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Part A1

CHAPTER 1

ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components

Here is what you w i l l be able to do when you complete each objective: 1. Calculate the required minimum thickness or the maximum allowable working pressure of piping, tubes, drums, and headers of ferrous tubing up to and including 125 mm O.D. 2. Calculate the required minimum thickness or the maximum allowable working pressure of ferrous piping, drums, and headers. 3. Calculate the required thickness or maximum allowable working pressure of a seamless, unstayed dished head. 4. Calculate the minimum required thickness or maximum allowable working pressure of unstayed flat heads, covers, and blind flanges. 5. Calculate the acceptability of openings in a cylindrical shell, header, or head. 6. Calculate the compensation required to reinforce an opening in a cylindrical shell, header, or head.

**Revised 03/06 to conform with the 2004 ASME Extract
**

1

Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components

3

INTRODUCTION

As power engineers acquire their second and first class power engineering certification, they find that their roles and areas of responsibility require them to have a more detailed working knowledge of the key engineering codes and standards with which their facility must comply. Power engineers often work on teams or lead teams that are responsible for upgrades within their facilities and/or for making changes to major pressure piping or equipment. Although power engineers are not required to design a boiler or pressure vessel, they often work as team members for equipment design, upgrade, process change, commissioning, operation, or repair. These activities require work to be done in accordance with applicable codes. As well, when you become chief engineer of a facility, you may be called upon to lead teams and give approval for various projects that must comply with specific engineering codes and standards. In the early 1900’s, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) appointed various committees to draw up standards for the construction of boilers and pressure vessels together with standards for welding and guidelines for the care of boilers in service. These standards and guidelines have been improved over the years with the improvement in materials and technology. One important component of the standards for pressure vessels is the use of a safety factor. The measured physical properties of a material, including ultimate tensile strength, are divided by a defined safety factor to derive the maximum allowable stress. In this way, allowance is made for limitations in the testing technology, unusual stress concentrations, non-uniform materials, and material flaws. Technological improvements, especially in materials testing, have allowed a reduction in the safety factor to 3.5 in current editions of Section I; this is the same factor used in Sections VIII-1 and VIII-2. Pressures calculated or given in this module refer to gauge pressure unless otherwise indicated. Consult the latest ASME Codes (currently the 2004 Edition)—Section I and Section VIII, Division 1—while studying this module. Figures referenced with a Code section prefix, such as “Fig. PG-32” or “Fig. UG-34,” can be found in the ASME Codes or the Academic Extract and are generally not reproduced here. Note: Material and formulae used in this chapter refer to the 2004 edition of the ASME Codes. Most relevant sections can be found in the 2004 ASME Academic Extract (visit www.powerengineering.ca for more info). Note: Correct units of measure are very important to accurate calculations, and students should be well versed in their use. However, due to the size and complexity of Code calculations, it is common practice to omit the units

Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06

4

Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units

until the final answer is derived. This convention has been used throughout this chapter. Note: It should be noted that many US customary unit values presented in the ASME codes do not convert directly into metric values in the current ASME edition or the 2004 ASME Academic Extract ( i.e. 5 in. converts to 127mm, ASME shows 5 in. (125 mm); ¼ in. coverts to 6.35 mm, ASME shows ¼ in. (6 mm)). You are required to use the ASME values as presented and not to convert US customary numbers to metric.

**ASME SECTION I - POWER BOILERS
**

Paragraphs PG-1, PG-2: This Code covers rules for construction of power boilers, electric boilers, miniature boilers, and high temperature water boilers. The scope of jurisdiction of Section I applies to the boiler proper and the boiler external piping. Superheaters, economizers, and other pressure parts connected directly to the boiler, without intervening valves, are considered to be parts of the boiler proper and their construction shall conform to Section I rules. Materials Paragraph PG-6 states that steel plates for any part of a boiler subject to pressure, whether or not exposed to the fire or products of combustion, shall be in accordance with specifications listed in paragraph PG-6.1. Paragraph PG-9 states that pipes, tubes, and pressure containing parts used in boilers shall conform to one of the specifications listed in paragraph PG-9.1. Design Paragraph PG-16.3 states that the minimum thickness of any boiler plate under pressure shall be 6 mm. The minimum thickness of plates to which stays may be attached (in other than cylindrical outer shell plates) shall be 8 mm. When pipe over 125 mm O.D. is used in lieu of plate for the shell of cylindrical components under pressure, its minimum wall thickness shall be 6 mm. Paragraph PG-16.4 states that plate material not more than 0.3 mm thinner than the required thickness calculated by Code formula may be used provided the manufacturing process is such that the plate will not be more than 0.3 mm thinner than that specified in the order. Paragraph PG-16.5 states that pipe or tube material shall not be ordered thinner than the required thickness calculated by Code formula. Also, the ordered thickness shall include provisions for manufacturing tolerance.

Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06

2. See PG-27. This can be seen in that Section VIII-1 applies to small compressed-air receivers sold commercially to the general public as well as to very large pressure vessels used by the petrochemical industry. DIVISION 1 . note 1) e = thickness factor for expanded tube ends (mm) (see PG-27.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 5 Paragraph PG-21 states that the term maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) refers to gauge pressure. refers to gauge pressure) R = inside radius of cylinder (mm) S = maximum allowable stress value at the operating temperature of the metal (Section II. note 4) P = maximum allowable working pressure (MPa). and headers. tubes.4. drums.3 and are defined as follows: C = minimum allowance for threading and structural stability (mm) (see PG-27.4. Table 1A. whichever is lower (the values allowed for E are listed in PG-27. The Code contains mandatory requirements. note 7) y = temperature coefficient (see PG-27.4. These formulae can be transposed to determine the maximum allowable working pressure if the minimum required thickness is given. specific prohibitions. except when noted otherwise in the calculation formula of PG-27. experience. note 6) ASME SECTION VIII. note 2) t = minimum required thickness (mm) (see PG-27. The Code is not a handbook and cannot replace education. note 3) D = outside diameter of cylinder (mm) E = efficiency of longitudinal welded joints or of ligaments between openings. Part D.4. Paragraph PG-27 Cylindrical Components Under Internal Pressure The formulae in this section are used to determine the minimum required thickness of piping. when the maximum allowable working pressure is known. and the use of good engineering judgement. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .4. (see PG-21.4.PRESSURE VESSELS Foreword The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee established rules for new construction of pressure vessels that ensure safe and reliable performance. The symbols used in the formulae are found in paragraph PG-27. and non-mandatory guidance for pressure vessel construction activities.

