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Compiled by: Lee Kian Keong
October 27, 2010
Abstract
This is a document which shows all the questions from year 2002 to year 2009 using L
A
T
E
X.
Students should use this document as reference and try all the questions if possible. Students
are encourage to contact me via email
1
or message on facebook
2
if there are problems or typing
errors.
Contents
1 Numbers and Sets 2
2 Polynomials 3
3 Sequences and series 4
4 Matrices 6
5 Coordinate geometry 8
6 Functions 10
7 Diﬀerentiation 11
8 Integration 13
9 Diﬀerential Equations 15
10 Trigonometry 18
11 Geometry Deduction 19
12 Vectors 23
13 Data Description 25
14 Probability 28
15 Discrete Probability Distributions 30
16 Continuous Probability Distributions 32
1
akeong@gmail.com
2
http://www.facebook.com/akeong
1
Numbers and Sets Lee Kian Keong
1 Numbers and Sets
1. If log
a
x
a
2
= 3 log
a
2 −log
a
(x −2a), express x in terms of a.
[Answer: x = 4a ]
2. Given that log
a
(3x −4a) + log
a
3x =
2
log
2
a
+ log
a
(1 −2a), where 0 < a <
1
2
, ﬁnd x.
[Answer:
2
3
]
3. Find the values of x if y = 3 −x and 4y −(x
2
−9) = −24.
[Answer: x = 7, x = −9 ]
4. Using the laws of the algebra of sets, show that
(A∩ B)
−(A
∩ B) = B
5. Using deﬁnitions, show that, for any sets A, B and C,
A∩ (B ∪ C) ⊂ (A∩ B) ∪ (A∩ C)
6. Using the laws of the algebra of sets, show that, for any sets A and B,
(A−B) ∪ (B −A) = (A∪ B) −(A∩ B)
7. If A, B and C are arbitrary sets, show that
[(A∪ B) −(B ∪ C)] ∩ (A∪ C)
= ∅
8. If z is a complex number such that z = 1, ﬁnd the real part of
1
1 −z
.
[Answer:
1
2
]
9. Express
59 −24
√
6 as p
√
2 +q
√
3 where p and q are integers.
[Answer: 4
√
2 −3
√
3 ]
10. Simplify
(a)
(
√
7 −
√
3)
2
2(
√
7 +
√
3)
,
(b)
2(1 + 3i)
(1 −3i)
2
, where i =
√
−1.
[Answer: (a) 2
√
7 −3
√
3 ; (b) −
13
25
−
9
25
i ]
11. The complex numbers z
1
and z
2
satisfy the equation z
2
= 2 −2
√
3i.
(a) Express z
1
and z
2
in the form a +bi, where a and b are real numbers.
(b) Represent z
1
and z
2
in an Argand diagram.
(c) For each of z
1
and z
2
, ﬁnd the modulus, and the argument in radians.
[Answer: (a) z
1
=
√
3 −i, z
2
= −
√
3 + i ; (c) z
1
 = 2, z
2
 = 2 , arg(z
1
)=−
π
6
, arg(z
2
)=
5π
6
]
12. If (x +iy)
2
= i, ﬁnd all the real values of x and y.
[Answer: x = ±
1
√
2
, y = ±
1
√
2
]
2
Polynomials Lee Kian Keong
2 Polynomials
1. The polynomial p(x) = 2x
3
+ 4x
2
+
1
2
x −k has factor (x + 1).
(a) Find the value of k.
(b) Factorise p(x) completely.
[Answer: (a) k =
3
2
; (b)
1
2
(x + 1)(2x −1)(2x + 3) ]
2. Show that −1 is the only one real root of the equation x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 5x + 3 = 0.
3. The polynomial p(x) = x
4
+ax
3
−7x
2
−4ax+b has a factor x+3 and when divided by x−3,
has remainder 60. Find the values of a and b and factorise p(x) completely.
Using the substitution y =
1
x
, solve the equation 12y
4
−8y
3
−7y
2
+ 2y + 1 = 0.
[Answer: a = 2, b = 12; y = −
1
3
, −
1
2
, 1,
1
2
]
4. Using the substitution y = x +
1
x
, express f(x) = x
3
−4x −6 −
4
x
+
1
x
3
as a polynomial in y.
[Answer: y
3
−7y −6 ]
Hence, ﬁnd all the real roots of the equation f(x) = 0.
[Answer: −1, −1,
3 +
√
5
2
,
3 −
√
5
2
]
5. The polynomial p(x) = 6x
4
− ax
3
− bx
2
+ 28x + 12, where a and b are real constants, has
factors (x + 2) and (x −2).
(a) Find the values of a and b, and hence, factorise p(x) completely.
(b) Give that p(x) = (2x − 3)[q(x) − 41 + 3x
3
], ﬁnd q(x), and determine its range when
x ∈ [−2, 10].
[Answer: (a) a = 7, b = 27, (x −2)(2x −3)(3x + 1)(x + 2); (b) q(x) = x
2
−12x + 37, {y : 1 ≤ y ≤ 65} ]
6. Show that polynomial 2x
3
−9x
2
+ 3x + 4 has x −1 as factor.
Hence,
(a) ﬁnd all the real roots of 2x
6
−9x
4
+ 3x
2
+ 4 = 0.
(b) determine the set of values of x so that 2x
3
−9x
2
+ 3x + 4 < 12 −12x.
[Answer: x = 1, x = −1, x = 2, x = −2 ; x < 1 ]
7. Find the set of values of x such that −1 < x
3
−2x
2
+x −2 < 0.
[Answer: {x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 2} ]
8. Find the solution set of inequality x −2 <
1
x
where x = 0.
[Answer: {x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 1 +
√
2} ]
3
Sequences and series Lee Kian Keong
9. Determine the set of values of x satisfying the inequality
x
x + 1
≥
1
x + 1
[Answer: {x : x < −1, x ≥ 1} ]
10. Find the solution set of the inequality
4
x −1
> 3 −
3
x
.
[Answer: {x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 3} ]
11. Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the graph of y = 2 −x and y = 2 +
1
x
.
Hence, solve the inequality 2 −x > 2 +
1
x

[Answer: {x : x < 2 −
√
5} ]
12. Find the constants A, B, C and D such that
3x
2
+ 5x
(1 −x
2
)(1 +x)
2
=
A
1 −x
+
B
1 +x
+
C
(1 +x)
2
+
D
(1 +x)
3
.
[Answer: A = 1, B = 1, C = −1, D = −1 ]
3 Sequences and series
1. For the geometric series 7 + 3.5 + 1.75 + 0.875 +..., ﬁnd the smallest value of n for which the
diﬀerent between the sum of the ﬁrst n terms and the sum to inﬁnity is less than 0.01.
[Answer: 11 ]
2. For geometric series 6 + 3 +
3
2
+ . . ., obtain the smallest value of n if the diﬀerence between
the sum of the ﬁrst n + 4 terms and the sum of ﬁrst n terms is less than
45
64
.
[Answer: 5 ]
3. Express the inﬁnite recurring decimal 0.7
˙
2
˙
5 (= 0.7252525 . . . ) as a fraction in its lowest terms.
[Answer:
359
495
]
4. Determine the set of x such that the geometric series 1 + e
x
+ e
2x
+ . . . converges. Find the
exact value of x so that the series converges to 2.
[Answer: {x : x < 0} ; x = −ln 2 ]
5. Prove that the sum of the ﬁrst n terms of a geometric series a +ar +ar
2
+. . . is
a(1 −r
n
)
1 −r
4
Sequences and series Lee Kian Keong
(a) The sum of the ﬁrst ﬁve terms of a geometric series is 33 and the sum of the ﬁrst ten
terms of the geometric series is 1023. Find the common ratio and the ﬁrst term of the
geometric series.
(b) The sum of the ﬁrst n terms and the sum to inﬁnity of the geometric series 6−3+
3
2
−. . .
are S
n
and S
∞
respectively. Determine the smallest value of n such that S
n
−S
∞
 < 0.001
[Answer: (a) r = −2, a = 3 ; (b) n = 12 ]
6. The nth term of an arithmetic progression is T
n
, show that U
n
=
5
2
(−2)
2(
10−T
n
17
)
is the nth
term of a geometric progression.
If T
n
=
1
2
(17n −14), evaluate
∞
¸
n=1
U
n
.
[Answer: −
10
3
]
7. At the beginning of this year, Mr. Liu and Miss Dora deposited RM10 000 and RM2000
respectively in a bank. They receive an interest of 4% per annum. Mr Liu does not make any
additional deposit nor withdrawal, whereas, Miss Dora continues to deposit RM2000 at the
beginning of each of the subsequent years without any withdrawal.
(a) Calculate the total savings of Mr. Liu at the end of nth year.
(b) Calculate the total savings of Miss Dora at the end of nth year.
(c) Determine in which year the total savings of Miss Dora exceeds the total savings of Mr.
Liu.
[Answer: (a) 10000(1.04)
n
; (b) 52000[1.04
n
−1]; (c) 6 ]
8. Express
1
4k
2
−1
as partial fraction.
Hence, ﬁnd a simple expression for S
n
=
n
¸
k=1
1
4k
2
−1
and ﬁnd lim
n→∞
S
n
[Answer:
1
2(2k −1)
−
1
2(2k + 1)
; S
n
=
1
2
1 −
1
2n + 1
;
1
2
]
9. If x is so small that x
2
and higher powers of x may be neglected, show that
(1 −x)
2 +
x
2
10
≈ 2
9
(2 −7x)
10. Express
1 +x
1 + 2x
1
2
as a series of ascending powers of x up to the term in x
3
.
By taking x =
1
30
, ﬁnd
√
62 correct to four decimal places.
[Answer: 1 −
1
2
x +
7
8
x
2
−
25
16
x
3
+ . . . ;
√
62 = 7.8740 ]
11. Express u
r
=
2
r
2
+ 2r
in partial fractions.
[Answer:
1
r
−
1
r + 2
]
5
Matrices Lee Kian Keong
Using the result obtained,
(a) show that u
2
r
= −
1
r
+
1
r
2
+
1
r + 2
+
1
(r + 2)
2
,
(b) show that
∞
¸
r=1
u
r
=
3
2
−
1
n + 1
−
1
n + 2
and determine the values of
∞
¸
r=1
u
r
and
∞
¸
r=1
u
r+1
+
1
3
r
.
[Answer: (b)
3
2
,
4
3
]
12. Expand (1 −x)
1
2
in ascending powers of x up to the term in x
3
. Hence, ﬁnd the value of
√
7
correct to ﬁve decimal places.
[Answer: 1 −
1
2
x −
1
8
x
2
−
1
16
x
3
;
√
7 = 2.64609 ]
4 Matrices
1. Matrix M and N is given by M =
¸
−10 4 9
15 −4 −14
−5 1 6
¸
, and N =
¸
2 3 4
4 3 1
1 2 4
¸
Find MN and deduce N
−1
.
Product X, Y , Z are assembled from three components A, B, C according to diﬀerent pro
portions. Each product X consists of two components of A, four components of B, and one
component of C; each product of Y consists of three components of A, three components of B,
and two components of C; each product of Z consists of four components of A, one component
of B, and four components of C. A total of 750 components of A, 1000 components of B, and
500 components of C are used. With X, Y , Z representing the number of products of X, Y ,
and Z assembled, obtain a matrix equation representing the information given.
Hence, ﬁnd the number of products of X, Y , and Z assembled.
[Answer: x=200, y=50, z=50. ]
2. A, B, C are square matrices such that BA = B
−1
and ABC = (AB)
−1
. Show that A
−1
=
B
2
= C.
If B =
¸
1 2 0
0 −1 0
1 0 1
¸
, ﬁnd C and A.
[Answer: A =
1 0 0
0 1 0
−2 −2 1
, C =
1 0 0
0 1 0
2 2 1
]
3. (a) The matrix P, Q and R are given by
P =
¸
1 5 6
2 −2 4
1 −3 2
¸
, Q =
¸
−13 −50 −33
−1 −6 −5
7 20 15
¸
, R =
¸
4 7 −13
1 −5 −1
−2 1 11
¸
Find matrices PQ and PQR and hence, deduce (PQ)
−1
.
(b) Using the result in (a), solve the system of linear equations
6x + 10y + 8z = 4500
x − 2y + z = 0
x + 2y + 3z = 1080
.
6
Matrices Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: (a)
24 40 32
4 −8 4
4 8 12
,
72 0 0
0 72 0
0 0 72
,
1/18 7/72 −13/72
1/72 −5/72 −1/72
−1/36 1/72 11/72
; (b) x = 220, y = 190, z = 160 ]
4. Determine the values of a, b, c so that the matrix
¸
2b −1 a
2
b
2
2a −1 a bc
b b +c 2c −1
¸
is a symmetric
matrix.
[Answer: a = 1, b = 0, c = 0 ]
5. The matrices A and B are given by
A =
¸
−1 2 1
−3 1 4
0 1 2
¸
, B =
¸
−35 19 18
−27 −13 45
−3 12 5
¸
.
Find the matrix A
2
B and deduce the inverse of A.
Hence, solve the system of linear equations
x −2y −z = −8,
3x −y −4z = −15,
y + 2z = 4.
[Answer:
121 0 0
0 121 0
0 0 121
,
−2/11 −3/11 7/11
6/11 −2/11 1/11
−3/11 1/11 5/11
; x = −3, y = 2, z = 1 ]
6. The matrix A is given by A =
¸
1 2 −3
3 1 1
0 1 −2
¸
(a) Find the matrix B such that B = A
2
−10I, where I is the 3 ×3 identity matrix.
(b) Find (A+I)B, and hence ﬁnd (A+I)
21
B.
[Answer: (a)
−3 1 5
6 −2 −10
3 −1 −5
; (b)
−3 1 5
6 −2 −10
3 −1 −5
,
−3 1 5
6 −2 −10
3 −1 −5
]
7. The matrices P and Q, where PQ = QP, are given by
P =
¸
2 −2 0
0 0 2
a b c
¸
and Q =
¸
−1 1 0
0 0 −1
0 −2 2
¸
Determine the values of a, b and c.
Find the real numbers m and n for which P = mQ+nI, where I is the 3 ×3 identity matrix.
[Answer: a = 0, b = 4, c = −4 ; m = −2, n = 0 ]
8. Matrix A is given by A =
¸
3 3 4
5 4 1
1 2 3
¸
.
Find the adjoint of A. Hence, ﬁnd A
−1
.
[Answer:
10 −1 −13
−14 5 17
6 −3 −3
;
5/6 −1/12 −13/12
−7/6 5/12 17/12
1/2 −1/4 −1/4
]
7
Coordinate geometry Lee Kian Keong
9. If P =
¸
5 2 3
1 −4 3
3 1 2
¸
, Q =
¸
a 1 −18
b −1 12
−13 −1 c
¸
and PQ = 2I, where I is the 3×3 identity
matrix, determine the values of a, b and c. Hence ﬁnd P
−1
.
Two groups of workers have their drinks at a stall. The ﬁrst group comprising ten workers have
ﬁve cups of tea, two cups of coﬀee and three glasses of fruit juice at a total cost of RM11.80.
The second group of six workers have three cups of tea, a cup of coﬀee and two glasses of fruit
juice at a total cost of RM7.10. The cost of a cup of tea and three glasses of fruit juice is the
same as the cost of four cups of coﬀee. If the costs of a cup of tea, a cup of coﬀee and a glass
of fruit juice are RM x, RM y and RM z respectively, obtain a matrix equation to represent
the above information. Hence determine the cost of each drink.
[Answer: a = 11, b = −7, c = 22 ;
5/2 1 3/2
1/2 −2 3/2
3/2 1/2 1
; x=RM 1, y=RM 1.30, z=RM 1.40 ]
10. Determine the values of k such that the determinant of the matrix
¸
k 1 3
2k + 1 −3 2
0 k 2
¸
is 0.
[Answer: k = −
1
4
, k = 2 ]
11. Matrix A is given by A =
¸
1 0 0
1 −1 0
1 −2 1
¸
.
(a) Show that A
2
= I, where I is the 3 ×3 identity matrix, and deduce A
−1
.
(b) Find the matrix B which satisﬁes BA =
¸
1 4 3
0 2 1
−1 0 2
¸
.
