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rposes. OcHosHbre SKoHoM Hqe cKlte noHtTHc HaIIIJII4 OTpDKeHI. you are writing to your sister who is away at college. attractive arrangement and proper stationery are important in all leffers.fl3btKax. PERSONAL LETTERS flpe4craeleuuslft e uoco6uu Marepr.sct lop HA LIqe oKI. Like standard usage in grammar and punctuation. for example.Ie B TepMIrH OJiOrUqecKoM rJroccapult B KoHqe noco6H. to send greetings or express your feelings about some occasion or event. and intimate as conversation. a r aK)Ke o[ilcblBalorcd pa:auuusre Sopnrrt'agpecaqnu.I't roprrcraM-npoSeccuoualam. a carefully inscribed heading telling her your street address and the city in which you live is quite superfluous.-B KDI(AOM I'.cJpyl(rypHo pacnpeAeneH no urecTI. While you need not observe all details of standard letter form in writing intimate letters.r€lflbHbrx AoKyMeHToB Ha pyccKoM u aururuficrcoM .rrn. You are free to use colloquialisms and looser constructions of speech (provided you respect the rules of grammar) but you must avoid the pitfalls of excessive pu.nPE[hcnoBilE 3aKperrntrb It noronHflTb cnoBapHblfi sanac crgeHToB. I{ cnoBou3Meuesnsj 9a9tr KHr. B craBJr eHr. If. standard practice in the writing of friendly letters recognizes a difference between informal and formal situations. i .s. to make arrangements.JSI.l3 KOTOpbrx rrpeAycMoTpeHa Bo3MoxHocTb 3aKpenneHl. Kac arcula. I{cnoJlb3yeMar ripu cow. i . youo"to Personal letters HoBHbre npaBvna cloroo6paeoBanvffi.I cooTBeTcTBytoilILIM pa3AenaM. Even details of form.It nonyr{eHHblx cBeAertuit c noMorrlbro KoMnneKca npaKTuqecKrrx'3a&aHfifr. Personal letters usually have one or more of the following purposes: to thank. to invite. informal. Bo tscnouorareJrbHoM pa3Aene "Vocabulary in Context" Aaercfl.1. Aemoput Considerations of neatness. xapaKTepugn4Ka ocHoBHbrx $oprra 6usHeca v napaJrnenbHo ocyuecrBJlterct ItHTeplperaurar gKoHoMltqecxofi TepM[HoJIotuu. flpuloxenue C co4epxur o6pasqtr oSr'I- ur. you will surely want to observe them carefully in writing to a new acquaintance or to your aunt whom you hdve never seen. although the date may be of importance.IX AOKyMeHTOB 7 O KuDKel UeOUettU- &- UNIT I MyIo ycnyry cryAeHTaM topHAHqecKux c[equaJIbHoCTeI'I By3oBr. Naturalness and ease are their chief essentials. B npturoxewugx A n Layour oF PERSoNAL LETTERs A personal letter is as natural. may in many instances be safely ignored. to apologize.ilt Aenosofi AoKyMeHTaII npe4crarneHa pa3Hoo6pa:Har JIeKcIiKa. like the three-line heading with its two essential commas.

when the needs of everyday life are so hard to come by. 4. Mount Royal. The Salutation The salutation is placed a short distance down the page from the heading. In a friendly letter almost any salutation is permissible. to accompany enclosed material (photos. We hope you aie in good health and managing to survive the many pitfalls of life in a country in the midst of drastic change. the letter itself. It is. your cards. Helen Do not crowd the heading. the date With a comma between the day and the year. you can 3ay you are participating in historic times . begun just to the right of the middle of the page and is usually followed by a comma. 1993 2. E. Write your name below the should begin directly below the end of the salutation. separated by a comma). The Body The body of a friendly letter. 5. Personal letters usually consist of the following parts: 1. Greetings and good wishes to all of you. Make use of the vocabulary.1999 a) Study the following personal sample letters. "Sincerely". Pay attention to the way the sender's address is written. to request news. not a colon. "Yours Sincere[y" is always proper. follows just below the final line of the letter. indeed. or "l am". to give news.g. I remain". You must be near the end of another term and preparing for sumrner. Hathaway Drive. 22 Church Road Seattle.. I hope you get some time for what we call R&R (Rest and Recreation). Although you may use whatever closing you wish. USA June 17. The Signature Yours sincerely.little compensation. etc.l 4. your expressions of good will. Centre it under the closing . It should not be placed at the very top ofthe page nor should it reach the right-hand edge ofthe paper. or leave-taking. I know.UNIT I. Personal letters - to make or renew contact with someone.(your stre. At least. your city and state. The Heading Usually placed in the upper right-hand corner of tlre page gives tlrree pieces of information in which your correspondent may be interested: the address of the sender. but Dear is always proper. to reply to another letter. De4r Jane. It is usually followed by a comma. California. get ready to comment on their layout. Avoid such outdated formalities as "Hoping to hear from you. etc. and it is begun at the left-hand margin. LETTERS October 16. 3. your friendship. The Glosing The closing.). gifts. We have appreciated vefy much your letters. . Edmonton Canada Sltuple 1. "Yours truly'' and "Very truly yours" should be used only in business letters.

Margaret. Once again. You can usually find all these things along the ffont of the pier. it is about 9 C outside. Thanks God I live near enough to visit her each day. Punch is a wicked man who keeps hitting people (even his baby!) . We trust you are able to find small pleasures to lighten your days. etc. Maria and John From Ebb and myself every good wish. but best ofall is the Punch and Judy Show. and generally keeping an eye on her.and his wife. my dear Mum. Brighton.UNIT I. while others enjoy paddling or playing ball. ofcourse. 2000 Dear Ralph. Many retired Canadians escape their severe weather by coming for winter to our southern deseft areas. BAS 3ED UK March 21st. shopping. I wonder if a holiday at the seaside is the same in your country as in Britain? I'll tellyou what it's like in Brighton anyway. fell ill with the virulent flue virus which has swept through the country in the last few months. I u) corrent on the paragraphing Little Fence Cross West Harrington. John is busy with all his wildlife and environmental organizations. And. so please excuse me. as the Easter festival approaches. en- joyed swimming and hot baths. hiked in some interesting new areas. Firstly thank you so much for your wonderful letters. the sun is shining across the moors and resting on the fields. and for the pictures. Some children like to make sandcastles. and family in Sacramento and daughter Janet and family in Redding. Well. Sometimes there are donkeys on the sands for the children to ride on. economic and historic scenario in your country. Today is March 21st and "technically" is designated as "the first day of Spring". We were very interested in your elucidation of the social. we wish you a joyous celebration as this special time. Our love and good wishes. It's very funny! Wales.1994 Dear Stephen. Well. Now. cooking. as usual he is working on his research notes. .. May the good Lord bless and keep you. Personal letters John and I really enjoyed our two and a half month sojoum to the desert this year. and read a lot of books. First thing we had to do when we returned home was to touch base with all our family. Judy. You are often in our thoughts and always in our prayers. Everyone goes to the beach. but she feels liustrated that has l<tst some of her former energy. lOth August. she In addition to all our home and family activities. and there are funfairs and rides like the big dipper or the big wheel. and even when the weather's very warrn you can see the families there wrapped up in sweaters sheltering next to their windbreaks. It is late at night and I musi get to bed. Even as I write. Tomonow is a busy day.just keep plugging away. She was quite poorly for three weeks and had to stay in bed.lot of interesting people from Canada. Please convey our very best wishes to Helen and Max and their family. I must close and catch the post. I like the amusement where you can play games like space invaders. etc. We also met a. doing her household chores. writing. and we have shared this with family and friends who are also so anxious to keep abreast ofthe news. She is now up and about and gaining in strength. Iiont garden wall as the blackbirds vie for the pole nesting locations! So today is springlike. Ebb and Carol I I c) Whom may the letter be to? Soave Boarding House Beach Avenue. On holiday at last! This is what I was looking forward to for weeks. our most grateful thanks for your letters. They don't take the summer off. We got a good rest. Firstly. We made the rounds to visit son John Jr. I am a little late in replying. and there is feverish activity along the Off the beach. We hope all of you find fulfillment in your work. now some family news.

tell her I'm in 'The Bath!' a rowing competition On Saturday I went down to the river to watch the 'bumps'. l0 il .that is no choice at all.smth.metal construction stretching out to sea windbreak . gratitude. Before the Ball. Lots of people got wetl Christopher Notes: big dipper . 1. Apparently there's an old joke: 'lf my mother rings. d) Who may the letter be written to? What new information have you come to know from this letter? Comment on the layout of the letter below. I met the friends I was going with to a typical Cambridge student pub called 'The Bath'. and then. eveh though most of the letters you write are very informal.small carriages on a big curved track that take you up and down through water at the fair funfair . made of cloth which is used to give protection from the wind I have found that you can learn a lotjust being in England. should reveal an understanding of good manners. 2. Lots of love. Hills Road. I Comments: Even though colloquial English is used most of the time. Let me explain .UNIT I. the most exciting thing that has happened'to me was'going to a May Ball. Anyway.2oo1 Exencrses Exercise I Read the letters and identify colloquialisms and units of I a formalcharacter. here you should note the characteristics of the more formal type of a friendly letter. Perhaps. For a. He had about forty horses. The only choice was 'Hobson's choice'. Cambridge July 3'd.the w4y through. to end this letter here is a seaside joke Question: 'What do sea monsters eat?' Answer: "Fish and ships!' Best wishes. as well as candy floss (made from sugar and water) and rock. although they usually wearjeans and walk in water just in few inches deep piel . which is between colleges. at dawn.Hobson's choice. High Trees. he always gave them the one that had rested longest. Yesterday learn a new expression . I don't know how they do it. and I have had a wonderfultime. I have been studying English in Cambridge for two months now. Apparently a man called Thomas Hobson lived in Cambridge about 200 years ago. Frieda. like any social contact. but the clever thing is that there's writing on it which goes all . Of course. and that's what it means todayl I Please write soon and tell me what you've been doing recently. Dear Anna. people take a boat and have breakfast on the river. Rock is a hard sweet usually shaped like a stick. Of course. I Exercise Group the words expressing such functions as greetings. encouragement. no seaside holiday would be complete without fish 'n' chips! They sell a lot of ice-cream as you can imagine.May Ball the students wear dinner jackets and bow ties. a friendly letter. and long dresses.every year in June (although they're'called May Balls!) the colleges organise big dances with lovely food and champagne served from marquees in the college grounds. and whenever a customer wanted to hire amusement park to paddle . Personal letters There are also certain kinds of what'people eat at the seaside. The dance goes on all night. Each boat tries to overtake or 'bump' another boat.

Graham in September at the lake.. Ah. 1988 A beautiful sunny l9-th of November Dear Dianat a). interesting. The photos were taken Your sincerely. If there is any e know. Personal letters Exercise Read the letter below and discuss which of the. (yawn). Sarah.will I sew. June 12. How is the date unusual in the above letter? c) . (Use the list given in the introduction.qul'1 poses are covered in it (Are some purposes rnore lmportant than others? How do you know?) l l.m. It was ve+/ kind ofvou to give rne a bed at such short notice. What are the closing phrases in this letter? Have 7. you seen others? Where does the information in this P. At last I have found a quiet moment (Sally snores away upstairs) to write and enclose some photos and to say thank you for the fantastip jumper.. What other ways of 3. My work is now finished und ro I find I never know what to do with myself in Sally's sleep times . write leffers.lf it doesn?t anive don't panic! Ring Tim at work (67023) and he can arange something. 2. warm and generous person. Unfortunately. Regards. It looks great all my friends want one just like it' you left.) Study the undgrlined words. I Love. Decide what is the. of course. . Look forward to seeing you on the long weekend in January.ME? It's to do with high-rise buildings in the suburb. sally is usually awake before I've done any- - : Thbnk you so much for your hospitality and kindness last weekend. Please acI only met her briefly.. etc. the . r See. the meetings start at 9. across? Discuss the questions: 1. Dear Chris. : . 3. i've become involved in local politics .you soon. only one purpose. but remember her as a to gome down for the funeral.S. 5. garden.can you believe it . P. Dear Anna..m. What punctuaiion marks seem unusual? b. clean the house (more boring). salutation have you come How does the writer of this letter set the scene? What purposes does she mention? 4.awake they're very Guess what - New Town 616/87 " Dear Mary and family.30 p. Hope all is well.UNIT I. F. thing. belong to? 12 Love t3 . do my tax (boring!). way I was very sad to hear about your Mother's sudden death. Anyway. Life goes on at 107 much the same as when Nick. Bruqe has taken up Judol We try nol to laugh when he gets into "pyjamas" (as Sally calls them).purpose of these letters. he loves it.S. What is the topic of each paragraph in this letter? 5. they will be useful in your own letters. North Road Southtown SurreY Exeibise Sometimes you need to write very short letters which have. Thanks again for the jumper' cept mlr deeoest sympathy. sta . I hope I can repay vou in the same way. If I stay . There's Sally . Exercise 4.must go. 2 Short St. Sorry about all this. - won't be able to nleet you at at 12 a.

Price. thank Goodness! C How about you? Have you changed your mind about it? I remember how you hated Brisbane on the 24th and I wondered I called in.Personal letters d) 60 Stacey St. e birth of Joanna. Match the parts on the left (news) with parts on the right (related questions). . how's Mauro? Are you still together? Much love. Y) Xmas was exciting in Tower this year. and Mrs. I'm writing to introduce mvself. Tim and Jane Exercise This paragraph from a personal letter needs punctuation. on Boxing Day. Best wishes. etc. My name is Katherine Peters. What's your news? That's all the news from this end.Think of the areas of his or her life that you would like 6. D Has William started yet or is he still only 4 (I've forgotten)? Dear Erica and Jo.Think of someone to know: eas. Exercise 7.I'm love! in B How was yours? I I'm the happiest! - I've bet you can't beat that for excitement! ever been I'll be. somdthing about sport. Peters e) 26th Feb IY) I've just returned from a weekend in Perth . Banksia 6/5/88 Well. ofcourse. I wos sick of everyone nagging me l) A. . I will send something suitable soon. a surprise overseas visitor for Xmas dinner. . take care ofyourselves and ofJoanna. and then. that everything went well and that you're back at home already. Below are five extracts from personal letters. other friends. Till then. Write soon and tell me yours. Hello. Whatb t5 happening in your life? . What about you? No more news to tell. 14 Anyway . family. You wouldnt recognize Xavier St. They have been divided into two parts. Read it first for general meanlng. a for about 6 months. he told m you'd rnind if Dear Mr. I shall ring first. I've finally done it I've got my licence. dog had 6 pups! you would like to write to at the moment. the E Which reminds me. Perhaps Gail has told you about the new man in my life Paul Schleger sometimes I cant quite believe that there is really Someone in the world like him of course the problem is that he's 8.I mustfinish now.had a great time catching up on all the news. study. I'm a friend of Mark's and and I'm s II) The big news is . Have you been back lately? Lots of changes. Exercise . We had a baby born in the next door flat on Xmas Eve. if ' III) Gina is now at She loves il school.Write a paraEraph asking questions about these ar- maybe moving back to Brisbane while I am in Brisbane Now but moving to Perth why is love always so dfficult Well. the K.Finish your letter: I must stop now.

Look at this writer's first paragraph. ' - they were very interest- - PPS You mentioned Tim Payne - what a surprise him living like that - soccer team hurt shoulder .' lots of swimming.Think of someone who you have not seen for a long time. .Wr:ite down about five areas of activity in your life which would be of interest to this person (work. What great news! You may be back at the end of the year. 11 a) You have just received some p who visited you last month.Write a b) Sometimes you might begin a letter by referring to all the news contained in the letter you received.. . Thank you for your long. Find the parts that tell you aboutthis. Make them realistic by including personal details of your current helpful to you in (b) bnd exercis"es' 10 and 11 . 17 riend anks your . You wr and tell your friend briefly what ha life since then.M.done! But what's this about stopping work?r I was shbcked . Vin PS Thanks for those newspaper clippings - Sport -joined local i"g.go almost every weekend - had any ngws lately? b) lf you wish. . etc. All seems a long time ago now . Underneath each.SORRY! It was great to hear from you at Christmas -.UNIT I. long letter. I stayed with K M. Must stop now - I'm at work and have lots to do.Send your letter. Glad tci hear you've got some parttime work . - how's it going? a) organising your thoughts into paragraphs helps your reader to understand your meaning. lt will. study.had to stoP improving now . hope you had a good .begin again in MaY still follow Spartak .though it's very'busy.1ke in the again at Marray Bridge . fishing.would you like me to send you some advertisements? Pleased to heatthat Katy is her old self. continue 'with the letter This may help you Write soon. questions and so on. I must write to her soon. lazing Exercise 10.I look forward to seeing her. using your notes to write more paragraphs. (Other letter samples in the unit will help you') . Personal letters Exercise 9. As usual. I've taken to reply . ' ' Dear Ella. . won't you? Great newsiabout Ch.). I really enjoy it . I'll keep on the lookout for jobs . comments. Choose two or three of the situations below and write the letters. What a lot of news you had to tell! Congratulations ion your terrific pass .Use these areas as topic headings. write down related events. family.well. beginning and an ending for your letter' Exercise Dear Rosa. .I've been working for 6 weeks.think carefully about it. a) The lbtter below is a reply to another:letter.

you are rather annoyed and so you write a letter. He or she has been gone for four months now and you have not had a letter. a) LETTER TO FATHER Dear Daddy. write it now! IB t9 . 2. MummY g) lt is a friend's birthday. c) Years ago you met and travelled with a person from another country. Yours. Personal letters b) You have just heard that a friend is getting married. Suddenly you receive a . You write to the friend and include some news of your family and of your activities. You write a letter of congratulations and tell him or her some news. the trip and expressing your wish to see them. see through the month somehow. 9) You are planning a trip to another part oJ the country. telling them of d)You have just moved from another city. May God look after you wherever you go' Yours. You know what that thing is? Yours.letter from him/her. you will understand my words' With best wishes. You write a letter back and include some advice for your friend's first days in the country. You write to some friends who live there. work hard. you are if it gives no meaning. PensonAl OCGASIONS LETTERS FoR DIFFERENT 1. you write a letter telling them how you feel and describing your first few weeks in your new city. when you grow up. l) Some friends have written to invite you to spend the holidays with them. h)A family member has gone to live overseas for a year.UNIT I. Jack b) REPLY TO ABOVE Dear Jackie. Please. You write back expressing your thanks and telling them whether or not you can go. a) LETTER TO MOTHER Dear Mothert How are you getting on? My heart yearns to see a line of ink drawn by your hand even missing some close friends you had there. We are always running short of one thing. I am running short of something. you write a letter of thanks and tell them about youi Oirtnday celebration. telling you that he or she is coming to live in Australia. you send your birthday wishes in a letter which includes your news of the year. lncidentally I am myself running short of that thing. Mary b) REPLY TO ABOVE Dear MarY' j) Someone has sent you a gift for your birthday. f) You received a letter from your parents telling you about a friend's sickness. I am sending something by M'O' tomorrow' If it isn't enough. DaddY h) ls there a personal letter you need to write at the moment? lf so. do droP a word. Yours. eam and save.

a) SENDING MEDICINES Dear Mother' 5. letter sooner because I .wrote to me last rnonth but I regret very much that I couldn't answer your. be here as soon as possible. We have received disturbing news of your suffering from cough and cold during the. Why don't you come over to Brighton? l es there' Mother. My excuse has' .ir 6.UNIT I. Barbara b) REPLY TO ABOVE Dear June. Yours affectionately. Emily ment Jane 20 21 . yours lovingly. is As to the children they are crying for sea rather than of stay at-home nature. I b summer fact. I could fly ' am sending you a packet of first-aid medicines as desired by you' Instructions on all these medicines are given and these should be carefully followed.. HEALTH . you know. a) INVITATION LETTER for the us the Dear Pat' would I owe you a very sincer6 apology. I wish to be with you at this moment of great family sorrow. Yours. Personal letters 3.was very busy with some urgent affairs l Do not think that I am offering you a lame excuse.:i Dear Auntie. June I wish you had joined the colourful crowd of people on the field out of town singing to the accordion accompaniment songs so popular among Englishmen to commemorate those who couldn't be with us. : Pl situation tion next time-tabl ' We are all here anxious to know about your health. lonelY domes Yours affectionately. Pat Claire 7. I had so many guests at home on the occasion of Victory over Japan Day in West Horrington that I couldn't attend to my correspondence. i' . for the hills. You. and will send you the final reply next week' It will be ideal if you come and stay with us until the weather improves in Somerset. ENQUIRING ABOUT Dear Uncle. r'. Further I am enclosing a book prescribing remedies for simple ail: I I pray for peace ofthe departed soul and tranquillity at your heart. Anyhow t am trying to take my family with me. curent cold wave in Somerset. CONDOLENCE LETTER Dear Auntie ) My heart reaches out to you in your bereavement. really long legs. APOLOGYFORLATEREFLY . Yours lovingly. invitation' But I am afraid the e' I have to take my examinacause it is likely to disturb my 4.

As my own son is not adult yet and death seems hovering over my head. May I ask you for a favour though I sincerely hope that you would grant it. guarded.ll have the bag for years and I'll think of you with gratitude and affection every time I use it.UNIT I. I have been displaying your christmas gift with great preas- The cups and saucers are exquisite . . 22 23 . Aunt Mary. because here in the mountains medicines are more vital than meals.and we think it was wonderful of you to remember that collecting Sadler is our hobby. because I will have the satisfaction that the future of my son is very safe. Carter: John and ure and pride. I know of nobody who would ecutor of my will? tor more conscientiously than you. Personal letters b) RBPLY TO ABOVE Dear Jane. It was very nice ofyou to have Uncle John Mum b) REPLY TO ABOVE 8. I. Very much aggrieved at your fears. Yours affectionately. the future of your son will be well You hardly need my permission to name me as the Executor of your Thanks you so much. to our misfortune. Dear Aunt Mary: What a simply gorgeous Christmas gift! A fitted bag is something I've wanted for a long time. Carolyn Brewster 9. Lovingly yours. YoLrrs lovingly. sent that nice packet. but could never get for myself. but if you say yes. a) MAIilNG AN EXECUTOR OF WILL Dear Jim. it will go a long way to give peace to my soul after death. Your parcel of medicines has reached safe and intact with all the bottles in perfect shipshape order. Therefore may I accept the responsibilities of an Execufill in your name as Ex- I know it is a thankless job. If at all. I am afraid you are unnecessdrily bothering yourself about the future of your son. Jim Dear Mrs. believe me. Carter for your thoughtful and generous gift. Yours. Carolyn will. years. THANK-YOU LETTER Dear Uncle. I want to make you the Executor of my will. and the inevitable comes. and our best wishes to you for the New year! Sincerely yours. Many thanks io you and Mr. Thanks a lot.

build good will and add to the company's prestige. unfair. Make it an absolute rule never to start or end your letter with a negative. 2. Get a smile into your letter.g. Many organisations retain professional correspondents to handle business letters. with our compliments. error. To get the 'you' emphasis. I Wrlt" from the 'you' attitude. A good letter should have a preponderance of yours and a minimum of Is. careless. one of the most pleasant sounds to an individual is his own name.writing business letters has become a fine aft that embodies the cross techniques of psychology. complaint. Your letter should have the reader's viewpoint in mind throughout the text. disagreeable. public relations. and the graphic arts. Unfortunately. some correspondents include in the letter the name of the person to whom they write: It is a universal truth that Lrvour oF BUSTNESS LETTERS Thank you.UNIT II Business letters II. count the number of Is and yours in your letter and then compare. lf possible. etc. it is a pleasure. your lovely (kind) letter. avoid words with negative connotation. Negative: We regret to inform you that we ship your order until will not be able to To make your business letters effective in terms of today's business world. E. Test the effectiveness of your letter on this point. 4. A sour letteq complaining undertone is comparable to a surly manner in your conversation. sinceriry effectiveness of a oompany's letters determine its success or failure.g. 24 . we appreciate very much. such as argument. a bit of your personality.running a machine. In many cases the quality.I: I was very us. Positive: Thank you for your order. Even a letter that has to say "No" can be written from a positive point of view. you are certainly a good fellow. thank you. N Accentuate the positive. The merchandise will go out to you as soon as Since business letters represent a cornpany they must make friends. BUSINESS LETTERS UNIT E. too many business letters still make use of the stated phrases hackneyed expressions and stiff tone of turn-of-century business correspondence. you should make use of four basic psychological techniques: ! U"X" your letters smile. I u"t" your copy tive. Here are some friendly phrases you can and should freely: use 1. for bringing odr attention to Today. A business letter should have a pleasant impression. We shall be glad to. they must sound relaxed and conversatjonal. Business letters are the essential means of communications in industry and commerce. journalism. neglect. Sanders. 3. Let the reader see himself doing something . Mr. huppy to hear that my letter of January 5th provided suffi cient information for the completion of the order for The reader should feel what you say. create a visual experience. advertising. YOU: Thank you for your assurance that you had sufficient information for the completion of your order. telling his friend about triumphs.

