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Rectangular Concrete Tanks PCA

# Rectangular Concrete Tanks PCA

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10/03/2012

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CO~r@tC
INFORMATION
Rectangular Concrete Tanks
While cylindrical shapes may be structurally best for
tank construction, rectangular tanks frequently are pre-
ferred for specific purposes. Special processes or oper-
ations may make circular tanks inconvenient to use.
When several separate cells are required, rectangular
tanks can be arranged in less space than circular tanks
of the same capacity. Tanks or vats needed inside a
building are therefore often made in rectangular or
square shapes. For these and other reasons, breweries,
tanneries, and paper mills generally use rectangular
tanks.
Data presented here are for design of rectangular
tanks where the walls are subject to hydrostatic pres-
sure of zero at the top and maximum at the bottom.
Some of the data can be used for design of counter-
forted retaining walls subject to earth pressure for which
design calculations. Data also can be applied to design
of circular reservoirs of large diameter where lateral
stability depends on the action of counterforts built inte-
grally with the wall.
Another article on tank construction, Circular Con-
crete Tanks Withouf Prestressing, has been published
by the Portland Cement Association.
Moment Coefficients
Moment coefficients were calculated for individual
panels considered fixed along vertical edges, and coef-
ficients were subsequently adjusted to allow for a cer-
tain rotation about the vertical edges. First, three sets of
edge conditions were investigated, in all of which verti-
cal edges were assumed fixed while the other edges
were as follows:
1. Top hinged-bottom hinged
2. Top free-bottom hinged
3. Top free-bottom fixed*
Moment coefficients for these edge conditions are
given in Tables 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all tables, a
denotes height and b width of the wall. In Tables 1, 2,
and 3, coefficients are given for nine ratios of b/a, the
limits being b/a = 3.0 and 0.5. The origin of the coordi-
nate system is at midpoint of the top edge; the Y axis is
horizontal; the X axis is vertical and its positive direction
downward. The sign convention for bending moments is
based on the coordinate fiber that is being stressed. For
example, A\$ stresses fibers parallel to the X axis, The
sign convention used here is not compatible with two
other conventions-namely, that (1) the subscript is the
axis of the moment, and (2) that the moment is in a par-
Q Portland Cement Association 1969 Revi sed 1961
titular principal plane. Coefficients are given-except
where they are known to be zero-at edges, quarter
points, and midpoints both in X and Y directions.
The slab was assumed to act as a thin plate, for which
equations are available in textbooks such as Theory ot
Plates and Shells by S. Timoshenko,” but since only a
small portion of the necessary calculations for moment
coefficients for specific cases is available in the engi-
neering literature, they have been made especially for
this text.
Table 4 contains moment coefficients for uniform
load on a rectangular plate considered hinged on all
four sides. The table is for designing cover slabs and
bottom slabs for rectangular tanks with one cell. If the
cover slab is made continuous over intermediate sup-
ports, the design can follow procedures for the design of
slabs supported on four sides.
Coefficients for individual panels with fixed side
edges apply without modification to continuous walls
provided there is no rotation about vertical edges. In a
square tank, therefore, moment coefficients can be
taken directly from Tables 1, 2, or 3. In a rectangular
done in Tables 5 and 6, similar to the modification of
fixed-end moments in a frame analyzed by moment
distribution.
In this procedure the common-side edge of two ad-
jacent panels is first considered artificially restrained so
that no rotation can take place about the edge. Fixed-
edge moments taken from Tables 1,2, or 3 are usually
dissimilar in adjacent panels and the differences, which
correspond to unbalanced moments, tend to rotate the
edge. When the artificial restraint is removed these un-
balanced moments will induce additional moments in
the panels, Adding induced and fixed-end moments at
the edge gives final end moments, which must be iden-
tical on both sides of the common edge.
Moment distribution cannot be applied as simply to
continuous tank walls as it can to framed structures,
because moments must be distributed simultaneously
along the entire length of the side edge so that moments
become equal at both sides at any point of the edge. The
problem was simplified and approximated to some ex-
tent by distributing moments at four points only: quarter
points, midpoint, and top. The end moments in the two
intersecting slabs were made identical at these four
points and moments at interior points adjusted accord-
ingly.
‘Applicable tn cases wher e wal l sl ab, count er f or t , and base sl ab ar e
al l built I nt egr al l y
Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4. Moment Coefficients for Slabs with Various Edge Conditions
Table 1 Table 2
Moment = Coef. x wa’
/j f-lmi_ Moment=Coef.xwa3 d mlr
-
bl a
-
3. 00
2. 50
2. 00
1. 75
1. 50
1. 25
1. 00
0. 75
0. 50
xla
y - o
MX MV
+0. 035 +0. 010
+0. 057 +0. 016
+0. 051 +0. 013
t o031 +0. 011
+0. 052 +0. 017
+0047 +0. 015
+0. 025 +0. 013
+0. 042 +0. 020
+0. 041 +0. 016
t o. 020 +0013
+0. 036 +0. 020
+0. 036 +0. 017
+0. 015 +0. 013
+0. 028 +0. 021
+0. 030 +0. 017
+o 009 +0. 012
+0. 019 +0. 019
+0. 023 +0. 017
+0. 005 +0. 009
+0011 +0. 016
+0. 016 +0014
+0. 001 +0. 006
t o. 005 +0. 011
+0. 009 +0. 011
0 +0. 003
+0. 001 + 0. 005
+0. 004 +0. 007
_wa Xl
y =b/4 y = b/2
vx 4 Y MV
+0026 +0. 011 - 0. 008 -0.039
+0. 044 +0. 017 - 0. 013 - 0. 063
+0. 041 +0. 014 - 0. 011 - 0055
+0. 021 +0010 - 0. 008 - 0. 038
+0. 036 +0. 017 - 0. 012 - 0. 062
+0. 036 +0. 014 - 0. 011 - 0. 055
+0. 015 +0. 009 - 0. 007 - 0. 037
+0. 028 +0. 015 - 0. 012 - 0. 059
+0. 029 +0. 013 - 0. 011 - 0. 053
+0. 012 +0. 008 - 0. 007 - 0. 035
+0. 023 +0. 013 - 0. 011 - 0. 057
+0025 +0. 012 - 0. 010 - 0051
+0. 008 +0007 - 0. 006 - 0. 032
+0. 016 +0. 011 - 0. 010 - 0. 052
+0. 020 +0. 011 - 0. 010 - 0. 048
+0. 005 +0. 005 - 0006 - 0. 028
+0. 011 +o 009 - 0 009 - 0. 045
+0. 014 +0. 009 - 0. 009 - 0. 043
+0. 002 +0. 003 - 0. 004 - 0020
+0006 +0. 006 - 0. 007 - 0. 035
+0. 009 +0. 007 - 0. 007 - 0. 035
0 +0. 002 - 0. 002 - 0. 012
+0. 002 +0. 003 - 0. 004 - 0022
+0. 005 t o. 005 - 0. 005 - 0. 025
0 +0. 001 - 0. 001 - 0. 005
+0. 001 +0. 001 - 0. 002 - 0. 010
+0. 002 +0. 002 - 0. 003 - 0. 014
Minus s,gn lndlcates ienslon on the loaded side I” all tables
bl a
-
3. 00
2. 50
2. 00
1. 75
150
1. 25
1. 00
075
0. 50
y - o y =b/ 4
4 MY Y MY
0 t o. 070 0 +0. 027
t o. 028 +0. 061 +0. 015 +0. 028
kO. 049 +0. 049 +0032 +0026
bO. 046 +0. 030 +0. 034 +0. 018
0 +0. 061 0 +0. 019
bO. 024 +0053 +0. 010 +0. 022
bO. 042 +0. 044 +0. 025 +0. 022
bO. 041 10027 +0. 030 +0. 016
0 +0. 045 0 +0. 011
bO. 016 +0042 +0. 006 +0. 014
kO. 033 +0. 036 +0. 020 +0. 016
bO. 035 r0. 024 +0. 025 +0. 014
0 +0. 036 0 +0008
I O. 013 +0. 035 +0005 +0. 011
bO. 028 +0. 032 10017 co. 014
10. 031 +0. 022 r0. 021 10012
0 +0027 0 +0. 005
moo9 +0. 028 +0. 003 +0008
bO. 022 +0. 027 +0012 +0. 011
10. 027 +0020 +0. 017 +0. 011
0 co. 017 0 +0. 003
10. 005 +0020 +0. 002 +0. 005
bO. 017 +0023 +0. 009 +0. 009
10. 021 +0. 017 10013 +0. 009
0 +O. Ol O 0 +0. 002
t o. 002 +0013 +o 000 i o. 003
' 0 010 +0. 017 +0005 +0006
t oo15 +0. 015 +o 009 +0. 007
0 +0005 0 +0001
~0. 001 +0008 +o. ooo +0. 002
t o. 005 +0011 +0002 +0004
~0. 010 +0. 012 +0. 006 +0. 004
0 +0. 002 0 0
~0. 000 +0004 +o. ooo +0001
bO. 002 +0. 006 +0001 +0. 002
a007 +0008 +0. 002 +0. 002
!
