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# CHAPTER 3 SLAB

3.1

INTRODUCTION

Reinforced concrete slabs are one of the most widely used structural elements. In many structures, in addition to providing a versatile and economical method of supporting gravity loads, the slab also forms an integral portion of the structural frame to resist lateral forces. Usually a slab is a broad, flat plate, with top and bottom surfaces parallel or nearly so. It may be supported by reinforced concrete beams, by masonry or reinforced concrete walls, by structural steel members, directly by columns, or continuously by the ground.

3.2

TYPES OF SLAB
One-way slab : Independent of support condition. (Figure 3.1a 3.1b) l1 > 2; l2 Two-way slab : Depends on support condition. (Figure 3.1c) l1 2 l2
l2

l1

l1 l2

>2
(a) One- way slab

l1

l2

>2

## Figure 3.1: Types of slab

SLAB

Two-way slabs are classified as: Two-way edge supported slab or slab with beams. ( Figure 3.1d ) Two-way column supported slab or slab without beams. ( Figure 3.1e,3.1f, 3.1g )

l1

l2

l1

l2

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3.3

## Step 1: Estimation of Slab Thickness (h)

Slab thickness is determined according to ACI Code 9.5.2 as given in Table 3.1

Members

wc =90120 pcf

## Simply supported One end continuous

Both end continuous

## (1) h6 in next higher in (2) h > 6 in next higher in

Cantilever

Span length l is in inches, as defined by ACI Code 8.7 given in Fig. 3.2(a), (b), & (c)

## wu = 1.4 D+ 1.7 L psf Dead load, D = wc x wc

=

h psf 12

Unit weight of concrete (145 ~ 150 pcf for normal weight concrete )

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## Step 3: Determination of Design Moment

Design moment is determined by using ACI Moment Coefficient (ACI Code 8.3.3) as given in Table 3.4.

## Step 4 : Checking the Design Thickness

d=

f f yb(1 0.59 y ) f c
/

Mu

## putting = max = 0.75b.

Where, b = 0.85* 1

fc 87000 * f y 87000 + f y

/

## 4000 psi > 4000 psi

1 = 0.85 1 shall be reduced at a rate of 0.05 for each 1000 psi of strength in excess of 4000 psi. 0.65 1 0.85

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SLAB

Design is ok.

## Otherwise redesign the thickness.

la t l= la + h la + t

(a) Slabs not built integrally with the support (ACI Code 8.7.1)

h la t l= la + t

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SLAB

## Table 3.4 : ACI moment coefficient

Support Condition For two span:
1 1 1 1 1 1

Moment Coefficent

## 1. Discontinuous ends are unrestrained

0
1 9 1 9

2. Discontinuous ends are built integrally with support (spandrel beam or girder)
1 2 4 1 1 4 1 1 4

1 9

1 9

1 2 4

3. Discontinuous ends are built integrally with support (when support is a column only)
1 1 6 1 9 1 9 1 1 6 1 1 4 1 1 4

## For continuous Span:

1. Discontinuous ends are unrestrained.
0

1 1 1

1 1 6

1 1 0

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

2. Discontinuous ends are built integrally with support (spandrel beam or girder)
1 2 4 1 1 4 1 1 6

1 1 0

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

3. Discontinuous ends are built integrally with support (when support is a column only)
1 1 6 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 6

1. Shear in end members at first interior support 2. Shear at all other supports w = Total factored load per unit length of beam or per unit area of slab l = Clear span for positive moment and the average of two adjacent clear spans for negative moment.

1.15 w 2
w 2

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## Step 5 : Determination of Steal Area (As)

Reinforcement for 1 ft. strip towards shorter distance is calculated by Iteration. Details shown in Figure 3.3 (here b = 12 in)

(As) trial =

f y d a 2

Mu

(a)

corrected

As f y 0.85 f cb

(As) corrected

(As) corrected

No

Yes
OK

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SLAB

## Generally # 3 or # 4 bars are used for slab main reinforcement.

Spacing: ACI Code 7.6.5 specifies that

## Spacing 3h or 18 in, but > 1.5 h

whichever is smaller

0.11 * 12 As

in c/c

## Step 6 : Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement

Reinforcement is provided normal to main reinforcements. ACI Code 7.12.2.1 provides required area of temperature and shrinkage reinforcement as given in Table 3.5.

## Table 3.5 : Minimum ratio of temperature and shrinkage reinforcement in slabs.

Slabs where grade 40 or 50 deformed bars are used 0.0020 Slabs where grade 60 deformed bars or welded wire fabric are used But should be: 0.0018 > 0.0014

Slabs where reinforcement with yield strength exceeding 60,000 psi measured at a yield strain of 0.35 percent is used

0.0018 60,000 fy

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SLAB

## Step 7 : Shear Check

According to ACI shear coefficient given in Table 3.2 Shear at end members at first interior support is 1.15
wu ln 2

## Critical shear at a distance d from support, Vu = (1.15

Wu l n Wu d ) 2 12

## Design strength for shear, Vc = 2 f c bd ;

If Vc > Vu, slab design for shear is OK Otherwise slab thickness should be revised.

= 0.85

## Step 8 : Reinforcement Detailing

Shown in Figure 3.4

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SLAB

A
l2/ 4

'_zoom

l2/ 4

l2/ 4
'_zoom

## (b) Plan of Top reinforcement

Temperature & shrinkage reinforcement l 2/ 4 l2/ 3 l 2/ 3 l2/ 3

l2

6"

6"

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3.4

## TWO WAY SLAB

ACI Code 13.5.1 states that a slab system shall be designed by any procedure satisfying conditions of equilibrium and geometric compatibility, if it is shown that the design strength at every section is at least equal to required strength, and that all serviceability conditions, including limits on deflections, are met. According to ACI Code 13. 5.1. 1, all Two-way slab system are to be analyzed and designed either by the Direct Design Method or the Equivalent Frame Method for gravity loads only. For lateral loads, separate elastic analysis should be worked out. ACI Code 13. 5.1.3 permits the combining to the gravity load analysis with the result of lateral load analysis. Adaptation of any one of the two methods demands fulfillment of certain requirements. However, when the requirements are not met, an old procedure is still followed by the Engineers as specified in 1963 ACI Code, named as Coefficient Method.

