DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


ENERGY CONVERSION LABORATORY
MANUAL
(06AEL58)



2011-2012

COMPILED BY : HAREESHA N G
Lecturer

REVIEWED BY : Wg Cdr M R vaggar (Retd)
Associate prof and Head
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 1

SYLLABUS

AIRCRAFT ENERGY CONVERSION LABORATORY


Subject Code : 06AEL58 IA Marks: 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs : 42 Exam Marks: 50


PART - A

(INDIVIDUAL EXPERIMENTS)

1) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of lubricating oil using Abel Pensky and
Pensky Martins Apparatus.
2) Determination of Caloric value of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.
3) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Redwoods, Saybolts and Torsion
Viscometers.
4) Valve, Timing/port opening diagram of an I.C. engine (4 stroke/ 2stroke).
5) Use of planimeter. 21 Hours


PART - B

(GROUP EXPERIMENTS)

6) Performance Tests on I.C. Engines, Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC,
FP, heat balance sheet for
a) Four stroke Diesel Engine
b) Four stroke Petrol Engine
c) Multi-cylinder Diesel/Petrol Engine, (Morse test)
d) Two stroke Petrol Engine
e) Variable Compression Ratio I.C. Engine 21 Hours

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 2

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

PART-A

1) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of diesel using Abel Pensky Apparatus
2) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of lubricating oil using Pensky Martins
Apparatus
3) Determination of Caloric value of gaseous fuel using JUNKER’S gas Calorimeter
4) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Redwoods Viscometer
5) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Saybolts Viscometer
6) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Torsion Viscometer
7) Port opening diagram of an 2 stroke petrol engine
8) Valve Timing diagram of 4 stroke Diesel Engine
9) Use of Digital/Analog Plani-meter

PART-B

10) Performance Test on Four stroke, Diesel Engine. Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal
efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet.
11) Performance Test on Four stroke Petrol Engine. Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal
efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet
12) Performance Test on Multi-cylinder Petrol Engine, (Morse test). Calculations of IP,
BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet
13) Performance Test on Two stroke Petrol Engine. Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal
efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet
14) Performance Test on Variable Compression Ratio, 4S Petrol Engine. Calculations of
IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 3

Experiment No. 1:
ABEL’S FLASH POINT APPARATUS

AIM: To determine the flash point of diesel by Abel’s flash point apparatus.

APPARATUS: Abel’s flash point apparatus, Thermometers.

THEORY:
Flash point: The flash point is the lowest temperature, to which a lubricant must be heated
before its vapor, when mixed with air, will ignite but not continue to burn.

Fire point: The fire point is the temperature at which lubricant combustion will be sustained.
The flash and fire points are useful in determining a lubricant’s volatility and fire resistance.

The flash point can be used to determine the transportation and storage temperature
requirements for lubricants. Lubricant producers can also use the flash point to detect
potential product contamination. A lubricant exhibiting a flash point significantly lower than
normal will be suspected of contamination with a volatile product. Products with a flash point
less than 38
o
C (100
o
F) will usually require special precautions for safe handling. The fire
point for a lubricant is usually 8 to 10 percent above the flash point. The flash point and fire
point should not be confused with the auto-ignition temperature of a lubricant, which is the
temperature at which a lubricant will ignite spontaneously without an external ignition
source.

Outline of the methods: The sample is placed in the cup of the Abel apparatus and heated at
a prescribed rate. A small test flame is directed into the cup at regular intervals and the flash
point is taken as the lowest temperature at which application of the test flame will cause the
vapour above the sample to ignite with a distinct flash inside the cup.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 4

DESCRIPTION:
The Abel’s flash point apparatus is mainly used to determine the flash point of fuel oils
flashing between 22
0
C to 49
0
C. It consists of a sealed water bath with a provision of an air
chamber to hold the oil cup and circulate cold water for below ambient determination and an
external heater for above ambient determinations. The oil cup is provided with a lid and
sliding ports for the introduction of test flame. Within the oil cup a circular marking to
indicate the level of oil to be taken for the test. The whole arrangement is mounted on a
cylindrical enclosed stand.

PROCEDURE:
1) Clean the oil cup with any solvent and wipe it dry.
2) Fill water into the water jacket to its full level and insert into the cylindrical stand.
3) Pour water into the air chamber, which surrounds the oil cup to a depth of 38 mm.
4) Pour fuel oil to be tested into the oil cup up to the circular mark and place the oil cup into
the air chamber of the water bath.
5) Close it with the lid having sliding ports.
6) Insert the water and oil thermometers in their respective holders.
7) Keep the entire set up on a heater and heat the water at a very slow rate.
8) Maintain a low flame on the wick and apply the flame to the oil surface by sliding the
port at every 2
0
rise in temperature of the oil under test.
9) Record the temperature at which the first flash occurs and report as flash point.
10) To determine the flash point of fuel oils below room temperature, circulate cold water in
the water bath to at least 15
0
C below the expected flash point of the fuel oil sample and
follow steps 8 & 9.

OBSERVATION AND TABULAR COLUMN

Type of oil Used:

S.N. Temperature
Observation (Yes or No)
Flash Point Fire Point
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

RESULT:

The flash point of given oil is = oC
The fire point of given oil is =
o
C

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 5

Experiment No. 2:
PENSKY MARTEN’S FLASH POINT APPARATUS

AIM: To determine the flash point of lubricating oil by Pensky Marten’s apparatus.

APPARATUS: Pensky Marten’s apparatus, thermometers.

THEORY:
In the Pensky-Marten’s closed cup flash point test, a brass test cup is filled with a test
specimen and fitted with a cover. The sample is heated and stirred at specified rates
depending on what it is that's being tested. An ignition source is directed into the cup at
regular intervals with simultaneous interruption of stirring until a flash that spreads
throughout the inside of the cup is seen. The corresponding temperature is its flash point.
Pensky-Martens closed cup is sealed with a lid through which the ignition source can
be introduced periodically. The vapour above the liquid is assumed to be in reasonable
equilibrium with the liquid. Closed cup testers give lower values for the flash point (typically
5-10 K) and are a better approximation to the temperature at which the vapour pressure
reaches the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL).

Outline of Method: the sample is heated in a test cup at a slow and constant rate with
continuous stirring. A small test flame is directed into the cup at regular intervals with
simultaneous interruption of stirring. The flash point is taken as the lowest temperature at
which the application of the test flame causes the vapour above the sample to ignite
momentarily.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:

Figure: Pensky Martens apparatus

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 6

DESCRIPTION:
This apparatus is used to determine the flash point of fuel oils and lubricating oils. Flashing
above 49
0
C. It consists of an oil cup with a circular marking for oil level indication. A lid to
cover the oil cup with sliding shutters with ports, oil stirring mechanism and dipping wick
holder, cast iron oil cup holder (air bath), electric heater with control.

PROCEDURE:
1) Install the apparatus on a table near a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps single-phase power source.
Keep the electrical heater on the table. Position the oil cup holder (air bath) on the heater.
Insert the oil cup into the bath and position it.
2) Pour oil to be tested into the oil cup up to the mark.
3) Close the lid.
4) Connect the heater to the electrical power source and heat the oil at a slow steady rate of
2
0
C /min with the help of the regulator. Keep stirring the oil with the stirring mechanism.
5) Maintain a small flame on the wick.
6) Introduce the flame to the oil surface by operating the circular handle, which makes the
maintained flame to dip into the oil cup by opening the shutter. This is done at every half
minute, only after the sample oil reaches 15
0
to 17
0
C before the expected flash point.
7) Record the temperature at which first flash occurs and report as flash point of the sample
oil.
8) To stop the experiment, switch of the heater and allow it to cool.

OBSERVATION AND TABULAR COLUMN:
Lubricating oil used:
S.N. Temperature
Observation (Yes or No)
Flash Point Fire Point
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

RESULT:
The flash point of given oil is = oC
The fire point of given oil is = oC

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 7

Experiment No. 3:
JUNKERS GAS CALORIMETER

AIM: To determine calorific value of gaseous fuel by Junkers gas calorimeter

APPARATUS:
The apparatus mainly consists of a cylindrical shell with copper coil arranged in two pass
configuration with water inlet and outlet to circulate through the copper coil, a pressure
regulator, a wet type gas flow meter & a gas Bunsen burner, temperature sensors for
measuring inlet, outlet water temperature, and for flue gas temperature, a 2000ml measuring
jar.

Figure: Experimental setup of junker’s gas calorimeter

DESCRIPTION:
Determination of calorific value (heat value) of combustible gases is essential to assess the
amount of heat given away by the gas while burning a known amount of gas to heat a known
amount of fluid (water) in a closed chamber.

PROCEDURE:
1. Install the equipment on a flat rigid platform near an uninterrupted continuous water
source of ½” size and a drain pipe.
2. Connect the gas source to the pressure regulator, gas flow meter and the burner
respectively in series
3. Insert the thermometer / temperature sensors, into their respective places to measure
water inlet and outlet temperatures and a thermometer to measure the flue gas
temperature at the flue gas outlet
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 8

4. Start the water flow through the calorimeter at a study constant flow rate and allow it
to drain through over flow.
5. Start the gas flow slowly and light the burner out side the calorimeter
6. Regulate the flow of gas at a steady rate to any designed flow (Volume)
7. Insert the burner into the calorimeter and allow the out let water temperature to attain
a steady state
8. Swing the out let to a 1000 ml jar and start. The stop watch simultaneously, record the
initial gas flow meter reading at the same time
9. Note down the time taken to fill 1000ml and at the same time the final gas flow
reading recorded by the gas flow meter
10. Tabulate all the reading and calculate the calorific valve of the gas under test
11. Repeat the experiment by varying the water flow rate or gas flow for different
conditions.
12. After the experiment is over stop the gas flow, water flow, and drain the water from
the calorimeter, keep the equipment clean & dry.

