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59867887 Aerodynamic Design of Centrifugal Compressor

59867887 Aerodynamic Design of Centrifugal Compressor

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02/20/2013

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Aerodynamic Design of Centrifugal Compressor

Dr. Firman Hartono

Aerodynamic Design of Centrifugal Compressor
Setelah mengikuti kuliah ini mahasiswa dapat:
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Melakukan proses perancangan aerodinamika kompresor sentrifugal

Referensi:
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Hill, P. and Peterson, Mechanic and Thermodynamic of Propulsion Boyce, M.P., Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook Rolls Royce, The Jet Engine

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600 ft per sec. thus accelerating the air and also causing a rise in pressure to occur. passes into the diffuser section where the passages form divergent nozzles that convert most of the kinetic energy into pressure energy. The air. it is usual to design the compressor so that about half of the pressure rise occurs in the impeller and half in the diffuser. on leaving the impeller. it is necessary to prevent excessive air leakage between the impeller and the casing. Centrifugal action causes it to flow radially outwards along the vanes to the impeller tip. therefore impellers are designed to operate at tip speeds of up to 1.Centrifugal Compressors Principle of Operation The impeller is rotated at high speed by the turbine and air is continuously induced into the centre of the impeller. . this is achieved by keeping their clearances as small as possible. In practice. By operating at such high tip speeds the air velocity from the impeller is increased so that greater energy is available for conversion to pressure. To maintain the efficiency of the compressor. To maximize the airflow and pressure rise through the compressor requires the impeller to be rotated at high speed.

The Airflow .

Impeller Types F2¶ = 90o F2¶ < 90o F2¶ > 90o .

Velocity Triangles .

Centrifugal Compressor Parts A centrifugal compressor usually consist of:  Inlet guide vanes  Impeller inducer shrouded / un shrouded splitter  Diffuser  Volute / Scroll .

since Mrel Mrel .Inlet Guide Vanes The IGV give circumferential velocity to the fluid at the inducer inlet (pre-whirl).

Pre-whirl Pre-whirl Types: o Free vortex pre-whirl o Forced vortex pre-whirl o Control vortex pre-whirl .

Consist of:  Inducer  Radial blades Two D surfaces for flow analysis .Impeller An impeller in a centrifugal compressor imparts energy to the fluid.

Impeller Impeller and Meridional Plane .

Impeller Velocity Profile .

Impeller Slip Factor Slip. is caused by:  Coriolis force  Boundary layer development  Leakage  Number of vanes  Vane thickness µ µ µ F2µ angle between relative flow and tangential direction µ .

the opening angle should be maximum 7o. . Their role is to recover the maximum possible kinetic energy leaving the impeller with a minimum loss in total pressure. To avoid flow separation.Diffuser Diffusing passages have a vital role in obtaining good performance from turbomachines.

Losses Rotor Losses Shock losses Incidence loss Disc friction loss Diffusion blading loss Clearance loss Skin friction loss Losses Stator Losses Recirculating loss Wake-mixing loss Friction loss .

Centrifugal Compressor Design Known variable from thermodynamic design: Tc. Calculate temperature rise using eq. Wm2 = Wr2 stress limited tip speed for current material technology is about 650 m/s ! . Determine blade number Z. In case no pre-whirl (IGV) exist. then where µ Note: Q = W . F2 and Wr2/U2. 3. Lc. (UCU)1 = 0. 2. m 1. Calculate U2 from eq.

Determine impeller eye area and impeller eye tip diameter D1t using eq. 5.Centrifugal Compressor Design 4. Calculate Wr2 from known value Wr2/U2 and U2. Calculate M2 from eq. M1rel < 1.4 to avoid strong shock wave .5 ! 6. M2! A K 1 1 A 2 2 2 «¨ ¨ W ¸ ¨ Wr 2 ¸ » ¸ ¬© W ©1  r 2 tan F 2 ¹ ¹  © ¹¹ © U ¹ ¼ ¹ 2 © © ¬ª ª U 2 ºº ª 2 º ¼ ¨U ¸ ½ A!© 2 ¹ ­ ©a ¹ T02 ª 01 º T01 where limited tip speed for high efficiency (>85%) is about M2 = 1.

Calculate rpm from eq. 8. b2 from eq. 9. where . Calculate axial depth. Calculate D2 from eq.Centrifugal Compressor Design 7.

e.Centrifugal Compressor Design 10. i.: ‡ For constant deceleration blade. it is suggested to design a constant deceleration blade. for example: > constant meridional velocity > constant breadth > linear breadth (straight sloping) . Blade Design ‡ To avoid blade separation. several approaches can be used.

.Centrifugal Compressor Design Inducer ‡ ‡ Inducer angle distribution depend on the inlet flow condition For axial inlet air flow: Note: Ee (r) + F1 (r) = 90o.

the high impeller outlet velocity should be reduced by means of an enough radial clearance Clearance calculation ‡ ‡ ‡ Calculate E* and r* from known M2 and E. r* and M. calculate r inlet diffuser « 2 ¨ K  1 2 ¸» tan E M ¹¼ !¬ ©1  tan E 2 º½ ­K 1 ª  1 K 1 «¨ K 1 ¸» ¹¼ ¬© r sin E 2 ¹¼ ! M ¬© r sin E ¬© 1 K  1 M 2 ¹ ¼ © ¹ ¬ª 2 º¼ ­ ½   1 2 . Determine M inlet diffuser ( < 1 to avoid shock) By using the known E*.Centrifugal Compressor Design Radial Clearance ‡ To avoid shock in diffuser passage.

88 kg/s. m = 0.TJE 500 N Compressor Design TJE 500 N is a turbojet engine designed to produce static thrust of about 500 N at sea level standard condition The compressor¶s design point: Tc = 4.06. Lc = 78% .

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