## 3.4.1 DIRECT DESIGN METHOD (DDM) 3.4.1.1 General

The design is based on equivalent rigid frame system as shown in Figure 3.5. ACI Code13. 2.1 specifies: Width of equivalent frame = l2 Width of column strip =
1 1 l1or l 2 2 2

whichever is less

The equivalent frames are considered in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

## 3.4.1.2 Limitations For DDM

ACI Code 13.6.1 specifies that the design of Two-way slab system by DDM shall be permitted within the following limitations: There shall be a minimum of three continuous spans in each direction. The panels shall be rectangular, with the ratio of the longer to the shorter spans within a panel not greater than 2.

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SLAB

The successive span lengths in each direction shall not differ by more than one third of the longer span. Column may be offset a maximum of 10% of the span in the direction of successive column. Loads shall be due to gravity only and live load shall not exceed 2 times the dead load.

l2
H.M.S

C.S H.M.S

l2

l2

## Exterior Equivalent Frame

l2

H.M.S C.S

l2 2

l1

l1
H.M.S = Half Middle Strip; C.S= Column Strip

l1

## Figure 3.5 : Equivalent frame system for DDM

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SLAB

If beams are used on the column lines, the relative stiffness of the beams in the two perpendicular direction shall be: 0.2<

1l

2 2

2 l 21

< 5.0

= in direction of 1

2 = in direction of 2
=
Ecb I b Ecs I s

ACI Code 13.6.1.8 allows the deviation from above limitations, if it can be shown that the requirements of ACI Code 13.5.1 (as stated in section 3.4) are satisfied.

3.4.1.3

## Step 1 : Determination of Slab Thickness

ACI Code 9.5.3 specifies the minimum thickness for two- way slab system
Table 3.6: Minimum thickness for slab without beams (ACI Table 9.5.c)

Interior panels

## With drop panels Exterior panels

Interior panels

Without Without edge edge beams beams * ln ln ln 33 36 36 ln ln ln 30 33 33 ln ln ln 28 31 31 h > 5 in ( ACI Code 9.5.3.2.a)

Without Without edge edge beams beams a ln ln ln 36 40 40 ln ln ln 33 36 36 ln ln ln 31 34 34 h > 4 in (ACI code 9.5.3.2.b)

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SLAB

For slabs with beams along exterior edges, the value of for edge beam shall not be less than 0.80. For f y between given values the minimum thickness should be obtained by linear interpolation.
Table 3.7 : Minimum thickness for slab with beams (ACI Code 9.5.3.3)

## The provisions of Table 3.4 shall apply

h=

200,000 36 + 5 ( m 0.2)

ln(0.8 +

fy

ln(0.8 +
h=

fy ) 200,000 36 + 9

h > 5 in

h > 3.5 in

For edge beam > 0.80 , otherwise h min as provided by column (2), (3) must be increased by 10% in the panel with edge beam (3) (ACI Code 9.5.3.3. d)

Wll Mo = u 2 n 8
2

## 1 Mo, of an interior equivalent frame. 2

ln = face to face of columns or capitals or walls. ln 0.65l1 and in determining ln, circular and polygon shaped supports shall be treated as square supports with the same area , shown in Fig 3.6. (ACI Code 13.6.2.5)

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SLAB

## Step 3 : Longitudinal Distribution of Moments.

The total factored static moment, Mo is distributed to the negative and positive zone of a equivalent frame according to ACI Code 13.6.3.2 and 13.6.3.3 as given in Table 3.8.

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SLAB

0 .3 5 M o

Mo

0 .6 5 M o

0 .6 5 M o

Mo

0.63Mo

## Exterior edge unrestrained Case 2

Mo

0.75Mo
0 .5 7 M o

0 .1 6 M o 0 .7 0 M o

0.52Mo

Mo

0.26 Mo

Mo

0.70Mo

0.30 Mo 0.70Mo
0.35 Mo

0.65Mo

0.65Mo

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## Step 4 : Transverse Distribution of Longitudinal Moment

The longitudinal negative and positive moments are for the entire width of equivalent frame. Each of these moments is to be distributed proportionately among column strip and two half middle strips following ACI Code 13.6.4. Before distribution of moment the following 3 parameters are to be obtained:

## l2 l1 E I Stiffness ratio, = cb b E cs I s E C Ratio t = cb 2 Ecs I s

Aspect ratio =

E cb = modulus of elasticity of beam concrete, psi E cs = modulus of elasticity of slab concrete, psi I b = moment of inertia of beam I s = moment of inertia of slab C = torsion constant Evaluating the three parameters, distribute the percentage of longitudinal moment into column strip and the remainder into two half middle strips according to Table 3.9.

Table 3.9 : Percentage of longitudinal moment in column strip (ACI code 13.6.4.2.1, 13.6.4.2, 13.6.4.4)

Negative moment exterior support Negative moment interior support Positive moment

at

Aspect ratio = l2/l1 l 1 2 /l11 o = t = o t > 2.5 > t = o 1 l2 /l11 1.o t > 2.5 > 1 l2 /l11=1.o l /l11 o 1 l2 /l11= o 1 l2 /l11 1.o >
1 2

at

45 75 60 45

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## Calculation of Aspect Ratio = Calculation of Stiffness Ratio ()

l2 l1

Ratio of flexural stiffness is related to slab with beams either on all sides or on edge only. For slab without beams e.g. flat plate or flat slab, = 0. =

E cb I b E cs I s

Ib = k

bw h 3 12

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## Definition of be is shown in Figure 3.7 ( ACI code 13.2.4)

h w 4h f

b w +2h w bw + 8h f

## The Moment of Inertia of Slab Section

Is =

bh 3 12

h = slab thickness b = l2 for interior equivalent frame, or = l2/2 for exterior equivalent frame It should be determined in both directions.

t =

Calculation of Ratio t

Ecb C 2 Ecs I s

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Torsion Constant

ACI Code 13.7.5.1 specifies that torsional members shall be assumed to have a constant cross section throughout their length consisting of the largest of (a), (b) and (c) as shown in Figure 3.8. ACI Code 13.0 defines torsion constant as:C=
x x 3 y 1 0.63 y 3

x = shorter dimension of a component rectangle y = longer dimension of a component rectangle The component rectangle should be taken in such a way that the largest value of C is obtained. Example for slab with beam & flat plate shown in Figure 3.9.

