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BY: Frannie B. Macalanda Rujelen P. Mira Jan-Patrick Villanueva Edmar Saminiano Jhasper Dela Cruz

INTRODUCTION Human resources are the most important asset for any organization. In competitive business world main part of activities is carried out by the employees in the organization. A healthy workforce ensures increased efficiency and productivity for organization. Maintaining quality of work life for its employees is an important concern for the any organization. The grievance handling procedure of the organization can affect the harmonious environment of the organization. The grievances of the employees are related to the contract, work rule or regulation, policy or procedure, health and safety regulation, past practice, changing the cultural norms unilaterally, individual

victimization, wage, bonus, etc. Here, the attitude on the part of management in their effort to understand the problems of employees and resolve the issues amicably have better probability to maintain a culture of high performance. The absence of employee grievances does not necessarily mean that there are no problems, this may range from poor attendance, poor quality of work and sometimes leaves the organization. Grievances means any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether expressed or not, arising out of anything connected with the company that an employee thinks, believes or even feels unfair, unjust or inequitable. This discontent can arise out of something connected with company or expressed, implied or may be valid, legitimate or rational, untrue or irrational or completely ludicrous.

Grievances cant be easily be removed in terms of job performance especially in fast food chains like Jollibee because of the workplace environment having almost peek week with regards to the location of the site. Grievances can be easily observed between the manager and the employees inside the workplace. But, what are the factors that cause the bad performance of the employee? How does the manager ease those negative factors resulting from a poor to better performance? How does the manager take action with regards to the violation and complaints that the employee had done? If the company had disciplined employees over the workplace, it is surely easy for them to defend himself from grievances because he knows how to control his actions and emotions as same as the managers to have an efficient and the best performance.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that cause grievances among the employees of Jollibee Diego Silang. Undoubtedly, most of troubles encountered by employees affect business performance and could give rise to short-range problems and long-range conditions. Employees differ as individuals, in their needs, expectations and behavior. When their needs are not satisfied or their objectives are not achieved, the result is employee dissatisfaction. It is not an easy task for the management to keep all the employees satisfied and motivated, all the time.

OBJECTIVES: The researchers aim to study about the Non-work and Work Grievances among the Employees of Jollibee Diego Silang in relation to their work performance. The researchers wants: To determine the role of grievance management in enhancing work performance;

To identify causes of grievances in an organization;

To examine the effect of grievances on work performance;

To evaluate grievance management system used by the organization in enhancing work performance.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The researchers are contribution to serve this study as a reference guide for the readers in the discipline of grievance management. This study can give information to employee bout the grievance management. It can also provide the basis for employee improvement through self-analysis and selfevaluation. The researchers are in partial fulfillment of the requirement to obtain a certificate in Human Resource Management at Polytechnic University of the Philippines- Taguig Campus.

Employees nowadays get tired very easily especially in fast food chains like Jollibee in Diego Silang because many or most of them are working students. Some are working overtime at a workplace and some are having activities outside of the workplace. Some of them are over fatigue and tired because of school activities that are still needed to be done. Some are just getting annoyed and bored because of peak hours.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study will focus on the employees of Jollibee Corporation in Diego Silang. The boundaries of this study are limited to 50 respondents for the questionnaires given.

PERIOD OF THE STUDY The study covered a one month period


Find out who are involved y Get the motivatu employees ideas. y Counseling interview. y Give his side of the story. .Show concern and let the employee appreciate his coming to you. y


Resolution of employee dissatisfaction in relation to non-work and work grievances.

y y

Increased productivity Getting more confident. Increased motivation.

