|4¬|±- − Case

It is assumed that the reader has reached this point
after reading the introduction to the "cases".
Case declensions for a noun are obtained by adding
different suffixes to the basic form of the noun.
The suffix will be different based on the case,
gender and number of the noun.
The word ¹lP- is the word representative of
most masculine nouns in Sanskrit which end in
the vowel H . This coupled with the fact that the
name ¹lP- has a special significance for people
in India, is the reason why most Primers for
Sanskrit start with ¹lP- for illustrating the
declensions.

Case form of the noun
1. ¹lP-
2. ¹lPP
3. ¹lPT
4. ¹lPl4
5. ¹lPl6
6. ¹lPF4
7. ¹lP
8. r ¹lP !
Thus knowing the declensions for ¹lP- will help the
student identify the case declensions for many many
nouns which are masculine and end with H .
Now let us see the declensions for a feminine noun
ending in ² , ¬|¹l
Case Form of the noun
1. ¬|¹l
2. ¬|¹l
3. ¬|4l
4. ¬|4
5. ¬|4l-
6. ¬|4l-
7. ¬|4l
8. r ¬|¹l !
The two examples do illustrate the concept that
suffixes are added to the noun to get at the declensions.
Now, we shall see exmples of sentences which have
nouns in different cases. The same noun is used in
all the sentences. The noun chosen for this purpose
is HH- or horse. This is a masculine noun similar
to ¹lP- and you will see the rules applied as in the
case of ¹lP- .
Case 1. The Nominative case
HH- |6U|6 − The horse is standing
HH- «l4|6 − The horse is running
In bothe cases, HH- is the subject of the
sentence and is hence given in its basic form
as the nominative case.
The name for the nominative case in Sanskrit is
9¤Pl |4¬|±- , 9¤Pl meaning first and |4¬|±-
meaning case. There is also a name for this case
given according to Sanskrit Grammar. This is
known as Tl¹T |4¬|±- .
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Case 2. The Accusative case.
969- HH Hl¹lr|6 · The man ascends the horse
969- HH 6l74|6 · The man beats the horse
In these sentences, the horse forms the direct object
of the verbs Hl¹lr|6 and 6l74|6 . Hence the use in
the Accusative case. The second case is usually
referred to as |ã6l4l |4¬|±- though it does have
another name , TP|4¬|±- .
Case 3. The Instrumental case.
9¹9- HH+ ¬r ¬¬7|6 ·
The man goes home by horse
¹l=l HH+ 4+ ¬¬7|6 ·
The King goes to the forest on horse.
In these examples, the meaning conveyed by the
case declension is "by" or "through". The third
case in Sanskrit is known as |-'6l4l |4¬|±- . Its
other name is T¹T |4¬|±- .
It may be noted that the declension here is HH+
though the student might expect it to be HHT as
per the declensions of ¹lP- . This need not confuse
the student, for according to other grammar rules of
Sanskrit, the use of + or T will be prescribed
based on the consonants present in the noun.
Case 4. The Dative case.
B- HHl4 6T 4¬7|6 ·
He gives grass to the horse (to eat)
B- HHl4 |4¹H|6 BrFl --4Tl|T 9¬7|6 ·
He is asking Rs. 20,000 for the horse.
In the Dative case, the meaning conveyed is
"for" or "to" . The Dative case is known as
¬6¤l |4¬|±- or B¹97l+ |4¬|±-
Case 5. The Ablative case
Bl HHl6 H«-96|6 ·
She falls down from the horse.
HHl6 ¬=F4 P~4 H|«TP ·
The elephant is more expensive than the horse.
The statement in Sanskrit when interpreted
literally, means that the price of the elephant
is higher than that of the horse. The meaning
conveyed by this case is "from" or "than"
i.e., comparisons. This case also is used to
convey the meaning "because of".
H|G~¬B 9|B&- H¬46 , 9¬BB HHl6 ·
Achilles became famous because of the horse
Pegasus.
The fifth case is known as
9¾Pl |4¬|±- or H9l7l+ |4¬|±- .
Case 6. The possessive case.
HHF4 4T- T- : What is the colour of the horse?
HHF4 9|6- T- : Who is the owner of the horse?
In this case or 97l |4¬|±- , the meaning is that of the
Genitive case in English i.e., "of" or "belonging to"
etc.. This case is also known as B¹4-« |4¬|±- .
Case 7. The Locative case
HH 4¬ H|F6 · In the horse is strength.
HH +¹- 79|4H|6 · The man sits on the horse.
²-7F4 7¬¬~4- +lP HH Hl9l (H|F6) ·
Indra has a liking for the horse called Uchchaisravas.