If you are writing to a firm or group. the proper salutation is Dear Mr. b.UNIT II. Reverend Thomas E.observe the 5 C's of business correspondence: correctness. Dr. we wish to state. owing to.. in the near future. I should like to say that. An attractive letterhead. at an early date. we are writing to tell you.Haupt. the nature of the business (if the name is not self-explanatory) and the address as well the telephone number. us. city and state on the 2nd line with a comma between them. A business letter is made of the following six parts: 1. Mr. or greeting is placed below the inside address (2 spaces on the typewriter) and flush with the left-hand margin. branch offices. 5. you must give a complete heading: street address on the lst line. lnside Address: This is a part of the letter that is not a part of a friendly letter. date on the 3d line with a comma between the day and the year. wide margins short paragraphs create a good impression. the above. as per. according to our records. in reference to your order No.(dear is not capitalised). as a matter of fact. Messrs. c: If you are writing to an individual and have used his name in the inside address. 3. Hon. Ordinarily the inside address is placed 4 typewriter spaces below the heading or date and flush with the left-hand margin. we wish to call your attention to. Writing a letter your first purpose is to insure that the letter will be read. make the letter free of erasures. your esteemed favour. neat typing. Signature: A business letter is signed by hand in ink. we take pleasure. conciseness. Heading: Business firms use stationery bearing their letterhead. 2. The name (of the person or the firm or both) and address to whom the letter is written. - or My dear In a letter of more than one page only the first sheet bears the letterhead. Salutation: The salutation. the product you have bqen waiting for. it reflects the personality of the company as well as that of the individual. a good quality of white bond paper.a wasted phrase that helps the writerto get into the body of the letter. A business letter should . If you are writing to a specific person but know only his official position and not his name. we beg to advise. The 1st line of the body of a business letter is placed 2 Iypewriter spaces below the salutation. a. It should contain the nalne of the company. Many letters begin with 'breath-catcher' . Others should be spelt out: Professor Roger Keen. as the case may be. clearngss.. A letter should be spoken. When you write a business letter without a letterhead. this is to inform you. To make the picture attractive.. e-mail address. due to the fact that. 4. completengss" and courteousness. Business letters A good business letter has a definite character. the proper salutation is Gentlernen followed by a colon (for the USA) or Dear Sirs followed by a comma (for the UK). at the present writing. the party. A person's name abbreviations are Mr. Here are some tips: we are pleased to announce. no doubt you have. so advise . have you heard about. It may be placed at the right or in the centre. the date supplied iri the heading. contents noted. at hand. please be advised that. The writer's name and the title is typed below the signature. Avoid such trite and irritating expressions as: replying to your letter of. above mentioned. the correct salutation is Dear Sii (Dear Madam). Imagine that the reader is right there with you. Body of the letter: This is the actual subject matter. here it is. 27 26 .

unless made so by the question. Piazza 535 Chelsea € Full Stops after Mrs and D and commas after the lines of the address have not been used here. or else on the right Your refi Our ref: 19 September 1991 1991 t DAT DELIVERIES INTERNATIONAL Unit2Tl Perimeter Road Street Hemel Hempsted Herts. (blind carbon copies) is written on the copies themselves. This provides a further reference. Writer's job title. 'Private and confidential' This phrase may be within the head of a letter. € The subject line is underlined (without the use of Subject or Re) Thank you of a typist.g.g l . As appropriate. Sieaker Organizer Beeline Conferences Ltd. in cases where the letter is intended only for the eyes of the named recipient. 28 29 . Cqpies Yours sincerely.c. Common practice is still to use full stops after Ltd. usually at the end of the letter. and allows the writer to refer to it throughout the letter. US Sincerely yours) will not want the named recipient to know that other people have received copies. Yours sincerely if addressee's c. name.The date may S u pplenaENTARY coMMENTS also be placed below the sender's address if it is.c. Sometimes you on the top copy. although this is 1. irnmediately draws attention to the topic of the letter. saves introducing the subject in the first paragraph. and Rd. € € Not compulsory. when copies are sent to people other than the named recipient. underlined. Business letters Sample letter structure This can be spread across the top of the page.on the right. and more importantly on the envelope. . LONDON SWIG ITZ Dear Mrs Mascoli Proposed system installation 2. Mrs D Mascoli. One may add Mr or Mrs or Ms in brackets after the name. HE9 4EQ € € € € Signature Writer's name. Some variations are acceptable (e. of course. Application for the. It is necessary to begin the subject title with Re. 'Strictly Confidential' . In this case. you use the dentation. There are many variations of the phrase .'Confidential'. Subject titles Some firms open their letters with a subject title. though not . Other ways are l9th Sept. b. them. The paragraphs all begin at the left margin witho0t in- 3.c.UNIT II. . Yours faithfully if you begin Dear Sirs. possible: l gth Sept.but little difference in meaning between also acceptable. (:carbon copies) is written.

Casein Bredgade 51 Date: 2l July 2000 It is. intended letters tend to put them in the centre) and your firm's preference. SOUNDSONIC Ltd.Brownlow 600 Grand Street (Miss) T. Mrs.Allen M.Howatt (Mr) Messrs W. The position of the complimentary close .. Mary Raynor (Ms) p. a matter of choice whether you sign with your initial(s) (D. more common among women than among men..'o'. in fact. Foresl Hill. T Shurgold DK 1260 Copenhagen K Denmark Private and confidential' Dear Ms Casein. Solicitors LONDON WIN 9UZ UNITED KINGDOM 30 Make up a scheme of the letter structure 2.Unless. r Lichens B. right or in the centre of the page .Sc.Penter 49 Memorial Road ORGPINTON Kent BR6 9UA & Co Copies Exercise c. Business letters 4.B.B.D. partly because many women like to make it clear either that they are married (Mrs) or unmarried (Miss)..'r' and 'v' can easily be confused. you have not yet paid the above-mentioned invoice. Directors IJF S. It depends on the style of the letter (blocked letters tend to put the close on the left. Messers. Signatures Telephone (081) 566 1861 Fax (081) 566 13835 Telex: 819713 Always type your name after your hand-written signature and your position in the firm after your typed signature.Shurgold Mr G. 1.c. as in these two examples: Yours faithfully.Sampson Sales Manager I am sorry to say that. 'e' . usually in brackets. Our ret DS/MR ' Ms a matter of choice. It is safer. to some extent.on the left. 3l . to sign with your given name. Warwick Street. Including titles in signatures is.Jenkins) or your given name (David Jenkins). But if you give neither your given name nor your title. despite several Yours sincerely Howatt J. Complimentary close Exercise Analyse the structure of the sample letter below. London SE23 ChainmanJohn Fralnks O.p. Your rqf: 5. your correspondent will not be able to identifl your gender and may give you the wrong title when helshe replies. This is known as the signature block.E. I shall have no alternative but to place the matter in the hands of our solicitors. Ignot. It also possible to include the title in the typewritten signature. and whether you include a courtesy title (Mr.Non-payment of invoice 322/17 reminders. Yours sincerely. Ms) in yodr signature block. therefore.Poole & Jackson Ltd. the account is cleared within 14 days of th3 above date. therefore.UNIT II. Warwick House. letters as 'a'.A. Subject title :. Even though you may think your signature is easy to read. and the safest of all to include your title.

. the customers are aware of this. R.p. Though it tries to advertise the products and the company itself.i.Allen M. DENMARK Dear Ms. with prices that should suit all your customers.. the letter only explains what the customer can already see.s . we deal with countries frorn the Far East to Europe and Latin America. Directors S B. I would like to.) which this book regards as Standard. Casein. It shows some further features of a normal business letter. Dear MiArrand. Business letters Here is the firm''s reply to the letter from the prospective customer in Denmark. will find we are ready to offer you further information about our products and can promise you personal attention whenever you require it. the writer goes on explairring which countries the firm sells to. Your I ref 6 Mqa 2000 ref DS/MR ' Our References There are a number of things wrong with a letter of this sort. D. In addition.Lichens" . that there is a wide selection of watches in the catalogue covering the furr range of market prices. and as you probably know. SOUNDSONIC Ltd. etc. There is no need to explain that stores or shops are stocking for Christmas.are1come them.Sampson Sales manager Enclosed you prices to London and explaining our discounts which we think you very generous and which we hope you will take full advantage of. We often receive equiries fiom large stores and alwal.-. Warwick Street. open punctuation. it is too wordy. and its layout (blocked.unimpressive rhotto. and look forward to hearing from you. the history of the company.. Date llth May 2000 Ms. Forest Hill. Mary Raynor (Ms) p.r ''' I Telephone (081) 566 1861 Fax (081) 566 I385 Telex 819713 Letterhead . Rather than draw attention to certain items the customer might be interested in.A. and this fact alone been established for more than a hundred years and has made our motto a household world Everyone. and children. - Time for 32 ?? . Thank you very much for your enquiry which we received today. London SE23 lJF Chuirman John Franks O.Sc. Warwick Hguse. particularly at this time of the year when we know that you will be stocking for Christmas We have enclosed our winter catalogue and are sure you will be extremely impressed by the wide range of watches that we stock.E. l- We would welcome any further enquiries you have. will also find our price-list giving full detaits on c.. I am..UNIT II.and its rather.: 7. But whether you buy a cheaper or more expensive model we guarantee all merchandise for two years with a full service.N. Too long B.trgnot. Yours sincerely.f. B.enclosing our catalogue and price-list for the equipment you 3 said you were interested in.Casein Bredgade 51 Dk 1260 Copenhagen K Thank you very much for your enquiry of 5th in November which we received today. This service is given to all our customers throughout the world. women.B. from models costing only a few pounds to those in the upper-marked bracket priced at several hundred pounds. you will see that they ranqe from the traditional to the latest in quaftz movements and include ranges for men.draw yopr'attention to pages 35 in the catalogue where you will find full detaild of the Omesa range.

He might be concerned with the upper or lower end of the market. of There are a number of points missing from this letter. Sales Manager 34 JJ CA . 1) There is no reference to the date or reference number of the enquiry.i. if possible. Sales Manager 9. Yours faithfully.Thompson. Dear Mr Arrand. and any special discounts that are available should be quoted as well as deliveryz dates Your letter should be neither too long nor too short. since the writer knew the name of his correspondent he should have begin the letter Dear Mr Arrand and ended Yours sincerelv. If there is any further information you require. He might want moderately priced items. Sales Manager us.UNIT II. 8. Dear the catalogue. As you are probably aware. even though he may be ifritated by having to read the unnecessary parts. R. London prices. Business letters Once again may we thank you for your enquiry and say that we look forward to hearing from you in the near future? Yours sincqrely. lf vou leave out vital information. 2) Catalogues should be sent with a reply to an enquiry. Provided. lt is better to include too much information than too little. please contact Yours sincerely. The right length Here is a letter that is more suitable. Thank you for your enquiry. all our products are fully guaranteed and backed by our world-wide reputation.Thompson. it is annoying for a customer to have to wait for further information to be sent. We have a wide selection of watches which we are sure you will like.3 l-36 in our catalogue which we think might suit the market you are dealing with? And on page 25 you will notice our latest designs in pendant watches whjch are becoming fashionable for both men and women. quite apart from the fact that. djscounts and delivery dates.S. at least he'll have what he wants. Meanwhile. Though you will see we offer a wide selection of watches. lf you include extra information. that you include the vital information as well as the extras:'the worst letter of all is the one that gives every piece of information about a product: except the price.S. Too short ' We have enclosed our winter catalogue and price-list giving details c. Your reader cannot read your mind. There may be a completely new line that should be pointed out to him. 3) Even be drawn to particular items that would interest him in his line of Note: if a catalogue is sent. he won't know what he wants to know. Thank you for your enquiry of 5'r' November. R. we look forward to hearing from you soon. the customer's attention should business. may we draw your attention to pp. R. of course.Thompson.f. We f will be sending a catalogue soon. 4) A price-list should also be included if prices are not listed . or expensive ones.S. unless he writes back again and he may not bother to do that.

You were recommended to us by our associates DMS gWholesalers Ltd. had tioned.Thompson. he would probably be able to give us more advice and details of available systems. We would like to make a decision on this soon. Yours faithfully. They were impressed with the security system you installed for them.UNIT II. competitive quotation and full guarantees for maintenance and service would be necessary. Dear Mr Jarry. for whom you recently installed an alarm system. However. the rity Secure 18. Initially we will test your system in our main branch. switching to other subjects. R. and the country is written in capital letters. We are a chain of retail stores and are looking for an efficient secusystem. Do you give guarantees With the installations? We need an installation which would give us conrprehensive protection against robbery and shoplifting throughout all departments and the Secure 15 featured in your catalogue appears to suit us. but initially we would only install the system in our rnain branch. then referring back to the point you made a few sentences or paragraphs before. and if successful.S.Thompson. There is no clear sequence in the letter. in wlrich tbe ideas As well as containing the right amount of information. We would like . so we are writing to you about it. R. Clearsequence Here is a befter versiorl of the same letter. while something that can prevent robbery might suit our purposes. so the Secure 15 might . DMS (Wholesalers) Ltd. mentioned your name to us and showed us a catalogue. they are wholesalers. which makes it difficult to understand. In your catalogue we saw the Secure 15 which looks as though it nstalled. for letters in or going to the UK. and information are in logical order. Sales Manager Onoen AND SEQUENcE 2. the post-code is usually written on a line by itself at the end of the address. if one of your representatives could come along and see us. A business associate ofours. Yours sincerely. We would like to know more about the prices and discounts you offer. We are interested in your security system. Thank you. Please. but as we menof stores. Sales Manager How long would it take to install a system that would serve all de' partments? Could you send an inspector or adviser to see us at some time? 36 37 . Dear Sir.. Envelope addresses are written in a similar way to inside addresses but. Business letters AoonesstNc ENVELoPES If you can offer competitive prices and guarantees we would put your system in all our outlets. your letter should also make all the necessary points in a logical sequence' with each idea or piece of information linking up with the previous one in a pattern that can be followed. Do not jump around making a statement. DMS suit us. 1.S. Unclear sequence Consider this badly-written letter. so we would appreciate an early reply. reply as soon as possible as we would like to rnake a decision within the next few mqnths.

I look forward to lrearing from you soon. very briefly. information. Eneourage further enquiries or correspondence. fully and in a logical sequence. ning. but ptease contact me if there are any other details you require. It is in the middle paragraphs of a letterthat planning"is most important. You may also wishto restate. Final paragraph When closing the letter. First ParagraPh Thefirstsentenceorparagraphofaletterisanimportantone since it sets the tone of the letter and gives your reader his impression ofyou and Your company. May I point out that the summer season will soon be with us' so. for example.Business letters PlanuNG YouR LETTER b) Thank you for your letter of 19 August which I received tothe industrial floor coverings day.all prices are quoted c. Here are some examples: a) Once again thank you for writing to us. We 6 ll find a catalogue illustrating you asked used in factories and offices our wide throughout the world. 2. and mention that you look forward to hearing from your correspondent soon. Price-list 3rd Para draw attention to watches suitable for Mr' Arrand' and latest designs 4th Para mention guarantees and ieputation 5th Para encourage further contact would be six weeks from receipt of order. and payment should made by bank draft.all the questions you asked.f. 3. Here. delivery 2nd para enclose catalogue. one ortwo of the most important points you have made in the main part of your letter. b) I hope I have covered. to make sure that your most important points are rnade clearly. you should thank the person for writif your letter is a reply and if you have not done so at the begining.met in good time for when the season starts. I hope to hear from you in the near future. and please contact us if you would like any further.i. be 1. answers you wish to give. To go briefly over the points I have made . Middle paragraPhs tion in t]re right order. c) We are sur6 that you have made the right choice in choosing this particular line as it proves to be a leading seller' 38 39 . is a plan for a letter 1st para acknowledge enquirY This is the main part of your letter and will concern th€ points that need to be made.please place an order as soon as possible so that it can be. Yokohama. or questions yott wantto ask.

and accept our apologies lbr any inconvenience. however. Dear Sir. We now. Simplicity Commercial correspondence often suffers from an oldfashioned. have managed to trace all our commitments and take pleasure in enclosing our remittance for $620 which we trust will settle our indebtedness. Rohn. he has his cheque. all the writer is trying to do is explain why he delayed paying his account. ' I am replying to your letter of balance. We were unable to settle this matter due to the sudden demise of Mr. Dear Mr. Mr. Idioms and colloquial July asking us to clear our June ianguage It is important to try to get the right'tone' in your letter. However. and therefore we will sue you if your debt is not cleared within the next ten days. but. in a simple and clear style. full fonns rather than abbreviated forms. Please. Noel. and knows why. notice the stylistic devices that are used to make it more polite: complex sentences. I am reluctant to do this and am offering you a fufther ten days to settle the accourtt. nor lead you to believe that our not clearing our balance on the due date was an intention on our patt to delay payment. In this version of the same letter. Third. We hope that this unforeseen incident did not in any way inconvenience you.S. Please accept our profuse apologies. Dear Mr Aldine. Business letters If tliere is any advice or further ir-rformation you want we shall be happy to supply it. This should have been cleared three months ago. I refer to the previous letter sent on l0th October in which you were asked to clear the balancb of $591 which has been outstanditrg since July. R. beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the l5th inst. Yours sincerely. Mr. our accountant. generally speaking. Aldine will be satisfied with it because it tells him. This means that. because of the style. Finally. and as aresult were unaware of those accounts which were to be cleared. but due to the unfortunate death of Mr. we were not able to settle any of our outstanding balances.UNIT II. Yours. I apologise for not settling the account sooner. passive rather than active. We remain. You don't seem to want to co-operate in paying us. Here is the simpler version of the letter. howeveq be so simple that it becomes discourteous. in connection with our not clearing our account which was outstanding as at the end ofJune. I I have already written to you concerning your outstanding debt of $591. R. etc. 15th Yours sincerely. Second. and is difficult to write and read.S. his customer remembers his name. As you did not reply to the letter you leave little choice for me but to place the matter in the hands of solicitors. First.Thompson Sales Manager Courtesy Your style should not. Srvle AND LANGUAGE L. In this letter. 41 40 . he apologised. Noel. what he wants to know. Dear Sir. pompous style of English which complicates the message and gives the reader the feeling that he is reading a language he does not understand. you should aim for a neutral tone. yours. 2. joined by conjunction.Thompson Sales Manager 3. Here is an example of a letter that is so short and simple that it sounds rude. rather than short sentences. etc. Aldine knows his was not the only account that has not been paid. the letter is too long. find enclosed our cheque for $620. our accountant. and look forward to hearing from you.

Confusion in correspondence often arises through the lack of thought and care. But both parties need to know what the abbreviations stand for. 1. and short forms. e. 2. Numerical expressions can also cause confusion. write out the expression in both figures and words.o. 42 43 . For a full treatment of numerical expressions.UNIT II. for example. be wary of the words billion and trillion which mean different things in the UK and USA. but the general point is that you should be very wary of using idiomic or colloquial language in your letters.g. the decimal point in British and US usage is a full point rather than a comma as used in most continental European countries. These are perhaps extreme examples. If there is a possibility of confusion. For example.90 (ten thousand five hundred and seventy-five pounds. and there are a number of ways in which it can happen.n. idioms. do not use it. If you are not absolutely ceftain that an abbreviation will be easily recognized. EEC (European Economic Comrnunity) and UNO (United Nations Organizations. are even less likely to be known by the initials in other countries. that with a few exceptions (NATO is one of them) these abbreviations are not usually pronounced as a word. ninety pence). phrasal verbs. together with a preferred alternative: j Wrons you've probably guessed Risht you probably know the loan you'll getyour money back to go into property a couple will be repaid to invest in properfy two hundred pounds prices are very low prices have increased rapidly of hundred quid prices are at rock bottom prices have gone through the roof The abbreviations c.255 whereas a French person would write 4. among other things.o. are recognised internationally as meaning cost. Note. means our nearest offir? Some international organisations. (Conversely. NATO. are known in all countries by the same set of initials. Abbreviations Abbreviations can be useful because they are quick to write and easy to read. so that an English or American person would write 4.g. see Appendix 4 in the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary). Business letters avoiding pompous language on the one hand and informal or colloquial language on the other hand. CmRtrv Your corrgspondent must be able to understand what you have written. Figures The use of figures instead of words for dates can create problems.255 (Which to an English person would mean four thousand two hundred and fifty-five).b.i. But can you be sure that your colrespondent would know that o.. Apart from the danger of being misunderstood if your correspondent is a non-native speaker of English. CBI (Confederation of British Industry) and TUC iTrades Union Congress). insurance. e. for telephone purposes. $10. therefore. but as separate letters:/ti:ju:si:/ not/ t u k/. Here are a few examples of each. A letter may be given the wrong tone by the use of inappropriate vocabulary.f. and freight and free on board. e. and f.g. e. but many are not.g. you may also give an impression of over-fami liarity.575.

. Business letters 3. Dear Mr/Mrs Barrory Thank you in advance for any information you can give us. and The price has been increased from $15...00. There is a promising market here for good quality office maclrines.. Titles. Careless mistakes 1. that you spell your correspondent's name correctly and (nothing creates a worse impression than a misspelt name). and grammar should all be your reader. for example.. 45 44 . for immediate delivery and are interested in buying and woLrld like to have furlher details and would like to introduce these goods Would you kindly quote your best prices and terms of payment for .00. trf you know the personos name but not his/her sex (either bacause he/she only sings with an initial... your current catalogue showing. names. If you are writing . Userul lnquiries PHRASES Accunlcv in a letter can create a bad impression on Spelling. cheoked carefully. We normally effect payment by letter of credit. We require . Would you please let us have a filrn offer for. We look forward to receiving your quotation / prices / reply by return / as soon as possible. do not assume that he/she must be one sex or the other: vse Dear Sir or Madam rather than Dear Sir or Dear Madam. . The price has been increased by $15... Do not make assumptions about your correspondent's sex if you do not know it. or because his/her given name is new to you). but there are some other ways in which inacouracy may spoil your letter. comes up to our expectations . 2. . send us a pro-forma invoice for customs purposes. and rve may be able to place large orders with you. .. and then you write his/her address accurately. We are intgrested in importing . References An early answer would be appreciated.UNIT II. Payment Please When replying to a letteq make sure you quote all references accurately. If your prices are competitive / if the quality of the goods i if the samples meet with our custom- ers' approval we can probably let you have regular orders. to a Chief Buyer who you do not know. and addresses Make quite sure that you use the correct title in the address salutation. Please.00. Prepositions Special care should be taken when using prepositions' There is a big difference between: The price has been increased to $15.g. send us prices and samples of . will be made by cheque / bank transfer.. What quantities are you able to supply from the stock? We are in the market for . We are retailersiimporters/wholesalers in the toy trade. We read your advertisement. and would like to get in touch with suppliers/manufacturers We have heard of your products. e. punctuation. then use Mr/Mrs.

and therefore the offer is not subject to the usual discounts. since the supplies are limited. we can allow you a special discount of20 Yo onthe prices quoted. Delivery can be made from stock / is not included in the price Delivery will be made within two months of receipt of your order. . While stocks last We look forward to receiving a trial order from you. I pto47 46 . The quantity discounts vary according to the size ofthe order. . Please let us have your order as soon as possible. our terms of payment are 30 days net.b.a.i.) Payment quarterly / monthly / at sight. Peliyey" c. / FOB (free on board) ex works / ex factory These prices are ex warehouse.o.d. . We can alloy you three months' credit for future orders. Our usual terms are cash against documents (c. We are pleased to submit our lowest prices / to enclose our latest price list / for the goods you inquired about We can make you a firm offer for.o.) Cash on delivery (c. Your initial order is subject to a special discount of 2 %o. & f.f . but we can offer you a substitute. As our prices are so favourable. Subject to prior sale Prices subject to change without notice. Business letters Replies Quotations and Offers Thank you for our inquiry about your interest in . / CF (cost and freight) f.) forma invoice. The rooms at the back of the hotel are very quiet. Discounts For a quantity of 60 or more. . We shall reserve accornmodation for you accordingly.d. The goods you inquired about are sold out. freight) c. We have quoted special prices.uNtT'il. Terms of Payment Cash in advance Cash with order (c. . Please let us know your expected date ofarrival and the dura- tion of your stay. We can grant you a3 Yo discount on orders exceeding 100 in value / on repeat orders. Kindly remember this offer expires on September 30th. I CIF (cost. This firm offer is subject to acceptance by . Freight and insurance to be paid by buyer / by you. insurance.o. .w. We shall be able to accommodate all the members of your group in single or double rooms. There is an extra charge for private bathroom.

Accuracy. Abilify to address a meeting. - my trade. will ever Productive factors Personal factors alertness. speed.Getting. holding and leaving your job UNIT III. in- 2. endorsements. Personal character: l. There are two basic types of job-application letters: '1) a letter in response to an advertisement. In certain circumstances you may wish to include references. Abitity to supervise others. - intelligence. 4" My tastes and aptitudes. All these factors are presented in a manner aimed at proving that you can make a profit for the company that hires you. The first objective of any letter of application is to obtain an interview. - honesty. My education. My wages. What I know eral.. 5. 48 49 . imagination. Neatness. My ambitions. 4. personal qualities. 2) an unsolicited letter of application. 6. travels. Don't list merely the bare facts ofyour education and work experience. - to get along with people. business in gen- Usually a r6sum6 of your education and business background is enclosed with or is part of the application letter. 3. A resume that gives the essential facts about yourself. ideas. Special abilities and interests to supervise. judgement. 2. GETTING. or a photograph. HOLDING AND LEAVING YOUR JOB Tue APPLTcATToN LETTER 10. 8. related trades. 3. The letter of application which carries the burden of attracting attention. and those character traits that can be of value to an employei. Probably the most important personal letter you write is the one that will get you the job you want. A work sheet is a rough draft listing all the assets you have that will be of valLre to a prospective employer. Industry. initiative. and what you have actually accomplished. enthusiasm. and doing substantial part of selling you to your prospective employer. The application itself may include several parts: l. Ability to analyze facts and figures. If you are applying for the position of a controller you might list: 2. Sometimes you may send along samples of your work. Honesty. to setl. 9. your education. Ability to present facts. 1il. dustry accuracy. An application letter and r6sum6 should be tailored to the viewpoint of the reader and the first step is to make a work sheet. 4.Ability to get along with people. uNlr 7. loyalty. experience. high-school and college activities. 3. but put down your hobbies.

I have been saving substantial sums As traffic manager for the A. checked each against the return. I have become familiar with the various sales territories and with the problems of handling a group of twenty-seven salesmen on the road. Four years of specialized training in selling advertisemenfs have equipped me to be an effective addition to your staff. Four years as secretary to the sales manager of the Omega Products Company in Minneapolis have. try it against any previous mailing. size: In my offrce there is a sign that shouts in letters of increasing Results-results-RESULTS. The most common method to start your letter is to mention the point ofcontact. . Dear Si6 Since 1956 I have been responsible for all office details in the administration of sales. Sales Manager writing. and gradually the style and the rules that bring my average return well over two per cent. including writing of the correspondence. I am twentycapa- fbur years ofage and single. an accounting firm. I am leaving my present position because I feel I can use my bilities more fully in a position with a wider scope.Thompson. I was a typist for B. My present employer knows of my ambition and is helping me to find a new place. My work has been largely concerned with mail-orders services and organizations. I graduated from Janesville High School in June 1953. R.C. The best way for you to judge what I can do for you is to let me write a letter to fit your problem. Corporation. Then compare the results. and I value this training I think I have learned more fiom trial and error and checking returns. Your adveftisement intrigued me because it offered advancement in a field for which I am particularly qualified by experience and aptitude Dear Sir. . Cortland. Your objective should be to present your qualifications so as to convinoe your prospective employer that a) you can justifl. here is only one qualification for a letter or a mailing piece the return it brings. I think I have what clicks.uNtT ilt. Corporation and before that as shipping manager for the B. As far as I am concerned. If you think it is wofth a test. B.S. your salary and b) return his profit to him. Sales Manager Words are my business. printers.Thompson. circulars and letters. Helpfultips: Your adveftisement in the Sunday Time . I rerouted thousands of shipments to cut delivery charges by more than 50 per cent. I study advertising at New York University. Can you use my seven year experience standing of mercantiJe firms in New England? in rating the credit for big For eight years shippers in Janesville. Your letter must appeal to the self-interest of your prospective employer. for I am a working newspaper woman with six year experience. In the course of my work. and private business concerns. I believe. And in the course of many years of copy May I see you at your offrce to tell you more about myself and show you how well I can do the work you require? Very truly yours. given me the experience to qualifo lor the job advertised in Tuesday's Times. I was employed at Omega. I have written hundreds of direct-mail 50 5l .S. There I became familiar with accounting The year before terms and procedures.C. May I see ' you to tell more about myself and what I can do? Very sincerely yours. I know I can get them from you. My five years in the bookkeeping department of the pacific Sales Corporation have given me sound and varied experience that can be ofvalue to your company. R.

more forceful and convincing than an answer to an advertisement' And details of your background should be set down in a separate r6sum6. some detail that could be better delegated to sistant. That was the conclusion I came to after a great deal of study. because it must entice your prospective employer to read further.C. In essence.uNrT lil. The enclosed rdsumd of my background and experience will tell there is a basis for your further consideration. all illustrated with my own pictures. A letter of application may also cover: Why you are seeking a position Why you parlicularly want to work for this company Why you feel qualified for this position Why you left your last job . Conductor of a syndicated newspaper column on photography.only if it is not a reason that does not reflect on you unfavourably. the letter must be stronger. and as a result I am taking the libcrty of sending you this letter. Worked lrom repofter copyreader to assistant city editor of a daily newspaper. Sample Letter Ns1: did not answer the ad because I do not consider myself a younger aggressive man. I On the other hand. science and mechanic magazines. Corporation is your company. Tne uNsoltctrED LETTER lice. Helnful Tips: As a photographer: Three years as industrial and public'relations bameraman for the John Smith Travel Agency. Sample Letter Ne 2 My thorough and varied training in many phases of business management should be of considerable value to you in setting up your new of52 53 . As a reporter: Studied journalism at the University of Southern California. Author of dozens of articles in all the leading photography magazines. Please drop me a line and if I will be glad to come in to see you at any time convenient to you. and a variety of general magazines' I am acquainted with the general needs of business. The start of an unsolicited letter of application has to be particularly strong.and trade-publication editors through many years of publicity writing. a responsible as- I am looking for just such an oppoftunity to prove myself. I am 39 and I have too much business experience to view aggressiveness as the panacea for getting thejob done.major features in leading men's magazines. Therefore I am sending a resume of my business background so that you may have it on your desk for consideration when you choose your staff' The company that can profit most fiom my five years of experience irs manager at the D. Since an unsolicited letter is basically a sales letter. I have tried writing business features and found that editors like my work. will you give me a few minutes to tell you how my production experience with the Alphs Company can rnake service to you? Unsolicited letters of application are generally sent to all or a selected group of companies in the field of your major career interest. Fulltime free-lance writer for five years . Picture editor of a daily newspaper. Producer of picture stories published in'more than a hundred magazines. I do believe I have qualifications in more than carry my weight as an administrative assistant to the company president or any other executive ih your firm who spends too much of his valuable time with burden. When you visit New York next month. The unsolicited letter goes to a man who probably isn't looking for an additional employee. it should be positive in tone and aimed at the profit motive of the prospective employer. say you are qualified for one specificjob. Recently.

