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Social, Cultural and Religious Issues in Genetic Research

Genetics, Race and Ethnicity The use of genetic information related to racial, ethnic and other minorities.

Genetics, Gender and the Family How genetic information can affect women and families.

Genetics, Behavior and Mental Illness The role of genetic information in assessing how genes influence behavior and mental illnesses.

Genetics and the Media Public perceptions of genetic technology and genetic information.

Philosophical and Religious Perspectives The philosophical and religious issues raised by human genome research. Some of the most difficult questions arising from human genome research are not those related to scientific, biomedical or legal issues. Rather, they are the questions raised by the social, cultural or religious implications of our newfound genetic knowledge and technology. Insights into our evolutionary history and the small variations within individual humans' genomes may affect concepts of race, ethnicity and even gender. Studies of how genes affect behavior take researchers into the arena of social science and psychology. And, in the light of genetic discoveries, new dimensions of religious or philosophical concepts about identity, responsibility and what it means to be human may become apparent. The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) supports highly technical genetic research that is rapidly advancing our understanding of the human genome. This new information, although potentially beneficial to the health of Americans, can also be misused. NHGRI created the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) program in 1990 as an integral part of the Human Genome Project. The insights gained through ELSI research inform the development of federal guidelines, regulations and legislation to safeguard against misuse of genetic information. Through the ELSI program, NHGRI also supports a variety of ethics- and policy-related research studies, workshops and conferences to further explore and address such issues. Between 1990 and 2001, these ELSI-funded activities included some 235 research and education projects, more than 550 peer-reviewed journal articles, books, newsletters, Web sites and television and radio programs, as well as dozens of workshops, conferences and related activities focused on translating ELSI research into clinical and public health practices.