THE ELECTRIC VEHICLES AND BATTERY TECHNOLOGY REPORT
Published by SupplierBusiness Ltd, An IHS Global Insight Company
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SupplierBusiness Ltd., An IHS Global Insight Company is a specialist consultancy providing analysis of the automotive industry for the automotive industry. SupplierBusiness has focused on developments in the supplier sector and has published a range of reports on industry issues in the last twelve years. Contributors to this report include Ian Adcock, Alex Boekestyn, Edmund Chew, Gaby Leigh, Stewart Pedder, © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009, All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher, SupplierBusiness Ltd.

Contents 
Electric Vehicles Background .............................................................................................. 2  Battery Technology ............................................................................................................. 9  Lead‐acid ....................................................................................................................... 11  Ultrabattery or Advanced Lead‐acid ............................................................................. 11  Lead‐infiltrated‐ceramic bi‐polar battery ..................................................................... 12  Valve‐regulated lead‐acid (VRLA) ................................................................................. 13  Absorbent glass mat (AGM) .......................................................................................... 14  Gel Battery .................................................................................................................... 14  Firefly Energy ................................................................................................................ 14  Atraverda ...................................................................................................................... 19  Axion Power .................................................................................................................. 19  A123 Systems ................................................................................................................ 20  EEStor ............................................................................................................................ 21  Altairnano ..................................................................................................................... 21  Nanowire ....................................................................................................................... 22  Beltway Battery ............................................................................................................. 22  Thin Metal Film lead‐acid ............................................................................................. 24  Nickel‐iron ..................................................................................................................... 24  Nickel‐zinc ..................................................................................................................... 25  Nickel‐cadmium ............................................................................................................ 27  Nickel‐metal hydride ..................................................................................................... 28  Sodium‐sulphur ............................................................................................................. 28  Sodium‐nickel chloride ................................................................................................. 29  Lithium‐iron sulphide .................................................................................................... 30  Lithium‐solid polymer ................................................................................................... 30  Lithium‐ion .................................................................................................................... 30  Zinc‐air .......................................................................................................................... 31  Ultracapacitors .............................................................................................................. 32  Motor technology ............................................................................................................. 34  DC Motors ..................................................................................................................... 34  Brushed Motors ............................................................................................................ 34  Synchronous DC Motors ............................................................................................... 35  Switch reluctance machines ......................................................................................... 36  In‐wheel motors ............................................................................................................ 37  EV Programs ...................................................................................................................... 38  BYD ................................................................................................................................ 38  Chrysler ......................................................................................................................... 38  Citroën .......................................................................................................................... 39  . Daimler .......................................................................................................................... 39  Detroit Electric .............................................................................................................. 41  EWE E3 .......................................................................................................................... 41 

.................................... 56  Zenn .......................................................................................................................... 68  BYD ...............................................................................................................................................................................................Kangoo ............................... 90  .............................................................................................................................. 44  Mitsubishi i MIEV ......................................................... 46  Pininfarina‐Bolloré Bluecar .............................................................................................................. 48  Quicc DiVan DuraCar ................ 63  Asahi Kasei ............................................................................................................. 52  smart ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54  Venturi ............................................................................................................ 45  Peugeot .............................................The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Ford ........................................................................ 53  Subaru R1e and Stella .......................................................................................................................................................................... LG Chem .................................... 83  Energy Conversion Devices .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 77  Electrovaya ..................... 43  ........................ 42  Heuliez ............................................ Lightning  ................................. 99  Johnson Controls  ... 94  Hitachi .................................... 74  .... Magna‐Steyr mila ev ................................................................................................................... 44  MINI E ......................................................................................................................................................................... 93  GS Yuasa .......................... 59  A123 ...............................................................................................E.................................................................................................................................................... EEStor ......................................................................................................... 54  Volvo ........................................... 66  Bolloré .... 88  Exide Technologies  ..... 86  Evonik ...... 97  JEOL ............................... 51  eRuf Porsche .............................................. 61  Altair Nanotechnologies ........................................................................... 101  .................................................... 65  Axion Power ................................................................................................................................. Fiamm .. 47  Protoscar Lampo ....................................................................................................................................... 78  Enax ................................................................... 59  Advanced Battery Technologies .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 55  ZAP ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 104  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 4 .............. 49  Th!nk ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 72  Continental  .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 44  Nissan Nuvu .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 57  Company Profiles ......................... 49  Tesla ........... 70  Cobasys ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 81  Ener1 .................................................................................... 50  Renault Z..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 43  ..........................

....................................................................................................... 129  Valence ............................. 131  Company Directory ........................................................................................................................ 118  Panasonic ................................................................................................................................................................................ 113  NessCap ................. 112  NEC Tokin .................................................................. 122  Sanyo ........................... LS Corporation ..... 120  Saft .............................................................................. 128  ............................... 109  ................................................................................. 125  SK Energy  ............................................................................................................. MOLL ... 133    © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 5 ...................... TDK .......................................................................................................................................... 116  Nippon Chemi‐Con ............................................................................................................................................................................ 108  Maxwell Technologies  ................................................................................................ 115  Nichion ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Lithium Technology Coporation  .................................................... 106  ....

Roberts Anderson and Davidson. In the same period. although it’s not for want of mankind trying. Thomas Davenport. that made storing electricity practical. Eleven years passed before one G. unveiled an electric vehicle. These developments were closely watched by the Siemens brothers who created the Double T Iron/Armature generator which was patented in England in 1870. separately built electrically powered vehicles. It’s the static ping you get on a cold winter’s day as you get out of your car. harnessed it will cook and freeze your food. economical. Gaston Planté created the first primitive lead plate/sulphuric acid/lead plate battery. By now the internal combustion engine was appearing on the market to rival the EVs. at about the same time that an American. and it wasn’t until 1859 when Belgian. for that is what they essentially were without the shafts. It might be a ubiquitous source of energy. Whilst the invention of the electric light bulb revolutionised manufacturing. All these attempts. G. the forerunner of contemporary car batteries. not dissimilar in principle to a modern zinc-air battery. There were numerous ‘firsts’: in 1835 Professor Stratingh demonstrated a small electric car in Groningen. No-one is quite sure who first mated electricity to a horseless carriage. and we have the technological foundations for early EVs. warm and cool your home and office. building the first direct current electric motor. Nevertheless progress continued: in 1896 the Spanish engineer. Invisible. Julien developed a battery with zinc plate in an alkaline electrode which consumed the zinc plate when in use. after having solved the problems of developing cheap. also a Belgian. allowing factories to work through the darkest nights and days. both Scottish. Similar tricycles appeared in the ‘States and the UK. Holland. and subsequent ones. were little more than novelties. Trouvé from France used a pair of modified Siemens motors and a Planté battery in a tricycle to propel it at speeds up to 12 Km/h. The difficulties that producers of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) face today are no different and no less daunting from those faced by the 19th century pioneers who were the first to try and woo mankind off horseback and onto wheels for personal mobility. And just to prove © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 6 . It’s around us all the time. and by 1896 partners Morris and Salom had 13 EVs running as New York taxis with a 48-mile range. but it was Alessandro Volta’s assembly of copper and zinc plates to form the first crude battery combined with Michael Faraday’s work in 1821 and an operating electric motor being demonstrated in Paris in 1832 that led to these first rudimentary electrically-powered horseless carriages being built. especially in endurance races that were popular on both sides of the Atlantic and where the EVs’ poor range disadvantaged them. but it doesn’t power our personal transport. lightweight means of storing it. Combine that with Zenobe Theophile Gramme. economical and environmentally friendly ways of creating it. The challenge with electricity today is what it has always been – finding an inexpensive.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Electric Vehicles Background Electricity.

A number of factors had contributed to this rapid rise: in 1908 Henry Ford put the Model T on sale ushering in the age of mass production and motoring for the masses (an electric car at $1. cheap oil was discovered in Texas and the Middle East and.000 were in use. Edison is also credited as observing.1 Lohner-Wagen in 1900 with electric motors in the front wheel hubs and the following year when he revealed the gargantuan Lohner-Porsche Rennwagen with 1800 Kgs of batteries powering four 1. Transport in the years running up to the First World War was dominated by EVs both in the UK and the USA. Once the UK’s ‘Red Flag Act’ had been reformed. Sound familiar? However. Although it proved more efficient than lead-acid batteries. Innovation was coming thick and fast as well: in 1900 the French Electroautomobile and the 1903 Krieger utilised a petrol engine with an electric motor. it was the 1960s that saw the EV taken off the shelf. where by 1912 some 30. leading to the world’s first tailpipe emissions © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 7 . Camille Jenatzy achieved 98 Km/h in 1899 to capture and hold the land speed record for three years. especially in the Los Angeles basin. As if to demonstrate that there was more to EVs than taxis. its costly bill of materials mitigated against its success. in 1911. Not content with his EVs. and the crank handle disappeared making it easier for women to drive. there was a surge of interest in EVs. Porsche created the MixtWagen that used a petrol engine to drive a generator which charged onboard batteries that powered the electric motors driving the vehicle. dusted down and considered once again as a viable alternative to the internal combustion engine. and in the UK. incidentally. so that by the summer of 1897. 15 were plying their trade in the capital. Inevitably. especially in California where smog was emerging as a health problem.000 petrol driven vehicles on the roads of both Europe and the USA. the early morning whir of an electric motor accompanied by tinkling bottles was the nation’s alarm clock as the milkman did the early morning rounds on his float.200 was four times the price of a ‘Tin Lizzy’).5 kW in-wheel motors. Kettering. in 1897 Darracq built an EV which featured regenerative braking for the first time to feed energy back to the batteries and extend the EVs’ range. The nascent EV went into terminal decline and by 1935 the industry was to all intents and purposes dead bar a few exceptions: Japan in the post Second World War years had a small percentage of EVs. rightly. By 1912 there were some 900. especially as London taxis. went on to found Delco. Ever the pragmatist. perhaps with hindsight. the death knell for the EV had already been sounded. that unless a more efficient and economical means of storing electricity was discovered then gasoline or naphtha would power vehicles.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report there’s little new under the sun. Why? Environmental awareness was growing. Charles Kettering introduced the electric starter motor on a Cadillac. Such was the enthusiasm for EVs that even Thomas Edison was caught up in it and in 1901 revealed his nickel-iron battery. His wasn’t the only famous name to catch the EV bug: Ferdinand Porsche created the No.

in a 532-volt array. General Electric revealed its GE Delta that used a combination of lead-acid and nickelcadmium batteries. claiming that with the latter it had a 240Kms range at 48 Km/h. In 1972 it launched a two-seater Citicar runabout with a 40 Kms range and a 72 Km/h top speed. A tank full of petrol would propel a Corvair upto 480 Kms with a top speed of 129 Km/h. The latest attempts at EVs were simple conversions of standard cars such as the Illinois-based Eureka Williams Corporations who converted 150 Renault Dauphines to run on electricity or the Enfield 8000 electric car. Meanwhile over in the US. built as a joint venture between Enfield and the Central Electricity Generating Board for England and Wales. The big drawback for all these products was their sheer ugliness combined with short range and slow speeds. but none of this deterred the Florida-based Sebring-Vanguard Company. Weighing 975 Kgs it had a 64 Km/h top speed and a range between 40 and 90 Kms. In 1970. Over the years GE has co-operated with many OEMs to develop electric vehicles: in 1978 it worked with Chrysler on an EV using lead-acid batteries and six years later the Ford Mercurybased ETX-1 used an advanced AC drive and novel tubular lead-acid batteries which was followed up by ETX-ll based on a Ford Aerostar van that used high temperature sodium-sulphur batteries Ford had developed in-house. approximately the total weight of a standard Corvair. the batteries alone would have weighed more than 1.500 of these $3000 vehicles. Electrovair II’s total weight was approximately 360 Kgs more than a Corvair. giving the van a useful 160 Kms range and a realistic 96 Km/h top speed. fuel prices were on the increase and in 1964 GM embarked on a $15 million program to electrify its Corvair saloon. GM in Europe also electrified an Opel Kadette to DC drive using both lead-acid and zinc-air batteries. the second version of which employed zinc-air batteries to power it.180 Kgs. Four years later President Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). over the next four years they managed to sell 2. A second model appeared two years later: its power source was a silver zinc battery pack. If it had been powered by conventional lead acid batteries. Silver zinc batteries were used because they delivered high peak power and provided good energy storage but they were costly and wore out after 100 recharges. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 8 . In 1967 Ford of Great Britain unveiled its Comuta car that seated two adults and children with a claimed range of 64 Kms at a steady 40 Km/h. even with the comparatively light and compact silver zinc battery pack. located in the front and rear compartments of a 1966 Corvair Monza sport saloon. The trouble was it looked like a kiddies car and cost twice as much as a Mini. The battery pack was connected to a 115 HP AC-Induction motor that produced approximately the same performance as a conventional petrol engined Corvair. except for its limited range of 64 -129 Kms before recharging.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report legislation in 1966. the latter providing power for acceleration and the former for constant power.

specifically California. stainless steel vacuum housing. they offered consistent performance even in the extremely cold weather that otherwise sapped an EV’s driving range. the biggest investment in EVs came from GM which pumped a reputed billion dollars into its EV1 project. The most significant feature of the Ecostar was its hot (315°C) sodiumsulphur battery. which required that 2% of the state’s vehicles were to have no emissions by 1998 and 10% by 2003. with a range of 70 Kms in summer and 40 in winter. In 1990 California passed its Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. Heat was largely contained within the battery’s double-walled. making them better suited for electric vehicle use. and then only in California EV1s. Called the City Stromer it was powered by 16 lead-acid batteries that fed the 24hp motor: 0 to 100 km/h (62mph) took 27 seconds. Primary among these was the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. investing some US$150 million over the next four years before withdrawing from the business altogether. Th!nk was launched in 1991 to productionise its City electric car. but struggled to find adequate funding until Ford bought it in 1999. A decade ago the Th!nk – as it was then spelt – was powered by 19 water-cooled nickel cadmium batteries and proved an ideal runabout for Oslo where there’s an existing infrastructure of accessible power points where people plug engine heaters in to prevent their cars freezing solid during the long Nordic nights. The law. Because the Ecostar’s sodium-sulphur batteries remained hot regardless of outside temperature. maximum speed was 100 Km/h. however. which was water cooled plus brake energy recovery. Its 15-second 0 to 96Km/h acceleration was good for an electric vehicle of that time but sedate by petrol engine standards. other battery technologies emerged offering fewer technical challenges and greater peak power. Nevertheless there are about 1000 in regular use in Scandinavia. several states issued Zero Emission Vehicle Regulations. Several legislative and regulatory actions in the United States and worldwide renewed electric vehicle development efforts in the 1990s. but it was only a two-seater with about as much luggage space for a slim briefcase. mounted beneath the floor. Launched at the Los Angeles motor show in late 1996. It might have been a stylish little coupé. In addition to more stringent air emissions requirements and regulations requiring reductions in gasoline use. The battery operated at this temperature to allow a molecular reaction between molten sodium and sulphur that created the substantial electricity needed to power an EV. While sodium-sulphur appeared a potential player in the early 1990s. However. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 9 . A claimed Ni/MH range was set at 120–225 Kms. Meanwhile in Norway.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report By the late 1980s there were about 500 EVs in France. whilst in Germany VW converted a Golf to run on electricity. mainly converted Peugeot 205 or Citroën C15 vans. the car was powered by lead/acid batteries. Ford responded to this with its Ecostar project which resulted in a 105-strong test fleet of EVs based on the Escort van. the US 1992 Energy Policy Act. a technology invented by Ford in the 1960s. and regulations issued by the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Nickel/metal-hydrides weren’t used until 1999. was repeatedly weakened over the next decade to reduce the number of pure ZEVs required. It used a Siemens three-phase alternating current synchronous motor with permanent magnet excitation.

As manufacturers seek to improve fuel efficiency and emissions. especially in urban areas where their short range and lower speeds are not an impediment. but they are a solution to specific transport issues. In March 2005. is also demanding more electrical © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 10 . that has led the way in battery research and enabled vehicle producers to envisage a viable future for EVs. including the Smithsonian Institute.100 built on lease. reducing costs to $20/kW and extending service durability to 15 years or whole vehicle life. Research into advanced batteries was given a boost in 1991 when the United States Advanced Battery Consortium was formed by America’s Big Three OEMs. but it was the advances made in personal electronics. The combined pressures of rising fuel prices and increasing concern over the environment are pushing EVs back to centre stage. the cars were put into storage at a facility in Burbank. increasingly. GM pulled the plug on the project in 2003 with 800 of the 1. but most of them were available for lease only. Over the past decade or so there have been a few half-hearted attempts at vehicle electrification in Europe and elsewhere. California. Today’s estimate of $500/kW for contemporary lithium-ion batteries illustrates just how far the industry still has to go even after 18 years of research. and to several museums.. Furthermore recent developments have meant that more strain is being placed on a vehicle’s electrical system. Ford’s Ranger pickup EV. with a 1997 lease price (before federal and state taxes were invoked) of $33. EVs are not the silver bullet. Chevrolet’s S-10 EV and Toyota’s RAV4 EV produced by major car manufacturers. for “final disposition”. GM donated a number of EV1s to colleges and universities for engineering students. Now. Those factors together with improvements in battery and motor technology mean that EVs will have a role to play in society’s future mobility and helping to reduce emissions.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report It was also expensive. such as the mobile ‘phone. being converted to being electrically driven to reduce parasitic losses from the engine. despite an outcry and public protests. though. crushing and recycling. lightweight means of storing electricity.995. In between there have been a few thousand all-electric cars such as Honda’s EV Plus. When the EV1 program came to an end. Nissan’s Altra EV. the Electric Power Research Institute and the battery manufacturers and launched with the intent of developing high power batteries. systems such as power-steering and air-conditioning which are predominantly powered by the engine are. Arizona. the US Department of Energy. whilst the public’s thirst for infotainment systems etc. The conventional lead-acid battery is far too bulky and inefficient to meet the needs of daily commuting. Battery Technology Vehicle electrification stalled because there wasn’t a cheap. GM’s EV1. the world seems to have woken up to the possibility that electrification might just work. the last 78 in storage were transferred to the GM desert proving grounds in Mesa. The problem is that they’re either very eccentric like the Venturi Fètish or prohibitively expensive like the Tesla.

The task of developing future battery technologies is further complicated by the need to meet strict environmental requirements both for production and eventual recycling as well as mining the rare elements needed to create them in the first instance. different combinations within a single country.or diesel-powered car that can be refuelled in a matter of minutes at convenient and numerous filling stations. Any EV will have to meet these requirements as well if they are to win over the consumer.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report power. Renault estimates there has been a ten-fold increase in power consumption since 1980 with some larger vehicles now requiring five kilowatts to operate efficiently. although the consensus of current opinion and research and development seems to be leaning towards lithium-ion as the preferred option. In addition to which there is the sheer convenience of the petrol./a n/a 15 Operating temp. C° ambient ambient ambient 80% discharge cycles before replacement 1000 1500 700+ Estimated production costs $/kWh 60 200 150 Lead-acid Advanced lead-acid Valve regulated lead-acid Metal foil lead-acid Nickel-iron Nickel-zinc Nickelcadmium Nickel-metal hydride 30 50 70 50 70 900 100 150 200 200 15 n/a n/a 15 35 ambient ambient ambient ambient ambient 500+ 2000 300 2000 2000+ n/a 150-200 150-200 300 250 © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 11 . nine different voltages ranging from 100 to 240 running at either 50 or 60Hz and. EVs will require a whole new infrastructure to be put in place with standardised plugs. Whereas cars have universally sized fuel nozzles for diesel and petrol. there are 13 plug variations around the world. the enormity of the problem becomes apparent. Table 1 Properties of EV batteries Battery Type Max energy density Wh/kg 35 45 50 Max power density W/kg 150 250 150+ Fastest 80% Recharge (mins) n. To give an idea of the challenge facing battery makers petrol delivers some 2000 Wh/kg compared to just 35 Wh/kg for a lead-acid battery. All these issues will impact on the choice of which battery technology EVs will use in future. When you consider that a C-Class vehicle like today’s Ford Focus requires some 200 Wh/km to travel a respectable distance at a decent speed. often. There are other alternatives that will be examined in this chapter.

A disciplined charging regime might extend the battery’s life but only by about 24 months. Lead-acid batteries are reasonably robust and will withstand about 1.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Sodiumsulphur Sodiumnickel chloride Lithium-ion sulphide Lithiumsolid polymer Lithium-ion Aluminiumair Zinc-air 110 100 150 150 n/a n/a 350 300 1000 700+ 150 250 150 200 300 350 n/a n/a 450 80-120 1000 1000 200 150 120-150 220 200 120-150 30 80-140 ≤60 n/a n/a ambient ambient ambient 1000+ n/a 200 150 n/a 100 Source: The Electric Car by: Michael H. It also eliminates the problem of sulphur deposits building up on the negative plates of the battery cell. for example. meaning they will give a reasonable rate of acceleration. Ultrabattery or Advanced Lead-acid Working in conjunction with America’s Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium. or three years. before failing totally. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 12 . which is one reason why many cars in colder climates have auxiliary engine heaters and in Oslo. Test results so far seem encouraging with discharge and charge power up to 50% higher with a cycle-life three times that of a conventional lead-acid battery. The capacitor enhances both battery life and power by acting as a buffer during charging and discharging allowing it to provide and absorb charge rapidly during vehicle acceleration and braking. The drawback is that they are still relatively bulky and their performance deteriorates rapidly once temperatures fall below 10°C. Westbrook Lead-acid The conventional lead-acid battery has a comparatively low energy density of 25-35 Wh/kg combined with a decent 150W/kg. plug-in points to prevent the engines freezing and the batteries going flat. if the battery is allowed to frequently go flat its service life will be drastically reduced. However. Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) has developed a hybrid battery that combines an asymmetric supercapacitor and a lead-acid battery in one unit.000 80% deep discharge cycles. They are also susceptible to corrosion where the grid and paste meet on the positive side.

is the result of more than two decades of research in bipolar battery technology.” said Patrick Moseley. because this type of battery can be produced as either a flooded-electrolyte or valve-regulated design.” Additionally. This means. the lead-infiltrated-ceramic. Lead-infiltrated-ceramic bi-polar battery © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 13 . A bipolar lead-acid battery is made up of a stack of serially coupled bipolar electrodes. to form a battery in bi-polar design. Another form of ultrabattery. The battery is based on breakthroughs in the development and design of lead-acid batteries. which is the negative side of the bipolar electrode. It employs lead-infused ceramic plates coated with a positive paste on one side and a negative paste on the other. Sweden in 1999 to commercialise the technology as a consortium including Volvo Technology Transfer. it will flow perpendicular to all electrode surfaces. and the active materials will be efficiently utilised with a minimum of internal resistance. North Carolina. Since current can pass only through the end electrodes. allowing the battery to be discharged and recharged in a very short period of time. The plates are then mounted on top of each other with a separator between them. Each such electrode. In the bipolar concept the battery cells are connected in series with a battery voltage of two volts per stacked cell. “Not only have we now proven that a lead-acid battery can operate more powerfully than the NiMH battery. Because of this the current path is very short and internal resistance low.000 Kms) durability trial at the Millbrook Proving Ground in Great Britain with batteries built by Furukawa Battery Company of Japan. except the ones at the ends. The Effpower LIC™ technology is based on lead-acid chemistry in a bipolar arrangement with lead-infiltrated-ceramic (LIC™) bipolar plates as partitioning walls between the cells. Swedish Industrial Fund and Gylling Invest (former Gylling Optima Batteries). they can be manufactured in existing lead-acid factories thus reducing investment costs. president of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). Effpower was established in Gothenburg. based in Research Triangle Park. and the other side (the positive). for example.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report In 2008 a Honda Insight powered by an ultrabattery operating at a normalised 40kW peak discharge power standard completed a 100. has one side of a conducting partitioning wall covered with porous lead. “Our goal is to help provide the auto industry with a variety of battery products that can help hybrid electric vehicles become even more attractive to consumers.000 mile (161. that high power can be delivered when a vehicle accelerates and that the battery charges up faster when the vehicle brakes. covered with porous lead dioxide. also at very high currents. or LIC©. it can do so during the life cycle of a typical automobile and at a far lower cost. Our industry is also developing other variations of the lead-acid design that we expect will perform impressively as well.

The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report In hybrid vehicle usage.5%) with 800 W/kg discharge and 400 W/kg recharge. VRLA is also known as recombinant batteries and are commonly further classified as: absorbent glass mat battery and gel battery. whilst the battery is totally recyclable within the existing infrastructure for lead-acid batteries found worldwide today. creating water thereby preventing water loss. hence the name “valve-regulated”. Since VRLA batteries also use much less electrolyte (battery acid) than traditional lead-acid batteries.5 kg 6 Ah 30 kW 90 mm 253 mm 203 mm 5. Nor does the name “valve regulated” fully describe the technology as they are really “recombinant” batteries.000 shallow cycles (2. These batteries are also. mistakenly. 24V Length Width Height Weight Capacity (2 h) Power (30 s) Source: Effpower AB 150V 330 mm 253 mm 203 mm 37. Effpower claims its batteries have comparable performance to today’s dominant NiMH batteries but at only one fifth of the cost combined with a lifespan of at least six years. The advantages of this design include a higher ratio of power to size and a high-rate power capacity.2 kg 6 Ah 5 kW Effpower has formed a consortium with Austria’s Banner Baterian with the aim of high volume industrialisation starting summer 2009. Its environmental credentials are strong as well. the oxygen evolved at the positive plates will largely recombine with the hydrogen ready to evolve on the negative plates.e. Effpower claims a very high cycling ability of more than 500. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 14 . called sealed lead-acid batteries as a sealed battery would be a safety hazard due to excess pressure risks due to overcharging. but of relatively short duration. it contains only half the amount of lead per unit of output. so there is always a safety valve present. i. Compared to other lead-acid batteries. Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) Development of these batteries started in the early 1990s in an attempt to produce a further improvement over the advanced lead-acid battery. they are also occasionally referred to as an “acid-starved” design. The valve is purely a safety feature in case the rate of hydrogen evolution becomes excessive.

and decided to put its own brand name on these sourced products.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Absorbent glass mat (AGM) Absorbent glass mat or AGM is a sub sector of VRLA batteries in which the electrolyte is absorbed in a fine glass fibre mat and come in two forms: flat plates in a rectangular case like a conventional lead-acid battery or thin and wound into spirals to form a cylindrical battery. This means the batteries don’t have to be stored upright. Inc. Gel batteries also have greater resistance to extreme temperatures. Heat and cold extremes. Firefly’s technology is an innovative material science that removes most of the limitations of lead-acid batteries. severe vibration. with the added benefit that they are more capable of handling higher temperatures and have a slower discharge rate. Caterpillar had long been a consumer of batteries for its many heavy equipment products. These. The only chemical difference between gel and wet-cell batteries is that calcium replaces antimony in the lead plates making them less prone to gassing. Because the plates no longer have to support their own weight they can be manufactured from purer lead thus lowering internal resistance because the plates are closer together. Due to higher production costs they are currently the preserve of higher end vehicles such as the BMW 5-series which. and prolonged periods of disuse between jobs all go with the territory for heavy equipment batteries. The materials also hold the promise of major simplification for manufacturing of lead-acid batteries and will potentially deliver more flexible form factors or © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 15 . put a severe strain on batteries. Caterpillar began experiencing higher-than-normal customer complaints from the field. They have good specific power and can be rapidly discharged and recharged although their specific energy is usually lower than more conventional batteries. Further investigation revealed that although the batteries’ quality and performance hadn’t eroded. used them to capture electricity from regenerative braking to charge the battery. by their very nature. Firefly Energy Firefly’s revolutionary battery technology was born in 2003 in the research and development laboratory of Caterpillar. CAT had always set tough standards for the batteries supplied with their products. although they need to be stood up for charging. from 2007 onwards. shock and vibration and. Gel Battery These VRLA batteries employ a jellified electrolyte created by mixing sulfuric acid with a silica fume. practically eliminate electrolyte evaporation and spillage. After a time. consequently. the world-renowned manufacturer of heavy equipment. the customers’ expectations were heightened by the Caterpillar branding.

more distant from the plate’s chemistry. and lithium based chemistries. This breakthrough delivers a formidable jump in specific power. Implementation of this technology successively does away with the corrodible lead grids found in conventional lead acid battery design. As the initial implementation phase of its MicrocellTM foam grid technology. nickel. Because of this relatively seamless integration into established manufacturing techniques. Firefly Energy has developed two significant technologies that will deliver advanced battery performance for an entire spectrum of uses served by lead acid.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report configurations. These foam electrodes can be used in either flooded or VRLA battery designs. energy. These products are configured in such a way as to be easily incorporated into existing lead acid manufacturing processes possessed by all existing lead acid manufacturers. Each foam wafer contains hundreds or thousands of spherical microcells (depending on the foam pore diameters). which may be the catalyst to change the entire distribution and profitability models of the battery industry. In the advanced battery architectures that Firefly has perfected. these batteries will be indistinguishable from currently available products. Such a structure results in much higher power and energy delivery and rapid recharge capabilities relative to conventional lead acid products. This results in much-improved active material utilisation levels (i. and allows delivery of the full power potential of lead acid chemistry for energy storage.e. Firefly’s Microcell Technology™ fundamentally changes the performance of active materials within the lead acid cell due to its unique architecture. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 16 . involve the use of a porous three dimensional material in either flooded or VRLA battery designs. To all outward appearances. This leads to enhanced activematerial utilisation levels. because each microcell has its full complement of sponge lead or lead dioxide and sulfuric acid electrolyte. Firefly’s 3D cell architecture involves replacing the conventional lead metal-based negative plate with a foam electrode. from the historical 20-50% up into the range of 70-90%) as well as enhanced fast-recharge capability and greater high-rate/low-temperature discharge times. and cycle life. Because of the foam structure. the MicrocellTM composite foam “grids” are impregnated with a slurry of lead oxides which are formed up to the sponge lead and lead dioxide in the normal fashion. 3D and 3D2. This is in contrast to a traditional lead acid battery where most of the electrolyte is in the separator. but at costs potentially far below these high performance batteries. Overall. the Firefly foam electrode structure results in a redistribution of most of the electrolyte (the biggest “resistor” in a lead acid battery) into the pores of the foam plate. it is Firefly’s intention to manufacture the pasted foam negative electrodes and supply them to existing lead acid manufacturing partners who will incorporate them into finished battery products. in closer proximity to the lead chemistry. Liquid diffusion distances are reduced from the traditional levels of millimeters over linear paths (the conventional “2D” diffusion mechanism) to the level of microns in the three-dimensional space within the discrete microcells that collectively comprise a totally new type of electrode structure (what Firefly calls a “3D” electrode). The resulting products possess performance parameters comparable to advanced materials (lithium and nickel-based) batteries. the resultant negative and positive plates have enormous surface-area advantages over conventional lead acid grid structures. North Star Battery and Crown Battery have already signed deals. The two technologies.

attempts to increase cold temperature starting power by increasing electrode surface area without “sizing up” the overall battery. Lead plates have a linear structure that requires electrolytic diffusion over relatively large distances. and this is related to the amount of electrode surface area covered with active-material that is available for conversion. Thus. they will have similar charge / discharge performance and other fundamental properties. which means that under very high current loads. tremendously. each with its © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 17 . Moreover. yielding better and faster utilisation of the chemistry.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Furthermore. Firefly’s 3D. the open circuit voltages and recharge float voltages correspond to those of conventional lead acid batteries. Cold cranking is a discharge which needs a high current. Firefly’s technology does increase surface area. A high current implies a lot of active material conversion in a short time. Therefore. The Firefly 3D negative. In addition. This effect. Sizing a lead-acid battery for starting applications at -27ºC. The Firefly Energy architecture goes well beyond the traditional lead acid construction. Though economical in many applications. The key lies in the basic construction of the Firefly composite plate. This is due to the extremely high electrochemically-available surface area of the MicrocellTM foam coated with sponge lead. As a ‘rule of thumb’. is due to the “slowing down” of the battery’s chemical-reaction and ion-diffusion rates. as well as sharp reductions in recharge times. similar to competitive current batteries. a starter battery needs a lot of surface area (meaning a large number of lead plates). Firefly’s three-dimensional MicrocellTM composite plate will result in a significant increase in active material utilisation levels. In fact. so efficiency goes up. This condition permits the use of conventional lead acid chargers with Firefly Energy’s 3D batteries. and 3D2. fast charge and discharge rates are now achievable. for example. Beyond that. Firefly’s diffusion paths are much shorter. products are claimed to have outstanding discharge performance at low ambient temperatures relative to flooded lead-acid and VRLA batteries. if the proper balance of active materials and electrolyte is achieved in the Firefly design. since electrolyte diffusion paths in the Firefly electrodes are in the order of microns rather than millimeters – a potential improvement of two to three orders of magnitude – this change in electrode design should result in large increases in active-material utilisations and high-rate discharge capacities. and reaction-rates are critical to sizing a battery. are severely affected by cold temperatures. This has the obvious benefit of increasing the interface area between the active chemistry and the electrode. reaction rates are cut in half for each 10ºC drop in temperature. with hundreds or thousands of tiny cells. results in short warm temperature life. utilisation efficiencies can potentially rise over 90%. Because of an acknowledged corrosion rate for the positive lead grids in lead-acid batteries. the effect of electrolyte diffusion would not be significant unless a full discharge was carried out in five seconds or less. lead sulfate buildup is not as likely to “shut down” the discharge reaction by choking off electrolyte diffusion. requires an approximate doubling in size increase over room temperature operation. or increase in internal resistance. Due to the use of an electrolyte compatible with conventional lead acid cell designs. and a higher percentage of active material is accessible. lead-acid batteries have a relatively low specificenergy and. utilisation levels well in excess of the practical limit of upto 67% should be achieved due to the dispersed nature of lead sulfate (PbSO4) build-up.

and the net result is that Firefly’s battery does not need to be “sized up” for cold weather performance. than the charged material. deeper discharges convert larger amounts of charged active-material into lead sulfate. but the distances travelled to react with the sponge lead are much smaller. the Firefly negative foam plate operates much cooler. The heat-transfer characteristics of the MicrocellTM foam are even better than metals such as aluminum and copper. the positive plate’s active material. and ultimately result in the lead grid “disappearing” into the paste. Thus. resulting in large lead sulfate crystals that are difficult or impossible © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 18 . Lead sulfate has a significantly larger volume. and this volume change stresses the electrode structures. it takes more power to start the engine. By comparison. Lead grids corrode in the acidic electrolyte in the presence of lead dioxide. The resulting expansion and deformation of the plates also causes active material to separate from the electrodes with a commensurate loss of performance. The thermal response patterns for these materials used mean that the heat transfer performance of Firefly’s carbon-graphite foam-based battery technology is outstanding. In lead-acid batteries. at the same time that the available power from the battery drops to only 40% of what can be provided at ambient temperature when the car is started at –18°C. a Firefly 3D battery will provide almost 70% of its ambient-temperature power at –18°C. The Firefly composite plate technology is distinctly different from traditional batteries. and enabling overall “cool” battery operation compared to conventional lead-acid batteries. batteries made with MicrocellTM foam electrodes will transfer heat out of the battery rapidly as it is generated by the electrochemical reactions taking place. is ideal for discharge (and charge) conditions where electrolyte diffusion is limited by surface area. and each cycle robs the battery of a small amount of capacity. and approach that of diamond. distance or temperature. sulfate crystals can grow together. and generates a “calming” influence to reduce the temperature of the lead grid positive. due mainly to increased oil viscosity. Even though the Firefly 3D design utilises a standard lead grid positive plate. flatter voltage-time curves on discharge. Additionally. The fact that heat is generated more uniformly and dissipated rapidly translates to longer life in many applications. Diffusion rates at low temperatures are reduced in a 3D cell just as they are in conventional commercial products. A full discharge of today’s lead acid battery causes extra strain. which means higher energy outputs when combined with the lower current densities that accrue from the high foam electrochemical surface area. As the temperature is lowered. This expansion induces mechanical forces that deform the grid. over time. Firefly batteries have superior performance in terms of thermal management. The optimum operating temperature for a lead-acid battery is 25°C. This means that Firefly’s 3D engine-start battery could be smaller to have the same cold-crank amps. about 37% more.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report own complement of sponge lead and electrolyte. This enhanced electrolyte supply also results in higher. or it would be more powerful and last longer if its size were comparable to a commercial product. thus making thermal runaway less likely.

lead sulfate is deposited on the surfaces of the plates in dense layers of relatively large crystals. much smaller than in commercial products) that are easily dissolved on the subsequent recharge. which undergoes extensive oxidative stress during extended recharge conditions. Depending on the depth of discharge and operating temperature. Float and cycle lifetimes for 3D batteries have yet to be fully determined. This is in part due to a natural stability of the base material. Because the sponge lead active material in a 3D cell is deposited on the walls of the many small pores in thin layers. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 19 . Short cycle life also results from grid corrosion of the positive electrode. This results in an electrode plate which does not undergo volume change during deep discharges. Firefly’s composite plate technology provides a design which fully accommodates the volume changes of the active material during charge and recharge. These changes are exacerbated at higher operating temperatures. The growth of large sulfate crystals is also restricted. local deposits of lead sulfate crystals. In contrast. Cycling in irregular applications such as partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) regimes used in hybrid vehicles energy storage are also well suited to 3D technology. Sulfation reversal is achieved because the nature of the lead sulfate deposits in 3D cells is fundamentally different from those in traditional lead acid cells. Because of the removal of grid corrosion as a life-limiting factor. in combination with lower cell impedances and negative plate current densities. The strong resistance of Firefly’s electrode material to corrosion also severely reduces the deleterious effects of long recharges. This is because the conditions of partial or heavy sulfation of the negative plate – a process that can render present-generation lead acid products unrecoverable – are easily reversed in 3D products. and volume which will allow complete discharge without causing physical stress on the plate itself. but is also due to the formation process used which maximises exposure of the most chemically resistive surfaces and minimises exposure of chemically less-stable surfaces. In the latter. This wear-down characteristic also applies to other battery chemistries in varying degrees. somewhat remote from the lead grid members. A final factor that facilitates recharge is the proximity of the composite foam. these very small crystal sizes grow slowly over time. electrolyte. resulting in a low incidence of crystals which are too large to recharge. a larger lead acid battery and shallower discharges are typically recommended. as well as residual sponge lead. Firefly’s electrode material is not reactive in the lead-acid chemistry and so does not corrode. the sealed lead-acid battery provides 200 to 300 discharge/charge cycles. the lead sulfate deposits comprise small. even after long periods of storage. the Firefly approach offers significant improvements over conventional lead-acid technologies in both float and deep-cycle applications. Within each Firefly plate is contained a full compliment of active materials. and the high surface areas in the foams result in relatively low current densities. that can act as efficient current-carrying paths during recharge for the small.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report to convert back into the charged state. porous crystal structures (on the order of 3-10 microns. but it is anticipated that they will be superior to those of comparable lead acid products due largely to the superior thermal conductivity levels of the composite foam relative to conventional lead electrodes. To prevent the battery from being stressed through repetitive deep discharge. Moreover.

a titanium suboxide ceramic material which has a unique combination of metallic-like electrical conductivity along with the high corrosion resistance of ceramics. Axion claims its PbC® represents the first major advance in lead-acid battery technology for 30 years. geometry and arrangement of the electrodes. a corrosion barrier. PbC Technology™. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 20 . the prototypes have withstood more than 1. the individual cells construction is more complex: where the negative electrodes in lead-acid batteries are simple sponge lead plates. To avoid the problems of making a seal to the lead a thermal plastic matrix houses the Ebonex® plate with a lead alloy foil on the outer surface. These electrode assemblies are then sandwiched together with conventional separators and positive electrodes to make the battery. most lead-acid batteries designed for deep discharge applications can only survive 300 to 500 cycles under these operating conditions. The full technical description of Axion’s proprietary PbC® technology is a “multi-celled asymmetrically supercapacitive lead-acid-carbon hybrid battery. The result is a battery-supercapacitor hybrid that uses less lead. The Axion PbC® is a “platform technology” which means that energy storage devices based on this technology can be configured to accommodate a wide range of energy storage and power delivery requirements by changing the number. The test protocol requires a complete charge-discharge cycle every seven hours to a 90% depth of discharge.600 cycles before failure. However. This is used to build VRLA bipolar batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. a current collector. In comparison. Axion’s technology uses negative electrodes made of microporous activated carbon with a very high surface area. the battery consists of a series of cells. Atraverda claims the batteries energy density (WH/l) and specific energy (Wh/kg) to be on a par with the more costly NiCad batteries. Axion Power Axion is developing advanced batteries and an energy storage product based on its patented lead carbon battery. Axion has been testing laboratory prototypes of its PbC® batteries since April 2004. During testing. The company plans to license its Ebonex® technology to battery manufacturers for them to incorporate it into conventional battery production lines.” Like a lead-acid battery. Axion’s negative electrodes are five-layer assemblies that consist of a carbon electrode. Atraverda’s is a lead-acid based technology that uses Ebonex®. sealed and connected in series to the other cells. which is filled with an acid electrolyte.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Atraverda As with the Firefly battery. a second corrosion barrier and a second carbon electrode.

offering yet higher power over that seen in the traditional ANR26650M1. as well as innovative new companies like Project Better Place and Th!nk. characterising baseline performance. These two cells. Very high power at lower SOC set points enables higher usable energy in extended range EV platforms. A123 Systems A123Systems’ automotive class Lithium Ion™ cells uses proprietary Nanophosphate™ technology to design highly abuse-tolerant products at the cell and system level to deliver safety for automotive applications. longer cycle lives in deep discharge applications and minimal maintenance. designed for HEV and PHEV applications offer very low cost per Watt and Watthour. Nanophosphate lithium ion technology enables an ultra wide State of Charge (SOC) operating window which allows more extensive use of each cell in a system and further reduces the need for pack oversizing. the high power AHR32113M1Ultra and the more energy dense AHR32157M1HD. respectively. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 21 . To that end. The AHR32113 uses the new Ultra electrode design. the 32157 uses a more energy dense electrode. faster recharge rates. including: higher power delivery rates.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Based on the work completed during the laboratory development stage. enabling A123 to deliver a lower cost battery system by minimising the need for pack oversizing to meet automotive requirements. A flatter voltage profile provides more consistent power delivery over the entire drive cycle. while not sacrificing the power capability needed for charge-sustaining operation. The research has focused on developing the intellectual property. The 32 Series automotive class Lithium Ion™ Cells have been developed by A123Systems specifically for the impending transportation revolution. geared for the higher energy requirements of the PHEV marketplace. Axion believe its prototypes will offer several key performance advantages over conventional lead-acid batteries. Alternatively. developing proprietary treatment processes for the activated carbon uses in the electrodes. A123 has developed two automotive class lithium ion cells. A123 batteries have a long cycling life and low impedance growth over thousands of cycles. developing proprietary designs and manufacturing techniques for electrode assemblies and fabricating a series of material and design evaluation prototypes that range from single cell to multi-cell batteries. A123Systems currently supplies batteries and battery systems to multiple light duty vehicle programs with leading American and European automakers and tier ones. Proprietary M1HD electrode design delivers higher energy density and Wh throughput while maintaining industry leading power density.

nano-structured lithium titanate. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 22 . Altairnano’s research into the electro-chemistry of battery materials discovered nano-structured lithium titanate.400 Kgs.500. as the EESU would give electric cars a 500 Kms range (300+miles) with rapid recharging. Texas. Altairnano Altairnano is the first company to replace traditional graphite materials used in conventional lithium-ion batteries with a proprietary. has signed a deal for military applications and GM has admitted to being in contact with EEStor. power delivery. EEStor is claiming a permittivity rating of more than 18. In reality this is an electrical energy storage unit (EESU) rather than a battery as currently defined and if their claims are ever verified – specific energy upto 280 Wh/kg compared to a lithium-ion’s 120 and lead-acid’s 32-40 Wh/kg – they will have achieved the modern day equivalent of the alchemist’s search for iosis. The downside is that production and delivery have been delayed more than once. This fundamental breakthrough in battery technology was announced by Altairnano in February 2005 and has since been used as the core technology in the development of the company’s advanced energy storage and battery systems. Lockheed Martin. which when used to replace graphite in conventional lithium-ion batteries. compared to an ultracapacitor’s 20 to 30. Establishing a research program in 2000 to develop lithium-ion cell technology for powerdependent applications. first with aluminium oxide and. EEStor claims that its patented method of sintering the grains together eliminates the gaps between the grains of coated barium titanate powder turning it into a bulk ceramic with the same properties as individual barium titanate crystals. EEStor’s system is based on high permittivity (the ability of a material to store electricity) titanate ceramic powder which is double coated. including cycle and calendar life. Canada’s Zenn electric car company has signed a multi-million dollar deal with EEStor for exclusive use of the EESU in vehicles upto 1.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report EEStor Perhaps one of the most intriguing developments in the battery field is from this secretive company based in Cedar Park. safety. with calcium magnesium aluminosilicate glass. Nevertheless. results in distinctive performance attributes required by power-dependent energy storage applications. whilst defense contractor. and ability to operate in extreme temperatures. Only time will tell if there is any validity behind EEStor’s wildly ambitious claims. If this is ever verified then it will have a profound effect on vehicle electrification. industry experts are deeply sceptical of EEStor’s claims maintaining that the bulk materials will disintegrate. recharge time. secondly. However. Altairnano set about to solve the limitations associated with conventional lithium-ion technologies.

