Myth: - Mythos – Word, speech, tale.

Essentially a story - Oral/written - True Myth/Myth Proper and Saga/Legend o True myth/proper – stories concerned with gods o Saga/legend – Imaginative, but has relationship with history - Folktale and Fairytale o Story of adventure with hero/heroine who will triumph. IE Cupid and Psyche - Rigid Definitions are difficult to impose - Myth and Religion o Mircea Eliad – 20th century writer on myths links myths to religion - Myths and Etiology o Etiology comes from aitia – Cause/Blame o Use myth to explain things (Ovid Metamorphsis) - Rationalism vs Metaphor, Allegory, and symbolism o Euhemerism – metaphorical interpretation of stories o Max Muller – referring nature myths to meteorological phenomena - Myths and Psychology o Determinism – Freud’s theory from Aristotle o Freud – Oedipus  Dreams for Freud are repressed and disguised wishes – Dreamwork which composes of condensation, displacement, and representation.  Looks at individual. Connects dream world to mythology o Jung – collective unconscious. Myths contain images or archetypes  Archetype is a dramatic abbreviation of the patterns involved in a whole story or situation. IE. Heracles and Thesus tells us how to behave  Anima – archetypal image of the female that the man has in him  Animus – the male part which women have  Looks at collective. Dream connects to our deepest desires - Myths and Society o Frazer, Harrison, Graves  Frazer – the Golden Bough – link myth and ritual  Harrison – Prolegomena the Study of Greek Religion and Themis – compare myth and religion and ritual o Myth as Social Charters: Bronislav Malinowski  Connection between myths and social institutions which led him to explain myths not in cosmic or mysterious terms, but as characters of social customs and beliefs - Structuralists: Levi Strauss, Propp, and Burkert o First developed by Vladmir Propp o Levi Strauss – anthropological approach to myth, link between myths and society

Thebe. causing Chronos to puke the Gods out  Zeus has help from his siblings. Hyperion.Prometheus  Cyclopes – Brontes (Thunder). Mnmosyne.Muses – Hesoid emphasis on the Muses’ revelations to himself o Hesoid asked the Muses. Nyx – night o Gaia gives birth to Ouranos (Sky) o Gaia mad Uranus – They had offsprings from holy marriage “Hieros gamos”  Titans . then the Muses told him o Muses are children of Zeus and Mnemosyne – muse of memory Theogony o Chaos – Chasm. Gaia – Earth. Zeus  Chronos swallows them. Zeus plans with Rhea and substitutes a stone. Theys. and Chronos • Hyperion and Theia – creats Helius (Sun). Dementer. analyzed traditional tales into their constituent parts. this peron made Zeus’ lightning). and the Cyclopes • Zeus is a weather God • He also slays Typhaeus and the giants Zeus – foretold that his children with Metis will overthrow him.  Hesoid . Theia. Gaia helps Chronos overthrow Ouranos with sickle to cut off Ouranos’ genitals o Chronos and Rhea gives birth to the Gods – Hestia.Oceanus. the hundred handers. Arges (Bright. Calliope (Epic Poetry Muse) and Clio (History/Lyre Muse) about the Gods. Eros – primordial love. therefore the structure is important o Vladimir Propp – Study Russian folktale. male god sleep with mortal female and results. Rhea.See myths as a mode of communication. o Representative myths beyond their underlying details. Selene (Moon). Erebos – darkness. Hera.  Divided structure into thirty one functions o Burkert – uses structure along with cultural and historical dimensions. o Metis – God of Wisdom/Cleverness o Zeus swallows metis and gives birth the Athena Prometheus – God of Technology and advancement - - . Eos (Dawn) • Iapetus and Oceanid Clymene . Tartaros – underworld. Crius. Steropes (Lightning). Themis. Iapetus. Cyclopes means orbeyed  Hecatonchires o Chronos wanted to overthrow Ouranos. Hades. Poseidon. Coeus.