. I would like to apply for the position of Programmer advertised in this month's edition of Computer Technics. you can give Generally. newspapers and magazines are usually the main source for vacancies. you can open like this: I am writing to ask if you might have a vacancy in the (your) general office/sales/export/accounts department for a(n) c erical assistanVsales person/export manager/accounts clerk.00 and the usual benefits in terms of conditions and holidays). some brief details about yourself. . as with most correspondence. it is better to simply state what you are doing. i. I lf someone associated with the company them. (female) are no longer permitted by law If your inquiry is only for an application form. My motive is now seeking to work intensively in the busirress field after a fair degree of success in the highly competitive general publications in probably the same as your own . hrs 9-5 usl bnfts. the terms vacancy. but for interviews. enjoy greater security. For these editors who want a steady correspondent.I think I can make more money. D4vid Mclean I am answering your advertisement for the post 'frainee which appeared in yesterday's Times. position. I will become a specialist and make intensive study of your problems. . It is worth remembering. I am writing to you concerning your advertisement on l2 May in the Guardian.00 to 17. 5-day good rates. especially in the 'small ad' section for appointments. to write to you/contact you concerning a possible post in your/the .Getting. OPENING If replying to an advertisement. vacs (vacations). (Wanted. mngr (manager). my offering complete coverage. you can open thus: told you to write to I was recommended by . 54 55 . Terms like m. secretary for full-time employment for small manufacturing company. f. . e. that your letters. Good salary five days a week. Sincerely yours. of Bank I am replying to the advertisement of 18 June for a Sales Manager which you placed in the Export Journal. then ask for the form. department.g. . fulltime smll mnfg co Gd slr. hours of work 09. when applying for a post that has not been advertised. holding and leaving your job uNtT ilt. If you think you can use my services. AovennsMENTS Advertisements (Ads) for employment are placed in all the media including radio and television. who is currently working in/who has had a long association with your firm/who is one of suppliers/customers. in these cases. post. If applying for a position which has not been advertised.e.g. E. . accnts (accounts). I prefer to work by assignment. . at this point. However. The following examples can also be used for unsolicited applications. asst (assistant). or opening are used for the word job in applications. but I will feed a stream of material to any editor who can use enough volume ftom the South to justif. for a bilingual secretary to work in your export department. Most 'ads' use abbreviated forms to announce conditions of employment. and make fuller use of my abilities. please send me several copies ofyour publication. Wntd sec. (male). are not l'or the positions themselves. APPLYING FOR AN APPLICATION FORM Other abbreviations that might appear include clk (clerk). and remember to give a date reference.

Therefore. and are readvertising the vacancy.Gettinq. since (date). of (title) which discussed at your interview on (date). and I have been there for (number of years). OPENING l. Thank you for attending our qelection on (date). or there are too many applicants of similar quatifications ind abiliry so the company makes a choice based on nothing more than the personality of the interviewee at the time of selection. Marcno A DEcrsroN TURNING DOWN AN APPLICANT There are various reasons why a company may not offer a candidate i job. We are prepared to offer you the position of (itle) which you applied for. We are sorry to say that we are unable to offer the position of (title) for which you were interviewed on (date). competence. We have decided not to accept any applicants who were . We are pleased to inform you that you were successful in your interview for (title) which you attend on (date). 56 57 . and these include lack of qualifications. OFFERING A POSITION Letters to successful applicants vary in length and detail depending on the type of post. Thank for seeing us on (date). 2. how you present yourself at an interview is as how you present yourself in your application. but we regret to tell you that you were not successful in your application. USEFUL PIIRASES: 1. The selection board have approved ofyour appointment as (title). whether the company has a standard printed contract. 3. not interviewed for the post of (title). hope you will be more successful in the future. We regret to tell you that we are not able to offer you the post of (title) which you applied for on (date). There is no need to give any more information at this stage. was educated at (secondary school) which I left in (date) having taken (leaving certificate). mentioning any special topics that would be relevant to the position). 2. We hope you will be able to secure a position in the near future. It is worth noting that it is rare for a candidate to be told why he or she has been refused. so the letter can be closed: Please can you send me an application form and any other relevant details? I would be grateful if you could send me an application form. 3. I am 23 years old. and if in the meantime you need any further details about me I would be happy to supply them. or ifthe position is so specialized that they need to give details of the terms of employment. I graduated from (college/university) in (date) with a (diploma/degree) in (subject and class. At present I am employed by (name of firm) where I d{al with/am employed as (title)/am employed in (department)/concerned with (description of work). they do not think the applicant has the ability or experience to handle the post. I am pleased to tell you that we are offering you the post 4. i.e. holding and leaving your job uNtT ilt. We hope you will soon find the position you are looking for. 4.

who you will be working with. 1l October 20--. Your traineeship will commence on Monday.e. . Hours: 8. January 20--. Enclosed with the letter you will find full details of your conditions and terms of employment. the law demands that firms offer contracts of employment.00 pounds sterling. li I look forward to.m. Overtime: Time-and-a-half. Benefits: Subsidized staff canteen.30. 14 November and terminate on Friday. to 6.T. please let me know as soon as possible. Monday to Friday. seeing you in my office at 9. Jenson. CLOSE Generally a company will welcome the new employee's possible questions about the terms and conditions of employment (if anything is not clear) and asking for written confirmation of acceptance. I will see you at 8.00. . Holidays: Three weeks annual leave. Notice: One month's notice either side. Social Club. USEFUL PHRASES: Would you please check the following which was agreed at your interview: Title: Maintenance Engineer. The bank has agreed to accept you for the post of trainee subject to usual references. DETAILS As we discussed in your interview your duties will include. Sick leave: Ten days per annum. Your Contract of Employment is attached to this letter.30 a. In the UK. you will be subject to all terms and conditions of a lull-time bank employee in the Securities Department.n after one year's service. holding and leaving your job uNtT ilr. Two weeks' notice of termination of employment is required by both you and the company. time at discretion of Supervisor. Duties: Servicing all company products. . return the enclosed Contraot of Employment.00 on Monday 9th March. Commence: 8. Although this is a temporary position.30 on Monday. on Monday 10. 5. Monday 9th March 200--.If there are any questionsconcerning the enclosed conditions. when I can welcome you'to the organization and give Please. Days: Monday to Friday. Please read these carefully and if you have any questions. Mr. signed with your letter of acceptance. asking lhe applicant to sign one copy and return it with their confirmation. You are entitled to dll Bank'Holidays. Annual Pay: 12.00 a. please contact me immediately. 14 November. Full use of company vehicle.m.Working hours are from 09. and these are often sent with letters offering a job. Double time for Public Holidays' Pension: Non-Contributory Pension Scheme at7 Yo of annual pay. E. dnd overtime will be paid at time-and-a-half rates. you details of your duties. which you will be eligible to join after your first year of employment.00 to 17. and Mr. There is a Staff Contributory Pension Scheme.Wright.Getting. If there is anything in the handbook you do not understand about your conditions of employment. will you sign one copy and return it to the Personnel Officer. with a note confirming you have accepted the position.m. so that I can introduce you to the other members of staff. Please meet me at my office in the bank at 08.00 p. contact me as soon as possible. plus all Public Holidays. 58 59 . Otherwise. plus three weeks' vacatio.

00.v. and look forward to seeing you then. working history. Of course. I have read the handbook and relevant details concerning the position. and if an application form has been sent. March at 08. Ask the letter of recommendation to be addressed to the prospective employer by name rather than 'To whom it may concern'. A letter of recofirmendatiort is valuable only if it is specific.00. long as they mention the relevant points. but prefer applications to supply a curriculum vitae (c. Remember to quote any reference numbers or job titles that have to be mentioned. Jenson at 08. on Monday 10. These men know me and my work from various angles.g. 14 November. I believe Morris Saunders to be the largest single influence in creating good employee morale at Hastings. ACCEPTING A POSITION Letters confirming that you accept a position can be brief. but you can show him your application letter and resume and make factful suggestions. offering me the position of (title). Thank you for your letter of 23 December 20--. I look forward to meeting you and Mr. you can't tell your former boss exactly what to say.of the Conftact of Employrnent. arrd thank the company. holding and leaving your iob uNtT ilt.. either explainirrg points that might not be clear. I am ieturning a signed Contract of Employment which you sent me with your letter of 15 February. sincere.Getting. or giving further information to emphasize your suitability for the post. and somewhat personal in tone.30. starting on Monday. I look forward to seeing you at 09.v. S tutuy I refer to the following men and women with whom I have worked on various occasions? 60 61 . I confirrn that I will be able to commence with you on Monday 9. REFERENCES AND LETTERS OF RECOMMENDATION References are not usually included in a resume. as My former employers and those with whom I have done business will vouch for my integrity and good reputation in the trade. January and enclose one signed copy. There should be a coverirrg letter with application forms and c. producirtg sales technique Any sales agency that can profit from imagination and will profit by Jim Tuck's services. and accept the conditions. E. CURRICULUM VITAE Some companies do not send application forms.) which is your personal Thank you for offering me the temporary position of trainee in your bank.

The most common types include: Lists work experience in reverse chronological order and describes it as formaljob duties and responsibilities rather than in terms of individual abilities. such as height. They force readers to interpret candidates' backgrounds and qualifications.Functional r6sum6 . emphasizing major strengths. and references. they are the least exciting and effective r6sum6s for irrdividuals beginning professional careers or making career changes . and using a more appropriate language to express your strengths in relationship to both your objective and employers' needs. accomplishments. . lhey do have one major advantage: most employers are familiar 63 62 . . For example.beeause it locks you into your past as well as RESUME nruo cv wRtnNG The typical chronological r6sum6 has several standard characteristics. or nEsuutEs A r6sum6 is an advertisement of who you are in terms of your competencies.Emphasizes work history rather than presents one's capabilities in reference to employers'future performance needs. if you died today and we looked at your chronological r6sum6. Fufthermore. There are many different types of r6sum6s from which you can select an appropriate format to communicate your qualifications to employers. . a chronological r6sum6 clearly communicates this fact to potential employers. some people feel this r6sum6 literally "kills" your chances of getting an interview . Leave out extraneous information which usually clutters this type of r6sum6. It is the easiest type of r6sum6 to produce.Combination rdsumd . your rdsum6 would be an excellent copy for writing a standard three-inch column obituary about what you did in the past. followed by job titles and the names and adclresses of former employers. weight. many of which constitute major r6sum6 weaknesbes: '= Lacks a job objective and thus lacks internal coherence.Chronological rdsum6 . skills. In other words. R6sum6 and CV wlitinq UNIT TYpes are changing careers IV. and future capabilities. . hobbies. you have little work cxperience. Chronological r6sum6s have several advantages and disadvantages. It is the standard format used by a high percentage of r6sumd wiiters today. It is your chief marketing tool or calling card for opening the doors of prospective employers.Rdsum6 letter C xnonoLoctcAL nEsu wtEs While chronological rdsum6s are the easiest to write in this traditional form. and accomplishments. If. Says a lot about what you did in the past but little about what you can and will - do in the future.Puts dates first.unless they have direct and progressive work experience related to ir position in question. for example. the reader. describe your job activities and talk in functional terms which highlight your transferable skills. Chronological r6sum6s also are known in some quarters as "obituary r6sum6s". relating your experience to the objective.particularly if you If you choose a chronological r6sum6. Control the interprelations yourself by including an objective. try to minimize the tmount of interpretation required by. While they are much maligned by "expert" rdsum6 writers.UNIT IV. lails to communicate your strengths. The chronological r6sum6 seems to be everyone's favourite.

2ll4192 to present: Secretary. Topper 136 W Davis St. Pennsylv ania 19322. a chronological r6sum6 has one major advantage for ernployers: it helps them screen in and screen out applicants based upon job titles and work history. Weight: I22lbs. D.UNIT IV.Include a functional work objective. 294 Wisconsin Orleans. Overall. 442 Virginia Ave. Fairfax. Foreign Language Department. George Mason University. Grace Methodist Church. Boston.I98l Wbrl< Experience Harrisonburg High School. Red Cross. 992 Fairy Avenue. Virginia. After all. STR Systems Rm.A. Community Involvement 1992 to present: Sunday school teacher. lnc.. 1982 . 1977 . Falls Church. On the other hand.. You can do this by doing the following: Traditional Ghronological R6sum6s (lail S. Harrisonburg. to 2l9l9l: Secretary. Chronological r6sum6s have other advantages too.C. functional and combination r6sumds enable you to structure the thinking"of your audience around your strengths. Sears Reobuck Avenue. NTC Corporation. Charleston.l98l: Held severaljobs as cook.. counter help. I received my B. Massachusetts 08233 513182 & Co. Phi ladelphia. degree. Virginia. Springfield. Virginia 228 I 9 311185 to 9/14186: Salesclerk. tlris format does not provide the best presentation of yor. Employers find these rdsum6s useful outlines for discussing your past employ'ment record during the interview. l9l7 . salesclerk... 1988: Volunteer. in Comunications.A. 64 65 . 9128181 to 114188: Typist. Falls Church. South Carolina3189l. Employment gaps stand out sharply' The format may emphasize too many unrelated job experiences' Your strongest competencies are not to emphasize to your advantage. 2381 Rhode Island Ave. Since the majority of job applicants use this format. Fairfax. typist. New mediately following your position titles and places of employment. These principles are illustrated in the two contrasting ihronological r6sum6 examples. . Virginia 2245 l. Virginia. . to 2lll84: Salesclerk.1988 George Mason University.Write functional descriptions of your work experience im- Louisiana 70014. Virginia. You take the initiative in interpreting your qualifications throughout the r6sum6 rather than force the prospective employer to draw conclusions about your future performance based upon a reading of historical information. The disadvantages of the chronological r6sum6 are particularly e'vident for individttals first entering or re-entering the job mar' ket or changing careers. If you have a stable employment history. 2130189 4l2l188 to 2120189: Secretary. you can effectively highlight your experience using this format. They are relatively easy to write.rr background and abilities ifyou are trying to enter a new occupation.. MCT Corporation. 2l. 391 Old Main Rd. R6sum6 and CV writing with them and expect to receive them.1984 Northern Virginia Community College. . you can make your chronological r6sum6 stand out from the rest by writing it well and designing it tastefully. Annandale. Virginia. and secretarial assistant. Washington. Fleight:5'4" Born:814160 Washington. Martin Computer Services. DC 20030 202-465-9821 Health: Good Marital Status: Married Ilducation 1985 . ll9l87 to 7130187: Secretary. Sending a functional or combination rdsurnd to a traditional employer may Lrpset him or her because these other types of r6sum6s violate the traditional norm of chronology. I completed my M. JT's. 332 Monroe St. 2001 1.

442 Virsinia Avenue. Developed direct sales approach. Pennsylvania 19322 2381 Martin Computer Services. New Orleans.. in information processing where initiative. I. IBM 6640 (ink jet printer). George Mason University. Operated Mag card and high speed printers: IBM 6240. and several copying machines. 1988 - 1989 136 West Davis Street Washington. l9g5 to 19g7. STR Systems. . Teems. II. 21. Assistant Persoirnel Director. Philadelphia. Boston. New Orleans.9821 SALES Sears Roebuck 08233: & Co. various duplicating machines. bicycle. TOPPER Equipment operation and production responsibilities. Washington. lmproved turnaround time for documents production. Developed and organized tech_ nical reference room for more effective use of equip_ ment.442 Virginia Ave'. garden. Martin Computer Services. Annandale. Solved customer complaints. Familiar with addressograph. References John R. I can operate IBM Mag Card A and [I typewriters. 66 67 . Virginia 20789 James Stevens. 1984: Stage crew member.332 Monroe St. Improved efficiency of personnel.000 in additional labour costs. Reorganized product displays.. IBM 6640. Hobbies - Courses in interpersonal communication. 1992 to present. Handled orders. which saved company $30. . Secretary. Rm. MCT Corporation. Maintained inventory. Personal Statement Worked full-time in earning 100 oh of educational and personal expenses I have good manual dexterity developed by working back stage'in theatrical productions and working with various office machines. TECHNICAL MCT Corporation. Alice Bears. DC 20030 2021465 . Fairfax. EXPERIENCE: Promoted improved community rela_ tions with company. cook. 391 Old Dominion Rd. Charleston.A. 1983: Extra. l9g9 to 1991. dictaphones. 1982 to 1984.UNIT IV. Operated Savin word processor.. Resum6 and CV writing EDUCATION: B. . Created new tracking and filing system for Mag cards. leading to management . D"C. I am willing to relocate and travel. SC 37891: Communicational responsibilities. Manager.3gl Main Rd.Lnc. administrative and technical experience. Initiated time and cost studies. 1988 psychology. 294 Wisconsin Avenue. . I like to swim. STR Systems. Louisiana. 2001 1. DC 20011: lmproved Ghronological R6sum6 GAIL S.238l Rhode Island Avenue. LA 70014: Recruited new clients. MA OBJECTIVE: A professional sales pos'ition . .. and interpersonal skills will be used for maximizing sales and promoting good customer relations. and listen to rock music.. Rm' 21. Mag A. Rhode Island Ave. management responsiword processing center. .. Washinston. Community Theatre Group' Annandale. Virginia. Community Theatre Group.lT's.. Also contact the Office of Career Planning and Placement at George Mason University.Communication. Handled customer complaints. Virginia. and public speaking.

Some writers have a tendency to make generous use of a functional language which appears "canned" and says little about the specifics employers look for in candidates. I'ERSONAL: Excellent health . R6sum6 and CV writing Furucrrorual nEsunnEs The functional r6sum6 tends to be the logical opposite of the chronological r6sum6.A. . Functional r6sum6s are especially useful for individuals lacking work experience or for those trying to enter a new occupation where they lack direct job-related experience. Virginia. TECHNICAL: Eight years of experience in operating Mag card and high speed printers. IBM 6240. ITEFERENCES: Available upon 68 69 . your functional rdsum6 must be a delicate balance between the employer's need to know "the details" and your desire to motivate the employer to invite you to the interview where you will talk about. positions. and and public speaking. skills. TOPPER 136 West Davis St Washington. Planned and re-organized word processing center. IBM 6640. De-emphasizing dates. which saved additional labour costs and improved efficiency of personnel. and responsibilities while emphasizing qualifications. . Developed a4d organized technical reference room for more effcctive utilization of equipment. Mag A. This rdsumd begins with a functional job objectiVe and organizes skills into functional categories. and Savin word processor. . in Communic4!!q-!l!!! George Mason University. DC 20030 202 / 465 -9821 OBJECTIVE: A professional sales position . . Rather than grabbing the attention of employers. Reading this type of r6sum6. . employers may ask "where s the beeJ? " Lacking content. these rdsumds may raise more questions than you want to answer. and related accornplishments. in information processing where adrninistrative and technical experience. Functional r6sum6s do have certain weaknesses if not done properly. 'Iherefore. psychology. .UNIT IV. Maintained inventory. I."Nonetheless. The functional 16sum6 is internally coherent because all elements focus on an objective and an audience. CUSTOMER RELATIONS: PLANNING Re-organized product displays. -Worked full-time in earning 100 % of educational personal expenses. . AREAS OF EFFECTIVENESS SALES / Promoted improved community relations with business. This r6sum6 essentially outlines abilities and transferable skills and tells employers what you will most likely do for them.enjoy challenges . initiative." the details. Solved customer complaints. . some of these rdsum6s may turn off employers because they appear cleverly designed to cover-over the lack of experience. interested in productivity . . leading to management . - Courses in interpersonal communication. a well structured functional rdsumd can be an outstanding document for presenting your skills. For example. Received and hlled orders. this type of resume can communicate "fluff' if not expertly structured around concrete experience and a clear objective. . Created new tracking and filing system for Mag cards which resulted in eliminating redundancy and improving turnaround time. willing to relocate and travel. !mproved Functional R6sum6s GAIL S. Recruited new clients. request. Fairfax. company / ORGANIZING: Initiated time and cost studies. and interpersonal skills will be used for maximizing sales and promoting good customer relations EDUCATION: B. II.

II. GAIL S. Springfield. and Savin word EMPLOYMENT MCT Corporation. yet include names and dates. Although similar to the functional r6sumd in describing and explaining experience. . talk about your abcomplishments. R6sum6 and CV writing GoMerNmoru nEsuuEs The combination r6sum6 combines the best elements of the chronological and functional formats. which saved company additional labour costs and improved efhciency of personnel. and public speaking. .inCommunication. TOPPER ORGANIZING: Initiated time and cost studies. As such. This is basically a letter that summarizes your employment goals and qualifications. enjoy challenges . For many individuals. I. . Developed and organized technical reference room for more effective utilization of equipment. their functional and chronological sections may overlap and create annoying information processing where administrative and technical experience. . this is the ideal type of r6sum6 . TECHNICAL: processor. Virginia. Recruited new clients.George Mason University. Fairfax. '['his letter should follow the same rules for writing good a rdsum6: be concise.lg88 . . Philadelphia. Created new tracking and filing system for Mag cards which resulted in eliminating redundancy and improving turnaround time.leading to management . VA Sys- EDUCATION: B. Combination r6sum6s stress skills and competencies. this format includes a brief employment history section.bridging both the chronological afid functional r6sum6 formats and language. Combination r6sum6s have one major problem: they are usually difficult to write. CUSTOMER RELATIONS: PLANNING Re-organized product displays. Washington. These r6sum6s enable you to stress your qualifications in both chronological and functional terms as well as han0le employment history easily. Maintained inventory. initiative. DC NTC Corporation. SC STR tems. and interpersonal skills will be used for maximizing sales and REsuurE LETTERS R6sum6 letters should be used if a r6sumd is not available or if a situation. Solved customer complaints. . Received and filled orders. / Planned and re-organized word processing center. . . . Inc. AREAS OF EFFECTIVENESS SALES / Promoted improved communiry relations with business. When using this letter. Washinston. your goal should be to communicate directly to a specific person in an organization your skills and qualifications. .UNIT IV. interested in productivity . this is a unique and complete rdsum6 for many employment situations. In addition. IBM 6640. identifo the needs of the employer.Courses in interpersonal communication. Mag A.A.. psychology. DC 20030 and 136 West Davis St 202t46s-9821 OBJECTIVE: A professional sales position promoting good customer relations. . willing to relocate and travel. and show how your abilities and skills can meet the employer's needs. Eight years of experience in operating Mag card and high speed printerS: IBM 6240. PA BXPERIENCE: Martin Computer Services. use action not appropriate for sending a rdsum6. . -Worked full-time in earning l00yoOf educational personal expenses. PERSONAL: Excellent health . Charleston. 71 70 .

practical answers to these questions by examining the structure of your r6sum6. Thomas: Advanced Technology's word processing equipment is the finest on the market today. James C. I know because I have used different systems over the past eight years. After doing this. What you plan to do for the employer. ToPPer 72 . I. Thank you for your consideration. hobbies. What you enjoy doing. 2. You do this through a process of self-discovery that flushes out: and job 1. created new tracking and filling systems. I have a bachelor's degree in communication with emphasis on public speaking. Your rdsum6 should represent your best self . DC 20030 January 7. and includes the following information categories and writing rules: 73 Gail S. I would appreciate an opportunity to meet with you to discuss how my qualifications can best meet your needs. IBM 6640. MAG A.the best of what you have done. 3. President . MD 20110 Dear Mr. sales. Your best self includes your strengths and achievements reformulated and targeted around your career goals. and will do in the future.. 'fhis document must communicate both your goals and strengths directly related to employers' needs. to arrange a meeting with you at a convenient time. . II. initiated time and cost studies which reduced labor costs by $ 40.000 and improved efficiency of operations. and Savin word processor. My technical. I will call your office next Monday. received and filled - Communicating your qualifications to employers via rdsum6s search letters requires that you produce particular types of documents that will have impact on employers. interpersonal communication. Make it both attractive and functional. improved business-community relations. Advanced Technology CorPoration 721 West Stevens Road Bethesda. maintained inventory. you take this information and reformulate it so that it becomes the basis for structuring each section of your 16sumd and letters. What you do well. Over next few months I will be seeking a sales position with an information processing company. Present Your Best Self So what are you planning to put on your rdsumd? Should you include an objective? What about your references. Technical: eight years operating Mag card and high speed printers: IBM 6240. Your company is the type of organization I would like to be associated with. and salary expectations? Better still.Sales: recruited clients. Thomas. Sincerely yours. . and psychology' Your company interests me very much. Washington. and administrative experience include: orders.Administrative: planned and re-organized word processing center. Specify Contact I nformation The first item appearing on your rdsum6 should be your contact information. Davis St. what should you leave offl What are the sources for this information? How should each section be developed and related to other sections? Do you have a clear plan for putting each section of your rdsum6 together? Let's find some good.UNIT IV R6sum6 and CV writing DeveloP PowERFUL RESUME 136 W. preferably centered. January 18. can do. It always appears at the top of the r6sum6. In addition.

