Centrifugal Pump Design

pump&) valves

Contents

Page
4

Page General National and International Standards for Centrifugal Pumps Shaft Deflection Improving the NPSH Requirement impeller Types Pump Types Pump Installation Arrangements Pump Sump Configuration Suction Pipe Layout Shaft Couplings 22

1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.7

Symbols, Units and Designations Design Pump Capacity Pump Head Svstem Head ~beed Selectina the PumD Size calculating the power Consumption Pump Power lnput Calculating the Drive Rating Pump Characteristic Curve

9
2.8 System Characteristic (Piping Characteristic) 2.9 Operating Point 2.1 0 Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps 3 Suction Characteristics 9.1 9.2 9.3

Technical Data

3.1 NPSH Required p , 3.2 NPSH Available , 4.1 Head Losses H in Straight Pipes head Losses , P 4 4.2PressureLosses H In p~ast-c pes 4 3 Head Losses H lor VISCOUS Llqulds , in Straight Pipes , 4.4 Head Losses H in Valves and Fittings 5 5.1 5.2 6 7 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 Changing the Pump Performance Changing the Speed Trimming the Impellers Handling Viscous Liquids Typical Selection Examples

, Vapour pressure p and Density p of Water , Vapour pressure p of Various Liquids Density p of Various Liquids at Atmospheric Pressure 9.4 Extract of Main Legal Units for Centrifugal Pumps 9.5 Conversion of British and U.S. Units 9.6 Graph for Calculating Flow Velocity v 9.7 Graph for Calcuiating Velocity Head v212g 9.8 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head Differential A v212 g , 9.9 Graph for Calculating Head Losses H 9.10 Graph for Calcuiating Conversion Factors fern, ~ H , W f,,,~ for Viscous Liquids and 9.1 1 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors for and f~~ for Viscous Liquids 9.12 Graph for Calculating Specific Speed n , - Schedule for Calculating the Operating Point or Pump Size for Viscous Liquids

Selecting the Pump Size Calculating the Power Consumption Pump Power lnput Calculating the Drive Rating Calculating the N S , PH Suction Lift from OpenfClosed Tank Positive Suction Operation from OpenlCiosed Tank 7.3.3 Positive Suction Operation from Closed Tank at Vapour Pressure 7.4 Changing the Speed 7.5 Trimming the Impeller 7.6 Handling Viscous Liquids 7.6.1 Calcuiating the Operating Point 7.6.2 Establishing the Pump Size

1 Symbols, Units and Designations
A a b2 D DN d F
f~

2 Design 21 Pump Capacity . The capacity Q is the external volume flow per unit of time in ms/s (I/s and m3/h are also commonly used). Balance water, leakage water etc. do not count as part of the capacity.

m 2 mm m mm (m) (mm) mm N -

fa
f?

-

9 H HA H . .

mIs2 m m m m m H s m H ,en z m H" m H",, m AH 1 K mm k m L llmin n NPSHreq m m NS, PH llmin nq kW P bar (N/m2) P bar (N/m2) P b bar (NIm2) P o bar (Nlm2) P" I/s (mVh) AQ Ils (m31h) Q Ils (m3/h) Q" , mm R 1 Re m U mls v mm Y l/h m G.d

~o'" ,, ,

z
i
' 1

-

a

"
P

IJ.

1
m21s kg/m3 (kg/dm3) 1
0

Area Width Impeller outlet width impeller diameter, pipe diameter Nominal bore of pipe Smallest inner diametel Force Conversion factor for head Conversion factor for flow rate Conversion factor for efficiency Gravitational constant = 9.81 mlsz Head System head Static head Shut-off head Static suction lift Static positive suction head Head loss Head loss - suction side Differential head Coefficient Absolute roughness Length of pipe Speed NPSH required NPSH available Specific speed Pump power input Pressure Barometric pressure Vapour pressure of liquid Pressure loss Differential capacity Capacity/Flow rate Minimum flow rate Radius Reynolds number Circumference Flow velocity Stroke Switching frequency Height differential between pump suction and discharge nozzles Loss coefficient Pump efficiency Pipe friction coefficient Correction coefficient Kinematic viscosity Density Temperature fact01 Opening angle

2 2 Pump Head . The head H of a pump is the useful mechanical energy transmitted by the pump to the medium handled, related to the weight of the medium, expressed in m. It is independent of the density p of the medium handled, i.e. a centrifugal pump will generate the same head H for all fluids irrespective of the density p. The density p determines the pressure within the pump p=p.g.H and influences the pump power input P .

2 3 System Head . , The total head of the system H is made up of the following (see Figs. 1 and 2):

.

,.,, H Static head = height difference between the suction and discharge fluid levels. If the discharge pipe emerges H is referred to the centreline above the liquid level, then ,,, of the outflow section.

. , pressure head difference between the suction - the

P'S and discharge fluid levels in closed tanks. .H Z, the sum of all pressure head losses (pipe friction, friction in valves, fittings etc. in suction and discharge pipes). va2- ve2 ,the difference in velocity heads in the tanks. 29

.-HA= ,,, H

The system head HAis thus:

In practice the difference between the velocity heads can be ignored, leaving for closed tanks

+ +

P'S

+ ZH,,

w
1P

for open tanks H A Hseo ZHV

-

Indices at outlet cross section of the systemlbranching off a at operating point B at discharge nozzle of pump/flowing through d at inlet cross section of planVbranching off e for cast iron G geodetic gee for plastic K suction side, at suction nozzle of pump S at best efficiency point opt radial R for sulphuric acid sch for water W for viscous liquids z consecutive numbers, items 1,2,3

2 4 Speed .
With three-phase motor drives (asynchronous squirrel cage motor) the approximate pump speeds are as follows:
No. of poles

Fe u n rqew
at 5 0 Hz at 60 Hz

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

~eterence speeds in curve documentation in llmin 725 580 480 960 2900 1450 580 1160 1750 875 700 3500

415 500

In practice, however, motors usually run at slightly higher speeds which - upon consent of the customer - are taken into account by the pump manufacturer at the design stage (see section 7.4). Different speeds are possible using a speed adjustment device, gearbox or belt drive.

Fig 1 Pumping system with suction lin

Flg. 2 Pumping system with p ~ i t i v e suction

such as efficiency q.5 kW approx. it is standard practice to use the following safety margins when determining the motor size.6 Calculating the Power Consumption 2. . 2. 4).p. as well as handling pulp. 10%. which could mean an increase in the pump power input P.) centrifugal pumps have a capacity Q which will increase if the head decreases..capacity Q and head H at the required duty point . The characteristic curves apply to the density p and kinematic viscosity v of water.2. With a steep curve the capacity changes less than with a flat curve under the same differential head conditions AH (see Fig.6. The behaviour and relationship of all thesevariables are shown by the curves (see Fig.g.2. and thus the operating point.1) for other densities p.0 Fig.1 Pump Power Input (see example in 7. 129001 Fig.6. 15% from 40 kW approx. 3 llmin Laufrad Breite Rodete Impeller Roue Width Largeur Anchura 0 mm 130-169 mm 9 Centrifugal pump characteristic curves The duty conditions determine which is the more favourable .).1) The data needed for selecting the pump size . as is the mains frequency.2 2. arrange the operating point near Qopt(b. 3).2 Calculating the Drive Rating (see example under 7. The pump size and speed can be determined from the performance chart (also called selection chart) (see 8. unless stated otherwise. The steep curve thus possesses better control characteristics. Unless there is a particular reason to the contrary. and therefore the efficiency q. If extreme volume flow fluctuations are expected. input power P and NPSH. 3) which thus illustrate the operating characteristics of a centrifugal pump. taking the following into consideration: impeller diameter required.I KSB I 2.2) Since it is possible that the system volume flow. condition NPSHav N S . Handling 'liquids with a high proportion of solids. 26). It is determined using the following equation: with p g Q H q in kgIdm3 in m/s2 in 1 s 1 inm between 0 and 1 or another equation which is still used: with p in kgIdm3 Q in m3/h H inm 367 conversion factor (constant) The pump power input P in kW can also be directly read with sufficient accuracy off the characteristic curves (see 2.7 Pump Characteristic Curve In contrast to positive-displacementpumps (e.5 to 40 kW approx.7) where the de-nsity p = 1000 kgIm3. means using special pumps and/or special impellers. unless the customer specifies otherwise: up to 7.2.5 Selecting the Pump Size (see 7. reciprocating pumps) at constant speed (n = const. For pumps handling viscous liquids see sections 6 and 7.6.a flat or a steep curve. They are thus capable of self-regulation.is known. 2. L PH (see 3. plus the NPSHreq depend on the capacity.1) The pump power input P of a centrifugal pump is the mechanical energy at the pump coupling or pump shaft absorbed from the drive. will fluctuate. 20% from 7. The pump power input P. The pump power input P must be cbnverted (see 7. Fig.2).e.0. can be established from the appropriate individual performance curve (see 8. 0 permissible P/n values for the bearings. then the other parameters of the pump selected. the motor size must be selected with reference to the maximum possible pump capacity on the characteristic curves.

