Summary of Jurisdiction of Philippine Courts

Remedial law reviewer

JURISDICTION OF THE COURTS
JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME COURT
1. ORIGINAL jurisdiction over cases involving ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto and habeas corpus (concurrent with RTC).

2. Review, revise, reverse, modify, or affirm on appeal or certiorari, final judgments of lower courts in: Cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty, international or executive agreement, law, decree, proclamation, order, instruction, ordinance or regulation is in question; Cases involving the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or toll, or any penalty imposed thereto; Cases involving the jurisdiction of lower courts; All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher; All cases in which only an error or question of law is involved.

JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF APPEALS
1. ORIGINAL jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, prohibition, certiorari, habeas corpus, and quo warranto, and auxiliary writs or processes, whether or not in aid of its appellate jurisdiction (concurrent with SC and RTCs)

2. EXCLUSIVE original jurisdiction over actions for annulment of judgments of RTCs. 3. EXCLUSIVE appellate jurisdiction over all final judgments, decisions, resolutions, orders or awards of RTCs and quasi-judicial agencies, bodies, or commissions, EXCEPTthose which fall within the appellate jurisdiction of the SC, namely: a. COMELEC; b. Commission on Audit; c. Sandiganbayan.

JURISDICTION OF THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS
I. EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL A. CIVIL CASES Cases where the subject of the litigation is incapable of pecuniary estimation;

B. CRIMINAL CASES All criminal cases not within the exclusive jurisdiction of any court. from the provisions of R. and costs or the value of the property in controversy exceeds P200. litigation expenses.000/ P50. Valera Libel is punishable by prisioncorrecional in its minimum and medium periods.Involving the title to. ambassadors and other public ministers and .000/P400. real property. R. if only a fine is imposable Manzano vs. RTC has jurisdiction over criminal cases where the penalty imposable: Exceeds 4 years 2 mos 1 day imprisonment. or body EXCEPT those within the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan. habeas corpus and injunction which may be enforced in any part of their respective regions (concurrent with SC and CA). * In actions affecting consuls(concurrent with SC). person or body exercising jurisdiction.000/P400. where the gross value of the estate P200. prohibition. or any interest therein.000. Also. 7691 places jurisdiction over criminal cases where the penalty is 6 years or less with the MTCs. II. EXCEPT actions for forcible entry and unlawful detainer. exclusive of interest. ORIGINAL * Issuance of writs of certiorari. All actions in admiralty and maritime jurisdiction where the demand or claim exceeds P200. mandamus. irrespective of fine Exceeds fine of P4000. 7691. or possession of. quo warranto.000. B. where the assessed value of the property involved exceeds P20. N. attorney's fees. tribunal. both testate and intestate. In all actions involving the contract of marriage and marital relations. However.A.000/P400. and In all other cases in which the demand. In all civil actions and special proceedings falling within the exclusive original jurisdiction of a Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court and of the Court of Agrarian Relations as now provided by law.A.000. 360 of the RPC gives jurisdiction over libel cases to the RTC. In all cases not within the exclusive jurisdiction of any court. there is no manifest intent to repeal or alter the jurisdiction in libel cases. Art.000. Probate proceedings. Special law (RPC) must prevail over general laws (RA 7691). damages of whatever kind. tribunal.

III. Petitions for guardianship.* Over offenses committed NOT in relation with public office with imprisonment exceeding 6 years committed by public officers classified as salary grade 27 or higher * Over election contests for municipal offices. Petitions for adoption of children and the revocation thereof. OR One or more of the victims is a minor at the time of the commission of the offense. JURISDICTION OF THE FAMILY COURTS (R. Petitions for support and/or acknowledgment. Petitions for: Declaration of status of children as . the court shall promulgate sentence and ascertain any civil liability which the accused may have incurred. shall be suspended without need of application pursuant to the "Child and Youth Welfare Code". APPELLATE All cases decided by the lower courts (MTCs) in their respective territorial jurisdictions.A. 8369) Family Courts shall have exclusive original jurisdiction to hear and decide the following cases: Criminal cases where: One or more of the accused is below eighteen (18) years of age but not less than nine (9) years of age. Pre-week reviewer in remedial law. habeas corpus in relation to the latter. Provided. Summary judicial proceedings brought under the provisions of the "Family Code of the Philippines".That if the minor is found guilty. Complaints [for]: Annulment of marriage Declaration of nullity of marriage Those relating to marital status and property relations of: Husband and wife OR Those living together under different status and agreements. AND Petitions for dissolution of conjugal partnership of gains. The sentence. NOTE: no trial de novo. case is decided on the basis of decision and supporting affidavits. custody of children. however.

