Basic Computer Networking

AGENDA
1. WHY A COMPUTER NETWORK? 2. STANDARDIZATION 3. THEORY : THE OSI MODEL 4. NETWORK CLASSIFICATION 5. MEDIA AND BASIC HARDWARE 6. INTERNET ADDRESSING 7. INTERNET WORKING

WHY A COMPUTER NETWORK ?
‡ Distribute computation among nodes ‡ Coordination between processes running on different nodes ‡ Remote I/O Devices ‡ Remote Data/File Access ‡ Personal communications (e-mail, chat, A/V) ‡ World Wide Web ‡ ... and many other uses

WHY DO I NEED A STANDARD ?
‡ Many types of connection media : telephone lines, optical fibers, cables, radios, etc. ‡ Many different types of machines and operating systems ‡ Many different network applications

need for a STANDARD in communication technology:

S I O

THE 7 LAYERS OF OSI
TRANSMIT DATA RECEIVE

USER
Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer PHYSICAL LINK

DATA

WHICH MEDIUM ?
There are four principal media for telecommunications:

‡ COAXIAL CABLE ‡ TWISTED PAIR CABLE ‡ OPTICAL FIBER ‡ WIRELESS

Twisted Pair Cables (CAT-5)

RJ 45 Port on computer
‡ This is where your network cord should be plugged into the computer. Very similar to the plugging of your phone cord to your modem at home.

Network Connector
‡ RJ-45 Connector

Network Connector
‡ This is a bad connector

Network Connector
‡ Notice the disconnected wire

Network port
‡ Your network cord should be plugged into the back of your computer to the wall plug like this one.

Switches
‡ Some of you may have a switch like this one in between your computer and the network port in the wall. Notice the green LED¶s

Switches

‡ Switches are used to add additional ports from one port to the network. This switch has an uplink button.

O F C (OPTICAL FIBER CABLE)

WIRELESS

Data Communication Topology
‡ Point to Point Topology

A

B

Data Communication Topology
‡ Bus or Multi-drop Topology
A B C D E F

Data Communication Topology
‡ Ring or Loop Topology A F B

RING
E D C

Data Communication Topology
‡ Star Topology H A B

G

Star

C

F E

D

Data Communication Topology
‡ Mesh Topology

NETWORK TOPOLOGY
FULLY CONNECTED PARTIALLY CONNECTED

RING

STAR

BUS

TREE

HARDWARE FOR NETWORKING
‡ NETWORK ADAPTER : interfaces a computer board
with the network medium

‡ REPEATER : two-ports electronic device that

just

repeats what receives from one port to the other (BIT level)

‡ BRIDGE : intelligent repeater with filtering (FRAME level) ‡ HUB : multi-port repeater ‡ SWITCH : multi-port bridge ‡ ROUTER : links two or more networks (different types
too), providing the appropriate routing information (routing tables) . (PACKET level)

‡ GATEWAY : simple router that links two networks

‡ It¶s a 32 bits, 4-part period delimited, decimal address called IP number or IP address : www.xxx.yyy.zzz ‡ each part can vary from 1 to 254 (0 and 255 are reserved for the net and the broadcast) ‡ each network interface card attached to Internet must have an unique IP address ‡ the IP address can be splitted in two parts:
‡ network ‡ host CLASSES : class A net : NNN.hhh.hhh.hhh class B net : NNN.nnn.hhh.hhh class C net : NNN.nnn.nnn.hhh

INTERNET ADDRESS

‡

NNN: 1 to 127 NNN: 128 to 191 NNN: 192 to 223

Visualizing the Internet

This is a neat graphic, but doesn·t really portray the density of the Internet.

Thanks for your participation

Question & Answer Session

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful