Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

A. Supports :

Supports are provided to resist the loads.

There are three types of Supports 1. Hinge Support: It is always in clockwise or Anti-clockwise not horizontal or vertical

2. Fixed Support: Horizontal or Vertical or Clockwise

3. Circular or Roller Support: Always normal to the surface.

B. Loads :

Dead Loads Uniformity Disturbed Load Uniformly Varying Load Point Load

Live Loads Moving Load Wind Load Snow Load

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Beams

:

(i) Determinate Beam or Simply Supported Beam:

(ii) Continuous Beam : One or more span is said as Continuous Beam.

(iii) Cantilever Beam : In Sindhi it is said as CHAJA!

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem:1 :

Determinate Forms

P

L

Free Body Diagram

P

Ma

L

Ra Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0,

Ha

↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – P = 0 Ra= P

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 Ma+ Ra * L =0 Ma + PL = 0 Ma = - PL

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem:2 :

Determinate Forms

P= 80lb

L = 10’

Free Body Diagram

P = 80 lb

Ma

L = 10’

Ra Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0,

Ha

↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – P = 0 Ra= 80 lb

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 Ma+ Ra * L =0 Ma + PL = 0 Ma = - 800 lb-ft ( Anti-clockwise )

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem:3 :

Uniformly disturbed Load

W v/v

L WL Free Body Diagram A Ma L/2 C L L/2 B

Ra

Ha

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – WL = 0 Ra= WL Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point C Ma+ Ra * L/2 =0 Ma = - ( Ra * L / 2 ) Ma = - ( WL * L / 2) Ma= - W L 2 / 2

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem:4 :

Uniformly disturbed Load

3 kip/m

2m 6 kip Free Body Diagram A Ma 1.5 C 2m 1.5 B

Ra

Ha

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – WL = 0 Ra= 6 Kip Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point C Ma+ Ra * L/2 =0 Ma= - W L 2 / 2 Ma= - 3 (2)2 / 2 Ma= - 6 kip. m

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem:5:

60k 4

3

60k

6’

6’

6’

Free Body Diagram

60k

Fx Fy

60k

A Ma Ra Ha 6’

C

D

53.30

B Rb

6’

6’

First of all changing Tangent into Degree Ф = Tan-1 4/3 = 53.30 Now, finding X-Y co-ordinates of the Inclined Force Fx= F CosФ = 60 Cos 53.3 = 60 (0.59)= 36K ; Fy = F Sin Ф = 60 Sin 53.3 = 60 (0.801)=48.10K

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha – Fx = 0, Ha=Fx ,
Ha= 36 K,

↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra + Rb – P - Fy = 0 Ra + Rb -60 -48 =0
Ra + Rb = 108 -------------------------(i)

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A 60 * 6 + Fy * 12 – Rb *18 = 0 60 * 6 + 48 * 12 = 18 Rb Rb = 52 K Putting Value of Rb in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 108 Ra + 25 = 108 Ra = 56 K

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem:6:
12 k 16k 16k 3 k / ft

2 K / ft

8’ Free Body Diagram 16 k A Ra Ha 4’ 4’

4’

4’

4’

4’

6’

12 k C D

16 k E

16 k F G

9k B Rb

4’

4’

4’

4’

2’

2’ 2’

As there is V.D.L = 1/2 * 6 * 3 = 9 k For U.D.L = 2* 8 = 16 K

; ;

X = L / 3 = 6 / 3 = 2’ X= L / 2 = 8 / 2 = 4’

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 16k – 12k – 16k – 16k + Rb – 9k = 0 Ra + Rb = 69 --------------------------------(i) Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A (16 * 4) + (12 * 12) + (16 *16) + (16 * 20) - (Rb * 24) + (9 * 26)= 0 1018 – 24Rb = 0 Rb = 42.41 K Putting Value of Rb in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 69 → Ra + 42.41 = 69 → Ra = 26.6 K
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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 7

Point Load

40 K

50K 3/4

30 K

A 4’

E 5’

C 3’

F 3’

D 8’

G 3’

H 3’

B

(PART 1 ) We Disturb this Diagram into two A Point to C Point Free Body Diagram 40 k

A Ha 4’ Ra

E

C Hc 5’ Rc

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha - Hc = 0, Ha= Hc Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A Rc * 90 + 40 *4 = 0 ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 40 + Rc = 0 Ra + Rc = 40 --------------------------------(i)

0 = -9 Rc + 160 Rc = 18 K Putting Value of Rc in Equation (i) Ra + Rc = 40 → Ra + 18 – 40 = 0
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→ Ra = 22 K
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Theory of Structures (Part 2) 50k 32 K 30 K

Sir Dr.Zubair

C

Hc 3’

F 3’

D 4’ 4’

G 3’

H 3’

B

Ф = Tan-1 3/4 → 36.86 Fx = F CosФ → 50 * Cos 36.86 → 40K Fy= F SinФ → 50 * Sin 36.86 → 30 K

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Hc + Fx = 0, Hc = - 40 k Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A Rc * 18 - Fy * 15 + Rd *12 – 32*8 – 30*2 = 0 ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 - Rc – Fy + Rd – 32 -30 + Rb = 0 Rb + Rd = 110 --------------------------------(i)

12 Rd = 1090 Rd = 91 K Putting Value of Rd in Equation (i) Rb + Rd = 110 → Rb + 91 – 110 = 0 → Rb = 19 K

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 8 :
Rk 6k 3 k /ft

8’ Free Body Diagram 48k Rk

6’

2’ 6k

Ma

Ra

Ha 8’

8’ 6’

8’ 2’

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra -48 – 37 - 6 = 0 Rb + Rd = 143 --------------------------------(i) Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A Ma + Ra *16 – ( 48 + 37 ) * 8 - 6 * 2= 0 0 = Ma + 143 *16 – 1096 - 12 Ma = -1180 K. ft Hence the direction of Moment A should be taken as reversed.