## Step 5 : Determination of Effective Depth (d)

Where two steel layers (along two directions, perpendicular with each other) are in contact, the larger d is assigned to the steel of greater moment ( i.e. steel for greater moment shall be placed near to either top or bottom face ). Large d = h clear cover (min in) - d b + d b in Short d = h clear cover - d b in

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direction

hf
t

Flat plate
t
t

of moment

Torsional member

t

## (b) Torsional member (ACI Code 13.7.5.1b)

b e=(bw+h w) (b w+4h f )
hf

b e=(bw+2h w) (b w+8h f)

h w4h f
h hw

h w4h f

h w4h f

bw Edge beam

bw Interior beam

## Figure 3.8 : Torsional member

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SLAB

y1 1 X1 y2 y2 2 C1 2

y1 1 X1

C2

X2

X2

C=Larger of C1 and C2

## (a) Slab with beam (Edge section)

y1 X1 1 x1

y1 1 2 1 y2

Y2 2 C1

C2 X2

X2

C=Larger of C1 and C2

t1 t2

Imaginary beam

t1

t2 hf x

Short direction

Long direction

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## Step 6 : Determination of Steel Area (A s )

Total steel area for the strip is obtained by iteration process as shown in Figure 3.3. b = width of strip or, b= width of drop panel in the direction of moment (For slab with drop panel in negative moment zone)

## Step 7 : Check for Minimum Steel

A s , min = bh = minimum steel ratio for temperature and shrinkage as shown in Table 3.5 A s, provided > A s , min (OK) Otherwise provide A s , min

N=

As , Ab

## A b = cross section area of bar used

b 2h; N

Spacing =

b = width of strip

## Step 9 : Check for Deflection Control

According to ACI Code 9.5.3 control of deflection is achieved by providing the slab thickness in accordance to Table 3.6 and Table 3.7. For details see section 3.5.

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## Step 10 : Reinforcement Detailing

Placing: Flexural reinforcement in two- way slab system is placed in an orthogonal grid, with bars parallel to the sides of the panels. Straight Bars: Straight bars are generally used throughout, although in some cases positive moment steel is bent up where no longer needed, in order to provide for part or the entire negative moment requirements.
Spacing:

## Maximum spacing 2h. Figure 3.10.a (ACI Code 13.3.2).

Concrete Cover: Minimum concrete cover = in. Figure 2.10.a. (ACI Code 7.7.1). Effective Depth: When bars are placed in perpendicular layers either on top or bottom together, stacking problem arises. The inner steel will have an effective depth 1bar diameter less than the outer steel. For relatively larger moment bars in one direction are provided with greater d. Details in Figure 3.10.a & Figure 3.10.b. Embedment for Positive Moment: Positive moment reinforcement perpendicular to a discontinuous edge shall extend to the edge of slab and have embedment, straight or hooked, at least 6 in. in spandrel beams, columns or walls. Details in Figure 3.10.c. (ACI Code 13.3.3). Embedment for Negative Moment: Negative moment reinforcement perpendicular to a discontinuous edge shall be bent, hooked or anchored in spandrel beams, columns or walls. Details in Figure 3.10.c. (ACI Code 13.3.4). Cantilever Slab: Where slab is not supported by a spandrel beam or wall at a discontinuous edge or where a slab cantilevers beyond the support, anchorage of reinforcement shall be permitted within the slab. Details in Figure 3.10.d. (ACI Code 13.3.5). Corner Reinforcement: In slabs with beams between supports, with value > 1.0, special top and bottom reinforcement shall be provided at exterior corners. Details in Figure 3.11. (ACI Code 13.3.6). Slab with Drop Panel: Detail dimensions are shown in Figure 3.12. (ACI Code 13.3.7). Details of Reinforcement in Slabs without Beams: In addition to other requirements as mentioned through paragraph 1- 10, detailing shown in Figure 3.13 should be observed. (ACI Code 13.3.8)

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h
3 4"

min

3 4"

min

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6"

Anchorage

## Figure 3.10 : Details of reinforcement in two-way slab (continued)

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L/5

L/5

L/5

L/5

l 5
D iagonal type (Providedin band)
T opba r B otto m b ar

l 5

l 5

l 5

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h
t

t b

m 4 in 1

1 b 6 l1

## Figure 3.12 : Details of drop panels

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Figure 3.13 : Minimum extension for reinforcement in slabs without beams (ACI Figure 13.3.8)

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## 3.4.2 EQUIVALENT FRAME METHOD (EFM)

3.4.2.1 General

The EFM is an alternate method to the DDM for computing longitudinal moments and shear for gravity loads in slabs, supported on column or walls. ACI Code Commentary R13.7 states that EFM involves the representation of the three dimensional slab systems by a series of twodimensional frames that are then analyzed for loads acting in the plane of the frames.

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## 3.4.2.2 Moment Of Inertia of Slab Beam (Is)

Considering gross area of concrete (ACI Code 13.7.3.1)

l2 h 3 Is = 12 Variation in Is along axis of slab-beam shall be taken into account. The first change from midspan Is occurs at the edge of drop panels, the next occurs at the edge of the column or capital. (ACI code 13.7.3.2) Is Is from center of column to face column = ; I s at face of column 2 1 C 2 l2 (ACI Code 13.7.3.3).

