Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System SA-300-S10

Student Guide

Sun Microsystems, Inc. UBRM05-104 500 Eldorado Blvd. Broomfield, CO 80021 U.S.A. Revision A.1

March 9, 2005 2:48 pm

Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara, California 95054, U.S.A. All rights reserved. This product or document is protected by copyright and distributed under licenses restricting its use, copying, distribution, and decompilation. No part of this product or document may be reproduced in any form by any means without prior written authorization of Sun and its licensors, if any. Third-party software, including font technology, is copyrighted and licensed from Sun suppliers. Sun, Sun Microsystems, the Sun logo, Solaris, Java, JumpStart, OpenBoot, Sun BluePrints, Sun Fire, and Sun StorEdge are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. All SPARC trademarks are used under license and are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. Products bearing SPARC trademarks are based upon an architecture developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark in the U.S. and other countries, exclusively licensed through X/Open Company, Ltd. The OPEN LOOK and Sun Graphical User Interface was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. for its users and licensees. Sun acknowledges the pioneering efforts of Xerox in researching and developing the concept of visual or graphical user interfaces for the computer industry. Sun holds a non-exclusive license from Xerox to the Xerox Graphical User Interface, which license also covers Sun’s licensees who implement OPEN LOOK GUIs and otherwise comply with Sun’s written license agreements. Federal Acquisitions: Commercial Software – Government Users Subject to Standard License Terms and Conditions Export Laws. Products, Services, and technical data delivered by Sun may be subject to U.S. export controls or the trade laws of other countries. You will comply with all such laws and obtain all licenses to export, re-export, or import as may be required after delivery to You. You will not export or re-export to entities on the most current U.S. export exclusions lists or to any country subject to U.S. embargo or terrorist controls as specified in the U.S. export laws. You will not use or provide Products, Services, or technical data for nuclear, missile, or chemical biological weaponry end uses. DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED “AS IS” AND ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED CONDITIONS, REPRESENTATIONS, AND WARRANTIES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT, ARE DISCLAIMED, EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THAT SUCH DISCLAIMERS ARE HELD TO BE LEGALLY INVALID. THIS MANUAL IS DESIGNED TO SUPPORT AN INSTRUCTOR-LED TRAINING (ILT) COURSE AND IS INTENDED TO BE USED FOR REFERENCE PURPOSES IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE ILT COURSE. THE MANUAL IS NOT A STANDALONE TRAINING TOOL. USE OF THE MANUAL FOR SELF-STUDY WITHOUT CLASS ATTENDANCE IS NOT RECOMMENDED. Export Commodity Classification Number (ECCN) assigned: 12 December 2001

Please Recycle

Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems Inc. 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara, California 95054, Etats-Unis. Tous droits réservés. Ce produit ou document est protégé par un copyright et distribué avec des licences qui en restreignent l’utilisation, la copie, la distribution, et la décompilation. Aucune partie de ce produit ou document ne peut être reproduite sous aucune forme, par quelque moyen que ce soit, sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sun et de ses bailleurs de licence, s’il y en a. Le logiciel détenu par des tiers, et qui comprend la technologie relative aux polices de caractères, est protégé par un copyright et licencié par des fournisseurs de Sun. Sun, Sun Microsystems, the Sun logo, Solaris, Java, JumpStart, OpenBoot, Sun BluePrints, Sun Fire, et Sun StorEdge sont des marques de fabrique ou des marques déposées de Sun Microsystems, Inc. aux Etats-Unis et dans d’autres pays. Toutes les marques SPARC sont utilisées sous licence sont des marques de fabrique ou des marques déposées de SPARC International, Inc. aux Etats-Unis et dans d’autres pays. Les produits portant les marques SPARC sont basés sur une architecture développée par Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX est une marques déposée aux Etats-Unis et dans d’autres pays et licenciée exclusivement par X/Open Company, Ltd. L’interfaces d’utilisation graphique OPEN LOOK et Sun™ a été développée par Sun Microsystems, Inc. pour ses utilisateurs et licenciés. Sun reconnaît les efforts de pionniers de Xerox pour larecherche et le développement du concept des interfaces d’utilisation visuelle ou graphique pour l’industrie de l’informatique. Sun détient une licence non exclusive de Xerox sur l’interface d’utilisation graphique Xerox, cette licence couvrant également les licenciés de Sun qui mettent en place l’interface d’utilisation graphique OPEN LOOK et qui en outre se conforment aux licences écrites de Sun. Législation en matière dexportations. Les Produits, Services et données techniques livrés par Sun peuvent être soumis aux contrôles américains sur les exportations, ou à la législation commerciale dautres pays. Nous nous conformerons à lensemble de ces textes et nous obtiendrons toutes licences dexportation, de ré-exportation ou dimportation susceptibles dêtre requises après livraison à Vous. Vous nexporterez, ni ne ré-exporterez en aucun cas à des entités figurant sur les listes américaines dinterdiction dexportation les plus courantes, ni vers un quelconque pays soumis à embargo par les Etats-Unis, ou à des contrôles anti-terroristes, comme prévu par la législation américaine en matière dexportations. Vous nutiliserez, ni ne fournirez les Produits, Services ou données techniques pour aucune utilisation finale liée aux armes nucléaires, chimiques ou biologiques ou aux missiles. LA DOCUMENTATION EST FOURNIE “EN L’ETAT” ET TOUTES AUTRES CONDITIONS, DECLARATIONS ET GARANTIES EXPRESSES OU TACITES SONT FORMELLEMENT EXCLUES, DANS LA MESURE AUTORISEE PAR LA LOI APPLICABLE, Y COMPRIS NOTAMMENT TOUTE GARANTIE IMPLICITE RELATIVE A LA QUALITE MARCHANDE, A L’APTITUDE A UNE UTILISATION PARTICULIERE OU A L’ABSENCE DE CONTREFAÇON. CE MANUEL DE RÉFÉRENCE DOIT ÊTRE UTILISÉ DANS LE CADRE D’UN COURS DE FORMATION DIRIGÉ PAR UN INSTRUCTEUR (ILT). IL NE S’AGIT PAS D’UN OUTIL DE FORMATION INDÉPENDANT. NOUS VOUS DÉCONSEILLONS DE L’UTILISER DANS LE CADRE D’UNE AUTO-FORMATION.

Please Recycle

Table of Contents
About This Course ............................................................Preface-xvii Course Goals....................................................................... Preface-xvii Course Map........................................................................ Preface-xviii Topics Not Covered............................................................. Preface-xix How Prepared Are You?...................................................... Preface-xx Introductions ........................................................................ Preface-xxi How to Use Course Materials ...........................................Preface-xxii Conventions ........................................................................Preface-xxiii Icons ............................................................................Preface-xxiii Typographical Conventions ................................... Preface-xxiv Additional Conventions........................................... Preface-xxv Introducing the TCP/IP Model .........................................................1-1 Objectives ........................................................................................... 1-1 Introducing Network Model Fundamentals.................................. 1-2 Network Protocols .................................................................... 1-2 Network Model Concepts........................................................ 1-3 Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model................................ 1-4 Network Interface Layer ......................................................... 1-5 Internet Layer ............................................................................ 1-6 Transport Layer......................................................................... 1-7 Application Layer ..................................................................... 1-8 Describing Basic Peer-to-Peer Communication, Encapsulation, and Decapsulation ............................................. 1-10 Peer-to-Peer Communication ................................................ 1-10 Encapsulation and Decapsulation ........................................ 1-11 TCP/IP Protocols ............................................................................. 1-12 Exercise: Reviewing the TCP/IP Model ....................................... 1-16 Preparation............................................................................... 1-16 Tasks ......................................................................................... 1-16 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 1-18 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 1-19

vii
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Introducing LANs and Their Components..................................... 2-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 2-1 Introducing Network Topologies .................................................... 2-2 Bus Topologies .......................................................................... 2-2 Star Topologies ......................................................................... 2-3 Ring Topologies......................................................................... 2-4 VLAN Topologies .................................................................... 2-5 Introducing LAN Media ................................................................... 2-8 IEEE Identifiers.......................................................................... 2-8 IEEE 802.3 Types ....................................................................... 2-9 Introducing Network Devices........................................................ 2-12 Repeaters .................................................................................. 2-12 Hubs.......................................................................................... 2-12 Bridges ...................................................................................... 2-12 Switches.................................................................................... 2-12 Exercise: Reviewing LANs and Their Components ................... 2-14 Preparation............................................................................... 2-14 Tasks ......................................................................................... 2-14 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 2-16 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 2-17 Describing Ethernet Interfaces....................................................... 3-1 Objectives ........................................................................................... 3-1 Introducing Ethernet Concepts........................................................ 3-2 Major Ethernet Elements.......................................................... 3-2 CSMA/CD Access Method ..................................................... 3-2 Full-Duplex and Half-Duplex Mode...................................... 3-4 Ethernet Statistics...................................................................... 3-4 Introducing Ethernet Frames ........................................................... 3-6 Ethernet Addresses................................................................... 3-6 Setting a Local Ethernet Address........................................... 3-8 Ethernet-II Frame Analysis................................................... 3-10 Maximum Transmission Units............................................. 3-12 Ethernet Frame Errors ............................................................ 3-13 Using Network Utilities .................................................................. 3-14 Using the snoop Utility .......................................................... 3-14 Using the netstat Command ............................................. 3-17 Using the ndd Command ....................................................... 3-18 Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces....................................... 3-21 Preparation............................................................................... 3-21 Tasks ......................................................................................... 3-21 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 3-25 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 3-26

viii

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Describing ARP and RARP..............................................................4-1 Objectives ........................................................................................... 4-1 Introducing ARP ................................................................................ 4-2 Purpose of ARP ......................................................................... 4-2 Operation of ARP...................................................................... 4-3 Introducing RARP.............................................................................. 4-9 Purpose of RARP....................................................................... 4-9 Operation of RARP ................................................................... 4-9 Exercise: Reviewing ARPs and RARPs......................................... 4-12 Preparation............................................................................... 4-12 Tasks ........................................................................................ 4-13 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 4-15 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 4-16 Configuring IP...................................................................................5-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 5-1 Introducing the Internet Layer Protocols ....................................... 5-3 Purpose of IP.............................................................................. 5-3 Purpose of ICMP ....................................................................... 5-4 Introducing the IP Datagram ........................................................... 5-6 IP Datagram Header Fields ..................................................... 5-6 IP Datagram Payload................................................................ 5-8 Introducing IP Address Types ......................................................... 5-9 Unicast Addresses..................................................................... 5-9 Broadcast Addresses............................................................... 5-11 Multicast Addresses ............................................................... 5-11 Introducing Subnetting and VLSM ............................................... 5-12 Subnetting ................................................................................ 5-12 Netmasks.................................................................................. 5-13 Configuring the Netmask ..................................................... 5-16 The /etc/inet/netmasks File............................................. 5-17 VLSM ....................................................................................... 5-20 Introducing the Interface Configuration Files ............................. 5-22 The /etc/hostname.interface File.................................. 5-22 The /etc/inet/hosts File ................................................... 5-22 The /etc/nodename File........................................................ 5-23 Administering Logical Interfaces .................................................. 5-24 Introducing Logical Interfaces .............................................. 5-24 Configuring Logical Interfaces............................................. 5-26 Unconfiguring Logical Interfaces ......................................... 5-28 Exercise: Reviewing IP .................................................................... 5-29 Preparation............................................................................... 5-29 Task Summary......................................................................... 5-29 Tasks ........................................................................................ 5-30 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 5-32 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 5-33

ix
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Configuring IP Network Multipathing............................................. 6-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 6-1 Increasing Network Availability ..................................................... 6-2 Limitations of Network Interfaces.......................................... 6-2 Configuring IP Network Multipathing........................................... 6-3 Introducing IPMP ..................................................................... 6-3 Probe-based IPMP Configuration........................................... 6-4 Configuring Probe-based IPMP by Using Configuration Files ................................................................ 6-6 Configuring Probe-based IPMP on the Command Line.................................................................... 6-12 Link-based IPMP Configuration.......................................... 6-20 Configuring Link-based IPMP by Using Configuration Files ....................................................................................... 6-21 Configuring a Singleton IPMP Group ................................. 6-26 Viewing IPMP Operation ..................................................... 6-28 Troubleshooting an IPMP Configuration........................... 6-30 Exercise: Configuring IPMP ........................................................... 6-32 Preparation............................................................................... 6-32 Tasks ........................................................................................ 6-34 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 6-39 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 6-40 Configuring Routing ........................................................................ 7-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 7-1 Identifying the Fundamentals of Routing ...................................... 7-3 Purpose of Routing ................................................................... 7-3 Types of Routes ......................................................................... 7-4 Introducing the Routing Table......................................................... 7-6 Static Routes............................................................................... 7-6 Dynamic Routes ....................................................................... 7-7 Introducing Routing Protocol Types............................................... 7-8 Autonomous Systems............................................................... 7-8 Interior Gateway Protocols...................................................... 7-9 Exterior Gateway Protocols ................................................... 7-10 Working With the Routing Table .................................................. 7-12 Displaying the Routing Table ............................................... 7-12 Introducing Routing Table Information .............................. 7-13 Searching the Routing Table................................................. 7-14 Associating Names and Network Numbers ....................... 7-16 Configuring Static Routes............................................................... 7-18 Configuring Static Direct Routes .......................................... 7-18 Configuring the /etc/defaultrouter File ...................... 7-19 Configuring the /etc/gateways File ................................. 7-20 Configuring Static Routes on the Command Line ............ 7-21 Configuring Dynamic Routing ...................................................... 7-25

x

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

RIP Version 1 ........................................................................... 7-25 RIP Version 2 ........................................................................... 7-27 The in.routed Daemon ....................................................... 7-28 The RDISC Protocol ............................................................... 7-30 ICMP Redirects........................................................................ 7-31 Introducing CIDR ............................................................................ 7-33 Purpose of CIDR ..................................................................... 7-33 Operation of CIDR .................................................................. 7-33 Configuring Routing at Boot Time ................................................ 7-38 Initializing a Router ................................................................ 7-38 Configuring a Router Without Rebooting........................... 7-40 Initializing a Multihomed Host ............................................ 7-40 Initializing a Non-Router ....................................................... 7-41 Troubleshooting Routing................................................................ 7-42 Troubleshooting the Router Configuration......................... 7-42 Troubleshooting Network Names....................................... 7-44 Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration................................ 7-45 Preparation............................................................................... 7-45 Tasks ........................................................................................ 7-47 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 7-59 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 7-60 Configuring IPv6...............................................................................8-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 8-1 Introducing IPv6 ................................................................................ 8-3 The Need for IPv6 ..................................................................... 8-3 Features of IPv6 ........................................................................ 8-4 Introducing IPv6 Addressing........................................................... 8-5 Address Types ........................................................................... 8-5 IPv6 Address Representation.................................................. 8-6 Format Prefixes.......................................................................... 8-6 Introducing IPv6 Autoconfiguration .............................................. 8-8 Stateful Autoconfiguration ...................................................... 8-8 Stateless Autoconfiguration .................................................... 8-8 Interface Identifier Calculation ............................................... 8-9 Duplicate Address Detection ................................................ 8-10 Introducing Unicast Address Types ............................................. 8-11 Link-Local Addresses ............................................................. 8-11 Site-Local Addresses............................................................... 8-12 Aggregatable Global-Unicast Addresses............................. 8-12 Prefix Notation ........................................................................ 8-13 Embedded IPv4 Addresses.................................................... 8-13 Unspecified Address Types................................................... 8-14 Loopback Address Types ...................................................... 8-14 Introducing Multicast Address Types .......................................... 8-15

xi
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Purpose of Multicast Addresses ........................................... 8-15 Scope Bits................................................................................. 8-16 ICMPv6 Group Membership................................................. 8-17 Enabling IPv6.................................................................................... 8-18 The in.ndpd Daemon on a Non-Router.............................. 8-18 Configuring IPv6 on Non-Routers ....................................... 8-19 Troubleshooting a Non-Router Configuration................... 8-22 The in.ndpd Daemon on the Router ................................... 8-23 IPv6 Routing Information Protocol ...................................... 8-23 Configuring an IPv6 Router ................................................. 8-24 Configuring an IPv6 6to4 Router.......................................... 8-30 Configuring a 6to4 Boundary Router.................................. 8-31 Troubleshooting a Router Configuration ............................ 8-33 Managing IPv6 ................................................................................. 8-35 Displaying the State of IPv6 Interfaces ................................ 8-35 Modifying the Configuration of an IPv6 Interface............. 8-35 Configuring Logical Interfaces.............................................. 8-36 Troubleshooting IPv6 Interfaces ........................................... 8-36 Displaying the IPv6 Routing Table ...................................... 8-36 Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 .......................................................... 8-37 Preparation............................................................................... 8-37 Task 1 – Configuring IPv6 on the Local Subnet ................. 8-37 Task 2 – Configuring 6to4 Routing...................................... 8-39 Task 3 – Configuring IPv6 Across the Whole Network................................................................................ 8-41 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 8-44 Exercise 1 Solutions ......................................................................... 8-45 Task 1 – Configuring IPv6 on the Local Subnet ................. 8-45 Task 2 – Configuring 6to4 Routing...................................... 8-48 Task 3 – Configuring IPv6 Across the Whole Network................................................................................ 8-52 Configuring IPv6 Multipathing ..................................................... 8-58 Configuring IPMP Manually................................................. 8-58 Configuring IPMP at Boot Time .......................................... 8-68 Configure a Singleton IPMP Group in IPv6........................ 8-73 Exercise 2: Configuring IPv6 Multipathing.................................. 8-74 Preparation............................................................................... 8-74 Tasks ......................................................................................... 8-74 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 8-77 Exercise 2 Solutions ......................................................................... 8-78 Task Solutions.......................................................................... 8-78

xii

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Describing the Transport Layer ......................................................9-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 9-1 Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals ................................. 9-2 Protocol Characteristics............................................................ 9-2 Transport Protocols in TCP/IP .............................................. 9-8 Introducing UDP................................................................................ 9-9 Purpose of UDP......................................................................... 9-9 UDP Datagram Header ............................................................ 9-9 Introducing TCP............................................................................... 9-10 TCP Segment Header ............................................................. 9-10 Virtual Circuit Connection .................................................... 9-11 Full-Duplex Connection......................................................... 9-11 Unstructured Stream Orientation......................................... 9-11 Buffered Transfer .................................................................... 9-11 Introducing TCP Flow Control ...................................................... 9-12 Receiver-Side Window Advertisements.............................. 9-12 Sender-Side Congestion Window......................................... 9-12 TCP Large Window ................................................................ 9-13 Exercise: Describing the Transport Layer..................................... 9-14 Preparation............................................................................... 9-14 Tasks ......................................................................................... 9-14 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 9-15 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 9-16 Configuring DNS.............................................................................10-1 Objectives .......................................................................................... 10-1 Introducing DNS Basics .................................................................. 10-2 BIND ......................................................................................... 10-2 Top-Level Domains ................................................................ 10-2 Zones of Authority.................................................................. 10-4 Server Types ............................................................................ 10-4 Answer Types.......................................................................... 10-7 Name-Resolution Process ...................................................... 10-7 Resource Records .................................................................. 10-11 Configuring a DNS Server............................................................ 10-15 Gathering Information ......................................................... 10-15 Editing the BIND Configuration File ................................. 10-16 Editing the named.root File .............................................. 10-19 Editing the Forward Domain File...................................... 10-21 Editing the Reverse Domain File ....................................... 10-24 Editing the Reverse Loopback Domain File...................... 10-25 Configuring Dynamic Updates.......................................... 10-26 Configuring Security ........................................................... 10-27 Configuring Secondary DNS Servers................................ 10-29 Checking Configuration and Database Files.................... 10-31 Configuring DNS Clients.................................................... 10-32

xiii
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities.......................................................................................... 10-33 Implementing named Logging............................................. 10-33 Examining the/var/adm/messages File........................... 10-35 Using the dig Utility ........................................................... 10-36 Dumping a Snapshot of the DNS Database by Using the rndc Utility ...................................................... 10-39 Forcing the named Daemon to Reread the Configuration and Changed Zone Files ......................... 10-44 Managing a DNS Server by Using the rndc Utility .................................................................................. 10-45 Exercise: Configuring DNS.......................................................... 10-50 Preparation............................................................................. 10-50 Task Summary....................................................................... 10-51 Tasks ....................................................................................... 10-51 Exercise Summary.......................................................................... 10-57 Exercise Solutions .......................................................................... 10-58 Task Solutions........................................................................ 10-58 Configuring DHCP ......................................................................... 11-1 Objectives .......................................................................................... 11-1 Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP ..................................... 11-2 Purpose of DHCP.................................................................... 11-2 DHCP Client Functions.......................................................... 11-3 DHCP Server Functions ......................................................... 11-4 Configuring a DHCP Server........................................................... 11-7 Configuring DHCP by Using Different Methods ............. 11-8 Performing Initial DHCP Server Configuration by Using the dhcpmgr Utility.................................................. 11-9 Adding Addresses by Using the dhcpmgr Utility ............ 11-21 Using the dhcpconfig Command..................................... 11-28 Introducing DHCP Network Files...................................... 11-30 Using the pntadm Command .............................................. 11-31 Introducing the dhcptab Table........................................... 11-34 Configuring and Managing DHCP Clients................................ 11-39 Configuring a DHCP Client ................................................ 11-39 Troubleshooting a DHCP Server ................................................. 11-42 Troubleshooting DHCP Clients ................................................... 11-45 Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client..................... 11-46 Preparation............................................................................. 11-46 Task Summary...................................................................... 11-47 Task 1 – Configuring the DHCP Server............................. 11-47 Task 2 – Configuring the DHCP Client ............................ 11-48 Task 3 – Using the snoop Utility to View DHCP Client-Server Interaction................................................... 11-48 Exercise Summary.......................................................................... 11-50 Exercise Solutions .......................................................................... 11-51 Task 1 – Configuring the DHCP Server............................. 11-51
xiv Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

... Revision A............................................................................. 11-70 Configuring NTP ................................ 13-8 Changing and Updating the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuration ...................... 12-22 Task Solutions....................................................................................................................................................... 12-16 Exercise: Configuring NTP .......... Sun Services.............................................................. 13-14 Viewing the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuration ........................................................................... 12-21 Exercise Solutions ................... 12-5 Using an Undisciplined Local Clock........... 12-12 Configuring an NTP Client ................. All Rights Reserved............................................. 12-17 Task Summary................................................................ 13-7 Configuring Specific Matching ................................................................. 13-1 Identifying Firewall Basics ....Task 2 – Configuring the DHCP Client .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12-10 Determining NTP Peers ... 13-2 Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall .......... 12-13 Establishing Basic Configuration.... 12-15 Viewing Messages................................................................................................................ 13-16 xv Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems......... 12-3 NTP Terms ...................................... 12-22 Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall............................................ 12-14 Troubleshooting NTP ...................................... 13-3 Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Actions ........................................................................................................ 12-18 Exercise Summary............................................................1 ............... 12-17 Tasks .......... 12-3 Configuring an NTP Server................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12-2 How Computers Keep Time.......... 12-7 Using External NTP Reference Servers.............................................................12-1 Objectives ..................... 12-1 Identifying NTP Basics........... 13-15 Configuring Logging in the Solaris IP Filter Firewall.. 13-6 Configuring Filter Rules................................. 13-5 Configuring Packet Direction........................... 12-17 Preparation...........................13-1 Objectives ............................................................................................. 12-15 Using the snoop Utility ...... 12-13 Stopping the NTP Client Daemon................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12-9 Managing Daemons..................................................................................... 11-69 Task 3 – Using the snoop Utility to View DHCP Client-Server Interaction................................... 13-3 Enabling Packet Filtering With the Solaris IP Filter Firewall ................................................................. 12-13 Starting the NTP Client Daemon ..................... Inc...................................................... 12-2 Uses of NTP ...

...................................................................................................................................... 13-19 Preparation.................Glossary-1 Index...... Revision A....... Inc.................................................................................................................................................. 13-19 Task Summary................. Bibliography-2 Online References ............................................................................................................ 13-31 Exercise Solutions ...................................................................................................... Bibliography-1 Sun Microsystems Publications ...................................................... 13-32 Task 1 Solutions...................... 13-19 Task 1 – Configuring Firewall Rules .............. Bibliography-3 RFCs ... 13-20 Task 2 – Disabling Services.................. 13-41 Bibliography .........................................................Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall ...... 13-32 Task 2 Solutions............................... Bibliography-4 Glossary/Acronyms .................... Sun Services.................................................................... Bibliography-1 Books...1 ....................................... 13-26 Exercise Summary.............................................. 1-1 xvi Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems..... All Rights Reserved......................................................................................

1 . All Rights Reserved.Preface About This Course Course Goals Upon completion of this course. Inc. Revision A. you should be able to: q q q Configure the Network Interface layer Configure the network (Internet and Transport layers) Configure and manage network applications Preface-xvii Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services.

1 . Sun Services. Revision A.Course Map Course Map The course map enables you to see what you have accomplished and where you are going in reference to the instructional goals. Configuring the Network Interface Layer Introducing the TCP/IP Model Introducing LANs and Their Components Describing Ethernet Interfaces Describing ARP and RARP Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Configuring and Managing Network Applications Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Configuring DNS Configuring DHCP Configuring NTP Preface-xviii Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. All Rights Reserved.

1 Preface-xix . Inc. Sun Services.Topics Not Covered Topics Not Covered This course does not cover the following topics. About This Course Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.Covered in IN-425: TCP/IP Network Troubleshooting in the Solaris™ OS q q q q Refer to the Sun Educational Services catalog for specific information and registration. Revision A. Many of these topics are covered in other courses offered by Sun Educational Services: q Solaris™ Operating System (Solaris OS) system administration – Covered in SA-200-S10: Intermediate System Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System and SA-202-S10: Advanced System Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Server storage administration – Covered in ES-222: Solaris™ Volume Manager Administration and ES-310: Volume Manager With Sun StorEdge™ Network Information Services Plus (NIS+) – Covered in SA-385: NIS+ Administration Solaris OS tuning – Covered in SA-400: Solaris™ Systems Performance Management Network Troubleshooting .

Inc. to initialize certain network configuration changes? Can you manipulate startup and shutdown scripts to configure networks? Can you set up user accounts when configuring network services for system users? Can you locate and install network software packages required to set up various network services? q q q Preface-xx Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services.1 . such as startup and shutdown. can you answer yes to the following questions? q Can you perform basic host operations. All Rights Reserved.How Prepared Are You? How Prepared Are You? To be sure you are prepared to take this course. Revision A.

All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. and job responsibility Experience related to topics presented in this course Reasons for enrolling in this course Expectations for this course About This Course Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. function. Revision A. Inc. introduce yourself to the other students and the instructor.1 Preface-xxi .Introductions Introductions Now that you have been introduced to the course. addressing the following items: q q q q q q Name Company affiliation Title.

Activities – The activities take on various forms. such as an exercise.1 . Visual aids – The instructor might use several visual aids to convey a concept. Sun Services. This information will help you learn the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed with the activities. self-check. Objectives support goals and can support other higher-level objectives.How to Use Course Materials How to Use Course Materials To enable you to succeed in this course. Activities are used to facilitate mastery of an objective. and video. and demonstration. Inc. discussion. in a visual form. Lecture – The instructor will present information specific to the objective of the module. these course materials employ a learning module that is composed of the following components: q Objectives – You should be able to accomplish the objectives after completing a portion of instructional content. q q q Note – Many system administration tasks for the Solaris OS can be accomplished in more than one way. animation. Visual aids commonly contain graphics. The methods presented in the courseware reflect recommended practices used by Sun Educational Services. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. such as a process. Preface-xxii Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Sun Services. Inc. About This Course Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. depending on the action of the user. or risk of irreversible damage to data.1 Preface-xxiii . Students should be able to understand the concept or complete the task without this information. Caution – Indicates that there is a risk of personal injury from a nonelectrical hazard. or the operating system.Conventions Conventions The following conventions are used in this course to represent various training elements and alternative learning resources. ! ? Note – Indicates additional information that can help students but is not crucial to their understanding of the concept being described. Examples of notational information include keyword shortcuts and minor system adjustments. A caution indicates that the possibility of a hazard (as opposed to certainty) might happen. Icons Discussion – Indicates a small-group or class discussion on the current topic is recommended at this time. software. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.

Sun Services. and execute rights for filename. type the following: # ls Courier italics is used for variables and command-line placeholders that are replaced with a real name or value. use the rm filename command. All Rights Reserved. for example: To list the files in this directory. for example: To delete a file. host names. or words that you want to emphasize. These are called class options. and on-screen computer output. directories. Courier italic bold is used to represent variables whose values are to be entered by the student as part of an activity. new words or terms. Revision A.Conventions Typographical Conventions Courier is used for the names of commands. programming code. for example: Type chmod a+rwx filename to grant read. Inc. host1# cd /home Courier bold is used for characters and numbers that you type. for example: Read Chapter 6 in the User’s Guide. Palatino italics is used for book titles. write.1 . Preface-xxiv Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. files. user names. for example: Use the ls -al command to list all files.

Conventions Additional Conventions Java™ programming language examples use the following additional conventions: q Method names are not followed with parentheses unless a formal or actual parameter list is shown. “The doIt() method. Broken code is indented four spaces under the starting code.1 Preface-xxv . for example: “The doIt method. Sun Services... for example: If working in the Solaris OS $ cd $SERVER_ROOT/bin If working in Microsoft Windows C:\> cd %SERVER_ROOT%\bin q About This Course Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems..” refers to a method called doIt that takes no arguments.. both commands are shown. conjunctions (operators). Inc.” refers to any method called doIt. or white space in the code. All Rights Reserved. If a command used in the Solaris OS is different from a command used in the Microsoft Windows platform. q Line breaks occur only where there are separations (commas). Revision A.

.

Revision A. and Application layers. Inc.1 . including the Network Interface. including network protocols and concepts. Sun Services. you should be able to: q q q q Describe network model fundamentals Describe the layers of the TCP/IP model Describe basic peer-to-peer communication and related protocols Identify TCP/IP protocols The course map in Figure 1-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. Configuring the Network Interface Layer Introducing the TCP/IP Model Introducing LANs and Their Components Course Map Describing Ethernet Interfaces Describing ARP and RARP Figure 1-1 1-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Transport. this module describes basic peer-to-peer communication and some common TCP/IP protocols. In addition.Module 1 Introducing the TCP/IP Model Objectives This module describes the fundamentals of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) model. Internet. This module also describes the layers of the TCP/IP model. All Rights Reserved. Upon completion of this module.

also known as a protocol stack. 1-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the functions of the layers. manageable processes. Inc. These rules describe: q q q Syntax – Data format and coding Semantics – Control information and error handling Timing – Speed matching and sequencing Functions of Protocols A protocol defines how systems can communicate and facilitates communication between software. Protocols define the procedures to be followed by the systems involved in the communication process. Each software module that implements a protocol can be developed and updated independently of other modules. Many protocols are used so that communication can be broken into smaller. All Rights Reserved. firmware. They form a communication architecture. Network Protocols Computer networks use protocols to communicate. Many protocols provide and support data communication. as long as the interface between the modules remains constant. A data communication protocol is a set of rules that must be followed for two electronic devices to communicate with each other. and other devices in data transfer. and the protocols that govern data transfer between two or more systems. Each protocol provides a function essential for data communication.1 .Introducing Network Model Fundamentals Introducing Network Model Fundamentals The fundamentals required to understand computer networking are the network model. Revision A. Sun Services. The TCP/IP model is a protocol stack used by the Solaris OS for data communication.

enabling inter-operability between software and hardware vendors Simplifies troubleshooting q q q Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. q q Network Model Concepts A networking model refers to a common structure that enables communication between two or more systems. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Each layer communicates with its peer layer on another host in a given process of communication. Inc.1 1-3 . Sun Services.Introducing Network Model Fundamentals The features of a protocol stack are: q Each layer has a specific purpose and exists on both the source and destination hosts. The following mapping helps you to understand the network model: q q q Model = structure Layer = functions Protocol = rules Advantages of Using a Layered Model Some of the advantages of a layered model are that it: q Separates the complexity of networking into many functions or layers Enables you to introduce changes or new features in one layer without having to change the other layers Provides a standard to follow. Networking models consist of layers. You can think of layers as a series of steps or functions that must be sequentially completed for communication to occur between two systems. Each layer on a host acts independently of other layers on the same machine but is synchronous with the same layer on other hosts.

1-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ietf. visit http://www. Table 1-1 TCP/IP Network Model TCP/IP Layer Application Description q Consists of user-accessed application programs and network services Defines how cooperating networks represent data Manages the transfer of data by using acknowledged and unacknowledged transport protocols Manages the connections between cooperating applications Manages data addressing and delivery between networks Fragments data for the Network Interface layer Manages the delivery of data across the physical network Provides error detection and packet framing q Transport q q Internet q q Network Interface q q RFCs are a frame of reference for describing the protocol architecture and functions specific to the TCP/IP protocol stack. It has standards that are defined and described in Request for Comment (RFC) documents. The TCP/IP model was developed by the United States Department of Defense (DOD) in the 1970s. All Rights Reserved.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model Table 1-1 shows the four layers of the TCP/IP model. For a complete listing of RFCs.org/rfc.html. Revision A. Sun Services. Inc. The TCP/IP model is a four-layered structure resting on a common hardware platform.1 .

data. where the bits are divided into fields containing information labels. All Rights Reserved. and cyclic redundancy check (CRC). frame length or type. A packet data unit (PDU) is a structured series of bits with a well-defined beginning and a well-defined end.1 1-5 . Sun Services. Revision A. Figure 1-3 shows a specific type of PDU known as an Ethernet frame. destination and source hardware address. This layer defines how bits are assembled into manageable units of data. such as preamble. The primary functions of this layer are: q q q Managing the delivery of data across the physical network Detecting errors Framing packets TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Packet data unit Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 1-2 TCP/IP Network Interface Layer The Network Interface layer services the Internet layer by providing communication between nodes on the same network.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model Network Interface Layer Figure 1-2 shows the position of the Network Interface layer in the TCP/IP network model. Preamble Destination Address Source Address Type Data CRC Figure 1-3 Structure of a Frame Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.

3 – Ethernet standards IEEE 802. Sun Services.11 – Wireless network standards q q q Internet Layer The Internet layer attempts to ensure that messages reach their destination system using the most efficient route.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model Examples of Network Interface layer protocols are: q Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.5 – Token ring standards IEEE 802.4 – Token bus standards IEEE 802. Figure 1-4 shows the position of the Internet layer in the TCP/IP network model.1 . Revision A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. The primary functions of the Internet layer are: q q Routing data between networks Fragmenting and reassembly of data TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Transport Layer Datagram Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 1-4 TCP/IP Internet Layer 1-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

the Internet layer determines the next directly accessible node in the path to a packet’s destination. The Internet layer uses the Internet Protocol (IP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). Inc. IP encapsulates data in datagrams. Figure 1-5 shows the position of the Transport layer in the TCP/IP network model. This node is either the destination itself if the destination is on the local network. Sun Services. TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Segment or datagram Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 1-5 TCP/IP Transport Layer The mechanisms used by the Transport layer to determine whether data has been correctly delivered are: q q q Acknowledgement responses Sequencing Flow control Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Transport Layer The Transport layer manages the transfer of application data between communicating hosts. or the next gateway node in the route if the destination is on another network. All Rights Reserved. IP is responsible for fragmenting and routing data. and ICMP assists routing and performs error detection and other network management tasks. which in turn are encapsulated inside Network Interface layer PDUs. Revision A.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model Using routing information.1 1-7 . It also controls the flow of data and defines the transport quality of the data transmission.

TCP/IP Layers Stream or Message Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 1-6 TCP/IP Application Layer 1-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. It supports multiple operations simultaneously. Two Transport layer protocols are found in the Solaris OS TCP/IP stack: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Both TCP segments and UDP datagrams are encapsulated in Internet layer datagrams for transmission to the next node.1 . Figure 1-6 shows the position of the Application layer in the TCP/IP network model. Revision A. TCP uses packets called segments. Sun Services. Application Layer The top layer of the TCP/IP stack is the Application layer. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Connectionless (UDP) – Systems do not need to establish a connection with the recipient prior to data exchange. and UDP uses packets called datagrams. q TCP is a more reliable form of data exchange than UDP. The Transport layer facilitates two types of communication: q Connection-oriented (TCP) – A connection must be established at the Transport layer of both systems before the application can transmit any data.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model The Transport layer facilitates end-to-end data transfer.

Inc. There are many application protocols. Application layer protocols. A common syntax ensures compatibility between various end-user applications and machines. Some common TCP/IP applications or protocols include: q q q q q q q q q Telnet Protocol File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Domain Name System (DNS) Network Information Service (NIS) Network File System (NFS) Secure shell (SSH) The Application layer handles the details of the particular application. use RPC for session management between clients and servers. the Application layer makes sure that it reaches the end users in this format. Protocols operating at this layer of the model encapsulate packets into streams or messages.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model The Application layer includes all of the protocols that use Transport layer protocols to deliver data to the Internet layer. alphanumeric characters are represented by using American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) on a UNIX® host. Remote procedure call (RPC) libraries enable high-level language programs to make procedure calls to other machines on a network. Presenting data – If end users specify how they want their data presented to them. The primary functions of this layer are: q Formatting data – Data is formatted based on a computer’s architecture. Sun Services. Revision A. q q Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. For example. The Application layer also provides translations between locally represented data and data used for transfer between end systems. All Rights Reserved. Transporting data – The Application layer stipulates a transfer syntax.1 1-9 . and Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) on an IBM mainframe computer. such as NIS and NFS. which represents a coding agreement for the data to be formatted and transferred. and new protocols are frequently included in the Solaris OS TCP/IP stack.

Figure 1-7 illustrates the peer-to-peer communications between the layers at either end of a network interaction. All Rights Reserved. and Decapsulation In the TCP/IP model. Source System Destination System Application X Application Y Application Layer Encapsulation User Data Decapsulation Message or Message or Stream Stream User Data Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer NH IH TH A-PDU Segment or Segment or Datagram Datagram TH A-PDU Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer T-PDU Datagram Datagram IH T-PDU I-PDU NT Frame Frame NH I-PDU NT Signal Communication Path Physical Transmission Medium TH = Transport Header IH = Internet Header NH = Network Header NT = Network Trailer Figure 1-7 Peer-to-Peer Communication 1-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Peer-to-Peer Communication Peer-to-peer communication occurs when one layer on a system communicates with a corresponding layer on another system. and the corresponding layers at either end are also considered to interact with each other.Describing Basic Peer-to-Peer Communication. For example. adjacent layers in the model interact with each other.1 . Revision A. Encapsulation. Sun Services. and Decapsulation Describing Basic Peer-to-Peer Communication. Encapsulation. Inc. the Application layer on the source system interacts with the Application layer on the destination system.

Encapsulation. During encapsulation: q Header information is added at each layer before the data is passed down to the next layer. All Rights Reserved. and Decapsulation Encapsulation and Decapsulation Data passed down through each layer on the sender is encapsulated.Describing Basic Peer-to-Peer Communication. Headers and trailers are removed at each layer before the data is passed up to the next layer. Revision A.1 1-11 . Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Figure 1-7 on page 1-10 shows data decapsulation occurring on the destination system. q Figure 1-7 on page 1-10 shows data encapsulation occurring on the source system. Data arriving at a destination system is decapsulated. Inc. trailer information is also added. During decapsulation: q q Data travels up through the layers. Sun Services. The header information helps the destination system to direct the data to the appropriate protocol. At the final layer.

Point-to-Point Protocol transmits datagrams over serial. 1-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. their corresponding RFCs. Table 1-2 shows a list of Network Interface layer protocols.TCP/IP Protocols TCP/IP Protocols The following tables describe briefly the common TCP/IP protocols. Inc. Revision A. Table 1-2 Some TCP/IP Network Interface Layer Protocol Descriptions RFC 1055 1661 Protocol SLIP PPP Description Serial Line Internet Protocol compresses IP datagrams on serial lines. All Rights Reserved.1 . point-to-point links. and a short description of each protocol. Sun Services.

768 UDP Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 2402. Revision A. Table 1-3 Some TCP/IP Internet Layer Protocol Descriptions RFC 826 903 791. stream service on which many application protocols depend. and a short description of each protocol. their corresponding RFCs. based on the destination host’s IP address. 2406. All Rights Reserved. Internet Control Message Protocol communicates error messages and other controls within IP datagrams.1 1-13 . their corresponding RFCs. 950. • Internet Protocol Security Architecture • Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) • IP authentication header • Internet IP security domain of interpretation for the Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) Table 1-4 shows a list of Transport layer protocols. User Datagram Protocol is a connectionless protocol that provides non-acknowledged datagrams delivered over reliable networks. 2407. Table 1-4 Some TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocol Descriptions RFC 793 Protocol TCP Description Transmission Control Protocol is a connection-oriented protocol that provides the full-duplex. Internet Protocol determines the path that a datagram must take. Inc.TCP/IP Protocols Table 1-3 shows a list of Internet layer protocols. 2408 Protocol ARP RARP IP ICMP IPSecrelated RFCs Description Address Resolution Protocol defines the method used to map a 32-bit IP address to a 48-bit Ethernet address. 919. Sun Services. and a short description of each protocol. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol defines the method used to map a 48-bit Ethernet address to a 32-bit IP address. 922 792 2401.

host names. whereas POP3 is client-centric. IMAP4 is suited to mobile users because the mail remains on the server. Post Office Protocol. and a short description of each protocol. enables users to access their email box across the network from an IMAP4 server. version 3. version 4. IMAP4 is server-centric. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is responsible for automatically assigning IP addresses in an organization’s network.1 . enables users to access their email box across a wide area network (WAN) or local area network (LAN) from a POP3 server. Simple Network Management Protocol enables system administrators to monitor and control network devices. 1280 2131 Remote login DHCP 2821 1157 SMTP SNMP 1939 POP3 2060 IMAP4 1-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 1035 Protocol DNS Description Domain Name System is a text-based. 959 854. File Transfer Protocol is used to transfer files between systems. Telnet Protocol enables terminals and terminal-oriented processes to communicate on a network by using TCP/IP. The rlogin command enables users to log in to remote hosts. and IP addresses. distributed database for domain names. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. Internet Message Access Protocol. Domain names index a hierarchical tree of names and ultimately identify hosts and domains. Table 1-5 Some TCP/IP Application Layer Protocol Descriptions RFC 1034. 855 FTP Telnet 1258. Inc.TCP/IP Protocols Table 1-5 shows a list of some Application layer protocols. Revision A. their corresponding RFCs. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol transfers electronic mail (email) messages from one machine to another.

TCP/IP Protocols Table 1-5 Some TCP/IP Application Layer Protocol Descriptions (Continued) RFC 1945. Secure shell is based on a number of drafts. and other multimedia information that is accessible through a web browser. pictures. None SSH Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. audio. All Rights Reserved. Inc.1 1-15 . Revision A. Sun Services. 2068 None Protocol HTTP HTTPS Description Hypertext Transfer Protocol and Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol are used on the World Wide Web to transfer text. SSH logs in securely to a system across a network.

Sun Services. Revision A. define the term protocol. In your own words.1 . Name:_______________________________________________________ Function: ____________________________________________________ Name:_______________________________________________________ Function: ____________________________________________________ Name:_______________________________________________________ Function: ____________________________________________________ Name:_______________________________________________________ Function: ____________________________________________________ 2. Inc. define the term peer-to-peer. List the layers of the TCP/IP network model by their name and function. In your own words. All Rights Reserved. Tasks Perform the following steps: 1. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 1-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Preparation There is no preparation for this exercise.Exercise: Reviewing the TCP/IP Model Exercise: Reviewing the TCP/IP Model In this exercise. you review the TCP/IP model. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.

c. All Rights Reserved. ARP IP TCIP ICMP Data travels up through layers at the destination system’s end. d. Sun Services. 5. c. Data travels down through layers at the source system’s end. Which statements describe data encapsulation? Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Headers and trailers are added before the data is passed down to the next layer. a. Inc. b. Headers and trailers are removed before the data is passed up to the next layer.1 1-17 . Revision A. b.Exercise: Reviewing the TCP/IP Model 4. Which protocols are part of the TCP/IP suite? a. d.

Revision A.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. Sun Services. issues. Inc. All Rights Reserved. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications 1-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise.1 .

Name: Application Function: Consists of user-accessed application programs and network services. Name: Network Interface Function: Manages the delivery of data across the physical network. In your own words. List the layers of the TCP/IP network model by their name and function. Name: Transport Function: Manages the transfer of data using connection-oriented and connectionless transport protocols. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. This layer is also responsible for defining the way in which cooperating networks represent data. as well as fragmenting data for the Network Interface layer. 2. This layer provides error detection and packet framing. In your own words. Revision A. define the term protocol. 3. define the term peer-to-peer. These rules describe: q q q Syntax – Data format and coding Semantics – Control information and error handling Timing – Speed matching and sequencing Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. A protocol is set of rules governing the exchange of data between two entities. Name: Internet Function: Manages data addressing and delivery between networks. Peer-to-peer communication is the ability of a specific layer to communicate with a corresponding layer on another host.1 1-19 .Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1.

Which statements describe data encapsulation? 1-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. b. Revision A.Exercise Solutions 4. Headers and trailers are added before the data is passed down to the next layer. Which protocols are part of the TCP/IP suite? a. Sun Services. 5. b. All Rights Reserved. Inc. d. ARP IP ICMP Data travels down through layers at the source system’s end. d.1 .

Upon completion of this module. Revision A.Module 2 Introducing LANs and Their Components Objectives This module describes LANs and their components. All Rights Reserved. This module also introduces LAN media. bridges. Inc. Sun Services.1 . and switches. In addition. you should be able to: q q q Describe network topologies Describe LAN media Describe network devices The course map in Figure 2-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. Configuring the Network Interface Layer Introducing the TCP/IP Model Introducing LANs and Their Components Course Map Describing Ethernet Interfaces Describing ARP and RARP Figure 2-1 2-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. this module introduces network devices. including IEEE LAN media identifiers and Ethernet media. including shared hubs.

All Rights Reserved. Many different network topologies are commonly implemented in today’s network environments. the type of business. Bus Topologies The bus configuration was the typical LAN topology for the original Ethernet network specification. Sun Services. A typical bus configuration has coaxial cables running through an area. and the amount of network traffic you expect when you make decisions about which topology to use. Systems are attached at points along the cable to enable communication with each other. Consider the size of the network. Figure 2-2 Bus Configuration 2-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The bandwidth of the cable is shared between all the systems connected to the cable. Revision A.1 .Introducing Network Topologies Introducing Network Topologies The topology of a network relates to the way nodes on the network are physically wired together. Topology is one of the most important considerations when you design a network. Inc. Figure 2-2 shows an example of a bus configuration. any failover requirements.

Star configurations are well suited to many of today’s LAN network methodologies. Sun Services. Depending upon the LAN methodology. Figure 2-3 shows an example of the star configuration. An intelligent hub controls: q q Which messages are transferred between which ports What devices are connected to each port or segment Note – A non-intelligent hub does not make any decisions about which ports to send data. there is a limit to the number of segments that can be linked together. This essentially makes star configurations behave exactly like bus configurations from the point of view of the nodes.Introducing Network Topologies Star Topologies The LAN topology in a star configuration uses a central location. 0K> Figure 2-3 Star Configuration Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. from which a number of signal-carrying cables extend to each individual device on a branch. Revision A.1 2-3 . or hub. A benefit of the star configuration is that a fault on the cable to a node affects only that node. All Rights Reserved. Inc.

1 . In a ring network. Revision A. Figure 2-4 shows a star-wired ring configuration. Each node in the ring is between two other nodes. if one node stops functioning the ring can be broken.Introducing Network Topologies Ring Topologies In a ring configuration. Inc. which affects communication on the network. the output of one node connects to the input of the next node. The reliability is a result of the intelligent hub’s ability to bypass a non-functioning node in the ring. a ring configuration can be implemented with the reliability of a star configuration. Figure 2-4 Ring Configuration 2-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. With the invention of the intelligent central hub. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved. and 6 can be assigned to network A. 7. Figure 2-5 shows an example of a network with all systems on the same broadcast domain.1 2-5 . Although the term VLAN is in common use. A VLAN topology is implemented with a central device that supports VLAN technology. Sun Services.Introducing Network Topologies VLAN Topologies Virtual local area network (VLAN) topologies are becoming increasingly popular. on an 8-port switch. the hardware or software address of the systems. however. 4. You can move computer systems between VLANs without any hardware configuration. every vendor provides their own VLAN implementation and enhancements. Revision A. Inc. ports 1. For example. All systems are physically connected to the same device. while ports 3. Using VLANs reduces the size of broadcast domains. All systems on the same broadcast domain Figure 2-5 VLAN With All Systems on the Same Domain Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The traffic on network A is separated from the traffic on network B. 2. and 8 can be assigned to network B. This makes the task of defining the term VLAN difficult. the device is configured with multiple logical networks (the VLANs) that have one or more ports on the switch assigned to them. or the protocols used by the systems. Ports can be assigned to different VLANs based on port number. 5. and traffic does not pass between the two networks.

Inc. Smaller Broadcast Domains Figure 2-6 VLAN Configurations 2-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.Introducing Network Topologies Figure 2-6 shows how a single switch can be configured into three VLANs so that there are three separate. All Rights Reserved. smaller broadcast domains. Sun Services.1 .

Three VLANs defined (by color) Figure 2-7 Three VLANs Defined Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing Network Topologies Figure 2-7 shows. Sun Services. Revision A. Inc. through shading. All Rights Reserved.1 2-7 . how the three VLANs are configured by using software on the switch to which all systems are connected.

The third piece of information indicates the segment type or the approximate segment length. which is rounded up from the 185-meter maximum length for individual thin coaxial segments. The second piece of information. or 1000. IEEE Identifiers For the various types of LANs. The designation T indicates that the segment type is twisted-pair. Type of Signal = Baseband Speed = 10 Mbs 10 BASE-5 Segment Length = 500 Meter 10 BASE-T Type of Media = Twisted Pair Figure 2-8 IEEE Media Identifier 2-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. represents a media speed of 10 megabits per second (Mbps). baseband signaling is used. 100 Mbps. or 1000 Mbps. and the media is twisted pair. These identifiers include three pieces of information: q The first piece of information. 2 indicates 200 meters. which means that the transmission speed is 100 megabits per second. Figure 2-8 shows how baseband segments are designated. Revision A. stands for baseband. q q An example identifier is 100BASE-T. 10. All Rights Reserved. the IEEE identifier indicates the types of media used. For thin coaxial cable. respectively. BASE. Sun Services. For thick coaxial cable. and the designation F stands for fiber-optic cable. 100. which is a type of signalling.Introducing LAN Media Introducing LAN Media Many types of LAN methodologies include the media’s specifications as part of the LAN’s name (identifier). Two systems cannot transmit signals at the same time. Inc. 5 indicates the 500-meter maximum length allowed for individual segments.1 . Baseband signalling uses the entire bandwidth of the cable for one signal.

All Rights Reserved. The specifications for this media type were published in 1990. Sun Services. The thin coaxial cable media segment was defined next. 100BASE-TX Media Type The 100BASE-TX media type is based on specifications published in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Twisted-Pair – Physical Media Standard (TP-PMD). You can only implement 100BASE-TX over Category 5 cable. 10BASE-T Media Type The 10BASE-T media type uses twisted-pair cables. Consider the physical distance. Inc. Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This is a standard technique that improves the signal-carrying characteristics of a wire pair. IEEE 802. 100BASE-TX uses both. and the other pair transmits data signals. the security. followed by the twisted-pair and fiber-optic media segments. Multiple twisted-pair segments communicate using a multiport hub or switch. and the media that is supported by current technology when you make decisions about which LAN media to use. You can implement 10BASE-T over Category 3 (two to three twists per foot) or Category 5 (two to three twists per inch) twisted-pair cable.1 2-9 .3 Types Many different types of LAN media have been used. Because the ANSI TP-PMD specification provides for the use of either unshielded twisted-pair or shielded twisted-pair cable. The 10BASE-T media type uses two pairs of wires: one pair receives data signals. This is one of the most widely used media types for connections to the desktop. The 100BASE-TX media type carries 100 Mbps signals over two pairs of wire. the cost to install the media. the cost of the media.Introducing LAN Media The thick coaxial cable media segment was the first media segment to be defined in the Ethernet specifications. Revision A. The two wires in each pair must be twisted together for the entire length of the segment. from half-inch thick coaxial cable to optical fibre measured in microns. The twisted-pair segment type is widely used today for making network connections to the desktop.

This complete electrical isolation provides immunity from much larger electrical hazards. Sun Services. fiber-optic media is nonconductive. The 100BASE-T4 specifications recommend using Category 5 patch cables. 2-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and connecting hardware whenever possible because these higher-quality components and cables improve the reception of signals on the link. Gigabit Ethernet includes both full-duplex and half-duplex operating modes.1 . Gigabit Ethernet is an extension of the successful 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps 802. one pair receives data (RX). The 1000BASE-X standard refers to two implementations of fiber-optic segment types: 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX. An advantage of the 100BASE-FX fiber-optic link segment is that it can span long distances. 100BASE-FX Media Type The 100BASE-FX (fast fiber-optic) media system uses pulses of light instead of electrical currents to send signals. and from the flow of current that can result from having different levels of electrical ground currents that can be found in separate buildings. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. While LAN equipment used in metallic media segments has protection circuits designed for typical indoor electrical hazards. the IEEE Standards Board approved the gigabit Ethernet standard for 1000 Mbps over multimode fiber (MMF) and single-mode fiber. such as lightning strikes.3 standards. and two pairs are bidirectional (BI) data pairs. One pair of wires transmits data (TX). jumpers. The use of fiber provides superior electrical isolation for equipment at each end of the fiber link. Complete electrical isolation is essential when using LAN segments to link separate buildings. Inc. The signaling system makes it possible to provide fast Ethernet signals (100 megaHertz (MHz)) over any existing standard voice-grade Category 3 or 4 unshielded twisted-pair cable that might be installed. Fiber also provides more security because the optical signal does not cause induction.Introducing LAN Media 100BASE-T4 Media Type The 100BASE-T4 media type operates over four pairs of wires. 1000BASE-X Media Type In 1998. Gigabit Ethernet provides a raw bandwidth of 1000 Mbps and maintains full compatibility with the installed base of over 100 million Ethernet nodes.

Sun’s implementation of the 1000BASE-SX system specification supports the following distances: q q 300 meters over 62. Sun’s implementation of the 1000BASE-CX system specification supports the 25 meters over twin-axial cable. such as wiring closets.5-micron MMF cable 550 meters over 50-micron MMF cable 1000BASE-LX Media Type The 1000BASE-LX media system is the longest wavelength specification because it uses longwave lasers to transmit data over fiber-optic cable. The 1000BASE-CX system uses connecting equipment in small areas. for data transmissions of 1000 Mbps. and 100BASE-T4 for its signal methodology. the IEEE Standards Board approved the standard for the 1000BASE-T media system. Revision A. Sun’s implementation of the 1000BASE-SX system specification supports the following distances: q q 550 meters over 62. 1000BASE-T Media Type In 1999. Sun’s implementation of the 1000BASE-T system specification supports distances up to 100 meters over four pairs of Cat-5 UTP (using a complex encoding scheme).5-micron and 50-micron MMF cable 3000 meters over 9-micron single-mode fiber cable 1000BASE-CX Media Type The 1000BASE-CX media system is the shortest-haul copper specification because it uses high-quality shielded copper jumper cables to connect devices. Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The 1000BASE-T system uses the previously defined standards 100BASE-TX.1 2-11 . All Rights Reserved. This standard is for gigabit Ethernet over four pairs of Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable.Introducing LAN Media 1000BASE-SX Media Type The 1000BASE-SX media system is the shortest wavelength specification because it uses short wavelength lasers to transmit data over fiber-optic cable. 100BASE-T2. Inc. Sun Services.

Inc. bit by bit. Sun Services. Repeaters Repeaters are devices that amplify and regenerate the data signal. Switches reduce the number of collisions on a network by replacing a single shared data path with multiple dedicated data paths. Hubs are typically used in small LANs in which network performance is not critical. Bridges connect two or more network segments. Switches Switches are multiport devices that control the logical dynamic connection and disconnection between any two cable segments. 2-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Collisions commonly occur on a bridged network because the collision domains often consist of more than one system. A repeater does not read or interpret the data. The hubs connect all the hosts in a twisted-pair Ethernet installation. Collisions commonly occur on a network implementing hubs because the collision domain consists of all systems connected to the hub.Introducing Network Devices Introducing Network Devices Networks consist of many different devices and device types. Revision A. to extend the distance of the transmission. Switches are high-bandwidth devices because multiple data paths can be established and used simultaneously. All Rights Reserved. Bridges A bridge is a network-layer device that reads and interprets addresses for filtering or forwarding packets. Hubs Shared hubs are the central devices of a star topology network.1 . Devices that are found on LANs range from printers to sophisticated switching devices.

Introducing Network Devices Figure 2-9 shows how you can use an Ethernet switch to interconnect shared hubs. Interconnecting the hubs increases intranet transfer rates greatly and makes connections more economical. Hub Hub 10BASE-T 10BASE-T Ethernet Switch 10BASE-T 100BASE-T Hub 10BASE-T 10BASE-T Hub Hub Figure 2-9 Ethernet Switches Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Inc. Because connecting multiple subnets to an intranet using a switch requires no protocol changes. the cost of a speed increase is minimized. Sun Services.1 2-13 .

each individual device can be configured to be in its own broadcast domain. 2-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Exercise: Reviewing LANs and Their Components Exercise: Reviewing LANs and Their Components In this exercise. answer the following questions: 1. twisted-pair media. Additionally. Revision A. c. f. Sun Services. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. Match the terms to their definition. Ethernet installation. _____ Category 5 d. _____ _____ Switch Shared hub e. The cabling standard for 100-Mbps. from which signal-carrying cables are connected to each individual device on a branch. _____ _____ _____ VLAN topology 100BASE-TX b. All Rights Reserved. The central device through which all hosts connect in a single broadcast domain in a twisted-pair. from which signal-carrying cables extend to each individual device on this branch.1 . The multiport device that provides for the logical dynamic connection and disconnection between any two cable segments without operator intervention. Inc. This topology uses a central device. Star topology a. The IEEE standard for 100-Mbps. Tasks To test your knowledge about common LAN terminology. twisted-pair media. This topology uses a central device. you test your knowledge about common LAN terminology. unshielded.

Exercise: Reviewing LANs and Their Components 2. c. Ring Star Bus Wing 10BASE-5 10BASE-2 100BASE-FX 10BASE-T 100BASE-T4 100BASE-TX Which specifications support a media speed of 100 Mbps? Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Which are topologies found in LANs? a. All Rights Reserved. a. c. b.1 2-15 . Sun Services. Inc. Revision A. b. d. d. 3. f. e.

Inc. issues. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications 2-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. Revision A.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences.

Inc. each individual device can be configured to be in its own broadcast domain.1 2-17 . The IEEE standard for 100-Mbps. Sun Services. This topology uses a central device. Additionally. from which signal-carrying cables extend to each individual device on this branch. twisted-pair media. The central device through which all hosts connect in a single broadcast domain in a twisted-pair. from which signal-carrying cables are connected to each individual device on a branch. Match the terms to their definition. Ethernet installation. e 100BASE-TX c.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. f. unshielded. twisted-pair media. Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. f c Switch Shared hub e. a VLAN topology b. The cabling standard for 100-Mbps. Revision A. This topology uses a central device. d Star topology a. The multiport device that provides for the logical dynamic connection and disconnection between any two cable segments without operator intervention. b Category 5 d.

1 . Sun Services. e. b. f. Inc. Ring Star Bus 100BASE-FX 100BASE-T4 100BASE-TX Which specifications support a media speed of 100 Mbps? 2-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Which are topologies found in LANs? a. c. Revision A. 3. c. All Rights Reserved.Exercise Solutions 2.

you should be able to: q q q Describe Ethernet concepts Describe Ethernet frames Use network utilities The course map in Figure 3-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. This module also describes the Ethernet frame. Upon completion of this module.Module 3 Describing Ethernet Interfaces Objectives This module describes Ethernet’s Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) access method. All Rights Reserved. In addition. Configuring the Network Interface Layer Introducing the TCP/IP Model Introducing LANs and Their Components Course Map Describing Ethernet Interfaces Describing ARP and RARP Figure 3-1 3-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . Sun Services. this module describes network utilities that assist in configuring and troubleshooting the system’s network interfaces. including addresses. and errors. encapsulation. Revision A. frame fields. maximum transmission units (MTUs). Inc.

3-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The Ethernet access method. the transceiver circuitry detects a transmit collision (Collision Detection). Hardware cables. All Rights Reserved. Each interface monitors the network for a carrier signal (Carrier Sense).Introducing Ethernet Concepts Introducing Ethernet Concepts Ethernet was designed as a packet-switching LAN over broadcast technology. Both interfaces must wait a short period of time before they attempt to resend data. connectors.1 . The wait period is determined by using an exponential back-off algorithm. During a gap between transmissions. The IEEE 802. and circuitry – These transfer data to and from systems across the network. CSMA/CD – This method controls packet transmission and information flow across the Ethernet hardware.3 standard for Ethernet was defined in 1985. Major Ethernet Elements The three major elements of Ethernet networks are: q Ethernet packets. Inc. Revision A. Sun Services. each interface has an equal chance to transmit data (Multiple Access). q q CSMA/CD Access Method Non-switched Ethernet uses a broadcast delivery mechanism in which each frame that is transmitted is heard by every station. called frames – These are units of data sent across the network. Ethernet standards are implemented at the Network Interface layer of the TCP/IP protocol model. Devices connect to the network and compete for access to a shared communications channel. CSMA/CD is an arbitrary access method that provides a method to detect and recover from simultaneous transmissions. If two interfaces try to transmit data at the same time.

Introducing Ethernet Concepts Figure 3-2 shows how CSMA/CD accesses the network. Send the jam signal. All Rights Reserved. The theory of operation is still the same today. Sun Services. but Ethernet topologies use more advanced components that permit a higher transmission rate.1 3-3 . Collision Detect Was there a collision? No Yes Success. bidirectional backbone. Back off exponentially. Multiple Access The host has a message. Figure 3-2 Structure of CSMA/CD Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Wait. Ethernet originally consisted of a single-wire. Inc. The figure represents the CSMA/CD developed for the original Ethernet topology. Carrier Sense Is there traffic on the network? Yes No The host sends a message. Revision A.

Full-duplex networking is more efficient than half-duplex networking. All Rights Reserved. The more transmitting nodes there are on a network. Revision A. For example. Collision rates indicate the number of collisions that occur on a network. To compute the collision rate.Introducing Ethernet Concepts Full-Duplex and Half-Duplex Mode Full-duplex network mode is when a system can send and receive data simultaneously on a bidirectional network. and divide the product by the total number of output packets. execute the netstat command with the -i option. Calculate the collision rate as follows: 100 * 12 / 1302 = 1. The collision rate increases exponentially until there is almost no throughput of data. In a shared-media topology. for example: # netstat -i Name Mtu Net/Dest lo0 8232 loopback hme0 1500 sys11 # Address localhost sys11 Ipkts 52559 18973 Ierrs Opkts 0 52559 0 30292 Oerrs Collis Queue 0 0 0 0 0 0 Collision Rates Collisions occur when two or more systems attempt to transmit data on the network at the same time. Ethernet Statistics The netstat command provides statistics on network-related information.1 . assume that the netstat command reports 12 collisions and 1302 output packets. multiply 100 by the number of collisions.0 percent collision rate 3-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. such as the collision rate. the greater the likelihood that collisions occur because of an increase in network traffic. collisions occur frequently. Use collision rates to diagnose network performance problems that are caused by collisions on a network. The system cannot send and receive data simultaneously. To display the current usage of the Ethernet interfaces. Half-duplex network mode is when a system can either send or receive data on a bidirectional network. Inc. Sun Services.

are the first indication of network overload.1 3-5 . Switches minimize collisions by limiting the collision domain to one system. q q Input and Output Errors If the netstat command reports large numbers (approximately 20–25 percent) of input or output errors on the network system. Technical experts use special electronic equipment to detect the elements that cause a collision and to provide a solution. Faulty network cabling frequently causes collisions through electrical problems. All Rights Reserved. or router A faulty interface Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. switch. you can attribute the problem to one of the following reasons: q q q q Duplicate IP addresses used on the same network A faulty cable A faulty port on a concentrator. Inc. Sun Services. Revision A. and 10 percent on a 100-Mbps Ethernet network.Introducing Ethernet Concepts In general: q Collision rates higher than 5 percent on a 10-Mbps Ethernet network. hub.

Revision A. even though each Ethernet interface controller has a built-in Ethernet address. An example of an Ethernet address is 08:00:20:1e:56:7d. all interface addresses on a system use just one Ethernet address. By default. q The IEEE administers unique Ethernet addresses. All Rights Reserved. For example.1 . Sun uses host-based addressing on its networks interface cards (NICs). For systems configured to have more than one interface on the same physical subnet. and 00:03:ba. 00:00:be. Sun has various Ethernet prefixes. The list of vendor specific Ethernet addresses can be found at: http://standards.ieee. 3-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. either the NVRAM or the special board. desktop systems use the address in the nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) chip. The network interface drivers in Sun systems obtain the Ethernet address for the Ethernet interface from a system’s hardware. IEEE designates the first three octets as vendor-specific. which include 08:00:20. An Ethernet address is sometimes referred to as a media access control (MAC) address. By default.org/regauth/oui/oui. The Ethernet specification describes how bits are encoded on the cable and how devices on the network detect the beginning and the end of a transmission. Sun Services. An Ethernet address is 48 bits long and is displayed as 12 hexadecimal digits (six groups of two digits) separated by colons. Inc. It is a series of bits with a well-defined beginning and a well-defined end. you need a unique Ethernet address that is different from the primary host-based assigned Ethernet address. Ethernet Addresses An Ethernet address is the device’s unique hardware address.txt q The IEEE specification enables the vendor to decide whether to use the host-based addressing approach or the port-based addressing approach.Introducing Ethernet Frames Introducing Ethernet Frames An Ethernet frame is a single unit of data transported across the LAN. while some large server systems obtain their address from a special board installed in the system. Sun assigns the last three octets to the products it manufactures to ensure that each node on an Ethernet network has a unique Ethernet address.

Revision A. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Broadcast Addresses A device uses a broadcast address to send messages to all systems on the local Ethernet network. The Ethernet broadcast address is represented in the form of all 1s in binary format and as ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff in hexadecimal format. The system uses a unicast address to send a message to another system on the local Ethernet network. Unicast Addresses Unicast addresses are used for one-to-one communication. When the Network Interface layer receives an Ethernet frame with a destination address of all 1s. the value of the first three octets determines if the address is multicast. Multicast Addresses A system uses a multicast address to send a message to a subset of systems on the local Ethernet. Inc. In Ethernet multicast addressing. it passes the address to the next layer for processing. The last three octets determine the specific multicast’s group identity. broadcast.Introducing Ethernet Frames Types of Ethernet Addresses There are three types of Ethernet addresses: unicast. You can use a system’s unique Ethernet address as a unicast address. All Rights Reserved.1 3-7 . Sun Services. and multicast.

To view the current.Introducing Ethernet Frames Setting a Local Ethernet Address In today’s network environments. Host ID: 80b97223.LOOPBACK.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Set the local-mac-address? variable in the system’s electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) to true to enable the use of port-based Ethernet addresses.0.MULTICAST. To view the current value of the local-mac-address? variable in the EEPROM.BROADCAST. No Keyboard OpenBoot 3. Because an Ethernet address targets systems.RUNNING. Sun Services. ok To display the Ethernet address assigned to each interface. each interface on the same network or subnet on a multi-interface system must have a unique Ethernet address. often on the same subnet or collision domain. Sun network adapters have local Ethernet addresses encoded in their programmable read-only memories (PROMs).168.0.168. many systems have multiple interfaces. Serial #12153379.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. execute the banner command at the ok prompt: ok banner Sun Ultra 5/10 UPA/PCI (UltraSPARC-IIi 360MHz).1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1.MULTICAST.RUNNING. 128 MB (50 ns) memory installed. Inc. execute the ifconfig -a command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. execute the following command: # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=false # 3-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.19. Ethernet address 8:0:20:b9:72:23.1 . Revision A. host-based Ethernet address.1. All Rights Reserved.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.

Inc.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. type the following command: # eeprom local-mac-address?=true # You can also use the ifconfig ether command to configure port-based addressing.1.Introducing Ethernet Frames You can set the local-mac-address? variable to true by using the eeprom command. This enables network drivers to use their own port-based addresses after a reboot and not the system-default. type the following command: # ifconfig hme0 ether a:0:20:f0:ac:61 # To verify a change in the Ethernet address. This might be necessary if the interface card cannot supply its own unique Ethernet address.BROADCAST. Sun Services.RUNNING. All Rights Reserved.1 3-9 . modify the /etc/hostname. and assigning a local unique number to the last three bytes. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. host-based addresses.MULTICAST.1. You can change the interface Ethernet address of 8:0:20:b9:72:23 from an Ethernet address assigned globally to an address of 0a:0:20:f0:ac:61 assigned locally by changing the seventh bit to 1. To change the Ethernet address.168. Revision A. To make the change persistent across reboots. type the following command: # ifconfig hme0 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. To make this change.168.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.255 ether a:0:20:f0:ac:61 # This change of Ethernet address is effective until you reboot the system.interface file.

the fourth field is a frame length field.Introducing Ethernet Frames Ethernet-II Frame Analysis The Ethernet-II frame is a single unit of data transported through the LAN. 3-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. =@ @H 4 8 B its 5 =@ @H 48 Bits xim um ) Typ e 16 Bits (Ma xim Da ta um 150 0 Las t 4 Oc tets Byt es) CR 32 C Bits Figure 3-3 Ethernet-II Frame Note – There are two common Ethernet frame formats: the Ethernet-II format and the logical link control (802. typically the Ethernet-II frame format is used.3 format. Inc. the fourth field is a type field. The Ethernet specification describes how bits are encoded on the network and how hosts on the network detect the beginning and the end of a transmission.3) format.1 . All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. The primary difference between these formats is that in the Ethernet-II format. while in the 802. Figure 3-3 shows the Ethernet-II frame format. It is a series of bits with a definite beginning and a definite end. Oc tet Loc atio n: 1-6 7-1 2 1314 15151 4 (M a Pre 64 am Bits ble . In the TCP/IP environments.

Table 3-1 Ethernet-II Frames Field Preamble Description The 64-bit Ethernet preamble field is used for synchronization and is composed of 1s and 0s. ARP. The Ethernet address of the destination host. Table 3-1 shows a description of each frame field. The Ethernet address of the source host. The value is calculated based on frame contents by both the sending and the receiving hosts. Inc. D addr S addr Type Data CRC Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and IP version 6 (IPv6). such as IP. The type of data encapsulated in the Ethernet frame. Interface synchronization helps the receiving network interfaces determine where the Ethernet frame begins. Revision A. RARP. the frame is discarded. The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) used for error detection. If the two values are not equivalent. The data payload. Sun Services.Introducing Ethernet Frames The information in each frame is necessary to receive and transmit data.1 3-11 . All Rights Reserved. which consists of header information and data from the higher-level protocols.

Introducing Ethernet Frames Maximum Transmission Units The maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the largest amount of data that can be transferred across a physical network. to the host itself. The loopback interface is a pseudo device that communicates. The MTU is hardware specific. Revision A. the MTU is 1500 bytes. Sun Services.1 . Figure 3-4 shows how application data is broken down according to the maximum frame size across the LAN. All Rights Reserved. Note – The Sun GigaSwift Ethernet adapters hardware implements jumbo frames. Inc. Application Layer Application Data Transport Layer Transport Datagram Internet Layer Internet Datagram Network Interface Layer 1500-byte Payload Hardware Layer Figure 3-4 Transportation of Data Across an Ethernet Network 3-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. while the MTU is 8232 bytes for a loopback interface. which support MTUs of up to 9194 bytes. or loops back. For a physical Ethernet interface.

Frames that are greater than 1518 bytes. These can be formed by poor wiring and electrical interference. All Rights Reserved. These are often caused by faulty hardware or software on the sending system.1 3-13 . When a host receives a frame. are too long and are discarded.Introducing Ethernet Frames Ethernet Frame Errors Ethernet frames can be significantly damaged when they traverse a network. the packet is corrupted and discarded. is too long. the Ethernet interface performs integrity checking to verify Ethernet frame validity. including the header. are too short and are discarded. Runts are usually caused by collisions. These indicate that a device has electrical problems. A frame that is between 1518 bytes and 6000 bytes in length. including the header. Jabbers Long Giant Bad CRC Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. is too long. including the header. Table 3-2 shows some of these error conditions. Revision A. Table 3-2 Error Conditions Error Runts Definition Packets that are less than 64 bytes. Sun Services. Inc. If the received packet fails the CRC. including the header. This is also known as a frame check sequence (FCS) error. These are often caused by faulty hardware or software on the sending system. A frame that is more than 6000 bytes long.

Inc. sys11 ? Verbose – To invoke the verbose option. IP. The underlying RPC.1. an NFS packet only displays NFS information.168. Only data that pertains to the highest-level protocol header is displayed.12 -> (broadcast) ARP C sys12 -> (broadcast) ARP C sys12 -> (broadcast) ARP C # q mode) Who is 192.168. Revision A.1. you can capture packets to a file as they are received.2.3. 3-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1. type the following: # snoop -d hme0 broadcast Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous 192.Using Network Utilities Using Network Utilities The Solaris 10 OS includes many different utilities to help you configure and troubleshoot the system’s network interfaces.168.1. The snoop utility displays packet data in one of three forms: q Summary – This is the output mode when the -v or -V options are not used on the command line. sys13 ? Who is 192. use the -v option on the command line. sys12 ? Who is 192.1. To examine only broadcast frames on the hme0 interface in summary mode. Alternatively. For example. UDP.1 . You can use the snoop utility to display the contents of the file.168. Using the snoop Utility The superuser can run the snoop utility to capture network packets and to display the packet contents on the screen. and Ethernet frame header information are not displayed. Multiple lines of output display for every protocol header in the network packet. All Rights Reserved. decreasing packet loss under high-traffic conditions. Sun Services.

(broadcast) ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7. sys12 -> sys11 ETHER Type=0800 (IP).1 LEN=84.Using Network Utilities To examine only broadcast packets on the hme0 interface in the verbose mode. sys11 ARP: q Verbose summary – A single line of output is displayed for every protocol or application contained within the packet. sys12 ARP: Target hardware address = ? ARP: Target protocol address = 192. You can examine packets by using both verbose summary mode and by filtering the packets by IP address.2 LEN=84. size = 98 bytes sys11 -> sys12 IP D=192.1.168..2 Using the /dev/hme device (promiscuous mode) . TOS=0x0. For example.1. size = 98 bytes sys12 -> sys11 IP D=192.2 S=192. TTL=255 sys11 -> sys12 ICMP Echo reply (ID: 345 Sequence number: 0) # Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.168. Sun Services.168.01 ETHER: Packet size = 60 bytes ETHER: Destination = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 8 arrived at 13:18:44. Inc. perform the following command: # snoop -d hme0 -V 192..1. ID=48009.1. TOS=0x0. ID=45375.1 S=192.168. sys11 -> sys12 ETHER Type=0800 (IP).1.1.2.ARP/RARP Frame ----ARP: ARP: Hardware type = 1 ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP) ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes ARP: Length of protocol address = 4 bytes ARP: Opcode 1 (ARP Request) ARP: Sender's hardware address = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 ARP: Sender's protocol address = 192. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 0806 (ARP) ETHER: ARP: ----.168. TTL=255 sys12 -> sys11 ICMP Echo request (ID: 345 Sequence number: 0) . All Rights Reserved.1.168. to examine packets by using verbose summary mode and by filtering the packets by IP address on the hme0 interface..168. Revision A. type the following: # snoop -v -d hme0 broadcast Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) ETHER: ----..1 3-15 . The snoop utility only displays output when there is network traffic and the traffic matches the filter criteria.

