UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

Design, Analysis and Fabrication of Pressure Vessel

Thesis submitted in accordance with the partial requirements of the Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka for the Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering (Manufacturing Process)

BY
b

Affendi b. Hussin @ Cholan

Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering March 2008

ABSTRACT

This bachelor degree final project presents design, analysis and manufacturing of pressure vessel. In the design of pressure vessel safety is the primary consideration, due the potential impact of possible accident. There have a few main factors to design the safe pressure vessel. This writing is focusing on analyzing the safety parameter for allowable working pressure. Allowable working pressures are calculated by using PV Elite which comply with the ASME VIII, Rules of construction pressure vessel div 1. The corruption of the vessel are probability occur at maximum pressure which is the element that only can sustain that pressure. At the end of this project, a pressure vessel which is air receiver are fabricated and the procedure of manufacture are explained clearly.

Di dalam aspek rekabentuk pengandung tekanan. Tekanan yang dibenarkan dikira dengan menggunakan PV Elite.ABSTRAK Projek akhir sarjana muda ini mempersembahkan rekabentuk. Di akhir projek ini. analisis dan proses pembuatan pengandung tekanan. Di dalam penulisan ini hanya memfokuskan analisis terhadap had tekanan yang dibenarkan ketika pengandung tekanan beroperasi. salah satu jenis pengandung tekanan dibuat iaitu penerima udara dan prosedur pembuatan diterangkan dengan jelas. . sebuah perisian yang memenuhi kod peraturan membuat pengandung tekanan. perkara yg perlu dititik beratkan ialah keselamatan disebabkan keupayaan berlakunye kemalangan besar. Terdapat banyak factor yang yang perlu diambil kira dalam mereka bentuk pengandung tekanan. Kemunglunan kerosakan yang berlaku disebabkan elemen-elemen yang terdapat pada pengandung tekanan yang tidak dapat menampung had tekanan maksimum. ASME VIII.

vessel and pipelines that carry. In the same word. pressurized equipment is required for a wide range of industrial plant for storage and manufacturing purpose. Pressure vessel are used in a number of industries. separation and storage of raw material occur. In addition vessel has to be design carefully to cope with the operating temperature and pressure. It is in the class of equipment that the reaction.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. petroleum.1 Overview of Pressure Vessel Tanks. for example. . The fluid inside the vessel may undergo a change in state as in the case of steam boiler or may combine with other reagent as in the case of chemical reactor. and the chemical industry. the power generation industry for fossil and nuclear power. the petrochemical industry for storing and processing crude petroleum oil in tank farms as well as storing gasoline in service station. petrochemical and nuclear industry. Because of such hazards it is imperative that the design be such that no leakage can occur. Pressure vessel and tank are in fact essential to the chemical. Their use has expanded throughout the world. The inside pressure is usually higher than the outside. Pressure vessel often has a combination of high pressure together with high temperature and in some cases flammable fluids or highly radioactive material. A pressure vessel is defined as a container with a pressure differential between inside and outside. store or receive fluids are called pressure vessel.

In the design of pressure vessel safety is the primary consideration. The cylindrical vessels are generally preferred because of they present simple manufacturing problem and make better use of the available space. Therefore they are used for large gas or liquids container. the design is a compromise between consideration of economics and safety. Boiler. In generally however. due the potential impact of a possible accident. heat exchanger. The possible risks of a given failure and its consequent are balanced against the effort required for its prevention. the resulting design should achieve an adequate standard of safety at minimum cost. Figure 1.0: Pressure Vessel . are generally cylindrical. containment buildings for nuclear plant and so on. especially for nuclear reactor vessels. chemical reactor and so on.pressure vessels are usually spherical or cylindrical with dome end. Spherical vessels have the advantages of requiring thinner walls for a given pressure and diameter than the equivalent cylinder.

some of the important elements must be consideration. heat treatment or forming methods. Each failure has a why and how to its history. Design. which describe why a vessel failure occurs.Improper selection of material. defects in material. Failures can also be grouped into types of failures.Incorrect design data. Fabrication.3 Objectives The purpose of this project is to study the implementation and practices of pressure vessel designs. inaccurate or incorrect design methods. Ultimately they are all related.2 Problem Statement Vessel failures can be grouped into four major categories. improper or insufficient fabrication procedures including welding.1.Poor quality control. This project will be collaborate with Akra Engineering Sdn Bhd to provide the source and place to fabricate the pressure vessel. which describe how the failure occurs. inadequate shop testing. . It may have failed through corrosion fatigue because the wrong material was selected! The designer must be as familiar with categories and types of failure as with categories and types of stress and loadings. There is: Research about pressure vessel To analyze by using PV Elite at Akra Engineering Sdn Bhd. To fabricate the pressure vessel as per the reference standards 1. Material. 1.4 Scope To ensure the objective is achieved. The objectives of this project are: To identify the pressure vessel To analyze the safety parameters for allowable working pressure using PV Elite which comply to ASME VIII standard.