[Answer: (a)
1 0 0
1 −1 0
1 −2 1
; (b)
8 −10 3
3 −4 1
1 −4 2
]
5 Coordinate geometry
1. Given that PQRS is a parallelogram where P(0, 9), Q(2, −5), R(7, 0) and S(a, b) are points
on the plane. Find a and b.
Find the shortest distance from P to QR and the area of the parallelogram.
[Answer: a = 5, b = 14; shortest distance=8
√
2 units; Area=80 unit
2
]
2. The straight line l
1
which passes through the points A(4, 0) and B(2, 4) intersects the yaxis
at point P. The straight line l
2
is perpendicular to l
1
and passes through B. If l
2
intersects
the xaxis and yaxis at points Q and R respectively, show that PR : QR =
√
5 : 3.
3. The sum of distance of the point P from the point (4,0) and the distance of P from the origin
is 8 units. Show that the locus of P is the ellipse
(x −2)
2
16
+
y
2
12
= 1 and sketch the ellipse.
4. The point R divides the line joining the points P(3, 2) and Q(5, 8) in the ratio 3 : 4. Find the
equation of the line passing through R and perpendicular to PQ.
8
Coordinate geometry Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: 7x + 21y −123 = 0 ]
5. Find the perpendicular distance from the centre of the circle x
2
+ y
2
− 8x + 2y + 8 = 0 to
the straight line 3x + 4y = 28. Hence, ﬁnd the shortest distance between the circle and the
straight line.
[Answer: 4 ; 1 ]
6. The lines y = 2x and y = x intersect the curve y
2
+ 7xy = 18 at points A and B respectively,
where A and B lie in the ﬁrst quadrant.
(a) Find the coordinates of A and B.
(b) Calculate the perpendicular distance of A to OB, where O is the origin.
(c) Find the area of the triangle OAB.
[Answer: (a) A(1, 2) and B
3
2
,
3
2
; (b)
√
2
2
; (c)
3
4
]
7. The parametric equations of a straight line l are given by x = 4t −2 and y = 3 −3t.
(a) Show that the point A(1,
3
4
) lies on line l,
(b) Find the Cartesian equation of line l,
(c) Given that line l cuts the x and yaxes at P and Q respectively, ﬁnd the ratio PA : AQ.
[Answer: (b) 3x + 4y −6 = 0 ; (c) 1:1 ]
8. The coordinates of the points P and Q are (x, y) and
x
x
2
+y
2
,
y
x
2
+y
2
respectively, where
x = 0 and y = 0. If Q moves on a circle with centre (1, 1) and radius 3, show that the locus
of P is also a circle. Find the coordinates of the centre and radius of the circle.
[Answer: centre = (−
1
7
, −
1
7
) ; radius =
3
7
]
9. Show that x
2
+y
2
−2ax−2by +c = 0 is the equation of the circle with centre (a, b) and radius
a
2
+b
2
−c.
The above ﬁgure shows three circles C
1
, C
2
and C
3
touching one another, where their centres
lies on a straight line. If C
1
and C
2
have equations x
2
+y
2
−10x −4y +28 = 0 and x
2
+y
2
−
16x + 4y + 52 = 0 respectively. Find the equation of C
3
.
[Answer: 5x
2
+ 5y
2
−74x + 12y + 156 = 0 ]
9
Functions Lee Kian Keong
6 Functions
1. The function f is deﬁned by f : x →
√
3x + 1, x ∈ R, x ≥ −
1
3
Find f
−1
and state its domain and range.
[Answer: f
−1
: x →
x
2
−1
3
, D
f
−1 = {x : x ≥ 0}, R
f
−1 = {x : x ≥ −
1
3
} ]
2. The function f is deﬁned by
f(x) =
1 +e
x
, x < 1
3, x = 1
2 +e −x, x > 1
(a) Find lim
x→1
−
f(x) and lim
x→1
+
f(x). Hence, determine whether f is continuous at x = 1.
(b) Sketch the graph of f.
[Answer: (a) 1 + e , 1 + e ; not continuous ]
3. The function f is deﬁned by
f(x) =
x −1
x + 2
, 0 ≤ x < 2
ax
2
+ 1, x ≥ 2
where a ∈ R. Find the value of a if lim
x→2
f(x) exists. With this value of a, determine whether
f is continuous at x = 2.
[Answer: a =
5
16
; continuous at x = 2 ]
4. The functions f and g are given by
f(x) =
e
x
−e
−x
e
x
+e
−x
andg(x) =
2
e
x
+e
−x
(a) State the domains of f and g,
(b) Without using diﬀerentiation, ﬁnd the range of f,
(c) Show that f(x)
2
+g(x)
2
= 1. Hence, ﬁnd the range of g.
[Answer: (a) D
f
= {x : x ∈ R} , D
g
= {x : x ∈ R} ; (b) {y : −1 < y < 1} ; (c) {y : 0 < y ≤ 1} ]
5. Given x > 0 and f(x) =
√
x, ﬁnd lim
h→0
f(x) −f(x +h)
h
.
[Answer: −
1
2
√
x
]
6. The function f is deﬁned by
f(x) =
√
x + 1, −1 ≤ x < 1,
x −1, otherwise.
(a) Find lim
x→−1
−
f(x), lim
x→−1
+
f(x), lim
x→1
−
f(x) and lim
x→1
+
f(x).
(b) Determine whether f is continuous at x = −1 and x = 1.
10
Diﬀerentiation Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: (a) 0 , 0 ,
√
2 , 0 ; (b) continuous at x = −1 , discontinuous at x = 1 ]
7. Functions f, g and h are deﬁned by
f : x →
x
x + 1
; g : x →
x + 2
x
; h : x → 3 +
2
x
(a) State the domains of f and g.
(b) Find the composite functions g ◦ f and state its domain and range.
(c) State the domain and range of h.
(d) State whether h = g ◦ f. Give a reason for your answer
[Answer: (a) D
f
= {x : x ∈ R, x = −1} , D
g
= {x : x ∈ R, x = 0} ;
(b) 3 +
2
x
, D = {x : x ∈ R, x = 0, x = −1} , R = {y : y ∈ R, y = 3, y = 1} ;
(c) D = {x : x ∈ R, x = 0} , R = {y : y ∈ R, y = 3} ; (d) No. Diﬀerent domain ]
8. The function f and g are deﬁned by
f : x →
1
x
, x ∈ R\ {0};
g : x → 2x −1, x ∈ R
Find f ◦ g and its domain.
[Answer:
1
2x −1
, D = {x : x ∈ R, x =
1
2
} ]
7 Diﬀerentiation
1. Given that y = e
−x
cos x, ﬁnd
dy
dx
and
d
2
y
dx
2
when x = 0.
[Answer:
dy
dx
= 1,
d
2
y
dx
2
= 0 ]
2. If y = ln
√
xy, ﬁnd the value of
dy
dx
when y = 1.
[Answer:
1
e
2
]
3. Function f if deﬁned by f(x) =
2x
(x + 1)(x −2)
.
Show that f
(x) < 0 for all values of x in the domain of f.
Sketch the graph of y = f(x). Determine if f is a one to one function. Give reasons to your
answer.
Sketch the graph of y = f(x). Explain how the number of the roots of the equation f(x) =
k(x −2) depends on k.
[Answer: f is not one to one function. If k ≥ 0, 1 root. If k < 0, 3 roots. ]
4. If y =
cos x
x
, where x = 0, show that x
d
2
y
dx
2
+ 2
dy
dx
+xy = 0.
5. If y =
x
1 +x
2
, show that x
2
dy
dx
= (1 −x
2
)y
2
.
11
Diﬀerentiation Lee Kian Keong
6. If y =
sin x −cos x
sin x + cos x
, show that
d
2
y
dx
2
= 2y
dy
dx
.
7. A curve is deﬁned by the parametric equations x = 1 −2t, y = −2 +
2
t
.
Find the equation of the normal to the curve at the point A(3, −4).
The normal of the curve at the point A cuts the curve again at point B.
Find the coordinates of B.
[Answer: x + y + 1 = 0 ; B(−1, 0) ]
8. Using the sketch of y = x
3
and x +y = 1, show that the equation x
3
+x −1 = 0 has only one
real root and state the successive integers a and b such that the real root lies in the interval
(a, b).
Using the NewtonRaphson method to ﬁnd the real root correct to three decimal places.
[Answer: a = 0 , b = 1 ; 0.683 ]
9. Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the graphs y = e
x
and y =
2
1 +x
. Show that the equation
(1 +x)e
x
−2 = 0 has a root in the interval [0, 1].
Use the NewtonRaphson method with the initial estimate x
0
= 0.5 to estimate the root correct
to three decimal places.
[Answer: 0.375 ]
10. Find the coordinate of the stationary point on the curve y = x
2
+
1
x
where x > 0; give the x
coordinate and ycoordinate correct to three decimal places. Determine whether the stationary
point is a minimum point or a maximum point.
The xcoordinate of the point of intersection of the curves y = x
2
+
1
x
and y =
1
x
2
, where
x > 0, is p. Show that 0.5 < p < 1.
Using the NewtonRaphson method to determine the value of p correct to three decimal places
and, hence, ﬁnd the point of intersection.
[Answer: (0.794 , 1.890) , minimum ; p = 0.724 , (0.724 , 1.908) ]
11. A curve is deﬁned by the parametric equations
x = t −
2
t
and y = 2t +
1
t
where t = 0.
(a) Show that
dy
dx
= 2 −
5
t
2
+ 2
, and hence, deduce that −
1
2
<
dy
dx
< 2.
(b) Find the coordinates of points when
dy
dx
=
1
3
.
[Answer: (b) (1 , 3) and (1 , 3) ]
12. Find the coordinates of the stationary points on the curve y =
x
3
x
2
−1
abd determine their
nature.
Sketch the curve.
Determine the number of real roots of the equation x
3
= k(x
2
− 1), where k ∈ R, when k
varies.
12
Integration Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: (0, 0) is inﬂexion point , (
√
3,
3
√
3
2
) is local min. , (−
√
3, −
3
√
3
2
) is local max.
1 real root for −
3
√
3
2
< k <
3
√
3
2
, 2 real root for k = ±
3
√
3
2
, 3 real roots for k < −
3
√
3
2
or k >
3
√
3
2
]
13. If y = xln(x + 1), ﬁnd an approximation for the increase in y when x increases by δx.
Hence, estimate the value of ln 2.01 given that ln 2 = 0.6931.
[Answer:
x
x + 1
+ ln(x + 1)
δx ; 0.698 ]
14. The function f is deﬁned by f(t) =
4e
kt
−1
4e
kt
+ 1
where k is a positive constant,
(a) Find the value of f(0)
3
5
(b) Show that f
(t) > 0
(c) Show that k[1 −f(t)
2
] = 2f
(t) and hence show that f
(t) < 0
(d) Find lim
t→∞
f(t) (1)
(e) Sketch the graph of f.
15. Show that the gradient of the curve y =
x
x
2
−1
is always decreasing.
Determine the coordinates of the point of inﬂexion of the curve, and state the intervals for
which the curve is concave upwards.
Sketch the curve.
[Answer: (0, 0) ; (−1, 0) ∪ (1, ∞) ]
16. The line y +x+3 = 0 is a tangent to the curve y = px
2
+qx, where p = 0 at the point x = −1.
Find the values of p and q.
8 Integration
1. Show that
e
1
ln xdx = 1.
2. Show that
3
2
(x −2)
2
x
2
dx =
5
3
+ 4 ln
2
3
3. By using suitable substitution, ﬁnd
3x −1
√
x + 1
dx
[Answer: 2(x + 1)
3
2 −8(x + 1)
1
2 + C ]
4. Using an appropriate substitution, evaluate
1
0
x
2
(1 −x)
1
3
dx.
[Answer:
27
140
]
13
Integration Lee Kian Keong
5. Using the substitution u = 3 + 2 sin θ, evaluate
π
6
0
cos θ
(3 + 2 sin θ)
2
dθ.
[Answer:
1
24
]
6. Express
2x + 1
(x
2
+ 1)(2 −x)
in the form
Ax +B
x
2
+ 1
+
C
2 −x
where A, B and C are constants.
Hence, evaluate
1
0
2x + 1
(x
2
+ 1)(2 −x)
dx
[Answer:
x
x
2
+ 1
+
1
2 −x
;
3
2
ln 2 ]
7. The gradient of the tangent to a curve at any point (x, y) is given by
dy
dx
=
3x −5
2
√
x
, where
x > 0. If the curve passes through the point (1, −4).
(a) ﬁnd the equation of the curve,
(b) sketch the curve,
(c) calculate the area of the region bounded by the curve and the xaxis.
[Answer: (a) y = x
3
2 −5x
1
2 ; (c)
20
5
√
5 ]
8. Given a curve y = x
2
−4 and straight line y = x −2,
(a) sketch, on the same coordinates axes, the curve and the straight line,
(b) determine the coordinate of their points of intersection,
(c) calculate the area of the region R bounded by the curve and the straight line,
(d) ﬁnd the volume of the solid formed when R is rotated through 360
◦
about the xaxis.
[Answer: (b) (−1, 3) , (2, 0) ; (c)
9
2
; (d)
108
5
π ]
9. Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the curves y = 6 − e
x
and y = 5e
−x
, and ﬁnd the
coordinates of the points of intersection.
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curves.
Calculate the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated through 2π radians about
the xaxis.
[Answer: (ln 5, 1) ; 6 ln 5 −8 ; π(36 ln 5 −48) ]
10. Find
(a)
x
2
+x + 2
x
2
+ 2
dx,
(b)
x
e
x+1
dx.
[Answer: (a) x +
1
2
ln(x
2
+ 2) + C ; (b) −
x
e
x+1
+
1
e
x+1
]
11. Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the curves y = e
x
and y = 2 + 3e
−x
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the yaxis and the curves.
[Answer: 2 ln 3 ]
14
Diﬀerential Equations Lee Kian Keong
12. Sketch on the same coordinates axis y =
1
2
x and the curve y
2
= x. Find the coordinate of the
points of intersection.
Find the area of region bounded by the line y =
1
2
x and the curve y
2
= x.
Find the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated through 2π radians about the
yaxis.
[Answer: (0, 0) , (4, 2) ;
4
3
;
64
15
π ]
13. The curve y =
a
2
x(b − x), where a = 0, has a turning point at point (2, 1). Determine the
values of a and b.
Calculate the area of the region bounded bt the xaxis and the curve.
Calculate the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region about the xaxis.
[Answer: a =
1
2
, b = 4 ;
8
3
;
32
15
π ]
14. Find the point of intersection of the curves y = −x
2
+ 3x and y = 2x
3
−x
2
−5x.
Sketch on the same coordinate system these two curves.
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curves y = −x
2
+ 3x and y = 2x
3
−x
2
−5x.
[Answer: Point of intersection=(0,0), (2,2), (2,10) ; Area=16 units
2
. ]
15. Using trapezium rule, with ﬁve ordinates, evaluate
1
0
4 −x
2
dx.
[Answer: 1.910 ]
9 Diﬀerential Equations
1. Find the particular solution of the diﬀerential equation
e
x
dy
dx
−y
2
(x + 1) = 0
for which y = 1 when x = 0. Hence, express y in terms of x.
[Answer: y =
e
x
2 + x −e
x
]
2. Find the general solution of the diﬀerential equation
x
dy
dx
= y
2
−y −2.
[Answer: y =
2 + Ax
3
1 −Ax
3
]
3. Show that the substitution u = x
2
+y transforms the diﬀerential equation
(1 −x)
dy
dx
+ 2y + 2x = 0
into the diﬀerential equation
(1 −x)
du
dx
= −2u
15
Diﬀerential Equations Lee Kian Keong
4. The variables t and x are connected by
dx
dt
= 2t(x −1),
where x = 1. Find x in terms of t if x = 2 when t = 1.
[Answer: x = e
t
2
−1
+ 1 ]
5. The variables x and y, where x > 0, satisfy the diﬀerential equation
x
du
dx
= u
2
−2u.
Hence, show that the general solution of the given diﬀerential equation maybe expressed in
the form y =
2x
1 +Ax
2
, where A is an arbitrary constant.
Find the equation of the solution curve which passes through the point (1,4) and sketch this
solution curve.
[Answer: y =
4x
2 −x
2
]
6. Using the substitution y =
v
x
2
, show that the diﬀerential equation
dy
dx
+y
2
= −
2y
x
may be reduced to
dv
dx
= −
v
2
x
2
.