OBSERVATIONS:
Density of water
w
ρ = 1000Kg/m
3

Volume of gas burnt V
g
in liters =
Density of gas
g
ρ = 0.22Kg/m
3

Cp
w
= 1 K Cal/kg K
Time taken to collect 1 liter of water : _________ sec

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.
N
Volume of
water collected
in liter (V
w
)
Volume of gas
Burnt in liter
(V
g
)
Water inlet
Temperature
T
1

o
C
Water outlet
Temperature
T
2

o
C
Change in
Temp of water
ǻT= (T
2
-T
1
)
Cv of
gas
KCal/kg
1 1
2 1

CALCULATION:
g g
w w w
gas
V
T CP V
CV
ρ
ρ
×
∆ × × ×
=
Where
w
ρ = Density of water
V
g
= Volume of gas burnt in liters
g
ρ = Density of gas
Cp
w
= Specific heat of water

RESULT:
Calorific value of given gaseous fuel is = K Cal/Kg


Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 9

Experiment No. 4:

REDWOOD VISCOMETER

AIM: To determine the viscosity of diesel using redwood viscometer at different
temperatures.

APPARATUS: Redwood Viscometer, 50ml Receiving flask, thermometers and stopwatch

DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS:
Redwood viscometer Consists of a cylindrical oil cup furnished with a gauge point,
agate / metallic Orifice jet at the bottom having a concave depression from inside to facilitate
a ball with stiff wire to act as a valve to start or stop oil flow. The outer side of the orifice jet
is convex, so that the oil under test does not creep over the lower face of the oil cup. The oil
cup is surrounded by a water bath with a circular electrical immersion heater and a stirring
device. Two thermometers are provided to measure water bath temp. & oil temperature under
test. A round flat-bottomed flask of 50ml marking, to measure 50 ml of oil flow against time.
The water bath with oil cup is supported on a tripod stand with leveling screws.

Figure: Experimental Setup



Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 10

PROCEDURE:
1) Clean the oil cup with a solvent preferably C.T.C (Carbon Tetra chloride) and wipe it dry
thoroughly with a paper napkins or a soft cloth (do not use cotton waste) and the orifice
jet with a fine thread.
2) Keep the water bath with oil cup on the tripod stand and level it.
3) Pour water into the water bath up to 15 to 20mm below the top portion
4) Keep the ball (valve) in position and pour clean filtered oil sample (use strainer not
coarser than BS 100 mesh) to be tested into the oil cup up to the gauge point and cover it
with the lid.
5) Take a clean dry 50ml flask and place it under the orifice jet of the oil cup and center it.
6) Lift the ball (valve) and simultaneously start a stop watch and allow the oil into the
receiving flask.
7) Adjust the receiving flask (50ml) in such a way that the oil string coming out of the jet
strikes the neck of the flask to avoid foaming (formation of air bubbles) on the oil surface.
8) Wait till the oil level touches the 50 ml mark stop the watch and record the time in sec.
9) Repeat the experiment at different temperatures above ambient.
10) Plot the relevant graphs

NOTE:
For conducting experiment at different temperatures above ambient on Redwood Viscometer,
connect the heater of the water bath to a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps power source through a dimmer
stat. Heat the water to any desired temperature while continuously stirring the water with the
stirring device and occasionally the oil sample with the thermometer. Once the temperature of
the oil reaches the required temperature follow steps 6, 7 and 8.


OBSERVATION:
1. Type of oil used:

2. Weight of the empty flask:

TABULATION:

S.
N
Temp. of
the oil in
0
C
Time for
collecting 50 ml.
of oil in t (sec)
Wt. of the
measuring jar
(W
1
) in gms
Wt. of the measuring
jar + 50CC of oil
(W2) in gms
Density
of oil ȡ
in kg/m
3

Kinematic
Viscosity
(Ȗ) m
2
/s
Dynamic
Viscosity
(ȝ) Pa/s










Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 11


CALCULATIONS:



1) Therefore,
6
10 ) ( cos

× ¸
¹
·
¨
©
§
− × =
t
B
t A ity is KinematicV γ in m
2
/s

Note: 1 centistokes = 1x10
-6
m
2
/s; 1 stoke = 1cm
2
/sec (Kinematic Viscosity)
1 poise = 0.1N S/m
2
(Pa. S) (Absolute viscosity)
2) Density of the given oil is
( )
3 1 2
10
50
×

=
w w
ρ in Kg/m
3

3) Absolute Viscosity µ = Ȟ * ȡ in Pa.S or N S/m
2



Plot the following graphs


RESULTS:

Mass density of given oil is _________________Kg/m
3

Kinematic viscosity of given oil is _____________ m
2
/S
Absolute viscosity of given oil is _______________ N S/m
2


CONCLUSION: Kinematic viscosity, absolute viscosity was determined and relevant
graphs were drawn. Viscosity varies with temperature and has negative exponential trend.
Abs
Visc
Temp Temp
Kine
Visc
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 12

Experiment No. 5:
SAYBOLT VISCOMETER

AIM: To determine viscosity of the given oil using Say Bolt Viscometer at different
temperatures expressed in terms of Saybolt seconds.

APPARATUS: Say Bolt Viscometer, 60ml receiving flask, thermometers & stopwatch.

DESCRIPTION:
The apparatus mainly consists of a standard cylindrical oil cup surrounded with a
water bath with an immersion heater and a stirring device. The apparatus is supplied with two
S.S. Orifice jets namely Universal jet & Furol jet, which can be fitted at the bottom of the oil
cup as per our requirement. A rubber cork stopper arrangement is provided also at the bottom
to facilitate start and stop the oil flow from the Viscometer. Two thermometers are provided
to measure water bath temperature and oil temperature under test. A round flat-bottomed
flask with a 60-ml marking on the neck is provided to measure 60 ml of oil flow against time.
The oil cup with the water bath is supported on a stand with levelly screws.

PROCEDURE:
1. Clean the oil cup with a solvent preferably C.T.C (Carbon Tetra chloride) and wipe it
dry thoroughly with a paper napkins or a soft cloth (do not use cotton waste) and the
orifice jet with a fine thread.
2. Keep the water bath with oil cup on the tripod stand and level it.
3. Pour water into the water bath up to 15 to 20mm below the top portion.
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 13

4. Close the Orifice opening from bottom with the rubber cork provided. Pour oil to be
tested into the strainer by keeping the strainer on the oil cup until the oil fills up in the
oil cup as well as in side well. Withdraw the excess oil in the side well and position the
thermometers in water bath and oil cup.
5. Take a clean dry 60ml flask and place it under the orifice jet of the oil cup and center
it.
6. Pull the rubber cork open and simultaneously start a stopwatch and allow the oil into
the receiving flask.
7. Adjust the receiving flask (60ml) in such a way that the oil string coming out of the jet
strikes the neck of the flask to avoid foaming (formation of air bubbles) on the oil
surface.
8. Wait till the oil level touches the 60 ml mark, stop the watch and record the time in sec.
9. Repeat the experiment at different temperatures above ambient.
10. Use specific nozzle suitable for lubricant or oil.

NOTE:
For conducting experiment at different temperatures above ambient on Saybolt
Viscometer, connect the heater of the water bath to a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps power source
through a dimmer stat. Heat the water to any desired temperature while continuously stirring
the water with the stirring device and occasionally the oil sample with the thermometer. Once
the temperature of the oil reaches the required temperature follow steps 6, 7 and 8.

TABULATION:

Type of oil used:-

Weight of the empty flask:-

S.N Temp.
of the
oil in
0
C
Time for
collecting 60CC
of oil in t (sec)
Wt. of the
measuring jar
(W
1
) in gms
Wt. of the
measuring jar +
50CC of oil
(W2) in gms
Density
of oil ȡ in
kg/m
3

Kinematic
Viscosity Ȗ
m
2
/s
Dynamic
Viscosity ȝ
in Pa/s








Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 14

CALCULATIONS:



4) Therefore,
6
10 ) ( cos

× ¸
¹
·
¨
©
§
− × =
t
B
t A ity is KinematicV γ in m
2
/s

Note: 1 centistokes = 1x10
-6
m
2
/s; 1 stoke = 1cm
2
/sec (Kinematic Viscosity)
2 poise = 0.1N S/m
2
(Pa. S) (Absolute viscosity)
5) Density of the given oil is
( )
3 1 2
10
50
×

=
w w
ρ in Kg/m
3

6) Absolute Viscosity µ = Ȟ * ȡ in Pa.S or N S/m
2



Plot the following graphs


RESULTS:

Mass density of given oil is _________________Kg/m
3

Kinematic viscosity of given oil is _____________ m
2
/S
Absolute viscosity of given oil is _______________ N S/m
2


CONCLUSION: Kinematic viscosity, absolute viscosity was determined and relevant
graphs were drawn. Viscosity varies with temperature and has negative exponential trend.