pressure and heat transfer coefficient. It is of great significance for ensuring safe and high efficiency operations in modernized large-scale and high parameter facilities of chemical. graphite and kevlar fibers). and materials. A comparison between the results of the experimental testing and the theoretical proposed design for these composite pressure vessels has been presented. In this work a numerous of aluminum tubes have been wrapped by different number of composite layers made from different fibrous materials (glass. nuclear and electric power plants. M. Changheui Jang et al. The stress intensity factors are compared with . Mokhtar et a1 (1996) was proposed a new design technique that enables rapid and efficient design calculations. Shu-Ho Dai (1998) explain that the prediction of the occurrence of failure events for pressure vessels used in the process industry is a newly developing technology in the field of modern technical management of facilities.A. (1999) describes the pressure vessel integrity under a pressurized thermal shock using transient histories such as temperature. Azzam. the stress distribution is calculated and then stress intensity factors are obtained for a wide range of crack sizes. fiber orientations. layer thickness. M.Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW B.S.O. petrochemical. Then. these tubes have been used as pressure vessels which tested till the explosion failure. This comparison has shown a good agreement between the theoretical and experimental analysis. Muhammad. This design method enables the designer of the composite pressure vessel to get readily the ultimate failure pressure of these vessels depending on the number of reinforced layers.A.A.

said vessel comprising: a cylindrical body. wherein cooling water flow paths are . and lid members which tightly close axial openings of said cylindrical body so as to be disengageable from said openings. Storage tanks were constructed between 1951 and 1956 from hot rolled carbon steel plate specified as ASTM A285 Grade B.the fracture toughness to check if cracking is expected to occur during the transient. a class of limit load solution is discussed which takes the triaxial state of stress into account. including stress corrosion cracking. Critical crack depth diagrams are prepared for each transient which is expected to initiate a pressurized thermal shock accident. a plurality of spacers arranged along an outer periphery surface of said inner cylinder. (2007) published limit load formulae for circumferential defects overestimate the burst pressure for penetrating defects in pipes by the factor two in the short crack limit. and Staat M. Plant-specific analyses of the most limiting plant in Korea are performed to assure the structural integrity of the reactor vessel and the results are discussed. Leta Y. Vu D. Extensive analyses and experimental investigations have demonstrated tank integrity in full consideration of potential service induced degradation mechanisms. said cylindrical body comprising: an inner cylinder. with piano wire wound under tension round an outer periphery of said cylindrical body. Makoto et a1 (2004) explain about a high temperaturelhigh pressure vessel for treating a workpiece placed in the interior of the vessel at a high temperature and a high pressure. The solutions for pressure loaded crack faces are improved analytically. Primal-dual limit analysis with the finite element method is used to adjust all solutions to numerical results. Yoneda.K. Limit loads are obtained for circumferential cracks of all sizes in thick-walled cylinders. Therefore. because they only consider axial stress. Woo (1999) has mention that mild carbon steel with specification American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A285 is a common material of construction for vessels in the petroleum and nuclear industries. and an outer cylinder fitted on said inner cylinder through said spacers.

At the same time. At the line. is compared to a nozzle with external reinforcement (applied reinforcement plate) designed according to VSR 1995 standards with the same safety coefficient.formed each between adjacent said spacers. disturbing the membrane stress state in the vessel. with the range for radius-tothickness ratio between 75 and 125. according to ASME and VSR 1995 standards. (2003) comparing two different methods for the construction of pressure vessel nozzles. a nozzle with integral reinforcement. which are numerically and experimentally obtained and which are determined according to the standards of the two nozzle types to identify the better system. comparisons are made of the fatigue life predictions. . designed with the same safety coefficient. the effect of these values on the stress concentration ratio was numerically examined. designed according to ASME standards. in order to identify the best system to exploit for design. afterwards. Finally. In particular. J. The stress concentration was analytically described and. Results of the analysis are shown on charts. The degree of stress concentration depends on the ratio of thicknesses of both the adjacent parts of the shells and on the relative convexity of the ellipsoidal head. a shear force and bending moment occur. Strain gauge tests have been carried out on the plastic behaviour of the two structures in order to evaluate the expected fatigue life based on common criteria. a FEM model of the nozzle with plate has been used to calculate numerically the expected fatigue life based on the same criteria. said cooling water flow paths extending from one end side to an opposite end side of said cylindrical body. Lewinski (2002) presents the problem of stress concentration in a cylindrical pressure vessel with ellipsoidal heads subject to internal pressure. using both the local strain and energetic approaches. It defines numerical and experimental analysis of behaviour under lowcycle fatigue for pulsating pressure. where the ellipsoidal head is adjacent to the circular cylindrical shell. Giglio M.