Hence, ﬁnd the general solution of the original diﬀerential equation.
[Answer: y =
1
Ax
2
−x
]
7. Show that
d
dx
(ln tan x) =
2
sin 2x
,
Hence, ﬁnd the solution of the diﬀerential equation
(sin 2x)
dy
dx
= 2y(1 −y)
for which y =
1
3
when x =
1
4
π. Express y explicity in terms of x in your answer.
[Answer: y =
tan x
2 + tan x
]
8. One of the rules at a training camp of 1000 occupants states that camp activities are to be
suspended if 10% of the occupants are infected with a virus. A trainee infected with a ﬂu virus
enrolls in the camp causing an outbreak of ﬂu. The rate of increase of the number of infected
occupants x at t days is given by diﬀerential equation
dx
dt
= kx(1000 −x)
where k is a constant.
Assume that the outbreak of ﬂu begins at the time the infected trainee enrolls and no one
leaves the camp during the outbreak,
16
Diﬀerential Equations Lee Kian Keong
(a) Show that x =
1000e
1000kt
999 +e
1000kt
,
(b) Determine the value of k if it is found that, after one day, there are ﬁve infected occupants
(c) Determine the number of days before the camp activities will be suspended.
[Answer: (b) k =
1
1000
ln
999
195
; (c) 5 ]
9. A 50 litre tank is initially ﬁlled with 10 litres of brine solution containing 20 kg of salt. Starting
from time t = 0, distilled water is poured into the tank at a constant rate of 4 litres per minute.
At the same time, the mixture leaves the tank at a constant rate of
√
k litres per minute, where
k > 0. The time taken for overﬂow to occur is 20 minutes.
(a) Let Q be the amount of salt in the tank at time t minutes. Show that the rate of change
of Q is given by
dQ
dt
= −
Q
√
k
10 + (4 −
√
k)t
.
(b) Show that k = 4, and calculate the amount of salt in the tank at the instant overﬂow
occurs.
(c) Sketch the graph of Q against t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 20.
[Answer: (b) Q = 4 ]
10. The rate of change of water temperature is described by the diﬀerential equation
dθ
dt
= −k(θ −θ
s
)
where θ is the water temperature at time t, θ
s
is the surrounding temperature, and k is a
positive constant.
A boiling water at 100
◦
C is left to cool in kitchen that has a surrounding temperature of 25
◦
C.
The water takes 1 hour to decrease to the temperature of 75
◦
C. Show that k = ln
3
2
.
When the water reaches 50
◦
C, the water is placed in a freezer at −10
◦
C to be frozen to ice.
Find the time required, from the moment the water is put in the freezer until it becomes ice
at 0
◦
C.
[Answer: Time = 4 hours 25 minutes ]
11. The rate of increase in the number of a species of ﬁsh in a lake is described by the diﬀerential
equation
dP
dt
= (a −b)P
where P is the number of ﬁsh at time t weeks, a is the rate of reproduction, and b is the
mortality rate, with a and b as constants.
(a) Assuming that P = P
0
at time t = 0 and a > b, solve the diﬀerential equation and sketch
its solution curve.
(b) At a certain instant, there is an outbreak of an epidemic of a disease. The epidemic
results in no more oﬀspring of the ﬁsh being produced and the ﬁsh die at a rate directly
proportional to
1
P
. There are 900 ﬁsh before the outbreak of the epidemic and only
400 ﬁsh are alive after 6 weeks. Determine the length of time from the outbreak of the
epidemic until all the ﬁsh of that species die.
17
Trigonometry Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: (a) P = P
0
e
(a−b)t
; (b) 18 weeks ]
12. A particle moves from rest along a horizontal straight line. At time t s, the displacement and
velocity of the particle are x m and v ms
−1
respectively and its acceleration, in ms
−2
, is given
by
dv
dt
= sin(πt) −
√
3 cos(πt)
Express v and x in terms of t.
Find the velocities of the particle when its acceleration is zero for the ﬁrst and second times.
Find also the distance traveled by the particle between the ﬁrst and second times its acceler
ation is zero.
[Answer: v = −
1
π
[cos(πt) +
√
3 sin(πt)] , x = −
1
π
2
[sin(πt) −
√
3 cos(πt)]
v = ±
2
π
ms
−1
; Distance =
4
π
2
m ]
10 Trigonometry
1. Express 4 sin θ −3 cos θ in the form Rsin(θ −α), where R > 0 and 0
◦
< α < 90
◦
.
Hence, solve the equation 4 sin θ −3 cos θ = 3 for 0
◦
< α < 360
◦
.
[Answer: 5 sin(θ −36.9
◦
) ; 73.8
◦
, 180
◦
]
2. Find the values of x, where 0 ≤ x ≤ π, which satisfy the equation sin
3
xsec x = 2 tan x
[Answer: 0,
π
4
,
3π
4
, π ]
3. If t = tan
θ
2
, show that sin θ =
2t
1 +t
2
and cos θ =
1 −t
2
1 +t
2
.
Hence, ﬁnd the values θ between 0
◦
and 360
◦
that satisfy the equation
10 sin θ −5 cos θ = 2
[Answer: 36.9
◦
, 196.3
◦
]
4. Express cos x +
√
3 sin x in the form r cos(x −α), r > 0 and 0 < α <
π
2
.
Hence, ﬁnd the values of x with 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π, which satisﬁes the inequality
0 < cos x +
√
3 sin x < 1
.
[Answer: 2 cos
x −
π
3
;
x :
2π
3
< x <
5π
6
,
11π
6
< x < 2π
]
5. Starting from the formulae for sin(A+B) and cos(A+B), prove that
tan(A+B) =
tan A+ tan B
1 −tan Atan B
If 2x +y =
π
4
, show that
tan y =
1 −2 tan x −tan
2
x
1 + 2 tan x −tan
2
x
By substituting x =
π
8
, show that tan
π
8
=
√
2 −1.
18
Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong
6. Express cos θ + 3 sin θ in the form r cos(θ −α), where r > 0 and 0
◦
< α < 90
◦
[Answer:
√
10 cos(θ −71.6
◦
) ]
7. Find all values of x, where 0
◦
< x < 360
◦
, which satisfy the equation tan x + 4 cot x = 4 sec x.
[Answer: 41.8
◦
, 138.2
◦
]
8. Find, in terms of π, all the values of x between 0 and π which satisﬁes the equation
tan x + cot x = 8 cos 2x
[Answer:
π
24
,
5π
24
,
13π
24
,
17π
24
]
9. The triangle PQR lies in a horizontal plance, with Q due west of R. The bearings of P from
Q and R are θ and φ respectively, where θ and φ are acute. The top A of a tower PA is at
height h above the plane and the angle of elevation of A from R is α. The height of a vertical
pole QB is k ang the angle of elevation of B from R is β. Show that
h =
k tan αcos θ
tan β sin(θ −φ)
10. In the tetrahedron ABCD, AB = BC = 10 cm, AC = 8
√
2 cm, AD = CD = 8 cm and BD = 6
cm. Show that the line from C perpendicular to AB and the line from D perpendicular to AB
meet at a point on AB. Hence, calculate the angle between the face ABC and the face ABD.
[Answer: 59.0
◦
]
11 Geometry Deduction
1. Points A and B are in the side XY of triangle XY Z with XA = AB = BY . Points C and
D are on the sides Y Z and XZ respectively such that ABCD is a rhombus. Prove that
∠XZY = 90
◦
2. The points P, Q, R, S are on the circumference of a circle, such that ∠PQR = 80
◦
and
∠RPS = 30
◦
as shown in the diagram below. The tangent to the circle at P and the chord
RS which is produced, meet at T.
(a) Show that PR = PT
19
Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong
(b) Show that the length of the chord RS is the same as the radius of the circle.
3. Vertices B and C of the triangle ABC lie on the circumference of a circle. AB and AC cut
the circumference of the circle at X and Y respectively. Show that ∠CBX +∠CY X = 180
◦
If AB = AC, show that BC is parallel to XY .
4. The diagram below shows two circles ABRP and ABQS which intersect at A and B. PAQ
and RAS are straight lines. Prove that the triangles RPB and SQB are similar.
5. The diagram below shows two isosceles triangles ABC and ADE which have bases AB and
AD respectively. Each triangle has base angles measuring 75
◦
, with BC and DE parallel and
equal in length. Show that
(a) ∠DBC = ∠BDE = 90
◦
,
(b) the triangle ACE is an equilateral triangle,
(c) the quadrilateral BCED is a square.
6. The diagram below shows two intersecting circles AXY B and CBOX, where O is the centre
of the circle AXY B. AXC and BY C are straight lines. Show that ∠ABC = ∠BAC.
20
Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong
7. In the triangle ABC, the point P lies on the side AC such that ∠BPC = ∠ABC. Show that
the triangles BPC and ABC are similar.
If AB = 4 cm, AC = 8 cm and BP = 3 cm, ﬁnd the area of the triangle BPC.
[Answer: 6.54 cm
2
]
8. Prove that an exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the opposite interior angle.
In the diagram, ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. The lines AB and DC extended meet at the
point E and the lines AD and BC extended meet at the point F. Show that triangles ADE
and CBE are similar.
If DA = DE, ∠CFD = α and ∠BEC = 3α, determine the value of α.
[Answer: α = 18
◦
]
9. The diagram above shows two intersecting circles APQ and BPQ, where APB is a straight
line. The tangents at the points A and B meet at a point C. Show that ACBQ is a cyclic
quadrilateral.
If the lines AQ and CB are parallel and T is the point of intersection of AB and CQ, show
that the triangles ATQ and BTC are isosceles triangles. Hence, show that the areas of the
triangles ATQ and BTC are in the ratio AT
2
: BT
2
.
10. The diagram below shows the circumscribed circle of he triangle ABC.
21
Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong
The tangent to the circle at A meets the line BC extended to T. The angle bisector of the
angle ATB at Pm AB at Q and the circle at R. Show that
(a) triangles APT and BQT are similar,
(b) PT · BT = QT · AT,
(c) AP = AQ.
11. The circumscribed circle of the triangle JKL is shown in the diagram below.
The tangent to the circle at J meets the line KL extended to T. The angle bisector of the
angle JTK cuts JL and JK at U and V respectively. Show that JV = JU.
12. A parallelogram ABCD with its diagonals meeting at the point O is shown in the diagram
below.
AB is extended to P such that BP = AB. The line that passes through D and is parallel to
AC meets PC produced at point R amd ∠CRD = 90
◦
.
(a) Show that the triangles ABD and BPC are congruent.
(b) Show that ABCD is a rhombus.
(c) Find the ratio CR : PC.
[Answer: (c) 1:2 ]
22
Vectors Lee Kian Keong
12 Vectors
1. If the angle between the vectors a =
4
8
and b =
1
p
is 135
◦
, ﬁnd the value of p.
[Answer: −
1
3
]
2. A boat is travelling at a speed of 30 knots. A yacht is sailing northwards at a speed of 10
knots. At 1300 hours, the boat is 14 nautical miles to the northeast of the yacht.
(a) Determine the direction in which the boat should be travelling in order to intercept the
yacht.
(b) At what time does the interception occur?
[Answer: (a) S 58.6
◦
W ; (b) 1341 hours ]
3. The position vectors of the points A, B and C, with respect to the origin O, are a, b and
c respectively. The points L, M, P and Q are the midpoints of OA, BC, OB, and AC
respectively.
(a) Show that the position vector of any point on the line LM is
1
2
a +
1
2
λ(b + c − a) some
scalar λ, and express the position vector of any point on the line PQ in terms of a, b and
c.
(b) Find the position vector of the point of intersection of the line LM and the line PQ.
[Answer: (a)
1
2
b +
1
2
µ(a +c −b) ; (b)
1
4
a +
1
4
b +
1
4
c ]
4. In triangle ABC, the point X divides BC internally in the ratio m : n, where m+n = 1.
Express AX
2
in terms of AB, BC, CA, m and n.
[Answer: nAB
2
−mnBC
2
+ mCA
2
]
5. Wind is blowing with a speed of w from the direction of N θ
◦
W. When a ship is cruising
eastwards with a speed of u, the captain of ship found that the wind seem like blowing with
a speed of v
1
, from the direction N α
◦
W. When the ship is cruising north with a speed of u,
the captain of the ship, however found that the wind seemed to be blowing with a speed of v
2
from the direction N β
◦
W.
(a) Draw the triangles of velocity of both situations
(b) Show that tan θ =
tan α −1
1 −cot β
(c) Express v
2
2
−v
2
1
in terms of u, w and θ.
[Answer: −2uw(sin θ + cos θ) ]
6. Position vectors of the points P and Q relative to the origin O are 2i
∼
and 3i
∼
+4j
∼
respectively.
Find the angle between vector
−−→
OP and vector
−−→
OQ
[Answer: 53.1
◦
]
7. The points P, Q, and R are the midpoints of the sides BC, CA and AB respectively of the
triangle ABC. The lines AP and BQ meet at the point G, where AG = mAP and BG = nBQ.
23
Vectors Lee Kian Keong
(a) Show that
−→
AG =
1
2
m
−−→
AB +
1
2
m
−→
AC and
−→
AG = (1 −n)
−−→
AB +
1
2
−→
AC.
Deduce that AG =
2
3
AP and CG =
2
3
CR.
(b) Show that CR meets AP and BQ at G, where CG =
2
3
CR.
8. A force of magnitude 2p N acts along the line OA abd a force of magnitude 10 N acts along
the line OB. The angle between OA and OB is 120
◦
. The resultant force has magnitude
√
3p
N. Calculate the value of p and determine the angle between the resultant force and OA.
[Answer: 30
◦
]
9. Let u = cos φi + sin φj and v = cos θ i + sin θ j, where i and j are perpendicular unit vectors.
Show that
1
2
u −v = sin
1
2
(φ −θ)
10. A canal of width 2a has parallel straight banks and the water ﬂows due north. The points A
and B are on opposite banks and B is due east of A, with the point O as the midpoint of AB.
The xaxis and yaxis are taken in the east and north directions respectively with O as the
origin. The speed of the current in the canal, v
c
, is given by
v
c
= v
0
1 −
x
2
a
2
,
where v
0
is the speed of the current in the middle of the canal and x is the distance eastwards
from the middle of the canal. A swimmer swims from A towards the east at speed v
r
relative to
the current in the canal. Taking y to denote the distance northwards travelled by the swimmer,
show that
dy
dx
=
v
0
v
r
1 −
x
2
a
2
.
If the width of the canal is 12 m, the speed of the current in the middle of the canal is 10 ms
−1
and the speed of the swimmer is 2 ms
−1
relative to the current in the canal,
(a) ﬁnd the distance of the swimmer from O when he is at the middle of the canal and his
distance from B when he reaches the east bank of the canal,
(b) sketch the actual path taken by the swimmer.
[Answer: (a) 20 m north of O , 40 m north of B ]
11. The position vectors of the points A, B, C and D,relative to an origin, are i + 3j, −5i − 3j,
(x −3)i −6j and (x + 3)i respectively.
(a) Show that, for any value of x, ABCD is a parallelogram.
(b) Determine the value of x for which ABCD is a rectangle.
[Answer: (b) x = 1 ]
24
Data Description Lee Kian Keong
12. The points P and Q lie on the diagonals BD and DF respectively of a regular hexagon
ABCDEF such that
BP
BD
=
DQ
DF
= k.
Express
−−→
CP and
−−→
CQ in terms of k, a and b, where
−−→
AB = a and
−−→
BC = b.
If the points C, P and Q lie on a straight line, determine the value of k. Hence, ﬁnd CP : CQ
.
[Answer:
−−→
CP = (2k −1)b −ka ,
−−→
CQ = (1 −k)b −(1 + k)a , k =
1
√
3
, CP : CQ = 1 :
√
3 ]
13. The diagram above shows nonlinear points O, A and B, with P on the line OA such that
OP : PA = 2 : 1 and Q on the line AB such that AQ : QB = 2 : 3. The lines PQ and OB
produced meet at the point R. If
−→
OA = a and
−−→
OB = b,
(a) show that
−−→
PQ = −
1
15
a +
2
5
b,
(b) ﬁnd the position vector of R, relative to O, in terms of b
[Answer: (b) 4b ]
13 Data Description
1. The mean and standard deviation of Physics marks for 25 school candidates and 5 private
candidates are shown in the table below.
