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# Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

A. Supports :

## Supports are provided to resist the loads.

There are three types of Supports 1. Hinge Support: It is always in clockwise or Anti-clockwise not horizontal or vertical

## 3. Circular or Roller Support: Always normal to the surface.

B. Loads :

Dead Loads Uniformity Disturbed Load Uniformly Varying Load Point Load

## Live Loads Moving Load Wind Load Snow Load

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Beams

## (iii) Cantilever Beam : In Sindhi it is said as CHAJA!

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem:1 :

Determinate Forms

## Free Body Diagram

Ma

Ra Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0,

Ha

+ve Fy = 0 Ra P = 0 Ra= P

## Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 Ma+ Ra * L =0 Ma + PL = 0 Ma = - PL

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Problem:2 :

Determinate Forms

P= 80lb

L = 10

## Free Body Diagram

P = 80 lb

Ma

L = 10

Ra Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0,

Ha

+ve Fy = 0 Ra P = 0 Ra= 80 lb

## Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 Ma+ Ra * L =0 Ma + PL = 0 Ma = - 800 lb-ft ( Anti-clockwise )

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Problem:3 :

W v/v

## L WL Free Body Diagram A Ma L/2 C L L/2 B

Ra

Ha

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra WL = 0 Ra= WL Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point C Ma+ Ra * L/2 =0 Ma = - ( Ra * L / 2 ) Ma = - ( WL * L / 2) Ma= - W L 2 / 2

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Problem:4 :

3 kip/m

## 2m 6 kip Free Body Diagram A Ma 1.5 C 2m 1.5 B

Ra

Ha

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra WL = 0 Ra= 6 Kip Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point C Ma+ Ra * L/2 =0 Ma= - W L 2 / 2 Ma= - 3 (2)2 / 2 Ma= - 6 kip. m

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Problem:5:

60k 4

60k

## Free Body Diagram

60k

Fx Fy

60k

A Ma Ra Ha 6

53.30

B Rb

First of all changing Tangent into Degree = Tan-1 4/3 = 53.30 Now, finding X-Y co-ordinates of the Inclined Force Fx= F Cos = 60 Cos 53.3 = 60 (0.59)= 36K ; Fy = F Sin = 60 Sin 53.3 = 60 (0.801)=48.10K

Ha= 36 K,

## +ve Fy = 0 Ra + Rb P - Fy = 0 Ra + Rb -60 -48 =0

Ra + Rb = 108 -------------------------(i)

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Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A 60 * 6 + Fy * 12 Rb *18 = 0 60 * 6 + 48 * 12 = 18 Rb Rb = 52 K Putting Value of Rb in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 108 Ra + 25 = 108 Ra = 56 K

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Problem:6:
12 k 16k 16k 3 k / ft

2 K / ft

12 k C D

16 k E

16 k F G

9k B Rb

2 2

## As there is V.D.L = 1/2 * 6 * 3 = 9 k For U.D.L = 2* 8 = 16 K

; ;

X = L / 3 = 6 / 3 = 2 X= L / 2 = 8 / 2 = 4

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra 16k 12k 16k 16k + Rb 9k = 0 Ra + Rb = 69 --------------------------------(i) Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A (16 * 4) + (12 * 12) + (16 *16) + (16 * 20) - (Rb * 24) + (9 * 26)= 0 1018 24Rb = 0 Rb = 42.41 K Putting Value of Rb in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 69 Ra + 42.41 = 69 Ra = 26.6 K
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Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 7

Point Load

40 K

50K 3/4

30 K

A 4

E 5

C 3

F 3

D 8

G 3

H 3

(PART 1 ) We Disturb this Diagram into two A Point to C Point Free Body Diagram 40 k

A Ha 4 Ra

C Hc 5 Rc

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Ra = 22 K
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## Theory of Structures (Part 2) 50k 32 K 30 K

Sir Dr.Zubair

Hc 3

F 3

D 4 4

G 3

H 3

= Tan-1 3/4 36.86 Fx = F Cos 50 * Cos 36.86 40K Fy= F Sin 50 * Sin 36.86 30 K

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Hc + Fx = 0, Hc = - 40 k Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A Rc * 18 - Fy * 15 + Rd *12 32*8 30*2 = 0 +ve Fy = 0 - Rc Fy + Rd 32 -30 + Rb = 0 Rb + Rd = 110 --------------------------------(i)

## 12 Rd = 1090 Rd = 91 K Putting Value of Rd in Equation (i) Rb + Rd = 110 Rb + 91 110 = 0 Rb = 19 K

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Problem # 8 :
Rk 6k 3 k /ft

## 8 Free Body Diagram 48k Rk

2 6k

Ma

Ra

Ha 8

8 6

8 2

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra -48 37 - 6 = 0 Rb + Rd = 143 --------------------------------(i) Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A Ma + Ra *16 ( 48 + 37 ) * 8 - 6 * 2= 0 0 = Ma + 143 *16 1096 - 12 Ma = -1180 K. ft Hence the direction of Moment A should be taken as reversed.