Abs
Visc
Temp Temp
Kine
Visc
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 15

Experiment No. 6:
TORSION VISCOMETER

AIM: To determine the viscosity of given oil using torsion viscometer

APPARATUS: Torsion Viscometer, sample oil & thermometer

DESCRIPTION:
The torsion viscometer consists of a flywheel with a pointer suspended in horizontal position
by means of a torsion wire. The wire is fixed to the torsion head at the top. Adopters are used
to adjust the length of the wire. Surrounding the flywheel, there is a circular scale graduated
in degrees. A Cylinder is attached to the flywheel. The instrument is supported on a tripod
with leveling screws.
The apparatus consists of a device to hold a solid cylinder and a flywheel by means of
a Torsion wire with end connectors. A release pin is provided to hold the flywheel in
horizontal position. The flywheel is, surrounded by a graduated scale in degrees (0
0
to 360
0
).
A pointer is attached to the flywheel to indicate the angular movement of the flywheel. Oil
cup to hold the oil under test;

Figure: Experimental setup of Torsion viscometer

PROCEDURE:

1) Install the apparatus on a plain flat table and level it with leveling screws.
2) Insert the torsion wire with end connectors into the tube vertically downwards with the
top end connector of the wire fixed to a stationary head
3) Insert the bottom end connector of the wire into the top portion of the flywheel and
secure it.
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 16

4) Fix the solid cylinder to the bottom portion of the flywheel.
5) Pour clean filtered oil to be tested into the oil cup up to about 5mm to 10mm below the
top of the oil cup and place it on the platform provided and properly position it.
6) Slightly lift the top stationery head so that the flywheel along with torsion wire is free to
rotate horizontally and position the pointer of the flywheel exactly in front of the release
pin.
7) Adjust the pointer of the flywheel to zero degree by turning the stationary head either
way with absolutely no torsion in the wire and tighten the stationary head.
8) Lift the oil cup along with the platform in such a way that, the solid cylinder under the
flywheel completely immersed in the oil under test.
9) Manually give one full rotation to the flywheel (0
0
to 0
0
) and secure it in the release pin.
10) Now the apparatus is ready for the test
11) Slowly pull the release pin back without disturbing the set up.
12) The flywheel starts rotating and completes one full rotation (0
0
to 0
0
) and moves
beyond zero purely by virtue of its momentum. This angler movement beyond zero
(over swing) is recorded and the viscosity of the oil under test in Redwood seconds is
obtained from the graph provided.

To conduct the experiment above ambient, the oil is heated in a separate container to above
5
0
C to 7
0
C beyond the desired oil temperature and follow steps 5 to l2

TABULATION:

Type of oil used:-

S.N Temp.
of the
oil in
0
C
Angular
rotation on
the disk in
degrees
Corresponding
redwoods
seconds from
graph







GRAPH:
Plot the graph of temperature verses redwood seconds

RESULTS:

Kinematic viscosity of given oil in terms of redwood seconds is ____________

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 17

Experiment No. 7:
PORT TIMING DIAGRM
(Cut section petrol engine)

AIM: To draw port timing diagram for a given 2stroke petrol engine.

THEORY: In this type of engines, ports which take charge of air and fuel mixture and
removes exhaust from the cylinder itself, by virtue of position of piston. When piston moves
inside the cylinder it closes & opens ports. In two stroke engines one revolution of crank
shaft completes one cycle.
Figure shows the timing diagram for a two-stroke cycle engine. It consists of a circle upon
which are marked the angular positions of the various cycle events. The diagram is for a
vertical engine; for a horizontal engine the diagram would appear on its side. With the two-
stroke cycle the inlet and exhaust ports open and close at equal angles on either side of the
BDC position. This is because the piston in this type of engine is also the inlet and exhaust
valve, so port opening and closing will occur at equal angles on either side of the dead centre
position. Angles shown are representative only.


Figure: Port Timing diagram of 2 Stroke petrol Engine

INLET PORT: Through which mixture of fuel and air enters the crank casing.
EXHAUST PORT: Through which the burnet (exhaust) gas exits
TRANFER PORT: Through which air and fuel mixture enters the cylinder head

PROCEDURE:
1. Fix a reference pointer on the body of the engine near the flywheel, Identify the ports.
2. Find out the direction of rotation of the crank shaft.
3. Mark the TDC position and BDC position on the flywheel.
4. Mark the opening and closings of the inlet, Exhaust and Transfer ports.
5. Using the protractor fixed on the flywheel, find out the angular position of the piston
6. Name the events IPO , IPC, EPO, EPC , TPO, and TPC.


Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 18

OBSERVATION & RESULTS:

SI.
No.
Event
Position of
the crank
Angular position from the
nearest dead centre
1 IPO BTDC
2 IPC ATDC
3 TPO BBDC
4 TPC ABDC
5 EPO BBDC
6 EPC ABDC

RESULT: Draw the port timing diagram

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 19

Experiment No. 8:
VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM
AIM: To draw valve timing diagram for given engine and calculate different periods.

THEORY:
In a four stroke engine opening and closing of valves and fuel injection do not take place
exactly at the end of dead centre positions. The valves open slightly earlier and close after
that respective dead centre position .The fuel injection also occurs prior to the full
compression ie before the piston reaches the dead centre position. Both the valve operates at
some degree on either side in terms of crank angle from dead centre position. When an intake
valve opens before top dead center and the exhaust valve opens before bottom dead center, it
is called lead. When an intake valve closes after bottom dead center, and the exhaust valve
closes after top dead center, it is called lag. On the exhaust stroke, the intake and exhaust
valve are open at the same time for a few degrees around top dead center. This is called valve
overlap.

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 20

PROCEDURE:

1. Rotate flywheel freely by hand, fix a reference point on the body of the engine near
the flywheel
2. Now while rotating, observe piston at TDC (Top dead centre) and mark with chalk on
flywheel with reference to the point
3. Similarly by rotating, mark the position of bottom dead center (BDC). It is to be
observed that it takes to rotation of flywheel to complete one cycle of operation.
(one cycle is suction , compression, power & exhaust strokes)
4. Now identify inlet and exhaust valves.
5. Find out direction of rotation of flywheel (crank shaft)
6. Bring flywheel to TDC position (pointer).
7. Go on rotating flywheel slowly and observe position (functioning) of both the valves.
8. Now observe when inlet valves opens mark it on flywheel (inlet valve open – (IVO)
9. Slowly rotate flywheel, and observe when inlet valve closes –( IVC.)
10. Rotate further observe when exhaust valve opens (EVO )
11. Rotate further & observe when exhaust valve closes (EVC).
12. Using the protractor fixed on the flywheel, find out the angular position of the piston
13. Name the events IVO, IVC, EVO, EVC,
14. Then draw spiral diagram with data in marking on flywheel.


CALCULATIONS:

1. Angle of overlap = IVO angle + EVC angle

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.No Event No Position of
Crank
Angle ș In
degrees
1 IVO
2 IVO
3 EVO
4 EVC

Where:
BTDC – Before top dead centre, ABDC – After bottom dead centre
BBDC – Before bottom dead centre, ATDC – After top dead centre

RESULT: Plot the Valve Timing Diagram on graph sheet, show Angle of overlap




Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 21

PLANIMETER

Amsler's Polar and Linear Planimeters
In 1854. Jakob Amslcr invented the polar planimeter a brilliant and simple device for
measuring the area of a region. Schematic drawings of polar and linear planimeters are shown
in Figures. The main part of each is a movable rod, called the tracer arm. With a tracer point
at one end (labeled T). A wheel is attached to the rod with its axis parallel to the rod. The
wheel is equipped with a scale typically calibrated in square inches or square centimeters. It
is similar to a map reader wheel in that it can roll both forwards and backwards, and we will
call it the measuring wheel. In a linear planimeter, the end of the tracer arm opposite the
tracer point is restricted to follow a linear track, along which it can slide freely. In contrast, in
a polar planimeter, the tracer rod is hinged to a second rod, the pole arm, forming an elbow.
The end of the pole arm opposite the hinge, called the pole, is fixed so that the pole arm can
pivot around it consequently the elbow follows the arc of a circle as it moves.

To operate a planimeter, the user selects a starting point on the boundary of the region
to be measured, places the tracer point there, and sets the counter on the wheel to zero. The
user then moves the tracer point once around the boundary of the region, as shown in Figure.
The tracer point is typically a stylus or a point marked on a magnifying glass to facilitate the
tracing. In a polar planimeter, as the tracer point moves, the elbow at die hinge will flex and
the angle between the pole arm and the tracer arm will change. In a linear planimeter, the end
of the tracer arm in the track will slide along the track. In both planimeters the wheel rests
gently on the paper, partially rolling and partially sliding, depending on how the tracer point
is moved. If the pointer is moved parallel to the tracer arm, the wheel slides and does not roll
at all. If the pointer is moved perpendicular to the tracer arm, the wheel rolls, and does not
slide at all. Motion of the pointer in any other direction causes the wheel to both roll and
slide. When the tracer point returns to the starting point, the user can read the area from the
scale on the wheel.

Fig: Polar plani meter Fig: Linear planimeter
DIGITAL PLANIMETER

Figure: Digital plani-meter
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 22

Experiment No. 09:

USE OF DIGITAL/ANALOG PLANIMETER

AIM: To determine the area of the regular and irregular plane surfaces and to calculate
Percentage error in the measurement.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Digital or Analog planimeter, drawing board with sheet, scale,
etc.