y =b/2
MX 4
0 - 0. 196
- 0. 034 - 0. 170
- 0. 027 - 0. 137
- 0. 017 - 0. 087
0
- 0. 026
- 0023
- 0. 018
0
- 0. 019
- 0. 018
- 0. 013
0
- 0015
- 0015
- 0. 012
0
- 0012
- 0013
- 0. 010
0
- 0008
- 0010
- 0. 009
- 0. 138
- 0132
- 0. 115
- 0. 078
- 0. 091
- 0. 094 ~
- 0. 089
/ , "
- 0. 071
- 0. 076
- 0076
- 0. 059
- 0052
- 0. 059
- 0. 063
- 0. 052
- 0034
- 0. 042
- 0. 049
- 0. 044
0
- 0005
- 0. 007
- 0007
0
- 0. 003
- 0004
- 0. 005
0
- 0. 001
- 0002
- 0. 003
- 0. 019
- 0. 025
- 0. 036
- 0036
- 0. 008
- 0013
- 0022
- 0026
- 0. 003
- 0. 005
- 0. 010
- 0014
:
- 0. 065
Table 3 Table 4
Moment = Coef. x wa3
ID;;
,w”
4
X l
bl a xla
1. 25
1. 00
0. 75
0. 50
y =o
MX MY
+0025
y = b/4
Mx 4
y = b/2
M* MY
0
+0. 010
+0. 005
- 0. 033
- 0. 126
+0. 019
+0. 010
- 0. 004
- 0. 025
0 t o. 014 0 - 0. 082
+0. 007 +0. 013 - 0014 - 0. 071
+0. 008 +0. 010 - 0. 011 - 0055
- 0. 018 - 0 000 - 0. 006 - 0. 028
- 0. 092 - 0. 018 0 0
0 +0. 027 0 +0. 013 0 - 0. 074
+0. 012 +0. 022 +0. 007 +0. 013 - 0. 013 - 0. 066
+0. 011 +0. 014 +0. 008 +0010 - 0. 011 - 0. 053
- 0. 021 - 0. 001 - 0. 010 +0. 001 - 0. 005 - 0. 027
- 0. 108 - 0. 022 - 0. 077 - 0. 015 0 0
0 +0. 027 0 +0. 009 0 - 0. 060
+0. 013 +0. 023 +0. 006 +0. 010 - 0. 012 - 0. 059
+0. 015 +0. 016 +0. 010 +0. 010 - 0. 010 - 0 049
- 0. 008 +0. 003 - 0. 002 +0. 003 - 0. 005 - 0. 027
- 0. 086 - 0. 017 - 0. 059 - 0. 012 0 0
0 +0. 025 0 +0. 007 0 - 0. 050
+0. 012 +0. 022 +0. 005 +0. 008 - 0010 - 0. 052
+0. 016 +0016 +0. 010 +0. 009 - 0 009 - 0. 046
- 0. 002 +0. 005 +0. 001 +0. 004 - 0. 005 - 0. 027
- 0. 074 - 0. 015 - 0. 050 - 0. 010 0 0
0 +0. 021 0 +0. 005 0 - 0. 040
t o. 008 +0. 020 +0. 004 +0. 007 - 0. 009 - 0. 044
t o. 016 +0. 016 +0. 010 +0. 008 - 0. 008 - 0042
t o. 003 +0006 +0. 003 +0. 004 - 0005 - 0. 026
- 0. 060 - 0. 012 - 0. 041 - 0. 008 0 0
0
t o. 005
+0. 014
+0. 006
- 0. 047
0
t o. 002
+0. 009
+0. 008
- 0. 035
+0. 015 0 +0. 003
+0. 015 +0. 002 +0. 005
+0. 015 +0. 008 +0. 007
+0. 007 +0. 005 +0. 005
- 0. 009 - 0031 - 0. 006
0
- 0. 007
- 0. 007
- 0. 005
0
0
- 0. 005
- 0. 006
- 0. 004
0
0
- 0. 002
- 0. 003
- 0. 003
0
0
- 0. 001
- 0. 002
- 0. 001
0
- 0. 029
- 0. 034
- 0. 037
- 0024
0
+0. 009 0
+0. 011 0
+0. 013 +0. 005
+0. 008 +0. 005
- 0. 007 - 0. 022
0 +0. 004 0
+0. 001 +0. 008 0
+0. 005 +0. 010 +0. 002
+0. 007 +0. 007 +0. 003
- 0024 - 0. 005 - 0. 015
0 +0. 001 0
0 +0. 005 0
+0. 002 +0. 006 +0. 001
+0. 004 +0. 006 +0. 001
- 0. 015 - 0. 003 - 0. 008
+0. 002
+0003
t o. 005
+0. 004
- 0. 005
+0. 001
+0. 002
+0. 003
+0. 003
- 0. 003
0
+0. 001
+0. 001
+0. 001
- 0. 002
- 0018
- 0. 023
- 0. 029
- 0. 020
0
- 0007
- 0. 011
- 0. 017
- 0. 013
0
- 0002
- 0. 004
- 0. 009
- 0. 007
0
- y i~hngea 1
Moment q Coef. x bvaz
‘_I
I m
1P”@
M
X
bl a
3. 00
2. 50
2. 00
1. 75
1. 50
125
1. 00
0. 75
0. 50
y = o
Mx MY
I O. 089
t o. 118
t o022
+o 029
+0077 t o. 025
+0101 t o. 034
bO. 085 +0. 024 +0. 070 +0. 027
t o112 +0. 032 +o 092 +0. 037
0076 +0. 027 +0. 061 +0. 028
+0. 100 +0. 037 +0. 078 +0038
+0. 070 +0. 029 +0. 054 +o 029
+0091 +0040 +0. 070 +0. 039
t o. 061 +0. 031 +0047 t o. 029
t 0. 076 +0. 043 +0. 059 +0. 040
t o 049 +0. 033 +0038 +0. 029
+0063 +0. 044 +0. 047 +0. 039
t o. 036 +0. 033 +0. 027 +0027
10. 044 +0044 +0033 +0036
t o. 022 +0. 029 +0. 016 +0023
t o. 025 +0. 038 +0. 018 +0. 030
. O. Ol O t o. 020 +0007 bO. 015
- 0 009 +0025 +0. 007 +0. 019
y = b/4
MX M”
3
I
Table 5. Moment Coefficients for Tanks with Walls Free at Top and Hinged at Bottom
b/a = 3.0
\$
y = o
Mx M”
y =b/ 4
M, 4
y =b/ 2
4 4
z = cl 4
4 MZ
0 +0027
+0. 015 +0026
+0. 032 +0. 026
+0. 034 +0. 018
0 t o013
+0. 009 +0. 014
+0. 023 +0. 017
+0. 029 +0014
0 - 0. 005
+0. 002 - 0. 002
+o.o1f3 +0. 005
+0. 022 +0008
0 - 0. 018
- 0. 003 - 0. 012
+0011 - 0. 003
+0. 018 +0. 004
0 - 0033
- 0. 007 - 0. 024
+o 005 - 0. 012
+0013 0
0 - 0. 052
- 0. 011 - 0 039
0 - 0. 022
+0. 008 - 0006
0 - 0074
- 0. 015 - 0. 056
- 0005 - 0. 034
t o003 - 0. 014
0 - 0 098
- 0. 020 - 0 079
- 0. 011 - 0. 051
- 0. 002 - 0. 025
0 - 0. 126
- 0. 024 - 0105
- 0. 016 - 0. 073
- 0. 007 - 0. 040
I =0
M, M,
c/ a
-
3. 00
2. 50
R
Moment q Coef. x wa3
1. 25
0 +0. 070 0 +0. 027
+0. 028 +0. 061 +0. 015 +0. 028
+0. 049 +0. 049 +0. 032 +0026
+0. 046 +0. 030 +0. 034 +0. 018
0 - 0196
- 0. 034 - 0170
- 0. 027 - 0137
- 0. 017 - 0087
0 +0. 073 0 +0033 0 - 0. 169
+0. 028 +0. 063 +0. 016 +0033 - 0030 - 0. 151
+0. 049 +0. 050 +0. 033 +o 029 - 0. 025 - 0. 126
+0. 046 +0. 030 +0. 037 +0. 020 - 0. 017 - 0. 084
0 +0. 075 0 +o 039 0 - 0. 146
+0. 029 +0. 065 +0. 017 +0. 036 - 0. 027 - 0133
+0. 050 f 0. 051 +0. 035 +0. 032 - 0. 023 - 0. 113
+0. 046 +0. 031 +0. 037 +0. 021 - 0016 - 0078
0 +0. 076 0 +0041 0 - 0. 137
+0. 029 +0065 +0. 018 +0038 - 0025 - 0. 125
+0. 050 +0. 052 +0036 +0033 - 0. 021 - 0. 106
+0. 046 +0. 031 +0037 +0. 021 - 0. 015 - 0074
0 +0. 077 0 +0. 043 0 - 0. 129
+0. 030 +0. 066 +0. 018 +0. 039 - 0. 024 - 0. 118
+0050 +0. 053 +0. 037 +0. 034 - 0. 020 - 0. 100
+0. 046 +0031 +0. 038 +0. 022 - 0. 014 - 0. 070
0 +0. 078 0 +0. 045 0 - 0. 122
+0. 030 +0. 067 +0. 019 +0. 041 - 0022 - 0111
+0. 050 +0. 054 +0. 038 +0. 035 - 0. 019 - 0 095
+0. 047 +0. 032 +0. 038 +0. 023 - 0. 014 - 0. 068
0 +0. 079 0 +0. 047 0 - 0118
+0. 030 +0067 +0. 020 +0. 043 - 0. 021 - 0105
+0. 051 +0054 +0. 038 +0. 036 - 0. 018 - 0. 090
+0. 047 +0032 +0. 038 +0. 023 - 0. 013 - 0. 065
0 +o 079 0 +0. 047 0
+0. 029 +0. 066 +0. 020 +0. 042 - 0. 021
+0. 051 +0. 053 +0. 037 +0. 036 - 0. 018
+0. 047 +0. 031 +0. 037 +0. 022 - 0. 013
0 +0. 078 0 +0. 047 0
+0. 029 +0. 065 +0. 019 +0. 042 - 0. 023
+0. 050 +0. 053 +0. 035 +0. 035 - 0. 019
+0. 046 +0. 031 +0. 036 +0. 021 - 0. 014
- 0. 120
- 0107
- 0 090
- 0066
- 0. 130
- 0. 115
- 0. 095
- 0. 068
0 +0. 070
+0028 +0061
+o 049 t o. 049
+0046 +0030
0 +0057
+0022 +0050
+0041 +0043
+0040 +0027
0 +0031
+0. 013 +0. 032
10030 +o 029
+0034 +0020
0 +0014
+0. 007 +0. 018
+0. 023 +0. 020
+0. 027 +0015
0 - 0. 006
+0. 002 +0. 004
+0. 015 +0. 010
+0021 +0. 010
0 - 0. 031
- 0. 004 - 0. 018
+0. 008 - 0. 005
+0. 016 +0. 001
0 - 0. 060
- 0. 010 - 0. 042
+0001 - 0. 022
+0. 009 - 0. 009
0 - 0. 092
- 0. 016 - 0. 070
- 0. 006 - 0045
+0. 003 - 0024
0
- 0. 022
- 0. 013
- 0. 004
- 0123
- 0101
b/a = 2.5
c/a
y = b/4 y =b/2 z=o z = cl 4
4 M*
0 +0. 019
+0010 +0. 022
+0025 +0. 022
+0. 030 +0. 016
0 +0. 003
+0005 +0. 006
+0. 018 +0. 011
+0023 +0. 011
0 - 0. 006
+0. 001 - 0002
+0. 013 +0004
+0019 +0. 008
0 - 0018
- 0. 003 - 0. 012
+0. 008 - 0. 002
t oo15 +0004
0 - 0. 030
- 0. 006 - 0. 024
+0. 003 - 0012
+0011 - 0002
0 - 0. 045
- 0010 - 0. 036
- 0. 003 - 0. 021
+0. 006 - 0. 008
0 - 0062