.

11) N S . PH . 2% error on 9.. 3 Suction Characteristics 3. Therefore the pressure head at the NPSH datum point must exceed the vapour pressure head of the medium handled. the point of intersection between the pump shaft centreline and the plane at right angles to the pump shaft and passing through the outer points of the vane inlet edge. Ql of pump I and QII of pump II combine to produce the total capacity QI+IIat the same head H. The value often includes a safety margin of 0.. with a cold liquid. horizontalvolute casing pumps the centreiines of the suction nozzle and impeller are on the same level (Figs.. PH 10. ~ i 11 NPSH~V ~ u c i i o n g for head operation In all cases the following is a prerequisite for cavitation-free operation: PH N S . suction iin operation . P H. is the centre of the pump's PH suction nozzle.g. The NPSH datum point is the impeller centre. in meters on the pump characteristic curves.p .2 NPSH Available (= N S .) PH The datum point for the N S . e. water. However. = 0 bar p = 1000 kgIm3 = 10 mls2 (incl. is defined as: PH NPSH -Pe+Pb-Po BV p. the pump is below the liquid level (Fig. i..5 m. the pump is above the liquid level (Fig. N S . 2 NS . it has to be taken into account. with vettical pumps).Hsgeo. With standard.) (NPSH = Net Positive Suction Head) Centrifugal pumps will only operate satisfactorily if there is no build-up of vapour (cavitation) within the pump. The following simplified version is used in practice: NS.H. is defined as: P H. 10) N S .e.-10-H. isthevaluerequired bythe pumpandisexpressed P H. . i.g. and an open tank.e. oh 1 bar 1= 105 NIm2) . - - Fig.81 mIs2) g v2 2 .e.. i. the geodetic height is 0.1 NPSH Required (= N S . However. ~ i g9 Parallel operation of 2 pumw withthe same shut-off head no . The N S . 9 shows an alternative solution: two pumps with the same shut-off head Ho but different capacities Qi and Qll pumping at a given operating point B in one piping system.H. if there is a difference of geodetic height (e. .+H . ~ i g8 Paraiiei operation of two similar centrifugal pumps with the same shut-off head HO . assuming the same conditions as in a): NPSH.3. for b) Suction head operation.1g can be eliminated because of the negligible velocity head in the tank.s + Hz geo 29 no Shut-off head The following equation is used in practice.9 B opersting point + ve2 . 10 and l l ) . is calculated as follows: PH a) Suction lift operation. / Pump1 + 11 curve ~ i g10 NPSH~.

light alloys 9 . Straight lengths of circular cross-section piping are defined by the following equation: p" . The pressure loss p.D Re=V for non-circular sections v.h . Pressure Losses p . valves and fittings etc. A pipe friction coefficient. is the pressure differential arising as a result of wall friction and internal friction in piping runs. 4 A Re=. Table 1: Mean peak-to-valley heights k (absolute roughness) 1) Nonferrous metals.4. v flow velocity across a section A characteristic of the pressure loss. L p. The generally valid formula for the pressure loss of a flow in a straight length of pipe is: where p pipe friction loss. The pipe friction coefficient h varies with the state of flow of the medium and the internal surface finish of the pipeline through which the medium is flowing. U wetted periphery of section A through which the fluid flows.v . . The state of flow is determined by the REYNOLDS number (model laws): V. U v where kinematic viscosity. fittings. L length of pipe.v2 D 2 where D bore of pipe. p density of the medium pumped.

8 for new rolied steel pipes. The head losses H.64 Re in the region of turbulent flow in the pipe (Re > 2320) the test results can be represented by an empirical equation by ECK: g .2 calculated according to Capacity Q ~ i g1 3 Head losses in straightpipes (cast iron pipe.050 - .020 a h o 0 9 0. water at 209. . obtained from the "absolute roughnessm DiDe bore diameter D. with an internal bitumen coating (k = 0. Table 1 gives rough approximations of k.010I '-. nom. According to MOODY the following applies: v.005 g 2 468 2 468 2 468 2 466 2 468 \ I / In the region of 2320 < Re < 108the deviations are less than 1 %.$ 0. 5 a=-. that h is solely dependent on the parameter D/k at relativelv hiah REYNOLDS numbers: k/D is the "relative kand the roughness".5 to 50000 m3/h ifiowvelocityvin mls. bore in mm.< C oioesl: . and consists of new cast iron pipes. v flow velocity. 1.cLlate0 for smooth bore pipes (new rolied steel in the region of laminar flow in the pipe (Re friction coefficient is: < 2320) the .7 for pipes with incrustations (the reduced pipe crosssection due to the incrustationsis the determining factor). g gravitational constant.. 13 apply to clean water at 20 O and to fluids C of equal kinematicviscosity.D REYNOLDS number Re = - " ~ i g 12: pipe fridion coenicient A in fundion of REYNOLDS number and of relative wall . 12 shows. Fig.1 mm). 1. 0. 13 . should be multiplied by: 0. The values in Fig.25 for old slightly rusty steel pipes. The head losses H of Fig. 4. roughness Dlk where i loss coefficient. .mKSB j Valves . can be ca. assuming the piping is completely filled..1 Head Losses H.. and for capacities Q from 0. . where k is defined as the mean deDth bf the wall surface roughness (coarseness). 13 gives the losses of head H. in this context are .newoondition)irom DN 15 to2000 mrn .0. in Straight Pipes Fig." . per 100 m of straight pipe run for practical usage.

to Fig. hw See viscosity for conversion of viscosity values.In the case of pipes with very heavy incrustations. Found in figure 13: Hvw= 0. the viscosity of which depends on the flow velocity.-' H~~ . v = C m2/s) (subscript W) from Fig.021. e. we obtain: head loss Hv = 3.cp where HvK head losses in plastic pipes. 26 OSR C . Deviations from the nominal diameter have a profound effect on the head loss. after having obtained the head loss for cold water (20 O . 15: Temperature factor q for calcuiatlon of head losses in plastic pipes at water temperatures between 0 and 60 ' C Increments of 20 to 30% should be added for sewage or untreated water. Fig. 13 .14 m/100 m. The head losses of PVC and polythene "hard" and "soft" (drawn) plastic pipes are approximately equal. How to use Fig. p correction coefficient acc..150. 13: Hv~i . 14. the actual head loss can only be determined by experiments. plotted C C in function of flow velocity v Rg 16 Res~stance coefflclents A. inside diameter D = 250 mm. temperature factor acc. 4. = f(Q).2 m/s. 15. Temperature t Fig. 4. these head losses must in addition be multiplied by a temperature factor cp (Fig. which are dependent on the flow velocity v.2 Head Losses H.3 Head Losses H.g. Thus Hv~=HV~-p. an actual bore of 0.300 and 350 mm) for conveying unbleached sulfite cellulose at 15 O . For the practical calculation of H the respective . One quite common viscous fluid is cellulose (pulp pumping).25 m1100 m pipe length. It follows from figure 16 that: A = 0.08. those indicated in Fig.95 times the nominal bore (i. for flow of VISCOUS flulds ~nstra~ght plpes How to use figure 16 .200.an example: Given: capacity Q = 100 m3/h. inside diameter D = 150 mm. 13.. 1.3 times the "as new" loss. 14: Correction coefficient p for conversion of head losses in a cast iron pipe at 20 O water temperature to values in a plastic pipe at 10 O water temperature. in Plastic Pipes Head losses in plastic pipes H. since the material in question is "non-NEWTONian"! Figures 17 a through 17 f offer reference values for the head losses Hv per 100 m length of straight steel pipe run plotted against capacity Q (H.an example: Assuming a rate of flow Q = 140 m3/hand a new cast iron pipe. for Viscous Liquids in Straight Pipes The head loss of a viscous fluid (subscript FI) can be ascertained for practical purposes with the aid of Fig.o 2 Flow velocity v . 15). HVG head losses in cast iron pipes acc.. 16. nominal bore: 100.e. If the water temperature is other than 10 OC. to Fig. . to Fig. The head losses evaluated in this way apply to water at a temperature of 10 O C . kinematic viscosity v = 2 . 14.250. 13.hW = 0. 10-4 m2/s.IFI . only a slight bore reduction) pushes up the head loss Hv to 1. head losses for cast iron pipes HvG(Fig. New rubber hoses and rubberlined canvas hoses have H values approximately equal to . new cast iron pipe.. flow velocity v = 2. 13) should be multiplied by the correction coefficients p of Fig.

