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2.

FORMATION DAMAGE
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LESSON OUTCOMES
Types of formation damage
Pre-treatment well tests analysys
Potential formation damage caused by matrix stimulation Potential formation damage caused by matrix stimulation
fluids
Explain when and how formation damage contributes to
poor well performance
Identify the major source of formation damage
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FORMATION DAMAGE CONCEPTS
Formation damage concerns the formation of a volume of
rock with a reduced permeability in the near well-bore
zone. zone.
Formation damage means reduced current production.
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FORMATION DAMAGE CONCEPTS
Stimulation treatments are designed to increase the well
productivity, either by:
Reducing or completely removing the formation damage by Reducing or completely removing the formation damage by
chemical matrix treatment (e.g. acidizing)
OR
Bypassing the formation damage by creation of a high
permeability channel by hydraulic fracturing treatment.
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FORMATION DAMAGE CONCEPTS
Basic causes of formation damage
Contact with a foreign fluid is the basic cause.
This foreign fluid may be
Drilling mud
Clean completion fluid or work-over fluid
A stimulation fluid
Well testing fluid
Sometimes even the reservoir fluid itself if the original
characteristics are altered
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FORMATION DAMAGE CONCEPTS
Most oil field fluids consist of two phases -liquid and solids.
Either liquid or solid can cause significant damage through
any one of several possible mechanisms:
Plugging by solids occurs on the formation face, in the Plugging by solids occurs on the formation face, in the
perforation, or in the formation.
Solids may be weighting materials, clays, viscosity
builders, fluid loss control materials, lost circulation
materials, drilled solids, cement particles, gravel pack or
frac sand fines, precipitated scales, paraffin or
asphaltenes.
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FORMATION DAMAGE CONCEPTS
Liquid may be water containing various types and
concentrations of solids particles and surfactants.
When liquid is circulated or forced into porous zones by When liquid is circulated or forced into porous zones by
differential pressure, displacing or commingling with a portion
of a virgin reservoir fluid, it may create blockage due to one of
several mechanisms.
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FORMATION DAMAGE CONCEPTS
Classification of Damage mechanism
Reduced absolute permeability of formation-- results from
plugging of pore channels by particles
Increased viscosity of reservoir fluid results from emulsions or
high-viscosity treating fluids
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Pre-Treatment Well Tests
Diagnosis of Formation Damage
It is possible to determine whether formation damage or skin
effect exists in a particular well.
This can be done through well tests such as infectivity or This can be done through well tests such as infectivity or
productivity test.
From pressure build-up or pressure draw-down tests, the
magnitude of damage or skin effect can be determined.
Production logging surveys may show zones which are not
contributing to the total flow stream.
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DIAGONOSIS OF FORMATION DAMAGE
Formation Damage during special well operations
1. Damage during drilling of oil and gas zones in wildcat or
development wells
a) mud solids may block pores and natural fractures.
b) mud filtrate invasion into pay zones
c) pores or fractures near well-bore may be sealed by the drill
string.
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DIAGONOSIS OF FORMATION DAMAGE
2. Damage during Casing and Cementing
a. Cement or mud solids may plug large pores and
natural fractures.
b. Chemical flushes may cause changes in clays in the b. Chemical flushes may cause changes in clays in the
producing formation.
c. Filtrate from high fluid loss cement slurries may bring
about changes in producing formation
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DIAGONOSIS OF FORMATION DAMAGE
3. Damage during Completions
a) During perforating
b) While running tubing and packer
c) During production initiation c) During production initiation
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DIAGONOSIS OF FORMATION DAMAGE
4. Damage caused by cleaning of paraffin
a. When cleaning paraffin from a well with hot oil or hot water,
formation and perforations will be plugged unless melted paraffin
are swabbed. are swabbed.
b. While cutting paraffin from the tubing (using scrapers)and
circulated down the tubing and up the annulus, some particles
may be pumped into perforations and into pores.
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DIAGONOSIS OF FORMATION DAMAGE
5. Damage during well servicing and work-over
a. When killing or circulating a well, perforations or pores or
fractures may be plugged.
b. Filtrate invasion by incompatible water, oil, or chemicals may b. Filtrate invasion by incompatible water, oil, or chemicals may