- 0014 - 0053
- 0. 008 - 0. 035
+0. 002 - 0016
0 - 0. 081
- 0. 019 - 0. 072
- 0. 014 - 0. 056
- 0. 003 - 0030
MX MY 4 MY M” MZ
0 +0.0.!31 0 co. 019
+0. 024 +0. 053 +0010 +0. 022
+0042 +0. 044 +0025 +0. 022
+0. 041 t o. 027 +0. 030 +0016
0 - 3138
- 0. 026 - 0132
- 0023 - 0. 115
- 0. 016 - 0. 078
0 +0065 0 +0. 026 0 - 0. 118
+0. 025 +0. 055 +0. 012 t o. 027 - 0. 023 - 0. 113
+0. 043 +0. 046 i O. 028 +0. 025 - 0. 020 - 0. 102
+0042 +0. 028 +0. 031 +0. 018 - 0014 - 0. 070
0 .-.,7 0 +0. 030 0 - 0. 108
+0. 025 +0. 057 +0. 013 +0. 030 - 0. 021 - 0. 104
+0. 044 +0. 047 +0. 029 +0. 027 - 0. 019 - 0. 096
+0043 +0. 028 +0. 033 +0. 019 - 0013 - 0. 066
0 t o. 068 0 +0033 0 - 0100
+0. 026 +0. 058 +0. 014 +0032 - 0. 019 - 0. 097
+0. 045 +0047 +0. 030 +0. 029 - 0. 018 - 0. 089
+0043 +0. 029 +0. 034 +0. 019 - 0. 013 - 0. 063
0 +0 069 0 +0035 0 - 0. 092
+0. 026 +0. 059 +0. 015 +0034 - 0. 018 - 0. 089
+0. 045 +0. 048 +0. 031 +0031 - 0. 016 - 0. 082
+0. 044 +0. 029 +0. 034 +0. 020 - 0012 - 0 059
0 +0. 070 0 +0037 0 - 0087
+0. 026 +0. 060 +0. 015 +0036 - 0. 017 - 0. 083
+0. 046 +0. 048 +0. 031 +0. 032 - 0. 015 - 0077
+0. 044 +0. 029 +0. 033 +0021 - 0. 011 - 0056
0 +0. 070 0 +0. 038 0 - 0082
+0. 025 +0. 060 t o. 015 +0. 037 - 0. 016 - 0. 078
+0. 045 +0. 047 +0. 030 +0. 032 - 0. 014 - 0071
+0043 +0. 029 +0. 033 +0. 020 - 0. 011 - 0. 054
0 +0. 069 0 +0. 039 0 - 0080
+0. 025 +0. 059 +0. 014 +0. 038 - 0. 015 - 0075
+0. 044 +0. 046 +0028 +0. 032 - 0. 014 - 0. 068
+0. 042 +0. 028 +0. 032 +0. 019 - 0. 010 - 0. 052
0 +0. 061
+0. 024 +0053
+0042 +0. 044
+0. 041 +0027
0 +0. 038
+0. 015 +0. 037
+0. 032 +0. 033
+0034 +0. 022
0 +0025
+0010 +0026
t o. 025 +0025
+0. 029 +0. 019
0 +0. 008
+0004 +0013
+0017 +0. 017
+0024 +0015
0 - 0010
- 0. 002 - 0. 003
+0. 008 +0. 007
+0. 018 +0008
0 - 0032
- 0. 008 - 0021
- 0. 001 - 0008
+0011 0
0 - 0. 055
- 0. 014 - 0. 042
- 0. 009 - 0. 025
+o 005 - 0. 011
0 - 0. 080
- 0019 - 0. 068
- 0017 - 0. 048
- 0002 - 0. 026
2. 50
1. 25
4
\
- 0071
- 0042
t
y =o y =b/4
M, MY M, M,
0 +0. 045 0 +0. 011
+0016 +0. 042 +0. 006 +0. 014
+0033 +0. 036 +o. ozo +0. 016
+0. 036 +0. 024 +0. 025 +0. 014
0 +0048 0 +0. 015
+0. 017 +0. 044 +0. 007 +0. 017
+0. 034 +0. 038 +0. 021 +0019
+0036 +0. 024 +0. 025 +0. 015
0 +0. 050 0 +0019
+0018 +0. 046 +o. ooa +0. 021
+0. 035 +0. 039 +0. 022 +0. 021
+0. 036 +0. 025 +0. 026 +0. 016
0 +0. 052 0 +0023
+0019 +0. 048 a009 +0. 024
+0036 +0. 041 +0. 023 +0. 023
+0037 +0. 025 +0. 026 +0. 017
0 +0054 0 +0. 027
+0. 019 +0. 050 +0. 010 +0. 027
+0. 037 +0. 042 +0. 024 +0. 025
t o. 037 +0. 026 +0. 027 +0. 018
0 +0. 055 0 +0. 030
+0. 018 +0. 051 +0. 011 +0. 029
+0. 038 +0. 043 +0. 025 +0026
+0. 037 +0. 026 +0. 027 +0. 018
0 +0054 0 +0. 030
+0. 018 +0. 052 +0. 011 +0. 029
+0. 038 +0. 044 +0. 025 +0. 025
+0037 +0. 026 +0. 026 +0. 017
= 2. 0
c a
2. 00
1. 75
1. 50
1. 25
100
075
0. 50
z = cl 4 y =b/2
M, MY
- 0091 0
- 0. 019
- 0. 018
- 0. 013
- 0. 094
- 0. 089
- 0. 065
z=o
4 4
t o011 0
+0. 006
+0020
+0025
+0. 014
+0016
t o014
M, MZ
0 co. 045
0
- 0. 017
- 0. 017
- 0. 012
0
- 0015
- 0. 015
- 0. 012
0
- 0. 014
- 0. 014
- 0. 011
0
- 0. 012
- 0. 013
- 0. 010
0
- 0. 012
- 0. 012
- 0. 010
0
- 0. 014
- 0. 013
- 0. 010
- 0. 081 0 - 0001
- 0. 085 +0. 003 +0006
- 0. 083 +0. 015 +0011
- 0061 +0. 020 +0012
- 0072 0 - 0. 010
- 0077 0 - 0002
- 0. 076 +o 009 +0004
- 0. 058 +0. 016 +0. 008
- 0064 0 - 0021
- 0. 068 - 0. 002 - 0. 013
- 0. 069 +0. 005 - 0004
- 0054 +0. 011 +0. 002
- 0. 058 0 - 0037
- 0. 062 - 0. 005 - 0025
- 0. 064 0 - 0. 015
- 0051 +0006 - 0006
- 0. 058
- 0. 062
- 0. 062
- 0. 049
- 0 049
- 0040
- 0 029
- 0. 015
- 0. 065
- 0068
- 0064
- 0. 050
0
- 0. 009
- 0. 005
+o. ooz
0
- 0012
- 0010
- 0. 003
- 0. 064
- 0056
- 0. 045
- 0026
+0. 016 +0. 042
+0. 033 +0. 036
+0. 036 +0024
0 ~0032
+0. 012 co. 032
+0. 027 +0. 029
10. 031 +0021
0 +0. 018
t o. 007 ' 0020
+0. 020 co. 022
+0. 025 10017
0 0
+0. 001 ' 0005
+0011 +0012
+0016 +0. 011
0 - 0. 023
- 0. 005 - 0. 013
+0. 001 0
+0. 008 t o. 004
0 - 0. 044
- 0010 - 0031
- 0. 007 - 0. 015
+0. 001 - 0. 004
0 - 0061
- 0014 - 0051
- 0. 012 - 0034
- 0. 004 - 0. 018
I I =1. 5
y =b/4 y =b/2
4 M Y 4 MY
0 +0. 005 0 - 0. 052
+0. 003 +0. 008 - 0. 012 - 0. 059
+0. 012 +0. 011 - 0. 013 - 0. 063
+0. 017 +0011 - 0. 010 - 0. 052
0 +0. 008 0 - 0. 045
+0. 005 +0. 012 - 0010 - 0. 050
+0. 014 +0. 014 - 0. 011 - 0. 056
+0. 018 +0. 012 - 0. 010 - 0. 048
0 +0013 0 - 0. 038
+0. 006 +0. 016 - 0008 - 0. 042
+0. 015 +0. 017 - 0. 010 - 0. 049
t o. 019 +0. 014 - 0. 009 - 0. 045
0 +0. 016 0 - 0. 034
+0. 007 +0. 018 - 0. 008 - 0. 038
+0. 016 +0. 019 - 0. 008 - 0. 042
+0. 019 +0. 015 - 0. 008 - 0. 041
0 +0. 017 0 - 0. 036
+0. 007 +0. 019 - 0. 008 - 0040
+0. 017 +0. 020 - 0. 009 - 0. 044
+0. 018 +0. 016 - 0. 008 - 0. 040

1. 50
w/a
* = c/ 4 z=o
M" 4 MX MZ
0 +0005 0 co. 027
+0003 +0. 008 +0. 009 +0028
+0. 012 +0. 011 +0. 022 t o. 027
+0. 017 +0. 011 +0. 027 t o. 020
0 - 0005 0 coo11
+0. 001 - 0. 001 +0. 004 +0015
+0007 +0006 +0. 014 +0. 020
60. 013 +0006 +0. 018 10016
0 - 0. 016 0 - 0. 006
- 0. 002 - 0010 - 0001 +0. 001
+0. 002 - 0. 003 +0006 +0010
+0. 008 +0. 002 +o 009 +0. 010
0 - 0024 0 - 0. 019
- 0. 005 - 0. 020 - 0. 004 - 0013
- 0. 002 - 0. 014 - 0. 001 - 0. 004
+0. 003 - 0. 007 +0. 002 +0001
0 - 0030 0 - 0. 028
- 0. 008 - 0031 - 0. 007 - 0. 027
- 0. 006 - 0. 027 - 0. 006 - 0020
- 0. 002 - 0018 - 0. 004 - 0010
y - o
M. M”
I
0 +0. 027
+0. 009 +0. 028
+0. 022 +0. 027
+0. 027 +0. 020
0 +0. 031
+0. 010 +0. 031
+0. 024 +0. 030
+0. 027 +0. 021
0 +0. 035
+0. 011 +0. 034
+0. 025 +0. 032
+0. 028 +0. 022
0 +0. 038
+0. 011 +0. 036
+0. 025 +0. 033
+0028 +0. 022
0 +0. 040
+0. 010 +0. 037
+0. 024 +0. 034
+0. 028 +0. 022
125
b/a = 1.0
c/a x/a
y - o Y =b/ 4 Y =b/ 2 z = c/ 4 z=o
M” Mb M” M” M” M,
0 +0. 010 0 +0. 002 0 - 0. 019 0 +0. 002
+0. 002 +0. 013 0 +0. 003 - 0. 005 - 0. 025 0 +0. 003
+0. 010 +0. 017 +0. 005 +0006 - 0. 007 - 0036 +0. 005 +0006
+0015 +0. 015 +0. 009 +0. 007 - 0. 007 - 0036 +0. 009 +0. 007
MX MZ
0 +0. 010
+0002 f 0. 013
+0. 010 +0017
+0. 015 +0. 015
0 +0. 016 0 +o.oc)7 0 - 0. 013 0 - 0. 004 0 +0. 003
+0. 003 +0. 017 +0. 001 +0. 008 - 0. 004 - 0. 020 - 0. 001 - 0. 005 - 0. 001 +0. 003
+0. 011 +0. 020 +0. 006 +0. 009 - 0. 007 - 0. 033 +0. 002 - 0. 001 +0. 005 +0. 007
+0. 016 +0. 014 +0. 009 +0. 009 - 0. 006 - 0. 032 +0. 004 +0. 002 +0. 009 f O008
0 +0. 020 0 +0. 011 0 - 0. 011 0 - 0. 007 0 - 0. 005
+0. 003 +0. 018 +0. 001 +0. 010 - 0. 004 - 0. 018 - 0002 - 0. 012 - 0. 003 - 0. 007
+0. 012 +0. 021 +0. 008 +0. 010 - 0. 006 - 0. 032 +0. 001 - 0. 009 +0. 002 - 0. 005