44 or 3.pulp bensity . 17 should be multiplied by the following factors: K = 0. 17 d (grinding state. 17a-f: show a plot of the head losses Hv for conveying sulphite cellulose of various pulp densities at a temperature of 150 OC and a grinding grade of 26 "SR (pipe diameters DN 100 to DN 350) A-A = maximum velocity (2. waste paper pulp K = 1.Schopper-Riegler degree of freeness) S and with a pulp density (pulp pumping) of 1. 30 $ 20 0 - U g 10 5 4 3 Fig. 1 7 f I Rate of flow Q '10 Flg 1 7 ~ 20 30 50 100 200 m3/h 500 1000 Rate of flow Q Figs.5 to 7 00 bone dry. then the values obtained from Fig.0 for boiled (digested) wood pulp. 1OOm 100 50 40 30 $20 20 30 50 100 200 m3/h 500 Rate of flow Q 1000 300 p l 0 - u $10 I 4 5 4 fin-e l m N ' s b b j 1 1 1 / 1.9 for bleached sulphite . . 1 7 a 10 20 m3/h Rate of flow Q 50 100 20 30 Fig.05 mls) in the discharge pipe for economical operation. 1 If the pump slurry concerned differs from that used for the purpose of plotting the curves of Fig. 1 7 e 50 100 200 m3/h 500 Rate of flow Q 1000 2000 Pulp density in 010 bone d r y l - 10 20 30 50 Fig 1 7 b 100 200 m3/h 500 1000 Rate of flow Q m 1OOm 200 100 50 40 . O R .Valves I KSB I '1 0 Flg. ~n010 bone drv 3 2 1 2 3 5 Fig. '. K = 1.4 for white and brown raw wood pulp.sulphate cellulose. 17..

should be corrected additionally if the pulp slurry concerned is at a temperature higher than 15 O .9. 9 Relative opening angle (90 .5 to 4 . 4. For an 18 00 kaolin content.5 13 . Elbow radius RK Duct width an Fig 20 influence of roundrng off of concave and convex s ~ d e the loss coeff~c of on ient elbows wlth quadratic cross sectlon Head loss Hv Fig.4 Head Losses H in Valves and Fittings . 3 rounded with straight bottom 1= 0 .5010 kaolin content. In the case of plastic C pipes. the head loss value will decrease 1 by 12 010. 21: Loss coefficients of butterfly vaives.35 0.Furthermore. the HvK value is obtained by multiplying the Hvvalue for steel pipes by 0. The head loss value is reduced even further if fillers such as kaolin (China clay) are contained in the pulp slurry concerned. 18 to 24 give details of the individual loss coefficients C and head losses Hv in valves and fittings for operation with water. v flow velocity across a section A which is characteristic of the head loss.0 T pieces (subdivision of flow) 0. In this case. 1 OIo of the head C loss value which applies to 15 O should be deducted for C every 2 O of temperature difference. and for a 26.and if necessary corrected by one of the factors listed above. 7 I spherical with inward-rounded neck spherical 1= 0 .50 0. 9 1= 2.5 with sharp edges 1= 1 . Tables 2 to 4 and Figs. design) . where C loss coefficient.9)/9o Degree of opening yla Fig. 18: Determination of head losses Hv in vaives and fittings.25 0. 17. it will decrease by For pressure losses in valves and fittings the following equation applies: 16 010. flow velocity v relating to the actual cross-sectional area through which the fluid flows I o3 5 Knee piece a 45O 6° 0 Surface 9° 0 Surface Surface smooth rough smooth rough smooth rough i Combinations with 90° knee pieces 0. 19: Illustration of fittings with related loss coefficients ( Fig. p density of pumped medium. the head loss obtained from Fig.70 11 . globe and gate vaives in function of opening angle or degree of Opening (Position numbers according to Table 2.

i. with x = 5 to 6 2) 3) In the case of partial opening. the loss coefficients increase Designs: cf. page 15 . the loss coefficient ( must be increased by pN/dE)'.e. low flow velocities.Table 2: Loss coefficients (of valves and fittings (referred to the velocity of flow in the adjoining cross-section DN Type of valvelfitting / ~esignslLoss coefficient (for DN = - nominal diameter) 1 Remarks ') If the narrowest shut-off diameter d~ is smaller than the nominal diameter DN.

49 0.Q relate to the velo.80 = 0.6 to 0.25 0. pressure drop of 1 bar is wescribed for the rated load. Nonetheless.09 0.1 .25 0.35 0.2 0. .1 Combinations of elbows and pipe bends: value of the single 90' elbow should not be doubled. e.16 0. On the basis of that definition.05 i.valves KSB 12 13 14 15 11 16 17 18 19 Designs according to Table 2 The minimum and maximum values listed in Table 2 include figures taken from the most pertinent trade literature and apply to fully open valves and fittings under uniform conditions of flow. is Diameter ratio dlD Aperture ratio m = (dlDP 90' 60" 45' 30' 15' i 1.8 Smooth bore pipe harp bend i .0. The i but only be multiplied by the factors indicated to obtain the pressure loss of the combination elbows illustrated: - = 0.g. 1 2 in the case of very unequal velocity distribution.5 3 chamfered i 0. all nominal size i 0.7 0. R = D + 100 mm. depending on the conditions of inf owand outf ow. i and/or id take on .7 0. the actual values are subject to wide variance. in which case they are indicative of pressure loss.45 0. immediately downstream of an elbow. ana tne design objcctives Table 3: Loss coefficients for fittings Elbows: Cast elbows 90°.2 = i 0. R = 2 to 4 X D lnlet pipe fittings: Inlet edge t t f t for 6 = 7 O 60" 45" 5 sharp i= 0.7 0.8 0.64 6 2 0.20 0.30 0. city of the total flow Q in the nozzle. .7 0. 12 X DN downstream of the valve or fitting are also included in those values (cf. the model in question. may negative values.5 2 plate Water meters (volumetric meters) i 10 In the case of domestic water meters. and in practice the actual pressure loss is seldom below this figure.23 If the deflection angle only amounts to the above i values should be multiplied by Nominal size DN Knee pieces: Deflection angle 200 300 500 0.6 - Discharge pieces: i = 1 downstream of an adequate length of straight pipe with an approximately uniform velocity distribution in the outlet cross-section.3 Short venturi tube a = 30° Standard orifice plate i related to the velocity v at diameter D.85 0.3 0. a valve etc. VDINDE guideline 2173). a max. d The resistance coefficients i for the diverted flow Q or i respectively for the main flow Qd = Q . annotation to Table 4).18 60° 45' 30" 15O. 0.60 0. Not to be confused with reversible pressure changes according to BERNOULLI'S equation (cf.36 0.26 0.2 to 4 Corrugated pipe harp bend - . - - Loss coefficients of flow meters: 50 100 i -0.19 0.21 0. 3 t o 1.3 0.6 Creased pipe harp bend [ 3.70 0.55 0.40 0.50 0.310. short venturi tube i= 21 - - Branch pieces: (Branch of equal bore) Expansion joints: Bellows expansion joint withlwithout guide pipe i 0. The losses attributable to flow disturbances in a length of pipe equalling ca.2 Standard orifice ( 300 85 30 12 4.5 Pipe bends 90°.