Paragraph UG-23 (a) lists the tables in Section II. requires all major longitudinal and circumferential butt joints to be examined by full radiograph.5 in plates. which corresponds to a safety factor of 0. These formulae can be transposed to determine the maximum allowable working pressure if the minimum required thickness is given.7. refers to gauge pressure) inside radius of shell course under consideration (mm) maximum allowable stress value (see UG-23 and the stress limitations specified in UG-24) E = joint efficiency for. Paragraph UG-27: Thickness of shells under internal pressure The formulae in this section are used to determine the minimum required thickness of shells when the maximum allowable working pressure is known. or the efficiency of. upset condition. or the efficiency of ligaments between openings. The minimum temperature used in design shall be the lowest temperature that the vessel will experience from any factor.5 in the parent metal. UG-10. This results in an increase of 43% in the thickness of the plates required.0. D for various materials. the maximum temperature used in the design is important. Division 2 (VIII-2). The symbols used in the formulae are found in paragraph UG-27 (b) and are defined as follows: t P R S minimum required thickness (mm) internal design pressure (MPa) (see UG-21. Design ASME Boiler Code Section I. UG-11. Nonradiographed longitudinal butt-welded joints have a joint efficiency factor (E) of 0. A fully radiographed major longitudinal butt-welded joint in a cylindrical shell would have a joint efficiency factor (E) of 1. Use UW53 for ligaments between openings) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 = = = = . as is the minimum temperature. or environmental conditions. except as otherwise permitted in paragraphs UG-9. Paragraph UG-20: Design temperature With pressure vessels. appropriate joint in cylindrical or spherical shells. This factor corresponds to a safety factor (or material quality factor) of 3. including normal operation. whichever is less (use UW-12 for welded vessels. UG-15 and the Mandatory Appendices. as well as Section VIII. Section VIII-1 lists various levels of examination for these major joints.6 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Materials Paragraph UG-4 states that materials subject to stress due to pressure are to conform to the specifications given in Section II.

e ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1.2 Example 1: boiler tube Calculate the minimum required wall thickness of a watertube boiler tube 70 mm O. use equation 1.1 ⎡ 2t .Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 7 OBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE 3 1 Calculate the required minimum thickness or the maximum allowable working pressure of piping.005D .D. SECTION I The following formulae are found in ASME Section I.1.D. Part D by indicating if the metal is carbon steel or an alloy steel. (See paragraph PG-27.( t . drums and headers of ferrous tubing up to and including 125 mm O. The tube material is carbon steel SA-192. The tube is located in the furnace area of the boiler and has an average wall temperature of 350°C.2.1 ) t = PD + 0. that is strength welded into place in a boiler.01D . paragraph PG-27.2e ⎤ P = S ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ D . tubes.D.0.005D + e 2S + P Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . the information will direct you to the correct stress table in ASME Section II.0. Note: Check PG-6 for plate materials and PG-9 for boiler tube materials before starting calculations.2. Solution For tubing up to and including 125 mm O.005 D + e 2S + P 1. The maximum allowable working pressure is 4000 kPa gauge.1. Formula for minimum required thickness t = Formula for MAWP PD + 0.

2.D. Solution For tubing up to and including 125 mm O. the information will direct you to the correct stress table in ASME Section II. Table 1A. note 4.0 MPa 70 mm 0 (see PG-27.9 mm (Ans. (See paragraph PG-27. SA-213-T11 at 400°C) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .8 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Where P D e S = = = = 4000 kPa = 4. The formula for minimum thickness may be transposed to solve for the maximum allowable working pressure if the tube size and thickness are known. SA-213-T11 is alloy steel.8) + 4 280 = + 0. and 4. Example 2: superheater tube Calculate the maximum allowable working pressure.35 = 1.2.01D − 2e ⎤ P = S⎢ ⎥ ⎢ D − ( t − 0. Part D.005D − e ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Where t D e S = = = = 4. Part D. The manufacturing process does not produce absolutely uniform wall thickness.75 mm 75 mm 0 (see PG-27. The tube material is SA-213-T11. The average tube temperature is 400°C.1.56 + 0.005(70) + 0 2(87. add an allowance of approximately 12.) 102 MPa (Section II. strength welded.6 = 1.D.5). Table 1A.) Note: This value is exclusive of the manufacturer’s tolerance allowance (see PG-16.4. Part D.4. strength welded) 87.8 MPa (see Section II. for a 75 mm O. Use equation 1.75 mm minimum thickness superheater tube connected to a header by strength welding. note 4. in kPa. Note: Check PG-9 for boiler tube materials before starting calculations.) ⎡ 2t − 0.35 179. SA-192 at 350°C) t = 4 × 70 + 0.5% to the minimum thickness calculated.

For calculations involving tubes expanded into place.625 = 12.385SE (2) Longitudinal stress (circumferential joints) .25SE Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 1.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 9 ⎡ ( 2 × 4. the appropriate value of e is found in paragraph PG-27.5 .6P ) 1.( 4. Thin Cylindrical Shells (1) Circumferential stress (longitudinal joints) t = Or P = SEt (R + 0.75 .5R or P < 0. note 4.0.( 4.4P) Or 2SEt P = (R .3 When t < 0.6t ) 1.75 ) .0.5 R or P < 1.75 .4t ) When t < 0. Paragraph UG-31(a) states that these calculations are used for tubes and pipes under internal pressure.6 .64 MPa = 12 640 kPa (Ans.01 × 75 ) .( 2 × 0 ) P = 102 × ⎢ ⎢ 75 .005 × 75 ) .0.75 70.0 ) ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 9. SECTION VIII The following formulae (found in ASME Section VIII-1.4 PR (SE .4.) = 102 × ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ The tubes were strength welded in Example 1 and Example 2.( 0. PR t = (2SE + 0.( 0.75 = 102 × ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 75 .5 1. paragraph UG-27(c)) are used for calculating wall thickness and design pressure.0.375 ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 8.

6 MPa.1⎟ Where Z = ⎝ ⎠ Where t > 0. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .R2 ) ) Where R0 and R are outside and inside radii.5 R or P > 0.P ) 1. SE = P R02 + R 2 2 0 ( (R .7 And ⎡ ( Z . The corrosion allowance is 3 mm.385SE ( SE + P ) ( SE .1) Where ⎡(R + t)⎤ Z =⎢ ⎥ ⎣ R ⎦ 2 1.5R or P > 1. It has an inside diameter of 2440 mm and an internal design pressure of 690 kPa at 230°C.25SE ⎛ 1 ⎞ t = R ⎜ Z 2 .10 are for internal pressure only. Supplementary Design Formulas 1. Calculate the required thickness of the shell if the allowable stress is 138 MPa.3 to 1. and joint efficiency is 0.10 Note: Formulae 1.3.1⎟ Where ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ P ⎞ Z =⎜ ⎟ +1 ⎝ SE ⎠ 1. special considerations must be given to the construction of the vessel as specified in paragraph U-1 (d). a more accurate equation is required to determine the thickness.10 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Thick Cylindrical Shells As internal pressures increase higher than 20.8 For longitudinal stress with t > 0.5.9 And P = SE ( Z . By substituting R0 = R + t ⎛ 1 ⎞ t = R ⎜ Z 2 .1 to 1. As the ratio of t/R increases beyond 0. respectively.85. The formulae for thick walled vessels are listed in Appendix 1. Example 3: thin shell thickness A vertical boiler is constructed of SA-515-60 material in accordance with the requirements of Section VIII-1.1) ⎤ P = SE ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ( Z + 1) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = ⎡ (R + t)⎤ ⎢ ⎥ R ⎦ ⎣ 2 Where Z 1.