School candidates Private candidates
Number of candidates 25 5
Mean 55 40
Standard deviation 4 5
Calculate the overall mean and standard deviation of the Physics marks.
[Answer: 52.5 ; 6.98 ]
2. A sample of 100 fuses, nominally rated at 13 amperes, are tested by passing increasing elec
tric current through them. The current at which they blow are recorded and the following
cumulative frequency table is obtained.
25
Data Description Lee Kian Keong
Currents (amperes) Cumulative frequency
<10 0
<11 8
<12 30
<13 63
<14 88
<15 97
<16 99
<17 100
Calculate the estimates of the mean, median and mode. Comment on the distribution.
[Answer: 12.65 , 12.61 , 12.58 ; positively skewed ]
3. The number of teenagers, according to age, that patronize a recreation centre for a certain
period of time is indicated in the following table.
Age in Years Number of teenagers
12  4
13  10
14  27
15  110
16  212
17  238
18  149
[ Age 12  means age 12 and more but less than 13 years ]
(a) Display the above data using histogram
(b) Find the median and semiinterquartile range for the age of teenagers who patronize the
recreation centre. Give your answer to the nearest months.
[Answer: (b) 17 years 1 month , 10 months ]
4. The table below shows the number of defective electronic components per lot for 500 lots that
have been tested.
Numbers of defective
components per lot
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 or more
Relative frequency 0.042 0.054 0.392 0.318 0.148 0.014 0.032
(a) State the mode and the median number of defective electronic components per lot.
(b) For the lots with defective components of more than 5, the mean number of defective
components per lot is 6.4. Find the mean number of defective electronic components per
lot for the given 500 lots.
[Answer: (a) 2 , 3 ; (b) 2.7 ]
5. The number of ships which anchor at a port every week for 26 particular weeks are as follows
32 28 43 21 35 19 25 45 35 32 18 26 30
26 27 38 42 18 37 50 46 23 40 20 29 46
(a) Display the data in a stemplot
26
Data Description Lee Kian Keong
(b) Find the median and interquartile range
(c) Draw a boxplot to represent the data
(d) State the shape of the frequency distribution. Give a reason for your answer
[Answer: (b) 31 , 15 ; (d) positively skewed ]
6. Show that, for the numbers x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, . . . , x
n
with mean ¯ x,
¸
(x − ¯ x)
2
=
¸
x
2
−n¯ x
2
The numbers 4, 6, 12, 5, 7, 9, 5, 11, p, q, where p < q, have mean ¯ x = 6.9 and
¸
(x − ¯ x)
2
=
102.9. Calculate the of p and q.
[Answer: 1, 9 ]
7. The following data show the masses, in kg, of ﬁsh caught by 22 ﬁshermen on a particular day.
23 48 51 25 39 37 41 38 37 20 88
69 22 42 46 23 52 41 40 59 68 59
(a) Display the above data in an ordered stemplot.
(b) Find the mean and standard deviation.
(c) Find the median and interquartile range.
(d) Draw a boxplot to represent the above data.
(e) State whether the mean or the median is more suitable as a representative value of the
above data. Justify your answer.
[Answer: (b) 44 , 16.8 ; (c) 41 , 15 ; (e) median ]
8. The times taken by 22 students to breakfast are shown in the following table.
Time (x minutes) 2 ≤ x < 5 5 ≤ x < 8 8 ≤ x < 11 11 ≤ x < 14 14 ≤ x < 17 17 ≤ x < 20
Number of students 1 2 4 8 5 2
(a) Draw a histogram of the grouped data. Comment on the shape of frequency distribution.
(b) Calculate estimates of the mean, median, and mode of the breakfast times. Use your
calculations to justify your statement about the shape of the frequency distribution.
[Answer: (b) 12.23 , 12.50 , 12.71 ]
9. The mean mark for a group of students taking a statistics test is 70.6. The mean marks for
male and female students are 68.5 and 72.0 respectively. Find the ratio of the number of male
to female students.
[Answer: 2:3 ]
10. The masses (in thousands of kg) of solid waste collected from a town for 25 consecutive days
are as follows:
41 53 44 55 48 57 50 38 53 50 43 56 51
48 33 46 55 49 50 52 47 39 51 49 52
27
Probability Lee Kian Keong
(a) Construct a stemplot to represent the data.
(b) Find the median and interquartile range.
(c) Calculate the mean and standard deviation.
(d) Draw a boxplot to represent the data.
(e) Comment on the shape of the distribution and give a reason for your answer.
[Answer: (b) 50 , 6 ; (c) 48.4 , 5.97 ]
11. Overexposure to a certain metal dust at the workplace of a factory is detrimental to the health
of its workers. The workplace is considered safe if the level of the metal dust is less than 198
µ g m
−3
. The level of the metal dust at the workplace is recorded at a particular time of day
for a period of 90 consecutive working days. The results are summarised in the table below.
Metal dust level (µ g m
−3
) Number of days
170  174 8
175  179 11
180  184 25
185  189 22
190  194 15
195  199 7
200  201 2
(a) State what the number 11 in the table means.
(b) Calculate estimates of the mean and standard deviation of the levels of the metal dust.
(c) Plot a cumulative frequency curve of the above data. Hence, estimate the median and
the interquartile range.
(d) Find the percentage of days for which the workplace is considered unsafe.
[Answer: (b) 185 , 7.22 ; (c) 184.7 , 9.8 ; (d) 4.44% ]
14 Probability
1. There are 20 doctors and 15 engineers attending a conderence. The number of women doctors
and that of women engineers are 12 and 5 respectively. Four participants from this group are
selected randomly to chair some sessions of panel discussion.
(a) Find the probability that three doctors are selected.
855
2618
(b) Given that two women are selected, ﬁnd the probability that both of them are doctors.
33
68
2. In a basket of mangoes and papayas, 70% of mangoes and 60% of papayas are ripe. If 40% of
the fruits in the basket are mangoes,
(a) ﬁnd the percentage of the fruits which are ripe, (0.64)
(b) ﬁnd the percentage of the ripe fruits which are mangoes. (0.4375)
28
Probability Lee Kian Keong
3. Three balls are selected at random from one blue ball, three red balls and six white balls. Find
the probability that all the three balls selected are of the same color.
7
40
4. There are 12 towels, two of which are red. If ﬁve towels are chosen at random, ﬁnd the
probability that at least one is red.
15
22
5. A factory has 36 male workers and 64 female workers, with 10 male workers earning less than
RM1000.00 a month and 17 female workers earning at least RM1000.00 a month. At the end
of the year, workers earning less than RM1000.00 are given a bonus of RM1000.00 whereas the
others receive a month’s salary.
(a) If two workers are randomly chosen, ﬁnd the probability that exacly one worker receives
a bonus of one month’s salary. (0.495)
(b) If a male worker and a demale worker are randomly chosen, ﬁnd the probability that
exactly one worker receives a bonus of one month’s salary. (0.604)
6. Two transistors are chosen at random from a batch of transistors containing ninety good and
ten defective ones.
(a) Find the probability that at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective.(0.1909)
(b) If at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective, ﬁnd the probability that both
transistors are defective. (0.0476)
7. Two archers A and B take turns to shot, with archer A taking the ﬁrst shot. The probabilities
of A and B hitting the bull’s eye in each shot are
1
6
and
1
5
respectively. Show that the
probability of archer A hitting the bulleye ﬁrst is
1
2
.
8. The probability that it rains in a certain area is
1
5
. The probability that an accident occurs
at a particular corner of a road in that area is
1
20
if it rains and
1
50
if it does not rain. Find
the probability that it rains if an accident occurs at the corner.
5
13
9. There are eight parking bays in a row at a taxi stand. If one blue taxi, two red taxis and ﬁve
yellow taxis are parked there, ﬁnd the probability that two red taxis are parked next to each
other.
[Assume that a taxi may be parked at any of the parking bays.]
1
4
29
Discrete Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
10. Two events A and B are such that P(A) =
3
8
, P(B) =
1
4
and P(AB) =
1
6
.
(a) Show that the events A and B are neither independent nor mutually exclusive.
(b) Find the probability that at least one of the events A and B occurs.
7
12
(c) Find the probability that either one of the events A and B occurs.
13
24
11. A fourdigit number, in the range 0000 to 9999 inclusive, is formed. Find the probability that
(a) the number begins or ends with 0, (0.19)
(b) the number contains exactly two nonzero, digits. (0.0486)
15 Discrete Probability Distributions
1. The independent random variable Y
i
, where i = 1, 2, . . . , n, takes the values of 0 and 1 with
the probabilities of q and p respectively, where q = 1 −p.
(a) Show that E(Y
i
) = p and Var(Y
i
) = pq.
(b) If X = Y
1
+Y
2
+. . . +Y
n
, determine E(X) and Var(X). Comment on the distribution of
X.
[Answer: (b) np, npq ; binomial distribution ]
2. A discrete random variable X takes the values of 0, 1 and 2 with the probabilities of a, b and
c respectively. Given that E(X) =
4
3
and Var(X) =
5
9
, ﬁnd the values of a, b and c.
[Answer: a =
1
6
, b =
1
3
,
1
2
]
3. The discrete random variable X has the probability function
P(X = x) =
k(4 −x)
2
, x = 1, 2, 3,
0, otherwise
where k is a constant.
(a) Determine the value of k and tabulate the probability distribution of X.
(b) Find E(7X −1) and Var(7X −1).
[Answer: (a)
1
14
; (b) 9 , 19 ]
4. The probability distribution function of the discrete random variable Y is
P(Y = y) =
y
5050
, y = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 100
(a) Show that E(Y ) = 67 and ﬁnd Var(Y ).
(b) Find P(Y −E(Y ) ≤ 30).
30
Discrete Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: (a) 561 ; (b)
4087
5050
]
5. A car rental shop has four cars to be rented out on a daily basis at RM50.00 per car. The
average daily demand for cars is four.
(a) Find the probability that, on a particular day,
i. no cars are requested, (0.0183)
ii. at least four requests for cars are received. (0.5665)
(b) Calculate the expected daily income received from the rentals. (160.93)
(c) If the shop wishes to have one more car, the additional cost incurred is RM20.00 per day.
Determine whether the shop should buy another car for rental. (YES)
6. Two percent of the bulb produced by a factory are not usable. Find the smallest number of
bulbs that must be examined so that the probability of obtaining at least one nonusable bulb
exceeds 0.5.
[Answer: 35 ]
7. The independent Poisson random variables X and Y have parameters 0.5 and 3.5 respectively.
The random variable W is deﬁned by W = X −Y .
(a) Find E(W) and Var(W)
(b) Give one reason why W is not a Poisson random variable.
[Answer: (a) 2 , 4 ]
8. The probability of a person allergic to a type of anaesthetic is 0.002. A total of 2000 persons
are injected with the anaesthetic. Using a suitable approximate distribution, calculate the
probability that more than two persons are allergic to the anaesthetic.
[Answer: 0.7619 ]
9. A type of seed is sold in packets which contain ten seeds each. On the average, it is found that
a seed per packet does not germinate. Find the probability that a packet chosen at random
contains less than two seeds which do not germinate.
[Answer: 0.7361 ]
10. The probability that a heart patient survives after surgery in a country is 0.85.
(a) Find the probability that, out of ﬁve randomly chosen heard patients undergoing surgery,
four survive.
(b) Using a suitable approximate distribution, ﬁnd the probability that more than 160 survive
after surgery in a random sample of 200 heart patients.
[Answer: (a) 0.3915 ; (b) 0.97 ]
11. The probability that a lemon sold in a fruit store is rotten is 0.02.
(a) If the lemons in the fruit store are packed in packets, determine the maximum number
of lemons per packet so that the probability that a packet chosen at random does not
contain rotten lemons is more than 0.85.
31
Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
(b) If the lemons in the fruit store are packed in boxed each containing 60 lemons, ﬁnd using
a suitable approximation, the probability that a box chosen at random contains less than
three rotten lemons.
[Answer: (a) 8 ; (b) 0.8795 ]
12. A computer accessories distributor obtains its supply of diskettes from manufacturers A and B,
with 60% of the diskettes from manufacturer A. The diskettes are packed by the manufacturers
in packets of tens. The probability that a diskette produced by manufacturer A is defective is
0.05 whereas the probability that a diskette produced by manufacturer B is defective is 0.02.
Find the probability that a randomly chosen packet contains exactly one defective diskette.
[Answer: 0.2558 ]
16 Continuous Probability Distributions
1. The time to repair a certain type of machine is a random variable X (in hours). The probability
density function is given by
f(x) =
0.01x −p, 10 ≤ x < 20,
q −0.01x, 20 ≤ x ≤ 30,
0, otherwise,
where p and q are constants.
(a) Show that p = 0.1 and q = 0.3.
(b) Find the probability that the repair work takes at least 15 hours.
(c) Determine the expected value of X.
(d) If the total cost of repair of the machine comprises a surcharge of RM500 and an hourly
rate of RM100, express the total cost of repair in terms of X, and determine the expected
total cost of repair.
[Answer: (b)
7
8
; (c) 20 hours ; (d) RM 2500 ]
2. The continuous random variable X has probability density function
f(x) =
0, x < 0,
5
4
−x, 0 ≤ x < 1,
1
4x
2
, x ≥ 1.
(a) Find the cumulative distribution function of X.
(b) Calculate the probability that at least one of two independent observed values of X is
greater than three.
[Answer: (b)
23
144
]
3. Continuous random variable X is deﬁned in the interval 0 to 4, with
P(X > x) =
1 −ax, 0 ≤ x ≤ 3
b −
1
2
x, 3 < x ≤ 4
with a and b as constants,
32
Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
(a) Show that a =
1
6
and b = 2,
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X and sketch its graph
(c) Find the probability density function of X
(d) Calculate the mean and standard deviation of X.
[Answer: (d)
5
2
, 1.190 ]
33
Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
4. The lifespan of a species of plant is a random variable T (tens of days). The probability density
function is given by
f(t) =
1
8
e
−
1
8
t
, t > 0
0, otherwise
(a) Find the cumulative distribution function of T and sketch its graph.
(b) Find the probability, to three decimal places, that a plant of that species randomly chosen
has a lifespan of more than 20 days.
(c) Calculate the expected lifespan of that species of plant.
[Answer: (b) 0.779 ; (c) 80 days ]
5. The continuous random variable X has the probability density function
f(x) =
4
27
x
2
(3 −x), 0 < x < 3,
0, otherwise.
(a) Calculate P
X <
3
2
.
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X.
[Answer: (a)
5
16
]
6. The continuous random variable X has probability density function
f(x) =
x −1
12
, 1 ≤ x ≤ b
0, otherwise
where b is a constant.
(a) Determine the value of b.
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X and sketch its graph.
(c) Calculate E(X).
[Answer: (a) b = 4 ; (c)
14
5
]
7. The continuous random variable X has probability density function
f(x) =
1
25
(1 −2x), −2 ≤ x ≤
1
2
3
25
(2x −1),
1
2
≤ x ≤ 3
0, otherwise.
(a) Sketch the graph of y = f(x)
(b) Given that P(0 ≤ X ≤ k) =
13
100
, determine the value of k.
[Answer: (b) k =
3
2
]
34
Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
8. The number of hours spent in a library per week by arts and science students in a college is
normally distributed with mean 12 hours and standard deviation 5 hours for arts students,
and mean 15 hours and standard deviation 4 hours for science students.
A random sample of four arts students and six science students is chosen. Assuming that X
is the mean number of hours spent by these 10 students in a week,
(a) calculate E(X) and Var(X),
(b) ﬁnd the probability that in a given week, the mean number of hours spent by this sample
of students is between 11 hours and 15 hours.
[Answer: (a) 13.8 , 1.96; (b) 0.0.7814 ]
9. The random variable X is normally distributed with mean µ and standard deviation 100. It
is known that P(X > 1169) ≤ 0.117 and P(X > 879) ≥ 0.877. Determine the range of the
values of µ.
[Answer: {µ : 995 ≤ µ ≤ 1050} ]
10. The mass of a small loaf of bread produced in a bakery may be modelled by a normal random
variable with mean 303 g and standard deviation 4 g. Find the probability that a randomly
chosen loaf has a mass between 295 g and 305 g.
[Answer: 0.6687 ]
11. The random variable X has a binomial distribution with parameters n = 500 and p =
1
2
.
