPES OF COLUMN FORMS:
  • BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TERMS
  • TYPES OF PRECAST STRUCTURE
  • THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WALL PANELS ARE:
  • PRECAST COLUMN
  • PRECAST BEAMS
  • ROOF AND FLOOR MEMBERS
  • SHAPE OF PRESTRESSED STRUCTURE
  • PRESTRESSING OF CONCRETE
  • THE CAUSES OF PRESTRESS LOSSES ARE:
  • CONCRETE FOR PRESTRESSING
  • MEASUREMENT OF PRESTRESSING FORCE
  • CERAMIC AND CLAY PRODUCTS: BRICK
  • BRICK BOUNDS
  • CEMENTS
  • TYPES OF AGGREGATES USED IN CONCRETE
  • STEEL PRODUCTS
  • STRUCTURAL SHAPES
  • STANDARD CHANNEL
  • WIDE FLANGE
  • STANDARD I-BEAM
  • H-BEARING PILES
  • ZEE SECTIONS
  • TYPES OF GLASS
  • CLASSIFICATION OF SHEET GLASS
  • GLASS PRODUCTS
  • TWO TYPES:
  • CONSIDERATIONS IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF A PAINT INCLUDE: SURFACE PREPARATION
  • TYPE OF PAINT
  • FILM THICKNESS
  • COVERAGE
  • METHOD
  • DYING
  • PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO: MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED
  • SURFACE FINISH TEXTURE
  • COLOR
  • EXPOSURE
  • APPLICATION
  • CHARACTERISTICS: PIGMENTED COATING
  • CLEAR COATINGS
  • RUST INHIBITIVE COATINGS
  • CEMENT MORTAR COATINGS
  • PLASTIC AND SYNTHETIC RUBBER COATINGS
  • PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ITS VEHICLE OR BINDER: ALKYDS
  • ASPHALT
  • CHLORINATED RUBBER
  • EPOXY CATALYZED
  • KINDS OF DOORS: •SWINGING DOOR
  • FINISHING HARDWARES: A. TO HUNG A DOOR
  • KIND OF LOCKSET:
  • TYPES OF CABINET HINGED DOOR: •FLUSH •OVERLAPPING •OFFSET
  • CATCHES FOR CLOSING OF CABINET DOORS IN PLACE KINDS OF CATCHES:
  • TYPES OF KNOBS:
  • SCREWS
  • WASHERS
  • BOLTS
  • NUTS
  • JOINERY BRACKETS
  • VAPOR INSULATION (DAMPROOFING)
  • INSULATING MATERIALS
  • THERMAL INSULATION
  • THERE ARE THREE WAYS WHEREIN HEAT IS TRANSFERRED
  • KINDS OF THERMAL INSULATION

BUILDING TECHNOLOGY LAYOUT AND EXCAVATION

• SPIRIT LEVEL - INSTRUMENT OR TOOL CAPABLE OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL LINE CHECK. • PLUMB BOB - IT’S USES FOR VERTICAL LINE CHECK. • PLASTIC HOSE FILLED W/ WATER – A METHOD OF LEVELLING (HORIZONTAL) BATTERBOARDS WITHOUT TRANSIT. • 3-4-5 MULTIPLES W/ THE USE OF STEEL TAPE MEASURE – A MANUAL METHOD OF SQUARING THE CORNERS OF BUILDING LINES IN BUILDING LAYOUT. • SHEET PILLING – A BARRIER FORMED TO PREVENT THE MOVEMENT OF SOIL TO STABILIZE FOUNDATION.

LAYOUT AND EXCAVATIONS
LAYOUT IS SOMETIMES CALLED “ STAKING OUT” WHICH MEANS THE PROCESS OF RELOCATING THE POINT OF BOUNDARIES AND PROPERTY LINE OF THE SITE WHERE THE BUILDING IS TO BE CONSTRUCTED. IT INCLUDES CLEARING, STAKING, BATTER BOARDS AND ESTABLISHES THE EXACT LOCATION OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION AND WALL LINE ON THE GROUND. • STAKE – ARE WOODEN STICKS USED AS POSTS SHARPENED AT ONE END DRIVEN INTO THE GROUND TO SERVE AS BOUNDARIES OR SUPPORTS OF THE BATTER BOARDS. • BATTER BOARD – WOOD STICK OR BOARD NAILED HORIZONTALLY AT THE STAKE WHICH SERVE AS THE HORIZONTAL PLANE WHERE THE REFERENCE POINT OF THE BUILDING MEASUREMENTS ARE ESTABLISHED.

• STRING – IS EITHER PLASTIC CHORD OR GALVANIZED WIRE ACROSS THE BATTER BOARDS USED TO INDICATE THE OUTLINE OF THE BUILDING WALL AND FOUNDATION.

LAYOUT METHODS AND PROCEDURES
1. 2. BEFORE THE CONSTRUCTION BEGINS, SEE TO IT THAT A BUILDING PERMIT IS FIRST SECURED FROM THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES CONCERNED. RELOCATE THE BOUDARIES OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE RELOCATION OF THE PROPERTY LINE SHALL BE DONE BY GEODETIC ENGINEER SPECIALLY FOR THOSE LOTS WITHOUT EXISTING REFERENCE POINTS OR ADJOINING STRUCTURES. CLEAR THE SITE OF ANY EXISTING STRUCTURE, TREES, AND OTHER ELEMENTS THAT WILL OBSTRUCT THE CONSTRUCTION WORK.

3.

CONSTRUCT A TEMPORARY FENCE AROUND THE CONSTRUCTION. CONSTRUCTION OFFICE. 7. VERIFY THE MEASUREMENT IN THE PLAN IF THE DISTANCES INDICATED ARE FORM: • CENTER TO CENTER • OUTER TO CENTER • OUTER TO OUTER • INSIDE TO INSIDE . WATER IS ALSO A PRIME NEED IN CONSTRUCTION. CONSTRUCT AND ALLOCATE A SPACE FOR LABORERS’ QUARTERS. APPLY FOR A TEMPORARY CONNECTIONS OF ELECTRIC AND WATER SUPPLY.4. BODEGA FOR THE MATERIALS AND WORKING TOOLS AND TEMPORARY WASTE DISPOSAL. ELECTRIC CURRENT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE POWER NEEDS OF THE TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT AND IS NECESSARY ON OVERTIME SCHEDULES ESPECIALLY IN THE TIME OF CONCRETING. 6. 5.

TRANSFER THE INTERSECTING POINTS OF THE STRING ON THE GROUND BY THE AID OF PLUMB BOB AND INDICATE THE SIZE AND WIDTH TO BE EXCAVATED.8. AFTER ESTABLISHING THE REFERENCE POINT AND LINE OF THE FOOTING. EXCAVATION EXCAVATION WORK IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IS CATEGORIZED INTO TWO TYPES: THE MINOR AND MAJOR EXCAVATION DEPENDING UPON THE SIZE AND NATURE OF THE FOUNDATION TO BE CONSTRUCTED. OR COMBINED FOOTING IS CLASSIFIED UNDER THE MINOR EXCAVATION. FIX THE BATTER BOARD TO ITS HORIZONTAL POSITION WITH THE AID OF LEVEL INSTRUMENT PREFERABLY PLASTIC HOSE WITH WATER. WHILE THE REST WHICH REQUIRES . EXCAVATION FOR A SMALL CONSTRUCTION WITH INDEPENDENT WALL. 9.

MINOR EXCAVATION EXCAVATION UNDER THIS CATEGORY ARE THOSE CONSTRUCTION HAVING INDEPENDENT FOOTING AND HOLLOW BLOCK WALL FOOTING WHERE THE DIGGING OF THE SOIL FOR THE FOOTING EXTEND TO A DEPTH FROM 1.50 METER AND ABOUT HALF A METER DEPTH FOR THE WALL FOOTING.SIZEABLES OR TOTAL EXTRACTION OF THE EARTH FALL UNDER THE CATEGORY OF MAJOR CONSTRUCTION. MAJOR EXCAVATION BUILDING CONSTRUCTION THAT REQUIRES WIDE EXCAVATION OR TOTAL EXTRACTION OF THE SOIL ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO CATEGORIES DEPENDING UPON THE CONDITION OR LOCATION OF THE SITE.00 TO 1. WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE IS BIG THAT THERE .

THE MANNER OF THE EXCAVATION TO BE EMPLOYED WHICH WILL NOT AFFECT OR DAMAGED THE ADJOINING STRUCTURE. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ON A BUSY COMMERCIAL CENTER WITH ADJACENT EXISTING STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED TO THE MOST COMPLICATED AMONG THE VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION WORKS SINCE THIS REQUIRES CAREFUL STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF THE RIGHT APPROACH. STORING OF MATERIALS AND DUMPING GROUND FOR THE EXCAVATED SOIL.IS ENOUGH SPACE TO ACCOMMODATE WORKING ACTIVITIES. . PROBLEMS MIGHT BE ENCOUNTER: 1. 2. THE KIND OF EQUIPMENT TO BE USED IN THE DIGGING AND EXTRACTING THE GROUND MAY NOT BE A PROBLEM BUT THE PLACE WHERE TO STATION THE EQUIPMENT DURING THE OPERATION.

3. 5. 4. THE KIND OF SHEETING AND BRACING TO BE USED IN SHORING OR UNDERSPINNING TO PROTECT THE ADJOINING STRUCTURE MUST BE CONSIDERED. . WHERE TO DISPOSE THE UNDERGROUND WATER TO BE DRAINED BY THE WATER PUMP DURING THE PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION WHICH MIGHT CAUSE MUDDY ROAD AND CREATE INCONVENIENCE TO TRAFFIC. HOW AND WHERE TO DISPOSE THE EXTRACTED SOIL INVOLVES THE EFFECTIVE MANNER OF MANEUVERING THE PAYLOAD AND DRUMPTRUCKS IN HAULING WITHOUT OBSTRUCTING THE PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC FLOW.

• FOUNDATION – WHICH ARE THE COMPONENTS OF THE BUILDING THAT TRANSFER ITS LOAD INTO THE SOIL. ALL FOUNDATIONS SETTLE TO SOME EXTENT AS THE SOIL AROUND BENEATH THEM ADJUST ITSELF TO THESE LOADS. UNIFORM SETTLEMENT IS USUALLY OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCES IN A BUILDING.FOUNDATION AND FOOTING THE FUNCTION OF A FOUNDATION IS TO TRANSFER THE STRUCTURAL LOADS FROM A BUILDING SAFELY INTO THE GROUND. 3 MAJOR PARTS OF A BUILDING: • SUPERSTRUCTURE – WHICH IS THE ABOVE GROUND PORTION OF THE BUILDING. BUT A DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT CAN CAUSE SEVERE STRUCTURAL DAMAGE. . • SUBSTRUCTURE – WHICH IS THE HABITABLE BELOW-GROUND PORTION.

• DEEP FOUNDATIONS TRANSFER THE LOAD AT A POINT FAR BELOW THE SUBSTRUCTURE. . FOUNDATION IS THAT PORTION OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS THAT CARRY OR SUPPORT THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING.3 TYPES OF SUBSTRUCTURES: • SLAB ON FILL • CRAWLSPACE • BASEMENT 2 BASIC TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS: • SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ARE THOSE THAT TRANSFER THE LOAD TO THE EARTH AT THE BASE OF THE COLUMN OR WALL OF THE SUBSTRUCTURE.

.REFERS TO THE SOIL OR ROCK DIRECTLY BENEATH THE FOOTING. THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO PROVIDE A SUITABLE MATERIALS WHERE TO TRANSFER THE EXCESS LOAD TO A GREATER DEPTH WHEREIN PILES IS THE ANSWER. PILE IS DISTINGUISHED FROM A CAISSON BY BEING DRIVEN INTO PLACE RATHER THAN DRILED & POURED. PILE – IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER OF SMALL CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA WITH REASONABLE LENGTH DRIVEN DOWN THE GROUND BY MEANS OF HAMMERS OR VIBRATORY GENERATOR. FOUNDATION BED . FOOTING IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION STRUCTURE.FOOTING IS THAT PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE STRUCTURE WHICH DIRECTLY TRANSMIT THE COLUMN LOAD TO THE UNDERLYING SOIL OR ROCK. PILE FOUNDATION – WHEN A FOUNDATION BED IS TOO WEAK TO SUPPORT A RAFT FOOTING.

PILES ARE GENERALLY DRIVEN CLOSELY TOGETHER IN CLUSTERS CONTAINING FROM TWO TO TWENTY-FIVE PILES. EACH CLUSTER IS LATER JOINED AT THE TOP BY A REINFORCED CONCRETE PILE CAP. • GRADE BEAM – THAT PART OF A FOUNDATION SYSTEM W/C SUPPORTS THE EXTERIOR WALL OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND BEARS DIRECTLY ON THE COLUMN FOOTING. . CAISSONS – IS SIMILAR TO A COLUMN FOOTING IN THAT IT SPREADS THE LOAD FROM A COLUMN OVER A LARGE ENOUGH AREA OF SOIL. PILE CAP – DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD OF THE COLUMN OR WALL EQUALLY AMONG THE PILES. THAT BEARS AGAINST AN EARTH OR OTHER FILL SURFACE AND RESISTS LATERAL AND OTHER FORCES. • RETAINING WALL – A WALL OR LATERALLY BRACED. • FOUNDATION WALL – THAT PART OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH FORMS THE PERMANENT RETAINING WALL OF THE STRUCTURE BELOW GRADE.

3% OF THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONCRETE IS SAID TO BE ADEQUATE EXCEPT ON UNUSUAL CASES. FOOTING ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES: WALL FOOTING OR STRIP FOOTING – IS A STRIP OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WIDER THAN THE WALL WHICH DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD TO THE SOIL. A STEEL PERCENTAGE EQUALS TO 0.2 TO 0. • GRAVITY WALL – A MASSIVE CONCRETE WALL THAT RESIST OVERTURNING BY VIRTUE OF IT’S OWN WEIGHT. COLUMN FOOTING – IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES: . BEARING WALL – A WALL CAPABLE OF SUPPORTING AN IMPOSED LOAD.• CANTILEVER WALL – A REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL WHICH RESIST OVERTURNING BY THE USE OF CANTILEVER FOOTING.

CONTINUOUS FOOTING – IS SOMETIMES CLASSIFIED AS WALL FOOTING WHICH SUPPORT SEVERAL COLUMNS IN A ROW. RAFT OR MAT FOOTING – IT’S OCCUPIES THE ENTIRE AREA BENEATH THE STRUCTURE AND CARRY THE WALL AND THE COLUMN LOADS. IT’S EITHER: • INVERTED SLAB FOOTING 4. IN THE FORM OF: • SQUARE BLOCK FOOTING • SQUARE SLOPE FOOTING • SQUARE STEPPED FOOTING 2. . IT’S EITHER : • RECTANGULAR • TRAPEZOIDAL 3.1. ISOLATED OR INDEPENDENT FOOTING – IS A KIND OF FOOTING REPRESENTS THE SIMPLEST AND MOST ECONOMICAL TYPE. COMBINED FOOTING – IS USED WHEN TWO OR MORE COLUMNS ARE SPACED CLOSELY TO EACH OTHER THAT THEIR FOOTING WILL ALMOST OR COMPLETELY MERGE.

OF CEMENT WILL PRODUCE CONCRETE CAPABLE OF DEVELOPING 2.500 PSI IN 28 DAYS. • SLUMP TEST – A READY MEANS OF DETERMINING THE CONSISTENCY OF FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE. . • 0. • LESS WATER PRODUCE STRONGER CONCRETE. SAND. OF WATER / lb. CONCRETE IN WHICH REINFORCEMENT IS EMBEDDED IN SUCH A MANNER THAT THE TWO MATERIALS ACT TOGETHER IN RESISTING FORCES IS CALLED REINFORCED CONCRETE. • DESIGNING OF CONCRETE MIXTURE IS BASED ON THE WATERCEMENT RATIO. • MORE WATER PRODUCE LESSER STRENGTH. GRAVEL AND WATER. THIS IS KNOWN AS SOLID MASS OR PLAIN CONCRETE.CONCRETE CONCRETE IS AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE OUT FROM THE MIXTURE OF CEMENT.68 lb.

5 1.5 1.0 “C” 1:3:6 6 5 0.5 9.320mm X 320mm X 330mm • CONCRETE MIXTURE: CLASS MIXTURE 40kg. 18 12 9 7.m.0 • MORTAR MIXTURE: CLASS MIXTURE “A” 1:2 “B” 1:3 “C” 1:4 “D” 1:5 40kg.5 50kg.0 1.m.m.5 0.0 1. 14.0 cu.0 cu. 1.0 . “A” 1:2:4 9 7 0. 50kg. 1. CEMENT .• ADMIXTURE – ACCELERATES OR RETARDS CONCRETE SETTING.5 cu.0 “B” 1:21/2:5 7.5 1.5 6 0. SAND GRAVEL “AA” 1:11/2: 3 12 9. • SIZES OF MEASURING BOX FOR : • 40 kg. CEMENT – 300mm X 300mm X 300mm • 50 kg.5 7 6 SAND 1.

COLUMN – REFERS TO VERTICAL STRUCTURE USE TO SUPPORT A BUILDING MADE OF STONE.POST AND COLUMN POST – REFERS TO A PIECE OF TIMBER OF EITHER CYLINDRICAL. REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN ARE CLASSIFIED AS: • SHORT COLUMN – WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS NOT GREATER THAN TEN TIMES THE SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE CROSS SECTION. SQUARE OR OTHER GEOMETRICAL CROSS SECTION PLACED VERTICALLY TO SUPPORT A BUILDING. . CONCRETE. STEEL OR COMBINATION OF THE ABOVE MATERIALS. STOREY – IS THE SPACE IN A BUILDING BETWEEN FLOOR LEVELS OR BETWEEN A FLOOR AND A ROOF ABOVE. • LONG COLUMN – WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS MORE THAN TEN TIMES THE SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE CROSS SECTION.

THK. THE VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT IS PROVIDED WITH EVENLY SPACED CONTINUOUS SPIRAL HELD FIRMLY IN POSITION BY AT LEAST THREE VERTICAL BAR SPACERS. INSIDE THE OUTER SURFACE OF THE CONCRETE COVERING. • COMPOSITE COLUMN – WHERE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMN IS EMBEDDED INTO THE CONCRETE CORE OF A SPIRAL COLUMN.TYPES OF COLUMNS ARE: • TIED COLUMN – HAS REINFORCEMENT CONSISTING OF VERTICAL OR LONGITUDINAL BARS HELD IN POSITION BY LATERAL REINFORCEMENT CALLED LATERAL TIES. • COMBINED COLUMN – WITH STRUCTURAL STEEL ENCASED IN CONCRETE OF AT LEAST 7 cm. REINFORCED WITH WIRE MESS SURROUNDING THE COLUMN AT A DISTANCE OF 3 cm. • SPIRAL COLUMN – IS THE TERM GIVEN WHERE A CIRCULAR CONCRETE CORE IN ENCLOSED BY SPIRALS WITH VERTICAL OR LONGITUDINAL BARS. .

GIRTS OR BEAM.• LALLY COLUMN – IS A FABRICATED STEEL PIPE PROVIDED WITH A FLAT STEEL BARS OR PLATE WHICH HOLD A GIRDER. METAL REINFORCEMENT THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF STRESSES THAT MAY ACT ON THE STRUCTURE ARE: 1. SHEAR STRESS 4. . TORSION STRESS • REINFORCEMENT NEED TO PROVIDE ON BEAM TO RESPONSE TO POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BENDING WHICH MAY CAUSE FAILURE OR COLLAPSE OF THE STRUCTURE. THE STEEL PIPE IS SOMETIMES FILLED WITH GROUT OR CONCRETE FOR CORROSION. COMPRESSION STRESS 2. • REINFORCED CONCRETE – IS A COMBINATION OF CONCRETE AND STEEL. TENSION STRESS 3.

• CONCRETE – IS STRONG IN SUPPORTING COMPRESSION LOAD BUT WEAK IN RESISTING TENSION FORCES. AN ADDITIONAL STRAIGHT REINFORCING BARS ARE PLACED ON THE TOP OF THE BEAM ACROSS THE SUPPORTS EXTENDED TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH. • BENT REINFORCING BARS – ARE BENT UP ON OR NEAR THE INFLECTION POINT AND ARE EXTENDED AT THE TOP OF THE BEAM ACROSS THE SUPPORT TOWARDS THE ADJACENT SPAN. • INFLECTION POINTS – REFER TO THE PORTION OF A BEAM WHERE BENDING MOMENT CHANGES FROM POSITIVE TO NEGATIVE. • NO BENT BARS – WHEN BARS ARE NOT BENT. . • BALANCE BEAM – WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONCRETE AND STEEL ARE JUST ENOUGH TO CARRY THE COMPRESSION AND TENSION FORCES SIMULTANEOUSLY. • STEEL – POSSESSES THE STRENGTH TO RESIST BOTH COMPRESSION AND TENSION.