THEORY:
For regular surface area can be obtained by calculation, but for irregular surface it is
very difficult to calculate area, which can be obtained by integrating the area. The integration
of the area is complicated, to overcome this difficulty; a mechanical device called planimeter
is used. Planimeter is a form of integrator which converts graphical area into numerical
values. planimeter consists of two arms hinged at a point. One arm is a pivot arm and the
other arm is the tracing arm. The tracing arm is moved along the boundary of the plane area
whose area is to be determined.

DESCRIPTION:

The planimeter mainly consists of:
1. Tracing arm with main scale, vernier scale, Rotating disc and rotating drum with
vernier scale
2. Pivot arm with a ball point at one end and a cylindrical weight with pin at the other
end.
3. Magnifying lance.

PROCEDURE:

1. Keep the drawing board on a plain table.
2. Fix the drawing sheet containing the regular or irregular shape of drawing (With the help
of drawing board pins.) of which the surface area is to be determined.
3. Take out the Planimeter (Tracing arm and pivot arm) from the box and place it on the
drawing board.
4. Set the main scale of the tracing arm to the specified set point with the vernier scale
“zero” coincide with the main scale setting (use magnifying lens if required)
5. Place the tracing arm horizontally with the tracing point on the periphery of the drawing
whose surface area to be determined.
6. Fix the pivot arm approximately perpendicular to the tracing arm, by inserting the ball
point into its appropriate position on the tracing arm and press the pin on the other side of
the pivot arm against the board in position.
7. Roughly move the tracing arm along the periphery of the drawing in clock wise direction
to ascertain free and easy movement of the tracing arm and bring back to the starting
point.
8. Now carefully rotate the scale drum manually by thumb so that rotating disc indicates
“zero”, and the “zero” of the drum scale coincide with “zero” of the its Vernier scale
“zero” .
9. Ascertain that the tracing point is on the periphery of the drawing
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 23

10. Now slowly move the tracing pin along the periphery of the drawing in clock wise
direction without miss lifting the tracing pin or moving away from the line of the
drawing and come back to the starting point.
11. Carefully record the reading indicated by the rotating disc as well as the drum scale with
the vernier scale and declare the area in appropriate units.


FORMULAE USED:

1. Measured area = M * (Final Reading ~ Initial Reading)

Where M is multiplier constant =

(Actual area - Measured area)
2. Percentage error = --------------------- ----------------- 100
Actual area

OBSERVATION & TABULATION:

S.N Shape of the
figure
Initial
reading
Final
reading
Measured
area
Actual
area
%
Error



1

2

3
5

4









RESULT: 1. Area of the irregular surface is ____________

2. Percentage error is ___________
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 24

SECTIONISED AUTOMOBILE MPFI ENGINE MODEL

AIM: To demonstrate the working of an Automobile 4 cylinder, 4 stroke , inline, water
cooled MPFI maruti engine

DESCRIPTION:
The model of sectioned engine assembly of Maruti is been made out of original
Maruti MPFI engine assembly for demonstration. The Maruti engine assembly is: In line,
Four cylinder, 4 stroke petrol engine with 1000 cc cylinder capacity. The Engine is fitted
here with maximum parts and accessories of the engine like four cylinders, the cylinder
block, Cylinder heads, valve ports, piston, Connecting rod, inlet and Exhaust manifolds,
Water pump, oil pump, oil sump, Alternator, Ignition coil, oxygen sensor, coolant sensor,
Temperature sensor, cmp sensor etc to clearly demonstrate the internal constructional details .
The entire system will be suitably painted with different colors ( duco paint), all the
hardwares and gears will be electroplated. Different colour codes are been provided for
different parts and accessories for easy identification . The colour code is as listed below.

1. The colour for Air is Blue (suction)
2. The colour for Exhaust smoke is P.O Red
3. The colour for Oil sump is Yellow
4. The colour for water pump is light Blue
5. The colour for Cut portion is Signal Red
The engine assembly is coupled to a reduction gear unit through the flywheel of the engine
assembly, which is then coupled to a single phase AC motor, so that by running the electric
motor the entire function of the engine can be easily observed.


Figure: Cut section of a 4 stroke, 4 cylinder engine



Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 25

INSTALLATION:
1. Clean the model off dust, Wipe the same with soft cloth along the old remains of the
oil.
2. Freshly oil the engine model, oiling has to be done at the friction points such as
piston, connecting rod, valves , cam, oil pump, fuel injection pump etc,
3. Connect the plug to a 15 amps 230 V AC socket
4. Switch on the engine model to demonstrate the working of the pistons, valves oil
pump, water pump, etc.

MAINTENANCE:
There are only few maintenance points to be considered
1. The engine model has to be dusted regularly and should be kept covered when not in
use
2. Oiling has to be done along the friction points such as piston, connecting rod, valves,
cam, oil pump, fuel injection pump etc. once in every five days.
3. Check and change the V belt connected to the reduction gear unit and AC motor once
in every one year
4. Greasing for the Gear pinion has to be done once in every month.

OPERATION:
1. The plug has to be connected to a 15 amps 230V AC socket
2. Once the engine model is switched ON, the movement of the pistons, opening of the
valves, rotation of the water pump, oil pump etc can be observed. So that the working
of the different parts and accessories can be demonstrated.

CAUTION:
1. Keep hands off the engine model while it is running as all the moving parts are cut
exposed and the risk of getting hurt is more
2. Use Teaching sticks to demonstrate while the model is switched ON and running.

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 26

Experiment 10:

2-STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER AIR COOLED PETROL ENGINE

AIM: To conduct performance test on 2 stroke,1-cylinder petrol engine and to draw the Heat
balance sheet.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: 2 stroke, single cylinder petrol engine test rig, Stop watch, etc

THEORY:
Heat engine is a device which converts heat energy into mechanical work. Engine
performance is an indication of the degree of success with which it is doing its assigned job,
i.e. the conversion of the chemical energy in to the useful work. The degree of success is
compared on the basis of 1) specific fuel consumption 2) brake mean effective pressure 3)
specific power output 4) Specific weight etc. The engine performance can be obtained by
running the engine at constant speed for variable load by adjusting the throttle.

PROCEDURE:
1. Check the petrol in the petrol tank and keep the gear lever in neutral position.
a. Start the engine by using kick start. choose the top gear and set the engine
speed to 650 rpm , make it constant by using the accelerator.
2. Apply load on the engine by operating the electrical loading switches of the alternator in
steps. Use accelerator to engine speed to 650rpm, allow some time so that speed
stabilizes.
3. Keep the speed constant and note down the
b. Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption.
c. Voltmeter and ammeter readings
d. Monometer reading
e. Speed of the engine
f. Temperature of inlet air and exhaust gas
4. Repeat the experiment for different loads
5. Tabulate the readings and calculate the brake power, heat input, air-fuel ratio, specific
fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency.
6. Plot the graph Q
in
V/S BP, SFC V/S BP and Ș
b th
V/S BP

SPECIFICATIONS:
Bore (D) = 57mm
Stroke (L) = 57mm
Orifice diameter (d) = 25mm
Compression ratio: 7.4 : 1
Cylinder capacity: 150CC


OBSERVATIONS:
Water density, ȡ
w
: 1000 kg/m
3
Calorific value of petrol, C
V
: 47,500 KJ/kg
Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec
2
Petrol density, ȡ
p
: 750 Kg/m
3


Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 27

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.N. Speed
in
RPM
Time for
10cc of
fuel supply
(t) in sec
Manometer
reading (h
m
)

in mm
Temperature in
o
C Voltmeter
Reading
(V)
Volts
Ammeter
Reading
(I)
Ampere
Inlet air
T
a

Exhaust Air
(T
g
)
h
1
h
2
h
m

1
2

3

4

5


FORMULAE USED:
sec in n consumptio fuel of for10cc taken time t
kg/m 750 petrol of ȡ where
kg/s in
t
ȡ 10 cc in consumed fuel
m consumed fuel the of Mass 1.
3
p
p
6
f
=
=
× ×
=

density is
Therefore Total Fuel Consumed (TFC) = 60 60× ×
f
m in Kg/Hr

kg/m in Pa/RTa air of density
mtrs in reading manometer h
/4) d ( orifice the of area A
0.62 C
/min m in 2gh A C 60 intake air of volume actual a V where
kg/min in V m supplied air of Mass 2.
3
a
a
2
o
d
3
a o d a
a a a
=
=
=
=
=
× =
ρ
π
ρ
is

g = 9.81 m/s
2

air
water manometer
a
h
h
ρ
ρ × ×
=
1000
in meters of air
Where
h
a
= head of air in meters
h
manometer
= manometer reading in mm
ȡ
water
= 1000Kg/m
3

a
a
air
RT
p
= ρ
Where
air
ρ = Density of air in Kg/m
3

p
a
= Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x10
5
N/m
2
R = Real gas constant = 287 J/Kg
o
K
T
a
= Room temperature
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 28

To calculate
air
ρ use the following relation
) 273 ( 287
10 01325 . 1
5
a
air
T + ×
×
= ρ in Kg/m
3
3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) =
g
I V
η ×
×
1000
in KW
Where,
V = Voltmeter reading
I = Ammeter reading
Ș
g
= Efficiency of Generator = 0.75

m
m
Ratio Fuel - Air 4
f
a
=

kJ/kg in fuel the of valvue calorific the is V C
kg/s in supplied fuel of mass the is m where
kW in V C m Q input Heat 5.
f
f
× =


6. (SFC) n consumptio fuel Specific Hr - kg/kW in
BP
3600 m

f
×
=

engine. the of bore and stroke the are D and L m in /4 D A e wher
/min m in N A L me Swept volu V supply air l Theoratica
100
V supply air l Theoratica
V supplied air of vol actual
efficiency Volumetric 7
2 2
3
th
th
act
vol
π
η
=
× × = =
× =

V
a
= Actual Volume of air supplied in m
3
/min

100
Q input Heat
BP
efficiency thermal Brake 8
bth
× = η

HEAT BALANCE SHEET:

Heat input KW in % Heat Output KW in %
Heat supplied by the fuel a)Heat equivalent to BP
b) Heat carried by exhaust
gases = m
g
* C
pg
(Tg-Ta)
m
g
= m
a
+ m
f

c)Heat unaccountable
1-(a+b)



Total input

Total output

Specific heat of air = C
pg
= 1.005KJ/Kg
o
C
m
a
= Mass of air supplied in Kg/s
m
f
= mass of fuel supplied in Kg/s

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 29

RESULT SHEET
S.N. Mass of fuel
supplied (m
f
)
in Kg/s
Mass of air
supplied(m
a
)
in Kg/s
Air-
Fuel
Ratio
BHP
in KW
SFC in
Kg/KW Hr
Heat
input
in KW
Brake
thermal
efficiency
Volumetric
efficiency
1
2
3
4
5


CONCLUSION:
Two stroke petrol engine performance was conducted and heat balance sheet worked out and
relevant graphs were drawn.











Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 30

Experiment 11:

4-STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE

FOUR STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, WATER COOLED, MECHANICAL
LOADING, DIESEL ENGINE

AIM: To Conduct Performance Test on the given engine four stroke, single cylinder, water
cooled, mechanical loading, diesel engine and to draw the Heat balance sheet and to obtain
PV diagram at No load and Max load, and plot the performance plots

APPARATUS REQUIRED: 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine test rig, Stop watch,
interfacing of the engine with computer to obtain the PV diagram with pressure sensor
mounted in the cylinder.

THEORY:
Heat engine is a device which converts heat energy into mechanical work. Engine
performance is an indication of the degree of success with which it is doing its assigned job,
i.e. the conversion of the chemical energy in to the useful work. The degree of success is
compared on the basis of 1) specific fuel consumption 2) brake mean effective pressure 3)
specific power output 4) Specific weight etc. The engine performance can be obtained by
running the engine at constant speed for variable load by adjusting the throttle. In this
experiment engine is mechanically loaded and experiment is carried out. The test rig consists
of 4S diesel engine connected to rope brake dynamometer with exhaust calorimeter. It has a
provision to measure transient pressure, through a cylinder mounted pressure sensor, having a
water cooling system, to avoid over of heating pressure sensor. The pressure signal is fed to a
computer through an interface unit in the control panel for generating pressure volume (PV)
curve to evaluate work done employing a plani meter, subsequently.

PROCEDURE:

1. Check the diesel in the diesel tank and keep the lever in neutral position.
2. Ensure the water supply to the pressure sensor, engine cooling head and exhaust
calorimeter.
3. Start the engine by operating the decompression lever and cranking the crank shaft.
4. Apply the load on the brake drum by rotating the wheel of the spring balance
5. Allow the fuel to flow through the burette.
6. Note down the
a. Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption.
b. The load on the engine
c. Monometer reading
d. Speed of the engine
e. Temperature of inlet air and exhaust gas
f. Water meter of the exhaust calorimeter.
7. Repeat the experiment for different loads
8. Tabulate the readings and calculate the brake power, indicated power, heat input, air-fuel
ratio, specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency,
mechanical efficiency.
9. Plot the graph Q
in
V/S BP, m
f
V/S BPSFC V/S BP , Ș
ith
V/S BP, Ș
bth
V/S BP
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 31

10. To obtain the PV diagram,
a) Turn on the computer, open the interfacing software.
b) Take PV diagram and Pș diagrams individually.
c) Take the print out after taking the soft data on a pen drive, if needed.

SPECIFICATION OF THE ENGINE:

Make: Kirloskar
Rated power output: 5HP, 1500rpm
Bore: 80mm
Stroke: 110mm
Compression ratio: 16.5:1
Cylinder capacity: 553 cc

OBSERVATION:

Radius of the brake drum: 190mm
Diameter of the orifice: 15 mm
Calorific value of diesel: 43000KJ/Kg
Density of Diesel: 850Kg/m
3

Diameter of the rope: ___________
Orifice meter constant: 0.62
Water meter reading: __________in seconds

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.
N.
Engine
Speed in
rpm
Spring Balance
reading in Kg (F)
Time taken
for 10cc of
fuel supply (t)
in seconds
Manometer
reading (h
m
)
Temperature readings
F
1
F
2
(F
1
˜F
2
) h
1
h
2
h
m
T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4
T
5
T
6

1
2
3
4
5

Air inlet temperature (T1)
Engine cooling head water inlet temperature (T2)
Engine cooling head water outlet temperature (T3)
Calorimeter water outlet temperature (T4)
Exhaust gas inlet Temperature (T5)
Exhaust gas outlet temperature (T6)





Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 32

FORMULAE USED:
sec in n consumptio fuel of for10cc taken time t
kg/m 850 diesel of ȡ where
kg/s in
t
ȡ 10 cc in consumed fuel
m consumed fuel the of Mass 1.
3
d
d
6
f
=
=
× ×
=

density is
kg/m in Pa/RTa air of density
mtrs in reading manometer h
/4) d ( orifice the of area A
0.6 C
/min m in 2gh A C 60 intake air of volume actual a V where
kg/min in V m supplied air of Mass 2.
3
a
a
2
o
d
3
a o d a
a a a
=
=
=
=
=
× =
ρ
π
ρ
is

g = 9.81 m/s
2

air
water manometer
a
h
h
ρ
ρ × ×
=
1000
in meters of air
Where
h
a
= head of air in meters
h
manometer
= manometer reading in mm
ȡ
water
= 1000Kg/m
3

a
a
air
RT
p
= ρ
Where
air
ρ = Density of air in Kg/m
3

p
a
= Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x10
5
N/m
2
R = Real gas constant = 287 J/Kg
o
K
T
a
= Room temperature

To calculate
air
ρ use the following relation
) 273 ( 287
10 01325 . 1
5
a
air
T + ×
×
= ρ in Kg/m
3
RPM in r dynamomete the of speed the is N
meters in drum brake the of radius a is R
kgs in reading balance spring are F2 & F1
N in 9.81 F2) - (F1 drum brake on the acting load net a F where
kW in
1000 60
) ( 2
(BP) power Brake 3.
× =
×
× × × ×
=
is
N R F π


BP V/S m graph the from obtained power frictional the is FP where
FP BP (IP) Power Indicated 4
f
+ =

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 33


m
m
Ratio Fuel - Air 5
f
a
=

kJ/kg in fuel the of valvue calorific the is V C
kg/s in supplied fuel of mass the is m where
kW in V C m Q input Heat 6
f
f
× =


7. Specific fuel consumption based on BP, SFC=
BP
3600 m

f
×
in Kg/KW-Hr
Specific fuel consumption based on IP, SFC =
IP
3600 m
f
×
in Kg/KW-Hr
100
V supply air l Theoratica
V supplied air of vol actual
efficiency Volumetric 8
th
act
vol
× = η

engine. the of bore and stroke the are D and L m in /4 D A e wher
/min m in N/2 A L me Swept volu V supply air l Theoratica
2 2
3
th
π =
× × = =
100
IP
BP
Efficiency Mechanical 9 × =

100
Q input Heat
BP
efficiency thermal Brake 10
bth
× = η


100
Q input Heat
IP
efficiency thermal Indicated 11
ith
× = η


RESULT SHEET:

Mass of air
supply
m
a
in
kg/sec

Mass of fuel
supply
m
f
in kg/sec

BP
in kW

Air –
Fuel
ratio

ISFC in
kg/kW-
hr


BSFC in
kg/kW-hr


Heat
input
in kW
Vol
Eff
Ș
vol

Mech
Eff
Ș
mech

Thermal
efficiency
Ș
ith
Ș
bth






















Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 34










HEAT BALANCE SHEET:


. temp gas Exhaust & Room T & T
K - kJ/kg 1.005 gas exhaust of heat specific
m m kg/sec in Gas of rate flow mass m where
KW in ) T - (T m Gases Exhaust by the carried Heat 4
water. of inlet temp & let out T & T
K - kJ/kg 4.18 water heatof specific
kg/sec in rate flow mass m where
KW in ) T - (T m water cooling by the carried Heat 3
KW n BP BP of equivalent Heat 2
KW in V C m Q input Heat 1
6 1
f a g
1 6 g
2 3
w
2 3 w
f
=
+ =
× =
=
× =
=
× =
Cpg
Cpg
Cpw
Cpw
i

HEAT BALANCE SHEET:

Heat input


KW

in %

Heat Output

KW

in %
1) By combustion of
fuel





2) Heat equivalent to BP
3) Heat carried by the
cooling water
4) Heat carried by exhaust
gases
5) Heat unaccountable
1-(2+3+4)



Total input Total output

CONCLUSION:
1) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine was carried out.
2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss.
3) PV diagram and Pressure vs crank angle diagrams were obtained.
4) Performance plots were drawn.
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 35

Experiment 12:

4 STROKE PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG

FOUR STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, AIR COOLED, ENGINE COUPLED TO
ELECTRICAL DYNAMOMETER

AIM: To Conduct Performance Test on the given engine, to obtain heat balance sheet and
draw performance curves

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Engine coupled to Electrical Dynamometer, Measurement and control panel, Load bank,
Temperature Sensors.