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 9 :

R K /ft

A 20’

B

Free Body Diagram R*20 k Ha 6.66’ Ra 6.66’ 6.66’ Ra

Point Load = 1/2 * 37 * 20 → 890 k Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 890 + Rb = 0 Ra + Rb = 890 --------------------------------(i) Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A 890 * 6.66 - Rb * 20 = 0 → 20 Rb = 5927.4 → Rd = 296.37 K Putting Value of Rd in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 890 → Ra + 296.37 – 890 = 0 → Rb = 593.63 K

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 10: Find Unknown Reactions

Rk 2.5 k/ft 4 k/ft

8k

A 4’

C 8’

D 6’

B

Free Body Diagram

10 k

Rk

32 k

8k

Ra Ma

A Ha 2’

E

C

D

B

2’

4’

4’

6’

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 10 - 37 – 32 -8 = 0 Ra = 139 k Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A Ma + Ra * 18 – 10* 16 – 37 * 14 – 32 * 10 = 0 → 0 = Ma + 2502 -1724 → Ma = -778 K . ft
The direction should be reversed

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 11:
8K (0.2+R ) K RK 20 k

4’ 8’ 5’ 5’ 9’ 5’

Free Body Diagram: 8k C Rc Hc 4’ 8’ 9’ 32’ 5’ 9’ 5’ Ra (R +0.2 )K A RK 20k B Rb Hb

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Hb = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 – 8 – 160 – 37 + Ra – 20 + Rb = 0 Ra + Rb = 1722.6 -----------------------------(i) Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A - 8 * 28 - 1605.6 * 23 – 20 * 5 + Ra -24 = 0 → 24 Ra = 27252.8 → Rd = 1552.2 K Putting Value of Rd in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 890 → Ra + 1552.2 – 1722.6 = 0
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→ Rb = 170.4 K
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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 12:
( 10+ R/2) K/ft

20’ We break this triangle into two parts PART : 1

(10+R/2) K

Free Body Diagram (1/2 * 10 * [10+R/2] ) A Ra

V.D.L = 1/ 2 * 10 * 54.5 = 272.5 k

Ha 3.33’ 3.33’ 3.33’

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 272.5 = 0 Ra = 272.5

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Part 2:

( 1/2 * 10 * [10+R/2] ) B

Rb 3.33’ 3.33’ 3.33’

V. D.L = 1/2 * 10 * 54.5 = 272. 5 k

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Fx = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 272.5 = 0 Ra = 272.5 k

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 13:

10 k

20 k

Rk 1/2

A 8’ Disturbing into 3 parts 4’

B 6’

E 4’ 5’

C 5’

F 4’ 6’

D

Part 1

10 k

Free Body Diagram

10 k

8’

4’

6’

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha - He = 0, Ha = 79.60 k Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A 10 * 8 - Rb * 12 – Re * 18 = 0 → -12 Rb = - 2.12 *18 → Rb = 3.65 K Putting Value of Ra in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 12.12 → Ra + 3.65 – 12.12 = 0
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↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra -10 + Rb + Re = 0 Ra + Rb = 12.12 -----------------------------(i)

→ Rb = 8.47 K
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Theory of Structures Part 2 : 20 k Free Body Digram: 20 k

Sir Dr.Zubair

4’

5’

5’

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, He - Hf = 0, He = 79.60 k Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point E 20*4 – Rc * 9 + Rf * 14 = 0 → -9 Rc = - 414.236 → Rc = 46 K Putting Value of Rc in Equation (i) Re + Rc = 43.874 → Re + 46 – 43.874 = 0 → Re = -2.124 K ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Re + -20 +Rc -Rf = 0 Re + Rc = 43.874 -----------------------------(i)

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Part 3: Rk ½

Free Body Diagram: Rk ½

4’

6’

4’

6’

Ф = tan -1 1 / 2 → 26.56 Fx = F Cos Ф → 37 Cos 26.56 → 79.60 k Fy = F Sin Ф → 37 Sin 26.56 → 39.79 k Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Hf - Fx = 0, Hf = 7960 k Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point F Fy * 4 – Rd * 10 =0 → 39.79 * 4 – 10 Rd = 0 → Rd = 15.916 K ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Rf - Fy + Rd = 0 Rf + Rd = 39.79 -----------------------------(i)

Putting Value of Rd in Equation (i) Rf + Rd = 39.79 → Re + 15.916 – 39.79 = 0 → Re = 23.874 K

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 14:

0.6 k / ft

2.4 k /ft

16’

It is disturbed like that

16’

Free Body Diagram: 14.4 k 14.4 9.6 k A Ha 8’ 5.33 B

Ra

Rb

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Theory of Structures Point Load of U.D.L = 16 * 0.6 → 9.6 k → 14.4 k

Sir Dr.Zubair

Point Load of V.D.L = 1/2 * 16 * ( 2.4 – 0.6 )

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra - 9.6 – 14.4 + Rb = 0 Ra + Rb = 24 -----------------------------(i) Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A 9.6 * 8 + 14.4 * 10.66 - Rb * 16 = 0 Putting Value of Rb in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 24 → Ra + 14.39 – 24 = 0 → Re = 9.61 K → 0 = 76.8 + 153.59 – 15 Rb → Rb = 14.39 K

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 15 :

RK

200 lb /ft

100 lb/ft A C D

4’

4’

4’

8’

Solving this equation by parts . Part 1: 1200 k C 6’ 2’ 4’ D 600 k

Solution: By solving the above figure: First convert the U.D.L and V.D.L into single point loads. For U.D.L = 12 * 100 = 1200 k For V.D.L = 1/2 * 12 * 100 = 600 k