+0. 017 +0. 013 +0. 010 +0. 009 - 0. 006 - 0. 031 +0002 - 0. 005 +0. 006 +0. 001
5
Table 6. Moment Coefficients for Tanks with Walls Hinged at Top and Bottom
Moment = Coef. x wa3
b/a = 3.0
C/a
3. 00
2. 50
2. 00
1. 75
1. 50
1. 25
1. 00
0. 75
0. 50
f
w/ a
y = o y = b/ 4 y = b/ 2 z = c/ 4 .?=O
MX MY Mx MY MX MI
+0. 035 +0. 010 +0. 026 +0011
+0. 057 +0. 016 +0. 044 +0. 017
+0. 051 +0. 013 +0. 041 +0014
+0. 035 +0. 010 +0. 026 +0. 011
+0057 +0. 016 +0. 044 +0. 017
+0. 051 +0. 013 +0. 041 +0. 014
+0. 035 +0. 010 +0. 026 +0. 011
+0. 057 +0. 016 +0045 +0. 017
t o. 051 +0013 +0. 042 +0. 014
+0. 035 +0010 +0027 +0. 011
+0. 057 +0. 015 +0. 045 +0017
+0051 +0013 +0. 042 +0. 014
+0. 035 +0. 010 +0. 027 +0. 011
+0. 057 +0. 015 +0. 045 +0. 017
+0. 051 +0. 013 +0. 042 +0. 014
+0. 035 +0010 +0027 +0. 011
+0. 057 +0. 015 +0. 046 +0. 017
+0. 051 +0. 013 +0. 042 +0. 014
+0. 035 +0. 010 +0. 027 +0. 011
+0. 057 +0. 015 +0. 046 +0. 017
+0. 051 +0013 +0. 043 +0. 014
+0. 035 +0. 010 +o. o2a +0. 011
+0. 057 +0. 015 +0. 046 +0. 017
+0. 052 +0. 013 +0043 +0. 014
+0036 +0. 010 +0. 028 +0. 011
+0. 057 +0. 015 +0. 047 +0. 017
+0. 052 +0. 013 +0. 043 +0. 014
-0 008
- 0. 013
- 0011
- 0. 008
- 0. 012
- 0. 011
- 0. 008
- 0. 012
- 0011
- 0. 007
- 0. 012
- 0. 011
- 0. 007
- 0. 011
- 0. 010
- 0. 006
- 0. 011
- 0. 010
- 0. 006
- 0. 010
- 0. 009
- 0. 005
- 0. 008
- 0. 008
- 0. 004
- 0007
- 0. 007
-0 039
- 0. 063
- 0. 055
- 0. 039
- 0. 062
- 0055
- 0. 038
- 0. 062
- 0. 054
- 0037
- 0. 060
- 0053
- 0. 035
- 0. 057
- 0. 051
- 0. 032
- 0. 053
- 0. 048
- 0 029
- 0. 048
- 0. 044
- 0. 025
- 0. 042
- 0. 039
- 0. 021
- 0035
- 0. 033
+0026 +0. 011
10044 +0. 017
+0041 +0. 014
+0. 021 +0010
+0036 +0. 017
+0036 t o014
+0. 015 t o010
+0. 028 +0015
+0. 029 +0. 013
+0011 +0008
+0021 +0. 013
+0024 ' 0012
+0007 t o. 006
t o. 015 +0. 010
+0019 +0011
+0. 003 +0. 003
+0. 008 t o. 006
+0013 +0008
- 0001 0
t o. 002 +0002
+0. 007 +0. 004
- 0. 003 - 0005
- 0. 003 - 0005
+0. 002 - 0002
- 0004 - 0. 011
- 0007 - 0. 016
- 0. 004 - 0. 010
+0035 +0. 010
+0057 +0016
+0051 +0. 013
+0031 +0011
+0. 052 +0017
+0047 +0. 014
+0025 t o. 013
+0043 t o020
+0041 +0016
+0. 020 +0013
+0036 +0020
+0. 036 +0016
t o. 014 +0013
+0027 +0020
t o 029 t o. 017
+0008 +0011
10017 a017
+0. 021 +0. 016
t o002 +0. 008
+0. 007 +oc14
+0. 013 +0. 013
- 0002 +0. 001
- 0. 001 +0. 007
+0. 006 +0. 007
- 0. 005 - 0. 008
- 0. 006 - 0010
- 0001 - 0. 004
b/a = 2.5
c/a
2. 50
2. 00
1. 75
1. 50
1. 25
100
0. 75
0. 50
y = b/ 2
4 M”
- 0. 008 - 0. 038
- 0. 012 - 0. 062
- 0. 011 - 0. 055
- 0. 008 - 0. 038
- 0. 012 - 0. 061
- 0. 011 - 0. 054
- 0. 007 - 0. 037
- 0. 012 - 0. 059
- 0. 011 - 0. 053
- 0. 007 - 0. 035
- 0. 011 - 0057
- 0. 010 - 0. 051
- 0. 006 - 0. 032
- 0. 011 - 0. 053
- 0. 010 - 0. 048
- 0. 006 - 0028
- 0. 010 - 0048
- 0. 009 - 0044
- 0005 - 0. 024
- 0. 008 - 0041
- 0. 008 - 0. 039
- 0004 - 0. 021
- 0. 007 - 0035
- 0. 007 - 0034
z = c/ 4
M, MZ
+0. 021 +0010
+0036 +0017
co. 036 +0. 014
+0. 015 +o 009
+0. 028 +0015
+0. 029 +0. 013
+0011 +0. 008
+0. 022 +0. 013
+0. 024 +0. 012
+0. 007 +0. 006
+0. 015 +0. 010
+0019 +0. 010
+0003 +0. 004
+0. 008 +0. 007
+0. 014 +0. 008
- 0. 001 0
+0. 002 +0002
t o. 007 +a004
- 0003 - 0. 005
- 0. 003 - 0005
0 - 0002
- 0004 - 0. 011
- 0007 - 0016
- 0. 004 - 0. 010
z=o
4 MZ
+0. 031 +0. 011 +0. 021 +0. 010
+0. 052 +0. 017 +0. 036 t o. 017
+0. 047 +0. 015 +0. 036 +0. 014
+0. 031 +0. 011 +0. 021 +0. 010
+0. 052 +0. 017 +0. 036 t o. 017
+0. 047 +0. 015 +0. 036 +0. 014
+0. 032 +0. 011 +0. 021 +0. 010
+0. 052 +0. 018 +0. 036 +0. 017
+0. 047 +0. 015 +0. 036 +0. 014
+0. 032 +0. 011 +0. 022 +0. 010
t o. 052 +0. 018 +0. 037 +0. 017
+0. 047 +0. 015 +0036 +0. 014
+0. 032 +0. 011 +0. 022 +0010
+0. 052 +0. 018 +0. 038 +0. 017
+0. 048 +0. 015 +0. 037 +0. 014
+0. 032 +0. 011 +0. 023 +0. 011
+0. 053 +0. 018 +0038 +0. 017
+0. 048 +0. 015 +0. 038 +0. 015
+0. 033 +0. 011 +0024 co. 011
+0. 054 +0. 018 +0. 039 +0. 017
+0. 049 +0. 015 +0. 038 +0. 015
+0. 033 +0. 012 +0. 024 +0. 011
+0. 054 +0. 018 +0040 +0. 017
+0. 049 +0. 015 +o 039 t o015
+0031 +0. 011
+0. 052 +0. 017
+0. 047 +0. 015
+0025 +0. 012
+0042 +0. 020
+0. 041 +0. 016
+0. 020 +0. 012
+0035 +0021
+0. 035 +0. 017
' 0. 014 +0013
+0. 027 +0. 021
+0. 029 +0. 017
+0. 007 +0. 012
co. 018 +0019
+0022 t o. 018
+0. 002 +0. 008
t o007 +0014
+0013 +0013
- 0. 002 - 0. 002
0 +0005
10006 +0006
- 0. 005 - 0. 008
- 0. 006 - 0010
- 0. 001 - 0004
6
b/a = 2.0
l-
y - o y = b/ 4 y = b/ 2
Mx
4 Mx
4 4 MY
+0. 025 +0. 013 +0. 015 +0. 009 - 0007 - 0. 037
+0. 042 +0. 020 +0. 028 +0. 015 - 0012 - 0. 059
+0. 040 +0. 016 +0. 029 +0. 013 - 0. 011 - 0. 053
+0. 025 +0. 013 +0. 015 +0. 009 - 0. 007 - 0. 036
+0. 042 +o. ozo +0. 028 +0. 015 - 0. 012 - 0. 058
+0. 040 +0. 016 +0. 029 +0. 013 - 0. 010 - 0052
+0. 025 +0. 013 +0. 016 +0. 009 - 0. 007 - 0034
+0. 043 +0. 020 +0. 028 +0. 015 - 0. 011 - 0. 056
+0. 041 +0. 016 +0. 029 +0. 013 - 0. 010 - 0. 050
+0. 0?6 +0. 013 +0. 016 +0. 010 - 0. 006 - 0. 032
+0. 043 +0. 020 +0. 029 +0. 015 - 0. 010 - 0052
+0. 041 +0. 016 +0. 030 +0. 013 - 0. 010 - 0. 048
+0. 026 +0. 013 +0. 017 +0. 010 - 0. 006 - 0. 028
+0. 044 +0. 020 +0. 030 +0. 016 - 0. 009 - 0. 046
+0. 041 +0. 016 +0. 031 +0. 014 - 0. 009 - 0. 044
+0. 027 +0. 013 +0. 018 +0. 010 - 0. 005 - 0. 024
+0. 045 +0. 020 +0031 +0. 016 - 0. 008 - 0. 040
+0. 042 +0. 016 +0. 032 +0. 014 - 0. 008 - 0. 041
+0. 027 +0. 013 +0. 019 +0. 010 - 0. 004 - 0. 021
+0. 046 +0. 020 +0. 033 +0. 017 - 0. 007 - 0. 034
+0. 042 +0. 016 +0. 032 +0. 015 - 0. 007 - 0. 037
- -
c/ a
z=o
M, Mz
+0. 025 +0. 013
+0. 042 +0020
+0. 040 +0. 016
+0. 020 +0. 013
+0. 035 +0. 021
+0. 035 +0. 017
+0. 014 +0. 013
+0027 +0. 021
+0. 029 +0. 017
+0. 007 +0. 011
+0. 018 +0. 019
+0. 021 +0. 016
+0. 002 +0. 008
+0. 007 +0. 014
+0. 013 +0. 013
- 0. 001 +o. m2
0 +0. 005
t o. 005 t o. 008
- 0. 004 - 0. 007
- 0. 006 - 0. 009
- 0. 002 - 0. 003
z = cl 4
4 4
t o015 +0. 009
+0028 +0. 015
+0. 029 +0013
+0. 011 +0. 008
+0. 022 +0. 013
+0. 024 +0012
+0. 007 +0. 006
+0. 015 +0. 011
+0. 019 +0010
+0. 003 +0003
+0. 008 +0007
+0. 013 +0008
- 0. 001 0
+0. 002 +0. 002
+0. 007 +0. 004
- 0. 003 - 0. 004
- 0002 - 0004
+0. 002 - 0002
- 0. 004 - 0010
- 0. 006 - 0015
- 0. 003 - 0010
2. 00
1. 75
1. 50
125
1. 00
0. 75
0. 50
1
b/a = 1.5
c/ a
z=o
4 4
+0. 015 +0. 013
+0. 028 +0. 021
+0. 030 +0. 017
+0. 009 +0. 012
+0. 018 +0. 019
+0023 +0. 016
+0. 003 +0008
+0. 008 +0014
+0. 014 +0. 014
- 0. 001 t o. 002
+0. 001 +0. 005
+0. 006 +0. 008
- 0004 - 0006
- 0. 005 - 0007
- 0. 001 - 0001
z = c/ 4
4 MZ
+0008 +0. 007
