You are on page 1of 139

1

Abatement cost

Chi ph kim sot; chi Chi ph lm gim s kh chu nh nhim hay tc ph chng ( nhim) ng. Thc o v kh nng v trnh (hc vn) c tng quan cht ch vi nhau, lm tng kh nng l phn ln li tc c c tnh do gio dc trn thc t cng chnh l li tc do nng lc

2 3

Ability and earnings Ability to pay

Nng lc v thu nhp Kh nng chi tr.

4 5 6

Ability to pay theory Abnormal profits Abscissa

L thuyt v kh nng chi tr Li nhun d thng Honh Trn vic, s ngh lm khng c l do

Mt l thuyt v cch nh thu theo gnh nng v thu nn c phn b theo kh nng chi tr; v mt h thng thu kiu lu tin, t l hay lu thoi, tu thuc vo thc o c s dng v dc gi nh ca th tho dng bin ca thu nhp. Xem SUPER-NORMAL PROFITS Gi tr trn trc honh (trc X) ca mt im trn th hai chiu. S ngh lm, mc d cc iu khon ca hp ng lao ng yu cu ngi lao ng phi i lm v hp ng vn cn gi tr. Ngi ch s hu t hoc nh sng mt ni xa bt ng sn ca mnh, thu tin thu v qun l vic kinh doanh ca mnh thng qua trung gian hay ngi i din. Xem Comparative Advantage. Mt khi nim cp ti nhng li th ca cc hng thit lp, v th cc hng ny c th duy tr chi ph trung bnh thp hn so vi cc hng mi nhp ngnh khng ph thuc vo mc sn lng. (Xem Barriers to entry) Gi thuyt ny cho rng cc chi ph cho tiu dng (C) l mt hm s ca thu nhp kh dng ca c nhn (Yd): C = C (Yd). Xem Monopoly. Gi o bng tin ngc vi vi gi tng i. l gi ca cc hng ho, dch v c biu din trc tip di dng s lng ca n v tin t. Xem Price Xem Scarcity Gi tr ca mt bin b qua du ca n. Phng php phn tch tc ng ca s ph gi hoc gim t gi hi oi ca mt nc i vi cn cn thng mi. Mt thut ng miu t s cn thit gim bt tiu dng hin ti tch lu t bn. Xem DEPRECIATION S tng vt t l lm pht. Nu chnh ph c gi t l tht nghip di mc t l tht nghip t nhin th vic s dn ti lm pht gia tc. Xem Accelerator principle. Mt bi s theo u t mi s tng ln khi c s thay i v sn lng.

Absenteeism

8 9

Absentee landlord Absolute advantage

a ch (ch bt ng sn) cch bit Li th tuyt i.

10

Absolute cost advantage

Li th nh ph tn tuyt i. Gi thuyt thu nhp tuyt i. c quyn tuyt i.

11 12

Absolute income hypothesis Absolute monopoly

13 14 15

Absolute prices Absolute scarcity Absolute value

Gi tuyt i. Khan him tuyt i . Gi tr tuyt i. Phng php hp thu. Nhn chi tiu. Khu hao nhanh, khu hao gia tc.

16 17 18

Absorption approach Abstinence Accelerated depreciation

19 20 21

Accelerating inflation Accelerator Accelerator coefficient

Lm pht gia tc. Gia s H s gia tc.

22 23

Accelerator effect Accelerator principle

Hiu ng gia tc. Nguyn l gia tc. chp nhn thanh ton. Nguyn l cho rng mc u t rng ph thuc vo mc thay i d kin v sn lng. Hnh vi chp nhn mt hi phiu do c nhn hay c quan nhn hi phiu thc hin, bao gm k hi phiu v thng k trn mt hi phiu. Mt trong s cc NGN HNG THNG MI c tr s ti London, vi mc ch thu tin hoa hng ngn hng ny nhn tr cc hi phiu, ngha l chp nhn thanh ton chng khi o hn. S lng nhng ngi thu mi mi thng tnh theo t l phn trm tng s vic lm do B lao ng M thng k. Thu nh vo qu tng v ti sn tha k. Mt m hnh l thuyt c s dng (ch yu) trong phn tch a im dn c cc vng th, gii thch cc hnh thi v tr do nh i gia kh nng tip cn ca mt a im ti trung tm ca vng v khng gian ca a im . Xem VALIDATED INFLATION Trong CN CN THANH TON, mt loi giao dch t bn do CC C QUAN TIN T p dng hoc iu hnh lm i trng li tnh trng tn dng hoc tnh trng n nn ny sinh trong cc GIAO DCH T NH. 1.Mt ghi chp giao dch gia hai bn giao dch c th l hai b phn ca mt doanh nghip v l yu t c bn trong tt c cc h thng giao dch kinh doanh. 2.Cc giai on, thng l hai tun, theo nm kinh doanh ca S CHNG KHON LONDON c chia ra v qua cc giai on ny, vic thanh ton cc giao dch tr giao dch chng khon vin vng c tin hnh. Thng mc trong ti khon ca mt cng ty c ghi nh mt khon n ca cc dch v s dng nhng cha c thanh ton. y l tiu ca mt cun sch do gio s David C. Mc. Clelland ca trng i hc Harvard (Princeton, NJ, 1962) xut bn, trong ng nh ngha khi nim ng c thnh t o ngh tng tng v mc ca cc tng mi m ng coi l nhn cch cn thit i vi cc CH DOANH NGHIP v v vy c ngha i vi S PHT TRIN KINH T. Mt tnh hung khi tt c thu quan ca mt nc c tng hoc gim theo t l phn trm ngang bng. Mc tr gia vic quyt nh mt chnh sch (c bit trong kinh t hc v m) v vic thc hin chnh sch . Trong l thuyt tin t, mt vi m hnh gi thit chia mt cung ng tin t thnh D NGHCH, l tin d tr c a vo quay vng trong cc thi k c xc nh bi cc khong thi gian gia cc k thanh ton, v NGHCH NHN RI l tin d tr khng c s dng thanh ton thng xuyn.

24

Acceptance

25

Accepting house

Ngn hng nhn tr. T l gia tng lao ng. Thu qu tng.

26 27

Accesion rate Accesions tax

28 29

Access/space trade - off model Accommodating monetary policy

M hnh nh i khng gian hay m hnh tip cn. Chnh sch tin t iu tit.

30

Accommodation transactions

Cc giao dch iu tit.

31

Account

Ti khon. Chi ph pht sinh tnh trc

32

Accrued expenses

33

Achieving Society, the.

X hi thnh t. Thay i thu quan ng lot. tr ca hnh ng.

34

Across-the-board tariff changes

35

Action lag

36

Active balance

D nghch.

37

Activity analysis

Phn tch hot ng.

Xem LINEAR PROGRAMMING.

38

Activity rate

T l lao ng. K vng thch nghi; k vng phng theo

Xem LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE. S hnh thnh k vng v gi tr tng lai ca mt bin s ch da trn cc gi tr trc ca bin lin quan.

39

Adaptive expectation

40

Adding up problem

Vn cng tng. Gi thuyt cng nhn thm vo.

Xem EULER'S THEREM Theo lp lun ny, thu nhp thc t ca gia nh gim trong thi k suy thoi theo chu k s gy ra HIU NG THU NHP. Mt quy tc xc nh O HM ca mt hm i vi mt bin s, trong hm ny bao gm php cng tuyn tnh ca 2 hm ring bit hoc nhiu hn tr ln ca cc bin. Mt dng hm tho dng : U=Ua +Ub+Uc . Trong U l tho dng a,b,c ;a hng ho thay th trong cc h thng chi tiu tuyn tnh, cc nhm hng ho ny khng th thay th cho nhau. Trong nn kinh t K HOCH HO nh Lin X trc y, mi mc tiu chin lc u c mt t chc hoc "a ch" chu trch nhim thc hin mc tiu

41

Additional worker hypothesis

42

Addition rule

Quy tc cng.

43

Additive utility function

Hm tho dng ph tr.

44

Address principle

Nguyn l a ch. Ch iu chnh hn ch.

45

Adjustable peg regime

46

Adjustable peg system

H thng neo t gi hi oi c th iu chnh. Chi ph iu chnh sn xut.

H thng ny c qu tin t quc t (IMF) a ra ti hi ngh Bretton Woods v cp n mt b T GI HI OI C NH hay c "neo" m v c bn l c nh nhng cho php iu chnh hoc thay i vi lng nh theo c 2 hng.

47

Adjustment cost

48

Adjustment lag

tr iu chnh.

Thi gian cn thit mt bin, v d nh DUNG LNG VN, iu chnh theo nhng thay i trong cc yu t quyt nh ca n. (Xem PARTIAL ADJUSTMENT, CAPITAL STOCK ADJUSTMENT PRINCIPLE). Thut ng chung ch cc c ch iu chnh hot ng trong nn kinh t th gii nhm loi b nhng mt cn i trong thanh ton vi nc ngoi. Nhng c ch lin quan n BN V VNG, CH BN V HI OI, THA S NGOI THNG, T GI HI OI TH NI. Cc mc gi c hnh thnh do quyt nh c thc ca c nhn hay hng no ch khng phi do cc yu t tc ng ca th trng. Mt trong nhng tr v thi gian nh hng n hiu lc ca mt CHNH SCH TIN T. l khong thi gian t lc cc c quan c thm quyn nhn thy cn c hnh ng n khi tin hnh thc s hnh ng .

49

Adjustment process

Qu trnh iu chnh Cc mc gi b qun ch.

50

Administered prices

51

Administrative lag

tr do hnh chnh

52

Advalorem tax

Thu theo gi tr.

Mt loi thu da trn gi tr giao dch. thng l t l phn trm khi gi bn l, s, hay qu trnh sn xut, v l dng ph bin ca THU DOANH THU. Mt khon vay hoc da vo lung tin xc nh hoc d kin. (Xem BANK LOAN). L mt khon ng trc THU DOANH NGHIP v c ghi vo ti khon bn n ca doanh nghip i vi loi thu ny. l mt phng tin c th thu thu doanh nghip sm hn. K THUT QUN L CNG N mi c chnh ph lin bang, cc chnh quyn a phng v tiu bang ca M s dng.

53

Advance

Tin ng trc.

54

Advance Corporation Tax (ACT)

Thu doanh nghip ng trc.

55

Advance refunding

Hon tr trc. Cc nc pht trin, cc nc i u.

56

Advanced countries

57

Adverse balance

Cn cn thm ht. La chn tri ; La chn theo hng bt li.

THM HT CN CN THANH TON.

58

Adverse selection

Vn gp phi trong nghnh bo him. Hot ng ca mt hng nhm thc y vic bn sn phm ca mnh, mc tiu chnh l tng s lng ngi tiu dng thch nhng sn phm ca hng hn nhng hng khc. T l chi ph qung co ca cc hng trn tng doanh thu bn hng.

59

Advertising

Qung co. T l doanh s-qung co. Xem AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR.

60

Advertising - sale ratio

61

AFL-CIO

62

Age-earning profile Agency for International Development

Biu quan h thu nhp theo tui C quan pht trin quc t.

Mi quan h gia thu nhp v tui. Biu din qu trnh thu nhp theo tui n gin nht l mt ng nm ngang i t s 0 n tui ri trng hc, khong cch ca cc bc c quyt nh bi trnh hc vn. Xem INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY Yu cu cng nhn tham gia tuyn dng khng phi gia nhp cng on nhng phi ng cng on ph. Cc khon tit kim chi ph trong mt hot ng kinh t do cc x nghip hay cc hot ng gn v tr ca nhau. Biu chi tit v S LNG CA SN PHM QUC GIA RNG c th c mua mi mc gi chung.

63

64

Agency shop

Nghip on. Tnh kinh t nh kt khi.

65

Agglomeration economies

66

Aggregate concentration

S tp trung gp.

67

Adverse supply shock

C sc cung bt li.

68

Aggregate demand

Cu gp; Tng cu

69

Aggregate demand curve

ng cu gp; ng tng cu Biu cu gp; Biu tng cu L tng s chi tiu danh ngha cho hng ho v dch v trong mt nn kinh t.

70

Aggregate demand shedule

71

Aggregate expenditure

Chi tiu gp. Thu nhp gp; Tng thu nhp

72

Aggregate income

Xem INTERNATION INCOME

73

Aggregate output

Sn lng gp.

Xem INTERNATION INCOME Mi quan h gia lu lng sn lng trong ton nn kinh t (Y), tng lc lng lao ng (L) v tng lng vn (K), cc u vo tham gia trc tip vo sn xut. Hm ny c th c m rng bao hm c T AI v CNG NGH VI danh ngha l u vo.

74

Aggregate production function

Hm sn xut gp. ng cung gp; ng tng cung.

75

Aggregate supply curve

76

Aggregation problem

Vn v php gp. Cch mng nng nghip. Cc khon thu t nng nghp.

Vn xc nh hnh vi kinh t v m c th t d bo t hnh vi ca cc n v kinh t vi m ni bt. Tnh hung trong sn lng nng nghip tng ln r rt nh nhng thay i v t chc v k thut. Khon thu t nng nghip thng kh nh lng, c bit trong nn nng nghip t tc hoc nhng ni thu nhp pc tr bng hin vt ngha l nng sn. Cc sn phm nng nghip lm ra xut khu ch khng phi cho mc ch t cung t cp hay cho th trng trong nc L thi gian gia sn xut nng nghip thc t v sn xut nng nghip tim nng CC NC ANG PHT TRIN.

77

Agrarian revolution

78

Agricultural earnings

79

Agricultural exports

Nng sn xut khu tr ca nng nghip

80

Agricultural lag

81

Agricultural livies

Thu nng nghip.

Xem EC Agricultural levies. Mt trong nhng hn ch i vi PHT TRIN KINH T l vic s dng cc bin php s khai, khng hiu qu trong nng nghip. Cc ngnh nng thn nhng nc km pht trin cung cp thc phm ngy ngy cng tng cho dn c thnh ph. Cc phng php c, th s th km hiu qu , cn k thut c gii ho hin i th khng thch hp. V vy mt dng ci cch l p dng loi cng ngh nng nghip thch hp. Khu vc hoc mt b phn dn s tham gia vo ngh nng, cung cp lng thc, nguyn liu th nh bng, g cho tiu dng trong nc v xut khu. C quan qun l a phng ca CNG TY TN DNG HNG HO CA M Khon tin tr cho nng dn vi mc ch khuyn khch sn xut lng thc thc phm v tr gip thu

82

Agricultural reform

Ci cch nng nghip.

83

Agricultural sector Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Agricultural subsidies

Khu vc nng nghip. ASCS - Nha n nh v bo tn nng nghip. Khon tr cp nng nghip.

84 85

nhp ca nng dn. Cc hi ng tin cng trong nng nghip. Cc c quan do php lut quy nh mc lng ti thiu i vi nhng ngi lm nng nghip Anh, x Wales vScotland cng mt cch chnh thc nh cc hi ng tin cng.

86

Agricultural Wage Boards

87

Aid

Vin tr

Xem FOREIGN AID.

88

Aitken estimator

c lng s Aitken.

Xem Generalized Least Squares. Thut ng c C.MC s dng miu t tnh trng tinh thn ca cng nhn trong mt x hi t bn. Nh kinh t hc ngi Php c nhn gii thng Nobel v kinh t hc nm 1988. Allais l mt k s, bng cch t hc v kinh t ch yu trong thi k c xm chim Php sut Chin tranh th gii th 2, khi ng t c tip cn vi cc n phm nc ngoi. Mc d vy, ng thnh cng trong vic t xy dng c nhng nn tng to ln v l thuyt CN BNG TNG TH HIN I v KINH T HC PHC LI. ng c coi l ngi cha v ngi dn u tr tu ca trng phi bin hc Php, sn sinh ra nhiu nh kinh t hc ni ting nh Debreu. Mc cho xu hng thin v l thuyt mnh m, Allais vn cho rng cc m hnh l thuyt c xy dng tr li nhng cu hi thc tin v nn c kim nghim qua thc t. Thnh tch ca ng c nhn gii Nobel ch yu l thnh tu nghin cu s bn v kinh t hc v ng gp c bn ca ng l cc cng thc ton hc v i v cn bng th trng v tnh cht hiu qu ca cc th trng. Nghin cu ca ng v phn tch ng thi v m tin t v l thuyt ri ro cng rt ni bt. Mi n khi kim tra thc nghim v hc thuyt tho dng k vng ca VON NEUMANN-MORGENSTERN ng mi c ni ting, thc nghim c tiu l nghch l Allais. ng ch ra rng s la chn ca cc c nhn khi c yu cu sp xp mt cp d n ri ro u sp xp mt cch h thng v lp li (nh cc nghin cu khc la chn) mu thun vi d on ti a ho tho dng d kin. Cc cng trnh ca ng l Nghin cu v nguyn l Kinh t -1943 (sau cn c ti bn vi tiu X l Kinh t n thun-1952) v Kinh t v li nhun(1947). ng dy trng kinh t London t nm 1928, lm vic b Ti Chnh Anh v nm 1944 c phong l gio s thng k hc ti trng i hc London. Cc n phm ch yu ca ng bao gm: Phn tch ton hc cho cc nh kinh t hc(1938); Thng k hc cho cc nh kinh t hc(1949); Kinh t hc thuc ton (1956); Hc thuyt kinh t v m - X l bng ton hc (1967). Nm 1934 ng c ng gp to ln cho hc thuyt ngi tiu dng khi ng cho xut bn mt bi bo cng vi J.R.HICKS, bng cch s dng cc ng bng quan, bi bo ch ra rng gii thch s dc xung di ca ng cu s l vic gi nh y rng hng ho c th c phn loi theo th t.

89

Alienation

S tha ho

90

Allais Maurice (1911)

91

Allen , Sir roy George Douglas(1906-1983)

1906-1983

92

Allocate

Phn b, n nh

93

Allocation funtion

Chc nng phn b

Mt b phn ca chnh sch chi tiu v thu ca chnh ph lin quan ti vic chi phi cung cp hng ho v dch trong mt nn kinh t. Vi sn xut ra t hp sn phm tt nht hay ti u cc sn phm bng cc kt hp hiu qa nht cc u vo. Nhng chi ph cho php nht nh khi c khu tr t doanh thu ca cng ty l phn thu nhp b nh thu. H thng thu thu nhp bao gm h thng cc khon khu tr v chi ph. Chng c tr t tng thu nhp xc nh chu thu. Mt kiu tr phn phi trong trng s cc gi tr lin tc ca bin s tr theo sau mt do mt a thc gy ra.

94

Allocative efficiency Allowances and expences for corporation tax Allowances and expencess for income tax

Hiu qu phn b. Khu tr v chi ph vi thu cng ty. Khu tr v chi ph vi thu thu nhp.

95

96

97

Almon lag

tr Almon.

98

Alpha coeficient

H s Alpha

Xem CAPITAL ASSET PRINCING MODEL. Thut ng dng ch kiu cng ngh c mt vi hoc tt c thuc tnh sau: s dng ti thiu ti nguyn khng ti to c, gy nhim thp nht i vi mi trng, t cp t tc theo vng hoc theo a phng khng c s bc lt hoc c lp cc c nhn. (Xem INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY, APPROPIATE TECHNOLOGY, INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT GROUP).

99

Alternative technology

Cng ngh thay th.

100

Altruism

Lng v tha.

S quan tm ti phc li ca ngi khc.

101

Amalgamation

S hp nht.

Xem MERGER. Chng khon m mt ngn hng M thng pht hnh cho cc c dn M, da vo vic c quan NM GI CC C PHIU thng ca mt cng ty ngoi quc. Ngi gi ADR c quyn hng c tc ca cng ty ngoi quc. Bn thn ADR c th trao i c. u im ca vic lm ny l TH TRNG VN c m rng i vi cc cng ty khng phi ca M trong khi c th p ng c mong mun ca ngi M v mt loi c phiu "nng" trao i. (Mt ADR c th c ng trn gi c quyn vi nhiu chng khon thng). c thnh lp trong thi k t nm 1881 n 1886, lin on ny tp trung cc cng on ln M li vi nhau. y l mt h thng trong thu quan ca M i vi mt s mt hng nhp khu c tnh trn c s gi tr ca mt hng thay th trong nc so vi gi tr ca hng nhp khu. (Xem GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE). S GIAO DCH c t chc ln th hai M, tin hnh mua bn gn 1/10 tng s c phiu c mua bn M. S giao dch l c s vt cht cho cc giao dch CHNG KHON din ra. S giao dch chng khon M c t lu v bt u t khi nhng ngi mi gii gp nhau ngoi ph mua bn cc c phn chng khon. l ngun gc ca mt ci tn khc ca n :"S giao dch l ng". Tn hiu bng tay c dng thng bo cho nhn vin giao dch. n tn th k XX, S giao dch chng khon M mi chuyn

102

America Depository Receipt

ADR - Phiu gi tin M. ALF - Lin on lao ng M.

103

America Federation of Labuor

104 105

America selling price American Stock Exchange

Gi bn kiu M. S giao dch chng khon M (ASE hay AMEX).

vo phng.(Xem STOCK MARKET). Phng thc thanh ton n trn c s tr dn. Thnh thong chi tr tng k c s dng nh thut ng thay th cho khu hao. Thut ng s dng trong mt CHU K KINH DOANH miu t khong cch gia im cc i v cc tiu ca bt k chu k no. C quan ngoi thng ca Lin X trc y. C c quan chi nhnh ti nhiu nc. Phn chia bin ng tng th trong mt bin s ph thuc (vi bin ng tng th c nh ngha l tng ca bnh phng ca cc lch so vi trung bnh ca bin) thnh cc cu thnh c tnh cho bin ng ca cc bin s ring hay NHM BIn GII THCH v nhng bin khng c gii thch hay bin ng D/ Hc thuyt cho rng cc s kin chnh tr v x hi ca cc c nhn khng nn b km hm bi bt c s can thip no ca chnh ph. l mt quan im cc oan hn quan im ch ngha t do, vn cn cho php s dng quyn lc c ti iu hnh cc hot ng m cc c nhn khng th t hon thnh mt cch c hiu qu c.

106

Amortization

Chi tr tng k.

107

Amplitude

Bin C quan mu dch thng tr ca Lin X.

108

Amtorg

109

Analysis of variance

ANOVA - Phn tch phng sai

110

Anarchy

Tnh trng v chnh ph.

111

Allowance

Phn tin tr cp. Mt trong cc vn lin quan n bin ng t do ca T GI HI OI l lun im cho rng t gi hi oi t do s lm gim thm ht vi bn ngoi v v vy tc ot ca cc c quan tin t ci neo (chnh tr) nhm hn ch tin t m rng. i lp vi lun im ny l vic b chic neo tin t ca t gi hi oi c nh l mt vic tt v n ch cc tr nhng nh hoch nh chnh sch mi c bu bng cch khng cho h hon ton t do vi CHNH SCH TIN T. Mt cch k gii cho U T phn bc cc m hnh ton hc v chng t tc dng. Thay vo l phn tch u t bt ngun t thuc tnh lm theo ca cc ch doanh nghip. Cm thut ng ny c J.M.Keynes s dng ln u tin trong L THUYT TNG QUT V VIC LM, LI SUT V TIN (1936). Nhng t c Joan Robinson ph bin rng ri. Risk analysis: phn tch ri ro. Scenario analysis:Phn tch kch bn. Sensitivity analysis: Phn tch nhy. Vng th hai (1949) ca cuc m phn thng mi theo HIP C CHUNG V THU QUAN V MU DCH (GATT).

113

Anchor argument

Lun im v ci neo.

114

Animal spirits

Tinh thn by n; Tm l ha theo

115

Analysis (stats)

Phn tch. Vng m phn Annecy.

116

Annecy Round

117

Annual allowances

Min thu hng nm. Chi ph vn hng nm.

Xem CAPITAL ALLOWANCE. Mt k thut thm nh d n vn c s dng chit khu v cng nhn rng vic s dng vn i hi tr tin li i vi lng vn s dng v khu hao.

118

Annual capital charge

119

Annuity

Nin kim.

Li ha tr mt khon no mi thi k trong mt s cc thi k m khon tr cho mi thi k l c nh.

120

Annuity market

Th trng nin kim. Tin tr cng bt thng. Lm pht c d tnh. S ngt qung trong mi lin kt chnh thc gia mc lng ca cc nhm thng lng khc nhau nh p dng CHNH SCH THU NHP.

121

Anomaliess pay

123

Anticipated inflation

Xem EXPECTED INFLATION. Mt cm thut ng ca M ch h thng php lut nhm kim sot s tng trng quyn lc i vi th trng ca cc hng. Cm thut ng ny khng ch lin quan ti chnh sch chng c quyn m c cc hot ng km hm ca cc hng ring l, cc nhm cng ty hp nht (Trt) v nhm cc cng ty cng tc (Catel). Tng v gi tr ca ti sn, i lp li l s mt gi tr. Mt ti sn c th tng gi tr bi v gi ca n (v do gi th trng ca n) tng do lm pht hay thay i v cu ti sn dn ti mc khan him. (Xem MONEY APPRECIATION).

124

Anti-trust

Chng lng on.

125

Appreciation

S tng gi tr.

126

Apprenticeship

Hc vic. Thin lch / nh kin chng xut khu. Cc sn phm thch hp.

Xem GENERAL TRAINING.

127

Anti-export bias

128

Appropriate products

Ni chung c dng ch nhng sn phm thch hp cho s dng cc nc ang pht trin. Vic ng dng mt cng ngh thch hp vi yu t sn c. (Xem ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY. INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY, INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT GROUP). Cc doanh nghip duy tr cc ti khon ny cho thy li nhun sau khi tr thu c phn phi hay s dng nh th no. (Xem ALLOWANCES AND EXPENSES CORPORATION TAX, ALLOWANCES AND EXPENSES INCOME TAX, TAXABLE INCOME. Mt dng ra quyt nh trong mi c nhn b phiu cho mt nhm phng n m ngi tn thnh. (Xem BORDA COUNT, CONDORCET CRITERION, SOCIAL DECISION RULE. SOCIAL WELFARE FUNCTION). Mt cm thut ng miu t qu trnh suy lun phn on t gi thuyt ban u cho n kt lun. Phng php ny c th i lp vi cch tip cn da trn nhng c liu rt ra t thc t quan st. Mt hc gi ngi , ng l ngi c ng gp chnh vo t tng kinh t ca hn lm vin. Xt v kinh t hc, ng tha nhn phn ln hc thuyt ca Aristotle, bao gm khi nim v gi cng bng. ng cng phn bit GI C v GI TR, i tng ca rt nhi cch din gii khc nhau. tng v gi tr hay gi cng bng khng khc hn gi thng thng (cnh tranh) vn c mt mt hng v gi c a ra vt qu mc gi ny l s vi phm quy tc o c. Thng

129

Appropriate technology

Cng ngh thch hp.

130

Appropriation account

Ti khon phn phi li.

131

Approval voting

B phiu tn thnh; b phiu ph chun.

132 133

Apriori Aquinas St Thomas

Tin nghim. (1225-1274)

mi vn xu xa nhng c bo cha bi HNG HA CNG CNG. Tng t, ca ci ti sn v hnh ng ca chnh ph c bin h bi hng ho cng cng. Cho vay nng li b ch trch l khon thu cho vic s dng tin m khng c gi tr s dng. Nhng ng gp ch yu ca ng i vi lch s t tng kinh t c bao qut trong cun SUMMA THEOLOGICA ca ng. Kinh doanh da vo chnh lch gi; bun chng khon Mt nghip v bao gm vic mua bn mt ti sn, v d mt hng ho hay tin t hai hay nhiu th trng, gia chng c s khc nhau hay chnh lch v gi. S can thip ca mt bn th ba vo mt TRANH CHP V CNG NGHIP theo yu cu ca cc bn tranh ci v a ra nhng gi cho vic gii quyt tranh chp, sau s rng buc c hai bn (Xem CONCILI-ATION, FINAL OFFER ARBITRATION).

134

Arbitrage

135

Arbitration

Trng ti co gin hnh cung ca cu

136

Arc elasticity of demand

Xem ELASTICITY OF DEMAND ch phng sai ca sai s thay i iu kin t nhin gim, l mt trc nghim phn bit gia tng quan chui trong iu kin xo trn v hiu ng ny sinh t s bin i ca xo ng c gi l hiu ng ARCH.

137

ARCH

Kim nghim ARCH.

138

ARCH effect

Hiu ng ARCH.

Xem ARCH. Nh trit hc HY LP, cc cng trnh ca ng bao gm c cc vn kinh t v trong nhng bi vit ca ng c th thy nhng phn tch v sn xut, phn phi v trao i. Trong phn tch v trao i, ng phn bit gia gi tr s dng v gi tr trao i

139

Aristotle

(384-322 BC)Aristotle (384-322 trc cng nguyn)

140

Arithmetic mean

Trung bnh s hc.

Xem MEAN. Mt dy s hay nhng biu thc i s trong mi thn phn mang mt mi lin h cng thm i vi mi thnh phn ng trc v sau n. Nh kinh t hc ngi M ng gii Nobel v kinh t hc vi hun tc John Hicks nm 1972. ng c bit n nhiu nht do cng trnh v cc h thng CN BNG TNG QUT v trnh by v cc iu kin ton hc cn thit cho mt h thng nh vy c nghim c ngha v kinh t. ng cng c cng trnh tin phong v vic ra quyt nh trong nhng iu kin khng chc chn. Trong cun S LA CHN X HI V CC GI TR C NHN (1951), ng trnh by kinh t hc phc li vi mt tnh trng tin thoi lng nan, khi da trn c s nhng gi nh m bo s t ch ca ngi tiu dng cng thm s hp l, ng chng minh rng khng th xc nh c s xp hng x hi v cc phng n la chn tng ng vi s xp hng ca cc c nhn, v nh vy cng khng th a ra c CHC NNG PHC LI X HI . Chc nng ny lin quan mt cch tch cc ti la chn c nhn, x hi khng th quyt nh n mun g. Arrow cng c cng trong vic a vo hc thuyt tng trng gi thuyt hc qua hnh vi t cch l mt ngun tng nng sut. Cc n phm chnh ca ng l : Nghin cu trong l thuyt ton hc v d tr v sn xut (1958); S la chn x hi v cc gi tr c nhn (1951); Cc tiu lun v l thuyt chu ri ro (1970); Phn tch da trn tng hp (vi F.H.Hahn) (1971).

141

Arithmetic progression

Cp s cng.

142

Arrow.KennethJ

(1921-).

143

"A" shares

C phiu "A".(C phiu hng li sau).

Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. U ban kinh t chu v Vin ng ca Lin hp quc khuyn co thnh lp ngn hng ny khuyn khch tng trng kinh t v hp tc chu v Vin ng, thc y kinh t cc nc ang pht trin trong vng. Ngn hng pht trin chu c thnh lp nm 1966. Ngun vn ban u l nh ng gp ca cc nc trong khu vc vi s gip ca M, CHLB c, Anh v Canada. Xem TAXABLE INCOME, ALLOWANCES AND EXPENSES FOR CORPORATION TAX, ALLOWANCES AND EXPENSES FOR INCOME TAX.

144

Asiab Development Bank

Ngn hng pht trin chu . Thu nhp hoc li nhun chu thu.

145

Assessable Income or profit

146

Assessable profit

Li nhun chu thu.

Xem TAXABLE INCOME. Mt thc th c gi tr th trng hoc gi tr trao i, v l b phn cu thnh CA CI hay ti sn ca ch s hu. Vic mt cng ty thn tnh bn nhng ti sn ca CNG TY NN NHN sau khi thu mua. iu ny c th thc hin c mc li nhun ng k khi ti sn b nh gi thp S GIAO DCH CHNG KHON. Tn c t cho cu hi liu vic kt ni mt bin chnh sch, v d CHNH SCH TIN T mt cch duy nht t c mt mc tiu chnh sch, v d cn cn thanh ton quc t di cc ch v t gi HI OI c th c hay khng. Kt lun l khng th lm c nh vy. Cc vng trong nc m hot ng kinh t hot ng kinh t c h tr bi chnh sch chi tiu v thu ca chnh ph. Xem DEPRESSED AREAS, REGIONAL EMPLOYMENT PREMIUM, REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT GRANT. C quan thnh lp nm 1969, thu thp v cho nim yt li nhun v bo gi th trng hin hnh vi cc loi pht hnh ca TRI KHON CHU U. Hip hi c cc B trng ngoi giao Indonesia,Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore v Thi Lan thnh lp nm 1967. Mc ch chung ca hip hi l thc y tng trng kinh t, tin b x hi v pht trin vn ho khu vc ng Nam . Mt loi bo him lin quan n tnh hung trong bo him cho s kin khng th trnh khi. iu ny c th do hp ng lin quan ti vic tr mt khon xc nh vo mt ngy no hoc l v "ci cht" ca ngi c bo him.

147

Asset

Ti sn.

148

Asset stripping

Tc ot ti sn.

149

Assignment problem

Bi ton kt ni.

150

Assisted areas Association of International Bond Dealers

Cc vng c h tr Hip hi nhng ngi bun bn tri khon quc t.

152

153

Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Hip hi cc nc ng nam .

154

Assurance

Bo him xc nh D tr ti sn v lung dch v. Thng tin bt i xng; Thng tin khng tng xng.

155

Asset stocks and services flows

156

Asymmetric infornation

S khc nhau v thng tin m cc bn tham gia giao dch trn th trng c c. Xem INSIDER OUTSIDER MODELS. Gi tr m bin ph thuc ca mt hm tin n khi bin t do tr nn rt ln hoc rt nh.

157

Asymptote

ng tim cn.

158

Asymptotic distribution

Phn phi tim cn.

PHN PHI XC XUT m mt bin THNG K hng ti khi kch thc ca mu tin ti v cng. Khi nim rt hu ch trong nh gi cc c th ca chn mu trong kinh t lng. Mt c cu th trng trong s lng cc hng rt ln, do mi hng cnh tranh mt cch c lp. (Xem PERFECT COMPETITION). Mt nt c trng hay thuc tnh ca hng ho. Xem CHARACTERISICS THEORY. Mt thut ng chung ch nhn vin bn u gi, ti nhng ngi mua tng lai u vi nhau bng cch t gi, vt u gi s thuc v ngi no t gi cao nht. Mt th trng c t chc ti gi c c iu chnh lin tc theo bin i ca cung v cu. Nt c trng c bn ca cc th trng u gi l cc hng mc hng ho c chun ho, mua bn v danh v s lng m bo hnh vi cnh tranh. Mt kiu th trng trong ngi mua tim tng t gi cho hng ho ch khng phi n thun tr theo. Kim nh ny l mt phin bn ca kim nh Dickey Fuller i vi mt n v gc khi tiu thc xo ng l tng quan theo chui sau khi xem xt s khc nhau trong qu trnh tnh khc (DSP). Vic a bin gi c vo ng Phillips gc dch chuyn hc thuyt mt cc hiu qu t mt gii thch v tin cng bng tin thnh cch gii thch theo ngha thc t. Tn trng phi ny c s dng ch cc nh kinh t hc t Menger, Wieser v Bohm-Bawerk tr i, h phn ln nghin cu Vin v theo mt kiu phn tch ring bit. Tnh trng trong mt nc t tch khi thng mi quc t bng nhng hn ch nh thu quan nhm t tc, thng do nguyn nhn lm vic hoc chnh tr.

159

Atomistic competition

Cnh tranh c lp.

160

Attribute

Thuc tnh.

161

Auctioneer

Ngi bn u gi.

162

Auction markets

Cc th trng u gi.

163

Auctions

u gi. ADF - Kim nh Dickey Fuller b sung.

164

Augmented Dickey Fuller test

165

Augmented Phillips curve

ng Phillips b sung.

166

Austrian school

Trng phi kinh t o.

167

Autarky

T cung t cp. Nn kinh t t cung t cp

168

Autarky economy

169

Autocorrelation

S t tng quan. Cc bin php n nh t ng.

Xem SERIAL CORRELATION. Cc mi quan h lm gim bin ca bin ng chu k trong mt nn kinh t m khng cn hnh ng trc tip ca chnh ph. Trong khi c s dng theo nhiu cch, cm thut ng "t ng ho" ni chung c coi l ng ngha vi vic thay th lao ng bng qu trnh t ng. Cc khon chi tiu c coi l c lp vi mc thu nhp.

170

Automatic stabilizers

171

Automation

T ng ho. Khon chi tiu t nh. Khon chi tiu ph thuc (vo mc thu nhp).

172

Autonomous expenditure

173

Induced expenditure

174

Autonomous consumption

Tiu dng t nh.

175

Autonomous investment

u t t nh. Nhu cu u t t nh. Cm thut ng ny c dng trong hc thuyt v CN CN THANH TON xc nh nhng loi giao dch din ra t pht v l do li nhun t pha cc hng hoc tho dng c tng t pha cc c nhn .

176

Autonomous investment demand

177

Autonomous transactions

Giao dch t nh

178

Autonomous variables

Cc bin t nh

Xem EXOGENOUS VARIABLES. S HI QUY ca mt bin s trn gi tr hay cc gi tr tr ca n. Xem SERIAL CORRELATION AND ARIMA. Cc tc ng ca nhng thay i v s lng tn dng c sn, ch khng phi tc ng thng qua gi, ngha l li sut.

179

Autoregression

T hi quy. Cc hiu ng ca s sn c.

180

Availability effects

181

Average

S trung bnh.

Xem MEAN. Chi ph trn mt n v sn lng trong bao gm chi ph ca tt c u vo (cc yu t sn xut). Quy tc nh gi cng nhn rng cc hng cng chi ph kh bin vo chi ph trung bnh trang tri tng chi ph trung bnh ca n.

182

Average cost

Chi ph bnh qun. nh gi theo chi ph bnh qun. Thu nhp k vng bnh qun; Thu nhp bnh qun d kin. Chi ph c nh bnh qun.

183

Average cost pricing

184

Average expected income

Xem PERMANENT INCOME.

185

Average fixed costs

Chi ph c nh trn mi n v sn lng. Tng sn lng c c t vic s dng mt tp hp u vo chia cho s lng ca bt c mt loi u vo no c dng.

186

Average product

Sn phm bnh qun.

187

Average productivity

Nng sut bnh qun. Khuynh hng tiu dng bnh qun.

Xem PRODUCTIVITY. Phn ca tng thu nhp Y c chi cho tiu dng hng ho hoc dch v C, thay v u t I. Phn ca tng thu nhp Y c a vo tit kim S, tc khng c s dng cho mc ch tiu dng. Khuynh hng tit kim bnh qun bng S/Y. Xem SAVING FUNCTION, MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO SAVE. c s dng khi ni v THU THU NHP C NHN nhng cng c th p dng vi cc loi thu khc. Thng c dng ch tng thu thu nhp di dng mt phn ca thu nhp.

188

Average propensity to consume

189

Average propensity to save

Khuynh hng tit kim bnh qun.

190

Average rate of tax

Sut thu bnh qun (sut thu thc t).

191

Average revenue

Doanh thu bnh qun. Sn phm doanh thu bnh qun. Tng chi ph bnh qun AVC-Chi ph kh bin bnh qun.

Doanh thu trn mt n v sn lng. Sn phm doanh thu trung bnh ca mt u vo (yu t sn xut) nhn vi doanh thu bnh qun.

192

Average revenue product

193

Average total cost

Xem AVERAGE COST.

194

Average variable cost

CHI PH KH BN trn mt n v sn lng. ch s phn ng ti a ho li nhun ca cc hng b kim sot, khi phi t c t l li tc xc nh v vn c ng lc la chn kt hp u vo nng v vn hn c th khng c s dng khi khng phi t t l li tc xc nh .

195

Averch-Johnson Effect

Hiu ng AverchJohnson. Tin v tnh y . Tin v tnh lin tc.

196

Axiom of completeness

Xem AXIOMS OF PREFERENCE.

197

Axiom of continuity

Xem AXIOMS OF PREFERENCE.

198

Axiom of convexity

Tin v tnh li. Tin v tnh thch nhiu hn thch t. Tin v s la chn.

Xem AXIOMS OF PREFERENCE.

199

Axiom of dominance

Xem AXIOMS OF PREFERENCE.

200

Axiom of

Xem AXIOMS OF PREFERENCE. Trong l thuyt CU CA NGI TIU DNG, cc c nhn c gi nh l tun th cc nguyn tc v hnh vi duy l v cc tin khc v hnh vi. L tp qun theo c quan chnh ph M vay b Ti chnh M ch khng yu cu biu quyt ngn sch ca quc hi. Cc ph hay vn chuyn thp hn i vi vn chuyn theo mt hng ny so vi hng khc. Mt cng ngh thay th tr nn kh thi v mt kinh t khi gi ca ti nguyn THIN NHIN KHNG TH TI TO tng n mt mc no do s khai thc tng dn. Quan h gia cung lao ng, bt lun c xc nh bng cch no, v tin lng lao ng.

201

Axiom of prefence

Tin v s thch.

202

Backdoor fancing

Cp tin qua ca sau.

203

Back-haul rates

Cc vn ti ngc.

204

Backstop technology Backward bending supply curve of labour

Cng ngh chng cui. ng cung lao ng cong v pha sau. Lin hp thng ngun. Lin kt thng ngun.

205

206

Backward intergration

Xem VERTICAL INTERGRATION. Mi lin h gia mt nghnh hay mt hng vi nhng nh cung cp u vo ca h. Hiu ng ngc xy ra khi tng trng kinh t mt vng ca mt nn kinh t c nhng tc ng ngc ti tng trng ca cc vng khc.

207

Backward linkage

208

Backwash effects

Hiu ng ngc.

209

Bad

Hng xu. "ng tin xu ui ng tin tt".

Mt mt hng hay sn phm gy ra PHN THO DNG i vi ngi tiu dng. (Xem EXTERNALITY).

210

Bad money drive out good

Xem GRESHAM'S LAW. L bin tp vin v ng bin tp vin ca t The Economist t 1860-1877. ng l nh bnh lun c nh hng ln ng thi v tc phm ca ng hin vn c trch dn rng ri. Tc phm ni ting nht ca ng l Ph Lombard: Miu t v th trng tin t(1873). Thu nhp hin ti ng bng chi tiu hin ti ca CHNH PH. T s bin ng thu nhp ca thu nhp thc t so vi bin ng chi tiu chnh ph khi chi tiu ca chnh ph thu t thu thay i mt lng bng nhau. Quan nim cho rng tt c cc thnh phn ca nn kinh t nn c pht trin mt cch ng thi t c mt dng pht trin cn i. Xem BALANCED GROWTH, BIG PUSH. Trong HC THUYT TNG TRNG, iu kin nng ng ca nn kinh t trong tt c cc bin thc t tng ln lin tc cng mt t l (c th bng 0, hay m). Xem STAEDY GROWTH. Cm thut ng ny c s dng vi hn mt ngha, hai cch din gii ph bin nht l: "Cn cn thanh ton th trng" v "Cn cn thanh ton k ton". Thng ch cn cn mu dch "hu hnh", l bun bn hng ho trong mt giai on nht nh. Trn thc t cn cn mu dch ch l mt yu t, cc yu t khc l v hnh trong "Cn cn thanh ton vng lai" m n ch l mt phn ca ton b CN CN THANH TON ca mt nc. Mt phng php c bn ca k hoch X Vit l k ton s kp bng gi c hay vt cht.Mc ch ca cn i l m bo s ng b trong cc k hoch. Cc cn i ny t phc tp hn trong bng cn i LIN NGNH thc hin vai tr tng t trong lp k k hoch. V ngha ring xem MATERIALS BALANCE PRINCIPLE. Mt bng bo co ti sn ca mt thng nhn hoc mt cng ty vo mt ngy nht nh. Mt ci tn c Keynes a ra ch tin t quc t m ng cho rng nn c to bi mt ngn hng quc t, c s dng thanh ton cc khon n quc t v mt phn to nn nng lc chuyn ho quc t nhng b phn i.

211

Bagehot, Walter

(1826-1877).

212

Balanced budget

Ngn sch cn i. S nhn ngn sch cn i.

213

Balanced-budget multiplier

214

Balanced economic development

Pht trin kinh t cn i.

215

Balanced growth

Tng trng cn i.

216

Balance of payment

Cn cn thanh ton.

217

Balance of trade

Cn cn thng mi.

218

Balance principle

Nguyn l cn i.

219

Balance sheet

Bng cn i ti sn.

220

Bancor

ng tin bancor (ng tin quc t).

221

Balanced GDP

GDP c cn i Hiu ng nh khi gi c hng ho gim v cu ca mt vi b phn hay cc c nhn trong cng ng tng, cc c nhn hoc b phn "bt chc" cch phn ng ny v cng tng cu ca h.

223

Bandwagon effect

Hiu ng on tu

224

Bank

Ngn hng Khon vay ngn hng.

Mt trung gian ti chnh huy ng qu gc v c bn thng qua nhng khon tin c th hon tr theo yu cu hay trong thi gian ngn v dng ng trc bng khu chi v cc khon vay v bng cc hi phiu chit khu, nn gi cc khon khc ch yu l tch ti sn ti chnh nh chng khon khng bun bn c. Mt chc nng quan trng ca ngn hng l duy tr h thng chuyn i tin bng cch chp nhn tin gi vo ti khon vng lai v iu hnh h thng chuyn qu bng chuyn sc, chuyn khon hay chuyn tin in t.Xem COMPETITION AND CREDIT CNTL, RETAIL BANKING, WHOLE SALE BANKING. Mt cm thut ng chung dng cho bt k mt loi vay ngn hng no. Xem BANK LOAN. Theo truyn thng, trn th trng hi phiu London, mt HI PHIU c chp nhn bi mt NGN HNG NHN THANH TON, MT NGN HNG THANH TON B TR hay mt nhm cc ngn hng ca Anh hoc cc ngn hng Dominions hp thnh, thay mt khch hng m tn dng chp nhn. Xem ACCEPTANCE, DISCOUNT HOUSE. Thng ch o lut ngn hng nm 1844 do chnh quyn ca hun tc Robert Peel thng qua. Vic cho vay t h thng ngn hng bng bt k phng thc no:TIN CHO VAY CA NGN HNG, HI PHIU CHIT KHU hay chng khon mua. Xem MONEY MULTIPLIER, MONEY SUPPLY, "NEW VIEW". Theo ngi gin n, l cc khon tin gi trong ti khon ngn hng. Trong thc t chng n gin l nhng ghi chp v tnh trng n ca mt ngn hng i vi nhng ngi gi, v chng ny sinh t tnh cht ca ngn hng vi vai tr l TRUNG GIAN TI CHNH. Mt nh ch ti chnh lin chnh ph thnh lp u tin vo nm 1930 h tr v iu phi vic chuyn khon thanh ton bi thng chin tranh th gii th nht gia cc ngn hng quc gia trung ng. Ngn hng ny cng tp hp v ph bin thng tin v cc ch kinh t v m v cc vn tin t quc t. Mt tnh hung trong c s mt t tin ca mt hay nhiu ngn hng gy nn s " x" bt ng v lan rng ca cng chng ti cc ngn hng ni chung rt tin gi hoc vo nhng lc khi pht hnh lnh phiu t nhn l ph bin yu cu thanh ton cc hi phiu ny bng phng tin khc. Mt tp hp cc kin lin quan n cuc tranh lun v quy tc iu tit pht hnh giy bc ca ngn hng Anh trong na u th k XIX. ch bt c khon ng trc no ca ngn hng, nhung c s phn bit trong vic cho vay ca ngn hng gia iu kin MC THU CHI v iu kin cho vay. Mt dng tin t pht hnh bi mt ngn hng v v bn cht lm bng chng "c th thng lng" (ngha l c th chuyn i n gin bng cp pht) v tnh trng n ca ngn hng i vi mnh gi ca giy bc. Giy bc ca ngn hng c pht trin t HI PHIU, v v nguyn tc l hi phiu c th tr "trc tip" (theo yu cu) bng phng tin khc.

225

Bank advance

226

Bank bill

Hi phiu ngn hng.

227

Bank Charter Act

o lut Ngn hng.

228

Bank credit

Tn dng ngn hng.

229

Bank deposite

Tin gi ngn hng.

230

Bank for international Settlements

Ngn hng thanh ton quc t.

231

Banking panic

Cn hong lon ngn hng. Trng phi ngn hng

232

Banking school

233

Bank loan

Khon vay ngn hng.

234

Bank note

Giy bc ca ngn hng.

235

Bank of England

Ngn hng Anh

L ngn hng TRUNG NG ca Anh. Do thng nhnLondon xng nh mt ngn hng thng mi v c thnh lp theo o lut ca Quc hi nm 1694. T nm 1791-1811 v t nm 1816-1836 mt s chc nng ngn hng trung ng M c ln lt do ngn hng th nht th hai thc hin. Trong mt thi gian khong 30 nm (n khi c o lut ngn hng quc gia nm 1864) hu nh khng c chc nng ngn hng trung ng M. Trn thc t, phi n lc c o lut d tr lin bang nm 1913 m mi c mt ngn hng trung ng thc s. Xem COMPETITION AND CREDIT CONTROL, MONETARY POLICY. Mt th tc php l trong ti sn ca con n khng tr c n b tch thu v li ch ca cc ch n ni chung. Thu c p t bi mt nc cng c v tr ca n trong m phn thng mi vi cc nc khc, khi cc nc ny s dng li ha chit khu thu t c s nhng b trong thng mi. Tin cng c c nh trong mt qu trnh thng lng tp th, mt s dn xp v mt c ch so vi qu trnh iu chnh cung cu chnh thng. L thuyt thng lng v tin cng ch nhng m hnh ca qu trnh thng lng p dng cho mi quan h ca s qun l ca cng on vt ra ngoi m hnh C QUYN SONG PHNG, trong kt qu cui cng ca thng lng vn cn m h, rt ra mt gii php r rng.Xem STRIKES, WAGE THEORY. Mt n v i din cho quyn li ca ngi lao ng trong thng lng v qun l lao ng M. Cc n v ny c th l rt nh, l cc nhn vin c tuyn trong mt hng n l hay rt ln, tt c nhng ngi c tuyn dng trong mt ngnh trn khp t nc. Cc n v thng lng khc nhau v quy m v c cu.

236

Bank of United State

Ngn hng Hoa K. T l chit khu chnh thc ca ngn hng ANH.

237

Bank rate

238

Bankruptcy

S ph sn. Thu quan mc c; Thu quan thng lng.

239

Bargaining tariff

240

Bargaining theory of wages

L thuyt thng lng v tin cng; L thuyt mc c v tin cng.

241

Bargaining unit

n v thng lng; n v mc c. T s gia tin mt v tin gi ca ngn hng.

242

Banks' cash-deposit ratio

243

Barlow Report

Bo co Barlow. S ch o theo k p gi c.

Nhng kt qu phn tch ca mt u ban hong gia Anh v s phn b a l ca ngnh cng nghip Anh v c nh hng mnh m n s pht trin ca chnh sch khu vc hu cng nghip Chin tranh Anh.