The seventh case is known as B|'Pl |4¬|±-. Its
other name is H|«T¹T |4¬|±- .
Case 8. The vocative case.
The last case is known as B¹4l«+9¤Pl |4¬|±-.
It is generally not referred to by its expected name
H7Pl |4¬|±- ·
r HH , Hl¤ ¬¬7 ·
Oh horse! go fast.
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
The examples given above are meant to introduce the
basic idea behind the |4¬|±- . The person learning
Sanskrit is expected to know the declensions for many
many nouns. Practice will be required. In the following
sections we will go into the details of each |4¬|±- and
see several examples of nouns in different genders and
nouns.
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In the following sections we will provide
different examples of declensions of nouns.
Each case is discussed individually with
additional information relating to special
forms.
Case1. The Nominative case.
Rule: The subject of a verb is in the Nominative
case.
The noun is declined in all the three numbers
(4¬+l|+).
Masculine nouns ending in H
¹lP- ¹lP| ¹lPl-
T!T- T!T| T!Tl-
¬=- ¬=| ¬=l-
4¬- 4¬| 4¬l-
General Rule: All masculine nouns ending in H
will decline as above in the Nominative case.
Feminine Nouns ending in Hl
Bl6l |B6 |B6l-
¹Pl ¹P ¹Pl-
¬6l ¬6 ¬6l-
General Rule: All feminine nouns ending in Hl
will decline as above in the Nominative case.
Neuter nouns ending in H . Please note that
the anuswar is not to be reckoned in fixing the
ending vowel.
T¬ T¬ T¬l|+
+-' +-' +-'l|T
9F6T 9F6T 9F6Tl|+
9-' 9-' 9-'l|T
(As mentioned earlier in the declensions of HH-,
the suffix + or T will be used depending on
other grammar rules). Most Neuter nouns ending
in H will decline as above.
Here are some examples of use of nouns in the
Nominative case.
4l¬| 4l76-
Bl6l 9¬|6
9!9l|T |4TB|-6
44 9ó¤
6 Gl7|-6
T H-' |6U|-6 :
Observe that the verb is also declined based on the
case of the noun. Thus there is consistency in a
sentence between the declensions of the noun and
the verb. It will be helpful to remember the simple
rule, that both the noun and the verb should be
consistent with each other.
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Lesson-9 Cases
Case-2 The Accusative Case
The direct object of the verb in a sentence is in the
Accusative case.
Declensions.
Masculine nouns ending in H
(¹lP-) ¹lP ¹P| ¹lPl+
(¬=-) ¬= ¬=| ¬=l+
(rF6-) rF6 rF6| rF6l+
(4¬-) 4¬ 4¬| 4¬l+
As a general rule, all masculine nouns ending in H
will decline as above in the Accusative case.
Feminine nouns ending in Hl
(Bl6l) Bl6l Bl6 Bl6l-
(¹Pl) ¹Pl ¹P ¹Pl-
(¬6l) ¬6l ¬6| ¬6l-
As a general rule, all Feminine nouns ending in Hl
will decline as above in the Accusative case.
Neuter nouns ending in H
( T¬ ) T¬P T¬ T¬l|+
( +-' ) +-'P +-' +-'l|T
( 9F6T ) 9F6T 9F6T 9F6Tl|+
( 9-' ) 9-'P 9-' 9-'l|T
As a general rule, all neuter nouns ending in H
will decline as above.
Also, Neuter nouns will have the same declensions
in the Nominative and Accusative cases.
Now for the declensions of the personal pronouns
Hr Pl, Pl Hl4l, +| HFPl+ , +-
t4 t4l, t4l 44l, 4l 4!Pl+ , 4-
B- 6 6| 6l+
Bl 6l 6 6l-
66 66 6 6l|+
H4 ²P ²P| ²Pl+
H4 9+ 9+| 9+l+
²4 ²Pl ²P ²Pl-
²4 9+l 9+ 9+l-
²7 ²7 ²P ²Pl|+
99- 96 96| 96l+
99- 9+ 9+| 9+l+
99l 96l 96 96l-
99l 9+l 9+ 9+l-
966 966 96 96l|+
T- T T| Tl+
Tl Tl T Tl-
|T |TP T Tl|+
Please note that for some of the personal pronouns
two different forms are indicated. This is not an
inconsistency.
Here are some examples of sentenses using the
Accusative.
