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First of all we would like to thank all the respective persons of Soaltee Crowne Plaza, who have helped us throughout the attachment period. The success of the attachment is especially due to their kind cooperation and coordination. We are extremely thankful to Mr. Shailesh Kumar Jha (Chief engineer,Soaltee Crowne Plaza,Tahachal), Mr. Indra Khadka (Trainee Manager, Soaltee Crowne Plaza,Tahachal ), Mr Bal Purushotam Shakya, Mr Sunil Rijal, Mr Madan Dawadi, Ram Dahal, Kendra, Hem , Prem Shakya. We would like to convey our thanks to the all those braches supervisors of Soaltee Crowne Plaza, where we visited. We are genuinely grateful to our respected supervisor Mr. Santosh Chhetri for his co-operation and guidance throughout the site visiting period. Last but not the least we would like to thank all of our teachers and close friends who have directly and indirectly contributed for the successful completion of this Industrial attachment report.
This report is based on the Industrial Attachment done at Soaltee Crowne Plaza ,Tahachal as a requisite for the students of Bachelor in Mechanical Engineering IOE, Pulchowk (4th year 1st part). The report consists of the technical and managerial aspects learnt during the attachment period of 15 days. The report also provides the information about the Engineering Department, its responsibilities, its functions and how it executes its work. The Engineering Department is the central governing body for any obstacles raised in the mechanical and electrical equipments all around the bodies of Soaltee Crowne Plaza. Mainly it handles the procurement, installation and maintenance of AC system, Boiler Plant, Filter Plant, diesel generators for backup power supply in load shedding hours. So, the report consists of various data and information about the AC system and its different types; Boiler Plant and its different accessories, Filter Plant and its different units and the diesel generator and its components (mostly the engine part). Moreover, different types of ACs in operation at different branches like Himalayan Wing, Prince ship Wing Jawalakhel branch and Regal Suites were observed. Management aspects of the Soaltee Crowne Plaza has been attempted to be drawn. Crisis management in the department was considered of utmost importance. Although Soaltee Crowne Plaza is a deluxe hotel, mostly dealing with hospitality and services, the attachment has helped understand an undergraduate student of mechanical engineering his/her scope in the very field.
The work of an engineer is concerned with developing economical and safe solutions to practical problems, by applying mathematical and scientific knowledge while considering technical constraints. As such, the engineering profession is concerned to be the linked between art and science. The work of an engineer in a society is related to research and development, designing, testing, production, maintenance etc. One of the most valued qualities in an engineer is his managerial skills, which enhances his ability to lead and set an example for his followers. An Engineer might need to work in various working environment and face number of problems. He/she then must be capable of solving the problems with full confidence, with a quick and right decision as far as possible. To be acquainted and be much more familiar with such engineering aspects of the society, we were demanded to work with a selected organization. For this we chose Soaltee Crowne Plaza, Tahachal, Kathmandu. The main objectives of our visit can be summarized as following: • To visit and work under senior engineers and technicians • To study the existing management system and technology of that organization • • To be familiar with various engineering aspects demanded by that particular organization To understand the role played by any engineer in a particular organization
Nestled in the Himalayas of Nepal, Soaltee Crowne Plaza is the leading five star deluxe hotels in Nepal offering a Resort atmosphere and is ideal for both business and leisure travel. Spread over 11 acres of lush green lawns, the hotel is located in the quiet green suburbs of the city with fabulous views of the mountain ranges. Kathmandu is proud to have many top-standard hotels and lodges to accommodate the numerous tourists coming to vacation here, and experience the magic and exoticism that it seethes in. One of the most popular names among the 5 Star Hotels in Kathmandu is the Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu, which draws a steady crowd of tourists with the promise of deluxe accommodation at affordable prices. Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu has made itself an accommodation that boasts of the perfect melding of comfort and hospitality. Its suitable location, and a services and facilities arranged for comfort, the hotel is an ideal accommodation choice among the many Hotels in Kathmandu in Nepal. The Location of Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu is chosen very carefully, and places the guests in an ideal locale, which is perfect for exploring the charms of the city. The Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu stands in the suburbs of Tahachal, cushioned by the majestic Himalayas. The Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu is easily accessible, being just 15 minutes away from the Airport, making it easy for guests to get to it. The Room Facilities at Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu are selected with care to ensure that the guests are treated to maximum comfort. One finds here an arrangement which is shaped to rest the guests with the maximum comfort possible. 283 Superior, Deluxe and Crowne Plaza Club rooms, 8 Executive Suites and 7 Regal Suites, as well as Non-smoking rooms are available at the Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu. To increase the comfort and give the guests a homelike experience, the Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu has lined up a fine range of services and facilities. The Hotel Amenities and Services at Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu are allinclusive, and try to meet all the possible needs of the guests. The guests can see that all their needs are being catered to, what with the amiable and efficient staff of the Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu working round the clock. Right from your dining needs, to your leisure and recreational desires, and your business requirements, all are superbly catered to by the conveniences offered by the Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu. We were given various works to perform at different sections mainly air conditioning, boiler, filter plant section and generator, under the supervision of Engineers and Technicians.
1 Introduction Air conditioning refers to the cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for thermal comfort. He combined moisture with ventilation to "condition" and change the air in the factories. Similar techniques in medieval Persia involved the use of cisterns and wind towers to cool buildings during the hot season. The resulting biological . Modern air conditioning emerged from advances in chemistry during the 19th century. and the first large-scale electrical air conditioning was invented and used in 1902 by Willis Haviland Carrier.3. methyl chloride. Cramer coined the term "air conditioning". The concept of air conditioning is known to have been applied in Ancient Rome. In a broader sense. This evaporation of water in air. Freon. where aqueduct water was circulated through the walls of certain houses to cool them. Stuart W. his invention controlled not only temperature but also humidity. Designed to improve manufacturing process control in a printing plant. Cramer of Charlotte. most commonly for comfort cooling in buildings and motor-cars. system. and propane which could result in fatal accidents when they leaked. The first air conditioners and refrigerators employed toxic or flammable gases like ammonia.0 AIR CONDITIONING PLANT 3. was exploring ways to add moisture to the air in his textile mill. Willis Carrier adopted the term and incorporated it into the name of his company. In 1902 the first modern electrical air conditioning was invented by Willis Haviland Carrier in Syracuse. typically using a refrigeration cycle but sometimes using evaporation. The refrigerant was much safer for humans but was later found to be harmful to the atmosphere by ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Residential sales expanded dramatically in the 1950s.) is an appliance. in 1928. The low heat and humidity were to help maintain consistent paper dimensions and ink alignment. using it in a patent claim he filed that year as an analogue to "water conditioning". heating. In 1906. ventilation or disinfection that modifies the condition of air. created the first chlorofluorocarbon gas. is now known as evaporative cooling. or mechanism designed to stabilize the air temperature and humidity within an area (used for cooling as well as heating depending on the air properties at a given time). the term can refer to any form of cooling. to provide a cooling effect. North Carolina. USA. Over time air conditioning came to be used to improve comfort in homes and automobiles. NY. Jr. controlling the humidity so necessary in textile plants. Thomas Midgley. Early commercial applications of air conditioning were manufactured to cool air for industrial processing rather than personal comfort. An air conditioner (often referred to as AC or air con. then a wellknown process for making textiles easier to process. Later Carrier's technology was applied to increase productivity in the workplace. and The Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America was formed to meet rising demand.
Process applications include these: . the only source for purchase being the cleaned and purified gas recovered from other air conditioner systems.2 Types of Air Conditioning Air conditioning engineers broadly divide air conditioning applications into comfort and process. and spacecraft. and small apartment buildings High-Rise Residential buildings. not human preference. academic. natural alternatives like CO2 (R-744) have been proposed. Comfort air conditioning makes deep plan buildings feasible.800 times higher than CO 2. Institutional buildings. which are built for commerce. R-12 was the most common blend used in automobiles in the US until 1994 when most changed to R-134A. Freon is a trademark name of DuPont for any Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). ships. including R-410A. For example. which includes hospitals. damage to plants. As an alternative to conventional refrigerants. Industrial spaces where thermal comfort of workers is desired. governmental. including single family houses. Innovation in air conditioning technologies continue. The blend most used in direct-expansion home and building comfort cooling is an HCFC known as R-22. R-22 (also known as HCFC-22) has a global warming potential about 1. with much recent emphasis placed on energy efficiency. HCFCs and HFCs are potent greenhouse gases when leaked to the atmosphere. it is the needs of the process that determine conditions. including offices. Process applications aim to provide a suitable environment for a process being carried out. aircraft. buildings must be built narrower or with light wells so that inner spaces receive sufficient outdoor air via natural ventilation. shopping centers. R-22. Comfort applications for various building types are quite different and may be categorized as: • • • • • Low-Rise Residential buildings. R-11 and R-12 are no longer manufactured in the US. regardless of internal heat and humidity loads and external weather conditions. and so on. air conditioning can be used for comfort in a wide variety of transportation including land vehicles. invented by Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal) in Buffalo NY and sold under the Genetron (R) AZ-20 name it was first commercially used by Carrier under the brand name Puron.consequences included an increase in skin cancer. trains. malls. or Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant. R-12. 3. It is to be phased out for use in new equipment by 2010 and completely discontinued by 2020. R-134A). etc. Air conditioning also allows buildings to be taller since wind speed increases significantly with altitude making natural ventilation impractical for very tall buildings. duplexes. restaurants. and the reduction of ocean plankton. CFCs. Although often in the comfort range. such as tall dormitories and apartment blocks Commercial buildings. Without air conditioning. Hydrogenated CFC (HCFC). and improving indoor air quality. the name of each including a number indicating molecular composition (R-11. Comfort applications aim to provide a building indoor environment that remains relatively constant in a range preferred by humans despite changes in external weather conditions or in internal heat loads. because in addition to greenhouse gas emissions associated with energy use. In addition to buildings. Several non-ozone depleting refrigerants have been developed as alternatives. Reducing climate change impacts is an important area of innovation.
