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American Electric Power BRO Forum July 2010

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Paul Gremaud and Shaun Siegel

Nooter/Eriksen HRSGs at American Electric Power Facilities


Oologah - 2 Units (1999) GE 7 FA turbines (3) pressure levels with supplemental firing Waterford - 3 Units (2000) GE 7 FA turbines (3) pressure levels with supplemental firing Stall - 2 Units (2007) just began commercial operation (7/2010) Siemens 501 FD2 turbines

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Nooter/Eriksen HRSGs behind Siemens 501Fs and GE 7 FAs


Nooter/Eriksen has supplied HRSGs behind GE 7FA machines on 51 projects for a total of 115 HRSGs. Nooter/Eriksen has supplied HRSGs behind Siemens 501F machines on 41 projects for a total of 79 HRSGs. Nooter/Eriksen HRSGs are behind 42% of the Siemens 501F machines

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Topics to be Addressed
1. General Overview of the Thermal Design of a HRSG

2. Issues/Concerns With HRSGs

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Part 1: Thermal Design of HRSGs An Overview


HRSG materials Tube finning Heating surface configurations Economizer design Vapor lock Cold end corrosion Boiler pressure turndown

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Tube Materials
SA-213 T91 HP Superheaters and Reheaters where tube wall temperature exceeds T23/T22/T11 limits SA-213 T23 HP Superheaters with high MAWPs and tube wall temperatures with T22/T11 limits SA-213 T22/T11 HP Superheater and Reheater when tube wall temperatures above CS limits. LP evaporator for corrosion resistance.

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Tube Materials Continued


Carbon Steel Evaporators and economizers where design temperatures are within carbon steel limits 2205 SS LP economizer, preheaters where water is non-deareated.

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Finning Configurations
Fin Density 2.5 7.0 fpi Fin Height 0.25 1.0 Fin Thickness 0.039 0.059 Fin Segment 0.1772 for stainless and 0.15625 for CS

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Drum Separator Design


Primary Separator - Sized for max sub-cooled flow Secondary Separator - Sized for max V2 Benefits over cyclone type -Wider range of operation

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Water Side Characteristics


Pinch Temperature difference between fluid and exhaust gas. Recommend minimum of 15F Approach Temperature difference between saturation temperature and temperature of incoming water. Design as small as 0F Coil Distribution Provide uniform heat transfer across row Increases pressure of evaporator or pump

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HRSG Heating Surface

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Heating Surface Configurations


Half Circuit Single Circuit Double Circuit

Up Flow

Down Flow
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HRSG Heating Surface

Half Circuit Double Circuit

Up Flow Single Circuit

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Stall Module #2 NOOTER/ERIKSEN

Waterford Module #4
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Heating Surface Configurations


Half Circuit Economizers and IP/LP Superheaters Single Circuit Economizers and Superheaters Double Circuit HP Superheaters and Reheaters

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Competitor 1 Economizer Design

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Competitor 1 Economizer Design


Design disadvantages Requires vent at every top header Converge/diverge at every header Possible vapor lock in down flow tubes Potential for corrosion fatigue

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Competitor 2 Economizer Design

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Competitor 2 Economizer Design


Design disadvantages Requires vent at every top header Converge/diverge at every lower header Possible air entrapment at end of headers Potential for corrosion fatigue

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N/E Typical Economizer Design

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N/E Economizer Design


Design advantages Does not require vents Converge/diverge at inlet and outlet headers Accommodates differential movement Accommodates steaming Operation, maintenance and repair. Design disadvantage Vapor lock

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Vapor Lock
Vapor Lock When tube flow is not able to clear the return bend. Variables Heating surface arrangements Fluid temperature and pressure Flow through coil Most likely to occur in low pressure economizers

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Vapor Lock Cont.