Decisions and orders of the court shall be appealed in the same manner and subject to the same conditions as appeals from the ordinary Regional Trial Courts. does not exceed P100.Abandoned Dependent OR Neglected children Voluntary or involuntary commitment of children. exclusive of interest. Exploitation and Discrimination Act. 56. or are likely to result in physical. EXCLUSIVE ORIGINAL 1. attorney¶s fees and costs. said incident shall be determined in that court." as amended by Republic Act No. integrity and freedom of movement. damages. 7610. and Cases of domestic violence against: Women Acts of gender based violence that results. If an act constitutes a criminal offense. Exclusive original jurisdiction over cases of forcible entry and unlawful detainer. violence. Violations of Republic Act No. as amended. 7658. JURISDICTION OF THE MUNICIPAL TRIAL THE MUNICIPAL CIRCUIT T RIAL COURTS A. . otherwise known as the "Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse. (Series of 1986). AND Children Includes the commission of all forms of abuse. and other forms of physical abuse such as battering or threats and coercion which violate a woman's personhood. testate and intestate. sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women. The suspension. neglect. If any question involving any of the above matters should arise as an incident in any case pending in the regular courts. CIVIL CASES COURTS. issue of ownership resolved only to determine issue of possession.000. including the grant of provisional remedies where the demand. and discrimination and all other conditions prejudicial to their development.000/200. cruelty. the accused shall be subject to criminal proceedings and the corresponding penalties. Cases against minors cognizable under the Dangerous Drugs Act. or restoration of parental authority and other cases cognizable under "Child and Youth Welfare Code". METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURTS AND Civil actions and probate proceedings. exploitation. Petitions for the constitution of the family home. Executive Order No. and other related laws. termination.

decisions of the MTC in these cases are appealable to the CA Summary Procedure Cases Applicable A. MTC loses jurisdiction.000 if quieting of ownership. CIVIL CASES All cases of forcible entry and unlawful detainer irrespective of amount of damages or unpaid rentals. ELECTION CASES Offense of failure to register or failure to vote. without question of ownership. .000/50. 2.000. * All offenses punishable with not more than 4 years 2 mos 1 day imprisonment. Offenses involving damage to property through criminal negligence.000. Election contests for barangay offices. irrespective of fine. OR 2. DELEGATED JURISDICTION in cadastral and land registration cases covering: 1.000. resolved to determine question of possession. attorney¶s fees not exceeding P20. Actions involving title or possession of real property where the assessed value does not exceed P20. Actions involving personal property valued at not more than P100. B. CRIMINAL CASES * Violations of city or municipal ordinances.000/200. Lots where there is no controversy or opposition. and case becomes one for recovery of possession de jure (accionpublicicana). 3.After lapse of 1 year. Contested lots the value of which does not exceed P100. although MTC may still have jurisdiction if value of property does not exceed P20. * * All offenses punishable by only a fine of not more than P4.000/50.000.000.

000. rules. and prohibition against any interlocutory order issued by the court * * * * * Motion to declare defendant in default Dilatory motion for postponement Reply Third-party complaints Motion for intervention JURISDICTION OF THE HOUSING AND LAND USE REGULATORY BOARD (HLURB) . irrespective of other imposable penalties or of the amount of civil liability *Damage to property through criminal negligence where the fine does not exceed P10. reconsideration. re-opening Petition for relief from judgment Motion for extension of time to file pleadings. where the total amount of the claim does not exceed P10. regulations *Violation of rental laws *Violations of city or municipality ordinances *All other criminal cases where the penalty does not exceed 6 months or a fine of P1000 or both.000. B. affidavits Memoranda * Petition for certiorari.Other civil cases EXCEPT probate proceedings. exclusive of interest and cost. mandamus. Prohibited pleadings and motions * matter or * * * * * * Motion to dismiss or quash EXCEPT for lack of jurisdiction over subject failure to comply with KatarungangPambarangay (LGC) requirements Motion for bill of particulars Motions for new trial. CRIMINAL CASES *Violation of traffic laws.