Silicon placed in a battery swells as it absorbs positively charged lithium atoms during charging then shrinks during use as the lithium is drawn out of the silicon. to pulverise. fast charge/discharge rates within 10 minutes and. For their experiments. Silicon has a much higher capacity than carbon. Beltway Battery The Beltway Battery is a development of existing lithium-ion batteries that. degrading the batteries performance. Gerbrand Ceder. the Stanford team grew nanowires on a stainless steel substrate. The nanowires inflate to four times their normal size as they soak up lithium. abuse tolerance. This expand/shrink cycle typically causes the silicon. for mobile ‘phones and other devices. higher levels of operational abuse tolerance than existing batteries. because it simply changes the process by which the battery is made and uses existing materials. often in the form of particles or a thin film. But. USA. Cui’s battery gets around this problem with nanotechnology. The electrical storage capacity of a Li-ion battery is limited by how much lithium can be held in the battery’s anode. The new version produces ten times the amount of electricity as existing lithium ion batteries. which is typically made of carbon. long cycle life exceeding 5000 charges.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Based on its patented technology Altairnano offers 11 and 50Ah batteries that feature unique fast-charge. but also has its own drawback. each with a diameter one-thousandth the thickness of a sheet of paper. they do not fracture. Nanowire Nanowire batteries were invented at Stanford University in the USA in 2007 by a team led by Dr Yi Cui. The work could also allow for the quick recharging © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 23 . Cui predicted that nanowire batteries could be in production by 2012. three times more powerful than existing batteries. Some key advantages include: large configuration choices. greater temperature versatility with ranges of -40º C to 55º C. could be in production within two years according to its inventor. The lithium is stored in a forest of tiny silicon nanowires. unlike other silicon shapes. assistant professor of materials science and engineering. Research on silicon in batteries began three decades ago but people gave up on it because the capacity wasn’t high enough and the cycle life wasn’t good enough. lighter batteries. Simmons professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). and extreme long life along with cold temperature charging. The advance could usher in smaller. providing an excellent electrical connection. that could recharge in seconds rather than hours. the Richard P.

scientists thought that the lithium ions responsible. because less material is needed for the same result. If a lithium ion at the surface is directly in front of a tunnel entrance. the two went on to make a small battery that could be fully charged or discharged in 10 to 20 seconds (it takes six minutes to fully charge or discharge a cell made from the unprocessed material). To exploit this. Ceder notes that further tests showed that unlike other battery materials. The models suggested a way to improve conductivity by directing lithium ions toward particular faces of crystals within the material. along with electrons.000 watts. devised a way around the problem by creating a new surface. The advance is based on computer models that Ceder developed in 2004. the researchers calculate. a material known for its high lithium-ion conductivity. predicted that the material’s lithium ions should actually be moving extremely quickly. it is prevented from reaching the tunnel entrance because it cannot move to access that entrance. The new high rate. the new material does not degrade as much when repeatedly charged and recharged. or enough power for about 20 vacuum cleaners. however. About five years ago. Ceder included extra lithium and phosphorus. lithium iron phosphate. Further calculations showed that lithium ions can indeed move very quickly into the material but only through tunnels accessed from the surface. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 24 . Ceder and Byoungwoo Kang. To improve the batteries. The trade-off is that they have relatively slow power rates and are sluggish at gaining and discharging that energy. the researchers modified an electrode material called lithium iron phosphate to allow electrons and ions to move in and out of it much more quickly. This could lead to smaller. allowing for very fast discharging. Using their new processing technique. there’s no problem: it proceeds efficiently into the tunnel. State-of-the-art lithium rechargeable batteries have very high energy densities and are good at storing large amounts of charge. Traditionally. USA.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report of batteries in electric cars. Computer calculations of a well-known battery material. The new batteries would store nearly ten times as much energy as an ultracapacitor of the same size. This helps form a layer of lithium diphosphate. Ceder and colleagues made a surprising discovery. after the orbital motorway in Washington DC and has been licensed by A123Systems of Watertown. would allow a one-litre battery based on the material to deliver 25. But if the ion isn’t directly in front. although that particular application would be limited by the amount of power available to a homeowner through the electric grid. a graduate student in materials science and engineering. lighter batteries. for carrying charge across the battery simply move too slowly through the material. He says that ions encountering the material are quickly shuttled to faces that can pull them in. The technology has been nicknamed the “beltway battery”.

Nickel-iron Thomas Edison invented the nickel-iron battery in 1901 in an attempt to provide the nascent electric car industry with a better battery that would deliver greater performance and. Nickel iron batteries are made up from individual cells: Each cell has a nominal voltage of 1. Electrolyte replacement is inexpensive when compared to battery replacement. and it is known that some of Edison’s batteries are still operational. Bolder also maintains its system has greater cold-weather performance than conventional lead-acid batteries. However. Unlike a conventional battery the cylindrical TMF has a central insulating core around which are wrapped a double layer of 0.2mm glass microfibre. Thin Metal Film lead-acid Thin Metal Film (TMF) is a process patented by Bolder Technologies Pte Ltd. A valve relieves any extra gas that might be created through over-filling. but not as much for long range. stationary applications. Water makes up around 85% of the electrolyte. The electrolyte is a combination of potassium hydroxide. resulting in alternate layers of lead foil protruding from either end.08mm lead oxide on both sides and separated by 0. Ironcore Power believes these NiFe batteries have the possibility of many years in excess of the 20 years. based in Singapore. Whilst Australia’s Ironcore Power claims its batteries will last up to 20 years with regular discharge to 50%. range. given that today’s manufacturing technology is far superior than in the early 1900s. a professor of physics at Dalhousie University. No matter the size of the cell. in Halifax. all nickel iron cells are 1. Nova Scotia.05mm thick lead foil coated with 0. especially. Nickel iron batteries like to be worked and thrive on hard work and cycling.2 volts. The great advantage of these batteries is their robustness.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report However. To make a battery. the energy capacity of lithium iron phosphate is lower than that of other lithium-ion battery materials.. Outputs as high as 900W/kg and 70% depth of discharge are claimed with recharging taking less than 15 minutes. Currently only used as portable starters for automotive and marine engine applications. lithium hydroxide mixed with distilled or de-ionized water. making Ceder’s advance of limited value.2volts. you add © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 25 . according to Jeff Dahn. Bolder maintains its system is eight to ten times more powerful than conventional lead acid batteries but weighs six times less and is six times smaller. who claims it would be good for acceleration. However. the advent of cheap petrol killed off the electric car and the nickeliron battery was consigned to commercial. This creates a large surface area allowing an increased amount of active material for charge and discharge. by discharging the same as you would with a lead acid battery and by replacing the electrolyte when the battery is taking longer to charge or hold its rated capacity.

For example: 6 Volts = 5 x 1.2volt cells. With most other batteries. Their relatively higher cost is offset by their durability. Although successful they were then withdrawn when the batteries wore out. In 1993 Eagle Picher developed a commercial van powered by NiFe batteries. “The 70 W h/kg (at the 1 hour rate) gravimetric energy density of the nickel-zinc battery is about 3. NiZn batteries came out very highly recommended showing that: 1. Thomas Edison was also awarded a US Patent for a recharged NiZn battery system in 1901. James J. The advantage of making a battery up from individual cells is that if one cell fails. This means that over the life of a nickel iron battery it will be more efficient than most other batteries as other batteries’ efficiency reduce dramatically nearing the end of their life. they differ from NiFe batteries in that nowadays they are under intense development as a possible power source for EVs. Nickel-zinc Like nickel-iron. Dr. “The nickel-zinc system’s sustained power density of 150-200 W/kg is five times better than that of lead-acid traction batteries and twice as good as the sodiumsulphur system. Incidentally. long before the 800-1.2volt cells.5 times better than that of the lead-acid traction battery. Early NIZn batteries were plagued by a limited number of discharge cycles due to the growth of dendrites which are thin. These were developed by an Irish chemist. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 26 . when a cell fails you need to replace the entire battery. However. NiFe batteries will perform adequately down to -20°C with a maximum power density of 100 W/kg. 12 Volts = 10 x 1.2volt cells.2volt cells. these batteries were invented well before science and materials were sufficiently sophisticated to take advantage of the theory. 48 Volts = 40 x 1. In a comparative study published by The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System. Drumm (1897-1974) and installed in four 2-car Drumm Railcar sets between 1932 and 1948 for use on the Dublin-Bray line.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report cells together until you get the voltage you require. A new battery is slightly more efficient and usually levels off as it is used until it reaches its normal efficiency which is then held over the rest of its life. conductive crystals that might penetrate the separator membrane between electrodes. The NiFe battery has an efficiency of around 80%. 2. you replace that cell. and two-thirds that of the sodium-sulphur battery.000 charge/discharge cycle life claimed by most vendors. This leads to internal short circuits and premature failure. 24 Volts = 20 x 1. but the project seemed to have faded into the wilderness.

Other means of restricting dendrite growth have involved additives for the zinc electrode and electrolyte. In addition. Based on discoveries made at its parent company. exciting or mechanically cleaning the zinc electrodes or holding zinc electrode slurry in a matrix. “The nickel-zinc battery has a flatter discharge profile over its full capacity range than the sodium-sulphur and lithium-sulphur systems. New York-based Xellerion claims to have overcome these shortcomings using a patented. hydroxide-ion conducting membrane to solve the dendrite problem. nonporous. but the Xellerion NiZn battery is claimed to be superior to all of these cells as shown below : Comparison of Nickel Zinc to competing battery technologies Type Status Specific Energy(Wh/kg) Acid 30-40 Peak Power(W/kg) 150-200+ Cycle Life(#cycles)100% DOD* 100-200 Charge Time(100%)(Hr) 3-20 Cost($kWh) Environmental Friendly? No VRLA Lead Acid NiCad NiMH LiIon NiZn Commercial 100-250 Commercial Commercial Commercial Development 20-50 50-80 100-150 55-65 100-1000 200-1000 <1000 500-800 800-3000 600-1200 600-1200 300-500 3-8 3-8 3-8 1-4 800-1000 1000-1300 1500-3000 150-500 No Yes Yes Yes *Depth of Discharge Source: Xellerion Deep-discharge lead acid batteries are the closest competitors to the Xellerion NiZn battery in overall performance for transportation applications. The specific power is three to five times that of a deep-discharge lead-acid battery. Lead acid and Ni-MH should be the nearest to NiZn in cost and performance. “The volumetric energy densities of nickel-zinc and sodium-sulphur batteries is more than twice that of the lead-acid traction device. 4. It is concluded that the nickel-zinc device is the most attractive candidate for medium-term electric vehicle applications. solid-state. nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH).” Critics point out that the fundamental problem of dendrite growth limits the maximum number of deep discharges to less than 300 unless solutions such as electrochemically impregnated sintered nickel positive electrodes or special microporous separators are built in. polymer-based. While lead acid batteries are inexpensive.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report 3. Lead Acid batteries are not environmentally friendly. this unique membrane effectively stops dendrite formation while preserving the high power and energy densities inherent in NiZn batteries without involving costly materials or manufacturing processes. eVionyx. lithium-ion (Li-Ion). they have lower power and energy densities compared to NiZ. and lead acid. A rechargeable NiZn battery will compete with cells such as nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd). The Xellerion NiZn battery has almost twice the specific energy of a lead acid battery. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 27 .

Deep discharge lead acid batteries will lose their rechargeability if they are discharged beyond 80% of their capacity. USA. They are made up of a sintered positive nickel electrode and a sintered cadmium negative electrode that can also be plastic bonded. Ltd. Although relatively costly they will tolerate as many as 2000 deep discharge charges cycles. the company has a strong and broad intellectual property position that addresses all major aspects of the cell chemistry as well as engineering and construction details that enable the use of existing nickel-cadmium equipment manufacturing for production of the cells.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report The Xellerion battery has five times the cycle life of these batteries. Vented NiCd batteries are used in aerospace applications. they have attracted interest from some OEMs. especially PSA Peugeot-Citroën in the mid 1990s and the original Th!nk four or five years later. but against NiCd batteries suffer from a “memory effect” if they are discharged and recharged to the same state of changes over their life cycle. Hunan Corun HiTech Co. Additionally. as if the battery had been discharged. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 28 . PowerGenix solves the dendrite problem using a patented electrolyte formulation that reduces zinc solubility and prevents dendrite shorting problems. Nickel-cadmium These batteries are another example of a technology developed ahead of its time. typically for starting aircraft engines. The apparent symptom is that the battery “remembers” the point in its charge cycle where recharging began and during subsequent use suffers a sudden drop in voltage at that point. Based in San Diego. NiZn can be continuously deep-discharged to 100% for over 500 cycles without damage to the cell. The first NiCd batteries were made in Sweden by Waldemar Jungner in 1899 but didn’t go into series production in the USA until 1946. Interleaving them is a separator that absorbs the free electrolyte.. Because of their relatively high 50Wh/kg energy density and 200 W/kg. Of greater concern is the toxicity of the cadmium which is a heavy metal and calls for costly manufacturing and recycling requirements. its manufacturing partner is Chinese battery maker. The capabilities of the cell were further enhanced with patented advancements in both the positive and negative electrode composition that are free of any heavy metal elements. although the capacity of the battery is not actually reduced substantially. which cannot generally achieve more than 100 deep cycles. combined with the ability to cope with high charge and discharge rates. Others offering NiZn batteries include France’s SCPS and China’s Shenzhen Optimum Battery Co.

such as the latest Toyota Prius and Honda Insight. The energy density is more than double that of Lead acid and 40% higher than that of NiCads They accept both higher charge and discharge rates and micro-cycles thus enabling applications which were previously not practical. hydrogen is used as the active element at a hydrogenabsorbing negative electrode (anode). Rapid charge in one hour is possible and they have a wide operating temperature range and are environmentally friendly with no cadmium. The electrolyte is alkaline potassium hydroxide and the cell voltage is 1. or NiMH. This electrode is made from metal hydride alloys such as lanthanum and rare earths that serve as a solid source of reduced hydrogen that can be oxidised to form protons. because of the high operating temperatures © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 29 . However. At lower depths of discharge. Honda EV Plus. This reconditioning also serves to overcome the problems of the “memory” effect. for example at 4% DOD. Finally. also employ this battery technology. cell voltage is only 1. Like NiCd batteries.2 Volts which means that many cells are required to make up high voltage batteries. nearly ten times worse than lead acid or lithium batteries and the battery deteriorates during long time storage. but they are considered better for the environment. whilst using NiMH batteries up to 3. On the downside there is a very high self discharge rate.000 cycles can be expected. more than 350. nickel-metal hydride batteries are susceptible to a “memory effect” although to a lesser extent. and is fabricated from inexpensive materials. Today’s hybrids. high rate discharge is not as good as NiCads and they are less tolerant of overcharging than NiCads. Sodium-sulphur Sodium sulphur batteries are constructed from sodium (Na) and sulphur (S) and have a high energy and high efficiency of charge/discharge of 89% to 92% together with a long cycle life. In their favour NiMH batteries have high energy density. Toyota Prius as well as other GM and Ford products.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Nickel-metal hydride Nickel-metal hydride. This problem can be solved by charging and discharging the battery several times before reuse. The components of NiMH batteries include a cathode of nickel-hydroxide. They are more expensive than Lead-acid and NiCd batteries. Nickel-metal-hydride batteries are related to sealed nickel-cadmium batteries and only differ from them in that instead of cadmium. mercury or lead. an anode of hydrogen absorbing alloys and a potassium-hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte.2 Volts The NiMH battery was patented in 1986 by Stanford Ovshinsky. founder of Ovonics. batteries have been selected for a range of electric and hybrid cars including the original GM EV1. However.000 cycles at 100% Depth of Discharge (DOD) has been demonstrated.

The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report

of 300° to 350°C and the highly corrosive nature of the sodium polysulfides, these cells are more suitable for large-scale non-mobile applications such as grid energy storage. Ironically, the first sodium-sulphur batteries were developed in the Ford Research Laboratories in Dearborn, USA in 1991 to power an electric prototype of the then Ford Ecostar van. The high temperature of sodium sulphur batteries presented difficulties for electric vehicle use, however, and with the development of other battery types better suited to automotive use, the Ecostar never went into production.

Sodium-nickel chloride

The history of this battery has been somewhat contorted since it was first developed in South Africa in 1985 by Dr. Johan Coetzer as part of the Zeolite Battery Research Africa Project which gives it its more common name of Zebra. Subsequently it passed on Beta R&D and then AEG-Zebra before being acquired by the Swiss group, MES-DEA S.A. in 1999. It’s similar in structure to the sodium-sulphur battery except that a nickel chloride positive electrode replaces the liquid sulphur positive electrode used in the sodium-sulphur battery. The major perceived drawback of the sodium nickel chloride battery is that it is a high temperature technology. The battery has to be maintained at an internal operating temperature of between 270°C and 350°C for efficient operation. While the battery is being used, this causes no energy penalty since the internal resistance of the Zebra battery converts resistive losses to heat with 100% efficiency. All batteries have internal resistance and in all batteries, this internally generated heat has to be removed by a cooling system to prevent overheating. Therefore in the case of the Zebra battery, the heat generated during operation can be used to maintain the temperature. However, when the vehicle is not in use, the battery will start to cool down. After about four hours, external heat has to be applied to maintain the temperature. The battery contains a heater which can be powered by the mains or powered by the battery itself. If the vehicle is left overnight it can be plugged in to both recharge it and to keep the battery hot. If the vehicle is left for more than four hours in a location without access to a source of mains power, the onboard DC heater switches on to maintain the temperature. The finished battery package with control electronics has a specific energy density of 90 120Wh/kg (depending on format) and a volumetric energy density is 166Wh/l. The Zebra battery will withstand at least 1,000 100% DOD charge/discharge cycles including any type of partial charge/recharge.

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The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report

Lithium-iron sulphide

Yet another high temperature battery, this time operating at 450°C, but with the added complication of using lithium which restricts which electrolyte can be used. Furthermore it is intolerant of overcharging and there are recycling issues with the toxic lithium content. However, it does demonstrate very good performance with a potential maximum energy density of 150Wh/kg and a power density of 300 W/kg combined with 1,000 deep discharge cycle.

Cells sold today as polymer batteries have a different design from the older lithium-ion cells. Unlike lithium-ion cylindrical, or prismatic cells, which have a rigid metal case, polymer cells have a flexible, foil-type (polymer laminate) case, but they still contain organic solvent. The main difference between commercial polymer and lithium-ion cells is that in the latter the rigid case presses the electrodes and the separator onto each other, whereas in polymer cells this external pressure is not required because the electrode sheets and the separator sheets are laminated onto each other. Since no metal battery cell casing is needed, the battery can be lighter and it can be specifically shaped to fit the device it will power. Because of the denser packaging without intercell spacing between cylindrical cells and the lack of metal casing, the energy density of Li-poly batteries is over 20% higher than that of a classic Li-ion battery. For optimum results these batteries operate at temperatures between 80°C and 120°C, producing 150Wh/kg energy density and 300W/kg specific power. Challenges include longer charge times and slower maximum discharge rates compared to more mature technologies. Li-poly batteries typically require more than an hour for a full charge. Recent design improvements have increased maximum discharge currents from two times to 15 or even 30 times the cell capacity (discharge rate in amps, cell capacity in amp-hours). In recent years, manufacturers have been declaring upwards of 500 charge-discharge cycles before the capacity drops to 80%. Another variant of Li-poly cells, the “thin film rechargeable lithium battery”, has been shown to provide more than 10,000 cycles.

Lithium-solid polymer

Lithium-ion

Lithium-ion cells differ in their structure from lithium-solid polymers by replacing the negative lithium plate with a material such as graphite or tin oxide. When the cell is charged lithium is contained within the negative plate’s atomic structure. As the cell is discharged the lithium ions transfer to manganese, cobalt or nickel oxide positive side via the organic electrolyte and vice versa when charging.

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The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report

Typically cells have energy density in the region of 120 Wh/kg and a 1000 cycle deep discharge life. However with development this has increased to 35kWh, a 3,500 deep discharge life together with 120 Wh/kg.

Zinc-air

Some might consider this to be closer to a fuel cell rather than battery technology, but it does have potential, especially for urban buses and delivery vehicles. The revolutionary zinc-air fuel cell is the heart of the electric fuel zinc-air fuel cell energy system. Each fuel cell module contains 47 individual air-breathing zinc-air cells connected in series and can discharge 17.4 kWh before it has to be refueled with fresh zinc fuel. Electric fuel’s transit bus carries three trays of six modules each, which means that the bus is fuelled with 312 kWh of on-board energy. In the centre of each individual cell is the zinc fuel: a replaceable anodic fuel cassette made of zinc particles in an electrolyte solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH). The anode, inserted into a separator envelope, is flanked on two sides by high-power oxygen reduction cathodes. When the fuel cell is in operation, oxygen is extracted from the air by electrochemically reducing it at the cathode to hydroxide ions. These ions then react with the zinc fuel inside the cell, producing the zinc oxide (the same material used in sunblock). The other end-product of this reaction is plenty of energy. The on-board zinc-air fuel cell yields a practical specific energy of around 200 Wh/kg and specific peak power of 90 W/kg at 80% depth of discharge. The zinc-air fuel cell is air-cooled to save weight and energy. Because blowing too much reaction air across the cell face would dry out the cell, Electric Fuel developed a unique method of using a second air flow to cool the reaction air through thin plastic heat transfer panels. The cooled reaction air, in turn, cools the cell. Electric fuel has patented this cooling method in the US and around the world. Fleet operators need their vehicles on the go, all the time. To minimise down-time and to take alternative fuel infrastructure offsite, Electric Fuel has pioneered the concept of central regeneration plants for spent fuel cells. Rather than requiring drivers to recharge individual vehicle batteries by plugging them into an outlet, depleted Zinc-Air fuel cell modules are quickly exchanged for new ones. And instead of expecting a transit operator to operate an on-site charging facility, the spent cells are transported to a regeneration plant. At this facility, depleted fuel cassettes are electrochemically recharged, using off-peak electricity if possible, and mechanically recycled. It also provides the fresh zinc fuel which is then delivered back to the fleet. Not only are the electric vehicles powered by the zinc-air system 100% emission-free, but the regeneration of zinc fuel is a clean, non-polluting industrial process.

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There are a number of differences between ultracapacitors and batteries. Because of the lightness in weight of Reticle Carbon. is that they are more temperature tolerant.5 kilowatt hours per kilogram of material in a 13 cc (two cubic inch) capacitor. or as simple as possible. an improvement of about two or three orders of magnitude in capacitance. are well suited for transportation applications in which onboard weight is a prime consideration. This was accomplished with a modest surface area grade of Reticle Carbon 1200 square meters per gram. Ultracapacitors © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 33 . typically on the order of thousands of times greater than a high capacity electrolytic capacitor. A coulomb is one ampere second) The same size electric double-layer capacitor would have a capacitance of several farads. however.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Electric double-layer capacitors. Reticle has manufactured much higher surface area carbon monoliths. electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). For instance. and if that ‘parking’ area can be increased. and that higher surface area carbon has a higher power storage capacity. A capacitor consists of two conducting surfaces. The original capacitor was the Leyden jar developed in the 18th century. frequently referred to as plates. Work at MIT’s Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems (LEES) holds out the promise of the first technologically significant and economically viable alternative to conventional batteries in more than 200 years. the main one being that whilst ultracapacitors deliver a lot of power they are short on energy. California has been working on using carbon and claims that laboratory studies produced 7. can withstand millions of cycles to zero and rapid re-charging without any of the memory effect seen in some batteries. Modern capacitors are constructed using a range of manufacturing techniques and materials to provide the extraordinarily wide range of capacitance values used in practical electronics applications from femtofarads to farads and voltage capabilities from a few volts to several kilovolts. By combining ultracapacitors with lithium-ion you can get the best of both worlds with the power required for long journeys whilst the ultracapacitor is ideal for absorbing sudden bursts of power created under regenerative braking and then quickly releasing it for rapid acceleration. electron storage. therefore. It is the accumulation of charge on the plates that results in capacitance. separated by an insulating layer called a dielectic. supercapacitors built from Reticle Carbon are considerably lighter than metal-carbon capacitors and. the greater the ultracapacitors storage and power capability. In their favour. are electrochemical capacitors that have an unusually high energy density when compared to common capacitors. but usually at a lower working voltage. The ultracapacitor field is based on simple. For that to happen the electrons need to ‘park’ on something that will take them on and let them go easily. or ultracapacitors. (A farad is the charge in coulombs a capacitor will accept for the potential across it to change one volt. a typical D-cell sized electrolytic capacitor will have a capacitance in the range of tens of millifarads. also known as supercapacitors. Reticle Inc of Los Altos.

the pores in the carbon are irregular in size and shape. indifference to temperature change. which is extremely porous and therefore has a very large surface area.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Joel E. and Ph. “Nanotube-enhanced ultracapacitors would combine the long life and high power characteristics of a commercial ultracapacitor with the higher energy storage density normally available only from a chemical battery. Schindall. which equates to significantly increased storage capacity. Nanotube-enhanced ultracapacitors could be made in any of the sizes currently available and be produced using conventional technology. Today’s ultracapacitors use electrodes made of activated carbon. the Bernard Gordon Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) and associate director of the Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems. The vertically aligned nanotubes in the LEES ultracapacitor have a regular shape. The LEES ultracapacitor has the capacity to overcome this energy limitation by using vertically aligned.physical constraints on electrode surface area and spacing have limited ultracapacitors to an energy storage capacity around 25 times less than a similarly sized lithiumion battery. Kassakian. and a size that is only several atomic diameters in width. However.D. The LEES invention would increase the storage capacity of existing commercial ultracapacitors by storing electrical fields at the atomic level. which reduces efficiency. candidate Riccardo Signorelli are using nanotube structures to improve ultracapacitors. Ultracapacitors need to be much larger than batteries to hold the same charge. high immunity to shock and vibration and high charging and discharging efficiency . “This configuration has the potential to maintain and even improve the high performance characteristics of ultracapacitors while providing energy storage densities comparable to batteries.000 times as long as they are wide.” © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 34 . Storage capacity in an ultracapacitor is proportional to the surface area of the electrodes. EECS professor and director of LEES.000th –the diameter of a human hair and 100. single-wall carbon nanotubes – 1/30.a 10-year-plus lifetime. However. John G. despite their inherent advantages .” Schindall said. The result is a significantly more effective surface area.

One drawback to the motor is the large amount of torque ripple that it has.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Motor technology Unlike batteries there isn’t such a wide choice when it comes to electrical motors. DC Motors A DC motor works by converting electric power into mechanical work by forcing current through a coil and producing a magnetic field that spins the motor. Advantages of a brushed DC motor include low initial cost. high reliability. Brushed Motors The brushed DC motor generates torque directly from DC power supplied to the motor by using internal commutation. Disadvantages are high maintenance and low life-span for high intensity uses as maintenance involves regularly replacing the brushes and springs which carry the electric current. Another method of increasing the torque and rotational speed of the motor is to increase the current supplied to the coils. the torque curve approaches a straight line reducing the torque ripple. The resulting torque curve never reaches the zero point. This is accomplished by increasing the voltage that is sent to the motor. so the motor runs more smoothly. and simple control of motor speed. stationary permanent magnets and rotating electrical magnets. The rest of the time the coil spins on its own and the torque drops to zero. Essentially they can be broken down into DC and AC motors although there are variations in both that make them more or less suitable for EV applications. and the average torque for the motor is greatly increased. As more and more coils are added. the torque curve is smoothed out. As more coils are added to the motor. as well as cleaning or replacing the commutators. thus increasing the current at the same time. This is created because the coil has a force pushing on it at only the 90° and 270° positions. These components are necessary for transferring electrical power from outside the motor to the spinning wire windings of the rotor inside the motor. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 35 .

a drawback: since the wheel is excited by the roughness of the road surface. and a brushless. There is. is attractive because rotor misalignments perpendicular to the motion of the drive shaft can be accommodated. provided an adequate field current is applied. However. and stationary electrical magnets on the motor housing. They lock up if driven directly by DC power.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Synchronous DC Motors Brushless DC Motors Synchronous DC motors. The Hredzak solution is a sort of half-way house combining elements of both designs utilising a permanent magnet. According to reports the experimental results in each case show that both control strategies are effective in eliminating the torque pulsations. Traditionally. accurate control is possible © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 36 . Brushless DC motors use a rotating permanent magnet in the rotor. however. little or no maintenance. Advantages of brushless motors include long life span. and high efficiency. This type of machine. which must slip in order to produce torque. Synchronous motors have the following advantages over non-synchronous motors: speed is independent of load. the stators of the machine can be mounted on to the EV’s chassis with the rotor allowed two degrees of rotational and transverse freedom. because it eliminates the complication of transferring power from outside the motor to the spinning rotor. In such an arrangement. Two separate control strategies to eliminate the torque pulsations caused by the rotor perturbation are being investigated: modulation of the input motor’s current and instantaneous torque control using a variable structure controller. This results in a reduction in the unsprung mass of the wheel drive. require external commutation to generate torque. and thereby directly drive the road wheel. Disadvantages include high initial cost. the rotor moves between the outer stator assemblies (transversely). They can be said to have zero slip under usual operating conditions in contrast with an induction motor. particularly the double-sided stator configuration. This design is simpler than brushed motors. A novel variation of the brushless motor is the Hredzak version. inducing torque pulsations in the machine. such as the brushless DC motor and the stepper motor. High power brushless DC motors are at the root of most electric vehicle technology. axial field double-sided disc motor. and more complicated motor speed controllers. the motors in EVs are mounted either in the vehicle and power the wheels via driveshafts or mounted within the wheel itself. A motor controller converts DC to AC. the latter solution increases the wheel’s weight and its unsprung mass. These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors. Synchronous motors These are distinguished by a rotor spinning with coils passing magnets at the same rate as the alternating current and the resulting magnetic field which drives it.

Switch reluctance machines Switch reluctance machines work through rotation caused as a magnetically permeable rotor moves to minimise reluctance the magnetic field creates by the stator coils. e. To produce 45kW a wound field motor would weigh some 130Kgs. particularly considering their low relative cost. will still function with one lost phase. switched reluctance motor. an induction motor or a switched reluctance motor both weigh in at some 80Kgs and a brushless DC motor 45 Kgs. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 37 .The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report in speed and position using open loop controls. furthermore. which can help achieve a better power factor correction for the application overall. nearly all losses occur in the stator. Examples of synchronous motors are: brushless permanent magnet DC motors. synchronous motors will hold their position when a DC current is applied to both the stator and the rotor windings. those for the latter are coming down in price. can be obtained by increasing this current slightly. their higher running speed helps to increase their efficiency. only four MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor used to amplify or switch electrical signals) per three phases is possible if only used as a motor. Keeping the electric motor cool can also be an issue. stepper motors. stepper motors. And whilst controllers for DC motors are generally cheaper than those for AC. (current phase leads voltage phase). which has a few concentrated coils.g. torque ripple can be improved by increasing the number and shape of poles whilst noise characteristics can be improved by careful housing design. especially if the EV is used extensively in urban driving conditions where the affect of ram air is minimal because of the overall low average speed and traffic congestion. These characteristics result in the increased use of switch reluctance machines in the automotive sector. Advanced control system will also allow some 10-15 per cent of energy to be recovered through regenerative braking and fed back into the batteries. slow speed AC synchronous motors. a “capacitive” power factor. Therefore the motor needs to be cooled using oil or water and a radiator perhaps in conjunction with a variable speed fan to draw in additional air as and when required. The advantages are: they are very robust due to simple rotor with no windings. torque ripple (cogging) can be higher than other types of motor which may also cause acoustic noise. their power factor can be adjusted to unity by using a proper field current relative to the load. high starting torque with a wide speed range. Their construction allows for increased electrical efficiency when a low speed is required. Added to that. a simple inverter (no shoot-through). Weight and size of electric motors can be an issue for their given output.

PML Flightlink has developed an integrated in-wheel motor for EVs.” It features control electronics embedded in the electric motor that manages the control of the motors to provide smooth operation when the EV is being driven at any speed.to mid-1990s. In total the wheel weighs a hefty 43 Kgs. but it was at the 2008 Paris Salon that the French tire producer announced its major breakthrough. pointed out in Die Welt that the unsprung weight in the Heuliez Will is 35Kg on the front axle and 24Kg on the rear. the prototype Heuliez Will weighs in at 900Kg.5 kW inwheel motors. using a unique regenerative system. generator or brake and is claimed to be “several times lighter. 3/100ths second. smaller and more powerful than the conventional electronic propulsion systems and generators it replaces. Patrick Oliva. but Michelin’s director for Sustainable Development and Mobility of the Future. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 38 . electric suspension to replace conventional strut-damper arrangement.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report In-wheel motors In-wheel electric motors are anything but a new idea. 30kW electric motor powered by batteries to provide the vehicle’s motive force with conventional brakes slowing it down. Ferdinand Porsche created the No. whilst an integrated power management system distributes drive power to the motor and then recaptures and feeds most of that energy back into the battery. Michelin’s system also features fast-reacting.1 Lohner-Wagen in 1900 with electric motors in the front wheel hubs and the year he revealed the gargantuan Lohner-Porsche Rennwagen with 1800 Kgs of batteries powering four 1. Meanwhile the British firm. Its Hi-Pa Drive acts as an electric motor. 75 less than an Opel Agila. noting for comparison that the small Renault Clio has 38Kg of unsprung weight on its front axle. With battery packs on board. The wheel features a seven kilo. More recently Michelin showed some developments in the early. It has been featured on Volvo’s ReCharge concept and the Lightning GT prototype sports car.

which marks a remarkable breakthrough if proven to be true. The Hong-Kong listed company also claimed that its FE battery pack could be charged to 50 % of its capacity in 10 minutes and 100 % in one hour. Chrysler The beleaguered American car maker announced at the end of May that it had submitted proposals totaling $448 million to the US Department of Energy to research and develop electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid models. would pay $224 million each should the proposals be approved and would include an investment of up to $83 million to build a new technology and manufacturing centre in Michigan to help develop and assemble these vehicles. Chrysler and its ‘partners. Warren Buffet. there’s sparse information on the battery pack or the electric motor used or. BYD (Build Your Dream) says it intends to start selling its plug-in hybrid in Europe by 2010 and break into the USA market within five years. computers etc. accelerating to 100Km/h in eight seconds and a projected top speed of 160Km/h. Chrysler said. That complex should be operational by 2010 and produce more than 20. indeed. how BYD had achieved this battery breakthrough.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report EV Programs BYD China’s BYD caused a stir at the Detroit Auto Show in January when it unveiled its e6 electric vehicle.000 vehicles a year. The five-door. especially in China or even forming a joint-venture to assemble the cars for distribution in China. BYD is also thought to be in discussions with Ford and one other European OEM. BYD is also claiming 2000 cycle fully charged/discharge.’ plus the Department of Energy. Volkswagen is also exploring the possibility of BYD supplying it with batteries for EVs. Beyond giving power and torque figures for the car. invested $232 million in the company in October. Founded in 1995 the company is now the world’s largest supplier of lithium batteries for cell ‘phones. The applications for matching funds were made as part of two initiatives at the Department of Energy that are designed to speed up the development and manufacturing of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. 200kW and 550Nm respectively. It got a boost of respectability when American entrepreneur and investor. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 39 . five-seater hatch is powered by BYD’s own high-performance ferrousbased lithium-ion phosphate batteries and is said to have a range of 400Kms. 2008 to secure a 10 % stake in the business.

In the last 30 years. the UK-based The Electric Car Corporation plc has revealed an electric conversion of the Citroën C1 powered by a 30kW motor running off lithiumion batteries. En route to achieving its technological leadership in recent years. development and production of battery cells and battery systems in Germany. both groups will drive forward the research.” says Werner Müller. Essen and Daimler AG. Daimler engineers have registered over 600 patents associated with battery-powered vehicles – over © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 40 . ECC claim the car can be recharged overnight using a standard house hold plug. Based on lithium-ion technology from Evonik and with Daimler expertise. Following Fiat’s acquisition of Chrysler. In the near future. CEO of Evonik Industries AG. “We will also continue our ongoing investment in relevant future technologies. an advanced lithium-ion battery system to power the electric-drive motor. Badged as the ‘ev’ie’ it offers owners a full four-seater capable of covering 96 to 112 Kms and a top speed of 96Km/h. However. zero to 96 Km/h in under five seconds and 241-322 Kms range. and a controller that manages energy flow. whilst this is purely a concept. Citroën The French manufacturer showed an electric version of its C-Cactus concept car at Geneva 2009 predicting that it would have a 160Kms range and a 112 Km/h top speed. rumours started spreading that the program had been abandoned and was only ever intended to be a green headliner grabber for the company. Li-Tec cells will appear in a range of Mercedes-Benz EVs. Daimler Evonik Industries AG. Evonik has invested around €80 million. Stuttgart are developing future energy storage systems. These include an electric motor to drive the wheels. Based on a mildly restyled Lotus Europa it appeared at the Detroit show. “Evonik is the only company that can actually bring about commercial series production of battery cells of this kind.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Chrysler’s ENVI-powered electric vehicles utilise just three primary components. The outcome is production-ready hi-tech battery cells that they claim are superior to competitor products in several key areas. Powered by a 200kW electric motor driven by Lithium-ion batteries with regenerative braking. The recharge time can be cut in half by using a 220-volt household appliance power outlet. Chrysler was claiming a 193Km/h top speed. However. there seems to be confusion over its Dodge Circuit EV. Recharging a Chrysler all-electric vehicle is a simple one-step process: plugging into a standard 110-volt or 220-volt household outlet. This will represent an important milestone in the series production of electric vehicles.

“The energy storage is at the very heart of vehicle electrification and thus the key component for sustainable mobility. Both partners are seeking the involvement of a third shareholder in Li-Tec with expertise in electrical and electronic systems integration.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report 230 of which were in the field of lithium-ion technology. Evonik Group subsidiary. the federal government is striving to see at least one million electric vehicles on city streets by 2020. Their concept features a ceramic separator. chairman of the board of management of Daimler AG and head of Mercedes-Benz Cars. Li-Tec. Further advancements in the storage of electrical energy on-board a vehicle are promised by the flat-cell frame concept brought into the cooperation by Daimler. affordable”. the companies will also establish a joint-venture with a clear focus on the development and production of batteries and battery systems for automotive applications. Müller. First generation lithium-ion flat cell batteries will soon be used in MercedesBenz EVs. is set to make a significant contribution to the success of this continued development. In Germany alone. Daimler will hold 90 % of this joint-venture. According to forecasts. “We have a universal electric drive that is suitable for everyday use and is safe. The lithium-ion batteries produced by the joint-venture will be used in both the passenger car and commercial vehicle sectors. Furthermore. with the market for battery materials exceeding €4 billion. the market size for high-performance lithium-ion batteries will exceed the €10 billion mark within the next decade. This year also saw the © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 41 . In order to fulfil all the demands for sustainable mobility in the long term. the company has developed a broad-based portfolio of efficient. clean and high-performance powertrain technologies to meet the most diverse range of customer requirements and applications. Plans also include series production vehicles with pure battery-powered electric drive.” comments Dieter Zetsche. and Evonik 10 %. Beyond that. Daimler has already successfully proved their everyday usability in numerous fleet tests and infrastructure projects. The capacity available at Li-Tec and the joint-venture will initially concentrate on the needs of Daimler AG. the electrification of the automobile is the key to sustainable mobility. According to Daimler. said Evonik CEO. the sale of cells and battery systems to third parties is planned. and today’s Li-Tec cells are the most suitable for electric vehicles. This is designed around the basic principle of a fuel cell stack and enables standardised production within a modular system. including the smart electric drive in London.” explains Zetsche. The flat cell boasts a high energy density combined with compact dimensions and outstanding safety – the issue that takes greatest priority in the application of high energy density batteries.

The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report launch of further major Daimler electric vehicle projects in the shape of “e-mobility Berlin” and “e-mobility Italy”. EWE CEO. Germany. A nominal continuous power output of 75kW is being quoted with peak power of 150kW and torque ranging from 350 to 380Nm. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 42 . Werner Brinker stressed that EWE’s focus is on developing mobile electricity storage rather than just the car itself: “The storage of electricity derived from renewable energies plays a central role in solving the challenges posed by the energy supply of the future.5 hrs to charge at 13 amps reduced to about five hours at 32amp. Dr. We hope that this project will provide us with important clues about how to answer this key question. Both the engine and the car body have to match each other”. The powertrains are based on Detroit Electric’s patented magnetic flux motor technology developed in Holland and powered by licensed lithium ion polymer batteries.000 units. explained Karmann’s Peter Harbig at its unveiling at the Hanover Fair. EWE E3 The Oldenburg-based. The intention was to have six prototypes undergoing field trials by October 2009.000 units a year although Detroit Electric’s CEO. “We got involved in the area of electric mobility early on because Karmann’s vehicle development kept making us think about integration. Albert Lam – previously the head of Lotus – has ambitious plans to more than double this to 100. Range per charge is estimated at an impressive 320Kms for the E46 and 180Kms for the larger E63. Detroit Electric The resurrected Detroit Electric is aiming to sell two EVs based on the Proton Persona saloon and re-badged E63 whilst the smaller E46 will share its mechanicals with the Proton Gen-2 hatchback. We don’t believe that simply removing a combustion engine from a car body and replacing it with an alternative engine is enough. EWE AG announced in April a joint project with Karmann to build and develop a four-door sporty electric car with a top speed of 140Km/h and a range of around of 150Kms. The lithium-ion polymer battery packs have a 40kWh capacity taking 12. energy and telecommunications business.” The focus of their work together is to investigate how EWE can integrate electric vehicles into the electricity and telecommunications network in future and how intelligent management systems can be used efficiently for battery and network management. Assembly will take place at Proton’s Malaysian Tanjung Malim plant at the initial rate of 40. Performance figures of eight seconds to 100 Km/h and a top speed of 180 Km/h are being quoted. European sales are planned for spring 2010 with USA sales starting later the same year.

In theory this could lead to the car also being assembled both in Europe and China where Magna also has manufacturing facilities. that will be jointly developed with Magna International. batteries and control systems but also assembling the car that will be based on Ford’s next generation global ‘C’ platform. charging time is 12 hours at 110v or half that at 220v. The EV is powered by seven modules of 14 lithium-ion battery packs producing 23kWh. is targeting a range of up to 160 Kms and a top speed of 113Km/h. Using this set-up. Recharging the vehicle is also an easy exercise: the onboard battery charger can be plugged directly into a standard mains socket. to offer battery powered versions of its Transit and Transit Connect commercial vehicles for sale in the UK and Europe as well as being made available for the USA.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Despite Karmann’s insolvency the project is on schedule with the first prototype due to run this October and a further five being built between now and 2011. Cischke Ford’s group vice-president sustainability. Smith Electric Vehicles. In the UK Ford is collaborating with Tanfield. while the drive torque is transmitted to the driveshafts by a single-speed transmission. followed up in March at the Geneva Salon. and a full battery charge is accomplished in six to eight hours. The way in which the car has been designed is such that the electric motor. if you just design a specific platform for the EV it’s going to be hard to drive the cost down. but in the development of that. controller etc are housed under the bonnet using the same engine mounts as petrol. Ford also has collaborations and partnerships with Southern California Edison and the Electric Power Research Institute to further understand customer usage and the interconnectivity of vehicles with the electric grid. The deal with Magna International is far more ambitious with the tier one not only supplying the electric motor.” explained Susan M. environment and safety engineering. the market leader in electric vehicles.or diesel-powered models. part of the Tanfield Group. So by having a volume platform then we get the economies of scale from all the other cars that aren’t hybrids. Ford announced an aggressive vehicle electrification program that will see a new battery-powered commercial van launched in 2010 followed by a ‘C’ class car 12 months later. For the Tourneo Connect BEV Concept. Ford is targeting a 160 Kms range for both products when they are launched to the public. a 21kWh lithium-ion phosphate battery pack accumulates the energy to drive a 50 kW permanent magnet motor. “We know the end game is electrification. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 43 . Ford At the Detroit show in January 2009.

Lightning is predicting a top speed in excess of 209 Km/h with a zero to 96 Km/h time of four seconds together with a range of at least 300 Kms on a full charge. One prototype is running. say Lightning: overnight from domestic supply. but funding has yet to be secured whilst there is no news of production start-up and delivery dates.650. both are due to debut in 2010. access is via sliding doors. are located beneath the floor powering a 10kW motor. varying the cargo capacities from 350 litres to 1. Lightning This small British sports car manufacturer unveiled its proposed electric car at the London motor show in 2008. The lithium-ion phosphate battery packs. The Friendly is an in-house project designed to appeal in the first instance to regional and municipal governments and rental car fleets before being sold to private buyers from 2012. the latter a co-operation with Michelin and Orange. using a three-phase power supply it will take just a couple of hours or 10 minutes using a fast charge unit. Heuliez is claiming ranges from 100 to 250Kms and a maximum speed of 110Km/h. Heuliez is also proposing pick-up and van versions as well. Depending on the pack chosen.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Whilst in China Ford has entered into a four-way “Eco-Partnership” with the Changan Auto Group and the cities of Chongqing and Denver to explore ways of developing projects to help further energy security and environmental sustainability. varying from six to 18 kWh depending on requirements. Heuliez The French coachwork specialist has two EV projects currently underway: the Heuliez Friendly and the Will. A simple space frame structure clothed in thermoformed ABS allow a number of configurations including a 260cms long version and a 300cms extended model. It is powered by 30 Altairnano Nanosafe™ batteries driving Hi-Pa Drive™ motors in each wheel developing a total of 522kW. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 44 . The Friendly is designed to meet the same M1 European safety requirements as for petrol driven cars. Three charging options will be offered. Both versions are three-seaters with the driver located centrally and the passengers to either side and rearwards.