## 3.4.2.3 The Equivalent Column

ACI Code Commentary R13.7.4 establishes a concept of an equivalent column that combines the stiffness of the slab- beam and torsional member into a composite element. The column flexibility is modified to account for the torsional flexibility of the slab- to- column connection that reduces its efficiency for transmission of moment. The equivalent column is shown in Figure 3.17.

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## 3.4.2. 4 Moment of Inertia of Column (Ic )

ACI code 13.7.4 defines the moment of inertia of column as shown in Figure 3.16.

I=
c2 c13 I c = 12

Variab le I= c1
Figure 3.16 : Column area for moment of inertia

## Step 2: Determination of Slab Thickness

Minimum required slab thickness s obtained from Table 3.6 & Table 3.7.

## Step 3 : Flexural Stiffness of Actual Column (Kc)

Kc =

c E cc I cc
lc

c = Column stiffness coefficient ( to be obtained from Appendix C-1) E cc = modulus of elasticity of column concrete

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C 2 C13 12

9E

cs

C
3

l 2 1 C 2 l2

## C can be determined as mentioned in step 4 (c) of section 3.4.1.3.

` Sign implies that Kt of the transverse member in each side of interior column is computed separately and added. For exterior columns, there is only one transverse member. For beam along center line of column Kt should be corrected.(ACI Code 13.7.5.2 ) I K t,corrected = Kt * sb Is Isb = Moment of inertia of slab with a beam Is = Moment of inertia of slab without such beam

## Step 5 : Flexural Stiffness of Equivalent Column (Kec)

1 = K ec 1 1 + Kc Kt

Kc = Kc1 + Kc2

Ks =

s E cs I s
l1

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## Step 7 : Distribution Factor (D.F)

s1

k s1 + k

ec 1

KS2

KS2 + K S 3 + K ec 2

KS2

K s3 + K S 3 + K ec 2

DF DF

DF

DF

k s1

k s2

DF K ec 2

k s3

k ec1
k ec1 k s1 + k ec1

k ec 2 k s 2 + k s 3 + k ec 2

## Step 8 : Carry Over Factors and Moment Coefficient (M)

Carry over factors (C.O.F) and moment coefficient (M) for slab beam are obtained from Appendix C-1, 2, 3)

## Step 9 : Moment Analysis

The longitudinal moments of equivalent frames are obtained by Moment Distribution Method.
For different loading conditions distributed negative and positive moments are computed. Maximum moments are taken as design moment.

Live loading pattern is known, frame shall be analyzed for that load. ( ACI Code 13.7.6.1) 3 Variable LL, but LL < DL, then maximum factored moment occur at all sections 4 with full LL on entire slab system. ( ACI Code 13.7.6.2)

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13.7.6.3)

## 3 DL, three loading case to be considered : (ACI Code 4

Total load (w u ) on all panels 3 DL on all panels and LL on midspan of a panel. 4 3 DL on all panels and LL on adjacent panels. 4

## 2 wu l2 l n Mp = 8 F.E.M are computed using equation:

F.E.M = M wu l2l12
Analyzing by Moment Distribution Method final negative moments at the supports are computed.

Positive moments at midspan is obtained by 1 M(+) = M p - [sum of M(-) in a panel after distribution] 2
Reduction in Negative Moments: The negative moment as obtained is applicable for centerlines of support. Since the support is not a knife edge but rather a broad band, ACI Code 13.7.7 specifies a reduction in negative moment at critical section.

When a slab system satisfy the six imitations of DDM, but are analyzed by EFM, Mo as further reduction in computed moments are permitted to the proportions of MT such, Design moments < Mo (ACI code 13.7.7.4) MT = total panel moment Mo =
2 Wul2 ln 8

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## Step 10 : Transverse Distribution of Longitudinal Moment

According to ACI Code 13.7.7.5 the distribution of longitudinal moments to column strip and half middle strips to be done as mentioned in step 4 of section 3.4.1.3.

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## 3.4.3 COEFFICIENT METHOD

3.4.3.1 General

The method makes use of tables of moment coefficient for a variety of conditions. These coefficients are based on elastic analysis but also account for inelastic redistribution. This method was recommended in 1963 ACI Code for the special case of two-way slabs supported on four sides by relatively deep, stiff, edge beams.

lb

la 4 ; C. la 2 ;M

la

la 4;CS lb 4 ;C lb 2; lb 4 ;C S

## C.S = column strip; M.S = middle strip

Figure 3.18 : Elements of two- way slab with beam by coefficient method

l a = length of clear span (face of support to support) in short direction l b = length of clear span (face of support to support) in long direction

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The moments in the middle strips in two directions are: Ma = Ca wu la2 Mb = Cb wu lb2 Ca, Cb = tabulated moment coefficients

## Step 1 : Selection of Stab Thickness

h=
P 3.5 in, P = panel perimeter 180

h psf 12

; wc = 150 lb

## Step 3 : Determination of Moment Coefficient

m=
la lb

Case type is identified from end conditions. Using the value of m corresponding moment coefficients are obtained for respective case type:

Ca, neg and Cb, neg are obtained from Appendix D-1. Ca, dl, pos and Cb, dl, pos are obtained from Appendix D-2. Ca, ll, pos and Cb, ll, pos are obtained from Appendix D-3.

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## Middle strip moment

Positive moment Ma, pos = Ca, dl wu la2 + Ca, ll wu la2 Mb, pos = Cb,dl wu lb2 + Cb, ll wu lb2 Negative Moments for continuous Edge Ma, neg,cont = Ca, neg wu la2 Mb, neg,cont = Cb, neg wu lb2

Negative Moments for Discontinuous Edge Ma, neg, discont = Mb, neg, discont =
1 Ma, pos 3 1 Mb, pos 3

## Column strip moment

The moments in column strips should be taken as 2/3rd of middle strips moment in respective directions.