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Problem # 9 :

R K /ft

A 20

## Free Body Diagram R*20 k Ha 6.66 Ra 6.66 6.66 Ra

Point Load = 1/2 * 37 * 20 890 k Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra 890 + Rb = 0 Ra + Rb = 890 --------------------------------(i) Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A 890 * 6.66 - Rb * 20 = 0 20 Rb = 5927.4 Rd = 296.37 K Putting Value of Rd in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 890 Ra + 296.37 890 = 0 Rb = 593.63 K

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8k

A 4

C 8

D 6

## Free Body Diagram

10 k

Rk

32 k

8k

Ra Ma

A Ha 2

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra 10 - 37 32 -8 = 0 Ra = 139 k Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A Ma + Ra * 18 10* 16 37 * 14 32 * 10 = 0 0 = Ma + 2502 -1724 Ma = -778 K . ft
The direction should be reversed

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Problem # 11:
8K (0.2+R ) K RK 20 k

4 8 5 5 9 5

## Free Body Diagram: 8k C Rc Hc 4 8 9 32 5 9 5 Ra (R +0.2 )K A RK 20k B Rb Hb

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Hb = 0, +ve Fy = 0 8 160 37 + Ra 20 + Rb = 0 Ra + Rb = 1722.6 -----------------------------(i) Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A - 8 * 28 - 1605.6 * 23 20 * 5 + Ra -24 = 0 24 Ra = 27252.8 Rd = 1552.2 K Putting Value of Rd in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 890 Ra + 1552.2 1722.6 = 0
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Rb = 170.4 K
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Problem # 12:
( 10+ R/2) K/ft

(10+R/2) K

## Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra 272.5 = 0 Ra = 272.5

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Part 2:

( 1/2 * 10 * [10+R/2] ) B

## Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Fx = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra 272.5 = 0 Ra = 272.5 k

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Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 13:

10 k

20 k

Rk 1/2

B 6

E 4 5

C 5

F 4 6

Part 1

10 k

## Free Body Diagram

10 k

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha - He = 0, Ha = 79.60 k Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A 10 * 8 - Rb * 12 Re * 18 = 0 -12 Rb = - 2.12 *18 Rb = 3.65 K Putting Value of Ra in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 12.12 Ra + 3.65 12.12 = 0
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Rb = 8.47 K
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## Theory of Structures Part 2 : 20 k Free Body Digram: 20 k

Sir Dr.Zubair

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, He - Hf = 0, He = 79.60 k Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point E 20*4 Rc * 9 + Rf * 14 = 0 -9 Rc = - 414.236 Rc = 46 K Putting Value of Rc in Equation (i) Re + Rc = 43.874 Re + 46 43.874 = 0 Re = -2.124 K +ve Fy = 0 Re + -20 +Rc -Rf = 0 Re + Rc = 43.874 -----------------------------(i)

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Part 3: Rk

## Free Body Diagram: Rk

= tan -1 1 / 2 26.56 Fx = F Cos 37 Cos 26.56 79.60 k Fy = F Sin 37 Sin 26.56 39.79 k Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Hf - Fx = 0, Hf = 7960 k Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point F Fy * 4 Rd * 10 =0 39.79 * 4 10 Rd = 0 Rd = 15.916 K +ve Fy = 0 Rf - Fy + Rd = 0 Rf + Rd = 39.79 -----------------------------(i)

## Putting Value of Rd in Equation (i) Rf + Rd = 39.79 Re + 15.916 39.79 = 0 Re = 23.874 K

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 14:

0.6 k / ft

2.4 k /ft

16

16

Ra

Rb

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Sir Dr.Zubair

## Point Load of V.D.L = 1/2 * 16 * ( 2.4 0.6 )

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra - 9.6 14.4 + Rb = 0 Ra + Rb = 24 -----------------------------(i) Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A 9.6 * 8 + 14.4 * 10.66 - Rb * 16 = 0 Putting Value of Rb in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 24 Ra + 14.39 24 = 0 Re = 9.61 K 0 = 76.8 + 153.59 15 Rb Rb = 14.39 K