• USED LATERAL TIES – 10mm dia. . • ADVANTAGE OF THE BEND BARS. ITS RESIST THE DIAGONAL TENSION. OF THE LATERAL TIES. – ALLOWANCE PROTECTIVE COVERING OF STEEL BARS FROM THE OUTSIDE OF THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT. • BUILDING CODE REQUIRED THAT A BALANCE BEAM SHALL PROVIDE. OF THE LONGITUDINAL OR MAIN REINFORCING BARS. • SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 48 TIMES THE DIA. IF LONGITUDINAL BARS 32mm SMALLER 12mm dia.• 4cm.005 TIMES THE CROSS SECTIONAL PRODUCT OF THE WIDTH AND THE DEPTH OF THE BEAM. THAT THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE EQUAL TO . IF LONGITUDINAL BARS 36mm BIGGER • THREE FACTORS FOR SPACING OF THE LATERAL TIES: • SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 16 TIMES THE DIA.

• NOT MORE THAN THE SHORTEST DIMENSION OF THE COLUMN. • FISH PLATE – A WOOD OR METAL PIECE USED TO FASTEN TOGETHER THE ENDS OF TWO MEMBERS WITH NAILS OR BOLTS. • CROSSLAP JOINT – A JOINT CONNECTING TWO WOOD MEMBERS WHICH CROSS EACH OTHER. WOOD CONSTRUCTION • SCAB – A SHORT FLAT PIECE OF LUMBER WHICH IS BOLTED. • COGGED JOINT – A CARPENTRY JOINT BY TWO UNEVEN TIMBERS. HALF THE THICKNESS OF EACH IS CUT . EACH OF WHICH IS NOTCHED AT THE PLACE WHERE THEY MEET. BY CUTTING A DAP IN ONE OR BOTH PIECES. NAILED OR SCREWED TO TWO BUTTING PIECES IN ORDER TO SPLICE THEM TOGETHER. • SPLICE PLATE – A METAL PLATE USED FOR FASTENING TWO OR MORE MEMBER TOGETHER. USUALLY MEETING OR CROSSING AT RIGHT ANGLES. • NOTCHING – JOINING OF TIMBERS.

ONE FOOT WIDE AND ONE FOOT LONG. THICK. SO THAT IT MAY BE INSERTED IN A CORRESPONDING CAVITY IN ANOTHER PIECE IN ORDER TO FORM A SECURE JOINT. TENON – THE PROJECTING END OF A PIECE OF WOOD.• • • • • • • • SO THAT THE THICKNESS WILL THE SAME AS THAT OF EACH MEMBER. SQUARE SPLICE–A TYPE OF HALF LAPPED USED TO RESIST TENSION. DADO – A RECTANGULAR GROOVE CUT ACROSS THE FULL WIDTH OF A PIECE OF WOOD TO RECEIVE THE END OF ANOTHER PIECE. YACAL – LUMBER PREFFERED WHEN IN CONTACT WITH CONCRETE. BOARD FOOT – THE VOLUME OF A PIECE OF WOOD ONE INCH. BOLIDEN SALT – TREATMENT IN WOLMANIZED LUMBER. THESE TONGUES FIT INTO CORRESPONDING SLOTS IN THE MORTISED MEMBER. BRIDLE JOINT – A JOINT IN WHICH TWO TONGUES PROJECT FROM THE SIDES OF THE TENONED MEMBER. DAP – A NOTCH IN A TIMBER FOR RECEIVING ANOTHER TIMBER. . OR OTHER MATERIALS WHICH IS REDUCED IN CROSS SECTION.

3. . COLUMNS.• SOLIGNUM – TRADE NAME FOR ANTI-TERMITE SURFACE APPLICATION ON WOOD. FLOOR STRUCTURE WOOD FLOOR SYSTEM FLOOR FRAMING IS THAT PLATFORM STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING SUSPENDED BY POSTS. AND STEEL. THE DESIGN OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM DEPENDS UPON THE FOLLOWING CONSIDERATIONS: 1. TYPES OF MATERIALS TO BE USED – THE CHOICE FROM THE VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SUCH AS LUMBER. WALLS AND BEAMS. 2. CONCRETE. DEAD LOAD – REFERS TO THE STATIC LOAD SUCH AS THE WEIGHT OF THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WHICH GENERALLY CARRY THE LIVE LOAD. LIVE LOAD – REFERS TO THOSE MOVABLE LOADS IMPOSED ON THE FLOOR.

SPAN OF THE SUPPORTS – PERTAINS TO THE DISTANCES BETWEEN THE POSTS. • SILL – THAT PART OF THE SIDE OF A HOUSE THAT RESTS HORIZONTALLY UPON THE FOUNDATION. 4. . THE PLATFORM .FLOOR FRAMING STRUCTURE IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES: A. THE PLANK AND BEAM FLOOR TYPE B. THE PANELIZED-FLOOR SYSTEM C.THE SIZING AND SPACING OF THE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS – DEPENDS UPON ITS STRENGTH AND CAPABILITY TO CARRY THE LOAD AT A CERTAIN SPACING. COLUMNS OR SUPPORTING WALLS. THE CONVENTIONAL FLOOR FRAMING SYSTEM THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM ARE: • GIRDER – IS A PRINCIPAL BEAM EXTENDING FROM WALL TO WALL OF A BUILDING SUPPORTING THE FLOOR JOISTS OF FLOOR BEAMS. 5.

FORMING A SEAT FOR THE JOISTS. • HEADER AND TRIMMER – HEADER IS A SHORT TRANSVERSE JOISTS THAT SUPPORT THE END OF THE CUT-OFF JOIST AT A STAIR WELL HOLE. • SOLE PLATE – A HORIZONTAL TIMBER WHICH SERVES AS A BASE FOR THE STUDS IN A STUD PARTITION. • DRAFTSTOP PLATE – IS A PIECE OF LUMBER USES TO DRESS UP THE EDGE OF THE JOISTS. TRIMMER IS A SUPPORTING JOIST WHICH CARRIES AN END PORTION OF A HEADER.• FLOOR JOISTS – ARE THOSE PARTS OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM PLACED ON THE GIRDERS WHERE THE FLOOR BOARDS ARE FASTENED. • TAIL BEAM OR TAIL PIECE – A SHORT BEAM. . • FLOORING – THE TONGUE AND GROOVE WHICH ARE POPULARLY KNOWN AS T & G IS GENERALLY SPECIFIED FOR WOOD FLOORING. JOIST OR RAFTER WHICH IS SUPPORTED BY A HEADER JOIST AT ONE END AND A WALL AT THE OTHER. • LEDGER STRIP – A STRIP OF LUMBER WHICH IS NAILED TO THE SIDE OF THE BEAM.

A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT THAT IS SHORTER THAN USUAL. ATTACHED TO A GIRDER TO RECEIVE AND SUPPORT A JOIST. • HANGER OR STIRRUP – A METAL SEAT.• SILL PLATE – A HORIZONTAL TIMBER. • CROSS BRIDGING – DIAGONAL BRACING IN PAIRS. . • BALLOON FRAMING – CONSTRUCTION HAS STUDS CONTINOUS TO ROOF SUPPORTING SECOND FLOOR JOISTS. • TOP PLATE – A HORIZONTAL TIMBER AT THE UPPER PORTION OF THE STUDS IN ASTUD PARTITION. • CRIPPLE STUD – IN ABUILDING FRAME. AT THE BOTTOM OF THE FRAME OF AWOOD STRUCTURE WHICH REST ON THE FOUNDATION. AS A STUD ABOVE AND BELOW OPENING. • BLOCK OR SOLID BRIDGING – SHORT MEMBERS WHICH ARE FIXED VERTICALLY BETWEEN FLOOR JOISTS TO STIFFEN THE JOISTS. BETWEEN ADJACENT FLOOR JOISTS TO PREVENT THE JOISTS FROM TWISTING.

BEAM ARE CLASSIFIED AS : A) SIMPLE BEAM B) CONTINUOUS BEAM C) SEMI – CONTINUOUS . GIRDER – IS THE TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT SUPPORTS ONE OR MORE SMALLER BEAM. REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM BEAM IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER THAT SUPPORTS THE TRANSVERSE LOAD WHICH USUALLY REST ON SUPPORTS AT ITS END.• WESTERN FRAMING – THAT HAS SUBFLOOR EXTENDED TO THE OUTER EDGE OF THE FRAME AND PROVIDE A FLAT WORK SURFACE AT EACH FLOOR.

SEMI-CONTINUOUS BEAM – REFERS TO A BEAM WITH TWO SPANS WITH OR WITHOUT RESTRAINT AT THE TWO EXTREME ENDS. CONTINUOUS BEAM – IS A TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT REST ON MORE THAN TWO SUPPORTS. SIMPLE BEAMS IS SOMETIMES CALLED AS SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM. RESTRAINT MEANS A RIGID CONNECTION OR ANCHORAGE AT THE SUPPORT. WEB REINFORCEMENT WEB REINFORCEMENT IS THE SAME AS THEIR STIRRUPS USED IN THE BEAM TO HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT IN ITS DESIGNED POSITION. THE WEB REINFORCEMENT IS NOT ONLY INTENDED TO HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT AND PROVIDE LATERAL SUPPORT BUT ALSO SERVES TO RESIST DIAGONAL TENSION AND COUNTERACT THE SHEAR ACTION .SIMPLE BEAM – REFERS TO THE BEAM HAVING A SINGLE SPAN SUPPORTED AT ITS END WITHOUT A RESTRAIN AT THE SUPPORT.

REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB: REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES: 1. ONE WAY SOLID SLAB AND BEAM. 4. TWOWAY SOLID SLAB BEAM. RIBBED FLOORS. 2. THE VERTICAL STIRRUPS SHOULD ENCIRCLE THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT AND HOOK BENT WITH A DIAMETER NOT LESS THAN 5 TIMES THE DIAMETER OF THE STIRRUPS AT ITS END AND SECURED PROPERLY TO PREVENT SLIPPING OF THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT IN THE CONCRETE. 3. . FLAT SLAB OR GIRDERLESS FLOORS SOLID OR RIBBED.ON THE STRUCTURE.

3 STEEL BAR IS USED TO COUNTERACT THE EFFECT OF . THAT IS FROM BEAM TO BEAM.00 TO 3. SPACING OF THE COLUMNS. ALTHOUGH THE REINFORCEMENTS ARE ALSO PLACED IN THE SLAB PARALLEL WITH THE BEAMS PERPENDICULAR WITH THE MAIN REINFORCEMENTS CALLED “TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENTS”. BECAUSE THE REINFORCEMENTS RUNS ONLY AT ONE DIRECTION. USUALLY NO. THE FLOOR SLAB IS KNOWN AS ONE WAY SOLID SLAB. THE ONE WAY SLAB IS COMPARATIVELY ECONOMICAL FOR A MEDIUM AND HEAVY LIVE LOADS ON SHORT SPANS RANGING FROM 2. THE COST OF THE CONSTRUCTION ONE WAY SLAB – ONE WAY SLAB IS THE COMMON TYPE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM MADE OF SOLID SLAB SUPPORTED BY TWO PARALLEL BEAMS.EACH TYPE OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM HAS ITS OWN ADVANTAGES IN APPLICATION DEPENDING UPON THE FOLLOWING FACTORS: 1. 2.50 METERS LONG. LENGTH OF THE SPAN 4. THE MAGNITUDE OF THE LOADS TO BE SUPPORTED 3.

. THE DEPTH OF THE SLAB IS INCREASED.0025. IT ALSO DISTRIBUTES POSSIBLE CONCENTRATION OF LOADS OVER A LARGER AREA. UNLIKE BEAMS AND GIRDERS. THE SPACING OF THE REINFORCEMENT SHALL NOT BE MORE THAN 3 TIMES THE SLAB THICKNESS AND THE RATIO OF REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE AT LEAST . NOR LESS THAN THE PERIMETER OF THE SLAB DIVIDED BY 180. FLOOR SLAB NEEDS NO WEB REINFORCEMENT OR STIRRUPS. THE CODE SPECIFIES THAT THICKNESS OF THE SLAB SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 4 INCHES OR 10 CM. TWO WAY SLAB – SLAB WHICH ARE SUPPORTED ON FOUR SIDES WHERE THE FLOOR PANEL IS NEARLY SQUARE IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL TO EMPLOY THE TWO DIRECTIONS OF REINFORCING BARS PLACED AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH EACH OTHER.SHRINKAGE AND CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE. IN THE CASE OF HEAVY LOAD WHERE THE SHEARING STRESSES MAYBE GREATER THAN THE ALLOWABLE VALUES. THIS TYPE OF REINFORCEMENT WILL TRANSMIT THE LOADS TO THE FOUR SIDES SUPPORTING BEAMS OR WALLS.

THE CONCRETE SURFACE LAYER PLACED ON TOP OF THE TILES RANGES FROM 5 TO 6. OR WIRE MESH WHICH RUNS AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH THE RIBS. OR SOMETIMES. A RIBBED FLOOR SLAB CONSISTS OF SMALL ADJACENT T-BEAM WHEREIN THE OPEN SPACES BETWEEN THE RIBS ARE FILLED BY CLAY TILES.RIBBED FLOOR SLAB – IS GENERALLY AN ECONOMICAL TYPE OF FLOOR CONSTRUCTION BUT IS APPLICABLE ONLY TO MEDIUM SPAN LENGTH WITH LIGHT OR MEDIUM LOAD UNLIKE THE ONE WAY OR TWO WAY SLABS THAT COULD CARRY HEAVY LOADS. WIDE. . ON CENTER MAKING THE RIBS 10 CM. 2 BARS OR 6 MM. TEMPERATURE BARS ARE EITHER NO. GYPSUM TILES OR STEEL FORMS. THE REINFORCEMENT OF A RIBBED FLOOR SYSTEM CONSIST OF TWO BARS PLACED AT THE LOWER PART OF THE RIB WHERE ONE IS BENT AND THE OTHER REMAINED STRAIGHT. THE TILES ARE GENERALLY 30 X 90 CM. THICK. STRAIGHT BARS ARE PALCED AT THE TOP AND BOTTOM OF THE RIB.5 CM.

THE FLAT SLAB FLOOR SYSTEM IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL NOT ONLY IN TERMS OF MATERIALS AS WELL AS LABOR AND IS EVEN THE MOST SUITABLE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION FOR INDUSTRIAL BUILDING . ON THE OTHER HAND. A STRAIGHT FLAT UNDERNEATH IS PROVIDED IN THE SLAB THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEM. WHEN THE COLUMN DESIGN IS NOT PROVIDED WITH CAPITAS. THESLAB IS EITHER UNIFORM IN THICKNESS OR PROVIDED WITH SQUARE SYMMETRICALAREA DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN REINFORCED WITH BARS RUNNING IN TWO DIRECTIONS.FLAT SLAB – FLAT SLAB FLOOR IS A RECTANGULAR SLAB DIRECTLY SUPPORTED BY COLUMNS WITHOUT BEAMS OR GIRDERS. WHICH IS CALLED FLAT PLATE CONSTRUCTION. THE INCREASED AREA DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN CALLED DROP PANEL OR SIMPLY DROP. A FLARED HEAD IS EMPLOYED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A FLAT-SLAB FLOOR MAKING A CAPITAL OF THE COLUMN.

• BLOCK OUT – IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES UNDER CONSTRUCTION. • CONSTRUCTION JOINT – A JOINT WHERE TWO SUCCESSIVE PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE MEET. • CONTROL JOINTS – EMPLOYED TO REDUCE RESTRAINT BY ACCOMODATING MOVEMENT OF MASONRY WALL. • CONTRACTION JOINT OR EXPANSION JOINT – A JOINT BETWEEN ADJACENT PARTS OF A STRUCTURE WHICH PERMITS MOVEMENT BETWEEN THEM. .HAVING A WIDER LIVE LOAD AND ALSO FOR BUILDING IN WHICH THE USE OF CAPITALS ARE NOT OBJECTIONABLE. A SPACE WHERE CONCRETE IS NOT TO BE PLACED.

• COLD JOINT – A JOINT FORMED WHEN A CONCRETE SURFACE HARDEN BEFORE THE NEXT BATCH OF CONCRETE IS PLACED AGAINST. ORDINARILY. DETERMINE THE CLEAR HEIGHT OF THE RISE IN METER. THE RISE PER STEP IS 17 TO 18 CM AND THE MINIMUM TREAD WIDTH IS 25 CM. DIVIDE THE RISE ( HEIGHT IN METER) BY . • CREEP – PERMANENT DEFORMATION OF A MATERIAL UNDER A SUSTAIN LOAD.18 TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF STEPS. .17 OR . 2. LAYING OUT OF STAIRS THE METHOD OF LAYING OUT STAIRS ARE: 1. • CAMBER – CONVEX CURVATURE IN BEAM OR TRUSS.

30m. 4.3. 5. TYPE OF STRINGERS . IF THE RESULT. THE STAIRS WILL NOT BE AN IDEAL ONE.25 OR . ADJUST A FUNCTIONAL VALUE IN EQUAL PROPORTION TO THE NUMBER OF RISER HEIGHT. DIVIDE THE RUN DISTANCE IN METER BY . SHOULD THERE BE FROM THE RESULT OF STEP TWO. BUT IN NO CASE SHALL THE RISE PER STEP BE GREATER THAN 19 CM OR LESS THAN 17 CM OTHERWISE. IT IS IMPORTANT TO MAKE A CROSS SECTIONAL SKETCH OF A STAIR BEFORE MAKING THE FINAL PLAN LAYOUT INDICATING THE NUMBER OF STEPS TO AVOID ADJUSTMENTS OF THE RUN DURING THE ACTUAL CONSTRUCTION. FOUND IN STEP THREE IS LESS THAN THE NUMBER FOUND IN STEP TWO. THE RUN LENGTH HAS TO BE EXTENDED. THERE SHOULD BE NO FUNCTIONAL VALUE OF A RISER.

CLEATED STRINGER. 4. 2. . 3.ARE POPULARLY EMPLOYED IN MOST MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY HOUSE DESIGN.THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF STRINGER CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE METHOD OF ATTACHIND THE RISERS AND THE TREADS.IS DESIGN FOR A VERY ROUGH WORK. 1. BUILT-UP STRINGER.IS EMPLOYED ON THE WIDE STAIRS THAT REQUIRES A CENTER STRINGER. CUT CLEATED BUILT-UP RABBETED (HOUSE) CUT STRINGER.

USED TO SUPPORT A STAIR HANDRAIL.• BALUSTER – ONE OF A NUMBER OF SHORT VERTICAL MEMBERS OFTEN CIRCULAR IN SECTION. HAVING ONE OR BOTH ENDS ROUNDED TO A SEMI-CIRCLE AND PROJECTION BEYOND THE FACE OF THE STAIR STRING/S. . • BULL-NOSED STEP – A STEP USUALLY LOWEST IN AFLIGHT. VERTICAL MEMBERS AND BOTTOM RAIL. • BANISTER – HANDRAIL FOR A STAIRCASE. • BALUSTRATE – AN ENTIRE RAILING SYSTEM INCLUDING A TOP RAIL. • RISER – A VERTICAL FACE OF ASTAIR.

TYPES OF ROOF THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF ROOF AND NUMEROUS VARIETY OF SHAPES THAT ONE HAS TO BE FAMILIAR WITH: SHED OR LEAN-TO ROOF.• KICKER PLATE – STAIR ANCHOR TO CONCRETE.IS CONSIDERED AS THE SIMPLEST FORM OF ROOF CONSISTING OF ONE SINGLE SLOPE. GABLE OR PITCH ROOFTHE MOST COMMON TYPE AND ECONOMICAL FORM OF ROOF MADE OF TRIANGULAR SECTIONS .

IS ALSO A COMMON FORM USED IN MODERN HOUSES HAVING STRAIGHT SIDES ALL SLOPING TOWARD THE CENTER OF THE BUILDING TERMINATING AT THE RIDGE. THIS TYPE OF ROOF FORM HOWEVER. THIS IS COMMONLY USED ON FACTORIES WHERE EXTRA LIGHT IS REQUIRED THROUGH THE WINDOW ON A VERTICAL SIDE.IS A MODIFICATION OF A GABLE OR A HIP AND VALLEY ROOF. DOUBLE GABLE ROOF.CONSISTING OF TWO SLOPES MEETING AT THE CENTER OF THE RIDGE FORMING A GABLE. SAW TOOTH ROOF. HIP AND VALLEY ROOF.IS A COMBINATION OF THE HIP ROOF AND AN INTERESTING GABLE ROOF FORMING A T OR L SHAPED BUILDING.IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SHED MADE INTO A SERIES TO LEAN-TO ROOF COVERING ONE BUILDING. HIP ROOF. HAS A VARIETY OF MODIFICATION WHICH ARE NOT ILLUSTRATED. .