## Step 5 : Check the Design Thickness

d=

Mu

f yb(1 0.59

fy ) f c

If (d + clear cover) < h ; design is ok. Otherwise redesign the thickness. (For details see step 4 of section 3.3)

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SLAB

## Step 6 : Reinforcement for Middle Strip

Required reinforcement can be determined by Iteration process as given in Figure 3.3. Reinforcement shall be determined for short direction and long direction separately as follows:

Short Direction

Long Direction

## Midspan Continuous Edge Discontinuous Edge

Check for Minimum Reinforcement: According to ACI Code 13.3.1 the minimum reinforcement in each direction shall be as mentioned in Table 3.5. Spacing: Using # 3 or # 4 bar required spacing is determined.

## Step 7 : Reinforcement for Column Strip

Bars selected for middle strip are used in column strips, with the spacing 3/2 times that in the middle strip, but spacing < 2h.

## Step 8 : Check for Shear

Percent of total load as transmitted in each direction is obtained from Appendix D-4 Load per foot on the beams are determined. The shear to be transmitted by the slab to these beams is = beam loads Shear at critical section at a distance d from beam face = V u

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## Shear strength of the slab, V c = 2 fcbd

Vc > Vu design is ok, otherwise thickness should be redesigned.

3.5

CONTROL OF DEFLECTION

3.5.1 GENERAL

ACI Code Commentary R 9.5.1 establishes two methods for controlling deflections: For non-prestressed two-way construction, minimum thickness as required by Table 3.4 & Table 3.5 will satisfy the requirements of the code. When there is need to use member depths shallower than are permitted by Table 3.4 & Table 3.5 or when members support construction is likely to be damaged by large deflections, deflections should be calculated and compared with ACI Code limiting values as given in Table 3.13.

## 3.5.2 IMMEDIATE DEFLECTION

Immediate deflection is also termed as Short-Term deflection and calculated using the formula given in Table 3.11.

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SLAB

## 1. Live load deflection 2 3M b lb l = 32 E c I e

# Both ends continuous or equally restrained or, One or both ends discontinuous, but monolithic with beam. # Mb = live load +ve moment # Slab supported by masonry walls # Mb = live load +ve moment # Both ends continuous and fully fixed # Mb = maximum dead load +ve moment # Both ends free of restraint (Supported on masonry wall) # Mb = maximum dead load +ve moment
M b, pos ,ll

2. Live load deflection 2 5M b lb l = 48E c I e 3. Dead load deflection 2 1M b lb d = 16 E c I e 4. Dead load deflection 2 5M b lb d = 48E c I e lb = Clear span in long direction M b, pos ,dl

1.7 in long direction M b = Unfoctored moment = 1.4 Deflection can be calculated in short direction also in the same way. Ie = Effective moment of inertia for computation of deflection l b = Clear span in long direction; I e = effective moment of inertia
M b, pos ,dl or M b, pos ,ll

or

M b = Unfoctored moment =

1.4

1.7

in long direction

Determination of Ie

Where, M cr =

fr I g yt

## (ACI Code 9.5.2.3)

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SLAB

y t = distance from centroidal axis of gross section, neglecting reinforcement, to extreme fibre in tension, in. f r = modulus of rupture of concrete, psi.

## For normal weight concrete:

f r = 7.5

f c/

For light weight concrete one of the following modifications shall apply:

When average tensile strength, f ct is specified f f ct f r = 7.5 ct = 1.12 f ct , f c/ 6 .7 6 .7 When f ct is not specified f f r = 0.75 * 7.5 ct ; for all lightweight concrete 6 .7 f f r = 0.85 * 7.5 ct ; for sand- lightweight concrete 6 .7 I e for Continuous Spans ( ACI Code 9.5.2.4) I e = 0.50 I em + 0.25 ( I e1 + I e 2 ) I em = effective moment of inertia for the midspan section I e1 , I e 2 = negative moment sections at the respective bean ends

## 3.5.3 LONG TERM DEFLECTION

Initial deflections increase significantly if dead loads sustain over a long period of time, due to the effects of shrinkage and creep According to ACI Code 9.5.2.5

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long = d,short *

Where, =

1 + 50 /

## / = value at midspan for simple and continuous span

= at support for cantilever

## Figure 3.19 : Values of

TOTAL DEFLECTION
total = long + l ,short

Deflection should be calculated along both direction and maximum values will be considered. (ACI Code 9.5.2.6)

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SLAB

## Desired value : total < limiting value given in Table 3.13

Table 3.13 : Maximum permissible computed deflection (ACI Table 9.5.b)

Type of member

Deflection to be considered

Deflection limitation
l 180

Flat roofs not supporting or attached to Immediate deflection due to nonstructural elements likely to be live load L damaged by large deflection Floors not supporting or attached to Immediate deflection due to nonstructural elements likely to be live load L damaged by large deflection Roof or floor construction supporting or That part of the total attached to nonstructural elements likely to deflection which occurs after be damaged by large deflection attachment of the nonstructural elements, the Roof or floor construction supporting or sum of the long- time due to all attached to nonstructural elements not deflection sustained loads, and the likely to be damaged by large deflection immediate deflection due to live load L.

l 360

l 480

l 240

3.6

## STRIP METHOD FOR SLABS

Introduction:
The strip method is a lower bound approach, based on satisfaction of equilibrium requirements everywhere in the slab. By the strip method a moment field is first determined that fulfills equilibrium requirements, after which the reinforcement of the slab at each point is designed for this moment field. The strip method gives results on the safe side, which is certainly preferable in practice, and differences from the true carrying capacity will never impair safety. The strip method is a design method, by which the needed reinforcement can be calculated. It encourages the designer to vary the reinforcement in a logical way, leading to an economical arrangement of steel as well as a safe design.