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Problem # 15 :

RK

200 lb /ft

100 lb/ft A C D

## Solving this equation by parts . Part 1: 1200 k C 6 2 4 D 600 k

Solution: By solving the above figure: First convert the U.D.L and V.D.L into single point loads. For U.D.L = 12 * 100 = 1200 k For V.D.L = 1/2 * 12 * 100 = 600 k

## Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Rc -1200 600 + Rd = 0 Ra + Rb = 1800 -----------------------------(i)

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Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point C 1200 * 6 + 600 * 8 Rd * 12 = 0 Putting Value of Rb in Equation (i) Rc + Rd = 1800 Ra + 1000 1800 = 0 Re = 800 K 0 = 7200 + 4800 12 Rd Rd = 1000 K

Part 2:

R k

800 k

## Putting Value of Rb in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 889 Ra + 563 889 = 0 Re = 326 K

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

## Shear Force and Bending Moment Shear Force :

The Shear force at a cross- sectional of a beam is the unbalanced vertical force to the tight or left of the section.

Bending Moment:
The bending moment at a cross-section of a beam is the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces to the right or left of the section. OR Algebraic sum of the clockwise and anti-clockwise moment is called Bending Moment.

## Shear Force & Bending Moment Diagram:

The shear force and bending moment will be different at different cross sections depending upon the loading on the beam. The variation in the there can be shown graphically by plot the S.F and B.M diagram.

## Shear Force Diagram for Different Types of Loading: CASE-I :

For any concentrated / Point Load shear force is straight line.

CASE-II :
For U.D.L the shear force diagram will be inclined line. Or Triangular Form

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CASE - III :
For U.V.L uniform varying load 20 Curve will be there in its diagram

20

SIGN CONVERSION :
An upward force to the right of a section contributes to a Positive Shearing force in upward L.H.S +VE -VE

R.H.S

+VE

-VE

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## Bending Moment Diagram for Different Loads CASE-I

For Concentrated Force ( Point Load ) the bending moment diagram will be inclined line.

CASE-II
For UDL the shape of B.M diagram will be parabolic at 20 curve

20

CASE-III
The shape for V.D.L of B.M will be at 30 curve.

30

## SIGN CONVERSION: A clockwise moment to the right of then section or an anticlockwise

moment to the left of the section contributes to positive bending moment. L.H.S: R.H.S :

+VE

-VE

-VE

+VE

Positive Bending Moment is also known as Hogging Bending Moment and Negative B.M is also known as sagging B.M

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Sir Dr.Zubair

2.5 k

1.5 k

2k

0.6 m

0.6 m

0.6 m

## Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 - 2.5 + Ra 1.5 - 2 = 0 Ra = 6 k -----------------------------(i)

Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point B Ma + Ra * 0.18 - 2.5 * 0. 12 1.5 * 0.6 = 0 0 = Ma + 10.8 3 0.9 Ma = - 6.9 K

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## Theory of Structures Shear force 1 2.5k 2 1.5 k 3 2k

Sir Dr.Zubair

Ra Ha 0.6 m X1 X2

0.6 m

0.6 m

X3

Section ( 1-1)

V1 = Ra

+ 6 t ----------- (i)

V2 = Ra 2.5

6 2.5

## If = 0.6 @ C + 3.5 t If = 1.2 @ ( A -D ) + 3.5 t Section ( 3-3)

V3 = Ra 2.5 1.5
If = 1.2 @ D + 2 t

6 2.5 1.5

+ 2 t ----------- (iii)

If = 1.8 @ ( A - B ) + 3.5 t

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## Theory of Structures Bending Moment :

Sir Dr.Zubair

1 2.5 k

2 1.5 k

3 2k

Ma

Ra 0.5 m X1 X2 X3 0. 6 m 0.6 m

Section ( 1-1)

B.M1 = Ra * + Ma
1

6 1 6.9

## ----------- (i) - 6.9 t.m

If 1 = 0 @ A Section ( 2-2)

6 ( 0) 6.9

B.M2 = Ra *
Section ( 3-3)

