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In this experiment, the properties of two types of passive filter circuit were investigated (Low Pass and Band Pass). Then the behaviour of an active filter circuit was analysed. The cut off frequency, roll off, and frequency response of both filter types were measured and compared with theory. Data from an active band pass filter was used to reconstruct a wave form from a Thandor signal generator. The active filter was interfaced with a BBC micro computer, so that it's analysis could be displayed.
is what is known as a passive filter circuit. a simple low pass filter. In this experiment. The resulting wave form is one of constant frequency but and varying amplitude. high pass filters are not considered. will separate a high frequency carrier signal from a lower frequency band message signal. for higher and lower frequencies the impedance of the circuit is high. . such as the one shown in figure one. and band pass. which are known as ladder networks. A simple circuit. For example. the high and low frequencies form the stop band of the filter. telecommunication) there is a constant need to separate different frequency components of an incoming signal. low pass. A simple band pass filter is shown in figure three. Figure One. The rejection effect is increased as the ladder of filter is built up. In figure two. In AM systems a message signal is superimposed onto a carrier wave. as it's name suggests. a simple low pass filter circuit Combinations of filter circuits can be formed.  The Band Pass filter The band pass filter. Only the fraction of low frequency components of the voltage AB is seen at CD. a simple filter circuit The circuit in figure one. There are many types of passive filter circuit. Hence. in Amplitude Modulation (AM) radio communication. all of which can be classified as variations of the following. high pass.1) Introduction In many communication systems (radio. the input is applied across AB and the filtered output is across CD. Figure Two. only filter out a band of frequencies. The terminology for this is that. High frequency signals are rejected.
only allows low frequency signals through to it's output. Each band pass filter allows a specific frequency through. The active filter used in this experiment is simple an array of narrow band pass filters. Following the same principal as for the band pass filter. the pass band is between w1 and w2. Active Filters These are introduced here because they are later used in the final part of the experiment. Attributes of filters There are certain attributes that can be measured for a filter that can used to describe it's performance. it is easy to see that analogy that in the lower stop band. Considering the circuit in figure 2 it can be shown that the cut off frequency is. Conversely. 2 C 24 C 1 / L C 1 C 2 2 1 (2) It can be seen that the stop band exists below w1 and above w2. 1 = LC 1 − 1 2 (1) and the highest frequency that it will let through is . This means that an incoming wave form can be frequency analysed and reconstructed (if required) based on it's readings. The Low Pass filter A low pass filter. . 0=2 L C 1 − 1 2 (3) Comparing the similarity between equations one and three. a band pass filter circuit It can be shown that the lowest frequency that a band pass filter will let through is .Figure Three. the band pass filter is behaving like a low pass filter. the pass band of the low pass filter is below the cut off frequency and the stop band is above the cut off frequency. It is obvious that the cut off frequency is the limiting frequency value between stop and pass bands.
3. in terms of fm yields. (5) If we extend this to non-integer octaves. For this purpose. n Octaves= f 0 2 n n =1. An octave represents a frequency separation by a factor of two from some reference value . x=ln f m / f o / ln 2 ⋅ln f 0 (6) (7) (8) . by definition. it is defined in terms of the input amplitude.Frequency Response This is usually measured in Decibels (dB) against log(f). The decibel is a relative measure of output.2. we can write. We therefore say. x Octaves= f m= f 0 2 x Rearranging this to calculate the octave value. "Roll Off" This determines the "sharpness" of the filter and is measured in dB per Octave. This also equivalent to the output amplitude falling to half of the input amplitude. This represents how quickly the output falls once the frequency is around the stop band threshold. x. X dB=10 Log 10 V I / X volts (4) Cut Off frequency This is defined as the frequency corresponding to an output of -3 dB. often used in acoustic systems. we would like x to be zero when fm=f0. So we make a final adjustment to equation 7. x=ln f m / ln 2 ⋅ln f 0 However. In general we would write.
until the output reached -3 dB. Below are schematics of the respective Band and Low pass filter circuits used in the experiment. This allowed a set of data well describing the output attenuation to be collected. Equation four was rearranged to estimate the minimum output top look for. an input amplitude of 5 Volts was used for the Low Pass filter. The measurements were taken by incrementally changing the input frequency (from a standard laboratory signal generator) and noting the new output on the cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) screen. since the matching condition was frequency independent. Figure Five. . The matching of impedances was not effected different frequencies. To get around this apparent difficulty the input amplitude for the Band Pass filter was decreased to 0. at this level the entire frequency range of the signal generator could not get an output from the Band Pass filter above -3 decibels.2) Experimental Procedure Passive Filters The first half of the experiment was two test the various properties of the Band and Low pass filters. If the resistor had not been used. was put there to match the Low Pass filter to the oscilloscope (which was connected to the output). band pass filter used in experiment. Figure Four.5 Volts. The resistor in figure five. All of the sought quantities could then be derived from the data collected on both filters as described above. the low pass circuit used in the experiment. A point to note however. The Cut off frequency was sought first (readings being took along the way). there would have been reflection effects which would have adversely affected the readings.