highpressure refrigerant gas (left in the diagram shown below) 2. Facilities for breeding laboratory animals: Since many animals normally only reproduce in spring.Hospital operating theatres.3 Parts of air conditioning unit a. but also humidity. The compressor compresses cool refrigerant. some specialist procedures such as open heart surgery require low temperatures (about 18 °C. 4.2 Working of Air Conditioners The evaporative cycle of an air conditioning works as follows: 1. 82 °F). causing it to become hot. This cold gas runs through a set of coils that allow the gas to absorb heat and cools the air inside the building. holding them in rooms at which conditions mirror spring all year can cause them to reproduce year round. and over which a fan blows air to cool the refrigerant gas back to a liquid state (thus transferring heat from the refrigerant gas to the air being blown by the fan). from hot high pressure . Usually the condenser unit is in the outdoor portion of an air conditioning system. In both comfort and process applications the objective may be to not only control temperature. The compressor is basically a high pressure pump driven by an electric motor. low-pressure gas (right in the diagram above). 3. Clean rooms for the production of integrated circuits. and the like. The change of state of the refrigerant. and it condenses into a liquid. 3. Fig: A typical air conditioner(A-expansion valve. high temperature gas. Usually the compressor is in the outdoor portion of an air conditioning or heat pump system. air quality and air movement from space to space. Although temperatures are often in the comfort range. pharmaceuticals. The condenser unit is basically a coil of finned tubing and a fan to blow air across the coil. in which air is filtered to high levels to reduce infection risk and the humidity controlled to limit patient dehydration. A condenser or condensing unit: It is typically a condensing coil inside which high temperature high pressure refrigerant gas flows. The air conditioning compressor is usually packaged in the outdoor compressor/condenser unit. and in the process it evaporates to become cold. often packaged along with the compressor motor. Humidity control is not that much important. They are basically used for better functioning of the sensitive equipments. The refrigerant liquid runs through an expansion valve.B-compressor) 3. in which very high levels of air cleanliness and control of temperature and humidity are required for the success of the process. Air conditioning or heat pump compressor: It compresses low pressure refrigerant gas into a high pressure. 64 °F) and others such as neonatal relatively high temperatures (about 28 °C. b. The air conditioning units visited by us is included in this category. This hot gas runs through a set of coils so it can dissipate its heat.
gas to a liquid releases heat. The condensate runs down the coil to a collecting pan which drains to piping used to route condensate to an approved drain for disposal Condensate pump on some air conditioning systems a small pump is used to collect . condensate handling system. Air Filters of AHU Condensate system: Water or condensate is produced when we cool warm moist air by blowing it over the evaporator coil. electrical switches. and air filters. and which takes air from the occupied space and returns it to the cooling system air handler. d. This state change of the refrigerant. The air handler blower fan unit moves building air across the evaporator coil surface in order to condition building air by cooling it (and thus also by removing moisture from the cooled air). cooling the evaporator coil surface and thus cooling indoor air blown across the cooling coil. fuses or circuit breakers. c. from liquid to gas. including heat collected inside the building to the outdoors. An air handler and blower unit: It provides a fan to blow building air across or through the evaporator coil. e. An evaporator coil or cooling coil: Typically the cooling coil is a section of finned tubing (it looks a lot like a car radiator) into which liquid refrigerant is metered and permitted to evaporate from liquid to gas state inside the coil. A duct system: It distributes conditioned air from the air handler in to the occupied space (supply ducts). absorbs heat. Air conditioner controls and features: It includes a room thermostat. f. Usually the cooling coil is located inside the air handler. 3.4 AIR HANDLING UNIT: Air Handler Unit (AHU) which typically includes the following accessories: Fig.
causing a drop in temperature of the refrigerant and thus cooling the evaporator coil so that when we move air across the coil the air will. Support system is the means by which an attic-mounted air handler is supported or held in place. or at the air handler unit itself are used to remove dust and debris from building air. be cooled. Think of the return plenum and supply plenum as junction boxes to which return ducts or supply ducts respectively can be connected. Blowers may be single speed. Thermal expansion valve in an air conditioner is a device located at the cooling coil and connected between the incoming refrigerant line and the refrigerant inlet to the cooling coil in the air handler. Air Filters located at the return duct air inlets. High pressure refrigerant liquid. for example by being suspended from the roof rafters (a quiet installation) or perhaps by being placed on supporting wood beams laid across ceiling joists. Blower fan in a blower compartment circulates building air into itself from the return ducts and return plenum. Condensate overflow pan or tray is a container placed below the air handler when that unit is located in an attic or in other building locations where condensate leakage or overflow would otherwise spill onto building floors or into a building ceiling. in turn. The air conditioning system thermal expansion valve or "TEV" is a metering device which regulates the flow of refrigerant from the incoming high pressure side (from the compressor/condenser) into the low pressure side (in the cooling coil). is the air receiving compartment which provides air to the blower fan. Evaporator Coil (also called the "cooling coil" is connected to high pressure and low pressure (suction) refrigerant lines. and may need to move air at different rates if the blower is used for both heating and cooling in the same duct system. Some air blowers are also rated for continuous operation. The condensate overflow pan should have either an independent drain to an approved location or a float switch to shut down the air conditioner should the pan become full. normally it does not contain condensate. Access ports to duct interior Commercial ducts and some residential duct systems may have inspection/cleaning access ports. . Supply plenum connected to supply duct system. multiple speed. or variable speed. The condensate overflow pan is a safety device intended to prevent unwanted spillage.and then pump condensate up to a building drain or other location for disposal. at one or more central return air inlets. connected to return duct system. Return Plenum. and moves that air across the evaporator coil and onwards to the supply plenum and supply ducts in the building. released into the cooling coil by the thermal expansion valve changes state from a liquid to a gas. is the air collecting compartment to which building supply ducts are connected. Condensate pumps are needed for systems which cannot dispose of the condensate by simple gravity flow down a drain line.
Types of compressors The main types of gas compressors are illustrated and discussed below: Reciprocating compressors . Some air conditioning installations do not provide return air registers and ducts in every room and use one or more "central air return inlets" instead.5 Compressors: A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. so the main action of a pump is to transport liquids. Thermostat(s) are used to turn the air conditioning on and off and to set the desired indoor temperature. Return air ducts and registers collect warm moist air from the occupied space and return it to the air handler unit. "high velocity" ducts to deliver conditioned air to the living space. Central air returns are most common on air conditioning retrofit installations (adding A/C to an existing building). Some air conditioning duct systems use small-diameter. As gases are compressible. both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. Liquids are relatively incompressible. Supply air balancing dampers. Ductless air conditioning systems. the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Compressors are similar to pumps.residential HVAC ducts may have plugs indicating that the ducts have been cleaned in the past. Supply air ducts and supply air registers deliver cooled air to the occupied space. 3. One thermostat will be located in each different air conditioning zone and will control an individual air handler unit's operation. manual and motorized zone dampers may be installed inside the supply ducts at varying locations in to permit balancing the air flow among different duct sections and thus among different building areas. which may also be called "split A/C systems" may employ one or more wall mounted cooling units such as shown at right above. Supply registers have the dual function of spreading out and directing the air flow into a location and permitting the regulation of air flow by opening or closing the register.