dealer. refer the case to the lupon for amicable settlement. EXCEPTIONS TO CONCILIATION REQUIREMENT (SC Circular 14-93) Where one party is the government. No complaint. Rule VI. KatarungangPambarangay Rules). AND That no conciliation or settlement has been reached as certified by the lupon/pangkat secretary as attested to by lupon chairman or pangkat chairman. or unless such settlement has been repudiated by the parties thereto 2. 1. action or proceeding involving any matter within the authority of the lupon shall be filed or instituted directly in court or any other government office for adjudication. or salesman JURISDICTION OF THE KATARUNGANGPAMBARANGAY GOVERNMENT CODE OF 1991) (UNDER THE LOCAL 1. Disputes subject to Conciliation Requirement: All disputes between parties actually residing in the same city or municipality HOWEVER. . the court in which non-criminal cases not falling within the authority of the Lupon may. or salesman * Cases involving specific performance of contractual and statutory obligations filed by buyers of subdivision lots or condominium units against the owner. developer.EXCLUSIVE jurisdiction over * Unsound real estate business practices * Claims involving refund and any other claims filed by subdivision lot or condominium unit buyer against the project owner. broker. Any complaint by or against corporations. unless the parties thereto agree to submit their difference to amicable settlement by an appropriate Lupon. Where the dispute involves real properties located in different cities and municipalities. unless: There has been a confrontation between the parties before the lupon chairman or pangkat. petition. dealer. broker. or any subdivision or instrumentality thereof. 3. Where one party is a public officer or employee. at any time before trial. partnerships or juridical entities. since only individuals shall be parties to Barangay conciliation proceedings either as complainants or respondents (Sec. and the dispute relates to the performance of his official functions. developer.

Labor disputes or controversies arising from employer-employee relations (Montoya vs. * Actions coupled with provisional remedies such as preliminary injunction. EXCEPT: * Where such barangay units adjoin each other. which grants original and exclusive jurisdiction over conciliation and mediation of disputes. Labor Code. attachment. which may be filed directly in court. specifically the following: * Criminal cases where accused is under police custody or detention. Art. Where the dispute arises from the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL) (Sections. grievances or problems to certain offices of the Department of Labor and Employment). Offenses where there is no private offended party. 46 & 47. AND * Actions which may be barred by the Statute of Limitations. AND * The parties thereto agree to submit their differences to amicable settlement by an appropriate Lupon.00). * Petitions for habeas corpus by a person illegally deprived of his rightful custody over another or a person illegally deprived of his liberty or one acting in his behalf.Disputes involving parties who actually reside in barangays of different cities or municipalities. or any of the respondents.. 226. Offenses for which the law prescribes a maximum penalty of imprisonment exceeding one (1) year or a fine over five thousand pesos (P5. at the option of the complainant Disputes involving real property or interest Barangay where property is situated . delivery of personal property and support during the pendency of the action.000. R. Actions to annul judgment upon a compromise. Any class of disputes which the President may determine in the interest of justice or upon the recommendation of the Secretary of Justice. et al.A. Disputes where urgent legal action is necessary to prevent injustice from being committed or further continued. 6657). as amended. Escayo. * VENUE OF PROCEEDINGS: Situation Parties reside in same barangay Parties reside in different barangays Venue That barangay Barangay where respondent. actually resides. 171 SCRA 442.

if he fails within 15 days from date of first meeting. otherwise. unless: a. and shall complain. Said interruption shall not exceed 60 days from said filing. and shall hear both parties and their witnesses. * Lupon chairman shall make attempts at mediation. Within 15 days from the day it convenes. or at institution is located the institution where such parties are enrolled for study workplace or Objections to venue shall be raised in the mediation proceedings before the punong barangay. or Repudiation must be done within 10 days. Amicable settlement shall have the force and effect of a final judgment upon the expiration of 10 days from date of amicable settlement. During the 15-day period when the dispute is under mediation. In all proceedings. they are deemed waived. and for causes of action shall be interrupted upon filing of the complaint with the punong barangay. Legal questions that might arise in resolving such objections before the punong barangay are to be submitted to the Secretary of the DOJ. it shall arrive at said settlement or resolution of the dispute. EFFECT OF NON-COMPLIANCE: Dismissal upon motion of defendants for failure to state cause of action or prematurity. 6.therein Disputes arising at the workplace where Barangay where such the contending parties are employed. parties must appear in person without the assistance of counsel or representatives. to the lupon chairman of the barangay. chosen by the parties from the list of the members of the lupon) * Pangkat shall have power to issue summons. . PROCEDURE FOR AMICABLE SETTLEMENT: * Complainant pays appropriate filing fees. 5. by filing a sworn statement with the lupon chairman. and attempt to arrive at an amicable settlement. OR Suspension of proceedings upon petition and referral of case motuproprio to appropriate barangay authority. It is repudiated. orally or in writing. EXCEPT for minors and incompetents who may be assisted by their next-of-kin who are not lawyers. 7. he shall set a date for the constitution of a pangkatngtagapagsundo (3 members. whose ruling shall be binding. the prescriptive periods for offenses.

but subsequently repudiated. or arbitration proceedings shall be held. Such repudiation is a sufficient basis for the issuance of a certification for filing a complaint with the court. In this case. EXECUTION OF AMICABLE SETTLEMENT: a. Punong Barangay shall not issue the certification (because now mandatory for him to constitute the Pangkat before whom mediation. Issued by pangkat secretary and attested by pangkat chairman.The grounds for repudiation are vitiation of consent by fraud. OR respondent failed to appear before punong barangay. If mediation or conciliation proved unsuccessful before punong barangay there having been no agreement reached to conciliate. by action in the appropriate city of municipal court 9. that confrontation took place and conciliation settlement was reached. OR There was no personal confrontation without any fault on the part of the complainant. to the Punong Barangay of the place of settlement. and there has been no settlement as certified by the datu or tribal leader or elder. conciliation. or where one or more of the parties to the aforesaid dispute belong to the minority and the parties mutually agreed to submit their dispute to the indigenous system of amicable settlement. that: There was a confrontation but no settlement. Within 6 months from date of settlement: by the lupon. on the ground of failure of settlement. shall have the force and effect of a judgment of said court. b. 8. the compromise agreed upon by the parties before the lupon/pangkat chair shall be submitted to the court and upon approval thereof. Thereafter. violence or intimidation. Issued by the Punong Barangay. A petition to nullify the settlement is filed in the proper city or municipal court The settlement agreed upon does not have the force and effect of a final judgment when the dispute is not within jurisdiction of the lupon but submitted to it. where the dispute involves members of the same indigenous cultural community. which shall be settled in accordance with the customs and traditions of that particular cultural community. CERTIFICATION OF BARANGAY AUTHORITIES (for filing a complaint in court) shall be issued only upon complying with the following requirements: Issued by lupon secretary and attested by lupon chairman/ punong barangay. as requested by the proper party. b.) .

directors or trustees. and all officers of higher rank. and officials and prosecutors in the Office of the Ombudsman and special prosecutor. assessors. Chapter II. Officials of the diplomatic service occupying the position of consul and higher. at the time of the commission of the offense: * Officials of executive branch occupying positions classified as Grade 27 or higher. members of the sangguniangpanlungsod. specifically including: * Provincial governors. R. Officers of the Philippine National Police while occupying the position of provincial director and those holding the rank of senior superintendent or higher. Presidents. city treasurers. engineers and other city department heads. naval captains. 1379 (³An Act Declaring Forfeiture in Favor of the State of Any Property Found to Have Been Unlawfully Acquired By Any Public Officer or Employee and Providing for the Proceedings Therefor´). vice-governors. § 2 of the RPC (i. ORIGINAL Violations of: ³Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act´.e. or managers of government-owned or controlled corporations. vice-mayors.. members of the sangguniangpanlalawigan and provincial treasurers.A. Articles 210-212 of RPC) Where one or more of the accused are officials occupying the following positions in the government. Philippine army and air force colonels. whether in a permanent. state universities or educational institutions or foundations. * Members of Congress and officials thereof classified as Grade 27 or higher * * * * * * Members of the Judiciary. acting or interim capacity.JURISDICTION OF THE SANDIGANBAYAN A. without prejudice to the provisions of the Constitution (on impeachment) * Chairmen and members of the Constitutional Commissions. assessors. without prejudice to the provisions of the Constitution * All other national and local officials classified as Grade 27 or higher. engineers and other provincial department heads. City and provincial prosecutors and their assistants. or Title VII. or . * City mayors.