cause water blocks, emulsion blocks, or changes in formation
clays.
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DIAGONOSIS OF FORMATION DAMAGE
6. Damage during production phase
a. Corrosion inhibitors or paraffin inhibitors, if contacted to the
formation zones, may reduce permeability.
b. Precipitated scales may plug the well bore, perforations, and b. Precipitated scales may plug the well bore, perforations, and
formation.
c. Well bore opposite the producing interval in both carbonate
and sandstone wells may become plugged with silt, shale, mud or
fracturing sand.
d. Screens or gravel packs may become plugged with silts, mud,
or other debris.
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DIAGONOSIS OF FORMATION DAMAGE
7. Damage during Water Injection
a. While injecting water, emulsion may occur in the formation
adjacent to the well
b. The tubing, casing, perforations, screen, gravel packs, and b. The tubing, casing, perforations, screen, gravel packs, and
formation fractures may be plugged with mud, silt, clay, paraffin,
emulsions, and corrosion inhibitors.
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DIAGONOSIS OF FORMATION DAMAGE
8. Damage during Gas Injection
a. Well bore, perforations, formation fractures and pores may be
plugged with solids scoured by injection gas.
b. The injection of corrosion inhibitors will reduce well injectivity.
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The value of the Total Well skin (S
total
) measured during a
production test has many sources other than formation
damage.
Type of Formation Damage - Skin
damage.
It is very important to be able to identify the formation
damage component (S
d
), since this can be reduced by
better operational practices or possibly, be removed or
bypassed by stimulation treatment.
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The total well skin is a composite parameters:
Type of Formation Damage - Skin
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Formation damage skin
Most forms of formation damage reduce the rock permeability
to a certain depth away from the well
Type of Formation Damage - Skin
Figure 1 illustrates the resulting producing pressure profile and
compares it with the equivalent pressure profile for an
undamaged well.
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Well geometry
The well geometry skin reflects geometrical considerations
Type of Formation Damage - Skin
The well geometry skin reflects geometrical considerations
which alter the skin value form due to the well design (limited
entry, well not at the centre, well orientation (slanted))
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Completion skin
Insufficient perforation (density, penetration depth, incorrect
phasing)
Type of Formation Damage - Skin
Fractures either naturally occurring or (artificially) created
propped hydraulic fractures will lead to increase inflow and
negative skins by placing a high permeability pathway from
deep in the formation to the wellbore
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Production skin
A rate dependent skin is often observed in high rate gas well
(and very high rate oil wells).
Type of Formation Damage - Skin
(and very high rate oil wells).
Its presence can be a useful indication that the well is a
potential stimulation candidate
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The resulting extra pressure drop has to be compensated for
either by a reduced pressure drop across the choke or by a
smaller production rate
Type of Formation Damage - Skin
Figure 1
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The total skin effect for a well, s, consists of a number of
components. Generally these can be added together, and
therefore
Formation Damage Concepts Skin
Components
Where,
S
d
= damage skin
S
c+
= partial completion and slant skin
S
p
= perforation skin
S
pseudo
= pseudo-skins (all phase and rate dependent effect)
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It is alerted that once a hydraulic fracture is generated,
most pretreatment skin effects (S
d
, S
c+
, S
p
) are bypassed
and have no impact on the post-treatment well
performance
Formation Damage Concepts Skin
Components
Similar case in deep penetrating perforation, may bypass
the near wellbore area
In general, it is not correct to add pretreatment skin
effects to any post-fracture skin effects
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These two skin effects can be determined using the
method of Cinco-Ley et al. (1975) using the dimensionless
parameters;
h
D
= h/r
w
: z
w
/h ; h
w
/h and u {degrees}
Skin From Partial Completion and Slant
h
D
= h/r
w
: z
w
/h ; h
w
/h and {degrees}
where;
h
w
= height of the perforation interval,
h = height of the reservoir,
z
w
= elevation of the midpoint of the perforations relative to the
formation base, and
u = slant angle relative to the vertical axis
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Skin From Partial Completion and Slant
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Table 5-1 and 5-2 give the results for reservoir
dimensionless thickness, h
D
= (h/r
w
) of 100 and 1000.
The composite skin effect, S
c+
, and the individual parts, s
c
and s