DOME. MANSARD ROOFWHERE THE SIDES OF THE ROOF SLOPE STEEPLY FROM EACH SIDE OF THE BUILDING TOWARDS THE CENTER FORMING A FLAT DECK ON TOP. GAMBREL ROOF.IS A HEMISPHERICAL FORM OF ROOF USUALLY USED ON OBNSERVATORIES. FRENCH OR CONCAVE MANSARD ROOF.IS A MODIFICATION OF THE HIP ROOF WHEREIN THE FOUR STAIGHT SIDES ARE SLOPING TOWARDS THE CENTER TERMINATING AT A POINT. . BUTTERFLY ROOF.IS A TWO SHED ROOF WHERE THE SLOPE MEET AT THE CENTER OF THE BUILDING. CONICAL ROOF OR SPHIRE.IS A MODIFICATIN OF THE GABLE ROOF WITH EACH SIDE HAVING TWO SLOPES.IS A STEEP ROOF OF CIRCULAR SECTION THAT TAPERS UNIFORMLY FROM THE CIRCULAR BASE TO A CENTRAL POINT.PYRAMID ROOF.IS A MODIFICATION OF THE MANZARD ROOF WHERE THE SIDES ARE CONCAVE.

TRUSS TYPE 3.TYPES OF ROOF FRAME THE THREE TYPES OF ROOF FRAME COMMONLY USED ARE: 1.ARE RAFTERS LAID DIAGONALLY FROM THE CORNER OF A PLATE OR GIRTS TO THE RIDGE. LAMINATED TYPE THE VARIOUS KINDS OF RAFTERS FOR ROOF CONSTRUCTIONS ARE: • COMMON RAFTERS.ARE RAFTERS EXTENDED AT RIGHT ANGLES FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS T THE RIDGE. RAFTERS TYPE 2. • HIP RAFTERS. .

HIT JACKS VALLEY JACKS CRIPLE JACKS . JACK RAFTERS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO: 1. 2.• VALLEY RAFTERS.ARE RAFTERS PLACED ON AN OCTAGONAL SHAPED PLATE AT THE CENTRAL APEX OR RIDGE POLE.ANY RAFTER WHICH DOES NOT EXTEND FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS TO THE RIDGE.RAFTERS PLACED DIAGONALLY FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS AT THE INTERSECTION OF GABLE EXTENSION WITH THE MAIN ROOF. • JACK RAFTERS. 3. • OCTAGONAL RAFTERS.

THE FRAME BETWEEN THE RIDGE AND VALLEY RAFTERS ARE CALLED VALLEY JACKS. WHILE THOSE FRAMES BETWEEN THE HIP AND THE VALLEY RAFTERS ARE CALLED CRIPPLE JACKS. STFFEN THE STRUCTURE AND FLEXIBILITY FOR THE INTERIOR SPACING AS WELL AS STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY. TRUSS – IS A BUILT-UP FRAME COMMONLY EMPLOYED ON A LONG SPAN ROOF UNSUPPORTED BY INTERMEDIATE COLUMNS OR PARTITIONS. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRUSSES ARE: LIGHT TRUSSES: PITCHED HOWE . TRUSS IS A DESIGN OF A SERIES OF TRIANGLES USED TO DISTRIBUTE LOAD.JACK RAFTERS FRAMED BATWEEN HIP RAFTERS AND GITS ARE CALLED HIP JACKS.

SCISSORS RAISED CHORD SAWTOOTH FLAT 1 ½ STORY FRAME UTILITY BOWSTRING .

HEAVY TRUSSES: HOWE TRUSS BELGIAN FINK PRATT .

SCISSORS CAMBERED FINK WARREN FLAT HOWE SAW TOOTH FLAT PRATT .

PURLINS – THE STRUCTURAL MEMBER PLACED ON TOP OF A RAFTER OR TOP CHORD OF A TRUSS THAT SUPPORTS THE ROOF SHEATING. PURLINS SIZE AND SPACING: SPAN: 2.00 3.0 3.50 4.50 SIZE: 50mm X 75mm 50mm X 100mm 50mm X 150mm 50mm X 200mm

ROOF AND ROOFING MATERIALS
THE TERM ROOF USED HERE MEANS THE TOP COVERING OF A BUILDING THAT SERVES AS A PROTECTIVE COVERING FROM THE WEATHER. ROOFING CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE MATERIALS USED:

• • • • • • • •

FIBER WOOD METAL SLATE TILES REINFORCED CONCRETE PLASTICS FIBERGLASS

METAL ROOFING – IS THE MOST COMMON MATERIALS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, THIS ARE CLASSIFIED AS FOLLOWS: • GALVANIZED IRON • ALUMINUM • TIN

• TITANIUM COPPER ZINC • COPPER • STAINLESS STEEL • LEAD AMONG THE METAL ROOFING ENUMERATED, GALVANIZED IRON SHEET IS THE MOST COMMONLY SPECIFIED CONSIDERING THE ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFER. GALVANIZED IRON ROOFING IS EITHER PLAIN OR CORRUGATED. THE THICKNESS ARE MEASURED IN TERMS OF “GAUGE” FROM ga. 14 TO ga. 30. Gauge 26 IS THE MOST COMMONLY USED FOR ROOFING. THE STANDARD COMMERCIAL SIZE WIDTH IS 0.80 m. WITH LENGTH THAT RANGES FROM 1.50 TO 3.60 m. PLAIN G.I. SHEET COMMERCIAL STANDARD SIZE IS 0.90m. X 2.40m. IT’S ALSO USED FOR ROOFING, GUTTERS,FLASHING,RIDGE,HIP AND VALLEY ROLLS, DOWNSPOUT, AND STRAP FOR RIVETING. CORR. G.I.ROOFING FASTENERS:

• NAILING • RIVETING • PANTILE – A ROOFING TILE WHICH HAS THE SHAPE OF “S” LAID ON IT’S SIDE. SEMI-CYLINDRICAL IN SHAPE LAID IN COURSES WITH THE UNIT HAVING THEIR CONVEX SIDE ALTERNATELY UP AND DOWN. . APPROX. • MISSION TILE – A CLAY ROOFING TILE.

SHEATING OR PANS USED TO PRODUCE THE DESIRED SHAPE AND SIZE OF CONCRETE. • A FRAME – A 3-PIECE RIGID STRUCTURAL FRAME IN THE SHAPE OF THE UPRIGHT CAPITAL “A”.• ROMAN TILE – A CHANNEL SHAPED. • CHORD – A PRINCIPAL MEMBER OF A TRUSS. TAPERED. • BATTEN – WOOD STRIPS TO SUPPORT ROOF TILES. FORM. SCAFFOLDING AND STAGING FORM IS A TEMPORARY BOARDING. SINGLE LAP ROOPING TILE. STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OF A . • SPLIT RING – CHORD SPLICE CONNECTORS FOR TRUSSES. • GALVANIZED – ZINC COATED MATERIALS. FORMS ARE USED IN CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION.

IT SHOULD BE SIMPLE AND ECONOMICALLY DESIGNED TO BE REMOVE EASILY AND REASSEMBLED WITHOUT DAMAGE TO THEMSELVES OR TO THE CONCRETE. FACTORS CONSIDERED IN THE SELECTION OF FORMS ARE: • COST OF MATERIALS • THE CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLING COST • THE NUMBER OF TIMES IT COULD BE USED • STRENGTH AND RESISTANCE TO PRESSURE AND THE TEAR & WEAR WOOD BOARD AND PLYWOOD FORMS WOOD FORM IS THE MOST COMMON AND WIDELY USED FORMS IN MINOR OR MAJOR CONSTRUCTION. RIGID AND STRONG ENOUGH TO SUSTAIN THE WEIGHT OF CONCRETE. .BUILDING ARE BUILT-UP INTO ITS SPECIFIED DIMENSIONS BY THE USE OF FORMS THAT SERVES AS MOULD FOR THE MIXED CONCRETE. FORMS SHOULD BE WATERTIGHT.

ALTHOUGH METAL FORMS ARE EXTENSIVELY USED ON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. METAL FORMS ARE GENERALLY MADE OUT OF G. • PLYWOOD HAS PLAIN EVEN SURFACE WITH UNIFORM THICKNESS. • IT OFFERS FITTED JOINTS. • PRODUCE SMOOTH FINISHES OF CONCRETE THAT SOMETIMES NEED LITTLE OR NO PLASTERING AT ALL. ELIMINATE DRESSING.I. • THE LAMINATED CROSS-GRAINED OF PLYWOOD HAS MADE THE BOARD STRONGER AND FREE FROM WARPING. HANDY AND FAST TO WORK ON. • PLYWOOD IS LIGHT-WEIGHT. METAL FORM ARE SELDOM USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION BECAUSE OF THE VARIED DESIGNS AND SHAPES OF THE STRUCTURES. SUPPORTED BY FLAT AND ANGLE BARS .• PLYWOOD AS FORM IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL BOTH IN LABOR AND MATERIALS. PLANING OF THE SURFACE WHICH IS NORMAL TO WOODEN BOARDS FORMS. OR BLACK IRON SHEET. SHEET.

THK. PLYWOOOD IS SATIFACTORILY USED SUPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS. THE THICKNESS OF THE FORM AND THE SIZES OF THE FRAME AND RIBS DEPENDS UPON THE NATURE OF THE STRUCTURE TO BE SUPPORTED CLASSIFIED AS SMALL. PLYWOOD IS USED AS FORM . BOLTS AND NUTS. • SMALL STRUCTURE CONSISTING OF SMALL FOOTINGS. AND CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB GENERALLY OF 2 TO 3 STOREY HIGH. WHEREIN 6mm OR 12mm THK. CONSTRUCTION OF FORMS CONCRETE WEIGHS ABOUT 2.400 kg. COLUMNS AND BEAM FOR ONE OR TWO STOREY BUILDING WHEREIN 6mm.200 TO 2.DESIGNED TO BE ASSEMBLED AND LOCKED BE MEANS OF CLAMP./cu.m. BEAMS. FORMS SHALL BE GUARDED AGAINST BULGING AND SAGGING FAILURE THAT OCCUR DURING THE PROCESS OF POURING. • MEDIUM STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING CONCRETE COLUMNS. MEDIUM AND MASSIVE STRUCTURE.

. TWO TYPES OF FRAMING: • LONGITUDINAL RIB TYPE • PERPENDICULAR RIB TYPE TYPES OF COLUMN FORMS: • SQUARE • RECTANGULAR • CIRCULAR BEAM FORMS CONSIST OF ONE BOTTOM FORM AND A PAIR OF SIDE FORMS.SUPPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm OR 50mm X 75mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS. PLYWOOD SUPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm TO 50mm X 100mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS. • MASSIVE STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING HEAVY LOADS USES FORMS OF VARIOUS THICKNESS THAT RANGE FROM 6mm TO 19mm THK.

TYPES OF WALL FORMS: • CONTINUOUS • FULL UNIT • LAYER UNIT GREASING OF FORMS THE PURPOSE OF GREASING THE FORM IS TO MAKE THE WOOD WATER PROOF. SCAFFOLDING – WORKER’S PLATFORM BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TERMS ENGLISH VERNACULAR ENGLISH VERNACULAR . YOKE – IS A HORIZONTAL FRAMEWORK AROUND THE FORMWORK FOR A COLUMN. IT’S ALSO PREVENTS ADHERENCE OF CONCRETE TO THE PORES OF THE WOOD. THUS PREVENTING ABSORPTION OF WATER IN THE CONCRETE WHICH CAUSES SWELLING AND WARPING.

Adobe Anchor --------------------Aligned ----------------------------Alero.Batidura Fascia Board -------------Balusters ---------------------------.Trankilya Floor Joist ----------------Baseboard -------------------------. Liyabe Kaliniya Earth Fill------------------Eave ------------------------ Escombro Sopo Alignment -------------------------Asintada Electrician ----------------Alternate or staggered -----------. Soleras Batidura Sahig.Biga Fill ------------------------Banisters ---------------------------.Rodapis Fillet ----------------------Bath tub ---------------------------Baniera Flooring ------------------Bolt --------------------------------Pierno Floor sill -----------------Bottom Chord --------------------Tirante.Balustre.Barandilla Feet -----------------------Beam -------------------------------.Uno Sinotra Engineer ------------------Anchor -----------------------------Liyabe Exterior Siding ----------Architect ---------------------------Arkitekto Faucet ---------------------Astragal ----------------------------. Estunyo Flush ---------------------Brace ------------------------------Pie de Gallo Foundation or Footings- Elektrista Inhenyero Tabike Gripo Senepa Piye Tambak Tapal.Barandil Filler ----------------------Dagdag Barrel Bolt -------------------------. Suelo Guililan Alahado Pundasyon .Barakilan.

Haligue Konkreto Larga Masa Biga Foreman -----------------Kapatas. canal Hand rail ----------------Gabay Head ---------------------Sombrero Hinge --------------------Bisagra Hip roof -----------------Kuatro Horizontal Stud -------Inch ----------------------Jamb ---------------------Joist ----------------------Kingpost ----------------Trabe-Anzo Pulgada Hamba Suleras Pendolum . MaestroDe Obra Framework --------------Balangkas Gable Roof -------------Dos Aguas Girder --------------------Guililan Girts or Girder ----------Sepo Gravel --------------------Graba Good Grain --------------Haspe Groobe -------------------Canal Gutter --------------------Alulod.Brick ------------------------------Canopy ---------------------------Cabinet Hinge -------------------Carpenter ------------------------Carpentry ------------------------Cast Iron -------------------------Ceiling ---------------------------Ceiling Board -------------------Ceiling Joist ---------------------Cement --------------------------Cement Brick -------------------Cement Tiles --------------------Chain bolt -----------------------Aguas Collar ----------------------------Column --------------------------Concrete -------------------------Concrete Slab -------------------Concrete Beam ------------------ Landrillo Media Agua Espolon Karpintero Karpinteria Pundido Kisame Kostil Yahe Semento Ladrilyo Baldosa Baral de Kadena Sinturon Kolumna.

sheets ----------------Galbanisado Closed Stringer -----------------Crushed Stone ------------------Diagonal Brace -----------------Door ------------------------------Pasante Door Fillet -----------------------Door Head -----------------------Door Jamb -----------------------Drawbore Pin or Drawpin ------ Alulod Kontratista Yiero Canalado Escalera Eskombro Sinturon Pinto Laborer ------------------Landing -----------------Lavatory ----------------- Piyon Mesa Lababo Laying of CHB orAdobe Stone -----------Asinta Lean to roof ------------Sibe Level --------------------Lebel Machine Bolt ----------Peirno Kantero Kanteria Lastilyas Metro Batidora Mason ------------------Sombrero (Pintuan) Masonry ----------------Hamba Pintuan Masonry Fill -----------Punsol Meter --------------------- .I.Conductor -----------------------Contractor -----------------------Pahingahan Corr. G.

Mitre or Miter -------------------Mixture of Sand & Gravel -----Mortar ----------------------------Mortar Joists ---------------------Moulding -------------------------Nailers ----------------------------Nail -------------------------------Nail Setter -----------------------Newel Post ----------------------Nut --------------------------------Nicolite Bar ----------------------Oakum ----------------------------Open Stringer --------------------Over Hand or Projector ---------Painter -----------------------------Panel -------------------------------Panellee Door ---------------------Madrina Pattern -----------------------------Pea Gravel ------------------------- Canto Mesa Lastilyas Paupo Kostura Moldura Pamakuan Pako Punsol Tukod Tuerka Estanyo Estopa Hardinera Bolada Pintor Bandeha De Bandeha Plantilya Grabita Septic Tank ------------Shape -------------------Sheet --------------------Shower ------------------Sidings ------------------Sink ----------------------Sketch Plan -------------Slab (rough) -------------Slope ---------------------Solder --------------------Solder Bar ---------------Spacing ------------------Split Knob ---------------Stairs ---------------------Stake ----------------------Stringer (open) ----------Stringer -------------------Stucco --------------------Stud (vertical)------------- Poso Negro Korte Plantsa Dutsha Tabika Prigadero Krokis Larga Masa Bahada Hinang Estaniyo Biento Poleya Hagdanan Staka Hardinera Madre. Palitada Pilarete .

Perdano Plug ---------------------------------.Tapon Trellise -------------------Pergola Plumb Bob -------------------------.Bolada Washer --------------------.Tubero Varnished ----------------Varnisado Plumb Line ------------------------. Tsapa Purlins ------------------------------.Hulog Truss ----------------------Truss.Reostra Water Closet -------------.I. Haligue Wainscoating Tiles ------. Tingga.Mediacana Window Grille ----------Rehas Rabbet ------------------------------. sheet -------------------Plain G. Tahilan Palitada Transom -----------------Espeho Kusturada Tread ---------------------Baytang.Pendulum (King Post) -----------Pickwork --------------------------Subuhan Piglead -----------------------------Plain G.Sombrero . Estopa Thread --------------------Roskas Yiero Liso Galbanisado Tinsmith ------------------Latero Lingueta Tinsmithing --------------Lateria Senepa Top Chord ---------------Kilo.Masilya Window ------------------Bintana Quarter Round ---------------------.Vaciada Window Head -----------. Strap -------------------Plank Board -----------------------Plaster ------------------------------Plastered Course ------------------- Pendulon Piketa Stud (horizontal) --------Temper (metal work)----- Pabalagbag Suban. Kilo Plumber ----------------------------.Pitsa.Inidoro Putty --------------------------------.Hulog Vertical Stud -------------.Poste.Pilarete Post ---------------------------------.Asolehos Projection --------------------------.I.

Bakal Ridgeroll ---------------------------.Kilo Bintana Reinforcing Bar -------------------.Rebokada Screw ------------------------------Turnilyo Bintana Window Jamb -----------Window Sill -------------W.I. Takip Silipan Rivets ------------------------------Rimatse Roof -------------------------------Atip.Caballete Riser --------------------------------.Cabilla.Senepa. Plancha Scratch Coat ----------------------. Strap ----------------Wiring Knob ------------Wood Grain -------------Wood Plank -------------Wrought Iron Strap ------ Hamba Pasamano Planchuela Poleya Haspe Tabla Plantsuela PRECAST AND PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION .Rafters ------------------------------. Bubong Sand -------------------------------Buhangin Scaffolding -----------------------Andamiyo.

THE INTRODUCTION OF PRECAST-CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION WAS BROUGHT ABOUT BY BUILDING COSTS THAT HAS CONSIDERABLY INCREASED FASTER THAT MOST INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS THAT ARE AFFECTED BY THE LARGE AMOUNT OF ON-SITE LABOR INVOLVED IN THE TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION. THE CONCRETE IS CAST IN PERMANENT FORMS OF STEEL. THE DEMAND FOR SKILLED WORKERS ON ON-SITE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IS INCREASINGLY OUTRUNNING THE SUPPLY. GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC. CONCRETE. THE ANSWER TO THERE PROBLEMS WERE BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF CONSTRUCITON AND SUBSTITUTION OF SITE LABOR BY FACTORY PRODUCED PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE WHICH HAS RAPIDLY DEVELOPED AND GAINED IMPORTANCE. THE WET CONCRETE IS VIBRATED MECHANICALLY IN THE FORMS TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM DENSITY AND HIGHEST SURFACE QUALITY. .

40 m. .000 PSI FOR STRENGTH OF STEEL. THE CASTING BEDS AVERAGE 125 METERS TO EXTEND 250 METERS IN LENGTH. PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS ARE USUALLY STEAM CURED WITH THEE USE OF HIGH EARLY STRENGTH CEMENT TO ENABLE A PRECAST TO REMOVE IN FORM IN 24 HOURS. THEY ARE USED AS CURTAIN WALLS ATTACHED TO COLUMNS AND BEAMS OR SOMETIMES AS BEARING WALLS. 270. TYPES OF PRECAST STRUCTURE WALL PANELS – THIS TYPE OF PRECAST STRUCTURE HAS NUMEROUS DESIGNS DEPENDING UPON THE ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS. THE COMMON SHAPES PRODUCED FOR ONE TO FOUR STOREY HIGH STRUCTURES ARE SECTIONS HAVING A WIDTH UP TO 2.CONCRETE STRENGTH IN PRECAST IS USUALLY 5000 PSI. FORMS ARE CALLED CASTING BEDS.

GLASS FIBER OR EXPANDED PLASTIC IS INSERTED BETWEEN TWO LAYERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE ADEQUATELY BONDED INTERCONNECTING THE TWO LAYERS TO ACT AS ONE UNIT. HENCE. CONTROL OF CRACKING IS OF GREAT IMPORTANCE. STRESSES IN HANDLING AND ERECTION OF THE MEMBER IS MORE THAN THAT OF THE FINISHED FILLED STRUCTURE. FOAM GLASS.THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WALL PANELS ARE: 1. 4. 3. 2. FLAT TYPE DOUBLE TEE TYPE RIBBED TYPE WINDOW OR MULLION TYPE TO IMPROVE THE THERMAL INSULATION OF THE PANEL. PRECAST COLUMN .