244

Barometric price leadership

Xem PRICE LEADERSHIP. Cc yu t y nhng ngi mi nhp ngnh vo mt mc gi khng thun li so vi cc hng thit lp trong mt ngnh. Chng no cc hng thit lp t gi mt mc di im ti thiu ca chi ph trung bnh di hn ca hng tim tng hiu qu nht, cc hng thit lp c th t c mc siu li nhun v lu di m khng phi lo s v s gia nhp ngnh mi. Phng php trao i hng ho v dch v trc tip ly cc hng ho v dch v khc, khng s dng mt n v k ton hay phng tin trao i no c.

245

Barriers to entry

Ro cn nhp ngnh

246

Barter

Hng i hng.

247

Barter agreements

Hip nh trao i hng.

Hip nh gia cc quc gia, thng gp kh khn v CN CN THANH TON, id vi vic trao i trc tip cc lng hng ho Nn kinh t m hng ho v dch v c thc hin thng qua vic I HNG, iu dn ti rt t chuyn mn ho hoc phn cng lc lng lao ng do yu cu ca s trng lp mun. Mt thi im c dng tham kho khi so snh vi giai on sau. Sau khi bi b nhng hip nh v tin gi v tin vay nm 1971, CC NGN HNG THANH TON B TR CA ANH p dng tp qun xc nh v thng bo "li sut gc".Xem COMPETITION AND CREDIT CONTROL.

248

Barter economy

Nn kinh t hng i hng

249

Base period

Giai on gc.

250

Base rate

Li sut gc. Cc hot ng c bn. Hng xut khu c bn

251

Basic activities

Xem ECONOMIC BASE. Tn gi ca cc hng xut khu s ch ca cc nc km pht trin.

252

Basic exports

253

Basic industries

Nhng ngnh c bn.

Xem ECONOMIC BASE. L chin lc pht trin c tho lun nhiu trong nhng nm gn y. Khc vi cc l thuyt tch lu c in, n nhn mnh rng c mt s mc cn phi u tin. l (1) cung cp cc hng tiu dng c bn nh thc n, qun o v ch , (2) cc dch v cn thit nh nc, gio dc, y t, (3) quyn c vic lm vi thu nhp m bo cc nhu cu c bn, (4) c s h tng p ng cho nhu cu c bn v hng ho v dch v v (5) tham gia vo qu trnh ra quyt nh. Chin lc ny hng vo sn xut. Trit l ny c c cc trit gia bo th v cc trit gia cp tin ng h. N cng vp phi cc ch trch l khng y v khng c g thc s l mi m.

254

Basic need philosophy

Trit l nhu cu c bn. Mc tin cng c bn; mc lng c bn.

255

Basic wage rates

Xem Wage Rate. Mt cch nh gi trong nhng ngi bn hng khc nhau trong mt th trng thng nht rng mc gi i vi mt hng ho s c tnh bng tng gi c nh v mc ph vn chuyn c thng nht lin quan n khong cch gia ngi tiu dng v im gn nht trong mt s cc a im c tho thun gi l "cc im nh v c s". Cc phng php phn tch thng k (bao gm C LNG v SUY LUN THNG K) trong thng tin trc y c kt hp vi s liu mu a ra nhng c tnh hay cc gi thuyt kim nghim. Mt loi tri khon khng yu cu c chng th chuyn nhng v ngi gi c quyn s hu hp php. Nhng c nhn tin rng gi chng khon hoc tri khon s gim v do bn nhng chng khon hy vng rng c th mua li mc gi thp hn.

256

Basing-point system

H thng im nh v c s.

257

Bayesian techniques

K thut Bayes. Tri khon khng ghi tn. Ngi u c gi xung.

258

Bearer bonds

259

Bears

260

Beggar-my neighbour policies

Chnh sch lm ngho nc lng ging

Nhng bin php kinh t m mt nc thc hin nhm ci thin tnh hnh trong nc, thng l gim tht nghip v c nhng tc ng bt li vi cc nn kinh t khc. Mt mi quan h ton hc trong mt m hnh kinh t hay kinh t lng, phn nh s phn ng ca mt c nhn hay mt tp hp cc c nhn i vi cc khuyn khch kinh t (v d HM TIU DNG). Mt quan im v s hnh thnh cc k vng da trn cc yu t tm l v x hi. Mt nhm cc l thuyt coi hng nh mt lin minh ca cc phn nhm m mc ch ca chng vn d mu thun nhau. Xem XEFFICIENCY.

261

Behavioural equation

Phng trnh v hnh vi K vng da trn hnh vi. Cc l thuyt da trn hnh vi v hng; l thuyt v hng da trn hnh vi.

262

Behavioural expectations

263

Behavioural theories of the firm

264

Base year

Nm gc, nm c s.

265

Benefit-cost ratio

T s chi ph-li ch. Phn tch li ch chi ph.

Xem COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS.

266

Benefit-cost analysis

Xem COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS. Mt l thuyt truyn thng v NH THU cho rng gnh nng v thu nn c phn b gia nhng ngi tr thu theo li ch m h nhn c t vic cung cp hng ho cng cng. Mt lin minh v hi quan ban u c thit lp do cng c vo nm 1932 gia chnh ph B,Luch Xm Bua v H Lan. T chc hin ti c thnh lp theo hip nh lin minh kinh t Benelux vo nm 1958.

267

Benefit principle

Nguyn tc nh thu theo li ch.

268

Benelux EconomicUnion

Lin minh kinh tBenelux.

269

Bentham,Jeremy

1748-1832

Mt nh khoa hc x hi ngi anh HM PHC LI X HI Bergson l mt hm gi tr thc m bin s ca n bao gm cc i lng th hin cc mt khc nhau ca tnh trng x hi, thng l o tho dng ca mi c nhn hay mi h gia nh. Daniel Bernoulli l mt nh ton hc th k XIX a ra mt li gii cho mt nghch l c ca ngi. Bi ton ny l mt trong s cc bi ton gii thch ti sao cc c nhn s khng tr mt khon cc ln chi tr chi xp nga ca mt ng xu. M hnh v mt th trng c hai hng do J.Bertrand a ra nm 1883. ON S (C LNG S) ny c PHNG SAI nh nht trong tt c cc c lng TUYN TNH v cng khng chch (ngha l gi tr k vng ca n bng vi gi tr tham s thc). Xem GAUSS-MARKOV THEOREM, ORDINARY LEAST SQUARES. Ch s tnh s bin ng li tc ca mt c phiu cng vi s bin ng li tc ca ton b th trng chng khon.

270

Bergsonnian Social Walfare Funtion

Hm phc li x hi Bergson

271

Bernoulli Hypothesis

Gi thuyt Bernoulli. M hnh lng quyn ca Bertrand. (BLUE)-on s trng tuyn tnh p nht; (c lng tuyn tnh khng chch tt nht)

272

Bertrand's duopoly Model

273

Best Linear Unbiased Estimator

274

Beta

Ch s Beta

275

Beveridge Report

Bo co Beveridge.

Bn bo co v chnh sch x hi ca Anh c nhan "Bo him x hi v cc dch v lin kt" do Hun tc William Beveridge chun b cho chnh quyn lin minh thi chin nm 1942. Mc m gi tr k vng ca mt ON S (C LNG S) khc so vi gi tr tham s thc ca n. Xem (BEST LINEAR UNBIASED ESTIMATOR). Mt ngh tr m mt c nhn hay t chc a ra s hu hoc kim sot ti sn, cc u vo, hng ho hay dch v. Mi quan h ch ra khon tin m mt gia nh hoc hng c th tr s dng mt mnh t nht nh vi cc khong khc nhau so vi trung tm ca mt vng th trong khi vn duy tr mc khng i THO DNG hay L NHUN. Gi thuyt cho rng trong khi mc di do v chi ph TI CHNH NGOI HI l yu t quyt nh quan trng ti u t trong thi k bng n tng trng, cn thu nhp gi vai tr quan trng nht khi suy thoi. Mt cm thut ng ph bin dng miu t nhng thay i v cc quy ch London- trung tm ti chnh ca Anh vo thng 10/1986. mt ng gp vo cuc tranh lun din ra vo thp k 1950 v 1960 v vic tng trng cn i hay khng cn i l ph hp nht cho cc nc ang pht trin. S tr gip hay vin tr da trn mt tho thun trc tip gia hai nc; khc vi vin tr a phng n t mt nhm cc nc hay t mt t chc quc t. Xem FOREING AID, TIED AID. Th trng trong mt ngi mua n c i mt vi ngi bn n c. Mu dch, thng l cc ch m phn chnh ph gia hai nc, bng cch mt nc xut khu mt lng hay gi tr hng ho nht nh sang cc nc i tc i ly mt lng hay gi tr hng nhp khu tho thun t nc i tc. Cng c ngn hn di dng lnh tr yu cu ngi b k Ngi chuyn chp ni ngi mua v ngi bn hi phiu li vi nhau ly tin hoa hng. Xem DISCUONT HOUSE. Hi phiu c rt cp tin cho giao dch ngoi thng. Ch thuyt thnh hnh M nhng nm 1950, cho rng khi tham gia vo CC NGHIP V TH TRNG M, H THNG D TR LIN BANG ch tin hnh cc nghip v mua bn hi phiu. iu ny da trn quan im rng bng cc tp trung vo th trng vn ngn hn, nhng nghip v ny s t c nh hng d tnh trc i vi kh nng chuyn hon ca ngn hng vi t xo trn nht i vi th trng ti chnh ni chung. ng thi nhng thay i din ra vi li sut ngn hn s nh hng n cc th trng khc thng qua phng tin "thng thng" ca cc iu chnh danh mc u t ca ngi nc ngoi nm gi.

276

Bias

lch.

277

Bid

u thu.

278

Bid-rent function

Hm gi thu thu t.

279

Bifurcation Hypothesis

Gi thuyt lng cc.

280

Big bang

V o ln ln.

281

Big push

C y mnh.

282

Bilateral assistance

Tr gip song phng. c quyn song phng.

283

Bilateral monopoly

284

Bilateral trade

Mu dch song phng

285

Bill

Hi phiu. Ngi mi gii hi phiu.

286

Bill broker

287

Bill of exchange

Hi phiu i ngoi.

288

Bills only

Ch c nghip v hi phiu.

289

Binary variable

Bin nh phn.

Mt bin s ch c th c 2 gi tr (v d 0 v 1), thng s dng xc nh nhng nh hng mang tnh nh tnh hay nh lng trong phn tch HI QUY. Xem DUMMY VARIABLE. Mt gi tr cho li sut trong thuyt tng trng, trong gia tt c ng TNG TRNG CN I, th TIU DNG theo u ngi co nht t c v duy tr c bng mt ng trn nng sut vn bin (bng T L LI NHUN trong CNH TRANH HON HO) bng t l tng trng khng i ca lc lng lao ng c xc nh bng cch ngoi sinh. Xem GOLDEN RULE OF ACCUMULATION. c nh ngha l s ngi sinh sng st trung bnh trn 1000 dn mi nm.

290

Biological interest rate

Li sut sinh hc.

291

Birth rate

T sut sinh Ngn hng thanh ton quc t

292

BIS

Xem BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS

293

Bivariate analysis

Phn tch hai bin s

Phn tch ch lin quan n hai bin s Bt c th trng bt hp php no c thnh lp trong mt hon cnh m thng c chnh ph c nh gi mc ti a hoc ti thiu. Thng ch CN BNG TIU DNG trong ngi tiu dng hon ton tho mn i vi hng ho c tiu dng v im ny nm trong GII HN NGN SCH ca anh ta. Ni chung l mt khon tr cp khng t cc ca chnh ph cp cho chnh quyn a phng Mt cm thut ng ch C PHN hng nht c t ri ro v mt vn. Mt ci tn quen thuc cho n phm ca Cc thng k trung ng bao gm ng ti nhng ti khon chi tiu v thu nhp quc dn hng nm ca Anh. Ngi lao ng tham gia vo cng vic no m v bn cht l lao ng chn tay, v cng khc vi cng nhn c trng.(Xem MANUAL WORKERS) Cc s d khng chch, tuyn tnh, tt nht v vi mt ma trn hip phng sai v hng Mt nh kinh t hc v chnh khch ngi o. ng l ngi c hoan nghnh nht trong trng phi o. ng b sung mt phn nh hc thuyt ca Menger v Wieser v gi tr v gi c, nhng ng pht trin ton din din bin kinh t trong cng trnh ca mnh v vn v tin li, t tc phm ny ng c ngi ta gi l "nh t sn C.Mc". Trong cng trnh ny ng ng thi xc nh lng hng ho, giai on sn xut, tin lng v tin li. S quan tm c tp trung ch yu vo vn v li. ng gii thch rng, li sut l s tng tc gia S A THCH THEO THI GIAN v HIU SUT U T VT CHT. ng a ra 2 l do: mi ngi mong mun c kh gi hn trong tng lai v h cng nh gi qu thp nhng nhu cu trong tng lai. C hai iu trn lm gim tho dng bin ca hng ho tng lai.Bohm-Bawerk gii thch hiu sut u t vt cht di dng tnh u vit ca phng php sn xut vng trn, v d bt c th dng cn

294

Black market

Ch en

295

Bliss point

im cc mn; im hon ton tho mn

296

Block grant

Tr cp c gi

297

Blue chip

C phn xanh

298

Blue Book

Sch xanh

299

Blue-collar workers

Cng nhn c xanh

300 301

BLUS residuals Bohm-Bawerk, Eugen Von (18511914)

S d BLUS

cu hu hiu hn l bt trc tip bng tay. ng cho rng, S VNG VO l hiu qa nhng phi chu mc li tc gim dn. S vng vo c m rng n khi nng sut bin t s ko di cho php cui cng ca qu trnh sn xut bng li phi tr t c cc khon cho hng ho lng ca ngi lao ng ko di qu trnh sn xut. Khi nin s vnh vo l c tnh ca hc thuyt trng phi o v vn, chu rt nhiu tranh ci, v khng c thc o no r rng v n. Mc d n c mt s ngha hp hn v chnh xc hn v mt php l, cm thut ng ny c dng chung hn v lng lo hn ch bt c chng khon li sut c nh (n) no, v d: chng khon VIN VNG hay TRI KHON CNG TY. Cm thut ng ny miu t bt c ni no hoc s giao dch no, trong bt k loi tri khon no c chuyn qua tay: v d r nht l S GIAO DCH CHNG KHON ch c phiu pht hnh bi mt cng ty cho cc c ng hin ti khng phi dui dng mua vn mi m l VN HO d tr. Cm thut ng ny dng trong k ton. xc nh gi tr trn s sch ca mt c phiu, tt c tqi sn ca cng ty c cng li, tt c cng n v n c tr i, bao gm gi pht mi ca c phiu u i GIAI ON M RNG ca CHU K KINH DOANH. Cm thut ng ny ch p dng vi tc i hng i ln nhanh chng no so vi CHIU HNG TRNG K. Mt h thng v s LA CHN TP TH trong mi c tri xp hng tng v tr trong nhm.(Xem APPROVAL VOTING, CONDORCET CRITERION, SOCIAL DECISION RULE, SOCIAL WELFARE FUNCTION) Qu trnh thng lng tp th v cc iu khon v iu kin tuyn dng thng l tho hip v nhng b. Mt khi nim c H.A.SIMON a ra cho rng mc du cc c nhn c x theo l tr theo s sp t s thch cho d l hon chnh, nht qun v kn k, nhng kh nng thu nhp v x l thng tin ca h li b hn ch, ngha l n b gii hn bi kh nng tnh ton ca tr c con ngi. Cm thut ng ny c s dng ch mt b phn ca x hi cng nghip thng th trong cuc cch mng Cng nghip nh ch hng v cc nh chuyn mn. Mt phng php d bo da trn m hnh CHUI THI GIAN ARIMA. S di c ca nhng ngui lao ng c trnh v tay ngh t cc nc ngho sang cc nc giu hn. Vic cung cp cc dch v ngn hng thng qua mng li ngn hng chi nhnh s hu bi mt cng ty ngn hng. S trung thnh v tm l i vi s kt hp biu tng ca mt sn phm c nhn hiu.

302

Bond

Tri khon

303

Bond market

Th trng tri phiu

304

Bonus issue

C phiu thng

305

Book value

Gi tr trn s sch

306

Boom

S bng n tng trng

307

Borda Count

Con tnh Borda

308

Boulwarism

Ch ngha Boulware

309

Bounded rationality

Tnh duy l b hn ch.

310

Bourgeoisie

Tng lp trng gi; Tng lp t sn Phng php BoxJenkins. (Hin tng) chy mu cht xm Nhip v ngn hng chi nhnh S trung thnh vi nhn hiu

311

Box-Jenkins

312

Brain drain

313

Branch banking

314

Brand loyalty

315

Break-even analysis

Phn tch im ho vn

Chi ph sn xut mt hng ho c th chia thnh hai phn chnh: CHI PH C NH v CHI PH KH BIN. t quan im ca ngi k ton v chi ph, s lng doanh thu ti im ho vn l s lng m bo rng tt c chi ph c nh v kh bin u c trang tri mc gi bn c th. Mt im ti chi tiu cho tiu dng ng bng thu nhp nh c minh ho ti im m HM TIU DNG ct ng 45 trong M HNH THU NHP CHI TIU. (Xem CONSUMPTION FUNCTION) Khu du lch New Hampshire M, ti y Hi ngh ti chnh ca Lin hp quc c t chc vo nm 1944 tho lun vn thanh ton quc t sau chin tranh.

316

Break-even level of income

Mc ho vn ca thu nhp

317

Bretton Woods H thng Bretton Woods.

318

Bretton Woods system

Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. mt ngha hp l ngi trung gian chp ni ngi bn v ngi mua vi nhau, hoc ngi hot ng nh mt i in cho ngi ny hay cho ngi kia, tin hnh mt giao dch mua bn v nhn tin th lao hoa hng hay mi gii. Tuy nhin, my s trng phi khi nim ny ch ngi mua hoc ngi bn gc, d cch dng ny xut pht t giai on ban u ca ngi mi gii thc s. Mt khon tin c yu cu bi mt ngi mi gii v thc hin vic mua bn thay mt mt khch hng. M hnh ny c s dng phn tch cu trc ca CHU K KINH DOANH v cho nh gi CHNH SCH TIN T, TI CHNH v TNG TRNG KINH T. M hnh nh du mt bc quan trng trong vic thng nht nhiu thnh phn khc nhau ca nn kinh t thnh mt quy m ln nhng qun l c, y l mt ct mc trong vic pht trin cc m hnh kinh t lng. Mt hip c h tr ln nhau gia Anh, php v cc ncBenelux k nm 1948. Hip c c xem nh mt bc tin trong nh hng hi nhp ca chu U i trc Hip nh Roma (1957) v s khi u ca CNG NG KINH T CHU U (EEC), ngy nay l cng ng CHU U (EC).

319

Brooker

Ngi mi gii.

320

Brokerage

Hoa hng mi gii.

321

Brookings model

M hnh Brookings

322

Brussels, Treaty of

Hip c Brussels Hip c Brussels (c bit n nh hip c B sung)

323

Brussels, Treaty of

Xem EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY Hi ngh tin t quc t c t chc Brussel nm 1920 di s bo tr ca cc nc ng minh, nu ln vn n nh ngoi hi. Xem GENEVA CONFERENCE. S phn loi tiu chun hng ho, c chp nhn bi a s cc nc trn th gii, v nhng mc ch v thu quan. Nh kinh t hc ngi M t gii Nobel v kinh t hc nm 1986 v nhng ng gp ca ng i vi l thuyt ra quyt nh chnh tr v S LA CHN CNG CNG. Trong khi l thuyt kinh t truyn thng c th l gia cch thc NHNG NGI TIU DNG v cc nh sn xut ra quyt nh v mua hng ho v CC YU T SN XUT,l thuyt ny li khng cp ti vic a ra quyt nh kinh t trong KHU VC CNG

324

Brussels conference

Hi ngh Brussels. Biu thu quan theo Hip nh Brussels (1919-)

325 326

Brussels Tariff Nomenclature Buchanan, James M.

CNG. B nh hng bi M HNH TRAO I T NGUYN CA WICKSELL, Buchanan coi din bin chnh tr nh mt phng tin hp tc t c nhng li th c i c li. ng thi v kt qu ca qu trnh ny s ph thuc vo "lut chi", do Buchanan nhn mnh tm quan trng ca s la chn nhng quy tc t chc ny: Kt qu c th ca cc chnh sch u c th on c v c nh trc bi chnh cc quy tc trn. Buchanan c hn 20 cun sch v 300 bi bo c xut bn. Mt ngn sch c 3 b phn l B PHN PHN B, B PHN PHN PHI v B PHN T N NH. Chng c kt thnh mt ngn sch v nhng l do v phng din qun l. Mi b phn i hi c phng php qun l ring ca n. Chi tiu hin ti vt thu nhp hin ti. Thng c s dng nhiu nht c miu t tnh trng trong thu nhp ca chnh ph, thu t thu khng trang tri chi tiu ca chnh ph. Mt ng trong Khng gian hng ho ch ra nhng t hp m ngi tiu dng c th mua c mc thu nhp nht nh. Thu nhp hin ti vt chi tiu hin ti. Thng c s dng nhiu nht c miu t tnh trng trong thu nhp ca chnh ph, thu t thu vt chi tiu ca chnh ph. Mt h thng qua kim tra c tin hnh i vi cc ngun thu v chi cho cc mc tiu c nh ra trong ngn sch. Mc ch l khm ph xem kt qu chch hng mc tiu mc no c nhng hnh ng vo thi gian thch hp nhm a cc lung ph hp vi mc tiu mong mun.

327

Budget

Ngn sch.

328

Budget deficit

Thm ht ngn sch.

329

Budget line

ng ngn sch

330

Budget surplus

Thng d ngn sch.

331

Budgetary control

Kim sot ngn sch

332

Budget shares

T phn ngn sch. Kho m, d tr bnh n Ngn hng pht trin gia c Cc chnh sch, cng c n nh ni to. Cc lng hng ho c d tr khc phc bin ng gi c i vi cc mt hng c bn. Mt nh ch ti cnh chp nhn cc qu di dng "c phn" v tin gi cho ch s hu vay li hu nh ton b mua nh hoc cn h.

333

Buffer stocks

334

Building society

335

Built-in stabililizers

Xem AUTOMATIC STABILIZERS Kim loi qu nh vng hoc bc c gi vi s lng ln di dng thi hay thanh. Thoi vng c dng giao dch tin t gia cc quc t gia cc ngn hng v chnh ph. Cc c nhn tin rng chng khon hoc tri khon s tng gi v do mua chng v hy vng c th bn vi gi cao hn sau . Ngi u c gi xung gi l NGI BN KHNG. M hnh ny gi nh rng cc c quan nh nc s c x nh nhng tc nhn ti a ho ngn sch. Ngn sch ln hn cho php cc cng chc tho mn thch ca mnh v lng, chc tc, bo m vic lm v nhng li ch phi tin t nh quyn lc, danh ting v c hi phn b cc hp ng.

336

Bullion

Thoi

337

Bulls

Ngi u c gi ln.

338

Bureaucracy, economic theory of

L thuyt kinh t v h thng cng chc.

339

Bureaux

Vn phng

Trong HC THUYT KINH T V S QUAN LIU, nhng t chc phi li nhun c ti tr, t nht mt phn t tr cp nh k v cung ng mt tng sn lng i ly mt ngn sch ch khng phi nhng n v sn phm theo gi.

340

Business cycle

Chu k kinh doanh.

Xem TRADE CYCLE. Mc ti mt nghnh t c kt qu hay mc tiu m cc hng thnh vin theo ui. Xem STRUCTURE - CONDUCT - PERFORMANCE FRAMEWORK).

341

Business performance

Kt qu kinh doanh.

342

Business risk

Ri ro kinh doanh S tp trung ngi mua. Th trng ca ngi mua.

Xem CORPORATE RISK. ch mc m tng giao dch trn mt th trng b thng tr bi mt vi ngi mua ln nht. Mt th trng c c trng l d cung, trong ngi bn v vy phi gp kh khn khi bn tt c sn phm ca h theo gi d kin. Mt php tnh ca nghnh ton hc lin quan n vic tnh ton cc o hm hay tch phn. Cc khon tin m cc NGN HNG CHIT KHU vay t cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr v ngn hng khc London v chng c s dng gi cc danh mc u t ti sn. Rt nhiu khon tin gi ca cc ng tin Chu u cng dng ny. Mt hp ng cho php la chn mua c phiu vo mt ngy trong tng lai gii hn c nh trc. Xem PUT OPTION, OPTION.

343

Buyer concertration

344

Buyers' market

345

Caculus

Gii tch.

346

Call money

Khon vay khng k hn.

347

Call option

Hp ng mua trc. Phng trnh Cambridge Trng phi kinh t hcCambridge L thuyt tin t ca trng phi Cambridge.

348

Cambridge Equation

Xem QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY. Mt nhm cc nh kinh t hc b nh hng ca nhng bi vit v mi lin h vi A.MARSHALL.

349

Cambridge school ofEconomics

350

Cambridge theory of Money

Xem QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY.

351

CAP

Xem COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY. M hnh gii thch s t l u t c quan h mt thit vi m hnh GIA TC v c bit vi m hnh IU CHNH LNG VN. L t l sn lng thc t so vi sn lng tin nng. Xem EXCESS CAPACITY. 1)Mt t dng ch mt yu t sn xut do h thng kinh t to ra. 2)Mt t cng c s dng lm thut ng ch cc ti sn TI CHNH. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL, CAPITAL CONTROVERSY, FINANCE.

352

Capacity model

M hnh cng nng. Mc s dng cng nng

353

Capacity untilization

354

Capital

T bn/ vn.

355

Capital account

Ti khon vn.

Xem BALANCE OF PAYMENT.

356

Capital accumulation

Tch l vn. Cc khon min thu cho vn.

Qu trnh tch lu vn qua u t rng dng. Xem GOLDEN RULE OF ACCUMULATION Min thu i vi thu cng ty lin quan n chi tiu cho vn ca hng. Mt ti sn khng c mua bn nh mt phn ca cng vic kinh doanh hng ngy. V d: nh xng, my mc, t ai hoc chng khon. M hnh ra i vo nhng nm 1960 v a ra mt dng c th ca khi nim chung v s nh i gia ri ro v li tc. Qu trnh phn b vn c th u t cho cc vn d n. Cc chi ph m cc cng ty v c nhn a vo ti khon ca h tr li vn vay, khu hao ti sn v tr n vay. Xem ANNUAL CAPITAL CHARGE.

357

Capital allowances

358

Capital asset

Ti sn vn. M hnh nh gi Ti sn vn. Phn b vn ngn sch.

359

Capital asset pricing model

360

Capital budgeting

361

Capital charges

Cc ph tn cho vn

362

Capital coefficients

Cc h s vn. Khon khu tr cho s dng t bn.

Xem CAPITAL - OUTPUT RATIO Mc chnh lch gia tng sn phm quc dn (GNP) v sn phm quc dn rng trong khun kh hch ton thu nhp quc dn M. Xem NATION IMCOME Mt cuc tranh lun gia trng phi Cambridge (c trung tm ti trng i hc Cambridge, Anh ) v trng phi tn c in ca vin Cng ngh Massachusetts (MIT), Cambridge v tnh xc ng ca cc quan im tn c in v kinh t hc. Qu trnh tch lu vn vi tc nhanh hn so vi mc tng trng ca lc lng lao ng. Xem CAPITAL WIDENING.

363

Capital Consumption Allowance

364

Capital Controversy

Tranh ci v yu t vn.

365

Capital deepening

Tng cng vn. Thit b sn xut, thit b vn.

366

Capital equipment

Xem CAPITAL Chi tiu cho t liu sn xut ca cc hng, chnh ph, cc c quan chnh ph hay h gia nh, nhm mc ch thay th vn khu hao hay to vn mi. Xem CAPITAL INVESTMENT. Lng b sung vo DUNG LNG VN sau khi khu hao. Xem INVESMENT. Chnh lc gia gi mua mt ti sn v gi bn li vo mt ngy no m chnh lch ny l dng.

367

Capital expenditure Capital information (capital formation?)

Chi tiu cho vn.

368

S hnh thnh vn.

369

Capital gain

Khon li vn.

370

Capital gains tax

Thu li vn.

Thu nh vo s tng thm ca ti sn

371

Capital gearing

T trng vn vay T liu sn xut, hng t liu sn xut.

Xem GEARING.

372

Capital goods

Xem CAPITAL. T s vn so vi lao ng c s dng trong qu trnh sn xut. Xem PRODUCTION FUNCTION.

373

Capital intensity

Cng vn.

374

Capital - intensive

(ngnh) da nhiu vo vn; s dng nhiu vn. Nn kinh t da nhiu vo vn.

Mt k thut sn xut A c coi l s dng nhiu vn hn so vi k thut tng ng B nu t s vn so vi CC YU T SN XUT khc ca A ln hn B. Mt nn kinh t trong a s cc k thut sn xut l s dng NHIU VN.(Xem CAPITAL INTENSITY) Mt ngnh kinh t trong cc k thut sn xut ch yu BAO HM NHIU VN (Xem CAPITAL INTENSITY, CAPITAL INTENSIVE TECHNIQUES, APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY). Mt phng php sn xut c t trng VN cao hn bt c yu t sn xut no khc. (Xem CAPITAL, FACTORS OF PRODUC-TION).

375

Capital - intensive economy

376

Capital-intensive sector

Ngnh bao hm nhiu vn Cc k thut da nhiu vo vn Vn, hiu qu bin ca

377

Capital-intensive techniques

378

Capital, marginal efficiency of

Xem MARGINAL EFFICIENCY OF CAPITAL Mt h thng chnh tr, x hi v kinh t, trong phn ln l ti sn bao gm ti sn vn c s hu v kim sot bi cc c nhn.(Xem MARKET ECONOMY, MIXED MARKET ECONOMY AND FREE ENTERPRISE).

379

Capitalism

Ch ngha t bn

380

Capitalization

T bn ho, vn ha C phiu khng mt tin

Tng s v c cu VN c phiu ca mt cng ty

381

Capitalization issue

Xem BONUS ISSUE Mt khi nim lin quan n t trng ca mi loi c phiu hay vn n trong mt cng ty so vi tng VN C PHN trn th trng ca n. Tr gi c nh cho mt ti sn theo mc li nhun hin ti v li sut th trng hin hnh. T s m LAO NG v VN c kt hp trong qu trnh sn xut.(Xem INVESTMENT).

382

Capitalization rates

T l vn ho

383

Capitalized value

Gi tr c vn ho

384

Capital-labour ratio

T s vn/ lao ng

385

Capital loss

Khon l vn

Xem CAPITAL GAIN L th trng, hay ng hn l mt nhm cc th trng lin quan ti nhau, trong , vn dng ti chnh (tin t) c em cho vay, vay hoc "huy ng" vi cc iu kin khc nhau v trong thi hn khc nhau.(Xem TERM STRUCTURE OF INTEREST RATES). Cc lung vn quc t c th c c nhn hay chnh ph tin hnh T l ca lng vn trn sn lng m vn to ra. (Xem INCREMENTAL CAPITAL- OUTPUT RATIO). c dng xc nh mt tnh hung, trong s hn hp ngn sch v lng tin sn c cho u t v cc d n trn mc rng buc th trng thng thng c quyt nh bi mi lin h gia chi ph vn v li tc d kin.

386

Capital market

Th trng vn Cc lung di chuyn vn

387

Capital movements

388

Capital-output ratio

T s vn-sn lng

389

Capital rationing

nh mc vn

390

Capital requirements

Cc yu cu v vn Thay i k thut sn xut

Vic c tnh cc yu cu v vn l cn thit xc nh T S VN GIA TNG SN LNG, tc l mi lin h gia u t v tng thu nhp nh u t . Vic p dng mt phng php sn xut khi gi tr ca lng vn lin quan v t sut li nhun cng tng ln. Lung dch v qua thi gian bt ngun t dung lng vn thit b (Xem CAPITAL). Tng s T LIU SN XUT trong mt nn kinh t. (Xem CAPITAL CONTROVERSY) Mt l thuyt cho rng mc U T RNG l mt phn chnh lch gia DUNG LNG VN mong mun v dung lng vn thc t, n phn nh kh nng iu chnh khng hon ho ti mt mc ti u trong bt c khong thi gian c hn no . (Xem ACCELERATOR PRINCIPLE). Thnh phn VN ca mt cng ty (Xem COST OF CAPITAL)

391

Capital- reversing

392

Capital services

Cc dch v vn

393

Capital stock

Dung lng vn

394

Capital Stock Adjustment Principle

Nguyn l iu chnh dung lng vn

395

Capital structure

Cu trc vn

396

Captital tax

Thu vn Phng php l thuyt qui v vn

Xem WEALTH TAX Mt cch tip cn kinh t hc xem tt c cc ngun lc nh VN , ngha l gi tr hin ti rng ca lung thu nhp tng lai ca chng.

397

Capital theoretic approach

398

Capital theory

L thuyt v vn

Xem CAPITAL CONTROVERSY Thu nh vo vic chuyn giao TI SN p dng Anh t nm 1974 thay th THU BT NG SN v c t tn li l thu tha k nm 1986.Thu chuyn giao vn bao gm thu qu tng cho sut i v thu tha k. Mt tiu chun u t c xut t lu s dng CC NC ANG PHT TRIN. xut ny cho rng cc d n c la chn ph hp vi T S VN GIA TNG - SN LNG ca chng v nhng d n c t s thp nht s c u tin. Qu trnh tch lu VN tng cng vi tc gia tng LC LNG LAO NG T S VN- LAO NG khng i (Xem CAPITAL DEEPENING)

399

Capital transfer tax

Thu chuyn giao vn

400

Capital turnover criterion

Tiu chun quay vng vn u t chiu rng (m rng vn)

401

Capital widening

402

Capitation tax

Thu thn

Xem POOL TAX. L thuyt v iu tit do Geogre Stigler a ra. V c bn, mt ngnh b iu tit c th thu li t s iu tit bng cch "nm gi" c quan iu tit c lin quan.

403

Capture theory

L thuyt nm gi. Ngi / Ngn hng b buc phi mua mt s chng khon va pht hnh. (Nh nc quy nh).

404

Captive buyer

405

Carbon tax

Thu Carbon

Thu nh vo cc nhin liu ho thch nhm gim lng thi CO2 gim s nng ln ca ton cu. Xem EXTERNALITIES, INTERNALIZATION.

406

Cardinalism

Trng phi im ho; trng phi chia .

Trng phi cho rng THO DNG c th o lng c bng cc n v s m. Xem CARDINAL UNTILITY. C th phn bit hai ngha ca cm thut ng ny.1)t c s dng hn l tho dng gn vi mt nhm hng ho c th o c mt cch tuyt i bng n v nh 'util' (mt thut ng c Jevons dng trong thuyt kinh t chnh tr ca ng nm 1871). 2)c s dng rng ri hn, lin quan ch n khong cch gia cc mc tho dng. Tho thun chnh thc gia cc hng trong mt th trng c quyn nhm kt hp cc th tc c thng nht v cc bin nh gi c v sn lng. Xem OLIGOPOLY. Cc hnh pht p t bi cc thnh vin ca Cartel nhm t c s kt dnh vi mc tiu chung ca c nhm. Theo ngha chung nht, thut ng ch tin bao gm TIN MT v TIN GI NGN HNG.

407

Cardinal utility

tho dng im ho; tho dng, khong cch gia cc mc tho dng.

408

Cartel

Cartel S trng pht ca Cartel

409

Cartel sanctions

410

Cash

Tin mt. Cch tip cn tn qu. (S d tin mt). Nng sn thng mi; Hoa mu hng ho/ hoa mu thng mi. Tht thot / ht tin mt. Lung tin, ngn lu, dng kim lu. Bn bo co lung tin / ngn lu. Hn mc chi tiu, hn mc tin mt.

411

Cash balance approach

Xem QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY. Cm thut ng ny ch cc loi hoa mu c nng dn trng bn trn th trng ch khng phi tiu dng trc tip CHO CC MC CH T CUNG T CP.

412

Cash crops

413

Cash drainage

414

Cash flow

Tng thu nhp gi li v khon khu hao cn li ca mt hng.

415

Cash flow statement

416

Cash limit

Mt dng kim sot CHI TIU CNG CNG thc hin Anh. T s m cc ngn hng duy tr gia s tin mt v tng s tin gi ca chng, v thnh thong c gi l t l d tr tin mt. Tnh trng c vic lm tm thi m khng c gi lm u dn hay hp ng lng.

417

Cash ratio

T sut tin mt.

418

Casual employment

Cng vic tm thi.

419

Categorical

Tr cp chn lc. Phng php nhn qu.

Xem GRANT Mt khi nim ny sinh t vic xem xt cc gi nh ni bt ca m hnh kinh t lng c lng t s hiu chui thi gian m bn cht l khng th nghim.

420

Causality

421

CBI

Xem CONFEDERATION OF BRITISH INDUSTRY. Gii hn tng sn lng trong thuyt CHU K KINH DOANH. Trn t c khi tt c cc yu t sn xut t ti mc ton nng.

423

Ceiling

Mc trn

424

Celler - Kefauver Act

o lut Celler Kefauver. Ngn hng trung ng Ngn hng trung ng ca cc ngn hng trung ng. Khu kinh doanh trung tm.

Ban hnh M nm 1950 vi t cch l mt sa i O LUT CLAYTON. Mc ch ca o lut ny l tng cng php lut chng li s st nhp phn cnh tranh. Mt c quan c trch nhim kim sot h thng ngn hng v tin t ca mt nc, mc d c chc ng khc ph thuc vo mi trng v c cu ti chnh. Xem BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS v INTERNATIONAL MONETATY FUND. Mt khu vc trung tm cc thnh ph v a s th trn ln c s dng cho cc hot ng thng mi. Xem ACCESS/SPACE TRADE - OFF MODEL. nh l ni rng tng (v trung bnh) ca mt nhm cc bin ngu nhin s tun theo phn phi chun nu mu chn ln, khng ph thuc vo dng phn phi m cc bin ring bit c.

425

Central Bank

426

Central Bank of Central Banks

427

Central business district

428

Central Limit Theorem.

nh l gii hn trung tm. L thuyt V tr Trung tm. K hoch ho tp trung. Ban xet duyt chnh sch trung ng (CPRS).

429

Central Place Theory

Xem LOCATION THEORY.

430

Central planing

Xem PLANNED ECONOMY. Mt vn phng c thnh lp Anh nm 1970 chu trch nhim tin hnh cc vn chnh sch kinh t chnh cho vn phng ni cc. Mt cc ca chnh ph Anh c trch nhim thu thp, tng hp xut bn cc s liu thng k do vn phng chnh ph v cc c quan khng chnh thc v bn chnh thc Anh cung cp. Trong nhng bi cnh RI RO hay khng chc chn, cc bin s s mang cc gi tr vi t nht 2 c tnh: Mt chng t do mt ngn hng pht hnh chng nhn khon tin gi ngn hng v l mt li ha tr li khon tin cho ngi cm phiu vo mt ngy xc nh trong tng lai. Xem CONSTANT ELASTICITY OF SUBTITUTION PRODUCTION FUNCTION. Mt cm thut ng la tinh ngha l "mi th khc khng i". Phn tch kinh t thng tin hnh bng cch xem xt nh hng ca mt vi bin c lp trong khi cc yu t khc khng i. Mt quy tc xc nh o hm ca mt hm vi mt bin s, trong hm l hm ca mt bin s.

431

Central policy Review Staff

432

Central Statical office

Cc thng k trung ng Mc qui i v tt nh.

433

Certainty equivalence

434

Certificate of deposit

Giy chng nhn tin gi. hm sn xut c co gin thay th c nh.

435

CES production function

436

Ceteris paribus

iu kin khc gi nguyn Quy tc dy chuyn. (Quy tc hm ca hm). Xu hng hng tm; Hng tm. Mc trn v mc sn; Mc nh v mc y.

437

Chain rule

438

Central tendency

439

Ceilings and floors

440

Causation

Quan h nhn qu.

441

Chamberlin, Edward

(1899-1967)

Mt nh kinh t ngi M ni ting vi L thuyt cnh tranh c quyn (1933). Trong l thuyt ny, ng phn tch tnh hnh th trng gia cnh tranh HON HO v C QUYN c lp vi cng trnh Anh ca Joaobinson. ng cho rng cc hng cnh tranh vi nhau v cu ni vi sn phm ca h b tc ng bi s tn ti ca cc hng khc, nhng mi hng li c mc c quyn no v chng c cc sn phm ring mnh. Cnh tranh c th di dng cnh tranh sn phm, trong qung co rt quan trng cng nh i vi cnh tranh bng gi vy. Chanberlin nhn mnh tnh bin d sn phm i lp vi s khng hon ho ca th trng, bao gm yu t nh tn nhn mc, cht lng c bit, mu, bao b v dch v bn hng. Mt trong nhng kt lun ni ln t s phn tch ca ng l cnh tranh c quyn c th c c trng tha nng lc, mt kt qu b thch thc v n c v ph thuc vo gi nh rng tt c thnh vin ca mt nhm hot ng di nhng iu kin chi ph ging nhau. L thuyt ny lin quan ti l thuyt cu tiu dng v cng trnh ca K.lancaster. tng chnh l nhng ngi tiu dng khng yu cu sn phm m l c tnh ca sn phm. Xem HEDONIC PRICES. Mt phng tin tn dng ngi bn l dnh cho khch hng. Ch mt giai on trong cc khon vay sn c li sut thp hay mt chnh sch to nn tnh hung ny. Vic ch thu tr trc tip ph cng on t lng nhn vin. Ph ny sau c tr cho cng on. Th do cc ngn hng cp cho cc khch hng c TI KHON vng lai m bo vic thanh ton sc c rt bi cc khch hng ny theo nhng gii hn nht nh. Mt loi chng t thng c cp di dng in sn bi mt ngn hng, yu cu ngn hng chuyn t ti khon VNG LAI ca ngi rt sang ngi nh danh c tr. Tn ch cc nh kinh t hc c chung 4 nim tin c bn sau. Th nht, h tin rng kinh t hc l (hoc c th l ) khng gi tr theo cch tng t nh cc ngnh khoa hc vt l. Th hai, h tin rng l thuyt gi c Tn c in l mt l gii chnh xc v cch thc hot ng ca cc h thng kinh t. Th ba, h tin rng s hot ng ca th trng cnh tranh, t do l gii php kh d nht cho vn phn b cc ngun lc. Cui cng, h l nhng ngi trung thnh vng vng vi CH NGHA TRNG TIN. Tt c nhng iu ny a h n ch ng h s can thip hn ch ca chnh ph vo h tng kinh t. Tn gi ny bt ngun t thc t l nhiu thnh vin ni bt ca "trng phi" ny (v d FRIEDMAN, KNIGHT, SCHULTZ v STIGLER) gn b vi trng i hc Chicago. Trong hu ht cc h thng THU THU NHP u tr cp cho tr em n theo. tng ny l gim nh gnh nng chi ph nui dy con ci m gia nh phi gnh chu. Mt phn b xc sut vi tham s n bc t do ca tham s. Xem CONTINGENCY TABLES.

442

Characteristics theory

L thuyt v c tnh sn phm.

443

Charge account

Ti khon tn dng.

444

Cheap money

Tin r. Tr cng on ph trc tip.

445

Check off

446

Cheque card

Th sc.

447

Cheque

Sc

448

Chicago School

Trng phi (kinh t)Chicago.

449

Child allowance

Tr cp tr em. Phn phI Kai bnh phng (Phn phi khi bnh phng)

450

Chi-square distribution

451

Choice of technology

S la chn cng ngh.

Xem TECHNOLOGY, CHOICE OF. Mt bin trong bi ton ti u m gi tr ca bin c "chn" ti u ho gi tr ca HM MC TIU. Cc bin la chn thng l bin c lp ca hm mc tiu.

452

Choice variable

Bin la chn. Gi, ph bo him, cc vn chuyn , hay gi y ca hng ho.

453

CIF

454

CIO Lung lun chuyn thu nhp. S la chn k thut sn xut. Dng thanh ton lun chuyn.

Xem AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOUR. Lung tin thu v chi gia cc hng v h gia nh trong nc.

455

Circular flow of income

456

Choice of production technique

457

Circular flow of payments

458

Circulating capital

Vn lu ng.

Xem WORRKING CAPITAL. c phong gio s ti trng i hc Columbia nm 1895. Nhng n phm chnh ca ng bao gm Trit l v ca ci (1885), Phn phi ca ci (1899),Cc yu t ct yu ca thuyt kinh t (1897), v Cc vn c quyn (1904). ng c ng gp trong vic khm ph c lp v nguyn l phn tch bin v c coi l ngi sng lp ra HC THUYT NNG SUT BIN M. Con ng ring ca ng tin ti l thuyt nng sut bin l i t vic khi qut ho khi nim ca RICARDO v gi thu. ng tin xa hn VON THUNEN, JEVONS, MENGER v WALRAS bng vic tuyn b rng phn phi thu nhp theo quy lut nng sut bin l "cng bng". Vic xc nh ring bit v c lp gi tng i v tuyt i trong KINH T HC C IN v TN C IN.(Xem NEO-CLASSICAL SYNTHESIS). Mt t tng kinh t t gia th k XVIII n gia th k XIX, m phn ln t tng ny ni ln t Anh.

459

Clark, John Bates

(1847-1938) Thuyt lng phn c in

460

Classical dichotomy

461

Classical economics

Kinh t hc c in

462

Classical school Classical system of company taxation

Trng phi c in H thng c in v thu cng ty

Xem Classical economics.

463

Xem CORPORATION TAX Mt cm thut ng dng miu t k thut thng k chun nhm phn bit chng c th vi cc k thut BAYES.

464

Classical techniques Classical and Keynesian unemployment

Cc k thut c in Tht nghip theo l thuyt c in v theo l thuyt Keynes

465

466

Classical model

M hnh c in Mt kha cnh ca HM SN XUT trong THUYT TNG TRNG khng cho php t l vn - lao ng bin i trc hoc sau khi thc hin u t. Cm thut ng "t st" dng ch vn, do t st c cho l km tnh cn mng hn so vi "mt tt" (Xem PUTTY-CLAY and PUTTY- PUTTY). c thng qua M nm 1914. Mc ch ca o lut l xc nh c th nhng vi phm chng c quyn nhm lm cho o lut Sherman r rng hn. (Xem CELLER- KEFAUVER ACT and ROB INSONPATMEN ATC). Khi T GI TH NI c bin i mt cch t do khi bt c nh hng can thip no cc CO QUAN QUN L TIN T. (Xem DIRTY FLOAT) Anh, cm thut ng ny dng ch cc NGN HNG THNG MI theo truyn thng iu hnh v c th tip cn vi mt PHNG THANH TON B TR hay cc c quan tng ng vi mc ch thanh ton b tr cc t SC ca nhau. Mt a danh ca London m cc NGN HNG THANH TON B TR LONDON, NGN HNG ANH v Edinburgh, ngn hng c phn Scotland tin hnh thanh ton b tr sc v cc khiu n khc vi nhau Tn mn lch s kinh t "mi", s dng KINH T LNG nghin cu v cc vn c cc nh s hc cp Khi nim s dng ch yu trong cc m hnh l thuyt ch mt nn kinh t khng c quan h ngoi thng m hon ton t tc v tch bit vi cc tc nhn bn ngoi. Theo ngha s dng M, cm thut ng ny ch mt tho thun yu cu cc cng nhn tr thnh thnh vin ca cng on trc khi c mt hng thu lm vic. Anh, mt khc, cm thut ng ny thng phn bit gia cc hnh thc ca hng ng trc khi vo lm v sau khi vo lm li. c s dng ph bin cng vi TH TRNG CHNG KHON ch gi CHNG KHON v C PHIU ti thi im kt thc bun bn ca mt ngy. Mt dng trung gian gia HNG HO CNG CNG thun tu v hng ho t nhn (Xem CLUBS, THEORY OF)

467

Clay-clay

clay-clay; t st- t st

468

Clayton Act

o lut Clayton

469

Clean float

Th ni t do

470

Clearing banks

Cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr

471

Clearing house

Phng thanh ton b tr

472

Cliometrics

S lng

473

Closed economy

Nn kinh t ng

474

Closed shop

Ca hng ng;Cng ty c t chc cng on.

475

Closing prices

Gi lc ng ca. Hng ho club; Hng ho bn cng cng. Thuyt club; Thuyt cu lc b, thuyt hng ho bn cng cng. (1910- ).

476

Club good

477 478

Clubs, theory of Coase, Ronald H.

Thuyt cu lc b l mt phn ca thuyt HNG HO CNG CNG KHNG THUN TU Mt nh kinh t hc sinh ti Anh c tng gi thng Nobel kinh t hc nm 1991 cho cng trnh chuyn ca ng v L THUYT V HNG v kinh t hc v NGOI NG. Coase, ngi c dy trong mt thi gian ti Trng kinh t London, lm vic ti trng i hc Chicago trong hu ht qung i ca ng. Nm 1937 trong bi bo "Bn cht ca hn" (tp ch Economica s IV), ng nu ra cu hi ti sao cc hot ng kinh t nht nh b ph mc cho s trao i ca th trng, cn s khc li c tin hnh bn

trong hng. Khi th trng v cc hng l cc cch t chc c th thay th nhau, th ci g s quyt nh cch no c s dng? Coase tr li cu hi ny bng cch cho rng hng s m rng ti mt im ti chi ph tin hnh hot ng trong hng bng vi chi ph thc hin qua giao dch th trng. y chnh l xut pht im xem mt t chc cng nghip t gc chi ph giao dch, tc l kiu t chc c chn l kiu t chc lm ti a ho chi ph ca mt giao dch kinh t. Nm 1906, trong bi bo "Vn la chn x hi", Tp ch Php lut v Kinh t hc s 3, Coase lp lun ci tr thnh NH L COASE rng tnh ti u Pareto vn c th c khi c cc ngoi ng v khng c can thip ca nh nc, nu c th thng lng c gia nh sn xut v ngi tip nhn tc ng ngoi ng QUYN S HU TI SN c xc nh r. nh l ny da trn lp lun rng cc NGOI NG khng gy ra s phn b sai cc ngun lc khi khng c CHI PH GIAO DCH v khi quyn s hu ti sn c s hu r rng v c hiu lc.

479

Coase's theorem

nh l Coase. Hm sn xut CobbDouglas.

480

Cobb-Douglas production function

481

Cobweb theorem

nh l mng nhn.

Dng n gin nht ca M HNH NG trong , cung ca mt hng ho trong nm t l mt hm ca gi hng ho trong nm t-1 v trong bt k giai on no th gi c u c iu chnh "cn i th trng". Tn dng ph bin cho th tc c thit k c tnh cc thng s ca mt phng trnh m s d ca n tun theo TNG QUAN CHUI. Xem PRAISWINSTEN. S tham gia ca cng nhn vo qu trnh a ra quyt nh chnh sch trong cc hng. Mt thng k tm tt nng lc gii thch ca mt phng trnh. Thng dng o mc phn tn ca cc bin xung quanh gi tr trung bnh ca n. S so snh gia cc mc lng ca nhng nhm cng nhn khc nhau v c ngi i din ca ca cc nhn vin s dng nh l s kim chng v tng lng. Xem COMPARABILITY. ng h s ca mt phn t trong mt ma trn l NH THC ca ma trn mi c to nn bng cch xo hng v ct ca ma trn gc c cha phn t .