+0. 016 +0. 011
+0. 020 +0. 011
+0. 004 +0. 004
+0. 009 +0008
+0. 014 +o 009
0 +0. 001
t o. 003 +0. 003
+0008 +0. 005
- 0002 - 0. 003
- 0. 002 - 0. 004
+0. 002 0
- 0. 003 - 0 009
- 0. 006 - 0. 014
- 0003 - 0. 008
y = b/ 4 y = b/ 2
4 MY 4 MY
+0. 008 +0. 007 - 0. 006 - 0. 032
+0. 016 +0. 011 - 0. 010 - 0. 052
+0. 020 +0. 011 - 0. 010 - 0. 048
+0. 009 +0. 008 - 0. 006 - 0. 029
+0. 017 t o. 012 - 0. 010 - 0. 049
+0. 020 +0. 012 - 0. 009 - 0. 045
+0. 010 +0. 009 - 0005 - 0. 025
+0. 019 +0. 012 - 0. 009 - 0. 043
+0. 021 +0. 013 - 0. 008 - 0. 041
+0. 011 +0. 010 - 0. 004 - 0. 021
+0. 021 +0. 014 - 0. 007 - 0036
+0. 022 +0. 014 - 0. 007 - 0. 036
+0. 013 +0. 012 - 0. 003 - 0. 017
+0. 023 +0. 018 - 0. 006 - 0. 031
+0. 024 +0. 016 - 0. 007 - 0. 033
y - o
4 MY
+0015 +0013
+0. 028 +0. 021
+0. 030 +0. 017
+0. 016 +0. 013
+0. 029 +0. 021
+0. 030 +0. 017
+0. 016 +0. 013
+0. 030 +0. 021
t o. 031 t o. 017
+0. 018 +0. 014
+0. 032 +0. 022
+0. 032 +0. 018
+0. 020 +0. 016
+0035 +0. 024
+0034 +0. 020
150
125
b/a = 1.0
y = b/ 2 I = c/ 4 z=o
c/ a
M.x 4
+0. 005 +0. 009
+0. 011 +0. 016
+0. 016 +0. 015
+0. 001 +0. 005
+0. 005 +o 009
+0. 008 +0010
- 0. 003 - 0. 002
- 0. 003 - 0. 002
0 +0. 001
y =o y = b/ 4
4 M”
4 MY
+0. 005 +0. 009 +0. 002 +0. 003
+0. 011 +0. 016 +0. 006 +0. 006
+0016 +0. 015 +0. 009 +0. 007
+0. 006 +0010 +0. 003 +0. 004
+0. 013 +0. 017 +0. 008 +0. 008
+0. 017 +0016 +0. 010 +0. 008
t o. 007 +0. 011 +0. 005 +0. 006
+0. 015 +0018 +0. 010 +0. 010
+0. 018 +0. 016 +0. 012 +0. 010
M. M” M” M,
+0. 002 +0. 003
+0. 006 +0. 006
+0. 009 +0. 007
- 0.004 - 0. 020
- 0. 007 - 0. 035
- 0. 007 - 0. 035
- 0003 - 0. 016
- 0. 006 - 0. 029
- 0. 006 - 0. 031
- 0. 002 - 0. 010
- 0. 004 - 0. 021
- 0. 005 - 0. 026
0 0
+0. 001 +0. 001
+0. 004 +0. 003
- 0. 002 - 0. 005
- 0. 003 - 0. 007
- 0. 001 - 0. 004
7
In this manner, moment coefficients were computed
and are tabulated in Tables 5 and 6 for top and bottom
edge conditions as shown for single-cell tanks with a
large number of ratios of b/ a and c/a, b being the larger
and c the smaller of.the horizontal tank dimensions. Mo-
ments in vertical and horizontal directions equal the
coefficients times wa3, in which w is the weight of the
liquid. Note that the loading term is wa3 for all wall slabs
subject to hydrostatic pressure but is wa2 for the floor
slab in Table 4, which has uniformly distributed load. In
the first case, w is weight per cubic foot, but in the latter
it is weight per square foot.
There is a peculiarity about the horizontal end mo-
ments in the slabs at the free top edge. Calculations of
such moments by means of the trigonometric series
used result in a value of zero, whereas these moments
actually have finite values and may even be compara-
tively large. Horizontal end moments at the free edge
were therefore established by extrapolation. The con-
sistency of extrapolated moment coefficients was
checked by plotting and studying curves. This gave
reasonably good results, although coefficients thus
determined are probably not quite as accurate as the
coefficients that were computed. A condition prevails at
the quarter point of the free edge, similar to that at the
end point but to a lesser degree. At the midpoint of the
free edge the coefficients were computed, extrapolation
being used only for checking purposes.
When a tank is built underground, the walls must be
investigated for both internal and external pressure. The
latter may be due to earth pressure or to a combination
of earth and groundwater pressure. Tables and other
data presented can be applied in ‘the case of pressure
from either side but the signs are opposite. In the case
of external pressure, actual load distribution may not
necessarily be triangular as assumed in the tables.
Consider for illustration a tank built below ground with
earth covering the roof slab and causing a trapezoidal
distribution of lateral earth pressure on the walls. In this
case it gives a fairly good approximation to substitute a
triangle with the same area as the trapezoid represent-
the same at middepth in both cases and when the wall
is supported at both top and bottom edges, the discrep-
ancy between triangle and trapezoid has relatively little
effect at and near the supported edges
Shear Coefficients
Shear values along the edges of a tank wall are needed
for investigation of shear and development stresses.
Along vertical edges, shear in one wall is also used as
axial tension in the adjacent wall and must be combined
with bending moment to determine tensile reinforce-
ment.
Various data for shear were computed and are given
in Table 7. The wall is considered fixed at the two verti-
cal edges while top and bottom edges are assumed to
be hinged. The wall panel with width b and height a is
subject to hydrostatic pressure due to a liquid weighing
w lb per cubic foot.
The first five lines in Table 7 are shears per linear foot
in terms of wa*. The remaining four lines are total shears
in kips or pounds depending on how w is given. Shears
per linear foot are for ratios of b/ a = %, 1,2, and infinity.
The difference between the shear for b/ a = 2 and infinity
is so small that there is no necessity for computing co-
efficients for intermediate values.
When b/ a is large, a vertical strip of the slab near mid-
point of the b dimension will behave essentially as a
0. 50waz, of which two-thirds or 0. 33wa2
is the reaction at the bottom support and one-third or
0.17wa2 is the reaction at the top. Note in Table 7 that
shear at midpoint of the bottom edge is 0. 3290waz for
b/ a = 2.0, the coefficient being very close to that of one-
third for infinity. In other words, maximum bottom shear
is practically constant for all values of b/ a greater than
Table 7. Shear at Edges of Slabs Hinged at Top and Bottom
bl a ‘h 1 2 5 10 lnfmtty
Midpoint of bottom edge +o 1407wa’ +o 2419we
Corner at bottom edge - 0 2575wa” -0 4397wa’
M,dpo,“t of flxed side edge +o 1260wa’ +O 2562wa’
Lower third-pant of side edge *o 173&v@ +o 3113wa’
Lower quarter-pant of side edge ‘0 1919wP +o 3153w.e
Total at top edge 0 OOOOwa’b 0 0052wa’b
Total at bottom edge 0 0460wa-‘b 0 0960wa’b
Total at one foxed side edge 0 2260wazb 0 1994wa’b
Total at all four edges 0 5000wa’b 0 5000waJb
‘Negatwe s,gn lndlcates reaction acts I” darectlon of load
tEsbmated
+o 3290w.a’
- 0 5633w.F
+0.3604waz
‘0 4023wa’
‘0 3904w.3’
0 0536w.+b 0 ,203~~b
0 1616wa’b 02715wa’b
0 1322wa’b 0 0541wa.b
0 5000wa’b 05000wa.b
+o 3333waz
-0 6000wa’
‘0 3912w.a’
+0 4116wa’
‘0 39t30wa.