PROCEDURE:
1. Ensure water level in the manometer to approximately half the full scale in both the
manometer limbs
2. Ensure oil level in the engine sump up to the dip stick mark, Fill required amount of fuel
(petrol) in the fuel tank
3. Check fuel line for any leakages, tighten if necessary (open all the valves in the fuel line
up to the engine inlet, do not turn the knob to “Start’)
4. Connect the engine test rig to the 3 phase electrical source, all the three mains indicators
glow
5. Ensure the direction of rotation of the engine is as desired by momentarily pushing the
push button starter (refer arrow mark on the guard for correct direction of rotation)
6. Switch ‘on’ the console switch, all the digital indicators glow and indicate respective
readings
7. Start the engine by pushing the push button starter and release after the engine gets started
8. Wait until the engine stabilizes at its rated speed (Governed engine) of 2800 to 3000 rpm
indicated on the digital rpm indicator
9. Switch ‘on’ the heat dissipating fan on the load Bank. Now the engine is ready for
loading
10. Record the following readings on no load condition. Voltmeter reading, Ammeter reading
Rpm indicator reading, (not essential in this case) Manometer reading, time taken for 10
cc of fuel consumption (To record fuel consumption against time close the fuel line valve
on the right hand side of the burette and simultaneously start the stop watch and record
the time until 10 cc of fuel is consumed) and temperatures T
1
& T
2

11. Switch ‘on’ first two switches and allow the engine to stabilize, Record all the readings
12. Continue loading the engine by switching ‘on’ the load switches in pairs in steps (two
switches per step) up to full load and record all the readings at each step,, as indicated in
step
13. To stop the engine remove load by switching “off” the load switches, bring the engine to
no load condition
14. Push the engine “off” push button and hold it unit the engine completely stops
15. Close all the three fuel valves in the fuel line.
16. Tabulate all the readings obtained at each step and calculate Brake power (BP) weight of
fuel Consumed (wf), specific fuel consumption (Sfc), Brake thermal efficiency (Ș
Bth
) and
air fuel ratio (A/F)
17. Plot the graph Q
in
V/S BP, m
f
V/S BPSFC V/S BP , Ș
ith
V/S BP, Ș
bth
V/S BP
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 36


SPECIFICATIONS:

ENGINE
Make : VILLIERS
Compression ratio : 4.67:1
Cylinder bore : 70 mm
Stroke length : 66.7 mm
Displacement : 256 CC

ALTERNATOR
Rating : 2 KVA
Speed : 2800-3000 rpm
Voltage : 220 V AC
Efficiency : 70%

Manometer : U tube, water filled, 30 cm
Air Tank : Made from MS, 300 x 300 x 300 cm
Orifice : Circular, 20 mm dia
Thermocouple : Fe- K (J type)

OBSERVATIONS:

Cylinder bore, D : 70 mm
Stroke length, L : 66.7 mm
Water density, ȡ
w
: 1000 kg/m
3
Calorific value of petrol, C
V
: 47,500 Kj/kg
Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec
2
Petrol density, ȡ
p
: 750 Kg/m
3

Specific heat of air, C
pg :
1.005KJ/Kg
o
C

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.N. Speed
in
RPM
Time for
10cc of
fuel supply
(t) in sec
Manometer
reading (h
m
)

in mm
Temperature in
o
C Voltmeter
Reading
(V)
Volts
Ammeter
Reading
(I)
Ampere
Inlet air
T
a

Exhaust Air
(T
g
)
h
1
h
2
h
m

1
2

3

4

5

6


Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 37

FORMULAE USED:
sec in n consumptio fuel of for10cc taken time t
kg/m 750 petrol of ȡ where
kg/s in
t
ȡ 10 cc in consumed fuel
m consumed fuel the of Mass 1.
3
p
p
6
f
=
=
× ×
=

density is
Therefore Total Fuel Consumed (TFC) = 60 60× ×
f
m in Kg/Hr

kg/m in Pa/RTa air of density
mtrs in reading manometer h
/4) d ( orifice the of area A
0.62 C
/min m in 2gh A C 60 intake air of volume actual a V where
kg/min in V m supplied air of Mass 2.
3
a
a
2
o
d
3
a o d a
a a a
=
=
=
=
=
× =
ρ
π
ρ
is

g = 9.81 m/s
2

air
water manometer
a
h
h
ρ
ρ × ×
=
1000
in meters of air
Where
h
a
= head of air in meters
h
manometer
= manometer reading in mm
a
a
air
RT
p
= ρ
Where
air
ρ = Density of air in Kg/m
3

p
a
= Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x10
5
N/m
2
R = Real gas constant = 287 J/Kg
o
K
T
a
= Room temperature
To calculate
air
ρ use the following relation
) 273 ( 287
10 01325 . 1
5
a
air
T + ×
×
= ρ in Kg/m
3
3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) =
g
I V
η ×
×
1000
in KW

Where,
V = Voltmeter reading
I = Ammeter reading
Ș
g
= Efficiency of Generator = 0.70


m
m
Ratio Fuel - Air 4
f
a
=

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 38

kJ/kg in fuel the of valvue calorific the is V C
kg/s in supplied fuel of mass the is m where
kW in V C m Q input Heat 5.
f
f
× =

6.
Specific fuel consumption, SFC
Hr - kg/kW in
BP
3600 m

f
×
=
100
V supply air l Theoratica
V supplied air of vol actual
efficiency Volumetric 7
th
act
vol
× = η
engine. the of bore and stroke the are D and L m in /4 D A e wher
/min m in N/2 A L me Swept volu V supply air l Theoratica
2 2
3
th
π =
× × = =

V
a
= Actual Volume of air supplied in m
3
/min

100
Q input Heat
BP
efficiency thermal Brake 8
bth
× = η

RESULT SHEET
S.N. Mass of fuel
supplied (m
f
)
in Kg/s
Mass of air
supplied(m
a
)
in Kg/s
Air-
Fuel
Ratio
BHP
in KW
SFC in
Kg/KW Hr
Heat
input
in KW
Brake
thermal
efficiency
Volumetric
efficiency
1
2
3
4
5


Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 39

HEAT BALANCE SHEET:

. temp gas Exhaust & Room T & T
K - kJ/kg 1.005 gas exhaust of heat specific
m m kg/sec in Gas of rate flow mass m where
KW in ) T - (T m Gases Exhaust by the carried Heat 3
KW n BP BP of equivalent Heat 2
KW in V C m Q input Heat 1
g a
f a g
a g g
f
=
+ =
× =
=
× =
Cpg
Cpg
i


HEAT BALANCE SHEET:

Heat input KW in % Heat Output KW in %
Heat supplied by the fuel a)Heat equivalent to BP
b) Heat carried by exhaust
gases = m
g
* C
pg
(Tg-Ta)
m
g
= m
a
+ m
f

c)Heat unaccountable
1-(a+b)



Total input

Total output

CONCLUSION:
1) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine was carried out.
2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss.
3) Performance plots were drawn.


Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 40

Experiment 13:

VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO, 4 STROKE PETROL
ENGINE TEST RIG

FOUR STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, AIR COOLED, ENGINE COUPLED TO
ELECTRICAL DYNAMOMETER

AIM: To conduct performance test on the given engine

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Engine coupled to Electrical Dynamometer, Measurement and control panel, Load bank,
Temperature Sensors, stop watch

PROCEDURE:
1. Ensure water level in the manometer to approximately half the full scale in both the
manometer limbs
2. Ensure oil level in the engine sump up to the dip stick mark, Fill required amount of fuel
(petrol) in the fuel tank
3. Check fuel line for any leakages, tighten if necessary (open all the valves in the fuel line
up to the engine inlet, do not turn the knob to “Start’)
4. Connect the engine test rig to the 3 phase electrical source, all the three mains indicators
glow
5. Ensure the direction of rotation of the engine is as desired by momentarily pushing the
push button starter (refer arrow mark on the guard for correct direction of rotation)
6. Switch ‘on’ the console switch, all the digital indicators glow and indicate respective
readings
7. Put the switch to motor position, turn on the ignition button, push the START button, and
slowly rotate the MOTOR CONTROL knob to start the engine, once the engine starts, bring
the MOTOR CONTROL knob to zero position and turn off the motor by pushing the STOP
button.
8. Change the switch to GENERATOR position; use the FIELD CONTROL knob to excite the
generator voltage, set the FIELD VOLTAGE to 150 volts.
9. Wait until the engine stabilizes at its rated speed (Governed engine) of 2800 to 3000 rpm
indicated on the digital rpm indicator
10. Switch ‘on’ the electrical loading switches on the load Bank. Now the engine is ready for
loading
11. For every load note down the readings.
12. To stop the engine remove load by switching “off” the load switches, bring the engine to
no load condition, Push the engine “off” push button
13. Close all the fuel valves in the fuel line.
14. Tabulate all the readings obtained at each step and calculate Brake power (BP) weight of
fuel Consumed (wf), specific fuel consumption (Sfc), Brake thermal efficiency (Ș
Bth
) and
air fuel ratio (A/F).
15. Plot the graph Q
in
V/S BP, m
f
V/S BP, SFC V/S BP , Ș
ith
V/S BP, Ș
bth
V/S BP



Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 41

SPECIFICATIONS:

ENGINE
Make : MK-25, Crompton Greaves
Compression ratio : Variable from 2-8:1
Cylinder bore : 70 mm
Stroke length : 66.7 mm
Displacement : 256 CC

ALTERNATOR
Rating : 3 KVA
Speed : 2800-3000 rpm
Voltage : 220 V AC

Manometer : U tube, water filled, 30 cm
Air Tank : Made from MS, 400 x 400 x 400 cm
Orifice : Circular, 12 mm dia

OBSERVATIONS:

Cylinder bore, D : 70 mm
Stroke length, L : 66.7 mm
Water density, ȡ
w
: 1000 kg/m
3
Calorific value of petrol, C
V
: 47,500 Kj/kg
Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec
2
Petrol density, ȡ
p
: 750 Kg/m
3


TABULAR COLUMN:

C
o
m
p

R
a
t
i
o

S.
N.
Spee
d in
RP
M
Time for
10cc of
fuel
supply (t)
in sec
Field
Voltage
(V)
Volts
Field
Current
(I) Amps
Manometer
reading (h
m
)

in
mm
Temperature in
o
C
T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4

T
5

h
1
h
2
h
m

1
2

3

4

5


T
1
= Air Inlet temperature T
2
= Exhaust gas calorimeter water inlet
T
3
= Exhaust gas calorimeter water outlet T
4
= Exhaust gas inlet
T
5
= Exhaust gas outlet


Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 42

MOTORING TEST
TABULAR COLUMN

S.N. Engine Speed Motor Voltage Motor Current


FORMULAE USED:
sec in n consumptio fuel of for10cc taken time t
kg/m 750 petrol of ȡ where
kg/s in
t
ȡ 10 cc in consumed fuel
m consumed fuel the of Mass 1.
3
p
p
6
f
=
=
× ×
=

density is
Therefore Total Fuel Consumed (TFC) = 60 60× ×
f
m in Kg/Hr

kg/m in Pa/RTa air of density
mtrs in reading manometer h
/4) d ( orifice the of area A
0.62 C
/min m in 2gh A C 60 intake air of volume actual a V where
kg/min in V m supplied air of Mass 2.
3
a
a
2
o
d
3
a o d a
a a a
=
=
=
=
=
× =
ρ
π
ρ
is

g = 9.81 m/s
2

air
water manometer
a
h
h
ρ
ρ × ×
=
1000
in meters of air
Where
h
a
= head of air in meters
h
manometer
= manometer reading in mm

a
a
air
RT
p
= ρ
Where
air
ρ = Density of air in Kg/m
3

p
a
= Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x10
5
N/m
2
R = Real gas constant = 287 J/Kg
o
K
T
a
= Room temperature
To calculate
air
ρ use the following relation
) 273 ( 287
10 01325 . 1
5
a
air
T + ×
×
= ρ in Kg/m
3



Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 43

3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) =
g
I V
η ×
×
1000
in KW
Where,
V = Voltmeter reading
I = Ammeter reading
Ș
g
= Efficiency of Generator = 0.75


m
m
Ratio Fuel - Air 4
f
a
=

kJ/kg in fuel the of valvue calorific the is V C
kg/s in supplied fuel of mass the is m where
kW in V C m Q input Heat 5.
f
f
× =

6. (SFC) n consumptio fuel Specific Hr - kg/kW in
BP
3600 m

f
×
=
engine. the of bore and stroke the are D and L m in /4 D A e wher
/min m in N/2 A L me Swept volu V supply air l Theoratica
100
V supply air l Theoratica
V supplied air of vol actual
efficiency Volumetric 7
2 2
3
th
th
act
vol
π
η
=
× × = =
× =

V
a
= Actual Volume of air supplied in m
3
/min

100
Q input Heat
BP
efficiency thermal Brake 8
bth
× = η

RESULT SHEET
S.N. Mass of fuel
supplied (m
f
)
in Kg/s
Mass of air
supplied(m
a
)
in Kg/s
Air-
Fuel
Ratio
BHP
in KW
SFC in
Kg/KW Hr
Heat
input
in KW
Brake
thermal
efficiency
Volumetric
efficiency
1
2
3
4
5






Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 44

HEAT BALANCE SHEET:


. temp gas Exhaust & Room T & T
K - kJ/kg 1.005 gas exhaust of heat specific
m m kg/sec in Gas of rate flow mass m where
KW in ) T - (T m Gases Exhaust by the carried Heat 4
water. of inlet temp & let out T & T
K - kJ/kg 4.18 water heatof specific
kg/sec in rate flow mass m where
KW in ) T - (T m water cooling by the carried Heat 3
KW n BP BP of equivalent Heat 2
KW in V C m Q input Heat 1
5 1
f a g
1 5 g
2 3
w
2 3 w
f
=
+ =
× =
=
× =
=
× =
Cpg
Cpg
Cpw
Cpw
i

Heat input KW in
%
Heat Output KW in
%
Heat supplied by the
fuel
a)Heat equivalent to BP
b) Heat carried away by cooling
water
c) Heat carried by exhaust gases
d) Heat unaccountable a-(b+c)



Total input

Total output


CONCLUSION:
1) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder VCR petrol engine was carried out.
2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss.
3) Performance plots were drawn.

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 45

Experiment 13:

MULTI CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
(MORSE TEST)


FOUR STROKE, FOUR CYLINDER ENGINE COUPLED TO EDDY CURRENT
DYNAMOMETER

AIM: To Conduct Performance Test, Morse Test & to draw heat balance on given multi
cylinder engine to find the overall efficiency of the engine.

INTRODUCTION:
The engine is four stroke, Four cylinder, water cooled, petrol driven automobile
Engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer mounted on a strong base, and is complete
with air, fuel, temperature, load, and speed measurement system.

DESCRIPTION:
The test rig comprises of the following:
1. Four stroke, Engine coupled to Eddy current Dynamometer, with the arrangement to
cutoff the cylinder
2. Measurement and control panel
3. Temperature Sensors.

PROCEDURE:

1. Install the Engine test rig near a 230V 5A 50Hz electrical power source and an un
interrupted constant head water source.
2. Check all electrical connections, water level in manometer, and oil level in engine sump.
3. Ensure water flow into the engine jacket & exhaust gas calorimeter
4. Open both the valves of 3 way Manifold, make fuel flow to engine directly
5. Start the engine with self start key, Throttle the engine to the rated speed (2000 rpm).
6. Now take readings of manometer, temperature, Fuel consumption against time.
7. Load the engine in steps of 2Kgf up to 10Kgf (full load) keeping the speed constant by
operating the throttle knob (accelerator) suitably to maintain the speed at 2000 rpm.
8. Record the following readings at each step.
a) Manometer difference
b) Time taken in Sec for 10cc fuel consumption by closing valve on your right hand
side of the burette (line coming from fuel tank to burette) so that the fuel is drawn
from burette.
c) Load at each step as indicated on the Dial spring balance
d) Speed of the engine in rpm
e) Temperatures at different location ( T
1
to T
6
)
9. Plot the graph Q
in
V/S BP, m
f
V/S BP, SFC V/S BP , Ș
ith
V/S BP, Ș
bth
V/S BP





Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 46

SPECIFICATION:

ENGINE:
Type : Four stroke, vertical, in line, water cooled, Petrol Engine
Cylinders : Four
Starting : Self
Ignition : Spark

DYNAMOMETER
Make : Powermag
Type : Eddy current Brake
Display : Spring balance (Dial type) 25 kg capacity

Manometer : U tube, water filled, 30 cm
Air Tank : Made from MS, 400 x 400 x 400 cm
Orifice : Circular, 20 mm dia
Temperature Sensor : CrAl
speed Sensor : Magnetic pickup, located on the coupling shaft.

OBSERVATION:
Water density, ȡ
w
: 1000 kg/m
3
Calorific value of petrol, C
V
: 47,500 Kj/kg
Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec
2
Petrol density, ȡ
p
: 750 Kg/m
3

Torque arm length (R) : 250mm
Efficiency of dynamometer (Ș
d
) : 85%
Atmospheric pressure, p
a
: 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x10
5
N/m
2
Real gas constant, R : 287 J/Kg
o
K

Cylinder head cooling water flow rate = _____________liters/min
Exhaust gas calorimeter cooling water flow rate = __________ liters/min

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.
N.
Engine
Speed in
rpm
Load
in
Kgf
Time taken for
10cc of fuel
supply (t) in
seconds
Manometer
reading (h
m
)
Temperature readings
h
1
h
2
h
m
T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4
T
5
T
6

1 2
2 4
3 6
4 8
5 10

T
1
- Water inlet, T
2
- Water jacket outlet, T
3 –
Calorimeter water outlet
T
4
- Exhaust gas inlet to calorimeter, T
5
– Exhaust gas outlet from calorimeter
T
6
– Air inlet temperature