482

Cochrane-Orcutt

Cochrane-Orcutt

483

Co-determination

ng quyt nh. H s xc nh (H s tng quan bi s R bnh phng). H s phn tn ( phn tn tng i).

484

Coefficient of determination

485

Coefficient of variation

486

Coercive comparisons

So snh p buc.

487

Cofactor

ng h s.

488

Coinage

Tin c.

Mt phn ca tin trao tay gm cc ng tin kim loi. Mt dy s liu kinh t bin ng theo cng chu k kinh doanh, ngha l tng ln cng mt lc vi giai on tng ln ca chu k kinh doanh v tt xung khi chu k kinh doanh tt xun. y l mt phng php xc nh mi quan h di hn gia mt nhm cc bin CHUI THI GIAN.

489

Coincident indicator

Ch s bo trng hp.

490

Cointegration

ng lin kt

491

COLA

iu chnh theo gi sinh hot.

Xem ESCALATORS. Khi c ngha rng, c dng ch bt c vt th chp no (nhng khng phi m bo c nhn nh bo lnh) m mt ngn hng nhn khi n cho mt khch hng vay v ngn hng c quyn i trong trng hp v n. m phn gia ch v cc cng nhn v vic hnh thnh cc th tc v lut l bao hm cc iu kin v lm vic v lng. Xem NATIONAL BARGAINING, COMPANY BARGAINING v PLANT BARGAINING. i khi c gi l s la chn x hi. Mt quyt nh do mt nhm hay nhng ngi thay mt cho mt nhm a ra. Hng ho hay dch v mang tnh cht KHNG LOI TR. Xem PUBLIC GOODS

492

Collateral security

Vt th chp.

493

Collective bargaining

Thng lng tp th.

494

Collective choise

S la chn tp th.

495

Collective goods

Hng ho tp th.

496

Collective exhaustive

Hon ton.

497

Collinearity

Cng tuyn.

Xem MULTICOLLINEARITY, LINEAR DEPENDENCE.

498

Multi-Collinearity

a cng tuyn. Tho thun gia cc hng trnh cnh tranh phng hi ln nhau. Xem PRICE LEADERSHIP.

499

Collusion

Kt cu. c quyn nhm c kt cu.

500

Collusive oligopoly

Xem COLLUSION.

501

Collusive price leadership

Ch o gi kt cu. Hi ng tng tr kinh t.

Xem PRICE LEADERSHIP. Xem COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE.

502

Comecon

503

Command economy

Nn kinh t ch huy.

Xem PLANNED ECONOMY. Mt cm thut ng chung, khng xc nh, ch nhng ngn hng thng trong khu vc kinh t t nhn tin hnh kinh doanh tng hp ch khng chuyn doanh. Mt HI PHIU c rt ti tr cho cc hot ng sn xut, bun bn hoc thng mi khc. N khc vi HI PHIU B TI CHNH hay hi phiu ca chnh quyn a phng v l cng c ca cc nghip v ti chnh cng cng. Mt cm thut ng chung ch HI PHIU THNG MI Cc quy tc c mt nc p dng iu hnh hay qun l chi tiu v cc hot ng ngoi thng ca mnh

504

Commercial banks

Cc ngn hng thng mi.

505

Commercial bill

Hi phiu thng mi.

506

Commercial paper

Thng phiu Chnh sch thng mi

507

Commercial policy

508

Commissions

Xem COMPENSATION RULES Bt k vt no c sn xut ra phc v tiu dng hay trao i trn th trng

509

Commodity

Vt phm; Hng ho

510

Commodity bundling

Bn hng theo l Cng ty tn dng hng ho; Cng ty tn dng vt phm Tin t da trn vt phm; Tin bng hng ho.

Tp qun bn hng hay dch v trn gi. Mt cng ty ca M c thnh lp nm 1933 nhm to ra mt th trng c trt t v n nh hn cho hng ho nng sn. (Xem PARTY PRICE SYSTEM)

511

Commodity Credit Corporation

512

Commodity money

Mt h thng tin t da trn mt hng ho c th. Gii hn gia hai trc biu th lng hng ho hay dch v sn c tim nng ngi tiu dng mua.

513

Commodity space

Khng gian hng ho. T gi trao i hng ho; T gi hng ho.

514

Commodity terms of trade

Xem TERM OF TRADE. H thng chung v tr gi v tr cp nng nghip do CNG NG CHU U p dng. Chnh sch ny nhm khuyn khch iu kin th trng nng nghip n nh, m bo li ch cng bng cho nng dn, duy tr gi c hp l cho ngi tiu dng v p dng cc chnh sch c xy dng tng sn lng v nng sut lao ng trong ngnh nng nghip ca cng ng. Mc THU QUAN ngoi b chung ca CNG NG CHU U (EC). Mc THU QUAN do cc thnh vin ca mt lin minh thu quan, mt TH TRNG CHUNG hay mt CNG NG KINH T p dng mt mc c thng nht v ging nhau i vi hng nhp khu t cc nc khng phi l thnh vin. Mt bin php chnh sch c xy dng nhm to iu kin cho vic tng cng cng ngh tin tin bng cch thnh lp cc hp tc x s dng nhng trang thit b chung hay cc cng xng sn xut chung nng cao nng sut ca th th cng lnh ngh a phng v ngnh cng nghip. Xem ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY. Mt khu vc thng kt hp mt s nc, trong tt c u c th mua bn theo nhng iu kin ngang nhau. Xem EUROPEAN COMMON MARKET. Mt cng c ti chnh (tho thun ti chnh) mang li quyn s hu v quyn b phiu trong mt cng ty cho ngi ch cng c ny. Xem PREFERENCE SHARES, EQUITIES. Theo mt ngha hp, y l mt giai on pht trin kinh t c cho l din ra khi tt c cc tng lp trong x hi b thu ht vo GIAI CP V SN. Cm thut ng ny, d vy, thng c dng ch mt h thng kinh t k hoch ho c iu hnh ti cc nc thuc HI NG TNG TR KINH T (trc khi cc cuc cch mng ng u n ra vo cui thp k 80).

515

Common Agricultural Policy

Chnh sch nng nghip chung. Biu thu quan chung.

516

Common Customs Tariff

517

Common external tariff

Biu thu i ngoi chung.

518

Common facility co-operative

Cc hp tc x c thit b chung.

519

Common market

Th trng chung.

520

Common stock

Chng khon ph thng.

521

Communism

Ch ngha cng sn.

522

Community Charge

Thu cng ng. ng bng quan cng ng.

Mt loi thu p dng Anh cui thp k 80 thay th cho cc loi thu khc. Mt ng da trn mi c nhn trong mt cng ng nhn c mt mc tho dng khng i. Thng ch cng ty C PHN, y l mt thc th php l c thnh lp tin hnh cc hot ng cng nghip, thng mi vn c chia thnh C PHIU do cc thnh vin ca cng ty nm gi. M PHN TP TH gia cc i din ca mt cng ty, c th c mt hoc nhiu hn cc nh my trn khp t nc v nhng ngi i din cho cng nhn vin chc, a ra mc lng v iu kin lm vic trong cng ty. Xem PLANT BARGAINING. Ngi do cc c ng bu ra tham gia cng cc gim c khc iu hnh cng ty. So snh chnh thc hay khng chnh thc do cc nhm lao ng rt ra v mc lng ca v ca nhng ngi cng nhn khc. Xem RELATIVE DEPRIVATION, COERCIVE COMPARISIONS. Mt s tin tng rng cc c nhn lm cng cng vic v sn xut cng lng sn phm nn c tr cng mt mc lng. Lng ngang nhau tr cho cng vic c gi tr ngang nhau. David RIVIRDO khm ph ra l thuyt v li th tng i. y l c s ca CHUYN MN HO cho mt b phn cc quc gia, cc c nhn v cho t do thng mi. L thuyt hin i, khng cn da vo l thuyt v lao ng ca RICARDO, to lp iu kin cn duy nht cho kh nng thu li t THNG MI l t s gi c phi khc nhau gia cc quc gia. T gi hi oi sau khi bun bn gia cc hng ho m s xc nh ca n Ricardo khng th gii thch c, thit lp bi QUY LUT CU QUA LI.

523

Community indifference curve

524

Company

Cng ty.

525

Company bargaining

m phn cng ty.

526

Company director

Gim c cng ty.

527

Company saving

So snh v lng Lun im v tnh c th so snh.

528

Comparability argument

529

Comparable worth

Gi tr c th so snh.

530

Comparative advantage

Li th so snh

531

Comparative costs

Chi ph so snh.

Xem COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE. Mt phng php s dng trong KINH T HC NG vi nt c bit l mc thay i v gi tr ca cc THAM S v v gi tr cn bng ca cc bin l khng i. So snh mt v tr CN BNG mi vi v tr cn bng c sau khi c thay i no trong cc bin s m khng i chiu vi cch t c v tr mi v thng khng c kha cnh nh lng. Mt ng cu trong HIU NG THU NHP ca thay i gi c loi b thu nhp thc t dc ng cu khng i.

532

Comparative dynamics

Phng php so snh ng.

533

Comparative statics

Phng php so snh tnh. ng cu c b.

534

Compensated demand curves

535

Compensating variation

Mc thay i b p.

Xem CONSUMER'S SURPLUS.

536

Compensation principle

Nguyn l b p.

Xem COMPENSATION TESTS.

537

Compensation rules

Cc quy tc tr th lao.

Mt cng thc xc nh thu nhp ca c nhn. 1)Da trn thi gian lm vic ca c nhn. 2)Da trn kt qu hon thnh cng vic ca c nhn. 3)Da trn c s kt qa thc hin ca mt i nh trong ch chia li nhun hay thng theo i. 4)Da trn kt qu thc hin so snh ca c nhn nh i vi quy tc TH LAO THEO XP HNG TRONG THI U. Nhng cuc kim nghim nh vy t ra cu hi liu nhng ngi gy thit hi do thay i no c c n b cho thit hi ca h hay khng trong khi vn nhng ngi c li khm kh hn trc khi c thay i . Kim nghim c bit n nhiu nht l KIM NGHIM KALLDOR - HICHS. o lut ny nhn mnh tm quan trng trong chnh sch cnh tranh ca cc tp qun v iu kin kinh doanh.(Xem RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES ACT 1956, MONOPOLIES AND MERGERS ACT 1965, RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES ACT 1968, FAIR TRADING ACT 1973, COMPETITION ACT 1980 ) Tn ca mt ti liu tham vn do NGN HNG ANH pht hnh gia nm 1971, ti liu ny tm lc nhng xut cho vic xem xt nhng tho thun tn dng p dng i vi cc NGN HNG v c quan ti chnh khc v bt u p dng vo cui nm . Bn cht ca nhng thay i ny l ch chng cho php kt thc vic kim sot v s lng cho vay dc bit ca cc NGN HNG THANH TON B TR v chng p dng vi cc ngn hng v CNG TY TI CHNH theo cch thc cng ln v cng khng phn bit cng tt (Xem MONETARY MANAGEMENT). Mt th trng trong mt s ln nhng ngi mua v bn nh bun bn mt cch c lp v do , khng ai c th chi phi gi c mt cch ng k.(Xem PERFECT COMPETITION). Mt hng ho c xu hng c mua theo km vi hng ho khc c mua v n "b tr" cho hng ho th nht Cc s bao gm nhng phn t TNG TNG, ngha l n cha cn bc hai ca m mt. Theo J.R.HICKS (Gi tr v t bn, i hc Oxford,1939), nh l ny ni rng nu c mt s hng ho m gi tng i ca chng (tc l gi ca hng ho ny so vi gi ca hng ho kia) khng i th nhng hng ho c th coi l mt hng ho c tn "hng ho a hp" Trnh t m theo TIN LI tng lai c tr trn mc li trong qu kh (li m li con).

538

Compensation tests

Kim nghim n b.

539

Competition Act 1980

o lut cnh tranh 1980.

540

Competition and Credit Control

Kim sot tn dng v cnh tranh

541

Competitive markets

Th trng cnh tranh

542

Complements

Hng ho b tr

543

Complex number

S phc

544

Composite commodity theorem

nh l hng ho a hp

545

Compound interest

Li kp Cc mc b thm tin lng. Chnh sch v cnh tranh

546

Compensating differentials

547

Competition policy

548

Concave function (concavity)

Hm lm (tnh lm).

Mt hm lm v v trs gc, v vy O HM BC 2 ca n l m. mt hm nh vy cng c th li t gc to .

549

Concentration

S tp trung.

1).Mt cm thut ng ch tnh trng cc iu kin cnh tranh ph bin trong mt ngnh. 2).Mt khi nim s dng khi ni ti PHN PHI QUY M CA HNG trong mt ngnh ca nn kinh t, hoc lin quan n v tr ca ngnh cng nghip. Mt s o thng k v mc hot ng kinh t hay mt c tnh kinh t c tp trung v mt a l, chng hn trong mt quc gia. Xem LOCATION QUOTIENT, SPECIALIZATION, COFFICIENT OF. T l phn trm tng quy m cng nghip do mt vi hng ln trong ngnh chim. Xem STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSICATION. y l tn t cho mt phng n ca CHNH SCH THU NHP CA C m chnh ph, mc d khng phi l mt bn tham gia qu trnh m phn tp th, t ra nhng tiu chun gn tng tin lng vi mc ch n nh v tng trng. Mt qu trnh gim thu quan, ct gim thu sut cao trong khi khng thay i thu sut thp, do chnh lch gia cc mc thu quan gim i. Xem ACROSSTHE-BOARD TARIFF CHANGES. S can thip vo mt TRANH CHP V LAO NG theo yu cu ca cc bn lin quan bng mt bn th ba c lp v khng thin v nhm ho gii cc quan im ca hai bn. Xem MEDIATION, ARBITRATION. Mt h thng la chn tp th, trong phng n c la chn l phng n nh bi tt c nhng phng n khc trong chui cc cuc la chn tng i mt s dng nhng quy tc a s. Mt t chc ca gii ch Anh thnh lp nm 1965 bng cch st nhp 3 hip hi trc y i din cho cc li ch ca ngnh cng nghip. Khong tin cy alpha ca mt tham s gm 2 con s m gia chng ta c tin cy alpha%, ngha l gi tr thc ca tham s nm . Xem STATISTICAL INFERENCE, INTERVAL ESTIMATION. Mt trong nhng vn ca h thng tin t quc t ny sinh khi ngi ta cho rng mt ng tin s b ph gi, vn ngn hn sau s b rt khi nc , xut hin s mt lng tin vo ng tin ca nc . Khi vic s dng mt phng tin hay dch v ang c nhiu ngi dng tng ln, s xut hin mt chi ph (khng nht thit bng tin) i vi ngi ang s dng chng, th phng tin gi l "tc nghn". Mt hng bao gm cng ty m v cc cng ty con m chng khng lin quan vi nhau trong cc hot ng v th trng.

550

Concentration, coefficient of.

H s tp trung.

551

Concentration ratio

T l tp trung.

552

Concerted action

Hnh ng phi hp. Phng php iu ho gim thu quan; Phng php gim thu quan hi ho.

553

Concertina method of tariff reduction

554

Conciliation

Ho gii

555

Condorcet Criterion

Tiu chun g chi; Tiu chun Condorcet Lin on cng nghip ANH (CBI).

556

Confederation of British Industrial

557

Confidence interval

Khong tin cy.

558

Confidence problem

Vn lng tin.

559

Congestion costs

Chi ph do tc nghn. Conglomerate; Tp on; T hp doanh nghip

560

Conglomerate

561

Conjectural behavior

Hnh vi phng on. S thay i theo phng on.

Xem CONJECTURAL VARIATION. Ch hnh vi ca hng trong TH TRNG C QUYN NHM. Xem OLIGOPOLY. Mt tnh cht mong mun ca cc c lng kinh t lng.

562

CONJECTURAL VARIATION

563

Consistency

Tnh nht qun.

564

Consolidated fund

Qu ngn kh. Thng nht/ nht qun. Bng cn i (k ton/ti sn) hp nht.

Mt cm thut ng khc cho NGN KH Anh. l mt ti khon ca chnh ph bao gm thu nhp t thu.

565

Consistent

566

Consolidated balance sheets

567

Consols

Cng tri hp nht. Ngn hng Consortium. S tiu dng nhm th hin; S tiu dng nhm khoe khoang.

Ngy nay, thut ng ny ch loi cng tri 2,5% li sut. Mt kiu ngn hng quc t hnh thnh bng cch tp hp cc ngn hng vn ang tn ti t cc nc khc nhau. Xem LIBOR.

568

Consortium bank

569

Conspicuous consumption

Xem VEBLEN. Theo hc thuyt ca C.Mc, t bn bt bin l mt phn ca T BN c th hin bng phng tin sn xut, nguyn liu th v cng c lao ng. Xem VARIABLE CAPITAL. Hm sn xut CES l mt hm sn xut NG NHT TUYN TNH c co gin thay th u vo khng i. Mi quan h gia lng bn v gi m hng phi i mt nu tt c cc i th cnh tranh ca n thch ng vi bt c s thay i v gi no do hng ny a ra. (Xem ELASTICITY)

570

Constant capital Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) Production Function

T bn bt bin. Hm sn xut vi co gin thay th khng i.

571

572

Constant market share demand curve

ng cu vi th phn bt bin. Sinh li khng i theo qui m; Li tc c nh theo quy m

573

Constant returns to scale

Xem ECONOMIES OF SCALE, RETURNS TO SCALE Cc i ho hay cc tiu ho mt HM MC TIU, trong CC BIN LA CHN tun theo mt s RNG BUC no . (Xem LINEAR PROGRAMMING). Thng l mt mi quan h ton hc gia CC BIN LA CHN ca mt bi ton ti u ho; trong mt hm no ca bin (v d HM TUYN TNH) khng bng mt hng s. Bt c n v kinh t no c nhu cu tiu dng hng ho v dch v cui cng. Mt cm thut ng chung ch vic cho NGI TIU DNG vay mua hng ho dch v, nhng thng khng bao gi gm vic mua nh. Lnh vc ca mn kinh t hc xc nh nhng l thuyt c th kim nghim v cch ngi tiu dng phn ng li vi nhng thay i trong cc bin nh gi c, cc gi khc, thay i v thu nhp L bt c hng tiu dng no c "tui th di", do khng c tiu dng ngay lp tc (nh thc n). Tnh hung m ngi tiu dng ti a ho THO DNG ca mnh theo RNG BUC NGN SCH.

574

Constrained optimization

Ti u ho c rng buc

575

Constraint

Rng buc

576

Consumer

Ngi tiu dng

577

Consumer credit

Tn dng tiu dng

578

Consumer demand theory

L thuyt cu tiu dng Hng tiu dng lu bn

579

Consumer durable

580

Consumer equilibrium

Cn bng tiu dng

581

Consumer expenditure

Chi tiu ca ngi tiu dng Hng v dch v tiu dng

Xem CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE. HNG HO hu hnh v v hnh c tiu dng theo li ch ca bn thn tho mn nhng nhu cu hin ti.

582

Consumer goods and services

583

Consumer price index

Ch s gi tiu dng Quyn ti thng ca ngi tiu dng; Ch quyn ca ngi tiu dng Thng d ca ngi tiu dng

Xem RETAIL PRICE INDEX

584

Consumer sovereignty

tng cho rng NGI TIU DNG l quan to tt nht i vi bn thn h. c dng ph bin ch khu vc nm di ng cuMARSHALL ca mt c nhn gia hai mc gi. Hnh ng s dng hng ho v dch v tho mn nhu cu hin ti. Tng chi tiu vo hng ho v dch v nhm tho mn nhu cu hin ti (Xem CONSUMPTION). Mt th chi tit ho v quan h gia tng CHI TIU TIU DNG v THU NHP, ngha l C = C(Y). Thu ny c th c hai dng: mt l, khi bn thn ngi tiu dng b nh thu nh vi THU CHI TIU v hai l, khi hng ho v dch v ngi tiu dng mua b nh thu. Trong trng hp u thu c nh vo hng cung cp dch v hay hng ho. Mt TH TRNG trong c s t do nhp th, s gia nhp v rt lui khng mt chi ph. D tr khng phn b dnh cho s c bt thng v cc nhu cu khc, n khng th c nh lng khi xem xt cc k hoch chi tiu nh lng ca Anh. Mt cng c m theo mc lin h hay ph thuc gia hai bin s hay hai c tnh c nh gi. Vic lm r gi tr tiu dng ca hng ho v dch v khng c trao i trn th trng. Mt bin s c th ly bt c gi tr no (ngha l n c th thay i m khng gin on) gia nhng gii hn xc nh (c th l v hn) (Xem DISCRETE VARIABLE). Trong trng hp hai ngi tiu dng trao i hai mt hng, ng ny l qu tch cc im ti T L THAY TH BIN gia hai mt hng l nh nhau i vi hai ngi tiu dng (Xem EDGEWORTH BOX). Giai on ca CHU K KINH DOANH sau khi t n im cao nht v ko di cho n im thp nht sau . N nh du s suy gim ca hot ng kinh t. tng cho rng cc nn kinh t x hi ch ngha v t bn ch ngha i ra khi cc dng "l tng" tng ng ca chng v tin ho theo nhng hnh thi, suy ngh, th ch v phng php ngy cng ging nhau.

585

Consumer's surplus

586

Consumption

S tiu dng

587

Consumption expenditure

Chi tiu tiu dng

588

Consumption function

Hm tiu dng

589

Consumption tax

Thu tiu dng Th trng c th cnh tranh c

590

Constestable market

591

Contingency reserve

D tr pht sinh Bng pht sinh; Bng s c nh gi (hin tng) pht sinh; Vic nh gi bt thng

592

Contingency table

593

Contingent valuation

594

Continuous variable

Bin s lin tc

595

Contract curve

ng hp ng Giai on suy gim; Giai on thu hp

596

Contractionary phase

597

Convergence thesis

Lun chng hi t

598

Convergent cycle

Chu k hi t

Xem DAMPED CYCLE. Tp qun pht hnh CHNG KHON v C PHIU mi thay th ci c. Mt thuc tnh ca mt ng tin c th trao i mt cch thoi mi vi mt ng tin khc hay vi vng. (Xem EXCHANGE RATES, GOLD STANDARD, EXCHANGE RESERVES, GOLD RESERVES).

599

Conversion

S chuyn i

600

Convertibility

Kh nng chuyn i Tri khon chuyn i c. Khon vay chuyn i c. Chng khon chuyn i c.

601

Convertible bond

Xem CONVERTIBLE SECURITY.

602

Convertible loan stock

Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. Mt loi chng khon, tc l mt khiu n i vi ngi pht hnh, c th chuyn i sang cc loi khc trong c tin mt. Mt hm li so vi gc to , do , O HM bc hai ca n l dng. Mt giai on tr hon c tin hnh hp php trc khi hot ng nh cng c th bt u gim bt cng thng hay lm lng ng cm xc v do n c cho thi gian nh gi hp l hn v vn c tranh ci. S phi hp gia gii ch v cng on gii quyt ln lt nhng ngh hay yu cu v lng ca cng on.

603

Convertible security

604

Convex function (convexity)

Hm li (tnh li).

605

Cooling off period

Giai on lng du. Chnh sch tin lng phi hp

606

Co-ordinated wage policy

607

Core, the

Gi gc.

Xem GAME THEORY. Trong bi ton ti u, mt tnh th m mt hoc hn cc bin LA CHN c gi tr bng 0 ti mc TI U. Cc b lut p dng Anh t nm 1815 v c bi b t nm 1846 nhm duy tr gi ng cc bng cch cm nhp khu khi gi trong nc gim xung di mt mc nht nh. Mt quan im ng thi v cc nn kinh t pht trin phng Ty, trong khu vc sn xut do cc cng ty ln thng tr m c im cc cng ty ny l s tch ri gia quyn s hu v qun l. Xem MANAGERIAL THEORIES OF THE FIRM. Vi s tch ri gia quyn s hu v qun l, mt s nh phn tch lp lun rng, cc nh qun l ca cc cng ty ln tch khi "lng tm v c ng" v thay vo p dng mt thc ph bin v trch nhim i vi cng chng ni chung. Xem Corporate capitalism.

608

Corner solution

p s gc.

609

Corn Laws

Cc b lut v Ng.

610

Corporate capitalism

Ch ngha t bn hp doanh; Ch ngha t bn doanh nghip.

611

Corporate conscience

Lng tm hp doanh; Lng tm doanh nghip. Ri ro hp doanh; Ri ro cng ty. a phn ca hp doanh; Nh nc cng ty.

612

Corporate risk

Ton b ri ro lin quan ti mt doanh nghip.

613

Corporate state

614

Complementary inputs

(Cc loi) u vo b tr; Nhp lng b tr.

615

Concesionary prices / rates

Gi / T sut u i. Gi c nh / gi bn khng i. Sinh li khng i theo quy m. Hn ch / Rng buc (khng chnh thc/ chnh thc) ngoi quy nh/ theo quy nh.

616

Constant prices

617

Constant returns to scale

618

Constraint (informal / formal)

619

Conversion factor

H s chuyn i. Khon vay cho ngi tiu dng; Vay tiu dng. La chn ca ngi tiu dng. B hng tiu dng; im kt hp tiu dng. Nhng ngoi tc tiu dng.

620

Consumer borrowing

621

Consumer choice

623

Consumption bundle

624

Consumption externalities

625

Corporation

Hp doanh; Cng ty. Thu doanh nghip; Thu Cng ty.

Xem COMPANY. Thu nh vo doanh thu ca cc cng ty sau khi tr i chi ph hot ng, LI SUT, PHN GIM THU CHO U T VN v MC GIM VN. Mc m hai bin tng quan vi nhau mt cch tuyn tnh, hoc l thng qua quan h nhn qu trc tip, gin tip hay xc sut thng k. Xem Rank Correlation.

626

Corporation tax

627

Correlation

S tng quan Tng quan ng bin. Tng quan nghch bin. Tng quan ca li tc.

628

Positive correlation

629

Nagative correlation

630

Correlation of returns

631 632

Correlogram Correspondent banks

Biu tng quan Cc ngn hng i l.

Mt th biu th H S TNG QUAN gia gi tr hin ti ca mt bin v cc gi tr tr ca chnh n so vi tr di. Mt ngn hng hot ng nh mt i l cho mt ngn hng khc ni m ngn hng ny khng c vn phng hoc v l do no ngn hng khng th tin

hnh cho cc nghip v ca bn thn n. Mt tn lng thng thng trn th trng ch yu cu phi c cc khon TIN GI C BIT B SUNG, c p dng t nm 1973 nhm tng cng kim sot ca NGN HNG ANH i vi cc khon gi ngn hng. Xem COMPETITION AND CREDIT CONTROL. Ni chung y l mt thc o nng g phi tr c c mt ci g , hoc bng cch mua, trao i hay sn xut. Khung khi nim nh gi cc d n u t trong khu vc chnh ph, mc d n c th c m rng sang bt c d n khu vc t nhn no. Gn ging nh Phn tch chi ph - li ch nhng khc ch n i hi mt yu cu khc. l, nu xt v mt mc tiu, lm cch no t c mc tiu mc chi ph thp nht.

633

Corset

Yu cu tht cht.

634

Cost

Chi ph. Phn tch chi ph - li ch.

635

Cost - benefit analysis

636

Cost - effectiveness analysis

Phn tch chi ph hiu qu Ph, bo him, cc vn chuyn, gi CIF.

637

Cost insurance freight

Xem CIF. i vi bt k mc sn lng no, l vic la chn t hp u vo sn xut mt lng u ra nht nh vi mc ph thp nht. L chi ph c tnh bng t l phn trm, ca cc ngun VN khc nhau cn thit tr cho vic chi dng vn.Tt c cc ngun vn u c gi v c th tnh c trc tip nh lhon vay n.

638

Cost minimization

Ti thiu ho chi ph.

639

Cost of capital

Chi ph vn. Chi ph cho sinh hot; Gi sinh hot.

640

Cost of living

Xem RETAIL PRICE INDEX. Vic bo h nn cng nghip trong nc bng thu quan, hn nghch hoc hn ch khc thng p t chi ph ln nn kinh t c bo h di 2 hnh thc: s phn b sai ngun lc v bp mo c cu tiu dng.

641

Cost of protection

Chi ph bo h.

642

Cost overrun

Chi ph pht sinh. Cch nh gi chi phcng li; Cch nh gi da vo chi ph v cng thm li nhun. Lm pht do chi ph y. Phn tch chi ph cng dng; Phn tch tn dng chi ph. Hi ng c vn kinh t. Hi ng tng tr kinh t. L nh gi bng cch cng thm mt khon li nhun vo CHI PH KH BIN BNH QUN nhm trang tri CHI PH C NH v mt mc li nhun hp l no . L s gia tng c duy tr ca mc gi chung do s gia tng t nh ca cc chi ph. Xem DEMAND-FULL INFLATION, THE WAGE-WAGE SPIRAL. L mt phn tch CHI PH - HIU QU trong kinh t hc y t, trong kt qu hay li ch c tnh bng Tui th iu chnh theo cht lng hoc mt s o phi tin t ch phc li ca bnh nhn. L c quan tha hnh ca chnh ph M c thnh lp theo LUT V LAO NG nm 1946. T chc ny hot ng vi t cch l c vn cho tng thng M. L mt Hi ng lin chnh ph c thnh lp theo s tho thun vo nm 1949 gia Bungary, Tip Khc, Hungary, Balan, Rumani v Lin X. Mc ch l tng

643

Cost - plus pricing

644

Cost - push inflation

645

Cost - utility analysis Council of Economic Advisors (ECA). Council for Mutual economic Assitance (Comecon)

646 647

cng s pht trin kinh t v s hi nhp ca cc nc thnh vin. Hi ng nay tan r vo thng 2/1991. Xem PLANNED ECONOMY, TRANSFERABLE ROUBLE. Vn ng ngc chiu vi mt pha no trong CHU K KINH DOANH. L cc hinh thc thng mi quc t, khng bnh thng t nhng hnh thc n gin nhng t gp nh HNG I HNG cho n cc hnh thc cn bng cng nghip phc tp. Th lc lm cn bng thng thy khi sc mnh th trng ca mt nhm n v kinh t hay ca mt hng c cn bng bi sc mnh th trng ca mt nhm cc n v kinh t khc mua hoc bn cho cc nhm k trn.

648

Countercyclical

Ngc chu k.

649

Countertrade

Thng mi i lu.

650

Countervailing power

Lc b i trng; Th lc lm cn bng. Thu chng bo h gi; thu nh vo hng xut/ nhp khu c tr gi. Phiu li, li sut tri phiu.

651

Counter - vailing duty

652

Coupon

L mt loi chng thc dng cho vic nhn tin li i vi mt chng khon c li c nh nh tri phiu thu m t tri phiu , phiu li c th c x ra.

653

Coupon payments

Tin tr li theo nm

Xem YIELD.

654

Cournot, Antoine A. (1801-1877) M hnh ny da trn gi thit hnh vi cho rng mt trong hai hng s ti a ho li nhun nu sn lng ca i th cnh tranh vn gi mc gi khng i. Xem PROFIT MAXIMIZATION, BERTRAND'S DUOPOLY MODEL, STACKELBERG'S DUOPOLY MODEL. Thc o mc tng quan ca 2 bin. Xem VARIANCE-COVARIANCE MATRIX.

655

Cournot's duopoly model

M hnh lng c quyn Cournot.

656

Covariance

Hip phng sai. Tnh theo hip phng sai. Mc li xut qui ngang; Ngang gi li sut. Xem CENTRAL POLICY REVIEW STAFF. Nghip on theo chuyn mn.

657

Covariance stationary

Xem STATIONARITY. Trong mt CH T GI HI OI LINH HOT, l khi mc li sut hai nc c lm cn bng nh mt t l chit khu hp l hoc mt khon ph i vi t gi hi oi di hn. Xem FORWARD RATE.

658

Covered interest parity

659

CPRS

660

Craff unions

Nghip on tp hp tt c cc cng nhn c mt k nng hay mt s k nng c lin quan vi nhau bt k h lm trong ngnh no. L phng php dng gii h phng trnh tuyn tnh ng thi. L phng php t gi hi oi. y l mt cm thut ng chung p dng cho bt k mt ngh no c c trng NGANG GI - t gi hi oi chnh thc do qu tin t quc t a ra - c th iu chnh theo thi gian, mc thay i cn thit c th phn nh v ko d

661 662

Cramer's Rule Crawling peg

Quy tc Cramer's. Ch neo t gi hi oi iu chnh dn.

trong sut mt thi k nht nh. Xem DEVALUATION. L mt cm thut ng ngha rng lin quan n hot ng kinh doanh hay cc bn k khai c lin quan n vic cho vay tin, thng l cho vay ngn hn. Xem BANK CREDIT, MONEY SUPPLY.

663

Credit

Tn dng.

664

Credit account

Ti khon tn dng.

Xem CHARGE ACCOUNT. L mt th do mt ngn hng, mt nhm cc ngn hng, hay mt t chc pht hnh ti chnh pht hnh cho khch hng ca n m ngi ny c th s dng TN DNG trc tip chu tin mua hng mt ngi bn l, chu tin khch sn Trong CHNH SCH TIN T, mt gii hn c thng bo i vi lng tn dng m cc th ch, thng l cc ngn hng m rng cho khch hng trong cc giai on hn ch tin t. L mt cm thut ng chung ch mt lot cc bin php do cc t chc tin t s dng kim sot s lng tin do mt nhm hoc do cc t chc ti chnh cho vay. Qu trnh m cc t chc gi tin v rt tin, cc t chc cho vay hot ng da trn T L D TR, trn c s tng cc ti sn d tr ca chng, c th tng s lng tin m chng cho vay, v cc khon n tin gi tng ln mt lng ln hn mc tng ca d tr. L loi hnh bo him m mt hip hi bo lnh tn dng ng ra bo him khi khng tr c n. Ni mt cch cht ch, s nhn tn dng l t s gia s thay i s lng tin do mt nhm cc t chc TRUNG GIAN TI CHNH gi tin, rt tin cho vay i vi mc thay i trong ti sn d tr gy ra thay i .

665

Credit card

Th tn dng.

666

Credit celing

Trn tn dng.

667

Credit control

Kim sot tn dng.

668

Credit creation

S to ra tn dng.

669

Credit guarantee

Bo m tn dng.

670

Credit multiplier

S nhn tn dng. e do kh tin; e do c th thc hin c.

671

Credible threat

672

Creditor nation

Nc ch n.

Mt nc c coi nh mt n v, l ch cho vay rng hoc nh u t rng vo cc nc khc bng cch tch lu s khiu n i vi cc nc ny. L cc c nhn hay cc t chc cho vay tin c ngi hoc t chc vay ha tr mt khon tin nht nh hng nm theo LI SUT v hon tr GC vo mt ngy no trong tng lai. L vic phn b tin vay bng cc phng tin phi gi c trong cc trng hp vt cu tn dng ca cc TRUNG GIAN TI CHNH. Cm thut ng ny c ngha l t chc c lin quan, v d nh ngn hng hoc ngn hng pht trin c x, khng c gng lm gim d cu bng cch tng li sut. Cc bin php do cc c quan tin t a ra, bin php ny c th l cc nghip v nhm hn ch hoc gim lng tn dng do cc ngn hng hoc cc t chc ti chnh khc m rng ra (Xem COMPETITION AND CREDIT CONTROL).

673

Creditors

Cc ch n.

674

Credit rationing

nh mc tn dng

675

Credit restrictions

Hn ch tn dng

676

Credit squeeze

Hn ch tn dng

L mt giai on ca chnh sch hn ch tn dng (Xem MONETARY POLICY, OPEN MARKET OPERATIONS). L mt h thng qua tin c chuyn trc tip qua h thng ngn hng ti mt ti khon c th ca ngi nhn (Xem CLEARING). L tnh trng lm pht trong mc chung ca gi c tng ln chm nhng lin tc, c th do tng TNG CU (Xem DEMAND-PULL INFLATION, COST-PUSH INFLATION).

677

Credit transfer

Chuyn khon

678

Creeping inflation

Lm pht sn b; Lm pht b dn

679

Critical value

Gi tr ti hn co gin cho ca cu

Gi tr ti hn L t l thay i trong lng cu i vi mt hng theo thay i gi ca mt hng ho khc. L mt khi nim ch cc hng mi nhp ngnh nhng c thit lp trong cc nghnh s dng cc cng ngh tng t vi cng ngh m cc hng mi nhp th ny tin hnh. O HM ca mt hm s ln th nht ly theo mt BIN C LP v sau ly theo mt bin khc. L vic phn tch mt lot cc s liu ca nhng quan st c lin quan xy ra ti mt thi im (Xem TIME SERIES). L mi quan h hm s gia tiu th v thu nhp c tnh cho cc nhm c thu nhp khc nhau ti mt thi im (Xem CONSUMPTION FUNCTION, LONGRUN CONSUMPTION FUNCTION, SHORT-RUN CONSUMPTION FUNCTION). Khi s dng i vi cc doanh nghip a sn phm, l s tr cp l ca mt mt hng ny bng SIU LI NHUN trong khi kinh doanh cc mt hng khc. Cho rng cc hng ro NGN CN NHP NGNH v s thiu hon chnh thng tin s c khuynh hng nhi nht mt vi nhm ngi, ch yu l ph n v ngi da en, vo cc ngh b hn ch v c nhn lng thp hn t cc ngh nghip ny. Vic gim TIU DNG hay U T ca t nhn do tng chi tiu ca chnh ph (Xem FISCAL POLICY).

680

Cross elasticity of demand

681

Cross-entry

Nhp nghnh cho

682

Cross partial derivative

o hm ring

683

Cross-sectional analysis

Phn tch cho

684

Cross-section consumption function

Hm s tiu dng cho

685

Cross-subsidization

Tr cp cho

686

Crowding hypothesis

Gi thuyt chn p

687

Crowding out

Ln p; chn p Cc thng k trung ng

688

CSO

Xem CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE Phng trnh lp phng l phng trnh m trong s m cao nht ca BIN C LP l 3 (c ngha l lp phng ca n). Mt trong nhng ph phn v cc loi hnh pht trin kinh t l n ph hu nn vn ho bn a. Nhng s thay i cng ngh v PHT TRIN KINH T c th t c m khng cn ti thay i vn ho c bn.

689

Cubic

Lp phng

690

Cultural change

S thay i vn ho Gi thuyt v vn ho ngho kh

691

Culture of poverty hypothesis

Xem FEEDBACK/ ENTRAPMENT EFFECTS

692

Cumulative causation model

M hnh nhn qu tch lu

Mt phng php phn tch tng trng kinh t khu vc do G.MYRDAL a ra. M hnh ny cho rng cc lc lng th trng c khuynh hng lm tng bt bnh ng v kinh t gia cc khu vc ca mt nn kinh t. N cng cho rng nu mt khu vc c t l tng trng cao hn cc khu vc khc s khin cho cc yu t sn xut trong khu vc tng tng chm chy sang khu vc tng trng nhanh.

693

Cumulative preference shares

Cc c phiu u i C phiu c tr li theo tch lu

Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL.

694

Cumulative shares

Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. Theo ngha hp, thut ng ny ch mt lng tin ca mt nc thc s c trao i qua tay (Xem CASH). S tng gi tr ca mt NG TIN ny so vi gi tr ng tin khc, c ngha l tng T GI HI OI trong iu kin T GI HI OI TH NI. (Xem CURRENCY DEPRECIATION). L nhng kim sot v quyn hn ca NGN HNG TRUNG NG hay c quan pht hnh tin t trong vic pht hnh tin (Xem CASH BASE). L s gim gi tr ca mt ng tin so vi ng tin khc, c ngha l s gim T GI HI OI trong h thng T GI HI OI TH NI. V mt lch s, tin giy l giy bc 1 bng v 10 shilling do B Ti chnh Anh pht hnh sau khi xy ra cuc chin tranh vaod nm 1914 bo tn s vng trong kho v p ng nhu cu v ng tin vng hay m vng ca cng chng trong cn hong lon ban u. L hc thuyt v tin t thnh hnh gia th k XIX do TRNG PHI TIN T xng, hc thuyt cho rng s n nh tin t c c tt nht bng vic kim sot s lng tin t, nht l lng tin giy, ang lu thng bng cc bin php ca cc quy tc t ng (ngha l khng th tu ). Quyn mt s nc xut khu, phn ln l cc nc XHCN, c mua li mt t l nht nh s thu nhp NGOI HI ca mnh, do m khng b l thuc vo vic phn b nhp khu t trung ng. L mt nhm cc nh chnh tr, cc nh kinh t v cc ch ngn hng quan tm n chnh sch tin t Anh na u th k XIX. L hnh thc thay i cc ng tin c th chuyn i trong cc ng tin t quc t vi mc ch sinh li hay trnh s tn tht trong vic thay i gi tr TIN T. Trong ngnh Ngn hng Anh, mt ti khon m khch hng rt SC ln ti s d tn dng hoc vt qu s d tn dng gii hn THU CHI C THO THUN. M, y l tin gi ngn hng linh hot nht v c trong tt c cc nh ngha v cung tin. Gm 3 loi ti sn chnh: 1)"D tr" bao gm cc hng ho c hon thin, ang c sn xut v cc nguyn vt liu th. 2)Khon tin s thu c hay khon n ngn hn. 3)Tin mt v u t ngn hn.

695

Currency

Tin mt, tin t

696

Currency appreciation

S tng gi tr ca mt ng tin

697

Currency control

Kim sot tin t S st gim gi tr tin t

698

Currency depreciation

699

Currency notes

Tin giy

700

Currency principle

Nguyn l tin t

701

Currency retention quota

Hn mc gi ngoi t

702

Curency school

Trng phi tin t

703

Currency substitution

S thay th tin t Ti khon vng lai/ ti khon hin hnh, cn cn ti khon vng lai.

704

Current account

705

Current assets

Ti sn lu ng.

706

Current cost accounting

Hch ton theo chi ph hin ti. Thu nhp thng xuyn.

Xem INFLATION ACCOUNTING.

707

Current income

Xem PERMANENT INCOME HYPOTHESIS. Dng ch nhng khon n ca cng ty s phi thanh ton trong nm sau. L doanh s tr i ton b CHI PH C HI thu c trong giai on k hoch hin ti ca hng.

708

Current liabilities

Ti sn n ngn hn.

709

Current profits

Li nhun hin hnh Ti khon vng lai v ti khon vn. Gi hin hnh (thi gi).

710

Current and capital account

711

Current prices

712

Custom and practice

Tp qun v thng l Cc th trng khch hng. U ban hp tc Hi quan. Cc loi thu hi quan, thu tiu th c bit v thu bo h.

L nhng quy tc khng chnh thc v v tr lm vic chi phi vic phn cng v thc hin cc nhim v. L cc th trng trong gi c khng nh gi bng cung v cu. Mt u ban c thnh lp nm 1950 nhm ci thin v lm ho hp cc hot ng hi quan. y l cc loi thu p dng cho nhp khu hay vic bn cc hng ho c th. Nhng th tc c bit c p dng cho vic nhp khu cc hng ho nng nghip. Xem EC ARRICULTURAL LEVIES. L mt t chc gm mt s nc, trong hn ch v mu dch gia chng c loi b.

713

Custom markets

714

Custom Co-operative Council

715

Custom, excise and protective duties

716

Custom union

Lin minh thu quan.

717

Cyclical unemployment

Tht nghip chu k.

L loi tht nghip do THIU CU NGN HN.

718

Cycling

Chu k. Chi ph bi thng thit hi; Chi ph b p thit hi; Chi ph thit hi Chu k (c bin ) gim dn; Chuk tt.

Xem PARADOX OF VOTING.

719

Damage cost

L chi ph phi tr cho thit hi gy ra, thng l thit hi do nhim. Cn gi l chu k ng quy. Mt trong mt lot cc bin ng chu k vi mt bin GIM DN theo thi gian. Cc quan st v ln ca cc hin tng kinh t nh THU NHP QUC DN, THT NGHIP, MC GI BN L Cc chng khon oc ghi thnh chng khon hon tr ngn hn, trung hn v di hn tu thuc vo thi gian o hn

720

Damped cycle

721

Data

S liu, d liu. Chng khon ghi ngy hon tr. Phng php phn tch chit khu lung tin.

722

Dated securities

723

DCF

Xem DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW ANALYSIS.

724

Deadweight debt

N "trng". Khon mt trng; khon tn tht v ch.

L khon n khng c bo lnh bng mt ti sn thc no c, n ny c dng tr cho cc chi tiu thng xuyn. Cm thut ng thng c s dng ch s mt mt thng d ca ngi tiu dng m ngi mua phi chu ch khng phi ngi sn xut. LI SUT cao hn so vi gi tr trung bnh vn c ca n. Xem COINAGE, GRESHAM'S LAW, BAD MONEY DRIVES OUT GOOD. Cc chng khon N c li sut c nh thng do mt cng ty pht hnh v bo lnh bng ti sn. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. Nh kinh t ton hc ngi M gc, Php, ngi ginh gii Nobel v kinh t hc nm 1983 nh cng trnh nghin cu v thuyt "Cn bng tng th". Debreu xem xt chi tit vn m SMITH v WALRAS nu ra, c th l mt h thng th trng phi tp trung c th em li s phi hp mong mun ca cc k hoch c nhn nh thno. Trong nghin cu cng vi ARROW, ng chng minh c s tn ti ca cc gi c to ra cn bng, bng cch khng nh logic trong quan im ca SMITH - WALRAS. Debreu tr li c 2 vn tip theo trong lnh vc ny. Th nhtt ng xc nh c cc iu kin m BN TAY V HNH ca NN KINH T TH TRNG s m bo HIU QU PHN PHI. Th hai, ng phn tch vn n nh cn bng ca mt nn kinh t th trng ch ra rng trong cc nn kinh t ln c nhiu tc nhn th trng th cn bng th trng c th n nh c. Cun sch chnh ca ng HC THUYT V GI TR (1959) gy c ting vang ln v tnh ton th v cch tip cn phn tch vn . i vi Debreu, mt m hnh cn bng tng th nh th c th ho nhp vi l thuyt phn b, l thuyt v vn v l thuyt hnh vi trong iu kin khng chc chn. Trch nhim hoc khon tin n ny sinh do vay mn v ti chnh hay nhn cc hng ho hoc dch v di dng tn dng tc l s tr sau.

725

Deadweight - loss

726

Dear money

Tin t.

727

Debased coinage

Tin kim loi.

728

Debentures

Tri khon cng ty.

729

Debreu Gerard

(1921-)

730

Debt

N.

731

Debt conversion

Hon n; i n.

Xem CONVERSION Khi nim ny c hai ngha ring bit nhng u lin quan n vic vay mn. Khi nim ny ch cc cng ty i vay ti tr cho cc nghip v ca mnh. Cc chnh ph cng i vay ti tr cho cc hot ng ca mnh v iu chnh cc hot ng tngt th ca nn kinh t. K thut c ra gip cc nc thuc khi pha ng v cc nc km pht trin gim bt gnh nng n nn bng cch chuyn i cc khon n ca mt hng hay chnh ph thnh vn c phn. Cm thut ng ny c s dng thng lin quan n cng n, ch cc hot ng ca c quan cho vay n ca NGN HNG trung ng, thay mt cho c quan vay n, iu chnh quy m v c cu cc khon n cha tr.

732

Debt finance

Ti tr bng vay n.

733

Debt for equity swaps

Hon chuyn n thnh c phn.

734

Debt management

Qun l n.

735

Debtor nation

Nc mc n. T s n gia vn vay v vn c phn

Nc vay rng t cc nc khc hoc nhn u t t cc doanh nghip nc ngoi v do tng s lng n rng v cc ngha v khc i vi nc ny.

736

Debt ratio

Xem GEARING.

737

Decile

Thp phn v Tin c c s mi

L s liu mu hoc l s o v tr ca mt phn phi.

738

Decimal coinage

H thng tin t da vo c s s mi.

739

Decision function

Hm quyt nh

ng ngha vi HM MC TIU. Khong thi gian gia vic nhn bit nhu cu phi hnh ng gii quyt mt vn kinh t (c bit l kinh t v m) vi vic quyt nh chnh sch v vn . Mt tiu chun s dng trong vic chn la, nh c tin hnh mt d n hay khng hoc nh gi cc sn phm u ra nh th no. L thuyt lin quan n vic hnh thnh cc qu trnh hnh ng thch hp nhm t c cc mc tiu trong cc hon cnh c th c th khng n nh. Mt ngnh m ng cung di hn dc xung. iu ny xy ra nu c nhng yu t to hiu qu kinh t nm ngoi hng m li nm trong ngnh. Xem LAW OF DIMINSHING RETURNS, RETURNS TO SCALE.

740

Decision lag

tr ca vic ra quyt nh

741

Decision rule

Quy tc ra quyt nh L thuyt ra quyt nh Ngnh c chi ph gim dn Mc sinh li gim dn; Li tc gim dn Mc sinh li gim dn theo qui m; Li tc gim dn theo quy m C phiu thng li tr sau

742

Decision theory

743

Decreasing cost industry

744

Decreasing returns

745

Decreasing returns to scale

Xem ECONOMIES OF SCALE, RETURNS TO SCALE.

746

Deferred ordinary shares

Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL Tnh trng chi tiu vt qu thu nhp, trong mt bi cnh hin hu no , hoc khon n vt qu ti sn ti mt thi im no . Khon ti tr cn thit trong tnh hung cc khon chi tiu c c cho vt qu thu nhp. Cc n v kinh t m thu nhp trong mt giai on no khng th p ng chi tiu trong giai on .

747

Deficit

Thm ht

748

Deficit financing

Ti tr thm ht

749

Deficit units

Cc n v thm ht

750

Deflation

Gim pht

L s gim st lin tc trong mc gi chung. Tnh trng m trong TNG CHI TIU thp hn mc chi tiu cn phi c to ra mt mc THU NHP QUC DN c th m bo TON DNG NHN CNG.

751

Deflationnary gap

Chnh lch gy gim pht

752

Deflator

Ch s gim pht

Mt CH S GI C r rng hay hm c s dng phn bit gia nhng thay i trong gi tr bng tin ca tng sn phm quc dn do c mt thay i v gi v nhng thay i do mt thay i ca sn lng vt cht.

753

Degree of homogeneity

Mc ng nht

Xem HOMOGENNOEUS FUNCTIONS. S lng cc thng tin c th thay i mt cch c lp vi nhau. S pht trin trong mt nn kinh t quc dn theo hng tng t trng ca nghnh dch v trong tng sn phm quc ni hoc trong s vic lm trong cc ngnh dch v. Bn bo co ny c trnh ln Hi ng Chu u ti cuc hp Madrid thng 6/1989, l mt phn k hoch LIN MINH TIN T giai on hin ti trong CNG NG CHU U. Lng hng ho hoc dch v m mt c nhn hay mt nhm ngi mun c mc hin hnh. Mt minh ho th v s cu hay hm cu vi iu kin th ny ch c v trong mt khng gian hai hoc ba chiu, biu hin mi quan h gia cu v ch mt hoc hai bin s nh hng n cu, cc nhn t khc khng i.