Rotary Compressors In positive displacement rotary type compressors. blades slide in and out of the slots keeping contact with the outer wall of the housing. are an air conditioning system which uses ducts to distribute cooled and/or dehumidified air to more than one room. In certain applications. The rotor is mounted offset in a larger housing which can be circular or a more complex shape.24 kW) to over 500 hp (375 kW) and from low pressure to very high pressure (>1200 psi or 8. packaged air conditioner and central air conditioning system used in Soaltee Crowne Plaza. the air is entrapped between two sets of engaging surfaces and the pressure rise is either by back flow of air (roots blower) or by both squeezing action and back flow of air (vane type).Fig: Reciprocating Compressor Unit Reciprocating compressors use pistons driven by a crankshaft. 3. split air conditioner. Thus. and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. the condenser and compressor are located in an outdoor unit. They can be either stationary or portable. with piston compressors one of the oldest of compressor technologies. such as air compression. multi-stage double-acting compressors are said to be the most efficient compressors available. and are typically larger. With a typical split system. With suitable port connections. . or uses pipes to distribute chilled water to heat exchangers in more than one room. can be single or multi-staged. a series of decreasing volumes is created by the rotating blades. 1. There are various types of air conditioners like window air conditioner. the evaporator is mounted in the air handler unit. Larger reciprocating compressors well over 1000 hp are still commonly found in large industrial and petroleum applications. noisier. Rotary vane compressors consist of a rotor with a number of blades inserted in radial slots in the rotor. can be single or multi-staged. Rotary screw compressors use two meshed rotating positive-displacement helical screws to force the gas into a smaller space. As the rotor turns. A rotary vane compressor is well suited to electric motor drive and is significantly quieter in operation than the equivalent piston compressor. Rotary Vane compressors are.3 MPa). These are usually used for continuous operation in commercial and industrial applications and may be either stationary or portable. They can be either stationary or portable. all components are located in a single outdoor unit that may be located on the ground or roof. Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower (hp) are commonly seen in automotive applications and are typically for intermittent duty. Their application can be from 3 hp (2. Discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very high pressure (>5000 psi or 35 MPa). and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. With a package system.6 Types of Air conditioning unit used in Soaltee Crowne Plaza are: Central air conditioning Central air conditionings commonly referred to as central air or air-con. the devices may be either a compressor or a vacuum pump. and more costly than comparable rotary units.
The main air conditioning system used in Soaltee Crowne Plaza is central air conditioning system.Central air conditioning performs like a regular air conditioner but has several added benefits. or other building. The filtered air is routed to air supply ductwork that carries it back to rooms. normally outside air is used to cool the condenser section. the brine solution gets chilled and is pumped to the various air handling units installed at different floors of the building. The blower sucks hot return air from the room via ducts and blows it over the cooling coil. while on the shell side the brine solution is passed. After passing through the evaporator. On the tube side the Freon fluid passes at extremely low temperature. Window and through wall AC units A window air conditioner unit implements a complete air conditioner in a small space. Fig. room air is drawn in from various parts of the building through return-air ducts. The brine solution which has absorbed the room heat comes back to the evaporator. and the blower. condenser. When the air handling unit turns on. This air is pulled through a filter where airborne particles such as dust and lint are removed. 1. it offers a lower level of indoor noise than a free-standing air conditioning unit. The units are made small enough to fit into a standard window frame. The cool air is then supplied to the space to be cooled through the ducts. Air conditioner units need to have access to the space they are cooling (the inside) and a heat sink. Central A/C System and its Compressor The one used is: Chilled water central air conditioning plant: This type of system is more useful for large buildings comprising of a number of floors. house. The air handling units comprise the cooling coil through which the chilled brine flows. Many traditional air conditioners in homes or other buildings are single rectangular units used to cool all or a portion of an apartment. It has the plant room where all the important units like the compressor. Sophisticated filters may remove microscopic pollutants as well. this cycle repeats continually. For this reason. gets chilled and is again pumped back to the air handling unit. throttling valve and the evaporator are housed. single unit air conditioners are . Whenever the air conditioner is running. Because the central air conditioning unit is located outside the home. The evaporator is a shell and tube.
the condensing unit normally lives on the roof and can be quite massive. The controls are on the inside. there may be many smaller units on the roof. the splitsystem approach begins to run into problems. known as the condensing unit is placed outside the building. businesses. In warehouses. it would be less expensive to use central air conditioning. Besides the fact that the hot and cold sides are split apart and the capacity is higher (making the coils and compressor larger). The cold side.placed in windows or through openings in a wall made for the air conditioner. Split-system AC Units A split-system air conditioner splits the hot side from the cold side of the system. there is no difference between a split-system and a window air conditioner. Fig: The external section of a typical A/C unit Window and through-wall units have vents on both the inside and outside. Either running the pipe between the condenser and the air handler exceeds distance limitations (runs that are too long start to cause lubrication difficulties in . A large house or building may have several such units. They consist of following units: • A compressor • An expansion valve • A hot coil (on the outside) • A chilled coil (on the inside) • Two fans • A control unit The fans blow air over the coils to improve their ability to dissipate heat (to the outside air) and cold (to the room being cooled). Fig: Window AC unit 2. each attached inside to a small air handler that cools a specific zone in the building. Alternatively. is generally placed into a furnace or some other air handler. though that may not be physically possible. the latter type includes portable air conditioners. most of the day. malls. In larger buildings and particularly in multi-story buildings. and outside air can also be blown in and out by another fan to act as the heat sink. The air handler blows air through the coil and routes the air throughout the building using a series of ducts. The hot side. ). consisting of the expansion valve and the cold coil. so inside air to be cooled can be blown in and out by a fan in the unit. Should virtually every room be cooled with its own air conditioning unit. large department stores and the like.
This cool air is then supplied though ducts which are laid down in various rooms or various parts of the room or hall. There is a large blower that sucks the hot returned room air and blows it over the cooling coil. or occasionally the less . 2) In the second possible arrangement. The indoor units are usually laid hanged over the ceiling. Installing multiple small window units or split units in the halls or multiple rooms may not be feasible. and multiple rooms. Packaged Air Conditioners Packaged air conditioner models are used for medium sized halls and multiple rooms on the same floor. The outdoor unit houses important parts of the air conditioner like the compressor and the condenser. hospitals. more energy is required to operate systems utilizing R-134a than those using R-12.2-tetrafluoroethane). If you want to cool a number of rooms in your home. are all enclosed in a single large casing.the compressor). where the cooling effect is required. The indoor units are usually multiple units located in various rooms or at various places inside the large space. Freon gas passes through the compressor. and they might suggest package air conditioners for your application. condenser. There are two possible arrangements of packaged unit: 1) In the first arrangement the compressor. R-134a is not as efficient as the R-12 it replaced (in automotive applications) and therefore. there are two parts of the package air conditioner similar to the split air conditioner. When this air is blown over the cooling coil. it gets cooled and it is supplied through the ducts to various parts of the room. They are used when central plant air conditioner cannot supply sufficient air. condenser and the expansion valve. Other substances such as liquid ammonia. These are the outdoor unit and the indoor unit.1. in such cases package units are recommended by the HVAC engineers. The openings are provided in the ducts at various locations so that the cool air is evenly distributed as per the heat load in the rooms. which make the outdoor unit. One widely-adopted replacement refrigerant is the hydro fluorocarbon (HFC) known as R-134a(1. The package unit is used for cooling medium sized halls. the evaporator coil or the cooling coil and the blower. usually on the same floor. and expansion valve and gets chilled. The indoor unit houses other important parts of the air conditioner like expansion valve. the refrigerants were often chlorofluorocarbons such as R-12 (CCl2 F2). you will probably have to consult an HVAC designer for maximum cooling at the lowest possible cost. They are usually used for applications where air conditioning of more than 5 tons is required.1. Its manufacture was discontinued in 1995 because of the damage that CFCs cause to the ozone layer if released into the atmosphere. This gas then passes through the evaporator or cooling coil. 3. The blower of the indoor unit sucks hot returned room air from the various parts of large room.7 Refrigerants Until the 1990s. or the amount of duct work and the length of ducts becomes unmanageable. There can be multiple outdoor units or a single large outdoor unit. Fig: Split system AC unit 3.