and E = 1.1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (138 × 1) + 69 Z = (138 × 1) − 69 = = t = 207 69 3 Z = SE + P SE .) Note R must be in the fully corroded state to determine the minimum thickness.886 = 7. therefore. Example 4: thick shell thickness Calculate the required shell thickness of an accumulator with P = 69 MPa. Assume a corrosion allowance of 6 mm.6 × 0. Solution The quantity 0.3. use equation 1.1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 463 × 0.87 + 3 116.732 ( 457 = 338.22 mm (Ans. use equation 1.385SE = 53. UG-27.P ⎛ 1 ⎞ + 6 ) ⎜ 3 2 . ⎛ 1 ⎞ Where t = R ⎜ Z 2 . t = = = PR + corrosion allowance ( SE .7.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 11 Solution The quantity 0.92 + 6 = 344.13 MPa.0.16 MPa. equation 1. S = 138 MPa.6 P ) 0.0.5R.385SE = 45. since this is greater than the design pressure P = 690 kPa. since this is less than the design pressure P = 69 MPa.) The calculated thickness is less than 0.69 × (1220 + 3) + 3 (138 × 0.( 0.3 is acceptable.85) .69 ) 843.92 mm Total including corrosion allowance t = 338. (See Section VIII-1.92 mm (Ans.7 cm.22 + 3 = 10.) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . R = 45.

use equation 1. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .6 ( 52.1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 457 × 0.7 cm.25 = 2.3) is accurate over a wide range of R/t ratios.75 106.75 × 457 = +0 (138 × 1) .12 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Example 5 Calculate the required shell thickness of an accumulator with P = 52. S = 138 MPa.385SE = 53.67 mm (Ans.0.1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (138 × 1) + 52.0.) This example used equation 1.35 226.4958 = SE + P SE . and E = 1.75 190.75 ) = = 24106. Assume corrosion allowance = 0. compare the answer using equation 1.3.P 226. since this is greater than the design pressure P = 52.7 ⎛ 1 ⎞ Where Z t = R ⎜ Z 2 .75 MPa.2375 = t = = = 1 ⎛ ⎞ 457 ⎜ 2.0.75 MPa.75 85.75 Z = (138 × 1) . R = 45.) This shows that the 'simple to use' equation (1.52.6P 52.3.13 MPa.59 mm (Ans. Solution The quantity 0.2375 2 . t = PR + corrosion allowance SE .

C ) 2. In cylindrical vessels.5%.3 P = R + (1 . The piping is plain end.1 mm O. The information for piping. drums.C ) 2SE ( t .y ) P 2. Using the outside diameter t = PD + C 2SE + 2 yP 2. the stress set up by the pressure on the longitudinal joints is equal to twice the stress on the circumferential joints. drums.2 PR + C SE .( 2 y )( t .2.C ) 2.(1 . or headers may be given with either the inside (R) or outside (D) measurement.4 Example 6: steam piping Calculate the required minimum thickness of seamless steam piping which carries steam at a pressure of 6200 kPa gauge and a temperature of 375°C. 273.2. the information will direct you to the correct stress table in ASME Section II. paragraph PG-27.y )( t − C ) SE ( t . Allow a manufacturer's tolerance allowance of 12. Part D. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .D.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 13 OBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE 3 2 Calculate the required minimum thickness or the maximum allowable working pressure of ferrous piping. SECTION I The following formulae are found in ASME Section I. and headers. The material SA-335-P11 is alloy steel. Note: Check PG-6 and PG-9 for materials before starting calculations.1 P = Using the inside radius t = D . (nominal pipe size of 10 inches) and the material is SA-335-P11.

94 mm (Ans. rather than being joined by threading.4.5%. are classed as plain-end pipes.4 (see PG-27. The operating temperature is 450°C. the information will direct you to the correct stress table in ASME Section II.2.95 mm This value does not include a manufacturer's tolerance allowance of 12. The material SA-209-T1 is alloy steel.2 × 273. SA-335-P11 at 375°C) E = 1.1 mm 0 (see PG-27. note 6.96 1693. ferritic steel less than 475°C) 6.1) y = 0. Table 1A.) Example 7: steam piping using outside diameter Calculate the maximum allowable working pressure in kPa for a seamless steel pipe of material SA-209-T1.1 + 0 2 (104 × 1) + 2 ( 0.14 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Note: Plain-end pipe does not have its wall thickness reduced when joining to another pipe.0 (see PG-27.95 × 1.85 mm. note 3. note 1.2 ) = = = = t = = 1693. lengths of pipe welded together. For example.2 MPa 273. Therefore 7.125 = 8. pipe) with a wall thickness of 11.4. Part D.22 208 + 4. Solution Use equation 2. Note: Check PG-6 and PG-9 for materials before starting calculations. The nominal pipe size is 323. 4-inch nominal and larger) 104 MPa (see Section II.96 = 7.4 × 6.22 = 212.1 (See PG-27.2.4.9 mm (~12 in. Part D. The pipe is plain ended.) t = Where P D C S PD + C 2 SE + 2 yP 6200 kPa = 6. Assume that the material is austenitic steel. seamless pipe as per PG-9. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .

4. The longitudinal joint efficiency is 100%.") t = 11.9 .42 = 7.48 2393. Formulae and Physical Constants. 4-inch (100 mm) nominal and larger) S = 101 MPa (Section II.4 (see PG-27.4 ) × (11. SA-209-T1 at 450°C) E = 1.4.) Example 8: drum using inside radius A welded watertube boiler drum of SA-515-60 material is fabricated to an inside radius of 475 mm on the tubesheet and 500 mm on the drum.1) y = 0. seamless pipe as per PG-9.C ) 2SE ( t .7 = 314.85 .4.85 .2. and the ligament efficiencies are 56% horizontal and 30% circumferential.( 2 y )( t .( 2 × 0. Table 1A.) P = Where D . Part D. "Table of Actual Pipe Dimensions. (See PG-27. note 6.0 ) 202 × 11.0 (see PG-27. austenitic steel at 450°C) P = = 323.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 15 Solution Use equation 2. note 1.5 mm and 38 mm respectively. note 3.2.C ) D = 323.85 mm C = 0 (see PG-27. The operating temperature is not to exceed 300°C.9 . Determine the maximum allowable working pressure based on: (a) the drum (b) the tubesheet Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . The plate thickness of the tubesheet and drum are 59.0 ) 2 (101 × 1) × (11.9.9 mm (see 2005 Academic Supplement.613 MPa = 7613 kPa (Ans.85 323.

Note: Check PG-6 and PG-9 for materials before starting calculations. ferritic steel less than 480°C) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .4. note 3.4 (see PG-27. note 6.4 (inside radius R).consider the drum to have penetrations for boiler tubes. For economy. (a) Use equation 2. 4-inch (100 mm) nominal and larger) R = 500 mm (for the drum) y = 0.) Drum P = Where S SE (t . the information will direct you to the correct stress table in ASME Section II. note 1) t = 38 mm C = 0 (see PG-27.4.2. Greater material thickness is required where the boiler tubes enter the drum than is required for a plain drum. (See PG-27. Table 1A.C ) R + (1 . SA-515-60 at 300°C) E = 1 (see PG-27.y )(t . Part D. Part D.consider the drum to be plain with no penetrations.4. the drum is designed to meet the pressure requirements for each situation.C ) = 115 MPa (see Section II.2. b) The tubesheet .16 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units FIGURE 1 Welded Watertube Boiler Drum DRUM TUBESHEET Note: This is a common example of a watertube drum fabricated from two plates of different thickness. Solution This example has two parts: a) The drum . The material SA-515-60 is carbon steel plate.

Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .8 = 8.5 . 4-inch (100 mm) nominal and larger) = 475 mm (for the tubesheet) = 0. the stress set up by the pressure on the longitudinal joints is equal to twice the stress on the circumferential joints.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 17 Drum P = (115 × 1) (38 .56 )( 59.4. The formulae given in paragraph UG-27 are used as set out in Objective 1.0) 4370 = 500 + 22.56 < 2 x 0.4)(59. Table A1. therefore. SECTION VIII-1 Section VIII-1 does not contain separate formulae for small and large bore cylinders.4.y )(t .C ) = 115 MPa (see Section II.0.5 MPa (Ans.2. Part D.C ) R + (1 . SA-515-60 at 300°C) = 0. ferritic steel less than 480°C) Tubesheet P = × 0.4 (see PG-27.) Note: In cylindrical vessels.36 MPa (Ans. 0.5 .) Tubesheet P = Where S E T C R y SE (t .5 mm = 0 (see PG-27.8 = 475 + 35.30) = 59. note 3.0) 500 + (1 .0. (b) Use equation 2.0) 3831.56 (circumferential stress = 30% and longitudinal stress = 56%.2.7 = 7.4 (inside radius R).4)(38 . note 6.) (115 Note: The maximum allowable working pressure is based on the lowest number.0 ) 475 + (1 . (See PG-27.

measured on the concave side S = maximum allowable working stress (MPa) (see ASME Section II. when it is a segment of a sphere. The metal temperature does not exceed 250°C. unstayed dished head. Part D. unstayed dished head with the pressure on the concave side. The head has a diameter of 1085 mm and is a segment of a sphere with a dish radius of 918 mm. the longer shall be taken as the value of L in the formula.1 states that the thickness of a blank. Table 1A).8S 3. shall be calculated by the following formula: t Where: = 5PL 4. State if this thickness meets Code. The maximum allowable working pressure is 2500 kPa and the material is SA-285 A. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .18 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units OBJECTIVE 3 Calculate the required thickness or maximum allowable working pressure of a seamless.2 states: "The radius to which the head is dished shall be not greater than the outside diameter of the flanged portion of the head. blank unstayed dished head having pressure on the concave side. P = maximum allowable working pressure (MPa). L = radius (mm) to which the head is dished. Paragraph PG-29. Paragraph PG-29. Section I: DISHED HEAD CALCULATIONS The paragraphs from PG-29 must be considered when performing calculations on dished heads.1 t = minimum thickness of head (mm). Where two radii are used.” Example 9: the segment of a spherical dished head Calculate the thickness of a seamless.

1 for segment of a spherical dished head.8S P = 2. shall be of a lesser thickness than that required for a seamless shell of the same diameter.2.8 + 2 = 15.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 19 Solution Use equation 3. ferritic steel less than 480°C) E = 1 (welded) t = = 2.1 (See paragraph PG-27.9 MPa (see ASME Section II. Part D. the thickness of the shell must be calculated.) t Where = 5PL 4.5 × 1085 2 ( 88. SA-285 A at 250°C) t= 5 ( 2.4 (see PG-27.1." Therefore.4. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . the head thickness of 26.5 MPa L = 918 mm S = 88.9 = 26. Table 1A.8 × 88. note 6.) Note: PG-29.89 mm (Ans.4 × 2.) t = Where PD + C 2 SE + 2 yP D = 1085 mm y = 0. to determine if this head thickness meets Code.9 × 1) + 2 ( 0.5 177.5 × 918 ) 4.89 mm meets Code requirements.086 mm Therefore.6 states “No head.5 ) 2712. Use equation 2. except a full-hemispherical head. (See paragraph PG-29.2.

(See paragraph PG-29. "Inspection Openings" to see if this manhole size is acceptable.1.1. having a flanged-in manhole 154 mm by 406 mm. has a flanged-in manhole or access opening that exceeds 150 mm in any dimension. Solution First thing to check: is the radius of the dish at least 80% of the diameter of the shell? (per paragraph PG-29. Example 10: the segment of a spherical dished head with a flanged-in manhole Calculate the thickness of a seamless. the material is SA285-C.9473 0. If more than one manhole is inserted in a head.) t = 5PL 4. dished to a segment of a sphere. but in no case less than 3.0 mm additional thickness over a blank head.3 states When a head. the radius of this dish meets the criteria. The head has a diameter of 1206. the thickness shall be increased by 15% of the required thickness for a blank head computed by the above formula.8S Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . the minimum distance between the openings shall be not less than one-fourth of the outside diameter of the head.9473 > 0. Where such a dished head has a flanged opening supported by an attached flue.5 = 0. The maximum allowable working pressure is 1550 kPa. the thickness of which is calculated by this rule. Note: Check paragraph PG-44. Use equation 3. unstayed dished head with pressure on the concave side. and the metal temperature does not exceed 220oC. an increase in thickness over that for a blank head is not required.8 Therefore.5 mm and is a segment of a sphere with a dish radius of 1143 mm. Note: This applies to the manhole found on the end of a boiler drum.5) dish radius 1143 = shell diameter 1206.20 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Paragraph PG-29.

whichever is greater.088 × 0.5) with a dish radius equal to eight-tenths the diameter of the shell and with the added thickness for the manhole as specified in PG-29. Therefore 17. 2.) Semi-ellipsoidal head Paragraph PG-29. This rule combines two rules: 1.3. PG-29.1 and PG-29. the thickness of the head shall be the same as for a head dished to a segment of a sphere (see PG-29.7 A blank head of a semi-ellipsoidal form in which half the minor axis or the depth of the head is at least equal to one-quarter of the inside diameter of the head shall be made at least as thick as the required thickness of a seamless shell of the same diameter as provided in PG-27.55 MPa L = 1143 mm S = 108 MPa (see ASME Section II. Table 1A: use 250°C since 220°C is not listed.0 mm. flanged-in manhole rule A semi-ellipsoidal head is shown in Fig. use the next higher temperature) t = = 5 (1. so the thickness must be increased by 3.2.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 21 Where P = 1.0 mm.0 mm Therefore Required head thickness = 17. therefore. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .56 mm This is less than 3.2. blank head rule 2. Part D.55 × 1143) 4.8 (108 ) 17.088 + 3.088 mm (Ans.15 = 2.088 mm This thickness is for a blank head. If a flanged-in manhole that meets the Code requirements is placed in an ellipsoidal head.3 requires this thickness to be increased by 15% or 3.0 = 20.

3 Example 11: full-hemispherical head Calculate the minimum required thickness (mm) for a blank. S = maximum allowable working stress (MPa) (Table A1. fullhemispherical head with the pressure on the concave side. unstayed.5 mm.2 The above formula shall not be used when the required thickness of the head given by the formula exceeds 35. Maximum allowable working pressure is 6205 kPa. unstayed.0. The radius to which the head is dished is 190. Section II. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .2 P t = minimum thickness of head (mm). Instead. Part D). Paragraph PG-29.P 3. P = maximum allowable working pressure (MPa). full-hemispherical head with the pressure on the concave side shall be calculated by the following formula: t Where = PL 2 S . L = radius to which the head was formed (mm) (measured on the concave side of the head). The average temperature of the header is 300oC.11: The thickness of a blank. 3. and the head material is SA-285-C.22 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units FIGURE 2 Semi-ellipsoidal Head h = 1/4 D 1/2 r = 1/4 D h r D L Full-hemispherical head The following rule applies to drums or headers with a full-hemispherical end.6% of the inside radius. use the following formula: ⎛ 1 ⎞ t = L ⎜ Y 3 .1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where Y = 2(S + P) 2S .

Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 23 Solution Use equation 3.6% of the inside radius: 190.5 mm S = 107 MPa (see ASME Section II.1 and PG-29.2 ( 6.2 P P = 6. therefore The thickness of the head meets Code requirements.1.2.0. hemispherical.205 MPa L = 190.) t Where = PL 2S .759 = 5. Section VIII-1 has rules for head configurations including spherical.356 = 67.8 mm It does not exceed 35.05 214 . the thickness of the head shall be the same as for a head dished to a segment of a sphere (see PG-29.241 1182. Table 1A. and torispherical shapes. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Paragraph PG-29. with a dish radius equal to eight-tenths the diameter of the shell and with the added thickness for the manhole as specified in PG-29. Part D.205 ) 1182. This chapter uses only Section VIII1 equations.5 2 (107 ) .6%. (See PG-29. and transition sections.0.5). ellipsoidal.12: If a flanged-in manhole that meets the Code requirements (see PG-44) is placed in a full-hemispherical head. There are significant differences in the equations due to the different design approaches used. SECTION VIII-1: DISHED HEAD CALCULATIONS Sections VIII-1 and VIII-2 each contain rules for the design of spherical shells.56 mm (Ans.) Check if this thickness exceeds 35. SA-285-C at 300oC) t = = 6.3.05 = 212.205 × 190.11.5 × 0. heads.

7 Example 12: hemispherical head A pressure vessel is built of SA-516-70 material and has an inside diameter of 2440 mm.5 Where t < 0.2t 3.665SE 3 3. The internal design pressure is 690 kPa at 232°C.0.665SE For thick shells. use Mandatory Appendix 1 sections 1-3.4 P = 2SEt R + 0.6 or ⎛ Y -1 ⎞ ⎛ R+t⎞ P = 2SE ⎜ ⎟ where Y = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝Y + 2⎠ ⎝ R ⎠ Where t > 0.356R or P < 0.24 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Spherical Shells and Hemispherical Heads Paragraph UG-27 (d) gives the required thickness of a thin spherical shell due to internal pressure. What is the required thickness of the hemispherical heads if the allowable stress is 138 MPa? Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . As the ratio t/R increases beyond 0.356R or P > 0.356. The corrosion allowance is 3 mm. t = or PR 2SE .85. use the following equations ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ( SE + P ) t = R ⎜ Y 3 -1⎟ where Y = 2 SE . and the joint efficiency is 0.356R or P > 0.665SE. where t >0.2 P 3.P ⎝ ⎠ 3.

85 × 25.356R.665SE = 78 MPa.356R.4.) The inside radius in a corroded condition is equal to R = 1220 + 3 (corrosion allowance) = 1223 mm PR + corrosion allowance t = 2 SE .191 MPa (Ans. Determine the design pressure if the allowable stress is 113 MPa. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 25 Solution The quantity 0. therefore.) The calculated pressure is less than 0.08 = 3. Use equation 3.0.6 + 3 = 6.2 P 0.4 is acceptable. (See paragraph UG-32 (f). use equation 3.69 × 1223 = +3 2 (138 × 0. equation 3.87 +3 234. since this is greater than the design pressure of 690 kPa.2 ( 0.69 ) 843. P = = = 2 SEt R + 0.4 ) 1524 + 0.665SE. Example 13: spherical head A spherical pressure vessel with an internal diameter of 3048 mm has a head thickness of 25.3 is acceptable.2t 2 (113 × 0.85) .6 mm (Ans.5 since t is less than 0.2 ( 25.46 = 3.34 1529. therefore.0.85. equation 3. Assume joint efficiency E = 0.4 mm.4 ) 4879.) = The calculated thickness is less than 0. Solution As no corrosion allowance is stated the design pressure will act on the given internal diameter.

3b. use equation 3.0.3 mm This is the minimum thickness i. 3a). Assume a corrosion allowance of 6 mm.665SE = 68. t = or PD 2SE .17D (shown in Fig.359 ) = 167.6.495 MPa.51 ⎛ 1 ⎞ t = R ⎜ Y 3 . and E = 1.9D and a knuckle radius of 0.2 P = 2 SEt D + 0.1⎟ where Y = 2 SE . fully corroded state.9 Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . S = 103 MPa. Connecting this head to the accumulator shell would require special treatment.e.1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ = 460 + 6 ⎜ 2.P ⎝ ⎠ Y = = 2 (103 × 1 + 69 ) 2 (103 × 1) .3 mm (Ans.) The required thickness of 2:1 heads with pressure on the concave side is given in paragraph UG-32 (d).3 + 6 mm (corrosion allowance) = 173. The actual shape can be approximated by a spherical radius of 0.8 P 3.2t 3.26 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Example 14: thick hemispherical head Calculate the required hemispherical head thickness of an accumulator with P = 69 MPa. Total head thickness is 167. ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ( SE + P ) t = R ⎜ Y 3 .1⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 466 ( 0.513 .0.69 344 137 = 2. which is outside of the scope of this module. Ellipsoidal Heads The commonly used ellipsoidal head has a ratio of base radius to depth of 2:1 (shown in Fig. Solution The quantity 0. R = 460 mm.). since this is less than the design pressure of 69 MPa.

06D.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 27 Where D E P S t = = = = = inside base diameter joint efficiency factor pressure on the concave side of the head allowable stress for the material thickness of the head FIGURE 3 Ellipsoidal Head (a) (b) Section VIII-1 does not give any P/S limitations or rules for ellipsoidal heads when the ratio of P/S is large. 4. Torispherical Heads Shallow heads. commonly referred to as flanged and dished heads (F&D heads). as shown in Fig. A spherical radius L of 1. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . approximates the most common F&D heads.0D and a knuckle radius r of 0. can be built according to paragraph UG-32 (e).

11 Shallow heads with internal pressure are subjected to a stress reversal at the knuckle.10 P = Where E L P S t = = = = = 3. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .1t joint efficiency factor inside spherical radius pressure on the concave side of the head allowable stress thickness of the head 3.885PL SE .28 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units FIGURE 4 Torispherical Head The required thickness of an F&D head is t = or 0.1P SEt 0. This stress reversal could cause buckling of the shallow head as the ratio D/t increases.0.885L + 0.

and blind flanges. and blind flanges. covers. cover. covers. Paragraph PG-31. AND BLIND FLANGES Flat plates. When a flat plate or cover is used as an end closure or head of a pressure vessel. PG-31.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 29 OBJECTIVE 4 Calculate the minimum required thickness or maximum allowable working pressure of unstayed flat heads. Paragraph PG31.2 defines the notations used in this paragraph and in Fig. or blind flange is attached by bolts (Fig. UNSTAYED FLAT HEADS. covers. PG-31 (j). and flanges are used extensively in boilers and pressure vessels. COVERS. SECTION 1 Paragraph PG-31. Alternately. unstayed circular heads.1 states that the minimum thickness of unstayed flat heads. (k)) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . it may be designed as an integral part of the vessel (having been formed with the cylindrical shell) or welded to it. and especially blind flanges are often misunderstood and can be challenging to anyone learning and working on this type of equipment. The concepts of unstayed flat heads. Bolted flanges are not covered in the scope of this module.1 When the circular head. cover.3 states formulae for calculating the minimum thickness of flat. When the circular head. cover plates. It is very important for power engineers to have good working knowledge of thickness requirements as this allows them to work safely and provide sound and safe advice. or blind flange is attached by welding t = d CP S 4. and blind flanges shall conform to the requirements. it may be a separate component that is attached by bolts or some quick-opening mechanism utilizing a gasket joint attached to a companion flange on the end of the shell. covers.

