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formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major areas:epistemology, ethics, metaphysics. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. Logic is also studied inargumentation theory. Logic was studied in several ancient civilizations, including the Indian subcontinent,  China and Greece. Logic was established as a discipline byAristotle, who gave it a fundamental place in philosophy Logic is the art which directs the act of reason, by which art a man may procede in the act of reason in an orderly manner, with ease, and without error. Logic examines three acts of the reason: Simple Apprehension: the act by which the intellect knows an essence (what a thing is), and produces a concept; Judgment: the act by which the intellect affirms or denies the truth of something, putting together or dividing apart concepts; Reasoning: the act whereby the intellect compares two concepts with one third concept, and perceives whether the two concepts go together. Simple Apprehension is the grasp of a concept. A concept is also called an idea, a species, an intelligible form, and a mental word. A concept has an extension, which is the group of things included under the concept. A singular concept is the concept of one individual, for example, your concept of President Abraham Lincoln. A universal concept extends to a whole class of things. The more features (or notes) included in a universal concept, the narrower its extension. A transcendental concept is one that applies to anything that exists, for example being, thing, unit, distinct, good, true, and beautiful. A concept by itself is not true or false, just as a single word is not true or false. A concept is a sign of a thing, just as a spoken word is a sign of a concept, and through the concept the spoken word is a sign of the thing. A concept is not merely a sensation stored in the mind, but is an immaterial act of understanding. The theory of ideogenesis = Aristotle's answer to the origin of ideas, i.e. how ideas are formed in our mind. We do not have innate ideas. When we are born our minds are a blank table â€œtabula rasa,â€ and all our ideas must be acquired. The mind cannot form an idea, if there is nothing to think about. The steps to the theory of ideogenesis are: X, Sensible Qualities, External Qualities, Sense Impressions of X, Central Sense, Perception of X, Instinct or Sense Memory or Sense Imagination, Phantasm of X, Agent Intellect, Abstraction, Abstracted Essence of X, Passive Intellect, Forms the Idea of X. First you start with an object to be known, defined by X. Xâ€™s sensible qualities are taken in by our external senses. The sense impressions of X are analyzed by the Central Sense. The perception of X is a higher level knowledge, but only when X is present. The sense memory is the image to be retained in us. The phantasm of X is the memory of X when X is no longer present, which is also the highest level of knowledge the senses can provide. The agent intellect (the mind!) will then perform the act of abstraction. The act of abstraction is the act by which the mind separates one aspect of a thing from its other aspects. The abstracted essence of X refers to the general characteristics, i.e. most things of X will have these similar qualities. Passive intellect is the mind doing the activity of forming an idea. Based on this theory, Aristotleâ€™s view is that 1) everything in the mind begins with the senses, and 2) knowledge begins in the senses and ends in the mind. The Importance of the Senses
Stuart Heller USING YOUR WHOLE MIND According to Carl Jung whose research was used to develop the Myers-Brigg typology instrument. but no one told us how to do this. The senses allow you to use yourself as a laboratory for building and testing your ideas and desires. You could say that sensation is to actuality as intuition is to possibility. labeled: Thinking. Intuiting. the internal senses more indirect. Although they are not mainstream names. This may be the physical mechanism corresponding to what can be called the Mind’s Hand. It is in the world of actuality that your results are tested. our minds have four basic sub-systems or psychological organs. Alexander and Moshe Feldenkrais. Of particular interest is the connection between the external sense of Touch and the internal sense of Proprioception. Smell 2. the internal senses are emphasized in many other disciplines. you want your new skills to show up in the world and not remain as thoughts. the external senses reach us more consciously and the internal senses reach us through our subconscious. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SENSES On a very practical level. Sight . a leader has to use all of him or herself. John Dewey. Said in another way. or intuitions of possible new ways to be. one of these four is your primary mode of processing. These are two very different ways to use your mind. your mental function of sensation is the “closest” to the physical universe. This configuration of senses is more tangible and concrete than the Mind’s Eye.M. Their nerve fibers run together as they enter the spine. From this point of view. For example. From the accomplishment point of view expressed by Peter Drucker. When this “objective” feedback is brought to the rest of your mind. Leaving aside the issue of types. How do I do what I do? Extereoceptive Senses 1. WHAT ARE OUR SENSES? Anatomy textbooks categorize the senses being either extereoceptive or intereoceptive. Excellent idea. LEVERAGING THE INTERNAL SENSES (iSenses) Although not valued as an important component of our basic education. Can you imagine Tiger Woods not having highly developed internal senses? Of special importance to our approach are the contributions of two somatic pioneers. and Sensing. Some of the people they have influenced are: Aldous Huxley. someone who operates first with intuition and then with feeling (NF) responds very differently from someone who scores as a ST or sensate thinker. Feeling. they have had a powerful influence in many fields. and Margaret Mead. the ability to influence states and conditions via awareness. the external senses are more direct. the whole process of accomplishment is strengthened. In relation to how they influence us. not just their favorite parts or ways of doing things. including sports. Think of internal senses as the mind function that asks. Through this feedback you can refine and retool yourself as an instrument. F. You want them to become concrete and real. This is why we believe that working with the senses is a crucial component of transforming words into actualities. feelings. YoYo Ma. George Bernard Shaw.
Touch & Pressure 6. a drum and a piano are both occurrences or inferiors of the term instrument. negative in form. compatible 2. movement-oriented languages. The term Filipino is univocal in relation to the Surigaonon. positive in meaning ACCORDING TO OBJECT 1. incompatible 2. contradictory 2. positive in form. imaginary ACCORDING TO ORIGIN 1.b. process and express our experiences and desires for change through the medium of words. logical 3. and any other social division of people within the Philippines. Proprioception a. immediate 2. Pain & Temperature Intereoceptive Senses 1. Hearing 4. making it univocal or having only one meaning. Cebuano. To work effectively with the non-verbal we must add to our repertoire concepts and models from body-based. equivocal. mediate ACCORDING TO RELATION 1.” Someone who always says. . the term can be classified as univocal. correlative ACCORDING TO MEANING According to Bachhuber in his book Introduction to Logic. Muscles 2. positive in meaning 2.a. privative 4. Visceroception THE POWER OF BELOW THE NECK LEARNING Living above-the-neck as we normally do. we tend to identify. real 2. Joints d. Taste 5. Kagay-anon. and analogous by basing on the term’s relation to more than one inferior. which is an object that produces music. such term is univocal. Tendons c. Manileño. yes to a request “backs down” under pressure. Ilocano. negative in meaning 4. Univocal Terms When a term is being applied to their inferiors in the same exact essence. We say we are frustrated when we feel “backed up. This is not as strange as it sounds. When someone is depressed. they feel “down. For instance. they feel “up.” ACCORDING TO QUALITY 1.3. contrary 3. positive in form. Equilibrium b. negative in meaning 3. negative in form.” When someone is excited.
Semantics is the science of the meanings of words. fictitious. The term is referred by instances of different meanings. A faggot becomes equivocal when applied to the bundle of sticks for firewood and the slang for a gay man. Logical or Conceptual – when the term designates some product of the mind. or it may be taken for the meaning itself for which the term stands (for from the Latin supponere. depends on the degree of their relation with each other and to the general term.g. entirely different from gay as in being merry. an enginedriven flying vehicle. These inferiors in themselves are distinct but all point to identity of the Philippines. the term gay has over the years evolved to adapt a new meaning. supposition and appellation. in this case called analogues. mathematical. “to substitute”). when employed in a sentence it is used to bear one meaning only. Equivocal Terms When instances are under the same term but of entirely different meaning. the term is equivocal. While both are in a way fantasized and admired. hypothetical. dances. E. Logical Properties of Terms As employed or found in the sentence. as the designated conceptual object may be. E. Supposition may be classified: I. as distinguished from phonetics which is the science of the sounds of words. The emphasis on the analogy of inferiors. superstitious. terms have the following functions or roles. lifestyle. etc). ¾. The term Filipino can become analogous if it is not just applied to the races but also to the country’s language (Tagalog.when the term designates something found in the external world. Bisaya. the former is done with dexterity and speed to trick the minds of the audience and the latter is supernatural and impossible to perform. the Republic of the Philippines. etc). a fan can signify the tool for moving air and an enthusiastic admirer of a celebrity or public performer. respectively. the supposition may also be ideological. Equivocally. etc. Supposition and appellation in modern terminology is called as logical or philosophical semantics. For. and culture (food delicacies.Boeing 777 and the stealth bomber B-2 Spirit are instances of the univocal plane. Under this conceptual category. For example. ACCORDING TO THE OBJECT The supposition is: Real . .g. that of being homosexual. Analogous Terms Terms become analogous when their inferiors are partly the same but also partly different in their use or essence. SUPPOSITION Supposition may be taken either as the function whereby a term stands for a meaning in the proposition. The head as in the chief executive officer and the head in a person are both the topmost part of a company and the human body. They are in some way similar and vital but have no direct resemblance to each other. It is this meaning with which we are now concerned. the term rat applies not only to a long-tailed rodent that is larger than a mouse but also to a person who is deceitful and betrays confidences. Magic is analogous to the sleight of hand or conjuring tricks and illusion and to the fictional magic such as a fireball invoked by a wizard and the dead raised by necromancers. Similarly. whereas a term may have several different meaning in the dictionary.