1.1. The information in the file that is captured by the snoop utility is in a data-compressed format. # snoop -i /tmp/snooper -V | egrep -iv 'nfs|ack|contin|ftp|ip' .168.00010 sys12 -> sys11 sys11 -> sys12 ICMP Echo request (ID: 346 Sequence number: 0) ICMP Echo reply (ID: 346 Sequence number: 0) . pipe the output from the snoop -i command through the egrep command.00000 0. 1 0... ID=45376. and ip.1. All Rights Reserved. ID=48010.1 S=192. Revision A. TTL=255 ICMP Echo reply (ID: 346 Sequence number: 0) To filter out specific protocols or portions of the network trace.00000 0.2 LEN=84. size = 98 bytes IP D=192.version 2 # To read this format. and can only be read by executing the snoop -i command..00010 0. type the following command: # snoop -d qfe0 -o /tmp/snooper broadcast # While the snoop utility is capturing information.00000 0. a record counter displays the number of recorded packets.2 S=192. Inc. type the following command: # snoop -i /tmp/snooper -V . the egrep -iv 'nfs|ack|contin|ftp|ip' command ignores case (-i) and prints all lines except (-v) lines that contain the patterns nfs. 1 1 1 .00010 sys12 -> sys11 sys12 -> sys11 sys12 -> sys11 sys11 -> sys12 sys11 -> sys12 sys11 -> sys12 ETHER Type=0800 (IP). # file /tmp/snooper /tmp/snooper: snoop capture file . TOS=0x0.1 .00010 0.168.1. type the following command: # snoop -d hme0 -o /tmp/snooper 192. TOS=0x0. 2 # 3-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. ack. For example. size = 98 bytes IP D=192.00000 0. ftp....2 Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) 2 <Control>-C # To capture broadcast traffic on the hme0 interface and store it in the /tmp/snooper file. contin..1 LEN=84.168..Using Network Utilities To capture this information to a file. You finish the capture by typing a Control+C key sequence.168. Sun Services.1. 2 2 2 # 0. TTL=255 ICMP Echo request (ID: 346 Sequence number: 0) ETHER Type=0800 (IP).

Table 3-3 The netstat Output Field Descriptions Field Name Mtu Net/Dest Address Ipkts Ierrs Opkts Oerrs Collis Queue Description The name of the device (interface). Output errors. To display the current usage of the Ethernet interfaces. Input errors. Inc. The number of packets that are waiting for transmission. The MTU in bytes. The number of collisions on this interface.Using Network Utilities Using the netstat Command The netstat command includes many options and is useful as a network troubleshooting tool. Output packets. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The IP address for that interface. The number can be resolved to a name in the /etc/inet/networks file. The address can be resolved to a name in the /etc/inet/hosts file.1 3-17 . The network number. Revision A. use the netstat command with the -i option: # netstat -i Name lo0 hme0 # Mtu Net/Dest 8232 loopback 1500 sys11 Address localhost sys11 Ipkts 83505 21775 Ierrs Opkts 0 83505 0 53541 Oerrs Collis Queue 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 3-3 shows the descriptions of the output fields from the netstat command. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. Input packets.

.. use the netstat command with the -s option: # netstat -s <truncated output> RAWIP rawipInDatagrams = 298 . IGMP: 123079 messages received .1 .. ICMPv4 icmpInMsgs = 3719 ... Revision A. # rawipInErrors = 0 udpInErrors tcpRtoMin ipDefaultTTL = = = 0 400 255 255 0 0 ipv6DefaultHopLimit = icmpInErrors icmp6InErrors = = Using the ndd Command You use the ndd command to examine and set many parameters associated with networking.. All Rights Reserved. ICMPv6 icmp6InMsgs = 0 .. IPv4 ipForwarding = 1 ..Using Network Utilities To display protocol-related statistics..... .... perform the command: # ndd /dev/hme \? ? transceiver_inuse link_status link_speed link_mode ipg1 .. . To list the parameters for the hme driver. IPv6 ipv6Forwarding = 2 ... Sun Services. UDP udpInDatagrams = 45966 . TCP tcpRtoAlgorithm = 4 .. instance lance_mode ipg0 # (read (read (read (read (read (read only) only) only) only) only) and write) (read and write) (read and write) (read and write) 3-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. Inc...

The instance parameter determines which hme interface is addressed by subsequent ndd commands. Inc. except for network card configuration. use the ndd command to set the instance parameter first. To set the instance to 0. You can read the current parameter value or status information for the parameters that are marked with at least a read. type the command: # ndd /dev/hme link_speed 1 # The output of 1 indicates that the hme0 interface is currently running at 100 Mbps. All Rights Reserved. Using the ? parameter lists all parameters for the driver and indicates whether the parameter is read-only or read and write. The following example shows how to use the ndd command to examine the value of the link_speed parameter for the hme0 interface. For example. use the following command: # ndd -set /dev/hme instance 0 # To view the current link speed of the hme0 interface. The ndd parameters are also available for other network devices and protocols.1 3-19 . Sun Services. and a value of 0 indicates that the hme0 interface is running at 10 Mbps. however. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. You can adjust most parameters accessible through the ndd command without rebooting the system. to see which parameters are available for other drivers. you may only change a value if it is marked as read and write. type the commands: # # # # ndd ndd ndd ndd /dev/arp \? /dev/ip \? /dev/icmp \? /dev/tcp \? Sun Microsystems does not currently provide extensive ndd parameter documentation. Revision A.Using Network Utilities The \ character prevents the shell from interpreting ? as a special character. Because multiple hme interfaces might exist.

You can set device driver parameters in two ways: by using the ndd command or by creating a Service Management Facility (SMF) service.sun. Sun might also change the names of parameters in future versions of the Solaris OS. Because the Solaris 10 OS is preconfigured. The default settings are suitable for most situations. You can also create an SMF service.com. A good way to test parameter settings is by using the ndd command on the command line. Sun Services. Inc. 3-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. q Note – Information about setting ndd parameters in system startup scripts can be found in Chapter 4 of the Solaris Tunable Parameters Reference Manual located at the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) http://docs. Sun Microsystems does not encourage making parameter changes. because adjusting parameters can affect normal system operation.Using Network Utilities There are several trade-offs involved in setting driver parameters. q Use the ndd command to set parameters that are valid until you reboot the system. All Rights Reserved.1 . Revision A. changing most driver parameters requires you to change the Solaris 10 OS configuration.

_____ Preamble c.Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces In this exercise. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. you review many Ethernet concepts. Revision A. Inc. e. A general term that describes the unit of data sent across a packet-switching network The process of passing data from layer to layer in the protocol stack and adding header information to the data at each layer The field in the Ethernet frame that describes the type of data being carried in the frame An address format that reaches a specific host The field in an Ethernet frame used for synchronization purposes The maximum number of bytes that are contained in the payload section in a Network Interface layer frame The unit of data sent from the Ethernet interface to the Hardware layer _____ _____ Unicast b. Sun Services. _____ Type field g. Tasks Perform the following steps: 1. _____ _____ _____ Encapsulation Packet Frame d. Match the terms to their definition. MTU a. All Rights Reserved.1 3-21 . f.

Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces 2. Let this command run for the next step. Does the rup command send broadcast frames? ________________________________________________________ Do you see the replies to the rup command? Why? ________________________________________________________ Open a terminal window. a. b. Using another terminal window. In one terminal window. and type the command: 5. Revision A. 3-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and type the rup command. Inc. d. Sun Services. What are the names of the Ethernet interfaces on your system. execute the snoop utility on the default interface to capture only broadcast frames. and execute the netstat command to determine the name of your Ethernet interface. Open another terminal window. Which snoop option displays the most verbose output? ________________________________________________________ Which snoop option displays frames arriving on a non-primary interface? ________________________________________________________ 3. Which snoop option displays the size of the entire Ethernet frame in bytes on the summary line? ________________________________________________________ b. Which snoop option captures packets to a file instead of to standard output? ________________________________________________________ c. a. log in to another host on your subnet. and what are their purposes? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4.1 . # man snoop Look at the various modes and options for capturing and viewing frames available to you. All Rights Reserved.

How do the two formats differ? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. and restart the snoop utility in verbose mode. Capture only broadcast frames. Sun Services. 8. All Rights Reserved. and execute the snoop utility in verbose summary mode. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 9. Note – While you might not understand everything that you see in this section of the exercise. capturing only broadcast frames. In the terminal window that is logged in to the remote host. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. execute the rup command again. Stop the snoop utility.1 3-23 . and quit all instances of the snoop utility that you are running. Log off of the remote host. Revision A. Stop the snoop utility that is currently running. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 7. Inc. depending on the type of network interface in the system.Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces Now you use different options of the snoop utility to provide different amounts of output. execute the rup command again. The results of the exercise vary. and output format of the ndd command. In the terminal window logged in to the remote host. you should at least become familiar with the command syntax. 6. options. Observe the format of the output from the snoop utility running in verbose mode.

Sun Services. Revision A.1 . What command do you use to make the ndd command set your system’s link_status parameter to 0? _____________________________________________________________ 14. use /dev/hme as the parameter. All Rights Reserved. 11. you manipulate a specific interface on your system. if your system’s interface is an hme0 interface. Inc. A status of 1 indicates that the interface is up. A status of 0 indicates that the interface is down. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Do you expect your command from Step 13 to work if you entered it at the command line as the root user? Why? ________________________________________________________ 3-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. For example. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 13. Use the appropriate argument with the ndd command to make sure that any instance information retrieved is for the primary network interface. Use the ndd command to determine the read and write attributes of ndd parameters for your interface driver. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 12.Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces In this part of the exercise. Use the ndd command to determine the value of the link_status parameter of the primary network interface on your system.

1 3-25 .Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss the experiences. Inc. issues. All Rights Reserved. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Sun Services. or discoveries that you had during the lab exercises.

e.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. A general term that describes the unit of data sent across a packet-switching network The process of passing data from layer to layer in the protocol stack and adding header information to the data at each layer The field in the Ethernet frame that describes the type of data being carried in the frame An address format that reaches a specific host The field in an Ethernet frame used for synchronization purposes The maximum number of bytes that are contained in the payload section in a Network Interface layer frame The unit of data sent from the Ethernet interface to the Hardware layer d Unicast b. and type the command: Look at the various modes and options for capturing and viewing frames available to you. -o filename 3-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Inc. a. Revision A. 2. MTU a.1 . b a g Encapsulation Packet Frame d. f Match the terms to their definition. c Type field g. # man snoop Open a terminal window. f. Which snoop option displays the size of the entire Ethernet frame in bytes on the summary line? Which snoop option captures packets to a file instead of to standard output? -S b. e Preamble c.

Now you use different options of the snoop utility to provide different amounts of output. # snoop -V broadcast Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Stop the snoop utility that is currently running.1 3-27 . 4. Inc. Does the rup command send broadcast frames? Yes. and type the rup command. What are the names of the Ethernet interfaces on your system. All Rights Reserved. and what are their purposes? The hme0 interface. Stop the snoop utility. Sun Services. 8. depending on your system. Open another terminal window. capturing only broadcast frames. -v d. In the terminal window logged in to the remote host. The purpose of the network interface is to provide access to the LAN. 6. Revision A. the qfe0 interface. -d interface name 3. Do you see the replies to the rup command? Why? No status replies are seen because the replies are sent to the host by using a unicast address. Which snoop option displays frames arriving on a non-primary interface? Which snoop option displays the most verbose output? # netstat -i # snoop broadcast 5. you will observe the rup utility sending remote status (RSTAT) requests. and execute the netstat command to determine the name of your Ethernet interface. and execute the snoop utility in verbose summary mode.Exercise Solutions c. Observe the format of the output from the snoop utility running in the verbose mode. log in to another host on your subnet. a. or perhaps the eri0 interface. execute the snoop utility on the default interface to capture only broadcast frames. # snoop -v broadcast 7. b. In one terminal window. and restart the snoop utility in the verbose mode. execute the rup command again. Capture only the broadcast frames. Let this command run for the next step. Using another terminal window.

# ndd -set /dev/hme instance 0 12. All Rights Reserved. 10. How do the two formats differ? The -v option executes the verbose mode. A status of 1 indicates that the interface is up. options. you manipulate a specific interface on your system. Log off of the remote host. The -V option executes the summary verbose mode. and output format of the ndd command. Inc. depending on the type of network interface in the system. A status of 0 indicates that the interface is down. and quit all instances of the snoop utility that you are running. It prints packet headers in great detail. Note – While you might not understand everything that you see in this section of the exercise. 11. This is halfway between the summary mode and verbose mode in degree of verbosity. Revision A. The results of the exercise vary. Use the ndd command to determine the value of the link_status parameter of the primary network interface on your system. It displays a single summary line for each protocol layer in the packet instead of displaying multiple lines from each layer of encapsulation. you should at least become familiar with the command syntax.1 . This display consumes many lines per packet and should be used only on selected packets. # ndd /dev/hme link_status 3-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. In this part of the exercise.Exercise Solutions 9. In the terminal window that is logged in to the remote host. Use the appropriate argument of the ndd command to make sure that any instance information retrieved is for the primary network interface. execute the rup command again. Sun Services.

# ndd /dev/device_of_interest \? Do you expect your command from Step 13 to work if you entered it at the command line as the root user? Why? The command would fail because the link_status parameter is read only. use /dev/hme as the parameter. Inc.1 3-29 . if your system’s interface is an hme0 interface.Exercise Solutions 13. What command do you use to make the ndd command set your system’s link_status parameter to 0? # ndd -set /dev/hme link_status 0 14. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Sun Services. Use the ndd command to determine the read and write attributes of ndd parameters for your interface driver. For example. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

.

Configuring the Network Interface Layer Introducing the TCP/IP Model Introducing LANs and Their Components Course Map Describing Ethernet Interfaces Describing ARP and RARP Figure 4-1 4-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.rarpd RARP daemon. Additionally. this module describes the ARP table.Module 4 Describing ARP and RARP Objectives This module describes the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP). Sun Services. and the /etc/inet/hosts and /etc/ethers databases. you should be able to: q q Describe ARP Describe RARP The course map in Figure 4-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. the in. Upon completion of this module. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.1 .

Inc. Destination Ethernet Address Figure 4-3 Source Ethernet Address Type Data Cyclic Redundancy Check Ethernet Frame When two systems need to communicate.Introducing ARP Introducing ARP ARP is the method used to map a 32-bit IP address to a 48-bit Ethernet address. TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer ARP Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 4-2 ARP in the TCP/IP Model Data is encapsulated into an Ethernet frame before it is transmitted. they need each other’s Ethernet addresses. An Ethernet frame includes a destination Ethernet address. Figure 4-3 shows the Ethernet frame. Sun Services. ARP supplies the destination Ethernet address information if the sending system does not already know the destination address. Purpose of ARP The ARP function occurs between the Internet and Network Interface layers of the TCP/IP model. 4-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . Figure 4-2 shows the location of the ARP function in the model. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.

only one address resolution is required.1 sys11 1 192. The ARP request includes the IP address of the sys13 system. 192.1. The sys12 and sys13 systems recognize that the ARP request contains the IP address and the Ethernet address of the sys11 system.1. The broadcast is seen by the sys12 and sys13 systems.3 is 8:00:20:c0:78:73 Figure 4-4 Address Resolution Process 2 For example.1 4-3 .168.168. Inc. and add this information to their ARP tables if it is not already present.168. 2.1. All Rights Reserved.168. an address resolution might be required on each network that the message traverses on the path to its final destination. Revision A.168. If the final destination is on a different network.3? 192.1.3 sys13 192. This type of entry is known as an unsolicited entry because the information was not explicitly requested. Figure 4-4 shows a simplification of the address resolution process. assume that the sys11 system must communicate with the sys13 system: 1. Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing ARP Operation of ARP If the final destination (receiving system) of the message being sent is on the same LAN as the sending system.1.2 sys12 Who is 192. The sys11 system sends an ARP request to the local network by using the Ethernet broadcast address (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff). 3. Sun Services.

Other hosts that see the ARP request also update their ARP table with the IP and Ethernet addresses of the requesting host. This type of entry is a solicited entry because the sys11 system requested the information. 4-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. held in memory. If an Ethernet address does not appear in the ARP table. The default value is 300000. Solicited entries are those for which an Ethernet address was asked specifically by a host. Use the ndd /dev/ip ip_ire_arp_interval command to display the length of time that solicited ARP entries are cached. whereas unsolicited entries are a result of storing information learned about a host that was performing an ARP request on the local network. stores IP addresses and Ethernet addresses. and it is sent using the unicast Ethernet address of the sys11 system (8:0:20:b9:72:23). Inc. The ARP table. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. The default value is 1200000. Use the ndd /dev/arp arp_cleanup_interval command to display the length of time that unsolicited ARP entries are cached. This value is stored in milliseconds and translates to 20 minutes.1 . This value is stored in millisecond and translates to 5 minutes. The sys13 system identifies its own IP address in the ARP request and sends an ARP reply to the sys11 system. ARP Table ARP responses are stored in the ARP table so that the information is available if it is required again in the near future. The ARP reply includes the Ethernet address of the sys13 system. an ARP request is sent to the local network. Revision A. The sys11 system receives the ARP reply and stores the information about sys13 in its ARP table.Introducing ARP 4. 5. This table is read each time a destination Ethernet address is required to prepare an Ethernet frame for transmission.

0.0. Inc. Revision A.0 Flags Phys Addr ----. M is a mapped entry.0 # Mask --------------255. The host mask value applied. This indicates whether the entry refers to a host or the multicast address range.255. q q Phys Addr The physical address for the entry.0.0. P is a published entry. to examine all entries in the ARP table type the command: # arp -a Net to Media Table: IPv4 Device IP Address -----.255. The status of the ARP entry: q q IP Address Mask Flags S is a static entry. Table 4-1 ARP Fields Field Device Description The network device (network interface) for this entry. All Rights Reserved. Static entries do not time out. For example. Incomplete entries contain an IP address only. A system can be configured to publish (advertise) an ARP entry on behalf of systems that cannot respond to ARP requests. Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.-------------------hme0 sys13 hme0 sys11 hme0 224.255. Complete entries map an IP address to an Ethernet address.1 4-5 .Introducing ARP ARP Table Management The arp command displays and controls the ARP table entries that map IP addresses to Ethernet addresses. Sun Services.255.0 multicast entry only.0. This is the interface connected to the network on which this system resides. The IP address or host name of the system to which this entry applies.255 255. This is used for the 224. also known as the MAC or the Ethernet address. U is an unresolved or incomplete entry.0.--------------08:00:20:c0:78:73 SP 08:00:20:b9:72:23 SM 01:00:5e:00:00:00 The fields displayed in the output from the arp -a command are shown in Table 4-1.255 240.

execute the command: # arp -s hostname ethernet_address pub 4-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1. Use a published ARP entry when you want a host to answer an ARP request on behalf of another host. to add a host’s Ethernet address manually to the ARP table. For example. To add a published ARP table entry. type the command: # arp -s 192.1 .168. This is a useful option for heterogeneous environments and for some SLIP or PPP configurations in which some hosts cannot respond to ARP requests for themselves.1.255. Inc. For example: # arp sys11 sys11 (192.Introducing ARP To examine a specific ARP table entry. type the command: # arp hostname where hostname is the name of the host or its decimal-dot notated IP address.168. All Rights Reserved.3) at 8:0:20:c0:78:73 # Information about any flags is also displayed.168. such as a system which is reached through a modem connection. Revision A. For example: # arp sys13 sys13 (192. Sun Services.168. The keyword published refers to the P flag.255 S 01:02:03:04:05:06 Populate an ARP table manually in situations in which the destination device cannot respond to ARP requests.1) at 8:0:20:b9:72:23 permanent published # The keyword permanent relates to the S flag.99 # 255.99 1:2:3:4:5:6 Use the arp and grep commands to search for the new table entry: # arp -a | grep 99 hme0 192.1. To add a static (until reboot) ARP table entry. type the command: # arp -s hostname ethernet_address The preceding command overrides the default time-to-live (TTL) value for ARP table entries by creating a static entry.1.255.

use the snoop utility: # snoop -v -d hme0 arp In a second window.1.1 4-7 . Inc.99) deleted # To view the network traffic generated by an ARP request. All Rights Reserved.99 192.00038 ETHER: Packet size = 42 bytes ETHER: Destination = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.ARP/RARP Frame ----ARP: ARP: Hardware type = 1 Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. For example. execute the command: # arp -f filename Entries in the file can be in the following form: hostname ethernet_address [pub] To delete an ARP table entry. (broadcast) ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:b9:72:23.1.168. Sun Services.168. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 0806 (ARP) ETHER: ARP: ----. to remove the static entry that was added. use the ping utility to contact another system on the network that is not listed currently in the system’s ARP table: # ping sys12 sys12 is alive # Observe the output from the snoop utility: Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) ETHER: ----.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 1 arrived at 13:47:30.Introducing ARP To add ARP table entries from a file. type the command: # arp -d 192.99 (192. execute the command: # arp -d hostname where hostname is the name of the host or its decimal-dot notated IP address.168.1.

Revision A.168. All Rights Reserved.00038 ETHER: Packet size = 60 bytes ETHER: Destination = 8:0:20:b9:72:23. sys11 ARP: <Control>-C# 4-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 0806 (ARP) ETHER: ARP: ----.1.2. sys11 Target hardware address = ? Target protocol address = 192.168.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 2 arrived at 13:47:30.Introducing ARP ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP) Length of hardware address = 6 bytes Length of protocol address = 4 bytes Opcode 1 (ARP Request) Sender’s hardware address = 8:0:20:b9:72:23 Sender’s protocol address = 192. Sun ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7. sys12 ETHER: ----.1.2.168.1. Inc.168.1.1. Sun Services. sys12 ARP: Target hardware address = 8:0:20:b9:72:23 ARP: Target protocol address = 192.ARP/RARP Frame ----ARP: ARP: Hardware type = 1 ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP) ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes ARP: Length of protocol address = 4 bytes ARP: Opcode 2 (ARP Reply) ARP: Sender’s hardware address = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 ARP: Sender’s protocol address = 192.1 .

00053 ETHER: Packet size = 64 bytes ETHER: Destination = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff. responds with the booting system’s IP address.rarpd).1 4-9 . and that also has appropriately configured files or network naming service information. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Any system on the subnet running the RARP server daemon (in. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 8035 (RARP) ETHER: ARP: ----. Each network boot file has a name that is based on the IP address of each client. RARP operations include a request and a reply. Diskless clients and JumpStart™ software clients depend upon another host or server from which to retrieve a network boot file.ARP/RARP Frame ----ARP: ARP: Hardware type = 1 ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP) Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Operation of RARP A system sends a RARP request to the Ethernet broadcast address when the system is booting and does not have any way to determine what its IP address will be without requesting the information over the network.Introducing RARP Introducing RARP RARP is the method used to map a 48-bit Ethernet address to a 32-bit IP address. The RARP request is reported as a REVARP request by the snoop utility. Sun Services. To request the correct network boot file. Inc. For example: # snoop -v -d hme0 rarp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) ETHER: ----. (broadcast) ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7. each client uses RARP to obtain its IP address at boot time.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 1 arrived at 12:52:11. Purpose of RARP RARP is one of the protocols that a system can use when it needs to determine its IP address.

168. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 8035 (RARP) ETHER: ARP: ----.1 . the OpenBoot™ PROM is configured to use RARP as the network boot strategy.0.2. For example: # snoop -v -d hme0 rarp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) ETHER: ----.1.00053 ETHER: Packet size = 42 bytes ETHER: Destination = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7. type the command: ok boot net:rarp 4-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.ARP/RARP Frame ----ARP: ARP: Hardware type = 1 ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP) ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes ARP: Length of protocol address = 4 bytes ARP: Opcode 4 (REVARP Reply) ARP: Sender’s hardware address = 8:0:20:b9:72:23 ARP: Sender’s protocol address = 192. Sun ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:b9:72:23.0. OLD-BROADCAST Target hardware address = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 Target protocol address = ? <Control>-C# The RARP reply is reported as a REVARP reply by the snoop utility. All Rights Reserved.168.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 1 arrived at 12:52:19. sys11 ARP: Target hardware address = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 ARP: Target protocol address = 192. Inc.Introducing RARP ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes Length of protocol address = 4 bytes Opcode 3 (REVARP Request) Sender’s hardware address = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 Sender’s protocol address = 0. Revision A. To force a system to perform a RARP boot.0. Sun Services. sys12 ARP: <Control>-C# By default.1.

rarpd RARP daemon. The in. which is needed to respond to RARP requests.d/ S15nfs. the in. The host name is resolved to an IP address by using the /etc/inet/hosts file (or corresponding network-naming service database) on the server. The resulting IP address is returned to the system that made the RARP request.rarpd RARP Daemon The in.rarpd RARP daemon was started by the /etc/rc3. The /etc/ethers and the /etc/inet/hosts Databases The /etc/ethers and the /etc/inet/hosts files (or the corresponding network-naming service databases) support the Ethernet address-to-IP address relationship.server start script if either the /tftpboot directory or the /rplboot directory existed.rarpd daemon queries the /etc/ethers file (or corresponding network-naming service database) for the host name of the system that is performing the RARP request.Introducing RARP The in.rarpd RARP daemon must be running (as the root user) on systems that provide RARP responses to requests. Sun Services. Revision A. The /etc/ethers file contains the Ethernet address and corresponding host name for a system. Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the /etc/ethers file is created on boot servers only. View the /etc/ethers file with any text viewer.conf file. Note – Before the Solaris 10 OS.server start script. Before the Solaris 9 OS.1 4-11 . All Rights Reserved.rarpd RARP daemon was started by the /etc/rc3. Inc. for example: # cat /etc/ethers 8:0:20:c0:78:73 sys13 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 sys12 # Note – Usually.d/S16boot. The svc:/network/rarp SMF service enables the in. is specified in the /etc/nsswitch. Whether the boot server uses the local /etc/ethers and /etc/inet/hosts files or the corresponding naming service database. the in.

Exercise: Reviewing ARPs and RARPs Exercise: Reviewing ARPs and RARPs In this exercise. you become more familiar with the ARP table and the arp command. Be sure to write. and you view the ARP transactions with the snoop utility. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. Revision A. You force systems to perform ARP requests. 4-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Work with other students to make sure that you all can see the expected results in the next part of this exercise. in the space provided. any commands that you use during the exercise so that you can use this exercise as a reference after you have completed this course. Inc. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.1 .

start the snoop utility in verbose summary mode to filter out all but the broadcast frames. In another window. Inc. _____________________________________________________________ Explain why the table contents contain the entries reported by the arp command. display the current contents of the ARP table on your host. In a terminal window. _____________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________ 6. Revision A.Exercise: Reviewing ARPs and RARPs Tasks Perform the following steps: 1.0. Issue the ping command to a host in your local network that is not currently in your ARP table. Use the arp command to delete all host entries except for the multicast entry (224. ____________________________________________________________ 7. Observe the new ARP entry for the host with which your system just communicated. Examine the ARP table again. Why did you receive this result? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Open a terminal on your local host. Sun Services. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ To communicate with another host. All Rights Reserved. _____________________________________________________________ 5. ____________________________________________________________ 8. Examine the output from the snoop utility. Use the ping command to communicate with a host that is not in your system’s ARP table.x) and your host’s own entries. _____________________________________________________________ 4.0. and check the contents of your ARP table for another host in your subnet that is not currently listed.1 4-13 . 2. the system must first learn the Ethernet address of that host.

c. a. b. Delete the ARP table entry for the host that you previously used. Inc. Use the ping command. Start the snoop utility in verbose summary mode to filter out all but the ARP frames. and attempt to contact the host again. Quit the snoop utility. and attempt to contact the host again. Stop the snoop utility.Exercise: Reviewing ARPs and RARPs 9. a. ____________________________________________________________ 10. Did you see the ARP request? _______________________________________________________ Why? _______________________________________________________ Did you see the ARP response? _______________________________________________________ Why? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 14. Examine the output from the snoop utility. Did you see the ARP request? _______________________________________________________ Why? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 16. ____________________________________________________________ 11. d. Use the ping command. ____________________________________________________________ 4-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . Revision A. ____________________________________________________________ 12. ____________________________________________________________ 15. All Rights Reserved. Examine the output from the snoop utility. Sun Services. ____________________________________________________________ 13. b.

Inc. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. Sun Services. Revision A.1 4-15 . issues.

--------------08:00:20:c0:78:73 SP 08:00:20:b9:72:23 SM 01:00:5e:00:00:00 Explain why the table contents contain the entries reported by the arp command. # arp -a Net to Media Table: IPv4 Device IP Address -----.255.255.0. Issue the ping command to a host in your local network that is not currently in your ARP table. # arp -a Net to Media Table: IPv4 Device IP Address -----.255 255. published entries and multicast entries by default.255.-------------------hme0 sys13 hme0 sys12 hme0 sys11 hme0 224.255 255.0.255.0 # Mask --------------255.255. the system must first learn the Ethernet address of that host. an entry is present.0 # Mask --------------255.255 255. Revision A. Observe the new ARP entry for the host with which your system just communicated.255.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. All Rights Reserved. Inc.0 Flags Phys Addr ----.255.255.-------------------hme0 sys13 hme0 sys11 hme0 224. In a terminal window. Locally configured interfaces have their own static.255.--------------08:00:20:c0:78:73 08:00:20:90:b5:c7 SP 08:00:20:b9:72:23 SM 01:00:5e:00:00:00 4-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0.0 Flags Phys Addr ----.0.0. If the system has previously contacted another system on the LAN.255 240. Sun Services.0.255. # ping sys12 sys12 is alive # 3. Examine the ARP table again.255 240.1 .0. display the current contents of the ARP table on your host. To communicate with another host.0. Unsolicited entries generated by ARP requests from other hosts might also be present. 2.

0. Examine the output from the snoop utility. In another window. Use the ping command to communicate with a host that is not in your system’s ARP table.1. resulting in the broadcast requests that are observed in the snoop utility’s output. # ping sys12 sys12 is alive # 8. Open a terminal on your local host.255. size = 42 bytes sys11 -> (broadcast) ARP C Who is 192.0.0.----.1.0.0.168.168. # arp sys12 # arp sys13 # Use the arp command to delete all host entries except for the multicast entry (224.255. Sun Services. # arp -a Net to Device -----hme0 hme0 # Media Table: IPv4 IP Address Mask Flags Phys Addr -------------------. Recall that ARP replies are unicasts. All Rights Reserved. # snoop -V broadcast Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) 6. Revision A.1 4-17 .255 SP 08:00:20:b9:72:23 224.0 240.--------------.2) deleted -d sys13 (192.168.2.0. -d sys12 (192. which explains why the ARP reply and the ICMP traffic were not observed. Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Why did you receive this result? The following is observed in the terminal running the snoop utility: ________________________________ sys11 -> (broadcast) ETHER Type=0806 (ARP).--------------sys11 255. start the snoop utility in verbose summary mode to filter out all but the broadcast frames. The snoop utility is filtering on broadcasts.1.0 SM 01:00:5e:00:00:00 7.x) and your host’s own entries. and check the contents of your ARP table for another host in your subnet that is not currently listed.3) deleted 5.Exercise Solutions 4. Inc. sys12 ? An address resolution was required because the host did not have the destination host address information in its ARP table.

2. Press the Control+C key sequence to stop the snoop utility.1.168.2. Did you see the ARP response? Yes. Yes. Sun Services. c.Exercise Solutions 9. The ARP responses are unicast but are still ARP packets.2) deleted # 12. Examine the output from the snoop utility. b. ________________________________ sys11 -> (broadcast) ETHER sys11 -> (broadcast) ARP C ________________________________ sys13 -> sys11 ETHER sys13 -> sys11 ARP R a.168. All Rights Reserved. Inc. sys12 is 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 Stop the snoop utility. size = 60 bytes 192. Why? The snoop utility is filtering out all but the ARP packets.1. Use the ping command. Why? The snoop utility is filtering out all but ARP packets. # ping sys12 sys12 is alive # Type=0806 (ARP). Start the snoop utility in verbose summary mode to filter out all but the ARP frames. sys12 ? Type=0806 (ARP). Control-C# 10. Use the ping command. # snoop -V arp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) 11. # ping sys12 sys12 is alive # 13.168. d. and attempt to contact the host again. Revision A.1.1 . Delete the ARP table entry for the host that you previously used. and attempt to contact the host again. Did you see the ARP request? 4-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # arp -d sys12 sys12 (192. size = 42 bytes Who is 192. 14.

1 4-19 . therefore. The snoop utility filters out all but ARP packets. Why? The system resolved the destination Ethernet address by using its local ARP table. Press the Control+C key sequence. an ARP request was unnecessary. Sun Services. b.Exercise Solutions 15. Revision A. which explains why you did not see any ARP traffic resulting from the ping command. No output is seen from the snoop utility. Control-C# Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Did you see the ARP request? No. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Quit the snoop utility. a. Examine the output from the snoop utility. 16.

.

including the purpose of IP. Upon completion of this module. Additionally.1 . Revision A.Module 5 Configuring IP Objectives This module describes the features of IP. All Rights Reserved. you should be able to: q q q q q q Describe the Internet layer protocols Describe the IP datagram Describe the IP address types Describe subnetting and VLSMs Describe the interface configuration files Administer logical interfaces 5-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the IP datagram. This module also describes subnetting and the variable length subnet mask (VLSM). Sun Services. Inc. this module explains the purpose of interface configuration files and describes how to configure logical interfaces. and IP address types.

1 .Objectives The course map in Figure 5-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Figure 5-1 Course Map 5-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Inc.

1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. The upper limit on the amount of data in the Ethernet frame is defined by the MTU of the Network Interface layer.168. based on the MTU of the interface through which the IP datagrams must pass.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1. ICMP.Introducing the Internet Layer Protocols Introducing the Internet Layer Protocols IP is implemented at the Internet layer and is documented in RFC 791.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. enables systems to send control or error messages to other systems. and time exceeded.BROADCAST. redirect. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) specifies that fragmentation occur at each router. To view the MTU of an interface.RUNNING.0. Message types that are sent include echo request.LOOPBACK. router advertisement. router solicitation. Application data must fit in the data portion of an Ethernet frame.RUNNING. fragments are created as units of data that are broken into smaller units for transmission. Inc. If the amount of application data is larger than the MTU.168.1 5-3 .MULTICAST. IP provides: q q Connectionless delivery of datagrams on the network Fragmentation and reassembly of data to accommodate data links that implement different sizes of MTUs A companion protocol for IP. All Rights Reserved.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services.MULTICAST. Purpose of IP IP is provided by a loadable kernel module and has two main functions.1. destination unreachable. Revision A.0. type the ifconfig -a command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. These messages provide a communication mechanism between the IP layer on one system and the IP layer on another system. echo reply.

This communication can include a control message.1 . ICMP Message Types Some common ICMP message types include: q q q q q q Echo request and reply Destination unreachable Router advertisement Router solicitation Redirect Time exceeded Note – To obtain supported ICMP message type information. such as Network is unreachable. Inc. such as a routing redirect.h file. Revision A. Figure 5-2 shows an ICMP header when the destination is unreachable. or an error message. All Rights Reserved. Network administrators and system utilities. For example. such as the traceroute command. The ICMP header appears after the IP header and varies depending on the type of ICMP message. use this error messaging feature as a diagnostic tool. Sun Services. 2 0 1 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Type Code Unused Checksum Figure 5-2 ICMP Destination Unreachable Header Template Format 5-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing the Internet Layer Protocols Purpose of ICMP ICMP enables IP on one system to send control and error messages to IP on other systems. ICMP messages are defined in RFC 792. view the /usr/include/netinet/ip_icmp.

1 5-5 . Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. Revision A. 0 2 1 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Type Identifier Code Checksum Sequence Number Figure 5-4 ICMP Echo Request or Echo Reply Message Header Template Format Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing the Internet Layer Protocols Figure 5-3 shows an ICMP header for a redirect message. 0 2 1 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Type Code Gateway Internet Address Checksum Figure 5-3 ICMP Redirect Message Header Template Format Figure 5-4 shows an ICMP header for an echo request or echo reply message.

Revision A. Inc. Sun Services. The header also contains information about which protocol will receive data from IP.Introducing the IP Datagram Introducing the IP Datagram IP datagrams are the basic units of information that are passed across a TCP/IP network. The datagram header contains information. " *EJI Versio n Heade Lengt r h Datag Time t o " *EJI " *EJI Type o Servic f e entifie r " *EJI " *EJI " *EJI Datag ram L ram Id " *EJI ength ent Of fset " *EJI Live Flags ol e IP A Protoc Fragm Check Sourc Destin IP Op tions a sum ddres s ation I P Add ress uired nd Pa dding If Req Figure 5-5 IPv4 Datagram Header Fields 5-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. TCP. All Rights Reserved. The TTL field determines how many routers or hosts can process a datagram before the datagram must be discarded. such as the source IP address and the destination IP address. and ICMP. These protocols are UDP. IP Datagram Header Fields Figure 5-5 shows the IPv4 datagram header fields.1 .

Optional information and padding. The location of the fragment in the overall set of application data. The Transport layer protocol to which the data in this datagram is delivered. The maximum number of routers through which the datagram can pass. This value must be at least 20 bytes The specified quality of service. Fragment offset Time to live Protocol Checksum Source IP address Destination IP address IP options and padding Refer to RFC 791 for detailed information about the header fields. The value assigned by the sender to make reassembly of fragments possible for the receiving system. The length of the entire datagram. Information related to fragmentation. The source system’s IPv4 address. for example 4 (IPv4). Revision A. The length of a datagram header. if required.Introducing the IP Datagram The fields in the datagram header are described in Table 5-1.1 5-7 . Table 5-1 IP Datagram Header Fields Field Version Header length Type of service Datagram length Datagram identifier Flags Description The version of the protocol. The header checksum used to verify that the header is not damaged. measured in bytes. All Rights Reserved. Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. These flags define whether the datagram can be fragmented and whether the datagram is part of a message that was fragmented. The destination system’s IPv4 address. Inc. Sun Services.

1 . 5-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.Introducing the IP Datagram IP Datagram Payload The IP datagram payload can contain any one of the following: a UDP datagram. All Rights Reserved. Inc. a TCP segment. or an Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) message. Sun Services. an ICMP message.

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the Class A network 10.255.0. Refer to RFC 1918 for additional details. This addressing scheme is called classful IPv4 addressing. and Class C. or octets. All Rights Reserved.777. Revision A. Class A Addresses Class A addresses are for very large networks and provide 16.31).102.255 for private networks. Figure 5-6 shows the beginning of the address in binary format.255.0.1 5-9 . Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.214 host addresses.113 Class A Unicast Addresses If the first bit is 0. and the remaining 24 bits define the host number. In addition.2. They are normally represented as four dot-separated.0.0 –10. Unicast Addresses Unicast addresses identify a single interface on a network. These addresses are not routed in the Internet. Unicast addresses are used when a system needs to communicate with another system. 0 1 . This makes possible up to 128 Class A networks.0.Introducing IP Address Types Introducing IP Address Types IPv4 addresses are 32 bits in length. Inc. 8-bit fields.127 Figure 5-6 Example: 10. The value of the high-order bits (first three bits) determines which portion of the IPv4 address is the network number and which portion is the host number. 129.0.150. Each IPv4 address identifies a network and a unique interface on that network. There are three classes of unicast addresses: Class A. that bit and the next seven bits define the network number.182.0 address range cannot be used because 127.1 is reserved for the loopback interface.0. Class B. Sun Services. each represented by a decimal number between 0–255 (for example. the 127.

those three and the next 21 bits define the network number. Figure 5-7 shows the beginning of the address in binary format. The IANA has reserved the Class C networks 192.191 0 .0. Class C Addresses Class C addresses are for small-sized and medium-sized networks and provide 254 host addresses. This makes possible 16. Figure 5-8 shows the beginning of the address in binary format.0.255.255.097. These addresses are not routed in the Internet.227.0–192.255 Figure 5-7 Example: 129. Sun Services.13 Class C Unicast Addresses If the first three bits are 110. Refer to RFC 1918 for additional details. This makes possible up to 2. and the remaining 16 bits define the host number. The IANA has reserved the Class B networks 172. 10 128 .254. Revision A.255 for private networks.255 for private networks.168.Introducing IP Address Types Class B Addresses Class B addresses are for large networks and provide 65.152 Class C networks. Inc.384 Class B networks.1 . those two bits and the next 14 bits define the network number.255 Figure 5-8 0 . These addresses are not routed in the Internet.223 0 .168. 5-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.150.9. All Rights Reserved. 110 192 .16.2 Class B Unicast Addresses If the first two bits are 10.534 host addresses. Refer to RFC 1918 for additional details. and the remaining eight bits define the host number.31.255 Example: 192.0–172.

which makes the first field an integer value between 224 and 239. Figure 5-9 shows the beginning of a multicast address in binary format. Inc. A broadcast means that data is sent to all of the hosts on the LAN. an IPv4 multicast address of 224. The remaining 28 bits comprise a group identification number for a specific multicast group.239 0 . In the Solaris 10 OS. The low-order 23 bits of the IPv4 multicast address are placed into the low-order 23 bits of the Ethernet multicast address. while a Class A. The IPv4 multicast address maps to an Ethernet multicast address so that the network interface listens for a multicast traffic.255 0 . An IPv4 multicast address is a destination address for one or more hosts.255.0.1 maps to 01:00:5e:00:00:01.Introducing IP Address Types Broadcast Addresses A broadcast address is the address that reaches all systems on a particular network. Packets that are sent to a multicast address are received by all interfaces that are associated with the multicast address.255 0 . Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Therefore.0.168. An example of a broadcast address is 192. A multicast address identifies interfaces that belong to a specific multicast group. Revision A.0. B.1 5-11 .1. the address is a multicast address. the default broadcast address is an address that has a host number of all ones when represented in binary. Multicast Addresses Multicasting is a very efficient way to send large amounts of data to many systems at the same time. or C address is an address for an individual host. All Rights Reserved.255 Example: 224.1. You use the ifconfig command to configure an interface’s broadcast address.8 Figure 5-9 Multicasting If the first four bits are 1110. Sun Services. 1110 224 .

Each router interface must be on a unique network and must have a unique address. Two-level Hierarchy Network Number Host Number Three-level Hierarchy Network Number Figure 5-10 Subnetting Subnet Number Host Number 5-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Subnetting and VLSMs are two ways of dividing an assigned network address into multiple. Inc. All Rights Reserved.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM Introducing Subnetting and VLSM The Internet is composed of many routers that interconnect different networks. which is to divide the standard host number field into two parts: the subnet number and the host number on that subnet.1 . or subnets. smaller networks for use within an organization. These smaller networks are referred to as subnetworks. Sun Services. Revision A. therefore reducing contention for network bandwidth Secure or limit access to a subnet Enable localization of specific network protocols to a subnet Permit the association of a subnet with a specific geography or a department Enable administrative work to be broken into logical units q q q q Figure 5-10 shows the basic idea of subnetting. Subnetting You can divide a network into subnets to do the following: q Isolate network traffic within local subnets. Assigning different IP addresses to different networks is required because of the IP addressing scheme required by routers.

Inc. The bit values are associated with either the network number or the host number as follows: 1 0 The corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the network number. In a subnet environment.0.1 5-13 . Sun Services.0. The netmask for a Class A network is 255.0.255.0.0 A netmask which has the first twenty bits set to 1 and the last twelve bits set to 0 is written: 255. Each IP address has a netmask associated with it.255. The netmask for a Class C network is 255.240.255. you need to be able to determine how much of the IP address represents the network and how much of the IP address represents the host number. The netmask for a Class B network is 255. Each bit in the netmask is used to state whether the corresponding bit in the IP address forms part of the network number or the host number. A netmask is 32 bits in length.0.255. Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 There are standard netmasks for the three classes of unicast address. The netmask is the mechanism by which this is determined. The corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host number. Netmasks are written by using the same decimal dot-separated notation that is used for IP addresses. a netmask which has the first sixteen bits set to 1 and the last sixteen bits set to 0 is written: 255.0. For example.0. All Rights Reserved.255. Revision A.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM Netmasks An IP address contains both the network on which the Solaris OS is located and the host number on the network assigned to that system.

255. (Netmasks always create a total number of networks that is a power of 2.0. you can do so by changing the netmask.534 hosts.16.255 172. If you choose to divide this single network into.16.64. The network numbers and broadcast addresses of the eight new networks are listed in Table 5-2.168.255. This gives a single network of 65.223.255. Inc.16.16.255.16.1 .0.255 172.0.0 172.0.16.0. Because the number 8 is the number 2 to the power 3.16.255 172. This netmask creates eight new. for example.16.255. you first need to know what power of 2 the number 8 is.) The power of 2 value determines how many extra 1s are required in the netmask. consider the Class B network 172.0.16.160.224. smaller networks.159. The default netmask for this network is 255.255 5-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM For example. to create 8 separate networks you need three additional 1s in the netmask. The default netmask value (in binary) is: 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000 The additional 1s are placed in the netmask next to the existing 1s to give: 11111111 11111111 11100000 00000000 Written in decimal format.0 172. Revision A.255 172.127.0 Broadcast Address 172.0 172. each with 8190 hosts.168. and the broadcast address is 172.168.128.255 172.255 172.16.96.16. smaller networks. this is 255.16. Sun Services.16. Table 5-2 Netmask Network Addresses Network Number 172. eight smaller networks.255 172.192. By using a different netmask.168. To do this.32.224.31.0 172.191.63.0 172.0 172.16. it is possible to divide this single network in to more. All Rights Reserved.0 172.95.

Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. A contiguous subnet mask is one that uses only contiguous. Revision A. RFC 950 recommends the use of contiguous subnet masks only.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM Contiguous Netmasks Each bit in a netmask is independent of any other bit. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. It is possible to have netmasks in which the 1s and 0s are interleaved. For example: 11111111 11111111 11111111 01001010 Using noncontiguous subnet masks makes administration of the network more difficult and should be avoided if at all possible. but this is not recommended. high-order bits (that is. nothing prevents the use of noncontiguous subnet masks. Inc. For example: 11111111 11111111 11111111 11110000 Noncontiguous Netmasks Although RFC 950 recommends the use of contiguous subnet masks only. the netmask consists of a sequences of 1s followed by a sequence of 0s).1 5-15 .

The default behavior is to apply the appropriate class of netmask depending upon the address. When configuring an interface on the command line by using the ifconfig command.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. hexadecimal value preceded by 0x A + (plus) sign A name listed in the /etc/inet/networks file or equivalent naming service database For example: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # 5-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.0.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # ifconfig hme0 down # ifconfig hme0 netmask 255. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.168.1 netmask fffff000 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.1 .BROADCAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Inc.0.MULTICAST.255.168.1.168.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING.168. Sun Services.0. but it is possible to specify a netmask other than the default. The netmask argument is followed by the netmask value.RUNNING.0.1. specified as: q q q q Dot-separated decimals A single.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM Configuring the Netmask A netmask is configured on each network interface when an IP address is assigned.1.240.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.0 # ifconfig hme0 up # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.RUNNING. use the netmask argument to set the netmask for an interface.1.LOOPBACK.

RUNNING. When configuring network interfaces. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.168. Sun Services.LOOPBACK.BROADCAST.RUNNING.1. This method uses the ifconfig command to configure the network interfaces. the ifconfig command can be supplied with a netmask as an argument.168.RUNNING.MULTICAST.1 netmask fffff000 broadcast 192. Note – Before the Solaris 10 OS. the broadcast address must also be changed to reflect the new network.168.168.0.sh in the Solaris 9 OS while earlier releases were configured as part of the S30rootusr.LOOPBACK. Inc.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.BROADCAST. the network interfaces were configured at boot time during the execution of the /etc/rcS.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM The broadcast address for an interface is related to the netmask.MULTICAST.0.1. If the netmask is changed.15.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # The /etc/inet/netmasks File The svc:/network/physical SMF service configures the network interfaces at system boot.1.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.d/S30network. Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.1 netmask fffff000 broadcast 192.0.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. or it can determine which netmask to use based upon system information.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. The simplest way to do this is to use the broadcast + argument to the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1 5-17 .1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.0.sh script.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # ifconfig hme0 down # ifconfig hme0 broadcast + # ifconfig hme0 up # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.

For every network that is subnetted. an individual line is entered into this file. Inc. The /etc/netmasks file is linked symbolically to the /etc/inet/netmasks file. The /etc/inet/netmasks file enables the permanent assignment of a netmask. The ifconfig command consults the /etc/inet/netmasks file (or equivalent naming-service database) if no netmask is specified as an argument. Sun Services. 5-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.1 . Each entry in the /etc/inet/netmasks file contains the netmask definition of a network number. Revision A.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM Netmasks for particular networks can be defined in the /etc/inet/netmasks file.

Revision A.0 255.255.1 netmask fffff000 broadcast 192.g: # # 128.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.255.LOOPBACK.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.MULTICAST.RUNNING.0.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # ifconfig hme0 down # ifconfig hme0 netmask + broadcast + # ifconfig hme0 up # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1.15.168.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.255.0.MULTICAST. e.LOOPBACK.1 5-19 .0.168.0.255.168. Inc. # # network-number netmask # # The term network-number refers to a number obtained from the Internet Network # Information Center. # # Both the network-number and the netmasks are specified in # "decimal dot" notation.1.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM For example: # cat /etc/inet/netmasks # # The netmasks file associates Internet Protocol (IP) address # masks with IP network numbers.1.0 # The netmask value in the netmask file can be specified when configuring the network interface by using the + (plus) argument with the netmask argument: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.RUNNING.1.0.168.0 255. Sun Services.168.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.BROADCAST.BROADCAST.RUNNING.0 # 192. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.32.

254.0 12.253.3.0 12.3. Sun Services.3. Figure 5-11 shows these additional subnet and host addresses.0 12.0.254. Revision A.3.3.3.253.254.0.3.3. which can significantly reduce the amount of routing information at the backbone level within an organization’s routing domain. 12.0 12.0.254. All Rights Reserved.0 12. Multiple subnet masks permit route aggregation.0.0 12.0 12. 12. 12.0.0 255.3.64 .1 .2.0 12.0 12.3.254.0 12. .32 12.1.224 Note – VLSM subnet masks’ syntax has been recognized since the Solaris 2. .0 . When an IP network is assigned more than one subnet mask.0. it is considered a network with VLSMs because the extended-network numbers have different lengths at each subnet level.255. q An example of VLSM entries in the /etc/inet/netmasks file is: 12.3.1.252.0 12. .255.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM VLSM RFC 950 specifies how an IP network could use subnet masks. .0.254.0.0 .0 12.254. Two of the main advantages to assign more than one subnet mask to a given IP network number are: q Multiple subnet masks permit more efficient use of an organization’s assigned IP address space. Inc.0 12.0. .0.3.2.255. .0.3.192 12.3.255.0 12.254.6 OS.252.0 255.255.3.0. 16-bit Subnet Mask 24-bit Subnet Mask 27-bit Subnet Mask 12.224 Figure 5-11 Subnet Mask Addresses 5-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 255.

it locks the organization into a fixed number of fixed-sized subnets.0 yields additional subnet and host addresses. Inc. For example.1 5-21 . All Rights Reserved. Revision A.255. Sun Services. Figure 5-12 shows the breakdown of the number of networks and the number of hosts as a result of a fixed subnet mask being applied to the address.252.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM One of the major problems with supporting only a single subnet mask across a given network number is that once the mask is selected.     1024 – Two Hosts Per Subnet 64 Subnets Figure 5-12 Breakdown of Hosts and Subnets Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. a Class B subnet that is masked with 255.

sh script reads the /etc/hostname. Note – In the Solaris 9 OS. Additional interfaces can be configured by creating additional hostname.interface File The svc:/network/physical SMF service reads the /etc/hostname. This configuration must be performed manually each time the system is restarted for any reason because changes made at the command line are not stored in configuration files. This file is referenced when the /etc/nsswitch. The /etc/hosts file is linked symbolically to the /etc/inet/hosts file. which is the name of the system.Introducing the Interface Configuration Files Introducing the Interface Configuration Files System administrators often configure system interfaces from the command line so that the changes are made immediately without having to reboot the system. At least one /etc/hostname. sys11.conf file has the files keyword for host resolution.interface file. Inc.interface file must exist on the local system for each interface to be configured. In earlier releases of Solaris.interface file.interface file.hme0 and it contains at least one line. This file is also referenced at system startup when the interfaces are being configured. The /etc/inet/hosts File The /etc/inet/hosts file contains the IPv4 addresses and the host names of the interfaces on your system. Revision A. These files must contain at least one entry: the host name or the IPv4 address that is associated with the network interface. All Rights Reserved.sh startup script reads the /etc/hostname. Configuration files enable systems to automatically configure interfaces during the boot process.interface files manually.1 . the file is called /etc/hostname. For example. The service assigns an IPv4 address on the local system for each IPv4 interface. if the hme0 interface is the primary network interface for a system called sys11. Sun Services. the S30rootusr. The /etc/hostname. 5-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.d/S30network. the /etc/rcS.

0.0.Introducing the Interface Configuration Files An example of an /etc/inet/hosts file is: # more /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table # 127. Inc.0. the reserved network address that supports interprocess communication by permitting the local system to send packets to itself.interface file Note – Versions of the Solaris OS before Solaris 10 OS required the /etc/net/*/hosts files to be edited when changing a system’s host name. Revision A.0. The /etc/nodename File The /etc/nodename file contains one entry: the host name of the local system.1 is the loopback address. Editing these files is not required in the Solaris 10 OS. the following files must be edited to reflect the new host name: q q q The /etc/inet/hosts file The /etc/nodename file The /etc/hostname.1 sys11 loghost # In this example.168. Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 for the local host.0. If a system requires a host name change. Every system on a TCP/IP network must use the IP address 127. This file establishes the canonical name for the system for applications. the IPv4 address 127. For example. All Rights Reserved. on system sys11. the /etc/nodename file contains the entry sys11. Sun Services.1.1 5-23 .1 localhost 192.0.

5-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. including IP addresses that are in different IP classes.Administering Logical Interfaces Administering Logical Interfaces Logical interfaces are also referred to as virtual interfaces. physical network interface to have many different IP addresses. Sun Services. The ndd command can be used to change this value up to a maximum of 8192. You can configure a single. This is one way in which a single system can appear to be multiple systems. Revision A. Example scenarios in which logical interfaces might be applied include: q q q Systems that use high-availability failover Web servers that require multiple web site URLs Servers that run several applications which must appear as separate systems Some advantages of logical interfaces are: q q Lower cost – You do not need to purchase additional Ethernet cards. Easier to back up and administer – Backup and maintenance can be done on one host instead of on several hosts. Logical interfaces do not have to exist on the same subnet as the primary interface. Inc. Introducing Logical Interfaces Each logical interface is assigned a unique IP address and a unique host name.1 . To view the number of logical addresses that can be configured. All Rights Reserved. type the command: # ndd /dev/ip ip_addrs_per_if 256 # This represents the physical interface and a further 255 logical interfaces.

168. Inc.1. which can be a lengthy process when a large number of interfaces are configured. Revision A.1 5-25 .com Web Server Configured With Multiple IP Addresses on a Single Ethernet Interface hme0 192.1.sys99. q Physical network interfaces have names of the form: driver-name physical-unit-number For example: hme0 qfe3 Logical interfaces have names of the form: driver-name physical-unit-number:logical-unit-number For example: hme0:1 qfe3:1 Figure 5-13 shows how a system with one interface can appear as two different systems.com hme0:1 192.com www. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.1.Administering Logical Interfaces Some disadvantages of logical interfaces are: q Heavy network load – Having many logical addresses tied to a specific Ethernet interface can cause a network performance bottleneck. Web Server With One IP Address hme0 192.sys11.sys11.168.168.1 www.1 www.99 Figure 5-13 System Interfaces Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Slower system start – Each logical interface must be configured on system boot.

In this example. Sun Services. it has a default netmask of ffffff00 (255.1: # ifconfig hme0:1 plumb 192.169. All Rights Reserved.169.MULTICAST. and it has a broadcast address of 192.168.0.168. you can configure logical interfaces that are associated with the physical interface by using separate plumb or addif options to the ifconfig command. use the ifconfig command.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.RUNNING.1.255.255. and is configured as up by the ifconfig command.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.0).RUNNING.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1.1.LOOPBACK.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.169.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=1000843<UP.LOOPBACK. while logical interfaces use the physical interface’s index number.1.1 up # To view the changes made to the interface.168.RUNNING.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # To configure logical network interface 1 on the hme0 physical interface.0.1.1.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Notice that the index number is unique for each physical interface. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. 5-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.255 # The hme0:1 interface is now configured.BROADCAST.RUNNING. the logical interface is assigned an IP address of 192.1.169. To view the current configuration of the interfaces on the system before adding a logical interface. You can assign different values for the netmask and broadcast address if you choose to.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Revision A.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. Inc.1.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.255.RUNNING.168.0.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1 .Administering Logical Interfaces Configuring Logical Interfaces After a physical interface is plumbed (it has STREAMS set up for IP and is open).0.169. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1.

1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Inc.55.RUNNING.55.1.168.255 # The hme0:1 interface is added and is functional. which causes the command to use the next available logical interface. Revision A.BROADCAST.168. # init 6 # To view the changes made to the interface. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. use the following command: # ifconfig hme0 addif 192.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.55.168.RUNNING.1 5-27 .0.1.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.RUNNING.168.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Sun Services. to add the next logical interface with an IP address of 192.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.55. The ifconfig command includes the addif option.1 up Then reboot the system to configure the logical interface.MULTICAST.1.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.55. Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.LOOPBACK.hme0 file so that its contents are similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname.168.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=1000843<UP.168.1 up Created new logical interface hme0:2 # The same results can be achieved by editing the /etc/hostname.Administering Logical Interfaces The addif Option It can be tedious to increment the logical interface number each time you add logical interfaces.MULTICAST. For example.hme0 sys11 up addif 192.0. All Rights Reserved.

use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. 5-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.BROADCAST. but you do not know to which logical interface the address is assigned. When you know the logical interface’s IP address.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1. use the ifconfig command with the down and unplumb options. Revision A. Sun Services. type the following: # ifconfig hme0:1 down unplumb # To verify that the interface is removed.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. you will lose your connectivity to the system. # ifconfig hme0 removeif 192. Use the down option before the unplumb option to make sure that the interface is shut down in the correct order and that no data is lost.RUNNING.168. For example.LOOPBACK.Administering Logical Interfaces Unconfiguring Logical Interfaces To unconfigure a logical interface. use the ifconfig command with the removeif option. All Rights Reserved.1 # Caution – If you are logged in remotely and are using this interface for your connection.1 . to unconfigure the hme0:1 interface.0.0.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. For example.1.55.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # The hme0:1 interface is no longer available.RUNNING.168.MULTICAST. Inc.168.

2. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed.1 5-29 . Configure the interface to use a Class C broadcast address.18/24.2. and a broadcast address of 172.18.1.1. Revision A. For example.255.1.255. you define logical interfaces in two ways: by explicitly naming the logical interface and by using a command to automatically add the next available logical interface. q q Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Task Summary In this exercise.0.18. The /24 means that the first 24 bits of the address represent the network address. Inc. Define the RFC 1918-compliant address by replacing the 192. Sun Services. you accomplish the following: q Use the ifconfig command to define and configure a hme0:1 interface on a different network to the hme0 interface. if your hme0 interface has an address of 192.168. a netmask of 255.Exercise: Reviewing IP Exercise: Reviewing IP In this exercise.255. configure the hme0:1 interface to have an IP address of 172. and the remaining 8 bits represent the host portion of the address.168 part of your system’s address with 172. All Rights Reserved.

Configure a netmask of 255.255. so that you can easily restore your system to its original state if needed.255. Use the ifconfig command to view the system’s interface configuration before making any changes.1. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 2. For example if you used 172. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system. Revision A.0. Inc. then change it so that it begins with 172.Exercise: Reviewing IP Tasks Complete the following steps: 1. if your IP address begins with 192. Use the appropriate command to cause the interface to function properly. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 5. Be sure to use the appropriate command to cause the interface to function properly.1. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 3.255.255.1.2 for this interface. Use the ifconfig command to configure the hme0:1 interface with the appropriate IP address and a netmask of 255. All Rights Reserved.168. Notice that the next sequential logical interface was defined (hme0:2 in this example). For example.0 and a broadcast address of 172. use 172. Sun Services.255. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 5-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system.2 in the previous step. Notice that the index for the new logical interface is the same as the physical interface and that no Ethernet address is listed under the new logical interface.18.19.18.19.1 . Also notice that the index for the new logical interface is the same as the physical interface and that no Ethernet address is listed under the new logical interface. Use the ifconfig command with the appropriate option to configure the next available logical interface with an IP address that is incremented by 1 in the second octet. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 4.

Revision A. Use the removeif option of the ifconfig command to remove the first logical interface that you defined. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 7. Sun Services. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 9.1 5-31 . Use the appropriate command to specifically remove the second logical interface that you defined.Exercise: Reviewing IP 6. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 8. Inc. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system. Notice that the first logical interface is removed. All Rights Reserved. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system.

q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications 5-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. issues. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. Sun Services.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.1 . Inc.

0 broadcast 172.RUNNING.255.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 172.255 # Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.LOOPBACK.1.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.IPv4.1.RUNNING. Use the ifconfig command to view the system’s interface configuration before making any changes.0. For example.BROADCAST.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.255 up # 3.1.0.MULTICAST. then change it so that it begins with 172.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.18.1. Revision A. Sun Services.1.0.168.18. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. All Rights Reserved.2 netmask 255.168.IPv4.168. # ifconfig hme0:1 plumb 172.LOOPBACK.168.18.255.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=1000843<UP.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 172. Use the appropriate command to cause the interface to function properly.255.1 5-33 .0.MULTICAST. Notice that the index for the new logical interface is the same as the physical interface and that no Ethernet address is listed under the new logical interface.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. Inc.0.1.168.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.255.1.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.RUNNING.RUNNING. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # 2.1.BROADCAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.RUNNING.MULTICAST. if your IP address begins with 192. Use the ifconfig command to configure the hme0:1 interface with the appropriate IP address and a netmask of 255. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system.18. so that you can easily restore your system to its original state if needed.18.MULTICAST.

1.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 172. Revision A.1. For example if you used 172. Configure a netmask of 255. Be sure to use the appropriate command to cause the interface to function properly. Inc.19.0.BROADCAST.2 # 7.Exercise Solutions 4.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 172.255.1.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 172.2 in the previous step.RUNNING. Also notice that the index for the new logical interface is the same as the physical interface and that no Ethernet address is listed under the new logical interface.19.0.168. Notice that the first logical interface is removed.19.1. Use the ifconfig command with the appropriate option to configure the next available logical interface with an IP address that is incremented by 1 in the second octet.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:2: flags=1000843<UP. # ifconfig hme0 addif 172.18.19. Use the removeif option of the ifconfig command to remove the first logical interface that you defined.LOOPBACK.0 and a broadcast address of 172.BROADCAST.255 # 6.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.255.LOOPBACK.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.255. Notice that the next sequential logical interface was defined (hme0:2 in this example).1.1.1.BROADCAST.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=1000843<UP. # ifconfig hme0 removeif 172.MULTICAST.IPv4.RUNNING.BROADCAST.RUNNING. use 172.MULTICAST.1. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. Sun Services.18.19.1 .2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 172.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1.0.2 netmask 255. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system.18.18.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 172.MULTICAST.1. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.19. All Rights Reserved.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.1.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.255 # 5-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.RUNNING.MULTICAST.168.RUNNING.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.168.255 up Created new logical interface hme0:2 # 5.255.2 for this interface.255 hme0:2: flags=1000843<UP.19.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 172.1. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system.RUNNING.19.1.IPv4.255.168.1.MULTICAST.1.RUNNING.MULTICAST.0 broadcast 172.1.BROADCAST.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.

All Rights Reserved.1. # Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. Sun Services.MULTICAST. Inc.0. # ifconfig hme0:2 down unplumb # 9. Revision A.0. Use the appropriate command to specifically remove the second logical interface that you defined.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 View the configuration of the interfaces on the system.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.Exercise Solutions 8.1 5-35 .168.BROADCAST.RUNNING.MULTICAST.1.IPv4. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.LOOPBACK.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.

.

Inc. and troubleshooting. Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Figure 6-1 Course Map 6-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. configuration of IPMP on the command line and at system boot. Upon completion of this module. IPMP requirements.1 .Module 6 Configuring IP Network Multipathing Objectives This module describes how to configure IP Network Multipathing (IPMP). This module also describes the limitations of network interfaces. you should be able to: q q Describe IP multipathing Implement IP multipathing The course map in Figure 6-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal.

Inc. which provides enhanced availability of network connections. If any one of these interfaces fail. Limitations of Network Interfaces Network interfaces are exposed to failure because they connect to network cables and hardware components in the form of switches or hubs. even if the NIC that is in place does not fail. All Rights Reserved.Increasing Network Availability Increasing Network Availability In today’s computing environments. GBA GBA GBA GBA! Server Client Figure 6-2 IPMP Configuration 6-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. IPMP enables multiple interfaces with different IP addresses on the same subnet to be grouped together.1 . Failure of any of these interfaces results in network failure. the availability of network connectivity is important. Sun Services. current network connections through that interface will be migrated to another interface in the group automatically to maintain network connectivity. Figure 6-2 shows how a system can have multiple interfaces on the same LAN. Revision A. The Solaris 10 OS includes the IPMP feature.

Instead. If a failure occurs in the network link and an alternate adapter is configured. the interface kernel driver performs this function. Revision A. unless they are explicitly chosen by an application. It can be configured for use with both IPv4 and IPv6. All Rights Reserved. Introducing IPMP IPMP enables the Solaris 10 OS to recover from network path failures. q q q Probe-based IPMP Configurations Compared With Link-based IPMP Configurations There are two methods for configuring IPMP: probe-based and link-based.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Network Multipathing IPMP is a product that is included with the Solaris 10 OS and provides enhanced network availability. Inc.1 6-3 . Sun Services. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the IP address fails over. It can be configured by adjusting the parameters in the /etc/default/mpathd file. These types of interfaces are only used for failover and are not used for outbound load spreading. It enables interfaces to be configured as standby interfaces. IPMP has the following features: q It eliminates a single network adapter as a single point of failure in these cases: q q Network adapter failure Network link failure q It enables interfaces to fail over within approximately 10 seconds when using the default configuration. IPMP also provides increased throughput by spreading the outbound load across interfaces when multiple network adapters are connected to the same IP network. The network access changes automatically from the failed adapter to the new adapter. providing uninterrupted access to the network. Probe-based IPMP utilizes test addresses to monitor the health of interfaces. Link-based IPMP does not utilize test addresses. such as to the same Ethernet switch.

mpathd daemon uses the IPMP group names. Sun Services. Therefore. as a minimum. The in. IPMP requires that all interfaces in an IPMP group be connected to the same IP link. Probe-based IPMP Requirements The following items are required to configure probe-based IPMP on a system: q q The Solaris 8 10/00 OS. Inc. The default configuration for most Sun network adapters has all network interfaces on a system using the same MAC (Ethernet) address. you must change the system’s default configuration for MAC addresses to avoid a MAC address conflict. To use the full benefit of IPMP.1 . The IPMP group name is local to the system and is not used across the network. q An IPMP group name must be assigned to interfaces. You can configure IPMP with a single network interface to take advantage of network failure detection. and notify the networking subsystem. Interfaces that are to be deployed as part of an IPMP configuration must belong to an IPMP group.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Probe-based IPMP Configuration Probe-based failure detection for IPMP uses test addresses to detect failures. must be installed. Revision A. 6-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Switched networks use MAC addresses when making decisions about where to send packets. All Rights Reserved. Use a meaningful name that does not include spaces when you choose a group name. Unique MAC addresses must be configured on each network interface. Each IPMP group has an IPMP group name. make sure that two or more network interfaces are connected to the same subnet. q Multiple network adapter interfaces must be connected on each subnet.

These addresses are deprecated at configuration time to make sure that they cannot be used as source addresses by other applications. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Sun Services. to monitor the status of each individual interface. the in.mpathd daemon. An interface is considered repaired only if both methods report that the interface is operational and can send and receive packets through the interface. When responses to the ICMP echo requests are not received and a specific time period has elapsed.1). All Rights Reserved. the physical interface is considered failed.1 6-5 . q Additional hosts or devices must exist on the same subnet.Configuring IP Network Multipathing q A test address is assigned to an interface. Inc. which must be routable addresses.0. The test interfaces are used to send ICMP echo requests to targets on the local link. The test addresses are used to detect failure and recovery of an interface. If five consecutive probes do not receive replies.000 milliseconds (10 seconds) in the /etc/default/mpathd file.mpathd daemon determines which targets to probe dynamically. The in. The in.mpathd daemon uses test addresses.mpathd daemon sends ICMP echo requests from the test addresses on the IPMP interfaces to targets connected to the local network. Interface Failure Detection and Repair Network interfaces on which IPMP is configured are monitored by the in. to test that the network link is functioning.0. Adjust the failure detection time by editing the FAILURE_DETECTION_TIME variable from the default value of 10. Communications that were taking place continue to function as though the original interface is still working properly. The in. The IP address that is associated with the failed address is moved to a new logical interface associated with another physical interface in the same IPMP group. the interface is considered failed.mpathd daemon can detect both the failure and the repair of an interface by: q Sending ICMP echo requests and receiving ICMP echo replies through the interface Monitoring the internal IFF_RUNNING flag on the interface q An interface has failed if either of these two detection methods indicates a failure. To detect the failure or repair of interfaces that belong to the IPMP group. either by addressing a default router on the local link or by using the all hosts multicast group (224.

1. You cannot configure the targets because the in.168.1. and no fail over is performed.1. arbitrary hosts on the link are chosen by sending a multicast packet to the all hosts multicast address. You can configure IPMP by changing configuration files and rebooting. If no routers exist on the link. and the data address for the qfe1 interface is 192. be sure to have at least one additional system on the network that can act as a target.1.168. the IPMP group should consist of interfaces that each reside on a different interface card. This approach minimizes the number of common components in a configuration. Note – To maximize the resistance of your configuration to failure.mpathd daemon flushes all of the current targets and attempts to discover new targets. The test addresses are: q q The 192.mpathd daemon determines dynamically which targets to probe.Configuring IP Network Multipathing ICMP echo requests are still attempted through the failed NIC to detect if a physical interface is repaired.1 . or you can work at the command line to avoid rebooting the system.51 address for the hme0 interface The 192. Inc. 6-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. this is a group failure.168.1.21. If all the NICs or targets appear to fail at the same time. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.168. Configuring Probe-based IPMP by Using Configuration Files This example shows IPMP configuration on an existing configured hme0 interface and on an existing but unconfigured qfe1 interface on the sys11 (192.168. When you configure IPMP.71 address for the qfe1 interface The data address for the hme0 interface remains as 192.1. The multipath group is called mpgrp-one. Default routers connected to the link are chosen as targets for probing. The in.1) system. Revision A.

All Rights Reserved. Configure the interfaces.168.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.LOOPBACK. Assembled 31 August 2000 # The following system exceeds the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 3/05 s10_74L2a SPARC Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Verify the Solaris OS Release The /etc/release file contains information about the installed version of the Solaris OS. All Rights Reserved. 3.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1.1. Inc. Revision A. 5. 6.Configuring IP Network Multipathing To configure probe-based IPMP.MULTICAST. Sun Services. complete the following steps. 2.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.168.BROADCAST.0. Define IP addresses.RUNNING. View the interface configuration. Assembled 22 January 2005 # Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. which are described in greater detail in the next sections.1 6-7 . Reboot the system. Configure unique MAC addresses. The following system meets the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 8 10/00 s28s_u2wos_11b SPARC Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems. Verify the Solaris OS release.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Inc. Use is subject to license terms. Inc. 1. You must know the state of the system if you need to restore it. 4. Before making any changes to the system. view the system’s interface configuration by executing the command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.

168.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure Unique MAC Addresses To determine if unique MAC addresses are permitted. Inc.1 sys11 loghost # Modifications made for IPMP 192.1 localhost 192.1. After editing the /etc/inet/hosts file. Define the IP Addresses Add the data and test IP addresses to the /etc/inet/hosts file for the sake of clarity. you must either plumb an interface or reboot the system to enable unique MAC address assignment after changing the local-mac-address? variable. use the eeprom command to view the contents of the system’s EEPROM: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=false # The preceding output indicates that the system is still in its default mode and uses the same MAC address for every interface.0. This is indicated by the setting of the local-mac-address? variable to false.1.21 sys11-data-qfe1 192.71 sys11-test-qfe1 # # Data address for hme0 # Data address for qfe1 # Test address for hme0 # Test address for qfe1 6-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 .0.1.1. Sun Services. Use the eeprom command to change the local-mac-address? variable to true: # eeprom "local-mac-address?=true" # Verify that the local-mac-address? variable is set to true: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=true # Note – Depending on the combination of your system’s firmware and hardware architecture. Revision A.168. use the cat command to view the new information: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table 127.168.168. All Rights Reserved.51 sys11-test-hme0 192.

qfe1 files.1 6-9 . Sun Services. Revision A. Marks the address as a non-failover address. and assigns it the IP address associated with the sys11-test-hme0 name.hme0 file. Assigns the broadcast address. Marks the interface as up. Marks the address as a deprecated address.hme0 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname.hme0 and /etc/hostname. Looks up the netmask in the netmasks database. The + (plus) indicates that the broadcast address should be calculated automatically from the IP address and netmask.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure the Interfaces Multipath information is placed in the /etc/hostname. Assigns mpgrp-one as the name for the IPMP group of which this interface is a member. Creates the next unused logical interface. The output from the ifconfig -a command shows NOFAILOVER as one of the flags associated with this interface.hme0 sys11 netmask + broadcast + group mpgrp-one up \ addif sys11-test-hme0 deprecated netmask + broadcast + -failover up # Table 6-1 describes the entries in the /etc/hostname.: Table 6-1 Interface Configuration Entries Entry sys11 netmask + broadcast + Purpose Assigns the address associated with the sys11 name. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Modify the /etc/hostname. Addresses that are marked as deprecated are not used as source addresses for outgoing packets unless either there are no other addresses available on this interface or the application is bound to this address explicitly. Addresses that are marked in this way do not fail over when the network interface fails. The output from the ifconfig -a command shows DEPRECATED as one of the flags associated with this interface. group mpgrp-one up addif sys11-test-hme0 deprecated -failover Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

qfe1 sys11-data-qfe1 netmask + broadcast + group mpgrp-one up \ addif sys11-test-qfe1 deprecated netmask + broadcast + -failover up # Cable the Interfaces You should ensure that all of the interfaces that are part of the IPMP configuration have cables connecting them to the same IP link. if your host does not act as a router currently. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Note – In versions of the Solaris OS before the Solaris 10 OS. at this point in the procedure. For a system that runs IPMP and is connected to a single IP link. rebooting it with two interfaces configured causes it to be configured as a router after the reboot.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Create the /etc/hostname.qfe1 file with contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname. you had to disable the automatic configuration of the system as a router. For example.1 . To prevent this. Sun Services. Inc. type the command touch /etc/notrouter. Reboot the System Reboot the system to enable IPMP: # init 6 6-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. this is undesirable.

mpathd daemon).1. The hme0:1 interface’s MAC address is not shown because logical interfaces use the same MAC address as the physical interface.MULTICAST.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.1.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. q q The system remains available to users if either of the interfaces fails or becomes unusable for any reason.BROADCAST.255 # Observe the additional information that is reported by the preceding ifconfig command for the hme0:1 interface: hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.168.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.BROADCAST.RUNNING.255 This information includes the following: q q The interface’s index number is 2.1. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.mpathd daemon to ensure that communications are functioning as expected.1.BROADCAST.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.168.BROADCAST. the same as the physical interface.RUNNING.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.0.DEPRECATED.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.RUNNING.LOOPBACK.168.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.RUNNING.IPv4.IPv4. The DEPRECATED and NOFAILOVER flags indicate that the interface is not to be used by any application (other than the in.168.168.IPv4.1 6-11 . The RUNNING flag is also monitored by the in.71 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1. Sun Services. Inc.1.MULTICAST.RUNNING.DEPRECATED.0.DEPRECATED.MULTICAST.1.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 qfe1:1: flags=9040843<UP. All Rights Reserved.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.Configuring IP Network Multipathing View the Interface Configuration To view the configuration of the interfaces when the system is booted.168.IPv4. and the interface must not be failed if a communication failure occurs.RUNNING.1.168. Revision A.

qfe1 interface.1) system.1.1. Although not shown in this section.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring Probe-based IPMP on the Command Line A system can be configured for IPMP without being rebooted if the system’s EEPROM is already configured to support unique MAC addresses. Configure the hme0 interface as part of an IPMP group. Configure a test address for the hme0 interface. where the IPMP group is called mpgrp-one. All Rights Reserved. 7.168. and the data address for the qfe1 interface is 192. 5.51 address for the hme0 interface The 192.1. Configure unique MAC addresses. 2.1 .1.168. This example shows configuring IPMP on an existing configured hme0 interface and on an existing. but unconfigured. 4.71 address for the qfe1 interface The data address for the hme0 interface remains 192. Configure a test address for the qfe1 interface. Verify the Solaris OS release. Configure IP addresses. Sun Services. The following steps demonstrate use of the ifconfig command to configure IPMP on the command line. To configure IPMP. 3. which are described in greater detail in the next sections.1. Configure the qfe1 interface as part of the same IPMP group.168. where the test address is: q q The 192. 8.168. complete the following steps. 6. 1.21. Inc. Revision A. View the interface configuration.1.168. 6-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This configuration is on the sys11 (192. you can also use the ifconfig command to change and delete IPMP group memberships.

VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. Inc. Assembled 31 August 2000 # The following system exceeds the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 3/05 s10_74L2a SPARC Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. view the system’s interface configuration by typing the command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. Use is subject to license terms.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.BROADCAST. Inc.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.Configuring IP Network Multipathing You must know what state the system is in if you need to restore it.IPv4. Revision A. Inc.168.1.0.RUNNING.1 6-13 . Assembled 22 January 2005 # Configure Unique MAC Addresses To determine if unique MAC addresses are permitted. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.LOOPBACK.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Verify the Solaris OS Release The /etc/release file contains information about the installed version of the Solaris OS.0. use the eeprom command to view the contents of the EEPROM: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=false # Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Before making any changes to the system. The following system meets the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 8 10/00 s28s_u2wos_11b SPARC Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems.168.1.RUNNING.

Configuring IP Network Multipathing The preceding output indicates that the system is still in its default mode and uses the same MAC address for each interface. Use the eeprom command to change the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable to true.0.1.168.21 sys11-data-qfe1 192.1 localhost 192.1 . Sun Services.168. Inc.51 sys11-test-hme0 192. This is indicated by the setting of the local-mac-address? variable to false.1. you will have to either plumb the interface or reboot the system to enable unique MAC address assignment after changing the local-mac-address? variable.1.168.1 sys11 loghost # Modifications made for IPMP 192. Type the command: # eeprom "local-mac-address?=true" # Note – Depending on the combination of your system’s firmware and hardware architecture.71 sys11-test-qfe1 # # Data address for hme0 # Data address for qfe1 # Test address for hme0 # Test address for qfe1 6-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. use the cat command to view the new information: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table # 127.1. Verify that the local-mac-address? variable is set to true: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=true # Configure the IP Addresses You can add the data and test IP addresses to the /etc/inet/hosts file for the sake of clarity. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. After editing the /etc/inet/hosts file.0.

255.255 # Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. Sun Services.RUNNING. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.mpathd daemon.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.168.0.168. mark it so that the in.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. All Rights Reserved.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.RUNNING.168. you configure a test address for the hme0 interface.BROADCAST.mpathd daemon recognizes it as a test address that must not fail over (-failover) and must not be used by the system for any application data transmission (deprecated).VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv4. Do not use this address for any purpose other than using it for the in.RUNNING. Inc.1.IPv4.MULTICAST.1.MULTICAST.1.RUNNING.255.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Configure a Test Address for the hme0 Interface Next.DEPRECATED.BROADCAST.51 deprecated netmask + \ broadcast + -failover up Created new logical interface hme0:1 Setting netmask of hme0:1 to 255.1.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure the hme0 Interface as Part of a Multipath Group To configure the hme0 interface as part of an IPMP group.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. specify the name of the group.1.168.MULTICAST. Revision A.168.1 6-15 .IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.LOOPBACK.LOOPBACK.0.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. of which the hme0 interface will be a member: # ifconfig hme0 group mpgrp-one To view the changes to the interface. Type the command: # ifconfig hme0 addif 192.0.1.MULTICAST. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.IPv4.0.1.BROADCAST.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. You can assign an alias name to this address by using the /etc/inet/hosts file. When you define the address.MULTICAST. mpgrp-one.168.0 # To view the changes to the interface.

1.168.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. q 6-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1. for the qfe1 interface: qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.1.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.168.RUNNING.168.BROADCAST.168. Revision A.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 # Observe the additional information that is reported by the preceding output of the ifconfig command.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.0 # ifconfig qfe1 group mpgrp-one up To view the changes to the interface.1.BROADCAST.RUNNING.BROADCAST.DEPRECATED. Sun Services.MULTICAST. Type the commands: # ifconfig qfe1 plumb sys11-data-qfe1 netmask + broadcast + Setting netmask of qfe1 to 255. Since lo0 is 1 and hme0 is 2.RUNNING. qfe1 is assigned 3.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.0.IPv4.1.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. Inc.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1.168.BROADCAST.1 .255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 This information includes the following: q The interface index number is incremented to 3 because a unique index number is assigned to each non-logical interface as it is configured.RUNNING.IPv4.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. All Rights Reserved. The qfe1 interface’s MAC address is different from the hme0 interface’s MAC address.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.255.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1.RUNNING. which is caused by changing the local-mac-address? variable in the system’s EEPROM.1. you configure the qfe1 interface and make it part of the same IPMP group as the hme0 interface.MULTICAST.168.LOOPBACK.255.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.MULTICAST.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure the qfe1 Interface as Part of the IPMP Group Now.

1.168.255.71 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. You can alias this address to a name by using the /etc/inet/hosts file.BROADCAST.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 qfe1:1: flags=9040843<UP. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. Inc.0.1.MULTICAST. Type the command: # ifconfig qfe1 addif 192.mpathd daemon.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.BROADCAST.RUNNING.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.IPv4.mpathd daemon recognizes it as a test address that must not fail over (-failover) and must not be used by the system for any application data transmission (deprecated).RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.IPv4. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Do not use this address for any purpose other than using it for the in.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. mark it so that the in.RUNNING. you configure a test address for the qfe1 interface.RUNNING.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure a Test Address for the qfe1 Interface Now.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.1 6-17 .168.71 deprecated netmask + \ broadcast + -failover up Created new logical interface qfe1:1 Setting netmask of qfe1:1 to 255.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.BROADCAST.IPv4. When you define the address.BROADCAST.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.DEPRECATED. Sun Services.1.MULTICAST.255.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.DEPRECATED.168.168.168.168. Notice that the qfe1:1 interface MAC address is not shown because logical interfaces use the same MAC address as the physical interface that supports the logical interface.0 # To view the changes to the interface.168.1.1. which is the same as the physical interface that supports this logical interface.0.1.1.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.255 # The interface’s index number is 3.168.1. Revision A.

]mpathd /lib/svc/method/net-init /usr/bin/pgrep -x -u 0 in. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Start the in. If the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS variable is set to no. the in. That is.mpathd daemon will track all interfaces. Sun Services.mpathd daemon was started during the execution of the /etc/rc2.mpathd daemon is started by the svc:network/net-init SMF service: # grep in[.mpathd Daemon to Monitor the Interfaces The starting of the in.mpathd daemon starts. The minimum time # that can be specified is 100 ms.mpathd -a Note – Before the Solaris 10 OS.mpathd daemon is controlled by the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS parameter in the /etc/default/mpathd file. The contents of this file are: # cat /etc/default/mpathd # #pragma ident "@(#)mpathd.d/S69inet start script. The in. 6-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. as soon as you use the ifconfig command with the group option in the command. Inc. the in. the ifconfig command’s group option starts the in. including those that are not part of an IPMP group.mpathd >/dev/null 2>&1 || /usr/lib/inet/in.mpathd daemon automatically.dfl 1. Turn off this option to track all network interfaces # on the system # TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS=yes # If the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS variable is set to yes. To disable failback turn off this opti on # FAILBACK=yes # # By default only interfaces configured as part of multipathing groups # are tracked. # FAILURE_DETECTION_TIME=10000 # # Failback is enabled by default.2 00/07/17 SMI" # # Time taken by mpathd to detect a NIC failure in ms.1 . the in.

Configuring IP Network Multipathing If necessary.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.0. the in.DEPRECATED.168.mpathd # View the Interface Configuration Now that IPMP is completely configured.255 # The system remains available to users if either of the network interfaces fail or become unusable for any reason.1.168.BROADCAST.RUNNING.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.168.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.MULTICAST. to view the configuration of the interfaces.BROADCAST.IPv4. Sun Services.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.BROADCAST.RUNNING.DEPRECATED.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1.1. All Rights Reserved.1.IPv4.MULTICAST. Inc.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1 6-19 .168.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 qfe1:1: flags=9040843<UP.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.71 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.mpathd daemon can be started from the command line by running the command as the root user: # /sbin/in.168. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.RUNNING.RUNNING.168. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.1.1. Revision A.168.IPv4.1.

1 . 6-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Link-based IPMP Configuration Link-based failure detection for IPMP uses the network interface kernel driver to detect failures and notify the networking subsystem. All Rights Reserved. Link-based IPMP Requirements The following items are required to configure link-based IPMP on a system: q q Solaris 9 12/02 OS. An IPMP group name must be assigned to interfaces. at a minimum. Network interfaces must use any of the following drivers: q q q q q q q hme eri ce ge bge qfe dmfe q q Unique MAC addresses must be configured on each of the interfaces. Revision A. Inc. must be installed. Sun Services.

MULTICAST.168.LOOPBACK. view the system’s interface configuration by executing the command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.168. Configure the interfaces.1.0. Define IP addresses.1. The multipath group is called ipmp-group0. configured hme0 interface and on an existing.IPv4.1. To configure link-based IPMP.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.21. 5.1. which are described in greater detail in the next sections. Before making any changes to the system.0. Configure unique MAC addresses.1.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 3. and the data address for the hme1 interface is 192.1. 2.MULTICAST. The data address for the hme0 interface remains 192. hme1 interface on the sys11 (192. All Rights Reserved.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Sun Services.168. Revision A. Inc. View the interface configuration.168.168. 4. 6.1 6-21 . Reboot the system.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.RUNNING. complete the following steps.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring Link-based IPMP by Using Configuration Files This example shows IPMP configuration on an existing. 1. but unconfigured.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. Verify the Solaris OS release. You must know the state of the system if you need to restore it.BROADCAST.1) system.

Assembled 22 January 2005 # Configure Unique MAC Addresses To determine if unique MAC addresses are permitted. All Rights Reserved. Use is subject to license terms. Inc. This is indicated by the setting of the local-mac-address? variable to false.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Verify the Solaris OS Release The /etc/release file contains information about the installed version of the Solaris OS. Inc. Inc. Use the eeprom command to change the local-mac-address? variable to true: # eeprom "local-mac-address?=true" # Verify that the local-mac-address? variable is set to true: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=true 6-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. use the eeprom command to view the contents of the system’s EEPROM: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=false # The preceding output indicates that the system is still in its default mode and uses the same MAC address for every interface. All Rights Reserved. Assembled 31 August 2000 # The following system exceeds the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 3/05 s10_74L2a SPARC Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. The following system meets the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 8 10/00 s28s_u2wos_11b SPARC Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.1 .

1 6-23 . Reboot the System Reboot the system to enable IPMP: # init 6 Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.1.1.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Define the IP Addresses Add the IP addresses to the /etc/inet/hosts file for the sake of clarity. After editing the /etc/inet/hosts file. Modify the /etc/hostname.0.1 localhost 192. All Rights Reserved. use the cat command to view the new information: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table 127.hme0 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname.hme0 sys11 netmask + broadcast + group ipmp_group0 up # Create the /etc/hostname. Inc. Sun Services.21 sys11-hme1 # Data address for hme1 # Configure the Interfaces Network interfaces are configured in the /etc/hostname.0.hme1 files.hme0 and /etc/hostname.hme1 sys11-hme1 netmask + broadcast + group ipmp_group0 up # Cable the Interfaces You should ensure that all of the interfaces that are part of the IPMP configuration have cables connecting them to the same IP link.1 sys11 loghost # Data address for hme0 # Modifications made for IPMP 192.168.168.hme1 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname.

1. disabling probe-based failure 6-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.mpathd -a Messages to the console (and to /var/adm/messages) from in.mpathd[119]: [ID 975029 daemon. Sun Services.mpathd[119]: [ID 975029 daemon.0.RUNNING. Inc. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. rather than for probe-based IPMP. use the following command: # pgrep -fl mpathd 119 /usr/lib/inet/in.255 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 # To verify that the IPMP daemon is running.MULTICAST.1.BROADCAST.1.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.mpathd indicate that the system is configured for link-based IPMP.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.error] No test interface hme0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1 .MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.1.168.error] No test interface hme1.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv4.168.255 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme1: flags=1000843<UP. Dec 16 12:40:33 sys11 address configured on detection on it Dec 16 12:40:33 sys11 address configured on detection on it in. disabling probe-based failure in.168.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.Configuring IP Network Multipathing View the Link-based IPMP Configuration To view the configuration of the interfaces when the system is booted.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.0.RUNNING. Revision A.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.

MULTICAST.168. Sun Services.0.BROADCAST.168. Inc.168.RUNNING.0. the if_mpadm command can be used. to force a failback: # if_mpadm -r hme0 The message on the console indicates that the failback was successful: Dec 16 13:41:47 sys11 in.168.168.0.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Verify Link-based IPMP Operation To verify the system’s IPMP configuration. that the IP address of the hme0 interface is 0.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.BROADCAST.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.OFFLINE> mtu 0 index 2 inet 0. All Rights Reserved.0. and a new logical interface hme1:1 is created on the remaining physical interface hme1.NOFAILOVER. Revision A.1.1. The new logical interface has the IP address (192.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1.mpathd[119]: Successfully failed over from NIC hme0 to NIC hme1 To view the current status of the network interfaces.255 Notice.1) that was assigned to the physical hme0 interface before it failed. which forces a failover.mpathd[119]:Successfully failed back to NIC hme0 Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.IPv4. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.1 6-25 .RUNNING.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=89000842<BROADCAST.IPv4.0 netmask 0 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme1: flags=1000843<UP.1.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. Take the hme0 interface offline to force a failover: # if_mpadm -d hme0 The message on the console indicates that the failover was successful: Dec 16 13:24:31 sys11 in.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.RUNNING.0. Messages are sent to the console and to /var/adm/messages that indicate any failovers or failbacks which occur.255 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 hme1:1: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.0.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.1. Reattach the hme0 interface. You can use this command to take a network interface offline (detach it).

Configuring IP Network Multipathing To view the current status of the network interfaces.255 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 # The hme0 interface is reassigned its original IP address. Sun Services. Inc. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.RUNNING.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. and so is always associated with the interface being monitored.RUNNING.IPv4.LOOPBACK.168.255 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme1: flags=1000843<UP.168. This enables you to monitor the status of the interface by using IPMP and to receive notifications about the interface’s status. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.BROADCAST. it is not necessary to configure a separate test address because the system can use the data address for testing purposes.RUNNING. and the hme1:1 logical interface is removed automatically. 6-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.0. In this configuration.168. With only a single interface in the group.0. although it is not possible to fail the interface over onto another network interface. Revision A.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1.168.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST. the data address can never move on to a different interface.1.1 . Configuring a Singleton IPMP Group It is possible to configure an IPMP group that contains only one interface.1.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.

RUNNING. This enables multiple targets to be probed when checking the availability of the network.IPv4. also set the NOFAILOVER flag on the interface by using the -failover option.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure a Single IPMP Group on the Command Line To create a singleton IPMP group.RUNNING.168.0. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.hme0 sys11 group singleton up # Note – Use IPMP only on a single interface if multiple default routers exist on the local network.168.255 groupname singleton ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Note – Do not use the deprecated option because this prevents applications from using the interface’s only IP address as a source address.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1. assign a multipath group name to the interface: # ifconfig hme0 group singleton # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. ensure that the interface configuration file contains the group option and the IPMP group name: # cat /etc/hostname. Revision A.BROADCAST. Configure a Single IPMP Group at System Boot To create a singleton IPMP group at system boot.MULTICAST.1 netmask ff000000 hme0 flags=1000843<UP.VIRTUAL> mtu823 2 index 1 inet 127.1.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.0. If the single interface will be included in an IPMP group with multiple interfaces.LOOPBACK.1 6-27 . Inc. Sun Services.

OFFLINE> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.255 qfe1:2: flags=1000843<UP.BROADCAST.0 netmask 0 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=89040842<BROADCAST.168.DEPRECATED.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.LOOPBACK. Note – This message appears in the console window and is not seen if you are using an xterm or dtterm window.168.IPv4.1.RUNNING.1. they appear at this stage. Also.BROADCAST. To view the status of the interfaces.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.1.IPv4.MULTICAST. use the if_mpadm command.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.RUNNING.RUNNING.168.RUNNING. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.MULTICAST.NOFAILOVER.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 qfe1:1: flags=9040843<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=89000842<BROADCAST.1. If configuration errors occur.mpathd[535]: Successfully failed over from NIC hme0 to NIC qfe1 # The message indicates that the failover was successful.1.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.71 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168. to detach the hme0 interface.IPv4.1.0.MULTICAST.RUNNING.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Viewing IPMP Operation To verify the system’s failover configuration.255 # 6-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.DEPRECATED. Inc.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. use the if_mpadm command to reattach a detached interface.168. Sun Services. type the command: # if_mpadm -d hme0 Aug 4 14:00:38 sys11 in.RUNNING.1.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. You can use this command to take an interface offline (detach) by forcing a fail over and verifying that an alternate interface takes over as expected.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0.1 .1.OFFLINE> mtu 0 index 2 inet 0.IPv4.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. For example.168. or to change the operational status of IPMP interfaces.0.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.0. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.NOFAILOVER.168.

All Rights Reserved.0. The new logical interface has the IP address that was assigned to the physical hme0 interface while it was working.1.168.1.RUNNING.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.168. qfe1:2.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 qfe1:1: flags=9040843<UP.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. To reattach an offline interface. The message indicates that the fail back was successful.IPv4.0.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.168.71 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.IPv4.0. To view the status of the interfaces.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.0. and the qfe1:2 logical interface is removed automatically.Configuring IP Network Multipathing The detached interface is assigned an IP address of 0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.DEPRECATED.RUNNING.0.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.DEPRECATED.mpathd[535]: Successfully failed back to NIC hme0 # Note – This message appears in the console window and is not seen if you are using an xterm or dtterm window.1.MULTICAST.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.1.RUNNING.BROADCAST.1 6-29 .168. Revision A.1.1.168. type the command: # if_mpadm -r hme0 Aug 4 14:02:09 sys11 in.1. Sun Services.168. is created automatically on the functional qfe1 physical interface.BROADCAST.255 # The hme0 interface is reassigned its original IP address.IPv4.168.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. Inc.LOOPBACK.1.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.MULTICAST.168.RUNNING.BROADCAST. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.BROADCAST.RUNNING. and a new logical interface.

It is important to thoroughly test your network interface after you configure IPMP.BROADCAST. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. To configure a test interface. the following message appears: # Aug 4 13:55:37 sys11 in.168.1.mpathd daemon with a process identifier (ID) of 535 senses that IPMP is not properly configured.0. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig hme0 addif 192.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # The output indicates that the configuration process is not complete. For example: # Aug 4 13:54:51 sys11 in.mpathd[355]: Test address now configured on interface hme0.IPv4.RUNNING.1.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. disabling probe-based failure detection on it The message indicates that the in.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.mpathd[535]: No test address configured on interface hme0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Carefully read messages in the /var/adm/messages file or in the console window to take the proper troubleshooting steps when you configure and test the IPMP.1.255.0 # After defining a test interface with the ifconfig command. Inc.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Troubleshooting an IPMP Configuration Incorrectly configured network interfaces might not properly fail over when connectivity to an interface fails for any reason. Revision A.168.1 .MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. To investigate further.0.168.51 deprecated netmask + \ > broadcast + -failover up Created new logical interface hme0:1 Setting netmask of hme0:1 to 255.255. Recall that IPMP requires a test address on a logical interface for each physical interface.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK. enabling probe-based failure detection on it 6-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.

255 # Both the physical and logical interfaces are configured properly.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.DEPRECATED. All Rights Reserved.1.1. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.168.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1. Revision A.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Inc. Sun Services. To view the interface configuration.MULTICAST.RUNNING.RUNNING.1.BROADCAST.RUNNING.MULTICAST.1 6-31 .51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.Configuring IP Network Multipathing The in.mpathd daemon reports that it can now perform failure detection.0.IPv4. Be aware that more than one interface is required to provide effective failover.168.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.IPv4.BROADCAST.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.168.LOOPBACK.0.

A logical interface for each physical interface – The in. Sun Services. A second physical interface – This interface must be connected with a network cable.mpathd daemon uses this interface to monitor the status of the physical interface.1 . Revision A. you configure IPMP on your system. Inc. You need the following information when you configure IPMP in this exercise: q The IPMP group name – This name is required for each physical interface that will be part of the IPMP group. An IP address for each logical interface – This is the test address. Ethernet) are required for this exercise. Caution – Remove any interfaces that you configured that are not part of previous exercises before starting this exercise. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. At least two interfaces of the same type (for example. Work with another student if your system does not have enough interfaces. q q q q 6-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Exercise: Configuring IPMP Exercise: Configuring IPMP In this exercise. All Rights Reserved. Verify that your system meets the minimum requirements and has enough network cabling before you continue. A data IP address for each physical interface – Users and applications use this address when accessing the system.

21.168. q q Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.1.168. All Rights Reserved.168.1. For example.Exercise: Configuring IPMP Write the names and addresses that you will use: q The IPMP group name is unique to your system.71. Inc. for example. the physical interface address of 192.1 6-33 . the new interface has an address of 192.168. The second logical interface’s IP address is 192. Sun Services.168. Revision A.1.1. Write the IPMP group name: _____________________________________________________________ q The new physical interface uses an IP address of your system’s IP address plus 20. Write the first logical interface’s IP address: _____________________________________________________________ Write the second logical interface’s IP address: _____________________________________________________________ q The following is an example of a complete list of the information that you need when you configure multipathing in the exercise.1. The first logical interface’s IP address is 192.168.1.1. Assuming that the existing IP address is 192.1. and the physical interface IP address of 192.168.71. q q Assume that the IPMP group name is mpgrp-one.1 uses test a test address of 192.1. Write the new physical interface’s IP address: _____________________________________________________________ The test IP address for each logical interface is the physical interface’s IP address plus 50.21.168.51.21 uses a test address of 192.51. the new physical interface’s IP address is 192.1.

Sun Services. Reboot your system to enable unique MAC address assignment. Open a console window to see any messages that might be sent to the console but perform the other steps in a different (non-console) window. View and document your system’s current interface information with the ifconfig command. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. 8. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 7. Write the interface type for index 2: _____________________________________________________________ 6. 6-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 5. Use comments to help limit confusion. Verify that your system has a supported version of the Solaris OS. and add entries for the interfaces. so that you can compare the output after you configure IPMP. Revision A. Write the command that you use: _________________________________________________ 3. Inc. Configure your system to use unique MAC addresses. All Rights Reserved. Ignore the loopback interface that has an index of 1. Can the system that displayed the preceding output be configured to support IPMP? Why or why not? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Edit your /etc/inet/hosts file. Document the existing interface information.Exercise: Configuring IPMP Tasks Complete the following steps: 1.

Inc. All Rights Reserved. Assign the system’s existing interface to an IPMP group. Write the command that you use: ________________________________________________________ c. as follows: a. q Write the command that you use: ________________________________________________________ Is the daemon running? Why or why not? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ q 10.1 6-35 . Configure a test interface for the physical interface that you just assigned to an IPMP group. Determine if the IPMP daemon is running on your system. and configure failover appropriately. Is the daemon running? Why or why not? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 11. Revision A. Configure IPMP on your system without rebooting. Deprecate the interface. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Exercise: Configuring IPMP 9. Then. Determine if the IPMP daemon is running on your system. configure the interface so that it is up. Be sure to set the appropriate netmask and broadcast addresses. Write the command that you use: ________________________________________________________ b. Sun Services.

b.Exercise: Configuring IPMP 12. Specify the appropriate IP address and addresses for broadcast and netmask. Work with another teammate for this step. Revision A. even though the interface to which your teammate is connected is disabled. Open an edit session by using an editor of your teammate’s choice in the telnet session. Inc. either unplug the network cable to the interface or use the if_mpadm command to detach one of your system’s IPMP interfaces. Write the command that you need if you used the if_mpadm command: ________________________________________________________ 6-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. configure the interface so that it is up. Write the command you need if you used the if_mpadm command: ________________________________________________________ Notice that your teammate’s work is frozen for a moment and then continues. Sun Services. Assign the newly plumbed interface to the appropriate IPMP group and bring the interface up. Deprecate the interface. Verify that the new physical interface is connected to the network before proceeding with the following steps: a. Start typing. and configure failover appropriately. While your teammate is typing. Configure a test interface for the physical interface that you just configured. d. Have your teammate: a. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 14. Configure and plumb the second physical interface. Then. Connect to one of your system’s physical IP addresses over the network by using the telnet command. All Rights Reserved. Repair the interface by reconnecting the network cable or by using the if_mpadm command.1 . ________________________________________________________ 13. ________________________________________________________ b. Do not assign it membership in the IPMP group yet or bring the interface up. Be sure to configure the netmask and broadcast addresses. c.

Have your teammate: a. All Rights Reserved. Document your configuration steps here: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16.Exercise: Configuring IPMP 15. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Pay careful attention to the system’s console while it is booting. Open an edit session by using an editor of your teammate’s choice in the telnet session. Start typing. either unplug the network cable to the interface or use the if_mpadm command to detach one of your system’s IPMP interfaces. Write the command you need if you used the if_mpadm command: ________________________________________________________ Notice that your teammate’s work is frozen for a moment and then continues.1 6-37 . While your teammate is typing. Reboot your system to test the IPMP configuration. 17. Write the command that you need if you used the if_mpadm command: ________________________________________________________ Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Connect to one of your system’s physical IP addresses over the network by using the telnet command. Repair the interface by reconnecting the network cable or by using the if_mpadm command. Revision A. Look for any error messages relating to interfaces and address assignments. even though the interface to which your teammate is connected is disabled. Be sure to make copies of your system’s original configuration files because you will need to restore your system’s configuration later in this exercise. d. Sun Services. Configure your system so that the interfaces are configured automatically for IPMP at boot time. b. Work with another teammate for this step. c. Inc.

interface file that you saved earlier and delete the second interface file. 6-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Reboot your system. To prepare your system for future exercises. complete the following steps and remove the IPMP configuration: a. Restore the first hostname. Inc.Exercise: Configuring IPMP 18. Revision A.1 . b.

Revision A. Inc. issues. Sun Services.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise.1 6-39 . All Rights Reserved.

Configure your system to use unique MAC addresses.MULTICAST. Document the existing interface information. This system can be configured with IPMP because it has a version of the operating environment that is at a minimum the Solaris 8 10/00 OS.0.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # 5.0. All Rights Reserved.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. Inc.IPv4. Use the eeprom command.1 .IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.RUNNING. Ignore the loopback interface that has an index of 1.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Open a console window to see any messages that might be sent to the console but perform the other steps in a different (non-console) window.MULTICAST. 4. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.168. Assembled 22 January 2005 # 3. so that you can compare the output after you configure IPMP.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. Sun Services.LOOPBACK. Inc.RUNNING. Can the system that displayed the preceding output be configured to support IPMP? Why or why not? Yes. # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 3/05 s10_74L2a SPARC Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # dtterm -C & 2.1. View and document your system’s current interface information with the ifconfig command. Use is subject to license terms.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.BROADCAST. Write the interface type for index 2: hme0 6.1. # eeprom local-mac-address?=true # 6-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Verify that your system has a supported version of the Solaris OS.

mpathd # q Is the daemon running? Why or why not? No. Use comments to help limit confusion.Exercise Solutions 7.mpathd daemon should not be running because no interfaces were defined as part of an IPMP group. # Existing phys hme0 interface # IPMP logical test addr for hme0 # IPMP phys interface for qfe1 # IPMP logical test addr for qfe1 Determine if the IPMP daemon is running on your system.mpathd # c.0. Determine if the IPMP daemon is running on your system. Reboot your system to enable unique MAC address assignment. All Rights Reserved.1.1. Is the daemon running? Why or why not? Yes.168.1.1 localhost 192.168.1 6-41 . as follows: a. Edit your /etc/inet/hosts file. # init 6 8.1 sys11 loghost # entries added for IPMP example 192.0. Recall that the group option of the ifconfig command starts the in.mpathd daemon should be running because you just assigned an IPMP group name to an interface. # pgrep -lf in.71 sys11-qfe1-ipmp-test # 9.1. The following is an example of the /etc/inet/hosts file: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table # 127. Inc. Configure multipathing on your system without rebooting. the in.21 sys11-local-qfe1 192. and add entries for the interfaces.mpathd daemon automatically.168. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the in. Assign the system’s existing interface to an IPMP group.mpathd 603 /usr/lib/inet/in. Write the command that you use: # ifconfig hme0 group mpgrp-one # b. q Write the command that you use: # pgrep -lf in.168. Revision A. Sun Services.51 sys11-hme0-ipmp-test 192. 10.

Configure a test interface for the physical interface that you just assigned to an IPMP group. Configure a test interface for the physical interface that you just configured. Revision A.21 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + b. disabling probe-based failure detection on it 13.1. All Rights Reserved. Then. configure the interface so that it is up. # ifconfig hme0 addif 192. Do not assign it membership in the IPMP group yet or bring the interface up. # ifconfig qfe1 group mpgrp-one up 6-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1. Be sure to configure the netmask and broadcast addresses. Verify that the new physical interface is connected to the network before proceeding with the following steps: a. Configure and plumb the second physical interface. Deprecate the interface.mpathd[603]: No test address configured on interface qfe1. and configure failover appropriately.168.71 deprecated netmask 0xffffff00 \ broadcast + -failover up Created new logical interface qfe1:1 # Console message: in. Write the command that you use: # ifconfig qfe1 addif 192. Be sure to set the appropriate netmask and broadcast addresses.51 deprecated netmask + \ broadcast + -failover up Created new logical interface hme0:1 # 12.1 . Deprecate the interface.mpathd[603]: Test address now configured on interface qfe1. and configure failover appropriately. Sun Services. Then. Specify the appropriate IP address and addresses for broadcast and netmask.Exercise Solutions 11.168. Console message: in. Assign the newly plumbed interface to the appropriate IPMP group and bring the interface up.1. configure the interface so that it is up. Inc. enabling probe-based failure detection on it # ifconfig qfe1 plumb 192.168.

Start typing.hme0 /etc/_hostname. Be sure to make copies of your system’s original configuration files because you will need to restore your system’s configuration later in this exercise. even though the interface to which your teammate is connected is disabled.1. Work with another teammate for this step. # if_mpadm -r qfe1 # Console message: in. Inc.mpathd[603]: Successfully failed back to NIC qfe1 15.168. sys11 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + group mpgrp-one up addif 192. Copy your system’s interface files for future use: Edit the /etc/hostname.71 deprecated netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + -failover up Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # if_mpadm -d qfe1 # Console message: in. b. c. either unplug the network cable to the interface or use the if_mpadm command to detach one of your system’s IPMP interfaces.168. Sun Services.Exercise Solutions 14. Create a /etc/hostname. b. Have your teammate: a. Revision A.hme0 Repair the interface by reconnecting the network cable or by using the if_mpadm command. While your teammate is typing. d.mpathd[603]: Successfully failed over from NIC qfe1 to NIC hme0 Notice that your teammate’s work is frozen for a moment and then continues.qfe1 file so that it has contents similar to the following: sys11-local-qfe1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + group mpgrp-one up addif 192.1. Connect to one of your system’s physical IP addresses over the network by using the telnet command. a. Configure your system so that the interfaces are automatically configured for IPMP at boot time.51 deprecated netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + -failover up c. All Rights Reserved.1 6-43 .hme0 file so that it has contents similar to the following: # cp /etc/hostname. Open an edit session by using an editor of your teammate’s choice in the telnet session.

17. All Rights Reserved. c. Reboot your system to test the IPMP configuration. Revision A. # if_mpadm -d qfe1 # Console message: in. Have your teammate: a. 6-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. even though the interface to which your teammate is connected is disabled. Inc.mpathd[159]: Successfully failed back to NIC qfe1 Repair the interface by reconnecting the network cable or by using the if_mpadm command. b. d. Look for any error messages relating to interfaces and address assignments. Work with another teammate for this step. Connect to one of your system’s physical IP addresses over the network by using the telnet command. While your teammate is typing.Exercise Solutions 16. Open an edit session by using an editor of your teammate’s choice in the telnet session.mpathd[159]: Successfully failed over from NIC qfe1 to NIC hme0 Notice that your teammate’s work is frozen for a moment and then continues. Sun Services. Start typing. either unplug the network cable to the interface or use the if_mpadm command to detach one of your system’s IPMP interfaces. Write the command that you use: # init 6 # Pay careful attention to the system’s console while it is booting. # if_mpadm -r qfe1 # Console message: in.1 .

# cp /etc/_hostname.qfe0 # rm /etc/hostname. Inc.Exercise Solutions 18. All Rights Reserved. To prepare your system for future exercises.1 6-45 . complete the following steps and remove the IPMP configuration: a.qfe0 /etc/hostname. # init 6 Reboot your system. Sun Services. Restore the first hostname. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.interface file that you saved earlier and delete the second interface file.qfe1 b. Revision A.

.

Revision A. Inc. you should be able to: q q q q q q q q q Identify the fundamentals of routing Describe routing table population Describe routing protocol types Describe the routing table Configure static routing Configure dynamic routing Describe classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) Configure routing at system boot Troubleshoot routing 7-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.1 .Module 7 Configuring Routing Objectives This module describes how to configure routing. routing types. Upon completion of this module. routing schemes. and troubleshooting.

Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Figure 7-1 Course Map 7-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Sun Services.Objectives The course map in Figure 7-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal.1 . Inc.

1 7-3 . TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 7-2 TCP/IP Network Model Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. An IP router connects two or more networks and forwards IP datagrams between them. Sun Services. The process of sharing information about networks and routes to networks is called routing. The process of forwarding IP datagrams to their destinations is called forwarding. Purpose of Routing Routing is one of the important functions of the Internet layer in the TCP/IP network model.Identifying the Fundamentals of Routing Identifying the Fundamentals of Routing Routers are devices that forward IP datagrams between networks. and very busy worldwide network. Routers and routing eliminate the concept of one single. Inc. Revision A. Figure 7-2 shows the layer in the TCP/IP network model in which routing takes place. An IP router can forward IP datagrams based on the information in the IP header and information obtained from its routing table. All Rights Reserved. large. This function is primarily supported by IP.

An indirect route is a route in which the destination system is not on the same local network as the source system. The IP datagram is sent through one or more routers or gateways on its way to the destination. Revision A. Because the delivery of the datagram is not direct and other systems are involved in the delivery. This activity could be thought of as direct delivery of a datagram because no routers are required to complete the transaction. 7-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Note – A router connects two networks running the same protocol stack. A gateway connects two networks running different protocol stacks. A direct route is a route in which the destination system is on the same local network as the source system. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. this is called an indirect route. Inc.Identifying the Fundamentals of Routing Types of Routes Routes can be dividing in to two types: direct routes and indirect routes. The source system can send the IP datagram to the destination system without any involvement from another system.1 .

1 7-5 . Revision A.1.4. All Rights Reserved.168. 192. Sun Services.168.30.0 192.0 192. The sys11 system has a direct route to the sys13 system and an indirect route to the sys24 system through the sys21 router. Inc.0 sys11 instructor sys12 sys21 sys13 sys24 Direct Route Indirect Route Figure 7-3 Direct and Indirect Routes Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.Identifying the Fundamentals of Routing Figure 7-3 shows an example of direct and indirect routes.

This table is populated with either static or dynamic entries. The ifconfig command updates the routing table with static entries for networks that are directly connected to the local network interfaces when an interface is configured as up. Inc. Static Routes Static routes are permanent entries in the routing table. Static routes can also be added to your system’s routing table manually by using the /etc/defaultrouter file or by using entries placed in the /etc/gateways file. Revision A. Therefore. A default route defines the router to use for all destinations that do not have an explicit routing table entry. Sun Services.Introducing the Routing Table Introducing the Routing Table The Solaris OS kernel uses a random access memory-based (RAM-based) table. The /etc/gateways file is used to define static indirect routes to networks and hosts. All Rights Reserved.1 . 7-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. even in single-user mode. The /etc/defaultrouter file defines one or more static default routes for a system. called the routing table. a system can route directly to its local network or networks because the interfaces are initialized by the ifconfig command. Static routes can be removed through manual intervention only. The most common static entries are the direct routes that a system creates to its local networks. to store information needed to deliver IP datagrams to their destinations.

Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Routing in the Solaris 10 OS is implemented by the in. Only those entries calculated to be the best paths to a network destination remain in the routing table.1 7-7 . such as the in. When the routing table is updated with information about other reachable networks. The in. The svc:/network/initial SMF service enables routing.routed daemon implements three routing protocols: q q q Routing Information Protocol version 1 (RIPv1) Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIPv2) ICMP Router Discovery Protocol Routers advertise the networks that they know about.Introducing the Routing Table Dynamic Routes Dynamic routes are added to or removed from the routing table by processes. Revision A. Other hosts and routers listen to these periodic announcements and update their routing table with the most current and correct information. Inc.routed daemon. All Rights Reserved. the router can forward or deliver datagrams to these networks. Sun Services.routed daemons.

7-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. is a collection of networks and routers under a single administrative control. Revision A. This broad definition was incorporated into the Internet in an attempt to reduce excessively large routing tables. Sun Services. The Internet can be considered to be a set of autonomous systems that are connected together.1 . Autonomous Systems An autonomous system (AS).Introducing Routing Protocol Types Introducing Routing Protocol Types A single routing protocol cannot efficiently handle all situations because networks can be connected in many different ways. as shown in Figure 7-4. )5 )5 )5 Figure 7-4 Autonomous Systems An autonomous system number is a unique 16-bit address that is assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). As a result. different protocols were developed to manage routing in different areas of the Internet. All Rights Reserved. Inc.

There are two versions of RIP: RIPv1 and RIPv2. IGPs manage the sharing of routing information between networks in the AS. RIP is a distance-vector protocol that exchanges route information between IP routers. Inc. Distance-vector algorithms obtain their name from the fact that they compute the least-cost path by using information that is exchanged with other routers that describes reachable networks with their distances. Revision A. and are also responsible for sharing information about any external routes that the gateways (the routers which connect the AS to the rest of the Internet) might be advertising to the networks in the AS. Figure 7-5 shows how IGPs are used in networks.1 7-9 . Sun Services. in the form of hop counts. 1/2 )5 1/2 )5 )5 Figure 7-5 1/2 Use of IGPs in Networks Many routing protocols are designed to pass routing information within an autonomous system. Two popular protocols are RIP and the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol.Introducing Routing Protocol Types Interior Gateway Protocols Routing within an AS is managed by an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). All Rights Reserved. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

The map on each OSPF router is updated regularly. OSPF provides a view of the entire network and provides the shortest path choices on routes. OSPF maintains a map of the network topology instead of computing route paths that are based on distance vectors in the way that RIP computes the route paths.Introducing Routing Protocol Types OSPF is a link-state protocol. Revision A. such as the Internet or a large corporation’s intranet. 7-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . EGPs are used between organizations or sites. for example in a large WAN. Exterior Gateway Protocols An Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) is a routing protocol used to forward packets between autonomous systems. Figure 7-6 shows the role of EGPs in Internet routing. Inc. All Rights Reserved. )5 -/2 -/2 -/2 )5 )5 Figure 7-6 Role of EGPs in Internet Routing EGP and the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are the two principal protocols that exchange routing information among autonomous systems. Sun Services.

BGP replaces the distance-vector algorithm of EGP with a path-vector algorithm. Revision A. Sun Services. BGP was developed in the mid 1990s to replace EGP. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. BGP generates an error condition. The concept of an autonomous system developed out of the research and development of EGP.Introducing Routing Protocol Types EGP was developed in the early 1980s. such as the Internet.1 7-11 . A loop is detected by BGP when the path it receives has an autonomous system listed twice. This eliminates the possibility of looping problems that might arise from complex network topologies. If this occurs. All Rights Reserved. Inc. The path vector that is implemented by BGP causes the routing information to include a complete path (all autonomous system numbers) from the source to the destination.

0. The -n option causes the IP addresses to be displayed instead of resolving them to names. Revision A.-----. Sun Services.1 . The routing table is referenced when a path to another computer is required.1 # Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------. use the netstat command with the -r and -n options.30.Working With the Routing Table Working With the Routing Table A system’s routing table is used to store routing information for the system. For example: # netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.1 U 1 0 hme0 127.0.1.0.0.31 U 1 54 qfe0 192. The routing table is often interrogated when you troubleshoot connectivity issues.--------192.168.----.1.168.----.1 UH 37 132 lo0 7-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.1.168.0.0.0 224. Displaying the Routing Table To display the contents of a system’s routing table without interpreting the names of the systems.0 192.1 U 1 51 hme0 192. Inc.30. The -r option causes the routing table to be displayed. All Rights Reserved.0 127.168.

Revision A. The destination is a system. Interface Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. For the localhost entry. Table 7-1 Routing Table Entries Field Destination Description The destination network or host address. it is a snapshot of the number of datagrams that are received. G – The delivery system is another system (an indirect route). Inc.1 7-13 . H – Host route. q q Ref Use The current number of routes that share the same network interface (Ethernet) address. All Rights Reserved. The system that delivers or forwards the datagram. The status of this route. This entry can also contain the keyword default to represent a default route.Working With the Routing Table Introducing Routing Table Information Table 7-1 describes the output from the netstat -rn command. This field uses the following flags: q q Gateway Flags U – The interface is up. Sun Services. not a network. D – The entry was added dynamically by an ICMP redirect. The number of datagrams that have used this route. The local interface used to reach the destination.

1 . and compute the network number. Sun Services. No Encapsulate the datagram by setting the destination Ethernet address to that of the router associated with the route table entry. Deliver the frame through the interface connected to the system. Extract the destination IP address. Inc. Deliver the packet through the interface frame connected to the system. Is there a default entry in the route table? Yes No Generate a routing error message through ICMP Figure 7-7 The kernel Routing Algorithm 7-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Deliver the frame through the interface connected to the system. Does the network number match one found in the route table? Yes No Encapsulate the datagram by setting the destination Ethernet address to that of the default router found in the route table. Does the destination IP address match a host-specific route in the route table? Yes Encapsulate the datagram by setting the destination Ethernet address to that of the router associated with the host route table entry.Working With the Routing Table Searching the Routing Table Figure 7-7 shows the kernel routing algorithm.

Working With the Routing Table The kernel routing algorithm searches for routing table entries in the following order when determining where to send a datagram: 1. The error message states either No route to host or Network is unreachable. The kernel routing algorithm checks the routing table for a route to a matching network number. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 2. The kernel searches the routing table for a default entry. which signifies that a default route is configured. Revision A. The kernel cannot forward the datagram. the kernel sets the destination Ethernet address to that of the corresponding router and delivers the frame to that router. The kernel searches the routing table entries for a matching host IP address. If the destination network number matches that of a local interface network number. the kernel encapsulates the IP datagram inside an Ethernet frame and sends the frame to the router that is associated with that destination. 4. The router that receives the frame repeats the execution of the route algorithm. leaves the destination IP address unchanged. 3. The destination network number is then compared with the network numbers of all of the local interfaces (interfaces that are physically attached to the system) for a match. but leaves the destination IP address unchanged. The kernel routing algorithm checks for a default route in the routing table. If a matching number is found. 5. If there is no route to the destination. Sun Services. sets the destination Ethernet address to that of the default router. The kernel routing algorithm checks the routing table for a route to a matching host IP address on a non-local network.1 7-15 . If a default route is found. The kernel searches the routing table for a matching network number. If an entry that matches the host IP address is found. the kernel routing algorithm check generates an ICMP error message. The kernel extracts the destination IP address from the IP datagram and computes the destination network number. the kernel encapsulates the IP datagram inside an Ethernet frame and sends it through the matching local interface for delivery. All Rights Reserved. Inc. The kernel routing algorithm checks to see if the IP address is on a local network. the kernel encapsulates the datagram. and delivers the datagram through the interface that is local to the default router.

and displays the names instead of the numbers.2 192.1 */ # # The networks file associates Internet Protocol (IP) network numbers # with network names. 7-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.168. # # # The loopback network is used only for intra-machine communication # loopback 127 # # Internet networks # arpanet 10 one two three thirty # 192. and nicknames. you can use the defined network name in a command instead of a network address.168. The fields in the /etc/inet/networks file are organized by network name. An equivalent file for associating network names and numbers also exists: the /etc/inet/networks file. Sun Services. . the netstat command attempts to resolve IP addresses to names. Inc. IP addresses and host names are associated by using the /etc/inet/hosts file.30 arpa one two three thirty # Historical When the /etc/inet/networks file is modified.0 1.168.3 192. network number.1 .4 92/07/14 SMI" /* SVr4. If the netstat -r command is used instead. . For example: # cat /etc/inet/networks #ident "@(#)networks 1.1 192. Revision A.168.Working With the Routing Table Associating Names and Network Numbers The netstat -rn command displays the routing table without resolving any of the IP addresses in the routing table to names. The /etc/networks file is a symbolic link to the /etc/inet/networks file. The format of this file is: # # network-name network-number nicnames .

and the loopback address is replaced by its entry from the /etc/inet/hosts file.Working With the Routing Table To view how defined networks are displayed in the output from the netstat command.0. Revision A.----. All Rights Reserved.-----.0 localhost # Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.0.----. Sun Services. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. use the netstat command with the -r option: # netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------one two three thirty 224.--------sys11 U 1 53 hme0 sys11ext UG 1 0 sys11ext UG 1 0 sys11ext U 1 56 qfe0 sys11 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 3 132 lo0 Observe that the destination networks are now displayed by name instead of by network number.1 7-17 . Inc.

Revision A. Static routes are not removed from the routing table by the system..0..1.168. A static direct route is added to a network when a network interface is configured as up by the ifconfig command.----.30.0.1.--------192.31 192.1 U U UH 1 1 3 77 0 132 qfe0 hme0 lo0 The 127. 7-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems..0.1 entry in the routing table is a loopback route to the local host that is created when the lo0 pseudo interface is configured.. 192. To view the static direct routes configured by the ifconfig command.0 .1 U 1 53 hme0 192. The ifconfig command builds the direct route entries initially when the network interface is configured during system startup.1 # Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.30.----.0.168.0. Sun Services. Inc.168.0.0 224.1.Configuring Static Routes Configuring Static Routes You can configure a route that does not change or time-out.-----.1 127. . use the netstat -rn command: # netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192. Configuring Static Direct Routes Static direct routes are routes to local networks which do not expire from the routing table. All Rights Reserved.1 .168. This type of route is called a static route.168.0.0.0 127.

Revision A. The default entries result in a smaller routing table. The /etc/defaultrouter file is used to define static default routes. You must use host names that exist in the system’s /etc/inet/hosts file because no name-resolution services are available at the time that this file is read at system boot. Some advantages of default routing are: q The /etc/defaultrouter file prevents unneeded routing processes from starting. which eliminate single points-of-failure within a network. q q q Some disadvantages of default routing are: q The default entries created by the /etc/defaultrouter file are always present.routed daemon. Sun Services. This can be an administrative problem on large. evolving networks. A system that is configured with an /etc/defaultrouter file does not execute the in.Configuring Static Routes Configuring the /etc/defaultrouter File Default routes are routing table entries that define the default routers to use if no specific host or network routes are available. Inc. which lists the host names or IP addresses of the default routers. The system does not learn about other possible routes. even when the default router is not available. Default routes mean that you do not need to define every reachable network because datagrams that are addressed to non-local destinations use a default router in the absence of an explicit route. Multiple default routers can be identified. You can define default routers by creating entries in the /etc/defaultrouter file. Systems that use default route entries do not depend on actual routing protocols. Default route entries can be either static entries or dynamic entries. All systems must have a local /etc/defaultrouter file configured properly because this file cannot be administered by a name service. All Rights Reserved.1 7-19 . q Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. which reduces the processing time spent on each IP datagram.

use the following directive in the /etc/gateways file: no_ripv1_in if=qfe3 You can disable the RDISC protocol by placing the following directive in the /etc/gateways file: no_rdisc Refer to the gateways man page for more information on the /etc/gateways file. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.routed daemon when the daemon starts. 7-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The /etc/gateways file also supports the use of directives to control the behavior of the system. Sun Services.3. The in. to ignore RIPv1 information received on the qfe3 interface.0 gateway sys31ext metric 1 # Note – It is a better practice to use IP addresses rather than the host names because it might not be possible to resolve host names. is read by the in.168. if it exists. you can disable the RIP protocols (RIPv1 and RIPv2) by placing the following directive in the /etc/gateways file: no_rip Use the no_rip_v1in directive when you want your system to ignore RIPv1 information received on a specific interface. For example. For example.routed daemon uses the contents of the /etc/gateways file to add additional static routes to the routing table.Configuring Static Routes Configuring the /etc/gateways File The /etc/gateways file. Static route entries in the /etc/gateways file use the format: net|host destination gateway gateway metric hops [passive|active|extern] For example: # cat /etc/gateways net 192. Inc.1 .

3. remove.0: gateway sys31ext # To add a static route to the sys24 host with the sys21ext system as the gateway. Its basic format is: route add destination gateway The destination can be a host. you use the route add command.168. type the command: # route add host sys24 sys21ext add host sys24: gateway sys21ext # To add a default route with the instructor system as its gateway. Inc. to delete the route to the host sys24 using the gateway sys21ext.0 sys31ext add net 192. Sun Services. you use the route delete command. type the command: # route delete sys24 sys21ext delete host sys24: gateway sys21ext # Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. To add routes to the routing table. The route command uses sub-commands to perform its tasks.168. Revision A.Configuring Static Routes Configuring Static Routes on the Command Line The route command enables manual manipulation of the routing table. and change routing table entries. to add a static route to the 192.168.3. or a default route. The route command can be used to add. All Rights Reserved. a network.1 7-21 . For example. Its basic format is: route delete destination gateway For example. type the command: # route add default instructor add default: gateway instructor # To delete a route. type the command: # route add net 192.0 network with the sys31ext system as the gateway.3.

168. or suspected network partitionings. use the route change command. Revision A.DONE.Configuring Static Routes To retrieve information about a specific route. flags:<UP.GATEWAY. to receive the following output.248 done done done done 7-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. to change the default route from instructor to sys41.ms 0 0 0 0 0 # hopcount 0 mtu 1500 expire 0 To change the routing table.255. type a command similar to the following: # route change default sys41 change net default: gateway sys41 # To continuously report any changes to the routing table. type the route monitor command: # route monitor got message of size 124 RTM_DELETE: Delete Route: len 124.0 To flush (remove) the routing table of all gateway entries.DONE.ms rttvar. to retrieve information about the default route.GATEWAY. For example. when a route is deleted.STATIC> locks: inits: sockaddrs: <DST. seq 1. All Rights Reserved. use the route monitor command.GATEWAY.20. type the following command: # route get default route to: default destination: default mask: default gateway: instructor interface: hme0 flags: <UP.3. route look-up misses. Inc.4.1 . use the route flush command. use the route get command. For example. pid: 633.0 sys11ext 255.168. For example: # route flush 192.NETMASK> 192.9 two two default # sys13 sys13 sys11ext 172. errno 0.255.STATIC> recvpipe sendpipe ssthresh rtt. For example.

There are 27 ones (1s) in the binary netmask.3.168. For example. For example.168. For example.0/27: gateway sys31ext # Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0/27 The 255.255.3.255.255.2.168.168.168.0/4 ‘uname -n‘ Note – You can find the command syntax in the /lib/svc/method/net-svc SMF method file.168.11100000 in binary format.3.0 network that uses a netmask of 255. hence the /27 after the network address.255.168.255.3.168.0 network. type a command similar to the following: # route -f add net 192. To define a route that uses a specific netmask to support a network.11111111. All Rights Reserved. to add a route to the 192. type the command: # route add net 192.Configuring Static Routes To cause the routing table to flush before the remaining options are evaluated.2.0 sys21ext add net 192.0/27 sys31ext add net 192.3.224 add net 192. specify the length of the subnet mask after the destination. Inc.0: gateway sys31ext # To achieve the same results in a more concise way. Sun Services.168.11111111. type the command: # route add 224. A command similar to the following is identical to the command in the preceding example: # route add net 192. use the flush option in combination with other options.168.2.1 7-23 . Revision A. enter: 192.0 sys31ext -netmask 255.3. use the -netmask option with the route command.224. to flush the routing table of gateways and to add a route to the 192.3.0: gateway sys21ext # To add a route manually to the multicast address range of 224–239.0 network is 11111111.255.224 netmask for the 192.

routes that are added. To add a route to the two network.routed process learns of any changes. All Rights Reserved.30. Revision A. 7-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This ensures that the in.168.31 # Note – Use of the metric argument in the route command is no longer supported. Network names can also be used to define routes.30. for example. and then restart the in.Configuring Static Routes Note – The in. make the required changes. Therefore. do not perform these types of changes while the in. Sun Services. Inc.168.routed process does not detect any routing table changes that are performed by other programs on the machine.routed process. Instead. type a command similar to the following: # route add net two 192. defined in the /etc/inet/networks file.routed process is running.31 add net two: gateway 192.routed process. shut down the in. deleted.1 . or flushed as a result of the route command.

Distance-Vector Protocols Distance-vector algorithms compute the least-cost path of a route by using information that is exchanged with other routers. Inc. All Rights Reserved. The total number of hops is called the hop count. triggered updates. These stability features include a hop-count limit. RIPv1 and RIPv2 are bundled with the Solaris 10 OS. hold-down states. This information describes how far away (in distance) reachable networks are from the sending or receiving system. only the first path with the lowest hop count is maintained. This distance is measured by a metric known as a hop.Configuring Dynamic Routing Configuring Dynamic Routing RIP is a routing protocol that is used commonly on computer systems to provide dynamic routing. When multiple paths to a destination exist. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. RIP is an Application layer protocol. RIP Version 1 RIP version 1 is a distance-vector protocol that exchanges route information between IP routers. The efficiency of a route is determined by its distance from the source to the destination. RIP version 1 does not support VLSM or CIDR. Revision A. RIP maintains only the best route to a destination.1 7-25 . Sun Services. and route poisoning. split horizons. Metric = 1 (propagated to route tables) Router Router Source Host Router Destination Metric = 2 (discarded) Host Figure 7-8 Least Hop Count RIP specifies a number of features that make its operation more stable in the face of rapid network topology changes. Figure 7-8 shows the least hop count between a source host and a destination host.

When a route goes down. All Rights Reserved. This helps prevent two-node routing loops. As the router becomes aware that new routes are available or that existing routes are not available. This activity begins a wave of route updates that filter through the network. Hold-Down States Hold-down states prevent regular update messages from inappropriately reinstating a route that has gone bad. Hold-down states tell routers to hold down any changes that can affect recently removed routes for a specified period of time. These routers then calculate new routes and send route update messages to inform their neighbors of the route change. Triggered Updates Triggered updates propagate changing route information quickly throughout the network. neighboring routers detect this condition. It is possible that a device that has yet to be informed of a network failure can send a regular update message (indicating that a route that has just gone down is still available) to a device that has just been notified of the network failure. 7-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The hold-down period is usually calculated to be just greater than the period of time that is necessary to update the entire network with a route change. it advertises this information immediately rather than waiting until the next 30-second (default) advertisement interval occurs. These updates do not instantly arrive at every network device. In this case. Split Horizons Split horizons derive from the fact that it is never useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which it came. The split-horizon rule prohibits this from happening.1 .Configuring Dynamic Routing Hop-Count Limits RIP permits a maximum hop count of 15. A destination greater than 15 hops away is tagged as unreachable. Inc. This upper limit of 15 does not cause problems since RIP is an IGP and is used within autonomous systems only. the latter device now contains (and potentially advertises) incorrect route information. Revision A. Sun Services. The maximum hop count of RIP greatly restricts its use in large networks but prevents a problem called count to infinity from causing endless network routing loops.

Inc. while maintaining backward compatibility combined with the simplicity of RIPv1. This update includes a hop-count advertisement of 16. All other hosts and routers consider the destination as unreachable.1 7-27 .9 multicast address is reserved for RIPv2. RIPv2 has the following characteristics: q q RIPv2 supports VLSM and non-byte-bounded subnet masks. and the hosts and routers remove the route entry. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. This is to ensure that other systems do not attempt to use the bad route. it issues a triggered update for that destination. All Rights Reserved. RIPv2 uses muticast to advertise routes. RIPv2 includes support for simple authentication of messages.Configuring Dynamic Routing Route Poisoning When a router learns that a destination is no longer available. Sun Services. q Note – RIP version 2 is defined in RFC 2453.0. RIP Version 2 RIP version 2 was developed to address some of the limitations of RIPv1. The 224.0.

routed daemon use the information. type the routeadm command with no arguments: # routeadm Configuration Option IPv4 forwarding IPv4 routing IPv6 forwarding IPv6 routing IPv4 routing daemon IPv4 routing daemon args IPv4 routing daemon stop IPv6 routing daemon IPv6 routing daemon args IPv6 routing daemon stop # Current Configuration default default default default (disabled) (enabled) (disabled) (disabled) Current System State disabled enabled disabled disabled "/usr/sbin/in. The in.routed Daemon The in. Inc.ripngd. The /usr/sbin/in. but only those hosts that run the in. The routeadm command is used to control whether a system runs the in.routed daemon.pid‘" 7-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ripngd" "-s" "kill -TERM ‘cat /var/tmp/in. all hosts receive the information. You cannot change this time interval. or if the /etc/defaultrouter file is empty or does not exist. A router sends routing information to the networks to which it is directly connected every 30 seconds.routed daemon can be stopped and started on the command line by using the routeadm command.routed Daemon RIPv1 and RIPv2 are implemented by the /usr/sbin/in. Revision A.routed routing daemon and whether a system forwards IP packets between networks. If RIPv1 broadcasts are being processed. If RIPv2 multicasts are being processed. To view the current configuration.routed" "" "kill -TERM ‘cat /var/tmp/in.Configuring Dynamic Routing The in. Routers and non-routers run the in. All Rights Reserved. only those hosts listening for the RIPv2 multicast address process the information.routed daemon is started at boot time if the ipv4-routing option is specifically enabled by using the routeadm command.routed.routed daemon causes a system to broadcast its own routing information if IP forwarding and IP routing are enabled by the routeadm command.routed daemon. Sun Services.1 . Stopping and Starting the in.pid‘" "/usr/lib/inet/in.

routed daemon unless the /etc/defaultrouter file is not empty). Revision A.conf file. but does not change the current configuration of the system. The -u option updates the system’s current configuration by using the contents of the /etc/inet/routing.conf file.conf file to list the argument as enabled explicitly.routed daemon. Inc. The -e option changes the contents of the /etc/inet/routing. Note – Using the routeadm command without the -u option causes the configuration to be changed in the /etc/inet/routing. type the command: # routeadm -u -d ipv4-routing # To start the in.routed daemon.1 7-29 .conf file to list the argument as disabled explicitly. All Rights Reserved. To cause the system to revert to default behavior at system boot (start the in. Sun Services.Configuring Dynamic Routing To stop the in. type the command: # routeadm -r ipv4-routing # Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. type the command: # routeadm -u -e ipv4-routing # The -d option changes the contents of the /etc/inet/routing.

routed process builds a default route entry for each router from which an advertisement is received. A black hole is the time period in which a router path is present in the table. The in. but the router is not actually available.0.routed daemon has been enhanced to include equivalent route discovery funtionality. to change the advertisement interval to 100 seconds.1 multicast address for these router advertisement messages.rdisc daemon is still present in the Solaris 10 OS.routed daemon advertise their presence by using the 224. For example.routed daemon listen to the 224.Configuring Dynamic Routing The RDISC Protocol The RDISC Protocol sends and receives router advertisement messages pertaining to default routes. The default lifetime for a non-advertised route is 30 minutes (three times the advertising time interval). The in.1 . Routers must still run a routing protocol. The RDISC protocol provides a default route from hosts to routers. Inc. q The behavior of the RDISC protocol can be controlled by entries in the /etc/gateways file.rdisc daemon. not between routers.0. All Rights Reserved. Non-routers running the in.0. it is no longer started at system boot. such as RIP. Some disadvantages of the RDISC protocol are: q An advertisement period of 10 minutes can result in a black hole. create the entry: rdisc_interval=100 7-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Routers that run the in. to learn about other networks. Some advantages of the RDISC Protocol are that it: q q q q Is independent of routing protocol Uses a multicast address Results in small routing tables Provides redundancy through multiple default-route entries Note – The RDISC Protocol was previously implemented by using the in.0. the in. Sun Services. While the in.routed daemon implements the RDISC Protocol. In the Solaris 10 OS.1 multicast address every 600 seconds (10 minutes). RFC 1256 specifies the format of related ICMP messages. Revision A.

available at: http://www. there is a separate entry in the sending system’s routing table. This action can lead to a large routing table. Inc. ICMP redirects occur when a system uses more than one default route. The sending system’s routing table is updated with the new information. Refer to the Sun BluePrints™ document Solaris Operating Environment Network Settings for Security.1 7-31 . ICMP datagrams are always encapsulated in IP. this method of routing also ensures that the datagrams that are going to all reachable hosts are taking the shortest route. ICMP on a router or gateway attempts to send reports of problems to the original source if an IP datagram cannot be delivered for some reason. Caution – An attacker might forge redirect errors to install false routes. all of which can be spoofed easily.com/solutions/blueprints/1200/ network-updt1. There are rules governing valid redirect errors.Configuring Dynamic Routing ICMP Redirects ICMP provides control and error messages. it redirects the datagram using the better or only route and reports that route to the sender. Use this ndd command to ignore IPv4 ICMP redirect errors: ndd -set /dev/ip ip_ignore_redirect 1. or if there is only one way to forward the datagram. However. If the router determines a more efficient route. Sun Services. The information does reach the server1 system and the sys11 system sends an ICMP redirect to the sys21 system. which might initiate a denial of service attack if the newly specified router is not a router at all. telling it that the best route to the server1 system is through the instructor system.sun. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Figure 7-9 on page 7-32 shows an ICMP redirect process where the sys21 system needs to communicate with the server1 system and has a default route of sys11. The drawback to this method of routing is that for every ICMP redirect.pdf. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

All Rights Reserved. Inc. Sun Services.Configuring Dynamic Routing server1 4 5 Datagram Datagram #telnet server1 sys21 3 ICMP Redirect 1 Datagram 2 Datagram instructor sys11 Figure 7-9 ICMP Redirect 7-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . Revision A.

RFC 1519. All Rights Reserved. and the remaining 14 bits identify the host. The first 18 bits identify the network.255. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.X. The most severe problems are: q q Impending depletion of Class B networks Increasing the size of routing tables Depletion of Class B networks creates a problem for large organizations because Class C addresses with 254 as their maximum number of host addresses are not large enough. Assigning multiple Class C networks to companies will.X. Sun Services. CIDR is documented in RFC 1517. For example. Inc. using /18 is equivalent to a netmask of 255. The network prefix is expressed in the following notation: X. Netmasks are referred to as network prefixes and are used to create networks of varying sizes. or supernetting. Large routing tables cause poor router performance because the router spends excessive time performing address lookups.192.X/Y. Purpose of CIDR A task force was created by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to develop a solution to the scale and growth problems. and is a way to make more-efficient use of the IP address space. and Class C) Block address allocation Hierarchical routing Operation of CIDR CIDR uses classless addresses. The solution became known as CIDR. over time. Class B.0.Introducing CIDR Introducing CIDR The rapid growth of the Internet in the early 1990s created concerns about the ability to scale and support future growth.1 7-33 . RFC 1518. dramatically increase the number of routes in the routing table. and RFC 1520. The value Y is an integer value that specifies the number of 1s in the netmask. Three important features of CIDR that address scalability and growth issues for the Internet are: q q q Elimination of network classes (Class A. Revision A.

255. The systems on the supernetted networks must all use the following in order to properly communicate without a router: q q Network address – 192.3.0 addresses are valid host addresses. or 255.ssssssss.pp000000. Sun Services. or 255.254.Introducing CIDR Figure 7-10 shows an example of a CIDR prefix.168.255.254 (510 addresses).0/23 Broadcast address – 192.2/24 (11000000.10101000.00000000.0). but they are not used in the Solaris 10 OS. 0xfffffe00.3.nnnnnnnn.00000010. Evolution of Routing Protocols Classful Routing Protocols Network Route Subnet Route Host Route 10nnnnnn. 192.255.168.ss0000000 10nnnnnn.255 and 192.ssssssss.255.sshhhhhhh Classless Routing Protocols pppppppp.00000000 10nnnnnn. Revision A.nnnnnnnn.168.3/24 (11000000.2. Supernetting is the combining of two or more contiguous network addresses.00000011.168.nnnnnnnn.255 Valid host addresses for this supernetted network range from 192. or 255.1 .168. 0xffffff00.0) can be supernetted by using a prefix of /23 (11000000.10101000. Inc.3.168. The 192. 7-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.10101000.2.0) and 192. For example.2.pppppppp.00000000 Prefix Route Prefix Length n = Network s = Subnet h = Host Figure 7-10 CIDR Prefix This use of variable length subnet masks means making efficient use of network address space by supernetting or subnetting.168. 0xffffff00.255.168.1–192.0000001X.

204.3.168.0.0 192.255. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 255.0. For example. These smaller ISPs can then supply an even smaller subset of addresses to a customer or private organization.168.3.0.8.LOOPBACK.1 netmask ff000000 eri0: flags=1000843<UP.2.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.BROADCAST. Subnetting is the application of a netmask on an IP address to divide the network up into smaller pieces.255 ether 0:3:ba:2a:9d:7a # netstat -rnv IRE Table: IPv4 Destination Mask Gateway Device Mxfrg Rtt Ref Flg --------------. such as RIPv2. Sun Services.0. for example. an Internet service provider (ISP) could be allocated blocks of address space.255. even though there can be additional network addresses that are associated with the block.0.1 7-35 . A range of CIDR addresses is known as a CIDR block.255 127.----.20.---.MULTICAST.--------------.1 255.255.-----0 0 0 0 10 0 A CIDR and VLSM aware routing protocol.3.239 netmask fffffe00 broadcast 192.6 255.221. Inc. which they then assign in subset address blocks to smaller ISPs.RUNNING.--172.168.168.254 1500* 0 1 UGH 192.--.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 4 inet 192.2.MULTICAST.255. must be used on the router that connects this supernetted network to other networks.1 lo0 8232* 0 1 UH # Out In/Fwd ---.RUNNING. Revision A.239 eri0 1500* 0 1 U 127.254.Introducing CIDR Following is an example that configures an interface on this supernetted network: # ifconfig eri0 plumb 192.106.--------------.168.-----.0/22.239/23 broadcast + up # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.168. All Rights Reserved.255 192. This support of network addresses eliminates the number of entries required in the backbone routing tables.3. The routing table entry for each ISP or organization reflects the first address in the block assigned to it.255. CIDR and VLSM make this aggregation and subdivision of address space possible. CIDR and VLSM permit a portion of the IP address space to be divided into successively smaller pieces.

You can supernet four Class C networks.106.9. The networks can therefore be supernetted and a single route can be used to reach all four networks. Based on 254 clients per Class C network. 7-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Inc.106.0 204. if you consider the first 22 bits only of an address on any of these networks to represent the network portion of the address.0 204.Introducing CIDR Consider an ISP that requires IP addresses for 1000 clients.0 204. Figure 7-11 CIDR Network Addresses It can be seen from Figure 7-11 that the four networks being considered have identical values in their first 22 bits.11.0 Figure 7-11 shows the network addresses that can result from applying different network prefixes. Sun Services.106. every address on the four networks has the same network address. Therefore. for example: q q q q 204.10.106. Revision A. the ISP requires four Class C networks.1 .8.

106.0–204. Inc.0.7.0/16 (65.0/22 (1024 Host Addresses) 204.8.536 Host Addresses) Internet 204.Introducing CIDR Figure 7-12 shows an example of supernetting.1 7-37 .106.106. while minimizing the number of routing table entries required.8. Sun Services.0 204. Revision A.0/21 Internet Service Provider (2048 Host Addresses) Address Range 204.106.106. All Rights Reserved.0.106. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 Figure 7-12 Supernetting Example An ISP who is given a block of supernetted addresses can then divide the range into different sized blocks to suit the needs of their customers.0/20 (4096 Host Addresses) Address Range 204.106.0.106.0.0–204. 204.11.

The /etc/inet/routing. or is empty. the system first checks the contents of the /etc/inet/routing. If either option has not been set explicitly. The ipv4-forwarding option refers to whether a system will be configured to forward packets between networks. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. The ipv4-routing option refers to whether a system will start the in. If the /etc/defaultrouter file is not present. If the ipv4-routing or ipv4-forwarding options are set explicitly to either enabled or disabled. IPv4 routing is enabled (the in. IPv4 routing is disabled if the /etc/defaultrouter file is not empty.1 . Initializing a Router When a system boots.routed daemon is started).conf file. Sun Services. 7-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Configuring Routing at Boot Time Configuring Routing at Boot Time The behavior of a Solaris 10 system in regard to route configuration is different to previous versions of the Solaris OS.conf file contains two options regarding route configuration on a Solaris 10 system: ipv4-routing and ipv4-forwarding. Inc. IPv4 forwarding is disabled by default and must be enabled explicitly by using the routeadm command. the setting is applied. then the system determines whether or not to enable or disable each option.routed daemon.

All Rights Reserved. Start Disable IPv4 forwarding /etc/defaultrouter exist? Does Yes Disable IPv4 routing No IPv4 routing enabled by routeadm? No Disable IPv4 routing Yes Enable IPv4 routing IPv4 forwarding enabled by routeadm? No Disable IPv4 forwarding Yes Enable IPv4 forwarding End Figure 7-13 IPv4 Router Initialization Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. Revision A. Inc.Configuring Routing at Boot Time Figure 7-13 shows how the /lib/svc/method/net-init method configures a system for IPv4 forwarding and routing.1 7-39 .

Create an /etc/hostname. Revision A. Initializing a Multihomed Host A multihomed host is a system with two or more physical network interfaces that does not forward IP datagrams between the networks to which it is attached.Configuring Routing at Boot Time Configuring a Router Without Rebooting To configure a Solaris OS system as a router without rebooting. complete the following steps: 1. For example.interface and the /etc/inet/hosts files are configured properly. all systems with two or more physical network interfaces are multihomed hosts by default.interface file for each additional network interface that is installed in the system. if the qfe2 interface is to be enabled and known on the network. Become a superuser on the prospective multihomed system. Sun Services. containing contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname. All Rights Reserved.1 . 7-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. In the Solaris 10 OS.qfe2 file. Do one of the following: q Turn on IP forwarding on all of the interfaces: Turn on IP forwarding for specific interfaces: # routeadm -u -e ipv4-forwarding q # ifconfig specific_interface router 3. 2. Verify that the /etc/hostname. complete the following steps: 1.routed daemon: # routeadm -u -d ipv4-routing # routeadm -u -e ipv4-routing # The system now functions as a router. Stop and restart the in. To create a multihomed host. 2. Inc.qfe2 sample-hostname-for-qfe2 # This causes the interfaces to be configured by the SMF methods at boot time. you create the /etc/hostname.

Use the ifconfig command to enable the interface: Initializing a Non-Router Disabling IP forwarding stops a router from forwarding packets between the networks to which it is connected. Add an entry to the /etc/inet/hosts file so that the interface can be assigned an IP address at boot time. but do not enable the interface at this stage: # ifconfig qfe2 plumb 192. Use the routeadm command to disable IP forwarding explicitly: # routeadm -u -d ipv4_forwarding # 3. Inc. To initialize a non-router. The entry looks similar to the following: # grep sample /etc/inet/hosts 192.1 netmask + broadcast + # 2.1 7-41 .19. All Rights Reserved. use the routeadm command to disable IP forwarding on all interfaces by typing the following command: # routeadm -u -d ipv4_forwarding Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Do either of the two following procedures: q q Reboot the system with the init 6 command.168. Revision A. # ifconfig qfe2 up # The system is now a multihomed host that has connectivity to more than one network and can be used without concern of advertising routes and potentially causing routing issues on any of the networks to which it belongs. Use the ifconfig command to configure the new interface as appropriate. Complete the following steps to enable the configuration without rebooting: 1.168.Configuring Routing at Boot Time 3.19. Sun Services.1 sample-hostname-for-qfe2 # 4.

Revision A. and make sure that they are set correctly. if you are configuring the qfe0 interface. If the netmask and broadcast addresses are wrong. For example. to determine if the qfe interface is in the device tree.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 # If the interface is up.BROADCAST. Troubleshooting the Router Configuration When troubleshooting a problem.30. netmask. # q The ifconfig command reports the interface to be configured as expected. and broadcast entries.Troubleshooting Routing Troubleshooting Routing One of the most challenging tasks that a network administrator has to perform is troubleshooting routing. to determine if the qfe0 interface is configured as expected. examine the inet (IP address). and search for the interface with the grep command. use the following command: instance instance instance instance #0 #1 #2 #3 # prtconf | grep qfe SUNW. For example. All Rights Reserved.qfe. Router configuration and troubleshooting relies on mastering other basic network skills.qfe. verify the following: q The device information tree recognizes the additional interfaces. q The correct device and file name are defined for the interface. Sun Services. check the contents of the /etc/inet/hosts file. check the contents of the /etc/inet/netmasks file.168. For example. Inc. Use the prtconf command. type the command: 113 Nov 16 14:58 /etc/hostname.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.qfe0 # ls -al /etc/hostname.30.1 . SUNW. use the following command: # ifconfig qfe0 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP.qfe.qfe.RUNNING. to verify that the hostname.qfe0 -rw-r--r-1 root other # 7-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. SUNW.qfe0 file is correct.MULTICAST. SUNW. If the IP address is set incorrectly.

71 sys11-test-qfe1 # # # # # Data address for hme0 Data address for qfe1 qfe0:1 Test address for hme0 qfe1:1 Test address for qfe1 Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.31 sys11ext 192.21 sys11-data-qfe1 192.168. For example.1. type the command: # cat /etc/hostname.interface file exists in the /etc/inet/hosts file and is associated with the correct address.168. Revision A. For example.1 sys11 192.168.Troubleshooting Routing q The name that is assigned to the interface is correct.1.51 sys11-test-hme0 192.168. to determine if qfe0 has an assigned host name of sys11ext.168.168. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.1.1.1.1.1 7-43 . to determine if sys11 has an assigned IP address of 192.30.qfe0 sys11ext # q The name that is defined in the hostname. Inc. type the command: # grep sys11 /etc/inet/hosts 192.

Inc. Revision A.0.0.30.168.1.168. Sun Services. when used with the -r option. use the -n option with the netstat command.168. All Rights Reserved.168.-----.----.0.0 127.--------192.0 localhost # Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.0 224.31 U 1 176 qfe0 192.0.3.--------sys33ext UG 1 0 sys11 U 1 189 hme0 sys32ext UG 1 0 sys11ext U 1 175 qfe0 sys11 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 3 132 lo0 Observe how some of the destinations have names instead of numbers.168.Troubleshooting Routing Troubleshooting Network Names The netstat command.1.0 192.1.1 U 1 0 hme0 127.30.30.0 224.2.168.168.----. For example: # netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192. This can lead to errors when you configure a new interface.33 UG 1 0 192.168.0.-----.----. displays routing table information.0. To report addresses as numbers instead of names.30.1 UH 3 132 lo0 7-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 U 1 191 hme0 192.0 192.1 .0.168.30.----. For example: # netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------three one two 192.0 192.32 UG 1 0 192.1 # Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.168.0.

