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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

AT LOS ANGELES

GIFT OF

t

'

.

. PHILADELPHIA R. TRAUTWINE. BARNARD & SONS.NEW METHOD OF CALCULATING THE CUBIC CONTENTS OF EXCAVATIONS AND EMBANKMENTS. BY JOHN C. 1851. CIVIL ENGINEER. : W. BY THE AID OF DIAGRAMS. PRINTERS.

Entered. by JOHN C. in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States. TBAtmrwE. according to the Act of Congress. . for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. In the year 1851.

drawn from those points to the centre' stake. I submit it here propose. both before and after being stereotyped. device for diminishing the labor. any the operation. has hitherto prevented me from giving publicity. cannot be to the objection of said to involve any difficulty. since the Rule which contains not mathemati- cally correct. prepared for new widths of roadway. in the the method by diagrams which in the office. applies only to approximate preliminary estimates. Although the usual methods of obtaining correctly the cubic contents of Excavations and Embankments. new diagrams. of C onscquently. I have prepared them all with the greatest care. that may justly be regarded as a desideratum of I some importance. without aifecting the accuracy. several years since." it page is 8. belief. Should an objection be made to the admission of the transverse ground-slope. as an element in the that based C alculations. will conduce to that result. it is at least as accurate as section upon the usual assumption. 412128 . The paragraph commencing with i "It is not absolutely necessary. its error increasing with the degree of ground-slope. must be perfect accuracy is required. As remarked on a preceding part of the same page. both in the field It and to the notice of the profession. and. as to leave no doubt of their entire reliability. TRAUTWINE. practically. still they are certainly open being very tedious. originated with myself. when JOHN C. that the two outer heights or depths of a crossrepresent the exterior elevation of straight lines. and they have undergone so many revisions. I can only reply that. Sensible of the necessity of perfect accuracy in the Tables. and Tables of Level Cuttings. but the it want of sufficient leisure to reit duce to its present form.TF PREFACE.

and so. No. for sale. will give by inspection. then: use being confined to the determining of the side-distances." Mr. I have no other interest in these engravings. on condition that I would secure a copy-right. the horizontal distances of the side-stakes from the centre. would prepare a handsome copperplate I engraving of Figure it 3. or width of roadway. throughout the width occupied by the excavation and embankment. or half width of roadway. The Page assistant should correct these at once in his copy. not C. . the division of Figure 3 into squares. a diagram of Transverse Groundslopes. ERRATA..NOTICE. 139 Chesnut Philadelphia. read of. transfer will be exclusively to him for a limited time. and in the next four lines. Its "Trautwine's Cross-section Diagram. Joseph Hufty. having proposed to me. is For merely obtaining Cubic Contents. than the desire to facilitate a thorough testing of the merits of my plan. Hufty's engraving found more accurate than paper ruled by the stationer's multiple pen. which. Hufty will also print upon transparent paper. T. which could not be effected by the ruling process. Mr. 5. J. that he street. for ef read of. the enterprising Engineers' Stationer. &c. twenty-second line from the bottom. necessary. As this engraving will be required only in cases where the ground-slope cannot be regarded as uniform. for ef. have done Mr. and will moreover exhibit the slopes. being laid upon a sheet of Figure 3. it will rarely be necessary to use title is more sheets of it than there are miles in the length of the road.

) and to divide the product by 6. prisms. for practical purposes. Civil Engineer. This Rule Jldd times is as follows : togetJier the areas of the two parallel ends of the prismoid. is absolutely unwarped. There are generally two circumstances under which it is necessary to ascertain the cubic contents on a public work. the prismoids are generally 100 feet it becomes easier in practice to multiply the sum of the areas by 100. pyramids. The very general application of the prismoidal formula to other solids than such as are generally understood by the term "prismoids. It embraces all parallelepipeds. and the area of multiply the sum by its pendicularly to one-sixth of the length of the prismoid. long. cones." has been shown by Mr. yet. Ellwood Morris.. whether regular or irregular. much warped. by means of what is known as the Prismoidal Formula. Since. In the cylinder and cone. the sides may be considered as consisting of In railroad indefinitely narrow unwarped planes. Vol. cylinders. after a prelimi: 1 . and four a section half way between and parallel to them.p. when cut by planes parallel to their bases. measured pertwo parallel ends. which has two parallel ends. in a word. which to the same thing as multiplying their sum by th of 100 feet. 381. connected together by plane or unwarped surfaces. cuttings. it rarely happens that the ground surface lying between two consecutive cross sections 100 feet apart. 2d Ser. in railroad measurements. the cross sections must be taken closer together than 100 infinite an number of When feet. xxv. together with their frustra. it may very frequently be assumed to be so. amounts (by merely adding two cyphers. in an able paper published in the Journal of the Franklin Institute.A NEW METHOD or CALCULATING THE CUBIC CONTENTS OF EXCAVATIONS AND EMBANKMENTS. and that is. There is but one correct principle upon which to calculate the cubic contents of excavations and embankments. or Rule. wedges. any solid whatever. &c. viz first. right or oblique.