Singapore and New Zealand starting before the end of the year. Based on the rear-engined Mitsubishi I city car. the Sport Air concept previewed at the Geneva Salon in 2009. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 45 . whilst the electric motor develops 152kW and 220Nms. Performance is brisk with a 153Km/h top speed and 100 Km/h coming up in 8. The lithium-ion battery pack produces 330V and 16kWh.5 seconds. Osamu Masuko. powered by a Magna developed 10kWh lithium-ion battery. Left-hand drive production. is a serious business strategy that according to company president. will begin in the second half of 2010 with a view to selling the car both in Europe and the USA. possibly.5 hours at 32 amps. Mitsubishi i MIEV The Mitsubishi innovative Electric Vehicle. it takes three hours at 240Volts and 48amps to replenish the batteries or 4. a joint-venture established in December 2007 by GS Yuasa Corporation. or MiEV. the rear seats are sacrificed for the battery pack relegating the car to a two-seater. Based on a standard Mini it is powered by a lithium-ion battery pack with 5.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Magna-Steyr mila ev Purely a concept study seen at the Geneva Salon. Perhaps of more significance was a cutaway of Ford’s C platform complete with the electric motor. Using the BMW-provided re-charger. will get between 160Kms and 193Kms range between recharging. The batteries are manufactured by Lithium Energy Japan. The average user. The downside is that whilst the electric motor and its ancillaries occupy the bonnet space. MINI E BMW is making 500 of these available for a year’s lease at $800 a month in Los Angeles and the New York/New Jersey metropolitan areas. will see a small commercial vehicle spun off the same platform and. Mitsubishi will launch the MiEV in Japan in July of this year with exports to other right-hand drive markets such as the UK. enough to give it a 130 Km/h top speed and upto 160Kms driving range. Mitsubishi Corporation and MMC. says BMW. In this instance it was a 50kW-120Nm electric motor.088 air-cooled cells producing 35kWh. the mila ev was intended to showcase Magna’s ability to develop a vehicle platform that could be provided by numerous power sources. the MiEV has a 47kW permanent magnet synchronous motor developing 180Nm. controller and battery pack that Magna will be assembling for Ford from 2011 onwards. said Masuko.

which will continuously increase for the start of EV massmarketing in 2012. Nuvu has two regular seats and a third occasional chair that can be folded down when required with an integral luggage area providing sufficient space for a typical supermarket or shopping expedition. “We can’t say how soon it will happen. Zama City.-50. in 2010 it will increase to 5. one of Nissan’s affiliated companies based in Zama Operations Centre. Nuvu also uses natural. Motors and inverters. and initially in the Zama Operations Centre (Hironodai. Yokohama City. Kanagawa). Built on a unique platform. but it’s in the plans. literally a ‘new view’ of the type of car people will be driving in the middle of the next decade. the plant will start EV production with capacity of 50. but we know the demand is greater but we can’t satisfy that. Across its all-glass roof are a dozen or so small solar panels that feed power to the battery. Nissan’s vision for the future of urban transportation is encapsulated in Nuvu.000 a year. because of limited battery production. Automotive Energy Supply Corporation (AESC). Nuvu is compact on the outside yet roomy on the inside. Aimed at urban dwellers it is agile. Although Nuvu is not that car.000 and from 2012 onwards our target is 30. In the autumn of 2010.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report “Starting in April 2009 and finishing in March 2010. Yokosuka City. “However. Kanagawa). Kanagawa-ku. will be built at the Yokohama Plant (Takara-cho. will produce laminated-type compact lithium-ion batteries for EVs.000. respectively.980 mm but is 1.” said Masuko. it does share some of the technology that will feature in the planned production vehicle. Compact – it’s just three metres long – Nuvu is a concept vehicle with unique 2+1 seating.700 mm wide and 1550 mm tall to create a large and airy cabin. easy to drive and to park. Nissan has already announced plans to introduce an all-electric car in Japan and the US in 2010 and to mass-market it globally in 2012. capacity is limited to 2. Kanagawa) from autumn 2010.000 units a year. admitting that there will be “many hurdles to cross” to get lithium-ion batteries in a larger car. which are key components of EVs. He also revealed that Mitsubishi is researching into applying electrification to larger cars. it sits on a wheelbase of 1. The Oppama Plant is a core base of Nissan’s manufacturing and will be positioned as the plant for best practices in EV production.” Nissan will produce electric vehicles (EV) at its Oppama Plant (Natsushima-cho. Nissan Nuvu © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 46 . These dimensions provide all the interior room needed for the vast majority of city journeys. organic and recycled materials within the cabin. In addition.

000 units sold.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report “Nuvu is a concept car. for sure. is stepping up research and development on versatile electric vehicles and battery © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 47 . Ltd. “However. Compared to the neighbour with a ‘C’ segment car he only goes to the petrol station every 10 days or so. the power plant is still more favourable in terms of lowering CO2. “With an EV you can’t drive without stopping as you can with a internal combustion engined car. We have this way of stacking the battery which is laminated and not in cylinders which is important for packaging as it takes less space. For instance in Tokyo we have a map where each station is located and we are starting to make them. we expect EVs will win over some people. Nissan Motor Co. “That will change in the future. what you have to pay is totally transparent on your electricity bill. You don’t buy a car for an average usage.. we can’t sustain it on our own either. made with our partner NEC. Pierre Loing. but we don’t expect the whole market to change. but every time he hands over how many euros? “Overall we anticipate that despite the disadvantages. So you cannot rule out a major step forward that we don’t see today. we’re one actor which is why with Nissan we tried to sign agreements as quick as possible with as many stake holders as possible because we need them to contribute to the infrastructure. but it is an entirely credible vehicle. “When it comes to powertrain you’re talking about the heart of the car. “Lithium ion has advantages as it’s quite popular. I know some people are challenging that.” explained François Bancon. “I believe the transfer of pollution from the car to the power station is positive. general manager. thirdly. there is quite a lot of experience with it in non-automotive applications. added “There is one drawback which is the range.” Peugeot PSA Peugeot Citroën. but some of the calculations I’ve seen that even use Polish dirty coal. When it comes to ours. cost of ownership which we calculate will be 10-20 % lower than the same calculation for a similar car and. the world’s leading manufacturer of electric vehicles (EVs) with 10. Product Strategy and Product Planning Division. vice-president of Nissan’s product planning. “It’s amazing to see how many people work on batteries at the moment trying to break the barriers we consider to be unbreakable. so that’s where the challenge lies. The conditions are there to make the business case sustainable which it wasn’t in the early 90s because of the lead-acid batteries. we partner with Renault and eventually want to sell whatever we have and I think other manufacturers will want to do the same thing. we believe that density wise we’re probably amongst the best. you buy it for average usage plus you can do extra things when you want. Exploratory and Advanced Planning Department. but some people will make that trade-off and accept it for three reasons: zero emissions that in some cases might allow you to drive in areas where others can’t.

PSA Peugeot Citroën will contribute its automotive expertise and experience. battery and other EV components inside the van’s engine compartment. together with possible commercialisation systems for EVs. La Poste. as well as its short-run production capabilities. particularly in electric vehicles. This offers the major advantage of ensuring the same load volume and payload as in a conventional version. whilst Venturi will provide its particularly compact and innovative powertrain solution. with launch planned for end 2010 or early 2011. EDF in October 2008 to assess different battery technologies and recharging systems. This extremely compact technology makes it possible to fit the electric motor. including: defining business models capable of driving the commercial development of electric vehicles. The electric Berlingo/Partners will have a range of up to 100Kms. The cooperative agreement covers several technological programs. This new step would be mutually beneficial. vehicle recharging systems and protocols to enable vehicles and the network to communicate during recharging. which is ample to cover their mail delivery routes. as well as the standardisation of these systems and protocols. since the collaboration of MMC and PSA Peugeot Citroën will ease and accelerate the introduction of their electric vehicles in the European market. PSA Peugeot Citroën and Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) signed a new co-operation agreement in March 2009 to jointly develop an electric vehicle for Europe. The group has also joined forces with electricity utility. PSA Peugeot Citroën had in March 2008. new energy storage technologies. such as lithium-ion batteries. Pininfarina-Bolloré Bluecar © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 48 . decided to respond to the international call for bids launched by French postal operator. La Poste is due to make its decision public in mid-2009. in lieu of the internal combustion engine. in partnership with Venturi. It will be manufactured by MMC and sold under Peugeot brand. The Berlingo Citroën/Peugeot Partner will be tested with an entirely new power train proposed by Venturi.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report technology. for 500 application specific electric vehicles with the electric Citroën Berlingo First or Peugeot Partner Origin vans. The new agreement demonstrates the two groups’ ambition to accelerate the development of the electric vehicle market in Europe. in parallel to Mitsubishi’s own European i MiEV. based on MMC’s i MiEV.

The 410 V BatScap battery pack has a capacity of 30 kWh. Protoscar Lampo This is a full size sport cabriolet seen at the Geneva Salon in March. displayed at the Geneva Motor Show on the Véhicules Électriques Pininfarina-Bolloré stand. and Montréal. Production will take place between 2011 and 2017. At equivalent weight. France. this battery stores five times more energy than a traditional type and recharges in just a few hours. Consistently with an ecologically responsible overall approach.000. Gravimetric energy density is 100 Wh/kg. combined with supercapacitors.5 billion years and has demonstrated to be rather reliable: it’s the sun. all the materials employed for construction. The lightweight lithium-ion battery pack with a capacity of 32 kWh. optimised for maximising acceleration and regenerative braking respectively. is powered by lythium metal polymer batteries. This means greater acceleration. allows for a range of over 200Kms.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Pininfarina and Bolloré set up a 50:50 joint-venture at the beginning of 2008 with the purpose of designing. with forecast output by 2015 being about 60.5-2 million electric vehicles will be introduced on the European market alone Powered by a 50kW motor. The Pininfarina Bluecar. and peak power output of 45 kW. it has a life-span of about 200. Canada. The Bolloré group is also looking into the design of photovoltaic cell panels to be installed in private or public places to allow partial or total recharging of the batteries through solar energy alone. is not just a concept but a forerunner of the vehicle which will go into production in Italy at Pininfarina starting from 2010. Recent studies have estimated that in the medium term 1. They deliver a total output of 200kW and a torque of over 440 Nm. developing. and volumetric energy density is 100 Wh/L. manufacturing and distributing an electric car with revolutionary technical features and formal qualities. which retrieve and store energy during braking and makes it available when the vehicle re-starts.000Kms and provides unparalleled safety. It is powered by two BRUSA electric motors (one rear and one front). The LMP battery can be recharged at a traditional mains plug and range is 250Kms. the compact MPV is conceived as a four-seater five-door. Part of the car’s bonnet is covered with high-performance solar panels which help power some of the ancillary equipment. The primary energy source used for charging the Lampo has been in existence for more than 4. As it does not require any maintenance. The battery is housed below the floorpan and between the two axles. an increased range and longer lifespan for the car’s battery. manufactured in the Bolloré plants at Quimper. the battery and interior trim have been carefully selected for their low environmental impact and are recyclable or reusable. The exploitation of solar © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 49 .

especially on cars used for inner-city distribution. the WtW CO2 emission would still be limited to about 40 g/km. Tesla Tesla’s reputation got a huge boost when it was recently announced that Daimler was taking a 10 % stake in the Californian EV producer. Tuscany.000 units of Daimler’s electric smart car. the collapse of its manufacturing partner. This distribution van. spiritual father of the smart ForTwo. developed specifically for inner-city traffic. Quicc DiVan DuraCar Dutch specialist. Dipl. plastic body and chassis. as cities have the highest percentage of air quality problems. DuraCar launched its QUICC! DiVa urban EV at the Paris Salon in 2008 with the intention of putting it on the market within 12 months. Through the show car. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 50 . The two companies have already been working closely to integrate Tesla’s lithium-ion battery packs and charging electronics into the first 1. electric drive systems and in individual vehicle projects. Johann Tomforde. is jointly responsible for the ongoing design process of the QUICC. DuraCar mainly focuses on the commercial market. QUICC! cars will be packaged with lithium ion iron phosphate battery packs or a special bipolar lightweight lead battery pack driving the 50kW motor ensuring a top speed of 120Km/h and range of 150Kms. the investment enables the partners to collaborate even more closely on the development of battery systems.-Ing. bipolar lead battery. application of new cradle to cradle plastics. Considering the EU electricity mix projection scenario for 2020. Prof.). However. carries the brand name QUICC! and DiVa (short for Distribution Van. Innovative applications include: lithium ion iron phosphate batteries. Protoscar and its partners aim to demonstrate new technologies which include innovations such as “intelligent charging” or interactive GPS-based “range estimator” – and discuss potential applications together with car manufacturers. in order to implement these solutions into their plans for future clean cars. in April 2009 means preproduction of a re-designed model will start at the end of 2009. Karmann.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report energy for Lampo is possible thanks to a 16 kWp photovoltaic plant located in Seggiano. DuraCar has developed a fully electrically powered distribution van applying an integrated set of breakthrough technologies. In order to benefit from each other’s know-how. elaborated by Eurelectric. when the average urban distribution van covers some 50Kms per day.

space for seven and their luggage and zero to 96Km/h in less than six seconds plus a 200+Km/h top speed. 45-minute quick charge. Norway’s Th!nk is arguably the most experienced. It is a “hot” battery. The battery is also made from environmentally friendly materials. The Tesla Roadster is the first production battery electric vehicle to travel more than 320Kms per charge and the first US. Thus. will take a seat on Tesla’s board of directors. which remains the only highway capable EV for sale in North America or Europe. Herbert Kohler. Active materials in the Zebra battery are sodium and nickel. As part of the collaboration. member of the board of Daimler AG.and EU-certified lithium-ion battery electric vehicle. Since then the company has struggled financially but a restructuring in 2006 and a rights issue a year later enabled the company to survive and put its fifth generation EV into series production. two different lithium-based (Li) systems and one sodium battery system: sodium batteries. Both lithium options operate at ambient temperatures. the Zebra (Mes-Dea) battery has high energy density. the S. Th!nk Of all the EV manufacturers. responsible for Group Research and Mercedes-Benz Cars Development. The customer will only pay a monthly mobility fee of. In 2004. There have. which means that the operating temperature is between 260º and 360º. and takes full responsibility for its performance. makes some outstanding claims: a near 500Kms range. The hot materials are contained in a vacuum insulated and sealed container. been rumours of reliability issues with the car’s lithium-ion battery pack with its 6.831 cells over-heating.000. Tesla began development of its first electric vehicle.9 seconds yet gets the equivalent of 1. independent of ambient temperature.” said Dr. Tesla’s second model. It introduced its first EV back in 1991 and spent four years under the ownership of Ford which invested $150 million between 1999 and 2003.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report “Our strategic partnership is an important step to accelerate the commercialisation of electric drives globally. Lithium-based systems: A123 and Enerdel Th!nk city will also come with two state-of-the-art lithium-based battery options. the Th!nk features three battery options. these batteries operate very efficiently in areas with very hot and very cold climate. This option is perfect for users who have a regular and frequent usage pattern. typically. Currently. All for less than $50. €200 which includes a full maintenance service © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 51 . vice president E-Drive and Future Mobility at Daimler AG. however. Th!nk owns the battery. This green supercar accelerates from 0 to 96Km/h in 3. Thomas Weber. and provides long range performance. the Roadster. This means that the car does not have to be plugged in when not in use.1/100Kms. Prof. Th!nk is currently co-operating with two suppliers of lithium-based battery systems. A123 Systems and Enerdel.

changes in vehicle use make electric cars ideal for the majority of trips. It has also signed Memorandums of Understanding (MoU) with ElmoNet. Renault will bring its customers a complete range of electric vehicles by as early as 2011: an electric version of new Kangoo (light commercial vehicle) for professionals and fleets.000 EVs a year. Secondly. It is the basis for a variety of vehicle styles.Kangoo Renault aims to become the first full-line manufacturer to market zero-emission vehicles accessible to the greatest number. to deliver 500 cars this year. Since then Th!nk has announced plans to establish a technical centre and manufacturing plant in the USA with the ultimate capability of producing 60. In addition. carbon offset payments and in some countries even all the electricity used and insurance. Th!nk has signed an MoU to deliver 550 Th!nk city EVs to the Spanish market with the first EVs delivered towards the end of 2009. an electric version of a family car. the Th!nk city has been granted the first ever pan-European homologation certificate for an EV. Renault will also bring customers access to innovative services making electric vehicle use easier and to advanced battery technology currently under development by the Renault-Nissan Alliance. Renault will continue to extend its electric vehicle range to cover all segments with a typical range of 160Kms. Technological innovations now make it possible to mass market an electric vehicle at reasonable cost. Renault Z. Fully equipped with ABS brakes. a full-electric city car measuring less than four metres long and with five seats. At the 2008 Geneva Salon Th!nk presented the Th!nk O as a platform concept. will retail at the same price as equivalent diesel models. beyond 2012. launched first in Israel and then in other countries. starting with the Th!nk O crossover five-seater. The new certificate only became available from 1st May 2009.E. airbags and three-point safety belts with pretensioners. This is possible due to a space frame concept featuring the main crash structure and the batteries centrally placed in two compartments in the lower frame. the Th!nk city meets all of the primary safety requirements expected of modern passenger cars. and is intended to help accelerate the introduction of roadworthy EVs. In addition. The Renault-Nissan Alliance is developing a complete range of 100 % electric powertrains with power ratings of between 50 kW and 100 kW. running costs are roughly 20 % lower than an equivalent © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 52 . Electric vehicles. without the battery which is rented.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report agreement. a subsidiary of Mobility Service Netherlands. designed for electric vehicles. in 2012. claims Renault. also in 2012. with 80 % of Europeans currently driving less than 60Kms a day. a new type of urban vehicle. ideal for commuting. by 2011.

” Renault predicts that EVs could account for 15 to 25% of annual car sales in Europe in a decade. It’s entirely likely that other carmakers will adopt the same principle. since electricity costs much less than petrol (around €1 per 100Kms). The main problem is that batteries today have different shapes according to the vehicle. partnerships are being formed with mobility operators worldwide. So if other brands wanted to use these stations. “First. as part of the Renault-Nissan Alliance. electric vehicles are easily recharged at home. where recharges will take 20 to 30 minutes. “In terms of recharge stations. we would obviously have to standardise the batteries. recharging at home. electric motors are the equal of gasoline and diesel cars in terms of performance. I think that in the long term we will be able to make the “quick drop” stations compatible for all electric vehicles.000Kms for a €20 monthly fee. And in three minutes you have a fully charged battery.” As far as recharging is concerned. Ruf. Koskas says Renault is looking at three possibilities. It will be a little like driving into an automatic car wash. an iconic high performance car that in its most powerful form can emit over 300 g/Kms CO2 turns into an ecofriendly sports car that wouldn’t offend the tree-huggers? Improbable but true. we are holding discussions at a European level with all the carmakers to make sure everyone uses the same socket format. consisting of battery exchange stations called “quick drop”. taking from four to eight hours. Thierry Koskas. Renault is currently working on a number of fronts in preparation for the launch of its range of zero-emission vehicles: €200 million is invested every year on electric vehicles R&D. For example. as in the world of mobile ‘phones. The best time to do this is at night. German Porsche tuning specialists. at special terminals in parking lot areas and at “quick drop” rapid exchange stations. so the next morning the car’s fully charged and ready to go.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report combustion vehicle. The second possibility is taking the car to a rapid recharge station. “Another possibility would be to subscribe to a monthly price plan. co-operation with governments on infrastructure development and purchase incentives. eRuf Porsche © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 53 . seemingly. a contradiction in terms. “We’re developing “quick drop” technology together with Nissan. have done just that to create an electrically-powered 911 that reaches 100Km/h in under seven seconds. head of Renault’s electric vehicle project explains there could be a range of different offers. only the machine will remove the car’s battery and replace it with another. maintenance costs are half those of an equivalent combustion vehicle because electric motors require less servicing. The third option is an original idea by Renault. or “standard” recharge. you could get 1. “First possibility: you simply pay each time you recharge your car at a station (around €2 to “fill up” the car). An electrically-powered Porsche 911 is.

Each individual cell is coupled with a sensor that sends critical information on cell temperature and voltage to the central control system. is also taking part in the project. As such. the eRuf became the world’s first electric vehicle fitted with a bi-directional network connection. the combination of vehicle technology and infrastructure will be tested. If irregularities appear during operation. which – without the otherwise necessary additional recharging electronics – is capable of being recharged in less than an hour at a 400-volt power outlet – and can use the same power outlet to feed energy back into the power network if required. lithium-ion batteries currently in use weigh 5. and EVs from Mercedes-Benz will also be used. California. the power company RWE AG is providing 500 charging points. During the second half of 2009.6Kgs and deliver 160Ah each. the world’s largest field test with electric cars. The Axeon iron-phosphate. From 2010. to combine the latest generation of lithiumion batteries with its 150kW motor. The aim of the project is to develop the vehicle technology and infrastructure further. A limited edition based on this concept by Ruf Automobile is expected to hit the streets in 2010. A small series production of electric smart powered by lithium-ion batteries is due to start from the end of 2009 with planned marketing of larger volumes from 2012. Ruf revealed its partnership with Siemens which has developed an adapted power train for the eRuf “Greenster”. goes a step further: for the first time. Italy’s largest energy supplier. At the 2009 Geneva Salon. As a project partner in this pioneering initiative. smart © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 54 . the project “e-mobility Berlin” will begin in the German capital. the system can react within milliseconds to bring the values back in line. This means each one could theoretically deliver 160 amperes of electricity for one hour under normal temperatures or one ampere for 160 hours. Milan and Pisa.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Ruf worked with CalMotors in Camarillo. effectively preventing critical lithium-ion overheating behaviour during charging. Enel. Both vehicles are equipped with the latest lithium-ion battery technology. The vehicle seen at Geneva was still equipped with a central motor with a power output of 270kW and 950Nm torque but now using a double-motor concept with Siemen’s innovative integral eDrive. Whilst the power and torque produced by the three-phase motor can be used to recover just as much power as it can put out. more than 100 electric cars from smart and Mercedes-Benz will hit the roads in Rome. The 96-cell battery system is constantly monitored by an intelligent bus system from Axeon. When coasting. This. Daimler is contributing a fleet of over 100 smart electric drives. the motor becomes a generator producing electricity to charge the batteries.

According to Christian Mohrdieck. In 2001. one of the world’s leading power companies. set out to develop France’s only true high performance GT. Further tests were also carried out in September 2007 following collaboration with the Kanagawa Prefectural government. Nevertheless. given the physical restrictions. while a special rapid charger can deliver an 80 % charge in just 15 minutes. therefore. owning several thousand apartments.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Since 2007. and obviously. The small runarounds do not produce any emissions and are. The resulting vehicle can reach a top speed of 100Km/h with a range of 80Kms from a single charge. Japan). The data obtained from these tests will be applied to electric vehicle designs to make them even more convenient and comfortable than they are today. He became the largest private real estate owner in the principality. we can’t expect miracles. Between then and 2001 the company delivered some 700 cars and whilst they gained a good reputation they could never quite compete with established manufacturers like Porsche and Ferrari. The base vehicle. Subaru has also transplanted the EV system from the prototype R1e into the Japanese mini-car Stella and further fine-tuned it to create the Subaru Plug-in Stella Concept. Venturi Venturi traces its origins back to 1984 when its founders. selected customers in London have been testing a fleet of 100 smart electric drive cars with a high-performance sodium/nickel chloride battery. featuring a compact. Claude Poiraud and Gérard Godfroy. has exceptional packaging and utility functions to create an electric vehicle that meets a wider array of market needs. It can be recharged by simply connecting the power plug to a home power outlet. tall wagon type design. It has an 80Kms range and top speed of just over 100Km/h. Their batteries will have charging times of several hours and a range of perhaps 150Kms. exempt from the city’s congestion charge. Demonstration tests of 40 R1e electric vehicles driven on public roads began in June 2006 in a joint effort with Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO. A further 60 EVs were due to join the Japanese test fleet in 2009 in addition to which two vehicles were delivered to the New York Power Authority in 2009 as part of their green fleet. “Daimler is working on special highenergy cells for pure battery vehicles. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 55 . we will soon be seeing battery-powered vehicles that are roughly the same size as the smart or the B-Class.” Subaru R1e and Stella The R1e is an electric version of Subaru’s R1 commuter car powered by a 40kw motor and lithium ion batteries. head of Fuel Cell and Battery Drive System Development at Daimler Corporate Research and Advanced Engineering. Venturi was bought by Gildo Pallanca Pastor whose grandfather was the most important real estate developer in Monaco from 1930 until today.

France. the Volvo Car Corporation and Vattenfall launched a joint project with the aim of testing and developing plug-in technology.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Venturi’s first electric car was the Fétish in 2004 powered by a 150kW electric motor producing 220Nm with lithium-ion Liv 7 batteries with a claimed range of 250Kms. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 56 . Venturi claim a 280Kms range. At the 2008 Paris Salon. 52Nm electric motor that can be recharged via on-board photovoltaic cells or wind turbine. Powered by four of Michelin’s Active Wheel developing 220kW and 232Nm between them. Together we are developing the next-generation technology based on plug-in cars and various charging alternatives. “We want to reinforce electricity’s importance in society and its key role in solving climate issues. 145Ah batteries drive a 4kW. or. Vattenfall and the Volvo Car Corporation are launching an industrial joint-venture partnership to introduce plug-in hybrids on the market. 180Km/h top speed and under four seconds to 100Km/h. The batteries are good for 1. more likely by plugging it into the mains. in response to the tender launched by La Poste powered by Zebra technology (nickel sodium chloride) which has an energy mass four times greater that of lead acid batteries. Vattenfall and Volvo believe that series production of plug-in hybrid cars and the development of infrastructure can generate new jobs and help Sweden maintain its position at the cutting edge of advanced pro-environmental technology. Production models now have a 220kW electric motor developing 380Nm driven by 45kWh polymer lithium batteries.500 charge cycles and. More importantly.” says Lars G Josefsson. This was followed in 2006 by the Eclectic. an urban three-seater runabout whose Trojan 48v. can take between three and six hours to achieve 80 % recharge. In January 2007. Through this cooperation we hope to be able to speed up the introduction of electric cars. Swedish energy company. president and CEO of Vattenfall.000 units a year. Now their cooperation is being taken to the next level. the Volage two-seater sports car was unveiled. depending on the power source. Claimed range at 90Km/h is 320Kms with a 150Km/h top speed and zero to 100Km/h in under five seconds. with a view to Eclectic production starting in October 2009 at the eventual rate of 3. it uses liquid cooled polymer lithium batteries producing 45kWh and with a 1. Volvo A Volvo that can be fuelled with electricity from a standard wall socket will be a reality in 2012. Venturi is building a new factory near Sablé sur Sarthé.500 charge lifecycle. PSA Peugeot Citroën and Venturi Automobiles joined forces to produce electric versions of the Citroën Berlingo First vehicles.

In the summer of 2009. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 57 . Although deposits are being taken there is no news. a two-seater three-wheeler. The 8. With the assistance of Lotus engineering ZAP has developed Alias. 3. of when production starts. and the battery is also charged every time the car's brakes are applied.000-watt motor design is almost ten inches in diameter compared to the seven-inch diameter. In May 2009. which can be dedicated to a larger battery for range extension. but the launch of the demonstration vehicles is a step towards series-producing plug-in hybrid cars specifically tailored to market needs.000-watt wheel motor powering both rear wheels of a production ZAP electric truck. This latest wheel motor design is the result of more than five years research to improve the power and efficiency of its EVs. This new design could go into production in various electric car and truck configurations by next year with adequate funding. where owners pay to fuel with electricity. mainly EVs in 25 years. The battery takes about five hours to charge from a standard wall socket. The plug-in cars will be driven by a powerful electric motor fuelled by a lithium-ion battery.000 alternative powered vehicles. Volvo will manufacture the cars and Vattenfall will develop charging systems and supply the cars with electricity. to determine their driving habits and to establish how they want to charge their cars. as an alternative to the regular mix of electricity sources.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report The development of the cars is being carried out and financed jointly by the two companies. The design translates to more available space. ZAP Founded in California in the mid 1990s. ZAP has delivered more than 100.000-watt motor powering the Zapino scooter. three Volvo V70 demonstration cars will be used to gather information about the wishes and demands that drivers may have on the new technology. test various concepts for high-speed home charging and also for charging stations in public places. The ZAP truck and van shuttle both use AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat) lead-acid batteries but have similarly restricted ranges and performance. as yet. Vattenfall will offer customers the opportunity to sign an agreement for renewable electricity sourced specifically from wind power or hydro power. but their short 40Kms range and 65Km/h top speed are symptoms of its lead-acid batteries. Vattenfall will. It offers a range of small commuter EVs such as the three-wheeler Xebra Sedan and pick-up. The cars that are planned for series production in 2012 will feature somewhat different technology. among other things. ZAP unveiled an 8. that is technically classed as a motorcycle.

The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Zenn The most controversial aspect of this Canadian company is its financial tie-up with the secretive EEStor Inc. it plans to use an EEStor storage unit to build a vehicle called the CityZenn that will have a top speed of 125Km/h and a range of up to 400Kms on a single charge. valve-regulated. of Texas that is developing a high capacity energy storage unit that. if it succeeds. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 58 . it is powered by a EV31A-A Discover Battery Pack .7 seconds and 40Km/h in 9. Built on an aluminium spaceframe with ABS body panels. sealed lead-acid batteries that can be recharged in four hours using a standard 110 volt electrical outlet. Though the company has just as many sceptics as followers. It has a 50 to 80Kms range. Zenn has been waiting for EEStor to deliver since 2007 and it’s now the belief that it will receive its first energy storage units in the final quarter of 2009. will be a eureka moment in the world of electric vehicles. reaches 32Km/h in 5. The EV is a three-door five-seater town car restricted to 40Km/h by local Canadian laws.6 x 12V x AGM maintenance free. A full charge from 80 % depleted takes approximately eight hours.2 seconds.

Vice-President & General Manager.100 (2007) A123Systems is a leading manufacturer of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems. Chrysler and Th!nk. including GM. Quality Dr. Johnson.34m (Year to 31.a123systems.07) Employees 1. Pyenson. plug-in hybrid vehicles. Founder & Vice-President. Investment • In January 2009. Recent Developments Corporate strategy A123Systems is forming collaborations with electric vehicle manufacturers and other hybrid battery makers. A123Systems and Cobasys signed a memorandum of understanding to jointly manufacture lithium-ion energy storage systems for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. A123Systems received a funding of US$40m by its investors such as General Electric Commercial Finance. The company principally serves the transportation. The company formed a jointventure with Cobasys to jointly manufacture lithium-ion energy storage systems for hybrid electric vehicle applications. Founder Ric Fulop. including Chrysler and GM. electric vehicles (EV) and extended-range EV. Chief Financial Officer & Vice-President. Vice-President.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report A123 Batteries Address A123Systems. The company submitted an application under the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Incentive Program.000 workers and manufacture five million hybrid car batteries by 2013.84bn for the construction of new lithium-ion battery manufacturing facilities in southeast Michigan and other parts of the US. the company recently applied for a loan of US$1. Business Development Louis Golato. The company is working with seven hybrid and electric car makers. Bart Riley. the Michigan Strategic Fund approved a US$10m in funding for A123’s new plant in Michigan under the fund’s Centers of Energy Excellence program. to produce plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries as well as to support the growing demand in the power tool. Cobasys provides the technical assistance and expertise for the development of battery system products such as packaging. Alliance Capital and FA Technology Ventures. Tao Zheng. Asia. • In March 2008. the company manufactures products for hybrid electric. A123Systems supplies its automotive-class nanophosphate lithium-ion cells and technology. MA 02472 Tel: 617-778-5700 Fax: 617-778-5749 Internet: http://www. Vice-President. Also. Chief Technology Officer. wiring. In 2008. Founder. Vice-President & General Counsel Dr. the company received a funding of US$10m from Michigan Strategic Fund to manufacture hybrid car batteries. Yet-Ming Chiang. In its transportation business. Global Sales Dr. thermal management.12. New York (US) to develop batteries. Vice-President. A123Systems applied for a loan of US$1. Operations Robert J. China Products Lithium-ion battery Plants US Sales US$41. GE Energy Financial Services announced it has invested in A123Systems to help the company roll out batteries for the Norwegian electric car maker Th!nk Global. President. GE Energy Financial Services and GE Global Research are backing electrification developments in the transportation sector. electronics and control algorithms. Vice-President & R&D Michael Rubino. Finance & Admin Evan Sanders. Contracts • In January 2009. Joint-venture • In January 2007. electric grid services. President & CEO Grace Chang. Inc Arsenal on the Charles 321 Arsenal Street Watertown. and Europe. and portable power markets in North America. heavy duty and aviation markets. In January 2007. hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and consumer applications markets. In November 2008. The company serves numerous automotive companies. Energy Solutions Group Eric J. A123Systems is also drawing on the research and technology development expertise of GE Global Research in Niskayuna. A123Systems announced that it had won a contract to supply lithium-ion batteries for Chrysler’s electric car due to be launched in 2011.84bn for the construction of new lithium-ion battery manufacturing facilities in southeast Michigan and other parts of the US.com/ Senior Officers David Vieau. The company expects to employ 14. A123Systems signed a contract to supply lithium-ion batteries © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 59 . including HEV and electric vehicles. Cobasys is a manufacturer of battery system solutions for transportation markets.

2 8. In January 2007. Net loss increased from US$15.8) (14. A123Systems developed high voltage battery modules for use in a commercial-grade fuel cell hybrid powertrain.85m in 2006. Operating loss widened from US$15.77m to US$30.3 0.9 11.22m.54m to US$32. The collaboration with Th!nk helps the company achieve the large-scale production of batteries and integrate them into commercially available electric vehicles.24m on its R&D activities compared with US$8. A123Systems’ recent contracts have placed A123Systems in a coveted position among lithium-ion-battery start-ups. projections for hybrid sales keep growing. After the success of the Toyota Prius hybrid.96m.3) R&D Expenditure (US$m) 13.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report • • for Th!nk electric vehicles. A123Systems sales were US$41. In 2007. The deal was to manufacture HEV batteries.7 Operating Income (US$m) (32.29m compared with the same period in 2007. the company’s consolidated sales increased over 26% to US$10.3 34.34m compared with US$34. • In October 2006. For the first quarter ended 31 March 2008. New Product Developments In 2007. A123Systems secured a contract to supply batteries to GM’s plug-in hybrid Saturn Vue.9) (15.2 2007 2006 2005 Outlook While automakers around the world have been planning to use lithium-ion batteries in future hybrids and all-electric vehicles.35m. It makes it more suitable for heavy-duty commercial use. an organisation composed of erstwhile DaimlerChrysler. Net loss widened 203% to US$13. The company worked with General Electric and Ballard Power Systems to design these modules for the National Fuel Cell Bus Program (NFCBP) under the Department of Transportation’s Federal Transit Authority. A123Systems introduced its 32-series cells that are specifically designed for HEV and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) use.08m to US$14. A123Systems spent US$13. Year Sales (US$m) 41. • In May 2007. The A123Systems batteries comprise a power boost component which provides higher specific power. A123Systems received a US$15m contract from the US Department of Energy and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC).5) (14. Ford and GM. most of the world’s manufacturing of such batteries is in Asia.3) Net Income (US$m) (30. lighter weight and smaller overall volume than the existing battery packs. Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 December 2007.89m.4) (15. Operating loss increased from US$5.34m in 2007. safety and abuse-tolerance. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 60 . These batteries provide specific power. It offers greater volumetric energy density and the lowest cost per watt-hour.

Contracts • In March 2007 ZQ Power-Tech signed a sales contract with Beijing Advanced Battery Technologies (ABAT) manufactures rechargeable polymer lithium-ion (PLI) batteries. PLI batteries produce an average of 3.08) n 2008. including electric bikes. Suites 2A New York NY 10018 Tel: +212 391 2752 Fax: +212 391 2751 Internet: http://www. including electric bikes. a developer and manufacturer of various types of electric vehicles. The company expects to close the acquisition in the second quarter of 2009. ABAT signed a deal to acquire Wuxi Angell Autocycle Co.8 volts per cell. The company's products include rechargeable PLI batteries for electric automobiles. CFO Products Polymer lithium ion battery Plants China Sales Group: US$45.09. the company announced its intent to acquire 55% of Wuxi Angell. a manufacturer of electric vehicles.2m (Year to 31. in the Province of Heilongjiang. which makes them attractive in terms of both weight and volume.com. Ltd..7m cash available as of the end of 2008 that it intends to utilise for production increases and technology related acquisitions. Cashtech Investment Limited (Cashtech) and Heilongjiang Zhong Qiang Power-Tech Co. By the end of 2009 ABAT expects new production facilities with US$44m of annual potential sales to be fully operational. ZQ Power-Tech’s offices and manufacturing facility are located in northern China. Recent Developments Corporate strategy Advanced Battery Technologies.abat. ABAT is seeking opportunities to expand production. and Beijing Guoqiang Global Technology Development Co. ZQ Power-Tech is a company based in China. motorcycles. (ZQ PowerTech). © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 61 . through its operating subsidiary ZQ Power-Tech. Acquisitions • In December 2008. Chairman & CEO Guohua Wan. Through this acquisition. agricultural transport vehicles and electric sports utility vehicles.08) Employees Group: 905 (Year to 30. manufactures and markets rechargeable polymer lithium-ion (PLI) batteries. increase product availability and position its business for the long term. the company has gained efficiency and strengthened its presence in the electric vehicles market.cn Senior Officers Zhiguo Fu. agricultural transport vehicle and electric sports utility vehicles. ZQ Power-Tech designs. mine-use lamps. The company has been working on R&D and in 2007 developed the nano material lithium ion battery which is now used in electric vehicles.12. In 2008 the company completed an equity placement to obtain the capital necessary for the expansion. in which Cashtech owns 100% interest.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Advanced Battery Technologies Batteries Address Advanced Battery Technologies 21 West 39th Street. The chairman and CEO Zhiguo Fu formed the company in 2002.Ltd. ZAP. hopes to ride the rising wave of electric and hybridelectric vehicle sales. The company has a strong balance sheet and US$32. Advanced Battery Technologies is a holding company and is involved in the business of PLI batteries through its subsidiaries. notebook computers. The company is increasing capacity at Harbin and expects the expanded assembly line capacity in Harbin to be operational in the late second quarter of 2009 and believes the facility has the ability to generate approximately US$22m in sales in 2009. walkie-talkies and other electronic devices. ZQ Power-Tech’s batteries combine chemistry with polymer technology. Customers for vehicle battery components include Aiyingsi.

© SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 62 .8% of total revenue. For 2008.5m.65m.7m in the prior year. The market for large and medium capacity battery cells continued to expand.1m compared with US$10. electric bicycles. longer cycle life and significantly shorter re-charge time.000 PLI battery sets for use in electric garbage trucks being designed for the 2008 Olympics. Net income in 2008 increased 57. was issued a patent of invention by The Intellectual Property Bureau of the People's Republic of China for the invention of the nano material lithium ion battery and its technology process. miners' lamps. In July 2006 ZQ Power-Tech received its first commercial order for bus batteries. Year Net Sales (US$m) 45.2 31.1 10.14 Net Income (US$m) 16.2 Operating Income (US$m) 18. The increase in sales was driven by increased sales volume.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report • • Guoqiang Global Technology Development Co.3% to US$18. large capacity battery cells generated US$13. to US$16.2m. Advanced Battery Technologies. Operating expenses decreased 11% to US$3.7m and net income of US$4. Financial Overview In the financial year ended 31 December 2008.9 16. to supply a total of 3. This compares to US$10m and US$3. new customer growth and increased sales of batteries for motorised vehicles. power tools. searchlights and other applications.2 5. the new patent will give ABAT an edge in its effort to address the electric vehicle market in addition to its PLI battery technologies. sales were US$45.2m in 2007.3 4. The company’s R&D team worked with Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) to make this lithium ion battery technology.8m in sales and net income achieved in the first quarter of 2008.16) R&D expenditure (US$) 4.8m from US$10. or 41. a developer and manufacturer of rechargeable polymer-lithium-ion (PLI) batteries. as a Chinese bus manufacturer ordered five PLI battery packages. New Product Developments In May 2007.5m in sales or 29. all in the area of battery technologies.3m. operating income increased approximately 84.7%. The battery has a greater power capacity. which would use its PLI batteries in its gas-to-electric car conversions. For the first quarter of 2009 the company expects sales of US$10.3 0. The decrease reflected a one-time compensation charge that was recorded in 2007 plus a decrease in R&D costs as the company focused on expanding the company's production facility. For 2008.9m for 2007. Also.000 2008 2007 2006 2005 Outlook The company is positive about its future growth. announced that its wholly owned subsidiary. Also. ZQ Power-Tech. particularly for usage in electric sanitation vehicles.3m from US$3. seven of which are China patents and the other one a US patent. electric scooters. an increase of US$13.000 384. In October 2006 ZQ Power-Tech entered into a memorandum of understanding with Left Coast Conversions. The acquisition of Wuxi Angell will be helpful in getting greater capabilities in the electric vehicles market.8 10.6% from US$31. With the granting of this new patent Advanced Battery Technologies holds a total of eight patents.2m during 2007.000 0 32.2 6 (0. therefore it enjoys a great potential for application in powering electric vehicles. Ltd. Sales for full year 2009 are expected to be US$66m and net income is expected to be US$27. the increase in production capacity will generate tremendous revenue potential going forward by the end of 2009.

• In September 2006. designed to be useful in the treatment of companion animals. this division deals in the development and sale of products that test electrode materials for use in nano lithium titanate batteries. development.2500 Fax: +1. This division is also involved in the testing.7m (Year to 31. It also develops nano titanium dioxide materials for use in various applications. and applications supporting remote uninterruptable power supply requirements. and nanosensor applications. • Performance Materials division: produces titanium dioxide pigment for use in paint and coatings. including those related to removing contaminants from air and water. 204 Edison Way Reno. military and transportation. Recent Developments Corporate strategy Over the last several years. In 2006. President & CEO John Fallini.altairnano. air and water purification systems. This division is also involved in the development of a manufacturing process related to a test-stage active pharmaceutical ingredient. Altairnano’s role is to provide NanoSafe cells and batteries for the battery pack based on their proprietary lithium titanate electrode materials. Altairnano and UQM Technologies formed a strategic alliance to collaboratively pursue opportunities for their complementary technologies in advanced transportation and other high potential markets. Engineering & Operations Products Nano lithium titanate battery cells. The agreement combined AFL Automotive's expertise in vehicle electrical © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 63 . marketing. The company offers commercial solutions for the electricity grid. In addition. Robert Pedraza.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Altair Nanotechnologies Batteries and electrode materials Address Altair Nanotechnologies. batteries. The company signed a mutually exclusive development agreement for lithium polymer batteries in China with Advanced Battery Technologies in 2005. CFO & Corporate Secretary Bruce Sabacky. In 2007.12. Altairnano also collaborated with UQM Technologies to pursue opportunities for their complementary technologies in advanced transportation and other high potential markets.1619 Internet: http:// www. Altairnano and Alcoa AFL Automotive signed a deal to jointly develop a battery pack system for medium-duty hybrid trucks. • In February 2007. vehicle shock and vibration criteria. UQM provides its electric motor. and battery packs. Inc. Joint-venture • In June 2007. The company organises its business into three divisions: • Power & Energy Group: designs nano lithium titanate battery cells. ISE designs the system and utilises its data on operating environments. power generator and power electronic products and Altairnano provides its NanoSafe battery packs. Vice-President.Corporate Strategy Dan Voelker. battery packs and electrode materials Plants US Sales US$5. vehicle duty cycles and proprietary software and control electronics. Altairnano signed an agreement with ISE Corporation to jointly develop and commercially supply lithium rechargeable battery packs for use in hybrid electric and all electric heavy-duty vehicles. • Life Sciences division: engaged in the co-development of RenaZorb. Altairnano entered into a deal with Alcoa AFL Automotive to develop a battery pack system for medium-duty hybrid trucks. Chief Technology Officer C. VicePresident. batteries. It also offers related design and test services.08) Employees 92 (2008) Altair Nanotechnologies (Altairnano) designs and manufactures energy storage systems.856. and/or licensing of nano-structured ceramic powders for use in advanced performance coatings. Altairnano and ISE Corporation entered into an agreement to jointly develop lithium rechargeable battery packs for use in hybrid electric and all electric heavy-duty vehicles. Other cooperative areas include cell equalisation and packaging of the commercial product.com/ Senior Officers Terry Copeland. which is designed for the treatment of elevated serum phosphate levels in human patients undergoing kidney dialysis. a teststage active pharmaceutical ingredient. utility-scale renewable power integration.775.856. Altairnano has been forming strategic alliances to develop batteries for the hybrid and electric vehicles’ markets.775. NV 89502 Tel: +1. and data on the proper care and management of their cells and batteries.