3 3 3

## 6 3 69 2.5( 3 0.6 ) 1.5 ( 3 1.2 ) ----------- (iii) - 1.2 t.m

If 3 = 1.2 @ D 6 * 1.2 69 2.5 ( 1.2 0.6 ) 1.5 ( 1.2 1.2 ) If 3 = 1.8 @ B 0 t.m

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Sir Dr.Zubair

0.6 m

0.6 m

0.6 m

+6t

+ 3.5t

+ 2.1 t

-6.9 tm

-3.3 tm

-1.2 tm

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Sir Dr.Zubair

W lb/ft

A L

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## Theory of Structures Free Body Diagram of Shear force

Sir Dr.Zubair

Ra Ha L

X1 Section ( 1-1)

V1 = Ra - W

WL - W ----------- (i)

## If = 0 @ A WL W (0) + WL If = L @ ( B ) WL W (L) 0 Bending Moment

A Ma

Ra

X1

B.M1 = Ma + Ra * W * /2
If 1 = 0 @ A If 1 =L @ B

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Sir Dr.Zubair

W lb/ft

A L

+WL

0 0 -WL2 /2 20

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## Theory of Structures Problem : 3

Sir Dr.Zubair

A cantilever beam AB 2m long carrying a uniform disturbed load of 2.5 Kn/m over a length of 1.6 m frin free hand . draw the S.F and B.M diagram for the beam. 2.5 Kn/m

A 0.4 m 1.6 m

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Sir Dr.Zubair

## A B Ra Ha 0.4 m 0.8 m 0.8 m

X1 X2 Section ( 1-1)

V1 = Ra

4 KN ----------- (i)

If = 0 @ A 4 KN

Section ( 2-2)

V2 = Ra 2.5 *( 2 0.4 )

Ra 2.5 2 + 1

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Sir Dr.Zubair

## A Ra 0.4 m Ma X1 0.8 m 0.8 m

Section ( 1-1)

B.M1 = Ma +
If 1 = 0 @ A Section ( 2-2)

* Ra

----------- (i)

Ma + 0

- 4.8 t.m

B.M2 = Ra

- 3.2 KN. m

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Sir Dr.Zubair

A 0.4 m 1.6 m

+4 Kn

+ 4 Kn

-4.80 kn.m

-3.2 Kn.m 2o

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## Theory of Structures Problem : 4

Sir Dr.Zubair

A cantilever beam of 1.8 m is loaded as shown in figure . Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram. 2 Kn 1.5 Kn 2.5 Kn/m 1 KN

A 0.3 m

B 0.6 m

C 0.3m 0.6 m

## Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra 2 1.5 ( 0.8 * 0.6 ) -1 = 0 Ra = 4.98 KN

Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A Ma = Ma + 2 * 0.3 + 1.5 * 0.9 + 0.48 * 1.5 0 = Ma + 0.6 + 1.35 + 0.72 + 1.8 Ma = - 4.47 KN . m

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Theory of Structures Free Body diagram and Shear Force 1 2 kn 2 3 1.5 kn 4 0.48 Kn

Sir Dr.Zubair

1 Kn

A Ra Ha 0.3 m

0.6 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

X1 X2 X3 X4 Section ( 1-1)

V1 = Ra
Section ( 2-2)

## + 4.98 KN ----------- (i)

If 1 = 0 @ A +4.98 KN

V2 = Ra 2
Section ( 3-3)

4.98 2 +2.98 KN

If 2 = 0.3 @ B + 2.98 KN

V3 = Ra 2 1.5
Section ( 4-4)

If 3 = 0.9 @ C

+ 1.48 KN

## V4 = Ra 2 1.5 0.8( 2 1.2 )

If 4 = 1.2 @ D + 1.48 KN

1 KN

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## Theory of Structures Bending Moment

Sir Dr.Zubair

1 2 kn Ma A Ra 0.3 m

3 1.5 kn

4 0.48 Kn 1 Kn

0.6 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

X1 X2 X3 X4

Section ( 1-1)

B.M1 = Ra *
If 1 = 0 @ A Section ( 2-2)

+ Ma

----------- (i)

Ma + 0

-4.47 Kn.m

B.M2 = Ra

* 2 + Ma 2 * ( 2 0.3 )

4.98 2 4.4 - 2 2 + 0.6 If 2 = 0.3 @ B 4.98 ( 0.3) - 4.4 2 ( 0.3) + 0.6 - 2.97 KN. m

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Sir Dr.Zubair

Section ( 3-3)

B.M3 = Ra

## * 3 + Ma 2 * ( 3 0.3 ) 1.5 (3 0.9 )

-4.47 + 4.98 3 - 2 3 + 0.6 1.5 3 +1.35 1.48 3 2.52 If 3 = 0.9 @ C 1.48 ( 0.9 ) - 2.52 - 1 .188 KN. m