SUVA 410A(R). and Puron(R). the servicing of R-22-based systems will rely on recycled refrigerants. contribute to global warming. the transition away from R-22 to the use of ozone-friendly refrigerants should be smooth. and they can continue production of R-22 until 2020 for use in servicing that equipment. These two refrigerants are not yet available for residential applications in the U. but in association with hydrogen atoms. R-410A is manufactured and sold under various trade names.R123 as refrigerant. reclaimed (reprocessed to the same purity levels as new R-22). Chlorine thus released. EPA has reviewed several of these alternatives to R-22 and has compiled a list of substitutes that EPA has determined are acceptable.. R22 which is a HCFC has 1/20 th the ODP of R11 and R12. Hydrogen. like R-22. or air is used in the Stirling cycle. but it is a powerful global warming gas and is nevertheless increasingly being used. R22 is found to be of greater use these days as it is being employed. R-22 must be recovered and recycled (for reuse in the same system). substances that do not contribute to depletion of the ozone layer. but also as a substitute for R11 in very large capacity air conditioning applications either with screw or with centrifugal compressors. EPA reviews alternatives to ozone-depleting substances like R-22 in order to evaluate their effects on human health and the environment.S. so few chlorine atoms reach the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere. can also be used.The ACs used in Soaltee Crowne Plaza mainly uses R22. non-ozone-depleting alternative refrigerants are being introduced. HFC R-410a does not deplete the ozone layer. including GENETRON AZ-20(R). but are commonly found in residential A/C systems and heat . For the next 20 years or more. helium. Even hydro chlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs) which do contain chlorine atom/s. They contain no chlorine atom at all and. Additional refrigerants on the list of acceptable substitutes include R-134a and R-407C. R-22 should continue to be available for all systems that require R-22 for servicing. Given this schedule. The two most common refrigerants which have very high ODP are R11 and R12 (CFCs). Therefore. However all these have GWP. It is expected that reclamation and recycling will ensure that existing supplies of R-22 will last longer and be available to service a greater number of systems. Nevertheless. or destroyed. the hydro chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) R-22 is still widely used. Hydrocarbons (HCs) and hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) provide an alternative to fully halogenated CFC refrigerants. providing the maximum number of options in environmental friendly gas. There are two AC plants used in Soaltee Crowne Plaza. have zero OPD (Ozone Depletion Potential). therefore. However HCFCs have a level of GWP (Global Warming Potential). The association one or more H-atoms allow them to dissociate faster in the lower atmosphere of the earth. As noted above. chemical manufacturers will be able to produce R22 for use in new A/C equipment until 2010. Fig: Refrigerants In residential and commercial applications. gets absorbed by the rain water etc. a blend of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). One of these substitutes is R410A. After 2020. Under the Clean Air Act. service. but. not only in its existing R22 applications. have much reduced ODP. or retirement of equipment. however. Alternatives to R-22 in Residential Air Conditioning As R-22 is gradually phased out. nitrogen. These refrigerants come in cans with different colour coding.corrosive but flammable propane or butane. Availability of R-22 The Clean Air Act does not allow any refrigerant to be vented into the atmosphere during installation.
It is very important for you to check and change air filters at least monthly when the system is in use to protect the blower fan from dirt clogging. when most units are operating under heavy load. The fan will spin just fine. Some HVAC service companies use a foaming cleaner for removing debris from an evaporator coil. 1 BTU equals 1. That same material might assist in cleaning a squirrel cage fan. In heating and cooling terms.45 kg) of water 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.If the blower fan blades have significant dirt accumulation. . Otherwise we recommend removing the fan and cleaning it thoroughly outside. a BTU is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound (0. Dirt accumulation on the blades fills-in this cupped area. Do not permit a simple "blow out" of the blower by compressed air if the air handler/blower are in the living area.000 BTU.56 degrees Celsius). Problems in AC system The ice or frost formed on a cooling coil Dirt-blocked air conditioner air handler fans Filters protect the blower assembly: The typical A/C system circulates air through the building duct work using a "squirrel cage" blower fan. Cupped fan blades can become blocked by debris: The blades of a squirrel-cage fan are cupped in order to cause the spinning cage to move air. Generally. Specifically. While this is a fairly costly service call (requiring blower disassembly and removal for cleaning) it can make a dramatic improvement in system performance. you should have the system professionally cleaned. ultimately changing the "cup" to a simple flat area. I've seen the cubic feet per minute of air conditioning air-flow literally double when a very dirty squirrel cage fan fan of this type was cleaned or replaced. 1 "ton" equals 12. EPA will continue to review new non-ozone-depleting refrigerants as they are developed. Equipment capacity: Most air conditioners have their capacity rated in British thermal units (BTU). A Central air conditioner used in Soaltee Crowne Plaza is of 300ton capacity. Cleaning an air conditioner squirrel cage fan with compressed air.pumps in Europe. The use of electric/compressive air conditioning puts a major demand on the electrical power grid in warm weather. Clean the remainder of the fan cabinet and housing before returning the air handler to service.055 joules.
Here. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of steam production. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications. but high steam storage capacity.4. The general construction is as a tank of water perforated by tubes that carry the hot flue gases from the fire. alternatively the gases may be taken along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). Fire-tube boilers mostly burn solid fuels. .1 Fire-tube boiler A fire-tube boiler is a type of boiler in which hot gases from a fire pass through one or more tubes running through a sealed container of water.0 BOILER PLANT A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The tank is usually cylindrical for the most part – being the strongest practical shape for a pressurized container – and this cylindrical tank may be either horizontal or vertical. heating the water and ultimately creating steam. a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increase the heating surface compared to a single tube and further improve heat transfer. thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple tubes. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanently surrounded by the water in order to maintain the temperature of the heating surface just below boiling point. Fig. Two types of Boiler 4. This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. This has a cylindrical barrel containing the fire tubes. but also has an extension at one end to house the "firebox". The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases. In the case of a locomotive-type boiler. water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam (steam space). The heat energy from the gases passes through the sides of the tubes by thermal conduction.
their purpose is usually to produce hot water. Stainless steel is virtually prohibited (by the ASME Boiler Code) for use in wetted parts of modern boilers. not steam. 4. such as at Cleator Moor (UK).2 Materials The pressure vessel in a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel). A fire-tube boiler is sometimes called a "smoke-tube boiler" or "shell boiler" or sometimes just "fire pipe". In the 20th century. however. Steam pump and non-returning valve . which is quicker and requires less labour. Fig. noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications. such as high-pressure boilers. In live steam models. copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives). There are three boilers in Soaltee Crowne Plaza. with welded construction. but is used often in superheater sections that will not be exposed to liquid boiler water. Historically.but are readily adaptable to those of the liquid or gas variety. For much of the Victorian "age of steam". Among them. with assembly by rivetting. copper or brass is often used because it is more easily fabricated in smaller size boilers. the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers". because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity. and so they run at low pressure and try to avoid actual boiling. in more recent times. This iron was often obtained from specialist ironworks. the only material used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron. or historically of wrought iron. The bigger one can produce 3600kg of steam per hour and next can 2000kg of steam per hour. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high pressure steam boilers. which is stronger and cheaper. Cast iron may be used for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters. design practice instead moved towards the use of steel.
or natural gas. See countercurrent exchange. Heat exchangers may be classified according to their flow arrangement. chemical plants. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car. Shell and Tube heat exchangers are typically used for high pressure applications (with pressures greater than 30 bar and temperatures greater than 260°C. in that it can transfer the most heat from the heat (transfer) medium. In a cross-flow heat exchanger. oil. In counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from opposite ends.6 Boiler fittings and accessories: • Safety valve: It is used to relieve pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler. 4. in which the heat source. water. whether the media are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix. such as wood. air conditioning. water gauge or water column is provided. the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end. petrochemical plants. There are two basic types of calorifier. longitudinally finned. being a hot engine-cooling fluid. used to heat water for domestic purposes and the non-storage type designed to heat water for a means of central heating. etc. The calorifier is sometimes used to provide heat to a drying room for linen. petroleum refineries. the storage type. As the name implies. One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled. The counter current design is most efficient. and travel in parallel to one another to the other side. the fluids travel roughly perpendicular to one another through the exchanger. The second fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat required. or the media are in direct contact.5 Calorifier An apparatus used for the transfer of heat to water in a vessel by indirect means. refrigeration.e. this valve is . In parallel-flow heat exchangers. 4.4. This is because the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape. coal. the heat transfer medium. Shell and tube heat exchanger Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes. also known as a sight glass. The boiler in the Hotel soaltee crowne plaza uses furnace oil as fuel. power plants. • Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and lay on the bottom of a boiler. the source of heat being contained within a pipe or coil immersed in the water. Fig. A set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes: plain. transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator [i. A Shell and Tube heat exchanger 4.4 Heat exchanger A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another.3 Fuel The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels. Calorifier is a device utilizes the heat energy of steam to heat the water for heating and domestic purposes. • Water level indicators: They show the operator the level of fluid in the boiler. and natural gas processing. The boiler used in Soaltee Crowne Plaza consumes 168 litres of furnace oil per hour. They are widely used in space heating.