1m. The car was powered by an Altairnano rechargeable advanced lithium ion battery system. Indiana (US) facility.2 Operating Income (US$m) (30.9m compared with US$42. onboard energy storage and power generation. and one HEV battery pack will be used for a modular testing program.3 2. and third was to apply for US government grants for the development and testing of the electrodes. New Product Developments In 2008. demand for hybrid and electric vehicles are expected to rise in the coming future. Altairnano and Advanced Battery Technologies signed a mutually exclusive development agreement for lithium polymer batteries in China. Altairnano reported sales of US$5. Year Sales (US$m) 5. • In June 2006. down from US$9.21m order for its rapid-charge.1 2. Altairnano secured a US$2. • In May 2007. development. The joint development agreement also involved prototyping. system design and was completed in early 2007.1) (17. capacitors and supercapacitors from a variety of nanomaterials.1m for 2007.1 5.9) Net Income (US$m) (29.7 9. The collaboration between Altairnano and UQM Technologies on product development opportunities helps both companies to commercialise their proprietary technologies as well as develop optimised solutions that require motive power. In April 2005.1) (31. • In May 2006.2) (9. In March 2004.1) (33.1m compared with a net loss of US$31.1 4.000 order for four hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) demonstration battery packs from DesignLine International. which includes batteries. The battery packs were based on the company’s nano-lithium ion battery technology. Operating loss decreased to US$30. Terms of the agreement were not disclosed.5) (17.7m. The agreement covers the incorporation of Altairnano’s battery electrode nano-materials into ABAT's existing polymer battery product lines.8 1.9m on its research and development (R&D) activities compared with US$15.4 10. Altairnano won a US$750. second to strengthen the technical and market position of both companies by combining technological and financial assets. Contracts • In October 2008.0) R&D Expenditure (US$m) 16. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 64 . Financial Overview For the year ended 31 December 2008. Altairnano signed a memorandum of joint development work with Hosokawa Micron International to jointly focus on three strategic initiatives: first was to establish a development program using both companies' combined technologies to develop advanced electrode materials for electrochemical devices.9 15. They were engineered and manufactured at Altairnano’s Anderson.1m from US$33. Altairnano and Boshart Engineering entered into a two-year joint development agreement for the design and engineering of a full-speed electric vehicle. Altairnano spent US$16. highpower NanoSafe 35 KWh battery packs for use in sport utility trucks (SUTs) and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) manufactured by Phoenix Motorcars.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report • • distribution systems and Altairnano's nano-titanate battery technology to deliver a battery pack system that can be integrated into the vehicle's electrical architecture. Net loss was US$29. The alliances formed in the recent past will help Altairnano to strengthen its position in the hybrid vehicles’ market.2m in the previous year. Operating expenses were US$35.5m in 2007. The HEV battery packs will be utilised in buses for three city transit customers. including existing manufacturing capabilities.4m in 2007. Altairnano received an initial US$540.2 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Outlook With gasoline fuel prices rising worldwide.5) (6.7) (10.9) (7.000 order for its electric car batteries from Phoenix Motorcars.

8bn US$17. Director.2008) Employees Group: 23. President & Representative Director.7bn (US$1. which offers Hipore microporous membrane.7m).696. Planning & Co-ordination group. Financial Overview For the financial year 31 March 2008. chemicals. Asahi Chemicals offers specialty products out of its diverse range of products. It contributes as a separator in lithium-ion batteries.asahi-kasei.1bn. Homes and Construction Materials faced the lowest operating profit but Chemicals and Fibre segments kept the overall decline to a minimum.” strategy for the fiscal year 2006-2010. Singapore (2). and Asahi Kasei EMD were integrated in a new operating company. Europe (8). Manager. the company reported a growth of 4. electronics and health care. Senior Executive Officer Yuji Mizuno. value added products.jp/ Senior Officers Nobuo Yamaguchi. Fibres. Executive Officer Satoru Yamaguchi. Electronics Materials & Devices (EMD). Korea (4). Asahi Kasei Chemicals. construction.4bn (US$11. The expected growth in demand for next generation hybrid electric vehicles has prompted the company to evaluate the opportunities for the adoption of lithium-ion batteries. Outlook To meet the targets of Growth Action – 2010. Under this plan. Senior Executive Officer Katsuhiko Sato. Executive Officer Yoshio Hayashi.03. Chairman & Representative Director Shiro Hiruta. In April 2009 the electronics materials-related businesses of the holding company. Asahi Kasei’s Hipore & Battery material division Products Separator for lithium-ion batteries Plants China (10). Potential demand has been forecast in nextgeneration hybrid electric vehicles.9bn (US$704. The key areas of this strategy are to expand and enhance global and domestic businesses. Kuraray Medical and Medical. the company will promote the development of distinguished. housing. the company is planning to venture into automotive applications including both hybrid-electric vehicles and all-electric vehicles. its Hipore business.1% to ¥127. Hipore separators currently hold a 50% share of the world market.696. 31 March 2008) (Year to 31. Hong Kong (2).The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Asahi Kasei Batteries Address Asahi Kasei EMD 1-105 Kanda Jinbocho Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo 101-8101 Japan Tel: +81 3 3296 3000 Fax: +81 3 3296 3161 Internet: http://www. Director. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 65 . Asahi Chemical is focusing on the expansion of the production capacity. Director. to meet the strong demand for lithium-ion rechargeable battery separatosr. Presidential Executive Officer Ichiro Itoh. Taiwan (4). Net income grew by ¥1. Homes. The integration of Asahi Kasei Chemicals and Asahi Kasei EMD is expected to increase its market share for batteries. Indonesia. Asahi Kasei Corporation is a Japan based holding company engaged in eight business segments. The combination of all the related technology and know-how throughout the Asahi Kasei Group in a single strategic entity will enable a heightened level of growth and development. as high feedstock costs were reflected in high product prices.854 (March 2008) Recent Developments Strategy The company launched its “Growth action – 2010. The company has its business in Chemicals. Thailand (2).5% to ¥1.8bn (US$17. Construction Materials. Currently. Vice-Presidential Executive Officer Kiyoshi Tsujita. The primary reason for overall growth is due to increase in sales in chemical operations. US (7) Sales Group: (¥1.co.8m) to ¥69. Director. Operating profit decreased by 0.1bn). Asahi Kasei Corporation offers pioneering solutions to a varied range of markets including fibres. Director. consumer products. Pharma.28bn).

It is expected to generate US$6.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Axion Power Batteries Address Axion Power International Inc 3601 Clover Lane New Castle.250 flooded lead-acid batteries. Shipments under the agreement would begin in Phase I. grid-related (uninterruptible power. Vice-President Manufacturing Products Lead carbon batteries Plants US Sales The company develops solutions for hybrid electric vehicles. which was announced by Governor Edward Rendell in January 2009. The second grant seeks to characterise Axion’s proprietary PbC™ battery in hybrid electric vehicle type duty-cycle testing. The purchase order is the first phase of a relationship that could expand to 50. which is scheduled to last 10 months and would ramp up at each phase point. hybrid truck/bus/train. The first grant seeks to identify the mechanism by which the optimum specification of carbon.559 (Year to 31. in February 2009. The company’s operations are conducted through its subsidiary. PA 16105 Tel: 724 654 9300 Fax: 724 654 3300 Internet: http://www.2m for the same period in 2007. In February 2009. Additionally. US$679. is part of Pennsylvania’s overall effort to invest in businesses that are developing innovative clean energy and bio-fuels technologies. The grant proceeds are expected to be received in 2009. CFO Edward Buiel . The first two phases will be for 18 months. The US$800. will lead to the final two phases of the agreement. These batteries were produced over the period of next 11 months under a toll-manufacturing contract with a major North American battery manufacturer. The consortium is the leading industry association made up in part by the largest companies supplying the world’s battery market and is expected to be completed in 2009.and test-periods will commence immediately. to support the research into two key areas.12. the company received notice that it will receive a grant from the Pennsylvania Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant program. when included in the negative active material of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery. The increase was due to the increased costs associated with additional efforts incurred to design. According to the terms of the agreement.axionpower. grid-based energy storage. provides protection against accumulation of lead sulphate during high-rate partialstate-of-charge operation.  In November 2008. No further details on anticipated shipments and schedules were released. develop and Axion Power manufactures lead carbon batteries for a wide range of energy storage and power delivery markets including renewable energy (wind. Axion Power International signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for a multi-year. The award proceeds will be used to demonstrate the advantages the Axion proprietary PbC battery technology provided in a variety of electric vehicle types. PEV.com/ Senior Officers Tom Granville. Contracts  In April 2009.4m in sales over 2009. Axion Power research and development (R&D) expenses were US$3.000 first-year grant. and emerging markets. Axion Power International received a purchase order for 92. at its battery plant located in New Castle. CEO & Director Don Hillier. peak shaving). three consecutive phased purchase. assuming successful testing. truck auxiliary power unit and military applications.9m compared with US$2. New Product Developments In 2008. The company is taking advantage of the grants announced by governments to boost the hybrid market. including hybrid electric vehicles.000 from the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium.000 units per month by mid 2009. Axion Power Battery Manufacturing. global supply relationship with Exide Technologies for the purchase of Axion PbC batteries. including hybrids and electric vehicles. the company received a grant of US$380. Pennsylvania (US). solar). electric vehicles. Recent Developments Corporate strategy Axion Power is focused on manufacturing batteries for use in hybrid and electric vehicles. with Axion supplying an increasing number of batteries to Exide on a monthly basis. load-leveling. which if successful.08) Employees 50 © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 66 . Pittsburgh. Vice-President & Chief Technology Officer Bob Nelson . representing an increase in spending of 46%.

7 0. pilot product production and demonstration project production activities.7) R&D Expenditure (US$m) 3.7) (9.3bn in combined annual sales by 2009.3) (7. collector and racing cars. Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Sales (US$m) 0.6) (3. Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 December 2008.6m compared with a net loss of US$14. the company had one customer that accounted for about 10% of the consolidated sales. which are projected to exceed US$4. Renewable (wind/solar) applications are expected to grow from current estimates of US$400m to US$895m of annual sales by 2009. Axion Power sees a number of global market opportunities for its technology.911 in 2007. and it is likely the company may not be able to generate sufficient sales and gross margin in the near future to achieve or sustain profitability.3 Net Income (US$m) (10.2 1. The increase was primarily due to the sale of legacy lead-acid batteries for antique.8 Outlook Axion Power has incurred net losses since its inception.559 compared with US$533.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report test advanced batteries and energy storage products based on its patented lead carbon battery ( PbC ). DC power applications to increase to US$900m and emerging (hybrid electric vehicles.6) (14. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 67 . The company reported a net loss of US$10.5 0. Axion Power International sales were US$679.9 2. including manufacturing activities to prepare the plant for future PbC production. fuel cells) markets to grow from US$180m annually to US$2bn by 2009. In 2008. grid-related applications to reach to US$600m.3m in the preceding year. In 2008.6 1. the company increased its R&D staff by about 50% and signed them to long term contracts.

BatScap manufactures supercapacitors for automotive. near Quimper (France). Valeo’s partners are: PSA Peugeot Citroën.08) Employees Group: 32. Chairman & CEO Cedric De Bailliencourt. France Sales €7. research & development material and a 130. shipping lines and railways. or other industrial markets. BatScap.1m) in direct subsidies and the rest in repayable short-term loans. The first © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 68 . stevedoring.8m (US$86. for €61m (US$96. which gave it new capabilities and a production unit in Canada. Avestor was engaged in the development of lithium polymer batteries for automotive and telecommunication applications. a subsidiary of Bolloré. particularly telecommunications. Joint-venture • In June 2008.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Bolloré Batteries and supercapacitors Address Bolloré SA Tour Bollore 31-32 quai de Dion-Bouton Puteaux. stationary markets (telecommunications. near Quimper (France).22m) was invested and 50 people were hired. UPS. It also develops lithium metal polymer battery for automotive. while BatScap was aiming to focus on electric automobile applications.3m) over the period 20072011 announced in March 2007.000m2 production site in Boucherville near Montreal (Canada). of which €19m (US$30. The acquisition includes intellectual property. It was also active in batteries and battery systems for hybrid and pure electric vehicles.com Senior Officers Vincent Bollore. CFO Products Supercapacitors and lithium metal polymer batteries Plants Canada. Acquisition • In March 2007.batscap.6m). military. buildings. Avestor’s technical capacities were redirected to BatScap and the combined company decided to expand competence and operations in developing batteries for electric vehicles. Recent Developments Corporate strategy In its automotive business. IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole) and INPG (Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble). aircraft. The company acquired Avestor in March 2007.3bn. Under the contract signed with OSEO.com batScap Odet Ergué Gabéric 29556 Quimper cedex 9 Tel: + 33 (0)2 98 66 78 00 Fax: + 33 (0)2 98 66 78 01 http://www. space. specialises in the design and manufacture of lithium metal polymer batteries and supercapacitors for industrial use. Bolloré acquired the assets of Canadian manufacturer Avestor to expand its battery production business. international logistics. energy. Batscap. transportation in Africa. In January 2008. energy storage) and space and defence. BatScap along with other partners such as Valeo.4m) in funding for its research program LOwCO2MOTION. including freight forwarding. Avestor had also been focusing on developing batteries for stationary markets. initiated the LOwCO2MOTION research program in March 2007.164 (2008) Bolloré is active in numerous areas. including plastic films and thin papers for capacitors and packaging.12. Around 50 people that were previously employed by Avestor were transferred to BatScap. Financial terms were not disclosed. the French state financing group dedicated to supporting innovation. 31 December 2008) (Year to 31. The research program focuses on developing camless systems and advanced mild hybrids with ultracapacitors.6m (US$334. Bolloré started with manufacturing capacitor films and soon expanded operations to lithium polymer batteries through its subsidiary BatScap. Valeo signed a contract with OSEO.33bn (US$10. 92811 France Tel: 33-1-46964433 Fax: 33-1-46964422 Internet: http://www. The LOwCO2MOTION program includes a total investment of €211.bollore. Valeo will receive €54. the company opened its first supercapacitor industrial production unit at Ergué-Gabéric. such as freight charters and fuel distribution. The research program aims to improve vehicle engine efficiency and contribute to reducing CO2 emissions in vehicles by developing camless systems and a next-generation mild hybrid with ultracapacitors for energy storage. Nearly €36m (US$53. Investment • In January 2008. the Bolloré Group officially opened its first supercapacitor industrial production unit at Ergué-Gabéric. Vice-Chairman & CEO Thierry Marraud. The company is also concentrating its efforts towards CO2 emissions reduction.

5 472.8 769.4%. Net profit for the period increased 84% to €50. • In February 2008.3bn.7 Operating Profit (€m) 124 105 102 121 95 Operating Profit (US$m) 174.9 5.100m².5 55. the Gruau electric Microbus powered by lithium metal polymer batteries and supercapacitors developed by Batscap is scheduled to be launched during the second half of 2009.3 9. New Product Developments Being a privately-owned company.3%. Bolloré also gained a plant in Canada. followed by Fuel distribution at 33. shareholdings) 1. Bolloré now has manufacturing presence in western Europe and North American automotive markets. Financial Overview For the fiscal year ended 31 December 2008. with a maximum capacity of one million units per year was installed alongside the production units for capacitor components.4 4. Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Sales (€bn) 7.7% to the consolidated sales.6% and Others (media. it can be expected that the company might set up more production units in the near future to cater to the increasing demand for electric vehicles. plantations.5m).7 324.5 134.33bn (US$10. 31 December 2008) compared with €6. With this addition. 31 December 2007) in 2007.4bn (US$9. Industry 4. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 69 . which was exhibited at the Geneva Motor show in 2007.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report industrial production line. Bolloré sales increased 14% to €7.3m (US$70.8 154. Business-wise. which will help the company to serve OEMs directly and hence will strengthen its relationship with them.4 7. Contracts • BatScap batteries equips Bolloré’s electric car BlueCar.8m). Transportation & logistics contributed 61.3 129.9 Sales (US$bn) 10.9 Outlook With the Avestor acquisition.3 6.7 143. This new industrial production line covers a surface area of 2.8 6.4bn. telecoms. Operating profit was €124m (US$178. Bolloré does not disclose its research and development (R&D) expenditure. Additionally.4 5. an increase of 18%.6 Net Profit (€m) 50 321 583 274 41 Net Profit (US$m) 70.4 6.

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BYD
Batteries, network power systems
Address BYD Company Limited No.3001, Hengping Road, Pingshan Longgang District 518118 Shenzhen City Guangdong Province P.R.China Tel: + 86-755-89888888 Fax: + 86-755-84202222 Internet: http://www.byd.com.cn Senior Officers Wang Chuan-fu, Executive Director Lu Xiang-yang, Non-executive Director Xia Zuo-quan, Non-executive Director Products Nickel batteries, lithium-ion batteries, network power systems Plants China (9) Sales Group: CNY26.78bn (US$3.92bn, 31 December 2008) (Year to 31.12.08) Batteries:CNY6.20bn (US$909.45m, 31 December 2008) (Year to 31.12.2008) Employees Group: 130,000 (2008) In 2008, BYD had 73% of total sales from China, 13% from Asia Pacific (excluding China), 7% from Europe, 5% from America and 2% from Others. Recent Developments Corporate Strategy BYD has had a leading position in the global rechargeable battery market for many years. The company’s stratgey to maintain this position is to keep prices of its products competitive in the market and continous innovation with the help of its research and development capabilities. The company also plans to diversify applications of the battery products in different markets to gain additional market share in the rechargeable battery market. A step towards this strategy is the joint-venture (JV) formed with Wuhan Iron and Steel Group in March 2009. Strategy of forward integration in the field of car manufacturing has also proved beneficial to the company. The manufacturing taking place locally and most of the raw material procured internally has reaped profits for the automobile segment. The company has already started earning profits from this new segment within a span of six years. This was possible due to the constant emphasis on R&D activities. Joint-Ventures • In March 2009, BYD and Wuhan Iron and Steel Group (WISCO) formed a strategic co-operation agreement. Both companies benefit in the field of technology, new product research and development, information sharing, steel distribution and processing. WISCO accounted for 60% of the company’s total purchase in 2008. Contracts • In March 2009, BYD won a contract from AUTO EV (An Electric Vehicle Development Corporation of Japan) to supply batteries for its new electric cars to be launched in May 2009. New Product Developments BYD’s expenditure on research and development in 2008, increased by 67.29% to CNY1.16bn (US$170.6m, 31 March 2008) from CNY695.22m (US$95.3m, 31 March 2007) in the previous year. The Central Research Institute and Technical school, sponsored by BYD Company Limited, is situated within BYD Baolong industrial park at Longgang District in Shenzhen, China covering an area of 60,000m2 including 40,000m2 for buildings. The institute offers courses with a combination of learning in class, practice in work-shop and research in lab. Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 March 2008, BYD’s sales increased by 26% to CNY26.78bn (US$3.92bn, 31 December 2008). The company recorded decrease in profit before tax of 21.7% to CNY1.36bn (US$199.4m) for the year ended 31 December 2008 from CNY1.74bn (US$238.5m) in 2007. The company recorded decrease in net profit of 25% to CNY1.27bn (US$186.2m) in 2008, compared with CNY1.70bn (US$233m) in 2007.

BYD Company Limited, established in 1995 in China, has two core businesses namely IT Part business and Automobile Business. Starting with batteries business for handsets today BYD manufactures its own cars.
BYD’s IT Part business includes handsets components and assembly service, and rechargeable batteries. The company started with handset components and today provides rechargeable batteries like nickel and lithium-ion batteries. BYD also has expertise in R&D. The company has its own Central Research Institute established in April 2005 and a BYD Technical School sponsored by BYD Company Limited with the approval of Shenzhen Municipal government.

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The company’s total sales has contribution from three divisions. Handset components and assembly services contributed 45% in fiscal year 2008, Automobiles contributed 32%, and Rechargeable batteries and others contributed 23%. The total sales of rechargeable batteries amounted to CNY6.2bn (US$909.45m) which decreased 13% in 2008 compared with CNY7.14bn (US$978.87m) in 2007. lithium battery sales amounted to CNY3.93bn (US$576.47m) in 2008 which is in line with 2007 sales which amounted to CNY3.99bn (US$547.02m) whereas, nickel battery sales declined 26% to CNY2.20bn (US$322.71m) in 2008 compared with CNY2.97bn (US$407.18m) in 2007. The rest of the sales in this division was contributed by other related products. Automobile division sales increased 77% to CNY8.64bn (US$1.26bn) in fiscal year 2008 compared with CNY4.87bn (US$667.66m) in 2007. Total units sold amounted to 170,000 in 2008. The company’s geographical sales observed certain changes in countries other than China due to global economic slowdown in 2008. Sales contribution from China increased 45.4% to CNY19.62bn (US$2.87bn) in fiscal year 2008 compared with CNY13.49bn (US$1.84bn) in 2007. Asia Pacific (excluding China) sales declined 13.9% to CNY3.36bn (US$492.86m) in 2008 compared with CNY3.90bn (US$534.6m) in 2007. European sales declined 5.4% to CNY1.98bn year-on-year compared with CNY2.10bn (US$287.9m). America’s contribution to sales declined 3.2% to CNY1.40bn (US$205.36m) compared with CNY1.45bn (US$198.75m) in 2007. Others reported 58% increase to CNY404.36m (US$59.31m) compared with CNY255.29m (US$34.99m) in 2007. Year Net Sales (CNYbn) Profit Before Tax (CNYbn) 1.36 1.74 1.18 0.59 1.06 Profit Before Tax (US$m) 199.4 238.5 151.3 73.1 128.2 Net Income (CNYbn) 1.27 1.70 1.12 0.50 1.00 Net Income (US$m) 186.2 233 143.6 61.9 120.9 R&D Expenditure (CNYm) 1163.09 695.22 404.33 113.64 69.28 R&D Expenditure (US$m) 170.6 95.3 51.85 14.08 8.38 No. of Employees

2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Year

26.78 21.21 12.93 6.49 6.42 Net Sales (US$bn ) 3.92 2.90 1.65 0.80 0.78

130,000 120,000 55,000 40,000 28,000 No. of Employees

2008 2007 2006 2005 2004

130,000 120,000 55,000 40,000 28,000

Outlook Considering the global economic slowdown in the auto industry which has also affected BYD’s rechargeable battery business, the company is using new product development to overcome the set backs. The company will be able to sustain the global crisis with the help of its strategy to diversify its products in different markets which would add to the income of the company. The JV with WISCO was a step in this direction. The new contracts earned in March and April 2009 will help the company to make up for the declined sales in fiscal 2008. The company can also rely on its recently developed auto market where it provides quality and advanced products at competitive prices.

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Cobasys
Batteries
Address Cobasys LLC 3740, Lapeer Road South Orion, Michigan 48359 USA Tel: +248 620 5700 Fax: +248 620 5702 Internet: http://www.cobasys.com Senior Officers Thomas Neslage, President & CEO Scott Lindholm, Vice-President, Systems Engineering & Chief Sales Officer Joseph S Crocenzi, Vice-President, Finance, General Manager, Planning & Business Strategy Jim Greiwe, Vice-President, Manufacturing Gary Absher, Vice-President, Product Development Ed Cozat, Director, Engineering Services Products Nickel metal hydride batteries lithium-ion (Li-Ion): PHEV Systems Plants USA Sales US$14.4m (Year to 30.06.2007) Employees 380 In early 2008, partners of the company planned to provide substantial capital contribution which was necessary to fund approved operations in proportion to their membership percentage interests. In the beginning of 2009, the company restructured its business due to the reduction in the production level. The company laid off 119 people. The move was in response to lower orders from its clients. Investments • In April 2007, Cobasys announced expansion of its headquarters at Michigan (US) to facilitate development of NiMH and lithium systems. Joint-Ventures • In January 2007, Cobasys and A123Systems signed an agreement to form a partnership to develop lithium-ion energy storage systems for HEV applications. Contracts Cobasys has contracts for the majority of its capacity through 2010. • In May 2007, Cobasys supplied its NiMHax®battery systems to Enova Systems for integration into hybrid service vans for Verizon. • In March 2007, Cobasys and A123Systems signed a contract with General Motors to develop batteries for the Saturn Vue. • In March 2007, Cobasys started supplying the 2008 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid Sedan with the 36V NiMH battery system. In 2007, the company also announced investments of over US$30m in plant and equipment to meet the growing demand for NiMH battery systems at its Springboro, Ohio (US) module manufacturing and system assembly plant.

Cobasys is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and medium-heavy duty vehicles. The company also supplies to the telecommunication, UPS and distributed generation sectors.
In 2001, Cobasys was formed as Texaco Ovonic Battery System, but was later renamed as Cobasys in 2004. It is a joint-venture between ChevronTexaco Technology Ventures LLC and Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. For the HEV segment, Cobasys offers NiMH advanced battery systems for passenger cars, SUVs, buses and trucks. Recent Developments Corporate strategy Owners of Cobasys are exploring strategic alternatives to capitalise on opportunities for energy storage solutions in the growing HEV and stationary power industries. Cobasys is working with OEMs to develop batteries and energy storage systems for HEVs, heavy-duty vehicles and plug-in HEVs applications. The company is developing lithium technology and energy system solutions for rechargeable plugin HEVs. These include providing battery systems for the Saturn Vue Green Line, Saturn Aura Green Line, the Chevrolet Malibu hybrid and a contract to develop lithium battery systems for the new General Motors plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) development program. The company is focusing on the commercialisation of NiMH batteries for the HEV market. The company’s strategy is to conceptualise, design and develop materials, products and production processes and commercialise them internally and through third-party relationship, such as licenses and joint-ventures. In January 2007, the company signed an agreement with A123Systems to use lithium technology of A123Systems to develop products for the HEV market.

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778% higher than the previous year’s figure of US$1.4m. Cobasys signed a technical cooperation agreement with Panasonic EV Energy.64m. viable and environmental) vehicle. due to a breach of contract. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 73 . Cobasys started supplying NiMHax® Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery systems for integration in the Lotus Engineering EVE (efficient.32) (41.4 1. the company was sued and jeopardised its relationship with Daimler AG.35) (45.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report • • • • • In March 2007. which further impacted the prospects of the company. In July 2005.5) (41. Cobasys’ future will depend on developing new products such as the lithium technology and energy system solutions for rechargeable plug-in HEVs that the company is currently exploring. In December 2006. Cobasys will receive royalties from Panasonic on North American sales of NiMH battery products through 2014. In June 2005. Cobasys signed an agreement with Motorola to manufacture battery control system components for HEV battery systems.27) Outlook Cobasys has been facing losses since its inception.1) Net Income (US$m) (75. developed ‘NiMhax 336-70’ NiHM battery packs for HEVs. Cobasys received an order from Denver Regional Transport District (RTD) to convert ten hybrid buses from lead batteries to its NiMH battery systems. Under the agreement. GM had plans to acquire Cobasys. in cooperation with Azure Dynamics. The members of Cobasys OBS and CTV did not approve of 2008’s business plan and budget because of its lower prospects to grow. Year 2007 2006 2005 Sales (US$m) 14.5) (41. Its packs range from 144volts and 30KW for light duty automotive applications to 672 volts and 280KW for large commercial applications.64 1. Financial Overview: In the financial year ended 30 June 2007 Cobasys’s sales were US$14. The unit forecasted losses of US$82m in 2008 with funding requirements of at least US$92m compared with US$76m losses in 2007 on funding of roughly US$84m. Cobasys. Further. Cobasys won a contract from General Motors to develop a lithium-ion battery system for GM’s Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) program. the investments that the company is making to increase production capacity at its manufacturing locations are likely to ensure future growth. a joint-venture between Matsushita Electric and Toyota Motor Corporation. The partners plan to sell Cobasys because of its uncertain financial conditions. In 2008. • In August 2004. Cobasys introduced NiMHax battery packs for all transportation applications. In August 2005. Cobasys received a contract from General Motors to supply the NiMHax® NiMH battery system for the Saturn Aura Green Line hybrid mid-size saloon. Panasonic will sell NiMH battery products for North American transportation applications. but the process has been put on hold. In January 2007. The company might perform better in the future as it has signed major contracts for HEVs till 2010. New Product Developments • In November 2004.17 Operating Income (US$m) (64.

3bn (US$34. 36% from Europe (excluding Germany). in 2008 Powertrain division had 28% sales from Germany.12. Hybrid Electric vehicle business unit Heinz-Gerhard Wente.4bn (US$15. Continental started series production of lithium-ion batteries in September 2008 at Nuremberg Site (Germany). Enax. Sales Group: €24. Hungary. Sensors & Actuators.conti-online. Chrysler. approximately 25. Karl-Thomas Neumann. The Powertrain division has presence in 62 locations in 20 countries. 31December 2008) (Year to 31.2bn. Malaysia. The acquisition placed Continental among top five global suppliers. and in 2005 it had its first fully functional lithium-ion battery system. CEO. COO. Malaysia. Continental Rubber group is divided into three main divisions: Passenger and Light truck tires. USA (7) In July 2007. Transmissions. in which lithium-ion battery also forms the product family of energy storage systems. Daimler. The powertrain division is setting new standards with the expansion of its battery portfolio to cater to market demands. It is used in the Mercedes S 400 BlueHybrid which launched in April 2009.155 (December 2008) Powertrain Group: 25. The Hybrid Electric Vehicles business unit offers all the basic components for a complete hybrid system. In 2008. Temic and the automotive electronic business of Motorola. 31 December 2008) (Year to 31. President. Each group has three divisions. the most recent being of Siemens VDO. the automotive electronics business of Siemens group. service life and performance of lithium-ion batteries. Philippines. Toyota. the company acquired businesses of Teves. the company also supplied the inverter and the DC/DC converter for the same.2008) Automotive group: €14. the automotive electronic division of the Siemens group. Its major customers include BMW.12.9bn (US$21bn. Continental Automotive Systems (CAS) is divided into three divisions: Chassis & Safety. Germany (9). Mexico (3). Chassis & Safety. Acquisitions • In June 2008. In the last ten years.2008) Employees Group: 139. Head. The company acquired 16% holding in Enax. Apart from the lithium-ion battery.000 employees achieved sales of €4bn (US$5. North America Products Lithium-ion batteries Plants Powertrain Division: Australia. 31 December 2008) (Year to 31.12. Continental is developing products for the mild and full hybrid vehicles. Mexico. Continental acquired Siemens VDO.6m) for the takeover. The company has 200 sites for production and R&D in 36 countries. The two companies intend to improve safety. In 2006. Interior and Powertrain divisions Jorg Grotendorst. Powertrain and Interior. Fuel Supply and Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Region wise. The Continental Automotive group has sales of approximately €15bn (US$21bn) in 2008. Continental acquired shares of Japanese lithium-ion specialist. The Continental Group is made up of the Automotive group and the Rubber group. 22% from Nafta and 1% from rest of the countries. the company started the project with Daimler to develop hybrid system along with lithium-ion batteries for the planned Mercedes S 400 BlueHybrid model. Korea (2). COO. Romania. Italy. These buyouts have transformed Continental from a tire manufacturer to an automotive systems supplier. The group manufactures brake systems. UK (1). these strategic acquisitions are helping it to broaden its product portfolio and global presence. Philippines. North America Jeff Klei.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Continental Lithium-ion batteries Address Continental AG Vahrenwalder Straße 9 D-30165 Hannover Germany Tel: +49 511 938 01 Fax: +49 511 938 81770 Internet: http://www. Germany.244 (December 2008) Recent Developments Corporate strategy Continental is focusing on integration of several acquisitions it has made over the last few years. Chassis & Safety Samir Salman. Czech Republic (4). chassis components. CTO.com Senior Officers Continental is a leading supplier of tires and automotive components.6bn). © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 74 . In the hybrid market. India. 13% from Asia. China (4).6bn. Thailand. In addition. Romania and Slovakia where it plans to shift its production from high-cost countries. Continental started lithium-ion battery system development in 2002. The powertrain division is further divided into five divisions: Engine Systems. The group is also expanding its presence in low cost countries including Czech Republic. The headquarter is situated in Hannover. Russia. Fiat. Ford. Volkswagen and Volvo. vehicle electronics and powertrain controls.2008) Powertrain division: €4bn (US$5. Continental supplies almost all major vehicle manufacturers. Brazil. France (2). ContiTech Division Ralf Cramer. General Motors. The company paid €11. The takeover was closed in December 2007. Commercial vehicle tires and ContiTech.

498.8 677 No.3bn (US$34. In sync with the plan.2m) compared with €144. particularly in the first half.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Joint-ventures • In June 2008.11bn) compared with €834.3m.9 1. GM tested two competing battery packs for use in the GM Chevrolet Volt.1m (US$592.9m (US$213.3%.1bn (US$ 1. in January 2009 LG Chem won the contract to supply lithium-ion batteries to GM. Continental’s Automotive Group witnessed extremely adverse market conditions and restructuring initiatives.23bn) in 2007. The plan is to launch the car in late 2010. • In August 2007.6bn) from €1. However. In the first quarter of 2009. This was mainly due to changes in the scope of consolidation after the acquisition of Siemens VDO and the automotive electronics business of Motorola. one provided by Continental and another by LG Chem.6 14. Continental and Enax agreed on a cooperative venture for the development of lithium-ion cells for future hybrid and electric drives in automobiles.49bn (US$2. In spite of the difficult market conditions.6bbn (US$24. Net sales were reported at €24.67 1. The increase resulted from the acquisition of Siemens VDO.4% of the divisions sales compared to previous year’s 12.57bn).83bn (US$2.004. Chiba. The company registered a growth of 45.4bn) in 2007. In 2007.281.60 Net Income (€m) (1. integrating four other R&D centres at Yokohama. In September 2008. 31 December 2008) from last year. Continental started series production of lithium-ion batteries to be used in hybrid drive cars. with the comparative figures in 2008.654 85. Continental signed a contract to supply lithium-ion batteries to Daimler for Mercedes S 400 BlueHYBRID. New Product Developments In 2008. In the process.52bn) in 2008. The plant can produce 15. The powertrain division invested over €3m (US$4.3m).077) 1.6 R&D Expenditure (€m) 1.2m.6bn) in 2007.8m (US$1.2% of sales compared with previous year’s 5%.2% to €4bn (US$ 5. R&D expenses climbed by 79. a decrease of €296m (US$417.000 units each year in a production facility covering 300m2.4m) in 2007. Sales in the Powertrain division increased by 243. The expenses accounted for 6.5% to €1. The company planned to start the production from December 2007. Segment wise. 30 September.3 16.9bn (US$21bn) while adjusted EBIT was €908.2bn) which was largely aided by the acquisition of Siemens VDO. In May 2008. Continental predicts large deviations. Financial Overview Continental AG has reported growth in net sales for fiscal year ended 31 December 2008. Mercedes introduced S 400BlueHybrid. Hamamatsu and Hiroshima (Japan). Continental’s adjusted EBIT (before amortisation and depreciation of acquired assets) was €1.8 EBIT (€bn) (0. The company reported net loss of €1.07bn (US$1. Continental expects to generate free cash flow and reduce its debts in 2009.8% in net sales from €16. • In June 2007.225 2008 2007 2006 © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 75 .2 834. Contracts • In March 2008. Continental set up a research and development centre (R&D) in Yokohama (Japan) to strengthen its relations with Japanese and Korean OEMs. of Employees 139. Mercedes Benz planned to launch S 400BlueHybrid in the early 2009.049. The company also assumes that significant restructuring measures will be carried out in 2009. The expenses accounted for 10. 2008) in building a manufacturing capacity at Nuremberg site (Germany). Net sales of the Group were recorded at €14. Investments • In September 2008.29) 1. the company developed the first production ready lithium-ion battery for hybrid vehicle.9% to €420. In Powertrain division R&D expenses increased by 189.155151. the world’s first lithium-ion battery car in April 2009. Continental secured a contract from GM for advance development of lithium-ion batteries for the GM Chevrolet E-Flex propulsion system which is to be used in Chevy volt concept car. Year Net Sales (€bn) 24. Continental started pre-series production of lithium-ion batteries in Berlin (Germany). Johnson Control supplied battery cells to Continental to supply lithium-ion batteries to Daimler.9m (US$1. This capacity can be doubled at a short notice. The centre will be the R&D hub for the company in Japan. Continental used battery cells designed by A123 Systems.

40) 2.18 589 524 R&D Expenditure (US$m) 2. This will increase the demand for fuel-efficient and hybrid vehicles.05 1.155151.46 2. stricter emission norms and rising oil prices require new approaches to drive systems with minimal environmental and climatic impact. Continental has emerged as one of Europe’s best fuel efficient product suppliers due to a strong position in fuel injection and hybrid technologies.112. However.2 24. Russia.654 85. which sees hybrid and electric drives as the proper route for those vehicles which are economical yet dynamic.58 952.8 12. of Employees 139. Continental foresees high growth potential in the emerging market especially in BRIC countries (Brazil.29) 1. In the future.5 Net Sales (US$bn) 34.586 No.83 977.66 16. developed automotive markets in Europe and North America will continue to be strategically important due to high margins.2 Net Income (US$m) (1.2 716.849 80.34 1.39 17.225 79.82 697.51 1.546. Simultaneously.07 1.64 714.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report 2005 2004 Year 13.11 1.95 79.79 1.518.35 1. India and China) mainly driven by volume.326. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 76 . The acquisition has not only increased its global presence and product offerings but also strengthened its technological capability.849 80.127.45 19.586 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Outlook Continental's take over of Siemens VDO has positioned it among the leading automotive suppliers.229.54 893. the interest in hybrid drives is growing not just in North America and Asia but in Europe as well. which will offer huge opportunities for Continental’s Powertrain division.16 EBIT (US$bn) (0.

The unit can be charged in few minutes and weighs less than 10% of current lead-acid batteries for the same cost. The company has developed an ultracapacitor. Joint-venture In August 2004. Overall. for electric vehicle. Texas (US).3m was already paid in the ultracapcitor company in April 2007. hybrid electric vehicles.5m. Vice-President & General Manager Products Ultracapacitors Plants US Employees 28c Outlook EEStor’s mysterious ultracapacitor has created ripples in the market and considered to be a breakthrough. Zenn purchased 3. Further details of balanced investment money have not yet been disclosed. Kleiner Perkins invested a reported US$3m in EEstor in July 2005. which gave Zenn exclusive rights to use its technology in small and mid-size cars.8% of EEStor after planning to invest US$2. the veil would be off when the company’s ultracapcitors are launched with Zenn’s small electric vehicle – City Zenn by the end of 2009. the company secured a US patent for its battery. Co-Founder Tom Weir. EEStor’s ultracapacitor is based on modified barium titanate ceramic powder which could power a car for 400km. backup power and utility storage for renewable power sources. Zenn and Kleiner Perkins invested in EEStor for the research and development of the company’s product. the target market for the car is set to be Europe.us/ Senior Officers Richard Weir. EEStor’s first production line will be used to supply Zenn. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 77 . CEO & President Carl Nelson. in December 2008.eestor. EEStor has maintained a low profile and kept its technology under wraps for quite a long while. out of which US$1. Currently. EEstor manufactures energy storage devices for hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. However. which they have termed as Electrical Energy Storage Unit (EESU).The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report EEStor Ultracapacitors Address 715 Discovery Boulevard Cedar Park TX 78613-2287 US Tel: +1-512-259-7601 Internet: http://www. Financial Overview EEStor is a privately held company and hence the financials of the company are not disclosed. EEStor and Zenn had a technology agreement. EEStor was established in 2001 and is based at Cedar Park.

for zeroemission electric vehicles for the North American and global specialty truck market. aerospace and other low pressure applications underwater. Tata Motors European Technical Centre plc. Ontario Canada L5J 1K9 Tel: 905-855-4610 Fax: 905-822-7953 Internet: http://www. The project included certain upfront engineering design services and hardware production. As part of the licensing agreement signed.com/ Senior Officers Sankar Das Gupta. trucks and manufacturing equipment. with Tata Motors and Miljobil for the electric battery production in Norway. Recent Developments Corporate strategy Over the years. In addition. followed by 20. Tata Motors' UK subsidiary.54m (Year to 30. Electrovaya has been forming joint-ventures with OEMs and other battery suppliers to boost the development of environmentfriendly electric vehicles. for zero-emission electric vehicles. Phoenix Motorcars and Tata Motors. The second was with GuangZhou Lange Electric Equipment Co. a technology licence fee and a royalty based on the value of its proprietary Lithium-ion SuperPolymer batteries used in the electric cars. The JV was established to produce battery packs for electric two-wheelers. three-wheelers Electrovaya manufactures and markets portable power technology products using its SuperPolymer® technology. Miljo will also produce electric vehicles based on Tata Motors' products. • In October 2007. Further. • In October 2008. • In January 2008. backup power and mobile energy storage.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Electrovaya Battery solutions Address Electrovaya Inc. Electrovaya receives royalties and license fees and also got an option to participate in VV's share structure. Joint-venture • In November 2008. the company signed agreements with Chana International and Shandong Shifeng Group to supply its proprietary batteries for zero-emission electric vehicles in China. Electrovaya signed an agreement for a battery pack design and production program with Phoenix Motorcars. • In May 2008. Ltd. It was also announced that the JV will provide a significant amount of its proceeds to research and development (R&D).electrovaya.3% from Canada. Electrovaya entered into a non-binding MOU with Electrotherm India Ltd. Electrovaya joined a cooperative R&D consortium in 2005 to develop a prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. to establish a Lithium SuperPolymer battery plant in India.3% stake in Miljo. The MOU also provided VV with an option to purchase a small portion of Electrovaya's outstanding shares. The first agreement was with Chana International Corp.7% from other regions. from early 2009. Electrovaya signed three memorandums of understanding (MOU's) in Beijing (China) in the areas of electric cars. including plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. As its technology partner. Chairman & Chief Executive Officer Paul L. Ltd. The company collaborated with Visionary Vehicles in January 2008 to produce batteries for Visionary Vehicles’s plug-in hybrid vehicles. 2645 Royal Windsor Drive Mississauga. In 2008. The company offers power systems for a variety of applications. In 2008. which is scheduled for launch in Europe during 2009.1% of the consolidated sales from the US. Electrovaya partnered with Tata Motors and Miljo Grenland/Innovasjon to manufacture batteries and electric cars in Norway.08) Employees 175 (2008) The company serves numerous OEMs. the company generated 49. Electrovaya formed a 50:50 joint-venture (JV) with New York-based Visionary Vehicles (VV) to produce batteries for VV's full line of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs). including Changan Automobile. with a capacity of up to ten megawatt hours per month. using Electrovaya's proprietary and Lithium-ion SuperPolymer battery technology.09. The first such vehicle will be the Indica EV. 19.9% from Norway and the remaining 10. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 78 . Chief Financial Officer Products Lithium-ion battery Plants US Sales US$2. for battery equipment. Electrovaya receives equity in Miljo. The third agreement was signed with Shandong Shifeng Group Co. Hart. holds 50.

Gain on sale of investments increased 10. foreign exchange. nearly 87.9m compared with US$3.8 Outlook Over the past several years. The new product has up to 50% higher energy density. Electrovaya also got the exclusive right to export batteries from this plant to overseas customers. Electrovaya supplied its MN-Series Lithium-ion SuperPolymer battery. The expected hybrid vehicles’ growth is likely to provide significant opportunities to the © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 79 .9) (6. Loss before interest. amortisation.5 2. lower amortisation expenses and the presence of gain from foreign exchange. In September 2005. Contracts • In December 2007. Year Sales (US$m) Loss before interest.6% of the consolidated sales were from the US. In April 2007.1% to US$3.05m over US$4.4m.6 2.4 3.34m in the same period in 2007. Electrovaya entered into an agreement with Miljobil Innovasjon AS for a licence of Electrovaya's technology related to battery chemistry and the manufacture of battery modules.000 for the quarter ended 31 December 2007. amortisation.6m in the prior year. these types of vehicles are likely to become the future of the automotive industry. Electrovaya sales were US$2. It is powered by Electrovaya's Lithium-ion SuperPolymer battery technology with integrated iBMS (intelligent battery management system).2m. Electrovaya launched the Maya-300.3 3.000 from US$495.1) (4. Electrovaya has been strengthening its position in the area of battery production for electric and hybrid vehicles. Financial Overview For the financial year ended 30 September 2008. Net income reflected a decrease in general & administration expenses.6) (7.8% from Canada and the remaining 2.000 compared with a net loss of US$1.5) Net Profit/ (Loss) (US$m) (4.23m in the same quarter of the prior year.4 6. Net income totalled US$26. taxes. Electrovaya received a US$100. It has an extended range of up to 120 miles on a single charge.5% to US$3. equity and royalties. For the three months ended 31 December 2008. Electrovaya’s R&D expenditure increased 89. followed by 9. the Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Development Consortium.000 compared with US$1. Net loss was US$4.6% from other regions.54m compared with US$2. lowspeed electric vehicle.2) (8. power and safety characteristics.3) (8. before interest.5 6. The sales growth was due to an increase in sales from large format batteries and higher income from the Other business segment.06m. foreign exchange. It is well suited for large-format battery system demands with its high energy density.64m in the previous year.000 contract from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) to develop and demonstrate a plug-in hybrid concept using the Ford Escape Hybrid vehicle.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report • • and four-wheelers produced in India. foreign exchange.5) R&D Expenditure (US$m) 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2. With fuel prices rising and government introducing strict environment-friendly norms. Electrovaya received a purchase order for its Lithium-ion SuperPolymer integrated battery system from Raser Technologies for use in a plug-in hybrid demonstrator vehicle.1 2.2) (8.9) (6. Loss from operations.9 2. In January 2007.5m from US$4. taxes.7 2. The license includes a mix of license fee. The consortium is led by Raser Technologies. a zero-emission. Electrovaya sales increased 60% to US$792. • In January 2008. New Product Developments In 2008. Electrovaya joined a cooperative R&D initiative. During the quarter.9m from US$2. • In January 2007. capital assets write-down (US$m) (4. amortisation. • In October 2007. capital assets write-down and the gain on sale of investments decreased 58. capital assets write-down widened to US$4. to develop a prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. taxes.5) (4. Electrovaya launched its MN-Series Lithium-ion SuperPolymer® battery technology. Electrovaya won a purchase order for five battery packs for Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) from Miljobil Grenland AS.1% to US$515.