At low temperature dominantly brittle fracture behavior is observed. The nozzle is placed such that the axis of the nozzle does not cross the axis of the cylindrical shell. schiedermaier (2004) explain about the economical and safe design of pressure vessels requires. an initial idea. The behavior of a cracked component under a given loading situation depends on material toughness. key milestones are traced through to the present day and beyond. The formation of a milestone itself along with its subsequent development is often critically dependent on the work of many individuals. It is postulated that such developments takes place in cycles.H. operational processes and new pressure equipment. followed finally by the emergence of codes ad standards. This paper identifies a number of milestones which have provided a stimulus to analysis methods. and when confidence is established. which in turn stimulate analysis or investigation. For ferritic steels. The solution presented is used to compare the failure pressures of copper and brass cylindrical pressure vessels. manufacturing. the material toughness is varying with temperature. Starting from the industrial revolution. also a detailed knowledge of the vessel failure behavior in the case of existing imperfections or cracks. at high temperature the failure mode is dominantly ductile fracture. The value obtained for stress in the nozzle region were used to determine the envelopes of maximum stress values. namely. followed sometimes by unexpected failures. The transition between these two extremes is floating. besides others. Ugur Guven (2007) present regarding the failure pressures of thick and thin walled cylindrical pressure vessels considering the Voce hardening law and plastic orthotropy effect are obtained. D.J. The method of finite element was applied to determine the state of stress in the cylindrical shell. maximum values on this envelopes and distances between . (2007) describe about the analysis of a cylindrical pressure vessel loaded by axial and transverse force on the free end of a nozzle. Petrovic A. Nash (2004) explain about the progress of pressure vessel technology over the years has been influenced by many important events.

W. Price J. have a potential for hydrogen and temper embrittlement. In order to use these steels safely in power plants. If the methods are fully applied. Repeated application of the thermal shocks may lead to crack ignition and crack growth. and Kerezsi B. B. (2007) explain about the Cr-Mo steels which are widely used for pressure vessels in refineries and petrochemical plants. establishment of creep life prediction and design factors for base metal and weldment is essential. During long-time service the embrittlement leads to decrease of the critical flaw size of brittle fracture and/or to the reduction of the remaining life of a pressure vessel.A. Inspections show that the only detected crack in the base metal is originally formed by welding defects and calculations show that it will not grow up. In this investigation the effect of high temperature and high pressure hydrogen on a vessel. The different between stresses deduced from strain gauge readings on experimental and calculated stressed was maximum of 12%.values on envelopes and the outer edge of a nozzle. Areas of large conservation in the methods currently used in industry are identified and possible alternatives.and Jahrorni J. the possibility of crack growth slowing can be captured and the replacement of equipment with thermal shock cracking might be avoided. Therefore. less conservative approach are suggested. Najmi M. Masuyama F.92 and Gr. In this Paper. Gr. (2007) explain that creep-strength enhanced ferritic steels such as Gr. it is predicted that the operation of the pressure vessel in normal condition and under regular supervision can be continued. The ability to use current codes and standards to describe this type of crack growth is desirable. creep rupture strengths and lives obtained by means of uniaxial creep testing and . made of 3Cr-1Mo low-alloy steel is studied. H.122 have been introduced for power plant applications recently. (2002) describe the use of the ASME and British Standard codes to estimate the growth of cracks driven manly by thermal shocks. S. and some have experienced creep failure in boiler tubes and thick wall components after several years of operation.91.