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SLAB

## Choice of Load Distribution

Condition-1:
The simplest load distribution is obtained by setting k = 0.5 over the entire slab, as shown in figure below. The load on all strips in each direction is then w/2, as illustrated by load dispersion arrows in figure. This gives maximum design moments
m x = my =

wa 2 16

wa 2 16

w/2

## (c) mx along A-A

Figure 3.20: Square slab with load shared equally in two directions

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SLAB

Condition-2:
An alternative, more reasonable distribution is shown in figure below. Here the regions of different load dispersion, separated by dash-dotted discontinuity lines, follow the diagonals, and all of the load on any region is carried in the direction giving the shortest distance to the nearest support. The solution proceeds, giving k values of either 0 or 1, depending on the region, with load transmitted in the direction indicated by the arrows in figure. For a strip A-A at a distance y a/2 from the X-axis, the design moment is
mx = wy 2 2

## Wy2/2 (c) mx along

Figure 3.21: Square slab with load dispersion lines following diagonals

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Condition-3:
A third alternative distribution is shown in figure below. Here the division is made so that the load is carried to the nearest support, as before, but load near the diagonals has been divided, with one-half taken in each direction. Thus k is given values of 0 or 1 along the middle edges and value of 0,5 in the corner and center of the slab. For an X direction strip along section A-A, the maximum moment is
mx = w a a wa 2 x x = 2 4 8 64

## And for a strip along section B-B, the maximum moment is

mx = w x a a w a 3a x + x x 4 8 2 4 8

5wa 2 64

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## Y a/4 a/4 a/2 B a/4 A w/2

a/2

a/4

Wa2/64

w/2 w w/2

w/2 w w/2 a B A a

w/2

w/2

## (c) wx and mx along B-B 5Wa2/6 4

Figure 2.22: Square slab with load near diagonals shared equally in two directions

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SLAB

Condition-4:
The preferred arrangement, shown in figure below, gives design moment as follows: In the X direction: Side strips:
mx = wb 2 w b b x x = 2 4 8 64

wb 2 b b Middle strips: mx = w x x = 4 8 32

## In the Y direction: Side strips:

mx = wb 2 w b b x x = 2 4 8 64 wb 2 b = 8 8

Middle strips: mx = w x b x

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SLAB

b b a 2

b2 a

b b a 2

b/2 b b/2

Figure 2.23: Rectangular slab with discontinuity lines originating at the corners

b/4

A-b/2 Wa2/64

b/4

w/2

w/2

b/4

b/2

w/2 a

w/2

b/4

Figure 2.24: Discontinuity lines parallel to the sides for a rectangular slab

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SLAB

Condition-5:
For slab strips with one end fixed and one end simply supported, the duel goals of constant moment in the unloaded central region and a suitable ratio of negative to positive moments govern the location to be chosen for the discontinuity lines. Figure a shows a uniformly loaded rectangular slab having two adjacent edges fixed and the other two edges simply supported. The moment curve of figure b is chosen so that moment is constant over the unloaded part, i.e., shearing force is zero. The maximum positive moment in the X direction middle strip is then
mxf =

wb
2

b
4

2 wb 2
8

Accordingly, the distance from the right support, figure c, to the maximum positive moment section is chosen as b . It follows that the maximum positive moment is
m yf = wb x

b
2

2 wb 2
2

With the above expressions, all the design moments for the slab can be found once a suitable value for is chosen. The values of from 0.35 to 0.39 give corresponding ratios of negative to positive moments from 2.45 to 1.45.

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SLAB

(1 ) b

b 2

b 2

B w/2 w/2

b 2

b A

b/2 A

w/2

(1 ) b

wb 2 (1 2 ) 8

wb 2 8

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SLAB

wb 2 2

wb 2 (1 2 ) 2

p 3.5 180

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## Step-2: Calculation of Factored Load

Wu = 1.4 D+ 1.7 L (ACI Code-00) Wu = 1.2 D+ 1.6 L (ACI Code-02) Where, D =150 x
h (psf) 12

## Step-3: Selection of Load Distribution

From choice of load distribution.

## Step-4: Calculation of Moment

From the equations of loading condition moments are calculated.

## Step-5: Check For Design Thickness

d=
Mu fy fc'

f y (1 0.59

If (d + clear cover) h;

design is OK.

## Step-6: Reinforcement Calculation

Reinforcement calculation is done by iteration method from figure-3.3 but compare of moment should be done with minimum steel requirement.

Mn=fybd2 ( (1 0.59

fy fc'

If Mn<M; then only minimum reinforcement. If Mn>M; then iteration from figure-3.3.

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## min from Table-3.3 (ACI Code-7.12)

Spacing:
Using #3 and #4 bar. Maximum spacing 2h (ACI Code-13.3.2) Cut-off points can be calculated from moment diagrams and development length should be provided.

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## Table 3.14: Choice of Load Distribution

mx = my = wa 2 16

Case-1
wy 2 mx = 2

Case-2

Case-3

For an X direction strip along section A-A, the maximum moment is wa 2 w a a x x = mx = 2 4 8 64 And for a strip along section B-B, the maximum moment is a a w a 3a 5wa 2 x + x x = mx = w x 4 8 2 4 8 64

## In the X direction: Side strips: Case-4

wb 2 w b b x x = 2 4 8 64 wb 2 b b Middle strips: mx = w x x = 4 8 32 In the Y direction: wb 2 w b b x x = Side strips: mx = 2 4 8 64 2 wb b Middle strips: mx = w x b x = 8 8 mx =

Case-5

The maximum positive moment in the X direction middle strip is then 2 wb 2 wb b x = mxf = 2 4 8 The maximum positive moment is b 2 wb 2 = m yf = wb x 2 2

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3.7

## 3.7.1 EXAMPLE: DESIGN OF SLAB BY DDM

Problem:
A plan of a market building is given in Figure 3.20. Necessary data are furnished below: Live load = 60 psf Story height = 9 ft
1 Slab thickness = 5 in. 2

5 @ 12 = 60

5 @ 15 = 75

## Figure 3.20 : Floor plan of the building of Example 3.6.1

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SLAB

Solution:
The problem is solved with reference to section 3.4.1.3.