The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report company. Further. the JVs formed in the emerging markets such as China will provide cost advantage to the company in the long term. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 80 . especially in light of increasing number of automakers around the world planning to use lithium-ion batteries in future hybrids and all-electric vehicles.

steel cans. Ltd. Divestments • In June 2008. Recent Developments Corporate Strategy Enax has been expanding its products and services bearing future demand in mind. Ltd. Ltd. Japan Sales Group: US$10. The electrodes will be used at Enax’s Tianjing and Yonezawa plants in China and Japan repectively. Hino Motors Co. • Manufacturing and sales of Mini Car: The company has developed a new single seated electric car called S3. The company has diversified its business areas from consultation to mass production in the field of lithium-ion battery.. Continental bought 16% stake of Enax. Mitsui & Co. Enax expanded production lines of electrodes at Yonezawa plant. gaskets and safety vents. Al cans. Cu foil. separator.. The company plans to provide these electrodes to other manufacturers. NEC Group. top caps.. Joint-Ventures • In June 2005.5m (2006) Employees Group: 80 (2006) The company has clients from various segments of the market. Along with machines the company provides battery know-how. • Maufacturing and sales of Battery Pack: procures battery cells and adds battery control cuircuit to form a battery pack. China to produce lithium-ion battery electrodes. Enax also supplies raw materials like Al foil. electrolyte. Both the companies hold 50% stake respectively. (Japan).jp Senior Officers Kazunori Ozawa. The company has successfully upgraded from an R&D contract company to an R&D and manufacturing company. primarily used in Ebikes. President & CEO Products Lithium-ion batteries Plants China. Business areas of Enax are as follows: • Lithium-ion Rechargeable Battery: develops. Both companies jointly develop lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles.. JGI. Enax supplies production machines for lithium-ion batteries to many non-Japanese firms. • Manufacturing and sales of electrodes: has a production line in China which is the main component of rechargeable batteries. The company has identified potential markets in China and has thus established its manufacturing units there. • Sales of lithium-ion rechargeable battery production line and materials: The company provides consulting services to companies who wish to enter the rechargeable battery markets and also provide production line for the same. Enax and Degussa AG formed a JV called Degussa Enax (Anqiu) Power Lion Technologies Co. Investments • In August 2004. in Shandong. manufactures and sells these batteries to electric car and bike manufacturers. Expansion of Yonezawa Laboratory enhanced R&D activities and the laboratory now also helps in the mass production of electrodes © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 81 .. The leading product of Enax is laminated sheet battery (LSB). Nissan Motor Co. Continental owns 16% stake in the company.. NMP (solvent).enax. Ltd. National Maritime Research Institute. Enax specialises in lithium-ion batteries. The company also provides consulting services to companies that plan to enter lithium-ion rechargeable battery or lithium polymer battery markets and establish facilities for the same. Some of the main clients of the company are ITOCHU Corporation.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Enax Lithium-ion Batteries Address Enax Inc. New Product Developments Enax has started manufacturing the Mini car called S3 with the help of the company’s expertise in lithium-ion batteries ..Inc. Otowa 2-11-19 Bunkyo-ku Tokyo Japan 112-0013 Tel: +81-3-3944-0039 Fax: +81-3-3944-2254 Internet: http://www.

The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report

With greater emphasis on R&D the company has published 15 patents for lithiumion rechargeable batteries. Outlook Enax has identified the potential markets of the future and is already peparing itself for the upcoming demand for lithium-ion battery for the hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicle market. The company has already established facilities for mass production of raw material as well as battery packs which ensures that they gain access in almost all the areas of manufacturing. The synergy between Enax and Continental will be beneficial to the company, as it would give it access to the OEM markets in Europe.

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Ener1
Batteries
Address 1540 Broadway, Suite 25C New York NY 10036 Tel: 01-212-920-3500 Fax: 01-212-920-3510 Internet: http://www.ener1.com/ Senior Officers Charles Gassenheimer, Chairman & CEO Ulrik Grape, Executive Vice-President Naoki Ota, COO Peter Novak, President & CTO Gerard Herlihy, CFO Cyrus Ashtiani, CTO, EnerDel Hiroyuki Yumoto, Director, Cell Development Derrick Buck, Director, Battery Systems Integration Products Lithium-ion batteries Plants Korea, US Sales Group: US$6.8m (Year to 31.12.2008) Employees Group: 486 (March 2009) Geographically, sales in the US were US$4.8m, while South Korea contributed US$5.5m to sales in 2008. The battery segment generated 98.3% sales. Fuel cell attributed 0.5% and Corporate 1.2% sales. The company’s prospective and current customers include OEM automotive manufacturers (light and heavy duty) and tier one suppliers to automotive, truck and bus OEMs. Recent Developments Corporate Strategy Ener1 is aiming to become the leading US based developer and manufacturer of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. The company is focusing more on increasing strategic alliances. Recently, in February 2009, Ener1 signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Itochu Corporation. The purpose was to introduce Ener1’s products into Japanese marketplace. Consequently, Itochu will serve as an Ener1’s Japanese sales, marketing and development partner for both the Japanese OEMs as well as the tier one suppliers. Another contract was secured in September 2008 with US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop high energy batteries for hybrid buses. In October 2007, the company managed to win a contract from Th!nk Global which helped increase its revenue by more than tenfold for fiscal 2008. . This mirrors the company’s efforts to increase their customers and market for their batteries. Ener1 anticipated the demand for electric and plug-in hybrids cars to quintuple by 2010. In order to meet the demand the company is expanding their manufacturing capabilities through acquisitions and the grants received from the government. In February 2009, the US government approved a stimulus plan of US$2bn for the development of the advanced battery manufacturing capability. In December 2008, the company applied for US$480m loan under the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Incentive Program (ATVM) to increase battery manufacturing capacity in Indiana. In October 2008, Ener1 acquired 83% stake in Enertech International, which will assist the company to expand its production capabilities. In August 2008, Ener1 acquired EnerDel as a wholly owned subsidiary. Currently, EnerDel is undergoing a major expansion at its two Indiana facilities. The company believes full scale production will halve current prices. Simultaneously, in December 2008, Ener 1 secured a commitment of US$30m credit from its principal investor, Ener1 Group. This aims to fully fund the business plan throughout 2009. In turn, it will help the company to focus solely on the business side operations. Acquisitions • In October 2008, Ener1 acquired 83% stake in Enertech International. Ener1 purchased the equity stake in Enertech International for five million shares of Ener1 Inc. common stock, US$2.56m warrants and US$600,000 in cash from TVG Capital Partners. The acquisition is intended to cater to the rapidly growing demand of hybrid and electric vehicles. The acquisition follows the company's plans to expand the manufacturing capacity at its Indiana (US)based lithium-ion automotive battery subsidiary, EnerDel.

Ener1, Inc. is an energy storage solutions company that develops high-performance safe lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV’s), Plug-in Hev’s (PHEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs).
Ener1 manufactures high-performance rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems for energy storage. The company caters to transportation, stationary power, military applications and small cell markets. In the transportation markets, the company is developing systems to power the next generation of hybrid vehicles, buses, trucks and alternative transportation vehicles.

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The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report

In August 2008, Ener1 acquired 100% ownership in EnerDel. It includes manufacturing and intellectual property assets from former joint-venture partner Delphi Automotive Systems LLC. Delphi transferred to Ener1 the 19.5% equity interest in EnerDel. In turn, Ener1 transferred 2.8 million shares and US$8m in cash to Delphi.

Joint-venture • In February 2009, Ener1 signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Itochu Corporation. The purpose is to introduce Ener1’s products into Japanese marketplace. Consequently, Itochu will serve as an Ener1’s Japanese sales, marketing and development partner for both the Japanese OEM’s as well as the tier one suppliers. • In December 2008, EnerDel, Ener1’s lithium-ion battery subsidiary and the Department of Energy formed a partnership to develop high-energy batteries for hybrid bus and heavy duty vehicle markets. The total budget for this program comes up to US$1.25m. • In November 2008, Ener1 signed an MoU with Kyushu Electric Power to jointly manufacture rapid recharging systems for electric vehicles Contracts • In September 2008, Ener1 was awarded US$984,000 in research and development contracts with the DOE to develop high energy batteries for hybrid buses. • In June 2008, Ener1’s subsidiary EnerDel successfully demonstrated a fully functional lithium-ion battery pack in a Th!nk City electric vehicle. In October 2007, EnerDel entered into a supply agreement with Th!nk Global to supply lithium-ion batteries to power its Th!nk city vehicle. The contract incorporated EnerDel to deliver production prototypes by March 2008 and pre production parts by July 2008, which they have met successfully. Once the prerequisite is met, the electric vehicle will incorporate the EnerDel battery over the two-year period until 2010. • In September 2007, Ener1 was awarded a US$2.5m contract from DOE for PHEV battery research. The contract will expire in September 2009. • In September 2007, Ener1 secured a Phase II lithium-ion battery development contract from the USABC to develop further lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicles. The contract will expire in first quarter 2010. New Product Development Ener1 spent US$22.9m for R&D in 2008, an increase of 91.6% compared with the previous year’s R&D expenditure of US$11.9m. Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 December 2008, Ener1 sales were US$6.8m compared with US$280,000 in 2007. The remarkable increase in sales is due to Th!nk supply agreement which attributed US$941,000 alone towards sales. However, the increase has been partially offset by the decrease in engineering services of US$153,000 owing to the completion of the contract at the end of 2007. The sales from the battery segment boosted the overall revenue of the company. Operating loss widened from US$21.04m to US$33.9m. Net loss decreased from US$51.7m to US$42.95m. During 2008, the company witnessed strong customer demand for lithium-ion batteries from all the segments. The company segmented its focus on ten highpriority customers and believes 50% of those customers would make significant contributions to sales in 2009. Year 2008 2007 2006 Sales (US$m) 6.8 0.28 0.10 Operating Income (US$m) (33.9) (21.04) (26.41) Net Income (US$m) (42.95) (51.7) (41.3)

Outlook Ener1 has managed to secure grants which are beneficial for the company under the current economic circumstances. However, the company has a history of operating losses since 1997. The company expects to incur negative cash flows and may require additional cash to fund its operations and implement its business plan. The company is investing a lot in expanding its production capabilities, which, in the long term, under full scale production, will give it a competitive edge on pricing, since full scale production will halve prices. Ener1, the first automotive lithium-ion battery company to have its primary

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The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report manufacturing facility in the US also places it ahead of its competitors. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 85 . with ample opportunities to expand and secure a strong position in the market. the company is in a growth phase. Overall.

The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Energy Conversion Devices Battery solutions Address Energy Conversion Devices. development and commercialisation of new materials. 2. In addition to this. 12. The company strengthened its United Solar Ovonic segment by adding the photovoltaic machine-building activities. The company consolidated the Ovonic Battery segment with the remainder of the ECD segment (hydrogen storage. 6. which were previously part of the company's Production Technology and Machine Building division.8% from France.1% from Japan and 0. Sanoh Industrial Co (3. Joint-venture • In August 2005. Recent Developments Corporate strategy The automotive operations of ECD Ovonics are confined to the Ovonic Materials segment in which the company develops technologies for NiMH batteries. Chief Financial Officer Ken Fox. Chief Marketing Officer Products Nickel-metal hydride batteries Plants US Sales US$255. solid hydrogen storage. President & Chief Executive Officer Sanjeev Kumar. the company sells its proprietary positive electrode nickel hydroxide materials for use in NiMH batteries. facility closures and asset disposals primarily in the Ovonic Battery and ECD segments and home office functions. photonic devices and cognitive computer) and formed the Ovonic Materials business segment. It was completed in the first quarter of fiscal 2008. metal hydride fuel cells and biofuel reformation.2% came from rest of the world. Other restructuring actions include workforce reductions.9% from South Korea. fuel cell. Cobasys is focused on manufacturing batteries for the hybrid vehicles market. Ovonic Battery Company conducts ECD battery Ovonics’ battery business.com/ Senior Officers Mark Morelli. manufacturing of nickel hydroxide materials used in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries and R&D programs.768 (August 2008) In fiscal 2008. The company commercialises its NiMH battery technology principally through its Cobasys JV and third-party licensing arrangements with NiMH battery manufacturers throughout the world. ECD Ovonics implemented a restructuring plan to consolidate and realign its business activities and reduce annual costs.08) Employees 1.5% of the consolidated sales in 2008): It manufactures solar modules based on its proprietary thin-film triple junction amorphous silicon technology. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 86 .4% from Hong Kong.9m (Year to 30.4% equity interest in Ovonic Battery Company and the balance is held by Honda Motor Company (3. 2956 Waterview Drive Rochester Hills Michigan 48309 US Tel: 248-293-0440 Fax: 248-844-1214 Internet: http://www. 2.7% from China.2%): includes the royalty-bearing consumer battery business. followed by 15. In April 2007. for the Energy Conversion Devices (ECD Ovonics) is a technology and product development company.1% from Italy. The company owns a 91. Cobasys entered into an agreement with Motorola Inc.7% of the consolidated sales from the US.06.2%).3% came from the corporate activities.2% from Germany. The remaining 0. Nearly 3.ovonic.2%) and Sanyo (2.2%). • Ovonic Materials (6. It is engaged in the invention. Inc. The company operates its business through two segments: • United Solar Ovonic (accounted for 93. The company conducts its NiMH battery technology licensing and materials manufacturing activities through its subsidiary Ovonic Battery Company. Cobasys is a 50%-owned JV formed to commercialise its proprietary NiMH technology to provide advanced energy storage systems and solutions for transportation and stationary markets. the company has two joint-ventures (JVs). Ovonyx and Cobasys. 10. products and production technology in the fields of alternative energy technology and information technology. In addition to the two segments. the company generated 46. engineering.

The sales growth was largely due to the higher income from product & royalties.6m for fiscal 2007.1) (42.9m over a net loss of US$13m.9 19.9 113.5) (27.000 contract from Xcel Energy. For the six months ended 31 December 2008. ECD Ovonics sales increased 92% to US$198.5 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Outlook Since ECD Ovonics operates its battery manufacturing business through the Cobasys JV. The NiGUARD battery system features Cobasys' advanced. The company reported a net income of US$3. lower preproduction costs and a fall in the restructuring charges.3m while sales at the Ovonic Materials segment were US$16.6 66. ECD Ovonics sales were US$255. general and administrative expenses.9m compared with US$19.4 156. Sales at the United Solar Ovonic segment were US$239. Terms of the sale were not disclosed. New Product Developments In 2008. Michigan (US).9m compared with the same period in 2007. Cobasys installed its NiGUARD back-up power system at US Steel Corporation's Great Lakes Works steel manufacturing facility in River Rouge. its future opportunities in the battery production is largely dependent on the performance and expansion plans of Cobasys. for the development of its Ovonic Biofuel Reformation technology. Net income totalled US$26. Year Sales (US$m) 255. The increased cost of product sales was a direct reflection of the higher sales volume. resulting from increased market for its NiMH battery technology for both consumer and transportation applications.9m in 2007.3 Income (Loss) from Operations (US$m) (4. primarily as a result of increased royalties (both transportation and consumer segment) and the savings from the restructuring activities.9m compared with US$113. which substantially reduced its product development and research and selling. Cobasys worked with its partner A123Systems to provide complete battery systems featuring A123Systems' nanophosphate technology.9 16.2m in 2007. The Ovonic Materials segment had income from operations in 2008.7 19. Contracts • In July 2007. NiMH chemistry which offers a safe. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 87 . Ovonic Battery Company won a US$900. a decrease in the product development & research expense. the company’s restructuring measures to consolidate the entire business into two segments and make it a leaner organisation would benefit it in the long run. ECD Ovonics’ expenditure on its research and development (R&D) activities was US$9. Royalties increased in 2008 compared with 2007. alternative to traditional backup power batteries. reflecting sales of its positive electrode nickel hydroxide materials. Product sales. Net income also reflected an improvement in the gross profit margins.5) Net Profit/ (Loss) (US$m) 3.3 (51.1m. Financial Overview For the financial year ended 30 June 2008. to produce hydrogen for the production of clean energy.6 102. cost-shared technology development contract was to support Ovonic Battery's research and development of a new process for reforming renewable fuels.9 (25.4 (48.6) 50.9m compared to a net loss of US$25.2) (18.2) 43. such as bioethanol and biomethanol. • In October 2005. • In January 2007. The two-year.4) R&D Expenditure (US$m) 9. Cobasys won a contract to develop and test lithium-ion battery system technology for the GM plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) program. The remaining US$1m sales were related to corporate activities.5 22. Additionally.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report development of battery control system components for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery systems. an increase of 125%. increased in 2008. The increasing demand for hybrid vehicles worldwide provides significant growth opportunities for the company.

This alliance will result in the development of battery systems which will have Evonik’s Li-Tec battery technology and expertise of Daimler. The main focus of the alliance is to develop expertise in the lithium-ion battery technology.1% of shares and Daimler has 49. CEO Li-Tec Batteries Products Lithium-ion batteries Plants Germany Sales Group: €15.8bn (US$24. Looking at the hybrid vehicle demand in the future. Evonik had acquired 20% stake in October 2007 to develop lithium-ion batteries for mobile and stationary applications in Germany.9%.08) Employees Group: 40. The company has also formed a strategic alliance with Daimler to step ahead in research of lithium-ion batteries. KG in Kamenz (Germany). 23% from other countries in Europe.767 (2008) © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 88 .1% from 40% in May 2008. New Product Developments R&D expenditure in 2008 amounted to €311m (US$438. Acquisition • In December 2008. processes and applications developed in the last five years has amounted to 20% of sales in Chemical Business. KG On Wiesengrund 7 01917 Kamenz Germany Tel: +49 3578 3092-0 Fax: +49 3578 30922-10 Internet: http://www. In 2008.4m). Investments • In April 2008. it formed an alliance with Daimler AG. Chairman Dr. 31 December 2008) (Year to 31. Real Estate 2% and others 2%. Evonik and Daimler AG entered into a jont-venture in December 2008 to form LiTec Battery GmbH & Co KG. Evonik increased its stake in Li-Tec to 50. The headcount at the site increased to 100 in 2008 and is expected to increase futher as the demand increases. of which SEPARION is an example.com Battery Li-Tec GmbH & Co. the company developed a new facility at Kamenz (Germany) for production of lithium-ion batteries. A recent development is a ceramic membrane SEPARION technology which makes lithium-ion batteries safer and efficient for hybrid vehicles. the company has already invested in the production of lithium-ion batteries and opened a new facility at Kamenz (Germany) in April 2008. Evonik holds 50. Andreas Gutsch. and 2% from other regions. and Real Estate. Chemical.evonik. Senior Officers Wilhelm Bonse-Geuking. Recent Developments Corporate Strategy Evonik’s main focus remains on new product development and new technology. Energy Business 23%. The product.000 chemical patents applied by the company. Evonik had 40% of total sales from Germany.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Evonik Lithium-ion batteries Address Evonik Industries AG Rellinghauser Straße 1—11 45128 Essen Germany Tel: +49 201 177-01 Fax: +49 201 177-3475 Internet: http://corporate. Both companies have acquired a stake in LiTec Vermögensverwaltungs GmbH & Co. The venture is also supported by the Federal Ministry of Research by providing €60m (US$84. For example.de Evonik has expertise in Chemical business which contributes around 73% of the total sales. 14% from North America 4% from Latin America.9bn. Energy. to to the lithium-ion battery market. The facility underwent a second expansion in June 2008. 17% from Asia. Over the years it has developed many new products with the help of its R&D expertise. The company’s business areas are divided in three main businesses.12. SEPARION is a technology used in lithium-ion batteries which makes their usage more flexible and safe in hybrid cars. The company has many alliances for each of its business areas. Evonik won a contract from Daimler to provide Li-Tec batteries for upcoming electric Mercedes vehicles and Smart Cars in 2010. 350 new patents were added in 2008 to 20.5m) in next four years. the Chemical Business contributed 73% to total sales. In 2008. The batteries will be used in Mercedes Benz electric vehicles.li-tec. Contracts • In April 2009.300 employees in 35 locations worldwide. R&D centres have around 2.

3bn (US$8.7bn) in 2007. The company recorded a net loss of 67% to €285m (US$401.7 1.7bn (US$3. North American sales increased 12% to €2.27bn). Asia recorded an increase in sales of 13% to €2. Sales in the other European countries increased 8% to €3.6bn (US$5bn) from €2. The company also anticipates that the market for large-scale lithium ion batteries could reach €10bn (US$15.6bn (US$3. 31 December 2007) in 2007. and the automotive market is also negatively affected globally due to the economic crisis.057 46.3bn (US$3.046 Net Income (US$m) 401. compared to €876m (US1.87 14. The project is a three year initiative which covers all stages in production of lithium-ion batteries. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 89 .1 No.767 43. Evonik’s sales increased by 10% to €15.2bn) from €2bn (US$2. The company recorded an operating loss of 10% to €898m (US1.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report The LIB 2015 initiative the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF).767 43.6m) from €409m (US$602. 31 December 2008).27bn. The Energy business sales rose 21% to €3.7bn (US$15.21bn) from €10.290$m) in the previous year. Sales in the Chemical business rose 9% to €11.6bn) from €2.3m) from €490m (US$721. Sales in Germany increased 8% to €6. The strategic alliance of Daimler AG and Evonik will help it cater to the demand in the future.67bn) in the next decade.7bn (US$5. will help Evonik and Li-Tec in the development of new materials for lithium-ion batteries by providing funds of €60m (US$94m). Sales in Real Estate business declined 11% year on year to €375m (US$528.4 452.64 Operating Income (€m) 898 993 662 Operating Income (US$m) 1.4bn (US$5bn).265 1.462 874 Net Income (€m) 285 876 1. Year Net Sales (€bn) 15.12 Net Sales (US$bn) 22. of Employees 40. Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 December 2008.430 2008 2007 2006 Year 2008 2007 2006 Outlook The company’s sales did not grow substantially in 2008.3bn (US$3.26 18.5bn (US$16.290 1. Overseas sales contributed 60% to total sales.265$m) in 2008 from €993m (US$1.38bn) the previous year.44 14.381 R&D Expenditure (€m) 311 307 R&D Expenditure (US$m) 438.8bn (US$22.88bn) from €5.7m) during the year. as with other business areas.8bn (US$8.37 21.430 No.3m).057 46.9bn) and Central and South America sales increased 20% to €589m (US$830.462m.54bn) in 2007.6m).21bn) from €3. of Employees 40. and the demand for battery materials could exceed €4bn (US$6.9bn) in 2007.

It changed its name from Exide Corporation to Exide Technologies in September 2000 after the acquisition of GNB Technologies. Georgia (US) and Gennevilliers (France). The company has established an Advanced Research and Development Organisation at Exide’s headquarters in Alpharetta. Exide is investing into research and development to gain efficiency in its product lines and maintain its competitiveness in the market. Additionally. network power and military applications. Scania.027 ( 31. Industrial Energy Americas and Industrial Energy Europe & Rest of World. Volvo Trucks and VW/Audi. especially emerging markets which would be beneficial in the long term. Navistar. Italy. GA 30004 USA Tel: (678) 566-9000 Fax: (678) 566. Kenworth. Portugal. RVI. the PSA Group. International Truck & Engine. Exide is investing in Global Research. Poland. Exide NASCAR Select. India. one in Budingen. US Sales Group: US$3. Spain. Industrial markets include network power applications such as telecommunications systems. The brands which are sold in the transportation market are: Centra. Vice-President. the company is expanding its market presence by exploiting the opportunities through venturing into new markets. Exide Technologies is a provider of stored electrical energy solutions. Cole. Exide’s automotive customers include BMW. Exide generated 61.2008) © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 90 . Exide’s Industrial business has headquarters in Aurora. Mitsubishi. Development and Engineering organisation to deliver greater collaboration among the operating divisions. Georgia targeting worldwide transportation. General Counsel Paul Cheeseman. UAE. Global Research & Engineering Douglas Gillespie. Exide is also taking steps to curtail costs through restructuring its human resource. New Zealand. France. mining and other commercial vehicles. In the transportation segment. Exide’s Transportation business has headquarters in Alpharetta. President. Exide. heavy-duty truck. Executive VicePresident. Hatcher. India.9188 Internet: http://www. Spain (2). Transportation Europe Barbara A. CFO & Executive Vice-President Edward J. agricultural and marine applications. Renault/Nissan.com Senior Officers Exide Technologies is one of the world’s largest producers and recyclers of lead-acid batteries. aftermarket and OEM sales represented approximately 67. Tudor and private labels. Fiat. sell and Gordon A. greater productivity. and motive-power applications including lift trucks. DETA. Executive VicePresident.03.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Exide Technologies Lead-acid Batteries Address Exide Technologies 13000 Deerfield Parkway Building 200 Alpharetta. Exide categorizes its business into four main segments: Transportation Americas. Damaska. both short term and long term. electric utilities. two global product development centres. Germany focusing on industrial energy and the other in Alpharetta. Case/New Holland. the transportation batteries segment represented 61. railroads. Ulsh. O’Leary. Norway. US Transportation: Australia. UK. Exide recently formed a joint-venture with Chinese battery manufacturer. Toyota. Exide is focusing on optimising manufacture cost structure and enhance research and development.08) Employees Group: 13. Transportation markets include original equipment and aftermarket automotive. John Deere. Leoch Battery Corporation.exide. Simultaneously. motive power. Transportation Americas Michael Ostermann. Fulmen. Recent Developments Corporate strategy For fiscal 2009. Exide Select Orbital. Illionis (US) and Budingen. and new technologies for hybrid vehicles and 42-volt automotive applications.7% of its sales from the transport industry.03. Transportation Europe & Rest of World. Exide has a major presence in US and Europe with operations in more than 80 countries and has 34 manufacturing plants in 11 countries. Poland. Ford. Global Procurement Products Lead-acid batteries Plants Group: Australia. Germany. The company is anticipating capital expenditure of approximately US$100m. (Germany). Italy. In 2008. photovoltaic (solar-power related) and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). President & CEO Phillip A. President.8% of net sales respectively. The company manufactures lead-acid batteries. The company is expanding its global operations as part of its strategy to put its resources in emerging markets.2% and 37. Georgia (US). to manufacture. France. Freightliner. COO Bruce A.7% of the company’s net sales.7bn (Year to 31. Vice-President. which are used in transportation. In fiscal 2008.

The organisation will develop advanced lead-acid systems and other battery chemistries. The Mountain Power transaction is part of the Exide Technologies strategy. The contract is to supply lead-acid starting batteries for the next generation of Toyota Corolla and Matrix passenger vehicles. The Global Product Development Centres will focus on global product design and materials and process development. LA (US) lead-acid battery manufacturing facility. (TIL) location which increased operational capacity from 600. Exide is concentrating on inorganic growth by acquiring principal assets of Delta. Contracts • In February 2009. Exide Technologies signed a contract with Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America. Canada based Mountain Power Inc. In this joint-venture. line expansions. including lithium-ion. Acquisitions • In November 2008. infrastructure and utilities at its Tudor India Ltd. Exide Technologies signed a supply agreement with Penske Truck Leasing Co. Development and Engineering.P. and is also expected to make reductions in headcount to reduce costs. • In December 2007. Divestments • In April 2006. • In April 2006. • In March 2007. including lithium-ion. L. Canada-based Mountain Power Inc. • In March 2008. for applications such as hybrid electric vehicles. Exide Technologies signed an agreement to acquire the principal assets of Delta. The Prestolite® brand of lead-acid batteries will be used for both automotive and inverter applications. Investments • In October 2008. Exide Technologies signed a contract with Ford Motor Company. The strategy is to accelerate development of advanced lead-acid systems and other battery chemistries. Gujarat (India). British Columbia. The strategy is to accelerate the development of advanced lead-acid systems and other battery chemistries.. Exide Technologies signed a contract with Pep Boys to supply Bosch branded automotive starting batteries. The joint-venture will manufacture automotive battery products and related components in China. for applications in hybrid electric vehicles. including lithium-ion for applications in hybrid electric vehicles.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report distribute automotive battery products and related components in China. The company invested in equipment upgrades. Joint-Venture • In December 2008. Exide Technologies announced the closure of its Shreveport. Exide Technologies planned to enhance the production capacity at its transportation manufacturing facility in Ahmedabad. • In May 2008. Exide Technologies invested in Global Research. Exide Technologies signed a supply agreement with Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America. The contract is for the Tennessee facility of Exide Technologies to produce original equipment batteries for a number of different passenger © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 91 .000 batteries to one million batteries per year. Exide is restructuring and planning an organisational rearrangement with respect to divisional and corporate functions. The process includes the formation of an Advanced Research and Development Organization and two Global Product Development Centres. The contract is to supply lead acid starting batteries for the next generation Toyota Tundra Trucks. The facility earlier manufactured automotive batteries for several aftermarket customers including Ford Motor Company. The contract incorporates the supply of Exide Group 31 RoadForce AGM-200 heavy duty batteries for Penske’s new as well as existing trucks at locations throughout the US. Exide holds the majority of the equity interest. Exide technology signed a nonbinding Memorandum of Understanding with Leoch Battery Corporation.

93 2.7) Outlook For fiscal 2009.82 EBIT (US$m) 128. Industrial Energy America and Industrial Energy Europe & ROW.13bn and in Europe & ROW by 38. Transportation segment also experienced lower unit volumes in the current fiscal year quarter. The company reported net income of US$32. Transportation Europe & Rest of the World (ROW). Exide Technologies is facing losses despite gaining new contracts. The company’s focus towards liquidity and cash flow through working capital reduction plans. sales increased in the Americas by 21. The company recorded higher sales in all four operating divisions – Transportation Americas. compared to the previous year’s net loss of US$105. New Product Developments • In April 2007. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 92 . • In May 2006.16bn. new products and strengthening strategic relationships will help the future growth of the company. Designed for the automotive aftermarket. price reductions due to notably lower average lead prices and overall decrease in unit volumes. net sales increased 18%.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report vehicles. Excluding the impact of favorable foreign exchange.8m. the sales of non-strategic assets and business and closely managing capital expenditure would help it cut costs in the long run.8% to US$3.1m in fiscal 2007. primarily driven by lower OE production.7 2. It provides advanced starting power for high energy requirements in vehicles including heavy duty trucks and buses. Year 2008 2007 2006 Sales (US$bn) 3.70bn compared with US$2. Exide Technologies launched two new automotive battery brands in the United States. Overall.1% to US$1.94bn in the previous fiscal.5 (10. Exide Technologies launched RoadForce® AGM-200 lead acid battery from its Transportation Division. Financial Overview Exide Technologies reported higher sales and earnings in the financial year ended 31 March 2008. Sales increased 25.9% to US$1.1m.5m compared with an EBIT loss of US$10. In the transportation business. The company has been hit by adverse foreign currency exchange rates.1 (105.8) (172.1) Net Income (US$m) 32. Higher sales were primarily due to increased prices of products and favorable foreign currency translation. Earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) for 2008 are US$128. the Exide Marathon® and NASCAR® Extreme™ batteries offer power and durability. and weaker aftermarket sales as customers slowed inventory builds.

In 2007. large organised distributors. Recent Developments Corporate Strategy In order to be on track with current market trends and specifications of the car manufacturers the company is investing in R&D to invent new technological solutions for energy storage in the automotive field. The company is expanding its market horizons especially in the European countries where it markets the “FIAMM” brand in conjunction with other strong brands. the EU Commission approved of Fiamm’s automotive battery business takeover by VB Autobatterie subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions. Joint-ventures Fiamm has a technical collaboration with NK Minda group.87m compared with last year’s operating loss of US$9. Additionally. which were duly met. The company faced acquisition negotiations from VB Autobatterie.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Fiamm Starter batteries Address Fiamm Spa Viale Europa 63 36075 Montecchio Maggiore (VI) Italy Tel: +39 0444 709311 Fax: +39 0444 699237 Internet: http://www. Johnson Control’s subsidiary. Fiamm provides starter batteries for motor vehicles and trucks. spare parts dealers and installers.71m.a. Fiamm S.2007) (Year to 31. US (2) Sales Group: US$424. the company engages in the research and development of technological solutions for energy storage in the automotive field.2007) Employees Group: 3. CEO Products Starter batteries Plants China.12. Fiamm is striving to become a crucial supplier to the major European car manufacturers and its key customers. horns. headquartered in Italy manufactures automotive components such as starter batteries. Financial Overview The company reported net sales of US$424.p. India. security and communication area of business.8m for the financial year ended 31 December. The company’s major market for starter batteries is OEMs and aftermarket.85m (31.9m. The company has strategic relationships with car manufacturers like GM to whom it supplies around nine million pieces a year and Ford North America. Czech Republic. Minda group manufactures valve related lead acid batteries (VRLAs) and technical assistance is provided by Fiamm. Chairman Steffano Dolcetta. Overall.600 (March 2008) Fiamm is an Italian industrial group engaged in energy.12.fiamm. antenna systems and standby batteries. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 93 . acoustic warning devices.8% to US$11. This year Fiamm witnessed a growth in net sales of 32% compared with the previous year’s net sales which were US$321.com Senior Officers Giuseppe Zanetti. Fiamm’s operating loss increased by 19. including retailers. Italy (3). 2007.

the division accounted for 88. Europe and America contributed 13% and others 5.1%.14bn.3%. the final year of the plan. Year to 31 March 2008) Automotive Batteries: ¥78.6% of the sales. Chairman. sell and conduct R&D for high-performance lithium-ion batteries for hybrid vehicles. manufacture and sell highperformance lithium-ion batteries. Ltd. These were revised by the company in 2008 taking into consideration the increasing manufacturing costs and increased raw materials costs. This joint-venture is strategically significant. GS Yuasa Corporation and Honda Motor Co. especially in China. but also helps it gain business from Tata Motors. The company has entered into the electric vehicle (EV) market through two significant joint-ventures (JV) with Honda and Mitsubishi – Lithium Energy Japan. Lithium Energy Japan formed in 2007 and Blue Energy Co. to manufacture and sell automotive lead acid batteries. and identification of new applications. Ltd. USA. manufacture and sell Lithium-ion batteries. China.6% of the consolidated net sales. Managing Director Katsuyuki Ono. GS Yuasa will continue to increase its activities in the Asian market. GS Yuasa’s sales in Japan amounted to 62. the company has been aggressively shifting its production base to Asia. Ltd..The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report GS Yuasa Batteries Address GS Yuasa Corporation Nishinosho Kisshoin Minami-ku Kyoto 601-8520 Japan Tel: +81 75 312 1211 Fax: +81 75 253 3801 Internet: http://www. Senior Managing Director Hideyuki Maeno. Asia contributed 19. .gs-yuasa. Director Makoto Yoda. and Blue Energy Co. The basic agreement was signed in December 2008. Recent Developments Corporate strategy In April 2006 GS Yuasa introduced a new mid-term management plan. alkaline batteries. nickel metal hydride batteries. such as automotive batteries with a double lid structure. materials.01bn (US$3. GS Yuasa has 51% ownership and 49% is owned by Honda.UK. The company is also working to achieve an operating margin of 3. formed in 2009 is a step forward by the company in the emerging market of lithium-ion batteries and also a strategy to achieve its mid-term management plan. Established as a holding company in April 2004. Director Masaaki Nakamura. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 94 . alkaline batteries. manufacturing. Over the past few years. lithium-ion batteries. Production will start in second half of 2010 with an investment of ¥25bn. President. Year to 31 March 2008) Employees Group: 12. with Honda Motors to develop.6% of total sales. another company of Tata Group and one of the major OEMs in India. with an operating income of ¥13bn by that time. Ltd.com Senior Officers Kan Akiyama. The company is headquartered in Minami-ku. lithiumion batteries and nickel metal hydride batteries. The company also manufactures power supply systems and lighting equipment and also caters to the requirements of non-automotive sectors. Plants Australia. to lower costs and to have its domestic plants concentrate on higher value-added storage products. Kyoto (Japan). In 2008. Japan (3). covering natural resources. Products Lead-acid batteries. a JV with Mitsubishi to develop.8m. signed a JV agreement and formed Blue Energy Co. for global supply. Lighting: deals in lighting for facilities and ultraviolet systems.8% of total sales. development. India based Tata Group’s company. on 1st April 2009.. President & CEO Blue Energy Co. Japan based GS Yuasa Corporation is one of the leading suppliers of batteries in the world. Joint-ventures • In March 2009. sales. The company formed a jointventure (JV) partnership in 2005 with Tata AutoComp System (TACO).74bn (US$793. The JV will produce. Koyoto (Japan). The groundbreaking ceremony for the factory took place on 21 April 2009 at the premises of GS Yuasa’s property in Fukuchiyama.467 (March 2008) The company is diversifying its business in the EV market. In financial year 2008. The division accounted for 5. as it not only enables the company to have presence in the Indian automotive industry. Sales Group: ¥312.8%. President Lithium Energy Japan Masahiko Oshitani. The main aim of these companies is to apply their strengths in vertical value chains. Other: made up for the remaining 5. The company’s operations are broadly classified into four key divisions: Battery and power supplies: deals in lead-acid batteries. The three-year plan set a sales target of ¥340bn by March 2009.

There has been an increase in the R&D expenses as the company has entered the lithium-ion batteries market to cater to the EV industry. This was mainly due to the revised selling prices corresponding to increase in lead prices and reduction in personnel costs. the plant will have a capacity to manufacture 200.44bn (US$597. as Mitsubishi Motors has decided to increase its production of i-MiEV to 20. Investments • In April 2009. Sales in Japan increased 9% to ¥195. Lithium Energy Japan announced plans to invest ¥3bn (US$31. Shiga Prefecture (Japan) for its first mass production of lithium-ion batteries for EVs. In the financial year ended 31 March 2008. The company is headquartered at Minami-ku. GS Yuasa Corporation with Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi Motors formed a JV called Lithium Energy Japan.7m) in 2008 from ¥7.60bn (US$513.16m) over the next year to expand its manufacturing capacity.5m) in the previous financial year.39bn (US$342.70bn (US$87.3m) in 2008 compared with ¥40. compared with ¥6.5m) in the previous year.21bn. GS Yuasa and Mitsubishi Motors formed a JV which resulted in a contract to supply lithium-ion batteries to Mitsubishi Motors for its electric vehicle called i-MiEV. Contracts • In August 2008. Ltd.9bn (US$24.4) for the year ended 31 March 2007.9m) in 2007.000 LEV50 cells.16% to ¥65. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 95 . Mitsubishi Corporation owns 34% and Mitsubishi Motors owns 15% share in the company.14bn. a joint-venture between Tata AutoComp Systems (TACO) of India and Japanese automotive battery manufacturers – GS Yuasa International – will invest INR1. New Product Developments GS Yuasa spent ¥4.55bn (US$660.96bn) in 2008 compared with ¥179. Beginning 2009. Koyoto (Japan). Operating loss decreased 99.5% to ¥16. • In August 2008.53bn (US$38.60bn (€29.03m) in 2007. GS Yuasa owns 51%.82bn (US$235. the company will manufacture 5.74bn (US$793. GS Yuasa International Ltd (GYIN) and Tata AutoComp Systems Limited (TACO) entered into a 50:50 joint-venture to form Tata AutoComp GY Batteries Pvt.49bn (US$408. To fulfill the demand.2m) for the year ended March 2008 compared with ¥27. • In April 2007 it was announced that Tata AutoComp GY Batteries Pvt Ltd.25m) in 2008 from ¥2.000 units.8m) in 2008 compared with ¥60.1m) in 2008 compared with ¥13.95m) for the year ended March 2007.8m) in the financial year ended 31 March 2008 compared with ¥70.51bn) in 2007.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report • • In December 2007.42bn (US$113.92m) from ¥4131m (US$35.4m) in 2007. Lithium Energy Japan acquired a plant site and building on lease in Kusatsu City.6m) in 2007. Europe and American sales increased 45.38bn (US$124. Industrial Batteries & Power Supplies reported an increase of 8.01bn (US$3.27bn (US$1.000 units by second half of 2010.3% to ¥2671m (US$26. The JV between Honda Motors and GS Yuasa will be manufacturing lithium-ion batteries on EH6 technology for EVs. The company’s operating income increased 82.8m) in 2007. GS Yuasa Group reported an increase of 19. Others recorded an increase of 23.14m) to double the capacity of the plant.09bn (US$1.1% to ¥25m (US$0. The collaboration started in May 2007.78% to ¥78.77bn (US$65. Sales from Asia increased 47.58bn (US$167. Financial Overview.8m).9m) in 2007.67% to ¥59. 31 March 2008) as compared to ¥260. Operating income increased 11.7% in its net consolidated sales to ¥312.4% to ¥12. Net profit decreased 35. The joint-venture manufactures batteries for OEMs and the retail market in India.9m) on research and development in financial year 2008 compared with ¥4. In February 2006.65bn (US$601.5% to ¥40. The Automotive batteries segment reported an increase in net sales of 11. 31 March 2007) in the previous financial year. and has its manufacturing facility near Pune (India).73bn (US$2. This capacity is enough to power 2000 i-MiEVs (Mitsubishi Innovative Electric Vehicle) manufactured by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation.76bn (US$47. The JV was formed to manufacture large capacity and high performance lithium-ion batteries. The vehicle is expected to enter the market in 2010.9% to ¥8.78bn (US$57.

of Employees 2008 2007 2006 2005 12.69 Net Sales (US$bn ) 3.037 11. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 96 .92 35.19 Operating Income (US$m) 124.38 6.437 Outlook The company is working towards its three year mid-term management plan and successfully achieved first year targets in 2007.73 243.01 260.76 4.710 12.22 2008 2007 2006 2005 Year Operating Income (¥bn) 12. GS Yuasa has entered into the EV industry by joining hands with two major OEMs.14 2. The increasing raw material prices forced the company to increase its selling price and cut costs in a few areas. Anticipating the current scenario of the automotive industry.732) Net Income. but investments in new technologies and diversification into new markets will pay off in the long run.03 5. there might be decrease in the profits for the company.21 2.467 12.00 R&D Expenditure (US$m) 47.06 11.07 Net Income (¥m) 2671 4131 598 (14.037 11.35 5.5 No.65 1.710 12.467 12.42 37 46.08 (137.99 38. of Employees 12.01) R&D Expenditure (¥bn) 4.42 239.53 4. Despite the unstable conditions the company achieved its 2008 targets and was able to further reduce its operating loss. Honda Motors and Mitsubishi Motors to supply lithium-ion batteries. giving it strong OEM support for its batteries.78 5.437 No. (US$m) 26.07 2.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Year Net Sales ( ¥bn) 312.5 48.8 57.