internal pressure component testing for the above-mentioned high-strength ferritic steels are presented comparatively. In 1934.(Cepluch. The ASME Pressure Vessel Code. Numerous boiler explosions took place through the late 1800s and early 1900s. 114. 1992). Section VIII. Design life and weld reduction factors are discussed based on the data and on ASME criteria for establishing allowable stresses in the timedependent temperature region. a joint API-ASME Committee published the first edition of an unfired pressure vessel code especially for the petroleum industry. pressure vessel technology. This led to the enactment of the first code for construction of steam boilers by the commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1907. and inspection of boiler and pressure vessel. This subsequently results in the development and publication of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code in 1914 to standardize the design. In 1952 these two separate code merged into a single code which is the ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code.J. these required nondestructive examination (NDE) before service. Section VIII Division 2 "Alternative Rules for Pressure Vessel "was published in 1968 and the original code became section VIII Division 1:"Pressure Vessel". . The first publication of section VIII 'unfired pressure vessel' appeared in 1925. For higher pressure the welded shell were made thicker than 70 mm. R. The year 1928 saw the advance of welded pressure vessel. manufacturing. The ASME and the ASTM (American Society for Testing Material) material specification merged in 1924.

The selections of ASME VIII div 1 are described. Beside of that.l.the sequential of the project also can be shown in figure 3. the design and analysis software to obtain the result are introduced. design process methodology is also described.2. the selection of pressure vessel is described and the application of selected pressure vessel is been explain.1 Overview In this chapter. Instead of that. .CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. The overall schedule and planning of this project are shown in figure 3. To design of pressure vessel the selection of Code are important as a reference guide to achieve the safety pressure vessel.1 and figure 3. The standard of material use are explains in this chapter. At the end of this chapter the step of the fabrication process are shown.

1 Flow Chart .. Material type Diameter and Length c rr.lection Shc SA.106 .4. Seamless Carwn steel Pipe N o u:le SA 106 Gr B Carbon Steel meter Design r a n pressure (external and int nperature ( internal and e 3..m Icalcularlon and Analysis Fabrication F on and Cutti1 m a d ell Head Shell Shell Figure 3..

(AESB). and be set off the ground. Air receiver was selected as these projects are collaborating with Akra Engineering Sdn. Air receiver acts as a reservoir for the storage of compressed air and absorbs pulsations in the discharge line from the compressor. If the cylindrical shell and end plates cannot possibly be made from a single plate. Figure 3. All welding should be carried out by welders who have been tested according to the ASME Code. Air receiver is selected as pressure vessel because of the widest application in industry. Both cylindrical shell and end plates are each.2 Pressure Vessel Selection There have many applications in pressure vessel in the industry. Air receiver should therefore be placed in a clean and wellventilated location. Longitudinal seams should not pass through nozzles or openings. The bottom seams should be kept clean and well painted at all times. Sufficient access to allow visual inspection must always be provided all around the body of the receiver. made from a single plate. A steady flow of air is thus provided to the service line. preferably. Bhd.3. Any moisture or oil present in the air as it carries over from after-coolers to the air receiver will be separated out in there. as the dampness on the ground causes excessive rusting and corrosion around the bottom. they shall be made with minimum number of joints and the longitudinal seams in adjacent sections shall be as far as practicable.2 Air receivers . on concrete blocks or on a suitable foundation. The design requirement are required according client requirement as (AESB) are prepare the requirement.

the selection of material use is base on Appendix B: Table 3. For this kind of pressure vessel. 3. and be identifiable with mill sheets. emphasized that any standard selected for manufacture of the air receiver must be followed and complied with in entirety and the design must not be based on provisions from different standards. but other national or international standards may also be used.106 B SA.1: Part Material Head Shell Nozzle N3-Relieve Valve (RV) NZPressure Gauge (PG) N4-Drain N1-Inlet N5-Outlet Flanges (Slip on) SA-234 WPB SA. Malaysia.106 B SA. Seamless Carbon steel pipe for high temperature service (SA-106 B) is as per table 3.106 B According to ASTM standard this specification for pressure vessel is suitable for higher temperature services. reference can be made to the Boilers and Pressure Vessels Division. The selection of materials of the shell shall take into account the suitability of the materials with the maximum working pressure and fabrication process.3.3 . The selection of material is base on the appropriateness of the design requirement.3 Code Selection and fittings of an air receiver.4 Material Selection Several of materials have been use in pressure vessel fabrication. It is. however.106 B SA.106 B SA. The chemical and tensile requirement of. For this design. ASME VIII (division 1) "Construction of Pressure vessel Codes" are selected according to above statement.106 B SA. In case of any doubt.2 and table 3. The ASME is normally followed in There are many engineering standards which give information on the design.106 B SA. AU the materials used in the manufacture of the receivers shall comply with the requirements of the relevant design code.