THE VARIOUS SHAPES ARE: 1. IN A MULTI-STOREY CONSTRUCTION.60meters. to . RECTANGULAR BEAM – WHERE THE FLOOR AND ROOF MEMBERS ARE SUPPORTED ON TOP OF THE BEAM. .60 x .30m.PRECAST COLUMN SIZES ARE FROM . TEE COLUMN IS SOMETIMES USED TO SUPPORT DIRECTLY DOUBLE TEE FLOOR MEMBERS WITHOUT THE USE OF INTERMEDIATE MEMBERS. THE COLUMNS ARE MADE CONTINUOUS UP TO FOUR STORIES WHEREIN CORBELS ARE USED TO PROVIDE BEARING FOR THE BEAM. PRECAST BEAMS THE SHAPE OF PRECAST BEAMS DEPENDS UPON THE MANNER OF FRAMING.30 x . 2. LEDGER BEAM – IS DESIGNED TO REDUCE THE HEIGHT OF THE FLOOR AND ROOF CONSTRUCTION.

MAGNITUDE OF LOAD. L –BEAM – TO PROVIDE BEARING. THE BEAM IS DESIGNED IN A FORM OF L. FIRE RATINGS AND APPEARANCE. ROOF AND FLOOR MEMBERS ROOF AND FLOOR MEMBERS ARE MADE IN WIDE VARIETY TO SUIT THE DIFFERENT CONDITIONS SUCH AS SPAN. • FLAT SLAB – IS USUALLY 10cm THICK BUT SOMETIMES AS THIN AS 7cm WHEN USED ON CONTINUOUS SEVERAL SPAN HAVING A WIDTH .3. 4. AASHTO BRIDGE GIRDER – NAMED AFTER THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS.

to 10. TO 2.TOPPING IS APPLIED TO ACT MONOLITHICALLY WITH THE HOLLOW PLANK • DOUBLE TEE – ARE THE MOST WIDELY USED SHAPES FOR LONGER SPAN HAVING A DEPTH FROM 4.00 m. THE FLANGE OF THE TEE CONSTITUTE THE FLOOR OR ROOF SLAB.20m. . GENERALLY USED ON ROOF HAVING A SPAN UP WITH THE PRECAST MEMBERS. IT COULD BE USED ON FLOOR TO A SPAN UP TO 15 METERS DEPENDING UPON THE LOAD AND DEFLECTION REQUIREMENTS. • HOLLOW PLANK – IS A LIGHTEIGHT MEMBER THAT COVERS A LONGER SPAN MADE BY EXTENSION IN SPECIAL MACHINE WITH A THICKNESS THAT RANGES FROM 10cm. AND ALSO ON FLOOR WITH 3. to 20cm. USED ON ROOF HAVING A SPAN FROM 5.20 m.40 m.50 m.00 m.THAT RANGES FORM 1. WHEN 5cm.00 m.00 METERS.00 m.50 to 7. AND THE WIDTH RANGES FORM . A LENGTH UP TO 11. • SINGLE TEE – ARE USED FOR ROOFING HAVING A SPAN UP TO 30 METERS AND MORE.60 to 1. SPAN WHICH COULD BE AUGMENTED TO 9.00 TO 6.

• SINGLE TEE – IS NORMALLY USED FOR LONGER SPAN UP TO 36 METERS WITH HEAVIER LOADS.SHAPE OF PRESTRESSED STRUCTURE THE COMMON SHAPES OF PRESTRESSED STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AREA: • DOUBLE TEE – IS CONSIDERED AS THE MOST WIDELY USED SECTION FOR PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION WITH A FLAT SURFACE HAVING A WIDTH THAT RANGES FROM 1.40 METERS WIDE. • CHANNEL SLAB – IS USED FOR FLOORS IN THE INTERMEDIATE SPAN. • I –SECTION – IS WIDELY USED FOR BRIDGES. GIRDERS UP TO 36 METERS SPAN. .20 TO 2. THE THICKNESS DEPENDS UPON THE REQUIREMENTS WHILE THE SPAN CAN EXTEND UP TOP 18 METERS. ROOF. • INVERTED TEE SECTION – PROVIDES A BEARING LEDGE TO CARRY THE PRECAST DECK MEMBERS HAVING A PERPENDICULAR DIRECTION OF SPAN.

• BOX GIRDER – IS USED ON BRIDGES FOR INTERMEDIATE AND MAJOR SPAN. PRESTRESSING OF CONCRETE THERE ARE SEVERAL METHODS EMPLOYED IN APPLYING PRESTRESSED FORCE TO A CONCRETE BEAM: • PRECOMPRESSING METHOD – IS A PROCESS OF USING JACKS REACTING AGAINST ABUTMENT. • SELF-CONTAINED METHOD – THE PROCESS IS DONE BY TYING THE JACK BASE TOGETHER WITH WIRES OR CABLES LOCATED ON EACH SIDE OF THE BEAM. USUALLY THE WIRES AND CABLES ARE PRESSED THROUGH A HOLLOW CONDUIT EMBEDDED IN THE CONCRETE BEAM. ONE END OF THE TENDON IS ANCHORED AND FORCES ARE APPLIED AT THE OTHER END. AFTER ATTAINING THE DESIRED PRESTRESS FORCE, THE TENDON IS THEN WEDGED AGAINST THE CONCRETE, REMOVING THE JACK EQUIPMENT.

• BOND FRICTION – THE PRESTRESSING STRANDS ARE STRETCHED BETWEEN MASSIVE ABUTMENT PRIOR TO CASTING OF CONCRETE IN THE BEAM FORMS. AFTER THE CONCRETE HAS GAINED SUFFICIENT STRENGTH, THE JACKS ARE THEN RELEASED TRANSFERRING THE PRESTRESSED FORCE TO THE CONCRETE BY BOND AND FRICTION ALONG THE STRANDS. THE SELF CONTAINED AND THE BOND AND FRICTION METHODS CAN GENERALLY BE CLASSIFIED AS PRE-TENSIONING OR POSTTENSIONING SYSTEM. THESE METHODS CAN BE APPLIED TO MASS PRODUCTION OF CASTING SEVERAL METERS LONG OF STRUCTURE AND CUTTING THE INDIVIDUAL BEAM OR POST TO THE DESIRED LENGTH OUT FROM THE LONG CASTING. THE FAILURE OF EARLY ATTEMPT IN PRESTRESSING CONCRETE WAS DUE TO THE USE OF ORDINARY STEEL HAVING LOW PRESTRESS

STRENGTH CAPABILITY WHICH WAS RAPIDLY LOST DUE TO SHRINKAGE AND CREEP IN THE CONCRETE. PRESTRESSING OF CONCRETE COULD BE EFFECTIVE WHEN A VERY HIGH STRENGTH STEEL ARE USED. EXPERIMENTS SHOW THAT HIGH STRENGTH HAS ONLY ABOUT 15% STRESS LOSS AS COMPARED TO 100 % LOSS IN A BEAM USING ORDINARY STEEL. PRESTRESSING STEEL IS USUALLY IN THE FORM OF INDIVIDUAL WIRE STRAND CABLE MADE UP OF SEVEN WIRES AND ALLOY STEEL BARS. • THERMAL PRESTRESSING – THE STEEL IS PREHEATED BY MEANS OF ELECTRIC POWER WHICH ARE ANCHORED AGAINST THE OPPOSITE END OF THE CONCRETE BEAM. THE COOLING PROCESS PRODUCES PRESTRESS FORCE THROUGH RESTRAINED CONTRACTION. THE CAUSES OF PRESTRESS LOSSES ARE:

. A) HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE HAS A HIGHER MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. MOST OF THE PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION SPECIFY A COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BETWEEN (4. 4.1. 3. SLIP AT ANCHORAGE ELASTIC SHORTENING OF CONCRETE CREEP OF CONCRETE SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE RELAXATION OF STEEL STRESS FRICTIONAL LOSS DUE TO INTENDED OR UNINTENDED CURVATURE IN THE TENDONS. CONCRETE FOR PRESTRESSING CONCRETE OF HIGHER COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IS USED FOR PRESTRESSED STRUCTURES. IT MINIMIZE THE REDUCTION OF PRESTRESS LOSS. 6. 5. 2.000 psi) 280-422 kg/cm2 BECAUSE OF THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFERS.000 to 6.

B) C) D) INCREASING THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF THE CONCRETE MEETS THE PROBLEM OF HIGH BEARING STRESSES AT THE ENDS OF POST AND BEAM WHERE THE PRESTRESSING FORCE IS TRANSFERRED FROM THE TENDON TO THE ANCHORAGE DOWELS WHICH DIRECTLY BEARS AGAINST THE CONCRETE. MEASURING THE TENDON ELONGATION. HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE GIVES HIGHER STRENGTH TO PRECAST CONSTRUCTION WHEN CURING IS CAREFULLY CONTROLLED. MEASUREMENT OF PRESTRESSING FORCE PRESTRESSING FORCE COULD BE DETERMINED BY: 1. HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE DEVELOPS STRONGER BOND PRESTRESSES TO PRETENSIONING CONSTRUCTION. .

THE ELONGATION REQUIREMENTS SHALL BE TAKEN FROM THE AVERAGE LOAD ELONGATION CURVES FOR THE STEEL USED. EITHER BY CHECKING JACK PRESSURE ON A CALIBRATED GAGE OR LOAD CELL OR BY THE USED OF CALIBRATED DYNAMOMETER. THE CUTTING POINTS AND CUTTING SEQUENCE SHALL BE PREDETERMINED TO AVOID UNDESIRED TEMPORARY STRESSES. .2. THE CAUSE OF ANY DIFFERENCE IN DETERMINING THE FORCE WHICH EXCEED 5 PERCENT COULD BE ASCERTAINED AND CORRECTED. THE TOTAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS DUE TO UNREPLACED BROKEN TENDONS SHALL NOT EXCEED 2 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL PRESTRESS. WHERE FORCE TRANSMISSION FROM THE BULKHEADS OF THE PRETENSIONING BED TO THE CONCRETE IS MADE BY FLAME CUTTING THE STEEL. EXPOSED STRANDS ARE CUT NEAR THE MEMBER TO MINIMIZE SHOCK TO THE CONCRETE.

BUILDING MATERIALS WOOD MATERIALS .• POST TENSIONING – THE STRESSING OF UNBONDED TENDONS AFTER CONCRETE HAS CURED.

TWO MAJOR CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD: • SOFTWOOD – THESE ARE USED FOR GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. • DURABILITY – THE RELATIVE VALUE / LIFESPAN OF WOOD. STAIRS. PANELLING. PROPERTIES OF WOOD: • HARDNESS – MEASURED BY THE COMPRESSION. • FLEXIBILITY – THE AMOUNT A PIECE WILL BEND BEFORE BREAKING. . IT HAS GREAT ABILITY TO ABSORB SHOCKS FROM SUDDEN LOAD AND LIGHT IN WEIGHT WHICH ADAPTABLE IN A COUNTLESS VARIETY OF PURPOSES. FURNITURES AND INTERIOR TRIM. • HARDWOOD – THESE ARE USED FOR FLOORING. • STRENGTH – TO THE GRAIN. WHICH A PIECE UNDERGOES WHEN A WEIGHT IS APPLIED.WOOD HAS DURABILITY AND BEAUTY.

• PITCH POCKETS – WELL REFINED OPENINGS BETWEEN ANNUAL RINGS CONTAINING SOLID OR LIQUID PITCH. • . • WANE – IS THE LACK OF WOOD ON THE EDGE OR CORNER OF A PIECE. • KNOTS – IRREGULAR GROWTHS IN THE BODY WHICH INTERRUPS SMOOTH CURVE. • CHECKS – CRACKS OR LENGTH WISE SEPARATION ACROSS THE ANNUAL RINGS OF GROWTH.DEFECTS OF LUMBER: DECAY – CAUSED BY THE ATTACKED OF FUNGI. • TYPES OF WARPING: CUPPING – IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS CONVEX/CONCAVE ACROSS THE BOARD.

BOWING – IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS CONVEX/CONCAVE LONGITUDINALLY. THREE CATEGORIES OF LUMBER: . • DEFINITION OF TERMS: • STRIPS – PIECES LESS THAN 2” THICK AND LESS THAN 8” WIDE. • TWISTING – IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH ONE CORNER IS RAISED. • LOG – PIECES 12” OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION. • BOARDS – PIECES LESS THAN 2” THICK AND AT LEAST 8” WIDE. • DIMENSION LUMBER – PIECES MORE THAN 2” THICK AND LESS THAN 5” IN ANY DIMENSION. • TIMBER – PIECES 4” OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION.

TO THE FACE. PLANK SIDING.YARD LUMBER – USED FOR ORDINARY LIGHT CONSTRUCTION AND FINISHING WORK. • ANGLE GRAIN – WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS ARE AT ABOUT 45 DEG. . COMMONLY USED FOR FLOORING. DOORS. AND CABINETS. • SHOP LUMBER – IT IS INTENDED FOR USE IN SHOPS OR IN MILLS MAKING SASH. • STRUCTURAL LUMBER – IS INTENDED FOR USE IN HEAVY CONSTRUCTION FOR LOAD-BEARING PURPOSES AND IS CUT INTO TIMBERS OF LARGER SIZE. • WOOD GRAIN: • EDGE GRAIN – ANNUAL RINGS RUN APPROX. TRIM AND MOULDING. AT RIGHT ANGLE TO THE FACE. • FLAT GRAIN – WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS RUN MORE OR LESS PARALLEL TO THE SURFACE.

IT MUST BE DRIED TO A MOISTURE CONTENT OF NOT MORE THAN 5 TO 10 PERCENT. MANUFACTURE BOARDS: MANUFACTURED BOARDS ARE MADE OF WOOD BUT DOES NOT APPEAR IN THEIR NATURAL STATE. THIS TYPE OF BUILDING MATERIALS CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS A TYPE OF LUMBER AS THEY ARE THE BY-PRODUCT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF LUMBER. THIS IS DONE IN AN AIRTIGHT STRUCTURE SCIENTIFICALLY HEATED BY STEAM PIPES IN WHICH THE LUMBER IS ARTIFICIALLY DRIED TO THE CORRECT MOISTURE CONTENT.SEASONING OF LUMBER: • AIR DRYING – LUMBER IS STRIP-PILED AT ASLOPE ON ASOLID FOUNDATION. . THE COMPLETE UTILIZATION OF WOOD HAS LEAD TO AN EXPANDED FIELD OF MANUFACTURED BOARDS. • KILN-DRYING – MORE EXPENSIVE LUMBER WHICH IS REQUIRED FOR MORE REFINED USES SO AS WOOD WILL NOT MOVE. THIS ALLOWS AIR TO CIRCULATE AROUND EVERY PIECE WHILE THE SLOPING ALOOWS WATER TO RUN OFF QUICKLY.

. TYPES OF PLYWOOD: • SOFT PLYWOOD THE MOST COMMON FOR STRUCTURAL USE • HARDWOOD PLYWOOD – ARE USED FOR PANELLING AND FINSHING WHERE USUALLY ON ONE FACE IS HARD FINISHED.TYPES OF BOARDS: • PLYWOOD – IS MADE OF AN ODD NUMBER VENEER SHEETS GLUED TOGETHER WITH THE GRAINS RUNNING AT RIGHT ANGLE TO EACH OTHER. THE DIFF. IT IS LIGHT IN WEIGHT AND STRONG THAT SCREW OR NAIL CAN BE DRIVEN CLOSE TO THE EDGES WITHOUT DANGER OF SPLITTING. • EXTERIOR OR MARINE PLYWOOD – IS MADE FOR EXTERNAL USE. • HARDBOARD – IS MADE FROM WOOD CHIPS WHICH ARE EXPLODED INTO FIBERS UNDER STREAM OF HIGH PRESSURE.

CURLS.THE LINING IN THE WOOD ITSELF BINDS PRESSED WOOD TOGETHER WITH NO FILLERS OR ARTIFICIAL ADHESIVES APPLIED. • PARTICLE BOARD – IS MANUFACTURES FROM WOOD CHIPS. FIBERS.e. MASONRY MASONRY REFERS TO A MAN-MADE UNITS WHICH ARE FORMED AND HARDENED INTO MODULAR BUILDING UNITS. PRESSED WOOD IS EQUALLY STRONG IN ALL DIRECTIONS BUT VERY BRITTLE. IT IS NOT BRITTLE AND CAN RESIST WARPING. ITS COLOR VARIES FROM LIGHT TO DARK BROWN. UNIFORM SIZE AND PROPORTIONAL RELATIONSHIP) . FLAKES. STRANDS. SHAVING. BOUND TOGETHER AND PRESSED INTO SHEETS AND OTHER MOLDED SHAPED. PARTICLE BOARD HAS EQUAL STRENGTH IN ALL DIRECTION OF A GIVEN CROSS SECTIONAL AREA. THIS MODULAR ASPECTS (i. SLIVERS ETC.

AGGREGATE AND WATER CERAMIC AND CLAY PRODUCTS: BRICK THE BASIC INGREDIENTS OF BRICK IS CLAY-CLAY WHICH HAS SOME SPECIFIC PROPERTIES.DISTINGUISHES MASONRY FROM MOST OF THE OTHER CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS. IT MUST HAVE SUFFICIENTTENSILE STRENGTH TO KEEP ITS SHAPE AFTER FORMING. • THROUGH CHEMICAL ACTION – MADE FROM MIXTURE OF CEMENT OR GYPSUM. SO THAT IT CAN BE MOLDED OR SHAPED. AND CLAY PARTICLES MUST FUSE TOGETHER WHEN SUBJECTED TO SUFFICIENT HIGH TEMPERATURES. MASONRY UNITS ARE FORMED FROM SHAPELESS MATERIALS AND HARDENED IN EITHER OF TWO WAYS: • THROUGH HEAT – MADE FROM VARIOU TYPE OF CLAY. IT MUST HAVE PLASTICITY WHEN MIXED WITH WATER. .

LOAD BEARING BLOCKS ARE THOSE WHOSE . • THE ADHESION OF MORTAR TO BRICKS OR TO STEEL REINFORCEMENT USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THEM IS CALLED THE MORTAR BOND. CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS: CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS ARE CLASSIFIED AS BEARING AND NON-BEARING BLOCKS.BRICK BOUNDS • THE METHOD OF LAYING BRICKS IN A WALL IN ORDER TO FORM SOME DISTINCTIVE PATTERN OR DESIGN IS REFERRED TO AS THE PATTERN BOND. • THE METHOD BY WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL UNITS IN A BRICK STRUCTURE ARE TIED TOGETHER EITHER BY OVERLAPPING OR BY METAL TIES IS KNOWN AS THE STRUCTURAL BOND.

TO 10 CM.5 CM. ARE BLOCKS WHICH ARE INTENDED FOR WALLS. TO 20 CM. THESE CELLS VARY IN SIZES AS THERE ARE DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS USING DIFFERENT MOULDS. FENCES OR DIVIDERS CARRYING ITS OWN WEIGHT WHOSE THICKNESS RANGES FROM 7. THE VARRYING SIZES OF THE CELLS WILL AFFECT THE CELL BE ADOPTED IN OUR COMPUTATION. AND ARE USED TO CARRY LOAD ASIDE FROM ITS OWN WEIGHT. CONCRETE CEMENTS PORTLAND CEMENT . CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS HAS THREE CELLS AND TWO ONE HALF CELLS AT BOTH ENDS HAVING A TOTAL OF FOUR. PARTITIONS.THICKNESS RANGES FROM 15 CM. NON-BEARING BLOCKS ON THE OTHER HAND.

• MASONRY CEMENT OR TILE ADHESIVES – HAS BEEN SPECIALLY DESIGNED TO PRODUCE BETTER MORTAR THAN THAT MADE WITH . SPECIAL CEMENTS • WHITE PORTLAND CEMENT – SAME MATERIALS AS NORMAL PORTLAND EXCEPT IN COLOR. DECORATIVE CONCRETE STUCCO AND TILE GROUT. ALUMINA AND IRON COMPONENTS. SILICA. PORTLAND CEMENT IS SOLID EITHER IN CEMENT BAGS OF 40 KILOS WEIGHT OR IN BULK INTO CEMENT TRUCKS.MADE FROM MATERIALS WHICH MUST CONTAIN IN THE PROPER PROPORTIONS OF LIME. OR WHEREVER WHITE OR COLORED CONCRETE OR MORTAR IS SPECIFIED. NON-STAINING CEMENT. THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS IS CONTROLLED TO PRODUCE A PURE WHITE. BURNED THEN PULVERIZED. FOUR PARTS OF LIMESTONE TO ONE PART CLAY ARE BASIC INGREDIENTS. IT IS USED PRIMARILY FOR ARCHITECTURAL PURPOSES SUCH AS CURTAIN WALL AND FACING PANELS. THESE ARE MIXED.