Germany (2). Automotive Systems Group (effective from July 1. including personnel expenses. Hitachi will establish the Battery Systems Division to enhance the lithium-ion battery business. Ibaraki-ken 312-8505 Japan Internet: http://www. Hitachi established Research & Development Corporation in China. which is used as an R&D base for all Hitachi Group businesses including Hitachi Automotive Systems (HAS). to strengthen its automotive products business. Acquisitions • In March 2004. High Functional Materials & Components. is one of the world’s leading electronics manufacturers. Automotive Systems Business Taiji Hasegawa. UK. drive control and car information systems. to manufacture lithium batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).com Hitachi Vehicle Energy Ltd. as well as other costs such as procurement. Singapore. related business groups and laboratories to develop batteries for hybrid vehicles and other markets.jp/en/ Senior Officers Hidetaka Kawamoto. Chairman. electronic powertrain. Services & Others and Financial Services. (to be transferred to Hitachi’s new Automotive Systems Company.000 around the world in research and development. Representative Executive Officer. the group’s expenditure on research and development © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 97 . Hitachi has decided to restructure the whole business.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Hitachi Lithium-ion battery Address Hitachi Ltd 6-6 Marunouchi 1-chome. Vice-President & CEO. Hitachinaka-shi. effective 1 July 2009. The company’s product line includes electricity generation systems. The company will separate its Automotive systems group from its parent company. Japan (13). Vice-Chairman & Executive Officer Hiroaki Nakanishi. Electronic Devices. Logistics. consumer products and electronic devices.31 March 2008) (Year to 31. Hitachi formed the joint-venture Hitachi Vehicle Energy Ltd with Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery Co Ltd and Hitachi Maxell Ltd. Taiwan. the Hitachi group has a staff of around 6.2008) Employees Hitachi Ltd. Power Systems Business Division Products Lithium-ion battery Plants China (6). Executive VicePresident & Executive Officer. Power & Industrial Systems. Representative Executive Officer.03. Hitachi is focusing on environmental friendly and safety demands for instance. General Manager. The strategy’s focal point is to cut fixed costs.226. New Product Developments Hitachi’s Research & Development group operates six laboratories in Japan and some overseas facilities. Hitachi received an order from General Motors to supply Lithium-ion batteries for more than 100. effective from July 1. trim the workforce and consolidate and close manufacturing bases. Hitachi is planning to expand its expertise in the area of lithium-ion battery by investing in research and development.hitachi-ve.73bn . The decision is to split the business into separate companies. Suzuki and Toyota. President. General Motors.hitachi. Investments • In April 2005. Representative Executive Officer. The batteries are being produced for the Chevrolet Malibu and the Saturn Vue. Thailand (3). lithium-ion battery for hybrids. Recent Developments Corporate strategy Hitachi has been promoting a corporate strategy of “collaborative creation and profits”. President & CEO Kazuo Furukawa. 2009) Kunihiko Ohnuma. Battery Systems Division Yasuhiko Honda. The company is also working with its subsidiary Hitachi Vehicle Energy. Senior Vice-President & Executive Officer. The company operates its business through seven segments: Information & Telecommunication Systems. 2009) Akira Maru.000 hybrid cars. Overall. Contracts • In March 2008. Hitachi’s major automotive customers include Ford. Mexico. Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8280 Japan Tel: +81 3 3258 1111 Fax: +81 3 3258 2375 Internet: http://www. Representative Executive Officer. Digital Media & Consumer Products. Hitachi’s automotive business is a part of Power & Industrial Systems segment.co. For the year ended 31 March 2008. Hitachi Vehicle Energy Ltd Takashi Kawamura. Hitachi's Automotive Systems Business is focused on the development of technologies for four types of system. Joint-ventures • In June 2004.18bn (¥11. 1410 Inada. President & Director. Hitachi acquired its affiliates Tokico and Hitachi Unisia Automotive. US (5) Sales Group: US$113. The company has planned series of initiatives to improve business structure and enhance its financial condition.engine management.

226.483 1.1bn (US$35. This cost-effective technology would improve fuel economy up to 20% by reducing vehicle fuel consumption and emissions.879 347.2 479 150.424 326. This led to the increase in revenues for the automotive equipment.3 51.5bn (US$1.5 256 279 184 Operatin g income (US$bn) Net Income (¥bn) (58. the slowing growth in the Chinese economy and the emerging markets also added fuel to project Hitachi’s worst ever Group net loss.247.1 389.7 3 10.5 R&D No. the company registered a net loss of ¥58.74 4.5 182.18bn).9 81.752 412.5 405 389 372 384.54bn).027 8. Group: 389.752 384. Power & Industrial System recorded an 18% growth in sales to ¥3. of Expenditure Employee (US$bn) s 389. For the financial year ending 31 March 2009. However.55% increase in its net sales to ¥11.94m) which increased compared with the previous year’s ¥32. The company’s acquisition of Clarion is expected to return positive results especially in its automotive business.568.879 347.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report increased by 3. of Expenditur Employee e s (¥bn) 428.18 86.54 2.3m). Hitachi is now trying to improve its margins.7) 37. an operating income of ¥40bn and net loss of ¥700bn.61 3.632 Sales (US$bn) Operatin g income (¥bn) 345. Additionally. Hitachi has forecast net loss of ¥700bn for the financial year ending 31 March 2009. The company is expected to do well in this segment.bn (US$4.48bn) compared to the preceding fiscal year which was ¥182.17 2. The increased power from the lithium-ion battery will allow the next-generation to be widely used.5 83.444 355.59 1.9 80.344 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 113. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 98 .3) 317.5bn (US$3.020bn.9 Net Incom e (US$m ) (585.752 ( 2008) Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 March 2008.5 15.12) (32.44 3.31bn).8% to ¥428. The growth was due to the consolidation of Clarion Co.444 355.465 9.52 Outlook After facing losses in 2007. Additionally.31 3. particularly Power & Industrial Systems segment.7bn (US$277. Hitachi has identified significant growth opportunities in the environmental and energy-saving related areas over the medium and long term. Hitachi reported a 9.9 9.97bn). However.49 3. Hitachi’s expansion of its business portfolio is likely to continue to keep company margins under pressure. having already secured a contract from GM. with the financial market being so volatile and the yen’s steep appreciation. Year Sales (¥bn) 11. The company’s operating income increased by 89% to ¥345. the business environment is filled with uncertainty.12bn (US$585. the company is projecting sales of ¥10. Ltd in December 2006.424 326.226. production increased in the domestic automobile manufacturers for export.94) (277.344 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Year R&D No.73bn (US$113. The recorded growth is because of increase in revenues in most industry segments.7 3. However. The development of lithium-ion batteries will help drive sales growth in the future.

In October 2008.com Advanced Capacitor Technologies Inc.1m) in 2008 from ¥5.000 units monthly. In North America and Latin America sales decreased by 19. Sales increased by 10% in Europe. Advance Capacitor Technologies (ACT) is a subsidiary of JEOL formed in April 2004.4bn (US$113.7% to ¥12. to make advancements towards the development of capacitors and develop new technologies for the same. Director & Executive Officer Norimasa Ishida.1bn (US$121. China (2). Premlis A5000.3bn (US$44.7bn (US$672. JEOL developed a technology called Premlis which advances the previous capacitors.03. The subsidiary is engaged in developing advanced capacitors for hybrid vehicles. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 99 . JEOL is global supplier of scientific instruments used for research and development in the fields of nanotechnology. JEOL’s sales decreased by 7. Executive Officer Kazufumi Adachi. Mexico.8bn (US$23. Executive Vice-President Masashi Iwatsuki.5% of consolidated net sales. President Azuma Ohtsuka.7% to ¥93. The company recorded a net loss of ¥113m (US$1.08) Employees Group: 3. 31 March 2008) (Year to 31.2m) from ¥13. UK. Inc. ACT and Nissan Diesel Motor Co.6m. life sciences.9m. 31 March 2007) in 2007.5m. in 2008.8bn (US$945. amounted to ¥6. Executive Officer Youichi Shibuki.1bn (US$128) in 2007. Recent Developments Corporate Strategy The company plans to achieve a target of consolidated net sales of¥120billion and ordinary profit of ¥7.6m). compared with other double layer capacitors. Joint-Venture • In June 2004.9bn (US$150. Director & CEO Masaki Saito. Sales in Japan were down by 8. Advanced Capacitor Technologies. Executive Officer Mikio Naruse.13m) during the year. Chairman Gon-emon Kurihara.1bn (US$21. Musashino 3-chome Akishima Tokyo 196-8558. 31 March 2008). France. These models have superior internal resistance and low temperature properties. The company recorded an operating loss of 59. forensics and biotechnology.9m) from ¥15. EcoCache.5% to ¥2. Musashino Akishima. to develop advance capacitors for hybrid vehicles.. 31 March 2008) in 2008. The company has develped a capacitor named Premlis which is an upgraded version of EcoCache and has Nanogate carbon technology.8bn (US$945. Canada. Executive Officer Shin-ichi Watanabe.9m) in 2007. Asia and Australia to ¥14.5 billion in the fiscal year of 2009. Executive Officer Products Capacitors Plants Group: Australia. agreed to work together for the production of capacitors in June 2004. Director & Executive Officer Masayuki Tajimi.6m. which was the first capacitor developed by ACT using the Nanogate carbon technology. Taiwan.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report JEOL Capacitors Address JEOL Ltd. Tokyo 196-8558 Japan Senior Officers Toru Usami. President (ACT) Yoshiyasu Harada. The company plans to expand its production line in 2009 to manufacture 20.1 (US$619. and two module capacitors including Capacitor Battery. Japan Tel: +81-42-543-1111 Fax: +81-42-546-3353 Internet: http://www. With competitive companies expecting growth in demand for hybrid vehicles in the future.4bn (US$64. US Capacitors: Japan Sales Group: ¥93. Germany. Overseas sales accounted for 47. Netherlands. Italy. 1-2.4m) in 2008 from ¥73. JEOL has been researching in the field of capacitors since 2004. Premlis is considered to be better than lithium-ion batteries which are presently used in the hybrid vehicles. 3-1-2. JEOL’s subsidary Advanced Capacitor Technologies formed a joint-venture with Nissan Motor Diesel Co. To cater to the automobile market. The initial focus was on hybrid vehicles in the automobile market. The company will develop three different types of Premlis capacitor. compared with ¥2. Premlis A5000. (ACT).jeol. The company has established a subsidary for the development of capacitors and set up a joint-venture with Nissan Diesel Motor Co. a subsidary was established in April 2004 for the development of new technologies in capacitors. the company is developing products that are technologically advanced and will substitute the existing ones.047 (2008) Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 March 2008. optical communication. features the highest level of effective energy density. New Product Developments JEOL’s expenditure on research and development.7% to ¥66.7m). Japan (9).

of Employees 3.03 R&D Expenditure ($m) 65. This would help them achieve their target for fiscal year 2009.4 863.7 44.98 2.48 5.020 - 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Outlook JEOL is banking on the increased future demand for hybrid vehicles.88 101.31 2.5 Net Income (¥m) 113 2.5 799.3 50. The focus on advanced capacitors for upcoming hybrid vehicles is expected to create avenues of growth for the company.014 3. The company has also increased its R&D expenditures this year and plans to contribute more in the next fiscal year.29 85.1 No.5 7.4 41.68 45.98 5.4 R&D Expenditure (¥bn) 6.8 10.77 93.0 17. if successful.020 No.0 824. of Employees 3.43 4.047 3. the Premlis capacitor.047 3. The new technology.09 Net Sales ($m) 946.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Year Net Sales ( ¥bn) 93.245 784 Net Income ($m) 1.816 1.13 23.22 4.4 19.15 5.014 3.1 793.1 18.2 38. will lead to future growth in the area of hybrids.289 1.01 1.6 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Year Operating Income (¥bn) 2.91 87.9 11. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 100 .06 Operating Income ($m) 21.

7m. Vice-President & President. lithium ion batteries. The company’s product portfolio includes seating. Ford. Under the agreement. Chrysler. Power Solutions Products Lead acid batteries. JCI operates 1. Johnson-Controls Saft (JCS).85bn (30 September 2008) (Year to 30.com Senior Officers • Stephen A. Chery and SAIC. Power Solutions Walther Wever. JCI received a long-term contract to supply GM with original equipment and original equipment service batteries. Toyota and Volkswagen. It has also integrated electronics into its batteries. The company plans to grow its battery business in China. Power Solutions Jeffrey S. Box 591 Milwaukee.johnsoncontrols. developing the first anti-theft battery and power-saving battery. India.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Johnson Controls Batteries Address Johnson Controls Inc. WI 53201 USA Tel: +1 414 524 1200 Fax: +1 414 524 2070 Internet: http://www. The company has been restructuring its businesses in North America and Europe so as to become more profitable. Vice-President & General Manager. JCI has been strengthening its electronics expertise and integrating electronics into nearly every system during development. Green Bay Avenue P. JCI acquired Delphi’s global automotive battery business for US$202. Mazda. Vice-President & General Manager. Edwards. Johnson Controls-Saft Brian Kesseler. overhead components & systems. The company’s Power Solution division supplies batteries for both original equipment market as well as aftermarket. Automotive Experience Alex A. France (2). The company has 36% of global market share in lead acid batteries.08) Employees Group: 140. General Motors. (JCI) is a leading supplier of automotive interior systems. Vice-President & General Manager. The high-margin business division accounted for just 15% of 2008 sales but contributed 26% to the company’s total earnings. Czech Republic.000 (2008) Power Solutions: 12. seating and batteries. Sales Group: US$38. door systems. Vice-President & General Manager. The company is aiming to be the leading supplier of lithium-ion battery technology for the next generation hybrid vehicles. South Korea (3). Asia.9m. Renault. Daimler. The joint-venture is diversifying into commercial vehicles segment. 5757 N. cargo management and battery & power management. Daimler. It also wants to focus on product lines that are profitable to the company. CFO Beda Bolzenius. CEO. US & Canada (8).South America (2). Chairman. entered a five-year agreement with Azure Dynamics to supply batteries to power its commercial vehicles in North America. Acquisitions • In July 2005.3m sales.08) Power Solutions: US$5. Americas. The Chinese hybrid vehicle market will grow as several domestic OEMs have announced plans to launch these in next three to five years. Building Efficiency (37% of 2008 sales): facility systems and services including comfort. US generated US$13. floor consoles & storage systems. Hybrid Systems for Johnson Controls. Vice-President & President. metal frames and mechanisms. instrument panels.300 locations in 125 countries worldwide. Besides acquisitions. The jointventure. nickel metal hydride.09. and increase low cost sourcing to 54% by 2013. PSA-Peugeot-Citroën. The company organises its operations into three business groups: • Automotive Experience (48% of sales in fiscal 2008): seats including foam cushions.09.5m. Roell. new product and technology development and expansion in emerging markets. electronics. Molinaroli. Vice-President & General Manager. Power Solutions (15% of 2008 sales): automotive batteries for the replacement and original equipment markets. Mexico (5). seat covers. the organisation plans to prioritise its organic growth. Japan & Asia Pacific.000 (2008) JCI plans to shift operations from high cost to low cost regions such as in Asia and eastern Europe. Bruce McDonald. It secured several supply contracts in 2008 from global OEMs including Ford. Automotive Experience Mary Ann Wright. Mitsubishi. JCI has a joint-venture with Saft SA of France. COO R. Germany (3). energy and security management for the residential and non-residential buildings market. Isuzu. Power Solutions Shu Yang. Recent Developments Corporate strategy JCI is aiming for a long-term sustainable growth by focusing on improving efficiency. Nissan.06bn (30 September 2008) (Year to 30. In January 2009. Europe. Spain (2). © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 101 . Wandell. Honda. President.O. Plants Power Solutions: China. JCI’s customers include BMW. and the rest of the world generated US$9. GM. entered into a development collaboration agreement with Maxwell Technologies in April 2008 to develop a new technology on electrode manufacturing in order to reduce the cost and environmental impact of automotive batteries on hybrid vehicles. In the financial year 2008. CEO Keith E. Executive VicePresident. • Johnson Controls Inc. In area of hybrid batteries. Europe contributed US$14.

The contract will expire in 2010. In November 2007. • In January 2008. In July 2004. JCS received the second production contract to provide lithium-ion batteries for BMW’s 7 Series Active Hybrid Car. JCS was awarded a second contract of US$8. • In August 2007. JCS was the battery supplier for the Ford test fleet of PHEVs. lithium-ion (Lilon) batteries for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The project will commence in June 2009. JCS and Azure Dynamics Inc. • In March 2007. (AZD) entered into a supply agreement. JCS signed a contract with Daimler to supply a cell module and cooling system for the hybrid battery for the Mercedes-Benz SClass 400 hybrid sedan. Johnson Controls paid approximately US$525m. • In September 2007. • In September 2006.28m) in the plant which is the world’s first lithium-ion battery manufacturing facility. JCI and Saft Group formed a joint-venture to supply advanced-technology batteries for current and future-generation hybridelectric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). • In January 2009. • In January 2008. JCS received an order to supply nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and Li-ion battery packs for the Dodge Sprinter plug-in hybrid delivery vans. In January 2007. JCI opened a new Automotive Business Centre in Bratislava (Slovakia). The company created 170 new jobs by the end of 2008 in order to help it grow in the eastern European markets. automotive battery business in Mexico and South America. It will be introduced in 2012 in its first series of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Saft Group holds a 49% stake and Johnson Controls holds the rest. • In August 2006. JCS was awarded a development contract for lithium-ion batteries from a major OEM for its late model 2008 hybrid vehicle. • In August 2008. JCI and Federal-Mogul signed an agreement to market Federal-Mogul’s famed Champion Brandin the lead-acid storage battery category. A5 ISG sedan. Johnson Controls-Saft (JCS) and Maxwell Technologies entered into an agreement to test and evaluate Maxwell’s lithium-ion battery electrodes for hybrid vehicles. For the remaining 51% share of the Group IMSA. JCI plans to set up a plant in Changxing Economic Development Zone of Zhejiang province (China) to produce lead acid batteries. The agreement will expire in 2014. JCI entered into a supply agreement to provide automotive batteries to O’Reilly Auto parts. Joint-ventures • In April 2008. to manufacture maintenance-free lead acid batteries for the automotive market in China. It focuses on the development of lithium-ion battery systems for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). • In January 2006. The plant will become operational by June 2010. Chery Automobile. Johnson Controls-Saft Advanced Power Solutions opened its first lithium-ion battery facility in Nersac (France). Contracts • In February 2009. Group IMSA. the JCS signed a contract with GM to supply Liion batteries for the Saturn Vue Green Line plug-in hybrid SUV. The company initially invested €15m (US$22. The agreement incorporates providing the advanced lithium-ion (Li-Ion) hybrid battery technology to power commercial vehicles in North America. • In January 2009. Investments • In December 2008. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 102 . JCI entered into a joint-venture with a Chinese company. In June 2008. Post the development phase. JCI acquired its joint-venture partner’s. of Baoding. Fengfan Ltd. JCI planned to expand and remodel its headquarter campus in Glendale (US). JCS received a contract from Ford Motor Company to supply complete battery system.2m by United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). • In January 2008. the contract is expected to lead to volume production. • In July 2007. JCS received a two-year contract from United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to supply advanced.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report • Delphi’s automotive battery business includes operations in more than 10 countries with joint-venture interests in China and South Korea. to provide a hybrid battery system for its latest vehicle. JCS was selected by SAIC Motor Corporation Ltd. • In October 2008. • In July 2007. JCS received a production contract from Chinese auto manufacturer. China to supply lithium-ion batteries for its demonstration fleet of new energy vehicles.

net income was US$1.000 140.29 1. JCI believes that 2009 will be a time of stabilisation and recovery after the unprecedented challenges the automotive industry faced in 2008. the company’s investments in the Li-ion R&D activities are expected to drive the future growth. The US$4m facility located at the company’s Battery Technology Center develops power-storage and powermanagement concepts based on Li-ion technology. the company expects that the forecast estimates will not match the actual estimates in 2009. Also. Wisconsin (US). JCI introduced re3concept vehicle as part of its product and technology at the 2009 North American International Auto show (NAIS). a 10% increase from US$34.4bn.97bn.02 0. due to the uncertain economic conditions. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 103 .03 0. The reason being the higher net sales in all three business segments as well as favourable impact of foreign currency.81 Operating Income (US$bn) 0. • • Financial Overview For the financial year ended 30 September 2008. the other two operating divisions are expected to report positive segment income in the second quarter. which it has achieved. These efforts are likely to help the company to win development or production contracts for hybrid vehicle batteries in Europe. The company has been awarded grants from the government for the development of hybrid battery technology as well as lithium-ion battery systems for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.000 123.97 1. This increases the company’s prospects in the field of batteries. JCIstarted an advanced Li-ion battery development laboratory in Milwaukee. In January 2005.6 Net Income (US$bn) 0.25 1. as it opened a Li-ion battery manufacturing plant.2 27.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report New Product Developments In the financial year 2008. In January 2005.6 32. Although the company expects to continue incurring losses in the Automotive Experience segment. In 2008 JCI increased its presence in hybrids. • • In January 2009. Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Net Sales (US$bn) 38. the company projected sales to increase 10% to about US$38bn. JCI’s sales amounted to US$38. Its features include the plug-in hybrid battery system.5 24.75 0. The company is expanding its traditional lead-acid car batteries to next-generation batteries which provide better fuel efficiency. The company forecast losses. JCI launched dual-purpose new Group 75/25 and Group 35 YellowTop™ batteries. Income from continuing operations decreased by 24% and reached US$0. Excluding the restructuring charge. a 12% increase over the prior year. The NiMH was developed using technologies from its Varta Battery Automotive business.76 R&D Expenditure (US$m) 829 767 743 817 844 No. Net income was US$0. For the fiscal year 2008. For the fiscal year 2009.25bn. of Employees 140.000 Outlook JCI’s investment in the developing markets of Asia and eastern Europe will help the company in its future developments. in their second quarter of the financial year ending 31 March 2009.000 136.06 34. In September 2005.97bn. JCI introduced nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) battery technology at the North American International Auto Show.000 130. The company is making significant progress on its development of advanced batteries for fuelefficient. a 22% decrease over last year’s figure of US$1.6bn in 2007. JCI spent US$829 on research & development (R&D) activities compared with US$767m in 2007. environmentally friendly hybrid vehicles.90 0. North America and China.97 1.06bn. This was mainly due to a restructuring charge which was recorded in the fourth quarter and lower volumes in automotive experience in North America and Europe.

000c LG Chem. United States Advanced Battery Corporation (USABC) and Hyundai. LG Chem is investing into research and development by introducing new products like automotive battery packs for electric vehicles with STMicroelectronics that would assist in reducing petrol consumption and CO2 emissions. In 2005. • In November 2008. as the growth has been five-fold over the past seven years. The Korean company has three primary businesses: Chemicals & polymers. LG Chem and Compact Power Inc. CPI received US$3.compactpower. North American subsidiary of LG Chem. The three battery suppliers will compete to develop 16km and 32km PHEV battery systems. The company identifies batteries to be the primary growth area for the company. Yoido-dong. and information & electronic materials. LG Chem is focusing on increasing its customer portfolio by forming numerous strategic alliances with GM. until GM’s facility is operational. Sales Director. The company has plans to expand by building a facility to produce lithium-ion battery cells for the upcoming 2011 Chevrolet Volt E-REV. Director. Engineering. Director. Compact Power Products Lithium-ion batteries Plants Group: China (10). however the approval is still conditional. CPI and GM planned to invest US$200m to create a 660. where the results will be evaluated after three years to select a final developer to © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 104 . LG Chemical and SB LiMotive to develop plug-inhybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) battery systems. (CPI). Vice Chairman & CEO Suk-Jeh Cho.04bn (31 December 2008) (Year to 31. to bring lithium-ion battery technology in the North American market. Up to US$125. 20. • In May 2005. Executive Vice-President &CFO Prabhakar Patil. Youngdungpo-gu. The company has plans to invest up to US$20m and add over 150 jobs over the next 10 years. is Korea’s largest chemical and rechargeable battery maker. industrial materials. 1857 Technology Drive. Seoul 150-721 Korea Tel: +82-2-3733-7136 Fax: +82-2-3773-7813 Internet: http://www.com/index. Mohamed Alamqir. Compact Power Inc.sht ml Senior Officers Peter Bahn-Suk Kim. CEO. Chevrolet Volt is scheduled to be launched in 2010. received a contract from GM to develop a lithium-ion battery system for E-Flex propulsion system to be used in the Chevy Volt concept car. Ltd. with the support of Michigan state tax credit of US$3.8m from Michigan Economic Growth Authority (MEGA) as a tax incentive to move to Michigan. Simultaneously. Investments • In April 2009. This pack would assist in reducing petrol consumption and CO2 emissions. LG Chem formed a subsidiary. Ministry of Knowledge Economy revealed that two project contracts were concluded between Hyundai Motor and three battery producers: SK Energy.lgchem. Compact Power Inc. Martin Klein. LG Chem. India.2m. LG Chem signed a contract with GM to supply lithium-ion polymer battery cells for GM’s Chevrolet Volt. Michigan 48083 US Tel: +1-248-307-1800 Fax: +1-248-597-0900 Internet: http://www.com Compact Power Inc.12.8m CPI moved it’s headquarter in Troy. Lithium-ion batteries are part of LG Chem’s information and electronic materials business. LG Chemical and SK Energy participated in a 16km development project.2m in tax credits were recommended for the project. Gardley.000ft2 facility employing 300 personnel to produce lithium-ion battery cells for GM’s upcoming 2011 Chevrolet Volt E-REV. The new battery pack combines the lithium-ion battery technology of LG Chem’s with the battery management chip manufactured by ST. Compact Power Inc. Research (Cell). The Michigan State tax credit approved US$125. but approval is still pending. Vietnam Lithium-ion batteries: China. Michigan (US). The company was formed in 2000 in Colorado (US). LG Chem teamed up with STMicroelectronics (ST) to develop automotive battery pack for electric vehicles.08) Employees Group:140. South Korea (2) Sales Group: US$10.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report LG Chem Lithium-ion batteries Address LG Chem LG Twin Towers. Contracts • In January 2009. Troy. Poland.. New Product Development • In December 2008. in June 2007 Compact Power Inc. Recent Developments Corporate strategy LG Chem has plans to spend around US$1bn on lithium-ion polymer batteries by 2013 to grow into a top global supplier for hybrid electric vehicles. Earlier. Compact Power Damian H. will provide production source for the battery cells to build battery packs for Volt development vehicles.

The company has invested a lot on research and development on its products and hence several automotive OEM’s are considering LG Chem for their hybrid car batteries.52bn. Financial Overview For the financial year ending 31 December 2008.3m and it expired in March 2008. the company won a contract from USABC in October 2006 to develop lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicles.95 EBIT (US$m) 1068. The mass production of hybrid motor vehicles will begin in 2009. LG Chem is slowly and steadily making its way into the hybrid market.09 708.45 6. The company is at the expansion stage and trying to secure a strong foothold in the market. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 105 . The hybrid market has a high potential to expand in the future.3m.5m will be funded through a cost share by the USABC.12 7. One of the automakers is BMW who are considering LG Chem for its mega city vehicle project.3 344.6 405. The contract will expire in March 2010. Johnson Controls Saft. The value of the contract was US$6.6 509.7m and net income of US$734.7 366. CPI. Additionally.47% to US$796. Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Net Sales (US$bn) 10.46% to US$10. LG Chemical and SB LiMotive will compete for the 32km development project which will run for five years.9m out of which US$4.5 734. the company’s EBIT increased by 50.5m compared with the previous year’s EBIT of US$708. This leads to a positive growth cycle for LG Chem in coming years. LG Chem received a contract from Hyundai Motors and its affiliate Kia Motors to supply rechargeable hybrid car batteries.71% to US$1.06bn and net income by 8. Earlier.4 523 Outlook Despite the slowdown in the economy.04bn compared with the previous year’s net sales of US$9. subsidiary of LG Chem.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report • • produce a 16km PHEV battery system with an additional two-year support. In December 2007.8 423. net sales increased by 5. The value of the contract is US$12. LG Chem has to maintain strong standards in order to survive in the market where the company has strong competition from companies such as A123 System and.9 Net Income (US$m) 796.04 9. In January 2008. The hike in fuel prices and vehicle emissions causing global warming makes the hybrid market all the more lucrative. secured a contract from USABC to develop lithium-ion battery technology for 10-mile range plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Simultaneously.52 10.

08m on engineering. The company is prioritising its sales and marketing especially in the automotive sector. LTC spent US$3. Additionally. US Sales Group:US$2. Director Kenneth Rudisuela. • In May 2007. The company has two principal centres of operations – in Plymouth Meeting. research and development expenses. New Product Development In the financial year 2007.M. Recent Developments Corporate Strategy The company is gaining a strong foothold in the automotive market place and expanding for further better prospects in this market. LTC signed an agreement with Zytek to provide lithium-ion battery through its subsidiary GAIA for a hybrid vehicle which is being developed by Zytek Systems. Lockheed Martin. a decrease of 14% from the previous year’s figure of US$3. Zytek has ordered three lithium-ion batteries. CFO. includes NASA. COO Andrew J.12. LTC was selected to participate in a passenger car fleet project for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in June 2008. CEO.7m for hybrid bus applications from Kettering University and Transportation Techniques to supply batteries. engineers and builds custom lithium-ion rechargeable batteries for use in transportation and other areas. Over a period of three years. LTC sells battery cells and complete batteries to various clients. Contracts • In February 2009.de/index. Transportation Markets and Stationary Power Market with particular focus on US and European geographic market segments.2007) (Year to 31. • In April 2006. For the financial year ended 31 December 2007. Overall. • In February 2008. Manning. President Amir Elbaz. Director Theo M. scientific research facilities and the national defense agencies. President. Kremers. LTC retrofitted Toyota Prius.5m in sales and the European US$1m. President. The order incorporates LTC to supply the batteries. Lithium Technology Corporation (LTC) is a global provider of large format rechargeable power solutions for various purposes. and introduced the largest lithium ion iron phosphate cells in the world.12. The contract incorporates the delivery of 90 battery packs in 2009 by LTC. A project was initiated to exhibit the usage of electricity.gaia-akkuonline. Director Franz J Kruger.html Senior Officers Klaus Brandt. This has given a technological edge to the company. which utilised the company’s new product line of lithium ion phosphate (LiFePO4) cells. and focus on fewer projects in 2007. LTC signed a contract with DesignLine International to supply lithium-ion batteries. CEO.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Lithium Technology Corporation Batteries Address Lithium Technology Corporation 5115 Campus Drive Plymouth Meeting. Director Products Lithium-ion polymer batteries Plants Germany. LTC received an order of US$4. LTC is investing in new product development.7m for hybrid bus application for a joint program with Kettering University and Transportation Techniques. LTC merged with GAIA Akkumulatorenwerke GmbH in 2002. They received an order worth US$4.58m. The company caters to National Security Markets. Executive VicePresident and Treasurer. the domestic operations generated US$1.2007) Lithium Technology Corporation (LTC) designs. COO.2007) Employees Group: 79 (31. Exide. generated by renewable energy such as wind and solar for powering up 20 PHEV’s in a fleet trial under real-time conditions. CTO. the company will continue to improve its financial performance at the same time keeping it transparent to its shareholders.6m (31. Pennsylvania and in Nordhausen (Germany). the company has secured contracts to supply lithium batteries in the area of light commercial vehicles and hybrid racing. such as the iron phosphate cathode development. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 106 . Pennsylvania 19462 United States Tel: 49-36 31-61 67 0 Fax: 49-36 31-61 67 49 Internet: http://www. ThyssenKrupp. The company has planned to compete on the basis of the competitive pricing structure per kWh for both cells and batteries. LTC has secured contracts with DesignLine International to supply lithium-ion batteries.12. The reason was due to completion of some R&D projects in 2007.

58) Operating Income (US$bn) (20. a decrease of 7% from the previous fiscal year.2) (10. This aims to fulfil the needs of the electrical vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) markets. This raises substantial doubt about the ability to continue as a going concern.74) No.6m. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 107 . Year 2007 2006 2005 Net Sales (US$m) 2.80 Net Income (US$bn) (24.6m for the financial year ending 31 December 2007. LTC introduced a new product line of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4). The company has faced operating losses and net losses from its inception. successful contract developments and R&D expenditure. • In February 2008.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report GAIA will deliver seven lithium ion batteries that are based on iron phosphate cathode chemistry.7) (1. The project is partially funded by the German federal government. The company expects to incur substantial operating losses in the future.3) (20. the largest cells of their kind in the world. Financial Overview The company reported net sales of US$2. For the financial year ending 31 December 2007.6 2. LTC is estimated to incur more operating losses in the future. of Employees 79 66 49 Outlook The financial performance of the company has not improved despite the promising strategies.6) (11. The single manufacturing line was used in the development of the new products and could not be used for the production of standard items.3m and operating losses of US$20.79 1. The company cannot guarantee whether it will be able to generate revenues from operations or achieve profitability in the near future. LTC reported a net loss of US$24. The decrease in sales is due to the expenses on development of the iron phosphate technology in 2007 to address the requirements of the transportation market.

LS Corporation Kwang-Woo Lee.2007) (Year to 31.5 rating voltage. the Korean government invested KRW27. GM and Nissan. LS Industrial Systems and LS-Nikko Copper as affiliates and around 20 other domestic and international sub-affiliates. LS Mtron developed the Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC).386 Outlook The company’s LS ultracapacitor is designed for 2. GM Daewoo. LS Mtron.2007) (Year to 31. is a Korea based holding company specialising in the industrial electric.310 LS Mtron:1.12. LS Cable.12.5bn (US$27. The company worked on electrolyte and other components since it had lower energy density compared with batteries. In July 2007.2007) Employees LS Cable: 3.12. LS Corporation Kwang Woo Lee. LS Cable and LS Mtron are actively participating in conducting the next generation large capacity energy storage ultracapacitors. LS Cable developed ultracapacitors for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.2007) (Year to 31. LS Group. The company’s main clients include Hyundai Motor.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report LS Corporation Batteries Address 21F.12. The market for ultracapacitors is estimated to grow up to US$1bn by 2010. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 108 .38bn (31.30bn (31.kr Senior Officers John Koo.lscable. Chairman. decided to divide LS Cable into a holding company and a business company. Chairman & CEO.2007) LS Mtron: US$3. formerly LG Cable Group. the group’s key affiliate was divided into three independent entities. In July 2008.12. LS Corporation. Samsung-Dong Gangnam-Gu Seoul 135 090 Korea Tel: 82-2-21899754 Fax: 82-2-21899759 Internet: http://www. LS Corporation holds LS Cable. Moreover..co.37bn (31. LS Cable.8 rating voltage higher than its competitor’s 2. President & CEO. formerly LS Cable Ltd. In May 2008.2007) LS Cable: US$3.45m. Kia Motors. 9 May 2005) for R&D for the next generation battery development.12. LS Mtron Products Ultracapacitors Plants LS Cable: Korea (5) LS Mtron: Korea (4) Sales LS Corporation:US$7. LS Mtron and LS Industrial Systems together manufacture automotive parts. ASEM Tower 159. holding company LS Corporation and commercial affiliates LS Cable and LS Mtron. Research and Development New Product Development In May 2005. electronic and material businesses through its subsidiaries. Ultracapacitors are drawing remarkable attention from the industry and are expected to be a core component for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Ssangyong Motors. LS Cable.

Recent Developments Corporate strategy Maxwell is working with OEMs and suppliers to strengthen its position as the leading supplier of ultracapacitor-based solutions. Vice-President. The new products have applications such as quick-charge cordless tools and electric vehicles. Vice-President.12.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Maxwell Technologies Ultracapacitors Address Maxwell Technologies 9244 Balboa Avenue San Diego. Ultracapacitors are used by hybrid vehicles and trucks. Maxwell is increasing production capacity to meet the future anticipated demand of ultracapacitors. Schramm. Golden Dragon Co.12. Business Development. Riedo. President & CEO Richard D. sales in the US accounted for 28%. US Sales Group: US$82. Maxwell entered into an agreement with Valeo to incorporate its BOOSTCAP ultracapacitors in Valeo’s stop-starts and regenerating braking systems. Geographically. Maxwell collaborated with Mercedes car to develop ultracapacitors for an advanced engineering hybrid-electric drive train program. cells. Maxwell formed an alliance with Tianjin Lishen Battery Joint-Stock Co. The company has formed numerous strategic alliances with other suppliers for its expansion in the market.. China is one of the important markets to expand its presence in the automotive industry. The project intended to demonstrate the compatibility of ultracapacitors with hybrid vehicle batteries. in 2007. Everett. Sales & Marketing Michael A. Liedtke. Maxwell Technologies SA. the company also opened a sales office in China for its ultracapacitor products. Ltd used Maxwell’s BOOSTCAP ultracapacitors for integration into diesel-electric hybrid buses in 2008. chassis and interior.maxwell.19m (31. Maxwell formed an alliance with Tianjin Lishen Battery Joint-Stock Co.2008) Employees Group: 346 (31 December 2008) Joint-ventures • In April 2008. Azure Dynamics Corporation used Maxwell’s BOOSTCAP 390-volt heavy transportation ultracapacitor module (HTM) for the latest hybrid shuttle bus powertrain. • In July 2007. Systems. Operations Alain R. General Manager. Senior Vice-President. CFO & Treasurer George Kreigler III. Ltd to supply hybrid energy storage products. In 2007. Maxwell Technologies and Johnson Controls –Saft entered into an agreement to evaluate and test Maxwell’s lithium-ion battery electrodes for hybrid vehicles. high-voltage capacitors (46%) and radiation-mitigated microelectronic products (19%).. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 109 . high-voltage capacitors and radiationmitigated microelectronic products. The company is focusing on the hybrid vehicles market. Hart. CA 92123 USA Tel: +1 858 503 3300 Fax: +1 858 503 3301 Internet: http://www. Maxwell has a cost advantage by expanding in the low cost countries. John M. Ltd to supply hybrid energy storage products. In April 2007. • In May 2007. Also. Balanson. For Maxwell. Maxwell Technologies manufactures BOOSTCAP® ultracapacitors. Applications & Integration Michael J. Maxwell Technologies business is divided into three product lines of ultracapacitors (35% of total sales in 2008). industrial electronics and telecommunications. The two companies combined their respective capabilities in ultracapacitor and lithiumion battery technologies to develop hybrid energy storage products. The company formed an alliance with Belton Technology Group. • In November 2007. Vice-President.2008) (Year to 31. Maxwell broadened its customer focus by supplying its BOOSTCAP ultracapacitors to hybrid vehicles. multi-cell packs and modules with applications in powertrain. through which it is making inroads in the Chinese market. through which it expects to serve the Asian market. while rest of the countries contributed the remaining 72% of sales in 2008. In order to boost its position in the hybrid vehicles market. In the automotive sector. Miller.com Senior Officers David J. Maxwell and Argonne National Laboratory entered into an agreement for a collaborative research project. CTO Products Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) Plants China. The company supplies these products to various industries such as transportation. Production and delivery of initial product samples began in early 2008. the company collaborated with Johnson-Controls Saft in 2008 to test the lithium-ion battery electrode for hybrid vehicles. Maxwell Technologies is a leading manufacturer of ultracapacitors. Switzerland. Vice-President. Senior VicePresident. Senior Technical Advisor Tim T.

to design and produce ultracapacitors for an advanced engineering hybrid-electric drive train.97% over the previous year’s figure of US$11. Sanjiu planned to introduce a line of ultracapacitor products based on Maxwell’s cell architecture and high-performance electrode for transportation and other markets in mainland China. Post the production of carbon powder electrode material. Maxwell Technologies introduced 390-volt BOOSTCAP ultracapacitor module. • In March 2007. is based on 2. • In January 2007. electric vehicles and heavy duty industrial applications. The alliance was initiated in February 2003. The product works as the energy storage and power delivery component. to distribute BOOSTCAP ultracapacitor products and engineered solutions in Mexico. In March 2006. • In June 2007. • In July 2008. It increases the efficiency level. Additionally. Maxwell Technologies signed a contract with Mercedes Car group. The module. • In November 2006. Maxwell Technologies supplied its BOOSTCAP ultracapacitors to Golden Dragon Bus Co.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report • • In September 2006. • In July 2008. New Product Developments In the financial year 2008. (Sanjiu).000m2 from Shanghai Sanjiu Electric Equipment Company Ltd. Maxwell facilitated YEC in setting up worldwide marketing and distribution. Maxwell Technologies supplied its 125-volt BOOSTCAP ultracapacitor modules for braking energy recuperation and torque assist in emission free electric buses to Vossloh Kiepe GmbH. In April 2006. Maxwell Technologies opened a sales office in Shanghai (China) to market its BOOSTCAP ultracapacitor products. Canada.8m on R&D activities. Maxwell Technologies received a purchase order for 100. SUEP can manufacture and market ultracapacitor products based on Maxwell’s proprietary large cell and multicell module technology under its own brand in mainland China.7-volt BOOSTCAP® BCAP3000 © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 110 . Investments • In April 2007. Maxwell Technologies signed a contract and granted a license to Shanghai Urban Electric Power Investment Development Corporation (SUEP). • In September 2007. . The cold start system integrates Maxwell Technologies BOOSTCAP ultracapacitors with AFL's power management system. The contract will expire in 2012. Contracts • In January 2009. • In May 2007. With this alliance. to commercialise BOOSTCAP ultracapacitors in China. Maxwell Technologies and Yeong Long Technologies Co. the alliance helps Maxwell to expand its market in China.3m. • In January 2008. In April 2006. Maxwell sends it to Belton for final assembly. Maxwell has targeted the Chinese market. United States and China. It incorporates a braking energy recuperation system that enables it to increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. Maxwell Technologies and Azure Dynamics Corporation joined up to use Maxwell’s BOOSTCAP 390-volt heavy transportation ultracapacitor module (HTM) for the latest hybrid shuttle bus powertrain. for integration into diesel-electric hybrid buses. energy storage and power-delivery solutions for heavy hybrid. HTM BMOD0063-P125. Maxwell Technologies started a toll manufacturing alliance with China-based Belton Technology Group for the production of BOOSTCAP ultracapacitors. Ltd (YEC) expanded their alliance to supply carbon powder-based ultracapacitor electrode material to assist YEC’s small cell ultracapacitor products. Maxwell Technologies and Kromberg & Schubert GmBH &Co. Maxwell Technologies and AFL Automotive introduced a cold start system for the commercial truck market. Maxwell Technologies supplied its BOOSTCAP ultracapacitor modules to provide burst power for a retrofit diesel engine starter system to Vanner Inc. Maxwell Technologies launched a 125-Volt BOOSTCAP ultracapacitor module for heavy hybrid and electric vehicles. an increase of 30. Ltd. Richardson Electronics joined Maxwell Technologies. Maxwell Technologies supplied BOOSTCAP ultracapacitors to Continental AG as the energy storage component for a broadnet stabilisation system. KG formed an alliance to incorporate Maxwell’s BOOSTCAP ultracapacitors into engine starting system for automobiles. Maxwell Technologies spent US$14. Additionally. service customers and support its distribution channel partners throughout Asia. • In March 2007.

28% to US$82. resulting in a loss from continuing operations of US$14.24 16. The company foresees growth opportunities in the Asian automotive markets as vehicle production increases. The new ultracapacitors increase the power and longevity of batteries by ten times. Maxwell Technologies introduced 16 new power-type BOOSTCAP ultracapacitor cells and modules for the automotive market.88 45.08m in 2007. the demand for its BOOSTCAP ultracapacitors and multi-cell modules is expected to rise. Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 December 2008.2m in 2008. In 2009. In March 2006. The company is undertaking numerous programs to avoid negative cashflows from operations. reliable and durable power delivery solutions.19 57. The new 2.29) (9. The new ultracapacitor cells are also applicable in distributed power nodes for automotive subsystems.24m from operations compared with US$16.17 241 5. The main properties are to increase the fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.07) R&D No. Year Sales (US$m) 82.80) (15. The product stores more energy and deliver more power per unit volume.49) (6.36 53.06 377 7. Maxwell has reported growth in net sales by 43. apart from reducing its dependence on a few selected markets in Switzerland and the US. The new product provides low-cost backup power solutions and avoids microprocessor malfunctions through better management. Full-year interest expense accounted to US$4. The company’s effort to team up with suppliers and OEMs is expected to help in the future.8m in 2008 down from US$15.80m in 2008. The company’s cost reduction program will enable it to improve its operating performance. the company gained on embedded derivatives and warrants which was US$1.5-volt cells weigh two-thirds less than an ordinary C-size battery and are easily mountable on circuit boards and other electrical devices and systems.94) Net Income (US$m) (14. of Expenditure Employees (US$m) 14. However. as the company is taking numerous measures for a strong financial growth. In May 2006. In May 2006.3 30210. In June 2005. The life of the product is longer than any other commercially available ultracapacitors products.8 346 11.7m posted in 2007. Expansion in China will open further avenues for growth.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report • • • • power cells. For 2009.19m over US$57. First quarter of 2009 is expected to be well above than the first quarter of 2008. Particularly. The company incurred net loss of US$14. It shows the impact of diminished credit availability and volatile security prices due to slump in the global financial markets. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 111 .73) (16. the company is anticipating positive cash flow to finance its operations.52 222 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Outlook Maxwell Technologies’ future growth in the global automotive market depends on the successful commercialisation of applications of ultracapacitors. improved gross margin from the company’s BOOSTCAP product line and manufacturing & quality improvement.13) (7. Ultracapacitor and electrode technologies are clearly the main drivers for the company’s future growth. The company reported an operating loss of US$12. Maxwell Technologies introduced large cell BOOSTCAP ultracapacitor cells and multi-cell modules. with OEMs looking for cost-effective.21 Operating income (US$m) 12.36m in 2007. such as product cost reductions.43 32. Maxwell Technologies developed 'D-Cell' ultracapacitors for automotive electric power network stabilisation. Maxwell is expecting to have positive cash flows. Maxwell Technologies introduced the 'C-Cell' BOOSTCAP ultracapacitor for various industrial and transportation applications.81.01 (14.38) (8.