p density of water in kglm3 (effective temperature vapour ) pressure.03 0.- where d reference diameter (nominal diameter) of the valve or fitting in cm. The operating point will move along the system characteristic HA from B1 to B3 when the speed is changed as indicated.01 0.9). differentiationis made between irreversible pressure loss (=pressure reduction) 2 I B Operating paint n Speed on the one hand and reversible pressure changes involving hictionless flow as per BERNOULLI'Sequation (fluid dynamics) 0. By contrast. .80 IV for 20° < a < 4' 5 0 02 .2 Trimming the Impellers Permanently reducing the output of a centrifugal pump operating at constant speed (see Fig. H1 and P1 are known at speed nl.04 0. The characteristic curve booklets contain the pump curves of selected impeller diameters in mm.26 0. the pressure losses ascertained by way of the loss coefficients 5 are always negative. and if the pressure drops (reducer).10 0. in the case of accelerated fiow.05 0 11 . the loss coefficients is occasionally neglected in favour of the so-called b-value: 5. B2 and B3 respectively. When trimming radial flow impellers (see 8.9 A change in the speed also causes the operating point to shift (see 2. p pressure loss in bar. 14 A coefficient E in accordance with the values in the table below applies to each of the illustrated shapes of transition pieces1 reducers. on the other.05 0. 0.34 0. and p2-p. 0. each curve is intersected by the system curve HA at points B1. H and impeller diameter D is: .11 00 . p2.5 Ill IV 0.17 2.88 0.15 a = 20° 5 0.1 z A system curve HA Note: In the case of branch pieces as per Table 3 and transition pieces as per Table 4. If the pressure rises across the transition piece in the direction of fiow (divergent section).07 0 11 . E is negative.56 0. The !+value [m3/h] represents the volume flow of cold water (p = 1000 kglm3) at p.01 0.02 0. e 5 Table 4: Pressure change coefficients in transition piece for arrangements illustrated in Fig. Coefficients: Expansion Changing the Pump Performance 5. 0. 0.where Q volume flow in m3/h. in the case of water transport through valves and fittings. Fig. If the values for Q1. 23) entails reducing the impeller diameter D. Table I . it is positive in pipe expansions. these curves are interconnected by the similarity law. Conversion: d4 (-16.02 0. 0. then the new values for n2will be as follows: 1 Reduction Form I Form iI d/D = 0.1 Changing the Speed The same centrifugal pump has different characteristic curves for different speeds.aa 3 0' capaciv Q ~ i g22 Enen of change in speed .. if the overall pressure change is calculated as the arithmetic sum of p. = 1 bar through a valve or fitting. E is positive.07 II for a = 1' 5 0. n2 and n3.7 0. Conversely.4)(trimming is not a geometrically similar reduction of an impeller since the outlet width normally remains constant). it therefore gives the relationship between the pressure loss p.02 0. through a pipe constriction. in bar and the volume flow Q in m3/h.pl negative.23 111 1 = 4.g.03 0. the relationship between Q.41 0.1 i 1 a= i 1 i - 06 .01 0. e.13 0.05 08 . 22 plots three QH curves for the speeds nl.

Capacity Q Fig.1) 0 and to select the appropriate pump size from the given operating point Bzvia the operating point Bw using Fig. "'""" " " " ' " " ' " ' " " ' ' ' Capacity Qz.2). w and f q w for handiing viscous * liqu~ds (enlarged version see 9 lo). .12). of 1 to 4000 10-6 m21s (kinematic viscosities below 22 . The conversion is valid for single-stage volute casing pumps with radial flow impellers (see 8. 24 Change in operating point when handling viscous liquids (Z) water (W) end a . 24). 25a (see 7. kinematic viscosities v.1 and 9. HZ and qz (Z = viscous liquid) using the conversion factors lor viscous liquids f ~fu' and fq (see Figs.KSB This conversion process can be used to convert from Bw to operating point BZ using Fig.6. 23): Run a line in the QH graph (linear graduation) passing from the point of origin (take into consideration with curves with a suppressed point of origin) through the new operating point B2and intersecting at B1the full diameter curve Dl.Q W . I 1 1 ' 1 1 0 I* m 1o'"a 1)D m __am lOeO e m ThestandardoperatingpointforwaterBwwithQw. at the same time the pump power input P rises. The Q and H values 1 and 2 can then be plotted and used in the equation to obtain the approximate diameter DP. The operating point Bwdrops to BZ (see Fig. The actual diameter can be determined as follows (see Fig. 25a and 25b). if the operathg point for handling water IS glven .~etr.Hwand qw (W = water) is converted to the viscous liquid operating point BZ with Qz.4). Capacity Q Fig. O in ~ ' s ~ -'h - rn3 '1 " " " " " "" ' Fig 25a Determining the conversion f a h r s f ~ w f . The best efficiency point shifts to smaller flow rates. 23 Influence of impeller diameter 6 Handling Viscous Liquids As the viscosity v of the medium handled increases (at constant speed) the capacity Q.6. 0 specific speeds nq of 6 to 45 1Imin (see 7. 10-6 m2Is are normally disregarded). head H and efficiency q fall. 25b (see 7.6.

.- . selection chart n = 2900 l l m i n . Fig.40 20 1 4 Q S I 5 2. Qrn31h 3 10 10 40 25 30 100 L O 50 50 200 300 100 140 400 500 2121 L 0 5 2 / 8 Fig. Technical data and characteristic curves for the CPK are given in the characteristic curve booklet and selection booklet (Figs.1 Selecting the Pump Size (see 2. 26 and 27 are extracts).. 10-6 m2Is (can be disregarded. 25b Determlnlng the conversion factors f~ z and f~ z for handling VISCOUS llqulds (enlarged verslon see 9 111. 26 CPKIHPK. see 6) (ps and vs taken from standard reference tables) The pump selected for this particular liquid is a CPK series standardized chemical pump. Selecting the size of the pump: Using the CPWHPK characteristic curve booklet for 50 Hz the selection charts give the following pump selections for the specified operating data: CPK 65-250 at n = 2900 Ilmin and Imin.8 . if the operating poltit for handl~ng VISCOUS l ~ q u ~ d sglven IS 200 200 200 300 400 500 300 400 500 1000 1000 2000 100 80 rn H 50 40 30 20 -_ 10 45 2 1 A / 4 5 20 30 .5 kgldm3 Temperature ts = 20 O C Kinematic viscosity vs = 3.&)pumps Valves I KSB I 7 Typical Selection Examples 7. CPK 150-250 at n = 1450 I The CPK 65-250 is selected for reasons of economy.5) The following variables are known: Q = 25 1 s 1 (= 90 mVh) H=80m Frequency 50 Hz Medium 60% sulphuric acid (index s) Density ps = 1.

11 necessary JP lo the maxlmLm poss~ble Pumo . A recheck of the Pln value then becomes important as a criterion for the bearing bracket. 0. g Q H P in in in in in @/dm3 mlsz 1s 1 m kW So the drive rating must be at least 47.0038. n must be adhered to..0038 bar = 0.1 Pump Input Power (see 2.6. .Dower consumollon .2) To achieve cavitation-free operation of the pump the limit of ...6 kW: the selection is a standard 55 kW motor.1 Suction Lifl from OpenlClosed Tank Here the pump is above the liquid level (see Fig.1) a 10% safety margin is added to the 43. 7.. '1 Eniciency q from Fig. incl.2. technical data see 7. 13 for 10 m suction H. If the operating Point tem~orarilv the moror ratlng musr bc lncreascd accord~ng.5 kW... Pln value must be checked (see selection booklet. 2pole.3 m (interpolated from Fig. 27 incl. pipe DN 100..1 05 Nlm2 (from reference table) (60% sulphuric acid at 20 OC) = 1.. P H= 3.5 m safety margin) .2.2 9 .1 the power input is calculated as follows: 7. 27) interpolated 7. . pump data: . P P b Po = 1500 kgIm3 = 1 bar=1~105N/m2 = 0. is based on following system and Calculation of H .. 1. P is interpolated as 29 kW for water. k = Pwater 29 -= 43. (see 3. .1 .2 Calculating the Drive Rating (see 2. i . . iP 54lIP 44.2..5 1 ..2) Taking the pump power input P (see 7.3 Calculating the NPSH. or an alternative frequently used in practice: with p . chanaes to hioher flow rate. the value for sulphuric acid is: - p . Selected pump is a CPK 65-250... type B 3.. 27. required suction head H .KSB 7.1) Using the known variables and pump selection from 7..3 kwatthe operating point. Q H P in in in in kgldma m31h m kW The pump power input Pcan also be established with sufficient accuracy from Fig. fittings and valves) can be disregarded because negligible Ve N S .5 m (estimated from Fig. section Technical Data). with p .3.6. or the minimum maximum possible suction lift H .2 Valves Calculating the Power Consumption 7. 10).