Sarpedon – Zeus’ son. Hera puts Io under watch of a great snake . Zeus tossed Hephaestus to Lemnos. weather God. carries thunderbolt Aigioxios – Aegis-bearing snipe which zeus carries.Most important for God Of Victory Zeus and Hera . hope in the bottom of the Jar o o o o o Zeus - Always with a beard.Zeus and Io – Hera turns Io into a Cow. because even Zeus cannot control fate .Olympia – Cult Center for Zeus . (volcanic region) . Throw stones behind them to recreate humanity.Hephaestus – Divine Aristan.Olympics – Festival for Zeus .Zeus and Danae – Birth to Perseus.Eileithyia – Goddess of Childbirth . (Danae’s father is afraid Perseus will kill him) .- steals fire from fenel and gives it to mankind Prometheus creates man from clay He also convinces Zeus to take the bad parts of a sacrifice (bones and fat) Zeus chains Prometheus and have a vulture come down to eat his liver Son of Prometheus is Deucalion  Deucalion and Pyhhra – similar to Noah. and will bring the fall of humanity o Comes from clay o Opens jar. she is a servant of the Gods . he was her favorite child o Hephastus trusts only Dionysus. his origins belong to Thrace o Ares and Aphrodite had – several children including Eros – cupid o Brutality. and folly of war are personified with Ares Zeus and Mnemosyne (Memory) – birth to literature and arts . or Zeus turns Io into a cow to hide her. G’nymedes' father is the founder of Troy . They prayed to Themis Zeus creates Pandora to punish men. Zeus had to let Sarpedon die during Trojan war. waste. Hera claims she made Hephaestus without Zeus.Zeus and Europa – Princess/young maiden. Zeus shows up as Bull and takes her across the sea to Crete. evil blah blah. Father of Gods. Snipe sounds like thunder Zeus ‘Eleutherios’ – the liberator. She is the first women.Ares – God of War. made shield of Achilles o God of Fire. she gives birth to King Minos – related to minotaur myth . survive flood. connected to victory and freedom Zeus and Ganymedes – Zeus takes him up as a lover and wine pourer.Hebe – Goddess of Youthful bloom. also known to be attended by three Cyclopes who created the thunder lightning of Zeus o Married to Aphrodite o Born lame.

. he meets Telfuusa. Marsyas is a satyr who picked up the flute after Athena invented and discarded it. but he felt sorry after. Music. Apollo loved him but Cyparissus felt so bad he commited suicide . He is upset and fires arrow into her chest.Delos – major Apollo cult site o Apollo travels around the world.The Three Fates.Famous for virginity and contrasts Aphrodite . a Greek Hero takes Marpessa away from Apollo.Cyparissus – looked after nymphs and kills a prized animal with a javelin. Daughters of Zeus and Themis – Zeus is father of Fates. and her name is associated with Laurel – celebrated by Apollo . the judge Tmolus. o Apollo lay out foundation of cult.Coronis – Young women which Apollo’s crow spots cheating on him. Pan played the pipe. o Everyone accepted Apoolo as the victor except Midas.Marsyas – Challenged Apollo to a music contest. They contested for Midas.Hyacinthus – Male lover.Daphne – not interested in Apollo. She convinces Apollo to travel to the mountains. it kills Hyacinthus . and she turns into a tree.Cyrene – successful love affair with nymph . Apollo rains arrows on the Greeks and forces Aga to return Crysis . carries bow and arros . the river did not want Apollo to take her spot. Zeus made her choose. Initiation of young men into society . and ripped the skin off Marsyas’ body. Prophecy. Apollo won.Cassandra – Agrees to be his lover and receive power of Prophecy. and he punishes her by making no one believe her prophets. she then rejects him. Apollo still loves her. She has unborn child which becomes God of Healing . his mother Leto has to bear him in secret because Hera is angry. and her father prays to Apollo.God of Healing. while Apollo.Pan – Another music contest with god Pan. o Apollo kills Typhaeon/Typhaeus (Snake like creatures) to create his cult  Typhaeon – Hera’s creation to counter Athena o Dephi – site of the festival every 4 years . and she chose Idas . they played sports and Apollo threw a disk so high that when it falls. (the Spinners). . the Lyre. Apollo gave Midas an ass’s ears Artemis – connected with wilderness.Connected with revenge o Agamemnon stole Crysis. but cupid strikes Apollo with arrow of love while striking Daphne with arrow of lead (hate) o Daphne prays to her father to hide her. According to Ovid – Chaos – crude and unformed mass of elements in strife Apollo – most Greek of all Gods .Marpessa – Idas.She protects animals and punishes people with bow . hunt.