4.9Whg CP + S Sd 3 4. covers. When using equation 4. rectangular.3. t = d ZCP S 4. or blind flanges that are square. the thickness t shall be calculated for both design conditions (flange sketches j and k) and the greater value used. 4. Paragraph PG-31. Note: The formulae used to determine thickness may be transposed to solve for P and find the maximum allowable working pressure for a flat head or cover of known thickness.3 states two formulae for the required thickness of flat unstayed heads.2.30 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units t = d 1.4 Paragraph PG-31. (j).5 D When the non-circular head. (k)). or blind flange is attached by bolts (Fig. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .2. cover. or segmental in design and attached by welding. obround. The gasket moment arm is the radial distance from the centre line of the bolts to the line of the gasket reaction force (Fig. and 4.3 Where Z is a factor from the ratio of the short and long spans 2. PG31.4.3.4 lists the values for C to be used in the formulae 4. elliptical.4d Z = 3.2 Note: W = the total bolt loading and hg = the gasket moment arm. (k)) t = d 6Whg ZCP + S SLd 2 4. PG-31 (j).1.4 to a maximum of 2.

The material for head and shell is SA-285-A. The thickness t is 19 mm.2.2) tr = required minimum thickness of the shell ts = actual thickness of the shell as given Use equation 2.) FIGURE 5 Circular Flat Head Calculate the minimum thickness for the circular head and the depth of the fillet welds required.1 t = d CP S Where P = 2. Part D.33 m (see PG-31. Head joint welding meets Code requirements.(1 .4. 5.9 MPa (ASME Section II. Shell’s inside diameter d is 762 mm.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 31 Example 15: circular flat head welded to a shell (Illustrated by Fig. Solution Use equation 4. The shell is seamless.2). Maximum allowable working pressure is 2500 kPa. use the value for 250°C. where m is defined as the ratio of tr/ts from paragraph PG-31. Fig PG-31 sketch (e).5 MPa d = 762 mm S = 88. PG-31 (e) and Fig. Table 1A) As no temperature is given. C = 0. t = PR + C SE .y ) P Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .3 to find the value of tr (see paragraph PG-27. the saturation temperature of steam (224°C at 2500 kPa) may be used. therefore.

574 C = 0.1.15 mm (Ans.9 762 × 0.7 × 19 = 13.574 = 0.33 × 0.2. a minimum thickness of 57.) 762 For a welded circular flat head (Fig PG-31 (e)).0.4 10.4.9 × 1) .0750 57.898 mm Therefore m = = = = 0. note 6) 0 (see PG-27.898 19 0.4.15 mm is required.4) As this value is less than 0.31.19 tr ts 10. t = = = = d CP S 0.7 ts (see Fig PG-31 (e)).32 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Where R E y C tr = = = = = = = d/2 = 381 mm 1 (see PG-27.33 m (from PG . note 1) 0. The depth of each weld would be 0. use 0.4.(1 .4 (see PG-27.2 in the formula from PG-31.5 × 381 + 0 (88. ts = 19 mm (given) = 0.3 mm Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .4 or in equation 4.4 ) × 2.5 87. note 3) 2.5 88.20 × 2.5 952.

t = d CP SE 4. Head design to Fig.15 mm. unstayed head is 1858 kPa. (See PG-32. PG-31. Table 1A) 610 mm 0.33 (depending on the corner details as shown in Fig.6 P 30. Head joint weld meets Code requirements.3.13 = 1.2 times thicker at 57.858 MPa (Ans.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 33 It is interesting to note that the required minimum shell thickness is 10. SECTION VIII-1 The equations for the design of unstayed plates and covers are found in paragraph UG-34. Operating temperature not to exceed 300°C.6 = 6102 × 0.52 × 96.6. Solution t S d C = = = = 30.) P = t 2S d 2C 4. PG-31 (d)) Use equation 4. sketch (d).5 mm 96. Shell diameter is 610 mm. Shell and head thickness of 30. Part D. UG-34) P = design pressure S = allowable stress at design temperature Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Example 16: circular flat head maximum allowable working pressure Calculate the maximum allowable working pressure for a circular flat head with the following specifications. Material is SA-285-B.2. yet the required minimum thickness of the blank head is approximately 5.13 (see Fig.7 Where d = effective diameter of the flat plate (mm) C = coefficient between 0.) The maximum allowable working pressure for this flat.5 mm.898 mm.1 and 0.6 MPa (see ASME Section II.

7.76 mm (Ans.34 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units E = butt-welded joint efficiency of the joint within the flat plate t = minimum required thickness of the flat plate The value of E depends on the degree of non-destructive examination performed.33 d = 610 + 4 = 614 mm (fully corroded state) t = d = 614 × CP + corrosion allowance SE 0. an allowable stress S = 120 MPa. (See Fig UG-34 (b-2)) Where C = 0. determine the minimum required thickness of an integral flat plate with an internal pressure P = 17 MPa.33(m) = 0. and a plate diameter d = 610 mm.33(1) = 0.) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Solution Use equation 4. The corner detail conforms to Fig.33×17 +4 120 ×1 = 136. There are no butt weld joints within the head. Example 17: integral flat plate Using the rules of paragraph UG-34. E is not a weld efficiency value of the head to shell corner joint. There is a corrosion allowance of 4 mm. UG-34 (b-2) (assume that m = 1).

only the area replacement method is used. Placement and location of the replacement area are very important. For multiple openings. either method may be used. Reinforcement limits are developed parallel and perpendicular to the shell surface from the opening. Openings through the pressure boundary of a vessel require extra care to keep loading and stresses at acceptable levels. For single openings. An examination of the pressure boundary may indicate that extra material is needed near the opening to keep stresses at acceptable levels. called the reinforced opening or area replacement method is used when nearby substitute areas replace the area removed by the opening. header. This method determines the effectiveness of the material between adjacent openings to carry the stress compared with the area of metal that was there before the openings existed. Although the methods used are a simplified application of the elastic foundation theory. experience has shown that they are acceptable. Curves have been developed to simplify this examination. ASME Codes Section I and Section VIII give two methods for examining the acceptability of openings in the pressure boundary for pressure loads only. Since stress is related to load and cross-sectional area. 1946). Equations have been developed to set the limits for reinforcement. This extra material may be provided by increasing the wall thickness of the shell or nozzle or by adding a reinforcement plate around the opening. The stress analysis basis used in the ASME Codes to analyze nozzle reinforcement is called Beams on Elastic Foundation (Hetenyi.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 35 OBJECTIVE 5 Calculate the acceptability of openings in a cylindrical shell. The second method is the ligament efficiency method. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . The first method. or head. areas are substituted when making calculations.

Paragraph PG-32. 6 within the limit of compensation boundary) may provide adequate compensation. the additional material in the shell wall and the additional material in the nozzle wall (the hatched crosssectional area shown in Fig. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . If greater than the cross-sectional area removed.5t or 2. paragraph UG-40) gives the rules for the “Limits of Metal Available for Compensation. 6).2 provides the rules for openings that do not require reinforcement calculations.5tn WL1 tr B d ABCD = Limits of reinforcement d or Rn + t n + t Use larger value d or Rn + t n + t Use larger value C D When an opening is cut into a vessel wall for the attachment of a nozzle with diameter d (as in Fig.1. 6 above.5t or 2. PG-32." The limit is shown by box ABCD in Fig. Paragraph PG-32. SECTION I ASME Section I.1. providing the diameter of the opening does not exceed that permitted by the chart in Fig. paragraph PG-32 "Openings in Shells. ASME Section I. Headers and Heads" contains rules to be applied to maintain the vessel pressure boundary.36 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Figure 6 Reinforcement Limits tn Rn t rn A smaller of 2. the vessel wall thickness t is usually thicker than the minimum thickness required tr.5tn + t e t smaller of 2.1 states that paragraphs PG-32 to PG-39 shall apply to all openings (except for flanged-in manholes as stated in paragraph PG-29) and to tube holes in a definite pattern that are designed according to paragraph PG-52. paragraph PG-36 (ASME Section VIII. The area (tr x d) is the cross-sectional area that is removed and has to be compensated for.

The shell material is SA-515-60 and the nozzle material is SA-192. Shell diameter × shell thickness = 1000 × 25.4 ) = 0.825 Using Fig.) Use equation 5.82St 5. ASME Section I rules apply.1.2.1 Using the chart in Fig. The thickness of the shell wall is 25. and the design temperature is not to exceed 200°C.82St 4.5 MPa 1000 mm 118 MPa 25.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 37 To determine if reinforcement is required.D. K = Where P D S t = = = = PD 1.D.82St 4. the value K is calculated from the formula K = PD 1. of the shell is 1000 mm. Solution As this is a boiler shell.0.4 = 25400 mm 2 Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . The point where the x-axis value meets the K value curve is read to the y-axis and gives the maximum diameter of the opening.82 (118 × 25. nozzle located in a cylindrical boiler shell. calculate the x-axis value. The thickness of the nozzle wall is 10 mm. The maximum allowable working pressure is 4500 kPa. The nozzle abuts the vessel wall and is attached by a fullpenetration weld. Example 18: reinforcement of nozzle abutting vessel Determine if reinforcement is required for a 100 mm I. the value for the x-axis is calculated from the shell diameter times the shell thickness. (See PG-32.4 mm K = PD 1.1 to calculate the K value.4 mm. PG-32.5 × 1000 = 1. All joint efficiencies E = 1. The O. PG-32. allowed without reinforcement.

All joint efficiencies E = 1. The thickness of the shell wall is 25.). and the design temperature is not to exceed 200°C.D.) UG-36(c)(3) states that reinforcement is not required if (a)the opening is not larger than 89 mm diameter and the shell is 10 mm thick or less. The O.0 Solution As this is a not a boiler shell. The shell material is SA-516-60 and the nozzle is SA-192. no additional reinforcement is required (Ans.38 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units The intersection of the x-axis value (2540) and the K value curve (0. i. Example 19: reinforcement of nozzle abutting vessel Determine the reinforcement requirements for a 60 mm I.825) give a yaxis value of approximately 134 mm. nozzle located in a cylindrical shell. unless certain dimensional requirements are met as listed in paragraph UG-36(c)(3). not subjected to rapid fluctuations. ASME Section VIII-1 rules apply. and the thickness of the nozzle wall is 10 mm. to use reinforcement calculations in paragraph UG-37. the nozzle diameter is 60 mm This falls within the second condition. Therefore. The maximum allowable working pressure is 4500 kPa. of the shell is 1000 mm. or (b) the opening is not larger than 60 mm diameter and the shell thickness is greater than 10 mm. (See UG-36(c)(3).4 mm.D.e. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . The nozzle abuts the vessel wall and is attached by a fullpenetration weld. SECTION VIII-1 Section VIII-1 requires all openings in pressure vessels.) for an opening of 100 mm diameter. no reinforcement is required (Ans. In this example. not larger than 60 mm in a shell that is thicker than 10 mm. Therefore.

2 states that the total cross-sectional area of compensation required in any given plane for a vessel under internal pressure shall not be less than A as defined in PG-33. paragraph PG-33. SECTION I ASME Section I. "Compensation required for openings in shells and formed heads". header. shown in Fig.5t or 2.5t or 2.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 39 OBJECTIVE 6 Calculate the compensation required to reinforce an opening in a cylindrical shell. 7.1. states the rules for compensation.5tn d ABCD = Limits of reinforcement d or Rn + t n + t Use larger value d or Rn + t n + t Use larger value C D NOZZLE WALL ABUTTING VESSEL WALL Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . or head. Paragraph PG-33. the requirements are illustrated in Fig.5tn + t e t tr B te smaller of 2. For an opening in a shell with a nozzle abutting the shell wall (such as an opening for a safety valve). FIGURE 7 Nozzle Wall Abutting Vessel Wall Dp tn Rn tr n rn A WL1 smaller of WL2 2. 7.

nozzle located in a cylindrical boiler shell. The thickness of the shell wall is 22. and the design Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . The maximum allowable working pressure is 4900 kPa. of the shell is 1000 mm. PG-33 The area in the shell wall thickness available to be used as compensation A1 (shown as the forward sloped hatched areas on either side of the opening) = the larger of d(t – Ftr) or 2(t + tn)(t – Ftr) The area in the nozzle wall thickness available to be used as compensation A2 (shown as the backward sloped hatched area on either side of the nozzle) = the smaller of 2(tn – trn)(2.5tn + te)fr1 where fr1 is the ratio of Snozzle/Sshell The area available from the nozzle to the reinforcement plate welds A41 = (WL1)2 × fr1 where fr1 is the ratio of the lesser of Snozzle or Splate / Sshell The area available from the reinforcement plate to shell weld A42 = (WL2)2fr3 The area available in the reinforcement plate (shown as herring-bone brick hatch) A5 = (Dp – d – 2tn)te/fr3 `Where fr3 is Splate/Sshell (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) If A1 + A2 + A41 > A The opening is adequately reinforced.D.5tfr1) or 2(tn – trn)(2. If A1 + A2 + A41 < A The opening is not adequately reinforced. if A1 + A2 + A41 +A42 + A5 > A The opening is adequately reinforced. Example 20: reinforcement of nozzle abutting vessel Determine the reinforcement requirements for a 100 mm I. The nozzle abuts the vessel wall and is attached by a fullpenetration weld. Therefore. The shell material is SA-516-60 and the nozzle is SA-192.40 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Where (a) The area to be replaced A (shown as the cross-hatched area) = dtrF where F is taken from the chart Fig. and reinforcing elements (reinforcement plate and welds) must be added and/or the thickness must be increased.5 mm and the thickness of the nozzle wall is 8 mm. The O. The nozzle fillet welds are 5 mm wide.D.