08 Grade B Tensile strength.40 0. Piping fitting of wrought Carbon steel and Alloy steel for moderate and high temperature service (SA-234 WPB) is as per table 3. min.05 0. max Nickel.4: Chemical Requirement of SA-234 WPB Composition %.29-1. max Vanadium.29-1. max Copper. (Grade B) Carbon.06 0. (Grade B) Carbon.3 0. min Chrome. max Silicon. max Sulfur.5 Table 3. max Molybdenum.10 0. min. min Chrome.10 0.035 0. psi (MPa) 60 000 (415) 35 000 (240) The chemical and tensile requirement of. max Copper.3: Tensile Requirement of SA-106 B p~ 0. max 0.Table 3. psi (MPa) Yield strength.15 0.035 0. max Manganese Phosphorus.40 0.40 0. max Sulfur.40 0.058 0.4 and table 3. max Manganese Phosphorus.06 0.35 0.40 .2: Chemical Requirement of SA-106 B Composition %. max Silicon. max Table 3.

max 0.08 0.Molybdenum.15 0. max Columbium.5: Tensile Requirement of SA-234 WPB Grade B Tensile strength.02 Table 3. min. max Nickel. psi (MPa) 60 000-85 000 (415-585) 35 000 (240) . psi (MPa) Yield strength. min.40 0. max Vanadium.

The program provides base ring. flanges. Basing stress calculations on this total structural load ensures sufficient wall thickness for the vessel in its operating environment and ensures proper design of the vessel supports. PV Elite evaluates the entire vessel. and clicking on them will bring up their data for review. It combines these overall loads with pressure to design and check vessel wall thickness. Clicking on the element in the plot brings up the tabular data for that element. With a simply click on an icon. Element types include cylindrical shells. conical and flat heads. torispherical. the graphical display is updated to show the new element in relation to the others. elliptical. To make the design process easy.5 Design Software PV Elite is a comprehensive program for the complete structural design or analysis of pressure vessels according to latest standards from ASME. its required thickness. PD 5500 (British Code). 3. As each major element is added. Vessels diameters can specified based on either ID or OD. Graphic presentation keeps your data organized and confirms the integrity of the model. its maximum allowable working pressure and its maximum allowable pressure in the new and cold condition. spherical. the status bar constantly displays the position of the current element. conical sections (including knuckles). leg and lug design and also includes modules for analyzing vessel components such as nozzles. base ring and other vessel components. the component is added to the vessel.5. Building even complex vessel models in PV Elite is quick and easy.1 Design Codes and Standards Implemented This software keeps pace with the development of vessel design codes and standards by incorporating code changes and releasing product updates as these changes become mandatory. insulation or trays) are added they too are illustrated. API-579 and the Welding Research Council. As details (such as nozzles. and skirts with base ring details. body flanges.3. saddle. This image confirms the content of the model. analyzing the effects of vessel deadweight and bending due to wind and seismic loads. The codes and standards implemented in PV Elite include: . This provides a logical and intuitive modeling of the vessel.

The live loads tend to bend the vessel. too.Rules for the Construction of Pressure Vessels ASMEIANSI B 16. such as required thickness and maximum allowable pressures.Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings The program includes following databases: Material properties. causes either tensile or compressive longitudinal stresses in the vessel wall. 3. VIII. ANSI pipe schedule database.5. and wind and seismic live loads. operating and hydrostatic test conditions). creating both tensile and compressive stresses in the vessel wall. deadweight (erected. shells and cones. as well as informational values such as design length and flange rating.5 . Status bar displays important results for the elements. user applied loads.Including the Allowable Stress and Yield Stress tables from ASME Sec. The design inputs are mention in table 3. ANSI flange dimension database. PD5500 and TEMA. The program sums the weights of each element and all its details to calculate the compressive stresses in the vessel wall.' Pressure.2 Analysis Capabilities: The integrated vessel module of PV Elite can perform both new design and re-rate of an existing design. The project will do by using PV Elite.3 PV Elite has a component analysis module (also known as CodeCalc) and a complete integrated vessel modeling module. the design input or parameter had to be preparing first. Divland Div 2. PV Elite combines these stresses and adjusts the vessel wall on an element-by-element basis to ensure that this new vessel meets the minimum requirements for both tension and compression. and size components for valid combinations of pressure (internal and external). . this program can quickly set required wall thickness for heads. For new Vessel design.ASME Code Section VIII. Division 1& 2 . Prior to running the software.