E. – observe that a grammatically singular term may have a universal supposition. some students are lazy. Ambiguous – when the term beards several possible meanings in the sentence. drunkenness is not a virtue.g. IV. E.g. E. – observe that a grammatically plural term may have a particular supposition. . or the professional team.Metaphorical – when the term designates another thing aside from its literal meaning. men (not all but most) are stronger than women (not all but most). III. e. the American Nation.g. E. Although the speaker may have definite meaning in his mind yet the listeners is not sure of it. Mr. the President of the First Philippine Republic. the TTMIST computer hackers team. or individuals as constituting a group.g. the physician sing. the common Filipino.g. men are progressive beings. the Vatican has banned the use of the Contraceptive Pill. Juan de la Cruz. CMIT did a gift giving activity. whereas temperance is. merely as identified by the quality. E. namely. E.g.g. E. but not as qualified by it. II.g. the UST Medical team has arrived. Universal – when the term denotes distributively all the individuals of the expressed nature or category. the Stars and Stripes. It may mean the playing team.g. namely. man is mortal. ACCORDING TO COMPREHENSION The supposition is: Material – when the term denotes the subject expressed. from the formal resemblance of the former to the latter. ACCORDING TO EXTENSION The supposition is: Individual – when the term denotes a definite individual.g. the SCUAA team. ACCORDING TO THE MEANING The supposition is: Precise – when the term bears only one meaning in the proposition.He did so in his capacity as physician. Proper – when the term stands for its proper object. this physician has healed many patients. Calbayog is the only city in Western Samar. Particular – when the term denotes only a part of the extension of the universal. He does so not is his capacity as physician but as a human being. E. I am a Filipino citizen. Figurative – when the term stands for another thing that it suggest. Formal – inasmuch as the term stands for a subject as identified and qualified by the nature or qualification expressed. men are less emotional than women. or when the term designates a universal formal reason or a universal individual. E. E. or killed a man. Collection – when the term designates a group.g. form or nature expressed.
although he may not be excellent in carpentry: or b) the subject as identified and qualified by the feature or nature expressed: e. but not classified by it. E. E. (it does not follow) . excellent students are assets to the school. i. E. has universal supposition. The extension of the supposition of the subject must be determined from the precise meaning it has in the sentence. RULES ON SUPPOSITION OF TERMS Sometimes the extent of the supposition of a term does not appear at first glance as we have seen in the examples given. The predicate in an affirmative proposition. Man is a corruptible being. although not as qualified by it. The predicate in a negative proposition. men are not angels. or conversely. whether the proposition is universal or particular.g. But.g.g.. or the specific part of its definition. or a property of the universal nature of the subject. it may affect: a) the subject only as identified by the feature or nature expressed. In logic it means the function of a term denominating another term. one who is expert in carpentry. the denomination of a term by another.g. Remarks – a shift or change in appellation changes also makes four terms in a syllogism which apparently emplies only three terms. Example: a good artist is an expert performer. i. e.g. whether the proposition is universal or particular. In order to determine the supposition of such term.V.g.. When an appellating term is applied to a concrete term. man is a rational being.g. E. A change or shift in the supposition of an apparently identical term introduces surreptitiously four conceptual terms in a syllogism. which apparently employs only three terms.g. or academically poor students.. KINDS OF APPELLATION Material – when the appellant is applied to the subject only as identified by the feature or nature expressed. a good carpenter. a good carpenter.g.g. Pedro is a an expert performer. APPELLATION Appellation literally means the calling of an object. E. Precise – when the sense of the appellation is definite and clear. a poor philosopher. 2. 4. mean are mortal (there are other mortal beings aside from men). Imprecise – when the sense of the appellation is not definite and clear. Exceptions to this rule are instances in which the predicate is the definition of a universal subject. Atqui. the following are some general rules obtained from the analysis of the given examples: 1. A wise (appellant) philosopher (appellate). that is. 3. hasparticular supposition. ice plant is a plant. poor students are burden to the school. e. E. The syllogism becomes fallacious. that is. Pedro is a good artist (a good man) Therefore. some students are not intelligent. E. a financially hard up man who is a philosopher. the denominated term is called the appellate. The denominating term is called the appellant. ice plant grows.. a good man. mean all men distributively.e. It may mean financially poor.. one who is not adept in philosophy. Example: All plants grow.g. e. Ergo.e. a poor philosopher. Take note that only man is a rational being. women are very talkative (there are also men who are talkative than that of women). Formal – when the appellant is applied to the subject as identified and qualified by the feature or nature expressed.