Section ( 4-4)

B.M4 = Ra

## * 4 + Ma 2 * ( 4 0.3 ) 1.5 (4 0.9 ) 0.8 (4 1.2) (4 -1.2 / 2)

-4.47 + 4.98 3 - 2 3 + 0.6 1.5 3 +1.35 0.4 (4 1.2)2 - 2.52 + 1.48 4 0.4 (4 1.2) 2 If 4 = 1.2 @ D -2.52 + 1.48 (1.2 ) 0.4 ( 1.2 1.2 ) 2 If 4 = 1.8 @ E -2.52 + 1.48 (1.8 ) 0.4 ( 1.8 1.2 ) 2 - 0.744 KN. m 0 KN. m

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A 0.3 m

B 0.6 m

C 0.3m 0.6 m

+4.98 kn

+2.98 kn

+1.48 kn

+1.48 kn

1kn

- 4.47 kn.m

## -2.97 kn.m -1.18 kn.m 20

- 0.744 knm

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Problem : 5 A 5m long cantilever bream carries a point load of R t at the free hand and a UDL of ( 1+ 0.2 R ) t /m over a length of 3m from the free end . Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram. Rt 18.8 t

A 2m

B 3m

## Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra 56.4 89 = 0 Ra = 145.4 t

Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A 0 = Ma + 56.4 * 3.5 +89* 5 0 = Ma + 197.4 + 445 Ma = - 642.4 t . m
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Sir Dr.Zubair

(1+0.2 R )*3

Rt

A Ra Ha 2m

1.5 m

1.5 m

X1

X2

SHEAR FORCE

Section ( 1-1)

V1 = Ra
Section ( 2-2)

## + 145.4 t ----------- (i)

If 1 = 0 @ A +145.4 t

V2 = Ra 18.8 (2 -2 )
If 2 = 2 @ B If 2 = 5 @ C

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Sir Dr.Zubair

## (1+0.2 R )*3 Ma A Ra 2m 1.5 m 1.5 m B

Rt

X1

X2

Section ( 1-1)

B.M1 = Ra *
If 1 = 0 @ A Section ( 2-2)

+ Ma 145 1 - 624.4

----------- (i)

Ma + 0

- 642.4 t.m

B.M2 = Ra

* 2 + Ma + 18.8 * ( 2 2 ) ( 2 2 / 2 )

145.4 2 624.4 - 9.4 ( 2 + 2) 2 If 2 = 2 @ B 145.4 * 2 642.4 9.4 ( 2- 2 ) 2 If 2 = 5 @ C 145.4 * 5 642.4 9.4 ( 5- 2 ) 2 - 351.6 t. m 0 t. m

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## Theory of Structures Shear and Bending Moment Diagram:

Sir Dr.Zubair

Rt 18.8 t

A 2m

B 3m

+145.4 t

+145.4t

89t

0 -642.4 tm 20 -351.6 tm

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## Theory of Structures Problem : 6

Sir Dr.Zubair

A cantilever beam of 150 cm span carries a load of 2t at 60 cm from the fixed end , a load of 1t at the free end and a load of 4 ton UDL over 60 cm from 2 ton load towards the free end . Draw S.F and B,M diagram

2t 6 t /m

1t

A 0.6 m

B 0.6 m

C 0.3 m

## Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha = 0, +ve Fy = 0 Ra 2 (4) - 1 = 0 Ra = 7 t

Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A 0 = Ma + 2 * 0.66 + 4 * 0.99 + 1 * 1.5 0 = Ma + 1.33 + 3.99 + 1.5 Ma = - 6.33 t . m

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## Theory of Structures Free Body diagram and Shear force

Sir Dr.Zubair

1 2t 4t

1t

A Ra Ha 0.6 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

X1

X2

Section ( 1-1)

V1 = Ra
Section ( 2-2)

+ 7 t ----------- (i)

If 1 = 0 @ A + 7 t

V2 = Ra 6 ( 2 0.66 )
Section ( 3-3)

If 2 = 0.66 @ B + 7 t

V3 = Ra 6 (2 0.66 ) - 2
If 3 = 1.33 @ C If 3 = 1.5 @ D

74-2 1 t

+1t +1 t

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Sir Dr.Zubair

1 2t Ma 4t

1t

A Ra 0.6 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

X1

X2

Section ( 1-1)