## Step 1 : Calculation of Factored Load

Thickness of the slab = 5 DL = 150 x
5 .5 = 69 psf and LL = 60 psf 12

W= 1.4D + 1.7L = (1.4 * 69) + (1.7 * 60) = 198 psf = 0.198 ksf

## Step 2 : Check for Slab Thickness

Clear span

ln.long = (15-1) = 14 and ln,short = (12-10/12) = 11.17 For = o; ln = 15-1 = 14 Using Table 3.6 by interpolation for fy = 50 ksi

## For Exterior Panel

tmin =

1 ln ln 1 1 1 + = * 168 + = 5.34 in 2 33 30 2 33 30
For Interior Panel

tmin =

1 ln ln 1 1 1 + = *168 + = 4.88 in 2 36 33 2 36 33

According to ACI Code 9.5.3.2 (a) the minm thickness for flat plate is 5 So, given thickness of slab = 5 (Ok)

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SLAB

## Step 3 : Determination of Total Factored Static Moment

Mo =

Wu l 2 l n 8

Mo,long = Mo,short =

## From Table 3.8 for Flat Plate (Case 3 and Case 5)

0.52 0.20

0.35

0.65 0.70
Mo for A = 58.2 ft kips Mo for B =
1 (58.2) = 29.1 ft - kips 2

0.60

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SLAB

## Calculation of Aspect Ratio

For A & B :

l 2 12 = = 0.80 l1 15 : l 2 15 = = 1.25 l1 12

For C & D :

Calculation of

Calculation of t

## Is in t Is = bh 3 12 (12 x12)(5.5) 3 = 2000in 4 12

For A & B : Is =

(15 x12)(5.5) 3 = 2500in 4 For C & D : 12 Torsional Constant, C Since no actual edge beam, use Figure 2.8 (b) for calculation of the torsional member C=
x x 3 y 1 0.63 y 3

## For long direction

5.5 5.5 3 x10 = 363in 4 C = 1 0.63 * 10 3

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## For short direction:

5.5 5.5 3 x12 = 474in 4 C = 1 0.63 * 12 3

t =

Finding out

l2 l1

t
l2 l1

A 0.118 0 0.80
l2 l1

B 0.118 0 0.80 0

C 0.073 0 0.80 0

D 0.073 0 0.80 0

## Percentage of Longitudinal Moment in Column Strip For Exterior Negative Moment

A 98.8% B 98.8% C 99.3% D 99.3%

l2 = l1

0.80:

l2 = 0; l1

t = 0.118

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SLAB

l2 l1

0.5 100

1.0 100

2.0 100

l2 =0 l1

75

75

75

## Interpolation in both directions For t = 0.118 % of moment =

100 75 x 0.118 = 1.2% decrease 2 .5 0

## Explanation for C and D

l2 = l1

1.25:

l2 =0 l1

t = 0.073

From above Table, by interpolation in both direction For, t = 0.073, % of moment decrease = (
100 75 ) * 0.073 = 0.70% 2.50 0

For A 60%

l2 =0 l1

B 60%

C 60%

D 60% 77

SLAB

## For Interior Negative Moment

For A 75%

l2 l = 0 and 2 = l1 l1
B 75%

0.80 C 75%

and

l2 = l1
D 75%

1.25

## Table 3.15 : Summary of Calculation

Transverse Distribution of Longitudinal Moment Ser. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Equivalent Rigid Frame Transverse width (in) Column strip width (in) Half middle strip width (in) C (in4) Is (in4) in t t l2 l1 A 144 72 2 @ 36 474 2000 0.188 0 0.80 B 72 36 36 474 2000 0.188 0 0.80 0 98.8% C 180 72 2 @ 54 363 2500 0.073 0 1.25 0 99.3% D 90 36 54 363 2500 0.073 0 1025 0 99.3%

l2 l1

Exterior ve moment, percent 98.8% to column strip. Positive moment percent to 60% column strip Interior negative moment, 75% percent to column strip.

11. 12.

60% 75%

60% 75%

60% 75%

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Table 3.16 : Distribution of factored moment in Column Strip & Middle Strip

## For equivalent Rigid Frame A

Ser.

Moments at Exterior span Vritical section (ft.- kips) -ve +ve -ve moment moment moment Total moment -15.1 in equivalent rigid frame A Percentage to 98.8% column strip Moment in -14.92 column strip Moment middle strip in -0.18 +30.3 -40.7

Interior span -ve moment -37.8 +ve moment +20.4 -ve moment -37.8

1.

2.

60%

75%

75%

60%

75%

3.

+18.20

-30.53

-28.53

+12.24

-28.35

4.

+12.10

-10.17

-9.45

+8.16

-9.45

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## 3.7.2 EXAMPLE: DESIGN OF SLAB BY EFM

Problem:
A multi-story market building is planned using a flat plate floor system as shown in Figure 3.21. Necessary data are given below: Live Load = 100 psf Floor finish = 20 psf Floor to floor height = 12 ft. fc = 4000 psi fy = 60,000 psi Column size = 18 in. x 18 in.

## Design the Interior Panel C by EFM.

22ft

22ft
Figure 3.21 : Floor plan for Example 3.7.2

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Solution:
The problem is solved with reference to section 2.4.2.5. The EFM is used to determine the longitudinal moments only. As mentioned earlier the transverse distribution process of longitudinal moments and reinforcement calculation are similar to DDM (Section 3.4.1.3, step 4). Hence, this problem is solved upto determination of longitudinal moments. The structure is identical in each direction, permitting the design for one direction to be used for both.