754

Degree of freedom

Bc t do (df)

755

Deindustrialization

Phi cng nghip ho.

756

Delors Report

Bo co Delors.

757

Demand

Cu

758

Demand curve

ng cu. Tin gi khng k hn.

759

Demand deposits

Xem SIGHT DEPOSITE. Trng hp trong tng cu qu thp khng to vic lm cho tt c nhng ai mun lm vic ti mc lng thc t hin hnh bt k trnh o to hoc b tr nh th no i na. Mt khi nim cho rng c nhng khon thu li tim tng i vi mt s nhm ngi no nh cc chnh sch tng lm pht. Mt biu thc i s ca BIU CU c din t bng cc s hng tng qut hoc vi cc gi tr bng cc con s c th cho cc tham s khc nhau v thng bao gm cc yu t nh hng n cu.

760

Demand - deficient unemployment

Tht nghip do thiu cu.

761

Demand for inflation

Cu i vi lm pht.

762

Demand function

Hm cu

763

Demand for exchange

Cu ngoi t.

764

Demand for money

Cu tin t

Xem MONEY, THE DEMAND FOR. Vic kim sot mc tng cu trong mt nn kinh t thng qua vic s dng CHNH SCH TIN T, CHNH SCH TI CHNH. S gia tng bn vng ca tng cu dn n s gia tng bn vng ca mc gi chung. Mt bng cho thy mc cu i vi mt lai hng ho no ti cc mc gi khc nhau.

765

Demand management

Qun l cu.

766

Demand - pull inflation

Lm pht do cu ko.

767

Demand schedule

Biu cu

768

Demand shift inflation

Lm pht do dch chuyn cu.

Mt l thuyt kt hp cc yu t ca lm pht cu ko vi lm pht chi ph y, cho thy rng lm pht l do thay i c cu ca tng cu.

769

Demography

Nhn khu hc.

Nghin cu c im ca dn s. T l m cng s dng t thay i theo khong cch hng knh t trung tm ca mt vng th. Cc nc th gii th ba l mt phn ca cu trc rng ln v s ph thuc kinh t, x hi v chnh tr gia cc nhm quyn lc cc nc tin tin, c bit l cc cng ty a quc gia v nhm li ch ch yu cc nc ngho.

770

Density gradient

Gradient mt .

771

Dependence structure

Cu trc ph thuc. Qu trnh phi tin t ho; gim bt s dng tin mt.

772

Demonetization

773

Dependency burden

Gnh nng n theo.

Mt tnh hun trong t l tr em rt cao trong ton b dn s sng ph thuc vo mt t l ngi ln nh hn nhiu. Mt bin bn tri du bng ca mt phng trnh, gi nh vy bi v gi tr ca n "ph thuc" hay c nh bi cc gi tr ca cc BIN C LP hay BIN GII THCH bn phi. Mt u i v thu cho php ngi ch s hu cc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin c tr khi tng thu nhp khon gi tr b suy gim ca mt ti sn khng ti sinh nh qung, du m, kh t Khon tin cho cc nh ch ti chnh no vay, v d nh cc NGN HNG, NGN HNG PHT TRIN GIA C v CNG TY TI CHNH, vi iu kin rt c bo trc hoc khng, hay hon tr sau mt thi gian nht nh. Trong nghip v ngn hng Anh, mt kiu ti khon c thit k thu ht cc s d t hot ng ca khch hng, v hot ng nh l mt phng tin tit kin. ch mt bp phn ca dung lng tin di dng tin gi ngn hng. o lut ny c Quc hi M thng qua nm 1980, DIDMCA, c coi l o lut v th trng ti chnh v ngn hng k t sau khi o lut v d tr lin bang nm 1913 v cc o lut ngn hng 1933 v 1934. o lut ny ra i sau tnh hung gn khng hong thp k 70, khi li sut M lm cho cc nh ch ti chnh to lp mt lot cng c ti chnh cnh tranh v c gng thu ht vn. S gim gi tr ti sn ni chung pht sinh t s hao mn hay h hng.

774

Dependent variable

Bin s ph thuc.

775

Depletion allowance

u i ti nguyn

776

Deposit

Tin gi

777

Deposit account

Ti khon tin gi

778

Deposit money

Tin gi ngn hng.

779

Depository Institution Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 (DIDMCA)

o lut phi iu tit v kim sot tin i vi cc nh ch nhn tin gi nm 1980. Khu hao; s st gim gi tr.

780

Depreciation

781

Depression

Tnh trng suy thoi. D b iu tit; Xo iu tit; Phi iu tit.

Xem Slump. Vic d b cc lut v di lut ca chnh ph trung ng hay a phng hn ch s tham gia vo cc hot ng nht nh. Xem PRIVATIZATION.

782

Deregulation

783

Depletable and renewable resources

Cc ti nguyn khng th ti sinh v ti sinh.

784

Depreciation rate

T l khu hao. Mt vng a l hay khu vc trong mt nc t kt qu hot ng kinh t km hn mt cch ng k so vi c nc. Mc thay i ca BIN PH THUC ca mt hm trn mt n v ca thay i trong BIN C LP c tnh trong mt khong v cng nh vi bin c lp. Cu i vi mt yu t sn xut. Diu ny c ngha l cu pht sinh t nhu cu i vi hng ho cui cng m yu t gp phn sn xut ra. Qu trnh loi b nhng nh hng ca ma v, nhng hin tng xy ra thng xuyn theo ma lm mo m xu th ni bt khi cc s liu. Xem FILTER.

785

Depressed area

Khu vc tr tr.

786

Derivative

o hm. Cu phi sinh, cu dn xut, cu th pht.

787

Derived demand

788

Deseasonalization

Xo tnh cht thi v. Dung lng vn mong mun. nh thc (hay Delhoc c k hiu |A|).

789

Desired capital stock

Dung lng di hn ti u.

790

Determinant

791

Detrending

Kh khuynh hng; Gim khuynh hng.

Qu trnh m mt khuynh hng v thi gian c loi b khi s liu, thng bng vic trc tin c tnh mt khuynh hng theo thi gian v tnh ton cc s d. Xem FILTER. Gim t gi hi oi c nh gia mt ng tin v cc ng tin khc.

792

Devaluation

Ph gi

793

Devaluation and revaluation

Ph gi v nng gi. miu t tnh trng kinh t ca cc nc ngho hn ca th gii, c bt u s dng trong nhng nm 1960 thay th cc cm thut ng t hon chnh hn nh "km pht trin" hoc "lc hu". Xem ADVANCED COUNTRIES. Cc vng Anh c nhiu hnh thc h tr ca chnh ph i vi cng nghip. Mt k hoch vi mt lot cc mc tiu nhm pht trin tim nng kinh t v x hi ca ton b nn kinh t hay mt vng nht nh. Cch tip cn vn chm pht trin, ph thuc vo m hnh tng trng no c s dng. Mc chnh lch gi gi tr ca mt bi s v TRUNG BNH ca n. Xem Standard deviation, Variace.

794

Developing countries

Cc nc ang pht trin.

795

Development area

Vng cn pht trin. Hoch nh pht trin; Lp k hoch pht trin.

796

Development planning

797

Development strategy

Chin lc pht trin.

798

Deviation

lch.

799

Standard deviation

lch chun.

800

Dickey fuller test

Cc kim nh Dickey Fuller.

Mt tp hp cc kim nh s tn ti ca n v gc trong chui thi gian. Mt phng trnh trong gi tr hin ti ca BIN PH THUC c biu din di dng mt hm ca cc gi tr trc ca n. Phng php dng nhn din mt phng trnh vi phn tnh.

801

Difference equation

Phng trnh vi phn

802

Differencing

Phng php vi phn Nguyn l bt bng; Nguyn l khc bit Qu trnh vi phn tnh. Cc cung bc; Cc mc chnh lch.

803

Difference principle Difference stationary process (DSP)

Xem RAWLSIAN JUSTICE

804

805

Differentials

Xem WAGE DIFFERENTIALS. Mt kha cnh ca tng trng ca hng bng A DNG HO, ch s tng trng c thc y bi a ra nhng sn phm khc bit vi nhng sn phm khc v c khch hng cng nh hng c coi l mi. 1) Xem PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION. 2) Qu trnh tnh o hm ca mt hm. Trong bi cnh ph bin k thut, cm thut ng ny ch mc truyn b cc sng ch sang cc hng. Tn thng dng cho vng dm phn thng mi th nm t chc di s bo tr ca HIP NH CHUNG V THU QUAN V MU DCH GENEVA (19601961) Hin tng theo gi nh rng tho dng gia tng i vi mt n v hng ho gim khi cng nhiu hng ho c mua hn.

806

Differentiated growth

Tng trng nh a dng ho Qu trnh a dng ho; Php vi phn Qu trnh truyn b; S ph bin

807

Differentiation

808

Diffusion

809

Dillon Round

Vng m phn Dillon tho dng bin gim dn. Mc sinh li gim dn; Li tc gim dn (Quy lut v) t l thay th bin gim dn. (Qui lut v) gi tr tho dng bin gim dn ca ti sn/ca ci.

810

Diminishing marginal utility

811

Diminishing returns Diminishing marginal rate of substitution

Xem LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURNS.

812

813

Diminishing marginal utility of wealth

814

Direct costs

Chi ph trc tip.

Xem VARIABLE COSTS. Mt h thng pht trin mi y v thanh ton qua h thng ngn hng. Theo ngn hng ca mt ngi giao dch sp nhn mt khon thanh ton s a ra khiu n cu trc tip i vi ngn hng ca bn phi tr n thanh ton, n lt mnh ngn hng ca bn n s ghi n vo ti khon ngi tr. L thu nh trc tip vo c nhn hay hng. Thu ny ngc vi thu gin thu.

815

Direct debit

Ghi n trc tip.

816

Direct taxes

Thu trc thu.

817

Directors

Ban gim c.

Xem COMPANY DIRECTOR. Mt gi thuyt do Aaron Director a ra, cho rng trong mt h thng dn ch, chnh ph c xu hng theo ui nhng chnh sch phn phi li thu nhp t nhng ngi kh giu v ngi ngho sang nhng nhm thu nhp trung bnh. Mt loi hnh T GI HI OI TH NI nhng khng c hon ton t do, bi v cc NGN HNG TRUNG NG thnh thong li can thip nhm lm cho t gi lch khi t gi ca th trng t do. Nhng ngi cng nhn m xt v tay ngh h a ra th trng lao ng hoc cc "tn hiu" h chuyn ti nhng ngi ch tng lai tnh th tng i bt li. Tng s ngi ri b cng vic mt cch khng tnh nguyn trong bt k mt thi k no. Mt phng php nh gi cc d n da trn tng CHIT KHU chi ph v li nhun tng lai xung gi tr hin ti ca chng.

818

Director's Law

Quy lut Director Th ni (kiu) bn; Th ni khng hon ton Cng nhn (c v th) bt li; Nhng cng nhn khng c li th. Nhng ngi b thi vic Dng tin chit khu; Lung tin chit khu Li tc lung tin chit khu

819

Dirty float

820

Disadvantaged workers

821

Discharges

822

Discounted cash flow (DCF)

823

Discounted cash flow yield

Xem RATE OF RETURN. Mt TRUNG GIAN TI CHNH trong th trng tin t Londonthu v cc ti sn ngn hn cng vi tin s tr khi c thng bo ngn hn

824

Discount house

Hng chit khu

825

Discounting

Chit khu

Qu trnh p dng mt li sut i vi khon vn. Theo ngha hp l th trng London m ti HI PHIU THNG MI v HI PHIU B TI CHNH c mua bn . T l m li nhun hay chi ph tng lai s c chit khu do S THCH HIN TI HN TNG LAI hoc v s tn ti ca LI SUT DNG. Nhng cng nhn ri b th trng lao ng khi tht nghip tng ln.

826

Discount market

Th trng chit khu. T l chit khu; sut chit khu Gi thuyt v cng nhn nn lng.

827

Discount rate

828

Discouraged Worker Hypothesis

829

Discrete variable

Bin gin on Nhng mc li nhun vt tri

Mt bin ch nhn mt s gi tr nht nh. Li nhun vt qu mc ti thiu cn thit t c s chp nhn ca cc c ng. S can thip trc tip ca chnh ph thng dng CHNH SCH TI CHNH hay CHNH SCH TIN T nhm n nh tng trng hay mc THU NHP QUC DN. (Ngc li vi AUTOMATIC STABILIZERS).

830

Discretionary profits

831

Discretionary stabilization

S n nh c can thip c quyn phn bit i x; c quyn c phn bit.

832

Discriminating monopoly

Xem PRICE DISCRIMINATION.

833

Discrimination

S phn bit i s.

i s khng cng bng i vi nhng th nh nhau.

834

Discriminatory pricing

nh gi c phn bit Tnh phi kinh t do tng trng Tnh phi kinh t do quy m. Tin b k thut ngoi ti; Tin b k thut tch ri. Trng thi bt cn; Trng thi khng cn bng

Xem PRICE DISCRIMINATION. Nhng rng buc mnh m pht sinh khi tc tng trng cao hn mt mc no v lm mt tnh hiu qu ca cc hot ng ca hng.

835

Diseconomies of growth

836

Diseconomies of scale

Xem ECONOMIES OF SCALE. Tin b k thut t c m khng tn km tin u t, nh mt dng "lc tri cho", hon ton khng ph thuc tch lu vn hay bt k bin no khc trong h thng kinh t.

837

Disembodied technical progress

838

Disequilibrium

Mt trng thi khng cn bng.

839

Disguised unemployment

Tht nghip tr hnh.

Xem HIDDEN UNEMPLOYMENT.

840

Disincentive

Tr ngi Qu trnh gim lm pht.

Xem TAX DISINCENTIVE.

841

Disinflation

Qu trnh lm mt dn hay gim LM PHT. Qu trnh theo vn m t trc i t ngi cung cp cui cng n ngi s dng cui cng thng qua TRUNG GIAN TI CHNH, c bit l cc ngn hng v cc l do lin quan n li sut tng i hay kim sot kh nng m rng cc khon tin gi ca cc ngn hng, by gi oc tin hnh trc tip. Vic c gim mt phn DUNG LNG VN hay s tht bi c d nh hoc khng d inh v u t thay th trang tri khu hao. Xu hng quan st c v tng chi tiu cng cng trong sut mt cuc chin tranh hay cuc khng hong quc gia khc nhng khng tr v mc ban u sau khng hong. Thu nhp cn li sau khi tr thu. Xem PERSONAL INCOME.

842

Disintermediation

Qu trnh xo b trung gian; Phi trung gian.

843

Disinvestment

Gim u t. Hiu ng chuyn di; Hiu ng thay i trng thi. Thu nhp kh dng; thu nhp kh tiu; Thu nhp kh dng.

844

Displacement effect

845

Disposable income

846

Dissaving

Gim tit kim.

Tiu dng vt thu nhp hin ti.

847

Distance cost

Ph vn chuyn.

Xem TRANSFER COSTS.

848

Dirigiste

Chnh ph can thip.

849

Discount rate Discouraged worker / unemployment

Sut chit khu. Ngi tht nghip do nn lng.

850

851

Distributed lags

tr c phn phi. Li nhun c phn phi. Cc l thuyt phn phi.

S xc nh v cc mi quan h kinh t lng thng i hi rng mt bin gii thch khng ch tn ti di gi tr hin ti m cn di dng mt chui trc (tr). Phn li nhun rng do hng phn phi di dng tr li c tc cho nhng ngi s hu vn c phiu cng ty. Xem DIVIDEND PAY. Cc l thuyt lin quan n c ch theo THU NHP quc dn c phn phi gia cc c nhn v cc nhm trong nn kinh t.

852

Distributed profits

853

Distribution, theories of

854

Dispersion

Phn tn.

855

Distortions

Bin dng Cc bin dng v tht bi ca th trng.

856

Distortions and market failures

857

Distribution (stats)

Phn phi.

858

Continuous distribution

Phn phi lin tc

859

Deterministic distribution

Phn phi tt nh

860

Discrete distribution

Phn phi ri rc

861

Normal distribution

Phn phi chun

862

Probability distribution

Phn phi xc sut

863

Step distribution

Phn phi bc thang

864

Triangular distribution

Phn phi tam gic

865

Union distribution

Phn phi u. Cng bng trong phn phi. S ng mc hay cng bng theo cch m sn phm ca mt nn kinh t c phn phi gia cc c nhn. Mt h s bng s p dng i vi nhng thay i trong thu nhp ca cc c nhn hay nhm c nhn v bao gm s BIN MINH PHN PHI no vi mc ch nh gi hiu qu ng gp ca mt chnh sch hay d n. Mt phn ca chnh sch chi tiu v thu ca chnh ph lin quan ti iu chnh phn phi thu nhp hoc ca ci trong x hi.

866

Distributional equity

867

Distributional wage

Trng s phn phi Chc nng phn phi.

868

Distribution function

869

Distributive judgement

S xem xt kha cnh phn phi; BIN MINH PHN PHi. Cng bng v kha cnh phn phi

Khi cc nh kinh t nh gi cc chnh sch hay d n, h gp phi nhng kh khn nh cc chnh sch nh hng khng ch i vi tng sn lng ca nn kinh t m c cch thc sn lng v li ch c phn phi gia c c nhn. Mt khi nim hay nguyn tc nh gi cc phng n phn phi thu nhp hoc ca ci gia cc c nhn. Xem Distributive judgement. Sai s trong mt phng trnh hi quy (hay cn gi l nhiu ngu nhin). S khng tho mn hoc khng hi lng do mt sn phm hay "hng xu" gy ra.Xem Utility.

870

Distributive justice

871

Disturbance term

Sai s.

872

Disutility

bt tho dung. Chu k phn r;Chu k bng n. Phn r; phn k; Sai bit.

873

Divergent cycle

Xem EXPLOSIVE CYCLE.

874

Divergence

875

Diversification

a dng ho. Ngi u t a dng.

Hoc c nhiu ngnh trong mt khu vc hoc c mt lot sn phm do mt hng bn ra. Mt nh u t gi mt phn ca ci ca mnh di dng tin v phn cn li l cng tri hp nht.

876

Diversifier

877

Dividend

C tc. Mc bo chng c tc.

Phn tr cho c ng di dng tin hay c phiu. T s li nhun trn c phiu thng thng so vi tng li tc trn c phiu.

878

Dividend cover

879

Dividend payout ratio

T s tr c tc

Phn li tc thanh ton C TC. Li c tc cho thy t l % li tc m nh u t c th thu ti mc gi hin hnh. Qu trnh phn b lao ng cho hot ng no c nng sut cao nht, tc l vo hot ng s dng tt nht cc k nng ca n. Giy chng nhn tin gi (CD) ghi bng ola v c pht hnh c pht hnh i ly tin gi bng la. Nh kinh t ngi M gc Ba Lan, ni ting v cng trnh ca ng v THUYT TNG TRNG KINH T. ng nhn mnh rng chi tiu u t c hai hiu ng, c th l hiu ng to thu nhp v hiu ng tng nng lc. Kinh t hc KEYNES ch cng nhn hiu ng th nht v Domar a ra khng nh v nhng iu kin cn tng cu v tng nng lc pht trin mt cch cn i. Kt qu m ng thu c ging vi nhng g HARROD thu c mt cch c lp n ngy nay chng c bit n nh nhng iu kin ca Harrod/Domar. Tc phm chnh ca ng l Cc tiu lun v thuyt tng trng kinh t (1957). Mt ch s v thay i tin t trong mt nn kinh t, do QU TIN T QUC T a ra v ng h trong nhng nm 1960, nh mt thc o hin hnh ng

880

Dividend yield

Li c tc.

881

Division of labour

Phn cng lao ng. Giy chng nhn tin gi la.

882

Dollar certificate of deposite

883 884

Domar, Evsey D. Domestic credit expansion

(1914-) Tn dng trong nc (DCE).

hn v cc tc nhn m rng trong h thng tin t so vi nhng thay i tnh c trong dung lng tin. Gi ca hng khng ch. Phng php Doolittle S hi t lp v nhu cu; S trng hp nhu cu.

885

Dominant firm price leadership

Xem Price leadership. Mt cch tip cn c h thng gii cc h phng trnh c 4 phng trnh hoc c 4 phng trnh tr ln do M.H.Doolittle a ra. Nu vic mua bn c tin hnh theo PHNG PHP HNG I HNG th cn thit phi c s trng hp hai ln nhu cu gia hai bn tham gia trao i. Vic tnh mt yu t chi ph hay li ch nhiu hn mt ln trong PHN TCH CHI PH- LI CH.

886

Doolittle method

887

Double-coincidence of wants

888

Double counting

Tnh hai ln; Tnh lp T gi ngoi thng c tnh n gi ca cc yu t sn xut ca c hai bn.

889

Double factorial terms of trade

Xem TERMS OF TRADE.

890

Double switching Double taxation and double taxation relief.

Chuyn i tr li. nh thu hai ln v trnh nh thu hai ln.

Xem RESWITCHING. Mt c nhn hay t chc c thu nhp nc ngoi c th phi chu THU thu nhp c nc ngoi v nc bn a. S CH BO gi c phiu trn S GIAO DCH CHNG KHON PH WALL. l thut ng tng ng ca M cho CH S C PHIU THNG CA THI BO TI CHNH. Trong nhng pht trin hin i ca KINH T HC KEYNES c lp lun cho rng hm cung v cu thng thng khng cho thy nhng tn hiu xc ng v im cn bng trn th trng. Thuyt ny ban u do Mathus xng, ng xem nn kinh t gm 2 khu vc chnh: nng nghip v cng nghip; chia nn kinh t thnh 2 khu vc v xem xt s tc ng qua li gia chng c coi l lm tng s hiu bit v qu trnh pht trin. Phng ph dn xut cc h phng trnh cu phi sinh ph hp vi hnh vi ti u ho ca ngi tiu dng hay sn xut bng cch n gin l vi phn ha mt hm thay th cho vic gii mt bi ton ti u c rng buc. Gi thuyt cho rng th trng lao ng c phn thnh 2 cp: Cp mt v cp hai.Nhng cng vic c lng cao, c trin vng v bt, an ton v tr cp cao, to thnh khu vc cp mt ca mt nn kinh t lng cp. Trong khu vc cp hai, tin lng c hnh thnh do cnh tranh, cng vic nhiu c th s dng ht tt c cng nhn, tuy nhin nhng cng vic ny c lng thp, khng n nh v ni chung l khng hp dn. Nhng cng nhn trong khu vc cp hai do phi chu tnh trng hu nghip phim dng.

891

892

Dow Jones index

Ch s Dow Jones.

893

Dual decision hypothesis

Gi thuyt quyt nh kp

894

Dualism, theory of

L thuyt nh nguyn

895

Duality

Phng php i ngu.

896

Dual labour market hypothesis

Gi thit th trng lao ng hai cp.

897

Dollar standard

Bn v la S hp thu trong nc.

898

Domestic absorption

899

Domestic - oriented growth

Tng trng hng ni; Tng trng hng vo th trng ni a. Chi ph ti nguyn trong nc. Mt bin nh phn (c - khng) c a ra xem xt nhng dch chuyn (dch chuyn gi) hay thay i ngoi sinh ca dc ( c gi) trong mi quan h kinh t lng. Vic bn mt hng ho nc ngoi mc gi thp hn so vi mc gi th trng trong nc. Mt c cu th trng ch c 2 hng. Cc m hnh l gii c gii thch s xc nh sn lng v gi c trn c cu th trng ny t c s phn tch ca mnh ln nhng gi nh xem xt n vic a ra quyt nh trong c s ph thuc ln nhau c thy r. Mt th trng ch c hai ngi mua cng mt loi sn phm hay dch v em trao i. Khong thi gian trung bnh m mt c nhn tri qua khi ng k tht nghip. S thng k d bo bi ton TNG QUAN CHUI hay cc h s sai s trong php hi quy, bao gm mt bin ni sinh tr hon trong trng hp s thng k Durbin - Watson-d thng dng hn khng th p dng c. Mt s thng k d bo v bi ton TNG QUAN CHUI ca cc h s sai s trong php hi quy. Phn tch lin thi gian v h thng kinh t. Nn kinh t c th i t mt im cn bng ny sang im cn bng khc (tc l hai im CN BNG TNH SO SNH) hoc c th lin tc khng t n im cn bng tnh no.

900

Domestic resources cost

901

Dummy variable

Bin gi.

902

Dumping

Bn ph gi.

903

Duopoly

Lng c quyn bn. Lng c quyn mua.

904

Duopsony

905

Duration of unemployment

Thi gian tht nghip

906

Durbin h - statistic

S thng k Durbin h S thng k (d hoc D.W.).

907

Durbin- Watson

908

Dynamic economics

Kinh t hc ng.

909

Dynamic model

M hnh kinh t ng. T gi hi oi neo ng.

Xem Dynamic economic.

910

Dynamic peg

Xem EXCHANGE RATE. Mt tp hp cc k thut ton hc gii cc loi bi ton chui ra quyt nh. Cc l thuyt mi v thng mi quc t, nhn mnh vai tr ca tnh r rng v s truyn b thnh tin trong vic gii thch hnh thi thng mi quc t v sn xut. Vic gn nhng yu t c th trong CHI TIU CNG CNG vi cc khon thu nhp huy ng t mt s c th. Xem BENEFIT PRINCIPLE. Cn thut ng c s dng theo hai cch: mt miu t phn li tc i vi n lc ca con ngi, th lao cho u vo ca yu t lao ng sn xut v ngha th hai miu t thu nhp ca mt doanh nghip.

911

Dynamic programming

Quy hoch ng.

912

Dynamic theories of comparative advantage.

Cc l thuyt ng v li th so snh. Dnh cho mc ch ring.

913

Earmaking

914

Earning

Thu nhp.

915

Earnings driff

Khuynh hng tng thu nhp.

Tng thu nhp hng tun vt mc tng MC LNG tho tho thun. Mi quan h hm s gia cc mc thu nhp v cc yu t quyt nh chng. Tnh trng chung ca vic vay tin d dng v r trong h thng ti chnh.

916

Earnings function

Hm thu nhp.

917

Easy money

Tin d vay. Chnh sch tin t v ti kho lng/cht; Chnh sch ni lng / tht cht tin t hay thu chi ngn sch. Thu nng nghip ca EC Xem EXPORT CREDITS GUARANTEE DEPARTMENT M hnh kinh t lng.

918

Easy / tight monetary or fiscal policy

919

EC Agricultural Livies

Thu do cc thnh vin ca CNG NG CHU U (EC) nh vo hng nng phm nhp khu t cc nc khng phi l thnh vin.

920

ECGD

921

Econometric model

Mt M HNH ton hc ca mt nn kinh t hay mt b phn ca mt nn kinh t m cc tham s ca n c c tnh bng phng php kinh t lng. Mt nghnh ca thng k hc lin quan ti kim nghim cc gi thuyt kinh t v c tnh cc tham s kinh t ch y thng qua phng php HI QUY BI S, mc d i khi thng qua vic s dng phng php lun phc tp hn. Nhng hot ng kinh t m s tng trng v pht trin ca chng c coi l c vai tr quyt ng i vi tng trng kinh t ca mt vng hay ca mt th trn. Mt dng ca NHN T KHU VC c tnh nh hng ca nhng thay i trong mt C S KINH T vng i vi ton b nn kinh t ca vng. Mt lin minh kinh t gia cc nc c biu thu quan v chnh sch thng mi chung d b cc hn ch i vi thng mi gia cc nc thnh vin. Mt c quan vin tr kinh t, thnh lp nm 1948 do o lut Tr gip nc ngoi ca M, qun l K HOCH MARSHALL i vi vic phc hi kinh t Chu u sau chin tranh th gii th hai. Qu trnh ci thin mc snngs v s sung tc ca dn chng ca cc nc ang pht trin bng cch tng thu nhp trn u ngi. Xem NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL. Xem INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

922

Econometrics

Mn kinh t lng.

923

Economic base

C s kinh t. Nhn t c s kinh t.

924

Economic base multiplier

925

Economic community

Cng ng kinh t.

926

Economic Co-operation Administration

C quan Hp tc kinh t.

927

Economic development

Pht trin kinh t. U ban Pht trin kinh t. Vin Pht trin kinh t.

928

Economic development Committee

929

Economic development Institute

930

Economic dynamics

ng hc kinh t.

Xem DYNAMIC ECONOMICS

931

Economic efficiency

Hiu qu kinh t. Ngi theo thuyt Keynes chit trung.

Xem ALLCATIVE EFFICIENCY

932

Eclectic Keynesian

933

Economic cost

Chi ph kinh t. Thng ch mc tng sn lng thc t ca SN PHM QUC DN RNG, mc d thc o ny s nhy cm vi cch tnh sn phm quc dn. Xem GROWTH THEORY Mt mt hng khan him v mt hng m ngi ta s la chn nhiu hn nu c th. Xem FREE GOOD.

934

Economic growth

Tng trng kinh t.

935

Economic good

Hng ho kinh t.

936

Economic imperialism

quc kinh t. Ch ngha t do kinh t.

Xem IMPERIALISM Hc thuyt ng h kh nng s dng nhiu nht cc th trng v cc tc nhn cnh tranh iu phi hot ng kinh t. Tn t cho "vt oc c sng to" trong kinh t hc, bng cch , cc c nhn c gi nh l c s nh th h ti a ho tho dng, chu chi phi bi nhng rng buc, trong hin nhin nht l thu nhp.

937

Economic liberialism

938

Economic man

Con ngi kinh t.

939

Economic planning

Hoch nh kinh t.

S phi hp mt cc c t chc cc hot ng kinh t. S iu hnh ca nh nc i vi nn kinh t ca mt quc gia.

940

Economic policy

Chnh sch kinh t.

941

Economic price

Gi kinh t.

942

Economic profit

Li nhun kinh t. Tin thu kinh t, t kinh t, c li kinh t. T sut li nhun kinh t. Mt ngnh nghin cu v cch thc con ngi t t chc gii quyt vn c bn v s khan him. Chnh lc gia sn lng ca mt nn kinh t v chi ph cn thit sn xut ra sn lng , m chi ph cn thit l TIN CNG, KHU HAO VN, chi ph nguyn vt liu. Gim chi ph trung bnh ca mt sn phm xt trong di hn nh tng sn lng. Mt m hnh v hnh vi chnh tr gi nh rng l c tri l nhng ngi ti a ho THO DNG v cc ng phi chnh tr l nhng T CHC TI A HO Khon tri tr cho mt yu t sn xut vt mc cn thit gi yu t mc s dng hin ti.

943

Economic rent

944

Economic rate of return

945

Economics

Kinh t hc.

946

Economic surplus

Thng d kinh t. Tnh kinh t nh qui m; Li th kinh t nh quy m. L thuyt chnh tr da trn kinh t.

947 948

Economies of scale Economic theory of polities

PHIU BU.

949

Economic union

Cng ng kinh t.

Xem ECONOMIC COMMUNITY Phn phc li ca con ngi xut phts t vic tiu dng hng ho v dch v.

950

Economic welfare

Phc li kinh t. Tnh kinh t nh hc hnh; Li ch kinh t do hc tp Nn kinh t c tin cng cao.

951

Economies of learning

Xem LEARNING Mt nhn nh rng, tin cng cao s dn n nng sut cao; tin cng v sn phm lao ng bin c coi l c lin h thun vi nhau.

952

Economy of high wages

953

ECSC

Xem EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY

954

ECU

Xem EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM Gio s kinh t chnh tr hc trng i hc Oxford 1891-1922 v l ngi theo ch ngha v li, l ngi pht minh ra cng c v ng bng quan v ng hp ng m s dng trong thuyt hng i hng. ng cng ni ting vi cng trnh v cc phng php thng k v c bit l quy lut chung ca sai s, ch s v hm s. ng m rng QUY LUT LI TC GIM DN t nng nghip sang ch to nh mt nguyn l chung.

955

Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro

(1845-1926).

956

EEC

Xem EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY Tng cu i vi hng ho v dch v c h tr bi cc ngun lc mua chng. Xem DUAL DECISION HYPOTHESIS.

957

Effective demand

Cu hu hiu.

958

Effective

Hiu dng, hiu qu. T l bo h hu dng; Thu bo h hu hiu. Mc thu hu dng; Thu sut h hu hiu. Bo h hu dng; Bo h hu hiu. Sut sinh li hiu dng. Tnh hiu qu; Tnh hiu dng. H s hiu qa u t. Mt cm thut ng c cc nh kinh t ng U s dng ch T S SN LNG/ VN GIA TNG. c nh ngha l phn gi tr gia tng, do c cu thu quan mang li, l mt phn gi tr gia tng ca thng mi t do.

959

Effective rate of protection

960

Effective rate of tax

Xem AVERAGE RATE OF TAX

961

Effective protection

962

Effective rate of return

963

Efficiency

964

Efficiency coefficient of investment

965

Efficiency earnings

Thu nhp hiu qu.

Thu nhp trn mt N V HIU QU. Khi cc nh kinh t hc ni v khuynh hng cnh tranh cn bng thu nhp trn cng mt TH TRNG LAO NG TRONG NC ngha l h mun ni n thu nhp hiu qa. Mt phng php o lng lc lng lao ng thng qua u vo dch v lao ng c s dng.

966

Efficiency units

n v hiu qu. Tin cng hiu qu; tin lng hiu dng/ hiu qu. L thuyt tin cng hiu qu. Th trng ti sn c hiu dng/ hiu qu.

967

Efficiency wages

968

Efficiency wage theory

Theo hc thuyt ny, SN PHM BIN ca ngi lao ng v tin cng m h c tr c lin quan vi nhau.

969

Efficient asset market

970

Efficient market hypothesis

Gi thuyt v th trng c hiu qu. S phn b ngun lc c hiu qu

Mt quan im cho rng gi c phiu trn th trng chng khon l nhng c tnh tt nht v gi tr thc ca c phiu v th trng chng khon c c ch nh gi tt nht.

971

Efficient resource allocation

972

Effort aversion

Ngn n lc; Khng thch n lc. Xem EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION Xem EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK. Nhu cu co gin v co gin mt n v.

Mt khi nim chnh thc dng biu th gi nh rng s n lc l mt bin s c tc ng m trong HM THO DNG ca cc c nhn, tc l s n lc to ra trong s PHI THO DNG BIN.

973

EFTA

974

EIB

975

Elastic and unit elastic demand

976

Inelastic and unit elastic demand Mt thc o t l phn trm thay i ca mt bin s i vi mt t l % thay i ca mt bin s khc. Xem PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND. Thng dng ch CO GIN CA CU THEO GI, nhng cn phi xc nh r ca gin ca cu no ang c cp n. Mt thc o s phn ng ca s kt hp lao ng TI U i vi thay i gi tng i ca hai u vo ny (hoc ch hai yu t u vo bt k).

977

Elasticity

co gin

978

Elasticity of demand

co gin ca cu. co gin ca s thay th u vo.

979

Elasticity of input substitution

980

Eligible asset ratio

T s ti sn d tr.

Xem RESERVE ASSET RATIO. Cc TI SN ti chnh m NGN HNG TRUNG NG sn sng mua (ti chit khu) hay chp nhn lm vt th chp cho cc khon vay, trong mt s trng hp c bit, v thng l khi giao dch vi cc c quan oc nh r.

981

Eligible paper

Giy t tiu chun chit khu.

982

Elitist good

Hng xa x Xem EUROPEAN MONETARY AGREEMENT Tin b k thut ni hm; Tin b hm cha k thut.

Xem Luxury

983

EMA

984

Embodied technical progress

Tin b k thut m khng th c c nu khng hm cha ngun vn mi. c nh ngha l mt phn tin lng ca ban qun l v cc li ch PHI TIN T m li ch ny khng phi l mt phn gi cung cp ca doanh nghip (lng chnh ).

985

Emoluments

Khon th lao; Th lao ngoi lng chnh

986

Endogeneous consumption

Tiu dng ni sinh. Mt k hoch cho php cc nhn vin trong cc hng ca M c hng li nhun v s tng trng ca doanh nghip bng cch s hu cc c phn trong c phn chung ca cng ty. Tit mt ca o lut ny quy nh rng, trong quyn hn ca mnh, chnh ph lin bang M lm mi vic to ra v duy tr c hi v vic lm, tng trng bn vng v sc mua n nh cho ng tin ca M. Cc vn phong nh nc hay t nhn c gng sp xp nhng ngi xin vic vo cc ch trng hin c.

987

Employee Stock Ownership plan (ESOP)

K hoch S hu c phn cho ngi lm.

988

Employment Act of 1946

o lut Vic lm nm 1946

989

Employment Service

Dch v vic lm.

990

Employment subsidies

Tr cp vic lm. Xem EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM Php kim nghim vy; Php kim nghim vng bin. Gi thit thu nhp ni sinh

Xem JOB CREATION

991

EMS

992

Encompassing test

Php kim nghim khng tp trung ny da trn nguyn tc cho rng mt m hnh nn c cc c im ni bt ca cc m hnh khc nhau v c th l cc m hnh nghch. Mt gi thit cho rng tho dng l mt hm ca chi tiu TIU DNG v CA CI. Theo quan im ny, mc cung tin c quyt nh bi cc tc nhn bn trong nn kinh t, chng hn nh li sut v mc hot ng kinh doanh. Mt bin s m gi tr ca n c xc nh trong khun kh ca mt m hnh kinh t hay kinh t lng. Cc c nhn i hi nhiu hn c th li ko h t b mt hng ho m h c so vi s tin m h sn lng tr c c hng ha tng t. Mt ch bo v tnh hiu qu trong vic s dng nng lng c bn trong sn xut mt n v tng sn phm quc ni. Mt cch tip cn khng chnh thc v khng r rng i vi qu trnh T NHN HO nhanh chng ti sn nh nc cc nc x hi ch ngha trc y (v mt vi nc khc), qua cc nh hot ng ng phi trc y v quan chc nh nc c th mua ti

993

Endogenous income hypothesis

994

Endogenous money supply

Cung tin t ni sinh.

995

Endogenous variable

Bin ni sinh.

996

Endowment effect

Hiu ng hng c. Cng s dng nng lng. c quyn ca gii chc.

997 998

Energy intensity Enfranchisement of the nomenklatura

sn nh nc vi gi thp hn gi th trng. Thut ng nomenklatura ch nhng ngi c la chn vo cc chc v cao, nhng khng phi do cng trng m do s phn quyt ca ng cm quyn. Tuyn dng (hay thu mi). Tng s ngi tham gia i ng c vic l trong bt c thi k no. Mt ng biu th mi quan h gia thu nhp v tiu dng ca mt c nhn v mt hng ho c th. Mt "quy lut" tiu dng thc nghim do Ernst Engel xng. tng y l phn thu nhp quc gia c chi tiu cho lng thc l mt ch s tt v phc li ca quc gia . Mt phng php c dng trong PHN TCH CHI PH THNG K, trong nhng c tnh ca ngi k s v mi lin h u vo- u ra l c s tnh ton chi ph sn xut ti thiu ti cc mc sn lng khc nhau. Mt nguyn tc v s cng bng trong phn phi cho rng, cc c nhn c coi l "c quyn" i vi nhng vt s hu chng no s hu c c nh, do trao i t nguyn hay do qu biu. Mt nhn t t chc trong mt qu trnh sn xut. Ch doanh nghip chu trch nhim v cc quyt nh kinh t nh sn xut ci g, sn xut bao nhiu v phng php sn xut no c p dng. Li tc va gi mt ngi iu hnh vi mt s phm cht no li vi cng vic hin ti ca ngi .

999

Engagements

1000

Engel curve

ng Engel.

1001

Engel's Law

Quy lut ca Engel.

1002

Engineering method

Phng php k thut.

1003

Entitlement principle

Nguyn tc c quyn.

1004

Entrepreneur

Ch doanh nghip. Gi cung ng ca doanh nghip. Kh nng, s lm ch ca doanh nghip. Ro cn nhp nghnh. Nhp nghnh v xut ngnh. Gi ngn chn nhp ngnh. Gi ngn chn nhp ngnh.

1005

Entrepreneurial supply price

1006

Entrepreneurship

Xem Entrepreneur.

1007

Entry barriers

Xem BARRIERS TO ENTRY.

1008

Entry and exit

1009

Entry forestalling price

Xem LIMIT PRICING. Gi m cc hng thit lp trong mt ngnh nh ra mc khng s nhng doanh nghip m nhp ngnh. Mc d trnh hiu bit khoa hc v k thut ca th gii ang gia tng, vn cn chnh lch ln v kin thc ny, c bit lin quan n iu kin mi trng CC NC ANG PHT TRIN. Gi thuyt cho rng mi trng vt cht l yu t chnh quyt nh ti trnh pht trin kinh t ca mt quc gia. Mt phn tch tm cch xc nh r rng nhng nh hng ln ton b mi trng ca mt d n u t.

1010

Entry preventing price

1011

Environmental conditions

Nhng iu kin mi trng. Quyt nh lun do mi trng. Phn tch tc ng mi trng.

1012

Environmental determinism

1013

Environmental impact analysis

1014

EPU Li th bnh ng, Li th ngang bng. o lut v c hi vic lm /bnh ng/ngang bng nm 1972. U ban C hi vic lm bnh ng/ngang bng.

Xem EUROPEAN PAYMENTS UNION.

1015

Equal advantage

Xem COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE. Mt o lut m rng vi phm ca mc VII ca o lut Quyn dn s ca M nm 1964 sang cc chnh quyn tiu bang v a phng v cho php U ban c hi vic lm ngang nhau lp h s kin tng cho bn thn h. Mt u ban c thnh lp gii quyt nhng khiu ni bt ngun t s thng qua o lut Quyn dn s ca M nm 1964. o lut ny nghim cm hnh ng phn bit i x ca cc ng ch. Cc qu do mt chnh ph cp cho cc chnh quyn a phng vi mc ch gim mc khng cn bng trong thu nhp hay doanh thu do chnh quyn a phng thu c.

1016

Equal EmploymentOpportunity Act of 1972 Equal EmploymentOpportunityCommisio n

1017

1018

Equalization grants Equalizing differences, the theory of

Cc khon tr cp cn bng. Lhuyt cn bng chnh lch

1019

Xem NET ADVANTAGES. S cng bng gia cc gii v iu khon v iu kin vic lm: mt khi nim v tr lng ngang nhau cho cng vic c gi tr ngang nhau, mc d nh ngha v "tr lng" v "cng vic ngang nhau" khng ging nhau gia cc nc. S hy sinh cng THO DNG ca nhng ngi tr thu.

1020

Equal pay

Tr lng ngang nhau; tr lng bnh ng. L thuyt hy sinh ngang nhau; l thuyt hy sinh bnh ng.

1021

Equal sacrifice theories

1022

Equation of exchange

Phng trnh trao i.

Xem QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY. Mt cm thut ng mn t mn vt l miu t tnh hung, trong cc tc nhn kinh t hay tng tc nhn kinh t nh th trng, khng c ng lc g thay i hnh vi kinh t ca mnh. Khi mt nhm cc bin s c lin kt vi nhau trong mt m hnh HI QUY l ng lin kt (xem COINTEGRATION) th thnh phn nhiu c gi l sai s cn bng. Mc cn bng ca THU NHP QUC GIA khng biu hin cc xu hng thay i.

1023

Equilibrium

Cn bng

1024

Equilibrium error

Sai s cn bng Mc cn bng ca thu nhp quc gia

1025

Equilibrium level of national income

1026

Equilibrium price

Gi cn bng T l lm pht cn bng.

Gi ti TH TRNG trng thi CN BNG. T l LM PHT c hon ton d bo trc. T l lm pht gi c m ti cc k vng c th tr thnh hin thc. Cn c gi l c phiu thng, l nhng c phiu dng vn pht hnh ca mt cng ty.

1027

Equilibrium rate of inflation

1028

Equities

C phn

1029

Equity

Cng bng

Cng l hay l phi.

1030

Equity capital

Vn c phn Thang/h s/ t l/qui m qui i mc sng tng ng; Quy m tng ng. Thang/h s/ t l/qui m qui i hng ho tiu dng tng ng. Thang/h s/ t l/qui m qui i thu nhp tng ng Mc bin ng tng ng

Xem EQUYTIES. Mt h s hoc mt "quyn s" c dng nh gi mc thu nhp hoc tiu dng m cc gia nh bt buc phi c trong cc hon cnh khc nhau t c mt "mc sng" nht nh. Mt h s biu th bng s p dng cho mc tiu dng cc hng ho nht nh ca cc gi nh trong cc hon cnh khc nhau ch ra mc tiu dng m mi gia nh cn c t c mc sng nht nh. Mt h s bng s p dng i vi mc thu nhp ca cc gia nh cn c t ti mc sng nht nh.

1031

Equivalance scale

1032

Equivalent commodity scale

1033

Equivalent income scale

1034

Equivalent variation

Xem CONSUMER'S SURPLUS.

1035

ERM Cc m hnh hiu chnh sai s; Cc m hnh sa cha sai s. Qu trnh nhn bit sai s. Sai s trong bin s (hay sai s trong cc php o).

Xem EXCHANGE RATE MECHANISM. Trong phn tch v hi quy mt ECMs kt hp cc s tc ng qua li ngn hn v di hn gia cc bin s,

1036

Error correction models (ECMs)

1037

Error learning process

Xem ADAPTIVE EXPECTATIONS. Mt bi ton kinh t lng, theo cc bin gii thch trong phn tch HI QUY c o mt cch khng hon ho do gi tr thc t ca chng khng th quan st c, hay do s khng chnh xc khi ghi chp. Cc iu khon v ph sinh hot trong cc ghi tho thun thng lng tp th. Cc iu khon l mt c ch iu chnh nh k mc lng da trn nhng bin ng ca mt ch s gi c nht nh. Dng ch yu ca thu ca ci Anh trc khi n c thay th bng thu CHUYN GIAO VN nm 1974. Thu ny c dnh gi theo sut lu tin vo cc ti sn ca ngi ch khi ngi ny qua i. Thu lu tin c p dng cho ton b ti sn ch khng ch cho lng gia tng ca ci. Thut ng ni v mt khu vc hay ton b nn kinh t mt nc chm pht trin c s dng sn xut i quy m ln nng sn xut khu, thng do cc th lc nc ngoi s hu hoc qun l; nn kinh t ny rt ph bin trong thi k thuc a. S xc nh mang tnh nh lng cc tham s trong cc m hnh kinh t thng qua cc s liu thng k. Mt cng thc hay mt quy trnh c lng cc con s thng k (chng hn nh TRUNG BNH hay PHNG SAI ca mt bin s) hoc cc tham s ca mt phng trnh nhn c t s liu.

1038

Errors variables

1039

Escalators

iu khon di ng gi.

1040

Estate duty

Thu di sn (thu ti sn tha k).

1041

Estate economy

Nn kinh t n in.

1042

Estimation

S c lng.

1043

Estimator

Phng thc c lng; c lng. Xem EUROPEAN UNIT OF ACCOUNT

1044

EUA

1045

Euler's theorem

nh l Euler

1046

Eurocurrency market

Th trng tin t Chu U.

Mt th trng quc t nc ngoi ca cc ng tin ca cc nc cng nghip ln (phng Ty).

1047

Eurodollars European Agricultural Guidance and Guaranted Fund European Bank for Reconstruction and Development European Coal and Steel Community

ola Chu u. Qu Bo m v Hng dn Nng nghip Chu u. Ngn hng ti thit v Pht trin Chu U. Cng ng Than v thp Chu u.

Xem EUROCURRENCY MARKET. Mt qu c bit ca CNG NG CHU U c thnh lp nm 1962 nhm ti tr vn cho chnh sch nng nghip chung ca cng ng. c thnh lp nm 1991 vi s vn 10 t n v tin t Chu u nhm thc y s pht trin cc nc thuc khi ng u. T chc thc hin v qun l TH TRNG CHUNG v than & thp gia 6 nc thnh vin sng lp ca CNG NG CHU U. Mt ngn sch do cc nc thnh vin ca cng ng Chu u ng gp nhm ti tr cho cc hot ng ca cng ng. Cc khon ng gp t cc thnh vin dng 90% l doanh thu t thu NNG NGHIP v BIU THU QUAN CHUNG v di 1% doanh thu t thu GI TR GIA TNG c tnh cho mc ch lm hi ho thu gia cc nc thnh vin.

1048

1049

1050

1051

European Community Budget

Ngn sch Cng ng Chu u. Th trng chung Chu u.

1052

European Commom Market

Xem European Economic Community. Mt tn gi chung ca 3 t chc: Cng ng Than v thp Chu u, Cng ng kinh t chu u v cng ng nng lng nguyn t Chu u.

1053

European Community

Cng ng Chu u. n v tin t Chu u.

1054

European Currency Unit

Xem EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM. Mt qu c bit do CNG NG KINH T CHU U thnh lp cung cp vin tr ti chnh v k thut cho cc nc lin kt vi Cng ng Chu u theo Hip c ROME, cc hip nh YAOUND v LOM. Xem EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK. Cng ng Kinh t Chu u c cnhthwcs thnh lp ngy 25-3-1957 theo hip c Rome do chnh ph cc nc B, H Lan, Cng ho lin bang c, Italia, Lucxmbua. Hip c ny a li s pht trin t do lin minh thu quan, loi b mi ro cn i vi s vn ng t do ca VN, LAO NG v DCH V v hnh thnh cc chnh sch vn ti v nng nghip gia cc nc thnh vin. c thnh lp nm 1960 sau Hip nh Stockholm, c o, an mch, Nauy. B o Nha, Thu in, Thu S, Anh thng qua. Hip hi t c cc mc tiu ban u ca mnh l thit lp bun bn hng ho cng nghip t do gia cc mc tiu ban u ca mnh l thit lp bun bn hng ho cng nghip t do gia cc thnh vin v m phn mt hip c thng mi ton din vi cng ng chu u (EC). HIP C TIN T CHU U c hi ng OEEC thng qua vo nm 1955, cho php qu Chu u gip ti tr thm ht CN CN THANH TON tm thi pht sinh t quyt nh ca cc nc thnh vin lm cho ng tin ca mnh c kh nng chuyn i vi ng la.

1055

European Devolopment Fund

Qu pht trin Chu u.

1056

European Economic Community

Cng ng Kinh t Chu u.

1057

European Free Trade Association

Hip hi Mu dch t do Chu u.

1058

European Fund

Qu Chu u.

1059

European Investment Bank

Ngn hng u t Chu u.