3 sys33 192.4 sys14 # 192.1.1. Your /etc/inet/hosts file should have contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table # 127. All Rights Reserved.168.31 sys11ext 192.33 sys31ext 192.1 sys31 192.2. you are instructed to work as a group on the system that is your subnet’s router. At times.1 sys11 192.1. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed.30 instructor # loghost # router to get to instructor->Internet # router to get to instructor->Internet # router to get to instructor->Internet Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.168.2.0.168. Revision A.168.1.30.168.2. you configure a Sun Microsystems workstation as a router and use the route command to configure the system’s routing tables manually.1 localhost # SA-300-S10 host information 192.4 sys34 # 192.2 sys32 192.168.3 sys23 192.1 sys21 192. Be sure to watch for prompts in the task steps to ensure that you are working on the correct system.2 sys22 192.4 sys24 # 192.3.30.0.168.168.30.1 7-45 . Sun Services.168.2 sys12 192. Inc.3.32 sys21ext 192.168.3 sys13 192.3.2.168. Populate your system’s /etc/inet/hosts file with all of the hosts in the class network if this is not already done.168.30.168.3.168.168.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration In this exercise.

1 sys21 sys31 .32 . Revision A.2.1 .4 Figure 7-14 Classroom Network Diagram 7-46 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.31 192.1.xxx 192. If the interface is configured.0 Internet .2 sys12 . All Rights Reserved.3 .4 sys24 sys34 .0 192.33 192. verify that its second interface is not configured.168.168.0 .3 sys23 sys33 . Take a few moments to familiarize yourself with the diagram. Figure 7-14 shows the classroom’s network diagram. Inc.3.1 sys11 .2 sys22 sys32 .Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Caution – If your system is designated by the instructor as being a router. instructor xxx.168.2 sys13 . the command output will not match the solutions properly for the exercises.0 .1 .4 sys14 .2 .30.30 .xxx.xxx. Sun Services.

What is a multihomed host? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Define the term autonomous system. Dynamic route ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ c. define each of the following routing schemes: a. describe the differences between an interior gateway protocol and an exterior gateway protocol. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Inc. Static route ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ b. In your own words. All Rights Reserved. Default route ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 2. Sun Services. Revision A. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 7-47 .Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Tasks Complete the following steps: 1. Give two examples of an interior gateway protocol. In your own words.

_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Subnet Group: Working on the Routers 8.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration 6. Which class of IPv4 address (A. Reboot the system in order to restore it to a default state for this exercise. Revision A. How many bits of your IPv4 address are currently being used for your network address? ________________________________________________________ 7-48 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Before making any changes to the interfaces. The success of this exercise depends on your system having only one configured physical interface. 2. All Rights Reserved. remove the relevant /etc/hostname. B. or C) is assigned to your system? ________________________________________________________ b. write the netmask and broadcast values of the Ethernet interface. Explain the purpose of ICMP redirects. Remove the file/s. and use the ifconfig command or reboot the system to remove the interface configuration. Inc. a. Give two examples of an exterior gateway protocol. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7.1 . If the /etc/defaultrouter file or the /etc/gateways file exists on your system: 1. Command used: ______________________________________________ Netmask: ____________________________________________________ Broadcast: ___________________________________________________ Caution – Do not proceed if your system has more than one physical interface configured. Sun Services. If additional interfaces are configured.interface files.

a. If it does not. Inc. Use the netstat -r command to observe your current routing table. and place the host name in it so that the second interface is configured automatically at boot time. Configure the router for your subnet. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Subnet Group: Working on the Routers 13. Use the ps command to determine if the routing daemon is currently running on the system. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 12.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration 9. Create the /etc/hostname. and place an appropriate name in the file. Verify that the name to be associated with the second interface that is used in the /etc/hostname. Write down which route destinations are available.interface file for your system’s second interface. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. What is the difference between this output and the previous netstat -r output? _____________________________________________________________ 11. Revision A.interface file exists in the /etc/inet/hosts file. b. Use the ps command to determine if the routing daemon is currently running on the system. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10.1 7-49 . edit the /etc/inet/hosts file. Use the netstat command with the -rn options.

Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 16. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ What does this daemon do? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 7-50 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Note – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. 15. Inc.1 . Determine that the routing daemon is running on the router. How many external interfaces are configured and running now? ________________________________________________________ b. Configure IP forwarding and IP routing for IPv4 to become enabled on the next boot of the router.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration 14. Revision A. Display the contents of the routing table. Reboot the router. Display the configuration of each network interface. Verify that each router is correctly configured. Which network destinations are now available? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ c. a.

Sun Services. Reboot the system in order to restore it to a default state for this exercise. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Why is this daemon running? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ b. 17. and record the current netmask and broadcast values. Revision A. remove the relevant /etc/hostname. Inc. Determine if the routing daemon is running on each non-router system.1 7-51 . Run the netstat -r command.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems Caution – Do not proceed if your system has more than one physical interface configured. The success of this exercise depends on your system having only one configured physical interface. If the /etc/defaultrouter file or the /etc/gateways file exists on your system: 1. All Rights Reserved. 2. Run the ifconfig -a command. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ c. and use the ifconfig command or reboot the system to remove the interface configuration.interface files. Remove the file/s. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and record the current network destinations. Complete the following steps: a. If additional interfaces are configured.

Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 19. Use the ps command on the non-router systems to determine if the routing daemon is now running. Revision A.2 as the non-routers reboot. (Hint: Use the icmp option on the snoop command line. Which new type of entry is now present? How was it entered into the routing table? _____________________________________________________________ 22. Be prepared to see ICMP router advertisements after the next step.) Be sure to use the snoop utility on the appropriate interface for the network that you want to monitor. All Rights Reserved. Start the snoop utility on the router to watch for network traffic associated with multicast address 224. Sun Services. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Why is this daemon running? _____________________________________________________________ 7-52 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Observe the snoop output on the router system.0.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 18.0.1 . Inc. Reboot your non-router workstation. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 20. Use the netstat -r command. Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 21. and observe the change to the routing tables.

Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 25. What is missing? _________________________________________________ Note – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. Use the netstat command to view the routing tables on one of the non-router systems.routed daemon terminates gracefully. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 24. d. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 27. All Rights Reserved. Terminate the snoop trace that you had running.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 23. and then start a verbose snoop trace in a separate window on your router system.routed daemon terminated gracefully? ________________________________________________________ What was the ETHER destination. Look for the router notification when the in.1 7-53 . 26. Revision A. Verify that the process has been terminated. Did you see the router notification when the in. Hint: Look for multicasts and ICMP messages. use the routeadm command to terminate the in. c. as reported by the snoop trace? ________________________________________________________ What protocol did the router notification use? ________________________________________________________ What was the destination IP address of the router notification? ________________________________________________________ b.routed process on the router. Sun Services. Inc. View the output from the snoop utility. a. Examine the snoop trace. Working in a new window.

Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration

Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System
28. Verify that the snoop session started earlier on your router is still running, and then start the in.routed process on your router system, changing the advertisement interval to 90 seconds by placing the appropriate entry in the /etc/gateways file. What entry do you place in the /etc/gateways file? _____________________________________________________________ Which command do you use to restart the in.routed daemon? _____________________________________________________________ Observe ICMP and other traffic as the in.routed daemon is started.

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
29. Use the netstat command to view the routing tables on one of the non-router systems to verify that the default route has been inserted into the routing table. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ In this section, you test to see how long it takes for the default route to be removed when no communications are received from a router. You use the 9 (KILL) signal to kill the in.routed daemon, so that the daemon does not have a chance to advertise that it is going down. 30. On a non-router, use the date and netstat commands to determine how long before the default route entry is removed. Note – The while statement syntax assumes that you are using the Bourne shell: while true > do date; netstat -rn | grep default; sleep 20 > done

7-54

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration

Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System
31. Simulate a router crash, and kill the in.routed daemon on the router again, but use the 9 (KILL) signal this time. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
32. Watch the output from the script, and keep track of the time. When the default entry stops being reported, subtract the start time from the finish time to determine how long the system took to remove the default route entry. Approximately how long did it take for the default entry to be removed from the table? _____________________________________________________________ When done, stop the script by pressing the Control+C key sequence. 33. Stop the in.routed daemon on the non-router systems. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step.

Individually: Working on All Systems
34. Flush the routing tables on routers first and then the non-router systems. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
35. Working on a non-router system, use the ping command to attempt to contact a non-router system on one of the other subnets. What is the response from the ping command? _____________________________________________________________

Configuring Routing
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

7-55

Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration

Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System
36. Add routes manually to the other subnets by using the route command. Write the commands that you use: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
37. Add routes manually by using the route command to the remote subnets. Write the commands that you use. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step.

7-56

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration

Individually: Working on All Systems
38. Working on all systems, observe the routing tables. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
39. Working on a non-router system, use the ping command to attempt to contact a non-router system on one of the other subnets. What is the response from the ping command? _____________________________________________________________ 40. Edit the contents of the /etc/inet/networks file, and add the one, two and three network names. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 41. Observe the changes to the routing table on all non-router systems. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Are the networks described in the /etc/inet/networks file present in the routing table? _____________________________________________________________ Note – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. 42. Reboot the routers. Schedule a job so that the non-routers reboot two minutes later. Check to see if the in.routed daemon was started on each of the non-router systems. Explain why you see the results that you do. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Configuring Routing
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

7-57

Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration

Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System
Perform the following steps to leave your router system in a known routing configuration for subsequent exercises: 43. Configure to enable IPv4 routing when the system next boots. _____________________________________________________________ 44. Configure to enable IPv4 forwarding when the system next boots. _____________________________________________________________ 45. If they exist, remove the /etc/gateways and /etc/defaultrouter files. _____________________________________________________________ Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. 46. Reboot the system. _____________________________________________________________

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
Perform the following steps to leave your non-router system in a known routing configuration for subsequent exercises: 47. Remove the /etc/inet/routing.conf file. _____________________________________________________________ 48. If they exist, remove the /etc/gateways and /etc/defaultrouter files. _____________________________________________________________ 49. Reboot the system _____________________________________________________________

7-58

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Summary

Exercise Summary
Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences, issues, or discoveries you had during the lab exercise.
q q q q

!
?

Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications

Configuring Routing
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

7-59

Exercise Solutions

Exercise Solutions
Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. In your own words, define each of the following routing schemes: a. Static route Static routes are routes that are do not time-out and must be removed manually. Rebooting the system removes the static entries. The most common static entry is a system that routes datagrams to the locally connected networks. b. Dynamic route Dynamic routing means that the routing environment changes. Dynamic routing identifies other network destinations that are not connected directly but are reachable through a router. After the routing table identifies the other reachable networks, the identified router can forward or deliver the datagrams. c. Default route A default route is a table entry that permits a system to define default routes to use if a route entry for a specific destination does not exist. It is used for all indirectly connected workstations. The default routers must be reliable. There is no need to define every reachable network. All indirectly connected datagram destinations go to the default router. 2. What is a multihomed host? A multihomed host is a host that has more than one physical network interface and does not forward IP datagrams between networks. 3. Define the term autonomous system. An autonomous system is a collection of networks and routers under a single administrative control. This intentionally broad definition was incorporated into the Internet to handle overly large routing tables. 4. In your own words, describe the differences between an interior gateway protocol and an exterior gateway protocol. A routing protocol used within an autonomous system is called an interior gateway protocol. A routing protocol that communicates routes between autonomous systems is called an exterior gateway protocol. 5. Give two examples of an interior gateway protocol. OSPF protocol and RIP.

7-60

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions 6. 7. Give two examples of an exterior gateway protocol. EGP and BGP. Explain the purpose of ICMP redirects. ICMP redirects are used most commonly when a system uses default routing. If the router determines a more efficient way to forward the datagram, it redirects the datagram using the best route and reports the correct route to the sender.

Subnet Group: Working on the Routers
8. Before making any changes to the interfaces, write the netmask and broadcast values of the Ethernet interface.

router# ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.1.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 The netmask is ffffff00. The broadcast address is 192.168.1.255. Caution – Do not proceed if your system has more than one physical interface configured. If additional interfaces are configured, remove the relevant /etc/hostname.interface files, and use the ifconfig command or reboot the system to remove the interface configuration. The success of this exercise depends on your system having only one configured physical interface. If the /etc/defaultrouter file or the /etc/gateways file exist on your system: 1. Remove the file/s. 2. Reboot the system in order to restore it to a default state for this exercise. a. Which class of IPv4 address (A, B, or C) is assigned to your system? Class C (this might be different in your classroom). b. How many bits of your IPv4 address are currently being used for your network address? Twenty-four bits (this might be different in your classroom).

Configuring Routing
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

7-61

Exercise Solutions 9. Use the netstat -r command to observe your current routing table. Write down which routing destinations are available.

router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.168.1.0 224.0.0.0 localhost

Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------sys11 U 1 0 hme0 sys11 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 2 6 lo0

10. Use the netstat command with the -rn options. What is the difference between this output and the previous netstat -r output? The netstat -rn command displays the table in numeric form. router# netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.168.1.0 224.0.0.0 127.0.0.1

Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------192.168.1.1 U 1 0 hme0 192.168.1.1 U 1 0 hme0 127.0.0.1 UH 2 6 lo0

11. Use the ps command to determine if the routing daemon is currently running on the system. router# ps -ef | grep in[.] root 153 1 0 04:42:54 ? 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.routed

The in.routed process is running.

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
12. Use the ps command to determine if the routing daemon is currently running on the system. non-router# ps -ef | grep in[.] root 153 1 0 04:45:56 ? 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.routed

7-62

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions

Subnet Group: Working on the Routers
13. Configure the router for your subnet. a. Create the /etc/hostname.interface file for your system’s second interface, and place the host name in it so that the second interface is configured automatically at boot time. For example, if your second interface is qfe0, the contents of the /etc/hostname.qfe0 file should be similar to: router# cat /etc/hostname.qfe0 sys11ext b. Verify that the name to be associated with the second interface that is used in the /etc/hostname.interface file exists in the /etc/inet/hosts file. If it does not, edit the /etc/inet/hosts file, and place an appropriate interface name in the file.

router# grep sys11ext /etc/inet/hosts 192.168.30.31 sys11ext # router to get to instructor->Internet 14. Configure IP forwarding and IP routing for IPv4 to become enabled on the next boot of the router. Write the command that you use: router# routeadm -e ipv4-forwarding router# routeadm -e ipv4-routing Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. 15. Reboot the router. Write the command that you use: router# init 6

Configuring Routing
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

7-63

Exercise Solutions 16. Verify that each router is correctly configured. a. router# ifconfig -a
lo0: flags=1000849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4, VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.1.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.168.30.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.30.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20

Display the configuration of each network interface.

How many external interfaces are configured and running now? Two interfaces: hme0 and qfe0. The interfaces might be different on your system. b. router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.168.1.0 192.168.2.0 192.168.30.0 224.0.0.0 localhost Display the contents of the routing table.

Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------sys11 U 1 0 hme0 sys21ext UG 1 0 sys11ext U 1 1 qfe0 sys11 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 2 6 lo0 Which network destinations are now available? You should see the following routes if all of the groups in the classroom have configured their routers (you may have to wait up to 5 minutes):
q q q q q q

192.168.1.0 192.168.2.0 192.168.3.0 192.168.30.0 224.0.0.0 127.0.0.1 (localhost)

c.

Determine that the routing daemon is running on the router. 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.routed

router# ps -ef | grep in[.] root 94 1 0 10:52:12 ?

What does this daemon do? The /usr/sbin/in.routed daemon sends ICMP router advertisement messages and RIP messages.
7-64 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
Caution – Do not proceed if your system has more than one physical interface configured. If additional interfaces are configured, remove the relevant /etc/hostname.interface files, and use the ifconfig command or reboot the system to remove the interface configuration. The success of this exercise depends on your system having only one configured physical interface. If the /etc/defaultrouter file or the /etc/gateways file exists on your system: 1. Remove the file/s. 2. Reboot the system in order to restore it to a default state for this exercise. 17. Complete the following steps: a. Determine if the routing daemon is running on each non-router system. 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.routed

non-router# ps -ef | grep in[.] root 156 1 0 13:31:57 ?

Why is this daemon running? The daemon is responsible for listening for ICMP router advertisements and RIP messages. b. Run the netstat -r command, and record the current network destinations.

non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------192.168.1.0 sys12 U 1 1 hme0 192.168.2.0 sys11 UG 1 1 hme0 192.168.30.0 sys11 UG 1 1 hme0 224.0.0.0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 localhost localhost UH 2 6 lo0 c. Run the ifconfig -a command, and record the current netmask and broadcast values.

non-router# ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4, VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1
inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.1.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255 ether 8:0:20:a4:8f:80

Configuring Routing
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

7-65

7-66 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. non-router# init 6 Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 20.1 sys11 -> 224.0. Start the snoop utility on the router to watch for network traffic associated with multicast address 224. Inc.0.0. (Hint: Use the icmp option on the snoop command line.2 as the non-routers reboot.0.1 . sys11 -> 224.) Be sure to use the snoop utility on the appropriate interface for the network that you want to monitor. Sun Services.0.0. router# snoop -d hme0 icmp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 19. Be prepared to see ICMP router advertisements after the next step.Exercise Solutions Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 18. Observe the snoop output on the router system. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.1 ICMP Router advertisement (Lifetime 1800s [1]: {sys11 0}) ICMP Router advertisement (Lifetime 1800s [1]: {sys11 0}) ICMP Router advertisement (Lifetime 1800s [1]: {sys11 0}) Notice that routers send direct advertisements to the multicast adddress to which clients are listening.1 sys11 -> 224.0.0. Reboot your non-router workstation.

Exercise Solutions Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 21. and then start a verbose snoop trace in a separate window on your router system. router# routeadm -u -d ipv4-routing Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The system learns the default route from routers on the subnet through the router discovery ICMP messages.0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 224. You can view the configuration by looking at the contents of the /etc/inet/routing.] root 91 1 0 12:36:05 ? Why is this daemon running? The in. Use the netstat -r command.168. non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.----. at boot time. 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.0.routed process on the router.routed Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 23.1.conf file.routed daemon is running because the daemon is invoked by default. 22. and observe the change to the routing tables. Revision A.-----.1 7-67 .0. Sun Services.-------------------.--------192. Terminate the snoop trace that you had running.0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 default sys11 UG 1 0 hme0 localhost localhost UH 2 6 lo0 Which new type of entry is now present? How was it entered into the routing table? The newest entry is a default route. Use the ps command on the non-router systems to determine if the routing daemon is now running. All Rights Reserved.----. Working in a new window. use the routeadm command to terminate the in. router# snoop -v -d hme0 Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) 24. This is controlled by the routeadm utility. Inc. non-router# ps -ef | grep in[.

Examine the snoop trace. 224.0.. Inc.0. Verify that the process has been terminated. IP: Protocol = 1 (ICMP) IP: Header checksum = ea98 IP: Source address = 192.1 . b.168.27 ETHER: Packet size = 50 bytes ETHER: Destination = 1:0:5e:0:0:1. What protocol did the router notification use? ICMP. What was the ETHER destination.routed daemon terminated gracefully. Sun Services.1 ... Did you see the router notification when the in.0. ETHER: ----. router# ps -ef | grep routed root 94 1 0 10:52:12 ? 0:00 grep routed 7-68 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.1.. . sys11 IP: Destination address = 224.1..routed daemon terminated gracefully? Yes. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: . (multicast) ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:ac:9b:20.0..1. d. 26. Look for the router notification when the in.1.Exercise Solutions 25.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 8 arrived at 12:46:52.. What was the destination IP address of the router notification? 224. a. View the output from the snoop utility. as reported by the snoop trace? 1:0:5e:0:0:1.. . c.0. All Rights Reserved. Hint: Look for multicasts and ICMP messages.0.

.routed daemon is started.. Sun Services.routed process on your router system..1 7-69 .0.72 Packet size = 50 bytes Destination = 1:0:5e:0:0:1.----.----. Note – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. All Rights Reserved.Exercise Solutions Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 27. Packet 8 arrived at 16:39:16. Revision A. Sun Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. (multicast) Source = 8:0:20:ac:9b:20.1. Inc.0 sys12 U 1 0 qfe0 localhost localhost UH 2 6 lo0 The default route through the sys11 system was removed.--------192. What entry do you place in the /etc/gateways file? rdisc_interval=90 Which command do you use to restart the in. Output from snoop trace: ETHER: ETHER: ETHER: ETHER: . changing the advertisement interval to 90 seconds by placing the appropriate entry in the /etc/gateways file.-----.0 sys12 U 1 0 qfme0 224..0.. Verify that the snoop session started earlier on your router is still running. Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 28. What is missing? non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.168. and then start the in.routed daemon? router# routeadm -u -e ipv4-routing Observe ICMP and other traffic as the in. Use the netstat command to view the routing tables on one of the non-router systems.-------------------.

0.0 sys12 U 1 0 qfe0 default sys11 UG 1 0 qfe0 localhost localhost UH 2 6 lo0 In this section. 30.0.. Use the netstat command to view the routing tables on one of the non-router systems to verify that the default route has been inserted into the routing table. non-router# while true > do > date > netstat -rn | grep default > sleep 20 > done Tue Dec 4 17:17:44 MST 2004 7-70 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 .ICMP Header ----ICMP: ICMP: Type = 9 (Router advertisement) ICMP: Code = 0 (Lifetime 270s [1]: {sys11 0}) . 224.0.1. You use the 9 (KILL) signal to kill the in.----..0. sys11 IP: Destination address = 224.----. On a non-router.--------192. you test to see how long it takes for the default route to be removed when no communications are received from a router..168.1. All Rights Reserved.168. Note – The while statement syntax assumes that you are using the Bourne shell. use the date and netstat commands to determine how long before the default route entry is removed. so that the daemon does not have a chance to advertise that it is going down. Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 29.Exercise Solutions IP: Source address = 192.-------------------.-----..0. Revision A. Inc.1.0.1. non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.1 IP: No options IP: ICMP: ----.routed daemon. Sun Services.0 sys12 U 1 0 qfe0 224. .

. 33. Tue Dec default Tue Dec default Tue Dec Tue Dec . . Stop the in.. Revision A. but use the 9 (KILL) signal this time... When the default entry stops being reported.1 7-71 .routed Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. When done. and keep track of the time. Inc. .Exercise Solutions default Tue Dec default .. stop the script by pressing the Control+C key sequence..routed Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 32. 4 17:20:24 MST 2004 sys11 4 17:20:44 MST 2004 sys11 4 17:21:04 MST 2004 4 17:21:25 MST 2004 UG UG 1 1 0 0 Approximately how long did it take for the default entry to be removed from the table? Four and a half (4-1/2) minutes. .. All Rights Reserved.. Simulate a router crash. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. router# pkill -9 in.. subtract the start time from the finish time to determine how long the system took to remove the default route entry.] root 91 1 0 12:36:05 ? non-router# non-router# routeadm -u -d ipv4-routing 0:00 /usr/sbin/in..routed daemon on the router again. and kill the in.. Sun Services.. . Watch the output from the script. non-router# ps -ef | grep in[.routed daemon on the non-router systems. sys11 4 17:18:04 MST 2004 sys11 UG UG 1 1 0 0 Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 31.

Working on a non-router system.3. use the ping command to attempt to contact a non-router system on one of the other subnets. Flush the routing tables on routers first and then the non-router systems.2) to sys23 (192.32 192.1. non-router# ping sys23 ICMP Host Unreachable from gateway sys12 (192.168.3 What is the response from the ping command? ICMP Host Unreachable from gateway.168. Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 36.168.30.32 route add net 192.168. Inc.168.2.Exercise Solutions Individually: Working on Your Router System 34.3. Write the command that you use: router# route flush 192. router# add net router# router# add net route add net 192.168.2.168.168.168.2) for icmp from sys12 (192.0: gateway 192.2 sys21ext done Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems non-router# route flush Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 35. Revision A.168.0 192.168.30.30.1.0 192.0: gateway 192. Sun Services.168.1 .33 192.30. Add routes manually to the other subnets by using the route command. All Rights Reserved.2.33 7-72 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

168.168.0 sys11 UG 1 0 192.2.1 add net 192.0 224.3.1.1 Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step.0.2. Add routes manually by using the route command to the remote subnets.Exercise Solutions Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 37.3.168.1 7-73 .0: gateway 192.3.0: gateway 192.168.0 192.168.1 add net 192.----.168.0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 192.1 add net 192.-----.1.168.1.--------192.0 localhost Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.-----. On non-router systems: non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.3.168. observe the routing tables.1.168.30.0.168.168. Inc.1.30. Individually: Working on All Systems 38. Sun Services.30.168.----.0 192.1.-------------------.168.0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 localhost localhost UH 2 6 lo0 non-router# On router systems: router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.168. Revision A.168.0 192.1 non-router# non-router# route add net 192. non-router# route add net 192.0 sys11 UG 1 0 224.1.0.2.30.0: gateway 192.168.2.----. Working on all systems.168.168.0.168.----.0 sys11 UG 1 0 192.0 192.0 192.168.1 non-router# non-router# route add net 192.--------sys11 U 1 16 hme0 sys21ext UG 1 0 sys31ext UG 1 0 sys11ext U 1 14 hme0 sys11 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 2 6 lo0 Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.1.0 192.

0 localhost Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.1 two 192.1 . Working on a non-router system.168.0 224. Explain why you see the results that you do. Observe the changes to the routing table on all non-router systems.0.2 three 192. and add the one.168.0. Check to see if the in. Revision A.----. All Rights Reserved. Reboot the routers. use the ping command to attempt to contact a non-router system on one of the other subnets. 42.Exercise Solutions Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 39. non-router# vi /etc/inet/networks non-router# tail -3 /etc/networks one 192.3 41. 7-74 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------one two three 192. 40. Edit the contents of the /etc/inet/networks file. Schedule a job so that the non-routers reboot two minutes later.168. Inc. non-router# ping sys23 sys23 is alive What is the response from the ping command? sys23 is alive. Sun Services.routed daemon was started on each of the non-router systems.30.--------sys12 U 1 1 hme0 sys11 UG 1 2 sys11 UG 1 0 sys11 UG 1 0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 2 6 lo0 Are the networks described in the /etc/inet/networks file present in the routing table? Yes. two and three network names.----.-----. Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step.

. Configure to enable IPv4 forwarding when the system next boots. router# rm /etc/gateways. Configure to enable IPv4 routing when the system next boots. rm /etc/defaultrouter Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems non-router# at now+2minutes at> init 6 at> ^D<EOT> commands will be executed using /sbin/sh job 1007515599. Sun Services.. If they exist.Exercise Solutions Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System router# init 6 INIT: New run level: 6 . remove the /etc/gateways and /etc/defaultrouter files. All Rights Reserved. Reboot the system. router# routeadm -e ipv4-routing 44.a at Tue Dec 4 18:26:39 2004 Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System Perform the following steps to leave your router system in a known routing configuration for subsequent exercises: 43. router# init 6 Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems Perform the following steps to leave your non-router system in a known routing configuration for subsequent exercises: 47. Revision A. non-router# rm /etc/gateways. If they exist. rm /etc/defaultrouter Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 46.1 7-75 . router# routeadm -e ipv4-forwarding 45. remove the /etc/gateways and /etc/defaultrouter files. Inc.

Inc. Reboot the system. Sun Services. non-router# rm /etc/inet/routing. Revision A. Remove the /etc/inet/routing. All Rights Reserved.conf file. non-router# init 6 7-76 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 .Exercise Solutions 48.conf 49.

features. Upon completion of this module. configuration and troubleshooting.1 . Inc. Revision A. and IPv6 addressing and interfaces.Module 8 Configuring IPv6 Objectives This module describes IPv6 management. Sun Services. you should be able to: q q q q q q q q q Describe IPv6 Describe IPv6 addressing Describe IPv6 autoconfiguration Describe IPv6 unicast address types Describe IPv6 multicast address types Enable IPv6 Manage IPv6 Configure 6to4 routing Configure IPv6 multipathing 8-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Inc.1 . Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Figure 8-1 Course Map 8-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services.Objectives The course map in Figure 8-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal.

many of these addresses were not usable because classful addressing techniques wasted large numbers of possible IPv4 addresses.1 8-3 .463. This technique helps to alleviate the IP address shortage. Sun Services.920. however.938.211. A technique for using IP addresses on private networks without exposing them to the Internet is defined in RFC 1918. Routing in the Internet. All Rights Reserved. as is done in IPv4 by editing the /etc/inet/hosts file and creating /etc/hostname.366. IPv6 was defined to resolve the following: q IPv4 address shortage – IPv6 implements a 128-bit address scheme that supports 340. There is no need to assign manually an IPv6 address.282.463. provides for more than 4 billion addresses.347. Inc. with a 32-bit address scheme.Introducing IPv6 Introducing IPv6 IPv6 is the most recent version of the IP specification.456 nodes. However. The IAB predicted that all Class B networks would be allocated by 1994 and that all IP addresses would be allocated by 2002 (see Christian Huitema. Revision A.431.xxx files.768.607. Autoconfiguration allocates IPv6 addresses to systems automatically. Refer to RFC 2460 for a description of IPv6. In 1991. IPv4. Administrators. The Need for IPv6 The IPv4 address shortage is only one reason that IPv6 was developed. q Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) sponsored a working group to address a pending IP address shortage. Second Edition. still have to administer the name-to-IPv6 address mapping. Autoconfiguration – IPv6 systems configure their IPv6 addresses automatically. 2000).

Extension headers are located between the required IPv6 datagram header and the payload.Introducing IPv6 Features of IPv6 The IPv6 features are: q Expanded addressing – The address size is increased from 32-bit addresses to 128-bit addresses. Quality of service – A flow label in the header provides for flows. q q q q 8-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Flows identify a sequence of datagrams from the same source to the same destination when the source requests special handling of the specified datagram sequence by the intervening routers. Sun Services. Improved extension header and option support – This feature supports extension headers in addition to the primary header. they provide special treatment of some datagrams without a performance penalty.1 . Simplified header format – This format reduces the number of header fields in an IPv6 datagram from 10 fields to 6 fields. Authentication and privacy headers – An authentication header (AH) provides the authentication services. and the encapsulating security payload (ESP) header provides privacy. therefore.

IPv6 has three types of addresses that you can use to communicate across a network. Multicast Addressing With the multicast address type.Introducing IPv6 Addressing Introducing IPv6 Addressing IPv6 addressing uses 128 bits. followed by a routable prefix or padding. an address is assigned to a group of systems. Unicast addressing is called point-to-point addressing in IPv4. Revision A. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. For sending messages. The second part of the address is the interface identifier. Unicast Addressing With the unicast address type. analogous to the IPv4 host portion. Multicast addressing in IPv6 replaces broadcast addressing in IPv4. a unique address is assigned to an interface. it is no more difficult to administer IPv6 addressing than it is with IPv4. and is derived from the system’s MAC address. IPv6 supports: q q q Unicast addresses Multicast addresses Anycast addresses IPv6 differs from IPv4 in that IPv6 does not provide broadcast addresses as a mechanism for communicating with other hosts on a subnet. In IPv6 it is normal for several IPv6 addresses to be assigned to the same physical interface. Because of the autoconfiguration capability in IPv6. Address Types Like IPv4. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Datagrams are delivered to all interfaces as identified by the multicast address. A unicast datagram is sent to a single machine with the matching destination IPv6 address. Sun Services.1 8-5 . The first part of the address is the format prefix.

They are similar to the way Ethernet addresses are used to communicate on an Ethernet segment or subnet. instead of being delivered to all members of a group. Site-local addresses are valid across an intranet. Revision A. for example: fe80::a00:20ff:feb5:4137 Format Prefixes The format prefix (FP) in the address indicates the type of IPv6 address that is used. For example: q Link-local addresses are intended to identify hosts on a single network link. q 8-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. for example: fe80:0:0:0:a00:20ff:feb5:4137 q IPv6 permits address compression. as identified by the routing protocol. you can represent consecutive 16-bit 0 numbers with double colons (::).Introducing IPv6 Addressing Anycast Addressing With the anycast address type. Sun Services. Anycast addresses identify the nearest member of a group of systems that provide a particular type of service. To compress an address. They are similar to an organization choosing a random IPv4 address class for the organization. You can compress leading or embedded 0s (zeros) with a double colon (::). but not connecting to the Internet. You can only do this once in any address. Inc.1 . for example: fe80:0000:0000:0000:0a00:20ff:feb5:4137 Eight 16-bit hexadecimal numbers in which 0s (zeros) are represented by a single leading 0. All Rights Reserved. Datagrams are delivered to the nearest interface member. an address is assigned to a group of systems. IPv6 Address Representation RFC 2373 describes how IPv6 128-bit hexadecimal addresses can be represented in multiple ways: q Eight 16-bit hexadecimal numbers.

because the two binary values are 0010 and 0011. For example. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. A multicast address is an identifier for a group of systems. All Rights Reserved. which is equal to 0x1. As defined in RFC 2373. the FP represented by 001 is 0x2 or 0x3.Introducing IPv6 Addressing q Aggregatable global addresses are valid across the Internet. The FP represented by 001 should not be confused with 0001. Revision A. Inc. Table 8-1 Initial Allocation of Format Prefixes From RFC 2373 Allocation Link-local unicast addresses Site-local unicast addresses Aggregatable global-unicast addresses Multicast addresses FP (Binary) 1111 1110 10 1111 1110 11 001 1111 1111 FP (Hexadecimal) FE8 FEC 2 or 3 FF Note – Refer to RFC 2373 for information about FPs that are not related to the Solaris OS. They are similar to an officially registered IPv4 address class for organizations connected to the Internet. unused trailing bits in the byte are not shown. q Table 8-1 shows several common types of IPv6 addresses.1 8-7 . A node can belong to any number of multicast groups. The FP byte is binary.

Revision A. Routers advertise prefixes that identify the subnets associated with a link.Introducing IPv6 Autoconfiguration Introducing IPv6 Autoconfiguration IPv6 address autoconfiguration includes: q Determining what information should be autoconfigured. Inc. Stateful autoconfiguration and stateless autoconfiguration. 8-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. link-local addresses are sufficient for permitting communication among systems that are attached to the same link. Sun Services. such as addresses and routing prefixes Verifying the uniqueness of link-local addresses on the link q Stateful Autoconfiguration Stateful autoconfiguration requires the additional setup of a DHCP server. as defined in IPv6. An address is formed by combining the advertised prefix and the interface identifier. while hosts generate an interface identifier that uniquely identifies an interface on a subnet. stateful autoconfiguration is not a preferred configuration method. a host can generate only link-local addresses. Stateful autoconfiguration supplies address and service information similar to the way that DHCP provides information in IPv4. In the absence of routers. can coexist and operate together. All Rights Reserved. However. For this reason.1 . Stateless Autoconfiguration The stateless mechanism permits a host to generate its own addresses by using a combination of information this is available locally and information that is advertised by routers.

            +1. All Rights Reserved. Figure 8-3 shows the address in binary format. Sun Services. Figure 8-2 shows this address. MAC Address Convert the address to binary format. Inc. Revision A.1 8-9 . Figure 8-2 2. The initial MAC address is 08:00:20:b5:41:37. where: q q 08:00:20 is the company identifier (CID) b5:41:37 is the vendor-supplied identifier (VID) To build an interface identifier. 81. Obtain the MAC address.  &    * # "  ! % Figure 8-3 Binary Representation of the MAC Address Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The following is an example of how a Sun Microsystems workstation computes an IPv6 interface identifier address from its MAC address.Introducing IPv6 Autoconfiguration Interface Identifier Calculation Appendix A of RFC 2373 describes the process of automatically calculating an IPv6 interface identifier address. perform the following steps: 1. 81. 08:00:20:b5:41:37 +1.

The system receives a neighbor advertisement from any device that is currently using the address. which is the seventh bit from the left.1 . Duplicate Address Detection Systems run a duplicate address detection algorithm on an address before that address is assigned to an interface. - * # "  ! % Figure 8-5 5. if no response is received.                 +1. . 81.  )    .  )    * # "  ! % Figure 8-4 4. 81. 0xFF and 0xFE. This is done without regard to the manner in which the address was obtained. the systems assume that the address is available for use and is assigned to the interface. MAC Address With 0xFF and 0xFE Octets Convert the binary address to hexadecimal format. This unique interface identifier is only 64 bits of the 128-bit address and is called an end-unit identifier-64 (EUI-64). This converts the MAC address to an interface identifier. MAC Address Conversion to an Interface Identifier Insert two additional octets. Therefore. The duplicate address detection algorithm works by sending a neighbor solicitation message to the network that contains the address in question. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.             +1. If the address in question is not unique. Figure 8-4 shows the address after conversion. Revision A. Inc. This unique interface identifier is the basis of autoconfigured IPv6 addresses on the system. a unique address must be configured manually. the universal/local bit. between the CID and the VID. . 8-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing IPv6 Autoconfiguration 3. Figure 8-5 shows the resulting interface identifier. Toggle bit 7. and include colons to show the IPv6-autoconfigured interface identifier address of 0a00:20ff:feb5:4137.

Sun Services. or FE8 in hexadecimal. like IPv4. The link-local address format prefix is 1111 1110 10 in binary. as shown in Figure 8-6. The first 10 bits of the address prefix identify an address as a link-local address.1 8-11 . Unicast addresses direct datagrams to a single interface or system. Inc. The ability to transmit network data in this way enables systems that are not included in the communication to efficiently ignore network data that is not addressed to them.  *EJI 1111111010 #" *EJI All Zeros (0) $" *EJI Interface ID fe80::a00:20ff:feb5:4137 Figure 8-6 Link-Local Address Format Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing Unicast Address Types Introducing Unicast Address Types IPv6. Link-local addresses are not forwarded by routers. Link-Local Addresses Link-local addresses are valid on a local network link only. All Rights Reserved. supports the concept of unicast addressing. Revision A.

Intranet routers can forward site-local addresses through the intranet but not outside of the intranet. the IANA. or FEC in hexadecimal format.1 . as shown in Figure 8-7. q q 8-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Figure 8-8 shows the frame format of an aggregatable global-unicast address.  *EJI 1111111011 !& *EJI All Zeros (0) $ *EJI Subnet ID $" *EJI Interface ID fec0::0003:a00:20ff:feb5:4137 Figure 8-7 Site-Local Address Format Aggregatable Global-Unicast Addresses Aggregatable global addresses can be routed through the Internet. Revision A.The site-local address format prefix is 1111 1110 11 in binary. and they designate that this address is a routable global-unicast address. The first three bits are always set to 001. Inc. ! *EJI ! *EJI 001 TLA ! *EJI NLA $ *EJI SLA $" *EJI Interface ID Figure 8-8 Aggregatable Global-Unicast Address Format The frame format of an aggregatable global-unicast address includes: q A prefix – The assigned prefix for aggregatable global addresses (001). The top-level aggregator (TLA) – The identifying number of the Internet authority that assigned the provider portion of the address. The first 10 bits of the address prefix identify an address as a site-local address. An aggregatable global address always starts with 2 or 3 in hexadecimal format. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. for example.Introducing Unicast Address Types Site-Local Addresses Site-local addresses are similar to link-local addresses but can be routed through an intranet. The next level aggregator (NLA) – The address identifier that is assigned to a company or organization by its ISP.

Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 8-13 . IPv6 systems that use this technique have special IPv6 unicast addresses assigned that carry an IPv4 address in the low-order 32 bits. The first part is the format prefix. An example of a subnet prefix address is: fec0::0003:a00:20ff:feb5:4137/64 The /64 indicates that the subnet prefix is 64 bits in length. q Prefix Notation RFC 2373 describes how IPv6 addresses use prefix notation. All Rights Reserved. the EUI-64 address. Inc. Interface ID – The portion of the IP address that derives from the MAC address. The first 64 bits of the address contain a subnet mask. IPv6 addresses have two parts. An example of an embedded IPv4 address in an IPv6 address is: 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:FFFF:yyyy:yyyy where FFFF indicates that an embedded IPv4 address is present. q q fec0::0003 – The subnet prefix a00:20ff:feb5:4137 – The interface identifier Embedded IPv4 Addresses The IPv6 transition mechanisms include a technique for systems and routers to tunnel IPv6 datagrams dynamically under the IPv4 routing infrastructure. and yyyy:yyyy represents the 32 bits of the IPv4 address in hexadecimal format. This type of address is an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address. The second part is the interface identifier and is analogous to the IPv4 host portion. The address can be broken into a subnet prefix and a node address or into an interface identifier. Revision A.Introducing Unicast Address Types q The site-level aggregator (SLA) – The subnet address assigned to networks in the company or organization. that is. Sun Services.

Loopback Address Types IPv6 systems use the loopback address of 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001. All Rights Reserved.1 . Sun Services.Introducing Unicast Address Types Unspecified Address Types The source address of a system that has not had an address assigned will be all zeros. or :: in compressed format.0. Inc.1 local address used by IPv4 systems. Revision A. This address is analogous to the 127. or ::1 to send datagrams to themselves. for example: 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000. 8-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0. 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0. 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1.

Figure 8-9 shows the multicast address types. All Rights Reserved. Purpose of Multicast Addresses The low-order 112 bits in an IPv6 address identify the multicast group to which the datagram belongs. The FP of 11111111 or FF in hexadecimal format in an address identifies the datagram as being a multicast datagram. the fourth bit is set to 1 if a temporary multicast address is used. A single interface can have multiple IPv6 addresses assigned to it. Sun Services. Inc. The fourth flag bit is set to 0 if a well-known IANA-assigned multicast address is used. including multicast addresses.1 8-15 . Multicast addresses include 4 bits of flags after the initial FF in the format prefix. An IPv6 multicast address can be thought of as a single identifier for a group of IPv6 systems that belong to the multicast group.Introducing Multicast Address Types Introducing Multicast Address Types A datagram addressed to a multicast address is delivered to all systems that are part of the multicast group. Revision A. FP 8 Bits  Flags Scope 4 Bits : 4 Bits :::: Multicast Group ID 112 Bits ff02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 Figure 8-9 Multicast Address Types Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Three of the flag bits are reserved and are always set to 0.

Route to all members of the group at the same site as the sender. Revision A. Route to all members of the group on the Internet. Inc.1 . q q q q For example. Site-local – FF05.Introducing Multicast Address Types Scope Bits Multicast addresses include four scope bits after the flag bits. The scope bits determine how far the multicast datagram is routed: q Node-local – FF01. the multicast addresses for all routers are: q q q q FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 – Node-local routers FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 – Link-local routers FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 – Site-local routers FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:9 – Link-local. Sun Services. Link-local – FF02. RIPv2 routers The multicast addresses for all systems are: q q FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 – Node-local systems FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 – Link-local systems Refer to RFC 2373 for additional IPv6 multicast information. Route to all members of the group on the same node as the sender. Route to all members of the same organization as the sender. Route to all members of the group on the same link as the sender. Global – FF0E. Organization-local – FF08. 8-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.

Hosts that join. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. which is defined in RFC 1885. Inc. belong to. The following three IGMP version 2 messages are relevant to this introduction: q Membership query – Determines which groups have members on a network Membership report – Reports if a system is part of a multicast group Leave group – Determines when a system leaves a multicast group q q All of the IGMP functionality has moved to ICMP version 6.Introducing Multicast Address Types ICMPv6 Group Membership RFC 2236 describes IGMP version 2 for IPv4.1 8-17 . or leave multicast groups use IGMP version 2 to report this information to local multicast routers.

Obtain MAC addresses – Neighbor solicitation messages are sent by a node to determine the link-layer address of a neighbor or to verify that a neighbor is still reachable by a cached link-layer address. Discover routers – In IPv4.ndpd daemon sends unsolicited neighbor advertisements to discover newly available systems. A solicitation can be sent if a node does not have an entry for a system in its neighbor cache.1 . All Rights Reserved. IPv6 neighbor discovery replaced the function that the IPv4’s RDISC protocol provided. Neighbor solicitations are also used for duplicate address detection. The in. Gather reachability information about paths to active neighbors – The in. Sun Services. This is similar to the ARP in IPv4.Enabling IPv6 Enabling IPv6 You can enable IPv6 from the command line or by creating specific files that are read by the /lib/svc/method/net-init and /lib/svc/method/net-physical SMF methods at boot time. Systems send router solicitations to prompt routers to send router advertisements. Systems on the same network link use ND for IPv6 to: q Perform address autoconfiguration – Systems configure an address for an interface automatically. Systems use received neighbor advertisements to update their neighbor cache with the MAC address of the sender. This eliminates the common duplicate IP address problem experienced on IPv4 networks. The in. Inc. q q q 8-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ndpd daemon implements the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (ND). hosts had no way of knowing how to locate routers unless the host had a static route defined or it was running a type of routing protocol. Revision A. Note – You can also enable IPv6 during initial installation of the Solaris 10 OS.ndpd Daemon on a Non-Router The in.ndpd daemon can also send unsolicited neighbor advertisements to announce a link-layer address change.

When an interface becomes enabled. Refer to RFC 2461 for more information about neighbor discovery. Inc. rather than at their next scheduled time. IPv6 introduces new files.Enabling IPv6 Routers advertise their presence with various link and Internet parameters. This enables the host to become part of a network more quickly than it would have if it waited for a normal router advertisement. Configuring IPv6 on Non-Routers You configure a system to support both IPv4 and IPv6. This configured system is known as a dual-stack system. q q Provide router redirects – A router informs a host of a better first-hop node to reach a particular destination. The /etc/inet/ipnodes file can contain both IPv6 and IPv4 addresses.interface file can still contain an IPv6 address or a resolvable host name to disable autoconfiguration and enforce a given IPv6 address. a suggested hop limit value. q /etc/inet/ipnodes – This file has similar functionality to the /etc/inet/hosts file. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. either periodically or in response to a router solicitation message. Systems use router advertisements to populate their neighbor cache with the MAC address of the router. There is no link from the /etc/ipnodes file. q Router advertisements contain prefixes used for on-link determination or address configuration.interface – This file has similar functionality to the /etc/hostname. All Rights Reserved. Note – The /etc/hostname6. including: q /etc/hostname6.1 8-19 . Sun Services.interface file but contains no IP address or host name information. and other information. hosts can send router solicitations that request routers to generate router advertisements immediately. Revision A.

the /etc/inet/ipnodes file is consulted first. create a /etc/hostname6.168.LOOPBACK. Configuring an Interface for IPv6 To configure an IPv6 interface on a system.0.interface file and reboot the system.MULTICAST. For example.RUNNING. View the configuration of the system’s interfaces before making any changes.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. All Rights Reserved.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1. and then the /etc/inet/hosts file is consulted. # touch /etc/hostname6. Revision A.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Sun Services.hme0 file to cause the interface to configure with IPv6. Inc.IPv4. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. and then reboot the system. to configure IPv6 on a system’s hme0 interface. and it can only contain IPv4 addresses. Create the /etc/hostname6.hme0 # init 6 # INIT: New run level: 6 8-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.255 ether 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 # 2. The /etc/inet/hosts file is the only file that is contacted for IPv4 applications.Enabling IPv6 Note – If an application is IPv6-capable. or use the ifconfig command to configure the interface manually.MULTICAST.BROADCAST. complete the following steps: 1.1.168.RUNNING.1 .VIRTUAL> mtu 823 2 index 1 inet 127.

Recall from a previous step that an IPv6 address was not defined.LOOPBACK.RUNNING. to name this system’s IPv6 hme0 interface sys12-v6.168.MULTICAST.Enabling IPv6 3. For example. you can add an entry to the /etc/inet/ipnodes file to make it look similar to the following: # tail -2 /etc/inet/ipnodes # added for ipnode example fec0::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7 # sys12-v6 The /etc/inet/ipnodes file on each system on the local link that is running IPv6 can be configured with a similar entry. Inc.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168. Sun Services.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.LOOPBACK. Configuring IPv6 Name Service Lookup Like IPv4.MULTICAST.RUNNING.1.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7/10 # View the system’s interface configuration after the boot. 4.VIRTUAL> mtu 823 2 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 825 2 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP. You can now address a system by its IPv6 interface by using the sys12-v6 host name. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. you can apply names to IPv6 addresses so that you can more easily refer to a system.1.RUNNING.RUNNING.IPv6.MULTICAST.IPv4.0.255 ether 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Revision A.BROADCAST. All Rights Reserved. View the startup log files in the /var/svc/log directory.1 8-21 . For example: # uname -n sys11 # ping sys12-v6 sys12-v6 is alive # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Notice how both the lo0 and hme0 interfaces have inet6 components and that each interface has an inet6 address.0.

0.0.0.1 . A new DNS record type.org_dir. IN PTR sys22.byname and hosts. perform the command: # netstat -f inet6 -r Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------fe80::/10 ff00::/8 default localhost # Gateway --------------------------sys12-v6 sys12-v6 sys12-v6 localhost Flags Ref Use If ----.c. 7. This table has similar functionality to the hosts.0.0.0.two.0.edu. To view only the IPv6 routing table. AAAA (quad A) is available. table in IPv4.----U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 UH 1 0 lo0 To view multicast group information for IPv6 interfaces. Sun Services.b.org_dir. The netstat command has multiple forms and produces different types and levels of output depending on the options that are used with the command.byaddr files in IPv4.4. These maps have similar functionality to the hosts.conf file for IPv6 system name resolution.1.f.0.byname and ipnodes.int. which uses the g option for groups: # netstat -f inet6 -g Group Memberships: IPv6 8-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0. The following are additional files: q Two new NIS IPv6 maps are the ipnodes.edu. The reverse is similar to a normal PTR record but is much longer. perform the following command. q The ipnodes line is used in the nsswitch.0. Revision A.f.2.5.ip6.e. hosts: files nisplus dns ipnodes: files nisplus dns Troubleshooting a Non-Router Configuration You can use the netstat command with the address-family -f inet6 option to display only IPv6-specific information when you troubleshoot.Enabling IPv6 Name service lookup configuration for IPv6 is similar to name service lookup configuration for IPv4. An additional NIS+ IPv6 table is created: ipnodes.two. Following is an example of an AAAA record and a PTR record: IN AAAA fec0::a00:20ff:feb5:4137 q q sys22.0.a.0.0.f.-----.0.0.--.f.byaddr maps.3.e. Inc. All Rights Reserved.0.0.

Inc. All Rights Reserved.ripngd daemon is the IPv6 routing daemon for the Solaris OS.ndpd Daemon on the Router The IPv6 ND is implemented by the in.LOOPBACK. Sun Services.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7/10 # The in.RUNNING. including: q q q q q Router discovery Prefix discovery Address autoconfiguration Address resolution Neighbor unreachability detection IPv6 Routing Information Protocol Routing in IPv6 is almost identical to IPv4 routing in CIDR. The in.Enabling IPv6 If ----lo0 lo0 hme0 hme0 hme0 Group RefCnt --------------------------.IPv6. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ndpd daemon implements IPv6 functions.-----ff02::1:ff00:1 1 ff02::1 1 ff02::202 1 ff02::1:ff90:b5c7 1 ff02::1 2 # You can use the ifconfig command to obtain IPv6-specific information by using the inet6 address family parameter. Revision A.MULTICAST. except that the IPv6 addresses are 128 bits instead of 32 bits.1 8-23 . For example.VIRTUAL> mtu 825 2 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.ndpd daemon.MULTICAST. perform the command: # ifconfig -a inet6 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP. to view the configuration of all IPv6 interfaces.RUNNING. The in.

255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # View the configuration of the interfaces. Configuring an IPv6 Router You can use the command line to configure an IPv4 router to support IPv6. it supplies copies of its routing table periodically to any directly connected host and network.BROADCAST.1 .168.qfe0 # Alternatively. If the host is a router.hme0 /etc/hostname6.1. to configure the system to configure the hme0 and hme0 interfaces with IPv6 at boot time.VIRTUAL> mtu 823 2 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. # ifconfig hme0 inet6 plumb up # 8-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. type the following: # touch /etc/hostname6. Sun Services.ripngd Daemon In normal operation.168. Revision A. Configuring Interfaces for IPv6 To designate which interfaces are configured with IPv6 at boot time.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. the in.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.168.interface file for each IPv6 interface.RUNNING.ripngd process listens on UDP port 521 for routing information datagrams. configure the hme0 and hme0 interfaces from the command line as follows: 1. use the touch command to create a /etc/hostname6.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved. You can activate IPv6 by starting specific processes or by rebooting the system. 2.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.30.1.168. Use the ifconfig command to configure the hme0 interface.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.0.RUNNING.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. Inc.0. For example.BROADCAST.LOOPBACK.Enabling IPv6 The in.IPv4.30.

BROADCAST.BROADCAST.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.RUNNING. Revision A.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.MULTICAST. Sun Services.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0: flags=2000841<UP.RUNNING. An aggregatable global-unicast address starts with 2 or 3. All Rights Reserved.conf file to contain the subnet’s prefix configuration information on the routers.conf File Configure the /etc/inet/ndpd.168. Recall that: q q q A link-local address starts with FE8. make sure that the following entry exists if the ipnodes database uses the system’s local file: # grep ipnodes /etc/nsswitch. VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 View the configuration of the interfaces.1.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.RUNNING.30.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP. # ifconfig qfe0 inet6 plumb up # 4.IPv4.1 8-25 .255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.MULTICAST. Inc.Enabling IPv6 3.30.RUNNING.LOOPBACK.conf ipnodes: files # Configuring the /etc/inet/ndpd.MULTICAST.168.conf The IPv6 name service lookup mechanism is controlled in the same way as IPv4. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # Configuring IPv6 Name Service Lookup in /etc/nsswitch. For example. You do not advertise link-local addresses on a router because a link-local address cannot be routed.0.0.RUNNING. Use the ifconfig command to configure the qfe0 interface.MULTICAST. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1. A site-local address starts with FEC.168.MULTICAST. Verify that the ipnodes database is defined correctly for your site’s name-service lookup mechanism.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.

Inc. All Rights Reserved. A site-local address on which the qfe0 interface has a prefix of fec0:0:0:9256::0/64. An aggregatable global-unicast address on which the hme0 interface has a prefix of 2000:0:0:9255::0/64.1 .conf file to have the following contents: # cat /etc/inet/ndpd.Enabling IPv6 The following example demonstrates how to configure this information: q q Router advertisements are to be sent out to all interfaces. Sun Services. A site-local address on which the hme0 interface has a prefix of fec0:0:0:9255::0/64. Define the /etc/inet/ndpd. q q q Complete the following steps: 1. Revision A.conf # Send router advertisements out all interfaces ifdefault AdvSendAdvertisements on # # Advertise an unregistered (bogus) site local prefix and global # prefix using the default lifetimes prefix fec0:0:0:9255::0/64 hme0 prefix 2000:0:0:9255::0/64 hme0 # prefix fec0:0:0:9256::0/64 qfe0 prefix 2000:0:0:9256::0/64 qfe0 # 8-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. An aggregatable global-unicast address on which the qfe0 interface has a prefix of 2000:0:0:9256::0/64.

. Configure the system to ignore routing redirects for IPv6.ROUTER.LOOPBACK.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP. # /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip6_ignore_redirect 1 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.RUNNING. To configure your system without rebooting it.MULTICAST.. or # routeadm -u -e ipv6-forwarding # /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip6_forwarding 1 # b.MULTICAST. Observe how the site-local and aggregatable global-unicast addresses are assigned to logical interfaces.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 # View the IPv6 configuration of the interfaces.ROUTER.MULTICAST. b.RUNNING.ROUTER. complete the following steps: a. # ifconfig -a inet6 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.ROUTER. # init 6 # INIT: New run level: 6 .MULTICAST... Switch IPv6 IP forwarding on. .MULTICAST. Revision A.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP. Configure the system to send routing redirects.ADDRCONF. a.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP. Inc.MULTICAST.Enabling IPv6 2.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0:1: flags=2180841<UP. Proceed to the Step 3 to configure the system from the command line.MULTICAST. # /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip6_send_redirects 1 # c.ROUTER. 3.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 qfe0: flags=2100841<UP.ADDRCONF. All Rights Reserved.IPv6.RUNNING. Sun Services.ROUTER. Do one of the following: q q Reboot the system.1 8-27 .RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 qfe0:2: flags=2180841<UP.

MULTICAST.IPv6. Inc.RUNNING.RUNNING.Enabling IPv6 d. Sun Services.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.1 .VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP. # ifconfig -a inet6 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.RUNNING.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. # /usr/lib/inet/in.MULTICAST.RUNNING.ripngd -s # f.ROUTER.ROUTER.ndpd daemon that reads the /etc/inet/ndpd.ADDRCONF.ndpd # e.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 qfe0:2: flags=2180841<UP.ADDRCONF. Start the in.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP. 8-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0:1: flags=2180841<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 qfe0: flags=2100841<UP. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.ROUTER.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 # View the interface configuration. Restart it if it is already running.ROUTER. and force it to supply routing information to the network.ROUTER.conf file. Start the in.RUNNING. # /usr/lib/inet/in.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.ROUTER.MULTICAST.ripngd daemon.MULTICAST.RUNNING.

Inc. Sun Services. Revision A.1 8-29 .conf exists? IPv6 routing enabled by routeadm and Yes Enable IPv6-routing No Disa ble IPv6-routing IPv6 forwarding enabled by routeadm? No Disable IPv6 forwarding Yes Enable IPv6 forwarding End Figure 8-10 IPv6 Router Initialization Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Enabling IPv6 Figure 8-10 shows how the /lib/svc/method/net-init method configures a system for IPv6 forwarding and routing. Start Disable IPv6-forwarding /etc/inet/ndpd. All Rights Reserved.

Using the 6to4 mechanism.31. 8-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. IPv6 Network IPv6 Network Gateway System IPv4 Network Gateway System Figure 8-11 Connecting IPv6 Networks Over an IPv4 Network Implementing the 6to4 mechanism requires the use of a particular IPv6 address prefix.1 . giving the representation c0a8:1e1f. is reserved for 6to4 addresses. Use of the 6to4 mechanism requires a boundary router on each IPv6 network. 168 is a8 in hexadecimal. 30 is 1e in hexadecimal. 192 is c0 in hexadecimal. The 2002 prefix is combined with the IPv4 address used on the boundary router to generate the format prefix for all networks served by a particular boundary router. For example. as shown in Figure 8-11. The 2002 prefix. The boundary router is configured with one interface running IPv4 and connected to the public internet by using a public IPv4 address. part of the aggregatable global-unicast address space.Enabling IPv6 Configuring an IPv6 6to4 Router The 6to4 router mechanism is designed to support the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 addressing.168. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. two IPv6 networks can communicate with each other over an intermediate IPv4 network. A 6to4 tunnel is created and the intermediate network does not need to be IPv6 aware.30. Inc. and 31 is 1f in hexadecimal. The IPv4 address of the boundary router needs to be converted to hexadecimal notation as part of the process. if the boundary router’s IPv4 address 192. Sun Services.

Enabling IPv6 Configuring a 6to4 Boundary Router To configure a system as a 6to4 boundary router.30.30. to configure a 6to4 tunnel with no IPv6 host address and a public IPv4 address of 192. use the syntax: ifconfig ip. Configure the /etc/inet/ndpd.conf file to advertise 6to4 prefixes to the local IPv6 networks. Sun Services. Calculating 6to4 Network Addresses The 6to4 addresses have a defined format for the network portion of the address: q q A 16-bit prefix that denotes the address as a 6to4 address (2002) A 32-bit. The tunnel has a unique network number in its prefix. Inc. A 6to4 tunnel can be configured without specifying explicitly an IPv6 host address. Revision A. 2. Plumb the 6to4 tunnel: Configure the tunnel end points.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc IPv4_Address up For example. All Rights Reserved. type the command: # ifconfig ip. public IPv4 address on the boundary router in hexadecimal notation A 16-bit subnet ID unique to each subnet – One subnet ID is used by the end point of the tunnel q Configuring a 6to4 Tunnel Configuring a 6to4 tunnel is a two-part process: 1. The 6to4 tunnel bridges between the local IPv6 networks and the public IPv4 network. perform the following tasks: 1. To configure a 6to4 tunnel with no IPv6 host address. 2. Configure a 6to4 tunnel. If no IPv6 host address is specified.168.31 up # # ifconfig ip.168.1 8-31 . the tunnel is configured with a subnet ID of 0 (zero) and a host ID of 1 (one).6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc 192. The tunnel end points are the global IPv4 address and an IPv6 host address on a unique subnet within the 6to4 address range.31.6to4tun0 inet6 plumb Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

MULTICAST.RUNNING.IPv4.31 tunnel hop limit 60 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f::1/64 # To configure a 6to4 tunnel with an explicit IPv6 host address as the tunnel end point.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.ROUTER.30.30.30.NONUD.255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.RUNNING.6to4tun0 tsrc 192.168.ROUTER.168.6to4tun0: flags=2300041<UP.168.ip.IPv6> mtu 8212 index 4 inet tunnel src 192.ROUTER.RUNNING.ROUTER. to configure the tunnel end point as host ID 1 (one) on subnet ffff: # ifconfig ip. All Rights Reserved. For example.BROADCAST.LOOPBACK. use the syntax: ifconfig ip.0.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 ip.IPv6.168.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.ip.168. Revision A.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.1.ROUTER.30.BROADCAST.30.168. Inc. The contents of the file are the arguments that follow the inet6 keyword on the command line.1 .MULTICAST. Sun Services.RUNNING.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1100843<UP.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.31 2002:c0a8:1e1f:ffff::1/64 up 8-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.RUNNING.31 2002:c0a8:1e1f:ffff::1/64 up # The 6to4 tunnels can be configured at system boot by creating an /etc/hostname. The tunnel configuration can be seen in the output from the ifconfig -a command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fef8:b723/10 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP.1.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. For example: # cat /etc/hostname6.168.255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 qfe0: flags=1100843<UP.MULTICAST.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc IPv4_Address IPv6_Address up Note – The 6to4 tunnel end point resides on its own IPv6 subnet.MULTICAST.Enabling IPv6 This configures the tunnel endpoint with a subnet number of zero (0) and a host number of one (1).MULTICAST.RUNNING. The subnet ID used for the 6to4 tunnel must not be used on any of the local IPv6 networks.6to4tun0 file.ROUTER.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc 192.

1 8-33 .ndpd q View the IPv6 routing table on each router in question.----. # uname -n sys11 # pgrep -lf ndpd 108 /usr/lib/inet/in. Inc. confirm that processes are running by examining the routing table.----2000::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20 U 1 0 hme0:1 fec0::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20 U 1 0 hme0:2 2000::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U 1 0 qfe0:1 fec0::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U 1 0 qfe0:2 fe80::a00:20ff:fec0:449d UG 1 0 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:fec0:449d UG 1 0 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20 U 1 0 hme0 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U 1 2 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U 1 0 hme0 ::1 UH 1 0 lo0 Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ndpd # # uname -n sys21 # pgrep -lf ndpd 1497 /usr/lib/inet/in.--. Sun Services. Revision A.-----. All Rights Reserved. as shown in the following examples: q Determine if the ND daemon is running on each of the routers in question. # uname -n sys11 # netstat -rn -f inet6 Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------2000:0:0:9255::/64 fec0:0:0:9255::/64 2000:0:0:9256::/64 fec0:0:0:9256::/64 2000:0:0:9257::/64 fec0:0:0:9257::/64 fe80::/10 fe80::/10 ff00::/8 ::1 # # uname -n # sys21 # Gateway Flags Ref Use If --------------------------.Enabling IPv6 Troubleshooting a Router Configuration To perform basic troubleshooting of an IPv6 router.

Inc.1 . Do not attempt to communicate with the link-local address of a system across a router because routers do not forward link-local addresses.-----.Enabling IPv6 # netstat -rn -f inet6 Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------2000:0:0:9257::/64 fec0:0:0:9257::/64 2000:0:0:9256::/64 fec0:0:0:9256::/64 2000:0:0:9255::/64 fec0:0:0:9255::/64 fe80::/10 fe80::/10 # q Gateway Flags Ref Use If --------------------------. Sun Services. # ping fec0::9255:a00:20ff:fec0:449d fec0::9255:a00:20ff:fec0:449d is alive # # ping 2000::9255:a00:20ff:fec0:449d 2000::9255:a00:20ff:fec0:449d is alive # 8-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.----.----2000::9257:a00:20ff:fec0:449d U 1 0 hme0:1 fec0::9257:a00:20ff:fec0:449d U 1 0 hme0:2 2000::9256:a00:20ff:feb8:2b08 U 1 0 qfe0:1 fec0::9256:a00:20ff:feb8:2b08 U 1 0 qfe0:2 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 UG 1 0 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 UG 1 0 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:2b08 U 1 0 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:fec0:449d U 1 1 hme0 Send an ICMP echo request to a remote system to determine if you receive an ICMP echo response from the remote system. Revision A.--.

IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 qfe0:2: flags=2180841<UP. for example: # ifconfig -a inet6 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.ROUTER. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF. for example: ifconfig hme0 inet6 configuration options Caution – Be sure to specify the inet6 family.Managing IPv6 Managing IPv6 The tasks you use to manage IPv6 interfaces are similar to the tasks you use to manage IPv4 interfaces.ROUTER. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST.ROUTER.RUNNING. Sun Services.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 qfe0: flags=2100841<UP.MULTICAST.RUNNING. Inc.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.ROUTER.RUNNING. Revision A. or the command changes the configuration of an IPv4 interface.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0:1: flags=2180841<UP.RUNNING.RUNNING.RUNNING.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF.ADDRCONF.ROUTER.ROUTER.1 8-35 .LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 # Modifying the Configuration of an IPv6 Interface Use the ifconfig command to modify IPv6 interface configuration in a similar manner to IPv4 interfaces.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.IPv6.MULTICAST. The family type of IPv6 must be defined in the command after the interface option.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP. Displaying the State of IPv6 Interfaces Use the ifconfig command with the inet6 option to display the state of the IPv6 interfaces.RUNNING.

Revision A. All Rights Reserved.1 .-----. for example: ifconfig qfe0:3 inet6 plumb configuration options To remove the logical interface. Recall that different FPs are required on addresses destined beyond the local subnet. for example: # netstat -f inet6 -r Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------fe80::/10 ff00::/8 default localhost # Gateway --------------------------sys11-v6 sys11-v6 sys11-v6 localhost Flags Ref Use If ----.--. and then use the unplumb parameter. Inc. do not spend time attempting to determine why you cannot access a system on another subnet with an IPv6 address that starts with fe8.Managing IPv6 Configuring Logical Interfaces You can configure logical IPv6 interfaces by using the ifconfig command with the inet6 parameter in a similar way as for IPv4. Sun Services. Therefore. disable the interface. for example: # ifconfig qfe0:3 inet6 down unplumb # Troubleshooting IPv6 Interfaces You troubleshoot IPv6 interfaces like you troubleshoot IPv4 interfaces.----U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 UH 1 0 lo0 8-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Displaying the IPv6 Routing Table You use the netstat command with the address-family -f inet6 option to display the IPv6 routing table.

1 8-37 . ______________________________________________ 3. Work with another group for these tasks if your system functions as a router in the classroom. sysX3. Reboot the system. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. ______________________________________________ Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Display the configuration of the system’s interfaces before you make any changes.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 In this exercise. Task 1 – Configuring IPv6 on the Local Subnet To configure IPv6 on the local subnet. sysX4) To configure IPv6 on a non-router. complete the following steps: 1. complete the following sections. ______________________________________________ 2. Sun Services. Inc. Working on All Non-Router Systems (sysX2. The exercise consists of the following tasks: q q Configure IPv6 on your local subnet Configure 6to4 routing so that you can contact IPv6 systems on other subnets Configure the whole classroom network to use IPv6 q Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. Create the relevant file to cause your system’s primary interface to be configured with both IPv4 and IPv6. you configure IPv6 on a router and on a non-router.

______________________________________________ Describe why the process or processes are running.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 4. View the current routing table so that you will be able to see the difference after the router is reconfigured later. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 8-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. ______________________________________________ Write your system’s IPv6 IP address: ______________________________________________ Can this IPv6 IP address be used by systems on other subnets to contact your system? Why or why not? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 5. Write the IP address: ______________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________ 8. Revision A. Sun Services. ______________________________________________ 7. View the system’s interface configuration after the boot. All Rights Reserved. Use the ps command to determine which routing daemons are currently running on the system. Use the ping command to verify that your system can send and receive ICMP echo messages with another local IPv6 system.1 . Ask another group on your subnet for its link-local IPv6 IP address. Inc.

5. Create an /etc/hostname6. From the command line. configure IPv6 on the network interface connected to the local subnet. Sun Services. Working on Your Subnet’s Router Complete the following steps: 1.30.6to4tun0 file so that the 6to4 tunnel is created automatically with the appropriate source when the system boots. Also create the necessary file to enable this same configuration at any subsequent boot. 3. Revision A. ______________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________ Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 8-39 . ______________________________________________ Plumb an IPv6 6to4 tunnel.X network (for example 192. Enable IPv6 routing. Inc. 4. ______________________________________________ Configure the IPv6 tunnel using the router’s IPv4 address on the 30.31).ip.168. and use network number 0 (zero) and host number 1 (one) for the tunnel end point. All Rights Reserved. ______________________________________________ Enable IPv6 forwarding. ______________________________________________ 6.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 Task 2 – Configuring 6to4 Routing Complete the steps in the following sections.

______________________________________________ Working on all Non-Router Systems (sysX2. Revision A. ______________________________________________ 11. sysX3. Attempt to contact a system on a different subnet by using its IPv6 6to4 address. Inc. 9. Sun Services. 8-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Use the following prefix lines: q For sys11: prefix fec0:0:0:1::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1::0/64 hme0 hme0 hme0 hme0 hme0 hme0 q For sys21: prefix fec0:0:0:2::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e20:2::0/64 q For sys31: prefix fec0:0:0:3::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e21:3::0/64 8. View the daemons running on the router. Make the subnet ID for both prefixes the same as the subnet ID used in your IPv4 addresses.1 . (For example.0. use 1 (one) as your subnet ID). ______________________________________________ Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class completes this step.1. if you are on subnet 192.168. ______________________________________________ 10.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 7. ______________________________________________ Log in to the router and view the configuration of its network interfaces.conf file to advertise a 6to4 address prefix and a site-local address prefix to your local subnet. View the routing table on the router. sysX4) Continue as follows: 12. Reboot the router. All Rights Reserved. ______________________________________________ 13. Create an /etc/inet/ndpd. Obtain the IPv6 6to4 address of a system on a different subnet.

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 3. Sun Services. Working on Your Subnet’s Router Work with another teammate’s group for this task if your system functions as a non-router in the classroom.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 Task 3 – Configuring IPv6 Across the Whole Network In this section you will remove the 6to4 tunnel just constructed so that you can enable IPv6 across the whole network. Complete the steps in the following sections. create them. complete the following steps: 1. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Display the router’s interface configuration so that you can back out of the configuration at any stage. Unconfigure the 6to4 tunnel interface. To configure IPv6 on a router. If they do not. processes related to IPv6 routing are running and. if so. ______________________________________________ 2. with what options. Why are the processes running with these options? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 4. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Verify that the files that you use to configure the router’s interfaces with IPv6 at boot time exist. Inc. if any.1 8-41 . Determine which.

Be sure to remove an existing prefix 2002 lines. Revision A. Display the configuration of each network interface. and why? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 8-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Reboot the router systems. What routes are available? ______________________________________________ Determine which routing daemons are running on the router.168. ______________________________________________ 8. View your router’s IPv6 routing table. Inc. 6. 9. ______________________________________________ Verify that each router is configured correctly. Which options are running with each routing daemon. Use the following addresses: q 192.168.0 uses fec0:0:0:2::0/64 and 2000:0:0:2::0/64 192. 7.30.3.2.0 uses fec0:0:0:1::0/64 and 2000:0:0:1::0/64 192.0 uses fec0:0:0:3::0/64 and 2000:0:0:3::0/64 192. Sun Services.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 5.168. Edit the correct file on your router to cause it to use a site-local and an aggregated global-unicast address for each interface on the router.168. Document your work.1 . All Rights Reserved.1.0 uses fec0:0:0:30::0/64 and 2000:0:0:30::0/64 q q q Configure the file to cause the routing daemon to advertise IPv6 out of all interfaces.

Which options are running with each routing daemon. sysX4) Continue as follows: 10. ______________________________________________ 11. or wait a few minutes for the route information to propagate the network. site-local.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 Working on all Non-Router Systems (sysX2. What type of routes are in the routing table (link-local. Sun Services. Revision A. or global)? ______________________________________________ 14. Display the system’s routing table. Determine which routing daemons are running on each non-router system.1 8-43 . Use the ping command to send ICMP echo requests from a nonrouter system to the site-local address of another non-router system on another subnet to verify that the routing is functioning as expected. Either reboot the non-router systems. and why? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 13. sysX3. Notice the logical addresses that provide access to the different networks based on the FP. Display the system’s interface configuration. All Rights Reserved. Inc. (You may have to wait enough time for the routing information to be updated after the prior step’s system boot) ______________________________________________ 12. ______________________________________________ Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Sun Services. Inc. issues. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications 8-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . All Rights Reserved. Revision A.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise.

BROADCAST.0.1. # init 6 # INIT: New run level: 6 svc.168. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Task 1 – Configuring IPv6 on the Local Subnet To configure IPv6 on the local subnet. sysX3. sysX4) To configure IPv6 on a non-router.MULTICAST.RUNNING.255 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 Display the configuration of the system’s interfaces before you make any changes. # 2. VIRTIAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.startd: The system is coming down. complete the following steps: 1.hme0 3. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. Please wait..Exercise 1 Solutions Exercise 1 Solutions The following solution is specific to an individual system.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK. Working on All Non-Router Systems (sysX2.1. # touch /etc/hostname6. Create the relevant file to cause your system’s primary interface to be configured with both IPv4 and IPv6. Your results will be different if you are working on different systems. Reboot the system. All Rights Reserved.1 8-45 . .1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Revision A.. .0..IPv4. Sun Services. complete the following sections..168.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Inc.RUNNING.

other systems cannot contact this IPv6 IP address because the address has an FP of fe8. Write the IP address: fe80::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7/10 6.1.MULTICAST. # ping fe80::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7 fe80::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7 is alive # 8-46 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.RUNNING.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING. Revision A. VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0.MULTICAST.1 . Ask another group on your subnet for its link-local IPv6 IP address. 5.LOOPBACK.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.LOOPBACK.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 View the system’s interface configuration after the boot.IPv6> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.RUNNING.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved. Inc. The FP defines the scope that an IPv6 datagram is able to travel.1. which is a link-local address and is limited to the local subnet.168. Use the ping command to verify that your system can send and receive ICMP echo messages with another local IPv6 system.255 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2000849<UP.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.RUNNING.Exercise 1 Solutions 4. Write your system’s IPv6 IP address: fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 Can this IPv6 IP address be used by systems on other subnets to contact your system? Why or why not? No.168.IPv4. Sun Services. # The system’s primary interface is now configured with both the IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks.

3 U 1 0 hme0 192.1 8-47 .-----. Sun Services. Inc. The in.routed daemon is attempting to locate routers by sending solicitation.3 U 1 2 hme0 192.0. All Rights Reserved. and is listening for IPv4 routing messages after it boots. Use the ps command to determine which routing daemons are currently running on the system.1 UG 1 0 hme0 127.1.0.ndpd daemon provides the autoconfiguration components of neighbor discovery and is not really considered to be a routing daemon.0 default 127. Revision A.Exercise 1 Solutions 7.1.0 224.0.1.168.] root 102 1 0 12:10:10 ? root 109 1 0 12:10:10 ? # Describe why the process or processes are running. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The in.168.-----.1 Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.1 UH 2 6 lo0 View the current routing table so that you will be able to see the difference after the router is reconfigured later.--------192.routed 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in.0. netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.1.0.168.----U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 UH 1 0 lo0 # 8. 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.----. Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------fe80::/10 ff00::/8 default ::1 Gateway --------------------------fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 ::1 Flags Ref Use If ----.----.0.ndpd # ps -ef | grep in[.--.168.

ripngd" "-s" "kill -TERM ‘cat /var/tmp/in.1 . From the command line. "/usr/sbin/in. # routeadm -u -e ipv6-routing # routeadm Configuration Current Current Option Configuration System State --------------------------------------------------------------IPv4 forwarding enabled enabled IPv4 routing enabled enabled IPv6 forwarding enabled enabled IPv6 routing enabled enabled IPv4 routing daemon routing daemon args routing daemon stop IPv6 routing daemon routing daemon args routing daemon stop 3. # routeadm -u -e ipv6-forwarding # 8-48 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. configure IPv6 on the network interface connected to the local subnet.routed" "" "kill -TERM ‘cat /var/tmp/in. Enable IPv6 routing.hme0 # 2. Working on Your Subnet’s Router 1.ripngd. Also create the necessary file to enable this same configuration at any subsequent boot.Exercise 1 Solutions Task 2 – Configuring 6to4 Routing Complete the steps in the following sections. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Sun Services.pid‘" IPv4 IPv4 IPv6 IPv6 # Enable IPv6 forwarding. # ifconfig hme0 inet6 plumb up # touch /etc/hostname6.pid‘" "/usr/lib/inet/in.routed. Revision A.

