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71 Slag - Iron and Steel
lag is a by-product generated during manufacturing of pig iron and steel. It is produced by action of various fluxes upon gangue materials within the iron ore during the process of pig iron manufacturing in blast furnace and steel manufacturing in steel melting shop. Primarily, the slag consists of calcium, magnesium, manganese and aluminium silicates in various combinations. The cooling process of slag is responsible mainly for generating different types of slags required for various end-use consumers. Although the chemical composition of the slag may remain unchanged, physical properties vary widely with the changing process of cooling.
Depending upon the cooling process, three types of slags are generated; namely, air-cooled slag, granulated slag and expanded slag. Air-cooled slag is produced by allowing the molten slag to cool under atmospheric conditions in a pit. Under slow cooling conditions, escaping gases leave behind porous and low-density aggregates with special physical properties, making it suitable for many applications. When formed under controlled cooling, the slag tends to be hard and dense, making it especially suitable for use in road base and similar applications in construction. Granulated slag is produced by quenching the molten slag by means of high-pressure water jets. Quenching prevents crystallisation, thus resulting in granular, glassy aggregates. This slag is crushed, pulverised and screened for use in various applications, particularly in cement production because of its pozzolanic characteristics. Table - 1 : Plantwise Average Generation of Slag 2006-07 and 2007-08
(In kg/tonne of hot metal) Production Steel plant 2006-07 Bhilai Steel Plant, Durg, Chhattisgarh. Rourkela Steel Plant, Rourkela, Orissa. Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel Plant, Bhadravati, Karnataka. Durgapur Steel Plant, Durgapur, West Bengal. IISCO Steel Plant, Burnpur, West Bengal. IDCOL Kalinga Iron Works Ltd, Barbil, Orissa. JSW Steel Ltd, Bellary, Karnataka. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. Tata Steel Ltd, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand. 404 NA 320 362 509 380 348 NA 239 2007-08 408 NA 318 365 582 380 412 NA 247
The slag produced at blast furnace during pig iron manufacturing is called blast furnace slag. The slag produced at steel melting shop is known as steel slag. Slag output obtained during pig iron and steel production is variable and depends mainly on composition of raw materials and type of furnace. Typically, for ore feed containing 60 to 65% iron, blast furnace (BF) slag production ranges from about 300 to 540 kg per tonne of pig or crude iron produced. Lower grade ores yield much higher slag fractions, sometimes as high as one tonne of slag per tonne of pig iron produced. Steel slag output is approximately 20%, by mass, of the crude steel output. Data on plantwise average generation of slag in 2006-07 and 2007-08 are given in Table-1. The statistics regarding capacity and production of iron and steel slag obtained from different plants in the country is given in Table - 2.
Blast Furnace Slag
At blast furnace, the slag floating over molten pig iron (hot metal) is flushed out in slag pot and then sent to slag granulating plant or to cooling pits.
Tata Steel Ltd. Barbil..3 : Despatches of Granulated Slag 2005-06 to 2007-08 (In '000 tonnes) Steel plant Bhilai Steel Plant. Bellary. Karnataka. Bokaro. Orissa. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. Durg. Chhattisgarh. IDCOL Kalinga Iron Works Ltd. Durgapur. Andhra Pradesh. Jharkhand. A fourth product made from blast furnace slag is mineral wool/slag wool. Chhattisgarh. Orissa. Burnpur. Rourkela. West Bengal. Kalinga Iron Works Ltd. Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel Plant. Rourkela. Jamshedpur. Visakhapatnam.. granulates the molten slag. However. JSW Steel Ltd. Orissa. Ltd. Andhra Pradesh. 2005-06 1638 496 465 234 45 2006-07 1564 NA NA 241 59 2007-08 1561 NA 536 199 70 NA 1073 NA 17 1147 1214 NA NA 1213 Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. Orissa. Rourkela Steel Plant. Jharkhand. resulting in lightweight aggregate suitable for use in concrete. Jamshedpur. Granulated slag produced in the steel plant is also sold outside. Bhadravati. JSW Steel Ltd. Cooled slag for this purpose is melted and poured through an air stream or a jet of dried stream of other gases to produce a spray of molten droplets or the same Table . Bokaro Steel Plant. IISCO Steel Plant Burnpur. Karnataka. Karnataka.. West Bengal. after cooling. Molten slag is sent to Durgapur Cement Works (DCW) which. Durg. West Bengal. Expanded slag is formed through controlled cooling of molten slag in water or water with combination of steam and compressed air. Rourkela Steel Plant. in turn.2 : Plantwise Capacity and Production of Slag. Despatches of granulated slag during 2005-06 to 2007-08 are furnished in Table-3. The slag produced by Bokaro Steel Plant. 2005-06 to 2007-08 (In '000 tonnes) Capacity for granulation ('000 tpy) BF Bhilai Steel Plant. 2675 3633663urg 2631 600 NA 400 68 1440 53 NA 1400 1975 Dd NA 700 716 399 65 NA 45 NA NA Production 2005-06 Granulated 1364 733 260 NA 224 45 NA 36 NA NA Steel NA NA 236 323 NA 32 NA NA NA NA BF 1947 NA NA 747 394 70 NA 53 1025 1328 2006-07 Granulated 1345 NA NA NA 223 59 NA 42 677 1328 Steel NA NA NA 307 NA 33 NA NA 607 1355 BF 2148 NA NA 798 372 76 NA NA 1403 1360 2007-08 Granulated Steel 1602 NA NA NA 198 70 NA NA 1026 1360 NA NA NA 327 NA 33 NA NA 691 1231 Steel plant Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) utilises cold slag for internal consumption and also for outside sale. NA Visakhapatnam. Tata Steel Ltd. Durgapur Steel Plant.IRON AND STEEL Table . Bhadravati. is crushed and used as road metal and railway ballast. Durgapur. Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel Co.SLAG . expanded slag is not produced at any domestic iron and steel plant. IDCOL. Barbil. Formation of steam and other gases enhances the porosity and vesicular nature of slag. Durgapur Steel Plant. West Bengal.NA Bellary. Karnataka. Jharkhand 38 NA 71-2 . IISCO Steel Plant.
00 6.) - Size : 1 to 5 mm Lumps - Steel IISCO Steel Plant Burnpur.00 (max.16 7.08 to 9.70 to 0.42 0.00 - 17.25 10. The fines are utilised in sinter making and lumps are charged in the blast furnace. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd.83 to 35. West Bengal.90 33.00 to 9.74 30.89 MnO 0.72 8.IRON AND STEEL may be formed by passing the melt through a perforated or fast-spinning disc.03 1.14 0. The LD slag is cooled. Visakhapatnam.12 24.20 19.52 Basicity (CaO/SiO2) 0.71 29.15 21.50 0.02 to 33.25 0. Bhadravati. In BF slag. Rourkela Steel Plant. Jamshedpur.5%.30 to 26.24 29.45 1.90 (max.13 10.00 19.87 32. The droplets elongate to long fibres. BF 35.60 15.02 Glass content: > 85% Size : 3.68 0.00 - Size : -3 mm Size : -10 mm to +60 mm Size : up to 6 mm BF - Steel 14. Bokaro Steel Plant. Karnataka.43 S 0.75 to 22. whereas.80 0.039 - 71-3 .36 to 32.90 22.30 0. The chemical analysis of granulated and steel slag generated in Indian plants are given in Table .40 2.50 0.23 30.15 33.4.50 19.) 10. Chhattisgarh. Orissa. Tata Steel Ltd.30 32. The material has excellent thermal insulation properties.51 0. Bokaro. To produce steel.60 - 0. in case of steel slag.27 1.29 CaO 31.00 1.00 - 0.00 to 34.54 16.92 Size : 3 mm Physical properties Steel Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel Plant.40 to 35.90 8.46 1.04 7.60 (max.00 31.20 0.98 2.93 10.00 33. FeO is around 0.39 49.48 19. which are collected mechanically and layered.06 33.00 6. Durg.00 8.13 45.99 0. Bellary.00 25.10 0.00 to 30.76 0. crushed and screened. Table .50 0.60 10.70 0. The steel slag contains higher amount of iron and its physical characteristics are similar to air-cooled iron slag.24 1.89 19.00 to 25. total iron content varies from 16 to 23%.22 1. BF - BF Steel BF 33. BF Steel BF BF BF 34.00 to 9.55 50.74 0. West Bengal.64 51.30 9. Barbil.07 0. The iron content is the major basic difference between BF slag and steel slag.00 36.97 to 0.23 17. Jharkhand.64 15. Rourkela.78 32.32 2.78 9.18 FeO 0.33 21.50 35. Karnataka. Durgapur.15 mm 100% 80-300 mm used in LD shops 20-80 mm BF grade scrap 0-6 mm-sinter grade - - JSW Steel Ltd. BF 2. removal of excess silicon and carbon from iron is achieved through oxidation by adding limestone and coke.68 0. Steel Slag Steel slags are produced at steel melting shop during steel manufacturing. Andhra Pradesh.) 20.74 41.37 Al2O3 19.46 18. Durgapur Steel Plant.4 : Chemical Composition of Slag Generated in Indian Plants Chemical composition (%) Name of plant Slag SiO2 Bhilai Steel Plant.00 32.00 34. IDCOL Kalinga Iron Works Ltd.78 MgO 11.66 14. Jharkhand. Orissa..SLAG .50 to 0.
