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Introduction to Reactive Dyes
fiber-reactive dyes have been a goal for quite some time, the breakthrough came fairly late, in 1954. Prior to then, attempts to react the dye and fibers involved harsh conditions that often resulted in degradation of the textile.
best dyes, by far, to use for cotton and other cellulose fibers are the fiber reactive dyes. They are much brighter longer-lasting, and easier-to-use
reactive dye is the most permanent of all dye types. Unlike other dyes, it actually forms a covalent bond with the cellulose or protein molecule.
as the dye molecule has become an actual part of the cellulose fiber molecule 5 . what you have is one molecule. Once the bond is formed.
and they are still used mostly in this way. There are also commercially available fiberreactive dyes for protein and polyamide fibers. 6 . The first fiber-reactive dyes were designed for cellulose fibers.
In theory. but these are not yet practical commercially. fiber-reactive dyes have been developed for other fibers. 7 .
3-5-triazinyl group. and were shown by Rattee and Stephen to react with cellulose in mild alkali solution. The first fiber-reactive dyes contained the 1. ICI launched a range of dyes based on this chemistry. called the Procion dyes. 8 . No significant fiber degradation occurred.
9 . or continuously. having excellent wash fastness and a wide range of brilliant colors. This new range was superior in every way to vat and direct dyes. Procion dyes could also be applied in batches.
Chemistry of Reactive dyes Chromogen Bridging group Fiber Reactive group water solubilizing group 10 .
11 .Reaction with Dye This reaction takes place in presence of a base Dye-Cl + H-O-cellulose base Dye-OH +salt The bond formed is covalent which provides excellent wash fastness and is stronger then the hydrogen bonds of a direct dye on cellulose.
Reaction with water In reaction with water the reactive group is hydrolyzed and the dye looses its ability to react with hydroxyl group of cotton or amino groups of poly amide Dye-Cl +H-OH base dye-OH + salt 12 .
carbonyl or phthalocyanine class). since reactive dyes must be in solution for application to fibers. The water solubilizing group (ionic groups. which has the expected effect of improving the solubility. The chromogen is as mentioned before (Azo. 13 . often sulphonate salts).
-NH-. group. 14 . Frequently the bridging group is an amino. This is usually for convenience rather than for any specific purpose. The bridging group links the chromogen and the fiber-reactive group.
15 . The fiber-reactive group is the only part of the molecule able to react with the fiber.
A cellulose polymer has hydroxyl functional groups. the cellulose-OH groups are encouraged to deprotonate to give cellulose-O. and it is these that the reactive dyes utilize as nucleophiles. 16 . Under alkali conditions.groups.
and perform either aromatic nucleophilic substitution to aromatics or nucleophilic addition to alkenes 17 . These can then attack electron-poor regions of the fiber-reactive group.
Reactive dyes can react both with water and fiber but the main reaction is with fiber for 2 reasons Rate of chemical reaction with cellulose is much faster than the reaction with water 18 .
the probability of a diffused dye molecule reacting with an OH group on cellulose is much larger than the cellulose group of water In dyeing of cellulose with reactive most of the dye reacts with fiber but some dye do react with water. 19 .
Unfixed dye composes of hydrolyzed dye and unreacted dye The amount of unfixed dye can be 20-30% of the total amount of dye used 20 .
Properties of reactive dyes Advantages Available in a complete range of colors Very good wash fastness Good to very good light fastness High flexibility in the choice of method of application 21 .
Easy to obtain level dyeing Readily soluble in water 22 .
Disadvantages Cost of using reactive dyes is high Loss of substantial dye during application Excessive time required for the dyeing process Sensitive to oxidation 23 .
24 .Auxiliaries used in dyeing with reactive In the dyeing of cellulose with reactive dyes. alkali is necessary it acts as a catalyst in the reaction between the dyestuff and the fiber.
Adding base increases the exhaustion of the dye on the fiber 25 . which must be closely supervised. The important point is not the type or amount of alkali but rather the pH of the dye bath.
the faster the rate of exhaustion Ionic nature of base further enhances the exhaustion 26 . It increases the rate of chemical reaction and faster the rate of reaction.
The most suitable pH for dyeing varies with the temperature being approx. 11. 60 degrees ) 10-11 for hot dyeing (80 ) 12.5 for cold dyeing (40 degrees) 27 .5 for common warm dyeing (dyeing at approx.
Auxiliaries used in Reactive Dyeing contd Inorganic salts have two main functions in exhaustion dyeing with reactive dyestuffs: Improving the affinity of the dyestuff Acceleration of the dyestuff's association and lowering of its solubility. 28 .
Improving the affinity and thus the exhaustion of dyestuff during primary exhaustion serves to raise the exhaustion rate of reactive dyestuffs. Because reactive dyestuffs have a lower affinity than direct dyestuffs. more inorganic salt is required when using reactive dyestuffs in order to accelerate absorption 29 .
the exhaustion rate and the fixing rate for a conventional dye and a high-fixation dye (Sumifix Supra E-XF).The following graph displays the amount of Glauber's salt used. 30 .
32 . an excess of inorganic salt may in fact impede the absorption of some dyestuffs. and so care is necessary when one is used.Because inorganic salts accelerate the association of water-soluble dyestuffs and lower the solubility of dyestuffs.
33 .) but rather by its concentration in the dye bath (g/l) so it is by lowering its concentration that the effect of an inorganic salt can be reduced.w.f. The effectiveness of the inorganic salt is not decided by the ratio of its quantity to the quantity of fabric (o.
Suitable fiber substrate Cellulosic fibers Protein fibers Polyamide fibers 34 .
Methods of application Exhaustion method It consists of three stages Exhaust Dyeing Fixation After scouring 35 .
Cold Pad-batch method Semi. which are covered in plastic sheets Left for 2hours to overnight depending on the rate of fixation 36 .continuous method Fabric is padded with a solution of dyes and the base and then wound onto a roller.
Continuous dyeing with reactive dyes There are 2 methods currently in use by industry Two-Bath Method the dyes and base are applied separately 37 .
One-bath method In this the dyes and the base are applied together onto the fabric from the same padding bath 38 .
there is no longer a possibility of leveling or stripping by simple physical means. 39 . hydrolyzed dye has been removed.Chemical striping of reactive dyes Once reactive dyes have been applied and the unfixed.
economics will probably dictate what steps must be taken to deal with the problem. If a reactive dyeing is unsatisfactory. 40 .
For heavy shades. a reduction of about 20-40% in depth of shade can sometimes be achieved by hydrolysis of the dye-fiber bond with alkali in the presence of salt at 95C (200F) 41 .
Depending on the individual dyes. complete chemical stripping (color destruction) may be carried out in one of the following four ways 42 .
Oxidation only oxidation followed by reduction. 43 . reduction only. Reduction followed by oxidation.
44 .all traces of chemicals should be removed prior to any re-dyeing attempts on a sample of the stripped goods.
good 45 . sensitive to chlorine bleach Dry cleaning.General fastness properties light fastness.good.good to very good on most fibers Washing.good Perspiration.good Crocking.
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