NORMAL PORTLAND CEMENT OR WITH A LIME-CEMENT HAS PARTICULARLY GOOD PLASTICITY AND WORKABILITY, GOOD ADHESION AND BOND. • WATERPROOFED PORTLAND CEMENT – NORMALLY PRODUCED BY ADDING A SMALL AMOUNT OF STEARATE, USUALLY CALCIUM OR ALUMINUM TO THE CEMENT CLINKER DURING THE FINAL GRINDING. TYPES OF AGGREGATES USED IN CONCRETE CONCRETE CAN BE CONSIDERED TO BE AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE BY BINDING TOGETHER PARTICLES OF SOME INERT MATERIAL WITH A PASTE MADE OF CEMENT AND WATER. THESE INERT MATERIAL ARE THE AGGREGATE. AGGREGATES USED ARE SAND GRAVEL CRUSHED STONE, CINDER. CRUSHED FURNACE SLAG, BURNED CLAY, EXPANDED VERMICULITE, AND PERLITE. SAND - FOUND IN RIVERBEDS, FREE OF SALT AND MUST BE WASHED.

FINE AGGREGATE COARSE AGGREGATE CONCRETE MIXES CLASS “AA” CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C

- ¼” SMALLER DIAMETER STONES. - BIGGER THAN ¼” DIAMETER STONES.

- 1: 1 ½: 3 - CONCRETE UNDER WATER, RETAINING WALLS - 1:2:4 - FOOTINGS, COLUMNS BEAMS, R.C. SLABS

- 1: 2 1/ 2:5- SLAB ON FILL, NON BEARING WALLS - 1: 3: 6 - CONCRETE PLANT BOXES, ETC.

CONTROL OF CONCRETE MIXES

SLUMP TEST- WHEN FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE IS CHECKED TO ENSURE THAT THE SPECIFIED SLUMP IS BEING ATTAINED CONSISTENTLY. A STANDARD SLUMP CONE IS 12 INCHES HIGH (0.30) AND 8 INCHES (O.20) IN DIAMETER AT THE BOTTOM AND 4 INCHES (O.10) ON TOP WHICH IS OPEN ON BOTH ENDS. THE CONE IS FILLED IN THREE EQUAL LAYERS, EACH BEING TAMPED OR RODDED 25 TIMES WITH A STANDARD 5/8” BULLET NOSED ROD. WHEN THE CONE HAS BEEN FILLED AND LEVELED OFF, IT IS LIFTED CAREFULLY AND THE AMOUNT OF SLUMP IS MEASURED. ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION ‘X’ BEAMS AND COLUMNS SLABS AND TUNNEL INVERTS TOPS AND WALL, PIERS, PARAPET & CURBS SIDE WALLS AND ARCH IN TUNNEL LINING 7.5 cm. (.075) 3” 5.0 cm. (.50) 2” 5.0 cm. (.50) 2” 10.0 cm. (.10) 4”

075) 3” 5. HIGH AND 6 INCH.000 psi. SPECIMENS ARE USUALLY CYLINDRICAL WITH A LENGHT EQUAL TO TWICE THE DIAMETER. FILLING IS DONE THE SAME WAY AS THE SLUMP TEST BUT TAKEN OUT FROM THE MOLD IN 24 HOURS. (.5 cm. 2.000 psi. BASED ON 7 AND 28 DAYS CURING PERIODS. (. BRANDS OF PORTLAND CEMENT • ISLAND CEMENT • CONTINENTAL CEMENT • HI.500 psi. STANDARD SIZE IS 12 INCH. IT IS THEN SENT TO A COMPRESSION TESTING LABORATORY. DIAMETER.COMMON QUALITY-CONTROL TEST OF CONCRETE.50) 2” COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST.CANAL LINING HEAVY MASS CONSTRUCTION 7.0 cm. SOME COMPRESSIVE STRESSES ARE 2. 3.CEMENT . BY MAKING THE CYLINDER WHILE STILL WET.

GRAVEL & WATER. • CONCRETE – CEMENT. • GROUT – CEMENT AND WATER MIXTURE. . SAND.• • • • • • • UNION CEMENT RIZAL CEMENT FILIPINAS CEMENT PACIFIC CEMENT FORTUNE CEMENT REPUBLIC CEMENT NORTHERN CEMENT BRANDS OF WHITE CEMENT • PRIME WHITE CEMENT • KEENE • TRINITY • SNOWCRETE • MORTAR – CEMENT. SAND & WATER.

• ADOBE BRICK – LARGE ROUGHLY MOULDED SUN DRIED CLAY BRICKS OF VARYING SIZES.THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR W/O THE GAIN OR LOSS OF HEAT DURING THE CURING PERIOD. • FLEMISH BOND – A FORM OF BRICK BOND IN WHICH EACH COURSE IS ALTERBATELY COMPOSED OF ENTIRELY OF HEADERS AND OF STRETCHERS. • ADIABATIC CURING . • ASHLAR BRICK – A BRICK WHOSE FACE HAS BEEN HACKED TO RESEMBLE ROUGHLY HACKED STONE. • EFFLORESCENCE – AN ENCRUSTATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS CAUSED BY FREE ALKALIES LEACHED FROM MORTAR OR ADJACENT CONCRETE AS MOISTURE MOVE THROUGH IT. .• TYROLEAN FINISH – ROUGH PLASTER FINISH OBTAINED BY FLINGING PLASTER ON A WALL W/ A HAND OPERATED MACHINE. • WHEATHERED – MOST WATERPROOFED TYPE OF MORTAR JOINTS FOR WALLS.

• FORTIFICATION – THA WALL OF INTRAMUROS. .• RETARDER – NA ADMIXTURE WHICH DELAY THE SETTING OF CEMENT PASTE OR MIXTURES/ AN ADDITIVE MIXED WITH PLASTER TO CONTROL THE RATE OF HARDENING. • SOLDIER – A MSONRY UNIT WHICH IS SET ON END WITH ITS FACE SHOWING ON THE WALL SURFACE. • SCRATCH COAT – INITIAL SCORED LAYER OF PLASTER WORK. • STEAM CURING – THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR IN WATER VAPOR AT AN ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AT EITHER ATMOSPHERIC OR HIGH PRESSURE. A HARD STONE OR BRICK USED TO REINFORCE AN EXTERNAL CORNER OF A WALL. • ZOCALO – LOW WALL AROUND A CHALET-TYPE HOUSE. • CINDER BLOCK – A LIGHT WEIGHT MASONRY UNIT MADE OF CINDER CONCRETE. • MORTAR FOR BLOCK LAYING IS 0.0125 m. • QUOIN / COIN – IN MASONRY. • ROWLOCK – A BRICK LAID N ITS EDGE SO THAT ITS END IS VISIBLE.

003 cu.20 = 0. .00075 cu. NONFERROUS.• PLASTERING THICKNESS IS 0.METAL IN WHICH IRON IS THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENT. FOR 4 CELL/BLOCK = 0.00075 X 4 = 0.05 X 0. • MORTAR FILLER FOR HOLLOW CELL 0. OR VERY LITTLE IRON.m.016 m. FOR 4” CHB FERROUS AND NONFERROUS METALS FERROUS.CONTAINING NO.075 X 0.m.

HOWEVER SINCE IT IS CHEAP AND EASY TO CAST. . A GRAT VARIETY OF PRODUCTS USED IN CONSTRUCTION ARE MADE. AND LIMESTONE. AND HAS LITTLE USE FOR CONSTRUCTION. ENGINES AND BECAUSE OF ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IT IS USED FOR PIPES TO SOME EXTENT. ARE BLENDED AND BURNED ON A MOVING GATE TO CAUSE THE FORMATION OF CLINKERS. A HIGH. THEY INCLUDED: COLD-ROLLED SHEETS ARE GLAVANIZED (GIVEN A ZINC COATING).FERROUS METAL: STEEL. GRADED ACCORDING TO THE CARBON CONTENT. IRON ORE. THESE ARE CALLED SINTER. WHICH OTHERWISE WOULD BE WASTE. PRODUCE BY THREE BASIC RAW MATERIALS. IT IS USED FOR PUMPS.GRADE BLAST-FURNANCE CHARGE MATERIAL. FROM THESE. FIVE PARTICLES OF ALL THREE BASIC INGREDIENTS OF STEEL. MOTORS. RAW MATERIALS WHICH IS MELTED INTO INGOTS PLACE IN MOLDS.A MALLEABLE ALLOY OF IRON AND CARBON PRODUCED BY MELTING AND REFINING PIG IRON AND/ OR SCRAP STEEL. PIG IRON IS USED TO MAKE CAST IRON WHICH IS HIGH IN COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT BUT LOW IN TENSILE STRENGHT.

WROUGHT IRON IS PRODUCED WHEN PIG IRON IS MELTED IN SUCH A WAY AS TO REMOVE NEARLY ALL OF THE CARBON AND OTHER IMPURITIES.BEARING STEEL HAS HIGH RESISTANCE TO CORROSION AND IS USED FOR MAKING SHEET STEEL AND METAL LATH. STEEL PRODUCTS • ROLLED STRUCTURAL SHAPES • SHEET PILING. COPPER. IT’S MAIN USES ARE FOR ROOFING SHEETS.SECTIONS ARE MADE TO INTERLOCK AND ARE AVAILABLE IN SEVERAL SHAPE. COPINGS. . FASCIA AND GRAVEL STOPS. STAINLESS STEELS ARE MADE WITH CHROMIUM OR A COMBINATION OF NICKEL AND CHROMIUM USED IN BUILDINGS OF EXTERIOR WALLS PANELS. FRAMES FOR DOORS EXPANSION JOINTS. FLASHING. IT IS EASILY WORKED AND IS TOUGH AND DUCTILE. WIRE AND METAL ORNAMENTS.

.SEAMLESS OR WELDED SMALL DIAMETER PIPE AND ELECTRICALLY WELDED LARGE DIAMETER PIPE. 3= No. = 16mm. 7= ¼“ 3/8” ½” 5/8” ¾” 7/8” = 8 mm.MADE FROM NEW STEEL OR FROM DISCARDED RAILWAY. 4= No. = 10 mm. 2= No.CAR AXLES OR RAILS.• STEEL PIPE. • REINFORCING STEEL. BARS WHICH HAVE LUGS OR DEFORMATIONS ROLLED ON THE SURFACE TO PROVIDE ARCHORAGE IN CONCRETE. = 12mm. REINFORCING STEEL COMES IN PLAIN OR DEFORMED BARS.2 OR ¼ in. = 20mm. = 22mm. SIZES-START WITH NO. (DIVIDE A NUMBER OF BAR BY 8 TO GET THE EQUIVALENT IN inch DIAMETER) No. 5= No. THAT IS. 6= No.

FENCES. 8= 7/8” No. CABLES. PIANO WIRE. LONGITUDINAL WIRES WELDED TO TRANSVERSE WIRES AT REGULAR INTERVALS. • WELDED WIRE FABRIC. NAILS. • STEEL WIRE – OVER 150. TRIMS. BOLTS. AND IN MANY ROLLS THE THREAD. FOR BOLTS. 9= 1 1/8 = 25mm. • BOLTS AND NUTS – (EITHER HOT FORGED OR COLD-FORMED FROM WIRE OF THE APPROPRIATE DIAMETER). NEEDLES. WIRE IS FED INTO AN AUTOMATIC BOLT-MAKING MACHINE WHICH CUTS TO LENGTH HEADS. IT CONSISTS OF PARALLEL.No.000 USES FOR WIRE INCLUDING PINS. = 30mm. • STEEL STRAPPING – MADE FROM HIGH-TENSILE FLAT WIRE IN A NUMBER OF SIZES.ANOTHER TYPE OF REINFORCING MATERIAL. POINTS. USED FOR BANDING COLUMN FORMS TO KEEP THEM FROM BULGING UNDER THE PRESSURE OF FRESHLY .

REQUIRING MINIMUM STORAGE SPACE AND DOES NOT WARP OR SHRINK. NONFERROUS METALS: .POURED CONCRETE. 2 ½ AND 3 5/8 INCHES. MUCH FASTER TO INSTALL THAN WOOD STUD INSTALLATION. • STEEL STUDS – LIGHTWEIGHT. • SHEET STEEL – BLACK AND GALVANIZED. AND JOINTS STAY CLOSED. A TIGHTERNER TIGHTENS IT AND THE TWO LAPPED ENDS IS SEALED. PLUMBING STACKS AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS FIT EASILY INTO A STEEL-FRAMEWALL. AVAILABLE IN 1 5/8. CAN BE USED TO MANUFACTURE CORRUGATED ROOFING AND SIDING AND FORMED STEEL DECKING. FASTENERS DO NOT POP. • PANS AND DONES – MANUFACTURED FOR USE IN FORMING ONE-WAY AND TWO-WAY RIBBED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS. • OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS – LIGHTWEIGHT WARREN-TYPE TRUSSES MADE IN SEVERAL DIFFERENT STYLES.

HIGHLY DUCTILE AND MALLEABLE. BAUXITE. ETC. COPPER – A LUSTROUS REDDISH METAL. THE REDDISH BROWN ORE IS WASHED AND TREATED IN A SODA SOLUTION TO YIELD A CHALKY-WHITE POWDER CALLED ALUMNA. HAS HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH. FLASHINGS GUTTERS. REQUIRES 10 KILOWATT HOURS FOR EACH POUND OF METAL ALUMINUM EXTRACTED. . IS AN EXCELLENT ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTOR. CONTAINING A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ALUMINUM.ALUMINUM – ITS ORE. WIDELY USED FOR DOWNSPOUTS. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS. ALUMINUM FOIL – USED AS A VAPOR BARRIER ON WALLS AND CEILINGS AND AS REFLECTIVE INSULATION. IS AVAILABLE IN A WIDE VARIETY OF SHAPES. ROOFING.

USED FOR ROOFING. . RELATIVELY UNAFFECTED BY EXPOSURE TO AIR. HEAVY METAL. ENABLING IT TO BE FITTED OVER UNEVEN SURFACES. BRASSES ARE USED IN ARCHITECTURAL AND HARDWARE APPLICTIONS. LEAD – A SOFT. BRONZES ARE USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF SPRINGS. HAS LOW MELTING POINT AND A HIGH COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION. FLASHING AND SPANDREL WALL PANELS. AND THE ALLOYS CONTAINING NICKEL. TIN – A LUSTROUS WHITE. USED FOR MAKING ALLOYS AND SOLDER AND IN COATING SHEET METAL. AND BRONZES WHICH CONTAIN PRIMARILY ZINC AND TIN. VERY EASY TO CUT AND WORK.COPPER ALLOYS ARE BRASSES. MALLEABLE. SOFR AND MALLEABLE METAL HAVING A LOW MELTING POINT. RESPECTIVELY.

SQUARE BARS 6. H-COLUMN 4. CHANNELS 10.STRUCTURAL SHAPES THE MOST COMMON SHAPES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ARE THE AMERICAN STANDARD FORMS SUCH AS: 1. I-BEAM 2. PLATE BARS 8. ROUND BARS 7. ANGLE BARS 9. IT THEREFORE REQUIRES LATERAL SUPPORT TO PREVENT ITS TENDENCY TO BUCKLE. WIDE FLANGES 5. THE STANDARD CHANNELS ARE GENERALLY USED AS ELEMENTS OF BUILT-UP SECTIONS FOR COLUMNS AND ARE ALSO SUITABLE FOR FRAMING AROUND FLOOR OPENINGS. AND LINTELS . TEE BEAM 3. SPANDRELS. ZEE STANDARD CHANNEL THE STANDARD CHANNEL HAS THE SHAPE OF UNSYMMETRICAL BALANCE CONSISTING OF TWO FLANGES ON ONE SIDE.

STANDARD I-BEAM THE USE OF I-BEAM AS A COLUMN IS UNECONOMICAL. WIDE FLANGE WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE DESIGNATED AS W 12 x 24 WHICH MEANS THAT THE FLANGE HAS A DEPTH OF 24 cm. ALL WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE GENERALLY WITH PARALLEL FACE FLANGE ESCEPT THOSE WITH 5% SLOPE INSIDE FACE PRODUCED BY BETLEHEM STEEL COMPANY. THE CHANNEL SECTION IS IDENTIFIRD AS C 15 x 20 WHICH MEANS THAT THE CHANNEL HAS A DEPTH OF 20 cm. COMPARATIVELY. BECAUSE THE WHIRL OR REVOLVING ACTION OF THE STRUCTURE ABOUT AN AXIS . PER METER LENGTH. PER METER LENGTH.ATTRIBUTED TO THE ABSENCE OF FLANGE ON THE OTHER SIDE. WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE MORE EFFICIENT THAN STANDARD I BEAM WITH RESPECT TO BENDING RESISTANCE. AND IT WEIGHS 12 kg. AND WEIGHTS 15 kg.

. ZEE SECTIONS THE ZEE SECTION IS ANOTHER STRUCTURAL FORM IN A LETTER Z WHICH IS NOT FREQUENTLY USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION EXEPT ON THE FABRICATION OF STEEL WINDOWS AND OTHER FRAMES. VALUED FOR ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE AND DUCTILITY. H-BEARING PILES H-BEARING PILES ALTHOUGH SUITABLE FOR PILE DRIVING ON DEEP EXCAVATIONS IS MUCH MORE SUITABLE THAN THE I-BEAM FOR COLUMNS. • CAST IRON – AN IRON ALLOY USUALLY INCLUDING CARBON AND SILICON WHICH HAS HIGH COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH BUT LOW TENSILE STRENGTH. • WROUGHT IRON – A COMMERCIALLY PURE IRON OF FIBROUS NATURE.THROUGH THE CENTROID PARALLEL TO THE WAB OF THE I-BEAM IS COMPARATIVELY SMALL.

• RED OXIDE – PROTECTIVE COAT FOR IRON. PRESSED OR CAST TO A VARIETY OF SHAPES. • EXTRUSION – THE PROCESS OF PRODUCING METAL SHAPES OF A CONSTANT CROSS SECTION BY FORCING THE HOT METAL THROUGH AN ORFICE IN A DIE BY MEANS OF A PRESSURE RAM. GLASS A HARD BRITTLE INORGANIC SUBSTANCE. . ROLLED.• WELDING – IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH TWO METALS ARE SO JOINT THAT THERE IS AN ACTUAL UNION OF THE INTERATOMIC BONDS. WHILE MOLTEN MAYBE BLOWN. ORDINARILY TRANSPARENT OR TRANSLUCENT. A FLUX AND A STABILIZER. DRAWN. • LAP SEAM – A JOINT FORMED BY OVERLAPPING THE EDGES OF METAL SHEET OR PLATES AND JOINING THEM BY RIVETING OR SOLDERING OR BRACING. PRODUCED BY MELTING A MIXTURE OF SILICA.

IT REDUCES SOLAR HEAT GAIN BY REFLECTING THE SUN’S ENERGY. RECTANGULAR VACUUM CHAMBER. SYRUPY LIQUID. WATERY LIQUID. IT FIRST SOFTENS SO THAT IT CAN BE BENT. THE . A STATE IN WHICH IT CAN BE WORKED. THE GLASS IS COATED WITH MICRO-THIN LAYERS OF METALLIC FILMS WHICH PROVIDE THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GLASS. WHEN IT IS HEATED. FURTHER HEATING BRINGS IT TO THE POINT WHEN IT BECOMES THICK.GLASS HAS NO DEFINE MELTING POINT. FINALLY AT STILL HIGHER TEMPERATURES IT BECOMES A THIN. RESULTING IN SAVINGS IN INITIAL AND OPERATING COSTS OF AIR CONDITIONING. REFLECTIVE GLASS USED TO CONTROL GLARE AND REDUCE SOLAR HEAT. TYPES OF GLASS 1. IT IS THE PRODUCT OF A GLASS-COATING PROCESS WHICH IS CARRIED OUT IN A LARGE.

MANUFACTURED IN TWO TYPES. ROLLED AND ROUGH CAST GLASS SIMILAR TO THE PROCESS OF MAKING PLATE GLASS. THE GLASS CAN BE SPECIFIED IN ANY ONE OF THREE NOMINAL LIGHT TRANSMITTANCES OF 8. WHILE BEING NEUTRALLY TRANSPARENT FROM THE INSIDE. AT NIGHT. GLASS OF THIS TYPE IS USED WHERE CLEAR VISION IS NOT REQUIRED. SILVER AND GOLD. 2. OR 20 PERCENT. WINDOWS FOR HALLS AND . THE GLASS “REVERSE” ITSELF BY BEING TRANSPARENT FROM THE OUTSIDE AND SEMIREFLECTIVE FROM THE INSIDE. 14. A CHROME COATING PROVIDES SILVERY OUTDOOR REFLECTIONS AND CREATES A COOL EFFECT DURING THE DAYTIME.REDUCED LIGHT TRANSMISSION ALSO DIMINISHES INTERIOR GLARE AND BRIGHTNESS. SUCH AS BY FACTORY ROOFS AND WALLS.