0 1435wa’b
0 3023wa’b
0 0271 wa’b
0 5000wa’b
0 1667wa’b
0 3333wa.b
0 275wav
0 5000wa’b
8
\a
simply supported one-way slab. Total pressure on a J
strip 1 ft wide is
2. As will be shown, this is correct only when the top
edge is supported, not when it is free.
At the corner, shear at the bottom edge is negative
and numerically greater than shear at midpoint. The
change from positive to negative shear occurs approxi-
mately at the outer tenth points of the bottom edge.
These high negative values at the corners arise be-
cause deformations in the planes of the supporting
slabs are neglected in the basic equations and are
therefore of only theoretical significance. These shears
can be disregarded in checking shear and development
stresses.
Unit shears at the fixed edge in Table 7 were used for
plotting the curves in Fig. 1. There is practically no
change in shear curves beyond b/a = 2.0. Maximum
value occurs at a depth below the top somewhere be-
tween 0.6a and 0.8a. Fig. 1 is useful for determination of
shear or axial tension for any ratio of b/a and at any
point of a fixed side edge.
Total shear from top to bottom of one fixed edge in
Table 7 must equal the area within the corresponding
curve in Fig. 1, and this relationship was used for check-
ing the curves ‘Total shears computed and tabulated for
a hanged top were also used in making certain adjust-
ments to determine approximate values of shear for
walls with free too-recorded in Table 8.
For b/a = % in Table 7, total shear at the top edge is so
small as to be practically zero, and for b/a = 1 .O total
shear, 0.0052, is only 1% of total hydrostatic pressure,
0.5000.’ Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that re-
moving the top support will not materially change total
shears at any of the other three edges when b/a =Y2 and
1. At b/a = 2.0, there is a substantial shear at the top
9" 0. 3
g
i j a4
f
g 0. 5
%a6
p
B a7
1. 0
0
Fig. 1.
0. 1 0. 2 0. 3
Shear per lin. ft. = coef x wa2
Table 8. Shear at Edges of Slabs Free at Top
and Hinged at Bottom*
tJa 1 2 3
Mldpolnt of bottomedge ‘ 0 141wa: *o 242w.F ‘ 0 3awa7 ‘ 0 45wet
Corner at bottom edge -0 258wa-\$ -0 440-a. - 0 583~9 - 0 sowa
Top of flxed side edge 0 ooowa. ‘0 olowa’ *o 100wa -0 165wa-
Mldpomf of flxed side edge +O 128wa‘ *O258wa’ .o375wa: ‘ 0 406WW
Lower third-wont of side edae *o 174ws *0311wa- *o 406W% *o 416w.F
Lower quarter-WI”, of side edge ‘0 192-a- *o 315w.T *o 390wa ,O 398wa
Total at bottom edge 0 048wa b 0 096wa.b 0 204wa.b 0 286wa.b
Total at one faxed s,de edge 0 226wa b 0 202wa.b 0 148wa:b 0 107wa.b
Total al all four edges 0 500w.s. b 0 500wa-b 0 500wa. b 0 500~4 b
‘Data dewed by modlfymg values compufed for waifs hanged fop and boflom
tThls value could not be esflmated accurately beyond two decimal places
Wegat~ve s!gn lndlcates react~o” acts I” d,recfwn of load
edge when hinged, 0.0538, so that the sum of total
shears on the other three sides is only 0.4462. If the top
support is removed, the other three sides must carry a
total of 0.5000. A reasonable adjustment is to multiply
each of the three remaining total shears by 0.5000/
0.4462 = 1 .12, an increase of 12%. This was done in pre-
paring Table 8 for b/a = 2.0. A similar adjustment was
made for b/a = 3.0, where the increase is 22%.
Total shears recorded in Table 8 were used to deter-
mine unit shears also recorded in that table. Consider
for illustration the shear curves in Fig. 1 and imagine the
top is changed from hinged to free. As already stated, for
b/a = % and 1 it makes little difference in total shear-
the area within shear curves-whether the top is sup-
ported or not. Consequently, curves for b/a = % and 1
remain practically unchanged. They were transferred
almost without modification to Fig. 2, which covers the
case with top free. For b/a = 2 an adjustment was made.
A change in the support at the top has little effect upon
shear at the bottom of the fixed edge. Consequently, the
curves in Figs. 1 and 2 are nearly identical at the bottom.
Gradually, as the top is approached curves for the free
top deviate more and more from those for the hinged
top, as in Fig. 2. By trial, curve for b/a = 2 was so ad-
justed that its area equals the total shear for one fixed
edge for b/a = 2.0 in Table 8. A similar adjustment was
made for b/a = 3.0, which is the limit of moment coeffi-
cients given.
One point of interest stands out In a comparison of
Figs. 1 and 2. Whereas for b/a = 2.0 and 3.0 total shear
is increased 12% and 22%, respectively, when top is
free instead of hinged, maximum shear is increased but
slightly, 2%at most. The reason is that most of the in-
crease in shear is near the top where shears are rela-
tively small.
The same general procedure was applied, but not
illustrated, for adjustment of unit shear at midpoint of
bottom, but in this case the greatest change resulting
from making the top free is at midpoint where shear is
9
0
Fig. 2.
0.1 @.2 0.3
Shear per lin ft. - coef Y wa2
04
large for the hinged-top condition. For illustration, for
b/a = 3.0, unit shear at midpoint of the bottom is0.33wa2
with hinged top but 0.45wa2 with free top-an increase
of approximately one-third.
Shear data were computed for wall panels with fixed
vertical edges. They can be appli\$d with satisfactory
results to any ordinary tank wall even if vertical edges
are not fully fixed.
Open-Top Single-Cell Tank
The tank in Fig. 3 has a clear height of a= 16 ft. Hori-
zontal inside dimensions are b = 40 ft and c = 20 ft. The
tops of the walls are considered free and the bottom
hinged. The tank contains water weighing 62.5 lb per
cubic foot.
Coefficients for moment and shear are selected from
tables or diagrams for b/a= 40/16 = 2.50 and c/a =
20/l 6 = 1.25. Moments are in foot-kips if coefficients
are multiplied by wa3/1000 = 62.5 x 163/1000 = 256;
and shears are in kips if coefficients are multiplied by
waz/lOOO = 62.5 x 16z/1000 = 16.
Moment coefficients taken from Table 5 for b/a=2.50
and c/a= 1 .25 are tabulated below. Coefficients for x =
a(bottom edge), being equal to zero, are omitted.
0 0 +0069 0 +0035 0 - 0. 092 0 - 0. 030
' A +0.026 GO59 +0015 +0034 - 0. 016 - 0. 089 - 0006 - 0. 024 - : 002 I:::;;
H +0.045 +0046 +0.031 +0.031 - 0. 016 - 0. 062 ' 0. 003 - 0. 012 +O.@X3 +OOO,
% +0.044 to.029 ' 0. 034 +0020 - 0. 012 - 0059 +001, - 0. 002 +o,o,i3 +0008
The largest moment occurs in the horizontal direc-
tion at the top of the corner common to both walls and
equals -0.092wa3 = -0.092 x 256 = -23.6 ft kips. The
negative sign simply indicates that tension is on the in-
10
Fig. 3.
side and need not be considered In subsequent calcu-
lations.
Maximum horizontal moment at midpoint of the longer
wall is +0.069wa3 = +0.069 x 256 = +17.7 ft kips. The
positive sign shows that tension is in the outside of the
wall. There is also some axial tenslon on this section
that can be taken equal to end shear at the top of the
shorter wall. For use in connection with Fig. 2, ratio of
b/a for the shorter wall is 20/ 16 = 1.25. Shear is 0.03wa2
= 0.03 x 16 =0.48 kips. The effect of axial tension is neg-
ligible in this case and the steel area can be determined
as for simple bending.
Horizontally at x = a/2, axial tension taken from Fig. 2
for b/a= 1.25 is equal to N = -0.30wa2 =-0.30 x 16 =
-4.80 kips per linear foot, which is not negligible. Mo-
ment is M= 0.048wa3 = 0.048 x 256 = 12.3 ft kips.
In the shorter wall, positive moments are all relatively
small. Maximum positive moment is vertical: 0.01 8wa3
x 256 = 4.6 ft kips.
Maximum Mx in the vertical strip at midpoint ot longer
0.045wa3 =0.045 x 256 = 11.5 ft klps.
Maximum shear at the bottom taken from Table 8 is
V= 0.42wa2 = 0.42 x 16 = 6.72 kips.
Closed Single-Cell Tank
The tank in this section differs from the preceding one
only in that the tops of the walls are considered hinged
rather than free. This condition exists when the tank is
covered by a concrete slab with dowels extending from
the wall into the slab without moment reinforcement
across the bearing surface.
Moment coefficients taken from Table 6 are given
below. All coefficients for x = 0 (top edge) and x = a (bot-
tom edge), being equal to zero, are omitted.
With a free top, maximum M, = +0.045wa3 and maxi-
mum My = -0.092wa3. With a hinged top, maximum n/l,
= +0.052wa3 and maximum My =-0.053wa3. It is to be
expected that a wall with hinged top will carry more load
vertically and less horizontally, but it is worth noting that
maximum coefficient for vertical moment is only 13%
A
= 0.018
,’
panel is
less for wall with free top than with hinged top.
Another noteworthy point is that maximum M, coeffi-
cient at y = 0 is +0.069 for a free top but +0.018 for a
hinged top. Adding top support causes considerable
reduction in horizontal moments, especially at y = 0.
Maximum moment is -0.053~~1~ = -0.053 x 256 =
-13.6 ft kips.