Using a suitable approximate distribution, ﬁnd P(X −E(X) ≤ 25).
[Answer: 0.9774 ]
12. The mass of yellow water melon produced by a farmer is normally distributed with a mean of
4 kg and a standard deviation of 800 g. The mass of red water melon produced by the farmer
is normally distributed with a mean of 6 kg and a standard deviation of 1 kg.
(a) Find the probability that the mass of a red water melon, selected at random, is less than
5 kg. Hence, ﬁnd the probability that a red water melon with mass less than 5 kg has
mass less than 4 kg.
(b) If Y = M − 2K, where M represents the mass of a red water melon and K the mass of
a yellow water melon, determine the mean and variance of Y .
Assuming that Y is normally distributed, ﬁnd the probability that the mass of a red water
melon selected at random is more than twice the mass of yellow water melon selected at
random.
[Answer: (a) 0.1587 , 0.144 ; (b) 2 , 3.56 ; 0.1446 ]
13. Tea bags are labelled as containing 2 g of tea powder. In actual face, the mass of tea powder
per bag has mean 2.05 g and standard deviation 0.05 g. Assuming that the mass of tea powder
of each bag is normally distributed, calculate the expected number of tea bags which contain
1.95 g to 2.10 g of tea powder in a box of 100 tea bags.
[Answer: 82 ]
14. The lifespan of an electrical instrument produced by a manufacturer is normally distributed
with a mean of 72 months and a standard deviation of 15 months.
35
Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
(a) If the manufacturer guarantees that the lifespan of an electrical instrument is at least 36
months, calculate the percentage of the electrical instruments which have to be replaced
free of charge.
(b) If the manufacturer speciﬁes that less than 0.1% of the electrical instruments have to be
replacedfree of charge, determine the greatest length of the gurantee period correct to the
nearest month.
[Answer: (a) 0.82% ; (b) 25 months ]
36
Numbers and Sets
Lee Kian Keong
1
Numbers and Sets
1. If loga x a2 = 3 loga 2 − loga (x − 2a), express x in terms of a. [Answer : 2. Given that loga (3x − 4a) + loga 3x = 2 1 + loga (1 − 2a), where 0 < a < , ﬁnd x. log2 a 2 [Answer : 3. Find the values of x if y = 3 − x and 4y − (x2 − 9) = −24. [Answer : 4. Using the laws of the algebra of sets, show that (A ∩ B) − (A ∩ B) = B 5. Using deﬁnitions, show that, for any sets A, B and C, A ∩ (B ∪ C) ⊂ (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) 6. Using the laws of the algebra of sets, show that, for any sets A and B, (A − B) ∪ (B − A) = (A ∪ B) − (A ∩ B) 7. If A, B and C are arbitrary sets, show that [(A ∪ B) − (B ∪ C)] ∩ (A ∪ C) = ∅ 8. If z is a complex number such that z = 1, ﬁnd the real part of 1 . 1−z [Answer : 9. Express √ √ √ 59 − 24 6 as p 2 + q 3 where p and q are integers. [Answer :
√ √ 4 2−3 3 ] 1 ] 2 x = 7, x = −9 ] 2 ] 3 x = 4a ]
10. Simplify √ √ ( 7 − 3)2 √ √ , (a) 2( 7 + 3) √ 2(1 + 3i) (b) , where i = −1. (1 − 3i)2 [Answer :
√ √ 13 9 (a) 2 7 − 3 3 ; (b) − − i] 25 25
√ 11. The complex numbers z1 and z2 satisfy the equation z 2 = 2 − 2 3i. (a) Express z1 and z2 in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers. (b) Represent z1 and z2 in an Argand diagram. (c) For each of z1 and z2 , ﬁnd the modulus, and the argument in radians. [Answer :
(a) z1 = √ √ π 5π 3 − i, z2 = − 3 + i ; (c) z1  = 2, z2  = 2 , arg(z1 )=− , arg(z2 )= ] 6 6
12. If (x + iy)2 = i, ﬁnd all the real values of x and y. [Answer :
1 1 x = ±√ ,y = ±√ ] 2 2
2
Polynomials
Lee Kian Keong
2
Polynomials
1 1. The polynomial p(x) = 2x3 + 4x2 + x − k has factor (x + 1). 2 (a) Find the value of k. (b) Factorise p(x) completely. [Answer :
(a) k = 1 3 ; (b) (x + 1)(2x − 1)(2x + 3) ] 2 2
2. Show that −1 is the only one real root of the equation x3 + 3x2 + 5x + 3 = 0.
3. The polynomial p(x) = x4 + ax3 − 7x2 − 4ax + b has a factor x + 3 and when divided by x − 3, has remainder 60. Find the values of a and b and factorise p(x) completely. 1 Using the substitution y = , solve the equation 12y 4 − 8y 3 − 7y 2 + 2y + 1 = 0. x [Answer : 4. Using the substitution y = x +
1 1 1 a = 2, b = 12; y = − , − , 1, ] 3 2 2
1 4 1 , express f (x) = x3 − 4x − 6 − + 3 as a polynomial in y. x x x [Answer :
y − 7y − 6 ]
3
Hence, ﬁnd all the real roots of the equation f (x) = 0. [Answer :
−1, −1, √ √ 3+ 5 3− 5 , ] 2 2
5. The polynomial p(x) = 6x4 − ax3 − bx2 + 28x + 12, where a and b are real constants, has factors (x + 2) and (x − 2). (a) Find the values of a and b, and hence, factorise p(x) completely. (b) Give that p(x) = (2x − 3)[q(x) − 41 + 3x3 ], ﬁnd q(x), and determine its range when x ∈ [−2, 10]. [Answer :
(a) a = 7, b = 27, (x − 2)(2x − 3)(3x + 1)(x + 2); (b) q(x) = x − 12x + 37, {y : 1 ≤ y ≤ 65} ]
2
6. Show that polynomial 2x3 − 9x2 + 3x + 4 has x − 1 as factor. Hence, (a) ﬁnd all the real roots of 2x6 − 9x4 + 3x2 + 4 = 0. (b) determine the set of values of x so that 2x3 − 9x2 + 3x + 4 < 12 − 12x. [Answer :
x = 1, x = −1, x = 2, x = −2 ; x < 1 ]
7. Find the set of values of x such that −1 < x3 − 2x2 + x − 2 < 0. [Answer : 8. Find the solution set of inequality x − 2 < 1 where x = 0. x [Answer : 3
{x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 1 + √ 2} ] {x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 2} ]
solve the inequality 2 − x > 2 +  x [Answer : 12.7252525 . For geometric series 6 + 3 + 11 ] 3 + .725 (= 0. C = −1. . B. [Answer : A = 1.01. . . .5 + 1. [Answer : 2. .75 + 0. Find the exact value of x so that the series converges to 2. is a(1 − rn ) 1−r 4 . obtain the smallest value of n if the diﬀerence between 2 45 the sum of the ﬁrst n + 4 terms and the sum of ﬁrst n terms is less than . [Answer : {x : x < 0} . D = −1 ] {x : x < 2 − √ 5} ] 3 Sequences and series 1... [Answer : 359 ] 495 4. x = − ln 2 ] 5. . x 1 Hence. Sketch.Sequences and series 9. x ≥ 1} ] {x : 0 < x < 1. converges..875 + . 1 < x < 3} ] 1 11. Express the inﬁnite recurring decimal 0.. x−1 x [Answer : Lee Kian Keong {x : x < −1. Find the solution set of the inequality 4 3 >3− . Find the constants A. the graph of y = 2 − x and y = 2 + . 64 [Answer : 5] ˙˙ 3. on the same coordinate axes. C and D such that A B C D 3x2 + 5x = + + + 2 )(1 + x)2 2 (1 − x 1 − x 1 + x (1 + x) (1 + x)3 . ) as a fraction in its lowest terms. ﬁnd the smallest value of n for which the diﬀerent between the sum of the ﬁrst n terms and the sum to inﬁnity is less than 0. . For the geometric series 7 + 3. Prove that the sum of the ﬁrst n terms of a geometric series a + ar + ar2 + . Determine the set of x such that the geometric series 1 + ex + e2x + . . Determine the set of values of x satisfying the inequality x 1 ≥ x+1 x+1 [Answer : 10. B = 1.
1 + 2x √ 1 By taking x = . 30 [Answer : 11. (b) n = 12 ] 10−Tn 5 6. ﬁnd 62 correct to four decimal places. Sn = 2(2k − 1) 2(2k + 1) 2 1− 1 2n + 1 . Express ur = 2 in partial fractions. Mr Liu does not make any additional deposit nor withdrawal. . . evaluate Un . 1 ] 2 [Answer : 9. r2 + 2r [Answer : 5 1 1 − ] r r+2 1− √ 1 7 2 25 3 x+ x − x + . 4k 2 − 1 (a) 10000(1. Express 1 as partial fraction. Liu at the end of nth year. The nth term of an arithmetic progression is Tn . 62 = 7. show that Un = (−2)2( 17 ) is the nth 2 term of a geometric progression. Express as a series of ascending powers of x up to the term in x3 . 2 n=1 [Answer : − 10 ] 3 7.04) . 3 (b) The sum of the ﬁrst n terms and the sum to inﬁnity of the geometric series 6 − 3 + − . Find the common ratio and the ﬁrst term of the geometric series. a = 3 . ∞ 1 If Tn = (17n − 14). [Answer : 8. (a) Calculate the total savings of Mr. . Liu. show that (1 − x) 2 + x 2 10 ≈ 29 (2 − 7x) 1 1+x 2 10. They receive an interest of 4% per annum.8740 ] 2 8 16 . 2 are Sn and S∞ respectively. (c) Determine in which year the total savings of Miss Dora exceeds the total savings of Mr.001 [Answer : (a) r = −2.Sequences and series Lee Kian Keong (a) The sum of the ﬁrst ﬁve terms of a geometric series is 33 and the sum of the ﬁrst ten terms of the geometric series is 1023.04 − 1]. Liu and Miss Dora deposited RM10 000 and RM2000 respectively in a bank. . (b) 52000[1. If x is so small that x2 and higher powers of x may be neglected. Determine the smallest value of n such that Sn −S∞  < 0. At the beginning of this year. (c) 6 ] n n n Hence. whereas. (b) Calculate the total savings of Miss Dora at the end of nth year. Mr. ﬁnd a simple expression for Sn = k=1 4k 2 1 and ﬁnd lim Sn n→∞ −1 1 1 1 − . Miss Dora continues to deposit RM2000 at the beginning of each of the subsequent years without any withdrawal. .
one component of B. Q = −1 1 −3 2 7 −50 −33 4 −6 −5 . Y . and 500 components of C are used. ] square matrices such that BA = B−1 and ABC = (AB)−1 . B. Y . Each product X consists of two components of A. Matrix M and N is given by M = 15 −4 −14 . Z are assembled from three components A. z=50.64609 ] 2 8 16 4 Matrices −10 4 9 2 3 4 1. Y . and N = 4 3 1 −5 1 6 1 2 4 Find M N and deduce N −1 . 1 If B = 0 1 x=200. and four components of C. R = 1 20 15 −2 7 −5 1 −13 −1 11 Find matrices PQ and PQR and hence. obtain a matrix equation representing the information given. (a) show that u2 = − + 2 + + r r r r + 2 (r + 2)2 ∞ Lee Kian Keong (b) show that r=1 ur = 3 1 1 1 − − and determine the values of ur and ur+1 + r . (a) The matrix P. each product of Z consists of four components of A. C = 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 0 ] 1 3. 2 n+1 n+2 3 r=1 r=1 [Answer : (b) 3 4 . (b) Using the result in (a). ] 2 3 ∞ ∞ 12. [Answer : 1− 1 √ 7 1 1 2 1 3 √ x− x − x . ﬁnd the number of products of X. ﬁnd C and A. and one component of C. Y . 7 = 2. Product X. [Answer : 2. and two components of C. y=50. Z representing the number of products of X. With X. C according to diﬀerent proportions. A. three components of B. Show that A−1 = 2 0 −1 0 . Hence. C are B2 = C. and Z assembled.Matrices Using the result obtained. solve the system of linear equations 6x + x − x + . 6 10y 2y 2y + 8z + z + 3z = 4500 = 0 = 1080 . four components of B. each product of Y consists of three components of A. 1000 components of B. Expand (1 − x) 2 in ascending powers of x up to the term in x3 . ﬁnd the value of correct to ﬁve decimal places. Hence. A total of 750 components of A. 0 1 [Answer : 1 A= 0 −2 0 1 −2 0 1 0 . B. 1 1 1 1 . deduce (PQ)−1 . Q and R are given by 1 5 6 −13 P = 2 −2 4 . and Z assembled.
b and c. Hence. b = 4. c = −4 . a = 0. 6 −5 3 1 −2 −1 5 −10 ] −5 7. solve the system of linear equations x − 2y − z 3x − y − 4z y + 2z 18 45 . −7/6 −3 1/2 −1/12 5/12 −1/4 −13/12 17/12 ] −1/4 7 . m = −2.Matrices 24 (a) 4 4 40 −8 8 32 72 4. b = 0. z = 1 ] 5/11 [Answer : 121 0 0 0 121 0 0 −2/11 0 . where P Q = QP . where I is the 3 × 3 identity matrix. The matrices P and Q. (b) Find (A + I)B. Hence.0 0 12 0 72 0 0 1/18 0 . (b) x = 220. Find the real numbers m and n for which P = mQ + nI. and hence ﬁnd (A + I)21 B. The matrix A is given by A = 3 1 0 1 −3 1 −2 (a) Find the matrix B such that B = A2 − 10I. [Answer : 3 3 8. 3 A−1 . b. B = −27 −13 0 1 2 −3 12 Find the matrix A2 B and deduce the inverse of A. c = 0 ] 5. Matrix A is given by A = 5 4 1 2 Find the adjoint of A. 5 = −8. are given by 2 −2 0 −1 P = 0 0 2 and Q = 0 a b c 0 1 0 −2 0 −1 2 Determine the values of a. The matrices A and B are given by −1 2 1 −35 19 A = −3 1 4 . ﬁnd 4 1 . y = 2. = 4. a2 b2 a bc is a symmetric b + c 2c − 1 [Answer : a = 1. 1/72 72 −1/36 7/72 −5/72 1/72 Lee Kian Keong −13/72 −1/72 . x = −3. z = 160 ] 11/72 [Answer : 2b − 1 4. c so that the matrix 2a − 1 b matrix. (b) 6 −5 3 1 −2 −1 5 −3 −10 . where I is the 3 × 3 identity matrix. = −15. Determine the values of a. n = 0 ] [Answer : 10 −14 6 −1 5 −3 −13 5/6 17 . 6/11 121 −3/11 1 2 6. −3/11 −2/11 1/11 7/11 1/11 . y = 190. [Answer : −3 (a) 6 3 1 −2 −1 5 −3 −10 .