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 47

CALCULATIONS:
sec in n consumptio fuel of for10cc taken time t
petrol of ȡ where
kg/s in
t
ȡ 10 cc in consumed fuel
m consumed fuel the of Mass 1.
d
p
6
f
=
× ×
=

density is
kg/m in Pa/RTa air of density
mtrs in reading manometer h
/4) d ( orifice the of area A
0.62 C
/min m in 2gh A C 60 intake air of volume actual a V where
kg/min in V m supplied air of Mass 2.
3
a
a
2
o
d
3
a o d a
a a a
=
=
=
=
=
× =
ρ
π
ρ
is

g = 9.81 m/s
2

air
water manometer
a
h
h
ρ
ρ × ×
=
1000
in meters of air
Where
h
a
= head of air in meters
h
manometer
= manometer reading in mm
ȡ
water
= 1000Kg/m
3

a
a
air
RT
p
= ρ
Where
air
ρ = Density of air in Kg/m
3

T
a
= Room temperature
To calculate
air
ρ use the following relation
) 273 ( 287
10 01325 . 1
5
a
air
T + ×
×
= ρ in Kg/m
3
RPM in r dynamomete the of speed the is N
mm in arm torue the of radius a is R
N in r dynamomete on the acting load net a F where
kW in
1000 60
) ( 2
(BP) power Brake 3.
d
is
N R F
η
π
× ×
× × × ×
=

d
η = Efficiency of the dynamometer = 85%
kJ/kg in fuel the of valvue calorific the is V C
kg/s in supplied fuel of mass the is m where
kW in V C m Q input Heat 6
f
f
× =

8. Specific fuel consumption based on BP, SFC=
BP
3600 m

f
×
in Kg/KW-Hr
100
Q input Heat
BP
efficiency thermal Brake 10
bth
× = η

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 48

MORSE TEST

PROCEDURE:
1. Start the engine with the water flow into the engine jacket.
2. Load the engine to its full load (5 Kgf ) at rated rpm. (2000 rpm)
3. Cut off first cylinder, the engine speed drops, bring the engine speed to its rated speed by
decreasing the load on the engine (Do not operate the throttle knob).
4. Record the load as indicated on the load indicator. (Dial spring balance)
5. Cut off Second cylinder, while replacing the first cylinder back into working Condition
simultaneously (as the engine is a Four cylinder engine, ensure always
three cylinders are in working condition)
6. Record the load on the engine, adjust the speed if deviated from the previous cut off. by
adjusting the load only
7. Cut off the third cylinder while replacing the second one in to working Condition, follow
step 6.
8. Similarly cut ‘off’ the fourth cylinder while replacing the third cylinder into working
condition, follow step 6.

TABULAR COLUMN FOR MORSE TEST

SL
No.
Cylinder
condition
Engine
speed N
(rpm)
Load W
(kgf)
Brake power
in KW
Indicated
power in KW
1.
All Cyl. running

2.
1
st
Cyl. cutoff

3.
2
nd
Cyl. cutoff

4.
3
rd
Cyl. cutoff

5.
4
th
Cyl. cutoff



CALCULATIONS:
1) Total Brake power, BP
T
=
( )
d
R W N
η
π
×
×
000 , 60
2
in KW ( With all cylinders running)
Where,
N = Engine speed in rpm.
W = Net load on the engine in N (W in kgf x9.81)
R = Radius of the torque arm = 250mm
d
η

= Efficiency of the dynamometer

2) Brake power, BP
i
=
( )
d
i
R W N
η
π
×
×
000 , 60
2
in KW ( With i
th
cylinder cutoff)
Where, i= 1, 2,3,4
W
i
= load on the dynamometer to bring the speed of the engine
to rated speed with i
th
cylinder cutoff
d
η = Efficiency of the dynamometer
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 49

3) Indicated power of i
th
cylinder, IP
i
= BP
T
-BP
i
where i= 1,2,3,4
4) Total Indicated power, IP
T
= (IP
1
+ IP
2
+ IP
3
+ IP
4
)
5) Frictional power, FP = IP
T
-BP
T

T
T
IP
BP
=
o
, y oeeficienc all Over 6. η

RESULT SHEET:
Mass of air
supply
m
a
in kg/sec

Mass of fuel
supply
m
f
in kg/sec

BP
in
kW

Air –Fuel
ratio

BSFC in
kg/kW-hr


Heat
input in
kW
Thermal
efficiency
Ș
bth



















Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 50

HEAT BALANCE SHEET:

. temp gas Exhaust & Room T & T
K - kJ/kg 1.005 gas exhaust of heat specific
m m kg/sec in Gas of rate flow mass m where
KW in ) T - (T m Gases Exhaust by the carried Heat 4
water. of inlet temp & let out T & T
K - kJ/kg 4.18 water heatof specific
kg/sec in rate flow mass m where
KW in ) T - (T m water cooling jacket by the carried Heat 3
KW n BP BP of equivalent Heat 2
KW in V C m Q input Heat 1
6 5
f a g
6 5 g
1 2
w
1 2 w
f
=
+ =
× =
=
× =
=
× =
Cpg
Cpg
Cpw
Cpw
i

5. Heat carried away by calorimeter water = KW in ) T - (T m
1 3 w
Cpw ×
Where T
3
= Calorimeter water outlet
T
1
= Inlet temperature of water
6. Heat lost by frictional power = FP in KW


HEAT BALANCE SHEET:


Heat input


KW

in %

Heat Output

KW

in
%
1) By combustion of
fuel
1) Heat equivalent to BP
2) Heat carried by the jacket cooling water
3) Heat carried by exhaust gases
4) Heat carried by calorimeter water
5) Heat lost by frictional power
6) Heat unaccountable (1-(2+3+4+5))

Total input Total output


CONCLUSION:
1) Performance of 4 stroke, four cylinder petrol engine was carried out and evaluated IP, FP
and overall efficiency.
2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss.
3) Performance plots were drawn.
4) Morse test was conducted to find overall efficiency of the engine.

Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 51

VIVA QUESTIONS
1) What are lubricants?
2) Define flash and fire points.
3) What is the significance of flash point and fire point measurement?
4) List the flash point and fire points of different fuels.
5) List the flash point and fire points of lubricating oils
6) Define the flash point and fire point of a lubricating oil.
7) What should be the flash point of a good lubricant?
Ans. A flash point must be at least above the temperature at which the lubricant is to be
used to avoid the risk of a fire hazard.
8) What are the factors that affect the flash and fire points?
Ans. Moisture, vapor pressure, apparatus used, frequency of application of test flame, rate
of heating the test oil, and so on.
9) What is the significance of a flash point and fire point measurement?
10) What happens to the flash point of an oil if it is contaminated with moisture?
Ans. If moisture is present in the lubricating oil, it increases the flash point because steam
prevents vapor from igniting.

11) What are lubricants?
12) What are the units of viscosity?
13) What is the effect of temperature on the viscosity of liquid and gas?
14) What is kinematic viscosity?
15) What is the unit of kinematic viscosity?
16) Mention the names of other viscometers.
17) What is viscosity? Discuss its significance for a lubricant.
18) What is kinematic viscosity?
Ans: The coefficient of viscosity bv density is called the kinematic viscosity.
19) What is the unit of kinematic viscosity?
20) Mention the names of other viscometers.
Ans: Ostwald viscometer and Saybolt viscometer.
21) What is viscosity? Discuss its significance for a lubricant.

22) Define valve timing in four stroke petrol engine?
23) What is overlapping?
24) What is inlet valve?
25) What is exhaust valve?
26) What do you mean by ignition?
27) What are the various types of ignition systems that are commonly used?

28) Describe the working principle of 2-Stroke petrol Engine?
29) Describe the working principle of 4-Stroke petrol Engine?
30) What is Suction Stroke?
31) What is compression Stroke?
32) Describe Expansion / Power Stroke?
33) Describe Exhaust Stroke?
34) What are the construction details of a four stroke petrol Engine?
35) What is the main deference in 2-Stroke Petrol Engine and 4-Stroke Petrol Engine?
36) Describe the working principle of 2-Stroke Diesel Engine?
37) Describe the working principle of 4-Stroke Diesel Engine?
38) Explain the air-fuel ratio?
Aircraft Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (06AEL57) 2011-12
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 52

39) What is Injection Timing?
40) What are the methods of available for improving the performance of an engine?
41) Distinguish between power and specific output?
42) Define the morse test?
43) What is transmission dynamometer?
44) What is need of measurement of speed of an I.C. Engine?
45) What is a smoke and classify the measurement of a smoke?
46) What is the break power of I.C. Engines?
47) What is volumetric efficiency?
48) What is air fuel ratio in two stroke single cylinder petrol engine?
49) What is air delivery ratio in two stroke single cylinder petrol engine?
50) Explain an automatic fuel flow meter?
51) Define the friction power?
52) Define Willian’s lines methods?
53) What is break power ?
54) Define speed performance test on a four-stroke single – Cylinder diesel engine?
55) What is Air rate and A/F ratio in a four-stroke single – Cylinder diesel engine?
56) What is combustion phenomenon?
57) What is indicated power ?
58) Mention the simplified various assumptions used in fuel Air-cycle Analysis
59) What are the different Air – Fuel Mixture on which an Engine can be operated?
60) Define the carbonation ?
Ans. It is the process of mixing air and petrol mixture and vaporize and atomize that
mixture.
61) What is clearance volume ?
Ans. When piston moves from B.D.C. to T.D.C. the volume left above in the cylinder is
called clearance volume.
62) What is swept volume?
Ans. The volume covered by piston while moving from B.D.C. to T.D.C. is known as
swept volume.
63) What is the compression ratio?
64) Explain the air-fuel ratio?
65) What is Injection Timing?
66) What are the methods of available for improving the performance of an engine?
67) Distinguish between power and specific output?
68) What is the importance of specific fuel consumption?
69) What is the torque of an engine?
70) Define the morse test?
71) What is transmission dynamometer?
72) What is need of measurement of speed of an I.C. Engine?
73) What is the break power of I.C. Engines?

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