Maximum moment in a vertical strip is M=0.052~~1~ =
0.052 x 256 = 13.3 ft kips. Axial compression (N) on the
section subject to this moment, and loads per linear foot
can be taken as follows:
8-ft-high wall: 8 x 1 .08 x 0.150 = 1.3 kips
12-in. top concrete slab: 0.150 x20/2 = 1.5 kips’
3-ft fill on top of slab: 0.300 x 20/2 =3.0 kips’
Live load on top of fill: 0.100 x 20/2 = 1
forN =
6.8 kips and to design tensile steel for N = 1 .3 + 1.5 = 2.8
kips, in which fill and live load are disregarded.
Top and Base Slabs
The closed single-cell tank is covered with a concrete
slab. Assume the slab is simply supported along all four
sides and has a live load of 100 psf and an earthfill
weighing 300 psf.
Estimating slab thickness as 12 in. gives a total design
load of 100 + 300 + 150 = 550 psf. From Table 4, for a
ratio of 40/20 = 2, select maximum coefficient of 0.100,
which gives maximum M=0.100wa2 F0.100 x 0.550 x
20.02 = 22.0 ft kips.
At the corners, a two-way slab tends to lift off the
supports; and if this tendency is prevented by doweling
slab to support, cracks may develop in the top of the
slab across its corners. Nominal top reinforcement
should therefore be supplied at the corners, say0.005bd
sq in. per foot in each direction. Length of these bars can
be taken as %a=l/4 x 20=5ft.
Assume the closed single-cell tank has a base slab of
reinforced concrete. Weight of base slab and liquid does
not create any bending or shearing stresses in concrete
provided the subsoil is uniformly well compacted. Weight
transferred to the base through the bottom of the wall is
Top slab: 0.550 x 22 x 42 = 510 kips
Walls: 16x0.162(2x41.1 +2~21,1)=320kips
830 ki ps
If the base slab extends 9 in. outside the walls, its area
is 43.7 x 23.7 = 1035 sq ft. The average load of w =
830,000/ 1035 = 800 psf is used for design of the base
slab just as w = 550 psf was used for design of the top
slab.
Total average load on the subsoil is 16 x 62.5 + 800 +
weight of base slab, say 1000 + 800 + 200 = 2000 psf,
which the subsoil must be able to carry.
If there is an appreciable upward hydrostatic pressure
on the base slab, the slab should also be investigated for
this pressure when the tank is considered empty.
\ -
‘ProportIons of tank being deslgned are such that for determlning
axial compression In sde walls, all the top load may be considered
carned the short way
Multicell Tank
Multicell tanks do not lend themselves readily to mathe-
matically accurate stress analysis It is possible, how-
ever, with the tables presented here for single-cell tanks
and for individual wall panels with fixed vertical edges to
estimate moment coefficients for symmetrical multicell
tanks with sufficient accuracy for design purposes. While
results obtained by the following procedure are approxi-
mate and should therefore be considered as a guide to
engineering judgment, the procedure does give a con-
servative design.
Because a rotation of one corner has comparatively
little effect on moments at adjacent corners in atankwith
wall panels supported on three or four sides, moments in
the walls of a multicell tank are essentially the same as
in single-cell tanks-except at corners where more than
two walls intersect. Moment coefficients from Tables 5
and 6, designated as L coefficients, apply to outer or L-
shaped corners of multicell tanks (see Fig. 4a) as well as
to interior sections in all walls, that is, sections desig-
nated as y = b/4, y = 0, z = c/4, and z = 0. Moment coeffi-
cients for design sections at corners where more than
producing maximum moment and on the number of inter-
secting walls.
In Fig. 4b, three walls form a T-shaped unit. If the con-
tinuous wall, or top of the T, is part of the long sides of
two adjacent rectangular cells, the moment in the con-
tinous wall at the intersection is maximum when both
cells are filled. The intersection is then fixed and mo-
ment coefficients, designated as F coefficients, can be
taken from Tables 1, 2, or 3, depending on edge condi-
tions at top and bottom. These three tables cover panels
with fixed side edges. If the continuous wall is part of the
short sides of two adjacent rectangular cells, moment
at one side of the intersection is maximum, when the cell
on that side is filled while the other cell is empty. Like-
wise the end moment in the center wall is maximum
magnitude of moment will be somewhere between theL
coefficients and the F coefficients. If the unloaded third
wall of the unit is disregarded, or its stiffness considered
negligible, moments in the loaded walls would be the
same as in Fig. 4a, that is, the L coefficients apply. If the
third wall is assumed to have infinite stiffness, the corner
is fixed and the f coefficients apply. The intermediate
value representing more nearly the true condition can
be obtained by the formula:
End moments = L -nG2(i -F)
(4 b)
Fig. 4.
4
11
.O kips’
6.8 kips
t
It is conservative to check compressive stress
This formula checks for n equal to zero and infinity. In an
L-shaped unit n equals 0 and the end moments equal
L - O(L - F) = L. Inserting n equal to infinity will give
nl(n + 2) = 1 and the end moments equal L - 1 (L - F) = f,
which also checks.
In Fig. 4c, two continuous walls form a cross. If inter-
secting walls are the walls of square cells, moments at
the intersection are maximum when any two cells are
filled and the F coefficients in Tables 1,2, or 3 apply be-
cause there is no rotation of the joint. If the cells are rec-
tangular, moments in the longer of the intersecting walls
will be maximum when two cells on the same sideof the
wall under consideration are filled, and again the F coef-
ficients apply. Maximum moments in the shorter walls
adjacent to the intersection occur when diagonally
opposite cells are filled, and for this condition the L coef-
ficients apply.
Fig. 5 shows moment coefficients at wall intersec-
itions in two- and four-cell tanks. Where coefficients are
not shown, L coefficients of Tables 5 and 6 apply.
Two-Cell Tank, Long Center Wall
The tank in Fig. 6 consists of two adjacent cells, each
with the same inside dimensions as the open-top single-
cell tank and the closed single-cell tank. The top is con-
sidered free.
In accordance with the types of units in Fig. 4, the tank
consists of four L-shaped and two T-shaped units. L co-
eff icients from Table 5 for b/ a = 2.50 and c/a = 1.25, and
F coefficients from Table 2, for b/a = 2.50 and 1.25, are
tabulated as follows:
Long outer walls
L = coeffuents from Table 5 for
bla=2.50 a nd cla = 1 . 2 5
x/ a
y =b/ 2
I
y =b/ 4
I
y =o
M” Mv M. Mv Mx Mv
0 I 0 -0.092 I 0 +0035 I 0 to.069
%
I
- 0018 -0.089 to.015 to.034 +0.026 +0.059
‘h - 0 0 1 6 - 0 0 8 2 to031 to.031 +0.045 +o.o4a
% -0.012 -0 059 +0034 +0.020 I +0.044 +0.029
Short outer walls
L=coefficients from Table 5 for I F =Tca~fetTfz I
bla =2.50 a nd c/a = 1 2 5 b/a =1 25
L .L&
.? = c/2 L = Cl4 z=o
3
x/a
.? =c/2
Mx Ml 4 Mz MN Mz M.Y M, 4 MZ
0 0 -0.092 0 -0.030 0 -0.010 0 - 0 0 3 4 0 -0.073
% -0.018 -0.089 -0.006 - 0 0 2 4
I
- 0 0 0 2 -0.003 -0.008 -0.042 -0.015 -0.073
‘h - 0 0 1 6 -0.082 +0.003 -0.012 ‘0.008 +0.007 -0.010 -0.049 -0.014 -0.071
% -0.012 -0.059 +0.011 -0.002 +0.018 +0.008 -0.009 - 0 0 4 4 -0.011 -0.054
Center wall
F =coef f r o m
L = coefficients from Table 5 for Table 2 for
bla =2.50 and c/a = 1.25 bla = 2.50
L L-F
XIB
y = o y =b/ 4 y = b/2 y =b/ 2
3
4 MY 4 MY MI MY 4 MY 4 MY
0 0 +0.069 0 +0.035 0 -0.092 0 -0.138 0 -0.107
‘74 +0.026 to.059 to.015 to.034 -0.018 -0.089 -0.026 -0.132 -0.021 -0.103
‘h +0.045 +0.048 io.031 +0.031 -0.016 -0.082 -0.023 -0.115 -0.018 -0.093
% +0.044 +0.029 +0034 +0.020 -0.012 -0.059 - 0 0 1 6 -0.078 -0.013 -0.065
‘VLLg
Fig. 5.
._
r
12
Fig. 6.
Note that f coefficients in this tabulation are used
only for calculation of coefficients L-L-that are to be
3
used for design at the intersection of the center and
outer walls as shown in Fig. 5a.
Coefficients for the center wall are for one cell filled,
All signs must be reversed when the other cell is filled.
Shear coefficients in Tables 7 and 8 as well as in Figs.
1 and 2 can be applied both to center and outer walls.
Two-Cell Tank, Short Center Wall
M, coefficient that
occurs at the center wall of -0.138 instead of -0.092 at
the corner in the tank in Fig. 6. Maximum moment is M,,=
-0.1 38wa3 = -0.138 x 256 = -35.3 ft kips.
Short outer walls
L = coefflcents from Table 5 for
b/a = 2 50 and c/a = 1 25
Long outer walls
F = coel from
L = coeffxwXs from Table 5 for
Table 2 for
b a = 2 50 and cia = 1 25
b/a = 2 50
y = b/ 2 y = b / 4 y=o y = b/ 2
0 lo -0 138
I
-0092 I 0 +0035 I 0 10069 1 0
‘1 -0016 - 0 069
I
+ o 015 +o 034 *O 026 to 059 -0 026 -0 1 3 2
I -0 016 -0 062 +o 0 3 1 *o 0 3 1 ‘ 0 045 ‘ 0 046 -0 023 - 0 115
J/r -0 012 -0 059 +o 034 -0 020 ‘ 0 044 *o 029 - 0 0 1 6 -0 078
Center wall
F = cod f r om
L = coefflclents from Table 5 for Table 2 for
b/a = 2. 50 and c a = 1 25 ba= 1 2 5
L - F
z=o I = Cl4 z = Cl2 .? = Cl2
L- T
ma
Mx Mz Mx Mz Mx Mz 4 MZ Mx Mz
0 0 -0.010 0 -0030 0 - 0 0 9 2 0 -0.034 0 - 0 0 7 3
% - 0 0 0 2 - 0 0 0 3 -0.006 -0 024 - 0 016 -0 089 - 0 0 0 6 -0.042 -0.015 -0 073
% +0 OQ6 10007 to.003 - 0 . 0 1 2 -0.016 -0 062 - 0 0 1 0 -0 049 -0.014 -0.071
y. +0018 +ooo6 +0.011 -0002 - 0 0 1 2 - 0 0 5 9 -0.009 - 0 0 4 4 - 0 0 1 1 -0.054
I t I t I
Counterforted Tank Walls
In a tank or reservoir with large horizontal dimensions,
say three or four times the height, and without a rein-
forced concrete cover slab, it becomes necessary to
design walls as cantilevers or, when they are quite high,
as counterforted walls. The slab in Fig. 8 is free at the top
and may be considered fixed at the bottom. If counter-
forts are spaced equidistantly, the slab may also be
taken as fixed at counterforts. For this type of construc-
tion, coefficients in Table 3 apply.