6.o. therefore NPSH.. + p. NPSH. = 1. The minus sign in the result tells us that the centrifugal pump.17 = -5.5bar=1. With H.Open tank Given: p = 0 bar .1 to 7. 11).Pe+Pb-PD s P.5 + 3. requirement would be more than satisfied in example 7..77 = -1. are suction lift heads + .ax .2 with N S . is just about satisfied. This requirement NPSH.3..z... Open tank Given: p = 0 bar .=1.N S .2 Positive Suction Operation from OpenIClosed Tank Here the pump is below the liquid level (see Fig.3 m. PH (acc. PH ) With H.1 where the P H. technical data see 7.2 with a positive static suction head (as shown in the diagram).o. PH = 3. N S . 2 N S . = 5.5 bar = 1. i . = N S . could draw roughly the absolute amounts as in example 7.3+ 1. PH = 3. 2 N S ..3 m.3. =3. therefore NPSH.'S . 2 N S .5 .3.. 105 Nlm2 H ueo. Selected pump is a CPK 65-250.. PH requirements is satisfied 7.3 .5-10. P H= N S .H. H.10~N/m2 = 1. ". . = 1. with an open or closed tank...97 m.37 m.5.1. to 3.. H .. PH =NS . PH requirement is satisfied. I Closed tank ~iven:p.3.97 m.+p. 1 Closed tank 1 Given: p.37 m.. of the same value. Negative heads ..

min Pe+Pb-Po H. without considering the system characteristic HA.10. 28) if HZ > Hw.2 m D. = 2900 llmin and D. It is. We know the characteristic curve and operating dataof a pump handling water.4 Changing the Speed (see 5. z .e. The higher speed shifts the operating point. 7.1 but with the following performance data (present duty: index 1.e. r 0. 9.5). Ps'~ Actual (now): Q.6 Handling Viscous Liquids (see 6) Schedule on page 44.. new duty: index 2) Q q = 25 1 s (= 90 mslh) 1 HI = 70 m at n.g.897 kgldms. = 25.1 for technical data.8mupwards(H. /g 1 Pz 0. where: Qw = 34 1 s (= 122.1 for system and pump data required to calculate Hzgeo. the original duty can be restored by e..3.. From4. however. Turning the impeller down from 240 mm (D. Efficiency Speed Kinematic viscosity Density Gravitational constant 1450 llmin kgIdm3 7.49 Theaevaiues mean 4 points on Q H ~ a n d OTZ line plus 3 points on the QPz line are establirhed.) to 237 mm (Dz) restores the original duty given in 7. i n = NPSHreq+ H.. pe + pb = PD) The pump is below the liquid level (see Fig.. use HZ = Hw Caiculation in graphic form . 25a fH.3 Positive Suction Operation from Closed Tank at Vapour Pressure (internal tank pressure = Vapour pressure of liquid. Plotled aver Q (see Fig. .p. standard practice not to make such minor changes (less than 5 mm) to the impeller diameter. .6.e.3. must also be calculated and the following additional information must be known: if this increase is not acceptable.2) The unacceptably high pump output (see 7. ).10-6 m21s and density p = 0.1 Caiculation the Operating Point The product is a mineral oil with a kinematic viscosity vz of 500.12 fo.7.w from Fig.ZNPSH. Theselected pump is a CPK 65-250. See 7. is fulfilled.897 19.W O sect. 11). = 240 mm (impeller diameter) is driven by a 55 kW three-phase motor with a nominal speed (n2) of 2965 llmin. see 7. 21) 4 points on the new characteristic curve can be established using the calculation chart below: n w from graph in 9. the pump data at the b. =240 mm Desired: QZ = 25 1 s 1 Hz = 7 0 m i.4) caused by the higher motor speed is rectified as follows by trimming the impeller (present duty: index 1.81 / / mls2 '1 horn individual characteristic curve (see Fig.4 m31h) 1 Hw=18m n = 1450 llmin To obtain the new data for mineral oil.1) The CPK 65-250 selected in 7. 1.5 Trimming the Impeller (see 5. 7. new duty: index 2). reducing the impeller diameter (see 7.56 1 s 1 HI = 73. thecondition NPSH.4. as follows to: 7. but with pe + ~b = PD.

design. accessories. nominal duty point and dimensions".897 / kgIdm3 llmin llmin 1s 1 m Use the following calculation table to convert to operating data with water and thereby find the appropriate pump size. B= Hopt ~~~ ih H78. Using the curve thus established.50 . where Q z .1) 8. follow section 7.B~~. These two standards occupy a central position because they form the basis for a range of standards already in existence and under preparation covering centrifugal pumps.8 0.Z page 42 Qw. n selected n. ~H.1 National and International Standards for Centrifugal Pumps A series of national standards have been introduced in Germany since the early sixties governing the manufacture.8 23.~ = 23.2 Establishing the Pump Size The product is mineral oil.8 1 s (= 139.12 fQ2 from Fig. H z .1 to establish 4 points on the new characteristic curve. I .70 'Iw .~eir = 1450 27 0. page 23).6. we are looking for the size of the pump capable of meeting the following operating data: Capacity Head Kinematic viscosity Density ] Hz. 29. 7. guidelines and specifications. 28.10-6 1 m21s 0.Z 3 .B~.3 C)r.1 1.8eti Hw.80 10 - 9 These 4 points can now be used to establish the curve to be expected for handling mineral oil. These standards are drawn up by both operators and manufacturers and are now established in virtually all sectors of industry using and producing pumps (see Fig.a Q z s n Qwsnr Qwlpt Om-2 Q Calculation in graphic form A The definitive operating data when handling water are thus: QW.setr I vz 1 PZ / 31 Ills rn / 20 1 500 . 25b or section 9.86 38. see Fig. This is particularly true of DIN 24256 "End suction centrifugal pumps (PN 16) (chemical pumps)" which even in its first edition was virtually identical to the international standard IS0 2858 "End-suction centrifugal pumps (rating 16 bar) .valves KSB I QZ.Betr = QW = 38.6 0 0 5 - .2 f Hz..setr 0. ~ ~ t Qopt =.6.LO 30 a. C 5 0 8 General 0 1 0 10 2 0 Q 11s 30 LO - 1 20 a 5 0 10 20 11s 30 LO Capacity Q F i g 28 Characteristic curve3 for both water NY) and viscous liquids (2) (see 76. 15 - Hw I a m a 1% .~ 3) from graph in 9.3 m = Hw Based on these data a suitable pump is selected from the sales documents selection chart.7 mVh) 1 Hw.setr = H.Designation. 22 . procurement and use of centrifugal pumps.

duties.Scope of ~ p p l i c a t l o n and ReSpOnsibilities Dimensional Standards . enveloping Surface method. Pumps technical documenterms. exeoutlan pumpsets for liquids. liSts technical reguire- p p . principal dispatch.Pumps ACC~SSD~~~S Guidelines and Specifications ~ss~oiatt~n of German Engioeering Pump Comminee 24253 Centrifueal PU~PS wi!h armoured Iemoured singlesiege wlth axis1 inlet. accersories. measurements. 29 Chart of German and international standards for centrifugal pumps.. e w' . . requirements Centr~fugal spares pump*. sation [ European Standards Coordinating Cornminee Technical International OWBnilions tor centrifugal pumps Class I1 % 3 zat>on far standerdizatior TCi15.12 EC and 6 E R A member countries I N W Fig. speoiiicstione DiN 24251 Drainage Standslds Institute Commiffee EngineerPump8 with heads 1000 m DIN 24252 Centrifugal DIN 45635 DIN 24293 DIN 24295 DIN I S 0 DIN 24420 ments in machinew duties. guidelines and specifications (as o i ~ e b r u a r y 1990) . Pumps 8 I l l e I I I . scope of suppiy.