1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1100843<UP. # echo tsrc 192.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:22 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.MULTICAST. Make the subnet ID for both prefixes the same as the subnet ID used in your IPv4 addresses.Exercise 1 Solutions 4.0.168.168.1 8-49 .MULTICAST. Create an /etc/inet/ndpd.1.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv6> mtu 65515 index 4 inet tunnel src 0.30.ip.6to4tun0: flags=2300040<RUNNING. use 1 (one) as your subnet ID).31 up # cat /etc/hostname6.168.ip.0.BROADCAST. and use network number 0 (zero) and host number 1 (one) for the tunnel end point. (For example.168.0. Plumb an IPv6 6to4 tunnel.BROADCAST.6to4tun0 file so that the 6to4 tunnel is created automatically with the appropriate source when the system boots.ip.ROUTER. Use the following prefix lines: q For sys11: prefix fec0:0:0:1::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1::0/64 hme0 hme0 hme0 hme0 q For sys21: prefix fec0:0:0:2::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e20:2::0/64 Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.X network (for example 192.30.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.31).ROUTER. Revision A.6to4tun0 tsrc 192.1.168. Sun Services.ip.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.RUNNING.RUNNING.6to4tun0 inet6 plumb # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.30.RUNNING. All Rights Reserved.conf file to advertise a 6to4 address prefix and a site-local address prefix to your local subnet.ROUTER. # ifconfig ip.31 up > /etc/hostname6. Configure the IPv6 tunnel using the router’s IPv4 address on the 30.0.MULTICAST.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.30.168.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 ip.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.NONUD.1. if you are on subnet 192. # ifconfig ip.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 qfe2: flags=1100843<UP.LOOPBACK.IPv4.0.168.30. Create an /etc/hostname6.30.RUNNING.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc 192.168.MULTICAST.31 up 6. Inc.30.ROUTER.6to4tun0 # cat /etc/hostname6.168.6to4tun0 tsrc 192.31 up ______________________________________________ 7.168.0 tunnel hop limit 60 inet6 fe80::32:0:10/10 5.

6to4tun0: flags=2300041<UP.RUNNING.ROUTER.MULTICAST.30.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.168.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1100843<UP.255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.168.NONUD. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST. # init 6 9.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST. Sun Services.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. Revision A.168.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.ROUTER.Exercise 1 Solutions q For sys31: prefix fec0:0:0:3::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e21:3::0/64 hme0 hme0 # cat /etc/inet/ndpd.RUNNING.RUNNING.BROADCAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.ROUTER.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4.RUNNING.31 tunnel hop limit 60 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f::1/64 # Reboot the router. Inc.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fef8:b723/10 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.1.30.ROUTER.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 ip.MULTICAST.30.168.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 8212 index 4 inet tunnel src 192.0.RUNNING.168.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.BROADCAST.0.ROUTER. Log in to the router and view the configuration of its network interfaces.conf # Send router advertisements out all interfaces ifdefault AdvSendAdvertisements on # Advertise an unregistered (bogus) global prefix and a site # local prefix using the default lifetimes # Site-local address prefix fec0:0:0:1::0/64 hme0 # 6to4 address prefix 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1::0/64 hme0 # 8.1.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv6. 8-50 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST.RUNNING.1 .255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 qfe0: flags=1100843<UP.ROUTER.RUNNING.

1. # ps -ef | grep in[.168.0.168.3 192.0 224. sysX3.32 192.0.1.1 Gateway -------------------192. 2002:c0a8:1e20:2:a00:20ff:feb6:c5de 13.0.30. Revision A. View the routing table on the router.ripngd -s Working on all Non-Router Systems (sysX2.3 127.30.----2002:c0a8:1e1f:1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723 U 1 6 hme0:1 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723 U 1 0 hme0:2 2002:c0a8:1e1f::1 U 1 0 ip. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 192.6to4tun0 fe80::a00:20ff:fef8:b723 U 1 18 hme0 fe80::a00:20ff:fef8:b723 U 1 0 hme0 ::1 UH 30 494 lo0 11.0 127.168.ndpd 0:02 /usr/lib/inet/in. View the daemons running on the router.1. # netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.--------U 1 38 hme0 UG 1 0 qfe0 U 1 34 qfe0 U 1 0 hme0 UH 9 152065 lo0 Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------2002:c0a8:1e1f:1::/64 fec0:0:0:1::/64 2002:c0a8:1e1f::/64 2002::/16 fe80::/10 ff00::/8 ::1 # Gateway Flags Ref Use If --------------------------.-----.1 8-51 . Sun Services.0.168.168.Exercise 1 Solutions 10.0 192. sysX4) Continue as follows: 12.----. Obtain the IPv6 6to4 address of a system on a different subnet.30. Inc.0.] root 147 1 root 149 1 root 151 1 # 0 15:42:56 ? 0 15:42:56 ? 0 15:42:56 ? 0:32 /usr/sbin/in.-----.6to4tun0 2002:c0a8:1e1f::1 U 1 1 ip. # ping 2002:c0a8:1e20:2:a00:20ff:feb6:c5de 2002:c0a8:1e20:2:a00:20ff:feb6:c5de is alive # Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class completes this step. All Rights Reserved.2.168.--.1 Flags Ref Use Interface ----.168. Attempt to contact a system on a different subnet by using its IPv6 6to4 address.0.31 192.routed 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in.----.

255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 qfe0: flags=1100843<UP. Sun Services. Why are the processes running with these options? # ps -ef | grep in[. Unconfigure the 6to4 tunnel interface # ifconfig ip.168.6to4tun0 # 3. complete the following steps: 1. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.LOOPBACK.1.31 tunnel hop limit 60 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f::1/64 Display the router’s interface configuration so that you can back out of the configuration at any stage.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.RUNNING.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.168.MULTICAST. Determine which.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fef8:b723/10 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP.Exercise 1 Solutions Task 3 – Configuring IPv6 Across the Whole Network In this section you will remove the 6to4 tunnel just constructed so that you can enable IPv6 across the whole network. if so.30.IPv6.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.168.NONUD. To configure IPv6 on a router. if any.RUNNING.6to4tun0 inet6 down unplumb # rm /etc/hostname6.] 8-52 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.30. processes related to IPv6 routing are running and.ADDRCONF.BROADCAST.ROUTER.1.ROUTER.255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.IPv6> mtu 8212 index 4 inet tunnel src 192.MULTICAST.6to4tun0: flags=2300041<UP.ROUTER.MULTICAST.ROUTER.168.1 .1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1100843<UP. with what options.RUNNING.RUNNING.ROUTER. Complete the steps in the following sections.MULTICAST.ip.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.RUNNING. Inc. # 2. All Rights Reserved. Working on Your Subnet’s Router Work with another teammate’s group for this task if your system functions as a non-router in the classroom.0.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.0.MULTICAST.ROUTER.BROADCAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 ip. Revision A.ADDRCONF.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.30.RUNNING.IPv4.

1.conf file to contain contents similar to the following: sys11# cat /etc/inet/ndpd.168. Edit the sys11 router’s /etc/inet/ndpd.ndpd 0:01 /usr/sbin/in.conf file to contain contents similar to the following: sys21# cat /etc/inet/ndpd. Revision A. If they do not.168.168. Be sure to remove existing prefix 2002 lines. 4.0 uses fec0:0:0:30::0/64 and 2000:0:0:30::0/64 q q q Configure the file to cause the routing daemon to advertise IPv6 out of all interfaces. create them.conf # Send router advertisements out all interfaces ifdefault AdvSendAdvertisements on # Advertise an unregistered (bogus) global prefix and a site # local prefix using the default lifetimes # Site-local addresses: prefix fec0:0:0:2::0/64 qfe0 prefix fec0:0:0:30::0/64 hme0 # Aggregatable global unicast addresses prefix 2000:0:0:2::0/64 qfe0 prefix 2000:0:0:30::0/64 hme0 Edit the sys21 router’s /etc/inet/ndpd.3. This is possible even if this system is not configured as a router. Verify that the files that you use to configure the router’s interfaces with IPv6 at boot time exist.Exercise 1 Solutions root root root 161 158 163 1 1 1 0 14:25:20 ? 0 14:25:20 ? 0 14:25:20 ? 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in. Sun Services.2.1 8-53 . Use the following addresses: q 192.ripngd -s The in.168.routed daemon runs to supply routing information to the local networks. Inc.routed 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in. Edit the correct file on your router to cause it to use a site-local and an aggregated global unicast address for each interface on the router.0 uses fec0:0:0:3::0/64 and 2000:0:0:3::0/64 192.hme0 # touch /etc/hostname6.qfe0 # 5.0 uses fec0:0:0:1::0/64 and 2000:0:0:1::0/64 192.30. Document your work. All Rights Reserved.conf Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 uses fec0:0:0:2::0/64 and 2000:0:0:2::0/64 192. # touch /etc/hostname6.

Inc. Revision A.1 .Exercise 1 Solutions # Send router advertisements out all interfaces ifdefault AdvSendAdvertisements on # Advertise an unregistered (bogus) global prefix and a site # local prefix using the default lifetimes # Site-local addresses: prefix fec0:0:0:2::0/64 qfe0 prefix fec0:0:0:30::0/64 hme0 # Aggregatable global unicast addresses prefix 2000:0:0:2::0/64 qfe0 prefix 2000:0:0:30::0/64 hme0 8-54 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.

VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. Verify that each router is configured correctly. Display the configuration of each network interface.1.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.-----. Revision A.RUNNING.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.RUNNING.RUNNING.ROUTER.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0:1: flags=2180841<UP.RUNNING.ROUTER.LOOPBACK. Reboot the router systems. lo0: flags=1000849<UP.0.MULTICAST.--------------------------2000:0:0:30::/64 2000::30:a00:20ff:feb9:7223 fec0:0:0:30::/64 fec0::30:a00:20ff:feb9:7223 2000:0:0:1::/64 2000::1:a00:20ff:feac:9b20 fec0:0:0:1::/64 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feac:9b20 2000:0:0:2::/64 fe80::203:baff:fe6b:5d34 UG fec0:0:0:2::/64 fe80::203:baff:fe6b:5d34 UG fe80::/10 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U fe80::/10 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20 U ff00::/8 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U ::1 ::1 Flags Ref Use If ----.RUNNING.startd: The system is coming down.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 qfe0: flags=2100841<UP.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.MULTICAST...168.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.LOOPBACK.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.168.BROADCAST.IPv6> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.MULTICAST. .ADDRCONF.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.Exercise 1 Solutions 6. View your router’s IPv6 routing table. Inc.ROUTER.30. # ifconfig -a Please wait.RUNNING.ADDRCONF. # init 6 # svc.ROUTER. All Rights Reserved.168.1.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 lo0: flags=2000849<UP.ROUTER.IPv4.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 fec0::30:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 2 2 3 3 8.1 8-55 .0.MULTICAST.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING..--. What routes are available? # netstat -f inet6 -rn Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask Gateway --------------------------.168.MULTICAST.. 7.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 2000::30:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 qfe0:2: flags=2180841<UP.RUNNING.30. Sun Services.----U 1 0 hme0:1 U 1 0 hme0:2 U 1 0 qfe0:1 U 1 0 qfe0:2 1 0 hme0 1 0 hme0 1 0 hme0 1 0 qfe0 1 0 hme0 UH 1 0 lo0 Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ROUTER. .RUNNING.

# init 6 svc. This is possible even if this system is not configured as a router.... # ping fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8 ICMPv6 Address Unreachable from gateway . Sun Services. . sysX4) Continue as follows: 10. Either reboot the non-router systems. sysX3. . Determine which routing daemons are running on the router.routed process runs to supply routing information to the local networks.ndpd process provides the autoconfiguration components of neighbor discovery and is not really considered to be a routing daemon.ndpd 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in. Revision A. # ping fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8 is alive # ..] root 107 1 0 12:36:01 ? root 116 1 0 12:36:02 ? root 118 1 0 12:36:02 ? # The in. The in... All Rights Reserved. 8-56 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. The in. and why? 0:00 /usr/sbin/in. 11. Inc. or wait a few minutes for the route information to propagate the network. Please wait.1 .startd: The system is coming down. Which options are running with each routing daemon.routed 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in.. (You may have to wait enough time for the routing information to be updated after the prior step’s system boot). Working on all Non-Router Systems (sysX2.ripngd process runs with the -s option to force the process to supply routing information. This is possible even if this system is not configured as a router.Exercise 1 Solutions 9. Use the ping command to send ICMP echo requests from a nonrouter system to the site-local address of another non-router system on another subnet to verify that the routing is functioning as expected.ripngd -s # ps -ef | grep in[..

IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.0.RUNNING.MULTICAST. site-local.routed 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in.RUNNING.1 8-57 .255 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2000849<UP.MULTICAST. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.RUNNING. Inc.RUNNING.MULTICAST. Determine which routing daemons are running on each non-router system. and 200 FPs indicate that the system is aware of link-local.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.ndpd The in.MULTICAST. and why? # ps -ef | grep in[.] root 102 1 0 12:51:52 ? root 109 1 0 12:51:52 ? # 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.168.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP. Revision A.168.ADDRCONF.--.LOOPBACK. Sun Services. Which options are running with each routing daemon. and global networks.Exercise 1 Solutions 12.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. Notice the logical addresses that provide access to the different networks based on the FP. Display the system’s interface configuration.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.1. fec.ADDRCONF. site-local.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.1. What type of routes are in the routing table (link-local.RUNNING.----U 1 0 hme0:1 U 1 0 hme0:2 U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 UG 1 0 hme0 UH 1 0 lo0 The fe8. 13. or global)? # netstat -rn -f inet6 Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------2000:0:0:1::/64 fec0:0:0:1::/64 fe80::/10 ff00::/8 default ::1 # Gateway --------------------------2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20 ::1 Flags Ref Use If ----.-----. Display the system’s routing table.BROADCAST. 14.LOOPBACK.routed daemon is listening for IPv4 routing information.MULTICAST.

Configure the hme0 interface as part of a multipath group. 2. Configure a test address for the qfe1 interface.1 . 7. All Rights Reserved. which are described in greater detail in the next sections: 1. 5. 4. Sun Services. Inc. 6. Configure the qfe1 interface as part of the hme0 interface multipath group.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring IPv6 Multipathing You can configure IPv6 multipathing either from the command line or by editing a file to cause multipathing to be configured at boot time. but unconfigured. 8-58 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. but it has a significantly different configuration procedure. Confirm that the system recognizes unique MAC addresses. Revision A. complete the following steps. Configuring IPMP Manually You can configure a production server for IPv6 IPMP without rebooting if your system was configured previously to support local MAC addresses. Observe the IPMP failover. To configure IPMP at the command-line prompt by using the ifconfig command. View the interface configuration. in which the multipath group is called mpgrp6-one. qfe1 interface. 3. 8. IPv6 multipathing is similar in operation to the multipathing operation in IPv4. Verify the Solaris OS release. This example shows how to configure IPMP on an existing IPv6-configured hme0 interface and on an existing. Configure a test address for the hme0 interface.

All Rights Reserved.ADDRCONF.1. Inc.MULTICAST. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Inc.MULTICAST.RUNNING.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING. Assembled 09 September 2004 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.255 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2000849<UP.1 8-59 .RUNNING.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP. Sun Services.LOOPBACK.IPv6> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.168.ADDRCONF. The following system meets the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 8 10/00 s28s_u2wos_11b SPARC Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP. so that you know the state of the system if you need to restore the system for any reason. Revision A.RUNNING. Perform the command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.BROADCAST.0.RUNNING.LOOPBACK. Assembled 31 August 2000 # The following system exceeds the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 s10_67 SPARC Copyright 2004 Sun Microsystems. VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing View your system’s interface configuration to have a baseline before you make any changes to the system.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 # Verifying the Solaris OS Release The /etc/release file contains information about the installed version of the Solaris OS. Use is subject to license terms. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.0.MULTICAST.IPv4.168.

1 .Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring Unique MAC Addresses To determine if unique MAC addresses are enabled. Inc. 8-60 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. You can also set the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable from the OpenBoot PROM. use the eeprom command to view the contents of the EEPROM: # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=false # The preceding output indicates that the system is still in its default mode and uses the same MAC address for each interface. mpgrp6-one. Sun Services. Configuring the hme0 Interface as Part of a Multipath Group To configure the hme0 interface as part of a multipath group. This is indicated by the setting of the local-mac-address? variable to false. of which the hme0 interface will be a part: # ifconfig hme0 group mpgrp6-one # Dec 19 12:49:04 sys13 in.mpathd[309]: Failures cannot be detected on hme0 as no IFF_NOFAILOVER address is available Note – You only see this and subsequent failure messages if you are viewing the console. You now use the eeprom command to change the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable to true. specify the name of the group. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. # eeprom local-mac-address?=true # Verify that the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable is set to true: # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=true # Note – You must reboot the system for EEPROM changes to take place.

IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING.168.IPv4.ADDRCONF.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.1 8-61 .RUNNING.RUNNING.LOOPBACK.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING. you use the link-local address.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 # Observe the additional information in the preceding ifconfig output for the inet6 hme0 interface output that indicates the new multipath group information: groupname mpgrp6-one Configuring a Test Address for the hme0 Interface Next.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP. Enter the following: # ifconfig hme0 inet6 -failover # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing You can ignore the preceding message because the interface is still being configured. To configure an IPv6 test address. Inc. Revision A.RUNNING.0.mpathd daemon recognizes it as a test address that must not fail over (-failover).1.IPv6. View the changes to the interface: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.1. Sun Services.MULTICAST.BROADCAST. When you configure the address.MULTICAST. you configure a test address for the hme0 interface.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST. mark it so that the in.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.0.ADDRCONF.

168.ADDRCONF.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.IPv4.IPv6. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one This information includes the following: q The NOFAILOVER flag indicates that the interface must not be used as a failover interface if another interface in the group fails.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 # Observe the additional information that is reported by the preceding ifconfig command for the hme0 interface: hme0: flags=a000841<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. The RUNNING flag is monitored by the in.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.1.168.IPv6. Sun Services. Inc. All Rights Reserved.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING.RUNNING.0.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing To view the changes to the interface.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0.RUNNING.1 .NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING.RUNNING.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST. Revision A.mpathd daemon to ensure that communications are functioning as expected.1.MULTICAST. q Be aware that the logical interface cannot function if the physical interface fails.MULTICAST.RUNNING. 8-62 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.LOOPBACK.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.IPv6. You do not need to mark IPv6 test addresses as deprecated.

IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.1 8-63 .MULTICAST.MULTICAST.1.ADDRCONF.IPv6.BROADCAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/10 groupname mpgrp6-one qfe1:1: flags=2080841<UP.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING. you configure the qfe1 interface with IPv4.RUNNING.200 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. All Rights Reserved.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.MULTICAST. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. You must also configure it as part of the same IPMP group as the hme0 interface.MULTICAST.IPv6.LOOPBACK. You do not need to assign the interface to group because the IPv6 interface assumes the same group membership as the IPv4 interface.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP. Sun Services.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1.168.ADDRCONF.1. Type the following: # ifconfig qfe1 inet6 plumb up To view the changes to the interface.168.0.BROADCAST. Inc.IPv4.RUNNING.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.200 netmask + broadcast + group \ > mpgrp6-one up # Configure the new interface to also support IPv6.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 qfe1:2: flags=2080841<UP.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.0.168.168. and broadcast addresses.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.1.RUNNING.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.RUNNING.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. netmask.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring the qfe1 Interface as Part of the hme0 Interface Multipath Group Half of the interface configuration is complete. Type the following: # ifconfig qfe1 plumb 192. Now.RUNNING. Revision A.ADDRCONF.LOOPBACK.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 qfe1: flags=2000841<UP.

All Rights Reserved. Revision A.mpathd daemon recognizes it as a test address that must not be used as a failover interface (-failover) if another interface in the group fails. and 3 for qfe1. Sun Services. 2 for hme0.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Observe the additional information that is reported by the preceding ifconfig command for the qfe1 interface: qfe1: flags=2000841<UP. mark it so that the in. Perform the command: # ifconfig qfe1 inet6 -failover # Dec 19 14:47:47 sys13 in. Inc. When you configure the address.1 .IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/10 groupname mpgrp6-one The interface index number is incremented to 3 because every physical interface obtains its own index number (which is identical for a physical interface’s different virtual interfaces): 1 for lo0.MULTICAST.mpathd[309]: Failure detection restored on qfe1 as an IFF_NOFAILOVER address is available 8-64 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING. Configuring an IPv6 Test Address for the qfe1 Interface Now you configure an IPv6 test address for the qfe1 interface.

1.MULTICAST.RUNNING.IPv6.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.168.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.MULTICAST.1 8-65 .LOOPBACK. Revision A.RUNNING.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.1.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/10 groupname mpgrp6-one qfe1:1: flags=2080841<UP.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing To view the changes to the interface.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 qfe1: flags=a000841<UP.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.1.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 qfe1:2: flags=2080841<UP.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.ADDRCONF.ADDRCONF.IPv6.168.RUNNING.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF.1.RUNNING.200 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.IPv4.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.0.0.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.BROADCAST. Sun Services.RUNNING.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.RUNNING.IPv6.168.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.168. Inc.

Sun Services. The minimum time # that can be specified is 100 ms. Turn off this option to track all network interfaces # on the system # TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS=yes # If the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS variable is set to yes.mpathd daemon is controlled by the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS parameter in the /etc/default/mpathd file.dfl 1. Inc. # FAILURE_DETECTION_TIME=10000 # # Failback is enabled by default.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Starting the in.2 00/07/17 SMI" # # Time taken by mpathd to detect a NIC failure in ms. All Rights Reserved.1 . Revision A. then the /lib/svc/method/net-init SMF method starts the in.mpathd # 8-66 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.mpathd daemon automatically. use the following command as the root user: # /sbin/in. If you need to start the in.mpathd daemon from the command line.mpathd daemon at boot time. If the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS variable is set to no. The contents of this file are: # cat /etc/default/mpathd # #pragma ident "@(#)mpathd. To disable failback turn off this option # FAILBACK=yes # # By default only interfaces configured as part of multipathing groups # are tracked. the ifconfig command’s group option starts the in.mpathd Daemon to Monitor the Interfaces The start process of the in.

BROADCAST.1.168.IPv6.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.168.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 qfe1: flags=a000841<UP.ADDRCONF.1.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 # The system now remains available to users even if either of the multipath network interfaces fail or become unusable for any reason.RUNNING. Revision A.BROADCAST.ADDRCONF. Sun Services. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.1 8-67 .RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING.0.1.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/10 groupname mpgrp6-one qfe1:1: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 qfe1:2: flags=2080841<UP. Inc.RUNNING.LOOPBACK.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.RUNNING.200 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.RUNNING.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Viewing the Interface Configuration To view the configuration of the interfaces.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.IPv4.ADDRCONF.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.IPv6.1.168. now that multipathing is completely configured.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.IPv6.MULTICAST.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.MULTICAST.RUNNING.

complete the following steps.168.LOOPBACK. View your system’s interface configuration to have a baseline before you make any changes to the system. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.IPv6.0.RUNNING.168.MULTICAST.255 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.1. View the interface configuration. 5. The multipath group is called mpgrp6-one. 4.1. Sun Services. 1. Observe the IPMP failover.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. Inc. but unconfigured.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. 2. Reboot the system. To configure IPMP. Configure unique MAC addresses.RUNNING.RUNNING. qfe1 interface on the sys13 (192.168.RUNNING.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring IPMP at Boot Time This example shows IPMP configuration on an existing IPv6-configured hme0 interface and on an existing. 3.MULTICAST.1 .MULTICAST. Verify the Solaris OS release.0. so that you know the state of the system if you need to restore the system for any reason.BROADCAST.MULTICAST. 6.1.LOOPBACK. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.3) system.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 # 8-68 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. which are described in greater detail in the next sections. Configure the interfaces.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.

All Rights Reserved. Revision A. The following system meets the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 8 10/00 s28s_u2wos_11b SPARC Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Inc.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Verifying the Solaris OS Release The /etc/release file contains information about the installed version of the Solaris OS. All Rights Reserved. Assembled 09 September 2004 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. Inc.1 8-69 . Assembled 31 August 2000 # The following system exceeds the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 s10_67 SPARC Copyright 2004 Sun Microsystems. Use is subject to license terms.

Revision A. determine if the code in your system’s EEPROM supports unique MAC addresses. Sun Services.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring Unique MAC Addresses Before attempting to configure MAC addresses. # eeprom local-mac-address?=true # Verify that the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable is set to true: # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=true # Note – You must reboot the system for EEPROM changes to take place. Inc. To determine if unique MAC addresses are permitted.1 . You now use the eeprom command to change the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable to true. You can also set the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable from the OpenBoot PROM level. All Rights Reserved. 8-70 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. use the eeprom command to view the current value of the local-mac-address? variable: # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=false # The preceding output indicates that the system is still in its default mode and uses the same MAC address for each interface.

Assigns mpgrp6-one as the name for an IPMP group.qfe1 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname. Interfaces that are marked in this way do not fail over to another physical interface in the multipath group in a failover scenario. Marks the interface as a non-failover interface.qfe1 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname6. Revision A. Sun Services. Forces the ifconfig command to configure the interface as an IPv6 interface.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring the Interfaces Multipath information is placed in the /etc/hostname6.200 # Create the /etc/hostname6.1. Inc.qfe1 -failover group mpgrp6-one up # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.qfe1 files.qfe1 192.hme0 -failover group mpgrp6-one up # where: hme0 hostname6 -failover Assigns an interface.1 8-71 .qfe1 file to permit the IPv4 stack to be configured on the qfe1 interface at boot time. Marks the interface as up. Create the /etc/hostname. Modify the /etc/hostname6.hme0 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname6.hme0 and /etc/hostname6.168. All Rights Reserved. and initializes the hardware. group mpgrp6-one up Configure the /etc/hostname.

NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/10 groupname mpgrp6-one qfe1:1: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP. Revision A.168.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 qfe1:2: flags=2080841<UP.168.1.IPv6.168.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.RUNNING. # init 6 # Viewing the Interface Configuration To view the configuration of the interfaces when the system is booted.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST. Inc.MULTICAST.200 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.0.IPv4.MULTICAST.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Rebooting the System Reboot system to enable IPMP.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.1.IPv6.BROADCAST.168. 8-72 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 qfe1: flags=a000841<UP.MULTICAST.RUNNING.RUNNING.1.1 .255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.1.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP. All Rights Reserved.0.BROADCAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. even if either of the multipath network interfaces fail or become unusable for any reason.RUNNING. Sun Services.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING.IPv6.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 # The system remains available to users.

MULTICAST.RUNNING.hme0 group singleton# Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0.168. ensure that the interface configuration file contains the group option and the IPMP group name: # cat /etc/hostname6. and so are always associated with the monitored interface.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 # If the single interface will be included in an IPMP group with multiple interfaces in the future. With a single interface in the group.IPv4.168.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configure a Singleton IPMP Group in IPv6 It is possible to configure an IPMP group that contains only one IPv6-enabled interface. data addresses can never move to a different interface.RUNNING. This enables you to monitor the status of the interface by using IPMP and to receive notifications about the interface’s status.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Configuring a Singleton IPMP Group in IPv6 at System Boot To create a singleton IPMP group at system boot.MULTICAST.RUNNING. All Rights Reserved.1.RUNNING.0.1 8-73 . assign a multipath group name to the interface: # ifconfig hme0 inet6 group singleton # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.1.MULTICAST. Sun Services. you should also set the NOFAILOVER flag on the link local by using the -failover option.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.MULTICAST.255 groupname singleton ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.ADDRCONF. Configuring a Singleton IPMP Group in IPv6 on the Command Line To create a singleton IPMP group.VIRTUAL> mtu8232 index 1 inet 128. although it is not possible to fail the IPv6 addresses over on to another network interface.BROADCAST. Revision A.MULTICAST. Inc.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0 flags=1000843<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname singleton hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.

Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. Inc. Preparation Unplumb any secondary interfaces that might be configured before beginning this exercise. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 2. Working on Any System In this section of the exercise. Revision A. That is. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 8-74 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 1. All Rights Reserved. You use both interfaces for regular network traffic. you configure IPv6 multipathing on two interfaces on your systems. your system runs at half of its potential capacity in the event of a network failure on any of the two NICs.Exercise 2: Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Exercise 2: Configuring IPv6 Multipathing In this exercise. so that you know the state of the system if you need to restore the system for any reason. Sun Services.1 . View your system’s interface configuration to have a baseline before you make any changes to the system. Tasks Complete the following steps. Verify that your operating system release can support multipathing. You can use any name that you choose for your multipath group. you configure IPv6 multipathing.

Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Check your system for interfaces. Revision A. Sun Services. and decide which interfaces that you will use for multipathing. Configure a test address for your system’s first multipath interface. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ What command do you use to cause your system to use unique MAC addresses? _____________________________________________________________ Note – You must reboot the system for EEPROM changes to take place. 7. and set the failover option appropriately for a multipathing test address. Verify that your system is configured to use unique MAC addresses. Configure your first interface as part of the multipath group that you will use. Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected.1 8-75 . Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 6. Write the name that you are going to assign to your multipath group: _____________________________________________________________ 4. Inc. Complete the following fields: Multipath group name: _________________________ First interface: _______________________________ Second interface: _____________________________ IPv4 address for second interface: __________________ 5. as described in the preparation section at the beginning of this exercise. Caution – Before performing the next step. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 8.Exercise 2: Configuring IPv6 Multipathing 3. All Rights Reserved. bring down and unplumb any secondary interfaces that might be configured.

Exercise 2: Configuring IPv6 Multipathing 9. Configure IPv6 on your system’s second multipathing interface. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 10. Be sure to use the plumb option to enable the interface. While the ping command is running. Sun Services. and assign it a status of up. Configure the IPv4 component of your system’s second interface. All Rights Reserved. set an appropriate failover option to cause it to function properly as a multipathing test address. 14. Plug in the cable. Inc. simulate a network failure and disconnect the network interface cable connected to the interface that you are using the ping command to detect. Revision A. Verify that the multipathing daemon is running. 8-76 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and assign it a status of up. 12. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 11. netmask. Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected. Assign an IP. 13. Use the ping command to send an echo request every second from any other IPv6 system to a site-local address on your system. Verify that the multipathing is working as expected. Be sure to use the plumb option to enable the interface. and notice that the output from the ping command continues without interruption when the interfaces fail back.1 . assign it to the multipath group. and broadcast address.

Inc. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. issues.1 8-77 . Revision A.

2.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 # 8-78 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. View your system’s interface configuration to have a baseline before you make any changes to the system.MULTICAST. Task Solutions This section provides solutions to the exercise tasks.RUNNING.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.ADDRCONF. so that you know the state of the system if you need to restore the system for any reason.IPv6.0.255 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.LOOPBACK. You use both interfaces for standard network traffic.RUNNING.RUNNING.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. Your results will be different depending upon the system on which you are working.Exercise 2 Solutions Exercise 2 Solutions The output in the following solution is specific to an individual system. All Rights Reserved.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. you configure IPv6 multipathing on two interfaces on your systems.MULTICAST. You can use any name that you choose for your multipath group.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.168. 1.IPv4.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. Inc.1 .ADDRCONF.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.2. Working on Any System In this section of the exercise. Sun Services. That is.168. Revision A. your system runs at half of its potential capacity in the event of a network failure on any of the two NICs.MULTICAST.RUNNING.0.

IPv6.Exercise 2 Solutions 2.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. 3. # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 3/05 s10_74L2 SPARC Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST.RUNNING. Verify that your operating system release can support multipathing.168.MULTICAST. Sun Services. Complete the following fields: Multipath group name: _________________________ First interface: _______________________________ Second interface: _____________________________ IPv4 address for second interface: __________________ # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.RUNNING. # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=true # This system assigns unique MAC addresses to each interface.0.LOOPBACK. Assembled 12 January 2005 This system can support multipathing because it is more recent than the Solaris 8 10/00 OS.2. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Inc. 4.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP. Use is subject to license terms.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. What command do you use to cause your system to use unique MAC addresses? # eeprom local-mac-address?=true # Note – You must reboot the system for EEPROM changes to take place.255 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP. All Rights Reserved.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST. and decide which interfaces that you will use for multipathing.BROADCAST.RUNNING. Check your system for interfaces. Verify that your system is configured to use unique MAC addresses.168. Revision A.2.1 8-79 .MULTICAST.LOOPBACK. Write the name that you are going to assign to your multipath group: This solution uses a multipath group name of mp-demo.

5.ADDRCONF.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.Exercise 2 Solutions inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP. All Rights Reserved.LOOPBACK. The qfe1 interface is not configured for any network traffic at this stage.IPv4. Inc. 192.RUNNING.MULTICAST.168. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.1 .VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 # Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST. and set the failover option appropriately for a multipathing test address. For example.MULTICAST. Sun Services.MULTICAST. Configure a test address for your system’s first multipath interface.2.2.RUNNING.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.2.ADDRCONF.IPv6.RUNNING. q q q Multipath group name – mp-demo First interface – hme0 Second interface – qfe1 The IPv4 address used for the secondary will be the primary interface’s address plus 200.BROADCAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 # This solution demonstrates use of the hme0 and qfe1 interfaces.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Configure your first interface as part of the multipath group that you will use.3 uses 192.255 groupname mp-demo ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.ADDRCONF.LOOPBACK.0.MULTICAST. Revision A.203 for the secondary interface.RUNNING.2.0.168.RUNNING.168. # ifconfig hme0 inet6 -failover # 8-80 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 7.MULTICAST. # ifconfig hme0 inet6 group mp-demo # 6.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 groupname mp-demo hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING.168. Observe that the IPv4 interface has also joined the multipath group.RUNNING.

LOOPBACK.0.RUNNING.2. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.RUNNING.RUNNING.168.MULTICAST.0 + broadcast + up # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.MULTICAST.RUNNING.2.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168. bring down and unplumb any secondary interfaces that might be configured.MULTICAST.1 8-81 . Revision A.RUNNING. All Rights Reserved. Inc.IPv6.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING.0.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 groupname mp-demo hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 # Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected. Sun Services. Assign an IP. as described in the preparation section at the beginning of this exercise.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 groupname mp-demo hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING.IPv6.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.255.RUNNING. 9.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.255 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c9 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.255 groupname mp-demo ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.255.168.RUNNING.RUNNING.LOOPBACK.IPv4.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.IPv4.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.168.MULTICAST.255 groupname mp-demo ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.2.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.Exercise 2 Solutions 8.ADDRCONF. Observe that only the IPv6 interface has a test address assigned to it.IPv6.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. netmask. and broadcast address.168.0.203 netmask 255.BROADCAST.2.168. Be sure to use the plumb option to enable the interface.MULTICAST. Write the command that you use: # ifconfig qfe1 plumb 192.2.203 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST. and assign it a status of up.IPv6.MULTICAST.168.BROADCAST.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.0. Caution – Before performing the next step.RUNNING.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.2.BROADCAST.2.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Configure the IPv4 component of your system’s second interface.

3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Sun Services.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.2.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c9/64 # 8-82 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ADDRCONF.255 groupname mp-demo ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.LOOPBACK.203 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.Exercise 2 Solutions hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP. Set an appropriate failover option to cause it to function properly as a multipathing test address and assign it a status of up.RUNNING.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c9 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c9/10 groupname mp-demo qfe1:1: flags=2080841<UP.168.LOOPBACK.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.RUNNING.2.MULTICAST.255 groupname mp-demo ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c9 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c9/64 qfe1:2: flags=2080841<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Inc.MULTICAST. # ifconfig qfe1 inet6 plumb group mp-demo -failover up # 11. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.2.IPv4.168.IPv6. Configure the new IPv6 multipathing interface to be part of the multipathing group.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 qfe1: flags=a000841<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 10.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 groupname mp-demo hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING.MULTICAST.RUNNING.0.BROADCAST.2.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.ADDRCONF. Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected.RUNNING.IPv6.1 .1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.IPv6.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST.168.RUNNING.0.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.168.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.

and notice that the output from the ping command continues without interruption when the interfaces fail back. time=0. Plug in the cable. time=0. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=1. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=3. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=20. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=2. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=18. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=4. 13. time=0. While the ping command is running. time=0. time=0. time=0. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=15. the multipathing process is running as expected. # ping -s fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8 PING fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: 56 data bytes 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=0. 14. Inc. All Rights Reserved. time=0. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=14. time=0. Sun Services. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=5. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # ps -ef|grep mpath root 480 273 root 457 1 # 0 12:34:29 console 0 11:46:17 ? 0:00 grep mpath 0:00 # /usr/lib/inet/in. Revision A. Verify that the multipathing is working as expected.1 8-83 . time=0. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=19. and disconnect the network interface cable connected to the interface that you are using the ping command to detect. as can be seen by looking at the ICMP sequence numbers.Exercise 2 Solutions 12. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=17. time=1. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=16. simulate a network failure. time=0.mpathd Yes. time=0. Verify that the multipathing daemon is running. Use the ping command to send an echo request every second from any other IPv6 system to a site-local address on your system. time=0. ms <Control>-C # Notice how nine seconds worth of data from the ping command was lost.

.

In addition. Upon completion of this module you should be able to: q q q q Describe Transport layer fundamentals Describe UDP Describe TCP Describe TCP flow control The course map in Figure 9-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. Sun Services.Module 9 Describing the Transport Layer Objectives This module describes Transport layer fundamentals. Revision A. including the different characteristics of UDP and TCP. Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Figure 9-1 Course Map 9-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Inc.1 . this module explains TCP flow control.

Revision A. 9-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The two protocols associated with the Transport layer. TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 9-2 Position of the Transport Layer in the TCP/IP Network Model Protocol Characteristics There are two main protocols that operate at the Transport layer. are provided by a kernel-loadable module.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals The Transport layer transports data to and from the correct application. TCP and UDP. To understand the differences between TCP and UDP. The Transport layer provides a transport service for application data. you must be familiar with the different characteristics of network protocols. All Rights Reserved. Application designers decide which transport protocol to use for their application. Sun Services. Figure 9-2 shows the position of the Transport layer in the TCP/IP network model. Inc.1 . This process is known as end-to-end communication. TCP and UDP.

 Figure 9-3 Connection-Oriented Protocol Logical Connection This method of connection: q q Is highly reliable because of acknowledgements Requires more computational processing than connectionless protocols Has more overhead because of connection establishment and termination q Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Sun Services. you must establish a logical connection with the communication partner before exchanging data.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Connection-Oriented Protocols With connection-oriented protocols. Figure 9-3 illustrates how a connection-oriented protocol could work.1 9-3 .

This method is also suited to protocols that use a broadcast approach to transmit information. Connectionless protocols transmit self-contained messages. establishing a connection before sending data is not necessary. All Rights Reserved. This avoids the protocol having to wait for multiple acknowledgements and having to know how many acknowledgements to expect. Inc. Sun Services. 9-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . This method also requires lower overhead because it has no connection and no setup requirements. and therefore is best suited for use in highly reliable networks. Revision A.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Connectionless Protocols Figure 9-4 illustrates how a connectionless protocol could work. Mail Figure 9-4 Connectionless Protocol With connectionless protocols. Self-contained messages: q q Include the full message Do not require any response The connectionless protocol method has virtually no reliability features.

therefore. Inc. data that is sent can be lost or delivered out-of-sequence. Client Server Figure 9-5 Stateful Protocol Stateless Protocols A stateless protocol is a protocol in which neither the client nor the server system has an obligation to keep track of the state of the communication session. Client Figure 9-6 Server Stateless Protocol The advantages of a stateless protocol are that it has lower overheads and it has a degree of isolation between the client and the server. Figure 9-6 illustrates how interaction in a stateless protocol could work. Connectionless protocols are typically stateless. Revision A.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Stateful Protocols A stateful protocol is a protocol in which part of the data that is exchanged between the client and the server systems includes state information. Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. A stateless protocol does not support most reliability features. Figure 9-5 illustrates how interaction in a stateful protocol could work. Both systems keep track of the state of the communication session.1 9-5 . Sun Services.

1 . Sun Services. Inc.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Reliable Protocols A reliable protocol requires that each transmission is acknowledged by the receiving host. The sender retransmits. Sender Receiver Time Send Packet 1 1 Receive Packet 1 Send Acknowledgement (ACK) 2 Receive ACK Send Packet 2 3 Receive Packet 2 Send ACK 4 Receive ACK Send Packet 3 5 Packet Lost Timeout Resend Packet 3 6 7 Receive Packet 3 Figure 9-7 Reliable Protocol 9-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Figure 9-7 shows how a reliable protocol could work. Revision A. if necessary. All Rights Reserved.

Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Unreliable Protocols An unreliable protocol does not require that each transmission is acknowledged by the receiving host.1 9-7 . Sun Services. Sender Receiver Time 1 Send Packet 1 2 Send Packet 2 3 Send Packet 3 Packet Lost 4 Send Packet 4 Figure 9-8 Unreliable Protocol Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Figure 9-8 shows how an unreliable protocol could work. Revision A. Inc.

Revision A.2 Uncertified Figure 9-9 TCP and UDP Analogy 9-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. In addition. and can regulate the flow of information. and flow regulation depends on which protocol is used.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Transport Protocols in TCP/IP The Transport layer header includes a destination port number that identifies the destination application program on the remote machine and a source port number that identifies the application on the originating machine. The way in which the Transport layer handles error detection. TCP and UDP. Sun Services. The TCP/IP protocol stack features two Transport layer protocols.1 . Figure 9-9 shows an analogy that compares TCP and UDP. Inc. the Transport layer handles error detection. can handle recovery problems. 6+2 Certified 7. the sequence of data.

or delivered out-of-order. followed by the data section. UDP has low overhead. and it is designed for high-speed applications that run on reliable networks. shown in Figure 9-10. and flow control. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Type Source Port Length Destination Port Checksum Figure 9-10 UDP Header Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The application program that uses UDP is responsible for reliability. that contains the source and destination port numbers. UDP packets can be lost. UDP Datagram Header UDP receives incoming data from the application and encapsulates the data in UDP datagrams. Inc. Large UDP datagrams can be fragmented by IP. UDP datagrams are sent to the Internet layer for encapsulation and delivery. UDP is also used by Application layer protocols that transmit information by broadcast mechanisms.1 9-9 . UDP datagrams have a leading header section. Sun Services. Purpose of UDP UDP gives an application direct access to the Internet layer and includes the source and the destination port numbers. sequencing. All Rights Reserved. duplicated. stateless. and unreliable protocol. UDP is designed for applications that do not require a reliable Transport layer mechanism. UDP does not require that the receiving host acknowledge transmissions. if required. Revision A.Introducing UDP Introducing UDP UDP is a connectionless.

Figure 9-11 shows the segment header with its fields. TCP has four main features: q q q q Virtual circuit connection Full-duplex connection Unstructured stream orientation Buffered transfer TCP Segment Header The TCP segment header has many fields. Sun Services. particularly across multiple routers and gateways. All Rights Reserved.1 . stateful. 9-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. Figure 9-11 TCP Segment Header Notice that the segment header includes sequence and acknowledgment numbers that are used for connection-oriented and stateful connections. Revision A.Introducing TCP Introducing TCP TCP is a connection-oriented. Refer to RFC 793 and RFC 3168 for additional information. TCP is suited for situations where large volumes of data must travel between systems. and reliable protocol.

This process is called piggybacking. TCP segments have a leading header section that contains control information. The TCP protocol software sends control information for one stream back to the source in the segments that carry data in the opposite direction. A full-duplex connection consists of two independent streams of data that flow in opposite directions. source and destination port numbers. Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services.1 9-11 . Full-Duplex Connection TCP connections provide concurrent transfer in both directions. This stream of bytes is divided into packets called segments. Revision A. The input and output buffers also enable the application to see TCP as a full-duplex connection. TCP provides both input and output buffers to regulate the flow of data. TCP then sends the segments to the Internet layer for encapsulation and delivery. This is similar to making a phone call: the line must be established before you can begin to talk. All Rights Reserved. and it reduces network traffic. Data can flow fast or slow. and a data section. Buffered Transfer Data that comes from the application is a flowing stream. As seen previously. To ensure the efficient flow of data to and from the application. The content in the data section is not read or translated by TCP. Inc.Introducing TCP Virtual Circuit Connection TCP must establish a connection between the sender and receiver before the transmission can start. Unstructured Stream Orientation Data originating from the Application layer flows to TCP as a stream of bytes.

Each acknowledgement specifies that a particular segment was received. TCP reduces the congestion window size by one-half. and each window advertisement specifies how many additional bytes the receiver is prepared to accept. If congestion is detected. TCP has sophisticated algorithms to optimize flow control on both the sender side and the receiver side. The algorithm that implements flow control on both the sender side and the receiver side follows what is known as the sliding window principle. Inc. The congestion window adjusts the amount of data that can be sent according to the number of segments that were recently lost or acknowledged in transit. All Rights Reserved. The slow-start algorithm quickly increases window size by doubling it for each successful transmission. Depending upon the severity of the congestion. 9-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. therefore. Revision A. TCP doubles the size of the congestion window. TCP maintains a congestion window on the sending side. Sun Services. the congestion window can be reduced in size by one-half multiple times. TCP can use either a slow-start or congestion-avoidance algorithm to begin to increase the size of the congestion window. the receiving side manages flow control.1 . As acknowledgements begin to be received. The size contained in the window advertisements varies over time.Introducing TCP Flow Control Introducing TCP Flow Control TCP is more than a basic send-receive-acknowledge-send progression. The congestion-avoidance algorithm slowly increases the window’s size by increasing it only one segment at a time for each successful transmission. If congestion continues. Sender-Side Congestion Window To avoid network congestion. With window advertisements. the receiving host continually informs the sending host of how much data it is prepared to receive. it is considered a sliding window. Receiver-Side Window Advertisements A TCP window advertisement determines the maximum amount of data that can be sent before the sender must wait for an acknowledgement from the receiver. Lost segments are detected if a transmission timeout occurs before an acknowledgement for the segment is received. By advertising its window size. Each TCP segment from the receiving side carries an acknowledgement and a window advertisement.

Revision A. high-bandwidth networks. such as satellite networks. which permits larger TCP window advertisement sizes to enhance performance over high-delay. A standard TCP header uses a 16-bit field to report the receiver window size to the sender.Introducing TCP Flow Control TCP Large Window The Solaris 10 OS implements RFC 1323. RFC 1323 introduces a mechanism to increase the window size to 230 or 1 gigabyte (Gbyte). Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. the largest window that can be used is 216 or 64 kilobytes (Kbyte). Sun Services. Therefore.1 9-13 . All Rights Reserved.

Why would an application programmer use an unacknowledged transmission protocol? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 9-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Tasks Complete the following steps: 1. A protocol that establishes a communication session before sending data A reliable. Match the terms to their definition. Revision A.Exercise: Describing the Transport Layer Exercise: Describing the Transport Layer In this exercise. Inc. d. _____ _____ Connection-oriented protocol TCP c. you: q q Define Transport layer terms Describe why an application programmer uses an unacknowledged transmission protocol Review the differences between TCP and UDP q Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. stateful. 2. and connection-oriented Transport layer protocol An unacknowledged Transport layer protocol A principle that optimizes TCP flow control _____ _____ UDP b.1 . Sliding window a.

All Rights Reserved. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. issues.1 9-15 .Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. Inc. Sun Services. Revision A.

Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. All Rights Reserved. d Match the terms to their definition. a b Connection-oriented protocol TCP c. 2. Revision A. d. Sun Services. and connection-oriented Transport layer protocol An unacknowledged Transport layer protocol A principle that optimizes TCP flow control c UDP b. Why would an application programmer use an unacknowledged transmission protocol? UDP has less overhead than TCP. Inc. A protocol that establishes a communication session before sending data A reliable. Sliding window a. UDP is best suited for short bursts of communication or broadcast communication. stateful.1 . 9-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

the name resolution process. This module also describes DNS configuration. editing the BIND configuration file and other relevant files. and resource records. Revision A. Configuring and Managing Network Applications Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Configuring DNS Configuring DHCP Figure 10-1 Course Map Configuring NTP 10-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. including gathering needed information.1 .Module 10 Configuring DNS Objectives This module describes the basic components of DNS. top-level domains. including the Berkeley Internet name domain (BIND). Upon completion of this module. you should be able to: q q q Describe the basics of DNS Configure a DNS server Troubleshoot a DNS server by using basic utilities The course map in Figure 10-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. zones of authority. server types. Inc. Sun Services. and performing basic troubleshooting procedures.

Sun Services. a domain can span a large physical area.Introducing DNS Basics Introducing DNS Basics The DNS name space is composed of a set of hierarchical domains arranged in a manner similar to the branches of an inverted tree. BIND BIND is the most frequently used implementation of DNS in the UNIX environment. Branches represent collections of names in a common domain. does not support this action. The Solaris 10 OS implements the BIND 9. version 9. Note – Earlier versions of the Solaris OS implemented the BIND 8 software.org/. however. All Rights Reserved. You can download and compile the latest version.1 . A single network can consist of hosts that belong to many different domains. Inc. A domain is maintained by a group of administrators. not physical entity. In BIND 9 the daemon is /usr/sbin/named.isc.named.4 software. In other words. http://www. In BIND 8 the daemon is /usr/sbin/in. Can be branches or leaves in the DNS tree. Top-Level Domains A domain: q Is a collection of names that identifies network hosts and is a logical. which might not be in physical proximity. The latest versions of the BIND software are available from the Internet Systems Consortium’s (ISC) Web site. Leaves represent individual nodes and are considered domains unto themselves. Represents nodes or systems by name in the DNS naming tree.2. Is an index for looking up information in the DNS distributed database. Inc. q q q q 10-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Sun Microsystems. Can be broken into subdomains and can delegate authority for those subdomains to another group of administrators.

available at the http://www. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.S.org Web site. Geographical domains are based on the physical location of the domain.S.org/tlds URL. Revision A. This domain is a place holder containing names and servers for the top-level domains.)) Educational organizations Governmental organizations (U. The second level is usually the first place that the ICANN delegates authority for a domain to some other local organization. sun.S. edu. Inc. org and arpa. for example. authorizes domain registrars to sell domain names.icann. Top-level domains are below the root domain. The IANA controls the root domain. gov. Table 10-1 DNS Top-Level Domain Examples Domain com edu gov mil net org arpa ca Description Commercial organizations (predominately in the United States (U. The ICANN non-profit group is the governing body of all IP address assignments and domain names and controls the root domain. The proposals for new TLDs are available at the http://www. not ICANN.Introducing DNS Basics The top of the DNS hierarchy contains a nameless root domain. Table 10-1 shows top-level domains and their descriptions. The ICANN.) Networking organizations and ISPs Non-profit and other organizations Reverse address lookups Country-based domains. All Rights Reserved. Organizational domains are based on the function or the purpose of the domain.icann. is controlled by administrators of Sun Microsystems. All top-level domains are controlled currently by the ICANN. Sun Services.com.1 10-3 . Canada in this example Top-level domains have two main categories: organizational domains and geographical domains. Second-level domains are below the top-level domains. The second-level domain. Top-level domains (TLDs) include currently domains such as com.) Military organizations (U.

For example. Revision A. Lower-level domains can be split into more lower-level domains as needed. which are described in more detail in this section. All domains are subject to naming length restrictions. a large. or as-needed basis. political. Zones of Authority In addition to dividing the name space into administrative domains. contains information for domains over which the server has naming control in the form of resource records in the servers’ configuration files) Consist of at least one domain and its associated data Can span one or more domains q q Server Types DNS implements name resolution. These zones: q Are the portion of the name space for which a server is authoritative (that is. Note that a single system can fulfill more than one role. and a 63-character limit for an individual domain name.Introducing DNS Basics An organization can break up their second-level domains into lower-level domains. A university might divide its domain into department-based domains. There is a 255-character maximum for a fully qualified domain name (FQDN). All Rights Reserved.1 . The types of server are: q q q q q Root servers Primary servers Secondary servers Caching-only servers Forwarding servers 10-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Fully qualified is analogous to an absolute path in a file name. For example. All servers also cache information. the name space also divides into various zones of authority. a system might be a primary server for one zone and a secondary server for a different zone. Sun Services. This is usually done on an organizational. Inc. multinational corporation might divide its domain into country-based domains. The following are some of the more common server types.

The ICANN does not permit a domain to be registered officially as a subdomain of a top-level domain until a site demonstrates two working DNS servers. The root servers are currently named A. Sun Services. Primary Servers Each DNS zone must have a primary server. (See the following sections for definitions of authoritative and non-authoritative servers.net.Introducing DNS Basics Root Servers Root servers maintain data about each of the top-level zones. They can specify the delegation of authority for subdomains.. it is not frequently done.) They provide update information and synchronize secondary servers when the secondary servers request information. They are authoritative servers for all zones that they serve. and the servers are moved to a common domain for consistent naming purposes..1 10-5 . Revision A.internic. Although DNS does not prohibit having more than one primary server. maintaining multiple primary servers is difficult and is prone to having errors occur. and so on.root-servers. 2004) 13 root servers.conf file. ICANN maintains the root servers. Inc. Primary servers have the following features: q q They are the system on which all changes are made to the zone.root-servers. B. nine serve the root and top-level domains. Of these servers. There are (as of September. All Rights Reserved. therefore.rs. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. In the /etc/named.root URL. and four serve the root domain only.net.root file. the keyword master indicates the primary server. q q Secondary Servers Each domain should have at least one secondary server. from the ftp://ftp.net/domain/named. which contains a list of the current root servers. You can download a current copy of the named.

Introducing DNS Basics Secondary servers have the following features: q q There can be one or more secondary servers per zone. the name server resumes normal operations and contacts the remote name servers itself. All Rights Reserved. that is. authoritative. They obtain a copy of the zone information through zone transfers for all domains that they serve from the appropriate primary server or from another secondary server for the zone. with the exception of the loopback address. They are never authoritative for any domain. They reduce overhead that is associated with secondary servers that perform zone transfers from primary servers. Sun Services. Designating a server as a forwarding server causes all off-site requests to consult initially the forwarding server or servers. name servers. Off-site queries are queries for remote information. which reduces the number of redundant off-site requests. Inc. Forwarding servers have the following features: q q All off-site queries go through forwarders first. the size of the cache grows. 10-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Over time. q q q Forwarding Servers Forwarding servers are DNS servers intended to act as focal points for all off-site DNS queries. q Caching-Only Servers All DNS servers cache information for any domain for which they are not authoritative.1 . Caching-only servers are servers that are not authoritative for any zone. their answers to queries are considered highly accurate. Caching-only servers have the following features: q They provide a rich cache of the most commonly accessed namespace information. Revision A. They permit DNS client access to naming information that is locally cached without the expense of setting up a primary or a secondary DNS server. They are authoritative for all of the zones that they serve. If no reply is received from the forwarders. and to wait for a reply. but instead caches responses from other. The server that is used as a forwarder builds up a rich cache of information.

Usually correct. it is possible for incorrect data to enter the DNS database. Revision A. Sun Services.1 10-7 . All Rights Reserved. Because humans administer the DNS. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. q Note – If a name server uses the directive forward only in addition to the forwarders directive. The local server can still contact the remote site if forwarders fail to respond to queries.Introducing DNS Basics q q Special setup on forwarders is not required. Answer Types Answers that are returned from DNS servers can be described as authoritative or non-authoritative.conf file on the local servers. Inc. then the name server may not contact remote name servers on its own. Servers using forwarders are configured by adding a forwarder directive to the /etc/named. Answers from authoritative DNS servers are: q q Sourced from a disk-based file. Answers from non-authoritative DNS servers are: q q q Sourced from a server cache Usually correct Can be incorrect if the server’s cache contains stale data Name-Resolution Process DNS name resolution is the process of translating a domain name to an IP address or translating an IP address to a domain name. Resolver code is built into the operating system libraries and is available to programs that use system interface calls. Name resolution begins with client-side resolver code.

conf file Is activated by a reference to DNS in the /etc/nsswitch. Sun Services. Revision A.conf file hosts entry q 10-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing DNS Basics Client-resolver code: q q Does not cache any information Queries the DNS servers that are specified in the /etc/resolv. All Rights Reserved. Inc.1 .

internic. Sun Services. Figure 10-2 shows a client attempting to resolve the ftp.net. Name Server Figure 10-2 DNS Name Resolution Process Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing DNS Basics A DNS client uses the following steps to query a name server to resolve name-to-address or address-to-name requests.conf File 2 /etc/inet/hosts File 3 LDAP Hosts Database 4 /etc/resolv. All Rights Reserved. Name Server Local Name Server 11 12 internic.conf File Local Name Server 5 6 Cache Local Name Server 7 8 root Name Server Local Name Server 9 10 net.net name to an IP address.1 10-9 . 1 /etc/nsswitch. Revision A. Inc.

3.conf file to determine the name resolution search list and the address of the DNS servers. All Rights Reserved. the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server. 10-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. In this example.31 sys11ext 192.conf file to determine the name resolution order. The local DNS server consults the contents of its cached information in case this query has been recently resolved. the order is the local file.0. Inc.168.1.1 localhost 192. A recursive query states: “I will wait for the answer.. The client system consults the /etc/nsswitch. 5. and then the DNS server. If the address is in the local cache. 4..30. The client system consults the /etc/resolv. 1.internic. to the LDAP server and finds no address. 6. hosts: files ldap dns . The client system resolver routine sends a recursive DNS query asking for the IP address for the Internet name. ftp. ftp.168. and you do all of the work.net.net. Revision A. The client system sends a query asking for the IP address of the Internet name.conf file has the following contents: # cat /etc/nsswitch. # The /etc/inet/hosts file has the following contents: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # Internet host table 127..1 .Introducing DNS Basics The following describes the DNS name-resolution process where the /etc/nsswitch. The client system consults the local /etc/inet/hosts file and does not find an entry.conf . to the local DNS server. it is returned to the client as a non-authoritative answer.internic.1 sys11 # loghost # router to get to instructor The following steps describe the DNS name-resolution process..0.. 2.. Sun Services.” The client waits until the local server completes name resolution.

Sun Services.net servers and a TTL value. Resource records can also include information about a particular system including its IP address. and I will do all of the work. and the email address of the DNS administrator. and its contact information. The root server returns the best information it has. the general format of any resource record is: [name] [ttl] class type data Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. it contacts one of the root servers and sends an iterative query. The local DNS server contacts one of the internic. In this case. the assumption is that the answer is not cached and that a root server must be contacted. Resource Records Resource records are entries contained in the name server zone files and are not case sensitive. ftp. the only information you are guaranteed is that the root server has the names and addresses of all the net domain servers.Introducing DNS Basics 7. The root server returns these names and addresses along with a TTL value that specifies how long the local DNS server can cache this information. 10.” In this example.1 10-11 . and the client can proceed. 8. If the local DNS server does not have cached information about the net or internic domains.internic. Inc. An iterative query states: “Send me the best answer you have. cache time-out values.net server returns the IP addresses of the Internet name. its domain name. ftp. The net domain server that is contacted returns the best information it has.net. A resource record can contain information that pertains to a particular domain. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. The local DNS server contacts one of the net domain servers returned from the previous query and transmits the same iterative query that was previously sent to a root server.internic. including the server addresses. 12.net. 9.net domain servers and makes the same query for the IP address for the Internet name. which are the names and addresses of the internic. Although each type of resource record has specific syntax. along with a TTL value. The local DNS server returns the requested address to the client system. An internic. 11.

An example is 86400. Examples of a record type with multiple arguments include a host name. an IP address. Defines the appropriate data for this resource record and depends on the record type specified in field 4. days.1 . this record also defines the possible key values that are used in DNS queries. Table 10-2 Resource Record Fields Field name Description Specifies the domain name for which the resource record is defining information. Inc. Specifies the type of information that is defined for the domain in field 1. ttl class type data Depending on the record type and other shortcuts being taken. Some record types specify a single argument in this field. The examples in this module only use the IN or Internet class. Comments begin with a semicolon. This value is expressed in seconds. and other record types specify multiple arguments in this field. and an email address. Because DNS is a distributed database. and so on. hours. which can also be expressed as 1d. Sun Services. Record Types DNS zone files can contain blank lines and comments. Specifies the cache TTL value that is given to remote DNS servers when they query the information specified by this record. the type field. Table 10-3 on page 10-13 shows commonly used resource record types. The sys12.edu and one.one. Revision A. Specifies the type of network. not all of the fields are always required.edu names are examples of domain names. which represents one day in seconds.Introducing DNS Basics Resource records have the fields shown in Table 10-2. 10-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.

root.thirty.edu.one. The quad-A (AAAA) record specifies an IPv6 address for a host name. All Rights Reserved.edu. The pointer (PTR) record specifies a host name for an IP address (used for inverse lookups and IP address-to-host names). retry (1hr.1.one. kept for 1 hour q The NS resource record type: IN NS A sys12. q sys12.thirty.instructor. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The address (A) record specifies an IP address for a host name. ( 20040923 .edu.2 The A resource record type: IN one. The start of authority (SOA) record identifies the primary name server. The canonical name (CNAME) record defines a host name alias (www can substitute for a specific host name).) 691200 .Introducing DNS Basics Table 10-3 shows examples of record types and their purposes.edu.) 3600 . The name server (NS) record specifies the name server for a domain. negative caching info. and default cache TTL values for all resource records in the domain. IN SOA instructor. 192. Inc. refresh (3hrs.edu. Table 10-3 Examples of Resource Record Types Record Type $TTL Purpose The $TTL record identifies the cache TTL value that remote DNS servers receive when they query the information specified by this record. contact information.168. expire (8days) 3600 ) .1 10-13 . Sun Services. SOA NS A PTR CNAME AAAA Following are examples of resource record types: q The SOA resource record type: $TTL 8h . version number 10800 . Revision A.

sys12.Introducing DNS Basics q The PTR resource record type: IN PTR CNAME sys12. The $TTL directive identifies the cache TTL value that remote DNS servers receive when they query the information specified by this directive. All Rights Reserved. This directive. The CNAME resource record type: IN 2. or control statement.2.one. was not available for use until BIND 8.192 q www. Inc. 10-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.edu.one. Revision A.one.edu.1 .x versions.edu. Sun Services.1.168.

Sun Services. such as LDAP. Gathering Information When you configure a DNS server. will have a dependency on the DNS client service to ensure that the system is a DNS client.Configuring a DNS Server Configuring a DNS Server The DNS server daemon is the /usr/sbin/named process. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This daemon provides a service in the SMF.conf file. Revision A. but when enabled. supply the server with the following types of information: q q The names and addresses of root servers. Other services used for managing application and daemons that require DNS. checks that the system is configured as a DNS client with an /etc/resolv.conf file exists and the appropriate SMF service is enabled. This information consists of name-to-address translations. Inc.1 10-15 . The following svcs command is used to determine the status of the DNS-related services: # svcs -a | grep dns disabled Oct_22 disabled Oct_22 svc:/network/dns/client:default svc:/network/dns/server:default The following svcadm commands enable the DNS naming service and the default client service: # svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default # svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/client:default # svcs -a | grep dns online 23:02:34 svc:/network/dns/client:default online 23:08:27 svc:/network/dns/server:default Note – The DNS client service will not start any new processes. The information required to resolve all domains for which the server is authoritative. All Rights Reserved. The named daemon is started at boot time only if the /etc/named.

A BIND version 4. The /etc/named. This information is sometimes referred to as parenting or delegating.Configuring a DNS Server q The information needed to resolve all reverse domains for which the server is authoritative. q Editing the BIND Configuration File BIND version 8.1 .x and later versions use a new configuration file.x. and can extend to the end of the line. The configuration file directs the named daemon either to other servers or to local data files for a specified domain.conf. This information consists of address-to-name translations.9. Inc. or a caching-only server Specify the server’s zones of authority Indicate the location of the server’s data files Apply security selectively for specific zones Define logging specifications Apply options selectively for a set of zones q q q q q The named daemon reads the /etc/named. they can contain a block of statements enclosed within curly braces ({}). and each statement in the block is terminated with a semicolon (. Comments can start with /* and end with */.).). All Rights Reserved. 10-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.conf file by running the /usr/sbin/named-bootconf script. Sun Services. Statements end with a semicolon (. The /etc/named.x named.x and earlier. The names and addresses of servers for all domains that are one level below the domains being served by this server.boot file can be converted to a named. that replaced the /etc/named. /etc/named.conf file contains statements and can contain comments.conf file contains statements that: q q Indicate the location of the file that includes the root servers Establish the server as a primary.boot file used in versions 4.conf file when the daemon is started by the SMF. a secondary. can follow either # or //.9.

The named IP address match list must be defined by an acl statement before it can be used elsewhere. All Rights Reserved. Controls global server configuration options.conf File Statement acl Definition Defines a named IP address match list used for access control. Table 10-4 Statement Definitions for the /etc/named.Configuring a DNS Server Table 10-4 shows /etc/named. No forward references are permitted. Inc.conf statements and their definitions.1 10-17 . options zone Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. rather than to all zones. The address match list designates one or more IP addresses or IP prefixes. Defines a zone. It applies options selectively on a per-zone basis. and sets default values for other statements. Revision A.

edu" in { type master. zone "one.back".conf file. zone ".127.back Figure 10-3 The /etc/named.root".168.Configuring a DNS Server Figure 10-3 shows the contents of the /etc/named. file "forward. }.rzone loop. Sun Services.conf options { DIRECTORY "/var/named".zone reverse." in { type hint. All Rights Reserved. }.arpa" in { type master.0.0/24. Revision A. }.in-addr. /etc/named. allow-transfer {"nets". }. }.1 .arpa" in { type master. Inc. /* This is a comment */ // This is a comment # This is a comment /var/named named.in-addr. }.root forward.zone".192. zone "1. file "reverse.}. file "named.168.}. acl "nets"{ {192. file "loop. zone "0.conf File 10-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.rzone".

3600000 A 192. Revision A. formerly NS.net/ domain/named. . Sun Services. .ROOT-SERVERS.PSI.ROOT-SERVERS.12. formerly C.rs.107 . 3600000 A 202.33 . End of File Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 3600000 IN NS C. housed in Japan. 3600000 IN NS A.ROOT-SERVERS.0.4.internic.41.root file specifies name-to-address mappings for the root servers.4 .12 < Part of file truncated> .NET. 3600000 A 128.0. it is not imperative that this file be precisely up-to-date. A.NET.NET. Inc.Configuring a DNS Server Editing the named.NET.9. All Rights Reserved. C.NET. Accordingly.NET .EDU . M.ROOT-SERVERS. The name daemon uses this list that is returned from the root server and does not use the servers that are specified in the hints file again until the TTL value expires on the cached root-server information. formerly NS1.ROOT-SERVERS. .NET . .ROOT-SERVERS. 3600000 IN NS M. operated by WIDE .NET.INTERNIC.root URL: . The following is a modified (the IN entries for servers D–L have been removed in order to conserve space on this page) excerpt taken from the named. B.ROOT-SERVERS.ROOT-SERVERS.root file available at the ftp://ftp. The information in this file is described as hints to the named daemon because the daemon attempts to contact one of the root servers listed until one of the servers responds.NET. . 3600000 A 198.NET.27. The responding root server returns a list of root servers.33.ISI.1 10-19 . 3600000 IN NS B. .root File The /var/named/named. but it should be checked every few months because root servers change from time to time.

q q q The NS and A records combine to define the name and address of a single root server. This file specifies additional pairs of records.) in the first field denotes the root domain. 10-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The NS record type indicates that a name server is being defined for the root domain. Revision A.1 . For A records. Sun Services. contains an IP address. the fourth data field contains the IP address of the root server that is specified in the first field. The IN class stands for Internet. q q q In the second record: q The first (domain) field contains the FQDN of the root server that is defined in the previous record. as appropriate. All Rights Reserved. Inc. This field is historic and is not used in this file. The fifth field of the first record (the data field) is the FQDN of a root server.Configuring a DNS Server In the first record: q q The dot (. The record type. The TTL field is 3600000 seconds. A. The TTL field is 3600000 seconds. Note the trailing dot associated with this field. This field is historic and is not used in this file.

$TTL 86400 .------------------------------------------------------router IN CNAME sys11 dns IN CNAME sys12 The $TTL directive sets the default time to live for the zone’s information to eight hours. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.{name} {ttl} Class CNAME Canonical Name .0.168.1 . Inc. root.edu. .1.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12. this file must specify an SOA record and NS records for all name servers for this domain. IN NS sys13. Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) . All Rights Reserved.one.edu.edu. in this example) contains the mappings of host names to IP addresses for all systems in the domain that are being served by this name server.1 10-21 .168.4 localhost IN A 127.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name . .1 sys12 IN A 192. Serial 3600 .one. Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 .sys12.1.2 sys13 IN A 192. In addition.1.3 sys14 IN A 192.------------------------------------------------sys11 IN A 192.one.{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster .168.one. Sun Services.0.edu.168.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12. See Figure 10-3 on page 10-18 for more information on this example.Configuring a DNS Server Editing the Forward Domain File The forward domain file (db. Revision A. Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 .edu. . Minimum (24 Hours) . .1.one.{name} {ttl} Class A IP Address . ( 2005010101 .

Revision A.conf file that references this file.domain_name. Note that the @ is replaced with a dot in the SOA record because the @ has special meaning in this file. This timer is usually set to a smaller value than the refresh timer. after which the secondary servers check back if a normal refresh failed.edu. in this case). the entire zone data should be discarded. All Rights Reserved. in the format of DNS_admin_name.edu. in seconds. Data field argument 2 (root. or to use today’s date. after which the secondary servers should check to determine if the serial number has changed. in seconds. Data field argument 1 (sys12. remember to update this number in such a way that it gets larger. The administrator is usually the root user. Data field argument 7 – The negative caching timer (Minimum) is the default value of time that the server keeps negative responses from other authoritative servers. that you can use to report problems with the domain.edu) – This is an email address. Data field argument 3 – This is the version (Serial) number that the secondary slave servers use to determine if they need to perform a zone transfer to get a fresh copy of zone data. Data field argument 6 – The expire timer is the time interval in seconds after which. a zone transfer needs to occur.sys12. and. Any time you make changes to this file.) – This is the name of the primary master server for this domain in FQDN format. The @ also defines the default origin that determines the domain appended to any partially qualified domain name in the configuration file’s resource records. Data field argument 4 – The refresh timer is the time interval. Inc.Configuring a DNS Server The SOA record is mandatory and has the following items: q An at sign (@) in the name field – This is a shortcut for the domain that is being served (one. if it has.1 . Data field argument 5 – The retry timer is the time interval. It is always safe to start at 1 and add 1 with each change. 10-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This prevents the secondary servers that have lost contact with the rest of the name servers from continuing to give out potentially stale information.one. if a secondary server cannot contact the primary server or another secondary server. The actual value for the @ comes from the second field of the appropriate record in the named. Sun Services.one. as shown in this example. q q q q q q q You should define an NS record for all name servers in this domain that you want to be recognized by DNS servers.

Configuring a DNS Server Most of the remaining resource records are address records for each system in the domain. Inc. All Rights Reserved. The CNAME record in this instance is similar to the following entry in a /etc/inet/hosts file: 192. Sun Services.1 sys11 router The localhost entry specifies the loopback address for all hosts.1 10-23 .1. The names that are not fully qualified have the domain name origin (the value of the @ in the SOA record by default) appended to them.168. The CNAME record defines host aliases. Revision A. Most of the host names are not fully qualified. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. or nicknames for hosts. This shorthand method can save typing and improve the readability and maintainability of the file.

edu.edu.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12.192. web servers. Because these resource records do not end with a . $TTL 86400 .1. .one. 4 IN PTR sys14.in-addr. root.168. Revision A.conf file in which this reverse file is referenced. The argument field of the PTR record should contain the FQDN of the name of the system at which the record points. Sun Services. Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 .192.168.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name .168.one. Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) . Address-to-name translation is important and is used by various utilities.arpa.one. and sendmail. . This completes the reverse address-to-name mapping. Serial 3600 .edu. (dot). Inc.one.sys12. in this example) contain mappings for address-to-name translation.{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster .edu.edu. q 10-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. reverse domain. ( 2005010101 . Information for the "reverse" domain 1. .1 . Minimum (24 Hours) . . The following is an example of a reverse domain file: .---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12.192. BIND.one. such as NFS.-----------------------------------------------1 IN PTR sys11. 2 IN PTR sys12.one. as indicated in the /etc/named. Observe the following about this file: q The @ (at the top of this resource record) in this example refers to the 1. Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 .{name} {ttl} Class PTR Real Name .Configuring a DNS Server Editing the Reverse Domain File Reverse domain files (db.one. The domain field in the PTR record contains the host portion of the IP address. the value of the @ is appended to each record.edu. All Rights Reserved.arpa. 3 IN PTR sys13.edu. The address-to-name mappings are defined with the PTR record type.in-addr. IN NS sys13.one.edu.

( 2005010101 . .edu.one.edu. Serial 3600 . Observe the following about this file: q You can use the @ when the domain name is the same as the origin. root. .one.-----------------------------------------------1 IN PTR localhost.sys12. You must specify the name of the system being configured on the NS line. Every name server is the master for its own loopback address.one. Inc.one.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12.edu. Revision A.127.Configuring a DNS Server Editing the Reverse Loopback Domain File Reverse loopback domain files specify the reverse loopback domain address-to-name translation.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12. Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 . All Rights Reserved.arpa. Sun Services. This file is required on all DNS servers. . Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) .1 10-25 .{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name . q q q Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0) of a reverse loopback domain file: $TTL 86400 . Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 . Here is an example (db. Minimum (24 Hours) . IN NS sys13. in this example. Use all other lines as shown in this example.in-addr.0.{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster . The only items that you change from domain to domain in the SOA record are the host name (first) argument and the email address used to report problems. 127.edu.{name} {ttl} Class PTR Real Name . The contents are hard-coded. with the exception that the server name changes depending upon on which server the file is installed. .

Inc.2.168.0. To configure a server to permit dynamic updates to occur.0.one. All Rights Reserved. 2. allow-update { 127. Revision A. file "db.0. edit the /etc/named. }. Log in as root on the DNS primary server.edu" in { type master.0. file "db.edu".168. }.Configuring a DNS Server Configuring Dynamic Updates Dynamic updates cause a DNS server to be updated automatically with DHCP host information from a DHCP server. Sun Services. 192.1 .168.1.1.2. For example: zone "one. allow-update { 127. This enables nomadic DHCP users to have access to systems and services without manual administration. }.168.1".in-addr. complete the following steps: 1. }. For example: # svcadm restart svc:/network/dns/server:default # or # svcadm disable svc:/network/dns/server:default # svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default 10-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.arpa" in { type master.conf file.1. 192.1.192. and add allow-update statements to both the forward and reverse zones.192. zone "1. Restart the named process by using the svcadm commands.

Sun Services. allow-query { 192. Inc. You can modify this behavior by using the allow-query and allow-transfer keywords.168.168.1/24. servers respond to any query or request for a zone transfer.3/24.168. You can apply this access list to a specific zone or to all queries that are received by the server. DNS can be vulnerable to unauthorized access.xxx receive responses from the name server. 192. security features are implemented through the /etc/named. }. file "forward. The IP address list determines which systems receive responses from the server.Configuring a DNS Server Configuring Security Because of the nature of the Internet.3.3.x. In this case. only systems with the IP addresses 192. You can restrict queries to all zones by using the allow-query keyword as an argument to the options statement for the zone. For example: zone "one.0 has access to the resource records for this zone.edu" in { type master.1 10-27 .3/24. Revision A. For example: options { allow-query { 192. In this case.conf configuration file. Two important security considerations are the control of name queries and the control of zone transfers.1. By default. All Rights Reserved. The allow-query statement enables you to establish an IP address-based access list for queries.zone". }. Beginning with BIND version 8. You can restrict queries for a specific zone by using the allow-query keyword as an argument to the zone statement.168. }. only subnet 192. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. }.xxx and 192.168.168.x.

10-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the allow-transfer keyword can limit which systems may receive a zone transfer from a name server.edu" in { type master.Configuring a DNS Server In the same manner. }. }. 192.3/32. }.168.1 . allow-transfer { "local".168.168.1. Revision A. You can configure ACLs by using the acl keyword to build an ACL list that can be used as an argument to the allow-query and allow-transfer keywords. }.1. 192. allow-query { "local".0/24.0/24. All Rights Reserved. The allow-transfer keyword can also be applied to a specific zone. For example: options { allow-transfer { 192. Sun Services.3. Another feature that often is associated with restricting queries and transfers is access control lists (ACLs). }.0/24. You can restrict zone transfers from a name server by using allow-transfer in the options statement. if you want. For example: acl "local" { 192. The list of IP addresses used in the previous examples could be replaced by an ACL.2. zone "one.168. Inc. }.

1.conf file must contain keywords that are appropriate to both functions. Revision A.2. zone "one.Configuring a DNS Server Configuring Secondary DNS Servers The contents of the /etc/named. Inc. masters { 192.168. An example of an /etc/named. }.0. }. file "db.conf file for a secondary server is: options { directory "/var/named".arpa" { type slave.1 10-29 . Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.edu" { type slave.1. }.root". If a server is to act as both a primary server for some domains and a secondary server for other domains. and the slave keyword denotes a secondary server for a domain when used as arguments to the type directive.1. file "db.2.in-addr.168.127. }.0.conf file on the secondary DNS server can be less complex than that of the primary server.slave". file "db.slave". the /etc/named. }. }.2." { type hint. All Rights Reserved. }. masters { 192. Sun Services.one.slave". file "db. zone "0.arpa" in { type slave. The master keyword denotes a primary server for a domain.0.in-addr. zone ".192.edu.1. }.168.192. masters { 192.127. zone "1.168.

10-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. q q q Secondary servers start the named daemon during the boot process if the /etc/named. Up to 10 IP addresses can be listed.rbackup files and their contents are created automatically by the secondary server’s named daemon after the primary name server is contacted successfully. The reverse. The daemon is started by SMF.backup and reverse. Sun Services. Inc. Revision A. The IP address from which the secondary server should download its zone files is listed following the masters keyword. The server or servers listed can be the primary server or secondary servers.Configuring a DNS Server Observe the following about this file: q Secondary servers are configured with and use the same root server hints file as the primary name server. except that the secondary name server is always listed as the primary for the loopback address.conf file exists. Secondary servers are configured with and use the same syntax for a reverse loopback domain file as the primary name server uses.1 .

1: unknown class/type Missing NS records are reported: sys12# named-checkzone one.168.edu/IN: has no NS records Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.’ before ’zone’ Misspelled keywords are exposed: sys12# named-checkconf /etc/named.conf file.192.168.192.edu db.1 10-31 .192. The named-checkconf command is used to check the /etc/named.168. A clean one.168.168.Configuring a DNS Server Checking Configuration and Database Files The named-checkconf and named-checkzone commands can be used to check the integrity of the named.edu/IN: loading master file db.1 dns_master_load: db.1 zone one.edu db.1 file is reported: # named-checkzone one.192. All Rights Reserved.conf:38: zone ’one. These commands report syntax errors.edu db.edu/IN: loaded serial 2005010101 OK Typographical errors in the SOA record are detected: sys12# named-checkzone one.192.1 zone one. Sun Services. Missing punctuation can be detected: sys12# named-checkconf /etc/named.168.conf and database files.edu zone in the db.edu’: type not present The named-checkzone command is used to check the any of the zone files.1:10: unknown RR type 'SA0' zone one.conf:32: missing ’.192.conf:32: unknown option ’zonee’ Missing required keywords are reported: sys12# named-checkconf /etc/named. Revision A.

1.3 Observe that the search keyword specifies domain names to append to queries that were not specified in the FQDN format.edu nameserver 192.edu two. Modify the /etc/nsswitch. Note that the DNS server must also be configured as a DNS client if it intends to use its own DNS services. The nameserver keyword specifies the IP address of the DNS servers to query.conf file does not exists. Starting the Client Service The following svcadm command enables the DNS default client service: # svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/client:default # svcs -a | grep dns online 23:02:34 svc:/network/dns/client:default 10-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. If both "domain" and "search" keywords are present.1 . resolv.conf files. The first domain listed following the search keyword designates the client’s domain. then the last one in the file is used and the other one(s) are ignored. Revision A. To ensure proper network interface configuration during the boot process.2 nameserver 192.168. . Sun Services.conf file specifies the name servers that the client must use. Inc.conf and /etc/resolv.conf file specifies the resolver library routines to be used for resolving host names and addresses. You can use up to three nameserver keywords to increase your chances of finding a responsive server. Do not specify host names. make sure that the files keyword is listed first. list the name servers that are nearer to the local network first.conf file by editing the hosts entry and adding the dns keyword.conf file for DNS clients of the one.edu domain search one. the client’s domain name. In general. The following example shows a hosts entry configured for DNS: hosts: files dns The /etc/resolv. The client attempts to use the loopback address if there is no nameserver keyword or if the /etc/resolv. The /etc/nsswitch. and the search path to use for queries.168. All Rights Reserved.edu three.1.Configuring a DNS Server Configuring DNS Clients All DNS clients require the presence of the /etc/nsswitch.

so the logging statement should be the first entry in that file. Sun Services. }.1 10-33 . severity debug 9.conf file is parsed. category queries { logfile. Inc. print-severity yes. print-time yes. Add the following to the top of the primary DNS system's /etc/named. Logging starts as soon as the logging statement in the /etc/named.conf file and restart the named daemon: logging { channel logfile { file "/var/named/bind-log". and test several servers in other domains to ensure that you have correctly identified the root servers. Following is a description of each of the example entries: q q q /var/named/bind-log – File to hold logged data print-time yes – Print time of the event severity debug 9 – Debug output of level 9 and below to be logged print-category yes – Log category information print-severity yes – Log severity information q q Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. category default { default_syslog. A logging channel controls the destination of the logged data.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Usually.conf(4)) to cause the named process to write to a log file that you specify. }. logfile. }. }. you cannot test every record in your domain files. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Implementing named Logging Use logging (named. print-category yes. Test representative samples.

arpa IN PTR Jan 12 16:02:19.918 client: debug 5: client 192.192.924 client: debug 3: client 192.168.1.168.1.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities The category section describes how the channel information is used.168.168.1.168.1.1.1#32811: sendto Jan 12 16:02:19.168.168.1#32811: senddone Jan 12 16:02:19.925 client: debug 3: client 192.168.1#32810: sendto Jan 12 16:02:19. Revision A.1.168.1.1#32810: UDP request Jan 12 16:02:19.arpa/IN' approved Jan 12 16:02:19.1.925 client: debug 3: client @94f88: udprecv 10-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.923 client: debug 3: client 192.1.192.924 client: debug 3: client 192. Inc. } – Log to syslog and logfile category queries { logfile.924 security: debug 3: client 192.inaddr.1.918 client: debug 3: client 192.1#32810: endrequest Jan 12 16:02:19. } – Log queries q Following is an example of logged information during query using the dig command: sys12# tail -f /var/named/bind-log Jan 12 16:02:19.edu IN A Jan 12 16:02:19.919 client: debug 3: client 192. Following is a description of each of the example entries: q category default { default_syslog.168.1#32811: using view '_default' Jan 12 16:02:19.924 security: debug 3: client 192.1#32810: request is not signed Jan 12 16:02:19.1.924 security: debug 9: client 192.168.168.1#32811: query '4.168.1#32810: senddone Jan 12 16:02:19.1#32811: query Jan 12 16:02:19.1.919 client: debug 3: client 192.1#32811: UDP request Jan 12 16:02:19.168.924 security: debug 3: client 192.1#32811: next Jan 12 16:02:19.168.1#32811: query: 4.1#32811: request is not signed Jan 12 16:02:19.1.1#32810: query 'one.924 client: debug 5: client 192.1#32810: using view '_default' Jan 12 16:02:19.919 client: debug 3: client 192.1.1.1.1.925 client: debug 3: client 192.168.918 queries: info: client 192.1.168.1.1#32810: query: one.168.168.918 security: debug 3: client 192.1#32810: next Jan 12 16:02:19.168.1 .168.1.168.918 client: debug 3: client 192. Sun Services.920 client: debug 3: client @94f88: udprecv Jan 12 16:02:19.1#32810: query Jan 12 16:02:19.1.1#32811: recursion available: approved Jan 12 16:02:19.918 security: debug 3: client 192.168.1#32811: send Jan 12 16:02:19.925 client: debug 3: client 192.168.1.168.924 queries: info: client 192.1#32810: send Jan 12 16:02:19.edu/IN' approved Jan 12 16:02:19.1.919 client: debug 3: client 192.168.924 client: debug 3: client 192.1#32811: endrequest Jan 12 16:02:19. All Rights Reserved. logfile.168.1#32810: recursion available: approved Jan 12 16:02:19.1.inaddr.919 client: debug 3: client 192.1.1.1#32811: v6 synthesis denied Jan 12 16:02:19.918 security: debug 3: client 192.

notice] couldn't add command channel ::1#953: address not available Jan 11 12:04:33 sys12 named[669]: [ID 873579 daemon.168. the following highlighted entry shows that zone files without TTLs are now rejected: Jan 11 12:04:31 sys12 named[634]: [ID 873579 daemon.crit] exiting (due to fatal error) Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.4 Jan 11 12:04:32 sys12 named[634]: [ID 873579 daemon.arpa/IN: loading master file one. zone rejected Jan 11 12:04:33 sys12 named[669]: [ID 873579 daemon.192. Messages that are sent with level notice or higher are written to the /var/adm/messages file by default.1 10-35 . For example. The contents of this file often show where configuration errors were made. Revision A.root:5: no TTL specified.2. All Rights Reserved. Inc.rzone: file not found Jan 11 12:04:35 sys12 named[634]: [ID 873579 daemon.warning] named.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Examining the/var/adm/messages File The named daemon sends messages to the syslogd daemon by using the daemon facility.error] zone 1. Sun Services.in-addr.notice] starting BIND 9.

2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 16:56:12 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 .opcode: QUERY.one.1.. QUESTION SECTION: .2#53(192. id: 1334 .. Sun Services. Query time: 4 msec SERVER: 192.one.168. the domain information groper (dig) utility was also bundled with the Solaris OS. but is marked as obsolete with a notification that it might be removed in a future release. The dig utility is now preferred and does the following: q Sends queries and displays replies for any of the valid resource record types Queries the DNS server of your choice Debugs almost any domain that is not protected by a firewall q q Executing Forward Queries The syntax used for forward queries is as follows: dig @DNS_server domain_name system_name A typical debug query testing forward resolution might look like the following: # dig @192.edu sys11.. Got answer: .168.one. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 . AUTHORITY: 1.168. As of the Solaris 9 OS.168. In the Solaris 10 OS.edu .1.2 one.1.. Got answer: ...2. root. the primary test tool bundled with BIND was the nslookup utility. 86400 IN SOA sys12. the nslookup utility is included. IN A . AUTHORITY SECTION: one.edu sys11. flags: qr aa rd ra. global options: printcmd . All Rights Reserved...2 one. <<>> DiG 9.one. ->>HEADER<<..edu . ANSWER: 0. status: NOERROR. Inc.edu.. Revision A. QUERY: 1. .4 <<>> @192. id: 1440 10-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. ADDITIONAL: 0 ..sys12.1. .1 . . ->>HEADER<<..opcode: QUERY.one.edu. status: NOERROR.edu.edu.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Using the dig Utility Before the Solaris 9 OS.

.168.sys11.one.. AUTHORITY SECTION: one.edu -x 192. Revision A.edu.168.edu.one...2#53(192.168. IN A 86400 IN A 192.168. QUERY: 1. . .1 86400 86400 IN IN NS NS sys12.edu. .Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities .. 86400 86400 IN IN A A 192. ADDITIONAL: 0 .1 . ANSWER: 0.1. An answer number (on the flags line) greater than zero usually indicates success. global options: printcmd .edu. AUTHORITY SECTION: IN A Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services.edu.1.one.opcode: QUERY..1.one. ->>HEADER<<...168.one. one.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 16:56:12 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 119 The ANSWER SECTION lists the answer retrieved from the DNS server.. ANSWER: 1.1. Got answer: .1 10-37 .. AUTHORITY: 1.4 <<>> @192. AUTHORITY: 2.1.3 Query time: 3 msec SERVER: 192. .1..1. . sys13. <<>> DiG 9. flags: qr aa rd ra. QUESTION SECTION: .edu -x 192.168. id: 1881 .edu. ANSWER SECTION: sys11.168.edu..1. ADDITIONAL SECTION: sys12. flags: qr aa rd ra. status: NOERROR.edu.. ADDITIONAL: 2 .edu.168. .. All Rights Reserved.2. sys13. QUERY: 1.. Executing Reverse Queries The syntax used for reverse queries is as follows: dig @DNS_server domain_name -x IP_address A typical debug query testing reverse resolution might look like the following: # dig @192.2 192.2 one.2 one.1 .1.one. . QUESTION SECTION: . Inc..one.168.

in-addr.. IN IN NS NS sys13. . .in-addr.168. Sun Services. IN PTR . 86400 IN SOA sys12.192.in-addr.168.one.edu.edu.arpa.one. ADDITIONAL: 2 .. status: NOERROR. AUTHORITY: 2.edu..168. .. sys13.arpa. Revision A.in-addr.one. sys12. id: 1932 . QUERY: 1..edu.1. 86400 86400 IN IN A A 192.one.1.arpa.. QUESTION SECTION: . ANSWER SECTION: 1. 86400 1. .192.168. PTR sys11.. Got answer: . AUTHORITY SECTION: 1.192..3 Query time: 3 msec SERVER: 192..edu.168.1..168. ANSWER: 1. . 86400 .2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 16:55:11 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 141 10-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.one.one.168.arpa..edu. ->>HEADER<<..1.2#53(192...1.edu.168. Inc. flags: qr aa rd ra. ADDITIONAL SECTION: sys12. root. All Rights Reserved.192.1.one. .168. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 . . Query time: 4 msec SERVER: 192.2 192.1.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities one..1 .opcode: QUERY.2#53(192.1.edu.168.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 16:55:11 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 .sys12. 86400 IN .1.

All Rights Reserved.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Dumping a Snapshot of the DNS Database by Using the rndc Utility The remote name daemon controller command.1 10-39 .2. [class [view]] Reload a single zone. Sun Services. Dump cache(s) to the dump file (named_dump. Restart the server.db). Toggle query logging. Change the debugging level. sys12# rndc dumpdb All of the options for the rndc utility are listed when it is invoked without any as follows: # rndc Usage: rndc [-c config] [-s server] [-p port] [-k key-file ] [-y key] [-V] command command is one of the following: reload reload zone refresh zone reconfig stats querylog dumpdb stop halt trace trace level notrace flush flush [view] status *restart Reload configuration file and zones. Set debugging level to 0. [class [view]] Schedule immediate maintenance for a zone. Stop the server without saving pending updates. rndc. Reload configuration file and new zones only. * == not yet implemented Version: 9. Flushes the server's cache for a view.4 Clearing the Cache Clear the server’s cached data by restarting the named daemon. Increment debugging level by one. Save pending updates to master files and stop the server. Revision A. Inc. Flushes all of the server's caches. Write server statistics to the statistics file. is used to dump the currently cached contents of the server. For example: sys12# svcs -a | grep dns online 5:09:02 svc:/network/dns/client:default Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Display status of the server.

4 <<>> @192.1. Query time: 2 msec SERVER: 192.... ADDITIONAL: 0 . . Got answer: . All Rights Reserved.opcode: QUERY.1 . Revision A. AUTHORITY SECTION: one. . The following example shows an improper use of the dig command attempting a reverse query: sys13# dig @192. $DATE 20050112135516 Dump Examples Examining dumped caches is often a very productive way to troubleshoot errors.1. Cache dump of view '_default' . QUESTION SECTION: ..168..2 one.sys12. global options: printcmd . status: NOERROR..168.1.one.db ..one. ANSWER: 0..2 one.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities online 5:09:25 svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# svcadm disable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# svcs -a | grep dns disabled 6:54:30 svc:/network/dns/server:default online 5:09:02 svc:/network/dns/client:default sys12# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# svcs -a | grep dns online 5:09:02 svc:/network/dns/client:default online 6:54:45 svc:/network/dns/server:default Verify that the cache has been cleared using the rndc command: sys12# rndc dumpdb sys12# cat /var/named/named_dump.edu.edu 192.1. AUTHORITY: 1. . ->>HEADER<<.edu.edu.168.one. .168.2#53(192..2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 06:59:29 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 10-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.edu 192. root.1 . Sun Services. QUERY: 1. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 ..2. id: 1328 .edu.1.1. IN A .1 .168. flags: qr aa rd ra.168. 86400 IN SOA sys12. <<>> DiG 9.

.1.192.168. The following example shows a successful reverse query: sys13# dig @192.1. .1..1 . 10800 IN SOA instructor.168.168. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 .. . QUESTION SECTION: .4 <<>> @192. needed for reverse queries).30 The NXDOMAIN in the dumped data indicates that a non existent (NX) domain was requested.2 two. status: NXDOMAIN.168.. Cache dump of view '_default' . ADDITIONAL: 0 .2 two.168. Got answer: . id: 1204 . 86381 A sys12# instructor.opcode: QUERY.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities . IN A . Dumping the cached data provides insights.168.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 06:59:29 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 90 The highlighted entries shown above indicate an unsuccessful reverse resolution request. 10781 \-ANY . Inc. global options: printcmd Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. AUTHORITY SECTION: . Sun Services. ANSWER: 0.1.1.thirty. Query time: 4 msec SERVER: 192.thirty.instructor.168. 86381 IN NS . flags: qr rd ra.2. .1.1 . Revision A. QUERY: 1. Because the incorrect syntax was used (missing -x option.edu -x 192..db .-$NXDOMAIN 192.2.edu.thirty. . the IP address was mistaken for a domain.1 10-41 ..2#53(192.1..edu -x 192.168. root. $DATE 20050112135930 .30. additional instructor.2.. All Rights Reserved.168. authauthority 192.thirty.. <<>> DiG 9. ->>HEADER<<.edu. AUTHORITY: 1. authanswer .1. .edu.edu.. sys12# rndc dumpdb sys12# cat /var/named/named_dump.

168.1.168.1.168. sys12# rndc dumpdb sys12# cat /var/named/named_dump. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 .2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:07:30 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 .in-addr.192..edu. flags: qr rd ra..edu. Query time: 11 msec SERVER: 192.. 86400 IN .two.arpa. All Rights Reserved.arpa.arpa.arpa. .1.1. sys22.edu.2. 10800 IN SOA sys22.2#53(192.db . IN IN NS NS sys23.168..in-addr. ADDITIONAL: 0 .sys22. status: NOERROR.1 ..1 address. . . IN PTR . AUTHORITY: 2.2.in-addr.168. flags: qr rd ra.168..two.edu. ANSWER: 0.. id: 1174 .192.two.edu domain. PTR sys21. 86400 2.edu. ->>HEADER<<. . ->>HEADER<<.192. id: 1982 .. status: NOERROR. The second highlighted QUESTION and ANSWER sections are for the specified request for information about the 192. ADDITIONAL: 0 .2#53(192. AUTHORITY: 1. Examining the cached data details the resolution process. 86400 . Inc.edu....168.168. IN A . QUESTION SECTION: . Query time: 6 msec SERVER: 192. Got answer: . Got answer: .edu.two.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities . ANSWER: 1.opcode: QUERY.2.. AUTHORITY SECTION: two. AUTHORITY SECTION: 2. .192.in-addr.. A forwarding of the request is required for information about the two. .two. QUERY: 1. Revision A. ANSWER SECTION: 1..opcode: QUERY.two.. QUERY: 1.. 10-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. QUESTION SECTION: ..168. Sun Services. root.1.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:07:30 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 109 The first highlighted QUESTION section indicates that the query is requesting data that is not locally authoritative...

two. 86353 . $DATE 20050112150759 .168.edu.edu. Inc.arpa.two. sys21.two.edu). 86353 . Cache dump of view '_default' .thirty.arpa.2 192. The last highlighted entry shows the pointer information cached for the requested IP address. 86353 86353 . Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.192. All Rights Reserved.two.edu.edu.-$NXRRSET 192.2.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities .edu.in-addr. The second highlighted entry shows that server supplying the and of the authoritative server for the 2. . authauthority 10753 .168.edu.two.3 The first three entries in the cached data show the resolution process. additional instructor. 86353 IN NS NS NS PTR A NS NS \-A A A instructor. 86353 86353 .two.edu.edu. 86353 .168.edu. authauthority 2.in-addr. sys23.2. Sun Services. 86353 .1 10-43 .30 sys22.168. The first highlight entry shows the forwarding of the request to the instructor.30.2. glue sys23. authanswer .thirty. sys23. glue two.two.arpa zone (sys22.in-addr.edu. 192. glue sys22. authanswer 1. Revision A.thirty.edu.192. sys22.two.192.168.

168.edu sys21.edu <dig output omitted> sys12# rndc dumpdb sys12# cat /var/named/named_dump.edu. Revision A. $DATE 20050112151434 .168. glue sys22. All Rights Reserved.two.2.-$NXRRSET 192. 86357 A .1 . additional instructor.thirty.2 two.30 sys22.two. authanswer .edu.edu.two.two. 86357 A .2. Cache dump of view '_default' . .168.db . 86357 IN NS . 86357 A instructor.168. 86357 NS 86357 NS .2.thirty.1 192. 86357 A .168.30. authanswer sys21. . glue sys23.3 Forcing the named Daemon to Reread the Configuration and Changed Zone Files You can use the rndc utility with the reconfig command to cause the named process to reload its configuration file and implement any changes to the zone files as follows: sys12# rndc reconfig 10-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.two.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities This next example cache dump shows a similar resolution for a forward query: sys13# dig @192.edu.two.1.edu.edu.2 192. authauthority two. Sun Services. 192. sys23. authauthority 10757 \-A . Inc.edu.edu.

conf file specifies which server controls and algorithm the server should use. secret "jZOP5nh//i9t7BwHivvNzA==".conf files. A significant difference between ndc in BIND 8 and rndc in BIND 9 is that rndc uses its own configuration file. The rndc utility provides a finer granularity of control.notice] couldn't add command channel ::1#953: address not available You can continue to use the rndc utility. Use the rndc-confgen utility to generate the proper contents for the rndc. configuring and using secret keys.0. Securing Control Sessions The rndc utility supports security using key-based authentication.conf file. As of the Solaris 10 OS.conf file. rndc. Without a rndc-key reference in the /etc/named. You need only a rndc.1 10-45 . Inc.1#953 Jan 12 08:22:12 sys12 named[1346]: [ID 873579 daemon. such as SIGHUP and SIGINT.notice] command channel listening on 127. sys12# /usr/sbin/rndc-confgen # Start of rndc.conf file and the appropriate key information in the rndc.conf key "rndc-key" { algorithm hmac-md5. }. Remote clients are authorized specifically to control the daemon by establishing. the following messages appear in the /var/adm/messages file: Jan 12 08:22:12 sys12 named[1346]: [ID 873579 daemon. Sun Services.conf. The rndc. Revision A.conf and /etc/named. albeit in a non-secure manner.conf file has an entry for a rndc-key. options { default-key "rndc-key".Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Managing a DNS Server by Using the rndc Utility Administrators use the remote name daemon control program (rndc) to control the operation of a name server. and it can be used both interactively and non-interactively. Name servers have always been controlled by administrators sending signals. All Rights Reserved. Implementing this security requires an rndc-key reference entry in the /etc/name.conf file in place if the named. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0. the rndc utility replaces the ndc utility as the name daemon control application.

options { default-key "rndc-key". adjusting the allow list as needed: # key "rndc-key" { # algorithm hmac-md5.1. # # controls { # inet 127. }.conf # Use with the following in named.0.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities default-server 127. } keys { "rndc-key". Be sure to remove the comment indentifiers (#). }. }. // added to stop couldn't add command channel ::1#953 messages // from showing up in /var/adm/messages // following is output from /usr/sbin/rndc-confgen 10-46 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. The following is an example of a finished /etc/named.conf. sys12# cat /etc/rndc. default-port 953. secret "jZOP5nh//i9t7BwHivvNzA==".conf section to the /etc/named.conf file. default-port 953. # End of named. default-server 127.0. Inc.1 port 953 # allow { 127.1 .0. }.conf.conf file: sys12# cat /etc/named. # }. }.conf options { directory "/var/named".0. Add the named. # }.conf sys12# Copy the rndc-key section into a new file called /etc/rndc.0.conf key "rndc-key" { algorithm hmac-md5. Sun Services.1.1.0.0. # End of rndc. # secret "jZOP5nh//i9t7BwHivvNzA==".

notice] running The daemon starting without the command channel message implies a successful key configuration The rndc command can now be used securely. controls { inet 127. or the key is invalid.1#32839: bad auth rndc: connection to remote host closed This may indicate that the remote server is using an older version of the command protocol.0. Revision A.0.4 Jan 12 08:58:48 sys12 named[1402]: [ID 873579 daemon. Test the rndc.0.2. sys12# Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. }.0.1 port 953 allow { 127. // end of rndc. All Rights Reserved. and examining the resulting /var/adm/messages file entries: sys12# svcadm disable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# tail -4 /var/adm/messages Jan 12 08:58:48 sys12 named[1402]: [ID 873579 daemon. Sun Services.notice] command channel listening on 127.. } keys { "rndc-key".0..1 10-47 . using the rndc utility.key by stopping and starting the named process.notice] starting BIND 9. this host is not authorized to connect.key addition .1. You will see an error message similar to the following if either there is a problem with the contents of the rndc.1#953 Jan 12 08:58:48 sys12 named[1402]: [ID 873579 daemon. Inc. }.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities key "rndc-key" { algorithm hmac-md5. }. secret "jZOP5nh//i9t7BwHivvNzA==".0.0.0.conf file: sys12# rndc dumpdb Jan 12 10:13:40 sys12 named[1431]: invalid command from 127.

$DATE 20050113141237 sys12# Changing the Debug Level of the Daemon Use the rndc utility to change the debug level of the server. Cache dump of view '_default' . Before making any changes. Sun Services.db . sys12# rndc flush sys12# rndc dumpdb sys12# cat /var/named/named_dump. Inc. sys12# rndc status number of zones: 5 debug level: 0 xfers running: 0 xfers deferred: 0 soa queries in progress: 0 query logging is ON server is up and running 10-48 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Server Status The rndc utility can be used to query server status and report statistics. determine the current debug level of the daemon. All Rights Reserved. .1 . Now test to verify that the rndc utility works as expected: sys12# rndc status number of zones: 5 debug level: 0 xfers running: 0 xfers deferred: 0 soa queries in progress: 0 query logging is ON server is up and running Flushing the Memory Cache You can use the rndc utility to flush the memory cache. Revision A.

598 general: debug 'status' Jan 13 07:17:15. All Rights Reserved. the debug level is shown along with the logged messages: sys12# tail -f /var/named/bind-log Jan 13 07:12:37.929 general: debug 'status' Jan 13 07:17:34.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Increment the debug level by one. Sun Services.1 10-49 .548 general: debug 'dumpdb' Jan 13 07:17:02. Inc. Revision A.838 general: debug 'trace 8' Jan 13 07:17:37. sys12# rndc trace 8 sys12# rndc status number of zones: 5 debug level: 8 xfers running: 0 xfers deferred: 0 soa queries in progress: 0 query logging is ON server is up and running sys12# If logging is enabled.149 general: debug 'status' 1: received control channel command 1: received control channel command 1: received control channel command 1: received control channel command 1: received control channel command 1: received control channel command Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. sys12# rndc trace sys12# rndc status number of zones: 5 debug level: 1 xfers running: 0 xfers deferred: 0 soa queries in progress: 0 query logging is ON server is up and running Assign the debug level to a specific level.249 general: debug 'trace' Jan 13 07:17:17.

Exercise: Configuring DNS Exercise: Configuring DNS In this exercise.. DNS client Secondary DNS name server. 30. and 127. The system and server-client functions for these exercises are listed in Table 10-5. DNS client DNS client 10-50 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Before starting this lab. and three. q q The self-contained root server (instructor) serves the .192....(root). All Rights Reserved.arpa. Table 10-5 Exercise Host Functions Host instructor sysX1 sysX2 sysX3 sysX4 Function Root DNS name server Router Primary DNS name server.edu. you configure DNS. Inc..in-addr. Revision A.arpa.1 .edu.in-addr.168. two. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. Sun Services. make sure that: q The classroom network is not connected to the public Internet because the names and addresses used are not registered with the ICANN.loopback domains.edu. edu. The instructor has set up a root domain server for use in this lab. respectively. The domains to be set up are named one.

perform the following: 1. Working on the Primary DNS Server To configure your domain’s primary DNS server. complete the following steps. All Rights Reserved. a DNS secondary server. You can create the file yourself. Set up the /etc/named. Revision A. and configure a DNS primary server. and clients on your subnet.1 10-51 .Exercise: Configuring DNS Task Summary In this exercise. Inc. Your first task is to configure your domain’s primary DNS server. Create the /var/named directory. Tasks To configure DNS. You practice using troubleshooting tools. you experience most of the aspects of configuring DNS. Work as a team.conf file keywords? q q zone ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ q options ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. Sun Services. such as the nslookup utility. ______________________________________________________ Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. q What is the purpose of the /etc/named.conf file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server.conf file? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the following /etc/named. team up with the other students on your subnet. and move as a team to each system that is to be configured. In this way. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.

or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.root file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server.Exercise: Configuring DNS 3. q What is the purpose of a domain’s zone file? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the SOA resource record? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the CNAME resource record? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ q q 10-52 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.root file? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Where can you obtain a current copy of the current root name servers? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the following resource record types? q q q NS ___________________________________________________ q A ___________________________________________________ 4. Set up the zone file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server. Inc. You can create the file yourself. q What is the purpose of the db.1 . Revision A. Set up the /var/named/db. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. You can create the file yourself.

Write the command that you use: ___________________________________________________ q What is the purpose of the /etc/nsswitch. copy the /etc/nsswitch. perform the following: 7. Sun Services. Inc. Working on All Systems To configure name resolution on all systems. q What is the purpose of the reverse lookup zone file? ___________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the PTR resource record? ___________________________________________________ q 6. You can create the file yourself.Exercise: Configuring DNS 5.conf file? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Your next task is to configure name resolution on all of your systems. Working on all of your DNS clients and DNS servers.1 10-53 . Set up the reverse lookup file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server.conf file. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.conf file? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ What effect does the dns keyword have on this file? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ q 8.dns file to the /etc/nsswitch. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. q What is the purpose of the /etc/resolv. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.conf file on your DNS server and DNS clients. Set up the /etc/resolv. Set up the loopback file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server. You can create the file yourself.

Before continuing. troubleshoot to eliminate any DNS-related error messages that appear in the /var/adm/messages file. Use the svcs command to verify that the services are online.Exercise: Configuring DNS q What is the purpose of the domain keyword? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the namesserver keyword? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ q Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 9. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10-54 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. c. Check the /var/adm/messages file for DNS error messages. Inc. Use the svcadm command to enable both the name server daemon and the DNS client. ___________________________________________________ Check that the server daemon is running. Use the svcadm command to enable the default client service and verify that it is enabled. this step does not have to be done on those systems. All Rights Reserved. 11.1 . Working on the Client Systems Note – Since the client service was just enabled on the primary name server. Revision A. Sun Services. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________ 10. Start the name server daemon on your DNS server: a.

1 10-55 . 13. Use the techniques that are described in the lecture part of the module. testing both your local domain and your remote domain servers as they become available. View the dumped DNS data to look for errors. Create the /var/named directory. All Rights Reserved.Exercise: Configuring DNS Working on Any System Troubleshoot DNS-related errors as follows: 12. Use the following command: Your final task is to configure a secondary DNS server. a. sys12# rndc dumpdb b. Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 14. Test and debug as required. Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 16. Sun Services. Test and debug your setup by using the dig utility. For example. list the contents of the domain by querying the primary name server for its resource records. Inc. Use the techniques that are described in the lecture part of the module. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Working on the Secondary DNS Server To configure a secondary DNS server: 15. Revision A. Update both the forward and reverse zone files on the primary server to support the secondary name server. Write the updates that you use in each file. Test your DNS server. Take a snapshot of the DNS information in memory.

Use the svcadm command to enable both the name server daemon and the DNS client. Set up the /etc/named.root file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s secondary DNS server. Inc. 19.1 . Use the svcs command to verify that the services are online. 20. All Rights Reserved. c. Write the updates that you put in the file: _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Working on the Secondary DNS Server Continue as follows: 18. Sun Services.conf file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s secondary DNS server. Add the secondary name server to the /etc/resolv. _____________________________________________________ Check that the server daemon is running.Exercise: Configuring DNS Working on All Systems Continue as follows: 17. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ b. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. Verify that the secondary name server performs forward lookup requests as expected. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. __________________________________________________________ 10-56 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. _____________________________________________________ 21. Verify that the new zone files have been created in the /var/named directory. Set up the /var/named/db. Start the name server daemon on your DNS server: a. You can create the file yourself.conf file on the DNS clients and servers in your domain. __________________________________________________________ 22. Revision A. You can create the file yourself.

Inc.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. issues. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 10-57 . Revision A.

10-58 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Your first task is to configure your domain’s primary DNS server.conf file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server. Set up the /etc/named.one.edu".1 . Your /etc/named. zone ".conf options { directory "/var/named". Revision A.in-addr.root". file "db.192. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. Working on the Primary DNS Server To configure your domain’s primary DNS server.168. Task Solutions To configure DNS. You can create the file yourself." { type hint.168. zone "one. }. }.1". file "db. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. }.conf file should be similar to the following: sys12# cat /etc/named.edu" { type master.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to this exercise are provided in the following section. zone "1. }.192. Inc. perform the following: 1. complete the following steps.arpa" { type master. file "db.

conf file specifies the directory that contains the other configuration files.edu.1 10-59 . q What is the purpose of the /etc/named.30 # Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0". Create the /var/named directory. All Rights Reserved.conf file keywords? q zone It defines a zone of authority and applies options selectively on a per-zone basis. rather than to all zones. You can create the file yourself.127. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.thirty.thirty. the root servers.0. the domains served by this server. q options It controls global server configuration options and sets default values for other statements.168. 2.root . }. . Inc. q What is the purpose of the following /etc/named.{name} {ttl} Class A IP Address . 604800 IN NS instructor. db. Your /var/named/db.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name . Sun Services.30.arpa" in { type master.Exercise Solutions zone "0. Set up the /var/named/db. and the type of server that this system will be for each of those domains. .root file should be similar to the following: sys12# mkdir /var/named sys12# cat /var/named/db.-------------------------------------------------------------.127.root file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server.conf file? The /etc/named.--------------------------------------------------------instructor.conf file is the configuration file read by the named daemon at system start up.edu. .0.root .in-addr. file "db. The named. Revision A. 604800 IN A 192. . 3.

All Rights Reserved.root file? Root servers are positioned at the top. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.edu file should be similar to the following: sys12# cat /var/named/db. q A The A record (address record) yields an IP address that corresponds to a host name. Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 . Your /var/named/db.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12. .one. or the root.net/domain/named.1 . Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) . . q What is the purpose of the following resource record types? q NS The NS record (name server record) identifies the name server of a domain. and they maintain data about each of the top-level zones. You can create the file yourself. db. Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 .one.root URL.one.edu. root.edu.edu $TTL 86400 .Exercise Solutions q What is the purpose of the db. . Sun Services. Serial 3600 . Set up the zone file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server. Minimum (24 Hours) .one.sys12.{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster . of the DNS hierarchy. Inc.one.edu. 4.one.rs.edu . Non-root servers can begin queries at the root level if no other information is available. Be sure to check that the file’s syntax is correct. q Where can you obtain a current copy of the current root name servers? You can retrieve them from the ftp://ftp. ( 2005010101 . Revision A. This file’s contents directs non-root servers to root servers.internic.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name . 10-60 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12.

2 sys13 IN A 192.edu. ( 2005010101 .1 10-61 . this file must specify an SOA record and NS records for all name servers for this domain.{name} {ttl} Class A IP Address .1. Revision A. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.------------------------------------------------------router IN CNAME sys11 dns IN CNAME sys12 q What is the purpose of a domain’s zone file? This file contains the mappings of names to IP addresses for all systems in the domain being served by this name server.0. In addition. contact information.3 sys14 IN A 192. q What is the purpose of the CNAME resource record? The CNAME record defines an alias for a host name.1.1.1 .---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12.168. Inc. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. q What is the purpose of the SOA resource record? The SOA record identifies the primary server.1.168.168. db. Serial 3600 . Set up the reverse lookup file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server. Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) . and cache time-out values for the entries in the domain. Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 .edu. .1 sys12 IN A 192.one.192.168.1 file should be similar to the following: sys12# cat /var/named/db.4 localhost IN A 127. Sun Services.192.168.one. 5.1 .{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster . Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 . .192. root.168.Exercise Solutions . Your /var/named/db.1 $TTL 86400 . .0. All Rights Reserved.{name} {ttl} Class CNAME Canonical Name .sys12. You can create the file yourself.168. Minimum (24 Hours) .------------------------------------------------sys11 IN A 192.

{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster . Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) . root.0. .1 . All Rights Reserved.edu. .one.one.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name .127.-----------------------------------------------1 IN PTR localhost.0 . .edu.0 file should be similar to the following: sys12# cat /var/named/db.0.Exercise Solutions . .{name} {ttl} Class PTR Real Name . q What is the purpose of the reverse lookup zone file? This file contains mappings for address-to-name translation.-----------------------------------------------1 IN PTR sys11. db. You can create the file yourself. Minimum (24 Hours) . Revision A. . 3 IN PTR sys13.0.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name . What is the purpose of the PTR resource record? The PTR record specifies a host name for an IP address.edu. ( 2005010101 . 4 IN PTR sys14.sys12. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.127. Your next task is to configure name resolution on all of your systems. 2 IN PTR sys12.edu.0 $TTL 86400 . 10-62 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. q 6.127.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12. Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 .edu. . Serial 3600 .edu. Set up the loopback file for your domain on the system that will be your domains primary DNS server. Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 .edu.one. Sun Services. Your /var/named/db.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12. .one.one.{name} {ttl} Class PTR Real Name .one.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12.edu.one. Inc.one.

168.conf file on your DNS server and DNS clients. All Rights Reserved. q What is the purpose of the domain keyword? The domain keyword specifies domain names to append to names that were not specified in the FQDN format and in what order to append them.dns /etc/nsswitch. copy the /etc/nsswitch. Inc.conf file.Exercise Solutions Working on All Systems To configure name resolution on all systems. q What effect does the dns keyword have on this file? The dns keyword causes the dns resolver library routine to be added when resolving host names and addresses.2 q What is the purpose of the /etc/resolv. Set up the /etc/resolv.dns file to the /etc/nsswitch.edu nameserver 192.conf q What is the purpose of the /etc/nsswitch. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. Write the command that you use: # cp /etc/nsswitch. q What is the purpose of the namesserver keyword? The nameserver keyword specifies DNS servers to query by IP address. 8.conf file specifies which resolver library routines are to be used in resolving host names and addresses. Working on all of your DNS clients and DNS servers.conf domain one.1 10-63 .1.conf file should have contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/resolv. Your system’s /etc/resolv. perform the following: 7.conf file? This file specifies the resolver library routines that the domain search list applies to any names that are not specified in the FQDN form and specifies the IP addresses of DNS servers to query. Its position in the hosts line determines the order in which it is used.conf file? The etc/nsswitch. Revision A.

troubleshoot to eliminate any DNS-related error messages that appear in the /var/adm/messages file. Use the svcs command to verify that the services are online. Working on the Client Systems Note – Since the client service was just enabled on the primary name servers. 11. this step does not have to be done on those systems. Before continuing. 10-64 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0. Revision A.notice] starting BIND 9. sys12# pgrep named 97 10.notice] command channel listening named[1516]: [ID 873579 daemon.2.1 .1#953 Jan 12 13:23:18 sys12 on ::1#953 Jan 12 13:23:18 sys12 named[1516]: [ID 873579 daemon. Use the svcadm command to enable the default client service and verify that it is enabled. Sun Services.. All Rights Reserved. Check the /var/adm/messages file for DNS error messages..notice] command channel listening named[1516]: [ID 873579 daemon.Exercise Solutions Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 9.4 named[1516]: [ID 873579 daemon. Use the svcadm command to enable both the name server daemon and the DNS client.0. Inc. sys12# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/client:default b.notice] running Check that the server daemon is running. sys12# tail -4 /var/adm/messages Jan 12 13:23:18 sys12 Jan 12 13:23:18 sys12 on 127. # svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/client:default # svcs -a | grep dns online 15:02:34 svc:/network/dns/client:default . sys12# svcs -a | grep dns online 14:53:08 svc:/network/dns/server:default online 14:56:04 svc:/network/dns/client:default c. Start the name server daemon on your DNS server: a.

edu...one. flags: qr aa rd ra.one. IN A .... status: NOERROR. ADDITIONAL SECTION: IN A 86400 IN A 192.1. Inc.168.edu sys11. root.edu.edu . testing both your local domain and your remote domain servers as they become available. QUERY: 1.one. For example. QUESTION SECTION: . ->>HEADER<<.opcode: QUERY.edu.. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 . Got answer: .4 <<>> @192.edu.. QUERY: 1.sys11. ANSWER: 1.2 one.. ADDITIONAL: 2 .edu. ANSWER: 0.1.opcode: QUERY...168. ADDITIONAL: 0 .1. .Exercise Solutions Working on Any System Troubleshoot DNS-related errors as follows: 12. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 86400 IN SOA sys12. Sun Services.. id: 53 . Got answer: . Test and debug as required. . global options: printcmd .one. Query time: 3 msec SERVER: 192.. 13.edu . status: NOERROR. ->>HEADER<<..edu. .168.1 10-65 .. . Test and debug your setup by using the dig utility.. All Rights Reserved...edu.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 13:27:39 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 .one.one.2#53(192.2 one.1. AUTHORITY SECTION: one.1 86400 IN NS sys12. .1.sys12. Use the techniques that are described in the lecture part of the module. AUTHORITY SECTION: one. <<>> DiG 9. .168. AUTHORITY: 1.one.2.edu sys11. id: 106 .168.one. # dig @192. ANSWER SECTION: sys11. Revision A. list the contents of the domain by querying the primary name server for its resource records. QUESTION SECTION: . flags: qr aa rd ra. AUTHORITY: 2.edu.

1..168.one.2 DNS server determined that the sys11.1.2 Query time: 2 msec SERVER: 192.1. .1. Sun Services.Exercise Solutions sys12.1..168. Revision A.1 .edu.168. All Rights Reserved. . Inc. . 86400 IN A 192.edu system has an IP address of 192.. ..one.168.168.2#53(192. 10-66 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 13:27:39 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 119 The preceding output indicates that the 192.1.

Write the updates that you use in each file. The addition to the forward zone file should be similar to the following. sys13# mkdir /var/named Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 16. a. View the dumped DNS data to look for errors. Create the /var/named directory. Test your DNS server.one.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12.1 10-67 . sys12# rndc dumpdb b. Use the following command: Working on the Secondary DNS Server To configure a secondary DNS server: 15.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name . $DATE 20050112203358 The dumped cache file is currently empty because the server has been started recently and no queries have been cached at this time.Exercise Solutions Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 14. Update both the forward and reverse zone files on the primary server to support the secondary name server. Use the techniques that are described in the lecture part of the module. IN NS sys13. Your final task is to configure a secondary DNS server. Sun Services.edu. Inc. Take a snapshot of the DNS information in memory. sys12# view /var/named/named_dump.edu. added under the existing name server configuration: . Cache dump of view '_default' . Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. .one. Revision A.db . All Rights Reserved.

{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name .conf file should be similar to the following: sys13# cat /etc/named. added under the existing name server configuration: .3 Working on the Secondary DNS Server Continue as follows: 18. file "db. Working on All Systems Continue as follows: 17.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12.root".conf options { directory "/var/named". Add the secondary name server to the /etc/resolv. }.conf file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s secondary DNS server. Write the updates that you put in the file: Your /etc/resolv.edu nameserver 192.1. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.conf domain one.conf file on the DNS clients and servers in your domain.edu. Set up the /etc/named. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Inc. zone ". }. 10-68 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.one.one. Your /etc/named.168. You can create the file yourself." { type hint.conf file should be similar to the following: # cat /etc/resolv. IN NS sys13.edu.Exercise Solutions The addition to the reverse zone file should be similar to the following.2 nameserver 192.1. Revision A.1 .

0. zone "1.thirty.168.30. db.168. zone "0.0.arpa" { type slave.root .edu. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.0. .Exercise Solutions zone "one. 604800 IN NS instructor.168.arpa" in { type slave. masters { 192.-------------------------------------------------------------. file "db.1.2.127.192. 19.1. file "db.--------------------------------------------------------instructor. .1 10-69 . masters { 192. You can create the file yourself.2.root file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s secondary DNS server.slave". .thirty.in-addr. All Rights Reserved.edu. }.edu" { type slave. Your /var/named/db.one.{name} {ttl} Class A IP Address .127.root file should be similar to the following: sys13# cat /var/named/db. }. Set up the /var/named/db. 604800 IN A 192. Sun Services.168.168. }.1. Revision A.1.192.168. file "db. Inc. }.2. }.slave".in-addr.slave".edu.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name .30 sys13# Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. masters { 192. }.root .

flags: qr aa rd ra.root 22. sys13# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys13# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/client:default b. global options: printcmd ..edu -x 192. QUESTION SECTION: .3 one.slave db.edu -x 192.3 one..4 . status: NOERROR. IN A 10-70 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. <<>> DiG 9. Verify that the secondary name server performs forward lookup requests as expected. Sun Services.slave db. sys13# ls -al total 20 drwxr-xr-x 3 drwxr-xr-x 45 -rw------1 -rw------1 -rw------1 -rw-r--r-1 Check that the server daemon is running.slave db.Exercise Solutions 20. Use the svcs command to verify that the services are online. AUTHORITY: 1. All Rights Reserved.1. Verify that the new zone files have been created in the /var/named directory.2.4 ..127.edu – Designates the domain of interest sys14.168. Start the name server daemon on your DNS server: a.168.1 . sys13# svcs -a | grep dns online 14:53:08 svc:/network/dns/server:default online 14:56:04 svc:/network/dns/client:default c. sys13# pgrep in. ADDITIONAL: 0 .168..one.168..0.3 – Designates which DNS server to use one.one.168. .1.named 853 21.1.168. Inc. QUERY: 1.. db.0. ANSWER: 0.edu.one. Revision A. Use the svcadm command to enable both the name server daemon and the DNS client.edu – Designates the name to query sys11# dig @192.192.edu.1. You could use one of a few tools to test DNS lookup requests. This example demonstrates using the dig utility where: q q q @192.4 <<>> @192. Got answer: .1. id: 2032 . root root root root root root root sys root root root root 512 1024 353 430 460 405 Jan Jan Jan Jan Jan Jan 12 11 12 12 12 12 05:14 16:50 13:36 13:56 13:46 05:13 .opcode: QUERY.1. ->>HEADER<<.

QUERY: 1.2 192.in-addr. ADDITIONAL: 2 .opcode: QUERY. AUTHORITY SECTION: 1.1. Inc..168.one. ... Sun Services. IN PTR .168.1.168. .168..arpa.192.. . All Rights Reserved. sys13.192. 86400 .168.edu.edu. Revision A.. Got answer: . 86400 IN SOA sys12.3) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 14:25:50 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 .1.edu. .one... id: 322 .Exercise Solutions ..3 Query time: 1 msec SERVER: 192. flags: qr aa rd ra.1.1 10-71 .3) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 14:25:50 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 141 Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems..edu.sys12.. QUESTION SECTION: . ANSWER: 1. AUTHORITY SECTION: one.192. status: NOERROR.arpa. PTR sys14. ADDITIONAL SECTION: sys12. . ANSWER SECTION: 4. 86400 86400 IN IN A A 192.168.168. 86400 IN .one.168. Query time: 3 msec SERVER: 192.1.arpa.one.edu.in-addr.3#53(192.. root. 86400 1.one.one.arpa.in-addr. .edu. ->>HEADER<<.edu.168. . IN IN NS NS sys13.one..168.3#53(192.192. AUTHORITY: 2.in-addr..edu.4. sys12..1.1..1. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 .

.

you should be able to: q q q q q Describe the fundamentals of DHCP Configure a DHCP server Configure and manage DHCP clients Troubleshoot a DHCP server Troubleshoot a DHCP client The course map in Figure 11-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. Inc. including the purpose of DHCP and client and server functions. Sun Services.Module 11 Configuring DHCP Objectives This module explains the fundamentals of DHCP. All Rights Reserved. This module explains how to configure DHCP and how to troubleshoot a DCHP server. Upon completion of this module. Revision A.1 . Configuring and Managing Network Applications Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Configuring DNS Configuring DHCP Figure 11-1 Course Map Configuring NTP 11-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

DHCP provides the following enhanced functionality: q Messages include network configuration for clients. DHCP also reclaims IP addresses that are no longer needed or if the time period for their use has expired. q 11-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP DHCP enables you to provide network-related information to client systems through a centrally located server system. If a computer moves to another location in a different part of the network. With DHCP. in effect. Revision A. you assign a new IP address to that computer manually. replaces the need for using RARP and the /etc/bootparams file. All Rights Reserved. DNS server. The DHCP server would be reconfigured to provide the new IP addresses offered from this new ISP. Sun Services. you assign an IP address to each computer manually. Routers can be configured to act as a BOOTP relay agent. DHCP also makes it easier to renumber the network if the ISP is changed. such as: q q q IP address Boot server IP address DNS domain. These IP addresses can then be used by other clients. you configure the DHCP server to distribute IP addresses from a central point. q Purpose of DHCP DHCP reduces the cost of managing networks by eliminating the need to manually assign or change IP addresses repeatedly. IP addresses are assigned to each system when an organization sets up its computer network. q Without DHCP. Support is available for DHCP clients in the Solaris 10 OS. and default router q q q Lease periods are provided for IP address assignments. Support is available for clients that need to boot over a network. DHCP evolved from the bootstrap protocol (BOOTP). You configure the DHCP server to send a new IP address automatically when a computer is moved to a different place on the network and requests a new IP address at boot time.1 . which.

the dhcpagent daemon acquires an IP address that is valid for the network attached to the client’s hardware interface. The client’s dhcpagent daemon: q q q q q Constructs and sends packets Listens for responses from servers Caches the configuration information received Releases or renews leases Configures the interfaces with sufficient information to enable communications with the network through the interface Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 11-3 . DHCP Configure Network Interfaces • IP Address • Netmask • Router Parameters (System and Application) • NIS Server • WWW Server • NTP Server Figure 11-2 DHCP Client Functions To perform the first function. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Sun Services. DHCP supplies: q q Sufficient information to properly configure the network interface Parameters needed by system-level and application-level software Figure 11-2 shows the DHCP client functions.Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP DHCP Client Functions DHCP has two client functions. Inc.

1 . Revision A. Figure 11-3 shows the interaction between a DHCP client and server. All Rights Reserved.Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP DHCP Server Functions The DHCP server manages the IP address space of networks connected directly to that server and also manages remote networks connected by BOOTP relay agents. Sun Services. The in.dhcpd daemon runs on the DHCP server. Inc. Client DHCP Server Time 1 DHCPDISCOVER DHCPOFFER All DHCP offers are evaluated and DHCPREQUEST is sent 3 2 DHCPACK 4 Figure 11-3 DHCP Client-Server Interaction 11-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. A secondary DHCP server confirms existing configurations supplied previously by a primary DHCP server when the primary DHCP server cannot respond to requests for confirmation. Client BOOTP Relay DHCP Server Time DHCPDISCOVER DHCPDISCOVER 2 DHCPOFFER All DHCP requests are evaluated and DHCPREQUEST is sent 4 DHCPACK 5 Figure 11-4 DHCP Client-Server BOOTP The BOOTP relay picks up incoming requests from clients and forwards them to the DHCP server. This common data access can be achieved by using NIS+ tables or by using NFS to share the DHCP network tables. Primary and secondary DHCP servers must have access to the exact same data source that contains the IP addresses being served to clients. Multiple primary-DHCP servers can exist on the same network. The DHCP server replies to the BOOTP relay. as long as each server is responsible for a different IP address range. Copies cannot be used. A primary DHCP server can give an IP address to a client that is requesting a new configuration from the range of IP addresses for which it is responsible. The IP address is defined during the installation and configuration of the software on the server. Inc. DHCP servers can be primary or secondary servers. All Rights Reserved. which then forwards the response on to the client. Every primary DHCP server also acts as a secondary server.Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP Figure 11-4 shows the difference that a BOOTP relay makes for a client that is attempting to contact a server. Revision A. A primary DHCP server passes IP addresses to clients.1 11-5 . Sun Services.

and initialize the dhcptab file and DHCP network tables for any networks. Revision A. Sun Services. 11-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . configure the DHCP service database type and location. All Rights Reserved. Inc. These utilities enable you to set startup options.Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP The dhcpconfig command and the dhcpmgr utility are available for use to configure DHCP servers and BOOTP relay servers.

qfe0 UPDATE_TIMEOUT=15 LOGGING_FACILITY=7 BOOTP_COMPAT=automatic # Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. type the command: # cat /etc/inet/dhcpsvc. This file is created when the configuration commands are run and should never be edited manually. This file was the /etc/default/dhcp file prior to the Solaris 9 OS. To view the configuration information. Sun Services.conf DAEMON_ENABLED=TRUE RUN_MODE=server RESOURCE=SUNWfiles PATH=/var/dhcp CONVER=1 VERBOSE=TRUE ICMP_VERIFY=TRUE INTERFACES=hme0. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. The DHCP server’s configuration information is stored in the /etc/inet/dhcpsvc. Inc.conf file.Configuring a DHCP Server Configuring a DHCP Server Configuring a DHCP server on the network consists mainly of configuring and starting the DHCP server daemon.1 11-7 .

The dhcpconfig command does not check the validity of user input as it is entered. The dhcpconfig command is faster. Use this process if you are an advanced user and want to use scripts. You can change non-essential options after the initial configuration.1 . Sun Services.Configuring a DHCP Server Configuring DHCP by Using Different Methods Use the graphical dhcpmgr (DHCP Manager) utility or the command-line dhcpconfig (DHCP configuration) command to configure a DHCP server. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. q q 11-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Comparisons of how these two methods work is as follows: q The dhcpmgr utility enables you to view the information gathered from system files and to change the information if needed. The dhcpconfig command enables you to specify the network information using command-line options. Select options and enter data to create the dhcptab and DHCP network tables that the DHCP server uses. Inc. but you must specify values for many options. The dhcpmgr utility checks the validity of user input as it is entered. The dhcpmgr utility speeds up the configuration process by omitting prompts for non-essential server options by using default values for them.

GNOME. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. define. Inc. such as the Common Desktop Environment (CDE). networks. # /usr/sadm/admin/bin/dhcpmgr & Figure 11-5 Choose Server Configuration Window Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. complete the following steps: 1. To start the dhcpmgr utility. the Choose Server Configuration window appears.1 11-9 . and manage DHCP services. If the system is not configured as a DHCP server or a BOOTP relay. To configure the server. type the command: This example uses the sys12 system to demonstrate how to configure a basic DHCP server by using the dhcpmgr utility. or the Sun Java Desktop System. such as macros. edit. the windows in this section do not appear.Configuring a DHCP Server Performing Initial DHCP Server Configuration by Using the dhcpmgr Utility Use the dhcpmgr utility to configure. and policies. addresses. Note – If the server is already configured. Figure 11-5 enables you to configure the server as a DHCP server. This example uses the default Configure as the DHCP server. The DHCP Manager runs in an X-window system.

The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 1 window appears. Click OK. Sun Services. 11-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. and click >.Configuring a DHCP Server 2.1 . Figure 11-6 shows you where to select the data storage format. Figure 11-6 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 1 Window 3. Select Text files.

and click >.1 11-11 . Revision A. Accept the default path name. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Figure 11-7 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 2 Window 4.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 2 window appears. Figure 11-7 shows you where to enter a path for the data store. Sun Services. Inc. This example uses the default directory.

Figure 11-8 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 3 Window 5. 11-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. and click >. Revision A. Select /etc/hosts. Sun Services. Figure 11-8 enables you to specify the name service in which to store host records.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 3 window appears. Inc.1 .

Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.1 11-13 . All Rights Reserved. This example uses the defaults 1 and days. Figure 11-9 shows you where to specify the length of the lease. Revision A. Sun Services.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 4 window appears. and click >. Figure 11-9 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 4 Window 6. Accept the defaults of 1 and days.

Inc. All Rights Reserved. Do not accept a DNS domain or DNS server. Figure 11-10 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 5 Window 7. 11-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . Sun Services. Figure 11-10 shows you where to specify the DNS domain and DNS servers. This example uses the default of no DNS. and click >.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 5 window appears. Revision A.

Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 6 window appears. This example uses the 192. type a subnet mask. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. and click >. Inc. Revision A. Figure 11-11 shows you where to specify the network address and a subnet mask.1 11-15 .0 network. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Specify a network address by either selecting one or typing one.1.168. Figure 11-11 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 6 Window 8.

All Rights Reserved. 11. Select either Local-Area (LAN) or Point-to-Point. Figure 11-12 shows you where to specify information about the network. 10. 11-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. Figure 11-12 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 7 Window 9. Sun Services. Click >.1 .Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 7 window appears. Select either Use router discovery protocol or type the router information in the Use router field. Revision A. This example uses the defaults Local-Area (LAN) and Use router discovery protocol.

1 11-17 .Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 8 window appears. Inc. type the NIS server IP address in the NIS Servers field. If appropriate. If appropriate. 13. Figure 11-13 shows you where to specify the NIS domain and servers. Click >. Sun Services. type the NIS domain configuration in the NIS Domain field. 14. This example uses the defaults of no NIS domain and no NIS server. and click Add for each NIS server that you are specifying. Figure 11-13 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 8 Window 12. All Rights Reserved. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.

type the NIS+ server IP address in the NIS+ Servers field. Revision A.1 . If appropriate. 16. All Rights Reserved. Figure 11-14 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 9 Window 15. 11-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 17. Click >. Figure 11-14 shows you where to specify the NIS+ domain and servers. This example uses the defaults of no NIS+ domain and no NIS+ server. type the NIS+ domain configuration in the NIS+ Domain field. and click Add for each NIS+ server that you are specifying. Inc. If appropriate.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 9 window appears. Sun Services.

All Rights Reserved. Inc. if the information is correct.1 11-19 . Revision A. This example uses the sample information indicated previously. Figure 11-15 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 10 Window 18. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Review the information and. Sun Services. click Finish.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 10 window appears. Figure 11-15 shows you a summary of the information you entered previously.

Click Yes to proceed with address configuration. and the Start Address Wizard window appears. All Rights Reserved. 11-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. The DHCP network file will now be populated.1 . Figure 11-16 shows you where to indicate that you want to configure addresses for the server. Figure 11-16 Start Address Wizard Window 19.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Manager Window closes. the main DHCP Manager Window appears. Revision A. Inc.

Note – The following steps are a continuation of initial server configuration. Inc. Sun Services. 2. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Modify the number of IP addresses to use. 3. Click >. This example uses five addresses and a comment of net1.Configuring a DHCP Server Adding Addresses by Using the dhcpmgr Utility Use the procedures described in this section to add addresses by using the dhcpmgr utility. All Rights Reserved. Figure 11-17 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 1 Window 1. Add a comment if necessary.1 11-21 . This figure shows you where to specify the number of IP addresses to configure. Revision A. The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 1 window appears as shown in Figure 11-17.

select Generate Client Names.1. Inc.168.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 2 window appears. If appropriate. 11-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the Managed by Server field is set to the default. and the starting IP address is changed to 192. Sun Services.10.1 . Figure 11-18 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 2 Window 4. Verify that Managed by Server and Starting IP Address display the correct information. This example uses sys12-dhcp for the root name. 6. Figure 11-18 shows you where to specify the DHCP server and starting IP address. All Rights Reserved. In this example. Click >. 5. Revision A.

Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 3 window appears. Figure 11-19 shows you the IP addresses that you specified in the previous step. Revision A. Verify that the address information is correct. and click >. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Figure 11-19 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 3 Window 7.1 11-23 . All Rights Reserved. Inc. Sun Services.

9. Figure 11-20 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 4 Window 8. 10. Click >. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Select Configuration Macro from the drop-down list box and verify that Addresses are unusable is unchecked.1 . Sun Services. Figure 11-20 shows you the name of the macro to be associated with the DHCP interface. Inc.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 4 window appears. click View. click OK. To exit the contents window. If you want to view the contents of the selected macro. 11-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Inc.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 5 window appears. 11. and systems that provide services use permanent lease types. and click >.1 11-25 . Figure 11-21 shows you where to specify the type of lease. Select either Dynamic or Permanent. This example uses the default of Dynamic. Revision A. mail servers. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. routers. Figure 11-21 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 5 Window Note – Normally.

Revision A. and click Finish.1 .Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 6 window appears. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Figure 11-22 shows the information that you entered in previous steps. Sun Services. 11-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Review the information. Figure 11-22 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 6 Window 12.

14.168.15 sys13-dhcp-15 #net1 192.168.168.10 sys13-dhcp-10 #net1 192.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Manager Window appears. All Rights Reserved.1.168. Figure 11-23 shows the information that you have provided.16 sys13-dhcp-16 #net1 192. Figure 11-23 DHCP Manager Window 13.1 11-27 . Inc.17 sys13-dhcp-17 #net1 192.18 sys13-dhcp-18 #net1 192.14 sys13-dhcp-14 #net1 192.1. Sun Services.13 sys13-dhcp-13 #net1 192.168.1.168.12 sys13-dhcp-12 #net1 192.168.168.1. Revision A.1.11 sys13-dhcp-11 #net1 192.1.168.1. use the grep command: # grep dhcp /etc/inet/hosts 192.1. Choose Exit from the File menu to close the DHCP Manager window.1.168. To view the information that the dhcpmgr utility added to the /etc/inet/hosts file.19 sys13-dhcp-19 #net1 # Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.

such as /etc/inet/hosts. For SUNWfiles and SUNWbinfiles. Sun Services. This option is a data resource. Configuring a DHCP Server To configure a DHCP server for the first time. Inc. type the command by using the following format: /usr/sbin/dhcpconfig -D -r datastore -p location where: -D -r datastore This option specifies to configure the DHCP service. this is an absolute path name. for example.1 . This option is the data-store-dependent location where the DHCP data is maintained. This command has options that enable you to: q q q Configure and unconfigure a DHCP server Convert to a new data store Import data to and export data from other DHCP servers Note – The dhcpconfig command is no longer menu-driven as it was in previous versions of the Solaris OS. Revision A. or SUNWnisplus. this is an NIS+ table name. For SUNWnisplus.Configuring a DHCP Server Using the dhcpconfig Command Use the dhcpconfig command when you configure a DHCP server with scripts. on the DHCP server to determine values that are not provided on the command line. SUNWbinfiles. /etc/inet/netmasks or others. which is one of the following: SUNWfiles. All Rights Reserved. -p location The dhcpconfig command uses the appropriate system and network configuration files. 11-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. /var/dhcp.

1.1 Added network macro to dhcptab .1. Revision A.192. Added server macro to dhcptab . enter the following: # /usr/sbin/dhcpconfig -D -r SUNWfiles -p /var/dhcp Created DHCP configuration file. All Rights Reserved.Configuring a DHCP Server To configure (-D) a system for DHCP services using ASCII files for datastore (-r) and locate (-p) the datastore files in the /var/dhcp directory. After the datastore location and type are established. To configure the system to provide DHCP services for the 192. Added "Locale" macro to dhcptab. Inc. you must configure the appropriate files to function as a DHCP server.168.sys12. Created network table.168. # Note – Using the ASCII datastore format (SUNWfiles) is much slower than storing the files in the binary datastore format (SUNWbinfiles). Sun Services.1.0 -t 192.168. Created dhcptab. type the command: # /usr/sbin/dhcpconfig -N 192.1.0 network (-N) and the 192.0.168.1 router (-t). DHCP server started.1.168.1 11-29 . # Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The examples use the ASCII datastore format because the resulting files are viewed more easily.

168.30 Figure 11-24 The DHCP Network File One DHCP network file exists for each network that is served by the DHCP server. Revision A. SUNWfiles.30. Figure 11-24 shows the interaction between the client ID and the client and the server addresses.Configuring a DHCP Server Introducing DHCP Network Files DHCP network files contain the ranges of IP addresses that the DHCP server assigns and controls for networks. such as SUNWfiles1_192_168_1_0. 11-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. All Rights Reserved.1 . Sun Services. or SUNWnisplus).1. Inc.168.0 Client ID IP Address and Configuration Parameters 00 Client Address: 192. There is no table or file with the name SUNWfiles. These files map the client identifiers of DHCP clients to IP addresses and the associated configuration parameters of each IP address assigned to these clients. The name of each file is determined from the datastore format and the network address of the network that it supports.30. The name always includes an IP address and an identifier about the file type (SUNWbinfiles.1 Server Address: 192. DHCP Network 92.

type the command: # pntadm -C 192. not the default database Uses the supplied path.1 11-31 . Binary files are faster and more efficient and are recommended for networks with a DHCP client base of many thousands of systems. Revision A. depending on the datastore used. Inc. not the default path Creating a Table for the 192.30.use pntadm(1M) or dhcpmgr(1M) instead # The DHCP network tables can exist as ASCII text files. binary files. All Rights Reserved. delete. and modify IP address records within network tables View tables You can use any one of the following option flags with the pntadm command: -C -A -M -P -D -r -p Creates a DHCP network table Adds an entry to a DHCP network table Modifies an entry made to a DHCP network table Views changes made to a DHCP network table Deletes an entry from a DHCP network table Uses the supplied datastore resource.Configuring a DHCP Server To view the initial contents of the DHCP network file.30. or NIS+ tables.30.0 DHCP Network To create a table for the 192.0 Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. type the command: # cat SUNWfiles1_192_168_1_0 # SUNWfiles1_192_168_1_0 # # Do NOT edit this file by hand -. Sun Services.0 network.168. Using the pntadm Command Use the pntadm command to manage DHCP network tables to: q q q Add and remove networks under DHCP management Add.168.

use the cat command: # cat /var/dhcp/SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # # Do NOT edit this file by hand -.use pntadm(1M) or dhcpmgr(1M) instead # Adding an Entry to the SUNWfiles1_192. type the command: # pntadm -r SUNWfiles -p /var/dhcp -A 192.0 Table To add an entry to the SUNWfiles1_192.30.1|00|00|192. To verify that the network table was created.1 .30.1.1 192.Configuring a DHCP Server Note – You can use an alias name for this network in place of the network number if the alias is defined in the /etc/inet/networks file.30.168. Sun Services.168. type the command: # cat /var/dhcp/SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # # Do NOT edit this file by hand -.30.168. Revision A.30.168. Inc.2|0|8214847195300495361|UNKNOWN| # 11-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. type the command: # ls /var/dhcp | grep 30 SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # To view the initial contents of the new table.168.use pntadm(1M) or dhcpmgr(1M) instead 192.168. All Rights Reserved.0 To view the table and observe the changes made by the pntadm command.0 table located in the /var/dhcp directory.

168.0 # To view the changes.168.30.30.30.0 Client ID 00 Flags 03 Client IP 192. type the command: # pntadm -P 192.30.0 table.30. All Rights Reserved.2 entry from the 192. type the command: # pntadm -D 192.30.168.30.0 table to change the macro name (-m) to mymacro.30. Sun Services.168.2 192.168.168.30. where MANUAL is represented by 2 and PERMANENT is represented by 1.1 entry of the SUNWfiles1_192.168.168.168.Configuring a DHCP Server Modifying an Entry to the SUNWfiles1_192.0 Client ID Flags 00 03 Client IP 192.0 To verify the changes.168.30. type the following: # pntadm -P 192.30.2|0|8214847195300495362|mymacro| # To change the 192.168.168.0 Table To modify the 192.1 11-33 . type the command: # pntadm -M 192.use pntadm(1M) or dhcpmgr(1M) instead # 192.1 entry to 192.168.2 192.168.30.1. Refer to the DHCP network man page for more information.168.168. which represents the sum of 2 and 1.30. To view the changes by using the table.0 Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 -n 192.1 -m mymacro -f ’PERMANENT+MANUAL’ 192.30. type the command: # cat /var/dhcp/SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # # Do NOT edit this file by hand -. and to set the flags field to MANUAL and PERMANENT. type the command: # pntadm -M 192. Inc.30.168.168.30.30.30.2 Server IP 192.168.2 Lease Expiration Zero Macro mymacro Comment # Note – Observe that the Flags value is 03.1|00|03|192.1.30.168.2 Lease Expiration Zero Macro mymacro Comment # To delete the 192.168.2 (-n).168. Revision A.1 Server IP 192.1.

168.168.Configuring a DHCP Server To verify the changes.30.0 192.0 # To list the remaining DHCP tables. Sun Services.168.0 # To remove the 192.1. 11-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 Client ID Flags Client IP Server IP Lease Expiration Macro Comment # Removing DHCP Network Tables To list the existing DHCP tables. View the contents of the dhcptab table by using the Macros and Options tabs in the DHCP Manager. type the command: # pntadm -L 192.0 # Introducing the dhcptab Table Use the dhcptab configuration table to organize groups of configuration parameters as macro definitions.1 . The DHCP server uses these macros to return groups of configuration parameters to DHCP and BOOTP clients.1. The preferred methods of managing the dhcptab table are through the use of the dhcpmgr utility or dhtadm command. type the command: # pntadm -P 192. type the command: # pntadm -R 192. Revision A.168. type the command: # pntadm -L 192.0 table.168.30. Inc. or by using the dhtadm -P command on the command line. You can reference one macro in the definition of other macros.30.168.30. All Rights Reserved.

1.255.168.1 11-35 .1. Macros are collections of symbols that are associated with an IP address and are used to define the set of information that is given to a DHCP client system To create the DHCP service configuration table. type the command: # dhtadm -A -s NewSym -d ’Vendor=SUNW.168. type the command: # dhtadm -A -m NewMacro ’:Timeserv=192.1: 192. Inc.1.1.255: sys12 Macro :Include=Locale:Timeserv=192.168. dhcptab. type the command: # dhtadm -C To add a symbol called NewSym to the dhcptab table.IP.168.1.1.168.0’ -r SUNWfiles -p /var/dhcp To add a macro called NewMacro to the dhcptab table.1:DNSserv=192.0 Macro :Subnet=255.1:DNSserv=192.0 # Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.20.168. type the command: # dhtadm -P Name Type Value ================================================== NewMacro Macro :Timeserv=192.1.1:Broadcst=192. All Rights Reserved.20.PCW.PCW. You can specify one of the following option flags: -C -A -M -D Creates the DHCP table Adds a symbol or macro definition to the DHCP table Modifies an existing symbol or macro definition Deletes a symbol or macro definition Symbols are individual parameters to which values can be assigned.0:Router=192.LAN.Configuring a DHCP Server Using the dhtadm Command Use the dhtadm command to manage the DHCP service configuration table.1:’ # To view the changes.255.168.LAN.168.IP.1.1. Sun Services.1.1:LeaseTim=86400:LeaseNeg: Locale Macro :UTCoffst=-25200: NewSym Symbol Vendor=SUNW. dhcptab.

PCW.0:Router=192.255.168.1:LeaseTim=3600: 192.255.168. type the command: # dhtadm -P Name Type Value ================================================== NewMacro Macro :DNSserv=192.1:LeaseTim=86400:LeaseNeg: Locale Macro :UTCoffst=-25200: # 11-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.0 # To delete the NewSym symbol from the dhcptab table.255.255: sys12 Macro :Include=Locale:Timeserv=192.1. type the command: # dhtadm -P Name Type Value ================================================== NewMacro Macro :DNSserv=192.0:Router=192. to remove the Timeserv symbol from the NewMacro macro. type the command: # dhtadm -P Name Type Value ================================================== NewMacro Macro :DNSserv=192.1. Sun Services.0 # To define a value for the LeaseTim symbol.0 Macro :Subnet=255.1.IP.168.1.1:Broadcst=192. All Rights Reserved.1.0 Macro :Subnet=255.168. type the command: # dhtadm -M -m NewMacro -e ’Timeserv=’ To view the changes.IP.168.168.1.PCW.Configuring a DHCP Server You can modify an existing symbol or macro definition.168.LAN.255: sys12 Macro :Include=Locale:Timeserv=192.1.1. type the command: # dhtadm -M -m NewMacro -e ’LeaseTim=3600’ # To view the changes.1:LeaseTim=86400:LeaseNeg: Locale Macro :UTCoffst=-25200: NewSym Symbol Vendor=SUNW.1.20.0 Macro :Subnet=255.1.1:LeaseTim=3600: 192.1.255.255: sys12 Macro :Include=Locale:Timeserv=192.255.1:Broadcst=192. Revision A.1.1.LAN.1:Broadcst=192.1.168.1: 192.20.168.168. Inc.1. type the command: # dhtadm -D -s NewSym # To verify the changes.0:Router=192.1 .1:LeaseTim=86400:LeaseNeg: Locale Macro :UTCoffst=-25200: NewSym Symbol Vendor=SUNW. In this example.1.255.168.168.1.168.168.

/etc/inet/dhcpsvc. Sun Services. type the command: # dhtadm -P Name Type Value ================================================== 192. LeaseTim and LeaseNeg. if you select negotiable leases. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Contains options with values determined by input from the administrator who configured the DHCP server. The dhcptab table The Locale macro (optional) Creates a dhcptab table if it does not already exist.1:Broadcst=192.255. which is set to point to the server’s primary IP address.0:Router=192. Inc.1. named to match the server’s node name The Locale macro.Configuring a DHCP Server To delete the NewMacro macro from the dhcptab table.0 Macro :Subnet=255.1. Options used with the in.1 11-37 . The UTCoffst option.168.1:LeaseTim=86400:LeaseNeg: Locale Macro :UTCoffst=-25200: # Table 11-1 shows the items that are created during DHCP configuration. Contains the local time zone’s offset in seconds from Coordinated Universal Time. Revision A. The options: Palatinoerv. if DNS is configured. Contents Data store type and location.255: sys12 Macro :Include=Locale:Timeserv=192.1. All Rights Reserved. and DNSdmain and DNSserv.255.168. The options apply to all clients that use addresses owned by the server. Table 11-1 Items Created During DHCP Server Configuration Item The service configuration file.1.conf Description Records keywords and values for server configuration options. Macros and options with assigned values. The server macro.168.168.dhcpd daemon to start the DHCP daemon when the system boots. type the command: # dhtadm -D -m NewMacro To verify the changes.

Inc. None. until you add the IP addresses. if the network is a LAN. The DHCP network table for the network 11-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. NISdmain and NISservs.Configuring a DHCP Server Table 11-1 Items Created During DHCP Server Configuration (Continued) Item The network address macro. All Rights Reserved. and NIS+dom and NIS+serv. Sun Services. if NIS+ is configured. Creates an empty table until you create the IP addresses for the network. if NIS is configured. maximum transfer unit (MTU). The options apply to all clients that are located on the network specified by the macro name. which is named the same as the network address of the client’s network Description Contains options with values determined by input from the administrator who configured the DHCP server. Contents The options: Subnet Router or RDiscvyF Broadcst. Revision A.1 .