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Cold End Corrosion


When exhaust gas temperature goes below the sulfur dew point or contacts a surface colder than the dew point Control the inlet feedwater temperature above dew point Three methods of prevention Preheat evaporator (patent pending) Recirculation External heat exchanger

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Cold End Corrosion Prevention


Recirculation

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Cold End Corrosion Prevention


External heat exchanger

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Boiler Pressure Turndown


Boiler performance envelope is based on the original design Minimum of 50% of HP base load pressure Potential problems with turndown Velocity in pipes Velocity in evaporators Stability in evaporators

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Part 2: Issues/Concerns With HRSGs


HRSG Inlet Duct Liner Issues Distribution Grid Issues Condensate Management Desuperheater Drain Pots & Coil Drains Improvements to Address Cycling of HRSGs Flow Accelerated Corrosion Backpressure Issues/Economizer Surface Reduction

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Inlet Duct Floor and Sidewall Details


Floor is typically sloped 10-18 degrees Floor and sidewall liners have additional stiffening

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Inlet Duct Floor and Sidewall Details


Inlet Duct Floor and sidewalls are stiffened up to the distribution grid or the first coil.

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Inlet Duct Liner Damage

Deformed Liner Plate

Catastrophic damage to floor liner

Catastrophic damage to sidewall liner

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Inlet Duct Liner Solutions


What can be done when you have inlet duct liner damage?

Add stiffeners on the casing sidewall or floor Add intermediate liner pins Increase the thickness of the liner plate Install additional batten channels Additional liner stiffening backup angles

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Inlet Duct Distribution Grid


What is it? Stiffened, Flat Plate with 40% to 60% open area Usually made from 300 series stainless steel Located in the inlet duct

What is the purpose of the distribution grid? Used to get proper flow distribution in the HRSG Typically required for units with supplemental firing

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Typical Distribution Grid

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Typical Distribution Grid Components

Gas Flow

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Distribution Grid Damage

Pin Weld Failure at Sidewall

Support pedestal failure at weld to casing

Local deformation at support plate

Shear block weld failure


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Some Potential Grid Modifications (Incorporated into New Designs)


Modifications can and have been made to address many grid failure issues. Addition/modification of the floor restraints Addition/modification of the sidewall restraints Addition of a gusset at the sidewall restraint plate Move location of sidewall restraint remove the offset Addition of stiffener bars on grid fabric

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Reheater and HP Superheater Condensate Management


Modifications have been made to address removal of condensate during startup, operation, and shutdown. ASME Section I 2004 edition 2006 addenda 1. Includes new section PHRSG 2. Contains mandatory requirements for DSHR drain pots

3. Contains mandatory requirements for RH & SH drains


If condensate is not removed bad things happen!

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Condensate Management - Draining


Buckled tubes caused by uneven condensate clearing in coils or piping

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Condensate Management

Steam cooled tubes

No steam flow, hot tubes

Water

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Condensate Management
Now what actually happens to cause this? Steam flow is low or prior to initiation of steam flow Water filling lower header and tubes blocks steam With low steam flow, only a few tubes clear Cleared tubes are steam cooled High expansion differences between hot and cool tubes Cooler tubes go into tension and potentially yield At cool down, tubes go into compression and buckle If there are bends, very high bending stresses created Normally no failure if the tubes are straight
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Condensate Management
Avoid condensate moving between pressure levels or from other components Multiple pressure levels connected via blowdown or flash tank or other collection device It is possible to pressurize the collection device forcing water back into lower pressure components It is also possible to move condensate due to pressure differences between coils and external piping Recommend incorporating details to ensure adequate condensate removal.

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Condensate Management
Critical Issue - Draining of all piping low points 1. Piping normally at bottom of unit 2. Cross over piping between HP Superheaters or Reheaters 3. Inlet piping from interface on Cold Reheat lines

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Condensate Management
Test condensate detection and removal system in Reheater and HP Superheater drains

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Reheater and HP Superheater Desuperheaters


Why are desuperheaters used? Protect components of the steam turbine Nooter/Eriksen typically locates a desuperheater in the piping between the HP Superheater and Reheater coils Potential Issues 1. Un-evaporated water - overspray 2. Leakage valve failure 3. Inconsistent operation spraying at low steam flow

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Desuperheaters
Damage from desuperheater quenching

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Reheater and HP Superheater Desuperheaters


How have failures been addressed? New desuperheaters are not integral type Control valve is separate from the spray nozzle Experience with this type of desuperheater has been very positive

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Reheater and HP Superheater Desuperheater Modifications