the objective on the r6sum6 is relatively easy. It indicates a lack of clear purpose and direction. If you word process your r6sum6. or use a telephone answering machine." or "Career Profile" section. If you have e-mail. letter. Otherwise.ur home mailing address . But be sure you communicate. Address: Use yo. Avoid thd'coldness of abbreviations. and fax numbers where you can be reached during the day and evening or a number where a message can be left for you. If you use titles such as Mr. Since it will be the very first piece of information the reader sees on your r6sum6." Your objective should state'your strongest qualifications for meeting employer's needs. it should not contain trite terms which emphasize 75 You havb two options here: (l) place an objective on the 16(2) leave it off but include it in your accompanying cover 74 .UNIT IV. It is best to aapitalize all letters in your name. some rdsum6 advisers recommend starling with a "Summary of Experience. Nonetheless.avoid P. R6sum6 and CV Name: State your full professiohal name. include both permanent and temporary address: The purpose of your address is to get the mail to you as quickly as possible . your qualification s are "what you have to offef. The leason many people. changing. Bdx numbers. This is especially prudent if they plan to have their rdsum6 professionally printed. It should communicate what you Irave to offer an employer without emphasizing what you expect the cmployer to do for you. If you are highly mobile. enlist a telephone answering service. We still prefer the objective at the top of the r6sum6. Dr.Snell. in. your objective should be work-centered. such as "I. you can literally design your 16sum6 around specific jobs. Following it with these other types of summary statements is an excellent idea. At the same time. However.some manner.T.and not to indicate where you are "from". you may conduct 4 traditionally disorganized search with a weak chronological r6sum6. we see an objective statement to be necessary professional. include your e-mail address... it should invite one to read further.D. Contact Numbers: List the humorous messages or lots of bells and whistles. pager.prefer putting an objective in a cover letter rather than on the r6sumd is that they don't want to re-type tlreir rdsum6 every time they. Since many people now word process their r6sum6. sum6 or proverbial "Six o7e way. because it should be the central focal point around which all other elements irr the r6sum6 cluster. it can be used repeatedly for different positions and audiences. changing one's objective for each employer is a sign of trying to fit into a job rather than finding a job fit for oneself. Some consider an objective statement to be an unnecessary.However. If you know what you want to do and can state your objective in general terms. Be sure you record a professiottal message .in lieu of an objective statement. half a dozen another" lt may not make rnuch difference in the end. use a pager. your career direction." "Career Highlights." Do not use more than one abbreviated initial.. want to target their objective for a particular position.. The long distance area code should be included. or Ph. Do not forget to include your zip code..O. State an Employer-Oriented Objective The job objective normally appears immediately following your contact information. Make sure your contact information is uncluttered and irleasiflg to the eye." "Summary ol Qualifications. Mrs. and'optional item. In other words. the use of word processors to create r6sum6s enables you to easily target your objective for each employer. Ms.. pretentious. The position you seek is "what you Want to do". The relative impact of these different strategies may be the old Using Objectives Your objective should be a concise statement of what you want to do and what you have to offer to an employer. An objective appearing atthe top of your r6sumd makes your r6sumd more complete and balanced. and thoughtful. you may appear pompous and distant. If you are at a temporary location.

qualifications. " The following are examples of weak and strong objectiye slatements. tlifferent levels: a general objective and a specific one for your rdsum6. "A position in social services which will allow me to work x. The in- will get a job "I would like a job where my experience in progTam developtttcnt.based on a thorough understanding ofyour abilities and skills . begin with the statement: "I would like a job where I can use my ability to which will result in The objective in this statement is both a skill and an outcome. if you know wlrat you want and can help the employer define his or her "needs" as your objective.sition in Personnel Administration with a progressive " lirm. Your job objective should be oriented toward skills and out' proven decision-making and system engineering abilities will ltc usedfor improving organizational productivity.UNIT re-write this objective in order to target it at various consulting finns. and purposes' which Weak Objectives clear objective . you define the job market rather than let it define you. Various styles are also presented: indication of your interests. many employers lack clear employment objectives and knowledge about how thejob market can take control of the situation and demonstrate your value to employers. ut sys t em dev e lop ment. on your lcsum6 it becomes: "An increasingly responsible research position in consulting. Finatly. You will fit into a job rather than find a job that is fit for you. " Strong Objectives ('onxputer programming. Knowing what you want to do can have numerous benefits' First. and deductive reasoning t t. few employers really know what they want in a candidate. For the general objective. you may be misplaced and unhappy with what you find. For example. "A po. Like most job seekers." c. will contribute to 77 .lration degree and will provide opportunities for rapid advanceilt(nt.s where skills in mathematics.ith people in a helping capacity. it should not be "hyped". " At a second level you may wish. "Sales Representative with opportunity for advancement. lfor example. d. n. R6sum6 and CV writing what you want. such as give me a(n) "opportunityfor advancement. you will have achieved a tremendously advantageous position in the job market. Thus. supported by innovative decision-making and systems engitrcering abilities. " t L "Management position which a" "A position in data analysi." or "crea"position working with people language " Such terms are tive position ve should which say little of value about reflect your honesty and integrity. will result in an expanded clientele and a more profitable organization. you might state: using this approach. " b. You can begin by stating a functional job objective at fwo 76 will utilize business admini:.

It is important to relate your audience. California. Talented in custom-designing performance evaluation systems that dramatically increase employee satisfaction and retention as well as minimize recruitment and training costs. Always stress your accomplishments." "planned. not selfthem." tive Qualifi cations. for want a good job. such as "managed. including Microsoft Word. I ong range goal" to become a Chartered Fitrincial Analyst. and results-oriented professional." "created. "To use computer science training in software development " for designing and implementing operating systems' Alternatively. San Diego. This section can uii" u powerful summary of liour t<ey st<ilts and accomplishments for focusing the reader's attention and qonsists of three to five bulleted your key items or a two or three sentence paragraph summarizing as follows: qualifications. Describe your cxperience in functional terms.Willing to travel and relocate. your audience wants to know what you can do be work-centered. Rlemember. " c. Your experience statements will vary depending on the type of r6sum6 format you use. to organize people positive ideas and images' Effective in events. [-lse action verbs in outlining your experience and qualifications. successl'ul in developing model supervisory and personnel management systems for small business involved in restructuring their core manufacturing operations. in a chronological rdsum6. For example. and to communiiate public speaking and in maiaging a publicity / promotional campaign. "Responsible position in investment research and analysis' Intereis and-skills tnitude securities analysis." and "initiated. "A public relations position which will maximize opportuand nities to devilop and implement programs." Be sure everything is related [o your objective. you might want to summarize your major experience and qualifications'as an expert in a particular position relevant to the employer: Senior Personnel Manager Turn-around Specialist and Senior Manager Dynamic. "A position as a General sales Representative with a pharmaceutiial house which will use chemistry background and 'abitity to work on a self-directed basis in managing a marketing ter- b' Summary of Qualifications - Fifteenyears experience in office supervision and personnel management Highly motivated self-started with aptitude for solving sys- tern problems development programs Proficient in the use of office automation software. It might appear 78 EMPLOYMENT: Engineering Draftsman." e." "ExecuA "Stimmary of Qualifications. R6sume and CV writinq "Retail Management position which will use sales / cus' tomer service experienie ancl ireative abilities for product dkplay and merchandising. Long term goal: Progression to merchandise manqgerwithcorporate-wideresponsibilitiesforproductline. your experience may be stated as follows: Sunimarize Qualifications The previous exercises for specifying an objectiu" tlt^o generqualifrcations' ate a great deal of information for summarizing your "Qualifications Profile." d." or "Professional Qualifi cations" section should proupp"ui immediately following your objective. financial planning. creative. Wtling to travel and relocate' " g.Skilled in linking performance evaluation systems to career - ritory. PowerPoint. and portfolio management. and Microsoft Mail . Naval Electronics Systems Engineering Command." "coordinated. Excel." "supervised.Worked with engi- 79 ." "analyzed. your objective should centered.UNIT IV. while you definitely Describe Experience Avoid listing formal duties and responsibilities.

" "financed B0% of personal expenses. where you place this item depends on your purpose. 80 The education statement can appear in different forms. Twenty hQurs per week (1993).Draftsman with Dominion Sheetmetal Corporation. Designed prototype of equipment for employer. Journalism.5 GPA .A.0 index. Chapel Hill.Accounting. depending on how much you wish to emphasize it in relationship to your objective and expericrrce. If you appear over or under educated for a job. llighlights: lll)UCATION: M. A statement in reference to your educational background can irppear anywhere after your objective. B.S. However. The same is true for deciding what to include in the education slatement. So plan irccordingly by not making this category excessively large. you may want to highlight those educational achievements lvlrich indicate your ability to aclrieve result.A.6 (4. Columbia University. 1990. Established for objectives and planned yearly budget which involved balancing club objectives and community needs.trr o 4. you may wish to include it in a sr:ction immediately following "EDUCAIION" and label it ADDITIONAL TRAINING'': 8r . in developing electrical . Washington. Solicited and evaluated applicants for club scholarship award. Accounting Club.: 3. Managing / Coordinated and scheduled individuals for activities such as the Bloodmobile and the Community Ilealth Center.. Examples ol-education statements are as follows: l.. and inclusive employrnerrt dates on a chronological r6sum6r This section may appear on your r6sumd as lollows: AREAS OF EFFECTIVtrNESS Planning / Planned. Coordinated and planned summer camps for handicapped children which gained favourable recognition. organized. 1996." "held leadertlrip positions in various organizations. Again. If you are a recent graduate with little work-related expcrience. in Business Administration . But rtlrnember. job title.UNIT IV. " and "maintoined a 3. such as "edited confer('nce papers. it is pertinent to your objective.A. you may wish Io de-emphasize your training by placing the education category near lhe end. In a functional r6sum6 you may choose to use the terms "EXPERIENCE" or "AREAS OF EFFECTIVENESS" instead of you .P. English Literatui.e. "EXPERIENCE" or "AREAS OF EFFECTIVENESS" should appear first and "EMPLOYMENT HISTORY" last.n'ill "EMPLOYMENT" or "WORK HISTORY'" ln this "ur" in functional terms without describe your transferable Skills rnentioning formal titles and dates. begin by compilirrg as much information on your education and training as possible rrrrcl tlren condense it in relationship to your objective. and delegated responsibility several successful fund raising organizing projects. your objective and experience categories will lrc nrore important to readers than your education statement. DC. University of North Carolina. you are trying to get everything on one page. " Whatever you choose to include.0 index) Member. Notice that the discussion focuses on specific skills and accomplishments rather than on duties and responsibilities related to any particular jobs that would normally be listed by employer name. Communication Established support of the local business community for club projects. Became familiar with nranufacture of NVAC systems. Unless you irle a recent graduate.lI)UCATION: B. Rtisum6 and CV writing neers and technicians (1995 to present). The co-mbtnadpl-rgqqn€ will include both functional catego' ries and work history. Barnard College. G. rrrrcl '' If you have trlining other than formal degrees and diplomas. lnterpersonal / Developed liaison relationship between city officials and people in the community.diagrarns and schematics Present Educational Background .

If you are single. Always control these yourself. tnost readers will assume you will make your references available upon request. weight. However.which usually is during the interview. you could write a personal statement yourself so that the reader might remember you in particular' 82 83 . You may wish to irrclude some bther personal information strengthening your objective. Give them a copy of your r6sum6 so they understand your objective and qualifications. keep it brief and to the point. Alternatively. . Whatcver you do. . Be sure to inform your references ofyourjob search nctivities. Such statements can give hobbies and special talents'and intcrests new meaning in relationship to the r6sum6 objective. parti larly if you are middle-aged or over. Sometimes they don't tusk for references or don't contact the individuals on your list. white water rafting.unless you they make it so. or separated. you may include youl marital statrrs . programming a computer. t Making Persohal Statements You may want to disregard this section altogether since it rei' mains one of the most tradition-bound and non-functionhl sectionsi on r6sum6s. and telephone number ofeach person. put it down Leave your age offaltogether ifit serves no useful purposes. . We see useful purpose served by stating this. challenges . Conlmercial Accounts. The list should be typed and include the full name. climbing a mountain. divorced.Accotnting. unless they are essential to your j objective. Employers will ask you for references when the time is right .section on your resum6. In some cases this information merely raises negativel questions.S. . address. and achieving results . If you include it. so what? You sex and marital life are not your employer's business .UNIT IV.but don't include the names of your childien.' . Special f nterests Statement SPECIAL INTERESTS: Love the challenge of solving problems. interested in productivity. Management. identifring your marital can be a plus in your favor. REFERENCES: Available upon request tup .'hair. and you are married and haVe children. R6sum6 and CV writlng Education and Addit'onal rraining' ttatement EDUCATION: B. and you are applying a job requiring considerable travel. If you drop this category completely. married . if you are singie. other personal characteristics. Personnel I. As for age. . carry the list *ith you to'interviews. since it is an empty category without names. Chapel it in developing new rnarketing strategies. . title. taking initiative. b-usinoss. eve{ though you arb proud of them. . . On the other hand. if a job requires bility. colgr. in Business Administration'. avoid trite statements. Personat Statelnent PERSONAT: Excellent health . such as in the following example: lncluding References Never list your references on your r6sum6. Avoidr extraneous information. such as your height. it is good practice to list the names of your professional refercnces on a separate sheet of paper. Howcver. you essentially have two choices: leave this section offaltogether. if it helps. or modifoing a motorcycle. When deciding whether to include a refergnce. It rnerely takes valuable space that can be allocated to a more thorough presentalion of your qualifications.' children. 1995' University of North Carolina.. ADDITIONAL TRAINING: Zero-Base Budgeting lntroduction to Data Processing.

I enjoyed meeting you and learning morb about Davis Enterprises. Gail S. Sincerely.UNIT IV. Director Personnel Department Assistant Manager DAVIS ENTERPRISES 2290 Cambridge Street Boston. CO 72105 July 18. Yours truly. If you need any additional information from me. Your advice was most hetpful and I have incorporated your r suggestions into my r6sum6. I will contact Mr: David James next week in regards to a possible opening with this company. As you suggested. I appreciated you taking time from your busy schedule to meet with me. You have a fine staff and a sophisticated' approach to marketing. thanks so much for your assistance. . John Perkins Again. Quinn: Thank you for the opportunity to interview yesterday for the" Sales Trainee position. R6sum6 and CV writing Snuple LETTERS 1 lE Sample Letter Ne 2 Thank-You Letter (After Informational Interview) E Sample Letter Ne Thank-You Letter (Post Interview) 1947 Grace Avenue . Topper 84 85 . Springfield. thank you for your consideration. MA 01281 November l7 921 West Fifth Street Denver. My prior experience in operating office equipmbnt plus my trainingl in communication would enable me to progress steadily through your training program and become a productive member of your sales team. Taylor: Joan Karvin was right when she said you would be most helplirl in advising me on a career in finanqe. Taylor James R. and I want to reiterate my strong interest in working for yoti'. MA 01181 SSOCIATED FINANCIAL ADVISORS 241 Skyline Road l)crrver. please feel free to call. CO 71088 A ' Dear Mr. Quinn. .lames R. I will send you a copy next week. Again. ing in a direction which appears interview with you an$' d career paral ressions of Davis Enterinitial p your prises. Dear Mr.

Sharon T. I want you to know that I appreciated the courtesy a professionalism shown to me during the entire'selection process. futule. John Roberts. the emphasis on fund iaising is certainly needed. : . thank you for the opportuni$ to interview. Sheridan Road Washingto-n. Again. It was Thank you for giving me the opportunity to interview for Customer Sqrvices Representative position. President N ORTHERN STAIES LTNIVERSITY 2500 University Drive (ireenfield. Topper I want to thank you for interviewiqg me and giving me the opporlunity to learn about your needs. I believe one purpose of preliminary interviews is to explore areas of mutual inlorest and to assess the fit between the individual and the posiiion. Bostelli. Thomas C. My decision is based upon several factors. MA 01281 September 14. Best wishes in your search. I want to reiterate my strong interest in working for Plpasp keep me in mind should another position become available the near As I discussed with you during our meetings. R6sum6 and CV writing E Sample Letter Ns 3 Thank-You Letter (Responding to Rejection) 1947 Grace E Sample Letter Ne 4 Thank-You Letter (Withdrawing from Consideration) Avenue 733 Main Street I. Yours truly. Janet L. but I would prefer more balance irr my work activities. eqjoyed meeting you. Avery Vice President for Sales Williamsburg. l'lrird. I appreciate your con sideration and interest in mg. Gail S. I learned a great deal from our ings. professional opportunities for my husband would be very limited in northwest Massachusetts. Second.VA23512 December 1. Avery: indeed a pleasure meeting with you and your staff last week to discuss your need for a Director and Government Relations. Alter careful consideration. My meetings confirmed that Bentley Enterprises would be a exciting place to work and build a career. MA 03241 Dear Dr. You have a fine staff and facrulty. Springfield. DC 20011 ' Dear Ms. Lawson 86 87 .S 529 W. Best wi to you and your staff. _ l)r. and I would have enjoyed working with them. I have decided to withdraw from considoration for the position. First. Although I am disippointed in not being selected for your rent vacancy. Our time together was most enjoyable and informative. Bostelli: BENTLEY ENTERPRISE. the position would require more lravel than I am willing to accept with my other responsibilities. and other members of your salt staff. Sincerely.UNITJV.

It has been a very positive experience for me both personally and professionally. The position requires exactly the kind of work I want to do. As we discussed. I will be working with Brown and Little Company. I am writing to inform you that I will be leaving Akron Conslruction Company on September 12to accept another position. As you know. NY 11081 Dear Jim. and locate housing. I am very pleased accept the position as a research and data analyst with your unit. At that time we could handle remaining items pertaining to my employment. received an offer. While I was vacationing in Houston recently._ Arkon. OH 44522 August 2' ( lh Mr. you hnve taught me a real deal about drafting. Edward Gordon. James T. I know that I will do a good j. After careful consideration. John Albert Cheryl Ayers cc.'York State Police. I to be in Albany within thp next two weeks and would like to deli the paperwork to you personally. Gordon for giving me the tunity to work with the New.ob for you. I enjoyed my interviews with you and Mr. the meantime. I shall complete all the necessary employment fr obtain the required physical examination. Waters Personnel Director NEW YORK STATE POLICE 19. R6sum6 and CV writinq E Sample Letter Ne 5 Thank-You Letter (Accepting Job Offer) 2589 Jason Drive Ithaca. and I want to thank you for ploviding me with the opportunity to work here. and deeply appreciate your fine supervision and support. I have developed an interest in architectural tlrafting which combines my drafting skills with my artistic interests. a relative approached tttc about an opening for sorneone with my background with a large trchitecture and engineering firm. Dear Ms. NY 14850 E Sample Letter Ns 6 Thank-You Letter (Terminating Employment) 1099 Seventh Avenue August Sharon A. Gordon and forward to beginning my job with the Planning Unit. I shall begin work on July 1. Sincerely. Administrator Planning Unit 8B 89 . I have thoroughly enjoyed working with you over the past two ycars. OH 44524 A - I 170 South Albany. Best wishes. Thomas ief Engineer Administrative Division 892 South Park KRON CONSTRUCTION CAMPANY Hills Highway Akron. I investigated the possibility and. I made the decision to relocate yesterday and decided to inform you immediately. Sincerely. I decided to accept the offer and relocate to Huston. Mr.UNIT IV. Waters: I want to thank you and Mr. eonsequently. I'll call next week schedule an appointment with you. I wanted to give you more than the customary two weeks nolicc so you would have time to find my replacement..

' 1) Select the answer which best completes the meaning 3. tlctermine t'cquire job opening 7. People who wish to position should fill out an the personnel dePartment' chosen for interviews will be notified mail. retire 4. The also basic jcib' ' . tlcscriptive 4. to stop working after a certain age Exercise 2. 6. It all the d"uties aS well as the. for examPle 8. The interviewer 1. Are you_for this job? Fill out f*. His new job has more responsibility. benefits h.requirements foq employment. they are seeking the persoil who is best c. ':stated the jotirtitle. grievance 8. . promotion promote The personnel dePartment is gi . I d. promote a. This company has a . complaint of unfair treatment ' his will decision on the applicant's personality and qualifications.UNIT IV. paid sick leave. accounting. R6sum6 and CV writihg Wnlrreu PRAcrlcE Exercise Match the words on the left with the expressions the right. applicant for 2. oompetitive d. Exercise ofthesentence. . fringe benefits 7. policy of internal We always try to fill managerial positions with current -em10. staff departments b.ualification job an application. sign checks. seeking new emPloYees e. The personnel department must decide which applicants are the most suitable for s. examination to see which d the current employees to the new position. l r"': 5. recruitment 6. A will be made' based'on the experience ofthe applicants. 90 To frll the vacancy in the accounting depart: ment." i"t"*i#. applicants h. employee d. 3. r:ompetitor 1. for examPle c. external 5. vacancy 3. will be contacted 9. ployees. authrotize Analyze the following sentences to determine the of speech of the missing words' Supply the co form of the word. authorized 9r . promoted h. qualified will be u. crnployment ' 2) c. Does the applicant have the skills? Does he meet all the other f. outside g. He is now 1. 2. to assign a more imPortant t. They hired the new manager from company.

may be promoted fill out an apPlication Iion? INTERVIEWER: Do vou have anv questions about the posi- b. Tell rne about your qualifications. apply b.also need to answer routine correspondence and telephone inquiries. authorize b. thinks he was treated 92 93 . I to screen my boss's phone calls and mail. This means they will decide whom to c. Issuing em identification is one of his c. The committee wilt base their decision on the applicant's qualifications. what the applicant looks like d. advertise in newspaPers c. and organized and plarrned the agenda for the board of directors' meetings. It would most likely state 4. I have also had experience using Wang and lllM word processing equipment. salary 9) r. the applicant's name INTERVIEWER: We are looking for an executive secretary wlro has excellent skills as well as good organizationar ability. 8) The. at the managerial level d. hire workers c. all of these a. current employees 5) 'If a companY is recruiting new e they might a. R6sum6 and CV writino 3) a. a. will be fired d. After acting this dialogue out in class engage in similar interviewi applying for other jobs. It was my responsibility to decide which matters Itad wcre important and which were trivial. at beginning levels b. none ofthese d. responsibilities INTERVIEWER: In this job you. The following is a sample job interview. competitors b. requirements d. authority The person being promoted receives mor€ c. new recruits The personnel department announces a promotional examination next week. name c. At my last job I reorganized the liling system. the supervisor's The job description tells about a job at a company. the duties and responsibilities 7) As personnel director. supervisors b. at all levels recruit internally qualif 10) d. should a. This examination is intended for c.UNIT IV. Have you had any experit'ttce ilr these areas? APPLICANT: When I worked as an appointments secretary. as well as attend to loutine matters. authorities b. he is authorized to employee identification. all of these Companies which 4) a. planned my boss's itinerary. qualifo for the job d. qualifications APPLICANT: I can take shorthand at 120 words a minute and lype 90 words a minute. responsibilitY d. promote a new emPloYee Exercise 6) a. b. personnel policies should provide method for setting employee grievances' employee who has a grievance c.

to use telephone in a foreign language and in English and to be prepared occas ally to work long hours when necessary. Imagine that you are interested in applying for this job' Y have heard of ACME Atlantic and your own firm has done busi with them. 3. g. You have already made son notes on the points you want to make in your application letter' ' ''{ WORK IN BERMUDA! ACME Atlantic is a well-known and respected trading company' handle imports directly from manufacturers in 35 different countries.month contracts. 45 pentoville Itoad. employees are reviewed once a year by their superj and decisions about raises are made at that time' There are posts available and long-term prospects are good" though initially all successful applicants will be contracted for a maximum of rnonths. 2. nationaliry etc.V. to ('harles Fox. and currently export to 46 different cot Exercise Using the information below write a full letter of application. not to be accompanied by a C. enclosing your rdsum6. lack ofexperience. Describe relevant experience orjustif. Describe how I meet the requirements of the job. R6sume and CV writlnq APPLICANT: Yes. Please apply in your own handwriting. Experience in import/export will be an advantage. LondonEC2 4AC. Say when I am available for interview. Exeter. 6. You know that you can get leave of absence from company for up to 9 months . which you will send to sup your application with your cv/r6sum6. European Sales Office. advertised in yesterday's Guardian 116 Rockway ' world-wide. but as training will be available this is not essential. I would like to know what the possibiliti for advancement are within this company. We will pay for your return airlirre and provide adequate accommodation at a nominal rent. Worthing Sussex Htlucation Worthing Grammar School Lancaster University Qualifications [. to our own specifications. Devon). 5. 9 The salary we will offer is excellent. Mention my company's contact with ACME. We are looking for enthusiastic people to work in our offtce in muda on temporary 3-. to cope with pressure. 6. NOTES Exercise AN INTERESTING JOB L lntroduce myself: name.rrnguages BA (Hons) Economics MA in Business Administration Fluent French and Arabic. 6-.UNIT IV. Applicants must be able speak and write at least one foreign language fluently and can be nation of any country.or you are not currently empl Write a letter applying for the job. Nnme . age. Agc Arldress -36 - Hill. INTERVIEWER: Although this is the top secretariil posit withinlhe organization there are regular salary increments based the amount bf time an employee has served the company. 5. and can look forward to generous pay increases if you remain with Generally.lob wanted - Arthur Foot Export Manager for Walter Heath Ltd. ACME Atlantic Ltd. 7. 94 95 . Describe my skills in my own and other languages. The main requiiements willingness to work as a member of a team. Say what length contract I'd be interested in 4. (21 Cowslip Way.

l6 Tooth WaY. . Assi Exporl Manager for the last 8 years . at the offlce.) 60 Shorthand (w. reading Paula Prentiss has read carla's application tbrrn and let to and would like to interview her. Present Position R6sum6 and CV writing . Littlehampton.Mr. to be signed and returned to Paula Prentiss. Cambridge CB2 3EU Ask her to phone you to confirm the date. Kevin Wheller. . o o Refer to the post Carla applied for and the date of her intervieq and inform her that she has been accepted.m.p. b) Following a successful interview. o Invite her. London) Languages Italian (mother tongue) French Office Skills Typing (w. or to arrange another one ifshe cannot attend. on behalf of the Managing Director. Sussex.Anhur Bow Plc. 96 97 . to corne for an interview at 14. and tell her there are frequent Bow plc.) Availability trains to Cambridge from Liverpool Street Station. 60 Girton Street. Say when she will be expected to start. the Managing Director. Warn her that there Reason for aPPlication References - Wants more responsibility and move will be an Italian and French translation test to the West Country (i'd. England)' before the.P. interview.m. Platt (at Art . - Start a newjob - one month's noti6e: Exercise INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING Ltd 7. o Send her a map with details. Write his letter to her. Forename Carla Apptioation form (COMPLETE IN LETTERS) Surname Guiliani Address 114 Ellesmere Walk . swimming. Send her two copies of the contract of employment. horse riding. Walker and Mr.) English German Word-processing Hobbies and interests Tennis.UNIT IV. Age 22 Finchley London NW3 IDP Date of birth 4 January 19- Qualifications Degree in English and French (Universita di Genoa) Secretarial diploma (Pitman College..30 on l8th June. would like to offer Carla tfie post of bilingual secretary. write the letter inviting her a) tend. Close with appropriate welcoming remarks.