CAST GLASS DIFFUSES LIGHT. AND PARTITIONS IN OFFICES. STOCK WIDTHS. 3. 4. WITH LENGTHS UP TO 100 in. THEY CONTAIN A PATTERN OR TEXTURE IMPRESSED USUALLY ON ONE SURFACE BY A PATTERNED ROLLER. SKY LIGHTS.STAIRCASES. THICKNESSES VARY FROM 1/8 TO 3/8 in. CATHEDRAL AND FIGURED GLASSES MANUFACTURING IS SIMILAR TO RILLED AND ROUGH CAST GLASSES. WIRED GLASS SIMPLY A ROLLED GLASS INTO WHICH WIRE MESH IS INSERTED DURING THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. FROM 40 TO 0 IN. THE WIRE GREATLY . AND BECAUSE OF ITS LOW REFLECTING AND ABSORPTION INDEX. HOWEVER. TRANSMITS 90 TO 93 PERCENT OF LIGHT RAYS STRIKING IT.

ALL THESE SEALED UNITS PROVIDE THERMAL INSULATION AND GREATLY RESTRICT CONDENSATION. 5.INCREASES THE RESISTANCE TO SHATTERING THROUGH IMPACT WIRED GLASS AS MADE IN THICKNESSES OF 7/32. THEY REDUCE EXTERNAL NOISE BUT STILL PERMIT THE ENTRY OF NATURAL LIGHT. AND JOINED AROUND THE EDGES TO PRODUCE A HERMITICALLY SEALED UNIT. SEPARETED BY AN AIR SPACE. INSULATING GLASS THIS CONSISTS OF TWO SHEETS OF PLATE OR SHEET GLASS. CLASSIFICATION OF SHEET GLASS . AND LENGTHS UP TO 178 in. STOCK WIDTHS 47 TO 49 in. ARE PRODUCED. ¼ AND 3/8 in.

2. WINDOW GLASS – USED FOR GLAZING WINDOWS DOORS AND STORM SASH IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS WHERE GOOD LIGHT AND VISION ARE REQURED AT MODERATE COST. GLASS BLOCKS COMPARABLE IN MANY WAYS TO UNIT MASONRY BUT HAVE THE ADDED FEATURE OF TRANSMITTING LIGHT. COMMONLY USED FOR DISPLAY CASES. PICTURE GLASS – USED FOR COVERING PICTURES. THEY ARE MADE INTO TWO . SHELVING. MAPS. WINDOW VENTILATORS FURNITURE TOPS AND JALOUSIES MADE OF TWO THICKNESSES 3/6 AND 7/32. GLASS PRODUCTS I. 3.1. CHARTS PROJECTOR SLIDES AND INSTRUMENT DIALS. HEAVY SHEET GLASS – USED FOR GLAZING WINDOWS AND DOORS WHERE GREATER STRENGTH IS REQUIRED BUT WHERE LIGHT DISTORTION IS NOT OBJECTIONABLE. PHOTOGRAPHS.

SEPARATE HALVES. THE EDGE SURFACES OF THE BLOCK ARE COATED WITH A GRITTY MORTAR BOND. USED ALWAYS ABOVE EYE LEVEL. . A LIGHT DIRECTING BLOCK – DIRECTS INCOMING LIGHT UPWARD TOWARD THE CEILING. THREE STYLES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS: A. WHICH ARE HEAT-SEALED TOGETHER TO FORM A HOLLOW UNIT WITH REASONBLY HIGH THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND SOUND INSULATION. FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS – DIRECT OR DIFFUSE THE DAYLIGHT WHICH PASSES THEOUGH THEM TO IMPROVE THE ILLUMINATION OF THE BUILDING INTERIOR. TWO TYPES: 1.

2. AS INTERIOR WALLS AND DIVIDER PANELING. OPENINGS AND FACADES. THESE GLASS MASONRY UNITS PROVIDE ALMOST UNLIMITED DESIGN VERSATILITY WHEN USED IN WINDOW. C. A LIGHT DIFFUSING BLOCK – DIFFUSES INCOMING LIGHT EVENLY THROUGHOUT THE INTERIOR OF THE ROOM. GENERAL PURPOSES BLOCK DECORATIVELY OR ARCHITECTURAL GLASS – AVAILABLE IN A WIDE RANGE OF STYLES AND PATTERNS.B. PAINT FINISHES .

PAINT GENERALLY REFERS TO OPAQUE OR CLEAR FILM-FORMING MATERIAL THAT ACTS AS A SHIELD OR BARRIER BETWEEN THE BUILDING MATERIAL AND THOSE ELEMENTS OR CONDITIONS THAT MAY ADVERSELY AFFECTS OR DETERIORATE. IMPROVE HEATING AND LIGHTING EFFECTS. FINISHES INCLUDE PLASTIC LAMINATED SURFACE COVERINGS SUCH AS PLASTIC LAMINATED AND VINYL OF FABRIC WALL COVERING. THE PAINT FILM MUST RESIST DETERIORATION DUE TO SUNLIGHT HEAT. TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS. WATER OR MOISTURE VAPOR. PRESERVE OR VISUALLY ENHANCE THE SURFACE TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED. AND PROMOTE HUMAN COMFORT AND SAFETY. IT DEPENDING ON ITS END USED. MILDEW AND DECAY CHEMICALS AND PHYSICAL ABRASION. PAINT MAY ALSO SERVE TO MAKE SURFACES MORE SANITARY. .THE PURPOSE OF A FINISH IS TO PROTECT.

FLAT PAINT FINISHES SOFTEN AND DISTRIBUTE. IT IS ALWAYS ADVISABLE THEREFORE TO FOLLOW THE PAINT MANUFACTURERS RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE APPLICATION AND USE OF A PAINT OR OTHER PROTECTIVE COATING. EASILY CLEANED. BUT THEY ALSO PROVIDE SMOOTH. OR THE ADDITION OF AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST. NON-ABSORPTIVE SURFACES. ILLUMINATION EVENLY. WHITE AND LIGHT COLORS REFLECT SIZE OF FORM AND SPACE. CERTAIN COLORS MAY BE STIMULATING WHILE OTHERS ARE RELAXING.WHEN USING PAINT. DARK COLOR CAN INHIBIT THE PERCEPTION OF FORM AND MAY BE USED FOR CONTRAST. . THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLOR AND SURFACE TEXTURE MUST BE CONSIDERED. MOST PAINTS ARE CAREFULLY FORMULATED TO MEET SPECIFIC APPLICATION THAT USE REQUIREMENTS AND ARE READY-MIXED FOR APPLICATION EXCEPT FOR THINNING. STIRRING. GLOSSY FINISHES REFLECT LIGHT AND CAN CAUSE GLARE.

MULTIPLE THIN COATS ARE GENERALLY MORE EFFECTIVE THAN A SINGLE THICK COAT.THE FOUNDATION OF ANY PAINT SYSTEM MUST BE PROPERLY PREPARED TO ENSURE PROPER ADHESION OF THE PAINT FILM TO ITS SURFACE. FINISH COLOR. EXPOSURE. FILM THICKNESS . .PAINT MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED. .CONSIDERATIONS IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF A PAINT INCLUDE: SURFACE PREPARATION .A MINIMUM OF 2 COATS IS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE 5 MIL DFT.THE DRY FILM THICKNESS (DFT) IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE NUMBER OF COATS. . . TYPE OF PAINT . AND MANUFACTURER AND/OR TRADE NAME.SPECIFICATIONS INCLUDE THE PAINT VEHICLE.

COVERAGE . PAINT WITH 100% VOLUME SOLIDS: (NO THINNER) 1 GAL COVERS 1600 SF (149 m2) @ 1 MIL DFT 800 SF ( 74 m2) @ 2 MIL DFT 400 SF ( 37 m2) @ 4 MIL DFT -PAINT WITH 50% VOLUME SOLIDS (50% THINNER) 1 GAL COVERS 800 SF (74 m2) @ 1 MIL DFT 400 SF (37 m2) @ 2 MIL DFT .ie.A PAINT’S COVERAGE CAN BE ESTIMATED BY ITS PERCENTAGE OF VOLUME SOLIDS: .

DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS BEING APPLIED. PAINT GENERALLY CONSIST OF: PIGMENT – FINELY GROUND SOLIDS THAT PROVIDE THE PAINTS COVERINGS OR HIDING POWER OR ITS COLOR.THE TIME AND CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR A PAINT TO DRY MUST BE CHECKED. DYING . .METHOD . VEHICLE – LIQUID MEDIUM TO CARRY THE PIGMENT IN SUSPENSION DURING APPLICATION. ROLLED OR SPRAYED ON. COATINGS MAY BE BRUSHED. AND CONSISTS OF BINDERS AND SOLVENTS.

CONCRETE. EGG SHELL.• BINDER SERVE TO FORM THE PAINT FILM AND CAUSE IT TO ADHERE THE SURFACE BEING PAINTED. • DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF SOLVENT USED. OR BY THERMOSETTING ACTION AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES. SURFACE FINISH TEXTURE • GLOSS. EVAPORATION. • BINDERS ARE LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PROTECTIVE QUALITY AND DURABILITY OF THE PAINT FIL OR PROTECTIVE COATING. METAL MASONRY. SATIN. ETC. FLAT . PLASTER. SEMI-GLOSS. PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO: MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED • WOOD. CHEMICAL ACTION. • SOLVENTS OR THINNERS ACTS DRYING AGENTS.. A PAINT MAY DRY OR HARDEN BY OXIDATION.

OR ASPHALT OR BASE COATINGS . SEALERS RUST INHIBITIVE COATINGS • ZINC-PIGMENTED COATINGS • ZINC. ALKYD.COLOR • DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MANUFACTURER. CHARACTERISTICS: PIGMENTED COATING • PAINTS AND ENAMEL CLEAR COATINGS • VARNISHES. SEALING. LACQUERS. SILICONS. SHEELAC. EXPOSURE • EXTERIOR OR INTERIOR APPLICATION • PRIME. OR TOP COAT.

• ASPHALT OR TAR COATINGS THAT FORM NON-PEMEABLE BARRIERS AGAINST WATER AND OXYGEN TO PROTECT SUBMERGED FERROUS METAL AND TO WATERPROOF MASONRY SURFACES. MARINE ENVIRONMENTS ETC. FUMES. • THE MOST COMMON PAINT VEHICLE . LIME AND WATER USED TO DAMPPROOF MASONRY MATERIALS AND PROTECT EXPOSED STEEL PLASTIC AND SYNTHETIC RUBBER COATINGS • COATING RESISTANT TO MILDEW. CEMENT MORTAR COATINGS • MIXTURE OF PORTLAND CEMENT.. MOLD. PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ITS VEHICLE OR BINDER: ALKYDS • OIL MODIFIED RESINS THAT HARDEN BY OXIDATION AND EVAPORATION.

AND IMPROVES THE PAINTS WETTING PROPERTIES. . ASPHALT • COATINGS WITH A VEHICLE OF BOTH PETROLEUM AND NATURAL ASPHALTS ARE USED TO PROTECT WOOD.• FAST DRYING A HARDER THAN ORDINARY TIME. AND GOOD COLOR RETENTION. CONCRETE AND AS ROOF COATING. • ADDITION OF EPOXY RESINS MINIMIZES THE COLD FLOW AND MAXIMIZES THE CHEMICAL-RESISTANCE OF ASPHALT. DURABILITY AND ELASTICITY TO RESIST BLISTERING. LOWERS THE GLOSS. • HAVE GOOD WATER RESISTANCES BUT THERMOPLASTIC IN NATURE. STEEL MASONRY. DURABILITY AND WATER RESISTANCE FOR EXTERIOR EXPOSURES. • HAVE GOOD DRYING PROPERTIES. • ADDITION OF ALUMINUM GLAKES HELPS TO REFLECT THE SUN’S RAYS.

AND WATER • MAY BE REMOVED BY COAL TAR SOLVENTS • HAS LIMITED RESISTANCE TO PROLONGED HEAT EXPOSURE • USED IN SWIMMING POOLS. • MIXED JUST PRIOR TO USE – HAS LIMITED “POT LIFE” • PRODUCES BY CHEMICAL ACTION A DENSE. COLOR RETENTION AND STAIN RESISTANCE. HARD FILM SIMILAR TO BAKED ENAMEL. TRAFFIC WEAR. • HAS GOOD DURABILITY FOR EXTERIOR EXPOSURE BUT MAY CHALK. PHYSICAL ABRASION. CHEMICALS. A CLEANING MATERIALS • HAS GOOD ADHESION PROPERTIES.CHLORINATED RUBBER • USED IN COATINGS HIGHLY RESISTANT TO ALKALIES. ACIDS. • HAS EXCELLENT RESISTANT TO SOLVENTS. . CHEMICALS. WATER TREATMENT PLANTS EPOXY CATALYZED • TWO COMPONENT COATINGS CONSISTING OF A PIGMENTED PRIMER OR ENAMEL AND AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST.

ESP. WINDOWS. THAT USED WITH DOORS. NAILS. STANLEY 8. RODS. AND OTHER METAL FITTINGS. AND CABINETS. YALE 9. SARGENT 7. SCREWS. ETC. THAT HAS A FINISHED APPEARANCE AS WELL AS FUNCTION. CORBIN 10. 3. SUCH AS HINGES LOCKS. THEY ARE CLASSIFIED AS: FINISHING HARDWARE – HARDWARE. MAYBE CONSIDERED PART OF THE DECORATIVE TREATMENT OF A ROOM OR BUILDING. SUCH AS BOLTS. ETC. HARDWARE MEANT TO BE CONCEALED. LOCKS. 2. HINGES. SUCH AS BOLTS. SPIKES. SOME FINISHING HARDWARE BRANDS: 1.METAL PRODUCTS USED IN CONSTRUCTION. RABBIT UNIVERSAL EAGLE MASTER . TOOLS. CATCHES. ROUGH HARDWARE – IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.HARDWARE HARDWARE . 4.

5. ALPHA YETI DOORS – AN ENTRANCE WAY TYPES OF DOOR: • FLUSH – A SMOOTH-SURFACED DOOR HAVING FACES WHICH ARE PLANE WHICH CONCEAL ITS RAILS AND STILES OR OTHER STRUCTURE WHEN USED INSIDE. SCHLAGE KWIKSET 11. IT IS OF HOLLOW CORE. KINDS OF DOORS: • SWINGING DOOR . • PANEL DOOR – A DOOR HAVING STILES. WHEN USED FOR EXTERIOR IT IS OF SOLID CORE. 12. 6. WHICH FORM ONE OR MORE FRAMES AROUND RECESSED THINNER PANELS. RAILS AND SOMETIMES MUNTINS.

DRIVEN. OVERHEAD ROLL-UP GARAGE DOOR – A DOOR WHICH. . ACCORDION DOOR – A HINGED DOOR CONSISTING OF A SYSTEM OF PANELS WHICH ARE HUNG FROM AN OVERHEAD TRACK. EITHER MANUAL OR MOTOR . THE EDGES OF ADJACENT PANELS BUTT AGAINST (OR INTERLOCK) EACH OTHER TO FORM A SOLID BARRIER. WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED. WHEN THE DOOR IS OPEN. ROLL-UP DOOR (SOLID OR SEE-THROUGH ALUMINUM SHUTTERS) A DOOR MADE UP OF SMALL HORIZONTAL INTERLOCKING METAL SLATS WHICH ARE GUIDED IN A TRACK: THE CONFIGURATION COILS ABOUT AN OVERHEAD DRUM WHICH IS HOUSED AT THE HEAD OF THE OPENING. WHEN OPEN.• • • • OVERHEAD SWING-UP GARAGE DOOR – A RIGID OVERHEAD DOOR WHICH OPENS AS AN ENTIRE UNIT. MADE OF SEVERAL LEAVES. THE FACES OF THE PANELS CLOSE FLAT AGAINST EACH OTHER. ASSUMES A HORIZONTAL POSITION ABOVE THE DOOR OPENING.

PREVENTS THE DIRECT PASSAGE OF AIR THROUGH THE VESTIBULE.• • • • • BI-FOLDING DOOR . REVOLVING DOOR . THEREBY ELIMINATING DRAFTS FROM OUTSIDE. SLIDING DOOR . . BY-PASSING SLIDING DOOR .AN EXTERIOR DOOR CONSISTING OF FOUR LEAVES (AT 900 TO EACH OTHER) WHICH PIVOT ABOUT A COMMON VERTICAL AXIS WITHIN A CYLINDRICALLY SHAPED VESTIBULE.A DOOR MOUNTED ON TRACK WHICH SLIDES IN A HORIZONTAL DIRECTION USUALLY PARALLEL TO ONE WALL. SLIDING POCKET DOOR .A DOOR WHICH SLIDES INSIDE A HOLLOW OF THE WALL.A SLIDING DOOR WHICH SLIDES TO COVER A FIXED DOOR OF THE SAME WIDTH OR ANOTHER SLIDING DOOR.ONE OF TWO OR MORE DOORS WHICH ARE HINGED TOGETHER SO THAT THEY CAN OPEN AND FOLD IN A CONFINED SPACE.

THE UPPER PART CAN BE OPENED WHILE THE LOWER PORTION IS CLOSED. CONSISTS OF TWO PLATES JOINED TOGETHER BY A PIN WHICH SUPPORT THE DOOR AND CONNECT IT TO ITS FRAME.A HINGED DOOR WHICH IS DIVIDED TO TWO. . • FRENCH DOOR • FINISHING HARDWARES: A. BUTT HINGE . THE PIN IS REMOVABLE.A MOVABLE JOINT USED TO ATTACH SUPPORT AND TURN A DOOR ABOUT A PIVOT. TYPES OF HINGES: 1. IN LARGE HINGE. IN SMALL HINGES.CONSISTS OF TWO RECTANGULAR METAL PLATES WHICH ARE JOINED WITH A PIN. TO HUNG A DOOR HINGE. ENABLING IT TO SWING OPEN OR CLOSED. IT IS FIXED.DUTCH DOOR .

A HINGED DESIGNED FOR ATTACHMENT ON THE SURFACE OF THE DOOR AND JAMB WITHOUT MORTISING. • LOOSE PIN HINGE . • OLIVE KNUCKLE HINGE .A DOOR HINGED HAVING TWO KNUCKLES. • FULL SURFACE HINGE .A PAUMELLE HINGE WITH KNUCKLES FORMING AN OVAL SHAPE.A HINGE HAVING A REMOVABLE PIN WHICH PERMITS ITS TWO PARTS TO BE SEPARATED. BY LIFTING THE DOOR UP. • . • PAUMELLE HINGED . ONE OF WHICH HAS VERTICAL PIN THAT FITS IN A CORRESPONDING HOLE IN THE OTHER. • LOOSE JOINT HINGE .A HINGE IN WHICH THE PIN IS FASTENED PERMANENTLY IN PLACE. USUALLY OF MODERN DESIGN. OFF THE VERTICAL PIN.A TYPE OF DOOR HINGE HAVING A SINGLE JOINT OF THE PIVOT TYPE.FAST PIN HINGE . THE DOOR MAY BE REMOVED WITH UNSCREWING THE HINGED.

THE DOOR OPENS BY JUST PUSHING IT WITH THE SHOULDER OR FEET.2.THE AXLE OR PIN ABOUT WHICH A WINDOW OR DOOR ROTATES.A HINGE CONTAINING ONE OR MORE SPRINGS. PIVOT HINGE . • DOUBLE ACTION . KITCHENS. SPRING HINGES . WHEN A DOOR IS OPENED. . • VERTICAL SPRING PIVOT HINGE.A SPRING HINGE FOR A DOOR WHICH IS MORTISTED INTO THE HEEL OF THE DOOR.EXCELLENT FOR USE IN RESTAURANTS. • SINGLE ACTION 3. OR IN BOTH DIRECTIONS. THE DOOR IS FASTENED TO THE FLOOR AND DOOR HEAD WITH PIVOTS. MAY ACT IN ONE DIRECTION ONLY. HOSPITALS. THE HINGE RETURNS IT TO OPEN POSITION AUTOMATICALLY.