much variation is observed in prices of granulated slag. Chhattisgarh. At ACC. screened and used mainly as road metal and bases. steel slag is fed into the rotary clinker kiln as a part of the raw material mix. landfills and railway ballast. The air-cooled BF slag is crushed. In this process. thus minimising the need for additional crushing and grinding. high resistance to chlorides and sulphate and it can substitute the use of 43 and 53 grades of ordinary Portland Cement. The resultant product is portland slag cement. This granulator consists of a variable speed rotating cup atomizer to break up the molten slag by centrifugal force and distribute it within a water-cooled cylindrical chamber. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Increased utilisation of granulated slag benefits the portland cement producers. Cement plants in the country producing slag cement require BF slag in granulated forms. clinker (procured from sister concern Satna Cement Works. Moreover. granulated slag (prepared in slag granulation plant from BF slag of Durgapur Steel Plant) and gypsum are ground together in specified proportion in ball mill for obtaining BF slag cement. A small quantity is also used by the glass industry for making slag wool fibres. The prices of granulated slag at cement factories in 2006-07 & 2007-08 are given in Table-6. CONSUMPTION The BF slag in India is used mainly in the cement manufacture and in other unorganised work. The chemical analysis of granulated slag consumed during the manufacture of slag cement is given in Table-5. However. Steel slag has been used successfully to treat acidic water discharges from abandoned mines. Madhya Pradesh). asphalt paving. the new system offers the possibility of considerable energy recycling in the form of hot water or heated air. For other consuming sectors like road making. It is also used for soil conditioning. A new granulator has been developed to cut the energy cost for granulation. landfills and concrete aggregate. claimed that clinker production could be enhanced by 15% by using this process. landfilling and ballasting. the component materials.SLAG . As per the statistics available with IBM. 250. The BF slag is not gaining much ground because of availability of other minerals at cheaper prices than the price of BF slag. during 2006-07 & 2007-08 varied from Rs.00 per tonne. The clinker thus formed is ground in ball mill with 40-50% dry slag and 6% gypsum.00 to 721. The process cools the molten slag rapidly enough to create small granules. PRICES The prices of BF slag vary from plant to plant. such as. Jamul. raw mix containing requisite calcium carbonate with argillaceous material is burnt in the kiln by using fine coal to form clinker. Steel slag has found use as a barrier material remedy for waste sites where heavy metals tend to leach into the surrounding environment. Only about 55% of the slag produced is consumed by the Indian Cement Industry. At Durgapur Cement Works. The process involves the use of steel slag. The granulated slag obtained from various steel plants is dried in slag dryer and ground with the clinker and gypsum in varying proportions as per the plant design. viz. Slag cement has low heat of hydration. Texas Industries Inc. Satna. Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) carried out investigations for value-added method for slag and proved a number of technically viable and 71-4 . Texas Industries Inc. the price of BF slag. railway ballast. Steel slag forces the heavy metals to drop out of solution in water runoff because of its high oxide mineral content. The expanded or foamed slag binds well with cement and is used mainly as aggregate for lightweight concrete. BF slag is used in making mineral wool for insulation purposes. Depending upon the distance between cement plants and the steel plants.IRON AND STEEL USES Different types of slags find different uses in the industry. it is not produced by domestic steel plants. Producers can enhance the production capacity without generating additional greenhouse gas emissions like carbon dioxide. Granulated BF slag is used as a pozzolanic material for producing portland slag cement. the cooled slag is crushed by machines or broken manually by hammers into smaller pieces and supplied to the various end-use consumers.developed a process called Chem Star for cement clinker production. low alkali aggregate reaction.
