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Mr.

Zeeshan

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PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
GENETIC ENGINEERING: The deliberate modification of an organisms genetic information by directly changing its nucleic acid genome is called Genetic Engineering or Recombinant DNA technology or gene cloning. GENOME: The total genetic material of an organism comprising of genes contained in the haploid set of chromosomes. GENES: The basic unit of genetic material which is carried at a particular place on a chromosome. TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS: If genetic material from another species is added to the host, the resulting organism is called Transgenic Organism. CISGENIC ORGANISM: If genetic material from same species or specie that can naturally breed with the host is used, the resulting organism is called Cisgenic Organism. KNOCK OUT ORGANISMS: The target organism from which some genetic material is removed is called Knock Out Organism. NUCLEIC ACID: Either of the two acids (DNA/RNA) present in the nucleus and in some cases the cytoplasm of all living cells. Main function in heredity and protein synthesis NUCLEOTIDE: A compound consisting of a nitrogen containing base (purine or pyrimidine) linked to a sugar and phosphate group.

Mr. Zeeshan

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Nitrogen containing bases are


Single ringed Pyrimidine (Cytosine, Thymine & Uracil) Double ringed Purine (Adenine & Guanine) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DNA & RNA: DNA It has Deoxyribose Sugar It is double stranded It has THYMINE RNA It has RIBOSE Sugar It is single stranded It has URACIL

ORIGIN OF REPLICATION (ORI) Specific sites from which DNA replication start is called ORI. The bacterial chromosomes & many plasmids have only one such site. In much larger eukaryotic genomes there can be hundreds of ORI present. y Semiconservative replication (Rolling circle model) y DNA replication (General picture) TRANSCRIPTION: The process in which the information contained in the genetic code is transferred from DNA to RNA. OR The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template catalyzed by the RNA polymerase is called Transcription.