B.M1

= Ra * 1 + Ma

## ----------- (i) Ma + 0 - 6.33 t.m

If 1 = 0 @ A Section ( 2-2)

B.M2 = Ra

## 7 2 6.33 2 (2 0.6 ) 3 (2 - 0.6 ) 2 If 2 = 0.66 @ C 7 * 0.66 6.33 Section ( 3-3) - 2.16 t. m

B.M3 = Ra

* 3 + Ma 2 * ( 3 0.6 ) 4 * ( 3 0.9)

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## Theory of Structures Bending Moment and Shear Diagram 2t 6 t /m

Sir Dr.Zubair

1t

A 0.6 m

B 0.6 m

C 0.3 m

+ 7t

+7t

1t

1t

-6.31 t.m

-21.6 t.m

20

-0.6 t.m

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TRUSSES

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Problem 1 :
20 k 15 k

60o A 5 10 5

600 C

60o 5 10 5

60o E

Ra

Rb

## Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A 0 = 20 * 5 + 15 * 15 20 Re = 0 0 = 325 20 Re Re = 16. 25 k Ra = 18.75 k

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B A 60o
C

## Joint A : Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, -F ac F ab x = 0,

Ra = 18.75

+ve Fy = 0 Ra F ab y = 0 F ab y = 18.75 k

F ab x = 10.82

## A Joint B : Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, F ab x F bd + F cb x = 0,

+ve Fy = 0 F ab y 20 F cb y = 0 18.75 20 F cb
y

## 10.82 + F cb x - F bd ------------------------(ii) F cb y = F cb Sin 60 0

= 0 F cb

= 1.25

F cb = 1.44 ( C ) , F cb x = F cb Cos 60 0

F cb x = - 0.721

## Equation (ii ) will be 10.82 F bd 0. 721 F bd = - 10.82 ( C )

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## Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, F bc x F ac - F cd x - F ce = 0, Fce + F cd x = -10.1 F cd y = F cd Sin 60 0 ------------------------(iii) +ve Fy = 0 - F bc y - F cd y = 0 -1.25 F cd

y

= 0 F cd

= - 1.25

F cd = 1.43 ( T ) , F cb x = F cb Cos 60 0

F cb x = -0.721

C E

## Joint D : Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, F bd F cd x - F de x = 0, Fde x = - 9.379 F de x = F de Cos 60 0

F de = - 18.75 k ( C )

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Problem # 2 : 3k

2k F 3k

## +ve Fy = 0 Ra 3 2 3 + Rb = 0 Ra + Rb = 8 ---------------------- (i)

By applying Sine Law Sin 60 / AG = Sin 90 / 3 AG = 3 Sin 60 AG = 2.59 Cos 30 = AC / AG AC = 2.59 Sin 60 / 3 = Sin 60 / CF Cos 60 = CD / 3 Moment, +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A 0 = 3 * AC + 2 * ( 3 + CD ) + 3 * ( 6 + DB ) Rb * 9 0 = 28.46 9 Rb CF = 3

CD = 1.5

Rb = 4.27 k
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Ra = 4 k
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60o

## Ra Joint A : Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, - F ag x + F ac = 0, F ag x = F ac ------------------------(i) F ag y = F ag Sin 60 0 Equation (i ) will be +ve Fy = 0 Ra - F ag y = 0 F ag

y

= 4k

F ag = 8 k ( C ) , F ag x = F ag Cos 60 0 F ac = 6.92 k ( T )

F ag x = 6.92 k

F ac = F ag x 3k F

Here if we solve it directly it will be more different for us to get the assumes beacuase 2 unknown will come in each equation of equilibrium. So we rotate it as

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y 30 k 300

A G

## Joint G : Fx = F Cos 60 3 Cos 60 1.5 Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, F ag + F gf F x = 0, F gf = 6.5 N ( C ) +ve Fy = 0 F gc - Fy = 0 F gc = 2.6 ( C )

Note denotes the values which are already known to us

## Fy = F Sin 60 3 Sin 60 2.6

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## Joint C : Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, - F ac Fcd + F cg x + F cf x = 0, ----( ii ) F cg y = F cg Sin 60 0

F ag y = 2.251 , F cg x = F cg Cos 60 0

F cg x = 1.3 k

## Equation (ii ) will be - F ac Fcd + F cg x + F cf x = 0 - 6.9 F cd + 1.3 + F cf x = 0 F cf x - F cd = 5.6 -------------- ( iii)

+ve Fy = 0 F cf y - F cg y = 0 F cf
y

= 4k

F cf

= F cf Sin 60 0

F cf = 2.59 ( T ) , F cf x = F cf Cos 60 0

F cf x = 1.295 k

## Joint F From Figure We have indentify that F fg = F bf = 6. 5 F cf = F fd = 2.59 G C

2k

F B D

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Method of Sections
Previously we have studied methods of joints for analysis of trusses In this methods we can directly analysis a truss force without calculating from initial point .