inasmuch as upon them depend the payments to be made to the person who executes the work. is extremely simple. after the final adoption and staking out of the determined route. which would have precisely the same area as the section under con- Turn : to 1 : sideration. may see the object aimed at. They. and is. When difficulty the ground is level transversely of the line of survey. until it strikes the inclined line marked 15. which may be prepared by one person in a day or two. since any particular road will generally require but three or four. Before proceeding to explain the manner of drawing them. instead of being level transversely. reduced to others of equivalent level cuttings. notwithstanding they appear somewhat complex. to the diagram for a roadway 28 feet wide. for the purpose of determining approximately their actual or comparative costs. moreover. devised by myself during my probation as an assistant. This constitutes the main feature of the principle involved grams. and the equivalent level . at first sight. and with sideslopes of 1^ to 1. the cutting at a certain station is 20 feet. It dispenses with a great deal of calculation. and to what Example 1. will. All such cases may therefore be instantly. inclines at an angle of 15. second. be found to render the operations in the last cases nearly as simple and expeditious as in those of level ground. for the latter are The measurements and attention care. I trust. that. at least. the calculations have hitherto been attended with considerable labor. without incurring an expenditure of time and labor. and without any calculation whatever. in the dia- Had the depth been 20-3.nary survey of one or more trial lines. to detail. Suppose that in a roadway of 28 feet wide. there is no whatever in ascertaining the contents from a table of level cut- tings. previously calculated. It will be seen at once that the two coincide at the height of 22-8 feet and this is the depth of the equivalent level cutting. with side-slopes of 1^ place a finger on the centre line. They are but few in number. or. that the reader extent it is attained. and. or other decimal of a foot. in order to know precisely the amount of work to be done. comparatively free from liability to error arising from that source. and now communicated for the first time. therefore. and run it along up the curved line which commences at that point. and that the ground. I will give one or two examples The construction of the diagrams of their use. The following method by diagrams. at the height of 20 feet. more than commensurate with the importance of the result. the proceeding would have been the same as with the 20 feet. METHOD OF USING THE DIAGRAMS. infinitely more so than the usual ones. involve considerations which cannot be attended to during a preliminary survey. but when the ground is inclined or irregular transversely. performed with considerably more than those of the former.

but it will frequently be sufficiently approximate (always a little deficient) for such trapezoids as occur in ordinary cuttings and fillings.cutting would be found on the inclined line 15. == ^W*JOTC Cubic yards contained in the station. for 20 " " " " 25 feet " depth = = ) / $ . placing a finger on the centre-line. when the equivalent level cuttings at both ends of a station are equal but if they are not so. at the distance of -3 of a foot (estimated by eye) above the curved line 20. and the transverse slope of the ground 20. for in such cases. of calculating cubic contents. tents may at once be taken out. forming a cross section. and running it along the curved line commencing at that point. but for such cases as require the areas themselves. This mode is. these solidities may evidently be used instead of the areas. for lengths of 100 feet. and should never be resorted to for final estimates. is a table of cubic yards for level By means of this. A very simple method of proceeding. it encounters the dotted curved line drawn near the bottom of the diagram. Therefore.~. at the height of 2 feet. may be much reduced by taking from the tables. in all such cases. it will be found that before reaching the inclined line of 20. partly in excavation. the page opposite each diagram. and four times that of the centre depth. let the depth of cutting be 2 feet. the prismoidal rule : must be employed. as must also be the case when the ground is irregular transversely. that at a point half way between them would be 22 feet. thus: Suppose the equivalent level cutting at one end to be 20 feet. I will the labor here observe. the cubic content will be equal to one-sixth of the sum of those corresponding to each of the two end depths. I trust that my method On what has been already shown. Cubic content by table ix. Example 2. the cubic concuttings. = 6)30945 5157-5 It will be perceived that. Here. and at the other 25 feet. will be given further on. 7. instead of the areas corresponding to the different depths of cutting. by no means mathematically correct. When this occurs. This is a most useful check. will satisfy the reader that partakes of utility. 4296 cubic yards. but recourse must be had to a figure of the section. that for mere comparative estimates of trial lines. Using the same diagram. as well as of novelty. and for lengths of 100 feet. that is. and partly embankment. a table of such is added. we know that the ground-slope in cuts the roadway. of course. Then. drawn for the purpose. the cubic conequivalent level cuttings at the tent corresponding to the average of the two ends. our tables give the cubic yards For the purposes corresponding to those areas. or heights of filling. where the depths at the two ends differ but a few feel. " 6065 " Four times " or " " 22 A f 4 times 5146 i -t A />"* on . . as in fig. Its use will be shown further on. the contents cannot be obtained by means of the diagram.