^uy have to be tabled.often more courageous decisions than brave enough tq make' Some of the drawbacks of meetings are: . Items Any other business (AOB) Taking minutes.more information is available.meetings can lead to more imaginative and informed fe' might one person flexible. An effective chairperson should be l. date and duration of the meeting and the. which would usually have this format: speak whenever they want. but the content of the report itself may be detailed or brief. - if one person made the decision. _there. The agenda for a formal nreeting must be organized in logical order. For an informal meeting. . meeting. the agenda may be simply a list of the points that have to be dealt with. For a formal. - half. All items on which a decision is to be taken should appear on the agenda. are special skills. Often the agenda shows rrot only the topics but the meeting's function regarding each topic ('to receive a report on. depending is being given to people purpose. The purpose of an agenda is to speed up the rneeting and keep everyone to the point.different and unexpected ideas can be contributed. that all the participants -reaching decisions in a means sions .hup"t and sizes.over coffee. involving decisions like 'Do we need lvt. may Ue asked by a few individuals on everyone else's . Small informal ttteetings may also take place or continue during a meal.). 98 99 . and writing them up later. Business meetinqs The way a committee operates depends on the chairperson: he UNIT V. because there is not likely to be much discussion' qu"rtioo. . dec . . the longer it may take to reach a on sion.'. '.smoretalk(andthisissometimesirrelevantand more time is required than petitive). There seem to be ideal sizes for meetings. Most meetings have an agenda. Other meetings may require a consensus of the membbrs: everyone agrees with the decision . or let everyone BUSINESS MEETINGS GeNemL INFoRMATIoN and Business people spend quite a lot of time in meetings' commil meetings come in uil . this document is usually circulated in advance to all participants.names of those present. .ow which person made every point?' and 7s this point worth mentioning?' Minutes usually report details of the time. In some committee meetings the members have to take a vote before a decision can be made: formal proposals or 'motions.or at least no one disagrees.UNIT V. there's more group Pressure' d The larger the meeting. Even one-to-one or small informal meetings are structured (usually with an agenda) and planned. etc. A meeting where information te iuite large. Minutes of previous meeting 2. depending on the anticipated readership. Matters arising 3. or she may control the proceedings very strictly. ranging from formal tee meetings to informal one-to-one meetings' There are several reasons why meetings are held: feel more committed to the decision. They are different from chance 6onversations in a corridor or. ' to approve . . seconded and discussed before a vote can be taken.


Business meetings

Minutes are a written record of the transactions and recom' ot: m6ndations of a meeting. They are usually taken by a secretary are filed as a permanent record of committee member. The minutes tlre meeting. Copies are passed to the participants and other i ested parties prior to their reconvening' Minutes must be clear'
cise, and accurate.

E.g. The anriual meeting of Friends of Northwood Hospice was held on August 3, 1994, in the board room of Riverdale Hospital, Farmigdale, NY.

The minutes should list the names of those who attended the rneeting beginning with the presiding officer. Present: Sol Terry Reaper, chair; Lucinda McAdams, Julie
Mendoza, Su Ling, and Angela Suarez

recommendations, not every point that was discussed' The typed minutes are an organized and condensed version of the meeting. Th9 tone should be formal and objective, reporting the major points and the names of the persons making them' After the minutes are completed, they are usually first passeil to the chairmall or president for approval and then circulated to participants as weli as to absent members. The minutes should iubmitted as soon as possible and distributed prior to the next ing of the group. At the next meeting each member will have a oithe minutes; as a first order of business, the minutes will amended or corrected, and approved by vote' The secretary signs the minutes with the notation, approved'

The minutes should contain only major topics


Chairperson Lillian Goldblum presided with forty-two memlrers in attendance.

President Steven Valente Welcomed ninetlz-seven delegates to plenary session. the

Approval of Minutes

A short statement should be made noting any corrections or amendments to the reading of the minutes of the previous meeting. 'l'he name of the person making the motion for approval of the minrutes should be stated:
William Stetson moved that the minutes be approved. The molion was seconded and carried.

Parts of Minutes
Several styles are acceptable. A topic heading is direct easy to read. Type either at the left margin or center of the page' name of the committee or organization, the type of meeting, d
and place may follow it:

The text can take several forms. Informal minutes will just summarize chronologically the major points discussed at the meetirrg. Formal minutes will break down the discussion into subtopics based on the meeting's agenda, oral reports, or subjects discussed. l'he headings, placed against the left margin, may be underlined, bold-faced, or italicized for emphasis: Treasurer's Report Treasurer's Report
Treasurerb Report

E.g. Minut6s: Wordsworth Literary Society, Monthly Meetin November 23,1994. Or you may begin with a complete sentence conveyll information as to the reason for the,meeting, the name of the grou the date and place of the meeting: 100



Business meetings

After all agenda matters have been covered and all reports or New' presented, .pu"" i"ill be reserved for Unfinished Business

of fundraising captains in each deparlment. He also suggested that
we set a minimal fundraising goal of

1,000 this year.

The meeting adjourned at 2:50 PM.

Date of Next







A stdtement of the time and place of the next meeting may e placedattheendofthereportoratthebeginning(aftertheatten.l' reader's'' iancel. This information rnay be capitalized to capture the



Loretta Sanchez, Secretary


Sample Minutes (formal)

Minutes: Pottstown Parks Citizens Advisory Committee,


l, 1994, at Town Council Chambers
Present: Terri Malqvich, chairperson; Francine Stella, secreJohn

lary; Boyd Benson, Henry Krizek, Gregory Christakos,
welfare Committee *u, lild at2:00 PM, April 15,lgg4, in Suite lfi of the Administration Building. Attending were Joe Ciao (chair Johnr Ezell Jackson, Loretta Sanchez, Malik Stapleton, and Regina


Ocharenko, Janet Miller, Rudolph Perkins, Stanley Kowalski, Ryan lrlaherty, Julian Cohen, and soccer league has had to turn down applicants because of the lack of playing fields. Chair Terri Malovich suggested the possibilify of a mixed-use compromise and requested volunteers for a subcommittee to explore the issue. Francine Stella, .lohn Ocharenko, Julian Cohen, and Janet Miller agreed to serve.

The Committee agreed that we would once again hold a cc poin pany fundraiser for the Fairview Children's Hospital' Ezell He rt out that last year's chocolates campaign was disappointing' an ported that we only raised $440 for the hospital on sales of $940, Lorett iess than half of the employees participated' Regina and ti pointed out that selling chocolates may be a poor choice at a explore n when people seem so diet-conscious' We decided to possiUitities. Some members suggested that we find a product profits. Su would have more sales appeal aln-d would yield higher spo gestions included stationery' coffee mugs, or T-shirts' Others event like a picnic i"n support of holding a company fundraising alternatives ar sogUait game. Loretta and Malik agreed to study the a new li report back at the next meeting. Joe said he would compile

Pottstown Street Fair

Teni Malovich noted that the Pottstown Street Fair will



lrcld on Saturday, June 1, and she recommended that the Citizen Advisory Commiffee again set up a booth. We would distribute literalure, erect displays, and have volunteers available to answer ques, lions. Boyd Benson, moved that the chair be authorized to approprinte $50 for a Street Fair booth. The motion was seconded and caried without debate.

Unfinished Business
Ryan Flaherly stated that he has been trying to find ne\M memhers to join the Committee, but has nothing definite to report. Several people mentioned that they are but have not yet committed.




Business meetings

Minutes Checklist


the company would be able to expand into areas;

1) 2) Time, date, Place of meeting 3) Attendants beginning with chair 4) ApProval of Past minutes 5) Agenda toPics or rePorts 6) Unfinished business 7) New business
Organization Name

- it would enhance the company's reputation; - it would broaden the expertise of the company's specialists; - it would open up new international markets.
JC agreed that the project was viable for the following reas() tl


- the bankers were favourable and ready to provide finance; - raw materials were cheap and plentiful;


Adjournment time

- local labour was inexpensive;
the level of risk was within acceptable limits. He claimed that estimates from local sub-contractors indicated lhat profit margins would be high.


Date of next meeting (placement optional) 10) Approval & secretary's signature

Minutes of the meeting held at the Head Office of Consult on 712192 Apologies: Peter Thornborough Present
Richard Harris (Chairman) Amanda Bell (Chief Designer) Donald McGregor (Human Relations) Jonathon Coe (Accountant) Wendy Adam (Designer)


stated that there would be difficulties

in controlling

lhe project from a distance. Staffwould have to spend considerable lirne abroad supervising progress on site. He also mentioned the problems they had encountered with a similar venture in Togo.

t We outlined her reasons for opposing the scheme. In her v.iqw it had not been thought through sufficiently by the client. She gJlph4gilgd that further research was needed before going ahead.
RH closed the meeting and announced that he would make lhe final decisiorr himself after due consideration of the issues.

Subiect Abidjan design Project
The minutes of the last meeting were confirmed' ,k RH opened the meeting and underlined the importance reaching a decision on the project. Each person in attendance was invited to state his/her tion concerning the feasibility of the work in Abidjan' Zl ng (the initiator of the project) pointed out that it would for the a major contract and explained that it should be accepted



proposer grievances



relevant quorum

command casting procedures





minutes auditors



lowing reasons:



A firm considering employing you would contact them fore inviting you for an interview' Might be reduced if people are allowed to participate making decisions. The chairperson's vote when the committee is undecided. Business meetings Someone who supports a formal proposal in the meeting. convene. At the beginning of the meeting the e What the chairperson strive to be. The rules governing the conduct of a meeting. This is the transcript of a meeting held to discuss the possible purchase of a piece of land on which to build a warehouse. agenda. of a committee meeting vious meeting are confirmed. The company chairperson will be expected to give this the Annual General Meeting' The breaking-off of a meeting. r06 107 . The power available to a committee to ask others to attend r)r serve on the committee. Exercise 3. casting vote. Discussion in a meeting should always be this. An abbreviated record of what was said during a meeting' Exercise Complete this paragraph using the words and phrases: 2. The postponement of ther discussion. Write suitable minutes for circulation to all concerned. adjourn. defini Match the words listed above with the which follow. a a meeting he/she should Before the Chairperson irculate an so that everyone knows what items are to be ofthe pretliscussed. Notices of meetings must always be this. A suggestion to alter the wording of a motion. Then. A formal decision reached at a meeting' The rninimum number of members needing to be prese to make a committee meeting legal.therefore vote by Irr the event of a deadlock the Chairperson may record a tlrat a decision is made. proxy. AOB. if you cannot at- A detailed list of items to be discussed. consensus. Will need to be appointed at a company's Annual Gene Meeting. minutes.UNIT V. those present discuss each and try to reach a view Ifan on the issue is important a vote may be taken. Someone who makes a formal recommendation at ing. power of attorney A proposition to be voted uPon. The sort of meeting called by a manager who wishes face his subordinates. motion. those absent may have given to someone present and can. To call an Annual General Meeting This will be necessary between the secretary and chairperson in a committee meeting Should be conveyed to the chairperson lcrrd a meeting. The sort of meeting which might lead to the offer of a job' Those whom you would be concentrating oh when maki a speech.

to vote MRS GRANT: Not according to the advice I've been gi And there's another thing. for able to attend this meeting at such shoft notice. one near Burnsley. to nominate 18. to vote unanimously 16. to support/to second a nominee r08 r09 . to approve by acclamation (without voting) 15. 10. we've investigated four sites in all and position now is that we've narrowed down the number of sui sites to two. 8. There are plans to build a motorway tension to Whitly within the next five years so in fact there won't a problem in terms of road transport. the other near Whitly' The were either too small or too expensive. to take/keep/draw up the minutes to record in the minutes to put into the minutes to read out the minutes to approve/to sign the minutes to circulate the minutes to the participants vote MR GREEN: Yes. a nominee t7.negative . thank you. 7. Charles. that is probably because the Whitly is not so advantageous as far as communications are concerned' my opinion. Unfortunately. MR TODD: Well look.casting . I'm su we all appreciate that we need to come to an agreement on this n ter as soon as possible. access to rail and road routes is too restricted to make a viable choice. ballot .for a list of candidates 9. MR MARSH: Well. vote. it's not closed and the surface is unstable. . A ison Moore couldn't make it because she's still in Taiwan. ladies and gentlemen. MR TODD: Well. Perhaps. 3. It needs levelling and compacting. I think the next thing is for us to mission a proper survey of the sites and particularly check Sheila impressions of the Burnsley site. to put a question to the vote 11. voting MRS GRANT: I'm sorry but I think the Burnsley site is of the question. 4. 5. to hold a vote MR GREBN: Are you quite easily. And would mean extra transportation costs. MR MARSH: Except that it's much farther north. woRDS AND PHRASEs minutes 2.Business meetings UNIT V. I've actually visited the place myself and the of work that would be needed before construction would make even more expensive. to vote upon some issue 13. Both the Burnsley and Whitly sites are very similar in surface area though the price of Whitly site is considerably lower. you could start. sure? I thought it could be resurfi 12. by remi ing us of the options oPen to us. 6. Then the next stage will be to tact a number of contractors and get tenders from them.affirmative .by a show of hands . Quite the opposite. - for (pro) against (con) 14. Userul I'ART I.

. "' There are t things we've got to discuss todaY 5. Ask your colleagues to give their opinions on these statements.. 18.. l) The Pacific Basilwill be the centre of the World Economy by the year 2000.... the 22. The agenda this morning consist of two items' There three main topics on the agenda.. 12. the financial aspects... Now this brings us to our 8. aim this morning is to. . Signaling a new topic. I'm not sure I agree. to carrylto adopt/to pass a resolution PART bY a large majoritY 13. This brings up the problem of .. We've had confirmation that an unidenti buyer hai. Richard? 19.UNIT V. Right then. Setting objectives. let's move on quickly to the finansial aspects. This leads us on to ... Let's go on to .. Don Chapman will be presenting this 1.. Assigning roles. Asking for opiniorts. Updating.' thers's been a new bid' has main business. orah. il0 ilt . Shall we begin? Let's 3.. Agreeing and disagreeing. we've got to move fast. News just come in that ". I can't agree with you.. Setting the agenda. The main thing we've got to do today is to . I believe that view is that . . R&Dprogramme. Right. Let's get started t I think we should begin. You're right.. Our objective today is to. a motion 21. Let's turn our 6.unanimouslY II. 2) Women often make better managers than men. Our 20. O. Agree or disagree with what they say. OK. get hold of the situation before What we have to do this morning is it goes any further. 4. in the past few days.. have heard today. In qty opinion. I couldn't agree more. .'. Moving the discussion forward.. Well. Think of an item of news you 10. ) 16.. we should be giving more emphasis to the new products here .. Assume that your colleagues have not heard this news. Bring them up to date on it... I go along with that. We've just heard that "' been confirmed that . ? How does Marketing this? How do you feel about this . I disagree. to amend a resolution 23. It seems to me that . 17. acquired a 5% stake in company. OK with you. Deborah? that'll lead us . Giving opinions... ? see 20.. the quorum is reached 9. tell us about the R&D situation? 7.. to summarize the financial position' Could you' to .K.. I think that . 15... Right. 21. 11.. to move a resolution 23. My 14.. to second a motion 24. Business meetings 19... . First.. Can we attention deal next with . 3) Worker pafticipation is essential for the smooth running of industry. '. Now we have three items of busi on the agenda this morning' One '. to make/to propose/(a motion)/to table/to move/to put ward 22.. Richard is going to outline the problem' I'd like you. What's your view on this ..

You'll have a rise after six months as long as performance is sati sfactory. 23. The of contracts is often complicated by specialist vocabulary sentences. 1. rate of exchange. If tract.UNIT V. All I can tell you is that the buying is coming from N York. Ask your colleagues to make comments on the pres UNIT VI. industrial put and so on. 24.. The agreement stipulated that Lin would supply technical experts experienced in the design ofteapots. LEGAL CONTRACTS In this unit we me of the special problems of reading lcgal contracts. 26. financial and economic situation in their countri Talk about inflation. All right. Just give me those budgets and you'll have those ucts within three Years t you drop your quote by I0 % we'll give you the 29. Let's examine what that means' 27. What's the underlying issue here? 28.. Let's go to the bottom of this' Let's try to identifl main pioblem here. 112 I t3 . l(ey Words to allege amendment joint participation joint venture agreement as duration terms of a contract to be defined to make a claim against obligation to be entitled to to be in force to claim to enter into an agreement on the part territory to furnish of party/parties to undertake hereby consent to default prior solely delivery_-_ t to stipulate Now explain tbe underlined words in the sentences below. Study the following list of words common in legal contracts. l 2. The present situation is that the share price is falli Whaf's happening is that competition is increasing' 25. Lin Ltd and Wait dj Co signed a contract entering into a joint venture to manufacture teapots.

Ca. acquired valuable experience. by and betwe'en Fornaro Elttrica S'p'A'. without the prior conse of Wait' cla part 4. This agreement is entered into on tTth March I99I What is the function of the following paragraphs? e o . with sales of the teaPot. Here is an example from the beginning of tt Joint Venture Agreement. paragraph one paragraph two paragraph three The underlined words in the above paragraph refer to the other words in the same paragraph.UNIT VI.. technical data amd lcnow-how relating to the designing manufacturing.urid products holh u/brementioned 'Eurolectric and Pekka' 'printer' 'Eurolectric and Pekka' 'E) to as 'W'-') fice of Ottowa.sign.ioint participation in the manufacture of U9due6. Cuneo. + Notice the structure of the extract from a legal document. (hereinafter referued t pr-incipal This agreement is entered into this 28th day parties . I ueuinrt wuit. Venture Agreement Ioint lltis of refers to refers to refers to refers to 'agreement' 1991. Lin could make a WHEREAS. 'F' has. I l4 il5 . Meanwhile. permitting them to sell a 7. This is referencing. alleging the breaking of an agreement still in to 6. To do so would represent default on the Lin would be entitled to demand an explanation' force. The two E{tgq are now engaged in a legal dispute' 8. assembling and marketing of products -defined as JWS-20.In the event of such a default. the parties recognising that they could only with dfficulty separately and successfully exploit such business. Wait has given an undertaking not to 5. a compt organis-ed and existing under the lrws of ltaly.UnderthetermsofthecontractWaitwouldnotattempt' t*pott'p-auced solely by them. a company organised ifrtng under the laws of Canada. Wait claimed that an amen4ment had been made particular teapot' original contract. l{ead the following questions. agree that the most appropriate manner for them to enter into said business while minimising the technical and financial rislcs is through their. between Eurolectric of Hull and Pekka Oy of Helsinki.The said product shall bear the name of both participants in the p19senl conlract. having its principatr ffice t The text below is a copy of a Letter of Preliminary Agreement. is to see the relationships between words in sentences. sell any of Lin. manufecture and market a printer. (hereinafter referred and LTirwick Photographic. The a-forementioned parties undertake to form a joint partnership to dc. 3.-having in Alba. WHEREAS. and legal docutnents in particular. then scan the text to find the answers. ski the text and answer the following questions' What part of the document is this? What is the contract about? a An important element in understanding texts.

3. Leller of Prelimenary Agreement PASCUAL RUIZ CABESTANY & CiA (PASCUA (BOOGAARD) San Sebastian. for their responsibilities stipulated in para 2 and it is understood that the balance of costs born from the date of signa- 4. 2 shall remain in charge of each party without any claiming possibility in case of termination of LPA cqusecJ by any of the parties. 6. 5.".1 The pdrties will endeavour to conclude nccentable Joint Venture Agreement.2 In this purpose the parties agree that they their own their utmost to successfully assume mutu stipulated in the attached 'Working Guidelines' agreed that the parties should undertake the 2.a^l:!.1 *Engineering of AB20 by PASCUAL *PrototYPe of AB20 bY BOOGAARD develop il6 117 .2. conducted friendly discussions 4.UNIT VI. . l.p a 2. Technical Distributor Agreement drafted and pl UAL and the parties anticipate the need obtain appropriate governmental approvals and 1. Spain and BOOGAARD NV on a pl Utrecht. 1. The parties agree that they should bear the costs ture of this LPA between the parties could be amortised by Techn ical Masler Agre ement. 4. COSTS ioint undertaking to develop. BOOGAARD DARATION The parties agree that this LPA should be effective by October 31. What is the purpose of the agreement? Wfiat are the Parties involved? What is the Product? How long is the agreement for? What are the responsibilities of each party? Who pays the exPenses? AB 20 byBOOGAARD *Business Plan of PROCOL by PASCUAL . wil-l 1.t.1 The parties agree that the costs they should bear facture AB20 in Taiwan' The parties have reached a tentative understanclh (LPA) hereblt sigp this Letter of Prelimenary Agreement establish clearly how they are willing to pursue' AGREEMENTS 1. hereby today near here' by signing this document ogrrra. / 3. 1993 and it is agreed that duration of this LpA can be extended bywritten consent ofthe parties. i* 'A820. 1. underlying commitment/promise wish/need idea ers'decisions. + Select the best meaning from the alternatives given for the lbllowing words from the above text.RESPONSIBILITIES 2. It is I ow ing resPons ibilities : 3. Holland. pursue follow proceed 2.Yi*: andfor a joint venture company (PROCOL) to a !! to assume their responsibilities stipulated in para.

According to the contract.p". In such circumstances. on the one side. Sweden. bear DrsrrueunoN AGREEMENT + Many verbs have been removed from the paragraph b first is al Complete the sentences with appropriate verbs' The completed.ment is made and entered into on October allowed to be entitled to be effective from to notify to be to terminate to state to default to furnish to undertake to enter into to speciff I3th 1993. to assume resPonsibilities to employ PeoPle to meet obligations to make money refuse to PaY costs increase costs meet costs a 1.' If either party (8)_on any item herein.BWGE LUFT. which is (a) )uy-s tne responsibilities of each party' Either party (S j Gi-----ro sell the products in any state of South or Article Territory and products I Section 1. having its registered ffice in Bunge. the parties (2) party gether for a minimum period of three years' Neither *:P". 4.ifi"d 5. The terminating party should also (11)_the reasons for the termination. hereinafter referred to'as. the terminating party should (10) the other party of its intention at least 90 days prior to the date intended for the termination. consent permission id'ea America. 3. Germany. stipulated invented designed \\ . by and between Pohl Litbarski (Deutchland) GmbH.01 POHL hereby appoints BUNGE LUFT its exclusive distributor in Sweden and Norway. compressor packages 'r18 tt9 . 2. What is the extract from? What is the purpose of the document? What companies are involved? Which part of the documgnt deals with advertising? How is the document organised? 8. The contract. t Look at the text below. and Bunge Luft AB. Legal contracts 4. on the other side eqt The parties (l) enter into as agreement to sell office to work ment. hereinafter referred to as the territory. hereinafter referued to as POHL. The agree.tendering [rl-a 31st July 19 in udnance. letter 7. 5. for the sale of all POHL presently ss well as in the future manufactured products such as reciprocating qnd screw compressors. the other shall have the right to (9)_the agreement. having the registered ffice at Kassel. and answer the following frve questions.UNIT VI. The manufacturer shall (7) the distributor with all relevant documentation.":ti:"^ end the agreement without. as an examPle. effective useful in force good 6.

remuneration pcnalty lirr and on behalf liability scope of comprise clause Section 3. t Find a legal contract or other legal document that you are concerned with in your work.02 POHL undertakes to sell the within the territory only to BWGE LUFT and shall not point any other distributor or agent for the products in How can Pohl alter its prices? Can other buyers of Pohl products sellthem in Norway? Does Pohl charge Bunge Luft higher prices than distributors in Southern Europe? tenltory. . + Scan the text above to find the following information. Use the following words to complete the draft contract prepared by Watt after his last meeting with Godeck. Article 3 Prices and conditions of PaYment Section 3. t the subject of the document the parties involved the main obligations of each party the length of time the stipulations in the document are valid examples of potential conflict referred to in the document ways in which conflict can be resolved group and being ffictive by the time of acceptance AUWC| LUFT's order. .01 POHL agrees to continuously offer to actively advertising and .UNIT VI Legal contracts and pumps as well as accessories and spqre parts re therito. as an independent ftader as regards both POHL and its t tomers.01 BUNGE LUFT will buy and sell products in its own name andfor its own account' It will. What are the precise details of how Bunge Luft will get the products from Pohl and pay for them? Section 2.02 POHL reserves the right to change its price (90) days by givingwritten notice to BUNGE LUFT ninety advance. who are enquiring about the product to BUNGE LUFT. . Article 2 Legal situation of the distributor Section 2.03 Payment for the products purchased BUNGE LUFT shall be made 20 per cent cash on deli and 80 per cent by signed draft to be paid at sight n (90) days from deliverY' solredule fail 120 121 . Section 2. hereinafter referred to as the products' Article 4 Advertising and Sales Section 4.03 POHL undertakes to refer all cus within the teruitory. Apply some of the skills practised in this runit to find the following information.01 POHL shall sell the products to BU' LUFT according to the price-list issued by POHL and plicable to all European distributors of the Pohl Litb r o r o .04 BUNGE LUFT is entitled to sell products in countries outside the tewitory' The same -with regard to the teruitory apply for POHL's distr and agents outside the territorY. Section 2. presently according to schedule C' Section 3.

The remuneration referred to (6) 2 above shall be in full upon presentation of the report by the Consultancy to the Company.Watt _(g) to pay the remuneration in full between Turner and Rathbone Ltd of Windmill Street. Should the Company made this 2oth day"r r:"Hil:* on time. l. The review date shall be six months from the presentation of reporl. Signed F.(1) and conter:rt of which shall (2).UNIT VI. From: Subject: Agreed the follow'ing with william Godeck of Turner and Rathbone: Stafting date: Presentdtion date: Price: Payment dates: 6. on the results of his negotiations with William (3) package of $l MEMO To: Otter Industries 3. The Consultants shall perforrn the consultancy work between ruary lst and l4th200_. The Company shall provide a total in consultancy fees and expenses. Complete the memo that Frank Watt sends to Tom Hunter. I contracts' 9. Warwick (here called'The Consultancy') and Otter Industries (hereinafter called'The Company') Signed W. SUMMARY The Consultants shall conduct and perform consultancy work i the area oforder processing within the structure and organisation and on premises of the Company. The Consultancy shall accept all_(5) for the content of the poft and The Company shall accept all liabilities for the implementation such action as it selects from the report. The Consultancy shall then perform a short monitoiing exercise provide the Company with a brief report on the state of order processing that time. his Managing Director. there will be a penalty in the form of 5%o increase in price puio uy the Company for each day the paynent is overdue. 4. in Penalty clause %o: Hope this meets withyour approval! 8. the full '' . as set out in r 2.Godeck (9) Otter Industries Ltd. 7. The report shall be presented by the Consultants to the full of the Company on February 2lst200 _ and shall_(4) a detailed ten report and overhead projections of all pertinent process changes statistics. be a_(7) 122 123 . 5. + Godeck. For and on behalfofTurner and Rathbone Ltd. Should the Consultancy fail to present the report on time there in the form of 502 discount on the amount paid by Company for each day the report is overdue.

und u specific length of time during which the pt . As it has been already mentioned. without any doubts. and still ite"a tluUitity.Joint Ventures. old forms of conducting business -hz been substituted by the new ones. It nieans that this compnny has been registered'as a Corporation. certa owners drawba-cks can not be denied. A partnership can be dissolved if there is an agreement of the partners ()r one ofthe partners goes out ofthe some ous ch-anges and. single I not able to invest large amounts of capital or.led. 2. Most of individual of the business and he is responsible for far singte proprietorships are the forms of business ownership in and many other industries. Private Company is a company the shares of which cannot be olfiered or sold to the wide masses of people. no line of business is closed to an ownt sptifically banned Although individual proprietorship has obvious advantages. that is Limited Partnership. The Industrial Revolution. 124 125 . (Incorporated) are put.UNIT VI. first of all. We should point out the. Unless an activity ing] "onrtiuction by law. Legal contracts VocneuLARY lN coNTExr THE MAIN FORMS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION Business is a pattern of complex operations in the lives p"opl. It is a company which has been registered and is a juridical person. This helped various branchbs industry function better in changing conditions to which they adaptei. Only=in agriculture is the individual owner predominant figure' Partnership is a form of business organization where two prt more p-ersons agree to combine their financial assets. and skill oi some or all of these things' usually includes general policies. Partnerships. All the companies of Great Britain and the United States of Arnerica can be divided in the following way: l. The shares of such a conpany can be spread among the wide masses of people. A partnership cont erty. distribution of profits' fiscal . Both variants can be lbund in literature.' This is called unli a great risk of losinghoney. Unless a limited partnership has been established. partners in a partnership nay lose their money. and iale of goods and services for the benefit of cor buyer and the profit of the seller. usually in the sphere of law.Gi6ing ali those functions that g?n"t: tle nr3fu-cjl Oirt iUrtion. They usually otganize and direct industry on the s( nluking business profits.ip it in effect. in wlrich one of the partners assumes complete financial responsibility lbr losses. Deipite the fact that most partners handle business than an individual owner5 almost all of partnerships are srnall businesses.i.If two or more companies want to rcalize a joint project they can form a Joint Venture. labour. If a person wants to participate in running a business with a minimum of risk a corporation should be formed. while General Partnership is an American variant of naming a certain type of business organization. all pafties usually share the burden of Ioss and debts.fact that Limited Partnership is a llritish variant. The profits increased' Today the main forms of bus organization may be described in the following way' The first form of Individual proprietorship can be in main cha as a form of business organization where the owner is it. To avoid such a loss. Public Limited Company (Plc) is an open company with limited liability.ponribiliti". A limited partner may be liable only for the money which has been invested by him and at the same time he can be out of running lhe business. Afterthe name of such n company the letters JM ltd (limited) are put. At present the production entrepreneurs or individual busi ties in the hands of so-called purpose people. medicine. real estate tnd retailing. In the United States of America the joint-stock company with limited liability is called Corporation After the name of the Corporrrtion the letters Inc. a more stable form of partnership has been introduced.. if they do so' they having debts. Limited Companies a-nd.