Actaeon – Great hunter inadvertently comes across Artemis as she is bathing. Zeus rapes her and she is unable to go back to Artemis o She goes back. but also Goddess of Childbirth Niobe – women with 7 sons and daughters boasts about her children to Leto. a follower of Artemis o He pursued her until Artemis covered her with a cloud.Aphros – means foam . wife of Theseus. fertility.Orien – famous hunter tries to rape Artemis.Artemis is also a Goddess of the moon linked to lunar cycle and women’s menstrual cycle . In anger she creates a scorpion to kill him. he was about to spear Callisto but Zeus stopped them and took them to heaven as neighboring stars .Zeus punishes Aphrodite for making him fall in love with mortals by making her fall in love with one too o Anchises – beautiful mortal that Aphrodite falls in love with  She pretends to be a princess to seduce him.Travels to Cypris after . deception .Brings sudden death.Born in Cythera .Callisto – nymph connected to beauty.Hippoleteus – follower of Artemis .Not always a nude God . and Hestia .3 Goddess not under her power are – Athena.Arethusa – River God who loved the nymph Arethusa. he is horrified o Phaedra commits suicide and leaves a note incriminating Hippolytus o Theseus returns and blames Hippolytus o Theseus prays to Poseidon who causes a wave to kill Hippolytus o Artemis comes later and promises a tribute dedicated to him Aphrodite – Venus Goddess of Love . she uses her power on his step mother Phaedra. but they found out she is prego and banishes her o Callisto’s son Arcas was born o Artemis turns Callisto bear o Later Arcas meets his mother he ran.Charm. Artemis kills daughters and Apollo kills sons. but sleeps with her anways  Aphrodite gives birth to Aineias – founder of Rome - .*out of place Tiresias – Transexual sage. but he is given power of foresight . settle dispute between Hera and Zeus.Born from genitals of Ouranos . Niobe weeps and turns into a stream .Hippolytus – Euripides’ tragedy o Aphrodite is enraged that her power cannot control Hippolytus. who is later eaten by his own dogs . o Artemis turns Actaeon into a stag. Hera didn’t like his decision and blinds him. Anchises does not fall for the same trick. o Phaedra’s nurse tells Hippolytus about the love. both the gloud and nymph became a stream . She later pities him and sends him to heaven as a constellation . Artemis.

- Anchises boasts about sleeping with Aphrodite and Zeus lightning bolts him o Dawn falls in love with Tithonus and asks Zeus to make Tithonus immortal  Tithonus is given immortality but grows very old Hephastus – Married to Aphrodite sets up trap for her and Ares. o He capture them and makes all the Gods watch them stuck in his net naked Adonis – Myrrha. and she was changed into a myrrh tree o Myrrha was pregnant with her father and gave birth to Adonus. and have sex o When he found out. daughter if Cinyas fell in love with her own father o She felt so much guild that she was going to commit suicide when a nurse saved her o It was arranged that the daughter should go to the bed of her father without his knowing. . Myrrha fled. often known as owl-eyed .Fearsome Goddess similar to Ares . spear. if Ares were not his son. shield .Athena is also skilled in strategies. Aphrodite comes in and curses the fates o Adonis was set to stay with Persephone one part of the year and with Aphrodite another  Athena – holds helmet. he’d be thrown out Hermes – Always wear travelling Cap and shoes with wings etc. he is fury.Parthenon – Parthenos – virgin Ares (Mars) – God who is not intelligent in war. a handsome and keen hunter o Aphrodite fell in love with Adonis o On one hunt a boar killed him.Zeus hates Ares.Protector of cities .Messenger to Zeus . and Arachne kills herself by hanging o Athena takes pity and turns her into a spider .Arachne and Athena – Aracnhe boasts she’s better at craftsmanship than Athena o Arachne wants to compete o Athena dresses as old women to convince Arachne to not compete o She refuses.Son of Zeus and Maia o Maia – nymph who is Atlas’ daughter .She takes the head of the Gorgon Medusa on her shield . an ddestruction . but he pursued her.Birth form Head of Zeus after he ate Metis . rage. they compete and Athena loses o Athena is furious. she is the goddess of intelligent war.Hermes helps Odysseus etc.Athena is good at handicraft . .