. Measurements were taken three times of the same filter/band/signal because the readings were floating with every scan. The data from this could be used with the settings of the signal generator to reconstruct the incoming wave form. with a combination of software and hardware interfacing. The active filter was (arbitrarily) set to it's eleventh filter and it's second frequency band. active filter set up.Active Filter A schematic of the apparatus used in this part of the experiment is shown in figure six. For this part of the experiment the Thandor signal generator was connected to active filter and set to produce a sine wave. The active filter was connected to a BBC micro computer. The output from the filter was printed out (this print out is supplied in the appendix). Figure Six. So the final results are actually means of the three repetitions.
) Figure Seven. . (Note.872E+01 2. graph showing comparison of frequency response between band and low pass filter circuits.273E-10 9.326E-11 7.463E+01 9. Below is a table showing the slopes and intercepts for the least square fitted lines. Slope Error (slp) Intercept Error (itc) Band Pass Filter -1. Passive Filters : Cut Off Frequency From theory there were two cut off frequencies for the band pass filter.458E-11 Low Pass Filter -2.346E-09 Table One.534E+01 6. dB's for each filter are calculated relative to their own input levels. however with the bandwidth of the supplied signal generator there was only cut off frequency found. least square fit analysis of frequency response.3) Results Passive Filters : Frequency Response Figure seven shows the frequency response of both passive filters. Below is a table of the theoretical values calculated and the apparent cut off frequencies from the measured data.275E+01 2.
Slope Band Pass Low Pass Error(slp) Intercept Error(itc) -5.454E-15 -6. . Theoretical and Experimental cut off frequencies. Again. comparison of roll off between low pass and band pass filters.472E+04 1.45E+04 6. (Note.100E-14 6.132E+04 Upper 6.) Figure Eight.131E+01 3. Passive Filters : Roll Off The "Roll Off" for both filters are plotted on the same graph for a direct comparison. dB's for each filter are calculated relative to their own input levels.674E+04 Low Pass (Hz) 4.Band Pass (Hz) Lower Theoretical Experimental 2.788E-01 3. below is a table of the slope and intercept for the least square fitted lines.000E+03 Table Two. least squares fit analysis of roll off (dB/Oct) of both filters.134E-01 1.799E-12 -9.351E-14 Table Three.497E+01 1.
. From these values the original wave form could be reconstructed and plotted.71 2. Channel Frequency Mean (Hz) Amplitude (V) 78 156 200 250 315 400 500 625 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 0. Amplitudes of corresponding frequency components.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.18 0.07 0.06 0. There were 11 frequency components counted in the wave form analysis.25 0.05 0.00 0. Figure Nine.02 0. bar chart of the channel amplitude from the active filter.Active Filters The distribution of amplitudes in each channel are shown in figure nine. This wave done by adding successive sine waves together.04 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Table Four.57 2. Below is a table of mean amplitudes and respective frequency and channel number.33 0.
Ohanian. the reader should also bear in mind that for the band pass filter the input signal amplitude had to the lowered from the value used for the low pass filter. Passive Filters : Cut Off Frequency It is clear that the experimental values far under estimate the theoretical values. 4) Conclusion Passive Filters : Frequency Response It is clear from figure seven. that the band pass filter has the sharpest roll off. Passive Filters : Roll Off It is clear from figure eight. Graph of reconstructed wave form using data from the active filter.I. and Bleany. Bibliography  "Electricity and Magnetism". 2nd Ed. Hans. before any useful data could be yielded. the above is not a far comparison. If the response of the filter depends on signal amplitude as well as frequency. B. pp 269-279 (1989). Since. . Final Note for passive filters Given all the above statements. Given that the effect of varying amplitude are linear. p. for purpose of the experiment the values were normalised to the 3.  "Physics.5 Volt limit. C. that the band pass filter has the best frequency response. W. 1.441 (1989). Vol. the values are curious. ISBN 0-393-95750-0 Appendix Included here is the original print out from the BBC micro of the readings. OUP. Given that the signal generator was supposed to be set to 3. Bleany.Figure Ten. even for the Band Pass filter there was only one apparent cut off frequency this indicates likely errors in the execution of the experiment. Chapter 9. The slope is much greater than that for the low pass filter. B.".W.Norton & Company.5 Volts.