y y

Increased Job Satisfaction

There are a number of problem resulting from a dissatisfied worker which are generally unhappy and finds difficulty in adjusting to the work environment. As shown above, there is a resolution of employee dissatisfaction in relation to grievances. These are due to inflexible, unrealistic, and be incapable or unwilling to change his attitude. He may have a low salary, no authority, little responsibility, family problem, and little opportunity for advancement. He may feel that he is working just to make a living. His work history may show many jobs of short duration, his educational experiences may have been unpleasant, he may fins social acceptance difficult, or he may be physically handicapped. His problems may have nothing to do with the job situation, but his response to his problems is behavior that is a problem to the company. Problem employees may express their dissatisfaction in a number of ways- insubordinations, temper tantrums, avoiding group chitchat, excessive absence, suspicion, fear, certainty that the world has turned against them, getting together with other problem employees

and magnifying everything that seems against them. Sometimes when an employee is bothered by something, he shows it by changes in his actions. A talkative person becomes silent and secretive, he withdraws from the group, and he becomes irritable. Almost any changed behavior pattern is a signal of some change in the individual. At the above process will create a satisfactory towards the job. The purpose of the counseling is to help the problem employee. This is not the time to criticize him, to enforce discipline, to argue, or to listen with one ear while doing a job. Listen quietly, attentively and try to detect not only what the employee is saying, but what he is trying to say and the possible reasons for his problem behavior. A counseling interview gives the employee a chance to talk in privacy, to share his problems, and to explain his performance.


Sigmund Freud

Grieving is a normal adaptation to loss y Grieving persons must persistently confront the reality of their loss y Successful grieving requires hard work "grief work."

Sigmund Freud contributed the first attachment theory in his 1917 book, Mourning and Melancholia.

Grieving is a normal adaptation to loss

Grief is not an illness, and it shouldn't be

treated as one. Instead, the powerful emotions of grieving must be seen as normal, just as the pain that accompanies a broken ankle is normal. If we try to "treat" a broken ankle by covering up the pain, we can't expect to walk well again. And if we try to "treat" grieving by covering up the sadness and anger, we can't expect to live well again.

Grieving persons must persistently confront the reality of their loss


uncomfortable, this focus on reality is absolutely essential. We can't redraw our worldimage accurately unless we attend closely to the changed world.

Successful grieving requires hard work"grief work by emphasizing the need for
grief work, Freud repudiated the old theory that time heals all wounds. Grieving would be easy, and consistently successful, if this notion was true, but it isn't. Believing that time heals wounds is like believing that time makes breakfast.

According to his theory, we become emotionally attached to our loved ones by investing libido (psychical energy) in them. He theorized that nerve cells gain or lose this energy, accounting for changes in their sensitivity. Thus, Freud's notion of attaching and detaching is similar to chemical bonding, in which atoms attach to one another by energetic bonds, and become detached by reactions such as in burning. Under Freud's theory, grieving consists of severing these emotional attachments by withdrawing our energetic investments. The process of forming attachments is termed cathexis in the English literature, and the detaching process is termed decathexis.

Several of the early studies of grievance initiation focus on the impact of technology on grievance filing (Sayles, 1958; Kuhn, 1961; and Peach & Livernash, 1974). Although these early studies did not include quantitative analysis, the authors concluded that various aspects of technology were related to grievance filing rates. Bemmels, Reshef and Stratton-Devine (1991) included six measures of technology based on the results of these early studies. They found, however, little empirical support for the notion that differences in technology would explain variation in grievance rates across work groups. Only one variable, the extent to which technology "requires following strict schedules and procedures," had a negative relationship with grievance rates, but this contradicts the results of the early studies. The other five technology measures were not related to grievance rates, and the combined effect of all six variables was not statistically significant. Although not reported, the same variables were collected for the analysis reported in Bemmels (1994a) and none of the six technology variables was significantly related to grievance rates in that sample.

As part of their study of exit-voice behaviors, Lewin and Boroff's (1994) analysis of their unionized sample of employees differentiates between employees who perceived that they experienced unfair treatment and filed a grievance and employees who perceived unfair treatment but did not file a grievance. They found that employees with higher loyalty to the employer were less likely to have filed a grievance. This is contrary to the predictions of Hirschman's (1970) exit-voice model. They conclude that employees who perceive that they experienced unfair treatment and with high loyalty to the employer are more likely to suffer in silence rather than file a grievance.

Gordon and Miller (1984), Allen and Keaveny (1985) and Klaas (1989a) note the important role that expectancy theory could play in differentiating grievants and nongrievants. Although not a complete test of expectancy theory, Lewin and Boroff (1994) did include the employees' perceived effectiveness of the grievance procedure as an explanatory variable. Surprisingly, this was not significantly related to grievance filing. Further research focusing on expectancy theory and grievance filing that more fully develops testable hypotheses derived directly from expectancy theory seems appropriate.

Cappelli and Chauvin (1991) developed an efficiency model of grievance activity drawing from Hirschman's (1970) exit-voice framework. This model could also be considered a partial test of expectancy theory applied to grievance filing. The central argument is that employees who feel unfairly treated will compare the cost and effectiveness of filing a grievance with other response options (such as exit or "silence") in deciding whether to file a grievance. The costs of exit will depend upon the labor

market conditions. Specifically, they argue that higher wage premiums in the plant relative to the local labor market will increase the costs of exit, and consequently lead to more frequent grievance filing. Also, the unemployment rate in the area will reflect the availability of alternative employment, and a higher unemployment rate will increase the costs of exit and lead to a higher grievance rate. Their analysis of plant level data from 86 plants in a large manufacturing company supported both propositions. A unique aspect of this study is the focus on labor market conditions as explanatory variables for grievance filing.

Klaas (1989b) found that grievance outcomes were related to the grievant's work history (such as job performance, tenure, disciplinary record, and prior grievances filed), even when that history is not relevant to evaluating the merits of the grievance. Meyer and Cooke (1988) found that various economic and political factors were related to grievance outcomes, and that these factors were more important determinants of outcomes for grievances where the contractual basis and facts of the case were unclear. Knight (1987a, 1987b) reports evidence that some grievants abuse the duty of fair representation complaint procedure by filing complaints for tactical purposes to gain bargaining power in the grievance process, and that this exploitation of the duty of fair representation complaint process caused union officials to process unmeritorious grievances.

REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE This Chapter presents previous literature and studies that have relevance to the research subject. The work chosen for this part have been written by authors from abroad and from the Philippines.

a) Studies in the Philippines

b) Studies in the Countries


According to Gregorio Miranda author of the book entitled Supervisory Management: The Management a Effective Supervision, chapter XIV; pg.141, Grievances refers to any employee dissatisfaction that is expressed kept by them. As defined in the Primer on Grievance Settlement and Voluntary Arbitration, published by the National Conciliation and Mediation Board of the Department of Labor and Employment, a grievance is any question by either the employee or the union regarding the interpretation or application of the collective bargaining agreement or company personnel policies or any claim by either party that the other party is in violation of the provision of the CBA or company personnel policies.

According to Perfecto S. Siston (2006:45) defines grievance as any dissatisfaction, complaint, irritation or misunderstanding that can be real or imaginary of an employee arising from his /her job relationship. He favors the idea of grievance administration by saying that, one of the most important aspects of the day to day relations between a company and its employees is the manner in which the grievance is treated

Grievances usually arise when employees fail to get satisfaction from the job. These may be small complaints but may grow into bigger issues if they are neglected or ignored. Some grievances arise from real and legitimate causes while others may be imaginary or trivial. Siston (2006:34) mentions the following as causes of grievances: y y y y y y y y y y Application and interpretation of the collective agreement. Absence of clear-cut company policy Poor supervisory abilities. Poor channels of communication. Personal problems Union inspired grievances Improper selection and replacements. Lack of training Trade Union officials. Discrimination and favoritisms A test of union struggle against management.