Mt ngn hng pht trin c thnh lp nm 1957 theo HIP C ROME, cho ra i CNG NG KINH T CHU U. Chc nng c bn ca ngn hng ny l thc y s pht trin ca h trng chung Chu u bng cch cp cp cc khon vay di hn, bo lnh cc khon vay to iu kin ti tr u t cho cc vng km pht trin, cc k hoch hin i ho cng nghip v cc d n cng nghip. Hip nh c Hi ng T CHC HP TC KINH T CHU U thng qua nm 1955. Hip nh l quyt nh ca cc nc Chu u nhm lm cho ng tin ca cc nc dn dn chuyn i c i vi ng la, bng cch thay th LIN MINH THANH TON CHU U bng mt h thng thanh ton quc t mi, trong mi giao dch phi c tin hnh bng vng hoc cc ng tin c th chuyn i. Mt qu c bit ca EC hnh thnh nm 1973 nhm p dng HIP NH BASLE 1972, hip nh ny quy nh cc mc dao ng trong trao i ca cc ng tin c qun l, oc bit n nh "con rn tin t" chu u.

1060

European Monetary Agreement

Hip nh tin t Chu u.

1061

European Monetary Co-operation Fund

Qu hp tc Tin t Chu U.

1062

European Monetary Fund

Qu Tin t Chu U.

Xem EUROPEAN MONETARY FUND. c p dng vo thng 3-1979, h thng ny (EMS) l mt n lc nhm to nn mt khu vc n nh v t gi hi oi gia cc nc thnh vin, v hu ht cc thnh vin u tin hnh vic hn ch bin ng t gi hi oi ca mnh mc (+) hoc (-) 2,25% gi trung tm, thng nht cho ng tin ca h.

1063

European Monetary System (EMS) European Monetary Unit of Account

H thng tin t chu u. n v K ton Tin t Chu u.

1064

Xem EUROPEAN UNIT OF ACCOUNT. Nm 1950, T CHC HP TC KINH T CHU U thnh lp Lin minh Thanh ton Chu u, thay th cho h thng cc t chc thanh ton Chu u do cc hip nh thanh ton trong Chu u nm 1948 v nm 1949 a vo p dng. Mc ch ca lin minh ny to iu kin choa thanh ton thng d hay thm ht a phng gia cc nc Chu u (v cc khu vc tin t nc ngoi tng ng ca chng) v khuyn khch cc chnh sch t do ho mu dch bng cch a ra cc phng tn tn dng t ng cho cc thnh vin gp phi thm ht cn cn thanh ton. Nm 1947, B trng ngoi giao M, tng George Marshall pht biu trong mt bi din vn ti trng i hc Harvard, ngh gip ca M i vi chng trnh phc hi nn kinh t Chu u do cc nc Chu u iu phi. Sau bi din vn ny, cc i din ca 16 nc Ty u thnh lp U ban v Hp tc Kinh t Chu u, T CHC HP TC KINH T CHU U c thnh lp nm 1948 iu hnh mt chng trnh phc hng chu u cng vi U BAN HP TC KINH T CA M. Chng trnh ny thng c gi l VIN TR MARSHALL. Mt qu c bit ca CNG NG CHU U, thnh lp nm 1975, nhm lm gim s chnh lch v pht trin kinh t gia cc khu vc trong cng ng. Mt qu c bit ca CNG NG CHU U, nhm mc ch tng cng c hi tm kim vic lm trong cng ng bng cch m bo h tr ti chnh o to li cng nhn, c bit l nhng ai b thu hp cng vic do hot ng ca Th trng chung Chu u.

1065

European PaymentsUnion

Lin minh Thanh ton Chu u.

1066

European Recovery Programme. European Regional Development Fund.

Chng trnh Phc hng Chu u. Qu Pht trin Khu vc Chu u.

1067

1068

European Social Fund.

Qu X hi Chu U.

1069

European Unit of Account

n v K ton Chu u.

L n v k ton c s dng trong CNG NG CHU U cho cc mc ch nh chun b ngn sch cng ng v nh gi sn phm nng nghip thng qua CHNH SCH NNG NGHIP CHUNG. V cc nc thnh vin ca C dng cc ng tin khc nhau, nn cn thit phi to ra mt n v k ton chung trao i bun bn cng ng.

1070

Eurostat

Cc Thng k ca CNG NG CHU U. Khi PHN PHI XC SUT ca mt thng k kim nh c bit mt cch chnh xc, thay cho vic mt phn phi ch bit dng gn ng, nh vy vng ti hn c th xc nh c th kim nh y c gi l kim nh chnh xc. L mc c d tnh, d nh hay mong mun ca mt hot ng no . Ni mt cch cht ch, khi mt doanh nghip c coi l sn xut tha nng lc l khi mc SN LNG c sn xut ra thp hn mc sn lng ti chi ph trung bnh thp nht. c dng miu t d bo m hnh CNH TRANH C QUYN, trong cc hng trong iu kin cn bng di hn sn xut trn on xung dc ca NG CHI PH TRUG BNH di hn, do sn xut mc chi ph cao hn chi ph ti thiu.

1071

Exact test

Kim nghim chnh xc. T trc; D tnh; d nh Cng sut d; cng sut tha; Tha nng lc, tha cng sut.

1072

Ex ante

1073

Excess capacity

1074

Excess capacity theory

L thuyt cng sut d/tha; Thuyt tha cng sut. Gnh nng thu qu mc.

1075

Excess burden

1076

Excess demand Excess productive capacity (Idle Excess goods)

Mc cu d; D cu. T liu sn xut nhn ri. Khon d tr d; D tr d. Mc cung d; D cung

L tnh trng CU vt CUNG mt mc gi no .

1077

1078

Excess reserves

Mc chnh lch gia tng s d tr m ngn hng gi tin M ang gi v D TR BT BUC do lut php yu cu tr n.

1079

Excess supply

L tnh trng CUNG vt CU mt mc gi no .

1080

Excess profit

Li vt. Thu chng lng vt; Thu chng tng lng L thu a ra chng vic tng lng qu cao nhm lm gim lm pht.

1081

Excess wage tax

1082

Exchange

Trao i

Xem TRADE. L mt h thng m nh nc s dng kim sot cc giao dch bng ngoi t v vng. L mt h thng hay dn xp c NGN HNG hnh thnh nm 1932, nhm qun l nhng bin ng khng mong mun trong t gi hi oi ca ng bng, sau khi Anh b CH BN V VNG vo nm 1931.

1083

Exchange control

Qun l ngoi hi.

1084

Exchange Equalization Account

Qu bnh n Hi oi.

1085

Exchange rate

T gi hi oi.

L gi ca ng tin mt nc c tnh bng ng tin ca mt nc khc. C ch t gi hi oi (ERM) l mt h thng m theo cc thnh vin ca H THNG TIN T CHU U (ENS) buc phi duy tr t gi hi oi ca h trong nhng mc nht nh.

1086

Exchange rate Mechanism

C ch t gi hi oi.

1087

Exchange reserves

D tr ngoi hi. Kho bc, ngn kh Anh. Thu tiu th c bit.

Xem EXTERNAL RESERVES L ti khon trung ng ca chnh ph Anh c B ti chnh gi trong ngn hng Anh. Xem CONSOLIDATED FUND. Xem CUSTOMS, EXCISE AND PROTECTIVE DUTIES. L mt tnh trng m ngi tiu dng "b loi tr" khng c mua mt loi hng ho no v gi m ngi sn sng tr thp hn gi th trng.

1088

Exchequer

1089

Excise duty

1090

Exclusion

Loi tr

1091

Excludable

C th loi tr.

Xem EXCLUSSION PRINCIPLE. L mt tiu chun chng ta phn bit HNG HO CNG CNG v hng ho phi cng cng. Khi mt ngi sn xut hay mt ngi bn c th ngn cn mt s ngi no khng cho h mua hng ca mnh - ni chung l nhng ngi khng tin mua hng - th hng ho c cung cp theo cch ca th trng. L mt c nhn chu trch nhim i vi mt mt hay kha cnh no trong cc hot ng ca mt hng.

1092

Exclusion principle

Nguyn tc loi tr.

1093

Executive

Ngi iu hnh. Hng ho c min thu gi tr gia tng. Cch b phiu thu o.

1094

Exempt goods

Xem VALUE - ADDED TAX L hnh thc la chn tp th m trong ngi b phiu th hin phng n t thch nht ca mnh. Bt k mt nh l no tm cch lp lun rng, trong bi cnh cn bng tng th, tn ti mt lot gi v lng cn bng. Xem EQUYLIBRUM, GENERAL EQUIBRIUM. L s phn loi cc h thng, m cc c nhn s dng by t thch ca h phn bit nhng ngi mun tham gia vo hay rt lui khi nhng th cn s giao tip bng li ni.

1095

Exhaustive voting

1096

Existence, theorem of

nh l v s tn ti.

1097

Exit-voice model

M hnh ni rt lui. Cc mc thu trn tng mt hng. S u c t gi hi oi. T gi hi oi hiu dng Yu t ngoi sinh.

1098

Excise taxes

1099

Exchange rate speculation

1100 1101

Effective exchange rate Exogeneity

Nu cc bin s gii thch trong mt phng trnh M HNH KINH T LNG c th c coi l c nh trong cc mu c lp li, chng c coi l cc bin

ngoi sinh. S ngoi sinh ca cung tin t.

1102

Exogeneity of money supply

Xem MONEY SUPPLY. L mt cm thut ng miu t bt k ci g c quy nh hoc cho trc ca mt phn tch kinh t. L mt bin s m gi tr ca n khng c xc nh trong m hnh kinh t, nhng li ng vai tr quan trong trong vic xc nh gi tr ca cc bin ni sinh. L mt giai on trong CHU K KINH DOANH tip theo sau mt im thp nht ca chu k v ko di n im tip theo cao nht ca chu k. Lin quan n HNG, y l ng ni cc la chn yu t u vo mi mc sn lng nh trong th, ngha l qu tch ca cc tip im gia NG NG PH v NG NG LNG. L thut ng chung ch ngi mang quc tch nc ngoi, thng dng ch nhng ngi t CC NC PHT TRIN n lm vic ti CC NC KM PHT TRIN. L cc quan im hay s tin tng vo cc gi tr tng lai ca cc bin s kinh t. L cc bin i i vi mt m hnh kinh t tnh n hiu ng ca cc d tnh. tr trong vic xem xt li gi tr k vng ca mt bin s do cc thay i trong gi tr hin ti ca n. tr d tnh thng c gii thch bng GI THIT K VNG PHNG THEO.

1103

Exogenous

(thuc) ngoi sinh.

1104

Exogenous variable

Bin ngoi sinh. Giai on bnh trng; Giai on tng trng.

1105

Expansionary phase

1106

Expansion path

ng bnh trng; ng m rng

1107

Expatriate

Chuyn gia (t cc nc pht trin)

1108

Expectations

K vng; d tnh. Bin b sung v d tnh.

1109

Expectations, augmented

1110

Expectations lag

tr k vng; tr d tnh Mc lmp pht k vng; Lm pht d tnh Mc li tc rng k vng; Li tc rng d tnh.

1111

Expected inflation

T L LM PHT no c d tnh trong tng lai. L tng cc thu nhp d tnh tr i cc chi ph d tnh, tc l li nhun d tnh ca mt d n u t. L thuyt v cc hnh vi c nhn trong iu kin KHNG CHC CHN ca VON NEUMANN v MORGENSTERN. Thuyt a ra s m t logic rng mi ngi duy l c th c x nh th no trong mt th gii khng chc chn. Phn chnh ca thuyt ny cho thy rng mt c nhn c nhng s thch tho mn mt s nh (thng l v trt t, tip tc v dc lp) s la chn ti a ho tho dng d tnh. Cn c gi TRUNG BNH, k vng ton hc.Gi tr k vng ca mt BIN S NGU NHIN l gi tr trung bnh ca phn phi ca bin y.

1112

Expected net returns

1113

Expected utility theory

L thuyt tho dng k vng; Thuyt tho dng d tnh. Gi tr k vng; gi tr d tnh. Phng php da vo chi tiu ( tnh GDP). Cc chnh sch chuyn i chi tiu.

1114

Expected value

1115

Expenditure approach

1116

Expenditure-switching policies

L mt trong cc chnh sch cn thit loi b s khng cn bng thng mi quc t.

1117

Expenditure tax

Thu chi tiu Kim sot mc bin ng trong chi tiu; Kim sot s thay i ca chi tiu.

L loi thu nh vo chi tiu ca ngi tiu dng.N l hnh thc thay th cho THU THU NHP v c th c nh mc da trn c s lu tin. iu chnh li s mt cn bng kinh doanh bng cch thay i mc v thnh phn ca ngn sch v bng cch kim sot quy m v chi ph ca tn dng. L mt khi nim ni v s hi lng ca cc nh qun l tc trong vic chi tiu cho mt s cng vic ca hng nh chi tiu cho vic Marketing v cho i ng nhn vin. L bin s ng vai tr trong vic "gii thch" s bin i ca mt bin c lp trong phn tch hi quy, bin s gii thch xut hin bn phi ca phng trnh hi quy. Dng thng thng nht ca mt hm s trong bin s PH THUC c vit bn tri ca du bng v cc BIN C LP vit bn phi, thng ch mi lin h nhn qu hoc xc nh. Trong kinh t hc, thut ng ny c hai ngha. Th nht, l vic s dng ti nguyn thin nhin hay nhn lc. Th hai, mt cng nhn c gi l b bc lt nu s tin chi tr cho cng vic lm t hn gi tr ca cng vic . L chu k c trng bi vic bin tng theo hm m, v d, qua thi gian. N c xem nh chu k phn k. Hm s m l mt HM LU THA, thng ch s lin quan gia bin s c lp v s e tng ln mt lu tha cha BIN S C LP khi e = 2,718, v l c s ca LOGARIT T NHIN. Mt hng ho hoc dch v sn xut ti mt nc c bn v tiu dng nc khc. Xut khu hu hnh l xut khu hng ho, cn xut khu v hnh l xut khu dch v cho ngi nc khc mua. Ngn hng do chnh ph M thnh lp nam 1937, nhm thc y ngoi thng ca M bng cch cung cp vn di dng cc khon tin cho vay trc tip c bo m cho cc cng ty nc ngoi. L s tng trng c thc y bi s gia tng hng xut khu. L s pht trin ca nhng ngnh m thtng chnh l nc ngoi. y l mt chin lc thay th chnh i vi CHIN LC THAY TH NHP KHU cc nc km pht trin. L mt t chc c chnh ph Anh thnh lp nm 1930, a ra cc hnh thc BO HIM khc nhau nhm chng li nhng ri ro m cc nh xut khu Anh pha chu ng.

1118

Expenditure-variation controls

1119

Expense preference

u tin chi tiu.

1120

Explanatory variable

Bin gii thch

1121

Explicit function

Hm hin

1122

Exploitation

Khai thc; bc lt.

1123

Explosive cycle

Chu k bng n.

1124

Exponential

Thuc s m, thuc hm m.

1125

Export

Xut khu, hng xut khu.

1126

Export-import bank

Ngn hng xut nhp khu. Tng trng da vo xut khu.

1127

Export-led growth

1128

Export promotion

Khuyn khch xut khu.

1129

Export Credit Guarantee Department.

Cc Bo m tn dng xut khu. Cng nghip ho theo hng xut khu.

1130

Export-oriented industrialization

1131

Ex post

t sau; sau

Sau khi xy ra mt s kin no hoc sau mt quyt nh thc hin mt vic g . Xem EX ANTE.

1132

Extensive margin

Mc cn bin qung canh.

L tnh trng LI TC GIM DN i vi t ai. Thng c nh ngha l mt tnh trng trong CN CN THANH TON ca mt nc l CN BNG, theo ngha lung tin vo t nh bng vi lung ra t nh m khng cn iu chnh cc lung b sung vo hoc rt ra t d tr NGOI HI hay d tr vng.

1133

External balace

Cn bng i ngoi; Cn bng bn ngoi. Thm ht i ngoi; Thm ht bn ngoi. nh hng phi kinh t t bn ngoi; Tnh phi kinh t t bn ngoi nh hng kinh t v phi kinh t t bn ngoi theo quy m. nh hng kinh t t bn ngoi; Tnh kinh t t bn ngoi (Ngun) ti chnh t bn ngoi. Mc gii hn ngun ti chnh t bn ngoi. Tng trng ngoi ng; Tng trng do bn ngoi.

1134

External deficit

Thm ht CN CN THANH TON.

1135

External diseconomy External economies & diseconomies of scale

Xem EXTERNALITIES. Nhng nh hng c li hay c hi m cc hot ng sn xut ca mt hng ny gy ra cho cc hot ng sn xut ca hng khc.

1136

1137

External economy

Xem EXTERNALITIES. Qu c huy ng bi cc hng bng cch pht hnh C PHIU (vn c phn) hoc i vay ti tr cho cc hot ng ca hng. Chnh ph Anh t gii hn i vi cc NGUN TI CHNH T BN NGOI m cc cng ty quc doanh c th huy ng trong nc. S m rng ca mt hng c mang li do SP NHP hay thu mua. c bit n vi nhng tn khc nhau, nh tc ng ngoi lai, nh hng t bn ngoi, bt li t bn ngoi,nh hng tro ra bn ngoi v NH HNG N VNG LN CN. Ngi ta phn bit ngoi ng bin v ngoi ng trong bin. Mt th trng cho mt s ngi lao ng nht nh, hoc l sn ngay hoc tim tng cho cc cng vic mi. Thng ch mc nm gi cc phng tin thanh ton ca mt nc c quc t chp nhn, vi mc ch trang tri lm thm ht ngn hn v trung hn ca CN CN THANH TON VI BN NGOI, ng thi nhm mc ch kim sot s thay i T GI HI OI ng tin ca nc ny.

1138

External finance

1139

External financial limits

1140

External growth

1141

Externalities

Cc ngoi hng; Cc ngoi ng Th trng lao ng bn ngoi.

1142

External labour market

1143

External reserve

D tr ngoi hi. Cc ngoi hng ng; Ngoi ng ng.

1144

Dynamic externalities

1145

Extraneous information

Thng tin khng lin quan K vng ngoi suy; Nhng d tnh ngoi suy.

Nhng thng tin ban u (c th l c lng v tham s trc ) c kt hp vi thng tin mu vi mc ch suy lun thng k hay c tnh tham s trong phn tch hi quy thng ci thin d bo hay khc phc nhng vn nh A CNG TUYN TNH.

1146

Extrapolative expectation

1148

Extrema

Cc cc tr. Ngi theo thuyt Keynes cc oan. Tin b k thut gia tng nh hng ca yu t. Ngun lc sn c; Ngun ti nguyn sn c; S s hu cc yu t sn xut; tnh sn c, lng cc yu t sn xut. Thu nhp t yu t sn xut. Bao thanh ton; mua n; Gii thot n.

Cc gi tr thp nht v cao nht ca mt hm s.

1149

Extrema Keynesian Factor augmenting technical progress

1150

Tin b k thut dn n vic gia tng mc sn lng khi VN v LC LNG LAO NG KHNG I.

1152

Factor endowment

Mc sn c cc yu t sn xut trong mt vng hay mt nc thng l t ai, lao ng, vn v k thut. Thu nhp trc tip c c nho sn xut hng ho v dch v hin ti. Phng php gii thot s n thng mi thng qua mt cng ty c th "bn" c s n ny cho mt th ch ti chnh. Mt nh ny sinh t CCH TIP CN HECKSCHER - OHLIN V THNG MI QUC T cho rng vi mt s gi thit hn ch, THNG MI T DO l s thay th hon ho cho vic di chuyn yu t sn xut v s c tc dng san bng mc thanh ton cho bt k mt yu t sn xut no trn phm vi ton th gii, chng hn nh mc tin cng ca tt c cc nc phi bng nhau. Thut ng ny do PAUL SAMUELSON a ra, ch mi quan h t l nghch gia mc tin cng v li nhun trong l thuyt tng trng.

1153

Factor incomes

1154

Factoring

1155

Factor-price equalization

S cn bng yu t sn xut - gi c. Gii hn yu t sn xut - gi c. Mc / cng huy ng (s dng) cc yu t sn xut. T l cc yu t sn xut.

1156

Factor-price frontier

1157

Factor intensity

1158

Factor proportion

T l kt hp cc YU T CA SN XUT. Mt trong cc gi thit caCCH TIP CN HECKSCHER - OHLIN V THNG MI QUC T l cc hm sn xut hng ho khc nhau t s, cng s dng cc yu t sn xut v mt hng ho s dng. Cc ngun lc ca x hi c s dng trong qu trnh sn xut.

1159

Factor reverals

S o ngc cc yu t sn xut.

1160

Factors of production

Cc yu t sn xut. Tc ng thay th yu t sn xut. S s dng yu t sn xut.

1161

Factor substitution effect

1162

Factor utilization

Lng cc yu t c th s dng trn thc t.

1163

Factorial

Giai tha. So snh tin cng da trn c s cho rng cng nhn lm nhng cng vic gn tng t nh nhau phi c tr cng mc tin cng.

1164

Fair comparisons

So snh cng ng.

1165

Fair rate of return

T sut li tc cng bng.

Nguyn tc ch o trong vic iu tit ngnh cng ch M l t l thu li hp l i vi gi tr ca vn c s dng trong vic sn xut cc dch v dn dng. M c mt s n lc nhm thit lp cc mc gi bn l ti thiu theo khun kh php lut (cc tho thun c duy tr mc gi bn li) i vi cc hng ho c nhn hiu v tn gi. o lut ny ca Anh m rng chnh sch cnh tranh i vi cc th trng c quyn, v trch nhim tp trung trong vic thc hin lut c qun v hot ng hn ch vi vn phng mi ca Tng gim c Vn phng Thng mi Cng bng. c ra i theo o lut thng mi bnh ng 1973, vn phng ny c trch nhim thu thp thng tin lin quan n c cu ca cc nghnh v vic tin hnh kinh doanh. NHn chung, tin cng cng bng l tin cng c c nh theo LUT TIN CNG TI THIU quc gia.

1166

Fair trade law

Lut thng mi cng bng.

1167

Fair trading Act 1973

o lut thng mi cng bng 1973

1168

Fair trading, Office of

Vn phng thng mi cng bng.

1169

Fair wages

Tin cng cng bng. Ngu bin v hp th; 'Khi nim "sai lm do gm gp/ tng hp".

1170

Fallacy of composition

1171

False trading

Thng mi la di. iu tra chi tiu gia nh.

Hot ng thng mi theo mc gi phi cn bng. Mt cuc iu tra chn mu hng nm v xu hng chi tiu ca cc h gia nh do chnh ph Anh tin hnh.

1172

Family expenditure survey

1173

Family credit

Tn dng gia nh. (kinh t) nng nghip theo h gia nh; Nng nghip theo n v gia nh. Xem FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION. Xem FINANCIAL ACCOUNT STANDARDS BOARD Xem FINANCE FOR INDUSTRY. Bo h, bo v; To vic lm (nhi lng nm). T vit tt ca h thng d tr lin bang.

XemBEVERIGDE REPORT

1174

Family-unit agriculture

H thng nng nghip ph bin cc vng chm pht trin da trn c s gia nh.

1175

FAO

1176

FASB

1177

FCI

1178

Featherbedding

Nhng cch to vic lm bng cch dng qu nhiu sc lao ng v/ hoc khng dng cng ngh tin tin.

1179

Fed., the

1180

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

Cng ty bo him tin gi Lin bang.

Mt cng ty M c trch nhim bo him cc khon tin gi trong cc NGN HNG THNG MI v cc hip hi tit kim v cho vay ln ti 100.000 la trong mt ti khon ti mt th ch.

1181

Federal Fund Market Federal Home Loan Bank System (FHLBS)

Th trng Tin qu lin Bang. H thng ngn hng cho vay ni b ca lin bang.

Th trng M, trong "nhng khon tin c th c s dng ngay lp tc" c em cho vay hay i vay, ch yu l qua m gia cc Ngn hng thnh vin ca H THNG D TR LIN BANG, cc th ch ti chnh ch yu khc cc chi nhnh v c quan ca cc ngn hng khng phi ca M. C quan ca chnh ph M s dng quyn lc ca mnh trn th trng tin t cung cp cc khon thanh khon cho Hip hi tit kim v cho vay.

1182

1183

Feasibility study Federal Nation Mortgage Association (FNMA)

Nghin cu kh thi. Hip hi Cm c Quc gia lin bang U ban Th trng m Lin bang. Chng n ca Cc d tr Lin Bang Mt t chc do chnh ph M thnh lp nm 1938, nhm tr gip th trng i vi cc ti sn cm c c chnh ph ti tr

1184

1185

Federal Open Market Committee

Xem FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM. Mt cng c chng n do H THNG D TR LIN BANG pht hnh di nhiu hnh thc khc nhau. H thng ny c thnh lp M nm 1913 thc hin chc nng ca mt NGN HNG TRUNG NG v xy dng mt khun kh mnh nhm kim sot h thng ngn hng thng mi. H thng ny c cu trc quy m lin bang, gm c 12 Ngn hng d tr Lin bang, mi ngn hng c trch nhim v cc hot ng hng ngy trong khu vc v hot ng ging nh knh lin h hai chiu gia h thng ny v cng ng lin doanh. o lut ny c ban hnh M vo nm 1914, nhm thit lp mt hi ng (FTC) c kh nng trong cc cng vic kinh doanh iu tra "vic t chc, ch o kinh doanh, th tc v qun l" ca cc cng ty hot ng thng mi gia cc tiu bang v chng li "cc phng php cnh tranh khng cng bng". FTC cng c nhim v chng li "cc hot ng hoc th tc khng cng bng, di tr hoc c lin quan n thng mi". Gi thit cho rng nhng iu kin trong th trng lao ng th cp (cp hai) lm cho cng nhn c nhng thi quen lao ng xu. Mt dng h thng chnh tr v kinh t thng tr Chu u thi k trung c. Ch ngha phong kin c c trng bi mt thp x hi bt u t ngi nng dn l thuc thng qua cc cha t v tc hu "thi p" ln n tn nh vua.

1186

Federal Reserve Note

1187

Federal Reserve System

H thng D tr Lin bang.

1188

Federal Trade Commission Act

o lut v Hi ng thng mi Lin bang. Tc ng phn hi/by.

1189

Feedback/entrapment effects

1190

Feudalism

Ch ngha phong kin.

1191

Fiat money

Tin theo lut nh

Tin c v th c lut php quy nh. Mt b phn ca tin do ngn hng Anh pht hnh theo O LUT QUY CH NGN HNG ca Hun tc Robert Peel nm 1844, c kh nng i ly tri phiu ca chnh ph, v khc vi tin vng (v tin bc trn mt phm vi nht nh) v thoi vng. Tn gi ca mt cng thc hay mt phng thc nhm loi b nhng bin ng khng mong mun ca s liu.

1192

Fiduciary issue

Tin khng c bo lnh.

1193

Filter

B lc.

1194

Filtering

Qu trnh lc.

Mt cm thut ng c s dng trong KINH T HC TH m t qu trnh thay i v cht lng nh , nhn chung l din ra thng qua vic chuyn nh ca nhm ngi c thu nhp cao sang nhm ngi c thu nhp thp hn.

1195

FIML

Xem FULL INFORMATION MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD. Nhng hng ho c s dng cho mc ch tiu dng ch khng dng nh l U VO trong qu trnh sn xut cc cng ty. Do hng ho cui cng khc vi SN PHM TRUNG GIAN. S can thip vo TRANH CHP LAO NG ca mt bn th ba c lp v cng bng, bn th ba ny xem xt cc l l ca hai bn v xut kin cui cng, quan im cui cng ca mt trong cc bn tranh chp s c thc hin. (Cn c gi l tng sn phm quc ni) Tt c cc loi hng ho v dch v c ngi cui cng mua. Tng sn lng ca mt nn kinh t sau khi tr i SN PHM TRUNG GIAN. Theo ngha hp, n c ngha l VN di dng tin, tc l di dng s tin cho vay hoc i vay nhm mc ch to vn thng qua cc thi trng hay th ch ti chnh. Theo cch ni thng thng th cm thut ng ny dng ch s tin t bt k mt ngun no c s dng cho bt k mt khon chi tiu no. Mt tng cng ty c phn c lp vo nm 1973 t Cng ty Ti chnh Cng nghip (FCI) v Cng ty Ti chnh Cng nghip v Thng mi (ICFC), FCI v ICFC c thnh lp nm 1946 bi Ngn hng Anh, cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr London v cc Ngn hng Scotland nhm cung cp cc khon vay cho trung v di hn cho cc cng ty ang gp kh khn trong vic tng s vn t cc ngun khc. Mt t chc trung gian ti chnh, khng phi Ngn hng, c th huy ng cc ngun tin t vn ca ring mnh, thng qua vic tip nhn tin gi (thng l trong khong thi gian c nh), hay thm ch bng cch vay t cc th ch khc, ri cho vay vi nhiu mc ch khc nhau, c bit l cp tin cho cc hp ng thu mua v cng c th l cho thu.

1196

Final goods

Hng ho cui cng.

1197

Final offer arbitration

(Phng n) trng ti ra quyt nh cui cng.

1198

Final product

Sn phm cui cng.

1199

Finance

Ti chnh

1200

Finance Corporation for Industry

Cng ty Ti chnh Cng nghip.

1201

Finance house

Nh cung cp ti chnh; Cng ty ti chnh. Th trng cc nh cung cp ti chnh; Th trng cng ty ti chnh.

1202

Finance houses market

Mt nhm Th trng tin t c lin quan vi nhau v xut hin London vo nhng nm 1960. Ti sn c kh nng chuyn hon khc vi ti sn vt cht ca mt cng ty. Bt k mt loi giy t no c s dng vi t cch l bng chng n v vic bn v chuyn nhng n cho php ngi bn c c mt ngun ti chnh.

1203

Financial Capital

Vn ti chnh.

1204

Financial instrument

Cng c ti chnh. Nguyn tc ti chnh; K thut ti chnh.

1205

Financial displine

1206

Financial intermediary

Trung gian ti chnh.

Theo mt ngha rng, l bt k mt ngi no c vai tr phi hp ngi cung cp c bn v ngi s dng c bn ngun vn TI CHNH.

1207

Financial price

Gi ti chnh.

1208

Financial ratios

T s ti chnh.

1209

Financial risk Financial Times Actuaries Share Indices

Ri ro ti chnh. Ch s gi c phiu thng k ca bo Financial Times. Ch s cng nghip ca bo Financial Times.

Xem CORPORATE RISK Tp hp cc ch s gi v thu nhp trung bnh v tin li ca cc chng khon Anh trong s giao dch chng khon. Trc khi xut hin ch s FT - SE 100 vo nm 1984, th ch s ny l ch s gi c phiu c s dng ph bin nht vi t cch l ch tiu tng qut v tnh hnh ca Th trng chng khon ca Anh. Cc c quan khc nhau s dng cc nm ti chnh khc nhau hch ton ti chnh v khng cn phi trng hp vi nm lch s tiu chun.

1210

1211

Financial Times Industrial Ordinary Index

1212

Financial year

Nm ti chnh.

1213

Financial statement

Bo co ti chnh. Sut sinh li ti chnh. B nh xc nh (hu hn).

1214

Financial rate of return

1215

Finite memory

Mt tnh cht ca QU TRNH XU TH TNH. Trong kinh t hc tn c in, l tn gi c tnh cht phn tch ca mt th ch thc hin nhim v chuyn cc u vo thnh u ra. L thuyt v hng l ch quan trng trong KINH T HC VI M cp n vic gii thch v d on hnh vi ca hng, c bit l trn phng din cc yu t quyt nh gi c v sn lng.

1216

Firm

Hng sn xut.

1217

Firm, theory of the

L thuyt v hng. Tm nhn/ khung tri hu hn. Vn nhn lc c th i vi hng. Tnh hiu dng / hiu qu tt nht v tt nh.

1218

Finite horizon

1219

Firm-specific human capital Fist-best and second-best efficiency

1220

1221

First difference

Vi phn bc I. iu kin o hm bc I. Chnh sch thu kho; Chnh sch thu chi ngn sch. S phn cp thu kho; S phn cp ngn sch.

Hiu s gia mt bin v gi tr tr mt bc v thi gian ca n. Nhn chung, iu kin ny ni rng cc o hm bc nht ca HM MC TIU theo BIN LA CHN phi bng 0 xc nh GI TR CC TR. Ni chn cp n vic s dng thu v chi tiu chnh ph iu tit tng mc cc hot ng kinh t.

1222

First order condition

1223

Fiscal policy

1224

Fiscal decentralization

Xem FISCAL FEDERALISM.

1225

Fiscal drag

Sc cn ca thu kho.

nh hng ca Lm pht i vi thu sut hu hiu hay trung bnh. Mt h thng thu v chi tiu cng cng trong nhng khi kh nng thu nhp tng v quyn kim sot chi tiu c giao cho cc cp khc nhau trong mt quc gia, t chnh ph n cc n v nh nht chnh quyn a phng. Tnh hung trong nhng li ch ca chi tiu chnh ph c nhng ngi hng chi tiu ny xc nh mt cc r rng nhng chi ph khng xc nh r c, nhng chi ph ny b phn tn theo thi gian v trong cng ng dn c. H s cho bit mt mc gia tng ca chi tiu ti chnh tc ng n mc thu nhp cn bng nh th no.

1226

Fiscal federalism

Ch ti kho theo m hnh lin bang.

1227

Fiscal illusion

o gic thu kho.

1228

Fiscal multiplier

Nhn t thu kho. Li ch phc li thu kho.

1229

Fiscal walfare benefits

Xem TAX EXPENDITURES

1230

Fisher, Irving

(1867-1947)

Nh kinh t Xem Fisher, Irving; CAMBRIDGE SCHOOL, FRIEDMAN, QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY.

1231

Fisher equation

Phng trnh Fisher Xem UNCOVERED INTEREST PARITY.

1232

Fisher open

1233

Fixed asset Fixed coenfficients production function

Ti sn c nh. Hm sn xut c cc h s c nh. Chi ph c nh; nh ph. T gi hi oi c nh. Cc yu t sn xut c nh; cc sn t c nh. Chi ph lao ng c nh. Cc m hnh mc gi c nh. T gi hi oi c nh / th ni. T l c nh trong sn xut.

Bt k ti sn vn phi ti chnh no ca cng ty c tui th kh di, chuyn dng cho cc qu trnh sn xut nht nh v chi ph ca n thn c trang tri ch sau mt thi k hot ng tng i di, v d nh my mc, nh xng. Hm sn xut, trong cc u vo phi c kt hp theo cc t l c nh. i vi mt hng ngn hn c nh ngha l mt khong thi gian trong mt s YU T SN XUT khng th thay i c.

1234

1235

Fixed cost

1236

Fixed exchange rate

Xem EXCHANGE RATE.

1237

Fixed factors

Nhng yu t sn xut khng th thay i v s lng. Bao gm cc chi ph v vic lm v thay i theo t l t hn so vi s gi lm vic. Cc m hnh gi thit rng cc giao dch c thc hin ti nhng mc gi khng cn bng v nhng mc gi ny c gi c nh.

1238

Fixed labour costs

1239

Fixed-price mdel

1240

Fixed / floating exchange rates

1241

Fixed proportions in production

Phn nh qu trnh trong , t s VN/ LAO NG l c nh, ngha l chng ch c th c s dng theo nhng t l c nh.

1242

Fixprice and flexprice

Gi bt bin v gi linh hot.

S phn bit ln u tin do J.R.HICKS a ra gia nhng gi khng phn ng vi nhng thay i c bn trong cung v cu. Mt khon tin hng nm c tnh vo tin li ca mt chng khon biu hin bng t l % ca gi mua.

1243

Flat yield

Tin li ng lot. T gi hi oi linh hot. Thi gian lm vic linh hot.

1244

Flexible exchange rate

Xem EXCHANGE RATE. L thuyt kinh t ch ra rng nu thc hin thi gian linh hot s c li v cc cng nhn khc nhau c nhng khu v v s thch khc nhau. Ch s chuyn CA CI t tin mt thnh cc ti sn sinh li. S chnh lch gia khon tin cha thu c hay khon tin ang trong qu trnh thu v khon tin phi n nhng chm. Cm thut ng c cng ngha c cng ngha nh vn lu ng, ch s tin c u t vo cng vic ang c thc hin, tin cng cn tr hay bt k mt loi u t no khc khng phi l ti sn c nh. Mt dng m bo ca ngi i vay i vi cc khon vay hay cc khon n khc, v d nh c phiu cng ty. Mt phn N QUC GIA c vay di dng cc CHNG KHON ngn hn thng thng dng ch b phn c th hin bi HI PHIU B TI CHNH. S n ny l "th ni" theo ngha l n lin tc gim cho qu trnh thanh ton n.

1245

Flexitime

1246

Flight from cash

B tin mt.

1247

Float

Tin tri ni.

1248

Floating capital

Vn lun chuyn.

1249

Floating charge

Ph linh ng

1250

Floating debt

N th ni T gi hi oi th ni. ng bng Anh th ni.

1251

Floating exchange rate

Xem EXCHANGE RATE

1252

Floating pound

Xem EXCHANGE RATE. Gii hn s i xung ca sn lng theo l thuyt CHU K KINH DOANH. Hot ng pht hnh c phn cho cng chng nhm huy ng VN mi. Lng ca mt bin kinh t c o lng trong mt khong thi gian. S phn tch trn cc gic tng hp khc nhau, lung tin qu t cc khu vc thng d v ti chnh ti cc khu vc thm ht. Cm thut ng ny ch gi hay gi tr ca mt hng ho c tnh trn c s qu trnh sn xut v khng bao gm chi ph vn chuyn hng ho n ngi tiu dng. c thnh lp nm 1954, FAO c tr s Rome. Vi nh ci tin vic sn xut v phn phi lng thc v cc sn phm nng nghip, t chc ny c giao nhim v thu thp v nghin cu cc s liu thch hp v thc y cc hip nh trao i hng ho quc t v tr gip k thut.

1253

Floor

Sn.

1254

Flotation

Pht hnh. Dng, lung, Lu lng. Phn tch lung tin qu Gi khng tnh ph vn ti, gi FOB.

1255

Flow

1256

Flow of funds analysis

1257

FOB

1258

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

T chc Lng thc v Nng nghip ca Lin hp quc.

1259

Footloose industries

Ngng rng cng; Ngnh khng c nh.

Nhng ngnh khng b rng buc vo mt ni nht nh nhm p ng yu cu v v tr a l v do vy c th b tr bt c ni no. Tn gi thng dng ca CH S C PHIU FT-SE 100. Hnh nh ngc ca NGI XI CHA (free-rider). Ngi hng li bt buc l nhng ngi nh gi li ch bng tin v khng phi bng tin ca vic tr thnh thnh vin ca mt t chc thp hn chi ph bng tin v chi ph khng phi bng tin. Mt dng tit kim pht sinh do ngi tiu dng khng c kh nng tiu tin ca mnh vo nhng hng tiu dng m mnh mun, n thun l v nhng hng ho ny khng c. Chnh lch gia gi tr d on ca mt bin thu c bng cc phng php d on kt qa t thc t. Mt phng php c h thng nhm c c c lng v gi tr tng lai ca mt bin, thng l da trn vic phn tch cc quan st v bin ng qu kh ca n. Mt lung vn vo hoc mt s tr gip no cho mt nc khng do cc tc nhn th trng t nhin cung cp.

1260

"footsie"

1261

Forced riders

Ngi hng li bt buc.

1262

Forced saving

Tit kim bt buc.

1263

Forecast error

Sai s d on.

1264

Forecasting

D on

1265

Foreign aid

Vin tr nc ngoi. Cn cn thanh ton quc t.

1266

Foreign balance

Xem BALANCE OF PAYMENT. TIN hoc cc TRI PHIU sinh li ca mt nc khc. Th trng quc t trong cc ng tin c chuyn giao gia cc nc.

1267

Foreign exchange

Ngoi hi.

1268

Foreign exchange market

Th trng Ngoi hi.

1269

Foreign exchange reserve

D tr ngoi hi.

Xem EXTERNAL RESERVE. Thng ch l u t ca mt nc khc do cc cng ty hay c nhn tin hnh v khc vi vin tr chnh ph. Bt k khon thanh ton no c tin hnh vi nc ngoi d i ly hng ha v dch v, hay thanh ton n; vic thanh ton ny phi c thanh ton bng tin mnh. Xem Foreign aid. T s phn nh s thay i ca thu nhp c c t s thay i ca xut khu so vi s thay i ca thu nhp.

1270

Foreign investment

u t nc ngoi.

1271

Foreign payments

Thanh ton vi nc ngoi. Nhn t ngoi thng. Hp ng nh trc; Hp ng k hn. Th trng hi oi nh trc; Th trng hi oi k hn.

1272

Foreign trade mutiplier

1273

Forward contract

Cn gi l hp ng tng lai. Xem Forward market. Th trng trong cc ng tin c mua v bn theo nhng t gi hi oi c c nh t by gi v giao vo mt thi gian nht nh trong tng lai.

1274

Forward exchange market

1275

Forward intergration

Lin kt xui.

Xem VERTICAL INTERGRATION.

1276

Forward linkage

Lin h xui. Th trng nh trc; Th trng k hn. T gi hi oi nh trc; t gi hi oi k hn. Cc th trng nh trc v bt trc. Cc th trng nh trc v th trng giao ngay.

Mi h gia mt ngnh hay mt cng ty v cc ngnh hay cng ty v cc ngnh hay cc cng ty khc s dng u ra ca mt ngnh hay cng ty ny nh l U VO ca mnh. Bt k mt giao dch no c lin quan n mt hp ng mua hay bn hng ho, hoc chng khon vo mt ngy c nh theo mc gi c tho thun trong hp ng, l mt b phn ca th trng k hn. T gi hi oi theo mt ng tin c th c mua hay bn c giao trong tng lai trn th trng k hn.

1277

Forward market

1278

Forward rate

1279

Forward and contingent market Forward markets and spots markets

1280

1281

Foundation grant

Tr cp c bn.

Mt dng tr cp gia cc chnh quyn c s dng rng ri M nhm mc ch san bng chi ph i vi tng cng ng a phng (v phng din thu sut t ra cho tng a phng) trong vic cung cp mt mc dch v cng cng ti thiu. Mt phng php c th chuyn s liu CHUI THI GIAN thnh khong tn s. Hot ng m cc ngn hng THNG MI thc hin duy tr d tr cc ti sn c kh nng chuyn hon cao mt mc no , thng l mc thp nht trong tng danh mc ti sn ca h. Nhn chung l ch thu nhp chu thu cng ty v v vy khng l i tng tnh thu cng ty na, thu nhp ny l thuc v cng ty nhn n.

1282

Fourier analysis

Phn tc Fourier Hot ng ngn hng bng cch d tr theo t l. Thu nhp u t c min thu.

1283

Fractional reserve banking

1284

Franked investment income

1285

Free exchange rates

T gi hi oi t do

Xem EXCHANGE RATES. Kh nng ca mt cng ty mi gia nhp mt th trng hng ho v dch v. Nu hon ton khng c cc HNG RO GIA NHP th vic gia nhp l t do. Mt hng ho m cung ca n t nht l bng cu ti mc gi bng khng. Th trng khng c s can thip ca chnh ph v ti cc tc nhn cung v cu c php hot ng t do.

1286

Freedom of entry

T do nhp ngnh. Hng min ph; Hng khng phi tr tin

1287

Freed good

1288

Free market

Th trng t do. Nn kinh t th trng t do.

1289

Free market economy

Xem MARKET ECONOMY.

1290

Free on board

Giao hng ti bn.

Xem FOB. Tng d tr php nh ti mt th ch nhn tin gi tr i lng d tr yu cu v tr i lng d tr vay c t Qu D tr Lin bang. Mt hin tng ny sinh t c im ca HNG HO CNG CNG.

1291

Free reserves

D tr t do. Ngi xi cha; ngi n khng.

1292

Free rider

1293

Free trade

Thng mi t do. Khu vc thng mi t do.

Chnh sch khng can thip ca chnh ph trong thng mi gia cc nc nhng nc m thng mi din ra theo PHN CNG LAO NG quc t v l thuyt LI TH SO SNH. Mt s phn nhm khng cht ch gia cc nc loi b THU QUAN v cc hng ro thng mi khc. Th hin tm tt thng l di dng bng s hoc BIU TN SUT, th hin s ln m mt BIN NGU NHIN nhn mt gi tr nht nh hay khong gi tr trong mt mu quan st. Thng c hiu l THT NGHIP TM KIM, ngha l s lng tht nghip tng ng vi ch khuyt vic lm trn cng mt loi vic lm v TH TRNG LAO NG A PHNG. c phong l gio s kinh t ti trng i hc Chicago nm 1948 v l ngi lnh o ca TRNG PHI CHICAGO.ng c tng gi Nobel kinh t nm 1976. Cc tc phm ch yu ca ng v kinh t h gm: nh thu phng nga lm pht (1953), L thuyt v yu t tiu dng (1957), L thuyt v gi c (1962), Lch s tin t ca M 1867-1960, Nhng nguyn nhn v hu qu ca lm pht (1963). Friedman l ngi i tin phong trong vic pht trin t tng v VN NHN LC v cng trnh ca ng v hm tiu dng a n vic hnh thnh GI THIT THU NHP SUT I. Lp trng phng php lun KINH T HC THC CHNG, h t tng t do v vic xy dng nn T L THT NGHIP T NHIN ca ng gp phn ch ra cc hn ch ca cc chnh sch N NH HO ca trng phi Keynes. Cng vi Anna Schwartz, ng vit nn mt lch s tin t s ca M gp phn cung cp c s cho vic pht trin L THUYT NH LNG TIN T v lm sng li s tin tng vo cc hc thuyt trc Keynes vo s n nh t ng ca h thng kinh t. ng m rng PHNG TRNH FISHER bao hm cc bin nh ca ci, li sut v t l lm pht, gi c d kin v iu ny dn n s pht trin ca vn chng theo ch ngha trng tin v kinh t hc v m. Tt c cc yu t phi tin cng hay tin lng trong tng li ch bng tin m mt ngi i lm nhn c t cng vic ca mnh. Nh kinh t hc ngi Na uy v l ngi chung gii Nobel kinh t ln u tin vo nm 1969 cng vi Jan Tinbergen nh nhng kt qu ca ng trong vic din t L thuyt kinh t chnh xc hn v ton hc v a ra dng th hin ca n to kh nng nghin cu thc nghim bng s lng v tin hnh kim nh thng k. Vo u nhng nm 1930, Frisch i u trong nghin cu s hnh thnh dng ng cc chu k thng mi, trong ng chng minh mt h thng ng vi mt s c tnh ton hc to ra mt bin ng c tnh chu k tt dn vi chiu di bc sng l 4 n 8 nm. Khi h thng ny gp phi nhng c scngu nhin th nhng dao ng hnh sng tr thnh hin thc v lu di. Cc thnh tu ca Frisch l ch ng l ngi tin a ra cc phng php kim nh cc gi thuyt thng k. Trong lnh vc chnh sch kinh t, ng a ra h thng hch ton quc gia rt c ch cho cc chnh sch n nh ho v k hoch ho kinh t, gii thiu cc phng php quy hoch ton hc s dng trong cc k thut my tnh in t hin i. Nhng cng trnh ch yu ca ng l Phn tch hp lu thng k bng cc h thng hi quy hon chnh (1943), Cc i v cc tiu (1966), L thuyt v

1294

Free trade area

1295

Frequency distribution

Phn b theo tn sut.

1296

Frictional unemployment

Tht nghip do ch chuyn ngh

1297

Friedman, Milton(1912-)

1298 1299

Fringe benefit Frisch, Ragnar

Phc li phi tin t. (1895-1973)

sn xut (1965). Thng k tun theo phn phi F. Thng c s dng kim nh ngha chung ca mt tp hp cc bin gii thch trong phn tch hi quy. Mt ch s gi ca 100 c phiu quan trng nht c nim yt ti S giao dch chng kon London, Ch s ny c a ra vo nm 1984 vi ch s gi gc l 1000, bi v lc ngi ta c cm gic rng Ch s cng nghip ca bo Financial Times b thin lch qu nhiu v pha cc cng ty thuc nghnh ch to.

1300

F-statistic

Thng k F.

1301

FT-SE 100

1302

Full bodied money

Tin quy c.

Xem TOKEN MONEY. Ti bt k mc sn lng no, chi ph y l tng chi ph kh bin trung bnh, chi ph c nh trung bnh v phn li nhun rng. Quy tc nh gi theo cc cng ty tnh thm phn li nhun rng vo chi ph n v trong khi vic tnh chi ph n v th bao gm tt c cc chi ph.

1303

Full cost

Chi ph y . nh gi theo chi ph y . H thng d tr mt phn. Vn ngi "xi cha". Tht nghip do ch chuyn ngh v do ch chuyn ngh. Ngn sch mc nhn cng ton dng; Ngn sch khi c vic lm. Thng d ngn sch mc nhn cng ton dng; Thng d ngn sch khi c vic lm. Thu nhp quc dn mc nhn cng ton dng; Thu nhp quc dn khi c vic lm. T l tht nghip t nhin mc nhn cng ton dng; T l tht nghip t nhin khi c vic lm. c lng kh nng cc i khi c thng tin.

1304

Full cost pricing

1305

Fractional reserve system

1306

Free-rider problem Frictional and structural unemployment

1307

1308

Full-employment budget

1309

Full-employment budget surplus

S o tc ng ca chnh sch ti chnh, khng ch n thun da vo quy m ca thng d ngn sch. L s o cc gi tr thc t ca hng ho v dch v c th c sn xut ra khi cc yu t sn xut ca t nc c s dng ht, khi nn kinh t mc tht nghip t nhin.

1310

Full-employment national income

1311

Full-employment unemployment rate Full information maximum likehood (FIML)

Xem NATURAL RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT. Mt k thut c lng h thng cc phng trnh ng thi, tuyn tnh hay phi tuyn tnh. Xem maximum likehood. Mt cng thc ton hc c th ho mi lin h gia cc gi tr ca mt tp hp cc bin c lp xc nh gi tr cc bin ph thuc.

1312

1313

Function

Hm s.

1314

Fuctional costing

Lp chi ph theo chc nng. Quy tc hm ca mt hm s.

Xem OUTPUT BUDGETING.

1315

Function of function rule

Xem CHAIN RULE. Thng thng n ca chnh ph khng nh ngy tr li theo hp ng. Lc u, cm thut ng ny ch hot ng ca thay th n c ti tr cho n vi mt ngy tr nht nh. Gi y, n c s dng rng ri hn ch s thay th ca cc khon n di hn cho cc khon n ngn hn.

1316

Funded debt

N v thi hn; N c ti tr. i n, o n; cp vn, ti tr. Phn phi thu nhp theo chc nng.

1317

Funding

1318

Function income distribution

1319

Futures contract

Hp ng k hn

Nh Forward contract. Nhng c kh nng chuyn nhng hoc hu b. Xem Forward contract.

1320

Futures market

Th trng k hn

Xem Forward market.

1321

Future value General Arangement to borrow (GAB)

Gi tr tng lai. Hip c vay n chung. Li ch ca thng mi.

1322

Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. Phc li tng ln ca nn kinh t th gii ni chung hay i vi mt nc ring, tu thuc vo quan im, do kt qu ca vic tham gia vo thng mi quc t.

1323

Gains from trade

1324

Galbraith, John Kenneth

(1908-)

1325

Galloping inflation

Lm pht phi m.