KG Angerstraße 50 Bad Staffelstein 96231 Germany Tel: +49-0-9573-96220 Fax: +49-0-9573-962211 Internet: www. VW.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report MOLL Lead acid batteries Address Akkumulatorenfabrik Moll GmbH + Co. The current plans for expansions are on hold.moll-batterien. Managing Director Products Lead acid batteries Plants Germany Employees 170c Moll independent battery manufacturer in produces lead acid batteries for automobiles. Managing Director Gertrud Moll-Moehrstedt. Corporate Strategy Overall. 21 April 2009). Porsche. The company is facing exorbitant price rise in its main raw material. a German based mid-size company. In addition the sales of the company are declining.de Senior Officers Richard Moll. The company supplies to all the major OEMs such as Mercedes. Financial Overview Moll is a privately held company. the Moll racing and the 32 volt battery for the 42 volt systems. Contracts In July 2005. Moll became the supplier for Lamborghini Gallardo model – Coupé and Spider. hence financial information is not disclosed by the company. Seat. the Moll Ocean Power. Despite the development of lithium-ion batteries. the Moll aircraft. Germany Moll. The company produces batteries for many applications such as the Moll Kamina Start. the company will continue to manufacture lead acid batteries. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 112 . has been a battery manufacturer for the past 60 years. Moll is investing into research and development to sustain in the market. Audi.19m.. In 2007 and 2008 the company made investments of more than €4m (US$5. Skoda and Lamborghini.

Sendai-shi Miyagi 982-8510 Japan Tel: 81-22-3080018 Fax: 81-22. will be conducted in the Kanagawa Prefecture. Infrastructure.03. Investments • In May 2008. NEC Corp. formed a joint-venture company. NEC Tokin is focusing on the large capacity laminated lithium-ion rechargeable battery business along with the other three main businesses. the company will implement drastic business structural reforms including withdrawal from unprofitable business like prismatic lithium-ion rechargeable battery and reed switch businesses and lower its breakeven point in order to stay afloat. The companies will spend ¥12bn (US$) over a time period of three years. and 9. New Markets (environmental. Network Devices (14. NEC operates in three product groups: Energy Devices (52. manganese lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. which caters to automotive electronics market. Associate Senior VicePresident Akihiko Isobe.928 (31. Joint-Venture • In April 2007. Associate Senior VicePresident Hideo Oka. President Kunihiko Matsumoto. It offers a range of capacitors and batteries including lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The Energy Devices unit offers a range of capacitors and batteries that include electric double layer capacitors and proton polymer batteries. Recent Developments Corporate strategy NEC Tokin is restructuring its business for capital reinforcement.3081158 Internet: http://www. Digital Consumer Electronics. Thailand.. electric vehicles to fuel-cell vehicles. medical and welfare industries). All processes for lithium-ion batteries for automobile application. supercapacitors Plants China (2). Vietnam Sales Group: ¥120bn (US$1.2008) NEC Tokin is a leading manufacturer of electronic devices in Japan. Japan (7). 31 March 2008) (Year to 31.. Financial Overview In the financial year ended 31 March 2008. Kohriyama 6-chome. NEC Tokin has reduced approximately 9. Associate Senior VicePresident Masahiko Yamamoto.500 employees in total. The focus was on the development and mass production of advanced lithium-ion batteries for a wide range of automotive applications from hybrids. Associate Senior VicePresident Yoshihiko Saiki. 31 March 2007) in the previous year. NEC Tokin and Nissan Motor Co. Associate Senior Vice-President Sukenobu Imai. To survive in the current uncertain economic conditions. • In March 2005. Associate Senior VicePresident Hiroshi Nagahara. Associate Senior VicePresident Yoshimi Kubo. Executive VicePresident Noboru Yasue. EMC business and piezoelectric business. The main markets which NEC Tokin caters to are: Telecommunications.03.com Senior Officers Masakazu Okabe. NEC Corp. The structural reforms are scheduled to be completed by December 2009.20bn.7% to ¥120bn (US$1. Automotive Electronics. The company is implementing growth strategies by developing business in the environmental and energy markets and launching new products.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report NEC-Tokin Batteries Address NEC Tokin Corporation 7-1. set up a new mass production line for battery electrodes at NEC Sagamihara Plant (Japan).000 employees overseas by restructuring. from development through to production. Mobile Equipment. 31 March 2008) compared with ¥135bn (US$1. NEC Tokin built a production line for rechargeable batteries used in hybrid vehicles at its Toyama production site (Japan). NEC Tokin is focusing on reorganising the domestic network by closing down three domestic manufacturing operations and five domestic sales bases in Japan.14. Associate Senior Vice-President Minoru Okayama. AESC started its full operations in May 2008. capacitor business.2%) and Functional Devices (33.5%). Associate Senior VicePresident Shigenori Oyama. The company is planning to enhance capital through a wide range of measures. 450 employees in Japan through an early retirement scheme. In November 2002. Associate Senior VicePresident Products Capacitors. a resolution was passed for NEC Tokin to become a wholly owned subsidiary of NEC Corporation. Ltd. Associate Senior VicePresident Kouji Suga. as well as tantalum capacitors and lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.3% of total sales for fiscal year 2008).20bn. Taihaka-ku. the company integrated with NEC’s electronic components business to become NEC Tokin Corporation. It was formed to focus on lithium-ion battery business for wide-scale automotive applications by 2009.2008) Employees 18. NEC Tokin and Nissan Motor Co.nec-tokin. for instance amending the articles of incorporation regarding the issuance of preferred stocks and increasing the number of issuable shares. the consolidated net sales decreased by 11. Automotive Energy Supply Corporation (AESC). In January 2009. The company reported an © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 113 .

900bn (US$410bn). The company will be able to reduce approximately ¥20bn in fixed costs annually through the structural reforms.9 Net Income (¥m) (12.11 135. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 114 . The revised forecast for operating loss is ¥8.20 1.47m.03 1.79m.772m (US$40.3bn (US$969m) down 14% from the current year.27 119. The primary reason for this loss is due to the structural reform of its battery business. The company reported a net loss of ¥12.11 Operating Income (¥m) 575 4.5 43.873) 921 801 Net Income (US$m) ( 128) (15) (7.5 40. personnel expense and depreciation cost.14 1. 31 March 2007) in 2007.36 Sales (US$bn) 1.785) (1. the company has forecasted net sales of ¥94.3bn (US$85m) and net loss ¥39. 31 March 2007).7bn (US$ 128m.8bn (US$15m.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report operating income of ¥575m (US$5.86 121. The structural reform will help the company to reduce fixed costs. Furthermore. 31 March 2008). including the withdrawal of prismatic battery business for overseas mobile phones and the partial reversal of deferred tax assets.772 4. 31 March 2008) compared with net loss of ¥1.722 Operating Income (US$m) 5. Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 Sales (¥bn) 120. For the financial year ending 31 March 2009. The estimated decrease in sales is the result of weaker market conditions and lower demand for major electronic devices associated with weakened consumption. NEC Tokin has recorded a special loss of around ¥26bn in order to implement the fundamental business structural reform.7 40.757 4. The financial problems faced by the company due to the weak economy are likely to continue for some time. The fiscal year ending March 2009 will take the brunt of the slump in the economy as the target markets of NEC Tokin have shrunk drastically and an ordinary loss of ¥10bn is forecast.8) (7.4) Outlook The company is taking prompt and major action for capital reinforcement. a significant decrease from ¥4.

The company is mainly looking to capture the “micro-hybrids” market in the future.nesscap. In 2007. Ltd in May 2002. In September 2005. the US hybrid market grew by 40%. NessCap has formed alliances with other companies on niche automotive applications to increase its presence in the automotive market. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 115 . Besides being used in hybrid electric vehicle. Ultracapacitors made by NessCap are being introduced on an experimental basis in the automotive market for applications such as hybrid buses and trucks. For hybrid vehicles.com Senior Officers M. mild and full hybrid electric vehicles used in power boosting and regenerative braking applications. audio and electronics. Financial Overview The company. CEO & President Sunwook Kim. Outlook In the future. is under no obligation to publish its financial results.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report NessCap Ultracapacitors Address NessCap Co. In 2001. Ltd was spun off from NESS Corp and was later renamed as NessCap Co. The company is currently concentrating more on automotive applications as the automotive hybrid market is regarded as one of its future growth areas. Recent Developments Corporate strategy NessCap started operations with an aim to develop ultracapacitors for various applications. The company has integrated R&D laboratories at its manufacturing facility. Gomae-dong Giheung-gu Yongin-si Gyeonggi-Do Korea Tel: +82 31 289 0721 Fax: +82 31 286 6767 Internet: http://www. Daimler. pseudocapacitor Plants Korea Employees c. Contracts • In May 2008. it ranks as one of the four leading producers of ultracapacitors. growing demand for hybrid electric vehicles is likely to positively impact the market for ultracapacitors. ultracapacitors are used in other automotive applications such as cold cranking in extremely cold weather. Ford and GM. NessCap has developed ultracapacitors for micro. Senior Vice-President & General Manager Products Electric double layer capacitor. NESS Capacitor Co. Ford and GM. mild & full hybrid motor-generator systems and DC/DC converter and control electronics to these OEMs..6Volts to 120Volts and are used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Chairman Robert Tressler. Its customers include OEMs such as Chrysler. power and consumer markets.7Volt (3000 to 5000 farads). These capacitors are used in 14Volt/42 Volt hybrid electric vehicles. ultracapacitors produced by the company are also used in applications such as power. New Product Developments NessCap has a focus on R&D initiatives to develop products for the hybrids market. Apart from automotive applications.Cho. Ltd. 750-8. The program is run by a cooperative research consortium of Chrysler. NessCap received a US$4. NessCap products are available in both cells and modules for transportation.. Terms of the contract were not disclosed. NessCap signed a deal with GM to supply its 6 100F supercapacitors for the automaker’s E-Flex series of extended range of electric vehicles. Globally. NessCap has developed its own electrode technology for its capacitors which distinguishes it from its competitors. Ultracapacitors are also used to provide peak power supply for stop and go in hybrid vehicles and are also used in Integrated Starter Alternator Damper (ISAD). The company has also developed EDLC Module which comes in more than 10 models ranging from 4. The company currently supplies start-stop systems. being privately held. regenerative brakes and fuel cell cars. Some of its recent developments include: • The company has developed an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) which comes in 25 models ranging from 2. 65 (2005) NessCap is a Korea-based manufacturer of ultracapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.5m contract from United States Advanced Battery Consortium to develop ultracapacitors for an automotive research program.5Volt to 2. besides having other applications.

437 (2008) Recent Developments Corporate Strategy Nichicon’s business strategy is based on “selection and consolidation” which means focusing more on the stronger areas where the company has maximum market share in the high priority markets of digital home appliances. In 2008. and Capacitors for Electric Apparatus and Power Utilities. Nichicon Electronics (Wuxi) Co. manufactures and sells capacitors mainly for electronic devices related to digital home appliances. President & COO Hitoshi Chikano.7% to ¥3. To implement this policy more effectively. There are several products that are been developed by the company with environment issues in mind.07bn (US$26m. Nichicon Corporation develops. as well as at Wuxi (for aluminum electrolytic capacitors and circuit products) and Tianjin (for tantalum electrolytic capacitors) in China. In 1996 Nichicon established itself as the environment friendly company by introducing environmental management system. The company’s expenditure on research and development in 2008. Ltd. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 116 . the company established manufacturing units in Malaysia (for aluminum electrolytic capacitors). New products are developed by technological developments on the existing ones. and 6% from Europe.The result of these developments are capacitors called Geo Cap and Ever CAP. Nichicon had 46. Nichicon caters to many segments but its main segments are divided into three categories.jp Senior Officers Ippei Takeda. Ltd. New Product Developments Nichicon’s research & development and production team work hand in hand to create new technologies and launch them effectively. Nichicon Kuatsu is a subsidary of Nichicon Group in Japan.. Circuit products.. Customer demand is borne in mind during new product development.nichicon. The company is also working towards enhancing the supply of products for hybrid cars to achieve an increase in the percentage of sales of automotive-related products from the current 17% to 20%. The company obtained ISO 14001 certification for most of its manufacturing facilities. Nichicon.08) Employees Group: 5.03. in China opened a second plant of equal capacity to the existing one to produce aluminium electrolytic capacitors and switching power supplies. the company diversifies its products only in the field of capacitors. 31 March 2008) from ¥3.56bn (US$1.8% of total sales from Asia and Others. Capacitors for electronics. and information and communications devices.2bn. 604-0845 Japan Tel: + 81-75-231-8461 Fax: + 81-75-256-4158 Internet: http://www. • In March 2006. 31 March 2008) (Year to 31.34bn (US$33. automotive. Director Products Capacitors Plants China (2). • In April 2007. The capacitor is also used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) to support the battery back-up. inverter-equipped products. Kyoto. To cater to the global market. 8. automotive-related devices. Japan (5). Investments • In March 2007. the company opened a new plant at Nichicon Kuatsu (Japan) to meet the increasing demand for film capacitors modules used in inverters for the drive mechanism of hybrid vehicles. Director Yoshitaka Morinaga.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Nichicon Capacitors Address Nichicon Corporation Karasumadori Oike-agaru.co. Director Kazuo Uzawa. and Hokuriku Electric Power Company jointly developed an environment friendly electric double layer capacitor called EVerCAP for storage units.2% from America. Director Nobuo Inoue. inverter equipped products. and information and communication devices. Chairman & CEO Sachihiko Araki. EverCAP is an electric double layer capacitor which does not have cadmium or lead as its main components. Nakagyo-ku.6m. Director Katsuhiko Furuya. Kandenko Co. 39% from Japan. 31 March 2007) in the previous year. Malaysia Sales Group: ¥119. increased by 8.

5% to ¥4.437 6.4bn (US$469.5% to ¥9. Overseas sales decreased 0.82m) and Asia and others recorded increase of 0.71 106.5bn (US$1.24 4.74 R&D Expenditure (¥bn) 3.79 20. Year Net Sales ( ¥bn) 119.398 4. 0.35 4.80m) during the year.85 2.5bn (US$468.87 104 100. (US$m) 12.2bn (US$383.96m) in 2007.97bn (US$735.86m).8% to ¥7.65 Net Income (¥bn) 1. sales in America decreased 13.08 4. The demand for environment friendly cars will boost the company’s sales in the future.2 954.334 5.85 20.9% to ¥1.8% to ¥55.587 No.65m) in 2008.24 18.04 6.99 51.7bn (US$56.2007).437 6.2bn (US$35.27bn (US$12. Europe sales increased 7.02 2.79m) from ¥11.006 909 967.36m) in 2007.34 3.61bn (US$46. The company is also looking to be part of some of the large government projects making the best use of their technological advancement.8 Operating Income (¥bn) 4.99m) (31.334 5.80 35. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 117 . Sales in Japan increased 3% to ¥46. Overseas sales accounted for 61% of consolidated net sales.846 5.2bn (US$94. the number of orders received for capacitors and module products increased as a result of the progress in electronic applications for automobiles including hybrid cars.07 2.2bn.06 43.19 Net Income.6 26 24.61 6. of Employees 5.205 1.59m) from ¥6. The company recorded decreasing operating income of 31. In the field of automotive-related devices.7% to ¥119.07 2. The company has established its manufacturing units in countries like Malaysia and China.398 4. 31 March 2008).48m) in 2008 from ¥6.2bn (US$72.48 56.96 34. compared to ¥4. Nichicon sales increased by 0.27 4.70 37.12.99m) in 2007.21 R&D Expenditure (US$m) 33.7bn (US$97.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 March 2008.79m) in 2008 compared to ¥45. Nichicon has developed capacitors to cater to the hybrid vehicles market with the help of its research and development team.9bn (US$563.72 6.7bn (US$56.56m) from ¥55.93 No.7% year-on-year to ¥72. This will help the company to capture the global market. Net income decreased 69. This will help the company in its R&D activities which are its main focus.38 59.587 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Outlook The company has identified the future demand for environment friendly products and is working towards it.846 5.56 118. of Employees 5.84 Net Sales (US$m) 1.9% less than in 2007.61 Operating Income (US$m) 46.

the company recorded decrease in net income of 54.5m) in 2007 to ¥102.2m) during the year.08) Employees Group: 7. Director Yoshifumi Minegishi.8% year-on-year from ¥91.10 120. Japan (13). The company‘s operating income decreased 7. Nippon Chemi-Con (NCC) is a producer of electrolytic capacitors in Japan and today has the largest share of aluminium electrolytic capacitors market in the world. Sales of capacitors contribute 82% to the sales. Overseas sales accounted for 71. of Employees 7. NCC developed an aluminium foil which reduced the capacitor size by half.55 3.461 No. Divestments In July 2008.03. 31 March 2007) in the previous year. 6.098 6.5m). and 56. US (2).20 135.30 Net R&D Expenditure (¥bn) 3.278 6. 31 March 2008) from ¥3.2bn (US$1.9% to ¥2.5m) and Asia and others recorded the maximum increase in sales of 15.57 3. NCC is expanding into various other capacitor fields.6bn (US$96.2% to ¥11.9bn (US$119.99 2. Taiwan.70 9.12 4. Sales Group: ¥143. Director Products Aluminium electrolytic capacitors.3bn (US$78.10 2. President Yuzo Shibata.7bn (US$1bn).7m) in 2008 from ¥9.7bn (US$87. Overseas sales increased 11.1bn (US$85. 31 March 2008).7% from North America.6m) from ¥70.3m.65 1. Director Syuuichi Shiraishi.55bn (US$29.7% to ¥81. New Product Developments NCC’s expenditure on research and development in 2008 increased by 5. especially the multilayer ceramic capacitor and electric double layer capacitor. The company also supplies this raw material to other capacitor makers. This was mainly due to increasing material prices and fall in selling price.91 105. of 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Year © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 118 .chemi-con.5bn (US$25. Malaysia. The company has collaborated with all R&D departments to achieve links between material development capability. Korea (2).8bn (US$778. Executive Managing Director Hidenori Uchi.7m) from ¥10.29 Net Sales Operating Income (¥bn) 8.51 5.5bn (US$46. 5-6-4. NCC’s sales increased by 5. Indonesia.3% from Europe.6m.43 6.3% of total sales from Japan.14 3.2bn (US$1.63 Operating Net Income (¥bn) 2.71 102.7% of consolidated net sales.098 (2008) • In May 2006.8m) in 2007.9m) from ¥11. product development capability and facility development capability for the capacitors.5bn (US$97. multilayer ceramic capacitors. In 2008. Osaki Shinagawa-ku Tokyo 141-8605 Japan Tel: +81-3-5436-7711 Fax: +81-3-5436-7631 Internet: http://www. Senior Executive Managing Director Junichi Suga.6m). Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 March 2008. Executive Managing Director Atsushi Kanezaki. Director Noriaki Kakizaki. Due to fast appreciation of the yen.44bn.7% from Asia and Others.74bn (US$37. NCC produces aluminium electrode foil which is a primary element of capacitors. 8.1% to ¥3. Year Net Sales ( ¥bn) 143.854 6. NCC had 28.79 R&D No. NCC dissolved its wholly owned subsidiary in Iware (Japan).jp Senior Officers Ikuo Uchiyama. NCC has launched a medium term management plan Q1 (Quality First) to optimise quality levels by anticipating future requirements and targets of zero defects.7% to ¥8.1bn (US$594. Sales in North America decreased 5. Director Satoshi Kikuchi.9% to ¥143. Recent Developments Corporate Strategy NCC has kept a constant focus on the aluminium electrolytic capacitors as it caters to most of the important markets. European sales increased 3.co.6m.1bn (US$817. compared with ¥5. 31 December 2007). 31 March 2008) (Year to 31.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Nippon Chemi-Con Capacitors Address Nippon Chemi-Con Corporation.935 6.44bn. electric double layer capacitors Plants China (3).71 3.74 3.2% to ¥9.

NCC’s investments in the high growth market of capacitors will spur future demand for its products.7 30.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report (US$m) 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 1.6 12.278 6.935 6.8 1. (US$m) 25.1 968.7 79.6 1.3 Expenditure (US$m) 37. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 119 .1 26.4 Employees 7.7 28.098 6. as they seem to be the upcoming fields in the market. The company’s R&D departments will be able to work with better efficiency with the collaboration.2 33.461 Outlook NCC is focusing on developing the new divisions of multilayer ceramic capacitors and double layer capacitors.8 34.9 52.028.854 6.3 Income.443.0 43.4 983.3 47.5 Income (US$m) 87.145.9 24.8 26.

The factory has shipped its first battery pack consignment for Toyota Camry Hybrid.net Panasonic EV Energy Co. nickel metal hydride batteries Address Panasonic Corporation. Executive Vice-President Kazuhiro Tsuga.08bn (US$4.peve. Production would start in 2010.jp Senior Officers Kunio Nakamura.42bn. Today the demand for EVs is increasing due to stricter emission laws coming into force. Components & Devices. The company recorded an increase in operating income of 13% to ¥519.42bn.03.9bn. Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 March 2008. initiated in April 2007. The company is establishing new plants for lithium-ion batteries which will cater to the Toyota hybrid cars. • In May 2008.08) Employees Group: 3. Panasonic EV held Ground Breaking Ceremony of its third factory at Omori Plant. Panasonic EV is a joint-venture that caters to the hybrid market. The battery business is a part of the Component & Devices segment. Constant R&D is been done in this field by the dedicated company Panasonic EV and the result is development of lithiuim-ion battery which are much more efficient than NiMH batteries. Recent Developments Corporate Strategy Panasonic has devised a mid-term managent plan called GP3 (Global Progress. The JV is already supplying battery packs to Toyota and Honda.. These batteries are used mainly for automotive electronic devices. Kadoma Kadoma City Osaka 571-8501 Japan Tel: +81-6-6908-1121 Fax: Internet: http://www. The Energy Company formed in October 2008 is dedicated to battery business which caters to different battery customers.59bn. The company’s long term planning started in 1996 when the decision was made to team up with Toyota to manufacture batteries for EVs.panasonic. and Other business segments. The company recorded a net income of 30% to ¥281. President Koshi Kitadai. PEW and PanaHome. manufacturing innovation..92bn (US$91.48bn (US$5. 31 March 2008) from ¥578. Panasonic EV Energy Co. AVC Networks.42% to ¥9.068. and the eco ideas strategy. 20 Okasaki Kosai Shizuoka. This also includes other electronic devices.068. 31 March 2008).92bn (US$91. Managing Executive Officer The Components & Devices business contributes 13% to the total sales. Chairman Fumio Ohtsubo. 431-0422 Japan Internet: http://www. 31 March 2007) in the previous year. A lot of innovations have been made by the company.54bn (US$3. four strategic businesses (which include component and devices business).23bn) in 2008 from ¥459.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Panasonic Lithium-ion. Investments • In January 2009. 1006. Panasonic EV announced plans to open two new plants in Miyagi and Shizuoka (Japan) to produce nickel hydride and lithium-ion batteries respectively for Toyota’s hybrid cars. Global Panasonic) for three years. the most recent of which is the lithium-ion battery to replace NiMH batteries in hybrid vehicles. The company will invest ¥30bn (US$290m). Global Profit.05. 31 March 2008) (Year to 31. nickel metal hydride batteries Plants Automotive: Japan (3) Sales Group: ¥9. Ltd.800 (2008) © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 120 .828 (2008) Subsidary: 1.89bn) in 2007.87bn (US$2. The company will also steadily implement initiatives focused on four major areas: double-digit growth for overseas sales. Panasonic’s sales were almost on the same level as previous year.84bn) during the year compared with Panasonic Corporation divides its business in five main business segments. Shizuoka (Japan). New Product Developments Panasonic’s expenditure on research and development in 2008 decreased by 4% to ¥554. Home Appliances. Products Lithium ion batteries. a joint-venture (JV) between Matsushita (Panasonic’s parent company) and Toyota was formed in December 1996 to develop nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries for electric vehicles (EV).53bn (US$5. There was a slight decrease of 0.

34.493 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Outlook Panasonic aims to substantially increase sales with its newly formed midterm management plan GP3.068.381bn (US$11.24 75.752 2. (in $bn) 2.479.85 Net Income (¥bn) 281.48 459.84bn) in 2007.645 3.894.14bn) (31.54 414.9m 399m R&D Expenditure (¥bn) 554.18bn (US$1.41 58.04 70.61bn) from ¥1.402 3.893bn (US$16bn).14 Net Income.713.251bn (US$12.72 5.74 Net Sales (in $bn) 91.84 1.49 195.12.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report ¥217.493 No.17 8.52 579.59 4. the company needs to determine the success of GP3 plan by fiscal year 2009 as 2008 sales were on the same level as fiscal 2007.752 2.53 578.23 3. A greater emphasis on R&D and new product development is expected to bring technological advancements in various segments.213bn (US$12.23 R&D Expenditure (in $bn) 5.402 3.34.82bn) from ¥4.42 77.18 154.6bn) from ¥4.86 1. Demand for hybrid vehicles will increase due to the stricter emission norms coming into existence and people becoming more environmentally conscious.34.76bn) from ¥1.31 543. Overseas sales increased 1% to ¥4.34.545bn (US$45.27 308. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 121 .32 8.89 3. of Employees 3.82 Operating Income (¥bn) 519.48 42.80 5.7bn).05.48 No.2007).49 Operating Income (in $bn) 5.08 564.492bn (US$38bn) in 2007.65 81.828 3.108.060bn (US$20.84 1. Year Net Sales ( ¥bn) 9.63 7.05.90 4.78 615.92 9.28. Sales in Japan decreased by 2% to ¥4.616bn (US$39. of Employees 3. European sales were on the same level at ¥1.645 3.524bn (US$45.90.828 3.28.22bn) and Asia and others recorded an increase in sales of 9% to ¥2.87 217.52 2. The Battery division will develop new batteries in the new plant set up to cater to the EV market. Sales in North and South America decreased 9% to ¥1.90.

The agreement is extended till 2014. JCS collaborated with Maxwell technologies in April 2008 to develop lithium-ion automotive batteries.09m) (Year to 31.12. CEO. Saft has 17 manufacturing sites worldwide and is present in 10 countries. 1 February 2008) in the plant which is the world’s first lithium-ion battery manufacturing facility. nickel metal hydride batteries Plants France (JCS) Saft manufactures batteries including nickel-cadmium (NiCd). Johnson Controls-Saft (JCS) and Maxwell Technologies established a development collaboration to evaluate the integration of Maxwell’s electrode process into the mass production of Saft’s lithium-ion batteries for hybrid vehicles. JCS opened its first lithium-ion battery facility in Nersac (France). to develop batteries for current and future generation hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV). Saft categorises its business in three divisions: Industrial Battery Group (generated 48% of 2008 net sales).com Senior Officers John Searle. JCS won a contract from Azure Dynamics to supply lithiumion hybrid batteries for commercial trucks for North American market. Johnson Controls-Saft Advanced Power Solutions (JCS). With this joint-venture the company intends to become a leading supplier in North America for hybrid and electric vehicles. JCS secured a contract from Ford to supply battery systems for its plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) which were tested on a fleet of 20 cars in June 2008.saftbatteries. Recent Developments Corporate strategy Saft automotive business is currently focused on developing batteries for the hybrid vehicles market through its joint-venture (JV) with Johnson Controls. The synergies will be adopted by end of 2010.08) Employees 4000 (2008) © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 122 . • In January 2009. Johnson Controls has 51% stake and the remaining 49% stake is held by Saft. The JV. To cater to the increasing demand for hybrid vehicles. Additionally. In February 2008. nickel cadmium batteries. was formed in January 2006 to develop solutions for hybrid and electric vehicles. and technical resource for nickel technologies will be merged. JCS set up a plant in Nersac (France) to produce lithium-ion batteries for hybrid vehicles There are further expansion plans for this facility. nickel cadmium batteries and nickel metal hydride batteries which are used in hybrid electric vehicles besides other industries. Johnson Controls-Saft Advanced Power Solutions Xavier Delacroix. The cost synergies to be put into effect will include elimination of duplicate production assets. Investments • In February 2008. JCS invested in Wisconsin (US) to get the benefit of the Bio Energy Grant awarded by the Wisconsin government.4m (US$859.3m. The company invested €15m (US$22. The grant was for the innovation and advancement of hybrid vehicle batteries which contributes to the state’s clean energy agenda. Director & General Manager Industrial Battery Group Dr Richard Doisneau. Industrial Battery Group segment manufactures rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. • In January 2006. The joint-venture is involved in production of nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries. Chairman & CEO Mary Ann Wright. Specialty Battery Group (40%) and Rechargeable Battery Systems (12%). The PHEV will be introduced in 2012.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Saft Batteries Address Saft Group 12 rue Sadi Carnot 93170 Bagnolet France Tel: +33 1 4993 1918 Fax: +33 1 4993 1950 Internet: http://www. Chief Technology Officer Products Lithium-ion batteries. rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. . Saft and Johnson Controls established a joint-venture. The company will merge Industrial battery group and Rechargeable battery systems by July 2009. The production will begin in fourth quarter of Sales Group: €609. Contracts • In February 2009. Saft has reviewed its operations and cost base. Joint-ventures • In April 2008. Raw materials would be obtained from low cost suppliers and there are plans to transfer final assembly plant of Special Battery Group to low cost countries. named as JCS.

5% to €30m in 2007. The project will commence in June 2009. Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Sales (€m) 609. 31 December 2007) in 2007. lithium-ion batteries for electric bus applications and hybrid bus applications.5m (US$884.in hybrid SUV. In January 2008.9m) in 2007. over€83. sales increased by 6. These cells are used in assembled battery systems which in turn are used in electronics and thermal management units.5 560.8m). Financial Overview In the financial year ended 31 December 2008.4m (US$859m. electric bicycles.4 39.8m). VL45E (45 Ah) and VL 41M (41 Ah) cells range. • The company has also developed nickel cadmium and. Saft’s consolidated net sales increased by 4. scooters and wheelchairs. JCS won a contract with Daimler to supply lithium-ion batteries for the Mercedes S Class 400 hybrid. Saft is positive about the demand for high energy advanced batteries in the future and expects growth in this segment. JCS won a contract from BMW to supply lithium-ion batteries for BMW’s 7 series ActiveHybrid car.2 Net Income (€m) 35.8m (US$339.2 586.4m. In August 2008. Ford and GM. In addition to the plant in Nersac.1 Sales (US$m) 859 884.9% to €609. JCS secured a 24-month contract from USABC to develop advanced.2 566. The profits could be achieved due to control on the pricing.6 799. The project will commence in 2010.6 670.4m (US$122.5 85.7m) from €282.4m (US$415. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 123 . In January 2008. In January 2007.47m in financial year 2008 compared with 5. lithium-ion batteries for HEVs.9m).The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report • • • • • • 2010.5m (US$107. Johnson Controls-Saft has research and development centres in Milwaukee (US) and Bordeaux (France). Daimler Chrysler.1m (US$411.6% of the company’s sales or €30. In October 2008. For Rechargeable Battery Systems. This was possible due to strong performance in the civil market. JCS won a contract from Chery Automobile to supply nickel metal hydride batteries for its A5 ISG hybrid saloon. In September 2007. USABC is a project run by United States Department of Energy. sales increased by 6. JCS was awarded an advanced battery development contract by GM to design and test lithium-ion batteries for use in the Saturn Vue Green Line plug. Saft has developed VH series nickel-metal hydride batteries that offer high power. 31 December 2008) compared with €600.7m (US$492.8% to €292.4 739.8 68. long life cycle (over 500 charge discharge cycles) and are used in hybrid vehicles.9 34. JCS won a contract to supply lithium-ion batteries for a demonstration fleet of new energy vehicles to SAIC Motor Corporation Ltd. New Product Developments The company’s R&D expenditure was 5.5 97.7 71.4m) compared with €334. In Specialty Battery Group.4 600. The cells for these batteries will be produced at Saft’s Nersac (France) plant. electric vehicles.6 EBIT (€m) 80.9 100.7% to €240. In the Industrial Battery Group.3 9 Outlook Global demand for lithium batteries is expected to grow as hybrid vehicles become popular in response to increasing environmental awareness.1 26.7 97 101. JCS got second contract from United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) valued at US$8.4 73.8% to €76. constant voltage during discharge. The negative impact was due to the falling nickel price throughout the year.9 6.6 Net Income (US$m) 49.9 37.6 50 41. Some of its recent developments include: • Saft has developed new advanced high energy lithium-ion battery systems based on its VLE module. sales declined by 6.3 EBIT (US$m) 113. In 2006.2mn to produce lithium-ion battery systems for PHEV. This is the second lithium-ion production contract for JCS.

All these are expected to boost the growth of the company in the area of batteries for hybrid vehicles.000 for further innovation in hybrid vehicle batteries. JCS has successfully acquired contracts from three continents between 2008-2009. 2009) in support of clean vehicles. France will provide automotive industry aid package of €450mn (US$566. This includes a second contract from USABC and a five-year contract from Azure Dynamics. JCS will also be working with State of Wisconsin on their clean energy plan in which JCS will get an incentive of US$500.2mn. JCS will also receive funds from the US and French government. the joint-venture between Saft and Johnson Control is expected to improve the market presence of Saft in hybrids. 19 February. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 124 . Furthermore. The US will provide a stimulus package of US$2bn for advanced batteries and renewable energy storage.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report In the future. The recent opening of the world’s first lithium-ion batteries manufacturing facility and new hybrid contracts signed in 2006-2008 present the company with future growth opportunities.

Vice-President Hiromoto Sekino. President Koichi Maeda. Executive VicePresident Kentaro Yamagishi. Vice-President Osamu Kajikawa.3%).8% of net sales from Japan. In the rechargeable batteries segment. the company generated 36. 35. A new plant location will be chosen according to the infrastructure which provides appropriate production logistics and human resources. audio & video equipment.sanyo. Its major automotive customers include Chrysler.6bn). Keihan-Hondori 2-chome Moriguchi City.2%) Commercial (13%) and Others (2. Joint-ventures • In May 2008.875 (2008) Sanyo Electric is one of the leading suppliers of electronic products. batteries and home appliances. USA Sales Group: ¥2. Singapore. The company’s product portfolio includes consumer electronic appliances. Sanyo organises its operations into four segments: Consumer (generated 37.8% from North America. Executive VicePresident Mitsuru Honma. The company is teaming up with OEMs for the development of battery systems for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In 2008. the division also manufactures capacitors. Osaka 570 8677 Japan Tel: +81 6 6991 1181 Fax: +81 6 6992 0009 Internet: http://www.03. Honda and Volkswagen. The new plant at Tokushima will contribute ten million cells per month by 2015 to the increasing demand of lithium-ion battery systems for HEV. Vice-President Products Lithium ion & nickel metal hydride batteries Plants China. Sanyo has signed an agreement with Volkswagen to jointly develop nickel-metal hydride HEV battery systems.8bn (US$20.5% of 2008 sales). The plan aims to achieve an operating income of ¥100bn and net sales of ¥2.380bn by the end of financial year 2010. This includes investment of ¥125bn (US$1. Recent Developments Corporate strategy In November 2007. In the new three year mid-term plan from 2009-2010. Vice-President Hiroshi Ono.9% from Europe and 3. Sanyo is focusing on lithium-ion batteries with an aim to increase its production and sales.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Sanyo Batteries Address Sanyo Electric Co Ltd 5-5.017. semiconductors and solar cells. ‘Think GAIA’ is the brand vision of the company used to accelerate development of next generation rechargeable batteries which would cater to HEV as well as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). the company plans to make a record-scale capital investment of ¥360bn (US$3. The Components division manufactures lithium-ion batteries and nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and other commercial rechargeable batteries for various markets. The company plans to invest ¥80bn (US$771. Vice-President Teruo Tabata.3% from Asia. Sanyo and Panasonic have an agreement of Capital and Business Alliance which was taken in December 2008. 70% of which would be put into component business. Ford. Sanyo developed a new mid-term business strategy which will guide it from April 2008 to March 2010. Executive Vice-President Kazuhiko Suruta. 12.2% from rest of the world. Components (47.3bn. Decisions are pending as Panasonic is seeking antitrust approval from all the 11 countries where Sanyo is operational. The new initiative is to create a new customer base by fiscal year 2010. Mexico.jp Senior Officers Seiichiro Sano. The plan has been made keeping the goal of financial year 2010 in mind. Sanyo and Volkswagen entered into second agreement to start co-development of next generation lithium-ion battery systems for HEVs. 11. motors. Vice-President Hidetoshi Arima. Vice-President Satoshi Inoue. Sanyo will become a subsidiary of Panasonic.2bn) for rechargeable battery business. 31 March 2008) (Year to 31. In © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 125 . Apart from rechargeable batteries. Japan.08) Employees Group: 99. The company collaborated with Volkswagen in May 2008 to produce lithium-ion batteries. Daimler.2mn) to develop a new plant for lithium-ion battery for HEV business by 2015. optical pick ups. Sales target for energy business area is set at approximately ¥610bn till 2010. The company supplies electronic components such as navigation systems and rechargeable batteries to the automotive sector. Vice-President Akira Kan. The vision also contributes to the corporate social responsibility of the company. as it talks about providing environmental friendly global energy solutions.co. UK.

875 94. Sanyo agreed to Panasonic Capital and Business Alliance agreement. • In 2004.8m) compared with ¥55. Sanyo completed construction of mass production line for lithium-ion batteries for HEV at its Tokushima plant.7bn (US$9.000 cars per year.7% to ¥1.9bn) in the preceding year. In hybrids.1bn). New Product Developments In the financial year 2008.7 (45. This production capacity would be able to cater to 15.1 123.8bn) and Overseas sales decline 7.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report January 2006. Contracts • In 2004. However.1bn (US$767.4bn (US$10bn).2m) compared with ¥42. Divestments • In December 2008.3% to ¥905.3bn) for the year ended 31 March 2008.4bn (US$7. Sales decreased in Japan by 4. They will supply plug-in hybrid electric vehicles battery systems by 2011. For the year ending 31 March 2009. of Employees © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 126 .4% in sales to ¥1.882.7 90 94.3bn (US$202.5% to ¥669.906 106.7bn (US$722.882. In the first nine months ended 31 December 2008.6bn).6 2. In the Component division.7% to ¥742.017.5m) compared with a net loss of ¥28. The total deal will be of ¥806.031. Financial Overview Sanyo’s sales increased 7.2bn (US$9. Sanyo commenced supplies of Ni-MH for the 2005 Honda Accord hybrid model in the North American market.2bn) in 2007 as its income tax liability decreased 25.5bn (US$241.3mn) in the previous year.2 114. Sanyo delivers over 20.000 batteries to Honda for this program annually. Net loss is been forecasted aat ¥90bn for the year ended 31 March 2008.760bn compared with net sales of ¥2.8 59.000 to 20.7bn (US$289.7) (171. Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Year Sales (¥bn) 2. The company reported an operating profit of ¥76. The company posted a net loss of ¥18. Investments • In March 2009.017.3bn) compared with ¥1.8mn). Sanyo reported a decline of 6.8bn).023 82.3) (205.4bn). Sanyo’s expenditure on research and development was ¥71.6% to ¥28.1 Operating Income (US$m) Net income (¥bn) 28.8bn (US$5. Operating income declined to ¥30.9bn (US$498mn) of previous year due to appreciation of the Japanese yen and surge in raw materials prices.089.2% in the financial year ended 31 March 2008 to ¥2.1bn) to acquire Sanyo as the subsidiary. a decrease from ¥90bn (US$763. Panasonic declared in March 2009 that it plans to sell bonds worth ¥400bn (US$4. the company is developing rechargeable batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and their control systems.6m) in the period 2007. the company forecasts decrease in sales by 12. Sanyo entered into an agreement with Daimler to develop batteries for Mercedes gasoline hybrid cars. Panasonic requires approval from antitrust clearance from 11 countries where Sanyo is operational which would delay the acquisition till May 2009. Sales declined in Japan 5% to ¥528.9) 4.6bn (US$361.337 No.8bn (US$20. It recorded a net income of ¥28.389 96. Sanyo and Volkswagen entered into an agreement to start codevelopment of the next generation of Ni-MH battery systems for hybrid electric vehicles.3 R&D Expenditure (US$bn) No.1 42.6 2.017.2bn (US$15.118 Sales (US$bn) Operating Income (¥bn) 76.4bn).3m) as opposed to a loss of ¥45.6 (35.8 1.5) 13.6bn (US$15. of Employees 99.5bn (US$7.7 2. in the overseas Component division sales increased by 7% to ¥953.8bn (US$340.8bn (US$20.434.7bn (US$255. sales decreased 7.7m).3bn (US$384.4 Net income (US$m) R&D Expenditure (¥bn) 71.3m) in the previous fiscal.

389 96.000 hybrid cars per year.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 20. Its collaboration with Volkswagen is not only expected to increase its product development capability but also provide it with access to the European market.6 559.9 17.3 (305. The company will have to concentrate on its new-mid term plan as the forecasts for fiscal year 2008 show a substantial decrease in net sales.76 0.72 0. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 127 .6 289.337 Outlook Sanyo has set a long-term goal of securing 50% of the global market share for hybrid vehicle batteries by 2010.2 19.3 (384.16 99875 94.2) (1. completed by May 2009.4 20 767. It has once again collaborated with Volkswagen to produce lithium-ion battery systems which would cater to 15.8 1.000 to 20.2 361.7) (1.0) 126. The company has taken a step towards its contribution to the increasing demand of hybrid vehicle batteries.749.8 0. the company aims to capitalise on its technical know-how and to develop the next generation of Ni-MH batteries for new hybrid electric vehicles.595. The Capital and Business agreement between Sanyo and Panasonic. The decline can be observed from the fourth quarter of the year ending 31 March 2009.023 82.906 106. In the future.3) 44. This is mainly due to the global crisis especially in US market. adds to the capital expenditure that the company is planning. The company also plans to supply plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries till 2011 as they sense a great demand for PHEVs.3 15.06 1.

635. Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 December 2008. the company plans to compete with the Japanese rivals in the global hybrid car battery market. In March 2007.53bn) in 2008. SK Energy is the third company which developed lithium cells in 2005.skenergy. comprising SK Holdings and SK Energy. The company witnessed a loss of 39% in pre-tax income from KRW1. Additionally.12.58bn) in 2007 to KRW 1. Outlook Overall.com/ Senior Officers Tae Won Chey. SK Energy provided lithium-ion polymer batteries to Toyota. The three battery suppliers are to compete to develop 16km and 32km PHEV battery systems.5bn (US$1. where the results will be evaluated after three years to select a final developer to produce a 16km PHEV battery system with additional two-year support. Chairman & CEO Heon-Cheol Shin. The company will operate four major manufacturing facilities to produce lithiumion polymer batteries by 2010.75bn) in 2007 to KRW 992bn (US$788m) in 2008.34bn. SK Energy planned to invest KRW159bn (US$115m. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 128 . The company is aiming to supply batteries for hybrid cars and is currently testing hybrid car models before they penetrate the market in 2010. Seorin-Dong Jongro-Gu 110-110 Korea Tel: 82-02-2121-5114 Fax: 82-02-2121-7001 Internet: http://eng. LG Chemical and SB LiMotive to develop plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) battery systems.745bn (US$36. SK Energy is a leading energy and petrochemical company. Contracts In November 2008. the Ministry of Knowledge Economy revealed that two project contracts were concluded between Hyundai motor and three battery producers: SK Energy.2008) Employees Group: 5.73bn) the corresponding period of 2007.4bn (US$29.6bn (US$1.745bn (US$36.664 (January 2008) In July 2007. 23 October 2008) to expand the production of lithium-ion battery parts.933. Recent Developments Corporate Strategy The company has shipped its samples to two automobile manufacturers in Korea. LG Chemical and SK Energy participated in a 16km development project.4bn (US$1. The investment span period is expected to be over by April 2010. SK Energy focuses on its core energy business. If the deemed plan proceeds as scheduled then the company will have 20% of the world market share.479. the company planned to commercialise it within two or three years while pushing for co-operation with more than 10 research institutions in the US and abroad to improve its functions.34bn) compared to KRW27. 31 December 2008) (Year to 31.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report SK Energy Batteries Address SK Energy 99. With this success. the company reported growth of 65% in sales to KRW45. SK Energy reported increase in operating profit by 31% from KRW1. SK Energy seeks future growth by advancing technology and aggressively marketing its product line to expand its market share. SK Corporation was split into a holding company structure.788. Vice-Chairman & CEO Products Lithium-ion polymer batteries Plants Korea Sales Group: KRW45.