in turn form slugs of water. they create a liquid that. Not only does your steam quality suffer. Continuous blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to escape continuously. Low. just below the water level. Push a slug of water through at that speed and you can seriously damage turbine blades. piping systems and actuators. . so may your entire system. Its purpose is to prevent the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. or to the top of the boiler. It does not prevent limescale formation but causes the limescale to be precipitated in a powdery form which is easily washed out of the boiler. mounted on top of the boiler.a condition known as priming. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure. foam in your boiler is not. These create foam in the steam space of your boiler that actually look like the foam on a good glass of beer! Now foam on your beer is acceptable. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam . suspended solids or organic matter. Another possibility for chemical carryover is that you are dropping too big of a load too fast onto the boiler which drops boiler pressure suddenly causing the boiler to suddenly boil excessively and carrying over into the steam line. Problems in Boiler plant Foaming Foaming is a condition that occurs in boilers when there are high concentrations of soluble salts. Chemical carry over The most likely cause for chemical carryover is that the Total Dissolved Solids are too high (Boiler water Conductivity is another way to express TDS). Steam drum internals: A series of screen. It is intended to reduce the nuisance of limescale. Hand holes: They are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installation of tubes and inspection of internal surfaces. Circulating pump: It is designed to circulate water back to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat. Remember steam can reach velocities of over 80 miles an hour. Top feed: A check valve (clack valve) in the feedwater line. This is a bit harder to fix but can be done. scrubber & cans (cyclone separators). This may be fitted to the side of the boiler. Surface blowdown line: It provides a means for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible substances that tend to float on top of the water inside the boiler. Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater line. and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to push these particulates out. TDS is controlled by the surface blow down and should be controlled to the recommendations of your chemical supplier (normally 4000 micro-mho plus/minus 400).water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that is used to turn off the burner or shut off fuel to the boiler to prevent it from running once the water goes below a certain point.• • • • • • • • usually located directly on the bottom of the boiler. When these little foam bubbles pop.
Accumulation of dirt in feedpump When water to produce steam is passed to the boiler through feedpump. This is removed by cleaning and flushing the inner part of boiler regularly. . Blockage of smoke As the fuel used in boiler is furnace oil. it is not as pure as petrol and diesel it contains lots of dirts and carbon. Thus continuous burning of this fuel causes carbon to stick onto the surface of the chimney causing blockage of smoke to passed through chimney. The dirt present in water gets collected in feedpump causing it to block.
it is equivalent to lowland surface waters for treatment purposes.e.2 Treatment The processes below are the ones commonly used in water purification plants. The standards for drinking water quality are typically set by governments or by international standards. Deep ground water is generally of very high bacteriological quality (i. chemical process such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light. and bicarbonate. parasites. chemical and industrial applications. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes. 5. and a range of dissolved and particulate material derived from the minerals that water may have made contacted after falling as rain. bacteria. pharmacology. biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge. Soil and rock layers naturally filter the ground water to a high degree of clarity before it is pumped to the treatment plant.. Pre-treatment: Pumping and containment: The majority of water must be pumped from its source or directed into pipes or holding tanks.1 Sources of water in Soaltee Crowne Plaza Groundwater: The water emerging from some deep ground water may have fallen as rain many decades. Rainwater harvesting or fog collection which collects water from the atmosphere can be used especially in areas with significant dry seasons and in areas which experience fog even when there is little rain. thousands or in some cases millions of years ago. artesian springs. cooking. especially carbonates and sulfates of calcium and magnesium. hundreds. These standards will typically set minimum and maximum concentrations of contaminants for the use that is to be made of the water. including to meet the requirements of medical. Where groundwater recharge is practised. and biological contaminants from raw water. 5. The purification process of water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles. pathogenic bacteria or the pathogenic protozoa are typically absent). There may be a requirement to reduce the iron or manganese content of this water to make it pleasant for drinking. viruses.0 FILTER PLANT Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals. fungi. Disinfection may also be required. or may be extracted from boreholes or wells. and laundry use. materials. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. other ions may also be present including chloride. In general the methods used include physical process such as filtration and sedimentation. Depending on the strata through which the water has flowed. a process in which river water is injected into an aquifer to store the water in times of plenty so that it is available in times of drought. algae.5. To avoid adding contaminants to the water. this . Some or most may not be used depending on the scale of the plant and quality of the water. Such water may emerge as springs. but the water typically is rich in dissolved solids.
requires greater routine human contact through opening bags and pouring than the use of gas cylinders or bleach which are more easily automated. the filter should be back-washed twice a day. Chlorination: Its compounds such as chloramine or chlorine dioxide. Chlorine solutions can be generated on site by electrolyzing common salt solutions. This problem is avoided by the use of sodium hypochlorite. A deep basin will allow more floc to settle out than a shallow basin. sand airscoured filter must be changed. In this process the collected ground water is first pumped upward in air (vertical direction). Storage: Water from rivers may also be stored in bankside reservoirs for periods between a few days and many months to allow natural biological purification to take place. This is especially important if treatment is by slow sand filters. or circular where flow is from the centre outward. It is a large tank with slow flow. The Airscoured Pressure Filter is best located close to the storage basin so the transit between does not permit settlement or floc break up. This is because large particles settle faster than smaller ones. Chlorine is a strong oxidant that rapidly kills many harmful micro-organisms. The generation of liquid sodium hypochlorite is both inexpensive and safer than the use of gas or solid chlorine. which is a relatively inexpensive solution that releases free chlorine when dissolved in water. A solid form. large particles sweep vertically through the basin and clean out smaller particles on their way to the bottom. For this. both of which are pathogenic). both of which are carcinogenic in large quantities and regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Airscoured Pressure Filter outflow is typically over a weir so only a thin top layer . All forms of chlorine are widely used despite their respective drawbacks. Because chlorine is a toxic gas. . Aeration: Aeration is a process of removing gases present in the ground water. calcium hypochlorite exists that releases chlorine on contact with water. This layer of sludge must be removed and treated. As particles settle to the bottom of the basin. there is a danger of a release associated with its use. so large particles bump into and integrate smaller particles as they settle. allowing floc to settle to the bottom. The amount of floc that settles out of the water is dependent on the time the water spends in the basin and the depth of the basin. Handling the solid. Airscoured Pressure Filters can be in the shape of a cylindrical. Airscoured Pressure Filter: Water exiting the storage basin may enter the Airscoured Pressure Filter.furthest from the sediment exits. however. One drawback is that chlorine from any source reacts with natural organic compounds in the water to form potentially harmful chemical by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). In effect. The formation of THMs and haloacetic acids may be minimized by effective removal of as many organics from the water as possible prior to chlorine addition. Once in two years. it has limited effectiveness against protozoans that form cysts in water (Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium. Storage reservoirs also provide a buffer against short periods of drought or to allow water supply to be maintained during transitory pollution incidents in the source river. also called a clarifier or settling basin. where water flows from end to end. a layer of sludge is formed on the floor of the tank.Then the contained gases is removed from it.physical infrastructure must be made from appropriate materials and constructed so that accidental contamination does not occur. The minimum clarifier retention time is normally 4 hours. Although chlorine is effective in killing bacteria.
Clarification is done by causing a precipitate to form in the water which can be removed using simple physical methods. Activated Carbon Filter and Organic scavenger resin filter Organic scavenger resin filter: Organic scavenger resin filter is a process in which water is clarified. Effective filtration extends into the depth of the filter.Granular Activated Carbon filter: After separating most floc. the filter would quickly clog. For this. Clarifying means removing any turbidity or colour so that the water is clear and colourless. Fig. The top layer removes organic compounds. adsorbs many compounds including many toxic compounds. Water moves vertically through sand which often has a layer of activated carbon or anthracite coal above the sand. Most particles pass through surface layers but are trapped in pore spaces or adhere to sand particles. . so simple filtration is not enough. Many of the small particles that were originally present in the raw water absorb onto the surface of these small precipitate particles and so get incorporated into the larger particles that coagulation produces. these particles stick together to form bigger particles . generally by passing the mixture through a coarse sand filter or sometimes through a mixture of sand and granulated anthracite (high carbon and low volatiles coal). In this way the coagulated precipitate takes most of the suspended matter out of the water and is then filtered off. which contribute to taste and odor. Initially the precipitate forms as very small particles but as the water is gently stirred. the filter should be back-washed twice a day. a form of activated carbon with a high surface area. This property of the filter is key to its operation: if the top layer of sand were to block all the particles.this process is sometimes called flocculation. The space between sand particles is larger than the smallest suspended particles.