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Rc -1200 – 600 + Rd = 0 Ra + Rb = 1800 -----------------------------(i)

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point C 1200 * 6 + 600 * 8 – Rd * 12 = 0 Putting Value of Rb in Equation (i) Rc + Rd = 1800 → Ra + 1000 – 1800 = 0 → Re = 800 K → 0 = 7200 + 4800 – 12 Rd → Rd = 1000 K

Part 2:

R k

800 k

4’

4’

4’

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra - 89 – 800 + Rb = 0 Ra + Rb = 889 -----------------------------(i)

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A 89 * 4 + 800 * 8 – Rb * 12 = 0 → 0 = 356 + 6400 -12 Rb → Rb = 563 K

Putting Value of Rb in Equation (i) Ra + Rb = 889 → Ra + 563 – 889 = 0 → Re = 326 K

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Shear Force and Bending Moment Shear Force :
The Shear force at a cross- sectional of a beam is the unbalanced vertical force to the tight or left of the section.

Bending Moment:
The bending moment at a cross-section of a beam is the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces to the right or left of the section. OR Algebraic sum of the clockwise and anti-clockwise moment is called Bending Moment.

Shear Force & Bending Moment Diagram:
The shear force and bending moment will be different at different cross –sections depending upon the loading on the beam. The variation in the there can be shown graphically by plot the S.F and B.M diagram.

Shear Force Diagram for Different Types of Loading: CASE-I :
For any concentrated / Point Load shear force is straight line.

CASE-II :
For U.D.L the shear force diagram will be inclined line. Or Triangular Form

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

CASE - III :
For U.V.L uniform varying load 20 Curve will be there in its diagram

20

SIGN CONVERSION :
An upward force to the right of a section contributes to a Positive Shearing force in upward L.H.S +VE -VE

R.H.S

+VE

-VE

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Bending Moment Diagram for Different Loads CASE-I
For Concentrated Force ( Point Load ) the bending moment diagram will be inclined line.

CASE-II
For UDL the shape of B.M diagram will be parabolic at 20 curve

20

CASE-III
The shape for V.D.L of B.M will be at 30 curve.

30

SIGN CONVERSION: A clockwise moment to the right of then section or an anticlockwise
moment to the left of the section contributes to positive bending moment. L.H.S: R.H.S :

+VE

-VE

-VE

+VE

Positive Bending Moment is also known as Hogging Bending Moment and Negative B.M is also known as sagging B.M

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Theory of Structures Problem : 1

Sir Dr.Zubair

2.5 k

1.5 k

2k

0.6 m

0.6 m

0.6 m

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 - 2.5 + Ra – 1.5 - 2 = 0 Ra = 6 k -----------------------------(i)

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point B Ma + Ra * 0.18 - 2.5 * 0. 12 – 1.5 * 0.6 = 0 → 0 = Ma + 10.8 – 3 – 0.9 → Ma = - 6.9 K

Hence the direction of moment will be reversed to which we have taken .

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Theory of Structures Shear force 1 2.5k 2 1.5 k 3 2k

Sir Dr.Zubair

A

Ra Ha 0.6 m X1 X2

C

D

B

0.6 m

0.6 m

X3

Section ( 1-1)

Vχ1 = Ra

+ 6 t ----------- (i)

If χ = 0 @ A → + 6 t If χ = 0.6 @ ( A-C) → + 6 t Section ( 2-2)

Vχ2 = Ra – 2.5

6 – 2.5

+ 3.5 t ----------- (ii)

If χ = 0.6 @ C → + 3.5 t If χ = 1.2 @ ( A -D ) → + 3.5 t Section ( 3-3)

Vχ3 = Ra – 2.5 – 1.5
If χ = 1.2 @ D → + 2 t

6 – 2.5 – 1.5

+ 2 t ----------- (iii)

If χ = 1.8 @ ( A - B ) → + 3.5 t

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Theory of Structures Bending Moment :

Sir Dr.Zubair

1 2.5 k

2 1.5 k

3 2k

Ma

Ra 0.5 m X1 X2 X3 0. 6 m 0.6 m

Section ( 1-1)

B.Mχ1 = Ra * χ + Ma
1

→ 6 χ1 – 6.9

----------- (i) → - 6.9 t.m

If χ1 = 0 @ A Section ( 2-2)

6 ( 0) – 6.9

B.Mχ2 = Ra * χ
Section ( 3-3)

2

+ Ma – 2.5 * ( χ2 – 0.6) → 6 χ2 – 69 – 2.5( χ2 – 0.6 ) → 6 χ2 – 6.9 – 2.5 χ2 – 1.5 –(ii) → - 3.3 tm

If χ2 = 0.6 @ C → 6 * 0.6 – 6.9 – 2.5 * 0.6 + 1.5

B.Mχ3 = Ra * χ + Ma – 2.5 * ( χ – 0.6) – 1.5 ( χ – 1.2)
3 3 3

→6 χ3 – 69 – 2.5( χ3 – 0.6 ) – 1.5 ( χ3 – 1.2 ) ----------- (iii) - 1.2 t.m

If χ3 = 1.2 @ D → 6 * 1.2 – 69 – 2.5 ( 1.2 – 0.6 ) – 1.5 ( 1.2 – 1.2 ) → If χ3 = 1.8 @ B → 0 t.m

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Theory of Structures Shear and Bending Moment Diagram 2.5 k 1.5 k 2k

Sir Dr.Zubair

0.6 m

0.6 m

0.6 m

+6t

+ 3.5t

+ 2.1 t

-6.9 tm

-3.3 tm

-1.2 tm

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Theory of Structures Problem : 2