(See PG-27. All joint efficiencies E = 1.1. note 3) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . Allowable tensile stress for SA-516-60 is 118 MPa and for SA-192 is 92.4 = 1.1.5 ) = = = = = 1.1.5 MPa 500 – 22.9 × 1000 1.014 ASME Section I. Use equation 5. ASME Section I rules apply.5 mm K = 4.9 MPa 1000 mm 118 MPa 22. Fig. Solution As this is a boiler shell.3 to determine the minimum required shell thickness (additional thickness may be used towards reinforcement requirements).0.2 cannot be used. Therefore: f r1 = 118 92.2) Where P R S E y C = = = = = = 4.4.4 MPa.5 mm 118 MPa 1 0.28 Use equation 2.4 (see PG-27.5 = 477.2. The reinforcement plate (if required) shall be of SA-192 material and 18 mm thick." states that K is limited to a value of 0.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 41 temperature is not to exceed 200°C.82St 4.99. PG-32.4.2. note 6) 0 (see PG-27.) K Where P D S t = PD 1. (See PG-32. Therefore PG-32. "General Notes.82 (118 × 22.

5tn + te).3 = 3.5 ×100 + 8 + 22.3.5 = 56.5 = 20.5 MPa 100 + (2 x 8) = 116 mm 92.5 × 477.5 × 8 + 18) = 38 Therefore Y = 38 mm (a) Reinforcement area required A (according to Fig.25 or Y = (2.5 mm Use equation 1.5 Therefore X = 100 mm Limit perpendicular to the shell surface Y = 2. PG-33.5d + tn + t).5t or Y = (2. F=1) Ar = 100 ×20.5 522 + 0.2. whichever is smaller Y = 2.1) Where P D S e = = = = 4.1 to determine the minimum required nozzle thickness. note 4) t = PD + 0.005 (116 ) + 0 2 ( 92.58 189.005D + e 2S + P 4.4.42 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units tr = PR +C SE .(1 . whichever is larger X = 100 or X = (0.5 × 116 = + 0.408 mm and t = 22.(1 .5 +0 (118 × 1) .1) A = dtrF (where F is taken from the chart Fig.4)4.5 × 22.3375 mm and tn = 8 mm Limit of compensation parallel to shell surface X = d or X = (0.4 ) + 4.5) = 80. PG-33.0.y ) P = Therefore 4.3375 mm = Therefore tr n = 3.408 mm tr = 20.4 MPa 0 (see PG-27.8 mm2 Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . (See PG-27.408 ×1 = 2040.

37 + 19.4/118 = 19.58 = 643.5 – 1 x 20.4 118 = 213.3375)(38) × 1.8 .2tn )te f r 3 1377.(643.100 .58 mm2 Total area available from shell.2 mm2 Reinforcement area available in the nozzle Y replaces (2.85 14.16) = Dp 1377.58 Therefore A41 = 19.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 43 (b) Reinforcement area available in the shell (X replaces d in the equation) A1 = X(t – Ftr) A1 = 100(22.2 × 8) × 18 × ( D p .095 = 97.3. nozzle.100 .59 + 19.5tn + te) in the equation A2 = 2(tn .2 Therefore A1 =209.85 Therefore A5 = 1377. and nozzle weld Ar = A1 + A2 + A41 Ar = 209.58 Therefore A42 = 19.2 + 414.trn)(Y)fr1 A2 = 2(8 .37 mm2 (c) (d) (e) Area provided by the reinforcement plate weld A42 = (WL2)2Fr3 A42 = (5)2 × 92.4/118 = 19.85 mm2 (f) Diameter of the reinforcement pad A5 = ( D p .58) = 1377.75 mm ( Ans.75 + 100 + 16 92.59 mm2 Reinforcement area available in the nozzle weld A41 = (WL1)2fr2 where fr2 = Sn/Ss A41 = (5)2 × 92.85 = ( D p .d .) Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 .59 Therefore A2 = 414.17 = 414.58 mm2 Area required by reinforcement pad A5 = A – (Ar + A42) A5 = 2040.408) = 209.

a reinforcing pad 213. SECTION VIII-1 The limits of compensation stated in paragraph UG-40 (b) and (c) are the same used in Section I.44 Revised Second Class Course • Section A1 • SI Units Thus.5 × nominal shell thickness less the corrosion allowance Or Y = 2.5 × nozzle wall thickness + the thickness of the reinforcing plate (te) Whichever is smaller Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . except that the vessel shell and nozzle must be treated as being in a corroded condition.75 mm diameter and 18 mm thick is required to carry the tensile stress and maintain the vessel pressure boundary. Therefore. the limit of compensation parallel to the shell surface X = diameter of the finished opening in corroded condition Or X = radius of the finished opening in corroded condition + shell wall thickness+ nozzle wall thickness Whichever is larger The limit of compensation normal to the shell surface Y = 2. This pad size falls within the limits of compensation.

Calculate the minimum required wall thickness of a watertube boiler tube 75 mm O. The plate is integrally welded into place as per Fig UG-34(h). 1. 6. The material used has a stress value of 103 MPa. and E = 1. 4. and the header and head material is SA-204-A. with pressure on the concave side. 3. The maximum allowable working pressure is 6000 kPa. The nozzle wall thickness is 35 mm. Calculate the thickness of a boiler steam header designed with a seamless. MAWP is 6205 kPa. S = 142 MPa. Using the rules in Section I. The corrosion allowance is 4 mm. nozzle located in a cylindrical boiler drum. determine the minimum required thickness of the flat end plate of a rectangular box header 200 mm by 400 mm with an internal pressure of 2500 kPa.575 mm. The inside radius of the header and the radius to which the head is dished is 304 mm.0.Chapter 1 • ASME Code Calculations: Cylindrical Components 45 CHAPTER QUESTIONS The following questions provide candidates with experience using the ASME Codes. and the nozzle material is SA209-T1. full hemispherical head. What is the required thickness of the hemispherical heads if the allowable stress is 147. and the joint efficiency is 0. The drum material is SA-516-60. The thickness of the drum is 28. The cylinder has an internal diameter of 36 cm. The maximum allowable working pressure is 3500 kPa. Using the rules in Section VIII-1. Conforms with the 2004 ASME Extract • Revised 03/06 . that is strength welded in place in a boiler drum. An air receiver pressure vessel is constructed from SA-204-A with an inside diameter of 1830 mm. calculate the reinforcement requirements for a 150 mm I. The tube material is SA-192. The header has a flanged-in circular inspection opening 100 mm diameter.D. All joint efficiencies E = 1. The average temperature of the header is 400°C. of the drum is 780 mm. The I.5 MPa? 5.D. unstayed. and the design temperature is 250°C. The design pressure is 1034 kPa at 200°C.85. 2. The tube will be in the furnace area of the boiler and have an average wall temperature of 350°C.D. There is no corrosion allowance and no butt-welded joints in the plate. The reinforcement plate material (if required) is of SA-515-55 and 10 mm thick. Calculate the required shell thickness for a hydraulic cylinder with a design pressure of 62 000 kPa. The nozzle abuts the vessel wall and is attached by a full-penetration weld. Assume no corrosion allowance for this cylinder.

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