nitrates and heavy metal ions. • They can be cleaned (back flushed) and reused. differing in that the filter medium is enclosed in a steel vessel and the water is forced through it under pressure. This work on the same principle as rapid gravity filters. While typically not sufficiently clean enough to be used directly for drinking water. cooling towers. They are widely used in industry. A specific 'large-scale' form of slow sand filter is the process of bank filtration. . or it can be recycled by mixing with the raw water entering the plant. washing. along with the sludge from the sedimentation basin. at the bottom and finest sand at the top. Advantages: • Filters out much smaller particles than paper and sand filters can. Membrane filters are widely used for filtering both drinking water and sewage (for reuse). Filtration depends on the development of a thin biological layer. These filters rely on biological treatment processes for their action rather than physical filtration. Backwashing: To clean the filter. in which natural sediments in a riverbank are used to provide a first stage of contaminant filtration. opposite the normal direction (called backflushing or backwashing) to remove embedded particles. Prior to this. Very low nutrient levels allow water to be safely sent through distribution system with very low disinfectant levels thereby reducing consumer irritation over offensive levels of chlorine and chlorine byproducts. • They are reasonably strong and so can withstand pressure differences across them of typically 2-5 atmospheres. on the surface of the filter. compressed air may be blown up through the bottom of the filter to break up the compacted filter media to aid the backwashing process. the water gained from the associated extraction wells is much less problematic than river water taken directly from the major streams where bank filtration is often used. called the zoo Leal layer or Schmutzdecke. Through softening the calcium and magnesium salts in the water are exchanged for sodium salts that do not cause the disadvantages of hard water.2 um—including Giardia and cryptosporidium. This contaminated water can be disposed of. For drinking water. or before discharging the water into a river that is used by towns further downstream.Softener resin filter: Softener resin filters may be used where there is sufficient land and space as the water must be passed very slowly through the filters. water is passed quickly upward through the filter. Some water treatment plants employ pressure filters. The filters are carefully constructed using graded layers of sand with the coarsest sand. The method is used in industries and institutions for treatment of water for steam boiler plants and district heating plants. • Filters out virtually all particles larger than their specified pore sizes. for limited domestic purposes. this is known as air scouring. membrane filters can remove virtually all particles larger than 0. rinse processes. Slow sand filters are not backwashed. laundries. Drains at the base convey treated water away for disinfection. However no filtration can remove substances that are actually dissolved in the water such as phosphorus. dishwashing etc. they are maintained by having the top layer of sand scraped off when flow is eventually obstructed by biological growth. particularly for beverage preparation (including bottled water). Membrane filters are an effective form of tertiary treatment when it is desired to reuse the water for industry. along with some gravel. • They are quite thin and so liquids flow through them fairly rapidly. An effective slow sand filter may remain in service for many weeks or even months if the pre-treatment is well designed and produces water with a very low available nutrient level which physical methods of treatment rarely achieve.
differing in that the filter medium is enclosed in a steel vessel and the water is forced through it under pressure. Gas Assisted type backwash reduces the problems of reverse plugging and reduces backwash fluid generation. water is passed quickly upward through the filter. water having less than 6 ppm hardness is considered. opposite the normal direction (called backflushing or backwashing) to remove embedded particles. acid (HCl) or carbon dioxide (CO2) may be added in some circumstances to lower the pH. Lime is the more common of the two additives because it is cheap. Finer filters foul quicker than courser filters. v) Filtration level too fine. This problem can be solved by backwashing. If hydrotreater feed is via tanks. but it also adds to the resulting water hardness.3 (slightly alkaline). along with the sludge from the sedimentation basin. To clean the filter. ii) Incompatible feedstocks (where more than one feed is used at a time) can cause severe asphaltene precipitation. Some water treatment plants employ pressure filters.3 pH adjustment Distilled water has a pH of 7 (neither alkaline nor acidic) and sea water has an average pH of 8. Here in Soaltee water use is underground so hardness of water should be checked.5. iv) Inconsistent filtration rating. water of range 7-8. If the water is alkaline. These work on the same principle as rapid gravity filters. Problems in Filter Plant Poor filter this problem arises as water is continuously passed or filtered for longer period of time. compressed air may be blown up through the bottom of the filter to break up the compacted filter media to aid the backwashing process. Prior to this. If the water is acidic (lower than 7). Don't use incompatible feeds. ensure the tanks have adequate Nitrogen blanketing in place. and employing a filter system with an automatic solvent soak cycle. This is especially important for cracked feedstocks. This contaminated water can be disposed of. Making the water slightly alkaline ensures that coagulation and flocculation processes work effectively and also helps to minimize the risk of lead being dissolved from lead pipes and lead solder in pipe fittings. There are different reagents uses for checking pH of water for different uses. water with a pH above 7 is much less likely to dissolve heavy metals than a water with a pH below 7. Having an alkaline water does not necessarily mean that lead or copper from the plumbing system will not be dissolved into the water but as a generality. Backwash fluid quality is known to vary considerably from plant to plant. or it can be recycled by mixing with the raw water entering the plant.5 ppm is considered. For example for the production of steam. lime or soda ash is added to raise the pH. iii) Fouling by gums. As water is continuously filters floc or mud gets settled down in at the top causing poor filter. Filters with non-fixed pore sizes or some slotted wire media may suffer reverse plugging during backwashing when particles bypass the filter media and are later driven into filter media during backwashing. this is known as air scouring. Similarly for swimming pool water. 25um nominal is generally considered to be adequate to protect fixed bed rectors from fouling although . Backwash Problem There are a number of possible causes of hydrotreater feed filter fouling including: i) Fouling by asphaltenes may be countered by raising the feed temperature.
Spot. We would recommend an audit to be undertaken to understand the root cause and define the solutions. Electric Arc • General fabrication (eg stands. aluminium. 6. Gas.0 Mechanical Workshop The principal role of the Technical Services Mechanical Workshop is the manufacture and maintenance of equipment and instruments. Specialized services offered by our qualified staff include: • Precision fabrication (eg vacuum chambers. vi) Valve failure . benches. copper. Fig: Sketch of grinding machine Services Provided The Workshop is comprehensively equipped with machines and tooling to manufacture a wide range of items in a variety of materials including metals and alloys. brass and other mediums • Welding: TIG.finer may be appropriate depending on the particle size distribution present. Such consulting services are available from some experienced filter vendors.mechanical problems have been known to reduce backwash efficiency and decrease effectiveness of regeneration. anti vibration tables) • Sheet metal fabrication with stainless steel. MIG. frames) • Repairs and maintenance of mechanical equipment .
Drilling Machine 7.1 Objectives: To develop special skills required for repairing small electrical domestic appliances. The parts of the cooling system seen were: i) Radiator : The radiator present in the engine was the down flow type of radiator. Sometimes he has to demonstrate the correct method and procedure of doing certain operations. he has to inspect test and modify the work done by skilled workers or artisans under hire. So an electrical diploma holder must have conceptual understanding of the method of procedure and possess manual skills in addition to supervisory capability. Thus cooling system is required in an engine to bring the engine up to normal operating temperature as quickly as possible. The radiator is a heat exchanger with two set of passages.0 ELECTRICAL WORKSHOP As a supervisor. in electrical equipments and circuits including generators.2 Generator The diesel generator was a FIAT company generator and was one of the oldest generators being used by Soaltee Crowne Plaza.Fig. ii) Fan : A fan pulls or pushes outside air through the radiator. making joints and carrying out work and detecting faults etc.8. The engine model was B631-I and was a 625kVA capacity generator with power factor 0. one set is for coolant and other for the outside air. The fan is driven by a belt drive which links the fan pulley with the pulley driven by the crankshaft. There were three diesel generator which works at power cutoff time. 7. . 7. In radiator coolant loses heat to passing air. The various systems and their parts observed were as follows: 1) Cooling system Burning fuel in the engine produces heat and part of this heat generated needs to be taken away before it damages the engine parts. This was a six cylinder engine.
It is necessary to supply lubricant to most of the parts of the running engine so the lubricating system is essential in an engine. the belt used was V-belt. The first one is the gear type pump and the second one is the rotor type oil pump. provides cooling effect by moving through the engine. when ignition key is turned on the indicator light glows. The oil pump is driven by the crankshaft through gear i. As engine warms up the thermostat opens to allow coolant flow through the radiator. forms a gas tight seal between the piston rings and cylinder wall. As soon as the engine starts pressure builds up in the lubricating system this opens the pressure sensor switch and the light goes out. vi) Drive belt The drive belt is a continuous loop of reinforced rubber used to transmit power between two shafts. the pump was crankshaft driven oil pump. The lubricating oil does several jobs as it lubricates the moving parts to reduce wear. . From these passages the oil distributes to the main bearings supporting the crankshaft and to the cylinder head. ii) Oil pressure sensor switch The oil pressure sensor switch is the switch which closed when engine oil pressure falls below a preset minimum and indicated the low pressure by lighting a light. acts as cleaning agent by picking up the particles and dirt and carry them to oil pan. v) Water jackets These are the internal passages that surround the cylinder and combustion chamber through which the coolant flows. After oil circulates to all the engine parts it drops back down into the oil pan i) Oil pump Generally two types of oil pumps are used in automotive engines. iv) Water pump : The water pump forces the hot coolant out of the water jackets and through the radiator. When engine is cold thermostat closes to prevent coolant circulation to the radiator. Through the oil spurt hole the oil is thrown to the lower part of piston and cylinder from the rod bearings then oil drops back to the oil pan. The type of oil pump present in the engine was the gear type oil pump. The coolant from water pump flows first through the block water jackets then the coolant flows up through the cylinder head water jackets and back to the radiator.e. fills the clearance between the bearings and rotating journals. Some of the oil from the main bearings flows to the rod bearings through the holes drilled in the crankshaft.Fig: Radiator fan with belt drive iii) Thermostat : A thermostat controls the coolant flow. The oil flowing to the cylinder head flows through oil passages to lubricate the camshaft bearings and valve train parts. In a lubricating system The oil pump picks up oil from the oil pan and sends the oil through the oil filter and then to the oil galleries or passages. The water pump is driven by the engine through the fan belt drive. The oil pressure switch is closed when the engine is not running. 2) Engine Lubricating System The lubricating system supplies lubricating oil to all the moving parts in the engine.