However, Perfecto S. (2003: 421 422) suggests that the following is what to consider in handling grievance: y y y Accept the responsibility for handling the grievance. Listen to the complaint Show concern and let the employee appreciate his coming to you. Do not argue or threaten, this will hinder your investigation. y y y Ask questions to get to the bottom of the problem,identify the underlying causes Find out who are involved Study or analyze the circumstances surrounding the grievances. Ask question why, who, where, when and what? y y Evaluate whether the grievance is legitimate or not Ask employee to give his side of the story, get all the facts necessary and eventually see how best you can solve the issue The grievance machinery must be put in place to facilitate smooth settlement of grievances. Peter Ducker (2007:90) once said, It is better to prevent the fire than to stop it. This is very important to avoid unnecessary conflicts with the other party. It is therefore important to note that grievance machinery is: A means of enforcing the collective agreement. This should ensure either party i.e. management and trade union obey the contents of the agreement, if this is not observed the conflicts will increase y A means of communication. It is vital to keep in touch with others. This is informing of feedback and response towards work. the

The only way in which the grievances can be settled quickly and at the lowest levels of the organization. In fact, this is healthy and can lead to industrial harmony.

It is the only way for orderly handling of grievances. Once this machinery is overlooked, then what follows is disastrous.

The fair way of dealing with grievances because it provides for appeal until a settlement is reached.

Mamoka (2007:98) defined performance as the ability to discharge skills, acceptable work or task. It is an action behavior or an outcome that an employee should be able to demonstrate after acquiring knowledge, skills attitude etc, from training. From the above we can deduce that performance is something we can easily measure and determine. However, in order to know the impact of performance, it has to be measured. According to Beach S. Dale (2007:591) in this approach emphasis is on getting the root causes of the employees dissatisfaction. It is to make every effort to find out problem situations are bound to what is the duty of the management bothering the employee. Numerous

arise that were not foreseen at the time the

company and trade union signed the collective agreement.

The Unions Investigation of the Grievance
Gary L. Tidwell, College of Charleston pp., 412-413

The court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit has stated that the thoroughness of an investigation is a immaterial to whether the union breached its duty of fair representation (Hughes v. International Brotherhood of teamsters (1977). The employees rights may be protected, however, by the requirement that the union articulate a reason for not pursuing a grievance that is nonarbitrary, nondiscrimatory and not based upon bad faith.

In Minnis v. UAW (1975), the Eighth Circuit Court stated that an inference of bad faith or arbitrary conduct may arise from the utter failure to make even a minimal attempt to investigate an employee grievances. While the Eighth circuit found that simple negligence did not constitute a breach of the unions duty, another court suggested that a gross negligence standard be used to determine whether the union breached its duty of fair representation (Barhitte v. Kroger, Co., 1978).

The Seventh Circuit Court in Baldini v. Local 1095, UAW (1978) stated that the union has not breached its duty of fair representation if it has taken a grievance seriously and made reasonable efforts to investigate and process it.

De Arroyo v. Sindicato de Trabahadores Packinghouse (1970) illustrates the importance of the union investigating the merits of each grievance. In de Arroyo, employees claimed they were laid off in breach of the unions refusal to take their claim through the grievance process was a breach of the unions duty of fair representation. The union does not automatically satisfy its duty of fair

representation by demonstrating that a cursory investigation of the grievance was performed. y In Smith v. Hussmann Refrigerator Co. (1980), employees with greater seniority filed grievances alleging a violation of the collective bargaining agreement after junior employees bid and were awarded the jobs because of superior skill and ability. At arbitration, the grievant, represented by the union, testified about their respective skills and abilities. The junior employees, however, were not notified or represented at the hearing.

When there has been an alleged error in the preparation of the grievance at the arbitration proceeding, a claim of negligence or poor judgment generally will not establish a breach of the unions duty of fair presentation. Moreover, arbitration hearings are not required to be conducted as judicial proceedings. Thus, a collective bargaining agreement may be enforced by a local shop steward who is not a full-time officer who may have little or no formal training. Because of the presentor of a grievance is not required to handle the arbitration with the expertise of a trial lawyer, simple errors in tactics and procedures may be excused.