volute caring 6 --___--I Combined circular voiute casing VOlULe CBS!"~ Double volute casing single volute casing Circular casing oouble volufe casing Capacity Q a = NPSHreq ..0.5 .The high degreeof similarity between DIN24 256and IS0 2858 means that a series of national standards and draft standards such as: DIN 24259 "Pump baseplates".2 2 5 0. designationsand material .without inducer b = NPSHreq . Circular casing It must be noted that the reduction in the NPSH requirement applies only to a particular section of the flow range and not the complete range of the pump concerned (see Fig. 31 p Density of the medium pumped g Gravitattonal constant H Head D2 Impeller outside diameter b2 Impeller outlet width ~ig." 0 .3 improving the NPSH Requirement It is possible in special cases to reduce the NPSH requirement of a pump to approx. 0.p.0. to Fia. especially seals and bearings. 31 0 10 20 30 60 n Spezilic speed nq ~agnitudeof the radial thrust coefficient K for volute rasing pumps as a funnion ol the spec~iicspeed nq and the pump flow level q=Q/Qopt 8.0 I I 40 I W min-' I 3 o 8. K Radial thrust coefficient acc. codes". principaldimensions. 50-60% of the original level by fitting an inducer in front of the impeller.4 - . 33). The pump maker can favourably influence these hydraulic radial forces by selecting the right casing (see Figs. l ~ i 33 NPSH requirement ~ i t and ~ i i n o u inducer plotted against the capacity g h t . The magnitude and direction of the thrust changes with the rate of flow and affects the shaft and bearings.g. DIN 24960 "Mechanical seals.2 Shaft Deflection Shaft deflection is principally caused by radial forces resulting from the hydraulic thrust in the impeller plane generated by the interaction between the impeller and pump casing (or diffuser).H.1 q=1.g. for example when a plant is extended and the available NPSH is inadequate or where economic factors prevent the available NPSH being increased (by raising the suction tank) or a lower speed larger-sized pump (with lower NPSH requirement) being fitted.D2..a. VDMA 24297 "Centrifugal pumps. shaft seal chamber. technical requirements. The radial thrust FR can be calculated with the help of the equation FR=K. API 610 or ISO) and also means cost-effective sizing of shafts. . 30 and 31).wNh inducer A = NPSHreq .3 5 2 m + 0. specifications" need minor or no changes in content even afterthe publication of the corresponding IS0 standard. ~ i g32 Centrifugal pump flted with induce! .with inducer B A and B are different types of inducers C ~ i g30 ~ a d i athrust in centrifugal pumpswiih various caring types .b2 with F Radial thrust . This guarantees conformity with the specified maximum permissible shaft deflection (e.

Mixed flow impeller? closed. double entry Axial flow impeller ') Front view with coverpiate removed *') Single-vane impellers are also avaiieble with slightly reduced passage for greater eniciency Free flow impeller . 8.4.3 Special Impellers For contaminated and gaseous liquids.8. the single-vane impeller has an unrestricted passageway from inlet to outlet (so-called free passage) "). Such impellers go from the radial flow type through the mixed flow type for higher flow rates up to the axial flow impeller for high flow rates and low heads.1 Vaned lmoellers pumps handling 'lean products have standard impellers fitted with vanes.4. Single-vane impeller*) closed Radial flow impeller') Two-passage impeller') closed Mixed flow impeller') closed Three-passage impeller*) closed Mixed flow impeller open 8.4.4 Impeller Types 8.2 Non-clogging Impellers Large-clearance impellers are used on pumps handling contaminated liquids containing solids.

e. 35 Doubie-entry. pipeline p u m ~ . F i g 37 ciose-coupled. i Y .4 Star Wheels Mainly used in self-priming pumps handling clean media Fig. standardized chemicai pump F i g 38 Vertical shan-driven sump pump. ~ i 39 submersible close-coupled pump.4. suction and discharge side bearings. e. rudion and discharge side bearings. overhung.g. : i \ .?. e. single-stage.g submersible chemical pump .g.8.5 Pump Types (typical examples) Figs.g. e.5 Peripheral Impellers Used for clean media. ring section high pressure centrifugal pump Star wheel for side channel pump 8..g. e.i.. e. 34 Slngle~entr~. 36 Multistage. in-line pump Peripheral impeller 8. low flow rates and high heads.g. 34 to 39 show the various main design features: Fig. sewage pump g Fig.4..

e. i.8. compact. belt drive simple speed variation underneath with parallel axis above pump wlth belt drive and outboard bearing or jackshaft I compact. the position of the feet. underneath or shaft centreline. simole meed variation I underneath I I close-coupled. 40 and 41). i.e. the arrangement of the drive. forming a water tight unit with pump fully submersible Fig. horizontal centreline coaxial with coupling or gearbox common baseplate I horizontal horizontal underneath with parallel axis above pump. 40 Examples of horizontal installation Alternative installation 1 Shaft Feet Drive I Remarks wet installation a) surface level discharge pipe - above ground on drive stool soleplate beneath discharge nozzle a) above ground on dr~ve stool dry installation b) above ground on drive stool through cardan shaft C) below surface on drive stool vertical a) automatic submersible close-coupled engagement unit with claw b) on support stand wet installation a) permanent b) portable .6 Pump Installation Arrangements The factors which determine how a pump is installed are: the position of the shaft. horizontal or vertical. the weight distribution of the pump and drive (see Figs.

i. capacity at switch-on pressure in l/s Q. 44 Arrangement ot pi- h me sunion hnk (rump1 to wevent vwticea The minimum iiquid cover Smi. in m must be the velocity head plus a 0. distribution.e. when the capacity Qm is twice the incoming flow Q. max star-up frequency is therefore: The medium handled must cover the suction pipe inlet to a suitable depth. 42). we recommend 1 to 2 m/s.1 rn safety margin for non-uniform velocity . Suction pipe where Z Q . extending from the surface to the suction pipe. By ensuring that the medium handled always has a suitable level (see Figs. starting with a funnel-shaped depression at the iiquid su~face. or better still 6W wails.e. which is the more important. The sump size depends on the capacity Q and permissible start-up frequency Z of the pump set. capacity at switch-off pressure in l/s VN useful volume of pump sump including possible flowback volume in I 'pos. the higher the Row rate is. help prevent this (see Fig. The suction oioe and inlet oioe mist be sufficiently wide apart to prevent'air entrainment'in the suction pipe. 12lh Motor rating above 30 kW max 10/h Start-up frequency is calculated using: 8. Fig. of starts per hour . i. inlet flow in 1 s 1 Q. Furthermorethe mouth of the inlet pipe must always lie below the liquid level (see Fig.7 Pump Sump Configuration Pump sumps are designed to receive liquids and be intermittently drained. 42 Inclined rump vallsm prevent solids tmm being depogltea and colls*lng with v flow velocity in m/s . The maximum flow velocity v in the suction pipe or inlet pipe should not exceed 3 m/s. 46 to 48) this can be prevented. 43). minimum liquid cover in m.8.5 kW max 15lh Motor rating up to 30 kW ma%.8 Suction Pipe Layout The suction pipe should be as short as possible and run with a aentie siooe UD to the oumo. Fm. The start-up frequencies of dry motors are as follows: Start-up frequency Z Motor rating up to 7. the electric motor. 43 Aping emanpernevi to prevent sir emminmM The maximum start-up frequency occurs when Qm = 2 x Q . otherwise rotation of the iiquid could cause air-entraining vortices (hollow vortices) to form. 44 and 45) or by taking measures to prevent vortices (see Figs. solids must be prevented from being deposited and collecting in dead zones and on the floor. With dirty liquids. Sm. no.a tubeshaped air cavity forms instantaneously. 45O walls. The . . deflector Flg.

a round tank with a tangential inlet DiDe which causes the contents to rotate. Figs. The values obtained give sufficient protection against vortices. piping bore DN and capacity Q. h I rPiDe k suction 10 pump Fm. The graph can be used for the suction plpe layout illustrated. 48 Use of baMes in me tankm ensure disblmance-bee n m m pump . 48 shows a special arrangement which is frequently used .I I00 I 2 I 1 I 1 I 5 6 $ I l l 8 9 1000 Capacity Q I 2 1 I 5 A ! 1 43:h F i g 45 Liguid OOYBI S 88 a lundion of the prplng bore ON and camcity Q Fig. 47 Use of swirl-oreverding bani- Fig. 45 shows the interdependence between liquid cover S. 46 and 47 show typical arrangements used to prevent air-entraining inlet vortices where the minimum liquid cover is either not available or cannot be ensured. Fig.