In case of this engine the oil cooler was damaged causing the water flowing inside the pipe to leak through the fins and mix with the oil. v) Have glow plugs to make starting easier. iii) Heat of compression ignites the fuel as it is sprayed. One pipe line is for supplying the diesel fuel to the engine and the other is to receive back the excess fuel. The diesel engine fuel supply system had the following parts: Fuel tank: The fuel tank is a airtight vessel which is the fuel reservoir for the engine. iv) The compression ratio is higher. color.iii) Oil filters The oil filters clean the oil received from the oil pump and then supply cleaner oil to the engine. The fuel supply pump also has a hand operated priming pump which is operated manually if the fuel supply line contains air bubbles. The filter has a pleated paper filtering element which allows the oil to pass through while trapping particles of dust and carbon. The pump was a reciprocating manually pump which was operated manually. 3) Fuel supply system Diesel engine burns diesel as fuel oil. The oil level indicator rod was dipped in the oil sump. . Diesel fuel is more viscous than gasoline fuel and can self ignite under high temperature. In oil cooler the oil passes through the outer fins of the oil cooler and cold water flows inside the conduit surrounded by the fins. This caused a huge loss of properties of the lubricating oil and finally led to engine seizure. Not only the rod showed the level of oil in the oil pan but also it was useful to check the condition of oil i. whether the oil has lost its proper viscosity. Two pipe lines are present in the fuel tank. ii) In diesel engines only air is compressed during compression stroke. As oil passes through the fins the oil loses its heat to the fins which transmit the heat gained to the water flowing through the conduit. The oil from the pump flows through the filter before reaching the engine bearings. Thus the oil level indicator rod is a very reliable method to know whether the oil is to be changed or not. Maximum and minimum allowable levels for oil were marked on the rod. v) Oil cooler: The oil cooler is a heat exchanger fitted in the passage for oil flow. The characteristics of diesel engine that differ it from the gasoline engines are: i) Diesel engines do not have throttle valve. The levels should be maintained between the two levels and checked manually by taking out the rod.e. As the oil has to work under very high temperature produced by the engine it needs to be cooled down in order to prevent the loss of properties of the oil and the burning of oil. Fuel supply pump: The fuel supply pump is a low pressure pump which supplies fuel from the fuel tank to the fuel injection pump. This pump is driven by the camshaft. iv) Oil drain system and oil indicator rod Oil drain system in case of the diesel generator was a hand operated pump and piping arrangement which could be used to drain out the oil to be changed from the oil pan.
pintaux etc. Different types of injection nozzles are present like single hole. One is an inline cam operated pump and the other one is the rotary distributor type of pump. The linear movement of control rod provides rotation to the plunger varying the effective stroke. The type present in the engine was the Inline type of pump. As pressure drops the spring resets the valve and fuel injection stops.The starting motor solenoid had a plunger that connects by a shift lever to the overrunning clutch. pintle. This pump has the barrel and plunger assembly for each cylinder. starting motors may be with or without internal gear reduction and the gear reduction may be planetary gear reduction or more simpler type of gear reduction. 4) Starting System For a diesel engine to start the crankshaft must turn fast enough for air to enter the cylinders. The amount of fuel injected is varied by varying the effective stroke of the plunger. The engine was a direct injection type of engine.Fuel filter and water separator: To prevent jamming of the injection pump and the nozzle and to prevent entering of water and impurities in the combustion chamber fuel filter with water separator is placed before the fuel injection pump. The high pressure fuel from the injection pump comes out of the nozzle in form of finely atomized spray of fuel which burns due to heat of compression of combustion chamber. The fuel is forced through the tube to the injection nozzle in the cylinder where the piston is reaching the Top Dead Centre on the compression stroke. Starting motors may also be classified as having permanent magnet or having an electromagnet. The governor of the pump was mechanical governor. circumferential hole. Without a governor a diesel engine can stall at low speeds or run so fast that it will be damaged. The electrical energy of the battery is converted to mechanical energy as rotation of flywheel and crankshaft. Moving the control lever changed the setting of the governor which then controlled the amount of fuel injected. The starting motor is driven by a battery. The type of nozzle used in the engine was the multi-hole type of nozzle where fuel was sprayed from a number of holes located at the sides of the tip of the nozzle. An injection line connects each barrel and plunger assembly to an injection nozzle. Low pressure fuel supplied by fuel supply pump flows through the inlet port into the space above the plunger. A spring holds the needle valve or nozzle valve closed until the high injection pressure is applied through the injection pipe. The plunger has a roller that rides on a cam present in the camshaft. Injection nozzle: The injection nozzle is used to supply fuel spray to the combustion chamber in direct injection type of engine or in pre chamber in the indirect injection type of engine. Fig: starter motor Various types of starting motors are present and are used in various engines as required. A starting motor does this job by rotating the flywheel through pinion flywheel gear assembly. The gear reduction increases the cranking torque. The control rod connects by linkage through the governor to the accelerator. When the ignition key is turned on. If solenoid is present the starter motor is solenoid type and if solenoid is absent it is movable pole shoe type. Injection pump: Diesel engines use one of the two types of fuel injection pumps available. This forces the valve off its seat so fuel sprays out into the cylinder. In case of this engine the starter motor was solenoid type of starter motor with internal gear reduction. the current flows to . When the camshaft comes up under the plunger the lobe raises the plunger this applies high pressure on the fuel trapped above the plunger. multi hole.
Transformers A transformer converts a high voltage source of 11kV to a low voltage of 380V. At the same time pinion movement moves the contact plate which closes the contacts in the solenoid switch. Smaller towers are normally factory-built. a medium called fill is used to increase the surface area between the air and water flows. Evaporation results in saturated air conditions. and schools typically use one or more cooling towers as part of their air conditioning systems. Solenoid has two windings. hospitals. a standby generator is used. the difference determined by the humidity of the ambient air. an alternative power supply i.the solenoid which creates a magnetic field that pulls the plunger in. In a wet cooling tower. Film fill is composed of thin sheets of material upon which the water flows. Generally. Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries. An HVAC cooling tower is a subcategory rejecting heat from a chiller. To achieve better performance (more cooling). A 3phase. Splash fill consists of material placed to interrupt the water flow causing splashing. As ambient air is drawn past a flow of water. if the air is relatively dry. 2. . 8. and thus have a lower average reverse-Carnot cycle effectiveness. This connects the starting motor to the battery so the armature rotates and cranks the engine. The combined magnetic fields force the pinion into mesh with the ring gear. the warm water can be cooled to a temperature lower than the ambient air dry-bulb temperature. Then the pull in winding is disconnected since less magnetism is required to hold on the pinion in mesh than to engage it. Air-cooled chillers must reject heat at the dry-bulb temperature. lowering the temperature of the water to the wet bulb air temperature.e.0 COOLING TOWERS: Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. which is lower than the ambient dry bulb air temperature. 1. Both methods create increased surface area. a hold in winding and a pull in winding. evaporation occurs. Large office buildings. A change over switch is used to switch these two power sources as per requirement. The attached shift lever pivots and pushes the pinion into mesh with the ring gear teeth through the reduction gear set. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. while larger ones are constructed on site. Water-cooled chillers are normally more energy efficient than air-cooled chillers due to heat rejection to tower water at or near wet-bulb temperatures. power stations and building cooling. chemical plants. The towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 metres tall and 100 metres in diameter. As the city supply is never certain. industrial cooling towers are much larger than HVAC towers. there is always problem of load shedding. or rectangular structures that can be over 40 metres tall and 80 metres long. 4-wire 380V source is supplied through the main switch board. Batteries There are 3 batteries working in series to run the generator or to start the generator.
Cooling towers Generator and A/C Plant There are three cooling towers in Soaltee Crowne Plaza. Two cooling towers are used for AC plant and one for generator. .Fig.