TO FIX ONE SASH TYPES OF BOLT AND FASTENER: • CHAIN HEAD AND FOOT BOLT • DOOR OR BARREL BOLT • FLUSH BOLT • CHAIN DOOR FASTENER C. . MORE OR LESS SPHERICAL USUALLY FOR OPERATING A LOCK. • KNOB – A HANDLE. TO LOCK THE DOOR LOCKSET – A COMPLETE LOCK SYSTEM INCLUDING THE BASIC LOCKING MECHANISMS AND ALL THE ACCESSORIES. • BUTTON – A SMALL REJECTING MEMBER USED TO FASTEN THE FRAME OF A DOOR OR WINDOW.B. ETC. SUCH AS KNOBS ESCUTCHEONS. PLATES.

• STRIKES – A METAL PLATE OR BOX WHICH IS SET IN A DOORJAMB AND IS EITHER PLACED OR RECESSED TO RECEIVE THE BOLT OR LATCH OF A LOCK. .• ESCUTCHEON – A PROTECTIVE PLATE SURROUNDING THE KEYHOLE OF A DOOR. • BEDROOM LOCKSET – SAME AS THE ENTRANCE LOCKSET BUT SIMPLER IN DESIGN. • LIP STRIKE – THE PROJECTION FROM THE SIDE OF A TRIKE PLATE WHICH THE BOLT OF A LOCK STRIKES FIRST. WHEN A DOOR IS CLOSED. • PLATES – A THIN FLAT SHEET OF MATERIAL. PROJECTS OUT FROM THE SIDE OF THE STRIKE PLATE TO PROTECT THE FRAME. USE A DIFFERENT LOCKSET FOR EACH ROOM: • ENTRANCE LOCKSET – WITH A KEY AND UNIVERSAL BUTTON WHICH WHEN PUSHED STAYS PUT AND LOCKS THE DOOR. FIXED ON DOOR.

• TOILET LOCKSET – WITHOUT A KEY HAS A BUTTON THAT IS PUSHED TO LOCK INSIDE. KIND OF LOCKSET: • INTEGRAL LOCK – A TYPE OF MORTISE LOCK HAVING ITS CYLINDER IN THE KNOB. • CYLINDER LOCK – A BORED LOCK WHICH HAS A CYLINDRICAL CASE INTO WHICH A SEPARATE LATCH CASE FITS. A LEVER WHICH LIFTS THE PIVOTED BAR USED TO UNFASTEN THE DOOR. RABBETED LOCK – A LOCK OR LATCH IN WHICH THE FACE IS FLUSH WITH THE RABBET ON A RABBETED DOOR JAMB. BUT NOT A DEAD BOLT CONTAINS NO PROVISIONS FOR LOCKING WITH A KEY. NIGHT LATCH – KEY OPERATED LATCH WITH SAFETY PIN. . LIFT LATCH – A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH WHICH FASTENS A DOOR BY MEANS OF A PIVOTED BAR THAT ENGAGES A HOOK ON THE DOOR JAMB. LATCH – A SIMPLE FASTENING DEVISE HAVING A LATCH BOLT.

HASPLOCK – A KIND OF HASP THAT HAS A BUILT-IN LOCKING DEVICE WHICH CAN BE OPENED ONLY WITH A KEY. . KEY-PADLOCK – A DEVICE WHICH FASTENS IN POSITION MAYBE OPERATED BY A KEY. SOMETIMES EQUIPPED WITH A DEAD BOLT. HAVING A RECESS FORMED TO RECEIVE. MAGNETIC PADLOCK – A KIND OF LOCK WHICH OPENS BY USING THE CORRESPONDING MAGNET WHICH GOES WITH IT. HASP – A FASTENING DEVICE CONSISTING OF A LOOP OR STAPLE AND A SLOTTED HINGE PLATE NORMALLY SECURED WITH A PADLOCK. THE ROLLER ENGAGES A STRIKE PLATE.ROLLER LATCH – A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH HAS A ROLLER UNDER SPRING TENSION INSTEAD OF A BEVELED SPRING BOLT. SCREEN DOOR LATCH – A SMALL LOCKING OR LATCHING DEVICE USED ON SCREEN DOORS AND GENERATED BY A KNOB OR LEVER HANDLE.

TYPES OF AUTOMATIC DOOR CLOSER: • PNEUMATIC TYPE • SEMI-CONCEALED OVERHEAD TYPE • CONCEALED TYPE • OVERHEAD LIQUID TYPE TYPES OF CABINET HINGED DOOR: • FLUSH • OVERLAPPING • OFFSET . DEAD BOLT – A TYPE OF DOOR LOCK. THE BOLT.BORED LOCK – A LOCK INTENDED FOR INSTALLATION IN A CIRCULAR HOLE IN A DOOR. WHICH IS SQUARE IN SECTION IS OPERATED BY THE DOOR KEY OR A TURN PIECE. CREMONE BOLT – USED TO FASTEN UPPER AND LOWER DOOR.

• PIVOT HINGES – MADE FOR BOTH FLUSH AND OVERLAPPING DOORS. • INVISIBLE HINGES – DON’T SHOW FROM THE FRONT AND IS EXPENSIVE. AVAILABLE IN SEMI-CONCEALED AND SURFACE-MOUNTED STYLES. THEY CAN BE USED FOR BOTH FLUSH AND OVERLAPPING DOOR. • FLUSH COUNTER HINGE – FOR A DROP DOWN DOOR THAT CAN BE LOWERED TO SERVE AS WORK SURFACES REQUIRE .TYPES OF CABINET HINGES: • BUTT HINGES • COMMON BUTT • LOOSE PIN • T-HINGE • PIANO HINGE • DECORATIVE HINGE • OFFSET HINGES – USED FOR HANGING LIPPED OR OVERLAPPING DOORS.

THEY DON’T SHOW WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED. IS HELD IN THE ENGAGED POSITION BY FRICTION. • BULLET CATCH – A FASTENER WHICH HOLDS A DOOR IN PLACE BY MEANS OF A PROJECTING SPRING ARCTUATED STEEL HALL WHICH IS DEPRESSED WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED. . MORTISE THEM INTO BOTH SURFACES. CATCHES FOR CLOSING OF CABINET DOORS IN PLACE KINDS OF CATCHES: • FRICTION CATCH – ANY CATCH WHICH WHEN IT ENGAGES A STRIKE. A DROPDOWN DOOR ALSO REQUIRES A CHAIN OR STAY SUPPORT TO HOLD THE DOOR’S WEIGHT WHEN IT’S OPEN. • MAGNETIC CATCH – A DOOR CATCH FLAT THAT USES A MAGNET TO HOLD THE DOOR IN A CLOSED POSITION.HINGES THAT LAY FLUSH IN THE SURFACE.

• SELF BRACKET – ANY OVER HANGING MEMBER PROJECTING FROM A WALL OR OTHER BODY TO SUPPORT A WEIGHT. • SPRING DOOR CLOSER – ATTACHED ABOVE A SCREEN DOOR TO AUTOMATICALLY CLOSE IT.TYPES OF KNOBS: • SCREW-IN KNOB • BOLT-ON KNOB • FLUSH KNOB • FLUSH RING • PULL OTHER FINISHING ACCESSORIES: • GRAB BAR – A HAND GRIP USUALLY INSTALLED IN SHOWER. WHICH MAY BE USED FOR STEADYING ARE SELF. . • METAL BRACKET – USED TO SUPPORT ANY CABINET OR SHELF.

• FINISHING NAIL WITHOUT HEAD AND FOR BETTER APPEARANCE • MASONRY OR CONCRETE NAIL USED FOR CONCRETE. 1”. 2 ½”. 3”. 4”. 3 ½”.• DOOR STOPPER – TO PREVENT THE DOOR WITH ITS LOCKSET FROM HARMING THE WALL OR TILES. 6” OTHER COMMON HAMMER DRIVEN FASTENER • SCOTCH NAILS • BRADS • STAPLES • TACKS . 2 “. ROUGH HARDWARES: NAILS • COMMON WIRE NAIL WITH HEAD AND FOR STRENGTH. 1 ½”. MORTAR AND BRICK SURFACE SIZES.

AND METALLIC MAKE-UP. TYPES OF SCREW HEAD • FLAT HEAD SCREW • OVAL HEAD SCREW • PHILIPPS HEAD • SHEET-METAL SCREW • ROUND HEAD SCREW • LAG SCREW WASHERS • FLAT • COUNTER SUNK . LENGTH. HEAD TYPE.SCREWS CLASSIFIED BY GAUGE (DIAMETER).

BOLTS TIGHTENED WITH SCREW WHILE HOLDING THE NUT WITH A WRENCH.• FLUSH BOLTS BOLTS HAVE THREADED SHAFTS THAT RECEIVE NUTS. PUSHING A BOLT THROUGH AND ADDING A NUT. TO USE THEM. NUTS • • • • • • FLAT SQUARE NUT HEX NUT SQUARE NUT ACORN NUT T – NUT KNURLED NUT . A HOLE IS DRILLED.

• WING NUT HUNGER BOLTS – FOR HANGING FIXTURES FROM WALLS. JOINERY BRACKETS • MENDING PLATE • T-PLATE • FLAT CORNER PLATE • L-BRACKET . U-BOLTS – TO ATTACH FLAT SURFACE TO ROUND POLES AND PIPES.

.A DOOR W/OUT STILES WHICH IS COSTRUCTED OF VERTICAL BOARDS HELD TOGETHER BY HORIZONTAL BATTENS. • ORIEL WINDOW – A PROJECTED WINDOW BEYOND BUILDING WALL CARRIED BY A CORBEL. • BAY WINDOW – A WINDOW WHICH PROJECTS OUTSIDE THE MAIN LINE OF A BUILDING. • DOOR JAMB – FINISHED FRAME SURROUNDING A DOOR. • ANCHOR BOLT – A STEEL BOLT USUALLY FIXED IN ABUILDING STRUCTURE WITH ITS THREADED PORTION PROJECTING. • HOPPER WINDOW – A WINDOW SASH WHICH OPENS INWARD AND ITS HINGED AT THE BOTTOM. • TRANSOM – WINDOW OVER A DOOR. • STILE – VERTICAL FRAMES OF PANELLED DOOR. • BATTEN DOOR .• AWNING – AN ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTED WINDOW.

BUTTON OR COUNTERSANK.• PLATE BOLT – A BOLT IN A BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH SECURES THEPLATE OR SILL. HEXAGONAL. • CARRIAGE BOLT – A BOLT WITH NECK FOR NON-RATATING MOUNTING. • MACHINE BOLT – A THREADED BOLT HAVING A STRAIGHT SHANK AND A CONVENTIONAL HEAD SUCH AS A SQUARE. • KNOB BOLT – A DOOR LOCK WITH A SPRING BOLT CONTROLLED BY ONE OR BOTH KNOBS AND DEAD BOLT CONTROLLED BY AKEY. • LAG SCREW – COMMON HARDWARE FASTENER FOR TRUSS BRACES. • BACKSET – THE HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM THE FACE OF A LOCK OF LATCH TO THE CENTER OF THE KNOB OR LOCK CYLINDER. • GUSET – A PLATE ATTACHED TO SIDE OF A JOINT FOR INCREASE HOLDING POWER. . • BRAD – A THIN NAIL WITH SMALL HEAD.

AGROOVE CUT INTO THE EDGES OF AN ACOUSTICAL TILES TO RECEIVE SPLINES OR SUPPORTING MEMBERS OF THE CEILING SUSPENSION SYSTEM. ETC. • GYPSUM BOARD – MATERIAL USED IN DRYWALL CONSTRUCTION. . • PLOUGH – A GROOVE EXTENDED ALONG THE EDGE OR FACE OF THE WOOD MEMBER BEING CUT PARALLEL TO GRAIN. DUCTS.• KERF – IN A SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILING. • VINYL TILE – A FLOOR TILE COMPOSED PRINCIPALLY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. • CHASE – A CONTINOUS RECESS BUILT INTO A WALL TO RECEIVE PIPES. • PARQUET – INLAID WOOD FLOORING USUALLY SET IN SIMPLE GEOMETRIC PATTERN. • SAHARA – USED FOR WATERPROOFING. • BEVEL – THE ANGLE WITH ONE SURFACE OF A BODY MAKES WITH ANOTHER SURFACE WHEN THEY ARE NOT AT RIGHT ANGLE. • PERFORATED TAPE – A TYPE OF TAPE USED IN FINISHING JOINTS BETWEEN GYPSUM BOARD.

THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE THE BUILDING CAN BE CAUSED BY PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE OR BY CONSIDERATION OF WATER VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE. • DAMP-PROOFING – PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED BY WATER REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN WATER ASIDE AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO THE EARTH. • CLEAR PROTECTIVE TREATMENTS FOR MASONRY. INVISIBLE SILICONE WATER REPELLENT SPECIALLY FORMULATED FOR APPLICATION ON MASONRY AND BRICKS . CONCRETE – THIS IS A CLEAR.BUILDING PROTECTION PREVENTIONS • WATERPROOFING – A METHOD OF PROTECTING SURFACES AGAINST THE DESTRUCTIVE EFFECTS OF WATER.

DECAY CAUSING FUNGI. GIVES ADDED STRENGTH AND PROTECTS MATERIALS . • WOOD PRESERVATIVE (POWDER POST TERMITES) A CHEMICAL LIQUID PAINTED AND APPLIED TO LUMBER TO PRESERVE IT FOR YEARS. THE SILICONE LIQUID IS APPLIED BY BRUSH OR LOW PRESSURE SPRAY AND DOES NOT AFFECT THE COLOR OR NATURALNESS OF THE MATERIAL.(STANDARD SILICONE REPELLENT) AND FOR LIMESTONE AND CONCRETE THAT SEEPS MUCH RAINWATER (SPECIAL FORMULATED SILICONE REPELLENT). • FIREPROOFING – A CLEAR LIQUID APPLIED EASILY ON WOOD. SUCH AS SAP STAIN AND SRYROT. IT PROTECTS WOOD AGAINST POWDER POST BEATLES (BUKBOK) POWDER POET TERMITE (UNOS). PLYWOOD. LUMBER AND OTHER BOARD THAT RETAINS THE NATURAL BEAUTY. WALLS AND FLOORING. • ANAY (TERMITE) PROOFING BY SOIL POISONING – IT IS IMPORTANT TO POISON THE SOIL AGAINST ANAY (WHITE ANTS) IN ORDER TO STOP THE ANAY FROM INFESTING THE MAINPOSTS.

DESCALERS. PAINT REMOVER IS APPLIED TO THE SURFACE WHICH SOFTENS AND LIFTS . RATPROOFING – A METHOD OF PROTECTING ROOMS AGAINST THE INTRUSION OF RATS AND OTHER SMALL DESTRUCTIVE ANIMALS FROM GNAWING THE WOODEN PARTS OF THE HOUSE. IRON FROM RUSTING OR CORROSION. IT REACTS BY DISPERSING THE FLAME. A SPECIAL KIND OF MATERIAL SHOULD BE USED TO PROTECT THE FLOORING. RUSTPROOFING – A METHOD OF PROTECTING THE FERROUS MATERIALS LIKE STEEL. SINCE THE LIQUID PENETRATED INTO THE WOOD.• • • • AGAINST FIRE. FLOOR PROTECTION – WHEN FLOORS ARE SUBJECTED TO WEAR AND TEAR. INSECTS AND WARPING. WHEN THERE IS FIRE. PREVENTING PROGRESSIVE BURNING. PAINT AND CHEMICAL STRIPPERS – WHEN AN OLD HOUSE HAVING OLE PAINT IS IN NEED OF REPAINTING. WEATHER. DECAY. HABITATING ON CEILINGS AND FLOORS OF HOUSES AND BUILDINGS. OR FROM CHEMICAL ABRASIONS AND HEAVY USE.

THE PAINT. ALGAE OR EVEN CEMENT BUILD UP FROM FORMS OR EQUIPMENT. PROTECT AND MANAGE – FOR BUILDINGS THAT NEED TOTAL CONTROL OF THE INCOMING AND OUTGOING INDIVIDUALS FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE BUILDING AS A WHOLE FROM ROBBERS. FOR CLEANING OF BUILDINGS FROM STAINS. RUST. ETC. STEALERS. • CONTROL. ETC. THERE ARE SO MANY EQUIPMENTS WHICH CAN BE INSTALLED. A CHEMICAL STRIPPER OR DESCALER IS USED. THIS IS APPLIED ON THE FOLLOWING LOCATIONS: • ROOF DECKS • CONCRETE TERRACES AND BALCONIES • SHEATHING FOR WOOD SHINGLE AND TILE ROOFING • WATER TANKS • CONCRETE ROOF GUTTERS • PLANT BOXES INSIDE • KITCHEN FLOOR .

AIR CON & PUMP ROOMS REFRIGERATION & COLD STORAGE ROOMS THREE TYPES OF WATERPROOFING: • INTEGRAL TYPE – MEDIUM IN POWDER FORM IS ADDED AND MIXED WITH THE AGGREGATES OF CONCRETE. THE MATERIALS USED DEPENDING ON THE .• • • • • • • TOILETS CANOPIES BASEMENT FLOOR AND WALLS ELEVATOR PITS SWIMMING POOL MACHINE ROOMS. OR STANDING WATER ARE EMINENT. THERE ARE ABOUT 14 USES. SOME OF THE KNOWN BRANDS ARE SAHARA AND SAKURA. IN THIS CASE. ONE PACK OF USUALLY . • MEMBRANE TYPE – RECOMMENDED FOR USE WHERE DIRECT RAIN.908 KILOS IS ADDED TO ONE BAG OF KILOS CEMENT.

SPRAY OR SQUEEGEE. WITHSTANDS EXTREME THERMAL MOVEMENT. BRUSH. THE WATERPROOFING IS MONOLOTHIC. THIS ELASTOMERIC FLUID CAN BE APPLIED BY ROLLER. BRICKS AND STEEL. FLEXIBLE AND ELASTIC OVER A WIDE TEMPERATURE RANGE. SETTLING AND CRACKING.MANUFACTURER IS EITHER ASPHALT PAPER LAID WITH HOT ASPHALT. SEAMLESS. IMPREGNATED ASBESTOS FELT. • FLUID APPLIED – A FLUID APPLIED ELASTOMERIC COATING BASED ON HAVY SOLIDS ELASTOMER COMPOUND FORMULATED TO WATERPROOF AND PRESERVE THE SUBSTRATE. ROOFING FELTS – THE BASE FELTS USED IN BUILT-UP ROOFING ARE AVAILABLE IN TWO BASIC TYPE – ASBESTOS FELTS AND ORGANIC OR . LIKE CONCRETE. OTHER MATERIALS ARE PERFORMED SELF SEALING ASPHALT. IT RESISTS PUNCTURE AND TEARING ABRASIVE OVERLAYMENTS. WOOD. SOMETIMES THICK POLYETHYLENE SHEETS IS ALSO USED.

• EXCELLENT RESISTANCE TO “BURNOUT” IN HOT CLIMATE. NON-WICKING INORGANIC MINERAL FIBER. . ASBESTOS: • ASBESTOS FELTS – COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF ASBESTOS FIBER. A NON-ROTTING. • ROT RESISTANT. BUT THEY DIFFER WIDELY IN SERVICE. • IDENTICAL EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES TO FINISHING FELTS. • MINIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE OR WETTING OR DRYING WHICH MEANS MINIMUM DISTORTION. • LOSES STRENGTH SLOWLY WHILE AGING.RAG FELTS. THEY LOOK ALIKE. SUPERFICIALLY.

ORGANIC: • ORGANIC FELTS – COMPOSED OF FIBROUS ORGANIC MATERIALS. • MAXIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE ON WETTING AND DRYING WHICH MEANS MAXIMUM DISTORTION. • POOR RESISTANCE TO ROT. • DIFFERENT EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES FROM FINISHING PLIES. SUBJECT TO DETERIORATION BY OXIDATION AND TO WICKING. VAPOR INSULATION (DAMPROOFING) THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE BUILDINGS CAN BE CAUSED BY PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE OR BY CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE. . • POOR RESISTANCE TO “BURNOUT” IN HOT CLIMATE. • LOSES STRENGTH RAPIDLY WHILE AGING.

HUMIDIFIES. BASEMENT FLOORS.PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED BY WATER REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN ASIDE AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO THE EARTH DONE THE OUTSIDE OF THE BUILDING. . ETC. THE MOISTURE VAPOR WILL CONDENSE WATER WHEN ITS TEMPERATURE IS REDUCED BY CONTACT WITH A COOL SURFACE OR COOL AIR. MOISTURE VAPOR ON THE OTHER HAND CAN PERMEATE MOST ORDINARY BUILDING MATERIALS SUCH AS WOOD. ETC. CEILING OR ROOF. EARTH CRAWL SPACES. PAPER. LATH PLASTER. UNTREATED BRICK. HENCE. HIGH HUMIDITY IN A BUILDING MAY RESULT IN CONDENSATION OF WATER NOT ONLY ON THE INSIDE OF WALLS AND WINDOWS BUT ALSO ON THE OUTSIDE OR WITHIN THE EXTERIOR WALLS. LAUNDERING. MOISTURE VAPOR IS PRODUCED BY COOKING OCCUPANTS.