Sir Dr.Zubair

W lb/ft

A L

B

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – WL = 0 Ra = WL -----------------------------(i)

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point B Mn + W * L/2 → 0 = Ma + WL2 / 2 → Ma = - WL2 / 2 K

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Theory of Structures Free Body Diagram of Shear force

Sir Dr.Zubair

A

Ra Ha L

B

X1 Section ( 1-1)

Vχ1 = Ra - Wχ

WL - Wχ ----------- (i)

If χ = 0 @ A → WL – W (0) → + WL If χ = L @ ( B ) → WL – W (L) → 0 Bending Moment

A Ma

Ra

B

L

X1

B.Mχ1 = Ma + Ra * χ – Wχ * χ/2
If χ1 = 0 @ A If χ1 =L @ B → →

→ Ma + Ra * χ – Wχ2 /2 Ma + 0 - WL2 / 2 + WL2 – WL2/2 →

----------- (i) - WL2 / 2 t.m → 0 t.m

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Theory of Structures Shear and Bending Moment Diagram

Sir Dr.Zubair

W lb/ft

A L

B

+WL

0 0 -WL2 /2 20

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Theory of Structures Problem : 3

Sir Dr.Zubair

A cantilever beam AB 2m long carrying a uniform disturbed load of 2.5 Kn/m over a length of 1.6 m frin free hand . draw the S.F and B.M diagram for the beam. 2.5 Kn/m

A 0.4 m 1.6 m

B

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 4 = 0 Ra = 4 KN

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A Ma = Ma + 4 * 1.6 / 2 → 0 = Ma + 4.8 → Ma = - 4.8 KN . m

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Theory of Structures Free Body Diagram of Shear force 1 4 Kn 2

Sir Dr.Zubair

A B Ra Ha 0.4 m 0.8 m 0.8 m

X1 X2 Section ( 1-1)

Vχ1 = Ra

4 KN ----------- (i)

If χ = 0 @ A → 4 KN

Section ( 2-2)

Vχ2 = Ra – 2.5 *( χ2 – 0.4 )

→ Ra – 2.5 χ2 + 1

If χ2 = 0.4 @ C → 4 – 2.5 ( 0.4) + 1 → 4 KN ----------- (ii) If χ2 = 2 @ ( B ) → 4 – 2.5 (2) + 1 → 0 ----------- (iii)

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Theory of Structures Bending Moment 1 4 Kn 2

Sir Dr.Zubair

A Ra 0.4 m Ma X1 0.8 m 0.8 m

B

Section ( 1-1)

B.Mχ1 = Ma + χ
If χ1 = 0 @ A Section ( 2-2)

1

* Ra

----------- (i)

Ma + 0

- 4.8 t.m

B.Mχ2 = Ra

* χ2 + Ma – 2.5 * ( χ2 – 0.4) { ( χ2 – 0.4)/2 }

→ Ma + Ra χ2 - 1.25 ( χ2 – 0.4 )2 → - 4.8 + 4 χ2 - 1.25 ( χ2 - 0.4 ) 2

If χ2 = 0.4 @ C → - 4.8 + 1.6 - 0 If χ2 = 2 m @ B → 0 KN. m

- 3.2 KN. m

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Theory of Structures Shear and Bending Moment Diagram 2.5 Kn/m

Sir Dr.Zubair

A 0.4 m 1.6 m

B

+4 Kn

+ 4 Kn

0

-4.80 kn.m

-3.2 Kn.m 2o

0

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Theory of Structures Problem : 4

Sir Dr.Zubair

A cantilever beam of 1.8 m is loaded as shown in figure . Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram. 2 Kn 1.5 Kn 2.5 Kn/m 1 KN

A 0.3 m

B 0.6 m

C 0.3m 0.6 m

D

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 2 – 1.5 – ( 0.8 * 0.6 ) -1 = 0 Ra = 4.98 KN

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A Ma = Ma + 2 * 0.3 + 1.5 * 0.9 + 0.48 * 1.5 → 0 = Ma + 0.6 + 1.35 + 0.72 + 1.8 → Ma = - 4.47 KN . m

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Theory of Structures Free Body diagram and Shear Force 1 2 kn 2 3 1.5 kn 4 0.48 Kn

Sir Dr.Zubair

1 Kn

A Ra Ha 0.3 m

C

D

B

0.6 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

X1 X2 X3 X4 Section ( 1-1)

Vχ1 = Ra
Section ( 2-2)

+ 4.98 KN ----------- (i)

If χ1 = 0 @ A → +4.98 KN

Vχ2 = Ra – 2
Section ( 3-3)

→ 4.98 – 2 → +2.98 KN

If χ2 = 0.3 @ B → + 2.98 KN

Vχ3 = Ra – 2 – 1.5
Section ( 4-4)

4.98 – 3.5 → 1.48 KN

If χ3 = 0.9 @ C

→ + 1.48 KN

Vχ4 = Ra – 2 – 1.5 – 0.8( χ2 – 1.2 )
If χ4 = 1.2 @ D → + 1.48 KN

→ 1.48 - 0.8 ( χ2 – 1.2 )

If χ4 = 1.8 @ E → 1.48 – 0.8 ( 1.8 – 1.2 )

→ 1 KN

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Theory of Structures Bending Moment

Sir Dr.Zubair

1 2 kn Ma A Ra 0.3 m

2

3 1.5 kn

4 0.48 Kn 1 Kn

B

0.6 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

X1 X2 X3 X4

Section ( 1-1)

B.Mχ1 = Ra * χ
If χ1 = 0 @ A Section ( 2-2)

1

+ Ma

----------- (i)

Ma + 0

-4.47 Kn.m

B.Mχ2 = Ra

* χ2 + Ma – 2 * ( χ2 – 0.3 )

→ 4.98 χ2 – 4.4 - 2 χ2 + 0.6 If χ2 = 0.3 @ B → 4.98 ( 0.3) - 4.4 – 2 ( 0.3) + 0.6 → - 2.97 KN. m

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Section ( 3-3)

B.Mχ3 = Ra

* χ3 + Ma – 2 * ( χ3 – 0.3 ) – 1.5 (χ3 – 0.9 )

→ -4.47 + 4.98 χ3 - 2 χ3 + 0.6 – 1.5 χ3 +1.35 → 1.48 χ3 – 2.52 If χ3 = 0.9 @ C → 1.48 ( 0.9 ) - 2.52 → - 1 .188 KN. m

Section ( 4-4)

B.Mχ4 = Ra

* χ4 + Ma – 2 * ( χ4 – 0.3 ) – 1.5 (χ4 – 0.9 ) – 0.8 (χ4 – 1.2) (χ4 -1.2 / 2)

→ -4.47 + 4.98 χ3 - 2 χ3 + 0.6 – 1.5 χ3 +1.35 – 0.4 (χ4 – 1.2)2 → - 2.52 + 1.48 χ4 – 0.4 (χ4 – 1.2) 2 If χ4 = 1.2 @ D → -2.52 + 1.48 (1.2 ) – 0.4 ( 1.2 – 1.2 ) 2 → If χ4 = 1.8 @ E → -2.52 + 1.48 (1.8 ) – 0.4 ( 1.8 – 1.2 ) 2 → - 0.744 KN. m 0 KN. m

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Shear and Bending Moment Diagram 2 Kn 1.5 Kn 2.5 Kn/m 1 KN

A 0.3 m

B 0.6 m

C 0.3m 0.6 m

D

+4.98 kn

+2.98 kn

+1.48 kn

+1.48 kn

1kn

- 4.47 kn.m

-2.97 kn.m -1.18 kn.m 20

- 0.744 knm

0

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem : 5 A 5m long cantilever bream carries a point load of R t at the free hand and a UDL of ( 1+ 0.2 R ) t /m over a length of 3m from the free end . Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram. Rt 18.8 t

A 2m

B 3m

C

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 56.4 – 89 = 0 Ra = 145.4 t

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A 0 = Ma + 56.4 * 3.5 +89* 5 → 0 = Ma + 197.4 + 445 → Ma = - 642.4 t . m
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Theory of Structures Free Body diagram and Shear force

Sir Dr.Zubair

1

2

(1+0.2 R )*3

Rt

A Ra Ha 2m

B

C

1.5 m

1.5 m

X1

X2

SHEAR FORCE

Section ( 1-1)

Vχ1 = Ra
Section ( 2-2)

+ 145.4 t ----------- (i)

If χ1 = 0 @ A → +145.4 t

Vχ2 = Ra – 18.8 (χ2 -2 )
If χ2 = 2 @ B → If χ2 = 5 @ C →

→ 145.4 – 18.8 (χ2 -2 ) 145.4 – 18.8 ( 2 - 2 ) 145.4 – 18.8 ( 5 - 2 ) → → + 145.4 t + 89 t

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Theory of Structures Bending Moment : 1 2

Sir Dr.Zubair

(1+0.2 R )*3 Ma A Ra 2m 1.5 m 1.5 m B

Rt

C

X1

X2

Section ( 1-1)

B.Mχ1 = Ra * χ
If χ1 = 0 @ A Section ( 2-2)

1

+ Ma → 145 χ1 - 624.4

----------- (i)

Ma + 0

- 642.4 t.m

B.Mχ2 = Ra

* χ2 + Ma + 18.8 * ( χ2 – 2 ) ( χ2 – 2 / 2 )

→ 145.4 χ2 – 624.4 - 9.4 ( χ2 + 2) 2 If χ2 = 2 @ B → 145.4 * 2 – 642.4 – 9.4 ( 2- 2 ) 2 If χ2 = 5 @ C → 145.4 * 5 – 642.4 – 9.4 ( 5- 2 ) 2 → → - 351.6 t. m 0 t. m

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Theory of Structures Shear and Bending Moment Diagram:

Sir Dr.Zubair

Rt 18.8 t

A 2m

B 3m

C

+145.4 t

+145.4t

89t

0 -642.4 tm 20 -351.6 tm

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Theory of Structures Problem : 6

Sir Dr.Zubair

A cantilever beam of 150 cm span carries a load of 2t at 60 cm from the fixed end , a load of 1t at the free end and a load of 4 ton UDL over 60 cm from 2 ton load towards the free end . Draw S.F and B,M diagram

2t 6 t /m

1t

A 0.6 m

B 0.6 m

C 0.3 m

Load intensity = Load / Length = 4 / 0.66 = 6 t/m

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 2 – (4) - 1 = 0 Ra = 7 t

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A 0 = Ma + 2 * 0.66 + 4 * 0.99 + 1 * 1.5 → 0 = Ma + 1.33 + 3.99 + 1.5 → Ma = - 6.33 t . m

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Theory of Structures Free Body diagram and Shear force

Sir Dr.Zubair

1 2t 4t

2

1t

A Ra Ha 0.6 m

B

C

0.3 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

X1

X2

Section ( 1-1)

Vχ1 = Ra
Section ( 2-2)

+ 7 t ----------- (i)

If χ1 = 0 @ A → + 7 t

Vχ2 = Ra – 6 ( χ2 – 0.66 )
Section ( 3-3)

If χ2 = 0.66 @ B → + 7 t

Vχ3 = Ra – 6 (χ2 – 0.66 ) - 2
If χ3 = 1.33 @ C If χ3 = 1.5 @ D

→ 7–4-2 →1 t

→ +1t → +1 t

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Theory of Structures Bending Moment :

Sir Dr.Zubair

1 2t Ma 4t

2

1t

A Ra 0.6 m

B

C

D

0.3 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

X1

X2

Section ( 1-1)

B.Mχ1

= Ra * χ1 + Ma →

----------- (i) Ma + 0 → - 6.33 t.m

If χ1 = 0 @ A Section ( 2-2)

B.Mχ2 = Ra

* χ2 + Ma – 2 * ( χ2 – 0.6 ) – 6 * ( χ2 – 0.6 ) ( χ2 – 0.6 )/2

→ 7 χ2 – 6.33 – 2 (χ2 – 0.6 ) – 3 (χ2 - 0.6 ) 2 If χ2 = 0.66 @ C → 7 * 0.66 – 6.33 Section ( 3-3) → - 2.16 t. m

B.Mχ3 = Ra

* χ3 + Ma – 2 * ( χ3 – 0.6 ) – 4 * ( χ3 – 0.9)

→ 7 χ3 – 6.33 – 2 (χ3 - 0.6 ) – 4 (χ3 – 0.9 ) → - 0.6 t . m → 0 t.m

If χ3 = 0.9 @ D → 7 * 0.9 – 6.3 – 2 ( 0.9 – 0.6 ) – 0

If χ3 = 1.5 @ B → 7 * 1.5 – 6.3 – 2 ( 1.5 – 0.6 ) – 4 ( 1.5 - 0)

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Theory of Structures Bending Moment and Shear Diagram 2t 6 t /m

Sir Dr.Zubair

1t

A 0.6 m

B 0.6 m

C 0.3 m

+ 7t

+7t

1t

1t

-6.31 t.m

-21.6 t.m

20

-0.6 t.m

0

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

TRUSSES

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem 1 :
20 k 15 k

B

D

60o A 5’ 10’ 5’

600 C

60o 5’ 10’ 5’

60o E

Ra

Rb

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 20 – 15 + Re = 0 Ra + Re = 35 ---------------------- (i)

Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A 0 = 20 * 5 + 15 * 15 – 20 Re = 0 → 0 = 325 – 20 Re → Re = 16. 25 k Ra = 18.75 k

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

B A 60o
C

Joint A : Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, -F ac – F ab x = 0,

Ra = 18.75

↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – F ab y = 0 F ab y = 18.75 k

F ac = - F ab x ------------------------(i) As Fx = F Cos Ф and Fy = F SinФ F ab y = F ab Sin 60 0 Equation (i) will be 20 k →

F ab = 21.65 ( C ) , F ab x = F ab Cos 60 0 F ac = - 10.82 ( C )

F ab x = 10.82

B

D

A Joint B : Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, F ab x – F bd + F cb x = 0,

C

↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 F ab y – 20 – F cb y = 0 18.75 – 20 – F cb
y

10.82 + F cb x - F bd ------------------------(ii) F cb y = F cb Sin 60 0

= 0 → F cb

y

= 1.25

F cb = 1.44 ( C ) , F cb x = F cb Cos 60 0

F cb x = - 0.721

Equation (ii ) will be → 10.82 – F bd – 0. 721 → F bd = - 10.82 ( C )

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

B C Joint C : A 60o 60o

D

E

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, F bc x – F ac - F cd x - F ce = 0, Fce + F cd x = -10.1 F cd y = F cd Sin 60 0 ------------------------(iii) ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 - F bc y - F cd y = 0 -1.25 – F cd
y

= 0 → F cd

y

= - 1.25

F cd = 1.43 ( T ) , F cb x = F cb Cos 60 0

F cb x = -0.721

Equation (iii ) will be → F ce – 0.721 = - 10.1 → 15 K

F ce = - 9.378 ( C ) or Fce = 9.378 ( T )

B

D

C E

Joint D : Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, F bd – F cd x - F de x = 0, Fde x = - 9.379 F de x = F de Cos 60 0

F de = - 18.75 k ( C )

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem # 2 : 3k

2k F 3k

G

E

C A 30o 3 Ra Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha = 0, 60o 60o 3

D 60o 60o 3 Rb 30o B

↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra – 3 – 2 – 3 + Rb = 0 Ra + Rb = 8 ---------------------- (i)

By applying Sine Law Sin 60 / AG = Sin 90 / 3 → AG = 3 Sin 60 → AG = 2.59 Cos 30 = AC ‘ / AG → AC ‘ = 2.59 Sin 60 / 3 = Sin 60 / CF → Cos 60 = CD ‘ / 3 Moment, +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A 0 = 3 * AC’ + 2 * ( 3 + CD ‘ ) + 3 * ( 6 + DB ‘ ) – Rb * 9 → 0 = 28.46 – 9 Rb CF = 3

→ CD ‘ = 1.5

→ Rb = 4.27 k
09CE37

Ra = 4 k
56 | P a g e

Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

G

A

60o

C

Ra Joint A : Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, - F ag x + F ac = 0, F ag x = F ac ------------------------(i) F ag y = F ag Sin 60 0 Equation (i ) will be ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Ra - F ag y = 0 F ag
y

= 4k

F ag = 8 k ( C ) , F ag x = F ag Cos 60 0 F ac = 6.92 k ( T )

F ag x = 6.92 k

→ F ac = F ag x → 3k F

G

A

C

Here if we solve it directly it will be more different for us to get the assumes beacuase 2 unknown will come in each equation of equilibrium. So we rotate it as

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

y 30 k 300

A G

F

x

E

Joint G : Fx = F Cos 60 → 3 Cos 60 → 1.5 Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, F ag ™ + F gf – F x ™ = 0, F gf = 6.5 N ( C ) ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 F gc - Fy = 0 F gc = 2.6 ( C )
Note ™ denotes the values which are already known to us

,

Fy = F Sin 60 → 3 Sin 60 → 2.6

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

G

F

Joint C : Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, - F ac – Fcd + F cg x + F cf x = 0, ----( ii ) F cg y = F cg ™ Sin 60 0

A

C

D

→ F ag y = 2.251 , F cg x = F cg ™ Cos 60 0

F cg x = 1.3 k

Equation (ii ) will be → - F ac – Fcd + F cg x + F cf x = 0 → - 6.9 – F cd + 1.3 + F cf x = 0 → F cf x - F cd = 5.6 -------------- ( iii)

↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 F cf y - F cg y = 0 F cf
y

= 4k

F cf

y

= F cf Sin 60 0

→ F cf = 2.59 ( T ) , F cf x = F cf Cos 60 0

F cf x = 1.295 k

Equation (iii) will be → 1. 295 – F cd = 5.6 → - Fcd = 4.3 ( C ) → Fcd = 4.3 ( T)

Joint F From Figure We have indentify that F fg = F bf = 6. 5 F cf = F fd = 2.59 G C

2k

F B D

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Method of Sections
Previously we have studied methods of joints for analysis of trusses In this methods we can directly analysis a truss force without calculating from initial point .

Here condition of moment is used rather than condition of statistics ( except in exceptional cases ) Need to cut a section where maximum unknown members force becomes zero or can be neglected.

PROCEDURE Cut a section Draw a free body diagram Assume compression and tension Apply co-planer applications of forces and equation of moment to determine members force

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Theory of Structures Problem : 1 D m =1/3 B m=3/2 F

Sir Dr.Zubair

A

12

C

12

E

12

G

12

H

Ra

1200

1200

1200

Rh

↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0
Taking momet at A.

→ Ra + Rh – 1200 -1200 – 1200 = 0

Ra + Rh = 3600---- ( i )

Ma = 0 → 1200 *12 + 1200 * 24 + 1200 * 36 - Rh * 48 = 0 → 48 Rh = 86400 → Rh = 1800 lb D B Ra = 1800 lb

Ra=1800

C

1200

E

Take the point where maximum unknowns can be neglected. Taking moment at B. Taking moment at E → → 1800 * 12 – F ce * 8 = 0 → F ce = 2700 lb ( T ) → Fbd y = 2400 lb

1800 * 24 – 1200 * 12 – F bd y * 12 = 0

Fbd y = F bd * Sin 18.45 → Fbd = 7583.4 lb ( C ) Taking moment at D → F be x * 12 – F ce * 12 + 1800 * 24 = 0 → F be x= 2400 lbs

F be x = F be * Cos 33.69 → F be = 2884.43 ( C )

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Theory of Structures Problem # 2:

Sir Dr.Zubair

Required needed forces Rce = ? , Rbd= ? , Rcd= ? , R gf= ?

For Fce , we take moment at D. F ce * 20 + Ra * 40 – 20 * 20 = 0 20 Fce =- -30 * 40 + 400 Fce = 40 k ( C ) or Fce = 40 k ( T )

For Fbd taking moment at C. Fbd * 20 + 30 * 20 = 0 Fbd = - 30 ( T ) or 30 ( C )

For Fcd we take moment at B. Fcd y * 20 + Fce * 20 + 30 * 20 = 0 → 20 Fcd y = 200 → → Fcd y = 10 k ( C)

Fcd y = F cd * Sin 45 → 10 = Fcd * Sin 45

Fcd = 14.14 k

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Here Equation of moment fails so we have apply direct method which is to apply equation of statics.

↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0
F gf + 30 = 0 F gf = - 30 ( C ) or 30 ( T )

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

ARCHES

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem 1 : 3 hinge parabolic arch of 20 ft and standardize of 5’ caring a concentrate load of 20 kips at 6’ from the left side support. Draw the bending moment diagram for the arch, position and magnitude of maximum bending moment for the arch also find the value of the reaction forces C 20 kips yc=5’ A 20 ft DATA: Yc = 5’ P = 20 kips L = 20 ‘ B.M = ? B

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha - Hb = 0, Ha = Hb +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A 20* 6 – Vb * 20 = 0 → Vb = 6 kips R.H.S +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point C Vb * 10 + Hb * 5 = 0 → Hb= 12 kips RESULTANT Ra = √ Ha2 + Va 2 → 18.44 kips Rb= √ Hb2 + Vb 2 → 13.4 kips as Hb=Ha , So , Ha = 12 kips putting this value in eq(i) Va = 14 kips ↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Va + Vb = 20 ------ ( i )

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

B.M max ( +ve ) Using Formula Y = 4 Yc χ ( L – χ ) / L2 Y = 4 * 5* 6 ( 20 – 6 ) / (20)2 Y = 4 .2 s.ft

Va * 6 – Ha * Y = 14 * 6 – 12 * 4.2

→ 33. 6 k.ft

B.M max ( -ve ) Hb * Y – Vb * χ --------------- (iii) Using Formula Y = 4 Yc χ ( L – χ ) / L2 Y = 4 * 5 * χ ( 20 – χ ) / L2 Y = χ - χ2 / 20----(iv) putting Y value in equation (iii) 12 * ( χ – χ 2 / 20) – 6 * χ 12χ – 12 χ2/20 – 6 χ 6 χ – 12 χ2/20 Differentiating w.r.t χ χ = 5 ‘ p putting this value in eq (iv)
09CE37

Y = - 15 ‘
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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem 2 : 3 hinge parabolic arch of 20 m and standardize of 4 m caring a concentrate U.D.L of 2 ton/m from the left side support over the length of 8 m . Draw the bending moment diagram for the arch, position and magnitude of maximum bending moment for the arch also find the value of the reaction forces

C

A DATA: Yc = 4 m P = 2 to / m L = 20 m B.M = ?

8m 20 m

B

Equilibrium, →+ve ∑ Fx = 0, Ha - Hb = 0, Ha = Hb +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point A 16 * 4 – Vb * 20 = 0 → Vb = 3.2 t R.H.S +ve Clockwise ∑ M = 0 at point C Va * 16 + Ha * 4 – 16 * 6 = 0 → Hb= 8 t RESULTANT Ra = √ Ha2 + Va 2 → 15.094 t Rb= √ Hb2 + Vb 2 → 8.61 t
09CE37 67 | P a g e

↑+ve ∑ Fy = 0 Va + Vb = 16 ------ ( i )

putting this value in eq(i)

Va = 12.8 t

as Hb=Ha , So ,

Ha = 8 t

Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

B.M max ( +ve ) Va * χ – Ha * Y – 2 * χ * χ/2 -------- (v) Using Formula Y = 4 Yc χ ( L – χ ) / L2 Y = 4 * 4 * χ ( 20 – χ ) / (20)2 Y = 0.8 χ – 0.04 χ2 Putting Value of Y in eq ( v) B.M= 12.8 * χ – 8 * ( 0.8 χ – 0.04 χ 2 ) - χ2 B.M = 12.8 χ – 6.4 χ + 0.32 χ2 – χ2 B.M = 6.4 χ – 0.68 χ2 ---- ( vi) Differentiating w.r.t. χ 0 = 6.4 – ( 0.68 ) ( 2 ) χ Χ = 4.7 m from left hand side support Putting value of χ in eq ( vi ) B.M = 6.4 * 4.7 – 0.68 * ( 4.7)2 B.M ( max) = 15.05 t.m

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

B.M max ( -ve ) Vb * χ – Hb * Y --------------- (vii) Using Formula Y = 4 Yc χ ( L – χ ) / L2 Y = 0.08 χ – 0.04 χ 2 put in equation (vii) 3.2 * χ – 8 * ( 0.8 χ 2 – 0.04 χ 2 ) B.M = - 3.2 χ + 0.32 χ2 ---------------- ( viii) Differentiating w.r.t χ 0 = - 3.2 + 0.64 χ χ=5m putting this value in eq (viii) B.M = -3.2 * 5 + 0.32 * ( 5 )2 = - 8 t.m

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

COLUMNS

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem 1 : 1.5 m long column and has a circular cross-section of 5m diameter one of the ends of the column is fixed and other end is free . Find the Rakiens formula and Find the Eulers Crippling load .

Assume: Rakiens Constant = 1 / 1600 Modulus of Elasticity : 1.2 x 106 kg / cm2 Crushing Stress = 5600 kg/cm2

Rakiens Formula: P = Fc * A / 1 + a ( L/K)2 DATA: L = 1.5 m = 150 cm E = 1.2 * 106 kg / cm2 fc= 5600 kg/cm2 Finding Area = π / 4 (d)2 → As one head is fixed = L = 2l Finding Inertia = π / 64 (d)4 Finding K = √ i/A π / 4 ( 5) 2 → 19.63 cm2 → 2 ( 150 ) → 300 cm → 3.14 / 64 ( 5) 2 → 30.67 cm4 , , d = 5 cm a = 1 / 1600 K = √ I /A

→ √ 30.67 / 19.63 → 12.4 cm

Putting Value in formula P = 5600 * 19.63 / 1 + { 1 / 1600 ( 300 / 12.4 ) 2 } P = 2971.78 kg Finding Euler’s Formula P = π 2 E I / 4 L 2 ----------------------- As one end is fixed other is free P = (3.14)2 * (1.2 * 10 6) ( 30.67 ) / 4 ( 300 ) 2 P = 362.87 * 10 6 kg

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Theory of Structures

Sir Dr.Zubair

Problem 2 : A cast iron 3 m in length when hinged at both ends has a critical pickling load of P kilogram when the column is fixed at both the ends its critical load rises to P + 30,000 kilogram . if ratio of external diameter is 1.25 and E is equal to 1 * 10 6 . Determine the external and internal diameter of column.

L = 3000 cm

,

do/di = 1.25 → do = 1.25 di

Load when both ends are hinged : P kg Load when both ends are fixed : P + 30,000 E = 1 * 10 6 Using Euler’s theorem when both ends are hinged P = π 2 E I / L 2 -------------------------- ( i ) Finding interia ( i) = i = π / 64 ( do2 – di2 ) Putting value of do i= π/ 64 ( 1.25 di )2 - ( di ) 2 i= π / 64 ( 0.25 di ) 4 ----------------------------- (ii) putting value of i P=π2EI/L2 → in equation (i) P = π 2 E (π / ( 0.25 di ) 4 ) / 64 * L 2 → P = π 3 (0.25 di) 4 -------------------------- (iii) L = l / 2 → 3000 / 2 → 1500 cm L =l

Using Eulers theorem when both ends are fixed. P + 30, 000 = 4 π 2 E I / L 2 Putting value of i P + 30 , 000 =

4 π 2 E { π / ( 0.25 di ) 4 } / 64 * L 2 → π 3 ( di ) 4

P + 30,000 = π 3 ( di ) 4 ------------------------------ (iv) Putting value of P from eq (iii) into eq ( iv) π 3 (0.25 di) 4 + 30,000 = π 3 ( di ) 4

30,000 = ( 31 – 0.121 ) di4 Di = 5.58 cm as we know, do = 1.25 * di → do = 7.5 cm

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