=+l- 74 +P|-6 · people are offering salutations
to the deity
¬=- =¬ |94|6 · The elephant is drinking the water
6 HHl+ 974|-6 · They are seeing the horses
t4 Hl¬l4 +P|B · You areoffering salutations to
the teacher
Hr |¬-' 974l|P · I am viewing the picture
Observation:
These simple sentences are ordered as

(noun) (direct object) (verb)
which ordering is different from the familiar ordering
in English which is
(noun) (verb) (direct object)
In Sanskrit and many other Indian languages, the
verb often gets placed at the end. Some European
languages also have this structure (German).
Note however, the sentence in Sanskrit will
make perfect sense even if the ordering is changed
e.g., t4 +P|B Hl¬l4P ·
Some questions which use the noun in the
Accusative.
t4 9l6- |T 9ó|B :
Bl T +P|6 :
B- T 6-' 974|6 :
Indeclinables which go with the Accusative
There are some indeclinables which must be
used with the accompanying nouns in the
Accusative. These are
9|6 − towards |4+l − without
B46- − All around 7¬46- − on both sides
Examples:
7l-'l- 9F6T |4+l ¬¬7|-6 ·
The students are going without the books.
Hr |4Hl¬4 9|6 ¬¬7l|P ·
I am going to (towards) the school.
|4Hl¬4 7¬46- 4¬l- B|-6 ·
There are trees on both sides of the school.
9!94l³l B46- 4l¬l- ·
There are children all around the garden.
Special Note:
What about sentences which have two direct objects?
In Sanskrit it is known that there are 32 verbs which
can take two objects in the same sentence. We give
below a few.
97|6 − cooks
7'74|6 − punishes
9¬7|6 − asks
+4|6 − takes along
r¹|6 − takes away by force ( steals)
Example sentences.
B 6'7¬l+ Hl7+ 9¬|6 ·
He cooks rice as food.
6'7¬l+ and Hl7+ are both in the Accusative.
+9- F6+ H6 7'74|6 ·
The King fines the thief a hundred (units of currency)
B- PlT4T 9-¤l+ 9¬7|6 ·
He asks the student the way.
6 H=l+ ¬r +4|-6 ·
They take the sheep home.
There are some questions in the exercises section
relating to the Accusative case. You must try and
answer them.
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|-'6l4l |4¬|±- Case -3 Instrumental case
The instrumental case involves the form of the noun
which provides answers to questions invovling
phrases such as
with what? by which ? along with what or whom?
Here are the examples of declensions.
Masculine nouns ending in H
¹lP- ¹lPT ¹lPl-4lP ¹lP-
¬=- ¬=+ ¬=l-4lP ¬=-
rF6- rF6+ rF6l-4lP rF6-
4¬- 4¬T 4¬l-4lP 4¬-
Masculine nouns ending in ²
P|+- P|++l P|+-4lP P|+|¬-
r|¹- r|¹Tl r|¹-4lP r|¹|¬-
Masculine nouns ending in 7
H¬- H¬+l H¬-4lP H¬|¬-
4l4- 4l4+l 4l4-4lP 4l4|¬-
What is given above is representative of the declensions
of masculine nouns in different ending vowels. Given
below are some more nouns which decline as above.
Masc. H =+T- − father ¬l9l¬- − Cowherd
B4- − Sun HH- − horse
4l¬- − boy 4lT- − Arrow
Masc. ² |+|«- − treasure H|6|¤- − guest
H|7- − mountain ¹l|H- − heap
|¬|¹- − mountain \4|+- − sound
Masc. 7 9¬- − boss 4lr- − hand
B6- − bridge 4T- − Bamboo flute
9¹H- − axe 6-6- − manuscript
Now for feminine nouns.
Feminine nouns ending in Hl
|B6l |B6l4l Bl6l-4lP Bl6l|¬-
¹Pl ¹P4l ¹Pl-4lP ¹Pl|¬-
¬6l ¬6l4l ¬6l-4lP ¬6l|¬-
4l¬l 4l¬l4l 4l¬l-4lP 4l¬l|¬-
Feminine nouns ending in ²
P|6 Pt4l P|6-4lP P|6|¬-
¬|P ¬¹4l ¬|P-4lP ¬|P|¬-
Feminine nouns ending in 7
«+ «++l «+-4lP «+|¬-
¬¾ ¬¾+l ¬¾-4lP ¬¾|¬-
Other examples of Feminine nouns.
Fem. Hl |4Hl − education 4l-'l − journey
|+7l − sleep ¬|-7Tl − moon
¹Gl − line 9¬l − light
Fem. ² 4|7 − tinsel +l|6 − moral
¬l|6 − fear H|± − strength
Asa general rule, the declensions given above are
representative of declensions of feminine nouns ending
in the specified vowels.
Now for Neuter nouns.