Here condition of moment is used rather than condition of statistics ( except in exceptional cases ) Need to cut a section where maximum unknown members force becomes zero or can be neglected.

PROCEDURE Cut a section Draw a free body diagram Assume compression and tension Apply co-planer applications of forces and equation of moment to determine members force

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## Theory of Structures Problem : 1 D m =1/3 B m=3/2 F

Sir Dr.Zubair

12

12

12

12

Ra

1200

1200

1200

Rh

+ve Fy = 0
Taking momet at A.

## Ra + Rh 1200 -1200 1200 = 0

Ra + Rh = 3600---- ( i )

## Ma = 0 1200 *12 + 1200 * 24 + 1200 * 36 - Rh * 48 = 0 48 Rh = 86400 Rh = 1800 lb D B Ra = 1800 lb

Ra=1800

1200

Take the point where maximum unknowns can be neglected. Taking moment at B. Taking moment at E 1800 * 12 F ce * 8 = 0 F ce = 2700 lb ( T ) Fbd y = 2400 lb

1800 * 24 1200 * 12 F bd y * 12 = 0

Fbd y = F bd * Sin 18.45 Fbd = 7583.4 lb ( C ) Taking moment at D F be x * 12 F ce * 12 + 1800 * 24 = 0 F be x= 2400 lbs

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## Fcd y = F cd * Sin 45 10 = Fcd * Sin 45

Fcd = 14.14 k

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Here Equation of moment fails so we have apply direct method which is to apply equation of statics.

+ve Fy = 0
F gf + 30 = 0 F gf = - 30 ( C ) or 30 ( T )

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ARCHES

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Problem 1 : 3 hinge parabolic arch of 20 ft and standardize of 5 caring a concentrate load of 20 kips at 6 from the left side support. Draw the bending moment diagram for the arch, position and magnitude of maximum bending moment for the arch also find the value of the reaction forces C 20 kips yc=5 A 20 ft DATA: Yc = 5 P = 20 kips L = 20 B.M = ? B

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha - Hb = 0, Ha = Hb +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A 20* 6 Vb * 20 = 0 Vb = 6 kips R.H.S +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point C Vb * 10 + Hb * 5 = 0 Hb= 12 kips RESULTANT Ra = Ha2 + Va 2 18.44 kips Rb= Hb2 + Vb 2 13.4 kips as Hb=Ha , So , Ha = 12 kips putting this value in eq(i) Va = 14 kips +ve Fy = 0 Va + Vb = 20 ------ ( i )

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## B.M max ( +ve ) Using Formula Y = 4 Yc ( L ) / L2 Y = 4 * 5* 6 ( 20 6 ) / (20)2 Y = 4 .2 s.ft

Va * 6 Ha * Y = 14 * 6 12 * 4.2

33. 6 k.ft

B.M max ( -ve ) Hb * Y Vb * --------------- (iii) Using Formula Y = 4 Yc ( L ) / L2 Y = 4 * 5 * ( 20 ) / L2 Y = - 2 / 20----(iv) putting Y value in equation (iii) 12 * ( 2 / 20) 6 * 12 12 2/20 6 6 12 2/20 Differentiating w.r.t = 5 p putting this value in eq (iv)
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Y = - 15
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Problem 2 : 3 hinge parabolic arch of 20 m and standardize of 4 m caring a concentrate U.D.L of 2 ton/m from the left side support over the length of 8 m . Draw the bending moment diagram for the arch, position and magnitude of maximum bending moment for the arch also find the value of the reaction forces

A DATA: Yc = 4 m P = 2 to / m L = 20 m B.M = ?

8m 20 m

Equilibrium, +ve Fx = 0, Ha - Hb = 0, Ha = Hb +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point A 16 * 4 Vb * 20 = 0 Vb = 3.2 t R.H.S +ve Clockwise M = 0 at point C Va * 16 + Ha * 4 16 * 6 = 0 Hb= 8 t RESULTANT Ra = Ha2 + Va 2 15.094 t Rb= Hb2 + Vb 2 8.61 t
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+ve Fy = 0 Va + Vb = 16 ------ ( i )

## putting this value in eq(i)

Va = 12.8 t

as Hb=Ha , So ,

Ha = 8 t

Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

B.M max ( +ve ) Va * Ha * Y 2 * * /2 -------- (v) Using Formula Y = 4 Yc ( L ) / L2 Y = 4 * 4 * ( 20 ) / (20)2 Y = 0.8 0.04 2 Putting Value of Y in eq ( v) B.M= 12.8 * 8 * ( 0.8 0.04 2 ) - 2 B.M = 12.8 6.4 + 0.32 2 2 B.M = 6.4 0.68 2 ---- ( vi) Differentiating w.r.t. 0 = 6.4 ( 0.68 ) ( 2 ) = 4.7 m from left hand side support Putting value of in eq ( vi ) B.M = 6.4 * 4.7 0.68 * ( 4.7)2 B.M ( max) = 15.05 t.m

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B.M max ( -ve ) Vb * Hb * Y --------------- (vii) Using Formula Y = 4 Yc ( L ) / L2 Y = 0.08 0.04 2 put in equation (vii) 3.2 * 8 * ( 0.8 2 0.04 2 ) B.M = - 3.2 + 0.32 2 ---------------- ( viii) Differentiating w.r.t 0 = - 3.2 + 0.64 =5m putting this value in eq (viii) B.M = -3.2 * 5 + 0.32 * ( 5 )2 = - 8 t.m

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COLUMNS

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Problem 1 : 1.5 m long column and has a circular cross-section of 5m diameter one of the ends of the column is fixed and other end is free . Find the Rakiens formula and Find the Eulers Crippling load .

Assume: Rakiens Constant = 1 / 1600 Modulus of Elasticity : 1.2 x 106 kg / cm2 Crushing Stress = 5600 kg/cm2

Rakiens Formula: P = Fc * A / 1 + a ( L/K)2 DATA: L = 1.5 m = 150 cm E = 1.2 * 106 kg / cm2 fc= 5600 kg/cm2 Finding Area = / 4 (d)2 As one head is fixed = L = 2l Finding Inertia = / 64 (d)4 Finding K = i/A / 4 ( 5) 2 19.63 cm2 2 ( 150 ) 300 cm 3.14 / 64 ( 5) 2 30.67 cm4 , , d = 5 cm a = 1 / 1600 K = I /A

## 30.67 / 19.63 12.4 cm

Putting Value in formula P = 5600 * 19.63 / 1 + { 1 / 1600 ( 300 / 12.4 ) 2 } P = 2971.78 kg Finding Eulers Formula P = 2 E I / 4 L 2 ----------------------- As one end is fixed other is free P = (3.14)2 * (1.2 * 10 6) ( 30.67 ) / 4 ( 300 ) 2 P = 362.87 * 10 6 kg

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Problem 2 : A cast iron 3 m in length when hinged at both ends has a critical pickling load of P kilogram when the column is fixed at both the ends its critical load rises to P + 30,000 kilogram . if ratio of external diameter is 1.25 and E is equal to 1 * 10 6 . Determine the external and internal diameter of column.

L = 3000 cm

## do/di = 1.25 do = 1.25 di

Load when both ends are hinged : P kg Load when both ends are fixed : P + 30,000 E = 1 * 10 6 Using Eulers theorem when both ends are hinged P = 2 E I / L 2 -------------------------- ( i ) Finding interia ( i) = i = / 64 ( do2 di2 ) Putting value of do i= / 64 ( 1.25 di )2 - ( di ) 2 i= / 64 ( 0.25 di ) 4 ----------------------------- (ii) putting value of i P=2EI/L2 in equation (i) P = 2 E ( / ( 0.25 di ) 4 ) / 64 * L 2 P = 3 (0.25 di) 4 -------------------------- (iii) L = l / 2 3000 / 2 1500 cm L =l

Using Eulers theorem when both ends are fixed. P + 30, 000 = 4 2 E I / L 2 Putting value of i P + 30 , 000 =

4 2 E { / ( 0.25 di ) 4 } / 64 * L 2 3 ( di ) 4

P + 30,000 = 3 ( di ) 4 ------------------------------ (iv) Putting value of P from eq (iii) into eq ( iv) 3 (0.25 di) 4 + 30,000 = 3 ( di ) 4

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