## Step 1 : Determination of Slab Thickness

Minimum thickness h for a flat plate is obtained from Table 3.6.For an exterior panel: h=

## Step 2 : Determination of Factored Load

Slab DL = wc * h = (150*8.50)/12 = 106 psf ; wc = weight of concrete= 150 pcf Super imposed DL = 20 psf Total DL = (106=20) 126 psf

DL= 1.4D = 1.4* 126= 176psf LL= 1.7L = 1.7*100= 170 psf

Kc =

k c Ecc I cc lc

## Obtain k c from Appendix C-1

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For flat plate structure it is assumed all members are prismatic, neglecting the increase in stiffness within the joint region. Take k c = 4 Consider Ec = constant

## Step 4 : Determination Torsional Stiffness of Transverse Torsional Member

x x 3 y 1 0.63 y 3

C=

## hf = 8.5 in. C1= 18 in

8.5 8.5 3 * 18 4 = 2590 in C = 1 0.63 18 3

Kt =

9E

cs

C
3

C l 2 1 2 l2

Kt =

9E

* 2590
3

18 / 12 2641 22

= 109

Ec

## Step 5 : Determination of Flexural Stiffness of Equivalent Column

1 = K ec

1 1 + Kc Kt

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SLAB

= 2 * 243 Ec

Kt = 2 * 109 Ec
1 1 1 K ec = 151 Ec = + K ec 486 E c 218 E c

K s=

s Ecs I s
l1

## Step 7 : Calculation of Distribution Factor

Distribution factors at each joint are calculated according to step 7 of section 3.4.2.5.

## Step 8 : Determination of Carry Over Factors and Moment Coefficient

C.O.F and Moment coefficient for slab- beam are obtained from Appendix C-2.Moment coefficient 0.083.COF=.503(for both cases).

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## Step 9 : Moment Analysis

Since LL = 170 psf >
3 DL=132 psf three loading cases should be considered: 4

Total load on all panel DL load on al panels and LL on midspan of a panel DL on all panels and LL on adjacent panel

## Table 3.17 : Longitudinal moment in flat plate floor

Panel Joint DF
Fixed end moments Final moments Span moment in C (b) 176 psf panels B 304 psf panel C Fixed end moments Final moments Span moment in C (c) 304 psf panels B(left) & C &176 psf panel B (right) Fixed end moments Fixed end moments Span moment in C
1 .424 +307 +139

B
2 .576 -307 -359 2 .447 +307 +328

C
3 .22 -307 -328 132 3 +307 +359

B
4

-307 -139

+156 +59

-156 -229

+270 +253

+156 +229

-156 -59

+270 +120

-270 -325

+270 +306

+156 +220

-156 -62

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## 3.7.3 EXAMPLE: DESIGN BY COEFFICIENT METHOD

Problem:
A plan of a residential building is given in Figure 3.22. Necessary data are given below: Live Load = 140 psf fc = 3000 psi fy = 60,000 psi Column size = 12 x 12 Design the corner panel A as two-way slab with beam by coefficient Method. 16

Column size: 12

## Figure 3.22 : Floor plan for example 3.7.3

Solution:
The problem is solved with reference to section 3.4.3.2 and Appendix D-1, 2, 3, 4.

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## Step1: Determination of Minimum Thickness

h=
64 p = 0.36 ft. = 4.27 in. = 180 180

## Step 2 : Calculation of Factored Load

DL = wc * DL = 150 x LL = 140 psf W = 1.4D + 1.7 L = (1.4 * 63 + 1.7 * 140) = 326 psf
h psf 12 5 = 62.5 63 psf ; where wc = 150 pcf 12

## Step 3 : Determination of Moment Coefficient

Length ratio, m =

l a 16 = =1 lb 16

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SLAB

## Positive Moments at Midspan

Ma,pos = Ca,dl Wla2 + Ca, ll Wla2 Ma,pos = 0.027 * 326 * 162 + 0.032 * 326 * 162 = 4924 ft-lb Mb,pos = Cb, dl Wlb2 + Ca, ll Wlb2 Mb,pos = 0.027 * 326 * 162 + 0.032 * 326 * 162 = 4924 ft-lb Negative Moments at Continuous Edge

Ma,neg = Ca,neg W la2 = 0.05 * 326 * 162 = 4173 ft lb Mb,neg = Cb,neg W lb2 = 0.05 * 326 * 162 = 4173 ft lb

## Negative Moment at Discontinuous Edge

1 1 * Ma,pos = * 4924 = 1642 ft lb 3 3 1 1 * Mb,pos = * 4924 = 1642 ft lb 3 3

## Column Strip Moment:

Column strip moments are 2/3 of corresponding middle strips moments in respective direction.

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SLAB

d=

Mu

f y (1 0.59

fy f c'

d=

= 2.41 in.

## Step 6 : Calculation for Reinforcement for Middle Strip

In Short Direction:

Midspan

Mu = 4924 *12 lb- in. By Iteration process as given in Step 5 of section 3.3 find: As = 0.30 in.2/ft Using # 3 bar required spacing: Spacing =
12 x0.11 = 4.4 4c / c 0.30

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Continuous Edge

Mu = 4273 *12 lb- in. By Iteration process as given in Step 5 of section 3.3 find: As = 0.25 in2/ft. Using # 3 bar required spacing: Spacing =
12 x0.11 = 5.28 5c / c 0.25

Discontinuous Edge

The negative moment at discontinuous edge is one third of positive moment in the span. It would be adequate to bend up every third bar from the bottom to provide negative moment steel at discontinuous edge.

However the spacing would be = 12 But maximum allowable spacing = 2h = 10 in. So, using # 3 @ 10 in c/c.

In Long Direction:

Being equal moments, the reinforcement in long direction will be equal to short direction in this case.

## Step 7 : Calculation for Reinforcement for Column Strip

The average moments in columns being two-third of the corresponding moments in the middle 3 strips, adequate steel will be furnished if the spacing of this steel is times that in the middle 2 strip. Using # 3 bar spacing for column strip

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Midspan = 4 x

## But maximum allowable spacing = 2h = 10 in. Use 10 c/c.

Step 8: Detailing

B A

A B

90

# 3 @ 4 in c/c

# 3 @ 5 in c/c

Section B-B

SLAB

91