will be of no further use.) the distances on the upper column of the table. by merely adding together all the average midway equivalent level cuttings or fillings. &c. for now proceed to describe the mode of preparing the diagrams. were found to be 5157-5 cubic yards. intermediate of those in the table. decimally divided or 12^ inches. The determination of the principle on which they are formed. 1. .) .tion For instance. 6. were respectively 2.) would give the contents of the whole 600 feet. From the upper end of this line draw b c. and the cubic contents taken from the proper table. 5. (the number of stations. . gf. and multiplied by 6. divided into tenths and hundredths. would be 5146 cubic yards. any width of roadway. those on the 2nd column. and 25 feet at the other. an entire cut or fill may be approximately estimated at one operation. 610. is left as a problem for such of the younger members of the profession as may choose I will to exercise their ingenuity upon it. . METHOD OF PREPARING THE DIAGRAMS. For example. are \ to 1. lay ofF( without any regard to the width of roadway. because. in the foregoing example. This done. It rethe length of this line unity. Thus. as 1 or unity. of the excavation or embankment. or of cuttings and fillings. divided into ^ths of an inch. may be inserted Those beyond 20 verse ground-slope is will rarely be required. Distances on b c. and dividing their sum by their number for an average one. an average depth might be taken of = 4-5 feet. when the transgreat. Draw a vertical line a 6. at right angles t@ it and from b towards c. 3. 7 feet. the contents of an average equivalent level depth of 22^ feet. the scale ofab. and for any side-slope whatever. with sufficient accuracy by eye. or but 11^ yards less than the truth. or 10 inches divided into y^ths of an inch. fig.. if the side-slopes he. if the average midway equivalent level depths of 6 consecutive stations of cuttings. . the length a 6. will Call generally be found convenient. for a depth of 4-5 feet. if 1 to 1.as unity. the correct contents of the sta20 feet deep at one end. while by this approximating mode. &c. 615. lay off and number the distances &5. but slightly too little. contained in the following table using as a scale. In this manner. retaining walls are resorted to as a matter of economy. of any (One foot given length at pleasure. or 1 presents the usual centre-line of levels. 4.

. l|to 2 " ' equal to ef. &c. draw horizontal lines parallel to b c. as if the side-slopes are we may set off \ 1 to 1.TABLE OF DISTANCES FHOM b. it may be. the several angles of transAs before remarked. 2. From a upwards set off. lay off with a protractor. 1. b 15. but in a wor/dng diagram they should be taken nearer together. or width of roadway. 6 10. for instance every. numbering them 1.. formed by the prolongation of the side ef representing the width of the roadway. to 1. 1. 1. 2 to 3. and also the angles on the arc. which is ef a. division of 1 foot. and mark with a dot the point of intersection on the inclined line a 5.) the distance a o. by any scale at pleasure. &c. the inclined lines.) draw lines to a. then a o will be 4 times " " " e f. from points of division 1. Lay a parallel ruler from o to 5 on the arc. numbered only for every 5. and from the Beginning at 0. g a and ef. convenience. for ruler in the same position. It is be found convenient. 1. 2. stopping at every and making corresponding clots on the inclined line a . divide the vertical or centre into feet. From the points b 5. as shown in the wor/dng diagrams. (and from the subdivisions of single degrees between them. (from T]2 th to |th inch to a foot will the height of the triangle ever slopes g-y. on the same scale. are. In fig. as shown in fig. and he to c. &c. verse ground-slope as shown by the arc in fig. by recollecting that to not necessary actually to draw h a.. . From o as a centre. by the same scale o upwards. angles higher than 20 will seldom be required. FIG. TO BE LAID OFF ox THE HORIZONTAL LIKE b THE LlJfE a b BEIXG ASSUMED AS UxiTT. -Sofef. 3.. move it upwards along o b. 3. what- a o. e. OK 1. then keeping the NOTE. " " iofe/ line o b.

) they will rarely be found. yet. thereby forming a section partly in excavation. connect the corresponding clots on the several inclined lines. Then lay the parallel ruler from o to 15 on the arc. .s -\y ^zs^-^^^e c~ & Now. as shown in 7.* and c d the centre line of cuttings and fillings. \\i bottom of the working diagrams is added. to the centre line. 1. Then lay the parallel ruler from o to 10 on the arc. In Excavation. or in Embankment if for a diagram of Emb. with side. and with side slopes of l to 1.slopes of from 1 to 1.. af. and proceeding as before. the point of intersection on the inclined line a 10. and the dotted curve is formed.as in fig. (generally 5 of them. fig. are on a scale of Jgth of an inch to a foot. a g. for convenience of insertion in this volume. forming thereby a series of curves. lay off with a protractor. as shown in fig. 14 and 24 feet wide on top. Let a 6. and draw the lines a e. the intersection of the curved line of 2 feet with the inclined line of 5. From a as a centre. and the diagram is finished. 2. for all cases of ground-slope which do not intersect the roadway. making corresponding dots on the inclined line a 10. stopping at every division of 1 foot. Then join their several marks of intersection. 18 and 28 feet w ide at bottom. fig. the dotted curve shown near the cf. The diagram is now ready for use. and mark on the diagram the intersection of the curved line of 4 feet with the inclined line of 10. the angles 5. for single and double track embankments.. although the curved lines are drawn straight across several divisions of the inclined lines. and also in our working diagrams. if for a diagram of Exc.. &c. hardly venture to make them more than 2 feet less. to be 2 feet. Mark on the working dingram. &c. 6. The working drawings which are adapted to such widths of roadway as I judged most likely adopted in ordinary practice. and partly in embankment. continuing to such a height on the centre line as will include the greatest cutting or filling to be calculatc-d by the diagram. I have given. up to 2 to 1. suppose the height c e. They to be : r The widths will rarely differ more than 2 feet from those for which the The most mistaken economist would diagrams have been prepared. represent the width of roadway. Suppose the height cf corresponding to 10 to be 4 feet. Finally. In order that the diagram itself . may inform us when this is the case. 10. then keeping the ruler in the same position. It is prepared as follows: . make corresponding dots on the inclined line a 15. corresponding to 5. to differ as much as y^th of a foot from the truth. and mark with a dot. and for single and double track excavations. 1. nor do I conceive that any advantage would attend making them more than 2 feet greater. and so on up to as high an angle as will equal the greatest transverse slope of the ground which occurs on the work to be calculated by means of the diagrams. viz. move it upwards along o b. and so on with the rest. in operating with them.

Here. easily made by merely adding to or subtracting from the contents corresponding to every consecutive ^jth of a foot of depth in the tables of level cuttings. a diagram should be prepared for the purpose. for each 2 feet of width added or subtracted. with side-slopes of 1-^ to 1. diagrams accompany the tables of level cuttings for side-slopes of 5 to 1. feet. because with this side-slope. instead of 28 30 feet wide. an additional -741 of a cubic yard. the transverse inclination of the ground rarely affects the quantity of material to an important extent. These new tables may be For example. this may generally be most advantageously effected by merely increasing becomes necessary the side-slopes of the cut to 2 to 1 . which are used only for rock. and separate calculations must be made for the purpose. Still. on every work on which much rock cutting occurs. in order to furnish earth for an adjoining embankment. new diagrams must be drawn for them. suppose that the roadway. where that would not be sufficient. but. No Should other widths of roadway be adopted. it to increase the width of the cut at bottom also. When the value of land is not sufficiently great to constitute an objection.It is sometimes advisable to increase the quantity of excavation to be taken from a cut. is to be made . as also new tables of level cuttings calculated.

very convenient to have paper of about 14 by 24 inches. a separate diagram is required only for each side-slope. by adding together all the average midway level depths. with side-slopes of l to 1. and an allowance be made afterwards for the 2 feet difference of width. this paper is ruled to order. be correctly the amount to be added to. by drawings. with parallel lines about -j^ of an inch apart.Had the new roadway been 26 feet wide. the third column would have been subtracted from the second. as in fig. or taken from. draughtsman. or of a different color. when multiplied by the number of 100 feet stations in the cut or fill. with side-slopes of \\ to 1 in both. if different Frequently one will be required also for rock cuttings. with such side-slopes as may be adopted. may be completed by a ready CASES OF GROUND IRREGULAR TRANSVERSELY. if drawn OP engraved. Every fifth line should be stronger than the intermediate ones. in order to form the fourth one. and one for excavations. All cases of irregular transverse ground-slope. 3. For this purpose.) may easily be reduced. if ruled by a stationer. of to 1. will. a diagram must be prepared for each side-slope. instead of 30. 3. it is Fig. and on embankments. the roadway is wider in the cuts than on the embankments. (except that in which the ground-slope intersects the roadway. in a day or two. for this average depth. . The contents of an excavation or embankment. and side-slopes of excavation are employed in different kinds of soil. not absolutely necessary to calculate new tables of level cuttings 2 feet from those which I have assumed in the working diagrams. at a very trifling cost. ruled across in both directions. and the corresponding contents taken out from the tables. An entire set for any particular road. so that when the roadway has the same width in cuttings. generally. by means of the equivalent level cuttings deduced from the diagrams. But. but one diagram is necessary for the entire road. requiring at least one diagram for embankments. for an average depth of the whole. and dividing their sum by their number. By means of the multiple ruling pens used by stationers. 7. The number of cubic yards taken from table 14. to such a form that their equivalent level cuttings may be obtained by means of diagrams. the quantity previously obtained from the It is for widths differing tables. as in fig. may be taken from the nearest table. While the width of roadway remains the same. and a width of 2 feet.

4 and 5. because. lay off on both sides of o as a centre. as in fig. than a parallel ruler Those flat rulers which move on rollers are greatly about 2 feet long. and the degrees marked on the sheet. outlines of side-slopes of an excavation. as in fig. with a small piece of embankment below it. and by means of the parallel ruler. nothing more will be required in order to obtain the data for the subsequent calculations. single degrees up to as high as the greatest transverse ground slope for which the paper is to be used. the inclina2 the prepared paper. 5. however. this. should be numbered along the centre line. On 4 and . generally better to resort to retaining walls. e a. with high transverse ground-slopes. in Jigs. according to the following directions. The heights. the ground 4 and 5. which invariably get out of order in a is When this ruled short time. Finally. it is The paper is now ready for use. and added the numbers of the sections or stations to which they belong. is as follows : CASE 1 . preferable to those with hinges. in very irregular sections. from the centre height or depth e. fig. and after having drawn them in ink. to represent but two consecutive ones on one sheet. very lightly. which may be calculated by means of the working diagrams and tables of level cuttings. 3. as well as the cubic content comprised between them. which may be rubbed out as each station is finished. It is advisable. fig. figs. will rarely exceed 20. slopes differently from the centre each way. Fig. and upon others. all the subsequent operations may One sheet may be made to serve for the calculations of many stations. 5. with a small piece of excavation above it. The the ruled paper is prepared by drawing upon some sheets. Jig. 3. or depths. with lead pencil marks. in case of dispute with the contractor. 3.9 paper prepared for use at leisure moments. the side-slopes of an embankment. after the work is commenced. The method which I advise for reducing irregular cross sections to equivalent regular ones. as before remarked. figs. 3. draw the two slopes e d. and be performed by the parallel ruler. by means of a large pro- tractor. by merely drawing in the transverse ground slopes. When as e dy e o. 4. to lay {hem aside for future reference.

10

tions of

to

a

d,

which are taken from the field slope-book. Draw e f, parallel and join af. Then is a & coequal to a b c de,* figs. 4 and 5.

Find by means of the parallel ruler and the degrees marked on the paper, the slope of af; and with that slope, and the new centre depth m n, (which is had from the figure by inspection,) use the proper diagram for finding the equivalent level cutting; and take out the cubic yards from

the table.

Also, in

fig. 5,

and between the same

the triangles/" e d, and/" e a, being on the same base^e, parallels fe, d a, are equal to each other; and

leaving out from each the triangle/" e o, which is common to both, a b c d e. have the triangle fod,eoa, and consequently a b of

we

CASE

2.

When

Fig. 6.

the

ground

is

very irregular transversely, as in fig. 6.

Having drawn the figure on the prepared paper, find by trial with a piece of thread, the line a d, which equalizes, as nearly as can be judged by eye, the

irregularities

above and below

it.

By

the parallel ruler, and the degrees on the paper, find the slope of a d; and with that slope, and the new centre depth n, (which is had from the figure by inspection,) use the proper diagram for finding the equivalent level cutting; and take out the cubic yards from the table.

means of

m

CASE

3.

When

the

ground- slope

intersects the

roadway, as in fig. 7.

tected

in

Such cases are always deby the dotted curve line the working drawings. Having drawn the figure on

prepared paper, measure

the

the

**two bases a b an-d a o; and also the two perpendiculars to
**

them,

c

d and

e

f.