Andhra Pradesh.62 0.14 19. Visakhapatnam Steel Plant.4 Fe2O3 / MgO FeO 1.2 8.4 - 33. Durg. Andhra Pradesh.81 34.91 23.80 8.92 - - - size : 0-2. Singhbhum. Indorama Cement Ltd. Jamul.SLAG .00 696. Andhra Pradesh.00 34. Chhattisgarh.46 Source of supply Bhilai Steel Plant.0 (max) - - - 32. Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. Andhra Pradesh.6 34.4 9. Chhattisgarh.00(Rail) 371. Maharashtra.46 to 0. Nalgonda. Karnataka.35 32.0 18.3 17. Jhinkpani. Bellary.00 mm 32.98 to 19. Bellary. Visakhapatnam. Karnataka.00 i) ii) JSW Steel Ltd.09 355. Durg. Mysore Cement Ltd.Raipur. Orissa. Visakhapatnam. Baikunth.00 0.43 - 0. Rain Commodities Ltd. Nalgonda.20 23.80 1.0 (max) - 2.86 to 9.00 3. Krishnanagar. Chhattisgarh.5 (max) 17. Bargarh Cement Ltd.80 8.4 CaO S/SO3 0.00 to 01.80 0. Raigad..80 - 0.32 to 35.4 0.98 0.00(Rail) 500. Durg. Anantapur.50 7.75 to 35. i) ii) JSW Steel Ltd.54 92% Table . Chhattisgarh. Zuari Cement Ltd. 721. Cuddapah. ACC.31 450. Jamul. 32. Khar Karavi Raigad.00 496. Karnataka.0 to 33. VISL.50 32. Andhra Pradesh. Bellary. Ispat Industries Ltd.5 : Analysis of Granulated Slag Consumed for the Manufacture of Slag Cement Analysis in % Cement plant SiO2 33. Hazaribagh.0 to 9. Visakhapatnam. Shri Durga Cement Co. Ltd. Anantapur. 2006-07 and 2007-08 Price/tonne 259. SJK Steels. 33. Baikunth. Andhra Cements Ltd. Century Cement. Chhattisgarh. Jharkhand. Bargarh. Bhadravati.19 0.50 10.48 MnO Insoluble Glass content residue & size - ACC. Ammasandra. Maharashtra. Andhra Pradesh.8 Al2O3/ MnO 2 21. Andhra Pradesh. Chhattisgarh. Andhra Pradesh.10 to 0.16 0.8 - ACC.59 570. JSW Steel Ltd. Bardol. Raipur. Andhra Pradesh Rain Commodities Ltd.5 to 22.00 24. W.83 9. Tadipatri. Penna Cement Industries Ltd.0 to 33. Jharkhand.37 0.00 (Road) 706. Bhilai Steel Plant.40 to 0.00 250.6 : Cement plant Prices of Granulated Slag at Cement Factories.25 - - - - 30. Visakhapatnam. Durg. 71-5 . Andhra Pradesh. Penna Cements Industries Ltd.80 Andhra Cements Ltd. - - 5.50 34.2 2. 33. Karnataka.80 - >79% - Century Cement. Tumkur. Karnataka.IRON AND STEEL Table .00 0.
and utilisation of nonconventional granulated slags in cement manufacture. will conserve valuable limestone deposits required for production of cement. Granulated blast furnace slag can be used to enhance production of portland cement. the Slag is put to gainful use in cement manufacture . India is having huge slag production capacity at existing steel plants at 10 million tonnes per annum. The Working Group on Cement Industry for the 11th Plan has stated that currently. (Dross.IRON AND STEEL commercially interesting applications of slag. etc. from Iron & Steel. (iii) low-strength concrete for footpaths. Granulated) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries France China 168 168 Value (Rs. Some of these which could benefit the cause of utilisation of slags in cement industry are coprocessing of hazardous wastes in cement manufacture.7). Demand for granulated blast furnace slag as pozzolana or cement-additive has been increasing steadily in developed countries. Slag. Hence. durability and optimal production cost besides being eco-friendly. if used properly. Exports were mainly to China (81%). Portland Slag Cement (PSC). Slag cement accounts for around 10% of the total production of cement and depending upon the granulated slag availability. has advantages of better performance. utilisation of PPC for prestressed concrete. and (v) concrete sub-base for rigid pavements. Imports were mainly from France (Table . it would increase to 12% by the end of 11th Plan. etc. of Mexico Other countries 64544 2040 52 375 50000 2759 9000 280 38 Value (Rs. possibilities for export of slag can also be explored after satisfying domestic demand. Rep. The applications include (i) base course and top course for asphalt roads. Because of its special uses particularly in construction of bridges and constructions where the soil is alkaline. from Iron & Steel excl. (iv) controlled low strength fill for backfill required for trench stabilisation. Table .’000) 6639 6472 167 2007-08 FUTURE OUTLOOK Slag is used as substitute to precious clinker.544 tonnes in the previous year. (t) Value (Rs.’000) Qty. The Working Group on Cement for 11th Plan has indentified thrust areas for R&D in the Plan period. Granulated) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty. Imports The imports of slag increased to 467 tonnes in 2007-08 from 168 tonnes in the previous year.’000) 2307 2307 Qty (t) 467 452 15 Value (Rs. development of high performance cement based composites.7 : Exports of Slag. Table . (ii) anti-skid surfacing for roads on accident-prone intersections. etc. FOREIGN TRADE Exports Exports of slag (dross. (t) All Countries China Netherlands UAE Saudi Arabia Hong Kong Nepal Japan Kenya Korea.365906 . Blended cements are in use for more than two decades in developed countries because of their multiple benefits of tangible and intangible dimensions.’000) 987895 908735 40872 23221 11488 1830 1364 385 2007-08 268336 452818 .818 tonnes from 64.8). This slag otherwise would have been a waste and used as a filler material.SLAG .26000 4558 50500 7290 1275 220 212 2797 110699 264 150564 395 368 105 71-6 . UAE (11%) and Netherlands (6%) (Table .8 : Imports of Slag ( Dross. Excl.) in 2007-08 increased seven times to 452.
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