# touch /etc/dhcp. 4. complete the following steps to configure the DHCP client to request dynamic host names: 1. This causes the DHCP client to relinquish its address when it reboots or is shut down properly. consult the client’s documentation for configuration instructions.1 11-39 . 3. Sun Services. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. you are prompted to use DHCP to configure network interfaces. Enable DHCP on the client by creating the appropriate file for the external interface. Configuring a DHCP Client When you install the Solaris 10 OS from the installation compact disc. You do not need to do anything else on the Solaris 10 OS client to use DHCP. All Rights Reserved. and remove the # in front of the RELEASE_ON_SIGTERM=yes parameter. otherwise. Log in as the root user on the DHCP client system. If your client is not a Solaris 10 OS client. Inc. which is hme0 in this example. This is a requirement for a successful DHCP configuration of the client.hme0 Note – Verify that the /etc/hostname. Edit the /etc/default/dhcpagent file. Most management is performed on the DHCP server side. Configuring a DHCP Client to Request a Dynamic Host Name If a client system is already running the Solaris 10 OS and is not using DHCP.Configuring and Managing DHCP Clients Configuring and Managing DHCP Clients Configuring DHCP clients is an easy process. the DHCP client software is enabled on your system during Solaris 10 OS installation. 2. the interface will not be plumbed. Revision A. read-only memory (CD-ROM). Configure the /etc/default/dhcpagent file on the DHCP client so that it releases its IP address if it is rebooted or shut down. If you select yes in the installation script.interface file exists for the interface being configured using DHCP.

dhc # init 6 Note – The state file is written only when the dhcpagent process is terminated and the dhcpagent program is not configured to release its IP address on termination.qfe0 inet dhcp-hostname-test # 5. To have the client perform a full DHCP negotiation upon rebooting. and enter the following: where hostname is the name you want the client to use. inet hostname # pkill dhcpagent # rm /etc/dhcp/interface.interface file on the client system. 2. If a client system is already running the Solaris 10 OS and is not using DHCP. Use is subject to license terms. Revision A. Hostname: sys13-dhcp-14 Configuring a DHCP Client to Use its Own Host Name DHCP clients running the Solaris 10 OS can be configured to use their own hostname instead of a hostname supplied by the DHCP server. and verify that the entry is not formatted as a comment and is set to yes: Edit the /etc/hostname. Edit the /etc/default/dhcpagent file. 11-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Configuring and Managing DHCP Clients 5. Sun Services. For example. 6. Log in as the root user on the DHCP client system. Inc. All Rights Reserved. All rights reserved.1 . for example: Copyright 1983-2004 Sun Microsystems. Inc. Observe the hostname. 3. Find the keyword REQUEST_HOSTNAME in the /etc/default/dhcpagent file. the file contents in this example are: # cat /etc/hostname. and watch the system console as the system boots. Reboot the client. type the commands: REQUEST_HOSTNAME=yes 4. complete the following steps to configure the DHCP client to use its own host name: 1.

Sun Services. consult the client’s documentation for configuration instructions. it can also update naming services with the client’s host name. If your client is not a Solaris 10 OS client. Depending on how the DHCP server is configured.Configuring and Managing DHCP Clients The DHCP server makes sure that the host name is not in use by another system on the network before the server assigns it to the client. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.1 11-41 .

n.n. Sun Services.Troubleshooting a DHCP Server Troubleshooting a DHCP Server IP address allocation errors are reported using the syslog facility or as server debug output. Use the dhcpmgr utility or the pntadm command to view the DHCP network table. Recreate the DHCP network table by adding the network again using the dhcpmgr utility or the pntadm command.n.1 . This type of problem can occur when a client attempts to obtain or verify an IP address. Inc. q ICMP ECHO reply to the OFFER candidate is n. and correct either the DHCP server database or the host’s network configuration. The following are possible IP address allocation errors and solutions: q There is no n. Determine the correct ownership of the address. 11-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.n. but the DHCP server cannot find the DHCP network table for that address.n dhcp-network table for DHCP client’s network This error message means that a client requests a specific IP address or seeks to extend a lease on its current IP address. This might occur if the IP address record is deleted from the DHCP network table after the address is selected. Revision A.n. but before the duplicate address check is complete.n. All Rights Reserved.n. This might occur if more than one DHCP server owns the address or if an address is manually configured for a non-DHCP network client. No corresponding dhcp network record The IP address considered for a DHCP client does not have a record in a network table. The DHCP network table might have been deleted by mistake. disabling The IP address considered for a DHCP client is already in use. If the IP address is missing. create it with the DHCP Manager (select Create from the Edit menu on the Address tab) or use the pntadm command. q ICMP ECHO reply to OFFER candidate n.n.

Use the DHCP Manager or the pntadm command to make the address usable. Use the DHCP Manager or the pntadm command to create new IP addresses for this network.n.n.n currently marked as unusable The requested IP address cannot be offered because it is marked unusable in the network table. There should be only one address.n is unavailable.n was manually allocated.n. Should have 0. All IP addresses that are currently managed by DHCP on the specified network are allocated.n.n.Troubleshooting a DHCP Server q DHCP network record for n. Revision A.n. Use the DHCP Manager or the pntadm command to modify IP addresses to remove the additional manual allocations.n. No dynamic address will be allocated. q No more IP addresses on n.n. or manually allocate a different address to the client.n. q n. ignoring request The record for the requested IP address is not in the DHCP network table.1 11-43 . The client’s ID is assigned a manually allocated address. if the IP address is missing. Use the dhcpmgr utility or the pntadm command to view the DHCP network table and. and that address is marked “unusable. therefore.n. Inc. The client that has the specified client ID is manually assigned more than one IP address. create it with the dhcpmgr utility (select Create from the Edit menu on the Address tab) or use the pntadm command. Use the DHCP Manager or the pntadm command to make the address usable. the server drops the request.” The server cannot allocate a different address to this client. q n. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. The server selects the last manually assigned address it finds in the network table. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. q Manual allocation (n.n.n network. client ID has n other records).

Update the client software. select Modify from the Service menu.n The server made an IP address offer to the client. The client’s request did not specify the offered IP address.n. Client: clientID is trying to renew n. The IP address recorded in the DHCP network table for this client does not match the IP address that the client specified in its renewal request. The DHCP server does not renew the lease. If this request times out. The lease was not negotiable. and it has timed out.n. If it is not. so the DHCP server ignores the request. Use the DHCP Manager or the pntadm command to examine the network table.n. RFC 2131. edit the address properties to add the client ID. but the client took too long to respond.n.n. Revision A. increase the cache-offer timeout for the DHCP server.1 . This problem might occur if the client is not compliant with the updated DHCP. and the offer expired. restart the DHCP agent on the client by typing the commands: q # ifconfig interface dhcp release # ifconfig interface dhcp start 11-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The client restarts the protocol to obtain a new lease. Sun Services. Offer expired for client: n. q q Client: clientID REQUEST is missing requested IP option. All Rights Reserved. This problem occurs if you delete a client’s record while the client is still using the IP address.n expired. In the DHCP Manager. The client issues another discover message. To enable the client to receive a new lease immediately. The client’s ID should be bound to the specified IP address. Inc. and correct if necessary.Troubleshooting a DHCP Server q Client: clientID lease for n.n.n. an IP address it has not leased.

Troubleshooting DHCP Clients

Troubleshooting DHCP Clients
The problems you might encounter with a DHCP client fall into the following categories:
q q

Problems communicating with the DHCP server Problems with inaccurate DHCP configuration information

After you enable the client software and reboot the system, the client tries to reach the DHCP server to obtain its network configuration. If the client fails to reach the server or if the client does not receive correct information, you can see error messages, such as: DHCP or BOOTP server not responding Need router-ip to communicate with TFTP server TFTP server’s IP address not known! Before you determine the problem, you must gather diagnostic information from both the client and the server, and analyze this information. To gather information, you can:
q q q

Run the client in debug mode. Run the server in debug mode. Start the snoop utility to monitor network traffic.

You can perform these tasks separately or concurrently. The information you gather can help you determine if the problem is with the client, server, or a relay agent.

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

11-45

Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client

Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client
In this exercise, you configure a basic DHCP server and client configuration.

Preparation
Before performing this exercise, do the following:
q

Refer to your network diagram to determine the function of each system on your subnet. Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed.

q

Note – Use the default configuration parameters in these exercises unless otherwise specified. The exercise examples show the DHCP server as 192.168.X.3 and the DHCP client as 192.168.X.4. The complete system and server-client functions for these exercises are shown in Table 11-2. Table 11-2 Exercise Host Functions Host Instructor sysX1 sysX2 sysX3 sysX4 Function Root DNS name server Router Primary DNS name server, DNS client Secondary DNS name server, DNS client, DHCP server DNS client, DHCP client

11-46

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client

Task Summary
In this exercise, you accomplish the following tasks:
q q q

Configure a DHCP server. Configure a DHCP client. Use the snoop utility to view DHCP client server interaction.

Task 1 – Configuring the DHCP Server
Complete the steps in this section.

Working on the sysX3 System
In this part of the exercise, use the DHCP Manager graphical user interface (GUI) utility (dhcpmgr utility) to configure a DHCP server on your subnet. Permit the network wizard to start and configure at least five hosts with the address range starting at 192.168.xxx.xxx, where xxx.xxx is provided by the instructor depending on the classroom setup. Note – Use the default configuration parameters in this task unless otherwise specified. This example uses the sys13 system to demonstrate configuring a basic DHCP server with the dhcpmgr GUI utility. To configure the DHCP server, complete the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Start the dhcpmgr utility. Initially configure the DHCP server. Add at least five addresses. To view the information that the dhcpmgr utility added to the /etc/inet/hosts file, use the grep command.

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

11-47

Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client

Task 2 – Configuring the DHCP Client
Complete the steps in this section.

Working on the sysX4 System
This example uses the sys14 system as the DHCP client. To configure the DHCP client, complete the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Log in as the root user on the DHCP client. Enable DHCP on the client. Configure the /etc/default/dhcpagent file on the DHCP client so that it releases its IP address if it is rebooted or is shut down. Reboot the client, and watch the system console as the system boots.

Task 3 – Using the snoop Utility to View DHCP Client-Server Interaction
An important part of troubleshooting DHCP issues is using the snoop utility to observe the network interaction between the server and the client. To view DHCP client-server interaction, complete the following steps: 1. Start the snoop utility on any system on the subnet other than the DHCP client. Be sure to use the snoop utility on an interface that is on the same subnet as the DHCP client, which is hme0 in this example. Have the snoop utility write to the /tmp/dhcp-snoop.snp file. Reboot the DHCP client system. After the DHCP client is booted, stop the snoop utility by pressing the Control+C key sequence. View the summary of the captured information.

2. 3. 4.

11-48

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client 5. Use the snoop utility to convert the trace data to ASCII text, and output that text to the /tmp/dhcp-snoop.txt file for viewing with any text editor that provides easy navigation and searching of the data. Use the view utility to view the trace data in the /tmp/dhcp-snoop.txt file. Look for messages, such as DHCPDISCOVER, DHCPOFFER, DHCPREQUEST, and DHCPACK, in the trace. Observe the ETHER destination addresses, the source and destination IP addresses, and the DHCP messages. Prevent the client system from continuing to act as a DHCP by removing the /etc/dhcp.* files and rebooting the system.

6.

7.

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

11-49

Exercise Summary

Exercise Summary
Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences, issues, or discoveries you had during the lab exercise.
q q q q

!
?

Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications

11-50

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions

Exercise Solutions
Solutions to the exercise are provided in this section.

Task 1 – Configuring the DHCP Server
Complete the steps in this section.

Working on the sysX3 System
In this part of the exercise, use the DHCP Manager GUI utility (dhcpmgr utility) to configure a DHCP server on your subnet. Permit the network wizard to start and configure at least five hosts with the address range starting at 192.168.xxx.xxx, where xxx.xxx is provided by the instructor depending on the classroom setup. Note – Use the default configuration parameters in this task unless otherwise specified. This example uses the sys13 system to demonstrate configuring a basic DHCP server with the dhcpmgr GUI utility. To configure the DHCP server, complete the following steps: 1. 2. Start the dhcpmgr utility. Initially configure the DHCP server. # /usr/sadm/admin/bin/dhcpmgr &

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

11-51

Exercise Solutions If the system is not configured as a DHCP server or BOOTP relay, Figure 11-25 appears.

Figure 11-25 Choose Server Configuration Window Perform the following: a. Click OK. The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 1 window in Figure 11-26 appears.

Figure 11-26 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 1 Window

11-52

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions b. Select Text files, and click >. The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 2 window in Figure 11-27 appears. This example uses the default directory.

Figure 11-27 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 2 Window c. Accept the default path name, and click >.

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

11-53

Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 3 window in Figure 11-28 appears.

Figure 11-28 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 3 Window d. Select /etc/hosts, and click >.

11-54

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 4 window in Figure 11-29 appears. This example uses the defaults 1 and days.

Figure 11-29 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 4 Window e. Accept the defaults of 1, days, and Clients can renew their leases, then click >.

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

11-55

Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 5 window in Figure 11-30 appears. This example uses the default DNS information.

Figure 11-30 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 5 Window f. Accept the default DNS domain and DNS servers, and click >.

11-56

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

type a subnet mask. This example uses the 192. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Figure 11-31 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 6 Window g.1.1 11-57 . Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. Inc.0 network. and click >. Sun Services. Specify a network address by either selecting one or typing one.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 6 window in Figure 11-31 appears.

Inc.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 7 window in Figure 11-32 appears. Select Local-Area (LAN). Select Use router discovery protocol. Figure 11-32 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 7 Window h. Click >. Sun Services. 11-58 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. j.1 . This example uses the defaults of Local-Area (LAN) and Use router discovery protocol. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. i.

Accept the defaults. l. Sun Services. as shown. no entries.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 8 window in Figure 11-33 appears. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Click >.1 11-59 . Figure 11-33 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 8 Window k. This example uses the defaults of no NIS Domain and no NIS Servers. Inc. Revision A.

All Rights Reserved. Click >. Accept the default of no entries. Sun Services. n. 11-60 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . Figure 11-34 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 9 Window m. This example uses the defaults of no NIS+ domain and no NIS+ servers. as shown. Inc.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 9 window in Figure 11-34 appears. Revision A.

1 11-61 .Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 10 window in Figure 11-35 appears. Inc. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This example uses the sample information indicated previously. Sun Services. Revision A. if the information is correct. All Rights Reserved. Review the information and. Figure 11-35 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 10 Window o. click Finish.

Inc. Click Yes to proceed with address configuration. and the Start Address Wizard window in Figure 11-36 appears. the main DHCP Manager Window appears.1 . Revision A.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Manager Window closes. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Figure 11-36 Start Address Wizard Window p. 11-62 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Inc.1 11-63 . Sun Services. Perform the following: a. This example uses five addresses and a comment of net1. Revision A. Add the comment net1 in this example. (This is the comment appended to the end of each DHCP-managed IP address line added to the /etc/inet/hosts file). All Rights Reserved.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 1 window in Figure 11-37 appears. Figure 11-37 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 1 Window 3. Add at least five addresses. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. c. b. Click >. Enter 5 in the Number of IP Addresses field.

e. Figure 11-38 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 2 Window d. the Managed by Server field is set to the default. and the starting IP address must be changed to 192. Verify that Managed by Server and Starting IP Address fields display the correct information. Revision A. f. g. Sun Services.10. All Rights Reserved. This example allows client name generation and uses sys13-dhcp for the root name. In this example.168.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 2 window in Figure 11-38 appears. Inc. 11-64 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Type a name in the Root Name field.1. Select Generate Client Names. Click >.1 .

Sun Services. Revision A. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. and click >. Figure 11-39 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 3 Window h.1 11-65 .Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 3 window in Figure 11-39 appears. Verify that the address information is correct. Inc.

Sun Services.1 . Click >. 11-66 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Figure 11-40 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 4 Window i. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Use the default Configuration Macro and verify that Addresses are unusable is checked.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 4 window in Figure 11-40 appears. j. Revision A.

All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. and click >.1 11-67 . Inc. Revision A.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 5 window in Figure 11-41 appears. This example uses the default Dynamic. Select Dynamic. Figure 11-41 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 5 Window k. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Figure 11-42 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 6 Window l.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 6 window in Figure 11-42 appears. Revision A.1 . Inc. Sun Services. 11-68 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and click Finish. All Rights Reserved. Review the information. Note – You can continue without problems if one or two addresses are already in use from earlier exercises.

hme0 Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Select Exit from the File menu to close the DHCP Manager window. Log in as the root user on the DHCP client.168.10 sys13-dhcp-10 #net1 192. Working on the sysX4 System This example uses the sys14 system as the DHCP client.11 sys13-dhcp-11 #net1 192. Enable DHCP on the client. All Rights Reserved. To configure the DHCP client.168.168.1. which is hme0 in this example.12 sys13-dhcp-12 #net1 192. The command syntax used to enable the DHCP client is: # touch /etc/dhcp. Sun Services. Revision A.168. Figure 11-43 DHCP Manager Window m. complete the following steps: 1.13 sys13-dhcp-13 #net1 192.1. To view the information that the dhcpmgr utility added to the/etc/inet/hosts file. Inc.1. Create the appropriate file for the external interface. 2.1. use the grep command: # grep dhcp /etc/inet/hosts 192.168. 4.14 sys13-dhcp-14 #net1 # Task 2 – Configuring the DHCP Client Complete the steps in this section.1 11-69 .Exercise Solutions The DHCP Manager window in Figure 11-43 appears.1.

Inc. # init 6 3. Task 3 – Using the snoop Utility to View DHCP Client-Server Interaction An important part of troubleshooting DHCP issues is using the snoop utility to observe the network interaction between the server and the client. Hostname: sys13-dhcp-14 All rights reserved. Inc. Reboot the client. Edit the /etc/default/dhcpagent file. 4. stop the snoop utility by pressing the Control+C key sequence. Sun Services. and remove the # in front of the RELEASE_ON_SIGTERM=yes parameter. and watch the system console as the system boots.snp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) 2.interface file exists for the interface being configured using DHCP. After the DHCP client has booted. Configure the /etc/default/dhcpagent file on the DHCP client so that it releases its IP address if it is rebooted or is shut down.Exercise Solutions Note – Verify that the /etc/hostname. To view DHCP client-server interaction. 11-70 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.snp file. You should see something similar to the following: SunOS Release 5. the interface is not plumbed. Use is subject to license terms. Start the snoop utility on any system on the subnet other than the DHCP client.10 Version Generic 64-bit Copyright 1983-2005 Sun Microsystems. Reboot the DHCP client system. Be sure to use the snoop utility on an interface that is on the same subnet as the DHCP client. # snoop -d hme0 -o /tmp/dhcp-snoop. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. 3.1 . otherwise. complete the following steps: 1. This is a requirement for a successful DHCP configuration of the client. Have the snoop utility write to the /tmp/dhcp-snoop. which is hme0 in this example.

.edu DHCP/BOOTP DHCPRELEASE 0.1.0 .edu -> 192.01810 0.IP Header ----IP: IP: Version = 4 IP: Header length = 20 bytes IP: Type of service = 0x00 IP: xxx. in the trace.. Use the snoop utility to convert the trace data to ASCII text.. All Rights Reserved.txt 6.edu -> 192.. 0. .00432 OLD-BROADCAST -> BROADCAST DHCP/BOOTP DHCPDISCOVER sys13.one..one. 1 2 . DHCPOFFER.00656 0..168. Use the view utility to view the trace data in the /tmp/dhcp-snoop...168. such as DHCPDISCOVER. 192.83990 ETHER: Packet size = 342 bytes ETHER: Destination = 0:3:ba:68:45:39.1 -> 192.1.. and the DHCP messages.txt file for viewing with any text editor that provides easy navigation and searching of the data.1.255 RIP R (3 destinations) 1.1. View the summary of the captured information. Inc.one.3).168.. # snoop -v -i /tmp/dhcp-snoop. and DHCPACK.1. Revision A.1. = 0 (precedence) IP: . 192.. = normal throughput IP: .79455 0. .1.14 ? 192..14 ? 5.14.1... # snoop -i /tmp/dhcp-snoop.. 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 . size = 52 bytes OLD-BROADCAST -> BROADCAST DHCP/BOOTP DHCPREQUEST sys13..00254 1..168..96445 192. the source and destination IP addresses.. .14.168.. 24 . Sun Services.snp > /tmp/dhcp-snoop. Observe the ETHER destination addresses. .14 ICMP Echo request (ID: 4 Sequence number: 0) sys13.02589 fe80::203:baff:fe6b:5e06 -> ff02::9 RIPng R (6 destinations) 1..14 -> sys13.0.. and output that text to the /tmp/dhcp-snoop.txt file. DHCPRELEASE: ETHER: ----.168. DHCPREQUEST.1.Exercise Solutions 4..168.14 DHCP/BOOTP DHCPACK OLD-BROADCAST -> (broadcast) ARP C Who is 192. ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: IP: ----. = normal reliability Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.edu -> 192.14 -> (broadcast) ARP C Who is 192.168.168.. Look for messages.1 11-71 .one.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 24 arrived at 9:31:56. = normal delay IP: . ETHER: Source = 0:3:ba:68:44:d3.168.37637 0.51914 192.00096 1..1.snp | more 0.168.14 DHCP/BOOTP DHCPOFFER ? -> (multicast) ETHER Type=0001 (LLC/802..61469 0.1..

All Rights Reserved..1.0.0 = no ECN congestion experienced Total length = 328 bytes Identification = 55877 Flags = 0x4 .Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ----Hardware address type (htype) = 1 (Ethernet (10Mb)) Hardware address length (hlen) = 6 octets Relay agent hops = 0 Transaction ID = 0x6fdf1bbf Time since boot = 0 seconds Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 192.0..0..0.. . Inc.. Revision A. Sun Services.168....0 Client hardware address (chaddr) = 00:03:BA:68:44:D3 ----.0 Relay agent address (giaddr) = 0.1.1 .(Options) field options ----Message type = DHCPRELEASE Error Message = DHCP agent is exiting DHCP Server Identifier = 192.. 192. .edu No options ----.168..3. .one.14 Your client address (yiaddr) = 0.0 Next server address (siaddr) = 0.1. = not ECN capable transport . .14 Destination address = 192.3 DHCPDISCOVER: 11-72 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.0...0.UDP Header ----Source port = 68 Destination port = 67 (BOOTPS) Length = 308 Checksum = B341 ----.. = do not fragment ..0..14. = last fragment Fragment offset = 0 bytes Time to live = 255 seconds/hops Protocol = 17 (UDP) Header checksum = 1cfd Source address = 192.168.. sys13.Exercise Solutions IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: UDP: UDP: UDP: UDP: UDP: UDP: UDP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: .0.168.1.1..168.

Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 105 arrived at 9:34:5..95251 ETHER: Packet size = 342 bytes ETHER: Destination = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.255.....0.0. . .0..0. OLD-BROADCAST IP: Destination address = 255.. = do not fragment IP: .. = not ECN capable transport IP: . = normal reliability IP: . .0.IP Header ----IP: IP: Version = 4 IP: Header length = 20 bytes IP: Type of service = 0x00 IP: xxx... BROADCAST IP: No options IP: UDP: ----. Sun Services..Exercise Solutions ETHER: ----. .. .. All Rights Reserved. = last fragment IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP) IP: Header checksum = 7aa1 IP: Source address = 0. 0. ........255... = normal delay IP: .UDP Header ----UDP: UDP: Source port = 68 UDP: Destination port = 67 (BOOTPS) UDP: Length = 308 UDP: Checksum = E7EC UDP: DHCP: ----.0 .255. Inc... ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: IP: ----...0 = no ECN congestion experienced IP: Total length = 328 bytes IP: Identification = 4 IP: Flags = 0x4 IP: .1 11-73 .....0..1. = normal throughput IP: . (broadcast) ETHER: Source = 0:3:ba:68:44:d3.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ----DHCP: DHCP: Hardware address type (htype) = 1 (Ethernet (10Mb)) DHCP: Hardware address length (hlen) = 6 octets DHCP: Relay agent hops = 0 DHCP: Transaction ID = 0x926aa722 DHCP: Time since boot = 48 seconds Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems... = 0 (precedence) IP: .. Revision A.

0.0 Client hardware address (chaddr) = 00:03:BA:68:44:D3 ----.0 Your client address (yiaddr) = 0. Inc.0.0.(Options) field options ----Message type = DHCPDISCOVER Maximum DHCP Message Size = 1472 bytes IP Address Lease Time = -1 seconds Client Class Identifier = "SUNW.Exercise Solutions DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 0.0.0 Next server address (siaddr) = 0.UltraAX-i2" Requested Options: 1 (Subnet Mask) 3 (Router) 6 (DNS Servers) 12 (Client Hostname) 15 (DNS Domain Name) 28 (Broadcast Address) 43 (Vendor Specific Options) DHCPOFFER: 11-74 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0.0.0 Relay agent address (giaddr) = 0. Revision A.1 .0. Sun Services.0. All Rights Reserved.

Exercise Solutions ETHER: ----- Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 107 arrived at 9:34:6.96163 ETHER: Packet size = 359 bytes ETHER: Destination = 0:3:ba:68:44:d3, ETHER: Source = 0:3:ba:68:45:39, ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: IP: ----- IP Header ----IP: IP: Version = 4 IP: Header length = 20 bytes IP: Type of service = 0x00 IP: xxx. .... = 0 (precedence) IP: ...0 .... = normal delay IP: .... 0... = normal throughput IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability IP: .... ..0. = not ECN capable transport IP: .... ...0 = no ECN congestion experienced IP: Total length = 345 bytes IP: Identification = 42935 IP: Flags = 0x4 IP: .1.. .... = do not fragment IP: ..0. .... = last fragment IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP) IP: Header checksum = 4f7a IP: Source address = 192.168.1.3, sys13.one.edu IP: Destination address = 192.168.1.14, 192.168.1.14 IP: No options IP: UDP: ----- UDP Header ----UDP: UDP: Source port = 67 UDP: Destination port = 68 (BOOTPC) UDP: Length = 325 UDP: Checksum = 84B8 UDP: DHCP: ----- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ----DHCP: DHCP: Hardware address type (htype) = 1 (Ethernet (10Mb)) DHCP: Hardware address length (hlen) = 6 octets DHCP: Relay agent hops = 0 DHCP: Transaction ID = 0x926aa722 DHCP: Time since boot = 48 seconds

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

11-75

Exercise Solutions DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Your client address (yiaddr) = 192.168.1.14 Next server address (siaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Relay agent address (giaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Client hardware address (chaddr) = 00:03:BA:68:44:D3 ----- (Options) field options ----Message type = DHCPOFFER DHCP Server Identifier = 192.168.1.3 UTC Time Offset = -25200 seconds RFC868 Time Servers at = 192.168.1.3 IP Address Lease Time = 86400 seconds DNS Domain Name = one.edu DNS Servers at = 192.168.1.2 DNS Servers at = 192.168.1.3 Broadcast Address = 192.168.1.255 Perform Router Discovery Flag flag = 0x1 Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.0 Client Hostname = sys13-dhcp-14

DHCPREQUEST:

11-76

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions ETHER: ----- Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 109 arrived at 9:34:8.13256 ETHER: Packet size = 342 bytes ETHER: Destination = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, (broadcast) ETHER: Source = 0:3:ba:68:44:d3, ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: IP: ----- IP Header ----IP: IP: Version = 4 IP: Header length = 20 bytes IP: Type of service = 0x00 IP: xxx. .... = 0 (precedence) IP: ...0 .... = normal delay IP: .... 0... = normal throughput IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability IP: .... ..0. = not ECN capable transport IP: .... ...0 = no ECN congestion experienced IP: Total length = 328 bytes IP: Identification = 5 IP: Flags = 0x4 IP: .1.. .... = do not fragment IP: ..0. .... = last fragment IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP) IP: Header checksum = 7aa0 IP: Source address = 0.0.0.0, OLD-BROADCAST IP: Destination address = 255.255.255.255, BROADCAST IP: No options IP: UDP: ----- UDP Header ----UDP: UDP: Source port = 68 UDP: Destination port = 67 (BOOTPS) UDP: Length = 308 UDP: Checksum = 9B2C UDP: DHCP: ----- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ----DHCP: DHCP: Hardware address type (htype) = 1 (Ethernet (10Mb)) DHCP: Hardware address length (hlen) = 6 octets DHCP: Relay agent hops = 0 DHCP: Transaction ID = 0x21a95f6 DHCP: Time since boot = 48 seconds

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

11-77

Exercise Solutions DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Your client address (yiaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Next server address (siaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Relay agent address (giaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Client hardware address (chaddr) = 00:03:BA:68:44:D3 ----- (Options) field options ----Message type = DHCPREQUEST IP Address Lease Time = 86400 seconds Maximum DHCP Message Size = 1472 bytes Requested IP Address = 192.168.1.14 DHCP Server Identifier = 192.168.1.3 Client Class Identifier = "SUNW.UltraAX-i2" Requested Options: 1 (Subnet Mask) 3 (Router) 6 (DNS Servers) 12 (Client Hostname) 15 (DNS Domain Name) 28 (Broadcast Address) 43 (Vendor Specific Options)

DHCPACK:

11-78

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions ETHER: ----- Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 110 arrived at 9:34:8.15066 ETHER: Packet size = 359 bytes ETHER: Destination = 0:3:ba:68:44:d3, ETHER: Source = 0:3:ba:68:45:39, ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: IP: ----- IP Header ----IP: IP: Version = 4 IP: Header length = 20 bytes IP: Type of service = 0x00 IP: xxx. .... = 0 (precedence) IP: ...0 .... = normal delay IP: .... 0... = normal throughput IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability IP: .... ..0. = not ECN capable transport IP: .... ...0 = no ECN congestion experienced IP: Total length = 345 bytes IP: Identification = 44125 IP: Flags = 0x4 IP: .1.. .... = do not fragment IP: ..0. .... = last fragment IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP) IP: Header checksum = 4ad4 IP: Source address = 192.168.1.3, sys13.one.edu IP: Destination address = 192.168.1.14, 192.168.1.14 IP: No options IP: UDP: ----- UDP Header ----UDP: UDP: Source port = 67 UDP: Destination port = 68 (BOOTPC) UDP: Length = 325 UDP: Checksum = 84B8 UDP: DHCP: ----- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ----DHCP: DHCP: Hardware address type (htype) = 1 (Ethernet (10Mb)) DHCP: Hardware address length (hlen) = 6 octets DHCP: Relay agent hops = 0 DHCP: Transaction ID = 0x21a95f6 DHCP: Time since boot = 48 seconds

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

11-79

Exercise Solutions DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Your client address (yiaddr) = 192.168.1.14 Next server address (siaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Relay agent address (giaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Client hardware address (chaddr) = 00:03:BA:68:44:D3 ----- (Options) field options ----Message type = DHCPACK DHCP Server Identifier = 192.168.1.3 UTC Time Offset = -25200 seconds RFC868 Time Servers at = 192.168.1.3 IP Address Lease Time = 86400 seconds DNS Domain Name = one.edu DNS Servers at = 192.168.1.2 DNS Servers at = 192.168.1.3 Broadcast Address = 192.168.1.255 Perform Router Discovery Flag flag = 0x1 Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.0 Client Hostname = sys13-dhcp-14 7. # rm /etc/dhcp.* # init 6 Prevent the client system from continuing to act as a DHCP by removing the /etc/dhcp.* files and rebooting the system.

11-80

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Module 12

Configuring NTP
Objectives
This module introduces how to configure the Network Time Protocol (NTP). This module also introduces NTP basics, including how computers keep time, the uses of NTP, and NTP terms. This module also describes how to configure an NTP server and an NTP client. In addition, this module describes how to troubleshoot NTP, including how to view logs and how to use the snoop utility. Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
q q q q

Identify NTP basics Configure an NTP server Configure an NTP client Troubleshoot NTP

The course map in Figure 12-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal.

Configuring and Managing Network Applications
Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall

Configuring DNS

Configuring DHCP Figure 12-1 Course Map

Configuring NTP

12-1
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Identifying NTP Basics

Identifying NTP Basics
Before you configure NTP, you must be aware of some basic computer clock and NTP-related concepts.

How Computers Keep Time
This section describes how computers keep time. This is a high-level introduction and is not meant to be all inclusive. When the system is not running the Solaris OS, the time-of-day chip maintains basic 24-hour time. This time is copied into a 64-bit counter used by the kernel to maintain 24-hour time for a running system. Sun systems use a combination of an oscillator and a 64-bit counter to keep track of time. A specific number of oscillations cause an interrupt that, if processed, will cause the counter to increment. The Sun system central processing units (CPUs) generate the regular interrupts. By default, 100 interrupts are generated per second. For the system’s counter to increment, the CPUs interrupt must be processed by the kernel. Each interrupt that gets processed is known as a clock tick. However, not all interrupts get processed. This is often due to high system loads and higher priority tasks that take precedence within the kernel. Therefore, gradually, a clock will fall slightly behind because not all time interrupts are processed. However, the controller boards in Sun FIre™ 12k to 25k high-end servers use a real-time clock, not the normal 100 interrupts per second method. This makes them excellent NTP servers, since the clock does not drift as it does on a regular server or workstation. However, making them an NTP client can cause issues with the SMS software. Note – The 32-bit time counter would reach its limit in the year 2038. The 64-bit time counter was started at 0 at midnight, January 1, 1970 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The counter will reach its limit in about 290 million years. Variation in the frequency of the oscillator and delays to the kernel interrupt routine cause clock drifts. NTP disciplines the system clock frequency and time, producing more accurate timing mechanisms for the system.

12-2

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Identifying NTP Basics

Uses of NTP
Many network applications need synchronized clocks to properly function. For example:
q

Encryption – This application often uses time as a component of encryption keys. Network management – This application uses time to determine exactly when something took place. Logging – The syslog facility uses time to display system events. File systems – Applications time stamp files when they are created or modified. Many backup applications are configured to use time as a criteria for determining backups, so that clock synchronization between the backup server and other systems is important. Cluster Nodes – Individual nodes in a Sun Cluster configuration use NTP to ensure that they all agree on the time.

q

q q

q

NTP Terms
Several terms are used when describing time-related topics. These terms are described in Table 12-1. Table 12-1 NTP Terms Term Reference clock Strata Description A clock that provides current time by accurately following a time standard, such as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). NTP servers are arranged in a hierarchy of levels, called strata. A stratum-1 server is more accurate than a stratum-10 server. There are 16 strata. A highly available NTP server that has its own reference clock. The smallest increment in time that a clock offers. For example, a wristwatch usually has a resolution of one second. The smallest increase in time that a computer program can use.

Stratum-1 server Resolution

Precision

Configuring NTP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

12-3

Identifying NTP Basics Table 12-1 NTP Terms (Continued) Term Jitter Accuracy Reliability Wander Drift file Description The difference of the differences experienced when repeatedly measuring time. How close a clock follows an official time reference, such as UTC. The length of time that a clock can remain accurate within a specified range. All clocks suffer from frequency variations. This variation is called wander. A file that contains the frequency offset of the local system’s clock oscillator. Drift file contents can be used by protocols, like NTP, to cause a system’s clock to be more accurate. The default location for Sun’s NTP drift file is /var/ntp/ntp.drift. The NTP daemon. A file that causes the xntpd daemon to start in either the client or the server mode and provides configuration statements that control the behavior of the xntpd daemon. You can use the fudge command in the ntp.conf file as a keyword to configure reference clocks in special ways, such as defining calibration constants to force a time offset to a particular external-time standard. A general term used for various actions carried out by some protocol, which helps keep a local clock better synchronized to an official time source, such as UTC.

xntpd The ntp.conf file

The fudge command

Discipline

12-4

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Configuring an NTP Server

Configuring an NTP Server
The /etc/inet/ntp.server file is a template for configuring an NTP server. Copy this file to /etc/inet/ntp.conf, and edit it to meet your network’s requirements. When viewing contents of the /etc/inet/ntp.server file, remember that an NTP server is also an NTP client. The xntpd daemon is started at system boot if the /etc/inet/ntp.conf file exists and the NTP service is enabled by the SMF. The xntpd daemon starts in either the client or the server mode, depending on the contents of the ntp.conf file. The following steps describe the behavior of the xntpd daemon: 1. Broadcast NTP servers advertise every 64 seconds, by means of a multicast address (224.0.1.1), that they are NTP servers. Any NTP client that is not configured with the unicast address of an NTP server multicasts to this same address when the xntpd daemon is started. View the line that causes the system to act as an NTP server by typing the following:

# grep broadcast /etc/inet/ntp.server broadcast 224.0.1.1 ttl 4 # 2. 3. Local NTP servers answer the multicast advertisements. The NTP client sends time request packets to all of the NTP servers by using the servers’ unicast addresses. Included in the time request packet is the client’s local time. The NTP server replies by inserting UTC time into the packet and then returns the packet to the client. The client compares its original request time with its own time when it receives the response from the server. This enables the client to determine how long the packet was in transit on the network. The client uses the UTC time value from the NTP server after it receives several responses from the NTP server. It can take up to five minutes for an NTP client to synchronize with an NTP server.

4. 5.

6.

Configuring NTP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

12-5

Configuring an NTP Server Table 12-2 shows the parts of an NTP server’s configuration file and their descriptions. Table 12-2 NTP Configuration File Parts Part server 127.127.1.0 prefer Description The IP address of the preferred NTP server. In this case, the loopback network is used, indicating the use of a local clock. The server keyword indicates an IP address of an NTP server from which time will be received. If the system is a stratum-1 server, then you use X in the 127.127.X.0 syntax to identify a reference clock source. If X is set to 1, the system uses its local clock as the reference clock source. If the server is a stratum-2 (or higher), this entry is an IP address of another NTP server to contact for time information. The prefer keyword means that if multiple systems of the same strata are used to getting clock information, a preferred server is the one that is always used when performing calculations. The fudge entry is available to change (fudge) the stratum that the server advertises. The address the server uses to advertise to the network along with the TTL value to use in IP datagrams. The configuration entry that enables authentication and the monitoring facility. The location of the drift file. The location of NTP statistics. The conventional name of the key file used for authentication. The encryption identifier. (Refer to RFC 1305 for more information.) The key identifier. (Refer to RFC 1305 for more information.)

fudge 127.127.1.0 stratum 0 broadcast 224.0.1.1 ttl 4

enable auth monitor driftfile /var/ntp/ntp.drift statsdir /var/ntp/ntpstats/ keys /etc/inet/ntp.keys trustedkey 0 controlkey 0

Note – Different types of facilities, such as loopstats or clockstats, can also be enabled (refer to the xntpd man page for more details).

12-6

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

and change the server IP address to 127. but should not.1 12-7 . 0 Aug 16 11:06 /var/ntp/ntp. Inc.drift # ls -al /var/ntp/ntp. 3.conf file for editing.drift -rw-r--r-1 root root # Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 fudge 127.Configuring an NTP Server Using an Undisciplined Local Clock NTP servers can. Sun Services.conf file. where the number 1 represents the undisciplined local clock.server file to the /etc/inet/ntp. use their own undisciplined local clock as an official. To use an undisciplined local clock. 4. All Rights Reserved. Copy the /etc/inet/ntp.1.1.127. # cp /etc/inet/ntp.127. reliable time source.XType.XType.0 prefer # fudge 127.drift entry in the /etc/inet/ntp.127.0 stratum 0 # vi /etc/inet/ntp.XType.0 stratum 0 to: server 127. Verify that the file exists.127. complete the following steps: 1. Revision A.server file.conf file.server /etc/inet/ntp. Open the /etc/inet/ntp. Change: server 127. # touch /var/ntp/ntp.conf Note – Choices for XType are listed in the comments of the /etc/inet/ntp.0. Comment out the fudge keyword because special configuration is not needed for the local reference clock. Create a drift file as specified by the driftfile /var/ntp/ntp.drift # Note – The xntpd daemon creates the contents of the drift file dynamically.127.conf # 2.

NTP detects this. until they establish their correct stratum level.1 NTP broadcast sys11 -> 224. # 6. Verify that the NTP daemon is running. Use the snoop utility to view NTP server multicast advertisements.0.0.0. the fudge keyword can be used to alter this behavior. NTP servers and clients that are in the process of synchronization have a stratum level of 0 (zero) initially.98017) 11:12:56. Sun Services. This is due to the NTP polling value of 6. When a local clock is configured to act as an accurate source of time.98017) 11:14:00.1.0. However. The fudge configuration entry can use the stratum option to override the stratum level sent out with the NTP server’s time advertisements.conf file.98016) Note – Notice the 64-second interval between NTP advertisements sent out. Revision A.1 .1 NTP broadcast sys11 -> 224. Configure the Stratum You can configure the stratum of an NTP server manually by editing the fudge entry in the /etc/inet/ntp. 26 is 64. The polling value can be seen by using the snoop -v command. Inc. [st=1] [st=1] [st=1] [st=1] (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 11:11:52.1. # svcadm -v enable svc:/network/ntp network/ntp enabled. 12-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. This is useful when you do not have access to an external NTP server and you have to synchronize with another system manually. ... All Rights Reserved. # snoop | grep -i ntp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) sys11 -> 224.Configuring an NTP Server 5.1. # pgrep -lf ntp 1585 /usr/lib/inet/xntpd # 7. Systems that use their own clock as a time source advertise themselves as a stratum-4 server by default.1 NTP broadcast sys11 -> 224.98016) 11:15:04.. Start the NTP daemon by using the svcadm command.1. Note – The snoop utility output includes the stratum level of the server.1 NTP broadcast .

conf # touch /var/ntp/ntp.127.XType.drift entry in the /etc/inet/ntp. Change: server 127.udel.conf file for editing.conf file.conf file.conf # 2.127.Configuring an NTP Server Using External NTP Reference Servers Determine which NTP servers are reachable by your NTP server. Create a drift file as specified by the driftfile /var/ntp/ntp. Refer to http://www. complete the following steps: 1.drift # ls -al /var/ntp/ntp. Verify that the file exists.eecis. Revision A. and change the server entry. Copy the /etc/inet/ntp. Open the /etc/inet/ntp. Sun Services. 0 Aug 16 14:41 /var/ntp/ntp.1 12-9 .XType.drift # 4.127.0 stratum 0 3.edu/~mills/ntp/servers. # cp /etc/inet/ntp.server /etc/inet/ntp.server file to the /etc/inet/ntp. To use external NTP reference servers. # vi /etc/inet/ntp. Inc. Comment out the fudge keyword because special configuration is not needed for an external reference clock.0 fudge 127.html for links to lists of public NTP servers.XType.drift -rw-r--r-1 root root # Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 stratum 0 to: server external-time-server-a server external-time-server-b server external-time-server-c # fudge 127. All Rights Reserved. You must notify the NTP server’s administrators of your intention to use their NTP server as a reference server so that the administrator can properly size NTP servers for the additional NTP load.

6. Managing Daemons By default. When time synchronization is established.error] 0 makes a poor control keyid . # xntpdc xntpdc> ? Commands available: addpeer addrefclock broadcast clkbug ctlstats debug dmpeers enable host hostnames keytype leapinfo monlist passwd addserver clockstat delay exit iostats listpeers peers addtrap clrtrap delrestrict fudge kerninfo loopinfo preset authinfo controlkey disable help keyid memstats pstats 12-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # svcadm -v svc:/enable network/ntp network/ntp enabled. 1024 seconds. For example: # tail -f /var/adm/messages Aug 16 14:25:37 sys11 xntpd[1614]: [ID 450285 daemon. All Rights Reserved. the polling interval increases to 17 minutes and 4 seconds (that is. You can view statistical information interactively or on the command-line..Configuring an NTP Server 5. To view the logged information in pseudo real-time..conf file use a 64-second polling interval initially. Use the ? command to view a list of commands available inside xntpdc. Sun Services. The xntpdc command provides an extensive view of the state of the xntpd daemon. Start the NTP daemon by using the svcadm command. Check to see if the NTP daemon is running. Inc. You can query or configure a running xntpd daemon by using the xntpdc utility. which was introduced in the Solaris 8 OS. or 210 seconds). Revision A. # pgrep -lf ntp 1595 /usr/lib/inet/xntpd # Note – NTP servers and client that are synchronizing with specific servers defined in the /etc/inet/ntp. all NTP messages are sent to the syslog facility. use the tail command with the follow (-f) option.1 .

perform the command: # svcadm -v enable svc:/network/ntp network/ntp enabled.175 auth monitor pll stats kernel_sync -16. Inc. # Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. You can stop the service manually by using the svcadm command.168.2ce5f000 Tue. the sysinfo command displays information about the current configuration: xntpdc> sysinfo system peer: system peer mode: leap indicator: stratum: precision: root distance: root dispersion: reference ID: reference time: system flags: frequency: stability: broadcastdelay: authdelay: xntpdc> quit # instructor client 00 2 -14 0. For example.003906 s 0. All Rights Reserved.000 ppm 38.345 ppm 0.Configuring an NTP Server quit restrict timerstats untrustedkey xntpdc> readkeys showpeer traps version requestkey sysinfo trustedkey reset sysstats unconfig reslist timeout unrestrict The commands can be used to display and configure the NTP setup.31441 s [192. Sun Services.00081 s 0. # To start the daemon.30] c4cc99b1. perform the command: # svcadm -v disable svc:/network/ntp network/ntp disabled. Aug 17 2004 15:50:25.30. To stop the daemon.conf file exists and the NTP service was enabled by SMF.000122 s The NTP service is started automatically at boot time if the /etc/inet/ntp. Revision A.1 12-11 .

1. 1 u 29 64 377 0.00 0.0 16 64 0 0.69 0. Sun Services. For example: # ntpq ntpq> peers remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset disp ============================================================================== *instructor .1 . Revision A.000 0.0 ntpq> exit # 12-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0.06 224.1 0.0.0.Configuring an NTP Server Determining NTP Peers The ntpq utility is the standard NTP query program.000 16000.LCL. All Rights Reserved. Use the ntpq utility to identify NTP peers on the network. Inc.

1. Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.client /etc/inet/ntp. as it does with NTP servers.d/xntpd start # Check to determine if the NTP daemon is running.0.Configuring an NTP Client Configuring an NTP Client Configuration of an NTP client also requires the /etc/inet/ntp. Inc. # pgrep -lf ntp 1680 /usr/sbin/ntpdate -s -m 224.1. # tail -1 /etc/inet/ntp. /lib/svc/method/xntp.1 Starting the NTP Client Daemon To start the NTP client daemon. Revision A. Start the NTP daemon by using the svcadm command. # The SMF NTP method.1 12-13 . After the ntpdate command is executed. uses the ntpdate command to synchronize the client’s clock to UTC.0.client multicastclient 224. # svcadm -v enable svc:/network/ntp network/ntp enabled.conf file to be created.client file to the /etc/inet/ntp. perform the following: 1. # cp /etc/inet/ntp.1 1679 /sbin/sh /etc/init.client file contains only one entry.conf file. which configures the client to use the default multicast address to solicit for servers. Sun Services. # pgrep -lf ntp # 2. All Rights Reserved. the xntpd daemon is started by the SMF method to maintain synchronization. Establishing Basic Configuration To initialize the file configuration.conf # The /etc/inet/ntp.d/xntpd start 1676 /sbin/sh /etc/init. complete the following step: Copy the /etc/inet/ntp.

Sun Services. The ntpdate command might perform this initial setting by means of a step or a slew. # svcadm -v disable network/ntp network/ntp disabled. Revision A. Stopping the NTP Client Daemon Stop the NTP client daemon by using the svcadm command. Inc.Configuring an NTP Client Note – The ntpdate command runs automatically to gather NTP inputs and to set the initial time on this system. Refer to the ntpdate(1M) man page for further details. All Rights Reserved.1 . # pgrep -lf ntp # 12-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # The xntpd daemon is no longer running.

est. to troubleshoot NTP. The NTP servers respond with the correct time.notice] trying ttl 1 for multicast server synchronisation Aug 17 15:21:46 sys11 ntpdate[1680]: [ID 558725 daemon. All Rights Reserved. The system sends out its periodic (every 64 seconds) NTP requests with the incorrect time.Troubleshooting NTP Troubleshooting NTP Use a combination of tools. Viewing Messages Log messages result from setting the time forward on the system. Sun Services.30.93 e+sun 03/08/29 16:23:05 (1. drift correction 0.notice] adjust tim e server 192. such as viewing system error logs and using the snoop utility.00000 # Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.4) Aug 17 15:22:48 sys11 xntpd[1676]: [ID 301315 daemon.168.notice] using kernel phase-lock loop 0041.notice] no server suitable for synchronisation found yet Aug 17 15:21:46 sys11 ntpdate[1680]: [ID 147394 daemon. Inc.1 12-15 . After receiving multiple updates from the NTP servers. the client changes its time and writes a message to the /var/adm/messages file. hz = 100 Aug 17 15:22:48 sys11 xntpd[1676]: [ID 266339 daemon.004158 sec Aug 17 15:22:48 sys11 xntpd[1676]: [ID 702911 daemon. tvu_maxslew = 495. # tail -50 /var/adm/messages | grep -i ntp Aug 17 15:21:46 sys11 ntpdate[1680]: [ID 318594 daemon.notice] tickadj = 5. Revision A.notice] xntpd 3-5.30 offset 0. tick = 10000.

NTP server [st=1] (2004-08-17 15:24:17.98017) 11:12:56.1 NTP broadcast [st=1] [st=1] [st=1] [st=1] (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 11:11:52.Troubleshooting NTP Using the snoop Utility To view NTP server multicast advertisements. Eventually.1 NTP broadcast -> 224.1 .1 NTP broadcast -> 224.98017) 11:14:00. NTP client [st=0] (2004-08-17 15:24:17. It sets the correct stratum level after synchronization is established.0. Revision A.1. # snoop port Using device sys11 sys11 sys11 sys11 <Control>-C# ntp /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) -> 224. All Rights Reserved. 2. sys11 -> sys12 sys12 -> sys11 sys12 -> sys11 4.0.32955) Note that the client is at stratum 0 initially.0.1. as follows: 1.98016) Clients synchronize with servers using unicast packets. Information about the actions taken by the NTP client is sent to the syslog facility for proper processing. based on NTP time advertisements received from one or more NTP servers.1.0. The NTP client sends a message to an NTP server with its idea of the local time. sys11 -> sys12 12-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 NTP broadcast -> 224. The client then takes action to change its own time.98016) 11:15:04. use the snoop utility. the NTP client acknowledges that its time is incorrect.1. Inc. The NTP server responds with the correct time.32958) server [st=1] (2004-08-17 15:25:21.32834) This exchange between the NTP server and the NTP client repeats many times. 3.32839) The NTP server responds again with the correct time. Sun Services. NTP NTP client [st=0] (2004-08-17 15:25:21.

1 12-17 . you configure NTP. The instructor’s system must be configured as a stratum-0 server even though the system might be using its local clock. Your NTP server uses the instructor system as an external NTP server. This configuration must be completed at least five minutes before this exercise starts so that the NTP server has an opportunity to initialize itself properly.Exercise: Configuring NTP Exercise: Configuring NTP In this exercise. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. Inc. Task Summary In this exercise. All Rights Reserved. it broadcasts NTP updates to your local subnet. Sun Services. Revision A. After the NTP server is configured. you configure an NTP server and an NTP client on your subnet. Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Team up with other students in your subnet group so that you can experience most aspects of NTP configuration.

Edit the NTP configuration file. perform the following: 1. Create a drift file as specified by the drift file entry in the configuration file. Inc. Revision A. Be sure not to let snoop run continually). In another window. Copy and rename the NTP configuration template in preparation for specifying configurations in that file the next time the NTP service is enabled.Exercise: Configuring NTP Tasks Your first task is to configure your subnet’s router as an NTP server. Working on Your Subnet Group’s Router To configure your subnet’s router as an NTP server. Write the commands that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 2. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 5. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 3. Write the command that you use. Start the snoop utility on your router system’s to observe NTP traffic between the router and the instructor system. comment out the fudge and keys entries and modify the broadcast entry. and write the output of the command: _____________________________________________________________ 4. Verify that your router is receiving NTP updates from the instructor system. All Rights Reserved. (Either use the -c 1 option to the snoop command so that only one NTP broadcast packet is captured or remember to terminate the snoop session when you are finished with this step. 12-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and modify the server entry so that your system looks to the instructor system for NTP updates.1 . Ensure that the instructor system is your preferred server. While you edit the file. Sun Services. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 6. determine if the NTP daemon is running on your system.

Use the snoop utility to verify that your system is receiving the NTP broadcasts from your subnet’s NTP server. After you start the NTP service in the next step. When you are finished. When you are finished. Inc. Start the NTP daemon. Revision A. Sun Services. Start a snoop session on the appropriate interface on the client. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 9. All Rights Reserved. Copy and rename the NTP client configuration template to specify the configuation of the NTP service when it is enabled. continue as follows: 8.Exercise: Configuring NTP 7. In the window running the snoop trace on the NTP client. and view the NTP transactions that can be seen on the snoop trace that is running. Determine if the NTP daemon is running. and write your answer: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 11. Write the commands that you use: _________________________________________________ Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 10. Working on a Non-Router System To configure an NTP client on remaining systems on your subnet. Write the command that you use. be prepared to examine the trace carefully.1 12-19 . terminate the snoop session. Watch the transactions for a few minutes to see your system’s time becoming synchronized with the instructor’s stratum-0 NTP server. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Your second task is to configure an NTP client on any of the remaining systems on your subnet. terminate the snoop session.

Examine the snoop trace and locate the part of the snoop trace where the client time changed to match the server’s time. Revision A. 12-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. (Hint: Use X-Off (Control+S key sequence) to stop the snoop trace from scrolling and use X-On (Control+Q key sequence) to enable scrolling again. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.Exercise: Configuring NTP 12.1 . Write the commands that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 13. Start the NTP daemon and verify that it is running.

Inc. Sun Services.1 12-21 .Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. issues. Revision A.

ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP. Be sure not to let snoop run continually).1.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.BROADCAST.RUNNING.30. Revision A.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to this exercise are provided in the following section.LOOPBACK.IPv4.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 lo0: flags=2000849<UP.0.MULTICAST.RUNNING.RUNNING.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Working on Your Subnet Group’s Router To configure your subnet’s router as an NTP server.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.30.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0:1: flags=2180841<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP. (Either use the -c 1 option to the snoop command so that only one NTP broadcast packet is captured or remember to terminate the snoop session when you are finished with this step.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.168.BROADCAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 2000::30:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 qfe0:2: flags=2180841<UP.168. Verify that your router is receiving NTP updates from the instructor system.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.ROUTER.RUNNING. determine which interface is on the instructor system’s 192. Write the commands that you use: First.ADDRCONF.RUNNING. Inc.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 qfe0: flags=2100841<UP.ROUTER. Task Solutions Your first task is to configure your subnet’s router as an NTP server. All Rights Reserved.RUNNING.MULTICAST. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.RUNNING.168.ROUTER.MULTICAST. Sun Services.RUNNING.168.MULTICAST.30.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 fec0::30:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 2 2 3 3 12-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 network.MULTICAST.168.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF. perform the following: 1.ADDRCONF.1 .1.ROUTER.0.ROUTER.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.LOOPBACK.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP.ROUTER.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.

Edit the NTP configuration file. comment out the fudge and keys entries and modify the broadcast entry. Write the command that you use: Copy the /etc/inet/ntp.edu -> 192.168. 2.conf Change the server and fudge entries to be similar to the following: server 192.127.30. While you edit the file. Copy and rename the NTP configuration template in preparation for specifying configurations in that file for the next time the NTP service is enable.conf file. Revision A.0 stratum 0 Change the keys entries to be similar to the following: #keys /etc/inet/ntp. # vi /etc/inet/ntp.30 prefer # fudge 127.conf 3. Write the command that you use: # touch /var/ntp/ntp.1 12-23 . Create a drift file as specified by the drift file entry in the configuration file.Exercise Solutions Use a combination of the snoop and grep utilities to look for NTP updates on the interface (qfe0) closest to the instructor system as follows: # snoop -d qfe0 -c 1 port ntp Using device /dev/qfe (promiscuous mode) instructor.83034) 1 packets captured # broadcast [st=1] You can continue to configure your system as an NTP server because it is receiving NTP updates from the instructor system that is acting as a stratum-0 server.XType. Sun Services.168. Edit the /etc/inet/ntp. Inc.keys #trustedkey 0 #requestkey 0 #controlkey 0 Change the broadcast entry to be similar to the following: broadcast 192.conf file. # cp /etc/inet/ntp.server file to the /etc/inet/ntp.255 NTP (2004-11-05 09:41:20.drift Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.1.server /etc/inet/ntp. and modify the server entry so that your system looks to the instructor system for NTP updates.thirty.168.255 ttl 4 4. Ensure that the instructor system is your preferred server.30.

and write the output of the command: # pgrep -lf ntp 1142 snoop -d qfe0 port ntp No. Your second task is to configure an NTP client on any of the remaining systems on your subnet. Watch the transactions for a few minutes to see your system’s time becoming synchronized with the instructor’s stratum-0 NTP server.. and view the NTP transactions that can be seen on the snoop trace that is running. # snoop -d qfe0 port ntp Using device /dev/qfe (promiscuous mode) instructor -> 192. 6.30.0 network. Write the command that you use: # svcadm enable svc:/network/ntp:default svc:/network/ntp:default enabled # # snoop -d qfe2 port ntp Using device /dev/qfe (promiscuous mode) sys11ext -> instructor NTP client [st=0] (2004-11-05 10:05:14.45062) instructor -> sys11ext NTP server [st=1] (2004-11-05 10:09:39.83026) .168.79242) .168...255 NTP broadcast [st=1] (2004-11-05 10:04:48. Revision A. In another window. All Rights Reserved.Exercise Solutions 5. Start the NTP daemon. Write the command that you use.30. Start the snoop utility on your router system’s to observe NTP traffic between the router and the instructor system.1 .. Write the command that you use: Start the snoop utility on the 192. determine if the NTP daemon is running on your system. Sun Services. as expected. 7. the NTP daemon is not running. Inc. 12-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

as expected. Write the command that you use.edu -> 192. the NTP daemon is not running. 12. Write the command that you use: # cp /etc/inet/ntp.one.Exercise Solutions Working on a Non-Router System To configure an NTP client on remaining systems on your subnet. and write your answer: # pgrep -lf ntp No.1.client /etc/inet/ntp. Start a snoop session on the appropriate interface on the client. Inc. Copy and rename the NTP client configuration template to specify the configuation of the NTP service when it is enabled. Determine if the NTP daemon is running. After you start the NTP service in the next step. be prepared to examine the trace carefully.. Use the snoop utility to verify that your system is receiving the NTP broadcasts from your subnet’s NTP server.1 12-25 .conf 10. Sun Services.08248) You can continue with configuring your system as an NTP client because it is receiving NTP updates from your router system. When you are finished. # snoop -d hme0 port ntp . In the window running the snoop trace on the NTP client. which acts as a stratum-2 server. Start the NTP daemon and verify that it is running.168. All Rights Reserved. Write the command that you use: # snoop -d hme0 port ntp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) sys11. 11. # # pgrep -lf ntp 1528 /usr/lib/inet/xntpd Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. Revision A. terminate the snoop session.255 NTP broadcast [st=2] (2004-11-05 10:18:16. Write the commands that you use: # svcadm -v enable svc:/network/ntp svc:/network/ntp:default enabled. 9. continue as follows: 8.

one.02602) server [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:57:47.255 sys11.edu 192.1.edu sys11.0.edu sys11.one.one.1 NTP 224. Sun Services.one..one.0.1.168.168.edu sys11.one.edu sys11.edu sys11.1 NTP 192.1 NTP 224.255 sys11.1.one.edu sys11.1.one.one.one.edu sys12.06379) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 16:00:26.edu NTP client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:11.edu sys12.edu NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP server [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:57:47.one.one.one.edu sys12. All Rights Reserved.1.168.edu sys12.one.1 .06304) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:38.edu sys12.one.72968) server [st=2] (2005-02-02 16:00:26.edu 192.1.one.edu sys12.72971) {observe that the client has updated its time to that of the server} sys11.1.edu sys12.one.one.1 NTP 224.one.one.one.06474) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:38.06560) broadcast [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:58:51.edu sys11.edu -> -> -> -> -> sys12.one.1.one.one.06518) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:38.edu -> -> -> -> -> -> 224.one.06425) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:38.edu sys12. Inc.one.one.one.one.one. .one.72968) broadcast [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:59:55.edu sys12.one.61016) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:13.61034) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:12.edu sys11.61010) broadcast [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:57:47. sys12.edu sys12.168.02497) {observe that server’s time is 15:57 while client’s time is 15:58} sys11. Revision A.edu sys11.0.02556) server [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:57:47.edu 192.06343) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:59:22. (Hint: Use X-Off (Control+S key sequence) to stop the snoop trace from scrolling and use X-On (Control+Q key sequence) to enable scrolling again.edu sys12.Exercise Solutions 13.61026) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:14..edu sys12.edu -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> sys12.edu sys12.0.255 NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP server [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:59:22. Examine the snoop trace and locate the part of the snoop trace where the client time changed to match the server’s time.edu sys11.02645) server [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:57:47.255 NTP sys11.064 12-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.72945) broadcast [st=2] (2005-02-02 16:00:59.edu sys11.

Inc. Configuring and Managing Network Applications Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Configuring DNS Configuring DHCP Figure 13-1 Course Map Configuring NTP 13-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. including how the firewall decides whether or not to pass a packet and how rules for the firewall can be defined based on various criteria.Module 13 Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Objectives This module introduces how to configure the Solaris IP Filter host-based firewall. All Rights Reserved. you should be able to: q q Identify Solaris IP Filter firewall basics Configure the Solaris IP Filter firewall behavior The course map in Figure 13-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. Revision A. Sun Services. Upon completion of this module.1 . This module also introduces the basics of the Solaris IP Filter firewall.

All Rights Reserved. unrestricted access is typically not desirable. and to control the access that systems inside the network have to the rest of the Internet. This is the purpose of a firewall. by default. free access between networks where all the systems are known is not necessarily a problem. and can decide not to permit certain traffic to be forwarded. The Solaris IP Filter firewall is an integral part of the Solaris 10 OS and can be configured on Solaris 10 OS systems acting as routers and on individual hosts.1 . Access restrictions can be applied to systems outside the network looking to access systems inside the network. A firewall is a device which runs some software designed to control traffic between networks. The rules in the firewall can be based on characteristics of traffic such source and destination IP addresses for both individual hosts and networks. 13-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. forward all traffic that arrives at one of its interfaces to another network.conf file. Revision A. Sun Services. on port numbers and payload types. In a controlled or constrained environment. Inc. Anyone on the Internet can attempt to access any of the systems in any manner. The decision to forward or not to forward traffic is controlled by a set of rules defined on the firewall. the network can be connected by using some form of device that is more restrictive in the access it permits. a firewall is selective about the traffic that it forwards. When connecting a network to external networks. To avoid this situation. Solaris IP Filter firewall is a utility that enables a Solaris 10 OS system to act as a firewall. An unprotected network connected to the Internet by an IP router exposes all of the systems on the network to the whole Internet. An IP router can be considered to be an open door between networks. An IP router will. similar to an IP router. permitting free access. The behavior of the Solaris IP Filter firewall is controlled by a configuration file. the /etc/ipf/ipf. Unlike an IP router.Identifying Firewall Basics Identifying Firewall Basics IP routers are used to connect networks together and to pass traffic between the networks.

Each rule in the file contains: q q q An action A direction Criteria which are compared against the packet to determine whether the packet matches the rule The default behavior of the Solaris IP Filter firewall is to read every rule in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Revision A. 4. Inc. 5. All Rights Reserved.conf file. Each rule in the file tells the Solaris IP Filter firewall to either permit or deny the packet to be sent or received. remember the action specified in the rule. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. it is necessary to understand how the Solaris IP Filter firewall reads this file and compares any packet against the rules in the file. Discard any action remembered previously. qfe. and so on).conf file. pass the packet.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall When defining packet filtering rules in the /etc/ipf/ipf. When processing a packet. If the end of the rules is reached or the matched rule contains the quick keyword. Sun Services. the pfil kernel module must be loaded on each network interface on the system on which packet filtering is to be applied. stop matching and perform the action. Enabling Packet Filtering With the Solaris IP Filter Firewall For the Solaris IP Filter firewall to function. Packet filtering is enabled on a particular network interface type by uncommenting the line relating to the network interface type in the /etc/ipf/pfil. If no rules match. the Solaris IP Filter firewall performs the following tasks: 1. 3.ap file. Compare the packet against the direction and criteria in the rule. The default configuration in the Solaris 10 OS is that packet filtering is not enabled for any network interface. If the packet matches. 2. The pfil kernel module is loaded on an individual network interface when the interface is plumbed if packet filtering has been enabled for that type of interface (hme.1 13-3 .

# # Format of the entries in this file is: # #major minor lastminor modules #le #qe #hme #qfe #eri #ce #bge #be #vge #ge #nf #fa #ci #el #ipdptp #lane #dmfe # -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil Any existing. Remove the leading comment character from the appropriate lines for the interface for which filtering is to be configured.ap Solaris IP Filter Services The svc:/network/pfil and the svc:/network/ipfilter SMF services control the pfild daemon process. you can use the autopush command to read changes to the /etc/ipf/pfil. use the svcs and svcadm commands to manage these filtering services. 13-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. For example. Sun Services. plumbed network interfaces to which you choose to apply filtering must be unplumbed and plumbed. # autopush -f /etc/ipf/pfil.1 . # cat /etc/ipf/pfil. Like other SMF services. Revision A.ap file before you unplumb and plumb the interfaces.ap # IP Filter pfil autopush setup # # See autopush(1M) manpage for more information.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall The /etc/ipf/pfil.ap file contains a list of network interfaces. All Rights Reserved.

Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Actions Every rule in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Sun Services.conf file starts with an action. The action states whether the Solaris IP Filter firewall will permit or deny the packet if the rule is matched. Figure 13-2 shows how filtering works when based upon traffic direction.. Traffic Flow hme0 hme1 Block/pass in on hme0 Block/pass out on hme1 Internet Traffic Flow hme0 hme1 Corporate Network Block/pass out on hme0 Block/pass in on hme1 Figure 13-2 Filtering Based Upon Traffic Direction Using the block keyword The block keyword is an action keyword which tells the Solaris IP Filter firewall that the packet should be blocked (dropped) if the packet matches the rule. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Inc.1 13-5 . There are two action keywords: block and pass.. All rules to block packets use this keyword: block . Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

All Rights Reserved. Using the in Keyword The in keyword is used for rules that relate to packets arriving at the system from the network. There are two direction keywords in the Solaris IP Filter firewall: in and out. 13-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. Revision A. All rules that are intended to block packets arriving at a system start with the following: block in .. All rules to permit packets to pass use this keyword: pass .. Any rule that contains the in keyword is applied only to packets arriving at the system from the network. Inc. The direction keyword relates to the movement of the packet in relation to the system on which the Solaris IP Filter firewall is running. Sun Services... All rules that are intended to pass packets arriving at a system start with the following: pass in . Configuring Packet Direction The second keyword in all packet filtering rules is a direction keyword.1 ..Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Using the pass keyword The pass keyword is the action keyword that tells the Solaris IP Filter firewall that the packet should be accepted or sent if the packet matches the rule.

The remaining rules are not processed against the packet for matches.10 example.12 ftp-proxy mkfilters pool.conf BASIC_1. All rules that are intended to pass packets leaving a system start with the following: pass out ..FW example.9 example.1 13-7 .11 example. Sun Services. The quick keyword is used to change this behavior.1 example. The /usr/share/ipfilter/examples directory contains IPFilter examples to help you define rules.2 ip_rules nat..13 ftppxy nat-setup server BASIC_2. All rules that are intended to block packets leaving a system start with the following: block out .6 example.3 example. Revision A..NAT example.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Using the out Keyword The out keyword is used for rules that relate to packets leaving the system to go out on to the network. If a packet matches a rule containing the quick keyword. is found between the direction keyword and the matching keywords in the rule.5 example..8 example. if present.FW example.7 example.sr firewall Using the quick keyword Recall that the default behavior of the Solaris IP Filter firewall is to find every rule that matches and remember the action from the last rule matched. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Any rule containing the out keyword is applied only to packets leaving the system. Inc. # ls /usr/share/ipfilter/examples BASIC. The quick keyword. Configuring Filter Rules This section describes how to configure filter rules. then the Solaris IP Filter firewall stops matching at that rule and applies the action contained in the rule.4 example.eg tcpstate example.

.. Sun Services. Configuring Filtering on a Specific Network Interface The Solaris IP Filter firewall applies each rule to every network interface on the system by default. To define a rule that will permit any outgoing packet matching the rule and will stop the Solaris IP Filter firewall from processing any further rules.. 13-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. Revision A. use the rule: pass in all To permit all packets arriving at a system to be passed and to stop processing rules at this point use the rule: pass in quick all Configuring Specific Matching This section describes how to configure specific matching for filters. use the rule: block in all To block every packet arriving at a system and stop processing rules at this point. Inc. Use of the on keyword enables you to apply a rule to a particular network interface only. use the rule: block in quick all To permit all packets arriving at a system to be passed. start the rule with: pass out quick .Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall To define a rule that will block any incoming packet matching the rule and will stop the Solaris IP Filter firewall from processing any further rules. start the rule with: block in quick . to block every packet arriving at a system.1 . Matching All Packets The all keyword is used to match every packet either arriving or leaving at a system. For example. All Rights Reserved.

To specify an IP address for a single host. For example. Note that the lo identifier does not appear in the /etc/ipf/pfil. IP addresses are suffixed by a netmask value specified by using prefix notation.255. Inc.255.1.255.30.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Note – The Solaris IP Filter firewall does not filter the loopback interface.1.0 and intended for any destination to enter the system from the network on any network interface. To filter packets based on the destination IP address.0/24 to any will permit any packets originating from the Class C network 192.30/32 will block any packets leaving the current system which have the host 192. You should not use the interface identifier lo0 in the /etc/ipf/ipf.168. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. To specify a Class B network.255.168. to permit all packets arriving and leaving the hme0 interface and to stop further processing rules at this point. the to keyword is used. use the suffix /16 or /255.30. use the on keyword followed by the name of the interface.ap file.0. use the suffix /24 or /255.255.1 13-9 . All Rights Reserved. To filter packets based on the source IP address. use the keyword any.255. For example. the rule: pass in from 192. The rule: block out from any to 192. Revision A. To specify a Class C network.168.30 as their destination. To apply a rule to a specific interface. use the rules: pass in quick on hme0 all pass out quick on hme0 all Configuring Filtering on IP Address The Solaris IP Filter firewall can filter packets based on their source and destination IP addresses. To match any IP address.conf file. Sun Services.168. The from and to keywords take IP addresses as arguments.0. use the suffix /32 or /255.0. the from keyword is used.

168.168.1.0 network.168. For example.0/24 will block any packets arriving at the qfe0 network interface from any source IP address which are intended for the 192.168. the rule: block in on qfe0 from any to 192.0 network.1.2 and is intended for the 192. Inc. Revision A.168. Sun Services.168.3.3.2/32 to 192.1. 13-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. For example.1. All Rights Reserved.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Network interfaces and IP addresses can be combined in rules.1 .0/24 will block any packet leaving the qfe0 interface which originated from the host 192. the rule block out on qfe0 from 192. IP addresses can be used as both source and destination addresses.

Table 13-1 shows the keywords and the protocols to which they relate. The proto keyword is used to filter on protocol type. Revision A. The protocols which can be filtered are TCP. to block all ICMP packets arriving on the hme0 interface. The proto keyword is followed by a second keyword that identifies the protocol or protocols to be filtered. UDP and ICMP. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. The icmp-type keyword can be used to specify a single ICMP type value for the rule. Table 13-2 ICMP Type Values and Keywords ICMP Type Echo reply Echo request Router advertisement Router solicitation Value 0 8 9 10 Keyword echorep echo routerad routersol Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. this rule blocks all ICMP packets.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuring Filtering on Protocol Type and Port Number The Solaris IP Filter firewall is also capable of filtering traffic based on the network protocol contained in a packet. Some common ICMP types are shown in Table 13-2. use the rule: block in on hme0 proto icmp from any to any In this form. Table 13-1 Protocol Keywords Keyword icmp tcp udp tcp/udp Protocols Filtered ICMP TCP UDP Both TCP and UDP For example.1 13-11 . All ICMP packets contain a type value in the ICMP header.

routing protocols. use the same port on the server and the client. Inc.conf(4) man page for details. For example.1 . to permit a system to receive ICMP router discovery solicitations on the hme0 interface connected to the 192. For example.0/24 icmp-type 9 block in quick on hme0 proto icmp from any to any block out quick on hme0 proto icmp from any to any To block outgoing ICMP echo replies (responses to the ping command) on the qfe0 interface. Revision A.1. use a well-known port on the server side and an anonymous port for the client. to block the default telnet server port (23) the keywords port = 23 are appended to the rule. it is important to understand the manner in which the applications you are filtering uses ports. When writing rules for protocols like Telnet and FTP. Port-based filtering can be applied to the source address or the destination address.h file. The icmp-type keyword is appended to the end of a rule to make the rule apply to a specific type of ICMP packet. anonymous-client port assignments.0 network and to send router advertisements on the same interface. See the ipf. for example.168. FTP and telnet. Note – When configuring filtering based upon port number. The port to which the rule is to apply is specified after the equal sign (=). The type value can be specified numerically or textually. Other applications. for example.1. All Rights Reserved. use the rules: pass in quick on hme0 proto icmp from 192. Some applications.0/24 to any icmp-type 10 pass out quick on hme0 proto icmp from any to 192. 13-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Note that the spaces on either sides of the equals sign are required.168. but to block all other ICMP traffic on the hme0 interface.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Note – A complete list of ICMP type values can be found in the /usr/include/netinet/ip_icmp. Sun Services.1. use the rule: block out quick on qfe0 proto icmp from any to any icmp-type echorep Filtering of TCP and UDP packets can be restricted to a particular port by using the port = keywords.168. the keep state keywords are a convenient way to avoid having to know the per-session.

168.0/24 Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. Inc. use the rules: pass in quick proto tcp from 192. use the rule: pass out quick proto tcp from 192.168.0 network.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall To block all incoming packets intended for the telnet server port (port 23).1 13-13 .168.0/24 to any port = 23 block in quick proto tcp from any to any port = 23 To permit incoming RPC requests to the rpcbind daemon from the 192. use the rules: pass in quick on hme0 proto tcp/udp from 192.1. Sun Services.1.1.0 network on the hme0 interface only.1. use the rule: block in quick proto tcp from any to any port = 23 To block all incoming telnet packets except those originating from the 192. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.1/32 port = 23 to 192.1.0 to any port = 111 block in quick on hme0 proto tcp/udp from any to any port = 111 To permit packets to leave the telnet server port if they are intended for the local subnet.1.168.168.

conf file.conf # The ipf command can also be used to remove rules from the current configuration. The -f option is used to add filtering rules. If a flush option is specified after an add rules option. the new rules will be added.conf # Note – Options to the ipf command are executed in the order in which they are specified on the command line. type the command: # ipf -Fi # If you have made changes to the rule set in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Inc. To clear the existing rules and load a new or updated set. The -f option takes the name of a file containing the new rules as an argument. Sun Services. to clear all of the input rules. you can load the new rules by combining a flush operation and an add operation in one command: # ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf.1 . All Rights Reserved. then flushed along with the old rules. The -F option is combined with one of three choices of the rules to clear: -Fa -Fi -Fo Flush all rules (both input and output) Flush input rules only Flush output rules only For example. Revision A. The rules found in the file are appended to any existing rules: # ipf -f /etc/ipf/ipf. the flush option must be specified first. The -F (flush) option is used to clear rules.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Changing and Updating the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuration The ipf command is used to update the set of filtering rules in place on a system. 13-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Running the ipfstat command with no arguments displays statistics about the Solaris IP Filter firewall: # ipfstat bad packets: in 0 out 0 input packets: blocked 37 passed 71 nomatch 71 counted 0 short 0 output packets: blocked 0 passed 77 nomatch 50 counted 0 short 0 input packets logged: blocked 0 passed 0 output packets logged: blocked 0 passed 0 packets logged: input 0 output 0 log failures: input 0 output 0 fragment state(in): kept 0 lost 0 fragment state(out): kept 0 lost 0 packet state(in): kept 0 lost 0 packet state(out): kept 0 lost 0 ICMP replies: 0 TCP RSTs sent: 0 Invalid source(in): 0 Result cache hits(in): 13 (out): 27 IN Pullups succeeded: 0 failed: 0 OUT Pullups succeeded: 10 failed: 0 Fastroute successes: 0 failures: 0 TCP cksum fails(in): 0 (out): 0 IPF Ticks: 1426 Packet log flags set: (0) none # The ipfstat command can also be used to display the rules being used currently by using the -io option: # ipfstat -io empty list for ipfilter(out) block in proto tcp from any to 192.1 13-15 .168.0/24 port = telnet # Note – The ipfstat -io command does not display the rules in the same sequence as they are listed in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Sun Services. Revision A.conf file. All Rights Reserved. Inc. and then the in rules are listed.2. The out rules are listed in order first.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Viewing the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuration The ipfstat command is used to display information about the behavior and configuration of the Solaris IP Filter firewall. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

2.1.121993 p len 20 40 -R IN Control-C# hme0 @0:1 b 192.23 PR tc hme0 @0:1 b 192.168.168.32861 -> 192. to log any packets which are received on the hme0 interface and intended for the rpcbind daemon. add the log keyword to the block rule in the following example: pass in quick on hme0 proto tcp/udp from 192. Revision A.2.168.2. Sun Services.2.1 . Logged information is sent to the /dev/ipl device.0 network.168.2.23 PR tc hme0 @0:1 b 192.168.2. For example.2. or send the information to the syslogd daemon.978075 p len 20 52 -S IN 23/07/2004 15:27:45.2.607407 p len 20 52 -S IN 23/07/2004 15:27:38.168. The log keyword is placed immediately after the direction keyword in a rule. to a file.23 PR tc hme0 @0:1 b 192.0 to any port = 111 block in log quick on hme0 proto tcp/udp from any to any port = 111 Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall to Log to Standard Output To display logged information on standard output.2.2.32861 -> 192.32861 -> 192. All Rights Reserved.23 PR tc hme0 @0:1 b 192.738002 p len 20 52 -S IN 23/07/2004 15:27:59.168.1.32861 -> 192.32861 -> 192. Inc. The ipmon command can log information to standard output.168.1.1.168.168.23 PR tc 13-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.2. and any matches of that rule are sent to the /dev/ipl device. but which do not originate from the 192.2.2.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuring Logging in the Solaris IP Filter Firewall The Solaris IP Filter firewall includes the ability to log its actions. Configuring Logging of a Rule Match To configure a rule match to be logged by the Solaris IP Filter firewall. The /dev/ipl device can be monitored by running the ipmon command.248572 p len 20 52 -S IN 23/07/2004 15:28:03.1.1.2.1.2. the log keyword is used. use the ipmon command: # ipmon 23/07/2004 15:27:35.168.