, are listed
Skin From Partial Completion and Slant
and s

, are listed
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A well with a radius, r
w
= 0.328 ft is completed in a 33 ft reservoir. In
order to avoid severe water coning problems, only 8 ft are
completed and the midpoint of the perforations is 29 ft above the
base of the reservoir.
(Also find the composite skin effect for a vertical section)
Exercise Partial Penetration and Slant Skin
Effect
1. What would be the composite skin effect if =45
o
?
2. Calculate composite skin effect if h=330 ft, h
w
=80 ft and
z
w
=290 ft.
1. Determine the composite skin effect when h= 230 ft, h
w
=
58 ft and z
w
=120 ft when =30
o
,60
o
,75
o
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Base
Exercise Partial Penetration and Slant Skin
Effect
h = 33ft
h
w
= 8ft
z
w
= 29ft
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Answer
1. h
D
= 100
S
c+
= 8.6 (vertical)
S
c+
= 6 (45
o
slant)
Exercise Partial Penetration and Slant Skin
Effect
2. h
D
=1000
S
c+
= 15.7 (vertical)
S
c+
= 10.4 (45
o
slant)
3. ????
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Perforation creates a flow path for fluids from the
reservoir through the cement and casing to the wellbore.
Skin From Well Perforation
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The perforation skin (Sp) is
a function of perforation
length (l), perforation
diameter (d) and phasing
Skin From Well Perforation
diameter (d) and phasing
angle (u).
h
perf
= 1/SPF
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Karakas and Thariq (1988) performed perforation skin
effect calculation consisting of following components;
Plane flow effect, s
H
Vertical converging effects, s
v
Wellbore effect, s
Skin From Well Perforation
Wellbore effect, s
wb
S
p
= s
H
+ s
v
+ s
wb
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Calculation of plane flow effect, s
H
Skin From Well Perforation
where r
w
() is the effective wellbore radius and is a
function of the phasing angle .
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The constant a

depends on the perforation phasing and


can be obtained from table by Karakas and Tariq (1988).
However, the total contribution is usually small.
Skin From Well Perforation
However, the total contribution is usually small.
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Skin From Well Perforation
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Calculation of vertical converging effect, s
V
To obtain s
V
, two dimensionless variables (hD and rD) must
be calculated.
Skin From Well Perforation
be calculated.
V
H
perf
perf
D
k
k
l
h
h =
Where k
H
and k
V
are the horizontal and vertical
permeabilities, respectively
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And,
The vertical pseudo-skin is then
Skin From Well Perforation
The vertical pseudo-skin is then
with
and
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Skin From Well Perforation
The constant a
1
, a
2
, b
1
and b
2
are also functions of the perforation
phasing and can be obtained from the table.
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Calculation of wellbore effect, s
wb
For calculation of s
wb
, a dimensionless quantity is
calculated first
Skin From Well Perforation
And
The constant c
1
and c
2
also can be obtained from the
table
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Skin From Well Perforation
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Assume that a well with r
w
= 0.328ft is perforated with 2
SPF, r
perf
= 0.25 in (0.028ft), l
perf
= 8 in (0.667ft), and =
180
o
. Calculate the perforation skin if the k
H
/k
V
= 10.
Exercise Perforation Skin Effect
Repeat the calculation for = 0
o
, 45
o
, 60
o
, 90
o
, 120
o
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Solution
( ) u r' ( ) 667 . 0 328 . 0 5 . 0 + =
Exercise Perforation Skin Effect
4 . 0
5 . 0
328 . 0
ln
=
=
H
H
s
s
( ) u
w
r' ( )
5 . 0
667 . 0 328 . 0 5 . 0
=
+ =
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Knowing that h
perf
= 1/SPF,
H
perf
D
k
k
l
h
h =
10
667 . 0
5 . 0
=
D
h
Exercise Perforation Skin Effect
V perf
k l
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
H
V
perf
perf
D
k
k
h
r
r 1
2
37 . 2
667 . 0
=
D
h
( )
( )
037 . 0
1 . 0 1
5 . 0 2
028 . 0
=
+ =
D
D
r
r
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From table and equations,
Exercise Perforation Skin Effect
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Sv = 3.852
33 . 0
328 . 0 667 . 0
328 . 0
=
+
=
wD
wD
r
r
Exercise Perforation Skin Effect
( )
( )( )
1 . 0
10 6 . 2
33 . 0 532 . 4 2
=
=

wb
wb
s
e s
552 . 3
1 . 0 852 . 3 4 . 0
=
+ + =
p
p
s
s
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Thank You. Thank You.
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