A. Such companies operate extensive business activities and large-scale produc-' tion facilities elsewhere in the whole world. the division of marketing territories. that business management is a certain sphere of' study that deals with the investigations of the requirements of efliciency in the relation of technological expansion. The free enterprise 127 tions. The conglomerates appeared on. Muny J.. Such is the dernand of public interests. production. stock and bond issues are under the control of the Sccurities and Exchange Commission. In the U.S. In this conncction it is of great importance to note that the operation of large business firms has certain features. by stockholders'-l contemplation of lawi Corporations are owned decisions of ' have shares of stock of a certain company' The are cal stockholders usually affect business operations' Profits corporation' Coq dividends. There is one more corporate combination which was formed at that period of time . trusts and monopolistic practices are outlawed by the Shennan Antitrust Act (1890) and the Clayton Antilrust Act (191a). while various administrative departments pcrform the functions of finance. The corporate structure has a more permanent combinati deposited the trust in which the stockholders of the corporation got back trust certil stock certificates with one or more trustees and have. but they are more difficult single proprietorships' 1' .u*backs of such a practice further in q vealed and the need to have some changes reflected new form forms that resulted in the breaking up of the trusts' A holding compat business organization has appeared. that is the multinational corporation. The cartel is a voluntary organization of private business concerns in order to coordinate marlieting practices.that is the cartel. Business operations can be regulated by the government' The rcgulation of business by government is a certain sphere which presupposes the involvement of the government (total or partial) in business operations that may be reflected in laws. intangible. the so-called the common sto The holding company is a corporation that holds ofother corPorations.the scene' belonging to indus under one management scores of companies 126 ' . and marketing. Many laws have been made for the purpose ol'acknowledging a competitive pluralism in connection to produclion and trade. limitation of production. The two main things in a free crrterprise economy are Profit and Responsibility. and their revenues may cxceed the total revenues of certain countries in which they function' There are different levels of business operation. In the 1960's and ""::y-"f amalgamations under the influence of the me curring different They brot moverient. a foration. and the pooling of profits. in an amalgamation-when the corporationt"gi" ll of the new I individual charters anJexchange their stock for that gteat l9i0's there was. namely in price fixing. usually handie more business to establish.ut". b'usiness became more competitive combinations ha the fact that new and more complex corporate or more comp been formed. research. such as great complexity of rurganization and administration. The number of mergers has grown enormously particularly in the middle"of the 1980's.s. In the unit ffierships. Profits may be also reinvested in the than individual owners t . been r cates in return.ion.UNIT VI device The Corporation was made to provide a financial and the par tn-" did not huG-" dtu*bucks of the singte ownership the U' tnip in" classical definition was giv6n by Chief Justice of l8l9:'A corporatir John Marshall in the Dartmouth Cottege case in and existing only is an artificial being invisible. A merger is the absorption of one by another. With the development of foreign relationships a new form of business organization at the international level became of a great oconomic value. The highest level of management is closely connected with the overall planning and evaluation of protluction and distribution. It may engage in many spheres of business. It is worth saying.u. due Without any doubts.25 million corporations' of money can be invested' of the corporations are: large sums of the owner' stockholders have limited liabiliry and the death business ope withdrawal from the company do not influence the which haye not been related to each other. of America there are 12 million The advanti million partnerships and 3.


Legal contracts

theoryl economy presupposes that business is govefned by the they serve their communities' burine.r"i p.oftt to the extent that become sponsibiliry to consumers plays an important role' lt has principle, and-measures such as guarantees have br repu "rtuUt;rn"i taken to benefit the customer while enhan-cing the seller's. ethics became,$elermined by the co A new notion of business


t l.

Select the answer which best completes the meaning

of the


tive system, which makes


profitable to satisff the consu

Advertising is a kind of public announcement which describes the benefiti' of using a product or service. We can use advertising to increase the sales of our product or service. We expect to find advertising c. on the land a. at school b. in the factory
d. on TV and radio

Match the words below with the definition indicated by line before sentences above. Write the nurnber'of ihe word on the definition.
f . initiate


a. something which must be Paid b. having new products and ideas c. begin new business activitY

There is an expression, 'It takes money to make money.' We know that capital can be used to make something of value. Therefore, capital can refer to c. raw materials a. a basic factor
b. money d. bankruptcy

2. profit

3. labour
4. business

d. person who directs the
e. land



A creditor is a person to whom the busihess owes money. Which of the following is most likely to be a creditor?
a. an entrepreneur c. a banker

5. innovative 6. entrepreneur

7. raw materials
8. venture

f. what workers Provide g. a business activitY h. money the entrepreneur

b. an employee

d. a factor



9. loss
10. capital 11. goods 12. services 13. bankrupt 14. company 15. debt

i. money which buys machines and tools

Labour changes raw materials into finished goods. Paper is an example of a finished good. The raw material would be c. finished products a. physical work
b. wood d. land



things which business provides in tion to goods l. describes a company with not money and too manY debts m. the result of expenses being more



Distribution means getting the products from the factory to the store where customers buy them. Which of the following companies would probably be involved in distribution?
a. a bank c. a supermarket

b. a transportation


d. a factory


n. the activity of Producing goods o. a business

An employee is a person who works for a company and receives payment for his work."Which factor does the employee supply? 129




Glossary of useful expressions for letter-writing b. labour

c. capital

Appendix A

d. innovation

Large companies require more capital than a single entrepret ,uppiy. The ow'ership of the company is therefore divi .-t -,- L^ -.^:^^ ^^.^:+^l ^ company mich "orld might into shares of stock. In order to raise capital, a ^^-^o-.,
a. risk its future c. sell stock

Beginninq a letter
We are writing to enquire about with

b. bring together land and labour

d. produce goods




Value is the qualitY that makes a thing wanted or worth Value is probablY
a. skill
c. price

We are


and we would like


Answerinq a letter
l'hank you for your letter of (date)
We have received your letter of (date)

b. capital

d. profit


Businesses provide both goods and services' Examples of are physical products which customers purchase to take An example of a service business would be a. an oil company c. a bank

With reference to
lrurther to

b. a store

d. a factory

10. The owner of a business takes a risk' He hopes that his busi will be successful and that he will make a profit, but there

With regard to
I arn

writing in connection with

chance that he maY a. manage and direct ac-

c. make a profit

Givinq qood/bad news
(Jood news

b. offer new services
and products

d. suffer a loss

I am pleased delighted

inform you that

lf:rd news
I regret am sorTy
We regret that

to inform you that



Glossary of useful expressions for letter-writing

We are unable to We are able to
We have been forced to

if you could We would appreciate it if you could We would like to know (about/if)
We would be grateful

let us know (about/if)

inform us (abouVif).

Makins a mild complaint
Unfortunately, something is wrong
(bad news)

Giving reasons


owing to
due to
as a result

Unless vie



of of

fthe fact that)


be forced to (take legal actions)

If (not) Personal business letters: the opening

Requesting action
Please could


If it is urgent,
without delay


T'hank you for your letter/telophone call/telex/fax

We would be grateful

if You could We would apPreciate if You could

as soon as possible

It was a pleasure to It was good to It was a pity that

(meet you aVon)


(seeyou again aVon)
(hear from

iou again)

We must apologise We apologise for We are extremelY sorry for
Please, accept our apologies once again We hope that this has not caused you any inconvenience

(We did not have time to talk atlon)

fot--(followed .for-or


-ing forms after

I urn sorry that


missed you when you visited my



Personal business lefters: saving whv vou are writing
Dcar Sir or Madam
I nm

writing in reply to your advertisement in the European
I thought you might be interested to hear about

With apologies once again

Requestinq information
Please, could You

Give us some further

,was wondering



could help me

I am afraid we have a small


Delivery will be made immediately on receipt of your c h eq ue/remittan celletter of credit.. As the goods are urgently required. We confirm that delivery will be made by March l5th. u . We can accept your offer on thgse terms. and dolivery will be made in accordance with your instructions.' Your order is already being carried out/executed/processed. pass on my best wishes to USEFUL WORDS AND WORD.. Wc trust that this initial order will lead to further dealings between orrr two companies. as requested.. please submit a quotation fo. Please confirm that you can supply this quantity by the required date. we should be grateful for delivery by.- . Acknowledqement of Orders We are pleased to acknowledge. Refusal of Orders Wc regret to inform you that the goods ordered are out Ionger available. and are pleased to pl'abe an order for. Mr' Lund' I hope that he has recovered from the flu.uUrtittrte. of stocVno 134 r35 L-. give me a ring or call in Please.Appendix A Useful words and word-combinations commonly used in the world of business I am afraid I know some news APPendix B I look forward to seeing you again next time I am in London If you ever are in London..your order for'. please. Format: I regret to advise you that our prices have increased Informal: I am sorry to say that our prices have gone up Formal: We have not yet received your invoice Informal: We have not yet got your bill ll'any items are out of stock. With reference to your quotation. we enclose our order for immedintc delivery. give mv regards to Diana Smith Please.COMBINATIONS COMMONLY USED IN THE WORLD OF BUSINESS Placins of Orders l)lease supply/send us the undermentioned goods.

. in accordance with the supplement .. ":1). please? My name's "' Could you give '. execution.. Please? "'I'urn-key" contract l{isk contract lrlat fee contract [f ixed-price contract with escalation (lost-p lus-fi xed-fee contract liffective date of contract lr rr I fi I lment.. construe a document Supplement to contract. please' Thanks for calling back? Good morning. . I'm sorry I've got the wrong number Proper performance of a contract Clourse of the irnplementation Telephone Communication Oh hello. Mr (Ms)"' this is "' speaking' (still at lu I'm afraid he (she) is at a meeting (not in the ofFrce) just (not available ftof iOuV this week) (away today) of a contract Due and faithful performance of a conftact 'lbrms and provisions.? Can I speak to .. '. - What's your (extension) number? I'll put You through to . this is' . a message.orrg-term contract l)resent contract Llrrder the present contract 137 .. to call me back.contract As per supplement to contract . (available) I'll just find'out if Mr (Ms) is in the other offrce yet). implementation of contract My number is ". . addendum to. to contract io. . Please Hello. is that ' ' .. available. reservations of a document . performance. Please of a contract Tvpes of Gontracts report Contract for the preparation of feasibility Production sharing contract 136 l.. I'd like to sPeak to "' Is . make up a document Itrterpret a document.Useful words and word-combinations commonly used in the world of business is the same Price and of We can offer You a substitute which quatity to the goods ordered' s Contract for training local operating personnel Contract for the supply of complete equipment l(esearch and development contract Itesearch-development-test-and-evaluation Contract for the sale of know-how Development contract contract l Hello. you back? Can I get your phone number to call ('ontract law Sclect the law for a contract Irr the performance Hold on a moment... catlingfrom''' in''' Could you ask . As stated (specified) in a document Draw up a document..

lr general style applies to most accusations. "Ms". lbr a Source: Webster's 2 New Riverside University Dictionary Copyright @ 1984 by Houghton Miffin Company . "Madam" should be substilrrted for "Sir".xB Void contract Contract awarded. Address: Salutation: The Most Reverend Joseph. break a contract Negotiate a contract lnitiate a contract Revise a contract Terminate a contract Relevant contract number ACADEMICS Dean. com'mitment (ofthe parties) under contract ees)irnder contract. fixed-term contract. "Miss". President. that form should be used. When the salutation is informal. Archbishop of Eastern Orthodox. liabilities Contractual obligations Cease to be under any contractual obligations Address: Salutation: Address: Salutation: Address: Dear Dear Dean President Dear President Professor Dear Professor Evade the fulfillment of contractual obligations Sanctions for the non-fulfillment of contractual obligations Bear responsibilitY for Outside the extent of the contract l)rofessor. Address: Salutation: The O. Your Eminence The Most Reverend Archbishop. contract gained Terminal contract. However.S. Salutation: CLERICAL AND RELIGIOUS ORDERS Within the extent of the qontract Within the limits of the contract Abbot. or "Mrs" should be substituted for "Mr". Remarks on a Forms of address . the type of salutation is often determined by the relationship between correspondents or by the purpose and content of the letter. If a woman addressee has previously indicated a preference particular form of address. (of the Obligations (of the parties) under contract.: contract FORMS OF ADpRFSS Forms of address do not always follow the set guide lines. oollege or university. college or university. Alterations and amendments to a contract Annul/cancel a contract ' ! Hold a contract Forward a contract Infringe a contract. In highly formal qituations when the addressee is a woman.B Right Abbot of Right Reverend Abbot or Dear Father Abbot Reverend Archbishop. r38 Address: 139 It- .

D. Address: Salutation: Priest. Address: Salutation: Bishop. Dear Mr / Ms or Dear Dr Minister. United States Consul Dear Mr / Mrs The Honourable The Minister Clergyman/woman. of Venerable Sir or Dear A Dear Reverend Father or Dear Father Bishop. Address: Salutation: of Sir / Madam or Dear Mr / Madame Minister Patriarch. Archdeacon. Address: Salutation: Address: Salutation: His Holiness The Pope Your Holiness or Most Holy Father The Reverend S. The Reverend Dear Bishop The Most Reverend Address: Salutation: The Ambassador The Honourable of the United States Sir / Madam or Dear Mr / Madam Ambassador Bishop. Address: Patriarch. Dear Mr / Madam / Madame Secretary General of the United Nations t4l . Greek Orthodox. man or woman. Russian Address: 'Salutation: His Holiness the Patriarch Orthodox. Address: Salutation: Cardinal. Your Excellency The Venerable Archdeakon l)ope. Address: Salutation: Protestant. Address: Salutation: His All Your All Holiness Holiness Patriarch JosePh Sccretary General.Forms of address Salutation: Archbishop of Roman Catholic.D. US or to US. Roman Catholic. Address: Salutation: His Stone His / Her Excellency Eminence. Your Holiness 140 of Salutation: His / Her Excellency Secretary General of the United Nations. I)IPLOMATS Ambassador. Address: The Reverend The Reverend Consul. Episcopal. Salutation: D. Roman Catholic. Address: Salutation: The Right Reverend llabbi. Episcopal. Bishop of Right Reverend Sir or Dear Address: Salutation: Rabbi Dear Rabbi or or Dear Dr D. US. Joseph Dear Brother Joseph The Ambassador of the US Excellency or Dear Mr / Madam Ambassador Esq.J. Address: Salutation: of Your Excellency or Dear BishoP Ambassador to the US. US. other Protestant.

U. Address: The State AttorneY General./Ms. I'ROFESSIONS (state' Address: th" Hottoutable Salutation: Dear Mr'/Ms' Attorney Address: Mr. President Salutation: Associate Justice. USAF.S. Vice President MILITARY AND NAVAL OFFICERS Chief Justice. Chief Justice llank Address: Salutation: Full rank. former \ \.S. Federal Judge of the The Honourable United States District Court for the District of Sir / Madam or Dear Judge The Honourable Judge of the Court Dear Judge The Pr. USN (or USCG. US Address: Mr / Madam Justice \ Address: Salutation: The Hcinourable Dear Mr. State Capitol Dear Senator Supreme Court Salutation: Dear Mr / Madam Justice or Sir / Madam Scnatoq state Address: Salutation: Vice President. The Honourable Senate.. Attorney of law or Salutation: Dear Mr. U. USMC) Dear (full rank) Supreme Court Salutation: Commissioner (federal). Address: Salutation: Th! Sir / Madam or Dear Mr / Ms Honourable United Salutation: . Address: The Chief Justice of the United States Dear Mr. Address: Salutation: President./Ms.ludge. U. state or local Address: Salutation: of GOVERNMpNT OFFTCTALS AssemblYman Address: The Honourable Dear Mr / Ms President.esi{qnt ExcellencY or MY dear Mr / Madame Representative to the United Nations Representative (US).S. U. Esq.S. US Address: Salutation: AttorneY The Honourable of the United States Dear Mr i Madam or AttorneY General The Honourable Sir / Madam or Dear Mr Cabinet member Address: Salutation: Salutation: i Madam The Vice President of the United States Sir or Dear Mr.ludge. . 142 143 .Forms of address Rep resentative (Fo rei gn) Governor Address: Salutation: His I Her ExcellencY Representative Address: Address: of to the Salutation: The Honourable Dear Governor Governor of Nations. Dear Mr. USA.

K. Salutation: Dear Dr. or My dear Lord Duke. Dear Col. servant Your Majesty's most faithful subject and dutiful The Honourable John W.Dentist Dear Dr.C.President: tcpresentative 'l'lre Honourable . My dear Govern or Smith: (hrformal) My Lord Duke. Captain. THE REGEIVED FORMS FOR COMMENCING' CONCLUDING. lllowne. Your Grace's most obedient servant. Major. Commencement of Letter Socially l)car Gen. New Jersey SubscriPtion of EnveloPe To His Most Gracious Majesty King George To Her MajestY Queen Mary Madam To Member of the AristocracY llouse Office Building Wlshington.D. AND ADDRESSING LETTERS: The Sovereign. 'lir a General.D. I have the honour to be.G. My dear Senator Smith governor The Honourable John W.lolrn W. Colonel. To IIis MajestY the King Commencement Sir. Physician M. 'l'he Army Salutation: Dear Dr Address: Veterinarian D.Smith Governor of New Jersey Trenton.C. l)car Mr. D. D. Smith Washington. Lord P.S. Dear Capt. presents his humbte duty to Majesty' Conclusion I have the honour to remain. or Lieutenant Commencement of Letter Officially Sir. Dear Mr. etc' 144 145 .M.. or.N.C. Robinson lligh Government officials may be addressed l'he President 'l'lre President senator as follows: May it please Your MajestY. D. Smith Senate Office Building Washington. The Duke of Wiltshire. Green. 'lir His Grace. Dear Major Black. White. D. Will Your Grace.

receipt of which is hereby acknowledged. that for valuable consideration in hand paid by the Assignee to the Assignor.Ooprvrur ropl4A[qecK[x EoKyMeHToB u AenoBsrx nnceM ACCEPTANCE We.gnment Agreement. the Assignor hereby assigns and transfers to the Assignee all of his (description) set forth right.d. Signed. Provided. hereby accept the above assignment nnd subject ourselves to all the promises and covenants therein con- SAMPLES OF CONTRACTS (English and Russian variants) ooPMbl loPl4AHtlEcKhx AoITMEHTOB n AEnoBblx nhcEM (r'H' < Hacroquuil pa3Aen coAepnfl4r s ce6e 78 Sopv ynorpe6un'rslx rop?IAuqecKltx plate>) pa3JII'tqHbIx sau6olee MCHTOB U ACIOBbIX TILICEM' tained. the Assignor has executed this Assignment on the day and year first above written. . presence of: WITNESSES WITNESSES: 146 147 .20 _.s upon satisfactory compliance ir . and ("Assignee"): tween WITNESSES. und interest in and to said lease to ' It is agreed and unde shall henceforth be "fOt.. by and be("Assignor"). sealed atrd delivered in the. and Pertaining to do hereby assign ) 'f'his is made this day of (]ONSENT lcase hereby consents to the to landlord and lessor under the above assignment of said lease from Attest ilEPEAAIIA TIPABA ASSIGNMENT OF RIGHT THIS ASSIGNMENT NEPEAAIIA TIPABA HA APEHAY ASSIGNMENT OF LEASE and that certain lease dated by and between Lessee. We fully understand that this assignment is contingent upon the making of timely payments on the lease and complying with all the terms and provisions of the lease. no warranties of any kind whatsoever are made incident to this Assignnrent.o"ti-g"nt the terms and provisions of the lease' titl" . however. IN WITNESS WHEREOF. title and interest in and to all Lessor and certain ln of that certain right..

Oopuur ropr4Ar4qecxux AoKyMeHToB t4 AenoBbtx nlaceM oEIUA-fl O OPMA IIOATBEPXAEHT'. state.TU KAKOIO_JII{EO OAKTA GENERAL AFFIDAVIT State loase under which you occupy said premises and sion thereof.20 - TPEEOBAHIIE OIUIATbI 3A APEHAYEMOE 'lake notice that your month to month tenancy of the herein desoribed premises is hereby terminated at the expiration of 30 days nlter service ofthis notice on you.ur" legal proceedings against you.fl NOTICE TO OUIT Sworn and subscribed before me this daY t'o .i. pursuant being the rent now due 1o 3" qy. with treble rents and damages. Tenant in possession: of A. of which you now hold possession. will on you of this notice. and that you are hereby required kr quit and on said date deliver up to me the possession of the premiscs now held and occupied by you under such tenancy. 149 r48 . TO TENANT IN POSSESSION:' Said premises are known as: (name of building) he You are hereby required to pay the rent on the premises wrlt to a described. an officer duly commissioned appeared ' on this day of 20 ' Personq I)ATED (LESSOR) TPEEOBAHTTE OE O who having been first duly sworn depose and say: -' CBOEOX{AEHT4I.D.r"sion of the prem-ises' within THREE DAYS.i irur".I Witness: APEHAyEMOIO IIOMEIIIEHII. to recover posses- of of The undersigned does (not) elect to terminate the lease if the lcnt is not paid within three day. The premises referred to are commonly known as: (addless. zip) rrr i nating l'his is intended as a 30 days'notice to quit. zip code) (Legal description may be inserted) County by the laws Before the undersigned. apartment number) (city. to declare a forfeiture of ( address ) (ciry state. after -. -to- l)ated: Landlord. u*ounting to $ or you are hereby required to for the period fro* uf po. io the undersigned or the undersigned r. for the purpose of teryour tenancy aforesaid.

County of in consideration of . . transfer and deliver runto the following goods and chattels. should Customer default in the payment of any money due hereunder. and any rigging t"p"nt" for the equipment ordered herein. over. successors and assigns. sell.Ooprvrur lopr44r4qecKilx AoKyMeHToB ta AenoBbtx nuceM AOroBoP oE APEH. State of No: From To CCP Special Reference Yes: Nu Custorher Authorizes Initial Supplies: Supply Purchase Order No: To have and to hold the same to 0xecutors." administrators. *Tl:. and that I will warrant and dcfend the same against the lawful claims and demands of all persons. [." Customer's Signature Chambers Corporalion Monthly Annual Two Year Contract No: Customer and Billing Address By Title Installation Address of providing suita Customer acknowledges the responsibilities the placement J"". PACIrICKA O IIPOAA]nE C IIOATBEP]nAEHI4EM 3AKOHHOTO BrIMEHr4fl BILL OF SALE (WITH WARRANTY OF TITLE) . to me paid by $ . to their use for- Supply Agreement No: Supply Purchase Order: Not necessary Attached To Follow Acceptance of this agreemertt !s lonfinfnt p. 150 l5t .ri"uf service and'the payment of charges of and r""""f.ouut of Chambers Corporation's Credit Department' upon revrew And I hereby covenant with the grantee that I'm the lawfill owner ol'said goods. namely. do hereby grant. that I have good right to sell the same as aforesaid. the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged. subject solely to'1" existing Chambers Contract Price Agreement and Chambers CorPoration' 'fhis Agreement shall terminate in the event that Customer makes an zrssignment for the benefit of creditors. and his heirs. Earliest Customer Acceptance Date yes' complete below: Purchase Order Required Yes' if Purchase Order of .lo*. of a voluntary or involuntary petition is filed by or against the Customer under any law having for its purpose the adjudication of Customer as bankrupt or the reorganization of Customer or may be cancelled by Chambers without notice.4E OEOPvAoBArrw{ EQUIPMENT LEASING AGREEMENT agrees to the services Chambers agrees to furnish and Customer ilud**O "f-ift" ("Equipment")' to be i*ticut"o u. that they are free from all encumbrances.

Buyer agrees to pay for the goods at the time they are delivbe er. Until such time as said goods have been received by Buyer. t'he the goods regardless of The risk of loss from any casualty to the goodS have beeXl .uur" tf.r. KOHTPAKT O KvrUrE . It is agreed that identification shall not be deemed have agreed that made until botn ihe buyer and the seller perfi g""at in question are to be appropriated to the the contract with the buYer' for the goods at the time 4. The buyer shall make payment him' ptace where the goods are received by 5. time of signing this The seller further warrants that at the know of the exister tract he neither knows nor has reason to hostile to his rightS in uny-ou. f. herein reI'erred to as "Buyer". on or beBuyer agrees to accept lirre (date).20-.(state). and (name of buyer). all risk of loss froin any casualty to said goods shall be on Seller' 152 r53 . one copy of which was delivered to and retained by the tuy"r. ln" seller hereby undertakes to transfer described goods: . of (address) (city). hereunto set mY hand.. encumbrance. of (address) (city). the following on or before the goods and pay 2.ot ffi'* .of shall be on the sellir until cepted bY the buYer' Buyer and seller agree that identification shall not be deemed lo have been made until both parties have agreed that the goods in -prestion are to be appropriated and fulfill the requirements of perlbrmance of said contract with the Buyer. herein referred to as "Seller".ed and at the place where he receives said goods. and within business days after such delivery he must give notice to the seller of any claim for damages on account of the condition..x AoKyMeHTOB U AenoBblx nuceM C TN WITNESS WHEREOF' I day of g.' the Bu' 20-. Executed in duplicate.TIPOAAIKE TOBAPA CONTRACT FOR SALE OF GOODS - 2 Agreement made and entered into this (date). Seller hereby agrees to transfer and deliver to buyer. The failure of the buyer to comply with these rules shall constitute irrevocable acceptance ofthe and between and deliver to the t. quality. 8.rr. -'20 -I .ii. this /s/ . ""i " Goodsshallbedeemedreceivedbythebuyerwhenrece him.. the day and year first above written' tst tst day of into this THIS AGREEMENI' made and entered . and must speciff the basis of his-claim in detail. by and between (name of seller).. the following goods: pay for them in accordance with the terms of the conlhe goods and Lract. 7.unding titte or claim of title goods. now free and at the ti The seller warrants that the goods are "unv securitv interest or other li f. TOBAPA KOHTPAKT O KvrlIrE . or grade of the property. 10. 6. Goods shall tlcemed received by Buyer when delivered to address of Buyer as Ircrein described. The buyer hereby undertakes to ac^ceptcontract' the them in accordance with the terms of to have b1 3.the Seller' and . (state).TIPOAAIKE CONTRACT The buyer shall have the right to examine the goods on arrival.

un"e. citY. l a credit This letter is requesting that I be allowed to open count with Your organization' '154 However. r55 .titl from receipt of the invoice. and that he neither Sellerwarrantsthatthegoodsarenowfreefromanysec t sontoknowofanyoutstandingtitleorclaimoftitlehostileto (item) from your company for buying C. base'd on numerous credit information. you for we have been purchasing merchandise from the convenience (period of time) C. Now we would like charge account.p. we can only apolotrrake shipments to you when cash received with the'order.r KPEru'.Ci. state) (offrcer). citY. basis' Now I would like the (time framei "" " these purchases with payment made within convenience of charging (time frami i spelled out and then numerical numbers in - I have been p*. who will vouch for my business and personal integrity: (name. : (name) as a (number) of references In addition.Q. grown substantially during the last My business has (time) and I have recenti-y added as customers (name a few new customers). we gize for this but we know that you understand' If we can be of scrvice to you further please let us know. citY.rr L Dear Sir or Madam: - 2 preciate -Thank you for your recent request to establish (name of store) your interest in . I I have my account cable acceptance ofthe goods' whereby This agreement has been executed in duplicate' on (date)' Buyer and Se-ller have retained oqre copy each' (Signatures) '"roui"". Dear OTKA3 B TTPEAOCTABJTEHTTTT KPE44TA (name): - 1 TIPOCbEA OE OTKPbrrr4r'. I am listing with (name of bank)' You TIPOCbEA OE OTKPbrrrrrr KPEMTA Dear Sir or Madam: -1 trnd I ain confident that the references given will prove satisfactory I look forward to your prompt favourable reply' Yours trulY. . state) (name. Sincerely. references 'are Please let us know what information and sary as well as Your credit terms' Yours trulY. state) (name.they shall be free interest or other lien or "n"u.ntft..D. credit' We ap- . oan speak to their .ob. that knows nor has .urn" * the time of delivery.