Neuter nouns ending in H
T¬ T¬+ T¬l-4lP T¬-
+-' +-'T +-'l-4lP +-|-
9F6T 9F6T+ 9F6Tl-4lP 9F6T-
9-' 9-'T 9-'l-4lP 9-|-
Neuter nouns ending in ²
4l|¹ 4l|¹Tl 4l|¹-4lP 4l|¹|¬-
Neuter nouns ending in 7
P« P«+l P«-4lP P«|¬-
4F6 4F6+l 4F6-4lP 4F6|¬-
Other neuter nouns
Neut. H
9TP − lotus 9'TP − town
Bt4P − truth ¬l=+P − food
6¬P − oil 4¬P − strength
Let us now list the declensions for the personal
pronouns
Hr P4l Hl4l-4lP HFPl|¬-
B- 6+ 6l-4lP 6-
Bl 64l 6l-4lP 6l|¬-
66 6+ 6l-4lP 6-
H4 H++ Hl-4lP 9|¬-
²4 H+4l Hl-4lP Hl|¬-
²7 H++ Hl-4lP 9|¬-
99- 96+ 96l-4lP 96-
99l 964l 96l-4lP 96l|¬-
966 96+ 96l-4lP 96-
T- T+ Tl-4lP T-
Tl T4l Tl-4lP Tl|¬-
|T T+ Tl-4lP T-
Try and get the patterns to memory. The student
would have no doubt discerned some patterns
already.
Let us see some example sentences.
=+l- 9!9- 74 9=4|-6 ·
people worship with flowers the deity.
Let us note here that the same sentence is sometimes
written as "people worship the deity with flowers".
The second form is ambiguous however, as it does
not explicitly state if
it is with flowers that the deity is worshipped
or
(the deity with flowers) is worshipped.
Sanskrit is quite flexible on the ordering of the words.
¬9|6- ¹¤+ ¬¬7|6 ·
The king travels by his chariot.
t4 rF6+ |¬G|B ·
You write with your hands.
¤4lT¹TP 9l|T|++l T6P ·
Grammar was formulated by Panini
6|96- rF6l-4l =¬ |94|6 ·
The thirsty person drinks water with both hands
For those who are used to drinking water from a
cup or a fountain, the use of hands might cause some
amusement. Drinking from one’s own hand, by cupping
the palm and let the fountain flow through it into one’s
mouth is an age old custom in India. It is clean, simple
and does not require any dish washing ot throw away
plastic!
Now for a few questions.
=+l- T- 74 9=4|-6 : (See answer above)
¤4lT¹T T+ T6P :
t4 Tl-4l ¬¹|B : − With what do you walk?
Hr 9l7l-4l ¬¹l|P · I walk with my (two) feet.
Note the use of the noun in "Dual". We mentioned
before that the dual form is used with things which
exist in nature as two like two eyes, two hands etc..
Now, if you must say that the elephant walks with
its legs, you would not use the dual form but the
plural since the elephant has four legs. So it will be,
¬=- 9l7- ¬¹|6 ·
Special note:
As in english, where prepositional phrases are used
to decline the noun in the instrumental case, a few
Sanskrit words are also used along with nouns to
give the meaning of "along with". The indeclinables
Br and BlT are used with nouns to give the same
meaning. However, they come after the noun as in,
¬÷PT- ¹lPT Br 4+ ¬¬7|6 ·
Lakshmana goes with Rama to the forest.
Hr |P-'T Br H-' 4Bl|P ·
I live here with my friend.
6 T¬- 9!9¾ BlT H-' Hl¬¬7|-6 ·
They come here with fruits and flowers.
(BlT is used with Neuter nouns)
4l¬T- ¬6Tl Br Hl9T ¬¬7|6 ·
The students goes to the shop with the teacher.
Similar to Br , the indeclinables |4+l and H¬P
also go along with the noun in case 3.
9l|T+- =¬+ |4+l + =l4|-6 ·
Living beings cannot (do not) live without water.
If your stomach is full with a meal, you can say,
¬l=++ H¬P ! (I have had )Enough food!
Would you ever want to say
BFT6+ H¬P :
Certainly not of course, if you want to continue
the lessons!
Of course, this is getting to be a little prolonged.
We must go over to the next case.
Before that, be sure to look at the section on exercises
and answer the questions given there.
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Case-4, the Dativ case.
This case relates to the meanings such as
"for whom", "regarding", " for the sake of",
"in connection with" etc..
Declensions:
Masculine nouns ending in H
¹lP- ¹lPl4 ¹lPl-4lP ¹lP-4-
¬=- ¬=l4 ¬=l-4lP ¬=-4-
rF6- rF6l4 rF6l-4lP rF6-4-
4¬- 4¬l4 4¬l-4lP 4¬-4-
Other masculine nouns which decline as above,
Hlrl¹- − food |H!4- − Student 49¬- − Bull
9-'- − Son 74- − Deity
Feminine nouns ending in Hl
|B6l Bl6l4 Bl6l-4lP Bl6l-4-
¹Pl ¹Pl4 ¹Pl-4lP ¹Pl-4-
¬6l ¬6l4 ¬6l-4lP ¬6l-4-
Neuter nouns ending in H
T¬ T¬l4 T¬l-4lP T¬-4-
+-' +-'l4 +-'l-4lP +-'-4-
9F6T 9F6Tl4 9F6Tl-4lP 9F6T-4-
Nouns such as 4+ , 4¬ , B|¬¬ − water
=¬ − water ¹l74 − Kingdom will also
decline as above.
Other examples:
Masc. ²
r|¹- r¹4 r|¹-4lP r|¹-4-
H|7- H74 H|7-4lP H|7-4-
Masc. 7
H¬- H¬4 H¬-4lP H¬-4-
9¬- 9¬4 9¬-4lP 9¬-4-
|¹9- |¹94 |¹9-4lP |¹9-4-
Feminine ²
P|6 P64 P|6-4lP P|6-4-
H|± H±4 H|±-4lP H|±-4-
Feminine 7
«+ «+4 «+-4lP «+-4-
Neuter ²
4l|¹ 4l¹4 4l|¹-4lP 4l|¹-4-
Neuter 7
P« P«4 P«-4lP P«-4-
The declensions of the personal pronouns in
the Dativ case.
Hr PO ,P Hl4l-4l ,+| HFP-4 ,+-
t4 6-4 ,6 44l-4l ,4l 4!P-4 ,4-
B- 6FP 6l-4l 6-4-
Bl 6F4 6l-4l 6l-4-
66 6FP 6l-4l 6-4-
H4 HFP Hl-4l 9-4-
²4 HF4 Hl-4l Hl-4-
²7 HFP Hl-4l 9-4-
99- 96FP 96l-4l 96-4-
99l 96F4 96l-4l 96l-4-
966 96FP 96l-4l 96-4-
T- TFP Tl-4l T-4-
Tl TF4 Tl-4l Tl-4-
|T TFP Tl-4l T-4-
Now for examples of sentences with nouns in the
Dative case.
7l-'l- Hlrl¹l4 ¬r ¬¬7|-6 ·
Students go home for food.
|¬¬- Hlrl¹l4 H³|6 ·
The beggar roams around for food.
¬6- |H!4l4 6t4 79|7H|6 ·
The teacher expounds the principle for the (sake of)
student.
T9T- 49¬l4 69 4¬7|6 ·
The farmer gives fodder to two bulls.
t4 H|6|¤-4l ¬l¹ Hl+4|B ·
You bring milk for two guests.
Hr 9H-4l ¤lB Hl+4l|P ·
I bring grass for two cows.
It is interesting to observe that the word for "grass"
in Sanskrit is ¤lBP .
¬6-4- +P- · Obeisanse to the teachers.
+P- 6 · Salutations to you
According to the grammar rules and Sandhi,
+P- 6 becomes +PF6 !
Special note:
+P- is an indeclinable. When you use it as such
the noun will be in Dativ. However +P is also
the root for a verb. When using the verb the person
will be referred to in the second case.
Hr ¬-+ +Pl|P · I offer salutations to the Guru.
But, there are some verbs which when used will
have the accompanying noun in Dativ only!
+9- 4l¬T-4- T¬l|+ 4¬7|-6 ·
|96l 9-'l4 T-4|6 ·
4l¬T- 4l7+Tl4 F9r4|6 ·
Some questions and answers involving nouns
in the Dativ.
|4Hl |TP¤P : |4Hl :'l+l4 ·
9!9l|T |TP¤P : 9=l4 9!9l|T ·
64 94t+- TFP : PP 94t+- BGl4 ·
4F6¹ TFP 94l=+l4 : 4F-' 9|¹«l+l4 ·
HTl4 |T ¹l¬6 : HTl4 T¬ ¹l¬6 ·
|T 9l9l4 ¬4|6 : 9¹9l7l 9l9l4 ¬4|6 ·
Please attempt the exercises before reading
further.
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Case-5 The Ablative case.
The ablative case is used in general to effect a
comparison or indicate an effect of separation from
the noun.
The Ablative case is known as 9¾Pl |4¬|±-
Declensions:
Masculine nouns ending in H
¹lP ¹lPl6 ¹lPl-4l ¹lP-4-
¬= ¬=l6 ¬=l-4l ¬=-4-
rF6 rF6l6 rF6l-4l rF6-4-
¬r ¬rl6 ¬rl-4l ¬r-4-
4¬ 4¬l6 4¬l-4l 4¬-4-
Masc. ²
P|+- P+- P|+-4l P|+-4-
r|¹- r¹- r|¹-4l r|¹-4-
The nouns |+|«- H|7- 9l|T|+- ¹l|H- H|6|¤- |¬|¹-
will decline in the same fashion as above
Masc. 7
H¬- H¬l- H¬-4l H¬-4-
4l4- 4l4l- 4l4-4l 4l4-4-
Feminine nouns ending in Hl
Bl6l Bl6l4l- Bl6l-4l Bl6l-4-
¹Pl ¹Pl4l- ¹Pl-4l ¹Pl-4-
¬6l ¬6l4l- ¬6l-4l ¬6l-4-
Feminine ²
P|6- P6- P|6-4l P|6-4-
¬|P- ¬P ¬|P-4l ¬|P-4-
The nouns 4|7- ¬l|6- 4|7- +l|6- H|±- Tl|6-
will decline in the same fashion as ¬|P-
Feminine 7
«+- «+l- «+-4l «+-4-
¬¾- ¬¾l- ¬¾-4l ¬¾-4-
Neuter nouns ending in H
T¬ T¬l6 T¬l-4l T¬-4-
+-' +-'l6 +-'l-4l +-'-4-
9F6T 9F6Tl6 9F6Tl-4l 9F6T-4-
9-' 9-'l6 9-'l-4l 9-'-4-
Neuter ²
4l|¹ 4l¹- 4l|¹-4l 4l|¹-4-
Neuter 7
P« P«l- P«-4l P«-4-
4F6 4F6l- 4F6-4l 4F6-4-
Example sentences.
H-'l- ¬l|6- =l46 · From the enemy arises fear.
Bl«l- B¬¬|¹-' |H¬6 · (He) learns good behaviour
from good people.
6¹l- 9T 96|6 · The leaf falls from the tree.
|¬¹- +7l 94r|6 · From the mountain flows the river.
¬¹l- |4Hl H|«6 · (He) learns from the preceptor
In the following sentences the process of one thing
getting separated from the other is very clear.
rF6l-4l 9F6Tl|+ 96|-6 ·
The books drop from the hands.
6| 946l6 H46¹6- ·
They descend from the mountain
+-'l-4l HFl Fl4|6 ·
Tear rolls down from the eyes.
7l-'l- 9lóHl¬l4l- Hl¬¬¬|-6 ·
Students return from school.
The following sentences are examples of situations
where one entity is differentiated from another.
6l¹ BP7l6 7¬6P · The shore is higher than the sea.
67l¬- BP7l6 H~9- · The pond is smaller than the sea.
|rPl¬4- H-4-4- |¬|¹-4- 7¬6- ·
Himalaya is taller than other mountains.
Other situations where the Ablative case applies.
When a verb in a sentence implies that some one
is scared or someone is saving (protecting), the
concerned noun will be in the Ablative.
+9l- H-'l- ¹l74 ¹¬|-6 ·
Kings protect the kingdom from the enemies.
«+- ¤4l¤l6 -'F4|6 ·
The cow fears from the Tiger.
«l¹- H-'l- + -'F4|6 ·
The brave person does not fear (from) the enemy.
4H- ¹l¬l6 4l¬T ¹¬|6 ·
The physician saves the boy from disease.
In situations where the verb is associated with meanings
uch as
disgust, resting from, deviating (or faulting) from
the noun concerned will be in the Ablative.
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Case-6 The Possessive case
Nouns in case 6 generally convey the meaning of
"Whose" , "belonging to" etc.. In general, the case
refers to a connection between one thing and another.
Declensions:
Masculine nouns ending in H
¹lP- ¹lPF4 ¹lP4l- ¹lPlTl
¬=- ¬=F4 ¬=4l- ¬=l+l
¬r- ¬rF4 ¬r4l- ¬rlTl
4¬- 4¬F4 4¬4l- 4¬lTl
Nouns such as
74- − deity 4¬- − compilation ¬T- − character
¹B- − taste HlTlH- − sky Hl+-7- − delight
also decline as in ¹lP-
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Masc. ²
P|+- P+- P+4l- P|+9
r|¹- r¹- r4l- r|¹9
Nouns such as
|+|«- − treasure ¹|7P- − ray of light H|6|¤ − guest
¹l|H- − heap H|¬- − bee \4|+- − sound
¤4l|«- − disease 7-7|¬- − large drum (Musical Inst.)
H|7- − mountain Hl|«- − mental illness
will decline as in r|¹-
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Masc. 7
H¬- H¬l- H-4l- H¬9
Nouns such as
9¹H- − axe 4lr- − hand 9¬- − boss |¹9- − enemy
4l4- − air B6- − bridge r6- − cause
4T- − flute |HH- − baby P6- − mountain
²¬- − sugarcane F¤lT- − Lord Shiva
6-6- − manuscript HH- − ray of light
decline as in H¬-
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Feminine nouns ending in Hl
Bl6l |B6l4l- Bl64l- Bl6l+l
¹Pl ¹Pl4l- ¹P4l- ¹PlTl
¬6l ¬6l4l- ¬64l- ¬6l+l
Nouns such as
¬l¤l − story ¹?4l − street 9¬l − bright light
will also decline as in Bl6l
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Feminine ²
P|6- P6- Pt4l- P6l+l
Nouns such as
4|7- − Maize 4|7- − rain +l|6- − moral
Tl|-6- − luminance ¬|6- − shelter
Tl|6- − fame ¬l|6- − fear ¬|P- − earth
H|±- − strength «l|¬- − dust 7¬|6- − greatness
4|&- − knowledge P|6- − shape ¹l|-'- − night
decline as P|6-
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Feminine 7
«+- «+l- «-4l- «++l
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Neuter nouns ending in H
T¬ T¬F4 T¬4l- T¬l+l
+-' +-'F4 +-'4l- +-'lTl
9-' 9-'F4 9-'4l- 9-'lTl
9F6T 9F6TF4 9F6T4l- 9F6Tl+l
Nouns such as 4+ 4¬ =¬ B|¬¬ also
decline as in T¬
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Now for the declensions of personal pronouns.
Hr PP ,P Hl44l- ,+| HFPlT ,+-
t4 64 ,6 444l- ,4l 4!PlT ,4-
B- 6F4 64l- 69l
Bl 6F4l- 64l- 6lBl
66 6F4 64l- 69l
H4 HF4 H+4l- ,9+4l- 99l
²4 HF4l- H+4l- ,9+4l- HlBlP
²7 HF4 H+4l- ,9+4l- 99lP
99- 96F4 964l- ,9+4l- 969lP
99l 96F4l- 964l- ,9+4l- 96lBP
966 96F4 964l- ,9+4l- 969lP
T- TF4 T4l- T9lP
Tl TF4l- T4l- TlBlP
|T TF4 T4l- T9lP
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Let us now see some examples of sentences
with nouns in case-6, the possessive case.
²7 64 ¬rP · This is your house.
Bl6l ¹lPF4 9t+l · Sita is Rama’s wife
+l|BTl +-'4l- P\4 H|F6 ·
The nose is between the (two) eyes.
¬6- |H!4lTl |4=4+ 6!4|6 ·
The teacher is delighted at the students’ success.
Pl6l |HHl- 4l7+ 974|6 ·
The mother sees the play(ing) of two children.
4l7l*T 4l¬l+l F9«l ¬¬|6 ·
The competition of the students takes place
at the playground.
²4 ¬÷Pl · HF4l- ¬l6- ¬l|4-7- ·
This is Lakshmi . Her brother is Govind.
¬÷P- ¬r T-' H|F6 : Where is Lakshmi’s house?
+964- T4l+l B¹Pl+ T4|-6 ·
Kings honour (felicitate) poets.
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Special uses of the sixth case.
"for the reason"
A sentence incorporating this phrase will have
the accompanying noun in the Possessive case.
r6- − reason r6l- − for the reason
=+l- BG4lBF4 r6l- Tl7Pl¹ ¬¬7|-6 ·
People go to Kashmir for a pleasant stay.
When one refers to directions in a sentence,
the nouns associated will be in Possessive case.
946- (to the east of) 9|¾P6- − (to the west of)
7¬lT6- (to the south of) 7v'¹6- − (to the north of)
¬lPF4 946- +7l 94r|6 ·
The river runs east of the village (on the eastern side)
Hl¬4F4 7|¬T6- 67l¬- H|F6 ·
To the south of the temple is the tank (pond)
|4Hl¬4F4 9|¾P6- 4l7l*T H|F6 ·
To the west of the school is the playground.
It may be noted that the four words given above
are actually indeclinables.
There are instances of use of the indeclinables
in a slightly different form as in
94T , 9|¾P+ , 7|¬T+ , 7v'¹T
Though these are indeclinables, they appear to
have suffixes of the instrumrntal case (case-3).
When expressed this way, the indeclinables are
accompanied by nouns in either case 6 or 2.
for example,
94T ¬l¹6F4 4*BP7- H|F6 ·
Bay of Bengal is in the east of India.
7v'¹T ¬l¹6 |rPl¬4l- 466 ·
Himalayas are in the north of India.
When referring to something done by a person,
the person is expressed in the possessive case.
When referring to someone having done something,
that which was done is expressed in the
sixth case.
Examples.
4r7lH¹l¬4F4 |+Pl6l ¹l=¹l=¬l=-
Rajaraja Chola is the creator of the Brhadeeswara
Temple
(The temple referred to here is more than a thousand
years old and worship continues to this day. This is
truly a massive edifice qualifying for the adjective
4r6 meaning massive. The temple has been included
among the world heritage monuments by Unesco.
|4HH¹l4F4 B|7- T!T¹l=Bl¬¹- ·
Krishnaraja Sagar is the creation of of Visweswaraiah.
(Visweswaraiah was a civil engineer who lived in
South India during the early part of the twentieth
century and is called the father of engineering in
India. The structure referred to here is a dam)
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Sometimes, a noun qualifying for case 2 may get
expressed in case 6. Consider for instance,
The boy thinks of his mother.
Here "mother" forms the indirect object of the verb.
The meaning of this sentence could well be that the
boy is thinking about his mother’s affection towards
him. Then "mother’s" comes in the sixth case. In
Sanskrit this can also be expressed in the sixth case.
4l¬- Pl6¹ FP¹|6 case-2 or
4l¬- Pl6- FP¹|6 case -6
It is possible that a noun qualifying for expression
in the third case also gets expressed in the Possessive.
¬|«6- H¬F4 6-4|6 ·
The famished person is satisfied by food. This could
have also been expressed as
¬|«6- H¬+ 6-4|6 ·
Such examples are given only to give a hint to the
student about the variations seen in the use of the
words. Only experience will help master these.
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
This has been a long section. Please go over the
section a second time and do the exercises.
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Case-7 The Locative case:
The locative case indicates the locality or position
of a thing generally expressive of the meaning given
by the use of prepositions such as
in, into, inside, out of a group of, out of etc.
Declensions:
Masculine nouns ending in H
¬lP- ¬lP ¬lP4l- ¬lP9
H¹'4- H¹'4 H¹'44l- H¹'49
9l7- 9l7 9l74l- 9l79
77|«- 77«| 77\4l- 77|«9
9l|T- 9lT| 9l'4l- 9l|T9
|¬|¹- |¬¹| |¬4l- |¬|¹9
¬6- ¬¹| ¬4l- ¬69
4-«- 4-«| 4-\4l- 4-«9
H-'- H-'| H-'4l- H-'9
Declensions of personal pronouns
Hr P|4 Hl44l- HFPlB
t4 t4|4 444l- 4!PlB
B- 6|FP+ 64l- 69
Bl 6F4l 64l- 6lB
66 6|FP+ 64l- 69
H4 H|FP+ H+4l- 99
9+4l-
²4 HF4l H+4l- HlB
²7 H|FP+ H+4l- 99
9+4l-
99- 96|FP+ 964l- 969
9+4l-
99l 96F4l 964l- 96lB
966 96|FP+ 964l- 969
T- T|FP+ T4l- T9
Tl TF4l T4l- TlB
|T T|FP+ T4l- T9
Example sentences
9l'4l- H*~4- B|-6 · Fingers are (present) in both hands
|¬|¹9 ¬rl- B|-6 · Caves are present in mountains
PlT4TF4 ¬69 Hl|«Tl 9l|6- ·
The students has much affection for his teacher.
9l-'9 =¬ +l|F6 · There is no water in the vessels
77«| |6|P*¬l- ¬¹|-6 ·
Whales roam about in the ocean
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
Now look up the section on exercises and answer
the questions given there.
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Case-8 The Vocative case
Addressing a person is handled via the Vocative
case. Mostly usage in this case will accompany
a directive or an order to the person addressed.
Also a request may be applicable. The Vocative
case may also apply in third person where one
might say,
Let him help us. Let them sing his praise etc..
Declensions:
Masculine
¹lP- r ¹lP r ¹lP| r ¹lPl-
r|¹- r r¹ r r¹l r r¹4-
H¬- r H¬l r H¬ r H¬4-
Feminine
Pl¬l r Pl¬ r Pl¬ r Pl¬l-
P|6- r P6 r P6l r P64-
«+- r «+l r «+ r «+4-
Neuter
4+ r 4+ r 4+ r 4+l|+
4l|¹ r 4l¹ r 4l|¹Tl r 4l|¹|T
P«- r P«l r P«+l r P«|+

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