The expenditure for engineering R&M includes AC fittings. the night cleaners making their rounds. Hotels are much more extensive and demanding. the domestic water distribution and sewage. steam. the fire alarm system and fire safety components. Depending on the organizational structure of the hotel. gas. some elements are assigned to other departments. The heating and ventilation units are running.Responsibilities of Engineering Department Engineering department in the hotel is responsible for operating and maintaining the entire building services systems. dampers. Hotels have often been given the analogy of a cruise ship or a hospital in that the operation is 24 – 7. Around 1. Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). ceilings and all of the furniture. thermostat. Lighting and sound systems and on and on. the property surroundings like parking and landscaping and pest control. When the guests are sound asleep the systems of the building continue to operate. carpentry. The major portion. electrical items etc. desk clerks and night auditors all . The role and mandate of any property engineering department is the protection of the building’s/owner’s assets. the domestic hot water is being heated. fixtures.5 to 3% of the total hotel financial turnover is spent for the engineering related Repair and Maintenance (R&M). to the integrity of the floors. say around 15 to 20% of engineering R&M is spent for the Heating. The Security or Loss Prevention department may take on the task of fire systems but ultimately this is the responsibility of the engineering department as the building operators to monitor for regulatory compliance. This includes the electrical transformers and the distribution throughout. the laundry may be operating. the structure from the façade or building envelope. Utility management such as electrical. walls. the heatingventilation-air conditioning system. water. refrigerant gases. Kitchen and laundry equipment. Twenty-four hours a day and seven days a week. (HVAC). The engineering department has the responsibility for everything in the building as well. and equipment (FF&E) contained therein. the vertical transportation system (elevators).
Almost no turnover. there is a flurry of activity. Weakness Opportunity Newer knowledge can be applied to do things differently. . not dynamic Well organized & knowledgeable resource. Well motivated. Threat Human resources Trainings are being provided but more training is required.doing what they have to do. Physical resources Lack of proper policy in procurement. The following is the percentage break-up of energy consumption by various utility areas of engineering department. and everything has to work so that everyone can do their jobs and the guests are safe and comfortable. Newer and advanced resources are being opted. Provided needed environment well trained and well informed resource can be developed. • • • • • • • HVAC 25 – 30% Lighting 35 . Reliable older machines are fading out. Behind the scenes.45% Kitchen 10 – 15% Lobby 10 – 15% Elevators 02 – 04% Banquets 02 – 04% Others 10 – 25% SWOT Analysis of the Engineering Department Service it provides Strength Certainty of work. Proper policy can increase the quality of physical resources as per need. Stable work .
mechanical and plumbing system & equipment. some of them are listed below. the engineering department consumes enormous amount of resources and generates disproportionate amount of waste. NOX from the DG set Air Pollution Flow of effluent from Possibility of generation of Water Pollution kitchen to treatment plant oil & grease and the phosphates in the effluent for treatment Operation of cooling tower Consumption of make up Resource water due to evaporation Conservation and other losses Potential Operation of pump Operation of boiler Generation of noise Generation of combustion exhaust Noise pollution gas Air pollution Safety and health hazard Effluent Treatment Plant Cooling Tower Condenser Pump Boiler Natural Operation of the Possibility of leakage of gas Gas /LPG equipment by using the Equipment LPG/NG . Significant environmental aspects and impacts of engineering department Section Generator Various activities in Aspects Engineering operation Operation of generator Environmental Impact Generation of heat.Environmental Impacts: To maintain the electrical. SOX. These wastes has an adverse environmental impacts. CO2. vibration Safety and health Generation of smoke. CO. hazard Generation of emission suspended PM. HC.
repair. Use of statistics and probability theory for data generation and analysis to detect trends in causes of failure and therefore take appropriate measures for prevention.Maintenance There are three types of maintenance. They are described below. Corrective Maintenance(CM) Preventive Maintenance (PM) (On-condition) Preventive Maintenance(PM) (condition monitor) Preventive Maintenance(PM) (scheduled) . remedial. Different from fixed interval inspection. Has to be used only if there is an opportunity for reducing failures. electronics and sensor technology. Maintenance carried out when equipment needs it. which cannot be detected in advance. Uses human thought process. to detect if threshold limits of established standards have been exceeded in order to take most appropriate action. unscheduled) Troubleshooting and diagnostic fault detection and isolation. this looks for threshold conditions. Maintenance Improvement (IM) Preventive (PM) Corrective (CM) Modification Retrofit Redesign Change order On-condition Condition Scheduled Unscheduled Self Monitor (SM) (UM) scheduled Statistical Periodic Breakdown Machine cued Predictive Fixed interval Emergency Control Hard time Remedial Types of Maintenance limits Trend Description When Analysis Limits Repair Program Improvement deficientEfforts for the reduction Specific time of the need for or elimination As maintenance Maintenance (IM) required Reliability engineering efforts need to emphasize the need for error elimination rather than maintenance Opportunity to pre-act rather than react Corrective (emergency.
Change Managers are facing more change than ever before. A learning organization is one that has developed the capacity to continuously learn. iv. organizations will need to be learning organizations. Although ethical scandals in business are not really new. It is an effort to take advantage of human resources by giving everyone more information and control over how they perform their jobs. Empowerment Contemporary organizations have in recent years undertaken efforts to empower the employees. Any late work or decisions in Power Department can lead to the service interruption which harms the reputation of the organization as a whole. Possible maintenance as described above is utilized as per time. They must be aware of factors contributing to change and impact on practice of management. condition and applicability. Learning organization In an environment in which change takes place at an unprecedented rate.Regular maintenance at intervals as required by machines/equipments is the key factor for long life. It is important to keep in mind that any change in organization or environment may have effects extending beyond that area. managers face the challenge of managing change. iii. Emerging challenges for the Soaltee Crowne Plaza i. Thus. adapt and change. Organizations that are continually learning are faced with changing and improving the way work is done. Records are kept properly and utilized as per need. Thus. . Various technologies and methods for empowerment range from participation in decision making to the use of integrated work teams. ii. media attention focused on them in recent years have increased public sensitivity about them. Managing empowered employees will be a challenge to the managing department. managers must be concerned about ethics and social responsibility. Ethics and social responsibility The decisions made by managers in organization have a broad reach inside and outside the organizations.
More specialized and automated instruments for maintenance. Frequent training programme for all Engineering Staffs 5. . More interaction between supervisors and their co-workers. Motivation programme for all technicians towards their works should be done periodically. Need of more lockers in Engineering Department 2. Technician should be introduced with the manual of the equipments they are going to use. Newer and more advanced machines in Mechanical Workshop 4. 6.Suggestion 1. 8. 7. Separate Electrical Workshop 3.
Apart from that we were acquainted with the fundamental knowledge of central AC system. Boiler plant. Soaltee Crowne Plaza Hotel in Kathmandu has made itself an accommodation that boasts of the perfect melding of comfort and hospitality.Conclusion Soaltee Crowne Plaza is the leading five star deluxe hotels in Nepal offering a Resort atmosphere and is ideal for both business and leisure travel. In the air conditioning section we analyzed air conditioning units of various capacities and types and also visited various sites. Thus. The main aim of this hotel is to provide warm and homely atmosphere. Apart from that we also helped technicians in performing their work easily. services and comfort facilities at affordable costs for this there requires varieties of services like providing cool temperature in rooms. Filter plant and became familiar with various systems. in this entire 15 days of industrial attachment period we got the basic idea of how engineers decide and work under various working circumstances. So a wide range of air conditioning units of various capacities were installed to regulate the temperatures of different rooms and halls. its working principles components of an engine and analyzed the reasons of its failure and also the methodologies used in maintaining it. generator maintenance. Throughout our attachment period. . We also got ideas about the services it provides to its guests. generator operation.. we visited different plants like AC plant. its operation. its maintenance. AC maintenance. The working of engineering department in that hotel. and boiler operation.
com . Dhanpat Rai and Co. http://www.. 2002.com 8. A Course in Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning. 2006.I & II). 2005. Ninth Edition. New Delhi. Standard Publishers and Distributors. http://www. Tata McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.. K. ISBN 81-219-1777-8 4. Singh. Rajput. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-063435-1. ISBN 81-7700-021-7 2. 3. New Delhi.. S. S. Tenth Edition.wikipedia. Automotive Mechanics. Automobile Engineering (Vol. 5. S. Dr. ISBN 81-8014-015-6 7. Fifth Edition. Dhanpat Rai and Co. Crouse. R B. 1993. Anglin. New Delhi. A Course in Thermal Engineering.soalteecrowneplaza. Automobile engineering. Chand. Second Edition.K. New York. Tata. Fourth Edition.. Domkundwar. 2005. R. ISBN 007-044529 6..References: 1. Domkundwar.. New Delhi.. Asthana. Heat and Mass Transfer. New Delhi. 2007.
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