TDK had 17.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report TDK Capacitors Address TDK Corporation 1-13-1.42bn) in 2007 to ¥714.11m) to ¥87.31bn.1bn).5% from ¥79. Senior Vice-President Takeshi Nomura.6% of net sales. Senior Vice-President Seiji Enami. 11. The company plans to build a new plant for capacitors commencing from March 2009 to meet the demand in the coming years. The company considers capacitors as one of the key drivers in the electronics material segment. In the area of hybrids the company is focusing its R&D activities to develop converters & inverters for hybrid electric cars. Minoru Takahashi. the company provides capacitors for battery control units. Europe sales decreased 35. This will strengthen its electronic materials and components business.12bn (US$424. R&D expenditures rose 14. hard disk drives and other components. Tokyo 103-8272 Japan Tel: +81 5201 7102 Fax: +81 5201 7114 Internet: http://www. Chuo-ku. TDK acquired Germany based EPCOS AG as a subsidary. Chairman & CEO Takehiro Kamigama.73bn.1bn (US$7. Nihonbashi.5bn (US$675. Capacitors Business Group.08) Employees Group: 60.3bn (US$577.7%. EPCOS AG will be operating as TDK’s subsidiary and the existing components business of TDK will be diverted to the new subsidiary.8% from Europe and 64. while the operating income increased by 12.5%. Financial Overview TDK posted consolidated net sales of ¥866. Korea (4).4% year-on-year from ¥690.1% from Americas. Electronic Materials and Components division is further divided into four segments: • Electronic Materials (capacitors). Asia and others recorded the maximum increase in © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 129 . General Manager.6% year. TDK has made an acquisition in this segment. Senior Vice-President Takeo Suzuki Senior Vice-President Products Ceramic capacitors Plants Group: Germany. Senior Vice-President Shinichi Araya. Senior Vice-President Shiro Nomi. 31 March 2008). Senior Vice-President. Net income climbed 1. Overseas sales accounted for 82.4% of consolidated net sales. DC-AC inverters. Japan (11). which include electronic media. In Americas sales decreased 7. Senior Vice-President Takaya Ishigaki.2008) TDK Corporation is a leading manufacturer of electronic components. 6. 2008) (Year to 31. up 0.6% while operating income rose 0.03. In the past the company has developed high efficiency DC-DC converters for hybrid electric cars help to reduce the power loss.2bn (US$8.35% shares of EPCOS.onyear to ¥57.5% from Asia & Others.03.5% . Acquisitions • In October 2008.4bn (US$719. The company is developing DC-DC converters for electric vehicles and highly durable heat-resistant multilayer ceramic chip capacitors.co. Overseas sales increased 3. recording devices.1m) to ¥71. DC-DC converters and other high frequency components • Recording device manufacturing (HDD) • Other electronic component segment (electroluminescent (EL) displays and equipment) In 2008. TDK has also been expanding its overseas production. In the hybrid electric vehicle segment. Hungary. The company owns 94. 31 March 2007).7%. New Product Developments: In 2008. ferrite products. President & COO Shinji Yoko.2bn (US$8. Operating income rose 9. 6.6%). Taiwan (4).9% from ¥70. The demand for the same was high this fiscal year which the company was unable to meet. US (5) Capacitors: Japan (3) Sales Group: ¥866. Recent Developments Corporate strategy The company is concentrating mainly on the electronics materials and components sector.6% of total sales from Japan.jp Senior Officers Hajime Sawabe. Sales in Japan decreased by 1.1bn (US$878.6m).1m).73bn. The company’s overseas sales now account for more than 80% of the net sales.8m).5% from ¥862bn (US$7.6bn (US$6.4% of 2008 sales) and Recording Media (5. Director Raymond Leung.212 (31. Ferrite Cores and Magnets • Electronic Devices (inductive devices). After the Annual General Meeting in June 2009 TDK will merging its component business with EPCOS under a new company name TDK EP Components KK. 31 March.tdk. TDK organises its business in two main segments: Electronic Materials and Components (94.

5m) in 2007.18 657.5 R&D Expenditure (¥bn) 57. to ¥588.5bn) compared with the same period the previous year.8m).9 338 306.85 655.46 70. but with the new plant commencing in March 2009 and the new acquisition of EPCOS AG.804 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Outlook TDK has improved its profitability every year since 2003.11 6.94 R&D Expenditure (US$m) 578.1 45. Overall sales did not increase significantly but the amount of investment the company has made to strengthen its core electronic component business may prove to be profitable for the next financial year.804 No.4%.6 Net Income (¥bn) 71.6%.9%.3bn (US$501.4bn (US$26.7 374.614 53.51 Operating Income (US$m) 878.3bn (US$6.31 6.02 795.8 675.8 309.4 594.10 33. TDK’s capacitor sales remained flat this fiscal year.09 Operating Income (¥bn) 87.2bn (US$101.614 53.52 59.73 7.4% share of the net sales for electronics materials and component business.923 37.76 6.5m) from ¥56.4 424. 2008.7 391. The company is striving to consolidate its position in the market.34 32.30 42.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report sales of 11% and increase in operating income of 6.4 556.923 37.0 514.79 Sales (US$bn) 8.83 56.10 Net Income (US$m) 720. net sales decreased 10. Operating income decreased 87. while TDK registered a net loss of ¥2.115 36. Year Sales (¥bn) 866. of Employees 60. of Employees 60.59 60.38 50.52 36.212 51.12 44. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 130 .115 36.212 51.4 525.17 79. The increasing demand for capacitors as the hybrid market is increasing will add to the existing 94.9 386. this will help company to increase the profitability in the electronics material and component segment. For the nine-month period ended 31 December.28 862.3 No. to ¥9.

Valence’s main sales are generated through the automotive industry.com Senior Officers Robert L. UPS.03. Tanfield will be the first customer to use lithium phosphate epoch technology. Segway and Energy CS. Recent Developments Corporate Strategy The company has divided its strategy into three phases. Contracts • In December 2008. Enova Systems chose Valence as the supplier of U-charge and Shaphion phosphate technology for its recently won contract to supply Valence Technology was the first company to commercialise lithium phosphate technology for the energy storage industry.08) Employees Group: 490 (June 2008) Investments • In April 2009.. • In March 2008. • In February 2008. The company also offers other products such as cathode powder and materials. The facility will have capacity to provide batteries to 250. In 2008. the company won a contract from The Tanfield Group Plc to supply lithium phosphate energy storage system for commercial electric vehicles. These products target the automotive. aerospace. Valence’s international sales amounted to 24% of the total sales. Valence and Tianjin Lishen Battery Joint Stock Co. The company will be working towards the development of lithium vanadium phosphate (LVP) and lithium vanadium phosphate fluoride (LVPF). • In February 2008. The third phaseis focusing on the cathode business of the company. Ltd. The company is waiting for a loan approval of US$608m in low interest from US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Incentive Program (ATVMIP). Joint-Ventures • In June 2007. President & Chief Executive Officer Joel Sandahl. telecommunications and military markets. The company produces these products at its wholly owned subsidaries in China and with the help of contract manufacturers which helps the company to protect its intellectual property and control operations management. Engineering Khoon Cheng. formed a licence agreement to share technology of lithium phosphate cells and intelligent lithium phosphate packs. Texas 78727 US Tel: +512-527-2900 Fax: +512-527-2910 Internet: http://www.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Valence Battery modules Address Valence Technology 12303 Technology Blvd. It is developing new products. • In October 2006. Valence announced plans to open a new two million ft2 plant in Central Texas (US) to produce lithium iron magnesium phosphate batteries. Kanode. Valence won a multi-year contrat from PVI to supply lithium phosphate battery systems and engineering support for four commercial electric vehicle platforms. Enova. Senior Vice-President.77m (Year to 31. The second phase focuses on the automotive hybrid market. an intelligent energy source storage system targeted at the electric vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) markets. © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 131 . Valence won a contract to supply an additional 600 lithium phosphate energy storage systems to OEMtek to convert Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle into a PHEV. The production is anticipated to start by 2011 on early approval of loan. the company announced plans to expand its existing manufacturing capacity of lithium phosphate energy storage systems between US$35m to US$50m by March 2009. industrial. Chief Technology Officer Products Lithium iron magnesium phosphate battery modules Plants China (2) Sales Group: US$20.valence. Some of Valenc’s customers are Smith Electric Vehicles.000 hybrid vehicles anually. The investment amount would be around US$760m. The company caters to electric vehicles ranging from hybrid cars to commerical electric vehicles. Valence’s lithium iron magnesium phosphate technology is one step ahead of the existing lithium-ion battery currently used for hybrid vehicles. a federal program formed for the development of next-generation cars and trucks to complete the deal. such as Epoch. Suite 950 Austin.

© SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 132 .35) (16. The company recorded a decrease in net loss of 13% to US$19. industrial and military with the help of these products.21) (27. might take longer.43) (54. New Product Developments Valence’s expenditure on research and development. temporary staff. Overseas sales increased 138% year-on-year from US$2m in 2007 to US$4. Valence launched a new technology called Epoch. Valence’s sales increased by 25% to US$20.13) Net Income (US$m) (19.7 5. But looking at the global crisis affecting the industry. Year Net Sales ( US$m) 20. but has incurred an operating loss and net loss. as the hybrid vehicles are more costly than normal vehicles. aerospace.21m in 2007. compared with US$22.44m during the year.95) R&D Expenditure (US$m) 3.66 9.64) (27. It has prepared itself for the future demand by working on new technology for vehicles. consulting expenses and material costs in Las Vegas. • In November 2007. the company might not be able to gain much from the industry in the coming financial year.11 7. Full adoption of the hybrid vehicles.67 17.67m compared with US$3. The company is also looking to the lithium phosphate sector as it has already developed products which would cater to this market and is looking for an opportunity to position itself in various industries. such as automotive.25m in 2007. this was mainly due to increase in sales and focus on expense reductions throughout the year.35m in 2008 from US$16. Nevada (US) facility. of Employees 490 311 419 423 260 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Outlook The company is looking to the emerging market of hybrid vehicles for its future growth.25) (32.63 No. Automotive industry is the main business area of Valence. It has however been able to reduce the loss to some extent by controlling the expenses and increasing sales. in financial year 2008 decreased by 1% to US$3.67 3. Financial Overview For the financial year ended 31 March 2008.21 10. expected in 2010.72) (31.44 Operating Income (US$m) (14. Operating loss decreased 12% to US$14.7m in 2007. The company has been generating good sales year-on-year. The year-on-year decrease in research and development expenditure was due to cessation of process development work in Northern Ireland facility and reductions in research headcount.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report energy storage systems for 21 hybrid school buses in 11 states. It is an advancement in the already existing phosphate based lithium-ion battery with more efficient output for hybrid vehicles.77 16.75) (51.44) (22.77m.68 8.9m.

my  www. Paηo De Arcos. Komasu Battery Technology Sdn Bhd  8. United States  +1 617 778 5700  +1 617 924 8910  David Vieau  sales@a123systems. 48.pt  Power Storage System Components  Lead Acid Batteries  Company Address A. A. Silva.A.com  Power Storage System Components  Litium‐Ion Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 133 . (Autosil)  Estrada De Paηo D' Arcos.    Malaysia  +60 4 7338942  +60 4 7337651  Theoh Kean Hin  askomasu@tm. 01748. Kawasan Perusahaan Mergong. Hopkinton.a123systems.S. Massachusetts.com  www.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Power Storage System Components ­ Global Supplier Directory  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products A. Portugal  +351 21 440 9302  +351 21 440 9384  Angelina Pereira  angelina.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries    Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products A123 Systems Energy Solutions Group  10 Avenue E.askomasu. 2780‐666.autosil. S. Jalan Lencong Barat. Kedah Darul Aman. 5150.net. Alor Setar.pereira@autosil. Jalan Utara 2.pt  www.

com. Suite 2A. Baoan District. China  +86 755 29807563  +86 755 29807510  xzhang@ultralifecorp. Xintang Village.  Rua Hermνnio Alves De Queiroz.ajax.br  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Acumuladores Moura S/A. Ltd  Able Industrial Zone.br  www.400‐230. Sγo Paulo.moura.abat.com.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Able New Energy Co.cn  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 134 . 10018.cn  www. Jaboatγo Dos Guararapes.com. Brazil  +55 14 2106 3000  +55 14 2106 3000  Nasser Imbraνm Farat  atendimento@ajax. Bauru. Shenzhen. New York.com.br  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Advanced Battery Technologies  21 West 39Th Street. Brazil  +55 81 2121 1600  +55 81 2121 1644  Roberto Delfino Martins  moura@moura. 65. 5‐57 ‐ Distrito Industrial.able‐battery.com. New York. 54. 518110. Guanlan Town.. United States  +1 212 391 2752  +1 212 391 2751  Zhiguo Fu  info@abat.  Rua Joaquim Marques Figueiredo.br  www.com  www.com. 17034‐290.com  Power Storage System Components  Lithium Thionyl‐Chloride Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Acumuladores Ajax Ltda.

 5. Baikalskaya Str. 445359.de  www.de  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Akkumulyatornye Tehnologii  291. Russia  +7 3952 56 34 34  +7 3952 56 34 30  export@aktex.  Kiserdei Ϊt. Russia  +7 8482 31 64 00  +7 84862 7 14 00  www.hu  www. Samara. 96231. Otvajnyy St.akom.moll‐batterien.ru  www.aktex.su  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  marketing@akom.su  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 135 .ru  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Akom  22. Kg  Angerstraίe 50. Bad Staffelstein.. Zalaegerszeg. Irkutsk. 8900. Germany  +49 9573 9622 0  +49 9573 9622 11  Gertrud Moll‐Mφhrstedt  info@moll‐batterien.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Akksi Ipari‐ Ιs Kereskedelmi Kft. Zhigulevsk.hu  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Akkumulatorenfabrik Moll Gmbh & Co.akksi. Hungary  +36 92 315 731  +36 92 346 322  info@akksi.

co.in  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 136 .com  www.  Einspielerjeva 31. S. 89502‐2306. 500038. Maribor.O. Banskα Štiavnica. Hyderabad.akutrade. 2000.amararaja. 12P.altairnano. United States  +1 775 858 3742  +1 775 856 1619  Robert Pedraza  rpedraza@altairnano. 969 01. Kondapur. Slovakia  +421 45 6921046  +421 45 6921017  akutrade@akutrade. India  +91 40 2368 3000  +91 40 2311 8219  amararaja@amararaja.akubat.sk  Power Storage System Components  Accumulator Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Altair Nanotechnologies  204 Edison Way. Hitech City.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Akubat D.co.sk  www. Astra Towers.O.in  www. Andhra Pradesh.si  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Akutrade. Nevada. Slovenia  +386 2 2345430  +386 2 2345435  Damjan Trost  damjan.  Antolskα 55.R.com  Power Storage System Components  Energy Storge System  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Amara Raja Batteries Ltd  Fifth Floor.trost@akubat.O.si  www. Reno.

 A.qz. 1А.cn  Batteries  Power Storage System Components  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 137 . Soi Klabcharoen 3.anankobe.com.amco. China  +86 595 23235550  +86 595 23235321  minhuadc@pub1. Samutprakarn. Addison Building.  238 Suksawad Road.ua  Power Storage System Components  Starter Lead‐Acid Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Ananchai‐Kobe Battery Co. Konstantinovka.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Amco Batteries Limited  Auto Battery Marketing Division.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Product Category Products Anxi Minhua Batteries Co. Thailand  +66 28162500  +66 28160853  Chaiyan Namsap‐Anan  info@anankobe. Ltd  Longqiao Industy Zone.a‐mega. Ukraine  +380 6272 25887  +380 6272 26010  marketing@a‐mega.co.in  Power Storage System Components  Batteries    Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products A‐Mega Ltd  Kalinin Str. India  +91 44 3027 7322  +91 44 3027 7313  S. Ltd..ua  www.fj. Tamil Nadu. Fujian. Donetsk. 85102.com  www. 10290.. Quanzhou. #803. Anna Salai.in  www.co. Chennai.com. Ananthnarayan  abmd@amco. First Floor. Anxi County. 600    002.

C. Argentina  +54 2320 491801  Josι Jercog  autobat@autobat.assad.co. Ltd  40‐42 Daehwa‐Dong. Descartes.P.asahi‐kasei.I.com. Buenos Aires. Ben Arous. Tunisia  +216 71 389 315  +216 71 385 546  Souheil Kallel  atassad@assad.kr  www.com. Japan  +81 3 3296 3911  +81 3 3296 3912  fujita.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Asahi Kasei Emd Corporation  1‐105 Kanda Jinbocho. Daedok‐Gu. 3789.com.co.ar  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 138 .N° 83.com.tn  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Atlasbx Co. B.yv@om.co. Tokyo.jp  www.tn  www.co. 306 802.jp  Power Storage System Components  Separator For Lithium‐Ion Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Assad International  Z.A.atlasbx. 2013.ar  www.I De Ben Arous.  Parque Industrial Tortuguitas. Taejon‐Si.asahi‐kasei.autobat. Chiyoda‐Ku.. Korea  +82 42 620 4242  +82 42 623 9380  Jong Chul Lee  jaypark@atlasbx. 1018101.kr  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Contact Email Website Product Category Products Autobat S.

com  www. Mielec. 39 300.com  Power Storage System Components  Lead‐Acid Batteries.basecorporation. Pune. Woodbridge.    411037.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Base Corporation Limited  686. Ontario.com  www.pl  Power Storage System Components  Lead‐Acid Starter Batteries  Company Address Phone Contact Email Website Product Category Products Axion Power Internatinal  100 Caster Avenue.bannerbatterien.pl  www.autopart. Canada  +1 905 264 1991  Thomas Granville  info@axionpower. A‐4021. Poland  +48 17 583 19 91  +48 17 788 72 12  Monika Bąk  monikab@autopart. Mangal Murthy. Chandrika Society. Bibwewadi. L4L5Y9. Austria  +43 732 38 88 0  +43 732 38 88 21399  Andreas Bawart  andreas. Linz. Behind Chandralok Hospital.com  www.bawart@bannerbatterien. Energy Storage Components  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Banner Gmbh  Banner Straίe 1.axionpower. Maharashtra.com  Power Storage System Components  Lead Acid Batteries    Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 139 .The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Autopart Spσłka Akcyjna  Kwiatkowskiego 2A. India  +91 20 24230770  +91 20 24230771  pun@basecorporation.

biz  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Website Product Category Products Byd Auto  Yan An Road Kuichong Longgang.com  www. 32982. Switzerland  +41 81 758 19 00  +41 81 758 19 99  Josef Brusa  info@brusa. Sector 1. Guangdong. Po Box 55.ro  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 140 . Romania  +40 21 2314444  +40 21 2310750  Aristide Caranda  office@caranda.byd. North Sheykh Saddough Ave.biz  www.69. Iran  +98 311 6611020  +98 311 6616355  info@bornabattery. CH‐9466.com  Power Storage System Components  Rechargable Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Caranda Baterii ‐ Bucuresti  Aviator Stefan Protopopescu 11.caranda.bornabattery.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Brusa Electronics Ag  Neudorf 14. Sennwald.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Borna Battery Mfgo  No. China  +86 75 5842 18888  +86 75 5842 02222  Micheal Austin  www. Esfahan. Shenzhen.ro  www. Bucuresti.brusa. 518119.

 48359.cobasys. United States  +1 248 307 1800  +1 248 597 0900  Prabhakar Patil  inquiries@compactpower. Dallas. Hangzhou.compactpower. 48083.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 141 .crepower. Troy.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Crepower Industry Company Limited  8 Floor. Michigan. 335# Tiyuchang Rd.com  Power Storage System Components  Litium‐Ion Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Continental Batteries  4919 Woodall St. Texas. United States  +1 248 620 5700  +1 248 620 5702  Thomas Neslage  info@cobasys.cn  www.continentalbattery. 310003..com.com  www. 75247. United States  +1 214 631 5701  +1 214 634 7846  Jim Mccann  jmccann@continentalbattery. Michigan.com  Power Storage System Components  Energy Storge System  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Compact Power  1857 Technology Drive.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Cobasyas  3740 Lapeer Road South.com  www. China  +86 571 85153201  +86 571 85153293  Chen Xiangbin  crepower@zgb. Orion.com  www.

 41490.dmstech.  Tosb‐Taysad Organize Sanayi Bφlgesi 3. Şti. SO51 7JF. Turkey  +90 262 658 08 00  +90 262 658 08 09  Eytan Tarablus  eytantarablus@deltaguc. Şekerpınar.it  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Deltagόη Sistemleri San. Cupernham Lane. United Kingdom  +44 1794 525400  +44 1794 525450  Malcolm Winter  info@dmstech.A. Pennsylvania. United States  +1 610 682 6361  +1 610 682 4781  Delight Breidegam  eastpenn@eastpenn‐deka. Ve Tic. Hampshire.co. Lyon Station.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Dms Technologies (Kirkpace) Ltd  Belbins Business Park. Ltd.  Deka Road.P.deltaguc.com  www.ctrgroup.eastpenn‐deka.com  www. Gebze‐Kocaeli. Parma.  Via Tito Ed Ettore Manzini 9. Cadde 91 Parsel.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Ctr Group S. 19536. 43100.it  www. Italy  +39 521 957611  +39 521 957677  Andrea Bernini  ctrgroup@ctrgroup.com  Power Storage System Components  Lead Acid Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 142 .uk  www. Romsey.co.uk  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products East Penn Manufacturing Co.

 Texas.com  Power Storage System Components  Ultracapacitors Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Electrovaya  2645 Royal Windsor Drive. Tokyo.ener1. 78613‐2287.jp  www. Ontario. 112‐0013. New York.electrovaya.com  Power Storage System Components  Litium‐Ion Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Enax Corporate Information  8F Otowa Ks Bldg.com  www. Mississauga. United States  +1 512 259 7601  Richard D Weir  dick_weir@eestor.eestorbatteries.com  Power Storage System Components  Litium‐Ion Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 143 . Bunkyo‐Ku. 2‐11‐19 Otowa. United States  +1 212 920 3500  +1 212 920 3510  Rachel Carroll  rcarroll@ener1.co. Suite 25C. New York.us  www.enax.com  www. L5J1K9. Canada  +1 905 855 4610  +1 905 822 7953  Bernard Fleet  purchasing@electrovaya. 10036. Japan  +81 3 3944 0039  +81 3 3944 2254  Kazunori Ozawa  info@enax.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Contact Email Website Product Category Products Eestor  715 Discovery Blvd. Cedar Park.jp  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Ener1  1540 Broadway.

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com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Fiamm Technologies  1 Fiamm Way.starter@fiamm. Veronella.  Viale Europa 63.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Fiamm Technologies Inc  1550 Leeson Avenue.A.zanin@fiamm. Cadillac.seeley@fiammtech.com  www. United States  +1 706 437 3220  +1 706 437 3300  James Lewis  telecomsales@fiamm. Waynesboro.com  www. Italy  +39 444 709311  +39 444 699237  Dario Zanin  dario.com  www.com  www.fiamm. 37040. 49601.fiamm. Georgia. 20. United States  +1 231 775 2900  +1 231 775 6162  Paul Seeley  paul.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 147 . Italy  +39 442 489111  +39 442 489242  info. 36075.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Fiamm Spa  Viale Del Lavoro. Montecchio Maggiore.fiamm.fiamm.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Fiamm S. Michigan.P. 30830.

 South Africa  +27 11 741 3600  +27 11 421 1625  Andrew Webb  andreww@battery. Kyoto. Jinmen St.co. Nishinosho.hinet. Kisshoin. Taipei Hsien. Taiwan  +886 22 686 1111  +886 22 686 6611  Liao Chih Hung  garisure@ms23.gs‐yuasa.gaia‐akku‐online.de  Power Storage System Components  Lithium Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Garisure Industrial Co. Inobanba‐Cho. 17.battery. 99734.co. Minami‐Ku.garisure. Industrial Sites. Banchiao. Nordhausen.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products First National Battery ‐ A Division Of Metindustrial (Pty) Limited  Liverpool Road.za  www. Lane 67.net  www. Ltd  No.tw  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Contact Email Website Product Category Products Gs Yuasa Corporation  1.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 148 . Benoni.com.com  www.za  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Gaia Akkumulatorenwerke Gmbh  Montaniastraίe 17.com  www. Germany  +49 36 31 61 67 0  +49 36 31 61 67 49  Ralf Tolksdorf  tolksdorf@gaia‐akku. 220. 601‐8520. 1502. Japan  +81 75 312 1211  Mokoto Yoda  contact@gs‐yuasa.

Xidi 2Nd Road. Yuwotou. 100‐0004.com  www.69. 2‐1.kk@hitachi. Tokyo. China  +86 20 84913299  +86 20 84912018  wangzl@chinese‐battery. Chiyoda‐Ku. Japan  +81 3 3258 1111  Setsuko Minamikawa  setsuko.com  Power Storage System Components  Litium‐Ion Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 149 .cn  www.Ltd.gx. Ltd  F8 B Block.glptt. Wenzhou. Guangxi.com  Batteries  Power Storage System Components  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Product Category Products Hangzhou Huitong Industry Co.. Ltd  Shin‐Otemachi Building. Hangzhou.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Guangxi Wuzhou Sunwatt Battery Co. Nan Bei Business Bldg.  No.. China  +86 774 3860068  +86 774 3828315  Jin Quan Wen  iecowbfg@public.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Product Category Products Guangzhou Shi Nanfang Guangyuan Super Energy Battery Ltd  138 Shiyu Road. Panyu.minamikawa.13. Wuzhou.sunwatt.hitachi. No. Otemachi 2‐Chome. China  +86 571 28802677  +86 571 88315408  Jin Kang Yuan  Batteries  Power Storage System Components  Company Address Phone Contact Email Website Product Category Products Hitachi Automotive Systems. Gongshu.

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 Ah Lien Hsiang. Ltd  156‐1 Fuh An Village. 19462.  Ul.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Lithium Technology Corporation  5115 Campus Drive.com  www.msbattery. Żarki. Shih  syms@ms17. Poland  +48 34 3161096  +48 34 3161097  Marcin Jakiesz  m. United States  +1 610 940 6090  +1 610 940 6093  Theo Kremers  investorrelations@lithiumtech. Pennsylvania. Taiwan  +886 7 633 1161  +886 7 633 1746  Sam S.lithiumtech. Plymouth Meeting. Korea  +82 2 22526783  +82 2 22384803  Ultracapacitor  Power Storage System Components  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Maan Shyang Enterprises Co.pl  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Product Category Products Ls Corporation  #609 Gyemyung B/D. 201‐28 Sungin‐Dong. Jongro‐Gu. Seoul.tw  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 153 .loxa.pl  www. 110‐825. Z O.jakiesz@loxa.com  Power Storage System Components  Lithium Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Loxa Sp.hinet. Myszkowska 61.O.net  www. 42‐310.com. Kaohsiung Hsien.

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tr  www. 91331. Tepeφren Mahallesi.  Akfırat Beldesi. Bulgaria  +359 2 962 11 50  +359 2 962 11 46  Atanas Bobokov  monbat.mocproducts.monbat. Tuzla. Sofia..hr  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Mutlu Akό Ve Malzemeleri San.tr  Power Storage System Components  Starter Series Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 155 . Zagreb. 34959. Floor 7. Eski Ankara Yolu άzeri.miloloza@munja.com  Power Storage System Components  Lead Acid Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Munja D. HR‐10000. Bc Belisimo.com  www. Turkey  +90 216 3041590  +90 216 304 18 70  Attila Turker  sales@mutlu.hr  www.mutlu. Inc  12300 Montague Street. A.D. Pacoima.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Moc Products Co. Croatia  +385 12 407 722  +385 12 404 416  Ivan Miloloža  ivan.com.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Monbat Plc  102 Bulgaria Blvd.S.trading@monbat.munja.com  www. United States  +1 818 896 2258  +1 818 896 3760  Michael Camacho  mcamacho@mocproducts.com.  Žitnjak Bb. 1680. Istanbul. California.

 60018.nesscap.com  Power Storage System Components  Lithium Ion Rechargeable Battery  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Nesscap Co.com  Power Storage System Components  Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors.jp  Power Storage System Components  Capacitors  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Nipponchemi  9801 West Higgins Road.com  www. Rosemont. Yongin‐Si. Japan  +81 3 3515 9222  +81 3 3515 9223  Masakazu Okabe  edsol@nec‐tokin.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Nec Tokin Corporation  Chiyoda First Bldg..jp  www. Pseudocapacitor  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Nichicon Corporation  Karasumadori Oike‐Agaru.. Illinois. United States  +1 847 696 2000  +1 847 696 9278  info@chemi‐con.chemi‐con. Nakagyo‐Ku. 604‐0845.co.com  www. Japan  +81 75 231 8461  +81 75 231 4158  Ippei Takeda  chijiki@nichicon. Ltd  750‐8 Gomae‐Dong. Korea  +82 31 289 0721 7  +82 31 286 6767 8  marketing@nesscap. Kyoto.nichicon. 101‐8362. Chiyoda‐Ku.com  www.nec‐tokin. Nishi‐Kanda 3‐Chome. Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.co. Tokyo. 8‐1. Gyeonggi‐Do. Electric Double Layer Capacitors  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 156 .com  Power Storage System Components  Electric Double Layer Capacitor. Giheung‐Gu.

 Green Bay Ave. Quezon.com  www.com  Power Storage System Components  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Oriental And Motolite Corp  Ramcar Center 80‐82 Roces Ave.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Product Category Products Nirou Gostaran Khorasan Co.  Unit 5. West Sarv St. Iran  +98 21 2358400  +98 21 2352661  Sayed Mahmoud Nourbakhsh  nirugostaran@behineh.net  www. Inc. Sa'Adat Abad.motolite. Mashad. Diliman. Philippines  +63 2 370 1000  +63 2 370 1671  Irving C. 53209.optimabatteries.com  www.com  Batteries  Power Storage System Components  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Nirugostaran Khorasan  17Th Km Kalat Road. Iran  +98 511 2625002  +98 511 2625004  Zeynab Fallah  nirugosteran@i8group. Khorasan Razavi. Sarv Bldg.ngkh. Tehran. 5Th Floor. 5757 N. Guerrero  icguerrero@motolite.com  Power Storage System Components  Lead Acid Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 157 . Corner Of Shahrdari Blvd. Lead Acid Battery  Company Address Phone  Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Optima Batteries. Milwaukee.com  Power Storage System Components  Car Starter Battery. Wisconsin. United States  +1 414 524 3210  Randy Hively  info@optimabatteries.  X‐33 Optima Batteries.

 P. 60008. Shizuoka. Panglima Polim Raya No.panasonic.  20 Okasaki.panasonic. Box 493. 12160. Tangerang. Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries  Company Address Phone Website Product Category Products Panasonic Ev Energy Co. Yuasa Battery Indonesia  Jl.yuasa‐battery. Kosai. Illinois. Jakarta.O. 15000. United States  +1 877 726 2228  +1 847 637 4660  oembatteries@us.Thamrin.peve. Rolling Meadows.com  Batteries  Power Storage System Components  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products P.T. Japan  +81 53 577 3111  www. 1F‐3. 431‐0422.jp  Power Storage System Components  Nickel‐Metal Hydride Rechargeable Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 158 . Indonesia  +62 21 55 757 205  +62 21 55 757 193  Tsuguo Nasu  yuasanet@cbn. M.com  www. Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries.net. 19A.T. Indonesia  +62 21 440 3066  +62 21 440 1763  contact@ramainterbuana.id  www..The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Email Product Category Products P.id  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Panasonic Corporation Of North America  5201 Tollview Drive. Gb)  Jl.com  Power Storage System Components  Lithium Ion. Ltd.H. Gemala Battery (P.T.co.

com  www.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Panther‐Batterien Gmbh  In Den Wiesen 2. Jakarta. 16820. Germany  +49 5494 980 58 0  +49 5494 980 58 58  Andreas Lohmann  lohmann@panther‐batterien. 13960.panther‐batterien. Cileungsi Bogor. Edi Wibowo  Batteries  Power Storage System Components  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Pt.nipress.26.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Rahim Afrooz Batteries Ltd  1A Gulshan Avenue.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 159 . 25.rahimafrooz. Indonesia  +62 21 8230968  +62 21 8230935  Andre Adinoto  andre@nipress.taimur@rahimafrooz. Raya Bekasi Km. Indonesia  +62 21 4600880  +62 21 4601068  H. Bangladesh  +880 2 989 9834  +880 2 882 7780  Salahuddin Taimur  salahuddin. Raya Narogong Km. 1212. Jawa Barat. Nipress Tbk  Jl.de  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Product Category Products Pt. Holdorf.de  www. Century Batteries Indonesia  Jl.com  www. Dhaka. Cakung. 49451.

bosch.bosch. Industrial Area.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Robert Bosch Automotive Group  38000 Hills Tech Drive. Oman  +968 2444 6191  +968 2444 6190  S Gopalan  reembat@omzest.com  Power Storage System Components  Litium‐Ion Batteries  Company Address Phone Contact Email Website Product Category Products Robert Bosch Gmbh  Robert‐Bosch‐Platz 1.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Reem Batteries & Power Appliances Co.bosch. 48331.kilborn@us. Gerlingen‐Schillerhφhe.us  Power Storage System Components  Litium‐Ion Batteries  Company Address Phone Contact Email Website Product Category Products Robert Bosch Germany  Kruppstraίe 19.reembatteries.bosch. Germany  +49 711 8 11 31002  Bernhard Mohr  info@bkk‐bosch. 70839.com  www.com  www. Rusay. Saoc  P.bosch.de  www. Box: 3. Farmington Hills.com  www. Germany  +49 7 11 8 11 0  Franz Fehrenbach  callbosch@de.com  Power Storage System Components  Litium‐Ion Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 160 . Michigan.O. 70469. Stuttgart. United States  +1 248 876 1000  +1 248 876 1116  Cheryl Kilborn  cheryl.

 France  +33 1 49 93 19 00  Jill Ledger  jill.  Ul. Romania  +40 263 234011  +40 263 234010  Repede Ioan  repede@rombatt. 2822. 420129. Warsazwa.sit@my.O.A.ledger@saftbatteries. Petaling Jaya.com  www.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Contact Email Website Product Category Products Robert Bosch Sdn Bhd  No.saftbatteries. 93170.  12 Rue Sadi Carnot.com  www.com  www.com.rombatt. Primary Lithium Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 161 . Polectki 3. Bistrita.blady@pl.com  Power Storage System Components  Nickel‐Cadmium Batteries.O. Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries. 8A Jalan 13/6. Bagnolet. Drunul Cetatii Str. Poland  +48 22 715 4000  +48 22 643 9236  Agata Blady  agata.bosch.bosch.ro  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Contact Email Website Product Category Products Saft S. Malaysia  +60 3 7966 3000  Serena Sit  serena.bosch.bosch. Selangor.Z.pl  Power Storage System Components  Litium‐Ion Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Rombat ‐ Bistrita Nasaud  6. 46200.ro  www.my  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Robert Bosch Sp.

 California.sanyo. Italy  +39 11 397 25 52  +39 11 397 26 16  Gianluigi Drovetti  serind@serind.kr  Power Storage System Components  Sell Lithium‐Ion Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Seacc Accumulatori Srl  Via Del Lavoro 63. Yongin.us.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Website Product Category Products Sanyo North America Corporation  2055 Sanyo Avenue. Rechargeable Batteries  Company Address Phone Contact Email Website Product Category Products Sb Limotive Co. Giheung‐Gu.serind.com  www. Gongsae‐Dong.com  www. Montecchio Maggiore.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Serind Spa  Via G. Carducci 4. 92154. San Diego.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 162 .com  www. United States  +1 619 661 1134  +1 619 661 6795  M.sblimotive. 36075. Korea  +82 31 210 8114  Young Woo Park  khwoo1@sblimotive. Torino. Ltd  428‐5. Gyeonggi‐Do.apbatterie.. Beinasco. 10092. Italy  +39 444 492300  +39 444 492049  Angelo Sartori  seacc@apbatterie.co. Matsunaga  www.

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Company Address

Shenzhen Mottcell Battery Technology Co., Ltd 

Factory B, The 3Th Industry District, Shenkeng Village, Henggang Town, Longgang District, Shenzhen,    Guangdong, 518173, China  +86 755 84042755  +86 755 84042963  mottcell@mottcell.com  www.mottcell.com  Power Storage System Components  Rechargeable Button Batteries, Cylindrical Li‐Ion Batteries, Cylindrical Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries 

 
Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products

Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products

Shezhen Leoch Battery Technolgy Co. Ltd 

5Th Floor,Xinbaohui Bldg, Nanhai Blvd, Nanshan, Shenzhen, China  +86 755 8603 6060  +86 755 2606 7269  www.leoch.com  Power Storage System Components  Lead Acid Batteries  battery@leoch.com 

Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products

Shida Battery Technology Co., Ltd 

Xinye Road 30, Shishan Industrial Park, Nanhai District, Foshan, Guangdong, 528000, China  +86 757 86688555  +86 757 86688199  Wang Yongfei  wu@shida‐batteries.com  www.shida‐batteries.com  Power Storage System Components  Polymer Lithium‐Ion Batteries, Nickel‐Metal Hydride Batteries 

Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products

Shin‐Kobe Electric Machinery Co.,Ltd 

St.Luke'S Tower, 8‐1, Akashi‐Cho, Chuo‐Ku, Tokyo, 104‐0044, Japan  +81 3 3543 3700  +81 3 5565 5770  Sumie Hyuga  s.hyuga@shinkobe‐denki.co.jp  www.shinkobe‐denki.co.jp  Power Storage System Components  Batteries 

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Shree Veerji Battery Pvt Ltd 

No.‐ 1, Jessan Street, Mount Road, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600002, India  +91 44 42027311  +91 44 42630212  Yogit Seth  Power Storage System Components  Lead Acid Batteries 

Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products

Sia Industria Accumulatori Spa 

Via Chiavicone, 1, Altedo Di Malalbergo, 40051, Italy  +39 51 871819  +39 51 870814  Lorenzo Cutolo  info@sia‐batteries.com  www.sia‐batteries.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries 

Company Address Phone Fax Email Product Category Products

Siam C.T.P. Industrial Co., Ltd. 

88 Moo 4 Bypass Rd, Nongmaidaeng, Muang, Chonburi, Thailand  +66 38 743 052 6  +66 38 743 719  siamctp@wkpgroup.com  Batteries  Power Storage System Components 

Company Address Phone Email Product Category Products

Siam Furukawa Co.,Ltd 

252 Spe Tower, 12Th Phaholyothin Rd, Samsaen Nai, Phayathai, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand  +66 2 615 0111  phadejt@cementhai.co.th  Lead Acid Batteries  Power Storage System Components 

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Company Address Phone Fax Contact Product Category Products

Siam Nc Battery Co., Ltd 

157 Luang Road, Watthepsirin, Pomprab, Bangkok, Thailand  +66 2 222 4211  +66 2 225 4830  Wuthichai Naothaworn  Batteries  Power Storage System Components 

Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products

Sino Rich Hong Kong Group Limited 

4F.Chengfeng Building, 829# Renmin West Rd, Xiangzhouqu, Zhuhai, 519070, China  +86 756 8535719  +86 756 8535469  Hongfu Wang  sinoriching@gmail.com  www.sinoriching.com  Power Storage System Components  Ni‐Mh Battery, Lead Acid Battery 

Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products 

Sk Energy Co., Ltd 

99, Seorin‐Dong, Jongro‐Gu, 110110, Korea  +82 2 2121 5114  +82 2 2121 7001  Katharine Junghae Kho  kath@skenergy.com  www.skenergy.com  Power Storage System Components  Battery Systems For Hybrid Electric Vehicles 

Company Address Phone Fax Email Product Category Products

Standard Manufacturing Co., Inc. (Standard Battery) 

13 J. Narciso Street,, East Canumay, Malinta, Valenzuela, 1447, Philippines  +63 2 983 8490  +63 2 271 4122  standard@compass.com  Batteries  Power Storage System Components 

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de  www. Semenyih‐Sungai Lalang. Mezica.akkudirekt.  Glendalestr.com  www. Germany  +49 8331 944440  +49 8331 944449  info@akkudirekt.O.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 166 .  Polena 6.com  www. 2392. Box 1010.si  www. Slovenia  +386 28702300  +386 28702305  Bogomir Auprih  info@tab. Selangor Darul Ehsan.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Stefan Keckeisen Akkumulatoren E. Malaysia  +60 3 90746933  +60 3 90749266  Gary Yip  tkkl@tkyoko. 43500. 87700.D. 42642.superlex. Memmingen. Sdn Bhd  Lot 1238.tab. Jalan Kachau. Batu 23.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Tab D.de  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Superior Battery Mfg (Dba) Superlex Premium Power Batteries  P.tkyoko.K.si  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Tai Kwong‐Yokohama Battery Ind. United States  +1 270 866 6056  +1 270 866 6066  Ray Goodearl  rgoodearl@superiorbattery. 4. Semenyih. Russell Springs. 2515 Hwy Ky910. Kentucky.

 Muang.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 167 .com  www. 115309302.vnn. P O Box 9302. United Arab Emirates  +971 4 2228780  +971 4 2279853  C V Philip  tibo@emirates.S. Hai Phong. New York.tdk. Bangpoo Industrial Estate. Samutprakarn.tibodubai.net.ae  www. Vietnam  +84 31 857 080  +84 31 835876  Hoa Quang Nam  tiasangbattery@hn.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries    Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Product Category Products Tia Sang Battery Joint Stock Company (Tibaco)  Ton Duc Thang Avenue.vn  Batteries  Power Storage System Components  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Tibo Company Llc  Po Box 3754. Praekasa. Corporation  901 Franklin Avenue. 10280. Ltd  387 Moo 4. Sukhumvit Rd.3kbattery. Dubai. Soi Patana 3.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Website Product Category Products Tdk U.A. Garden City.com  Power Storage System Components  Capacitors  Company Address Thai Storage Battery Public Co.  Thailand  +66 2 7093535  +66 2 7093544  Kavi Khophaibun  patcharaporn@3kbattery.. United States  +1 516 535 2600  +1 516 294 8318  Seiji Enami  www.

hungary@jci. 1103. 74. Germany  +49 511 975 1671  +49 511 975 1679  Andreas Heinrich  info‐export@varta‐automotive.varta‐automotive.  Ul.ru  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Varta Akumulatory Sp. Russia  +7 3452 24 37 12  +7 3452 24 36 48  gubai@tmn.pl  www.ru  www.varta‐automotive.com. Tyumen. Budapest.tmn.O. 02‐137. 30419. Radarowa 60.Z.hu  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Product Category Products Vb Autobatterie  Am Leineufer 51. Hungary  +36 14 313 670  +36 14 313 679  varta. Taimyr.O. Ungarn. Poland  +48 32 608 69 50  +48 32 209 55 83  varta@varta.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 168 .The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Tumenskiy Automobile Battery Plant  Ul. Warszawa. 625000.com  www.pl  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Varta Autσkkumulαtor Kereskedelmi Ιs Szolgαtlatσ Kft. Hannover.  Gyφmrφl Ϊt 120.

  178 Iera Odos.com.net  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Vipiemme Spa  Via Gounod 25/27. 1000.vipiemme. 20092.mk  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Viosy S.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Vesna ‐ Sap  Dimitrije Tucovik.it  www. Munich. Kalogiratos  info@viosy. 12242. Greece  +30 210 3474444  +30 210 3479931  J. Germany  +49 89 636 00  +49 89 636 52 000  Gernot Spiegelberg  info@vdo. Skopje.winnerbattery. Macedonia  +389 32 481501  +389 32 481502  Tosho Toshevski  tosevski@sap.it  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 169 .sap. Aigaleo.vdo.com  www.mk  www.gr  www. Milano.com. Cinisello Balsamo. 16.A.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Vdo Automotive Ag  Wittelsbacherplatz 2. D‐80333. Italy  +39 363 949211  +39 393 914356  vipiemme@vipiemme.

 Jalan Satu.com.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Wuhan Forte Battery Co. 361021.com  www.    Malaysia  +60 3 90751916  +60 3 90756790  Clement Loo  clement@watta. Cheras Jaya.com  www.wirthco..519 North Road. Wirth  swirth@wirthco. Minnesota.com  Power Storage System Components  Lithium Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Email Website Product Category Products Xiamen 3‐Circles Battery Co.whforte.3‐circles. Malayasia. Jimei. Inc  7491 Cahill Road. Hubei. Selangor Darul Ehsan. Ltd  No. Wuhan.com  www. China  +86 27 83258996  +86 27 83259120  export@whforte.my  Batteries  Power Storage System Components    Phone Fax Contact Email Product Category Products Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Wirthco Engineering.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Watta Battery Industries Sdn Bhd  Lot 8.com  Power Storage System Components  Batteries  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 170 . Xiamen. United States  +1 952 941 9073  +1 952 941 0659  Steven E. 43200. 55439.Ltd  Wujiashan Taiwan Businessmen Investment Zone. Minneapolis. Kawasan Perusahaan Balakong. China  +86 592 6388992  +86 592 6388888  3circles@3‐circles.. 430040.

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com  Batteries  Power Storage System Components  Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Website Product Category Products Zhongshan Mingji Battery Co.com  www. 321103. China  +86 571 87177601  +86 571 87717610  Ben Chen  zjjust@vip. Zhejiang. 7 Cho Chieu St. Ltd  Ho Nai Industrial Zone 3. Ho Nai Ward.The Electric Vehicles and Battery Technology Report Company Address Phone Fax Contact Email Product Category Products Zhejiang Just Electrical Appliances Co. Nickel‐Metal Hydride Batteries  Company Address Phone Fax Product Category Products Ztong Yee Vietnam Co. Ltd  Fumin Road.sina. China  +86 760 6657218  +86 760 6655668  Jessie Ching  mingji@mingjicells.. Tanzhou Town. Vietnam  +84 983180  +84 983181  Batteries  Power Storage System Components  © SupplierBusiness Ltd 2009 172 . Lanxi Jinhua. Dong Nai. 528467.mingjicells. Lanjiang Light Industry Area. Ltd  Hesheng Industry Zone. Guangdong. Zhongshan. Trang Bom Dist.com  Power Storage System Components  Lithium‐Ion.

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