If l2 intersects √ the xaxis and yaxis at points Q and R respectively. 3. The second group of six workers have three cups of tea. 2 [Answer : 1 11. Find the equation of the line passing through R and perpendicular to P Q. 8 . c = 22 . Hence determine the cost of each drink. z=RM 1. 4 3 2 1 . 0) and B(2. −5). −2 1 matrix. where I is the 3 × 3 identity 9. x=RM 1. RM y and RM z respectively. where I is the 3 × 3 identity 1 (b) Find the matrix B which satisﬁes BA = 0 −1 [Answer : 0 8 0 . Given that P QRS is a parallelogram where P (0. and deduce A−1 . two cups of coﬀee and three glasses of fruit juice at a total cost of RM11. The ﬁrst group comprising ten workers have ﬁve cups of tea. b) are points on the plane.Coordinate geometry Lee Kian Keong 5 2 3 a 1 −18 −1 12 and P Q = 2I. [Answer : 5/2 a = 11. 2) and Q(5. If P = 1 −4 3 . Determine the values of k such that the determinant of the matrix 2k + 1 0 1 −3 k 3 2 is 0. Matrix A is given by A = 1 1 0 0 −1 0 . 1/2 3/2 1 −2 1/2 3/2 3/2 . The cost of a cup of tea and three glasses of fruit juice is the same as the cost of four cups of coﬀee.80. The sum of distance of the point P from the point (4. Find the shortest distance from P to QR and the area of the parallelogram.10.40 ] 1 k 10. Q = b 3 1 2 −13 −1 c matrix. The point R divides the line joining the points P (3. R(7. a cup of coﬀee and two glasses of fruit juice at a total cost of RM7. Find a and b. shortest distance=8 2 units. 4) intersects the yaxis at point P . Hence ﬁnd P −1 . 8) in the ratio 3 : 4. 0) and S(a. The straight line l2 is perpendicular to l1 and passes through B.30. 16 12 4. (b) 3 1 1 −10 −4 −4 3 1 ] 2 5 Coordinate geometry 1. 9). b = −7. The straight line l1 which passes through the points A(4. a cup of coﬀee and a glass of fruit juice are RM x. Two groups of workers have their drinks at a stall. Area=80 unit ] 2. If the costs of a cup of tea. 0 2 1 (a) 1 1 0 −1 −2 1 k = − . obtain a matrix equation to represent the above information. y=RM 1. show that P R : QR = 5 : 3. b and c. Show that the locus of P is the ellipse + = 1 and sketch the ellipse.0) and the distance of P from the origin (x − 2)2 y2 is 8 units. determine the values of a. Q(2.k = 2 ] 4 (a) Show that A2 = I. [Answer : √ 2 a = 5. b = 14.
where O is the origin. where A and B lie in the ﬁrst quadrant. (b) 3 2 . b) and radius a2 + b2 − c. [Answer : 4. where their centres lies on a straight line. respectively.1] 6. show that the locus of P is also a circle. ﬁnd the ratio P A : AQ. (c) Find the area of the triangle OAB. 4 (b) Find the Cartesian equation of line l. C2 and C3 touching one another. (c) Given that line l cuts the x and yaxes at P and Q respectively. radius = ] 7 7 7 9. Show that x2 + y 2 − 2ax − 2by + c = 0 is the equation of the circle with centre (a. If Q moves on a circle with centre (1. Find the equation of C3 . x2 [Answer : 1 1 3 centre = (− . (b) Calculate the perpendicular distance of A to OB. The parametric equations of a straight line l are given by x = 4t − 2 and y = 3 − 3t. The lines y = 2x and y = x intersect the curve y 2 + 7xy = 18 at points A and B respectively. ) lies on line l. Find the perpendicular distance from the centre of the circle x2 + y 2 − 8x + 2y + 8 = 0 to the straight line 3x + 4y = 28. where 2 x2 + y 2 +y x = 0 and y = 0. 2 2 √ . 3 (a) Show that the point A(1. ﬁnd the shortest distance between the circle and the straight line. (a) Find the coordinates of A and B. (c) 1:1 ] x y . If C1 and C2 have equations x2 + y 2 − 10x − 4y + 28 = 0 and x2 + y 2 − 16x + 4y + 52 = 0 respectively. Find the coordinates of the centre and radius of the circle. [Answer : 8. (c) ] 2 4 7. 1) and radius 3. [Answer : (a) A(1. The above ﬁgure shows three circles C1 .Coordinate geometry [Answer : Lee Kian Keong 7x + 21y − 123 = 0 ] 5. 2) and B 3 3 . [Answer : 9 5x + 5y − 74x + 12y + 156 = 0 ] 2 2 . The coordinates of the points P and Q are (x. y) and (b) 3x + 4y − 6 = 0 . − ) . Hence.
h [Answer : 1 − √ ] 2 x 6. determine whether x→2 (a) 1 + e . x<1 f (x) = 3. x=1 2 + e − x. The function f is deﬁned by √ f (x) = (a) Find lim f (x). x + 1. otherwise. x→1 x→1 f −1 1 3 :x→ 1 x2 − 1 . [Answer : 3. Rf −1 = {x : x ≥ − } ] 3 3 (b) Sketch the graph of f . (b) {y : −1 < y < 1} . Dg = {x : x ∈ R} . The functions f and g are given by f (x) = (a) State the domains of f and g. 10 . not continuous ] f is continuous at x = 2. (c) Show that f (x)2 + g(x)2 = 1. 1 + e . (c) {y : 0 < y ≤ 1} ] a= 5 . x→1 (b) Determine whether f is continuous at x = −1 and x = 1. x ≥ − Find f −1 and state its domain and range. continuous at x = 2 ] 16 2 ex − e−x andg(x) = x ex + e−x e + e−x 5. lim− f (x) and lim+ f (x). ﬁnd lim h→0 f (x) − f (x + h) . The function f is deﬁned by x − 1. determine whether f is continuous at x = 1. Df −1 = {x : x ≥ 0}. Find the value of a if lim f (x) exists. 0≤x<2 f (x) = x + 2 ax2 + 1. x ≥ 2 where a ∈ R. The function f is deﬁned by 1 + e x . [Answer : 2. x→1 x→−1− x→−1+ lim f (x). x > 1 (a) Find lim− f (x) and lim+ f (x). Hence. Given x > 0 and f (x) = √ x. x ∈ R. ﬁnd the range of f . [Answer : 4. The function f is deﬁned by f : x → √ 3x + 1. (b) Without using diﬀerentiation. With this value of a. −1 ≤ x < 1. [Answer : (a) Df = {x : x ∈ R} . x − 1.Functions Lee Kian Keong 6 Functions 1. ﬁnd the range of g. Hence.
(b) Find the composite functions g ◦ f and state its domain and range. dx dx2 [Answer : dy √ 2. x+1 g:x→ x+2 . where x = 0. √ Lee Kian Keong 2 . dx [Answer : 3. Explain how the number of the roots of the equation f (x) = k(x − 2) depends on k. =0] dx dx2 2x . 2 (b) 3 + . show that x 2 + 2 + xy = 0. y = 3. ﬁnd dy d2 y and when x = 0. Functions f . R = {y : y ∈ R.Diﬀerentiation [Answer : 7. Sketch the graph of y = f (x). ] 4. If k < 0. (d) No. If y = cos x d2 y dy . x = 0. If y = ln xy. x = 0} . [Answer : 1 1 . x dx dx 5. x ∈ R Find f ◦ g and its domain. x = −1} . If y = x dy . R = {y : y ∈ R. 3 roots. Determine if f is a one to one function. Given that y = e−x cos x. (c) State the domain and range of h. y = 1} . 1 root. y = 3} . Function f if deﬁned by f (x) = 1 ] e2 dy d2 y = 1. x h:x→3+ 2 x (a) 0 . (d) State whether h = g ◦ f . discontinuous at x = 1 ] (a) State the domains of f and g. ﬁnd the value of when y = 1. g and h are deﬁned by f :x→ x . x ∈ R \ {0}. 1 + x2 dx 11 . 0 . x (c) D = {x : x ∈ R. Sketch the graph of y = f (x). x = 0} . Dg = {x : x ∈ R. 0 . x = } ] 2x − 1 2 7 Diﬀerentiation 1. Give a reason for your answer (a) Df = {x : x ∈ R. The function f and g are deﬁned by f :x→ 1 . D = {x : x ∈ R. (b) continuous at x = −1 . Give reasons to your answer. Diﬀerent domain ] [Answer : 8. (x + 1)(x − 2) Show that f (x) < 0 for all values of x in the domain of f . If k ≥ 0. [Answer : f is not one to one function. show that x2 = (1 − x2 )y 2 . D = {x : x ∈ R. x g : x → 2x − 1. x = −1} .
minimum . [Answer : 9. 0. t Find the equation of the normal to the curve at the point A(3. 1. Find the coordinates of B. is p.Diﬀerentiation Lee Kian Keong 6. 1]. Find the coordinate of the stationary point on the curve y = x2 + where x > 0. when k varies. give the xx coordinate and ycoordinate correct to three decimal places. hence.890) . the graphs y = ex and y = a = 0 . Using the NewtonRaphson method to determine the value of p correct to three decimal places and. where k ∈ R. B(−1. show that sin x + cos x dx2 dx 2 7. dx 3 (a) Show that [Answer : (b) (1 .683 ] (1 + x)ex − 2 = 0 has a root in the interval [0. Show that 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation x3 = k(x2 − 1). If y = sin x − cos x dy d2 y = 2y .375 ] 1 10. A curve is deﬁned by the parametric equations x = 1 − 2t. 0) ] 8. 3) and (1 . Find the coordinates of the stationary points on the curve y = 2 abd determine their x −1 nature. . p = 0. −4). 12 .5 to estimate the root correct to three decimal places. b). b = 1 . [Answer : 11. Show that the equation 1+x 0. Using the sketch of y = x3 and x + y = 1. Sketch. y = −2 + . where x x x > 0.908) ] 2 t and y = 2t + 1 t x3 12. Determine whether the stationary point is a minimum point or a maximum point. 1 1 The xcoordinate of the point of intersection of the curves y = x2 + and y = 2 . and hence. Use the NewtonRaphson method with the initial estimate x0 = 0. ﬁnd the point of intersection. 1. [Answer : 2 . A curve is deﬁned by the parametric equations x=t− where t = 0.5 < p < 1. deduce that − < < 2. dy 5 1 dy =2− 2 . Using the NewtonRaphson method to ﬁnd the real root correct to three decimal places. on the same coordinate axes. 3) ] (0. [Answer : x + y + 1 = 0 . dx t +2 2 dx dy 1 (b) Find the coordinates of points when = . show that the equation x3 + x − 1 = 0 has only one real root and state the successive integers a and b such that the real root lies in the interval (a. (0. Sketch the curve.724 . The normal of the curve at the point A cuts the curve again at point B.724 .794 .
Integration [Answer : Lee Kian Keong √ √ √ 3 3 √ 3 3 (0. 0) ∪ (1. ( 3. ) is local min. [Answer : x + ln(x + 1) δx . 3 2. By using suitable substitution. x2 − 1 Determine the coordinates of the point of inﬂexion of the curve. 2 real root for k = ± . and state the intervals for which the curve is concave upwards. − ) is local max.6931. evaluate 0 x2 (1 − x) 3 dx. where p = 0 at the point x = −1. (− 3. 8 Integration e 1. ∞) ] 16. √ √ √ 2 √ 2 √ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 real root for − <k< . The line y + x + 3 = 0 is a tangent to the curve y = px2 + qx. Show that 1 ln x dx = 1. 4ekt + 1 3 5 (c) Show that k[1 − f (t)2 ] = 2f (t) and hence show that f (t) < 0 (d) Find lim f (t) t→∞ (1) (e) Sketch the graph of f .698 ] x+1 14. 15. [Answer : 27 ] 140 1 13 . (−1. [Answer : (0. Hence. If y = x ln(x + 1). Sketch the curve. Show that the gradient of the curve y = x is always decreasing. ﬁnd 3x − 1 √ dx x+1 [Answer : 1 2(x + 1) 2 − 8(x + 1) 2 + C ] 3 1 4. 0. Find the values of p and q. The function f is deﬁned by f (t) = (a) Find the value of f (0) (b) Show that f (t) > 0 4ekt − 1 where k is a positive constant. estimate the value of ln 2. Using an appropriate substitution. 3 real roots for k < − or k > ] 2 2 2 2 2 13. Show that 2 (x − 2)2 5 dx = + 4 ln x2 3 2 3 3.01 given that ln 2 = 0. ﬁnd an approximation for the increase in y when x increases by δx. . 0) is inﬂexion point . 0) .
on the same coordinates axes. Express 2x + 1 Ax + B C in the form 2 + where A. (c) 9 108 . y) is given by x > 0. −4). (d) π ] 2 5 (a) y = x 2 − 5x 2 . (c) calculate the area of the region R bounded by the curve and the straight line. evaluate 2 + 1)(2 − x) 0 (x [Answer : x 1 3 + . x+1 e [Answer : (a) x + 1 x 1 2 ln(x + 2) + C . If the curve passes through the point (1. (2. [Answer : (b) (−1. on the same coordinate axes. x2 + 2 x dx. evaluate 0 6. Given a curve y = x2 − 4 and straight line y = x − 2. [Answer : 14 2 ln 3 ] . [Answer : 8. the curve and the straight line. (3 + 2 sin θ)2 [Answer : 1 ] 24 5. (b) − x+1 + x+1 ] 2 e e (ln 5. where dx 2 x (c) calculate the area of the region bounded by the curve and the xaxis. ln 2 ] x2 + 1 2−x 2 7. Sketch. the curves y = ex and y = 2 + 3e−x Calculate the area of the region bounded by the yaxis and the curves. Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curves. [Answer : 10. (d) ﬁnd the volume of the solid formed when R is rotated through 360◦ about the xaxis. Calculate the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated through 2π radians about the xaxis.Integration π 6 Lee Kian Keong cos θ dθ. Sketch. π(36 ln 5 − 48) ] 11. (b) sketch the curve. 0) . and ﬁnd the coordinates of the points of intersection. The gradient of the tangent to a curve at any point (x. Find (a) (b) x2 + x + 2 dx. the curves y = 6 − ex and y = 5e−x . (c) 3 1 20 √ 5] 5 9. Using the substitution u = 3 + 2 sin θ. B and C are constants. (a) ﬁnd the equation of the curve. 6 ln 5 − 8 . 3) . on the same coordinate axes. (b) determine the coordinate of their points of intersection. (a) sketch. (x2 + 1)(2 − x) x +1 2−x 1 2x + 1 dx Hence. 1) . dy 3x − 5 = √ .
dx [Answer : 3. Show that the substitution u = x2 + y transforms the diﬀerential equation (1 − x) into the diﬀerential equation (1 − x) du = −2u dx dy + 2y + 2x = 0 dx y= 2 + Ax3 ] 1 − Ax3 y= ex ] 2 + x − ex 15 .10) . Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curves y = −x2 + 3x and y = 2x3 − x2 − 5x. where a = 0. Find the coordinate of the 2 points of intersection. π ] 2 3 15 14. has a turning point at point (2. 2 Find the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated through 2π radians about the yaxis. Find the particular solution of the diﬀerential equation ex dy − y 2 (x + 1) = 0 dx for which y = 1 when x = 0. with ﬁve ordinates.Diﬀerential Equations Lee Kian Keong 1 12.910 ] 9 Diﬀerential Equations 1. Sketch on the same coordinates axis y = x and the curve y 2 = x. Calculate the area of the region bounded bt the xaxis and the curve. 1). Find the point of intersection of the curves y = −x2 + 3x and y = 2x3 − x2 − 5x. Find the general solution of the diﬀerential equation x dy = y 2 − y − 2. (2. express y in terms of x. [Answer : 2. ] 1 2 15. Sketch on the same coordinate system these two curves. [Answer : 1.2). 2) . evaluate 0 4 − x2 dx. [Answer : Point of intersection=(0.b=4. . 1 Find the area of region bounded by the line y = x and the curve y 2 = x.0). 4 64 . (4. π ] 3 15 a 13. Area=16 units . Calculate the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region about the xaxis. Hence. 0) . (2. [Answer : (0. Using trapezium rule. The curve y = x(b − x). Determine the 2 values of a and b. [Answer : a= 8 32 1 .
ﬁnd the general solution of the original diﬀerential equation. dt where x = 1. 3 4 [Answer : y= tan x ] 2 + tan x 8. The rate of increase of the number of infected occupants x at t days is given by diﬀerential equation dx = kx(1000 − x) dt where k is a constant. Using the substitution y = v . where A is an arbitrary constant. show that the general solution of the given diﬀerential equation maybe expressed in 2x . One of the rules at a training camp of 1000 occupants states that camp activities are to be suspended if 10% of the occupants are infected with a virus. satisfy the diﬀerential equation x du = u2 − 2u. where x > 0. dx x=e t2 −1 +1 ] Hence. [Answer : 6. The variables t and x are connected by dx = 2t(x − 1). A trainee infected with a ﬂu virus enrolls in the camp causing an outbreak of ﬂu. Lee Kian Keong [Answer : 5. the form y = 1 + Ax2 Find the equation of the solution curve which passes through the point (1.Diﬀerential Equations 4. Show that 2 d (ln tan x) = . show that the diﬀerential equation x2 2y dy + y2 = − dx x may be reduced to v2 dv = − 2. dx x Hence. [Answer : 7. The variables x and y. ﬁnd the solution of the diﬀerential equation (sin 2x) for which y = dy = 2y(1 − y) dx y= 1 ] Ax2 − x y= 4x ] 2 − x2 1 1 when x = π. dx sin 2x Hence.4) and sketch this solution curve. Assume that the outbreak of ﬂu begins at the time the infected trainee enrolls and no one leaves the camp during the outbreak. 16 . Find x in terms of t if x = 2 when t = 1. Express y explicity in terms of x in your answer.