We do understand your position. ipp"iilnJ*ili u. We regret the unfortunate occurrence of these circumstances .. we are your payment' to rush shiprnent as soon as we receive the (newsPaPer) for .ul"rp"rson'probabtylia for that misunderstanding' Your order will - understand your annoyance in not receivi (number and item) that you ordered' (time span) for deli Orders requiring engraving need make that clear and we are not I have enjoyed working with you. .. Am I responsible for something said or done that offended or tlispleased you? (specifl nature).na ut u "tl""t (Price)' ter and item) is holding your order aside with instruct Meanwhile.rnd request that you release us from our obligations under the herein nrentioned contrdct. we are not set up for C'O'D' or a money order' The price of the please . )car (name): PAC T OP}IGHIIE KOHTPAKTA Dear----------(name) : In the past I have valued your patronage. C O)KAJIE HI{B O PAC TOPXELIILI1I KOHTPAKTA I )car (name): We are sorry that you wish to end our agreement that has been fo.riu" w" know that you (daY (tirne peri sfied with SincerelY. . But despite the fact lhat we have always enjoyed a mutual pleasant and profitable relaliorrship. it will forgive oduct' | IIPEAJIOXEHT4E O BO3 OEHOBJIEHI._ (time period). you have not placed an order with me in recent (time petiod). When we entered into our agreement to condition)' assumed that we would have (presupposed r56 157 . I assume that you rvish to terminate as of _ _ (date) without the _ (number of rlays) day cancellation mentioned in the contract. we are unable to (nature of perlirrmance required under terms of contract).it. and I know that our paths will cross again in the future.ITI ABJTOBbTX OTHOIIIEHiVLfr. _ (name of person).Oopuur lopt4At4qecKilx AoKyMeHroB n AenoBbtx nuceM Appendix C OTKA3 B TTPEAOCTABIIEHT4TI Dear Sir or Madam: Thank you for your order in KPE44TA- 2 Due to the fact that (problem that has arisen) which occurred nlter our agreement was entered. -We can definitely the Ou. orders' Unfortunately.t . \ in effect r'r3BrrHEHI{E 3A 3AAEP)KKy 3AKA3AHHOTO TOBAPA Dear (name) Even though you did not state it in the letter. Sincerely. Truly Yours. (item) that was 20on --.

Why ttot do it today! and look forward to conti We appreciate your patronage our business relationshiP' Cordially yours. We also have a "get(what the gift is) which is ncquainted" gift for you. i"" t"'" talk' iniigtrt and good will' Please let me know IIPI{IJIAIIIEHI{E IIOCBTI'TTb MAIA3I4H c rrPEAno)nEHr4EM CHIDr{EHHOfr rIEHbr I )ear (name): CordiallY Yours ITATTOMUHAHIIE O PAHEE CAEilAHHblx AE JroB.<Dopnlur topr.^. plcte our (location) store.rAr4qecKrx AoKyMeHroB h AenoBblx nrceM re if anything is troubling you that I canyoi I definitelv respect tiff.ii rIPBAnoxEHr'rfl x Dear (name): -I am taking the liberty of writing you this lbtter instead of proposal' Now Last week I mailed you a brief terrupting You bY Phone' (name of store) has opened a wonderful new store in (name of (address). you want selec(name of company) can lion. with any purchase of nbsolutely (number of your choice) to ()r rlore. (name of (type of charge) account today! Hlore) invites you to open All you have to do is complete the coupon below and return it [r the postpaid envelope that is enclosed for your convenience. (name of looms) room groupings to include I am if it suits Your comPanY's needs' you and would appreciate We wish to do business with po"ibl" if we fit into your pla you would let us tnow-altoon ut CordiallY Yours' of Tlris collection features )lcw brands) as well as many other famous name brands that com(amount of money) inventory. You have a choice of st:lcct from. 158 159 e . If you number).' (date)' on cided to increase r"rul"" "hutges depending on the service charge increases will vary These vice your comPany uses' 'Io make shopping even more of a convenience. It is (amount of money) FREE. -(name o Dear (name) r{rrE O rIoBbrIIrEHfrl'IPACTIEHOK and operating costs' a ---r There has been * rapid rise in labor (name of company) reluctantly has cause of these facts.. availability. and value. -). quality. Just call on th" il. us at have any questions' please call Most sincerelY. store) has been satisffing home furnishing needs since Our experience has shown us that when you slrop. _ (name of county) at (year).. regularly priced merchandise. As an introductory offer to our new (number of discount) discount on wc're offering you a ALL. olt-er you all this and more! (number of We have expanded our furnishings of over grouping).

l-oe HAtrIOMI{HAHI{E OB OIUIATE A l)ear No. Your truly. PLEASE DO US A FAVOR Tell us whether you received our brochures? I - orBBT HA fII{CbMO AApECOBAHHOE COTPyAHT4Ky oTCvrcTBvroIrIBMv rro BoJIE3Hrr )ear Whether it gave you all the necessary information? 2) Whether you are still interested in 1) (name): 3) 4) Whether You have made other Plans? Whether you have anY Problems? stop If the latter applies to you. and self-addressed. postage-free envelope is enclosed to be hei reply' We hope may use the back of this ietter for your from you soon. Regards. (name) Thanks for Your cooPeration' Yours trulY. Sincerely. I will bring your letter to his lbout rlated rrttention. (name): our customers Just a quick 'thank you' for being one of 160 r6r ta- . When he returns.QopMbr ropr4Ar4qecKux AoKyMeHroB n AeroBblx nficeM AOrroJrHr4TEJrbHoE frrrcbMo PEKJIAMA KOTOPOMY PAHEB EbIIIA BbICJIAHA Dear (name). please inform us. (date) that was addressed to (name) has been ill and is not expected to return to the office until (date). Please check the following invoices that are past due: Date Date Date Amount Amount Amount Enclosure POXAECT Dear year.IE By taking care of this matter now you will save yourself the trouble of checking them again. If there is a reason for their not beirrg paid. TIOCJIAHI. we will be ther letters and literature. Kil4EHTY We appreciate yollr business and we hope to continue serving you during the coming year. No. No. I am sure that we will be able to help If you have changed your plans or^made other &fran$efirr not send happy to reiove-yo Ir name off our list and --? This letter is to infbrm you that we have received your letter (name). please either wlite us or you' offices.

We are sorry about any inconvenience this may bring to you. Please use the postage paid envelope that is enclosed for yo convenience. We must have a payment now! it comes to bank accounts. Your ignoring our suggestjons of working together to get account current is having a negative effect on your credit record. Yours truly. c Enclosure Dear ooBruEHr4E o rronyqElrl{r4 HEOEECIIEI{EHHOIO TIEKA 3-e HAIIOMIIHAHI{E OE OIIIIATE Dear (name): _ (name): This letter is to inform you that the check number _ (number) dated 20. I am sure that this mistake was just an oversight. though. - we are asking for 162 r63 . we must ask for your indulgence and grant us a two weeks' extension of time on our bill. we have just been informed that this check will not arrive until _ (date). However. Respectfully. Your promptness will enable me to readjust your account with the bank and return your original check. TIPOGA OE OTCPOIIKE IIIIATE}I{A Dear Sir or Madam: We have a very uncomfortable request extension of time on our bill for _ (amount). If you cannot send at least a partial payment now. count but we are sure that you You did not reply to our first reminder of your overdue will send us a check amount) to make your account up-to-date. We all make mistakes when We cannot accept any further delay in paying your due. please send me immediately a certified check for _ (amount) plus _ (amount) l'or protest charge (statement enclosed) for which I was required to pay. I am sure. Yours sincerely. call us that we can colne to a workable agreement. Therefore.(date) drawn to me in the amount of _ (amount) has been returned from the bank with the notation "No Ilunds". that you understand that I would like to have this situation rectified at once.<Dopnrrur ]opl4Ar4qecKyrx AoKyMeHToB n AeroBbtx nuceM 2<e HAIIOMI4HAHI{E OE OIIiIATE Dear (name): We had been depending on a check from one of our clients to cover this bill. Therefore. Sincerely.

Yours sincerelY. Mr. Please accept our apologies. _ (price) A credit memo to cancel Sincerely. 164 165 !- . l)car Sincerely II3BI4HEHIrE 3A 3AAEP?I(Ky C Oil. Edward has agreed to accept and hold us harml from any and all liabilities arising prior to (date). I{3BEIIIEHT4E O TTEPEXOAE OES3ATEJIbCTB K APvrOMv Jtrrqv Dear OopMbt topt4At4qecKux AoKyMeHToB 14 AenoBbtx nuceM B l)ear I43BI4HEHI. (address). state and zip code). We have had trouble tracing your sale and _ lho return of part of the merchandise. (city.rrATorl3A BO3PATTIBHHbTII TOtsAP _ (narne): I am sorry you had to wait such a long time for your credit of (amount of money). Enclosure 3AKA3 l)ear Sir or Madam: Please send the following as soon as possible and charge to our account. please be advised that on (date) the (firm) chan'1 hands pursuant to a recorded bill of sale of the same date' This correspondence will serve to inform you that any clai originating prior to that date should be directed to (name of indivi ual). lhe billing is enclosed. Cordially. I43BIIHEHIIE 3A OIIIIIEKY B TIPEAbflBIIEHHOM CTTETE - (item) 1 (item) Thank you for your promptness. The error in your _ (month) showing a change of lbr a shipment of _ (item) was due to a selling error. If I may be of any further assistance in this matter. We appreciate your giving us opportunity to be of service to you. We are sorry for the inconvenience.. pl don't hesitate to contact the above offtce. By virtue of a series agreements. Dear (name): We are enclosing a corrected statement of your account' are sorry about the error and hope that it has not caused you much inconvenience.IE 3A' OIIIUEKY IPEAbqBJIEHHOM CTIETE -2 _ (name): (name) Directing your attention to your (date) correspondence which you have indicated your representation of the above m tioned individual.

Despite the fact that we have reordered this' these to (item).Again. Please drop in again and let your next purchase is handled correctly. In consideration of the foregoing Company agrees 167 VerY trulY Yours. great that we have no more on hand' d (items) described in our letter to However. As you can imagine. we are proud of the fact that these errors are few far between in number. (item) as soon as it' they EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENT Agreement between (name of company). Therefore. and (name of employee). to maintain a current and ete account of his work and expenses. Sincerely. State of (state) herein referred to e as "Company. (item) has been us see that Your patronage is highly valued. With thanks we' acknowledge your check and order 20 -(name): for of -(date) -2|-(date). Employee agrees that he will perform those duties asigned to him to the best of his ability. located at (address).thanksfor cusing the BO3BPAT AEHET l)ear (name): delay' sincerely yours' cooEIqEHrlIE o 3AAEP}KKp orfIPAB^KI{-^ . occasional errors such as the one you experienced do occur. to devote his full and undivided time the transaction of Company's business and to refrain from being gaged in any other business during the tenure of his employment ith the company. the demand for the unfortunately. Sincerely.(product) but we cannot ture.I"rl:Yttolerate this for correct these _. we regretfully have no idea when they will be shipped TPyAOBOTI 4OrOnOr your check and forward you the rive(s). You noted in your letter than one of our store associates had ttrade a mistake and. County of (county). -The 166 . to remit promptly to the y any monies paid to him or coming into his possession ich belong to the company.Oopuur ropr4gr4qecKux AoKyMeHToB u AenoBbrx nuceM Therefundcheckhasnowbeenmailed. nty of (county).you received the incorrect package.. State of (state) herein referred to as "Emryee". rrPEABAPrrrEJrbrIO O[IIArrEHHOro TOBAPA Dear We are in receipt of your letter regarding the merchandise purclrased _ (time) and then returned. City of (city). of (address). we deal in a high volume of sales. Company hereby employs empfoyee to perform such duties such times and in such manner as the company may from time to tne direct. ity of (city).'We are enclosing a check for the full nnd nttrount of your purchase. 3AKA3A XAJIOEA IIA KAIIECTBO IICfIOJIHEIII'Ifl Dear (name): (n (product) made for our last order' No' ber) are too-il-uch'in variance from the pattern y" 9"1:.

If any installment be not paid when due. to the benefit. the sum of paid balance from (date) at the rate of percent per annum. The right. lo accept additional co-makers. jointly and severally. or the actual cost of collection. until all indebtedness of tlte maker to the holder. the mannel following: UPON DEMAND AFTER The undersigned authorizes the holder to date and complete lhis note in accordance with the terms of the loan evidenced hereby.00 St. any security hypothecated to the holder. the undersigned. notice ttotice of non-payment.Oopusr ]opr44tagecKux AoKyMeHToB u AenoBbrx n]4ceM Appendix C AOJIIOBOE OBq3ATEJTbCTBO - 2 PROMIS SORY NOTE INSTALLMENT (city. and payable in equal guccessive monthly installments of dollars in lawful money of the United States of America. Presentment. or to direct the application 0l'. Florida June2. the the undersigned promise to pay collection charges of per dollar of each overdue installment. on (date)' (Signatures) I AOnroBoE OEq3ATEJIbCTBO $ 00. Address a. execution). protest. and notice ol such election is hereby waived. 168 169 . demand.1992 All sums remaining unpaid on the agreed or accelerated date olthe maturity of the last installment shall thereafter bear interest at tlre rate of percent per month. we. of.000. whichever is greater and tlre entire amount owing and unpaid hereunder shall at the election of the holder hereof forthwith become due and payable. howsoever arising shall have been paid. to change or extend dates of payment and to grant indulgences all without notice or affecting the obligations of the undersigned. if any. commencing on the_day ol each and every month thereafter until paid except the final installment which shall be the balance due on this note. state. to release co-makers. and hereby waives. The undersigned promises to pay all reasonable attorney's fees incurred by the holder hereof in enforcing any right or remedy hereunder. promise to pay to the order of (name of lender). (ciry ($) dollars with interest on ahy unstate). Petersburg. date) FOR VALUE RECEIVED. of dishonour and the Maker's (SEAL) (sEAL) b.

d-"s"tnst * tion of security. State r70 171 . administrators and successors.. to him in hand paid by (Releasee). foq upon or by reason of any matteg cause or thing whatsoever. executors or administrators. shall or may have. suits. bonds. acquit. City _ . accounts. The right to require the holder toholdet't or to pursue an! otheruemedy in the ?o*1:^1ndr?-t^:".p. Itereafter can. and other good and valuable considerations. sums of money. bills. agreements. executors. from the beginning of the world to the day ofthe date ofthese presents. City of l'his mutual release. claims and demands whatsoever in law or in equity arising directly out of the acquisition or which against Releasees..". has revised. satisfr and forever dis6harge the said Releases. County of second party) of (address). ol' and (name of _ . of and from all..3ATEJIbCTB RELEASE KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS (Releasor). and all manner of action and actions. hc executed this . specialities. debts. has cbused this Release to z0 Net for value received with interqst of from and interest payable onlY in LA\L STATES. cause and causes of action. executed on (date). or which his heirs.f.. between (name of first (address) . released and forever discharged and by thes€ presents does. Payable at --- percent per until Paid both lsl EY OF THE TINI ocBoEoxAEHuE or B3AI4MHbTX TIPE TE H3 IItrT No Due (signature) prrrty) of U OEfl 3ATE JIb C TB MUTUAL RELEASE . executions.proceed against the mi c. trespasses. executors.Jff'. or any impairment or shall not in any wise affect remedies or rights uguinu the maker' i ii"Uiliav of any-of thi undersigned shall be j( All obligations of the makers if more than one' of s-uspension ^f .t:1t::l full payment' or any exte the maker for any reason other than acceptance' release' su forbearance. reckonings.:. 0ovenants. successors and assigns. promises. remise. the Releasor day of WITNESS. dues.: anv or the undersi gned' d!*:lly cessation independently of the -utEt unA ln: :l:T. his heirs. their heirs. contracts. administrators. now has.00 lawful money of the United States of America. for and in consideration of the sum of that $ I . AOJrroBoE oEq3ATEJrbcTBO (IPOCTA' ooPMA) PROMISSORY NOTE 20 pay to the after date (without grace) I promise to lN WITNESS WHEREOF.. release. OE. he operation of that certarn over had. judgments. damages. for himself. controversies.the hokl hereunder and several. change of rate of ihterest' +Lo hr ----:^- CHfl TI'IE IIPETEH3Ufi WM..

they are relinquishing their respective legal rights with erence to the herein mentioned disputes and differences. Releasee hereby releases (reason for giving release) Dated: (Signature) PACTOPXEHIIE KOHTPAKTA CANCELATION OF CONTRACT (address) Notice is hereby given that we cancel our contract dated for the sare of (description of goods) to (name of firm). of (address). the ad<led consideration of the payment of (amount) dr -. and for any subsequent delivery of goods. you breached said contract in the following respect: (lancellation of said contract is effected in respect to that certain installment delivered on (date).Appendix C <Doprvrsr ropuAurrecxrx Aoxy[aeHros u Aenoeurx nuce[l of f""t tlr" . inasmuch as your breach impairs the contract as a whole. a copy of which is bttached hereto as Exhibit both parties have agreed to settle said disputes and differencds executing this mutual release' Whereas. County of designated. and referred to as "Releasor". the receipt of which Releasee hereby acknowledges.Ifr HA COECTBEHHOCTb This release rnade (date). disputes and differences have arisen between the pa with respect io that certain contract entered into by said parties executed on (date). both agree that in consideration of this execution of this mutual re uid fo. of(address) \72 173 L . In witness whereof the parties have executed this mutual release (place ofexecution) on the day and year stated above' /s/ l'hat on (date). OCBOEO)KAEHTTE RELEASE oT (Signature) . (We claim damages from you in the amcjunt of $ ) . contracted for in said contract. hereinafl . Whereas. between ferred to as "Releasee". for the following reason. both parties recognize that by the execution of this mt release. "tirnination is intended to any obligations by either party as hereina of State of _--. Releasor desires to settle and has delivered to releasee a deed to the following properfy: whereas. herei TIPETEH3I. In and for consideration of this deed.

ffi€f l)).""urity inierest on your home resulting from this transaction y automatically void.Oopruur ]opr4Ar4qecKr.-^lf I and myself. -. Date (Signature) cooEIuEHr'rE o mABE HA AHHYJII4POBAHIIB CAEJIKII Security Date (Customer's Signature) Customer Amount PACTOPXEHIIE IIAPTHEPCTBA NOTICE OF DISSOLUTION Notice is hereby given in accordance with the provisions of (SeCtlCn and Code NOTICE TO CUSTOMER REQUIRED BY FEDERAL LAW Today. City of County of solved by mutual consent. of . -. mail or telegram sent by midnight or by any other form of written notice delivered to the above addreac no later than midnight Please acknowledge your receipt of this notice by signing the form indicated below. mortgage Ith". Ifyou desire to cancel this transaetion. . mortgage or other security interest on this transaction. any lien. By cancelling this transacti-on. . between This notice is being mailed to you on within the three day right of rescission period provided for u Federal Law. you have entered into a transaction which your t result in a lien. withouf any penalty or obligation at any -tii" Yfth all ihree business days from the above date or the date on which Truth in Lending Act have terial disclosures required under the given to you.-I r EtAtg I irr the conducting of said business. Federal Law provid"r you with the right to cancel you so desire. under the fictitious name of (fictitious name of pafifl€ At le le State of --(address). you may do so by notifuing the followingparly: (address) by This is to notifr you that I hereby cancel the Transaction entered r ----. and (partner 175 -. County of has withdrawn from and is no 'l-hat (partner A).1x AoKyMeHroB n AenoBUx nno€!{ AHHyJIITP OBAHr{E CAE JIKr4 NOTICE OF RESCISSION To: you in the event you cancel. . of the City ()f . ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF RECEIPT OF NOTICE I am requesting that you return my down payment immediately' llach of the undersigned hereby acknowledges the receipt of two completed copies of the Notice of Right of Rescission. Any downpayment or other consideration must be refunded may have tendered on entering this transaction 174 of State) that: 'lhe partnership heretofore existing between (partner A) and (pf.

Cou of The undersigned hereby accepts draft the consideratiofi set forth above. trat or corp( s. dollars' SIDERATION OF and sufficiency whereof is her the receipt Notice is hereby given that the undersig4ed.IE O IEPEAATIE IIPAB BIIMEHI4fl . caus' person account of all iniuries' known and unknown. "otrideration. has assumed all hereafter. . final payment of and to all of the assets of said business' Said partnership is dissolved as - IN WITNESS WHEREFOF.isilt b" claimed to be liable' none of whom Dated: : (Signature) iw frorn anv and all claims. RELEASE l FOR THE SOLE C "tf'r".Qopuur ]opr4Ar4qqcKhx AoKyMeHroB la AenoBbtx nnceM of will conduct . and all other persons' firms tions liable or who . and is ent ----said business incurred both heretofOre and-. .20 of (date)' Signed. we have hereunto set our hands this dal sg : . State of of the oulstanding obligatiol brr-in"*h"reafter. damages. whereby he released you from any and all claims arising out of (subject for which release was executed). rescinds that certain release executed by him on (dati:). demands. sealed and delivered in the presenoe of: lsl tsl OTKA3 OT IIPETEH3VIII (sEAL) (sEAL) AHITYJIIIPOBAHI4E OTKA3A OT NPETE IJ3I4trI NOTICE OF RESCISSION OF RELEASE TO . whereby Cerlain personal property 177 176 . disputed or otherrl express purpose of Precluding f rt -^^t)^^+ arising out ofthe aforesaid accident' )cbtor Address i'i You are hereby notified that the undersigned intends to foreclose under provision of that certain Agreement executed by you on the of 20 . including (consideration received). both to IIPEAYTIPE)I(AEHI. and assigns. on the following grounds: Tlre undersigned agrees to restore to you total consideration received by you for his execution of the release. agents. seals oi drafts. HA 3AJIOXEHHOE TIMyITIECTBO NOTICE OF INTENTION TO FORECLOSE (Under Security Agreement) l'o I Theundersignedherebydeclaresthatthetermsofthissettlen have heen comnletelv reacl and are fully understood and voluulQ irrcimenf and settlement of anV and all claims.