Xem HYPER INFLATION. L thuyt v vic ra quyt nh hp l ca c nhn c thc hin trong nhng iu kin khng thnh tin lin quan n nhng kt qu ca cc quyt nh ny. Xem GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE.

1326

Game theory

L thuyt tr chi.

1327

GATT inh l GaussMarkov. Tng sn phm quc ni. S n khp, t s gia vn n v vn c phn

1328

Gauss- Markov Theorem

1329

GDP

Xem GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT Ch tiu th hin t l tng i ca vn n v vn c phn. T s ca ti chnh n vi tng s ca n v ti chnh vn c phiu thng thng.

1330

Gearing

1331

Gearing ratio

T s n khp

1332

General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

Hip nh chung v thu quan v thng mi. Tho thun Chung v i vay. S phn loi chung v cc hot ng kinh t trong Cng ng chu u. Cn bng chung; Cn bng tng th.

Hip nh c k ti Hi ngh Geneva nm 1947 v c hiu lc t ngy 1/1/1948. y l mt hip nh thng mi a phng ra cc quy tc tin hnh cc quan h thng mi quc t v cung cp mt din n cho s m phn a phng v cc gii php cho cc vn thng mi v gim dn THU QUAN v cc rng buc khc i vi thng mi.

1333

General Agreement to Borrow

Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. S phn loi cng nghip ca cc hot ng kinh t trong Cng ng chu u l cch khc ca s phn loi cng nghip theo tiu chun quc t. Tnh hung trong tt c cc th trng trong nn kinh t ng thi trng thi cn bng, ngha l gi c v s lng khng i.

1334

General Classification of Economic Activities in t

1335

General equilibrium

1336

General grant

Tr cp chung.

Xem GRANT. Cn gi l c lng Aitken. Mt dng c lng theo kiu BNH PHNG NH NHT p dng cho cc trng hp trong Ma trn phng sai - Hip phng sai ca Thnh phn nhiu ca phng trnh hi quy khng c s 0 trong cc v tr ngoi ng cho, v/ hoc khng c cc phn t thuc ng cho ging nhau. Dng hm s c s dng ph bin nht trong phn tch kinh t lng, n c bit coi bin ph thuc l mt hm tuyn tnh ca tp hp cc bin c lp. Theo GSP, c ngh ti hi ngh ca Lin hp quc v thng mi v pht trin ln u tin nm 1964 v c chp thun ti hi ngh ln th hai vo nm 1968, cc nc cng nghip ng khng nh thu nhp khu t cc nc ang pht trin, trong khi vn nh thu nhp khu i vi cc nc cng nghip khc, do to ra mt chnh lch u i cho cc nc ang pht trin.

1337

Generalized least square (GLS)

Bnh phng nh nht tng qut. M hnh tuyn tnh tng qut.

1338

General linear model (GLM)

1339

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)

H thng u i ph cp; H thng u i chung.

1340

General price level General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money

Mc gi chung. L thuyt tng qut v Vic lm, Li sut v Tin t. Vn nhn lc mang c im chung; vn nhn lc chung chung.

Mc gi chung ca tt c hng ho trong nn kinh t.

1341

Xem Keynes.

1342

General human capital

1343

General union

Cc nghip on.

Nghip on l t chc tp hp cng nhn cc ngnh v bao gm nhiu ngh nghip khc nhau. Xem GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE. Tn thng gi cho c vng m phn th nht (1947) v ln m phn th t (1955-56) trong khun kh v Hip nh chung v thu quan v thng mi.

1344

GenevaConference

Hi ngh Geneva. Vng m phnGeneva.

1345

Geneva Round

1346

Geographic frontier

Gii hn a l.

Cm thut ng c s dng trong l thuyt pht trin kinh t m t mt khu vc trong s vi s dn, kh nng k thut, s thch v khu v nht nh, s xut hin li tc tng dn t lao ng v t bn.

1347

Geometric lag

tr cp s nhn.

Cn gi l tr gim dn theo s m. R.Grilbrat (cc nn kinh t khng cn i, Paris, 1931) c cng xy dng mt m hnh m t qu trnh tng trng ngu nhin bng cch no c th to ra c phn b chun LOG quy m hng. Mt hng m cu v n c xu hng gim khi gi gim, v vy, r rng l mu thun vi quy lut cu. Hng ho ny mang tn ca Robert Giffen (19371910), ng quan st thy rng ngi ngho mua bnh m nhiu hn khi gi tng. Tnh hung ny xy ra khi tr s tuyt i ca NH HNG THU NHP (so vi gi) ln hn nh hng thay th. Co gin ca cu i vi thu nhp i vi hng ho th cp l m.

1348

Gilbrat's law of proportionate growth

Lut Gilbrat v tng trng theo t l.

1349

Giffen good

Hng ho Giffen

1350

Gifts tax

Thu qu tng. Chng khon vin vng; Chng khon ho hng.

Xem CAPITAL TRANSFER TAX. Tt c s n chnh ph, khng tnh tri phiu B ti chnh, di dng cc chng khon c th trao i c, (ngha l c th bn c trn th trng chng khon). Ch s v mc bt bnh ng (thng l) ca phn phi thu nhp. Mt h thng thanh ton thng qua chuyn khon cc khon tin gi "ghi s", c th thng thch vi h thng SEC ngn hng truyn thng nhng khc v c cu. Php kim nh c s dng nhn dng vn phng sai KHNG THUN NHT trong S d ca mt phng trnh hi quy.

1351

Gilt- edged securities

1352

Gini coefficient

H s GINI.

1353

Giro system

H thng chuyn khon Giro

1354

Glejser test

Kim nh Glejser. Tng sn phm quc dn.

1355

GNP

Xem GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT. S hn ch sn lng do cng nhn gy ra trong khun kh H THNG THANH TON KHUYN KHCH trnh vic p dng cc tiu chun n lc lm vic cao hn trn mt n v thanh ton. Mt phng tin ghi n hay giy bc do B ti chnh pht hnh th hin mun ca B ti chnh bin mt lng vng nht nh thnh tin. Trong l thuyt tng trng, l mt tnh hung TNG TRNG CN I trong T L TNG TRNG C BO M bng vi T l tng trng t nhin khi c vic lm. Con ng tng trng ti u a ra mc tiu dng u ngi l bn vng v ti a trong mt nn kinh t. Con ng tng trng cn i trong mi mt th h tit kim th h mai sau phn thu nhp m cc th h trc tit kim c.

1356

Gold bricking

Hot ng la di.

1357

Gold certificate

Giy chng gi vng.

1358

"gold age" growth

Tng trng "thi k hong kim". Nguyn tc vng; Quy tc vng. Nguyn tc vng v tch lu; Quy tc vng ca tch lu.

1359

Golden rule

1360

Golden rule of accumulation

1361

Gold exchange standard

Bn v trao i bng vng.

Mt dng BN V VNG, theo mt nc neo gi tr ng tin ca mnh theo gi tr ng tin ca mt nc trung tm.

1362

Gold export point

im xut khu vng. im nhp khu vng. Kim nh Goldfeld Quandt.

Xem Gold point.

1363

Gold import point

Xem Gold point. Tn ca mt php kim nh c s dng nhn dng vn Phng sai khng thun nht trong S d ca mt phng trnh Hi quy. Th trng bun bn vng kim loi, tin vng hay vng nn. Cc mc t gi trao i m ti khi mt ng tin mt BN V VNG, th vic mua vng t Ngn hng trung ng v xut khu vng (im xut khu vng) hay nhp khu v bn n cho ngn hng trung ng (im nhp khu vng) l c l nhun.

1364

Goldfeld - Quandt

1365

Gold market

Th trng vng.

1366

Gold points

Cc im vng. GDP v thu nhp quc dn. GDP theo chi ph sn xut. GDP theo gi th trng. H s kh lm pht cho GDP.

1367

GDP and nation income

1368

GDP at factor cost

1369

GDP at market prices

1370

GDP deflator

1371

Gold reserve

D tr vng. H thng t chc tin t theo gi tr tin ca mt nc l c xc nh theo lut bng mt lng vng c nh, v ng tin trong nc c dng tin vng v/ hoc tin giy khi cn c th chuyn i thnh vi t l c xc nh theo lut.

1372

Gold standard

Bn v vng.

1373

Goldbugs

Nhng con mt vng. Mt quy lut mang tn nh kinh t Goodhart cho rng bt c tng lng tin no c chn lm bin mc tiu th cng u b bp mo bi chnh nhng hnh ng vo mc tiu . Mt cm thut ng chung m t mc ph hp s liu ca mt phng trnh kinh t lng c c lng. Cc hng ho hu hnh c ng gp tch cc vo PHC LI KINH T. Phn bit vi hng xu. Mt thut ng c s dng trong hch ton ti sn v hnh thng c o bng s chnh lch gia gi tr cho mt cng vic ang tin hnh v gi tr trn giy ca n.

1374

Goodhart's law

Lut Goodhart.

1375

Goodness of fit

Mc ph hp.

1376

Goods

Cc hng ho tt.

1377

Goodwill

Thin ch.

1378

Gosplan

U ban k hoch (Lin X). Thm ht ca Chnh ph.

Mt thut ng ting Nga ch U ban k hoch nh nc trc y Lin X. N c trch nhim ra cc k hoch sn xut v chuyn cho cc t chc thch hp thi hnh.

1379

Government deficit

Xem BUDGET DEFICIT. Mun tm hiu chi tit hn, xem CHI TIU CNG CNG. Nhng chi tiu ny to nn mt phn quan trng ca TNG CHI TIU v may mc d c coi l ngoi sinh trong M HNH CHI TIU THU NHP n gin, vn chim gi mt vai tr quan trng trong m hnh Keynes trong vic xc nh MC THU NHP QUC DN CN BNG. C quan ca chnh ph M tr gip th trng cm c nh .

1380

Government expenditure Government Nation Mortgage Association (GNMA)

Chi tiu ca chnh ph. Hip hi cm c quc gia ca Chnh ph. S iu tit ca chnh ph.

1381

1382

Government regulation

1383

Government securities Government spending and net taxes Government spending on goods and services

Chng khon ca chnh ph. Chi tiu ca chnh ph v thu rng. Chi tiu ca chnh ph cho hng ho v dch v.

Mt cm thut ng chung ch s n c th trao i c ca chnh ph trung ng, t thi hn ngn nht, ngha l HI PHIU B TI CHNH ti thi hn rt di v nhng khon n khng xc nh ngy.

1384

1385

1386

Gradualism

Trng phi tun tin; Ch ngha tun tin; thuyt tun tin. Ngi theo thuyt trng tin tun tin.

Mt quan im ca chnh sch pht trin kinh t cho rng qu trnh pht trin kinh t l mt hin tng tng trng t t, chc chn, chm chp v do vy cc bin php chnh sch cn thit cng phi mang c trng nay.

1387

Gradualist monetarist

1388

Graduate tax

Thu i hc Gii hn gi c nhn t chnh. iu khon dnh cho nhng ngi c chc. Tnh nhn qa Granger.

Mt k hoch ti tr cho gio dc i hc thng qua sinh vin c vay tin p ng cc chi ph v gio dc v/ hoc cuc sng trong khi nghin cu v s thanh ton li mt phn bng thu nhp trong tng lai. Mt khi nim do P.SAMUELSON S DNG nhm khi phc li vic s dng tng t bn trong cc m hnh kinh t tn c in. Mt s dn xp qua cc thnh vin hin hnh thuc mt ngh nghip c min p dng cc bn v CP BNG NGH NGHIP cao hn t ra cho ngh nghip ny.

1389

Grand factor price frontier

1390

Grandfather clause

1391

Granger causality

Xem CAUSALITY. Khon tin do mt t chc hay c nhn cp cho cc t chc v cc c nhn khc m n khng to thnh mt b phn trao i no , nhng ch l mt thanh ton chuyn khon mt chiu.

1392

Grant

Tr cp.

1393

Grant in aid

Tr cp di dng vin tr.

Xem INTER-GOVERNMENTAL GRANTS. Mt cch tip cn c s dng rng ri nhm gii mt s bi ton trong Kinh t hc khu vc v nghin cu vn ti, th hin c s lng quan h tng tc ln nhau gia 2 v tr v c xc nh bi quy m tng tc hoc tm quan trng ca cc v tr ny v khong cchgia chng. Mt dng tng tc ny l s di chuyn v dn s. Cc quan h tng tc khc l i li bng t hay i li bng my bay. Tn gi ca mt chnh sch pht trin c pht ng Trung Quc vo cui nm 1957 nhm y nhanh qu trnh pht trin vi t l tng trng cng nghip l 2030%. Rt kh nh gi thnh cng ca chnh sch mo him ny do c nhng s kin khc xut hin ng thi vo qung thi gian ny. T gi hi oi ca ng bng Sterling s dng chuyn i gi c nng nghip c chp thun bi chnh sch nng nghip chung tnh theo n v tin t chu u thnh gi c nc Anh. Mt cm thut ng c s dng trong trng hp c s tng mnh trong nng sut nng nghip cc nc ang pht trin bng cch a vo p dng cc loi ging chng c bnh tt, c nng sut cao. Mt quy lut do Hun tc Thomas Gresham (15911579), nh kinh doanh v vin chc ngi Anh a ra.

1394

Gravity model

M hnh lc hp dn.

1395

"Great Leap Forward"

i nhy vt

1396

Green pound

ng bng xanh

1397

Green revolution

Cch mng Xanh.

1398

Gresham's Law

Lut Gresham. Tng t l hng i hng. Tng t bn c nh trong nc. Tng sn phm quc ni. Ch s kh lm pht cho tng sn phm quc ni.

1399

Gross barter terms of trade Gross domestic fixed capital formation

Xem TERMS OF TRADE.

1400

Xem GROSS INVESTMENT

1401

Gross domestic product (GDP)

Xem NATIONAL INCOME. Mt ch s gi c s dng iu chnh gi tr bng tin ca tt c hng ho v dch v tham gia vo tng sn phm quc ni khi gi c thay i. Tng u t ny sinh trong nn kinh t trong mt khong thi gian nht nh. Mc chnh lch gia gi tr cho ngi bn bun cung cp v gi nhn c ca ngi bn l.

1402

Gross domestic product deflator

1403

Gross investment

Tng u t.

1404

Gross margin

Mc chnh gi gp. Tng thu nhp quc dn.

1405

Gross national income

Xem NATIONAL INCOME.

1406

Gross profit

Tng li nhun Tng li nhun thng mi.

Xem PROFIT. Li nhun kim c t nhng nghip v trc khi tr i KHU HAO v li i vi ti chnh n v mc tng gi c phn.

1407

Gross trading profit

1408

Group of Ten

Nhm G10.

Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.

1409

Group of Seven

Nhm G7.

By nc cng nghip ch yu (Canada, Php, c, Italia, Nht, Anh v M), nhng ngi ng u chnh ph cc b trng kinh t ca nhng nc ny thng xuyn gp nhau nhm phi hp chnh sch kinh t v m, c bit l v t gi hi oi ph hp gia cc nc. Hin nay c thm Nga gia nhp thnh cc nc G8. Mt lin minh lng lo ca hn 100 nc ch yu l ang pht trin, lc u l do 77 nc thnh lp ti HI NGH LIN HP QUC THNG MI V PHT TRIN vo nm 1964 biu th hn na mi quan tm tp th ca h v s pht trin th ch ca h thng kinh t th gii.

1410

Group of 77

Nhm 77. Tht nghip do chnh lch v tng trng.

1411

Growth-gap unemployment

Tht nghip do thiu ht cu di hn. y l mt hnh thi thay i ca mt bin theo thi gian. cp n T sut li nhun ti a m mt hng c th duy tr c cc t l tng trng khc nhau. cp n mt tnh hung trong do T l chit khu hin hnh nh hn t l tng trng ca c tc hng nm khng i d kin ca mt hng, gi tr c phn s tin n v hn. Nh cng trnh i u ca E.T. Penrose (l thuyt tng trng ca hng, Blackwell, Oxford,1959) v R.L.Marris (l thuyt kinh t ca ch ngha t bn "qun l", Macmillan, London, 1964) cc l thuyt tng trng tr thnh mt ngnh ca cc l thuyt v QUN L HNG v c coi l ph hp i vi mt nn kinh t hng trong cc nh qun l ca cc hng c quyn t do trong vic ra cc mc tiu m h mun theo ui. Cc m hnh ny sinh t vic nghin cu nn kinh t khi c s thay i v lng t bn, quy m dn s v ko theo p lc v s lng v c cu tui ca lc lng lao ng v tin b k thut. C 2 nhm l thuyt chnh: 1)L thuyt tng trng tn c in. 2)L thuyt tng trng ca Keynes (v Keynes mi).

1412

Growth path

ng tng trng. Hm li nhun - tng trng.

1413

Growth-profitability function

1414

Growth-stock paradox

Nghch l c phn tng trng.

1415

Growth theories of the firm

Cc l thuyt v s tng trng ca hng.

1416

Growth theory

L thuyt tng trng.

1417

Growth rate

Tc tng trng. Hm ny to ra T S GI TR cc i m mt hng c th duy tr c ti cc mc t l tng trng khc nhau v l mt c im chung ca cc L THUYT TNG TRNG CA HNG.

1418

Growth-valuation function

Hm gi tr - tng trng. Xem GROUP OF SEVEN

1419

G.7

1420

Guaranteed week

Tun l bo m.

Thanh ton tr cho nhng cng nhn ch lm vic trong thi gian ngn m khng phi do li ca h.

1421

Guidelines

Nguyn tc ch o. Hnh vi theo hng ch dn.

Xem INCOMES POLICY.

1422

Guidepost following behaviour

Xem NORM FOLLOWING BEHAVIOUR.

1423

Guideposts

Cc ch dn.

Xem INCOMES POLICY. Nh kinh t ngi Nauy, c gii thng Nobel kinh t nm 1989 v cng trnh nghin cu v c s mn kinh t lng. ng gp quan trng nht ca ng th hin trong bn lun n lm ti trn i hc Harvard, sau c xut bn di nhan : "Nghin cu xc sut trong kinh t lng". Tp ch Econometrica tp 12, tr.118 (1944). Tc phm cho thy trong vic lp cng thc l thuyt kinh t bng ngn ng xc sut c th s dng cc phng php suy lun thng k rt ra cc kt lun chnh xc v cc quan h c bn t mt "mu ngu nhin" trong nhng quan st theo thc nghim. iu ny cho php rt ra nhng m hnh kinh t, kim nghim v s dng chng trong d bo. Lun n ca ng cng a ra nhng tin b trong vic gii bi ton v s ph thuc ln nhau gia cc bin s kinh t, v ng ngh cc phng php xc nh r vic nhn dng v nh giaccs quan h kinh t khi c s ph thuc ln nhau. Phng php ca ng c cc nh kinh t lng khc cng nhn v pht trin. Ngoi cng trnh v l thuyt kinh t lng, Haavelmo cn c nhiu ng gp quan trng v l thuyt u t v tng trng kinh t. Ngoi bn lun n, nhng sch xut bn ca ng l: Nghin cu v l thuyt pht trin kinh t(1954), Nghin cu v l thuyt u t (1960). Nh kinh t hc ngi M sinh ra o, ni ting v nghin cu thng mi quc t. Trong cun L thuyt thng mi quc t (1936), ng a ra mt cch chng minh khc v li ch thng mi bng chi ph c hi ca sn xut cc hng ho v xem nh hng ho khc khng c s xut. iu ny b qua trng hp gi thc t trong nghin cu ca Ricardo. Mt tc phm khc ca ng l Thnh vng v nh n (1935), trong c xem xt ti liu v chu k kinh doanh. Cc tc phm ln khc ca ng l Thng mi quc t; Cc chuyn kho gy ting vang; Nghin cu v l thuyt thng mi quc t (1961) v Tin t trong nn kinh t (1965). Mt HM CU i vi hng ho khng lu bn, cho thy rng cu trong bt k giai on no cng c th b nh hng bi vic mua hng t trc. U ban t vn ca chnh ph Anh c lp ra t vn v t chc mt h thng TIEN T BI S MI. Thnh lp nm 1961 v ngng hot ng nm 1963. Trc s kin Big Bang nm 1986, khi mt cng ty mi gii chng khon khng o kh nng tr n cho khch hng hoc NHNG NGI MI GII CHNG KHON th quyn kinh doanh trn th trng chng khon ca cng ty b nh ch.

1424

Haavelmo, Trygve

(1911-)

1425

Haberler, Gottfried

(1900-) Hm cu do thi quen.

1426

Habit-creating demand function

1427

Halesbury Committee

U ban Halesbury.

1428

Hammered

B g ba. Nhng ngi t bo him. Nhng ngi tht nghip kh tm vic lm.

1429

Hedgers

1430

Hard-core unemployed

Nhng ngi tht nghip c ng k cm thy do cc iu kin v th cht v tinh thn, do thi i vi cng vic hoc do tui tc nn rt kh tm vic lm. Mt loi tin t c mc cu cao lin tc so vi cung trn trn th trng hi oi.

1431

Hard currency

Tin mnh.

1432

Harmony of interests

Hi ho quyn li.

Xem INVISIBLE HAND. Sau khi dy trng dng Oxford t nm 1922, ng c b nhim lm ph gio s Vin kinh t quc t nm 1952. ng l biien tp t Economic Journal t nm 1945-1961. Cc sch xut bn ca ng bao gm: Chu k thng mi (1936), Tin ti kinh t hc ng (1948), Cuc i ca John Maynard Keynes (1951), Mt b sung vo thuyt kinh t ng (1952), Chnh sch chng lm pht (1958), Tham lun th hai v l thuyt kinh t ng (1961) v ng lc kinh t (1973). M hnh tng trng mt khu vc do R.F.Harrod v E.Domar pht trin vo nhng nm 1940, v c bn xut pht t cc cuc cch mng Keynes, v n c lin quan ti s n nh kinh t v tht nghip cng nh nhng gi thit cng nhc dng cho phn tch ngn hn. Mt loi tin b k thut c lp so snh cc im trong qu trnh tng trng t l sn lng so vi vn khng thay i.

1433

Harrod, Sir Roy, F.

(1900-1978).

1434

Harrod-Domar growth model

M hnh tng trng Harrod-Domar. Tin b k thut trung tnh ca Harrod.

1435

Harrod Neutral Technical Progress

1436

Havana Charter

iu l Havana.

Xem INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORGANIZATION. Sinh ra v hc ti Vin, Hayek l ngi lnh o mt s c s ca trng kinh t London v cc trng i hc Chicago, Freiburg v Salzburg. Nm 1974, ng c trao gii Nobel kinh t cng vi G.MYRDAL. Li dn khi trao gii Nobal cng nhn cng hin m ng ca ng v l thuyt tin t v lao ng, v hiu qu lao ng ca cc h thng kinh t khc nhau, v lnh vc nghin cu ca ng bao gm c c cu lut php trong h thng kinh t. Trong cun Gi c v sn xut (1931), ng kt hp l thuyt tin t vi l thuyt ca trng phi o v vn. Vi tc phm The Road to Serfdom (ng Xung Kip Lao T) (1944), ng chuyn sang lnh vc trit hc chnh tr v lut php, trong ng phn tch vn t do, mt ch c nng ln trong (Constitution of Liberty) Hin Php T do (1960). Ngoi ra, Hayek c nhiu ng gp trong lch s t duy tr tu nh trong tc phm John Stuart Mill v Harriet Taylor (1951) v trong phng php lun nh Cuc phn cch mng khoa hc. (Xem AUSTRIAN SCHOOL) Nghin cu ny do nh kinh t ngi Thu in Heckcher khi xng, sau c ngi ng hng ca ng l Ohlin pht trin (trong Thng mi quc t v gia cc vng, 1935), cng nhn rng thng mi quc t da trn s khc nhau ca chi ph tng i nhng c gng gii thch cc yu t to ra s khc nhau trong gi tng i ny. Mt hnh ng do ngi mua hoc ngi bn thc hin t bo v thu nhp ca mnh khi c s tng gi xy ra tong tng lai. Gi n hay GI BNG l tnh cht ca mt hng ho. Mt phn gi ca loi hng ho c lin quan n mi tnh cht ca n v do vy c th nh gi s thay i v cht lng. Trit l cho rng hnh vi ca con ngi b chi phi bi su tm kim th vui. Tuy nhin, vi t cch l mt trit l, ch ngha khoi lc b thay i rt nhiu bi khi nim v ngha v, trch nhim

1437

Hayek, Friedrich A.Von

(1899-1992).

1438

Heckscher-Ohlin approach to international trade

Phung php Heckscher-Ohlin v thng mi quc t.

1439

Hedging

Lp hng ro.

1440

Hedonic price

Gi n.

1441

Hedonism

Ch ngha khoi lc.

1442

Herfindahl index

Ch s Herfindahl. Tnh khng ng nht.

Mt thc o tp trung ca th trng cng nghip. Cht lng ca hng ho, dch v hoc cc yu t to ra s khc nhau trong quan nim ca ngi tiu dng v ngi sn xut. VN vt cht thuc nhiu loi c trng ring cho tng qu trnh sn xut v khng c chuyn sang qu trnh khc. Khi nim ny tr nn lng lo vi tng rng mt hng ho vn d chia nh c th s dng cho sn xut nhiu hng ho trong nhiu qu trnh. Cc hng ho hay dch v do cc i v kinh t a ra trn mt th trng nht nh m c t hp thuc tnh khng ging nhau di con mt ca ngi mua sn phm . Mt bi ton kinh t lng trong phng sai ca sai s trong mt m hnh hi quy khng ng nht gia cc quan st. Nh kinh t hc ngi Anh, ng gii Nobel kinh t 1972, cng vi Kenneth ARROW ng dy ti trng Kinh t London v cc trng i hc: Cambridge, Manchester v Oxford. ng nhn c gi Nobel do nghin cu v l thuyt CN BNG TNG TH trong Gi tr v t bn (1939), c bit v vn n nh h thng cn bng tng th trc cc c sc t bn ngoi; v nghin cu trong KINH T HC PHC LI, THNG D CA NGI TIU DNG. Tuy nhin, Hicks cn nghin cu nhiu lnh vc khc. L tuyt tin lng (1932) ca ng nu ra phng php NNG SUT BIN ng dng trong xc nh tin lng theo quan nim c in. Trong bi Keynes v cc phng php c in (1937), ng khc phc c vn bt nh ca thu Keynes v qu c th cho vay v LI SUT bng cch a vo cc ng IS/LM, cc ng IS/LM tr thnh cng c dng trong phn tch l thuyt Keynes. Nm 1950, ng tng hp cc tng Keynes (Phng php QU TRNH S NHN) ca cc nh kinh t lng ( tr) ca qu trng gia tc v ca Harrod (tng trng v h thng khng n nh) vo m hnh ca chu k kinh doanh trong Mt ng gp vo l thuyt vo chu k kinh doanh. ng cng xut bn cc cun sch v L thuyt cu v hin trng ca kinh t hc Keynes.

1443

Heterogeneity

1444

Heterogeneous capital

Vn khng ng nht.

1445

Heterogeneous product

Sn phm khng ng nht. Hip phng sai khng ng nht.

1446

Heteroscedasticity

1447

Hicks. Sir John R.

(1904-1989). Biu HicksHansen. Tin b k thut trung tnh Hicks.

1448

Hicks-Hansen diagram

Xem IS - LM DIAGRAM. Mt phn loi ca tin b k thut pht trin c lp so snh cc im trong qu trnh tng trng m t l VN/ LAO NG l khng i. Cn gi l tht nghip tr hnh. V lc lng lao ng bin i tun hon, nn ngi ta lp lun rng s ngi tht nghip c thng bo phn nh khng ht lng ngi tht nghip thc s do khng tnh nhng cng nhn chn nn. Trong l thuyt truyn thng v s nhn tn dng, ti sn d tr m da vo h thng ngn hng to ra tin gi ngn hng rng buc cc hot ng cho vay ca ngn hng v dn n to ra tin gi gp chung c gi l "tin mnh".

1449

Hicks Neutral Technical Progress

1450

Hidden unemployment

Tht nghip n.

1451

High-powered money

Tin mnh.

1452

Hiring rate

T l thu.

Xem ACCESSION RATE.

1453

Hiring standards

Cc tiu chun thu ngi.

Kh khn trong tuyn ngi i vi ngi ch khng phi l tip xc vi nhiu ng c vin nht, m vn l tm s ng c vin xng ng dnh thi gian xem xt. Mt minh ho bng th ca phn phi theo tn xut ( hay PHN PHI XC SUT), trong tn sut (hay xc sut) l mt bin ly gi tr gia cc gii hn c tnh bng chiu cao ca mt ct trn trc honh gia cc gii hn . Chi ph xy ra vo thi im mt yu t u vo hoc ngun liu c mua vo v v vy khng bng chi ph thay th u vo (chi ph thay th) nu gi tng ln vo thi im . Cc m hnh kinh t c kh nng phn tch cc bin i vtnh hnh trong th gii hin thc, i lp vi cc m hnh CN BNG thng nng tnh l thuyt. Mt nhm cc nh kinh t c th k XIX m phng php lun v phn tch ca h c nh hng ln trong cc nc ni ting c.

1454

Histogram

Biu tn xut.

1455

Historical costs

Chi ph lch s.

1456

Historical model

Cc m hnh lch s.

1457

Historical school

Trng phi lch s.

1458

Historicism

Ch ngha lch s.

Xem Historical school.

1459

Hoarding

u c tch tr.

Xem MONEY, THE DEMAND FOR. Mt cng ty kim sot mt s cng ty khc thng qua s hu mt t l trong vn c phn chung ca cc cng ty . Tnh cht ca hng ho dch v hoc cc yu t ging nhau theo cch suy ngh ca nh phn phi v ngi tiu dng. Mt hm c coi l ng nht bc n nu nhn tt c cc bin C LP vi mt hng s Lamda c kt qu bng BIN PH THUC nhn vi Lamda. Khi cc n v kinh t a ra trn mt th trng nht nh mt lot cc sn phm v dch v ging nhau di con mt ca ngi mua th sn phm c gi l ng nht.

1460

Hoarding company

Cng ty nm gi. Tnh thun nht, tnh ng nht.

1461

Homogeneity

1462

Homogeneous functions

Cc hm ng nht.

1463

Homogeneous product

Sn phm ng nht. Cc hm sn xut ng nht. Hip phng sai ng nht. Cng bng theo phng ngang.

1464

Homogeneous product functin

Xem PRODUCTION FUNCTION. Mt tnh cht ca phng sai ca thnh phn nhiu trong cc phng trnh hi quy khi n c nh trong tt c cc quan st. Tnh cng bng hoc cng l p dng vi cc c nhn trong cng mt hon cnh. Lin kt theo phng ngang xy ra khi hai hng cng mt giai on trong qu trnh sn xut st nhp vi nhau lp ra mt doanh nghip duy nht. Xem MERGER.

1465

Homoscedasticity

1466

Horizontal equity

1467

Horizontal intergration Horizontal / vertical / conglomerate merger

Lin kt theo phng ngang. Hp nht theo tuyn ngang/ dc/ kt khi.

1469

1470

Hot money

Tin nng.

Mt quc gia c li sut cao s thu ht tin t nc ngoi vo. Mt quy tc v s dng ti u cc ti nguyn thin nhin khng ti to c do H.Hotelling a ra nm 1931 (Kinh t hc v ti nguyn c th b cn kit, Tp ch kinh t chnh tr , tp 39, trang 137-175).

1471

Hotelling's Rule

Quy tc Hotelling.

1472

Housing benefit

Li nhun nh .

Xem BEVERIDGE REPORT. Ct yu ca vn nhn lc l ch u t co ngun nhn lc s lm tng nng sut lao ng. Nh t tng ln ngi Scotland. ng c nhiu ng gp i vi kinh t chnh tr trong tc phm Thuyt trnh chnh tr (1752). ng nhn mnh (theo sau LOCKE) rng khi lng tin t trong nc khng c vai tr g i vi ca ci thc t ca nc v hon thin THUYT TIN T NH LNG. ng b sung v cng ph nhn l thuyt ca LOCKE rng mt quc gia c th cao thng d hoc thm ht thng mi thng xuyn. C CH CHY VNG m bo rng thng mi quc t lun cn bng. L thuyt cung cu ca ng rt c quan tm. Nhu cu v vay tin thng b nh hng mt phn bi cc k vng v kinh doanh v do vy t l li nhun v li sut c quan h mt thit vi nhau. ng cho rng phng php lun khoa hc x hi l mt ngnh ca tm l hc ng dng. Trit l ny v quan im ca ng v li ch ring v nhu cu tch tr vi t cch l ng lc thc y cho cc hot ng kinh t c nh hng quan trng n A.SMITH v cc nh kinh t hc tip theo. U ban ca tng thng v c cu v lut l ti chnh a ra bo co nm 1972, ku gi ci t dn dn cc nghnh dch v ti chnh M. Kt qu lm vic ca u ban Hong gia Anh, c lp ra xem xt kh khn ca a phng nc Anh c gi l trung gian - tc l nm gia cc vng thnh vng v cc vng tr tr v c nhn tr cp nh CHNH SCH A PHNG U ban hong gia (HMSO) v cc vng trung gian Cmnd, 3998, London, 1969.

1473

Human capital

Vn nhn lc.

1474

Hume, David

(1711-1776)

1475

Hunt Commission

U ban Hunt.

1476

Hunt Report

Bo co Hunt.

1477

Hiperbola

Hypecbn Tnh trng lm pht tng nhanh khi c siu lm pht, gi c tng ln 10 ln, thm ch 100 ln ch trong vng 1 thng. Mt cm thut ng chung miu t cc th tc thng k xc nh tnh ng n ca mt gi thuyt. Cc nh khoa hc s dng thut ng ny miu t mt trng thi trong cn bng ca mt h thng ph thuc vo lch s ca h thng .

1478

Hyperinflation

Siu lm pht.

1479

Hypothesis testing

Kim nh gi thuyt.

1480

Hysteresis

Hin tng tr. Ca ci ca con ngi. T l bin t gia vn v sn lng.

1481

Human wealth

1482

ICOR

1483

IBBD

Ngn hng Ti thit v Pht trin. Cng ty Ti chnh Cng nghip v Thng mi. Hip hi Pht trin quc t.

Xem INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT.

1484

ICFC

Xem INVESTOR OF INDUSTRIES. Xem INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION. Bi ton kinh t lng ny sinh trong qu trnh c lng cc tham s ca cc phng trnh ng thi. Mt phng trnh ng theo nh ngha hay c tc dng xc nh mt bin no . Thng k hiu l I. L mt ma trn c cc phn t nm trn ng cho bng 1 cn cc phn t nm ngoi ng cho bng 0.

1485

IDA

1486

Identification problem

Bi ton nhn dng.

1487

Identity

ng nht thc.

1488

Identity matrix

Ma trn n v. ng nht thc ca thu nhp quc dn.

1489

National Income Identities

1490

Idiosyncratic exchange

Trao i tnh cht ring; trao i t cht.

Bn cht c o ca cc nhim v v do vy cc k nng ca tng cng nhn gip cho cc cng nhn v cc ng ch c c cc t do nht nh khi ra mc tin cng. Tin c rt ra khi lu thng v c lu di dng tin tch tr ca ci. Vic thiu tnh chuyn hon ca mt ti sn nht nh hoc ca mt danh mc ti sn do mt ngi giao dch nm gi.

1491

Idle balances

Tin nhn ri. Khng tnh chuyn hon. Vn phng Lao ng Quc t.

1492

Illiquidity

1493

Ilo

Xem INTERNATIONAL LABOR OFFICE. Con s c cn bc hai ca m mt, v thng k hiu l i. Xem COMPLEX NUMBER.

1494

Imaginary number

S o.

1495

IMF

Qu tin t quc t.

Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. Mt hng tng trng ca HNG thng qua A DNG HO chi mt qu trnh tng trng c kch thch bng cch a vo nhng sn phm c c tnh sao cho ngi tiu dng khng nhn thc c sn phm ny l mi; ngha l chng khng thc tnh v tho mn CC NHU CU TIM N. Mt trng hp c th xy ra nhng khng chc chn, trong mt s gia tng sn lng kinh t trong mt nc thng qua tc ng phn hi ca thng mi s dn n mt tnh hung trong PHC LI KINH T b gim st. Mt tn gi chung cho nhng k thut dng o lng nh hng ca mt thay i nht nh trong hot ng kinh t n mt nn kinh t cp vng hay cp a phng. Tc ng ngay tc th ca mt thay i trong BIN NGOI SINH ln BIN NI SINH, tng phn vi tc

1496

Imitative growth

Tng trng m phng.

1497

Immiserizing growth

Tng trng lm khn kh.

1498 1499

Impact analysis Impact multiplier

Phn tch tc ng. S nhn tc ng

ng tng hp hay di hn ca s thay i ny. Tc ng ca vic nh thu. cp n mt ngi, mt cng ty hay mt giao dch b nh thu. Mt cm thut ng chung c th c s dng theo 2 cch. 1)Dng ch bt k mt dng c cu th trng no khng pah l cnh tranh hon ho v do vy n bao gm CNH TRANH C QUYN, C QUYN NHM v C QUYN. 2)Dng ch bt k mt c cu th trng no khng phi l CNH TRANH HON HO v C QUYN. L th trng trong cc iu kin sau y ca mt th trng hon ho khng c tho mn: 1)Sn phm ng nht. 2)Mt s ln ngi mua v ngi bn. 3)Ngi mua v ngi bn c quyn t do nhp v ra khi th trng. 4)Tt c ngi mua v ngi bn u c thng tin hon ho v thy c trc tp hp cc mc gi hin ti v tng lai. 5)Lng mua v lng bn ca tng thnh vin th trng l khng ng k so vi tng khi lng giao dch. 6)Khng c s kt cu gia ngi bn v ngi mua. 7)Ngi tiu dng cc i ho tng THO DNG v ngi bn cc i ho TNG L NHUN. 8)Hng ho c kh nng chuyn nhng. Theo t tng Mac-xt hay t tng X hi ch ngha th Ch ngha quc l mt chnh sch ca nc ngoi nhm tm cch p dng s kim sot v chnh tr v kinh t i vi khu vc lc hu m bo cho nc ch c c mt th trng tng i vi nhng khon tin tit kim nhn ri v cc hng ho ch to d tha nhm i ly cc nguyn vt liu chin lc. Thi gian cn c thc thi CHNH SCH TIN T, v cn c gi l tr bn trong. Khi nim hp ng n c s dng nhm cung cp mt c s cho vic tn ti tin cng v gi c t bin i v c da trn nhng c tnh KHNG THCH RI RO khc nhau ca chu doanh nghip v ngi lm thu. Chi ph c hi ca vic s dng cc yu t sn xut m mt nh sn xut khng phi mua hay thu m li s hu chng. Hm s c biu din di dng khng c BIN PH THUC. Mt ch s gi c s dng gim pht mt hay nhiu thnh phn ca ti khon thu nhp quc dn. Gi c m ngi ch mt yu t sn xut di dng vt cht chng hn nh t bn, tnh i vi mt hng cho vic s dng yu t ny. Xem USER COST OF CAPITAL. Hng ho hay dch v c tiu dng mt nc nhng mua t nc khc.

1500

Impact of taxation

1501

Imperfect competition

Cnh tranh khng hon ho.

1502

Imperfect market

Th trng khng hon ho.

1503

Imperialism

Ch ngha quc.

1504

Implementation lag

tr thc hin.

1505

Implicit contracts

Cc hp ng n.

1506

Implicit cost

Chi ph n.

1507

Implicit function

Hm n. Ch s gim pht gi n.

1508

Implicit price deflator

1509

Implicit rental value

Gi tr tin thu n.

1510

Import

Hng nhp khu.

1511

Import duty

Thu nhp khu.

Xem TARIFFS.

1512

Import quota

Hn ngch nhp khu. Cc hn ch nhp khu.

Xem QUOTA. Cc hn ch v s lng hoc chng loi hng ho c nhp khu vo mt nc thng qua vic s dng thu quan hay hn ngch. Mt trong nhng chin lc pht trin ch yu c cc nc ang pht trin la chn.

1513

Import restrictions

1514

Import substitution

Thay th nhp khu. Thu quan nhp khu. Cng nghip ho bng thay th hng nhp khu. nh l v tnh bt kh th; nh l v iu khng th c. Hng ho cng cng khng thun tu. Tin thu khng quy i.

1515

Import tariff

Xem TARIFFS.

1516

Import substitution industrialization

1517

Impossibility Theorem

Xem SOCIAL WELFARE FUNCTION.

1518

Impure public good

Xem MIXED GOOD. Khi nim tin thu do doanh nhip t tr cho mnh trong vic s dng t ai m doanh nghip s hu. Xe, IMPLICIT COST.

1519

Imputed rent

1520

Inactive money

Tin nhn ri. H thng thanh ton khuyn khch. Phm vi tc ng ca vic nh thu, i tng chu thu.

Xem IDLE BALANCES.

1521

Incentive payment systems

Xem PAYMENT BY RESULTS. Ch s phn phi cui cng gnh nng ca mt khon thu. Cm thut ng ny cp n nhng ngi c thu nhp thc t b gim do vic nh thu. S lng tin, hng ho hoc dch v do mt c nhn, hay cng ty hay mt nn kinh t nhn c trong mt khong thi gian nht nh.

1522

Incidence of taxation

1523

Income

Thu nhp Lung lun chuyn ca thu nhp. ng tiu dng thu nhp.

1524

Income, circular flow of

Xem Circular flow of Income. Tip im ca ng BNG QUAN ca ngi tiu dng v NG NGN SCH xc nh v tr cn bng ca ngi tiu dng.

1525

Income consumption curve

1526

Income determination

Xc nh thu nhp.

Xem INCOME - EXPENDITURE MODEL. S khc nhau v mc thu nhp gia nhng ngi khc nhau. S khc nhau ny thng l do cc loi cng vic nh s khc bit v k nng lm vic, v v tr a l trong mt s vng c th c mc tin cng cao hn vng khc, hay c th c s khc nhau gia mc tin cng thnh th v nng thn. Mt s thay i gi c ca mt hng ho s lm gim hay tng thu nhp thc t ca ngi tiu dng.

1527

Income differentials

S khc bit v thu nhp. Hiu ng thu nhp, nh hng thu nhp.

1528

Income effect

1529

Income distribution

Phn phi thu nhp. Co gin ca cu theo thu nhp. M hnh thu nhp chi tiu o lng mc phn ng ca lng cu v mt hng ho i vi mt mc thay i v mc thu nhp ca nhng ngi c yu cu v hng ho ny. M hnh mt khu vc dng Keynes n gin cho php xc nh c MC THU NHP QUC DN CN BNG. Cc chnh sch c ra nhm nng mc thu nhp ca mt s nhm ngi hay c nhn no .

1530

Income elasticity of demand

1531

Income - expenditure model

1532

Income maintenance

Duy tr thu nhp. nh hng thu nhp ca lng. Phng php da theo thu nhp ( tnh GDP). T s thu nhp / doanh thu.

1533

Income effect of wages

1534

Income approach

1535

Income-sales ratio

T s gia gi tr gia tng v tng doanh thu ca mt doanh nghip hay mt ngnh. nh ca chnh ph mun kim sot tin cng bng mt hnh thc can thip no vo qu trnh thng thuyt v tin cng.

1536

Incomes policy

Chnh sch thu nhp. nh hng ca thu nhp v nh hng ca thay th.

1537

Income and substitution effect

1538

Income support

Tr gip thu nhp.

Xem BEVERIDGE REPORT. y l mt loi thu quan trng nht Ah v ng mt vai tr quan trng trong cc ch ti chnh ca tt c cc nc phng Ty.

1539

Income tax

Thu thu nhp Bo co thu nhp / Bn thu nhp. T gi thng mi theo thu nhp

1540

Income statement

1541

Income terms of trade

Xem TERM OF TRADE. S o tc lu thng ca tin c ngun gc t s phn tch ca trng phi Cambridge (xem QUANTITY, THEORY OF MONEY ), trong s lng tin mt trung bnh c quan h vi mc thu nhp trong mt thi k nht nh.

1542

Income velocity of circulation

Tc lu thng ca thu nhp. Li tc tng dn theo quy m. T s vn/ sn lng tng thm (ICOR).

1543

Increasing returns to scale

Xem ECONOMIES OF SCALE, RETURNS TO SCALE. S n v VN tng thm cn thit sn xut ra mt n v sn lng tng thm. Bin xut hin v phi ca du phng trnh, gi l bin khng ph thuc bi v gi tr ca n c xc nh "mt cch c lp" hoc c xc nh ngoi phng trnh ny.

1544

Incremental capital-output ratio

1545

Independent variable

Bin c lp.

1546

Indexation Indexation of tax allowances and taxation.

Phng php ch s ho. Ch s ho vic tr cp thu v vic nh thu.

Mt c ch iu chnh theo tng thi k gi tr danh ngha ca cc hp ng theo s bin ng ca CH S GI c xc nh. Ch s ho cc khon tr cp thu l qu trnh gi cho s lng tr cp thu khng i tnh theo gi tr thc t.

1547

1548

Index number

S ch s.

Con s th hin gi tr ca mt i lng no . Vn ch s c th ny sinh khi mun so snh hai tp hp bin s ti hai thi im khc nhau nhng s dng mt ch s thi v c nhiu cch khc nhau tng hp cc bin s vo cng mt s o. Vic s dng cc mc tiu c xc nh t trung ng phi hp cc k hoch sn lng, U T CA KHU VC CNG CNG v u t t nhn.

1549

Index number problem

Vn ch s. K hoch ho ch dn. Ch s bin dng / bp mo / sai lch.

1550

Indicative planning

1551

Index of distortion

1552

Indifference

Bng quan ng bng quan, ng ng dng. H ng bng quan, bn ng ng dng. Bnh phng ti thiu gin tip.

Mt nhn nh cho rng mt HNG HO, mt s kin hay mt d n va c a thch hn va khng c a thch hn mt hng ho khc

1553

Indifference curve

1554

Indifference map

Tp hp cc ng BNG QUAN, trong mi ng k tip nm pha ngoi ng trc theo hng ng bc. Cc ng bng quan cao hn ch mc tho dng cao hn. Mt cch c lng cc tham s ca cac PHNG TRNH NG THI trnh c S CHCH CA CC PHNG TRNH NG THI. Thng thng, y c coi l nhng loi thu nh vo hng ho v dch v v do vy, vic tr thu ch l gin tip. Hm tho dng biu hin tho dng thu c t mt tp hp hng ho c xc nh bi gi c ca nhng hng ho ny v mc thu nhp. c tnh ca mt yu t sn xut hay mt hng ho khng cho php s dng n di mt php ti thiu no . Hnh pht do mt s c nhn hay cc nhm ngi mu toan gii quyt BT NG V LAO NG trong doanh nghip ca h.

1555

Indirect least squares (ILS)

1556

Indirect taxes

Thu gin thu. Hm tho dng gin tip. Tnh bt kh chia; Tnh khng th phn chia c.

1557

Indirect utility function

1558

Indivisibilities

1559

Industrial action Industrial and Commercial Finance Corporation

Trng pht lao ng. Cng ty Ti chnh Cng nghip v Thng mi. Ngn hng cng nghip.

1560

Xem INVESTORS INDUSTRY. Mt tn gi khc ca mt CNG TY TI CHNH, chng hn nh mt t chc to tn dng THU MUA. Mt k thut c s dng trong k hoch ho vng lnh th, n tp trung vo phn tch mi quan h tng tc gia cc hot ng cng nghip c thc hin trn cng mt vng a l.

1561

Industrial bank

1562

Industrial complex analysis

Phn tch t hp cng nghip.

1563

Industrial democracy

Dn ch cng nghip

Mt s m rng qu trnh ra quyt nh trong phm vi mt x nghip t mt nhm nh theo hng cho ton th lc lng lam vic. Mt s kim sot trc y v xy dng cng nghip c hnh thnh theo o lut K hoch ho qun v th x nm 1947, i hi phi c mt chng ch (IDC) trc khi xy dng hay m rng mt khu cng nghip qu mt quy m nht nh. Sau khi thng qua Lut Cng nghip nm 1972, IDCS khng cn cn cho s pht trin trong CC KHU VC CN PHT TRIN hay cc KHU VC C BIT CN PHT TRIN v IDCS thc t b b t nm 1982. Mi s bt ng hay s bt ho hoc l gia ch v ngi lm thu hoc l gia nhng ngi lm thu v thi hn v iu kin lm vic ca mt ngi, mt nhm ngi hay l tnh trng khng c vic lm ca mt ngi.

1564

Industrial Development Certificate

Chng ch Pht trin cng nghip.

1565

Industrial dispute

Tranh chp lao ng S tp trung cng nghip.

1566

Industrial concentration

1567

Inductive reasoning

Lp lun quy np. Chnh sch cng nghip. Mt cm thut ng c s dng m t mt hin tng, cc doanh nghip khng thay i c v tr a l khi v tr hin ti khng cn l mt v tr mang li nhiu li nhun nht na. S pht trin ca cc ngnh cng nghip c coi l chin lc pht trin chung. Thng thng, y l lnh vc ca L THUYT GI C NG DNG. N quan tm n s vn hnh ca nn kinh t th trng v nhn chung l n tip cn theo c cu th trng, s iu hnh v kt qu ca th trng.

1568

Industrial policy

1569

Industrial inertia

Tnh cng nghip. Cng nghip ho ( cc nc ang pht trin).

1570

Industrialization

1571

Industrial organization

T chc cng nghip Cc quan h lao ng.

1572

Industrial relation

Nghin cu v thc hnh cc quy tc chi phi vic lm. Mt t chc c lp c mt chnh ph Anh lp ra vo nm 1966 ri sau b mt chnh ph Anh khc gii tn vo nm 1971. Mc ch ca t chc l tng hiu qu ca khu vc cng nghip trong nn kinh t thng qua vic khuyn khich hp l ho v hp nht cc doanh nghip "nh" thnh cc n v ln hn v hy vng c hiu qu ln hn. Nghip on l t chc ca tt c cc cng nhn trong mt ngnh bt k chuyn mn ca h l g. Xem GENERAL, UNIONAND CRAFT UNIONS. Cc chnh lch v mc tr cng trung bnh ca cc nhm cng nhn c phn loi theo ngnh m h lm vic. Vic xp hng mc tr cng trung bnh ca cc nhm cng nhn khc nhau c phn loi theo ngnh m h lm vic.

1573

Industrial Reorganization Corporation

Cng ty ci t cng nghip. Nghip on theo ngnh. Chnh lch v tin cng gia cc ngnh. C cu tin cng theo ngnh.

1574

Industrial unions

1575

Industrial wage differentials

1576

Industrial wage structure

1577

Industry

Ngnh cng nghip. Thng lng trong ton ngnh.

Mt ngnh trong khun kh C CU TH TRNG CNH TRANH HON HO c th c nh ngha l mt s ln doanh nghip cnh tranh vi nhau trong vic sn xut MT SN PHM NG NHT.

1578

Industry-wide bargaining

Xem NATIONAL BARGAINING

1579

Inelastic

Khng co gin.