[Answer : (b) k = 1 ln 1000 999 195 . distilled water is poured into the tank at a constant rate of 4 litres per minute. a is the rate of reproduction. Show that the rate of change of Q is given by √ dQ Q k √ . 2 When the water reaches 50◦ C. (b) At a certain instant. 17 . The time taken for overﬂow to occur is 20 minutes. =− dt 10 + (4 − k)t (b) Show that k = 4. Determine the length of time from the outbreak of the epidemic until all the ﬁsh of that species die. [Answer : Time = 4 hours 25 minutes ] (b) Q = 4 ] 11. 3 The water takes 1 hour to decrease to the temperature of 75◦ C. Find the time required. (a) Assuming that P = P0 at time t = 0 and a > b. there are ﬁve infected occupants (a) Show that x = (c) Determine the number of days before the camp activities will be suspended. A boiling water at 100◦ C is left to cool in kitchen that has a surrounding temperature of 25◦ C. and k is a positive constant. and calculate the amount of salt in the tank at the instant overﬂow occurs. The rate of increase in the number of a species of ﬁsh in a lake is described by the diﬀerential equation dP = (a − b)P dt where P is the number of ﬁsh at time t weeks. [Answer : 10.Diﬀerential Equations Lee Kian Keong 1000e1000kt . The epidemic results in no more oﬀspring of the ﬁsh being produced and the ﬁsh die at a rate directly 1 proportional to . where k > 0. Starting from time t = 0. There are 900 ﬁsh before the outbreak of the epidemic and only P 400 ﬁsh are alive after 6 weeks. (c) Sketch the graph of Q against t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 20. Show that k = ln . the water is placed in a freezer at −10◦ C to be frozen to ice. θs is the surrounding temperature. with a and b as constants. (c) 5 ] 9. the mixture leaves the tank at a constant rate of k litres per minute. there is an outbreak of an epidemic of a disease. √ At the same time. (a) Let Q be the amount of salt in the tank at time t minutes. The rate of change of water temperature is described by the diﬀerential equation dθ = −k(θ − θs ) dt where θ is the water temperature at time t. A 50 litre tank is initially ﬁlled with 10 litres of brine solution containing 20 kg of salt. from the moment the water is put in the freezer until it becomes ice at 0◦ C. 999 + e1000kt (b) Determine the value of k if it is found that. and b is the mortality rate. after one day. solve the diﬀerential equation and sketch its solution curve.
is given by √ dv = sin(πt) − 3 cos(πt) dt Express v and x in terms of t. 8 8 tan y = 18 . ﬁnd the values of x with 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. A particle moves from rest along a horizontal straight line.π ] 4 4 . solve the equation 4 sin θ − 3 cos θ = 3 for 0◦ < α < 360◦ . ﬁnd the values θ between 0◦ and 360◦ that satisfy the equation 10 sin θ − 5 cos θ = 2 [Answer : 4. r > 0 and 0 < α < √ 36. 2 Hence. 73. Starting from the formulae for sin(A + B) and cos(A + B). in ms−2 . Find the values of x. prove that tan(A + B) = If 2x + y = π . At time t s.8 . where R > 0 and 0◦ < α < 90◦ . If t = tan .9 . [Answer : 2 cos x− π 3 . which satisﬁes the inequality √ 0 < cos x + 3 sin x < 1 3 sin x in the form r cos(x − α). show that tan = 2 − 1. show that sin θ = and cos θ = . [Answer : 5 sin(θ − 36. .3 ] ◦ ◦ 0. x: 2π 5π 11π <x< .Trigonometry [Answer : (a) P = P0 e Lee Kian Keong (a−b)t . x = − 2 [sin(πt) − 3 cos(πt)] π π 2 4 −1 v = ± ms . π 3π . show that 4 tan A + tan B 1 − tan A tan B 1 − 2 tan x − tan2 x 1 + 2 tan x − tan2 x π √ π By substituting x = . Distance = 2 m ] π π 10 Trigonometry 1. 196. 180 ] ◦ ◦ ◦ 2. the displacement and velocity of the particle are x m and v ms−1 respectively and its acceleration. which satisfy the equation sin3 x sec x = 2 tan x [Answer : θ 2t 1 − t2 3. where 0 ≤ x ≤ π. Hence. Express 4 sin θ − 3 cos θ in the form R sin(θ − α). Express cos x + π . 2 1 + t2 1 + t2 Hence.9 ) . Find the velocities of the particle when its acceleration is zero for the ﬁrst and second times. Find also the distance traveled by the particle between the ﬁrst and second times its acceleration is zero. [Answer : v=− √ √ 1 1 [cos(πt) + 3 sin(πt)] . < x < 2π 3 6 6 ] 5. (b) 18 weeks ] 12.
.6 ) ] ◦ 7. Hence. with Q due west of R. all the values of x between 0 and π which satisﬁes the equation tan x + cot x = 8 cos 2x [Answer : π 5π 13π 17π . The bearings of P from Q and R are θ and φ respectively. AC = 8 2 cm. where r > 0 and 0◦ < α < 90◦ [Answer : √ 10 cos(θ − 71.2 ] ◦ ◦ 8. Points A and B are in the side XY of triangle XY Z with XA = AB = BY . R. such that ∠P QR = 80◦ and ∠RP S = 30◦ as shown in the diagram below. AD = CD = 8 cm and BD = 6 cm. Prove that ∠XZY = 90◦ 2. The triangle P QR lies in a horizontal plance. . The top A of a tower P A is at height h above the plane and the angle of elevation of A from R is α. in terms of π. calculate the angle between the face ABC and the face ABD. The points P .Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong 6. Find.0 ] ◦ 11 Geometry Deduction 1. The height of a vertical pole QB is k ang the angle of elevation of B from R is β. which satisfy the equation tan x + 4 cot x = 4 sec x. S are on the circumference of a circle. ] 24 24 24 24 9. where θ and φ are acute. Find all values of x. [Answer : 59. Q. where 0◦ < x < 360◦ . (a) Show that P R = P T 19 . Points C and D are on the sides Y Z and XZ respectively such that ABCD is a rhombus. In the tetrahedron ABCD.8 . Show that h= k tan α cos θ tan β sin(θ − φ) √ 10. The tangent to the circle at P and the chord RS which is produced. [Answer : 41. meet at T . Express cos θ + 3 sin θ in the form r cos(θ − α). AB = BC = 10 cm. 138. Show that the line from C perpendicular to AB and the line from D perpendicular to AB meet at a point on AB.
P AQ and RAS are straight lines. (c) the quadrilateral BCED is a square. Each triangle has base angles measuring 75◦ . AXC and BY C are straight lines. 20 . 6.Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong (b) Show that the length of the chord RS is the same as the radius of the circle. Show that ∠CBX + ∠CY X = 180◦ If AB = AC. Show that ∠ABC = ∠BAC. Show that (a) ∠DBC = ∠BDE = 90◦ . AB and AC cut the circumference of the circle at X and Y respectively. Prove that the triangles RP B and SQB are similar. (b) the triangle ACE is an equilateral triangle. The diagram below shows two circles ABRP and ABQS which intersect at A and B. show that BC is parallel to XY . 4. with BC and DE parallel and equal in length. Vertices B and C of the triangle ABC lie on the circumference of a circle. 5. The diagram below shows two intersecting circles AXY B and CBOX. 3. where O is the centre of the circle AXY B. The diagram below shows two isosceles triangles ABC and ADE which have bases AB and AD respectively.
show that the triangles AT Q and BT C are isosceles triangles. The lines AB and DC extended meet at the point E and the lines AD and BC extended meet at the point F . In the triangle ABC. 10. ∠CF D = α and ∠BEC = 3α. ﬁnd the area of the triangle BP C. The diagram below shows the circumscribed circle of he triangle ABC. The tangents at the points A and B meet at a point C.54 cm ] 2 8. Show that triangles ADE and CBE are similar. The diagram above shows two intersecting circles AP Q and BP Q. [Answer : α = 18 ] ◦ 9. the point P lies on the side AC such that ∠BP C = ∠ABC. Hence. AC = 8 cm and BP = 3 cm.Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong 7. In the diagram. If AB = 4 cm. [Answer : 6. Prove that an exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the opposite interior angle. Show that ACBQ is a cyclic quadrilateral. If the lines AQ and CB are parallel and T is the point of intersection of AB and CQ. show that the areas of the triangles AT Q and BT C are in the ratio AT 2 : BT 2 . where AP B is a straight line. 21 . determine the value of α. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. If DA = DE. Show that the triangles BP C and ABC are similar.
The circumscribed circle of the triangle JKL is shown in the diagram below. The angle bisector of the angle AT B at P m AB at Q and the circle at R.Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong The tangent to the circle at A meets the line BC extended to T . (b) Show that ABCD is a rhombus. (b) P T · BT = QT · AT . 12. (a) Show that the triangles ABD and BP C are congruent. [Answer : (c) 1:2 ] 22 . The line that passes through D and is parallel to AC meets P C produced at point R amd ∠CRD = 90◦ . Show that (a) triangles AP T and BQT are similar. (c) AP = AQ. 11. The tangent to the circle at J meets the line KL extended to T . Show that JV = JU . (c) Find the ratio CR : P C. A parallelogram ABCD with its diagonals meeting at the point O is shown in the diagram below. The angle bisector of the angle JT K cuts JL and JK at U and V respectively. AB is extended to P such that BP = AB.
with respect to the origin O.Vectors Lee Kian Keong 12 Vectors 4 8 and b = 1 p is 135◦ . and AC respectively. OB. (b) Find the position vector of the point of intersection of the line LM and the line P Q. w and θ. [Answer : −2uw(sin θ + cos θ) ] 6. P and Q are the midpoints of OA. 23 . If the angle between the vectors a = 2. [Answer : − 1 ] 3 1. the captain of the ship. where AG = mAP and BG = nBQ. from the direction N α◦ W. Wind is blowing with a speed of w from the direction of N θ◦ W. (b) 1341 hours ] ◦ 3. When the ship is cruising north with a speed of u. [Answer : (a) 1 1 1 1 1 b + µ(a + c − b) . are a. the captain of ship found that the wind seem like blowing with a speed of v1 .1 ] ◦ 7.6 W . CA. When a ship is cruising eastwards with a speed of u. The points P . (a) Determine the direction in which the boat should be travelling in order to intercept the yacht. ﬁnd the value of p. (b) a + b + c ] 2 2 4 4 4 4. In triangle ABC. however found that the wind seemed to be blowing with a speed of v2 from the direction N β ◦ W. where m + n = 1. BC. 1 1 (a) Show that the position vector of any point on the line LM is a + λ(b + c − a) some 2 2 scalar λ. B and C. [Answer : nAB − mnBC + mCA ] 2 2 2 5. (b) At what time does the interception occur? [Answer : (a) S 58. the boat is 14 nautical miles to the northeast of the yacht. The points L. A boat is travelling at a speed of 30 knots. Express AX 2 in terms of AB. (a) Draw the triangles of velocity of both situations tan α − 1 (b) Show that tan θ = 1 − cot β 2 2 (c) Express v2 − v1 in terms of u. the point X divides BC internally in the ratio m : n. M . m and n. b and c. and express the position vector of any point on the line P Q in terms of a. Q. BC. CA and AB respectively of the triangle ABC. b and c respectively. The lines AP and BQ meet at the point G. A yacht is sailing northwards at a speed of 10 knots. The position vectors of the points A. and R are the midpoints of the sides BC. At 1300 hours. Position vectors of the points P and Q relative to the origin O are 2 i and 3 i + 4j respectively. ∼ ∼ ∼ − − → −→ − Find the angle between vector OP and vector OQ [Answer : 53.
[Answer : (b) x = 1 ] 24 . dx vr a If the width of the canal is 12 m. The points A and B are on opposite banks and B is due east of A. Taking y to denote the distance northwards travelled by the swimmer. with the point O as the midpoint of AB. A swimmer swims from A towards the east at speed vr relative to the current in the canal. where i and j are perpendicular unit vectors. where CG = CR.Vectors − → 1 − − → 1 − → − → − − → 1− → (a) Show that AG = mAB + mAC and AG = (1 − n)AB + AC. A canal of width 2a has parallel straight banks and the water ﬂows due north. The speed of the current in the canal. where v0 is the speed of the current in the middle of the canal and x is the distance eastwards from the middle of the canal. The xaxis and yaxis are taken in the east and north directions respectively with O as the origin. The resultant force has magnitude 3p N. show that dy v0 x2 = 1− 2 . 3 3 2 (b) Show that CR meets AP and BQ at G. (a) ﬁnd the distance of the swimmer from O when he is at the middle of the canal and his distance from B when he reaches the east bank of the canal. is given by vc = v0 1 − x2 a2 . [Answer : (a) 20 m north of O . (a) Show that. The position vectors of the points A. Show that 1 1 u − v = sin (φ − θ) 2 2 10. (b) sketch the actual path taken by the swimmer. ABCD is a parallelogram. the speed of the current in the middle of the canal is 10 ms−1 and the speed of the swimmer is 2 ms−1 relative to the current in the canal. vc . C and D. for any value of x. are i + 3j. (b) Determine the value of x for which ABCD is a rectangle. 3 Lee Kian Keong 8. Calculate the value of p and determine the angle between the resultant force and OA. −5i − 3j. The angle between OA and OB is 120◦ .relative to an origin. A force of magnitude 2p N acts along the line OA abd a force of magnitude 10 N acts along √ the line OB. 40 m north of B ] 11. (x − 3)i − 6j and (x + 3)i respectively. [Answer : 30 ] ◦ 9. B. 2 2 2 2 2 Deduce that AG = AP and CG = CR. Let u = cos φ i + sin φ j and v = cos θ i + sin θ j.
determine the value of k. 15 5 (b) ﬁnd the position vector of R. nominally rated at 13 amperes. 6. The current at which they blow are recorded and the following cumulative frequency table is obtained. Hence. School candidates 25 55 4 Private candidates 5 40 5 Number of candidates Mean Standard deviation Calculate the overall mean and standard deviation of the Physics marks.98 ] 2. The points P and Q lie on the diagonals BD and DF respectively of a regular hexagon ABCDEF such that BP DQ = = k. CP : CQ = 1 : 3 ] 3 13. The lines P Q and OB − → −→ − produced meet at the point R. A sample of 100 fuses. If OA = a and OB = b. a and b. P and Q lie on a straight line. relative to O. [Answer : 52. in terms of b [Answer : (b) 4b ] 13 Data Description 1. − − → 2 1 (a) show that P Q = − a + b. where AB = a and BC = b. with P on the line OA such that OP : P A = 2 : 1 and Q on the line AB such that AQ : QB = 2 : 3. CQ = (1 − k)b − (1 + k)a . [Answer : √ 1 − − → − − → CP = (2k − 1)b − ka .Data Description Lee Kian Keong 12. If the points C. BD DF − − → − − → − − → −→ − Express CP and CQ in terms of k. ﬁnd CP : CQ . k = √ . A and B.5 . are tested by passing increasing electric current through them. The diagram above shows nonlinear points O. The mean and standard deviation of Physics marks for 25 school candidates and 5 private candidates are shown in the table below. 25 .
Numbers of defective components per lot Relative frequency 0 0. The table below shows the number of defective electronic components per lot for 500 lots that have been tested.means age 12 and more but less than 13 years ] (a) Display the above data using histogram (b) Find the median and semiinterquartile range for the age of teenagers who patronize the recreation centre.148 5 0. The number of teenagers.Data Description Currents (amperes) <10 <11 <12 <13 <14 <15 <16 <17 Cumulative frequency 0 8 30 63 88 97 99 100 Lee Kian Keong Calculate the estimates of the mean.014 6 or more 0.392 3 0. according to age. [Answer : (b) 17 years 1 month .4.65 . 12. that patronize a recreation centre for a certain period of time is indicated in the following table. 10 months ] 4. (b) For the lots with defective components of more than 5. 3 . [Answer : 12. median and mode. Give your answer to the nearest months.7 ] 5. Find the mean number of defective electronic components per lot for the given 500 lots. 12.042 1 0. (b) 2. Comment on the distribution. the mean number of defective components per lot is 6.032 (a) State the mode and the median number of defective electronic components per lot.61 .58 . The number of ships which anchor at a port every week for 26 particular weeks are as follows 32 26 28 27 43 38 21 42 35 18 19 37 25 50 45 46 35 23 32 40 18 20 26 29 30 46 (a) Display the data in a stemplot 26 . Age in Years 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number of teenagers 4 10 27 110 212 238 149 [ Age 12 . positively skewed ] 3. [Answer : (a) 2 .054 2 0.318 4 0.