FLOOR. VAPOR BARRIERS SHOULD BE INSTALLED ON THE WARM SIDE OF THE INSULATION. AND SHOULD BE USED ON THE OUTSIDE OF A BUILDING FOR THAT PURPOSE. THEY SHOULD BE CONTINUOUS SURFACES OF ASPHALT OR WAX COATED PAPER. . IT IS NOT A VAPOR BARRIER. OR OTHER METAL FOIL SHEETS OR POLYETHYLENE FILM. ALUMINUM.VAPOR BARRIERS (DAMPROOFING MATERIALS) THESE ARE MATERIALS WHICH EFFECTIVELY RETARD OR STOP THE FLOW OF WATER VAPOR AND NORMALLY ARE PRODUCED IN SHEETS OR THIN LAYERS. ALTHOUGH ASPHALT PAPER IS A GOOD MOISTURE BARRIER. THEY MUST BE CONTINUOUS AND ALLOW NO OPENINGS THROUGH WHICH VAPOR MAY PASS. THEY CAN BE ATTACHED TO THE INSULATION AS PART OF THE MANUFACTURED PRODUCT OR INSTALLED SEPARATELY IN OR ON THE WARM SIDE OF THE WALL. OR CEILING.

POLYETHYLENE FILM CAN BE APPLIED VERTICALLY IN 36 IN.3. UNAFFECTED BY ACIDS. WIDE STRIPS TO STUDDING ON 16 IN. CENTERS WITH A FULL OVERLAP ON ALTERNATE STUDS. THIS IS . ALKALIS AND CAUSTICS. CEILINGS AND FLOORS BUT ALSO AS A BARRIER TO PREVENT THE PASSAGE OF MOISTURE FROM THE EARTH UPWARD THROUGH A CONCRETE SLAB LAIN ON THE GROUND.001 IN. WIDE. COMMON THICKNESSES ARE 2. OR AS A THIN LAYER OF FOIL LAMINATED TO A HEAVY BACKING OF ASPHALT-IMPREGNATED KRAFT PAPER. PRODUCED IN ROLLS OF 3 TO 20 FT.4 AND 6 MIL (1MIL = .MATERIALS USED AS VAPOR BARRIERS: • POLYETHYLENE FILM – THUS IS CHEMICALLY INERT PLASTIC.) THIS FILM IS USEFUL NOT ONLY AS VAPOR BARRIER FOR WALLS. FILMS ARE STAPLED TO STUDS. OVERLAPS AND EXTENSIONS TO FLOORS AND WALLINGS SHALL BE 6 IN. • ALUMINUM FOIL – USED AS VAPOR BARRIER AS A SINGLE SHEET.

INSULATING MATERIALS THERMAL INSULATION IN COLD WEATHER. . RADIATORS. WE ARE INTERESTED IN TRANSFERRING HEAT FROM FURNACES. • KRAFT PAPER COATED WITH ASPHALT OR WAX.ALSO DONE WITH TWO LAYERS OF FOIL LAMINATED WITH ASPHALT CEMENT. ANOTHER MATERIALS USED FOR DAMPPROOFING OF CONCRETE WALLS IS “WEATHERKOTE” BITUMINOUS EMULSION. SOMETIMES TWO LAYERS OF PAPER ARE CEMENTED WITH A CONTINOUS LAYER OF ASPHALT. BY SHELL. INTO VARIOUS ROOMS OF OUR BUILDINGS. AT THE SAME TIME WE ARE INTERESTED IN PREVENTING THAT HEAT FROM BEING TRANSFERRED FROM THE INTERIOR OF THE BUILDING TO THE OUTSIDE. HEATING PANELS.

• CONDUCTION.DURING THE SUMMER.FROM THIS POINT. . IT IS TRANSFERRED TO THE OUTSIDE AIR BY RADIATION. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WE PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HOT OUTSIDE TEMPERATURES TO THE WORKING AND LIVING SPACE WITHIN OUR BUILDINGS. HEAT IS BEING CONDUCTED FROM THE SIDE OF HIGHER TEMPERATURE TO THAT OF LOWER TEMPERATURE.THE INSIDE OF A CONCRETE WALL WHICH HAS ONE SIDE EXPOSED TO OUTSIDE WINTER TEMPERATURES FEELS COLD TO THE TOUCH. • RADIATION. THERE ARE THREE WAYS WHEREIN HEAT IS TRANSFERRED. THIS WE CALL THERMAL INSULATION. ALL OF THESE ARE DONE BY THE JUDICIOUS USE OF MATERIALS WHICH IS BEST PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HEAT.

IT COMES IN CONTACT WITH COOLER SURFACE.AND BY DIVIDING THE SPACE INTO SMALL ENCLOSED COMPARTMENTS.WHEN AIR IS HEATED. WE MUST USE THE MATERIALS THAT ARE POOR CONDUCTORS TO PREVENT LOSS BY RADIATION MATERIALS MUST BE USED WHICH WILL REFLECT RATHER THAN RADIATE HEAT. THE CONVECTION CURRENTS SET UP IN THE CONFINED SPACED ARE INSIGNIFICANT AND CAN CAUSES LITTLE HEAT TRANSFER TO PREVENT HEAT LOSS BY CONDUCTION. IT EXPANDS AND BEGINS TO CIRCULATE DURING THE CIRCULATION. IT IS THEREFORE IMPORTANT TO TRY TO PREVENT AIR CURRENTS (CONVECTION CURRENTS) FROM BEING SET UP IN THE WALLS AND CEILINGS OF OUR BUILDINGS.• CONVECTION. THIS CAN BE DONE BY KEEPING THE LAYER OF AIR RELATIVELY THIN-NOT OVER 1 IN.. KINDS OF THERMAL INSULATION • LOOSE FILL – THIS BULKY AND DIVIDED INTO: . SOME OF ITS HEAT IS GIVEN UP TO THEM.

GLASS WOOL. BETWEEN WOOD SLEEPERS OVER A CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB. A HOSE INSERTED AND THE INSULATION BLOWN IN UNTIL THE SPACE IN FILLED. • GRANULAR INSULATION – ARE MADE FROM EXPANDED MINERALS SUCH AS PERLITE AND VERMICULITE OR FROM GROUND VEGETABLE MATTER SUCH AS GRANULATED CORK.• FIBROUS TYPE – MADE.IS USED TO INSULATE WALLS OF BUILDINGS THAT HAVE BEEN BUILT WITHOUT INSULATION. TO NO. OR SLAG WOOL – OR VEGETABLE FIBER – USUALLY WOOD FIBER. • GRANULES. (3/8 IN. USED AS LOOSE-FILL INSULATION FOR SIDEWALLS AND CEILINGS OVER SUSPENDED CEILINGS. 16 SIEVE) AND SIZES 2 (NO.ARE GRADED INTO FOUR SIZES. AS FILL FOR THE CORES . IN SUCH CASES HOLES ARE DRILLED IN THE WALL BETWEEN EACH PAIR OF STUDS. 4 TO NO. 1. • FIBROUS LOOSE FILL. 30 SIEVE). FROM MINERAL WOOLROCK WOOL.

3 AND 4 IN. WOOD FIBER. SOME WITH A PAPER BACK ON ONE SIDE ONLY.IS MADE FROM SOME FIBROUS MATERIAL SUCH AS MINERAL WOOL. COTTON FIBER. 8 TO NO. 16. WITH CONTROLLED THICKNESSES OF 1. IN 8 FT. 100 SIEVE) SIZE 4 (NO.OF CONCRETE BLOCKS. BLANKETS ARE USED WHERE LARGE AREAS MUST BE INSULATED. OVER HEAD IN FLOORED ATTICS BETWEEN JOISTS IN . LENGTHS OR PUT UP IN ROLLS OF FROM 40 TO 100 LINEAR FEET. 2. • BLANKET INSULATION. SOME ARE MADE WITH NO COVERING AT ALL. THOSE WITH BACKING OR ENVELOPES ARE USUALLY PROVIDED WITH A STAPLING FLANGE SO THAT THEY CAN BE STAPLED TO THE SIDES OR EDGES OF STUDS AND JOISTS. ½. 20 OR 24 IN. AND SIZES 3 (NO. SOME WITH VINYL CARDBOARD OR WIRE MESH ONE SIDE. MANUFACTURED IN THE FORM OF A MAT. THESE INCLUDE SUCH PLACES AS SIDEWALLS IN NEW CONSTRUCTION.16 TO 100 SIEVE). WIDTH. WHILE OTHERS ARE COMPLETELY ENCLOSED IN AN ENVELOPE. OR ANIMAL HAIR.

STRAW OR CORK. CANE. BATTS USUALLY HAVE PAPER TABS ALONG THE EDGES FOR EASIER ATTACHMENT TO THE FRAME. THE FIBERS ARE THEN FORMED INTO SHEETS OF VARIOUS THICKNESSES IN A CONTINUING PROCESS AND CUT INTO STANDARD LENGTHS. . • STRUCTURAL INSULATION BOARD – MADE FROM ORGANIC FIBER-WOOD. AND MADE ESPECIALLY FOR INSTALLATION BETWEEN STUD SPACINGS. LONG OR LESS THEY ARE ALWAYS COVERED WITH PAPER. WHILE OTHERS ARE GIVEN A COAT OF ASPHALT AFTER THEY ARE MADE. IN CRAWL SPACES AND OVER SUSPENDED CEILINGS.UNFLOORED ATTICS. • BATTS – SIMILAR TO BLANKETS BUT THEY ARE RESTRICTED TO 48 IN. THE WOOD AND CANE RAW MATERIAL IS FIRST PULPED. AFTER WHICH IT IS TREATED WITH WATERPROOFING CHEMICALS. SOME BOARDS ARE IMPREGNATED WITH ASPHALT DURING THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS.

WIDE.• STRAWBOARD – IS MADE FROM CAREFULLY SELECTED STRAW. STUCCO OR ROOFING. SIZES . THICK AND 4 FT. • CORKBOARD – IS MADE FROM GRANULATED CORK MIXED WITH RESIN AND PRESSED INTO SHEETS OF SEVERAL THICKNESSES. INTERIOR FINISH BOARD AND INSULATING FORM BOARD. ROOF INSULATION UNDER BUILTUP ROOFING. SHINGLE BACKER. PAPERING. PLASTERING. A COMMON THICKNESS IS 3 IN. DEPENDING ON THE USE TO WHICH THEY WILL BE PUT. • STRUCTURAL INSULATION BOARD – IS USED IN EXTERIOR WALL SHEATHING ROOF DECKING. THE BOARD BEING USED FOR ROOF INSULATION. BOARDS ARE COMPLETELY SEALED IN PAPER COVERS OF VARIOUS TYPES TO PROVIDE THE PROPER SURFACE FOR PAINTING. FUSED UNDER HEAT AND PRESSURE INTO A PANEL 2 IN.

THICK IN SHEETS OF 4x8 AND 4x10 FT. FOAMED CONCRETE. THICK IN STRIPS 11 ¾. GLASS. SHINGLE BACKER – MADE 5/16 OR 3/8 IN. 15. 4 FT. THIS INCLUDE MINERAL WOOL WITH BINDER. THICK IN SINGLE OR MULTIPLE LAYERS AND IN SEVERAL DIMENSIONS. WIDE AND FROM 6 TO 12 FT. 15 ½ IN. WIDE AND 48 IN. SHREDDED WOOD . ROOF INSULATION – MADE FROM ½ TO 3 IN. IN MOST CASES INORGANIC MATERIALS ARE USED IN THEIR MANUFACTURES. • BLOCK OR RIGID SLAB INSULATION – THIS TYPE OF INSULATION IS SO CALLED BECAUSE THE UNITS ARE RELATIVELY STIFF AND INELASTIC. 13 ½. LONG. CELLULAR.EXTERIOR SHEATHING – ½ IN.. INTERIOR WALL BOARD – MADE 5/16. SQUARE EDGED SHEETS. CELLULAR HARD RUBBER. LONG IMPREGNATED WITH ASPHALT. THICK. 3/8 AND ½ IN. FRAMED PLASTIC.

BLOCKS. • FOAMED PLASTIC INSULATION – IS MADE FROM EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE AND EXPANDED POLYURETHANE FORMED INTO SLABS OF VARIOUS DIMENSIONS AND THICKNESSES. MINERAL WOOL FROM PERLITE OR VERMICULITE.AND CEMENT. WHEN MIXED WITH A BINDER AND PROCESSED OR FIXED TO A RIGID BACK. ARE AVAILABLE IN 12 x 18 IN. A 1 ½ IN. THICKNESSES OF 2. THICKNESS IS PRODUCED IN 24 . WHICH MAKES THESE MATERIALS HIGH IN INSULATIVE VALUE. 21/2 AND 3 AND 4 IN. SHEETS ARE PRODUCED WHICH ARE SUITABLE FOR ROOF-DECK INSULATION. • CELLULAR GLASS INSULATION – IS MADE FROM EXPANDED MOLTEN GLASS CAST INTO BLOCK FORM AND CUT VARIOUS SIZES AND SHAPES. THE BASIC MATERIAL IS A NON-CONDUCTOR AND THAT THE FINISHED PRODUCT CONTAINS MILLIONS OF ISOLATED AIR CELLS.

SLABS. IT IS FORM INTO SLABS OF VARYING SIZES AND THICKNESSES. • FOAMED CONCRETE IS AN IMPORTANT INSULATING MATERIAL BECAUSE OF ITS CLOSED-CELL CONSTRUCTION. METHOD OF APPLICATION ON FLAT SURFACE IS IN HOT ASPHALT OR ASPHALT EMULSION. MASTIC IS USED. FOAMED CONCRETE PRECAST ROOF SLABS ARE USED FOR INSULATIVE AS WELL AS STRUCTURAL PURPOSES AND CAN HAVE A BUILT-UP ROOF APPLIED WITHOUT FURTHER ROOF INSULATION. FOR VERTICAL SURFACE. IT SETS . • CELLULAR HARD RUBBER IS A SYNTHETIC MATERIAL CONTAINING CELLS FILLED WITH NITROGEN.x 48 IN. • SHREDDED WOOD OR WOOD FIBER BY ITSELF IS A FORM OF BLANKET INSULATION BUT WHEN CEMENT SLURRY OR SPECIAL CEMENTS ARE ADDED.

UP INTO A RIGID BLOCK WITH SIMILAR INSULATING QUALITIES. • RIGID SLAB INSULATION- ARE PARTICULARLY USEFUL FOR SUCH APPLICATIONS AS ROOF-DECK INSULATION, PERIMETER INSULATION, PINE INSULATION, COLD STORAGE WORK, AND CAVITY WALL INSULATION. IT CAN ALSO INSULATE MASONRY WALLS WITHOUT FURRING • RIGID INSULATION- WHICH ARE IMPERVOUS TO MOISTURE PENETRATION RESULTING FROM CONTINUOUS CONTACT WITH THE EARTH AND MOISTURE ARE PARTICULARLY USEFUL AS PERIMETER INSULATION. • REFLECTIVE INSULATION – MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS AS ALUMINUM OR COPPER FOIL OR SHEET METAL, WITH BRIGHT SURFACES THAT REFLECT HEAT RATHER THAN ABSORBING IT.

• ALUMINUM FOIL – IS PRODUCED IN SHEETS OR ROLLS AND MADE UP INTO BLANKETS. • COPPER- FOIL INSULATIONS – IS COMMONLY MADE IN THE FORM OF THIN PAPER CORE COVERED ON ONE OR BOTH SIDES WITH COPPER. • REFLECTIVE INSULATION – CAN BE USED IN STUD, RAFTER AND JOIST SPACES, TO INSULATE WALLS, ROOFS, CEILINGS AND FLOORS AND FOR COLD-STORAGE WORK. • SHEET FOIL – IS COMMONLY MADE 36 IN. WIDE AND ON STUD WALLS SHOULD BE INSTALLED VERTICALLY FOR MAXIMUM BENEFIT. A 36 IN. WIDTH WILL SPAN TWO 16 IN. STUD SPACES AND DRAPE BACK BETWEEN EACH PAIR OF STUDS TO FORM AN AIR BETWEEN IT AND THE INSIDE FINISH.

FOAMED-IN PLACE INSULATION – THIS IS POLYURETHANE PRODUCT MADE BY COMBINING A POLYISOCYANATE AND A POLYESTER RESIN. THIS TYPE OF INSULATION CAN BE APPLIED EITHER BY POURING OR BY SPRAYING. THE BASIC INGREDIENTS FOR BOTH ARE DRAWN FROM THEIR CONTAINERS, MEASURED, AND MIXED BY MACHINE. • APPLICATION BY POURING – A CAREFULLY MEASURED AMOUNT OF THE MIXTURE IS DEPOSITED IN AN EXISTING CAVITY. THE MIXTURE REACTS AND FOAMS UP TO FILL A PREDETERMINED PORTION OF THE SPACE TO BE FILLED. THIS VOLUME OF FOAM IS CALLED A "“IFT"” AND NORMALLY IS LIMITED TO A HEIGHT OF ABOUT 14 IN. WHEN THE FOAM HAS SET, A NEW LIFT IS POURED AND THIS PROCESS IS REPEATED UNTIL THE SPACE IS COMPLETELY FILLED. • APPLICATION BY SPRAYING – A NUMBER OF THIN COATS OF FOAM ARE APPLIED, ARE OVER THE OTHER, WITH SUFFICIENT TIME BEING LEFT BETWEEN EACH

APPLICATION FOR THE FOAM TO SET UP. THE PRIMER SHOULD BE APPLIED TO ONLY AS MUCH OF THE SURFACE AS CAN BE SPRAYED WITH FIBER WHILE THE ADHESIVE IS STILL TACKY. ANY DESIRED THICKNESS OF INSULATION CAN BE APPLIED. • SPRAYED-ON-INSULATIONS – MATERIALS USED ARE POLYURETHANE FOAM ASBESTOS FIBER MIXED WITH INORGANIC BINDERS. THIS TYPE OF INSULATION ALSO SEALS . BY THIS SYSTEM. VERMICULITE AGGREGATE WITH A BINDER SUCH AS PORTLAND CEMENT OR GYPSUM AND PERLITE AGGREGATE USING GYPSUM AS A BINDER. OFTEN A LATEX-TYPE WATER EMULSION. MACHINES ARE USED FOR BLOWING THESE INSULATIONS INTO PLACE. • ASBESTOS – FIBER INSULATION IS USUALLY APPLIED OVER A BASE COAT OF SOME ADHESIVE. APPLICATION DIRECT TO METAL LATH DOES NOT REQUIRE THE PRIMING ADHESIVE. AS A RESULT THE SHAPE OR IRREGULARITY OF THE SURFACE BEING INSULATED IS OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCE.

BASE COAT PLASTER. VERMICULITE AND PERLITE AGGREGATE CAN BE SPRAYED OVER A BASE OF GYPSUM LATH.• CRACKS AND CREVICES TO PREVENT DUST FROM SHIFTING THROUGH AND ELIMINATES JOINT AND LAP PROBLEMS COMMON TO CORRUGATED BUILDING MATERIALS. CORRUGATED INSULATION – THIS IS USUALLY MADE FROM PAPER FORMED INTO SHAPES THAT PRODUCE ENCLOSED AIR POCKETS. DEPENDING ON THE THICKNESS OF THE MAT. AND IS APPLIED IN STRIPS FITTING BETWEEN STUDS OR IN LARGE SHEETS . THIS CAN BE DONE USING EITHER SINGLE OR MULTIPLE LAYERS OR CORRUGATED PAPER. THIS TYPE OF INSULATION IS PRODUCED EITHER IN SHEETS OR ROLLS. MASONRY SURFACE OR METAL LATH. IT ALSO TENDS TO PROTECT METAL FROM CORROSIVE ACTION. ONE TYPE IS PRODUCED BY SHAPING HEAVY PAPER INTO A SERIES OF FLAT SMALL REGULAR SEMICIRCULAR CORRUGATIONS AND COVERING A BOTH SIDES WITH A SHEET OF FLAT PAPER TO GIVE STRENGTH AND PRODUCE THE AIR POCKETS.

WITHOUT FURTHER SUPPORT. THE WHOLE THING IS GIVEN ITS RIGIDITY BY SPRAYING WITH A THIN COATING OF PORTLAND CEMENT SLURRY OR OTHER TYPE OF STIFFENER. THE RESULTING PAPER MAT.CEMENTED TO A FLAT SURFACE. FROM 1 TO 4 IN. . THICK IS QUITE STRONG AND MAY BE USED FOR NONBEARING PARTITIONS. A MORE RIGID TYPE OF CORRUGATED INSULATION IS MADE BY FORMING A HONEY COMBSHAPED MAT WITH PAPER AND COVERING BOTH SIDES WITH FLAT PAPER SHEET. PLASTERED ON BOTH SIDES.

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