Xem Elasticity. Quan h ni ln mt hm s ca mt bin (hay mt tp hp cc bin) ln hn hay nh hn mt s no . Ngnh cng nghip trong thi k u pht trin, th phn ni a ca n hin cn nh do s cnh tranh ca cc i th nc ngoi. Mt trong nhng l l bo h lu i nht cho rng mt ngnh cng nghip l mi i vi t nc v nh hn quy m ti u c th khng c kh ng ng vng trong cnh tranh vi nc ngoi trong thi k non tr.

1580

Inequality

Bt ng thc. Ngnh cng nghip non tr. Lun im bo h ngnh cng nghip non tr. Lun im v lp thu quan bo h ngnh cng nghip non tr.

1581

Infant industry

1582

Infant industry argument for protection

1583

Infant industry tariff argument

1584

Inference

Suy lun Hng ho h ng; hng ho th cp

Xem STATISTIC INFERENCE. Hng c nh thu nhp m, ngha l khi thu nhp tng ln, cc yu t khc khng i, lng cu i vi hng ho gim.

1585

Inferior good

1586

Infinite memory

B nh v hn.

Mt C TNH CA QU TRNH TNH SAI PHN . S gia tng ng k trong mc gi chung hay t l tng ca mc gi chung trn mt n v thi gian. Lm pht b nn ny sinh nu vic kim sot gi gi gi c mc thp trong khi nn kinh t ang c xu hng lm pht ni chung. Xem Inflation. Ch cc k thut xc nh tc ng ca lm pht n cc ti khon v cc th tc hch ton. Tng chi tiu vt qu mc sn lng ti a c th t c dn n kt qu gy sc p lm cho gi c tng ln.

1587

Inflation

Lm pht.

1588

Inflation, suppressed

Lm pht b nn.

1589

Inflation accounting

Hch ton lm pht. H cch / khong trng lm pht, chnh lch lm pht.

1590

Inflationary gap

1591

Infinitely elastic

Co gin hon ton. Vng xoy c ca lm pht.

1592

Inflationary spiral

Xem HYPERINFLATION, INFLATION. Do tnh khng linh hot v th ch m li sut v thanh ton n c th khng cng tng vi lm pht, do LI SUT THC T v gi tr thc t ca n gim xung.

1593

Inflation subsidy

Tr cp lm pht.

1594

Inflation tax

Thu lm pht.

Tnh hung khi chnh ph thc hin chnh sch tng lm pht thay cho vic tng thu thanh ton cho cc khon chi tiu ca mnh. Ch mt s lng ln nhng ngi t lm vic cho mnh trong mt nc ang pht trin, nhng ngi ny tham gia vo cc cng vic quy m nh, chng hn ch may v, dch v n ung, bun bn, sa cha giy dp.

1595

Informal sector

Khu vc khng chnh thc.

1596

Information

Thng tin

Xem PERFECT INFORMATION. Ma trn gm cc o hm bc hai ca HM XC SUT trong c lng xc sut ln nht ca m hinh kinh t lng.

1597

Information matrix

Ma trn Thng tin.

1598

Inflation rate

T l lm pht. Ngn sch c iu chnh theo lm pht. Phn tch thng tin kinh t.

1599

Inflation-adjusted budget

1600

Informative economy analysis

1601

Infra-marginal externality

Ngoi ng bin.

Xem EXTERNALITIES. Cc yu t c cu ca mt nn kinh t to iu kin thun li cho vic lun chuyn hng ho v dch v gia ngi mua v ngi bn. y l mt loi thu nh vo ca ci Anh v n tn nm 1986 vn c coi l THU CHUYN NHNG VN, thu ny thay th cho THU BT NG SN nm 1974. Bo co thng k s ngi ln u tin xin tr cp tht nghip M. S b sung ngoi sinh vo s thu nhp ca cc doanh nghip v h gia nh. Bao gm tt c cc dng phn phi li khng phi bng chuyn tin mt hay thu nhp. Mt hi phiu c rt nhm ti tr cho sn xut v bun bn trong nc. Thng c s dng thay cho t "pht minh" v ch nhng tin b v cng ngh trong qu trnh sn xut cng nh vic to ra nhng thuc tnh khc nhau v kt hp cc thuc tnh trong cc sn phm c th trao i c.

1602

Infrastructure

H tng c s.

1603

Inheritance tax

Thu tha k. Nhm ngi yu cu u tin.

1604

Initial claims series

1605

Injections

S bm tin. Phn phi li bng hin vt.

1606

In-kind redistribution

1607

Inland bill

Hi phiu ni a.

1608

Innovations

Pht kin; sng kin

1609

Input

u vo. nh hng theo u vo.

Xem FACTOR OF PRODUCTION. Xu hng ca mt s phng thc sn xut v ch to mun gn ngun nguyn vt liu hay u vo.

1610

Input orientation

1611

Innocent entry barrier

Cn tr v tnh i vi vic nhp ngnh; Cn tr ngu nhin i vi vic nhp ngnh. u vo - u ra (IO), bng cn i lin ngnh. Mt phng php phn tch trong nn kinh t c th hin bng mt tp hp cc HM SN XUT TUYN TNH m t mi quan h tng tc gia cc ngnh. S chm tr gia vic nhn thc ra nhu cu phi c hnh ng chnh sch v s thc hin chnh sch. Cc dng tin da trn s n ca khu vc t nhn , v d quan trng nht l tin gi ngn hng thng mi ng vi s tin ngn hng cho khu vc t nhn vay.

1612

Input - output

1613

Inside lag

tr bn trong.

1614

Inside money

Tin bn trong. Ngi trong cuc ngi ngoi cuc.

1615

Insider - outsider

1616

Insider - outsider model

M hnh Ngi trong cuc - ngi ngoi cuc.

Cc m hnh phn bit nhng ngi hin ang lm vic, gi l nhng ngi bn trong - nhng ngi ny c coi l c mt t sc mnh i vi th trng - vi nhng ngi khng c vic lm nhng ang mun lm vic, gi l nhng ngi bn ngoi. Mt ngi hay cng ty khng tr c n, sau khi qua cc khu xem xt v lut php, c th c tuyn b Ph sn hay h c th dn xp vi nhng ngi cho vay xo n. Cm thut ng chung ch ti chnh cho vay theo cc iu kin v vic tr gc v li lm nhiu ln. Mt loi phn tch kinh t nhn mnh n vai tr ca cc t chc x hi, chnh tr v kinh t trong vic hnh thnh cc s kin kinh t. Thng c s dng m t s o to vic lm do chnh ph trc tip cung cp. Bin s thay th BIN GII THCH THC T lm trng s trong phn tch hi quy. Cn gi l cc CNG C CHNH SCH. Thut ng ny xut pht t vic phn loi cc bin trong qu trnh n nh ho kinh t thnh cc cng c chnh sch, mc tiu chnh sch v cc bin ngoi sinh. Bo him cho php mi ngi i ri ro ca vic thua thit ln ly s chc chn ca vic thua thit nh.

1617

Insolvency

Tnh trng khng tr c n.

1618

Instalment credit

Tn dng tr dn.

1619

Institutional economics

Kinh t hc th ch.

1620

Institutional training

o to th ch. Cc bin cng c (IV).

1621

Instrumental variables

1622

Instruments

Cc cng c.

1623

Insurance

Bo him

1624

Insurance premium

Tin ng bo him.

Xem INSURANCE.

1625

Intangible assets

Ti sn v hnh.

Xem TANGIBLE ASSETS, GOODWILL.

1626

Intangible capital

Vn v hnh.

1627

Integer

S nguyn

Mt s trn, khng c phn thp phn hay phn s.

1628

Integerated economy

Nn kinh t lin kt. Chui thi gian c ly tch phn.

Cm thut ng ch tnh hung khi m cc khu vc t nhn khc nhau ca mt nn kinh t, thng l cc khu vc cng nghip v nng nghip, hot ng phi hp vi nhau mt cch c hiu qu v ph thuc ln nhau.

1629

Integerated time series

1630

Integration

Tch phn ho. u t vo hng tn kho c ch

y l qu trnh ngc li ca vi phn. Xem DERIVATIVE.

1631

Intended inventory investment

S gia tng d tr c ch tm. Xem INVESTORIES. Trng hp gim li tc vt cht i vi vn v lao ng khi t ai l c nh. Mt trong cc nhm TH TRNG TIN T c quan h ln nhau London. Th trng ny pht trin vo nhng nm 1960 v l mt th trng trong CC NGN HNG KHNG THANH TON B TR cho vay ln nhau, nhng ri n tr thnh mt th trng tin ln c rt nhiu th ch ti chnh s dng trong vic cho vay v i vay. Trong HM TUYN TNH h s chn l mt hng s, ngha l s hng khng cha BIN C LP. Nu tho dng ca mt nhi b tc ng bi s lng hng ho v dch v m nhng ngi khc tiu dng th ny sinh trng hp tho dng ph thuc ln nhau. Mt ti khon c bit ca s thanh ton b tr c s dng iu tit s chuyn tin gia 12 Ngn hng vng thuc H THNG D TR LIN BANG.

1632

Intensive margin

Gii hn thm canh.

1633

Inter-Bank Market

Th trng Lin ngn hng.

1634

Intercept

H s chn.

1635

Interdependent utility Interdistrict Settlement Account (or Fund)

tho dng ph thuc ln nhau. Ti khon (hay qu) Thanh ton lin vng.

1636

1637

Interest

Tin li, li sut.

Xem RATE OF INTEREST. Vo u nhng nm 1960, nc M tri qua mt thi k cn cn thanh ton lin tc thm ht vi s lng ln do vn chay khi t nc. Thu san bng li sut l mt nh nhm ngn lung vn i ra ny bng cch nh thu vo vic cng dn M mua tri phiu v ti sn nc ngoi.

1638

Interest equalization tax

Thuu san bng li sut.

1639

Interest sensitivity

nhy theo li sut. Cng bng gia cc th h. Cc tr cp lin chnh quyn. Cc ban gim c chung, cc ban gim c kt hp. Tnh cng bng trong vic s dng cc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin gia cc th h khc nhau. S tin do mt cp chnh ph mt nc (v d chnh ph trung ng) cp cho mt chnh ph nc khc. Ch tnh hung trong mt hay nhiu ngi tham gia vo ban gim c ca hai hay nhiu cng ty.

1640

Intergenerational equity

1641

Intergovernmental grants

1642

Interlocking directorates

1643

Intermediate areas

Cc vng trung gian.

Xem HUNT REPORT, ASSISTED AREAS.

1644

Intermediate goods

Hng ho trung gian.

Hng ho c s dng vo mt thi im no trong qu trnh sn xut cc hng ho khc ch khng phi cho tiu dng cui cng. y l mt phn tr ca tr hot ng c lin quan vi CHNH SCH TIN T. Tp hp cc k thut v qu trnh cng ngh nm gia cng ngh DNG NHIU VN ca th gii phng Ty v cc k thut ni sinh, th s ca cc nc ang pht trin. Nhm do E.F.Schumacher thnh lp vo nm 1965 London. C 3 hot ng chnh. 1)K hoch thu thp v th mc ho s liu v cc k thut DNG NHIU LAO NG c hiu qu ph hp vi vic p dng quy m nh. 2)Xut bn cc tng v CNG NGH TRUNG GIAN thng qua cc bi bo, sch, bi ging, tp ch ring v thng qua c n lc gy nh hng i vi chnh sch vin tr ca cc chnh ph v cc t chc quc t. 3)C mt chng trnh cung cp vin tr cho cc d n c bit cc nc chm pht trin, cc d n ny nhn mnh n qu trnh t gip thng qua vic s dng cng ngh thch hp cho cc cng ng dn c nh.

1645

Intermediate lag

tr trung gian.

1646

Intermediate technology

Cng ngh trung gian.

1647

Intermediate Technology Development Group

Nhm Pht trin Cng ngh trung gian.

1648

Intermediate variables

Bin trung gian

Xem Intermediate lag. iu kin d dng cho cng dn mt nc mun i ni t vi khi lng tin khng hn ch ly ngoi t theo mt t gi do ngn hng trung ng quy nh nhng ni v vic s dng ngoi t c hn ch trong cc giao dch thuc TI KHON VNG LAI. S vn ng ca tin mt, tc l mt phng tin lu thng, t cc ngn hng vo lu thng trong nc. Phn m rng ca mt doanh nghip c to ra bi u t trong ni b doanh nghip ch khng phi u t c c thng qua thu mua ca cc doanh nghip khc v hot ng hp nht, ngha l TNG TRNG T BN NGOI. Mt tnh hung trong mt ngoi ng, thng l ngoi ng phi kinh t, c tnh ton n v SN LNG ca hng ho gy ra tc ng khng tt c gim xung mc ti u, ng thi vn tn ti mt lng ngoi ng ti u, ngha l chi ph ca vic gim ngoi ng i thm mt n v na ln hn li ch thu c t vic lm nh vy. Mt dn xp qua lao ng c cung v cu trong phm vi mt doanh nghip m khng c s tham gia trc tip vo TH TRNG LAO NG BN NGOI. Khon tin gi li t LI NHUN RNG s dng cho vic ti tr cc hot ng ca mt doanh nghip. Xem External finance.

1649

Internal convertibility of soft currencies

Kh nng chuyn i trong nc ca tin yu. S x tin trong nc.

1650

Internal drain

1651

Internal growth

Tng trng nh ni ng.

1652

Internalization

Ni ho. Th trng lao ng ni vi.

1653

"internal" labuor market

1654

Internal finance

Ti chnh bn trong.

1655

Internal rate of return

Ni sut sinh li Cc mc chnh lch tin cng ni ti.

Xem RATE OF RETURN.

1656

Internal wage differentials

Xem RELATIVITIES.

1657

Internal balance

Cn bng bn trong

1658

External balance

Cn bng bn ngoi. Mt ngn hng pht trin quc t c thnh lp vo nm 1945 cng vi Qu tin t quc t IMF theo cc iu khon ca hip nh c k trong Hi ngh v Ti chnh v Tin t ca Lin hp quc t chc ti BRETTON WOODS, New Hampshire thng 7 nm 1944. Mt hip nh gia cc nh sn xut, khi s lng sn xut ca h cn nh, phn chia vi nhau th trng th gii v mt loi hng ho nhm thu c li nhun trn mc cnh tranh v khi suy thoi th li trnh c cnh tranh khc lit.

1659

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

Ngb hng Ti thit v Pht trin Quc t.

1660

International cartel

Cartel quc t. Cc lin minh thanh ton quc t. Cc hip nh hng ho quc t.

1661

International clearing unions International commodity agreements

Xem KEYNES PLAN Cc hip nh gia cc nc sn xut v tiu dng, nhng i khi ch l hip nh ca cc bn sn xut, nhm bo m n nh gi c cc hng ha s ch. Mt c quan chuyn mn ca Lin hp quc c thnh lp vo nm 1960 vi t cch l mt phn hiu ca NGN HNG TI THIT V PHT TRIN QUC T hay Ngn hng th gii. Mt t chc hnh chnh c thnh lp nm 1970 nhm gim st tt c cc hnh thc tr gip ca M i vi cc nc chm pht trin, bao gm tin vin tr nc ngoi, cc khon cho vay u i, vin tr lng thc, thc phm theo Lut cng chng 480, tr gip k thut v chuyn giao nhn lc (v d nh cc i qun gn gi ho bnh).

1662

1663

International Development Association

Hip hi pht trin quc t

1664

International Development Cooperation Agency (ID)

T chc hp tc pht trin quc t. S phn chia lao ng quc t.

1665

International division of labour

Chuyn mn ho trong sn xut trn c s quc gia. B phn ca kinh t hc nghin cu cc giao dch gia cc nc trong lnh vc hng ho v dch v, lu thng ti chnh v di chuyn cc yu t sn xut. Mt t chc pht trin quc t c thnh lp vo nm 1956 v sau tr thnh mt c quan chuyn mn ca Lin hp quc vo nm 1957.

1666

International economics

Kinh t hc quc t Cng ty Ti chnh Quc t. Khng hong n quc t.

1667

International Finance Corporation

1668

International debt crisis

1669 1670

International Labuor Office International liquidity

Vn phng Lao ng quc t. Thanh khon quc t.

Mt t chc lin chnh ph c thnh lp nm 1919 theo hip c Versaille, sau tr thanh mt c quan chuyn mn ca Lin Hp Qucvo nm 1946. T chc ny mong mun xc tin s hp tc quc t theo cc chnh sch c ra mhm mc ch t c mc tiu vic lm, ci thin iu kin lm vic, m rng bo him x hi v nng cao mc sng ni chung. Phn tch n cng, cc khon n gia cc nc khc nhau c gii quyt bng cch chuyn giao cc phng tin thanh ton c quc t chp nhn nh: vng, mt hoc nhiu NG TIN D TR ch yu, hoc trong phm vi hp hn l cc QUYN RT TIN

C BIT (SDRs). Mt trng phi t tng cho rng nhng thay i ca MC CUNG TIN th gii l ngun gc c bn to ra sc p lm pht v gim pht trong nn kinh t th gii. (IMF) - Qu tin t quc t c thnh lp vo 12/1945 theo s ph chun cc iu khon ca Hip nh v qu, c lp ra ti Hi ngh Ti chnh v Tin t ca Lin hp quc t chc ti BRETTON WOODS, New Hampshire, 1944. Mc ch ca qu l khuyn khch s hp tc v tin t quc t, to iu kin cho vic m rng tng trng cn i trong THNG MI QUC T, gip cc nc thnh vin trong vic khc phc CN CN THANH TON v xc tin vic n nh NGOI T. Mt cm thut ng chung ch cch thc tin hnh cc giao dch ti chnh quc t, ngha l cc thanh ton gia cng dn ca cc nc ang gi cc ng ni t khc nhau. S phn loi cng nghip v cc hot ng kinh t c ra nhm tng cng kh nng so snh quc t ca cc s liu thng k do Lin hp quc tp hp v xut bn. Trao i bun bn hng ho v dch v gia cc quc gia. Nm 1947, Hi ng Kinh t v X hi ca Lin hp quc nhm hp Havana, Cuba, mt hi ngh quc t v Thng mi v Pht trin "nhm mc ch thc y sn xut, trao i v tiu dng hng ho". Mt t chc hnh ho quc t c thnh lp nm 1979 theo Hip nh v la m Quc t ln th nht nhm iu hnh Cng c Bun bn la m theo Hip nh v la m quc t nm 1971.

1671

International monetarism

Ch ngha trng tin quc t.

1672

International monetary Fund

(IMF) - Qu tin t quc t.

1673

International payments system

H thng thanh ton quc t. (ISIC)-Phn loi Ngnh Cng nghip theo C1683Tiu chun Quc t.

1674

International Standard Industrial Classification

1675

International trade

Thng mi quc t.

1676

International Trade Organization

(ITO) - T chc thng mi quc t.

1677

International Wheat Council

Hi ng la m Quc t. So snh tho dng gia cc c nhn.

1678

Interpersonal comparisons of utility

Xem WELFARE ECONOMICS. Mt thc o s phn tn ca s liu mu hoc phn phi, thut ng ny c nh ngha nh s chnh lch gia gi tr cao nht v thp nht ca cc t phn v, v v vy n cha 50% gi tr trung tm cc quan st ca cc bin s lin quan. o lut ny thit lp U ban Thng mi gia cc Bang (ICC) M nm 1887. ICC l t chc iu tit lin bang u tin.

1679

Interquartile range

Khong cch gia cc t v phn v. o lut thng mi gia cc tiu bang.

1680

Interstate Commerce Act

1681

Intersection

Giao c lng mt khong trong gi tr ca THAM S thc t c kh nng ri vo. TH TRNG CHIT KHU LONDON c gi l "ti Ngn hng" khi tt c hay mt s TR S CHIT KHU buc phi vay hay gim chit khu hi phiu ti Vn phng Chit khu ca NGN HNG ANH do cc ngn hng rt tin THEO YU CU ca chng.

1682

Interval estimation

c lng khong.

1683

"In the bank"

"ti Ngn hng".

1684

Inventories

Hang tn kho, d tr.

D tr hay mc duy tr hnh ho ca cc doanh nghip p ng nhng dao ng tht thng tm thi trong sn xut hay kinh doanh. Nhng dao ng ca mc sn lng do nhng thay i ca LNG TN KHO. S tch lu hng tn kho khi sn xut vt qu sn lng bn thc t. Mt quy tc xc nh o hm ca mt hm s, trong bin s m chng ta mun ly o hm c biu din di dng bin ph thuc. Thut ng ny c s dng ph bin nht m t lu lng chi tiu c dng tng hay duy tr DUNG LNG VN thc t. (i vi cc nc ANG PHT TRIN). Cc tiu chun c ra nhm lm c s cho vic phn b cc ngun lc u t. Cc khon tin do chnh ph hay cc t chc khc cung cp nhm mc ch khuyn khch cc doanh nghip chi tiu mua VND vt cht. Mt cng ty vi chc nng u t vo cc t chc khc. Mt cng ty ti chnh pht trin c ngn hng Anh v Ngn hng thanh ton London v Scotland thnh lp nm 1946 gi l HIP HI TI CHNH CNG NGHIP V THNG MI (ICFC) vi s tr gip ca chnh ph Anh nhm lp mt trong nhng "l hng" ca th trng vn Anh do u ban MACMILLAN xc nh. Mt cm thut ng ch mt qu trnh phi hp khng trng thy c nhm m bo cho s nht qun ca cc k hoch c nhn trong nn kinh t th trng phi tp trung. Xem BALANCE OF PAYMENTS, BALANCE OF TRADE, CURRENT ACCOUNT, EXPORTS. Tht nghip s c loi b khi tng cu tng ln, tng cu lm cho gi c tng ln v tin cng thc t thp i. Gi thit rng, vi bt k kh nng tng tin cng trong ngn hn, tin cng chc chn s tr li mc va sng trong di hn.

1685

Inventory cycle

Chu k hng tn kho.

1686

Inventory investment

u t tn kho

1687

Inverse function rule

Quy tc hm ngc.

1688

Investment

u t. Cc tiu chun u t.

1689

Investment criteria

1690

Investment grants

Tr cp u t.

1691

Investment trust

T-rt u t.

1692

Investors in Industry

Cc nh u t trong Cng nghip.

1693

Invisible hand, the

Bn tay v hnh.

1694

Invisibles

Khon v hnh Tht nghip khng t nguyn. Quy lut st v tin cng. Lng cho vay khng tr c. Cc c phiu u tin khng tr c.

1695

Involuntary unemployment

1696

Iron law of wages

1697

Irredeemable loan stock

Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL

1698

Irredeemable preference shares

Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. Xt v phng din TI NGUYN THIN NHIN v mi trng, thut ng ny ch mt hnh ng no c nhng tc ng khng th o ngc c mt cch tuyt i hoc do chi ph lm nh vy l qu ln.

1699

Irreversibility

Tnh bt kh o; Tnh khng th o ngc c.

1700

IS curve

ng IS Phn loi Ngnh Cng nghip theo tiu chun Quc t. Ngn hng pht trin Hi gio.

Xem IS - LM DIAGRAM Xem INTERNATIONAL STANDARD INDUSTRAL CLASSIFICATION Mt ngn hng pht trin khu vc c T chc Hi ngh o hi thnh lp nm 1974 nhm khuyn khch tng trng kinh t cc nc v cng ng hi gio. Lc m t vic xc nh ng thicc gi tr cn bng ca li sut v mc thu nhp quc dn do kt qu thc hin cc iu kin trong th trng hng ho v tin t. ng cong hay ng thng m t t hp ca hai u vo bt k c th mua c vi mt s tin c nh. (Cn c gi l ng cong ng chi). Xem ISOCOST CURVE. (Cn c gi l ng bng quan ca ngi sn xut hay ng ng lng). Mt ng ng sn phm l tp hp cc t hp ca hai hay nhiu U VO to ra cng mt mc SN LNG. Qu tch cc t hp ca hai hay nhiu bin ph thuc ca HM LI NHUN to nn mt mc li nhun nh nhau.

1701

ISIC

1702

Islamic Development Bank

1703

IS- LM diagram

Lc IS - LM.

1704

Iso-cost curve

ng ng ph.

1705

Iso-outlay line

ng ng chi.

1706

Iso-product curve

ng ng sn phm. Cc ng ng nhun.

1707

Iso-profit curve

1708

Isoquant

ng lng.

Xem Iso-profit curve. Qu tch cc t hp SN LNG v ph tn tip th to nn mt mc TNG DOANH THU nht nh. Khi mt cng ty c hn ch v c phn c thnh lp, cng ty ny c php tng vn bng cch pht hnh c phiu vi mt s lng nht nh. Mt cc thuc Ngn hng Anh c trch nhim trong vic pht hnh giy bc ngn hng. Mt s loi chng khon pht hnh mi ca cc cng ty v cc t chc khc c nhng ngi mi gii chng khon iu khin v trn phng din ny th h hot ng ging nh nh pht hnh. Mt t chc, thng l mt ngn hng thng mi, bn cnh cc hot ng khc cn chuyn mn ho trong qun l vic pht hnh c phn mi, tri phiu cng ty hoc tri phiu nhn danh cc cng ty hoc cc t chc khc c nhu cu v ti chnh, v d nh chnh ph v cc cp chnh quyn a phng. Mt hip hi c thnh lp vo nm 1945 t chc mt din n nhm tng cng nhng li ch ca cc ngn hng thng mi v cc t chc khc hot ng vi t cch l cc nh pht hnh.

1709

Iso-revenue line (curve)

ng ng thu.

1710

Issued capital

Vn pht hnh.

1711

Issue department

Cc pht hnh.

1712

Issuing broker

Ngi mi gii pht hnh.

1713

Issuing house

Nh pht hnh.

1714

Issuing House Association

Hip hi cc Nh pht hnh. T chc thng mi Quc t.

1715

ITO

Xem INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORGANIZATION.

1716

Inverse relation

Tng quan nghch bin. Pht minh v pht kin. Thng mi trong ngnh. Can thip v ti tr chnh thc. Biu nhu cu u t.

1717

Invention and innovation

1718

Intra-industrial trade

1719

Invention and official financing

1720

Investment demand schedule

1721

IOU money

Tin da theo n.

1722

IS and LM schedule

Biu IS v LM. Thi k ngay sau khi ng tin ca mt quc gia b mt gi hay ph gi, quc gia c th tri qua mt thi k thm ht CN CN THANH TON. Cm thut ng miu t vn khi phng din l thuyt ngi ta gi nh rng T S VN - LAO NG c th c thay i ngay lp tc. Mt cng chc v sau l mt gio s u tin ti trng i hc Owens, Manchester v sau ti trng i hc tng hp London, Jevon l mt nh kinh t y nng lc c tng ban u rt v i, mc du ng khng pht trin ht nhng tng ca mnh mt cch rt y . Trong cc tc phm chnh ca mnh, Hc thuyt kinh t chnh tr (1871), Jevon ch yu vit v nhng tng ca TRNG PHI O v phn tch gi tr tho dng bin v l thuyt v vn v li. L mt trong ba nh sng lp phng php tho dng bin, (nhng ngi khc l Merger v Walras), Jevon l ngi u tin cng b hc thuyt ny vo nm 1862. ng cng a ra khi nim phi tho dng ca lao ng. ng gn thi gian vo qu trnh sn xut v vo l thuyt v vn trc Bohm Bawerk. ng coi u t c hai kha cnh, dung lng vn v thi gian u t. ng cho rng tng vn ng ngha vi vic ko di thi gian u t v rng nng sut ca vn l mt hm s thi gian. Li sut th ph thuc vo sn phm bin ca vn. Jevon cng ng gp nhiu vo vn cc s ch s. ng xy dng ch s gi c bnh qun gia quyn v thuyt chu k thng mi vi thuyt "vng nng nng" ca mnh. Vng nng nng b nh hng n thi tit v nh hng n ma v cy trng v do vy nh hng n nn kinh t ni chung. Thut ng trc khi c khi nim v n ln vo nm 1986, ch mt nh lp th trng ti s chng khon London. Mt nhm n nh cc ngh nghip hay cng vic nm trong mt th trng lao ng ni b lin kt cht ch vi nhau n mc chng c cng cc c im quy nh v lng bng.

1723

J curve

ng ch J

1724

"jelly" capital

Vn "mm do".

1725

Jevon, W.Stanley

(1835-1882) Ngi bun bn chng khon.

1726

Jobber

1727

Job cluster

Nhm ngh.

1728

Job competition theory

Thuyt v cnh tranh vic lm.

Mt nh thay th cnh tranh lng bng chnh thng m trong cng nhn cnh tranh vi nhau ginh ly vic lm bng vic thay i mc lng m h sn sng lm vic. Hnh ng c hiu theo ngha rng nht l gim s ngi tht nghip trong thi k suy thoi, hoc bng cch gim tc ngi b sa thi do d tha hoc bng cch tng tc ngi tht nghip tm kim c vic lm.

1729

Job creation

To vic lm. Biu s ngi chp nhn cng vic.

1730

Job acceptance schedule

1731

Job dublication

Vic lm kp.

iu ny din ra khi mt c nhn ng thi c hn mt vic lm v do vy khng ph thuc vo mt ngun thu nhp duy nht. Mt qu trnh m trong cc yu t khc nhau ca mt vic lm lm nh k nng, kin thc tch lu, trch nhim v cc iu kin lm vic - c nh gi, cho im v a ra mt im chung cho vic lm . L qu trnh thu thp thng tin v nhng c hi vic lm v mc lng ca mi c hi c hi vic lm trong th trng lao ng. Cc phng php tm vic hoc nhn vic lm c phn loi thnh "chnh quy" v "khng chnh quy". Mt xu hng trong gii cng nhn tr, v c bit trong s nhng ngi v thnh nin tm kim vic lm thch hp trn c s th nghim. L nh kinh t hc ngi Canada c b nhim l ch nhim cng trnh v thuyt kinh t ti Manchester nm 1956. nh dy hc ti Chicago, Trng Kinh t London v Geneva. ng l bin tp vin ca nhiu thi bo khc nhau nh Thi bo kinh t, Tp san Kinh t chnh tr v Kinh t hc quc t. Cc tc phm ni ting ca ng bao gm Thng mi quc t v tng trng kinh t, Nhng nghin cu v l lun thun tu (1958), cc tiu lun tip theo v kinh t hc tin t (1972), Kinh t hc v X hi (1975). L thnh vin ca TRNG PHA CHICAGO, ngoi nhng ng gp ban u vo lnh vc cn cn thanh ton, thu quan v thanh ton cho cc yu t sn xut, ng tng hp nhiu tc phm ng thi v kinh t hc quc t v kinh t hc tin t quc t. Cc phn phi xc sut m cho bit xc sut vi hai hay nhiu hn cc bin s nhn ng thi nhng gi tr nht nh (hoc nm trong nhng khong nht nh). Cc hng ho c c tnh l nu c s thay i trong tc sn lng ca mt sn phm th s em li s thay i tng t i vi cc sn phm kia. Ti a ho li nhun kt hp ca mt nhm doanh nghip. Cng ty c phn c thnh lp m khng phi tun theo nhng i hi phi cam kt nhiu vn ti chnh. Mt tnh hung trong c khu vc cng cng v t nhn hp tc vi nhau trong mt hot ng kinh t; iu ny c bit ph bin trong cc nc km pht trin ni m vn rt khan him trong khu vc t nhn v cc qu ca chnh ph thng c dng pht

1732

Job evaluation

nh gi vic lm.

1733

Job search

Tm kim vic lm.

1734

Job search channels

Cc knh tm vic.

1735

Job shopping

Chn vic lm.

1736

Johnson, Harry Gordon

(1923-77) Cc phn phi xc sut kt hp. Cc sn phm lin kt. Ti a ho li nhun chung.

1737

Joint probability distributions

1738

Joint products

1739

Joint profit maximination

1740 1741

Joint stock company Joint venture

Cng ty c phn. Lin doanh.

trin cng nghip hay dch v ngn hng Joint venture in European Countries Lin doanh cc nc ng u. Mt hnh thc hp tc kinh doanh quc t gia cc cng ty Phng Ty v cc cng ty ng u v l m hnh u t nc ngoi chnh cc nc ng u. Mt php kim nh c to ra gii quyt cc gi thit khng c bin chung trong khun kh ca m hnh hi quy. Mt chu k trong thng mi trong mc hot ng kinh t vi thi gian t 9 ti 10 nm.

1742

1743

J - test

Kim nh J.

1744

Juglar cycle

Chu k Juglar. Chn l nh l cng bng.

1745

Justice as fairness

Xem RAWLSIAN JUSTICE. Mt tiu chun o c v gi tr ca mt hng ho hay dch v - ngha l mt mc gi m c coi l "ng v o l".

1746

Just price

Gi cng bng. Tri phiu li sut cao.

1747

Junk bonds

1748

Kahn, Richard F.

(1905-1989)

Nh kinh t hc ngi Anh, ngi c nh hng ln ti Cambridge, t nhng nm 1930 ti nhng nm 70. Uy tn v nh hng ca ng vt xa nhng tc phm xut bn ca mnh m trong tc phm Cc tiu lun la chn v vic lm v tng trng (1973) miu t nhng ng gp ch yu ca ng.ng c cho l ngi a ra khi nim s nhn v c ghi nhn v nhng ng gp quan trng trong nhng nm 1930 v KINH T HC PHC LI trong vic xc nh nhng iu kin c mt S TI U V X HI. Sinh ra Hungary, Kaldor hc v dy Anh t nhng nm 1920. ng ta c mt s ng gp cho l thuyt kinh t v i khi l nhn vt quan trng trong vic t vn cho cc chnh ph v chnh sch kinh t. ng c ng gp vo l thuyt kinh t trong lnh vc KINH T HC PHC LI m theo ng cng vi J.R.Hicks pht trin m hnh KIM NH N B phc li thu c. ng ta l ngi ng h chnh i vi cuc tranh ci v vn v cng vi Joan Robinson v nhng ngi khc ng tn cng hc thuyt tn c in v phn phi thu nhp v tin b k thut da trn phn tch bin thay th chng vi cc m hnh da trn phn tch ca J.M.Keynes, David Ricardo v Pireo Sraffa. Trong khi lm c vn cho b trng b ti chnh Anh v cc chnh sch thu kho t nm 1964-1968 v 1974-1976, ng ngh s dng THU LI VN phn phi li thu nhp v thu s dng lao ng chn lc khuyn khch thuyn chuyn lao ng sang ngnh ch to. L ngi bo v chung thnh kinh t hc Keynes, ng c nh hng rt ln trong mt s lnh vc c bit trong cc tc phm ca Nhm chnh sch kinh t Cambridge, ch yu l ca Kaldor v CU HIU LC v s cn thit ca chnh ph cn phi can thip vo nn kinh t n nh nn kinh t v c bn trong v bn ngoi v khuyn khch tng trng. Cc tc phm chnh ca ng bao gm: Thu chi tiu (1955), Cc tiu lun v tng trng v n nh kinh t (1960), Cc tiu lun v gi tr v phn phi (1960), Tch lu vn v tng trng kinh t (1961), Nguyn nhn ca t l tng trng chm Anh (1966), Mu thun ca cc mc tiu chnh sch (1971), Cc tiu lun v kinh t c thu thp, tp 5 (1978).

1749

Kaldor, Nicholas

(1908-1986)

1750

Kaldor - Hicks test

Kim nh Kaldor Hicks.

Kim nh ny c Kaldor v Hicks a ra trong cc bi bo c in Tp ch Kinh t nm 1939. Xem COMPENSATION TESTS. Nh kinh t hc ngi Balan, trong u nhng nm 30 ng c lp pht trin thuyt ca Keynes. Kalecki cng l ngi a ra khi nim "mc c quyn" c xc nh bi t l gia mc li sut trn gi bn, iu ny cho thy khng c s cnh tranh v gi c. Khi nim ny c dng gii thch ti sao gi c li khng gim xung trong thi k suy thoi v cng gii t trng ca li nhun v lng trong THU NHP QUC DN. Kelecki cng l ngi a ra khi nim "ngi cng nhn tiu ci g m h kim c v cc nh t bn kim ci g h chi tiu". Nu ngi cng nhn tiu ton b tin lng ca vo mua hng ho th phn cn li ca thu nhp quc dn, li nhun phi c sn cho u t v tiu dng ca nh t bn. Nu cc nh t bn tng tiu dng ca mnh th n s tr li vi h di dng li nhun cao hn. Nm 1943, Kalecki cng d on chu k ngng tng trng chnh tr. iu xy ra Anh t cui Chin tranh th gii th hai. Ti cui i mnh, Balan, Kalecki quan tm n NG HC KINH T v s tng trng cc nc X hi ch ngha. Cc n phm chnh ca ng bao gm: Cc tiu lun v l thuyt giao ng kinh t (1939), L thuyt ng hc kinh t (1945), L thuyt tng trng mt nn kinh t X hi ch ngha (1969) v cc tiu lun la chn v ng hc ca nn kinh t t bn ch ngha (1971). y l phng php ti u d on CC BIN S NI SINH v cp nht nhng THNG S C LNG trong cc phng trnh d on. Nh kinh t hc v ton hc ngi Nga l ngi khi xng QUY HOCH TUYN TNH trong nhng nm 1930. Kantorovich ng dng thuyt ny khng nhng i vi vn kt hp cc yu t sn xut sn c trong mt nh my ti a sn lng, m cn p dng thuyt ny vo vn k hoch ho kinh t v m mt nn kinh t x hi ch ngha. Kt lun ca ng l c th phi tp trung ho cc quyt nh sn xut m vn duy tr hiu qu nu gi c bng (dn xut t p s ca cc bi ton quy hoch tuyn tnh) c s dng cc mc thp ca qu trnh quyt nh. Lun im chnh trong tc phm ca ng v cc nh kinh t khc Nga, nhng ngi chu nh hng ca ng l: mt nn kinh t k hoch ho tp trung thnh cng cn phi s dng h thng gi c xy dng bao gm t l chit khu x hi hay li sut x hi. ng ngh ci cch k thut k hoch ho khi ang c dng Lin X. ng c tng gii Nobel v kinh t hc nm 1975 (cng vi T.KOOPMANS). Cc tc phm chnh ca ng bao gm: Cc phng php ton hc trong lp k hoch t chc sn xut (1939), Cc s dng tt nht cc ngun lc kinh t (1965) v Quyt nh ti u trong kinh t hc (1972) (vi A.G.Gorstko). Vng thng thuyt mu dch a phng ln th su, tin hnh di s bo tr ca HIP NH CHUNG V THU QUAN V MU DCH din ra Geneva t 1964-1967. Khng ging cc vng thng thuyt mu dch trc thng khuyn khch gim hng ro mu dch a phng, vng Kenedy dn ti vic thng lng gim thu quan i vi nhng nhm hng ho c th ch khng thng lng v mt mt hng. Mt hnh thc ch o tin lng c th m trong mt khon thanh ton tin lng c dng lm tham chiu cho ton b nhng khon lng phi tr sau .

1751

Kalecki, Micheal

(1899-1970)

1752

Kalman filtering

Php lc Kalman.

1753

Kantorovich, Leonid

(1912-1986)

1754

Kenedy Round

Vng m phn Kenedy. Thng lng ch cht.

1755

Key bargain

1756

Keynes, John Maynard

(1883-1946)

L mt hc tr ca Alffred Marshall. Mt thay i ca cu i vi hng ho l kt qu ca s thay i trong mc gi chung.

1757

Keynes effect

Hiu ng Keynes.

1758

Keynesian cross

im ct Keynes Kinh t hc trng phi Keynes L thuyt tn trng ca trng phi Keynes.

Xem INCOME - EXPENDITURE MODEL. Mt cm thut ng dng miu t cc l thuyt kinh t v m v mc hot ng kinh t s dng cc k thut do J.M.Keynes a ra.

1759

Keynesian economics

1760

Keynesian Growth Theory

Xem HARROD DOMAR GROWTH MODEL. B ti chnh Anh a ra nhng ngh v vic thit lp mt lin minh Thanh ton B tr quc t ti Hi ngh Ti chnh v tin t ca Lin hp quc BRETTON WOOD, New Hampshire nm 1944. John Maynard Keynes l ngi chu trch nhim ch yu v vic to lp cc ngh nn c gi chung l K hoch Keynes. Cc mc lng ca ngh nghip trong th trng LAO NG NI B lm im tip xc vi th trng bn ngoi. Da trn gi thuyt rng trong cc th trng c c im c quyn nhm, s ph thuc ln nhau buc cc doanh nghip phi tin rng gim gi xung di mc hin hnh s b cc i th lm theo, nhng tnh hnh s khng din ra i vi trng hp tng gi. Mt m hnh KINH T LNG c va ca nn kinh t M cho giai on 1929-1952 (khng k c giai on 1942-1945) c nh hng rt quan trng i vi vic xy m hnh kinh t lng t thi gian xut bn nm 1955 n nay. Nh kinh t hc ngi M v l gio s kinh t ti trng i hc Pennsylvania; c tng gii thng Nobel v kinh t nm 1980 v tc phm tin phong ca mnh trong vic pht trin cc m hnh d bo kinh t nh lng, c th c dng d bo cc bin s nh tng sn phm quc dn, xut khu, u t v cc tc ng ca cc bin php trong cc chnh sch i vi cc bin s ny. Trong s nhiu m hnh c lin quan n tn ny th m hnh thnh cng v ni ting nht l m hnh D bo Kinh t Lng Wharton i vi nn kinh t M, a ra ti trng i hc Pennsylvania. Klein quan tm nhiu n vic p dng cc pht trin l thuyt trong kinh t lng vo cng vic ng dng hn l vic a ra thuyt kinh t nh lng. S nghip ca ng gp phn pht trin lnh vc ny v nh hng ti vic xy dng m hnh trn quy m ton th gii. Thnh tu c mt khng hai ca Klein ni chung l vic dch chuyn m hnh Keynes sang lnh vc thng k. Hai cun sch ni ting nht ca ng l Cuc cch mng Keynes (1947) v Sch gio khoa v Kinh t lng (1953). Trong THUYT TNG TRNG, mt vt cn i vi tng trng n nh khi Tc tng trng m bo l khng n nh, ngoi vn na l liu tc m bo c ngang bng Tc tng trng t nhin hay khng.

1761

Keynes Plan

K hoch Keynes. Cc mc lng then cht.

1762

Key rates

1763

Kinked demand curve

ng cu gp khc.

1764

Klein Goldberger model

M hnh Klein Goldberger.

1765

Klein, Lawrence R.

(1920-)

1766

Knife edge

im ta mng manh.

1767

Knight, Frank

(1895-1973)

L mt nh kinh t hc ngi M, Knight c b nhim lm gio s kinh t ti Chicago nm 1928. ng c ng gp quan trng vo o l v PHNG PHP LUN ca kinh t hc cng nh i vi vic nh ngha v gii thch CHI PH X HI. ng gp ln nht ca ng i vi kinh t tc phm Ri ro, S khng chc chn v li nhun (1921). Cc n phm chnh khc ca ng bao gm T chc Kinh t (1933), Lun l v cnh tranh (1935), T do v i mi (1947), Nhng bi lun v lch s v Cc phng php kinh t hc (1956), v Tnh bo v Hnh ng dn ch (1960). L mt nh sng lp trng phi cc nh kinh t "T DO" CHICAGO, Knight c nh hng ng k i vi cc thnh vin ca trng phi , mc du ng ta b ph phn v quyn hnh ca nh nc, ng ta nghi ng kh nng ca mt x nghip t do hot ng hiu qu v theo mt cch thc hp o l. c bit ng b ph phn v cc tc ng ca kinh doanh t do i vi thu nhp. Mt nh kinh t ngi Nga c ng gp ng k vo kinh t nng nghip v pht trin k hoch ho kinh t Lin X. Nm 1952 ng xut bn cun Nhng ln sng di trong cuc sng kinh t, m nh ng tr nn ni ting. ng tm ra nhng chu k di t cui nhng nm 1780 n 1844-51, t 1844-51 n 191420. ng cho rng s tn ti ca cc ln sng di l "t nht c kh nng" nhng khng a ra thuyt h thng, ch n thun a ra mt s yu t lin quan. Cc nghin cu sau ny cho thy rng cc ln sng tm c c th l do cc k thut thng k c Kondratieff s dng to nn. Mong mun phn tch cc iu kin kinh t mt cch khch quan ca ng v hnh lm cho ng mu thun vi cc chnh sch ca Lin X. ng b bt nm 1930, v khng c a ra x cng khai, v sau cht trong t khng ai bit ti. Nh kinh t hc ngi M sinh ra Halan. Koopmans l gio s kinh t ti Chicago (1948-1955), gim c COWLES FOUNDATION (1961-1967), v l gio s kinh t ti Harvard (1960-1961). L ngi c cng c lp pht trin QUY HOCH TUYN TNH, Koopmans gn lin quy hoch tuyn tnh vi thuyt kinh t vi m truyn thng v pht trin mt m hnh phn b ngun lc trong mt nn kinh t cnh tranh. ng cho rng mt m hnh sn xut nh vy c th lm c s cho vic thit lp nn mt l thuyt cn bng tng th. Nm 1951, ng trnh by quan in ny trong phn tch hot ng v sn xut v phn b, trong ng a ra cng c phn tch hot ng. Kt lun ca tc phm ny l vic s dng gi bng to ra cc kh nng phi tp trung ho cc quyt nh sn xut trong nn kinh t. Koopmans c ng gp quan trng vo thuyt tng trng ti u v thuyt kinh t lng. ng a ra mt s nh l quan trng v vic phn chia ti u thu nhp quc dn gia u t v tiu dng thng qua thi gian v cho thy kt qu ca nhng la chn i vi vic phn b phc li gia cc th h. ng c tng gii thng Nobel nm 1975 (cng vi L.KANTOROVICH). Cc tc phm chnh khc ca ng bao gm Ba tiu lun v tnh trng khoa hc kinh t (1957). Mt lot cc bin i m trong mt phng trnh cha mt tr phn phi gim theo cp s nhn c di v hn c bin i thnh mt s s lng hu hn cc bin s, bao gm mt tr khng ng nht. Nh kinh t hc ngi M gc Nga, ngi c tng gii thng Nobel kinh t nm 1971 do ng gp vo vic thu thp, c lng v gii thch cc s liu lin quan n qu trnh thay i x hi. ng gp ca

1768

Kondratieff, Nicolai D.

(1892-..?)

1769

Koopmans, Tjalling

(1910-1985)

1770 1771

Koych transformation Kuznets, Simon

Php bin i Koyck (1901-1985)

ng chiu mt lung nh sng mi vo tng trng kinh t. ng quan tm n chu k tng trng di m c v b nh hng mnh m bi nhng thay i trong tc tng dn s, s n nh trong hu ht cc nc cng nghip trong nhiu thp k ca t l gia tiu dng v thu nhp v vic ng pht hin ra rng s lng vn thc s cn sn xut ra mt lng hng ho nht nh c xu hng i xung. C mt s tranh ci v vic liu cc chu k m ng tm ra c th khng phi l v k thut thng k m ng s dng. Xem Fishman, G.S, Nhng phng php ph bin trong kinh t lng. HarvardUniversity press (1969). Cc n phm chnh ca Kuznuts l Thu nhp quc dn v Thnh phn ca n (1941), Sn phm quc dn t nm 1869 (1946) v S tng trng kinh t ca cc dn tc (1971). Ton b ngun nhn lc sn c trong x hi dng vo qu trnh sn xut. Tin b k thut lm tng sn lng ging nh kiu tng sn lng nh tng LC LNG LAO NG m khng c s thay i thc s no v s lng ngi trong lc lng lao ng tham gia thc hin. S nghin cu bn cht v cc yu t quyt nh tin lng v vic lm. Lc lng lao ng bao gm nhng ngi ang lm vic v ang tm vic, n bao gm nhng ngi c vic lm v c nhng ngi tht nghip. i vi ton b dn s hay i vi mt b phn ca dn s tnh theo tui tc, gii tnh hay chng tc, t l tham gia lao ng c nh ngha l t l gia s dn (c vic hay tht nghip) c kh nng hot ng kinh t so vi tng s dn cng loi. Khi cc hng u t mnh vo vic thu v o to mt cng nhn, h s khng mun sa thi ngi trong thi k kinh t suy thoi.

1772

Labour

Lao ng.

1773

Labour augmenting technical progress

Tin b k thut lm tng sc lao ng.

1774

Labour economics

Kinh t hc lao ng.

1775

Labour force

Lc lng lao ng.

1776

Labour force participation rate

T l tham gia Lc lng lao ng.

1777

Labour hoarding

Tch tr lao ng. Biu v lc lng lao ng S dng nhiu lao ng, thm dng nhiu lao ng.

1778

Labour force schedule

1779

Labour intensive

1780

Labour market

Th trng lao ng.

Mt th trng lao ng bao gm cc hot ng thu v cung ng lao ng nht nh thc hin nhng cng vic nht nh, v l qu trnh xc nh s tr bao nhiu cho ngi lm vic. Mt cm thut ng c C.Mc dng miu t hng ho m ngi cng nhn bn cho cc nh t bn. Cc quy trnh cng ngh hay phng php sn xut thin v hng c gii ho v s dng t lao ng hn.

1781

Labour power

Sc lao ng. Cc k thut tit kim lao ng. T trng ca lao ng.

1782

Labour - saving techniques

1783

Labour's share

T trng tin lng trong THU NHP QUC DN. Mt cm thut ng do J.H.HICKS pht trin th hin cch gii thch c bit ca ng v cch thc m tin lng (v do vy, gi c) c n nh.

1784

Labour standard

Tiu chun lao ng.

1785

Labour supply

Cung lao ng. Nn kinh t tha lao ng.

Xem SUPPLT OF LABOUR.

1786

Labour surplus economy

Xem LEWIS-FEI - RANIS MODEL Mt hc thuyt c CC NH KINH T HC C IN, nh RICARDO v c bit l C.Mc s dng gii thch vic n nh cc gi c tng i trn c s s lng lao ng, hin ti v tch dn, c bao hm trong hng ho. Mt cm thut ng p dng cho cc doanh nghip miu t s vic lm thay i, nhng ngi thi lm vic v nhng ngi mi c thu mn.

1787

Labour theory of value

L thuyt lao ng v gi tr. Mc thay lao ng.

1788

Labour turnover

1789

Laffer curve

ng Laffer. Mi quan h gia cc bin m trong gi tr hin ti ca BIN PH THUC c quan h vi cc gi tr trc ca mt hay nhiu BIN C LP. Mt phng php gii quyt cc bi ton ti u ho c rng buc, trong cc rng buc c vit thnh HM N gp cng vi HM MC TIU to ra phng trnh gi l "phng trnh Lagrange". Mt hc thuyt cho rng cc vn kinh t ca x hi c nh hng tt nht bi quyt nh ca cc c nhn m khng c s can thip ca cc c quan chnh quyn.

1790

Lagged relationship

Quan h tr.

1791

Lagrangean technique

Phng php nhn t Lagrange.

1792

Laissez - faire

Hc thuyt v nn kinh t t vn hnh. Nn kinh t t vn hnh (chnh ph t can thip).