Drain pots before the DSHR, after the DSHR or both
Line is Sloped

Desuperheater

Drain pot

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Reheater Bypass System


Eliminates the need for a desuperheater Improvement in reliability Improves efficiency since you are not spraying water into the steam. Does not affect steam purity
HRH CRH Reheater Bypass

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Improvements to Address Cycling


1. Tube stubs at Tube/Header Connection 2. Spring Supported Coils 3. Internal coil flexibility

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Optional Stub Tube to Header Connection


Better for cycling
Minimizes header thickness, therefore lowers thermal stress

Better weld NDE

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Spring Support of Header


Outlet Header is Supported by Spring Supported Manifold Pipe

Fixed Header

Floating Header of Same Coil

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Reheater and HP Superheater Coil Support Modifications

Spring cans being installed

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Importance of Coil Flexibilities


Two important aspects of coil flexibilities: 1. Row to row temperature differences (start up and normal operation) 2. Piping layouts

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Row to Row Temperature Differences


SH/RH each row different temperature Different ways to absorb movements 1. Internal coil flexibilities 2. Allow parts to move freely Support SH & RH from spring supports Orders of magnitude lower stress General Rule: Allowing parts to move freely is always better than relying on internal coil flexibilities

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Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC)


Primarily a water chemistry problem but Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) design and operation will influence the rate of metal loss. Most FAC through wall failures have occurred in high velocity areas of low pressure evaporators.

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Flow Accelerated Corrosion


Major factors:

pH of water in LP system Presence of reducing agents Velocities in piping/tubing Temperature

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Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC)


Where Does it Occur and Why? Solubility of magnetite is at a maximum in the normal operating conditions for the LP pressure level. Turbulence increases the local velocities and therefore the mass transfer and dissolution of the magnetite layer.

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Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC)


Tubes that produce the most steam are most susceptible to FAC

Gas bypass causes higher temperatures and more steam production

Tube Bundle Plan View

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Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC)


Single phase FAC in LP Evaporator
Bottom of LP Evaporator

Two-phase FAC in LP Evaporator


Top of LP Evaporator

Potential location of FAC

Potential location of FAC due to orifice

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Flow Accelerated Corrosion


Nooter/Eriksen Addresses this Potential Problem the following ways: LP Evaporator is designed using 1 Cr steel Velocities in tubes are evaluated for all operational cases Minimize bends in risers and piping Orifice plates have been re-located Better guidance regarding water chemistry

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Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC)


Nooter/Eriksens Current Philosophy on Water Chemistry Generally use basic water chemistry guidelines proposed by EPRI Oxygen scavengers are not recommended Keep LP drum water pH of 9.4 or greater Ammonia is the recommended alkalizing agent for LP evaporators

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HRSG Elevated Gas Side Pressure


Prevalent in the last (2) modules of HRSG due to temperature of the coils Typical Causes Rust build up on coil fins of cycling units Ammonia salt build up on coil fins in units with SCR system Affect Decreases efficiency of the combustion turbine and the HRSG

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HRSG Elevated Gas Side Pressure


Rust build-up Ammonia salt build-up

LP Superheater

HP/IP Economizer

LP Evaporator

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HRSG Elevated Gas Side Pressure


Minimize causes of back pressure increase
Reduce rust build-up Close damper for heat retention when offline

Limit Ammonia salt formation Improve AIG design and tuning Improve NH3 control Add catalyst for lower slip design Delay ammonia feed at startup

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HRSG Elevated Gas Side Pressure

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HRSG Elevated Gas Side Pressure

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HRSG Elevated Gas Side Pressure

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HRSG Elevated Gas Side Pressure


What can be done to remove salts and rust?
Traditional methods dry ice blasting, high volume water flushing, air blowing (dry ice blasting has worked very well at several plants but it is configuration and company dependent) Non traditional coil vibration, sonic vibration, steam cleaning (similar system to power washing), sootblowers

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HRSG Elevated Gas Side Pressure


Wash Coils To Remove Salts

Adding caustic to wash water may neutralize pH Ammonia may be liberated

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Removal of Heating Surface in an Economizer to Improve Gas Side Cleaning


(4) LP Economizer tube rows were removed to make an access lane. The LP Evaporator and LP Economizer can now be cleaned from both sides.

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Original Layout NOOTER/ERIKSEN

After Modifications
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