temperatures and pressures can be set. The fields in the List Processor tables are active. Users can also view the analysis results from the input view by opening the "Quick Calculation Screen ".6 Design Pressure The pressure use in the design of a vessel is call design pressure. Any failures are highlighted in red color. for example all the nozzles in the model. corrosion allowances.Figure 3. Default values for material.3 PV Elite software Results are also displayed for the attachments like nozzle. The unique List Processor provides a concise method to review specific data sets. allowing modification of the data. Other features include toolbars that can be positioned any way on the screen for optimum usability. 3. The program allows entering data in English. It is recommended to design a vessel and its parts for a higher pressure than the operating pressure. A . such as automatic selection of wall thickness. The program documentation is available in a hard copy and within the program in a portable document format (PDF). h r o b a t Reader software is needed for viewing this included documentation. This insures that you are always aware of how changes to a design are affecting the vessel. wall thickness. these are used as a starting point for new models. SI or any user-defined units. Using the CreateIReview facility users can create their own units and then change units on fly.There are options that can speed-up the design process. diameter.

The maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) for a vessel is the permissible pressure at the top of the vessel in its normal operating position at a specific temperature.design pressure higher than the operating pressure with 10 percent.10 mm 589.18 mm 0.0 3.8 Corrosion Allowance Corrosion occurring over the life of a vessel is catered for by a corrosion allowance. will satisfy the requirement. (UG22. The design pressure may be substituted if the MAWP is not calculated. This pressure is based on calculations for every element of the vessel using nominal thicknesses exclusive of corrosion allowance. it is the temperature that corresponds to the design pressure.7 Design temperature Design temperature is the temperature that will be maintained in the metal of the part of the vessel being considered for the specified operation of the vessel. The pressure of the fluid will also be considering.42 KPa 219. The MDMT shall be the lowest temperature expected in service or the lowest allowable temperature as calculated for the individual parts. the design value of which depends upon the vessel duty and the corrosiveness of its .60 mm 8. Design temperature for vessels under external pressure shall not exceed the maximum temperatures 3.711. However.E ASME VII div 1 50 C 1000. For most vessels. there is a maximum design temperature and a minimum design temperature (MDMT) for any given vessel.00 0.6: Design Input Code preference Internal Design Temperature Internal Design Pressure External Design Temperature External Design Pressure Diameter Vessel Design Length.) Table 3. Tangent to Tangent Material thickness Corrosion Allowance Joint Efficiency . It is the basis for establishing the set pressures of any pressure-relieving devices protecting the vessel. ASME VIII. whichever is the greater.00 KPa 50 C 103.

.4 Engineering drawing flow chart After design are prepared the shape of pressure vessel are sketch in paper. A design criterion of corrosion allowance is 1 mm for air receiver in which rnndensation of air moisture is expected. (ASME KW). The procedure of engineering drawing is follow by drawing by AutoCAD. All components and parts were placed according to actual size and location / orientation. 3.content. Drawings are in 2D orthographic type. . Layers are set with different colors to differentiate the lines. It called Model Drawing. In this sketch the dimension are very important before drawing by AutoCAD.9 Engineering Drawing r 1 Draw~ng actual size dimension style (s&l i r Dimension drawing A ayout arran Figure 3.

When drawing has finished. Usually a drawing will have more than one scale but the dimensioning will be the same size due to dimensioning style. .5 AutoCAD 2D orthographic Dimension Style is for dimensioning several drawing with has different scales. Layout Arrangement is a process to place drawing onto drawing paper layout with title block. it will be dimensioned for fabrication purposes. For the result in next chapter the full of engineering drawing by AutoCAD are been prepared. The approval of engineering drawing is important before submit to the fabrication process.Figure 3. This is because the actual scale is too large to put all the drawing in one drawing paper. The dimension Style will be selected according to the specific drawing scale.

2.1 Overview In this chapter. If the material not meet the requirement or the quantity is not adequate it should return to supplier for replacement. This can be done with reviewing mill certificate. . The condition of material also have been verify such as surface defect. the manufacturing of pressure vessel is described and the application of selected pressure vessel is been explain.2 Fabrication 4. Figure 4. diameter and thickness. The figures in the chapter show the fabrication process of pressure vessel.1 to Figure 4. 4.7 show the material use in the fabrication process.CHAPTER 4 MANUFACTURE PROCEDURE 4.1 Material receiving This part is the material control stage. dimension. All material arrived should be verify and identify to ensure it is a right material ordered from supplier which is comply with the requirement.

2 Material inspection Figure 4.2 Nozzle 318 inch inspection .1 Material 4.Figure 4.2.

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