. 2.. (9t72) 499078 Fax (0172) 499078 [I Besarercc ' Mnscr.IRELAND Tel:0101 3531 679 7920 Fax:0101 3531 679 5262 B KaqecrBe . in the proforma-invoice of every yKrBaHHbrx a npoQoprrae-[HBofic lot ofthe Products. to the undersigned' addrett' yhi"h. at^the ral:-.ryrc uocTaBKy. you will Dated Joint Venture Bevalex Minsk. l: as Seller llpoAasua By Subject ofContract Seller hereby sells to Buyer and l. (0172) 49-9018 @axc (0172) 49-90-78 B KaqecrBe as Buyer and floxynarell u RESTA Limited. 2. d the said Agreement. same.2. llpo4aeeq HacrolullrM rrpoAaer florynarelrc. 57 Dame Street Dublin 2. hereof.t. <10>r uapra 1995 r. RC-I4/95 This Agreement is concluded on this l0 day of March 1995 by and between: within You are hereby further notified that unless /?u.1. O6ruqlar' cyMMa Konrpaxra tlact is not limited. a floxynareJtb Hacrorrrll4M npno6peraer y llpoaasIIa KOMnbrOTepHbre u3Aenut u nepra$epraro (uueHyeuue B AaJrbHefiurev "Tonap") ilaprylguu."r"* "iS .IqeHa.. MexAy: C ilyt . OlpeAeKaxAoM KOHKpeTHOM npoQoprr.Oopuur topugt4qecKux AoKyMeHroB h AenoBbtx rirceM as_security for the payme't of described as follows was given below' Jebtedness to Secured Palty named SALES CONTRACT No. in the quantity.p:"J:i?i plus conditions of said Ag'"t*"nt' -charges to q"l" in said Agreement. Ilpegrvrer loronopa TAPAHTT'Ifl nEPEAArilr rrEABr4)rfl4M Or o TTMyIIIE C TBA WARRANTY DEED Buyer hereby purchases from Seller the computer products and peripherals (hereinafter referred to as the "Products"). Benapycu Tet. assortment and prices according to proforma-invoices provided by the Seller on Buyer's particular crtyiae colJracHo usnofic.qul' holder (DescriPtion) AOTOBOP KyrrJrr{rrPoAAxfl4 "l&Rc-14/95 Hacrosulri floroaop 3ax. Belarus Tel. if said property '"fit fot less be obligated to pay the defici terms of the Ag. IleHa u o6ulaq cyMMa of the Contract Kourparra 2. tiit J"t" h"r"of "tpaymellji]l-C-t] pARrY SHALL rAKE possn'sstoN oF SAID tlgl-"lT^t: than the amount then due ther.IRELAND SECURED PARTY Address Tel: 0l0l 3531 679 7920 Fax:0101 3531 679 5262 Dublin 2.ltroqeH .""*"r. mentioned MOCTL rrepeBo3Klr Ha ycfloBlmx.2. Ha Kax.2. r78 179 . at their office " all of which is now due and payable pursuatrr. Heot'paHI. 57 Dame Street RESTA Limited. (Signature) (Acknowledgment) Price and total amount 2. Tire price includes the costs of 2. I-{eua BKJrroqaer s ce6r crolatransportation on terms. The total amount of this Con.l:^lt: salcl" iut. B KOJlI4qeCTBe Jr{eMbrM B H nO rIeHaM.

rflercfl Ha ycJroB[rlx CIP MnHcr rnil Apyfr4x ycaoBl4tx. The date of delivery of the Products is deemed the date on which the products.ITeJreM. Ecru florynarel^ vutu ero trpelr craBureJrx Hg oKaxerct n Mr.2. . mentioned in the proformainvoices of every lot of the Products. lfocranra ToeaPon .3. its expense.2.trctcl B MoMeHT npra6urur Tonapa.1. 3.1. nfr JryqeHne lrunoprHoil luueHluu. Buyer gets the Products according to the paid proformainvoices. at .l 180 r8r \- .IBaer ace 6auroncrue pacxoAbl 3. Buyer pays tures.c 2. il 3. Delivery of the Products 3.nyvenrae TonaPod ocyulecrBrrercfl colJlacHo onl# qenHbrx nporfopna-uusoficog: 3. florynarenb orIJIaqI. including rauoxeuHofi or{xcrKe Tonapo{ BKJItoqar. If Buyer or its representatives are not available on the date of arival of the Products in Minsk.3. Buyer shall be responsible. llo. yKa3aHHblx n npoQopnae-uHsoilc ua rax4yd nocraBKy. 3. The Products under this Contract are delivertid abcording to the CIP Minsk terms or other terms. llocranra roBapoB .qtaMo. eclu ueo6xo.3. 3. for the customs clearI ance of the Products.anive in Minsk and the products are accePted by oc][ecrB. nol craBra 6yAer culrraruca conePf tion of Buyer or its representative of such arrival. Seller shall notifu Buyer about shipment of Products within 3 (three) days before shipment. fianofi rocraBKr Toeapa cu{ Buyer or its representative. all bank oxpendi- 2. delivery shall be deemed having occurred upon arival in Minsk and notifica- raercfl Aara npn6rrrnr Torapa t MraHcx 14 [pHeMKH ronapa florY' [aTeJleM r4rr4 ero npeAcraBI.

crpaHbl. 6. and Seller's liability in connection with such claims shall in no event exceed the Purchase price of the delivery with respect to which claims are made.c (two) months upon receiPt of Buyer's claim and the return of the Products to Seller. Claims on QualitY.2. flpoaaeeu 6ePer ua ce6r ncq TpaHcnopTHble u tlpoqne pacxoabl' cBt3aHHbte c :aueHofi ta Bo3BPar roru Tonapa c 4erPexrou r4nl floi pecopruuefi Ha reppl'lropr'ru crpdli nu"llpoaanua. Seller shall then. within 2 Toaap flpoaaauY.2.l. BuYer shall submit to Seller a claim made bY an official control organization or by another competent disinterested third party from BuYer's country entitled to carry out international expertise. I Any claims on account of 6. pa tlpoaanrry. must be received by Seller in writing within ten (10) days of delivery of the Products. By. loss of or damage to Products shipped hereunder. Loss nected with replacement and return of defective or mixed-uP goods on 5. of the hansit country and of BuYer's country. Jln6ue rpereH3l'lll no raqedi quality. loss or damage to the'Products.4.! Ilpoaanua B cBt3l.IIML HI{ npa xaxux yclortfl ne 6yaer [peBbluarb crollMoof [ocTaBKI{. rrcneprusu. c raKuMlt npi TeH3I. B 3roM cllfla€1 llpoaaneu B reqeHl{e 2 (aaYx) ue' cflueB tto noryqeHuu or iloxYna' Tent npereH3lll{ l'l Bo3Bpare Tona- fective or mixed-uP goods with new ones at Seller" own expense. yTpare Lfifi lloprl9 aolxlti 6urrr nonyqeHbl flPoAaauou i crrr (10) AHefi c ru4cbMeHHOM BI{Ae B reueune A{ tt'touesra tltl craBKI4 T6rapa. 3aMe getperrov un[ neP sonrrfi Tonap ta ttfl ll ? cno 5. il or Damage 6. B OTHOIUeHI{H KOTOP{ nDetrbfl BJltroTct npeTeH3}I14' 182 r83 L . Oroercrneurtoc. Seller shall be responsible for all transport and other costs conthe territory of Seller's country. vePer xoi ropyto Tonap caelYer rPaffifiroll! u crpaHbl llorYnarela.4. Hoil 6.If Buyer raises anY claims concerning qualitY. . rePlace the de- Seller.

He I. ance without Bcex noKynareJrefi. as well as dePartments and divisions'of Seller on such basis as it may deem equitable. deadlines to be met bY 8.l nocraexfi B gTHX CJryq rx oToABI. as well as departments and divi- BOACTBa I.IraloTc. i. In such circumstances. a liability for any failure of perform- raxxe rraeNAY.a Ha IIepuoA Ae of Seller on such basis as it may deem equitable. it 7.c preventing the manufacture or delivery of the Products. The Products shall be regarded as delivered by Seller and accepted by Buyer in resPect of quantitY according to the fumber of cases as shown in the waYbill. or delay in Performance which may result thereliom. CAaqa n rIpHeMKa ofthe roBaPa f$ Products 8.2. MOryT [Merb MecTo.IMeIoIqat B09d mediately inform in writing the party about such force majeure circumstances and about its termination 8. Delivery and accePtance ure circumstances shall im- Kpau(eHLIt B rlI4cbMeHHoM BI{Af Apyryrc cropoHy. Seller reserves the right during the period <Dopnlt ur rcpr4Ar4qecKnx.The party which is unable to fulfill the obligation due to a force maje 7.qoKyMeHroB la AenoBbrx n]tceM shortage due to anY of said causes to allocate its available sup- of plies among any or all Purchases. are deferred as long as such circumstances last.1.2. or all Pursions chases. r84 r85 .

in ueHr4r n lllne4cxylo roPB foBJlI4 l.IM U3AAHT'EM I. rry6ruxyeuux MexgYHapo4nofi ropronofi nzularofi .II4 [poMbIrxneHHOCTLI A Stokholm and the case shall be considered according to the rules Crorroolrue PauarcTcfl coor- of the above slon. (0172) 49'90-78 Fax (0172) 49-90-78 : C. contained in the latest edition of "Incoterms" issued by the InternaCommerce r4cnonb3yeMblx B Hacrotlqerv .I[ l'l lrx l(HTeprrperaul4l4 npoLI3BOAllTCt B COOTBETCTBI.{ofoBope.Yrope6reune rePMnHoB. All the disputes related to this Contract shall be settled bY negotiations or if the sides fail to come to agreement. ecra cropoHbr He Moryr nPnfirn |JIAIIEH UIO CAMOCTO'TEIbHO. 0101 3531 679 7920 Fax:0101 3531 679 5262. l0.I [epeAaloT Anfl pa3pe' settlement in The Sweden's Chamber of Commerce and Industry.l BeTCTBT.ll4 l{ Aeronoft 4oxyueHTaql.IRELAND Tel.II..Appendix C Joint Venture Bevalex Qopuur opr4Ar4i{ecKux AoKyMeHToB r AenoBbtx nnceM Minsk.5. 11. Belapycr Ten. Ap6Hrpax Bce cnopbt. Belarus' Tel.l. KoppecnoHAeHul.IRELAND Tel." MuHct<. x co- r86 187 . tional Chamber of OCC). Arbitration 11.1. Definitions or interpretations of terms used herein or in the correspondence or business forms used between the parties are those I Dublin 2. 57 Dame Street ! or fioKynareJlfl no clelyrou-terray aApecy: RESTA Limited. (0172)499078 Oarc (0172) 499078 j If from Buyer to Seller: RESTA Limited.IHrcoreprraunon (ceo4 npI4HqrbIX B MexAyHapoAuofi npaxrure onpe- Aeleuufi KoMMepqecKI4x rePM14- Hon.IH C NOCJICAHI. Han6oree qacro Bcrpeqarcull4xcq Bo BHeUHeTOpfoBblx KoHrpaxrax). mentioned commis- C flpaBllnaMu fipoqeAypbr ynoMflHyrofi rounccun. clfl3t4 c Hacrotult'tM . 57 Dame Street Dublin 2. BEBANEKC. 0101 3531 679 7920 Fax:0101 3531 679 5262 0.{oronopolu flalary B cTopoHbl peualoT B xoAe [eperoBopoB unl. are subject to 11.5. Bo3HnKarcu{ile B ll.

adjustment: the process of adaptation in an economy made in demand. used in thc capitalism: an economic system based on the private ownership of the factors of production. changes or shifting trade patterns. tures over a period of time. capital gain: the increase in the value of an asset over of time.Glos of business terms GLOSSARY OF BUSINESS TERMS to another. business cycle: periodic fluctuation in the economy. business ethics: concern for keeping fair business practices. cartel: an alliance among industriar enterprises that produce the same commodity to regulate its purchase. antitrust laws: laws regulating the growth and use of monopolistic power or tbndencies. base year: the reference year. the buying and selling ol. household. competition. a period of merchandise. business is produelng et or near capacity. capital goods: industrial products or components used in of 100. bilateral aid: deveropment assistance provided by onc geuntry A necessary by technological developments. balance of payments: summary of the flow of international transactions. producing other products or goods. B balanced budget: financial plan in which expenses exact equal income. and the profit motive. bilateral: an agreement involving two sides 188 marketing. bulls: speculators who anticipate an increase in the price of individual. balance of trade: the difference between the export and import capital: something created to produce other goods and services. boom: the peak of the business cycle. or curities. boycott: a refusal to do business with a firm involved in a lahor break-even point: point at which income from sales equals fixed and variable expenses. with a value construction of index numbers. produciion and/or bears: speculators who anticipate a decline in the economy. arbitration: settling differences by allowing a third party (tho budget: a financial plan that summarizes income and expendise- arbitrator) to hand down a decision that is final and binding. also money used to pay for the operations of a business. asset: something of value that is owned by a firm. balance sheet: financial statement summarizing a firm's assets. statement of payments made to all other countriei and payments received from all other countries. brokerage: in the securities industry. annual percentage rate (APR): the APR is the percentage cost of credit calculated on an annual basis dispute. liabilities and net worth. 189 . stocks and bonds on behalfofothers.

contraction: period in the business cycle after a boom businesses begin to reduce their spending levels. customs union: an organization of countries who agrees to promote free trade among members but to impose a common tariff competition: the rivalry among buyers and among sellers in purchase and sale ofresources and products' 190 t9t L . Wlren consumption: the purchase and use of goods or services to satisf human wants or to produce other services. of unrelated businesses conspicuous consumption: Thorstein Veblen's term for the tendency to buy goods and services to impress others. conglomerate merger: combination under a single management. charter: a document issued by a state government granting a' corporation permission to operate. closed\hop: one in which workers rnust belong to the union fore they can be hired. conciliation: effort by a third party to bring labor and management together to work out their differences on their own. consumer co-ops: retail businesses owned by members who share in the profits and/or purchase goods and services at lower cost.. a competitive: a product or service that can be readily sdld cause buyers consider its price and quality acceptable. consumer price index (CPI): compares present prices of commonly purchased goods and services to the prices of similar goods and services in a base year.Glossary of business terms corh flow: the amount of money coming into and going out of firm. copyright: exclusive right of authors of original writing and artistic work to sell or in any way reproduce their works for their lifetime plus fifty years. chambers of commerce: associations of business and prOfessional people that seek to promote the interests of the business community. be- caveat emptor: . consumers: individuals or groups that use economic goods. to closed (or private) corporation: one whose stock is not sold the public. comparative advantage: an advantage in producing an i because one's oppottunity cost to produce it is lower than anr other's. collateral: something with monetary value pledged as security for a loan.Latin term that means "let the buyer beware. corporation: a business organization created under a government charter." central economic planning: doctrine placing production deci' sions in the hands of government planners' compound interest: interest computed on the principal and on the interest previously paid. command economy: an economic system in which major deci sions concerning the allocation of resources are made by agen' cies of the government' commodity: any article exchanged in trade' common stock: a security that represents ownership in a ration. collective bargaining: negotiations with management by a un' ion to prepare a labor contract. currency: paper money and coins issued by the federal government. concession: a privilege or right given by one group to gain an equivalent compromise from the other group.

entrepreneui: earning. the needs ofbusiness.economic system: the approach a country uses to deal wlth scarcity and achieve its economic goals.t gooo or seryrce. while the percentage spent for . embarlo: a prohibition upon.goods and sJrvice in which economic forces that may direcrions are in perfect Uaiaice sl "t f.p. { efi eminent domain: the right of governments to take private prop_ at a fair price for public purposes..g.#t. sold at the equilibrium or market price. a anizes. equilibrium price: the price of a good pr service at the which be equilibrium quantify: the number of products that would r93 .ifi" country.wants.." the quantity demanded matches tnJquantity supplied.a sumes the risks o Pfgfit.'J"r: or organizational skills u business in the hope of entrepreneurship: the managerial needed by most firrns to produc.eagerness to acquire a ' elasticity of suppry: measure of how easily seilers can increase or decrease the quantity supplied. Engel's Law: as a family's income increases. elastic currency: supply of money expands and contracts with I :Tjt:l.demand: measure of buyers.#.. luxuries increases. economlcs: the social science that describeS and:analyzop how society chooses from among scarce resources to satisfr its .'. of.exports and/or impofts of a specific product or items frorn a . the percentage spent for necessities decreases.

samc labor' productive resources of land' factors of production: the capital and entrePreneurshiP' and government's power to tax fiscal policy: use of the federal io relulate economic activitY' an individually owned business franchise: a license to operate of a large chain' if it were physical and mental effort human resources (labor): the. "ppll::^:?^imports trade concesstons' itrat aO not enjoy special or brand sold without a trademark generic products: products name.rr pends.of buslness terms of business terms to a buyer in another country' export: good or service sold enabling by a country to exporters export subsidy: a payment price than at home' at a lower them to sell their p'"i'"*'uUtoad fall outside economic activities that externalities: the effects of the market sYstem' total value of the goods attd oross domestic product (GDP): year' :. n""a"a to produce goods and services' ffia as ti import: good country. a base of relative value compared to of perfect operates under conditions free market: a market that comPetition any trade restrt ctions' free trade: the absence of t e h sPending such as'a sales tax riod of rising Prices durtng e dollar is falling' and General Agreement of lateral trade agreement human we as a means of raising ulti' rade such as roads' harbors infrastructure: the basic facilities' operation of the economy utilities. goods: merchandise wares' interest: payment for using someone else to use one's capital' rived from allowing to-"oi" else's money. financial loss by sharing risks insurance: protection against with others. income dc- depression in American history Great Depression: the worst lasting from 1929-1 940' r95 194 . . de- from countries general tariff: a tariff. one's.nersonal creativity or intellectual property: products-of patents and tradeof intelligence unOe' protection "opy'ight' marks. on which"" iluced'within a country in a single a measure of tl-re nation's ttltal (GNP): sross national product per year' 6utput of goods and service H of companies in the horizontal merger: combination business. or service purchased a measure from a seller in another Part a franchise' franchisee: one who purchases index number: number.n'"".

a trol exports and imports. more items a lower price than at a higher price.of business terms developed countries. or debt of a business or individual. labor unions: associations of workers formed to promote the interests of their members.demand: all else being equar. Iiberalization: reductions in tariffs or other restrictive trade 195 197 . managed trade: attempts by governments to influence or con_ management: the organization and coordination of an enter_ and sellers in the market: place where buyers and sellers come together. vice. less-developed countries (LDC's): countries in which per capita real income is much lower than in industrialized nations. limited liability: advantage of a corporation ailowing a stockholder no legal responsibirity for its d-ebts beyond the ium he or she has invested in the corporation. or promotion for reaso's ihat have nothing to do with ability. prise. $ job discrimination: practice of favoring one group over an_ other in hiring. labor force: consists of all those people 16 years of age or older who are currently employed or are looking for work. laissez faire: French term meaning "let them do" describes policy of minimal involvement of government in business. wilr be sord at law of supply: sellers will offer more of a product at a higher price and less at a lower price. rnternational Finance corporation (rFC): provides capitdl and managerial assistance to private busineis in the iess. market price: price at which goods or services and money will actually be exchanged. rends licensing: a special permit required before import or export of a particular good is allowed. such as public utilities. marketplace: any place in which goods are bought and sold. legal monopoly: right to be the sole provider of a good or s€r. any claim on. with which savings or other assets can be labor: the human effort required to produce goods and service. rnternational Monetary Fund (IMF): an agency that foreign exchange to LDC's and other member nations. liability: measures. liquidity: the ease conveffed to cash. macroeconomics: the study of the economy as a whole. patents and copyrights. market forces: shifts in demand and suppry that are reflected in changing prices. demand. market econom ic system in which national eco_ nomic decisions of decisions by individual buyers law of . The price at which supply exactly equals mediation: method for settring rabour disputes in which a third party makes non-binding suggestions. salary.

. natural resources (land). non:ntarket economy: a national economy in which the'government determines economic activity through central planning. multilateral: having a number of participating sides of CoUlft tries. France who believed that because natural resources were the true source of wealth. monopolist: seller who controls the supply of a good or vlce. it preferred stock: stock that receives a specified dividend be- ' ' fore airy dividends are paid on common stock and that receives 'Share of the assets of a liquidated corporation ahead of coma mon stockholders.. made little sense for government to promote business. r98 199 . i mixed economy: economic system that combines elements of public ownership of the meafis of production with private oy[-. 0 oligopoly: market dominated by a few large firms.parfnership: unincorporated business organization owned by two or more persons. open (or public) corporation: a corporation whose stock is money: can be anything that is generally accepted in payment for goods and services. P . . there . sold to the public. physiocrats: Thinkers nationalization: government takeover of a privately owned in' dustry.Glossary of business terms merger: combination of previously separate firms into one' microeconomics: the study of the individual parts of the econ' omy. !:l newly industrializing countries (NICs): relatively advancod deveioping countries whot" industrial production and expottl have grown rapidly in recent years' production: the process of creating or changing the form of commodities. net exports: the difference between total exports and total im' ports over the course ofa Year' private sector: the part of a national economy that is comprised of privately owned enterprise. enough to affect the price.. ership. mortgage: a long-term loan usually used to finance a building... no one of which is big . special attention to the market process and how it works. mutual funds: corporations that sell stock and use the to invest or speculate in the securities markets' l pate4t: a monopoly to use a new product or idea exclusively . perfect competition: a market for uniform products in which. opportunity cost: the amount of goods and services that must be given up in order to obtain other goods and services. monopoly: market in which there is only one seller' a overhead costs: fixed costs ofdoing business. ally acceptable.r for 17 years. the things provided by nature that into the creation ofgoods and services' ncar monies: assets that are easily turned into cash' negotiations : bargaining between and amon g repres-entatives difierent groups or nations to obtain an agreement that is mu in 18th:century. and full knowledge of market conditions. *itf"..are many buyers and sellers.

revenue tarift tax on imports designed to raise money for the government (see protective tariff).of business terms pqgduction-possibilities. equipment... cians.' . tho value of goods and services producJd in tne nation ir jiron year.- added to the price of goods at the to the supply of productive resources or consumer goods in relation to produceis.or consum".s length of r"r_ vice when it comes to questionJ raises or layoffs. a risk: the. public sector: the part of a national economy controlled by1 government. etc. .p[t. them. purchasing power: the value of money at time. stocks and bonds. per industry. profit motive: the desire to benefit from the investment of til and money in a business enterprise. or the whole economy. protective tariff: tariff levied to protect a domestic i from foreign competition (see revenue tariff). un". igh. such as the work of physi_ mechanics. as when a country limits its imports from a.. 'rerl GlIp: GNp adjusted for changes. seniority: the importance assigned to a worker. retaliation: action taken against the price lJvel.possibility of profit or loss depending upon the suc- quotas: restrictions on the number of goods that can enter'l country from abroad sales tax: a regressive tax time they are sold. or per person.tariff. actors or seryices: intangible items of value. a peiiod of low h productivity: the output of goods and services as measur€d unit of time.i etc. profit margin: d'ifference between cost and selling pri"". .E J". : reciprocify: the practice by which governments extend similar concessions to each other.curve: a curve showing the combinatipns of tqtal output that could be produced if a natiq resources were fully employed.ou-nt y that has increased a. rate of return: the amount of interest or dividends percentagg of the principal of an investment. . 1 business activiry and recession: the bottom of the business cycle. cess or failure of a commercial venture. productive capital: things used to produce goods and servicd machines. factories.. " . tools. scarcity: a limit security exchange: market where brokers meet to buy'and sell level of prices. per company. 201 \ .""j"f". lawyers.

slow. value-added tax (VAT): tax levied on the value added to goods atevery stage ofproduction. i . change and growth 4r. subsidy: financial aid. trademarks: special designs.e. trade loans: credit extended by vendors to their custombt's. performance or safety. party. estates or instituti such as pensiori funds. - as in "antitrust law. The term also refers to a specific 202 203 .i. T tariff: tax be a tax or duty on imports. ' ' unlimited liabitity: requirement that the owner or owners full responsibility for all losses or debts of a business. oonsumption. rl underground economy: exchanges reported to the IRS for tax purposes. . and eral sometimes to monopoly in gen- standard of living: a measure of the amount of good$ and vices an individual or group considers essential. ':i. property and people on whom tax-es. of goods and service not structural change. service or company. people do what their parents did before them.. . ' "'"1. consumer preference or mbvernbnt jobs from one region to rnderwrite: to assume risk. a product.. o-ase: the money.. names or unique symbglp identif. technology: the application of science to commerce and i try. wtiver: an exemption or dropping of a right or claim.1 value: the real worth of a specific good or service." standards: technical specifications for a product describ size. :it ii r. structural unemployment: unemployment redutting changes in technology. unllateral: an action taken by a single country or interested as- subsidiary: a company controlled by another cornpanyli.pelgon.of business terms sole proprietorship: a business that is owned by one.i . the International Bank for Reconstructhe bank is an international agency that eloped oountries as a way of stimulating trust: an arrangement whereby a bank provides safekeepi and management of funds for individuals. trade and'r€la pnces. as in the case of those who underwrite the sale of securities by purchasing an entire issue from the corporation and marketing it on their own.cou levied. sume another. quality. of monopolistic practice.i. traditional economy: an economic system tha1ali9ca19i . world Bank: officially. changes within an economic syste incl ing its patterns of production. feat[res. :. :lGr resources aecording to custom. and goods are produced and consumed locally.

.. 52 ADVERTISMENTS ..4g UNIT III...:........62 . IlocrynneHre n yxoA c pa6orbt............. Iltt....4O CONTENTS INTRO DUCTION l-lpegncnoer....:........rHgte nncbMa UNIT I.................. ..45 ... Tnnu pesnnae.. ACCURACY 9erxocru.....48 Hacru lll....::....:.....................48 pa6ory......:.......... HOLDING AND LEAVING ....44 .. GETTING..... LAYOUT OF PERSONAL LETTERS......QononrrrenbHbte cBeAeHtaq uNtr M RESUME nruo cv wRtilNc..........54 MAKTNG A DECISION ....... pesoMe...... USEFUL PHRASES llonesHure cfloBa il BblpaxeHh A ...62 ........... ..............62 ADDRESSING ENVELOPES Hanucanne aApeca ORDER AND SEQUENCE llopn4or il nocreAoBarenbHocrb PLANNING YOUR LETTER B xpoHonoruqecKoM KaanrQuxaLlnoHHbte RESUMES.......42 ...... LAYOUT OF BUSINESS LETTERS Crpyrrypa AenoBoro nrcbMa SUPPLEMENTARY COMMENTS .......6g .40 . .................. BUSINESS LETTERS LETTER...............52 nilcunro-ganpoc ..........4g THE UNSOLTCTTED LETTER ...::..56 flprxrrre peueHuq.... ...68 ........... llenoeure nrcbMa........................................................... ez ..............56 THE AppLtCATtON 3aqenexle o npileMe ua 9acru ll..........te oLAR|TY Fcnocru..45 PERSONAL LETTERS 9acru l................p"Ad...62 TypES oF RESUMES.....62 9acru lV................... . peapue oHRONOLOGTCAL FUNCTTONAL RESUMES . . O6paetur nilceM EXERCISES PERSONAL LETTERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS .... Peslor\4e-nhcbMo ....... HanracaHre pe3KlMe u aero6uorpa$iln ...44 ............... 1ANGUAGE... ..... ....71 204 205 .. nesunaEs.........................20 ..... flu{nure nhcbMa no qeneeofi ycraHoBKe UNIT II....... . Crpyrrypa nr4qHoro nucbMa SAMPLE LETTERS youR JOB.........:::::....71 .........7O coMBtNATrOru Cueu:anxule flnax nanrcaHilq nncbMa pestoMe RESUME LETTERS..................... .......CONTENTS CONTENTS STYLE AND Crnnu I F3btK............54 Pexnanaa ....................42 . ...

. .'.......'...... 1 31 llpranoxeHue A....... 206 207 ......--....."""'... nilceM WRITTEN PRACTICE.....'............................." 84 ...........73 ..............'.... .. 109 ........ .. lopragnqecKue AoKyMeHrbl ............'... LETTERS......'......""... --.........84 ... 119 .......100 .131 npn Han]... vocABULARY lN CONTEXT.....--.... I FTI lnft cBeAeHilF MINUTES flporoxon co6paHun USEFUL WORDS AND PHRASES..' 90 FORMS OF ADDRESS Oopnaur o6pau{eHnA...124 ..'..... l4fi GLOSSARY OF BUSINESS ...... flrcuuerHae npaKrilKa SAMPLE O6paarlur ....98 .....'.......-..lur KoHrpaKToB.... USEFUL WORDS AND WORD-COMBINATIONS COMMONLY USED .. ."........"... .flenoebte BGTpequ ..........!r!!!!r!.. AGREEMENT ...'. 113 uNrT vr..1 3e ...'.. 100 .. LEGAL CONTRACTS Llacru Vl...'. GLOSSARY OF USEFUL EXPRESSIONS FOR LETTER.r CONTENTS ?t (. SAMPLES OF CONTRACTS..............WRITING. Kar nrcars y6egnrenunoe pe3toMe.....-.. t Ag Appendix C."..135 ... '..'....... floneanute cfloBa 14 BblpaxeHtat' o6bt......"............' 1 1 3 DISTRIBUTION Cornautenue no Bonpocana 4ncrpn6Vqnu ..' 98 ...' 109 ....'...'........ '. t-1ri llprnoxenne B..........tHo ynorpe6nf.......UN ll N lli DEVELOP POWERFUL RESUME."98 GENERAL INFORMATION O6u+ae ....'..... O6paar.!..'........rcaHnu nncbMa l Appendix B......1 35 rN THE WORLD OF BUSINESS flpranoxeHne E. .". 119 Appendix A........'.. ...'73 ':'......eMble B Mrpe 6usHeca '.............90 uNrr v BUSINESS MEETINGS.......98 TERMS l-noccapni 4enoeoi repunxorornn ... l-lonesHute cnoBa u BbtpaxeH14F . gacrs V...... .. l-noccapnfi nonesHblx BblpaxeHuf .124 Cnoea B KoHTeKcre ..


/g 17) 219 73 88 21974 01 (pesax1unl 219 73 90 ($axc) llocerrre Hau ilHTepHeT-Marc3ilH yue6lr. Xene3Ho4opoxnan. 9 meneQonar ( Mnncr yn. AerroB afl' KoMrrbK)TepHauI/ )ryAo)KecrBeHHaq nr{Tep aryp . Qauracruxa http://www.

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