Sun Services. Inc.error local0. Packets passed by Solaris IP Filter firewall.conf file subsequently.notice local0.1 13-17 . All Rights Reserved. and so the /etc/syslog. This information tells you that the packet matches the rule.warning local0. The Solaris IP Filter firewall generates messages at four levels. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. but that do not have the action associated with the rule applied. Table 13-3 Solaris IP Filter Firewall Message Levels Message Level local0.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall to Log to a File To capture logged information to a file. as show in Table 13-3. Revision A. but has been matched by a later rule in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Packets matching a logged rule. The Solaris IP Filter firewall sends packets by using the local0 facility.txt # Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall to Log by Using Syslog The -s option to the ipmon command causes log information to be sent to the syslogd daemon.conf file must be configured appropriately to record logging information sent to it by the ipmon command.info Meaning Packets that are logged and are short. Packets blocked by Solaris IP Filter firewall.txt <Control>-C # The ipmon process can be instructed to run as a daemon by using the -D option: # ipmon -D /var/tmp/filterlog2. supply the name of the file to log to as an argument to the ipmon command: # ipmon /var/tmp/filterlog.

/var/adm/ipflog 13-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. All Rights Reserved..1 . Inc.notice # touch /var/adm/ipflog # pkill -HUP syslogd # ipmon -D -s # . Sun Services.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall To configure the ipmon command to run as a daemon and to send logging information by using the syslogd daemon to the /var/adm/ipflog file: # cat /etc/syslog.conf local0. Revision A.

1 13-19 . All Rights Reserved. There is no preparation for this exercise. Sun Services. the Solaris IP Filter firewall. be aware of what other subnet groups are doing. can influence behavior that you observe locally. by performing the following: q q Configuring packet filtering rules Restricting access to a subnet Preparation Caution – Before beginning this exercise. Configurations on other group’s router firewall. for example. Task Summary In this exercise. If the services are not running. Also. you configure packet filtering on your subnet’s router and on client systems in your subnet. issue the appropropriate svcadm commands on the appropriate systems to once again enable them. Inc.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall In this exercise. Team up with other students in your subnet group so that you can experience most aspects of the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration. check that DNS services are running as they were in the prior DNS exercise. you configure the Solaris OS IP filter. Revision A. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

The first set of exercise steps is to configure packet filtering in order to prevent any telnet requests from reaching your system. Revision A. Determine the current status of the svc:/network/ipfilter and svc:/network/pfil services by using the svcs command. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s autopush configuration file to specify the network interface for packet filtering on your system. Use another system to verify that your network is functioning properly and that your system can be accessed with the telnet utility. Which file do you edit? _____________________________________________________________ 13-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Task 1 – Configuring Firewall Rules In the first part of the lab you will configure the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s rules to show how to enable and disable access to services on a host and a network. After you verify that telnet access is permitted. Inc. terminate the telnet session. All Rights Reserved. Use the ifconfig command to determine to which interface to apply filter rules. Sun Services.1 . _____________________________________________________________ 2. Do this by removing the comment from the appropriate interface learned in the previous step. _____________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________ 4. perform the following: 1. Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet To enable the packet filter to block all incoming telnet requests to your system.

Sun Services. although a rule to block telnet access was established and the ipfilter service enabled. filtering rules do not take effect when the service is enabled. Enable the packet filter.168. Inc.2/32 port = 23 # 6. and write the command that you use.conf # # ipf. ________________________________________________________ 7. Edit the /etc/ipf/ipf. and write the command that you use. ________________________________________________________ Verify that the service started. block in proto tcp from any to 192. The system is not secure at this point. Verify that. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.conf # # IP Filter rules to be loaded during startup # # See ipf(4) manpage for more information on # IP Filter rules syntax. All Rights Reserved.conf file and add the relevant rules to block all incoming telnet requests to your system.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall 5.1 13-21 . Start the service. it is possible to use the telnet utility to access from another system to your system. a. _____________________________________________________________ Caution – Although you added a blocking rule in the /etc/ipf/ip. Revision A.1. After you verify that telnet access is permitted.conf file. terminate the telnet session. b. Your file should have contents similar to the following: sys12# cat /etc/ipf/ipf.

Sun Services. ________________________________________________________ d.conf file: _____________________________________________________________ Did you put the new rule before or after the existing rule? Why? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. mask. (You can also reboot the system to accomplish the same effect. As done previously. ________________________________________________________ b. Inc.ap c. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. ________________________________________________________ 9. _____________________________________________________________ The next steps are to configure your system to permit incoming telnet requests from the local subnet. use another system and attempt to use the telnet utility to determine if your system permits a telnet connection. From the command line force the pfild daemon to read the rule file by performing the following steps. Plumb your system’s interface to load the packet filter into the interface’s IP stack.) a. but block telnet requests from all other networks and not process any other rules. 10.1 . such as IP address. q Write the rule that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall 8. Use the ifconfig command to determine the configuration of your system’s interfaces. Force the autopush configuration file to be read by using the following command: Unplumb your system’s interface. and broadcast address. Document the relevant interface information. Permits incoming telnet access only from other hosts on your local subnet Stops processing of subsequent rules by using the quick keyword. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration file by adding a new rule that: q sys12# autopush -f /etc/ipf/pfil.

_____________________________________________________________ Working on the Router on Your Subnet The next steps configure your router to block all telnet requests from outside your subnet to any system on your subnet. _____________________________________________________________ Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Attempt to establish a telnet session to your system from a host on the local subnet and from a host on another subnet. _____________________________________________________________ 13. Revision A. Verify that the systems can properly communicate across subnets by establishing an appropriate telnet session that passes through your router system. Terminate the telnet session after you verify successful communication. All Rights Reserved. Validate that the new configuration is working. _____________________________________________________________ 15. Document the file that you edit and your rules.1 13-23 . Do this by removing the comments from the appropriate interfaces. Edit the relevant file on your router system and add rules to block all incoming telnet requests to your local subnet that do not originate from the local subnet.conf 12. Display the new rule set by using the ipfstat command. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the following ipf command: sys12# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s autopush configuration file to specify the network interfaces for packet filtering on your router system. (The ifconfig command shows the interfaces. Inc.) Which file do you edit? _____________________________________________________________ 16. Sun Services.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall 11. 14.

________________________________________________________ The next steps block your non-router system from sending any outgoing ICMP echo replies. Start the service. and routing information. Verify the status of the svc:/network/ipfilter service. Verify that the rule functions as expected by using the telnet command. Document the relevant interface information. ________________________________________________________ Plumb and restore your system’s interface configurations to load the packet filter into the interface’s IP stack. broadcast address.1 . and write the command that you use. sys11# autopush -f /etc/ipf/pfil. ________________________________________________________ 18. (You can also reboot the system to accomplish the same effect. Force the autopush configuration file to be read by using the following command: Determine the configuration of your system’s interfaces. Sun Services. ________________________________________________________ e. Revision A. c. All Rights Reserved. ________________________________________________________ b. such as IP address.) a. 13-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. Unplumb your system’s interfaces.ap b. From the command line force the pfild daemon to read the rule file by performing the following steps. d. ________________________________________________________ c. and write the command that you use. Enable the packet filter by performing the following steps: a. ________________________________________________________ Verify that the service started. and write the command that you use.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall 17. mask.

Use the dig command to find the IP address of a system on another network. sys12# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. _____________________________________________________________ 20. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command. Sun Services. Verify that a local system can successfully perform DNS lookups across routers. verify that you are now able to contact your system from another system on your local subnet by using the ping command.conf file: _____________________________________________________________ 21. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s configuration file to include a rule on the last line that blocks outgoing ICMP echo replies from the host. Before establishing a blocking rule. Write the rule that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Inc.1 13-25 . _____________________________________________________________ 23. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command. (Successful completion of this step will aide you in later steps when you write rules to specifically allow DNS through firewalls. Revision A.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same non-router system on which you have been working: 19.conf 22.) _____________________________________________________________ Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Test that the new rule is functioning correctly by using the ping command from the test system again. _____________________________________________________________ 24. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.conf file. _____________________________________________________________ 3. Revision A. _____________________________________________________________ Working on Each Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same non-router system on which you have been working: 4. _____________________________________________________________ The reboot is performed as an easy way to flush cached information on the non-router systems. Remove all of the rules in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Inc. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. It is not a necessary part of the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s configuration. 5.1 .Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Task 2 – Disabling Services In the second part of the lab you restrict access to your subnet by disabling all services except a defined set. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rules by using the ipf command. Reboot all of the non-router systems. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s rules to block all traffic on the router. 13-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and write and document the new rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Working on the Router on Your Subnet Perform the following: 1. Remove all existing rules currently in the configuration file.conf file.

Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to use the new rules by using the ipf command.conf file: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. Sun Services. Test that the new rules function correctly by checking the configuration of the routing tables on the non-router hosts and by snooping the network to look for routing packets. All Rights Reserved. write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 6. Revision A. Before the existing block out all and block in all rules. _____________________________________________________________ 8. Inc. _____________________________________________________________ Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the non-router system on which you have been working: 9.1 13-27 . Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit routing information traffic to be sent and received. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command.

Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit DNS traffic to be sent and received. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 11. Revision A. write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command. Be sure to query a DNS server on that other network.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 10. All Rights Reserved. _____________________________________________________________ 12. Sun Services.1 . Inc. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command. _____________________________________________________________ 13-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. At the beginning of the configuration file. Use the dig command to find the IP address of a system on another network. _____________________________________________________________ Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on a non-router system on the same subnet on which you have been working: 13.conf file.

be more responsive to the DNS traffic. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command. Revision A. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command. Assume that your system will get more DNS traffic than FTP traffic. Hint: Use the keep state keywords in your rules. Once you verify this. All Rights Reserved.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 14. Placing the new FTP rules after the DNS rules would recognize this and.conf file. _____________________________________________________________ 17. Sun Services.1 13-29 . Write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. _____________________________________________________________ Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit FTP traffic to pass from the local subnet to the instructor system only. _____________________________________________________________ 15. Log any traffic that matches one of the rules that you define. Even though this group of steps is to be performed on your router system. before configuring rules for FTP. you can proceed with writing rules to allow FTP through the router firewall system. appropriately. Inc. verify that your firewalls are functioning properly by insuring that you cannot initiate an FTP session from your non-router system to the instructor machine.

_____________________________________________________________ Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on any non-router system on your subnet. _____________________________________________________________ What behavior do you see? _____________________________________________________________ 20.log file. Sun Services. You will now be using FTP to connect to another system on another subnet across your firewall router. _____________________________________________________________ What behavior do you see? _____________________________________________________________ Working on the Router on Your Subnet Complete as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 21.1 .Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall 18. _____________________________________________________________ 13-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Use the ipmon command as a daemon to log information to the /var/tmp/ipfilter. Use FTP to access a system on another subnet. Use FTP to access the instructor system. 19. View the log file created by the ipmon command. Revision A. Inc.

q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. Revision A. issues. Sun Services.1 13-31 . Inc. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise.

2. Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet To enable the packet filter to block all incoming telnet requests to your system.1. The first set of exercise steps is to configure packet filtering in order to prevent any telnet requests from reaching your system. Inc.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to this exercise are provided in the following sections. Solution results vary accordingly. Revision A. 13-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. After you verify that telnet access is permitted..edu closed by foreign host.edu Escape character is '^]'. Task 1 Solutions In the first part of the lab you will configure the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s rules to show how to enable and disable access to services on a host and a network. These solutions use sys12 as the example non-router system and sys11 as the example router system.edu Sun Microsystems Inc. Use another system to verify that your network is functioning properly and that your system can be accessed with the telnet utility.one. Connected to sys12.10 Generic January 2005 Welcome to SA300-S10_A on sys12 sys12# exit Connection to sys12. SunOS 5. perform the following: 1. login: root Password: Last login: Mon Dec 20 03:46:26 from sys13. Now you can proceed with configuring the firewall and have confidence that your working blocking rule will be responsible for blocking telnet requests and not some other networking issue. sys13# This proves that your system responds to the telnet request as expected. All Rights Reserved.one.168. Sun Services.. terminate the telnet session. sys13# telnet sys12 Trying 192.1 .one.

2/32 port = 23 # Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Do this by removing the comment from the appropriate interface learned in the previous step.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. block in proto tcp from any to 192. sys12# ifconfig -a inet lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.LOOPBACK. 5..168.. sys12# svcs -a | grep network | egrep "pfil|ipf" disabled 8:31:38 svc:/network/ipfilter:default online 8:31:42 svc:/network/pfil:default 3.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1.RUNNING. All Rights Reserved. Edit the /etc/ipf/ipf.ap file.MULTICAST. Revision A.MULTICAST. Inc.168. Sun Services.IPv4. Your configuration file should look similar to the following: sys12# cat /etc/ipf/pfil.conf # # IP Filter rules to be loaded during startup # # See ipf(4) manpage for more information on # IP Filter rules syntax. Your file should have contents similar to the following: sys12# cat /etc/ipf/ipf.1 13-33 .BROADCAST. Use the ifconfig command to determine to which interface to apply filter rules.1.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192... Which file do you edit? The /etc/ipf/pfil.0.Exercise Solutions 2.conf # # ipf.1.168.0.ap . Determine the current status of the svc:/network/ipfilter and svc:/network/pfil services by using the svcs command. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s autopush configuration file to specify the network interface for packet filtering on your system.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING. #qe hme #qfe .conf file and add the relevant rules to block all incoming telnet requests to your system.255 4.

sys12# svcadm enable svc:/network/ipfilter:default sys12# svcs -a | grep -i ipf online 3:48:09 svc:/network/ipfilter:default 7. although a rule to block telnet access was established and the ipfilter service enabled. Connected to sys12. 13-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. a. SunOS 5.. Start the service. sys13# Caution – Although you added a blocking rule in the /etc/ipf/ip. Inc. After you verify that telnet access is permitted.2.conf file. it is possible to use the telnet utility to access from another system to your system. Escape character is '^]'.edu. b..edu closed by foreign host.1. Verify that the service started.edu Sun Microsystems Inc. terminate the telnet session.1 .one.Exercise Solutions 6. and write the command that you use. Note that when enabled in this manner.168. filtering rules do not take effect when the service is enabled. the service is configured to run automatically on subsequent system boots. All Rights Reserved. and write the command that you use.one.10 Generic January 2005 Welcome to SA300-S10_A on sys12 sys12# exit Connection to sys12. login: root Password: Last login: Mon Dec 20 03:46:26 from sys13. Enable the packet filter. Revision A. The system is not secure at this point. sys13# telnet sys12 Trying 192. Verify that. Sun Services.one.

All Rights Reserved.1. Sun Services.MULTICAST.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Force the autopush configuration file to be read by using the following command: Unplumb your system’s interface. use another system and attempt to use the telnet utility to determine if your system permits a telnet connection. sys13# telnet sys12 Trying 192. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.255 b.168. mask. and broadcast address.Exercise Solutions 8.168.1. (You can also reboot the system to accomplish the same effect. From the command line force the pfild daemon to read the rule file by performing the following steps.1.168. Inc. sys12# ifconfig hme0 down unplumb sys12# ifconfig hme0 plumb 192.1.1 13-35 .2 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192. As done previously.RUNNING. Plumb your system’s interface to load the packet filter into the interface’s IP stack..168.ap c.LOOPBACK.IPv4. telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection timed out sys13# You should observe that telnet access is now blocked.MULTICAST. Use the ifconfig command to determine the configuration of your system’s interfaces. sys12# ifconfig -a inet lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.2. such as IP address.255 up 9.1. sys12# autopush -f /etc/ipf/pfil.168.RUNNING. Document the relevant interface information. d.) a. Revision A.BROADCAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127..IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.0.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.0.

1..1.0/24 to 192.2.conf 12.2/32 port = telnet 13. All Rights Reserved. You should observe that telnet access succeeds on the local subnet only. Display the new rule set by using the ipfstat command. it should be placed before the old rule to permit local telnet access only.2 Trying 192. sys13# telnet 192. Inc. Escape character is ’^]’.2 Trying 192. Revision A... login: sys22# telnet 192.. the old rule attempts to block the telnet requests and then the new rule permits telnet access from the local subnet. 13-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.168.2/32 port = telnet block in proto tcp from any to 192. Connected to sys12.1.1.1. Validate that the new configuration is working. 10. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the following ipf command: sys12# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf.conf file: pass in quick proto tcp from 192.1.Exercise Solutions The next steps are to configure your system to permit incoming telnet requests from the local subnet. Attempt to establish a telnet session to your system from a host on the local subnet and from a host on another subnet. If you place it after the old the rule. sys12# ipfstat -io empty list for ipfilter(out) pass in quick proto tcp from 192.168.1.168. Sun Services. q Write the rule that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf.1 .168.168.2.0/24 to 192.168.168.168.168.1. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration file by adding a new rule that: q Permits incoming telnet access only from other hosts on your local subnet Stops processing of subsequent rules by using the quick keyword. but block telnet requests from all other networks and not process any other rules. 11.2/32 port = 23 Did you put the new rule before or after the existing rule? Why? Because you used the quick keyword in the new rule.

) Which file do you edit? The /etc/ipf/pfil.1. Connected to 192. Terminate the telnet session after you verify successful communication. sys21# telnet 192. login: root Password: Last login: Mon Dec 20 05:54:27 from sys21ext.. 15.1 Trying 192.. SunOS 5.1.1 closed by foreign host.. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s autopush configuration file to specify the network interfaces for packet filtering on your router system. Sun Services. Escape character is '^]'. #qe hme qfe #eri . Revision A.10 Generic January 2005 Welcome to SA300-S10_A on sys11 sys11# exit Connection to 192.. 14..168.ap file.168.1.168.1. and not some other networking issue. Verify that the systems can properly communicate across subnets by establishing an appropriate telnet session that passes through your router system.1. Do this by removing the comments from the appropriate interfaces. Your configuration file should look similar to the following: sys11# cat /etc/ipf/pfil.168.. All Rights Reserved. Now that you have established successful communication you can have confidence that subsequent failed sessions will be the result of a firewall configured properly. Inc.1. (The ifconfig command shows the interfaces.thirty Sun Microsystems Inc.1 13-37 .ap .Exercise Solutions Working on the Router on Your Subnet The next steps configure your router to block all telnet requests from outside your subnet to any system on your subnet.

168. c.1.RUNNING. Inc. and write the command that you use.conf block in on qfe2 proto tcp from any to 192.Exercise Solutions 16.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168. sys11# ifconfig hme0 down unplumb sys11# ifconfig qfe2 down unplumb 13-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST.255 qfe2: flags=1100843<UP. Enable the packet filter by performing the following steps: a. sys11# cat /etc/ipf/ipf.168.RUNNING. sys11# autopush -f /etc/ipf/pfil. Verify that the service started.BROADCAST.RUNNING. sys11# svcs -a | grep ipfilter disabled 8:31:38 svc:/network/ipfilter:default b.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. broadcast address.MULTICAST.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.168. (You can also reboot the system to accomplish the same effect.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1100843<UP. Document the file that you edit and your rules. All Rights Reserved. Edit the relevant file on your router system and add rules to block all incoming telnet requests to your local subnet that do not originate from the local subnet.0. Revision A. Start the service.168.LOOPBACK. and write the command that you use. Unplumb your system’s interfaces. Document the relevant interface information.MULTICAST.255 c.1. sys11# svcadm enable svc:/network/ipfilter:default sys11# svcs -a | grep ipfilter online 5:56:23 svc:/network/ipfilter:default 18. Force the autopush configuration file to be read by using the following command: Determine the configuration of your system’s interfaces.1. and write the command that you use.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. such as IP address.30.0/24 port = 23 17.30. and routing information. sys11# ifconfig -a inet lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. From the command line force the pfild daemon to read the rule file by performing the following steps. Sun Services. Verify the status of the svc:/network/ipfilter service.ROUTER.) a.ap b. mask.IPv4.ROUTER.BROADCAST.1 .

1. Write the rule that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf.31 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + up e. third rule because the first rule will not match ICMP traffic and therefore the quick keyword will not apply. sys21# telnet 192..30. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.1. sys11# ifconfig hme0 plumb 192..Exercise Solutions d. telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection timed out sys21# You should observe that local telnet traffic is permitted but traffic initiated from another subnet is not.1 Trying 192. Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same non-router system on which you have been working: 19.1 13-39 . Before establishing a blocking rule.168.168.168. Sun Services. Revision A. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s configuration file to include a rule on the last line that blocks outgoing ICMP echo replies from the host.1. Verify that the rule functions as expected by using the telnet command. sys13# ping sys12 sys12 is alive sys13# 20.1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + up sys11# ifconfig qfe2 plumb 192. ping traffic will reach this new. verify that you are now able to contact your system from another system on your local subnet by using the ping command. The next steps block your non-router system from sending any outgoing ICMP echo replies. All Rights Reserved.1. Plumb and restore your system’s interface configurations to load the packet filter into the interface’s IP stack.168.conf file: block out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type 0 Note that even though the first rule uses the quick keyword.

2. 2.192.in-addr.arpa. QUERY: 1. All Rights Reserved..4 . MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 ...0/24 to 192. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 .edu. ANSWER: 0. ANSWER: 1. Test that the new rule is functioning correctly by using the ping command from the test system again.168. WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:19:05 2005 .2.two. AUTHORITY SECTION: two.two. Got answer: . sys13# ping sys12 no answer from sys12 24.2.. global options: printcmd . Revision A.edu.2 two. status: NOERROR. ->>HEADER<<.edu. QUERY: 1. QUESTION SECTION: . ADDITIONAL SECTION: 13-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.2 two.168.2#53(192. AUTHORITY: 1. ANSWER SECTION: 4.. SERVER: 192.edu.conf 22. QUESTION SECTION: ..168.168.in-addr.sys22. 86400 IN NS sys22.two.192. 86400 IN SOA sys22.. ADDITIONAL: 0 . sys12# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. id: 1194 . 86400 IN PTR sys24. Inc.168. flags: qr aa rd ra. IN A .opcode: QUERY.1.2. Verify that a local system can successfully perform DNS lookups across routers.arpa.Exercise Solutions 21. ADDITIONAL: 2 .two. (Successful completion of this step will aid you in later steps when you write rules to specifically allow DNS through firewalls.two.in-addr.192.4 <<>> @192. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command. ->>HEADER<<.168.2. flags: qr aa rd ra.168.edu.two..168.edu.2.edu -x 192.2/32 port = telnet block in proto tcp from any to 192. .4 . 86400 IN NS sys23.arpa. root.. Got answer: .168.. <<>> DiG 9.168. IN PTR .. AUTHORITY: 2.1. id: 1914 .in-addr. sys12# ipfstat -io block out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type echorep pass in quick proto tcp from 192.) sys13# dig @192.edu.2) . AUTHORITY SECTION: 2. Sun Services. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command.168.2. .1 ...opcode: QUERY.4..168. Use the dig command to find the IP address of a system on another network.2/32 port = telnet # 23. Query time: 4 msec .192...2.1.2.arpa.edu -x 192.168. status: NOERROR..

168. Query time: 1 msec .2) .edu. Revision A. block in all block out all 2. The /etc/ipf/ipf. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 13-41 ..2. 86400 IN sys23.two.conf file. Reboot all of the non-router systems. All Rights Reserved.2.edu. MSG SIZE rcvd: 141 A A 192. WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:19:05 2005 .2.conf file should be empty..3 Task 2 Solutions In the second part of the lab you restrict access to your subnet by disabling all services except a defined set. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command. 86400 IN . and write and document the new rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf.conf file.two. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s rules to block all traffic on the router.2#53(192. sys11# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf.168. Remove all existing rules currently in the configuration file. Sun Services. SERVER: 192.Exercise Solutions sys22.2...conf 3. sys11# ipfstat -io block out all block in all # Working on Each Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same non-router system on which you have been working: 4. Inc.168. sys12# init 6 Remove all of the rules in the /etc/ipf/ipf.168. Working on the Router on Your Subnet Perform the following: 1.2 192. 5. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rules by using the ipf command.

write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. All Rights Reserved. Before the existing block out all and block in all rules. Revision A.Exercise Solutions The reboot is performed as an easy way to flush cached information on the non-router systems. Inc.1 . It is not a necessary part of the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s configuration. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to use the new rules by using the ipf command.conf file: pass pass pass pass pass pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = 520 out quick proto udp from any to any port = 520 in quick proto udp from any to any port = 521 out quick proto udp from any to any port = 521 in quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type 10 out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type 9 7. Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 6. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command. sys11# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. sys11# ipfstat -io pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = ripngd pass out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routerad block out all pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = ripngd pass in quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routersol block in all 13-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.conf 8. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit routing information traffic to be sent and received. Sun Services.

168. Revision A. You should see evidence of routing information in the routing table (a default route.168.0.0.0 192.1.0.1 UH 4 77 lo0 sys12# sys12# snoop ..1. All Rights Reserved..168.0.conf 12.168.) Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 10. sys11# ipfstat -io pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = domain keep state Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.----.1 UG 1 0 hme0 127.-----.conf file.168. for example) or in the snoop trace (router advertisements for example. write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf.1. At the beginning of the configuration file.2 U 1 0 hme0 default 192.0. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit DNS traffic to be sent and received. pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = 53 keep state pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = 53 keep state 11.Exercise Solutions Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the non-router system on which you have been working: 9.255 RIP R (3 destinations) . sys12# netstat -rn -f inet Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------..1.-------------------.--------192.168.1 127. sys11# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. sys11 -> 192. Inc.1.0 192. Test that the new rules function correctly by checking the configuration of the routing tables on the non-router hosts and by snooping the network to look for routing packets. but no other non-routing services.----. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command..1.1 13-43 . Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command.255 RIP R (3 destinations) sys11 -> 192.0.2 U 1 0 hme0 224. Sun Services.

Use the dig command to find the IP address of a system on another network.168..168. 86400 IN NS sys23. QUESTION SECTION: .2. id: 1914 .two. AUTHORITY SECTION: two.edu.edu -x 192.edu -x 192..1 ..168.2.2.opcode: QUERY..4 . status: NOERROR. IN A . 86400 IN SOA sys22. flags: qr aa rd ra. Query time: 4 msec . AUTHORITY SECTION: 2. AUTHORITY: 2.two.edu.168.edu.edu.2..arpa..2 sys23. QUERY: 1.in-addr.192..in-addr. All Rights Reserved.arpa.192.arpa. <<>> DiG 9. .sys22.4 <<>> @192. ANSWER: 0. QUESTION SECTION: . SERVER: 192. QUERY: 1.2) .edu. 86400 IN NS sys22.2..4 . 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 .opcode: QUERY. sys13# dig @192.two.two.2..2.arpa. 2.. ADDITIONAL SECTION: sys22. MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 . id: 1194 .2..168.in-addr. Be sure to query a DNS server on that other network.2.192..Exercise Solutions pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = ripng pass out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routerad block out all pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = domain keep state pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = ripng pass in quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routersol block in all Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on a non-router system on the same subnet on which you have been working: 13.2 two. ->>HEADER<<.2... root.. Got answer: . ADDITIONAL: 2 .3 13-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. ANSWER SECTION: 4.two.in-addr.two. ADDITIONAL: 0 .. 86400 IN PTR sys24. WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:19:05 2005 .edu. IN PTR . ->>HEADER<<. Sun Services.2#53(192. Revision A. Inc.2 two.edu. status: NOERROR. AUTHORITY: 1. . 86400 IN A 192.168.168.168.168.two.192. flags: qr aa rd ra.168.168. ANSWER: 1.4. Got answer: .edu.2. 86400 IN A 192..two.edu. global options: printcmd .168.

. . All Rights Reserved.168. sys12# ftp 192. Once you verify this.30.Exercise Solutions .2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:19:05 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 141 Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 14.168.. Even though this group of steps is to be performed on your router system. Inc. Sun Services.1 13-45 . before configuring rules for FTP..2..2.2#53(192. . verify that your firewalls are functioning properly by ensuring that you cannot initiate an FTP session from your non-router system to the instructor machine..168. you can proceed with writing rules to allow FTP through the router firewall system.30 ftp: connect: Connection timed out ftp> bye sys12# Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Query time: 1 msec SERVER: 192. Revision A.

168.1.30/32 port = 21 keep state in log quick on qfe2 from 192.1. # ipmon -D /var/tmp/ipfilter.168.30/32 port = 20 keep state pass out log quick on qfe2 from 192.0/24 to 192.0/24 to 192.conf file.1.168.0/24 to 192.30.Exercise Solutions 15. Hint: Use the keep state keywords in your rules.1.1.168.168.30. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command.168.168.168.168.0/24 to 192.30.168. Use the ipmon command as a daemon to log information to the /var/tmp/ipfilter. Inc. Placing the new FTP rules after the DNS rules would recognize this and.30/32 port = 21 keep state out log quick on hme0 from 192.168.168. sys11# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. be more responsive to the DNS traffic.168.0/24 to 192.30.0/24 to 192. pass pass pass pass pass pass pass pass in log quick on hme0 from 192.30/32 port = 20 keep state pass in log quick on qfe2 from 192.1.log file.168.1.168.30.30.30.168.1. Sun Services.0/24 to 192.168.30.30/32 port = 21 keep state pass out log quick on hme0 from 192.1.168.30/32 port = 20 keep state 16.0/24 to 192.0/24 to 192.168.0/24 to 192.30/32 port = 20 keep state in log quick on qfe2 from 192.conf 17.168.168.168.30.30.1.30/32 port = 20 keep state out log quick on hme0 from 192.30.30.log 13-46 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.168.0/24 to 192.168. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit FTP traffic to pass from the local subnet to the instructor system only. appropriately.30/32 port = 20 keep state pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = ripng pass out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routerad block out all pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = domain keep state pass in log quick on hme0 from 192. All Rights Reserved.30.30/32 port = 21 keep state pass in log quick on qfe2 from 192.1.0/24 to 192.168.168.0/24 to 192.168.30.30/32 port = 21 keep state pass in log quick on hme0 from 192.0/24 to 192.1. Assume that your system will get more DNS traffic than FTP traffic. Log any traffic that matches one of the rules that you define.1.168.30/32 port = 20 keep state out log quick on qfe2 from 192.30/32 port = 21 keep state out log quick on qfe2 from 192.30/32 port = 21 keep state pass out log quick on qfe2 from 192.30/32 port = 20 keep state pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = ripng pass in quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routersol block in all 18.30.30/32 port = 21 keep state in log quick on hme0 from 192. Write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf.0/24 to 192. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command.1.0/24 to 192.168. sys11# ipfstat -io pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = domain keep state pass out log quick on hme0 from 192.30.168.168.1.1.1 . Revision A.

30 Connected to 192. Inc.30. 20. sys13# ftp 192.2. All Rights Reserved.3 ftp: connect: Connection timed out ftp> What behavior do you see? The attempt to connect fails.Exercise Solutions Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on any non-router system on your subnet.168. 220 instructor. Name (192. Sun Services. Revision A.168.1 13-47 . You will now be using FTP to connect to another system on another subnet across your firewall router. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Use FTP to access the instructor system. sys13# ftp 192. 19.30.edu FTP server ready.thirty.30. Use FTP to access a system on another subnet.168.168.30:root): What behavior do you see? The attempt to connect succeeds.30.

168.32788 PR tcp p 192.168.21 PR tcp p 192.30.274326 qfe0 @0:2 len 20 40 -A K-S OUT p 192.30.30.1.3.3.32788 -> 192.168.274058 qfe0 @0:2 len 20 85 -AP K-S IN 03/02/2005 14:13:12.30.168. All Rights Reserved.168.168.168.168.30.3.3.30.32788 -> 192.32788 -> 192.223821 qfe0 @0:2 len 20 52 -S K-S OUT 03/02/2005 14:13:12.168.3.274309 hme0 @0:2 len 20 40 -A K-S IN 03/02/2005 14:13:12.224930 hme0 @0:2 len 20 40 -A K-S IN 03/02/2005 14:13:12.223769 hme0 @0:2 len 20 52 -S K-S IN 03/02/2005 14:13:12.1. Inc.3.3.32788 PR tcp p 192.168.168.32788 PR tcp p 192.30. sys11# cat /var/tmp/ipfilter.log 03/02/2005 14:13:12.30.30.1.168.168. View the log file created by the ipmon command.1.21 PR tcp p 192.168.30.3.168.224486 hme0 @0:2 len 20 52 -AS K-S OUT 03/02/2005 14:13:12.21 PR tcp 13-48 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.30.21 -> 192.224270 qfe0 @0:2 len 20 52 -AS K-S IN 03/02/2005 14:13:12.32788 -> 192.21 -> 192.1.1.30.30.168.1.274078 hme0 @0:2 len 20 85 -AP K-S OUT 03/02/2005 14:13:12.32788 -> 192.1.3.168.224950 qfe0 @0:2 len 20 40 -A K-S OUT 03/02/2005 14:13:12.3.32788 PR tcp p 192.1.21 -> 192.Exercise Solutions Working on the Router on Your Subnet Complete as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 21.30.21 -> 192.1 .21 PR tcp p 192.168.30.30.168.32788 -> 192.21 PR tcp p 192.30.21 PR tcp p 192.1.30. Sun Services. Revision A.168.30.30.

Using NTP to Control and Synchronize System Clocks – Part I: Introduction to NTP. Inc. Revision A. System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory Services (DNS. Solaris Tunable Parameters Reference Manual. Inc. part number 806-4077-10. part number 806-4075-11. part number 806-4078-10. Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.Bibliography Sun Microsystems Publications The following publications are available from Sun Microsystems: q Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. Sun Microsystems. Sun Microsystems. and LDAP). System Administration Guide: IP Services. q q q q q q q Bibliography1-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. System Administration Guide: Advanced Administration. Inc. Inc.1 . Sun BluePrints OnLine part number 816-0092-10. Sun Microsystems. System Administration Guide: Security Services. part number 806-4074-10. Using NTP to Control and Synchronize System Clocks – Part II: Basic NTP Administration and Architecture. Sun BluePrints OnLine part number 816-2353-10. Inc. Inc. Sun Microsystems. Using NTP to Control and Synchronize System Clocks – Part III: NTP Monitoring and Troubleshooting. Inc. Inc. Sun Microsystems. part number 806-7009-10. Sun Microsystems. Sun BluePrints OnLine part number 816-1475-10. Inc. NIS.

Menlo Park.. Christian. Christian. IPv6 Clearly Explained. Perlman. Second Edition. Pete.. 1995. 2002. Radia. Upper Saddle River. Third Edition. Sun Certified Net Administration for Solaris 8 Study Guide. CA: O’Reilly & Associates. Second Edition. Inc. Huitema. Huitema. CA: O’Reilly & Associates.. Upper Saddle River. Revision A. Sebastopol. Paul.1 . Sun Services. Second Edition. Comer. Routing in the Internet. Internetworking With TCP/IP. Sebastopol. Inc. Upper Saddle River. Charles E. 2001.. Routing in the Internet. Spurgeon. 1999. 1998. 1999. IPv6 The New Internet Protocol. Loshin. Interconnections. NJ: Prentice Hall. Douglas. Englewood Cliffs. q q q q q q q q The following book can be used when studying for the Solaris 8 Network Certification Exam: Bushnell. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. Vol. All Rights Reserved. 1995. Inc. NJ: Prentice Hall. Inc. NJ: Prentice Hall. Internetworking with TCP/IP. Comer. Inc. NJ: Prentice Hall. DNS & BIND. Second Edition. Fourth Edition. Inc. Ethernet: The Definitive Guide. Bibliography-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Upper Saddle River. Rick. 1. 1999. and Cricket Liu. Inc. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Douglas E. CA: Addison-Wesley. Christian. Upper Saddle River. 2000.Books Books The following books were used to create this course: q Albitz. NJ: Prentice Hall. Huitema. 1991.

All Rights Reserved. last accessed: 2000.1 Bibliography-3 . [Online].ntp.Online References Online References Many online references were used to create this course. Available: www.com Web site. The http://www. Information on Time and Frequency Services.edu/~mills/ntp/. What about NTP?: Understanding and Using the Network Time Protocol (A First Try on a Non-Technical Mini-HOWTO and FAQ on NTP).udel. including: q Mills. Inc. Dalton. Available: http://www.sun.htm. The Solaris OS online manual pages. The http://docs. Windl. and D. q q q q Bibliography Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. [Online].sun. Revision A.eecis. U.org/ntpfaq/NTP-a-faq.com/solutions/blueprints/ Sun BluePrints Web site. Last accessed: 03/04/2000. Sun Services. David.

W. and E. Y. G. Implementation and Analysis. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 1305. All Rights Reserved. 1997. S. including: q q RFC 1323: TCP Extensions for High Performance. 1996. 1998... RFC 2236: Internet Group Management Protocol. Deering. Inc. and S. 1998. E. RFC 2373: IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2463. Revision A. Hinden. Moskowitz. Version 6 (IPv6) Specification. Hinden. and S. B. 1998. and W. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2462.. Lear.. RFC 1305: Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification. D. Narten.. Conta. J. 1992. 1998..1 . RFC: 2462: IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2460. de Groot. RFC 2461: Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6). Simpson. RFC 2463: Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2461. Deering. Sun Services. A. T. and S. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 1918. R. David. Fenner. q q q q q q q Bibliography-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2236. RFC 2460: Internet Protocol. Deering. Thomson. and T. RFC 1918: Address Allocation for Private Internets. R. Version 2. Mills. Nordmark. Narten. Rekhter.RFCs RFCs Many RFCs were used to create this course. Karrenberg. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2373. 1998.

Glossary/Acronyms Numerals 10BASE-T An evolution of Ethernet technology that succeeded 10BASE-5 and 10BASE-2 as the most popular method of physical network implementation. Inc. which handles services. ANSI American National Standards Institute. A ACL (access control list) ACLs provide a higher level of file security than the standard UNIX file permissions. Sun Services. application A program that combines all the functions necessary for the user to accomplish a particular set of tasks (for example. A 10BASE-T network has a data transfer rate of 10 megabits per second and uses unshielded twisted-pair wiring.1 . Revision A. Glossary-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. such as login procedures. and other basic functions. Application layer In the International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model of network standards. the seventh layer. ACLs give a file owner the ability to permit access to that file or directory to one or more specific users or groups and to set the default permissions for specific users or groups. AH Authentication header. file and print server operation. All Rights Reserved. word processing or inventory tracking).

A cache increases effective memory transfer rates and processor speed. Bourne shell The Bourne shell is the default shell for the Solaris Operating Environment. The Ethernet broadcast address is all 1s (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff in hexadecimal). Sun Services. AS Autonomous system. It does not have aliasing or history capabilities. A host sends a message to all hosts on the local Ethernet using a broadcast address. Revision A.ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) The Internet protocol that dynamically maps Internet addresses to physical (hardware) addresses on local area networks. broadcast address One of three types of Ethernet addresses. often with instructions or the most frequently accessed information. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) A standard assignment of 7-bit numeric codes to characters. Inc. This server queries servers that have authority for the information needed and caches that data. boot (bootstrap) To load the system software into memory and start it. the broadcast address represents broadcasts to the network. C cache A buffer of high-speed memory filled at medium speed from main memory.1 . ARP is limited to networks that support hardware broadcast. Glossary-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. B BCC Block-check character. BIND Berkeley Internet Name Domain. All Rights Reserved. caching-only server A domain name server that is not authoritative for any domain.

Revision A. and it enables routing information to be aggregated to reduce the size of routing tables on backbone routers. Sun Services. Inc. Category 5 Category 5 twisted-pair cable is a data-grade cable. CDE (Common Desktop Environment) This is a graphical user interface between the user and the operating system. Client – A host or a process that uses services provided by servers. client-server model A client-server environment is a network environment that contains at least one of each of the following: q Server – A host or a process that provides services to other systems on the network.canonical Characteristic of adhering to standard. It enables users to control multiple working documents or applications on the screen at the same time. q CNAME Canonical name. CIDR enables more efficient allocation of IP address space. All Rights Reserved. It features two to three twists per inch used in 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX networks. Glossary/Acronyms Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. It is used to determine if the file contents have changed. or authoritative procedures or principles. It provides built-in menus for users to select and run utilities and programs without using the Solaris 2. CIDR (classless inter-domain routing) This type of routing was introduced as a stop-gap solution to the Class B IPv4 address exhaustion and routing table explosion. Category 3 Category 3 twisted-pair cabling is a voice-grade cable. checksum A checksum is a number that is calculated from the binary bytes of the file.x OE commands.1 Glossary-3 . It features two to three twists per foot and is used in 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T4 networks. CCITT Comite Consultatif Internationale de Telegraphie et Telephonie. accepted.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is an example of a connection-oriented protocol. Datagrams contain at least data and destination addresses. which enables establishing. decryption The process of converting coded data to plain text. maintaining. the second layer. Revision A. datagram The Internet Protocol (IP) datagram is the basic unit of information that is passed on a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.1 .connectionless A type of data transfer in which self-contained messages are delivered without acknowledgement of receipt. CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access/collision detection) The Ethernet access method protocol used to control packet transmission and flow over the Ethernet hardware. connection-oriented A type of data transfer in which a connection with another system must be established before exchanging data. CRC (cyclical redundancy check) A system of error checking performed at both the sending and receiving station after a block-check character (BCC) has been accumulated. and releasing services between network entities. Inc. Glossary-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. D daemon A process that performs a particular system task. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is an example of a protocol in which a connection is not necessary. Data Link layer In the International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model. de-encapsulation The process of removing a header from a segment of data when systems are communicating with each other.

Glossary/Acronyms Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. encapsulation The process of adding a header to a segment of data when systems are communicating with each other.DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) This automatically assigns Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) client computers when the client joins the network. Sun Services. Revision A. alternate boot paths. This enables Internet communications using only host names. Inc. an EEPROM holds information about the current system configuration. DHCP selects an IP address from a preconfigured pool. E EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. Ethernet A type of local area network that enables real-time communication between machines connected directly through cables. called a key. This eliminates the need to maintain a static list of addresses for each client. Encryption is based on a code. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS provides translations of host names into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. domain The name assigned to a group of systems on a local network that share administrative files. ESP Encapsulation security payload. encryption The process of protecting information from unauthorized use by making the information unintelligible. It is required for the Network Information Service (NIS) database to work properly. EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) A nonvolatile PROM that can be written to as well as read from.1 Glossary-5 . EGPs Exterior gateway protocols. All Rights Reserved. In Sun workstations. which is used to decrypt the information. and so on.

Ethernet MAC address The physical address also known as the media access controller (MAC) or Ethernet address. each one of them having their own authority. Sun Services. An example of a complete Ethernet address is 8:0:20:le:56:7:d. An Ethernet address is a unique hardware address.com.1 . frame A series of bits with a well-defined beginning and a well-defined end. andy. where andy is the name of a host. EUI End-unit identifier.Ethernet address The physical address of an individual Ethernet controller board. For example. FQDN (fully qualified domain name) A domain name that ends with a dot followed by a domain label of length zero (the root). Revision A. Each item can have one or more items below it in the hierarchy. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Additional Ethernet interfaces are assigned different Ethernet addresses. H hierarchal domains A tree of domains or namespaces. F FCS Frame check sequence. It is 48 bits long. FP Format prefix. Glossary-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.sun. hierarchy A classification of relationships in which each item except the top one (called the root) is a specialized form of the item above it. The Ethernet address of every Sun workstation is unique and coded into a chip on the motherboard. It is called the hardware address or media access control (MAC) address.

flow control. or if multiple packets will arrive in the order they were sent. Revision A. IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) A network layer protocol that provides for routing. token bus. and metropolitan area networks. token ring. Glossary/Acronyms Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. and sequencing of data.host name A unique name identifying a host machine connected to a network. IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) The protocol that enables the exchange or routing information between collaborating routers on the Internet. The hostname command determines a system’s host. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The IP does not determine whether the packet will be delivered. reliability.1 Glossary-7 . I IAB Internet Architecture Board. Examples of IGPs include Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). It enables the unreliable delivery of individual packets from one host to another. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) The standards organization that is responsible for developing networking standards relating to Ethernet. IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. Protocols built on top of this protocol add the functions of connection and reliability. IP (Internet Protocol) The basic protocol of the Internet. how long it will take. hub The central device through which all hosts in a twisted-pair Ethernet installation are connected. The name must be unique on the network.

129. It is a 32-bit addressing scheme currently used as the dominant scheme. Inc. Deploying IPv6. An IPv4 address is a unique number assigned to a host on a network. if that network has been registered with the Internet governing organization. is represented by a decimal number between 0 and 255. IPMP Internet Protocol Messaging Protocol. In addition. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) One of two versions of IP addressing. user name.31. Sun Services.150. and on the Internet. Each 8-bit field. This often includes a phone number access code. using defined transition mechanisms. IPv6 is an increment to IPv4. separated by periods. All Rights Reserved. IPG Internet Gateway Protocol. ISO also develops standards for information exchange. ISP (Internet service provider) A company providing an Internet package. Glossary-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. IP network number The first octet or octets of an Internet Protocol (IP) address that uniquely identify an IP network within an organization.IP address In Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). and software. ISO (International Organization for Standardization) An international standards body that reviews and approves independently designed products for use within specific industries. all for a provider fee. for example. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) A new version designed to be an evolutionary step from the current version. Revision A. a unique 32-bit number that identifies each host in a network.182. IPv6 provides a platform for new Internet functionality. does not disrupt current operations. IPv4 addresses are 32 bits divided into four 8-bit fields. or octet. such as the ISO/OSI model for computer networks. IPsec Internet Protocol Security Architecture.1 .

Sun Services. MMF Multimode fiber. JPG Joint Pictures Group. JumpStart process An automatic installation process available in a network environment that enables system administrators to categorize machines and automatically install systems based on the machine’s category. layer One of a set of services. master server The server that maintains the master copy of the network information service database. and protocols that span all open systems. L LAN (local area network) A group of computer systems in close proximity that can communicate by way of some connecting hardware and software. Revision A. processes. Glossary/Acronyms Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. memory. Inc. K kernel The master program (core) of the Solaris Operating Environment. mirror Disk mirroring is a feature that guards against component failure by writing the same data to two or more disk drives at the same time. and daemons. The kernel also controls the functions between the system programs and the system hardware.J JPEG Joint Pictures Expert Group. It has a disk and a complete copy of the operating system.1 Glossary-9 . swap. functions. M MAC Media access control. All Rights Reserved. It manages devices.

The default name service product available in the Solaris 2. NDP Neighbor Discovery Protocol. The address is formatted into an initial domain part that is standardized for each of several addressing domains. enabling them to communicate. the expanded packet is referred to as a segment. Glossary-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. It is then passed to the Network layer. and a domain-specific part that is the responsibility of the addressing authority for that domain. Network layer In the International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model of network standards. which enables routing and switching blocks of data between two devices that support Transport layer protocols over a connection. consisting of up to 20 octets. It then goes to the Data Link layer. The last three octets are used to assign host group identity. network Technically. Inc. For example. network segment In Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). the MTU for a physical Ethernet interface is 1500 bytes. when the TCP adds an information header to a packet of data for decoding by the TCP on the remote machine. multicast address One of three types of Ethernet address. All Rights Reserved.MTU (maximum transmission unit) An MTU is the largest amount of data that can be transferred across a given physical network. The MTU is hardware specific. the multicast address is used to send a message to a subset of hosts on a network.x Operating Environment is Network Information Service Plus (NIS+). Revision A. which converts it to a datagram. In Ethernet multicast addressing. Sun Services. network address The address. the systems so connected.5E. the third layer. Informally.00. N name service A name service provides a means of identifying and locating resources (traditionally host names and Internet Protocol [IP] addresses) available to a network.1 . used to locate an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) transport entity. the first three octets must contain a value of 01. which converts it to a frame. the hardware connecting various systems.

NFS (Network File System) A file system distributed by Sun that provides transparent access to remote file systems on heterogeneous networks. NIC Network interface card. NIS (Network Information Service) The Sun Operating System 4.0 (minimum) network information service. A distributed network database containing key information about the systems and the users on the network. The NIS database is stored on the master server and all the slave servers. See also NIS+. NIS+ (Network Information Service Plus) The Sun Operating System 5.0 (minimum) network information service. NIS+ replaces NIS, the Sun OS 4.0 (minimum) NIS. NLA Next level aggregator. node A node is an addressable point on a network. Each node in a Sun network has a different name. A node can connect a computing system, a terminal, or various other peripheral devices to the network. NS Name server. NSCD Name service cache daemon. NTP Network Time Protocol. NVRAM Nonvolatile random access memory.

O
OpenBoot PROM OpenBoot programmable read-only memory. OS (operating system) A collection of programs that monitor the use of the system and supervise the other programs executed by it.

Glossary/Acronyms
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Glossary-11

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) OSI is an international standardization program that was developed to facilitate communications among computers from different manufacturers. OSPF Open Shortest Path First.

P
PDU Packet data unit. peer-to-peer communication The communications between peer devices. Physical layer In the International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model of network standards, the first layer, which supplies the mechanical, electrical, and procedural means of establishing, maintaining, and releasing physical connections. PID (process identification number) A unique, system-wide, identification number assigned to a process. Also called process ID, process number. PLM Physical layer medium. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) A way to connect to the Internet; PPP also provides error-checking features. PROM (programmable read-only memory) A permanent memory chip programmed by the user rather than at the chip manufacturer, as is true with a read-only memory (ROM). You need a PROM programmer or burner to write data onto a PROM. PROM has been mostly replaced by erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), a type of PROM that can be erased by ultraviolet light and reprogrammed. protocol A way to transmit data between devices. A computer or device must have a correct protocol to be able to communicate successfully with other computers or devices. PTR DNS pointer record.

Glossary-12

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

R
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) RARP is an Internet Protocol that maps a physical (hardware) address to an Internet address. Diskless clients use RARP to find its Internet address at startup. RDISC Router discovery. RFC Request for Comment. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP provides for automated distribution of routing information between systems. RPC (remote procedure call) This is an easy and popular paradigm for implementing the client-server model of distributed computing. A request is sent to a remote system to execute a designated procedure, using supplied arguments. The result is returned to the caller. There are many variations of this, resulting in a variety of different RPC protocols. run level One of the eight initialization states in which a system can run. A system can run in only one initialization state at a time. The default run level for each system is specified in the /etc/inittab file. run level 2 A multiuser mode without remote resources available. All daemons are running except for remote file-sharing daemons. run level S A single-user mode in which the operating system is running, but all users are logged out and most system processes, such as print and mail, are not running. Only one user (the superuser) is logged in to the system. Run level S is convenient for doing backups because, because no users are logged in, all data is stable.

S
SLA Site-level aggregator.

Glossary/Acronyms
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Glossary-13

slave server A server system that maintains a copy of the Network Information Service (NIS) database. It has a disk and a complete copy of the operating system. SLIP (Serial-Line Internet Protocol) An Internet protocol used to run Internet Protocol (IP) over serial lines such as telephone circuits or RS-232 cables interconnecting two systems. The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is the preferred protocol. SMF Service Management Framework. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) The network management of choice for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol-based (TCP/IP-based) Internets. snoop This command captures network packets and displays their contents. The command can be run only by the superuser. SOA (start of authority) An SOA record marks the beginning of a zone’s authority and defines parameters that affect an entire zone. stateful A type of data transfer where part of the data sent from the client to the server includes the status of the client. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is an example of a stateful protocol. stateless A type of data transfer where the server has no obligation to keep track of the state of the client. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is an example of a stateless protocol. subnetwork A collection of International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) end systems and intermediate systems under the control of a single administrative domain and using a single network access protocol; for example, private X.25 networks and a collection of bridged LANs.

Glossary-14

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

T
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) A communications protocol that ensures data is sent between computers on the Internet. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) An Internet protocol that provides for the reliable delivery of data streams from one host to another. SunOS networks run on TCP/IP by default. Also called Internet Protocol suite. See also IP. TLA Top-level aggregator. TP Twisted pair. TP-PLM Twisted-pair physical layer medium. Transport layer In the International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model of network standards, the fourth layer, which controls the transfer of data between session layer entities. TTL (time-to-live) Complete entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table have a TTL value and a period during which they are considered to be valid entries (normally 30 minutes). TTL is also used in Domain Name System (DNS) zone files.

U
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) This protocol is a transport protocol in the Internet suite of protocols. It uses Internet Protocol (IP) for delivery, and provides for exchange of datagrams without acknowledgements or guaranteed delivery. UTC Coordinated Universal Time. This is the official standard for current time. Several institutions contribute their calculations of the current time, and UTC is a combination of these estimates. UTP Unshielded twisted-pair.

Glossary/Acronyms
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Glossary-15

V
VLAN Virtual local area network. VLSM Variable length subnet mask.

W
WAN (wide area network) WANs are slower-speed networks typically used by organizations to connect their local area networks. WANs are often built from leased telephone lines capable of moving data at speeds of 56 kilobits per second to 1.55 megabits per second. A WAN might be used to bridge a company’s office on two opposite ends of town or on opposite ends of a continent.

Glossary-16

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Index
Numerics
1000BASE-CX media system 2-11 1000BASE-LX media system 2-11 1000BASE-SX media system 2-11 1000BASE-T media system 2-11 100BASE-FX media system 2-10 100BASE-T4 media system 2-10 100BASE-TX media system 2-9 10BASE-T media system 2-9 IPv6 anycast 8-6 multicast 8-5 representation 8-6 types 8-5 unicast 8-5 link-local 8-6 loopback type 8-14 multicast 3-7, 5-11, 8-7 network number 5-9 scope bits 8-16 site-local 8-6 test 6-5 unicast 3-7, 5-9 unspecified type 8-14 address-to-name translation 10-24, 10-25 aggregatable global address 8-7, 8-12 anycast address 8-6 Application layer common protocols 1-9 description 1-4, 1-8 formatting data 1-9 functions 1-9 presenting data 1-9 transporting data 1-9 ARP adding entries from a file 4-6 adding permanent table entries 4-6 adding table entries 4-6 cache 4-4

A
access list 10-27 access method, Ethernet 3-2 addif option 5-27 address aggregatable global 8-7 broadcast 3-7, 5-11 Class A 5-9 Class B 5-10 Class C 5-10 classful 5-9 define test 8-61 detecting duplicates 8-10 embedded IPv4 8-13 Ethernet 3-6 host number 5-9 IP 5-9 IPv4 5-9

Index-1
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

cache management 4-5 cache times 4-4 control table entries 4-5 deleting table entries 4-7 description 1-13, 4-2 display table entries 4-5 Ethernet frame 4-2 operation 4-2 process 4-3 removing static entries 4-7 removing table entries 4-6 searching for new cache entries 4-6 table entries 4-5 TCP/IP model 4-2 time to live 4-6 arp utility 4-5 ASCII 1-9 autonomous system 7-8

B
banner command 3-8 BASE 2-8 baseband 2-8 BIND 10-24 bridges 2-12 bridging devices 2-12 broadcast addresses 3-7, 5-11 buffered transfer 9-11 bus configurations 2-2

C
capture network packets 3-14 carrier sense 3-2 carrier sense multiple access/collision detection. See CSMA/CD changing host name 5-23 CIDR block 7-35 operation 7-33 purpose 7-33 Class A address 5-9 Class B address 5-10 Class C address 5-10

classful address 5-9 classless inter-domain routing. See CIDR CNAME record 10-23 coaxial cable 2-8 collision detection 3-2 rates 3-4 collision rates 3-4 commands banner 3-8 eeprom 3-8 ndd 4-4 route 7-24 communication architecture 1-2 computers keeping time 12-2 networking fundamentals 1-2 configuration errors file 10-35 configuring default route 7-19 DHCP address 11-21 to 11-38 initial 11-9, 11-20 server 11-28 DHCP client 11-39 DNS client 10-32 dynamic routing 7-25 interface for IPv6 8-20 IPMP at boot time 8-68 manually 8-58 IPv6 autoconfiguration 8-3, 8-8 interfaces 8-24 multipathing 8-58 name service lookup 8-21, 8-25 on non-router 8-19 router 8-24 logical interfaces 5-26, 8-36 multipathing 6-6, 6-21 ndpd.conf file 8-25 NTP client 12-13 NTP server 12-5 router troubleshooting 7-42 routing

Index-2

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

at boot time 7-38 without rebooting 7-40 secondary DNS server 10-29 static route 7-18 static route manually 7-21 stratum of a NTP server 12-8 troubleshooting routers 8-33 connectionless communication 1-8 connection-oriented communication 1-8 connection-oriented protocol 9-3 connections, full-duplex and virtual circuit 9-11 contiguous netmask 5-15 contiguous subnet masks 5-15 CRC 1-5 creating DHCP tables 11-31 CSMA/CD Ethernet access method 3-2 structure 3-3 cyclical redundancy check (CRC) 1-5

D
daemons /usr/sbin/in.routed 7-28 in.dhcpd 11-4 in.mpathd 6-4, 6-18, 8-66 in.ndpd 8-18, 8-23 in.rarpd 4-9, 4-11 in.ripngd 8-24 in.routed 7-20 xntpd 12-7 data communication 1-2 data encapsulation 1-11, 4-2 data format 1-2 data transfer 1-2 datagram connectionless delivery of 5-3 header fields 5-6 IP 5-6 IP fields 5-6 payload 5-8 default route 7-6, 7-19 define test address 8-61 destination IP address 7-15

network 7-17 network number 7-15 DHCP adding table entries 11-32 address configuration 11-21, 11-38 client functions 11-3 configuration file 11-7 configuring client 11-39 servers 11-7, 11-28 creating tables 11-31 description 1-14 dhcptab table 11-34 functionality 11-2 fundamentals 11-2 graphical manager 11-8 initial configuration 11-9 to 11-20 managing tables 11-31 server 10-26 server functions 11-4 troubleshooting clients 11-45 dhcp_network file 11-30 dhcpconfig utility 11-8, 11-28 dhcpmgr utility 11-8 dhcptab table 11-34 dhtadm utility 11-34 direct route 7-4 directory, /tftpboot 4-11 discover routers 8-18 diskless clients 4-9 displaying ARP data 4-4 ARP table entries 4-6 IPv6 route table 8-36 route table 7-12 state of IPv6 interfaces 8-35 distance-vector algorithms 7-11, 7-25 DNS access list 10-27 allow-query BIND file 10-27 allow-transfer BIND file 10-27 configuring server 10-29 configuring the client 10-32 description 1-14 dynamic updates 10-26

Index
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Index-3

restricting queries 10-28 reverse-domain file 10-24 security 10-27 server 10-25 troubleshooting the server 10-33 Domain Name System. See DNS drift file 12-7 duplicate address detection 8-10 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. See DHCP dynamic route 7-7 dynamic routing, configuring 7-25

Ethernet-II frames 3-10 Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) 7-10

F
failover 6-2 FAILURE_DETECTION_TIME variable 6-5 features of a protocol stack 1-3 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 1-9, 1-14 files /etc/default/dhcp 11-7 /etc/default/mpathd 6-3, 6-5, 6-18, 8-66 /etc/defaultrouter 7-6, 7-19 /etc/ethers 4-11 /etc/gateways 7-20 /etc/hostname.hme0 5-27 /etc/hostname.interface 5-22, 5-23 /etc/inet/dhcpsvc.conf 11-7 /etc/inet/hosts 3-17, 4-11, 5-23 /etc/inet/netmasks 5-18 /etc/inet/networks 7-16 /etc/inet/ntp.conf 12-7, 12-11 /etc/inet/ntp.server 12-5 /etc/named.conf 10-27 /etc/net/hosts 5-22 /etc/netmask 5-18 /etc/nodename 5-23 /etc/nsswitch.conf 4-11 /usr/include/netinet/ip_icmp.h 5-4 /var/adm/messages 10-35 /var/ntp/ntp.drift 12-7 dhcp_network 11-30 interface configuration 5-22 ndpd.conf 8-25 ntp.conf 12-8 one-backup 10-30 one-rbackup 10-30 flow control 9-12 flushing route table 7-23 format prefix 8-6 formatting data, Application layer functions 1-9 fragmentation 5-3

E
EBCDIC 1-9 EEPROM 3-8 eeprom command 3-8 EGP 7-10 electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) 3-8 embedded IPv4 address 8-13 enabling IPv6 8-18 Ethernet access method 3-2 address mapping 4-5 addresses 3-6 ARP 4-2 changing the address 3-9 displaying the address 3-8 displaying the state 3-4 elements 3-2 frame header information 3-14 frames 3-2, 3-6, 3-10 permanent change to address 3-9 statistics 3-4 switches 2-13 topology 3-3 viewing the address 3-8 Ethernet frames bad CRC 3-13 error conditions 3-13 giant 3-13 jabbers 3-13 long 3-13 runts 3-13

Index-4

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

frame check sequence 3-13 frames, Ethernet 3-2 framing packets 1-5 FTP 1-9, 1-14 fudge entry 12-8 full-duplex connection 9-11 transmission 3-4 full-duplex transmission 3-4 function, \? 3-19

G
group membership 8-17

H
half-duplex transmission 3-4 hardware address 4-5 header fields, IP 5-7 hme driver 3-18 hme interfaces 3-19 hme0 interface 3-19, 5-22 hold-down state 7-26 hop count 7-25 hop-count limit 7-26 host alias 10-23 host name, changing 5-23 host nickname 10-23 host-based addressing media 3-6 host-based approach, Ethernet addresses 3-6 HTTP 1-15 http 1-4, 12-9 hubs intelligent 2-3 non-intelligent 2-3 shared 2-12 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 1-15

I
IANA 5-9 ICMP definition 5-3

description 1-13 error detection 1-7 functions 5-3 message types 5-4 message-type file 5-4 purpose 5-3, 5-4 redirect 7-31 routing data 1-7 ICMPv6 group membership 8-17 IEEE 802.3 standard 2-9, 3-2 IEEE identifiers 2-8 if_mpadm utility 6-28 ifconfig utility addif option 5-27 configuring logical interfaces 5-26 unconfiguring logical interfaces 5-28 viewing the MTU of an interface 5-3 IGP 7-9 IMAP4 1-14 in.dhcpd daemon 11-4 in.mpathd daemon failure detection 6-5 multipath group 6-4 repair detection 6-5 starting 6-18, 8-66 in.ndpd daemon 8-18, 8-23 in.rarpd daemon 4-9, 4-11 in.rdisc process 7-30 in.ripngd daemon 8-24 in.routed daemon 7-20 incrementing interface number 5-27 indirect route 7-4 initializing multihomed host 7-40 non-router 7-41 input errors, network system 3-5 instance of hme interface 3-19 instance parameter 3-19 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) identifiers 2-8 intelligent hubs 2-3 interface configuration files 5-22 interface failure definition 6-5 interface identifier 8-8 interface identifier calculation 8-9 interface repair definition 6-6

Index
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Index-5

interfaces hme 3-19 hme0 3-19 logical 5-24 virtual 5-24 Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) 5-9 Internet Control Message Protocol. See ICMP Internet Gateway Protocol (IGP) 7-9 Internet layer description 1-4, 1-6 functions 1-6 ICMP 1-7 IP 1-7 Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4) 1-14 Internet Protocol. See IP IP address mapping 4-5 address types 5-9 datagram 5-3, 5-6, 7-15 datagram header fields 5-6 datagram payload 5-8 description 1-13 fragmenting data 1-7 header fields 5-7 ICMP 5-3 MTUs 5-3 purpose 5-3 routing 7-3 routing data 1-7 IPMP configuring at boot time 8-68 features 6-3 manual configuration 8-58 requirements 6-4, 6-20 IPv4 address shortage 8-3 addresses 5-9 IPv6 address representation 8-6 address shortage 8-3 address types 8-5 aggregatable global address 8-7, 8-12 anycast address 8-6

authentication 8-4 autoconfiguration 8-3, 8-8 configure on non-router 8-19 configuring interfaces 8-20, 8-24 configuring multipathing 8-58 configuring name service lookup 8-21 displaying interfaces 8-35 displaying route table 8-36 embedded IPv4 address 8-13 enabling 8-18 expanded addressing 8-4 format prefix 8-6 interface troubleshooting 8-36 IPMP configuration 8-58 link-local address 8-6 managing 8-35 multicast address 8-5, 8-7 name service lookup 8-25 privacy header 8-4 RFC 8-3 RIP 8-23 router configuration 8-24 site-local address 8-6 stateful autoconfiguration 8-8 stateless autoconfiguration 8-8 unicast address 8-5

J
JumpStart software clients 4-9

L
LAN media 2-8 network devices 2-12 link speed 3-19 link-local address 8-6, 8-11 link-state protocol 7-10 localhost entry 7-18 local-mac-address? variable 3-8 logical interfaces administering 5-24 configuring 5-26, 8-36

Index-6

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

3-20. 8-58 troubleshooting 6-30 multiple access 3-2 M MAC address banner command 3-8 files 4-11 ifconfig utility 3-8 setting 3-8 viewing 3-8 managing DHCP tables 11-31 IPv6 8-35 NTP daemons 12-10 mappings to host names 10-21 maximum transfer unit. 8-25 name-service database 4-11 names-to-IP addresses 10-21 ND 8-18 ndc utility 10-45 ndd parameters 3-19 ndd utility 3-18. 6-21.description 5-24 incrementing 5-27 removeif option 5-28 unconfiguring 5-28 loopback address type 8-14 loopback interface 3-12 multihomed host 7-40 multipath.1 Index-7 . See MTU media access control address. Inc. 5-11 format prefixes 8-7 IPv6 8-5 purpose 8-15 scope bits 8-16 N name daemon control program (ndc) 10-45 name server 10-20 name service lookup 8-21. 6-2 Network Interface layer description 1-4 protocols IEEE 802.5 1-6 PPP 1-12 SLIP 1-12 TCP/IP 3-2 network is unreachable 7-15 Index Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 3-19.4 1-6 IEEE 802. 4-4 ndpd. viewing operation 6-28 multipathing configuring 6-6. Sun Services.TX 2-9 100BASE-FX 2-10 100BASE-T4 2-10 10BASE-T 2-9 messages. ICMP 5-4 monitoring route table changes 7-22 MTU data size 3-12 description 3-12 fragmentation 5-3 Internet layer 5-3 maximum frame size 3-12 multicast address description 3-7. See MAC address media systems 1000BASE-CX 2-11 1000BASE-LX 2-11 1000BASE-SX 2-11 1000BASE-T 2-11 100BASE .conf file 8-25 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (ND) 8-18 netmask contiguous 5-15 definition 5-18 file 5-18 noncontiguous 5-15 netstat utility displaying collisions 3-4 displaying Ethernet interfaces 3-17 field descriptions 3-17 -i option 3-17 input and output errors 3-5 network devices bridges 2-12 LANs 2-12 switches 2-12 Network File System (NFS) 1-9 network interface card (NIC) 3-6. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.

See NTP network topologies and OSPF 7-10 bus configurations 2-2 describing 2-2 ring configurations 2-4 star configurations 2-3 NFS 1-9 NIC 3-6. 7-44 network number 5-18 network overload 3-5 network packets. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. 6-2 no route to host 7-15 noncontiguous netmasks 5-15 noncontiguous subnet masks 5-15 non-intelligent hubs 2-3 nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM). 10-21 nslookup utility 10-36 NTP basic concepts 12-2 configuration file parts 12-6 configuring a server 12-5 configuring clients 12-13 configuring stratum of a NTP server 12-8 configuring the stratum 12-8 external reference servers 12-9 fudge entry 12-8 functions 12-3 managing daemons 12-10 multicast advertisement 12-8 ntpg utility 12-12 peers 12-12 query program 12-12 snoop utility 12-16 terms 12-3 troubleshooting 12-15 undisciplined local clock 12-7 xntpdc utility 12-10 ntp. version 3 (POP3) 1-14 PPP 1-12 prefix notation 8-13 presenting data. Ethernet addresses 3-6 noripin directive 7-20 NS record 10-20. Ethernet addresses 3-6 Post Office Protocol. Sun Services. Application layer functions 1-9 process. in.rdisc 7-30 programmable read-only memory (PROM) 4-10 Index-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.network model concepts 1-3 functions 1-3 layered model 1-3 layers 1-3 rules 1-3 structure 1-3 network name 7-16.conf file 12-8 ntpq utility 12-12 NVRAM 3-6 O one-backup file 10-30 one-rbackup file 10-30 output errors 3-5 P packet data unit 1-5 parameters instance 3-19 TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_ GROUPS 8-66 path-vector algorithm 7-11 PDU 1-5 peer-to-peer description 1-10 encapsulation 1-11 physical network interface 5-25 piggybacking 9-11 pntadm utility 11-31 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) 1-12 POP3 1-14 port-based address 3-8 port-based approach.1 . Inc. capturing 3-14 network performance problems 3-4 network protocols 1-2 Network Time Protocol.

See RARP reverse loopback 10-25 reverse-domain file 10-24 RFC documents 1-4 listings 1-4 ring configurations 2-4 RIP 7-7. Inc.1 Index-9 . 8-23 root name server 10-20 route command 7-24 route poisoning 7-27 route table description 7-12 display 7-12 fields 7-13 flush 7-23 monitoring changes 7-22 netmask 7-23 protocol 7-10 search order 7-14 updates 7-6. 1-14 functions 1-2 ICMP 5-3 IGP 7-9 IP 5-3 link-state 7-10 NFS 1-9 RDISC 7-30 reliable 9-6 SLIP 1-12 SMTP 1-9 SNMP 1-9 SSH 1-9 stack 1-2 stateful 9-5 stateless 9-5 TCP 9-2.protocol stack features 1-3 protocol statistics 3-18 protocols connection-oriented 9-3 EGP 7-10 FTP 1-9.rarp daemon 4-11 operation 4-9 performing a boot 4-10 PROM 4-10 TCP/IP Internet layer protocol description 1-13 RDISC Protocol 7-30. 7-19 direct 7-4 dynamic 7-7 fundamentals 7-3 hold-down state 7-26 hops 7-25 indirect 7-4 initialization 7-38 initializing non-router 7-41 Index Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 7-31 router advertisement 8-19 configuration 8-24 discover 8-18 troubleshooting 8-22 Router Discovery (RDISC) Protocol 8-18 routing add route 7-24 advertisement 7-7 autonomous system 7-8 broadcast 7-28 configuring at boot time 7-38 configuring without rebooting 7-40 default 7-6. Sun Services. 9-8 UDP 9-2. See RFC retransmit message 9-6 REVARP request 4-9 Reverse Address Resolution Protocol. 9-8 unreliable 9-7 R RARP /etc/ethers files 4-11 /etc/inet/hosts files 4-11 description 1-13 in. Revision A. 8-18 reducing network traffic 9-11 reference clock 12-3 reliable protocol 9-6 remote procedure call (RPC) 3-14 removeif option 5-28 Request for Comment. 9-8 telnet 1-9 Transport layer 9-2. All Rights Reserved.

1-14 snoop utility capture network packets 3-14 NTP 12-16 reading the file 3-16 summary mode 3-14 using 3-14 verbose mode 3-14 SOA record 10-22 speed matching 1-2 split horizons 7-26 SSH 1-9 standby interface 6-3 star configurations 2-3 stateful autoconfiguration 8-8 protocol 9-5 stateless autoconfiguration 8-8 protocol 9-5 static routes configuring 7-18 configuring manual 7-21 definition 7-6 strata 12-3 stratum-1 server 12-3 subnet address 5-21 subnet masks contiguous 5-15 noncontiguous 5-15 subnetting 5-12 switches 2-12 switching devices 2-12 T TCP congestion window 9-12 datagram header 9-10 description 1-13.d/S72inetsvc 5-17 /etc/rcSd/S30network. Sun Services. 9-8 receiver-side window advertisements 9-12 reliability 1-8 satellite networks 9-13 segment acknowledgement 9-12 segments 1-8 Index-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 8-23 RPC 3-14 RUNNING flag 6-5 S scope bits 8-16 scripts /etc/rc2. 1-14 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) 1-9. 8-12 SLIP 1-12 SMTP 1-9. 8-29 /etc/rc2.route poisoning 7-27 route table 7-6 split horizons 7-26 static 7-6 triggered updates 7-26 troubleshooting 7-42 Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 7-7. 1-14 SNMP 1-9. 9-2. 1-14 site-local address 8-6. 7-7. 5-17.sh 5-17. Revision A. 9-10 flow control 9-12 header information 9-11 high-bandwidth network 9-13 large window 9-13 network congestion 9-12 protocol 1-8.1 . Inc. All Rights Reserved.d/S69inet 4-11. 6-18. 7-39. 6-18 secure shell 1-9 security DNS 10-27 restricting queries 10-28 segment type 2-8 self-contained messages 9-4 semantics in network protocols 1-2 sender side congestion window 9-12 sequencing 1-2 Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) 1-12 servers DHCP configuration 11-7 stratum 12-3 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) 1-9.

1-7 error detection 9-8 fundamentals 9-2 protocol 9-2. buffered 9-11 transmission full-duplex 3-4 half-duplex 3-4 Transmission Control Protocol. Application layer functions 1-9 triggered updates 7-26 troubleshooting DHCP clients 11-45 DNS server 10-33 IPv6 interface 8-36 multipathing 6-30 network names 7-44 non-router configuration 8-22 NTP 12-15 router configuration 7-42. 9-8 reliability 1-8. 9-8 transport server 9-2 transporting data. Sun Services. 8-5 types 8-11 unreliable protocol 9-7 unspecified address type 8-14 unstructured stream orientation 9-11 User Datagram Protocol. All Rights Reserved. 5-9. 9-9 procedure call 3-14 protocol 9-2.TCP/IP ARP 4-2 common protocols 1-12 model 1-1 Network Interface layer 3-2 peer-to-peer communication 1-10 PPP 1-12 protocol stack 9-8 protocols 1-12 SLIP protocol 1-12 TCP/IP layer model Application layer 1-4 common hardware platform 1-4 Internet layer 1-4 Network Interface layer 1-4 primary functions 1-5 Transport layer 1-4 telnet protocol 1-9. 1-14 test address 6-5. Revision A. 7-44 tools 3-17 twisted-pair 2-8 U UDP datagram header 9-9 datagrams 1-8 description 1-13. 3-20 netstat 3-4. See TCP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. 8-33 routing 7-42. 5-26 ndc 10-45 ndd 3-18. 3-5 nslookup 10-36 ntpg 12-12 ntpq 12-12 pntadm 11-31 snoop 3-14. 3-19. See UDP utilities arp 4-5 dhcpconfig 11-8. See TCP/IP Transport layer connectionless communication 1-8 connection-oriented communication 1-8 description 1-4. 8-61 time keeping 12-2 time-to-live 10-20 timing in network protocols 1-2 TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS parameter 8-66 transfer. 9-9 unconfiguring logical interfaces 5-28 undisciplined local clock 12-7 unicast addresses description 3-7. 12-16 xntpdc 12-10 Index Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 Index-11 . 11-28 dhcpmgr 11-8 dhtadm 11-34 if_mpadm 6-28 ifconfig 5-3. Inc.

All Rights Reserved. Inc. Revision A. Sun Services.V variable length subnet mask (VLSM) 5-20 variables FAILURE_DETECTION_TIME 6-5 local-mac-address? 3-8 virtual circuit connection 9-11 virtual interfaces 5-24 Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) 2-5 VLAN 2-5 VLSM 5-20 W web servers 10-24 window advertisement 9-12 X xntpd daemon 12-7 xntpdc utility 12-10 Index-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful