CODATA RECOMMENDED VALUES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS: 2002

NIST SP 961 (Dec/2005) Values from: P. J. Mohr and B. N. Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1 (2005).
A more extensive listing of constants is available in the above references and on the NIST Physics Laboratory Web site physics.nist.gov/constants.
The number in parenthesis is the one-standard-deviation uncertainty in the last two digits of the given value.
Quantity

Symbol

speed of light in vacuum
magnetic constant

c, c0
µ0

electric constant 1/µ0 c2
Newtonian constant of gravitation
Planck constant
in eV s
h/2π
in eV s
elementary charge
magnetic flux quantum h/2e
Josephson constant 2e/h
von Klitzing constant h/e2 = µ0 c/2α
Bohr magneton e¯
h/2me
in eV T−1
nuclear magneton e¯
h/2mp
in eV T−1
fine-structure constant e2/4π0 h
¯c
inverse fine-structure constant
Rydberg constant α2 me c/2h 

0
G
h

energy equivalent in eV
Bohr radius α/4πR∞ = 4π0 h
¯ 2/me e2
Hartree energy e2/4π0 a0 = 2R∞ hc = α2 me c2
in eV
electron mass
in u
energy equivalent in MeV
electron-muon mass ratio
electron-proton mass ratio
electron charge to mass quotient
Compton wavelength h/me c
λC /2π = αa0 = α2/4πR∞
classical electron radius α2 a0
Thomson cross section (8π/3)re2
electron magnetic moment
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
electron magnetic moment anomaly |µe |/µB − 1
electron g-factor −2(1 + ae )
electron-proton magnetic moment ratio
muon mass in u
energy equivalent in MeV
muon-electron mass ratio
muon magnetic moment
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
muon magnetic moment anomaly
|µµ |/(e¯
h/2mµ ) − 1

Numerical value

m e c2
me /mµ
me /mp
−e/me
λC
λC
re
σe
µe
µe /µB
µe /µN
ae
ge
µe /µp

m µ c2
mµ /me
µµ
µµ /µB
µµ /µN

299 792 458 (exact)
4π × 10−7 (exact)
= 12.566 370 614... × 10−7
8.854 187 817... × 10−12
6.6742(10) × 10−11
6.626 0693(11) × 10−34
4.135 667 43(35) × 10−15
1.054 571 68(18) × 10−34
6.582 119 15(56) × 10−16
1.602 176 53(14) × 10−19
2.067 833 72(18) × 10−15
483 597.879(41) × 109
25 812.807 449(86)
927.400 949(80) × 10−26
5.788 381 804(39) × 10−5
5.050 783 43(43) × 10−27
3.152 451 259(21) × 10−8
7.297 352 568(24) × 10−3
137.035 999 11(46)
10 973 731.568 525(73)
3.289 841 960 360(22) × 1015
13.605 6923(12)
0.529 177 2108(18) × 10−10
4.359 744 17(75) × 10−18
27.211 3845(23)
9.109 3826(16) × 10−31
5.485 799 0945(24) × 10−4
0.510 998 918(44)
4.836 331 67(13) × 10−3
5.446 170 2173(25) × 10−4
−1.758 820 12(15) × 1011
2.426 310 238(16) × 10−12
386.159 2678(26) × 10−15
2.817 940 325(28) × 10−15
0.665 245 873(13) × 10−28
−928.476 412(80) × 10−26
−1.001 159 652 1859(38)
−1838.281 971 07(85)
1.159 652 1859(38) × 10−3
−2.002 319 304 3718(75)
−658.210 6862(66)
0.113 428 9264(30)
105.658 3692(94)
206.768 2838(54)
−4.490 447 99(40) × 10−26
−4.841 970 45(13) × 10−3
−8.890 596 98(23)

1.165 919 81(62) × 10−3

h
¯
e
Φ0
KJ
RK
µB
µN
α
α−1
R∞
R∞ c
R∞ hc
a0
Eh
me

Unit

Quantity

m s−1
N A−2
N A−2
F m−1
m3 kg−1 s−2
Js
eV s
Js
eV s
C
Wb
Hz V−1

J T−1
eV T−1
J T−1
eV T−1

m−1
Hz
eV
m
J
eV
kg
u
MeV

C kg−1
m
m
m
m2
J T−1

u
MeV
J T−1

muon g-factor −2(1 + aµ )
muon-proton magnetic moment ratio
proton mass
in u
energy equivalent in MeV
proton-electron mass ratio
proton magnetic moment
to nuclear magneton ratio
proton magnetic shielding correction 1 − µ0p /µp
(H2 O, sphere, 25 ◦ C)
proton gyromagnetic ratio 2µp /¯
h
shielded proton gyromagnetic ratio 2µ0p /¯
h
(H2 O, sphere, 25 ◦ C)
neutron mass in u
energy equivalent in MeV
neutron-proton mass ratio
neutron magnetic moment
to nuclear magneton ratio
deuteron mass in u
energy equivalent in MeV
deuteron-proton mass ratio
deuteron magnetic moment
to nuclear magneton ratio
helion (3 He nucleus) mass in u
energy equivalent in MeV
shielded helion magnetic moment
(gas, sphere, 25 ◦ C)
to Bohr magneton ratio
to nuclear magneton ratio
alpha particle mass in u
energy equivalent in MeV
Avogadro constant
1
atomic mass constant 12
m(12 C) = 1 u
energy equivalent in MeV
Faraday constant NA e
molar gas constant
Boltzmann constant R/NA
in eV K−1
molar volume of ideal gas RT /p
(T = 273.15 K, p = 101.325 kPa)
Stefan-Boltzmann constant π2 k4/60¯
h 3 c2
first radiation constant 2πhc2
second radiation constant hc/k
Wien displacement law constant
b = λmax T = c2 /4.965 114 231...
Cu x unit: λ(Cu Kα1 )/1 537.400
Mo x unit: λ(Mo Kα1 )/707.831

Symbol

µµ /µp
mp

Numerical value

Unit

m p c2
mp /me
µp
µp /µN
σp0

−2.002 331 8396(12)
−3.183 345 118(89)
1.672 621 71(29) × 10−27
1.007 276 466 88(13)
938.272 029(80)
1836.152 672 61(85)
1.410 606 71(12) × 10−26
2.792 847 351(28)
25.689(15) × 10−6

γp
γp /2π
γp0

2.675 222 05(23) × 108
42.577 4813(37)
2.675 153 33(23) × 108

s−1 T−1
MHz T−1
s−1 T−1

γp0 /2π
mn
m n c2
mn /mp
µn
µn /µN
md
m d c2
md /mp
µd
µd /µN
mh
m h c2
µ0h

42.576 3875(37)
1.008 664 915 60(55)
939.565 360(81)
1.001 378 418 70(58)
−0.966 236 45(24) × 10−26
−1.913 042 73(45)
2.013 553 212 70(35)
1875.612 82(16)
1.999 007 500 82(41)
0.433 073 482(38) × 10−26
0.857 438 2329(92)
3.014 932 2434(58)
2808.391 42(24)
−1.074 553 024(93) × 10−26

MHz T−1
u
MeV

µ0h /µB
µ0h /µN

m α c2
NA , L
mu
m u c2
F
R
k
Vm

−1.158 671 474(14) × 10−3
−2.127 497 723(25)
4.001 506 179 149(56)
3727.379 17(32)
6.022 1415(10) × 1023
1.660 538 86(28) × 10−27
931.494 043(80)
96 485.3383(83)
8.314 472(15)
1.380 6505(24) × 10−23
8.617 343(15) × 10−5
22.413 996(39) × 10−3

u
MeV
mol−1
kg
MeV
C mol−1
J mol−1 K−1
J K−1
eV K−1
m3 mol−1

σ
c1
c2

5.670 400(40) × 10−8
3.741 771 38(64) × 10−16
1.438 7752(25) × 10−2

W m−2 K−4
W m2
mK

b
2.897 7685(51) × 10−3
xu(Cu Kα1 ) 1.002 077 10(29) × 10−13
xu(Mo Kα1 ) 1.002 099 66(53) × 10−13

kg
u
MeV
J T−1

J T−1
u
MeV
J T−1
u
MeV
J T−1

mK
m
m

Energy equivalents
(1
(1
(1
(1
(1

m−1 )c
m−1 )hc/k
m−1 )hc
m−1 )h/c
Hz)/c

=
=
=
=
=

299 792 458 Hz
1.438 7752(25) × 10−2 K
1.239 841 91(11) × 10−6 eV
1.331 025 0506(89) × 10−15 u
3.335 640 951 . . . × 10−9 m−1

(1
(1
(1
(1
(1

Hz)h/k
Hz)h
K)k/hc
K)k/h
K)k

=
=
=
=
=

4.799 2374(84) × 10−11 K
4.135 667 43(35) × 10−15 eV
69.503 56(12) m−1
2.083 6644(36) × 1010 Hz
8.617 343(15) × 10−5 eV

(1
(1
(1
(1
(1

J)
eV)
eV)/hc
eV)/h
eV)/k

=
=
=
=
=

6.241 509 47(53) × 1018 eV
1.602 176 53(14) × 10−19 J
8.065 544 45(69) × 105 m−1
2.417 989 40(21) × 1014 Hz
1.160 4505(20) × 104 K

(1
(1
(1
(1
(1

eV)/c2
kg)
u)
u)c/h
u)c2

=
=
=
=
=

1.073 544 171(92) × 10−9 u
6.022 1415(10) × 1026 u
1.660 538 86(28) × 10−27 kg
7.513 006 608(50) × 1014 m−1
931.494 043(80) × 106 eV