Multiply a b by c d, and half the product is the area of the triangle of If the triangle of excavation at the other end of the 100 excavation a b d. feet station has the same area, the number of cubic yards corresponding to this area for a length of 100 feet will be taken from table 15.

**Also multiply a o by ef, and half the product will be the area of the
**

triangle of

embankment

a o

e.

If the triangle of

embankment

at

the other

**end of the 100 But
**

*

**has the same area, the corresponding number of cubic yards will be taken from table 15.
**

feet station

if

the triangles of excavation, (or those of embankment,.) at the

two

Proof.

the

same

angle a e o;

ado, which

The two triangles a df, a d e, fig. 4, being on the same base a d, and between a d and ef, are equal to each other. Leaving out from each, the triis common to both, we have the triangle dfo, equal to the triangle and consequently a b c f is equal to a b c d e.

parallels

11

ends, are not of the same area, the trapezoidal rule must be employed, as See page 3. in the case of trapezoidal cross sections of unequal areas.

That is, we must add together the contents corresponding to the two end triangles, and 4 times that corresponding to the triangle half way between them, and divide the sum by 6, for the true content.

The base of the centre triangle of excavation, will be the average between the two bases a 6, fig. 7, at the ends; and its perpendicular, the average between the two perpendiculars c rf, at the ends.

In like manner, the base and perpendicular of the centre triangle of embankment, will be averages of the two end bases a o, and of the two end perpendiculars ef.

from irregularities in the ground, in the direction of the line of the it should become necessary to take cross sections nearer together than 100 feet, only the same proportional parts of the cubic yards must be taken from the tables; and on this account, it is better always, when

If

road,

possible, to subdivide the 100 feet station-distances into such parts as will furnish numbers easy to divide by; thus, if the station be divided into 10, 20, 25, or 50 feet distances, they will furnish respectively the numbers

which

10, 5, 4, or 2, by which to divide the cubic yards in the tables, are calculated for 100 feet distances.

all

of

**TO FIND THE DISTANCES OF THE SIDE STAKES FROM THE CENTRE
**

STAKE.

In all cases in which the cross sections are drawn, as just described, these disances may be had by measurement on the figures.

But they may be obtained much more rapidly thus: prepare a piece of tracing paper,as in fig. 8, of the same size as the ruled paper on which the cross sections are drawn.

From

a b y as

c

marked

as a centre, lay off and number the degrees above and below at the ends, to as high as the greatest transverse ground

**slope in the work.
**

3, arcs

Also, from c as a centre, draw by the same scale as the ruled paper, fig. of circles one foot apart, and number them with their distances

c in feet.

fig.

from

with

this paper upon a cross section of the road, placed at the given centre height or depth on the line a G, of we at once fig. 3, read off, without any calculation

Then, by laying

c

3,

of

fig.

8,

**whatever, the distances of the
**

side stakes from the centre stake, measured along the transverse ground slope. These distances

book

If,

will be copied into the proper for field use.

instead of concentric arcs,

vertical straight lines are

drawn

12

On the transparent paper, we

shall in like

tion, the horizontal distances

manner obtain, by mere inspecof the side stakes from the centre one.

When the horizontal distances are used in preference to those measured along the transverse ground slope, it is necessary to use a plumb at the end of the measuring line, in order to hold it vertically over the centre, or

the side stake, depending

upon which

is

lowest.

lie flat

The

on

fig.

tracing paper figure should be pasted to a frame, so as to 3. The frame may be of stiff 'pasteboard.

**ON THE USUAL METHOD OF CALCULATING EXCAVATIONS AND EMBANKMENTS.
**

Different engineers employ different methods, of perhaps, as simple as any:

Fig. 10.

which the following

is,

n, requires that there shall be given, (beside the width of roadway 9 and 10, and the side-slope,) the extreme horizontal width a b of the cut, or embankment; and the vertical depths/" e at the centre; and ca,

It

figs.

m

d

b at the sides,

The Rule then is, multiply the extreme horizontal width a b, by half the centre depth f e; also multiply ONE-FOURTH of the width of roadway n, by the sum of the two side depths c a and d b: the sum of the products will

m

be the area

of the cross

section

m

n d f c,jig. 9 or Jig. 10.

This area, thus found, multiplied by 100, (the usual length of the station in feet,) and divided by 27, (the number of cubic feet in a cubic yard,) gives the cubic content of the station, provided the area of the cross section at the other end of the station be the same; but if not, the prismoidal Rule must be used, as already explained.

The trouble

by the use of

of multiplying by 100,

table 15,

which

I

and dividing by 27, may be avoided have prepared for that purpose.