Fig. a.
Consider for illustration a wall panel of a counterfort-
ed wall in which spacing of counterforts is b = 40 ft and
height is a = 20 ft. From Table 3, for b/a=40/20 =2,
select the following coefficients.
r I t
y = o y = b/ 4
I
y = b/2
Mx MY 4 MV f"% MV
Fig. 7.
13
‘.
The tank in Fig. 7 consists of two cells with the same
inside dimensions as the cells in the two-cell tank with
the long center wall. The difference is that the center
wall is 40 ft wide in the previously discussed tank, but
20 ft wide in this example.
Design procedure is identical for both two-cell tanks,
but the schedule of coefficients is different because the
longer side of the cell in Fig. 7 is continuous instead of
the shorter side as in Fig. 6.
Note from the following tabulation that the long wall
must be designed for a maximum
Procedure for using these coefficients to determine
moments and design of the wall is similar to that illus-
trated for the open-top single-cell tank shown in Fig. 3.
Details at Bottom Edge
Note that all tables except one are based on the as-
sumption that the bottom edge is hinged. It is believed
that this assumption in general is closer to the actual
condition than that of a fixed edge. Consider first the
detail in Fig. 9, which shows the wall supported on a
relatively narrow continuous wall footing, and then Fig.
10 in which the wall rests on a bottom slab.
Fig. 9.
In Fig. 9 the condition of restraint at the bottom of the
footing is somewhere between hinged and fixed but
much closer to hinged than to fixed. Resultant of pres-
sure on the subsoil lies well within the edge of the foot-
ing, and the product of resultant and its eccentricity is
usually much smaller than the moment at the bottom of
the wall when it is assumed fixed. Furthermore, thefoot-
ing must rotate about a horizontal axis in order to pro-
represents a relaxation of restraint.
When the wall footing is not capable of furnishing
much restraint, it is not necessary to provide for hinge
action at the construction joint in Fig. 9. The dowels are
close to the surface, leaving the center of the joint free
for insertion of a shear key. Area of steel in the dowels
along each face may be taken as not less thanO.O025bd,
and extension of the dowels above the construction
joint may be made not less than say 3 ft.
The base slab in Fig. 9 is placed on top of the wall foot-
ing and the bearing surface is brushed with a heavy coat
of asphalt to break the adhesion and reduce friction
between slab and footing. The vertical joint between
slab and wall should be made watertight. A joint width of
1 in. at the bottom and 1% in. at the top is considered
adequate. As indicated in Fig. 9, the bottom of the joint
may be filled with oakum, the middle with volcanic clay
of a type that expands greatly when moistened, and the
upper part sealed with mastic. Any leakage will make
the clay penetrate into fissures and expand, plugging
the leak. Mortar mixed with iron powder has been used
extensively for joints such as in Fig. 9, and so has lead
joint filler, but both iron powder and lead are not always
readily available. A waterstop may not be needed in the
construction joints when the vertical joint in Fig. 9 is
In Fig. 10 a continuous concrete base slab is provided
either for transmitting the load coming down through the
wall or for upward hydrostatic pressure. In either case,
the slab deflects upward in the middle and tends to ro-
tate the wall base in Fig. 10 in a counterclockwrse direc-
tion. The wall therefore is not fixed at the bottom edge.
It is difficult to predict the degree of restraint. The rota-
tion may be great enough to make the bottom edge
hinged or may be even greater. Under the circum-
stances it is advisable to avoid placing moment rein-
forcement across the joint and to cross the dowels at
the center. The waterstop must then be placed off cen-
ter as indicated. Provision for transmitting shear through
direct bearing can be made by inserting a key as in Fig. 9
or by a shear ledge as in Fig. 10.
The waterstop in Fig. 10 may be galvanized steel,
copper, preformed rubber, or extruded plastic.
At top of wall the detail in Fig. 10 may be applied ex-
cept that the waterstop and the shear key are not essen-
tial. The main thing is to prevent moments from being
transmitted from the top of the slab into the wall because
the wall is not designed for such moments.
Fig. 10.
14
Metric Conversion Factors
To convert from To Multiply by
inch (in.) meter (m) 0.0254
feet (ft) meter (m) 0.3048
square feet (sq ft) square meter (m2) 0.0929
pound (lb) kilogram (kg) 0.4536
kip (1000 lb) kilogram (kg) 453. 6
Ib/lin ft kg/m 1. 488
kip/lin ft kg/m 1488.
Ib/sq ft kg/m2 4. 88
Ib/cu ft kg/m3 16.02
ft-kips newton-meter (Nm) 1356.
ft-kips kilogram-meter (kgm) 138. 2
The prefixes and symbols listed are commonly used
to form names and symbols of the decimal multiples
and submultiples of the SI units.
Multiplication Factor Prefix Symbol
1 000 000 000 = 109
giga
G
1 oooooo= 106 mega M
1000=10~ kilo k
l=l
-
0.001
= 10-3
milli m
0.000 001
= 10-6
micro I-1
0.000 000 001 = 1 o-9 nano n

091 -0.017 10.003 0.005 +0.059 -0.035 -0.011 co.001 to.008 -0. 3.009 -0.059 -0052 -0.043 -0020 -0.028 +0026 +0.007 -0.013 +0.002 MY +0.013 -0.006 +0.008 -0.001 to.033 bO.006 +0.045 +0042 +0.002 +0.022 10.016 +0.014 +0.016 +0013 +0.037 -0.008 +0.009 +0.035 +0.xwa3 d mlr _wa Xl bla 3.027 +0.034 0 +0.OlO +0013 +0.75 2.115 -0.012 -0.022 +0027 +0.035 -0.027 -0.002 y = b/2 4 Y -0.008 +0.003 +0.089 -0.017 0 +0.014 +0.020 +0.011 +0.027 0 10.012 +0.017 +0.002 io.031 0 moo9 bO.005 bO.018 -0.025 -0.022 +0.065 -0.032 +0.50 2.014 +0.061 +0053 +0.ooo +0002 +0.094 -0.006 0 +o.023 +0025 +0.017 +0.009 0 +0.036 +0.013 0 -0015 -0015 -0.006 -0.011 +0.024 bO.049 -0.010 0 -0008 -0010 -0.011 -0.00 Minus s.014 +0008 +0.025 -0.008 -0013 -0022 -0026 -0.044 -0.013 +0.011 -0.076 -0076 -0.030 +o 009 +0.044 +0.009 +0.070 +0.006 +0.015 +0032 +0.025 +0.020 +0.052 -0034 -0.021 0 +0.017 +0.038 -0.002 +0006 +0.170 -0.011 -0.011 +0.007 -0007 4 -0.00 y .021 +0.007 -0.022 +0.002 +0004 +0.021 +0.020 +0.044 10027 +0. and 4.025 0 +0005 10017 r0.018 +0.020 +0.004 y .009 +0.012 -0.001 -0002 -0.005 +0.014 10012 +0.019 +0.002 '0 010 too15 0 ~0.009 +0.019 -0.007 -0.015 +0005 +0008 +0011 +0.25 0.010 -0014 ~ / .028 +0.028 -0.057 +0." : 2.028 kO.009 +0.052 +0047 +0.035 -0.004 -0.020 +0.036 r0.010 -0006 -0 009 -0.005 -0.015 +0.003 +0.005 0 -0.042 +0.017 0 -0.005 -0.078 -0.012 0 -0012 -0013 -0.004 -0.049 bO.005 +0008 +0.017 +0.011 -0.030 +0.003 +0012 +0.005 +0.50 1.025 +0.Tables 1.001 -0.009 0 +0.012 +0.019 -0.013 +0.061 +0.017 +0.029 +0.035 0 IO.010 +0.053 -0.028 +0.005 +0011 +0.016 +0.015 +0.006 +0008 ! y = b/2 MX 0 -0.75 0.010 -0.052 -0.005 +0.002 +0.049 +0.019 +0.011 +0. Moment Coefficients for Slabs with Various Edge Conditions Table 1 Table 2 Moment = Coef.003 -0004 -0.017 +O.007 -0.024 +0.036 +0.055 -0.045 -0.002 +0.014 bla 3.003 to.046 0 bO.00 1.016 +0014 +0.017 +0020 +0023 +0.087 -0.gn lndlcates ienslon on the loaded side I” all tables 075 0 -0.032 -0.003 +0006 +0.036 +0.057 -0051 -0.002 -0.062 -0.039 -0.041 to.013 +0.011 +0.138 -0132 -0.ooo +0001 +0.071 -0.063 -0055 -0.017 +0.00 xla MX +0.007 y = b/4 vx +0026 +0.25 150 1.026 -0023 -0.003 + 0.002 to.00 1.041 +0.021 0 to.011 +0.010 -0.007 +0.o MV +0.023 +0.016 kO.003 -0.036 +0.50 2.013 bO.002 a007 y = b/4 MY Y 0 +0.002 -0. 2.50 1.036 -0036 -0.012 +0007 +0.005 +0.027 +0020 co.042 bO.007 +0001 +0.010 0 ~0.005 -0.011 +0.002 +0.002 +0004 +0.009 10013 0 +o 000 +0005 +o 009 0 +o.000 bO.50 .041 0 bO.005 ~0.75 1.036 +0.014 +0010 +0.009 0 -0005 -0.059 -0.00 1.010 +0.137 -0. x wa’ /j f-lmi_ Moment=Coef.011 +0.010 -0.005 +o 009 +0.012 -0022 -0.063 -0.001 +0.051 to031 +0.o 4 0 to.015 +0.048 -0.030 0 +0.001 +0.001 +0.016 +0.001 +0.004 0 +0001 +0.002 +0.018 0 -0.196 -0.028 10.005 0 +0.015 +0.019 +0.028 +0.034 -0.011 +0.003 MV -0.017 +0.013 +0.016 +0.042 -0.035 +0.016 +0.011 +0.012 +0.

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