. Zeus does this and Semele is burnt up. but his hunger was so strong that he eventually ate himself Dionysis – God of wine and Celebration . and Gods loses their sacrifice .Zeus sends Hermes to Hades to let Persephone go .He is connected with Psyche (soul) . her daughter .Demeter causes great famine. clever figure Hermes’ birth he invented the Lyre and stole Apollo’s cattle Thieves pray to Hermes Hermes is also a conductor of souls to the underworld Because Hermes is a conductor of souls. Hermes tricks Zeus to reveal his glory.Persephone is Goddess of Grain sprouting o Persephone is in fields with her nymphs when chasm appears and Hades grabs her o Demeter searches for 9 days.Fertility Goddess of land (grain) . heaven and earth and also Genders o Hermaphroditus – Aphrodite and Hermes’ son  Salamacis a nymph tries to seduce Hermaphroditus.- Dionysus – from Zeus and Semele. to mark boundaries and ward off evil Crossing Boundaries between life and death.Mother Earth. He gave her a pomegranate seed and she eats it. his baby was taken to nymphs to be raised Hermes is a trickster.She curses him with insatiable hunger. Hecate and Heliio tells her that Hades took Persephone o Demeter is angry because Zeus allowed Hades to take Persephone o Demeter disguises as old women and goes to Eleusis where she is taken as a nurse to the young prince Demophoon o Demeter as a Goddess of Immortality and Sanctuary – Demeter nurses Demophoon by giving him ambrosia and putting him into fire every night o One day Demophoon’s mother comes in and stops Demeter. Therefore they are both boy and girl Demeter (Ceres) – Mature woman with veil and flowing robe . he chops down trees. so now she is bound to return . on the 10th day. and Demeter tells her that her son will never be immortal o Demeter wants shrine at Eleusis and teaches people how to worship her (mystery) . he is also a fertility God Herms – show erect penis.Hades lets Persep[hone go. explain the seasons Erysichthon – Like an orc. and he ate himself poor and sold his daughter . he tries to run away but goes into her pool where Salamacis jumps in and combines with him. and cut down a sacred tree to Demeter .His daughter was a shapeshifter so they repeat this.Paired with Persephone.Persephone is on earth for 2/3 years and Hades for 1/3 years. but promises her great honors to be his wife.

connected to wine Sone of Zeus and Semele. the pirates don’t believe he was a God. and magic things happen on the ship. and everyone else who didn’t worship him goes man including Pentheus’ mother  Pentheus’ mother goes into the woods and dance as a tribute to Dionysus  Pentheus eventually agrees to follow Dionysus. so Hera punishes her by making Echo answer and never initiate conversation o Another version: Echo falls in love with Narcissus – and will have good life as long as Narcissus doesn’t meat himself. she becomes the Cretan wife of Bacchus Closely associated with Dionysus He is the son of Hermes He is partially Human. tragedy comedy and Satyr plays Dionysus represent social inversion Dionysus and Ariadne – Ariadne is a women who helps Theseus to kill minotaur o Theseus promise to take her as a lover but betrays her and leaves her at Naxos o Dionysus helps her and marries her. He eventually dies by pining for himself Pan - . Narcissus rejects love.- - - His hair is presented as ivy. Semele is burnt and Dionysus is born Zeus took Dionysus into his thigh to grow him Dionysus was abducted by pirates. and representative of universal lifeforce Bacchae – Dionysus goes to Thebes and is worshipped by Tiresius (blind seer) and Cadmus (king of Thebes) o Only these two worship Dionysus. Associated with estatic state of mine. and ivy grows everywhere o People on the ship turned into dolphins. Hera finds out and convince Zeus to show his true form. Hera is angry at Echo for helping Zeus have affairs. and Dionysus trickets Pantheus to dress up as an animal  Upon entering the woods. but he is so beautiful that he falls inlove with himself when looking into a water. his mother things he is a beast and cuts off his head  She realizes it was her son when she goes back home with the head o Maenads – Female celebrants of Dionysus Dionysus is connected to Drama – the City of Dionysia in Athens hold plays. except the helmsman who believed he was a God He is God of Irrational. o it is filled with wine. pan means all or everything He is connected to music – Pan Pipe Echo and Narcissus – Pan had an affair with Echo and destroys echo until only the voice remains o In another rversion.

Holds Trident . that Odysseus has to pass o Gorgon – snakes for hair .Poseidon and Amphitrite have many children o Sphinx in Oedipus o Triton – Half merman.Poseidon and Tyro – Poseidon took the form of a river and rides next to her .Sunium – southern tip of attica is his temple . but she fell in love with Acis instead .Poseidon and Thoosa – Polyphemus – Cyclops with one eye that Odysseus has to harm . Medusa and Poseidon have affairs. dragon o Gergon (grandson of Medusa) who has 3 heads. Heracles has to defeat Gergon o Scylla – lover of Poseidon. fish. so Echo fades away Poseidon – Brother of Zeus .Connected with Land and Sea . He rejects Echo. monsterous person who sits at whirpool.Polyphemus and Galatea – Polyphemus is a monster who fell in love with sea nymph Galatea o He sang songs to her. also cause earthquakes .Poseidon is married to Amphitrite (a Nereid – daughter of Nereus) .He is worshipped by sailors.Also a God connected with Monstrosity .Amphitrite is angry at Poseidon’s affairs similar to Hera and Zeus .

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