51 Pump with spacer cou~ling . radial and angular misalignment (Fig. Fig 49 Misalignment Fig. Serrated couplings. . 50 shows the most common types of flexible couplings. Fig. 51 shows a spacer couolina between a oumD and drive: . Fig. Rigid couplings are mainly used to connect shafts In perfect alignment. The smallest degree of misalignmentwill cause considerablestress on thecoupling and on the shafts. SO TYPical couplings Flexible couplings to DIN 740 are elastic. without disturbing the pump casing or drive (back-pull out design). Flange couplings (DIN 760).8. The flexibility is usually achieved by the deformation of damping and rubber-elastic spring elements whose life is governed to a large extent by the degree of misalignment. Face plate couplings (DIN 758. slip-free connecting elements between drive and driven machine which accommodate axial. . Split couplings (DIN 115). Muff couplings. DIN 759). Fm. itsfunction is to permit removalI the pump rotating assembl.9 Shaft Couplings Shaft couplings used with centrifugal pumps can be divided into rigid and flexible types. 49) and damp shock loads. The following types are used: Sleeve couplings.

9 Technical Data 9.1 Vapour Pressure p. and Density p of Water .

.

9.3 Density p of Various Liquids at Atmospheric Pressure .

.n.. & (g..=333.1 Pas n 4 1 1 n..Hom)q in Si-units (m and s) ..a!7:rs KSB - 9..4 Extract of Important Legal Units for Centrifugal Pumps Kinematic viscosity Dynamic viscosity Specific speed v m2/s Pas Pascaisecond (= N s/m2) rl St (stokes). "E. mZ/s Pas 1 St = 10-1 m2/s 1 cSt = 1 mmYs 1 P=O. P (Poise).

3592 50.067 6.4732 0.9 16.dr.7854 dm3 - 36.8532 506.S.7124 4046.8288 5.) I gill (gi) 1 pint (iiq PO I quart (iiq qt) 1 pottle 1 gallon (gal) 1 peck 1 bushel 1 US oil-barrel (for crude oil) 1 quarter 1 chaldron 1 dry pint (dry pt) 1 dry quart (dry qt) 1 peck (pk) 1 bushel (bu) 1 dry barrel (bbl) 1 grain (gr) I dram (dr avdp) 1 ounce (oz avdp) 1 pound (Ib) I stone 1 quarter 1 cental 1 short hundredweight (sh cwt) 1 hundredweight (Cd) 1 long hundredweight ( cwt) 1 1 short ton (sh tn) 1 ton 1 long ton ( tn) 1 1 pennyweight (d-4 1 troy ounce (02 tr) 1 troy pound (Ib t) 25.0470 - - 1.16 cm 20.1365 2.7716 28.387 2.5460 9.9144 m 1.5737 118.7124 4046.2929 404.0292 m 20.) 1 fluid dram (fl.168 m 1.1168 m 201.1035 - 1016.067 6.2929 404.7718 28.3048 m 0.03 0..5516 1. Units British Length U.59 16.0922 36.3495 0.3597 28.6967 29.168 1.8532 506. 64.635 mm 2.2948 0.1331 61.7646 2.02.1939 1.2393 0 1 156 .dr.86 2.1849 kg 1016.) 1 fluid ounce (fi.4516 404.687 929.3093 0.4 0. 1 mil 1 point 1 line I inch 1 1 1 1 1 Area Volume Basic unit gallon for fluids Basic unit bushel for dry goods Mass and Weight Avoirdupois system (trade and commerce weights) Troy system (for precious metals) (in) hand link Ili) .0292 20.6119 - - 3.1012 8.9144 1.03 0.86 cm 0.3268 0.8327 ~m mm mm mm cm cm cm m m m m m m km km pm2 cmz cm2 cmz cm2 m2 km km pm2 cm2 cm2 cm2 cm2 m 2 m z m z m z m z kmz cmr dm3 dm3 m 2 m2 ma m s rn3 mm3 cm3 cma cm3 cmr dm3 dm3 dm3 dm3 dm3 dm3 m s m a .1839 3.9464 - 28.686 1011.065 0.8361 25. 54 mm 10.686 1011.687 929.3592 kg 50.3048 0.3528 mm 0.8024 - - - dm3 dm3 dm3 dm3 m 3 mg g g kg 45.709 5.635 25.4 K m 0.159 0.5552 32.6093 1.4 10.3687 - 0.3732 kg g g kg 35 .291 1.1035 0.- m 2 m 2 km2 cm3 dm3 dm3 m 3 m a m 3 mma cma cma cm3 dm3 dm3 59.7646 2.4131 142.1168 201.4516 404.3495 0.86 25 .6093 1.3687 3.7989 1. span foot (ft) yard (yd) I fathom (fath) 1 rod (rd) 1 chain fch) 1 furlong (fur) 1 mile (mi) (statute mile) = 1760 yd 1 nautical mile 1 circular mil 1 circular inch 1 square inch (sq in) 1 square link (sq li) 1 square foot (sq ft) 1 square yard (sq yd) 1 square rod (sq rd) 1 squarechain (sq ch) I rood I acre 1 square mile (sq mi) 1 cubic inch (cu in) 1 board foot (fbm) 1 cubic foot (cu ft) 1 cubic yard (cu yd) 1 register ton (FIT) = 100 cu ft 1 British shipping ton = 42 cu ft 1 US shipping ton = 40 cu ft 1 minim (min) I fluid scruple 1 fluid drachm (fl.709 5.8098 35.2730 4.16 20.9.5683 1.3597 28.8024 kg 907.4536 mS dm3 mg g g kg kg kg kg kg kg g g 64.387 2.8288 m 5.3528 0.0470 1.3268 0.86 ' 0.5552 31.8361 25.1168 22.4536 6.1168 cm 22.3503 12.7989 1.8327 1.S.7006 45.1897 - 25.5 Conversion ofBritish and U.5506 1.

kgldma kgIdm3 kgldms kgldma kgldms mls mls m/s mls 1s 1 1s 1 1s 1 msls 1 ounce (av) per cubic foot 0. (fils) (Wmin) fvdls) Mass flow Force (weight force) 1 cubic foot per second 1 cubic yard per second 1 ounce per second 1 ounce oer minute 1 pound 'per second 1 pound per minute 1 short ton per hour 1 ton per hour 1 long ton per hour 1 ounce (force) 1 pound (force) 1 short ton (force) 1 long ton (force) pound (force) square foot pound (force) square inch short ton (force) square inch 1 inch H20 1 foot H20 I inch ~g pound (force) square inch short ton (force) (gpm) (cusec) (Ow lozlmin) (lbls) ' (Iblmin) (shtnlh) (Itnlh) (02) (Ib) (shtn) 1 - g/s g/s kgls kgls 0.7457 1.0558 ..2520 kgIdm3 kgldms kgldms kgldms kgldma kgldma kgldms mls mls mls mls 1s 1 m31s gls gls kgls kgls kgls kgls Velocity 5 Capacity 1 gallon per second (rate of volume flow) 1 gallon per minute 1 foot per second 1 foot per minute 1 vard oer second .3558 0.7854 0.2822 0.9476 137.8803 J MJ .4483 N N O W (~b Pressure ~fft"")) 68.:~)) (in H20) (ft H20) (in Hg) Mechanical stress N 0.acc.9144 0.4536 0. energy. AT=At=-Att.3558 : 1.0558 1.7300 27.7300 27.6799 - 0.7457 1. . 5 4 Where: T thermodynamic temperature t Celsius temperature tF Fahrenheit temperature t Rbaumur temoeratur .0010 0.00508 0.3048 0.2822 - 0. kW kW Pas W W 1 Horse power(Hp) 1 British Thermal Unit Dynamic Viscosity per second pound (mass) foot x second pound (force) x second square foot Temperature (Ib(ttmy)) lb (force) s ( sq fi ) t = .7646 28.0160 1.8803 Pas Pas Conversion of temperature points: Conversion of temperature differences: 5 T=7jtR+273.I 865 1.3558 0.8951 2. .00508 0.4882 47.4536 0. quantity of heat.8951 2.09978 0.07577 28.(Psi: 68.006895 sh tn (force) N 0.8663 mbar bar mbar mbar mbar (sh t.i N Work. I MJ kW kW Pas 1 1..00756 0.01 60 1.4909 29. 1 1 1.3268 0.8907 33.4725 0.3558 J : 1.9476 137.3495 0.01 524 4.&)PmPs valves KSBBritish Density (oz/cu ft) 1 pound per cubic foot (lb/cu fi) 1 ounce (av) per cubic inch (ozlcu in) 1 pound per cubic inch (Iblcu in) 1 short ton per cubic yard (shtnlcu yd) 1 long ton per cubic yard (Itnlcu yd) 1 pound per gallon (Iblgal) U. Thermal Unit 1 foot-pound (av) per second iff lb) ~HP h) (BTU) . internal (intrinsic) energy and enthalpy Power (heat flow) 1 foot-pound 1 ~orse power hour 1 Brit. Conversion of the specilic s p e d (type number) K customarily used in English-speaking conlries into n.1 198 0. to IS0 2548: in K in O C in O F in T I .8907 33..01524 3.00756 0.3289 0..2780 4.3495 0.4725 0.0010 0.4882 47.4909 29.6799 1.9144 0.7646 28.S.006895 i.5460 0.3048 0.15.8663 mbar bar mbar mbar mbar mm2 N (force) (Ibsq in ).4R 5 t 1.