1793

Laissez - faire economy

1794

Land

t ai.

Mt thut ng s dng trong kinh t hc miu t khng ch phn b mt tri t khng tnh n bin m cn bao gm ton b ti nguyn thin nhin nh rng, khong sn, ngun lc bin, mu ca t c th c s dng trong qu trnh sn xut.

1795

Land intensive

S dng nhiu t. Mt cm thut ng rng thng thng m ch cc kh nng tng s phn thnh cc vng nng thn (thng l cc nc ang pht trin) thng qua cc thay i v th ch trong khu vc nng nghip. Mt loi thu nh vo gi tr hoc kch thc ca mnh t. Nh kinh t ngi Balan dy mt vi trng i hc M v gi v tr cao trong trng i hc Chicago. ng l mt trong nhng nh sng lp kinh t lng v l ngi ng h kinh t hc Keynes (Gi linh hot v ton dng cng nhn, 1944), mc d vn coi kinh t hc Keynes l mt trng hp c bit ca Walras. Tuy ng c ng gp ng k vo nhiu lnh vc nhng ng c ngi ta nh n nhiu nht trong cuc tranh lun trong nhng nm 1930 v vn liu rng cc tnh ton kinh t hp l c th xy ra trong nn KINH T HOCH HO hay khng. ng cho rng iu ny c th xy ra, v gi c cn tnh ch s khan him c th c tnh ton bn ngoi H THNG TH TRNG m khng cn bt k hnh ng trao i

1796

Land reform and tenure

Bo h v ci cch rung t.

1797 1798

Land tax Lange, Oscar

Thu t. (1904-1965)

no, mc du trong thc t c c h thng gi c ca mnh, Lange i hi to ra mt th ch v th ch ny ging mt th trng. Tc phm Kinh t chnh tr ca ng, mc d khng hon chnh (bn dch ting Anh nm 1963), nhng l tng hp ln u tin v KINH T HC MC XT.

1799

Laspeyres price index

Ch s gi Laspeyres. H thng kinh t M Latinh.

Mt ch s bnh qun gia quyn so vi nm gc. Mt t chc lin chnh ph c thnh Lp nm 1975 khuyn khch hp tc v hi nhp kinh t trong khu vc M Latinh. Hip hi thng mi t do c thnh lp nm 1961 cn c vo s chun y ca Hip c Motevideo nm 1960, nh du s kt thc hng lot cuc hi tho s b di s bo tr ca U BAN KINH T M LATINH, LIN HP QUC. Mt trng phi t duy kinh t c ngun gc ti trng i hcLausanne Thu s nhn mnh vo vic s dng cc k thut ton hc th hin s ph thuc ln nhau trong mt th trng. Mt quan im c cng nhn rng ri, nu mi yu t khc khng i th hng ho s c mua nhiu hn nu gi c thp hn, v hng ho s c mua t hn nu gi c tng ln. Khi s lng ngy cng nhiu ca mt yu t kh bin c thm vo s lng c nh ca mt yu t no khc, th trc hts l li tc bin, v sau l li tc trung bnh i vi yu t bin i s, sau mt im no gim dn

1800

Latin American Economic System

1801

Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA)

Hip hi thng mi t do M latinh.

1802

LausanneSchool

Trng phiLausanne.

1803

Law of demand

Quy lut ca cu.

1804

Law of diminishing returns

Quy lut li tc gim dn. Quy lut tho dng cn bin gim dn. Quy lut v cc c tnh bin i.

1805

Law of diminishing marginal utility

1806

Law of variable proprerties

Xem Law of diminishing returns.

1807

Law of one price

Quy lut mt gi. Mt bn bo co ca chnh ph Anh v thu v chi tiuu ca cc chnh ph a phng Anh xut bn nm 1976 (HMSO, Ti chinh chnh quyn a phng, bo co theo yu cu U ban iu tra, London, 1976).

1808

Layfield Report

Bo co Layfield.

1809

Layoffs

Sa thi tm thi Nguyn tc u mi hng u.

Xem TEMPORARY LAYOFFS. Trong nn kinh t k hoch ho, chnh quyn c th gn tm quan trng c bit cho mt mc tiu c th no . Mc thanh ton lng bng chung trong mt ngnh kinh t c coi l im tham kho v lng cho cc khu vc khc (v d nghip on trong mt khu vc cng cng c th ly mc thanh ton lng bng trong khu vc t nhn tham kho).

1810

Leading links principle

1811

Leading sector

Ngnh dn u.

1812

Leakages

Nhng khon r r.

Xem Withdrawals.

1813

Leap - frogging

S nhy cc.

Mt qu trnh c coi l s xoy trn c lng/ lng v c cho l mt l do c lp dn n lm pht lng v gi c bi nhng ngi to lp thuyt LM PHT DO CHI PH Y. Mt cch gii thch v TIN B K THUT (nh thy trong s gim dn u vo lao ng trn mi n v u ra) xt theo kinh nghim thc hin cng vic .

1814

Learning

Hc hi

learning by doing

Hc qua hnh Mt tho thun trong mt bn c quyn s dng ti n no thuc v quyn s hu ca ngi khc trong mt thi gian nht nh, i li ngi s dng ti sn ny phi tr mt khon ph c nh tho thun, thng tr thnh nhiu ln theo nh k.

1815

Lease

Thu Phng sn xut da trn gi thnh thp nht. Phng php bnh phng nh nht. Nguyn tc Le Chatelier. Ngi cho vay cu cnh cui cng.

1816

Least cost method of production

Xem COST MINIMIZATION. Mt cm thut ng chung miu t c s ca mt nhm cc k thut c lng kinh t lng. Mt m hnh ton hc c s dng rng ri trong kinh t hc, gii quyt cc tc ng ca cc rng buc i vi vic ti a ho hnh vi. Mt trong nhng chc nng, v l mt trong nhng l do tn ti ca mt NGN HNG TRUNG NG HIN I. Sinh ra Lin X, Leontief tr thnh gio s kinh t ti Harvard nm 1946. Tc phm chnh ca ng l mt bi phn tch v ph thuc ln nhau bn trong mt nn kinh t, v c bit l bn trong khu vc sn xut, s dng mt k thut m ng ta gi l phn tch u ra u vo. Trong cc tc phm nh Cc nghin cu v c cu kinh t M (1953) v Kinh t hc u vo - u ra (1966), ng m rng m hnh tc ng qua li ca QUESNAY v cnhngx ngi kc thnh mt m hnh ton cao cp cho thy mi quan h gia cc thnh phn ca mt h thng kinh t. Leontief p dng k thut vo nn kinh t M, v to ra cc kt qa l th trong lnh vc thng mi quc t v kinh t ti nguyn thin nhin. K thut tr thnh c s ca k hoch ho trong nhiu nn kinh t phi th trng. Leontief c tng gii thng Nobel v kinh t nm 1973.

1817

Least squares

1818

Le Chatelier principle

1819

Lender of last resort

1820

Leontief, Wassily W.

(1906-) S nghch o Leontief.

1821

Leontief inverse

1822 1823

Leontief paradox Lerner, Abba P.

Nghch l Leontief. (19031983).

Xem HECKSCHER - OHLIN APPROACH TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE. Sinh ra Nga v hc Anh, s nghip nghin cu ca ng din ra mt s trng i hc M. Tc phm ban u ca ng bao gm vic miu t bng th v m rng thuyt gi tr ca Marshall bao gm nhng nghin cu v cnh tranh khng hon ho ca Joan ROBINSON v CHAMBERLIN. Tc phm ny tp trung vo vic tm kim mt khi nim y v quyn lc c quyn v bo v ch ngha bnh qun bng cch s dng quy lut li tc bin gim dn. Tc phm chnh ca ng l Kinh t hc kim sot (1944) s dng nhiu nhng phn tch ca Marshall to ra mt tnh hung ng h CH NGHA X HI TH TRNG.

ng cng a ra nhng iu kin m theo mt s thay i v t gi hi oi ca mt quc gia s ci thin c cn cn thng mi ca n. iu kin ny thng c gi l IU KIN MARSHALL LERNER. Ngoi ra, Lerner cn l ngi ng h v bo v kinh t hc KEYNES. Tnh hung do Lerner phn tch trong thuyt v thu quan trong vic p dng mt loi thu quan vo mt mt hng nhp khu c nhu cu trong nc khng co gin theo gi th kt qu s dn ti cn cn thng mi ti t hn v cu i vi sn phm tng ln. Khi CNH TRANH HON HO tn ti th gi bn chi ph bin; do vy ch s ny s c gi tr bng 0.

1824

Lerner case

Tnh hung Lerner.

1825

Lerner index

Ch s Lerner Phng tin thanh ton hp php (lut nh). Cc nc chm pht trin.

1826

Leger tender

1827

Less devoloped countries (LDCs)

Xem DEVOLOPING COUNTRIES. Mt vn bn do mt ngn hng pht hnh thay mt khch hng bo m rng ngn hng s thanh ton cc sc do khch hng rt, hay ph bin hn ngy nay gi l cc hi phiu do cc bn m khch hng mua hng rt theo tn ca khch hng. Mt khi nim s dng trong kim nh gi thuyt xc nh cc gi tr ti hn nhm so snh thng k kim nh vi chng.

1828

Letter of credit

Th tn dng.

1829

Level of significance

Mc ngha. Sn chi cng bng / cng mt sn chi? T phn vn vay; n by v ti chnh; T l vn vay so vi tng vn.

1830

Level field

1831

Leverage

Mt ch s v mi quan h gia n di hn v vn s dng. Nh kinh t hc Ty n v l ngi cng c tng gii thng Nobel vi Theodore Schultz v kinh t nm 1979. Hun tc W.Athur c o to ti trng kinh t London v l trng khoa kinh t ti trng i hc Manchester v Princeton. Mi quan tm chnh ca ng l chnh sch cng cng v kinh t ca cc nc km pht trin v m hnh pht trin ca Lewis, trong gi nh mt nn kinh t hai khu vc hin i ang pht trin, trong li nhun c ti u t, v hp th s lao ng khng hn ch t khu vc nng nghip truyn thng, c chp nhn rng ri. Tc phm chnh ca ng l L thuyt v tng trng kinh t (1955), trnh by nhng phn tch tng hp v pht trin kinh t cho n thi gian . Trong k hoch pht trin: s ct yu ca chnh sch kinh t (1966), ng a ra nhng hng dn v cch thc to lp v nh gi mt k hoch kinh t. Cc n phm khc ca ng l Kho st kinh t, 1948 - 1935 (1949), phn tch v xem xt cc s kin v chnh sch ca giai on , Chi ph c nh (1949) v Cc nguyn tc k hoch ho kinh t (1949). Mt m hnh kinh t v tht nghip cc nc ang pht trin c A.Lewis gii thiu nm 1954 v 1958 v sau ch chn thc ho bi Fei v Ranis nm 1964.

1832

Lewis, Sir W.Arthur

(1919-1991).

1833

Lewis - Fei - Ranis model

M hnh Lewis - Fei Ranis.

1834

Leveraged buy out (LBO)

Tng vay bng cch thay c phn

1835

Leveraged financing

Ti tr n by. S thch ca mt c nhn i vi mt nhm hng ho ny so vi mt hng ho khc, nu n cha nhiu hn mt hng ho c th no v bt k s lng ca cc hng ho khc trong nhm nh th no. Mi tri quyn, thc ti hay tng lai, i vi mt c nhn hay t chc.

1836

Lexicographic preferences

Th hiu thin lch.

1837

Liabilities

N.

1838

Liberalism

Ch ngha t do.

Xem ECONOMIC LIBERALISM. Li sut cho vay lin ngn hng London London l li sut khc nhau trong nhng hon cnh khc nhau m cc ngn hng c th cho vay nhng loi tin no vi s lng v thi hn no , trong th trng tin t Chu u. Theo Lut ngn hng ca Anh nm 1979, mt loi t chc tn dng c php nhn tin gi. B lut nhm thit lp mt h thng quy nh v kim sot bo v cng chng c tin gi, v c tc dng lm hn ch cc hot ng nhn tin gi hai loi t chc tn dng, "cc ngn hng c cng nhn" v "cc c quan c php nhn tin gi". Gi thit cho rng c nhn tiu dng mt t l c nh gi tr hin ti ca thu nhp ca c i h trong mi thi k.

1839

LIBOR

Li sut lin ngn hngLondon.

1840

Licensed deposit takers

C quan c cp giy php nhn tin gi. Gi thuyt v vng i, thu nhp theo vng i / Chu k tui th sn phm. K vng nh hng theo chu k i ngi.

1841

Life-cycle hypothesis

1842

Life-cycle oriented expectation

1843

"Lifeboat"

"Thuyn cu sinh".

T lng ch nghip v vo thng 12/1973 ca ngn hng trung ng Anh, cng vi s gip ca cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr London v Scotland, gii quyt ci gi l khng hong NGN HNG CP HAI, din ra trong thng 12/1973. Trong kinh t lng, mt trung bnh m theo m hnh c kh nng thc nht c th c suy ra t mt tp hp hu hn cc quan st i vi cc s kin c cho l do m hnh to ra.

1844

Likehood function

Hm hp l Kim nh t s hp l. Cng ty trch nhim hu hn. Cc bin s ph thuc hn ch.

1845

Likehood ratio test (LD)

1846

Limited company

C hai loi cng ty trch nhim hu hn Anh: Cng ty trch nhim hu hn cng cng v cng ty trch nhim hu hn t nhn. Xy ra trong m hnh hi quy theo bin ph thuc b hn ch mt s khong gi tr no . Mt cm thut ng miu t mt nhm k thut c tnh kinh t lng s dng trong vic c tnh cc bin s ca cc hm ng thi.

1847

Limited dependent variables

1848

Limited information (LI)

Thng tin hn ch.

1849

Limited liability

Trch nhim hu hn. Cc cch thc m cc hng thit lp cho mt nghnh cng nghip c th nh gi vi mc ch ngn cn nhng i th cnh tranh mi mun thm nhp vo th trng.

1850

Limit pricing

nh gi gii hn.

1851

Lindahl model

M hnh Lindahl.

Xem VOLUNTARY EXCHANGE MODEL. Thuyt ca nh kinh t Thy in c tn l Linder cho rng cc nc cng c thu nhp bnh qun u ngi ging nhau th lng bun bn v hng ch to gia cc nc cng cao v ngoi thng c coi l vic m rng tiu dng v sn xut trong nc. Tng ca mt dy bin s (hoc cc VECT) c nhn vi mt s hng s no . Mt tnh cht ca mt tp hp cc vect trong mt trong cc vect c th c biu din bng mt t hp tuyn tnh ca cc vect khc. Mt cng thc c tnh cc tham s ca phng trnh hi quy, trong cc c tnh c tm ra nh l cc hm tuyn tnh ca cc gi tr bin ph thuc c lng OLS l mt cch c lng tuyn tnh. Trong cc h thng chi tiu tuyn tnh, cc HM CU c din t i vi cc nhm hng ho, chc khng phi vi cc hng ha n l. Mt mi quan h ton hc trong cc bin s xut hin nh l cc yu t cng, khng c cc thnh phn s m hay nhn.

1853

Linder thesis

Thuyt Linder.

1854

Linear combination

T hp tuyn tnh.

1855

Linear dependence

Ph thuc tuyn tnh

1856

Linear estimator

c lng tuyn tnh. Cc h thng chi tiu tuyn tnh.

1857

Linear expenditure systems

1858

Linear function

Hm tuyn tnh.

1859

Linear nomogenous

ng nht tuyn tnh.

Xem HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION. Cng gi l m hnh PROBIT - m hnh xc sut n v. Mt m hnh trong bin ph thuc l mt bin gi hay bin nh nguyn v c biu din bng mt hm tuyn tnh ca mt hay nhiu bin c lp. Mt k thut to lp v phn tch cc bi ton ti u hc rng buc trong hm mc tiu l mt hm tuyn tnh v c ti a ho hay ti thiu ho tu thuc v s lng cc bt ng thc rng buc tuyn tnh.

1860

Linear probability model

M hnh xc sut tuyn tnh.

1861

Linear programming

Quy hoch tuyn tnh. Ti sn d hon chuyn; Ti sn lng; ti sn d thanh tiu . T l ti sn d hon chuyn.

1862

Liquid asset

Xem LIQUIDITY.

1863

Liquid assets ratio

1864

Liquidation

Pht mi. Kh nng chuyn hon.

y l qu trnh chm dt s tn ti ca mt cng ty, ti sn ca n c pht mi v phn chia cho cc ch n ca n v trong trng hp cn d tha th c chia cho cc thnh vin trong cng ty. Tnh cht ca ti sn "gn" ti mc mua t do, TIN c nh ngha l c kh nng chuyn hon cao nht.

1865

Liquility

1866

Liquidity

Tnh thanh ton, thanh tiu. S a thch ti sn d thanh tiu T s v kh nng hon chuyn

1867

Liquidity preference

Xem MONEY, DEMAND FOR. Anh, cc ngn hng phi tun th mt t l chuyn hon ti thiu l 30%, sau li gim xung cn 28%. Xem MONEY MULTIPLIER, FUNDING. Tnh hung m trong vic tng cung tin khng dn ti vic gim li sut m n thun ch dn n vic tng s d tin nhn ri; co gin cu v tin i vi li sut tr thnh v hn. Tn ch cc chng khon c bun bn trn s giao dch chng khon Anh quc. Mt k thut nh gi d n trong cc NC ANG PHT TRIN c ch rng ri.

1868

Liquidity ratio

1869

Liquidity trap

By tin mt; By thanh khon. Cc chng khon yt gi. Phng php Little Mirrlees.

1870

Listed securities

1871

Little - Mirrlees method

1872

LM curve

ng LM.

Xem IS - LM DIAGRAM.

1873

Loan

Khon cho vay. Cc qu c th cho vay.

Mt khon tin do ngi cho vay ng cho ngi vay. Cm thut ng ny c ngha l cc khon tin sn c cho vay trn th trng ti chnh, nhng thng n ny sinh trong vn cnh l thuyt li sut.

1874

Loanable funds

1875

Loan capital

Vn vay.

Xem DEBENTURES.

1876

Loan stock

S vn vay. Chng trnh cho vay.

Xem DEBENTURES, FINANCIAL CAPITAL

1877

Loan facility

1878

Local authorities' market

Th trng ca chnh quyn a phng.

TH TRNG TIN T bn bun London, gn b cht ch vi cc th trng cng ty ti chnh, tin t Chu u v Lin ngn hng, trong ngi ta cho cc c quan chnh quyn a phng vay cc khon vay ngn hn, thng qua cc cng ty mi gii tin t. Thu nhp v chi tiu ca chnh quyn khu vc (a phng). S phn chia nh theo a l ca TH TRNG LAO NG ch yu l hu qu ca cc chi ph v tm l v c bit ca vic i li nhiu n ch lm.

1879

Local finance

Ti chnh a phng. Th trng lao ng a phng.

1880

Local labour market

1881

Local mutiplier

S nhn a phng Hng ho cng cng a phng. Lin kt theo v tr.

Xem REGIONAL MUTIPLIER Hng ho cng cng ca mt cng ng, chng hn h thng n ng. Mt tp hp nhng u mi quan h tn ti gia mt s ngnh va gn nhau v mt v tr a l va lin quan vi nhau do sn phm ca mt s ngnh l u

1882 1883

Local public good Locational integration

vo ca ngnh khc. Mi quan h tng h gia cc hng trong quyt nh ca mt loi hng v vic la chn v tr cho mt nh my ca n b tc ng bi nhng la chn v v tr ca cc i th cnh tranh. Thc o thng k v mc chnh lch m mt lot hot ng kinh t c th c nh gi trong mt vng ca nn kinh t so vi ton b nn kinh t ni chung. Hc thuyt phn tch nhng tc ng quyt nh n v tr ca hot ng kinh t, gii thch v on trc hnh thi v tr ca cc n v kinh t. Hiu ng lm cho mt ngi c mt ti sn khng bn ti sn na v gi tr th trng ca n gim xung v s gy ra thua l. Vic ngi ch ng ca ni lm vic buc cng nhn tha nhn cc iu khon tuyn dng ca ban lnh o. Lgart ca mt s l mt s m khi c s ca n nng ln s m l gi tr ca lgarit th bng s . th ca hm ny c hnh ch S, v n c s dng biu din mi quan h gia gi tr ca mt bin s kinh t v thi gian.

1884

Locational interdependence

S ph thuc ln nhau v v tr.

1885

Location quotient

Thng s v tr.

1886

Location theory

L thuyt v v tr.

1887

Locking - in effect

Hiu ng kt S ng ca gy p lc (i vi cng nhn).

1888

lockout

1889

Logarithm

Lgart

1890

Logistic function

Hm Lgistic

1891

Logit analysis

Php phn tch lgit Mt mi quan h ton hc m nu biu din bng lgarit th l mt hm tuyn tnh. L t tn cho qu trnh "trao i l phiu" trong mt ngi ng ng h mt ngi khc i vi mt vn nht nh i li ngi kia s ng h anh ta i vi mt vn khc. L ph trung tm ca ngn hng v ti chnh ca thnh phLondon. Cng c hp tc kinh t v thng mi c k kt nm 1975 Lom, th ca Togo, gia cc nc thnh vin ca Cng ng Chu u (EC) v 46 nc ang pht trin Chu Phi, Caribe v Thi bnh Dng (ACP). Cc chng khon dng n ch khng phi dng c phn - v d nh chng khon vin vng hay tri khn cng ty - c ngy o hn di, thng l hn 10 nm. Xu hng chi ph vn ti tng t hn v t l so vi qung ng chuyn ch. Mt kiu d liu PANEL, trong cc thng tin trong giai on trc thi im thu thp c a vo. Mt lot cc li sut c th thu c t cc chng khon di hn, v do c th tr cho cc khon vay di hn mi.

1892

Log-linear

Tuyn tnh lgarit S trao i phiu bu; b phiu gian ln.

1893

Logolling

1894

Lombard Street

Ph Lombard.

1895

Lom Convention

Cng c Lom. Cc chng khon di hn. Tnh kinh t theo qung ng.

1896

Long-dated securities

1897

Long-haul economies

1898

Longitudinal data

D liu dc.

1899

Long rate

Li sut di hn.

1900

Long run

Di hn. Chi ph trung bnh di hn. Hm tiu dng di hn. Chi ph cn bin di hn.

Khong thi gian lin quan n qu trnh sn xut trong c thi gian thay i tt c cc yu t sn xut, nhng khng thi gian thay i quy trnh cng ngh c bn c s dng. Trong di hn tt c cc chi ph c xu hng l chi ph kh bin. Mi quan h hm s gia tiu dng v thu nhp trong giai on hn 50 nm. Chi ph tng thm khi sn sut thm mt n v sn phm trong di hn. Vn di dng ti chnh (tin) nu c vay theo cc iu khon vay n, c k hn tr n di, thng trn 10 nm; hoc theo cch khc nu ai huy ng bng cch pht hnh c phn th s khng c hon tr, tr khi cng ty ng ca.

1901

Long run average cost (LAC)

1902

Long run comsumption function

1903

Long run marginal cost

1904

Long term capital

Vn di hn.

1905

Lorenz curve

ng Lorenz

Mt th dng tnh mc bt bnh ng.

1906

Losch model

M hnh Losch S khng thch mt mt.

Xem LOCATION THEORY. Mt gi thit cho rng PHI THO DNG do b mt mt hng ho nhiu hn so vi tho dng ca hng ho y. Mt hm phi tho dng m mt nh lp chnh sch mun ti thiu ho. Khi cc doanh nghip c hng ho a dng cho bn mt phn trong lot sn phm ca h mc gi thp hn chi ph, v tin rng iu ny s thc y vic tiu th cc sn phm c chnh lch li nhun cao hn.

1907

Loss aversion

1908

Loss function

Hm thua l.

1909

Loss leader pricing

Bn h gi trc. Cn bng cnh tranh di hn. ng tng chi ph di hn. ng Phillips di hn. ng Phillips ngn hn.

1910

Long run competitive

1911

Lon run total cost curve

1912

Long run Phillips curve

1913

Short run Phillp curve

1914

Lump - sum tax

Thu gp / khon. Thng ni n tho thun, theo cc khon l ca mt d n c th c b li bi thu nhp t cc ngun khc.

1915

Loss offsetting provisions

Cc iu khon b l. By cn bng mc thp.

1916

Low - level equilibrium trap

Xem POPULATION POLYCY, POPULATION.

1917

Low wage trade

Thng mi lng thp.

Xem DYNAMIC THEORIES OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE. Bi ph bnh v vic s dng m hnh kinh t lng nh gi kt qu ca cc quyt nh chnh sch v cc tham s c lng ngm bao hm nh hng ca chnh sch. Tnh t dng m t cc s d tuyn tnh (L), khng chch (U) v c ma trn hip phng sai cho v hng (S)> Mt thut ng khng c s dng rng ri trong kinh t hc hin i, nhng nu c dng th ch mt hng ho c co gin cu theo thu nhp ln hn 1, do khi thu nhp tng th hng chim mt t l cao hn trong thu nhp ca ngi tiu dng. Tng thu cho ngn sch chnh ph c th rt rc ri cc nc km pht trin, nhiu ngi t hnh ngh hoc c tr bng hin vt v khng th nh thu thu nhp c.

1918

Lucas critique

Lun im ph phn ca Lucas S d tuyn tnh v hng khng chch.

1919

LUS

1920

Luxury

Hng xa x (cng coi l hng thng lu).

1921

Luxury taxes

Thu hng xa x. Mc cung tin M1 v M0.

1922

M1 and M0

1923

Macmillan Committee

U ban Macmillan.

U ban iu tra ca Anh c thnh lp nm 1929 vi tn gi "U ban Ti chnh v Cng nghip", do H.P Macmillan (sau ny l Hun tc) lm ch tch, nhm nghin cu h thng ti chnh v ngn hng trong cc nghip v trong nc v quc t ca n, v nhm a ra nhng khuyn ngh v vic lm th no h thng ny c th thc y "vic pht trin ni thng v ngoi thng v vic tuyn dng lao ng".

1924

"Macmillan" gap

L hng Macmillan.

Xem Macmillan Committee. S sa i vo nm 1952 i vi o lut v U ban thng mi Lin bang Hoa k, o lut Mc Guire c ban hnh nhm cng ch cc nh bn l khng k kt cc tho thun v cch nh gi cng nh nhng ngi c k kt tho thun phi nh gi trn nguyn tc "thng mi cng bng". L khoa hc nghin cu hnh vi ca ton b nn kinh t ni chung.

1925

Mc Guire Act

o lut Mc Guire.

1926

Macroeconomics Macroeconomics demand schedule

Kinh t hc v m. Biu cu mang tnh kinh t hc v m.

1927

1928

Majority rule

Quy tc a s.

L mt hnh thc LA CHN TP TH hoc QUY TC QUYT NH X HI m theo bt k ngh no c s ng h ca hn mt na s "ngi biu quyt" s c chn. L mt gi nh v bn cht ca vn hin vt thng s dng trong kinh t hc c in, theo cc vt liu hnh thnh nn mt c my c th c th c thay i ngay lp tc v khng h tn km thnh mt c my khc. Malthus l mt mc s v cng l mt gio s mn lch s hin i v kinh t chnh tr (l ngi u tin c cp danh hiu ny ti Anh). Tuy nhin, ng cng c nhng ng gp cho vic phn tch tin t v cho "hc thuyt v tnh trng d tha" v tham gia v mt cuc tranh lun ni ting vi ngi bn ca ng lad Ricardo,

1929 1930

Malleable capital Malthus, Rev. Thomas Robert

Vn uyn chuyn (1766-1834).

ng c bit n nhiu nht vi t tng l tc gi ca Tiu lun v nguyn tc dn s (1798). Trong tc phm nay, ng thch thc quan im truyn thng ca cc nh kinh t hc dn s cho rng dn s ng v ng cng gia tng ng ngha vi s giu c v ng lp lun rng dn s s tng ln cho n khi t ti mc rng buc v cung cp lng thc. ng cho rng dn s c xu hng gia tng theo cp s nhn v ngun lng thc li tng theo cp s cng. S tng dn s c th c km hm hoc l mt cch tch cc (ngha l qua s t vong tng ln) thng qua nhng hnh thc nh chin tranh, bnh dch hoc mt cch tiu cc (ngha l qua vic sinh t i) thng qua cc hnh thc nh hn ch bng o c, kt hn mun Hc thuyt ny ca Malthus v tin lng t ra mt mc lng khng thay i mt mc tn ti. Tri vi d on ca ng, c dn s v mc lng u c xu hng gia tng cc nc cng nghip pht trin; s d nh vy l do tin b khoa hc k thut, m Malthus nh gi thp vai tr ca n i vi vic qun gim t l sinh khi thu nhp tng v i vi vic khai thc cc vng t mi. Ni m nh v vn ca Malthus cho n nay vn cn tn ti cc nc chm pht trin khi h mun nhp khu cc loi thuc m em li cho nc cng nghip pht trin nhng t l t vong tng ng vi cc t l sinh ca nc ang pht trin. Vn ny cng c mt s nh sinh tha hc a ra trn phm vi ton cu khi h cn tin on rn dn s v sn lng cng nghip tng s khin cho th gii b cn kit cc ngun ti nguyn. Quy lut dn s ca Malthus.

1931

Malthus's law of population

Xem IRON LAW OF WAGE. L nhng nhn vin trong mt hng c quyn thay mt cho cc ch s hu kim sot cc hot ng ca hng. L vic ban qun l thu mua cc ti sn ca mt cng ty.

1932

Management

Ban qun l. Thu mua bng nghip v qun l. Ban qun l / Hi ng qun tr. S th ni c qun l hay khng thun khit.

1933

Management buyout

1934

Management board

1935

Managed or dirty floating

1936

Management science

Khoa hc qun l. Hng do nh qun l kim sot.

Trong khun kh ca vic nghin cu doanh nghip, mn hc ny p dng cc nguyn tc khoa hc nhm h tr cho vic t c hiu qu hot ng trong vic thc hin cc mc tiu kinh doanh. L mt cng ty khng c mt c ng hoc mt nhm c ng no chim c t l biu quyt cao nm quyn kim sot cc chnh sch ca cng ty. Vic t chc nn kinh t thnh cc tp on ln, trong quyn nh ot cc ngun lc nm trong tay mt tng lp qun l c th xc nh c tch bit khi gii ch s hu ti sn v hu nh khng chu s kim sot ca h. L kh nng ca cc nh qun l ca mt cng ty thc hin nhng mc tiu m h t thy l c li hn cho h. L mt khi nim gn vi tng ca Galbraith cho rng quyn lc kinh t chuyn t vn sang ch s

1937

Manager controlled firm

1938

Managerial capitalism

Ch ngha t bn thin v qun l. S tu tin trong qun l. Cuc cch mng qun l.

1939 1940

Managerial discretion Managerial revolution

hu ca cc b quyt k thut, tc l tng lp qun l. S lng lo trong qun l.

1941

Managerial slack

Xem X - EFFICIENCY. L cc hc thuyt bt ngun t quan nim cho rng CH NGHA T BN ng thi c c trng bi s khng ch trong khu vc sn xut ca cc tp on ln, ni m quyn s hu v quyn kim sot c phn tch r rng gia cc c ng v cc nh qun l. Mi quan h ny quy nh c th nhng lun chng m th t u tin ca cc nh qun l ca doanh nghip ph thuc vo . L chi ph tng thm cho vic sn xut thm mt n v sn lng.

1942

Managerial theories of the firm

Cc hc thuyt v hng thin v qun l. Hm tho dng trong qun l.

1943

Managerial utility function

1944

Marginal cost

Chi ph cn bin. Chi ph cn bin cho lao ng. nh gi theo chi ph cn bin.

1945

Marginal cost of labor

1946

Marginal cost pricing

L mt phng php nh gi ca cc hng t nhn hoc cc cng ty nh nc theo c xc nh bng chi ph bin.

1947

Marginal firm

Xut bin? Mc thu sut cn bin nh vo thu nhp.

1948

Marginal income tax rate

1949

Marginal principle

Nguyn l cn bin. Sn phm cn bin ca lao ng. Thin hng tiu dng cn bin. Thin hng nhp khu cn bin. Thin hng tit kim cn bin. L mc thay i trong tiu dng do tng thm mt n v thu nhp. L mc thay i nhp khu do thay i mt n v thu nhp. L mc thay i tit kim do thay i mt n v thu nhp. Trong hc thuyt v cu ca ngi tiu dng, t l thay th bin cp n s lng ca mt loi hng ho, b p cho ngi tiu dng i vi vic t b s lng mt loi hng ho khc sao cho vn c c mc phc li (tho dng ) nh trc. L gi tr biu hin bng s ca dc ca ng GII HN KH NNG SN XUT. L mc thay i trong tng doanh thu pht sinh t vic bn thm mt n v sn lng.

1950

Marginal product of labors Marginal propensity to comsume (MPC)

1951

1952

Marginal propensity to import

1953

Marginal propensity to save (MPS)

1954

Marginal rate of substitution (MRS)

T l thay th cn bin. T l chuyn i cn bin.

1955

Marginal rate of transformation

1956

Marginal revenue

Doanh thu cn bin.

1957

Marginal revenue product of labor

Mc doanh thu cn bin ca lao ng. L mt ngi c b nhim l gim c mt cng ty trch nhim hu hn, c trch nhim chnh l iu hnh cc hot ng hng ngy ca cng ty. L mt phin bn, do nh kinh t Manoilescu a ra, v lun chng v NGNH CNG NGHIP NON TR, da vo nhn nh rt ra t thc t rng mc lng trung bnh trong khu vc ch to mt nc chm pht trin cao hn mc lng trung bnh trong khu vc nng nghip mc d nng sut lao ng c th nh nhau. L mt n lc nhm tng cng hot ng ca th trng lao ng, v nu c th, l s nh i gia tht nghip v lam pht. L nhng nhn vin lm cc cng vic chn tay v c tr tin cng theo tun. Trong kinh t hc, "ti bin" c ngha l ti im m n v sn phm cui cng c sn xut hoc tiu th. Mt n v bin l n v tng thn\m ca mt ci g , chng hn nh vi CHI PH BIN, THO DNG BIN..

1958

Managing director

Gim c iu hnh.

1959

Manoilescu argument

Lp lun Manoilescu. Chnh sch v nhn lc.

1960

Manpower policy

1961

Manual workers

Lao ng chn tay.

1962

Margin, at the

ti bin

1963

Marginal

Cn bin, gia lng.

1964

Marginal analysis

Phn tch cn bin. Biu chi ph cn bin ca vn. Chi ph thit hi cn bin. phi tho dng cn bin.

Xem NEO - CLASSICAL ECONOMICS L biu xc nh chi tit chi ph thc s ca vn ti chnh ca doanh nghip. L chi ph tng thm cho mt thit hi pht sinh, thng do nhim gy ra, t mt n v tng thm ca hot ng gy hi. L phi tho dng tng thm pht sinh t mt thay i nh trong mt bin s no . L T L CHIT KHU c nht c th khin cho gi tr hin ti ca li ch rng d kin t mt ti sn vn bng ng vi gi cung cp n khi gi cung cp ti sn khng h tng. L biu trnh by chi tit mi quan h cn bng di hn gia s vn cn c v li sut. Cn gi l t st li tc ni hon. L t l chit khu lm cho gi tr hin ti ca li tc rng d kin t mt ti sn vn bng ng gi cung cp ca n trong trng hp mc gi ny c cng nhn s tng ln trong ngn hn. L ng cu v u t. L biu trnh by chi tit mi quan h gia hiu sut bin ca u t v t l li sut. L mt tiu chun v u t vi mc tiu ti a ho thu nhp bnh qun u ngi ti mt thi im trong tng lai.

1965

Marginal cost of funds schedule

1966

Marginal damage cost

1967

Marginal disutility

1968

Marginal efficiency of capital Marginal efficiency of capital schedule

Hiu sut cn bin ca vn. Biu hiu sut bin ca vn.

1969

1970

Marginal efficiency of investment Marginal efficiency of investment schedule Marginal per capita reinvestment quotient criterio

Hiu sut cn bin ca u t. Biu hiu sut cn bin ca u t. Tiu chun v thng s ti u t cn bin theo u ngi.

1971

1972

1973

Marginal physical product

Sn phm vt cht cn bin.

L mc tng thm tng sn lng nh vic s dng thm mt n v lao ng v c th dn xut t hm sn xut, vi iu kin cc yu t khc khng i. L sn lng tng thm do s dng thm mt n v u vo. Hc thuyt ny cho rng mt ch s dng lao ng mong mun ti a ho li nhun ca mnh s chu s chi phi ca quy lut v nng sut bin gim dn, theo cc n v lao ng ln lt c s dng s to ra cc n v SN LNG gim dn tng ng. L mc thay i trong thu nhp v thu do thay i mt n v thu nhp. L mc thay i nhng khon rt tin do thay i mt n v thu nhp. L mc thu i vi mt n v thu nhp tng thm, nhng khi nin ny cng c p dng tng ng vi vic tng thm ca chi tiu, ca qu tng.

1974

Marginal product

Sn phm cn bin.

1975

Marginal productivity doctrine

Hc thuyt v nng sut cn bin. Thin hng nh thu cn bin. Thin hng rt tin cn bin.

1976

Marginal propensity to tax

1977

Marginal propensity to withdraw

1978

Marginal rate of tax

Thu sut cn bin. T sut thay th k thut cn bin; th sut k thut cn bin. Sn phm doanh thu cn bin.

1979

Marginal rate of technical substitution

L t l thay th k thut bin ca hai yu t u vo. L sn phm vt cht bin nhn vi doanh thu bin t vic bn thm mt n v sn phm nh vic s dng thm mt n v u vo. Trong kinh t hc ti nguyn, l li ch rng (vic nh gi mt n v ti nguyn, tc l gi ca n tr i chi ph khai thc) m th h tng lai khng c c do th h hin ti s dng mt n v ti nguyn hu hn. L tho dng ph thm c c t vic thm mt n v ca bt k loai hng ho no.

1980

Marginal revenue product

1981

Marginal user cost

Chi ph s dng cn bin. tho dng cn bin. tho dng cn bin ca thu nhp. tho dng cn bin ca tin. Sn phm gi tr bin ca vn. Sn phm gi tr bin ca lao ng. Yu cu v mc chnh lch.

1982

Marginal utility

1983

Marginal utility of income

Xem Marginal utility of money. L t l gia tng tho dng ca mt c nhn khi ngn sch ca ring ngi (thu nhp) tng thm 1 n v.

1984

Marginal utility of money

1985

Marginal value product of capital

1986

Marginal value product of labor

1987

Margin requirement

L t l gi tr th trng ca 1 chng khon m ngi mua c th vay c khi mua chng khon . Thng thng, l bt k khung cnh no trong din ra vic mua bn cc loi hng ho v dch v.

1988

Market

Th trng.

1989

Market classification

Phn loi th trng.

C rt nhiu cch khc nhau phn loi th trng.

1990

Market clearing

im th trng bn sch. ng cu ca th trng. ng cu ca th trng i vi lao ng. L tng hp ca mt lot cc ng cu ring r i vi mt loi hng ho. Vi mt mc gi bn sn phm khng i, ng cu ca th trng hay ca mt nghnh sn xut chnh l s tng hp theo chiu ngang cc ng DOANH THU SN PHM BIN ca cc doanh nghip tham gia. L mt h thng kinh t trong cc quyt nh v vic phn b ngun lc v sn xut c din ra trn c s cc mc gi c xc nh qua nhng giao dch t nguyn gia cc nh sn xut, ngi tiu dng, cng nhn v ch s hu cc yu t sn xut. L vic mt h thng cc th trng t nhn khng c kh nng cung cp mt s mt hng nht nh cho d l mt phn nh hay vi mc hp l nht nh hoc ti u nht. L nhng tc nhn pht sinh t quan h t do gia cung v cu ca th tng dn n vic phi iu chnh gi bn v/hoc s lng c giao dch. L bt k s sai lch no khi cc iu kin cn thit c c cnh tranh hon ho.

1991

Market demand curve

1992

Market demand curve for labour

1993

Market economy

Nn kinh t th trng S khim khuyt ca th trng; S trc trc ca th trng. Cc tc nhn th trng. S khng hon ho ca th trng.

1994

Market failure

1995

Market forces

1996

Market imperfection

1997

Market mechanism

C ch th trng. L mt thut ng dng ch nhng hot ng ca cc doanh nghip lin quan n vic bn v phn phi sn phm. Cc ban ny c thnh lp ti mt s nc chu Phi, v chng p ng c nhiu mc ch khc nhau. Chng mang li cho cc tiu nng mt th trng chc chn v n nh i vi cc sn phm ca h v v sau hng ha c bn trn quy m ln trn cc th trng quc t nn cc nh chc trch c c c s hp l hn mc c gi bn hp l. L tn gi xut hin ti S GIAO DCH CHNG KHON London k t nm 1986, t cho hng to ra c mt th trng mua bn cc loi chng khon khc nhau thng qua vic lun sn sng mua hoc bn nhng loi chng khon ny. L vic cc nh sn xut c xu hng t nh my ca h gn th trng tiu th sn phm ch khng phi ni khc, chng hn nh gn ngung nguyn liu.

1998

Marketing

Marketing

1999

Marketing boards.

Cc ban Marketing.

2000

Market maker

Hng lp th. nh hng theo th trng. Ci cch theo nh hng th trng. Quyn lc th trng; Sc mnh i vi th trng.

2001

Market orientation

2002

Market oriented reform

2003

Market power

L vic nhm ngi mua hoc bn c kh nng tc ng n gi c ca sn phm hoc dch v m h ang mua bn.

2004 2005

Market premium rate Black market premium rate

T l chnh lch gi. T l chnh lch gi trn th trng ch

en. L t trng ca tng s hng ho bn trn th trng ca mt doanh nghip. L mt h thng kinh t x hi ch ngha nhng li nhng quyn iu hnh cc hot ng hng ngy ca nn kinh t cho c ch th trng. L mt qu trnh lin kt gi tr hin ti ca mt bin s vi nhng gi tr trc ca chnh n v mt sai s ngu nhin. L mt nh kinh t ngi M ng ot gii Nobel v kinh t nm 1990 (cng vi M.Miller v W.F.Sharp). Cng vic quan trng m ng thc hin trong nhng nm 1950 t nn mng cho hc thuyt hin i v DANH MC U T. Hc thuyt ban u ca ng v s la chn danh mc u t c da trn m hnh chun tc dnh cho cc nh qun l u t. ng gp quan trng ca ng l vic pht trin thuyt nghip v c tnh ton chnh xc v s la chn danh mc u t trong iu kin khng chc chn. Markowitz ch ra rng trong nhng iu kin nht nh, s la chn danh mc u t ca mt nh u t b hn ch vic cn bng gia li tc d kin thu t danh mc u t vi sai s ca n. V mt nguyn tc, s la chn phc tp gia nhiu ti sn vi nhng thuc tnh khc nhau ca chng c xem nh mt bi ton khng gian hai chiu, thng gi l php phn tch phng sai trung bnh. Cc n phm ln trung bnh ca Markowitz bao gm: S la chn danh mc u t: S a dng ho c hiu qu u t, Wiley (1959), v Php phn tch phng sai - trung bnh trong vic la chn danh mc u t v cc th trng vn, Blackwell (1987)>

2006

Market share

Th phn Ch ngha x hi theo c ch th trng.

2007

Market socialism

2008

Markov process

Qu trnh Markov.

2009

Markowitz, Harry

(1927-) T l chnh lch gi ca th trng song hnh.

2010

Parallel market premium rate

2011

Market structure

C cu th trng. Phn thm vo gi vn; Phn thm vo chi ph kh bin. L mt phn cng thm vo cc chi ph kh bin trung bnh hnh thnh gi bn do ngi bn xc nh nhm trang tri cc chi ph c nh v c c li nhun. L nh kinh t hc ngi Anh m c s nghip ca mnh dnh cho cng vic ca mt gio s kinh t ti aih hcCambridge (1885-1908).ng coi yu t gi thnh sn xut quan trng khng km g tho dng trong hc thuyt v gi tr ca ng. tng c bn trong cng vic ca ng l kh nng ca cung v cu trong vic to ra nhng mc gi cn bng trn th trng. Marshall c v nh cu ni gia hc thuyt kinh t c in vi hc thuyt tn c in ca Jevon v hc thuyt v cn bng tng qut ca Walras. Cc tc phm ca Marshall khng ch c nh hng ng k n chnh sch kinh t cho n hin nay m cn gy nh hng ng k n cc th h nh kinh t ca Anh. L vin tr ca M v Canada cho Anh v cc nc khc tr gip h phc hi nn kinh t sau chin tranh th gii th hai.

2012

Mark-up

2013

Marshall, Alfred

(1842-1924)

2014

Marshall Aid

Vin tr Marshall.

2015

Marshallian demand curve

ng cuMarshall iu kinMarshall Lerner.

L ng cu c s dng rng ri nht trong phn ng ca lng cu i vi mc gi chu nh hng ca c hiu ng thu nhp ln hiu ng thay th. Trong nhng iu kin nht nh, vic ph ga ng tin c th ci thin c cn cn thanh ton. iu kin Marshall - Lerner l mt iu kin ging nh vy.

2016

Marshall - Lerner condition

2017

Marshall plan

K hochMarshall

Xem EUROPEAN RECOVERY PROGRAMME. L nh trit hc, X hi hc, s hc, l lun chnh tr hc, kinh t hc ngi c. T 1849, sng ti Anh vi s gip ca ng-ghen, mt nh t bn cng nghip. Chu nh hng su sc t tng H-ghen v t a ra lun thuyt v x hi t bn, v lun im tng hp v ch ngha cng sn. Nhng tin on ca C.Mc v ch ngha t bn vn cha tr thnh hin thc nhng nhng thnh tu ca Mc l ht sc to ln khin chi Mc t ti nh co ca mt nh phn tch kinh t. L mt trng phi t duy kinh t c mc ch phn tch s pht trin kinh t v x hi ca h thng kinh t t bn ch ngha. L mt nguyn tc trong kinh t hc mi trng, theo khi lng cht thi ra mi trng t qu trnh sn xut c coi l xp x khi lng cc ti nguyn c s dng sn xut ra hng ho. L cm thut ng c C.Mc s dng xc nh nn tng kinh t thc t ca mt x hi.

2018

Marx, Karl

(1818-1883)

2019

C.mcist economics

Kinh t hc Mac xt.

2020

Materials balance principle

Nguyn l cn bng vt cht. Lc lng sn xut vt cht.

2021

Material forces of production

2022

Mathematical expectation

K vng ton hc.

Xem EXPECTED VALUE.

2023

Matrix

Ma trn. L ngy m khon n ca ngi pht hnh tri phiu n hn phi thanh ton hoc l ngy n hn thanh ton tin n gc. L mt quy tc trong l thuyt RA QUYT NH gip cho vic la chn trong nhng iu kin khng chc chn. L mt quy tc trong l thuyt RA QUYT NH gip cho vic la chn trong nhng iu kin khng chc chn.

2024

Maturity

n hn, ht hn.

2025

Maximax

Ti a ho cc i.

2026

Maximin

Ti a ho cc tiu.

2027

Maximum

Gi tr cc i.

L gi tr ln nht ca mt hm s hoc ca bin s. L mt cm thut ng m t k thut c lng kinh t lng chung bao gm vic ti a ho hm hp l ca nhng quan st mu v cc gi tr ca cc tham s ca cc phng trnh ang c c tnh. L trng phng kinh t thuc vn phng ni cc Anh t nm 1940 n nm 1945, gio s kinh t hc thuc trng Kinh t London t nm 1947 n nm 1957, gio s kinh t chnh tr thuc trng i hc Cambridge t nm 1957 n nm 1969. ng c trao tng gii thng Nobel v kinh t hc vo nm 1977. Nhng tc phm ni ting ca ng l: Hc thuyt v chnh sch kinh t: Cn cn thanh ton (1951), H

2028 2029

Maximum likelihood Meade, James Edward

Hp l cc i. (1907- )

thng thng mi quc t (1952); Hc thuyt v chnh sch quc t.v cc h thng khc nhau v kinh doanh v tr lng cho cng nhn (1986). Tc phm ni ting nht ca ng thuc v lnh vc chnh sch v hc thuyt thng mi quc t. Nhng vn ca cc chnh sch N NH HO trong NN KINH T M l trng tm ca nhng tc phm u tin ca ng, c bit l nhng iu kin c c mt s cn bng trong nn kinh t trong nc v trong giao dch vi nc ngoi. ng nhn mnh n nhng mu thun v chnh sch c th xy ra gia cn cn thng mi quc t vi cn cn tng cung v tng cu trong nc trong mt h thng t gi hi oi c nh. ng cng tin hnh phn tch v kinh t hc phc li ca lin minh thu quan v thu quan trong nhng iu kin m s cnh tranh hon ho s khng dn n kh nng ti a ho phc li. Mt s o thng c s dng tnh xu hng tp trung ca mt bin s, c th dng tnh cho mt mu nht nh hoc ton b tn th. L nhng tr cp m ch c th nhn c nu nh thu nhp ca ngi xin c hng tr cp thp hn mt gi tr nht nh. L phng php tm ra DANH MC cc ti sn c hiu qu cao.

2030

Mean

Trung bnh Tr cp theo mc trung bnh. Phn tch trung bnh phng sai.

2031

Means tested benefits

2032

Mean-variance analysis

2033

Measurement error

Sai s o lng.

Xem ERRORS IN VARIABLES.

2034

Median

Trung v.

Mt s o xu hng tp trung. L mt quy tc dng tm ra a im m ti tng khi lng vn chuyn cn phi thc hin phc v cho mt nhm cc th trng phn tn v v tr a l c gi tr ti thiu. L mt nh l lin quan n s LA CHN TP TH trong mt x hi dn ch, n d on rng cc chnh tr gia hu ht u s i din cho quan im ca nhng c tri trung tm ca ph chnh tr hoc x hi . L s can thip vo CUC TRANH CHP LAO NG bi mt bn th ba c lp khch quan, l bn xem xt lp lun ca c hai pha v a ra khuyn ngh gii quyt tranh chp. L bt k ti sn hoc phng tin no c chc nng trung gian trong qu trnh trao i, ngha l mt vt m ngi bn hang hoc cung cp dch v chp nhn thay th, khng phi cho bn thn n m l v thc rng n c th s dng trong nhng cuc trao i mua bt k ci g m anh ta cn.

2035

Median location principle

Nguyn l nh v trung bnh.

2036

Median Vote Theorem

nh l c tri trung dung.

2037

Mediation

Ho gii.

2038

Medium of exchange

Phng tin trao i.

2039

Median Voter

C tri trung dung. L mt chnh sch do chnh ph Anh xng trong k hoch ngn sch nm 1980 theo cc t l tng mc cung tin gim dn hng nm c n nh nhm kim ch lm pht. Vo thng 10/1985, chin lc ny trn thc t b t b khi mc tiu t ra cho ng Sterling M3, bn v tin c a chung b nh li.

2040

Medium term financial strategy (MTFS)

Chin lc ti chnh trung hn.