**The centre depths/ e, fig. 9 and 10, are given the side depths c a and d b, have to be found by
**

STAKES.

by the

trial

level book; but on the ground.

**USUAL METHOD OF FINDING SIDE-DEPTHS, AND PLACING
**

The

/,

c,

SIDE-

**level is placed conveniently for sighting from the
**

d.

same

position

upon

and

A sight/ o, is then taken on the target rod held at/; this sight/o, being added to the centre depth fe, gives the height e o, of the instrument above a b; or the horizontal plane, (represented by h p,) through which

at every station. very close approximation. and placing the target 2 feet lower on the target rod. be subtracted 6. in order to obtain the depth of the instrument below the roadway. Still. approximate height d b as the correct one. at least two trials are generally required. placed upon a rod. and the corresponding horizontal distance from the centre of the roadway. in by mine. this 2 Assuming the what would be the at Measure off that dispreviously prepared table of horizontal distances. and that taken at c. to be used in estimating the areas and cubic contents in the office. as far above the sight taken aty as c is estimated to be below/*. All these are at once entered into the proper field-book. and also the horizontal distances from the centre to each side stake. the mode by the level is the only one proper to be used. some rare cases. evident. however. by this method. the sight taken on the rod at the centre stake.)* It is plain that if the from e o. except that as c is lower than f. or from a 2 feet. the heights d 6. is laid upon the ground as near at . or even four when the ground extremely irregular. hold it at the end of the measuring distance. at a single station. say added toy e. those of several stations could be found by one person in the oifice. and if it strikes the centre of the target. raised on the rod. subtracted from e o.13 the line of sight passes as the telescope of the level axis of the instrument. tance horizontally towards d. which. and that the proper spot is found for placing the side-stake d. is swept round on the feet. The sum It is of the two horizontal distances manifestly gives the extreme width of the excavation or embankment. An error of an inch or two in the position of a side-stake is A a matter of no practical importance whatever. or clinometer. can always be made by an experienced leveller after the first trial. at the same time. is and frequently three. the remainder will be d height on the target rod at d. either by calculation. in that case it would be impossible to ^take the transverse as among jagged ground-slopes with any degree of accuracy. 10 or 12 feet long. fig. sight is then taken with the level. 9. gives the approximate height of d b. were correct. we find horizontal distance from the centre to d. as. (When putting in side-stakes for an embankment. of a small slope level. by means Transverse ground-slopes are obtained in the field with great facility. that in the time required for a leveller and rodmanto ascer- tain the positions and heights of the side-stakes. A It seldom happens that such a coincidence is found at the first trial. and c a. where the ground-slope is extremely irregular. These operations give us therefore. rocks. is subtracted from the centre height of the embankment. The same the target is operation is performed at c. it proves that the assumed height of d. will give c a. The height of d above/" is then estimated by eye.

These clino- is regular transversely. .14 right angles to th line of survey. one may be required from the centre each way. are 1074. for 10-2 deep. as they are. &c. while those taken in preliminary surveys should comprise a considerable When the ground at other times. They need not. more than one on each side of the centre-stake. but one slope need be taken. however. used in the office for changing the position of the surveyed line. the left hand vertical column contains the height or depth of the embankment or excavation. moreover. for 10-1 deep. must be taken with much more care than during preliminary surveys of trial lines. in feet and the upper horizontal column. as can be judged by eye. 1107. and rarely. meters are sold by most of our principal instrument makers. the intermediate lenths of a foot. The slopes for estimating the final adopted line. . In the following tables of level cuttings. width. in order to avoid excavation and embankment. Thus in table 1. the cubic yards in a station 100 feet long and 10 feet deep. 1090. extend beyond the widths actually occupied by the cuttings and fillings.

.

. SIDE-SLOPES 1* to ROADWAY 14 FT For Embankment.ifs /.

. LEVEL CUTTINGS.15 TABLE 1. side-slopes 1$ to For continuation to 100 feet see Table 13. 1. Roadway 14 feet wide.

16 TABU 2. *ule-*toj** \$ to \. . LEVEL CUTTINGS. 10012 10995 11502 12021 12551 13092 10205 10695 11196 11709 14436 14494 15015 15074 15605 15665 16206 16819 17442 '17505 18076 1S141 18722 19379 14551 15132 15725 16328 17908 20452 21138 22542 23261 24732 to 100 feet. KC table 13. Xetuhooy U fut urule.

. ROADWAY ? I FT .

.

.

SIDE -SLOPES Itol ROADWAY 18 F For Excavation .