Calculate the of p and q. x2 .71 ] 9. q.9 and ¯ 102. (d) positively skewed ] The numbers 4. Time (x minutes) Number of students 2≤x<5 1 5≤x<8 2 8 ≤ x < 11 4 11 ≤ x < 14 8 14 ≤ x < 17 5 17 ≤ x < 20 2 (a) Draw a histogram of the grouped data. Justify your answer.6. 7. Comment on the shape of frequency distribution.8 . 12. . (b) Calculate estimates of the mean. [Answer : (b) 12. p. (c) 41 . 12. of ﬁsh caught by 22 ﬁshermen on a particular day.5 and 72. 6. 15 . Use your calculations to justify your statement about the shape of the frequency distribution.Data Description (b) Find the median and interquartile range (c) Draw a boxplot to represent the data Lee Kian Keong (d) State the shape of the frequency distribution. . 12. The mean mark for a group of students taking a statistics test is 70. Find the ratio of the number of male to female students.0 respectively. for the numbers x1 . in kg. and mode of the breakfast times. (e) median ] 8.50 . The times taken by 22 students to breakfast are shown in the following table. 11. 9. (d) Draw a boxplot to represent the above data. 15 . The masses (in thousands of kg) of solid waste collected from a town for 25 consecutive days are as follows: 41 48 53 33 44 46 55 55 48 49 57 50 27 50 52 38 47 53 39 50 51 43 49 56 52 51 . 23 69 48 22 51 42 25 46 39 23 37 52 41 41 38 40 37 59 20 68 88 59 (a) Display the above data in an ordered stemplot. . [Answer : 2:3 ] 10. 9 ] 7. Show that. The following data show the masses. [Answer : (b) 44 .9. The mean marks for male and female students are 68. . have mean x = 6. (c) Find the median and interquartile range. 5. (b) Find the mean and standard deviation. xn with mean x. median. 16. [Answer : 1.23 . 5. Give a reason for your answer [Answer : 6. ¯ (x − x)2 = ¯ x2 − n¯2 x (x − x)2 = ¯ (b) 31 . x3 . (e) State whether the mean or the median is more suitable as a representative value of the above data. where p < q.
If 40% of the fruits in the basket are mangoes. (d) Find the percentage of days for which the workplace is considered unsafe. 7.194 195 . The number of women doctors and that of women engineers are 12 and 5 respectively. (b) Calculate estimates of the mean and standard deviation of the levels of the metal dust. The workplace is considered safe if the level of the metal dust is less than 198 µ g m−3 . ﬁnd the probability that both of them are doctors. 855 2618 33 68 (b) Given that two women are selected. (d) Draw a boxplot to represent the data. [Answer : (b) 50 . (c) 48. The level of the metal dust at the workplace is recorded at a particular time of day for a period of 90 consecutive working days. There are 20 doctors and 15 engineers attending a conderence. Four participants from this group are selected randomly to chair some sessions of panel discussion. Hence. (d) 4.8 . 5. 70% of mangoes and 60% of papayas are ripe. (c) 184.97 ] 11.44% ] Number of days 8 11 25 22 15 7 2 14 Probability 1. Overexposure to a certain metal dust at the workplace of a factory is detrimental to the health of its workers. [Answer : (b) 185 . (b) ﬁnd the percentage of the ripe fruits which are mangoes. The results are summarised in the table below. 6 . (c) Calculate the mean and standard deviation.4375) 28 .201 (a) State what the number 11 in the table means.64) (0. 9. (0.189 190 .Probability (a) Construct a stemplot to represent the data. (a) Find the probability that three doctors are selected. estimate the median and the interquartile range.179 180 .22 . 2. (b) Find the median and interquartile range. Metal dust level (µ g m−3 ) 170 .7 .4 . In a basket of mangoes and papayas. (a) ﬁnd the percentage of the fruits which are ripe. Lee Kian Keong (e) Comment on the shape of the distribution and give a reason for your answer.174 175 .199 200 .184 185 . (c) Plot a cumulative frequency curve of the above data.
workers earning less than RM1000.00 are given a bonus of RM1000. Two archers A and B take turns to shot.604) 6. The probabilities 1 1 and respectively. ﬁnd the 15 probability that at least one is red. (a) If two workers are randomly chosen. ﬁnd the probability that both transistors are defective. 13 9. Show that the of A and B hitting the bull’s eye in each shot are 6 5 1 probability of archer A hitting the bulleye ﬁrst is .00 a month and 17 female workers earning at least RM1000.Probability Lee Kian Keong 3.00 whereas the others receive a month’s salary. ﬁnd the probability that exactly one worker receives a bonus of one month’s salary. (0. 2 1 8. (0. Find 7 the probability that all the three balls selected are of the same color.00 a month.] 4 29 . three red balls and six white balls.495) (b) If a male worker and a demale worker are randomly chosen. two red taxis and ﬁve yellow taxis are parked there. ﬁnd the probability that exacly one worker receives a bonus of one month’s salary.(0. At the end of the year. 1 [Assume that a taxi may be parked at any of the parking bays. two of which are red. There are 12 towels. If one blue taxi. with 10 male workers earning less than RM1000. Two transistors are chosen at random from a batch of transistors containing ninety good and ten defective ones. ﬁnd the probability that two red taxis are parked next to each other. with archer A taking the ﬁrst shot. The probability that it rains in a certain area is . (0. A factory has 36 male workers and 64 female workers. There are eight parking bays in a row at a taxi stand. If ﬁve towels are chosen at random. Find 20 50 5 the probability that it rains if an accident occurs at the corner. 40 4.1909) (b) If at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective. 22 5. (a) Find the probability that at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective. Three balls are selected at random from one blue ball. The probability that an accident occurs 5 1 1 at a particular corner of a road in that area is if it rains and if it does not rain.0476) 7.
Given that E(X) = and Var(X) = . (b) 9 . (a) Determine the value of k and tabulate the probability distribution of X. 19 ] 14 a= 1 1 1 . b and c. where i = 1. npq . takes the values of 0 and 1 with the probabilities of q and p respectively. 3. 2. A discrete random variable X takes the values of 0. 1 and 2 with the probabilities of a. . . Two events A and B are such that P (A) = (a) Show that the events A and B are neither independent nor mutually exclusive. 3 9 [Answer : 3. x = 1.19) (0. 8 4 6 Lee Kian Keong 10. . ] 6 3 2 k(4 − x)2 . The discrete random variable X has the probability function P (X = x) = where k is a constant. (b) Find E(7X − 1) and Var(7X − 1). [Answer : (b) np. (b) Find the probability that at least one of the events A and B occurs. (c) Find the probability that either one of the events A and B occurs. . ﬁnd the values of a. . (b) Find P (Y − E(Y ) ≤ 30). 2. 7 12 13 24 11. binomial distribution ] 2. [Answer : 4. The independent random variable Yi . . . . A fourdigit number. 2. P (B) = and P (AB) = .0486) 15 Discrete Probability Distributions 1. 30 . 3.b= . digits. where q = 1 − p. (b) the number contains exactly two nonzero. y = 1. 0. (a) Show that E(Yi ) = p and Var(Yi ) = pq. The probability distribution function of the discrete random variable Y is P (Y = y) = y . + Yn . 100 5050 (a) 1 . otherwise (a) Show that E(Y ) = 67 and ﬁnd Var(Y ). (0. b and 4 5 c respectively. is formed.Discrete Probability Distributions 3 1 1 . . determine E(X) and Var(X). . Comment on the distribution of X. n. in the range 0000 to 9999 inclusive. (b) If X = Y1 + Y2 + . Find the probability that (a) the number begins or ends with 0.
The probability that a lemon sold in a fruit store is rotten is 0. 4 ] 8.5.02. the additional cost incurred is RM20.5665) (160.5 and 3. [Answer : 10. A car rental shop has four cars to be rented out on a daily basis at RM50. The independent Poisson random variables X and Y have parameters 0. (0. (b) Calculate the expected daily income received from the rentals.0183) (0. (b) Using a suitable approximate distribution. [Answer : 11. Two percent of the bulb produced by a factory are not usable. determine the maximum number of lemons per packet so that the probability that a packet chosen at random does not contain rotten lemons is more than 0. (a) Find the probability that.00 per day. (a) Find the probability that. A type of seed is sold in packets which contain ten seeds each. The probability that a heart patient survives after surgery in a country is 0. The random variable W is deﬁned by W = X − Y . out of ﬁve randomly chosen heard patients undergoing surgery. A total of 2000 persons are injected with the anaesthetic. i. (YES) 6. (a) Find E(W ) and Var(W ) (b) Give one reason why W is not a Poisson random variable. at least four requests for cars are received.00 per car. On the average. (a) If the lemons in the fruit store are packed in packets.7619 ] 9. [Answer : 35 ] 7.Discrete Probability Distributions [Answer : Lee Kian Keong (a) 561 . 31 (a) 0.3915 .97 ] 0. [Answer : (a) 2 . (b) 0. it is found that a seed per packet does not germinate. (b) 4087 ] 5050 5. ﬁnd the probability that more than 160 survive after surgery in a random sample of 200 heart patients.002.5 respectively. [Answer : 0. Find the probability that a packet chosen at random contains less than two seeds which do not germinate. Determine whether the shop should buy another car for rental. calculate the probability that more than two persons are allergic to the anaesthetic. Using a suitable approximate distribution.85. The probability of a person allergic to a type of anaesthetic is 0.85. Find the smallest number of bulbs that must be examined so that the probability of obtaining at least one nonusable bulb exceeds 0. The average daily demand for cars is four.7361 ] . on a particular day. four survive.93) (c) If the shop wishes to have one more car. ii. no cars are requested.
2558 ] 16 Continuous Probability Distributions 1. 0 ≤ x < 1. with 1 − ax. 5 f (x) = 4 − x. (b) 0. Find the probability that a randomly chosen packet contains exactly one defective diskette.8795 ] 12.1 and q = 0. [Answer : (a) 8 .05 whereas the probability that a diskette produced by manufacturer B is defective is 0. (b) Calculate the probability that at least one of two independent observed values of X is greater than three. with 60% of the diskettes from manufacturer A. 3 < x ≤ 4 2 with a and b as constants. 10 ≤ x < 20. 1 . 0. (c) 20 hours . [Answer : 3. (d) RM 2500 ] 8 2. 4x2 (a) Find the cumulative distribution function of X. express the total cost of repair in terms of X. and determine the expected total cost of repair. x < 0. Continuous random variable X is deﬁned in the interval 0 to 4. [Answer : (b) 7 .02. The probability density function is given by 0.01x − p. 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 P (X > x) = 1 b − x. where p and q are constants. 20 ≤ x ≤ 30. 32 (b) 23 ] 144 .Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong (b) If the lemons in the fruit store are packed in boxed each containing 60 lemons. The time to repair a certain type of machine is a random variable X (in hours). (a) Show that p = 0. The continuous random variable X has probability density function 0. (c) Determine the expected value of X. x ≥ 1. The diskettes are packed by the manufacturers in packets of tens. [Answer : 0. ﬁnd using a suitable approximation. (d) If the total cost of repair of the machine comprises a surcharge of RM500 and an hourly rate of RM100. otherwise. The probability that a diskette produced by manufacturer A is defective is 0.3. f (x) = q − 0. A computer accessories distributor obtains its supply of diskettes from manufacturers A and B. (b) Find the probability that the repair work takes at least 15 hours. the probability that a box chosen at random contains less than three rotten lemons.01x.
190 ] 2 33 . 6 (b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X and sketch its graph (a) Show that a = (c) Find the probability density function of X (d) Calculate the mean and standard deviation of X.Continuous Probability Distributions 1 and b = 2. Lee Kian Keong [Answer : (d) 5 . 1.
that a plant of that species randomly chosen has a lifespan of more than 20 days. The continuous random variable X has the probability density function 4 x2 (3 − x). f (x) = 27 0. determine the value of k. 0. 100 [Answer : (b) k = 3 ] 2 (a) b = 4 . (a) Sketch the graph of y = f (x) (b) Given that P (0 ≤ X ≤ k) = 13 . (c) Calculate E(X). (c) Calculate the expected lifespan of that species of plant. 34 . The probability density function is given by 1 1 e− 8 t . 2 (b) 0. otherwise (a) Find the cumulative distribution function of T and sketch its graph. (c) 80 days ] (b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X. [Answer : 7. 0 < x < 3. The lifespan of a species of plant is a random variable T (tens of days). otherwise. [Answer : 5. to three decimal places. The continuous random variable X has probability density function x−1 . t > 0 f (t) = 8 0. (b) Find the probability. The continuous random variable X has probability 1 (1 − 2x). (c) 14 ] 5 (a) 5 ] 16 density function 1 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 1 ≤x≤3 2 otherwise. (a) Determine the value of b. otherwise where b is a constant. (a) Calculate P X< 3 . 25 3 f (x) = 25 (2x − 1).779 .Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong 4. [Answer : 6. (b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X and sketch its graph. 1≤x≤b f (x) = 12 0.
Assuming that the mass of tea powder of each bag is normally distributed. ﬁnd the probability that a red water melon with mass less than 5 kg has mass less than 4 kg.7814 ] 9. The random variable X has a binomial distribution with parameters n = 500 and p = Using a suitable approximate distribution.8 . the mass of tea powder per bag has mean 2. [Answer : (a) 13. The mass of a small loaf of bread produced in a bakery may be modelled by a normal random variable with mean 303 g and standard deviation 4 g. is less than 5 kg. Determine the range of the values of µ.117 and P (X > 879) ≥ 0.6687 ] 1 . The number of hours spent in a library per week by arts and science students in a college is normally distributed with mean 12 hours and standard deviation 5 hours for arts students. 0. 3. (a) Find the probability that the mass of a red water melon. ﬁnd the probability that the mass of a red water melon selected at random is more than twice the mass of yellow water melon selected at random. Find the probability that a randomly chosen loaf has a mass between 295 g and 305 g. (b) 0. calculate the expected number of tea bags which contain 1. [Answer : (a) 0.877. where M represents the mass of a red water melon and K the mass of a yellow water melon. (b) ﬁnd the probability that in a given week.56 . 2 12.144 .96. Assuming that Y is normally distributed. It is known that P (X > 1169) ≤ 0. 35 . In actual face.05 g.05 g and standard deviation 0.1446 ] 13. Tea bags are labelled as containing 2 g of tea powder. and mean 15 hours and standard deviation 4 hours for science students. The lifespan of an electrical instrument produced by a manufacturer is normally distributed with a mean of 72 months and a standard deviation of 15 months. (b) 2 . (b) If Y = M − 2K. ﬁnd P (X − E(X) ≤ 25). (a) calculate E(X) and Var(X). [Answer : 11. Hence. selected at random.Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong 8. the mean number of hours spent by this sample of students is between 11 hours and 15 hours. The random variable X is normally distributed with mean µ and standard deviation 100. The mass of yellow water melon produced by a farmer is normally distributed with a mean of 4 kg and a standard deviation of 800 g.0.95 g to 2.10 g of tea powder in a box of 100 tea bags.1587 . 0. [Answer : 82 ] 14. [Answer : {µ : 995 ≤ µ ≤ 1050} ] 10. determine the mean and variance of Y . The mass of red water melon produced by the farmer is normally distributed with a mean of 6 kg and a standard deviation of 1 kg. A random sample of four arts students and six science students is chosen. Assuming that X is the mean number of hours spent by these 10 students in a week.9774 ] 0. 1. [Answer : 0.
(b) If the manufacturer speciﬁes that less than 0.1% of the electrical instruments have to be replacedfree of charge. determine the greatest length of the gurantee period correct to the nearest month.Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong (a) If the manufacturer guarantees that the lifespan of an electrical instrument is at least 36 months. (b) 25 months ] 36 . [Answer : (a) 0. calculate the percentage of the electrical instruments which have to be replacedfree of charge.82% .
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