The offense is committed in relation to the office if the offense is intimately connected with the office of the offender and perpetuated while he was in the performance of his official functions. 1. B. habeas corpus. EXCLUSIVE APPELLATE If none of the principal accused are occupying positions of grade 27 or higher. arising or that may arise in cases failed or which may be filed under Executive Order Nos. prohibition. Petitions for the issuance of the writs of mandamus. whether simple or complexed with other crimes Civil and criminal cases filed pursuant to and in connection with Executive Order Nos. NOTES: * Private individuals charged as co-principals. as well as the implementing rules that the Supreme Court has promulgated and may hereafter promulgate. namely. 14 and 14-A (concurrent with SC) If the last element. 2. including those employed in GOCCs. 1. committed by public officials and employees mentioned in #1. The procedure prescribed in BP Blg. injunctions and other ancillary writs and processes in aid of its appellate jurisdiction: provided. in relation to their office. original jurisdiction will be with either the MTC or RTC. SB will exercise exclusive appellate jurisdiction on said cases. 2. 14 and 14-A series of 1986.Other offenses or felonies. * Decisions of the Sandiganbayan: . including quo warranto. relative to appeals/petitions for review to the Court of Appeals shall apply to appeals and petitions for review filed with the Sandiganbayan. certiorari. the criminal action and the corresponding civil action for the recovery of civil liability arising from the offense charged shall at all times be simultaneously instituted with. or when the crime cannot exist without the office. the crime committed falls within the exclusive original jurisdiction of ordinary courts and not the SB. 129. accomplices or accessories with the public officers or employees. or the office is a constituent element of the crime as defined in the statute. ³in relation to his office´ is absent or is not alleged in the information. C. and no right to reserve the filing of such civil action separately from the criminal action shall be recognized. and jointly determined in. * Any provisions of law or Rules of Court to the contrary notwithstanding. the same proceeding by the Sandiganbayan or the appropriate court. that the jurisdiction over these petitions shall not be exclusive of the Supreme Court and over petitions of similar nature. shall be tried jointly with said public officers and employees in the proper courts which shall exercise exclusive jurisdiction over them.

fees or other charges. The proper remedy is to appeal to the Commissioner of Customs and thereafter to the Court of Tax Appeals. JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF TAX APPEALS EXCLUSIVE APPELLATE JURISDICTION over: * Decisions of the Collector of Internal Revenue in cases involving disputed assessments. Jao v. review by the Supreme Court shall be automatic. and * Decisions of provincial or city Boards of Assessment Appeals in cases involving the assessment and taxation of real property or other matters arising under the Assessment Law. prohibition or mandamus. penalties imposed in relation thereto. The Regional Trial Courts are precluded from assuming cognizance over such matters even through petitions of certiorari.a. CA (reiterated in Bureau of Customs v. Appealable to the SC by petition for review on certiorari raising pure questions of law in accordance with Rule 45 of the Rules of Court. or other matters arising under the NIRC. The Collector of Customs sitting in seizure and forfeiture proceedings has exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine all questions touching on the seizure and forfeiture of dutiable goods. Ogario. * Decisions of the Commissioner of Customs in cases involving liability for customs duties. March 2000) RTCs are devoid of any competence to pass upon the validity or regularity of seizure and forfeiture proceedings conducted by the Bureau of Customs and to enjoin or otherwise interfere with these proceedings. b. seizure. forfeitures. whether or not the accused filed an appeal. If penalty imposed is death. the decision shall be appealable to the SC by Notice of Appeal. and other matters arising under the Customs Law. detention or release of property affected. If SB imposes penalty of reclusion perpetua or higher. fines. c. . or other matters arising penalties imposed in relation thereto. fees or other money charges. refunds of taxes.