For continuation to 100 feet see table 13. . LEVEL CUTTINGS.17 TABLE 3. I Roadway 18 feet wide. side-slopes to I.

side-slopes Ij to For continuation to 100 feet sec table 13. . Roadway 18 feet wide. I.18 TABLE 4. LEVEL CUTTINGS.

ROADWAY 18 FT .lt.Pl.- IV 15 20 25 w SIDE-SLOPES litol.

.

.

.Plate V. 60 SIDE SLOPES iHol. ROADWAY 18 FT /vV/'.'l/V/IV///"//.

For continuation to 100 feet see table 13. side-slopes ^ to 1 . 1 Roadway 8 feet wide. 1 LEVEL CUTTINGS. .19 TABLE 5.

see table 13. LEVEL CUTTINGS.20 TABIE 6. Roadway IS feet wide. 1. . side-slopes 2 to For continuation to 100 feet.

00 .

.

.

ROADWAY 28 F^ Excavation ."> Mf 15 20 25 30 33 ^^W^P^ZZZ^ZZs SIDE-SLOPES Ltol.

21 TABLE 7. . feet wide. For continuation to 100 feet see table 13. LEVEL CUTTINGS. side-slopes I Roadway 28 to 1 .

lioadway 28 feet wide. LEVEL CUTTINGS. For continuation to 100 feet see Table 13. side-slopes \i to 1.22 TABLE 8. .

flateWI. 00 SIDE-SLOPES l*tol ItOAHWAY 28 FT .

.

.

S IDE -SLOPES ll to 1. ROADWAY 28 F? For Excavation. .

23 TABLE 9. Roadway 28 feet . LEVEL CUTTINGS. wide. side-slopes 1} to 1.

side-slopes 2 to 1. wide. Roadway 28 feet For continuation to 100 feet see table 13. LEVEL CUTTINGS.24 TABLE 10. .

') ^15 -10 35 18 :io 25 21 22T vo i: i -SLOPES i? to 1.>o -I.(10 12 . J . . BOADWAY28FT For Excavation .

.

LEVEL CUTTINGS. Roadway 18 feet wide.TABLE 11. side-slopes. 1. . $ to For continuation to 100 feet see Table 13.

side-slopes J to . LEVEL CUTTINGS.26 TABLE 12. Roadway 28 feet wide. 1 .

LEVEL CUTTINGS.TABLE 13. to Continuation of the foregoing Tables of Cubic Contents 100 feet of height* -depth. .

of the equivalent level cuttings or fillings of several consecutive 100 The foot stations. and of different depths. nearly. in cases where the width of roadway differs from those in the preceding Tables. or depth. Cubic Yards in a length of 100 feet. The most rapid method of performing this operation would be to add together the average heights. yards in a 100 foot station. It would.28 TABLE Of cubic 14. for an average one of iuem all. or depths. breadth 2 feet. be better for the assistant. and divide their sum by their number. when multiplied by the number of stations. will give the content of the entire length. to be added to. to construct at once a new table. or subtracted from. the quantities in the preceding thirteen tables. number of cubic yards corresponding to this average height. however. . in case the excavations or embankments should be increased or diminished 2 feet in width.

A . thus. by using the nearest tabular number. thus it is seen at a glance. corresponding to different areas of cross section. or 33167.29 TABLE 15. we may that of 895-5 square feet. or 4074. or Embankment. those corresponding to an area of 8955 square feet will be 10 times If the number is not exactly divisible by 10. always be estimated in an instant by the eye. that 33157 is. This Table may be extended. thus. can. which will reduce the error to still less. the error will be but about 8 cubic yards in 33000. CUBIC YARDS IN 100 FEET LENGTH. the cubic yards corresponding to area of 1100 square feet will be 10 times that of 110 square feet. if we take 33167 for the cubic yards corresponding to mean an area of 8953 square feet. however. in this instance. This Table shows the number of cubic yards of Excavation. The areas are expressed in square feet. nearer than 33167. till take out the corresponding cubic yards with sufficient accuracy for practice. and to a length of 100 feet. by mentally changing the place of the decimal point.

CUBIC YARDS IN 100 FEET LENGTH.30 TABIE 15. .

31 TABLE 15. CUBIC YARDS IN 100 FEET LENGTH. .

32 TABLU 15. CUBIC YARDS IN 100 FEET LENGTH. .

CUBIC YARDS IN 100 FEET LENGTH. 412126 .33 TABLK 15.

CUBIC YARDS IN 100 FEET LENGTH.34 TABLE 15. .

.

.

.

.

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY Los Angeles This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. Form L9-25m-8.'46 (9852 444 ) UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT LOS ANGELES LIBRARY .

Y TF 222 T69n .

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