=KSB 9. 0 N < E A 0 p m m r (D (D 0 0 N hl!oolan ~ o l j .6 Graph for Calculating Flow Velocity v as a Function of Capacity Q and I.D. of Pipe D pumps Valves - p m m r ( D ( D -.

a valves pump =KSB9. of Pipe D n P ~ m 6zfcn paall AlloolaA m o ~ o mm * % m r o .D.7 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head v2/2g as a Function of Capacity Q and I.

_ -z ? 0 m m m t- tW I D . Differential D.=KSB 9.8 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head Differential A v2/2g as a Function of Capacity Q and Pipe I. v le!walau!p peau 4loolaA ~Z/ZA pump Valves " F $ f 0 m 0 N a r w .D./D.

D. as a Function of I. Flow Velocity v and Capacity Q .9 Graph for Calculating Head Loss H. of Pipe D.9.

10 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors fQ.0 Valves pumps 9.w.W and fqSw Viscous Liquids for Available: data for operation with water Required: data for operation with viscous liquid Calculation example: see page 21 Calculation chart: see page 44 . fH.

=KSB 0 pumps Valves 9.zfor Viscous Liquids .11 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors Available: data for operation with viscous liquid Required: data for operation with water Calculation chart: see page 44 and fH.

55 .= 17.3 I/s. Hop.n . n - m/s2 m/s2 DIN 24 260 KG 3/4 (g . With multistage pumps use the stage head. = 66 m3/h = 18.Valves I KSB I - 9. l/min 1 1 g = 9.12 Graph for Calculating Specific Speed n. /min Established: n = 23 I .G (g . Hod All equations give numerically equal results. With double-entry impeller pumps use only half the capacity.81 nq = n . n = 1450 1/min. dc&n3/rl. . 500 600 700800 I 960 1000 I 1450 1500 2000 2500 3000 1 2900 4000 1/m1n 6000 8000 10000 15000 20000 25000 Speed n Equations Qopt Hopt Units n l/min l/s I/min n .5 m. 1) (Hopt mVs mVs m3/s m m m n = 333 . l " z . Hopt) 4 3 . 0 . Example: Q . nq = 5.

Operating Point Available data: Capacity Head Speed Kinematic viscosity Density Gravttational constant Q w H w n V z Pz 9 To determine the new operating data it is also necessary to calculate the data at b.12 fa. ..setr 1 Pz 1 I 111s m m2/s / kgldma Procedure n selected n. Calculation in graphic form . 1s 1 rn llmin m2/s kgIdm3 m/s2 Capacity Head Efficiency '1 from ind8vldual characterlstlc curve Qw. section 9..setr Hopt 3..A! from araoh in .use HZ= Hw Pump Size Available data: capacity Head Calculation in graphic form IQz. 9. Plotted over a.opt I/s m '1 - 9. If Hz > Hw. Schedule for Calculating the Operating Point and Pump Size for Handling Viscous Liquids.81 Procedure nu.10 1 1 Illmin - I- These values mean 4 points on QHz and Q ~ line DIUS z 3 points on the QPz line are established.m ') HWW') )1w. ./ Type series Quotation No Rated speed Item No.1 1 I l/min - I llmin \/s m %.w tom section f.B~~fu.~etr Qopt approx.e. = Hz.2 where Qz..6eic -& -f ~ .p. ~ -b Hw.~ 3) from section 9. .1 2 faZ from section 9.. ~~t~ 1 vz Density I Hz.

drainage in deep mining. swing check valves and industrial' water.garden pumps. boiler feed and circulating pumps. swing check valves. pumps for seawater desalination plants.. . supply. cooling water pumps. Building Setvices Division Location: Pegnitz ~car'niano industrial warcr pLmps. Annecy Factories: Frankenthal. .o. non-return valves and actuated valves for building services! industrial applications. Sector: Building Services Location and factory: Frankenthal Sector: lnduskial Enginnering. Systems for pump speed control. machine dyfamics. Components and systems for sewage treatment. ball valves. conventional and Nuclear ~. delivery of cooling water and clean water. and mining applications as well as all special app~idations. product and packing design.~. patent rights.Engineered p i i p s division^ Single-stage bearing pedestal mounted pumps for irrigation Centrifugal pumps for conventional and nuclear power plants: duties. systems and electronic controls as well as engineering services in the fields of hydrodynamics. reactor feed pumps. agriculture (storage and transport of liquid manure). materials technology. lifting plants). cold-drawing methods for chrome nickel steel. Process pumps for the chemical and and actuators for building services. v . gate valves. petrochemical industries. Ch?iteauroux. Factories: Frankenthal. firelv. petrochemical industry. complete pump sets for pressure Multi-stage submersible motor pumps for municipal and boosting and fire-fighting. industrial water s u ~ ~ lirriaation. chemical and proc:ss engineering as well as for conventional and nuclear power stations. Location: Frankenthal Factories: Pegnitz. Location: Courbevoie Location: Frankenthal Factories: Homburg (Saar). Location: Frankenthal Factories: Frankenthal. Planning. Pumps for flue gas desuland nuclear power stations. Services to the planners and operators of the plants. Water Pumps Division pumps for water supply. Submersiulenloror p ~ m p s Factories: Pegnitz. installation and commissioning of pumping stations for clean water and effluents. pumps for irrigation and sprinkling. and industrial'ap6ications. phurization plants and for air and gas purifiers. Deville. aquaculture. surface drainage (shore protection. main Vertical propeller pumps for irrigation. Neuvy.Divisions Gate and Globevalves Division Globe valves with soft or metallic seat. condensate pumps. Bremen. Butterfly valves with soft and metallic seat. ~ n n e c y ~ New Technologies Development and manufacture of new pump types. plastics technology. valves. pumps for onshore Horizontal and vertical multi-stage pumps for irrigation and and offshore applications as well as for refineries and the water supply systems. Power Stations Location and factory: Pegnitz Environmental Engineering Division Pumps for the treatment of municipal effluents (purification and transport). optimization. Lille Industrial and Process Pumps Division Butterfly valves Division : Standardized Dumos and multi-staae. water s u. high-temperature chemical and process engineering as well as for conventional heating systems and cryogenics. Location: Courbevoie Borehole shaft-driven Dumps for irriaation. measurement techniques. offshore . sugar and foodstuffs Factory: LaRoche Chalais industries and for the handling of solids. for refineries.. industrial applications. Chateauroux. Nan-clogging Location: Bagnolet centrifugal pumps for paper. Pegnitz fighting. buildina services. agricultural drainage duties. industrial effluents. Frankenthal for the hanollng of sewage. rehabilitation. cellulose. elf Lent an0 fecccs h ~ n g planls. locks. open and closed loop control. DumDs for heat transfer . water supply and coolant pumps. Chateauroux '~ hJ KSB Aktiengesellschaft Postfach 17 25 D-6710 Frankenthal Telephone: (06233) 86-0 Fax: (0 62 33) 8633 95 Teletex: 62333 = ksbft .

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